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Full text of "History of Lawrence, Orange, and Washington counties, Indiana : from the earliest time to the present : together with interesting biographical sketches, reminiscences, notes, etc"

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From the Earliest Time to the Present; Together with Interesting 
Biographical Sketches, Keminiscences, Notes, etc. 







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OUR history of Lawrence, Orange and Washington Counties, after 
months of persistent, conscientious labor, is now completed. Every 
important field of research has been minutely scanned by those engaged in 
its preparation, and no subject of universal public value has been omitted 
save where protracted effort failed to secure trustworthy results. The 
impossibility of ingrafting upon the pages of this volume the vast fund of 
the county's historic information, and the proper omission of many value- 
less details, have compelled the publishers to select such matters as are 
deemed of the greatest importance. Fully aware of our inability to fur- 
nish a perfect history from meagei- public documents, inaccurate private 
correspondence, and numberless conflicting traditions, we make no preten- 
sion of having prepared a work devoid of blemish. Through the courtesy 
and the generous assistance met with everywhere, we have been enabled to 
rescue from oblivion the greater portion of important events that have trans- 
pired in past years. We feel assured that all thoughtful peoj)le in the 
counties, at present and in future, will recognize and appreciate the impor- 
tance of the undertaking and the great public benefit that has been accom- 

It will be observed that a dry statement of fact has been avoided, and 
that the rich romance of border incident has been woven with statistical 
details, thvis forming an attractive and graphic narrative, and lending beauty 
to the mechanical execution of the volume and additional value to it as a 
work for perusal. We claim superior excellence in our systematic manner 
of collecting material by workers in specialties; in the division of the sub- 
ject matter into distinct and appropriate chapters; in the subdivision of the 
individual chapters into sub-heads, and in the ample and comprehensive 
index. We also, with pride, call the attention of the public to the superb 
mechanical execution of the volume. While we acknowledge the existence 
of unavoidable errors, we have prepared a work fully up to the standard of 
our promises, and as accurate and comprehensive as could be expected under 
the circumstances. 

November, 1884. THE PUBLISHERS. 





