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Full text of "History of La Porte County, Indiana : together with sketches of its cities, villages, and townships : educational, religious, civil, military, and political history : portraits of prominent persons, and biographies of representative citizens : history of Indiana, embracing accounts of the pre-historic races, aborigines, French, English, and American conquests, and a general review of its civil, political, and military history"

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The history of La Porte county possesses features of unusual 
interest in comparison with those of other neighboring counties. 
Here the sturdy pioneer located and began to exert his civilizing 
influence long before other sections contained a settler. This being 
a delightful section of country, it was early occupied by those com- 
ino- West in searcli of permanent homes. 

In matters of general public interest and progress, La Porte 
county has ever taken a leading and prominent position. Here 
have lived men who have taken an important part in the affairs ot 
State and in molding the political sentiments and destiny of the 
country. This county has been the scene of conflict between some 
of the giant intellects of the nation. Here the shrewd and enter- 
prising Easterner, the courtly Southerner and the sturdy, practical 
Westerner have met and mingled, have assimilated the better traits 
possessed by each other, and thus have formed a society, a people 
superior in many particulars to that of most localities. The origi- 
nal settlers, the earliest pilgrims, have nearly all passed away. Here 
and there we see the bended form and whitened head of some ot 
these veterans, but they are not numerous; most'of them have gone 
to that country which is always new, yet where the trials, struggles 
and hardships of pioneer life are never known. 

Accurate and reliable history is most difiicult to write. Those 
who have never experienced the difficulties incident to such labor 
cannot realize how nearly impossible it is, or can appreciate the 
earnest, honest and faithful labor of a historian. After the most 
careful and painstaking searches and inquiry upon any particular 
subject, or about any event, he will even then find many doubts as 
to its accuracy. Each individual will give a different account ot 
the same events, though they be ever so honest and faithful. This 
fact is forcibly illustrated by Sir Walter Kaleigh. While in prison 
in a tower of England, he engaged himself in writing the history of 
the world. One day a brawl occurred in the tower yard, and he 
desired to learn the particulars. Two of the principal actors came 
before him, and each related the account of the trouble; yet so 


widely different were they that he found it utterly impossible to 
tell what the facts were. He then remarked, "Here Iamena:a£red 
in writing the history of events that occurred 3,000 years ago, and 
yet I am unable to learn the facts of what happens at my win- 
dow." This has been the the channel of our experience, and that 
of all others who have attempted national or local history. 

Besides mistakes on account of these causes, doubtless there are 
many others to be found within these pages. To suppose that a 
volume of tliis magnitude, and containing so many thousands of 
names and dates and brief statements would be wholly accurate, is 
a supposition we presume no sane man will make. While we do 
not claim for this work critical accuracy or completeness, yet we are 
quite certain that it will be found measurably and practically so. 
Let it rest as the foundation for the future historian to build upon. 

As one of the most interesting features of this work, we present 
the portraits of several representative citizens. It has been our aim 
to have the prominent men of the day, as well as the pioneers, rep- 
resented in this department; and we flatter ourselves on the 
uniform high character of the gentlemen whose portraits we present. 
They are in the strictest sense representative men. There are 
others, it is true, who claim equal prominence with those presented, 
but as a matter of course it was impossible for us to represent all 
the leading men of the county. 

As we quit our long, tedious, yet nevertheless pleasant task of 
compiling the History of La Porte County, we wish to return the 
thanks of grateful hearts to those who have so freely aided us in 
collecting material. To the county officials, pastors of churches, 
officers of societies, pioneers, and particularly the editors of the 
press, we are particularly grateful for the many kindnesses and 
courtesies shown us while laboring in the county; but most of all we 
wish to thank those who so liberally and materially aided the work 
by becoming subscribers to it. We feel that we have discharged 
our duties fully, have fulfilled all our promises, have earned the 
laborer's pay. 


CHICAGO, October, 1880. 




The First Immigration 18 

The Second Immigration 20 

The Tartars 23 

Relics of the Mound-Builders 23 

Indians 31 

Manners aud Customs 34 


Earliest Explorers . .. 37 

Ouabache 39 

Viucennes 89 


The Great French Scheme 41 

Pontiac's War 46 

British Policy 46 

American Policy 46 

Indian Savagery 47 



ClarK's Ingenious RusL' 64 

Subsequent Career of Hamilton 64 

Gibault 65 

Vigo 66 

WEST 67 

Ordinance of 1787 70 

Liquor and Gaming Laws 74 

MILITARY HISTORY, 1790 TO 1800 75 

Expeditions of Harmar, Scutt and Wil- 
kinson 75 

Expeditions of St. Clair and Wayne 78 

Wayne's Great Victory 79 


Organization of Indiana Territory 82 

First Territorial Legi slature 84 

The Western Sun 84 

Indiana in 1810 84 



Harrison's Campaign 92 

Battle of Tippecanoe 98 

WAR OP 1812 101 

E.i;pedition against the Indians 103 

Close of the War 108 


CIVIL MATTERS 1812-'5 116 

Population in 1815 118 

General Vicv 118 








The Log Cabin 136 

Sleeping Accommodations 138 

Cooking 141 

Women's Work 142 

Dress and Manners 143 

Family Worship 145 

Hospitality 147 

Trade 148 

Money 148 

Milling 150 

Agricul tiiral Implements 1.50 

Hog-Killing 151 

Prairie Fires 153 

Wild Hogs 156 

Native Animals 157 

Wolf Hunts 157 

Bee-Hunting 158 

Snakes 158 

Shakes 159 

Education 160 • 

"Past the Pictures." 164 

Spelling-School 165 

Singing-School 167 

Guarding against Indians 168 

The Bright Side 171 

What the Pioneers Have Done 173 

Military Drill 175 

" Jack, the Philosopher of the 19ih Cen- 
tury." 176 

"Tooi'ull lor Utterince." 177 

Thieving and Lynch-Law 179 

Cu ring the Druuken Husbaud 180 

Thfl" Choke Trap." 181 




15th Amendment 197 


Lincoln did not seek the Presidency 198 

States Seceding 199 

The Fallot Sumter 200 

A Vast Army Raised in 11 Days 201 

Sherman's March to the Se;i 203 

Character of Abrah;im Lincoln 20- 

The War Ended -The Union Restored. . 204 

The Morgan-Raid Regiments. 227 

Sis Months' Regiments 229 

The lOO-Davs'Volut-teers 233 

The President's Call of July, 1864 234 

" " " Dec., " 234 

Independent Cavalry Company of Indi- 
ana Volunteers 238 

Our Colored Troops 239 

Batteries of Light Artillery 239 

After the War 246 



State Bank 2.53 

Wealth and Progress 254 

Internal Improvements 256 


COAL 264 


State Board of Agriculture 266 

The Exposition 267 

Indiana Horiicultural Society 269 

" Pomological " 270 


Public Schools 272 

Indiana State University 279 

Purdue Un iversity 281 

Indiana State Normal School 285 

Normal School, etc., at Valparaiso 286 

Denominational and Private Institutions 287 

Institute for the Education of the Blind 291 

Institntefor the Deaf and Dumb 293 

Hospital for the Insane 295 

The State Prison South 296 

North 297 

Female Prison and Reformatory 298 

Indiana House of Refuge " 300 




Of Governors 310 

Of U.S. Senators 316 








History as Connected with Time and 

Place 336 

Boundary 337 

Original Territory of Indiana 338 

Altitude 338 

Surlace 340 

Lakes 340 

Soil 341 

Productions 34^ 

Minerals 343 

Tbeoretical Geology 344 

Economical Geology 347 






History Written in Mounds of Earth 391 

The Remains as Found Elsewhere 391 

Standing by the Mounds 397 



The Flood of Empire Takiugits West- 
ward Way.. 399 



Pioneer Homes — Log Cabins 413 

The Benedict House-Raising 413 

Pioneer Work 416 

Prairie Plowing by the Pioneers 417 

Harvc!<t-Timc....'. 419 

Religious Meetings 420 

School-Houses and Schools 421 

Socialties 423 



An Indian Legend 429 

Indian Advancements in Knowledge 430 

Incident at Door Village 431 

Henry Clvburn's Ox 432 

The Sac Indian Horse-Thieves 4-32 

The Black Hawk War 432 

John Beatty and the Indian 434 

Miss Carter's School 434 

A Case of Indian Justice 435 

The Last of the Red Man 435 



Act of Legislature Establishing the 

County 437 

Organization of the County into Town- 
ships 438 

Detatchment from Starke County 441 

Farther Acquisition of Territory 442 



Tendency to Retrospection 450 

Call for Old Settlers' Meeting 451 

Organization 452 

First Annual Reunion 455 

The Dinner 456 

Second Annual Reunion 457 

Third " " 459 

Fourth " " 460 

Fifth " " 462 

Sixih " " 464 

Seventh " " 467 

Eighth " " 469 

Ninth " " 470 

Tenth " " 473 

Eleventh " " 474 

Death Roll. . . .458, 460, 461, 463, 466, 468, 470, 

472, 475 
Old Settlers' Roll 476-507 



A Case of Accidental Drowning 509 

Mary Garroutte 509 

Was Freedom Dead? 510 

A School-House on a Rampage 511 

A Distressing Case of Poisoning 511 

The Dangers of the Forest 512 

Daniel Webster's Estimate of Children. 513 

The Spirit of the Devil in Politics 513 

]\Inrderol' James P. Smith 514 

A Band of Counterfeiters 515 

He Died that His Boy Might Live 515 

Minor Incidents 516-'18 





The Issues of the Great Campaigu8 536 

Election Returns 540 



Criminal Record 553 

The Penalty of Deaih .554 

(he Divorce Record 555 

Marriage Record 558 

County Officers 556-'8 



List ol County Examiner.-! and Superin- 
tendents 565 

Cours3 ot Study for the County Schools. 568 

Statistics 571 

Course of Study for the Westviile High 
School 578 



John B. Niles 580 

Mrs. Emma F. Malloy 584 

Welcome to the 87th 586 

Hon. Jasper Packard 589 

Benj. F. Taylor 591 



The Natural Resour^e8 593 

The Railroads of the County 796 




Cass 604 

Centre 614 

Clinton 669 

Cool Spring 680 

Dewey 691 

Galena 693 

Hanna 709 

Hudson 714 

Kankakee 725 

Lincoln and Johnson 742 

Michigan 745 

New Durham 775 

Noble 807 

Pleasant 825 

Scipio 837 

Springfield 859 

Union 864 

Wills 884 

Biography of Hon. Wm. H. Calkins.... 897 



Scene on the Ohio River 25 

Hieroglyphics of the Mound Builders ... 29 
LaSalle Landing at the iVlouth of the 

St. Joseph's River 43 

Gen. George Rogers Clark 53 

Gen. Arthur St. Clair 89 

Tecumseh 109 

Indians Attacking Frontiersmen 123 

A Pioneer Dwelling 130 

Hunting Prairie Wolves 153 

Trapping 169 

Pontiac 183 

The Shawnee Prophet 195 

Lincoln Monument at Springfield 204 

Opening an Indiana Forest . 235 

View on the Wabash River 247 

Surrender of Indians to Wilkinson 289 

A Western Lake Shore Residence 321 

A Pottawatomie Indian 427 


Bailey. Ziba 827 

Brand, L.D 87f 

Buck, Dexter A 631 

Burner, J. O 675 

Davis, Samuel S 793 

Downing, Samuel 735 

Lilley, A. P 881 

Low, Daniel 685 

McLellan, Andrew 845 

Teegarden, A Frontispiece. 

Travis, Wm. W 891 

Willson, Jeremiah 605- 





Scientists have ascribed to the Mound Builders varied origins 
and though their divergence of opinion may for a time seem incom- 
patible with a thorough investigation of the subject, and tend to 
a confusion of ideas, no doubt whatever can exist as to the compar- 
ative accuracy of conclusions arrived at by some of them. Like 
the vexed question of the Pillar Towers of Ireland, it has caused 
much speculation, and elicited the opinioris of so many learned 
antiquarians, ethnologists and travelers, that it will not be found 
beyond the range of possibility to make deductions that may 
suffice to solve the problem who were the prehistoric settlers of 
America. To achieve this it will not be necessary to go beyond the 
period over which Scripture history extends, or to indulge in those 
airy flights of imagination so sadly identified with occasional 
writers of even the Christian school, and all the accepted literary 
exponents of modern paganism. 

That this continent is co-existent with the world of the ancients 
cannot be questioned. Every investigation, instituted under the 
auspices of modem civilization, confirms the fact and leaves no 
channel open through which the skeptic can escape the thorough 
refutation of his opinions. China, with its numerous living testi- 
monials of antiquity, with its ancient, though limited literature 
and its Babelish superstitions, claims a continuous history from 
antediluvian times; but altheugh its continuity may be denied 
with every just reason, there is nothing to prevent the transmission 
of a hieroglyphic record of its history prior to 1G56 anno mundij 
since many traces of its early settlement survived the Deluge, and 
became sacred objects of the first historical epoch. This very sur- 
vival of a record, such as that of which the Chinese boast, is not 
at variance with the designs of a God who made and ruled the 
universe; but that an antediluvian people inhabited this continent, 


will not be claimed; because it is not probable, thougb it may be 
possible, that a settlement in a land which may be considered a 
portion of the Asiatic continent, was effected by the immediate- 
followers of the first progenitors of the human race. Therefore, on 
enterino-thestudy of the ancient people ^^•ho raised these tumu- 
lus monuments over large tracts of the country, it will be just 
sufficient to wander back to that time when the flood-gates ot 
heaven were swung open to hurl destruction on a wicked world; 
and in doing so the inquiry must be based on legendary, or rather 
upon many°circumstantial evidences; for, so far as written narra- 
tive extends, there is nothing to show that a movement ot people 
too far east resulted in a Western settlement. 


The flrst and most 'probable sources in which the origin of the 
Builders must be sought, are those countries lying along the east- 
ern coast of Asia, which doubtless at that time stretched far beyond 
its present limits, and presented a continuous shore Irom Lopatka 
to Point Cambodia, holding a population comparatively civilized, 
and all professing some elementary form of the Boodhism of later 
days Those peoples, like the Chinese of the present, were bound 
to live at home, and probably observed that law until after the con- 
fusion of languages imd the dispersion of the builders of Babel in 
175Y A M.; but subsequently, within the following century, the 
old Moncroliaus, like the new, crossed the great ocean in tlie very 
paths taken by the present representatives of the race, arrived on 
the same shores, which now extend a very questionable hospitality 
to them, and entered at once upon the colonization of the country 
south and east, while the Caucasian race engaged in a similar move- 
ment of exploration and colonization over what jTiay be justly 
termed the western extension of Asia, and both peoples growing 
stalwart under the change, attained a moral and physical eminence 
to which they never could lay claim under the tropical sun which 
shed its beams upon the cradle of the human race. 

That mysterious people who, like the Brahmins of to-day, wor- 
shiped some transitory deity, and in after years, evidently embraced 
the idealization of Boodhism, as preached in Mongolia early in the 
3.5th century of the world, together with acquiring the learning o 
the CoT>fucian and Pythagorean schools of the same period spread 
all over the land, and in their numerous settlements erected these 
raths, or mounds, and sacrificial altars whereon they received their 


periodical visiting gods, surrendered their bodies to natural absorp- 
tion or anniliilation, and watched tor the return of some transmi- 
grated soul, the while adoring the universe, which with all beings 
they believed would be eternally existent. They possessed religious 
orders corresponding in external show at least with the Essenes or 
Therapntae of the pre-Christian and Christian epochs, and to the 
reformed Tlieraputas or monks of t!ie present. Every memento 
of their coining and their stay which has descended to us is an evi- 
dence of their civilized condition. The free copper found within 
thetnmuli; the open veins of the Superior and Iron Mountain 
copper-mines, with all the modus opera^idi oi ancient raining, such 
as ladders, levers, chisels, and hammer-heads, discovered by the 
French explorers of the Northwest and the Mississippi, are conclu- 
sive proofs that those prehistoric people were highly civilized, and 
that many flourishing colonies were spread throughout the Missis- 
sippi valley, while yet the mammoth, the mastodon, and a hundred 
other animals, now only known by their gigantic fossil remains, 
guarded the eastern shore of the continent as it were against sup- 
posed invasions of the Tower Builders who went west from Babel; 
while yet the beautiful isles of the Antilles formed an integral 
portion of this continent, long years before the European ISTorthman 
dreamed of setting forth to the discovery of Greenland and the 
northern isles, and certainly at a time when all that portion of 
America north of latitude 45* was an ice-incumbered waste. 

Within the last few years great advances have been made toward 
the discovery of antiquities whether pertaining to remains of organic 
or inorganic nature. Together with many small, but telling 
relics of the early inhabitants of the country, the fossils of pre- 
historic animals have been unearthed from end to end of the land, 
and in districts, too, long pronounced by geologists of some repute 
to be without even a vestige of vertebrate fossils. Among the 
collected souvenirs of an ago about which so very little is known, 
are twenty-five vertebrae averaging thirteen inches in diameter, 
and three vertebrae ossified together measure nine cubical feet; a 
thigh-bone five feet long by twenty-eight, by twelve inches in 
diameter, and the shaft fourteen by eight inches thick, the entire 
lot weighing 600 lbs. These fossils, are presumed to belong to the 
cretaceous period, when tlie Dinosaur roamed over the country from 
East to West, desolating the villages of the people. This animal 
is said to have been sixty feet long, and when feeding in cypress 
and palm forests, to extend himself eighty-five feet, bo that lie may 


devour the budding tops of those great trees. Otlier efforts in this 
direction may lead to great results, and culminate probably in the 
discovery of a tablet engraven by some learned Mound Builder, 
describing in the ancient hieroglyphics of China all these men and 
beasts whose history excites so much speculation. The identity of 
the Mound Builders with the Mongolians might lead us to hope 
for such a consummation; nor is it beyond the i-ange of probability, 
particularly in this practical age, to find the future labors of some 
industrious antiquarian requited by the upheaval of a tablet, written 
in the Tartar characters of 1700 years ago, bearing on a subject 
which can now be treated only on a purely circumstantial basis. 


may have begun a few centuries prior to the Christian era, and 
unlike the former expedition or expeditions, to have traversed north- 
eastern Asia to its Arctic confines, and then east to the narrow 
channel now known as Behring's Straits, which they crossed, and 
sailing up the unchanging Yukon, settled under the shadow of 
Mount St. Elias ibr many years, and pushing South commingled 
with their countrj'men, soon acquiring the characteristics of the 
descendants of the first colonists. Chinese chronicles tell of such 
a people, who went North and were never heard of more. Circum- 
stances conspire to render that particular colony the carriers of a 
new religious faith and of an alphabetic system of a representative 
character to the old colonists, and they, doubtless, exercised a most 
beneficial influence in other respects ; because the influx of immi- 
grants of such culture as were the Chinese, even of that remote 
period, must necessarily bear very favorable results, not only in 
bringing in reports of their travels, but also accounts from the 
fatherland bearing on the latest events. 

With the idea of a second and important exodus there are many 
theorists united, one of whom sa^-s: '* It is no'.v the generally 
received opinion that the first inhabitants of America passed over 
from Asia through these straits. The number of small islands 
lying between both continents renders this opinion still more 
probable; and it is yet further confirmed by some remarkable traces 
of similarity in the physical conformation of the northern natives 
of both continents. The Esquimaux of North America, the 
Samoieds of Asia, and the Laplanders of Europe, arc supposed to 
be of the same family; and this supposition is strengthened by the 
affinity which exists in their languages. The researches of Hum- 


boldt have traced the Mexicans to the vicinity of Behrinor's Straits; 
whence it is conjectured that they, as well as the Peruvians and 
other tribes, came originally from Asia, and were the Iliongnoos, 
who are, in tiie Chinese annals, said to have emigrated under Puno, 
and to have been lost in the North of Siberia." 

Since this theory is accepted by most antiquaries, there is every 
reason to believe that from the discovery of what may be called an 
overland route to what was then considered an eastern extension of 
that country which is now known as the " Celestial Empire," many 
caravans of emigrants passed to their new homes in the hind of 
illimitable possibilities until the way became a well-marked trail 
over which the Asiatic might travel forward, and having once 
entered the Elysian fields never entertained an idea of returning. 
Thus from generation to generation the tide of immigration poured 
in until the slopes of the Pacific and the banks of the great inland 
rivers became hives of busy industry. Magnificent cities and 
monuments were raised at the bidding of the tribal leaders and 
po]iulous settlements centered with happy villages sprung up 
everywhere in manifestation of the power and wealth and knowl- 
edge of the ])eople. The colonizing Caucasian of the historic 
period walked over this great country on the very ruins of a civil- 
ization which a thousand years before eclipsed all that of \vhi(ih he 
could boast. He walked throuijli the wilderness of the West over 
buried treasures hidden under the accumulated growth of nature, 
nor rested until he saw, with great surprise, the remains of ancient 
pyramids and temples and cities, larger and evidently more beauti- 
ful than ancient Eg^'pt could bring forth after its long years of 
uninterrupted history. The pyramids resemble those of Egypt in 
exterior form, and in some instances are of larger dimensions. The 
pyramid of CholuLi is square, having each side of its base 1,335 
feet in length, and its height about 172 feet. Anotiier pyramid* 
situated in the north of Vera Cruz, is formed of large blocks 
of highl3''-po!ished porpliyry, and bears upon its front hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions and curious sculpture. E.ich side of its 
square base is 82 feet in length, and a flight ol"57 steps conducts to 
its summit, which is 65 feet in height. The ruins of Palenquo are 
said to extend 20 miles along the ridge of a mountain, and the 
remains of an Aztec city, near the banks of the river Gila, are 
spread over more than a square league. Their literature consisted 
of hieroglyphics; but tlieir arithmetical knowledge did not extend 
farther than tlieir calculations by the aid of grains of corn. Yet, 


notwithstanding all their varied accomplishments, and they were 
evidently many, their notions of religious duty led to a most demo- 
niac zeal at once barbarously savage and ferociously cruel. Each 
visiting, god instead of bringing new life to the peo])lc, brought 
death to thousands; and their grotesque idols, exposed to drown 
the senses of the beholders in fear, wrought wretchedness rather 
than spiritual happiness, until, as some learned and humane Monte- 
zumian said, the people never approached these idols without fear, 
and this fear was the great animating principle, the great religious 
motive power which sustained the terrible religion. Tiieir altars 
were sprinkled with blood drawn from their own bodies in large 
quantities, and on them thousands of human victims were sacri- 
ficed in honor of the demons whom they worshiped. The head 
and heart of every captive taken in war were offered a bloody 
sacrifice to the god of battles, while the victorious legions feasted 
on the remaining ])ortioa3 of the dead bodies. It has been ascer- 
tained that during the ceremonies attendant on the consecration of 
two of their temples, the number of prisoners offered up in sacri- 
fice was 12,210; while tlieir own legions contributed voluntary 
victims to the terrible belief in large numbers. Nor did this, 
horrible custom cease immediately after 1521, when Cortez entered 
the fmperial city of the Montezumas; for, on being driven from 
it, all his troops who fell into the hands of the native soldiers were 
subjected to the most terrible and prolonged suffering that could be 
experienced in this world, and whe;i about to yield up that spirit 
which is indestructible, were offered in sacridce, their hearts and 
heads consecrated, and the victors allowed to feast on the yet warm 

A reference is made here to the period when the Montezumas 
ruled over Mexico, simply to gain a better idea of the hideous 
idolatr}' which took the place of the old Boodhism of the Mound 
Builders, and doubtless helped in a great measure to give victory 
to the new comers, even as the tenets of Mahometanism urged the 
ignorant followers of the prophet to the conquest of great nations. 
It was not the faith of the people who built the mounds and the 
pyramids and the temples, and who, 200 years before the Christian 
era, built the great wall of jealous China. No: rather was it that 
terrible faith born of the Tartar victory, which carried the great 
defenses of China at the point of the javelin and hatchet, who 
afterward marched to the very walls of Rome, under Alaric, and 


spread over the islands of Polynesia to the Pacific slopes of South 


came there, and, like the pure Mongols of Mexico and the Missis- 
sippi valley, rose to a state of civilization bordering on that attained 
by them. Here for centuries the sons of the fierce Tartar race con- 
tinued to dwell in comparative peace until the all-ruling ambition 
of empire tot>k in the whole country from the Pacific to the Atlan- 
tic, and peopled the vast territory watered by the Amazon with a 
race that was destined to conquer all the peoples of the Orient, 
and only to fall before the march of the arch-civilizing Caucasian. 
In course of time those fierce Tartars pushed their settlements 
northward, and ultimately entered tlie territories of the Mound 
Builders, putting to death all who fell within their reach, and 
causing the survivors of the death-dealing invasion to seek a refuge 
from the liordes of this semi-barbarous people in the wilds and fast- 
nesses of the North and Northwest. The beautiful country of the 
Mound Builders was now in the hands of savage invaders, the quiet, 
industrious people who raised the temples and pyramids were gone; 
and the wealth of intelligence and industry, accumulating forages, 
passed into the possession of a rapacious horde, who could admire 
it only so far as it offered objects for plunder. Even in this the 
invaders were satisfied, and then having arrived at the height of 
their ambition, rested on their swords and entered upon the luxury 
and ease in the enjoyment of wliich they were found when the van- 
guard of European civilization apj)eared upon the scene. Mean- 
time the southern countries which those adventurers abandoned 
after having C(jmpleted their conquests in the North, were soon 
peopled by hundreds of people, always moving from island to 
island and ultimately haltiiig amid the ruins of villages deserted 
by those who, as legends tell, had passed eastward but never returned; 
and it would scarcely be a matter for surprise if those emigrants 
were found to be the progenitors of that race found by the Spaniards 
in 1532, and identical with the Araucauians, Cuenches and Huil- 
tiches of to-day. 


One of the most brilliant and impartial historians of the Republic 
stated that the valley of the Mississippi contained no monuments. 
So far as the word is entertained now, he literally correct, but 


in some liasty effort neglected to qualify his sentence by a refer- 
ence to the numerous relics of antiquity to be found throughout 
its length and breadth, and so exposed his chapters to criticism. 
The vallev of the Father of Waters, and indeed the country trom 
the trap rocks of the Great Lakes southeast to the Gulf and south- 
west to Mexico, abound in tell-tale raoiuiinents of a race of people 
much farther advanced in civilization than the Montezumas of the 
sixteenth century. The remains of walls and fortifications fouud 
in Kentucky and Indiana, the earthworks of Vincennes and 
throughout the valley of the Wabash, the mounds scattered over 
Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Yirginia, and those found in Illi- 
nois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, are all evidences of the univer- 
sality of the Chinese Monijols and of their advance toward a com- 
parative knowled<re of man and cosmoloirv. At the mouth of 
Fourteen Mile creek, in Chirk county, Indiana, there stands one of 
these old monuments known as the "Stone Fort." It is an 
unmistakable heirloom of a great and ancient people, and must 
have formed one of their most important posts. The State Geolo- 
gist's report, tiled among the records of the State and i'urnislied 
by Prof. Cox. says: "At the mouth of Fourteen -Mile creek, and 
about three miles Irom Charleston, the county-seat of Clark county, 
there is one of tlie most remarkal)le stone fortifications wliich has 
ever come under my notice. Accomj)anied by my assistant, Mr. 
Borden, and a number ot citizens of Charleston, I visited the 'Stone 
Fort' for the purpose of making an examination of it. The locality 
selected for this tort presents many natural advantages for making 
it impregnable to the opposing forces of prehistoric times. It 
occupies the point of an elevated narrow ridge which faces the 
Ohio river on the east and is bordered by Fourteen- Mile creek on 
the west side. Tliis creek empties into the Ohio a short distance 
below the fort. The top of the ridge is pear-shaped, witli the 
part answering to the neck at the north end. Tiiis pait is not 
over twenty feet wide, and is protected by precipitous natural walls 
of stone. It is 280 feet above the level of the Ohio river, and tlie 
slope is very gradual to the south. At the upper lield it is 240 feet 
high and one hundred steps wide. At the lower timber it is 120 
feet high. The bottom land at the foot of the south end is sixty 
feet above the river. Along the greater part of the Ohio river 
front there is an abrupt escarpment rock, entirely too steep to be 
scaled, and a similar natural barrier exists along a portion of the 
northwest side of the ridije, faciuir the creek. This natural wall 


is joined to the neck of an artificial wall, made by piling up, mason 
I'asliioQ but without mortar, loose stone, which had evidently been 
pried up from the carboniferous layers of rock. This made wall, at 
this point, is about 150 feet long. It'is bfiilt along the slope of the 
hill and had an elevation of about 75 feet above its base, tlie upper 
ten feet being vertical. The inside of the wall is protected by a 
ditch. The remainder of the hill is protected by an artificial stone 
wall, built in the same manner, but not more than ten feet "iiigh. 
The elevation of the side wall above the creek bottom is 80 teet. 
Within the artificial walls is a string of mounds which rise to the 
height of tb.e wall, and are protected from the washing of the hill- 
sides by a ditch 20 feet wide and four feet deep. The position of 
the artificial walls, natural cliflfs of bedded stone, as well as that of 
the ditch and mounds, are well illustrated. The top of the enclosed 
ridge embraces ten or twelve acres, and there are as many as five 
mounds that can be recognized on the flat surface, while no doubt 
many others existed which have been obliterated by time, and 
though the agency of man in his eflforts to cultivate a portion of 
the ground. A trench was cut into one of these mounds in search 
of relics. A few fragments of charcoal and decomposed bones, and 
a large irregular, diamond-shaped boulder, with a small circular 
indentation near the middle of the upper part, that was worn quite 
smooth by the use to which it hud been put, and the small pieces 
of fossil coral, comprised all the articles of note which were revealed 
by the excavation. The earth of which the mound is made resem- 
bles that seen on the hillside^ and was probably in most part taken 
from the ditch. The margin next to the ditch was protected by 
slabs of stone set on edge, and leaning at an angle corresj»onding to 
the slope of the mound. This stone shield was two and one-half 
feet wide and one foot high. At intervals along the groat ditch 
there are channels formed between the mounds that probably served 
to carry oiF the surplus water through openings in the outer wall- 
On the top of the enclosed ridge, and near its narrowest part, there 
is one mound much larger than any of the others, and so situated 
as to command an extensive view up and down the Ohio river, as well 
asaffordinsran unobstructed view east and west. This is designated 
as 'Look-out Mound.' There is near it a slight break in the cliflF 
of rock, which furnished a narrow passageway to the Ohio river. 
Though the locality afforded many natural advantages for a fort or 
stronghold, one is compelled to admit that much skill was displayed 
and labor expended in making its defense as perfect as possible at 


all points. Stone axes, pestles, arrow-heads, spear-points, totnms,, 
clianiis and flint flakes have been found in great abundance in 
plowing tiie field at the foot of the old fort." 

From the " Stone Fort " the Professor turns his steps to Posey 
county, at a point on the Wabash, ten miles above the mouth, 
called "Bone Bank," on account of the number of human bones 
continually washed out from the river bank. "It is," he states 
"situated in a bend on the left bank of the river; and the ground 
is about ten feet above high-water mark, being the only land along 
this portion of the river that is not submerged in seasons of high 
water. The bank slopes gradually back from the river to a slough. 
This slough now seldom contains water, but no doubt at one time 
it was an arm of the Wabash river, which flowed around the Bone 
Bank and aflbrded protection to the island home of the Mound 
Builders. The Wabash has been changing its bed for many years, 
leaving a broad extent of newly made land on the right shore, and 
gradually making inroads on the left shore by cutting away the 
Bone Bank. The stages of growth of land on the right bank of the 
river are well defined by thecottonwood trees, which increase in size 
as you go back from the river. Unless there is a change in the cur- 
rent ot the river, all trace of the Bone Bank will be obliterated. 
Already within the memory of the white iiihaliitaiits, t!ie bank has 
been removed to the width of several hundred yards. As the bank 
is cut by the current of the river ic loses its support, and when the 
water sinks it tumbles over, carrying witli it the bones of the 
Mound Builders and the cherished articles buried with them. No 
locality in the country furnishes a greater number and variety of 
relics than this. It has proved especi dl,' rich in pottery of 
quaint design and skillful workmanship. 1 liivo a nnmlter o ' jugs 
and pots and a cup found at the Bone Bank. This kind of work 
has been very abundant, Jiud is still f )iiiid i i such qu iritities that 
we arc led to concliuie that its manufictui-u tbrmed a leading indus- 
try of the inhabitants of the Bone Bank. It is not in Europe 
alone that we tind a well-founded claim of high antiquity lor the 
art of muking hard and durahle stone by a mixture ot claj^ lime, 
sand and stone; for I am convinced that this art was possessed by 
a race of ])eople wlio inhabited this continent at a period so remote 
that neither tradition u )i' history can fur.iis'u any account of them. 
They belonged to the Neolithic, or polished-stone, age. They lived 
in towns and built mounds for sepulture and worship and pro- 
tected their homes hv surroundini!; them with wails of earth and 



stone. In some of tlicsc mounds specimens of various kinds of 
pottery, in a perfect state o\ preservation, have from time to time 
been found, and fras^ments are so common tliat every student of 
arcliseologj can have a bountiful supply. Some of these fragments 
indicate vessels of very ejreat size. At the Saline springs of Gal- 
latin I picked up fragments that indicated, by their curvature, ves- 
sels five to six feet in diameter, and it is probable they are frag- 
ments of artificial stone pans used to hold brine that was manufac- 
tured into salt by solar evaporation. 

" Now, all the pottery belonging to the Mound Builders' age, 
which I have seen, is composed of alluvial clay and sand, or a mix- 
ture of the former with pulverized fresliTwater shells. A paste 
made of such a mixture possesses, in high degree, the properties of 
hydraulic Puzzuoland and Portland cement, so that vessels formed 
of it hardened without being burned, as is customary with modern 

The Professor deals very aptly with this industry of the aborig- 
ines, and concludes a very able disquisition on the Bone Bank in 
its relation to the prehistoric builders. 



The great circular redoubt or earth-work found two miles west of 
the village of New Washington, and the " Stone Fort," on a ridge 
one mile west of the village of Deputy, ofier a subject for the anti- 
quarian as deeply interesting as any of the monuments of a 
decayed empire so far discovered. 


From end to end of Indiana there are to be found many other rel- 
ics of the obscure past. Some of them have been unearthed and now 
appear among the collected antiquities at Indianapolis. The highly 
fiiiished sandstone pipe, the copper ax, stone axes, flint arrow-heads 
and magnetic plummets found a few years ago beneath the soil of 
Cut-Off Island near New Harmony, together with the pipes of rare 
workmanship and undoubted age, unearthed near Covington, all 
live as it were in testimony of their owner's and maker's excel- 
lence, and hold a share in the evidence of the partial annihilation 
of a race, with the complete disruption of its manners, customs 
and industries; and it is possible that when numbers of these relics 
are placed together, a key to the phonetic or rather hieroglyphic 
system of that remote period might be evolved. 

It may be asked what these hieroglyphical characters really are. 
Well, they are varied in form, so much so that the pipes found in 
the mounds of Indians, each bearing a distinct representation of 
some animal, may be taken for one species, used to represent the 
abstract ideas of the Mound Builders. The second form consists 
of pure hieroglyphics or phonetic characters, in which the sound is 
represented instead of the object; and the third, or painted form of 
the first, conveys to the mind that whish is desired to be repre- 
sented. This form exists among the Cree Indians of the far North- 
west, at present. They, when departing from their permanent vil- 
lages for the distant hunting grounds, paint on the barked trees in 
the neighborhood the figure of a snake or eagle, or perhaps huskey 
dog; and this animal is supposed to guard the position until the 
warrior's return, or welcome any friendly tribes that may arrive 
there in the interim. In the case of the Mound Builders, it is un- 
likely that this latter extreme was resorted to, for the simple reason 
that the relics of their occupation are too high in the ways of art to 
tolerate such a barbarous science of language; but the sculptured 
pipes and javelins and spear-heads of the Mound Builders may be 
taken as a collection of graven images, each conveying a set of 
ideas easily understood, and perhaps sometimes or more generally 
used to designate the vocation, name or character of the owner. 
That the builders possessed an alphabet of a phonetic form, and 
purely liierogl3''phic, can scarcely be questioned; but until one or 
more of the unearthed tablets, which bore all or even a portion of 
such characters, are raised from their centuried graves, the mystery 
which surrounds this people must remain, while we must dwell in 
a world of mere speculation. 


Yigo, Jasper, Sullivan, Switzerland and Ohio counties can boast 
of a most liberal endowment in this relation; and when in other 
days tiie people will direct a minute inquiry, and penetrate to the 
very heart of the thousand cones which are scattered throughout 
the land, they may possibly extract the blood in the shape of metal- 
lic and porcelain works, with hieroglyphic tablets, while leaving 
the form of heart and body complete to entertain and delight un- 
born generations, who in their time will wonder much when they 
learn that an American people, living toward the close of the 59tli 
century, could possibly indulge in such an anachronism as is im- 
plied in the term "New World." 


The origin of the Red Men, or American Indians, is a subject 
which interests as well as instructs. It is a favorite with the eth- 
nologist, even as it is one of deep concern to the ordinary reader. 
A review of two works lately published on the origin of the Indians 
treats the matter in a peculiarly reasonable light. It saj's: 

" Recently a German writer has put forward one theory on the 
subject, and an English writer has put forward another and directly 
opposite theory. The difference of opinion concerning our aborig- 
iiiH,ls among authors who iiave made a profound study of races is at 
once curious and interesting. Blumenbach treats them in liis 
classifications as a distinct variety of the iiuman family; but, in the 
threefold division of Dr. Latham, they are ranked among the Mon- 
golidse. Other writers on race regard them as a branch of the great 
Mongolian family, which at a distant period found its way from 
Asia to this continent, and remained here for centuries separate 
from the rest of mankind, passing, meanwhile, through divers 
phases of barbarism and civilization. Morton, our eminent eth- 
nologist, and his followers, Nott and Gliddon, claim for our native 
Red Men an origin as distinct as the flora and fauna of this conti- 
nent. Frichard, whose views are apt to differ from Morton's, finds 
reason to believe, on comparing the American tribes together, that 
they must have formed a separate department of nations from the 
earliest period of the world. The era of their existence as a distinct 
and insulated people must probably be dated back to the time 
which separated into nations the inhabitants of the Old World, and 
gave to each its individuality and primitive language. Dr. Robert 
Brown, the latest authority, attributes, in his " Races of Mankind," 
an Asiatic orijjin to our aboriginals. He savs that the Western In- 
dians not only personally resemble their nearest neighbors — the 
Northeastern Asiatics — but they resemble them in language and 
traditions. The Esquimaux on the American and the Tchuktchis 
on the Asiatic side understand one another perfectly. Modern an- 


thropologists, indeed, are disposed to think tliat Japan, tlieKnriles, 
and neigliboring regions, may be regarded as tlie original lioine of 
the greater part of the native American race. It is also admitted 
by them that between the tribes scattered from the Arctic sea to 
Cape Horn there is more uniformity of physical features than is 
seen in any other quarter of the globe. The weight of evidence 
and authority is altogetlier in favor of the opinion that our so- 
called Indians are a branch of the Mongolian family, and all addi- 
tional researches strengthen the opinion. The tribes of both North 
and South America are unquestionably homogeneous, and, in all 
likelihood, luid their origin in Asia, thougli they have been altered 
and modified by thousands of years of total ceparation from the 
parent stock." 

The conclusions arrived at by the reviewer at that time, though 
safe, are too general to lead the reader to form any definite idea on 
the subject. No doubt whatever can exist, when the American In- 
dian is regarded as of an Asiatic origin; but there is nothing in the 
works or even in the review, to which these works were subjected, 
which miglit account for the vast difference in manner and form 
between the Red Man, as he is now known, or even as he appeared 
to Columbus and his successors in the field of discovery, and the 
comparatively civilized inhabitants of Mexico, as seen in 1521 by 
Cortez, and of Peru, as witnessed by Pizarro in 1532. The tact ia 
that the pure bred Indian of the present is descended directly 
from the earliest inhabitants, or in other words from the survivors 
of that people who, on being driven from their fair possessions, re- 
tired to the wilderness in sorrow and reared up their children under 
the saddening influences of their unquenchable griefs, bequeathing 
them only the habits of tlie wild, cloud-roofed home of their de- 
clining years, a sullen silence, and a rude moral code. In after 
years these wild sons of the forest and prairie grew in numbers and 
in strength. Some legend told them of their present sufferings, of 
the station which their fathers once had known, and of the riotous 
race which now reveled in wealth which should be theirs. The 
fierce passions of the savage were aroused, and uniting their scat- 
tered bands marched in silence upon the villages of the Tartars, 
driving them onward to the capital of their Incas, and consigning 
their homes to the flames. Once in view of the great city, the 
hurrying bands halted in surprise; but Tartar cuiming took in the 
situation and offered pledges of amity, which were sacredly ob- 
served. Henceforth Mexico was open to the Indians, bearing pre- 
cisely the same relation to them that the Hudson's Bay Company's 


villages do to the Northwestern Indians of the present; obtaining 
all, and bestowing very little. The subjection of the Mongolian 
race represented in North America by that branch of it to which 
the Tartars belonged, represented in the Southern portion of the con- 
tinent, seems to have taken place some five centuries before the 
advent of the European, while it may be concluded that the war of 
the races which resulted in reducing the villages erected by the 
Tartar hordes to ruin took place between one and two hundred 
years later. These statements, though actually referring to events 
which in point of time are comparatively modern, can only be sub- 
stantiated by the facts that, about the periods mentioned the dead 
bodies of an unknown race of men were washed ashore on the Eu- 
ropean coasts, while previous to that time there is no account 
whatever in European annals of even a vestige of trans-Atlantic hu- 
manity being transferred by ocean currents to the gaze of a won- 
dering people. Towards the latter half ot the 15th century two 
dead bodies entirely free from decomposition, and corresponding 
with the Red Men as they afterward appeared to Columbus, were 
cast on the shores of the Azores, and confirmed Columbus in his be- 
lief in the existence of a western world and western people. 

Storm and flood and disease have created sad havoc in the ranks 
of the Indian since the occupation of the country by the white man. 
These natural causes have conspired to decimate the race even more 
than the advance of civilization, which seems not to affect it to any 
material extent. In its maintenance of the same number of rep- 
resentatives during three centuries, and its existence in the very 
face of a most unceremonious, and, whenever necessary, cruel con- 
quest, the grand dispensations of the unseen Ruler of the universe 
is demonstrated; for, without the aborigines, savage and treach- 
erous as they were, it is possible that the explorers of former times 
would have so many natural difficulties to contend with, that their 
work would be surrendered in despair, and the most fertile regions 
of the continent saved for the plowshares of generations yet un- 
born. It is questionable whether we owe the discovery of this con- 
tinent to the unaided scientific knowledge of Columbus, or to the 
dead bodies of the two Indians referred to above; nor can their ser- 
vices to the explorers of ancient and modern times be over-esti- 
mated. Their existence is embraced in the plan of the Divinity 
for the government of the world, and it will not form subject for 
surprise to learn that the same intelligence which sent a thrill of 
liberty into every corner of the republic, will, in the near future, 


devise some method under which the remnant of a great and an- 
cient race may taste the sweets of public kindness, and feel that, 
after centuries of turmoil and tyranny, they have at last found a 
shelter amid a sympathizing people. Many have looked at the In- 
dian as the pessimist does at all things; they say that he was never 
formidable until the white man supplied him with the weapons of 
modern warfare; but there is no mention made of his eviction from 
his retired home, and the little plot of cultivated garden which 
formed the nucleus of a village that, if fostered instead of being 
destroyed, might possibly hold an Indian population of some im- 
portance in the economy of the nation. There is no intention what- 
ever to maintain that the occupation of this country by the favored 
races is wrong even in principle; for where any obstacle to advanc- 
ing civilization exists, it has to fall to the ground; but it may be 
said, with some truth, that the white man, instead of a policy of 
conciliation formed upon the power of kindness, indulged in bel- 
ligerency as impolitic as it was unjust. A modern writer says, 
when speaking of the Indian's character: "He did not exhibit that 
steady valor and efficient discipline of the American soldier; and 
to-day on the plains Sheridan's troopers would not hesitate to 
attack the bravest band, though outnumbered three to one." This 
piece of information applies to the European and African, as well 
as to the Indian. The American soldier, and particularly the 
troopers referred to, would not fear or shrink from a very legion of 
demons, even with odds against them. This mode of warfare seems 
strangely peculiar when compared with the military systems of 
civilized countries; yet, since the main object of armed men is to 
defend a country or a principle, and to destroy anything which may 
oppose itself to them, the mode of warfare pursued by the savage 
will be found admirably adapted to their requirements in this con- 
nection, and will doubtless compare favorably with the systems of 
the Afghans and Persians of the present, and the Caucasian people 
of the first historic period. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired sufficient age and 
strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. Success in killing a large quadruped 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 


sedulously inculcated in the minds of the rising generation as are 
the elements of reading, writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized communities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had elapsed since it 
had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easily 
taken, perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in its flight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himself of 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
"When in council, they usually sat in concentric circles around the 
speaker, and each individual, notwithstanding the fiery passions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
the sacred pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earth, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly the several councilors, 
each of whom took a whifi: These formalities were observed with 
as close exactness as state etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simplest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark of trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the 
uncertain supply from those sources led them to cultivate small 
patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, or an interchange of articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself for retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain bloody revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to 
innumerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible. "War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's 


glory and delight, — war, not conducted as civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty were prime 
requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic; 
but when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of his 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian employed his time in decorating 
his person with all the refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of canoes. These were constructed of 
bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. His amusements were the war-dance, ath- 
letic games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but during long periods of such existence he 
remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of 
the forests and the clouds that sailed above them ; and this vacancy 
imprinted an habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The mam labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens, — in fact, all things of 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition bnt 
little better than that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but few children. They were sub- 
jected to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine 
and pestilence swept away whole tribes. 



The State of Indiana is bounded on the east by the meridian line 
which forms also the western boundary of Ohio, extending due 
north from the mouth of the Great Miami river; on the south by 
the Ohio river from the mouth of the Great Miami to the mouth 
of the Wabash; on the west by aline drawn along the middle of 
the Wabash river from its mouth to a point where a due north 
line from the town of Vincennes would last touch the shore of said 
river, and thence directly north to Lake Michigan ; and on the north 
by said lake and an east and west line ten miles north of the ex? 
treme south end of the lake, and extending to its intersection with 
the aforesaid meridian, the west boundary of Ohio. These bound- 
aries include an area of 33,809 square miles, lying between 37° 
47' and 41° 50' north latitude, and between 7" 45' and IP 1' west 
longitude from Washington. 

After the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492, more than 
150 years passed away before any portion of the territory now com- 
prised within the above limits was explored by Europeans. Colo- 
nies were established in Florida, Virginia and Nova Scotia by the 
principal rival governments of Europe, but not until about 1670-'2 
did the first white travelers venture as far into the Northwest as 
Indiana or Lake Michigan. These explorers were Frenchmen by 
the names of Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, who then visited 
what is now the eastern part of Wisconsin, the northeastern portion 
of Illinois and probably that portion of this State north of the Kan- 
kakee river. In the following year M. Joliet, an agent of the 
French Colonial government, and James Marquette, a good and 
simple-hearted missionary who had his station at Mackinaw, ex- 
plored the country about Green Bay, and along Fox and Wiscon- 
sin rivers as far westward as the Mississippi, the banks of which 
they reached June 17, 1673. They descended this river to about 
33° 40', but returned by way of the Illinois river and the route 
they came in the Lake Region. At a village among the Illinois In- 
dians, Marquette and his small band of adventurers were received 



in a friendly manner and treated hospitably. They were made the 
honored guests at a great feast, where hominy, fish, dog meat and 
roast bufialo meat were spread before them in great abundance. In 
1682 LaSalle explored the West, but it is not known that he entered 
the region now embraced within the State of Indiana. He took 
formal possession, however, of all the Mississippi region in the 
name of the King of France, in whose honor he gave all this Mis- 
sissippi region, including what is now Indiana, the name " Louisi- 
ana." Spain at the same time laid claim to all the region about 
the Gulf of Mexico, and thus these two great nations were brought 
into collision. But the country was actually held and occupied by 
the great Miami confederacy of Indians, the Miamis proper (an- 
ciently the Twightwees) being the eastern and most powerful tribe. 
Their territory extended strictly from the Scioto river west to the 
Illinois river. Their villages were few and scattering, and their 
occupation was scarcely dense enough to maintain itself against in- 
vasion. Their settlements were occasionally visited by Christian 
missionaries, fur traders and adventurers, but no body of white men 
made any settlement sufficiently permanent for a title to national 
possession. Christian zeal animated France and England in mis- 
sionary enterprise, the former in the interests'of Catholicism and 
the latter in the interests of Protestantism. Hence their haste to 
preoccupy the land and proselyte the aborigines. No doubt this 
ugly rivalry was often seen by Indians, and they refused to be 
proselyted to either branch of Christianity . 

The " Five Nations," farther east, comprised the Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondaguas and Senecas. In 1677 the number 
of warriors in this confederacy was 2,150. About 1711 the Tusca- 
roras retired from Carolina and joined the Iroquois, or Five Na- 
tions, which, after that event, became known as the " Six Nations." 
In 1689 hostilities broke out between the Five Nations and the 
colonists of Canada, and the almost constant wars in which France 
was engaged until the treaty of Ryswick in 1697 combined to 
check the grasping policy of Louis XI Y., and to retard the plant- 
ing of French colonies in the Mississippi valley. Missionary efibrts, 
however, continued with more failure than success, the Jesuits 
allying themselves with the Indians in habits and customs, even 
encouraging inter-marriage between them and their white fol- 



The Wabash was first named bj the French, and spelled by them 
Ouabache. This river was known even before the Ohio, and was 
navigated as the Ouabache all the way to the Mississippi a long time 
before it was discovered that it was a tributary of the Ohio (Belle 
Riviere). In navigating the Mississippi they thought they passed 
the mouth of the Ouabache instead of the Ohio. In travelins^ from 
the Great Lakes to the south, the French always went by the way of 
the Ouabache or Illinois. 


Francois Morgan de Yinsenne served in Canada as early as 1720 
in the regiment of " De Carrignan " of the French service, and 
again on the lakes in the vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie in the same 
service under M. de Yaudriel, in 1725. It is possible that his ad- 
vent to Yincennes may have taken place in 1732; and in proof of 
this the only record is an act of sale under the joint names of him- 
self and Madame Yinsenne, the daughter of M. Philip Longprie, 
and dated Jan. 5, 1735. This document gives his military position 
as commandant of the post of Ouabache in the service of the French 
King, The will of Longprie, dated March 10, same year, bequeaths 
him, among other things, 408 pounds of pork, which he ordered to 
be kept safe until Yinsenne, who was then at Ouabache, returned 
to Kaskaskia, 

There are many other documents connected with its early settle- 
ment by Yinsenne, among which is a receipt for the 100 pistoles 
granted him as his wife's marriage dowry. In 1736 this ofiicer was 
ordered to Charlevoix by D'Artagette, viceroy of the King at New 
Orleans, and commandant of Illinois. Here M. St. Yinsenne re- 
ceived his mortal wounds. The event is chronicled as follows, in 
the words of D'Artagette: " We have just received very bad news 
from Louisiana, and our war with the Chickasaws. The French 
have been defeated. Among the slain is M. de Yinsenne, who 
ceased not until his last breath to exhort his men to behave worthy 
of their faith and fatherland." 

Thus closed the career of this gallant officer, leaving a name 
which holds as a remembrancer the present beautiful town of Yin- 
cennes, changed from Yinsenne to its present orthography in 1749. 

Post Yineoines was settled as early as 1710 or 1711. In a letter 
from Father Marest to Father Germon, dated at Kaskaskia, Nov. 9, 
1712, occurs this passage: "Zes Francois itoient itabli unfort swr 


lefleu'oe Ouabache / Us demanderent un missio7iaire / et le Pere 
Merraet leur fat ewooye. Ce Pere crut devoir travailler a la 
conversion des Mascoutens qui avoient fait un village sur les 
herds dwneme Jleuve. Cest une nation Indians qui entend la 
la/ngue PllinoiseJ'' Translated: " The French have established a 
fort upon the river Wabash, and want a missionary; and Father 
Mermet has been sent to them. That Father believes he should 
labor for the conversion of the Mascoutens, who have built a vil- 
lage on the banks of the same river. They are a nation of Indians 
who understand the language of the Illinois." 

Mermet was therefore the first preacher of Christianity in this 
part of the world, and his mission was to convert the Mascoutens, 
a branch of the Miamis. "The way I took," says he, " was to con- 
found, in the presence of the whole tribe, one of these charlatans 
[medicine men], whose Manitou, or great spirit which he wor- 
shiped, was the buffalo. After leading him on insensibly to the 
avowal that it was not the buffalo that he worshiped, but the Man- 
itou, or spirit, of the buffalo, which was under the earth and ani- 
mated all buffaloes, which heals the sick and has all power, I asked 
him whether other beasts, the bear for instance, and which one of 
his nation worshiped, was not equally inhabited by a Manitou, 
which was under the earth. ' Without doubt,' said the grand medi- 
cine man. ' If this is so,' said I, ' men ought to have a Manitou 
who inhabits them.' ' Nothing more certain,' said he. ' Ought 
not that to convince you,' continued I, ' that you are not very 
reasonable? For if man upon the earth is the master of all animals, 
if he kills them, if he eats them, does it not follow that the Mani- 
tou which inhabits him must have a mastery over all other Mani- 
tous? Why then do you not invoke him instead of the Manitou 
of the bear and the buffalo, when you are sick?' This reasoning 
disconcerted the charlatan. But this was all the effect it 

The result of convincing these heathen by logic, as is generally 
the case the world over, was only a temporary logical victory, and 
no change whatever was produced in the professions and practices 
of the Indians. 

But the first Christian (Catholic) missionary at this place whose 
name we find recorded in the Church annals, was Meurin, in 1849. 

The church building used by these early missionaries at Vin- 
cennes is thus described by the " oldest inhabitants:" Fronting on 
Water street and running back on Church street, it was a plain 


building with a rough exterior, of upright posts, chinked and 
daubed, with a rough coat of cement on the outside; about 20 feet 
wide and 60 long; one story high, with a small belfry and an equally 
small bell. It was dedicated to St. Francis Xavjer. This spot is 
now occupied by a splendid cathedral. 

Vincennes has ever been a stronghold of Catholicism, The 
Church there has educated and sent out many clergymen of her 
faith, some of whom have become bishops, or attained other high 
positions in ecclesiastical authority. 

Almost contemporaneous with the progress of the Church at 
Vincennes was a missionary work near the mouth of the Wea river, 
among the Ouiatenons, but the settlement there was broken up in 
early day. 



Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi by La- 
Salle in 1682, the government of France began to encourage the 
policy of establishing a line of trading posts and missionary 
stations extending through the West from Canada to Louisiana, 
and this policy was maintained, with partial success, for about 75 
years. The traders persisted in importing whisky, which cancelled 
nearly every civilizing influence that could be brought to bear upon 
the Indian, and the vast distances between posts prevented that 
strength which can be enjoyed only by close and convenient inter- 
communication. Another characteristic of Indian nature was to 
listen attentively to all the missionary said, pretending to believe 
all he preached, and then offer in turn his theory of the world, of 
religion, etc., and because he was not listened to with the same 
degree of attention and pretense of belief, would go off disgusted. 
This was his idea of the golden rule. 

The river St. Joseph of Lake Michigan was called " the river 
Miamis" in 1679, in which year LaSalle built a small fort on its 
bank, near the lake shore. The principal station of the mission 
for the instruction of the Miamis was established on the borders of 
this river. The first French post within the territory of the 
Miamis was at the mouth of the river Miamis, on an eminence 
naturally fortified on two sides by the river, and on one side by a 


deep ditch made by a fall of water. It was of triangular form. 
The missionary Hennepin gives a good description of it, as he was 
one of the company who built it, in 1679. Says he: " We fell the 
trees that were on the top of the hill; and having cleared the same 
from bushes for about two musket shot, we began to build a 
redoubt of 80 feet long and 40 feet broad, with great square pieces 
of timber laid one upon another, and prepared a great number of 
stakes of about 25 feet long to drive into the ground, to make our 
fort more inaccessible on the riverside. We employed the whole 
month of November about that work, which was very hard, though 
we had no other food but the bear's flesh our savage killed. These 
beasts are very common in that place because of the great quantity 
of grapes they find there; but their flesh being too fat and luscious, 
our men began to be weary of it and desired leave to go a hunting 
to kill some wild goats. M. LaSalle denied them that liberty, 
which caused some murmurs among them ; and. it was but unwill- 
ingly that they continued their work. This, together with the 
approach of winter and the apprehension that M. LaSalle had that 
his vessel (the Grifiin) was lost, made him very melancholy, though 
he concealed it as much as he could. We made a cabin wherein 
we performed divine service every Sunday, and Father Gabriel and 
I, who preached alternately, took care to take such texts as were 
suitable to our present circumstances and fit to inspire us with 
courage, concord and brotherly love. * * * The fort was at 
last perfected, and called Fort Miamis." 

In the year 1711 the missionary Chardon, who was said to be 
very zealous and apt in the acquisition of languages, had a station 
on the St. Joseph about 60 miles above the mouth. Charlevoix, 
another distinguished missionary from France, visited a post on 
this river in 1721. In a letter dated at the place, Aug. 16, he says: 
" There is a commandant here, with a small garrison. His house, 
which is but a very sorry one^ is called the fort, from its being sur- 
rounded with an indifierent palisado, which is pretty near the case 
in all the rest. We have here two villages of Indians, one of the 
Miamis and the other of the Pottawatomies, both of them mostly 
Christians; but as they have been for a long time without any pas- 
tors, the missionary who has been lately sent to tliem will have no 
small difliculty in bringing them back to the exercise of their re- 
ligion." He speaks also of the main commodity for which the In- 
dians would part with their goods, namely, spirituous liquors^ 
which they drink and keep drunk upon as long as a supply lasted. 


I— I 


















More than a century and a half has now passed since Charlevoix 
penned the above, without any change whatever in this trait of In- 
dian character. 

In 1765 the Miami nation, or confederacy, was composed of four 
tribes, whose total number of warriors was estimated at only 1,050 
men. Of these about 250 were Twightwees, or Miamis proper, 
300 Weas, or Ouiatenons , 300 Piankeshaws and 200 Shockeys; and 
at this time the principal villages of the Twightwees were situated 
about the head of the Maumee river at and near the place where 
Fort "Wayne now is. The larger Wea villages were near the banks 
of the Wabash river, in the vicinity of the Post Ouiatenon; and 
the Shockeys and Piankeshaws dwelt on the banks of the Yermil- 
lion and on the borders of the "Wabash between Vincennes and 
Ouiatenon. Branches of the Pottawatomie, Shawnee, Delaware and 
Kickapoo tribes were permitted at different times to enter within 
the boundaries of the Miamis and reside for a while. 

The wars in which France and England were engaged, from 1688 
to 1697, retarded the growth of the colonies of those nations in 
North America, and the efforts made by France to connect Canada 
and the Gulf of Mexico by a chain of trading posts and colonies 
naturally excited the jealousy of England and gradually laid the 
foundation for a struggle at arms. After several stations were estab- 
lished elsewhere in the West, trading posts were started at the 
Miami villages, which stood at the head of the Maumee, at the Wea 
villages about Ouiatenon on the Wabash, and at the Piankeshaw vil- 
lages about the present sight of Vincennes. It is probable that before 
the close of the year 1719, temporary trading posts were erected at the 
sites of Fort Wayne, Ouiatenon and Vincennes. These points were 
probably often visited by French fur traders prior to 1700. In the 
meanwhile the English people in this country commenced also to 
establish military posts west of the Alleghanies, and thus matters 
went on until they naturally culminated in a general war, which, 
being waged by the French and Indians combined on one side, was 
called " the French and Indian war." This war was terminated in 
1763 by a treaty at Paris, by which France ceded to Great Britain 
all of North America east of the Mississippi except New Orleans 
and the island on which it is situated; and indeed, France had the 
preceding autumn, by a secret convention, ceded to Spain all the 
country west of that river. 



In 1Y62, after Canada and its dependencies had been surrendered 
to tlie English, Pontiac and his partisans secretly organized a pow- 
erful confederacy in order to crush at one blow all English power 
in the AVest. This great scheme was skillfully projected and cau- 
tiously matured. 

The principal act in the programme was to gain admittance into 
the fort at Detroit, on pretense of a friendly visit, with short- 
ened muskets concealed under their blankets, and on a given signal 
suddenly break forth upon the garrison; but an inadvertent remark 
of an Indian woman led to a discovery of the plot, which was con- 
sequently averted. Pontiac and his warriors afterward made many 
attacks upon the English, some of which were successful, but the 
Indians were finally defeated in the general war. 


In 1765 the total number of French families within the limits of 
the Northwestern Territory did not probably exceed 600. These 
were in settlements about Detroit, along the river "Wabash and the 
neighborhood of Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. Of these fami- 
lies, about 80 or 90 resided at Post Yincennes, 14 at Fort Ouiate- 
non, on the Wabash, and nine or ten at the confluence of the St. 
Mary and St. Joseph rivers. 

The colonial policy of'the British government opposed any meas- 
ures which might strengthen settlements in the interior of this 
country, lest they become self-supporting and independent of the 
mother country; hence the early and rapid settlement of the North- 
western territory was still further retarded by the short-sighted 
selfishness of England. That fatal policy consisted mainly in hold- 
ing the land in the hands of the government and not allowing it to 
be subdivided and sold to settlers. But in spite of all her efibrts 
in this direction, she constantly made just such efforts as provoked 
the American people to rebel, and to rebel successfully, which was 
within 15 years after the perfect close of the French and Indian 


Thomas Jefferson, the shrewd statesman and wise Governor of 
Virginia, saw from the first that actual occupation of "Western lands 
was the only way to keep them out of the hands of foreigners and 


Indians. Therefore, directly after the conquest of Yincennes by 
Clark, he engaged a scientific corps to proceed under an escort to 
the Mississippi, and ascertain by celestial observations the point 
on that river intersected by latitude 36° 30', the southern limit of 
the State, and to measure its distance to the Ohio. To Gen. Clark 
was entrusted the conduct of the military operations in that quar- 
ter. He was instructed to select a strong position near that point 
and establish there a fort and garrison ; thence to extend his conquests 
northward to the lakes, erecting forts at difi*erent points, which 
might serve as monuments of actual possession, besides aifording 
protection to that portion of the country. Fort "Jefferson" was 
erected and garrisoned on the Mississippi a few miles above the 
southern limit. 

The result of these operations was the addition, to the chartered 
limits of Virginia, of that immense region known as the " North- 
western Territory." The simple fact that such and such forts were 
established by the Americans in this vast region convinced the Brit- 
ish Commissioners that we had entitled ourselves to the land. But 
where are those " monuments '' of our power now? 


As a striking example of the inhuman treatment which the early 
Indians were capable of giving white people, we quote the follow 
ing blood-curdling story from Mr. Cox' " Recollections of the 
Wabash Yalley": 

On the 11th of February, 1781, a wagoner named Irvin Hinton 
was sent from the block-house at Louisville, Ky., to Harrodsburg 
for a load of provisions for the fort. Two young men, Richard 
Rue and George Holman, aged respectively 19 and 16 years, were 
sent as guards to protect the wagon from the depredations of any 
hostile Indians who might be lurking in the cane-brakes or ravines 
through which they must pass. Soon after their start a severe 
snow-storm set in which lasted until afternoon. Lest the melting 
snow might dampen the powder in their rifles, the guards fired 
them off, intending to reload them as soon as the storm ceased. 
Hinton drove the horses while Rue walked a few rods ahead and 
Holman about the same distance behind. As they ascended a hill 
about eight miles from Louisville Hinton heard some one say Whoa 
to the horses. Supposing that something was wrong about the 
wagon, he stopped and asked Holman why lie had called him to 
halt. Holman said that he had not spoken; Rue also denied it, 


but said that he had heard the voice distinctly. At this time a voice 
cried out, " I will solve the mystery for you; it was Simon Girty that 
cried Whoa, and he meant what he said," — at the same time emerg- 
ing from a sink-hole a few rods from the roadside, followed by 13 
Indians, who immediately surrounded the three Kentuckians and 
demanded them to surrender or die instantly. The little party, 
making a virtue of necessity, surrendered to this renegade white 
man and his Indian allies. 

Being so near two forts, Girty made all possible speed in making 
fast his prisoners, selecting the lines and other parts of the harness, 
he prepared for an immediate flight across the Ohio. The panta- 
loons of the prisoners were cut off about four inches above the 
knees, and thus they started through the deep snow' as fast as the 
horses could trot, leaving the wagon, containing a few empty bar- 
rels, standing in the road. Thej'- continued their march for sev- 
eral cold days, without fire at night, until they reached Wa-puc-ca- 
nat-ta, where they compelled their prisoners to run the gauntlet as 
they entered the village. Hinton first ran the gauntlet and reached 
the council-house after receiving several severe blows upon the head 
and shoulders. Rue next ran between the lines, pursued by an 
Indian with an uplifted tomahawk. He far outstripped his pursuer 
and dodged most of the blows aimed at him. Holman complaining 
that it was too severe a test for a worn-out stripling like himself, 
was allowed to run between two lines of squaws and boys, and was 
followed by an Indian with a long switch. 

The first council of the Indians did not dispose of these young 
men; they were waiting for the presence of other chiefs and war- 
riors. Hinton escaped, but on the afternoon of the second day he 
was re-captured. Now the Indians were glad that they had an 
occasion to indulge in the infernal joy of burning him at once. 
Soon after their supper, which they shared with their victim, they 
drove the stake into the ground, piled up the fagots in a circle 
around it, stripped and blackened the prisoner, tied him to the 
stake, and applied the torch. It was a slow fire. The war-whoop 
then thrilled through the dark surrounding forest like the chorus 
of a band of infernal spirits escaped from pandemonium, and the 
scalp dance was struck up by those demons in human shape, who 
for hours encircled their victim, brandishing their tomahawks and 
war clubs, and venting their execrations upon the helpless sufferer, 
who died about midnight from the effects of the slow heat. As 
soon as he fell upon the ground, the Indian who first discovered 


him in the woods that evening sprang in, sunk his tomahawk into 
his skull above the ear, and with his knife stripped off the scalp, 
which he bore back with him to the town as a trophy, and which 
was tauntingly thrust into the faces of Rue and Holman, with the 
question, " Can you smell the fire on the scalp of your red-headed 
friend? We cooked him and left him for the wolves to make a 
breakfast upon; that is the way we serve runaway prisoners." 

After a march of three days more, the prisoners. Rue and Hol- 
man, had to run the gauntlets again, and barely got through with 
their lives. It was decided that they should both be burned at the 
stake that night, though this decision was far from being unani- 
mous. The necessary preparations were made, dry sticks and 
brush were gathered and piled around two stakes, the faces 
and hands of the doomed men were blackened in the customary 
manner, and as the evening approached the poor wretches sat look- 
ing upon the setting sun for the last time. An unusual excitement 
was manifest in a number of chiefs who still lingered about the 
council-house. At a pause in the contention, a noble-looking In- 
dian approached the prisoners, and after speaking a few words to 
the guards, took Holman by the hand, lifted him to his feet, cut the 
cords that bound him to his fellow prisoners, removed the black from 
his face and hands, put his hand kindly upon his head and said : " I 
adopt you as my son, to fill the place of the one I have lately buried; 
you are now a kinsman of Logan, the white man's friend, as he has 
been called, but who has lately proven himself to be a terrible 
avenger of the wrongs inflicted upon him by the bloody Cresap and 
his men." With evident reluctance, Girty interpreted this to Hol- 
man, who was thus unexpectedly freed. 

But the preparations for the burning of Rue went on. Holman 
and Rue embraced each other most affectionately, with a sorrow too 
deep for description. Rue was then tied to one of the stakes; but 
the general contention among the Indians had not ceased. Just as 
the lighted fagots,were about to be applied to the dry brush piled 
around the devoted youth, a tall, active young Shawnee, a son of 
the victim's captor, sprang into the ring, and cutting the cords 
which bound him to the stake, led him out amidst the deafening 
plaudits of a part of the crowd and the execrations of the rest. Re- 
gardless of threats, he caused water to be brought and the black to 
be washed from the face and hands of tlie prisoner, whose clothes 
were then returned to him, when the young brave said : " I take 
this young man to be my brother, in the place of one I lately lost; 


I loved that brother well; I will love this one, too; my old mother 
will be glad when I tell her that I have brought her a son, in place 
of the dear departed one. We want no more victims. The burning 
of Red-head [Hinton] ought to satisfy us. These innocent young 
men do not merit such cruel fate; I would rather die myself than 
see this adopted brother burned at the stake." 

A loud shout of approbation showed that the young Shawnee had 
triumphed, though dissension was manifest among the various 
tribes afterward. Some of them abandoned their trip to Detroit, 
others returded to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, a few turned toward the Mis- 
sissinewa and the Wabash towns, while a portion continued to De- 
troit. Holman was taken back to Wa-puc-ca-nat ta, where he re- 
mained most of the time of his captivity. Rue was taken first to 
the Mississinewa, then to the Wabash towns. Two years of his 
eventful captivity were spent in the region of the Wabash and Illi- 
nois rivers, but the last few months at Detroit; was in captivity 
altogether about three years and a half. 

Rue effected his escape in the following manner: During one of 
the drunken revels of the Indians near Detroit one of them lost a 
purse of $90; various tribes were suspected of feloniously keeping 
the treasure, and much ugly speculation was indulged in as to who 
was the thief. At length a prophet of a tribe that was not suspected 
was called to divine the mystery. He spread sand over a green 
deer-skin, watched it awhile and performed various manipulations, 
and professed to see that the money had been stolen and carried 
away by a tribe entirely different from any that had been 
suspicioned; but he was shrewd enough not to announce who the 
thief was or the tribe he belonged to, lest a war might arise. His 
decision quieted the belligerent uprisings threatened by the excited 

Rue and two other prisoners saw this display of the prophet's 
skill and concluded to interrogate him soon concerning their fami- 
lies at home. The opportunity occurred in a few days, and the In- 
dian seer actually astonished Rue with the accuracy with which he 
described his family, and added, "You all intend to make your 
escape, and you will effect it soon. You will meet with many trials 
and hardships in passing over so wild a district of country, inhabited 
by so many hostile nations of Indians. You will almost starve to 
death; but about the time you have given up all hope of finding 
game to sustain you in your famished condition, succor will come 
when you least expect it. The first game you will succeed in taking 


will be a male of some kind ; after that you will have plenty of 
game and return home in safety." 

The prophet kept this matter a secret for the prisoners, and the 
latter in a few days set off upon their terrible journey, and had 
just such experience as the Indian prophet had foretold; they 
arrived home with their lives, but were pretty well worn out with the 
exposures and privations of a three weeks' journey. 

On the return of Holman's party of Indians to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, 
much dissatisfaction existed in regard to the manner of his release 
from the sentence of condemnation pronounced against him by the 
council. Many were in favor of recalling the council and trying 
him again, and this was finally agreed to. The young man was 
again put upon trial for his life, with a strong probability of his 
being condemned to the stake. Both parties worked hard for vic- 
tory in the final vote, which eventually proved to give a majority of 
one for the prisoner's acquittal. 

"While with the Indians, Holman saw them burn at the stake a 
Kentuckian named Richard Hogeland, who had been taken prisoner 
at the defeat of Col. Crawford. They commenced burning him at 
nine o'clock at night, and continued roasting him until ten o'clock 
the next day, before he expired. During his excruciating tortures he 
bes^ojed for some of them to end his life and sufferings with a sun 
or tomahawk. Finally his cruel tormentors promised they would, 
and cut several deep gashes in his flesh with their tomahawks, and 
shoveled up hot ashes and embers and threw them into the gaping 
wounds. When he was dead they stripped off his scalp, cut him 
to pieces and burnt him to ashes, which they scattered through the 
town to expel the evil spirits from it. 

After a captivity of about three years and a half, Holman saw an 
opportunity of going on amission for the destitute Indians, namely, 
of going to Harrodsburg, Ky., where he had a rich uncle, from 
whom they could get what supplies they wanted. They let him go 
with a guard, but on arriving at Louisville, where Gen. Clark was 
in command, he was ransomed, and he reached home only three 
days after the arrival of Rue. Both these men lived to a good old 
age, terminating their lives at their home about two miles south of 
Richmond, Ind. 


In the summer of 1778, Col. George Eogers Clark, a native of 
Albemarle county, Va., led a memorable expedition against the 
ancient French settlements about Kaskaskia and Post Vincennes. 
With respect to the magnitude of its design, the valor and perse- 
verance with which it was carried on, and the memorable results 
which were produced by it, this expedition stands without a parallel 
in the early annals of the valley of the Mississippi. That portion 
of the "West called Kentucky was occupied by Henderson & Co., 
who pretended to own the land and who held it at a high price. 
Col. Clark wished to test the validity of their claim and adjust the 
government of the country so as to encourage immigration. He 
accordingly called a meeting of the citizens at Harrodstown, to 
assemble June 6, 1776, and consider the claims of the company and 
consult with reference to the interest of the country. He did not 
at first publish the exact aim of this movement, lest parties would 
be formed in advance and block the enterprise; also, if the object 
of the meeting were not announced beforehand, the curiosity of the 
people to know what was to be proposed would bring out a much 
o-reater attendance. 

The meeting was held on the day appointed, and delegates were 
elected to treat with the government of Virginia, to see whether 
it would be best to become a county in that State and be protected 
by it, etc. Various delays on account of the remoteness of the 
white settlers from the older communities of Virginia and the hos- 
tility of Indians in every direction, prevented a consummation of 
this object until some time in 1778. The government of Virginia 
was friendly to Clark's enterprise to a certain extent, but claimed 
that they had not authority to do much more than to lend a little 
assistance for which payment should be made at some future time, 
as it was not certain whether Kentucky would become a part of Vir- 
ginia or not. Gov. Henry and a few gentlemen were individually 
so hearty in favor of Clark's benevolent undertaking that they 
assisted him all they could. Accordingly Mr. Clark organized his 
expedition, keeping every particular secret lest powerful parties 
would form in the West against him. He took in stores at Pitts- 




burg and Wheeling, proceeded down the Ohio to the " Falls," 
where he took possession of an island of a about seven acres, and 
divided it among a small number of families, for whose protection 
he constructed some light fortifications. At this time Post Yin- 
cennes comprised about 400 militia, and it was a daring undertak- 
ing for Col. Clark, with his small force, to go up against it and Kas- 
kaskia, as he had planned. Indeed, some of his men, on hearing of 
his plan, deserted him. He conducted himself so as to gain the 
sympathy of the French, and through them also that of the 
Indians to some extent, as both these people were very bitter 
against the British, who had possession of the Lake Region. 

From the nature of the situation Clark concluded it was best to 
take Kaskaskia first. The fact that the people regarded him as a 
savage rebel, he regarded as really a good thing in his favor; for 
after the first victory he would show them so much unexpected 
lenity that they would rally to his standard. In this policy he was 
indeed successful. He arrested a few men and put them in irons. 
The priest of the village, accompanied by five or six aged citizens, 
waited on Clark and said that the inhabitants expected to be separ- 
ated, perhaps never to meet again, and they begged to be permitted 
to assemble in their church to take leave of each other. Clark 
mildly replied that he had nothing against their religion, that they 
might continue to assemble in their church, but not venture out of 
town, etc. Thus, by what has since been termed the "Earey" 
method of taming horses, Clark showed them he had power over 
them but designed them no harm, and they readily took the oath 
of allegiance to Yirginia. 

After Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia it was difficult to induce the 
French settlers to accept the "Continental paper" introduced by 
him and his troops. Nor until Col. Yigo arrived there and guar- 
anteed its redemption would they receive it. Peltries and piastres 
formed the only currency, and Yigo found great difficulty in ex- 
plaining Clark's financial arrangements. ''Their commandants 
never made money," was the reply to Yigo's explanation of the 
policy of the old Dominion. But notwithstanding the guarantees, 
the Continental paper fell very low in the market. Yigo had a 
trading establishment at Kaskaskia, where he sold cofiTee at one 
dollar a pound, and all the other necessaries of life at an equally 
reasonable price. The unsophisticated Frenchmen were generally 
asked in what kind of money they would pay their little bills. 


"Douleur," was the general reply; and as an authority on the sub- 
ject says, "It took about twenty Continental dollars to purchase a 
silver dollar's worth of coffee; and as the French word "douleur" sig- 
nifies grief or pain, perhaps no word either in the French or Eng- 
lish languages expressed the idea more correctly than the douleur 
for a Continental dollar. At any rate it was truly douleur to the 
Colonel, for he never received a single dollar in exchange for the 
laro-e amount taken from him in order to sustain Clark's credit. 

Now, the post at Vincennes, defended by Fort Sackville, came 
next. The priest just mentioned, Mr. Gibault, was really friendly 
to " the American interest;" he had spiritual charge of the church 
at Vincennes, and he with several others were deputed to assemble 
the people there and authorize them to garrison their own fort like 
a free and independent people, etc. This plan had its desired effect, 
and the people took the oath of allegiance to the State of Virginia 
and became citizens of the United States. Their style of language 
and conduct changed to a better hue, and they surprised the numer- 
ous Indians in the vicinity by displaying anew flag and informing 
them that their old father, the King of France, was come to life 
again, and was mad at them for fighting the English; and they ad- 
vised them to make peace with the Americans as soon as they 
could, otherwise they might expect to make the land very bloody, 
etc. The Indians concluded they would have to fall in line, and 
they offered no resistance. Capt. Leonard Helm, an American, 
was left in charge of this post, and Clark began to turn his atten- 
tion to other points. But before leaving this section of the coun- 
try he made treaties of peace with the Indians; this he did, how- 
ever, by a different method from what had always before been 
followed. By indirect methods he caused them to come to him, 
instead of going to them. He was convinced that inviting them to 
treaties was considered by them in a different manner from what 
the whites expected, and imputed them to fear, and that giving 
them great presents confirmed it. He accordingly established 
treaties with the Piankeshaws, Ouiatenons, Kickapoos, Illinois, 
Kaskaskias, Peorias and branches of some other tribes that inhab- 
ited the country between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi. 
Upon this the General Assembly of the State of Virginia declared 
all the citizens settled west of the Ohio organized into a county of 
that State, to be known as " Illinois " county ; but before the pro- 
visions of the law could be carried into effect, Henry Hamilton, the 
British Lieutenant-Governor of Detroit, collected an army of about 


30 regulars, 50 French v^olunteers and 400 Indians, went down and 
re-took the post Yincennes in December, 1778. No attempt was 
made by the population to defend the town. Capt. Helm and a 
man named Henry were the only Americans at the fort, the only 
members of the garrison. Capt. Helm was taken prisoner and a 
number of the French inhabitants disarmed. 

Col. Clark, hearing of the situation, determined to re-capture the 
place. He accordingly gathered together what force he could in 
this distant land, 170 men, and on the 5th of February, started from 
Kaskaskia and crossed the river of that name. The weather was 
very wet, and the low lands were pretty well covered with water. 
The march was difficult, and the Colonel had to work"hard to keep 
his men in spirits. He suffered them to shoot game whenever they 
wished and eat it like Indian war-dancers, each company by turns 
inviting the others to their feasts, which was the case every night. 
Clark waded through water as much as any of them, and thus stimu- 
lated the men by his example. They reached the Little "Wabash 
on the 13th, after suffering many and great hardships. Here a camp 
was formed, and without waiting to discuss plans for crossing the 
river, Clark ordered the men to construct a vessel, and pretended 
that crossing the stream would be only a piece of amusement, al- 
though inwardly he held a different opinion. 

The second day afterward a reconnoitering party was sent across 
the river, who returned and made an encouraging report. A scaf- 
folding was built on the opposite shore, upon which the baggage 
was placed as it was tediously ferried over, and the new camping 
ground was a nice half acre of dry land. There were many amuse- 
ments, indeed, in getting across the river, which put all the men in 
high spirits. The succeeding two or three days they had to march 
through a great deal of water, having on the night of the 17th to 
encamp in the water, near the Big Wabash. 

At daybreak on the 18th they heard the signal gun at Vincennes, 
and at once commenced their march. Reacliing the Wabash about 
two o'clock, they constructed rafts to cross the river on a boat-steal- 
ing expedition, but labored all day and night to no purpose. On 
the 19th they began to make a canoe, in which a second attempt to 
steal boats was made, but this expedition returned, reporting that 
there were two "large fires" within a mile of them. Clark sent a 
canoe down the river to meet the vessel that was supposed to be on 
her way up with the supplies, with orders to hasten forward day and 
night. This was their last hope, as their provisions were entirely 


gone, and starvation seemed to be hovering about them. The next 
day they commenced to make more canoes, when about noon the 
sentinel on the river brought a boat with five Frenchmen from the 
fort. From this party they learned that they were not as yet dis- 
covered. All the army crossed the river in two canoes the next 
day, and as Clark had determined to reach the town that night, he 
ordered his men to move forward. They plunged into the water 
sometimes to the neck, for over three miles. 

Without food, benumbed with cold, up to their waists in water, 
covered with broken ice, the men at onetime mutinied and refused 
to march. All the persuasions of Clark had no effect upon the 
half-starved and half-frozen soldiers. In one company was a small 
drummer boy, and also a sergeant who stood six feet two inches in 
socks, and stout and athletic. He was devoted to Clark. The Gen- 
eral mounted the little drummer on the shoulders of the stalwart 
sergeant and ordered him to plunge into the water, half-frozen as it 
was. He did so, the little boy beating the charge from his lofty 
perch, while Clark, sword in hand, followed them, giving the com- 
mand as he threw aside the floating ice, "Forward." Elated and 
amused with the scene, the men promptly obeyed, holding their 
rifles above their heads, and in spite of all the obstacles they reached 
the high land in perfect safety. But for this and the ensuing days 
of this campaign we quote from Clark's account: 

"This last day's march through the water was far superior to any- 
thing the Frenchmen had any idea of. They were backward in 
speaking; said that the nearest land to us was a small league, a 
sugar camp on the bank of the river. A canoe was sent off and re- 
turned without finding that we could pass. I went in her myself 
and sounded the water and found it as deep as to my neck. I returned 
with a design to have the men transported on board the canoes to 
the sugar camp, which I knew would expend the whole day and en- 
suing night, as the vessels would pass slowly through the bushes. 
The loss of so much time to men half starved was a matter of con- 
sequence. I would have given now a great deal for a day's provis- 
ion, or for one of our horses. I returned but slowly to the troops, 
giving myself time to think. On our arrival all ran to hear what 
was the report; every eye was fixed on me; I unfortunately spoke 
in a serious manner to one of the officers. The whole were alarmed 
without knowing what I said. I viewed their confusion for about 
one minute; I whispered to those near me to do as I did, immedi^ 
ately put some water in my hand, poured on powder, blackened my 


face, gave the war-whoop, and marched into the water without say- 
ing a word. The party gazed and fell in, one after another without 
saying a word, like a flock of sheep. I ordered those near me to 
begin a favorite song of theirs; it soon passed through the line, and 
the whole went on cheerfully. 

" I now intended to have them transported across the deepest 
part of the water; but when about waist-deep, one of the men in- 
formed me that he thought he felt a path; we examined and found 
it so, and concluded that it kept on the highest ground, which it did, 
and by taking pains to follow it, we got to the sugar camp with no 
difficulty, where there was about half an acre of dry ground, — at 

least ground not under water, and there we took up our lodging. 
* -jt * * * * 

" The night had been colder than any we had had, and the ice in 
the morning was one-half or three-quarters of an inch thick in still 
water; the morning was the finest. A little after sunrise I lectured 
the whole; what I said to them I forget, but I concluded by in- 
forming them that passing the plain then in full view, and 
reaching the opposite woods would put an end to their fatigue; 
that in a few hours they would have a sight of their long wished-for 
object; and immediately stepped into the water without waiting 
for any reply. A huzza took place. As we generally marched 
through the water in a line, before the third man entered, I called to 
Major Bowman, ordering him to fall in the rear of the 25 men, and 
put to death any man who refused to march. This met with a cry 
of approbation, and on we went. Getting about the middle of the 
plain, the water about mid-deep, I found myself sensibly failing; 
and as there were no trees nor bushes for the men to support them- 
selves by, I feared that many of the weak would be drowned. I or- 
dered the canoes to make the land, discharge their loading, and play 
backward and forward with all diligence and pick up the men ; and 
to encourage the party, sent some of the strongest men forward, 
with orders when they got to a certain distance, to pass the word 
back that the water was getting shallow, and when getting near the 
woods, to cry out land. This stratagem had its desired effect; the 
men exerted themselves almost beyond their abilities, the weak 
holding by the stronger. The water, however, did not become 
shallower, but continued deepening. Getting to the woods where 
the men expected land, the water was up to my shoulders; but 
gaining the woods was of great consequence; all the low men and 
weakly hung to the trees and floated on the old logs until they were 


taken off by the canoes; the strong and tall got ashore and built 
fires. Many would reach the shore and fall with their bodies half 
in the water, not being able to support themselves without it. 

" This was a dry and delightful spot of ground of about ten acres. 
Fortunately, as if designed by Providence, a canoe of Indian squaws 
and children was coining up to town, and took through this part of 
the plain as a nigh way; it was discovered by our canoe-men as they 
were out after the other men. They gave chase and took the Indian 
canoe, on board of which was nearly half a quarter of buffalo, some 
corn, tallow, kettles, etc. This was an invaluable prize. Broth was 
immediately made and served out, especially to the weakly; nearly 
all of us got a little; but a great many gave their part to the 
weakly, saying something cheering to their comrades. By the 
afternoon, this refreshment and fine weather had greatly invigor- 
ated the whole party. 

" Crossing a narrow and deep lake in the canoes, and marching 
some distance, we came to a copse of timber called ' Warrior's 
Island.' We were now in full view of the fort and town; it was 
about two miles distant, with not a shrub intervening. Every man 
now feasted his eyes and forgot that he had suffered anything, say- 
ing that all which had passed was owing to good policy, and noth- 
ing but what a man could bear, and that a soldier had no right to 
think, passing from one extreme to the other,— which is common in 
such cases. And now stratagem was necessary. The plain between 
us and the town was not a perfect level; the sunken grounds were 
covered with water full of ducks. We observed several men within 
a half a mile of us shooting ducks, and sent out some of our active 
young Frenchmen to take one of these men prisoners without 
alarming the rest, which they did. The information we got from 
this person was similar to that which we got from those taken on the 
river, except that of the British having that evening completed the 
wall of the fort, and that there were a great many Indians in town. 

"Our situation was now critical. No possibility of retreat in 
case of defeat, and in full view of a town containing at this time 
more than 600 men, troops, inhabitants and Indians. The crew of the 
galley, though not 50 men, would have been now a re-enforcement 
of immense magnitude to our little army, if I may so call it, but 
we would not think of them. We were now in the situation that I 
had labored to get ourselves in. The idea of being made prisoner 
was foreign to almost every man, as they expected nothing but tor- 
ture from the savages if they fell into their hands. Our fate was 


now to be determined, probably in a few hours; we knew that 
nothing but the most daring conduct would insure success; I knew 
also that a number of the inhabitants wished us well. This was a 
favorable circumstance; and as there was but little prooabilitj of our 
remaining until dark undiscovered, 1 determined to begin opera- 
tions immediately, and therefore wrote the following placard to the 

To the Inhabitants of Post Vlncennes: 

Gentlemen t^Being now within two miles of your village with 
my army, determined to take your fort this night, and not being 
willing to surprise you, I take this method to request such of you 
as are true citizens and willing to enjoy the liberty I bring you, to 
remain still in your houses; and those, if any there be, that are 
friends to the king, will instantly repair to the fort and join the 
hair-buyer general and fight like men; and if any such as do not go 
to the fort shall be discovered afterward, they may depend on 
severe punishment. On the contrary, those who are true friends 
to liberty may depend on being well treated ; and I once more 
request them to keep out of the streets; for everyone I find in 
arms on my arrival I shall treat as an enemy. 

[Signed] G. R. Claek. 

" I had various ideas on the results of this letter. I knew it 
could do us no damage, but that it would cause the lukewarm to 
be decided, and encourage our friends and astonish our enemies. 
We anxiously viewed this messenger until he entered the town, and 
in a few minutes we discovered by our glasses some stir in every 
street we could penetrate, and great numbers running or riding out 
into the commons, we supposed to view us, which was the case. 
But what surprised us was that nothing had yet happened that had 
the appearance cf the garrison being alarmed, — neither gun nor 
drum. We began to suppose that the information we got from our 
prisoners was false, and that the enemy had alieady knew of us and 
were prepared. A little before sunset we displayed ourselves in 
full view of the town, — crowds gazing at us. We were plunging 
ourselves into certain destruction or success ; there was no midway 
thought of. We had but little to say to our men, except inculcat- 
ing an idea of the necessity of obedience, etc. We moved on 
slowly in full view of the town; but as it was a point of some con- 
sequence to us to make ourselves appear formidable, we, in leaving 
the covert we were in, marched and counter- marched in such a 
manner that we appeared numerous. Our colors were displayed to 
the best advantage; and as the low plain we marched through was 


not a perfect level, but had frequent risings in it, of 7 or 8 
higher than the common level, which was covered with water; and 
as these risings generally rim in an oblique direction to the town, 
we took the advantage of one of them, marching through the water 
by it, which completely prevented our being numbered. We gained 
the heights back of the town. As there were as yet no hostile 
appearance, we were impatient to have the cause unriddled. Lieut, 
Bayley was ordered with 14 men to march and fire on the fort; 
the main body moved in a different direction and took possession 
of the strongest part of the town." 

Clark then sent a written order to Hamilton commanding 
him to surrender immediately or he would be treated as a 
murderer; Hamilton replied that he and his garrison were not 
disposed to be awed into any action unworthy of British sub- 
jects. After one hour more of fighting, Hamilton proposed a 
truce of three days for conference, on condition that each side 
cease all defensive work; Clark rejoined that he would "not 
ap-ree to any terms other than Mr. Hamilton surrendering himself 
and garrison prisoners at discretion," and added that if he, Hamil- 
ton, wished to talk with him he could meet him immediately at the 
church with Gapt. Helm. In less than an hour Clark dictated the 
terms of surrender, Feb. 24, 1779. Hamilton agreed to the total 
surrender because, as he there claimed in writing, he was too far 
from aid from his own government, and because of the "unanimity" 
of his ofiicers in the surrender, and his "confidence in a generous 

"Of this expedition, of its results, of its importance, of the merits of 
those engaged in it, of their bravery, their skill, of their prudence, of 
their success, a volume would not more than suffice for the details. 
Suffice it to say that in ray opinion, and I have accurately and criti- 
cally weighed and examined all the results produced by the con- 
tests in which we were engaged during the Revolutionary war, 
that for bravery, for hardships endured, for skill and consummate 
tact and prudence on the part of the commander, obedience, dis- 
cipline and love of country on the part of his followers, for the 
immense benefits acquired, and signal advantages obtained by it 
for the whole union, it was second to no enterprise undertaken dur- 
ing that struggle. I might add, second to no undertaking in an- 
cient or modern warfare. The whole credit of this conquest be< 
longs to two men ; Gen. George Rogers Clark and Col. Francis 
Yigo. And when we consider that by it the whole territory now 


covered bj the three great states of Indiana, Illinois and Michigan 
was added to the union, and so admitted to be by the British commis- 
sioners at the preliminaries to the treaty of peace in 1783 ; (and but 
for this very conquest, the boundaries of our territories west would 
have been the Ohio instead of the Mississippi, and so acknowledged 
by both our commissioners and the British at that conference;) a 
territory embracing upward of 2,000,000 people, the human mind 
is lost in the contemplation of its effects; and we can but wonder 
that a force of 170 men, the whole number of Clark's troops, 
should by this single action have produced such important results," 
[John Xaw. 

The next day Clark sent a detachment of 00 men up the river 
Wabash to intercept some boats which were laden with provisions 
and goods from Detroit. This force was placed under command of 
Capt. Helm, Major Bosseron and Major Legras, and they proceeded 
up the river, in three armed boats, about 120 miles, when the 
British boats, about seven in number, were surprised and captured 
without firing a gun. These boats, which had on board about 
$50,000 worth of goods and provisions, were manned by about 
40 men, among whom was Philip Dejean, a magistrate of Detroit. 
The provisions were taken for the public, and distributed among 
the soldiery. 

Having organized a military government at Vincennes and 
appointed Capt. Helm commandant of the town. Col. Clark return- 
ed in the vessel to Kaskaskia, where he was joined by reinforce- 
ments from Kentucky under Capt. George. Meanwhile, a party of 
traders who were going to t!ie falls, were killed and plundered by 
the Delawares of White River; the news of this disaster having 
reached Clark, he sent a dispatch to Capt. Helm ordering him to 
make war on the Delawares and use every means in his power to 
destroy them; to show no mercy to the men, but to save the 
women and children. This order was executed without delay. 
Their camps were attacked in every quarter where they could be 
found. Many fell, and others were carried to Post Vincennes and 
put to death. The surviving Delawares at once pleaded for mercy 
and appeared anxious to make some atonement for their bad con- 
duct. To these overtures Capt. Helm replied that Col. Clark, the 
" Big Knife," had ordered the war, and that he had no power to lay 
down the hatchet, but that he would suspend hostilities until a 
messenger could be sent to Kaskaskia. This was done, and the 
crafty Colonel, well understanding the Indian character, sent a 


message to the Delawares, telling them that he would not accept 
their friendship or treat with them for peace; but that if they 
could get some of the neighboring tribes to become responsible for 
their future conduct, he would discontinue the war and spare their 
lives; otherwise they must all perish. 

Accordingly a council was called of all the Indians in the neigh- 
borhood, and Clark's answer was read to the assembly. After due 
deliberation the Piankeshaws took on themselves to answer for the 
future good conduct of the Delawares, and the " Grand Door " in a 
long speech denounced their base conduct. This ended the war 
with the Delawares and secured the respect of the neighboring 

Clark's attention was next turned to the British post at Detroit, 
but being unable to obtain sufficient troops he abandoned the en- 

Clark's ingenious ruse against the Indians. 

Tradition says that when Clark captured Hamilton and his gar- 
rison at Fort Sackville, he took possession of the fort and kept the 
British flag flying, dressed his sentinels with the uniform of the 
British soldiery, and let everything about the premises remain as 
they were, so that when the Indians sympathizing with the British 
arrived they would walk right into the citadel, into the jaws of 
death. His success was perfect. Sullen and silent, with the scalp- 
lock of his victims hanging at his girdle, and in full expectation of 
his reward from Hamilton, the unwary savage, unconscious of 
danger and wholly ignorant of the change that had just beenefiected 
in his absence, passed the supposed British sentry at the gate of the 
fort unmolested and unchallenged; but as soon as in, a volley from 
the rifles of a platoon of Clark's men, drawn up and awaiting his 
coming, pierced their hearts and sent the unconscious savage, reek- 
ing with murder, to that tribunal to which he had so frequently, 
by order of the hair- buyer general, sent his American captives, 
from the infant in the cradle to the grandfather of the family, tot- 
tering with age and infirmity. It was a just retribution, and few 
men but Clark would have planned such a ruse or carried it out 
successfully. It is reported that fifty Indians met this fate within 
the fort; and probably Hamilton, a prisoner there, witnessed it alL 


Henry Hamilton, who had acted as Lieutenant and Governor of 
the British possessions under Sir George Carleton, was sent for- 


ward, with two other prisoners of war, Dejeaii and LaMothe, to 
Williamsburg, Ya., early in June following, 1779. Proclamations, 
in his own handwriting, were found, in which he had offered a 
specific sum for every American scalp brought into the camp, either 
by his own troops or his allies, the Indians; and from this he was 
denominated the "hair-buyer General." This and much other tes- 
timony of living witnesses at the time, all showed what a savage he 
was. Thomas Jefferson, then Governor of Yirginia, being made 
aware of the inhumanity of this wretch, concluded to resort to a 
little retaliation by way of closer confinement. Accordingly he 
ordered that these three prisoners be put in irons, confined in a 
dungeon, deprived of the use of pen, ink and paper, and be ex- 
cluded from all conversation except with their keeper. Major 
General Phillips, a British officer out on parole in the vicinity of 
Charlottesville, where the prisoners now were, in closer confine- 
ment, remonstrated, and President "Washington, while approving 
of Jefferson's course, requested a mitigation of the severe order, 
lest the British be goaded to desperate measures. 

Soon afterward Hamilton was released on parole, and he subse- 
quently appeared in Canada, still acting as if he had jurisdiction 
in the United States. 


The faithful, self-sacrificing and patriotic services of Father 
Pierre Gibault in behalf of the Americans require a special notice 
of him in this connection. He was the parish priest at Vincennes, 
as well as at Kaskaskia. He was, at an early period, a Jesuit mis- 
sionary to the Illinois. Had it not been for the infiuence of this man, 
Clark could not have obtained the influence of the citizens at either 
place. He gave all his property, to the value of 1,500 Spanish 
milled dollars, to the support of Col. Clark's troops, and never re- 
ceived a single dollar in return. So far as the records inform us, 
he was given 1,500 Continental paper dollars, which proved in the 
end entirely valueless. He modestly petitioned from the Govern- 
ment a small allowance of land at Cahokia, but we find no account 
of his ever receiving it. He was dependent upon the public in his 
older days, and in 1790 Winthrop Sargent "conceded" to him a lot 
of about "14 toises, one side to Mr. Millet, another to Mr. Vaudrey, 
and to two streets," — a vague description of land. 



Col. Francis Vigo was born in Mondovi, in the kingdom of Sar- 
dinia, in 1747. He left his parents and guardians at a very early 
age, and enlisted in a Spanish regiment as a soldier. The regiment 
was ordered to Havana, and a detachment of it subsequently to 
New Orleans, then a Spanish post; Col. Vigo accompanied this de- 
tachment. But he left the army and engaged in trading with the 
Indians on the Arkansas and its tributaries. Next he settled at St. 
Louis, also a Spanish post, where he became closely connected, both 
in friendship and business, with the Governor of Upper Louisiana, 
then residing at the same place. This friendship he enjoyed, though 
he could only write his name; and we have many circumstantial 
evidences that he was a man of high intelligence, honor, purity of 
heart, and ability. Here he was living when Clark caj^tured Kas- 
kaskia, and was extensively engaged in trading up the Missouri. 

A Spaniard by birth and allegiance, he was under no obligation 
to assist the Americans. Spain was at peace with Great Britain, 
and any interference by her citizens was a breach of neutrality, and 
subjected an individual, especially one of the high character and 
standing of Col. Vigo, to all the contumely, loss and vengeance 
which British power could inflict. But Col. Vigo did not falter. 
With an innate love of liberty, an attachment to Republican prin- 
ciples, and an ardent sympathy for an oppressed people struggling 
for their rights, lie overlooked all personal consequences, and as 
soon as he learned of Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia, he crossed the 
line and went to Clark and tendered him his means and influence, 
both of which were joyfully accepted. 

Knowing Col. Vigo's influence with the ancient inhabitants of 
the country, and desirous of obtaining some information from 
Vincennes, from which he had not heard for several months, Col. 
Clark proposed to him that he might go to that place and learn the 
actual state of affairs. Vigo went without hesitation, but on the 
Embarrass river he was seized by a party of Indians, plundered of 
all he possessed, and brought a prisoner before Hamilton, then in pos- 
session of the post, which he had a short time previously captured, 
holding Capt. Helm a prisoner of war. Being a Spanish subject, 
and consequently a non-combatant. Gov. Hamilton, although he 
strongly suspected the motives of the visit, dared not confine him, 
but admitted him to parole, on the. single condition that he 
should daily report himself at the fort. But Hamilton was embar- 


passed by his detention, being besieged by the inhabitants of the 
town, who loved Vigo and threatened to withdraw tlieir support 
from the garrison if he would not release him. Father Gibault was 
the chief pleader for Yigo's release. Hamilton finall}^ yielded, on con- 
dition that he, Vigo, would do no injury to the British interests on 
his way to St. Louis. He went to St. Louis, sure enough, doing no 
injury to British interests, but immediately returned to Kaskaskia 
and reported to Clark in detail all he had learned at Vincennes, 
without which knowledge Clark would have been unable to ac- 
complish his famous expedition to that post with final triumph. 
The redemption of this country from the British is due as much, 
probably, to Col. Vigo as Col. Clark. 


Col. John Todd, Lieutenant for the county of Illinois, in the 
spring of 1779 visited the old settlements at Vincennes and Kas- 
kaskia, and organized temporary civil governments in nearly all the 
settlements west of the Ohio. Previous to this, however, Clark 
had established a military government at Kaskaskia and Vincennes, 
appointed commandants in both places and taken up his headquar- 
ters at the falls of .the Ohio, where he could watch the operations 
of the enemy and save the frontier settlements from the depreda- 
tions of Indian warfare. On reaching the settlements, Col. Todd 
issued a proclamation regulating the settlement of unoccupied 
lands and requiring the presentation of all claims to the lands set- 
tled, as the number of adventurers who would shortly overrun the 
country would be serious. He also organized a Court of civil and 
criminal jurisdiction at Vincennes, in the month of June, 1779. 
This Court was composed of several magistrates and presided over 
by Col. J. M. P. Legras, who had been appointed commandant at 
Vincennes. Acting from the precedents established hy the early. 
French commandants in the West, this Court began to grant tracts 
of land to the French and American inhabitants; and to the year 
1783, it had granted to different parties about 26,000 acres of land; 
22,000 more was granted in this manner by 1787, when the practice 
was prohibited by Gen. Harmer. These tracts varied in size from 
a house lot to 500 acres. Besides this loose business, the Court 
entered into a stupendous speculation, one not altogether creditable 
to its honor and dignity. The commandant and the magistrates 
under him suddenly adopted the opinion that they were invested 


with the authority to dispose of the whole of that large region 
which in 1842 had been granted by the Piankeshaws to the French 
inhabitants of Yincennes. Accordingly a very convenient arrange- 
ment was entered into by which the whole tract of country men- 
tioned was to be divided between the members of the honorable 
Court. A record was made to that effect, and in order to gloss over 
the steal, each member took pains to be absent from Court on the 
day that the order was made in his favor. 

In the fall of 1780 La Balme, a Frenchman, made an attempt to 
capture the British garrison of Detroit by leading an expedition 
against it from Kaskaskia. At the head of 30 men he marched to 
Yincennes, where his force was slightly increased. From this 
place he proceeded to the British trading post at the head of the 
Maumee, where Fort Wayne now stands, plundered the British 
traders and Indians and then retired. While encamped on the 
bank of a small stream on his retreat, he was attacked by a band 
of Miamis, a number of his men were killed, and his expedition 
against Detroit v/as ruined. 

In this manner border war continued between Americans and 
their enemies, with varying victory, until 1783, when the treaty of 
Paris was concluded, resulting in the establishment of the inde- 
pendence of the United States. Up to this time the territory now 
included in Indiana belonged by conquest to the State of Yirginia; 
but in January, 1783, the General Assembly of that State resolved 
to cede to the Congress of the United States all the territory north- 
♦ west of the Ohio. The conditions offered by Yirginia were 
accepted by Congress Dec. 20, that year, and early in 1781 the 
transfer was completed. In 1783 Virginia had platted the town of 
Clarksville, at the falls of the Ohio. The deed of cession provided 
that the territory should be laid out into States, containing a suita- 
ble extent of territory not less than 100 nor more than 150 miles 
square, or as near thereto as circumstances would permit; and that 
the States so formed shall be distinct Republican States and 
admitted members of the Federal Union, having the same rights of 
sovereignty, freedom and independence as the other States. The 
other conditions of the deed were as follows: That the necessary 
and reasonable expenses incurred by Yirginia in subduing any 
British posts, or in maintaining forts and garrisons within and for 
the defense, or in acquiring any part of the territory so ceded or 
relinquished, shall be fully reimbursed by the United States; that 
the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers of the Kas- 


kaskia, Post Yincennes and the neighboring villages who have pro- 
fessed themselves citizens of Virginia, shall have their titles and 
possessions confirmed to them, and be protected in the enjoyment 
of their rights and privileges; that a quantity not exceeding 150,- 
000 acres of land, promised by Yirginia, shall be allowed and 
granted to the then Colonel, now General, George Rogers Clark, 
and to the officers and soldiers of his regiment, who marched with 
him when the posts and of Kaskaskiaand Vincennes were reduced, 
and to the officers and soldiers that have been since incorporated 
into the said regiment, to be laid oif in one tract, the length of 
which not to exceed double the breadth, in such a place on the 
northwest side of the Ohio as a majority of the officers shall 
choose, and to be afterward divided among the officers and soldiers 
in due proportion according to the laws of Yirginia; that in case 
the quantity of good lands on the southeast side of the Ohio, upon 
the waters of Cumberland river, and between Green river and Ten. 
nessee river, which have been reserved by law for the Yirginia 
troops upon Continental establishment, should, from the North 
Carolina line, bearing in further upon the Cumberland lands than 
was expected, prove insufficient for their legal bounties, the defi- 
ciency shall be made up to the said troops in good lands to be laid 
off between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami, on the northwest 
side of the river Ohio, in such proportions as have been engaged 
to them by the laws of Yirginia; that all the lands within the ter- 
ritory so ceded to the United States, and not reserved for or appro- 
priated to any of the before-mentioned purposes, or disposed of in 
bounties to the officers and soldiers of the American army, shall be' 
considered as a common fund for the use and benefit of such of the 
United States as have become, or shall become, members of the 
confederation or federal alliance of the said States, Yirginia included, 
according to their usual respective proportions in the general 
charge and expenditure, and shall be faithfully and hona fide dis- 
posed of for "that purpose and for no other use or purpose whatever. 
After the above deed of cession had been accepted by Congress, 
in the spring of 1784, the matter of the future government of the 
territory was referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. Jeffer- 
son of Yirginia, Chase of Maryland and Howell of Rhode Island, 
which committee reported an ordinance for its government, provid- 
ing, among other things, that slavery should not exist in said terri- 
tory after 1800, except as punishment of criminals; but this article 
of the ordinance was rejected, and an ordinance for the temporary 


governmeni of the county was adopted. In 1785 laws were passed 
by Congress for the disposition of lands in the territory and pro- 
hibiting the settlement of unappropriated lands by reckless specu- 
lators. But human passion is ever strong enough to evade the law 
to some extent, and large associations, representing considerable 
means, were formed for the purpose of monopolizing the land busi- 
ness. Millions of acres were sold at one time by Congress to asso- 
ciations on the installment plan, and so far as the Indian titles 
could be extinguished, the work of settling and improving the 
lands was pushed rapidly forward. 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to Nathan 
Dane; and to Rufus King and Timothy Pickering belong the 
credit for suggesting the proviso contained in it against slavery, 
and also for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring for- 
ever the common use, without charge, of the great national high- 
ways of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and their tributaries to 
all the citizens of the United States. To Thomas Jefferson is also 
due much credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced 
in his ordinance of 178'1. But the part taken by each in the long, 
laborious and eventful struggle which had so glorious a consum- 
mation in the ordinance, consecrating forever, by one imprescript- 
ible and unchangeable monument, the very heart of our country to 
Freedom, Knowledge, and Union, will forever honor the names ot 
those illustrious statesmen. 