Geology 11 

Blind Fishes 2.3 

Blue Spring Cave 21 

Chester Formation, The 13 

Connelly Cave 21 

Coal-Measures, The 13 

Connelly Hill 21 

Donnelson Cave 23 

Details around Bono 23 

Dry Cave 19 

Dunihue Cave 16 

Details at Springville 17 

Economic Considerations 26 

Fossils, The 14 

Features at Fayetteville 19 

Formations Around Mitchell 21 

Geological Section, The 12 

GrinstaflF Cave 18 

Hamer Cave 22 

Hematite Deposits, The 25 

Kaolin Mines, The 24 

Keokuk Bed.s, The 14 

Knohstone Shales, The 15 

Lime Interests, The 22 

Mineral Springs 26 

Measurements at Leesville 24 

Millstone Grit, The 13 

Perpendicular Sections 17 

Strata near Huron 20 

Surface Features 11 

St. Louis Limestone, The 13 

St. Louis Chert Beds, The 15 

Shiloh Cave 18 

Spurgeon Hill Fossils, The 17 

Section at Fort Ritner 24 

White River Hills, The 20 


Indians and Mound Builders 27 

Aboriginal Names 29 

Battle of Tippecanoe, The 27 

Cession Treaties, The 27 

Capture of Guthrie, The 31 

Connelly Mounds, The .32 

Contents of the Mounds 32 

English Land Companies, The 28 

Flinn Tragedy, The 31 

Fisherman, The 33 

Indian Boundary Lines 28 

Indian Tribes 28 

Lawrence County Tribes, The 29 

Mounds. The 32 

Piankeshaws, The 29 

Pierre, The Death of. 30 

Prehistoric People 31 

Palestine Mounds, The 32 

Eawlinses, The 30 


Settlement of the County 34 

Anecdotes 48 

Avoca 45 

Blue-Grass Crop, The First.. 50 


Bono Township 41 

Catalogue of Pioneers 35 

Counterfeiters 57 

Carding Mills, etc 47 

Dixon ville 64 

Distilleries 37 

Elections. Industries, etc 54 

Ferries, The 61 

Guthrie-Flinn Settlement, The 35 

Grist-Mills, etc .36 

Guthrie Township , 62 

Hamer's Mill 39 

Hunting Exploits 40 

Immigration, The Early 34 

Industries, etc 43 

Indian Creek Township 48 

Leesville Settlement, The 34 

Land Entries, The Early 41 

Manufactures 51 

Marion Township 37 

Marshall Township 43 

Merchants 44 

Names of Settlers 38 

Other Industries 40 

Origin of Name 59 

Officers, Mills, etc ,. 59 

Perry Township 46 

Pleasant Run Township 55 

Patents of Land 42 

Salt Wells 52 

Shawswick Township 58 

Second Settlement, The 42 

Spice Valley Township 53 

Taverns, Stores, etc 52 

Township Officers 50 


Organization of the County 64 

Agricultural Societies, The 88 

Act of Creation, The 64 

Auditors 87 

Asylums, The l^oor 82 

Associate Judges 87 

Boundary Alterations 65 

Bedford Court House, The First 78 

Bedford &. Bloomfield Railway 96 

County Before its Formation, The 66 

County Board, The 67 

County Agent, The 74 

Court House, The Present 80 

County Commissioners, The 85 

Clerks 87 

County Politics 99 

County Bridges 97 

County Fiuauces 93 

Coroners 88 

Fair, The First 90 

Finances of the Societies 91 

Important Proceedings 69 

Incidents of the Re-loeation 73 

Items of Interest 74 

Jail of 1829, The 79 

Jail of 1858, The 79 

Justices of the Peace 84 

Libraries, The 81 

Medical Societies, The 98 

Palestine 68 

Palestine Court House, The 77 




Palestine Jail, The 78 

Probate Judges 87 

Population of theCounty 96 

Report of the Locating Commissioners 67 

Report of the County Agent 69 

Re-location of the County Seat 70 

Report of the Re-location 72 

Representatives 86 

Reorjjanization of the Society, The 90 

Recorders 87 

Railroad Projects 96 

School Funds, Origin of the 83 

Senators 86 

School Examiners 86 

Sherifls 87 

Surveyors 88 

Treasurers 87 


Bench and Bar 103 

Attorney, The First Resident 108 

Attorneys, Professional Character of. 112 

Arson, The First Case of 113 

Admission of Practitioners 116 

Blackwell vs. The Board of Justices 116 

Circuit Court, The First 104 

Court at Palestine, The First 107 

Court Terms, Meaning of. 107 

Care of the Records ^ Ill 

Court Officers 114 

Character of Mr. Dunn 118 

Courts Under the New Constitution 122 

Court House, Dedication of the 124 

Common Pleas Court 127 

Divorce Cases 124 

Eminent Men 117 

Judges, The First 103 

Judge Johnson 106 

Judge Wick 110 

Judge Ross 113 

Juries; "Unable to Agree" 115 

Kress vs. Fellows 120 

Lost Records 106 

Lash, The Sentence of the 108 

Larceny Case, The First 109 

Murder, First Indictment for 121 

Moody vs. Jones 124 

;Murder of Carney 125 

ISIorrow-Christopher Case, The 125 

Narrow Gauge Railroad Cases 126 

Ottences, Character of 105 

Observations 127 

Phillis, The Slave 105 

Practitioners, The Court 121 

Slander Suits 110 

State vs. Hitchcock, Murder 123 

State vs. Brannan, Murder 123 

State vs. Saunders, Murder 123 


Towns of the County 128 

Additions to Bedford 144 

Additions to Mitchell 156 

Asheries at Bedford 135 

Bedford, Town of. 131 

Banking Establishments 141 

Bedford School Bonds 1.50 

Bryan tsville 169 

Bedford Stone Works 155 

Bedford During the Thirties 134 

Bedford, Early Merchants of 133 

Bedford, First Residents of 132 

Cotton Factory at Bedford 135 

Decay of Palestine 131 

Distilleries of Bedford 134 

Exchange of Lots 132 

Fayetleville 173 

Finances of Bedford 146 

Fort Ritner 168 

Growth of Palestine 129 

Heltonville 171 

Incorporation of Bedford 144 

Incorporation of Mitchell 156 

Incorporation of Palestine 130 

Lawrenceport 165 

Limekilns near Mitchell 159 


Leesville 172 

Lots in Palestine 1.30 

Liquor Sales in Bedford 133 

Mitchell 155 

Merchants of Palestine 129 

Manufacturers of Bedford, Early 134 

Merchants of the Forties '. 137 

Manufacturers of Palestine 130 

Merchants of the Fifties 138 

Manufactures, The Later 140 

Officers of Bedford 147 

Press of Bedford, The 153 

Press of Mitchell, The 157 

Present Business of Bedford 139 

Present Business of Mitchell 163 

Palestine, Town of. 128 

Pork Packing at Bedford 136 

Petition vs. the Sale of Liquor 137 

Secret Societies of Bedford 142 

Secret Societies of Mitchell 159 

Sale of Lots in Bedford 132 

Selection of Bedford Site 131 

Springville 169 

Silverville...... 174 

Town of Bono 164 

Town of Huron 168 

Tunnelton 167 

Town of (Uithrie 171 

Town of Liberty 174 

Tanneries at Bedford 135 

Villages, Several Small 174 

Woolen Factory 135 


Military History 175 

Barbecues, The Welcoming 178 

Buena Vista, Battle of 177 

Bounty and Relief 195 

Catalogue of Mexican Soldiers 179 

Draft of October, 1862, The 189 

Drafts of 1864 and 1865, The 193 

Eighteenth Regiment, The 183 

Fort Sumter, Surrender of 181 

Fifteenth Regiment, The 182 

Fiftieth Regiment, The 186 

Fourth Cavalry, The 187 

Last Call, The 192 

Lawrence County Legion 192 

Militia, The 175 

Mexican War, The 176 

Miscellaneous Elnlistments 186 

Minute Men, The 189 

Military Credits, Official 194 

Men Furnished, Summary of 194 

Other Companies 188 

One Hundred Days' Men, The 191 

Public Feeling in 1861 181 

Personalia 195 

Springville Company, The First 185 

Sixty-seventh Regiment, Tlie 186 

Six Mouths' Men, The 190 

Twenty first Regiment, The 183 

Twenty-fourth Regiment, The 183 

Twenty-seventh Regiment, The 184 

Thirteenth Cavalry, The 101 

Utah War, The 180 

Volunteers, The First 182 

Volunteers of 1864 190 


Religious History 200 

Bedford Church Buildings 200 

Baptist Society, Bedford 205 

Bethlehem Presbyterian Church 208 

Baptist Church, Mitchell 211 

Baptist Society, Leesville 214 

Baptist Church, Springville 217 

Bono Presbyterian Church 218 

Christian Society, Bedford 203 

Christian Ministers, Bedford 204 

Christian Churches in the County 205 

German Methodists, Bedford 206 

Gullett's Creek Church 214 

Guthrie Creek Baptists 219 

Guthrie Township Churches 215 

Heltonville Baptists 216 




Indian Creek Township Churches 221 

Leatherwood Christian Church 209 

Methodists at Bedford, The 201 

Methodist Church, Mitchell 210 

Methodists at Lawrenceport 217 

Mt. Olive Christians -19 

New Union Christian Church 219 

Presbyterians at Bedford 200 

Pleasant Grove Baptists 220 

Presbyterian Ministers, Bedford 201 

Pleasant Run Township Churches 215 

Presbyterian Church, Mitchell 211 

Pleasant Hill Methodists 222 

Quaker Churches, The 217 

St. Vincent Catholics, Bedford 207 

Salt Creek Baptists 208 

Spice Valley Baptists 21- 

Shiloh Methodist Church 221 

Spring Creek Baptists 214 

Springville Methodist Church 216 

Sugar Creek Church 218 

Springville Christians 217 

White River Union Church 222 


Educational History 223 

Bedford Schools 231 

County Seminary, The 231 

Enrollment at Bedford 236 

Educational Statistics 225 

Enumeration at Bedford 237 

Education in Flinn Township 226 

Graded Schools, Mitchell 228 

Geological Cabinet, The 237 

High School, Bedford 233 

Institutes 237 

Langdon.the Monk 223 

Marion Township Schools 225 

Mitchell Schools, The 227 

Mitchell Seminary, The ■• 227 

Pioneer Schoolhouse, A 224 

School, The First 223 

School, The Second 223 

School, The Third 224 

Shawswick Township Schools 226 

Southern Indiana Normal School 229 

Select Schools at Bedford 233 

Teachers of Indian Creek 224 

Teaching in Pleasant Run 226 

Trustees of Schools 234 

Teachers of Bedford 235 

Zoological Cabinet, The 237 



Bono Township 339 

Flinn Township 343 

Guthrie Township 347 

Indian Creek Township 306 

Marshall Township 350 

Marion Township 277 

Perry Township 315 

Pleasant Run Township 324 

Shawswick Township 241 

Spice Valley Township 331 




Geology 355 

Alluvium or Lacustral 364 

Argillaceous Limestone, The 358 

Bituminous Limestones, The, 358 

Building Stone, The Best 367 

Carboniferous Period 356 

Cherts, The St. Louis 357 

Chester Group 356 

Concretionary Limestone, The 359 


Clays, The Local 367 

Coal of the County 366 

Caverns, Siibterranean Streams, Etc 364 

Chemical Analysis 366 

Firestones, The 356 

Fossils, Catalogue of 356 

French Lick Springs 365 

Grit, The Chester 363 

Iron Ores, The 366 

Limestones, The St. Louis 357 

Local Sections 361 

Lime, The Burningof 367 

Millstone Grit, The 363 

Quaternary Age 356 

Rocks of the County 356 

St. Louis Group 357 

Section at Lost River " Sink " 359 

Sandstones, The Chester 362 

Stampers Creek Sink 364 

Sinks of Lost River 364 

Woods, The Native 355 

West Baden Springs 365 

Whetstones and Grindstones 367 


Indians and Mound Builders 368 

Aboriginal Occupancy 369 

Boundary Lines 369 

Catholic Missions, The 368 

Cession Treaties, The 370 

Charles, The Killing of 372 

Camping Grounds 372 

English Policy, The 368 

Indian Tribes, The 369 

Indians, Removal of 373 

Indian Trails 372 

Maxwell's Fort 370 

Mound Builders, The 373 

Moore's Fort 370 

Other Earthworks 375 

Piankeshaws, The 369 

Paoli Fortification, The 374 

Shawnee Village, The 370 

Vest, The Killing of 371 

Valeene Fortification, The 375 

Wilson, The Massacre of 371 


Settlement OF the County 376 

Anecdotes of the Chase 382 

Bear Stories 404 

Comparison of Past and Present 381 

Criminal Occurrences 395 

Catalogue of Settlers 406 

Distilleries 407 

Deer Hunting 396 

Early Industrial Enterprises 401 

French Lick Township 390 

French Settlement, The 390 

Greenfield Township 399 

Horse-Mills, Etc 403 

Industries, Etc 387 

Incidents, Etc 406 

Jackson Township 397 

Land Entries 376 

Law-breakers 398 

Land Patents 400 

Mills, Industries, Etc 380 

Mills, Orleans Township 384 

Manufactures 397 

Milk Sickness 404 

Merchants, Mechanics, etc 409 

Northwest Township 387 

Northeast Township 408 

Orleans Township 382 

Officers, etc 377 

Orangeville Township 386 

Pioneers 392 

Paoli Township 379 

Postotlices, Stores, etc 389 

Saline Reserves, The 391 

Springs, The Mineral 393 

Southeast Township 402 

Settler, The First 402 

Stampers Creek Township 405 

Tanneries, Mills, Etc 409 




Underground Railroad 385 

Voters, Paoli Township 378 

Voters, Orleans Township 383 

Vigilance Committees 404 

Whetstones 395 

Wild Hogs 386 

Wilson, The Bear Hunter ,. 388 


Organization of Orange County 410 

Appointment of Students 416 

Act of Creation 411 

Agricultural Societies, The 431 

Associate .Tudges 437 

Auditors, List of 440 

Bonds and Bridges 417 

County Before Formation, The 410 

County Commissioners. List of 437 

County Otlicers, The 412 

County Board, The 412 

Conscientious Citizens 415 

Commissioners' Districts 416 

Court House, The First 421 

Circuit Judges, List of 437 

Common PleasJudges 437 

Clerks, List of 439 

Coroners, List of 439 

Exclusion of Negroes 441 

Formation of Townships 413 

Financial Exhibit 417 

First Fair, The 432 

Graveled Road, The 424 

Highways, The 423 

Important Proceedings 415 

Jail, The First 422 

Justices of the Peace 436 

Libraries, The 427 

Later Fairs 434 

Medical Societies, The 431 

Navigable Streams 425 

Officers of Townships 414 

Public Buildings, The Present 422 

Paupers, The 426 

Poor-farm, The 426 

Population of the County 427 

Patrons of Husbandry 430 

Prof. Wilbur, Death of. 435 

Probate Judges 437 

Politics 440 

Presidential Elections 442 

Railroads 428 

Railway Projects 429 

Representatives 438 

Recorders 439 

Seat of Justice, Land 419 

School Funds, The 430 

Second Fair, The 433 

Second Agricultural Society , 484 

Senators 438 

Surveyors 439 

School Officers 440 

Sherilis 440 

Soldiers' Bounty 417 

Tavern Charges 414 

Turnpike, The New Albany..., 424 

Treasurers 439 


Bench and Bar 446 

Associate Judges, The Earliest 450 

Assault, Cases of 453 

Attorneys, List of 457 

Arson, etc.. Cases of. 460 

Additional Attorneys 460 

Bunger Homicide, The 448 

Bowles-Newby Suit, The 455 

Baker, Payne and Throop 462 

Bounty Cases, The 471 

Bowles Divorce Case, The 467 

Circuit Court, The First 446 

Character of Cases 448 

Counterfeiting 450 

Court Officers 454 

Character of Judge Floyd 451 

Common Pleas Court, The 469 

Death of Henry Wires 466 


First Court at Paoli 448 

(iilliland Homicide, The 454 

(iraud Jury, The First 446 

Hampton-Henley Murder, The 464 

Judge Simpson 461 

Judges Otto and Hicknell 466 

James Tyler, Death of. 471 

Lindley-Chess Slander, The 449 

Legal Requirements 458 

Later Attorneys 465 

Lindley-Craveus Case, The 456 

Memorial Resolutions 461 

( (ther Supreme Court Cases 458 

Practitioners at the Bar 451 

Porter-Hoggatt Controversy, The 453 

Parish-McCart Murder, The 464 

Prayer, The IMorniug 449 

Probate Court, The 468 

Professional Character of Attorneys 452 

Sundry Criminal Cases 457 

Sheriff" Outwitted, The 450 

Supreme Court Case, The First 454 

Seybold Murder, The 470 

Slavery in Orange County 463 

Thomas Moody, Death of 469 

Vail-Holmes Murder, The 447 

Watkins-Foster Murder, The 466 

Woodwards, The Murder of the 468 


Towns of Orange Codnty 472 

Acts of Paoli Trustees 483 

American Eagle,The 489 

Artisans, etc 474 

Business Men of the Forties 478 

Business Men of the Fifties 478 

Business Men of the Sixties 479 

Bank of Paoli, The 480 

County Agent, The 473 

Chambersburg 506 

Families, The Earliest Resident 473 

French Lick 505 

Grain Trade at Paoli 476 

Grist-mills, Saw-mills, etc 477 

Greenback Advocate, The 491 

Growth of Orleans, The 492 

Hogs, Packing of at Paoli 477 

Incorporation of Paoli, The First 482 

Incorporation of Paoli, The Second 482 

Incorporation of Orleans 494 

Liquor at Paoli 474 

Lancaster Station 505 

Live Stock Trade at Paoli 476 

Merchants at Paoli 474 

Manufactures at Paoli 475 

Merchants of Orleans 493 

Mills of Orleans 493 

Millersburg 507 

Newspapers at Paoli 488 

Newton Stewart 499 

New Prospect 506 

Orangeville 502 

Orleans Agricultural Society 499 

Orleans School Bonds 496 

Officers of Orleans 495 

Orleans, Town of 491 

Plat of Orleans, The First 492 

Present Business Men, Orlean* 494 

Pittsburg 502 

Physicians at Orleans 498 

Paoli, Town of 472 

Postmasters at Paoli 479 

Paoli Town Officers 484 

Present Business Men, Paoli 491 

Railroad at Orleans, The 498 

Resources and Liabilities 481 

Press of Orleans 497 

Republican, The 490 

Refunding of the Bonds 4S5 

Site of Paoli 472 

Saxe Horn Band at Paoli 479 

Stockholders ot Paoli Bank 481 

School Bonds, etc 483 

Streets, The (irading of. 485 

Secret Societies of Paoli 486 

Secret Societies of Orleans 496 




Tobacco Factory at Paoli 477 

Temperance Question, The 479 

True American, The 488 

Union and News 490 

Union ville 501 

Valeene 504 


Military History of Orange County 508 

Aid Societies 529 

Arrest of Dr. Bowles 529 

Bounty and Relief 528 

Bivins' Company • 520 

Company of Capt. Bowles 509 

Company, The First 513 

Draft of October, X862, The 522 

Disloyaltv in 18(i3 522 

Drafts of l.SM and 18G.5 526 

Extracts from Editorials 511 

Forty-ninth Regiment 517 

Fifty-third Regiment 518 

Fifty-ninth Regiment 519 

Home Guards 513 

Militia System, The 508 

Mexican War, The 509 

Mass Meeting, The First 511 

Ninety-third Regiment 521 

Opposition to the War 529 

One Hundred and Thirty-ftrst Regiment 525 

Public Feeling in 18(il 510 

Payne's Company 520 

Roll of Mexican Soldiers 510 

Raid ot (ien. Morgan 524 

Ritter's Company 517 

Reeves' Company 519 

Raid of Capt. Hines 523 

Recruits of 1862 521 

Recruits of 1864 525 

Spicely's Company 515 

Swift's Company 521 

Statistical Tables, Official 526 

Sixty-sixth Regiment 520 

Summary of Men Furnished 527 

Twenty-fourth Regiment 514 

Thirty-eighth Regiment 516 

Union Mass Meetings 513 

Volunteers, The First 512 

Volunteers, Fiftieth Regiment 518 

Williams' Company 515 

War, Commencement of 512 


Religious History op Orange County 530 

Ames' Chapel, Methodist 540 

Baptist Church, Paoli 533 

Baptist Ministers, Paoli 533 

Beech Church, Quakers 534 

Baptists at Orleans 537 

Cane Creek Christian Church 540 

Christian Church, Unionville 541 

Faucett's Chapel 539 

French Lick Methodists 540 

Liberty Christian Church 544- 

Lick Creek Quakers 533 

Methodists at Paoli 530 

Methodists of Chambersburg 534 

Methodist Ministers, Paoli 531 

Mt. Pleasant Baptist Church 534 

Members at Paoli 532 

Ministers at Chambersburg 534 

Methodists of Orleans 534 

Missionary Baptists, Orleans 537 

Newbury Quakers, The 534 

Orleans Presbyterian Church 536 

Orangeville Mission, The 538 

Orleans Christian Church 538 

Orangeville Methodists, The 539 

Old School Baptists 542 

Presbyterians of Paoli 531 

Preaching at Orleans, First 535 

Presbyterian Ministers, Paoli .532 

Providence Baptist Church 541 

Pleasant Valley Missionary Baptists 544 

Pleasant drove Baptists 544 

Rock Spring Baptists, Southeast 541 


Stampers Creek United Brethren .')43 

Sunday-schools at Orleans 536 

Scarlet Ridge Methodists 540 

Trustees at Orleans, Methodist 536 

United Brethren of Chambersburg 535 

United Brethren, Unionville 541 

United Brethren of Valeene 543 

Valeene Methodists 543 

Valeene Christian Church 543 

Wesley Chapel, Orangeville 539 


Educational History 545 

Atkinson's School, The 546 

Academy, The Orleans 558 

County Teachers' Institute 575 

Course of Study, (Jommon Schools 574 

County Seminary, The 548 

Congressional Fund 572 

Diplomas Granted 575 

French Lick Schools 561 

Grading of the Course 565 

Greenfield Township Schools 565 

Jackson Township Schools 563 

Lady Teachers, The First 546 

Lectures on Educational Subjects 576 

Normal Teachers 553 

Northeast Township Schools 553 

Orleans Town Schools 556 

Orangeville Township Schools 558 

Patrons, P.aoli Township 545 

Paoli Town Schools 548 

Pioneer Schools, Definition of 571 

Quackenbush School, The 546 

Session of 1884, Institute 577 

Schools of Paoli Township 545 

Seminary Teachers, The 549 

Southern Indiana Normal School 552 

Sale of the Seminary 551 

Schools of Orleans Township 5.55 

Schools of Northwest Township 560 

Southeast Township Schools 566 

Stampers Creek Teachers 568 

Sale of School Land 571 

Trustees of Paoli Township 547 

Township Institutes 574 

Text-books, The Early 573 

Taxation for Education 573 

Vote on the Common School System 574 



French Lick Township 641 

Greenfield Township 647 

Jackson Township 653 

Northwest Township 657 

Northeast Township 632 

Orangeville Township 652 

Orleans Township 604 

Paoli Township 579 

Southeast Township 617 

Stampers Creek Township 662 




Geology 667 

Boundary of the County 667 

Blue-grass Land 667 

Bottoms and Uplands 667 

Cement Rock 671 

Clays for Bricks, Tiling, etc 671 

Chemical Constituents 673 

Caves and Passages 672 

Coal Deposits 672 

Fossils at Paynter's Hill 670 

Formation of Caves 673 



Knobstone Group, The 668 

" Knobs," The 668 

Lime, Burning of. 671 

Metals, The Precious 672 

Mineral Springs 673 

Names of Townships 667 

Oolitic Limestone 670 

Quarries, The 670 

Rocky Outcrops, The 668 

Streams of the County 668 

Sulphuret of Iron 669 

Spurgeon Hill Fossils, The <% 669 

Sandstone for Building 670 

Rand and Gravel 671 

Timber, Saw-mills, etc 674 


Indians and Mound Builders 675 

Block-houses, The 679 

Border Scouts, The „ 680 

Capture of Jimmy and Johnny 677 

Domain of the Miamis 675 

Death of Jimmy 678 

Death of Zink 680 

Family of "Old Ox," The 677 

B'orts, etc.. The e. 679 

Horse-stealing, etc 677 

Indian Inhabitants, The 675 

Indian Stories 681 

Mounds and Their Contents, The 681 

Massacre of the Solidas 678 

Militia Companies, The 676 

"Permitted" Tribes 675 

Pursuit of the Indians 677 

Pigeon Roost Massacre, The 679 

Return of Johnny, The 678 

Rangers of 1812, The 676 

Villages of Indians 676 


Settlement op Washington County 682 

Anecdotes, Interesting Early 704 

Brown Township 687 

Beck's Mills 695 

Bear, Adventure with a 695 

Business in Franklin Township 701 

Catalogue of Old Settlers 683 

Callaway and the Bear 684 

Country Industries 684 

Courting Under Difficulties 689 

Cubs, Capture of Six 691 

Cloth from Nettles 696 

Cave, Adventure in a 696 

• Counterfeiters .-. 703 

Deer Story, A 691 

Distilleries, etc., Gibson 699 

Enterprises in Monroe 702 

Enochs and the Bear 693 

Franklin Township 700 

Gibson Township 699 

Hammersly and the Bear 688 

Howard Township 094 

Industries, Jackson Township 691 

Industries, Polk Township 697 

Jackson Township 690 

Jeffer.«on Township 691 

Lifting Match, A 693 

Manufacturing Undertakings 692 

Mother Bear and Cubs, A 701 

Monroe Township 701 

Mills of Monroe 702 

Madison Township 704 

McKinney and the Bear? 705 

Madison Township Mills, etc 7u5 

Posey Township 685 

Panther, Fight with a 689 

Pierce Township 695 

Postotfices, Stores, etc., Polk 698 

Pioneer Pursuits 698 

Polk Township 697 

Present Business Industries 703 

(Juiltings and Corn-huskings 687 

Railway Disaster, A Dreadful 685 

Squatters of 1800, The 682 

Saline Reserves 685 

^^^^^^ PAGE. 

Stores, Postoffice, etc riTT^TmTTrr'. 693 

Silk Manufacture 696 

Township Industries 686 

Vernon Township 698 

Violations of Law 700 

Washington Township 662 


Organization of Washington County 706 

Agricultural Societies, The 725 

As.sociation of 1881 726 

Auditors, List of 723 

Associate Judges 724 

Act of Creation, The 706 

Asylum, The Poor ,. 714 

Boundary Alterations 709 

Bridge Fund , 718 

County Before Creation, The 706 

County Board, The First 708 

Coroners, List of. 724 

County Revenue, etc 711 

Clerks, List of 728 

County Commissioners 722 

County Officers, The First 707 

' Finances of the County 715 

Important Acts of the Board 708 

Justices of the Peace 719 

Laying Out of Salem 707 

Later Events of Interest 711 

Medical Society, The 724 

New Townships 712 

Population of the County 713 

Plank Road Companies 719 

Presidential Elections 728 

Present Finances 718 

Paupers of the County 713 

Probate Judges 724 

Politics of the County 727 

Reformation of Townships 710 

Representatives 720 

Railroads, The Building of. 727 

Recorders, List of. 723 

School Funds, Origin of. 715 

Senators, List of.... 721 

Sheriffs , 723 

Surveyors 724 

School Officers 722 

Treasurers 723 

Townships, The First 708 

War, Acts During the 712 


Bench and Bar 732 

Attorneys, The First 733 

Buildings, The First 734 

Court Officers i 734 

Circuit Court, The First 732 

Courts Under the Constitution 736 

Contempt of Court 738 

Character of Crime 746 

Catalogue of Attorneys 749 

Court Districts... 750 

Death of Delos HefFren 753 

Death of Varis, Mysterious 751 

" Fist and Skull " Age, The 737 

Feasances, The 739 

Grand Jury, The First 733 

Grave Robbing 740 

Gollahan Murder, The 755 

Housh-Berky Homicide, The 743 

Indictments, The First 733 

Judges, The First 732 

Knowles-Linn Forgery, The 756 

Larceny Case, A Notable 735 

Lash, Sentence of the 740 

Later Members of the Bar 749 

Mingo, The Slave 736 

Murder, First Indictments for ' '0 


Mauslanghter of Johnson, The 

Practitioners, The Early j 

Pearson Homicide, The 743 

Professional Character of Lawyers 745 

Revolutionary Soldiers 741 

Rape, First Case of 742 




Sundry Crimes 754 

Two Important Cases 750 

Trespass vi el armis 739 

Unfortunate Conviction of Brown 748 

Wood-Kepley Murder Case, The 746 

Wright Brothers, The 739 


Towns of Washington County 757 

Additions torfalem 759 

Buildings, Early Public 764 

Banking Enterprises....; 770 

Benevolent Societies 774 

Cholera, Ravages of the 768 

Capture of Salem 772 

Campbellsburg 779 

Canton 781 

Claysville 792 

Diplomacy of Mrs. Lindley 758 

Fire of 1874, The Big 773 

Fire Department, The 773 

Fredericksburg 786 

"Grocers," The Earlv 763 

Gold Excitement, The 771 

Grading the Streets, etc 774 

Hotel Rates Established 762 

Hattery, Tobacco-shops, etc 764 

HardinsDurg 785 

Harristown 792 

Hitchcock 792 

Incorporation of Salem 767 

Jail, The County 775 

Later Business Men ; 771 

Livonia 783 

Little York 788 

Merchants of Salem 760 

Manufacturers of Salem 761 

Martinsburg 782 

Mount Carmel 792 

New Albany A Salem Railroad 770 

New Philadelphia 790 

Newspapers of Salem 776 

Progress of Invention 7.57 

Prominent Men of Salem 765 

Pekin, Village of. 790 

Residents of Salem, The First 759 

Salem Town Site 758 

Salem Library Association 767 

School Buildings, The 772 

Salem in 1884 775 

Salem Prew.The 1 779 

Saltilloville 789 

South Boston 791 

Smedley, Farabee, etc 793 

Woolen Mill, The 761 

Washington Democrat, The 778 


Military History 793 

Aid Societies 814 

Bounty and Relief. 814 

Basket Dinner, A 807 

Banta's Company 807 

Draft of October, 1862, The 808 

Drafts of 1864 and 1865 813 

Editorial Extracts 797 

Eighteenth Regiment, The 803 

Enlistment in 1864, The 812 

Fort Sumter, Fall of. 798 

First Company, The 800 

Fiftieth Regiment, The 805 

Joy and Sorrow 815 

Militia, The Old State 793 

Mexican War, The 794 

Muster Roll, The 794 

Mass Meetings 801 

Morgan's Raid 810 

MinuteMen, The 811 

Military Arrests 812 

Men Furnished, Number of 814 

One Hundred and Forty-fourth Regiment.... 813 

Other Volunteers 804 

Public Sentiment in 1861 - 796 

Return of the Mexican Soldiers , 795 

Recruiting '. 804 

Redfleld's Company 805 


Recruiting Committees 811 

Statistical Tables, Official 813 

Second Mexican Company, The 795 

Second Companv, The 803 

Sixteenth Regiment, The 806 

Six Months' Company, The 811 

Thirteenth Regiment, The 800 

Third Company, The 804 

Ultra Political Views 806 

War Begun 799 

War Meetings 801 


Religious History 816 

Blue River Baptist Church 816 

Baptists, The Regular 822 

Bethlehem Church, The 827 

Christian Church, The 817 

Catholic Church. The 818 

Covenanters, The .". 829 

Church Statistics "832 

Division of the Quakers 820 

Hicksites, The 819 

Highland Creek Meeting, The 821 

Hebron Church 823 

Indian Missions 820 

Lick Creek Meeting, The 821 

Lost River Church 823 

Lutherans, The 830 

Ministers and Members 817 

Mt. Pleasant Meeting, The 822 

Many Church Organizations 824 

Methodists, The 830 

Presbyterian Church, Tne 825 

Quakers, The 819 

Salem Presbyterians, The 826 

Salem Methodists, The 831 

Sluder's Meeting-house 817 

United Brethren, The 830 

Walnut Ridge Church, The 828 


Educational History 833 

Age, The Twine Binding 833 

Blue River Academy, The 838 

Brown Township Schools 843 

Correction, Old Method of 834 

Catalogue of Teachers 840 

Friends' School, The 837 

Franklin Township Schools 847 

Gibson Township Schools 848 

Howard Township Schools 845 

Jetferson Township Schools 843 

Jackson Township Schools 846 

Literary Societies, The 842 

Monroe Township Schools....* 842 

Madison Township Schools 844 

Posey Township Schools 845 

Present Private Schools, The 849 

Polk To^frnship Schools 847 

Pioneer Schoolhouse, A 838 

Pierce Township Schools 846 

Professional Teachers 837 

Salem Grammar School ." 836 

Salem Female Collegiate Institute 837 

Student's Rebellion, The 841 ' 

Salem Graded School 839 

Teachers, Character of. 835 

Vernon Township Schools 844 

Washington Township Teachers 834 



Brown Township 881 

Franklin Township 913 

Gibson Township 916 

Howard Township 927 

Jetferson Township 899 

Jackson Township 921 

Madison Township 918 

Monroe Township 904 

Pierce Township 892 

Posey Township 885 

Polk Township 907 

Vernon Township 931 

Washington Township , 851 


History of Lawrence County. 


Geology— The Perpendicular Section— The Coal Measures— Mill- 
stone Grit— Chester Formation— The St. Louis Limestone— The 
Keokuk Beds— Characteristic Fossils— The Knobstone Group- 
Description OF Caves— Numerous Vertical Sections— Curious 
Formations— The Spice Valley Kaolin Mines— The Hematite 
Deposits— Mineral Springs— Economic Questions— Other Consid- 

THE eastern and northeastern portions of Lawrence County are 
undulating or gently rolling plateaus, drained by deep, narrow 
valleys; the central region north of White Eiver is hilly, and the western 
and southwestern is rough and broken. Each of these divisions is cov- 
ered with a soil almost wholly formed from decomposition of underlying 
rocks; consequently the soil of the first is tenacious clay and sand; of 
the second, a calcarious clay; and of the third, principally of siliceous 
material, with an intermixture from both of the others. In that part of 
the county underlaid by St. Louis limestone, compi:ising a broad belt 
about twelve miles wide, passing centrally from northwest to southeast, 
"sink-holes" are so numerous as to form a striking feature iu the con- 
figuration of the surface. The principal streams are the East Fork of 
White Kiver, Indian, Big Salt, Little Salt, Leatherwood, Guthrie, Back, 
Sugar, Fishing and Beaver Creeks. The county is generally heavily 
timbered with oak, hickory, befech, maple, chestnut, walnut, elm, etc. 
The geological formations of the county comprise three divisions of the 
quaternary age, two of the coal measure group and four of the sub- 
carboniferous group. The formations dip slightly, with a variable rate, 
from east northeast to west southwest, and the outcrop from the east to 
the west boundary of the county represents a vertical measurement of 
about 700 feet. From east to west the formations, in the order of age, 
outcrop as follows: Koobstone group, Keokuk group, St. Louis group, 
subcarboniferous group, carboniferous group, quarternary group. In 

*Adaptied to this volume from the official report of Assistant State Geologist John Collett, pub- 
lished in 1874. 



addition to these there is the recent geology, comprising alluvium found 
mainly in the valleys; the Loess, an ash-gray siliceous clay, cold and 
mainly unproductive, found on the highest lands along the west side of 
the county, principally on the knobs near Huron. No dnft is to be found 
in the county, save occasional traces brought down by streams which 
have their origin farther north. The following is the geological section 
of the county: 


„ ., , , • 4 to 10 

1. Soil and clays .^^^ 

2. Alluvium, recent :;::40to450 

3. Alluvium, ancient ^ ^ on 

5 to «v 

4. Loess 


to 20 

5. Lower coal measures 

6 Conglomerate (millstone grit) • .5^ to i~.u 

7. Pyritous shale and shaly sandstone with bands and ^^ 

nodules of iron ore ^° 


Chester Beds. • ^^^^ 

8 Bituminous and argillaceous limestone, with coal 

measure and subcarboniferous fossils mingled 

and alternately predominating 2 to d» 

9 Siliceous and bituminous shale •••" ^ 

10. Place of a rash coal 04 to 8 inches 

11. Thin-bedded sandstone, grindstone and whetstone 

20 to DO 

grits ^ g 

12 Coarse, heavy-bedded sandstone u to 

13 Blue argillaceous limestone with black flints and 

lb to 40 

chert . . 

14. Red and blue clay with plates of chert passing into 

heavy argillaceous limestone cement 5 to 

15. Bituminous slate (coal-bone) to .08 inches 

St. Louis Beds. ^^^^ 

16. Gray argillaceous or bituminous brecciated limestone, ^^ 

locally cement stone [ " . 

. , 1- i. . . 4 to 10 

17. Vermicular limestone ."*;."": ^n . ^k 

18 Blue and gray argillaceous and magnesian limestone 10 to 6o 

19 Bands of chert and amorphous geodes in scales and 

argillaceous limestones which weather to a reddish 

brown clay (paint), Lit7iostrotion bed and corals.. 5 to 4U 

20. Blue quarry limestone, sometimes concretionary, or 

brealcing with conchoidal fracture J to 49 

!• . . . 4 to 13 

21. White quarry limestone ^ 

22. OoUtic limestone, fossil bed ^ 

23. Blue argillaceous limestone ^ ° 


Keokuk Beds. 


24. Blue and gray shales or limestone, with bands of chert to 10 

25. Geodes in blue shaly clay 4 to 6 

26. Blue limestone, with Hemipromtes 3 to 6 

87. Geode bed with mammoth geodized fossils 3 to 3.6 

28. Shaly and pink limestone, full of fossils, shells and 

crinoid stems 1.6 to 2 



Knobstone shales, with thin beds of massive sandstone in 
its upper division to 250 


The coal measures in the western part of the county are represented 
only by beds of shales and shaly sandstones on the tops of some of the 
highest hills. The probability of the presence of workable seams of 
coal is very remote. 


Below the coal measures is found the conglomerate, a massive gray 
or brown sand rock (No. 6 above). It forms bold hills, and is well devel- 
oped north and south of Silverville, and thence to the southwestern cor- 
ner of the county. It appears as pudding stone on Section 8, Township 

4 north, Range 2 west. A pyritous shale easily decomposed underlies 
the conglomerate. 


The upper member is a variable limestone, whitish gray to dark brown 
in color, or perhaps black, in which case it is highly bituminous (No. 8 
above). A rash coal is found herein and the following fossils: Archim- 
edes, Pentremites and Crinoidce; also Lophophyllum, Athyris subtilita 
and Productus cora. The coal is of no economic value. Lower down 
(Nos. 11 and 12) are thin bedded sandstones which outcrop in a strip 
across the county from the northwest corner to the southern boundary. 
The fossils are Stigmaria, Sigillaria, Lepidodendra, with cones, fruit and 
leaves; also Diplotegium, Ulodendron cerdaites, Pecopteris, Alethopteris, 
Neuropteris, Hyemenophyllites, etc. Below this is the blue argillaceous 
limestone (No. 13), which is often homogeneous and sometimes litho- 
graphic. Good specimens may be seen on Sections 17 and 21, Township 

5 north, Range 2 west, and elsewhere. On Beaver Creek a band of dark 
hornstone is found herein, of which the Indians made weapons and stone 
ornaments. Below this the red and blue clay (No. 14) contains Ortho- 
cerata, Bellerophon, Nautili, Zaphrentis, Syringopora, etc. Next under 
this is a coal seam of no particular value, which outcrops at Bedford, 
Avoca, Goose Creek, Homer's Mill and Pace's Hill. 


As stated a few pages back this stone occupies a broad belt extending 


north and south across the county. It differs so much in thickness and 
in its lithological character in different places that it could not be identi- 
fied were it not for its fossils, particularly LHhostrotion Canadense, or 
"petrified wasp's nest," and L. proliferum or "petrified corn-cobs," besides 
Productus cora, Athyris ambigua Zaphrentis spinulosus, Archimedes 
Wortheni, Pentremites conoideus and many others. The surface over this 
stone is characterized by numerous basin-like sinkholes, many of which 
communicate with subterranean caverns; indeed, this stone is often called 
the "cavernous limestone." The upper divisions and some of the lower 
strata are argillaceous and under certain conditions possess hydraulic 
properties. The vermicular limestone (No. 17) is traversed by cylindrical 
cavities resembling wormholes, hence the name, which are supposed to 
be the casts of decayed seaweeds. A crystalline mass known as crystal- 
lites is found, also peculiar systems of crenulated columns resembling 
the suture joints of the human skull. In No. 19 the cherts are highly 
fossiliferous with Lithostrotion, Syringopora, Zaphrentis, Productus, 
Athyris. Sponges, Pentremites, Trilobites, etc. The variety of sponge 
called locally "marbles" or "petrified plums" cover the surface in places 
as at Bedford, Mitchell and Section 7, Township 5 north. Range 1 west. 
This horizon contains many irregularly or partially formed geodes. 
Numbers 20 and 21 furnish a very superior stone, excellent for chisel 
dressing, remarkably solid, with good hydraulic properties, and of a dark 
bluish color. Number 21 contains the famous "Bedford Stone," known 
so extensively throughout the West by builders. It is composed almost 
wholly of minute fossils cemented with shell and coal dust. It varies 
in color from gray to a creamy white, and is so homogeneous that it may 
be quarried in blocks its entire thickness of twelve feet, and of indefinite 
but satisfactory side extent. It may be sawed, cut and molded to any 
shape. Under this is the famous fossil bed containing about seventy 
species of the following principal genera: Botalia, Phillipsia, Cythere, 
Chiton, Bellerophon, Pleurotomaria, Murchisonia, Natica, Loxonema, 
Buliniella, Enomphalus, Rhynchonella, Spirifer, Nuciila, Chonetes, Athy- 
ris, Waltheimia, Terebratula Retzia, Cono-cardium, Archeocidaris 
Actinocrinus, Pentremites, Dentalium., Sphenopoterium, Aulopora, Cos- 
cinium. Archimedes, Fenestella, etc. This bed varying in thickness from 
a few inches to three or four feet, is made up almost wholly of the shells, 
etc., of marine animals. All are very small and some are microscopic, 
yet very perfect and beautiful. Examples may be seen on Section 5. 
Township 5 north. Range 1 east, and on Spider Creek west of Bedford. 
Number 23, a compact bluish quarry stone, generally argillaceous, some- 
times magnesian, contains petroleum sometimes when dark. 


Of this group No. 24 is of no economic importance, but contains 



beautiful CrtJioidce and specimens of Hemipronites, Froductiis, Spirifer, 
etc. In No. 25, in a mass of slialy clay is a wonderful collection of 
geodes called "nigger heads." Spherical, rough, unattractive outwardly, 
they show nature's most beautiful work on the interior. There appear 
limpid, black or rose-colored crystals of silica, sometimes chalcedony, 
calc spar and rarely zinc blende, galena and pyrites. Number 27 has all 
the above varities and many geodized fossils of Spirifer, Bp.llerophon, 
Zaphrenti, Gonitiates, Crinoid heads and stems, Nautili and Palapchinus, 
all of giant size. It is inferred that these animal remains caused the 
cavities, and gave direction to the form of many if not all of the goedes. 
Good specimens are seen at Ft. Ritner, Leesville, Heltonville, Bartletts- 
ville and Guthrie. Number 28 consists of shaly and hard pink lime- 
stones profusely filled with disjointed stems of Crinoidce, and Pentremites, 
and also Hemipronites, Spirifer, Productiis, Archimedes, Aulopora 
Cheteles, Zaphrentis, etc. Where the pink color prevails shark's teeth 
of Helodus, Cladodus, Cochliodus and Beltodus are found. This is a 
good stone for foundations of hammered masonry. 


This is the lowest visible formation in the county, and is nearly 500 
feet thick and outcrops on the eastern and southeastern portions. It is 
principally composed of dark aluminous shales, compact and tenacious, 
easily decomposed, and hence is readily reduced by running water, leav- 
ing bold " knobs " whence the name is derived. Fossils are rare. The 
upper member contains local beds of good homogeneous sandstone equiv- 
alent to the famous " Waverly sandstone" of Ohio. Outcrops are seen 
at Ft. Ritner, Guthrie and elsewhere on the eastern side of the county. 
The above so far serves as a general description of the geology of the 
county, but now follows accounts more in detail. 


The chert bed of the St. Louis limestone, which, on disintegration, 
forms a reddish brown ocher, colored with hydrated oxide of iron, out- 
crops at all the hilltops around Bedford and mayJae considered the sur- 
face stone. It is from twelve to forty feet thick, and is composed of beds 
of gray, green or red shales, enclosing bands of chert and flint from two 
to twelve inches thick. Upon exposure to the air the clay crumbles 
away and the chert breaks into small angular fragments. A band of soft 
white chalky material is frequently found with whorls of Archimedes 
and other fossils. The following is the section at Campbell's Cave a mile 
south of Bedford: 


Clay and chert 10 

Bituminous limestone 2.5 

Coal bone (slate) 3 


Dark bilumiuuous limestone, laminated 2 

Argillaceous limestone 2 

Vermicular limestone 4 

Hard gray limestone 4 

Argillacious andMagnesian limestone 6 

Hard blue limestone 10 

White quarry limestone to water 9 

Total 49.8 

dunihue's cave, limestone beds, fossils, etc. 
Half a mile west of this cave is Dwnihue's Cave, which has been ex- 
plored to the depth of about two miles. It contains beautiful chambers 
with stalactites and stalagmites of great purity and has many interesting 
formations to attract the naturalist. Where the railroad crosses Leather- 
wood Creek the lower St. Louis, and upper Keokuk beds are argillaceous. 
In "pockets" are found Pew/remi^es, Batocrinus, Cyaihocrinus, Phillix)- 
sia, Productus, Spirifer, Aulopora and Archimedes. North of this on 
the hillside are angular fragments of limestone re-cemented with tufa. 
This fracture has probably resulted from exposure to the air and not 
from earthquakes or similar convulsions. The interstices are tilled with 
calcareous earth. Fine white limestone (No. 21 above) in enormous 
blocks is obtained at the Coats and Johnson quarries a mile south of 
Bedford. Casts of Bellerophon are found. This stone is soft at first, is 
easily sawed, chiseled and moulded, and is peculiarly suited for door and 
window caps and sills, columns and highly ornamented capitals and 
brackets. Weathering hardens it. The section here is as follows: 


Hard laminated limestone 4 

White quarry limestone 10 

Blue quarry limestone 7 

The quarry of N. L. Hall was extensively worked in this stone. A 
powerful engine drove three gangs of saws. The white limestone has all 
the excellent qualities above described. It has been used in the Bedford 
court house, the postoffice at Indianapolis, the State University at Bloom- 
ington, the new Illinois State House, the Louisville Custom House, 
etc. It is a famous stone. The blue limestone (No. 23 above;, 
is harder and finer in texture, and is in great demand for coping and 
posts of iron fences and for monuments. Its cohesion enables it to resist 
the compression and cross- strain of large structures. A wall of this stone 
is three times as strong as the same sized one of bricks. When burned 
it furnishes good lime. Blocks of any size may be obtained. The sec- 
tion at Hall's quarry is thus: 


Soil and clay 4 

White limestone (No. 21) 9 

Blue limestone (No. 23) 7 




* In the valleys of Salt and Leatherwood Creeks near Bedford, the 
whole depth of the St. Louis limestone outcrops with a perpendicular 
measurement of about 100 feet. At the bottom of this group appear 
the geode beds and laminated limestones of the Keokuk group, with a 
thickness of from twelve to twenty feet. On the northwest quarter of 
Section 8, Township 5 north, Kange 1 east, is a fine outcrop of the 
famous fossil bed (No. 22 above). It is sometimes called the "Spurgeon 
Hill Fossil Bed." It shows Phillipsia, Rotalia, Cythere, Chiton, Platy- 
criniis, Batocrinus, Actinocrinus, Archeocidaris, Pentremites, Coscinium, 
Aulopora, Zaphrentis, Archimedes, Sphenopoterium, Conocardium, Spir- 
ifer, Productus, Nusula, Myalina, Cypricardella,Rhynchonella, Athyris, 
Retzia, Waltheimia, Euomphalus, Pleuiomaria, Murchisonia, Buleimel- 
la, Natica, Bellerophon, Platyceras, Terebratula, Dentalium, and others, 


On Section 4, Township 5 north, Range 1 east, the following section 
outcrops : 


Soil and clay » 25 

Geode bed 5 

Blue limestone with Hemipronites, etc 4 

Geode bed 3.5 

Coarse limestone with Urinoidse 1.2 

Shaly limestone 2.5 

Coarse limestone 1 

Knobstone with highly colored shales 60 

Total 102.2 

At Rollins' Mill the following section of the same groups outcrops: 


Chert, fragmentary 20 

Limestone, argillaceous and vermicular 15.9 

Limestone, argillaceous and pentremital 8 

Gray limestone .30 

Keokuk limestone with geodes, etc 12 

Keokuk reddish limestone with crinoid joints, Productus and 

Hemipronites : 7 

Knobstone shales and siliceous limestone with large Nautili. . .16 

Total 108.9 


The tops of the hills around Springville are capped with outcrops of 
the Chester group. A mile east of town the upper number outcrops (No. 
8). . In this are Pe^itremites, Zaphrentis, Chonetes, etc. On Section 30, 
Township 6 north, Range 1 west, outcrops the "coal bone" which has 
a strong odor of petroleum. The same may be seen at Avoca. On Sec- 
tion 17, Township 5 north. Range 1 west, the following outcrop of the 
lower Chester and the upper St. Louis groups may be seen: 



Red drift with fragments of coal 20 

Dark sandstone 3 

Shaly sandstone 10 

Gray cliert l.o 

Shaly sandstone 4.5 

Darlt limestone, laminated 5 

Blue St. Louis limestone 6 

Vermicular limestone 10 

Coal bone 3 

Blue and white argillaceous limestone 15 

Yellow magnesian limestone 6 

Shaly argillaceous limestone with geodes 8 

Blue Pentremital limestone 22 

Total 111.3 


On Sections 18 and 19, Township 5 north, Range 1 west, is found 
this interesting cavern. It extends through the upper members of the St 
Louis group. The sides show stratified beds of limestone, and along 
the roof of the large chambers is the St. Louis chert, fragments of 
which cover the floor. Natural fountains, springs and streams abound. 
Throughout, the lofty sides are festooned with stalactites, sometimes 
hanging in graceful folds, or ribbed with giant corrugations. The roofs 
and overhanging sides bristle with clear quill-like tubes, fragile as glass, 
each tipped with a drop of water which shines in the torch-light like a 
jewel. Thus the purity and beauty of ornamention continues for over a 
mile. There are several side caverns which have not been explored. A 
very large stalagmite, as large as a man, called the " Image of the Man- 
itou," was destroyed a number of years ago. Near this cave at Shiloh 
Mill the section is as follows: 


Chert and soil covering 50 

Limestone, blue-banded 12 

Chalky white clay 4 

Siliceous and calcareous shale 3.5 

Black bituminous shale (coal bone) 3 

St. Louis limestone, shaly 1 

Hard blue limestone 3.3 

Blue limestone, laminated 2 

Soft limestone, brecciated 3.2 

Vermicular limestone 4.5 

Limestone, massive 28 

Covered 20 

Oolitic quarry limestone 40 

Total 171.8 


This cave is partly in or just below the St. Louis cherts on Section 
12, Township 5 north, Range 2 west. In the Chester sandstone at the 


top of the hill are fossilized coal plants. The cave vestibule is a room 
twenty-live feet high, with few stalactites, and here apparently the cave 
ends. But on part a profusion of stalactites and stalagmites, which form 
the most beautiful shapes, folds and curtains, a ladder leads to large 
roomy halls above, whose gray or yellow walls are relieved by stalactites 
of great purity. With these rooms the cave ends. The atmosphere is 
very dry, and has high antiseptic properties. On the floor is much clay 
charged with nitre. On Section 10, Township 5 north, Range 2 west, is 
GrinstafiTs Cave. It has two stories or floors, the upper dry, the luwer 
traversed by a small stream. Altogether the passages are about two miles 
long. In places the usuaj beautiful stalactites are found. 


In this vicinity the soil is generally of a reddish brown color, and is 
derived from the St. Louis limestone, and is good for agricultural pur- 
poses. Sink holes are numerous, and the rocks beneath are tunneled 
with caverns. Grass thrives on this soil. In the cherty surface rock 
which occasionally outcrops are Lithostrotion Canadense, L. proUfermn 
and Syringopora, fine and massive, wit^ shaggy lumps of crystals. 
These are used in the vicinity to ornament door yards. Also in this 
vicinity are found single calyces of Lithostrotion or " petrified corn-cob," 
Zaphrentis Spinulosa, Bryozoans, Productiis cora, Athyris ambigua, 
Bellerophon levis, Orthoceras, and plates and spines of Archeocidaris 
Wortheni. The following is the section for about a mile along the'val- 
ley west of Fayetteville: 


Coarse sandstone 30 

Bituminous limestone, with fossils 6 

Sbaiy coal 5 

Fire clay, laminated 2.5 

Blue and gray shale, py ritous 25 

Covered stratum (Chester sandstone) 40 

Blue and gray limestone with large Bellerophon, Othocerata 

Euomphalus, etc 35 

Chert bed with many St. Louis fossils 40 

Total 179 

The shaly coal here found will burn, but is probably of no economic 
value. James Tanehill has mined it. A compact siliceous limestone is 
found on the Johnson farm. It is very homogeneous, is four feet thick, 
and possesses high lithographic properties. At the Gray Mill on Indian 
Creek, Section 17, the limestones are rich in characteristic fossils. 
From the bluffs of Silverville across the valley of Indian Creek sandstone 
outcrops on Sections 16 and 21. These are in the shape of sharp conical 
mounds, and are locally called "hay stacks." The following is the 
formation at Wagners on Section 19, where a thin seam of slaty coal has 
been opened and worked without valuable returns: 



Conglomerate sandstone and covered strata 90 

Limestone, gray or bituminous 12 

Block slate or coal 8 

Shale, pyritous 10 

Limestone, blue, to creek 8 

Total 120.8 

The high hills north of White River are generally capped with mem- 
bers of the Chester formation, and sometimes are 595 feet above the 
river. On Barton William's farm is a typical bed of pebbly conglom- 
erate, and a stratum of fibrous spar with a faint blue color, which much 
resembles sulphate of strontia (Celestine). Examples of the " rock 
houses " of the conglemerate or millstone grit are seen at Col. Bryant's, 
Section 19, Township 4 north. Range 2 west, on the south side of the 
river. Here the Chester beds are silicious shales. The following is the 
section : 


Conglomerate, massive 70 

Sandstone, laminated 15 

Limestone, bituminous 10 

Silicious shale (place of coal) 20 

Shale and limestone to water 50 

Total 165 


Half a mile west of the village the Chester beds were once extensively 
worked. It became known abroad as " Huron Stone," and grindstone and 
carrier-stone grits were prepared and sent to market. The bed is twenty- 
five feet thick. The bituminous limestone which is found at the surface 
at Huron is on the top of the bills two or three miles west. This proves 
the dip of the county strata toward the west — here at the rate of about 
eighty feet to the mile. On Connelly's Hill, two miles east of town, thin 
slaty coal outcrops. The following is the section at the steam-mill at 
Huron ; 


Conglomerate sandstone -. 40 

Bituminous limestone with Sj)irifer, Producttis &u^ Athyris . . 18 

Rash Coal 3 . 

Thin bedded Chester grit stones 65 

Heavy bedded Chester gritstones 6 

Blue limestone 16 

Red and blue clay 2 

Soapstone and pyrites 4 

Block slaty coal 7 

Soapstone 1.8 

Gray limestone with flints 16 


Total 169.8 



SECTION AT Connelly's hill. 
The flint bed in the Hection shown below was worked by the Indians. 
Here they quarried the material for their arrow and spear points. Fire 
hearths are seen in the adjoining valley, surrounded with flint chips. 
Movmds are found on this hill. The following is the formation here 
(Connelly's Hill) on Section 4, Township 3 north, Range 2 west. 


Sandy soil with hematite .^ 10 

Conglomerate with fossil stems 45 

Bituminous limestone with fossils 14 

Rash coal 7 

Sandstone, laminated and shaly, with partings of chert 55 

Limestone, argillaceous, with chert and sandstone partings. . . 30 

Cherty limestone in cave 8 

Limestone, argillaceous with black flints 6 

Total 168.7 


This is on Section 4. Over the floor runs a small brook. The cave 
is about two miles long, with roof usually 'about fifteen feet high, 
with many chambers adorned with stone curtains, robust stalactites and 
spherical stalagmites. Nitrous earth spangled with crystals is found in 
the upper part; and a well -washed bed of pure yellow clay is exposed. 
Bear wallows are yet visible. Blind animals are frequent, and further 
on will be found named. Blue Spring Cave near White Kiver and two 
miles south of Wood's Ferry has been explored three miles. A large 
stream of water runs out. Within, the water has cut circular basins over 
100 measured feet deep. In times of heavy rains a large volume of 
water is discharged. The source of this water is- in doubt. On Section 
25, Town 4, Range 2 west, is a very deep, unexplored cave. The Buzzard 
Cave, north of the river contains apartments on two floors. Within this 
are many stalactites of great beauty and size. 


The country around Mitchell was originally a valley of erosion, and 
afterward the flood plain of White River. The surface rocks are of the 
upper cherty member of the St. Louis beds. At every wash around town 
massive specimens of silicitied corals, such as Lithostrotion Canadense, 
L. proUferum and Syringopora, with quantities of Productus cora, Bel- 
lerophon levis, Dentalhim primeoiim, Athyris 'amhigua, etc., are found. 
Sink holes, the characteristic surface feature, are numerous, some form- 
ing pools of water. In many wells are often found eyeless fishes and 
crustaceans, doubtless from subterranean caverns with which tlie wells 
communicate. The soil here is rich in plant food. This broad plain, 
embracing more than 150 square miles, measures the duration and extent 
of past erosive forces. The following is taken from Section 26, Town- 
ship 4, Range 1 west. 



Slope saud and clay 40 

Sandstone ferrui^inous, laminated, with barli and trunks of car- 
boniferous plants and thin partings of coal 60 

Argillaceous limestone with Chester fossils, the upper band lith- 
ographic 35 

Chert beds with siliceous corals t 40 

Total 175 

On this Section (20), is a coral reef (silicified Syringopora) in a 
matrix of chert, from which prehistoric races undoubtedly made their red- 
dish colored stone implements and ornaments. Valuable specimens of 
this coral have been sent to various geological collections. Much lime 
has been burned on Section 24 and elsewhere, mainly from the blue ver- 
micular limestone of the upper St. Louis group. Asa Erwin manufac- 
tured nearly 20,000 bushels, and D. Kelly, John Tomlinson, and others, 
have done about as well, their lime being favorably known to the trade. 
The lime is white and "works hot," and is almost like cement in founda- 
tions. Owing to the porous nature of this stone, it is found to burn and 
slake with great facility and certainty.' The waste lime has been used 
quite extensively for compost, and should be continued thus. The fol- 
lowing is the section at Erwin's kiln: 


Soil and slope, broken chert 3 

Slaty coal 3 

Limestone, argillaceous 2.5 

Limestone, argillaceous and lithographic". 1.2 

Limestone, white and gray 3.5 

Limestone, vermicular 4.5 

Limestone, heavy bedded 6 

Limestone, flaggy 8 

Total • '. »... 29 

There is a cave near by tt) which bears formerly resorted for hiberna- 
tion; their bones and teeth are found. On Section 18 is a good exposure 
of the upper St. Louis beds, rich in fossils. The chert beds outcrop on 
the hill-sides and railroad cuts east of Mitchell. Fossils are abundant. 

hamer's cave. 
The entrance to this cave is on the hill-side on the southeast quarter 
of Section 32, Township 4 north, Range 1 east, about forty-five feet above 
the valley. The floor is level, six feet wide, and covered with a swift 
stream of water eight inches deep on an average, though in places twenty 
feet. Three-quarters of a mile from the entrance is the first fall. The 
whole stream rushes down an incline only three feet wide with great vio- 
lence and noise. Above this, and about 300 feet farther on, is the " grand 
cascade," Beyond this the cave is low, wet and full of running water, 
which escapes through a crevice in the rock. Eyeless fish, craw- fish, and 
other crustaceans are found in this cave. The creek has power sufficient 


to turn a large mill. Many beautiful specimens oi stalactites in folds, 
loops, columns, spikes, curtains and crenulated lace-work are found on 
the roof and walls of this important cave. 


This has its entrance on the southwest quarter of Section 33, Town- 
ship 4 north. Range ] east. A large stream of water is discharged, which 
was formerly used to drive a combined woolen, grist and saw-mill. The 
interior shows evidences that powder was made here at a very early date 
from the nitrous earth of the upper chambers. The cave entrance is 
wide and lofty, but is soon reduced to a narrow passage covered with 
a shallow stream of water. Within is a magnificent cascade, the roar of 
which is heard at the entrance. Near the entrance a dry cave opens to 
the east, and opposite a lofty corridor opens to the west, and on about 
100 feet is a large hall twelve feet high, three hundred feet long and 
forty feet wide. Thousands of bats gather here and hang to the ceiling 
and walls, and hibernate. Eyeless fishes, crustaceans and crickets are 
found. The cave shows evidences of having been occupied by the earlier 
races. The following is a list of the animals found in the two caves last 
mentioned above and Connelly's: The blind fish, Amblyopsis speleus; 
the blind craw-fishes, Cambarus pellucidus, Ccecidotea stygia, Cravgonyx 
vitreus, Enphilosia Elrodii,Cauloxenus stygeus ; the blind insects, Aw^/io- 
myia, and Anopthalmus tenuis; and the seeing insects, Platynus margi- 
natus and Ceuthophilus Sloanii. 