Mr. Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the Northwestern territory^ He was an emancipationist and 
favored the exclusion of slavery from the territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 1787, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
expected to carry it. Congress was in session in New York. On 
July 5, E,ev. Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern territory. Everything seemed 
to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the public 
credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his mission, 
his personal character, all combined to complete one of those sudden 


and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that once in five or 
ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the breath of the 

Cutler v/as a graduate of Yale. He had studied and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
He had published a scient'ific examination of the plants of New 
England. As a scientist in America his name stood second only to 
that of Franklin. He was a courtly gentleman of the old style, a 
man of commanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman in the North. 
He came representing a Massachusetts company that desired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
New York made Dr. Cutler their agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, and Jefferson's policy was to provide for the public 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the North- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The entire South ral. 
lied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constuitents of her members were interested 
personally in the Western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends in the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmanship that has ever adorned any human law book. 
He borrowed from Jefferson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, adopted three years before. Its most prominent points 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a semi- 
nary and every section numbered 16 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the land for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 
the enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 


Be it forever remembered that this compact declared that " re- 
ligion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall always be encouraged." Dr. Cutler planted himself 
on this platform and would not yield. Giving his unqualified dec- 
laration that it was that or nothing, — that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it, — he took his horse and buggy 
and started for the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. On 
July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, a vast empire, were consecrated to free 
dom, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that was 
the salvation of the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon 
the South saw their great blunder and tried to have the compact 
repealed. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

The " Northwestern Territory " included of course what is now 
the State of Indiana; and Oct 5, 1787, Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair 
was elected by Congress Governor of this territory. Upon 
commencing the duties of his office he was instructed to ascertain 
the real temper of the Indians and do all in his power to remove 
the causes for controversy between them and the United States, 
and to effect the extinguishment of Indian titles to all the land 
possible. The Governor took up quarters in the new settlement of 
Marietta, Ohio, where he immediately began the organization of 
the government of the territory. Tlfe first session of the General 
Court of the new territory was held at that place in 1788, the 
Judges being Samuel H. Parsons, James M. Yarnum and John C. 
Symmes, but under the ordinance Gov. St. Clair was President of 
the Court. After the first session, and after the necessary laws for 
government were adopted. Gov. St. Clair, accompanied by the 
Judges, visited Kaskaskia for the purpose of organizing a civil gov- 
ernment there. Full instructions had been sent to Maj. Hamtramck, 
commandant at Vincennes, to ascertain the exact feeling and temper 
of the Indian tribes of the Wabash. These instructions were ac- 
companied by speeches to each of the tribes. A Frenchman named 
Antoine Gamelin was dispatched with these messages April 5, 1790, 
who visited nearly all the tribes on the Wabash, St. Joseph and St. 


Mary's rivers, but was coldly received; most of the chiefs being 
dissatisfied with the policy of the Americans toward them, and 
prejudiced through English misrepresentation. Full accounts of 
his adventures among the tribes reached Gov. St. Clair at Kaskas- 
kia in June, 1790. Being satisfied that there was no prospect of 
efiecting a general peace with the Indians of Indiana, he resolved 
to visit Gen. Harmar at his headquarters at Fort Washington and 
consult with him on the means of carrying an expedition, against 
the hostile Indians; but before leaving he intrusted Winthrop 
Sargent, the Secretary of the Territory, with the execution of the 
resolutions of Congress regarding the lands and settlers on the 
"Wabash. He directed that officer to proceed to Vincennes, lay 
out a county there, establish the militia and appoint the necessary 
civil and military officers. Accordingly Mr. Sargent went to Yin- 
cennes and organized Camp Knox, appointed the officers, and noti- 
fied the inhabitants to present their claims to lands. In establish- 
ing these claims the settlers found great difficulty, and concerning 
this matter the Secretary in his report to the President wrote as 
follows : 

' " Although the lands and lots which were awarded to the inhabi- 
tants appeared from very good oral testimony to belong to those 
persons to whom they were awarded, either by original grants, pur- 
chase or inheritance, yet there was scarcely one case in twenty 
where the title was complete, owing to the desultory manner in 
which public business had been transacted and some other unfor- 
tunate causes. The original concessions by the French and British 
commandants were generally made upon a small scrap of paper, 
which it has been customary to lodge in the notary's office, who 
has seldom kept any book of record, but committed the most im- 
portant land concerns to loose sheets, which in process of time 
have come into possession of persons that have fraudulently de- 
stroyed them; or, unacquainted with their consequence, innocently 
lost or trifled them away. By French usage they are considered 
family inheritances, and often descend to women and children. In 
one instance, and during the government of St. Auge here, a royal 
notary ran off with all the public papers in his possession, as by a 
certificate produced to me. And I am very sorry further to observe 
that in the office of Mr. Le Grand, which continued from 1777 to 
1787, and where should have been the vouchers for important land 
transactions, the records have been so falsified, and there is such 
gross fraud and forgery, as to invalidate all evidence and informa- 
tion which I might have otherwise acquired from his papers." 


Mr. Sargent saya there were about 150 French families at Yin- 
cennes in 1790. The heads of all these families had been at some 
time vested with certain titles to a portion of the soil ; and while 
the Secretary was busy in straightening out these claims, he re- 
ceived a petition signed by 80 Americans, asking for the confirma- 
tion of grants of land ceded by the Court organized by Col. John 
Todd under the authority of Virginia. With reference to this 
cause. Congress, March 3, 1791, empowered the Territorial Governor, 
in cases where land had been actually improved and cultivated 
under a supposed grant for the same, to confirm to the persons who 
made such improvements the lands supposed to have been granted, 
not, however, exceeding the quantity of 400 acres to any one per- 


The General Court in the summer of 1790, Acting Governor 
Sargent presiding, passed the following laws with reference to 
vending liquor among the Indians and others, and with reference 
to games of chance: 

1. An act to prohibit the giving or selling intoxicating liquors 
to Indians residing in or coming into the Territory of the United 
States northwest of the river Ohio, and for preventing foreigners 
from trading with Indians therein. 

2. An act prohibiting the sale of spirituous or other intoxicat- 
ing liquors to soldiers in the service of the United States, being 
within ten miles of any military post in the territory; and to pre- 
vent the selling or pawning of arms, ammunition, clothing or 

3. An act prohibiting every species of gaming for money or 
property, and for making void contracts and payments made in 
consequence thereof, and for restraining the disorderly practice 
of discharging arms at certain hours and places. 

Winthrop Sargent's administration was highly eulogized by the 
citizens at Yincennes, in a testimonial drawn up and signed by a 
committee of officers. He had conducted the investigation and 
settlement of land claims to the entire satisfaction of the residents, 
had upheld the principles of free government in keeping with the 
animus of the American devolution, and had established in good 
order the machinery of a good and wise government. In the same 
address Major Hamtramck also received a fair share of praise for 
his judicious management of affairs. 



Gov. St. Clair, on his arrival at Fort Washington from Kas- 
kaskia, had a long conversation with Gen. Hartnar, and concluded 
to send a powerful force to chastise the savages about the head- 
waters of the Wabash. He had been empowered by the President 
to call on Virginia for 1,000 troops and on Pennsylvania for 500, 
and he immediately availed himself of this resource, ordering 300 
of the Virsrinia militia to muster at Fort Steuben and march with 
the garrison of that fort to Yincennes, and join Maj. Hamtramck, 
who had orders to call for aid from the militia of Yincennes, march 
up the Wabash, and attack any of the Indian villages which he 
might think he could overcome. The remaining 1,200 of the mi- 
litia were ordered to rendezvous at Fort Washington, and to join 
the regular troops at that post under command of Gen. Harmar. 
At this time the United States troops in the West were estimated 
by Gen. Harmar at 400 effective men. These, with the militia, 
gave him a force of 1,450 men. With this army Gen. Harmar 
marched from Fort Washington Sept. 30, and arrived at the Mau- 
mee Oct. 17, They commenced the work of punishing the Indians, 
but were not very successful. The savages, it is true, received a 
severe scourging, but the militia behaved so badly as to be of little 
or no service. A detachment of 340 militia and 60 regulars, under 
the command of Col, Hardin, were sorely defeated on the Maumee 
Oct. 22. The next day the army took up the line of march for 
Fort Washington, which place they reached Nov. 4, having lost in 
the expedition 183 killed and 31 wounded; the Indians lost about 
as many. During the progress of this expedition Maj. Hamtramck 
marched up the Wabash from Yincennes, as far as the Yermillion 
river, and destroyed several deserted villages, but without finding 
an enemy to oppose him. 

Although the savages seem to have been severely punished by 
these expeditions, yet they refused to sue for peace, and continued 
their hostilities. Thereupon the inhabitants of the frontier settle- 
ments of Yirginia took alarm, and the delegates of Ohio, Monon- 



gahela, HaiTison, Randolph, Greenbrier, Kanawha and Mont- 
gomery counties sent a joint memorial to the Governor of Vir- 
ginia, saying that the defenseless condition of the counties, form- 
ing a line of nearly 400 miles along the Ohio river, exposed to the 
hostile invasion- of their Indian enemies, destitute of every kind of 
support, was truly alarming; for, notwithstanding all the regula- 
tions of the General Government in that country, they have reason 
to lament that they have been up to that time ineffectual for their 
protection; nor indeed could it be otherwise, for the garrisons kept 
by the Continental troops on the Ohio river, if of any use at all, 
must protect only the Kentucky settlements, as they immediately 
covered that country. They farther stated in their memorial: "We 
beg leave to observe that we have reason to fear that the conse- 
quences of the defeat of our army by the Indians in the late expe- 
dition will be severely felt on our frontiers, as there is no doubt 
that the Indians will, in their turn, being flushed with victory, in- 
vade our settlements and exercise all their horrid murder upon the 
inhabitants thereof whenever the weather will permit them to 
travel. Then is it not better to support us where we are, be the ex- 
pense what it may, than to oblige such a number of your brave 
citizens, who have so long supported, and still continue to support, 
a dangerous frontier (although thousands of their relatives in the 
flesh have in the prosecution thereof fallen a sacrifice to savage in- 
ventions) to quit the country, after all they have done and suffered, 
when you know that a frontier must be supported somewhere?" 

This memorial caused the Legislature of Yirginia to authorize 
the Governor of that State to make any defensive operations neces- 
sary for the temporary defense of the frontiers, until the general 
Government could adopt and carry out measures to suppress the 
hostile Indians. The Governor at once called upon the military 
commanding oflScers in the western counties of Virginia to raise by 
the first of March, 1791, several small companies of rangers for this 
purpose. At the same time Charles Scott was appointed Brigadier- 
General of the Kentucky militia, with authority to raise 226 vol- 
unteers, to protect the most exposed portions of that district. A 
full report of the proceedings of the Virginia Legislature being 
transmitted to Congress, that body constituted a local Board of 
War for the district of Kentucky, consisting of five men. March 9, 
1791, Gen. Henry Knox, Secretary of War, sent a letter of instruc- 
tions to Gen. Scott, recommending an expedition of mounted men 
not exceeding 750, against the Wea towns on the Wabash. With 


this force Gen. Scott accordingly crossed the Ohio, May 23, 1791, 
and reached the Wabash in about ten days. Many of the Indians, 
having discovered his approach, fled, but he succeeded in destroy- 
ing all the villages around Ouiatenon, together with several Kick- 
apoo towns, killing 32 warriors and taking 58 prisoners. He 
released a few of the most infirm prisoners, giving them a " talk," 
which they carried to the towns farther up the Wabash, and which 
the wretched condition of his horses prevented him from reaching. 

March 3, 1791, Congress provided for raising and equipping a 
regiment for the protection of the frontiers, and Gov. St. Clair was 
invested with the chief command of about 3,000 troops, to be raised 
and employed against the hostile Indians in the territory over 
which his jurisdiction extended. He was instructed by the Secre- 
tary of War to march to the Miami village and establish a strong 
and permanent military post there; also such posts elsewhere along 
the Ohio as would be in communication with Fort Washino-ton. 
The post at Miami village was intended to keep the savages in that 
vicinity in check, and was ordered to be strong enough in its gar- 
rison to afford a detachment of 500 or 600 men in case of emer- 
gency, either to chastise any of the Wabash or other hostile Indians 
or capture convoys of the enemy's provisions. The Secretary of 
War also urged Gov. St. Clair to establish that post as the first and 
most important part of the campaign. In case of a previous 
treaty the Indians were to be conciliated upon this point if possible; 
and he presumed good arguments might be offered to induce their 
acquiescence. Said he: "Having commenced your march upon the 
main expedition, and the Indians continuing hostile, you will use 
every possible exertion to make them feel the effects of your superi- 
ority; and, after having arrived at the Miami village and put your 
works in a defensible state, you will seek the enemy with the whole 
of your remaining force, and endeavor by all possible means to 
strike them with great severity. ^ ^ * % 

In order to avoid future wars, it might be proper to make the Wa- 
bash and thence over to the Maumee, and down the same to its 
mouth, at Lake Erie, the boundary between the people of the 
United States and the Indians (excepting so far as the same should 
relate to the Wyandots and Delawares), on the supposition of their 
continuing faithful to the treaties; but if they should join in the 
war against the United States, and your army be victorious, the 
said tribes ought to be removed without the boundary mentioned." 

Previous to marching a strong force to the Miami town, Gov. St. 


Clair, June 25, 1791, authorized Gen "Wilkinson to conduct a second 
expedition, not exceeding 500 mounted men, against the Indian 
villages on the Wabash. Accordingly Gen. "Wilkinson mustered 
his forces and was ready July 20, to march with 525 mounted vol- 
unteers, well armed, and provided with 30 days' provisions, and 
with this force he reached the Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua village on the 
north bank of Eel river about six miles above its mouth, Aug. 7, 
where he killed six warriors and took 34 prisoners. This town, 
which was scattered along the river for three miles, was totally de- 
stroyed. Wilkinson encamped on the ruins of the town that night, 
and the next day lie commenced his march for the Kickapoo town 
on the prairie, which he was unable to reach owing to the impassa- 
ble condition of the route which he adopted and the failing condi- 
tion of his horses. He reported the estimated results of the expe- 
dition as follows: "I have destroyed the chief town of the Ouiate- 
non nation, and have made prisoners of the sons and sisters of the 
king. I have burned a respectable Kickapoo village, and cut down 
at least 400 acres of corn, chiefly in the milk." 


The Indians were greatly damaged by the expeditions of Harmar, 
Scott and W"'ilkinson, but were far from being subdued. They 
regarded the policy of the United States as calculated to extermi- 
nate them from the land; and, goaded on by the English of Detroit, 
enemies of the Americans, they were excited to desperation. At 
this time the British Government still supported garrisons at 
Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac, although it was declared by 
the second article of the definitive treaty of peace of 1783, that 
the king of Great Britain would, " with all convenient speed, and 
without causing any destruction or carrying away any negroes or 
property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his forces, 
garrisons and fleets from the United States, and from every post, 
place and harbor within the same." That treaty also provided that 
the creditors on either side should meet with no lawful impedi- 
ments to the recovery of the full value, in sterling money, of all 
hona fide debts previously contracted. The British Government 
claimed that the United States had broken faith in this particular 
understanding of the treaty, and in consequence refused to with- 
draw its forces from the territory. The British garrisons in the 
Lake Region were a source of much annoyance to the Americans, 
as they aflforded succor to hostile Indians, encouraging them to 


make raids among the Americans. This state of affairs in the 
Territory Northwest of the Ohio continued from the commence- 
ment of the Revolutionary war to 1796, when under a second 
treaty all British soldiers were withdrawn from the country. 

In September, 1791, St. Clair moved from Fort Washington 
with about 2,000 men, and November 3, the main army, consisting 
of about 1,400 effective troops, moved forward to the head- waters 
of the Wabash, where F'ort Recovery was afterward erected, and 
here the army encamped. About 1,200 Indians were secreted a few 
miles distant, awaiting a favorable opportunity to begin an attack, 
which they improved on the morning of Nov. 4, about half an hour 
before sunrise. The attack was first made upon the militia, which 
immediately gave way. St. Clair was defeated and he returned to 
Fort Washington with a broken and dispirited army, having lost 
39 officers killed, and 539 men killed and missing; 22 officers and 
232 men were wounded. Several pieces of artillery, and all the 
baggage, ammunition and provisions were left on the'field of bat- 
tle and fell into the hands of the victorious Indians. The stores 
and other public property lost in the action were valued at $32,800. 
There were also 100 or more American women with the army of 
the whites, very few of whom escaped the cruel carnage of the sav- 
age Indians. The latter, characteristic of their brutal nature, 
proceeded in the flush of victory to perpetrate the most horrible 
acts of cruelty and brutality upon the bodies of the living and the 
dead Americans who fell into their hands. Believing that the 
whites had made war for many years merely to acquire land, the 
Indians crammed cla,y and sand into the eyes and down the throats 
of the dvinsc and the dead! 

GEN. Wayne's great victory. 

Although no particular blame was attached to Gov. St. Clair for 
the loss in this expedition, yet he resigned the office of Major-Gen- 
eral, and was succeeded by Anthony Wayne, a distinguished 
officer of the Revolutionary war. Early in 1792 provisions were 
made by the general Government for re-organizing the army, so 
that it should consist of an efficient degree of strength. Wayne 
arrived at Pittsburg in June, where the army was to rendezvous. 
Here he continued actively engaged in organizing and training his 
forces until October, 1793, when with an army of about 3,600 men 
he moved westward to Fort Washington. 

While Wayne was preparing for an offensive campaign, every 


possible means was employed to induce the hostile tribes of the 
Northwest to enter into a general treaty of peace with the Ameri- 
can Government; speeches were sent among them, and agents to 
make treaties were also sent, but little was accomplished. Major 
Hamtramck, who still remained at Vincennes, succeeded in con- 
cluding a general peace with the Wabash and Illinois Indians; but 
the tribes more immediately under the influence of the British 
refused to hear the sentiments of friendship that were sent among 
them, and tomahawked several of the messengers. Their courage 
had been aroused by St. Clair's defeat, as well as by the unsuccess- 
ful expeditions which had preceded it, and they now felt quite pre- 
pared to meet a superior force under Gen. Wayne. The Indians 
insisted on the Ohio river as the boundary line between their lands 
and the lands of the United States, and felt certain that they could 
maintain that boundary. 

Maj. Gen. Scott, with about 1,600 mounted volunteers from 
Kentucky, joined the regiilar troops under Gen. Wayne July 26, 
1794, and on the 28tli the united forces began their march for the 
Indian towns on the Maumee river. Arriving at the mouth of 
the Auglaize, they erected Fort Defiance, and Aug. 15 the army 
advanced toward the British fort at the foot of the rapids of the 
Maumee, where, on the 20th, almost within reach of the British, 
the American army gained a decisive victory over the combined 
forces of the hostile Indians and a considerable number of the 
Detroit militia. The number of the enemy was estimated at 2,000, 
against about 900 American troops actually engaged. This horde 
of savages, as soon as the action began, abandoned themselves to 
flight and dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving Wayne's vic- 
torious army in full and quiet possession of the field. The Ameri- 
cans lost 33 killed and 100 wounded; loss of the enemy more than 
double this number. 

The army remained three days and nights on the banks of the 
Maumee, in front of the field of battle, during which time all the 
houses and cornfields were consumed and destroyed for a considera- 
ble distance both above and below Fort Miami, as well as within 
pistol shot of the British garrison, who were compelled to remain 
idle spectators to this general devastation and conflagration, among 
which were the houses, stores and property of Col. McKee, the 
British Indian agent and " principal stimulator of the war then 
existing between the United States and savages." On the return 
march to Fort Defiance the villages and cornfields for about 50 


miles on each side of the Mauraee were destroyed, as well as those 
for a considerable distance around that post. 

Sept. 14, 1794, the army under Gen. Wayne commenced its 
march toward the deserted Miami villages at the confluence of St. 
Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers, arriving Oct. IT, and on the follow- 
ing day the site of Fort Wayne was selected. The fort was com- 
pleted Xov. 22, and garrisoned by a strong detachment of infantry 
and artillery, under the command of Col. John F. Hamtramck, who 
gave to the new fort the name of Fort Wayne. In 1814 a new fort 
was built on the site of this structure. The Kentucky volunteers 
returned to Fort Washington and were mustered out of service. 
Gen. Wayne, with the Federal troops, marched to Greenville and 
took up his headquarters during the winter. Here, in August, 
1795, after several months of active negotiation, this gallant officer 
succeeded in concluding a general treaty of peace with all the hos- 
tile tribes of the Northwestern Territory. This treaty opened the 
way for the flood of immigration for many years, and ultimately 
made the States and territories now constituting the mighty North- 

Up to the organization of the Indiana Territory there is but little 
history to record aside from those events connected with military 
affairs. In July, 1796, as before stated, after a treaty was con- 
cluded between the United States and Spain, the British garrisons, 
with their arms, artillery and stores, were withdrawn from the 
posts within the boundaries of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio river, and a detachment of American troops, consisting of 65 
men, under the command of Capt. Moses Porter, took possession 
of the evacuated post of Detroit in the same month. 

In the latter part of 1796 Winthrop Sargent went to Detroit and 
organized the county of Wayne, forming a part of the Indiana 
Territory until its division in 1805, when the Territory of Michigan 
was organized. 



On the final success of American arms and diplomacy in 1796, 
the principal town within the Territory, now the State, of Indiana 
was Yincennes, which at this time comprised about 50 houses, all 
presenting a thrifty and tidy appearance. Each house was sur- 
rounded by a garden fenced with poles, and peach and apple-trees 
grew in most of the enclosures. Garden vegetables of all kinds 
were cultivated with success, and corn, tobacco, wheat, barley and 
cotton grew in the fields around the village in abundance. During 
the last few years of the 18tli century the condition of society at 
Vincennes improved wonderfully. 

Besides Yincennes there was a small settlement near where the 
town of Lawrenceburg now stands, in Dearborn county, and in the 
course of that vear a small settlement was formed at " Armstrong's 
Station," on the Ohio, within the present limits of Clark county. 
There were of course several other smaller settlements and trading 
posts in the present limits of Indiana, and the number of civilized 
inhabitants comprised within the territory was estimated at 4,875. 

The Territory of Indiana was organized by Act of Congress May 
7, 1800, the material parts of the ordinance of 1787 remaining in 
force; and the inhabitants were invested with all the rights, privi- 
leges and advantages granted and secured to the people by that 
ordinance. The seat of government was fixed at Yincennes. May 
13, 1800, Wni, Henry Harrison, a native ot Yirginia, was appoint- 
ed Governor of this new territory, and on the next day John Gib- 
son, a native of Pennsylvania and a distinguished Western pioneer, 
(to whom the Indian chief Logan delivered his celebrated speech in 
1774), was appointed Secretary of the Territory. Soon afterward 
Wm. Clark, Henry Yanderburgh and John Griffin were appointed 
territorial Judges. 

Secretary Gibson arrived at Yincennes in July, and commenced, 
in the absence of Gov. Harrison, the administration of government. 
Gov. Harrison did not arrive until Jan. 10, 1801, when he imme- 
diately called together the Judges of the Territory, who proceeded 


to pass such laws as they deemed necessary for the present govern- 
ment of the Territory. This session began March 3, 1801. 

From this time to 1810 the principal subjects which attracted the 
attention of the people of Indiana were, land speculations, the 
adjustment of land titles, the question of negro slavery, the purchase 
of Indian lands by treaties, the organization of Territorial legis- 
latures, the extension of the right of suffrage, the division of 
Indiana Territory, the movements of Aaron Burr, and the hostile 
views and proceedings of the Shawanee chief, Tecumseh, and his 
brother, the Prophet. 

Up to this time the sixth article of the celebrated ordinance of 
1787, prohibiting slavery in the Northwestern Territory, had been 
somewhat neglected in the execution of the law, and many French 
settlers still held slaves in a manner. In some instances, according 
to rules prescribed by Territorial legislation, slaves agreed by 
indentures to remain in servitude under their masters for a certain 
number of years; but many slaves, with whom no such contracts 
were made, were removed from the Indiana Territory either to the 
west of the Mississippi or to some of the slaveholding. States. 
Gov. Harrison convoked a session of delegates of the Territory, 
elected by a popular vote, who petitioned Congress to declare the 
sixth article of the ordinance of 1787, prohibiting slavery, suspend- 
ed; but Congress never consented to grant that petition, and many 
other petitions of a similar import. Soon afterward some of the 
citizens began to take colored persons out of the Territory for the 
purpose of selling them, and Gov. Harrison, by a proclamation 
April 6, 1804, forbade it, and called upon the authorities of the 
Territory to assist him in preventing such removal of persons 
of color. 

During the year 1804 all the country west of the Mississippi and 
north of 33*^ was attached to Indiana Territory by Congress, but in 
a few months was again detached and organized into a separate ter- 

When it appeared from the result of a popular vote in the Terri- 
tory that a majority of 138 freeliolders were in favor of organizing 
a General Assembly, Gov. Harrison, Sept. 11, 1804, issued a procla- 
mation declaring that the Territory had passed into the second grade 
of government, as contemplated by the ordinance of. 1787, and 
fixed Thursday, Jan. 3, 1805, as the time for holding an election in 
the several counties of the Territory,to choose members of a House 
of Representatives, who should meet at Vincennes Feb. 1 and 



adopt measures for the organization of a Territorial Council. These 
delegates were elected, and met according to the proclamation, and 
selected ten men from whom the President of the United States, 
Mr. Jefferson, should appoint five to be and constitute the Legisla- 
tive Council of the Territory, but he declining, requested Mr. Har- 
rison to make the selection, which was accordingly done. Before 
the first session of this Council, however, was held, Michigan Ter- 
ritory was set off, its south line being one drawn from the southern 
end of Lake Michigan directly east to Lake Erie. 


The first General Assembly, or Legislature, of Indiana Territory 
met at Yincennes July 29, 1805, in pursuance of a gubernatorial 
proclamation. The members of the House of Representatives were 
Jesse B. Thomas, of Dearborn county ; Davis Floyd, of Clark county ; 
Benjanii)! Parke and John Johnson, of Knox county; Shadrach 
Bond and William Biggs, of St. Clair county, and George Fisher, 
of Randolph county. July 30 tlie Governor delivered his first mes- 
sage to "the Legislative Council and House of Representatives of 
the Indiana Territory." Benjamin Parke was the first delegate 
elected to Congress. He had emigrated from New Jersey to In- 
diana in 1801. 

THE "western sun" 

was the first newspaper published in the Indiana Territory, now 
comprising the four great States of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and 
Wisconsin, and the second in all that country once known as the 
"Northwestern Territory." It was commenced at Yincennes in 
1803, by Elihu Stout, of Kentucky, and first called the Indiana 
Gazette, and July, 4, 1804, was changed to the Western Sun. Mr. 
Stout continued the paper until 1845, amid many discouragements, 
when he was appointed postmaster at the place, and he sold out 
the ofiice. 


The events which we have just been describing really constitute 
the initiatory steps to the great military campaign of Gen. Harrison 
which ended in the "battle of Tippecanoe;" but before proceeding 
to an account of that brilliant affair, let us take a glance at the re- 
sources and strength of Indiana Territory at this time, 1810: 

Total population, 24,520; 33 grist mills; 14 saw mills; 3 horse 
mills; 18 tanneries; 28 distilleries; 3 powder mills; 1,256 looms; 


1,350 spinning wheels; value of manufactures — woolen, cotton 
hempen and flaxen cloths, $159,052; of cotton and wool spun in 
mills, $150,000; of nails, 30,000 pounds, $4,000; of leather tanned, 
$9,300; of distillery products, 35,950 gallons, $16,230; of gun- 
powder, 3,600 pounds, $1,800; of wine fi'oin grapes, 96 barrels, 
$6,000, and 5 0,000 pounds of maple sugar. 

During the year 1810 a Board of Commissioners was established 
to straighten out the confused condition into which the land-title 
•controversy had been carried by the various and conflicting admin- 
istrations that had previously exercised jurisdiction in this regard. 
This work was attended with much labor on the part of the Commis- 
sioners and great dissatisfaction on the part of a few designing specu- 
lators, who thought no extreme of perjury too hazardous in their 
mad attempts to obtain lands fraudulently. In closing their report 
the Commissioners used the following expressive language: "We 
close this melancholy picture of human depravity by rendering our 
devout acknowledgment that, in the awful alternative in which we 
have been placed, of either admitting perjured testimony in sup- 
port of the claims before us, or having it turned against our char- 
acters and lives, it has as yet pleased that divine providence which 
rules over the affairs of men, to preserve us, both from legal mur- 
der and private assassination." 

The question of dividing the Territory of Indiana was agitated 
from 1806 to 1809, when Congress erected the Territory of Illinois, 
to comprise all that part of Indi-ana Territory lying west of the 
Wabash river and a direct line drawn from that river and Post 
Yincennes due north to the territorial line between the United 
States and Canada. This occasioned some confusion in the irovern- 
ment of Indiana, but in due time the new elections were confirmed, 
and the new territory started off on a journey of prosperity which 
this section of the United States has ever since enjoj'ed. 

From the first settlement of Yincennes for nearly half a century 
there occurred nothing of importance to relate, at least so far as 
the records inform us. The place was too isolated to grow very 
fast, and we suppose there was a succession of priests and com- 
mandants, who governed the little world around them with almost 
infinite power and authority, from whose decisions there was no 
appeal, if indeed any was ever desired. The character of society 
in such a place Would of course grow gradually different from the 
parent society, assimilating more or less with that of neighboring 
tribes. The whites lived in peace with the Indians, each under- 


Standing the other's peculiarities, which remained fixed long 
enough for both parties to study out and understand them. The 
government was a mixture of the military and the civil. There 
was little to incite to enterprise. Speculations in money and prop- 
erty, and their counterpart, beggary, were both unknown; the nec- 
essaries of life were easily procured, and beyond these there were 
but few wants to be sui^plied; hospitality was exercised by all, as 
there were no taverns; there seemed to be no use for law, judges 
or prisons; each district had its commandant, and the proceedings 
of a trial were singular. The complaining party obtained a notifi- 
cation from the commandant to his adversary, accompanied by a 
command to render justice. If this had no efifect he was notified 
to appear before the commandant on a particular day and answer; 
and if the last notice was neglected, a sergeant and file of men 
were sent to bring him, — no sheriff and no costs. The convicted 
party would be fined and kept in prison until he rendered justice 
according to the decree; when extremely refractory the cat-o'-nine- 
tails brought him to a sense of justice. In such a state of society 
there was no demand for learning and science. Few could read, 
and still fewer write. Their disposition was nearly always to deal 
honestly, at least simply. Peltries were their standard of value. 
A brotherly love generally prevailed. But they were devoid of 
public spirit, enterprise or ingenuity. 


Immediately after tbe organization of Indiana Territory Governor 
Harrison's attention was directed, by necessity as well as by in- 
structions from Congress, to settling affairs witb those Indians who 
still held claims to lands. He entered into several treaties, by 
which at the close of 1805 the United States Government had ob- 
tained about 46,000 square miles of territory, including all the 
lands lying on the borders of the Ohio river between the mouth of 
the Wabash river and the State of Ohio. 

The levying of a tax, especially a poll tax, by the General Assem- 
bly, created considerable dissatisfaction among many of the inhabit- 
ants. At a meeting held Sunday, August 16, 1807, a number of 
Frenchmen resolved to " withdraw their confidence and support 
forever from those men who advocated or in any manner promoted 
the second grade of government." 

In 1807 the territorial statutes were revised and under the new 
code, treason, murder, arson and horse-stealing were each punish- 
able by death. The crime of manslaughter was punishable by the 
common law. Burglary and robbery were punishable by whip- 
ping, fine and in some cases by imprisonment not exceeding forty 
years. Hog stealing was punishable by fine and whipping. Bigamy 
was punishable bj' fine, whipping and disfranchisement, etc. 

In 1804 Congress established three land offices for the sale of 
lands in Indiana territory; one was located at Detroit, one at Vin- 
cennes and one at Kaskaskia. In 1807 a fourth one was opened at 
Jefferson ville, Clark county; this town was first laid out in 1802, 
agreeably to plans suggested by Mr. Jefferson then President of 
the United States. 

Governor Harrison, according to his message to the Legislature 
in 1806, seemed to think that the peace then existing between the 
whites and the Indians was permanent; but in the same document 
he referred to a matter that might be a source of trouble, which in- 
deed it proved to be, namely, the execution of white laws among 
the Indians — laws to which the latter had not been a party in their 
enactment. The trouble was aggravated by the partiality with 
which the laws seem always to have been executed ; the Indian 



was nearlj always the sufferer. All along from 1805 to 1810 the 
Indians complained bitterly against the encroachments of the white 
people upon the lands that belonged to them. The invasion of their 
hunting grounds and the unjustifiable killing of many of their peo- 
ple were the sources of their discontent. An old chief, in laying 
the trouble of his people before Governor Harrison, said: "You 
call us children ; why do you not make us as happy as our fathers, 
the French, did? They never took from us our lands; indeed, they 
were common between us. They planted where they pleased, and 
they cut wood where they pleased; and so did we; but now if a 
poor Indian attempts to take a little bark from a tree to cover him 
from the rain, up comes a white man and threatens to shoot him, 
claiming the tree as his own." 

The Indian truly had grounds for his complaint, and tlie state of 
feeling existing among the tribes at this time was well calculated 
to develop a patriotic leader who should carry them all forward to 
victory at arms, if certain concessions were not made to them by the 
whites. But this golden opportunity was seized by an unworthy 
warrior. A brother of Tecumseh, a "prophet" named Law-le-was-i- 
kaw, but who assumed the name of Peras-quat-a-wah (Open Door), 
was the crafty Shawanee warrior who was enabled to work upon 
both the superstitions and the rational judgment of his fellow In- 
dians. He was a good orator, somewhat peculiar in his appearance 
and well calculated to win the attention and respect of the savages. 
He began by denouncing witchcraft, the use of intoxicating liquors, 
the custom of Indian women marrying white men, the dress of the 
whites and the practice of selling Indian lands to the United States. 
He also told the Indians that the commands of the Great Spirit re- 
quired them to punish with death those who practiced the arts of 
witchcraft and magic; that the Great Spirit had given him power 
to find out and expose such persons; that he had power to cure all 
diseases, to confound his enemies and to stay the arm of death in 
sickness and on the battle-field. His harangues aroused among 
some bands of Indians a high degree of superstitious excitement. 
An old Delaware chief named Ta-te-bock-o-she, through whose in- 
fluence a treaty had been made with the Delawares in 1804, was 
accused of witchcraft, tried, condemned and tomahawked, and 
his body consumed by fire. The old chief's wife, nephew 
("Billy Patterson ") and an aged Indian named Joshua were next 
accused of witchcraft and condemned to death. The two men were 
burned at the stake, but the wife of Ta-te-bock-o-she was saved from 




death by her brother, who suddenly approached her, took her by the 
hand, and, without meeting any opposition from the Indians present, 
led her out of the council- house. He then immediately returned and 
checked the growing influence of the Prophet by exclaiming in a 
strong, earnest voice, " The Evil Spirit has come among us and we 
are killing each other." — \_DillorCs History of Indiana. 

When Gov. Harrison was made acquainted with these events he 
sent a special messenger to the Indians, strongly entreating them to 
renounce the Prophet and his works. This really destroyed to som^e 
extent the Prophet's influence; but in the spring of 1808, having 
aroused nearly all the tribes of the Lake Region, the Prophet with 
a large number of followers settled near the mouth of the Tippe- 
canoe river, at a place which afterward had the name of "Prophet's- 
Town." Taking advantage of his brother's influence, Tecuraseh 
actively engaged himself in forming the various tribes into a con- 
federacy. He announced publicly to all the Indians that the 
treaties by which the United States had acquired lands northwest 
of the Ohio were not made in fairness, and should be considered 
void. He also said that no single tribe was invested with power to 
sell lands without the consent of all the other tribes, and that he 
and his brother, the Prophet, would oppose and resist all future 
attempts which the white people might make to extend their set- 
tlements in the lands that belonged to the Indians. 

Early in 1808, Gov. Harrison sent a speech to the Shawanees, 
in which was this sentence: " My children, this business must be 
stopped; I will no longer suffer it. You have called a number of 
men from the most distant tribes to listen to a fool, who speaks 
not the words of the Great Spirit but those of the devil and the 
British agents. My children, your conduct has much alarmed the 
white settlers near you. They desire that you will send away those 
people; and if they wish to have the impostor with them they can 
carry him along with them. Let him go to the lakes; he can hear 
the British more distinctly." This message wounded the pride of 
the Prophet, and he prevailed on the messenger to inform Gov. 
Harrison that he was not in league with the British, but was speak- 
ing truly the words of the Great Spirit. 

In the latter part of the summer of 1808, the Prophet spent sev- 
eral weeks at Yineennes, for the purpose of holding interviews 
with Gov. Harrison. At one time he told the Governor that he 
was a Christian and endeavored to persuade his people also to 
become Christians, abandon the use of liquor, be united in broth- 


erlj love, etc., making Mr. Harrison believe at least, that he was 
honest; but before long it was demonstrated that the "Prophet"' 
was designing, cunning and unreliable; that both he and Tecumseh 
were enemies of the United States, and friends of the English; and 
that in case of a war between the Americans and English, they 
would join the latter. The next year the Prophet again visited 
Yincennes, with assurances that he was not in sympathy with the 
Englisli, but the Governor was not disposed to believe him; and in 
a letter to the Secretary of War, in July, 1809, he said that he 
regarded the bands of Indians at Prophet's Town as a combination 
which had been produced by British intrigue and influence, in antic- 
ipation of a war between them and the United States. 

In direct opposition to Tecumseh and the prophet and in spite 
of all these difficulties, Gov. Harrison continued the work of extin- 
guishing Indian titles to lands, with very good success. By the 
close of 1809, the total amount of land ceded to the United States, 
under treaties which had been eftected by Mr. Harrison, exceeded 
30,000,000 a -res. 

From 1805 to 1807, the movements of Aaron Burr in the Ohio 
valley created considerable excitement in Indiana. It seemed that 
he intended to collect a force of men, invade Mexico and found a 
republic there, comprising all the country west of the Alleghany 
mountains. He gathered, however, but a few men, started south, 
and was soon arrested by the Federal authorities. But before his 
arrest he had abandoned his expedition and his followers had 

Harrison's campaign. 

While the Indians were combining to prevent any further trans- 
fer of land to the whites, the British were using the advantage as a 
groundwork for a successful war upon the Americans. In the 
spring of 1810 the followers of the Prophet refused to receive their 
annuity of salt, and the officials who offered it were denounced as 
"American dogs," and otherwise treated in a disrespectful manner. 
Gov. Harrison, in July, attempted to gain the friendship of the 
Prophet by sending him a letter,offering to treat with him person- 
ally in the matter of his grievances, or to furnish means to send 
him, with three of his principal chiefs, to the President at Wash- 
ington; but the messenger was coldly received, and they returned 
word that they would visit Yincennes in a few days and interview 
the Governor. Accordingly, Aug. 12, 1810, the Shawanee chief 
with 70 of his principal warriors, marched up to the door of the 


Governor's house, and from that day until the 22d held daily inter- 
views with His Excellency. In all of his speeches Tecumseh was 
haughty, and sometimes arrogant. On the 20th he delivered that 
celebrated speech in which he gave the Governor the alternative of 
returninij tiieir lands or meeting them in battle. 

While the Governor was replying to this speech Tecumseh inter- 
rupted him with an angry exclamation, declaring that the United 
States, through Gov. Harrison, had "cheated and imposed on the 
Indians." When Tecumseh first rose, a number of his party also 
sprung- to their feet, armed with clubs, tomahawks and spears, and 
made some threatening demonstrations. The Governor's guards, 
who stood a little way off, were marched up in haste, and the In- 
dians, awed by the presence of this small armed force, abandoned 
what seemed to be an intention to make an open attack on the Gov- 
ernor and his attendants. As soon as Tecumseh's remarks were 
interpreted, the Governor reproached him for his conduct, and com- 
manded him to depart instantly to his camp. 

On the following day Tecumseh repented of his rash act and re- 
quested the Governor to grant him another interview, and pro- 
tested against any intention of offense. The Governor consented, 
and the council was re-opened on the 21st, when the Shawanee 
chief addressed him in a respectful and dignified manner, but re- 
mained immovable in his policy. The Governor then requested 
Tecumseh to state plainly whether or not the surveyors who might 
be sent to survey the lands purchased at the treaty of Fort Wayne 
in 1809, would be molested by Indians. Tecumseh replied: 
"Brother, when you speak of annuities to me, I look at the land 
and pity the women and children. I am authorized to say that they 
will not receive them. Brother, we want to save that piece of land. 
We do not wish you to take it. It is small enough for our purpose. 
If you do take it, you must blame yourself as the cause of the 
trouble between us and the tribes who sold it to you. I want the 
present boundary line to continue. Should you cross it, I assure 
you it will be productive of bad consequences." 

The next day the Governor, attended only by his interpreter, 
visited the camp of the great Shawanee, and in the course of along 
interview told him that the President of the United States would 
not acknowledge his claims. "Well," replied the brave warrior, 
"as the great chief is to determine the matter, I hope the Great 
Spirit will put sense enough into his head to induce liim to direct 
you to give up this land. It is true, he is so far off he will not be 


injured by the war. He may sit still in his town and drink his 
wine, while you and I will have to fight it out." 

In his message to the new territorial Legislature in 1810 Gov. 
Harrison called attention to the dangerous views held by Tecuraseh 
and the Prophet, to the pernicious influence of alien enemies 
amonff the Indians, to the unsettled condition of the Indian trade 
and to the policy of extinguishing Indian titles to lands. The 
eastern settlements were separated from the western by a consider- 
able extent of Indian lands, and the most fertile tracts within the 
territory were still in the hands of the Indians. Almost entirely 
divested of the game from which they had drawn their subsistence, 
it had become of little use to them; and it was the intention of 
the Government to substitute for the precarious and scanty sup- 
plies of the chase the more certain and plentiful support of agri- 
culture and stock-raising. The old habit of the Indians to hunt 
so long as a deer could be found was so inveterate that they would 
not break it and resort to intelligent agriculture unless they were 
compelled to, and to this they would not be compelled unless they 
were confined to a limited extent of territory. The earnest lan- 
guage of the Governor's appeal was like this: "Are then those 
extimruishraents of native title which are at once so beneficial to 
the Indian and the territory of the United States, to be suspended on 
account of the intrigues of a few individuals? Is one of the fair- 
est portions of the globe to remain in a state of nature, the haunt 
of a few wretched savages, when it seems destined by the Creator 
to give support to a large population, and to be the seat of civili- 
zation, of science and true religion?" 

In the same message the Governor also urged the establishment 
of a system of popular education. 

Among the acts passed b}'- this session of the Legislature, one 
authorized the President and Directors of the Yincennes Public 
Library to raise $1,000 by lottery. Also, a petition was sent to 
Congress for a permanent seat of government for the Territory, and 
commissioners were appointed to select the site. 

With the beginning of the year 1811 the British agent for 
Indian affairs adopted measures calculated to secure the support of 
the savao-es in the war which at this time seemed almost inevitable. 
Meanwhile Gov. Harrison did all in his power to destroy the influ- 
ence of Tecumseh and his brother and break up tlie Indian confed- 
eracy which was being organized in the interests of Great Britain, 
Pioneer settlers and the Indians naturally grew more and more 


aggressive and intolerant, committing depredations and murders, 
until the Governor felt compelled to send the following speech, 
eubstantially, to the two leaders of the Indian tribes: "This is the 
third year that all the white people in this country have been 
alarmed at your proceedings; you threaten us with war; you invite 
all the tribes north and west of you to join against us, while your 
warriors who have lately been here deny this. The tribes on the 
Mississippi have sent me word that you intended to murder me 
and then commence a war upon my people, and your seizing the salt 
I recently sent up the Wabash is also sufficient evidence of such 
intentions on your part. My warriors are preparing themselves, 
not to strike you, but to defend themselves and their women and 
children. You shall not surprise us, as you expect to do. Your 
intended act is a rash one: consider well of it. Wliat can induce 
you to undertake such a thing when there is so little prospect of 
success? Do you really think that the handful of men you have 
about you are able to contend with the seventeen 'fires?' or even 
that the whole of the tribes united could contend against the Ken- 
tucky 'fire' alone? I am myself of the Long 'Knife fire.' As soon 
as they hear my voice you will see them pouring forth their swarms 
of hunting-shirt men as numerous as the musquitoes on the shores 
of the Wabash. Take care of their stings. It is not our wish to 
hurt you; if we did, we certainly have power to do it. 

" You have also insulted the Government of the United States, 
by seizing the salt that was intended for other tribes. Satisfaction 
must be given for that also. You talk of coming to see me, attend- 
ed by all of your young men; but this must not be. If your inten- 
tions are good, you have no need to bring but a few of your young 
men with you. I must be plain with you. I will not sufi:er you 
to come into our settlements with such a force. My advice is that 
you visit the President of the United States and lay your griev- 
ances before him. 

" With respect to the lands that were purchased last fall I can 
enter into no negotiations with you; the affair is with the Presi- 
dent. If you wish to go and see him, I will supply you with the 

" The person who delivers this is one of my war officers, and is a 
man in whom I have entire confidence; whatever he says to you, 
although it may not be contained in this paper, you may believe 
comes from me. My friend Tecumseh, the bearer is a good man 
and a brave warrior; I hope you will treat him well. You are 


yourself a warrior, and all such should have esteem for each other." 

The bearer of this speech was politely received by Tecumseh, 
who replied to the Governor briefly that he should visit Vincennes 
in a few days. Accordingly he arrived July 27^ 1811, bringing 
with him a considerable force of Indians, which created much 
alarm among the inhabitants. In view of an emergency Gov, 
Harrison reviewed his militia — about 750 armed men — and station- 
ed two companies and a detachment of dragoons on the borders of 
the town. At this interview Tecumseh held forth that he intended 
no war against the United States; that he would send messengers- 
among the Indians to prevent murders and depredations on the 
white settlements; that the Indians, as well as the whites, who had 
committed murders, ought to be forgiven ; that he had set the white 
people an example of forgiveness, which they ought to follow; 
that it was his wish to establish a union among all the Indian 
tribes; that the northern tribes were united; that he was going to 
visit the southern Indians, and then return to the Prophet's town. 
He said also that he would visit the President the next spring and 
settle all difficulties with him, and that he hoped no attempts would 
be made to make settlements on the lands which had been sold to 
the United States, at the treaty of Fort Wayne, because the Indians 
wanted to keep those grounds for hunting. 

Tecumseh then, with about 20 of his followers, left for the South, 
to induce the tribes in that direction to join his confederacy. 

By the way, a lawsuit was instituted by Gov. Harrison against a 
certain Wm. Mcintosh, for asserting that the plain tiiF had cheated 
the Indians out of their lands, and that by so doing he had made 
them enemies to the United States. The defendant was a wealthy 
Scotch resident of Vincennes, well educated, and a man of influence 
among the people opposed to Gov. Harrison's land policy. The 
jury rendered a verdict in favor of Harrison, assessing the damages 
at $4,000. In execution of the decree of Court a large quantity of 
the defendant's land was sold in the absence of Gov. Harrison; 
but some time afterward Harrison caused about two-thirds of the 
land to be restored to Mr. Mcintosh, and the remainder was given 
to some orphan children. 

Harrison's first movement was to erect a new fort on the Wabash 
river and to break up the assemblage of hostile Indians at the 
Prophet's town. For this purpose he ordered Col. Boyd's regiment 
of infantry to move from the falls of Ohio to Yincennes. When 
the military expedition organized by Gov. Harrison was nearly 


ready to march to the Prophet's town, several Indian chiefs arrived 
at Yincennes Sept. 25, 1811, and declared that the Indians 
would comply with the demands of the Governor and disperse; but 
this did not check the military proceedings. The army under com- 
mand of Harrison moved from Yincennes Sept. 26, and Oct. 3, en- 
countering no opposition from the enemy, encamped at the place 
where Fort Harrison was afterward built, and near where the cit}^ 
of Terre Haute now stands. On the night of the 11th a few hos- 
tile Indians approached the encampment and wounded one of the 
sentinels, which caused considerable excitement. The army was 
immediately drawn up in line of battle, and small detachments 
were sent in ail directions; but the enemy could not be found. 
Then the Governor sent a message to Prophet's Town, requiring 
the Shawanees, Winnebagoes, Pottawatomies and Kickapoos at 
that place to return to their respective tribes; he also required the 
Prophet to restore all the stolen horses in his ]')ossession, or to give 
satisfactory proof that such persons were not there, nor had lately 
been, under his control. To this message the Governor received 
no answer, unless that answer was delivered in the battle of Tip- 

The new fort on the Wabasli was finished Oct. 28, and at the re- 
quest of all the subordinate officers it was called "Fort Harrison," 
near what is now Terre Haute. This fort was garrisoned with a 
small number of men under Lieutenant-Colonel Miller. On the 
29th the remainder of the army, consisting of 910 men, moved 
toward the Prophet's town; about 270 of the troops were mounted. 
The regular troops, 250 in number, were under the command of 
Col. Boyd. With this army the Governor marched to within a 
half mile of the Prophet's town, when a conference was opened 
with a distinguished chief, in high esteem with the Prophet, and 
he informed Harrison that the Indians were much surprised at the 
approach of the army, and had already dispatched a message to 
him by another route. Harrison replied that he would not attack 
them until he had satisfied himself that they would not comply 
with his demands; that he would continue his encampment on the 
Wabash, and on the following morning would have an interview 
with the prophet. Harrison then resumed his march, and, after 
some difficulty, selected a place to encamp — a spot not very desir- 
able. It was a piece of dry oak land rising about ten feet above 
the marshy prairie in front toward the Indian town, and nearly 
twice that height above a similar prairie in the rear, through which 


and near this bank ran a small stream clothed with willow and 
brush wood. Toward the left flank this highland widened consid- 
erably, but became gradually narrower in the opposite direction, 
and at the distance of 150 yards terminated in an abrupt point. 
The two columns of infantry occupied the front and rear of this 
ground, about 150 yards from each other on the left, and a little 
more than half that distance on the right, flank. One flank was 
filled by two companies of mounted riflemen, 120 men, under com- 
mand of Major-General Wells, of the Kentucky militia, and one 
by Spencer's company of mounted riflemen, numbering 80 men. 
The front line was composed of one battalion of United States in- 
fantry, under command of Major Floyd, flanked on the right by 
two companies of militia, and on the left by one company. The 
rear line was composed of a battalion of United States troops, 
under command of Capt. Bean, acting as Major, and four companies 
of militia infantry under Lieutenant-Colonel Decker. The regular 
troops of this line joined the mounted riflemen under Gen. Wells, 
on the left flank, and Col. Decker's battalion formed an angle with 
Spencer's company on the left. Two troops of dragoons, about 60 
men in all, were encamped in the rear of the left flank, and Capt. 
Parke's troop, which was larger than the other two, in rear of 
the right line. For a night attack the order of encampment was 
the order of battle, and each man slept opposite his post in the 
line. In the formation of the troops single file was adopted, in 
order to get as great an extension of the lines as possible. 


No attack was made by the enemy until about 4 o'clock on the 
morning of Nov. 7, just after the Governor had arisen. The 
attack was made on the left flank. Only a single gun was tired by the 
sentinels or by the guard in that direction, which made no resist- 
ance, abandoning their posts and fleeing into camp; and the first 
notice which the troops of that line had of the danger was the yell 
of the savages within a short distance of them. But the men 
were courageous and preserved good discipline. Such of them as 
were awake, or easily awakened, seized arms and took their stations; 
others, who were more tardy, had to contend with the enemy in 
the doors of their tents. The storm first fell upon Capt. Barton's 
company" of the Fourth United States Regiment, and Capt. Geiger's 
company of mounted riflemen, which formed the left angle of the 
rear line. The fire from the Indians was exceedingly severe, and 


men in these companies suffered considerably before relief could be 
brought to them. Some few Indians passed into the encampment 
near the angle, and one or two penetrated to some distance before 
thev were killed. All the companies formed for action before they 
were fired on. The morning was dark and cloudy, and the fires of 
the Americans afforded only a partial light, which gave greater 
advantage to the enemy than to the troops, and they were there- 
fore extinguished. 

As soon as the Governor could mount his horse he rode to the 
angle which was attacked, where he found that Barton's company had 
suffered severely, and the left of Geiger's entirely broken. He 
immediately ordered Cook's and Wentworth's companies to march 
up to the center of the rear line, where were stationed a small com- 
pany of U. S. riflemen and the companies of Bean, Snelling and 
Prescott. As the General rode up he found Maj. Daviess forming 
the dragoons in the rear of these companies, and having ascertained 
that the heaviest fire proceeded from some trees 15 or 20 paces in 
front of these companies, he directed the Major to dislodge them 
with a part of the dragoons; but unfortunately the Major's gal- 
lantry caused him to undertake the execution of the order with a 
smaller force than was required, which enabled the enemy to avoid 
him in front and attack his flanks. He was mortally wounded and 
his men driven back. Gapt. Snelling, however, with his company 
immediately dislodged those Indians. Capt. Spencer and his 1st 
and 2nd Lieutenants were killed, and Capt. Warwick mortally 
wounded. The soldiery remained brave. Spencer had too much 
ground originally, and Harrison re-enforced him with a company 
of riflemen which had been driven from their position on the left 

Gen. Harrison's aim was to keep the lines entire, to prevent the 
enemy from breaking into the camp until daylight, which would 
enable him to make a general and effectual charge. With this view 
he had re-enforced every part of the line that had suffered much, 
and with the approach of morning he withdrew several companies 
from the front and rear lines and re-enforced the right and left 
flanks, foreseeing that at these points the enemy would make their 
last effort. Maj. Wells, who had commanded the left flank, charged 
upon the enemy and drove them at the point of the bayonet into 
the marsh, where they could not be followed. Meanwhile Capt. 
Cook and Lieut. Larrabee marched their companies to the right 
flank and formed under tire of the enemy, and being there joined 


by tlie riflemen of that flank, charged upon the enemy, killing a 
number and putting the rest to a precipitate flight. 

Thus ended the famous battle of Tippecanoe, victoriously to the 
whites and honorably to Gen. Harrison. 

In this battle Mr. Harrison had about 700 efficient men, while 
the Indians had probably more than that. The loss of the Ameri- 
cans was 37 killed and 25 mortally wounded, and 126 wounded; the 
Indians lost 38 killed on the field of battle, and the number of the 
wounded was never known. Among the whites killed were Daviess, 
Spencer, Owen, Warwick, Randolph, Bean and White. Standing on 
an eminence near by, the Prophet encouraged his warriors to battle 
by singing a favorite war-song. He told them that they would gain 
an easy victory, and that the bullets of their enemies would be made 
harmless by the Great Spirit. Being informed duringthe engagement 
that some of the Indians were killed, he said that his warriors must 
fight on and they would soon be victorious. Immediately after 
their defeat the surviving Indians lost faith in their great (?) Proph- 
et, returned to their respective tribes, and thus the confederacy 
was destroyed. The Prophet, with a very few followers, then took 
up his residence among a small band of Wyandots encamped on 
Wild-Cat creek. His famous town, with all its possessions, was 
destroyed the next day, Nov. 8. 

On the 18th the American army returned to Yincennes, where 
most of the troops were discharged. The Territorial Legislature, 
being in session, adopted resolutions complimentary to Gov. Harri- 
son and the officers and men under him, and made preparations for 
a reception and celebration. 

Capt. Logan, the eloquent Shawanee chief who assisted our 
forces so materially, died in the latter part of November, 1812, 
from the efi'ects of a wound received in a skirmish with a recon- 
noitering party of hostile Indians accompanied by a white man in 
the British service, Nov. 23. In that skirmish the white man was 
killed, and Winamac, a Pottawatomie chief of some distinction, 
fell by the rifle of Logan. The latter was mortally wounded, when 
he retreated with two warriors of his tribe, Capt. Johnny and 
Bright-Horn, to the camp of Gen. Winchester, where he soon after- 
ward died. He was buried with the honors of war. 


The victory recently gained by the Americans at the battle of 
Tippecanoe insured perfect peace for a time, but only a short time 
as the more extensive schemes of the British had so far ripened as 
to compel the United States again to declare war against them. 
Tecumseh had fled to Maiden, Canada, where, counseled by the 
English, he continued to excite the tribes against the Americans. 
As soon as this war with Great Britain was declared (June 18, 
1812), the Indians, as was expected, commenced again to commit 
depredations. During the summer of 1812 several points along 
the Lake Region succumbed to theBritish, as Detroit, under Gen. 
Hull, Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), commanded by Capt. Heald 
under Gen. Hull, the post at Mackinac, etc. 

In the early part of September, 1812, parties of hostile Indians 
began to assemble in considerable numbers in the vicinity of Forts 
Wayne and Harrison, with a view to reducing them. Capt. Rhea, 
at this time, had command of Fort Wayne, but his drinking pro- 
pensities rather disqualified him for emergencies. For two weeks 
the fort was in great jeopardy. An express had been sent to Gen. 
Harrison for reinforcements, but many days passed without any 
tidings of expected assistance. At length, one day, Maj. Wm. 
Oliver and four friendly Indians arrived at the fort on horseback. 
One of the Indians was the celebrated Logan. They had come in 
defiance of " 500 Indians," had "broken their ranks" and readied 
the fort in safety. Oliver reported that Harrison was aware of the 
situation and was raising men for a re-en foi'cem en t. Ohio was also 
raising volunteers; 800 were then assembled at St. Mary's, Ohio, 
60 miles south of Fort Wayne, and would march to the relief of 
the fort in three or four days, or as soon as they were joined by re- 
enforcements from Kentucky. 

Oliver prepared a letter, announcing to Gen. Harrison his safe ar- 
rival at the besieged fort, and giving an account of its beleaguered 
situation, which he dispatched by his friendly Shawanees, while he 
concluded to take his chances at the fort. Brave Logan and his 
companions started with the message, but had scfircely left the fort 
when they were discovered and pursued by the hostile Indians, yet 
passing the Indian lines in safety, they were soon out of reach. 
The Indians now began a furious attack iipon the fort; but the little 
garrison, with Oliver to cheer them on, bravely met the assault, re- 
pelling the attack day after day, until the army approached to their 
relief. During this siege the commandino; officer, whose habits of 



intemperance rendered him unfit for the command, was confined in 
the '-black hole,'* while the junior officer assumed charge. This 
course was approved by the General, on his arrival, but Capt. Rhea 
received very little censure, probably on account of his valuable ser- 
vices in the Revolutionary war. 

Sept. 6, 1S12, Harrison moved forward with his army to the re- 
lief of Fort Wayne; the next day he reached a point within three 
miles of St. Mary's river; the next day he reached the river and 
was joined at evening by 200 mounted volunteers, under Col. Rich- 
ard M. Johnson; the next day at "Shane's Crossing" on the St. 
Mary's they were joined by 800 men from Ohio, under Cols. Adams 
and Hawkins. At this place Chief Logan and four other Indians 
offered their services as spies to Gen. Harrison, and were accepted. 
Logan was immediately disguised and sent forward. Passing 
through the lines of the hostile Indians,he ascertained their number 
to be about 1,500, and entering the fort, he encourjiged the solaiers 
to hold out, as relief was at hand. Gen. Harrison's force at this 
time was about 3,500. 

After an early breakfast Friday morning they were under march- 
ing orders; it had rained and the guns were dainp; theywere dis- 
charged and reloaded; but that day only one Indian was encount- 
ered; preparations were made at night for an expected attack by 
the Indians, but no attack came; the next day, Sept. 10, they ex- 
pected to fight their way to Fort Wayne, but in that they were hap- 
pily disappointed ; and "At the first grey of the morning," as Bryce 
eloquently observes, " the distant halloos of the disappointed sav- 
ao-es revealed to the anxious inmates of the fort the glorious news 
of the approach of the army. Great clouds of dust could be seen 
from the fort, rolling up in the distance, as the valiant soldiery 
under Gen. Harrison moved forward to the rescue of the garrison 
and the brave boys of Kentucky and Ohio." 

This siege of Fort Wayne of course occasioned great loss to the 
few settlers who had gathered around the fort. At the time of its 
commencement quite a little village had clustered around the mili- 
tary works, but during the siege most of their improvements and 
crops were destroyed by the savages. Every building out of the reach 
of the guns of the fort was leveled to the ground, and thus the in- 
fant settlement was destroyed. 

During this siege the garrison lost but three men, while the 
Indians lost 25. Gen. Harrison had all the Indian villages for 25 
miles around destroyed. Fort Wayne was nothing but a military 
post until about 1819. 


Simultaneously with the attack on Fort "Wayne the Indians also 
besieged Fort Harrison, which was commanded byZachary Taylor. 
The Indians commenced firing upon the fort about 11 o'clock one 
night, when the garrison was in a rather poor plight for receiving 
them. The enemy succeeded in firing one of the block-houses, 
which contained whisky, and the whites hadgreat difliculty in pre- 
venting the burning of all the barracks. The word " fire " seemed 
to have thrown all the men into confusion; soldiers' and citizens' 
wives, wlio had taken shelter within the fort, were crying; Indians 
were yelling; many of the garrison were sick and unable to be on 
duty; the men despaired and gave themselves up as lost; two of 
the strongest and apparently most reliable men jumped the pickets 
in the very midst of the emergency, etc., so that Capt. Taylor was 
at his wit's end wliat to do; but he gave directions as to the many 
details, rallied the men by a new scheme, and after about seven 
hours succeeded in saving themselves. The Indians drove up the 
horses belonging to the citizens, and as they could not catch th^m 
very readily, shot the whole of them in the sight of their owners, 
and also killed a number of the hogs belonging to the whites. 
They drove off all of the cattle, 65 in number, as well as the public 

Among many other depredations committed by the savages dur- 
ing this period, was the massacre of the Pigeon Roost settlement, 
consisting of one man, five women and 16 children; a few escaped. 
An unsuccessful effort was made to capture these Indians, but 
when the news of this massacre and the attack on Fort Harrison 
reached Yincennes, about 1,200 men, under the command of Col. 
Wm. Russell, of the 7th U. S. Infantry, marched forth for the re- 
lief of the fort and to punish the Indians. On reaching the fort 
the Indians had retired from the vicinity; but on the 15th of Sep- 
tember a small detachment composed of 11 men, under Lieut. Rich- 
ardson, and acting as escort of provisions sent from Vincennes to 
Fort Harrison, was attacked by a party of Indians within the pres- 
ent limits of Sullivan county. It was reported that seven of these 
men were killed and one wounded. The provisions of course fell 
into the hands of the Indians. 


By the middle of August, through the disgraceful surrender of 
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, and the evacuation of Fort Dearborn and 
massacre of its garrison, the British and Indians were in possession 
of the whole ^Northwest. The savages, emboldened by their sue- 



cesses, penetrated deeper into the settlements, committing great 
depredations. The activity and success of the enemy aroused the 
people to a realization of the great danger their homes and families 
were in. Gov. Edwards collected a force of 350 men at Camp 
Russell, and Capt. Kussell came from Vincennes with about 50 more. 
Being officered and equipped, they proceeded about the middle of 
October on horseback, carrying with them 20 day's rations, to 
Peoria. Capt. Craig was sent with two boats up the Illinois, with 
provisions and tools to build a fort. The little army proceeded to 
Peoria Lake, where was located a Pottawatomie village. They 
arrived late at night, within a few miles of the village, without 
their presence being known to the Indians. Four men were sent 
out that night to reconnoiter the position of the village. The four 
brave men who volunteered for this perilous service were Thomas 
Carlin (afterward Governor), and Robert, Stephen and Davis White- 
side. They proceeded to the village, and explored it and the ap- 
proaches to it thoroughly, without starting an Indian or provoking 
the bark of a dog. The low lands between the Indian village and 
the troops were covered with a rank growth of tall grass, so high 
and dense as to readily conceal an Indian on horseback, until within 
a few feet of him. The ground had become still more yielding by 
recent rains, rendering it almost impassable by mounted men. To 
prevent detection the soldiers had camped without lighting the 
usual camp-fires. The men lay down in their cold and cheerless 
camp, with many misgivings. They well remembered how the 
skulking savages fell upon Harrison's men at Tippecanoe during 
the night. To add to their fears, a gun in the hands of a soldier 
was carelessly discharged, raising great consternation in the camp. 
Tlirough a dense fog which prevailed the following morning, the 
array took up its line of march for the Indian town, Capt. Judy 
with his corps of spies in advance. In the tall grass they came up 
with an Indian and his squaw, both mounted. The Indian wanted 
to surrender, but Judy observed that he " did not leave home to take 
prisoners," and instantly shot one of them. With the blood 
streaming from his mouth and nose, and in his agony " singing the 
death song," the dying Indian raised his gun, shot and mortally 
wounded a Mr. Wright, and in a few minutes expired! Many guns 
were immediately discharged at the other Indian, not tlien known 
to be a squaw, all of which missed her. Badly scared, and her hus- 
band killed by her side, the agonizing wails of the squaw were 
heart-rending. She was taken prisoner, and afterward restored 
to her nation. 


On nearing the town a general charge was made, tlie Indians 
fleeina: to the interior wilderness. Some of their warriors made a 
stand, when a sharp engagement occurred, but the Indians were 
routed. In their flight thej left behind all their winter's store of 
provisions, which was taken, and their town burned. Some Indian 
children were found who had been left in the hurried flight, also 
some disabled adults, one of whom was in a starving condition, and 
with a voracious appetite partook of the bread given him. He is 
said to have been killed by a cowardly trooper straggling behind, 
after the main army had resumed its retrograde march, who wanted 
to be able to boast tiiat he had killed an Indian. 

September 19, 1812, Gen. Harrison was put in command of the 
Northwestern army, then estimated at 10,000 men, with these 
orders: "Having provided for the protection of the western front- 
ier, you will retake Detroit; and, with a view to the conquest of 
upper Canada, you will penetrate that country as far as the force 
under your command will in your judgment justify." 

Although surrounded by many difficulties, the General began 
immediately to execute these instructions. In calling for volun- 
teers from Kentucky, however, more men offered than could be 
received. At this time there were about 2,000 mounted volunteers 
at Vincennes, under the command of Gen. Samuel Hopkins, of the 
Revolutionary war, who was under instructions to operate against 
the enemy along the Wabash and Illinois rivers. Accordingly, 
early in October, Gen. Hopkins moved from Vincennes towards the 
Kickapoo villages in the Illinois territory, with about 2,000 troops; 
but after four or five days' march tlie men and officers raised a 
mutiny which gradually succeeded in carrying all back to Yin- 
cennes. The cause of their discontent is not apparent. 

About the same time Col. Russell, with two small companies of 
U. S. rangers, commanded by Capts. Perry and Modrell, marched 
from the neighborhood of Vincennes to unite with a small force of 
mounted militia under the command of Gov. Edwards, of Illinois, 
and afterward to march with the united troops from Cahokia 
toward Lake Peoria, for the purpose of co operating with Gen. 
Hopkins against the Indian towns in that vicinity; but not find- 
ing the latter on the ground, was compelled to retire. 

Immediately after the discharge of the mutinous volunteers, 
Gen. Hopkins began to organize another force, mainly of infantry, 
to reduce the Indians up the Wabash as far as the Prophet's town. 
These troops consisted of three regiments of Kentud^y militia, 


commanded by Cols. Barbour, Miller and Wilcox; a small company 
of regulars commanded by Capt. Zacliary Taylor; a company of 
rangers commanded by Capt. Beckes; and a company of scouts or 
spies under the command of Capt. Washburn. The main body of 
this army arrived at Fort Harrison Nov. 5; on the 11th it pro- 
ceeded up the east side of the Wabash into the heart of the Indian 
country, but found the villages generally deserted. Winter set- 
ting in severely, and the troops poorly clad, they had to return to 
Yincennes as rapidly as possible. With one exception the men 
behaved nobly, and did much damage to the enemy. That 
exception was the precipitate chase after an Indian by a detach- 
ment of men somewhat in liquor, until they found themselves sur- 
rounded by an overwhelming force of the enemy, and they had to 
retreat in disorder. 

At the close of this campaign Gen. Hopkins resigned his 

In the fall of 1812 Gen. Harrison assigned to Lieut. Col. John 
B. Campbell, of the 19th U. S. Inf., the duty of destroying the 
Miami villages on the Mississinewa river, with a detachment of 
about 600 men. Nov. 25, Lieut. Col. Campbell marched from 
Franklinton, according to orders, toward the scene of action, cau- 
tiously avoiding falling in with the Delavvares, who had been ordered 
by Gen. Harrison to retire to the Shavv'anee establishment on the 
Auglaize river, and arriving on the Mississinewa Dec. 17, when 
they discovered an Indian town inhabited by Delavvares and 
Miamis This and three other villages were destroyed. Soon 
after this, the sup])lies growing short and the troo])s in a suffering 
condition, Campbell began to consider the propriety of returning 
to Ohio; but just as he was calling together his officers early one 
morning to deliberate on the proposition, an army of Indians 
rushed upon them with fury. The engagement lasted an hour, 
with a loss of eight killed and 42 wounded, besides about 150 horses 
killed. The whites, however, succeeded in defending themselves 
and taking a number of Indians prisoners, who proved to be Mun- 
sies, of Silver Heel's band. Campbell, hearing that a large force 
of Indians were assembled at Mississinewa village, under Tecum- 
seh, determined to return to Greenville. The privations of his 
troops and the severity of the cold compelled him to send to that 
place for re-enforcements and supplies. Seventeen of the men had 
to be carried on litters. They were met b}' the re-enforcement 
about 40 miles from Greenville. 


Lieut. Col. Campbell sent two messages to the Delawares, who 
lived on White river and who had been previously directed and 
requested to abandon their towns on that river and remove into 
Ohio. In these messages he expressed his regret at unfortunately 
killing some of their men, and urged them to move to the Shaw- 
anee settlement on the Aucjlaize river. He assured them that their 
people, in his power, would be compensated by the Government 
for their losses, if not found to be hostile; and the friends of those 
killed satisfied by presents, if such satisfaction would be received. 
This advice was heeded by the main body of the Delawares and a 
few Miamis. The Shawanee Prophet, and some of the principal 
chiefs of the Miamis, retired from the country of the Wabash, and, 
with their destitute and suffering bands, moved to Detroit, where 
they were received as the friends and allies of Great Britain. 

On the approach of Gen. Harrison with his army in September, 
1813, the British evacuated Detroit, and the Ottawas, Chippewas, 
Pottawatomies, Miamis and Kickapoos sued for peace with the 
United States, which was granted temporarily by Brig. Gen. Mc- 
Arthur, on condition of their becoming allies of the United States 
in case of war. 

In June, 1813, an expedition composed of 137 men, under com- 
mand of Col. Joseph Bartholomew, moved from Valonia toward 
the Delaware towns on the west fork of White river, to surprise 
and punish some hostile Indians who were supposed to be lurking 
about those villages. Most of these places they found deserted; 
some of them burnt. They had been but temporarily occupied for 
the purpose of collecting and carrying away corn. Col. Bartholo- 
mew's forces succeeded in killing one or two Indians and destroy- 
ing considerable corn, and they returned to Valonia on the 21st of 
this month. 

July 1, 1813, Col. William Russell, of the 7th U. S., organized 
a force of 573 effective men at Valonia and marched to the Indian 
villages about the mo nth of the Mississinewa. His experience was 
much like that of Col. Bartholomew, who had just preceded him. 
He had rainy weather, suflFered many losses, found the villages de- 
serted, destroyed stores of corn, etc. The Colonel reported that he 
went to every place where he expected to find the enemy, but they 
nearly always seemed to have fled the country. The march from 
Valonia to the mouth of the Mississinewa and return was about 
250 miles. 

Several smaller expeditions helped to "checker" the surrounding 


country, and find that the Indians were very careful to keep them- 
selves out of sight, and thus closed this series of campaigns, 


The war with England closed on the 24th of December, 1814, 
when a treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. The 9th article of 
the treaty required the United States to put an end to hostilities 
with all tribes or nations of Indians with whom they had been at 
war; to restore to such tribes or nations respectively all the rights 
and possessions to which they were entitled in 1811, before the 
war, on condition that such Indians should agree to desist from all 
hostilities against the United States. But in February, just before 
the treaty was sanctioned by our Government, there were signs of 
Indians accumulating arms and ammunition, and a cautionary 
order was therefore issued to have all the white forces in readiness 
for an attack by the Indians; but the attack was not made. During 
the ensuing summer and full the United States Government ac- 
quainted the Indians with the provisions of the treaty, and entered 
into subordinate treaties of peace with the principal tribes. 

Just before the treaty of Spring Wells (near Detroit) was signed, 
the Shawanee Prophet retired to Canada, but declaring his resolu- 
tion to abide by any treaty which the chiefs might sign. Some 
time afterward he returned to the Shawanee settlement in Ohio, and 
lastly to the west of the Mississippi, where he died, in 1834. The 
British Government allowed him a pension from 1813 until his 
death. His brother Tecumseh was killed at the battle of the 
Thames, Oct. 5, 1813, by a Mr. Wheatty, as we are positively in- 
formed by Mr. A. J. James, now a resident of LaHarpe township, 
Hancock county. III., whose father-in-law, John Pigman, of Co- 
shocton county, Ohio, was an eye witness. Gen. Johnson has gener- 
ally had the credit of killing Tecumseh. 



If one should inquire who has been the greatest Indian, the most 
noted, the " principal Indian " in North America since its discov- 
ery by Columbus, we would be obliged to answer, Tecumseh. For 
all those quailities which elevate a man far above his race; for talent, 
tact, skill and bravery as a warrior; for high-minded, honorable and 
chivalrous bearing as a man; in a word, for all those elements of 
greatness which place him a long way above his fellows in savage 
life, the name and fame of Tecnmseh will go down to posterity in 
the West as one of the most celebrated of the aborigines of this 
continent, — as one who had no equal among the tribes that dwelt 
in the country drained by the Mississippi. Born to command him- 
self, he used all the appliances that would stimulate the courage 
and nerve the valor of his followers. Always in the front rank of 
battle, his followers blindly followed his lead, and as his war-cry 
rang clear above the din and noise of the battle-field, the Shawnee 
warriors, as they rushed on to victory or the grave, rallied around 
Iiim, foemen worthy of the steel of the most gallant commander 
that ever entered the lists in defense of his altar or his home. 

The tribe to which Tecumseh, or Tecumtha, as some write it, be- 
longed, was the Shawnee, or Shawanee. The tradition of the nation 
held that they originally came from the Gulf of Mexico; that they 
wended their way up the Mississippi and the Ohio, and settled at 
or near the present site of Shawneetown, 111., whence they removed 
to the upper Wabash. In the latter place, at any rate, they were 
found early in the 18tli century, and were known as the " bravest 
of the brave." This tribe has uniformly been the bitter enemy of 
the white man, and in every contest with our people has exhibited 
a degree of skill and strategy that should characterize the most 
dangerous foe. 

Tecumseh's notoriety and that of his brother, the Prophet, mutu- 
ally served to establish and strengthen each other. While the 
Prophet had unlimited power, spiritual and temporal, he distributed 
his greatness in all the departments of Indian life with a kind of 
fanaticism that magnetically aroused the religious and superstitious 

passions, not only of his own followers, but also of all the tribes in 



this part of the country; but Tecuraseh concentrated his greatness 
upon the more practical and business affairs of military conquest. 
It is doubted whether he was really a sincere believer in the preten- 
sions of his fanatic brother; if he did not believe in the pretentious 
feature of them he had the shrewdness to keep his unbelief to him- 
self, knowino; that religious fanaticism was one of the strongest im- 
pulses to reckless bravery. 

Durino- his sojourn in the Northwestern Territory, it was Tecum- 
seh's uppermost desire of life to confederate all the Indian tribes of 
the Gountrv together against the whites, to maintain their choice 
hunting grounds. All his public policy converged toward this sin- 
gle end. In his vast scheme he comprised even all the Indians in 
the Gulf country, — all in America west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains. He held, as a subordinate principle, that the Great Spirit 
had given the Indian race all these hunting-grounds to keep in 
common, and that no Indian or tribe could cede any portion of the 
land to the whites without the consent of all the tribes. Hence, in 
all his councils with the whites he ever maintained that the treaties 
were null and void. 

When he met Harrison at Yincennes in council the last time, 
and, as he was invited by that General to take a seat with him on 
the platform, he hesitated; Harrison insisted, saying that it was the 
"wish of their Great Father, the President of the United States, 
that he should do so." The chief paused a moment, raised his tall 
and commanding form to its greatest height, surveyed the troops 
and crowd around him, fixed his keen eyes upon Gov. Harrison, 
and then turning them to the sky above, and pointing toward 
heaven with his sinewy arm in a manner indicative of supreme 
contempt for the paternity assigned him, said in clarion tones: " My 
father? The sun is my father, the earth is my mother, and on her 
bosom I will recline." He then stretched himself, with his war- 
riors, on the green sward. The effect was electrical, and for some 
moments there was perfect silence. 

The Governor, then, through an interpreter, told him that he un- 
derstood he had some complaints to make and redress to ask, etc., 
and that he wished to investigate the matter and make restitution 
wherever it mio-ht be decided it should be done. As soon as the 
Governor was through with this introductory speech, the stately 
warrior arose, tall, athletic, manly, dignified and graceful, and with 
a voice at first low, but distinct and musical, commenced a reply. 
As he warmed up with his subject his clear tones might be heard, 


as if " trnmpet-tongned," to the utmost limits of the assembly. 
The most perfect silence prevailed, except when his warriors gave 
their guttural assent to some eloquent recital of the red man's 
wrong and the white man's injustice. Tecumseh recited the wrongs 
which his race had suffered from the time of the massacre of the 
Moravian Indians to the present; said he did not know how he 
could ever again be the friend of the white man; that the Great 
Spirit had given to the Indian all the land from the Miami to the 
Mississippi, and from the lakes to the Ohio, as a common property 
to all the tribes in these borders, and that the land could not and 
should not be sold without the consent of all; that all the tribes on 
the continent formed but one nation; that if the United States 
would not give up the lands they had bought of the Miamis and 
the other tribes, those united with him were determined to annihi- 
late those tribes; that they were determined to have no more chiefs, 
but in future to be governed by their warriors; that unless the 
whites ceased their encroachments upon Indian lands, the fate of 
the Indians was sealed; they had been driven from the banks of 
the Delaware across the Alleghanies, and their possessions on the 
Wabash and the Illinois were now to be taken from them; that in 
a few years they would not have ground enough to bury their war- 
riors on this side of the "Father of Watei-s;" that all would perish, 
all their possessions taken from them by fraud or force, unless they 
stopped the progress of the white man westward; that it must be 
a war of races in which one or the other must perish; that their 
tribes had been driven toward the setting sun like a galloping 
horse (ne-kat a-kush-e ka-top-o-lin-to). 

The Shawnee language, in which this most eminent Indian states- 
man spoke, excelled all other aboriginal tongues in its musical ar- 
ticulation; and the effect of Tecumseh's oratory on this occasion 
can be more easily imagined than described. Gov. Harrison, 
although as brave a soldier and General as any American, was over- 
come by this speech. He well knew Tecumseh's power and influ- 
ence among all the tribes, knew his bravery, courage and determi- 
nation, and knew that he meant what he said. When Tecumseh 
was done speaking there was a stillness throughout the assembly 
which was really painful; not a whisper was heard, and all eyes were 
turned from the speaker toward Gov. Harrison, who after a few 
moments came to himself, and recollecting many of the absurd 
statements of the great Indian orator, began a reply which was 
more logical, if not so eloquent. The Shawnees were attentive un- 


til Harrison's interpreter began to translate his speech to the Mia- 
mis and Pottawatomies, when Tecuiuseh and his warriors sprang 
to their feet, brandishing their war-dubs and tomahawks. "Tell 
him," said Tecumseh, addressing the interpreter in Shawnee, " he 
lies." The interpreter undertook to convey this message to the 
Gov'ernor in smoother language, but Tecumseh noticed the effort 
and remonstrated, " No, no; tell him he lies." The warriors began 
to grow more excited, when Secretary Gibson ordered the Ameri- 
can troops in arms to advance. This allayed the rising storm, and 
as soon as Tecumseh's " He lies " was literally interpreted to the 
Governor, the latter told Tecumseh through the interpreter to tell 
Tecumseh he would hold no further council with him. 

Thus the assembly was broken up, and one can hardly imagine a 
more exciting scene. It would constitute the finest subject for a 
historical painting to adorn the rotunda of the capitol. The next 
day Tecumseh requested another interview with the Governor, 
which was granted on condition that he should make an apology to 
the Governor for his language the day before. This he made 
through the interpreter. Measures for defease and protection were 
taken, however, lest there should be another outbreak. Two com- 
panies of militia were ordered from the country, and the one in 
town a'dded to them, while the Governor and his friends went into 
council fully armed and prepared for any contingency. On this oc- 
casion the conduct of Tecumseh was entirely different from that of 
the day before. Firm and intrepid, showing not the slightest fear 
or alarm, surrounded with a military force four times his own, he 
preserved the utmost composure and equanimity. No one would 
have supposed that he could have been the principal actor in the 
thrilling scene of the previous day. He claimed that half the 
Americans were in sympathy with him. He also said that whites 
had informed him that Gov, Harrison had purchased land from the 
Indians without any authority from the Government; that he, 
Harrison, had but two years more to remain in office, and that if 
he, Tecumseh, could prevail upon the Indians who Sf)ld the lands 
not to receive their annuities for that time, and the present Gover- 
nor displaced by a good man as his successor, the latter would re- 
store to the Indians all the lands purchased from them. 

The Wyandots, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Ottawas and the Win- 
nebagoes, through their respective spokesmen, declared their 
adherence to the o^reat Shawnee warrior and statesman. Gov. Harri- 
son then told them that he would send Tecumseh's speech to thePresi- 


dent of the United States and return the answer to the Indians as soon 
as it was received. Tecumseh then declared that he and his allies were 
determined that the old boundary line should continue; and that 
if the whites crossed it, it would be at their peril . Gov. Harrison re- 
plied that he would be equally plain with him and state that the 
President would never allow that the lands on the Wabash were the 
property of any other tribes than those who had occupied them 
since the white people first came to America; and as the title to 
the lands lately purchased was derived from those tribes by a fair 
purchase, he might rest assured that the right of the United States 
would be supported by the sword. " So be it," was the stern and 
haughty reply of the Shawnee chieftan, as he and his braves took 
leave of the Governor and wended their way in Indian file to their 
camping ground. 

Thus ended the last conference on earth between the chivalrous 
Tecumseh and the hero of the battle of Tippecanoe. The bones of 
the first lie bleaching on the battle-field of the Thames, and those 
of the last in a mausoleum on the banks of the Ohio; each strug- 
gled for the mastery of his race, and each no doubt was equally 
honest and patriotic in his purposes. The weak yielded to the 
strong, the defenseless to the powerful, and the hunting-ground of 
the Shawnee is all occupied by his enemy. 

Tecumseh, with four of his braves, immediately embarked in a 
birch canoe, descended the Wabash, and went on to the South to 
unite the tribes of that country in a general system of self-defense 
against the encroachment of the whites. His emblem was a dis- 
jointed snake, with the motto, "Join or die!" In union alone was 

Before Tecumseh left the Prophet's town at the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe river, on his excursion to the South, he had a definite 
understanding with his brother and the chieftains of the other tribes 
in the Wabash country, that they should preserve perfect peace 
with the whites until his arrangements were completed for a con- 
federacy of the tribes on both sides of the Ohio and on the Missis- 
sippi river; but it seems that while he was in the South engaged 
in his work of uniting the tribes of that country some of the North- 
ern tribes showed signs of fight and precipitated Harrison into that 
campaign which ended in the battle of Tippecanoe and the total 
route of the Indians. Tecumseh, on his return from the South, 
learning what had happened, was overcome with chagrin, disappoint- 
ment and anger, and accused his brother of duplicity and coward- 



ice; indeed, it is said that he never forgave him to the day of his 
death. A short time afterward, on the breaking out of the war of 
Great Britain, he joined Proctor, at Maiden, with a party of his 
warriors, and finally suffered the fate mentioned on page 108, 

CI\riL MATTERS lS12-'5. 

Owing to the absence of Gov. Harrison on military duty, John 
Gibson, the Secretary of the Territory, acted in the administration 
of civil affairs. In his message to the Legislature convening on the 
1st of February, 1813, he said, substantially: 

"Did I possess the abilities of Cicero or Demosthenes, I could 
not portray in more glowing colors our foreign and domestic politi- 
cal situation than it is already experienced within our own breasts. 
The United States have been compelled, by frequent acts of injus- 
tice, to declare war against England. For a detail of the causes of 
this war I would refer to the messai>-e of President Madison; it 
does honor to his head and heart. Although not an admirer of 
war, I am glad to see our little but inimitable navy riding triumph- 
ant on the seas, but chagrined to find that our armies by land are 
so little successful. The spirit of '76 appears to have fled from our 
continent, or, if not fled, is at least asleep, for it appears not to 
pervade our armies generally. At your last assemblage our politi- 
cal horizon seemed clear, and our infant Territory bid fair for rapid 
and rising grandeur; but, alas, the scene has changed; and whether 
this change, as respects our Territory, has been owing to an over 
anxiety in us to extend our dominions, or to a wish for retaliation 
by our foes, or to a foreign influence, I shall not say. The Indians^ 
our former neighbors and friends, have become our most inveterate 
foes. Our former frontiers are now our wilds, and our inner settle- 
ments have become frontiers. Some of our best citizens, and old 
men worn down with age, and helpless women and innocent 
babes, have fallen victims to savage cruelty. I have done my duty 
as well as I can, and hope that the interposition of Providence will 
protect us." 

The many complaints made about the Territorial Government 
Mr. Gibson said, were caused more by default of officers than of the 
law. Said he: " It is an old and, I believe, correct adage, that 
' good officers make good soldiers.' This evil having taken root, I do 
not know how it can be eradicated; but it may be remedied. In 
place of men searching after and accepting commissions before they 


are even tolerably qualified, thereby subjecting themselves to ridi- 
cule and their country to ruin, barely for the name of the thing, I 
think may be remedied by a previous examination." 

Durinor this session of the Les^islature the seat of the Territorial 
Government was, declared to be at Corydon, and immediately acting 
Governor Gibson prorogued the Legislature to meet at that place, 
the first Monday of December, 1813. During this ^^ear the Terri- 
tory was almost defenseless; Indian outrages were of common 
occurrence, but no general outbreak was made. The militia-men 
were armed with rifles and long knives, and many of the rangers 
carried tomahawks. 

In 1813 Thomas Posey, who was at that time a Senator in Con- 
gress from Tennessee, and who had been ofiicer of the army of the 
Revolution, was appointed Governor of Indiana Territory, to suc- 
ceed Gen. Harrison. He arrived in Vincennes and entered upon 
the discharge of his duties May 25, 1813. During this year several 
expeditions against the Indian settlements were set on foot. 

In his first message to the Leofislature the followins; December, 
at Corydon, Gov. Posey said: " The present crisis is awful, and big 
with great events. Our land and nation is involved in the common 
calamity of war; but we are under the protecting care of the benefi- 
cent Being,who has on a former occasion brought us safely through 
an arduous struggle and placed us on a foundation of independence, 
freedom and happiness. He will not suffer to be taken from us 
what He, in His great wisdom has thought proper to confer and 
bless us with, if we make a wise and virtuous use of His good 
gifts. * * * Although our affairs, at the commencement of 
the war, wore a gloomy aspect, they have brightened, and promise 
a certainty of success, if properly directed and conducted, of which 
I have no doubt, as the President and heads of departments of the 
general Government are men of undoubted patriotism, talents and 
experience, and who have grown old in the service of their country. 
"^ * * It must be obvious to every thinking man that we were 
forced into the war, Every measure consistent with honor, both 
before and since the declaration of war, has tried to be on amicable 
terms with our enemy, * * * You who reside in various parts 
of the Territory have it in your power to understand what will tend 
to its local and general advantage. The judiciary system would 
require a revisal and amendment. The militia law is very defective 
and requires your immediate attention. It is necessary to have 



good roads and highways in as many directions through the Terri- 
tory as the circumstances and situation of the inhabitants will 
admit; it would contribute very much to promote the settlement 
and improvement of the Territory. Attention to education is highly 
necessary. There is an appropriation made by Congress, in lands, 
for the purpose of establishing public schools. It comes now with- 
in your province to carry into operation the design of the appro- 

This Legislature passed several very necessary laws for the wel- 
fare of the settlements, and the following year, as Gen. Harrison 
was generally successful in his military campaigns in the North- 
west, the settlements in Indiana began to increase and improve. 
The fear of danger from Indians had in a great measure subsided, 
and the tide of immigration began again to flow. In January, 
1814, about a thousand Miamis assembled at Fort Wayne for the 
purpose of obtaining food to prevent starvation. They met with 
ample hospitality, and their example was speedily followed by 
others. These, with other acts of kindness, won the lasting friend- 
ship of the Indians, many of whom had fought in the interests of 
Great Britain. General treaties between the United States and the 
JSTorthwestern tribes were subsequently concluded, and the way 
was fully opened for the improvement and settlement of the lands, 


The population of the Territory of Indiana, as given in the 
official returns to the Legislature of 1815, was as follows, by 

COUNTIES. White males of il and over. TOTAL, 

Wayne 1,225 G,407 

Franklin 1,430 7,370 

Dearborn 903 4,424 

Switzerland 377 1,833 

Jefferson • • • 874 4,270 

Clark 1,387 '. 7,150 

Washington 1,420 7,317 

Harrison 1,056 6,975 

Knox 1,391 .. 8,068 

Gibson 1,100 5,3oO 

Posey 320 1,6 19 

Warrick 280 1,41.'> 

Perry 350 1,720 

Grand Totals 12,113 63,897 


The well-known ordinance of 1787 conferred many " rights and 
privileges " upon the inhabitants of tiie Northwestern Territui'v, and 


consequently upon the people of Indiana Territory, but after all it 
came far short of conferring as many privileges as are enjoyed at 
the present day by our Territories, They did not have a full form 
of Republican government. A freehold estate in 500 acres of land 
was one of the necessary qualifications of each member of the legis- 
lative council of the Territory ; every member of the Territorial House 
of Representatives was required to hold, in his own riglit, 200 acres 
of land; and the privilege of voting for members of the House 
of Representatives was restricted to those inhabitants who, in addi- 
tion to other qualifications, owned severally at least 50 acres of 
land. The Governor of the the Territory was invested with the 
power of appointing officers of the Territorial militia, Judges of the 
inferior Courts, Clerks of the Courts, Justices of the Peace, Sherifis, 
Coroners, County Treasurers and County Surveyors. He was also 
authorized to divide the Territory into districts; to apportion 
among the several counties the members of the House of Represent- 
atives; to prevent the passage of any Territorial law; and to con- 
vene and dissolve the General Assemblv whenever he thought best. 
None of the Governors, however, ever exercised these extraordinary 
powers arbitrarily. Nevertheless, the people were constantly agi- 
tating the question of extending the right of sufi"rage. Five years 
after the organization of the Territory, the Legislative Council, in 
reply to the Governor's Message, said: "Although we are not as 
completely independent in our legislative capacity as we would 
wish to be, yet we are sensible that we must wait with patience for 
that period of time when our population will burst the trammels 
of a Territorial government, and we shall assume the character more 
consonant to Republicanism. * * * The confidence which our 
fellow citizens have uniformly had in your administration has been 
such that they have hitherto had no reason to be jealous of the un- 
limited power which you possess over our legislative proceedings. 
We, however, cannot help regretting that such powers have 
been lodged in the hands of any one, especially when it is recol- 
lected to what dangerous lengths the exercise of those powers may 
be extended." 

After repeated petitions the people of Indiana were empowered 
by Congress to elect the members of the Legislative Council by popu- 
lar vote. This act was passed in 1809, and defined what was known 
as the property qualification of voters. These qualifications were 
abolished by Congress in 1811, which extended the right of voting 
for members of the General Assembly and for a Territorial delegate 


to Congress to every free white male person who had attained the 
age of twenty -one years, and who, having paid a county or Terri- 
torial tax, was a resident of the Territory and had resided in it for 
a year. In 1814 the voting qualitication in Indiana was defined by 
Congress, " to every free white male person having a freehold in 
the Territory, and being a resident of the same." The House of 
Representatives was authorized by Congress to lay off the Territory 
into five districts, in each of which the qualified voters were em- 
powered to elect a member of the Legislative Council. The division 
was made, one to two counties in each district. 

At the session in August, 1814, the Territory was also divided 
into three judicial circuits, and provisions were made for holding 
courts in the same. The Governor was empowered to appoint a 
presiding Judge in each circuit, and two Associate Judges of the 
circuit court in each county. Their compensation was fixed at 
$700 per annum. 

The same year the General Assembly granted charters to two 
banking institutions, the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Madi- 
son and the Bank ofVincennes. The first was authorized to raise 
a capital of $750,000, and the other $500,000. On the organization 
of the State these banks were merged into the State Bank and its 

Here we close the history of the Territory of Indiana. 



The last regular session of the Territorial Legislature was held at 
Corydon, convening in December, 1815. The message of Governor 
Posey congratulated the people of the Territory upon the general 
successof the settlements and the great increase of immigration, 
recommended light taxes and a careful attention to the promotion 
of education and the improvement of the State roads and highways. 
He also recommended a revision of the territorial laws and an 
amendment of the militia system. Several laws were passed pre- 
paratory to a State Government, and December 14, 1815, a me- 
morial to Congress was adopted praying for the authority to adopt 
a constitution and State Government. Mr. Jennings,the Territorial 
delegate, laid this memorial before Congress on the 2Sth, and April 
19, 1816, the President approved the bill creating the State of In- 
diana. Accordingly, May 30 following, a general election was held 
for a constitutional convention, which met at Corydon June 10 to 
29, Johathan Jennings presiding and Wm. Hendricks acting as 

"The convention that formed the first constitution of the State 
of Indiana M'as composed mainly of clear-minded, unpretending 
men of common sense, whose patriotism was unquestionable and 
whose morals were fair. Their familiarity with the theories of the 
Declaration of American Independence, their Territorial experience 
under the provisions of the ordinance of 1787, and their knowledge of 
the principles of the constitution of the United States were sufficient, 
when combined, to lighten materially their labors in the great work 
of forming a constitution for a new State. With such landmarks 
in view, the labors of similar conventions in other States and Ter- 
ritories have been rendered comparatively light. In the clearness 
and conciseness of its style, in the comprehensive and just pro- 
visions which it made for the maintainance of civil and relio^ious 
liberty, in its mandates, which were designed to protect the rights 
of the people collectively and individually, and to provide for the 
public welfare, the constitution that was formed for Indiana in 1816 
was not inferior to any of the State constitutions which were in ex- 
istence at that time." — Dillon'' s History of Indiana. 



The first State election took place on the first Monday of August, 
1816, and Jonathan Jennings was elected Governor, and Christo- 
pher Harrison, Lieut. Governor. Win. Hendricks was elected to 
represent the new State in the House of Representatives of the 
United States. 

The first General Assembly elected under the new constitution 
began its session at Corydon, Nov. 4-, 1816. John Paul was called 
to the chair of the Senate pro tem., and Isaac Blackford was elected 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Among other things in the new Governor's message were the 
following remarks: " The result of your deliberation will be con- 
sidered as indicative of its future character as well as of the future 
happiness and prosperity of its citizens. In the commencement 
of the State government the shackles of the colonial should be for- 
gotten in our exertions to prove, by happy experience, that a uni- 
Ibrm adherence to the first principles of our Government and a 
virtuous exercise oif its powers will best secure efficiency to its 
measures and stability to its character. Without a frequent recur- 
rence to those principles, the administration of the Government 
will imperceptibly become more and more arduous, until the sim- 
plicity of our Republican institutions may eventually be lost in 
dangerous expedients and political design. Under every free gov- 
ernment the happiness of the citizens must be identified with their 
morals; and while a constitutional exercise of their rights shall 
continue to have its due weight in discharge of the duties required 
of the constituted authorities of the State, too much attention can- 
not be bestowed to the encouragement and promotion of every 
moral virtue, and to the enactment of laws calculated to restrain 
the vicious, and prescribe punishment for every crime commensu- 
rate with its enormity. In measuring, however, to each crime its 
adequate punishment, it will be well to recollect that the certainty 
of punishment has generally the surest effect to prevent crime; 
while punishments unnecessarily severe too often produce the ac- 
quittal of the guilty and disappoint one of the greatest objects of 
legislation and good government * * * The dissemination of 
useful knowledge will be indispensably necessary as a support to 
morals and as a restraint to vice; and on this subject it will only 
be necessary to direct your attention to the plan of education as 
prescribed by the constitution. * * --^ I recommend to your 
consideration the propriety of providing by law, to prevent more 
effectually any unlawful attempts to seize and carry into bondage 



persons of color legally entitled to their freedom; and at the same 
time, as far as practicable, to prevent those who rightfully owe ser- 
vice to the citizens of any other State or Territory from seeking 
within the limits of this State a refuge from the possession of their 
lawful owners. Such a measure will tend to secure those who are 
free from any unlawful attempts (to enslave them) and secures the 
rights of the citizens of the other States and Territories as far as 
ought reasonably to be expected." 

This session of the Legislature elected James Noble and Waller 
Taylor to the Senate of the United States; Robert A. l^ew was 
elected Secretary of State; W. H. Lilley, Auditor of State; and 
Daniel C. Lane, Treasurer of State. The session adjourned Janu- 
ary 3, 1817. 

As the history of the State of Indiana from this time forward is 
best given by topics, we will proceed to give them in the chronolog- 
ical order of their origin. 

The happy close of the war with Great Britain in 1814 was fol- 
lowed by a great rush of immigrants to the great Territory of the 
Korthwest, including the new States, all now recently cleared of 
the enemy; and by 1820 the State of Indiana had more than 
doubled her population, having at this time 147,178, and by 1825 
nearly doubled this again, that is to say, a round quarter of a mil- 
lion, — a growth more rapid probably than that of any other section 
in this country since the days of Columbus. 

The period lS25-'30 was a prosperous time for the young State. 
Immigration continued to be rapid, the crops were generally good 
and the hopes of the people raised higher than they had ever been 
before. Accompanying this immigration, however, were paupers 
and indolent people, who threatened to be so numerous as to 
become a serious burden. On this subject Governor Ray called for 
legislative action, but the Legislature scarcely knew what to do 
and they deferred action. 


In 1830 there still lingered within the bounds of the State two 
tribes of Indians, whose growing indolence, intemperate habits, 
dependence upon their neighbors for the bread of life, diminished 
prospects of living by the chase, continued perpetration of murders 
and other outrages of dangerous precedent, primitive igno- 
rance and unrestrained exhibitions of savao^e customs before the 
children of the settlers, combined to make them subjects for a more 
rigid government. The removal of the Indians west of the Missis- 
sippi was a melancholy but necessary duty. The time having 
arrived for the emigration of the Pottawatomies, according to the 
stipulations contained in their treaty with the United States, they 
evinced that reluctance common among aboriginal tribes on leav- 
ing the homes of their childhood and the graves of their ancestors. 
Love of country is a principle planted in the bosoms of all man- 
kind. The Laplander and the Esquimaux of the frozen north, 
who feed on seals, moose and the meat of the polar bear, would not 
exchange their country for the sunny clime of "Araby the blest." 
Color and shades of complexion have nothing to do with the 
heart's best, warmest emotions. Then we should not wonder that the 
Pottawatomie, on leaving his home on the Wabash, felt as sad as 
JEschines did when ostracised from his native land, laved by the 
waters of the classic Scamander; and the noble and eloquent Nas- 
waw-kay, on leaving the encampment on Crooked creek, felt his 
banishment as keenly as Cicero when thrust from the bosom of his 
beloved Rome, for which he had spent the best efforts of his life, 
and for which he died. 

On Sunday morning. May 18, 1832, the people on the west side 
of the Wabash were thrown into a state of great consternation, on 
account of a report that a large body of hostile Indians had 
approached within 15 miles of Lafayette and killed two men. The 
alarm soon spread tliroughout Tippecanoe, Warren, Yermillion, 
Fountain, Montgomery, and adjoining counties. Several brave 
commandants of companies on the west side of the Wabash in 
Tippecanoe county, raised troops to go and meet the enemy, and 
dispatched an express to Gen. Walker with a request that he should 



make a call upon the militia of the county to equip themselves 
instantly and march to the aid of their bleeding countrymen. 
Thereupon Gen. Walker, Col. Davis, Lieut-Col. Jenners, Capt. 
Brown, of the artillery, and various other gallant spirits mounted 
their war steeds and proceeded to the army, and thence upon a 
scout to the Grand Prairie to discover, if possible, the number, 
intention and situation of the Indians. Over 300 old men, women 
and children flocked precipitately to Lafayette and the surrounding 
country east of the Wabash. A remarkable event occurred in this 
stampede, as follows: 

A man, wife and seven children resided on the edg'e of the 
Grand Prairie, west of Lafayette, in a locality considered particu- 
larly dangerous. On hearing of this alarm he made hurried 
preparations to fly with his family to Lafayette for safety. Imag- 
ine his surprise and chagrin when his wife told him she would not 
go one step; that she did not believe in being scared at trifles, and 
in her opinion there was not an Indian within 100 miles of them. 
Importunity proved unavailing, and the disconsolate and frightened 
husband and father took all the children except the youngest, bade 
liis wife and babe a long and solemn farewell, never expecting to 
see them again, unless perhaps he might find their mangled re- 
mains, minus their scalps. On arriving at Lafayette, his acquaint- 
ances rallied and berated him for abandoning his wife and child in 
that way, but he met their jibes with a stoical indifference, avowing 
that he should not be held responsible for their obstinacy. 

As the shades of the first evening drew on, the wife felt lonely; 
and the chirping of the frogs and the notes of the whippoorwill only 
intensified her loneliness, until she half wished she had accom- 
panied the rest of the family in their flight. She remained in the 
house a .ew hours without striking a light, and then concluded 
that " discretion was the better part of valor," took her babe and 
some bed-clothes, fastened the cabin door, and hastened to a sink- 
hole in the woods, in which she afterward said that she and her 
babe slept soundly until sunrise next morning. 

Lafayette literally boiled over with people and patriotism. A 
meeting was held at the court-house, speeches were made by 
patriotic individuals, and to allay the fear& of the women an armed 
police was immediately ordered, to be called the " Lafayette Guards." 
Thos. T. Benbridge was elected Captain, and John Cox, Lieutenant. 
Capt. Benbridge yielded the active drill of his guards to the 
Lieutenant, who had served two years in the war of 1812. After 


the meeting adjourned, tl.e guards were paraded on the green 
where Purdue's block now stands, and put through sundry evohi- 
tions by Lieut. Cox, who proved to be an expert drill officer, and 
whose clear, shrill voice rung out on the night air as he marched 
and counter-marched the troops from where the paper-mill stands 
to Main street ferry, and over the suburbs, generally. Every old 
gun and sword that could be found was brought into requisition, 
with a new shine on them. 

Gen. Walker, Colonels Davis and Jenners, and other officers 
joined in a call of the people of Tippecanoe county for volunteers to 
march to the frontier settlements. A large meeting of the citizens 
assembled in the public square in the town, and over 300 volunteers 
mostly mounted men, left for the scene of action, with an alacrity 
that would have done credit to veterans. 

The first night they camped nine miles west of Lafayette, near 
Grand Prairie. They placed sentinels for the night and retired to 
rest. A few of the subaltern officers very injudiciously concluded 
to try what effect a false alarm would have upon the sleeping sol- 
diers, and a few of them withdrew to a neighboring thicket, and 
thence made a charge upon the picket guards, who , after hailing 
them and receiving no countersign, fired off" their guns and ran for 
the Colonel's marquee in the center of the encampment. The aroused 
Colonels and stafi'sprang to their feet, shouting "To arms! to arms!" 
and the obedient, though panic-stricken soldiers seized their guns 
and demanded to be led ao:ainst the invadino^ foe. A wild scene of 
disorder ensued, and amid the din of arms and loud commands of 
the officers the raw militia felt that tliey had already got into the 
red jaws of battle. One of the alarm sentinels, in running to the 
center of the encampment, leaped over a blazing camp fire, and 
alighted full upon the breast and stomach of a sleeping lawyer, who 
was, no doubt, at that moment dreaming of vested and contingent 
remainders, rich clients and good fees, which in legal parlance was 
suddenly estopped by the hob-nails in the stogas of the scared 
sentinel. As soon as the counselor's vitality and consciousness 
sufficiently returned, he put in some strong demurrers to the con- 
duct of the affi'lghted picket men, averring that he would greatly 
prefer being wounded by the enemy to being run over by a cowardly 
booby. Next morning the organizers of the ruse were severely 

May 28, 1832, Governor Noble ordered General Walker to call 
out his whole command, if necessary, and supply arms, horses and 


provisions, even though it be necessary to seize them. The next 
day four baggage wagons, loaded with camp equipments, stores, 
provisions and other articles, were seat to the little army, who were 
thus provided for a campaign of five or six weeks. The following 
Tliursday a squad of cavalry, under Colonel Sigler, passed through 
Lafayette on the way to the hostile region; and on the 13th of June 
Colonel Russell, commandant of the 40th Regiment, Indiana Militia, . 
passed through Lafayette with 340 mounted volunteers from the 
counties of Marion, Hendricks and Johnson. Also, several com- 
panies of volunteers from Montgomery, Fountain and Warren 
counties, hastened to the relief of the frontier settlers. The troops 
from Lafayette marched to Sugar creek, and after a short time, 
there being no probability of finding any of the enemy, were 
ordered to return. They all did so except about 45 horsemen, who 
volunteered to cross Hickory creek, where the Indians had com- 
mitted their depredations. They organized a company by electing 
Samuel McGeorge, a soldier of the war of 1812, Captain, and Amos 
Allen and Andrew W. Ingraham, Lieutenants. 