Five miles east of Mitchell at the Mill Creek cut on the O. & M. K, 
is an outcrop showing the junction of the St. Louis and Keokuk groups. 
The first is rich in characteristic fossils including many Pentremites, 
and in the last is found a tooth of the shark Cladodus spinosus. A bed 
of rich brown ocherous clay is found here in unlimited quantity, and in 
fact ocher is found richly distributed over the entire county. From this 
point east along the railroad the Keokuk beds constitute the surface rock. 
This horizon is rapidly elevated going eastward, until at Tunnelton it 
caps the tops of hills 150 feet above the river. Th^ following is the sec- 
tion near Tunnelton: 


White limestone 3 

Blue limestone 6 

Argillite with geodes 5 

Magnesian limestone with fossils 6 

Argillite with geodes 13 

Green and blue shales 30 

Siliceous shales with bands of Waverly sandstone 30 

Knobstone shales with fossils 60 

Total 141 



About Ft. Ritner the Keokuk beds outcrop. In the bed of the creek 
near by are immense numbers of geodes. The knobstone forms the 
sides of the valley, and contains but few perfect fossils. The sandstone 
here and at Tunnelton, though not extensive, is of excellent quality, and 
may be sawed or split. The greatest exposure of the knobstone shales 
here is 250 feet above the river. 

AtLeesville the soil is of a rich, reddish brown fading to a "mulatto 
loam." The surface rock is the Keokuk with outlines of St. Louis lime- 
stone. The creek valleys are cut into the knobstone shales. 

At Heltonville in the south part of the village, the knobstone ex- 
poses a thickness of over ninety feet, but dipping rapidly passes below 
the water of Leatherwood Creek. Here is seen the unevenness of the 
knobstone surface, upon which were deposited the more recent lime- 
stones. Heltonville is famous for its numerous and beautiful geodes, 
many of which are geodized Crinoidce, Spirifera, Zaphrentis, Lithostro- 
tion, Goniatites, Bellerophon, etc. The section here is as follows: 

Geode bed 4 

Crinoidal limestone crowded with joints, plates and crushed 

heads of Encrinites .■ 8 

Knobstone shale and sandstone 50 

Green and blue pyritous shale 40 

Total 102 


This village is surrounded with high knobstone hills capped with 
K«okuk limestone. Immense numbers of geodes are found along the 
creeks and hill-sides. Quarries of Waverly sandstone (upper knobstone) 
are numerous. This stone looks well, weathers well, cuts well, and con- 
tains few fossils. The knobstone shales contain much pyrites (sulphuret 
of iron) which decomposes on exposure The section west of and near 
Guthrie is as follows: 


St. Louis limestone 40 

Keokuk limestone 25 

Knobstone . . * 50 

Total 115 


The substance Kaolin is a ^'ariety of clay produceil by the decompo- 
sition of the mineral feldspar, and when fused with an earthy matter 
called petunse, which is itself an undecomposed feldspar ground line, 
makes the most excellent kind of porcelain-ware. The mines in this 
county are by far the best in the State, and are not surpassed anywhere. 
They were first opened in December, 1874, by Dr. Joseph Gardner, E. T 


Cox, State Geologist, and Michael Tempest, of the firm of Tempest, 
Brockmann & Co., potters, of Cincinnati, The substance was first 
brought to public notice by Dr. Gardner in June, 1874. These men car- 
ried on the work with increasing extent and profit, manufacturing a fine 
white earthenware for which there was a strong demand owing to its gen- 
eral superiority. In 1877 the proprietors, under the name of the Cincin- 
nati Clay Company, sold out to the Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing 
Company of Philadelphia and near Pittsburgh, and this firm are yet 
operating the mines under the supervision of Dr. Gardner. They annu- 
ally ship about 2,000 tons of the clay to their factories in P(3nnsylvania, 
employing an average of about twenty-eight men, and there the clay is 
manufactured almost wholly into alum of a superior quality. The busi - 
ness is on the increase, but the factories should be in Lawrence County 
instead of in Pennsylvania. 


Three miles southwest of Fayetteville, in strata of sand deposited on 
the hill-tops, beds of this rich iron ore are found. Developments of the 
ore have been made on the Whitaker farm. Section 28, Township 5 
north. Range 2 west. At many of the surrounding farms beds are also 
found. Test shafts to the depth of nine feet at fourteen different places, 
on Section 28, revealed the ore in each in thickness from two and three- 
tenths feet to four feet, the average depth being over three feet. In Indian 
Creek Township, on the lands of Messrs. Connelly, Prosser and Snow, 
are outcrops of siliceous iron ore in considerable quantity; and on the 
Marley farm, west of Huron is a large amount of this siliceous ore, in 
what is called "Iron Mountain." Hematite is also found near Bart- 
lettsville and in other places in the county. This ore, as will be seen 
from the comparative table below, is unrivaled. Excluding water, it is 
freer from deleterious ingredients than ordinary cast iron, and is of 
great value in the manufacture of Bessemer steel. The Whitaker ore 
upon analysis gave the following results: 

Moisture and combined water 13.000 

Silicic acid 900 

Ferric oxide 84.890 . 

Alumina Trace 

Phosphoric acid 145 

Carbonate of lime 1.000 

Total 99.935 

The ferric oxide, 84. 89 per cent, when reduced gave 59. 426 per cent 
of metallic iron. The following table serves to compare this ore with 
the standard ores of this country: 


Magnetic ore, metallic iron 70.5 to 50.9 

Specular ore, metallic iron 45.8 to 51.17 

Hydrated ore, metallic iron 35.5 to 49.09 

Whitaker' s ore, metallic iron 59.426 



Near Avoca, on the Owens farm, is a mineral spring which possesses 
valuable medicinal properties. It is strongly impregnated with sulphur, 
and has valuable laxative, tonic, anti-dyspeptic and febrifugal properties. 
Among the elements contained are silicic acid, oxide of iron, carbonic 
acid, sulphuretted hydrogen gas, lime, soda, potash, chlorine, magnesia 
and sulphuric acid. The water gives every evidence of having these con- 
stituents in large quantities, and is no doubt as valuable to invalids as 
that Oi French Lick and other places of great resort. At an early day 
a salt well was ^unk near this spring to the depth of 160 feet, and a con- 
siderable quantity of salt was manufactured for home consumption. 
About a mile west of Bedford, on the Viehl farm, is a spring strongly 
charged with sulphuretted hydrogen which escapes in bubbles. The water 
is about as valuable as the Avoca water, and has the same mineral con- 
stituents in different proportions. It is said to contain much magnesia, 
and is therefore excellent for dyspepsia. Several salt wells were sunk in 
the county along Salt Creek in early years; one on the northeast quarter 
of Section 8, Township 5 north, Range 1 west, to the depth of 150 feet. 
At ninety feet the workmen disclosed a black, bituminous clay, six feet thick, 
which they mistook for coal. On Section 17, Township 5 north. Range 
2 west, a number of valuable mineral springs burst out in the bed of 
Indian Creek. Sulphur is the most noticeable constituent, though mag- 
nesia, soda, potash, chlorine, lime and various mineral acids and gases 
are present in important combinations and quantities. Other springs of 
valuable water make their appearance indiflFerent portions of the county. 


On the east and northeast the soil is a tenacious clay and sand; in 
the central, north of the river, it is a calcareous clay; and on the west 
and southwest is principally siliceous with an intermixture from both of 
the others. A rich, warm marly loam is found throughout the White 
River Valley. The grains thrive remai'kably well in this valley, and 
fairly well in the western part of the county, as does timothy, clover and 
blue-grass. Indian Creek Township is excellent for fruits, owing to its 
high hills and deep valleys. Ice of considerable thickness forms on the 
lowlands, while the hill-tops are yet warm. At night, the cold air being 
heavier descends, while the air heated during the day envelopes the hill- 
tops and protects the orchards there. Numerous large peach orchards 
are grown. The above is true of the country north of Mitchell, where 
tine orchards are to be found. Grapes do well in these localities. The 
soil in the Leatherwood Valley is excellent for the production of the 
cereals and the grasses. This is true in the vicinity of Leesville. The 
knobstone soil is especially well suited to the growth of grasses, and to 
the production of fruit. Limestone, a compost of great value when pow- 
dered and spread upon worn-out land, will eventually be used exten- 
sively and profitably in Lawrence County. 



by selwtn a. bkant. 

The Aboriginal Inhabitants— Tecumseh and the Prophet— The 
Cession Treaties— The English Land Companies— The Indians of 
Lawrence County— Prehistoric Paces— The Mounds and their 
Contents— The Connelly and Palestine Works— The Fishermen 
—General Observations. 

"VT^THEN the dense and primeval forests of Lawrence County were 
V V first invaded by white men in search of a habitation, there was 
scarcely an Indian wigwam within its present boundary. Pursuing the 
destiny of their race they had abandoned the hunting-grounds of their 
birth and taken up their dwellings in more distant and Western wilds, 
perhaps in the vain hope that the white man's ambition for new territory 
had at last attained its highest desire. When the first settlements were 
made in the county the Indian war under the leadership of the crafty 
and able warrior Tecumseh Avas drawing to its close. The final battle in 
that contest was fought at Tippecanoe on November 7, 1811, when Gen. 
Harrison defeated this renowned Shawnee chieftain and forever crushed 
the powerful confederacy which he had been mainly instrumental in 
bringing about. The cause of this war was the Indian opposition to the 
land grants that had been made to the United States by several tribes. 
Since the treaty of Greenville, made August 3, 1795, the Indians had 
remained at peace, but after that time treaties were made with a large 
part of the Indians for a considerable portion of the land in southern 
Indiana and in some of the other States in the territory northwest of the 
Ohio Kiver. It was this to which Tecumseh was opposed. He saw that 
by disposing of their lands his race would soon be exposed to all the evils 
that would befall a vast, a homeless and a nomadic people. « 

THE cession treaties. 

The treaties conveying the land that now composes Lawrence County 
to the United States were all made prior to this war with Tecumseh and 
his followers. There are three treaties ceding this land, the first of 
which was made at Fort AVayne June 7, 1803. This was called the Vin- 
cennes tract,* and of land in Lawrence County it embraces all of the tri- 
angular piece south of a line beginning on the western boundary near 
the middle of Section 31 in Township 4 north, Range 2 west, and run- 
ning thence in a direct line to the southeast corner of Section 14, Town- 
ship 3 north, Range 1 west, where it leaves the county on the southern 


boundary. It includes about one-third of Spice Valley Township, and a 
small portion of the southwest corner of Marion. This treaty was signed 
by chiefs of the Delaware, Shawnee, Pottawattomie, Eel River, Kickapoo, 
Piankeshaw and Kaskaskia tribes, and conveyed to the United States 
about 1,600,000 acres, of which about 12,160 are in Lawrence County. 
The next one was concluded at Grouseland near Vincennes, August 21, 
1805, by which certain tribes of the Delawares, Pottawattomies, Miamis, 
Eel River and Weas conveyed to the United States all their territory 
south of a line running from a point a short distance north of Orleans 
in Orange County to the old Greenville boundary line near where it 
crossed the White Water River in the eastern part of the State. This 
line crossed Lawrence County in a northeasterly direction from near the 
middle of Section 17, Township 3 north, Range 1 east, to where the 
county corners with Jackson and Washington Counties, and making a 
triangular piece in the southeast corner of the county that contains about 
9,920 acres of land. All the balance of Lawrence County was acquired 
by the United States in what is known as Harrison Purchase, a treaty 
made at Fort Wayne September 30, 1809. This embraced a large tract 
of land lying mostly on the east side of the Wabash River and below 
Raccoon Creek near Montezuma in Parke County, and extending to a 
point near Seymour in Jackson County, where it intersected the line in 
the last mentioned treaty. This included about 2,900,000 acres, and was 
made and ratitied by nearly all the important tribes then in the territory. 


Some of these deeds are, in the light of our modern improvement, 
not a little curious. About the middle of the eighteenth century a num- 
ber of wealthy English, French and American speculators, formed large 
land and trading companies. They purchased of the Indians some 
immense tracts of land in the territory of the Northwest. Among these 
was one to the Wabash Land Company for a strip of land 210 miles wide, 
extending from Cat Creek, a short distance above Lafayette in Tippeca- 
noe County, on both sides of the Wabash River to the Ohio River. This 
*deed conveyed to the purchasers a considerable portion of the best land 
now in both Indiana and Illinois, and covered an area of nearly 
38,000,000 acres. For all of this the consideration was "400 blankets, 
22 pieces of stroud, 250 shirts, 12 gross of star gartering, 120 pieces of 
ribbon, 24 pounds of vermilion, 18 pairs of velvet laced housings, 1 piece 
of malton, 52 fusils, 35 dozen large buckhorn handle knives, 40 dozen 
couteau knives, 500 pounds of brass kettles. 10,000 gun flints, 600 pounds 
of gunpowder, 2,000 pounds of lead, 400 pounds of tobacco, 40 bushels 
of salt, 3,000 pounds of flour, 3 horses; also the following quantities of 
silverware, viz.: 11 very large armbands, 40 wristbands, 6 whole moons, 
6 half moons, 9 earwheels, 46 large crosses, 29 hairpipes, 60 pairs of ear- 


bobs, 20 dozen small crosses, 20 dozen nose crosses and 110 dozen brooches." 
This deed was signed at Vincennes on the 18th day of October, 1775, by 
eleven chiefs of the Piankeshavv Indians. The agents of this company 
after this made several applications to the Congress of the United States 
to have their deed ratified, their last effort for which was in 1810, But 
Congress failed to recognize the validity of their title. 

A part of Lawrence County was included in the above mentioned 
deed from the Piankeshaw chieftains. Originally this tribe of Indians 
owned and occupied nearly the whole of what now constitutes the State 
of Indiana. The early conquests and aggressions of the whites upon the 
Eastern side of the continent, compelled many other Indian tribes to 
seek their hunting-grounds in the Western wilds and to abandon their 
native forests of the East. These were called " permitted" tribes, for a 
more complete discussion of which the i*eader is referred to the subject 
of Indians in Orange County, found elsewhere in this volume. 


In the matter of Indian history, Lawrence County is, comparatively, 
of but little importance. It seems to have been situated somewhat upon 
the border between several tribal districts, and permanently occupied by 
none, although visited by them all in nomadic bands, and for purposes 
of the chase. The Piankeshaws were the first and original occupants, 
but at a later date some of the permitted tribes, the Delawares, the 
Shawnees and the Pottawattomies, acquired some title to the land. Of 
these the Delawares were the strongest and most numerous. There are 
but few traces of the Indians now visible in the county. When the first 
settlers came the scanty remnants from an occasional camp could be seen 
scattered here and there over the county. Some of their favorite camp- 
ing-grounds were near the present sites of Heltonville and Springville 
on the lofty bluffs near by, and in easy access to water. On Indian 
Creek where Dougherty's Mill was located in 1818, were evidences of a 
deserted Indian camp. There was no large permanent Indian town or 
village ever located in the county, so far as present information goes to 
enlighten the individual in search of the records and transactions of this 
doomed and haughty race. Only in wandering bands, tenting for a time 
upon some grassy knoll or sheltered cliff, or hastening in wild pursuit of 
game across the broken landscape, did Lawrence County know the pres- 
ence of the indolent and daring Red Man. In the Indian tongue Salt 
Creek was called We-pe-pe-moy, and the East Fork of White River Gun- 
dah-quah, while White River itself was called Ope-co-meecah. Doubt- 
less these streams with their unpoetical names, in the years that are long 
gone into the unrecorded past, have borne the Indian in his light canoe 
along their slow tides, while his watchful eye scanned the adjoining 
shores for the unwary deer or other animals of game, that might come 


within reach of his iinerring bow. Perhaps he may have guided his 
small bark around in aimless pastime, while the neighboring hills 
resounded with the songs of savage glee. These waters still roll on, but 
how chansred is the scene! Civilization has hurried the red natives of 
the forests away, and is slowly but surely consigning their few and 
scattered survivors to the tomb of oblivion. Even the dense and massive 
wood that then waved in all its pristine grandeur* along these watery 
ways, has gone down, and in its stead are seen the vine-covered homes of 
white men standing in the midst of broad and golden harvests. All this is 
but the hand of inevitable change. The Indian himself was the successor, 
most likely an aggressive one, of a less vigorous race, in obedience to 
Natui-e's law of the " survival of the fittest." 


There were two Indian casualties in this county at a very early day, 
and numerous acts of horse-stealing and the destruction of cabins and 
improvements. In 1814 the Rawlinses had their camp destroyed and 
their horses stolen, while located in a rude shanty in Bono Township, 
which they were occupying while tending a crop of coi'n. The female 
members were at Maxwell's Fort, on Lost River, in Orange County, as 
it was known that the Indians were on the war-path, and every precaution 
was necessary. The Rawlinses went out one morning to find their horses, 
but did not succeed— a very unusual state of affairs. They returned to 
their camp and found unmistakable signs of the presence of Indians 
there during their absence. They immediately made preparations for 
their safety, building no fire during the succeeding night, and sleeping 
outside the camp. The next morning they started for the fort, and soon 
met an old trapper and squatter, named Pierre, who was told of the 
presence of Indians in the neighborhood. The old fellow was on his 
way to examine his traps on Fishing Creek, and refused to leave, and 
continued on his way, promising to keep his eyes open for " Injin 
signs." The Rawlinses reached the fort, borrowed horses and rode to 
Charlestown, and enlisted in Capt. Rigger's Company of mounted rangers, 
and after an absence of three days ventured back to their camp. The 
Indians had been there, as everything perishable had been destroyed and 
everything valuable carried away. Old man Pierre who had been stop- 
ping at the Rawlins' Camp was missing. Going to the river, the caAoe 
was missing. Looking up and down the bank, the canoe was finally 
found in the branches of a fallen tree in the water, and in the bottom 
was the body of Pierre, shot through the heart, tomahawked and scalped. 
How he met his death will never be known. He was buried in Section 
22, Township 4 north, Range 1 east, Bono Township, where his dust 
rests to this day. 



In 1810 the Fliuns and Guthries settled near Leesville, and built a 
fort there for their protection. It stood about half a mite north of the 
village. In March, 1815, after it was thought the Indian troubles were 
over, and the usual vigilance had been relaxed, the fort was suddenly 
attacked by a band of Pottawattomies from the North. The men were 
engaged in felling a tree near by, and were fired upon ere they were 
aware of any danger. John Guthrie was shot dangerously in the breast, 
the ball passing through his body. He ran for the fort, and fell near 
the door, but was promptly rescued by his wife, who almost in the 
muzzles of the Indian rifles, ran bravelv out and half carried him within 
the walls. He afterward recovered and lived to a green old age. Josiah 
Flinn was attacked by several Indians, and though he fought des- 
perately, was tomahawked and scalped, but did not die for four days. 
Jacob Flinn, the other of the three men whom the Indians attacked, was 
captured and marched to the head waters of the Wabash River to the 
principal Potawattomie village. He was beaten and half starved, but 
escaped in a canoe down the river one night, four months after his cap- 
ture, and after incredible hardships, rowing down the river at night, and 
sleeping in the day in concealment, and living on frogs, roots, etc., he 
finally reached Vincennes so weak that he had to be helped out of the 
boat. He stated that he could have escaped several times earlier, but 
would not until he could take Guthrie's ax, which had been carried off at 
the time of the attack. A good ax was then a very rare and valuable 
piece of property. The above were the only serious encounters with the 
Indians ever occurring in this county. Flinn recovered. 


Scattered throughout the Mississippi Valley and the heart of the 
American Continent lie the silent monuments of a long buried and 
unknown race. Through the long vista of years that have gone over the 
graves of this ancient and forgotten people there comes no sound to tell 
us df the times that saw these tombs close darkly around. The mystery 
that enshrouds this race of Mound Builders has hitherto baffled all science 
and research. Archaeologists have outrun all clues in their vain efforts 
to penetrate the secrets that surround these dead inhabitants of the past. 
Beyond the fact of their existence but little is known. No recorded his- 
tory, no curious and perplexing hieroglyphics were left by tbem to span 
the abyss of time. The mounds and earth- works that were constructed 
by this people are numerous and some of them are of such magnitude 
that it is concluded " that they lived in towns and were governed by a 
despotic ruler whose will was law and whose commands i-eceived implicit 
obedience." For want of a better name that of Mound Builders has 
been givea to this extinct race, since only by these mounds is it known. 


The date of these mounds is beyond the centuries that have been required 
for the growth of the forests. "Not entirely voiceless, they tell of a peo- 
ple who once possessed the valley of the continent. Peaceful and law- 
abiding, they were skilled in agriculture and the arts of the ' stone age,' 
and executed works that required the united and persistent efforts of 
thousands under the direction of a well matured design. In the compara- 
tive absence of warlike implements, we conclude that this work was a 
labor of love, and not of fear; that it was inaugurated and directed by a 
Regal Priesthood to erect votive temples in honor of the sun, a visible 
creator of comfort, food and life." 


These mounds are of three kinds: mounds of habitation, sepulchral 
and temple mounds. The first are supposed to have been made for the 
purpose of building the tents or dwellings upon. Sepulchral mounds 
were for the burial of the dead and when explored are usually found to 
contain human bones and various ornaments and implements of the race. 
Temple mounds are explained in the name and were the places of religious 
devotion. Besides these mounds there are many forts, walled enclosures 
and citadels. 