Crossing Hickory creek, they marched as far as O'Plein river 
without meeting with opposition. Finding no enemy here they 
concluded to return. On the first night of their march home they 
encamped on the open prairie, posting sentinels, as usual. About 
ten o'clock it began to rain, and it was with difficulty that the sen- 
tinels kept their guns dry, Capt. I. H. Cox and a man named Fox 
had been posted as sentinels within 1-5 or 20 paces of each other. 
Cox drew the skirt of his overcoat over his gun-lock to keep it dry; 
Fox, perceiving this motion, and in the darkness taking him for an 
Indian, fired upon him and fractured his thigh-bone. Several sol- 
diers immediately ran toward the place where the flash of the gim 
had been seen; but when they cocked and leveled their guns on the 
figure which had fired at Cox, the wounded man caused them to 
desist by crying, " Don't shoot him, it was a sentinel who shot me." 
The next day the wounded man was left behind the company in 
care of four men, who, as soon as possible, removed him on a litter 
to Col. Moore's company of Illinois militia, then encamped on the 
O'Plein, where Joliet now stands. 

Although the main body returned to Lafayette in eight or nine 
days, yet the alarm among the people was so great that they could 
not be induced to return to their farms for some time. The pres- 
ence of the hostiles was hourly expected by the frontier settlements 
of Indiana, from Vincennes to La Porte. In Clinton county the 



inhabitants gathered within the forts and prepared for a regular 
siege, while our neighbors at Crawfordsville were suddenly 
astounded by the arrival of a courier at full speed with the announce- 
ment that the Indians, more than a thousand in number, were then 
crossing the Nine-Mile prairie about twelve miles north of town, 
killing and scalping all. The strongest houses were immediately 
put in a condition of defense, and sentinels were placed at the prin- 
cipal points in the direction of the enemy. Scouts were sent out to 
reconnoitre, and messengers were dispatched iu different directions 
to announce the danger to the farmers, and to urge them to hasten 
with their families into town, and to assist in fighting the nioment- 
aril}'- expected savages. At night-ftill the scouts brought in the 
news that the Indians had not crossed the Wabash, but were hourly 
expected at Lafayette. The citizens of Warren, Fountain and Ver- 
million counties were alike terrified bvexao;fferated stories of Indian 
massacres, and immediately prepared for defense. It turned out 
that the Indians wefe not within 100 miles of these temporary 
forts; but this by no means proved a want of courage in the citizens. 

After some time had elapsed,- a portion of the troops were 
marched back into Tippecanoe county and honorably discharged; 
but the settlers were still loth for a long time to return to their 
farms. Assured by published reports that the Miamis and Potta- 
watomies did not intend to join the hostiles, the people by degrees 
recovered from the panic and began to attend to their neglected 

During this time there was actual war in Illinois. Black Hawk 
and his warriors, well nigh surrounded by a well-disciplined foe, 
attempted to cross to the west bank of the Mississippi, but after 
being chased up into Wisconsin and to the Mississippi again, he 
was in a final battle taken captive. A few years after his liberation, 
about 1837 or 1838, he died, on the banks of the Des Moines river, 
in Iowa, in what is now the county of Davis, where his remains 
were deposited above ground, in the usual Indian style. His re- 
mains were afterward stolen and carried away, but they were re- 
covered by the Governor of Iowa and placed in the museum of the 
Historical Society at Burlington, where they were finally destroyed 
by fire. 


In July, 1837, Col. Abel 0. Pepper convened the Pottawatomie 
nation of Indians at Lake Ke-waw-nay for the purpose of remov- 
ing them west of the Mississippi. That fall a small party of some 
80 or 90 Pottawatomies was conducted west of the Mississippi 
river by George Proffit, Esq. Among the number were Ke-waw- 
nay, Nebash, Nas-waw-kay, Pash-po-ho and many other leading 
men of the nation. The regular emigration of these poor Indians, 
about 1,000 in number, took place under Col. Pepper and Gen. Tip- 
ton in the summer of 1838. 

It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these children of 
the forest slowly retiring from the home of their childhood, that 
contained not only the graves of their revered ancestors, but also 
many endearing scenes to which their memories would ever recur 
as sunny spots along their pathway through the wilderness. They 
felt that they were bidding farewell to the hills, valleys and streams 
of their infancy; the more exciting hunting-grounds of their ad- 
vanced youth, as well as the stern and bloody battle-fields where 
they had contended in riper manhood, on which they had received 
wounds, and where many of their friends and loved relatives had 
fallen covered with gore and with glory. All these they were leav- 
ing behind them, to be desecrated by the plowshare of the white 
man. As they cast mournful glances back toward these loved 
scenes that were rapidly fading in the distance, tears fell from the 
cheek of the downcast warrior, old men trembled, matrons wept, 
the swarthy maiden's cheek turned pale, and sighs and half-sup- 
pressed sobs escaped from the motley groups as they passed along, 
some on foot, some on horseback, and others in wagons, — sad as a 
funeral procession. Several of the aged warriors were seen to cast 
glances toward the sky, as if they were imploring aid from the 
spirits of their departed heroes, who were looking down upon them 
from the clouds, or from the Great Spirit, who would ultimately 
redress the wrongs of the red man, whose broken bow had fallen 
from his hand, and whose sad heart was bleeding within him. 
Ever and anon one of the party would start out into the brush and 
break back to their old encampments on Eel river and on the Tippe- 



canoe, declaring that they would rather die than be banished from 
their country. Thus, scores of discontented emigrants returned 
from different points on their journey; and it was several years 
before they could be induced to join their countrymen west of the 

Several years after the removal of the Pottawatomies the Miami 
nation was removed to their Western home, by coercive means, un- 
der an escort of United States troops. They were a proud and 
once powerful nation, but at the time of their removal were far 
inferior, in point of numbers, to the Pottawatomie guests whom 
they had permitted to settle and hunt upon their lands, and fish in 
their lakes and rivers after they had been driven southward by 
powerful and warlike tribes who inhabited the shores of the JSTorth- 
ern lakes. 


In 1831 a joint resolution of the Legislature of Indiana, request- 
ing an appropriation by Congress for the extinguishment of the 
Indian title to lands within the State, was forwarded to that body> 
which granted the request. The Secretary of War, by authority, 
appointed a committee of three citizens to carry into effect the pro- 
vis'ions of the recent law. The Miamis were surrounded on all 
sides by Arxierican settlers, and were situated almost in the heart 
of the State on the line of the canal then being made. The chiefs 
were called to a council for the purpose of making a treaty; they 
promptly came, but peremptorily refused to go westward or sell 
the remainder of their land. The Pottawatomies sold about 
6,000,000 acres in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, including all 
their claim in this State. 

In 1838 a treaty was concluded with the Miami Indians through 
the good offices of Col. A. C. Pepper, the Indian agent, by which 
a considerable of the most desirable portion of their reserve was 
ceded to the United States. 


As an example of the manner in which land speculators were 
treated by the early Indianiaus, we cite the following instances 
from Cox's '' Kecollections of the Wabash Valley." 

At Crawfordsville, Dec. 24, 1824, many parties were present 
from the eastern and southern portions of the State, as well as from 
Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and even Pennsylvania, to attend a 
land sale. There was but little bidding against each other. The 
settlers, or " squatters," as they were called by the speculators, had 
arranged matters among themselves to their general satisfaction. 
If, upon comparing numbers, it appeared that two were after the 
same tract of land, one would ask the other what he would take 
not to bid against him; if neither would consent to be bought off 
they would retire and cast lots, and the lucky one would enter the 
tract at Congress price, $1.25 an acre, and the other would enter the 
second choice on his list. If a speculator made a bid, or showed a 
disposition to take a settler's claim from him, he soon saw the 
white of a score of eyes glaring at him, and he would " crawfish" 
out of the crowd at the first opportunity. 

The settlers made it definitely known to foreign capitalists that 
they would enter the tracts of land they had settled upon before 
allowing the latter to come in with their speculations. The land 
was sold in tiers of townships, beginning at the southern part of 
the district and continuing north until all had been off"ered at 
public sale. This plan was persisted in, although it kept many on 
the ground for several days waiting, who desired to purchase land 
in the northern part of the district. 

In 1827 a regular Indian scare was gotten up to keep specu- 
lators away for a short time. A man who owned a claim on Tippe- 
canoe river, near Pretty prairie, fearing that some one of the 
numerous land hunters constantly scouring the country might 
enter the land he had settled upon before he could raise the money 
to buy it, and seeing one day a cavalcade of land hunters riding 
toward where his land lay, mounted his horse and darted off at 
full speed to meet them, swinging his hat and shouting at the top 

of his voice, " Indians! Indians! the woods are full of Indians, 




murdering and scalping all before them!" They paused a moment, 
but as the terrified horseman still urged his jaded animal and cried, 
"Help! Longlois, Cicots, help!" they turned and fled like a troop of 
retreating cavalry, hastening to the thickest settlements and giving' 
the alarm, which spread like fire among stubble until the whole 
frontier region was shocked with the startling cry. The squatter 
who fabricated the story and started this false alarm took a cir- 
cuitous route home that evening, and while others were busy 
building temporary block -houses and rubbing up their guns to 
meet the Indians, he was quietly gathering up money and slipped 
down to Crawfordsville and entered his land, chuckling to himself, 
"There's a Yankee trick for you, done up by a Hoosier." 


In 1814 a society of Germans under Frederick Rappe, who had 
originally come from Wirteraberg, Germany, and more recently 
from Pennsylvania, founded a settlement on the Wabash about 50 
miles above its mouth. They were industrious, frugal and honest 
Lutherans. They purchased a large quantity of land and laid off 
a town, to which they gave the name of "Harmony," afterward 
called "New Harmony." They erected a church and a public 
school-house, opened farms, planted orchards and vineyards, built 
flouring mills, established a house of public entertainment, a public 
store, and carried on all the arts of peace with skill and regularity. 
Their property was "in common," according to the custom of an- 
cient Christians at Jerusalem, but the governing power, both tem- 
poral and spiritual, was vested in Frederick Rappe, the elder, who 
was regarded as the founder of the society. By the year 1821 the 
society numbered about 900. Every individual of proper age con- 
tributed his proper share of labor. There were neither spendthrifts, 
idlers nor drunkards, and during the whole IT years of their sojourn 
in America there was not a single lawsuit among them. Every 
controversy arising among them was settled by arbitration, expla- 
nation and compromise before sunset of the day, literally according 
to the injunction of the apostle of the New Testament. 

About 1825 the town of Harmony and a considerable quantity 
of land adjoining was sold to Robert Owen, father of David Dale 
Owen, the State Geologist, and of Robert Dale Owen, of later 
notoriety. He was a radical philosopher from Scotland, who had 
become distinguished for his philanthropy and opposition to 


Christianity. He charged the latter with teaching false notions 
regarding human responsibility — notions which have since been 
clothed in the language of physiology, mental philosophy, etc. 
Said he: , . 

"That which has hitherto been called wickedness in our fellow 
men has proceeded from one of two distinct causes, or from some 
combination of those causes. They are what are termed bad or 

"1. Because they are born with faculties or propensities which 
render them more liable, under the same circumstances, than other 
men, to commit such actions as are usually denominated wicked; 

" 2. Because they have been placed by birth or other events in 
particular countries, — have been influenced from infancy by par- 
ents, playmates and others, and have been surrounded by those 
circumstances which gradually and necessarily trained them in the 
habits and sentiments called wicked ; or, 

"3. They have become wicked in consequence of some particu- 
lar combination of these causes. 

" If it should be asked. Whence then has wickedness pro- 
ceeded? I reply. Solely from the ignorance of our forefathers. 

" Every society which exists at present, as well as every society 
which history records, has been formed and governed on a belief 
in the following notions, assumed as first principles: 

" 1. That it is in the power of every individual to form his own 
character. Plence the various systems called by the name of religion, 
codes of law, and punishments; hence, also, the angry passions 
entertained by individuals and nations toward each other. 

"2. That the afi'ections are at the command of the individual. 
Hence insincerity and degradation of character; hence the miseries 
of domestic life, and more than one-half of all the crimes of man- 

" 3. That it is necessary a large portion of mankind should ex- 
ist in ignorance and poverty in order to secure to the remaining part 
such a degree of happiness as they now enjoy. Hence a system of 
counteraction in the pursuits of men, a general opposition among 
individuals to the interests of each other, and the necessary effects 
of such a system, — ignorance, poverty and vice. 

" Facts prove, however, 

" 1. That character is universally formed for and not by the in- 


"2. That any habits and sentiments may be given to mankind; 

" 3. That the affections are not under the control of the indi- 

" 4. That every individual may be trained to produce far more 
than he can consume, while there is a sufficiency left for him to 

" 5. That nature has provided means by which population may 
be at all times maintained in the proper state to give the greatest 
happiness to everj; individual, without one check of vice and 

" 6. That any community may be arranged on a due combina- 
tion of the foregoing principles in such a manner as not only to 
withdraw vice, poverty, and in a great degree misery from the 
world, but also to place every individual under circumstances in 
which he shall enjoy more permanent happiness than can be given 
to any individual under the principles which have hitherto regu- 
lated society ; 

" 7. That all the fundamental principles on which society has 
hitherto been founded are erroneous and may be demonstrated to 
be contrary to fact; and — 

" 8. That the change that would follow the abandonment of 
those erroneous maxims which bring misery into the world, and the 
adoption of the principles of truth, unfolding a system which shall 
remove and forever exclude that misery, may be effected without 
the slightest injury to any human being." 

Mr. Owen's efforts to establish a community on his principles 
failed, probably because he overlooked the deeper principle that 
the main element of " Liberalism " is "individuality" of life in 
all respects. 


Most of the early settlers of Indiana came from older States, as 
Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Virginia, where their prospects for 
even a coinpetency were very poor. They found those States 
good — to emigrate from. Their entire stock of furniture, imple- 
ments and family necessities were easily stored in one wagon, and 
sometimes a cart was their only vehicle. 


After arriving and selecting a suitable location, the next thing 
to do was to build a log cabin, a description of which may be inter- 


€sting to many of our younger readers, as in some sections these 
old-time structures are no more to be seen. Trees of uniform size 
were chosen and cut into logs of the desired length, generally 12 
to 15 feet, and hauled to the spot selected for the future dwelling. 
On an appointed day the few neighbors who were available would 
assemble and have a " house-raising." Each end of every log was 
saddled and notched so that tliey would lie as close down as possi- 
ble; the next day the proprietor would proceed to "chink and 
daub" the cabin, to keep out the rain, wind and cold. The house 
had to be re-daubed every fall, as the rains of the intervening time 
would wash out a great part ;)f the mortar. The usual height of 
the house was seven or eight feet. The gables were formed hj 
shortening the logs gradually at each end of the building near the 
top. The roof was made by laying very straight small logs or 
stout poles suitable distances apart, generally about two and a half 
feet, from gable to gable, and on these poles were laid the " claj.)- 
boards " after the manner of shingling, showing about two and a 
half feet to the weather. These clapboards were fastened to their 
place by " weight poles," corresponding in place with the joists 
just described, and these again were held in their place by " runs " 
or "knees," which were chunks of wood about 18 or 20 inches long 
fitted between ihem near the ends. Clapboards were made from 
the nicest oaks in the vicinity, by chopping or sawing them into 
four-foot blocks and riving these with a frow, which was a simple 
blade fixed at right angles to its handle. This was driven into 
the blocks of wood by a mallet. As the frow was wrenched down 
through the wood, the latter was turned alternately over from side 
to side, one end being held by a forked piece of timber. 

The chimney to the Western pioneer's cabin was made by leaving 
in the original building a large open place in one wall, or by cut- 
ting one after the structure was up, and by building on the out- 
side from the ground up, a stone column, or a column of sticks and 
mud, the sticks being laid up cob-house fashion. The fire-place 
thus made was often large enough to receive fire-wood six to eight 
feet long. Sometimes this wood, especially the " back-log," would 
be nearly as large as a saw-log. Tlie more rapidly the pioneer 
could burn up the wood in his vicinity the sooner he had his little 
farm cleared and ready for cultivation. For a window, a piece 
about two feet long was cut out of one of the wall logs, and the 
hole closed sometimes by glass, but generally with greased paper. 
Even greased deer-hide was sometimes used. A doorway was cut 



thronarh one of the walls if a saw was to be had; otherwise the 
door would be left by shortened logs in the original building. The 
door was made by pinning clapboards to two or three wood bars, 
and was hung upon wooden hinges. A wooden latch, with catch, 
then finished the door, and the latch was raised by any one on the 
outside by pulling a leather string. For security at night this 
latch- string was drawn in; but for friends and neighbors, and even 
strangers, the '• latch-string was always hanging out," as a welcome. 
In the interior, over the fire-place would be. a shelf, called "the 
mantel," on which stood the candlestick or lamp, some cooking and 
table ware, possibly an old clock, and other articles; in the fire- 
place would be the crane, sometimes of iron, sometimes of wood; on 
it the pots were hung for cooking; over the door, in forked cleats, 
hung the ever trustful rifle and powder-horn ; in one corner stood 
the larger bed for the " old folks," and under it the trundle bed for 
the children; in another stood the old-fashioned spinning-wheel, 
with a smaller one by its side; in another the heavy table, the only 
table, of course, there was in the house; in the remaining corner 
was a rude cupboard holding the table-ware, which consisted of a 
few cups and saucers and blue-edged plates, standing singly on 
their edges against the back, to make the display of table furniture 
more conspicuous; while around the room were scattered a few 
splint-bottomed or Windsor chairs and two or three stools. 

These simple cabins were inhabited by a kind and true-hearted 
people. They were strangers to mock modesty, and the traveler, 
seeking lodgings for the night, or desirous of spending a few days 
in the community, if willing to accept the rude ofifering, was always 
welcome, although how they were disposed of at night the reader 
might not easily imagine; for, as described, a single room was 
made to answer for kitchen, dining-room, sitting-room, bed-room and 
parlor, and many families consisted of six or eight members. 


The bed was very often made by fixing a post in the floor about 
six feet from one wall and four feet from the adjoining wall, and 
fastening a stick to this post about two feet above the floor, on 
each of two sides, so that the other end of each of the two sticks 
could be fastened in the opposite wall; clapboards were laid across 
these, and thus the bed was made complete. Guests were given 
this bed, while the family disposed of themselves in another corner 
of the room, or in the "loft." When several gncsts were on hand 





at once, they were sometimes kept over night in the following 
manner: when bed-time came the men were reqnested to step out 
of doors while the women spread out a broad bed upon the mid- 
floor, and put themselves to bed in the center; the signal was given 
and the men came in and each husband took his place in bed next 
his own wife, and the single men outside beyond them again. They 
were generally so crowded that they had to lie " spoon" fashion, 
and when any one wished to turn over he would say "Spoon," and 
the whole company of sleepers would turn over at once. This was 
the only way they could all keep in bed. 


To witness the various processes of cooking in those days would 
alike surprise and amuse those who have grown up since cooking 
stoves and ranges came into use. Kettles were hung over the 
large fire, suspended with pot-hooks, iron or wooden, on the crane, 
or on poles, one end of which would rest upon a chair. The long- 
handled frying-pan was used for cooking meat. It was either held 
over the blaze by hand or set down upon coals drawn out upon the 
hearth. This pan was also used for baking pan-cakes, also called 
" flap-jacks," " batter-cakes," etc. A better article for this, how- 
ever, was the cast-iron spider or Dutch skillet. The best thing 
for baking bread those days, and possibly even yet in these latter 
days, was the flat-bottomed bake kettle, of greater depth, with 
closely fitting cast-iron cover, and commonly known as the " Dutch- 
oven." With coals over and under it, bread and biscuit would 
quickly and nicely bake. Turkey and spare-ribs were sometimes 
roasted before the fire, suspended by a string, a dish being placed 
underneath to catch the drippings. 

Hominy and samp were very much used. The hominy, how- 
ever, was generally hulled corn — boiled corn from which the hull, 
or bran, had been taken by hot lye; hence sometimes called 
" lye hominy." True hominy and samp were made of pounded 
corn. A popular method of making this, as well as real meal for 
bread, was to cut out or burn a large hole in the top of a huge 
stump, in the shape of a mortar, and pounding the corn in this by 
a maul or beetle suspended on the end of a swing jjole, like a well- 
sweep. This and the well-sweep consisted of a pole 20 to 30 
feet long fixed in an upright fork so that it could be worked "teeter" 
fashion. It was a rapid and simple way of drawing water. When 
the samp was sufficiently pounded it was taken out, the bran floated 


off, and the delicious grain boiled like rice. 

The chief articles of diet in early day were corn bread, hominy 
or samp, venison, pork, honey, beans, pumpkin (dried pumpkin for 
more than half the year), turkey, prairie chicken, squirrel and some 
other game, with a few additional vegetables a portion of the year. 
"Wheat bread, tea, coffee and fruit were luxuries not to be indulged 
in except on special occasions, as when visitors were present. 

women's work. 

Besides cooking in the manner described, tlie women had many 
other arduous duties to perform, one of the chief of which was spin- 
ning. The "big wheel" was used for spinning yarn and the " little 
wheel " for spinning flax. These stringed instruments furnished 
the principal music of the family, and were operated by our moth- 
ers and grandmothers with great skill, attained without pecuniary 
expense and with far less practice than is necessary for the girls of 
our period to acquire a skillful use of their costly and elegant in- 
struments. But those wheels, indispensable a few years ago, are 
all now superseded by the mighty factories which overspread the 
country, furnishing cloth of all kinds at an expense ten times less 
than would be incurred now by the old system. 

The loom was not less necessary than the wheel, though they 
were not needed in so great numbers; not every house had a loom, 
one loom had a capacity for the needs of several families. Settlers, 
having succeeded in spite of the wolves in raising sheep, commenced 
the manufacture of woolen cloth; wool was carded and made into rolls 
by hand-cards, and the rolls were spun on the " big wheel." We still 
occasionally find in the houses of old settlers a wheel of this kind, 
sometimes used for spinning and twisting stocking yarn. They are 
turned with the hand, and witli such velocity that it will run itself 
while the nimble worker, by her backward step, draws out and 
twists her thread nearly the whole length of the cabin. A common 
article woven on the loom was linsey, or linsey-woolsey, the chain 
being linen and the filling woolen. This cloth was used for dresses 
for the women and girls. Nearly all the clothes worn by the men 
were also home-made; rarely was a fanner or his son seen in a coat 
madeof any other. If, occasionally, a young man appeared in a 
suit of " boughten " clothes, he was suspected of having gotten it 
for a particular occasion, which occurs in the life of nearly every 
young man. 



The dress, habits, etc., of a people throw so much light upon 
their conditions and limitations that in order better to show the 
circumstances surrounding the people of the State, we will give a 
short exposition of the manner of life of our Indiana people at 
different epochs. The Indians themselves are credited by Charle- 
voix with being "very laborious," — raising poultry, spinning the 
wool of the buffalo, and manufacturing garments therefrom. 
These must have been, however, more than usually favorable repre- 
sentatives of their race. 

"The working and voyaging dress of the French masses," says 
Reynolds, "was simple and primitive. The French were like the 
lilies of the valley [ the Old Ranger was not always exact in his 
quotations], — they neither spun nor wove any of their clothing, 
but purchased it from the merchants. The white blanket coat, 
known as the <?<7j!3(?^, was the universal and eternal coat for the winter 
with the masses. A cape was made of it that could be raised over 
the head in cold weather. 

" In the house, and in good weather, it hung behind, a cape to 
the blanket coat. The reason that I know these coats so well is 
that I have worn many in my youth, and a working man never 
wore a better garment. Dressed deer-skins and blue cloth were 
worn commonly in the winter for pantaloons. The blue handker- 
chief and the deer-skin moccasins covered the head and feet gener- 
ally of the French Creoles. In 1800 scarcely a man thouglit him- 
self clothed unless he had a belt tied round his blanket coat, and 
on one side was hung the dressed skin of a pole-cat tilled witli 
tobacco, pipe, flint and steel. On the other side was fastened, 
under the belt, the butcher knife. A Creole in this dress felt like 
Tam O'Shanter filled with usquebaugh; he could face the devil. 
Checked calico shirts were then common, but in winter flannel 
was frequently worn. In the summer the laboring men and the 
voyagers often took their shirts off in hard work and hot weather, 
and turned out the naked back to the air and sun." 

" Among the Americans," he adds, " home-made wool hats were 
the common wear. Fur hats were not common, and scarcely a 
boot was seen. The covering of the feet in winter was chiefly 
moccasins made of deer-skins and shoe-packs of tanned leather. 
Some wore shoes, but not common in very early times. In the 
summer the greater portion of the young people, male and female, 



and many of the old, went barefoot. The substantial and universal 
outside wear was the blue linsey hunting shirt. This is an excel- 
lent garment, and I have never felt so happy and healthy since I 
laid it off. It is made of wide sleeves, open before, with ample size 
so as to envelop the body almost twice around. Sometimes it had a 
large cape, which answers well to save the shoulders from the rain. 
A belt is mostly used to keep the garment close around the person, 
and, nevertheless, there is nothing tight about it to hamper the 
body. It is often fringed, and at times the fringe is composed of 
red, and other gay colors. The belt, frequently, is sewed to the 
hunting shirt. Tlie vest was mostly made of striped linsey. The 
colors were made often with alum, copperas and madder, boiled with 
the bark of trees, in such a manner and proportions as the old ladies 
prescribed. The pantaloons of the masses were generally made of 
deer-skin and linsey. Coarse blue cloth was sometimes made into 

" Linsey, neat and fine, manufactured at home, composed generally 
the outside garments of the females as well as the males. The 
ladies had linsey colored and woven to suit their fancy. A bonnet, 
composed of calico, or some gay goods, was worn on the head when 
they were in the open air. Jewcliy on the pioneer ladies was 
uncommon; a gold ring was an ornament not often seen," 

In 1820 a change of dress began to take place, and before 1830, 
according to Ford, most of the pioneer costume had disappeared. 
''The blue linsey hunting-shirt, with red or white fringe, had given 
place to the cl-oth coat. [Jeans would be more like the fact.] The 
raccoon cap, with the tail of the animal dangling down behind, had 
been thrown aside for hats of wool or fur. Boots and shoes had 
supplied the deer-skin moccasins; and the leather breeches, strapped 
tight around the ankle, had disappeared before unmentionables of a 
more modern material. The female sex had made still greater prog- 
ress in dress. The old sort of cotton or woolen frocks, spun, woven 
and made with their own fair hands, and striped and cross-barred 
with blue dye and Turkey red, had given place to gowns of silk and 
calico. The feet, before in a state of nudity, now charmed in shoes 
of calf-skin or slippers of kid ; and the head, formerly unbonneted, 
but covered with a cotten handkerchief, now displayed the charms 
of the female face under many forms of bonnets of straw, silk and 
Leghorn. The young ladies, instead of walking a mile or two to 
church on Sunday, carrying their shoes and stockings in their hands 
until within a hundred yards of the place of worship, as formerly, 


now came forth arrayed complete in all the pride of dress, mounted 
on fine horses and attended bj their male admirers." 

The last half century has doubtless witnessed changes quite as 
great as those set forth by our Illinois historian. The chronicler 
of to-day, looking back to the golden days of 1830 to 1840, and 
comparing them with the present, must be struck with the tendency 
of an almost monotonous uniformity in dress and manners that 
comes from the easy inter-communication afforded by steamer, rail- 
way, telegraph and newspaper. Home manufacturers have been 
driven from the household by the lower-priced fixbrics of distant 
mills. The Kentucky jeans, and the copperas-colored clothing of 
home manufacture, so familiar a few years ago, have given place to 
the cassimeres and cloths of noted factories. The ready-made 
clothing stores, like a touch of nature, made the whole world kin- 
and may drape the charcoal man in a dress-coat and a stove-pipe 
hat. The prints and silks of England and France give a variety of 
choice and an assortment of colors and shades such as the pioneer 
women could hardly have dreamed of. Godey and Deraorest and 
Harper's Bazar are found in our modern farm-houses, and the latest 
fashions of Paris are not uncommon. 


The Methodists were generally first on the ground in pioneer 
settlements, and at that early day they seemed more demonstrative 
in their devotions than at the present time. In those days, too, pul- 
pit oratory was generally more eloquent and effective, while the 
grammatical dress and other " worldly" accomplishments were not 
so assiduously cultivated as at present. But in the manner of con- 
ducting public worship there has probably not been so much 
change as in that of family worship, or "family prayers," as it was 
often called. We had then most emphatically an American edition 
of that pious old Scotch practice so eloquently described in Burns' 
" Cotter's Saturday Night:" 

The cheerfu' supper done, wi' serious face 
They round the ingle formed a circle wide; 

The sire turns o'er, wi' patriarchal grace, 
The big ha' Bible, ance his father's pride ; 

His bonnet rev'rently is laid aside, 
His lyart haffets wearing thin and bare ; 

Those strains that once did sweet in Zion glide; 
He wales a portion with judicious care, 
And " let us worsnip God," he says with solemn air. 


They chant their artless notes in simple guise; 

They tune their hearts, — by far the noblest aim ; 
Perhaps " Dundee's" wild warbling measures rise, 

Or plaintive " Martyrs," worthy of the name; 
Ornoble " Elgin'' beats the heavenward flame, — 

The sweetest far of Scotia's hallowed lays. 
Compared with these, Italian trills are tame ; 

The tickled ear no heart-felt raptures raise: 

Nae unison hae they with our Creator's praise. 

The priest-like father reads the sacred page, — 

How Abraham was the friend of God on high, etc. 

Then kneeling down, to heaven's Eternal King 
The saint, the father and the husband prays ; 
Hope " springs exulting oa triumphant wing," 
That thus they all shrdl meet in future days ; 
There ever bask in uncreated rays, 
« No more to sigh or shed the bitter tear, 

Together hymning their Creator's praise. 
In such society, yet slill more dear, 
1 While circling time moves round in an eternal sphere. 

Once or twice a day, in the morning just before breakfast, or in 
the evening just before retiring to rest, the head of the family 
would call those around him to order, read a chapter in the Bible, 
announce the hymn and tune by commencing to sing it, when all 
would join; then he would deliver a most fervent prayer. If a pious 
guest was present he would be called on to take the lead in all the 
exercises of the evening; and if in those days a person who prayed 
in the family or m public did not pray as if it were his very last on 
earth, his piety was thought to be defective. 

The familiar tunes of that day are remembered by the surviving 
old settlers as being more spiritual and inspiring than those of the 
present day, such as Bourbon, Consolation, Cliina, Canaan, Con- 
quering Soldier, Condescension, Devotion, Davis, Fiducia, Funeral 
Thought, Florida, Golden Hill, Greenfields, Ganges, Idumea, 
Imandra, Kentucky, Lenox, Leander, Mear, New Orleans, North 
field. New Salem, New Durham, Olney, Primrose, Pisgah, Pleyel's 
Hymn, Rockbridge, Rockingham, Reflection, Supplication, Salva- 
tion, St. Thomas, Salem, Tender Thought, Windham, Greenville, 
etc., as they are named in the Missouri Harmony. 

Members of other orthodox denominations also had their family 
prayers in which, however, the phraseology of the prayer was some- 
what different and the voice not so loud as characterized the real 
Methodists, United Brethren, etc. 



The traveler always found a welcome at the pioneer's cabin. It 
was never full. Although there might be already a guest for every 
puncheon, there was still "room for one more," and a wider circle 
would be made for the new-comer at the loof fire. If the stranger 
was in search of land, he was doubly welcome, and his host would 
volunteer to show him all the " first-rate claims in this neck of the 
woods,'' going with him for days, showing the corners and advan- 
tages of every " Congress tract " within a dozen miles of his own 

To his neighbors the pioneer was equally liberal. If a deer was 
killed, the choicest bits were sent to his nearest neighbor, a half- 
dozen miles away, perhaps. When a " shoat" was butchered, the 
same custom prevailed. If a new comer came in too late for " crop- 
ping," the neighbors would supply his table with just the same 
luxuries they themselves enjoyed, and in as liberal quantity, until 
a crop could be raised. When a new-comer had located his claim, 
the neighbors for miles around would assemble at the site of the 
new-comer's proposed cabin and aid him in " gittin' " it up. One 
party with axes would cut down the trees and hew the logs; another 
with teams would haul the logs to the ground; another party would 
"raise" the cabin; while several of the old men would " rive the 
clapboards " for the roof. By night the little forest domicile would 
be up and ready for a "house-warming," which was the dedicatory 
occupation of the house, when music and dancing and festivity 
would be enjoyed at full height. The next day the new-comer 
would be as well situated as his neighbors. 

An instance of primitive hospitable manners will be in place 
here. A traveling Methodist preacher arrived in a distant neigh- 
borhood to till an appointment. The house where services were to 
be held did not belong to a church member, but no matter for that. 
Boards were raked up from all quarters with which to make tem- 
porary seats, one of the neighbors volunteeringto lead off in the work, 
while the man of the house, with the faithful rifle on his shoulder, 
sallied forth in quest of meat, for this truly was a " ground-hog " 
case, the preacher coming and no meat in tiie house. The host ceased 
not the chase until he found the meat, in the shape of a deer; re- 
turning, he sent a boy out after it, with directions on what " pint " 
to find it. After services, which had been listened to with rapt at- 


tention by all the audience, mine host said to his wife, " Old 
woman, I reckon this 'ere preacher is pretty hungry and you must 
git him a bite to eat." " What shall I git him ? " asked the wife, 
who had not seen the deer; "thar's nuthin' in the house to eat.'^ 
" Why, look thar," returned he; " thar's a deer, and thar's plenty 
of corn in the field; you git some corn and grate it while I skin 
the deer, and we'll have a good supper for him." It is needless 
to add that venison and corn bread made a supper fit for an^'' pio- 
neer preacher, and was thankfully eaten. 


In pioneer times the transactions of commerce were generally 
carried on by neighborhood exchanges. Now and then a farmer 
would load a flat-boat with beeswax, honey, tallow and peltries, 
with perhaps a few bushels of wheat or corn or a few hundred clap- 
boards, and float down the rivers into the Ohio and thence to JMew 
Orleans, where he would exchange his produce for substantials in 
the shape of groceries and a little ready money, with which he 
would return by some one of the two or three steamboats then run- 
ning. Betimes there appeared at the best steamboat landings a 
number of '' middle men " engaged in the " commission and for- 
warding " business, buying up the farmers' produce and the tro- 
phies of the chase and the trap, and sending them to the various 
distant markets. Their winter's accumulations would be shipped 
in the spring, and the manufactured goods of the far East or dis- 
tant South would come back in return; and in all these transac- 
tions scarcely any money was seen or used. Goods were sold on a 
year's time to the farmers, and payment made from tlie proceeds of 
the ensuing crops. When the crops were sold and the merchant 
satisfied, the surplus was paid out in orders on the store to labor- 
ing men and to satisfy other creditors. When a day's work was 
done by a working man, his employer would ask, " Well, what 
store do you want your order on?" The answer being given, the 
order was written and always cheerfully accepted. 


Money was an article little known and seldom seen among the 
earlier settlers. Indeed, they had but little use for it, as they could 
transact all their business about as well without it, on the " barter " 
system, wherein great ingenuity was sometimes displayed. When 


it failed in any instance, long credits contributed to the conven- 
ience of the citizens. But for taxes and postage neither the barter 
nor the credit system would answer, and often letters were suffered 
to remain a long time in the postoffice for the want of the twenty- 
five cents demanded by the Government. With all this high price 
on postage, by the way, the letter had not been brought 500 miles 
in a day or two, as is the case nowadays, but had probably been 
weeks on the route, and the mail was delivered at the pioneer's 
postoffice, several miles distant from his residence, only once in a 
week or two. All the mail would be carried by a lone horseman. 
Instances are related illustrating how misrepresentation would be 
resorted to in order to elicit the sympathies of some one who was 
known to have " two bits " (25 cents) of money with him, and pro- 
cure the required Govermental fee for a letter. 

Peltries came nearer being money than anything else, as it came 
to be custom to estimate the value of everything in peltries. Such 
an article was worth so many peltries. Even some tax collectors 
and postmasters were known to take peltries and exchange them 
for the money required by the Government. 

When the first settlers first came into the wilderness they 
generally supposed that their hard struggle would be princi- 
pally over after the first year; but alas! they often looked for 
"easier times next year" for many years before realizing them, 
and then they came in so slily as to be almost imperceptible. The 
sturdy pioneer thus learned to bear hardships, privation and hard 
living, as good soldiers do. As the facilities for making money 
were not great, they lived pretty well satisfied in an atmosphere of 
good, social, friendly feeling, and thought themselves as good as 
those they had left behind in the East. But among the early set- 
tlers who came to this State were many who, accustomed to the 
advantages of an older civilization, to churches, schools and society, 
became speedily home-sick and dissatisfied. They would remain 
perhaps one summer, or at most two, then, selling whatever claim 
with its improvements they had made, would return to the older 
States, spreading reports of the hardships endured by the settlers 
here and the disadvantages which they had found, or imagined they 
had found, in the country. These weaklings were not an unmiti- 
gated curse. The slight improvements they had made were sold to 
men of sterner stuff, who were the sooner able to surround them- 
selves with the necessities of life, while their unfavorable report 
deterred other weaklings from coming. The men who stayed, who 


were willing to endure privations, belonged to a different guild; 
they were heroes every one, — men to whom hardships were things 
to be overcome, and present privations things to be endured for the 
sake of posterity, and they never shrank from this duty. It is to 
these hardy pioneers who could endure, that we to-day owe the 
wonderful improvement we have made and the development, almost 
miraculous, that has brought our State in the past sixty years, from 
a wilderness, to the front rank among the States of this great nation. 


J^Tot the least of the hardships of the pioneers was the procuring 
of bread. The first settlers must be supplied at least one year from 
other sources than their own lands; but the first crops, however 
abundant, gave only partial relief, there being no mills to grind the 
grain. Hence the necessity of grinding by hand power, and many 
families were poorly provided with means for doing this. Another 
way was to grate the corn. A grater was made from a piece of 
tin, sometimes taken from an old, worn-out tin bucket or other 
vessel. It was thickl}' perforated, bent into a semicircular form, 
and nailed, rough side upward, on a board. The corn was taken in 
the ear, and grated before it got dry and hard. Corn, however, was 
eaten in various ways. 

Soon after the country became more generally settled, enterpris- 
ing men were ready to embark in the milling business. Sites along 
the streams were selected for water-power. A person looking for a 
mill-site would follow up and down the stream for a desired loca- 
tion, and when found he would go before the authorities and secure 
a writ ai ad quod damnum. This would enable the miller to have 
the adjoining land officially examined, and the amount of damage 
by making a dam was named. Mills being so great a public neces- 
sity, they were permitted to be located upon any person's land 
where the miller thought the site desirable. 


The agricultural implements used by the first farmers in this State 
would in this age of improvement be great curiosities. The plow 
used was called the " bar-share" plow; the iron point consisted of 
a bar of iron about two feet long, and a broad share of iron welded 
to it. At the extreme point was a coulter that passed through a 
beam six or seven feet long, to which were attached handles of cor- 
responding length. The mold-board was a wooden one split out of 


winding timber, or hewed into a winding shape, in order to turn 
the soil over. Sown seed was brushed in by dragging over tlie 
ground a sapling with a bushy top. In harvesting the change is most 
striking. Instead of the reapers and mowers of to-day, tlie sickle 
and cradle were used. The grain was threshed with a fiail, or 
trodden out by horses or oxen. 


Hogs were always dressed before they were taken to market. The 
farmer, if forehanded, would call in his neighbors some bright fall 
or winter morning to help " kill hogs." Immense kettles of water 
were heated; a sled or two, covered with loose boards or plank, 
constituted the platform on which the hog was cleaned, and was 
placed near an inclined hogshead in which the scalding was done; 
a quilt was thrown over the top of the latter to retain the heat; 
from a crotch of some convenient tree a projecting pole was rigged 
to hold the animals for disemboweling and thorough cleaning. 
When everything was arranged, the best shot of the neighborhood 
loaded his rifle, and the work of killing was commenced. It was con- 
sidered a disgrace to make a hog " squeal " by bad shooting or by 
a " shoulder- stick," that is, running the point of the butcher-knife 
into the shoulder instead of the cavity of the beast. As each hog 
fell, the " sticker " mounted him and plunged the butcher-knife, 
long and well sharpened, into his throat; two persons would then 
catch him by the hind legs, draw him up to the scalding tub, which 
had just been tilled with boiling-hot water with a shovelful of good 
green wood ashes thrown in; in this the carcass was plunged and 
moved around a minute or so, that is, until the hair would slip off easi- 
ly, then placed on the platform where the cleaners would pitch into 
him with all their might and clean him as quickly as possible, with 
knives and other sharp-edged implements: then two stout fellows 
would take him up between them, and a third man to manage the 
" gambrel " (which was a stout stick about two feet long, sharpened 
at both ends, to be inserted between the muscles of the hind legs at 
or near the hock joint), the animal would be elevated to the pole, 
where the work of cleaning was finished. 

After the slaughter was over and the hogs had had time to cool, 
such as were intended for domestic use were cut up, the lard 
" tried " out by the women of the household, and the surplus hogs 
taken to market, while the weather was cold, if possible. In those 
days almost every merchant had, at the rear end of his place of 



business or at some convenient building, a " pork-house," and 
would buy the pork of his customers and of such others as would 
sell to him, and cut it for the market. This gave employment to a 
large number of hands in every village, who would cut and pack 
pork all winter. The hauling of all this to the river would also 
give employment to a large number of teams, and the manufacture 
of pork barrels would keep many coopers employed. 

Allowing for the diiference of currency and manner of market- 
ing, the price of pork was not so high in those days as at present. 
Now, while calico and muslin are ten cents a yard and pork two to 
four cents a pound, then, while calico and muslin were twenty-five 
cents a yard pork was one to two cents a pound. When, as the 
country grew older and communications easier between the seaboard 
and the great West, prices went up to two and a half and three 
cents a pound, the farmers thought they would always be content 
to raise pork at such a price; but times have changed, even con- 
trary to the current-cy. 

There was one feature in this method of marketing pork that 
made the country a paradise for the poor man in the winter time. 
Spare-ribs, tenderloins, pigs' heads and pigs' feet were not con- 
sidered of any value, and were freely given to all who could use 
them. If a barrel was taken to any pork-house and salt furnished, 
the barrel would be filled and salted down with tenderloins and 
spare-ribs gratuitously. So great in man)^ cases was the quantity 
of spare-ribs, etc., to be disposed of, that they would be hauled 
away in wagon-loads and dumped in the woods out of town. 

In those early times much wheat was marketed at twenty-five to 
fifty cents a bushel, oats the same or less, and corn ten cents a 
bushel. A good young milch-cow could be bought for $5 to $10, 
and that payable in work. 

Those might truly be called "close times," yet the citizens of 
the country were accommodating, and but very little suftering for 
the actual necessities of life was ever known to exist. 


Fires, set out by Indians or settlers, sometimes purposely and 
sometimes permitted through carelessness, would visit the prairies 
everj' autumn, and sometimes the forests, either in autumn or 
spring, and settlers could not always succeed in defending them- 
selves against the destroying element. Many interesting incidents 
are related. Often a fire was started to bewilder game, or to bare 









a piece of ground for the early grazing of stock the ensuing spring, 
and it would get away under a wind, and soon be beyond control. 
Violent winds would oiten arise and drive the flames with such 
rapidity that riders on the fleetest steeds could scarcely escape. 
On the approach of a prairie fire the farmer would immediately 
set about " cutting off supplies" for the devouring enemy by a 
" back fire." Thus, by starting a small fire near the bare ground 
about his premises, and keeping it under control next his property, 
he would burn ofl' a strip around him and prevent the attack of the 
on-coming flames. A few furrows or a ditch around the farm con- 
stituted a help in the work of protection. 

An original prairie of tall and exuberant grass on fire, especially 
at night, was a magnificent spectacle, enjoyed only by the pioneer. 
Here is an instance where the frontiersman, proverbially deprived 
of the sights and pleasures of an old community, is privileged far 
beyond the people of the present day in this country. One could 
scarcely tire of beholding the scene, as its awe-inspiring features 
seemed constantly to increase, and the whole panorama unceasingly 
changed like the dissolving views of a magic lantern, or like the 
auroi'a borealis. Language cannot convej^, words cannot express, 
the faintest idea of the splendor and grandeur of such a conflagra- 
tion at night. It was as if the pale queen of night, disdaining to 
take her accustomed place in the heavens, had dispatched myriads 
upon myriads of messengers to light their torches at the altar of 
the setting sun until all had flashed into one long and continuous 

The following graphic description of prairie fires was written by 
a traveler through this region in 1849: 

" Soon the fires began to kindle wider and rise higher from the 
long grass ; the gentle breeze increased to stronger currents, and soon 
fanned the small, flickering blaze into fierce torrent flames, which 
curled up and leaped along in resistless splendor; and like quickly 
raising the dark curtain from the luminous stage, the scenes before 
me were suddenly changed, as if by the magician's wand, into one 
boundless amphitheatre, blazing from earth to heaven and sweeping 
the horizon round, — columns of lurid flames sportively mounting 
up to the zenith, and dark clouds of crimson smoke curling away 
and aloft till they nearly obscured stars and moon, while the rush- 
ing, crashing sounds, like roaring cataracts mingled with distant 
thunders, were almost deafening; danger, death, glared all around; 
it screamed for victims; yet, notwithstanding the imminent peril 


of prairie fires, one is loth, irresolute, almost unable to withdraw 
or seek refuge." 


When the earliest pioneer reached this Western wilderness, game 
was his principal food until he had conquered a farm from the 
forest or prairie, — rarely, then, from the latter. As the country 
settled game grew scarce, and by 1850 he who would live by his 
rifle would have had but a precarious subsistence had it not been 
for "wild hogs." These animals, left by home-sick immigrants 
whom the chills or fever and ague had driven out, had strayed into 
the woods, and began to multiply in a wild state. The woods each 
fall were full of acorns, walnuts, hazelnuts, and these hogs would 
grow fat and multiply at a wonderful rate in the bottoms and along 
the bluffs. The second and third immigration to the country found 
these wild hogs an unfailing source of meat supply up to that 
period when they had in the townships contiguous to the river be- 
come so numerous as to be an evil, breaking in herds into the 
farmer's corn-fields or toling their domestic swine into their 
retreats, where they too became in a season as wild as those in the 
woods. In 1838 or '39, in a certain township, a meeting was called 
of citizens of the township to take steps to get rid of wild Logs. At 
this meeting, which was held in the spring, the people of the town- 
ship were notified to turn out en masse on a certain day and engage 
in the work of catching, trimming and branding wild hogs, which 
were to be turned loose, and the next winter were to be hunted and 
killed by the people of the township, the meat to be divided j9W 
rata among the citizens of the township. This plan was fully 
carried into effect, two or three days being spent in the exciting 
work in the spring. 

In the early part of the ensuing winter the settlers again turned 
out, supplied at convenient points in the bottom with large kettles 
and barrels for scalding, and while the hunters were engaged in 
killing, others with horses dragged the carcasses to the scalding 
platforms where they were dressed; and wiien all that could be 
were killed and dressed a division was made, every farmer getting 
more meat than enough, for his winter's supply. Like energetic 
measures were resorted to in other townships, so that in two or 
three years the breed of wild hogs became extinct. 



The principal wild animals found in the State by the early set- 
tler were the deer, wolf, bear, wild-cat, fox, otter, raccoon, generally 
called "coon," woodchuck, or ground-hog, skunk, mink, weasel, 
muskrat, opossum, rabbit and squirrel; and the principal feathered 
game were the quail, prairie chicken and wild turkey. Hawks, 
turkey buzzards, crows, blackbirds were also very abundant. Sev- 
eral of these animals furnished meat for the settlers; but their 
principal meat did not long consist of game; pork and poultry 
were raised in abundance. The wolf was the most troublesome 
animal, it being the common enemy of the sheep, and sometimes 
attacking other domestic animals and even human beings. But 
their hideous bowlings at night were so constant and terrifying 
that they almost seemed to do more mischief by that annoyance 
than by direct attack. They would keep everbod}' and every ani- 
mal about the farm-house awake and frightened, and set all the dogs 
in the neighborhood to barking. As one man described it: "Sup- 
pose six boys, having six dogs tied, whipped them all at the same 
time, and you would hear such music as two wolves would make." 

To effect the destruction of these animals the county authorities 
offered a bounty for their scalps; and, besides, big hunts were 


In early days more mischief was done by wolves than by any 
other wild animal, and no small part of their mit-^chief consisted in 
their almost constant barking at night, which always seemed so 
menacing and frightful to the settlers. Like mosquitoes, the 
noise they made appeared to be about as dreadful as the real depre- 
dations they committed. The most effectual, as well as the most 
exciting, method of ridding the country of these hateful pests, was 
that known as the " circular wolf hunt," by which all the men and 
boys would turn out on an appointed day, in a kind of circle com- 
prising many square miles of territory, with horses and dogs, and 
then close up toward the center of their field of operation, gather- 
ing not only wolves, but also deer and many smaller " varmint." 
Five, ten, or more wolves by this means would sometimes be killed 
in a single day. The men would be organized with as much 
system as a little army, every one being well posted in the meaning 
of every signal and the application of every rule. Guns were 
scarcely ever allowed to be brought on such occasions, as their use 


would be unavoidably dangerous. The dogs were depended upon 
for the final slaughter. The dogs, by the way, had all to be held 
in check by a cord in the hands of their keepers until the final 
signal was given to let them loose, when away they would all go to 
the center of battle, and a more exciting scene would follow than 
can be easily described. 


This wild recreation was a peculiar one, and many sturdy back- 
woodsmen gloried in excelling in this art. He would carefully 
watch a bee as it filled itself with the sweet product of some flower 
or leaf-bud, and notice particularly the direction taken by it as it 
struck a "bee-line" for its home, which when found would be 
generally hiffh up in the hollow of a tree. The tree would be 
marked, and in September a party would go and cut down the tree 
and capture the honey as quickly as they could before it wasted 
away through the broken walls in which it had been so carefully 
stowed away by the little busy bee. Several gallons would often be 
thus taken from a single tree, and by a very little work, and pleas- 
ant at that, the early settlers could keep themselves in honey the 
year round. By the time the honey was a year old, or before, 
it would turn white and granulate, yet be as good and healthful as 
when fresh. This was by some called "candid " honey. 

In some districts, the resorts of bees would be so plentiful that 
all the available hollow trees would be occupied and many colonies 
of bees would be found at work in crevices in the rock and holes in 
the ground. A considerable quantity of honey has even been taken 
from such places. 


In pioneer times snakes were numerous, such as the rattlesnake, 
viper, adder, blood snake and many varieties of large blue and green 
snakes, milk snake, garter and water snakes, black snakes, etc., etc. 
If, on meeting one of these, you would retreat, they would chase 
you very fiercely; but if you would turn and give them battle, they 
would immediately crawl away with all possible speed, hide in the 
grass and weeds, and wait for a "greener " customer. These really 
harmless snakes served to put people on their guard against the 
more dangerous and venomous kinds. 

It was the practice in some sections of the country to turn out in 
companies, with spades, mattocks and crow-bars, attack the princi- 
pal snake dens and slay large numbers of them. In early spring 

History of Indiana. 159 

the snakes were somewhat torpid and easily captured. Scores of 
rattlesnakes were sometimes frightened out of a single den, which, 
as soon as thev showed their lieads throuo-h the crevices of the rocks, 
were dispatched, and left to be devoured by the numerous wild hogs 
of that day. Some of the fattest of these snakes were taken to the 
house and oil extracted from them, and their glittering skins were 
saved as specifics for rheumatism. 

Another method was to so fix. a heavy stick over the door of their 
dens, with a long grape-vine attached, that one at a distance could 
plug the entrance to the den when the snakes were all out sunning 
themselves. Then a large company of the citizens, on hand by ap- 
pointment, could kill scores of the reptiles in a few minutes. 


One of the greatest obstacles to the early settlement and pros- 
perity of this State was the " chills and fever," " fever and ague," 
or " shakes," as it was variously called. It was a terror to new- 
comers; in the fall of the year almost everybody was afilicted with it. 
It was no respecter of persons; everybody looked pale and sallow as 
though he were frost-bitten. It was not contagious, but derived 
from impure water and air, which are always developed in the 
opening up of a new country of rank soil like that of the Northwest. 
The impurities continue to be absorbed from day to day, and from 
week to week, until the whole body corporate became saturated with 
it as with electricity, and then the shock came; and the shock was a 
regular shake, with a fixed beginning and ending, coming on in 
some cases each da}' but generally on alternate days, with a regu- 
larity that was surprising. After the shake came the fever, and 
this " last estate was worse than the first." It was a burning-hot 
fever, and lasted for hours. When you had the chill you couldn't 
get warm, and when you had the fever you couldn't get cool. It 
was exceedingly awkwai'din this respect; indeed it was. Nor would 
it stop for any sort of contingency ; not even a wedding in the family 
would stop it. It was imperative and tyrannical. When the ap- 
pointed time came around, everything else had to be stopped to at- 
tend to its demands. It didn't even have any Sundays or holidays; 
after the fever went down you still didn't feel much better. You 
felt as though you had gone through some sort of collision, 
thrashing-machine or jarring-machine, and came out not killed, but 
next thing to it. You felt weak, as though you had run too far after 
something, and then didn't catch it. You felt languid, stupid and 


sore, and was down in the mouth and heel and partially raveled 
out. Your back was out of fix, your head ached and your appetite 
crazy. Your eyes had too much white in theai, your ears, especially 
after taking quinine, had too much roar in them, and your 
whole body and soul were entirely woe-begone, disconsolate, sad, 
poor and good for nothing. You didn't think much of yourself, 
and didn't believe that other people did, either; and you didn't 
care. You didn't quite make up your mind to commit suicide, but 
sometimes wished some accident would happen to knock either the 
malady or yourself out of existence. You imagined that even the 
dogs looked at you with a kind of self-complacency. You thought 
the sun had a kind of sickly shine about it. 

About this time you came to the conclusion that you would not 
accept the M^hole State of Indiana as a gift; and if you had the 
strength and means, you picked up Hannah and the baby, and your 
traps, and went back " yander " to '• Old Virgiuny," the " Jar- 
seys," Maryland or " Pennsylvany." 

"And to-day the Sivallows (littiag 
Round my cabin see me sitting 
Moodily within the sunshine, 

Just inside my silent door, 
Waiting for tlie ' Ager,' seeming 
Like a man forever dreaming; 
And the sunlight on me streaming 

Throws no shadow on the floor ; 
For I am too thin and sallow 
To make shadows on the floor — 

Nary shadow any more ! " 

The above is not a mere picture of the imagination. It is sim- 
ply recounting in quaint phrase what actually occurred in thousands 
of cases. Whole families would sometimes be sick at one time 
and not one member scarcely able to wait upon another. Labor or 
exercise always aggravated the malady, and it took General Lazi- 
ness a long time to thrash the enemy out. And those were the 
days for swallowing all sorts of roots and " yarbs," and whiskv) 
etc., with some faint hope of relief. And finally, when the case 
wore out, the last remedy taken got the credit of the cure. 


Though struggling through the pressure of poverty and priva- 
tion, the early settlers planted among them the school-house at the 
earliest practical period. So important au object as the education 



of their children they did not defe; until they could bnild more 
comely and convenient houses. They were for a time content with 
such as corresponded with their rude dwellings, but soon better build- 
ings and accommodations were provided. As may readily be sup- 
posed, the accommodations of the earliest schools were not good. 
Sometimes school was taught in a room of a large or a double loo* 
cabin, but oftener in a log house built for the purpose. Stoves 
and such heating apparatus as are now in use were then unknown. 
A mud-and-stick chimney in one end of the building, with earthen 
hearth and a lire-place wide and deep enough to receive a four to 
six-foot back-log, and smaller wood to match, served for warming 
purposes in winter and a kind of conservatory in summer. For 
windows, part of a log was cut out in two sides of the building, 
and may be a few lights of eight by ten glass set in, or the aper- 
ture might be covered over with greased paper. Writing desks 
consisted of heavy oak plank or a hewed slab laid upon wooden 
pins driven into the wall. The four-legged slab benches were in 
front of these, and the pupils when not writing would sit with 
their backs against the front, sharp edge of the writing-desks. 
The floor was also made out of these slabs, or " puncheons," laid 
upon log sleepers. Everything was rude and plain; but many of 
America's greatest men have gone out from just such school-houses 
to grapple with the world and make names for themselves and re- 
flect honor upon their country. Among these we can name Abra- 
ham Lincoln, our martyred president, one of the noblest men 
known to the world's history. Stephen A. Douglas, one of the 
greatest statesmen of the age, began his career in Illinois teaching 
in one of these primitive school- houses. Joseph A. "Wright, and 
several others of Indiana's great statesmen have also graduated 
from the log school-house into political eminence. So with many 
of her most eloquent and efficient preachers. 

Imagine such a house with the children seated around, and the 
teacher seated on one end of a bench, with no more desk at his 
hand than any other pupil has, and you have in view the whole 
scene. The " schoolmaster " has called '■ Books! books!" at the 
door, and the "scholars" have just run in almost out of breath 
from vigorous play, have taken their seats, and are for the moment 
" saying over their lessons " to themselves with all their might, 
that is, in as loud a whisper as possible. While they are thus en- 
gaged the teacher is perhaps sharpening a few quill pens for the 
pupils, for no other kind of writing pen had been thought of as 



yet. lu a few minutes he calls up an urchin to say his a b c's; 
the little boy stands beside the teacher, perhaps partially leaning 
upon his lap; the teacher with his pen-knife points to the letter 
and asks what it is; the little fellow remains silent, for he does not 
know what to say ; "x\," says the teacher; the boy echoes "A;" 
the teacher points to the next and asks what it is; the boy is silent 
acrain; •' B," savs the teacher; " B," echoes the little urchin; and 
so it goes through the exercise, at the conclusion of which the 
teacher tells the little " Major " to go back to his seat and study his 
letters, and when he comes to a letter he doesn't know, to come to 
him and he will tell him. He obediently goes to his seat, 
looks on his book a little while, and then goes trudging across the 
puncheon floor again in his bare feet, to the teacher, and points to 
a letter, probably outside of his lesson, and asks what it is. The 
teacher kindly tells him that that is not in his lesson, that he need 
not study that or look at it now; he will come to that some other 
day, and then he will learn what it is. The simple-minded little 
fellow then trudges, smilingly, as he catches the eye of some one, 
back to his seat again. But why he smiled, he has no definite 

To prevent wearing the books out at the lower corner, every 
pupil was expected to keep a " thumb-paper '' under his thumb as 
he holds the book; even then the books were soiled and worn 
out at this place in a few weeks, so that a part of many lessons 
were gone. Consequently the request was often made, " Master, 
may I borrow Jimmy's book to git my lesson in? mine haintin my 
book: it's tore out." It was also customary to use book-pointers, 
to point out the letters or words in study as well as in recitation. 
The black stem of the maiden-hair fern was a very popular material 
from which pointers were made. 

The a-b-ab scholars through with, perhaps the second or third- 
reader class would be called, who would stand in a row in front of 
the teacher, "toeing the mark," which was actually a chalk or char- 
coal mark drawn on the floor, and commencing at one end of the 
class, one would read the first " verse," the next the second, and so 
on around, taking the paragraphs in the order as they occur in the 
book. Whenever a pupil hesitated at a word, the teacher would 
pronounce it for him. And this was all there was of the reading 


Those studying arithmetic were but little classified, and they were 
therefore generally called forward singly and interviewed, or the 


teacher simply visited them at their seats. A lessea containing several 
" sums" would be given for the next day. Whenever the learner 
came to a sum he couldn't do, he would go to the teacher with it, 
who would willingly and patiently, if he had time, do it for him. 

In geography, no wall maps were used, no drawing required, 
and the studying and recitation comprised only the committing 
to memory, or ""getting by heart," as it was called, the names and 
locality of places. The recitation proceeded like this: Teacher — 
"Where is Norfolk?" Pupil — "In the southeastern part of Vir- 
ginia." Teacher — "What bay between Maryland and Virginia?" 
Pupil — " Chesapeake." 

When the hour for writing arrived, the time was announced by 
the master, and every pupil practicing this art would turn his feet 
over to the back of his seat, thus throwing them under the writing 
desk, already described, and proceed to "follow copy," which was 
invariably set by the teacher, not by rule, but by as nice a stroke of 
the pen as he could make. The first copies for each pupil would 
be letters, and the second kind and last consisted of maxims. Blue 
ink on white paper, or black ink on blue paper, were common; and 
sometimes a pupil would be so unfortunate as to be compelled to 
use blue ink on blue paper; and a " blue" time he had of it. 

About half past ten o'clock the master would announce, " School 
may go out;" which meant " little play-time," in the children's 
parlance, called nowadays, recess or intermission. Often the prac- 
tice was to have the boys and girls go out separately, in which case 
the teacher would first say, " The girls may go out," and after they 
had been out about ten minutes the boys were allowed a similar 
privilege in the same way. In calling the children in from the 
play-ground, the teacher would invariably stand near the door of the 
school-house and call out "Books! books!" Between play-times 
the request, "Teacher, may I go out?" was often iterated to the 
annoyance of the teacher and the disturbance of the school. 

At about half past eleven o'clock the teacher would announce, 
" Scholars may now get their spelling lessons," and they would all 
pitch in with their characteristic loud whisper and "say over" 
their lessons with that vigor which characterizes the movements of 
those who have just learned that the dinner hour and " big play- 
time " is near at hand. A few minutes before twelve the "little 
spelling-class " would recite, then the " big spelling-class." The 
latter would comprise the larger scholars and the major part of the 
school. The classes would stand in a row, either toeing the mark 


in the midst of the floor, or straggling along next an unoccupied 
portion of the wall. One end of the class was the " head," the 
other the " foot," and when a pupil spelled a word correctly, which 
had been missed by one or more, he would " go up " and take his 
station above all that had missed the word: this was called " turning 
them down." At the conclusion of the recitation, the head pupil 
would go to the foot, to have another opportunity of turning them 
all down. The class would number, and before taking their seats 
the teacher would say, *' School's dismissed," which was the signal 
for every child rushing for his dinner, and having the "big play- 

The same process of spelling would also be gone through with in 
the afternoon just before dismissing the school for the day. 

The chief text-books in which the " scholars " got their lessons 
were Webster's or some other elementary spelling-book, an arith- 
metic, may be Pike's, Dilworth's, Daboll's, Smiley's or Adams', 
McGuffey's or the old English reader, and Roswell C. Smith's 
geography and atlas. Very few at the earliest day, however, got 
so far along as to study geography. Nowadays, in contrast with the 
above, look at the "ographies" and "ologies!" Grammar and 
composition were scarcely thought of until Indiana was a quarter 
of a century old, and they were introduced in such a way that 
their utility was always questioned. First, old Murray's, then 
Kirkham's grammar, were the text-books on this subject. " Book 
larnin'," instead of practical oral instruction, was the only thing 
supposed to be attained in the primitive log school-house days. 
But writing was generally taught with fair diligence. 

"past the pictures." 

This phrase had its origin in the practice of pioneer schools 
which used Webster's Elementary Spelling-book. Toward the back 
part of that time-honored text-book was a series of seven or eight 
pictures, illustrating morals, and after these again were a few more 
spelling exercises of a peculiar kind. When a scholar got over into 
these he was said to be " past the pictures," and was looked up to 
as being smarter and more learned than most other people ever 
hoped to be. Hence the application of this phrase came to be 
extended to other affairs in life, especially where scholarship was 



The chief public evening entertainment for the first 30 or 40 
years of Indiana's existence was the celebrated " spelling-school." 
Both young people and old looked forward to the next spelling- 
school with as much anticipation and anxiety as we nowadays look 
forward to a general Fourth-of-July celebration; and when the time 
arrived the whole neighborhood, yea, and sometimes several neigh- 
borhoods, would flock together to the scene of academical combat, 
where the excitement was often more intense than had been expect- 
ed. It was far better, of course, when there was good sleighing; 
then the young folks would turn out in high glee and be fairlj' 
beside themselves. The jollity is scarcely equaled at the present 
day by anything in vogue. 

When the appointed hour arrived, the usual plan of commencing 
battle was for two of the young people who might agree to play 
against each other, or who might be selected to do so by the school- 
teacher of the neighborhood, to " choose sides," that is, each con- 
testant, or " captain," as he was generally called, would choose the 
best speller from the assembled crowd. Each one choosing alter- 
nately, the ultimate strength of the respective parties would be 
about equal. When all were chosen who could be made to serve, 
each side would "number," so as to ascertain whether amid the 
confusion one captain had more spellers than the other. In case he 
had, some compromise would be made by the aid of the teacher, the 
master of ceremonies, and then the plan of conducting the campaign, 
or counting the misspelled words, would be canvassed for a moment 
by the captains, sometimes by the aid of the teacher and others. 
There were many ways of conducting the contest and keeping tally. 
Every section of the country had several favorite methods, and all 
or most of these were different from what other communities had. 
At one time they would commence spelling at the head, at another 
time at the foot; at one time they would " spell across," that is, the 
first on one side would spell the first word, then the first on the 
other side; next the second in the line on each side, alternately, 
down to the other end of each line. The question who should spell 
the first word was determined by the captains guessing what page 
the teacher would have before him in a partially opened book at a 
distance; the captain guessing the nearest would spell the first word 
pronounced. When a word was missed, it would be re-pronounced, 
or passed along without re-pronouncing (as some teachers strictly 


followed the rule never to re-pronounce a word), until it was spelled 
correctly. If a speller on the opposite side finally spelled the missed 
word correctly, it was counted a gain of one to that side; if the 
word was finally corrected by some speller on the same side on 
which it was originated as a missed word, it was "saved," and no 
tally mark was made. 

Another pojnilar method was to commence at one end of the 
line of spellers and go directly around, and the missed words 
caught up quickly and corrected by "word-catchers," appointed by 
the captains from among their best spellers. These word-catchers 
would, attempt to correct all the words missed on his opponent's 
side, and failing to do this, the catcher on the other side would 
catch him up with a peculiar zest, and then there was fun. 

Still another very interesting, though somewhat disorderly, 
method, was this: Each word-catcher would go to the foot of the 
adversary's line, and every time he "catched " a word he would go 
up one, thus "turning them down" in regular spelling-class style. 
"When one catcher in this way turned all down on the opposing side, 
his own party was victorious by as many as the opposing catcher 
was behind. This method required no slate or blackboard tally to 
be kept. 

One turn, by either of the foregoing or other methods, would 
occupy 40 minutes to an hour, and by this time an intermission or 
recess was had, when the buzzing, cackling and hurrahing that en- 
sued for 10 or 15 minutes were beyond description. 

Coming to order again, the next style of battle to be illustrated 
was to "spell down," by which process it was ascertained who were 
the best spellers and could continue standing as a soldier the longest 
But very often good spellers would inadvertently miss a word in 
an early stage of the contest and would have to sit down humilia- 
ted, while a comparatively poor speller would often stand till nearly 
or quite the last, amid the cheers of the assemblage. Sometimes 
the two parties first " chosen up " in the evening would re-take 
their places after recess, so that by the " spelling-down " process 
there would virtually be another race, in another form; sometimes 
there would be a new " choosing up " for the " spelling-down " con- 
test: and sometimes the spelling down would be conducted with- 
out any party lines being made. It would occasionally happen that 
two or three very good spellers would retain the floor so long that 
the exercise would become monotonous, when a few outlandish 
words like " ehevaux-de frise," " O:npompanoosuc " or " Baugh- 


naiigh-claugh-ber," as they used to spell it sometimes, would create 
a little ripple of excitement to close with. Sometimes these words 
would decide the contest, but generally when two or three good 
spellers kept the floor until the exercise became monotonous, the 
teacher would declare the race closed and the standing spellers ac- 
quitted with a " drawn game." 

The audience dismissed, the next thing was to "go home," very 
often by a round-about way, " a-sleighing with the girls," which, 
of course, was with many the most interesting part of the even- 
ing's performances, sometimes, however, too rough to be com- 
mended, as the boys were often inclined to be somewhat rowdyish. 


Next to the night spelling-school the singing-school was an occa- 
sion of much jollity, wherein it was difficult for the average singmg- 
master to preserve order, as many went more for fun than for music. 
This species of evening entertainment, in its introduction to the West, 
was later than the spelling-school, and served, as it were, as the second 
step toward the more modern civilization. Good sleighing weather was 
of course almost anecessitv for the success of these schools, but how 
many of them have been prevented by mud and rain! Perhaps a 
greater part of the time from November to April the roads would be 
muddy and often half frozen, which would have a very dampening 
and freezing eifect upon the souls, as well as the bodies, of the 
young people who longed for a good time on such occasions. 

The old-time method of conducting singing-school was also some • 
what different from that of modern times. It was more plodding 
and heavy, the attention being kept upon the simplest rudiments, 
as the names ot the notes on the staff, and their pitch, and beating 
time, while comparatively little attention was given to expression 
and light, gleeful music. The very earliest scale introduced in the 
West was irom the South, and the notes, from their peculiar shape, 
were denominated " patent " or "buckwheat" notes. They were 
four, of which the round one was always called sol^ the square one 
Za, the triangular oney^, and the "diamond-shaped" one 7;^^, pro- 
nounced m^; and the diatonic scale, or "gamut" as it was called 
then, ran thus;y«, soZ, la,fa^ sol, la, mi, fa. The part of a tune 
nowadays called " treble," or "soprano," was then called " tenor;" 
the part now called " tenor " was called " treble," and what is now 
"alto" was then "counter," and when sung according to the oldest 
rule, was sung by a female an octave higher than marked, and still 


on the " chest register." The "old" ''Missouri Harmony" and 
Mason's " Sacred Harp " were the principal books used with this 
style of musical notation. 

About 1850 the " round-note " system began to " come around," 
being introduced by the Yankee singing-master. The scale was 
do,re,'mi,fa,sol,la^ siy do\ and for many years thereafter there 
was much more do-re-mi-ingthan is practiced at the present day, 
when a musical instrument is always under the hand. The Car- 
mina Sacra was the pioneer round-note book, in which the tunes 
partook more of the German or Puritan character, and were gener- 
ally regarded by the old folks as being far more spiritless than 
the old " Pisgah," " Fiducia," " Tender Thought," " New Durham," 
" Windsor," " Mount Sion," " Devotion," etc., of the old Missouri 
Harmony and tradition. 


The fashion of carrying fire-arms was made necessary by the 
presence of roving bands of Indians, most of whom were ostensi- 
bly friendly, but like Indians in all times, treacherous and unreli- 
able. An Indian war was at any time probable, and all the old 
settlers still retain vivid recollections of Indian massacres, murders, 
plunder, and frightful rumors of intended raids. While target 
practice was much indulged in as an amusement, it was also neces- 
sary at times to carry their guns with them to their daily field work. 

As an illustration of the painstaking which characterized pioneer 
life, we quote the following from Zebulon Collings, who lived about 
six miles from the scene of massacre in the Pigeon Roost settle- 
ment: " The manner in which I used to work in those perilous times 
was as follows: On all occasions I carried my rifie, tomahawk and 
butcher-knife, with a loaded pistol in my belt. Wiien I went to 
plow I laid my gun on the plowed ground, and stuck up a stick by 
it for a mark, so that I could get it quick in case it was wanted. 
I had two good dogs; I took one into the house, leaving the other 
out. The one outside was expected to give the alarm, which would 
cause the one inside to bark, by which I would be awakened, hav- 
ing my arms always loaded. I kept my horse in a stable close to 
the house, having a port-hole so that I could shoot to the stable door. 
During two years I never went from home with any certainty of 
returning, not knowing the minute I might receive a ball from an 
unknown hand." 




The history of pioneer life generally presents the dark side of the 
picture; but the toils and privations of the early settlers were not a 
series of unmitigated sufferings. No; for while the fathers and 
mothers toiled hard, they were not averse to a little relaxation, and 
had their seasons of fun and enjoyment. They contrived to do 
something to break the monotonj' of their daily life and furnish 
them a good hearty laugh. Among the more general forms of 
amusements were the "' quilting-bee," "corn-husking," "apple-par- 
ing," " log-rolling " and " house-raising." Our young readers will 
doubtless be interested in a description of these forms of amuse- 
ment, when labor was made to afford fun and enjoyment to all par- 
ticipating. The "quilting-bee," as its name implies, was when the 
industrious qualities of the busy little insect that " improves each 
shining hour" were exemplified in the manufacture of quilts for the 
household. In the afternoon ladies for miles around gathered at an 
appointed place, and while their tongues would not cease to play, 
the hands were as busily engaged in making the quilt; and desire 
as always manifested to get it out as quickly as possible, for then 
the fun would begin. In the evening the gentlemen came, and the 
hours would then pass swiftly by in playing games or dancing. 
" Corn-huskings " were when both sexes united in the work. They 
usually assembled in a large barn, which was arranged for the oc- 
casion; and when each gentleman had selected a lady partner the 
husking began. When a lady found a red ear she was entitled to 
a kiss from every gentleman present; when a gentleman found one 
he was allowed to kiss every lady present. After the corn was all 
husked a good supper was served; then the "old folks" would 
leave, and the remainder of the evening was spent in the dance and 
in having a general good time. The recreation afforded to the 
young people on the annual recurrence of these festive occasions 
was as highly enjoyed, and quite as innocent, as the amusements of 
the present boasted age of refinement and culture. 

The amusements of the pioneers were peculiar to themselves- 
Saturday afternoon was a holiday in which no man was expected 
to work. A load of produce might be taken to " town " for sale or 
traffic without violence to custom, but no more serious labor could 
be tolerated. "When on Saturday afternoon the town was reached 
" fun commenced." Had two neighbors business to transact, here 
it was done. Horses were " swapped." Difficulties settled and 


free tiirlits indulsfed in. Blue and red ribbons were not worn in 
those dajs, and whisky was as free as water; twelve and a half 
cents would buy a quart, and thirty-five or forty cents a gallon, 
and at such prices enormous quantities were consumed. Go to any 
town in the county and ask the first pioneer you meet, and he would 
tell you of notable Saturday-afternoon fights, either of which to-day 
would fill a column of the Police News^ with elaborate engravings 
to match. 

Mr. Sandford C. Cox quaintly describes some of the happy feat- 
tures of frontier life in this manner: 

We cleared land, rolled logs, burned brush, blazed out paths 
from one neighbor's cabin to another and from one settlement to 
another, made and used hand-mills and hominy mortars, hunted 
deer, turkey, otter, and raccoons, caught fish, dug ginseng, hunted 
bees and the like, and — lived on the fat of the land. We read of a 
land of " corn and wine," and another " flowing with milk and 
honey;" but 1 rather think, in a temporal point of view, taking into 
account the richness of the soil, timber, stone, wild game and 
other advantages, that the Sugar creek country would come up to 
any of them, if not surpass them. 

I once cut cord- wood, continues Mr. Cox, at 31|- cents per cord, 
and walked a mile and a half night and morning, where the first 
frame college was built northwest of town (Crawfordsville). 
Prof. Curry, the lawyer, would sometimes come down and help for 
an hour or two at a time, by way of amusement, as there was little 
or no law business in the town or country at that time. Reader, 
what would you think of going six to eight miles to help roll logs, 
or raise a cabin ? or ten to thirteen miles to mill, and wait three or 
four days and nights for your grist? as many had to do in the 
first settlement of this country. Such things were of frequent oc- 
currence then, and there was but little grumbling about it. It was 
a grand sight to see the log heaps and brush piles burning in the 
night on a clearing of 10 or 15 acres. A Democratic torchlight 
procession, or a midnight march of the Sons of Malta with their 
grand Gyasticutus in the center bearing the grand jewel of the 
order, would be nowhere in comparison with the log-heaps and 
brush piles in a blaze. 

But it may be asked, Had you any social amusements, or manly 
pastimes, to recreate and enliven the dwellers in the wilderness? 
We had. In the social line we had our meetings and our singing- 
schools, sugar-boilings and weddings, which were as good as ever 


came off in any country, new or old; and if our youngsters did 
not " trip the light fantastic toe " under a professor of the Terpsi- 
chorean art or expert French dancing-master, they had many a 
good "hoe-down" on puncheon floors, and were not annoyed by bad 
whisky. And as for manly sports, requiring mettle and muscle, 
there were lots of wild hogs running in the cat-tail swamps on Lye 
creek, and Mill creek, and among them many large boars that 
Ossian's heroes and Homer's model soldiers, such as Achilles, Hector 
and Ajax would have delighted to give chase to. The boys and 
men of those days had quite as much sport, and made more money 
and health by their hunting excursions than our city gents nowa- 
days playing chess by telegraph where the players are more than 
70 miles apart. 


Indiana is a grand State, in many respects second to none 
in the Union, and in almost every thing that goes to make a 
live, prosperous community, not far behind the best. Beneath her 
fertile soil is coal enough to supply the State for generations; her 
harvests are bountiful; she has a medium climate, and many other 
things, that make her people contented, prosperous and happy; 
but she owes much to those who opened up these avenues that have 
led to her present condition and happy surroundings. Unremit- 
ting toil and labor have driven off the sickly miasmas that brooded 
over swampy prairies. Energy and perseverance have peopled 
every section of her wild lands, and changed them from wastes and 
deserts to gardens of beauty and profit. When but a few years 
ago the barking wolves made tlie night hideous with their wild 
shrieks and howls, now is heard only the lowing and bleating of 
domestic animals. Only a half century ago the wild whoop of the 
Indian rent the air where now are heard the engine and rumbling 
trains of cars, bearing away to markets the products of our labor 
and soil. Then the savage built his rude huts on the spot where 
now rise the dwellings and school-houses and church spires of civ- 
ilized life. How great the transformation! This change has been 
brought about by the incessant toil and aggregated labor of 
thousands of tired hands and anxious hearts, and the noble aspira- 
tions of such men and women as make any country great. What 
will another half century accomplish? There are few, very few, 
of these old pioneers yet lingering on the shores of time as connect- 
ing links of the past with the present. What must their thoughts 



be as with their dim eyes they view the scenes that surround them? 
"We often hear people talk about the old-fogy ideas and fogy ways, 
and want of enterprise on the part of the old men who liave gone 
through the experiences of pioneer life. Sometimes, perhaps, 
such remarks are just, but, considering the experiences, education 
and entire life of such men, such remarks are better unsaid. 
They have had their trials, misfortunes, hardships and adventures, 
and shall we now, as they are passing far down the western decliv- 
ity of life, and many of them gone, point to them the finger of 
derision and laugh and sneer at the simplicity of their ways? 
Let us rather cheer them up, revere and respect them, for beneath 
those rough exteriors beat hearts as noble as ever throbbed in the 
human breast. These veterans have been compelled to live for 
weeks upon hominy and, if bread at all, it was bread made from 
corn ground in hand-mills, or pounded up with mortars. Their 
children have been destitute of shoes during the winter; their 
families had no clothing except what was carded, spun, wov^e and 
made into garments by their own hands; schools they had none; 
churches they had none; afflicted with sickness incident to all 
new countries, sometimes the entire family at once; luxuries of 
life they had none; the auxiliaries, improvements, inventions and 
labor-saving machinery of to-day they had not; and what they 
possessed they obtained by the hardest of labor and individual exer- 
tions, yet they bore these hardships and privations without mur- 
muring, hoping for better times to come, and often, too, with but 
little prospect of realization. 

As before mentioned, the changes written on every hand are 
most wonderful. It has been but three-score years since the white 
man began to exercise dominion over this region, erst the home of 
the red men, yet the visitor of to-day, ignorant of the past of the 
country, could scarcely be made to realize that within these years 
there lias grown up a population of 2,000,000 people, who in all 
the accomplishments of life are as far advanced as are the inhabi- 
tants of the older States. Schools, churches, colleges, pala- 
tial dwellings, beautiful grounds, large, well-cultivated and produc- 
tive farms, as well as cities, towns and busy manufactories, have 
grown up, and occupy the hunting grounds and camping places of 
the Indians, and in every direction there are evidences of wealth, 
comfort and luxury. There is but little left of the old landmarks. 
Advanced civilization and the progressive demands of revolving 
years have obliterated all traces of Indian occupancy, until they are 
onlv remembered in name. 


111 closing this section we again would impress upon the minds, 
of our readers the fact that thev owe a debt of gratitude to those 
who pioneered tliis State, whicli can be but partially repaid. 
I^ever grow unmindful of the peril and adventure, fortitude, 
self-sacrifice and heroic devotion so prominently displayed in their 
lives. As time sweeps on in its ceaseless flight, may the cherished 
memories of them lose none of their greenness, but may the future 
generations alike cherish and perpetuate them with a just devotion 
to gratitude. 


In the days of muster and military drill, so well known through- 
out the country, a specimen of pioneer work was done on the South 
Wea prairie, as follows, according to Mr. S. G. Cox: 

The Captain was a stout-built, muscular man, who stood six feet 
four in his boots, and weighed over 200 pounds; when dressed in 
his uniform, a blue hunting-shirt fastened with a wide red sash, 
with epaulettes on each shoulder, his large sword fastened by his 
side, and tall plume waving in the wind, he looked like another 
William Wallace, or Roderick Dhu, unslieathing his claymore in 
■defense of his count^y. His company consisted of about 70 men, who 
had reluctantly turned out to muster to avoid pajnng a fine; some 
with guns, some with sticks, and others carrying corn-stalks. The 
Oaptain, who had but recently been elected, understood his business 
better than his men supposed he did. He intended to give them a 
thorough drilling, and showed them that he understood the ma- 
neuvers of the military art as well as he did farming and fox hunt- 
ing, the latter of which was one of his favorite amusements. After 
forming a hollow square, marching and counter-marching, and 
putting them through several other evolutions, according to Scott's 
tactics, he commanded his men to "form a line." They partially 
complied, but the line was crooked. He took his sword and passed 
it along in front of his men, straightening the'line. By the time he 
passed from one end of the line to the other, on casting his eye back, 
he discovered that the line presented a zigzag and unmilitary ap- 
pearance. Some of the men were leaning on their guns, some on their 
sticks a yard in advance of the line, and others as far in the rear. The 
Captain's dander arose; he threw his cocked hat, feather and all, 
on the ground, took off his red sash and hunting-shirt, and threw 
them, with his sword, upon his hat; he then rolled up his sleeves 
and shouted with the voice of a stentor, "Gentlemen, form a line 


and keep it, or I'll thrash the whole company." Instantly the wliole 
line was straight as an arrow. The Captain was satisfied, put on 
his clothes again, and never had any more trouble in drilling his 


In early day in this State, before books and newspapers were in- 
troduced, a few lawyers were at a certain place in the habit of play- 
ing cards, and sometimes drinking a little too much whisky. During 
the session of a certain court, a man named John Stevenson, but 
who was named ""Jack," and who styled himself the "philoso- 
pher of the 19th century," found out where these genteel sports- 
men met of evenings to peruse the "history of the four kings." 
He went to the door and knocked for admission; to the question, 
"Who is there?" he answered, "Jack." The insiders hesitated; he 
knocked and thumped importunately; at length a voice from 
within said, " Go away, Jack; we have already four ' Jacks ' in our 
game, and we will not consent to have a 'cold one' wrung in on 

Indignant at this rebuff from gentlemen from whom he had ex- 
pected kinder treatment, he left, muttering vengeance, which 
excited no alarm in the minds of the players. At first he started 
away to walk off his passion, but the longer he walked the madder 
he got, and he finally concluded that he would not "pass " while 
he held or might hold so many trumps in his hands, but would 
return and play a strong hand with them. Accordingly he gath- 
ered his arms full of stones a little larger than David gathered to 
throw at Goliath, and when he came near enough he threw a volley 
of them in through the window into the room where they were 
playing, extinguishing their lights, and routing the whole band 
with the utmost trepidation into the street, in search of their curi- 
ous assailant. Jack stood his ground and toid them that that was 
a mere foretaste of what they might expect if they molested him 
in the least. 

Next day the pugnacious Jack was arrested to answer an indict- 
ment for malicious mischief; and failing to give bail, was lodged 
in jail. His prosecutors laughed through the grates of the prison 
as they passed. Meanwhile Jack " nursed his wrath to keep it 
warm," and indicted a speech in his own defense. In due time 
he was taken before the Court, the indictment was read, and he 
was asked what he pleaded to the indictment. " Not guilty 



he answered in a deep, earnest tone. " Have you counsel engaged 
to defend you, Mr. Stevenson?" inquired the Judge. " No; please 
your honor; I desire none; with your permission I will speak for 
myself." "Very well," said the Judge. A titter ran through the 
crowd. After the prosecuting attorney had gone through with the 
evidence and his opening remarks in the case, the prisoner arose 
and said, '' It is a lamentable fact well known to the Court and 
Jury and to all who hear me, that our county seat has for many 
years been infested and disgraced, especially during Court time, 
with a knot of drunken, carousing gamblers, whose Bacchanalian 
revels and midnight orgies disturb the quiet and pollute the morals 
of our town. Shall these nuisances longer remain in our midst, 
to debauch society and lead our young men to destruction? Fully 
impressed with a sense of their turpitude, and my duty as a good 
citizen to the community in which I live, I resolved to 'abate the 
nuisance,' which, according to the doctrine of the common law, with 
which your honor is familiar, I or any other citizen had a right to 
do. I have often listened with pleasure to the charges your honor 
gave the Grand Jury to ferret out crime and all manner of gaming 
in our community. I saw I had it in my power to ferret out these 
fellows with a volley of stones, and save the county the cost of 
finding and trying a half a dozen indictments. Judge, I did 
' abate the nuisance,' and consider it one of the most meritorious 
acts of my life." 

The prosecutor made no reply. The Judge and lawyers looked 
at each other with a significant glance. A nolle prosequi was 
entered. Jack was acquitted and was ever afterward considered 
" trump." — Settlement of the Wabash Valley. 

"too full fob utterance." 

The early years of Indiana afford to the enquirer a rare oppor- 
tunity to obtain a glimpse of the political and even social relation 
of the Indianians of the olden time to the moderns. As is custom- 
ary in all new countries there was to be found, within the limits of 
the new State, a happy people, far removed from all those influ- 
ences which tend to interfere with the public morals: they possessed 
the courage and the gait of freeborn men, took an especial interest in 
the political questions affecting their State, and often, when met 
under the village shade trees to discuss sincerely, and unostenta- 
tiously, some matters of local importance, accompanied the subject 
before their little convention with song and jest, and even the cup 


which cheers but not inebriates. Tlie election of militia officers 
for the Black Creek Regiment may be taken for example. The 
village school boys prowled at large, for on the day previous the 
teacher expressed his intention of attending the meeting of electors, 
and of aiding in building up a military company worthy of his own 
importance, and the reputation of the few villagers. The industri- 
ous matrons and maids — bless their souls — donned the habiliments 
of fashion, and as they arrived at the meeting ground, ornamented 
the scene for which nature in its untouched simplicity did so much. 
Now arrived the moment when the business should be entered on. 
With a good deal of urging the ancient Elward Tomkins took the 
chair, and with a pompous air, wherein was concentrated a con- 
sciousness of his own importance, demanded the gentlemen entrusted 
with resolutions to open the proceedings. By this time a respected 
elector brought forward a jar and an uncommonly large tin-cup. 
These articles proved objects of very serious attention, and when 
the chairman repeated his demand, the same humane elector filled 
the cup to the brim, passed it to the venerable president and bade 
him drink deep to the prosperity of Indiana, of Black Creek, and 
of the regiment about to be formed. The secretarv was treated 
similarly, and then a drink all round the thirty electors and their 
friends. This ceremony completed, the military subject melted 
into nothingness before the great question, then agitating the peo- 
ple, viz., " Should the State of Indiana accept the grant of land 
donated bv Congress for the construction of the Wabash and Erie 
canal, from Lake Erie to the mouth of Tippecanoe river?" A son 
of Esculapius, one Doctor Stone, protested so vehemently against 
entertaining even an idea of accepting the grant, that the parties 
favorable to the question felt themselves to be treading on tottering 
grounds. Stone's logic was to the point, unconquerable; but his 
enemies did not surrender hope; they looked at one another, then 
at the young school-teacher, whom they ultimately selected as their 
orator and defender. The meeting adjourned for an hour, after 
which the youthful teacher of the young ideas ascended the rostrum. 
His own story of his emotions and efforts may be acceptable. He 
says: " I was sorry they called upon me; for I felt about ' half seas 
over' from the free and frequent use of the tin- cup. I was puzzled 
to know what to do. To decline would injure me in the estimation 
of the neighborhood, who were strongly in favor of the grant; and, 
on the other hand, if I attempted to speak, and failed from intoxi- 
cation, it would ruin me with my patrons. Soon a fence-rail was 


slipped into the worn fence near by, and a wash-tub, turned bottom 
upward, placed upon it and on the neighboring rails, about five 
feet from the ground, as a rostrum for me to speak from. Two or 
three men seized hold of me and placed me upon the stand, amidst 
the vociferous shouts of the friends of the canal, which were none 
the less loud on account of the frequent circulation of the tin and 
jug. I could scarcely preserve my equilibrium, but there I was on 
the tub for the purpose of answering and exposing the Doctor's 
sophistries, and an anxious auditory waiting for me to exterminate 
him. But, strange to say, my lips refused utterance. I saw 'men 
as trees, walking,' and after a long, and to me, painful pause, 
I smote my hand upon my breast, and said, ' I feel too full for 
utterance.' (I meant of whisky, they thought of righteous indig- 
nation at the Doctor's efirontery in opposing the measure under 
consideration.) The ruse worked like a charm. The crowd shouted: 
' Let him have it.' I raised my finger and pointed a moment 
steadily at the Doctor. The audience shouted, ' Hit him again.' 
Thus encouraged, I attempted the first stump speech I ever 
attempted to make; and after I got my mouth to go off (and a part 
of the whisky — in perspiration), I had no trouble whatever, and the 
liquor dispelled my native timidity that otherwise might have 
embarrassed me. 1 occupied the tub about twenty-five minutes. 
The Doctor, boiling over with indignation and a speech, mounted 
the tub and harangued us for thirty minutes. The 'young 
school-master' was again called for, and another speech from him 
of about twenty minutes closed the debate." A vive voce vote of 
the company was taken, which resulted in twentj'-six for the grant 
and four against it. My two friends were elected Captain and 
Lieutenant, and I am back at my boarding house, ready for supper, 
with a slight headache. Strange as it may appear, none of them 
discovered that I was intoxicated. Lucky for me they did not, or 
I would doubtless lose my school. I now here promise myself, on 
this leaf of my day-book, that / will not driiik liquor again, ex- 
cept given as a medical prescription.^'' 

It is possible that the foregoing incident was the origin of the 
double entendre, " Too full for utterance." 


During the year 1868 the sentiment began to prevail that the 
processes of law in relation to criminal proceedings were neither 
prompt nor sure in the punishment of crime. It was easy to ob- 


tain continuances and changes of venue, and in this way delay the 
administration of justice or entirely frustrate it. The consequence 
was, an encouragement and increase of crime and lynch law 
became apparent. An event this year excited the public conscience 
upon this subject. A gang of robbers, who had been operating 
many months in the southern counties, on the 22d of May attacked 
and plundered a railroad car of the Adams' Express company on 
the Jefferson ville road; they were captured, and after being kept 
several weeks in custody in Cincinnati, Ohio, they were put on 
board a train, July 20, to be taken to the county of Jackson, in this 
State, for trial. An armed body of the "Vigilance Committee " of 
Seymour county lay in wait for the train, stopped the cars by hoist- 
ing a red signal on the track, seized the prisoners, extorted a confes- 
sion from them, and hanged them without the form of a trial. 

This same committee, to tlie number of 75 men, all armed and 
disguised, entered New Albany on the night of December 12, 
forcibly took the keys of the jail from the Sheriff, and proceeded to 
hang four others of these railroad robbers in the corridors of the 
prison. They published a proclamation, announcing by printed 
handbills that they would " swing by the neck until the}'- be dead 
everj"^ thieving character they could lay their hands on, wij:hout in- 
quiry whether they had the persons who committed that particu- 
lar crime or not." 


Another case of necessity being the mother of invention occurred 
in Fountain county between 1825 and 1830, as thus related in the 
book above quoted : 

A little old man, who was in the habit of getting drunk at every 
log rolling and house-raising he attended, upon coming home at 
night would make indiscriminate war upon his wife and daughters, 
and everything that came in his way. The old lady and the daugh- 
ters bore with his tyranny and maudlin abuse as long as forbear, 
ance seemed to be a virtue. For awhile they adopted the doctrine 
of non-resistance and would fly from the house on his approach; 
but they found that this only made him worse. At length they 
resolved to change the order of things. They held a council of war, 
in which it was determined that the next time became home drunk 
they would catch him and tie him hand and foot, take him out and 
tie him fast to a tree, and keep him there until he got duly sober. 

It was not long before they had an opportunity to execute their 


decree. True to their plan, when they saw him coming, two of them 
placed themselves behind the door with ropes, and the other caught 
him by the wrists as he crossed the threshold. He was instantly 
lassoed. A tussle ensued, but the old woman and girls fell upper- 
most. They made him fast with the ropes and dragged him out 
toward the designated tree. He raved, swore, remonstrated and 
begged alternately, but to no effect; they tied him to the tree and 
kept him there most of the night. They did not even untie him 
directly after he became sober, until they extorted a promise from 
him that he would behave himself and keep sober for the future, 
and not maltreat them for the favor they had conferred upon him 
and themselves. 

Two or three applications of this mild and diluted form of lynch 
law had an admirable effect in restoring order and peace in that 
family and correcting the conduct of the delinquent husband and 
father. The old woman thinks the plan they pursued far better 
and less expensive than it would have been if they had gone ten 
miles to Esquire Makepeace every few weeks and got out a writ for 
assault and battery besides the trouble and expense of attending 
as witnesses, $10 or $20 every month or two, and withal doing no 
good toward reforming the old man. 


About 1808, in the neighborhood on the east fork of White river, 
there occurred a flagrant breach of the peace which demanded a 
summary execution of the law. A certain ungallant offender had 
flogged his wife in a most barbarous manner and then drove her 
from home. Bleeding and weeping, the poor woman appeared be- 
fore Justice Tongs for redress. The justice wrote out an affidavit, 
which was signed, sworn to, and subscribed in due form. A warrant 
was soon placed in the hands of a constable commanding him to 
arrest and forthwith bring the offender before Justice Tongs, to 
answer to the charge preferred against him. After an absence of 
some five or six hours, the constable returned with the prisoner in 
custody. He had had a vexatious time of it, for the prisoner, a 
gigantic man, had frequently on the way, after he had consented 
peaceably to accompany him to the magistrate's office, stopped short 
and declared he would go no further, observing at the same time 
that neither he (the constable) nor 'Squire Tongs had any business 
to meddle with his domestic concerns. It was during one of those 
vexatious parleys, the constable coaxing and persuading, and the 


prisoner protesting and swinging back like an unruly ox, that the 
constable fortunately spied a hunter at a short distance who was 
armed and accoutred in real backwoods style. The constable beck- 
oned to the liunter, who then came up to his assistance, and who, 
after hearing the particulars of the affair, cocked his rifle, and soon 
galloped off the prisoner to the 'Squire's ofhce. 

But this was only the beginning of the trouble in the case. The 
witnesses were yet to be summoned and brought before the justice; 
even the complaining witness had unexpectedly withdrawn from 
the house and premises of the justice, and was to be looked after. 
The hunter could not possibly stay long, as his comrades were to 
meet him at a point down 10 or 15 miles distant that evening. 
The prisoner was quite sullen, and it was evident that the 'Squire 
could not keep him safely if the constable and hunter were to leave. 
Although the 'Squire's jurisdiction extended from the west line of 
Ohio far toward the Rocky Mountains, and from the Ohio river 
north to Green Bay, yet so sparse was the neighborhood in point of 
population, and so scattering were the settlers, that he and his 
faithful constable found that it would be but little use to a call upon 
the posse coTTiitat us. But in this critical situation of affairs, the 
fruitful mind of the justice hit upon a first-rate plan to keep the 
prisoner until the witnesses could be brought. It was simply to 
pry up the corner of his heavy eight-rail fence near by, make a 
crack two or three rails above the ground, and thrust the prisoner's 
head through the crack, and then take out the pry. 

As soon as the 'Squire made known his plan to the company 
they with one accord resolved to adopt it. The constable immedi- 
ately rolled out an empty " bee-gum" for a fulcrum, and applied a 
fence rail for a lever; up went the fence, the justice took hold of the 
prisoner's arm, and, with the assisting nudges of the hunter, who 
brought up the rear with rifle in hand, they thurst the prisoner's 
head through the crack, nolens 'Oole7is, B.nd then took out the prop. 
There lay the offender safe enough, his head on one side of the fence 
and his body on the other. The hunter went on his way, satisfied 
that he had done signal service to his country, and the constable 
could now be spared to hunt up the witnesses. 

The prisoner in the meantime, although the crack in the fence 
was fully large enough without pinching, kept squirming about and 
bawling out lustily, "Choke trap! The devil take your choke 
trap!" Toward sunset the constable returned with the witnesses. 
The prisoner was taken from his singular duress, and was regularl}' 



tried for his misdemeanor. He was found guilty, fined, and, as it 
appeared from the evidence on the trial that the defendant had 
been guilty aforetime of the same offense, the justice sentenced him 
to three hours' imprisonment in jail. There being no jail within 
100 miles, the constable and bj'standers led the offender to the 
fence again, rolled up the "bee-gum," applied the rail, and thrust 
his head a second time through the fence. There he remained in 
limbo until ten o'clock that night, when, after giving security for 
the final costs, he was set at liberty, with not a few cautions that 
he had better " let Betsey alone," or he would get another applica- 
on of the law and the " choke trap." — Cox' Recollections of the 
Wabash Valley. 


About the year 1834 Michigan claimed that her southern bound- 
ary was properly about 10 miles soutli of the parallel fixed by Con- 
gress, that is, a line drawn from the extreme southern extremity of 
Lake Michigan directly east to. Lake Erie, thus including Toledo. 
Ohio and Indiana, especially the former, stoutly opposed this 
claim. The contest grew so warm that military organization had 
actually commenced, and a war was expected. This was called the 
"Toledo war," and for a time there was as much excitement as on 
the eve of a great revolution. But the blustering Wolverine was 
soothed to rest by an ofier of a large extent of territory north and 
west of the Strait of Mackinaw. Had that State succeeded in es- 
tablishing its claim by decree of Congress, Indiana would have 
been cut off from the lakes, thrown entirely inland like Kentucky, 
and lost a very valuable strip of country. This State also would 
have probably lost the co-operation of Ohio in the conduct of the 
Wabash & Erie canal, the greatest and costliest pet of the State. 
It is amusing to observe, by the way, that the people of Michigan 
at first thought that their reward for yielding the golden strip on 
her southern boundary was a very meager one, thinking that she 
had naught but a barren waste and a large body of cold water; but 
behold, how vast are now her mineral resources in that same bleak 
country, the " upper peninsula! " 


During the administration of Gov. "Whitcomb the war with 
Mexico occurred, which resulted in annexing to the United States 
vast tracts of land in the south and west. Indiana contributed her 
full ratio to the troops in that war, and with a remarkable spirit of 
promptness and patriotism adopted all measures to sustain the gen- 
eral Government. These new acquisitions of territory re-opened 
the discussion of the slavery question, and Governor Whitcomb 
expressed his opposition to a further extension of the " national 

The causes which led to a declaration of war against Mexico in 
1846, must be sought for as far back as the year 1830, when the 
present State of Texas formed a province of New and Independent 
Mexico. During the years immediately preceding 1830, Moses 
Austin, of Connecticut, obtained a liberal grant of lands from the 
established Government, and on his death his son was treated in an 
equally liberal manner. The glowing accounts rendered by Aus- 
tin, and the vivid picture of Elysian fields drawn by visiting jour- 
nalists, soon resulted in the influx of a large tide of immigrants, 
nor did the movement to the Southwest cease until 1830. The 
Mexican province held a prosperous population, comprising 10,000 
American citizens. The rapacious Government of the Mexicans 
looked with greed and jealousy upon their eastern province, and, 
under the presidency of Gen. Santa Anna, enacted such measures, 
both unjust and oppressive, as would meet their design of goading 
the people of Texas on to revolution, and thus afford an opportu- 
nity for the infliction of punishment upon subjects whose only 
crime was industry and its accompaniment, prosperity. Precisely 
in keeping with the course pursued by the British toward the col- 
onists of the Eastern States in the last century, Santa Anna's 
Government met the remonstrances of the colonists of Texas with 
threats; and they, secure in their consciousness of right quietly 
issued their declaration of independence, and proved its literal 
meaning on the field of Gonzales in 1835, having with a force of 



500 men forced the Mexican army of 1,000 to fly for refuge to their 
strongholds. Battle after battle followed, bringing victory always 
to the Colonists, and ultimately resulting in the total rout of the 
Mexican army and the evacuation of Texas. The routed army 
after a short term of rest reorganized, and reappeared in the Terri- 
tory, 8,000 strong. On April 21, a division of this large force 
under Santa Anna encountered the Texans under General Samuel 
Houston on the banks of the San Jacinto, and though Houston 
could only oppose 800 men to the Mexican legions, the latter were 
driven from the field,nor could they reform their scattered ranks until 
their General was captured next day and forced to sign the declaration 
of 1835. The signature of Santa Anna, though ignored by the 
Congress of the Mexican Republic, and consequently left unratified 
on the part of Mexico, was effected in so much, that after the sec- 
ond defeat of the army of that Republic all the hostilities of an 
important nature ceased, the Republic of Texas was recognized by 
the powers, and subsequently became an integral part of the United 
States, July i, 1846. At this period General Herrera was pres- 
ident of Mexico. He was a man of peace, of common sense, and 
very patriotic; and he thus entertained, or pretended to enter- 
tain, the great neighboring Republic in high esteem. For this 
reason he grew unpopular with his people, and General Paredes 
was called to the presidential chair, which he continued to occupy 
until the breaking out of actual hostilities with the United States, 
when Gen. Santa Anna was elected thereto. 

President Polk, aware of the state of feeling in Mexico, ordered 
Gen. Zachary Taylor, in command of the troops in the Southwest, to 
proceed to Texas, and post himself as near to the Mexican border 
as he deemed prudent. At the same time an American squadron was 
dispatched to the vicinity, in the Gulf of Mexico. In November, 
General Taylor had taken his position at Corpus Christi, a Texan 
settlement on a bay of the same name, with about 4,000 men. On 
the 13th of January, 1846, the President ordered him to advance 
with his forces to the Rio Grande; accordingly he proceeded, and 
in March stationed himself on the north bank of that river, widi- 
in cannon-shot of the Mexican town of Matamoras. Here he 
hastily erected a fortress, called Fort Brown. The territory ly- 
ing between the river .Nueces and the Rio Grande river, about 
120 miles in width, was claimed both by Texas and Mexico; ac- 
cording to the latter, therefore, General Taylor had actually 
invaded her Territory, and had thus committed an open 


act of war. On the 26tli of April, the Mexican General, Ampudia, 
gave notice to this effect to General Tajlor, and on the same day a 
party of American dragoons, sixtj-three in number, being on the 
north side of the Rio Grande, were attacked, and, after the loss of 
sixteen men killed and wounded, were forced to surrender. Their 
commander, Captain Thornton, only escaped. The Mexican forces 
had now crossed the river above Matamoras and were supposed to 
meditate an attack on Point Isabel, where Taylor had established a 
depot of supplies for his array. On the 1st of May, this officer left 
a small number of troops at Fort Brown, and marched with his 
chief forces, twenty-three hundred men, to the defense of Point 
Isabel. Having garrisoned this place, he set out on his return. 
On the 8th of May, about noon, he met the Mexican army, six 
thousand strong, drawn up in battle array, on the prairie near Palo 
Alto. The Americans at once advanced to the attack, and, after an 
action of five hours, in which their artillery was very effective, 
drove the enemy before them, and encamped upon the field. The 
Mexican loss was about one hundred killed; that ot the Americans, 
four killed and forty wounded. Major Ringgold, of the artillery, 
an officer of great merit, was mortally wounded. The next day, as 
the Americans advanced, they again met the enemy in a strong 
position near Resaca de la Palma, three miles from Fort Brown. 
An action commenced, and was fiercely contested, the artilleiy on 
both sides being served with great vigor. At last the Mexicans 
gave way, and fled in confusion. General de la Vega having fallen 
into the hands of the Americans. They also abandoned their guns 
and a large quantity of ammunition to the victors. The remain- 
ing Mexican soldiers speedily crossed the Rio Grande, and the next 
day the Americans took up their position at Fort Brown. Tiiis 
little fort, in the absence of General Taylor, had gallantly sustained 
an almost uninterrupted attack of several days from tlie Mexican 
batteries of Matamoras. 

When the news of the capture of Captain Thornton's party was 
spread over the United States, it produced great excitement. The 
President addressed a message to Congress, then in session, declar- 
ing " that war with Mexico existed by her own act;" and that body, 
May, 1846, placed ten millions of dollars at the President's dispo- 
sal, and authorized him to accept the services of fifty thousand 
volunteers. A great part of the summer of 1816 was spent in prep- 
aration for the war, it being resolved to invade Mexico at several 
points. In pursuance of this plan, General Taylor, who had taken 


possession of Matamoras, abandoned by the enemy in May, marched 
northward in the enemy's country in August, and on the 19th of 
September he appeared before Monterey, capital of the Mexican 
State of New Leon. His army, after having garrisoned several 
places along his route, amounted to six thousand men. The attack 
began on the 31st, and after a succession of assaults, during the 
period of four days, the Mexicans capitulated, leaving the town 
in possession of the Americans. In October, General Taylor 
terminated an armistice into which he had entered with the 
Mexican General, and again commenced offensive operations. 
Yarious towns and fortresses of the enemy now rapidly fell into 
our possession. In November, Saltillo, the capital of the State 
of Coahuila was occupied by the division of- General Worth; 
in December, General Patterson took possession of Victoria, 
the capital of Tamaulipas, and nearly at the same period. 
Commodore Perry captured the fort of Tampico. Santa Fe, 
the capital of New Mexico, with the whole territory of the' State 
had been subjugated by General Harney, after a march of one 
thousand miles through the wilderness. Events of a startling char- 
acter had taken place at still earlier dates along the Pacific coast. On 
the 4th of July, Captain Fremoi:t, having repeatedly defeated su- 
perior Mexican forces with the small band under his command, de- 
clared California independent of Mexico. Other important places 
in this region had yielded to the American naval force, and in Au- 
gust, 1846, the whole of California was in the undisputed occupa- 
tion of the Americans. 

The year 1847 opened with still more brilliant victories on the 
part of our armies. By the drawing off of a large part of 
General Taylor's troops for a meditated attack on Vera Cruz, he 
was left with a comparatively small force to meet the great body of 
Mexican troops, now marching upon him, under command of the 
celebrated Santa Anna, who had again become President of Mexico. 

Ascertaining the advance of this powerful army, twenty thou- 
sand strong, and consisting of the best of the Mexican soldiers, 
General Taylor took up his position at Buena Vista, a valley a few 
miles from Saltillo. His whole troops numbered only four thousand 
seven hundred and fifty-nine, and here, on the 23d of February, he 
was vigorously attacked by the Mexicans. The battle was very 
severe, and continued nearly the whole day, when the Mexicans fled 
from the field in disorder, with a loss of nearly two thousand men. 
Santa Anna speedily withdrew, and thus abandoned the region of 


the Rio Grande to the complete occupation of our troops. This left 
our forces at liberty to prosecute the grand enterprise of the cam- 
paign, the capture of the strong town of Yera Cruz, with its re- 
nowned castle of San Juan d'UUoa. On the 9th of March, 1847, 
General Scott landed near the city with an army of twelve thousand 
men, and on the 18th commenced an attack. For four days and 
nights an almost incessant shower of shot and shells was poured 
upon the devoted town, while the batteries of the castle and the city 
replied with terrible energy. At last, as the Americans were pre- 
paring for an assault, the Governor of the city offered to surrender, 
and on the 26th the American flag floated triumphantly from the 
walls of the castle and the city. General Scott now prepared to 
march upon the city of Mexico, the capital of the country, situated 
two hundred miles in the interior, and approached only through a 
series of rugged passes and mountain fastnesses, rendered still more 
formidable by several strong fortresses. On the 8tli of April the 
army commenced their march. At Oerro Gordo, Santa Anna had 
posted himself with fifteen thousand men. On the 18th the Amer- 
icans began the daring attack, and by midday every intrenchment 
of the enemy had been carried. The loss of the Mexicans in this 
remarkable battle, besides one thousand killed and wounded, was 
three thousand prisoners, forty-three pieces of cannon, five 
thousand stand of arms, and all their amunitions and mate- 
rials of war. The loss of the Americans was four hundred 
and thirty-one in killed and wounded. The next day our forces 
advanced, and, capturing fortress after fortress, came on the 
18th of August within ten miles of Mexico, a city of two hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants, and situated in one of the most 
beautiful valleys in the world. On the 20th they attacked and 
carried the strong batteries of Contreras, garrisoned by 7,000 men, 
in an impetuous assault, which lasted but seventeen minutes. On 
the same day an attack was made by the Americans on the fortified 
post of Churubusco, four miles northeast of Contreras Here 
nearly the entire Mexican army — more than 20,000 in number — 
\vere posted; but they were defeated at every point, and obliged to 
seek a retreat in the city, or the still remaining fortress of Chapul- 
tepec. While preparations were being made on the 21st by Gen- 
eral Scott, to level his batteries against the city, prior to summon- 
ing it to surrender, he received propositions from the enemy, which 
terminated in an armistice. This ceased on the 7th of September. 
On the 8th the outer defense of Chapultepec was successfully 


stormed by General Worth, though he lost one-fourth of his men 
in the desperate struggle. Tlie castle of Chapul tepee, situated on 
an abrupt and rocky eminence, 150 feet above the > surrounding 
country, presented a most formidable object of attack. On the 
12th, however, the batteries were opened against it, and on the 
next day the citadel was carried by storm. The Mexicans still strug- 
gled along the great causeway leading to the city, as the Americans 
advanced, but before nightfal a part of our army was within the 
gates of the city. Santa Anna and the officers of the Government 
fled, and the next morning, at seven o'clock, the flag of the Ameri- 
cans floated from the national palace of Mexico. This conquest of 
the capital was the great and final achievement of the war. The 
Mexican republic was in fact prostrate, her sea-coast and chief 
cities being in the occupation of our troops. On the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1848, terms of peace were agreed upon by the American 
commissioner and the Mexican Government, this treaty being rati- 
fied by the Mexican Congress on the 30th ot May following, and 
by the United States soon after. President Polk proclaimed peace 
on the 4tli of July, 1848. In the preceding sketch we have given 
only a mere outline of the war with Mexico. We have necessarily 
passed over many interesting events, and have not even named 
many of our soldiers who performed gallant and important ser- 
vices. General Taylor's successful operations in the region of the 
Rio Grande were duly honored by the people of the United States, 
by bestowing upon him the Presidency. General Scott's campaign, 
from the attack on Vera Cruz, to the surrender of the city of 
Mexico, was far more remarkable, and,, in a military point of view, 
must be considered as one of the most brilliant of modern times. It 
is true the Mexicans are not to be ranked with the great nations of 
the earth; with a population of seven or eight millions, they have 
little more than a million of the white race, the rest being half-civ- 
ilized Indians and mestizos, that is, those of mixed blood. Their 
government is inefficient, and the people divided among them- 
selves. Their soldiers often fought bravely, but they were badly 
officered. While, therefore, we may consider the conquest of so 
extensive and populous a country, in so short a time, and attended 
with such constant superiority even to the greater numbers of the 
enemy, as highly gratifying evidence of the courage and capacity 
ot our army, still we must not, in judging of our achievements, fail 
to consider the real weakness of the nation whom we vanquished. 


One thing we may certainly dwell upon with satisfaction — the ad- 
mirable example, not only as a soldier, but as a man, set by our com- 
mander, Gen. Scott, who seems, in the midst of war and the ordinary 
license of the camp, always to have preserved the virtue, kindness, 
and humanity belonging to a state of peace. These qualities 
secured to him the respect, confidence and good-will even of the 
enemy he had conquered. Among the Generals who effectually 
aided General Scott in this remarkable campaign, we must not 
omit to iijiention the names of Generals Wool, Twiggs, Shields, 
"Worth, Smith, and Quitman, who generally added to the high 
qualities of soldiers tlie still more estimable characteristics of 
good men. The treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo stipulated that the 
disputed territory between the Xueces and the Rio Grande should 
belong to the United States, and it now forms a part of Texas, as 
has been already stated; that the United States should assume and 
pay the debts due from Mexico to American citizens, to the amount 
of $3,500,000; and that, in consideration of the sum of $15,000,000 
to be paid by the United States to Mexico, the latter should 
relinquish to the former the whole of New Mexico and Upper 

The soldiers of Indiana who served in this war were formed into 
five regiments of volunteers, numbered respectively, 1st, 2d, 3rd, 
4th and 5th. The fact that companies of the three first-named reg- 
iments served at times with the men of Illinois, the New York 
volunteers, the Palmettos of South Carolina, and United States 
marines, under Gen. James Shields, makes for them a history; be- 
cause the campaigns of the Rio Grande and Chihuahua, the siege 
of Yera Cruz, the desperate encounter at Cerro Gordo, the tragic 
contests in the valley, at Contreras and Churubusco, the storming 
of Chapultepec, and the planting of the stars and stripes upon 
every turret and spire within the conquered city of Mexico, were 
all carried out by the gallant troops under the favorite old General, 
and consequently each of them shared with him in the glories at- 
tached to such exploits. The other regiments under Cols, Gorman 
and Lane participated in the contests of the period under other com- 
manders. The 4:th Regiment of Indiana Yolunteers, comprising 
ten companies, was formally organized at Jefiersonville, Indiana, 
by Capt. R. C. Gatlin, June 15, 1847, and on the 16th elected 
Major Willis A. Gorman, of the 3rd Regiment, to the Colonelcy; 
Ebenezer Dumont, Lieutenant-Colonel, and W. McCoy, Major. On 
the 27th of June the regiment left Jefiersonville for the front, and 


subsequently was assigned to Brigadier-General Lane's command, 
which then comprised a battery of five pieces from the 3rd Regi- 
ment U. S. Artillery; a battery of two pieces from the 2nd Regiment 
U. S. Rrtillery, the4tli Regiment of Indiana Volunteers and the 4th 
Regiment of Ohio, with a squadron of mounted Louisianians and 
detachments of recruits for the U. S. army. The troops of this 
brigade won signal honors at Fasso de Ovegas, August 10, 1847; 
National Bridge, on the 12th; Cerro Gordo, on the 15th; Las Ani- 
mas, on the 19th, under Maj. F. T. Laliy, of General Lane's staff, 
and afterward under Lane, directly, took a very prominent part in 
the siege of Puebla, which began on the 15th of September and 
terminated on the 12th of October. At Atlixco, October 19th; 
Tlascala, November 10th; Matamoras and Pass Galajara, Novem- 
ber 23rd and 24tli; Guerrilla Ranche, December 5 th; Napaloncan, 
December 10th, the Indiana volunteers of the 4th Regiment per- 
formed gallant service, and carried the campaign into the following 
year, representing their State at St. Martin's, February 27, 1848; 
Cholula, March 26th; Matacordera, February 19th; Sequalteplan, 
February 25th; and on the cessation of hostilities reported at 
Madison, Indiana, for discharge, July 11, 1848; while the 5th In- 
diana Regiment, under Col. J. H. Lane, underwent a similar round 
of duty during its service with other brigades, and gained some 
celebrity at Yera Cruz, Churubusco and with the troops of Illinois 
under Gen. Shields at Chapultepec. 

This war cost the people of the United States sixty-six millions 
of dollars. This very large amount was not paid away for the at- 
tainment of mere glory; there was something else at stake, and 
this something proved to be a country larger and more fertile than 
the France of the Napoleons, and more steady and sensible than 
the France of the Republic. It was the defense of the great Lone 
Star State, the humiliation and chastisement of a quarrelsome 


We have already referred to the prohibition of slavery in the 
Northwestern Territory, and Indiana Territory by the ordinance of 
1787; to the imperfection in the execution of this ordinance and the 
troubles which the authorities encountered; and the complete estab- 
lishment of the principles of freedom on the ors^anization of the State. 
The next item of significance in this connection is the following lan- 
guage in the message of Gov. Ray to the Legislature of 1828: " Since 
our last separation, M-hile we have witnessed with anxious solicitude 
the belligerent operations of another hemisphere, the cross contend- 
ing against the crescent, and the prospect of a general rupture among 
the legitimates of other quarters of the globe, our attention has 
been arrested by proceedings in our own country truly dangerous 
to liberty, seriously premeditated, and disgraceful to its authors 
if agitated only to tamper with the American people. If such ex- 
periments as we see attempted in certain deluded quarters do not 
fall with a burst of thunder upon the heads of their seditious pro- 
jectors, then indeed the Republic has begun to experience the days 
of its degeneracy. The union of these States is the people's only 
sure charter for their liberties and independence. Dissolve it and 
each State will soon be in a condition as deplorable as Alexander's 
conquered countries after they were divided amongst his victorious 
military captains." 

In pursuance of a joint resolution of the Legislature of 1850, a 
block of native marble was procured and forwarded to Washington, 
to be placed in the monument then in the course of erection at the 
National Capital in memory of George Washington. In the 
absence of'any legislative instruction concerning the inscription 
upon this emblem of Indiana's loyalty, Gov. Wright ordered the 
following words to be inscribed upon it: Indiana Knows No 
North, No South, Nothing but the Union. Within a dozen 
years thereafter this noble State demonstrated to the world her loy- 
alty to the Union and the principles of freedom by the sacrifice of 
blood and treasure which she made. In keeping with this senti- 
ment Gov. Wright indorsed the compromise measures of Congress 
on the slavery question, remarking in his message that " Indiana 
takes her stand in the ranks, not of Southern destiny, nor yet of 



law-lp:-was-i-kaw, the shawnee prophet. 


Northern destiny: she plants herself on the basis of the Consti- 
tution and takes her stand in the ranks of American destiny." 


At the session of the Legislature in January, 1869, the subject 
of ratifying the fifteenth amendment to the Federal Constitution, 
allowing negro suffrage, came up with such persistency that neither 
party dared to undertake any other business lest it be checkmated 
in some way, and being at a dead lock on this matter, they adjourn- 
ed in March without having done much important business. The 
Democrats, as well as a portion of the conservative Republicans, 
opposed its consideration strongly on the ground that it would be 
unfair to vote on the question until the people of the State had had 
an opportunity of expressing their views at the polls; but most of 
the Republicans resolved to push the measure through, while the 
Democrats resolved to resign in a body and leave the Legislature 
without a quorum. Accordingly, on March 4, 17 Senators and 36 
Representatives resigned, leaving both houses without a quorum. 

As the early adjournment of the Legislature left the benevolent 
institutions of the State unprovided for, the Governor convened 
that body in extra session as soon as possible, and after the neces- 
sary appropriations were made, on the 19 th of May the fifteenth 
amendment came up; but in anticipation of this the Democratic 
members had all resigned and claimed that there was no quorum 
present. There was a quorum, however, of Senators in office 
though some of them refused to vote, declaring that they were no 
longer Senators; but the president of tliat body decided that as he 
had not been informed of their resignation by the Governor, they 
were still members. A vote was taken and the ratifying resolution 
was adopted. When the resolution came up in the House the 
chair decided that, although the Democratic members had resigned 
there was a quorum of the de facto members present, and the 
House proceeded to pass the resolution. This decision of the chair 
was afterward sustained by the Supreme Court, 

At the next regular session of the Legislature, in 1871, the 
Democrats undertook to repeal the ratification, and the Republican 
members resigned to prevent it. The Democrats, as the Republi- 
cans did on the previous occasion, proceeded to pass their resolu- 
tion of repeal; but while the process was under way, before the 
House Committee had time to report on the matter, 34 Republican 
members resigned, thereby preventing its passage and putting a 
stop to further legislation. 


On the fourth day of March, 1861, after the most exciting and 
momentous political campaign known in the history of this country, 
Abraham Lincohi — America's mart3'^red President — was inaugu- 
rated Chief Magistrate of the United States. This fierce contest 
was principally sectional, and as the announcement was flashed over 
the telegraph wires tliat the Republican Presidential candidate had 
been elected, it was hailed by the South as a justifiable pretext for 
dissolving the Union. Said Jefferson Davis in a speech at Jackson, 
Miss., prior to the election, "If an abolitionist be chosen Presi- 
dent of the United States you will have presented to you the 
question whether you will permit the government to pass into 
the hands of your avowed and implacable enemies. Without 
pausing for an answer, I will state my own position to be that 
such a result would be a species of revolution by which the 
purpose of the Government would be destroyed, and the obser- 
vances of its mere forms entitled to no respect. In that event, 
in such manner as should be most expedient, I should deem it 
your duty to provide for your safet}^ outside of the Union." Said 
another Southern politician, when speaking on the same sub- 
ject, " We shall fire the Southern heart, instruct the Southern 
mind, give courage to each, and at the proper moment, by one 
organized, concerted action, we can precipitate the Cotton States 
into a revolution." To disrupt the Union and form a government 
which recognized the absolute supremacy of the white population 
and the perpetual bondage of the black was what they deemed 
freedom from the galling yoke of a Republican administration. 


Hon. Rufus W. Miles, of Illinois, sat on the floor by the side 
of Abraham Lincoln in the Library-room of the Capitol, in Spring- 
field, at the secret caucus meeting, held in January, 1859, when 
Mr. Lincoln's name was first spoken of in caucus as candidate for 
President. When a gentleman, in making a short speech, said, 
" We are going to bring Abraham Lincoln out as a candidate for 
President," Mr. Lincoln at once arose to his feet, and exclaimed, 
"For God's sake, let me alone! I have suffered enough!" This 
was soon after he had been defeated in the Legislature for United 
States Senate by Stephen A. Douglas, and only those who are 



intimate with that important and unparalleled contest can appre- 
ciate the full force and meaning of these expressive words of the 
martyred President. They were spontaneous, and prove beyond a 
shadow of doubt that Abraham Lincoln did not seek the high posi- 
tion of President. Nor did he use any trickery or chicanery to 
obtain it. But his expressed wish was not to be complied with; 
our beloved country needed a savior and a martyr, and Fate had 
decreed that he should be the victim. After Mr. Lincoln was 
elected President, Mr. Miles sent him an eagle's quill, with which 
the chief magistrate wrote his first inaugural address. The letter 
written by Mr. Miles to the President, and sent with the quill, 
which was two feet in length, is such a jewel of eloquence and 
prophecy that it should be given a place in history: 

Persifek, December 21, 1860. 
Hon. a. Lincoln : 

Dear Sir : — Please accept the eagle quill I premised you, by the hand of our 
Representative, A. A. Smith. The bird from whose wing the qui'll was taken, was 
shot by Johii F Dillon, in Persifer township, Knox Co., Ills., in Feb., 1857, Hay- 
ing heard thiit James Buchanan was furnished with a:i eagle quill to write his 
Inaugural with, and believing that in 1800, a Republican would be elected to take 
his place, I determined to save this quill and present it to the fortunate man, who- 
ever he might be. Reports tell us that the bird which furnished Buchanan's quill 
was a captured bird, — lit emblem of the man that used it ; but the bird from 
which this quill was taken, yielded the quill only with his life, — fit emblem of the 
man who is expected to use it, for true Republicans believe that you would not 
think lile worth the keeping after the surrender of principle. Great difficulties 
surround you ; traitors to their country have threatened your life ; and should 
you \ni called upon to surrender it at the post of duty, your memory will live for- 
ever in the heart of every freeman ; and that is a grander monument than can be 
built of brick or marble. 

"For if hearts may not our memories keep, 
Oblivion haste each veetigu sweep, 
And let our memories end.'' 

Yours Truly, 

R. W. Miles. 


At the time of President Lincoln's accession to power, several 
members of the Union claimed they had withdrawn from it, and 
styling themselves the " Confederate States of America," organ- 
ized a separate government. The house was indeed divided 
against itself, but it should not fall, nor should it long continue 
divided, was the hearty, determined response of 'every loyal heart 
in the nation. The accursed institution of human slavery was 
the primary cause for this dissolution of the American Union. 
Doubtless other agencies served to intensify the hostile feel- 
ings which existed between the Northern and Southern portions 


of our country, but their remote origin could be traced to this great 
national evil. Had Lincoln's predecessor put forth a timelj, ener- 
getic effort, he might have prevented tlie bloody war our nation 
was called to pass through. On the other hand every aid was given 
the rebels; every advantage and all the power of the Government 
was placed at their disposal, and when Illinois' honest son took the 
reins of the Republic he found Buchanan had been a traitor to his 
trust, and given over to the South all available means of war. 


On the 12th day of April, 1861, the rebels, who for weeks had 
been erecting their batteries upon the shore, after demanding of 
Major Anderson a surrender, opened fire upon Fort Sumter. For 
thirty-four hours an incessant cannonading was continued; the fort 
was being seriously injured; provisions were almost gone, and Major 
Anderson was compelled to haul down the stars and stripes. That 
dear old flag which had seldom been lowered to a foreign foe by 
rebel hands was now trailed in the dust. Tlie first blow of the 
terrible conflict which summoned vast armies into the field, and 
moistened the soil of a nation in fraternal blood and tears, had 
been struck. Tlie gauntlet thus thrown down by the attack on 
Sumter by the traitors of the South was accepted — not, however, 
in the spirit with which insolence meets insolence — but with a firm, 
determined spirit of patriotism and love of country. The duty of 
the President was plain under the constitution and the laws, and 
above and beyond all, the peo])le from whom all political power is 
derived, demanded the suppression of the Rebellion, and stood ready 
to sustain the authority of their representative and executive 
oflicers. Promptly did the new President issue a proclamation 
calling for his countrymen to join with him to defend their homes 
and their country, and vindicate her honor. This call was made 
April 14, two days after Sumter was first fired upon, and was for 
75,000 men. On the 15th, the same day he was notified, Gov. 
Yates issued his proclamation convening the Legislature. He also 
ordered the organization of six regiments. Troops were in abund- 
ance, and the call was no sooner made than filled. Patriotism 
thrilled and vibrated and pulsated through every heart. The farm, 
the workshop, the ofiice, the pulpit, the bar, the bench, the college, 
the school-house, — every calling offered its best men, their lives and 
their fortunes, in defense of the Government's honor and unity. 


Bitter words spoken in moments of political heat were forgotten 
and forgiven, and joining hands in a common cause, thej repeated 
the oatli of America's soldier-statesman: "-/??/ the Great Eternal^ 
the Tlii'ion must and shall he preserved.^^ The honor, the very 
life and glory of the nation was committed to the stern arbitrament 
of the sword, and soon the tramp of armed men, the clash of 
musketry and the heavy boom of artillery reverberated throughout 
the continent; rivers of blood saddened by tears of mothers, wives, 
sisters, daughters and sweethearts flowed from the lakes to the 
gulf, but a nation was saved. The sacrifice was great, but the 
Union was preserved. 


In July and August of 18G2 the President called for 600,000 
men — our quota of which was 52,296 — and gave until August 18 as 
the limits in which the number might be raised by volunteering, 
after which a draft would be ordered. The State had already fur- 
nished 17,000 in excess of her quota, and it was first thought this 
number would be deducted from the present requisition, but that 
could not be done. But thirteen days were granted to enlist this 
vast army, which had to come from tlie farmers and mechanics. 
The former were in the midst of harvest, but, inspired by love of 
country, over 50,000 of them left their harvests ungathered, their 
tools and their benches, the plows in their furrows, turning their 
backs on their homes, and before eleven days had expired the 
demands of the Government were met and both quotas filled. 

The war went on, and call followed call, until it began to look as 
if there would not be men enough in all the Free States to crush 
out and subdue the monstrous war traitors had inauo^urated. But 
to every call for either men or money there was a willing and ready 
response. And it is a boast of the people that, had the supply of 
men fallen short, there were women brave enough, daring enough, 
patriotic enough, to have offered themselves as sacrifices on their 
country's altar. On the 21st of December, 1864, the last call for 
troops was made. It was for 300,000. In consequence of an im- 
perfect enrollment of the men subject to military duty, it became 
evident, ere this call was made, that Indiana, was furnishing thous- 
ands of men more than what her quota would have been, had it 
been correct. So glaring had this disproportion become, that 
under this call the quota of some districts exceeded the number of 
able-bodied men in them. 


The people were liberal as well as patriotic; and while the men 
were busy enlisting, organizing and equipping companies, the ladies 
were no less active, and the noble, generous work performed by 
their tender, loving hands deserves mention along with the bravery, 
devotion and patriotism of their brothers upon the battle-field. 

The continued need of money to obtain the comforts and neces- 
saries for the sick and wounded of our army suggested to the loyal 
women of the North many and various devices for the raising of 
funds. Every cit}'', town and village had its fair, festival, picnic, 
excursion, concert, which netted more or less to the cause of 
hospital relief, according to the population of the place and the 
amount of energy and patriotism displayed on such occasions. 
Especially was this characteristic of our own fair State, and scarcely 
a hamlet within its borders which did not send something from its 
stores to hospital or battle-field, and in the larger towns and cities 
were well-organized soldiers' aid societies, working systematically 
and continuously from the beginning of the war till its close. 

Sherman's march to the sea. 

On the 15tli of November, 1864, after the destruction of Atlanta, 
and the railroads behind him, Sherman, with his army, began his 
march to the sea-coast. The almost breathless anxiety with which 
bis progress was watched by the loyal hearts of the nation, and the 
trembling apprehension with which it was regarded by all who 
hoped for rebel success, indicated this as one of the most remark- 
able events of the war; and so it proved. Of Sherman's army, 45 
regiments of infantry, three companies of artillery, and one of 
cavalry were from this State. Lincoln answered ail rumors of 
Sherman's defeat with, "It is impossible; there is a mighty sight 
of fight in 100,000 Western men." 


One other name from the West comes up in all minds, embalmed 
in all hearts, that must have the supreme place in this sketch of 
our glory and of our nation's honor: that name is Abraham 
Lincoln. The analysis of Mr. Lincoln's character is difficult on 
account of its symmetry. In this age we look with admiration at 
his uncompromising honesty; and well we may, for this saved us. 
Thousands throughout the length and breadth of our country, who 
knew him only as "Honest Old Abe," voted for him on that 
account; and wisel}'^ did they choose, for no other man could have 
carried us through the fearful night of war. When his plans were 
too vast for our comprehension, and his faith in the cause too sub- 


lime for our participation; when it was all night about us, and all 
dread before us, and all sad and desolate behind us; when not one 
ray shone upon our cause; when traitors were haughty and exult- 
ant at the South, and fierce and blasphemous at the North; when 
the loyal men seemed almost in tlie minority; when the stoutest 
heart quailed, the bravest cheek paled; when generals were defeat- 
ing each other for place, and contractois were leecliingout the very 
heart's blood of the republic; when everything else had failed us, 
we looked at tliis calm, patient man standing like a rock in the 
storm, and said, " Mr. Lincoln is honest, and we can trust him still." 
Holding to this single point with the energy of faith and despair, 
we held together, and under God he brought us through to victory. 
His practical wisdom made him the wonder of all lands. With 
such certainty did Mr. Lincoln follow causes to their ultimate 
effects, that his foresight of contingencies seemed almost prophetic. 
He is radiant with all the great virtues, and his memory will shed 
a glory upon this age that will fill the eyes of men as they look 
into history. Other men have excelled him in some points; but, 
taken at ail points, he stands head and shoulders above every other 
man of 6,000 years. An administrator, he saved the nation in the 
perils of unparalleled civil war; a statesman, he justified his 
measures by their success; a philanthropist, he gave liberty to one 
race and salvation to another; a moralist, he bowed from the sum- 
mit of human power to the foot of the cross; a mediator, he exer- 
cised mercy under the most absolute obedience to law; a leader, 
he was no partisan; a commander, he was untainted with blood; a 
ruler in desperate times, he was unsullied with crime; a man, he 
has left no word of passion, no thought of malice, no trick of craft, 
no act of jealousy, no purpose of selfish ambition. Thus perfected, 
without a model and without a peer, he was dropped into these 
troubled years to adorn and embellish all tliat is good and all that 
is great in our humanity, and to present to all coming time the 
representative of the divine idea of free government. It is not 
too much to say that away down in the future, when the republic 
has fallen from its niche in the wall of time; when the great war 
itself shall have faded out in the distance like a mist on the 
horizon; when the Anglo-Saxon shall be Sj3oken only by the tongue 
of the stranger, then the generations looking this way shall see 
the great President as the supreme figure in this vortex of history. 




The rebellion was ended with the surrender of Lee and his army, 
and Johnson and his command in April, 1865. Our armies at the 
time were up to their maximum strength, never so formidable, 
never so invincible; and, until recruiting ceased by order of Sec- 
retary Stanton, were daily strengthening. The necessity, however, 


for SO vast and formidable numbers ceased with the disbanding of 
the rebel forces, which had for more than four years disputed the 
supremacy of the Government over its domain. And now the 
joyful and welcome news was to be borne to the victorious legions 
that their work was ended in triumph, and they were to be per- 
mitted "to see homes and friends once more." 


The events of the earlier years of this State have been reviewed 
down to that period in the nation's history when the Republic de- 
manded a first sacrifice from the newly erected States; to the time 
when the very safety of the glorious heritage, bequeathed by the 
fathers as a rich legacy, was threatened with a fate worse than death 
— a life under laws that harbored the slave — a civil defiance of the 
first principles of the Constitution, 

Indiana was among the first to respond to the summons of patri- 
otism, and register itself on the national roll ot honor, even as she 
was among the first to join in that song of joy which greeted a Re- 
public made doubly glorious within a century by the dual victory 
which won liberty for itself, and next bestowed the precious boon 
upon the colored slave. 

The fall of Fort Sumter was a signal for the uprising of the State. 

The news of the calamity was flashed to Indianapolis on the 14th of 

April, 1861, and early the next morning the electric wire brought 

the welcome message to Washington: — 

Executive Department of Indiana, ) 
Indianapolis, April 15, 1861. ) 

To Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States: — On behalf of the State 
of Indiana, I tender to you for the defense of the Nation, and to uphold the au- 
thority of the Government, ten thousand men. 

. Governor of Indiana. 

This may be considered the first official act of Governor Morton, 
who had just entered on the duties of his exalted position. The 
State was in an almost helpless condition, and yet the faith of the 
" "War Governor " was prophetic, when, after a short consultation 
with the members of the Executive Council, he relied on the fidelity 
of ten thousand men and promised their services to the Protectorate 
at Washington. This will be more apparent when the military 
condition of the State at the beginning of 1861 is considered. At 
that time the armories contained less than five hundred stand of 
serviceable small arms, eight pieces of cannon which might be use- 
ful in a museum of antiquities, with sundry weapons which would 
merely do credit to the aborigines of one hundred years ago. The 
financial condition of the State was even worse than the military. 



The sum of $10,368.58 in trust funds was the amount of cash in the 
hands of the Treasurer, and this was, to all intents and purposes 
unavailable to meet the emergency, since it could not be devoted 
to the military requirements of the day. This state of affairs was 
dispiriting in the extreme, and would doubtless have militated 
against the ultimate success of any other man than Morton; yet 
he overleaped every difficulty, nor did the fearful realization of 
Floyd's treason, discovered during his visit to Washington, damp 
his indomitable courage and energy, but with rare persistence he 
urged the claims of his State, and for his exertions was requited 
with an order for five thousand muskets. The order was not exe- 
cuted until hostilities were actually entered upon, and consequently 
for some days succeeding the publication of the President's procla- 
mation the people labored under a feeling of terrible anxiety min- 
gled with uncertainty, amid the confusion which followed the crim- 
inal negligence that permitted the disbandment of the magnificent 
corps cf armee (51,000 men) of 1832 two years later in 1834, Great 
numbers of the people maintained their equanamity with the result 
of beholding within a brief space of time every square mile of their 
State represented by soldiers prepared to fight to the bitter end in 
defense of cherished institutions, and for the extension of the prin- 
ciple of human liberty to all States and classes within the limits of 
the threatened Union. This, their zeal, was not animated by hos- 
tility to the slave holders of the Southern States, but rather by a 
fraternal spirit, akin to that which urges the eldest brother to cor- 
rect the persistent follies of his juniors, and thus lead them from 
crime to the maintenance of family honor; in this correction, to 
draw them away from all that was cruel, diabolical and inhuman in 
the Republic, to all that is gentle, holy and sublime therein. Many 
of the raw troops were not only unimated by a patriotic feeling, 
but also by that beautiful idealization of the poet, who in his un- 
conscious Republicanism, said: 

" I would not have a slave to till my ground, 

To carry me, to fan me while I sleep, 

And tremble when I wake, for all the wealth 

That sinews bought and sold have ever earned 

No : dear as freedom is — and, in my heart's 

Just estimation, prized above all price — 

I had much rather be myself the slave, 

And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him." 

Thus animated, it is not a matter for surprise to find the first 
call to arms issued by the President, and calling for 75,000 men, 


answered nobly by the people of Indiana. The quota of troops to 
be furnished by the State on the first call was 4,683 men for three 
years' service from April 15, 1860. On the 16th of April, Gov- 
ernor Morton issued his proclamation calling on all citizens of the 
State, who had the welfare of the Republic at heart, to organize 
themselves into six regiments in defense of their rights, and in 
opposition to the varied acts of rebellion, charged by him against 
the Southern Confederates. To this end, the Hon. Lewis Wallace, 
a soldier of the Mexican campaign was appointed Adjutant-General, 
Col. Thomas A. Morris of the United States Military Academy, 
Quartermaster-General, and Isaiah Mansur, a merchant of Indian- 
apolis, Commissary-General. These general officers converted the 
grounds and buildings of the State Board of Agriculture into a 
military headquarters, and designated the position Camp Morton, 
as the beginning of the many honors which were to follow the pop- 
ular Governor throughout his future career. Now the people, im- 
bued with confidence in their Government and leaders, rose to the 
grandeur of American freemen, and with an enthusiasm never 
equaled hitherto, flocked to the standard of the nation; so that 
within a few days (19th April) 2,400 men were ranked beneath 
their regimental banners, until as the official report testifies, the 
anxious question, passing from mouth to mouth, was, " Which of 
us will be allowed to go? " It seemed as if Indiana was about to 
monopolize tlie honors of the period, and place the 75.000 men 
demanded of the Union by the President, at his disposition. Even 
now under the genial sway of guaranteed peace, the features of 
Indiana's veterans flush with righteous pride when these days— re- 
membrances of heroic sacrifice^ — are named, and freemen, still un- 
born, will read their history only to be blessed and glorified in the 
possession of such truly, noble progenitors. Nor were the ladies 
of the State unmindful of their duties. Everywhere they partook 
of the general enthusiasm, and made it practical so far as in their 
power, by embroidering and presenting standards and regimental 
colors, organizing aid and relief societies, and by many other acts 
of patriotism and humanity inherent in the high nature of woman. 
During the days set apart by the military authorities for the or- 
ganization of the regiments, the financiers of the State were en- 
gaged in the reception of munificent grants of money from pri- 
vate citizens, while the money merchants within and without the 
State oflfered large loans to the recognized Legislature without even 
imposing a condition of payment. This most practical generosity 


strengthened the hands of the Executive, and within a very few days 
Indiana had passed the crucial test, recovered some of her military- 
prestige lost in 1834, and so was prepared to vie with the otlier 
and wealthier States in making sacrifices for the public welfare. 

On the 20th of April, Messrs, I. S. Dobbs and Alvis D. Gall re- 
ceived their appointments as Medical Inspectors of the Division, 
while Major T. J. Wood arrived at headquarters from Washington 
to receive the newly organized regiments into the service of the 
Union. At the moment this formal proceeding took place, Morton, 
unable to restrain the patriotic ardor of the peoy^le, telegraphed to 
the capitol that he could place six regiments of infantry at the dis- 
posal of the General Government within six days, if such a pro- 
ceeding were acceptable; but in consequence of the wires being cut 
between the State and Federal capitols, no answer came. Taking 
advantage of the little doubt which may have had existence in re- 
gard to future action in the matter and in the absence of general 
orders, he gave expression to an intention of placing the volunteers 
in camp, and in his message to the Legislature, who assembled three 
days later, he clearly laid down the principle of immediate action 
and strong measures, recommending a uote of $1,000,000 for there- 
organization of the volunteers, for the purchase of arais and supplies, 
and for the punishment of treason. The message was received most 
enthusiastically. The assembly recognized the great points made 
by the Governor, and not only yielded to them in toto, but also made 
the following grand appropriations: 

General military purposes $1,000,000 

Purchase of arms ...500,000 

Continf^ent military expenses 100,000 

Organization and support of militia for two years 140,000 

These appropriations, together with the laws enacted during the 
session of the Assembly, speak for the men of Indiana. The celerity 
with which these laws were put in force, thediligince and economy 
exercised by the officers, entrusted with their administration, and 
that systematic genius, under which all the machinery of Govern- 
ment seemed to work in harmony, — all, all, tended to make for the 
State a spring-time of noble deeds, when seeds might be cast along 
her fertile fields and in the streets of her villages of industry to 
grow up at once and blossom in the ray of fame, and after to bloom 
throughout the ages. Within three dsijs after the opening of the 
extra session of the Legislature (27th April) six new regiments were 
organized, and commissioned for three months' service. These reg- 



iinents, notwithstanding the fact that the first six regiments were 
already mustered into the general service, were known as '-The 
First Brigade, Indiana Volunteers," and with the simple object of 
making the way of the future student of a brilliant history clear, 
were numbered respectively 

Sixth Regiment, commanded by Col. T. T. Crittenden. 

Seventh '' " " '• Ebenezer Dumont. 

Eighth " " " " W. P. Benton. 

Ninth " " " " K. H. Milroy. 

Tenth " " " '• T. T. Reynolds. 

Eleventh " " " " Lewis Wallace. 

The idea of these numbers was suggested by the fact that the 
military representation of Indiana in the Mexican Campaign was 
one brigade of live res^iments, and to observe consecutiveness the 
regiments comprised in the first division of volunteers were thus 
numbered, and the entire force placed under Brigadier General T. 
A. Morris, wnth the following staff: John Love, Major; Cyrus C* 
Hines, Aid-de-camp; and J. A. Stein, Assistant Adjutant General. 
To follow the fortunes of these volunteers tlirouo:h all the vicissi- 
tudes of war would prove a special work; yet their valor and endur- 
ance during their first term of service deserved a notice of even more 
value than that of the historian, since a commander's opinion has 
to be taken as the basis upon which the chronicler may expatiate. 
Therefore the following dispatch, dated from the headquarters of the 
Army of Occupation, Beverly Camp, W. Yirginia, July 21, 1861, 
must be taken as one of the first evidences of their utility and 
valor: — 

"Governor O. P. Morton, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Governor:— I have directed the three months' regiments from Indiana to 
move to Indianapolis, there to be mustered out and reorganized for three years' 

I cannot permit them to return to you without again expressing my high 
appreciation of the distinguished valor and endurance of the Indiana troops, and 
my hope that but a short time will elapse before I have the pleasure of knowin"- 
that they are again ready for the field. ******* 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant. 

George B. McCleli s^, 
Major-Oenernl, U 3. A. 

On the return of the troops to Indianapolis, July 29, Brigadier 
Morris issued a lengthy, logical and well-deserved congratulatory 
address, from which one paragraph may be extracted to characterize 


the whole. After passing a glowing eulogium on their military 
qualities and on that unexcelled gallantry displayed at Laurel Hill, 
Phillipi and Carrick's Ford, he says: — 

" Soldiers! You have now returned to the friends whose prayers went with you 
to the field of strife. They welcome you with pride and exultation. Your State 
and country ackuowledge the value of your labors. May your future career be as 
your past has been, — honorable to yourselves and serviceable to your country." 

The six regiments forming Morris' brigade, together with one 
composed of the surplus volunteers, for whom there was no regi- 
ment in April, now formed a division of seven regiments, all reor- 
ganized for three years' service, between the 20th August and 20th 
September, with the exception of the new or 12th, which was ac- 
cepted for one year's service from May 11th, under command of 
Colonel John M. Wallace, and reorganized May IT, 18G2, for three 
years' service under Col. W. II. Link, who, with 172 officers and 
men, received their mortal wounds during the Richmond (Ken- 
tucky) engagement, three months after its reorganization. 

The 13th Hegiment, under Col. Jeremiah Sullivan, was mus- 
tered into the United States in 1861 and joined Gen. McClellan's 
comraaTid at Rich Mountain on the 10th July. The day following it 
was present under Gen. Rosencrans and lost eight men killed; three 
successive days it was engaged under Gen, I. I. Reynolds, and won 
its laurels at Cheat Mountain summit, where it participated in the 
decisive victory over Gen. Lee. 

The 14:TH Regiment, organized in 1S61 for one year's service, and 
reorganized on the Tth of June at Terre Haute for three years' ser. 
vice. Commanded by Col. Kimball and showing a muster roll of 
1,134 men, it was one of the finest, as it was the first, three years' 
regiment organized in the State, with varying fortunes attached to 
its never ending round of duty from Cheat Mountain, September, 
1861, to Morton's Ford in 1864, and during the movement South in 
May of that year to the last of its labors, the battle of Cold Har- 

The 15th Regiment, reorganized at La Fayette 14th June, 1861, 
under Col. G. D. Wagner, moved on Rich Mountain on the 11th 
of July in time to participate in the complete rout of the enemy. 
On the promotion of Col. Wagner, Lieutenant-Col. G. A. Wood 
became Colonel of the regiment, Nove\uber, 1862, and during the 
first days of January, 1863, took a distinguished part in the severe 
action of Stone River. From this period down to the battle of Mis- 
sion Ridge it was in a series of destructive engagements, and was. 


after enduring terrible hardships, ordered to Chattanooga, and 
thence to Indianapolis, where it was mustered out the 18th June, 
1864, — four days after the expiration of its term of service. 

The 16th Regiment, organized under Col, P. A. Hackleman at 
Richmond for one year's service, after participating in many minor 
military events, was mustered out at Washington, D.C.,on the litli 
of May, 1862. Col. Hackleman was killed at the battle of luka, 
and Lieutenant-Col. Thomas I. Lucas succeeded to the command. 
It was reorganized at Indianapolis for three years' service. May 27, 
1862, and took a conspicuous part in all the brilliant engagements 
of the war down to June, 1865, when it was mustered out at New 
Orleans. The survivors, numbering 365 rank and file, returned to 
Indianapolis the 10th of July amid the rejoicing of the populace. 

The 17th Regiment was mustered into service at Indianapolis 
the 12th of June, 1861, for three years, under Col. Hascall, who 
on being promoted Brigadier General in March, 1862, left the 
Colonelcy to devolve on Lieutenant Colonel John T. Wilder. This 
regiment participated in the many exploits of Gen. Reynold's army 
from Green Brier in 1862, to Macon in 1865, under Gen. Wilson. 
Returning to Indianapolis the 16th of August, in possession of a 
brilliant record, the regiment was disbanded. 

The 18th Regiment, under Colonel Thomas Pattison, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis, and mustered into service on the 16th of 
August, 1861. Under Gen. Pope it gained some distinction at 
Blackwater, and succeeded in retaining a reputation made there, 
by its gallantry at Pea Ridge, February, 1862, down to the moment 
when it planted the regimental flag on the arsenal of Augusta, 
Georgia, where it was disbanded August 28, 1865. 

The 19th Regiment, mustered into three years' service at the 
State capital July 29, 1861, was ordered to join the army of the 
Potomac, and reported its arrival at Washington, August 9. Two 
days later it took part in the battle of Lewinsville, under Colonel 
Solomon Meredith. Occupying Falls Church in September, 1861, 
it continued to maintain a most enviable place of honor on the 
military roll until its consolidation with the 20th Regiment, October, 
1864, under Colonel William Orr, formerlv its Lieutenant Colonel. 

The 20th Regiment of La Fayette was organized in July, 1861, 
mustered into three years' service at Indianapolis on the 22d of the 
same month, and reached the front at Cockeysville, Maryland, 
twelve da\'s later. Throughout all its brilliant actions from Hat 
teras Bank, on the 4th of October, to Clover Hill, 9th of April, 1865, 


includirif^ the saving of the United States ship Congress, at New- 
port IMews, it added dail}'' some new name to its escutcheon. This 
regiment was mustered out at Louisville in July, 1865, and return- 
ing to Indianapolis was welcomed by the great war Governor of 
their State. 

The 21sT Hegiment was mustered into service under Colonel I. 
W. McMillan, July 24, 1861, and reported at the front the third 
day of August. It was the first regiment to enter Kew Orleans. 
The fortunes of this regiment were as varied as its services, so that 
its name and fame, grown from the blood shed by its members, are 
destined to live and flourish. In December, 1863, the regiment 
was reorganized, and on the 19th February, 1864, many of its 
veterans returned to their State, where Morton received them with 
that spirit of proud gratitude which he was capable of showing to 
those who deserve honor for honors won. 

The 22d Regiment, under Colonel Jeff. C. Davis, left Indian- 
apolis the 15th of August, and was attached to Fremont's Corps at 
St. Louis on the 17th. From tlie day it moved to the support of 
Colonel Mulligan at Lexington, to the last victory, won under 
General Sherman at Bentonville, on the 19th of March, 1865, it 
gained a high military reputation. After the fall of Johnston's 
southern army, this regiment was mustered out, and arrived at 
Indianapolis on the 16th June. 

The 23d Battalion, commanded by Colonel W. L. Sanderson, 
was mustered in at New Albany, the 29th July, 1861, and moved 
to the front early in August. From its unfortunate marine ex- 
periences before Fort Henry to Bentonville it won unusual honors, 
and after its disbandment at Louisville, returned to Indianapolis 
July 24, 1865, where Governor Morton and General Sherman 
reviewed and complimented the gallant survivors. 

The 24th Battalion, under Colonel Alvin P. Hovey, was 
mustered at V^incennes the 31st of July, 1861. Proceeding imme- 
diately to the front it joined Fremont's command, and participated 
under many Generals in important affairs during the war. Three 
hundred and ten men and officers returned to their State in August, 
1865, and were received with marked honors by the people and 

The 25th Regiment, of Evansville mustered into service there 
for three years under Col. J. C. Veatch, arrived at St. Louis on the 
26th of August, 1861. During the war this regiment was present 
at 18 battles and skirmishes, sustaining therein a loss of 352 men 


and officers. Mustered out at Louisville, July 17, 186.5, it returned 
to Indianapolis on the 21st amid universal rejoicing. 

The 26th Battalion, under W. M. Wheatlej, left Indianapolis 
for the front the 7th of September, 1861, and after a brilliant cam- 
paign under Fremont, Grant, Heron and Smith, may be said to 
disband the ISth of September, 1865, when the non-veterans and 
recruits were reviewed by Morton at the State capital. 

The 27th Regimknt, under Col. Silas Colgrove, moved from 
Indianapolis to Washington City, September 15th, 1861, and in 
October was allied to Gen. Banks' army. From Winchester 
Heights, the 9th of March 1862, through all the affairs of General 
Sherman's campaign, it acted a gallant and faithful part, and was 
disbanded immediately after returning to their State. 

The 28th ob 1st Cavalky was mustered into service at Evans- 
villeon the 20th of August, 1861, under Col. Conrad Baker. From 
the skirmish at Ironton, on the 12th of September, wherein three 
companies under Col. Gavin captured a position held by a 
lew rebels, to tlie battle of the Wilderness, the First Cavalry per- 
formed prodigies of valor. In June and July, 1865, the troops 
were mustered out at Indianapolis. 

The 29th Battalion of La Porte, under Col. J. F. Miller, left 
on the 5th of October, 1861, and reaching Camp JNevin, Kentucky, 
on the 9th, was allied to Ilosseau's Brigade, serving with McCook's 
division at Sliiloh, with Buell's army in Alabama, Tennessee and 
Kentucky, with Iloseucrans at Murfreesboro, at Decatur, Alabama, 
and at Dalton, Georgia. The Twenty-ninth won many laurels, 
and had its Colonel promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. 
This officer was succeeded in the command by Lieutenant-Col. 

The 30th Regiment of Fort Wayne, under Col. Sion S. Bass, 
proceeded to the front via Indianapolis, and joined General liosseau 
at Camp Neviu on the 9th of October, 1861. At Shiloh, Col. 
Bass received a mortal wound, and died a few days later at 
Paducah, leaving the Colonelcy to devolve upon Lieutenant-Col. J. 
B. Dodge. In October 1865, it formed a battalion of General Sheri- 
dan's army of observation in Texas. 

The 31st Regiment, organized at Terre Haute, under Col. Charles 
Cruft, in September 1861, was mustered in, and left in a few days 
for Kentucky. Present at the r8diic:;ion of Fort Donelson on the 
13th, 14th, and lath of February, 1862, its list of killed and 
wounded proves its desperate fighting qualities. The organization 


was subjected to many changes, bnt in all its phases maintained a 
fair fame won on many battle fields. Like the former regiment, 
it passed into Gen. Sheridan's Army of Observation, and held the 
district of Green Lake, Texas, 

The 32d Regiment of German Infantry, under Col. August 
Willich, organized at Indianapolis, mustered on the 24th of August, 

1861, served with distinction throughout the campaign Col. 
"Willich was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General, and Lieut.- 
Col. Henry Yon Trebra commissioned to act, under whose com- 
mand the regiment passed into General Sheridan's Army, hold- 
ing the post of Salado Creek, until the withdrawal of the corps of 
observation in Texas. 

The 33d Regiment of Indianapolis possesses a military history 
of no small proportions. The mere facts that it was mustered in 
under Col. John Coburn, the 16th of September, won a series of 
distinctions throughout the war district and was mustered out at 
Louisville, July 21, 1865, taken with its name as one of the most 
poweriul regiments engaged in the war, are sufficient here. 

The 34th Battalion, organized at Anderson on the 16th Sep- 
tember, 1861, under Col. Ashbury Steele, appeared among the in- 
vesting battalions before New Madrid on the 30th of March, 1862. 
From the distinguished part it took in that siege, down to the 
13th of May, 1865, when at Palmetto Ranche, near Palo Alto, it 
fought for hours against fearful odds the last battle of the war for 
the Union. Afterwards it marched 250 miles up the Rio Grande, 
and was the first regiment to reoccupy the position, so long in 
Southern hands, of Ringold barracks. In 1865 it garrisoned Bea- 
consville as part of the Army of Observation. 

The 35th or First Irish Regiment, was organized at Indian- 
apolis, and mustered into service on the 11th of December, 1861, 
under Col. John C. Walker. At Nashville, on the 22d of May, 

1862, it was joined by the organized portion of the Sixty-first or 
Second Irish Regiment, and unassigned recruits. Col. Mullennow 
became Lieut.-Colonel of the 35th, and shortly after, its Colonel. 
From the pursuit of Gen. Bragg through Kentucky and the affair 
at Perryville on the 8th of October, 1862, to the terrible hand to 
hand combat at Kenesaw mountain, on the night of the 20th of 
June, 1864, and again from the conclusion of the Atlanta campaign 
to September, 1865, witii Gen. Sheridan's army, when it was mus- 
tered out, it won for itself a name of reckless daring and unsur- 
passed gallantry. 


The 36th Regiment, of Richmond, Ind., under Col. Williatn 
Grose, mustered into service for three years on the 16th of Sep- 
tember, 1861, went immediately to the front, and shared the for- 
tunes of the Army of the Ohio until the 27th of February, 1862, 
when a forward movement led to its presence on the battle-field of 
Sliiloh. Following up the honors won at Shiloh, it participated in 
some of the most important actions of the war, and was, in October, 
1865, transferred to Gen. Sheridan's army. Col. Grose was pro- 
moted in 1864 to the position of Brigadier-General, and the 
Colonelcy devolved on Oliver H. P. Carey, formerly Lieut.-Colonel 
of the regiment. 

The 37th Battalion, of Lawrenceburg, commanded by Col. 
Geo. W. Hazzard, organized the 18th of September, 1861, left for 
the seat of war early in October. From the eventful battle of 
Stone river, in December, 1862, to its participation in Sherman's 
march through Georgia, it gained for itself a splendid reputation. 
This regiment returned to, and was present at, Indianapolis, on the 
30th of July, 1865, where a public reception was tendered to men 
and officers on the grounds of the Capitol. 

The 38th Regiment, under Col. B'enjaminF. Scribner, was mus- 
tered in at New Albany, on the 18th of September, 1861, and 
in a few days were en route for the front. To follow its continual 
round of duty, is without the limits of this sketch; therefore, it 
will suffice to say, that on every well-fought field, at least from 
February, 1862, until its dissolution, on the 15th of July, 1865, it 
earned an enviable renown, and drew from Gov. Morton, on return- 
ing to Indianapolis the 18th of the same month, a congratulatory 
address couched in the highest terms of praise. 

The 39th Regiment, or Eighth Cavalry, was mustered in as 
an infantry regiment, under Col. T. J. Harrison, on the 28th of 
August, 1861, at the State capital. Leaving immediately for the 
front it took a conspicuous part in all the engagements up to April, 
1863, when it was reorganized as a cavalry regiment. The record of 
this organization sparkles with great deeds wliich men will extol 
while language lives; its services to the Union cannot be over esti- 
mated, or the memory of its daring deeds be forgotten by the un- 
happy people who raised the tumult, which culminated in their 
second shame. 

The 40th Regiment, of Lafayette, under Col. W. C. Wilson, 
subsequently commanded by Col. J. W. Blake, and again by Col. 
Henry Learning, was organized on the 30th of December, 1861, and 


at once proceeded to the front, where some time was necessarily spent 
in the Camp of Instruction at Bardstown, Kentucky. In February, 
1862, it joined in Buell's forward movement. During the war the 
regiment shared in all its hardships, participated in all its honors, 
and like many other brave commands took service under Gen. 
Sheridan in his Army of Occupation, holding the post of Port 
Lavaca, Texas, until peace brooded over the land. 

The 4:1st Regiment or Second Cavalry, the first complete regi- 
ment of horse ever raised in the State, was organized on the 3d of 
September, 1861, at Indianapolis, under Col. John A. Bridgland, 
and December 16 moved to the front. Its first war experience was 
gained en route to Corinth on the 9th of April, 1862, and at Pea 
Ilidge on the 15th. Gallatin, Vinegar Hill, and Perryville, and 
Talbot Station followed in succession, each battle bringing to the 
cavalry untold honors. In May, 1864, it entered upon a glorious 
career under Gen. Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, and again 
under Gen, Wilson in the raid through Alabama during April, 
1865. On the 22d of July, after a brilliant career, the regiment was 
mastered out at Nashville, and returned at once to Indianapolis for 

The 42d, under Col J. G. Jones, mustered into service at Evans- 
ville, October 9, 1861, and having participated in the principal 
military affairs of the period, Wartrace, Mission Ridge, Altoona, 
Kenesaw, Savannah, Charlestown and Bentonville, was discharged 
at Indianapolis on the 25th of July, 1865. 

The 43d Battalion was mustered in on the 27th of September, 
1861, under Col. George K. Steele, and left Terre Haute en route to 
the front within a few days. Later it was alUed to Gen. Pope's 
corps, and afterwards served with Commodore Foote's marines in 
the reduction of Fort Pillow. It was the first Union regiment to 
enter Memphis. From that period until the close of the war it was 
distinguished for its unexcelled qualifications as a military body, 
and fully deserved the encomiums passed upon it on its return to 
Indianapolis in March, 1865. 

The 44th or the Regiment of the 10th Congressional District 
was organized at Fort Wayne on the 24th of Ocitober, 1861, under 
Col. Hugh B. Reed. Two months later it was ordered to the front, 
and arriving in Kentucky, was attached to Gen. Cruft's Brigade, 
then quartered at Calhoun. After years of faithful service it was 
mustered out at Chattanooga, the 14th of September, 1865. 

The 45th, or Third Cavalry, comprised ten companies 


organized at different periods and for varied services in 1861- 
'62, under Colonel Scott Carter and George H. Chapman. The 
distinguished name won by the Third Cavalry is established in 
every village within the State. Let it suffice to add that after its 
brilliant participation in Gen. Sheridan's raid down the James' 
river canal, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the Tth of Au- 
gust, 1865. 

The 46th Regiment, organized at Logansport under Colonel 
Graham N. Fitch, arrived in Kentucky the 16th of February, 1862, 
and a little later became attached to Gen. Pope's army, then quar- 
tered at Commerce. The capture of Fort Pillow, and its career 
under Generals Curtis, Palmer, Hovey, Gorman, Grant, Sherman, 
Banks and Burbridge are as truly worthy of applause as ever fell to 
the lot of a regiment. The command was mustered out at Louis- 
ville on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The 47th was organized at Anderson, under Col. I. R. Slack, early 
in October, 1862. Arriving at Bardstown, Kentucky, on the 21st 
of December, it was attached to Gen. Buell's army; but within two 
months was assigned to Gen. Pope, under whom it proved the first 
regiment to enter Fort Thompson near New Madrid. In 1864 the 
command visited Indianapolis on veteran furlough and was enthu- 
siastically received by Governor Morton and the people. Return- 
ing to the front it engaged heartily in Gen. Banks' company. In 
December, Col. Slack received his commission as Brigadier-General, 
and was succeeded on the regimental command by Col. J, A. Mc- 
Laughton; at Shreveport under General Heron it received the sub- 
mission of General Price and his army, and there also was it mus- 
tered out of service on the 23d of October, 1865. 

The 48th Regiment, organized at Goshen the 6th of December, 
1861, under Col. Norman Eddy, entered on its duties during the 
siege of Corinth in May, and again in October, 1862. The record 
of this battalion may be said to be unsurpassed in its every feature, 
so that the grand ovation extended to the returned soldiers in 
1865 at Indianapolis, is not a matter for surprise. 

The 49th Regiment, organized at Jeffersonville, under Col. J. W. 
Ray, and mustered in on the 21st of November, 1861, for service, 
left en route for the camp at Bardstown. A month later it arrived 
at the unfortunate camp-ground of Cumberland Ford, where dis- 
ease carried off a number of gallant soldiers. The regiment, how- 
ever, survived the dreadful scourge and won its laurels on many 


a well -fought field until September, 1865, when it was mustered out 
at Louisville. 

The 50th Eegiment, under Col. Cyrus L. Dunham, organized 
during the month of September, 1861, at Seymour, left en route to 
Bardstown for a course of military instruction. On the 20th of 
August, 1862, a detachment of the 50th, under Capt. Atkinson, was 
attacked by Morgan's Cavalry near Edgefield Junction; but the 
gallant few repulsed their oft-repeated onsets and finally drove 
them from the field. The regiment underwent many changes in 
organization, and may be said to muster out on the lOtli of Septem- 
ber, 1805. 

The 51sT Regiment, under Col. Abel. D. Streight, left Indianap- 
olis on the lith of December, 1861, for the South. After a short 
course of instruction at Bardstown, the regiment joined General 
Buell's and acted with great effect during the campaign in Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. Ultimately it became a participator in the 
work of the Fourth Corps, or Army of Occupation, and held the post 
of San Antonio until peace was doubly assured. 

The 52d Regiment was partially raised at Rushville, and the 
organization completed at Indianapolis, where it was consolidated 
with the Railway Brigade, or 56th Regiment, on the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1862. Going to the front immediately after, it served with 
marked distinction throughout the war, and was mustered out at 
Montgomery on the 10th of September, 1865. Returning to Indian- 
apolis six days later, it was welcomed by Gov. Morton and a most 
enthusiastic reception accorded to it. 

The 53rd Battalion was raised at New Albany, and with the 
addition of recruits raised at Rockport formed a standard regi- 
ment, under command of Col. W. Q. Gresham. Its first duty was 
that of guarding the rebels confined on Camp Morton, but on 
going to the front it made for itself an endurable name. It was mus- 
tered out in July, 1865, and returned to Indiananoplis on the 25th 
of the same month. 

The 54th Regiment was raised at Indianapolis on the 10th of 
June, 1862, for three months' service under Col. D.G.Rose. The 
succeeding two months saw it in charge of the prisoners at Camp 
Morton, and in August it was pushed forward to aid in the defense 
of Kentucky against the Confederate General, Kirby Smith. The 
remainder of its short term of service was given to the cause. On the 
muster out of the three months' service regiment it was reorgan- 


ized for one year's service and gained some distinction, after which 
it was mustered out in 1863 at New Orleans. 

The 55th JRegiment, organized for three months' service, retains 
the brief history applicable to the first organization of the 54th. 
It was mustered in on the 16th of June, 1862, under Col. J. E,. 
Mahon, disbanded on the expiration of its term and was not reor- 

The 56t^ Regiment, rei'erred to in the sketch of the 52nd, was 
designed to be composed of railroad men, marshalled under J, M. 
Smith as Colonel, but owing to the fact that many railroaders had 
already volunteered into other regiments. Col. Smith's volunteers 
were incorporated with the 52nd, and this number left blank in the 
army list. 

The 57th Battalion, actually organized by two ministers of the 
gospel,— the Rev. I. W. T. McMullen and Rev. F. A. Hardin, of 
Richmond, Ind., mustered into service on the 18th of Novem- 
ber, 1861, under the former named reverend gentleman as Colonel, 
who was, however, succeeded by Col. Cyrus C. Ilaynes, and he in 
turn by G. W. Leonard, WillisBlanch and John S. McGrath, the 
latter holding command until the conclusion of the war. The 
history of this battalion is extensive, and if participation in a num- 
ber of battles with the display of rare gallantry wins fame, the 57th 
may rest assured of its possession of this fragile yet coveted prize. 
Like many other regiments it concluded its military labors in the 
service of General Sheridan, and held the post of Port Lavaca in 
conjunction with another regiment until peace dwelt in the land. 

The 58th Regiment, of Princeton, was organized there early in 
October, 1861, and was mustered into service under the Colonelcy 
of Henry M. Carr. In December it was ordered to join Gen- 
eral BuelTs army, after which it took a share in the various 
actions of the war, and was mustered out on the 25th of July, 18C5, 
at Louisville, having gained a place on the roll of honor. 

The 59th Battalion was raised under a commission issued by 
Gov. Morton to Jesse I. Alexander, creatine him Colonel. Owino- 
to the peculiarities hampering its organization, Col. Alexander could 
not succeed in having his regiment prepared to muster in before 
the 17th of February, 1862. However, on that day the equipment 
was complete, and on the 18th it left eriiroute to Commerce, where 
on its arrival, it was incorporated under General Pope's command. 
The list of its casualties speaks a history, — no less than 793 men 
were lost during the campaign. The regiment, after a term char- 


acterized by distinguished service, was mustered out at Louisville 
on the 17th of July, 1865. 

The 60tu Eegiment was partially organized under Lieut. -Col. 
Richard Owen at Evansville during November 1861, and perfected 
at Camp Morton during March, 1862. Its first experience was its 
gallant resistance to Bragg's army investing Muntbrdsville, which 
culminated in the unconditional surrender of its first seven com- 
panies on the 14th of September. An exchange of prisoners took 
place in November, which enabled it to joine the remaining com- 
panies in the field. The subsequent record is excellent, and forms, 
as it were, a monument to their fidelity and heroism. The main 
portion of this battalion was mustered out at Indianapolis, on the 
21st of March, 1865. 

The 61sT was partially organized in December, 1861, under Col. 
B. F. Mullen. The failure of thorough organization on the 22d of 
May, 1862, led the men and officers to agree to incorporation with 
the 35th Regiment of Volunteers. 

The 62d Battalion, raised under a commission issued to Wil- 
liam Jones, of Rockport, authorizing him to organize this regiment 
in the First Congressional District was so unsuccessful that consoli- 
dation with the 53d Regiment was resolved upon. 

The 63d Regiment, of Covington, under James McManomy, 
Commandant ot Camp, and J. S. Williams, Adjutant, was partially 
organized on the 31st of December, 1861, and may be considered 
on duty from its very formation. After guarding prisoners at 
Camp Morton and Lafayette, and engaging in battle on Manassas 
Plains on the 30th of August following, the few companies sent 
out in February, 1862, returned to Indianapolis to find six new 
companies raised under the call of July, 1862, ready to embrace 
the fortunes of the 63d. So strengthened, the regiment went forth 
to battle, and continued to lead in the paths of honor and fidelity 
until mustered out in May and June, 1865. 

The 64th Regiment failed in organization as an artillery corps; 
but orders received from the War Department prohibiting the con- 
solidation of independent batteries, put a stop to any further move 
in the matter. However, an infantry regiment bearing the same 
number was afterward organized. 

The 65th was mustered in at Princeton and Evansville, in July 
and August, 1862, under Col. J. W. Foster, and left at once en 
route for the front. The record of this battalion is creditable, not 
only to its members, but also to the State which claimed it. Its 


last action during the war was on the 18th and 20th of February, 
1865, at Fort Anderson and Town creek, after which, on the 22d 
June, it was disbanded at Greensboro. 

The 66th Regiment partially organized at E"ew Albany, under 
Commandant Roger Martin, was ordered to leave for Kentucky on 
the 19th of August, 1862, for the defense of that State against the 
incursions of Kirby Smith. After a brilliant career it was mus- 
tered out at Washington on the 3d of June, 1865, after which it 
returned to Indianapolis to receive the thanks of a grateful people. 

The 67th Regiment was organized within the Third Congressional 
District under Col. Frank Emerson, and was ordered to Louisville 
on the 20th of August, 1862, whence it marched to Munfordville, 
only to share the same fate with the otiier gallant regim.ents en- 
gao^ed against Gen. Bragg's advance. Its roll of honor extends 
down the years of civil disturbance, — always adding garlands, un- 
til Peace called a truce in the fascinating race after fame, and insured 
a term of rest, wherein its members could think on comrades forever 
vanished, and temper the sad thought with the sublime mem- 
ories born of that chivalrous fight for the maintenance and integri- 
ty of a great Republic. At Galveston on the 19th of July, 1865, the 
gallant 67tli Regiment was mustered out, and returning within a 
iew days to its State received the enthusiastic ovations of her citi- 

The 68th Regiment, organized at Greensburg under Major Ben- 
jamin C. Shaw, was accepted for general service the 19th of August, 
1862, under CoL Edward A. King, with Major Shaw as Lieutenant 
Colonel; on the 25th its arrival at Lebanon was reported and with- 
in a few days it appeared at the defense of Munfordville; but shar- 
ing in the fate of all the defenders, it surrendered unconditionally to 
Gen. Bragg and did not participate further in the actions of that 
year, nor until after the exchange of prisoners in 1863. From this 
period it may lay claim to an enviable history extending to the end 
of the war, when it was disembodied. 

The 69th Regiment, of Richmond, Ind., under Col. A. Bickle, 
left for the front on the 20th ot August, 1862, and ten days later 
made a very brilliant stand at Richmond, Kentucky, against 
the advance of Gen. Kirby Smith, losing in the engagement two 
hundred and eighteen men and officers together with its liberty. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was reorganized under 
Col. T. W. Bennett and took the field in December, 1862, under 


Generals Sheldon, Morgan and Sherman of Grant's army. Chick- 
asaw, Vicksburg, Blakely and many other names testify to the valor 
of the 69th. The remnant of the regiment was in January, 1865, 
formed into a battalion under Oran Perry, and was mustered out in 
July following. 

The 70th Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 12th of 
August, 1862, under Col. B. Harrison, and leaving for Louisville on 
the 13th, shared in the honors of Bruce's division at Franklin 
and Russellville. The record of the regiment is brimful of honor. 
It was mustered out at Washington, June 8, 1865, and received at 
Indianapolis with public honors. 

The 71sT OR Sixth Cavalry was organized as an infantry regi- 
ment, at Terre Haute, and mustered into general service at Indian- 
apolis on the 18th of August, 1862, under Lieut. -Col. Melville D. 
Toppino-. Twelve days later it was engaged outside Richmond, 
Kentucky, losing two hundred and fifteen officers and men, includ- 
ing Col. Topping and Major Conklin, together with three hundred 
and forty-seven prisoners, only 225 escaping death and capture. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was re-formed under 
Col. I. Bittle, but on the 28th of December it surrendered to Gen. 
J. H. Morgan, who attacked its position at Muldraugh's Hill with a 
force of 1,000 Confederates. During September and October, 1863, 
it was organized as a cavalry regiment, won distinction throughout 
its career, and was mustered out the 15th of September, 1865, at 

The 77th Regiment was organized at Lafayette, andle^t en rotite 
to Lebanon, Kentucky, on the 17th of August, 1862. Under Col. 
Miller it won a series of honors, and mustered out at Nashville on 
the 26th of June, 1865. 

The 73bd Regiment, under Col. Gilbert Hathaway, was mustered 
in at South Bend on the 16th of August, 1862, and proceeded im- 
mediately to the front. Day's Gap, Crooked Creek, and the high 
eulogies of Generals Rosencrans and Granger speak its long and 
brilliant history, nor were tlie welcoming shouts of a great people 
and the congratulations of Gov. Morton, tendered to the regiment 
on its return home, in July, 1865, necessary to sustain its well won 

The 74th Regiment, partially organized at Fort Wayne and made 
almost complete at Indianapolis, left for the seat of war on the 22d 
of August, 1862, under Col. Charles W. Chapman. The desperate 
opposition to Gen. Bragg, and the magnificent defeat of Morgan, 


together with the battles of Dallas, Chattahoochie river, Kenesaw 
and Atlanta, where Lieut. Col. Myron Baker was killed, all bear evi- 
dence of its never surpassed gallantry. It was mustered out of ser- 
vice on the 9 th of June, 1865, at Washington. On the return of the 
regiment to Indianapolis, the war Governor and people tendered it 
special honors, and gave expression to the admiration and regard 
in which it was held. 

The 75th Regiment was organized within the Eleventh Congress- 
ional District, and left Wabash, on the 21st of August, 1862, for the 
front, uuder Col. I. W. Petit. It was the first regiment to enter 
Tullahoma, and one of the last engaged in the battles of the Repub- 
lic. After the submission of Gen. Johnson's army, it was mustered 
out at Washington, on the 8th of June 1865. 

The 76tu Battalion was solely organized for thirty days' service 
under Colonel James Gavin, for the purpose of pursuing the rebel 
guerrilas, who plundered Newburg on the 13th July, 18G2. It was 
organized and equipped within forty-eight hours, and during its 
term of service gained the name, " The Avengers of Newburg." 

The 77th, or Fourth Cavalry, was organized at the State capi- 
tal in Auo-ust, 1862, under Colonel Isaac P. Grav. It carved its 
way to fame over twenty battlefields, and retired from service at 
Edgefield, on the 29th June, 1865. 

The 79th Regiment was mustered in at Indianapolis on the 2nd 
September, 1862, under Colonel Fred Knefler. Its history may be 
termed a record of battles, as the great numbers of battles, from 
1862 to the conclusion of hostilities, were participated in by it. 
The regiment received its discharge on the 11th June, 1865, at 
Indianapolis. During its continued round of field duty it captured 
eighteen guns and over one thousand prisoners. 

The 80th Regiment was organized within tlie First Congress- 
ional District under Col. C. Denby, and equipped at Indianapolis, 
when, on the 8th of September, 1862, it left for the front. During 
its term it lost only two prisoners; but its list of casualties sums 
up 325 men and officers killed and wounded. The regiment may 
be said to muster out on the 22nd of June, 1865, at Saulsbury. 

The 81sT Regiment, of New Albany, under Colonel W. W. 
Caldwell, was organized on the 29th August, 1862, and proceeded 
at once to join Buell's headquarters, and join in the pursuit of 
General Bragg. Throughout the terrific actions of the war its 
influence was felt, nor did its labors cease until it aided in driving 
the rebels across the Tennessee. It was disembodied at Nashville 


on the 13tli June, 1865, and returned to Indianapolis on the 15th, 
to receive the well-merited congratulations of Governor Morton 
and the people. 

The 82nd Regiment, under Colonel Morton C. Hunter, was 
mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 30th August, 1862, and 
leaving immediately for the seat of war, participated in many of 
the great battles aown to the return of peace. It was mustered out 
at Washington on the 9th June, 1865, and soon returned to its 
State to receive a grand recognition of its faithful service. 

The 83rd Regiment, of Lawrenceburg, under Colonel Ben. J. 
Spooner, was organized in September, 1862, and soon left en route 
to the Mississippi. Its subsequent history, the fact of its being 
under j&re for a total term of 4,800 hours, and its wanderings over 
6,285 miles, leave nothing to be said in its defense. Master of a 
thousand honors, it was mustered out at Louisville, on the 15th 
July, 1865, and returned home to enjoy a well-merited repose. 

The 84th Regiment was mustered in at Richmond, Ind., on the 
8th September, 1862, nnder Colonel Nelson Trusler. Its first 
military duty was on the defenses of Covington, in Kentucky, and 
Cincinnati; but after a short tim.e its labors became more con- 
genial, and tended to the great disadvantage of the slaveholding 
enemy on many well-contested fields. This, like the other State 
regiments, won many distinctions, and retired from the service on 
the 14th of June, 1865, at Nashville. 

The 85th Regiment was mustered at Terre Haute, under Colonel 
John P. Bayard, on the 2d September, 1862. On the 4th March, 
1863, it shared in the unfortunate affair at Thompson's Station, 
when in common with the other regiments forming Coburn's Bri- 
gade, it surrendered to the overpowering forces of the rebel 
General, Forrest. In June, 1863, after an exchange, it again took 
the field, and won a large portion of that renown accorded to 
Indiana. It was mustered out on the 12th of June, 1865. 

The 86th Regiment, of La Fayette, left for Kentucky on the 26th 
August, 1862, under Colonel OrvilleS. Hamilton, and shared in the 
duties assigned to the 84th. Its record is very creditable, particu- 
larly that portion dealing with the battles of Nashville on the 15th 
and 16th December, 1864. It was mustered out on the 6th of June, 
1865, and reported within a few days at Indianapolis for discharge. 

The 87th Regiment, organized at South Bend, under Colonels 
Kline G. Sherlock and N. Gleason, was accepted at Indianapolis 
on the 31st of August, 1862, and left on the same day en route to 


the front. From Springfield and Perryville on the 6tli and 8th of 
October, 1862, to Mission Ridge, on the 25th of November, 1863, 
thence through the Atlanta campaign to the surrender of the South- 
ern armies, it upheld a gallant name, and met with a true and en- 
thusiastic welcome- home on the 21st of June, 1865, with a list of 
absent comrades aggregating 451. 

The 88th Regiment, organized within the Fourth Congressional 
District, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, entered the service on the 
29th of August, 1862, and presently was found among the front 
ranks in war. It passed through the campaign in brilliant form 
down to the time of Gen. Johnson's surrender to Gen. Grant, after 
which, on the 7th of June, 1865, it was mustered out at Washing- 

The 89th Regiment, formed from the material of the 
Eleventh Congressional District, was mustered in at Indianapolis, 
on the 28th of August, 1862, under Col. Chas. D. Murray, and 
after an exceedingly brilliant campaign was discharged by Gov.' 
Morton on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 90th Regiment, ob Fifth Cavalry, was organized at 
Indianapolis under the Colonelcy of Felix W. Graham, between 
August and November, 1862. The different companies, joining 
headquarters at Louisville on the 11th of March, 1863, engaged in 
observing the movements of the enemy in the vicinity of Cumber- 
land river until the 19th of April, when a first and successful 
brush was had with the rebels. The regiment had been in 22 en- 
gagements during the term of service, captured 640 prisoners, and 
claimed a list of casualties mounting up to the number of 829. 
It was mustered out on the 16th of J nne, 1865, at Pulaski. 

The 91sT Battalion, of seven companies, was mustered into 
service at Evansville, the 1st of October. 1862, under Lieut.-Colonel 
John Mehringer, and in ten days later lefc for the front. In 
1863 the regiment was completed, and thenceforth took a very 
prominent position in the prosecution of the war. During its ser- 
vice it lost 81 men, and retired from the field on the 26th of June, 

The 92d Regiment failed in organizing. 

The 93d Regiment was mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 
20th of October, 1862, under Col. De Witt C. Thomas and Lieut. - 
Col. Geo. W. Carr. On the 9th of November it began a move- 
ment south, and ultimately allied itself to Buckland's Brigade of 


Gen. Sbennarrs. On the l-itli of May it was among the first regi- 
ments to enter Jackson, the capital of Mississippi; was next pres- 
ent at the assault on Vicksburg, and made a stirring campaign 
down to the storming of Fort Blakel}'' on the 9th of April, 1865. 
It was discharged on the 11th of August, that year, at Indianapo- 
lis, after receiving a public ovation. 

The 94th and 95th Rp:giments, authorized to be formed within 
the Fourth and Fifth Congressional Districts, respectively, were 
only partially organized, and so the few companies that could be 
mustered were incorporated with other regiments. 

The 96th Regiment could only bring together three companies, 
in the Sixth Congressional District, and these becoming incorpo- 
rated with the 99th then in process of formation at South Bend, the 
number was left blank. 

The 9Tth Regiment, raised in the Seventh Congressional Dis- 
trict, was mustered into service at Terre Haute, on the 20th of 
"September, 1861, under Col. Robert F. Catterson. Reaching the 
front within a few days, it was assigned a position near Memphis, 
and subsequently joined in Gen. Grant's movement on Vicksburg, 
by overland route. After a succession of great exploits with the 
several armies to which it was attached, it completed its list of 
battles at Bentonville, on the 21st of March, 1865, and was dis- 
embodied at Washington on the 9th of June following. During its 
term of service the regiment lost 341 men, including the three 
Ensigns killed during the assaults on rebel positions along the 
Augusta Railway, from the 15th to the 27th of June, 1864. 

The 98th Regiment, authorized to be raised within the Eighth 
Congressional District, failed in its organization, and the number 
was left blank in the army list. The two companies answering to 
the call of July, 1862, were consolidated with the 100th Regiment 
then being organized at Fort Wayne. 

The 99th Battalion, recruited within the Ninth Congressional 
District, completed its muster on the 21st of October, 1862, under 
Col. Alex. Fawler, and reported for service a few da.ys later at 
Memphis, where it was assigned to the 16th Army Corps. The va- 
ried vicissitudes through which this regiment passed and its remark- 
able gallantry upon all occasions, have gained for it a fair fame. 
It was disembodied on the 5th of June, 1865, at Washington, and 
returned to Indianapolis on the 11th of the same month. 

The 100th Regiment, recruited from the Eighth and Tenth 
Congressional Districts, under Col. Sandford J. Stoughton, mustered 



into the service on the 10th of September, left for the front on the 
11th of November, and became attached to the Army of Tennessee 
on the 26th of that month, 1862. The regiment participated in 
twenty-five battles, together with skirmishing during fully one-third 
of its term of service, and claimed a list of casualties mounting up 
to four hundred and sixty-four. It was mustered out of the ser- 
vice at "Washington on the 9th of June, and reported at Indianapolis 
for discharge on the 14th of June, 1865. 

The lOlsT Regiment was mustered into service at Wabash on 
the 7th of September, 1862, under Col. William Garver, and pro- 
ceeded immediately to Covington, Kentucky. Its early experiences 
were gained in the pursuit ofBragg's army and John Morgan's 
cavalry, and these experiences tendered to render the regiment one 
of the most valuable in the war for the Republic. From the defeat 
of John Morgan at Milton on the 18th of March, 1863, to the fall 
of Savannah on the 23rd of September, 1863, the regiment won 
many honors, and retired from the service on the 25th of June, 
1865, at Indianapolis. 


The 102d Regiment, organized under Col. Benjamin M. Gregory 
from companies of the Indiana Legion, and numbering six hun- 
dred and twenty-three men and officers, left Indianapolis for the 
front early in July, and reported at North Yernon on the 12th of 
July, 1863, and having completed a round of duty, returned to In- 
dianapolis on the 17th to be discharged. 

The 103d, comprising seven companies from Hendricks county, 
two from Marion and one from Wayne counties, numbering 681 
men and officers, under Col. Lawrence S. Shuler, was contemporary 
with the 102d Regiment, varying only in its service by being mus- 
tered out one day before, or on the 16th of July, 1863. 

The 104th Regiment of Minute Men was recruited from mem- 
bers of the Legion of Decatur, La Fayette, Madison, Marion and Rush 
counties. It comprised 714 men and officers under the command 
of Col. James Gavin, and was organized within forty hours after the 
issue of Governor Morton's call for minute men to protect Indiana 
and Kentucky against the raids of Gen. John H Morgan's rebel 
forces. After Morgan's escape into Ohio the command returned 
and was mustered out on the 18th of July, 1863. 

The 105th Regiment consisted of seven companies of the Legion 
and three of Minute Men, furnished by Hancock, Union, Randolph, 


Putnam, Wayne, Clinton and Madison counties. The command 
numbered seven hundred and thirteen men and oflScers, under Col. 
Sherlock, and took a leading part in the pursuit of Morgan. Ke- 
turningon the 18th of July to Indianapolis it was mustered out. 

The 106th Regiment, under Col. Isaac P. Gray, consisted of 
one company of the Legion and nine companies of Minute Men, 
aggregating seven hundred and ninety-two men and officers. The 
counties of Wayne, Randolph, Hancock, Howard, and Marion were 
represented in its rank and file. Like the other regiments organized 
to repel Morgan, it was disembodied in July, 1863. 

The 107th Regiment, under Col. De Witt C. Rugg, was organ- 
ized in the city of Indianapolis from the companies' Legion, or 
Ward Guards. The successes of this promptly organized regiment 
were unquestioned. 

The 108th Regiment comprised five companies of Minute Men, 
from Tippecanoe county, two from Hancock, and one from each of 
the counties known as Carroll, Montgomery and Wayne, aggregat- 
ing 710 men and officers, and all under the command of Col. W. C. 
Wilson. After performing the only duties presented, it returned 
from Cincinnati on the 18th of July, and was mustered out. 

The 109th Regiment, composed of Minute Men from Coles, 
county, 111., La Porte, Hamilton, Miami and Randolph counties, 
Ind., showed a roster of 709 officers and men, under Col. J. R. 
Mahon. Morgan having escaped from Ohio, its duties were at an 
end, and returning to Indianapolis was mustered out on the 17th 
of July, 1863, after seven days' service. 

The 110th Regiment of Minute Men comprised volunteers from 
Henry, Madison, Delaware, Cass, and Monroe counties. The men 
were ready and willing, if not really anxious to go to the front. But 
happily the swift-winged Morgan was driven awaj^, and conse- 
quently the regiment was not called to the field. 

The 111th Regiment, furnished by Montgomery, Lafayette, 
Rush, Miami, Monroe, Delaware and Hamilton counties, number- 
ing 733 men and officers, under Col. Robert Canover, was not 

The 112th Regiment was formed from nine companies of Min- 
ute Men, and the Mitchell Light Infantry Companj'^ of the Legion. 
Its strength was 703 men and officers, under Col. Hiram F. P>rax- 
ton. Lawrence, Washington, Monroe and Orange counties were 
represented on its roster, and the historic names of North Yernon 
and Sunman's Station on its banner. Returning from the South 


after seven days' service, it was mustered out ou the ITtli of 
July, 1863. 

The 113th Regiment, furnished by Daviess, Martin, Washington, 
and Monroe counties, comprised 526 rank and tile under Col. Geo. 
W. Burge. Like the 112th, it was assigned to Gen. Hughes' 
Brigade, and defended North Yernon against the repeated attacks 
of John H. Morgan's forces. 

The 114th Regiment was wholly organized in Johnson county, 
under Col. Lambertson, and participated in the afiair of North 
Yernon. Returning on the 21st of July, 1863, with its brief but 
faithful record, it was disembodied at Indianapolis, 11 days after 
its organization. 

All these regiments were brought into existence to meet an 
emergency, and it must be confessed, that had not a sense of 
duty, military instinct and love of country animated these regi- 
ments, the rebel General, John H. Morton, and his 6,000 cavalry^ 
would doubtless have carried destruction as far as the very capital 
of their State. 

SIX- months' kegiments. 

The 115th Regiment, organized at Indianapolis in answer to the 
call of the President in June, 1863, was mustered into service on 
the lYth of August, under Col. J. R. Mahon. Its service was short 
but brilliant, and received its discharge at Indianapolis the 10th 
of February, 1864. 

The 116th Regiment, mustered in on the I7th of August, 1863, 
moved to Detroit, Michigan, on the 30th, under Col. Charles Wise. 
During October it was ordered to Nicholasville, Kentucky, where it 
was assigned to Col. Mahon's Brigade, and with Gen. Willcox's 
entire command, joined in the forward movement to Cumberland 
Gap. After a term on severe duty it returned to Lafayette and 
tiiere was disembodied on the 24th of February, 1864, whither Gov. 
Morton hastened, to share in the ceremonies of welcome. 

The 117th Regiment of Indianapolis was mustered into service 
on the 17th of September, 1863, under Col. Thomas J. Brady. 
After surtnounting every obstacle opposed to it, it returned on the 
6th of February, 1864, and was treated to a public reception on 
the 9th. 

The 118th Regiment, whose organization was completed on the 
3d of September, 1863, under Col. Geo. W. Jackson, joined the 
116th at Nicholasville, and sharing in its fortunes, returned to the 


State capital on the 14th of February, 1864. Its casualties were 
comprised in a list of 15 killed and wounded. 

The 119th, or Seventh Cavalry, was recruited under Col, John 
P. C. Shanks, and its organization completed on the 1st of Octo- 
ber, 1863. The rank and file numbered 1,213, divided into twelve 
companies. On the 7th of December its arrival at Louisville was 
reported, and on the 14th it entered on active service. After the 
well-fought battle of Guntown, Mississippi, on the 10th of June, 
1864, although it only brought defeat to our arms. General Grier- 
son addressed the Seventh Cavalry, saying: " Your General con- 
gratulates you upon your noble conduct during the late expedition. 
Fighting against overwhelming numbers, under adverse circum- 
stances, your prompt obedience to orders and unflinching courage 
commanding the admiration of all, made even defeat almost a vic- 
tory. For hours on foot you repulsed the charges of the enemies' in- 
fantry, and again in the saddle you met his cavalry and turned his 
assaults into confusion. Your heroic perseverance saved hundreds 
of your fellow-soldiers from capture. You have been faithful to 
your honorable reputation, and have fully justified the confidence, 
and merited the high esteem of your commander." 

Early in 1865, a number of these troops, returning from impris- 
onment in Southern bastiles, were lost on the steamer "Sultana." 
The survivors of the campaign continued in the service for a long 
period after the restoration of peace, and finally mustered out. 

The 120th Regiment. In September, 1863, Gov. Morton re- 
ceived authority from the War Department to organize eleven regi- 
ments within the State for three years' service. By April, 1864, 
this organization was complete, and being transferred to the com- 
mand of Brigadier General Alvin P. Hovey, were formed by him 
into a division for service with the Army of Tennessee. Of those 
regiments, the 120th occupied a very prominent place, both on ac- 
count of its numbers, its perfect discipline and high reputation. 
It was mustered in at Columbus, and was in all the great battles 
of the latter years of the war. It won high praise from friend 
and foe, and retired with its bright roll of honor, after the success 
of Right and Justice was accomplished. 

The 121st, or Ninth Cavalry, was mustered in March 1, 1864, 
under Col. George W. Jackson, at Indianapolis, and thougl' not 
numerically strong, was so well equipped and possessed such excel- 
lent material that on the 3rd of May it was ordered to the front. 
The record of the 121st, though extending over a brief period, is 


pregnant with deeds of war of a high character. On the 26th of 
April, 1865, these troops, while returning from their labors in the 
South, lost 55 men, owing to the explosion of the engines of the 
steamer " Sultana." The return of the 386 survivors, on the 5th of 
September, 1865, was hailed with joy, and proved how well and 
dearly the citizens of Indiana loved their soldiers. 

The 122d Kegiment ordered to be raised in the Third Congres- 
sional District, owing to very few men being then at home, failed 
in organization, and the regimental number became a blank. 

The 123d Regiment was furnished by the Fourth and Seventh 
Congressional Districts during the winter of lH63-'64, and mus- 
tered, March 9, 1864, at Greensburg, under Col. John C. McQuis- 
ton. The command left for the front the same day, and after win- 
ning rare distinction during the last years of the campaign, par- 
ticularly in its gallantry at Atlanta, and its daring movement to 
escape Forrest's 15,000 rebel horsemen near Franklin, this regi- 
ment was discharged on the 30th of August, 18G5, at Indianapolis, 
being mustered out on the 25th, at Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 12'Ith Regiment completed its organization by assuming 
three companies raised for the 125th Regiment (which was intended 
to be cavalry), and was mustered in at Richmond, on the 10th of 
March, 1864, under Colonel James Burgess, and reported at Louis- 
ville within nine days. From Buzzard's Roost, on the 8th of May, 
1864, under General Schofield, Lost Mountain in June, and the 
capture of Decatur, on the 15th July, to the 21st March, 1865, in 
its grand advance under General Sherman from Atlanta to the 
coast, the regiment won many laurel wreaths, and after a brilliant 
campaign, was mustered out at Greensboro on the 31st August, 

The 125Tn, or Tenth Cavalry, was partially organized during 
November and December, 1862, at Yincennes, and in February, 
1863, completed its numbers and equipment at Columbus, under 
Colonel T. M. Pace. Early in May its arrival in Nashville was 
reported, and presently assigned active service. During September 
and October it engaged rebel contingents under Forrest and Hood, 
and later in the battles of Nashville, Reynold's Hill and Sugar 
Creek, and in 1865 Flint River, Courtland and Mount Hope. The 
explosion of the Sultana occasioned the loss of thirty-five men with 
Captain Gaffney and Lieutenants Twigg and Reeves, and in a 
collision on the Nashville & Louisville railroad, May, 1864, lost 
five men killed and several wounded. After a term of service un- 


surpassed for its utility and character it was disembodied at Yicks- 
burg, Mississippi, ou the 31st August, 1865, and returning to 
Indianapolis early in September, was welcomed by the Executive 
and people. 

The 126th, or Eleventh Cavalry, was organized at Indian- 
apolis under Colonel Robert R. Stewart, on the 1st of March, 1864:, 
and left in May for Tennessee. It took a very conspicuous part in 
the defeat of Hood near Nashville, joining in the pursuit as far as 
Gravelly Springs, Alabama, where it was dismounted and assigned 
infantry duty. In June, 1865, it was remounted at St. Louis, and 
moved to Fort Kiley, Kansas, and thence to Leavenworth, where it 
was mustered out on the 19th September, 1865. 

The 127th, or Twelfth Cavalry, was partially organized at 
Kendallville, in December, 1863, and perfected at the same place, 
under Colonel Edward Anderson, in April, 1864. Reaching the 
front in May, it went into active service, took a prominent part in 
the march through Alabama and Georgia, and after a service bril- 
liant in all its parts, retired from the field, after discharge, on the 
22d of November, 1865. 

The 128th Regiment was raised in the Tenth Congressional Dis- 
trict of the period, and mustered at Michigan City, under Colonel 
R. P. De Hart, on the 18th March, 1861-. On the 25th it was 
.reported at the front, and assigned at once to Schofield's Division. 
The battles of Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, 
Kenesaw, Atlanta, Jouesboro, Dalton, Brentwood Hills, Nashville, 
and the six days' skirmish of Columbia, were all participated in by 
the 128th, and it continued in service long after the termination 
of hostilities, holding the post of Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 129th Regiment was, like the former, mustered in at 
Michigan City about the same time, under Colonel Charles Case, 
and moving to the front on the 7th April, 1864, shared in the for- 
tunes of the 128th until August 29, 1865, when it was disembodied 
at Charlotte, Notrh Carolina. 

The 130th Regiment, mustered at Kokomo on the 12th March, 
1864, under Colonel C. S. Parrish, left e)i route to the seat of war 
on the 16th, and was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, 
Twenty-third Army Corps, at Nashville, on the 19th. During the 
war it made for itself a brilliant history, and returned to Indian- 
apolis with its well-won honors on the 13th DecemDer, 1865. 

The 131sr, or Thirteenth Cavalry, under Colonel G. M L. 
Johnson, was the last mounted regiment recruited within the State. 


It left Indianapolis on the 30tli of April, 1864, in infantry trim, 
and gained its first honors on the 1st of October in its magnificent 
defense of Iluntsville, Alabama, against the rebel division of 
General Buford, following a line of first-rate military conduct to 
the end. In January, 1865^ the regiment was remounted, won 
some distinction in its modern form, and was mustered out at 
Yicksburg on the 18th of November, 1865. The morale and 
services of the regiment were such that its Colonel was promoted 
Brevet Brigadier-General in consideration of its merited honors. 


Governor Morton, in obedience to the offer made under his auspices 
to the general Government to raise volunteer regiments for one hun- 
dred days' service, issued his call on the 23rd of April, 1864. This 
movement suggested itself to the inventive genius of the war Gov- 
ernor as a most important step toward the subjection or annihihi- 
tionof the military supporters of slavery within a year, and thus 
conclude a war, wliich, notwithstanding its holy claims to the name 
of Battles for Freedom, was becoming too protracted, and proving 
too detrimental to the best interests of the Union. In answer to 
the esteemed Governor's call eight regiments came forward, and 
formed The Grand Division of the Volunteers. 

The 132d Eegiment, under Col. S. C. Vance, was furnished by 
Indianapolis, Shelbyyille, Franklin and Danville, and leaving on 
the 18tliof May, 1864, reached the front where it joined the forces 
acting in Tennessee. 

The 133d Regiment, raised at Richmond on the 17th of Mav, 
1864, under Col. R.N. Hudson, comprised nine companies, and 
followed the 132d. 

The 134th Regiment, comprising seven companies, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis on the 25th of Maj;, 1864, under Col. James 
Gavin, and proceeded immediately to the front. 

The 135th Regiment was raised from the volunteers of Bedford, 
Noblesville and Goshen, with seven companies from the First Con- 
gressional District, under Col. W C. Wilson, on the 25th of May, 
1864, and left at once en route to the South. 

The 136th Regiment comprised ten companies, raised in the 
same districts as those contributing to the 135th, under Col. J. W. 
Foster, and left for Tennessee on the 24th of May, 1864. 

The 137th Regiment, under Col. E. J. Robinson, comprising 
volunteers from Kokomo, Zanesville, Medora, Sullivan, Rockville, 


and Owen and Lawrence counties, \et\en route to Tennessee on the 
28th of May, 1864, having completed organization the day previous. 

The 138th Regiment was formed of seven companies from the 
Ninth, with three from the Eleventh Congressional District (un- 
reformed), and mustered in at Indianapolis on the 27th of May, 
1864, under Col. J. H. Shannon. This fine regiment was re- 
ported at the front within a few days. 

The 139Tn Kegiment, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, was raised from 
volunteers furnished by Kendallville, Lawrenceburg, Elizaville, 
Knightstown, Connersville, Newcastle, Portland, Yevay, New 
Albany, Metamora, Columbia City, New Haven and New Phila- 
delphia. It was constituted a regiment on the 8th of June, 1864, 
and appeared among the defenders in Tennessee during that month. 

All these regiments gained distinction, and won an enviable po- 
sition in the glorious history of the war and the no less glorious 
one of their own State in its relation thereto. 

THE president's CALL OF JULY, 1864. 

The 140th Regiment was organized with many others, in response 
to the call of the nation. Under its Colonel, Thomas J. Brady, it pro- 
ceeded to the South on the 15th of November, 1864. Havino: taken 
a most prominent part in all the desperate struggles, round Nash- 
ville and Murfreesboro in 1864, to Town Creek Bridge on the 20th 
of February, 1865, and completed a continuous round of severe duty 
to the end, arrived at Indianapolis for discharge on the 21st of July, 
where Governor Morton received it with marked honors. 

The 14 1 ST Regiment was only partially raised, and its few com- 
panies were incorporated with Col Brady's command. 

The 142d Regiment was recruited at Fort Wayne, under Col. I. 
M. Comparet, and was mustered into service at Indianapolis on the 
3d of November, 1864. After a steady and exceedingly effective 
service, it returned to Indianapolis on the 16th of July, 1865. 

the president's CALL OF DECEMBER, 1S64, 

Was answered by Indiana in the most material terms. No less 
than fourteen serviceable regiments were placed at the disposal of 
the General Government. 

The 143d Regiment was mustered in, under Col J. T. Grill, on 
the 21st February, 1865, reported at Nashville on the 24th, and af- 
ter a brief but brilliant service returned to the State on the 21st 
October, 1865. 



The 144th Regiment, under Col. G. W. Iliddle, was mustered in 
on the 6th March, 1865, left on the 9th for Harper's Ferry, took an 
effective part in the close of the campaign and reported at Indian- 
apolis for discharge on the 9th August, 1865. 

The 145th Regiment, under Col. W. A. Adams, left Indianapolis 
on the 18th of February, 1865, and joining Gen. Steadman's division 
at Chattanooga on the 23d was sent on active service. Its duties 
were discharged with rare fidelity until mustered out in January, 

The 146th Regiment, under Col. M. C. Welsh, left Indianapolis 
on the llfch of March en route to Harper's Ferry, where it was as- 
signed to the army of the Shenandoah. The duties ot this regiment 
were severe and continuous, to the period of its muster out at Bal- 
timore on the 31st of August, 1865. 

The 147th Regiment, comprised among other volunteers from 
Benton, Lafayette and Henry counties, organized under Col. Milton 
Peden on the 13th of March, 1865, at Indianapolis. It shared a 
fortune similar to that of the 146th, and returned for discharge on 
the 9th of August, 1865. 

The 148th Regiment, under Col. N. R. Ruckle, left the State 
capital on the 28th of February, 1865, and reporting at Nashville, 
was sent on guard and garrison duty into the heart of Tennessee. 
Returning to Indianapolis on the 8th of September, it received a 
final discharge. 

The 149th Regiment was organized at Indianapolis by Col. W. 
H. Fairbanks, and left on the 3d of March, 1865, for Tennessee, 
where it had the honor of receiving the surrender of the rebel 
forces, and military stores of Generals Roddy and Polk. The reg- 
iment was welcomed home by Morton on the 29th of September. 

The 150th Regiment, under Col. M. B. Taylor, mustered in on the 
9t:h of March, 1865, left for the South on the 13th and reported at 
Harper's Ferry on the 17th. This regiment did guard duty at 
Charleston, Winchester, Stevenson Station, Gordon's Springs, and 
after a service characterized by utility, returned on the 9th of 
August to Indianapolis for discharge. 

The 151 ST Regiment, under Col. J. Healy, arrived at Nashville on 
the 9th of March, 1805. On the 14th a movement on Tullahoma 
was undertaken, and three months later returned to Nashville for 
garrison duty to the close of the war. It was mustered out on the 
22d of September, 1865. 

The 152d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis, under Col. 


W. W Griswold, and left for Harper's Ferry on the 18th of March, 
1865. It was attached to the provisional divisions of Shenandoah 
Army, and engaged until the 1st of September, when it was dis- 
charged at Indianapolis. 

The 153d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 1st of 
March, 1865, under Col. O. H. P. Carey. It reported at Louis- 
ville, and by order of Gen. Palmer, was held on service in Ken- 
tucky, where it was occupied in the exciting but very dangerous 
pastime of fighting Southern guerrillas. Later it was ])osted at 
Louisville, until mustered out on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The 154th Regiment, organized under Col. Frank Wilcox, left 
Indianapolis under Major Simpson, for Parkersburg, W. Virginia, 
on the 28th of April, 1865. It was assigned to guard and garrison 
duty until its discharge on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 155Tn Regiment, recruited throughout the State, left on the 
26th of April for Washington, and was afterward assigned to a 
provisional Brigade of the Ninth Army Corps at Alexandria. The 
companies of this regiment were scattered over the country, — at 
Dover, Centreville, Wilmington, and Salisbury, but becoming re- 
united on the 4th of August, 1865, it was mustered out at Dover, 

The 156th Battalion, under Lieut.-Colonel Charles M. Smith, 
left 671 route to the Shenandoah Valley on the 27th of April, 1865, 
where it continued doing guard duty to the period of its muster 
out the 4tli of August, 1865, at Winchester, Virginia. 

On the return of these regiments to Indianapolis, Gov. Morton 
and the people received them with all that characteristic cordiality 
and enthusiasm peculiarly their own, 

independent cavalry company of INDIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

The people of Crawford county, animated with that inspiriting 
patriotism which the war drew forth, organized this mounted com- 
pany on the 25tli of July, 1863, and placed it at the disposal of 
the Government, and it was mustered into service by order of the 
War Secretary, on the 13th of August, 1863, under Captain L. 
Lamb. To the close of the year it engaged in the laudable pursuit 
of arresting deserters and enforcing the draft; however, on the 
18th of January, 1864, it was reconstituted and incorporated with 
the Thirteenth Cavalry, with which it continued to serve until the 
treason of Americans against America was conquered. 



The 28th Regiment of Colored Troops was recruited through- 
out the State of Indiana, and under Lieut.-Colonel Charles IS. 
Russell, left Indianapolis tor the fronton the 24th of April, 1864. 
The regiment acted very well in its first engagement with the 
rebels at White House, Virginia, and again with Gen. Sheridan's 
Cavalry, in the swamps of the Chickahominy In the battle of 
the " Crater," it lost half its roster; but their place was soon filled 
by other colored recruits from the State, and Russell promoted to 
the Colonelcy, and afterward to Brevet Brigadier-General, when he 
was succeeded in the command by Major Thomas H. Logan. 
During the few months of its active service it accumulated (piite a 
history, and was ultimately discharged, on the 8tii of Jaimary, 
1866, at Indianapolis. 

batteries of light artillery. 

First Battery, organized at Evansville, under Captain Martin 
Klauss, and mustered in on the 16th of August, 1861, joined Gen. 
Fremont's army immediately, and entering readily upon its salu- 
tary course, aided in the capture of 950 rebels and their position 
at Black water creek. On March the 6th, 1862 at Elkhorn Tavern, 
and on the 8tli at Pea Ridge, the battery performed good service. 
Port Gibson, Champion Hill, Jackson, the Techc country, Sabine 
Cross Roads, Grand Encore, all tell of its efficacy. In 1864 it was 
subjected to reorganization, when Lawrence Jacoby was raised to 
the Captiancy, vice Klauss resigned. After a long term of useful 
service, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 18th of August, 

Second Battery was organized, under Captain D. G. Rabb, at 
Indianapolis on the 9tli of August, 1861, and one month later pro- 
ceeded to the front. It participated in the campaign against Col. 
Coffee's irregular troops and the rebellious Indians of the Cherokee 
nation. From Lone Jack, Missouri, to Jenkin's Ferry and Fort 
Smith it won signal honors until its reorganization in 1864, and 
even after, to June, 1865, it maintained a very fair reputation. 

The Third Battery, under Capt. W. W. Frybarger, was oi-gan- 
ized and mustered in at Connersviile on the 24th of August, 1861, 
and proceeded immediately to join Fremont's Army of the Mis- 
souri. Moon's Mill, Kirksville, Meridian, Fort de Russy, Alex- 
andria, Round Lake, Tupelo, Clinton and Tallahatchie are names 


which may be engraven on its guns. It participated in the affairs 
before Nashville on the 15th and 16th of December, 1864, when 
General Hood's Army was put to route, and at Fort Blakelj^, out- 
side Mobile, after which it returned home to report for discharge, 
August 21, 1865. 

The Fourth Battery, recruited in La Porte, Porter and Lake 
counties, reported at the front early in October, 18G1, and at once 
assumed a prominent place in the army of Gen. Buell. Again 
under Rosencrans and McCook and under General Sheridan at 
Stone River, the services of this battery were much praised, and it 
retained its well-earned reputation to the very day of its muster out 
— the 1st of August, 1865. Its first organization was completed 
under Capt. A. K. Bush, and reorganized in Oct., 1864, under Capt 
B. F. Johnson. 

The Fifth Battery was furnished by La Porte, Allen, Whitley 
and Noble counties, organized under Capt. Peter Simonson, and mus- 
tered into service on the 22d of November, 1861. It comprised 
four six pounders, two being rifled cannon, and two twelve-pounder 
Howitzers with a force of 158 men. Reporting at Camp Gil- 
bert, Louisville, on the 29tli, it was shortly after assigned to the 
division of Gen. Mitchell, at Bacon Creek. Daring its term, it 
served in twenty battles and numerous petty actions, losing its Cap- 
tain at Pine Mountain. The total loss accruing to the battery was 
84 men and officers and four guns It was mustered out on the 
20th of July, 1864. 

The Sixth Battery was recruited at Evansville, under Captain 
Frederick Behr, and left, on the 2d of Oct., 1861, for the front, 
reporting at Henderson, Kentucky, a few days after. Early in 
1862 it joined Gen. Sherman's army at Paducah, and participated 
in the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th of April. Its history grew in 
brilliancy until the era of peace insured a cessation of its great 

The Seventh Battery comprised volunteers from Terre Haute, 
Arcadia, Evansville, Salem, Lawrenceburg, Columbus, Vin- 
cennes and Indianapolis, under Samuel J. Harris as its first 
Captain, who was succeeded by G. R.. Shallow and O. H. Mor- 
gan after its reorganization. From the siege of Corinth to the 
capture of Atlanta it performed vast services, and returned to 
Indianapolis on the 11th of July, 1865, to be received by the peo- 
ple and hear its history from the lips of the veteran patriot and 
Governor of the State. 


The Eighth Battery, under Captain G. T. Cochran, arrived at 
the front on the 26th of February, 1862, and subsequently entered 
upon its real duties at the siege of Corinth. It served with dis- 
tinction throughout, and concluded a well-made campaign under 
Will Stokes, who was appointed Captain of the companies with 
which it was consolidated in March, 1865. 

The Ninth Battery. The organization of this battery was 
perfected at Indianapolis, on the 1st of January, 1862, under Capt. 
N. S. Thompson. Moving to the front it participated in the aftairs 
of Shiloh, Corinth, Queen's Hill, Meridian, Fort Dick Taylor, Fort 
de Russy, Henderson's Hill, Pleasant Hill, Cotile Landing, Bayou 
Rapids, Mansnra, Chicot, and many others, winning a name in 
each engagement. The explosion of the steamer Eclipse at Johnson- 
ville, above Paducah, on Jan. 27, 1865, resulted in the destruction of 
58 men, leaving only ten to represent the battery. The survivors 
reached Indianapolis on the 6th of March, and were mustered out. 

The Tenth Battery was recruited at Lafayette, and mustered in 
under Capt. Jerome B. Cox, in January, 1861. Having passed 
through the Kentucky campaign against Gen. Bragg, it partici- 
pated in many of the great engagements, and finally returned to 
report for discharge on the 6th of July, 1864, having, in the mean- 
time, won a very fair fame. 

The Eleventh Battery was organized at Lafayette, and- mus- 
tered in at Indianapolis under Capt. Arnold Sutermeister, on the 
l7th of December, 1861. Oii most of the principal battle-fields, 
from Shiloh, in 1862, to the capture of Atlanta, it maintained a high 
reputation for military excellence, and after consolidation with the 
Eighteenth, mustered out on the 7th of June, 1865. 

The Twelfth Battery was recruited at Jeffersonville and sub- 
sequently mustered in at Indianapolis. On the 6th of March, 1862, 
it reached Nashville, having been previously assigned to Buell's 
Army. In April its Captain, G. W. Sterling, resigned, and the 
position devolved on Capt. James E. White, who, in turn, was suc- 
ceeded by James A. Dunwoody. The record of the battery holds 
a first place in the history of the period, and enabled both men and 
officers to look back with pride upon the battle-fields of the land. 
It was ordered home in June, 1865, and on reaching Indianapolis, 
on the 1st of July, was mustered out on the 7th of that month. 

The Thirteenth Battery was organized under Captain Sewell 
Coulson, during the winter of 1861, at Indianapolis, and proceeded 
to the front in February, 1862. During the subsequent months it 


was occupied in the pursuit of John H. Morgan's raiders, and 
aided effectively in driving them from Kentucky. This artillery 
company returned from the South on the 4th of July, 1865, and 
were discharged the day following. 