Concerning the evidences of this prehistoric race in Lawrence 
County, Mr. John Collett, in the Geological Survey of Indiana, for 1873, 
says the following: "On the southeastern slope of the hill over Connel- 
ly's cave, two miles east of Huron, is a group of seven mounds, from 
two to four feet high, and an obscure winding way may be traced leading 
from the cave spring to the top of the hill. On the summit fragments 
of sandstone, reddened by burning, and small shell heaps are seen. The 
mounds were probably habitations. Fi'om protruding pieces of stone seen 
on the sides, the internal construction was of that material instead of 
timber, as was usual in similar structures on the Wabash and Mississippi. 
A central tumulus having a double circular wall was probably for sepul- 
chral purposes. A mound similar to the last at the site of the former 
county seat, Palestine, or ' Old Palestine' as it is called, was explored 
in 1870, by Messrs. Newland, Dodd and Houston. On the surface of the 
hill a confused mass of stones, such as a man could conveniently carry, 
were noticed, indicating a circular wall twenty feet in diameter. It 
was found to be a vaulted tomb. The first or upper vault contained the 
bones of many women and children, a layer of flat stones divided this 
from the second which contains the bones of men; another layer of flags, 
and at the bottom, six feet below the surface, two skeletons were found 
with their heads placed to the east and faces to the north. The last were 
persons of great size, being not less than six and a half feet high. With 
the skeletons were found a quantity of flints, arrow-points,»etc. ; near 


the head of the largest individual a pair of hammered copper earrings 
and a globular 'war- whistle. ' The keen noise of the latter may be com- 
pared to the sound of a policeman's whistle and can be heard nearly a 
mile. Stone axes and pieces of pottery are found on the surface near 
this tomb." 


The immediate successors of the Mound Builders were a race of fish- 
ermen who lived along the banks of streams and existed almost solely 
upon the food they obtained from the rivers. Along the Western rivers 
there are found many large "shell heaps" where it is supposed these 
people for a time made their permanent homes. Lawrence County has a 
trace of these riparian inhabitants. In Bono Township, on the farm of 
William Simpson, a few years ago a mound was opened and several relics 
of antiquity were found, with a few human bones. All of the high bluff 
along the fork of White River where this mound is situated is covered 
with shells of various kinds. Not far from there is what has the appear- 
ance of having been a sort of breastwork thrown up for defense. This 
is about half way up the bluff, facing the river on the farm of Silas Wil- 
cox. Many stone vaults and sepulchers intruded on the sides and tops 
of mounds have led to the conclusion that this people adopted many of 
the habits and customs, perhaps even the religion of their predecessors, 
the Mound Builders. But they too have long since passed away, leaving 
naught to tell the curious of their life, their times or their ambitions. 

Later there came a barbarous and wandering race, originating in 
ancient Scythia, and "bringing with them the cruelties and characteristics 
of the inhabitants of that country. The tell-tale monuments along their 
route from Northern Asia to the center of America reveal the origin of 
the Indians. In their turn as a race they will soon be numbered among 
the perished. In the struggle for existence with a foeman race they 
have been vanquished, and one by one they are going down to inglorious 
and unremembered graves. 




Settlement of Lawrence County— The Pioneers of Flinn Town- 
ship—Mills, Distilleries, etc.— Marion Township, Her Hunters, 
Squatters and Permanent Settlers, Her Industries, etc.— The 
Occupancy of Bono Township by the Whites; Manufactures, 
ETC.— The Pioneers of Marshall ; Stores, Oil-mills, etc.— Perry 
AND Her Development; Cotton Culture, Wool-carding, etc. 
—Settlers of Indian Creek; Incidents, Factories, etc.— Spice 
Valley; Early Elections; Anecdotes— Pleasant Eun; Coun- 
terfeiting; Incidents, etc.— Shawswick; the White Men— Fer- 
ries, Keminiscences and Notes. . 

"Life's vain delusions are gone by; 
Its idle hopes are o'er; 
Yet age remembers with a sigh 
The days that are no more." — Southet. 

THE County of Lawrence was originally a part of Knox and Han-ison 
Counties, all west of the meridian line being a part of the former, 
and all east of the line of the latter. In 1814 it became part of Wash- 
ington County, and in 1816 a part of Orange County. The county was 
created in 1818, and named in honor of Capt. James Lawrence, of the 
United States Navy, commander of the frigate Chesapeake, wlio was 
killed in the battle with the frigate Shannon. 

EARLY immigration. 

During the first few years of the present century, while the Indians 
that then inhabited the territory northwest of the Ohio River continued 
their hostilities to the whites, but few settlers had the daring and hardi- 
hood to push as far into the western wilds as the present confines of 
Lawrence County. Most of the southern portion of Indiana was settled 
gradually from the Ohio River northward, as that was the great com- 
mercial thoroughfare between the East and the West. The settlement 
only advanced when the population became dense enough to repel the 
invasions of hostile Indians. Until after the year 1811, when Tecumseh 
and the powerful confederacy of which he was the head, were defeated 
and overthrown, there were scarcely a dozen white families located in the 


Probably the first permanent settlement made was at the present site 
of Leesville in Flinn Township, on the extreme eastern border of the 


county. The persons who came to this place were from Lee County, Va. , 
which they left in the early part of 1809, and passed the following win- 
ter in Kentucky. In February, 1810, they came to Indiana and built a 
fort a few hundred yards northeast from where the grist-mill in Leesville 
now stands. This fort or block-house was for some time the only one in 
the county, and it was a resort for the earliest settlers in this section as 
a place of security in times of danger. After the block-house was built, 
the men returned in June to Kentucky after their families. The names 
of the men in this first band of pioneers have always been familiar in 
Lawrence County annals, and many of their descendants yet live in the 
county and are among its most valuable citizens. These families were 
the Guthries and the Flinns, for each of which the county now has a 
township named. They were Daniel Guthrie and his sons, and Jacob 
Flinn and William Flinn. It is said that Daniel Guthrie was one of the 
heroes of Gen. Braddock's defeat. These men were accustomed to the 
hardships of frontier life, and had the bravery to face the unscrupulous 
and crafty red man as well as the skill to entrap and avoid the prowling 
beasts of the forests. 

Since this settlement in 1810, what a vast and a happy change has 
been wrought in the fair Republic of the West ! That time is yet in the 
memory of a few gray-haired and aged veterans that are plodding feebly 
by the last mile-stone of life and recalling in their minds with childlike 
fondness, the transactions of their early years. Eternity will soon close 
around them, and then the only knowledge that can be obtained of their 
times and their deeds will be found upon the page of faithful history. 


On the eastern border of the county and near the middle is situated 
Flinn Township, named as before stated for the Flinn family, that has 
always been pi'ominent in this part of the county. The early settlers 
here were what are known as squatters or persons settling on land with- 
out any title. Up to the year 1814 all the whites living in the county, 
with but a single exception, belonged to this class, while in Flinn Town- 
ship there was not an entry of land made prior to 1817, but beginning 
with that year and including the year 1820, the following land entries 
were made in what now composes the political township of thirty sections: 
R. Hunton, 1820; M. Wooley, 1820; Noah Wright, 1819; Israel Hind,. 
1819; Thomas Hodges, 1817; H. Nichols, 1820; John Parr, 1819; James 
Ellison, 1820; Enoch Parr, 1817; T. Carr, 1820; Arthur Parr, 1819; 
Martin Flinn, 1820; Patrick Welch, 1817; Noah Wright, 1820; William 
White, 1820: D. Flinn, 1820; James Taggert, 1820; John Guthrie, 1820; 
Thomas Flinn, 1820; Benjamin Drake. 1818; William Flinn, 1820; J. 
Allen, 1820; Hugh Guthrie, 1820; Robert Flinn, 1819; Benjamin New- 
kirk, 1820. At that time the following persons were also residents in 


and around Leesville: George Stell, John Speer, Ephraim D. Lux, John 
Treepey, Abraharc Sutherland, David White, Alfred Alexander, Jacob 
Weaver, Moses Flinu, William Smith, Elijah Cuny, Micajah Poole, 
Gamaliel Millgar. 

This township was settled as early as any part of the county, and no 
doubt many things of interest transpired here in its first settlement that 
are now beyond reliable information. But few if any of the first settlers 
are still* living that located in this township. And although there may 
be an occasional veteran of those early days, a long life of privations 
and hardships has gone far to render the recollection treacherous. 


• In early mills there is but little to distinguish this community from 
other early settlements. A " stump" mill, owned by John Speer, at the 
present site of Leesville, was the first of any kind, and was of course run 
by horse-power. This was soon superseded by what is now generally 
known as the Forgey Mill, about one-half mile from Leesville, on Guth- 
rie Creek. The first mill here was built by William Flinn, probably as 
early as 1817. It was run by an undershot wheel, and did a considera- 
ble grinding of wheat and corn for the early settlers for several years, 
The next owner was his son, Robert Flinn, whose successor was Andrew 
Forgey. In his hands it remained for many years, from his name it has 
ever since been called. About the year 1840 it seems to have been oper- 
ated by horse-power, applied with a tread-wheel. It is but just to say, 
however, that horses did not always furnish the power, for in primitive 
days the custom was to break a steer to the tread-wheel, and in this way 
the most of the power was furnished for grinding. Hiram Guthrie 
bought the mill next, and repaired it in many ways for better work. 
Some time in the fifties the Hollands obtained control of it, and under 
their management steam-power was added, and for several years did an 
extensive business, having three sets of buhrs, two for wheat and one for 
corn. John C. Voyles purchased this mill about 1868, and afterward put 
in a wool carding machine. After the building of the present grist-mill 
in Leesville, about 1870, this mill began to go down, and at the present 
time does no business, having been abandoned for several years. 

At Pin Hook a horse-mill was owned by a man named Phillips, as 
early as 1830, and possibly prior to that time. It changed hands sev- 
eral times, until it finally went down about 1845, in the hands of I. Lyt- 
ton. On Back Creek, about one mile west and a little north of Leesville, 
a water-mill was built as early as 1830, and was known as the McGlem- 
ery Mill. It was made of logs, and operated by one undershot wheel. 
One set of buhrs was sufficient to do the grinding at this mill, and after 
running for about thirty- five years was finally abandoned by Plummer & 
Flinn, who were the owners at that time. Edward Montgomery had a 


water-mill on Back Creek further up the stream in 1840, and it was 
operated by a turbine water-wheel. For many years this mill did a large 
business, and after changing hands several times finally went down about 
the year 1872, at which time it was owned by Matteson Broiles. This is 
said to have been the last water-mill in this part of the county. 


Another important feature of the first settlements in this part of the 
State was that of the small distilleries. A very large majority of the 
early settlers were natives of Kentucky and Virginia, and other portions 
of the South where it was the custom for many of the citizens to keep a 
" still house." This custom followed to the new country, and there 
became a prominent factor, but whether for good or bad it is not neces- 
sary here to discuss. One thing, however, is sure, and that is this: The 
most important crop, as well as the first, in the newly settled and cleared 
fields of the West was that of corn. Transportation was slow and bur- 
densome, and such bulky commodities as corn required extra time and 
labor in conveying them to markets where they could be exchanged for 
money or other goods of staple value to the . people of a new settlement 
By converting corn into the products of the still it was more easily car- 
ried to the markets, and in addition to that it yielded a good profit over 
that of corn itself. These two reasons, convenience and profit, were suf- 
ficient to warrant the keeping of these small and individual distillex'ies. 
An attempt to catalogue the owners of these miniature manufactories of 
ardent spirits would be both idle and impossible. A history of the early 
merchants and the manner of conducting business on the frontiers will 
be found in the sketch on Leesville, elsewhere in this work. 


The earliest settlers of Marion Township were from the Carolinas 
and southern Virginia, and their hero-worship centered in the dashing 
Southern commander in the Revolutionary war, Gen. Francis Marion; in 
his honor was the township named. The township contains about sixty- 
six square miles: eight miles wide, and averaging a little more than eight 
miles in length, from north to south. The boundary north is the east 
branch of White River, the south boundary is Orange County, on the 
east Bono Township, and on the west Spice Valley Township. 


In the early autumn of 1815 Lewis Phillips built a cabin at John 
Tolliver's upper spring, near the meridian line, on the southwest quarter 
of the northwest quarter of Section 31, Town 4 north. Range 1 east. 
It was a round pole cabin, such as one man could build, and about all 
the furnishing the new home had was "a cabin full of children," as the 

♦The sketch of this township was furnished by Dr. Mclntire, of Mitchell. 


next settler expressed it. The last one of the " cabin full," a widow, Mary- 
Ann White, died near Juliet in 1883, and the "first family" is extinct, 
not a descendant of Phillips left. In November, 1815, just as the lirst 
frost was bringing dotvn the leaves and the brown nuts from the forest 
trees, Samuel G. Hoskins, who had traversed the wilderness from South 
Carolina, halted his wagon on Rock Lick Creek, on the southeast quar- 
ter of Section 19, Town 4 north, Range 1 east. ' Here Hoskins erected a 
cabin and went into winter quarters. Phillips and Hoskins, with their 
families, were the only settlers in the territoiy of Marion Township in 
the year 1815. They saw during the winter many friendly Indians pass 
by, but none were staying in this part of the county. Hoskins became 
quite a conspicuous citizen of the county, was the first Justice of the Peace 
of the township, and Captain of the first military company organized on the 
south side of White River, in the county. He served on the first grand 
jury in the county, surveyed land and taught school. His son, Joshua 
Hoskins, is still a resident of the township, the only living representa- 
tive of the settlers of 1815. The opening of spring, 1816, found many 
new-comers from North Carolina and South Carolina; among these we 
hear of George Sheeks, William Erwin, John Finger, Joseph Pless, 
Elijah Mui'ray, Thomas Rowark, John Sutton, James Boswell and Joseph 
Boswell. All these men had families except Joseph Boswell, and there 
are, of their descendants, in this township, at present living: John 
Sheeks, Jacob Finger, John Murray and Nelson Pless. George Sheeks 
lived on the farm now owned by his son, the Hon. David L. Sheeks; 
William Erwin, afterward one of the associate judges of the county, and 
known as Judge Erwin, settled where the widow Dodd now lives; he 
taught the first school in the township. John Finger lived on the merid- 
ian line a mile south of White River, near by the old homestead; his 
remains lie buried in the Finger burying-ground; Joseph Pless, where 
his son. Nelson Pless, now lives, near Juliet; Elijah Murray settled near 
the mouth of Rock Lick Creek, on the Lewis place; Thomas Rowark, and 
his son-in-law, John Sutton, lived on the Denton Sheeks place. All these 
were farmers except Thomas Rowark, who was the first blacksmith. The 
late William Erwin, of this township, was a son of William Erwin, of 
1816, and was one of the best read men that has ever resided in the town- 
ship; a farmer, and used to long days of toil, he took time to read all 
the English classics of his day, and was well up with our ripest scholars 
in history and biography. 

The year 1817 was memorable in the history of the township. Sev- 
eral families arrived from the South, and erected cabins near tlie springs 
and along the banks of White River, and in the narrow valleys of Rock 
Lick and Mill Creek. Robert Hall ventured away fi-om the streams, and 
built a good log-house on what is now known as the George Field place. 
His sons, Isom and Robert, still reside in the neighborhood. In this 


year Squire Hoskins built a substantial hewn- log- house on the meridian 
line, where Thomas Erwin now lives, and his house became the voting 
precinct, and on the first Monday in August the first election was held, 
thirteen votes being cast. Of these thirteen voters, ten were Federalists 
and thi-ee Republicans, afterward, in Jackson's time, Democrats. Those 
voting the Federal ticket were: Samuel G. Hoskins, William Erwin, 
Joseph Pless, James Boswell, Joseph Boswell, Elijah Murray, James 
Mathis, Robert Erwin, Thomas Rowark and Arthur Dycus. The three 
Republicans were: George Sheeks, John Finger and Joseph Culbertson, 
who had lately settled where Juliet now ife, and was a cabinet workman. 
The voting place continued at Hoskins' place on the meridian for several 
years, until he moved over on the Terre Haute and Louisville road, where 
John L. Dodson now lives, at which place elections were held till 1842, 
when the precinct was moved to Redding, thence to Woodville after the- 
completion of the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Railway, and in 
1856 it was moved to Mitchell. 

In 1817 a rille company of twenty-five or thirty men was organized. 
All the men of the township were members, as well as several from Bono. 
Samuel G. Hoskins was Captain. They were armed with their own 
rifles, and were uniformed in blue hunting- shirts trimmed in red, and 
caps with eagle or hawk feathers in them. 

hamee's mill. 

Some time previous to 1815 Sam Jackson — not Samuel — had entered 
the southwest quarter of Section 32. The entry antedates the Law- 
rence County records. He was a Canadian, and had rendered service to 
the United States in the war of 1812 against the Indians and the English 
on the Canadian borders, and was given a land-warrant, with which this 
land was doubtless taken up. On this tract of land is the famous 
Hamer's Cave and the beautiful glen in which the old stone mill stands. 
During the time of Jackson's ownership there was a corn-mill erected near 
where the mill now stands. It was built of logs, and the water was con- 
ducted from the cave in troughs hewn from poplar logs. There was no 
settlement there. William Wright, of Orange County, was the miller. 
In September, 1816, Jackson sold the land to Thomas Bullett and Cuth- 
bert Bullett, and in the early spring of 1817 the work of erecting the 
mill,- now standing, was begun. The stone was quarried, the wall 
of the first story of the mill was completed, the saw-mill was started, 
and quite a settlement was established. In 1818 the mill was com- 
pleted, all the most improved machinery for flour-making known in 
that day was put in, and Spring Mills became the most noted place 
in the township. In 1823 the Bulletts sold the property to two 
Montgomery brothers, who improved the property in various ways, 
starting a distillery in the log-house which is still standing. This was 


the second distillery in the township, one having been previously started 
by William Mallet and Dennis Frost, on Rock Lick, below Tomlinson's 
Lime-kiln. In 1825 the late Hon. Hugh Hamer bought the property of 
the Montgomerys, paying $7,000 in seven annual payments. Hamer 
re-established the distillery, which had been discontinued, started a store, 
collected numerous mechanics and laboring men about him, hauled 
immense quantities of produce in wagons to Louisville, built flat-boats 
at the boat-yard on White River, and shipped flour, whisky, pork and 
other products of the country to New Orleans. In 1826 the first post- 
office in the township was established — "Mill Springs" — and Hugh 
Hamer was commissioned Postmaster. After the death of Hugh Hamer, 
the property descended to his son, Robert B., who sold it to Jonathan 
Turley, Esq., the present enterprising proprietor. 


Isaac Fight built a mill, with overshot wheel, at Shawnee Cave in 
1819; it was a primitive kind of establishment, "home-made" stones for 
grinding corn; this mill fell into possession of the two brothers, Shelton 
and William Smith, who, about 1831, put up a distillery in connection 
with the mill. Fulton built a distillery at the head of Fulton's Creek, now 
the land of John Murray, about 1825, grinding the grain on a tread-mill. 
James Beasley had a distillery, in after days, at Lindsey's Spring. The 
number of distilleries early established in the township is evidence that 
the early settlers brought along with them a cultivated appetite for drink 
stronger than the sparkling spring water that gushed out from the lime- 
stone rocks near their dwellings. 


The first hunting exploit that we have any account of in the town- 
ship, occurred in the fall of 1816. This was the killing of the largest 
panther ever seen by the early settlers, by Thomas Rowark, near his cabin 
in Rock Lick Creek, near its confluence with White River; it was dis- 
covered in a tree and shot. All the people in the settlement went to see 
it, and a monster beast it was, measuring three yards in length.* In 1820 
Neddy Edwards, the father of our fellow-citizens, Allen and Henderson 
Edwards, chased a bear into the deep cave, in what is now Allen C. 
Burton's orchard, and calling in his neighbors to assist, smoked bruin out 
and dispatched him. In the same year a company of hunters killed a 
large bear in a cave on John L. Dodson's farm, just west of the present 
residence of Solomon Bass. The last bear killed in the township was 
shot from a tree, by William Edwards, in 1821, about where the resi- 
dence of his son, John Edwards, now stands. An amusing incident is 
related by the old settlers of the last wild bear seen in the township. 
John Sutton was hunting his hogs, in the flat woods north of where 
Mitchell now stands, about 1825, when he discovered fresh tracks of a 



large bear in the snow; he urged forward his horse, following the trail; 
he had not proceeded far when he came up to the huge beast; it rose 
on its hind feet, frightening Sutton's horse, which went to the rear with- 
out taking time to turn around, and Sutton was landed in the snow right 
under the very paws of bruin ; he was too badly scared to move ; the bear 
slowly lowered himself to all-fours, smelled of his prostrate enemy and 
dignifiedly walked off toward the south; when the hog-hunter found him- 
self alone, he made quick time in an opposite direction, and the bear 
was not captured. The numerous caverns of the township formed dens 
for innumerable packs of wolves, and up to 1832 it was almost impossi- 
ble to raise sheep on account of their nightly incursions. The second 
generation of inhabitants became adepts in wolf-hunting. Among their 
leaders were the late Hugh Hamer and Benjamin Turley. A premium 
was offered by the county for wolf-scalps and the last of them were soon 
exterminated. Deer and turkeys were considered too small game for 
our early citizens to make much note of, though they were the principal 
meat supply. 