The Fourteenth Battery, recruited in "Wabash, Miami, Lafay- 
ette, and Huntington counties, under Captain M. H. Kidd, and 
Lieutenant J. V^. fl. McGuire, left Indianapolis on the 11th of 
April, 1S62, and within a few months one portion of it was cap- 
tured at Lexington by Gen. Forrest's great cavalry command. The 
main battery lost two guns and two men at Guntown, on the Mis- 
sissippi, but proved more successful at Nashville and Mobile. It 
arrived home on the 29tli of August, 1S65, received a public wel- 
come, and its final discharge. 

The Fifteenth Battery, under Captain I. C. H. Von Sehlin, 
was retained on duty from the date of its organization, at Indian- 
apolis, until the 5th of July, 1862, when it was moved to Harper's 
Ferry. Two months later the gallant defense of Maryland Heights 
was set at naught by the rebel Stonewall Jackson, and the entire 
garrison surrendered. Being paroled, it was reorganized at Indian- 
apolis, and appeared again in the field in March, 1863, where it 
won a splendid renown on every well-fought field to the close of 
the war. It was mustered out on the 24th of June, 1865. 

Thfe Sixteenth Battery was organized at Lafaj'ette, under 
Capt. Charles A. Nay lor, and on the 1st of June, 1862, left for 
Washington. Moving to the front with Gen. Pope's command, it 
participated in the battle of Slaughter Mountain, on the 9th of 
August, and South Mountain, and Antietam, under Gen. McClel- 
lan. This battery was engaged in a large number of general en- 
gagements and flying column affairs, won a very favorable record, 
and returned on the 5th of Julv, 1865. 

The Seventeenth Battery, under Capt. Milton L. Miner, was 
mustered in at Indianapolis, on. the 20th of May, 1862, left for the 
front on the 5th of July, and subsequently engaged in the Gettys- 
burg expedition, was present at Harper's Ferry, July 6, 1863, and 
at Opequan on the 19th of September. Fisher's Hill, New Mar- 
ket, and Cedar Creek brought it additional honors, and won from 
Gen. Sheridan a tribute of praise for its service on these battle- 
grounds. Ordered from Winchester to Indianapolis it was mus- 
tered out there on the 3d of July, 1S65. 

The Eighteenth Battery, under Capt. Eli Lilly, left for the 


front in August, 1862, but did not take a leading part in the cam- 
paign until 1863, when, under Gen. Kosencrans, it appeared prom- 
inent at Hoover's Gap. From this period to the affairs of West 
Point and Macon, it performed first-class service, and returned to 
its State on the 25th of June, 1865. 

The Nineteenth Battery was mustered into service at Indian- 
apolis, on the 5th of August, 1862, under Capt. S. J. Harris, and 
proceeded immediately afterward to the front, where it participated 
in the campaign against Gen. Bragg. It was present at every post 
of danger to the end of the war, when, after the surrender of John- 
son's army, it returned to Indianapolis. Reaching that city on 
the 6th of June, 1865, it was treated to a public reception and 
received the congratulations of Gov. Morton. Four days later it 
was discharged. 

The Twentieth Battery, organized under Capt. Frank A. Rose, 
left the State capital on the 17th of December, 1862, for the front, 
and reported immediately at Henderson, Kentucky. Subsequently 
Captain Rose resigned, and, in 1863, under Capt. Osborn, turned 
over its guns to the 11th Indiana Battery, and was assigned to the 
charge of siege guns at Nashville. Gov. Morton had the battery 
supplied with new field pieces, and by the 5th of October, 1863, it 
was again in the field, where it won many honors under Sherman, 
and continued to exercise a great influence until its return on the 
23d of June, 1865. 

The Twenty- FIRST Battery recruited at Indianapolis, under the 
direction of Captain "W. W. Andrew, left on the 9th of September, 
1862, for Covington, Kentucky, to aid in its defense against the 
advancing forces of Gen. Kirby Smith. It was engaged in numerous 
military affairs and may be said to acquire many honors, although 
its record is stained with the names of seven deserters. The battery 
was discharged on the 21st of June, 1865. 

The Twenty-second Battery was mustered in at Indianapolis 
on the 15th of December, 1862, under Capt. B. F. Denning, and 
moved at once to the front. It took a very conspicuous part in the 
pursuit of Morgan's Cavalry, and in many other aftairs. It threw 
the first shot into Atlanta, and lost its Captain, who was killed in 
the skirmish line, on the 1st of July. While the list of casualties 
numbers only 35, that of desertions numbers 87. This battery was 
received with public honors on its return, the 25th of June, 1865, 
and mustered out on the 7th of the same month. 


The Twenty-third Battery, recruited in October 1862, and 
mustered in on the 8th of November, under Capt. I. H. Myers, pro- 
ceeded south, after having rendered verj efficient services at home 
in guarding the camps of rebel prisoners. In July, 1865, the battery 
took an active part, under General Boyle's command, in routing 
and capturing the raiders at Brandenburgh, and subsequently to 
the close of the war performed very brilliant exploits, reaching 
Indianapolis in June, 1865. It was discharged ou the 27th of that 

The Twenty-fourth Battery, under Capt. I. A. Simms, was 
enrolled for service on the 29th of Kovember, 1862; remained 
at Indianapolis on duty until the 13th of March, 1863, when 
it left for the field. From its participation in the Cumberland 
River campaign, to its last engagement at Columbia, Tennessee, it 
aided materially in bringing victory to the Union ranks and made 
for itself a widespread fame. Arriving at Indianapolis on the 28th 
of July, it was publicly received, and in five days later disembodied. 

The Twenty-fifth Battery was recruited in September and Oc- 
tober, 1864, and mustered into service for one year, under Capt. 
Frederick C. Sturm. December 13th, it reported at Nashville, and 
took a prominent part in the defeat of Gen. Hood's army. Its 
duties until July, 1865, were continuous, when it returned to 
report for final discharge. 

The Twenty-sixth Battery, or "Wilder's Battery," was re- 
cruited under Capt. I. T. Wilder, of Greensburg, in May, 1861; but 
was not mustered in as an artillery company. Incorporating itself 
with a regiment then forming at Indianapolis it was mustered as 
company "A," of the 17th Infantry, with Wilder as Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the regiment. Subsequently, at Elk Water, Virginia, 
it was converted into the "First Independent Battery," and became 
known as " Rigby's Battery." The record of this battery is as 
brilliant as any won during the war. On every field it has won a 
distinct reputation; it was well worthy the enthusiastic reception 
given to it on its return to Indianapolis on the 11th and 12th of 
July, 1865. During its term of service it was subject to many 
transmutations; but in every phase of its brief history, areputation 
for gallantry and patriotism was maintained which now forms a 
living testimonial to its services to the public. 

The total number of battles in the " War of the Rebellion " in 
which the patriotic citizens of the great and noble State of Indiana 
were more or less engaged, was as follows: 


Locality. No. of Battles. Locality. No. of Battles. 

Virginia 90 Maryland 7 

Tennessee 51 Texas 3 

Georgia 41 South Carolina 2 

Mississippi 24 Indian Territory 2 

Arkansas 19 Pennsylvania 1 

Kentucky 16 Ohio c 1 

Louisana 15 Indiana 1 

Missouri 9 

North Carolina 8 Total 308 

The regiments sent forth to the defense of the Republic in the 
Lonr of its greatest peril, when a host of her own sons, blinded by 
some unholy infatuation, leaped to arms that they might trample 
upon the liberty-giving principles of the nation, have been passed 
in very brief review. The authorities chosen for the dates, names, 
and figures are the records of the State, and the main subject is 
based upon the actions of those 267,000 gallant men of Indiana 
who rushed to arms in defense of all for which their fathers bled^ 
leaving their wives and children and homes in the guardianship of 
a truly paternal Government. 

The relation of Indiana to t^^ Republic was then established; 
for when the population of tl State, at the time her sons went 
forth to participate in war for the maintenance of the Union, is 
brought into comparison with all other States and countries, it will 
be apparent that the sacrifices made by Indiana from 1861-'65 
equal, if not actually exceed, the noblest of those recorded in the 
history of ancient or modern times. 

Unprepared for the terrible inundation of modern wickedness, 
which threatened to deluge the country in a sea of blood and rob, 
a people of their richest, their most prized inheritance, the State 
rose above all precedent, and under the benign influence of patriot- 
ism, guided by the well-directed zeal of a wise Governor and 
Government, sent into the field an army that in numbers was 
gigantic, and in moral and physical excellence never equaled 

It is laid dov/n in the ofiicial reports, furnished to the War De- 
partment, that over 200,000 troops were specially organized to aid 
in crushing the legions of the slave-holder; that no less than 50,000 
militia were armed to defend the State, and that the large, but abso- 
lutely necessary number of commissions issued was 17,114. All 
this proves the scientific skill and military economy exercised by 
the Governor, and brought to the aid of the people in a most terri- 
ble emergency; for he, with some prophetic sense of the gravity of 
the situation, saw that unless the greatest powers of the Union 
were put forth to crush the least justifiable and most pernicious 


of all rebellions holding a place in the record of nations, the best 
blood of the country would flow in a vain attempt to avert a catas- 
trophe which, if prolonged for many years, would result in at least 
the moral and commercial ruin of the country. 

The part which Indiana took in the war against the Rebellion is 
one of wliicli the citizens of the State may well be proud. In the 
number of troops furnished, and in the amount of voluntary con- 
tributions rendered, Indiana, in proportion and wealth, stands 
equal to any of her sister States. " It is also a subject of gratitude 
and thankfulness," said Gov. Morton, in his message to the Legis- 
lature, " that, while the number of troops furnished by Indiana 
alone in this great contest would have done credit to a first-class 
nation, measured by the standard of previous wars, not a single 
battery or battalion from this State has brought reproach upon the 
national flag, and no disaster of the war can be traced to any want 
of fidelity, courage or efliciency on the part of any Indiana officer. 
The endurance, heroism, intelligence and skill of the officers and 
soldiers sent forth by Indiana to do battle for the Union, have shed 
a luster on our beloved State, of which any people might justly be 
proud. Without claiming superiority over our loyal sister States, 
it is but justice to the brave men who have represented us on 
almost every battle-field of the war, to say that their deeds have 
placed Indiana in the front rank of those heroic States which 
rushed to the rescue of the imperiled Government of the nation. 
The total number of troops furnished by the State for all terms of 
service exceeds 200,000 men, much the greater portion of them 
being for three years; and in addition thereto not less than 50,000 
State militia have from time to time been called into active service 
to repel rebel raids and defend our southern border from inva- 



In 1867 the Legislature comprised 91 Republicans and 59 Dem- 
ocrats. Soon after the commencement of the session, Gov. Morton 
resic^'ned his office in consequence of having been elected to the U. 
S. Senate, and Lieut.-Gov. Conrad Baker assumed the Executive 
chair during the remainder of Morton's term. This Legislature, 
by a very decisive vote, ratified the 14th amendment to the Federal 
Constitution, constituting all persons born in the country or sub- 
ject to its jurisdiction, citizens of the United States and of the 
State wherein they reside, without regard to race or color; reduc- 



ing the Congressional representation in any State in which there 
should be a restriction of the exercise of the elective franchise on 
account of race or color; disfranchising persons therein named 
who shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States; and declaring that the validity of the public debt 
of the United States authorized by law, shall not be questioned. 

This Legislature also passed an act providing for the registry of 
votes, the punishment of fraudulent practices at elections, and for 
the apportionment and compensation of a Board of Registration; 
this Board to consist, in each township, of two freeholders appointed 
by the County Commissioners, together with the trustee of such 
township; in cities the freeholders are to be appointed in each 
ward by the city council. The measures of this law are very strict, 
and are faithfully executed. No cries of fraud in elections are 
heard in connection with Indiana. 

This Legislature also divided the State into eleven Congressional 
Districts and apportioned their representation; enacted a law for 
the protection and indemnity of all officers and soldiers of the 
United States and soldiers of the Indiana Legion, for acts done in 
the military service of the United States, and in the military ser- 
vice of the State, and in enforcing the laws and preserving the 
peace of the country; made definite appropriations to the several 
benevolent institutions of the State, and adopted several measures 
for the encouragement of education, etc. 

In 1868, Indiana was the first in the field of national politics, 
both the principal parties holding State conventions early in the 
3'ear. The Democrats nominated T. A. Hendricks for Governor, 
and denounced in their platform the reconstruction policy of the 
Eepublicans; recommended that United States treasury notes be 
substituted for national bank currency; denied that the General 
Government had a right to interfere with the question of suffrage 
in any of the States, and opposed negro suftrage, etc.; while the 
Republicans nominated Conrad Baker for Governor, defended its 
reconstruction policy, opposed a further contraction of the currency, 
etc. The campaign was an exciting one, and Mr. Baker was 
elected Governor by a majority of only 961. In the Presidential 
election that soon followed the State gave Grant 9,572 more than 

During 1868 Indiana presented claims to the Government for 
about three and a half millions dollars for expenseg incurred in the 
war, and $1,958,917.94 was allowed. Also, this year, a legislative 


commission reported that $413,599.48 were allowed to parties suf- 
fering loss by the Morgan raid. 

This year Governor Baker obtained a site for the House of 
Refnge. (See a subsequent page.) The Soldiers' and Seamen's 
Home, near Knightstown, originally established by private enter- 
prise and benevolence, and adopted by the Legislature of the 
previous year, was in a good condition. Up to tliat date the insti- 
tution had ajforded relief and temporar}'^ subsistence to 400 men 
who had been disabled in the war. A substantial brick building 
had been built for the home, while the old buildings were used for 
an orphans' department, in which were gathered. 86 children of 
deceased soldiers. 


By some mistake or liberal design, the early statute laws of 
Indiana on the subject of divorce were rather more loose than those 
of most other States in this Union; and this subject had been a 
matter of so much jest among the public, that in 1870 the Governor 
recommended to the Legislature a reform in this direction, which 
was pretty effectually carried out. Since that time divorces can 
be granted only for the following causes: 1. Adulter}'. 2. Impo- 
tency existing at the time of marriage. 3. Abandonment for two 
years. 4. Cruel and inhuman treatment of 'one party by the other. 
5. Habitual drunkenness of either party, or the failure of the hus- 
band to make reasonable provision for the family. 6 The failure 
of the husband to make reasonable provision for the family for a 
period of two years. 7. The conviction of either party of an infamous 


Were it not for political government the pioneers would have got 
along without money ranch longer than they did. The pressure of 
governmental needs was somewhat in advance of the monetary 
income of the first settlers, and the little taxation required to carry 
on the government seemed great and even oppressive, especially at 
certain periods. 

In November, 1821, Gov. Jennings convened the Legislature in 
extra session to j-trovide for the payment of interest on the State 
debt and a part of the principal, amounting to $20,000. It was 
thought that a sufficient amount would be realized in the notes of 
the State bank and its branches, although they were considerably 
depreciated. Said the Governor: " It will be oppressive if the 
StatO;, after the paper of this institution (State bank) was author- 
ized to be circulated in revenue, should be prevented by any assign- 
ment of the evidences of existing debt, from discharo^ino- at least 
so much of that debt with the paper of the bank as will absorb the 
collections of the present year; especially when their notes, after 
being made receivable by the agents of the State, became greatly 
depreciated by great mismanagement on the part of the bank 
itself. It ought not to be expected that a public loss to the State 
should be avoided by resorting to any measures which would not 
comport with correct views of public justice; nor should it be 
anticipated that the treasury of the United States would ultimately 
adopt measures to secure an uncertain debt which would inter- 
fere with arrangements calculated to adjust the demand against the 
State without producing any additional embarrassment." 

The state of the public debt was indeed embarrassing, as the 

bonds which had been executed in its behalf had been assigned. 

The exciting cause of this proceeding consisted in the machinations 

of unprincipled speculators. Whatever disposition the principal 

bank may have made of the funds deposited by the United States, 

the connection of interest between the steam-mill company and the 

bank, and the extraordinary accommodations, as well as their amount, 

eflfected by arrangements of the steam-mill agency and some of 

the officers of the bank, were among the principal causes which 



had prostrated the paper circulating medium of the State, so far as it 
was dependent on the State bank and its branches. An abnormal 
state of affairs like this very naturally produced a blind disburse- 
ment of the fund to some extent, and this disbursement would be 
called by almost every one an '' unwise administration." 

During the first 16 years of this century, the belligerent condi- 
tion of Europe called for agricultural supplies from America, and 
the consequent high price of grain justified even the remote pio- 
neers of Indiana in undertaking the tedious transportation of the 
products of the soil which the times forced upon them. The large 
disbursements made by the general Government among the peo- 
ple naturally engendered a rage for speculation; numerous banks 
with fictitious capital were established; immense issues of paper 
were made; and the circulating medium of the country was in- 
creased fourfold in the course of two or three yearSo This infla- 
tion produced the consequences which always follow such a scheme, 
namely, unfounded visions of wealth and splendor and the wild 
investments which result in ruin to the many and wealth to the 
few. The year 1821 was consequently one of great financial panic, 
and was the first experienced by the early settlers of the West. 

In 1822 the new Governor, William Hendricks, took a liopefal 
view of the situation, referring particularly to the "agricultural 
and social happiness of the State." The crops were abundant this 
year, immigration was setting in heavily and everything seemed to 
have an upward look. But the customs of the white race still com- 
pelling them to patronize European industries, combined with the 
remoteness of the surplus produce of Indiana from European mar- 
kets, constituted a serious drawback to the accumulation of wealth. 
Such a state of things naturally changed the habits of the people 
to some extent, at least for a short time, assimilating them to tliose 
of more primitive tribes. This change of custom, however, was 
not severe and protracted enough to change the intelligent and 
social nature of the people, and they arose to tlieir normal height 
on the very first opportunity. 

In 1822-'3, before speculation started up again, the surplus 
money was invested mainly in domestic manufactories instead of 
other and wilder commercial enterprises. Home manufactories 
were what the people needed to make them more independent. 
They not only gave employment to thousands whose services were 
before that valueless, but also created a market for a great portion 


of the surplus produce of the farmers. A part of the surphis cap- 
ital, however, was also sunk in internal improvements, some of 
which were unsuccessful for a time,. but eventually proved remu- 

I*^uah Noble occupied the Executive chair of the State from 1831 
to 1837, commencing his duties amid peculiar embarrassments. 
The crops of 1832 were short, Asiatic cholera came sweeping along 
the Ohio and into the interior of the State, and the Black Hawk war 
raged in the Northwest, — all these at once, and yet the work of 
internal improvements was actually begun. 


The State bank of Indiana was established by law January 28, 
1834. The act of the Legislature, by its own terms, ceased to be a 
law, January 1, 1857. At the time of its organization in 1834, its 
outstanding circulation was $4,208,725, with a debt due to the insti- 
tution, principally from citizens of the State, of $6,095,368. During 
the years 1857-'58 the bank redeemed nearly its entire circulation, 
providing for the redemption of all outstanding obligations; at this 
time it had collected from most of its debtors the money which they 
owed. The amounts of the State's interest in the stock of the bank 
was $1,390,000, and the money thus invested was procured by the 
issue of five per cent bonds, the last of which was payable July 1, 1866. 
The nominal profits of the bank were $2,780,604.36. By the law 
creating the sinking fund, that fund was appropriated, first, to pay 
the principal and interest on the bonds; secondly, the expenses of 
the Commissioners; and lastly the cause of common-school educa- 

The stock in all the branches authorized was subscribed by indi- 
viduals, and the installment paid as required by the charter. The 
loan authorized for the payment on the stock allotted to the State, 
amounting to $500,000, was obtained at a premium of 1.05 per 
per cent, on five per cent, stock, making the sum of over $5,000 on 
the amount borrowed. In 1836 we find that the State bank was 
doing good service; agricultural products were abundant, and the 
market was good; consequently the people were in the full enjoy- 
ment of all the blessings of a free government. 

By the year 1843 the State was experiencing the disasters and 
embarassment consequent upon a system of over-banking, and its 
natural progeny, over-trading and deceptive speculation. Such a 
state of things tends to relax the hand of industry by creating false 


notions of wealth, and tempt to sudden acquisitions by means as delu- 
sive in their results as they are contrary to a primary law of nature. 
The people began more tlian ever to see the necessity of falling 
back upon that branch of industry for which Indiana, especially 
at that time, was particularly fitted, namely, agriculture, as the 
true and lasting source of substantial wealth. 

Gov. Whitcomb, 1843-'49, succeeded well in maintaining the 
credit of the State. Measures of compromise between the State 
and its creditors were adopted by which, ultimately, the public 
works, although incomplete, were given in payment for the claims 
against the Government. 

At the close of his term, Gov. Whitcomb was elected to the 
Senate of the United States, and from December, 1848, to Decem- 
ber, 1849, Lieut-Gov. Paris C- Dunning was acting Governor. 

In 1851 a general banking law was adopted which gave a new 
impetus to the commerce of the State, and opened the way for a 
broader volume of general trade; but this law was the source of 
many abuses; currency was expanded, a delusive idea of wealth 
again prevailed, and as a consequence, a great deal of damaging 
speculation was indulged in. 

In 1857 the charter of the State bank expired, and the large 
gains to the State in that institution were directed to the promotion 
of common-school education. 


During trie war of the Rebellion the financial condition of the 
people was of course like that of the other Northern States generally. 
1870 found the State in a very prosperous condition. October 31 
of this year, the date of the fiscal report, there was a surplus of 
$373,249 in the treasury. The receipts of the year amounted to 
$3,605,639, and the disbursements to $2,943,600, leaving a balance 
of $1,035,288. The total debt of the State in November, 1871, was 

At the present time the principal articles of export from the State 
are flour and pork. Nearly all the wheat raised within the State 
is manufactured into flour within its limits, especially in the north- 
ern part. The pork business is the leading one in the southern 
part of the State. 

When we take into consideration the vast extent of railroad lines 
in this State, in connection with the agricultural and mineral 
resources, both developed and undeveloped, as already noted, we can 


see what a substantial foundation exists for the future welfare of 
this great commonwealth. Almost every portion of the State is 
coming up equally. The disposition to monopolize does not exist 
to a greater degree than is desirable or necessary for healthy compe- 
tition. Speculators in flour, pork and other commodities appeared 
during the war, but generally came to ruin at their own game. 
The agricultural community here is an independent one, under- 
standins^ its rio^hts, and " knowino; them will maintain them." 

Indiana is more a manufacturing State, also, than many imagine. 
It probably has the greatest wagon and carriage manufactory in the 
world. In 1875 the total number of manufacturing establishments 
in this State was 16,812; number of steam engines, 3,684, with a 
total horse-power of 114,961; the total horse-power of water wheels, 
38,614; number of hands employed in the manufactories, 86,402; 
capital employed, is $117,462,161; wages paid, $35,461,987; cost of 
material, $104,321,632; value of products, $301,304,271. These' 
figures are on an average about twice what they were only five years 
previously, at which time they were about double what they were 
ten years before that. In manufacturing enterprise, it is said that 
Indiana, in proportion to her population, is considerably in advance 
of Illinois and Michigan. 

In 1870 the assessed valuation of the real estate in Indiana was 
$460,120,974; of personal estate, $203,334,070; true valuation of 
both, $1,268,180,543. According to the evidences of increase at 
that time, the value of taxable property in this State must be double 
the foregoing figures. This is utterly astonishing, especially when 
we consider what a large matter it is to double the elements of a 
large and wealthy State, compared with its increase in infancy. 

The taxation for State purposes in 1870 amounted to $2,943,078; , 
for county purposes, $4,654,476; and for municipal purposes, 
$3,193,577. The total county debt of Indiana in 1870 was $1,127,- 
269, and the total debt of towns, cities, etc., was $2,523,934. 

In the compilation of this statistical matter we have before us the 
statistics of every element of progress in Indiana, in the U. S. 
Census Reports; but as it would be really improper for us further 
to burden these pages with tables or columns of large numbers, we 
will conclude by remarking that if any one wishes further details in 
these matters, he can readily find them in the Census Reports of 
the Government in any city or village in the country. Besides, 
almost any one can obtain, free of charge, from his representative in 


Congress, all these and other public documents in which he may be 


This subject began to be agitated as early as 1818, during the 
administration of Governor Jennings, who, as well as all the 
Governors succeeding him to 1843, made it a special point in their 
messages to the Legislature to urge the adoption of measures for 
the construction of higliways and canals and the improvement of 
the navigation of rivers. Gov. Hendricks in 1822 specified as the 
most important improvement the navigation of the Falls of the 
Ohio, the Wabash and White rivers, and other streams, and the 
construction of the National and other roads through the State. 

In 1826 Governor Ray considered the construction of roads and 
canals as a necessity to place the State on an ci{nsd financial footing 
with the older States East, and in 1829 he added: "This subject 
can never grow irksome, since it must be the source of the bless- 
ings of civilized life. To secure its benefits is a duty enjoined upon 
the Legislature by the obligations of the social compact." 

In 1830 the people became much excited over the project of con- 
necting the streams of the country by " The National New York 
& Mississippi railroad." The National road and the Michigan 
and Ohio turnpike were enterprises in which the people and Legis- 
lature of Indiana were interested. The latter had already been the 
cause of much bitter controversy, and its location was then the 
subject of contention. 

In 1832 the work of internal improvements fairly commenced, 
despite the partial failure of the crops, the Black Hawk war and 
, the Asiatic cholera. Several war parties invaded the Western 
settlements, exciting great alarm and some suffering. This year 
the canal commissioners completed the task assigned them and had 
negotiated the canal bonds in New York city, to the amount of 
$100,000, at a premium of 13|- per cent., on terms honorable to the 
State and advantageous to the work. Before the close of tnis year 
$54,000 were spent for the improvement of the Michigan road, and 
$52,000 were realized from the sale of lands appropriated for its 
construction. In 1832, 32 miles of the Wabash and Erie canal was 
placed under contract and work commenced. A communication 
was addressed to the Governor of Ohio, requesting him to call the 
attention of the Legislature of that State to the subject of the 
extension of the canal from the Indiana line through Ohio to the 


Lake. In compliance with this request, Governor Lucas promptly 
laid the subject before the Legislature of the State, and, in a spirit 
of courtesy, resolutions were adopted by that body, stipulating that 
if Ohio should ultimately decline to undertake the completion of 
that portion of the work within her limits before the time fixed by 
the act of Congress for the completion of the canal, she would, on 
just and equitable terms, enable Indiana to avail herself of the bene- 
fit of the lands granted, by authorizing her to sell tiiem and invest 
the proceeds in the stock of a company to be incorporated by Ohio; 
and that she would give Indiana notice of her final determination 
on or before January 1, 1838. The Legislature of Ohio also 
authorized and invited the agent of the State of Indiana to select, 
survey and set apart the lands lying within that State. In keeping 
with this policy Governor Noble, in 1834, said: "With a view of 
engaging in works of internal improvement, the propriety of 
adopting a general plan or system, having reference to the several 
portions of the State, and the connection of one with the other, 
naturally suggests itself. No work should be commenced but such 
as would be of acknowledged public utility, and when completed 
would form a branch of some general system. In view of this 
object, the policy of organizing a Board of Pul)lic Works is again 
respectfully suggested." The Governor also-called favorable atten- 
tion to the Lawrenceburg & Indianapolis railway, for which a 
charter had been granted. 

In 1835 the Wabash & Erie canal was pushed rapidl}' forward. 
The middle division, extending from the St. Joseph dam to the 
forks of the Wabash, about 32 miles, was completed, for about 
$232,000, including all repairs. Upon this portion of the line nav- 
igation was opened on July 4, which day the citizens assembled 
" to witness the mingling of the waters of the St. Joseph with 
those of the Wabash, uniting the waters of the northern chain of 
lakes with those of the Gulf of Mexico in the South." On other 
parts of the line the work progressed with speed, and the sale of 
canal lands was unusually active 

In 1836 the first meeting of the State Board of Internal Im- 
provement was convened and entered upon the discharge of its 
numerous and responsible duties. Having assigned to each mem- 
ber the direction and superintendence of a portion of the work, 
the next duty to be performed preparatory to the various spheres of 
active service, was that of procuring the requisite number of 
engineers, A delegation was sent to the Eastern cities, but returned 


without engaging an Engineer-in-Chief for the roads and railways, 
and without the desired number for the subordinate station; but 
after considerable delay the Board was fully organized and put in 
operation. Under their management work on public improve- 
ments was successful; the canal progressed steadily; the naviga- 
tion of the middle division, from Fort Wayne to Huntington, was 
uninterrupted; 16 miles of the line between Huntington and La 
Fontaine creek were filled with water this year and made ready for 
navigation ; and the remaining 20 miles were completed, except a 
portion of the locks; from La Fontaine creek to Logansport prog- 
ress was made; the line from Georgetown to Lafayette was placed 
under contract; about 30 miles of the Whitewater canal, extending 
from Lawrenceburg through the beautiful valley of the White- 
water to Brookville, were also placed under contract, as also 23 
miles of the Central canal, passing through Indianapolis, on which 
work was commenced; also about 20 miles of the southern divis- 
ion of this work, extending from Evansville into the interior, 
were also contracted for; and on the line of the Cross-Cut canal, 
from Terre Haute to the intersection of the Central canal, near 
the mouth of Eel river, a commencement was also made on all the 
heavy sections. All this in 1836. 

Early in this year a party of engineers was organized, and 
directed to examine into the practicability of the Michigan & 
Erie canal line, then proposed. The report of their operations 
favored its expediency. A party of engineers was also fitted out, 
who entered upon the field of service of the Madison & Lafayette 
railroad, and contracts were let for its construction from Madison 
to Yernon, on which work was vigorously commenced. Also, con- 
tracts were let for grading and bridging the New Albany & Vin- 
cennes road from the former point to Paoli, about 40 miles. 
Other roads were also undertaken and surveyed, so that indeed a 
stupendous system of internal improvement was undertaken, and 
as Gov. Noble truly remarked, upon the issue of that vast enter- 
prise the State of Indiana staked her fortune. She had gone too 
far to retreat. 

In 1837, when Gov. Wallace took the Executive chair, the 
reaction consequent upon "over work" by the State in the internal 
improvement scheme began to be felt by the people. They feared 
a State debt was being incurred from which they could never he 
extricated; but the Governor did all he could throughout the term 
of his administration to keep up the courage of the citizens. He 


told thoin that the astonishing success so far, surpassed even the 
hopes of the most sanguine, and that the flattering auspices of the 
future were sufficient to dispel every doubt and quiet every fear. 
Notwithstanding all his efforts, however, the construction of pub- 
lic works continued to decline, and in his last message he exclaimed: 
" Never before — I speak it advisedly — never before have you wit- 
nessed a period in our local history that more urgently called for 
the exercise of all the soundest and best attributes of grave and 
patriotic legislators than the present. * * * ^i^q 

truth is — and it would be folly to conceal it — we have our hands 
full — full to overflowing; and therefore, to sustain ourselves, to 
preserve the credit and character of the State unimpaired, and to 
continue her hitherto unexampled march to wealth and distinction, 
we have not an hour of time, nor a dollar of money, nor a hand 
employed in labor, to squander and dissipate upon mere objects of 
idleness, or taste, or amusement." 

The State had borrowed $3,827,000 for internalimprovement pur- 
poses, of which $1,327,000 was for the Wabash & Erie canal and 
the remainder for other works. The five per cent, interest on 
debts — about $200,000 — which the State had to pay, had become 
burdensome, as her resources for this purpose were only two, 
besides direct taxation, and they were small, namely, the interest 
on the balances due for canal lands, and the proceeds of the third 
installment of the surplus revenue, both amounting, in 1838, 
to about $45,000. 

In August, 1839, all work ceased on these improvements, with 
one or two exceptions, and most of the contracts were surrendered 
to the State. This was done according to an act of the Legislature 
providing for the compensation of contractors by the issue of 
treasury notes. In addition to this state of aflairs, the Legisla- 
ture of 1839 had made no provision for the payment of interest on 
the State debt incurred for internal improvements. Concerning 
this situation Gov. Bigger, in 184:0, said that either to go ahead 
with the works or to abandon them altogether would be equally 
ruinous to the State, the implication being that the people should 
wait a little while for a breathing spell and then take hold again. 

Of course much individual indebtedness was created during the 
progress of the work on internal improvement. "When operations 
ceased in 1839, and prices fell at the same time, the people were 
left in a great measure without the means of commanding money 
to pay their debts. This condition of private enterprise more than 


ever rendered direct taxation inexpedient. Hence it became the 
policy of Gov. Bigger to provide the means of paying the interest 
on the State debt without increasing the rate of taxation, and to 
continue that portion of the public works that could be immedi- 
ately completed, and from which the earliest returns could be 

In 1840 the system embraced ten different works, the most im- 
portant of which was the Wabash & Erie canal. The aggregate 
length of the lines embraced in the system was 1,160 miles, and 
of this only 140 miles had been completed. The amount expended 
had reached the sum of $5,600,000, and it required at least $14,000,- 
000 to complete them. Although the crops of 1841 were very 
remunerative, this perquisite alone was not sufficient to raise the 
State again up to the level of going ahead with her gigantic 

We should here state in detail the amount of work completed and 
of money expended on the various works uj) to this time, 1841, 
which were as follows: 

1. The Wabash & Erie canal, from the State line to Tippe- 
canoe, 129 miles in length, completed and navigable for the whole 
length, at a cost of $2,041,012. Tliis sum includes the cost of the 
steamboat lock afterward completed at Delphi. 

2. The extension of the Wabash & Erie canal from the mouth 
of the Tippecanoe to Terre Haute, over 104 miles. The estimated 
cost of this work was $1,500,000; and the amount expended for the 
same $408,855. The navigation was at this period opened as far 
down as Lafayette, and a part of the work done in the neighbor- 
hood of Covington. 

3. The cross-cut canal from Terre Haute to Central canal, 
49 miles in length; estimated cost, $718,672; amount expended, 
$420,679; and at this time no part of the course was navigable. 

4. The White Water canal, from Lawrenceburg to the mouth 
of Nettle creek, 76-^ miles; estimated cost, $1,675,738; amount 
expended to that date, $1,099,867; and 31 miles of the work 
was navigable, extending from the Ohio river to Brookville. 

5. The Central canal, from the Wabash & Erie canal, to 
Indianapolis, including the feeder bend at Muncietown, 124 miles 
in length; total estimated cost, $2,299,853; amount expended, 
$568,046; eight miles completed at that date, and other portions 
nearly done. 


6. Central canal, from Indianapolis to Evansville on the Ohio 
river, 194 miles in length; total estimated cost, $3,532,394; amount 
expended, $831,302, 19 miles of which was completed at that date, 
at the southern end, and 16 miles, extending south from Indianao- 
olis, were nearly completed. 

Y. Erie & Michigan canal, 182 miles in length; estimated cost, 
$2,624,823; amount expended, $156,394. No part of this work 

8. The Madison & Indianapolis railroad, over 85 miles in 
length; total estimated cost, $2,046,600; amount expended, $1,493,- 
013. Koad finished and in operation for about 28 miles; grad- 
ing nearly finished for 27 miles in addition, extending to Eden- 

9. Indianapolis & Lafayette turnpike road, 73 miles in length; 
total estimated cost, $503, 737; amount expended, $72,118. The 
bridging and most of the grading was done on 27 miles, from 
Crawfordsville to Lafayette. 

10. New Albany & Yincennes turnpike road, 105 miles in 
length; estimated cost, $1,127,295; amount expended, $654,411. 
Forty-one miles graded and macadamized, extending from New 
Albany to Paoli, and 27 miles in addition partly graded. 

11. Jeftersonville & Crawfordsville road, over 164 miles long; 
total estimated cost, $1,651,800; amount expended, $372,737. 
Forty-five miles were partly graded and bridged, extending from 
Jeffersonville to Salem, and from Greencastle north. 

12. Improvement of the Wabash rapids, undertaken jointly by 
Indiana and Illinois; estimated cost to Indiana, $102,500; amount 
expended by Indiana, $9,539. 

Grand totals: Length of roads and canals, 1,289 miles, only 
281 of which have been finished; estimated cost of all the works, 
$19,914,424; amount expended, $8,164,528. The State debt at 
this time amounted to $18,469,146. The two principal causes 
whicli aggravated the embarrassment of the State at this juncture 
were, first, paying most of the interest out of the money borrowed, 
and, secondly, selling bonds on credit. The first error suljected 
the State to the payment of compound interest, and the people, 
not feeling tlie pressure of taxes to discharge the interest, natu- 
rally became inattentive to the public policy pursued. Postpone- 
ment of the payment of interest is demoralizing in every way. 
During this period the State was held up in an unpleasant manner 
before the gaze of the world; but be it to the credit of this great 


and glorious State, she would not repudiate, as many other States 
and municipalities have done. 

By the year 1850, the so-called "internal improvement" system 
having been abandoned, private capital and ambition pushed for- 
ward various "public works." During this year about 400 miles 
of plank road were completed, at a cost of $1,200 to $1,500 per 
mile, and about 1,200 miles more were surveyed and in progress. 
There were in the State at this time 212 miles of railroad in suc- 
cessful operation, of wliich 124 were completed this year. More 
than 1,000 miles of railroad were surveyed and in progress. 

An attempt was made during the session of the Legislature in 
1869 to re-burden the State with the old canal debt, and the matter 
was considerably agitated in the canvass of 1870. Tlie subject of the 
Wabash & Erie canal was lightly touched in the Republican plat- 
form, occasioning considerable discussion, which probably had 
some effect on the election in the fall. That election resulted in 
an average majority in the State of about 2,864 for the Democracy. 
It being claimed that the Legislature had no authority under the 
constitution to tax the people for the purpose of aiding in tlie con- 
struction of railroads, the Supreme Court, in Anril, 1871, decided 
adversely to such a claim. 


In 1869 the development of mineral resources in the State 
attracted considerable attention. Rich mines of iron and coal were 
discovered, as also fine quarries of building stone. The Vincennes 
railroad passed through some of the richest portions of the mineral 
region, the engineers of which had accurately determined the 
quality of richness of the ores. Near Brooklyn, about 20 miles 
from Indianapolis, is a fine formation of sandstone, yielding good 
material for buildings in the city; indeed, it is considei-ed the best 
building stone in the State. The limestone formation at Gosport, 
continuing 12 miles from that point, is of great variety, and 
includes the finest and most durable building stone in the world. 
Portions of it are susceptible only to the chisel; other portions are 
soft and can be worked with the ordinary tools. At the end of this 
limestone formation there commences a sandstone series of strata 
which extends seven miles farther, to a point about 60 miles from 
Indianapolis. Here an extensive coal bed is reached consisting of 
seven distinct veins. The first is about two feet thick, the next 
three feet, another four feet, and the others of various thicknesses. 


These beds are all easily worked, having a natural drain, and fhey 
yield heavy profits. In the whole of the southwestern part of the 
State and for 300 miles up the Wabash, coal exists in good quality 
and abundance. 

The scholars, statesmen and philanthropists of Indiana work- 
ed hard and long for the appointment of a State Geologist, with 
sufficient support to enable him to make a thorough geological 
survey of the State. A partial survey was made as early as 1837-'8, 
by David Dale Owen, State Geologist, but nothing more was done 
until 1869, when Prof. Edward T. Cox was appointed State Geolo- 
gist. For 20 years previous to this date the Governors urged and 
insisted in all their messages that a thorough survey should be 
made, but almost, if not quite, in vain. In 1852, Dr. Ryland T. 
Brown delivered an able address on this subject before the Legis- 
lature, showing how much coal, iron, building stone, etc., there 
were probably; in the State, but the exact localities and qualities 
not ascertained, and how millions of money could be saved to the 
State by the expenditure of a few thousand dollars; but "they 
answered the Doctor in the negative. It must have been because 
they hadn't time to pass the bill. They were very busy. They had 
to pass all sorts of regulations concerning the negro. They had to 
protect a good many white people from marrying negroes. And as 
they didn't need any labor in the State, if it was ' colored,' they 
had to make regulations to shut out all of that kind of labor, and 
to take steps to put out all that unfortunately got in, and they didn't 
have time to consider the scheme proposed by the white people " — 
W. W. Clayton. 

h\ 1853, the State Board of Agriculture employed Dr. Brown to 
make a partial examination of the geology of the State, at a salary 

of $500 a year, and to this Board the credit is due for the final 
success of the philanthropists, who in 1869 had the pleasure of 
witnessing the passage of a Legislative act " to provide for a Depart- 
ment of Geology and Natural Science, in connection with the State 
Board of Agriculture." Under this act Governor Baker immedi- 
ately appointed Prof. Edward T. Cox the State Geologist, wiio has 
made an able and exhaustive report of the agricultural, mineral 
and. manufacturing resources of this State, world-wide in its celeb- 
rity, and a work of which the people of Indiana may be very 
proud. We can scarcel}^ give even the substance of his report in a 
work like this, because it is of necessity deeply scientilic and made 
up entirely of local detail. 

264 HISTORY OF Indiana. 


The coal measures, says Prof. E. T. Cox, cover an area of about 
6,500 square miles, in the soutliwestern part of the State, and 
extend from Warren county on the north to the Ohio river on the 
south, a distance of about 150 miles. This area comprises the fol- 
lowinfy counties: Warren, Fountain, Parke, Vermillion, Yigo, Clay, 
Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Gibson, Pike, Dubois, 
Vanderburg, Warrick, Spencer, Perry and a small part of Crawford, 
Monroe, Putnam and Montgomery. 

This coal is all bituminous, but is divisible into three well-marked 
varieties: caking-coal, non-caking-coal or block coal and cannel 
coal. The total depth of the seams or measures is from 600 to 800 
feet, with 12 to 14 distinct seams of coal; but these are not all to 
be found throughout the area; the seams range from one foot to 
eleven feet in thickness. The caking coal prevails in the western 
portion of the area described, and has from three to four workable 
seams, ranging from three and a half to eleven feet in thickness. 
At most of the places where these are worked the coal is mined by 
adits driven in on the face of tiie ridges, and the deepest shafts in 
the State are less than 300 feet, the average depth for successful 
mining not being over 75 feet. This is a bright, black, sometimes 
glossy, coal, makes good coke and con tarns a very large percentage 
of pure illuminating gas. One pound will jneld about 4|- cubic feet 
of gas, with a power equal to 15 standard sperm candles. The 
average calculated calorific pov/er of the caking coals is 7,745 heat 
units, pure carbon being 8,080. Both in the northern and southern 
portions of the field, the caking coals present similar good qualities, 
and are a great source of private and public wealth. 

The block coal prevails in the eastern part of the field and has an 
area of about 450 square miles. This is excellent, in its raw state, 
for making pig iron. It is indeed peculiarly fitted for metal- 
lurgical purposes. It has a laminated structure with carbonaceous 
matter, like charcoal, between the lamina, with slaty cleavage, and 
it rings under the stroke of the hammer. It is " free-burning," 
makes an open fire, and without caking, swelling, scaffolding in the 
furnace or changing form, burns like hickory wood until it is con- 
sumed to a white ash and leaves no clinkers. It is likewise valuable 
for generating steam and for household uses. Many of the principal 
railway lines in the State are using it in preference to any other 
coal, as it does not burn out the fire-boxes, and gives as little trouble 
as wood. 


There are eight distinct seams of block coal in this zone, three of 
which are workable, having an average thickness of four feet. In 
some places this coal is mined by adits, but generally from shafts, 
40 to 80 feet deep. The seams are crossed by cleavage lines, and 
the coal is usually mined without powder, and may be taken out in 
blocks weighing a ton or more. When entries or rooms are driven 
angling across the cleavage lines, the walls of the mine present a 
zigzag, notched appearance resembling a Virginia worm fence. 

In 1871 there were about 21 block coal mines in operation, and 
about 1,500 tons were mined daily. Since that time this industry 
has vastly increased. This coal consists of 81^ to 83|- percent, of 
carbon, and not quite three fourths of one per cent, of sulphur. 
Calculated calorific power equal to 8,283 heat units. This coal also 
is equally good both in the northern and southern parts of the field. 

The great Indiana coal field is within 150 miles of Chicao-o or 
Michigan City, by railroad, from which ports the Lake Superior 
specular and red hematite ores are landed from vessels that are able 
to run in a direct course from the ore banks. Considerino: the 
proximity of the vast quantities of iron in Michigan and Missouri 
one can readily see what a glorious future awaits Indiana in respect 
to manufactories. 

Of the cannel coal, one of the finest seams to be found in the 
country is in Daviess county, this State. Here it is three and a 
half feet thick, underlaid by one and a half feet of a beautiful, jet- 
black caking coal. There is no cla}^, shale or other foreign matter 
intervening, and fragments of the caking coal are often found 
adhering to the cannel. There is no gradual change from one to 
the other, and the character of each is homo<]:eneous tliroushout. 

The cannel coal makes a delightful fire in open grates, and does 
not pop and throw ofi" scales into the room, as is usual with this 
kind of coal. This coal is well adapted to the manufacture of 
illuminating gas, in respect to both quantity and high illuminating 
power. One ton of 2,000 pounds of this coal yields 10,100 feet of 
gas, while the best Pennsylvania coal yields but 8,680 cubic feet. 
This gas has an illuminating power of 25 candles, while the best 
Pennsylvania coal gas has that of onl}^ 17 candles. 

Cannel coal is also found in great abundance in I*erry, Greene, 
Parke and Fountain counties, where its commercial value has already 
been demonstrated. 

I^umerous deposits of bog iron ore are found in the northern part 
of the State, and clay iron-stones and impure carbonates and brown 


oxides are found scattered in the vicinity of the coal field. In some 
places the beds are quite thick and of considerable commercial 

An abundance of excellent lime is also found in Indiana, espe- 
cially in Huntington countj^, where many large kilns are kept in 
profitable operation. 


In 1852 the Legislature passed an act authorizing the organization 
of county and district agricultural societies, and also establishing a 
State Board, the provisions of which act are substantially as follows: 

1. Thirty or more persons in any one or two counties organizing 
into a society for the improvement of agriculture, adopting a consti- 
tution and by-laws agreeable to the regulations prescribed by the 
State Board, and appointing the proper officers and raising a sum 
of $50 for its own treasury, shall be entitled to the same amount 
from the fund arising from show licenses in their respective 

2. These societies shall offer annual premiums for improvement 
of soils, tillage, crops, manures, productions, stock, articles of 
domestic industry, and such other articles, productions and improve- 
ments as they may deem proper; they shall encourage, by grant 
of rewards, agricultural and household manufacturing interests, and 
so regulate the premiums that small farmers will have equal 
opportunity with the large; and they shall pay special attention to 
cost and profit of the inventions and improvements, requiring an 
exact, detailed statement of the processes competing for rewards. 

3. They shall publish in a newspaper annually their list of 
awards and an abstract of their treasurers' accounts, and they shall 
report in full to the State Board their proceedings. Failing to do 
the latter they shall receive no payment from their county funds. 


The act of Feb. 17, 1852, also established a State Board of Agri- 
culture, with perpetual succession; its annual meetings to be held 
at Indianapolis on the first Thursday after the first Monday in 
January, when the reports of the county societies are to be received 
and agricultural interests discussed and determined upon; it shall 
make an annual report to the Legislature of receipts, expenses, 
proceedings, etc., of its own meeting as well as of those of the local 


societies; it shall hold State fairs, at such times and places as they 
raa}' deem proper; may hold two meetings a year, certifying to the 
State Auditor their expenses, who shall draw his warrant upon the 
Treasurer for the same. 

In 1861 the State Board adopted certain rules, embracing ten 
sections, for the government of local societies, but in 1868 they 
were found inexpedient and abandoned. It adopted a resolution 
admitting delegates from the local societies. 


As the Board found great difficulty in doing justice to exhibitors 
without an adequate building, the members went earnestly to work 
in the fall of 1S7'2 to get up an interest in the matter. They 
appointed a committee of five to confer with the Councilor citizens 
of Indianapolis as to the best mode to be devised for a more 
thorough and complete exhibition of the industries of the State. 
The result of the conference was that the time had arrived for a 
regular " exposition," like that of the older States. At the Janu- 
ary meeting in 1873, Hon. Thomas Dowling, of Terre Haute, 
reported for the committee that they found a general interest in 
this enterprise, not only at the capital, but also throughout the 
State. A sub-committee was appointed who devised plans and 
specifications for the necessary structure, taking lessons mainly 
from the Kentucky Exposition building at Louisville. All the 
members of the State Board were in favor of proceeding with the 
building except Mr. Poole, who feared that, as the interest of the 
two enterprises were somewhat conflicting, and the Exposition being 
the more exciting show, it would swallow up the State and c'ounty 

The Exposition was opened Sept, 10, 1873, when Hon. John 
Sutherland, President of the Board, the Mayor of Indianapolis, 
Senator Morton and Gov. Hendricks delivered addresses. Senator 
Morton took the high ground that the money spent for an exposi- 
tion is spent as strictly for educational purposes as that which goes 
directly into the common school. The exposition is not a mere 
show, to be idly gazed upon, but an industrial school where one 
should study and learn. He thought that Indiana had less untill- 
able land than any other State in the Union; 'twas as rich as any 
and yielded a greater variety of products; and that Indiana was 
the most prosperous agricultural community in the United States. 


The State had nearly 3,700 miles of railroad, not counting side- 
track, with 400 miles more under contract for building. In 15 
or 18 months one can go from Indianapolis to every county in 
the State by railroad. Indiana has 6,500 square miles of coal field? 
450 of which contain block coal, the best in the United States for 
manufacturing purposes. 

On the subject of cheap transportation, he said: " By the census 
of 1870, Pennsylvania had, of domestic animals of all kinds, 4,006,- 
589, and Indiana, 4,511,094. Pennsylvania had grain to the amount 
of 60.400,000 bushels, while Indiana had 79,350,454. The value of 
the farm products of Pennsylvania was estimated to be $183,946,- 
000; those of Indiana, $122,914,000. Thus you see that while 
Indiana had 505,000 head of live stock more, and 19,000,000 
bushels of grain more than Pennsylvania, yet the products of Penn- 
sylvania are estimated at $183,946,000, on account of her greater 
proximity to market, while those of Indiana are estimated at only 
$122,914,000. Thus you can understand the importance of cheap 
transportation to Indiana. 

"Let us see how the question of transportation affects us on the 
other hand, with reference to the manufacturer of Bessemer steel. 
Of the 174,000 tons of iron ore used in the blast furnaces of Pitts- 
burg last year, 84,000 tons came from Lake Superior, 64,000 tons 
from Iron Mountain, Missouri, 20,000 tons from Lake Champlain, 
and less than 5,000 tons from the home mines of Pennsylvania, 
They cannot manufacture their iron with the coal they have in 
Pennsylvania without coking it. We have coal in Indiana with 
which we can, in its raw state, make the best of iron; while we are 
250 miles nearer Lake Superior than Pittsburg, and 430 miles 
nearer to Iron Mountain. So that the question of transportation 
determines the fact that Indiana must become the great center for 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel." • 

"What we want in this counti-y is diversified labor.'' 

The grand hall of the Exposition buildings is on elevated ground 
at the head of Alabama street, and commands a fine view of the 
city. The structure is of brick, 308 feet long by 150 in width, and 
two stories high. Its elevated galleries extend quite around the 
building, under thereof, thus aflfording visitors an opportunity to 
secure the most commanding view to be had in the city. The 
lower floor of the grand hall is occupied by the mechanical, geologi- 
cal and miscellaneous departments, and by the offices of the Board, 
which extend along the entire front. The second floor, which is 


approached by three wide stairways, accommodates the fine art, 
musical and other departments of light mechanics, and is brilliantly 
lighted by windows and skylights. But as we are here entering 
the description of a subject magnificent to behold, we enter a 
description too vast to complete, and we may as well stop here as 

The Presidents of the State Fairs have been: Gov. J. A. Wright, 
1852-'4; Gen. Jos. Orr, 1855; Dr. A. C. Stevenson, 1856-'8; G. D. 
Wagner; 1859-60; D. P. Ilolloway, 1861; Jas. D.Williams, 1862, 
1870-'l; A. D. Ilamrick, 1863, lS67-'9; Stearns Fisher, 186-l-'6; 
John Sutherland, 1872-'4; Wm. Crim, 1875. Secretaries: John B. 
Dillon, 1852-'3, 1855, 1858-'9 ; Ignatius Brown, 1856-'7; W. T. Den- 
nis, 185-1, 1860-'l; W. H. Loomis, 1862-'6; A. J. Holmes, 1867-'9; 
Joseph Poole, 1870-'l; Alex. Heron, 1872-'5. Place of fair, Indian- 
apolis every year except: Lafayette, 1853; Madison, 1854; New 
Albany, 1859; Fort Wayne, 1865; and Terre Haute, 1867. In 
1861 there was no fair. Tliegate and entry receipts increased from 
$4,651 in 1852 to $45,330 in 1874. 

On the opening of the Exposition, Oct. 7, 1874, addresses were 
delivered by the President of the Board, Hon. John Sutherland, 
and by Govs. Hendricks, Bigler and Pollock. Yvon's celebrated 
painting, the " Great Republic," was unveiled with great ceremony, 
and man)^ distinguished guests were present to witness it. 

The exhibition of 1875 showed that the plate glass from the 
southern part of the State was equal to the finest French plate; that 
the force- blowers made in the eastern part of the State was of a 
world-wide reputation; that the State has within its bounds the 
largest wagon manufactory in the world ; that in other parts of the 
State there were all sorts and sizes of manufactories, including roll- 
ing mills and blast furnaces, and in the western part coal was mined 
and shipped at the rate of 2,500 tons a day from one vicinity; and 
many other facts, whicli " would astonish the citizens of Indiana 
themselves even more than the rest of the world." 


This society was organized in 1842, thus taking the lead in the 
West. At this time Henry Ward Beecher was a resident of Indian- 
apolis, engaged not only as a minister but also as editor of the 
Indiana Farmer and Gardener, and his influence was very exten- 
sive in the interests of horticulture, floriculture and farming. 
Prominent among his pioneer co-laborers were Judge Coburn, 


Aaron Aldridge, Capt. James Sigarson, D. Y. CuUey, Reuben 
Eagan, Stephen Hampton, Cornelius Ratliff, Joshua Lindley, 
Abner Pope and many others. In the autumn of this year the 
society held an exhibition, probably the first in the State, if not 
in the West, in the hall of the new State house. The only pre- 
mium offered was a set of silver teaspoons for the best seedling 
apple, which was won b^^ Reuben Ragan, of Putnam count}^, for 
an apple christened on this occasion the " Osceola." 

The society gave great encouragement to the introduction of 
new varieties of fruit, especially of the pear, as the soil and cli- 
mate of Indiana were well adapted to this fruit. But the bright 
horizon which seemed to be at this time looming np all around the 
field of the young society's operations was suddenly and thoroughly 
darkened by the swarm of noxious insects, diseases, blasts of win- 
ter and the great distance to market. The prospects of the cause 
scarcely justified a continuation of the expense of assembling from 
remote parts of the State, and the meetings of the society therefore 
soon dwindled away until the organization itself became quite 

But when, in 1852 and afterward, railroads began to traverse the 
State in all directions, the Legislature provided for the organization 
of a State Board of Agriculture, whose scope was not only agri- 
culture but also horticulture and the mechanic and household arts. 
The rapid growth of the State soon necessitated a differentiation of 
this body, and in the autumn of 1860, at Indianapolis, there was 
organized the 


October 18, Reuben Ragan was elected President and Wm H. 
Loomis, of Marion county. Secretary. The constitution adopted 
provided for biennial meetings in January, at Indianapolis. At 
the first regular meeting, Jan. 9, 1861, a committee-man for each 
congressional district was appointed, all of them together to be 
known as the " State Fruit Committee," and twenty-five members 
were enrolled during this session. At the regular meeting in 1863 
the constitution was so amended as to provide for annual sessions, 
and the address of the newly elected President, Hon, I. G. D. Nel- 
son, of Allen county, urged the establishment of an agricultural 
college. He continued in the good cause until his work was 
crowned with success. 


In 18G4: there was but little done on account of the exhaust- 
ive demands of the great war; and the descent of mercury 60° in 
eighteen hours did so much mischief as to increase the discourage- 
ment to the verge of despair. The title of the society was at this 
meeting, Jan., 1864 changed to that of the Indiana Horticultural 

The first several meetings of the society were mostly devoted to 
revision of fruit lists; and although the good work, from its vast- 
ness and complication, became somewhat monotonous, it has been 
no exception in this respect to the law that all the greatest and 
most productive labors of mankind require perseverance and toil. 

In 1866, George M. Beeler, who had so indefatigably served as 
secretary for several years, saw himself hastening to his grave and 
showed his love for the cause of fruit culture by bequeathing to 
the society the sum of $1,000. This year also the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction was induced to take a copy of the 
Society's transactions for each of the township libraries in the State, 
and this enabled the Society to bind its volume of proceedings in 
a substa,ntial manner. 

At the meeting in 1867 many valuable and interesting papers 
were presented, the office of corresponding secretary was created, 
and the subject of Legislative aid was discussed. The State Board 
of Agriculture placed the management of the horticultural depart- 
ment of the State fair in the care of the Society. 

The report for 1868 shows for the first time a balance on hand, 
after paying expenses, the balance being $61.55. Up to tiiis time 
the Society had to take care of itself, — meeting current expenses, do- 
ing its own printing and binding, "boarding and clothing itself," 
and difi:using annually an amount of knowledge utterly incalcu- 
lable. During the year called meetings were held at Salem, in the 
peach and grape season, and evenings during the State fair, which 
was held in Terre Haute the previous fall. The State now assumed 
the cost of printing and binding, but the volume of transactions 
was not quite so valuable as that of the former year. 

In 1870 $160 was given to this Society by the State Board of 
Agriculture, to be distributed as prizes for essays, which object 
was faithfully carried out. The practice has since then been con- 

In 1871 the Horticultural Society brought out the best volume 
of papers and proceedings it ever has had published. 


In 1872 the oflSce of corresponding secretary was discontinued; 
the appropriation by the State Board of Agriculture diverted to 
the payment of premiums on small fruits given at a show held the 
previous summer; results of the exhibition not entirely satisfac- 

In 1873 the State officials refused to publish the discussions of 
the members of the Horticultural Society, and the Legislature 
appropriated $500 for the purpose for each of the ensuing two 

In 1875 the Legislature enacted a law requiring that one of the 
trustees of Purdue University shall be selected by the Horticultu- 
ral Society. 

The aggregate annual membership of this society from its organ- 
ization in 1860 to 1875 was 1,225. 


The subject of education has been referred to in almost every 
gubernatorial message from the organization of the Territory to 
the present time. It is indeed the most favorite enterprise of the 
Hoosier State. In the first survey of Western lands, Congress set 
apart a section of land in every township, generally the 16th, for 
school purposes, the disposition of the land to be in hands of the 
residents of the respective townships. Besides this, to this State 
were given two entire townships for the use of a State Seminary, 
to be under the control of the Legislature. Also, the State con- 
stitution provides that all fines for the breach of law and all com- 
mutations for militia service be appropriated to the use of county 
seminaries. In 1825 the common-school lands amounted to 
680,207 acres, estimated at $2 an acre, and valued therefore at 
$1,216,044. At this time the seminary at Bloomington, supported 
in part by one of these township grants, was very flourishing. The 
common schools, however, were in rather a poor condition. 


In 1852 the free-school system was fully established, which has 
resulted in placing Indiana in the lead of this great nation. Al- 
though this is a pleasant subject, it is a very large one to treat in 
a condensed notice, as this has to be. 

The free-school system of Indiana first became practically oper- 
ative the first Monday of April, 1853, when the township trustees 


for school purposes were elected through the State. The law com- 
mitted to them the charge of all the educational affairs in their 
respective townships. As it was feared by the opponents of the 
law that it would not be possible to select men in all the town- 
ships capable of executing the school laws satisfactorily, the 
people were thereby awakened to the necessity of electing their 
very best men; and although, of course, many blunders have been 
made by trustees, the operation of the law has tended to elevate the 
adult population as well as the youth; and Indiana still adheres to 
the policy of appointing its best men to educational positions. 
The result is a grand surprise to all old fogies, who indeed scarcely 
dare to appear such any longer. 

To instruct the people in the new law and set the educational 
machinery going, a pamphlet of over 60 pages, embracing the law, 
with notes and explanations, was issued from the office of a super- 
intendent of public instruction, and distributed freely throughout 
the State. The first duty of the Board of Trustees was to establish 
and conveniently locate a sufficient number of schools for the edu- 
cation of all the children of their township. But where were the 
school-houses, and what were they?, Previously they had been 
erected by single districts, but under this law districts were abol- 
ished, their lines obliterated, and houses previously built by dis- 
tricts became the property of the township, and all the houses were 
to be built at the expense of the township by an appropriation of 
township funds by the trustees. In some townships there was not 
a single school-house of any kind, and in others there were a few 
old, leaky, dilapidated log cabins, wholly unfit for use even in sum- 
mer, and in " winter worse than nothing." Before the people could 
be tolerably accommodated with schools at least 3,500 school-houses 
had to be erected in the State. 

By a general law, enacted in conformity to the constitution of 
1852, each township was made a municipal corporation, and every 
voter in the township a member of the corporation; the Board of 
Trustees constituted the township legislature as well as the execu- 
tive body, the whole body of voters, however, exercising direct con- 
trol through frequent meetings called by the trustees. Special 
taxes and every other matter of importance were directly voted 

Some tax-payers, who were opposed to special townships' taxes, 
retarded the progress of schools by refusing to pay their assess- 
ment. Contracts for building school-houses were given up, houses 


half finished were abandoned, and in many townships all school 
operations were suspended. In some of them, indeed, a rumor was 
circulated by the enemies of the law that the entire school law from 
beginning to end had been declared by the Supreme Court uncon- 
stitutional and void; and the Trustees, believing this, actually dis- 
missed their schools and considered themselves out of ofiice. Hon. 
W. C. Larrabee, the (first) Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
corrected this error as soon as possible. 

But while the voting of special taxes was doubted on a constitu- 
tional point, it became evident that it was weak in a practical point; 
for in many townships the opponents of the system voted down every 
proposition for the erection of school-houses. 

Another serious obstacle was the great deficiency in the number 
of qualified teachers. To meet the newly created want, the law 
authorized the appointment of deputies in each county to examine 
and license persons to teach, leaving it in their judgment to lower 
the standard of qualification sufiiciently to enable them to license 
as many as were needed to supply all the schools. It was therefore 
found necessary to employ many "unqualified " teachers, especially 
in the remote rural districts. But the progress of the times 
enabled the Legislature of 1853 to erect a standard of qualifica- 
tion and give to the county commissioners the authority to license 
teachers; and in order to supply every school with a teaclier, while 
there might not be a sufficient number of properly qualified teach- 
ers, the commissioners were authorized to grant temporary licenses 
to take charge of particular schools not needing a high grade of 

In 1854 the available common-school fund consisted of the con- 
gressional township fund, the surplus revenue fund, the saline 
fund, the bank tax fund and miscellaneous fund, amounting in all 
to $2,460,G00. This amount, from many sources, was subsequently 
increased to a very great extent. The common-school fund was 
intrusted to the several counties of the State, which were held 
responsible for the preservation thereof and for the payment of the 
annual interest thereon. The fund was managed by the auditors 
and treasurers of the several counties, for which these officers were 
allowed one-tenth of the income. It was loaned out to the citizens 
of the county in sums not exceeding $300, on real estate security. 
The common-school fund was thus consolidated and the proceeds 
equally distributed each year to all the townships, cities and towns 


of the State, in proportion to the number of children. This phase 
of the law met with considerable opposition in 1854. 

The provisions of the law for the establishment of township 
libraries was promptly carried into effect, and much time, labor 
and thought were devoted to the selection of books, special atten- 
tion being paid to historical works. 

The greatest need in 1854 was for qualified teachers; but never- 
theless the progress of public education during this and following 
years was very great. School-houses were erected, many of them 
being fine structures, well furnished, and the libraries were consid- 
erably enlarged. 

The city school system of Indiana received a heavy set-back in 
185S, by a decision of the Supreme Court of the State, that the 
law authorizing cities and townships to levy a tax additional to the 
State tax was not in conformity with that clause in the Constitu- 
tion which required uniformity in taxation. The schools were 
stopped for want of adequate funds. For a few weeks in each year 
thereafter the feeble " uniform " supply from the State fund en- 
abled the people to open the schools, but considering the returns 
the public realizes for so small an outlay in educational matters, 
this proved more expensive than ever. Private schools increased, 
but the attendance was small. Thus the interests of popular edu- 
cation languished for years. But since the revival of the free 
schools, the State fund has grown to vast proportions, and the 
schools of this intelligent and enterprising commonwealth compare 
favorably with those of any other portion of the United States. • 

There is no occasion to present all the statistics of school prog- 
ress in this State from the first to the present time, but some 
interest will be taken in the latest statistics, which we take from the 
9th Biennial Report (for 1 877-'8) by the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, Hon. James H. Smart. This report, by the 
way, is a volume of 480 octavo pages, and is free to all who desire 
a copy. 

The rapid, substantia) and permanent increase which Indiana 
enjoys in her school interests is thus set forth in the above report. 



of School 

No of 



Am't Paid 


In Days. 


at School. 








$ 239.924 












1,020 440 




















The increase of school population during the past ten years has 
been as follows: 

Total in 1868, 593,865. 

Increase for year ending Increase for year ending 

Sept.1,1869 17,699 May 1, 1874 3,923 

" 1 1870 9,063 1, 1«^0 tiAKli 

u {mi. . 3,101 "1,1876 - 11,494 

u ;';873 8,811 "1,1877 15,476 

May i:i873'(8 months) 8,903 . " 1,1878 _4^ 

Total, 1878 699,153 


Twenty-nine per cent, of the above are in the 49 cities and 212 
incorporated towns, and 71 per cent, in the 1,011 townships. 

The number of white males enrolled in the schools in 1878 was 
267,315, and of white females, 237,739; total, 505,054; of colored 
males, 3,794; females, 3,687; total, 7,481; grand total, 512,535. 

The average number enrolled in each district varies from 51 to 56, 
and the average daily attendance from 32 to 35; but many children 
reported as absent attend parochial or private schools. Seventy- 
three per cent, of the white children and 63 per cent, of the colored, 
in tlie State, are enrolled in the schools. 

The number of days taught vary materially in the different town- 
ships, and on this point State Superintendent Smart iterates: " As 
long as the schools of some of our townships are kept open but 60 
days and others 220 days, we do not have a uniform system,— such 
as was contemplated by the constitution. The school law requires 
the trustee of a township to maintain each of the schools m his 
corporation an equal length of time. This provision cannot be so 
easily applied to the various counties of the State, for the reason 
that "there is a variation in the density of the population, m the 
wealth of the people, and the amount of the township funds. 1 
'think, however, there is scarcely a township trustee in the State 
who cannot, under the present law, if he chooses to do so, bring his 
schools up to an average of six months. I think it would be wise 
to require each township trustee to levy a sufficient local tax to 
maintain the schools at least six months of the year, provided this 
can be done without increasing the local tax beyond the amount 
now permitted by law. This would tend to bring the poorer schools 
up to the standard of the best, and would thus unify the system, 
and make it indeed a common-school system." 


The State, however, averages six and a half months school per 
year to each district. 

The number of school districts in the State in 1878 was 9,380, in 
all but 34: of which school was taught during that year. There are 
396 district and "151 township graded schools. Number of white 
male teachers, 7,977, and of female, 5,699; colored, male, 62, and 
female, 43; grand total, 13,781. For the ten years ending with 
1878 there was an increase of 409 male teachers and 811 female 
teachers. All these teachers, except about 200, attend normal 
institutes, — a showing which probably surpasses that of any other 
State in this respect. 

The average daily compensation of teachers throughout the 
State in 1878 was as follows: In townships, males, $1,90; females, 
$1.70; in towns, males, $3.09; females, $1.81; in cities, males, 
$4.06; females, $2.29. 

In 1878 there were 89 stone school-houses, 1,724 brick, 7,608 
frame, and 124 log; total, 9,545, valued at $11,536,647.39. 

And lastly, and best of all, we are happy to state that Indiana has 
a larger school fund than any other State in the Union. In 1872, 
according to the statistics before us, it was larger than that of any 
other State by $2,000,000! the figures being as follows: 

Indiana $8,437,593.47 Michigan $2,500,214.91 

Ohio 6,614,816.50 Missouri 3,525,252.52 

Illinois 6,348,538.32 Minnesota 3,471,199.31 

New York 3,880.017.01 Wisconsin 2,237,414.37 

Connecticut 3,809,770.70 Massachusetts 2,210,864.09 

Iowa 4,274,581.93 Arkansas 3,000,000.00 

Kearly all the rest of the States have less than a million dollars 
in their school fund. 

In 1872 the common-school fund of Indiana consisted of the 

Non-negotiable bonds $3,591,316.15 Escheated estates 17,866.55 

Common-school fund, 1,666,~24.50 Sinking fund, last distrib- 

Sinking fund, at 8 per cent 569,139.94 ution 67,068.73 

Congressional township Sinking fund undistrib- 

fuud 3,281,076.69 uted 100,165.93 

Value of unsold Congres- Swamp land fund 42,418.40 

sional township lands.. 94,245.00 

Saliae fund 5,727.66 $8,437,593 47 

Bank tax fund 1,744.94 

In 1878 the grand total was $8,974,455.55. 

The origin of the respective school funds of Indiana is as follows: 

1. The " Congressional township " fund is derived from the 

proceeds of the 16th sections of the townships. Almost all of these 


have been sold and the money put out at interest. The amount of 
this fund in 1877 was $2,452,936.82. 

2. The "salhie" fund consjsts of the proceeds of the sale of 
salt springs, and the land adjoining necessary for working them to 
the amount of 36 entire sections, authorized by tlie original act of 
Congress. By authority of the same act the Legislature has made 
these proceeds a part of the permanent school fund. 

3. The " surplus revenue " fund. Under the administration of 
President Jackson, the national debt, contracted by the Revolutionary 
war and the purchase of Louisiana, was entirely discharged, and a 
large surplus remained in the treasury. In June, 1836, Congress 
distributed this money amcng the States in the ratio of their repre- 
sentation in Congress, subject to recall, and Indiana's sliare was 
$860,254 The Legislature subsequently set apart $573,502.96 of 
this amount to be a part of the school fund. It is not probable that 
the general Government will ever recall this monev. 

4. " Bank tax " fund. The Legislature of 1834 chartered a State 
Bank, of which a part of the stock was owned by the State and a 
part by individuals. Section 15 of the charter required an annual 
deduction from the dividends, equal to Vl\ cents on each share not 
held by the State, to be set apart for common-school education. 
This tax finally amounted to $80,000, which now bears interest in 
favor of education. 

5. " Sinking " fund. In order to set the State bank under 
good headway, the State at first borrowed $1,300,000, and out of 
the unapplied balances a fund was created, increased by unapplied 
balances also of the principal, interest and dividends of the amount 
lent to the individual holders of stock, for the purpose of sinking 
the debt of the bank; hence the name sinking fund. The 114th 
section of the charter provided that after the full payment of the 
bank's indebtedness, principal, interest and incidental expenses, the 
residue of said fund should be a permanent fund, a|)propriated to 
the cause of education. As the charter extended through a period 
of 25 years, this fund ultimately reached the handsome amount of 

The foregoing are all interest-bearing funds; the following are 
additional school funds, but not productive: 

6. " Seminary " fund. By order of the Legislature in 1852, all 
county seminaries were sold, and the net proceeds placed in the 
common-school fund. 


7. AH fines for the violation of the penal laws of the State are 
placed to the credit of tlie coramon-schoal fand 

8. All recognizances of witnesses and parties indicted for crime, 
when forfeited, are collectible by law and made a part of the 
school fund. These are reported to the office of the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction annually. For the five years ending 
with 1872, they averaged about $34,000 a year. 

9. Escheats. These amount to $17,865.55, which was still in 
the State treasury in 1872 and unapplied. 

10. The "swamp-land" fund arises from the sale of certain 
Congressional land grants, not devoted to any particular purpose 
by the terms of the grant. In 1872 there was $42,418.40 of this 
money, subject to call by the school interests. 

11. Taxes on corporations are to some extent devoted by the 
Constitution to school purposes, but the clause on this subject is 
somewhat obscure, and no funds as yet have been realized from this 
source. It is supposed that several large sums of money are due 
the common-school fund from the corporations. 

Constitutionally, any of the above funds may be increased, but 
never diminished. 


So early as 1802 the U. S. Congress granted lands and a charter 
to the people of that portion of the North western Territoi*y resid- 
ing at Vincennes, for the erection and maintenance of a seminary 
of learning in that early settled district; and five years afterward 
an act incorporating the Vincennes University asked the Legisla- 
ture to appoint a Board of Trustees for the institution and order the 
sale of a single township in Gibson county, granted by Congress in 
1802, so that the proceeds might be at once devoted to the objects 
of education. On this Board the following gentlemen were ap- 
pointed to act in the interests of the institution: William H. Har- 
rison, John Gibson, Thomas H. Davis, Henry Vanderburgh, Wal- 
ler Taylor, Benjamin Parke, Peter Jones, James Johnson, John 
Rice Jones, George Wallace, William Bullitt, Elias McNaraee, 
John Badolett, Henry Hurst, Gen. W. Johnston, Francis Vigo, 
Jacob Kuykendall, Samuel McKee, Nathaniel Ewing, George 
Leech, Luke Decker, Samuel Gwathmey and John Johnson. 

The sale of this land was slow and the proceeds small. The 
members of the Board, too, were apathetic, and failing to meet, the 
institution fell out of existence and out of memory. 


In 1816 Congress granted another township in Monroe connty, 
located within its present limits, and the foundation of a university 
was laid. Four years later, and after Indiana was erected into a 
State, an act of the local Legislature appointing another Board of 
Trustees and authorizing them to select a location for a university 
and to enter into contracts for its construction, was passed. The 
new Board met at Bloomington and selected a site at that place for 
the location of the present building, entered into a contract for the 
erection of the same in 1822, and in 1825 had the satisfaction of being 
present at the inauguration of the university. The first session was 
commenced under the Rev. Baynard R. Hall, with 20 students, and 
when tiie learned professor could only boast of a salary of $150 a 
year; yet, on this very limited sum the gentleman worked with 
energy and soon brought the enterprise through all its elementary 
stages to the position of an academic institution. Dividing the 
year into two sessions of five months each, the Board acting under 
his advice, changed the name to the " Indiana Academy," under 
which title it was duly chartered. In 1827 Prof. John H. Harney 
was raised to the chairs of mathematics, natural philosophy and 
astronomy, at a salary of $300 a year; and the salary of Mr. Hall 
raised to $400 a year. In 1828 the name was again changed by the 
Legislature to the " Indiana College," and the following professors 
appointed over the difi'erent departments; Rev. Andrew "Wy lie, 
D. D., Prof, of mental and moral philosophy and belles lettres; 
John II. Harney, Prof, of mathematics and natural philosophy; and 
Rev. Bayard R. Hall, Prof, of ancient languages. This year, also, 
dispositions were made for the sale of Gibson county lands and for 
the erection of a new college building. This action was opposed 
by some legal difliculties, which after a time were overcome, and 
the new college building was put under construction, and continued 
to prosper until 1854, when it was destroyed by fire, and 9,000 
volumes, with all the apparatus, were consumed The curriculum 
was then carried out in a temporary building, while a new struct- 
ure was going up. 

In 1873 the new college, with its additions, was completed, and 
the routine of studies continued. A museum of natural history, 
a laboratory and the Owen cabinet added, and the standard of the 
studies and morale generally increased in excellence and in strict- 

Bloomington is a fine, healthful locality, on the Louisville, New 
Albany & Chicago railway. - The University buildings are in the 


collegiate Gothic style, simply and truly carried out. The building, 
fronting College avenue is 145 feet in front. It consists of a 
central building 60 feet by 53, with wings each 38 feet by 26, and 
the whole, three stories high. The new building, fronting the 
west, is 130 feet by 50. Buildings lighted by gas. 

The faculty numbers thirteen. Number of students in the col- 
legiate department in lS79-'80, J S3; in preparatory, 169; total, 
349, allowing for three counted twice. 

The university may now be considered on a fixed founaation, car- 
rying out the intention of the President, who aimed at scholarship 
rather than numbers, and demands the attention of eleven pro- 
fessors, together with the State Geologist, who is ex-officio member 
of the faculty, and required to lecture at intervals and look after 
the geological and mineralogical interests of the institution. The 
faculty of medicine is represented by eleven leading physicians 
of the neighborhood. The faculty of law requires two resident 
professors, and the other chairs remarkably well represented. 

The university received from the State annually about $15,000, 
and promises with the aid of other public grants and private dona- 
tions to vie with any other State university within the Republic. 


This is a " college for the benefit of agricultural and the mechanic 
arts," as provided for by act of Congress, July 2, 1862, donating 
lands for this purpose to the extent of 30,000 acres of the public 
domain to each Senator and Representative in the Federal assem- 
bly. Indiana having in Congress at that time thirteen members, 
became entitled to 390,000 acres; but as there was no Congress 
land in the State at this time, scrip had to be taken, and it was 
upon the following condition (we quote the act): 

" Section 4. That all moneys derived from the sale of land 
scrip shall be invested in the stocks of the United States, or of 
some other safe stocks, yielding no less than five per centum upon 
the par value of said stocks; and that the moneys so invested shall 
constitute a perpetual fund, the capital of wliich shall remain undi- 
minished, except so far as may be provided in section 5 of this act, 
and the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated by each 
State, which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the 
endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college, where 
the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and 


classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic 
arts, in such a manner as the Legislatures of the States may re- 
spectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical 
education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and pro- 
fessions of life. 

" Sec. 5, That the grant of land and land scrip hereby author- 
ized shall be made on the following conditions, to which, as well as 
the provision hereinbefore contained, the previous assent of the 
several States shall be signified by Legislative act: 

" First. If any portion of the funds invested as provided by the 
foregoing section, or any portion of the interest thereon, shall by 
any action or contingency be diminished or lost, it shall be replaced 
by the State to which it belongs, so that the capital of the fund 
shall remain forever undiminished, and the annual interest shall be 
regularly applied, without diminution, to the purposes mentioned 
in the fourth section of this act, except that a sum not exceeding ten 
per centum upon the amount received by any State under the pro- 
visions of this act may be expended for the purchase of lands for 
sites or experimental farms, whenever authorized by the respective 
Legislatures of said States. 

" Second. No portion of said fund, nor interest thereon, shall 
be applied, directly or indirectly, under any pretence whatever, to 
the purchase, erection, preservation or repair of any building or 

*' Third. Any State which may take and claim the benefit of 
the provisions of this act, shall provide, within five years at least, 
not less than one college, as provided in the fourth section of this 
act, or the grant to such State shall cease and said State be bound 
to pay the United States the amount received of any lands pre- 
viously sold, and that the title to purchase under the States shall 
be valid. 

" Fourth. An annual report shall be made regarding the prog- 
ress of each college, recording any improvements and experiments 
made, with their cost and result, and such other matter, including 
State industrial and economical statistics, as may be supposed use- 
ful, one copy of which shall be transmitted by mail free, by each, 
to all other colleges which may be endowed under the provisions 
of this act, and also one cop}^ to the Secretary of the Interior. 

"Fifth. When lands shall be selected from those which have 
been raised to double the minimum price in consequence of railroad 


grants, that they shall be computed to the States at the maximum 
price, and the number of acres proportionately diminished, 

"Sixth. No State, while in a condition of rebellion or insur- 
rection against the Government of the United States, shall be 
entitled to the benefits of this act. 

"Seventh. 'No State shall be entitled to the benefits of this act 
unless it shall express its acceptance thereof by its Legislature 
within two years from the date of its approval by the President. '' 

The foregoing act was approved by the President, July 2, 1862. 
It seemed that this law, amid the din of arms with the great Rebel- 
lion, was about to pass altogether unnoticed by the next General 
Assembly, January, 1863, had not Gov. Morton's attention been 
called to it by a delegation of citizens from Tippecanoe county, vrho 
visited him in the interest of Battle Ground. He thereupon sent 
a special message to the Legislature, upon the subject, and then 
public attention was excited to it everywhere, and several localities 
competed for the institution ; indeed, the rivalry was so great that 
this session failed to act in the matter at all, and would have failed 
to accept of the grant within the two years prescribed in the last 
clause quoted above, had not Congress, by a supplementary act, 
extended the time two years longer. 

March 6, 1865, the Legislature accepted the conditions ot the 
national gift, and organized the Board of " Trustees of the Indiana 
Agricultural College." This Board, by authority, sold the scrip 
April 9, 1867, for $212,238.50, which sum, by compounding, has 
increased to nearly $100,000, and is invested in IT. S. bonds. Not 
until the special session of May, 1869, was the locality for this col- 
lege selected, when John Purdue, of Lafayette, offered $150,000 
and Tippecanoe county $50,000 more, and the title of the institution 
changed to " Purdue University." Donations were also made by 
the Battle Ground Institute and the Battle Ground Institute of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The building was located on a 100-acre tract near Chauncey, 
which Purdue gave in addition to his magnificent donation, and to 
whicii 86f acres more have since been added on the north. The 
boarding-house, dormitory, the laboratory, boiler and gas house, 
a frame armory and gymnasium, stable with shed and work-shop 
are all to the north of the gravel road, and form a group of build- 
ings within a circle of 600 feet. The boiler and gas house occupy 
a rather central position, and supply steam and gas to the boarding- 
house, dormitory and laboratory. A description of these buildings 


may be apropos. The boarding-bouse is a brick structure, in the 
modern Italian style, planked by a turret at each of the front angles 
and measuring 120 feet front by 68 feet deep. The dormitory is a 
quadrangular edifice, in the plain Elizabethan stj'^le, four stories 
high, arranged to accommodate 125 students. Like the other build- 
ings, it is heated by steam and lighted by gas. Bathing accommo- 
dations are in each end of all the stories. The laboratory is almost 
a duplicate of a similar department in Brown University, R. I. It 
is a much smaller building than the boarding-house, but yet suffi- 
ciently large to meet the requirements. A collection of minerals, 
fossils and antiquities, purchased from Mr. Richard Owen, former 
President of the institution, occupies the temporary cabinet or 
museum, pending the construction of a new building. The military 
hall and gymnasium is 100 feet frontage by 50 feet deep, and only 
one story high. The uses to which this hall is devoted are exer- 
cises in physical and military drill. The boiler and gas house is an 
establishment replete in itself, possessing every facility for supply- 
ing the buildings of the university with adequate heat and light. 
It is farther provided with pumping works. Convenient to this 
department is the retort and great meters of the gas house, capable 
of holding 9,000 cubic feet of gas, and arranged upon the principles 
of modern science. The barn and shed form a single building, 
both useful, convenient and ornamental. 

In connection with the agricultural department of the university, 
a brick residence and barn were erected and placed at the disposal 
of the farm superintendent, Maj. L. A. Burke. 

The buildings enumerated above have been erected at a cost 
approximating the following: boarding-house, $37,807.07; labora- 
tory, $15,000; dormitory, $32,000; military hall and gymnasium, 
$6,410.47; boiler and gas house, $1,814; barn and shed, $1,500; 
work-shop, $1,000; dwelling and barn, $2,500. 

Besides the original donations, Legislative appropriations, vary- 
ing in amount, have been made from time to time, and Mr. Pierce, 
the treasurer, has donated his official salary, $600 a year, for the time 
he served, for decorating the grounds, — if neoessary. 

The opening of the university was, owing to varied circumstan- 
ces, postponed from time to time, and not until March, 1874, was a 
class formed, and this only to comply with the act of Congress in 
that connection in its relation to the university. However, in 
September following a curriculum was adopted, and the first regu- 
lar term of the Purdue University entered upon. This curriculum 


comprises the varied subjects generally pertaining to a first-class 
university course, namely: in the school of natural science — 
pinholes and industrial mechanics, chemistry and natural history; 
in the school of engineering — civil and mining, together with the 
principles of architecture; in the school of agriculture — theoret- 
ical and practical agriculture, horticulture and veterinary science; 
in the military school — the mathematical sciences, German and 
French literature, free-hand and mechanical drawing, with all the 
studies pertaining to the natural and military sciences. Modern 
languages and natural history embrace their respective courses to 
the fullest extent. 

There are this year (1880) eleven members of the faculty, 86 
students in the regular courses, and 117 other students. In respect 
to attendance there has been a c(instant increase from the first. 
The first year, 1874-'5, there were but 64 students. 


This institution was founded at Terre Haute in 1870, in accord- 
ance with the act of the Legislature of that year. The building is 
a large brick edifice situated upon a commanding location and 
possessing some architectural beauties. From its inauguration 
many obstacles opposed its advance toward efficiency and success; 
but the Board of Trustees, composed of men experienced in edu- 
cational matters, exercised their strength of mind and body to 
overcome every difficnlty, and secure for the State Normal School 
every distinction and emolument that lay within their power, 
their efforts to this end being very successful; and it is a fact that 
the institution has arrived at, if not eclipsed, the standard of their 
expectations. Not alone does the course of study embrace the 
legal subjects known as reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, 
geography, United States history, English grammar, physiology, 
manners and ethics, but it includes also universal history, the 
mathematical sciences and many other subjects foreign to older 
institutions. The first studies are prescribed by law and must be 
inculcated; the second are optional with the professors, and in the 
case of Indiana generally hold place in the curriculum of the nor- 
mal school. 

The model, or training school, specially designed for the training 
of teachers, forms a most important factor in State educational 
matters, and prepares teachers of both sexes for one of the most 
important positions in life; viz., that of educating the youth of the 


State. The advanced course of studies, tosfether with the lii^her 
studies of the normal school, embraces Latin and German, and pre- 
pares young men and women for entrance to the State University. 

The efficiency of this school may be elicited from the following 
facts, taken from the official reports: out of 41 persons who lia.d 
graduated from the elementary course, nine, after teaching success- 
fully in the public schools of this State from two terms to two 
years, returned to the institution and souirht admission to the 
advanced classes. They were admitted; three of them were gentle- 
men and six ladies. After spending two years and two terms in the 
elementary course, and then teaching in the schools during the 
time already mentioned they returned to spend two and a half or 
three years more, and for the avowed purpose of qualifying them- 
selves for teaching in the most responsible positions of the public 
school service. In fact, no student is admitted to the school who 
does not in good faith declare his intention to qualify himself for 
teaching in the schools of the State. This the law requires, and 
the rule is adhered to literally. 

The report further says, in speaking of the government of the 
school, that the fundamental idea is rational freedom, or that free- 
dom which gives exemption from the power of control of one over 
another, or, in other words, the self-limiting of themselves, in their 
acts, by a recognition of the rights of others who are equally free. 
The idea and origin of the school being laid down, and also the 
means by which scholarship can be realized in the individual, the 
student is left to form his own conduct, both during session hours 
and while away from school. The teacher merely stands between 
this scholastic idea and the student's own partial conception of it, 
as expositor or interpreter. The teacher is not legislator, executor 
or police officer; he is expounder of the true idea of school law, bo 
that the only test of the student's conduct is obedience to, or 
nonconformity with, that law as interpreted by the teacher. This 
idea once inculcated in the minds of the students, insures industry, 
punctuality and order. 



This institution was organized Sept. 16, 1S73, with 35 students 
in attendance. The school occupied the building known as the 
Valparaiso Male and Female College building. Four teachers 


were employed. The attendance, so small at first, increased rap- 
idly and steadily, until at the present writing, the seventh year 
in the history of the school, the yearly enrollment is more than 
three thousand. The number of instructors now employed is 23. 

From time to time, additions have been made to the school 
buildings, and numerous boarding halls have been erected, so that 
now the value of the buildings and grounds owned by the school 
is one hundred thousand dollars. 

A large library has been collected, and a complete equipment of 
philosophical and chemical apparatus has been purchased. The 
department of physiology is supplied with skeletons, manikins, 
and everything necessary to the demonstration of each branch of 
the subject. A large cabinet is provided for the study of geology. 
In fact, each department of the school is completely furnished 
with the apparatus needed for the most approved presentation of 
every subject. 

There are 15 chartered departments in the institution. These 
are in charge of thorough, energetic, and scholarly instructors, and 
fiend forth each year as graduates, a large number of finely cultured 
young ladies and gentlemen, living testimonials of the efficiency 
of the course of study and the methods used. 

The Commercial College in connection with the school is in itself 
a great institution. It is finely fitted up and furnished, and ranks 
foremost among the business colleges of the United States. 

The expenses for tuition, room and board, have been made so 
low that an opportunity for obtaining a thorough education is 
presented to the poor and the rich alike. 

All of this work has been accomplished in the short space of 
seven years. The school now holds a high place among educational 
institutions, and is the largest normal school in the United States. 

This wonderful growth and development is wholly due to the 
energy and faithfulness of its teachers, and the unparalleled exec- 
utive ability of its proprietor and principal. The school is not 


Nor is Indiana behind in literary institutions under denomina- 
tional auspices. It is not to be understood, however, at the present 
day, that sectarian doctrines are insisted upon at the so-called 
*' denominational" colleges, universities and seminaries; the youth at 
these places are influenced only by Christian example. 


Notre Dame University, near South Bend, is a Catholic institu- 
tion, and is one of the most noted in the United States. It was 
founded in 1842 by Father Sorin. The first building was erected 
in 1843, and the university has continued to grow and prosper until 
the present time, now having 35 professors. 26 instructors, 9 tutors, 
213 students and 12,000 volumes in library. At present the main 
building has a frontage of 224 feet and a depth of 155. Thousands 
of young people have received their education here, and a large 
number have been graduated for the priesthood. A chapter was 
held here in 18T2, attended by delegates from all parts of tlie world. 
It is worthy of mention that this institution has a bell weighing 
13,000 pounds, the largest in the United States and one of the finest 
in the world. 

The Indiana Ashury University, at Greencastle, is an old and 
well-established institution under the auspices of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, named after its first bishop, Asbury. It was 
founded in 1835, and in 1872 it had nine professors and 172 

Howard College, not denominational, is located at Kokorao, and 
was founded in 1869. In 1872 it had five professors, four instructors, 
and 69 students. 

Union Christian College, Christian, at Merom, was organized in 
1858, and in 1872 had four resident professors, seven instructors 
and 156 students. 

Moore'' s Hill College, Methodist Episcopal, is situated at Moore's 
Hill, was founded in 1854, and in 1872 had five resident professors, 
five instructors, and 142 students. 

Earlham^s College, at Richmond, is under the management of 
the Orthodox Friends, and was founded in 1859. In 1872 they 
had six resident professors and 167 students, and 3,300 volumes in 

WahasJi College, at Crawfordsville, was organized in 1834, and 
had- in 1872, eight professors and teachers, and 231 students, with 
about 12,000 volumes in the library. It is under Presbyterian 

Concordia College, Lutheran, at Fort Wayne, was founded in 
1850; in 1872 it had four professors and 148 students: 3,000 volumes 
in library. 

Hanover College, Presbyterian, was organized in 1833, at Han- 
over, and in 1872 had seven professors and 118 students, and 7,000 
volumes in library. 











I— I 







Hartsville University^ United Brethren, at Hartsville, was 
founded in 1854, and in 1872 had seven professors and 117 students. 

Northwestern Christian University^ Disciples, is located at 
Irvington, near Indianapolis. It was founded in 1854, and by 
1872 it had 15 resident professors, 181 students, and 5,000 volumes 
in library. 


By the year 1830, the influx of paupers and invalid persons was 
so great that the Governor called upon the Legislature to take 
steps toward regulating the matter, and also to provide an asylum 
for the poor, but that body was very slow to act on the matter. 
At the present time, however, there is no State in the Union which 
can boast a better system of benevolent institutions. The Benevo- 
tent Society of Indianapolis was organized in 1843. It was a 
pioneer institution; its field of work was small at first, but it has 
grown into great usefulness. 


In behalf of the blind, the first efibrt was made by James M. Ray, 
about 1846. Through his efforts William H. Churchman came 
from Kentucky with blind pupils and gave exhibitions in Mr. 
Beecher's church, in Indianapolis. These entertainments were 
attended by members of the Legislature, for whom indeed they 
were especially intended; and the efifect upon them was so good, 
that before they adjourned the session they adopted measures to es- 
tablish an asylum for the blind. The commission appointed to carry 
out these measures, consisting of James M. Ray, Geo. W. Mears, 
and the Secretary, Treasurer and Auditor of State, engaged Mr. 
Churchman to make a lecturing tour through the State and collect 
statistics of the blind population. 

The " Institute for the Education of the Blind " was founded by 
the Legislature of 1847, and first opened in a rented building Oct. 
1, of that year. The permanent buildings were opened and occu- 
pied in February, 1853. The original cost of the buildings and 
ground was $110,000, and the present valuation of buildings and 
grounds approximates $300,000. The main building is 90 feet 
long by 61 deep, and with its right and left wings, each 30 feet in 
front and 83 in depth, give an entire frontage of 150 feet. The 
main building is five stories in height, surmounted by a cupola of 


the Corinthian style, while each wing is similarly overcapped 
The porticoes, cornices and verandahs are gotten up with exquisite 
taste, and the former are molded after the principle of Ionic archi- 
tecture. The building is very favorably situated, and occupies a 
space of eight acres. 

The nucleus of a fund for supplying indigent graduates of the 
institution with an outfit suitable to their trades, or with money in 
lieu thereof, promises to meet with many additions. The fund is 
the out-come of the benevolence of Mrs. Fitzpatrick, a resident of 
Delaware, in this State, and appears to be suggested by the fact 
that her daughter, who was smitten with blindness, studied as a 
pupil in the institute, and became singularly attached to many of 
its inmates. The following passage from the lady's will bears 
testimony not only to her own sympathetic nature but also to the 
efficiency of the establishment which so won her esteem. " I give 
to each of the following persons, friends and associates of my blind 
daughter, Margaret Louisa, the sum of $100 to each, to wit, viz: 
Melissa and Phoebe Garrettson, Frances CundifF, Dallas JMewland, 
Naomi Unthunk, and a girl whose name before marriage was 
Rachel Martin, her husband's name not recollected. The balance 
of my estate, after paying the expenses of administering, I give to 
the superintendent of the blind asylum and his successor, in trust, 
for the use and benefit of the indigent blind of Indiana who may 
attend the Indiana blind asylum, to be given to them on leaving 
in such sums as the superintendent may deem proper, but not more 
than $50 to any one person. I direct that the amount above direct- 
ed be loaned at interest, and the interest and principal be distributed 
as above, agreeably to the best judgment of the superintendent, 
so as to do the greatest good to the greatest number of blind 

The following rules, regulating the institution, after laying down 
in preamble that the institute is strictly an educational estab- 
lishment, having its main object the moral, intellectual and phys- 
ical training of the young blind of the State, and is not an asylum 
for the aged and helpless, nor an hospital wherein the diseases of 
the eye may be treated, proceed as follows: 

1. The school year commences the first Wednesday after the 
15th day of September, and closes on the last Wednesday in June, 
showing a session of 40 weeks, and a vacation term of 84 days. 

2. Applicants for admission must be from 9 to 21 years of age; 
but the trustees have power to admit blind students under 9 or 


over 21 years of age; but this power is extended only in very 
extreme cases. 

3. Imbecile or unsound persons, or confirmed immoralists, 
cannot be admitted knowingly; neither can admitted pupils who 
prove disobedient or incompetent to receive instruction be retained 
on the roll. 

4. No charge is made for the instruction and board given to 
pupils from the State of Indiana; and even those without the State 
have only to pay $200 for board and education during the 40 weeks' 

5. An abundant and good supply of comfortable clothing for 
both summer and winter wear, is an indispensable adjunct of the 

6. The owner's name must be distinctly marked on each article 
of clothing. 

7. In cases of extreme indigence the institution may provide 
clothing and defray the traveling expenses of such pupil and levy the 
amount so expended on the county wherein his or her home is 

8. The pupil, or friends of the pupil, must remove him or her 
from the institute during the annual vacation, and in case of their 
failure to do so, a legal provision enables the superintendent to 
forward such pupil to the trustee of the township where he or she 
resides, and the expense of such transit and board to be charged to 
the county. 

9. Friends of the pupils accompanying them to the institution, 
or visitino; them thereat, cannot enter as boarders or lodgers. 

10. Letters to the pupils should be addressed to the care of the 
Superintendent of the Institute for the Education of the Blind, so as 
the better to insure delivery. 

11. Persons desirous of admission of pupils should apply to the 
superintendent for a printed copy of instructions, and no pupil 
should be sent thereto until the instructions have been complied 


In 1843 the Governor was also instructed to obtain plans and 
information respecting the care of mutes, and the Legislature also 
levied a tax to provide for them. The first one to agitate the subject 
was William "Willard, himself a mute, who visited Indiana in 1843, 
and opened a school for mutes on his own account, with 16 pupils. 


The next year the Legislature adopted this school as a State insti- 
tution, appointing a Board of Trustees for its management, consist- 
ing of the Governor and Secretary' of State, ex-officio,and Revs. Henry 
Ward Beecher, Phineas D. Gurley, L. II. Jameson, Dr. Duulap, 
Hon. James Morrison and Rev. Matthew Simpson. They rented the 
large building on the southeast corner of Illinois and Maryland 
streets, and opened the first State asylum there in 1844; but in 1846, 
a site for. a permanent building just east of Indianapolis was selected, 
consisting first of 30 acres, to which 100 more have been added. 
On this site the two first structures were commenced in 1849, and 
completed in the fall of 1850, at a cost of $30,000. The school 
was immediately transferred to the new building, where it is still 
flourishing, with enlarged buildings and ample facilities for instruc- 
tion in agriculture. In 1869-'70, another building was erected, 
and the three too^ether now constitute one of the most benefi- 
cent and beautiful institutions to be found on this continent, at 
an aggregate cost of $220,000. The main building has a facade of 
260 feet. Here are the offices, study rooms, the quarters of officers 
and teachers, the pupils' dormitories and the library. The center 
of this building has a frontage of eighty feet, and is five stories high, 
with winors on either side 60 feet in frontas^e. In this Central 
structure are the store rooms, dining-hall, servants' rooms, hospital, 
laundry, kitchen, baker}' and several school- rooms. Another struct- 
ure known as the " rear building " contains the chapel and another 
set of school-rooms. It is two stories high, the center being 50 feet 
square and the wings 40 by 20 feet. In addition to these there are 
many detached buildings, containing the shops of the industrial 
department, the engine-house and wash-house. 

The grounds comprise 105 acres, which in the immediate vicinity 
of the buildings partake of the character of ornamental or pleasure 
gardens, comprising a space devoted to fruits, flowers and veget- 
ables, while the greater part is devoted to pasture and agriculture. 

The first instructor in the institution was Wm. Willard, a deaf 
mute, who had up to 1844 conducted a small school for the instruc- 
tion of the deaf at Indianapolis, and now is employed by the State, 
at a salary of $800 per annum, to follow a similar vocation in its 
service. In 1853 he was succeeded by J. S. Brown, and subse- 
quently by Thomas Mclutire, who continues principal of the 



The Legislature of 1832-'3 adopted measures providing for a 
State hospital for the insane. This good work would have been 
done much earlier had it not been for the hard times of 1837, 
intensified bj the results of the gigantic scheme of internal improve- 
ment. In order to survey the situation and awaken public sympa- 
thy, the county assessors were ordered to make a return of the 
insane in their respective counties. During the year 1842 the 
Governor, acting under the direction of the Legislature, procured 
considerable information in regard to hospitals for the insane in 
other States; and Dr. John Evans lectured before the Legislature 
on the subject of insanity and its treatment. As a result of these 
efforta the authorities determined to take active steps for the estab- 
lishment of such a hospital. Plans and suo^o-estions from the 
superintendents and liospitals of other States were submitted to the 
Legislature in 1844, which body ordered the levy of a tax of one 
cent on the $100 for the purpose of establishing the hospital. In 
1845 a commission was appointed to obtain a site not exceeding 
200 acres. Mount Jackson, then the residence of Nathaniel Bolton, 
was selected, and the Legislature in 1846 ordered the commissioners 
to proceed with the erection of the building. Accordingly, in 
1847, the central building was completed, at a cost of $75,000. It 
has since been enlarged by the addition of wings, some of which 
are larger than the old central building, until it has become an 
immense structure, having cost over half a million dollars. 

The wings of the main building are four stories high, and entirely 
devoted to wards for patients, being capable of accommodating 

The grounds of the institution comprise 160 acres, and, like 
those of the institute for the deaf and dumb, are beautifully laid 

This hospital was opened for the reception of patients in 1848. 
The principal structure comprises what is known as the central 
building and the right and left wings, and like the institute for the 
deaf and dumb, erected at various times and probably under various 
adverse circumstances, it certainly does not hold the appearance of 
any one design, but seems to be a combination of many. Not- 
withstandii'.g these little defects in arrangement, it presents a very 
imposing appearance, and shows what may be termed a frontage 


of 624 feet. The central building is five stories in height and con- 
tains the store-rooms, offices, reception parlors, medical dispensing 
rooms, mess-rooms and the apartments of the superintendent and 
other officers, with those of the female employes. Immediately 
ia the rear of the central building, and connected with it by a 
corridor, is the chapel, a building 50 by 60 feet. This chapel 
occupies the third floor, while the under stories hold the kitchen, 
baker}', employes' dining-room, steward's office, employes' apart- 
ments and sewing rooms. In rear of this again is the engine- 
house, 60 by 50 feet, containing all the paraphernalia for such an 
establishment, such as boilers, pumping works, fire plugs, hose, 
and above, on the second floor, the laundry and apartments of male 


The first penal institution of importance is known as the "State 
Prison South," located at Jefiersonville, and was the only prison 
until 1859. It was established in 1821. Before that time it was 
customary to resort to the old-time punishment of the whipping- 
post. Later the manual labor system was inaugurated, and the 
convicts were hired out to employers, among whom were Capt. 
Westover, afterward killed at Alamo, Texas, with Crockett, James 
Keigwin, who in an affray was fired at and severely wounded by a 
convict named Williams, Messrs. Patterson Hensley, and Jos. 
R. Pratt. During the rule of the latter of these lessees, the atten- 
tion of the authorities was turned to a more practical method of 
utilizing convict labor; and instead of the prisoners being per- 
mitted to serve private entries, their work was turned in the direc- 
tion of their own prison, where for the next few years they were 
employed in erecting the new buildings now known as the " State 
Prison South." This structure, the result of prison labor, stands 
on 16 acres of ground, and comprises the cell houses and work- 
shops, together with the prisoners' garden, or pleasure-ground. 

It seems that in the erection of these buildings the aim of the 
overseers was to create so many petty dungeons and un ventilated 
laboratories, into which disease in every form would be apt to 
creep. This fact was evident from the high mortality character- 
izing life within the prison; and in the efforts made by the 
Government to remedy a state of things which had been permitted 
to exist far too long, the advance in prison reform has become a 
reality. From 1857 to 1871 the labor of the prisoners was devoted 


to the manufacture of wagons and farm implements; and again the 
old policy of hiring the convicts was resorted to; for in the latter 
year, 1871, the Southwestern Car Company was • organized, and 
every prisoner capable of taking a part in the work of car-building 
was leased out. This did very well until the panic of 18Y3, when 
the company suffered irretrievable losses; and previous to its final 
down-fall in 1876 the warden withdrew convict labor a second time, 
leaving the prisoners to enjoy a luxurious idleness around the 
prison which themselves helped to raise. 

In later years tbe State Prison South has gained some notoriety 
from the desperate character of some of its inmates. During the 
civil war a convict named Harding mutilated in a most horrible 
manner and ultimately killed one of the jailors named Tesley. In 
1874, two prisoners named Kennedy and Applegate, possessing 
themselves of some arms, and joined by two other convicts named 
Port and Stanley, made a break for freedom, swept past the guard, 
Chamberlain, and gained the fields. Chamberlain went in pursuit 
but had not gone very far when Kennedy turned on his pursuer, 
fired and killed him instantly. Subsequently three of the prisoners 
were captured alive and one of them paid the penalty of death, 
while Kennedy, the murderer of Chamberlain, failing committal for 
murder, was sent back to his old cell to spend the remainder of hi^s 
life. Bill Rodifer, better known as " The Hoosier Jack Sheppard," 
effected his escape in 1875, in the very presence of a large guard, 
but was recaptured and has since been kept in irons. 

This establishment, owing to former mismanagement, has fallen 
very much behind, financially, and has asked for and received an 
appropriation of $20,000 to meet its expenses, while the contrary 
is the case at the Michigan City prison. 


In 1859 the first steps toward the erection of a prison in the 
northern part of the State were taken, and by an act of the Legis- 
lature approved March 5, this year, authority was given to construct 
prison buildings at some point north of the National road. For this 
purpose $50,000 were appropriated, and a large number of convicts 
from the Jeffersonville prison were transported northward to 
Michigan City, which was just selected as the location for the new 
penitentiary. The work was soon entered upon, and continued to 
meet with additions and improvements down to a very recent 
period. So late as 1875 the Legislature appropriated $20,000 


toward the construction of new cells, and in other directions also 
the work of improvement has been going on. The system of 
government and discipline is similar to that enforced at the Jefi'er- 
sonville prison; and, strange to say, by its economical working has 
not only met the expenses of the administration, but very recently 
had amassed over $11,000 in excess of current expenses, from its 
annual savings. This is due almost entirely to the continual 
employment of the convicts in the manufacture of cigars and 
chairs, and in their great prison industry, cooperage. It differs 
widely from the Southern, insomuch as its sanitary condition has 
been above the average of similar institutions. The strictness of its 
silent system is better enforced. The petty revolutions of its 
inmates have been very few and insignificant, and the number of 
])unishments inflicted comparatively small. From whatever point 
thi^ northern prison may be looked at, it will bear a very favorable 
comparison with the largest and best administered of like establish- 
ments throughout the world, and caimot fail to bring high credit to 
its Board of Directors and its able warden. 


The prison reform agitation which in this State attained telling 
proportions in 1869, caused a Legislative measure to be brought 
forward, which would have a tendency to ameliorate the condition 
of female convicts. Gov. Baker recommended it to the General 
Assembly, and the members of that body showed their appreciation 
of the Governor's philanthropic desire by conferring upon the bill 
the authority of a statute; and further, appropriated $50,000 to aid 
in carrying out the objects of the act. Tlie main provisions con- 
tained in the bill may be set forth in the following extracts from 
the proclamation of the Governor: 

"Whenever said institution shall have been proclaimed to be 
open for the reception of girls in the reformatory department 
thereof, it shall be lawful for said Board of Managers to receive 
them into their care and management, and the said reformatory 
department, girls under the age of 15 years who may be committed 
to their custody, in either of the following modes, to-wit: 

"1. When committed by any judge of a Circuit or Common 
Pleas Court, either in term time or in vacation, on complaint and 
due proof by the parent or guardian that by reason of her incorrig- 
ible or vicious conduct she has rendered her control beyond the 
power of such parent or guardian, and made it manifestly requisite 


that from regard to the future welfare of such infant, and for the 
protection of society, she should be placed under such guardianship. 

"2. When such infant has been committed by such judge, as 
aforesaid, upon complaint by any citizen, and due proof of such 
complaint that such infant is a proper subject of the guardianship 
of such institution in consequence of her vagrancy or incorrigible 
or vicious conduct, and that from the moral depravity or other- 
wise of her parent or guardian in whose custody she may be, 
such parent or guardian is incapable or unwilling to exercise the 
proper care or discipline over such incorrigible or vicious infant. 

"3. When such infant has been committed by such judge as 
aforesaid, on complaint and due proof thereof by the township 
trustee of the township where such infant resides, that such infant 
is destitute of a suitable home and of adequate means of obtaining 
an honest living, or that she is in danger of being brought up to 
lead an idle and immoral life." 

In addition to these articles of the bill, a formal section of 
instruction to the wardens of State prisons was embodied in the 
act, causing such wardens to report the number of all the female 
convicts under their charge and prepare to have them transferred 
to the female reformatory immediately after it was declared to be 
ready for their reception. After the passage of the act the 
Governor appointed a Board of Managers, and these gentlemen, 
securing the services of Isaac Hodgson, caused him to draft a plan 
of the proposed institution, and further, on his recommendation, 
asked the people for an appropriation of another $50,000, which 
the Legislature granted in February. 1873. The work of construc- 
tion was then entered upon and carried out so steadily, that on the 
6th of September, 1873, the building was declared ready for the 
reception of its future inmates. Gov. Baker lost no time in 
proclaiming this fact, and October 4 he caused the wardens of the 
State prisons to be instructed to transfer all the female convicts in 
their custody to the new institution which may be said to rest on 
the advanced intelligence of the age. It is now called the 
" Indiana Reformatory Institution for Women and Girls." 

This building is located immediately north of the deaf and 
dumb asylum, near the arsenal, at Indianapolis. It is a three- 
story brick structure in the French style, and shows a frontage of 
174 feet, comprising a main building, with lateral and transverse 
wings. In front of the central portion is the residence of the 
superintendent and his associate reformatory officers, while in the 


rear is the engine house, with all the ways and means for heating 
the buildings. Enlargements, additions and improvements are 
still in progress. There is also a school and library in the main 
building, which are sources of vast good. 

October 31, 1879, there were 66 convicts in the " penal" depart- 
ment and 147 in the "girls' reformatory" department. The 
" ticket-of-leave " system has been adopted, with entire satisfaction, 
and the conduct of the institution appears to be up with the 


In 1867 the Legislature appropriated $50,000 to aid in the 
formation of an institution to be entitled a house for the correction 
and reformation of juvenile defenders, and vested with full powers 
in a Board of Control, the members of which were to be appointed 
by the Governor, and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 
This Board assembled at the Governor's house at Indianapolis, 
April 3, 1867, and elected Charles F. Coffin, as president, and 
visited Chicago, so that a visit to the reform school there might 
lead to a fuller knowledge and guide their future proceedings. 
The House of Refuge at Cincinnati, and the Ohio State Reform 
school were also visited with this design; and after full consider- 
ation of the varied governments of these institutions, the Board 
resolved to adopt the method known as the " family " system, 
which divides the inmates into fraternal bodies, or small classes, 
each class having a separate house, house father and family offices, 
— all under the control of a general superintendent. The system 
being adopted, the question of a suitable location next presented 
itself, and proximity to a large city being considered rather 
detrimental to the welfare of such an institution, Gov. Baker 
selected the site three-fourths of a mile south of Plainfield, and 
about fourteen miles from Indianapolis, which, in view of its 
eligibility and convenience, was fully concurred in by the Board 
of Control. Therefore, a farm of 225 acres, claiming a fertile soil 
and a most picturesque situation, and possessing streams of running 
water, was purchased, and on a plateau in its center a site for the 
proposed house of refuge was fixed. 

The next movement was to decide upon a plan, which ultimately 
met the approval of the Governor. It favored the erection of one 
principal building, one house for a reading-room and hospital, two 
large mechanical shops and eight family houses. January 1, 1868, 


three family houses and work-shop were completed; in 1869 the 
main building, and one additional family house were added; but 
previous to this, in August, 1867, a Mr. Frank P. Ainsworth and 
his wife were appointed by the Board, superintendent and matron 
respectively, and temporary quarters placed at their disposal. In 
1869 they of course removed to the new building. This is 64 by 
128 feet, and three stories high. In its basement are kitchen, 
laundry and vegetable cellar. The first floor is devoted to offices, 
visitors' room, house father and family dining-room and store- 
rooms. The general superintendent's private apartments, private 
offices and five dormitories for officers occupy the second floor; 
while the third floor is given up to the assistant superintendent's 
apartment, library, chapel and hospital. 

The family houses are similar in style, forming rectangular build- 
ings 36 by 58 feet. The basement of each contains a furnace 
room, a store-room and a large wash-room, which is converted into 
a play-room during inclement weather. On tlie first floor of each 
of these buildings are two rooms for the house father and his 
family, and a school-room, which is also convertible into a sitting- 
room for the boys. On the third floor is a family dormitory, a 
clothes-room and a room for the " elder brother," who ranks next 
to the house father. And since the reception of the first boy, from 
Hendricks county, January 23, 1868, the house plan has proved 
equally convenient, even as the management has proved efficient. 

Other buildings have since been erected. 


About 1832, at the suggestion of the architect who was to build 
the State House, with the concurrence of the commissioners, the 
block north of the State House square was reserved for sale, to 
await the determination of the Legislature as to the propriety of 
addirg it to the public ground, making it an oblong square corre- 
sponding to the form of the edifice to be erected. The plan drawn 
by Mr. Town, the artist, was adopted by the Legislature, and he 
was to complete the building by November, 1837, for $58,000. The 
building erected in pursuance of this contract served the State 
until within a few years; and now Indiana has a new, beautiful cap- 
itol, equal in proportioas, style, etc., to those of her sister States, 
under headway. 



Arthur St. Clair, Governor of the Territory of the United States 
Northwest of the Ohio, from Oct. 5, 178T, to July 4, 1800. 


Wra. Henry Harrison, from July 4, 1800, to 1812. 
John Gibson, Acting Governor from 1812 to 1813. 
Thomas Posey, from March 3, 1813, to Nov. Y, 1816. 


Jonathan Jennings, from Nov. 7, 1816, to Dec. 4, 1822. 
Wm. Hendricks, from Dec. 4, 1822, to Feb. 12, 1825. 
James B. Ray, from Dec. 7, 1825, to Dec. 7, 1831. 
Noah Noble, from Dec. 7, 1831, to Dec. 6, 1837. 
David Wallace, from Dec. 6, 1837, to Dec. 9, 1840. 
Samuel Bigger, from Dec. 9, 1840, to Dec. 6, 1843. 
James Whitcomb, from Dec. 6, 1843, to Dec. 26, 1848. 
Paris C. Dunning, Acting-Governor, from Dec. 26, 1848, to Dec. 
6, 1849. 

Joseph A. Wright, from Dec. 6, 1849, to Jan. 5, 1857. 

Ashbel P. Willard. 

Abram A. Hammond. 

Henry S. Lane, a few days in January, 1860. 

Oliver P. Morton, acting, from 1860, to January 12, 1865. 

Oliver P. Morton, from Jan. 12, 1865, to Jan. 12, 1867. 

Conrad Baker, acting, from 1867 to 1869. 

Conrad Baker, from 1869 to 1873 

Thomas A. Hendricks, from 1873 to 1877. 

James D. Williams, 1877 to 1881. 


Christopher Harrison, from 1816 to Dec. 17, 1818. 
RatlifF Boone, from 1819 to 1824. 



James B. Kay, acting, from 1824 to 1825. 

John H. Thompson, from 1825 to 1828. 

Milton Stapp, from 1828 to 1831. 

David Wallace, from 1831 to 1837. 

David Hillis, from 1837 to 1810. 

Samuel Hall, from 1840 to 1843. 

Jesse D. Bright, from 1843 to 1845. 

Godlove S. Orth, acting, 1845. . 

James G. Read, acting, 1846. 

Paris C. Dunning, from 1846 to 1848. 

James G. Read, 1849. 

James H. Lane, from 1849 to 1853. 

Ashbel P. Willard, from 1853 to 1857. 

Abram A. Hammond, from 1857 to 1859. 

John R. Cravens, acting, from 1859 to 1863. 

Paris C. Dnnning, acting, from 1863 to 1865. 

Conrad Baker, from 1865 to 1867. 

Will Cumback, from 1867 to 1869. 

Will Cnmback, from 1869 to 1878. 

Leonidas Sexton, from 1873 to 1877. 

Isaac P. Gray, from 1877 to 1881. 


John Gibson, Territorial, from 1800 to 1816. 
Robert A. New, from 1816 to 1825. 
W. W. Wick, from 1825 to 1829. 
James Morrison, from 1829* to 1833. 
Wm. Sheets, from 1833 to 1837. 
Wm. J. Brown, from 1837 to 1841. 
Wm. Sheets, from 1841 to 1845. 
John H. Thompson, from 1845 to 1849. 
Charles H. Test, from 1849 to 1853. 
Nehemiah Hayden, from 1853 to 1855. 
Erasmus B. Collins, from 1855 to 1857. 
Daniel McClure, from 1857 to 1858. 
Cyrus L. Dunham, from 1858 to 1859. 
Daniel McClure, from 1859 to 1861. 
Wm. A. Peele, from 1861 to 1863. 
James S. Anthon from 1863 to 1865. 
Nelson Trusler, from 1865 to 1869. 



Max F. A. Hoffman, from 1869 to 1871, 
Norman Eddy, from 1871 to 1872. 
John H. Farquhar, from 1872 to 1873. 
W. W. Curry, from 1873 to 1874. 
John E. Neff, from 1874 to 
John P. Shanklin, from 1879 .o 1881. 


Wm. H. Lilley, from 1816 to 1829. 
Morris Morris, from 1829 to 18i4. 
Horatio J. Harris, from 1844 to 1847. 
Douglas McGuire, from 1847 to 1850. 
E. W. H. Ellis, from 1850 to 1853. 
John P. Dunn, from 1853 to 1855. 
Hiram E. Talbot, from 1855 to 1857. 
John W. Dodd, from 1857 to 1860. 
Albert Lange, from 1861 to 1863. 
Joseph Ristine, from 1863 to 1865. 
Thomas B. McCarty, from 1865 to 1869. 
John D. Evans, from 1869 to 1871. 
John C Shoemaker, from 1871 to 1873. 
James A. Wildman, from 1873 to 1874. 
Ebenezer Henderson, from 1875 to 
M. D. Manson, from 1879 to 1881. 


Daniel C. Lane, from 1816 to 1823. 
Samuel Merrill, from 1823 to 1835. 
Nathan B. Palmer, from 1835 to 1841. 
Geo. H. Dunn, from 1841 to 1844. 
Royal May hew, from 1844 to 1847. 
Samuel Hanna, from 1847 to 1850. 
J. P. Drake, from 1850 to 1853. 
Elijah Newland, from 1853 to 1855. 
Wm. B. ISToffsinger, from 1855 to 1857. 
Aquilla Jones, from 1857 to 1859. 
Nathaniel F. Cunningham, from 1859 to 1861. 
J. S. Harvey, 1861 to 1863. 
Matthew L. Brett, from 1863 to 1865. 
John I. Morrison, from 1865 to 1867. 


Nathan Kimball, from 1867 to 1871. 
James B. Ryan, from 1871 to 1873. 
John B. Glover, from 1873 to 1875. 
B. C. Shaw, from 1875 to 
Wm. Fleming, from 1879 to 1881. 


James Morrison, from March 5, 1855. 
J. E. McDonald, from Dec. 17, 1857. 
J. G. Jones, from Dec. 17, 1859. 
John P. Usher, from Nov. 10, 1861. 
Oscar B. Hord, from Nov. 3, 1862. 
D. E. Williamson, from Nov. 3, 1864. 
Bayliss W. Hanna, from Nov. 3, 1870. 
James C. Denny, from Nov. 6, 1872. 
Clarence A. Buskirk, from Nov. 6, 1874. 
Thomas Woolen, from Nov., 1878 to Nov., 1880. 


James Scott, from 1816 to 1831. 

John Johnston, from 1816 to 1817. 

J. L. Holman, from 1816 to 1831. 

Isaac Blackford, from 1817 to 1853. 

S. C. Stevens, from 1831 to 1836. 

J. T. McKinney, from 1831 to 1837. 

Charles Dewey, from 1836 to 1847. 

Jeremiah Sullivan, from 1837 to 1846. 

Samuel E. Perkins, from 1846 to 1865. 

Thomas L. Smith, from 1847 to 1853. 

Andrew Davidson, from 1853 to 1865. 

Wm. L. Stewart, from 1853 to 1857. 

Addison L. Roache, from 1853 to 1854. 

Alvin P. Hovey, appointed, to 1854. 

S. B. Gookins, from 1854 to 1857. 

James L. Worden, appointed, from 1858 to 1865. 

James M. Hanna, appointed, from 1858 to 1865. 

Charles A. Ray, from 1865 to 1871. 

John P. Elliott, from 1865 to 1871. 

James S. Frazier, from 1865 to 1871. 

Robert S. Gregory, from 1865 to 1871. 


James L. Worden, from 1871 to 
Alex. C. Dowuej, from 1871 to 
Samuel H. Buskirk, from 1871 to 
John Pettit, from 1871 to 
Andrew L. Osborn, from 1872 to 
Horace P. Biddle, from 1874 to 
Samuel E. Perkins. 
George Y, Howk. 
Wm. E. Ni black. 


James Noble, from 1816 to 1831. 

Waller Taylor, from 1816 to 1825. 

Wm. Hendricks, from 1825 to 1837. 

Robert Hanna, appointed, 1831. 

John Tipton, from 1831 to 1839. 

Oliver H. Smith, from 1837 to 1843. 

Albert S. White, from 1839 to 1845. 

Edward A. Hannegan, from 1843 to 1849. 

Jesse D. Bright, from 1845 to 1861. 

James Whitcomb, from 1849 to 1852. 

Charles W. Cathcart, appointed, from 1852 to 1853. 

John Pettit, from 1853 to 1857. 

Graham N. Fitch, from 1857 to 1861. 

Joseph A. Wright, from 1861 to 1863. 

Henry S. Lane, from 1861 to 1867. 

David Turpie, 1863. 

Thos. A. Hendricks, from 1863 to 1869. 

Oliver P. Morton, from 1867 to 1877. 

Daniel D. Pratt, from 1869 to 1875. 

Joseph E. McDonald, from 1875 to 


Wm. H. Harrison, delegate from the " Territory Northwest of the 
Ohio River;" resigned in 1800, succeeded by Wm. McMillan, who 
took his seat Nov. 24, 1800. 


Benjamin Parke, Dec. 12, 1805; resigned in 1808; succeeded 
by Jesse B. Thomas, who took his seat Dec. 1, 1808. Jonathan 
Jennings, Nov. 27, 1809. 



1817-'22.— Wm. Hendricks. 

1822-'4:. — Jonathan Jennings. 

1823-'5. — Jonathan Jennings, Wm. Prince, John Test and Jacob 

1825-'7. — Ratliff Boon, Jonathan Jennings, John Test. 

1827-'9. — Thomas H. Blake, Jonathan Jennings, Oliver H. Smith. 

1829-'31. — RatlifFBoon, Jonathan Jennings, John Test. 

1831-'3.— Ratliff Boon, John Carr, Jonathan McCarty. 

1833-'5. — Ratliff Boon, John Carr, John Ewing, Jonathan 

1835-'7.— Ratliff Boon, John Carr, John W. Davis, Edward A. 
Hannegan, "Wm. Herod, George L. Kinnard, Amos Lane, Jonathan 

1837-'9.— Ratliff Boon, George H. Dunn, John Ewing, Wm. 
Graham, Wm. Herod, James Rariden, Albert S. White. 

1839-'41. — John Carr, John W. Davis, Tilghman A. Howard, 
Henry S. Lane, George H. ProflSt, James Rariden, Thomas Smith, 
Wm. W. Wick. 

1841-'3. — James H. Cravens, Andrew Kennedy, Henry S. Lane, 
Geo. H. Proffit, Richard W. Thompson, David Wallace, Joseph L. 

184r3-'5.— Wm. J. Brown, John W. Davis. Thomas J. Henley, 
Andrew Kennedy, Robert Dale Owen, John Pettit, Samuel C. 
Sample, Caleb B. Smith, Thomas Smith, Joseph A. Wright. 

1845-'7.— Charles W. Cathcart, John W. Davis, Thomas J. 
Henley, Andrew Kennedy, Edward W. McGaughey, Robert D. 
Owen, John Pettit, Caleb B. Smith, Thomas Smith, Wm. W. 

1847-'9.— Chas. W. Cathcart, George G. Dunn, Elisha Embree. 
Thomas J. Henley, John Pettit, John L. Robinson, Wm. Rockhill, 
Caleb B. Smith, Richard W. Thompson, Wm. W. Wick. 

1849-'51. — Nathaniel Albertson, Wm. J. Brown, Cyrus L. Dun- 
ham, Graham N. Fitch, Willis A. Gorman, Andrew J. Harlan, Geo. 
W. Julian, Joseph E. McDonald, Edward W. McGaughey, John L. 

1851 -'3 — Samuel Brenton, John G. Davis, Cyrus L. Dunham, 
Graham N. Fitch, Willis A. Gorman, Thomas A. Hendricks, Jas. 
Lockhart, Daniel Mace, Samuel W. Parker, John L. Robinson. 



1853-'5.,— Ebenezer M. Chamberlain, John G. Davis, Cyrus L, 
Duaham, Norman Eddy, Wm. H. English, Andrew J. Harlan, 
Thomas A. Hendricks, James H. Lane, Daniel Mace, Smith Mil- 
ler, Samuel W. Parker. 

1855-'7. — Lucien Barbour, Samuel Brenton, Schuyler Colfax, 
Wm. Cumback, George G. Dunn, Wm. H. English, David P. 
Holloway, Daniel Mace, Smith Miller, John U. Pettit, Harvey D. 

1857-'9. — Charles Case, Schuyler Colfax, John G. Davis, Wm. 
H. English, James B. Foley, James M. Gregg, James Hughes, 
David Kilgore, Wm. E. Niblack, John U. Pettit, James Wilson. 

1859-'61.— Charles Case, Schuyler Colfax, John G. Davis, Wm. 
M. Dunn, Wm. H. English, Wm. S. Holman, David Kilgore, Wm. 
E. Niblack, John U. Pettit, Albert G. Porter, James Wilson. 

1861-'3.— Schuyler Colfax, James A. Cravens, W. McKee Dunn, 
Wm. S. Holman, Geo. W. Julian, John Law, Wm. Mitchell, Albert 
G. Porter, John P. C. Shanks, Daniel W. Voorhees, Albert S. 

1863-'5. — Schuyler Colfax, James A. Cravens, Ebenezer Dumont, 
Joseph K. Edgerton, Henry W. Harrington, Wm. S. Holman, 
Geo. W. Julian, John Law, James F. McDowell, Godlove S. Orth, 
Daniel W. Voorhees. 

1865-'7. — Schuyler Colfax, Joseph H. Defrees, Ebenezer Dumont, 
John H. Farquhar, Kalpli Hill, Geo. W. Julian, Michael C. Kerr, 
Wm. E. Niblack, Godlove S. Orth, Thomas N. Stillwell, Daniel 
W. Yoorhees, Henry D. Washburn. 

1867-'9.— John Coburn, Schuyler Colfax, Wm. S. Holman, Mor- 
ton C. Hunter, Geo. W. Julian, Michael C. Kerr, Wm. E. Niblack, 
Godlove S. Orth, John P. C. Shanks, Henry D. Washburn, Wm. 

1869-'71.— John Coburn, Wm. S. Holman, Geo. W. Julian, 
Michael C. Kerr, Wm. E. Niblack, Godlove S. Orth, Jasper Pack- 
ard, John P. C. Shanks, James N. Tyner, Daniel W. Yoorhees, 
Wm. Williams. 

1871-'3.— John Coburn, Wm. S. Holman, Michael C. Kerr, 
Mahlon D. Manson, Wm. E. Niblack, Jasper Packard, John P. C. 
Shanks, James N. Tyner, Daniel W. Yoorhees, Wm. Williams, 
Jeremiah M. Wilson. 

1873-'5 — Thomas J. Cason, John Coburn, Wm. S. Holman, 
Morton C. Hunter, Wm. E. Niblack, Godlove S. Orth, Jasper 



Packard, Henry B. Sayler, John P. C. Shanks, James N. Tyner, 
"Wm. Williams, Jeremiah M. Wilson, Simeon K. Wolfe. 

1875-'7— John H. Baker, I^athan T. Carr, Thomas J. Cason, 
James L. Evans, Benoni S. Fuller, Andrew H. Hamilton, Wm. 
S. Haymond, W. S. Holraan, Andrew Humphreys, Morton C. 
Hunter, Michael C. Kerr, Franklin Landers, Jeptha D. New, Mil- 
ton S. Robinson, James D. Williams, 

1877-'9— John H. Baker, George A. Bicknell, Thomas M. Browne, 
Wm. H. Calkins, Thomas R. Cobb, James L. Evans, B. S. Fuller, 
A. H. Hamilton, John Hanna, M. C. Hunter, M. S. Robinson, 
Leonidas Sexton, M. D. White. 

1879-'81— William Heilman, Thomas R. Cobb, George A. Bick- 
nell, Jeptha D. New, Thomas M. Browne, Wm. R. Myers, Gilbert 
De La Matyr, Abraham J. Hostetter, Godlove S. Orth, Wm. H. 
Calkins, Calvin Cowgill, Walpole G. Colerick, John H. Baker. 



Arthur St. Clair was born in Scotland in 1734, a grandson 
of the Earl of Rosslyn; educated at the University of Edinburgh; 
studied medicine under John Hunter; inherited a large fortune 
on the death of his mother; entered the British army as an ensign, 
May 13, 1757, and the next year he came to America; became 
distinguished under General Wolfe at Quebec; married at Boston, 
May 14, 1760, Miss Phoebe Bayard, half-sister of Gov. James Bow- 
doin; resigned his commission in 1762; settled in Pennsylvania, 
in 1764, erecting a fine residence and several mills; held many 
offices, civil and military, and during the Revolutionary war was 
eminent in his services; was a member of the Continental Con- 
s'ress 1785-'87; became the first Governor of the Northwestern 
Territory February 1, 1788; made the treaty of Fort Harmar with 
the Indian tribes in 1789 ; fixed the seat of the Supreme Court for 
the Territory, January, 1790, at a point which he named Cincinnati, 
after the society of which he was an officer; became Commander- 
in-Chief of the U. S. army, March 4, 1791, which position he 
resigned, May 5, 1792; made an unsuccessful expedition against 
the Indians of the Miami and the Wabash, but was vindicated from 
all blame by a Congressional committee of investigation; was 
removed from the post of Governor, by Jefferson, Nov. 22, 1802, 
when he settled in a log house on the summit of Chestnut Ridge, near 
Greensburg, Pa., where he passed his remaining years in poverty and 
fruitless efforts to effect a settlement of claims against the U. S. 
Government, but receiving small pensions, both from the National 
and State Governments. He died near Greensburg, Aug. 31, 1818. 
In 1812 he published a " Narrative of the Manner in which the 
Campaign against the Indians in 1791 was conducted." 

William Henry Harrison was born at Berkeley, Virginia, in 1773. 
In 1801 he was appointed Governor of the Territory of Indiana, 
which position he held more than ten years. In 1811, in the hard- 
fought battle of Tippecanoe, he defeated the Indians under the 
command of the " Prophet." In 1812, was made Brigadier General; 



and in March, 1813 was made Major-General. In 1824 he was 
elected to United States Senate from Ohio. In 1836 was defeated 
by Yan Buren for President. He ao^ain became the nominee of the 
Whig party in 1840, and was chosen President by an overwhehning 
majority. He was inaugurated March 4, 1841, but died just one 
month afterward, and his remains now lie near the old homestead at 
North Bend, Ind. 

Thomas Posey was born in Virginia, July 9, 1750; received an 
ordinary common-school education; removed to Western Virginia 
in 1769; participated in expeditions against the Ohio Indians, and 
in many battles of the Revolution, after which he resided for a 
number of years in Spotsylvania county, Va. ; was appointed Brig- 
adier-General, Feb. 14, 1793; moved soon afterward to Kentucky, 
where he became Lieut.-Governor and Major-General in 1809; was 
U. S. Senator from Louisiana, 1812 '3; succeeded Harrison as 
Governor of Indiana, in 1813, and became Agent for Indian affairs 
in 1816. He died at Shawneetown, 111., March, 19, 1818. 

Jonathan Jennings^ first Governor of the State of Indiana, 1816- 
'22, was born in Hunterdon county, N. J., and died near Charles- 
town, Clark Co., Indiana, Jul}' 26, 1834; he was a member of Con- 
gress, 1809-'16 and 1822-'31, and in 1818 he was appointed Indian 
Commissioner by President Monroe. 

William Hendricks^ the second Governor of the State of Indiana, 
was born in Westmoreland county, Pa., in 1783, and settled in 
Madison, Indiana, in 1814, where he died May 16, 1850. Besides 
that of State Executive, he filled many important offices. He was 
Secretary of the Convention which formed the present Constitution 
of Indiana, was a Representative in Congress, 1816-'22, and U. S. 
Senator, 1825-'37. 

Noah NohUy Governor, 1831 -'7, was born in Yirginia, Jan. 15, 
1794, and died at Indianapolis in February, 1844. During his 
term as Governor occurred the Black Hawk war, the inauguration 
of the great " internal improvements " of so much notoriety, the 
hard times of 1837, the last exodus of Indians from the State, etc. 

David Wallace was born in Philadelphia, Pa,, April 4, 1799; 
graduated at West Point in 1821 as Lieutenant of Artillery, which 
position he resigned June 1, 1822; removed with his father's 
family in 1817 to Brookville, Ind.; studied law and acquired an 
extensive practice in Franklin county; was several times a member 


of the Legislature, once a member of the State Constitutional Con- 
vention, Lieutenant-Governor, 1837-'4:0, member of Congress, 
1841-'3, and Judge of Marion county, 1856-'9. He died Sept. 4, 

Samuel Bigger was born in Warren county, Ohio, about 1800, 
graduated at Athens University; studied law at Lebanon and com- 
menced practice in Indiana, attaining eminence in the profession; 
was a Representative in the State Legislature, 1834-'5, and afterward 
Judge of the Circuit Court. He was elected Governor of Indiana 
in 1840, on the Whig ticket, and served his term acceptably. By 
his recommodation the Indiana Hospital for the Insane was estab- 
lished. He died in 1S45 at Fort Wayne. 

James Whitcomh was born in Stockbridge, Yt., Dec. 1, 1791, 
educated at Transylvania University; Jan, 1, 1824 he established 
himself in the practice of law at Bloomington, Ind.; in 1826 he 
was appointed Prosecuting Attorney for his district; was State 
Senator, 1830-'5, and a leader of the Democratic party; in 1836 he 
was appointed Superintendent of the Land Office; resumed prac- 
tice at Terre Haute in 1841; was Governor, 1843-'8, when he was 
elected to the U. S. Senate. He died in New York, October 4, 

Joseph A. Wright was born in Pennsylvania, April 17, 1810; 
educational advantages limited; early in life he settled in Indiana; 
admitted to the Bar in 1829, and rose to eminence as a practitioner; 
member of the Legislature in 1833, and State Senator in 1840; 
member of Congress, 1843-'5; Governor of Indiana, 1849-'57; Min- 
ister to Prussia, 1857-'61; U.S. Senator, 186i-'2; U.S. Commissioner 
to the Hamburg Exhibition in 1863, and Minister to Prussia again, 
from 1865 until his death, at Berlin, May 11, 1867. 

Ashbel P. Willard was born in Oneida county, New York, the 
son of Erastus Willard, sheriff of that county, 1832-'5; graduated 
at Hamilton College in 1842; was Governor of Indiana, 1853-'8; 
died at St. Paul in October, 1860. 

Henry S. Lane, brother of Gen. James H. Lane, was born in 
Montgomery county, Ky., Feb., 24, 1811 ; received a good common- 
school education and some knowledge of the classics, studied law, 
moved to Indiana and was admitted to the Bar; elected to the 
Legislature in 1837; to Congress in 1841; was Lieutenant-Colonel of 
volunteers in the Mexican war, 1846-'7; elected U. S. Senator, 1859, 
but denied the seat; elected Governor of Indiana in 1861, but in a 


few days after he took the chair he was elected U. S, Senator again, 
and as such served until 1867. 

Oli'oer P. Morton was born in "Wayne county, Indiana, Aug. 4, 
1823; was apprenticed to a hatter at the age of 15, and worked at 
the trade four years, spending his leisure in study; graduated at 
the Miami University in 1843; studied law with John S. Newman, 
admitted to the Bar in 1847, and commenced practice at Centre- 
ville, this State; elected Circuit Judge in 1852; was defeated as the 
Republican nominee for Governor in 1856; was elected Lieutenant 
Governor in 1860, with the understanding that Gen. Henry S. 
Lane, who was placed at the head of the ticket, was to be elected 
to the U. S. Senate in the event of Republican success, which plan 
was carried out, and he became Governor of Indiana; was elected 
Governor in 1864, and United States Senator, as a Union-Republi- 
can, to succeed Henry S. Lane, same politics, and was re-elected, 
serving all together from March 4, 1867, until his death, Nov. 1, 
1877, at Indianapolis. In the autumn of 1865 he was stricken 
with partial paralysis, from which he never recovered. He was 
compelled to do his work by secretaries, to be carried in and out of 
the Senate Chamber, and to address the Senate seated. As he was 
the noted " war Governor " of this glorious State, see section on 
the war with the Rebellion, pages 205 to 249, for further particu- 
lars of this illustrious man's life. 

Conrad Baker first served as acting Governor during the excit- 
ing times over the 15th amendment described on pages 197, su- 
pra,oi this volume. He was elected by the Republicans Lieutenant 
Governor of the State, on the same ticket with Oliver P. Morton 
for Governor, with the understanding that Mr, Morton should be 
sent to the United States Senate and resign the government of this 
State to Mr. Baker. The programme was carried out, and Mr. 
Baker served his place so well that at the end of the term he was 
elected by the people Governor, and he served the second term, — 
making in all six years. Governor Baker was a faithful Executive, 
in sympathy with all the institutions of Republicanism and the 
interests of his State. He had a work compiled on " Indiana and 
her Resources," which is well calculated to draw men of capital to 
this fine commonwealth and enable her to compete with all her 
sister States in the Union. «^ 

Thomas A. Hendricks was born in Muskingum county, Ohio, 
Sept. 7, 1819; removed with his father in 1822 to Shelby county, 
Ind.; graduated in 1841 at South Hanover College; aclmitted to 


the Bar in 1843. Was an active member of State Constitutional 
Convention of 1850, member of Congress 1851-'5 from the Indi- 
anapolis district; Commissioner of the General Land Office of the 
United States 1855-'9; United States Senator, Democratic, 1863-'9, 
and lastly Governor of Indiana 1872-'6. In the latter year he was 
candidate for Yice President of the United States. 

James D. Williams was born in Pickaway county, O., Jan. 16, 
1808; removed to Knox county, Ind., in 1818; was educated in 
the log school-house of the country; is by occupation a farmer; was 
a member of the State House of Representatives in 1843, 1847, 
1851, 1856 and 1858; was elected to the State Senate in 1858, 1862 
and 1870; was a delegate to the National Democratic Convention 
at Baltimore in 1872; was the Democratic nominee for United 
States Senator in 1873 against O. P. Morton; was elected a Repre- 
sentative from Indiana in the 44tli Congress, 1875-'7, receiving 
17,393 votes against 9,545 for Levi Ferguson, and Dec. 1, 1876, he 
resigned this office, on account of having been elected Governor. 
His term will expire Jan. 3, 1881. 


James Noble was born at Battletown, Ya., went to the frontier 
when a youtli, located in Kentucky, and afterward in Indiana; 
served as United States Senator from Dec. 12, 1816, to Feb. 26, 
1831, when he died, in Washington, D. C. 

Waller Taylor was a Major and Aide to Gen. Harrison at Tippe- 
canoe, United States Senator lS16-'25, and a man of much literary 
culture. He was breveted General, and died at Lunenburg, Ya., 
August 26, 1826. 

William Hendrichs, see page 311. 

Robert Haiina was born in Laurens District, S. C, April 6, 
1786; removed with his parents to Indiana and subsequently 
settled in Brookville in 1802; was Sheriff of the Eastern District 
of Indiana in 1809, and held the position until the organization of 
the State Government; was appointed Register of the Land Office, 
and removed to Indianapolis in 1825; was appointed United States 
Senator as a Whig, in place of James Noble, deceased, serving 
from Dec. 5, 1831, to Jan. 3, 1832, wlien his successor took his 
seat; was elected a State Senator, but was defeated when a candi- 
date for re-election ; was killed by a railroad train while walking 
on the track at Indianapolis, Nov. 19, 1859. 


John Tipton was born in Sevier conntj, Tenn., in August, 
1785; his father having been killed by the Indians in 1793, he did 
not even enjoy the advantages of a public-school education, having 
to support a mother, two sisters and a half brother; in 1807 he 
removed with them to Indiana, where he purchased 50 acres of 
land, pajdng for it by splitting rails at 50 cents a hundred; was 
elected Ensign of that noted frontier company, the "Yellow- 
Jackets," in 1811, and served with them in the Tippecanoe 
campaign; was chosen Sheriff of Harrison county, Ind., in 1815; 
was elected Master of Pisgah Lodge of Freemasons in 1819, and 
was Grand Master of Masons in Indiana in 1819 and 1829; was 
elected a Representative in the State Legislature in 1821; was 
II- S. Indian Agent with the Miami and Pottawatomie tribes from 
1824 to 1831, when he was elected U. S. Senator, to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of James Noble; was re-elected for a full 
term, and served from Jan. 3 1832, until his death, April 5, 1839, 
by pulmonary apoplexy, at Logansport, Ind. 

Oliver H. Smith was born in Trenton, N. J., Oct. 23, 1794, 
emigrated to Indiana in 1817, practiced law, and in 1824 was 
Prosecuting Attorney for the 3d District of Indiana; was a member 
of Legislature in 1822, of Congress 1827-'9, and of the U. S. 
Senate 1837-'43. He published " Recollections of Congressional 
Life." and " Early Indiana Trials, Sketches and Reminiscences." 
He died at Indianapolis, March 19, 1859. 

Albert S. White was born at Blooming Grove, IN", Y., Oct. 24, 
1803; received a classical education, graduating at Union College 
in 1822; studied law and was admitted tp the Bar in 1835, and 
commenced practice at Lafayette, Ind.; was for five years Clerk of 
the Indiana House of Representatives; was elected Representative 
in Congress as a "Whig in 1837, receiving 10,737 votes against 
3,369 votes for N. Jackson, Democrat, serving from Sept. 4, 1837, 
to March 3, 1839; was president of several railroads; was elected 
U. S. Senator from Indiana, serving from Dec. 2, 1839, to March 
3,1845; declined a re-election; was again elected Representative 
in Congress in 1861, as a Republican, receiving 13,310 votes against 
11,489 votes for Wilson, Democrat, serving from July 4, 1861, to 
March 3, 1863; was a commissioner to adjust claims against the 
Sioux Indians; was appointed by President Lincoln in J 864, U. S. 
Judge for Indiana; died at Stockwell, Ind., September 4, 1864. 

Edzuard A. Hannegan was born in Ohio, received a good 
education, studied law, admitted to the Bar in his 23d year, settling 


in Indiana. He was several times a member of the Legislature, and 
was a member of Congress 1833-'7, U. S. Senator 1843- '9, Minister 
to Prussia, 1849-'53. While partially drunk, in 1852, he killed his 
brother-in-law, Capt. Duncan. 

Jesse D. Bright was born in Norwich, Chenango Co., N. Y., Dec. 
18, 1812; moving to Indiana, he received an academic education, 
and studied and practiced law; was Circuit Judge, State Senator, 
U. S. Marshall, Lieut. Governor of the State, and President of the 
U. S. Senate during several sessions. In 1857 the Democratic mem- 
bers of the State Legislature re-elected him, to the U. S. Senate in 
a manner which was denounced as fraudulent and unconstitutional 
by his Eepublican opponents, and his seat was contested. He 
continued a Senator until February, 1862, when he was expelled for 
disloyalty by a vote of 32 to 14. The principal proof of his crime 
was recommending to Jeff, Davis, in March, 1861, a person desirous 
of furnishing arms. 

James Whitcomh^ see page 312. 

Charles W. Cathcart was born on the island of Madeira in 1809, 
received a good English education, followed the sea in his boyhood, 
located at LaPorte, Ind., in 1831, and engaged in farming; was 
U. S. Land Surveyor several years, a Representative in the State 
Legislature, a Democratic Elector in 1845, Eepresentative in 
Congress 1845-'7, re-elected to serve 1847-'9, appointed U. S. Senator 
in place of James Whitcomb, deceased, and served from Dec. 6, 
1852, to March 3, 1853; then returned to farming. 

Joh7i Pettit was born at Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., July 24, 1807; 
received an academical education, studied law and was admitted to 
the Bar in 1838, commencing practice at Lafayette, Ind. ; was a 
member of the State House of Representatives two terms, U. S. 
District Attorney, representative in Congress 1843-'5, as a Democrat, 
re-elected to the next Congress, serving all together from Dec. 4, 
1843, to March 3, 1849; was a Delegate to the State Constitutional 
Convention in 1850; was a Democratic Elector in 1852; was U. S. 
Senator from Jan. 18, 1853, to March 3, 1855, in place of James 
Whitcomb, deceased; was appointed by President Buchanan, Chief 
Justice of the U. S. Courts in Kansas; in 1870, was elected Supreme 
Judge of Indiana. He was renominated for this position in 1876, 
but owing to scandals in connection with the Court, which excited 
popular indignation, he was forced off the ticket, and the name of 
Judge Perkins substituted; he died at Lafayette, Ind., June 17, 


Graham N' . Fitch was born at LeBoy, N. Y., Dec. 7, 1810; 
received a classical education, studied medicine and practiced at 
Logansport, Ind. ; was professor in Rush Medical College, Chicago, 
1844-'49; was an Indiana Presidential Elector in 1844, 1848 and 
18.56, a member of the State Legislature in 1836 and 1839; was a 
Representative in Congress from Dec. 3, 1849, to March 3, 1853, 
being elected the last time over Schuyler Colfax, "Whig; was U. S. 
Senator from Indiana from Feb. 9, 1857, to March 3, 1861 ; was a 
Delegate to the National Democratic Convention at New York 
City in 1868. 

Henry S. Lane, see page 312. 

David Turpie was born in Hamilton county, Ohio, July 8, 1829, 
graduated at Kenyon College in 1848, studied law, admitted to the 
Bar in 1849, and commenced practice at Logansport, Ind. ; was a 
member of the State House of Representatives in 1852; was 
appointed Judge of the Court of Common Pleas in 1854, and of 
the Circuit Court in 1856, both of which positions he resigned; 
was again a member of the Legislature in 1858; was U. S. Senator, 
as a Democrat, in place of Jesse D. Bright, expelled, from Jan. 22, 
1863, to March 3, same year, 

Joseph A. Wright, see page 312. 

Thomas A. Hendricks, qqq page 313. 

Oliver P. Morton, see page 313. 

Daniel D. Pratt was born at Palermo, Me., Oct. 26, 1813, and 
was taken to New York State by his parents when a lad; gradu- 
ated at Hamilton College in 1831 ; removed to Indiana in 1832 
where he taught school; went to Indianapolis in 1834, where he 
wrote in the Secretarv of State's office and studied law; commenced 
practice at Logansport in 1836; was elected to the Legislature in 
1851 and 1853; was elected to the 41st Congress in 1868, by a 
majority of 2,287, and, before taking his seat, was elected U. S 
Senator as a Republican, to succeed Thos. A. Hendricks, Democrat 
and served from March 4, 1869, to March 3, 1875; was appointed 
by President Grant Commissioner of Internal Revenue, serving 
from May 15, 1875, to August 1, 1876; he died at Logansport, 
very suddenly, of heart disease, June 17, 1877. 

Joseph E. McDonald was born in Butler county, Ohio, Aug. 29 
1819, taken to Indiana in 1826, and at Lafayette was apprenticed 
to the saddler's trade; was two years in college, but did not 
graduate; studied law, and was admitted to the Bar in 1843, and 
commenced practice; was Prosecuting Attorney in 1843-'7; was 


elected a Representative in Congress as a Democrat in 1849, 
receiving Y,432 votes against 7,098 for Lane, Whig, and served 
from December 3, 1849, to March 3, 1851; in 1856 he was elected 
Attorney General of Indiana, and in 1858 re-elected; in 1859 
removed to Indianapolis; in 1864 was the unsuccessful candidate 
for Governor of Indiana, but in 1875 he was elected U. S. Senator, 
as a Democrat, to succeed D. D. Pratt, Republican. 

Daniel W. Voorhees was born in Fountain county, Ind., Sept. 
26, 1828; graduated at the Asburj^ University in 1849; studied law, 
admitted to the Bar in 1851, when he commenced practice at 
Crawfordsville; was defeated as a candidate for Congress in 1857, 
by only 230 votes in a total of 22,374, James Wilson being his 
opponent. Was appointed by President Buchanan, U, S. Attorney 
for Indiana, 1858-'60; in 1859 he went to Virginia as counsel for 
John E. Cook, one of John Brown's raiders; was elected a 
Representative to Congress from Indiana in 1861, receiving 12,535 
votes against 11,516 votes for T. H. Nelson, Republican; was 
re-elected in 1863, receiving 12,457 votes against 9,976 for H. D. 
Scott, Republican; was again elected in 1865, by 12,880 against 
12,296 for Washburn, but the latter in 1866 successfully contested 
his seat; was again re-elected twice, serving from March 4, 1869, to 
March 3, 1873; was appointed LF. S. Senator November 12, 1877, 
to serve in place of O. P. Morton; and in 1879 was elected for a 
full term. 



Indiana belonged to the "Territory of Louisiana" till 1721; 
was then included in Illinois as a " District " of said Territory 
until 1774; then included in the " Province of Quebec " until 1788; 
then was a part of the "Territory Northwest of the Ohio river" 
until 1800; then " Indiana Territory " until 1816, since which time 
it has been a "State." French to 1774; British, 1774 to 1788; U. 
S. Government, 1788 to the present time. 



Alabama. — This State was first explored by LaSalle in 1684, and 
settled by the French at Mobile in 1711, and admitted as a State in 
1817. Its name is Indian, and means " Here we rest." Has no 
motto. Population in 1860,964,201; in 1870,996,992. Furnished 
2,576 soldiers for the Union army. Area 50,722 square miles. 
Montgomery is the capital. Has 8 Representatives and 10 Presi- 
dential electors. Rufus W. Cobb is Governor; salary, $3,000; 
politics, Democratic. Length of term, 2 years. 

Arkansas — Became a State in 1836. Population in 1860, 435,- 
450; in 1870,484,471. Area 52,198 square miles. Little Rock, 
capital. Its motto is Regnant Populi — " The people rule." It has 
the Indian name of its principal river. Is called the " Bear State." 
Furnished 8,289 soldiers. She is entitled to 4 members in Congress? 
and 6 electoral votes. Governor, W. R.Miller, Democrat; salary, 
$3,500; term, 2 years. 

California — Has a Greek motto, Eureka^ which means " I have 

found it." It derived its name from the bay forming the peninsula 

of Lower California, and was first applied by Cortez. It was first 

visited by the Spaniards in 1542, and by the celebrated English 




navigator, Sir Francis Drake, in 1578. In 1846 Fremont took 
possession of it, defeating the Mexicans, in the name of the United 
States, and it was admitted as a State in 1850. Its gold mines 
from 1868 to 1878 produced over $800,000,000. Area 188,982 square 
miles. Population in 1860, 379,994. In 1870, 560,247. She gave 
to defend the Union 15,225 soldiers. Sacramento is the capital. 
Has 4 Eepresentatives in Congress. Is entitled to 6 Presidential 
electors. Present Governor is William Irwin, a Democrat; term, 
4 years; salary, $6,000. 

Colorado — Contains 106,475 square miles, and had a population 
in 1860 of 34,277, and in 1870, 39,864. She furnished 4,903 
soldiers. "Was admitted as a State in 1876. It has a Latin motto, 
Nil sine Numine^ which means, " Nothing can be done without 
divine aid." It was named from its river. Denver is the capital. 
Has 1 member in Congress, and 3 electors. T. W. Pitkin is Gov- 
ernor; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years; politics, liepublican. 

Connecticut — Qui transtulit austinet, " He who brought us over 
sustains us," is her motto. It was named from the Indian Quon- 
ch-ta-Cut, signifying "Long River." It is called the "Nutmeg 
State." Area 4,674 square miles. Population 1860, 460,147; in 
1870, 537,454. Gave to the Union army 55,755 soldiers. Hart- 
ford is the capital. Has 4 Representatives in Congress, and is 
entitled to 6 Presidential electors. Salary of Governor $2,000; 
term, 2 years. 

Delaware. — " Liberty and Independence," is the motto of this 
State. It was named after Lord De La Ware, an English states- 
man, and is called, " The Blue Hen," and the " Diamond State." It 
was first settled by the Swedes in 1638. It was one of the original 
thirteen States. Has an area of 2,120 square miles. Population in 
1860, 112,216; in 1870, 125,015. She sent to the front to defend 
the Union, 12,265 soldiers. Dover is the capital. Has but 1 mem- 
ber in Congress; entitled to 3 Presidential electors. John W. 
Hall, Democrat, is Governor; salary, $2,000; term, 2 years. 

Florida — Was discovered by Ponce de Leon in 1512, on Easter 
Sunday, called by the Spaniards, Pascua Florida, which, with the 
variety and beauty of the flowers at this early season caused him to 
name it Florida — which means in Spanish, flowery. Its motto is, 
" In God we trust." It was admitted into the Union in 1845. It has 
an area of 59,268 square miles. Population in 1860, 140,424; in 


1870, 187,756. Its capital is Tallahassee. Has 2 members in Con- 
gress. Has 4 Presidential electors. George F. Drew, Democrat, 
Governor; term, 4 years; salary, $3,500. 

Georgia — Owes its name to George II., of England, who first 
established a colony there in 1732. Its motto is, " Wisdom, justice 
and moderation." It was one of the original States. Population 
in 1860, 1,057,286; 1870, 1,184,109. Capital, Atlanta. Area 58,- 
000 square miles. Has 9 Representatives in Congress, and 11 
Presidential electors. Her Governor is A. H. Colquitt, Democrat; 
term, 4 years; salaiy, $4,000. 

Illinois — Motto, " State Sovereignty, National Union." l^ame 
derived from the Indian word, Illini, meaning, superior men. It 
is called the ''Prairie State," and its inhabitants, "Suckers." 
Was first explored by the French in 1673, and admitted into the 
Union in 1818. Area 55,410 square miles. Population, in 1860 
1,711,951; in 1870, 2,539,871. She sent to the front to defend the 
Union, 258,162 soldiers. Capital, Springfield, Has 19 members in 
Congress, and 21 Presidential electors. Shelby M. Cullom, Repub_ 
lican, is Governor; elected for 4 years; salary, $6,000, 

Indiana — Is called "Hoosier State." Was explored in 1682, 
and admitted as a State in 1816. Its name was suggested by its 
numerous Indian population. Area 33,809 square miles. Popu- 
lation in 1860, 1,350,428; in 1870, 1,680,637. She put into the 
Federal army, 194,363 men. Capital, Indianapolis. Has 13 mem- 
bers in Congress, and 15 Presidential electors. J. D. Williams 
Governor, Democrat; salary, $3,000; terra, 4 year. 

Iowa — Is an Indian name and means "This is the land." Its 
motto is, "Our liberties we prize, our rights we will maintain." 
It is called the " Hawk Eye State." It was first visited by 
Marquette and Joliet in 1673; settled by New Englanders in 
1833, and admitted into the Union in 1846. Des Moines is the 
capital. It has an area of 55,045, and a population in 1860 of 674,913, 
and in 1870 of 1,191,802. She sent to defend the Government, 
75,793 soldiers. Has 9 members in Congress; 11 Presidential 
electors. John H. Gear, Republican, is Governor; salary, $2,500; 
term, 2years. 

Kansas — Was admitted into the Union in 1861, makino- the 
thirty-fourth State. Its motto is Ad astra jper aspera, " To the 
stars through difficulties." Its name means, " Smoky water," and 


is derived from one of her rivers. Area 78,841 square miles. 
Population in 1860, 107,209; in 1870 was 362,812. She furnished 
20,095 soldiers. .Capital is Topeka. Has 3 Representatives in Con- 
gress, and 5 Presidential electors. John P. St. John, Governor; 
politics. Republican; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years. 

Kentucky — Is the Indian name for " At the head of the rivers." 
Its motto is, " United we stand, divided we fall." The sobriquet 
of "dark and bloody ground " is applied to this State. It was first 
settled in 1769, and admitted in 1792 as the fifteenth State. Area 
37,680. Population in 1860, 1,155,684; in 1870, 1,321,000. She 
put into the Federal army 75,285 soldiers. Capital, Frankfort. 
Has 10 members in Congress ; 12 Electors. J. B. McCreary, 
Democrat, is Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 4 years. 

Louisiana — "Was called after Louis XIY., who at one time 
owned that section of the country. Its motto is " Union and Con- 
fidence." It is called "The Creole State." It was visited by La 
Salle in 1684, and admitted into the Union in 1812, making the 
eighteenth State. Population in 1860, 708,002; in 1870, 732,731. 
Area 46,431 square miles. She put into the Federal army 5,224 
soldiers. Capital, Kew Orleans. Has 6 Representatives and 8 
Electors. F. T. Nichols, Governor, Democrat; salary, $8,000; 
term, 4 years. 

Maine. — This State was called after the province of Maine in 
France, in compliment of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned 
that province. Its motto is Dlrigo, meaning " I direct." It is 
called "The Pine Tree State." It was settled by the English in 
1625. It was admitted as a State in 1820. Area 31,766 square 
miles. Population in 1860, 628,279; in 1870, 626,463; 69,738 sol- 
diers v/ent from this State. Has 5 members in Congress, and 7 
Electors. Selden Conner, Republican, Governor; term, 1 year; 
salary, $2,500. 

Maryland — Was named after Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles 
I. of England. It has a Latin motto, Cresclte et multiplica- 
mini^ meaning "Increase and Multiply." It was settled in 1634, 
and was one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 11,- 
124 square miles. Population in 1860 was 687,049; in 1870, 780,- 
806. This State furnished 46,053 soldiers. Capital, Annapolis. 
Has 6 Representatives, and 8 Presidential electors. J. H. Carroll, 
Democrat, Governor; salary, $4,500; term, 4 years. 


Massachusetts — Is the Indian for " The coimtrj arouhd the great 
hills." It is called the " Bay State," from its numerous bays. Its 
motto is Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem, " By the sword 
she seeks placid rest in liberty." It was settled in 1620 at Plymouth 
by English Puritans. It was one of the original thirteen States, 
and was the first to take up arms against the English during the 
Revolution. Area 7,800 square miles. Population in 1860, 1,231,- 
066 ; in 1870, 1,457,351. She gave to the Union army 146,467 sol- 
diers. Boston is the capital. Has 11 Representatives in Con- 
gress, and 13 Presidential electors. Thomas Talbot, Republican, is 
Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 1 year. 

Michigan — Latin motto, Tuehor^ and Si queens peninsulant 
amoenam circumspice, ^'- 1 will defend" — "If you seek a pleasant 
peninsula, look around you." The name is a contraction of two 
Indian words meaning "Great Lake." It was early explored by 
Jesuit missionaries, and in 1837 was admitted into the Union. It 
is known as the " Wolverine State." It contains 56,243 square 
miles. In 1860 it had a population of 749,173; in 1870, 1,184,059. 
She furnished 88,111 soldiers. Capital, Lansing. Has 9 Repre- 
sentatives and 11 Presidential electors. C. M. Croswell is Gov- 
ernor; politics, Republican; salary, $1,000; term, 2 years. 

Minnesota — Is an Indian name, meaning " Cloudy Water." It 
has a French motto, L'Etoile du Word—'' The Star of the North." 
It was visited in 1680 by La Salle, settled in 1846, and admitted 
into the Union in 1858. It contains 83,531 square miles. In 1860 
had a population of 172,023; in 1870, 439,511, She gave to the 
Union army 24',002 soldiers. St. Paul is the capital. Has 3 mem- 
bers in Congress, 5 Presidential electors. Governor, J, S. Pills- 
bury, Republican; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years. 

Mississippi — Is an Indian name, meaning "Long River," and the 
State is named from the " Father of Waters." The State was first 
explored by De Sota in 1541; settled by the French at Natchez in 
1716, and was admitted into the Union in 1817. It has an area of 
47,156 square miles. Population in 1860, 791,305; in 1870,827,- 
922. She gave to suppress the Rebellion 545 soldiers. Jackson is 
the capital. Has 6 representatives in Congress, and 8 Presidential 
electors. J. M. Stone is Governor, Democrat; salary, $4,000; 
term, 4 3'ears. 

Missouri — Is derived from the Indian word " muddy," which 


more properly applies to the river that flows through it. Its motto 
is Salus populi suprema lex esto, " Let the welfare of the people 
be the supreme law." The State was first settled by the French 
near Jefferson City in 1719, and in 1821 was admitted into the 
Union. It has an area of 67,380 square miles, equal to 43,123,200 
acres. It had a population in 1860 of 1,182,012; in 1870, 1,721,- 
000. She gave to defend the Union 108,162 soldiers. Capital, 
Jefferson City. Its inhabitants are known by the offensive cogno- 
men of '' Pukes." Has 13 representatives in Congress, and 15 
Presidential electors. J. S. Phelps is Governor; politics, Demo- 
cratic; salary, $5,000; terra, 4 years. 

Nebraska — Has for its motto, " Equality before the law." Its 
name is derived from one of its rivers, meaning " broad and shal- 
low, or low." It was admitted into the Union in 1867. Its capital 
is Lincoln. It had a population in 1860 of 28,841, and in 1870, 
123,993, and in 1875,246,280. It has an area of 75,995 square 
miles. She furnished to defend the Union 3,157 soldiers. Has but 
1 Representative and 3 Presidential electors. A. Nance, Repub- 
lican, is Governor; salary, $2,500; term, 2 years. 

Nevada — " The Snowy Land " derived its name from the Span- 
ish. Its motto is Latin, Yolens et potens^ and means " willing 
and able." It was settled in 1850, and admitted into the Union in 
1864. Capital, Carson City. Its population in 1860 was 6,857; 
in 1870 it was 42,491. It has an area of 112,090 square miles. 
She furnished 1,080 soldiers to suppress the Rebellion. Has 1 Rep- 
resentative and 3 Electors. Governor, J. H. Kinkhead, Republican; 
salary, $6,000; term, 4 years. 

New Hampshire — "Was first settled at Dover by the English in 
1623. Was one of the original States. Has no motto. It is 
named from Hampshire county in England. It also bears the 
name of " The Old Granite State." It has an area of 9,280 miles, 
which equals 9,239,200 acres. It had a population in 1 860 of 326,- 
073, and in 1870 of 318,300. She increased the Union army with 
33,913 soldiers. Concord is the capital. Has 3 Representatives 
and 5 Presidential electors. N. Head, Republican, Governor; 
salary, $1,000; term, 1 year. 

New Jersey — Was named in honor of the Island of Jersey in the 
British channel. Its motto is " Liberty and Independence." It was 
first settled at Bergen by the Swedes in 1624. It is one of the orig- 


inal thirteen States. It has an area of 8,320 square miles, or 5,324,- 
800 acres. Population in 1860 was 672,035 ; in 1870 it was 906,096. 
She put into the Federal array 75,315 soldiers. Capital, Trenton. 
Has 7 Representatives and 9 Presidential electors. Governor, 
George B. McClelland, Democrat; salary, $5,000; term, 3 years. 

New York. — The "Empire State" was named by the Dake of 
York, afterward King James II. of England. It has a Latin motto. 
Excelsior^ which means " Still Higher." It was first settled by the 
Dutch in 1614 at Manhattan. It has an area of 47,000 square 
miles, or 30,080,000 acres. The population in 1860 was 3,880,735; 
in 1870 it was 4,332,759. It is one of the original thirteen States. 
Capital is Albany. It gave to defend our Government 445,959 
men. Has 33 members in Congress, and 35 Presidential electors. 
Governor, L. Robinson, Democrat; salary, $10,000; term, 3 years. 

North Carolina — "Was named after Charles IX., King of France. 
It is called " The Old North," or " The Turpentine State." It was 
first visited in 1524 by a Florentine navigator, sent out by Francis 
I., King of France. It was settled at Albemarle in 1663. It was 
one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 50,704 square 
miles, equal to 32,450,560 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 
992,622, and in 1870, 1,071,361. Raleigh is the capital. She 
furnished 3,156 soldiers to put down the Rebellion. Has 8 mem- 
bers in Congress, and is entitled to 10 Presidential electors. Z. B.. 
Vance, Democrat, is Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 4 years. 

Ohio — Took its name from the river on its Southern boundary, 
and means " Beautiful." Its motto is Iniperium in Imperio — 
"An Empire in an Empire." It was first permanently settled in 
1788 at Marietta by New Englanders. It was admitted as a State 
in 1803. Its capital is Columbus. It contains 39,964 square 
miles, or 25,576, 960 acres. Population in 1860, 2,339,511; in 1870 
it had 2.665,260. She sent to the front during the Rebellion 310,- 
654 soldiers. Has 20 Representatives, aiid 22 Presidential electors. 
Governor, R. M. Bishop, Democrat; salary, $4,000; term, 2 years. 

Oregon — Owes its Indian name to its principal river. Its motto 
is Alis volat ;propriis — "She flies with her own wings." It was 
first visited by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century. It was set- 
tled by the English in 1813, and admitted into the Union in 1859. 
Its capital is Salem. It has an area of 95,274 square miles, equal 
to 60,975,360 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 52,465; in 


1870,90,922. She furnished 1,810 soldiers. She is entitled to 1 
member in Congress, and 3 Presidential electors. W. W. Thayer, 
Republican, is Governor; salary, $1,500 ; terra, 4 years. 

Pennsylvania. — This is the "Keystone State," and means "Penn's 
Woods," and was so called after William Penn, its original owner. 
Its motto is, " Virtue, liberty and independence." A colony was 
established by Penn in 1682. The State was one of the original 
thirteen. It has an area of 46,000 square miles, equaling 29,440,- 
000 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 2,906,215; and in 1870, 
3,515,993. She gave to suppress the Rebellion, 338,155. Harris- 
burg is the capital. Has 27 Representatives and 29 electors. H. 
M.Hoyt, is Governor; salary, $10,000; politics, Republican; term 
of office, 3 years. 

Rhode Island. — This, the smallest of the States, owes its name to 
the Island of Rhodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said 
to greatly resemble. Its motto is " Hope," and it is familiarly 
called, "Little Rhody." It was settled by Roger Williams in 1636. 
It was one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 1,306 
square miles, or 835.840 acres. Its population in 1860 numbered 
174,620; in 1870, 217,356. She gave to defend the Union, 23,248. 
Its capitals are Providence and Newport. Has 2 Representatives, 
and 4 Presidential electors. C. Vanzandt is Governor; politics. 
Republican; salary, $1,000; term, 1 year. 

■ South Carolina. — The Palmetto State wears the Latin name of 
Charles IX., of France (Carolus). Its motto is Latin, Animis 
opibusque parati, " Ready in will and deed." The first permanent 
settlement was made at Port Royal in 1670, where the French 
Huguenots had failed three-quarters of a century before to found a 
settlement. It is one of the original thirteen States. Its capital is 
Columbia. It has an area of 29,385 square miles, or 18,806,400 
acres, with a population in 1860 of 703,708; in 1870, 728,000. 
Has 5 Representatives in Congress, and is entitled to 7 Presidential 
electors. Salary of Governor, $3,500; term, 2 years. 

Te7inessee—l& the Indian name for the " River of the Bend," i. e, 
the Mississippi, which forms its western boundary. She is called 
» The Big Bend State." Her motto is, " Agriculture, Commerce." 
It was settled in 1757, and admitted into the Union in 1796, mak- 
ing the sixteenth State, or the third admitted after the Revolution- 
ary War— Vermont being the first, and Kentucky the second. It 


has an area of 45,600 square miles, or 29,184,000 acres. In 1860 
its population numbered 1,109,801, and in 1870, 1,257,983. She 
furnished 31,092 soldiers to suppress the Rebellion. Nashville is 
the capital. Has 10 Representatives, and 12 Presidential electors. 
Governor, A. S. Marks, Democrat; salary, $4,000; term, 2 years. 

Texas — Is the American word for the Mexican name by which 
all that section of the country was known before it was ceded to the 
United States. It is known as " The Lone Star State." The first set- 
tlement was made by LaSalle in 1685. After the independence of 
Mexico in 1822, it remained a Mexican Province until 1836, when 
it gained its independence, and in 1845 was admitted into the 
Union. It has an area of 237,504 square miles, equal to 152,002,- 
560 acres. Its population in 1860 was 604,215; in 1870, 818,579. 
She gave to put down the Rebelion 1,965 soldiers. Capital, Austin. 
Has 6 Representatives, and 8 Presidential electors. Governor, O. 
M. Roberts, Democrat; salary, $5,000; term, 2 years. 

Vermont — Bears the French name of her mountains Verde Mont 
"Green Mountains." Its motto is "Freedom and Unitv." It 
was settled in 1731, and admitted into the Union in 1791. Area 
10,212 square miles. Population in 1860, 315,098 ; in 1870, 330,551. 
She gave to defend the Government, 33,272 soldiers. Capital, Mont- 
pelier. Has 3 Representatives, and 5 electors. Governor, H. Fair- 
banks, Republican; term, 2 years; salary, $1,000. 

Virginia. — The Old Dominion, as this State is called, is the 
oldest of the States. It was named in honor of Queen Elizabeth, 
the " Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made his 
first attempt to colonize that region. Its motto is Sic sernper 
tyrannis^ " So always with tyrants." It was first settled at James- 
town, in 1607, by the English, being the first settlement in the 
United States. It is one of original thirteen States, and had before 
its division in 1862, 61,352 square miles, but at present contains 
but 38,352 square miles, equal to 24,545,280 acres. The population 
in 1860 amounted to 1,596,318, and in 1870 it was 1,224,830. Rich- 
mond is the capital. Has 9 Representatives, and 11 electors. Gov- 
ernor, F. W. M. Halliday, Democrat; salary, $5,500; term, 4 years. 

West Virginia. — Motto, Monta7ii se7nper liberi, " Mountaineers 
are always free." This is the only State ever formed, under the 
Constitution, by the division of an organized State. This was done 
in 1862, and in 1863 was admitted into the Union. It has an area of 



23,000 square miles, or 14,720,000 acres. The population in 1860 
was 376,000; in 1870 it numbered 445,616. She furnished 32,003. 
Capital, Wheeling. Has 3 Representatives in Congress, and is 
entitled to 5 Presidential electors. The Governor is K. M. Mathews, 
Democrat; term, 4 years; salary, $2,700. 

Wisconsin — Is an Indian name, and means "Wild-rushing 
channel." Its motto, Clvitatus successit harharum.. " The civilized 
man succeeds the barbarous." It is called " The Badger State." 
The State was visited by the French explorers in 1665, and a settle- 
ment was made in 1669 at Green Bay, It was admitted into the 
[Jnion in 1848. It has an area of 52,924 square miles, equal to 
34,511,360 acres. In 1860 its population numbered 775,881; in 
1870, 1,055,167. Madison is the capital. She furnished for the 
Union army 91,021 soldiers. Has 8 members in Congress, and is 
entitled to 10 Presidential electors. The Governor is W. E. Smith; 
politics, Republican; salary, $5,000; terra, 2 years. 











History is one of the most important, effective and necessary- 
elements 0^ human power and wisdom. It is by the past that we 
have any intimation as to what the future will be; it is the only 
way, ordinarily, that men can prognosticate the future at all. 
Besides, all the advancements, improvements and discoveries which 
have been made by men in all their history are hid away in the 
dark chambers of the past; and the only way in which they can be 
made available for the present living race, or for future generations, 
is that they shall be set down in the archives of written history, 
and be thus preserved for consultation and use, or else transmitted 
from father to son in a traditionary way. The frailties of human 
memory, and the proneness of the human mind to mingle and 
intermingle things consistent and inconsistent, things homogeneous 
and dissimilar, things congruous and incongruous, things synchro- 
nous and far separated in time, render the traditional a verj' insecure 
means to transmit these needed things; and hence, from the most 
remote times, all nations and • peoples, from the time they could 
wield a chisel or use a papyrus, have fixed in the solid rock or 
placed upon the transmissible page the discoveries, improvements 
and advancements of each successive generation. 

History writing, as all other human employments, is susceptible 
of improvement. In the ancient days when the writer of history 
fastened with his chisel upon the rough stone page in rude 
hieroglyphic characters his historic events; and later, when these 
events with laborious patience were fixed by the diligent scribe 
upon the roll of parchment, and which were laid away in the 
archives of the nation only, these records contained the exploits 
and remarkable things which were done by the most powerful, 
kings, or the intrigues of his most successful courtiers. This part 
of the history of the world contains most vivid descriptions of the 
marches and countermarches of the leading heroes of the times in 
which they lived, — scenes of desolation and blood; the sanguinary 
battle field — its disaster on the one side, and its triumph on the 
other — the siege of beleaguered cities — cities surrounded with high 
22 " (331j 


and embattled walls — in which is brouu^lit to view the determina- 
tion of 'the one side to succeed, and the infuriated resistance of 
the other in repelling every assault, the enginery of war, the 
battering ram, the catapult, the hand weaponry, — the long delays 
in which the besiegers were baffled and finally foiled and made to 
break up their camp and hasten away, together with the evidences 
of hurry and anxious regard for safety that were gathered up along 
the line of their retreat, — the rending of ponderous walls, the 
slaughter of thousands of its defenders, the glare of flickering 
torch and the smoke and flame of the consuming fire, — the 
huddling together of those whom over-exertion had rendered 
strengtiiless and upon whom "lipless famine" had written its 
emaciated lines of suffering — men, women and children, — the wild 
sweep of infuriated soldiers as they tread beneath their feet that 
which had so long resisted them and had now yielded to their 
victorious prowess, — the falling of these savage soldiers upon the 
huddles of helpless men, women and children, and the slaughter 
that followed or the binding upon them the galling chains of a 
bondao-e .which was far worse than any death that could be inflicted 
upon them, — all these things, and more of the same kind, are 
brought to view in the historic records of these ancient days. The 
slaughter of the individual, the desolation of the home, or the 
destruction and overthrow of the nation were the chief themes of 
the historian of this period. But true history contains more than 
events like these. It enters into the ways of peaceful success and 
snatches from the grasp of oblivion the glorious triumphs of peace 
as well as the victories of relentless and destructive war. The men 
of to day are, and the future generations will be, more interested 
in the former triumphs than in the latter victories. Hence the 
history that meets the demands that are likelj^ to be made upon it 
must enter every field and take excursions through every avenue 
of human society, and note the effect and progress of every power 
and influence which changes the condition of humanity, either for 
weal or woe. 

These recognized powers and agencies are many. While the 
ancients, and even those of more modern times, gave their chief 
attention to the military power and its influence in determining the 
then present status of men and what the future condition of them 
should be, the modern historian must give his attention to, and he 
must study well, all the various forces that are contributing in these 
his days to make mankind what they are, and hence to successfully 
indicate, partially at least, what they shall be in the coming develop- 
ments of the race. A few of these forces, agencies, and conditions 
will bear an enumeration. And foremost among them will be 
found those influences that find their scope and effective working 
power in the social relations and conditions of men. There is that 
in every human heart which desires, and is only satisfied with, com- 
munication and intercommunication with other hearts. In the 
complement of these desires will be found all those associations, 


organizations and orders among men in "which there is intercom- 
munity, — these differing onlj' in the special desire which thej seek 
to subserve; and as these organizations have sprung up at the 
behest of an inherent desire of the heart, thej must have a poten- 
tial influence in making up the history of men, and the historian 
who tills his mission must take commensurate notice of them; and 
this notice must be synchronous, that is, these influences must be 
looked at at the same time, the same as they had their influence on 
society at the same time, for they were all in operation at once, in 
order that the proper and relative bearing of each may be deter- 
mined, with some degree of accuracy, in the production and consum- 
mation of results. Among these may be mentioned the churches 
and those orders and societies in which a brotherhood, or sister- 
hood, is found, and which have had so much to do in molding and 
shaping the aftairs of society. The next in importance, perhaps, is 
the commercial influence; and this will embrace all those agencies 
that are used in the advancement and accomplishment of business, 
which will include those things that furnish the commercial com- 
modities; the means by which these commercial commodities are 
supplied where they are needed, the places where they are kept for 
commercial supply, and tliose agencies by which commercial obli- 
gations are enforced. All of these things have a very great deal to 
do in determining the condition of any society or community, and 
hence in shaping the course of events; and the true historian must 
take due cognizance of them. 

There is yet another very important and potential influence that 
must be called up out of so many that might be mentioned. While 
there is a very strong desire in the human heart for association, 
and the pleasures that come from association, there is yet another 
desire that is perhaps as strong as that, and that is the desire to 
know, — the desire for knowledge. And under the impetus of this 
desire, there are agencies at work molding and shaping the very 
destinies of men. I refer to the Schools and Colleges; to the 
Rostrum; to the Stage; to the Pulpit; to the Press; and to all 
other agencies and influences by which knowledge and instruction 
are imparted. The actions of men spring at the behest of principle; 
and as these principles must first be learned and then fastened upon 
the memory in the great 7notory arcana of the heart, so the instru- 
mentality by which this is done becomes a potential instrument in 
making up the history of men; — as these principles are changed 
and supplanted b}^ other principles, the whole course of events will 
be changed also in exact correspondence with the change of prin- 
ciple. The historian, therefore, who would properly index the 
future, must possess the industry and ability by which he shall 
become informed of the power and influence, though subtle and 
somewhat imponderable, of these forces. 

These, and many other influences and agencies not mentioned, 
are uniting to shape the destinies of the world. The improvement 
in modern history over that of the ancient, and the improvement 


that will mark the coming history over the present, is the fuller 
and more complete appreciation of these agencies and influences, 
which will crop out in the more prominent place given them in 
narrating the constant flow of events. 

One reason, no doubt, why the former histories have been so 
largely given in showing the influence which the militarj' power 
has had "in shaping the events of the world is the extreme difficulty 
in focalizing these events so that they could be comprehended. 
The army is an aggregation of men, perhaps of all the serviceable 
men of a nation, focalized so as to become a unit; and this unit 
could be followed without any great difficulty and its operations a& 
a unit set down; but when it comes to taking into the account all 
the ramifications of human activity, and very much of it individ- 
ual activity, the extreme difficulty of the undertaking becomes 
doubly ajiparent; and it is no wonder that the ancient historian 
with iiis imperfect means of preparation, assumed the easier task 
and followed the course of events as marked out by the united 
national agency as found in the armies of the nations, thinking 
thereby to fill the full measure of his responsibility as narrator of 
events. But it is easy to be seen that he gave only a part of those 
things which truly make the history of an}^ people. The modern 
historian must do better, — he must take into the account all the influ- 
ences that in any way determine the activities of men and hold up 
to the view the results of these influences, not as they are seen in 
the nation as it is represented in the army, but as they are seen in 
every nook and corner, and under every circumstance. 

This is an onerous work, and its magnitude must be apparent to 
every one. Some will say, *' It cannot be done." The only diffi- 
culty in the way of its successful accomplishment is to focalize the 
events so that they may be brought within the range of the histo- 
rian's vision. This may be done, perhaps, in one of two ways: 
1st. By producing a i-ace of historians with powers so broad, high 
and deep that they may fully comprehend the relations and bearings 
of influences and events, though they are in the conglomerate mass 
in which they have been found in the ages past. But these are 
geniuses, and geniuses are not produced — they are not made — but 
they just come, and their coming is not according to any known 
human process or law. Hence they cannot be depended upon to 
do this work. 2d. By such analyzing and systematizing, by such 
fullness and completeness thus analyzed and systematized, that the 
ordinary intellect can comprehend it, and thus set it forth. It is 
in this way that the full purposes of history is to be supplied to 
the succeeding generations, and all the advantages which it is capa- 
ble of supplying accrue to the world. 

Now to analyze and systematize the influences which generate 
activity, and to focalize the events which these influences produce, 
can only be done by giving separate, complete and full histories of 
each locality; and from these separate and complete local histories, 
carefully analyzed and systematized and made thoroughly reliable 


through the care with which they are prepared, inaj be compiled 
the broader histories of State and nation. And thus the subtle 
powers which produce the activities and events of life, either of 
individual men or of nations, may be seen, — in their relations, in 
their influence, and in their effects, — and thus the untold wealth of 
historical lore accrue to the stock of blessing to the world. 

It is in this spirit that the present history has been undertaken. 
La Porte county is one of the most important counties of the 
great State of Indiana. While it has been developing its possibil- 
ities, and has been submissive to the influences that have been 
brought to bear upon it in this development, ai>d these have had 
to do largely only with its own people, yet it has not been wholly 
remitted from extraneous influences, neither has it been shut up 
within the range of its locality — within the perimeter of its own 
boundaries — for the full effect of its activities. And while many 
of the influences that have been at work, and the results attained 
(which are noted in the body of the work) are similar to those in 
other localities, yet there are elements that are distinctively its own, 
and have produced results as distinctive. These have been care- 
fully sought after, and as fully brought out as the resources at com- 
mand would permit. It is these that will give the book its own 
individual interest. 

To subserve the two purposes now developed, — that of rendering 
some valuable service to general history by furnishing a source 
from which the general historian may draw, and of individualizing 
a local histoiy by arraying its distinctive elements, — has been the 
constant object before the mind in the compilation of the follow- 
in ^ records. 




It has been said by some one that geography and chronology 
are the eyes of history; and this statement lias more truth than is 
apparent at first thought. Historical events must be observed 
through the locality in which they took place, and the time when they 
occurred, if the full influence of those circumstances and sur- 
roundings are to be discerned which have been instrumental in 
producing the facts which are noted and of establishing the present 
status of things, or that will have so much to do in securing the 
future conditions. Hence it follows that the locale of historical 
events and the time of their occurrence must be definitely associated 
in the mind of the reader of history if he would be a proficient in 
the wisdom of the past. 

No one can rightly judge of the effect and influence which history 
has exerted over the world, especially of the facts of which it is 
composed, who has not these two elements, geography and chro- 
nology, somewhat radically fixed in the mind. This is a conclusion 
drawn from the following premise: If one should attempt to 
judge of events disassociated from geography or chronology, he would 
be endeavoring to determine the weight of that wliich never had an 
existence, and hence must be as imponderable as space. 

To illustrate this point: Suppose the reader of history is consid- 
ering the connection and the bearing of the battle of Waterloo on 
concurrent and succeeding events, is endeavoring to cipher out 
the influence which it had upon the world, in its various interests, 
at the time of its occurrence, that he may trace the line of its power 
and influence in producing the particular events that followed. In 
his study of this most thrilling fact, he studies the glowing 
accounts wliich he has of the terrific strugg-le of the contending 
parties. His imagination is so roused and warmed that he can see 
all the maneuvers on that hotly contested battle-field by both 
armies, and understands the effect of each movement in its influ- 
ence in determining the results of the battle. He can see how this 
move of Napoleon, and the counter move by the Duke of Welling- 
ton, the promptness of this under ofiicer and the failure of that 
one, by determining the results of the conflict, contributed to the 
overthi'ow of Bonaparte and his schemes of ambition. He has a 
perfect view of the battle as an isolated fact, a full conception of it as 
a single event. But now suppose that he puts this event, of which 



he lias such full conception in an isolated condition, in connection 
with some locality in America or Australia, and associates it with 
ancient or mediais'al times, it is most consummately apparent that he 
is thoroughly disqualitied to judge of its bearings upon the society 
of the world, and to determine its effect upon subsequent events, — 
to trace the line of its influence in shaping the policy of the 
nations, for the following reason : No such event has ever transpired 
on the American or Australian continents, nor is there such a one 
associated with ancient or medifeval times; hence there is no such 
event in history as he is considering, though there has been a 
battle of Waterloo. And as the fact, as he coimects it, has no 
existence there can be no line of influence proceeding from it, and 
all explorations in that direction will be useless. So of all histor- 
ical facts. Thev must have the ri^ht connection both of time and 

As to the chronology of the events noted in this history the 
most careful attention will be given, and every fact will be assigned 
its proper time as it is narrated. The geography will now be given 
so that the reader may have at all times the two great instruments 
bj' which historical facts are to be judged and their proper influ- 
ence determined. 


The following is the boundary as determined by the Congressional 
surveys. Beginning at the point where parallel 41° 46' of north 
latitude intersects Lake Michigan, in section 12, township 38 north, 
range 4 west of the second principal meridian; thence east 16 miles 
on said parallel, 41*^ 50,' to the section line dividing sections 9 and 
10, township 38 north, range 1 west; thence south 8 miles to section 
line dividing sections 15 and 22, township 27 north, range 1 west; 
thence east 2 miles to section line dividing sections 13 and 14, same 
township and range; thence south with said section line to its 
intersection of the Kankakee river, near the southeast corner of 
section 11, township 36 north, range 1 west; thence with the 
meanderinofs of the Kankakee river to its intersection of the section 
line dividing sections 3 and 4, township 35 north, range 1 west, in 
section 3 of said township and range; thence south with said section 
line to its intersection of the township line dividing townships 34 and 
35 north; thence west with said township line to its intersection of the 
Kankakee river, in section 4, township 34 north, range 2 west; 
thence southwest with the meanderings of said Kankakee river to 
its intersection of the range line dividing ranges 4 and 5 west; 
thence north along said range line to its intersection of the shore of 
Lake Michigan, in section 30, towmship 38 north, range 4 west; 
thence northeast along the shore of Lake Michigan to the place of 
beginning. This territory includes all of townships 33, in ranges 3 
and 4, north of the Kankakee river; all of townships 34, in ranges 
2, 3 and 4, north of said Kankakee river; all of townships 35 in 


ranges 2, 3 and 4, and tlie west half of said township in range 1; 
all of townships 36 in ranges 1, 2, 3 and 4, except sections 1 and 12 
in range 1 ; all of townships 37 in ranges 1, 2, 3 and 4, except sections 
24, 25 and 36, and the nine northeast sections of range 1; half of 
townships 38 in range 1, and all of townships 38 in ranges 2, 3, and 
4 which are south of the parallel 41'^ 46', north latitude, and wliicli 
forms the northern boundary of the State. The county, as thus 
described, contains about 590 sections, or about 378,000 acres of 


To get the original status of the territory included in the above 
boundary, we quote the following from the American Cyclopaedia 
under the article " Indiana." 

" Indiana originally constituted a part of New France, and sub- 
sequently of the Northwest Territory. The exact period of its first 
settlement is not ascertained. In 1702 a party of French Canadians 
descended the Wabash, and established several posts on its banks, 
and among others Yincennes. The Indians made little opposition 
to the new comers. Until 1763, when the country was ceded to the 
English, nothing is known of the early settlers. By the treaty of 
cession, however, they were confirmed in their possessions. The 
treaty of 1783 included Indiana in the United States. In 1788 an 
Indian war broke out, which caused great distress at Yincennes. 
In 1781 the Indians were attacked at the mouth of the Tippecanoe 
by Gen. Wilkinson, and by subsequent victories of Gen. Wayne a 
dangerous confederacy was broken up and tlie tribes were obliged to 
submit. The whole district now began to enjoy that repose of which 
it had been for many years deprived. By the treaty of Greenville 
in 1795 the United States obtained several eligible parcels of land, 
and settlement began to make considerable progress. On May 7, 
1800, Ohio was erected into a separate Territory, while all the country 
W. and ISr. was included in the new government of Indiana. The 
Territorial Government was organized July 4, with William Henry 
Harrison as Governor. In 1805 Michigan was also set oflf, and in 
1809 Illinois, leaving Indiana with its present limits." 

The limits of Indiana, as given by the same authority, is as fol- 
lows: "Indiana is situated between latitude 37° 47' and 41" 46' N., 
and longitude 84° 49' and 88° 2' W." Within this Territory will 
be found La Porte county, the exact locale of which we have already 
given, — touching, as it will be seen, the extreme northern limit of 
this extent of country, its northern line being the parallel 41° 46' 
of ]Sr. latitude. 


The favorable condition of any country is very much dependent 
upon the altitude at which it is found, — the height above the level 
of the sea, — in connection with its higher or lower latitude. It is 


a well-known geographical fact, that if a sufficient altitude is 
reached, even under the equator itself, the intensity of the polar 
cold and all the conditions of the polar regions will be found. So 
altitude and latitude have very much to do in giving a country its 
elements of prosperity, — and, as a consequence, their influence has 
no little to do in the development of higher or lower civilizations 
among men as they produce favorable or unfavorable conditions for 
prosperity. We note this item in the locale of La Porte county in 
order that we may more effectually trace the causes of the prosper- 
ity which we shall be called upon to do in detailing its history. 

Across the county, in an irregular way from east to west runs the 
high elevation of land, which may not in its more proper sense be 
called a water-shed, but which serves the purpose of separating the 
waters that flow, part through the Mississippi river and its ti'ibu- 
taries to the Gulf of Mexico and part through the Great Lakes and 
their outlets to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. From the crest of this 
swell of land there are declensions either way, — that on the northern 
side being more appreciable than that on the southern side, es- 
pecially toward the western part of the county where it declines to 
the shores of Lake Michigan. 

The highest point in this ridge, and the highest point m the 
countj^ is about two miles north of the city of La Porte. This 
elevation reaches 270 feet above the level of Lake Michigan and 
hence is 870 feet above the ocean level. The following altitudes, 
given by Prof. Cox, State Geologist, in different parts of the county, 
will serve to give some conception of the general conforma- 
tion of the land of the .county. At the depot of the Lake Shore 
railroad, in the city of La Porte, the elevation is 250 feet above 
Lake Erie, or 810 feet above the sea; at Wanatah, 150 feet above 
Lake Erie, or 710 feet above the ocean; at La Crosse, 102 feet 
above Lake Erie, or 6G2 feet above the ocean. From these alti- 
tudes, it will be seen tliat the southern slope of the county dips 
148 feet from La Porte citv to La Crosse, o^iving it that much of a 
southern declination. Does it make any difference in the ele- 
ments of prosperity for this part of the counti'y that it is a 
declination of 148 feet rather than elevation of 148 feet? Would 
this reversal in the altitude produce any changes in the condi- 
tions of the country, and hence in the happiness of the people? 

On the nortli of this elevation from which we are taking our 
survey of the altitude of the county there are what may be called 
two declinations, — the one inclining toward the northeast and falling 
as it approaches the St. Joseph river; the other inclining to the 
northwest, and by a ^avY rapid descent approaches the shore of 
Lake Michigan. At this latter point it has fallen until the eleva- 
tion is but 600 feet above the level of tiie sea. 

Putting these various altitudes, declinations, slopes, etc., together 
and a tolerable accurate idea of the elevation and conformation of 
the surface of the county may be obtained. In the declination to 
the south are found all of Dewey, Ilanna, Cass, Clinton, ISToble, 


Union, Johnson, Lincoln, Pleasant and Scipio, and parts of New 
Durham, Centre, Kankakee and Wills townships. In the decli- 
nation to the northeast, are found Hudson and Galena, and parts of 
AVills, Kankakee, Center and Springfield townships. In the decli- 
nation to the northwest are found all of Michigan and Cool Spring, 
and parts of Springfield, Centre, and New Durham townships. 


Although in giving the altitude of the county we have indicated 
something of the special characteristics of the surface, yet there are 
a few other things that may be noted with interest. Aside from 
that greater elevation, ah-eady noted, which gives tone to the sur- 
face generally and sweeps in an irregular way from east to west, — 
or rather bearing northeast and southwest, — the surface is gently 
undulating, and sometimes approaching that which may more prop- 
erly be called " rolling." This is especially true of that part which 
is adjacent to the "dividing ridge." On the southern side this 
undulating character gently subsides as it approaches the Kankakee 
river until it is almost, if not entirely, lost. On the northern side, 
the undulating character is maintained to a greater extent than on 
the southern, perhaps, but there is more or less of subsidence in 
different localities. The general lay of these " undulations," and 
" rolling knolls," is in the direction of the declination in which 
the}' are situated, except in the northwestern, where they seem to 
have a circular conformation to correspond with the shore of Lake 
Michigan, with which they seem to have a close affinity. But 
these are broken through by the streams, wliich again gives the 
appearance of inclining toward the northwest. Those in the north- 
eastern declination incline to the northeast, and those in the south- 
ern to the south. With these special peculiarities of surface the 
drainage of the county can be made almost entirely complete. 


Aside from the great lake which washes its northwestern part, 
the county contains a number of most beautiful lakes of various 
sizes. In many places these "undulations," or extended waving 
"knolls," and which in a sense may be called "convolutions," are 
rolled together seemingly upon each other; and in other places they 
take a wide detour, compassing quite an area, in the basin of w^hich 
may be found these beautiful sheets of 'water. Among these may 
be mentioned Hudson or Du Cliemin lake in the northeastern part 
of the county. It is a beautiful expanse of water. Back from its 
shores of white sand, it is bordered and surrounded by luxuriant 
vegetation and gigantic forests, and within its clear and pure waters 
are to be found the finest fish. It is not far from two miles in 
length, with an average width of half a mile. Fish lake, in the 
eastern part of the county, is very peculiar, especially in its shape. 


It is between three and four miles in length and less than a half 
a mile in width; and it is so outlined that it might with propriety- 
be called four lakes. This peculiarity has received such notice 
that each of these parts has received different names. The upper 
part is called Upper Mud lake. It is circular in form. Its out- 
let to the northwest empties into the next division, which has 
received the name of Upper Fish lake. This has a crescent-like 
form, so much so that it almost doubles back upon itself. Its 
outlet to the southwest empties into the next part, which is called 
Fish lake. This is about one mile in length, extending from 
north to south. At its southern extremity, it empties by a narrow 
passage into the fourth division, which has been called Lower Mud 
lake. This lake, or rather chain of lakes, finds its final outlet to 
Mud lake (which is but a widening of the Kankakee river) 
through the Little Kankakee river. Without attempting any 
description of the remaining lakes, we will mention the following: 

Root's lake, in Pleasant township; Walker's lake. Clear lake, 
Stony lake, Fish Trap lake, Horse Shoe lake, Pine lake, and the 
two Twin lakes near the city of La Porte. 

While there is no large river which cuts its way through the 
county, yet it is well supplied with water. The lakes mentioned, 
together with the numerous smaller ones situated in various parts 
of the county, and the smaller streams which ai'e found in almost 
every part, and which carry their waters to the Kankakee, the St. 
Joseph, or Lake Michigan, furnish an abundance of water for almost 
every purpose. 

In the southern part of the county, as the Kankakee river is 
approached, on account of the low subsidence of the ground as 
compared with tlie bed of the river, what would otherwise be either 
lakes, such as have been mentioned, or streams of running water, 
are to be found marshes. However, these are losing much of their 
marsh character, and are yielding year by year to the encroach- 
ments of the plow. 

Small lakes, small streams and marshes furnish the water surface 
of the county. 


There is a variet}- of soil found in the county. There will be no 
attempt to analyze the soil, but for the sake of convenience, the soil 
of the county may be classified under four heads: 1st. Sandy soil. 
2nd. Timber loam. 3rd. Prairie loam. ith. Yegetable mold. 
These four varieties of soil, of course under varied conditions, will 
be found in the four chief localities in the county. The sandy soil 
is found in those townships which border upon, or are closely situ- 
ated upon Lake Michigan. This is the soil which is mostly found 
in Michigan, Cool Spring and Springfield townships, and is less 
productive than either of the other varieties of soil, yet most ex- 
cellently adapted to the growth of certain products, chief among 


which is the potato; and besides, the quality of all the grains 
produced is of the very best. The timber loam, or that which we 
have designated by that name on account of the forests which it 
has produced, is found in Galena and Hudson townships, and is of tiie 
richest quality. These two varieties of soil, found in the north- 
eastern and northwestern declinations from the summit elevation, 
form a belt stretching across the northern part of the county, 
which may be called the timber belt; for that which is now almost 
bare, composing the sandy districts, was formerly covered with a 
dense forest of pine; and in early times was one continued forest 
of different varieties of timber. The prairie loam, so called because 
it is the soil found in that belt of prairie which extends across the 
county from the east to the west in intimate relationship with the 
summit ridge, is of surpassing fertility and richness. This prairie 
belt includes the greater portion of the county, and is beautifully 
dotted and interspersed here and there with groves of timber. This 
soil is adapted to the producing of almost every variety of cereals, 
roots and grasses, as well as horticultural products; but it is espe- 
cially well adapted to the cultivation of wheat, and large crops of 
this grain are almost annually secured. The county has the repu- 
tation of being one of the great wheat-growing counties of the 
State, which it has obtained through the fertility of this prairie 
loam soil. The vegetable mold, so called because it is so largely 
composed of decayed vegetable matter, is found mostly in that por- 
tion bordering upon the Kankakee river, and which formerly was 
considered only as valueless marshes. As these lands are becoming 
relieved of their waters, — the water level being made lower and 
lower, — they are developing into the very richest of land; a!id vast 
crops of grains and grasses are being secured, rivaling the abun- 
dant crops of the prairie loam which has placed so many of the far- 
mers in the prairie belt in easy circumstances. 

Thus it will be seen that La Porte county has been blessed with 
a most prolific soil, especially when it is handled with intelligence 
and skill. 


On account of the varietv of the productions which the soil of 
this county will yield, it might be isolated from all the rest of the 
world, and yet its inhabitants would be blessed and happy; every 
variety for human necessity almost may be produced. Its virgin 
production of timber has been a source of immense wealth, — indeed, 
so lavish was this production that it has never been fully appreci- 
ated; and we are told that excessive wastefulness of it has been 
the rule from the earliest settlements. One of the most beautiful 
exhibitions which it is possible to have is seen in the rural i^arts of 
this county when its laughing crops of wheat, corn, oats, grass, rye, 
barley, potatoes, apples, peaclies, pears, cherries, etc., etc., are com- 
ing on to their perfection. But there is more laughing, more real 


pleasure, perhaps, when these products are safeij in the cribs, the 
bins, the mows, the cellars, and on the tables. 


While the county is thus noted for its soil products, it is not so 
abundantly blessed in mineral deposits. Nothing of any considera- 
ble importance has been discovered, I believe, except bog iron ore 
in the Kankakee marshes. Of this ore, Prof. Cox, State Geologist, 
in his Report of 1873, says: "Bog iron ore occurs in considerable 
quantities in the marshes along the Kankakee, and when some plan 
is devised for converting the peat, with which it is associated, into 
fuel adapted to use in a blast furnace, each may add to the value of 
the other, and naturally tend to bring the much-abused Kankakee 
marsh into more favorable notice." So far, we have no informa- 
tion that any considerable attempt has been made to utilize these 
deposits in the way suggested by Prof. Cox; or, indeed, in any other 
way. They may, however, be a source of wealth in the future when 
they shall be, by that or some other means, utilized. But whatever 
of wealth ma}" hereafter be obtained from this bog ore, by any 
means M'hatever, it is certain that the chief sources of wealth in the 
count}' are its soil and its intelligent management. 


The study of nature, as it is presented in the geologic field, is 
yet in its infancy. It may be that with the finite powers with which 
men are endowed they may never be able to fathom completely the 
depths of Infinite and Creative Intelligence as they are to be seen in 
" the earth's enfolding rocky shrouds;" but through the close obser- 
vation of many intelligent and close-observing men, much has been 
developed. The following extract from Prof. Winchell's "Sketches 
of Creation" so trenchantly sets forth the sublime admiration ot 
nature which this study begets in the mind of the devout student, 
that we are almost impelled to give it: 

"■ It is wonderful to behold one of Nature's great plots worked 
out with such undeviating unity of purpose. Though incalculable 
ages have elapsed since the nucleus of the American continent was 
lifted above the waves, we find the announcement then made to 
have been faithfully prosecuted to the end. What convincing 
proofs of the unity of the Creative Intelligence. The plastic rocks 
have always been molded by the same all-providing Artificer. 
How it exhalts our apprehension of His infinite attributes to behold 
Him bringing into existence a series of secondary causes, so sim- 
ple in themselves, but working out a succession of results so com- 
plex in their details, and presenting a history stamped with such 
uniformity of plan, such harmony of parts and such wisdom of de- 
sign. But these are only His doings in the material world. When 
we contemplate the manifestation of His attributes presented to us 


by animated nature, everj' one imbned with the spirit and love ot 
the truth is compelled, with the poet, to exclaim, 

"An undevout philosopher is mad." 

— Sketches of Creation, p. 98. 


If one could take a station on one of the highest peaks of the 
Alleghany mountains and see the vast countries lying to the west 
as they appear in their various conformations and configurations, 
doubtless he would see them as a wide extended area with a well- 
defined, low-swelling elevation passing from his feet into the north- 
ern part of Ohio and thence with a grandly sweeping curve down 
into the central part of Ohio and back again, crossing in an ii-reg- 
ular way the northern part of Indiana, and thence sweeping 
around the western shore of Lake Michigan. This elevation he 
would at once discover divided the vast area of country into two 
great valleys, — the Ohio and Mississippi valleys on the south and 
west, and the St, Lawrence valley on the north, which includes the 
chain of the great Northern lakes and the St. Lawrence river. 

It is on the crest of this elevation that La Porte county is to be 
found; the highest part of it passing through the county from east 
to west near its center. This "ridge" gives Indiana its highest 
elevation above the sea level; hence La Porte county is a part of the 
highest portions of Indiana, as related to the ocean level. When, 
in the course of the geological periods, the great continent was 
being lifted bodily out of the superincumbent waters of the 
Atlantic ocean by the gigantic powers and forces that were prepar- 
ing it for the habitancy of men, this portion of the State was the 
first to appear above them, — this ridge protruding through the 
waters like the back of some great monster, and gradually becom- 
ing larger and larger. 

The upper crust of the country which we now desire to specially 
notice is what is called in geological language "drift," and is 200 
feet and more in thickness. To give a proper idea of this layer of 
drift, we extract the following from the American Cyclopedia: 

" Diluvium, or drift, the superficial deposits of clay, sand, gravel, 
and boulders which in both hemispheres are spread more or less 
uniformly over the land of the polar regions and the adjacent 
portions of the temperate zones. Geologically this deposit is very 
recent, and is found overlying strata of tertiary or pliocene age. 
Inasmuch as great portions of the material of which it is composed 
seem to have been transported or at least accumulated in their 
present position by some violent action, the name of diluvium was 
given to it by the earlier geologists. In the northern hemisphere 
the drift is found alike in Europe, Asia, and America, extending 
from the polar regions toward the equator, and disappearing on 
the continent of America about latitude 38; while in Europe all 
traces of it are said to be lost in the countries bordering on the 


Mediterranean. * * * Xhis drifted or diluvial material is 
divided into diluvium proper, or unstratified drift, and stratified 
or modified drift, which is the result of a rearrano-ement of the latter 
by water. Unstratified drift is met at considerable elevations over 
the present sea level — 3,000 feet above the Baltic, and at a height 
of 4,000 feet in the Grampians of Scotland. It is everywhere 
characterized hy loose masses of rock, more or less rounded, which 
in many cases have evidently been transported for considerable 
distances from their parent beds. As already described in the 
article Boulders, they are often of great dimensions, and increase in 
size as the deposit is traced toward its source to the northward. 
* * * Such is the unstratified dihivium, or boulder clay, as it 
is sometimes called; while in allusion to its supposed accumulation 
by the agency of ice, it is often called glacial drift." 

It is this drift which forms the upper crust or deposit of the 
surface of La Porte country, and as stated al:)Ove, it is from 200 feet 
and upward in thickness. It seems to be both of the unstratified 
and stratified diluvium. It has been very much aff'ected by water, 
at least in portions of the county. This is especially true of that 
part of the county which borders on Lake Michigan. In this part 
the diluvial deposit has been changed in its characteristics some- 
wliat, probably through the action of the water of the lake as it has 
receded either throuo^h the actual lowerino^ of its surface or the 
gradual upheaval of the land. At least through some agency, and 
it is most likely that it was by the action of water, there has been 
some peculiar markings and configurations produced in the declina- 
tion oi' the county to the northwest. These configurations have 
been called "lake ridges," because of their conformity to the shore 
of the lake; they are nearly parallel with it as it is at present. 
Geologists have told us that "these ridges of sand mark the ancient 
shore lines of the lake, where its subsidence was arrested for a 
greater or less period ot time." Of these " lake ridges," Prof. Cox 
has this to say: 

" The first ridge, along the present sliore line, rises above the 
water level from 30 to 85 feet. This is broken at irregular inter- 
vals by valleys at oblique angles; and occasionally a tall peak rises 
many feet above its fellows. A space of half a mile succeeds this 
ridge, having an elevation of 15 or 20 feet; — on this is built the 
city of Michigan City. The top of the second beach or ridge is 
50, and the half-mile valley beyond is 35 feet above the water. The 
third beach is 45 feet, the fourth is 95, and the tiftli is 225 feet 
above the lake. It may be remarked that the fourth beach line 
contains considerable amounts of gravel, perhaps indicating a 
fixed water level for a comparatively long period of time. 

" The shallow portions of the present lake, near the shore, are 
uniformily floored with sand, but in the deep central areas the 
bottom is composed of stifi", tenacious clay, intercalating partings 
or pockets of sand, from whence, probably, comes the supply which 
is constantly being filled up and drifted about the shores by the 


wind. It may be inferred that the ancient lake was governed by 
a like law, as the railway cuts which traverse these wide, descend- 
ing shore lines, frequently discover beds of clay (the Erie clay of 
Canadian geologists), and wherever this clay is pierced by wells, 
the supplj' of water is fonnd in the sand partings. 

"1^0 continnons sand ridges are found beyond the fifth from the 
lake, though for some distance further inland the valleys and 
hollows are more or less floored with this wave- washed material. 
The lakes in the vicinity of La Porte are south of the water-shed, 
and no evidences are traceable of their having been a part of ancient 
Lake Michigan since the subsidence of the glacial sea." 

The deposit of dihivium in other parts of the county has not, 
perhaps, been affected so much through the agency of water as 
this, and is, therefore, more nearly the pure unstratified drift. 

Beneath this deposit, the first rocks found are the Niagara lime- 
stone. Of these rocks, the following will give sufficient explanation 
as to the geologic periods to which they belong and the locations 
where they may be found': 

"The first ]>eriod of the Upper Silurian was that during which 
the Niagara limestone was accumulated — a formation through 
which, with others, the Niagara river has cut its way. * * * 
From the falls of Niagara, the out-cropping belt of this limestone 
runs in lines parallel with those just traced (the supposed geologic 
sea-coast lines). It forms the promontory of Cabot's Head, and 
the peninsula separating Georgian bay from Lake Huron. At this 
point the formation has succumbed to the attacks of the waves, and 
disappeared in its northwestward trend beneath the water of the 
lake. Cropping out again, it forms the remarkable chain of the 
Manitoulin islands, in the northern part of Lake Huron, including 
Drummond's island. Beyond St. Mary's river it forms a 'point' 
and a peninsula, the counterparts of Cabot's Head and the penin- 
sula south of it. Running westward, and then southwestward, it 
establishes a continuous barrier to Lake Michigan along the north- 
ern and western borders, constituting the rocky ridge which iso- 
lates Green bay and Bay de Noquet from the greater lake. It 
follows the shore of Lake Michigan to Chicago, and even to Joliet, 
when it bends westward and northwestward, and loses itself beneath 
the accuinulations of a later period. The quarries at Lockport, 
New York, and many others in that vicinity, are located in this 
important limestone. In the same formation are those at Milwau- 
kee, Waukesha, Chicago, Lamont and Joliet. The so-called ' Athens 
marble,' so extensively employed in Chicago, is quarried from this 
formation. It much resembles the famous 'Kentucky marble,' 
from which the beautiful monument and statue to Henry Clay, at 
Lexington, is built — though the latter comes from the Trenton 
group, in the Lower Silurian." — Sketches of Creation. 

This Niagara limestone is overlaid with the Clinton group, 
Medina sandstone, and the Oneida conglomerate rocks of the tJpper 
Silurian era. Beneath these are found the Hudson River group, 
and Utica shale of the Hudson period; the Trenton, Black River, 


and Birdseye limestones, and the Chazj limestone, of the Trenton 
period; and the Calciferous sand-rock, and Potsdam sandstone, of 
the Potsdam period, of the Lower Silurian age. Beneath these are 
the rocks of the Azoic age in which there are no traces of life found, 
especially of animal life. 

From this it will be seen that there will not be found in the 
county any beds of the Corniferous limestone (that limestone from 
which the lime of the market is burned), for it is a formation of 
the Devonian age, and crops out far to the south, — the northern 
croppings of this formation being in the southern part of Newton 
county, the northern parts of White and Cass counties, etc., the 
Niagara limestone dipping far beneath them. 

Neither will there be found any coal deposits; for the coal 
measures belong to the Carboniferous age, the formations of which 
rest far above either the Corniferous or the Niagara limestone for- 
mations; and the outcroppings of the coal strata are still farther to 
the south than those of the Corniferous limestone. The various 
strata of rocks which intervene between the lowest coal stratum 
and the Niagara limestone, — the uppermost of La Porte county 
rocks, — are the following: The Millstone grit, and the Sub-carbon- 
iferous or Mountain limestone, of the Carboniferous age; the Cats- 
kill red sandstone, of the Catskill period; the Chemung group, and 
the Portage group of the Chemung period; the Genesee slate, the 
Hamilton group, and the Marcellus shale, of the Hamilton period; 
the Upper Helderberg limestones, the Schoharie grit, and the Cau- 
dagalli grit, of the Corniferous period; the Oriskany sandstone, of 
the Oriskany period, of the Devonian age; the Ludlow group, and 
the Amestry limestone, of the Lower Helderberg period; and the 
Saliferous beds, of the Salina period, of the Upper Silurian era, — 
this latter resting upon the Niagara limestone. This enumeration 
of the various strata of rocks will show the utter inutility of look- 
ing for coal or Corniferous limestone formations in this part of the 
State, unless coal is to be discovered in I'ock strata in which it has 
never been discovered. 


From what has already been said, it will appear that there is no 
element of wealth in La Porte to be found in its rock strata, — all its 
wealth must come from the "glacial drift." This, however, fur- 
nishes as tine surface soil as can be found anj'where (which has 
been noticed elsewhere), out of which grow immense crops of the 
cereals, roots, fruits and grasses. This diluvium deposit contains 
abundant beds of yellow clay, from which building bricks are 
burned. The boulders which this drift contains may be turned to 
good account, as they are in many places. 

The only mineral, as has been noticed elsewhere, that has been 
found in any considerable quantity is that of bog iron ore in the 
marshes of the Kankakee river. Whether this can be turned to a 
good account remains to be seen. 





For hundreds of years, and perhaps for tliousands of years, before 
the advent of either the white or red man to make an abode upon 
its rich soil, the landscapes of northern Indiana, including of course 
those of La Porte county, wasted their beauty and their fragrance 
in dead loneliness of undisturbed nature. It was doubtless of con- 
ditions like these that the following couplet was written, the poet 
linking these with the complement of his ligure: 

Full many a rose is born to blush unseen, 
And waste its fragrance on the desert air. 

The flora of these primal years must have been grand indeed. 
The carpet of green rising in undisturbed tranquillity, flecked here 
and there with the handsome wild flowers that arose above it, was 
doubtless more delicate in beauty than the most finished Turkey 
ingrain or brussels that now softens the tread in our handsomest 
parlors. A vision like this no doubt, — a vision seen in nature real, 
or in imagination, — inspired the following verse: 

A billowy ocean with green carpet spread, 
Which seems almost too neat for man to tread, 
With glittering stars of amaryllis white, 
With violets blue and roses red and bright, 
With golden cinquefoil, star-grass, buttercups, 
With dazzling cardinal flowers and painted cups. 
And lone but cheerful meadow larks to sing, 
This grassy sea appeared in smiling spring. 
In summer came the stately compass-plant, 
As if to guide the wandering immigrant. 
Then asters, golden-rods, and wild sunflowers 
O'erspread the vales in labyrinthine bowers. 
Thus nature, clad in vesture gold and green. 
Brought autumn in and closed the floral scene. 

The red man came, and these landscapes continued to increase 
in beauty, the white man came, and year by year they have changed 
continually until they are now superseded by the waving, "golden 
grain " of our harvest fields. It is now impossible to give the flora 
of these pre-settlement landscapes, but we are informed by those 
who saw the landscapes that just preceded the days of first settlement 
that they were rich beyond description. 

No o1:her country biit the western continent can exhibit such a 
forest as covered the northern portion of the county. But this 



forest, as well as the prairie, has undergone many changes at the 
hand of the hardy pioneer. Its umbrage, cast down cool and dark 
upon the ground, has given way to the cheerful sunlight. The 
prairies have lost much of their original flora. Now both timber 
and prairie are largely under cultivation or pasturage, and blue 
grass, white clover and a large number of introduced weeds from the 
East have taken the place of the original flora. Industrially this 
change is a very great gain, but poetically it is as great a loss. 
Only in the most retired situations can many interesting plants be 
found now which used to be abundant; and perhaps some are lost 
entirely. Several species of prairie clover, wild indigo, rosin-weed, 
etc., have almost disappeared with the original condition of the 
prairie; while a few of the modest strawberry and some other plants 
still remain to stir in us sweet remembrances of the past. 