Cathbert and Thomas Bullitt, 1820; Tetlow, Hughes and Geiger, 
1820; Moses Gray, 1816; R. Hall, 1820; Abraham Hartman, 1818; Sam- 
uel Jackson, 1816; Ambrose Carlton, 1816; Robert Lewis, 1817 and 1816; 
Samuel Brown, 1820; John Edwards, 1820; John Maxwell, 1819; Will- 
iam Terrill, 1816; William Tolliver, 1818; Robert McLean, 1817; Will- 
iam McLean, 1816; Zachariah Sparling, 1818; John Workman, 1817; 
William Baldwin, 1817; Theophilus Baldwin, 1819; Jesse Hill, 1817; 
Martin Hardin, 1817; William Maxwell, 1819; Charles Tolliver, 1817; 
William Connerly, 1817; William Denny, 1818; Alfred Maden and John 
Hays, 1818; John Lowrey, 1817; William Blair, 1817; John McLean, 
1817; James Fulton, 1816; Lewis Byram, 1817; Henry Speed, 1816; 
William Trueblood, 1816; Jonathan Lindley, 1816; G. Eli, 1817; 
Joshua Taylor, 1817; Robert Fields, 1817; William Connelly, 1818; 
George Hinton, Jr., Arthur Henrie and Benjamin Drake, 1818; Ezekiel 
Blackwell, 1818; John Finger, 1817; Joseph Culbertson, 1818; William 
Erwin, 1818; Isom Maden, 1816; William Carmichael, 1818; Joel Con- 
ley, 1817; ' Josiah Trueblood, 1818; William Connelly, 1817; Aaron 
Davis, 1819; Lewis Phillips, 1817; Zebedee Wood, 1820; Michael Duni- 
hue, 1817; David Harris, 1817: John Sutton, 1817; Robert Hollowell, 
1816; Robert Fields, 1816; Jacob Files and Jonathan Williams, 1815. 


Bono Township is located in the southeastern corner of the county, 
and is bounded on the north by the East Fork of White River, and on 
the west by Marion Township. Bono has long contended, with some 
degree of right, for the honor of having been the scene of the first white 


settlement in the county. It is situated in that part of the county near- 
est to the older settlements in the southern part of the State, and on the 
early roads leading to the more important places further north, such as 
Terre Haute and others. Another feature in favor of this is the fact that 
it is located on the river, and early emigration usually threaded its way 
through the new country along the banks of important streams that 
aflforded a highway for the transportation of produce to the markets of 
the world. However, in this instance it is generally conceded that Lees- 
ville was the place of first settlement. 


The first entry of land in the county was made in this township by 
"William Wright, September 22, 1813. The amount of land was 142 
acres in the northeast quarter of Section 5, Township 3 north. Range 2 
east. This was near the present site of the town of Bono, in the north- 
east corner of the township. For many years this was a prosperous and 
growing community.. Besides this entry of William Wright in 1813, all 
the entries of land in the township up to and including the year 1820, 
were by the following persons in the years named: 

Henry Fulton, September, 1817; Cuthbert and Thomas Bullitt, Sep- 
tember, 1820: J. Hikes, 1820; Eichard C. Anderson, 1820; John 
Edwards, 1820; Edward Johnson, 1820; Clark, Hoggatt and Kitchell, 
1818; Thomas Blank, 1819; Samuel Brown, 1816; John Brown, 1820; 
John Hammersly, 1818; Thomas Jolly, 1820; David Green, 1818; Con- 
rad Grass, 1818; Solomon Fitzpatrick, 1819; David Hummell, 1818; 
Asher Wilson, 1820; Elisha Simpson, 1817; William Hoggatt, 1818. 
Bono was one of the original five townships in the county, and formerly 
embraced a considerable portion of what now constitutes both Marion 
and Guthrie Townships. Its territory was considerably diminished in 
January, 1826, when Marion Township was created with the same bound- 
ary as at present. The first elections in the township were held at Bono 
Town, and were presided over by Elisha Simpson as Inspector. In 1819 
David Green was made the Inspector of Elections, but the voting place 
was not changed. Moses Lee and Thomas Jolly were the first Overseers 
of the Poor and were elected in 1819, and Robert Henderson was the 
first Constable. 


That Bono Township was the scene of the second settlement in the 
county is beyond dispute. This was made by Roderick Rawlins and his 
two nephews, James and Joseph Rawlins, in the spring of 1812, on the 
farm now owned by William Turley in Section 22, and not far from the 
railroad station called Scottville. These men played a prominent part 
in the Ranger warfare that was at that time being carried out on the 
frontier. The last of these, Joseph Rawlins, is now a citizen of Bedford, 

■■■'- M 



.v»-^»'*.*w».Uji. »l ■■ WaiUfe 

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and far advanced in the shades of a life that has been crowded with 
activity and usefulness. The first settlers here used to do most of their 
milling at Beck's Mill on Blue Kiver, in Washington County. After 
Hamer's Mill was built in Marion Township, in 1817, that was the resort 
of a large part of the county for a few years, whenever any grinding was 
wanted. Mills soon began to be more numerous, and the task of going 
to mill was not so great. John Hammersly was a man, in this part of 
the county, of rather a speculative turn, and he built several mills and 
then sold them to others. One of his he kept for a while on Sugar Creek 
about the year 1825. Not long after this he had what was considerable 
of a novelty in the line of grist-mills. In the river at the site of the 
town of Bono, Hammersly constructed a dam in the shape of a cone, 
allowing an opening in the center for the water to go through, and where 
a large undershot wheel was placed between two flat-boats. The buhrs 
were on the boats and the grinding was done in mid-stream. This con- 
tinued for a few years, until an overflow washed it away and it went to 
pieces near "Old Palestine," where the buhr stones lay in the river for 
some time and were then taken to a mill on Indian Creek, in that town- 


Marshall Township is the middle of the three townships that form 
the northern tier in the county. It is the smallest but one in the county, 
containing twenty-eight sections in all, and was named for John Marshall, 
the renowned Chief Justice of the United States. In 'this part of the 
county there was a number of land entries made as early as 1816, although 
none before that time, and in proportion to many parts of the county 
there were many more early purchasers for land here. This is somewhat 
hard to account for, as most of the township is hilly and broken, afford- 
ing comparatively poor farming facilities. A portion of it, however, is 
perhaps equal to any agricultural land in the county. In the southern 
part are some of the stone quarries for which Lawrence County is so 
widely known. Large quantities of this stone are shipped to all parts of 
the country. Land was purchased of the Government as follows up to 
the year 1820: Jacob Hattaba ugh, 1816; William Curl, 1816; Hamilton 
Reddick, 1817; John Fairley, 1819; John Goodwin, 1818; Robert Ander- 
son, 1819; John Hargis, 1816; William Sackey, 1817; Jesse Brown, 
1816; James Culley, 1816; Michael Hattabaugh, 1816; Jacob Bruner, 
1818; Henry Brown, 1818; John Zumwald, 1818; Henry Leonard, 1818; 
Patrick Tyler, 1817; Nicholas Bruner, 1816; William" Quillen, 1818; 
John Dryden, 1817; Joshua Gullett, 1818; John Quillen, 1818; Joseph 
Gullett, 1816; Adam House, 1816; Thomas Reynolds, 1817; Absalom 
Sargeant, 1817, 


The first mill in this township, and one of the earliest in the county, 


was built at Avoca about the year 1819, by a man named Fitzpatrick. 
In his hands it remained for only a short time, when it passed to Absa- 
lom Hart, a man of large experience in the milling business, and who 
had prior to that time owned one on Indian Creek. Hart operated the 
mill for about fifteen years with good success, and then sold it to the 
Hamer Brothers. They owned it for something more than a decade, 
when Levi Mitchell became the owner, but shortly afterward sold it to 
Dr. Bridwell, and he to George Thornton, of Bedfoi'd. Short & Judah 
were the next owners, and while in their hands it burnt down, about the 
year 1863. Soon after this Samuel Short rebuilt the mill, and in 1865 
Hayden Bridwell obtained a half interest in it, which he held until 1868, 
when he became the sole owner, and has been such ever since. Under 
his management this mill has done a large business, and not long since 
was repaired and improved. It is operated by a turbine water-wheel, 
and has three sets of buhrs : one for wheat, one for corn, and one for chop 
feed. It is now a first-class mill, and is valued at $2,500. 

The Humpston Mill was probably built as early as 1830. It was on 
the farm now owned by Ephraim Decker, and was operated by an under- 
shot wheel and the waters of Salt Creek. There was but one set of buhrs, 
and both corn and wheat were ground by it, and the bolting was done 
by hand. This mill passed through several hands, and was finally 
abandoned some time late in the forties. 

Near the present site of the village of Guthrie, in the north part of 
the township, a steam grist and saw-mill was erected in 1870 by Kinser 
& "Whisman. Ever since that time this mill has done a large business 
in both of its branches. Machinery for making spokes was added in 
1880 at a large cost, and the whole value of the mill is now estimated at 
about $5,000. Mr. Eli Kinser is the sole owner, and drives a successful 
and energetic trade. 


The first merchant in what is now Marshall Township was Eliphalet 
Pearson, the father of Judge E. D. Pearson, of Bedford. He had been 
the keeper of a ferry on the Ohio River, at Jeffersonville, but traded 
that for a stock of goods valued then at about $5,000. Immediately 
after this, in 1826, he moved to what is now generally known as the 
McCrea farm. Section 5, in the northwestern part of the township. Here 
he began doing quite an extensive mercantile trade for the times and 
place. This was on the old stage line ffom Leavenworth, on the Ohio 
River, fco Indianapolis, and it was one of the important stations on 
the route. Other places in the county where the stages stopped were, 
Springville and Bedford, going from the latter place to Orleans and 
Paoli, in Orange County. Pearson continued in the merchandise trade 
at that place for about three years. He also had an oil-mill here, and 
made considerable quantities of linseed oil, as flax was then extensively 


grown in this section. This mill would be something of a novelty in 
comparison with the giant machinery of the present day for the same 
purposes. The seed was ground by a large stone that was turned by 
horse-power, and the oil was pressed out by an old-fashioned beam 
press. This was the frontier way of making money, and some of the 
pioneers that yet linger around these early scenes of their life are some- 
times heard to lament the modern degeneracy into which the people have 
di'ifted in regard to labor-saving machinery, and the comparative ease of 
acquiring a creditable han't account. From this place Pearson moved to 
Springville, in Perry Township, where he continued in the mercantile 
business uninterruptedly until 1840. About that time he built, and 


for the next eight years operated, a wool-carding machine. This was 
one of the first in this section of the county and did a large business. At 
that place he began a tan-yard about 1846, and a few years later resumed 
the merchandise trade, which he followed until his death in January, 


In 1853, while Dr. Bridwell was operating the grist-mill at Avoca, 
he opened a store where Hayden Bridwell now lives, and for a few years 
he did a flourishing trade in general merchandise, and bought all kinds 
of country produce in exchange for his wares. He also established a 
postoffice there about the same time, and acted as the first Postmaster. 
After a few years, however, this was abandoned, but was revived by O. 
W. Owens, in 1866, and the office has been held by him ever since. 

About the year 1879 O. W. Owens began keeping such articles of mer- 
chandise as are usually kept in a country store, and for one year he car- 
ried on a brisk trade here. John Heaton succeeded Owens as a merchant 
at this place for nearly two years, and at the end of that time he moved 
to Newberry, in Greene County, where he continued a mercantile trade 
for a short time, then returning to Avoca, still pursuing the same 
business. While Heaton was at Newberry the business at Avoca was 
carried on by two brothers named Blackburn. 

Another store is now (September, 1884,) being prepared for at this 
place by Hayden Bridwell, who intends keeping a full line of general 
merchandise for sale here to accommodate the people who live in this 
part of the county. This, carried on in connection with his grist-mill, 
will undoubtedly meet with success and yield a proper remuneration for 
the time and money employed. Avoca is situated on the Bedford & 
Bloomfield narrow gauge railroad, about six miles northwest from Bed- 
ford, and in the southwest part of Marshall Township. Near the railroad 
station is White Sulphur Spring, the waters of which enjoys a considera- 
ble local reputation as a therapeutic, and several persons resort to it every 
season to repair the ailing body. If the same amount of advertising 
could be done for this place that is usually done for other places in 


southern Indiana of no greater merit, it would most surely equal them 
in both fame and miraculous cures. 


The northwest corner township in Lawrence County is Perry, so named 
for the renowned Commodore of the American Navy who won the famous 
victory over the British on Lake Erie in the war of 1812, and whose dis- 
patch concerning that event contributed not a little to his celebrity. 
This township is exactly composed of the Congressional thirty-six 
sections in Township 6 north. Range 2 west. At the organization of the 
county in 1818 all the territory now embraced in Perry Township was 
included in Indian Creek Township, but it was made into an indepen- 
dent township May 14, 1822, and included all the land west of Salt 
Creek and north of the line between Townships 5 and 6 north. Some 
of the early and most substantial settlements of the county were made in 
this township, and from the following list of the land entries made prior 
to 1820 it will be seen that many of the prominent persons in the county 
located here: Eli Powell, 1817; Alexander Clark, 1817; Jesse Davis, 
1816; Warner Davis, 1816; Robert Holaday, 1816; Ralph Lowder, 
1819; Benjamin Phipps, 1818; Michael and Mathias Sears, 1817; Will- 
iam Newcomb, 1817; William Sackley, 1817; W^illiam Kern, 1817; 
Thomas Hopper, 1817; William Hopper, 1817; Jonathan Osburn, 1816; 
Azel Bush, 1818; Isaac V. Buakirk, 1818; Joseph Taylor, 1816; Benja- 
min Dawson, 1818; Archibald Wood, 1816; John Gray, 1817; William 
Kerr, 1817; William Tincher, 1817; Reuben Davis, 1816; Seymour 
Cobb, 1816; John Armstrong, 1817; Samuel Steel, 1817; John Duncan, 
1817; Coats and Samuel Simon, 1817; John Dishman, 1818; Adam 
Hostetter. 1817. Other early settlers were: Wesley Short, William 
Whitted, Aden Gainey, Samuel Owens, Caleb Odell, Nathan Melton, 
Kenneth Dye, John Jarvis, William McDowell, James McDowell, Thomas 
Cobb. Dixon Cobb, and a few years later came Noah Bridwell, Elza 
Woodward, Zedekiah Robinson, Melcart Helmer, Samuel Tincher, 
Franklin Crooke, M. C. Rafferty, Milton Short,. John and Thomas Hert, 
Thomas Armstrong, John Hedrick, John Rainbolt, Andrew McDaniel, 
James Beat}, Booker Wilson, Martin Holmes, James Garton, Eliphalet 
Pearson, John D. Pedigo, John Vestal and A. H. Gainey. These were 
nearly all the prominent men in this portion of the county in the pio- 
neer days. Some of them have always taken an active interest in what- 
ever concerned the welfare of their community, and their names have 
become identified with the progress and prosperity of all the public and 
laudable enterprises in their neighborhood. Foremost of these is the 
Armstrong family, while the Shorts, the Cobbs, the Gaineys, the McDow- 
ells and the Owens have taken front rank in the development of the 




It is generally conceded that Benjamin Dawson was the first man to 
embark in a milling enterprise of any kind in the township. This was 
not a very extensive embarkation, however, as it was only an old-fashioned 
horse-mill, where each person had to hitch on his own team to do his 
grinding. To the present generation one of those primitive " corn 
crackers " would be something of a curiosity. The coarse product of 
meal which they turned out would be unsavory and unpalatable in the 
extreme if it were to turn up on the dining table of the present day 
beside the patent flour of modern manufacture. Dawson began with this 
mill at an early day, probably in the year 1818, perhaps not for a year 
or two later than that. He continued to run this for several years, and 
did quite an extensive business considering the capacity. The mill was 
probably abandoned about the year 1885, when water-mills in several 
parts of the township took away the larger part of the custom that had 
hitherto come to it. Noah Bridwell had a horse-mill run by a tramp- 
wheel for about ten years up to 1840, and at the same place he had a 
still-house for some time. Wesley Short also had a small mill on his 
farm about 1835 and a few years later. 

At the present time there are but few mills in the township. One of 
these is the Lowder Mill, owned by H. & J. Lowder. This is on 
Indian Creek, and is probably the best mill in the township. It was 
built by Ealph Lowder in an early day. A saw-mill is now run, in con- 
nection with it. What is now called the Armstrong Mill has been in 
existence for about fifty years. Distilleries were kept by James Beaty, 
Noah Bridwell, Aden Gainey, Dr. Rush and a few others. The people 
then thought as much of making a periodical trip to the still-house as to 
the grist-mill. How strange it was that, although whisky flowed freely, 
intemperance did not run riot in the land, and this contrary to the pre- 
dictions and warnings of the later and self-appointed guardians of the 
public morals. 


Levi Butcher had a carding mill that was run by horse-power, built 
about 1845, and for the next ten years considerable quantities of wool 
were carded into rolls here. That was a day when the mothers and the 
maidens labored in harmonious industry with the fathers and the brothers 
to establish and maintain a happy home. It was a time when the hum 
of the spinning-wheel stole fitfully across the open threshold of the cot- 
tage, singing a glad song of rural joy and prosperity. That time is past, 
and the spinning-wheel has long lain in the dusty garret, while instead 
of its drowsy melody there goes out from the scanty parlor the screechy 
wail of a sixty-dollar organ undergoing the tortures of a "practice" at 
the hands of the would-be stylish country lass. Eliphalet Pearson built 
a carding mill at Springville about the year 1840, and after eight years 


of success he was succeeded by Elza Woodward. The next owner was 
Zachariah Purdy, in whose hands it went down some time early in the 
fifties. In the early settlement of this part of the county a considerable 
quantity of cotton was raised, and in 1828 a cotton-gin was kept by 
Aden Gainoy and Samiiel Owens, but it was only in operation for about 
seven years. At this cotton-gin Lorenzo Dow preached a sermon, and 
was greeted by one of the largest audiences that ever assembled in 
Springville ; and it is said that every person within a radius of seven 
miles was present, although it would not be surprising to learn that at 
least one got away, however strong may have been the attractions of the 
eminent speaker. Just one year later he spoke again in the township. 


Wild game was prevalent in this community while the inhabitants 
were yet few and scattering, and for the early settlers it was no unusual 
occurrence to be awakened at midnight by the death-squeal of a young 
porker in the affectionate embrace of a hungry bear. The rifle and the 
dogs were at once brought into action for the purpose of making Mr. 
Bruin's dead carcass compensate in some manner for the loss of the next 
winter's supply of bacon. Among those who were most expert in the 
chase was John Gray, who came from Kentucky in the fall of 1815, and 
built a cabin not far from the present site of Springville. In the fol- 
lowing spring he went back after his family, which he brought to his 
forest home in Indiana. He was specially fond of hunting, and through 
his skill in that sport was enabled to furnish game enough for the sup- 
port of his family. Both deer and bears were frequent trophies of his 
and one rather remarkable story is told of his killing four deer with one 
bullet, having shot it from his gun twice. The first time he killed two 
of the deer, the bullet lodging in the second deer, where he found it, and 
was again fortunate enough to have two deer in range for the second shot. 
At one time he was visited at his hut by a considerable band of Indians 
that was strolling through the country on their way to join some of their 
companions further north. As they were then, or pretended to be, 
strangers to that part of the country, they requested Grav to show them 
the way to Bigger's trading-house, situated in what is now Monroe 
County. There was then a " trace" where the Bedford and Bloomington 
road now is. He started out as their guide, but for some reason they 
would not follow him, and went off in a different direction. Not know- 
ing what they meant by such a performance, he was somewhat alarmed 
and returned to his home. The next day he followed and overtook them, 
but they were going on their way peacefully, and he returned unobserved 
by them. 


Of the three townships lying on the western border of Lawrence 


County, the middle one is Indian Creek. It is so named for the creek 
that enters it near the northwest corner, and after Dowing in a sinuous 
and semicircular direction, leaves the county near the southwest corner 
of the township. Salt Creek and the East Fork of White River form the 
eastern and southern boundaries. This was one of the original live town- 
ships of the county, but then contained much more territory than now. 
Its present area is about lifty-three square miles, being one of the largest 
in the county. Some of the land in Indian Creek Township is perhaps 
superior to any other in the county for agricultural purposes. This land 
is along White River bottom and Salt and Indian Creeks. The early 
settlers were well aware of the excellence of bottom-land soil, and in the 
'emigration to this county these more fertile and tillable portions were 
eagerly sought after by those who expected to build a home and fortune 
in the new land to which thousands were daily crowding. For the tirst 
few years of settlement this part of the county made, perhaps, more rapid 
strides in its progress than any other. But the proverb, " the race is not 
always with the swift nor the battle with the strong," has in this instance 
been verified, for at the present day there can be found places in the 
county where the material wealth and prosperity of the agricultural 
classes exceed that of Indian Creek Township. In these comparisons, 
however, the township has but little to regret, for it always stands in a 
favorable light. The public records show that up to 1820 the following 
persons entered land in this township during the years specified: 

Henry Speed, 1816; Robert Wood, 1818; Andrew Howard, 1819; 
Sterling Sims. 1819; William Gartin, 1818; Henry PiersoU, 1818; John 
Donaldson, 1820; Holland Pitman, 1818; David Ribelin, 1817; Will- 
iam Dougherty, 1818; James Duncan, 1817; Adam Siler, 1817; John 
Duncan, 1817; John Towell, 1816; John Cloud, 1817; Simon Ruebottom, 
1816; Benjamin Beeson, 1816; Silas Dixon, 1816; Jonathan Lindley, 
1816; James Mulloy, 1818; Ephraim Lee, 1816; Isaac Williams, 1816; 
Joseph Richardson, 1816; John Short, 1819; Seymour Cobb, 1816; John 
Roberts, 1817; Reuben Short, 1817; Isaac Waggoner, 1818; Jeremiah 
Boone, 1817; Elijah Boone, 1817; William Cochran, 1818; John Roch- 
ester, 1817; Wesley Short, 1817; John Crook, 1817; Daniel Todd, 1817; 
Archibald Wood, 1816; Felter -Hughes, 1816; Abraham Kern, 1817; 
Robejt Carton and R. Browning, 1817; Albert Howard, 1819; William 
Dillard, 1817; John and Michael AYaggoner, 1817; Joseph Sergeant, 1817 
Henry Waggoner, 1817; Elbert Howard, 1817; Benjamin Chesnut, 1819 
James Garton, 1816; Sullivan and Duncan, 1817; John Duncan, 1817 
David Sears, 1816; William Woodrun, 1819; Jesse Towell, 1816 
Robert Mitchell, 1818; Peyton Wilson, 1816; Martin Ribelin, 1818. 

Perhaps the most prominent family ia the township has always been 
the Kern, some of which were among the very first settlers in the west- 
ern part of the county. Another that deserves special mention is the 


Williams family, for no other has taken more active interest in the devel- 
opment of the resources of both the county and township. There is in 
the south part of the township along the river, what is known as the 
Williams settlement, and it includes some of the finest farms and most 
enterprising farmers in the county. It is but just to say, however, that 
this settlement extends along both sides of the river and embraces a por- 
tion of Spice Valley Township. There was a considerable number of 
squatters in this section, but after the land sales in 1816, a large number 
bought and prepared for permanent residence. With but few exceptions, 
the settlers here were from Kentucky. 

One of the important men of the county, ever since his location in it 
in 1819 down to the present time, is Stever Younger, now familiarly 
known as " Uncle Stever " throughout the entire county. He is a native 
of Kentucky, where he was born September 8, 1799. At the time of his 
coming to Indiana, being twenty years of age, he was old enough to 
know and thoroughly understand all the transactions of his times. His 
whole life has been one of more than usual activity and importance, and 
his mind is one of quick perceptive and active reasoning qualities. At 
the advanced age of eighty- iive years he retains a remarkable and unpar- 
alleled vigor of intellect, and a recollection that challenges the admira- 
tion of all who know him. In preparing this history of early settlement 
in the county his knowledge of the times and occurrences through which 
he has lived has been frequently drawn upon by the writer, and in every 
instance with the most satisfactory results. His first settlement in the 
county was in Indian Creek Township, near the little town of Fayette- 
ville, on Section 13, Township 5 north, Range 1 west, but he afterward 
located in Shawswick Township, on Leatherwood Creek, where he has 
lived the most of his life. There were maay other pioneers in this neigh- 
borhood that played a prominent part in the early history of the county 
that have long since passed away, yet many of the acts they did and the 
institutions they founded live after them, and cast an additional halo 
around their ever green memory. 


The soil of Lawrence County is well adapted to raising blue grass, 
and, as a consequence, it is also a good county for the production of live 
stock. Indian Creek Township has the distinction of being the place 
where this valuable pasture herbage was first grown in the county. The first 
seed was sown by Abraham Kern and Stever Younger during the winter 
of 1819-20 on Sections 13 and 24 in Township 5 north, Range 2 west. 
From this small beginning the acreage of this grass has constantly 
increased, and it now forms a most important feature in the husbandry of 
the county. 


When Indian Creek Township was organized with the county, the 


elections were first held by Joseph Sullivan as Inspector at Stepp's, but a 
little later they were held at the house of Samuel Owens, now in Perry 
Township, and not far from the present site of Springville. James 
Cully was the fii*st Constable, and in 1819 Adam and Patrick Tyler were 
Overseers of the Township Poor. In 1822, when Perry Township was 
organized out of the northern portion of Indian Creek, the latter was 
extended on the south to White River, its present boundary, and soon 
after this the election place was changed to the house of Frederick Hamer. 


Probably the second grist-mill in the couaty that was operated by 
water-power was situated on Indian Creek, a short distance above the 
place where Craig's Mill now stands on that stream. This was in opera- 
tion as early as 1818, and was owned by Robert Dougherty, who in a year 
or so sold to a man named Bowers. After about two years Bowers trans- 
ferred it to Henry Purcell, in whose hands it soon afterward went down. 
It was but a rude afifair, although for a time it did a prosperous business 
at grinding corn. Mills for grinding wheat were a great novelty in the 
early settlement of the county, and the first one that was regularly pre- 
pared for wheat in this part was the mill on Spring Creek in Perry 
Township, near where Levi Butcher had a mill in later times. That was 
in the days of "sick" wheat, concerning which Stever Younger is yet 
vigorous in his recollection. This "sick" wheat was distinguished by 
a peculiarly small pink spot on the grain near the germ, but it did not 
destroy the germinating qualities, nor did it produce "sick" wheat 
when sown. Since hogs would not eat this wheat it may be imagined to 
have been very unpalatable. About the year 1824 John Craig built a 
horse mill on the farm now owned by his grandson of the same name. It 
had one set of buhrs with which both wheat and corn were gi'ound, the 
former being bolted by hand. For some eight or ten years this mill was 
resorted to for a large amount of grist-grinding from all parts of the 
community. After the horse-mill went down Craig put up a new mill 
with two sets of buhrs. It was operated by water-power and an under- 
shot wheel. This mill has been in operation ever since, and is now 
owned by Robert Craig, a son of the founder and builder. Elijah Garton, 
as early as 1819, had a small "corn-cracker " at what is now Fayetteville. 
The power for running it was supplied by an inclined wheel and a small 
but active steer. John Short had another much like this one on the farm 
now owned by Abner Armstrong, but both of these were of short dura- 
tion, as the competition was growing too strong for so many to succeed. 
In 1821 Simon Ruebottom built a mill on White River on the farm 
where Henry Pitman now lives. It was run by horse-power, and did not 
last many years. Another small mill, about 1824, operated by a tread- 
wheel, and one that did considerable business, was owned by Oliver Cox. 


Isaac Rector now owns a good mill at the Cave Spring, one and a half 
miles east from Fayetteville. It was built about the year 1870, but prior 
to that time another had been there for years. The power is supplied by 
water, and it is provided with two sets of buhrs, one for wheat and one 
for corn, 


On Indian Creek, near the mouth of Goose Creek, there used to be a 
considerable quantity of salt made in early times when that article of 
commerce was scarce and costly on the frontier, and when the currents 
of trade moved slowly and with much labor, Abraham Reynolds carried 
on this business for several years and with some profit. Cheap transpor- 
tation has entirely done away with all such industrial enterprises in this 
part of the country, especially where salt is found in such sparing quan- 
tities. In 1824 Joseph Laughlin dug a salt- well 150 feet deep, but did 
not find salt in sufficient quantities to pay for the trouble and expense of 
manufacture. This was on the farm at this time owned by Jackson Kern, 
and the well is yet flowing and furnishes a good supply of water, 


One of the early settlers here was Samuel Simons, at the present site 
of Fayetteville, where he kept a tavern for the benefit of the frontier pil- 
grims. The bill of fare here was probably not extended beyond the 
homely food of the pioneers. It is said that many of his meals during 
the summer season were mostly composed of sweet milk and roasting ears, 
for which the price was 25 cents. Two years was the extent of his hotel 
business, at the end of which time he located on the farm afterward so 
long occupied by Ezekiel Short, 

As the van of civilization makes its way through the uncultivated 
wilds of a new country, the various branches of trade and commerce fol- 
low in their natural order. But what a contrast the rude log habitations 
of trade on the frontier present to the gilded offices and palace stores of 
a long settled and wealthy community! In the former will be found, 
scattered in promiscuous heaps, the cheap and scanty articles which the 
frugal habits of early settlers demand. The proprietor himself, perhaps, 
sits leaning back on a splint-bottomed chair before his door, watching 
with satisfaction the approach of a single customer, and contemplating 
with delight the paltry profit on his wares. Not thus the merchant in a 
populous city. His business moves on with an easy flow, conducted by 
courteous and ever ready clerks, while he reclines at ease in an uphol- 
stered cffice, and dictates the course for his subalterns to pursue. 


Among the first merchants of Lawrence County was John Vestal, who 
moved to Fayetteville in 1816 or 1817, and there in a log-house began a 


trade in merchandise with a capital of about $800. His stock comprised 
all articles in usual demand at such stores. He aimed to keep pace with 
the times, and have everything needed in a new *jountry. Yet Uncle 
Stever Younger says that it was a long time before they could get a 
smoothing-iron and a pair of scissoi's, both of which they had forgotten 
to provide before leaving Kentucky. All the merchandise was brought 
from Louisville in those days by wagons, and the trips usually took about 
one week. It was then considered almost a matter of necessity for any- 
one doing a mercantile trade to have some whisky in stock for the accom- 
modation of his customers, but John Vestal was frequently short in that 
line of goods as he did not believe in that way of drawing custom. He 
was in fact the commercial man of this neighborhood for several years, 
and always purchased the produce of all kinds. Among his favorite en- 
terprises was that of buying a beef and game of various kinds, and dis- 
posing of them by shooting matches. Concerning these Uncle Stever 
says: "I sold him one and got Bob Garton to shoot for me, and we were 
to divide the profits. I could not shoot and Garton said he was a good 
shot. I lost my money and got no beef. But I found out who could 
shoot, and I furnished the money and went in with the best shot on the 
same terms that I did with Garton. We won all of a side of sole leather 
put up in pairs of half-soles to be shot for at 12^ cents per shot. This 
ended as well as begun my gambling career." Frederick Hammer was a 
merchant in 1826 and some years before and after that date. His stock 
was of the usual kind of country merchandise and he did a thriving trade. 
It was at his house that the elections were for some time held. 

In the south part of Indian Creek Township on the bank of White 
Kiver is a postoffice called Williams. It is at the site of what was for- 
merly called Greenville, and where four brothers named Green formerly 
had a saw-mill. The first store here was kept by Frank Baker, about the 
year 1872. Since then L. D. Kern, W. B. Kern and Jacob Baker have 
been the merchants here, the last being in trade at the present time, and 
Postmaster Benjamin Carl now has a small huckster shop at the same 


In the southwest corner of Lawrence County is situated Spice Valley 
Township. It was one of the original townships at the organization of 
the county, although then larger than at this time. The present area is 
nearly the same as Indian Creek Township, being about fifty-two square 
miles. Beaver Creek flows through the southwestern part, and the Ohio & 
Mississippi Railroad traverses the township from east to west, somewhat 
south of the center. On the west and south it is bounded by Martin and 
Orange Counties respectively, while on the north the East Fork of White 
River forms nearly the whole boundary, and on the east is Marion 


Some of the land in this township is first-class for farming purposes, 
but most of it is broken and hilly, and more adapted to grazing than for 
tillage. Near Bryantsville and along the river are some good and well- 
improved farjaas that indicate prosperity and enterprise. It was probably 
on this account that there was not so much land entered in this portion 
of the county as in some others. As usual the best land — that in the 
northern part— was the drst to attract those who were coming to the new 
country for the purpose of permanently locating. 

Up to the year 1820 there were thirty-four purchases of Government 
land in this township, while in Indian Creek Township during the same 
time and on an equal amount of territory there were fifty-eight, thus 
indicating the relative value of the two townships in land. These entries 
were as follows: William Maxwell, 1819; Simon Gilbert, 1816; William 
Lindley, 1816; C. and T. Bullitt, 1816; Ezekiel Blackwell, 1816; 
Josiah Connelly, 1817; Jonathan Lindley, 1816; Joel Connelly, 1817; 
Jesse Beazley, 1818; Francis Tincher, 1819; Aquilla Gilbert, 1816; 
John Sanders, 1820; Nichols Koon, 1818; John Quinn, 1818; William 
Hoard, 1820; David Bruner, 1818; Henry Speed, 1816; Absalom Field, 
1816; Thomas Lindley, 1816; Joseph Hastings, 1816; Abraham Hola- 
day, 1816; William Cochran, 1818; Thomas Coulter, 1816; Robert Fields, 
1817, John Chapman, 1817; John Luttrell, 1818; Gideon Coulter, 1817; 
Roger McKnight, 1818; Josiah Trueblood, 1816; Henry Cosner, 1817; 
John Connelly, 1817; Joel Connelly, 1816; Josiah Connelly, 1816; John 
Swaim, 1818. 


The first elections in Spice Valley Township were held at the house 
of Absalom Fields, and he was the Inspector. Fields had located here 
some years before that time (1818), and while this was yet a part of 
Orange County. Josiah Connelly, who had come in 1817, was the first 
man that held a Constable's commission in this township. In 1819 the 
Overseers of the Poor were Absalom Fields and Joel Connelly, an office 
long since abolished as it then existed. Soon after this the place of hold- 
ing elections was changed to the house of Richard Beazley. 


Hamer's Mill, now in the eastern part of Marion Township, was the 
most frequent resort of the first settlers in this part of the county for 
their milling. This was one of the best as well as one of the earliest 
mills in Lawrence County, and the people of Spice Valley Township 
were its patrons for many years and until as late as the year 1840, per- 
haps later. There were some mills in the township before that time, but 
they were of an inferior kind and of limited capacity. About the first of 
these was owned by Josiah Trueblood, some time in the early part of the 
twenties. This was one of the primitive horse-mills, and at that 


time Trueblood lived od the farm now owned by James Marley, not far 
from where Simon Ruebottom's mill stood on the opposite side of the 
river. Absalom Fields was the hrst proprietor and builder. In that day 
most of the milling was done on horseback or with two wheels of a 
wagon, on account of the sometimes almost impassable condition of the 
roads. Since that time things are much changed and people ride to mill 
in their upholstered carriages. A short time after 1830 a horse-mill was 
in operation at Bryantsville, own,ed by Henry Weathers, but that has, of 
course, long since disappeared, and in its stead another and more modern 
mill does the business for the northern part of the township. 

Perhaps no other part of Lawrence County has been so prolific of 
distilleries as Spice Valley Township. The numerous flowing springs 
and the general features of the land, combined with the early education 
and customs of the first settlers, have been largely conducive to this. One 
of the most important of these was kept by Joshua Barnes about the 
year 1850, and for some time both before and after that date. He did a 
considerable business in fruit distilling, but this basfor many years been 
done away with. That was on the farm now owned by Jameson Lee. 

The hardships and fatigue which the pioneers were compelled to 
undergo in clearing up and settling a new country, are but little appre- 
ciated in the present day. Then nearly all the lumber for building pur- 
poses was sawed by whip-saws as they were termed. The process was 
something like this: A frame-work for the purpose was built, generally 
on a hill-side, high enough for a man to stand under and work. The logs 
that were intended to be made into lumber were rolled upon this frame 
from the hill and the sawing was then carried on by two men, one above 
and one below the log. A long thin saw was pulled up and down through 
the log by these men from one end to the other, much after the fashion of 
the old upright saws of a few years ago. This was hard work in the 
extreme, and the amount of it required to saw lumber enough for build- 
ing a house would appall the laboring man of the present day. 


The northeast corner township in Lawrence County is Pleasant Eun, 
and was created at the organization of the county in 1818. At that time 
the two rows of sections on the eastern end formed a part of Jackson 
County, but have since been added to this county. The township now 
embraces a total of sixty sections, being all of Township 6 north, Eange 
1 east, and the western half of Township 6 north, Eange 2 east. The 
surface of the land in Pleasant Eun Township is generally rough and 
broken, and therefore but poorly adapted to tillage. This portion of the 
county was the latest settled of any. It is traversed by the following 
creeks: Back, Leatherwood, Little Salt and Pleasant Eun, for the last 
of which the township was named, although one of the smallest. Leath- 



erwood Creek has its rise in the southeastern part of this township, and 
flows across a considerable distance of the southern side. Along its 
course are some of the finest farms in the township, although its impor- 
tance as a stream is but little, and as the country is more thickly settled 
and improved, is constantly decreasing. As before stated the emigration 
to this portion of the county was slow and tardy in its movements. By 
the list of land entries in the township, made up to and including the 
year 1820, this will be fully shown, for in the whole township of sixty 
sections there were in that time but the following twenty -three entries 

Jesse Gilstrap, 1820; William Clark, 1820; Adam Helton, 1820; 
William J. Anderson, 1818; Arnold Helton, 1818; E. TerriU, 1820: 
Heirs of Abraham Martin, 1820; Rene Julin, 1818; R. Brooks, 1820; 
Samuel Gwathney, 1820; Joseph Dayton, 1816; Joseph Trimble. 1820; 
E. Parr, 1820; Edmund Garrison, 1820; James Mundell, 1816; John 
McClellan, 1820; David McKinney, 1816; Edward Moore, 1820; Cuth- 
bert and Thomas Bullitt, 1820; Vana Wilson, 1817; Jacob Woolery, 
1820; Edward Tewell, 1820; John N. Nichols, 1817. 

This is less than one purchase for every two sections of land, and 
some of the persons making these were not inhabitants of the township. 
It must not be supposed, however, that this list includes all the residents 
up to that time, for it does not. There were then a large number of 
squatters located here, who made up the larger share of the population. 
Soon after this time, however, a more permanent and substantial class 
began to settle here, and not many years elapsed before nearly the whole 
township was purchased from the Government. 


The early settlers were at first compelled to do a large part of their 
milling at Lawrenceport, on the river in the southern portion of the 
county. There were a few early horse-mills in this section, but the 
work done by them was of such an inferior kind, the task of going a long 
distance to mill was preferred to that of the shorter route and the poor 
grinding. On the farm now owned by Lewis Foster there was a horse- 
mill kept by Mitchell, which for a few years did considerable of the 
neighborhood grinding. A water- mill was built on Leatherwood Creek, 
some time prior to 1830, probably by Adam Helton. This was on the 
farm now owned by Marcus Reid, but after a few years of spasmodic 
usefulness it was washed away and was not again fitted for work. There 
were several others along the various creeks in the township, but on 
account of the scarcity of water they were only able to grind as a thun- 
der-storm would sweep across the land, and replenish the supply of 
water long enough to grind out a few grists, after which they would 
relapse into idleness until the elements again called them into action. 


Early settlers here were all skilled in the hunter's arts. Starting out 
on a journey to any part of the adjoining country, the rifle was a con 
stant companion of the pioneer. Even when plodding to and from his 
daily labor in the fields he took the precaution to have his gun in handy 
access, lest some unwary animal of the forest should make its appearance 
upon the scene and he be unprepared to punish it with death for the 
intrusion. Wild game furnished much of the daily fare that supplied 
the table of the first and hardy citizens of these woody wilds. Wild 
game was a considerable article of produce that would be converted 
through the channels of trade into articles of necessity for the family's 
use. Deer "saddles" were staple articles of trade at the country stores, 
and almost a medium of exchange among the denizens of the forests. 
They were shipped to the populous cities, where they graced the dining 
table of the rich, and in this manner brought back returns to the dis- 
tant inhabitants of the frontier whose skill and labor had combined to 
rob the forest of its proudest dweller. 

Along Salt Creek in more early times, distilleries were an institution 
of common occurrence. One of the principal in the township was kept 
by William Clark, familiarly called "Billy." This was the frequent 
resort of the people, with their "little brown jugs," for in those days 
whisky was considered an article almost as necessary in the household as 
bread. Another was kept by John Hunter for several years, on the farm 
now owned by his son John. 

A tan-yard was kept by Isaac Cruthers for many years, and consider- 
able business was done in that line. But from tanning skins, which 
is something of an unpleasant occupation, Isaac went to tanning souls 
after the Baptist style. Whether his success is equal to that of his 
former years and business cannot now be stated in the absence of any 
testimony on that point from the gentleman himself. 


Several years ago a portion of an organized band of counterfeiters 
was supposed to have their residence, and probably their headquarters 
for business, in this section of the county. Suspicion pointed to several 
persons residing in this township as among the ringleaders in this affair, 
but the actual and positive evidence was wanting. A police organiza- 
tion of Regulators was made in order to ferret out the criminals, but 
proved of little avail. At the hands of this organization, however, a man 
named George Crider was severely punished as being one of the sup- 
posed leaders in counterfeiting, but this seemed to have no valuable eftect, 
as he remained in the community long after, and with habits unchanged. 
A large number of stolen horses were traced from Kentucky and other 
parts to the hills in and around this part of the world, and all further 
clue was lost. This, however, has long since passed away, and no part 


of the county is more distinguished for its peaceful and law-abiding cit- 
izens than is Pleasant Run Township. 


The first elections were held at the house of Joseph Dayton, with 
Thomas Henton, Inspector. The poor, who, we are assured, will be 
always with us, were looked after by William Fish and Drury Mobley as 
Overseers. Beyond this, both early records and recollections fail to tell 
who were the township officers. 