Nearly all of the plants which are now growing spontaneously in 
cultivated or waste ground are " introduced" plants; that is, they 
have been brought here by white settlers, — unintentionally with 
reference to most of the weeds, of course. 

Before thej^ were settled by the whites, the prairies were mostly 
covered with two or three kinds of grass, — several other kinds grew 
in isolated places here and there, notably the Indian grass and the 
blue joint, which grew very tall. In wet places grew the well 
known " slough grass" (and this is found still very largely in the 
Kankakee marshes), and golden-rods, asters, and wild sunflowers 
abounded in many places, which in the latter part of summer and 
the early part of autumn formed waving yellow patches on the 
prairie, and which were peculiarly charming. 


There are wnthin the United States about 2,300 species of plants 
and about 140 different kinds of trees, of which more than 80 attain 
the height of 60 feet and upward. The most characteristic form 
which distinguishes an American forest from others are the Hick- 
ories (Carya), the Tnpelos (Nyssa), the "Poplar" or Tulip-tree, the 
Taxodium or American Cypress, the Locust (Robinia), and a few 
others. The American forest is further remarkable for the numerous 
Oaks, Ashes, Pines, the several Magnolias, the Plane tree (usually 
called in America, Sycamore), and the two kinds of Walnuts which 
it possesses. 

The distribution of the various species of trees, as well as of the 
humbler plants, in the United States, for convenience of description 
has been divided into two geographical divisions, — the flrst extend- 
ing from the northern limit of the United States to the 35th 
parallel; the second extending from latitude 35' to latitude 27*^ in 
Florida, beyond which it is said the character of the North Ameri- 
can vegetation merges into that of the Tropical. 

In order to get the flora of La Porte county as it is connected 
with the flora of the surrounding country, for it is principally the 


same, it is necessary to uotice only the first division; for it is to 
that that onr flora belongs. The following description of this 
division we have extracted from the " Encyclopedia of Geography." 
While this description is given very largel}- in the technical 
botanical names of the plants, we have not scrupled to use it, for 
the reason that in giving the local flora, which must to a large 
extent be extracted from this, we shall give both the technical and 
the common names, and hence each of these species can be easily 

" In the northern district of the United States, the forest is 
characterized by- the appearance of numerous Oaks, Hickories and 
Ashes, by the Liricdendron, Liqnidambar, the two Nyssas, the 
Platanus occidentalis, the two Walnuts, the Red Birch, Celtis 
occidentalis, the White Cedar, and the Red or Virginia Juniper; 
several Pines, the Tilias, the Black Sugar and the White Maples, 
the Negundo or Ash-leaved Maple, O&trya Virginica and Carpinus 
Americana, the Persimmon, and Ilex opaca. The undericood con- 
sists of the Cornus florida and Cercis Canadensis, so conspicuous 
in spring, the one for its white, and the other for its purple, 
blossoms; Button-bush, Laurus Sassafras and Benzoin, Quercus 
Banisteri and chinquapin, three Alders, the Wax-Myrtle, the 
Comptonia, the Witch-IIazel, which puis forth its flowers at the 
A'cry close of the season; numerous species of Yaccinium, Cornus, 
and Viburnum; the Sambucus Canadensis, the American Hazel, 
Staphylea trifolia, Zanthoxylum fraxineum, Ceanothus Ameri- 
canus; Rhus typhina, glabra, copallina and venenata; numerous 
Cratsegi, the Wild Crab, Aronia arbutifolia, the Itea, several 
Andromedas, two Azaleas, Hydrangea arborescens; Dirca palus- 
tris, our only species of Thymeleas; the Kalmias, three species of 
Euonymus, the Papaw, Clethras, Chionanthus Virginica, and 
Magnolia glauca. Most of the trees and shrubs mentioned under 
the last region (that of Northern North America) have disappeared, 
or are found only on the mountains. The Willows have become 
much less numerous, both in species and individuals. It is in the 
northern borders of this region also, in New York, 'Rew England, 
and on the mountains of Pennsylvania, that the autumnal foliage 
so celebrated for its varied tints, acquires its highest degree of 
magnificence; where the Red Maple, the Scarlet Oak, Yellow 
Birch, and the Purple Nyssa, are brought into contrast with the 
dark green of the Pines. Climbing plants now make their appear- 
ance, as various Grapes, Ampelopsis hederacea, Rhus radicans, 
Celastrus scandens, Clematis Virginiana, Menispermnm Cana- 
dense, the Apios and Amphicarpsea, Dioscorea villosa, Mikania 
scandens, Gonolobi, and some Phaseoli, Polygonum scandens and 
cilinode, and especially the diflerent species of Smilax, which form 
the underwood into tangled thickets, 

Herhaoeous Plants are found in great variety. In the springs 
Houstonia caerulea, the Podophyllum and Sanguinaria, Diclytra 
cucullaria, Thalictrum anemonoides. Ranunculus iascicularis, the 


Dentarias, several Violas, Claytonia Yirgiiiiana, Saxifraiija Yirgin- 
iana, Phlox subiilata, Erigeroii belliditbliuin Erythroniiim, and 
Senecio aureus, come into flower. These are succeeded bj the 
Epigea, some Ileliantheraums and Lecheas, the Solea, several 
Polygalas and Hypericums, Oxalis violacea, Stylosanthes elatior, 
numerous Desmodiums and Lespedezas, Triosteum perfoliatum, 
Campanula Americana, the blue Lobelias, various species of 
Asclepias, three Apocynums, Obolaria Virginica, Polemonium 
reptans, Pulmonaria Yirginica, the Monardas, Cunila Mariana, 
Collinsonia Canadensis, the Pycnantheraums and several Scutel- 
larias, the Phryma, Hyssopus nepetoides and scrophulariitblius, 
the yellow Gerardias, Pentstemon pubescens and hievigatum, 
Epiphagus Virgin iana and two Orobanches, Asarum Canadense, 
Arum dracontium and triphyllura, Cimicit'uga racemosa, two 
Ascyrums, Baptisia tinctoria, Chimaphila maculata, Sabbatia gra- 
cilis and angularis, Aristolochia serpentaria, three Corallorhizas, 
the Aplectrum, a single Orchis, Spiratithes tortllis, Triphora 
pendula, Malaxis liliitblia, four Cypripediums, Uvularia perfoliata 
and sessilifolia, the Gyromia, Sniilacina racemosa, Tephrosia 
Virginiana, a few UmbelliferjB, Helonias erj^throsperma, Aletris 
farinosa, Lilium Philadelphicum, Hypoxis erecta, Tradescantia 
Virginica, a Sisyrhynchium, Verbena hastata and urticifolia, a 
single Antirrhinum, the Sarothra, some QCnotheras, Silene stellata, 
several Eupatoriums and some species of Liatris, Senecio hieraci- 
folius, the varying-leaved Nabali, Lactuca elongata, some species of 
Cnicus, Cacalia atriplicifolia, three or four Hieraciums, Krigia 
amplexicaulis and Virginica, Gnaphaliura polycephalum and 
purpureum, some Erigerons, Lysimachia ciliata and quadrifoiia, 
Linum Virginianum, Ilypericum punctatura, Anychia dichotoma, 
Onosmodium hispidum, Leptandra Virginica, Polygonum Virgin- 
ianum, Corydalis aurea, Crotolaria sagittalis, some species of Phlox, 
Cuphea viscosissima, the Hydrastis, Buchnera Americana, Aralia 
racemosa, Polygonella articulata, Spermacoce tenuior, the Mitchella, 
Comandra umbellata, various Galiums, two Am manias, Parietaria 
Pennsylvanica, Kuhnia eupatorioides, and an Elaphantopus: — and 
in the low grounds by the Euchroma coccinea, Decodon verticillatum, 
Proserpinaca palustris and pectinata, the Saururus, Gratiola aurea 
and Virginica, Elodea Virginica, Lysimachia hybrida and racemosa, 
three or four Hypericums, Ludwigia alternifolia, Penthorum 
sedoides, Lilium superbum. Hibiscus moscheutos, the scarlet 
Lobelia, the Floerkia, Oxycoccus macrocarpa, Asclepias incarnata, 
Mimulus alatus and ringens, Justicia pedunculosa, Bcehmeria 
cylindrica and the semi-pellucid Urtica pumila, Pogonia ophioglos- 
soides and the Calopogon, the beautiful tribe of the Habenarias, 
Helonias dioica, several Polygonums, the genera Xyris and 
Eriocaulon, Iris versicolor, some Sparganiums, and Caladiuni 
Virginicum. The autamii is ushered in with a profusion of Asters 
and Solidagos, more conspicuous perhaps in the northeast, the 
Chrysopsis Mariana, Rudbeckia laciniata and Heliopsis laivis, a 


few Heliantlii, Cassia Marylandica and cliamsecrista, Acalypha 
Virginica, Trichostema dichotoma, Bidens bipinnata: — the low 
grounds are sometimes all golden with the flowers of the Bidens 
chrysanthemoides and trichosperma; or in other places the purple 
heads of Yernonia Noveboracensis become conspicuous, theWhorl- 
ed-leaved Eupatoriums and Eupatorium perfoliatum, Helenium au- 
tumnale, Ambrosia trifida, Clielone glabra, the purple Gerardias, 
Polygala cruciata and purpurea, Spiranthes cernua, and above all 
the beautiful blue Gentiana crinita. 

" Many line-flowering aquatics are found in this region: The 
Nymphgea odorata and Nuphar advena, the Yillarsia, the Hydro- 
peltis, the Orontium, Pontederia cordata, Ileteranthera reniformis, 
the Schollera, various singular Sagittarias, numerous Utricularias, 
Hypericum angulosum, Yallisneria Americana, Udora Canadensis, 
Sparganium fluitans, the Fucoid-like Podostemon, Bidens Beckii, 
the curious Hottonia inflata, Eriocaulon flavidulum and an unde- 
scribed species; and among gramineous plants, Eleocharis subter- 
minalis and Juncus militaris, besides the large and beautiful 
Zizania aquatica. Of other gramineous plants, many interesting 
grasses, including some peculiar forms, make their appearance; 
Carices still prevail in the marshes, though less exclusively than in 
the north, giving place to Rhynchosporas, Cypeii, the Dulichium, 
the numerous articulated Junci, and even some Sclerias; but the 
Eriophorums have mostly disappeared, except Eriophorum Yirgin- 
icum, and are replaced i3y brown Trichophorums. The Ferns, 
notwithstanding the minuteness of their seeds, which seems to 
admit of their transportation by the winds to great distances, are 
found to be nearly all different from those of the eastern conti- 
nent: among the more remarkable are, a climber, L3'godium 
pahnatum, reminding us of the tropics, two Botrychiums and 
Osmnndas, a Strutliiopteris, numerous Aspidiums and Aspleniums, 
four species of Pteris, two Woodwardias, the Onoclea, Adiantum 
pedntum, and a minute Schizea. 

"• This district is divided by the Alleghanies into two distinct 
regions. This happens less from the height of these ridges, acting 
as a barrier to the migration of plants, than from tiie peculiar 
circumstances of soil, in the wide-spread basin of tlie Ohio. The 
consequence of the horizontal stratification of the rocks, everywhere 
of a yielding character, is here seen in the narrow and winding 
water-courses, flowing with a gentle and uniform current, the 
heiglit of the waters ever varying, from tlie frequent rains ; lakes, 
too, being entirely absent, and still water of any description, or 
even mill-seats, rarely to be met with; — when these circumstances 
are taken into consideration, the unexpected scarcity of aquatics 
seems less surprising. But, on the other hand, notwithstanding the 
borders of the water-courses in many places are subject to over- 
flow, marshes are singularly rare (this is said of the Ohio basin); to 
which must be added the almost total absence of pine- woods, occa- 
sioned, no doubt, by the small proportion of sandy or gravelly soil. 


Accordingly, on comparing the flora of tlie Ohio basin with that 
of the Atlantic States, in similar latitudes, the absent species are 
found to consist, for the most part, either of aquatics, of marsh- 
plants, or of such as are adapted to an arid soil, v, hile, on the other 
hand, many plants make their appearance which are unknown east 
of the mountains. Whether this is to be attributed in any degree 
to the prevalence of limestone in the West, we do not possess suffi- 
cient data to determine; 3'et some plants are said to be confined to 
limestone soil, though, it would seem, far less exclusively than in 
the case of saline plants. We will here enumerate some of the 
most characteristic plants of each region. 

''''In the western section^ among the trees, Tilia heterophylla, 
^sculus pallida, the Virgilia, the Locust, Gleditschia triacanthos 
and brachj^carpa, the Gymnocladus, the Wild Cherry, Quercus 
imbricaria and macrocarpa, tlie Cotton-wood, confined to the banks 
of rivers; Ulmus fulva and the Wild Mulberry, the Pecan-nut, 
Hickory, the Hackberry, Carya sulcata, the Planera, Fraxinns 
quadrangulata; — among shruh)<, Hibiscus militaris, Rhus aromatica, 
Darlingtonia brachyloba and glandulosa, Gallenia stipulacea, Rosa 
rubifolia, an Adelia, Euonymus obovatus, a Rhamnns, an Amorpha, 
Celtis tenuifolia, the Hamiltonian, and Hydrangea nivea; it is here, 
too, that the parasitic Mistletoe most abounds, and its evergreen 
tufts adhering to the branches of the trees compensate to a certain 
degree for the absence of Pines; — of climhing 2:>lant8, we may 
name Menispermum Lyoni, Momordica echinata, two Gonolobi, 
and the Enslenia, Yitis riparia and another species, and Aristolo- 
cliia Sipho and tomentosa; — among herhaceous plants, tlie delicate 
vernal Erigenia, the Stylipus, Collinsia verna, the Jeffersonia, 
Meconopsis petiolata and diphylla, Dentaria maxima, Hesperis 
pinnatifida, the Polanisia, Silene regia and rotundifolia, Trifolium 
reflexum and stoloniferum, Onosmodium molle; various Phacelias, 
Hydrophyllums and Ellisias; the Nemophila, Draeocephalum? 
cordatum, the Isanthus, the Synandra; two or three Hedeomas, 
Scutellarias and Verbenas; Seymeria macrophylla, Gerardia auric- 
ulata, Capraria muitifida, Pachysandra procumbens, some Delphin- 
iums and Hypericums, Sedum pulchellum and ternatum, Cacalia 
reniformis and suaveolens, Polymnia Canadensis and Uvedalia, 
Parthenium integrifolium, Bellis integrifolia, and various other 
Compositse; the Frasera, Plantago cordata. Euphorbia dentata and 
others, Erythromium albidum, two or three Heucheras, Aconitum 
nncinatum, some species of Phlox, Talinum teretifolium, the Zan- 
thorhiza, Baptisia alba and australis. Paronychia dichotoma, Smila- 
cina? umbellulata, Spermacoce glabra, Gentiana amarylloides, 
Yaleriana pauciflora, and Aetinomeris helianthoides: — among gra- 
mineoiis plants, Ilniola latifolia, the Diarrhena, a Melica, some 
Carices, etc.: — and, notwithstanding what has been said above of 
aquatic plants, a few make their way throughout this i-egion, but 
seem to occur more frequently west of the Mississippi river, as the 
Hydropeltis, Nupliar ad vena, the Podostemon and Schollera, the 


Pontederia; and we can name one which seems to be peculiar, the 
Heteranthera ovalis." — Encyclopedia of Geography. 

This, in a general way, gives the flora of the northern part of the 
United States. As La Porte county partakes of the general nature 
of this section, — in climate, soil, elevation, etc., — for it is a part of 
it, we may expect to lind its flora to be about the same. 

We shall now proceed to enumerate, and partially describe, the 
plants which we find constituting this flora. In doing so we shall 
give the technical and common names of them, — the technical 
names, so that those who are disposed to do so may the more 
readily consult works treating on these things when they find a 
plant to whicli they wish to give more than ordinary study; and the 
common names, so that there will be no need to consult any special 
work to find out what any particular plant is unless there is a 
special cause impelling to it. But in giving the common names of 
the plants we find a little difliculty staring us in the face; and that 
is that diflferent localities apply diflferent names to the same plant. 
If at any time there should a doubt arise from this cause as to what 
plant is intended, then the remedy will be to consult a work on 
botany under the technical name given in which the plant intended 
will be described. Certainly there are hours of profitable study in 
the flora of La Porte county. 


In giving this list of plants we have made no attempt to com- 
pletely catalogue the flora of the county, but have selected those 
which are most common and important. The various botanies 
analyze the plants in slightly different ways, but we think that by 
the method which we have adopted any plant given can be found 
in any of the standard works. 

Order I. Ranunculace^. (Crowfoot Family.) 

1. Clematis. (Yirgin's Bower.) 

1. Clematis Yiorna. (Leather Flower.) A vine, and may be 
known by its thick sepals, which are reflected at points, and of a 
purplish color. 

2. Clematis Virginiana, (Common Virgin's Bower.) 

These two plants possess medical properties, and are used in can- 
cerous ulcers and severe headaches. 

2. ITepatioa. (Liver-leaf, llepatica. Liverwort.) 

1. Hepatica acutiloba. This is one of the earliest harbingers 
of spring. It varies in color from white to pink and purple. It 
seeks moist places; and as a medicine it is a mild demulcent , tonic 
and astringent. 

3. Delphinium. (Larks]iur.) 

1. Delphinium azureum. (Azure Larkspur.) Cultivated in 


4. Hydrastis. (Orange Root or Yellow Paccoon.) 
1. Hydrastis Canadensis. This plant is not common, and grows 
in moist places. It is used as a tonic and aperient. 
5. Acta. (Baneberry.) 
1. ActcBa spicata. (Red Baneberry.) Berries red, on slender 
pedicels. Not uncommon in the woods. 

•* 2. Actcea alba. (White Baneberry.) Berries white. This plant 
is mentioned as a violent purgative. 

6. Cimicifuga. (Bugbane.) 
1. Cimicifuga racemosa. (Black Snakeroot.) A tall, leafy 
plant, with the aspect of an Actgea, found in upland woods. It 
affects the nervous system, perhaps in a sedative way. Dangerous 
in large doses. 

Order II. Magnoltace.e. (Magnolia Family.) 
1. Liriodendron. (Tulip Tree.) 
1. Liriodendron Tulipi/era. (The " Poplar.") Common for- 
est tree, and makes one of the most useful kinds of lumber. It is 
used as a stimulant tonic, and for chronic rheumatism and dyspep- 

Order III. Anonace.g. (Custard-Apple Family.) 

1. Asimina. (North American Papaw.) 

1. Asimina triloba. (Common Papaw.) A small beautiful 
tree. The fruit is yellowish, fragrant, eatable, and ripe in October. 

Order IY. Berberidace.*:. (Barberry Family.) 

1. Jeffersonia. (Twin Leaf.) 

1. Jeffersonia diphylla. Often found growing side by side with 
Blood-root, and for which the flower is sometimes taken. The root 
is an emetic in large doses, and a tonic and expectorant in small 

2. Podophyllum. (Mandrake. May- Apple.) 

1. Podophyllunh peltatum. (Common May-Apple.) This is 
among our more curious and interesting plants; is very plentiful. 
It is an active and certain cathartic. 

Order Y. Papaverace^. (Poppy Family.) 

1. Stylophorum. (Celandine.) 

1. Stylophorum diphyllum A pale green herb found under 
fences, b}^ roadsides, etc. 

2. Sanguinaria. (Blood-root.) 

1. Sanguinaria Canadensis. (Blood-root.) An interesting plant 
of the woods, and appears in the early spring. It is an acrid emetic, 
and also an expectorant. The plant occu])ies a high place in med- 


Order Y1. Crucifer^. (Mustard Family.) 

1. Nasturtium. (Water-Cress.) 

1. Nasturtium Armoracia. (Horse-Iiadish.) Escaped from cul- 
tivation. Not very common. It is a valuable stimulant, as pro- 
moting appetite and invigorating digestion. 

2. Dentaria. (Tooth-wort. Pepper-root.) 

1. Dentaria laciniata. (Pepper-root.) The root-stock consists 
of several tubers of a pungent taste; leaves usually in a whorl about 
half way up. 

3. Cardamine. (Bitter-Cress.) 

1. Cardamine hirsuta. (Smair Bitter-Cress.) A variable plant 
common in wet places throughout the United States. 

4. Barharea. (Winter-Cress.) 

1. Barharea valgaris. (Common Winter-Cress.) Found in 
wet places, in old fields, along brook-sides, etc. 

5. Sinapis. (Mustard.) 

1. Sinapis nigra. (Black Mustard.) Found in cultivated 
grounds and waste places; very common. 

2. Sinapis alba. (White Mustard.) A native of Europe; cul- 
tivated, with slight escapement from cultivation. These plants are 
very useful in medicine, being used as a laxative, emetic, stimulant 
and rubefacient, according to doses given. 

6. Camelina. (False Flax.) 

1. Camelina sativa. (Gold-of- Pleasure.) Found in cultivated 
fields, — especially in flax fields. Came from Europe, where it is 
said to be cultivated for the oil which its seeds afibrd. 

7. Capsella. (Shepherd's Purse.) 

1. Capsella Bursa-Pastoris. (Shepherd's Purse.) Found every- 
where, in fields, pastures and roadsides. 

8. Lepidium. (Pepper-Grass.) 

1. Lepidium Yirginicum. (Wild Tongue-Grass.) Taste pun- 
gent, like that of the garden pepper -grass; found in dry fields and 
on the roadsides. 

Order YII. Yiolace^. (The Yiolet Family.) 

1. Solea. (Green Violet.) 

1. Solea concolor. A strictly erect plant in the woods. 

2. Viola. (Violet. Ileart's-Ease.) 

1. Viola lanceolata. (Lance-leaved Violet.) Found growing in 
wet meadows. 

2. Viola cuGullata. (Common blue Violet.) Found growing 
almost everywhere. 

Order VIII. CARYOPHYLLACEiE. (Pink Family.) 
1. Saponaria. (Soap-wort.) 
1. Saponaria officinalis. (Common Soap-wort. Bouncing Bet.) 


Cultivated in gardens; sparingly "escaped from cultivation. Sapo- 
nin, obtained from it, is said to be poison. 
2. Lychnis. (Lychnis Cockle.) 
1. LyGhnis Githago. (Corn Cockle.) Found in wheat and in 
old fields, a well-known weed, and handsome, but a great nuisance 
to the farmers. Imported from Europe. 

Okdeb IX, PoRTULACACE^. (Purslauc Family.) 
1. Portulaoa. (Purslane.) 
1. Portulaca oleracea. (Common Purslane.) An abundant 
and rapidly growing weed in the gardens; seemingly impossible to 
exterminate it. It is a cooling diuretic, and is recommended in 
scurvy, and affections of the urinary organs. 

Order X. TiLiACEiE. (Linden family.) 
1. Tilia. (Linden. Basswood.) 
1. Tilia Amerieana. (Lime tree. Lin. Basswood.) A com- 
mon forest tree. Timber valuable; wood soft and white, used in 
cabinet work and in paneling carriages. 

Order XI. Linages. (Flax Family.) 
1. Linum. (Flax.) 
1. Linum usitatissimwtn. (Common Flax.) Found occasionally 
in old fields and along the roadsides; introduced but become 
somewhat naturalized. 

Order XI I. Geraniacp:^. (Gerania.) 
1. Geranium. (Cranesbill.) 
I. Geranium inaGidatum. (Spotted Geranium.) Found in the 
woods, etc. It is one of the best astringents; and is particularly'- 
useful to infants and persons of very delicate stomachs. It is used 
in cases of diarrhoea, chronic dysentery, and cholera infantum. 

Order XIII. Balsamtnace.e. (Jewel Weeds.) 
1. Impatiens. (Balsam.) 

1. Impatiens pallida. (Pale Touch-me-not.) Found in wet, 
shady places. 

2. Impatie)is fulva. (Spotted Touch-me-not.) Grows on 
moist ground, and somewhat more common than the last. 

Order XIV. Zanthoxylace^. 

1. Zanthoxylum. (Prickly-Ash.) 

1. Zanthoxylum Americana. (Northern Prickly- Ash.) Found 
in most places in the United States. The bark is a bitter aromatic 
and a stimulant. 

2. Ptelea. (Hop Tree.) 

1. Ptelea trifoUata. (Shrubby Trefoil.) Quite odorous. 


Order XY. Anacardiace^. (Cashew Familj.) 
1. Rhus. (Sumach.) 

1. Rhus glabra. (Smooth Sumach.) Found in thickets and 
waste grounds. Berries red, and are astringent and refrigerant, 
and are almost a specific in sore mouth from mercurial salivation. 

2. Rhus Toxicodendron. (Poison Ivj. Poison Oak.) Found 
vining on trees and along fences. It is poisonous, both by contact 
and bv a volatile principle which it gives off. 

Order XVI. Yitace^. (Yine Family.) 
1. Yitis. (Grape Yine.) 

1. VitU labrusca. (Northern Fox-G-rape.) It grows in woods 
and groves. The Isabella is a cultivated variety of this species. 

2. Vitis CBstivalis. (Summer Grape.) Berries deep blue, well 
flavored, but small. Found in woods and thickets. 

3. Vitis cordifolia. (Winter Grape.) Berries nearly black, 
rather small, late, acid, but well flavored after frosts of November. 
Is found clinging to trees in woods and thickets. 

2. Ampelopsis. (Yirginian Creeper.) 

1. Amyelopsis quin que folia. (American Yvy. Woodbine.) A 
vigorous climber, found wild in woods and thickets; and often on 
fences and trees. It is cultivated as a covering for walls. 

Order XYII. Celastrace.e. (Staft'-tree Family.) 

1. Celastrus. (Staff-tree. Shrubby Bitter-Sweet.) 

1. Celastrus scandens. (Climbing Bitter-Sweet.) A climbing 
shrub in woods and thickets, twining about other trees or each 
other, and ascending to a great height. It has emetic, diaphoretic 
and narcotic properties. 

2. Euonymus. (Spindle Tree.) 

1. Euonymus atropurpureus . (Burning Bush. Waahoo.) 
Found in shady woods; fruit of a bright red color. Its properties 
are not well known. 

Order XYIII. Acerace.e. (Maples.) 
1 . Acer. (Maple.) 

1. Acer ruhrtim. (Swamp Maple.) It is a common tenant of 
low woods, and is used in cabinet work. It is one of the first 
flowering trees of spring. 

2. Acer dasycarpum. (White or Silver Maple). Found along 
the banks of streams. 

3. Acer saccharinum. (Sugar or Rock Maple.) One of the most 
common forest tree-'. From it the maple sugar is obtained. 

Order XIX. Leguminos^. (Leguminous Plants.) 

1. Trifolium. (Clover. Trefoil.) 
1. Trifolium repens. (Creeping or White Clover.) Found 
everj'where. Excellent for bees. 


2. Trifollum prate)ise. (Red Clover.) This is the clover so 
extensively cultivated in the fields. 

2. Rohinia. (Locnst-Tree). 

1, Robinia Pseudacacla. (Common Locust.) Tree common, 
.and is valuable timber. It is a tonic in small doses, and an emetic 
in large doses. 

3. Baptisia. (False or Wild Indigo.) 

1. Baptisia tinctoria. (Wild Indigo.) A plant with a bluish- 
green ibliage, very bushy stem, and frequent in the dry soils. 

2. Baptisia leucantha. (Wliite-flowered Wild Indigo.) Very 
conspicuous on the prairies; stem thick and from two to three feet 
high; perhaps vanishing on account of cultivation of prairies. 

4. Cercis. (Judas Tree. Red-bud.) 

1. Cercis Canadensis. (Red-bud.) A handsome tree, especially 
when in bloom. An old author, Gerarde, says of it: "This is the 
tree whereon Judas did hang himself, and not on the elder tree, as 
it is said." This perhaps accounts for its name. 

5. Gleditschia. (Honey Locust.) 

1. Oleditschia triacanthus. (Honey Locust or Three-thorned 
Acacia.) A fine tree. Its ]imbs*are armed in a most formidable 
way with thorns from two to three inches long. 

Okder XX. Rosacea. (Rose Family.) 

1. Cerasus. (Cherrj^ Tree.) 

1. Cerasus serotina. (Black or Wild Cherry.) A large forest 
tree; used in cabinet work, fine grained, and receives a high pol- 
ish. Its bark has a bitter taste and is used as a tonic. 

2. Cerasus Virginiana. (Choke Cherry.) A small tree or 
shrub, and is found in moist woods and hedges. 

2. Primus. (Plum Tree.) 

1. Prurius Americana. (Red Plum. Yellow Plum.) Found 
in groves and low woods; somewhat thorny, — sometimes cultivated 
for its fruit. 

2. Pruiivs spinosa. (Black Thorn.) A thorny shrub, 12 or 15 
feet high; an importation from Europe. 

3. Fragaria. (Strawberry.) 

1. Fragaria Virginiana, (Scarlet or Wild Strawberry.) Found 
in fields and on prairie; fruit delicious and fragrant. 

2. Fragaria vesca. (English Strawberry.) Found in fields and 
woods, and cultivated in gardens. 

4. Rubus. (Bramble.) 

1. Ruh us villas us. (High Blackberry.) Well known, and very 
common; fruit subacid, and well-flavored. 

2. R'uhus Canadensis. (Low Blackberry. Dewberry.) Com- 
mon in fields and meadows, trailing several yards upon the ground. 
Fruit very sweet and juicy. 


3. Buhus hlspidus. (Running Swamp Blackberry.) Found in 
moist and wet places. The roots of the blackberry and dewberry 
are used as tonics, and they possess strong astringent qualities. 

4. Buhus Idceus. (Garden Raspberry.) Cultivated. Stems 
shrubby, — from three to five feet high, — fruit delicious. 

5. Rtibus OGcidentalis. (Black Raspberry. Thirableberry.) A 
tall slender bramble found in thickets, rocky fields, etc. 

5. Rosa. (Rose.) 

1. Rosa Carolina. (Carolina Rose. Swamp Rose.) A prickly 
shrub in swamps and damp woods. Flowers varying between white 
and red. 

2. Rosa lacida. (Shining or Wild Rose.) Found in dry woods 
or thickets. Flowers a pale red. 

3. Rosa setigera. (Michigan or Prairie Rose.) This splendid 
species is a native of Michigan ; about 20 varieties are in cultiva- 

4. Rosa ruhiginosa. (Eglantine. Sweet-Brier.) A stout, 
prickly shrub, naturalized in fields and along road-sides. Largely 

6. Pyrus. (Apple.) 

1. Pyrus coronaria. (Crab Apple. Sweet-scented Crab-tree.) 
A small tree, with spreading branches. Fruit small and sour, but 
esteemed for preserves. 

2. Pyrus arhutjfolia. (Choke Berry.) Found in low, moist 
woodlands. Fruit astringent, and as large as a currant. 

Order XXI. Grossulace^. (Currants and Gooseberries.) 
1. Ribes. (Currants and Gooseberries.) 

1. Ribes floridum. (Wild Black Currant.) A handsome shrub 
in woods and hedges; somewhat rare. Fruit insipid. 

2. Ribes rubrum. (Common Red Currant.) Fruit red, and 
uuiversall}' cultivated in gardens. Grows even to the Arctic ocean. 

3. Ribes Cynosbati. (Pricklj^ Gooseberry.) A handsome shrub; 
berries prickly, brownish-purple, eatable. 

4. Ribes rotundifolvuin. (Wild Gooseberry.) Found in woods. 
The fruit is purple, delicious, resembling the garden gooseberry. 

Order XXII. Hamamelace.e.'I? (Witch Hazel ^amil3^) 

1. Hamamelis. (Witch Hazel.) 

1. Hamamelis Yirginiana. (Common Witch Hazel.) A large 
shrub, and blooms in the autumn. " Amidst the reisrninfir desola- 
tions of autumn and winter, this alone puts forth its yellow blos- 
soms." Its small branches have been used by the superstitious as 
"divining rods." 

Order XXIII. Balsamiflu.^. (Liquidumbars.) 
1. Liguidumbar. (Sweet-Gum Tree.) 
1. Liquidumbar Styraciiiua. (Sweet Gum. Bilsted.) A forest 
tree; not very common. When wounded in summer, a gum ot 


an agreeable order exudes from the trunk. A sjrup made from the 
bark may be used in summer diarrhoea and dysentery. 

Order XXIY. Umbelliferje. (Parsley Family.) 
1. Sanioula. (Sanicle.) 
1, Sanicula Marylandioa. (Black Snakeroot.) Found in woods 
and thickets. Useful in intermittent fever. 

Order XX v. Araliace^. (Araliads or Ginseng Family.) 
1. Aralia. (Sarsaparilla.) 

1. Aralia nudicaulis. (Wild Sarsaparilla.) A well-known 
plant, found in woods. Used largely as a medicine. 

2. Aralia racemosa. (Pettymorrel. Spikenard.) Found in 
woods. Root pleasant to the taste, and esteemed as an ingredient 
in small beer; root aromatic. 

3. Aralia spinosa. (Angelica Tree, Hercules' Club.) Found 
in damp woods. An infusion acts as an emetic and cathartic. 

4. Aralia quinquefoUa. (Ginseng.) Found in dry woods. 
Tuberous roots, which possess some medicinal qualities, but not 
much used. 

Order XXYI. Cornace^. (Dog-wood Family.) 

1, Cornus. (Cornel. Dog- wood.) 

1. Cornus sericea. (Red Osier. Kinnikinnick.) A shrub about 
eight feet high, with opposite, dusky, purple branches, and dark- 
red shoots. 

2. Cornus fiorida. (Flowering Dogwood. Bunch-berry.) Found 
in the woods; very ornamental when in flower. Both this and the 
last are used as tonics and astringents. 

2. JVyssa. (Tupelo. Pepperidge. Gum Tree.) 

1. Nyssa rtiultiflora. (Gum Tree.) A forest tree. The timber 
is not very valuable, yet it may be used for beetles, naves of wheels, 
and hatters' blocks. 

Order XXVII. Caprifoliace^. (Honeysuckle Family.) 

1. Lonicera. (Honeysuckle Woodbine.) 

1. Lonicera sempervirens. (Trumpet Honeysuckle.) Found 
in moist groves. Cultivated. 

2. Lonicera Pertclymenum. (Woodbine Honeysuckle.) A 
woody climber; cultivated. 

2. Triosteum. (Fever-wort. Horse-gentian.) 

1. Triosteum perfoliatum. (Fever- wort.) A coarse, unattract- 
ive plant. The root is large and fleshy, and in much repute in 
medicine, having many of the properties of Ipecacuanha. 

3. Samhucus. (Elder.) 

1. Sambticus Canadensis. (Common Elder.) A common, well- 
known shrub; stem tilled with light, porous pith, especially when 
young. Berries, dark purple. 


4. Viburnum. (Laurestine. Arrow-wood.) 

1. Viburnum prunifolium. (Black Haw.) Found in the 
woods and thickets. Flowers, white, succeeded by oval, blackish 
berries, which are sweet and eatable. 

2. Viburnum dentaturn. (Arrow- wood.) A shrub not un- 
common in damp woods and thickets; called "arrow- wood" from 
its long straight branches and young shoots. 

Order XXVIII. Composite. (Asterworts.) 

1. Vernonia. (Iron-weed.) 

1. Vernonia Noveboracensis. (New York Vernonia. Iron- 
weed.) A tall, showy plant with numerous, large, dark purple 
flowers, found in the meadows and other moist places. 

2. Vernonia fascioulata. (Iron- weed.) Found in woods and 
on prairies of the Western States; a coarse, purplish-green weed 
from three to teii feet high. 

2. Eujpatorium. (Tlioroughwort. Boneset.) 

1. Eupatorium fistulosum. ^Trumpet weed.) Found in thick- 
ets; hollow its entire length. 

2. Eupatorium rotundifolium. (Hoarhound.) A slend-er spe- 
cies, found in dry fields. A remedy used in pulmonary troubles. 

3. EiLjpatorium pe'ifoliatum. (Tlioroughwort. Boneset.) A 
common, well-known plant; found on low grounds. The plant is 
bitter, and is used in medicine as a tonic. 

4. Eupatorium ageratoides. (Nettle-leaved Eupatorium. 
White Snake-root.) A handsome species, found in the woods. 

' 3. Erigeron. (Fleabane.) 

1. Erigeron heterophyllum. (Common Fleabane.) A common 
weed, in fields and waste places. 

2. Erigeron Canadense. (Horse-weed. Butterweed.) A very 
common annual plant of no beauty, growing by roadsides and in 
fields. The plant varies in size according to soil. 

4. Inula. (Elecampane.) 

1. Inula Selenium. (Common Elecampane.) A large, herba- 
ceous plant, common by roadsides. Its medical virtues are tonic 
and exoectorant, and have lono- been esteemed. 

5. Atnbrosia. (Ragweed.) 

1. Ambrosia trifida. (Great Ragweed.) Quite common; 
found in unused pastures, and along roadsides. Flowers mean and 
in long, leafless spikes. 

2. Ambrosia aj'temisimfoHa. (Hog-weed.) A common and 
troublesome weed of the field and garden, etc. It is far more 
worthv of its English name than it is of its Latin. 

6. Xanthium,. (Cocklebur.) 

1. Xanthium Strximarmm. (Clotweed. Common Cocklebur.) 
A coarse, rough plant, in old fields, etc. A nuisance to the farmer 


7. Heliopsis. (Ox-ej'e.) 

1. Heliopsis IcBvis. (Ox-eye.) A large, symmetrical plant; 
branches thickened at the summit, each terminating with a solid, 
yellow head. 

8. Silphium. (Rosin Weed.) 

1. Silphium lac'uoiatum. (Polar Plant. Rosin Weed.) Found 
on the prairies. In an early day it produced great quantities of 
smoke when the jirairies burned, on account of its resin. 

2. SUphium terehinthinaceum. (Prairie Burdock.) A prairie 
plant; and like the above, it exudes a resinous matter. Stem from 
four to eight feet high, 

9. Helianthus. (Sun-Flower.) 

1. Heliantfius annuus. (Common Sunflower.) This well- 
known plant is from South America. It is cultivated, and spar- 
ingly escaped from cultivation. 

2. Helianthus Icetiflorus. (Splendid Sunflower.) Found in 
barrens, and is a rough, but showy plant. Disk yellow. 

10. Coreopsis. (Tick-seed. 

1. Coreopsis tripteris. (Fall Coreopsis.) A tall, smooth, ele- 
gant species; found in dry soils. 

11. Bidens. (Burr- Marigold.) 

1. Bidens frondosa. (Common Beggar Ticks.) A common 
weed in moist, cultivated fields; stem about two feet high, sending 
out manv spreading branches. 

2. Bidens connata. (Common Beggar Ticks.) Found in 
swamps and ditches; stem from one to three feet high, smooth and 
four-furrowed, with opposite branches. 

3. Bidens hipimiata. (Spanish Keedles.) Grows in waste 
places, in corn-fields, etc.; stem from two to four feet high; a 

12. Maruta. (May-Weed.) 

1. Maruta cotula. (Common May- Weed.) Naturalized in 
waste places, along roadsides, etc. ; an ill-scented plant. Linnaeus 
says: "It is grateful to toads, drives away fleas, and is annoying to 

13. Achillea. (Yarrow.) 

1. Achillea Millefolium. (Common Yarrow. Milfoil.) The 
yarrow abounds in fields, pastures, etc. It is a mild, aromatic 
tonic and astringent; its taste and smell is agreeable and pungent. 

14. Lencanthemum. (Ox-eye.) 

1. Leucanthenium vulgare. (White-weed. Ox-eye Daisy.) 
The common white-weed is an annoyance to farmers, rapidly over- 
spreading pastures and neglected fields. 

15. Tanacetum. (Tansy.) 

1. Tanacetum vulgare. (Common Tansy.) Naturalized in old 


364 HISTORY OF la porte county. 

fields and roadsides. The whole plant has a strong aromatic smell, 
and a very bitter taste.'giThe seeds are anthelmintic. 

16. Cirsium. (Common Plumed Thistle.) 

1. Cirsium discolor. (Tall Thistle.) A slender thistle, from 
two to five feet high; found in thickets. 

2. Cirsium lanceolatum. (Common Thistle.) Common in 
borders of fields and along roadsides; stem from three to four feet 
high, surmounted with numerous, large, purple flowers. 

3. Cirsium, altissimum. A very tall thistle found in fields and 
barrens. Stem from three to eight feet high; flowers, purple. 

17. Lappa. (Burdock.) 

1. Lappa officinalis. (Common Burdock.) Grows almost 
everywhere; an unsightly, ill-scented plant, and very troublesome. 

18. Taraxcum. (Dandelion.) 

1. Taraxacum Dens-Leonis. (Common Dandelion.) Grows 
everywhere in all open situations. It is slightly tonic, diuretic 
and aperient; and it is used as a pottage, and as a substitute for 

19. Lactuca. (Lettuce.) 

1. Lactuca elongata. (Wild Lettuce. Trumpet Milkweed.) 
A common, rank plant, growing in hedges and thickets, where the 
soil is rich and damp. Stem hollow, stout, and from three to six 
feet high. 

2. Lactuca sativa. (Common Garden Lettuce.) The varieties 
of this exotic are everywhere well known, and cultivated for a 

Order XXIX. Lobeliace^. (Lobelia Family.) 
1. Lohelia. (Lobelia.) 

1. Lohelia cardinalis. (Cardinal Flower.) A tall species of 
superior beauty, frequent in meadows and along streams; stem from 
two to four feet high. Flower a deep scarlet. 

2. Lobelia inflata. (Indian Doctor.) Found in fields and 
woods. This plant is rendered famous by the Thompsonian physi- 
cians. It is a powerful emetic and has narcotic powers also. Its 
effect on the system is much the same as tobacco. 

3. Lohelia spicata. (Clayton's Lobelia.) Found in fields and 
prairies. Stem from one to two feet high ; flowers pale blue. 

Order XXX. Campanulace^. (Campanula Family.) 

1. Campanula. (Bell-Flower.) 

1. Campanula Americana. (Tall Bell-Flower.) h tall, erect, 
ornamental species in fields, hills, etc.; also cultivated in gardens. 

2. Specularia. (Venus' Looking-Glass.) 

1. Specularia SpeGulum. (Venus' Looking-Glass.) A pretty bor- 
der flower named from the form of the blue corolla, which resembles 
a little, round, concave mirror (speculum). 


Order XXXI. Ericaceae. (Heathworts. Heath Family.) 
1. Yaccinium. (Huckleberry) 

1. Vaccinium resin osum. (The Black Whortleberry or Huckle- 
berry.) This common shrub of the woods and pastures is about two 
feet high. Its berries are black, globose, sweet and eatable. 

2. Yaccinium corynibosum. (Blue Bilberry. High Whortle- 
berry.) A tall shrub, from four to eight feet high, growing in shady 
swamps and by mud ponds. Berries, black, with a tinge of pur- 
ple; subacid. 

Order XXXII. Plantaginace^. (Ribworts. Plantain Fam- 


1. Plantago. (Plantain. Rib-Grass.) 

1. Plantago major. (Common Plantain.) This well-known 
ribwort is a native of Japan, Europe and America. Its leaves are 
reputed a good external application for wounds. 

2. Plantago lanceolata. (Lance-leaved or English Plantain.) 
Common in pastures and grass-lands. It is freely eaten by cattle. 

Order XXXIII. Scrophulariace^. (Figwort Family.) 
1. Yerhascum. (Mullein.) 

1. Yerbascum Tkapsus. (Common Mullein.) Found in every 
slovenly field, and by the roadsides. 

2. Yerhascum Canadensis. (Canadian Snap-dragon.) An an- 
nual species in roadsides and fields. Flowers small, and blue, at 
the end of the stems. 

Order XXXIY. Bignoniace.^. (Bignonia Family.) 
1. Tecoma. (Trumpet Flower.) 

1. Tecoma radicans. (Trumpet Creeper.) A splendid climber 
in woods and thickets, along streams. Flowers are a bright scarlet 

2. Catalpa. (Catalpa.) 

1. Catalpa hignonioides. (Common Catalpa.) Cultivated tor 
ornament and shade. A fine, wide-spreading tree. 

Order XXXY. Acanthaceje. (Acanthus Family .( 

1. Dianthera. (Water Willow.) 

1. Dianthera Americana. (Common Water Willow.) Found on 
sluggish streams; stem from one to three feet high. 

2. Ruellia. (Prairie Willow.) 

1. Ruellia strepens. (Common Prairie Willow.) Found in 
dry barrens and prairies; stem eight to twenty-four inches high. 

Order XXXYI. Yerbenace^. (Yervain Family.) 
1. Yerhena. (Yervain.) 

1. Yerlena hastata. (Blue Yervain. Simpler's Joy.) An 
elegant, tall and erect plant, frequent by roadsides and in low 


grounds. Flowers small and blue; used sometimes as a nervine 

2. Verbena hracteosa. (Prostrate Verbena.) Found in dry 
fields and roadsides, and in waste places; flowers small and blue. 

3. Verbena Aubletia. Common Garden Verbena.) A slender 
and delicate green-house plant; cultivated. Flowers in successive 
clusters, rose-color and scarlet. 

Order XXXVII. Labiatje. (Mint Family.) 

1. Teucrium. (Germander.) 

1. Teucrium, Canadense. (American Germander.) Found in 
fields and roadsides; stem about two feet high; flowers of a purplish 

2. Isanthns. (Blue Gentian. False Pennyroyal.) 

1. Isanthus coeriileiis. (Blue Gentian.) A branching, leafy 
herb, in dry fields. It has the aspect of pennyroyal. Flowers 
numerous and blue. 

3. Mentha. (Mint.) 

1 Mentha Canadensis. (Horse Mint.) An herbaceous, grayish 
plant growing in muddy places. The stem is square, and about 
one to two feet high. The plant is aromatic. 

2. Mentha vir id is. (Spearmint.) A well known plant, highly 
esteemed for its agreeable aromatic properties. It grows in wet 

3. Mentha piperita. (Peppermint.) Cultivated in gardens, 
and naturalized in wet places. The essence of peppermint is a 
well-known medicine, acting as a cordial in flatulency, nausea, etc. 

4. Melissa. (Balm.) 

1. Melissa, officinalis. (Common Balm.) A well-known gar- 
den plant. Flowers white or yellowish. It is a stomachic and 
diuretic, generally administered in the form of tea. 

5. Hedeoma. (Mock Pennyroyal.) 

1. Hedeoma pulegioides. (American Pennj^royal.) A small, 
strong-scented herb, held in high repute in the domestic medicine. 

6. Salvia. (Sage.) 

1. Salvia lyrata. (Wild or Meadow Sage. Cancer- weed.) 
Found in shady woods. Stem erect, quadrangular, and nearly leaf- 
less; from one to two feet high. 

2. Salvia officinalis. (Common Sage.) A well-known garden 
plant, very useful in domestic economy and medicine. 

3. Salvia Mexicana. (Mexican Salvia.) A beautiful and 
popular house-plant. Flowers bright crimson or scarlet. 

7. Monarda. (Horse-mint.) 

1. Monarda fistulosa. (Wild Bergamot.) A handsome vari- 
able plant, growing in hedges and thickets. Stem from two to 
four feet high. 


2. Monarda punctata. (A kind of Horse-mint.) Found in pine 
barren. Stem from two to three feet high. It contains an essen- 
tial oils which is valuable in medicine. 

8. Nepeta. (Cat-mint.) 

1. Nepeta Cataria. (Common Catnip.) This common plant 
is naturalized everywhere about old buildings and fences. It is 
used as a tonic and stimulant, especially with young children, 

2. Neyeta GJechoma. (Ground Ivy.) A creeping plant. 
Found in woods lately cleared. The plant is aromatic, and a gentle 
stimulant and tonic. 

9. Prunella. (Self-heal.) 

1. Prunella vulgaris. (Heal-all. Blue Curls.) A common 
plant in meadows and low grounds. Flowers blue. 

10. SGutellaria. (Skull-cap.) 

1. Scutellaria galericulata. (Common Skull-cap.) Found in 
meadows and ditches; abundant. Flowers blue. Used in medicine. 

2. Scutellaria lateriflora. (Mad- dog Skull-cap.) Found vet 
meadows and ditches; flowers blue, intermixed with small leaves. 

11. Marrnhium. (Hoarhound.) 

1. MarrubiuTn vulgar e. (Common Hoarhound.) Found in 
dry fields and roadsides. It is an aromatic and bitter herb. It 
possesses tonic and diuretic properties, and is much used in lung 

12. GaJeopsis. (Hemp !N"ettle.) 

1. Galeopsis Tetrahit. (Common Hemp Nettle.) A common 

13. Leonurus. (Motherwort.) 

1. Leonurus Cardiaca. (Common Motherwort.) Commenc- 
ing to escape to woods, streets and roadsides; the constant follower 
of civilization. It has a strong, pungent smell, and is used in herb 
drinks for coughs and colds. 

14. Stachys. (Hedge Nettle.) 

1. Stachys sylvatica. (Wood Stachys.) A very rough and 
hairy herb, in low woods and shady banks. 

Okdee XXXYIII. Borraginace^. (Borage Family.) 

1. Symphytum. (Comfrey.) 

1. Sym/phytum officinale. (Common Comfrey.) A large, but 

showy exotic; naturalized in dry grounds. Useful in curing 

2. Myosotis. (Scorpion-grass.) 

1. Myosotis stricta. (Forget-me-not.) Found in sandy woods. 
The whole plant is of a grayish hue. Flowers very small and 


3. Cynoglossum. (Hound's-Tongne.) 

1. Cynoglossum officinale. (Common Hound's -Tongue.) 
Grows in waste grounds and roadsides; erect, downy, and of a 
dull green color. Flowers of a dull red color. 

2. Cynoglossum Yirgimcu7n. (Wild Comfrey.) Inhabiting 
woods and thickets; a very hairy plant, with purple flowers. 

3. Cynoglossum Morrisonl. (Beggar Lice. Yirginia Mouse- 
ear.) An erect weed found in the woods and thickets. A great 

Order XXXIX. Polemoniace.e. (Polemonium Family* 
Phlox worts.) 

1. Polemonium. (Greek Valerian .) 

1. Polemonium reptans. (American Greek Valerian.) A 
handsome plant of woods and damp ground. Varies much in 
color of flowers, even on the same plant, blue and white prevailing. 

2. PJilox. (Phlox.) 

1. Phlox jpaniculata. (Panicled Phlox.) A well-known favorite 

of the gardens; it may be found native in the woods. Stem sur- 
mounted by a pyramidal panicle of innumerable pink-colored 

2. Phlox ma culata. (Wild Sweet William.) Found in moist 
grounds and in meadows. A panicle of pink-colored, sweet-scented 
flowers crowns the stem. 

Order XL. Convolvulace^. (Convolvulus Family. Jiind- 


1. I'pomcea. (Morning-Glory.) 

1. Ipomoea purpurea. (Common Morning-Glory.") A beauti- 
ful twining plant, found somewhat escaped, but more frequently 
cultivated. It is best known as a garden annual. 

2. Ipomoja jpandurata. (Wild Potato- vine. Man of the Earth.) 
In sandy fields. Flowers two inches long, purple and white. 

2. Calystegia. (Bracted Bindweed). 

1. alystegki Sepium. (Hedge Bindweed. Rutland Beauty.) 
A vigorous climber, in hedges and low grounds. It is highly 
esteemed as a shade for windows and arbors. 

Order XLI. Solanace^. (Nightshade Family.) 
1. So (Nightshade.) 

1. Solanum Dulcamara. (Woody Nightshade. Bitter Sweet.) 
A well-known shrubby climber, with blue flowers and red berries. 
It possesses feeble narcotic properties, with the power of increasing 
the secretions. 

2. Solanum nigrum. (Common Black Nightshade.) A weed 
of no beauty and of suspicious aspect. Stem about a foot high, 
erect, branching and angular. Berries, globose and black. It is 
reputed poisonous, but is used medicinally. 


3. Solanum Carolinense. (Horse Nettle.) A rough weed found 
along roadsides, etc., about one or two feet high, armed with 
straw-colored, scattered prickles. Fruit like potato balls. Common, 

4. Solanum tuheronitrii. (Common Potato.) It needs no 

5. Solanum Melongena. (Egg Plant.) 

2. Ly CO per sic urn. (Tomato.) 

1. Lycopers'nyuin esculentum. (Tomato.) 

3, Physalis. (Ground Cherry.) 

1. Physalis viseosa. (Yellow Henbane. Common Ground 
Cherry.) It is found in dry fields, along roadsides, etc. Stem 
more or less decumbent, and about a foot high. Fruit yellow or 
orange- colored, and not unpleasant to the taste. 

2. Physalis kmceolata. (Lance-leaved Physalis.) This is most 
likely a variety of the Physalis viseosa. 

3. Datura. (Thorn Apple.) 

1. Datura^ Stramonium. (Jamestown Weed. Jimson Weed.) 
Plentifully found in waste places, barnyards, etc. It is a well- 
known, poisonous plant; every part is poisonous, but when used 
with certain restrictions is a useful remedy for asthma. It is a 

4. Petunia. (Petunia.) 

1. Petunia violacea. (Common Petunia.) A pretty trailing 
or climbing plant, quite popular in cultivation. 

5. Ni.cotiana. (Tobacco.) 

1. Nicotiana rustica. (Common Tobacco.) Cultivated. Said 
to have been introduced by the Indians. 

2. Nicotiana Tahacum. (Yirginian Tobacco.) As a tobacco 
this is considered superior to Nicotiana rustica. It is very exten- 
sively cultivated. 

6. Hyoscyarhus. (Henbane). 

1. Hyoscyamus niger. (Common Henbane.) This is a plant 
of a sea-green hue, and emits a foetid odor. It is reputed poisonous, 
but has been long regarded as an excellent remedy in nervous dis- 
eases, coughs, convulsions, etc. 

7. Capsicum. (Pepper.) 

1. Capsicum annuum. (Red Pepper. Cayenne Pepper.) Cul- 
tivated for its fruit, whose stimulant pi'operties are well known. 

8. Atropa. (A Nightshade.) 

1. Atropa Belladonna. (Deadly Nightshade.) This foreigner 
is far less repulsive in its appearance than most others of its order. 
Every part of the plant, especially the berries, is poisonous. Its 
stem branches below and grows five feet hig-h. 

Order XLII. Gentianaceje. (Gentian Family.) 

1 . Frasera. (Col u mbo.) 

1. Frasera Garolinensis. (Wild Columbo.) Found in moist 
woods. Stem perfectly straight, dark purple, and from four to nine 
feet high. It is highly prized as a tonic. 


Order XLIII. Apocynace^. (Dogbane Family.) 
1. Nerium. (Bay-tree.) 
1. Herium Oleander. (Rose Bay-tree. Oleander.) Cultivated, 
quite highly prized. It is a common shrub in Palestine. It is 
supposed to be the plant to which the Psalmist refers in Psalms i: 3. 

Order XLIY. Asclepiadace^. (Milkweed Family.) 
1, Ascleplas. (Milkweed. Silkweed.) 

1. Ascleplas Cornuti. (Common Milkweed.) A coarse plant 
growing everywhere by roadsides and in sandy fields. 

2. Ascleplas incarnata. (Rose-colored Silkweed.) A handsome 
species found in wet places; from three to four feet high. 

Order XLY. Oleace^. (Olive Family.) 

1. Syrlnga. (Lilac. ) 

1. Syrlnga vulgaris. (Common Lilac.) Cultivated. One of 
the most popular shrubs, beautiful in foliage and flowers. 

2. Fraxlnus. (Ash.) 

1. Fraxlnus Americana. (White Ash.) A forest tree, — one 
of the most desirable; used in furniture and in agricultural im- 

2. Fraxlnus samhuclfoUa. (Black or Water or Swamp Ash.) 
This tree prefers to grow in moist woods and swamps. It is a useful 
tree, the sapling being greatly used for barrel hoops, and the mature 
tree for baskets. 

Order XLVI. Phytolacoace^. (Pokewood Family.) 
1. '' Phytolacca. (Pokewood.) 
1. Phytolacca decandra. (Poke. Garget, Jalap.) This is 
sometimes called Pigeon Berry. It is a well-known weed growing 
some five to eight feet high with large stem, smooth, and branching, 
and bearing juicy, purple berries. 

Order XLYII. Chenopodiace^. (Goosefoot Family.) 
1. Chenopodlum. (Goosefoot. Pigweed.) 

1. Chenopodlum album. (White Goosefoot. Lamb's-Quarters.) 
A common weed in cultivated lands; grows from three to four feet 

2. Chenopodkimamhrosloldes. (Ambrosia Goosefoot. Mexican 
Tea.) Grows in fields and along roadsides; plant rather fragrant. 

Order XLVIII. AMARANTHACEiE. (Amaranth Family.) 
1. Amaranthus. (Amaranth.) 

1. Amaranthus aJhus. (White Cockscomb.) Cultivated. A 
common garden plant. 

2. Amaranthus hypochondrlacus. (Prince's Feather). Cul- 
tivated. A garden plant, dark red, and with long, plume-like 


3. Amaranthns melanchoUcus. (Love-lies-bleeding.) Culti- 
vated. A garden plant, purple, and about 18 incbes liigh. 
2. Celosia. (Cockscomb.) 

1. Celosia cristatoj. (Red Cockscomb.) This curious annual 
is said to have come from Japan, where the crests are a foot in 
diameter, and of an intense purplish red. 

Order XLIX. Polygonace^. (Buckwheat Family.) 

1. Rhenm. (Pie-plant.) 

1. Rheum Rhaponticum. (Garden Rhubarb or Pie-plant.) 
Cultivated in gardens for the juicy, acid stems of the leaf. 

2. Polygomim. (Knutweed.) 

1. Polygonmn Hydo'opiper. (Common Smart- weed or Water 
Pepper.) A plant well known for its acrid taste, growing in ditches, 
low grounds, among rubbish, etc. 

2. Polygonum Persicavm. (Spotted Knotweed, or Lady's 
Thumb.) A common species about fences, in low grounds, etc. 

3. Polygomon aviculare. (Bird Knot-grass.) A common weed 
in fields, highways and door-yards. 

4. Polygomimsagittatum. (Scratch-grass.) A rough climbing 
species found in low ground. 

5. Polygoniimj Fagopyrum. (Buckwheat.) A valuable grain 
cultivated for the flour which is made into pan-cakes and eaten warm. 

3. Rumex. (Dock-sorrel.) 

1. Ru7nex crispus. (Common Yellow Dock.) Aweed so com- 
mon as hardly to need a description, growing in cultivated grounds, 
about rubbish, etc. Quite an annoyance. The root is nsed as a 
medicine in cutaneous disease?. 

2. Rumex ohtusifolius. (Broad-leaved Dock.) A weed as 
troublesome as the first, growing about houses and fields wherever 
it is least welcome. 

3. Rumex Acetosella. (Field Sorrel. Sheep Sorrel.) A common 
weed, growing in pastures and waste grounds^ acid in taste. 

Order L. Laurace^. (Laurel Family.) 

1. Benzoin. (Wild Allspice.) 

1. Benzoin odorlferum.. (Spice-bush.) A shrub growing in 
moist woods; it has an aromatic flavor, and the bark a spicy taste. 

2. Sassafras. (Sassafras.) 

1 Sassafras o-ffiGinale. (Common Sassafras.) A tree growing 
from 10 to 40 feet high. It has a very aromatic, sweetish taste, 
which is caused by an essential oil that is highly prized in medicine. 

Order LI. Urticace^. (Nettleworts.) 

1. Mortis. (Mulberry.) 

1. Moras rubra. (Red Mulberry.) A forest tree; wood very 
elastic; berries of a deep red color, and of an agreeable acid taste. 

2. Madura. (Osage Orange.) 

1. Madura aurantlaGa. (Common Osage Hedge Plant.) A 
beautiful tree, and forms a perfect hedge. 


3. Urtica. (The Kettle.) 

1. TJrtiea Canadensis. (Common Kettle.) Grows in damp 

2. Urtica dioica. (Dioecious, or Stinging Kettle.) Found in 
waste places, moist woods, etc. Stings when it is but touched. 

4. Cannabis. (Hemp.) 

1. Cannabis satlva. (Hemp.) Cultivated for the sake of its 
fiber in many countries; a specimen here and there may be seen. 

5. Humulus. (Hop- vine.) 

1. Hamulus Lwpulus. (Common Hop.) A well known climb- 
ing vine. 

6. TJlmus. (Elm.) 

1. TJlmus falva. (Red or Slippery Elm.) Grows in woods and 
in low grounds. The mucilaginous characterof the inner bark makes 
it very valuable as an emollient. 

2. TJlmus America iu(. (White Elm.) This is a majestic tree, 
much sought for as a shade tree; the timber is also valuable. 

Order LII. Platanacejs. (Plane-tree Family.) 

1. Platanus. (Plane-tree. Buttonwood.) 

1. Platanus occldentalis. (American Plane-tree or Sycamore.) 
It grows on the margins of streams, and is by far the largest, though 
not the loftiest tree in American forests. 

Order LIU. Juglandace^. (Walnut Family.) 

1. Juglans. ("Walnut.) 

1. Juglans cinerea. (Butternut. "White "Walnut.) This tree 
grows on elevated banks of streams and on cold, uneven soils. The 
nut possesses an oily, pleasant-flavored kernel. The wood is used 
in paneling and ornamental work. The bark yields an excellent 

2, Juglans nigra. (Black Walnut.) The black walnut is a 
common and stately forest tree; in open lands it grows into a large 
and spacious head. It is very extensively used in cabinet work. 

2. Carga. (Hickory.) 

1. Caryaalha. (Shag-bark or Shell-bark Hickory.) This is an 
important forest tree; it is used in making axle-trees, whipstocks, 
axe handles, hoops, etc. The wood is superior for fuel, and the nut 
is highly prized for its richly-flavored kernel. 

2. Carya porclnu. (Pig-nut or Broom Hickory.) It is a forest 
tree. The timber is valuable, — used where great strength is re- 
quired. The nut-kernels are small and bitter. 

3. Carya sulcata. ("Western or Thick Shell-bark Hickory.) It 
more nearly resembles Carya alba than any other species. 

Order LIY. Cupulifer^. (Mastworts. Oak Family.) 
1. Quercus. (Oak.) 

1. Quercus alba. (White oak.) A fine forest tree; timber of 

great value for sti'enizth and finrabilitv. Tlie bark is useful in 


tanning, and also in medicine; it possesses astringent properties. 

2. Quercns ruhra. (Red Oak.) A well known forest tree, not 
so valuable as the Quercus alba. 

3. Qitercus tmctoria. (Black Oak. Yellow-bark Oak.) The 
bark of this tree is deeply furrowed, and from it is obtained " quer- 
citron," a substance used in dyeing. The bark is used also in 

4. Quercus nigra. (Barren Oak. Black Jack.) A small, 
gnarled tree, growing in light soils. Quite common. 

2. Fagus. (Beach.) 

1. Fagus sylvatica: (American Beach.) A common forest 
tree. Nut small, oily, sweet and nutritious; timber fine-grained 
and valuable. 

3. Corylus. (Hazel-nut. Filbert.) 

1. Corylus Americana. (Wild Hazel-nut.) A shrub, growing 
in thickets and borders of fields. The nuts are well-flavored and 
very much prized, though it is said that they are inferior to the 
European hazel or filbert. 

4. Ostrya. (Hop^Hornbeam. Ironwood.) 

1. Ostrya Yirginica. (Lever-wood. Iron-wood.) A small 
tree with shaffacy bark hard wood, which is white and strong. Used 
tor levers. 

5. Carpinvs. (Hornbeam.) 

1. Carpinus Americana. (Blue or Water Beach.) A small 
tree with smboth bark. Found mostly near running water. The 
wood is very fine-grained, compact and white. 

Order LV. Betulaceje. (Birchworts.) 

1 . Betula. (Birch.) 

1. Betula ruhra. (Red Birch.) A tree growing along the 
Kankakee river, and perhaps elsewhere; trunk covered with red- 
dish or chocolate-colored bark, which at length becomes very loose 
and torn. 

Order LVI . Salicace^. (Willow-worts. Willow Family.) 
1. Salix. (Willow. Osier.) 

1. Salix tristis. (Sage Willow.) Found in sandy or dry fields, 
borders of woods, pastures, etc. A small, downy shrub. 

2. Salix discolor. (Bog Willow.) A shrub from eight to 
ten feet high; found in swampy grounds, and has tough brown 

3. Salix fragilis. (Crack Willow.) A tall tree along streams, 
and elsewhere; twigs break oif at base by a slight pressure. The 
wood is salmon-color. 

4. Salix vitellina. (Yellow Willow. Golden Osier.) This 
is a tree of moderate height, with shining yellow branches, common 
along roadsides, etc. 


5. Salix Bahylonica. (Babylonian or Weeping Willow.) This 
is an elegant species, with long, slender branchlets gracefully droop- 
ing. The technical or Latin name was suggested by the following 
from Psalm cxxxvii: 

" By the rivers of Babylon there we sat dowu : 

Yea, we wept when we remembered Zion. 

We hanged our hai'ps upon the willows in the midst thereof." 

2. Pojpulus. (Poplar. Aspen.) 

1. Populustremaloldes. (American Aspen. " Quaking Asp.") 

Grows in woods and open lands to the height of from 25 to 40 feet. 
The leaves tremble in the sliglitest breeze. The " trembling" of 
the " aspen leaf" is proverbial. 

2. Populns angulata. (Water Poplar. Western Cotton-wood.) 
Grows in moist lands; height from 40 to 80 feet; timber not very 

Order LYII. Arace^. (Arum Family.) 

1. A7'U7n. (Indian Turnip.) 

1. Arum trijphyUnm. (Dragon Root. Jack-in-the-Pulpit.) A 
curious plant found in wet woodlands. The subterraneous corm 
(root) is fiercely acrid, but this is lost by drying. It is valued as a 
carminative medicine. 

2. Acorus. (Sweet Flag.) 

1. Acoras calanws. (Common Calamus.) It grows in wet 
soils. Its root (rhizoma) lias an aromatic flavor, a sharp and 
pungent taste, and is highly valued. The sword-shaped leaves has 
a ridge running throngh their whole length. 

Order LYIIII. Iridace^. (The Irids.) 

1. Iris. (Iris.) 
1. Iris versicolor. (Blue Flag.) Yery common, growing in 
wet grounds. Its large blue flowers are very conspicuous among 
the grass. 

Order LIX. Typhace^e. (Cat-tail Family.) 

1. Typha. (Cat-tail Flag.) 

]. Typha lati folia. (Cat-tail. Red Mace.) A common, 
smooth, tall plant growing in the water of muddy pools and 
ditches. They are useful in making chair seats. 

2. Sparganium. (Burr Reed.) 

1. Sparganiurn natans. (Floating Burr Reed.) Grows in 
lakes and pools. Stems long and slender, with 'leaves floating upon 
the water. 


Order LX. Alismace^. (Water Plantain Family.) 

1. Alisma. (Water Plantain.) 

]. Alisma Planta go. (Common Water Plantain.) A smooth, 
handsome plant, found in ponds and ditches; leaves resembling 
those of common yard plantain. 

Order LXI. CYPERACEiE. (Sedges.) 
Solrpus. (Rush.) 

1. Sc/'rpus triqueter- (Three-cornered Hush.) Abundant in 
ponds and marshes. Yery sharply three-cornered. 

2. Scirpus lacitstrts. (Lake Bulrush.) Grows in muddy mar- 
gins of rivers and ponds. Tall, cj'lindrical, leafless and pithy. It 
grows from five to eight feet high. 

Order LXII. Smilace^. (Sarsaparilla.) 
1. Smllax. (Greenbrier. Catbrier.) 

1. Smilax Totund'ifol'm. (Common Greenbrier.) A strong, 
thorny vine, running from 10 to 40 feet in hedges and thickets. 
Stem woody and smooth, except the thorns; berries black. 

2. Stnllax Surs'iparllla. (Medicinal SarsapariUa.) Grows in 
swampj thickets; roots long and slender. 

Order LXIII. Liliace^. (Lily Family.) - 

1. Lilium. (Lily.) 

1. Lilium Canadense. (Yellow lily.) A plant of much beauty, 
adorning the meadows and prairies in summer. Flowers pendulous, 
yellow or orange-colored, and spotted, with dark purple inside. 

2. Lilium Superbum. (Superb Lily. Turk's Cap.) There are 
but few, even of those which are cultivated, that are more beautiful 
than this prairie and meadow flower. Flowers are a bright orange- 
color, with purple spots. 

3. Lilium tigrinum. (Tiger-spotted Lily.) Cultivated, com- 

2. Asparagus. (Asparagus.) 

1. Asparagus officinalis. (Common Asparagus.) Cultivated. 
It is one of the oldest and most delicate of garden vegetables, and 
is no less praised at the present day than it was in ancient times. 
Pliny and Cato and other writers have praised it. 

• 3. Allium. (Onion. Garlic.) 

1. AlliuTTi ceniuum. (Nodding Garlic or Wild Onion). Found 
in the woods and thickets; small bulb. Not very common. 

2. Allium sativum. (Common Garlic.) Cultivated. Used in 
seasoning, and sometimes in medicine. 

3. Allium Cepci. (Common Onion.) Cultivated universally 
for the kitchen. 

Order LXIY. Gramine^. (Grasses.) 

1. Galamagrostis. (Wild Grasses.) 

1. Calamagrostis Canadensis. (Reed Grass. Blue-joint.) It 
used to be common on the prairie lands. It made good hay. 


2. Calamagrostis coarctata. (Slongh Grass.) Found in sloughs 
and bogs. Very common. 

2. AlopeGurus. (Fox-tail.) 

1. Alopecurus prateiisis. (Fox-tail Grass.) Found in fields 
and meadows, and is well known. 

3. Phleum. (Herd's Grass.) 

.1. Phleum ^ratense. (Common Timothy.) It is extensively 
cultivated, and is probably the most valuable "of all the grasses. 

4. Digitaria. (Finger Grass.) 

1. Digitaria sanguinaUs. (Purple Finger Grass. Crab Grass.) 
Common in cultivated fields and gardens. 

5. Avena. (Oat.) 

1. Avena sativa. (Common Oat.) Cultivated, and one of the 
staple field productions; a very important grain. 

6. Bromus. (Chess.) 

1. Bromus secalinus. (Common Cheat.) Found in wheat- 
fields. It is quite troublesome to the farmers. 

7. Poa. (Pasture Grasses.) 

1. Poa compressa. (Blue Grass.) Common everywhere; a tine 
pasture grass. 

2. Poa serot'ina. (Meadow red-top.) Common in meadows 
and on wet, moist lands. 

8. Triticum. (Wheat.) 

1. Triticum sativum,. (Winter wheat.) This is the most valu- 
able plant of the order, and is largely cultivated. There are several 

9. Secale. (Rye.) 

1. Secale cereale. (Common Rye.) It has been long cultivated. 

10. Hordeum. (Barley.) 

1. Hordeum vulgare. (Barley.) Extensively cultivated. 

11. Sorghum. (Broom Corn.) 

1. Sorghum mccharatum. (Common Broom Corn.) Its use 
and appearance is well known. 

12. Leersia. (A kind of Rough Grasses.) 

1. Leersia orysoides. (Cut Grass.) A very rough grass, com- 
mon in swamps and by streams, etc, 

13. Zea. (Maize.) 

1. Zea Mays. (Indian Corn.) This plant needs no description, 
and its value is incalculable. 




The word ''zoology " has come to the English language from the 
Greek, and is made up of two words, "zoon," an animal, and 
"logos," a discourse; and hence means the science which treats of 
animals. The animal kingdom is a unit. Investigations which 
have recently been made in comparative, or animal anatomy would 
seem to indicate that the numerous and varied forms of animal 
existence shade and merge into one another in such a way as to 
leave no sharply-marked dividing lines between them; and could 
those forms of animal life which have become extinct be grouped 
and classified with those now in existence, it seems that the entire 
series, from its highest representative, man, to its lowest, the ani- 
malcule, would be unbroken, — the succession would be perfect. 
" This panoramic view would give an idea of unity in the same 
sense as when we speak of a herd of cattle, though the individuals 
differ in size, color, and form; or a landscape in which there is no 
break in the undulating outline of the far-off horizon, though it 
include river, mountain, and valley." 

The animal kingdom, embracing all its various species and indi- 
viduals, is a vast exhibition of creative energy; more wonderful 
than the thought of man can trace out, nnd more numerous than 
his figures will enumerate. But while this is true, it is equally 
demonstrable that the whole of this vast display of infinite power, 
this superstructure of animal life, is built upon but six typical 
ideas; but each of these is developed, however, by the all-wise 
Creator in the most wonderful diversity. These six typical ideas 
furnish the bases upon which the animal kingdom is subdivided, — 
each of these bein^ a sub-kiniJ-dom. Following are these six sub- 
kingdoms, with the classes of animals which they embrace, together 
with the destinctive, or typical idea, upon which the classification 
is made. 

1st. The Yertebrates. This sub-kingdom includes mammals, 
birds, reptiles and fishes. Its typical idea is, a nervous system 
which is composed of a brain, a spinal marrow and ganglions; an 
internal, jointed skeleton; red blood; a heart; and five senses. 

2d. The Articulates. This sub-kingdom includes insects, worms, 
lobsters, etc. Its typical idea is, a nervous system which is com- 
posed of ganglions and nerves only, which nervous ganglions are 
united on a middle line in a sort of longitudinal chain; body 



divided into rings with an external skeleton formed by the skin, 
more or Jess hardened; no internal skeleton; blood usually white; 
a heart; and the senses more or less incomplete. 

3d. The MoUuscans. This sub-kingdom includes cuttle-fishes, 
clams, snails, etc. The typical idea of this sub-kingdom is, a nerv- 
ous system which is composed of ganglion and nerves only, which 
nervous ganglions are placed in different imrts of the body; a body 
which is soft without external skeleton, but which is usually pro- 
tected bv a shell; no internal skeleton; blood usually white; a 
heart; and the senses more or less incomplete. 

4th. The Echinoderins. This sub-kingdom includes sea urchins, 
star-fishes, etc. Its typical idea is a radiate structure with the 
alimentary canal distinct from the cavity of the body. 

5th. The Coelenterates. This sub-kingdom includes jelly fishes, 
polyps, hydras, etc. Its typical idea is a radiate structure, with 
the alimentary canal not distinct from the cavity of the body. 

6th. The Protozoans. This sub-kingdom includes animals which 
are very minute, and of simple structure, and which cannot be 
placed in any of the other sub-kingdoms. They are sponges, infu- 
soria, rhizopods, etc. 

These six subdivisions include all of the animal kingdom, and 
they rise in importance in the inverse order in which they are given. 
It is said b}^ some that the genus " Bathybius," a microscopic mass 
of albuminous jelly neither distinctively animal nor plant, is the 
simplest structure known to man, though it may be affirmed on the 
later declarations of Prof. Huxley that "Bathybius" possesses no 
vitality. But if it does possess vitality, then from it, the lowest, up 
through all the six sub-kingdoms, there are recognized a continual 
progression in typical idea and actual development until the verte- 
brates are reached, at the head of which we find man. 

" Man — the lord of the animal kingdom — is constructed after the 
same type as the cat which purrs at his feet, the ox which he eats, 
the horse which bears his burden, the bird which sings in his gilded 
cage, the snake which crawls hissing across his pathway, the toad 
which hides in his garden, and the fish which swims in his aquarium. 
All are modifications of one creative thought, showing how the 
Almighty worker delights in repeating the same chord, with infinite 
variations." — Steele. ' 


That we may the better connect the fauna of the district of country 
of which we write with those which surround it, we first take a 
broader and more comprehensive view of it than if we were to con- 
fine ourselves within its limits. The zoology of America, like its 
botany, may be divided as touching its faunas into three great 

1st. The Arctic Division. In the arctic or northern division 
may be included those frigid regions commencing between 65^ and 


60^ of north latitude, and extending to the shores of the frozen 
ocean. The typical animal of these regions is the Polar Bear. 

2d. The Temperate Division. The middle or second grand 
division of American zoology commences where the northern divis- 
ion begins and terminates with the Gulf of Mexico, thus embracing 
the most temperate and healthful regions of the New "World. 

3d. The Torrid Division. The equatorial or third grand divis- 
ion of American zoology begins with the Gulf of Mexico, and 
extends to the southern limit of Paraguay, beyond which lie countries 
that have not yet been fully developed by scientific naturalists. 

Of these three divisions, we are to do only with the second, for 
the latitude of La Porte county is near its center. Touching the 
fauna of this division, the following is worthy of transcription: 

"In regard to its ferine inhabitants, little can be said : for, although 
the species have been described in systems, no traveler has yet 
taken a comprehensive view of their geographic distribution. 
Many of the northern quadrupeds range over a large portion of these 
temperate latitudes, while the others', not found toward the Pole, 
do not exhibit any striking peculiarities in the zoological distribu- 
tion of genera. But the ornithology is more distinctly marked. 
Numerous tribes of insectivorous birds, unknown in the temperate 
latitudes of the Old World, or the equatorial regions of the New, 
spread themselves over this fruitful portion of America, either as 
permanent residents or as annual migrators from the more genial 
shores of the Mexican Gulf. The most celebrated of these is the 
Mocking-Bird, — plain, indeed, in colors, yet endowed with a perfec- 
tion of voice far surpassing any other in creation. Toward the 
beginning of May, when the insect world has just begun to assume 
life and activity, innumerable flocks of Warblers, Flycatchers, 
Woodpeckers, Starlings, Thrushes and other families, appointed to 
keep the noxious insects within due limits, make their appearance 
in the United States; prodigiously increasing the usual number of 
the feathered inhabitants, and making the woods resound with their 
note. The process of incubation finished, and the young sufiiciently 
grown to undertake their autumnal passage, nearly the whole return 
to winter in latitudes less cold, and where their animal. food will 
not fail. Very many of these species have been traced to the warm 
shores of the table-land of Mexico; others appear in some of the 
West India Isles, the Bahamas, etc.; but not more than one or two 
liave yet been detected on the main land of equinoctial America. 
The birds of game, in comparison with those of the northern regions, 
are few and insignificant, — always excepting the Great American 
Turke}', for it is this part of the New World which first gave us this 
noble addition to our barn-yards. Increase of population has had 
its usual effect, and has long driven these birds from many of their 
former haunts; they still, however, are to be found in large flocks in 
the back settlements. 

''Of the other animals, there are few which are the same as those 
of Europe. The fish are numerous; and several species, like the 



cod of Newfoundland, occur in sufficient profusion to create a dis- 
tinct branch of commerce. Reptiles, in point of variety, seem also 
to abound. Morse has enumerated nearly 40 kinds found in the 
United States; and Virginia, in particular, produces great numbers. 
The most formidable of these are the well-known rattlesnakes, of 
which there now appears to be more than one species ; some few of 
the others are venomous, but none can be compared, in bulk, to the 
monstrous serpents of South America. The savannas and swamps 
abound with immense bull-frogs, fiv^e times the size of the Euro- 
pean; while a particular species of alligator is said to occur in the 
Southern rivers." — Encyclopedia of Geography. 

This gives sufficiently, though perhaps it might be made a little 
more accurate now since the investigations in this direction are 
more accurate than when the above extract was written, the zoology 
of the middle division of America, so that a fair estimate may be 
formed as to the typical zoological idea which prevails among the 
vertebrates of the smaller district of country of which wo write. 
It is possible that there is not a single one of the species of the 
fauna of La Porte county which is peculiar to itself; though it is 
possible that a close investigation would reveal one or more. As 
the flora of a country is important, enabling one, though he may be 
far away if he understands that flora, to determine the character of 
that countr}^, so also is the fauna of a country. As it requires a 
peculiar soil, temperature, and other meterological conditions to 
produce a particular kind of flora, so also does it take a particular 
vegetation, climate, and other local surroundings to produce a par- 
ticular fauna. So then if one has the botany and zoology of a 
country he has the means of determining the characteristics of that 
country. For these reasons we are constrained to give, as we have 
already done of its flora, the fauna of the county, though it will be 
but partial, and in some particulars it may be imperfect. In giv- 
ing this fauna, we shall follow the same general plan as we did in 
compiling tlie flora. Both the common and the technical names 
will be given, and a partial description. Arranged in their species, 
genera, and ordei-s, it will be an easy matter for those who may 
desire to investigate closer, and to have a more elaborate description 
of any species than is here given, to consult works on zoology where 
these descriptions will be found. 


As we have said, the crowning excellence of the creative idea, so 
far as is determined and worked out in animal life, seems to con- 
centrate in the vertebrate sub-kingdom, at the very head of which 
is man. 


Sub-Kingdom, Yfrtebrata. ■(Animals which have a Back- 

Class 1. Mammalia. (Yertebrate animals whose Young 
are Suckled.) 

Order I. Blmana. (Animals having two hands.) 

Family 1. Somonidce. (The Human Race.) 

2. Homo sapiefis. (Man.) Of tliis order there is but the one 
species, Man; but it lias been separated into five divisions, three of 
which, and it may be four, have found citizenship in the county. 

1st. The Indian. The first inhabitant of this conn try was the 
Indian, so far as history can inform us, or tradition reveal the facts 
of the past. He had no power to reclaim the wild wastes of nature; 
but during his habitancy it was wild nature, wild beasts, and wild 
men. These were supplanted by the 

2d. The CauGasiaii. The White race is renowned everywhere 
for its mental vigor, for its culture, and for its power over nature 
to bring it under subservient control; and hence under his control 
the country has been changed from an uncultivated wilderness to 
fields of surpassing beauty, bearing bounteous stores of human 
necessities. Intermingled among these are a few of the 

3d . The Ethiopian.. Whatever may be said of the Negro race 
in the future, it is evident that tliey do not stand by any means the 
peer of the White race, but serve in subordinate and subservient 
positions to the dominant White race. 

4th. The Mongolian. It may be that at some time a few indi- 
viduals of the Celestial empire have found residence in the county. 
If so, then these four races of men have been inhabitants of it. 
Order II. Carnivora. (Flesh-subsisting Animals.) 
Family 1. Felidce. (The cat family.) 

1. Fella domestica. (The Domestic Cat.) In nearly every home 
this useful animal may be found. 

2. Lynx Canadensis. (Canada Lynx.) This animal may not 
now be found, but it certainly was a, pre-settlement animal, and 
perhaps subsequent to white settlement of the country. 

3. Lynx ru^ftis. (The Wild Cat.) This was another of the 
former animals of the county. The latter two are fierce inhabitants 
of woods that afford protection from view. 

Family 2. Canidce. (The Dog Family.) 

1. Canis Lupus. (The Wolf)' This is a well-known and 
destructive animal, especially in flocks of sheep. 

2. Canis familiaris. (The Common Dog.) This needs no 

3. Vulpes vulgaris. (The Fox.) The Fox is a nocturnal animal, 
noted for his slyness. He is very fleet of foot. His tail is bushy. 

Family 3. Mustelidce. (The Weasel Family.) * 
1. Futorius ermineus. (The Common Weasel.) The weasel is 
not now very common. It is a mice destroyer, and that far useful. 


2. Putorius lutreolus. (The Mink.) It is found mostly along 
the streams and sloughs; is of a brown color, with a white spot 
under the chin. It is valued for its fur. 

3. Mephitis mephitica. (The Skunk.) It is striped with white 
and black. It emits a most intolerable odor as a self-defense. It 
hibernates in the ground. 

4. Lutra Canadensis. (The Otter.) The otter is web-footed, 
lives in burrows, feeds on fish, and spends its spare time in sliding 
down snow-banks in winter time and slippery banks in summer. 
It is valuable for its fur. 

Family 4. Procyonidce. (The Raccoon.) 

1. Pi'ocyon lotor. (The Common Eaccoon.) The " 'coon " is a 
nocturnal animal, having the instinctive cunning of tlie fox, the 
inquisitive meddlesomeness of the monkey, the greediness of the 
bear, and the slyness of the cat. It furnishes night sport for the 
" boys." 

Order III. TJngulata. (Hoofed Quadrupeds.) 
Family 1. Bovidm. (The Ox Family.) 

1. JBos tanrus. (The Domestic Ox.) This animal needs no 
description, it is one of the most useful of domestic animals 

2. Gajpra cegagrus. (The Goat.) The goat is only sparingly 

3. Bos Americanus. (Bison or Buflalo.) This stately denizen 
of the West has long since left the prairies of the county. 

4. Oois aries. (The Domestic Sheep.) JMo description of this 
valuable is needed. From the earliest ages it has been the com- 
panion of civilized man. 

Family 2. Cervidce. (The Deer Family.) 

1. Cervus Virginiamis. (The Common Red Deer.) The timid- 
ity, agility, and fleetness of this animal has always been proverb- 
ial. There is perhaps not a specimen left in the county, but it 
used to be the sport of the hunter, and the hope for winter supplies 
of the pioneer. 

Family 3. Suidce. (The Hog Family.) 

1. Sus scropha. (Domestic Swine.) The hog is one of the 
most valuable animals of the countj^ ; and it has been both tame 
and wild. 

Family 4. Equidce. (The Horse Family.) 

1. Equus cahaUus. (The Common Horse.) This magnificent 
animal is well-known the world over ; no description would make 
it better known. It loves man and man loves it. 

2. Equus asinus. (The Ass or Donkey.) A few^ specimens of 
this Oriental burden-bearer is to be found in the county. It feeds 
on rougher food and endures harsher treatment with patience than 
the horse, and hence serves an Oriental purpose better than the 


Order lY. Cheiroptera. (Webbed-winged Animals.) 
Family 1. Vespertilionidce. (The Bat Family.) 
1. Veapertilio sublatus. (The Common Little Brown Bat.) 
This little animal may be seen in the twilight flying in erratic 
directions, up and down, right and left. Its abodes are lofts and 
dark places, and it hibernates in the winter. It is an insect 

Order V. Insect hora. (Insect-feeding Animals.) 
Family 1. Talpldce. (The Mole Family.) 
1. Scalops aquatlcus. (Common Mole.) These animals have 
round bodies, small eyes, acute hearing and smell, velvet-like tur, 
shovel-shaped paws, and short, sharp nails. They burrow in the 
ground and feed on insects. 

Order VI. Rodentia. (Gnawing Animals.) 
Family 1. Murldce. (Rat Family.) 

1. Arvicola riparia. (Meadow Mouse.) It is noticeable for 
the winding paths which it makes among the grass leading to its 

nest. ^, 

2. Miis musGidus. (The House Mouse.) These are scavengers. 
To a limited extent they are serviceable, but a great pest when they 
become numerous, as every housewife knows. 

3. Mus decumanus. (The House Rat.) This is an importation 
from Asia, but now very common everywhere. It is larger than 

the mouse. , . ^ i 

4. Fiber zebetTiicus. (The Muskrat.) It is found in sloughs, 
ponds and streams; it builds houses of grass, flags, and other 
material, and is sought for its fur. Thousands of them are taken 
every year during the winter season, especially along the Kankakee. 

Family 2. Sciuridoe. (The Squirrel Family.) 

1. Scinrus vulpinus, (The Fox Squirrel.) This is known by 
its red fur, and red, bushv tail. Quite common. , -,. i 

2. Sciurus Carolinemis. (Gray Squirrel.) This beautiful little 
animal is found in the woods, though not as plentifully perhaps as 
the Sciurus vulpinus. 

3. Pteromys volucella. (Flying Squirrel.) A very few speci- 
mens of this attractive squirrel have been found in the county. 

Family 3. Leporidce. (The Hare Family.) 
1. Lepus sylmticus. (Common Gray Rabbit.) This is the 
only species of the hare family found in the county. 

Order VII. Marsupialia. (Pouch Animals.) 

Family 1. Bidelphidce. (Double-matrixed Animals.) 
Didelphys Virginiana. (The Opossum.) This animal is al30ut 
the size of a cat. It is mostly nocturnal and arboreal, and both 
herbivorous and carnivorous. 


Class 2. Aves. (Feathered Animals.) 

Order I. Passeres. (Straiglit-beaked, Four-toed Birds.) 
Family 1. TurdidcB. (The Thrush Family.) 

1. Tardus migratorius. (The Kobin. American Kedbreast.) 
This is an early spring bird, an insect feeder, and a valuable bird. 

2. Mimvs polyglottus. (Mocking-bird.) This is a kind uf 
thrush which comes in the early spring. It is quite a mimic, but 
not the equal of the Southern mocking-i)ird. 

Family 2. Saxicolidce. (Rock Dwellers.) 
1. Slalia sialls. (Common Blue-bird.) This is the exact 
counterpart of the European robin redbreast. It is an early 
spring bird. 

Family 3. Hirundinldm. (The Swallow Family.) 
1. Hirundo horreorum. (The Barn Swallow.) This bird 
builds its nest in barns, under the eaves of buildings, etc., and is 
quite common. (In addition to this genus, there are in the county 
the martin and forked-tailed swallow of this family.) 

Family 4. Alaudidce. (The Lark Family.) 
1. Eremo'pMla comuta. (The American Lark.) It is found 
in meadows, etc.; often called " meadow lark." 

Family 5. Corv'dce. (The Crow Family.) 

1. Corviis corax. (The Raven.) The raven is generally distrib- 
uted throughout the United States, and is very sagacious, seeming 
to know the difference between a person at his business and one 
bent on mischief 

2. Corviis Araericanus. (The Common American Crow.) 
The difference between the raven and the crow is, the crow is much 
smaller than the raven and has its throat feathers oval and close, 
while the raven's are sharp and scattered. 

3. Cyamira cristata. (Blue Jay.) It has a^ bright violet, sky 
blue and white coat, ornamented with a crest of light blue or pur- 
ple feathers, which it can depress at pleasure. 

Order 11. Ficarm. (Climbing Birds.) 

Family 1. Alcedinidm. (A Family of Perchers.) 
1. Ceryle alcyon. (The Kingfisher.) It burrows into and lays 
its eggs in banks of sand. It is a fish-feeder, catching the fish 
usually by the tail and if small then swallowing it at once. 
Family 2. Caprhnulgidce. (Goat-suckers.) 
1. Chordeiles popetue. (The Night Hawk.) The night hawk 
is often confounded with the whippoorwill, but they are quite dis- 
tinct. The night hawk hunts its feed in the evening, and often, 
diving down perpendicularly, produces a whirring sound like a 

3. Antrostomus vodferus. (The Whippoorwill.) This bird 
comes out in the evening to catch its food. It makes the air vocal 
with its cry of "whip-poor-will," which gives it its name. 


Family 3. Cypselklce. (The Swift Family.) 
1. CoBtura pelasgia. (The Chimney-swallow.) This bird gets 
its name from its selection of a chimney in which to build its nest. 
Family 4. Trochilidces (Humming-bird Family.) 
1. Trochilus coJuhrh. (The Ruby-throated Humming-bird.) 
This is one of the finest little birds of America, its plumage being 
a blending of the rarest colors of flower and gem. It is a honey- 
feeder, and secures it from the flowers while on the wing. 

Family 5. Plcldae. (Woodpeckers.) 
1. CoJaptes auratus. (Golden-winged Woodpecker.) Quite 
common, and feeds pn insects which it pecks out of trees, etc. 

Order III. Raptores. (Plundering Birds.) 

1. Family 1. FalGonidae. (Hooked-beak and Stroug- 
Taloned Birds.) 

1. Falco sjyarvernis. (The Sparrow Hawk.) This is one of 
the smallest, but it is a typical falcon. 

2. Astur atricaplllus. (Common Hawk.) Known by its devas- 
tations on the hen-coops. 

3. Haliaetus leucocephalus. (White-headed or Bald Eagle.) 
This is the chosen sj^mbol of our country. With almost motionless 
wings, by a series of graceful spiral curves it rises in the air to a 
great height, and then descends with lightning rapidity. 

Family 2. Strigidae. (The Owl Family.) 

1. Biiho Yiroinianus, (The Great Horned Owl.) It is some- 
times called the cat-owl, as its tufts, erectile at will, give its head a 
sinister aspect not unlike the cat. 

2. 8t7'ix flammea . (The Screech-owl or Barn-owl.) It is of a 
rusty red color, mottled with white. It utters a dismal cry. 

Family 3. Cathartld(B. (The Yulture Family.) 

1. Rhynographus aura. (The Turkey Buzzard.) This is a 
useful scavenger. Its head and neck are featherless, and it is broad 
of wing and graceful in flight. 

Order IV. Coluinbm. (Pigeon and Dove.) 
Family 1. Coluinhldm. (The Pigeon Family.) 

1. Ectopistes migratoria. (Wild or Migratory Pigeon.) These 
birds are very common. They come and go in large flocks. 

2. Ectopistes Carollnensis. (The Carolina Turtle Dove.) This 
is a well-known bird. It is often employed as the emblem of 
innocence, gentleness, and aftection. 

Order Y. GalUnce. (The Hen-like Birds.) 

Family 1. Pavonidce. (The Peacock Family.) 

1. Pavo cristatus. (The Common Peacock.) This fowl has 
been renowned for ages for the beauty of its plumage. 


Family 2. Numididae. (The Guinea-fowl Family.) 
1. Numida meleagris. (Common Guinea-fowl.) A barn-yard 
fowl, useful in the protection which it gives by its cry of camac^ 
caniac, to the poultry in driving away crows and hawks. 

Family 3. MeleagrldcB. (The Turkey Family.) 

1. Meleagris f era. (The Wild Turkey.) Found in the woods, 
but getting to be somewhat scarce. A noble fowl. 

2. Meleagris gallopavo. (The Common Domesticated Turkey.) 
This is one of the most highly prized of the domestic fowls. 

Family 4. Tetraonidce. (The Grouse Family.) 

1. Bonasa umheUus. (The Partridge, otherwise called Pheas- 
ant.) This bird, in spring, drums upon a log with its wings, 
closely imitating distant thunder. Its flesh is excellent game. 

2. Tetrao cupido. (The Prairie-hen.) A well-known game 
bird of the prairies. Perhaps diminishing in number. 

Family 5. Ferdicidm. (The Partridge Family.) 
1. Ortyx Yirginiamis. (The Quail. Bob- White.) A highly 
prized game bird of excellent quality. Quite common. 

Family 6. Scolopacidce. (The Snipe Family.) 

1. Philohela minor. (The Woodcock.) It is found in the 
thickest woods, and its ilesh is considered a very great delicacy. 

2. ^gialites vociferus. (The Killdeer.) This is an aquatic 
bird closely allied !o the plover. 

Order VI. Rerodlones. (The Heron.) 

Family 1, Ardeidce. (The Heron Family.) 

1. Ardea Herodias. (The Great Blue Heron.) This is an 
aquatic fowl, frequenting the shores of streams, ponds and other 
bodies of shallow water, and feeding upon fish. 

2. Ardea cinerea. (The Common Heron.) Found in sloughs 
and in grass-covered ponds. Makes a loud pumping-like cry. 

Order YII. Lamellirostres. (Birds having lamels or 
dental plates on the beak.) 

Family 1. Anatidce. (The Duck Family.) 

1. Bernicla Canadens'ts. (The Canada or Wild Goose.) This is 
a well-known migratory fowl, migrating to the north in the spring, 
and to the south in the autumn. 

2. Anas sponsa. (The Wood or Summer Duck.) This duck 
builds its nest in hollow trees. It is not worth very much as game. 

3. Anas hoschas. (The Domestic Duck.) Its quack, quack, is 
well known, and needs no description. 

4. ArMs moschata. (The Moscovy Duck.) A large, fine fowl 
and considerably sought after as game. 

Order YIII. Pygopodes. (Rump-footed Birds.) 
Family 1. ColymUdce. (The Loon Family.) 
1. Colyinbus iorquatus. (The Great Northern Diver.) This 
fowl can hardly walk on the land, moving only by a succession of 


awkward tumbles, but in the water it is a rare swimmer, and a most 
expert diver. If it sees the flash of the gun, it will dive and dodge 
the bullet. It is not very plentiful, only one now and then being 

Class 3. Reptilia. (Prostrate Animals, — moving on the 
belly or on short legs.) 

Order I. Testudinata. (Shelled-Reptiles.) 

Family 1. Testudinidm. (The Land Tortoises.) 
1. Cistndo Virginiana. (Box Tortoise.) This tortoise, having 
feet for walking, never goes into the water. It lives on soft plants 
and mushrooms. 

Family 2. Emyditce. (The River Tortoise.) 
1. Chelydra Serpentina. (The Snapping Turtle.) This turtle is 
very common, found in almost every stream and body of water. 

Order II. Ophidia. (Reptiles without exterior mem- 

Family 1. CrotalidcB. (The Rattlesnake Family.) 

1. Crotalus durissus. (The Rattlesnake.) This snake is poi- 
sonous, and is known by the horny substance on the tail which, when 
shaken, makes a rattling noise. 

2. Tri gonocephalus contortrix. (The Copperhead.) This ven- 
omous snake is sparsely found. It is also called copper-hell and 
red viper. 

Family 2. Coluhridm. (Non-poisonous Snakes.) 

1. Coluber constrictor. (Black-snake.) A few specimens of 
this snake are still found. 

2. Coluber aqua. (Water-snake.) This harmless snake is still 
found in the streams, ponds and sloughs. It cannot live without 
the water. All of the Colubridse are perfectly inoffensive, and they 
do some good by destroying noxious insects. 

Class 4. Amphibia. (Animals which can live both in 
water and on land.) 

Order I. Anura. (Tailless Amphibians.) 

Family 1. Ranidce. (The Frog Family. 

1. Rana pipiens. (Common Bull-frog.) This amphibious an- 
imal is found in great numbers, and their spring concerts are any- 
thing but the choicest of music. They hybernate during the 

Family 2. BufonUlcB. (The Toad Family.) 

1. Bufo Americanus. (The Common Toad.) Found in 
gardens, yards, etc., and feeds upon insects, which it is very expert 
in catching. 

Class 5. Pisces. (Fishes.) 

Order I. Teleostei. (Perfect-Bone Fishes.) 
Family 1. PercidcB. (Dark -colored Fishes.) 
1. Labraxrufus. (The Common Perch.) This fish is found 
still in the streams, and is highly prized for the table. 


Family 2. Siluridce. (Scaleless Fishes.) 
1. Pimelodus catus. (Cat-fish or Horiied-pout.) This fish 
has a naked skin, and the mouth is snrronnded by tentacles. It 
sometimes attains to a good size. 

Family 3. SalmonidcB. (The Salmon Family.) 

1. Salmon solar. (The Common Salmon.) A most excellent 
fish. It is quite strong, and has been known to ascend waterfalls 10 
or 12 feet high. 

Family 4. Esocidce. (The Pike and Pickerel Family.) 
1. Esox lucius. (The I*ike.) This fish is excelled hardly by 
any fish in American waters. It is quite a game fish, and requires 
some skill to successfully catch it. 

Family 5. OyprinidcB. (The Carp Family.) 

1. Cyprinus auratus. (The Gold-fish.) Tiiis fish, originally 
from China, has become a pet of the parlor and the fountain. 

2. Lahraxlineatus. (The Striped Bass.) This is anotlier of the 
most important fishes of the waters of the county. 

StjB-KiNGDOM. Articclata. (Animals wliicli are joiuted.) 

Class 1. Tnsecta. (Articulates which divide into three 

Order I. Hymenoptera. (Membrane-winged Insects.) 

Family 1. Apidm. (Hone}'' Makers.) 

1. Apis melliiica . (The Common Honey-bee.) This insect is 
found both in domestic culture and wild in the woods. 

2. Apis hoiiihus. (The Bumble-bee.) A large bee which is 
found in stubble fields, meadows, pastures, etc. They raise their 
young in colonies under the ground. 

Family 2. Eormicidce. (The Ant Family.) 

1. Ponera grandis. (Giant Ant.) Quite common, large and 

2. Formica sanguiiiea. (The Red Ant.) Housewives will 
know this little pest without further description. 

Order II. Lepidoptera. (Scale- winged Insects.) 

Family 1. Papilionidm. (The Butterfly Family.) 
1. Papilio machaon. (Butterfly.) Butterflies are but cater- 
pillars dressed up in Sunday clothes. They are diurnal, and pro- 
duce caterpillars again, which are destructive to vegetation. 
Order III. Diptera. (Two- winged Insects.) 
Family 1. Culicidae. (The Gnat Family.) 
1. Oulex pipiens. (The Common Mosquito.) This insect is 
very numerous in some parts of the county, especially on the 
marshes. Its young at first are '' wiggle-tails, or wrigglers." 

Family 2. MuscAdm (The Fly Family.) 
1. Musca domestica. (The Common House-Fly.) This little 
insect is not in very high repute, but civilized man owes more to 


it than can readily be estimated. It is a most faithful scavenger, 
and is likelj' to be needed for centuries to come yet. 

Family 3. Pulicidce. (Wingless Dipters.) 
1. Pulex irritans. (The Common Human Flea.) This is a 
most troublesome little insect, and very strong. It can jump 200 
times its own length, and draw 100 times its own weight. 

Order lY. Semiptera. (Half- winged Insects.) 
Family 1. CiGadidm. (The Harvest-fly Family.) 

1. Cicada septendechn. (The Seventeen-year Locust.) These 
insects return every seventeen years, that is, they come to the sur- 
face of the ground and take wing only once in seventeen years. 

Order V. Orthoptera. (Straight- winged Insects.) 
Family 1. Locustidce. (The Katydid Family.) 
1. Cyrtophyllus concavus. (The Katydid.) A musical insect 
at night. Its notes are produced by the friction of the bases of the 
wings together. 

Family 2. Gryllidce. (The Cricket Family.) 

1. Gryllus domestlGus. (The Common Cricket.) It is character- 
ized by its chirping noise. It used to be a comfort to sit by the old 
chimney fire and hear the cricket chirp its comfortable song. 

2. Gryllus viridissimus . (The Grasshopper.) This insect has 
four joints to each foot, and transparent wing-covers that drop down 
on each side, under which the wings are folded in plaits like a fan. 
It feeds on leaves and grass. 

Order YI. JVeuroptera. (l^erve-winged Insects.) 
Family 1. Lihellulidce. (Devil's Darning-needle.) 
1. Libellala depressa. (Dragon-fly.) A large insect having 
compound eyes, feeding upon mosquitoes and flies, etc. It is repu- 
ted to be a " snake-feeder." 

Class 2. Myriapoda. (Ten-thousand-Footed.) 
Order 1. ClMoyoda. (Lip-footed.) 

Family 1. ScolopendridcB. (The Centipede Family.) 

1. Soolopendra gigantea. (The Centipede.) A venomous 
myriapod, found in places where it may secrete itself under pieces 
of bark, old logs, fence-rails, etc. 

Order II. Diplopoda. (Double-footed.) 

Family 1. Julidoe. (Down-like.) 

1. Julus Canadensis. (The Thousand-leg Myriapod.) This is 

harmless and beneficial in destroying dead vegetable matter. When 

it is alarmed, it coils its body in a ring, with the tail in the center 

and the feet entirely concealed. It is found in like situations with 

the centipede. 


Class 3. Arachnida. (Spider-like.) 
Order I. Aranece. (Web Spinners.) 

Family 1. Araneidce. (The Spider Family.) 
1. Epeira diadema. (Garden or Geometrical Spider.) It re- 
ceives its name from the regularity of the radiating and circular 
lines of the web which it spins for taking its prey, and furnishing 
it with habitation. 

Order II. Acarina. (Mouth for either Sucking or Bit- 

Family 1. Acaridae. (The Itch-mite Family.) 
1. Sarcoptes scabiei (The Itch-mite.) It is not known whether 
this is prevalent in La Porte county or not. It burrows in the 
flesh, multiplies rapidly, and produces a loathsome disease, which 
gives it its name. 

Family 2. Ixodidae. (The Tick Family.) 

1. Ixodes lovh. (Cattle Tick.) These ticks infest the cattle, 
and are said to be a producing cause of the Texas fever. 

2. Ixodes canis. (Dog Tick.) These ticks fasten themselves on 
dogs,— about their ears, etc., so firmly that they can scarcely be 
pulled oflf. 

The foregoing is the fauna of the county as far as we have space 
to give it. ^ It is incomplete, however; but it will, it is hoped, fur- 
nish a basis for some one else more thoroughly to construct a list. 
Whoever does undertake it will find the same difficulty which we 
have met, and that is, a great deal of the fauna is migratory, and 
it is very difficult, sometimes, to distinguish between this migra- 
tory fauna, or the fauna which belongs equally to the limited locality 
and the surrounding country, and that which is permanent. Ani- 
mals have the power of locomotion and plants have not. Because 
of this fact it is much more easy to give the flora of a county than 
it is to give the iauna. 

It is to be hoped that in the partial catalogues of the flora and 
fauna which have been given above will be found a sufficient interest 
to set some one to this work. 



Having now given the Geography of the county, with its surface 
presentations; its Geology, witli its formations and underlying 
strata; its Botany, with its flora and soil products; its Zoology, 
with its higher manifestations of animal life, there yet remains to 
be given its Archaeology, — the remains which it has of an inhabit- 
ancy and civilization anterior to the advent of the European races, 
and even so far anterior to the Indian race which the European 
found in possession when he came, that there is no memory nor 
reliable tradition of their origin. There are within the county but 
few of these remains, — some in New Durham township, some in 
Union township, and some in other parts of the county. But 
these are suflicient to give the county a most intensely interesting 
archaBolo^ical history. These are hut the foot-prints left " on the 
sands of time," by a former and mighty race, — a race which inhab- 
ited this whole country, and by these remains have revealed their 
former existence, but in such a way as to successfully obscure their 
history — their enlightenment and civilization, their art attainments 
and religion, etc., which, if known, would give satisfaction to an 
already aroused curiosity. Who built these remains? When were 
they piled up? and For what purpose were they constructed? are 
questions which are much more easily asked than answered. But 
from these it is evident that this county has a history which reaches 
far back of that period which we shall presently. detail under the 
head of "Early Settlements," and which is written, as far as we 
have that history, in these archaeological remains. A little study 
of these may not, therefore, be unprofitable, as all history is val- 
uable if it be properly used. 


To read the meaning of these remains, — the chapters of history 
which they contain,- -it will be necessary to link them with like 
remains elswhere — remains which have evidently been constructed 
by the same race of people. Then by putting these together, and 
applying them to the unsolving of the mystei-y of these remains, 
we may be enabled to read something of the history of this archae- 
ological period as it is connected with the especial locality of which 

we write. 



When Cartier visited Canada, and Capt. John Smith came to 
Virginia, and when the Pilgrims landed in Massachusetts and the 
French settled in Western New York, they all found the Indians, 
which were then in possession of the country, constructing defenses, 
of which there are still numerous remains. And likewise Coronada 
found in New Mexico as early as 1540 the msas grandes, those 
singular editices of tort-like dimensions and numerous stories 
whose remains are still found in that country, in perfect condition 
and in actual use. A.nd Cortes in Mexico, Grijalva and Montejo 
in Yucatan. Alvarado in Guatemala, and Pizarro and his captains 
in Peru, all found vast and imposing structures, the work of the 
actual inhabitants whom tliey found in the respective countries, 
the ruins of which are still to be seen. These works are not to be 
included in those which constitute " American antiquities," and to 
which we are inviting attention. Under the head of " antiquities," 
strictly speaking, we can only include such monuments as were 
really regarded by the aborigines themselves as antiquities, concern- 
ing the origin of which they were wholly ignorant, or possessed of 
an unsatisfactory traditionary knowledge. The most of those 
earthworks and mounds on the terraces of the Mississippi valley, 
and in the forests bordering on the Gulf of Mexico, and among 
which are the remains of which we write, possess these character- 
istics of antiquity. We make mention in this connection of the 
ruined pyramids of Teotihuacan and the crumbling edifices of 
Mitla, in Mexico; the still more elaborate structures and sculptured 
monoliths of Palenque and Copan; and the vast enigmatical 
monuments of Tiahuanaco on the southern shores of Lake Titicaca 
in Bolivia, and the bewildering remains of Mansiche or Grand 
Chimu in Northern Peru. The study of these and the other 
remains of our own country, and the linking of them together 
with the remains of which we write, will enable us to partially 
read the treasures of history which they contain. 

Commencing then with the remains which are found in the dif- 
ferent parts of the United States, we find in the Mississippi valley 
a succession of earthworks, manifestly defensive in character, 
extending from the lakes south to the gulf. They generally crown 
the summits of steep hills, and are constructed with an em*bankment 
and an outside ditch, which vary in size, and with approaches which 
are sometimes artfully covered. One of these is Fort Hill, on the 
banks of the Little Miami in Ohio. Its entire line of circumval- 
lation is nearly four miles; and it embraces several hundred acres 
of area. The height of this embankment is from ten to twenty 
feet, according to the weakness or strength of the place it was to 
defend. Many of these defensive works consist of a line of embank- 
ment and ditch, or several of these lines one within the other, 
crossing from the bank of a stream at one point to another where 
it has made a great bend, thus enclosing a peninsula whose bluffs 
and headlands afforded natural strength. And associated with 
these defensive works are structures which are evidently connected 


with religious ideas and ceremonies. The ground for this conclu- 
sion is that these have ditches on the inside and not on the outside 
of the embankment, that they are of regular outlines — in squares, 
in circles, in octagons, and in other geometrical figures. A notable 
instance of this kind of work is at Newark, Ohio, where it covers 
an area of more than two miles square, and a line of embankment 
from two to twenty feet high, and upward of twelve miles in length. 
In connection with these are ether works, doubtless of sacred or 
religious origin. These are mounds of earth and stone of various 
sizes, but always of regular shapes. Thej^ are oftenest squares, 
terraced and ascended by graded ways. Sometimes they are six- 
sided, sometimes they are eight-sided, and sometimes their tops are 
smooth and level as if they were pyramids with their tops cut off; 
and they are ascended by spiral paths instead of the graded way. On 
the top of these were altars, symbolical in form, on which, no 
doubt, the priests offered up sacrifices, and paid adoration to the 
solar god. The geometrical accuracy, the great size, and the alti- 
tude are noted characteristics of some of these. One of these, on 
the plain of Cahokia, in Illinois, opposite the city of St. Louis, is 
TOO feet long by 500 feet hroad at the base, and 90 feet high. It 
covers upward of eight acres, and has 20,000,000 cubic feet of 

But the most common monuments in the Mississippi valley, 
however, are those which are incontestably places of sepulture. 
They are, probably, memorials raised over the dead, and speak in 
some way the importance of the personage while yet living over 
whose remains they are reared. One of these, near Wheeling, in 
West Virginia, is seventy feet in vertical height. Another, at 
Miamisburg, in Ohio, is sixty-eight feet high; and another, near 
Delphi, in Indiana, not far from the Wabash river, is of like dimen- 
sions. Smaller monuments of this character are to be found almost 

But there are still more remarkable earthworks than these. They 
are those which are most commonly found in Wisconsin and in 
Iowa; a few are found, also, in Ohio. These bear the outlines of 
men and animals, constituting huge bas-reliefs on the surface of the 
earth. One of these, on the banks of Brush creek, in Adams 
county, Ohio, is in the form of a serpent. It is 1,000 feet in length, 
and extends in graceful curves, and terminates in a triple coil at 
the tail. The neck of the figure is stretched out and slightly 
curved, and its mouth is opened wide, as if in the act of swallowing 
or ejecting an oval figure, which rests partly between the distended 
jaws. The oval, whicli is thus resting in the opened jaws, is formed 
"of an embankment which is four feet high, and is perfectly regular 
in outline, its two diameters being, the one 103 feet, and the other 
39 feet. This representation is constituted of an embankment 
which is five feet high by 30 feet base at its center, and slightly 
diminishing toward the head and tail. 


We note the fact, also, that in these remains many relics of art 
have been discovered, exhibiting greater skill than was known to 
exist among the aboriginal Indian tribes. Elaborate carvings in 
stone; pottery, often ot elegant design; articles of use and orna- 
mented in metal, — silver, and native copper from Lake Superior; 
mica from the Alleghanies; shells from the gulf of Mexico; and 
volcanic glass, and probably porphyry, from Mexico; these are all 
found side by side in the same mound. 

Now, for the time being, leaving these and taking a hasty flight 
down through New Mexico, Mexico, Central America, United 
States of Colombia and Peru, let us see what we shall find which 
will enable us to read between the lines as they are written in the 
remains, — the historical monuments of this extinct people, — which 
are found in this county. In New Mexico we shall stand in the 
midst of the casas grandes, both of the latter and more antiquated 
structure, and shall see evidences of skill and intelligence above 
that of the birch-bark canoe and skin-covered wis'wam. If we stand 
in the spire of the cathedral in the present city of Mexico, which 
occupies the site of the pyramid and teoculll of Montezuma and 
Guatimozin, our eyes mav descry the ruins of the most ancient of 
all the hundreds of ancient monuments found in Mexico, the pyra- 
mids of Teotihuacan on the plains of Otumba. These are built of 
cut stone, square, with four stages and a level area at the top. 
Humbolt saj^s the larger is 150 feet high, and the smaller 145; but 
Mr. Glennie affirms that the laro^er is 221 feet hiarh. It is 680 feet 
square at the base, covering an area of 11 acres, — nearly equal to 
that of the great pyramid of Cheops in Egypt. Now, the great 
teocaJJi of Cholula, not far from the city of Pueblo, taken in con- 
nection with these will serve to show the greatness of these ruins 
and tlie skill which it required to construct them. According to 
Latrobe, this latter teocalJl (temple) is 177 feet high, and 1,425 teet 
square at the base, covering an area of 45 acres. 

As we pass on down 'into Central America, we may stop a 
moment at Palenque to examine its ancient pj-ramidal temple, 
within some of the chambers of which have been found tablets 
which were covered with artistic sculpture and hieroglyphics, — 
evidences of skill and enlightenment. Passing on down into 
Honduras, we shall stop at Copan where will be found remains 
greatly resembling those already noticed, in structure, vastness, and 
perpetuity of workmanship, and doubtless for the same purpose; 
but associated with these are grand monoliths, most intricately 
carved and some of them covered with hieroglyphics, additional 
evidences of superior intelligence. As we pass through the United 
States of Colombia on the way to Peru, we shall find many minor 
relics of antiquity, such as figures of divinities and objects worked 
in gold and stone, and also a few considerable monuments consist- 
ing of structures which seem to have been supported by columns 
of large size and just proportions. But we will not stop until we 
stand among the most ancient monuments of Peru (or rather of 


Bolivia, formerly Upper Peru), — those at Tiabuanaco, on the shore 
of Lake Titicaca. Their origin is lost in obscurity, and they are 
supposed by many writers to be the v/ork of a race anterior to the 
Incas, denoting perhaps a more advanced civilization than the 
monuments of Palenque. These remains are wonderful, equaling 
and challenging in interest any remains of the old world, stirring 
up a longing desire to know the full story that lies hidden in tliem. 
The archffiological interest which clusters around Nineveh and 
Babylon is great, but it does not surpass, if indeed it equals, that 
which belongs to these veritable remains of a great but now extinct 
and, if it were not for these, forgotten people. In describing these 
ruins, and especially the great temple at Cuzco, the earl}' Spaniards 
exhausted every superlative of their language. Standing with all 
these ancient monumental remains at our back, what troops of 
queries and interrogatories come tliundering down the highways 
of the mind in search of solution? Standing upon the elevation 
which these will afford, it must be apparent to every mind that 
this whole country, from the Laurentian highlands on the north 
down through these regions until the greatly elevated Lake of 
Titicaca is reached in the south, was once densely populated with 
an intelligent and enterprising people, very much superior in 
every way to those who were aboriginal when the European races 
began to come. Can it be realized as a fact that, thousands of years 
ago, the beautiful prairies of La Porte yielded as now to the busy 
tread of a restless population; and that its groves, first temples 
of praise, resounded to the songs of devout worshipers? that this 
world of humanity sickened and died and thus became a finished 
page in the history of men? The archaeological remains of this 
county attest this truth ; there is no other satisfactory solution of 
this problem. 

In concluding this chapter on the archaeology of the county, 
and the history which these remains suggest, the following is 
extracted from the American Cyclopedia, from which the greater 
portion of the facts given above are compiled: 

" The facts connected with the monuments of the Mississippi 
valley indicate that the ancient population was numerous and 
widely spread, as shown from the number and magnitude of their 
works, and the extensive range of their occurrence; that it was 
essentially homogeneous in customs, habits, religion, and govern- 
ment, as appears from the great uniformity which the works dis])lay, 
not only in respect to position and form, but in all minor particu- 
lars; and that the features common to all the remains identify them 
as appertaining to a single grand system, owing its origin to a 
family of men moving in the same general direction, acting under 
common impulses, and influenced by similar causes. Whatever 
differences the monuments display ai-e such as might result from 
the progressive efibrts of a people in a state of development, or 
from the weaker efforts of colonies, or what might be called provin- 
cial communities. It is impossible that a population for whose 



protection sucli extensive military works were necessary, and wiiich 
Were able to defend tbem, should not have been eminently agricul- 
tural; and such monuments as the mounds at Grave creek and 
Caliokia [and near Delphi, on tbe Wabash river. — Author.] indicate 
not only a dense agricultural population, but a state of society 
essentialh' different from that of the existing race of Indians north 
of the tropic. There is not, and there was not at the period of the 
discovery, a single tribe of Indians, north of the semi-civilized 
nations of Mexico and Central America, which had the means of 
subsistence to enable them to supply for such purposes the unpro- 
ductive labor necessary for the work; nor were they in such social 
state as to compel the labor of the people to be thus applied. 

" As regards the antiquity of these monuments, apart from such 
facts as a total absence of any reasonable tradition as to their origin 
among the Indians themselves, and the existence of the largest and 
most ancient forest trees on the embankments and in the ditches 
of ihe various works, there are otlier facts which enable us to 
arrive at approximate conclusions upon this point, 

" None of these works occur on the lowest formed of the river 
terraces which mark the subsidence of the Western streams; and as 
there is no good reason why their builders should have avoided 
erecting them on that terrace, while they raised them promiscuously 
tipon all the others, it seems to follow that this terrace has been 
formed since these works were erected; a conclusion supported by 
th e important fact that some of them have been destroyed by 
streams which have since receded for half a mile and upward, and 
which under no present possible rise, from rains or other natural 
causes, could reach the works again. Upon these premises, the 
time since the streams have flowed in their present courses may be 
divided into four periods, corresponding to the four terraces which 
mark the eras of their subsidence, of which period the last and long- 
est (since the excavating power of the streams diminishes as the 
square of their depth increases) has elapsed since the race of the 
mounds flourished. 

" Another fact bearing upon the question of the age of these works 
is the extremely decayed condition of the human remains found in 
the mounds. Considering that the earth around the skeletons is 
for the most part wonderfully compact and dry, and that the condi- 
tions for their preservation are exceedingly favo;able, while they are 
in fact in the last stage of decomposition, we may form some 
approximate estimate of their remote antiquit3'. In the barrows of 
the ancient Britons, in a moist climate and under unfavorable condi- 
tions as regards preservation, entire and well-preserved skeletons are 
often found possessing an undoubted antiquity of at the least 1,800 

" From these and other facts and circumstances equally conclusive, 
we may deduce an age for most of the monuments of the Mississippi 
valley of not less than 2,000 years. 


"B)'^ whom built, and whether their authors migrated to remote 
lands under the combined attractions of a more fertile soil and moi-e 
genial climate, or wliether they disappeared beneath the victorious 
arms of an alien race, or were swept out of existence by some direful 
epidemic or universal famine, are questions probably beyond the 
power of human investigation to answer." [AnieriGan Cyclopedia, 
in loco.] 

While, from the facts and circumstances presented in the fore- 
going, it may not be determined beyond a doubt who the race was 
that toiled at these works, nor the time when these piles were made 
to appear above the surface to mark the patience and ambition of 
their builders, yet it is most patent that La Porte county, in common 
with all this country, has a history which cannot be written only by 
spelling out the dimly written lines engraved upon the surface, to 
the close of which paragraphs these " Indian Mounds " serve as the 


These little earth mounds may be passed and repassed by the 
multitude and no notice be taken of them, — no whisperings of 
their voices be heard as they tell the story of their builders and 
reveal the existence of these extinct nations; but, in tlie light 
which a comprehensive view of the entire range of these works will 
give, the little earth elevations may be approached, and instantly 
a hundred voices, which had hitherto been inaudible, begin to 
whisper a wonderful revelation. Standing by one of these little 
earth piles, and catching the voice of its words, within the easy 
reach ol the imagination may be seen the thronging population of 
these same prairies, which now yield sustenance to another and 
dominant race, in the unknown centuries of the past. If the data 
of the author in the Cyclopedia are correct, and his conclusion right 
as to the time of these " mound builders," then may be seen, at the 
time when Moses was liberating an enslaved people and leading 
them out under the most wonderful manifestations of heaven in 
their behalf, a busy throng in these western worlds; when the 
Egyptians were rearing their immortal pyramids, this people were 
building like immortal piles; when the sculptors of Egypt were 
carving Cleopatra's Needle, a monolith recently transported from 
that land of historic wonders to this land of historic mysteries, 
the sculptors of Honduras were chiseling away at the monoliths at 
Copan and Palenque; when the Hebrews were building, with the 
aid of King Hiram, the temple on Mount Zion, "the glory of all 
lands," busy hands in this western world were rearing the wonder- 
ful monuments of Tiahuanaco on the shore of Lake Titicaca; when 
Xerxes and Darius sat on the thrones of Media and Persia, the 
predecessors of the Incas reigned in Peru; when Komulus and 
Kemus were feeding on the lupine nurse and laying the founda- 
tions of imperial Kome, the foundations of society in the hither 


world were crumbling and ready for the fall; when Greece was in 
the glory of its exaltation and its army led by the world's conqueror, 
the people of Door and Rolling prairies, etc., were wrapping the 
robes of disruption and death about them and sinking into the 
silence of earth with no voice to tell of them only such as arise in 
almost inaudible tones from these " mounds " which they built. 
Down into the mysteries of night they went. Sic volvere parcce . 

The first inhabitants of the county, then, were a people which 
was the outskirt of a powerful race whose center of power and in- 
fluence was in the countries farther to the south, and their history 
is its history. 

Standing by them, these "mounds" speak with a thousand 




The 8u--estions of the arohfeologioal remains in the county are 

thJ.once°°a people was born, grew to its manhood, worked its 

• ,H nf manhood away, declined into its senility, and wrapping 

Crobe ot 1 age aZ'nt it lay down to sleep,-all in this very 

conntry where another race and another civilization are to be 

'"Trtthe'pitdVtL'-moinrbnilders-nntil a recent date, 
tl,i,Tands covered with dimness and darkness.-scarce y a ray can 
Denetrate its ' mpertnrbable shades. We do know that it was 
FnZS /o'r an i'^eanUe time by anoU«. r^^^^^^^^^^^ -Je 

^^i^rrorre^/wUdtet-^ntlmed so'ns of the forest;" 
H ha-lTe .:?^ b'iilllt^^. ^ft ^^^ 


extent ^l ^ ratnoun f ^^^ war-painted savage were 

ye pmg woll-pack and me wno ^ have been, and whatever 

''''"\T^teheentetr^^^^^^^ of these dumb ages, these things 

might ^J^^^^"^;^;^^ One day was born from the ocean 

were not to ^^a^",^^^" J,°3^';. j^s bodv rested on the water and 
a form to ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^for fltht Vhat was the surprise 
its wmgs were already P^)^"^^^.;*^' "^ r ^^^g ^f ^.^en? Others like 


THE YEAR 1829. 

The initial settlement of the county was made a short distance 
northwest from where Westville now stands on the 15th day of 
March, 1829. Tliis settlement was made by the widow of Stephen 
S. Benedict, Mrs. Miriam Benedict, and her famil}', consisting of 
six sons and one daughter. They were also accompanied bv Henly 
Clyburn, who had married the daughter, Sarah Benedict. Here 
they erected their pioneer house and made them a pioneer home. 
A. few years ago the place where this house was erected was honored 
and made memorable by raising a pole upon it, thus calling the 
attention of the passer-by that here was the place of beginning 
for the development of La Porte county. The Benedict family was 
alone except such company as they could secure from the Indians, 
and it does not appear that they were particularly anxious for their 
company to any very great extent. In the humble home thus 
made in this new country, on July 16, 1829, Elizabeth Miriam 
Clyburn was born to Henly and Sarah Clyburn, the iirst white 
child born in the county. 

The Benedict family were preceded by a day by SamuelJohnson 
and William Eahart wlio came from Berrien county, Michigan, to 
assist them in erecting a log cabin in which to live. They were 
all well pleased with the country. After erecting the house, to 
do which they had come, they built two others, and returning to 
their homes they came with their families and increased the little 
settlement by that much, during the month of April. With them 
came also Jacob Inglewright, who made a claim in section 22. 

Leaving this little settlement, on the 6th of July, another one 
was made some seven or eight miles awa}', in what is now Scipio 
township, by Adam Keith and his family, and Lewis Shirley and 
his mother. And here, in October. 3829, Keith Shirley was born, 
probably the second white child born in the county. Elizabeth 
Miriam Clyburn and Keith Shirley had their baby cries about the 
same time, and though they were neighbors yet they did not dis- 
turb each other much with their cries. Here is the nucleus for 
another settlement, and we leave them for awhile to go over into 
the northeast part of the county to find another. 

Sometime during this year, a Welshman by the name of Joseph 
W. Lykins, connected with the " Gary Mission," whose headquar- 
ters were then at Niles in Michigan, established a mission among 
the Indians on the bank of the Du Chemin lake, now in Hudson 
township, and lived with a man named Joseph Bay, who had an 
Indian squaw for his wife. Here, through the exertions of Mr. 
Lykins, at least through his oversight, a branch mission-house, of 
hewed logs was built. This, together with the house in which the 
Bay family lived, constituted this settlement until it w^as joined in 
the fall by Asa M. Warren and his family, coming from Ohio. 

In this connection it will not be improper to call attention to the 
beautiful lake upon which this settlement was made, a sheet of pure 


and clear waters, abounding with fish of the finest quality, whose 
shores sparkle with the glittering white sand with which they are 
covered, and which are fringed with luxuriant vegetation, and 
shaded by the great forests by which it is surrounded, — Du Chemin, 
or Hudson lake. This body of water is about two miles in length, 
with an average breadth of half a mile. Hereon the banks of this 
lake and .in the depths of these forests, this branch of the Gary 
Mission was established, in point of time almost synchronous with 
that of the first at "Westville, and in the order of their settlement 
not lower than the third, if indeed it could not claim the second 

During this year, the tide of westward-trending empire left these 
three whirling eddies in the county which finally settled down into 
permanent settlements. 

THE TEAR 1830. 

Settlements now begin to spring up rapidly. In February, 1830, 
a company from Union county, in Indiana, consisting of Richard 
Harris, Philip Fail, Aaron Stanton and Benajah Stanton, together 
with two hired men brought with Aaron Stanton, reached the 
county and began a settlement along what is now the line between 
Centre and Kankakee townships, something near mid-way between 
the settlements made last year in Scipio and Hudson townships. 
They built a cabin in which they all lived together, and when the 
spring came, the unturned prairie sod yielded to the plow in their 
hands and the hitherto unseen sight, that of a growing crop, was to be 
seen. The green leaves of the growing corn, bathed in the sunlight, 
waved to the breezes in lonesome silence. Things maintained the 
condition as stated until after harvest, harvest in other sections of 
the country, of course, when Aaron Stanton returned to his former 
home and brought his family, thus adding to the settlement. In 
the fall, Philip Fail, who had his wife with him, built a cabin not 
far away, but in the present Kankakee township, thus widening the 
limits of the little settlement. To him and his wife was born in 
October (30th) a son, the well-known Benajah S. Fail, who is said 
by some to have been the first white male child born in the county; 
but in accordance with the dates wliich we have, we have given 
that honor to Keith Sliirley. Sometime during the fall the settle- 
ment was strengtliened by the addition of William Clark (who did 
not, however, bring his family until the next year) and Adam 

During this year another settlement was begun in the present 
township of Wills at what is now known as " Boot Jack." This 
settlement was made bv John Wills and his sons, Charles Wills, 
Daniel Wills, and John E. Wills. This was, perhaps, some four or 
five miles from the settlement on Du Chemin lake; they might 
have been, for all that appears, regarded as neighbors. This settle- 
ment was further increased and strengthened durinfi: the vear bv 


the arrival and settlement of John S. Garroutte, Joseph Lykins, 
Andrew Shaw and John Sissan3\ 

The New Durham settlement was considerably strengthened 
during the year by arrivals of settlers, among whom was William 
Garwood, who entered a half section of land in section 14, near the 
locality now known as New Durham. There was a large number 
of Ottawa and Pottawatomie Indians encamped within the limits 
of this settlement at this time, but they gave the settlers no disturb- 
ance. Indeed, they seem to have been a help to them. They 
bought what surplus crops the settlers had to sell, paying for them 
in furs, etc., which again were sold by them to the agents of the 
American Fur company for money. This money they applied on 
payments for their land, which payments would have been hard 
for them to make had they had no such market for their surplus 
crops. Already prosperity seems to have set in. 

The settlement in Scipio township received some additions this 
year. First among them was a man and his son, a boy of some 18 or 
19 years of age, named Welsh, w^io settled at Door Village. How- 
ever, they did not remain very long, although they built a cabin 
and started into business. They left and went to Chicago. The 
occasion of their going was a little temperance crusade by a party 
of young Indians, which is more fully detailed elsewhere, at which 
they became very much disgusted. In addition to tliese, William 
Adams, Joseph Osborne, and Daniel Jessup became residents in 
the settlement. The old enemy of men still followed and liunted 
out these settlers. Mrs. Elizabeth Keith, wife of Adam Keith, 
died on the 30th of May, this year, — the first death in the settle- 

The settlement at Lake Du Chemin also gathered to itself addi- 
tional strength during this year; among the arrivals and settlers 
were Nathan Haines and his family. As stated elsewhere, the 
Gary Mission, a Eoman Catholic enterprise, had established a 
brancli mission at this place among the Indians. This year we 
find this mission school taught by an Indian named Robert Sim- 
merwell, assisted by his wife, a white woman. At this school, 
white and Indian children came together. Mr. Haines, unable to 
do better, sent his older children to it. Some of the Indians at this 
place, under the training and influence of this mission and school, 
no doubt, became most devout Catholics. 

_ During the present year, the first houses were built upon the 
site of the city of La Porte by Richard Harris, (already mentioned 
as coming to the county with the Stantons, et al.) and George 
Thomas. Mr. Thomas' cabin stood near where the railroad depot now 
stands. Colonel William A. Place, who was on a preliminary visit 
to the county, assisted in building the cabin; and Wilson Malone 
claimed that he was the first white man to sleep in the city of 
La Porte, if this feeble beginning can be called the city of La 
Porte, having used the house of Mr. Thomas for that purpose 
belore it was occupied by tlie family of Mr. Thomas. 


The population of the county was further increased this year by 
the birth of William Steele, who has more latterly been a citizen 
of Clinton township. 

THE YEAR 1831. 

The year 1831 witnessed quite a material advance in the settle- 
ments already begun, as well as the beginning of new ones. In 
the spring of this year, a settlement was made at the place where 
the village of Kolling Prairie is now situated, or as it was formerly 
called, Portland. This settlement was made on the 25th day of 
May by a party who emigrated from the vicinity of Lafayette, 
Indiana, consisting of the families of David Stoner, Arthur Irving, 
Jesse West, and Ezekiel Provolt, and also another man named 
Willets. It was not very long until the families of Provolt, West, 
and Irvino; had cabins which served them as homes. These were 
all in the vicinity of each other. 

During the year this settlement, though they were considerably 
scattered over the country, received additional settlers. Among 
these were Daniel Murray, James Hiley, Jacob Miller, John Gar- 
rett, Chapel W. Brown, and Emery Brown, together with the 
families of Harvey, Salisbury, and Whitehead, and James Drum- 
mond, Benjamin DeWitt, Dr. B. C. Bowell, J. Austin, Ludlow 
Bell and George W. Barnes. Later in the fall came also Myron 
Ives. These arrivals gave the Rolling Prairie settlement quite a 
start. It soon wrought visible changes in the condition of the 

It was during this year that James Webster, and his son-in-law, 
James Highley, came from Virginia and settled in the northeast 
corner of the present Pleasant township. This township is said to 
have been, prior to this settlement and that which follows, one of 
the most beautiful, attractive, flower-clad, and grove-embellished 
portions of the county, and this with its sparkling little lakes and 
flowing streams, and gently undulating surface combined to make 
it a spot of unsurpassed loveliness and beauty. This beginning of 
settlement, as we sliall see, was soon followed up and its rich acres 
were tnade subservient to the wants of the pioneers who came to 
make a home within it. 

By the close observer, it will have been noticed that the settle- 
ments which have now been begun have all nearly corresponded 
with the crest of that swell of elevation, already noticed in giving 
the geography of the county, which sweeps across in a somewhat 
irregular way from east to west. From that on the shore of Lake 
Du Chemiu to that of the Benedict neighborhood, they are all 
nearly in line. The settlement of Webster and Highley was a 
little departure from this; and now we go to another on the other 
side of the crest. 

This was a settlement which was made where is now the little 
village of Springfield, in Springfield township. It was made in 


this year by Judah Learning. Before the close of the year he was 
joined by Abram Oormack and Daniel Griffin. This village settle- 
ment formed the nucleus for one more settlement in the county, 
and impresses one with tlie thought how rapidly and widely that 
tide of Western-bound empire is sweeping over these lands. " 

Crossing the crest again, we find another settlement established 
near the present location of Union Mills. This was made in the 
fall of this year by Horace Markham and Lane Markham, both 
locating in section eight. To the stream which runs near by, their 
name was given; but it has since been called Mill creek. Traces 
of these families have been lost. 

Now moving to tlie east, we shall find a prairie which is called 
Stilhvell prairie, which was so-called trom the first settler of it, 
Mr. Thomas Stillwell, who built a log cabin near where Mr. D. H. 
Norton has more recently dwelt. He was a man who was some- 
wliat averse to white societ}', loving that of the Indian better; and 
he kept along the border in such a way as to avoid the one if he 
did not have the other. At least, in the location which he chose 
this time, he was not disturbed with immediate neighbors for two 
or three years; yet he formed the nucleus for a subsequent prosper- 
ous settlement. 

During the year, the settlements already formed were measur- 
ably strengthened and increased. Their accretions were from 
various directions. In this year, also among others who settled 
in the New Durham neighborhood, was Mr. Alden Tucker, who 
settled so as to form a kind of connecting' link between that neighbor- 
hood and the settlements which had been made in Scipio township; 
he settled on section 13. It was also during this year that the Hon. 
Charles W. Cathcart united liis interests with the county, settling 
in the neighborhood of the Benedict settlement. Of Mr. Cathcart, 
it mav be said that he has long been a distinguished citizen of the 
county, and has always taken a prominent and leading part in 
public affairs. He has received numerous lionors at the hands of 
his fellovs^-citizens, — twice representing the district in Congress. 

Among others who may be said to belong to the "Boot Jack" 
settlement, though they were more or less scattered over the country, 
who settled this year may be mentioned the following: James 
Wills, Dr. Chapman, David Stoner, and Matthias Dawson. 

While the various parts of the county were thus receiving their 
accretions, the central part was gathering up, too. It is impossible 
to keep the trace of all who came to these settlements, but among 
those who had found a residence in the settlement which was made 
along the line between Centre and Kankakee townships and which 
reached down to the place where La Porte is now situated, we find 
the following: The Blake, Landon, Ball, and Wheeler families; 
Joseph Pagin, who built a house on the east side of Clear Lake; Wil- 
son Malone, William Bond, Jesse Bond, and John Garwood; John 
B. Fravel, Charles Fravel, William Stanton and family, and Alfred 
Stanton. At the "land sales" at Logansport in October of this 


year ^O*;^ acres were bought by a company, consisting of John 
Walker, Abram P. Andrew, Jr., James Andrew, Hiram Todd, and 
Walter Wilson, on which it was proposed to lay out a town which 
should become the county-seat. In addition to this, the Andrews 
bought other lands in the immediate vicinity, and thus laid the 
foundation for a handsome competence. 

All along the line of these settlements there has been an increase 
of numbers and strength during the year. 

THE TEAK 1832. 

The year 1832 opened up with quite a change having been made 
in the condition of the country since the Benedict family liad 
driven their stake as pioneers. The rich prairies were being made 
to yield abundant supplies for all necessary demands, improvements 
were being made in almost every direction, though rude and 
primitive as compared with the improvements of to-day, perhaps, 
but which served to accomplish the purpose designed, — to give a 
home to those who had sought one in the uninhabited border. 

It is this year that we have the first intimations of the now pros- 
perous city of Michigan City. The lands on which the city now is 
situated were purchased of the Government by Major Isaac C. 
Elston, of Crawfordsville, at the "land sales" of last year; and in 
October of this year he laid out the town. The sight was anything 
but that which would tempt settlers to it, and if settlements were 
to always be made because of beauty of landscape, Michigan City 
would have been blessed with but few; for the site was forbidding, 
much of it being low and swampy, and other parts excessively sandy. 
But the after results have shown the wise judgment of Major Elston. 
He believed that at this point a harbor could be made. His ])ene- 
tration, as he looked at Tail creek making its way slowly over the 
sands to the lake winding its wa}^ around the foot of Hoosier Slide 
in a deep, sluggish stream, though obstructed at its mouth by a bar 
of sand to such an extent that a person could easily pass over it on 
foot, so little water passed over it, enabled him to appreciate its 
value, and hence his purchase. It will, no doubt, in the future fill 
his most extravagant expectation, taking the advancement which 
has already been made as a criterion by which to judge. However, 
all that we find of Michigan City this year is the plat as surveyed 
by its proprietor. 

Now, leaving this locality, uninviting so far as its landscape 
appearance is concerned, and taking a course southward along the 
line on which the Louisville, New Albanv & Chicago railroad is 
now located, and continuing until we come to Clinton township, we 
shall find that the settlement of New Durham township is still 
widening and increasing. We shall here find Isham Campbell set- 
tled on the west side of Hog creek, the original pioneer of Clinton 
township, but quickly followed, that is to say, in the fall of this year, 
by Andrew Richardson and Edmund Richardson, who settled on 
section 9. 


The purposes of business, travel and inter-communication were 
to be subserved; and hence we find this year Mr. John Dunn build- 
ing a bridge across the Kankakee river, and thus becominj^- the first 
settler of Lincoln township, or at least that which is such now. 

Many arrivals this year swelled the settlement in New Durham 
township very greatly, — it is now assuming almost the proportions 
of a community. Josiah Bryant and family, Jeremiah Sherwood 
and Jonathan Sherwood, Wilson Malone and George Campbell, and 
many others found a home in its midst. The pioneer preacher 
is beginning to seek these communities, and here the Methodist 
pioneer preacher of the county, Rev. James Armstrong, held the first 
religious services for this people during this year. 

The settlement in Scipio township was swelled this year by the 
following at least: Mr. Melville, John Broadhead, Elijah Brown, 
and Peter White. And to link these two settlements together, Mr. 
A. M.Jessup settles rather between them. Others thus settled, so 
that by this time these communities are beginning to merge into one. 

The unequaled beauty of Pleasant township this year began to 
attract the immigrants, and in it settled Silas Hale and Oliver Clos- 
son, settling in section 22, tlius becoming the neighbors of Messrs. 
Webster and Highley who have already found a location in it, being 
only about three or four miles away. 

And over in Springfield settlement settlers are coming this year 
so that they too are beginning to put on airs. They build a school 
house and put Miss Emily Learning into it to teach school. Messrs. 
Rose and Grifiith hold Methodist religious services, and likewise 
Mr. Marks holds Baptist services, for these Springfield pioneers. 

The community is increased during the year by John Brown, 
Erastus Quivey, Charles YailjJohn Hazleton, Joseph Pagin and his 
sons, et al.^ becoming settlers. 

And over in Noble township, Joseph AVlieaton became a resident, 
and began to raise the ambition of the little community by laying 
out the town of Union Mills (however, the plat of the village was 
not put on record until December 7, 1849). Bird McLane and 
John McLane bought land in the township during this year, and 
prepared to settle in it. 

In the spring of this year tlie number of settlers in Kankakee 
township was swelled In- the families of Solomon Aldrich, Charles 
Ives, and Alexander Blackburn, and during the year by many 
others. It seems that all these communities are taken with the 
notion at about the same time of building school-houses, holding 
religious services, etc. In this community Rev. James Crawford 
held Presbyterian religious services at the house of Alexander 
Blackburn, during this year. 

And while these things were going on in these other parts of 
the county, Brainard GofF and Charles Fravel, et al.^ are settling 
in and around the prospective county seat. Colonel W. A. Place 
brought his family and settled in October of this year, though he 
made a prospective visit last year. 


Prosperity seems to have set in. At least we have seen settle- 
ment after settlement spring np in various parts of the county, and 
they have all strengthened and increased. This is the first year 
that the conntj^ has had the American privilege of voting for the 
country's Chief Magistrate. It seems that these pioneers appreci- 
ated tliis privilege or esteemed it a duty, for at the election in 
November, 115 of them expressed themselves on the Chief 
Magistrate question at the ballot-box. "We have mentioned this 
fact that we might the more effectually note that other fact, the 
rapid growth of the county. Though we have been mentioning a 
few of these early settlers, it will appear from this that we have 
not been able to gather anything like a complete list of them. 
Kemember that the county is at this time only about three and a 
half years old from the time the first log-cabin was built, and the 
magnitude of this growth will appear. This population was not 
gathered together at any center, but was distributed, as we have 
noted, at various parts of the county. Only three families were 
now living where the future beautiful city of La Porte was to be: 
the families of George Thomas, Richard Harris, and Wilson 

THE YEAR 1833. 

The Board of County Commissioners was organized on the 28th 
of May, 1832 — last year. This board consisted of Chapel W. 
Brown, Elijah H. Brown and Isaac Morgan, 

The year 1833 opened up with new interests. The county had 
been filling up so rapidly that by this time it became apparent that 
it stood in need of the necessities of a civilized community. Good 
roads are not only concomitants of civilization, but they are 
necessities belonging to it; aye, they promote it. This the pioneers 
early saw. Hence they called upon their Board of Commissioners 
to make all needful arrangements for them; and they did. It was 
apparent to them, as well as to the citizens, that their own interest 
demanded means of easy access to all parts of the county and to 
adjoining, and even to the more distant, counties. Among their 
first acts was the establishment of county roads, at the request of 
the inhabitants. They did not hesitate to expend money on a 
road leading from Michigan City into Marshall county, nor to 
authorize Matthias Redding to keep a ferry across the Kankakee 
river on the line of this road. The result of this policy was that 
tlie trade of the southern counties, as far south as Lafayette, 
Monticello and Logansport, was attracted to Michigan City for a 
market; and this had a direct influence upon the prosperity of the 
county in attracting both wealth and citizens. 

Time makes some changes. In the matter of business, changes 
have been brought about since the days of which we write and now. 
It would seem odd to our present dealers in common merchandise, 
if it did not really disgust them, to have to pay a license to do any 


kind of business; but the business men of those times were 
required to do so. Witness the following: At the September term 
of the Commissioners' Court in 1833, the Board ordered that 
license be issued to Thomas M. Morrison to " vend merchandise in 
La Porte county" for $15.00; also that license be issued to Messrs. 
J. F. & W. Allison to sell merchandise, and to "keep a tavern in 
the town of La Porte," for $15.00; also that license be issued to 
Elijah Casteel to " vend groceries in the town of Michigan City" 
for $10.00; also that license be issued to William Clements to " vend 
merchandise in the town of La Porte" for $10.00. This is enough 
to show jiow these county fathers were looking after the interests of 
the county, and how business was made to tally " ducats" for the 
county treasury. 

This year sees the settlements widen more and more. A new 
settlement is begun in what is now Galena township. A man 
named George W. Barnes, originally from Maine, but more recently 
from the city of Cleveland, in Ohio, came into the county and 
selected his land and went to work with great energy. He is said 
to have been a man of indomitable will and great strength, which 
well fitted him for his pioneer work. He died without descendants, 
many years ago. 

In the same locality with Mr. Barnes during this year Whitman 
Goit, John Talbott, Sylvanns James, Shubal Smith, and Richard 
Miller, having selected their claims, settled and began to make 
improvements. When these men went into this locality they found 
an almost unbroken forest, but soil loamy, warm, and rich, — pro- 
ducing well. It is said that some of the best timber in the county 
can still be found in this region where these men found their 

Again we find the New Durham community attracting to itself 
a large immigration, and among which came the following, who 
came directly to the settlement or were attracted to the locality 
afterward, but were settled in the county this year: Henry Cath- 
cart, W. F. Catron, Eliza Cole, John Warnoch, John P. Noble, and 
J. E.. Reed. 

And the closely-allied settlement in Scipio township receives a 
large immigration, among whom may be mentioned Elmore Pattee, 
and Jacob R. Hall, who was a former resident of Cass county. 
General Joseph Orr had also become a resident, however, buying 
land along the line of the present townships of Scipio and Centre. 
This community, like the rest, did not forget the higher interests 
of it. This year the Metliodists built a frame church at Door 
Yillage; Rev. James Armstrong did the preaching for them. He 
also preached in difierent houses in the community. So also did 
Samuel Holmes and Dr. St. Claire, two earnest ministers of the 
Christian church. 

The community at Lake Du Chemin still increased. Among the 
settlers there during this year we find Mr. Fleming Reynolds. 
And the little town of Hudson on the lake, the nucleus of this 


community, is beginning to develop and to reach out after business. 
It becomes the rival of La Porte. This year a school-house is 
built, the first one built except the mission school-house which has 
already been mentioned, and a man named Edwards is set to teach 
the school. Many business enterprises are set on foot; Charles 
Egbert opens a creditable store. John D. Ross begins blacksmithing, 
as also a Mr. Jewett; Samuel Elliott starts a coopering establish- 
ment, and James F. Smith keeps a hotel. 

Over in Wills township the following names were added to the 
list of settlers; Joseph Starrett bought an " Indian float " and set- 
tled npon it; Jesse Willett, Jesse West, Nirarod West, Jacob 
Gallion and J. Clark. 

The settlement in Pleasant township is also extending, and during 
this year John Wilson, from Ohio, Asa Owen and Andrew Harvey, 
and Benjamin Butterworth, who settled near by, were made a part 
of the rapidly consolidating community of the county. 

Crossing again to the Springfield neighborhood, it is still found 
busy and active. The village is surveyed on the lands of Judah 
Learning by Daniel Beaming, and the accessions to the community 
were Erastus Quivey, who built a mill, Hiram Griffith, John Griffith, 
Gilbert Rose, et al. 

During this year, a new settlement was begun in what is now 
Cool Spring township, or rather it was the adyance of the older 
settlements into new territory; and not only one but more settle- 
ments were inaugurated in this part of the county during this year. 
Nathan Johnson established a settlement at the little place known 
as Waterford; John Luther another some three or four miles south 
and west from him; while Arba Heald, a former resident and first 
settler of Scipo township, penetrated this part of the county and 
settled south and east from Luther's cabin. He was also foUovved 
by John Beaty, who established himself at what is called Beaty's 
Corners. These settlers, while they were several miles apart, may 
be said to constitute one neighborhood. 

Passing again to the other side of tlie New Durham settlement, 
into the present Clinton township, we shall find that the settlement 
is extending in that direction. During the year Stephen Jones, a 
Methodist preacher, Nathaniel Steel, William Niles, John Osborn, 
Lemuel Maulsby, Levi Reynolds, Thomas Robinson, R. Pratherand 
Richard Williams become settlers among others. 

These separate and distinct settlements in the various parts of the 
county are fast merging into one. Passing a little farther to the 
east, in Noble township, and we find it gathering up in the number 
of its settlers very rapidly. This year the following settlers found 
homes here: Peter Burcli and Ira Burch, William O'Hara, Michael 
O'Hara, Samuel O'Hara and Edward O'Hara, Warren Burch, Jer- 
emiah Perkins and Isaac Johnson and Wright Loving and Silas 
Loving, together with others, forming quite a community. 

Going still again to the east, and we shall find that Mr. Stillwell, 
the " border man," who sought seclusion from the society of the 


whites by making a settlement in this part of the county, gets all 
he wants, perhaps ; for at the close of this year, around him and near 
him, the following have found homes and places to settle: John 
Winchell, John Yail and Henry Yail, who turned their attention to 
the milling business, Joshua Travis and Curtis Travis, Henry Davis 
and Henry Mann, Theodore Catlin and Daniel Finlej"-, and others. 

We come again to visit the locality of La Forte and its surround- 
ings. Since the last visit, we can detect a rate of improvement 
that must have been gratifying to those who were interested in its 
permanent progress. The town has been laid out and the original 
survey made. It has been made the county seat; in its survey 
regard was had for a public square; a contract lias been made by the 
Commissioner with Simon G. Bunce for the erection of a court- 
house, to cost $3,975; also with Warner Pierce for a jail to cost 
$460; and at the close of this year, or at the beginning of the next, 
it had so grown that it could count 15 houses. 

A little description of the court-house which the Commissioners 
determined to build will be appropriate in this place to show the 
spirit which animated these early settlers, the oldest of whom had 
at this time only five years' residence, and indicate the thrift which 
attended them; for it is a noticeable fact that thrift begets a com- 
mendable spirit and taste. Where a country is covered with tasty 
farms, tasty residences, and cities are filled with tasty public and 
private buildings, it is evident that back of these, and unmistak- 
ably born of it, is thrift. Then, again, thrift is the product of 
industry and favorable circumstances. Industry is a quality which 
the people possess, and this element of prosperity, therefore, is 
indicated in the public buildings which the commissioners proposed 
to erect. In this we shall find move that will really speak of the 
industry and thrift of these pioneers than pages of platitudes upon 
these qualities. Following are the specifications of the building as 
they appear in the records: The building was to be of brick, 
located in the center of the Public Square, 40 feet square and of 
proportional height; it was to be dressed in tasty and permanent 
cornice, and to be surmounted with a cupola three stories in height. 
The first story of this cupola was to be 12 feet square and 9 feet 
high, with a round window in each side in which was to be a 
fancy ^asli. The second story was to be octagonal, eight-sided in 
shape, and 10 feet high, with a window in each side to be closed 
by a Venetian blind; and the corners were to be ornamented 
with turned columns. At each of the corners of the first, or square 
story was to be placed an urn of " suitable size." The third story 
was to be a dome, six feet six inches in height, and to be covered 
with tin. From this was to proceed a shaft six feet six inches high 
above the dome, into the top of which was to be placed an iron rod 
or spire which should hold at its connection with the shaft a " cop- 
per ball," two feet in diameter, "laid with gold Ifeaf." Half way 
from this globe to the top of the spire there was to be another 
" copper ball," one foot in diameter; and at the top, a ball of wood. 


six inches in diameter, and painted black, was to be placed. The 
work was all to be substantial and workmanlike. 

The men who laid the foundation work of the county were not 
destitute of taste, it may be called " pardonable pride," and they 
determined that the court-house should not simply be " four plain 
walls," but that it should be a building representing the thrift of 
the county and creditable to their own tastes. 

Thus is the county found at the end of five years of settlement. 

THE timp: from 1834 to 1840. 

With the rapidity of the incoming tide that now sets in, and the 
constant accretions which these nuclei are receiving, thus inter- 
lapping and interlacing these settlements with one another, it is 
impracticable to follow them year by year farther. The next years 
must be grouped as a whole. 

In the preceding part of this chapter, we have been compelled 
to chronicle the establishment of isolated and distinct settlements 
and neighborhoods, and have tried to preserve the names of a 
few of those who formed those settlements, for there was nothing 
else to chronicle. Xow, we are to call the attention of the reader 
to the destruction of these isolated settlements and neighbor- 
hoods, as such, by detailing their consolidation and merging into 

Attention has already been called to the fact that the first settle- 
ments were made near the crest of that insensible swell, or eleva- 
tion of land which serves the purpose of a " dividing ridge," sepa- 
rating the waters of the county which flow into the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence from those which flow into the Gulf of Mexico, and which 
sweeps entirely across the county from east to west. The attentive 
reader who has followed the chronicle of facts as they have been 
given in relation to these settlements, could not help discerning the 
additional facts that these first settlements, seemingly, insensibly 
crept toward each other along this same crest until they were 
blended, slightly it may be; and tliat then they began to descend 
its insensible slopes on either side until the whole of the county was 
occupied. If not discerned before, a thought now will convince any 
one of its truth. Of the period of which we now write the settle- 
ments in what are now the townships of Cool Spring, Michigan, 
Springfield, and Galena, on one side of this crest, and of Clinton, 
Union, Noble and Johnson, on the other, are isolated neighbor- 
hoods, while the settlements in New Durham, Scipio, Centre, 
Pleasant, Kankakee, Wills, and Hudson, which are more or less on 
the crest of this elevation, have begun to sensibly run into one 
another, showing that the bulk of the population is there. 

And during the years included in the period indicated in our 
sub-title we find that the population thickened up more and more 
in these first communities, and kept on creeping down these slow 



descending slopes until they, too, became thickly settled communi- 
ties, and by the close of 1840 the isolated character of the neigh- 
borhoods, if not completely, was substantially broken up, and the 
population of the county was a unit. 

The results of this immigration can be better told with a few 
figures than in any other way. At the beginning of the year 1829, 
the number of white settlers in the county was — 00. In 1832, at 
the time of the holding of the first Presidential election in the 
county, the number of the inhabitants was about — 525. In 1836, 
at tlie time of the holding of the second Presidential election, the 
population of the county was about — 4,250; — a vote of 942 ballots 
was cast. In 1840, at the time of the taking of the census, the 
number of inhabitants was 8,184; — the vote at the August election 
of that year being 1,782 ballots. Putting these figures into a 
little closer proximity, and in the order, and corresponding to the 
dates given, they are as follows:— 00— 525— 4,250— 8,184. The 
votes, in the same order and corresponding to the same dates, are 
likewise,— 00— 115— 942— 1 ,782. 

In the time from 1834 to 1840, quite a neighborhood sprang up 
in Lincoln township. Among those who settled here at this time, 
there may be mentioned Mr. Mutz, John Yickory and Levi Little, 
of ls34; George Sparrow, Newlove, Laybourn, and Carson Siddles, 
of 1835; E. Abergast, and Mr. Sanders, of 1836; and John Dare, 
and John Davis, of 1838. 

At this time the whole of the southern part of the county, 
including the townships of Cass, Ilanna, and Dewey, was a part of 
Starke county, and cannot be reckoned in giving these early settle- 
ments. In every part of the county as it then existed, we have 
found prosperous settlements, except in wdiatis now Johnson town- 
ship; and here, ever since 1831 or 1832, John Dunn had been 
watching for those who were wont to use his bridge in crossing the 
Kankakee river, so far as our means of information will inform us, 
all alone. We have not been able to learn of an}" other settlers 
here until from 1842 to 1846. At this time, among others, we find 
that Major John M. Lemon, Charles Palmer, William Mapes, 
Edward Owens, Samuel Smith, and Martin Smith, had become 

Cass township was settled immediately succeeding 1840. Among 
its first settlers were Abraham Eahart, Peter Woodin, James Con- 
cannon, Thomas Concannon, and William Smith. 

The first settlement in what is now Ilanna township, was a 
little prior to 1840. Among the settlers of this township before 
that date, may be mentioned William West, Sr., Niinrod West, 
Emanuel Metz and his sons, Andrew J. Chambers and his sons, 
Amsterdam Stewart, Thomas Hunsley, William Tynerand Charles 

The first settlement was not made in Dewey township until 1854, 
at which time, or shortly after, Jacob Schauer, George P. Schim- 
mel, and Lewis Besler and Michael Besler, became settlers. 

This completes the "early settlements " of the county. 



In the preceding chapter we have given the settlements of the 
county as'they were begun and continued until they had merged 
into one. There are more things of interest connected with these 
settlements than the mere enumeration of the incidents of settle- 
i^ent— time, place, and by whom. There is a most mterestmg 
volume, if it were written in full, in the inside workings ot these 
homes and settlements. We cannot hope to give these m full— 
we could not if we had the time and space— but we may gleam 
some things that will interest the old pioneers, by calling their 
memories back to "ye olden tyme " when their hearts were young and . 
blithe and thus bring to them the scenes of the past; and they 
may interest the voung by showing to them how these pioneers 
lived and laid the foundations of the prosperity and blessings 
which they now enjov. The homes of these pioneers were in vivid 
contrast with the comfortable homes, and even palatial homes, 
which is the rule of the La Porte county homes of the present. 
Instead of the handsome brick or frame edifice, handsomely painted 
and tastefully adorned, they were rude "log cabins" without paint 
or other tasteful ornamentations without, or beautiful decorations 
within, save the lily clusters of virtue and the pictures of content- 
ment and peace which were to be found in the households them- 


In these early times there were a great many " house-raisings " 
and " house-warmings,"— for this became a necessity m orderto 
supply the rapidly increasing population with homes. A descrip- 
tion of one is a description of all. When the Benedict tamily had 
concluded to leave Ottawa, Illinois, whither they had gone from 
Chicago, which they had made a stopping place when they migrated 
from Durham, Greene county, New York, in 1827, they managed 
some way to send word to some friends at Pokagon prairie m Ber- 
rien county, Michigan, designating the point at which they expected 
to settle, and requesting aid in putting up a little home,--a "log- 
cabin in the woods." Accordingly, when the widow (for Mr 
Stephen S Benedict, the husband and father, had died at Ottawa) 
and her family arrived at the spot designated they found their 
friends, Samuel Johnson and William Eahart, already on the 



ground. Of males, there were now present these whom we have 
named and the six sons of the famil}^, viz., Joseph H. Benedict, 
Alpha M. Benedict, Levi J. Benedict, John K. Benedict, Holland 
Benedict, and James W. Benedict, and Henly Clyburn, the son-in- 
law. Of females, so far as we have been able to ascertain, there 
were bnt two: Mrs. Benedict, and Mrs. Clyburn, nee Sarah Bene- 
dict, the wife of Henly Clyburn. 

This company were in the woods. The business just now on 
hand was the erection of a building which would serve as a home 
for the pioneer widow and her family. Accordingly, if we listen 
sharpl}' enough, we may hear the clear ring of the axes, used by 
as many of the company as were able to wield an ax, as the trees 
of suitable size were being cut down and cut into suitable lengths. 
How those strokes do ring in the silent depths of the woods around. 
Now, some are using the wagon and team in hauling these logs to 
the place where the cabin is to be built; some are " riving " away at 
the " clapboards " which are to furnish the roof, and other some 
are splitting away at the "puncheons" which are to furnish the 
floor. A short time only suflSced to make these necessary prepara- 
tions. The foundation round is laid, the lower logs resting upon 
four great stones as a foundation. Log by log it goes up, each one 
being "notched and saddled " to fit the log below and to receive the 
log above. Bound by round this house was thus built until the 
proper height was reached. The remainder of the house was com- 
pleted by placing " ridge-poles " across, to receive the clapboard 
roof, upon the gradually shortened logs which were tapered at each 
end to correspond to the slope of the roof, and which formed the 
"gable ends" of the house, until the center was reached upon 
which a '' comb ridge-pole " was placed. Upon these " ridge-poles" 
the clapboards M'ere placed in courses one upon the other with 
about two feet exposed to the " weather," laid down loosely. Tliese 
were held in their places by placing heavy poles upon them called 
" weight poles," reaching from one gable to the other, and which 
were kept on their respective courses of boards by pieces of timber 
of suitable length called " runs " being placed between them, one 
end of which rested upon the " weight pole " below and the other 
furnishing a support for the one above, and thus until all the 
courses were weighted. Now begun the internal and finishing 
work of the house. A door, window and "fire place" were 
respectively cut out and "cheeked up." A heavy door was hung 
on wooden hinges and fastened with a wooden latch to close up the 
doorway; a sash of " 8 by 10" glass was roughly placed in the 
window; the chimney was made of wooden jams filled in with a 
wall and built out to the top of the roof, and a little above, with 
rived sticks laid up like a cob house, the interstices were filled 
with clay mortar, and plastered inside and out with the same. 
Attention was now given to the cracks between the logs, and they 
were " chinked and daubed," a process which required annual atten- 
tion; and the puncheon floor being laid down, the house was ready 



for its " warming." We are not informed whether the traditional 
" house- warming " took place in this case or not at the completion 
of this cabin, but we have reasons to believe that there were hearts 
glad enough to have "danced and kept jubilee until the wee sma' 
hours " when these houseless pioneers had a place which they could 
call " home." The blue smoke curled out of the new-made chim- 
ney in the traditional and poetical way among the leafless limbs of 
the surrounding trees when the lire was kindled in the great fire- 
place within. The aroma of the first meal was wafted into the 
surrounding stillness as it was prepared " by the tire " in the old- 
time way, and there was a smile of satisfaction when the family 
and their friends drew up around " the festal board " for the first 
time, and thev felt that that they were at home. _ • 

This process of log-cabin building was repeated twice before 
Johnson and Eahart returned to their Michigan home, and two 
similar "house-warmings" were had in the next month of April. 

During the first years of settlement of the county, similar cabins 
were buiTt in a similar way all over those parts which were devoted 
to settlement, from this Benedict settlement to that on_Du Ohemin 
or Hudson lake. There was one exception to this. George 
Thomas, because that he was going to occupy the site of the future 
city of La Porte, whether he did or did not know it does not now 
concern us, of course he must put on a little more style than his 
cabin-homed neighbors; and so he went to the saw-mill of Captain 
Andrew, a short distance west of the place, and procured " slabs^^ 
and built his house out of "sawed timber," while his neighbors had 
nothing but " scotched logs." We are not informed whether these 
slabs were put together with " notch and saddle," like the logs of 
the unpretending cabin, or whether they stood on end; but at any 
rate it was a house of " sawed timber," and was therefore quite 

palatial. , , 

These first La Porte homes were not as plentifully supplied witli 
furniture as are the more recent La Porte homes, nor of the same 
quality. There were no soft ingrain carpets on the floor, no 
beautiful oil-paintings on the walls, no brilliant coal-oil or gas jets 
to give light, no easy chairs in which to rest, and no soft, cushioned 
sofas on which to lounge. But they contained one, perhaps two, 
rough beds in the corner and a trundle-bed for the children, an 
unpainted table on which the daily meals were spread, a few stools, 
and if well fixed a few chairs, together with the cooking utensils. 
Over the fire-place was usually a mantel-shelf which served to catch 
the " tallow-dip," that gave the light, and every odd and end which 
was about the house. And, leaning against the chimney jams, on 
one side was the fire-shovel, on the other tlie fire-tongs. The dark 
garret above served as the receptacle of' every other thing which 
was not needed for present use, and sometimes this garret was a 
medley the most undistinguishable. And around, instead of the 
nicely" planed, clean and painted picket fence which now character- 
izes the door-yard, if fenced at all, there was a kind of tumble-down 


rail fence; and instead of the level, laid-out and flower-decked 
yards of to-daj, the yard was full of stumps and growing up with 
the young shoots from the lately cut-off saplings. Instead of the 
well-paved walks, hordered witli beds of elegant flowers, the way to 
this humble mansion in the woods was but the pathway which was 
kept worn down by the passing and re-passing of the members of 
the household. Sometimes an extra tasty house-wife would train 
a honeysuckle or morning-glory vine over the window and door- 
way. Around the wall, if the family was remarkably well-to-do, 
might be seen the extra wearing apparel of the family. I very 
much doubt if there is any more of solid comfort and contentment 
in the elegant homes of La Porte to-day than there was in these 
unpretending homes of half a century ago in the woods, 


If the home was in " the woods," when not engaged in preparing 
the ground for or cultivating their small crops, "daddy" and the 
" boys " were out in the woods making a " deadening " by girdling 
the trees, or were " clearing" a piece of ground without taking this 
preliminary step, or were grubbing the underbrush and cleaning up 
a "deadening" already made. Sometimes they would take a play- 
spell, when with the trusty rifle, which usually hung in the strong 
leather loops on the cabin wall, they would chase the nimble-footed 
deer through the woods, or call down the squirrel from his nutty 
height in the tree-tops. It might be that instead of taking the rifle, 
they would take the hook and line and steal by the side of some 
brook where the finny tribes were wont to stay and by their entice- 
ments induce them to take the tempting bait, and so land them at 
their feet that they might grace the festal board by and by. 

Or if the homes were on " the prairie," then the mornings were 
hurly-burly that the}' might be away to the " timber" to make the 
rails which were necessary to fence their lands, or that they might 
haul them where thev were needed. Sometimes they were looking: 
after that little herd of cattle which was gathering around them and 
gi'owing handsomely on the rich prairie grass. Sometimes they 
were building barns and stables and sheds for the protection of their 
farm products and their stock. Sometimes they were building new 
or renewing old fences; but ever busy, busy. 

But " mamma " and the " gals " were no less busy. The allotment 
of hardships was not on the sterner sex only, but the softer bore 
them as well. Cookery was not an easy trade in those days, and 
this fell on the female portion of the family. They were not then 
supplied with "cook stoves " and "ranges" as they are now, but 
the cooking was done "over the fire." Up in the chimney was 
usually a strong pole placed across from side to side, and to this was 
fastened and suspended what were called trammels. Kettles were 
hung to these over a large fire when they wanted to boil water only, 
or they wished to cook their meats or porridges. A long-handled 


frjing-pan was used in frying the meat when that method of cook- 
ery was preferred; it was also used in baking short-cake. Often 
turkej's, chickens, spare-ribs, etc., were cooked by being suspended 
on a string before the fire, under which was placed a dish to catch 
the drippings. The bi'ead was baked on a "johnny-cake " board on 
the hearth before tlie fire, or in the common "Dutch oven," a fiat- 
bottomed bake-kettle which was covered with a closely fitting 
cast-iron cover. Properly heated, with coals over and underneath it, 
bread and biscuits would quickly and nicely bake. "Who does not 
sometimes long for the " corn-dodger " that used to be baked in the 
old "Dutch oven?" 'Corn bread, butter, and milk — ughl good 
enough! The manipulation of these utensils fell to the women. But 
this was not all. Even with this lapse of time, who does not some- 
times, " when the wind is fair," hear, coming down from " the isle 
of the long ago," the hum of the spinning-wheel and the clack of the 
rickety loom as these were manipulated in the interest of the cloth- 
ing department of the family? The young girls had no piano of 
mellow tones nor harp of "golden strings " upon which to play, bat 
they had a " spinning-wheel," a stringed instrument of spacious 
sound, and they were taught to use it well. The " product of the 
loom " at this time was linsey-woolsey, cloth of cotton warp and 
woolen woof; flannel, both warp and woof of wool, and jeans, which 
difi'ered from the "linsey" by being woven with three or four 
" leafs" instead of only two. The linsey-woolsey and the flannel 
took the place of the more elegant alpaca and cashmere of these 
times in rendering " sweetness " to the " female form divine," and 
the jeans supplied the wants of the other sex in this direction. If 
the female taste demanded and exacted a " boughten " dress, or the 
male ideas of propriety impelled him to dress up in "store goods," 
then the community was sure to think something was going to hap- 
pen, and everybody began to look around for a minister, — Mr. 
Armstrong, Mr. Sherwood, or Dr. St. Claire, 



The prairies at this time were covered with a luxuriant growth 
of wild grass, the roots of which formed a tenacious sod. The 
teams by which this sod could be successfully broken must neces- 
sarily be very strong. Every settler could not have a team of his 
own of sufiicient strength to do this work, nor would it have paid 
if he could, perhaps. This gave rise to the formation of " breaking 
teams," which went over the prairies from place to place and 
"broke" this prairie sod for the settlers for the first time. Like 
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, these were dwellers in tents, and like 
Lot's herdsmen, they looked after their cattle. The team consisted 
of six or eight j^oke of oxen to which was trained, by means of a 
long chain or series of shorter chains fastened to the ring and 
btaple of the yokes, a huge, unwieldy plow which would make a 
little ditch at every furrow. The " deck " of hands consisted of a 


plowman and a driver. Thus fitted out, thej went on the land to 
be broken. 

One of these companies which broke the prairie lands between 
La Porte and Westville and elsewhere consisted of Seth "Way and 
Chas. Ladd. — the driver of these teams was very frequently a lad. 
It cannot be told now how much of it they broke, but in the 
landscape of the " long ago " they form quite a conspicuous figure. 
During the night their oxen were permitted to graze on the prairie 
near bj'', if they were not sharp enough to run away, and in the 
morning these sturdy sons of the plow, bright and early were out 
throusfh i^rass and thicket, in dew and wet, on the hunt of their 
straggling team; and sometimes, no doubt, coming out on the calm 
morning air, their melodious voices might liave been heard ringing 
clear, "Co bos, co bos, co bos," at the sound of which the most 
sensible of their team miglit have been seen to quietly enter 
a thicket of under-brush, instinctively secre^e himself, and like a 
mouse in its nest keep perfectly still, until the place of his retreat 
was penetrated by these anxious searchers. And then what a look 
of injured innocence rested on the face of that sensible ox as he 
was urged from the place of his secrecy with the most earnest 
solicitation of the " provoked " hunter. At last the team was 
yoked, and the plow was trained, and all ready to move. 

While the plowman spits upon his hands, we'll take a look at 
the whip of the driver, a very important and indispensable part of 
the outfit. The stock of this v\liip was usually a hickory withe of 
suitable size and length, at the end of which was fastened a lash 
of wondrous length and ponderous " bulge," braided of leather 
firm and strong. This was tipped with a " cracker " which was 
meant to cut and burn. "All ready," says the plowman. A peal 
from the driver's whip, which could be heard for many furlongs, 
was the driver's reply. "Whoa! haw, Buck! gee, Dick! " was the 
team's notice to go. They bent themselves to their yokes, and the 
ponderous plow began to move, and whole sections of the prairie 
sod to turn upside down, liound after round they slowly went. 
Higher and higher the sun arose, and more and more tjiese sturdy 
oxen were wont to pant and to loll out their tongues. Slower and 
slower they trudged along, and sleepier and sleepier the plowman 
grew until with a lurch and swing of the great plow handles he is 
knocked to the right and the left; and, suddenly waking up, great vol- 
umes of — well, I'll not accuse these " good " pioneers of downright 
swearing, and so will pass that period. They get straightened up 
again and move along. Pant, pant, loll, loll, the oxen go. Some of 
them are taken with a sudden desire to go to the neighboring pond, 
and as suddenly lose their interest in the plowing business, and away 
they go. " Whoa," slap, slash, bang, goes the whip, and outpours 
another volume of — well, I said that I would not accuse these of 
violating the third commandment, and I must not repeat what 
was said. But sufiice it to say that these had greater peace of mind 
when they got to following less aggravating pursuits in the years 


afterward. Hundreds and thousands of acres of prairie sod were 
thus upturned during the first years of the settlement. 


The labors of the pioneer husbandman were not entirely fruit- 
less; indeed, he got an ample return for his labor. The crops of 
corn which he planted filled his cribs, and his fields of wheat which 
he sowed made his heart glad when the time of the golden harvest 
came. The virgin soil, when the seasons were at all favorable, 
brought forth virgin crops. The time now is when the grain is 
awaiting the harvester. These farmers were not like the farmer 
in the celebrated fable of "The Lark and the Farmer" who waited 
for his neighbors and friends to do his work, but they gathered 
their '' home " help and " hired " help and went into the field, 
sickle in hand ready for work. The " leader " starts his "■ through," 
and another follows quickly in, and another, and another, until the 
harvesters are all in, forming one side of the wild goose's line of 
flight. Click — click — click — the sickles go, and pile after pile is 
slowlv made alon^ the " throue^h " until it is done, and then " bind- 
ing back" they are ready for another; and thus and thus they 
proceed until the harvest is done. 

It may be that the pioneer has outgrown his father's ways of 
doing tilings; and, sowing a broader breadth of wheat, he adopts 
the recent innovation and the speedier way of liarvesting his crop, 
— he uses the cradle. He gathers his help as before, and they stand 
in the field which is "■already white to the harvest." All hands 
wait a space ;^ — " clickity, click, clack, click," go the stones on the 
glittering scythe-blades. " Shwiesh, shwiash, shwiush," go the 
cradles as they pass through the grain, one after the other. The 
rakers and binders follow and the whole harvest force is mowing 
through the field; and " round " after "round " they go. At each 
return to the starting place a particular corner has a peculiar 
attraction for these gatherers of the harv^est, — they never fail 
to visit it. The sun rises hiijher and hic^her in the zenith. The 
" forenoon- piece " has come. Round after round the cradlers and 
their followers go. It is high noon, and the dinner call is made. 
Merry and glad, with repartee and jest, these surround the festal 
board which the good housewife has covered with an ample and 
tempting store. Back to the field. " Clickity, clack, click, clack," 
go tlie stones on the scythes again, and the leader gives his followers 
a peculiar nod, as if to say, " Somebody's jacket will yet be taken 
to-day." He strikes in his scythe, and " leans out;" he is closely 
followed, — shoulder to shoulder. Round after round is made; and 
every time that particular corner is visited. They are wrought up 
to first-class spirits. " Clickity, clickity, clickit}', click, click, 
click," goes the leader's stone; " clackety, clackety, clackety, clack, 
clack, clack," go the followers' likewise, — it is a banter for a race, 
given and accepted. "Swish, swash, swush," faster and faster the 


cradles go. The followers pull np along-side of the leader. Deeper 
and deeper he puts his blade into the grain, and farther and farther 
they do likewise. Rivers of perspiration flow down their bodies, 
and higher and higher they throw the grain behind. It is even at 
the end and nobody is beaten. "A shake,'" says the leader, and 
they lay the cradles down to grasp the extended hand. They must 
now necessarily go to that particular corner, and take some of that 
which men take in winter to keep them warm, and in summer to 
keep them cool, the inevitable companion of the harvest field. 
And now off they go to "shock" the day's work, a merry set of 


We have already noticed the simultaneous commencement of reli- 
gious meetings in the county at various places. This may have been 
on account of the simultaneous appearance of pioneer preachers in 
the county. While the very first settlers did not seem to develop 
very much talent in the public religious gathering, perhaps because 
not desiring to push themselves forward and no one called them 
out, yet when the religious teachers and workers did come, they 
fell in with the work earnestly and zealously. They did not have 
finely decorated temples in which to assemble for the solemn wor- 
ship of God; bnt met each other in their homes, and in barns, and 
in groves, if the weather was fair. When the announcement was 
made that a minister would preach at a certain place, be it at a 
private house, or in the open air, or elsewhere, it was the signal for 
the gathering of the people. These meetings began thus in the 
year 1832^ when Rev. James Armstrong came into the county, 
followed quickly by others. These were zealous and earnest men 
of God, who sought the welfare of their parishioners, and were 
willing to be deprived of their owm comforts that they mi2:ht do 
this. They preached long and well, and their hearers listened 
with long forbearance and patience. It sometimes happened that 
when a whole neighborhood was present there was not a very large 
congregation; but the preachers held not their peace on that 
account, but if possible labored all the more diligently. The kind 
of congregation which was wont to assemble at these times and the 
zeal of the minister and his deep anxiety for his people, may be 
illustrated by the following true story which occurred in the 
border of an adjoining county: 

A party of four young men started out one Sunday morning to 
take a scout over the country to see what they could find, not 
knowing anything else to do. After traveling for along time, they 
came up to a place where they found an ox team or two tied in 
front of a log cabin. They knew what that meant, — -it was religious 
service; and being religiously disposed, and not willing to lose 
a single opportunity, opportunities so seldom afforded, although 
they knew they must be from an hour to an hour and a half late. 


tbej determined to go in and get the benefit ot the closing exer- 
cises. So thej tipped the latch and went in. The preacher, 
although he was nearly through his discourse, on seeing so large 
an increase to his audience, kindly took his text again and preached 
his sermon over for their benefit. The good man was determined 
that no suitable oj^portunity should pass for doing good without 
being improved, and these four young men never forgot the 
interest which this man of God took in their behalf. On the one 
hand, in contrast with the young men of the present time, these 
four young men sought the worship of God wherever they could 
find it, and improved by it: on the other, this preacher regarthy 
these four men as quite a large addition to his audience and worded 
of a special effort. 


In the year 1832 the pioneers began to build school-houses, and 
to send their children to school. Indiana's present admirable 
school arrangements had not yet even embryonic form, — it was not 
for nearly 20 years that the discussion of the free-school system 
took definite shape in legislative enactments, — full 20 years before 
by constitutional adoption it became one of the permanent organic 
principles of the commonwealth. The school-houses, therefore, 
which were erected at this time were no part of a great system 
reaching all over a great State, but were the individual efforts of 
neighborhoods to secure to their children the privilege of tasting 
the sweet draughts which flow from the Pierian spring, and the 
well of knowledge. 

Among the first of such school-houses, if not the very first one 
built in the county, was the one built at Springville. It is true that 
there was one at Hudson, but that was a "mission school-house" 
built for the Indians. It was not long, however, until this house 
at Springville had companions in every neighborhood. 

These houses were in perfect keeping with the cabins of the 
settlers, — built in the same general way, — of logs " notched and 
saddled," and gabled up and covered like them, and with the same 

We have had given to us a very graphic description of one of 
these houses, built in ]S[oble township, which will serve as a 
description of them all. The body of the house was put up in the 
usual way, — of logs, etc. The doorway was closed with a heavy 
shutter, hung on wooden hinges; and the creak of those hinges 
was terrible sometimes. The heating apparatus was a fire-place 
in one end, nearly its entire size, and being kept full of wood on 
cold days the little urchins would take turn about in gathering 
around it on tlie hearth and roast their little shins and toes. Many 
a irrimace did these urchins make as one side was roasting 
hot and the other freezing cold, and round and round they were 
wont to turn. For windows a log on each side was cut out and 


their places were filled with oiled paper; but this was afterwai-d 
supplied with eight by ten glass. The furniture would be consid- 
ered as unique in these days. The seating was made of logs split 
and smoothed otf with grub axes, raised to a suitable heiglit upon 
four wooden pins set in holes bored in the under side, and promis- 
cuously arranged on the puncheon floor. The writing desks were 
of similar material, prepared in a similar way, and elevated to 
the proper heiglit and given a suitable inclination by boi'ing 
holes at an angle and at the desired height in the wall -into which 
were driven strong pins. Upon these the desks were placed, 
and were prevented from sliding oif by notched heads on the 
ends of the pins. Thus furnished the house was ready for occu- 

The first morning of school was an important one. In those 
times there was not what is now called, " A Programme of Exer- 
cises," made out by the teacher and adhered to during the term; 
but the programme was made by the scholars themselves. The 
recitations, it was understood, would occur in the order in which 
the pupils arrived at the house; and sometimes there was a race 
who should recite first, this being the post of honor. None liked 
to be the last to recite. Sometimes the order of arrival on the 
morning of tiie first day determined this matter for the whole term; 
sometimes it was the arrival on Mondav mornino- which determined 
it for the following week; and very often the arrival of each morn- 
ing made up the programme for the day. The branches studied 
were the celebrated triple R's, Readin,' 'E,itin' and 'Rithmetic. If 
the girls learned to read and write pretty well, they were considered 
finished scholars; and if the boys "ciphered" as far as to the 
" Rule of Three " in Pike's Arithmetic, they were ready for the 
business of the world. To attain this, they had books without 
pictures put into their hands, and they had to go over again and 
again the long column of meaningless letters until they could say, 
without hesitation, a, b, c, d, etc., forward, and z, y, x, w, etc., back- 
ward, down and up, up and down; forward and backward, and 
backward and forward. When this attainment was reached, then 
they advanced to the " ab, eb, ib, ob, ub," etc., until it was likewise 
learned. And when they had advanced so that they could take the 
column of unused and undefined words for spelling, they liad made 
wonderful progress. What delight lit up the faces of the urchins 
as they, when learning their lessons, spelled with suppressed tone, 
but terribly loud breath, " Ba-ker, baker; sha-dy, shady; la-dy, 
lady; ho-ly, holy; bo-ny, bony; po-ny, pony; sli-m_y, slimy; ta-per, 
taper," etc. And how excessively comical it would be now to see 
the excited pupil, animated through this method of study, coming 
to a hard word, drop his index finger just beneath the knotty difii- 
culty, rise upon his feet, stride across the room so, turn the book 
at an acute angle to the teacher, and himself turned half away, 
receive his help, and then with dragging step and slow proceed to 


his seat, all the way winding up this unruly customer in a sup- 
pressed monotone to be laid away in the archives of memory for 
future use. And then add a dozen of these, and you will have a 
busy pioneer school. And when they had "spelled through" the 
spelling-book two or three times, they were ready for promotion, 
and they began to read. Yery often the New Testament was 
among the first reading books placed in their hands. It is no 
wonder that the following reading exercise was of frequent occur- 
rence: " A-n-d, and s-e-e-i-n-g, and seeing, t-h-e, the, m-u-1-t-i- 
t-u d-e, the multitude, h-e, he, w-e-n-t, went, he went, u-p, up, 
i-n-t-o, into, a, h-i-g-h, high, into a high, up into a high, m o-u-n- 
t-a-in, mountain, a-n-d, and, mountain and, w-h-e-n, when, h-e, he, 
when he, w-a-s, was, s-e-t, set, was set, h-i-s, his, was set his, d-i-s-c-i- 
p-l-e-s, dis-ci — dis-cip (Teacher. What is that word? 'disciples'), dis- 
ciples, c-a-m-e, came, u-n-t-o, unto, came unto, h-i-m, him, came 
unto him." (Ugh!) And the reader was dismissed to learn 
another lesson. And when they had reached that grade when they 
were permitted to write, they wrote with a goose-quill pen (and 
one of the prerogatives of a good teacher was that he could make a 
good pen), with ink made from the ooze of walnut, or other bark 
boiled down to the proper consistency, on paper unruled and rough. 
And when they had reached the sublime height to be a " cipherer " 
they had it very much their own way. They stumbled along some- 
how until a knotty problem came up, they cried out, "Teacher, 
here's a sum I can't do." The teacher, in response, walked over 
to the studious pupil, "worked the sum," returned the slate, and 
the student passed to the next and on. 

Our young readers may be saying, "How could they learn any- 
thing in such a school?" Well, we are not concerned just now as 
to the how, but we do know that they learned. Some of the great- 
est scholars of the age received their first training in schools of 
this kind with this kind of teaching. Put this school into contrast 
with the La Porte city schools, or the schools of Michigan City, of 
the present time, and what have our young readers to say of their 
advantages? Those who have worked out these institutions of 
learning deserve the gratitude of all for that which thev have done 
in the interest of progress. 


There is nothing, perhaps, which opens up the human heart and 
binds men and women together like common suiFering, or common 
endurance of hardships. The soldier has a peculiar feeling for his 
companion, "who drank with him from the same canteen," and 
stood side by side with him in the terrific hours of danger and 
death. So of all suffering and endurance. It is much stronger to 
bind together than the common possession of joy and pleasure. 
Hence the strongest friends are those who have suffered most with 
and for each other. 


With this^as a principle of human nature, one would not be sur- 
prised to lind the social natures of the pioneers in beautiful bloom, 
and every one ready to contribute to the enjoyment of the other. 
But this principle anion tr the first settlers, as it was recognized and 
practiced, and retained by them, is more fully related and illus- 
trated in the chapter on the "Old Settlers' Association," We are 
now more particularly to call attention to the manner and the means 
by which this principle manifested itself among them. 

The doors of tiie cabins were fastened by a wooden latch on the 
inside. They were opened by means of a string hanging down on 
the outside, which passed through a hole in the door and was 
fastened to the latch within. A gentle pull on this string would 
lift the latch, and thus the door could be opened. During the 
night, or in times of suspected danger, this string was pulled in- 
side; but at all other times it was hanging on the outside, the 
evident token that hospitality and a heartj^ welcome were on the 
inside. From this arose the old maxim of hospitality, ''The latch- 
string is out." The stranger who lifted the latch of the cabin 
door was sure of a hospitable welcome, and the home friends were 
received with cheerful greetings and an open heart. 

lu looking at pioneer life, the most unfavorable side is looked at 
generally; and if we were to take these visions as the only criterion 
by which to judge, we certainly would come to the conclusion that 
pioneer life was one unmitigated round of hardship. But this is 
certainly not true; I would not leave this impression on the mind 
of my readers. Wiiile much of hardship is connected with it, and 
deprivation as well, there is mingled with these a vein of the en- 
joyable, which is more keenly relished because of this intermin- 
gling of the antipodes of human experience. 

While the fathers and mothers were compelled to toil hard and 
long, they were not averse to a little relaxation now and then, and 
in one w^ay and another contrived to have their seasons of enjoyment 
and fun; they would break the monotony of their daily life, and fur- 
nish themselves with a hearty laugh, even if it was for the time being 
at somebody's expense, and even if they knew that interest would 
be to ])ay in return. The ways and tricks of the jovial pioneer 
excelled in mirth-provoking properties 

"The ways that are dark, 
And tricks that are vain" 

of the heathen Chinee, as celebrated by Bret ITarte; and they 
seldom failed to produce the result intended, and give the company, 
or the communit}'-, a full round of laugh, to be repeated when and 
as occasion demanded. Any community was blessed if it possessed 
two of these innocent jovialists, if they were rivals. 

The following so fittingly describes the social amusements of the 
pioneer, and gives so faithfully the picture which every old pioneer 
will recognize, that we close this chapter on Pioneer Life by quot- 
ing it in full: 


" Among the more general forms of amusements were the 
' quilting-bee,' 'corn-husking,' and the 'apple-paring'; and, in 
timbered sections, ' log-rollino^ ' and ' house raising.' Our vouna; 
readers will doubtless be interested in a description of these forms 
of amusement, when labor was made to afford fun and enjoyment 
to all participating. The ' quilting-bee,' as its name implies, was 
when the industrious qualities of the busy little insect that 
'improves each shining hour' were exemplified in the manufacture 
of quilts for the household. In the afternoon ladies for miles 
around gathered at the appointed place, and while their tongues 
would not cease to play, their hands were as busily engaged in 
making the quilt; and desire was always manifested to g t it out 
as soon as possible, for then the fun would begin. In the evening 
the gentlemen came, and then the hours would pass swiftly by in 
playing games or dancing. ' Corn-huskings' were when both sexes 
united in the work. They usually assembled in a large barn, 
which was arranged for the occasion; and when each gentleman 
had selected a lady partner the husking began. When a lady found 
a red ear she was entitled to a kiss from every gentleman present; 
when a gentleman found one he was allowed to kiss ev^ery lady 
present. After the corn was all husked a good supper was served; 
then tlie ' old folks' would leave, and the remainder of the evening 
was spent in the dance and in having a good time generally. The 
recreation afforded to the young jieople on the annual recurrence of 
these festive occasions was as highly enjoyed, and quite as innocent, 
as the amusements of the present boasted age of refinement and 
culture. 'The little brown jug' found a place in almost every 
home, and was often brought into use. No caller was permitted to 
leave the house witliout an invitation to partake of its contents." — 
History of Knox County^ Illinois. 



A history which did not give some of the incidents which 
connect the time of wholly Indian occupation with that of wholly 
European possession, — incidents in which the two races come 
together during the time which separates these two periods, would 
evidently be imperfect. While we do not want to wholly neglect 
this period, yet only a few of the incidents which might be given 
are here presented; and these are given that we more readily seize 
upon those influences which have been at work to produce the 
great changes which have been wrought in this country in the last 
half centur}', for it will be remembered that all of these changes 
have been the results of sufficient causes. These incidents, if rightly 
read, will point out some of these influences. He is wise who 
rightly reads. 

At the time of the first settlement, there were a number of tribes 
which occupied the country, — that is, a number of individuals from 
various tribes were found in it. The principal part of the Indians 
which were then in the county were Pottawatomies, Menominees, 
Chippewas and Ottawas. The headquarters of the head chief, 
Topanebee, was on the St. Joseph river; and there the great por- 
tion of his people wintered; hence those that were found in this 
part of the country were detachments from the greater part or 
body of his people. About the time of the advent of the whites, 
this chief died, and his son succeeded to the rank of head chief, 
and also took the name of his father, Topanebee. 

It was the Ottawas and the Pottawatomies which occupied that 
part of the country where the Benedicts settled. They were on 
quite friendly terms with their white neighbors, and were of use to 
them in the way already narrated in the chapter on " First Settle- 
ments." These tribes were not the acme of cleanliness, neither in 
their personal appearance nor in their methods ol cooking. An 
old settler relates that a party of these had captured a turtle and 
a coon. He happened to pass their encampment at the time they 
were being prepared for a repast. The turtle was placed alive on 
a bed of coals and held down with sticks until it was dead, and 
then it was roasted in that way. Without very much ante-prepara- 
tion, the coon was placed in a camp kettle and cooked. When the 
cooking process was through, the Indians insisted that their white 
brother should share with them their meal; but the cookery 
employed gave him no appetite or relish for the feast. 



These Indians were not destitute of religious ideas, but tliej 
were very much colored by their superstitions. The Ottawas 
believed. in Michabou, the "great hare," a mythological personage 
who formed the earth and developed men from animals. In this 
superstition the reputed doctrine of Darwin finds confirmative 
proof as to the origin of men. They also believed jin Mirabichi, god 
of the waters; and also in Missabizi, " the great tiger." TheChip- 
pewas, or more properly the Ojibwaj^s, believed in the Kitche 
Manitou, the Great or Good Spirit, and the Matchi Manitou, the 
evil spirit. The Medas was a body acting as a kind of priesthood; 
but each one had his own manitou revealed to him in dreams. The 
great mythological personage among the Ojibways was Menabojou, 
who aided the Great Spirit in creating the world. 


For the entertainment of my younger readers, I am constrained 
to give the tradition of the Chippewas as to the way in which 
Menabojou assisted in the creation of the world. I will leave 
them to say whether there is any tradition of the flood in it. 
Menabojou is represented as being in the world all alone; and, 
being without companionship, he became very lonesome. Search- 
ing for a companion, he finally came across a wolf to which he at 
last became very much attached, and which likewise became very 
much attached to him ; and they called each other brothers. They 
were inseparable companions. In one of the lakes near by was the 
home of Matchi Manitou. While traveling together one day, 
(Menabojou and his brother) Matchi Manitou enticed the wolf, the 
brother of Menabojou, into the lake, and he was drowned. Mena- 
bojou became very disconsolate at his sad loss, for he was now all 
alone in the world again, and he determined to be revenged of 
Matchi Manitou. Passing along the lake one day in winter when 
it was frozen over, the day being sunshiny and warm, he found 
Matchi Manitou and his chief devils out on the ice sunning them- 
selves. He tried to approach them unobserved so that he could 
send an arrow into the hated Manitou, but they saw him. They 
did not know what to think . of the strange object; they did not 
know whether it was an enemy or some harmless object. To settle 
that point Matchi Manitou sent one of his devils in the shape of a 
bear to see what it was. Menabojou, seeing the movement, as- 
sumed a position of perfect rigidity, and waited his coming. The 
devil came cautiously to the object of his search, snufled the air 
about it and began to scratch it and bite it; and when Menabo- 
jou was just on the point of crying out for pain he quit. And he 
tried it again, and, when Menabojou thought he must cry out, he 
quit again, and then returned to Matchi Manitou and told him 
that it was only a stump. But he was not entirel}' satisfied with 
this report, so he sent out another devil in the shape of a large 
serpent, with orders to report what the strange object might be. 



So it came to Menabojoii and coiled itself around him with many 
a fold, and then it began to tighten the folds and to squeeze him 
most fearfully. He was almost ready to cry out with pain when 
he suddenly relaxed his hold and gave him an opportunity to 
breathe. Again he drew the folds so tightly about him that he 
thought every bone in him surely would be broken, but just when 
he could stand it no longer the serpent uncoiled himself and re- 
turned to Matchi Manitou with the same report, that it was only a 
stump. Satisfied now% they all lay down in the bright sunshine 
and went to sleep. When Menabojou saw that his time had come, 
he crawled up toward them, and when in proper distance he shot 
several arrows into the midst of the sleeping devils, and then he 
hastened away that he might see what they would do when they 
awoke. When Matchi Manitou awoke and he found that a num- 
ber of his chief devils were dead, he looked around for the strange 
object and it was gone. He then exclaimed : " It was Menabojou ! 
Itwas Menabojou!" So Matchi Manitou spewed out a flood of 
water from his mouth to follow after Menabojou and destroy him. 
Menabojou, seeing the flood coming, fled to the mountains. And 
the higher he ascended the higher the waters came. He went to 
the highest peak, and the waters followed him there. He climbed a 
tree, and still the waters did not abate. And when he could go no 
further the waters kept on ascending until they reached his waist, 
and they stood. For three days it was so, and Menabojou was 
about to give up in despair. On the morning of the third day he 
saw swimming in the water around him three animals, a beaver, 
an otter and a muskrat. He called to them and called them 
brothers. He said to them, "What shall we do?" and they could 
not answer him. Then he said to them: " I'll tell you what to do. 
Each of you dive to the bottom and bring up some earth." Then 
the beaver did so, but the water was so deep that he was drowned 
before he reached the bottom. Then the otter tried it, and he 
succeeded in reaching the bottom, but, before he succeeded in get- 
ting any earth, he drowned also. Then the muskrat tried it, and, 
just as he succeeded in getting a very little, he drowned too. Men- 
abojou succeeded in getting hold of the dead bodies of these ani- 
mals, and he examined the beaver, but he found nothing. He 
examined the otter, but with no better results. Almost in despair 
he examined the muskrat, and in one paw he found a little earth. 
This he carefully took and held it in his hand to dry in the sun. 
When it was thoroughly dry he pulverized it between his flngers, 
and then with a strong^spurt of breath, he blew it all around him, 
and immediately the dry land appeared. And this is the way that 
Menabojou aided Kitchi Manitou in creating the world. 


We are very apt to associate in our minds, in connection with 
the Indian, rude attainments, barbarity and cruelty, and stoic 


indifference to the possession of that knowledge which civilizes and 
refines. We ought to tone down this conception a little. While 
the Indian, even the most civilized, is far from the sublime heights 
of complete enlightenment and civilization, yet some of the tribes 
have made commendable progress in the arts and practices of 
civilization, and notably the Ojibways, or Chippewas, a few of 
which tribe were dwellers in this county. The Jesuit^5 had mis- 
sions established among them as early as 1642, Fathers Joguee 
and Raymbaut beginning a mission among them at Sault Ste. Marie 
at that time. These missions were continued right along, with a 
few intermissions, until their removal. A^ccordingly, we find the 
Catholics with a mission at Niles, Michigan; and a branch of it 
established at Hudson, or Du Chemin lake under the charge of 
Joseph W. Lykins, a Welshman, who had a school there among 
them. In 1830 this school was in the charge of Robert Simmer- 
well, an Indian, whicli will serve to show whether these made any 
advancement in the knowledge which these missionaries taught. 
It ma}^ be further remarked that many of these Indians became 
devout Catholics under this training. 

There are at present numerous works printed in the Ojibway 
language, and a newspaper regularly issued. Of the works pub- 
lished, the "Traditional History of the Ojibway Nation," Boston^ 
1851, was written by George Copway, a n'ative Ojibway. And 
another member of the nation, Peter Jones, wrote a " History of 
the Ojibway Indians," which was published in London, in 1861. 


A little temperance crusade occurred at Door Tillage in 1830, 
participated in by a party of young Indians. A man named 
Welsh, and his son, a young man, took up their residence at this 
place. They erected a cabin and went into business. Their stock 
in trade was a supply of liquors. At first they did a good business, 
for the quality of their stock was such as to suit their customers, 
— " It made drunk come quick." But the " profits " were not such 
as to suit the Welshes; and copious supplies of water helped to 
add to these. As a result, the " quick-ness of the drunk " was dis- 
turbed, and while the Indian is not over-fastidious as to his home 
and food, yet his " fire-water" must be right. As they would try 
it, such as the Welsh's dealt out, they became disgusted at the length 
of time which it took " the drunk to come " to such an extent that 
their indignation was aroused. Under the impulse of that indig- 
nation, a party of young braves went to the cabin of the Welshes, 
and, knocking the heads of the barrels in, after rolling the barrels 
out, they spilled their contents on the ground, and in that way took 
summary vengeance on them for tampering with their delectable 
" fire-water." Then the Welshes were taken with a sudden disgust, 
and went to Chicago. 




The Indians were verj peaceably inclined, and behaved themselves 
very well. They committed but few depredations. One of these 
was the killing of an ox for Henly Clybnrn ; but for this Mr. Clyburn 
afterward received the pay by having it kept out of their annuities. 
The chief interest which clusters around this incident is, not the 
fact that the Indians killed it, but the inconvenience to which the 
settlers were put. On account of tliis, Mr. Clyburn was compelled 
to go all the way to JNiles, Michigan, and solicit from the Gary 
mission there the loan of a yoke of oxen in order to make up a 
team for plowing. This occurred in the year 1830; and shows to 
what straits these pioneers might be placed, even by the loss of a 
single ox. 


In 1831 a body of the Sac Indians went through along the trail 
which passed through Door Tillage. A squad, coming in advance 
of the main body; stole three horses from Arba lieald . He followed 
them a few miles on foot, but gave up the chase as hopeless. This 
theft was reported to the chiefs, when the main body came up a day 
or two afterward. The council to which it was submitted concluded 
to give an order on the Indian Agent at Rock Island, Illinois, — 
Colonel Davenport. When Mr. Heald afterward went to the agency, 
his horses, very much demoralized, were returned to him. On the 
night before he ex]>ected to start back with his recovered property, 
the best one of his horses was again stolen from him, which he never 
recovered, nor any pay for it. 


Although the seat of the Black Hawk war was in Illinois, yet 
it had its influence on the settlements in this count}', not because it 
reallj^ reached this part of the country, but because of anticipations 
that it would. It was thought that when the Indians under Black 
Hawk were brought to an action by the troops which were sent 
against them when they crossed the Mississippi river, if they were 
defeated, they would strive to make their way into Canada; and if 
they did that, they were most likely to follow the trail which ran 
through the county, — and this was cause for considerable excitement, 
and no little amusement at this day, among the settlers. But the result 
of the war showed that these fears were entirely groundless; for, 
instead of being driven in this direction, they were driven into Wis- 
consin, and the great Sac and Fox chief captured. 

But this outcome of the war did not prevent the settlers making 
necessary preparations for the emergency, should it come. The 
natural desire for safety and protection, on the part of the settlers, 
was heightened when they knew that hostilities had broken out, from 
the fact that the Ottawas and Pottawatomies had told the settlers, 


" When the leaves on the trees are as large as squirrels' ears, the Sacs 
intend to invade the settlements, and kill the white settlers." 
Accordingly, when the Indian Agent at Chicago, Mr. Owen, in May 
of 1832, sent word to Arba Heald, and he had noised the rumor 
around that hostilities had commenced at Plickory creek, a short 
distance from Chicago, there was a rush for Door Yillage; and, 
when the meeting was called to order to consult as to the general 
safety and what was best to do to promote mutual defense, from 
some cause a stampede took place and about half of them started 
for tall timber, " tall timber in the east," and some of them did not 
stop until they could bathe their feet in the waters of the Ohio. 
(At this distance of time, this stampede seems real funny.) How- 
ever, -12 men remained; and these, under the direction of Peter 
White, a man who had some proficiency in building such works, 
built works for defense. These consisted of palisades, a ditch, and 
earth-works, 125 feet square. At two of the angles block-houses 
were built, which commanded the sides. These works were com- 
pleted in three days from the time of commencement, and then they 
felt secure. The ruins of this fort, as it was called, are yet plainly to 
be seen. They are situated about a half-mile east of Door Village, 
near the road. 

Shortly after the completion of this fort a block-house was built 
about three miles to tlie east, on section 13. Judge Lemon super- 
vised the erection of this defense. 

General Joseph Orr was present at the building of the fort, and 
reported it to the Governor of the State. He was ordered by the 
Governor to raise a company of Mounted Rangers, which should 
be ready for service should the United States officer in the North- 
west make a call for the militia of the State. This compan}^ he 
raised; and reported first to the commandant at Fort Dearborn, at 
Chicago, and afterward to General Winfield Scott. It was used as 
a kind of corps of observation, keeping up a communication 
between the settlements on the Wabash and Chicago. Of course 
the}^ had no opportunity to display their bravery, or to reap glory 
in the battle-struggle, for General Atkinson, driving Black Hawk 
into Wisconsin, finally succeeded in capturing him, and thus ended 
the war. 

The courage of Mrs. Arba Heald at this time deserves more 
than a passing notice. She seems to have been one of the very few 
who preserved their courage and was undismayed by the news from 
the seat of war. or the wild rumors of Indian depredations. With 
a bold defiance, when everybody else was fleeing to the fort for 
safety, arming herself with two rifles, two axes, and two pitchforks, 
she barricaded the door of her cabin-home, and declared that she 
would kill six Indians before they took possession, either of her or 
her home; and she doubtless would have given them a warm recep- 
tion had she been disturbed. Arouse the feline in a woman, and 
she is a tiger. ISTeither threats nor persuasions of any kind availed 
to induce her to go into the fort. 



When the danger was passed, the people left the fort and returned 
to their homes, except the stampeders; and thej did not get back, 
many of them, for a year. 


To illustrate how the peace and safety of a community may 
sometimes hang upon a trifle, the following incident is given. 
One day as Mr. John Beatty was out hunting in the woods of Cool 
Spring township, he saw what he took for a deer. Eager to secui'e 
it, he made haste to shoot it. Just in time, an Indian rose up and 
showed himself unmistakably; the shot was reserved. Tlie free- 
dom of the intercourse that took place between the Indians and 
their white neighbors, for they visited freely the cabins of the set- 
tlers, no doubt gave this Indian conlidence that if he showed him- 
self plainly lie would be safe; so he stood up boldly in front of 
the hunter, and was saved. If this accident had been consummated, 
it is hard to tell what would have been the consequences. There 
can be no doubt but that tlie indignation of the Indians would have 
been aroused, and the friendly relations which subsisted between 
them and the settlers would have been broken oif; and, if so, that 
many an innocent white man and family would have paid the 
penalty of an aroused Indian indigiuition, — an indignation set 
aflame by an accident. How subtle is the thread that suspends a 
human life, be he red or white. 

MISS carter's school. 

In a double log cabin, built on the farm of William Eahart, 
Miss Rachel B. Carter taught the first school kept in New Durham 
township. While this school was in progress, the Indians, old and 
young, would frequently visit it. During the hours of its work 
they would come noiselessl}' into the room, take a stand at one 
side and remain for hours gazing curiously at the i)roceedings, and 
never stir a limb or utter a sound. In the midst of' her duties in 
teaching the little urchins, Miss Carter would become absorbed in 
her work and forget her visitors. On calling them to mind again, 
she would be no little surprised to find that they had stolen out and 
glided away as silently as they had come. 

The following incident will illustrate the readiness which Miss 
Carter possessed in making the right response at the right time. 
On one occasion, "Twin Squaw," an Indian woman, told Miss Car- 
ter that when the corn was knee high the Indians intended to kill 
all the whites everywhere. Without betraying any of that tradi- 
tional nervousness supposed to be inherent in a woman, she 
instantly, without any degree of hesitation, replied; "The white 
people are already well aware of the intentions of the Indians," 
and taking up a handful of sand continued to say, "Soldiers are 
coming from the East as numerous as the sands in my hand to 


destroy the Indians before the corn is ankle high." The result of 
this speech was, the next morning there was not a trace of an 
Indian about anywhere; and for several months they made no 


Government among the Indians, as all know, is tribal and 
paternal. Their ideas of justice are sometimes unique; and some- 
times it would be well that their ideas of justice were carried out 
among those who claim a higher civilization, at least so far as the 
forms of, and the means of obtaining, justice are concerned. The 
following incident shows to what extent their ideas of justice, as 
pertaining to exemplary punishment in order to secure justice, 

During pigeon time, an Indian had cut down a tree in a pigeon 
roost in order to obtain the young pigeons, which were just then in 
their " squabb3'" condition; and, when it fell, it killed a pony 
belonging to another one of the tribe. The matter was brought 
before the council, the highest court known in the Indian judiciary, 
and it sat with a great deal of wisdom on the case. After that due 
deliberation and consultation which mark all Indian transactions 
of importance, the following decision and verdict was reached: 
" On account of the carelessness of the offender, the aggrieved 
party is entitled to receive two ponies in the place of the one 
killed." This judgment was respected, and its terms complied 
with. This offender w^as made to pay 100 per cent, as "exemplary 
damages" for his carelessness; and, as the State needed no great 
sum to bear its expenses, these " damages" were awarded to the 
original sufferer from the accident. If such a code prevailed among 
their white brethren, many of them would seek for such accident's 
that they might double their possessions. 


The flood of that on-swelling tide that was sweeping with a 
resistless flow to the West, was fast covering up the remnants of 
that people which it found in possession when it banked itself up 
along the shores of the Atlantic. This people was being swept on 
before it farther and farther to the West, only now and then a 
remnant being left. 

During the year 1835 a large body of Indians, probably 500 or 
more, encamped on the Kankakee marsh; but they did not remain 
very long, passing on to the West; and in tlie following year, a 
similar body of perhaps 600 encamped in the neighborhood of 
Westville. They too remained but a short time, and passed along. 
From this time on nothing but scattering parties were seen in the 
county until their final moving to their lands west of the Missis- 
sippi river. 

This was finally accomplished in the year 1838. It was in this 
year that the St. Joseph's band was carried off by troops to a large 



tract of land which had been assigned them on the Missouri. On 
this trip there was a loss of 150 by death and desertion out of 800. 
This tells with what aversion they left their former homes. See 
also page 131. 

"With this removal the Indians relinquished to the whites the 
possession of all this country, and the process of supplantation was 



The first settlements, as formerly stated, were made in the years 
1829, 1S30 and 1831. At the expiration of that time there were 
more than 100 families in the territory; bnt it was without organ- 
ization, and the public business was done only in a general way. 
On the 1st day of April, 1832, it took its place among the counties 
of the State under the following fact of incorporation, passed by 
the State Legislature and approved by the Governor, January 9, 


Sfxtion 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the 
State of Indiana, That from and after the first day of April next, 
all that tract of country included in the following boundaries shall 
form and constitute a new county, to be known and designated by 
the name and style of La Porte county, to-wit: Beginning at the 
State line which divides the State of Indiana and Michigan Terri- 
tory, and at the northwest corner of township number thirt^'-eight 
north, range number four west of the principal meridian; tlience 
running east with said State line to the center of range number one 
west of said meridan ; thence south twenty-two miles; thence w^est, 
parallel with said State line, twenty-one miles; thence north to the 
place of beginning. 

Sec. 2. That the new county of La Porte shall, from and after 
the said first day of April next, enjoy all the rights and privileges, 
benefits and jurisdictions which to separate and independent coun- 
ties do or may belong or appertain. 

Sec. 3. That Samuel Lewis of the county of Allen, Isaac Col- 
man of the county of Fountain, Andrew Ingraham of the county of 
Clinton, Levi Thornton of the county of Tippecanoe, and Merritt 
S. Craig of the county of Ripley, be, and they are hereby appointed, 
Commissioners agreeably to the act entitled "An act fixing the 
seats of justice in all new counties hereafter to be laid ofif." The 
Commissioners aforesaid shall meet on the second Monday in May 
next, at the house of David Pagin, in said couuty of La Porte, and 
shall immediately proceed to the discharge of the duties assigned 
them by law. And it shall be the duty of the Sheriff of Carroll 
county to notify said Commissioners, either in person or by writ- 
ing, of their appointment, on or before the first day of A])ril next. 



And for such services he shall receive such compensation as the 
Board doino^ county business in said county of La Porte may, \vhen 
organized, deem just and reasonable, to be allowed and paid as other 
county claims. 

Sec. 4. The Circuit Court and the Board doing county business, 
when elected under the writ of election from the Executive Depart- 
ment, shall hold their sessions as near the center of the county as a 
convenient place can be had until the public buildings shall have 
been erected. 

Sec. 5. The agent who shall be appointed to superintend the 
sale of lots at the county seat of the county of La Porte, shall re- 
ceive ten per centum out of tJie proceeds thereof, and pay the same 
to such person or persons as may be appointed by law to receive 
the same, for the use of a county library. 

Skc. 6. The county of La Porte shall be attached to the county 
of St. Joseph for representative purposes. 

Sec. T. The Board doing county business may, as soon as elected 
and qualified, hold special sessions, not exceeding three, during the 
first year after the organization of said county, and shall appoint a 
Lister, make all necessary appointments, and do and perform all 
other business M^hich might have been necessarj- to be performed at 
any other regular session, and take all necessary steps to collect the 
State and county revenues, any la\v or usage to the contrary not- 

Under the authority of this act, the Executive Department of 
tlie State issued a writ of election; and Chapel W. Brown, Jesse 
Morgan, and Elijah IL Brown were elected Commissionei's of the 
county, George Thomas, Clerk, and Benjamin McCart}-, Sherifi'at 
said election. 

On May 28, 1832, the Commissioners met and organized by elect- 
ing Chapel W. Brown as President of the Board, and George 
Thomas, Clerk. After thus organizing for business, they appointed 
William Clark, Surveyor; Aaron Stanton, Treasurer, and Jesse 
Morgan, Lister of taxable property. 


At the first session of the Board of Commissioners, the county 
was divided into three townships. All of that part of the county 
which lies east of the line dividing ranges two and three was desig- 
nated as a township, and named Kankakee. All of range three in 
the county was designated as another township, and named Scipio. 
All of range four in the county was designated as another town- 
ship, and named, in accordance M'ith the wishes of Mrs. Miriam 
Benedict, New Durham, this being the name of the place in New 
York from which the family had emigrated. Each of these town- 
ships, in the order named, was also designated as a Commissioner's 
District. Thus, at the session of the Commissioners' Court in 
May, 1832, the county was put on its feet so far as organization 


was concerned. We are now to trace those various changes which 
have taken place until we find tlie county in its present ±brm and 


On September 4, 1833, at their regular term, the Board of Com- 
missioners made the following order: 

"Ordered that New Durham .township be divided by the line 
dividing townships 36 and 37, and that all of that tract of country 
lying in townships 37 and 38 constitute a new township, to be 
called Michigan township," 


Again, at their regular term, November 5, 1883, the Board of 
Commissioners made an order in the following words: 

"Ordered that the township at present known bj^ the name of 
Scipio be divided by the line dividing townships 36 and 37, and 
that all north of said township line compose a new township, to be 
called Centre township.'" 


Oa March 3, 1834, the Board of Commissioners passed the fol- 
lowino: order: 

" On motion of William Holmes, Kankakee township is divided 
by the line dividing townships 36 and 37, all that part south of 
said line to constitute and form a new township of the name of 


At the same time M^ith the organization of Pleasant township, 
the Board of Commissioners made also the following order: 

"On motion of Henry F. Janes for a division of Kankakee 
township and to form the township of Wills in the northeast corner 
of said county, bounded as follows, to-wit: Beginning at the 
southeast corner of section 33, township 37 north, range 1 west; 
thence north with the county line to the northeast corner of 
La Porte county; thence west with the county line to the section 
line one mile west of the range line dividing 1 and 2 w^est; thence 
south with said section line to the south side of township 37; 
thence east to the place of beginning." 


On June 6, 1835, Springfield township was organized by the 
Board of Commissioners making the following order: 

'•On petition of Judah Learning, et al., it is ordered by the 
Board that all the territory in range 3 west, in the county of 


La Porte, and north of sections number 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18, 
in township 37 narth, in said range, shall compose a new township 
to be called and known by the name of Springfield township." 


On March 9, 1836, at its regular March term, the Board of Com- 
missioners set apart the territory of Galena township in the following 
order : 

" Ordered that Kankakee township be divided, and that part of 
said township lying in township 38 north, in range 2 west, form a 
judicial township to be known by the name of Galena." 


On the same day with the organization of the Galena township, 
March 9, 1836, the Board of Commissioners made the following 
order organizing the township of Clinton: 

" Ordered that iSTew Durham township be divided by the line 
dividing Congressional townships 35 and 36 north, range 4 west, 
and that all that part of said township formerly comprising 
Congressional township 35 north^ range 4 west, form a new township 
for judicial purposes, to be known by the name of Clinton township. 


And at the same time at which the two preceding townships were 
organized, March 9, 1836, the Board of Commissioners made the 
following additional order, organizing Noble township: 

" Ordered that Scipio township be divided by the line dividin