Perhaps the most important township in Lawrence County is Shaws- 
wick. Situated in the central part of the county, it is watered on the 
south by the East Fork of White JRiver, and on the west by the next 
most important stream in the county, Salt Creek. Flowing entirely 
across it from northeast to southwest is Leatherwood Creek, along which 
is the best farming and agricultural land within the bounds of the county. 
The tract through which this small, yet useful stream courses, is known 
far and near as the " Leatherwood District," and famed for its abun- 
dant harvests and prosperous farmers. From the earliest settlement in 
the county this has been an important and valuable portion. Some of it is 
hilly and broken, but a large part is more gently rolling and better adap- 
ted to active cultivation of the soil. Nearly all the land lying to the 
east of Bedford is in a high state of cultivation, and improvements on 
farms indicate a prosperity exceeding any other place in the county. 
Competing strongly with this " Leatherwood District" for the first pi; .ce 
in advancement and material wealth is the " bottom" land along Wl ite 
River. Perhaps it even excels in fertility, but later improvements by 
way of draining have rendered the overflows of the river treacherous and 
uncertain, and making it more than usually hazardous in raising crops 
on land subject to be thus flooded. The appreciation of the early settlers 
for this land in Shawswick Township will be seen by comparing the 'ol- 
lowing list of land entries with those made in some other portion of the 
county of about equal area, as, for instance, Pleasant Run Township 
covering the same period of time: Samuel Mitchell, 1818; James Man- 
dell, 1816; Jacob Hikes, 1820; Cuthbert and Thomas Bullitt, 1820 
Dixon Brown, 1817 and 1820; T. McAfee, 1819; Roger McKnight, 1820 
Samuel Lindley, 1816; Jacob Geiger, 1820; Bartholomew Thatcher 
1820; Fetler and Hughes, 1820; Michael Johnson, 1819; R. Bowles, 1819 
Phillip Starr, 1820; David Johnson, 1817; Thomas Thompson, 1817 
John Horton, 1817; J. Thompson, 1820; Pleasant Padgett, 1818; Lewis 
Woody, 1818; James Blair, 18] 9 and 1818; James Allen, 1820; Jonathan 
Henderson, 1820; Isaac Jamison, 1820; Samuel Gwathney, 1820; Thomas 
Maffith, 1820; Melcher Fehgelman, 1817; Ezekiel Black^vell, 1816; 
James Pace, 1820; Hiram Kilgore, 1816; Charles Kilgore, 1816; Preston 


Beck, 1816; "William Bristoe, 1816; AndrewOwen, 1818; James Denson 
1819; James Biggins, 1818; Mark Tiilly, 1818; Thomas Hill, 1820 
William Denson, 1818; Stephen Shipman, 1818; Absalom Hart, 1818 
Jacob Clark, 1820; Abraham Mitchell, 1818; Bobert Whitley, 1817; Vin- 
son Williams, 1817; Beuben and Simpson Kilgore, 1816; John Spears 
1818; Peter Galbert, 1817; Martin Bibelin, 1817; Joseph James, 1819 
David Wilson, 1818; Timothy Ward, 1818; William Dougherty, 1817 
John Hawkins, 1817; Arta Garrison, 1818; Thomas McMannus, 1817 
Marguis Knight, 1816; Boss and McDonald, 1817; Joseph Glover, 1816 
James Gregory, 1816, John Hays, 1816; James Maxwell, 1817; William 
Thornton, 1816; Samuel Dougherty, 1817; Ebenezer McDonald, 1818 
Bobert Dougherty, 1817; Alexander Butler, 1817; William Foot, 1816 
John Gardner, 1816; Fetler and Hughes, 1818; George Silver, 1817 
Peter Harmonson, 1818; James Erwin, 1818; Thomas Elrod, 1817 
Boger McKnight, 1817; Jacob Castleman, 1817; John Williams, 1816 
Henry McGree, 1818; James Owens, 1819; Thomas Allen, 1817; William 
risk, 1816. 


Shawswick was one of the original five townships that were created 
at the organization of the county in 1818. It is said that its peculiar 
name had its origin in the following manner: There had been an early 
judge in this portion of the State named Wick, who had in this county 
. many admirers, and who insisted that the township should be named in 
his honor, Wick. One of the County Commissioners at that time was 
named Beazeley, who had a comrade by the name of Shaw killed in the 
battle of Tippecanoe, and he with some others advocated the name of 
Shaw for the township. As a compromise between the two parties a 
combination of the two names was made, and the township was named 


The first elections were probably held at Palestine until that town 
was abandoned some seven or eight years later. Pleasant Parks was 
appointed Inspector of the first election, but in the following year Will- 
iam Kelsey was chosen to fill that position. Joshua Taylor and James 
Mundle were in the same year chosen as Guardians of the Poor for the 
township. It was then thought necessary in order to maintain the 
majesty of the law in the township to have for that purpose three Con- 
stables to execute its mandates. The first of these were Nathaniel 
Vaughn, William Dale and John Sutton, who doubtless when abroad in 
the township and armed with the proper instruments of their office 
spread terror and alarm to all evil-doers. 


The various streams and water-courses in Shawswick Township gave 



rise to numerous small and early water-mills, some for sawing lumber 
and some for grinding wheat and corn. Among the first of these was 
one built and operated some time early in the twenties by Alexander 
Butler and Robert Dougherty. This was a saw-mill, and was situated 
about one mile and a half southeast from Bedford on Leatherwood 
Creek. This was run by what was known as a flutter- wheel, which was 
smaller and faster than an ordinary undershot wheel, although not sa 
powerful. This mill was kept up for some three or four years, in the 
meantime doing considerable business with the old-fashioned sash saw 
which it had. Edward Humpston, a man who in early times in Law- 
rence County figured largely in milling enterprises, and whose name is 
elsewhere found connected with the ownership of various mills in the 
county, built another saw-mill on Leatherwood Creek about one-half 
mile above that of Butler & Dougherty. Humpston seemed to delight in 
building and getting these primitive mills in working order and then 
selling them. After a short time he sold this one to Richard Evans, who 
kept it up for about seven years, when it finally went down. About one 
mile above this Humpston built a grist-mill in 1826 which lasted for 
several years. This was operated by a breast water-wheel, and for a time 
ran to the full extent of its capacity. This, however, was not great, as it 
had but one run of stones, with which both wheat and corn were ground, 
the bolting being done by hand. Farther up this creek, and near the 
present site of Erie, a grist and saw-mill was built about the year 1832, 
by Wesley and Michael Johnson. For several years this was one of the 
principal mills in this part of the county, and did quite an extensive 
business. It has been gone entirely for a long time. Besides these 
there were many others along the small creeks in this township that were 
built, and after a brief and inglorious career went down, some by a 
"wash-out'' to a watery grave, and others were permitted to go into 
natural decay by lack of patronage. One other of importance remains to 
be mentioned, and that is the Rawlins Mill. It is on Salt Creek, north- 
west from Bedford, and was built by Joseph Rawlins, now of Bedford, 
in 1885 or 1836. Perhaps no other mill in Lawrence County has done 
so large and extensive a business as this. At the time of its building 
Mr. Rawlins put in three runs of buhrs, and from the beginning it took 
rank as one of the best in the county. Large quantities of flour were 
made here and shipped to difierent parts of the country. By railroad it 
was sent to Detroit and other cities in the North, while by flat-boats it 
was sent to New Orleans and different ports along the river route between 
here and there. The mill continued in the hands of Mr. Rawlins until 
a few years ago, when he transferred it to two of his sons. Since that 
time it has been owned by different persons. The present owners are 
Daggy & Gainey, who are doing a good business with it. 



An important feature in the early settlements of Lawrence County 
remains yet to be mentioned under the head of ferries. These were ren- 
dered necessary for crossing White River and Salt Creek in the inter 
course of one part of the county with another, and some of these ferries 
became. the center of travel and commerce in that part of the land in 
which they were located. In the history of the county they played 
considerable importance, and some of the principal of them will be brief- 
ly mentioned. Beginning on White River at the eastern boundary of 
the county, and descending with the current of the stream, the first one 
was kept by Sinclair Cox near where the village of Fort Ritner now 
stands. After a few years this ferry passed into the hands of a man 
named Dixon, and was for a long time known as Dixon's Ferry. This 
was on Section 22, Township 4 north. Range 2 west. Just when Dixon 
became the owner cannot be ascertained, nor is it important. Cox, how- 
ever, was the owner in 1829, and for some time subsequent to that date. 
The next one was at the site of Bono and was in its time one of the most 
important, rendered so by the part played in early mercantile afifairs by 
the town of Bono. This ferry was kept for many years by a man named 
Loudon, and for his name it has always been called. Beck's Ferry was 
near the present site of Tunnelton, where there was a considerable travel 
passing from one side of the river to the other. At the mouth of Fish- 
ing Creek, where Lawrenceport is situated, was one of the frequent cross- 
ing-places on the river, and of course a ferry was established there. 
From this place a State road passed southward to Leavenworth and was 
known as the "Tater" road. This I'oad was afterward extended north 
until it intersected another State road leading from Bloomington by way 
of Leesville to Salem, at the place Svhere it crossed Little Salt Creek. 
Two miles below Lawrenceport was the ferry of William Fisher, main- 
tained by him for many years and ever since known by his name. A ferry 
had been kept here before his time by some of the Johnsons, who were 
among the earliest settlers in this part of the county. Mr. Fisher and 
his wife are now living in Bedford, enjoying the close of their lives, 
which have been extended far beyond the allotted time of man. 

Where Palestine was formerly located Ezekiel Blackwell owned the 
ferry for many years, and even after that place was abandoned as the 
capital of the county. As late as 1827 he was there with his ferry, and 
probably for some time later than that. One of the early ferries in the 
county was kept by Levi A. Nugent on Section 3, Township 4 north. 
Range 1 west. He located there as early as 1821, and perhaps prior to 
that time. Still farther down the stream at the mouth of Leatherwood 
Creek a ferry was kept by Di'ury Davis in 1826, and for some time both 
before and after that. This was not far from where the present iron 
bridge crosses the river on the road leading from Bedford to MitchelL 


About one-half mile below the mouth of Salt Creek a ferry was estab- 
lished by Robert Woods about 1823 or 1824. This was too near the 
Fields Ferry, which was a short distance below, to be licensed. Woods 
however built his boat and began ferrying, and allowed people to pay or 
not as they would choose. The strife between Fields and W^oods became 
very bitter, and one night Woods' boat was burned. He at once built 
another and continued his business of ferrying. For the burning of the 
boat two men were sent to the State Prison, named Lackey and Taylor. 
For a time the opposition between these two ferries was so strong that it 
extended to the people of the suiTounding country. The quaiTel was 
finally ended in 1826 by the Fields Ferry being vacated by the County 
Board, thus leaving the Woods faction in the ascendency. The Fields 
Ferry was located about one mile below this, and had been established 
for some time. Continuing on down the river the following ferries were 
found in this order ere the western limit of the county was reached: 
Taylor's, Dawson's and Green's, the last of which was at the site of 
Williamsport, and was of a more recent date. On Salt Creek a ferry was 
kept by a man named Lee on the land now owned by Levi Bailey. A 
road that was considerably traveled passed over this, leading from Black- 
well's Ferry at Palestine to Old Point Commerce at the mouth of Eel 
River on the West Fork of White River. Further down that creek a 
ferry was kept where Rawlins Mill now stands, by different persons, prom- 
inent among whom was William Kelsey. The bridge that was built 
here in 1836 dispensed with any use for the ferry. A State road from 
New Albany to Terre Haute crossed Lawrence County by way of Hamer's 
Mill, Palestine or Blackwell's Ferry, Bedford, Rawlins Mill and Spring- 
ville. Dougherty's Ferry was west of Bedford on Salt Creek, where the 
bridge now is on the road to Fayetteville. In the early settlement of 
the county there was an Indian trace across the western part leading to 
a Government supply-store, kept by a man named Bigger, in what is now 
Monroe County. This was called Bigger' s Trace and passed near Davis 
Lick Creek in the northern part, then south about one mile east of Fay- 
etteville, and crossed the river where Taylor's Ferry was afterward located. 


The last township that was formed in Lawrence County was named 
for one of the oldest and most prominent families in the county from 
the very first settlement to the present time. This is Guthrie, and was 
organized some time early in the sixties. The East Fork of White River 
from where it enters the county to the north of Guthrie's Creek, forms 
its southern boundary. On the north Shawswick and Flinn Townships 
bound it, and Jackson County on the east. It is traversed its entire 
length in a zigzag course by Guthrie's Creek, into which Back Creek 
empties from the north. At the organization of the county nearly all of 


the present township of Guthrie was included in Shawswick, but at the 
time of its creation some of the land was taken from the three townships 
of Shawswick, Flinn and Bono. 

Some parts of Guthrie Township were among the earliest settled 
localities in the county, although the record of land entries made up to 
and including the year 1820 shows but a small number. Some of the 
land in this township is very good, but it is generally rough and broken. 
Land entries to the above date were as follows: Israel Hind, 1819; 
Ambrose Carlton, 1817; Edward Johnston, 1820; William Barnhill, 
1819; John Kerns, 1820; Robert MiUsap, 1820; Solomon Bowers, 1817; 
Conrad Hoopingarnei", 1818; Daniel Guthrie, 1816; Thomas Butler, 
1820; J. Edwards, 1820; Preston Beck, 1820; Elisha Simpson, 1820; 
George W. JVIullis, 1817; Cuthbert and Thomas Bullitt, 1820. Some of 
the other and principal early settlers were : AVilliara Shadrach and Thomas 
Dixon, John Allen, William Holland, Sr., Robert Millsap and his sons 
James and William, Abner Walters, William and Samuel Foster, Isaac 
and Benjamin Newkirk, John Dowland and Jacob Mullis. 

James Connelly is said to have been the first actual and permanent 
settler in Guthrie Township, but if so he was one of the squatters, of 
which there were many in that time. He had come from North Carolina 
and settled at first in Orange County, Ind., but after a short stay in that 
county he settled in this township on the river. This was in 1815. 
When he came he brought his family along and built a double log-cabin. 
The following year Ambrose Carlton came with a large family, among 
which were his two sons, Thomas and Robert, who both became prominent 
men in their communities. In 1816 Pleasant and Ambrose Parks came 
from North Carolina and settled first in Bono Township, but after a 
short time moved to Guthrie Township. Edward Johnston came in the 
year 1816 and raised a crop that year, and in the fall retui'ned to his 
native State for his family, which he brought with him in the following 
year. James Connelly as early as 1817 or 1818 built a small horse-mill 
with which he used to do some grinding for whoever would apply, but 
this did not last long. James Heron had a mill on Guthrie's Creek 
some time in the twenties. It was run by water-power and lasted about 
ten years. One of the best mills that was built in early times was by 
Robert and Thomas Carlton. This was on the same stream about three 
miles from its mouth. It was a good flouring-mill for its day, having 
been built about 1826 or 1827, and continued in operation until 1810, when 
it was burnt down. The Carltous soon after rebuilt it and ran it for 
six or seven yeai'S. After them it changed hands many times, but of late 
years has been allowed to go into disuse. A saw-mill was run in con- 
nection with this mill most of the time. Besides these there have been 
several other mills of minor importance. Here, as elsewhere in the 
county, distilleries were of prime necessity and a num])er of them were 


kept. Large quantities of pork were shipped from this part of the 
country in flat-boats to New Orleans and other places along the rivers 
between here and there. Much of this pork was obtained by killing the 
wild mast-fattened hogs that were everywhere so abundant along the 
rivers. That was ranked among the sports then, for the hog when wild 
and untamed is decidedly a gamy animal, and is one of the few brutes 
that will band together for mutual protection when attacked by a foe. 


In the northeast corner of this township a town was platted and laid 
out by William and Thomas Dixon, April 8, 1853. It was called Dixon- 
ville, and comprises twenty- four lots. Washington Street ran north and 
south, while Jackson and Lawrence Streets ran east and west. This was 
in the center of Section 10, in Township 4 north, Range 2 east. For 
some time prior to this time there had been a mercantile trade done 
here by Thomas Dixon. It is probable that he began about 1831 or 1832, 
and continued for some ten years. After him Elder T. N. Robertson 
did a trade for three or four years. 




Organization of the County— The Act of Creation— First Offi- 
cers—Report OF the Locating Coinimissioners— Notes Before 
THE Creation— The County Board— Their Important Acts to 
the Present — Boundary Alterations — Ee-location of the 
County Seat— Statistics— The County Agency— Court Houses 
AND Jails — Libraries— The Paupers— The Asylum— Origin of 
the School Funds — County Officers — County Agricultural 
Societies— The Finances— Population — Eailway Enterprises— 
Bridges— Medical Societies— Local Politics— Statistics. 

THAT portion of the present Lawrence County west of the meridian 
line was part of Knox County until the creation of Orange, Decem- 
ber 26, 1815, when it became part and parcel of the latter, and so 
remained until the creation of Lawrence County. That portion of the 
present county of Lawrence east of the meridian line was part of Clark 
County until the creation of Washington, January 17, 1814, and was 
then part of Washington until the creation of Orange as above, and 
was then part of Orange until Lawrence was created by the follow- 
ing enactment: 

An Act for the Formation of a New County out of the County of 
Orange : 
Be it enacted by the Oeneral Assembly of the State of Indiana, That from and 
after the third Monday of March next, all that part of the county of Orange con- 


tained in the following bounds shall form and constitute a separate county, viz.: 
Beginning at the range line dividing Ranges 2 and 3 west, at the center of Township 
5 north, and running thence east to the line dividing the counties of Washington, 
Orange and Jackson; thence north with said line to the line dividing Townships 6 
and 7 north; thence west with said line dividing Ranges 2 and 3 west; thence south 
with said range line to the place of beginning. 

Section 2. The said new county shall be known and designated by the name and 
style of the county of Lawrence, and shall enjoy all the rights, privileges and jurisdic- 
tions which to separate counties do or may properly belong or appertain: Provided, 
that all suits, pleas, plaints, actions and proceedings in law or equity which may 
have been commenced or instituted before the third Monday of March next, and 
shall be pending in the county of Orange shall be prosecuted and determined in the 
same manner as if this act had not passed; Provided also, that all taxes which may 
be due on the said third Monday of March next, shall be collected and paid in the 
same manner and by the same officers as if the said new county of Lawrence had 
not been formed. 

Sec. 3. Abraham Huff, of Jackson County, Abraham Bosley, of Orange 
County, Joel Holbert, of Daviess County, William Hobbs, of Washington County, 
and George Boone, of Harrison County, are hereby appointed Commissioners agree- 
able to the act entitled "An act for the fixing the seat of justice in all new coun- 
ties hereafter to be laid ofE." The Commissioners above named shall convene at the 
house of James Gregory in said county of Lawrence on the third Monday of March 
next, and shall immediately proceed to discharge the duties assigned them by law. 
It is hereby made the duty of the Sheriff of Orange County to notify the said Com- 
missioners either in person or by written notification of their appointment on or 
before the first day of March next, and the said Sheriff of Orange County shall 
receive from the said county of Lawrence so much as the County Commissioners 
shall deem just and reasonable, who are hereby authorized to allow the same out of any 
moneys in the county treasury, in the same manner other claims are paid. 

Sec. 4. The Circuit and other courts of the county of Lawrence shall be 
holden at the house of James Gregory, in the said county, until suitable accommo- 
dations can be had at the seat of justice, and so soon as the courts of said county 
are satisfied that suitable accommodations can be had at the county seat, they shall 
adjourn their courts thereto, after which time all the courts of the county shall be 
holden at the county seat of Lawrence County established, as directed by this act. 

Sec. 5. The agent who shall be appointed to superintend the sale of lots at the 
county seat of the county of Lawrence shall reserve ten per cent out of the proceeds 
thereof, and pay the same over to such person or persons as may be appointed by 
law to receive the same for the use of a library for said county, which he shall pay 
over at such time or times as may be directed by law. This act shall take effect and 
be in force from and after the third Monday of March next. 

Approved January 7, 1818. 

From this enactment it will be seen that originally Lawrence County 

did not comprise two tiers of sections north and south along the eastern 

side which now fall within her borders. These two tiers included the 

towns of Leesville and Fort Ritner, both of which were in existence in 

1822, at which date, through the influence, mainly, of these towns, by 

means of petitions, the following enactment of the Legislature was 

secured : 

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, That from and 
after the 1st day of January next, all that part of the county of Jackson included 
within the following boundaries, to wit: Beginning at the northwest corner of Sec- 


tion 16, Township 5 north, Range 2 east, thence east two miles to the northeast cor- 
ner of Section 15, thence south to the Driftwood Fork, of White River, thence down 
said river to the line which at present divides the counties of Jackson and Law- 
rence (thence to the place of beginning) be and the same is hereby attached to the 
county of Lawrence, and shall after the date above mentioned be deemed and taken 
to all intents and purposes to form and constitute a part of the said county of Law- 
rence: Provided, however, that all suits, pleas, plaints and pi'oceedings which shall 
have been commenced and. pending within the said county of Jackson previous to 
the said 1st day of January next, shall be prosecuted to final effect in the same man- 
ner as if this act had not been passed: Pronided, moreover, that the State and 
county taxes which may be due on the said 1st day of January next, shall be col- 
lected and paid in the same manner and by the same officers as if this act had not 
been passed. This act to be in force from and after the 1st day of January, 1823. 
Approved December 31, 1822. 


Prior to the organization of Lawrence County in 1818, and while the 
territory was yet attached to Orange, all of the present county north of 
the river, except the two tiers of sections on the east and a small tract 
on the southeast, was organized as Leatherwood Township, and that por- 
tion of the present county south of the river was part of the northern tier 
of townships in Orange, except the old township of Bono, which had 
been created by the Commissioners of Orange County, in January, 1817, 
with the following limits: Beginning on White River at the northwest 
corner of Washington County, thence south to the Cincinnati road, thence 
west to Fishing Creek, thence north to White River, thence north with 
the section line which crosses at the mouth of said creek three miles, 
thence east to Jackson County, thence south to the beginning. Leather- 
wood Township had been created early in 1816. The following is the 
result of the August election, 1816, in Leatherwood Township: 

For Governor — Posey 12, Jennings 4; Lieutenant-Governor — Vawter 12, Harri- 
son 4; for Congress — Hendricks 16, Thom 0, Sullivan 0; Senator — Rawlins 16, 
De Pauw 0. Clark 0; for Representative — Jonathan Lindley 13, Pinnick 0, Lewis 0; 
Sheriff — Roberts 7, Lindley 6; Coroner — Crawford 13, Clendenin 0. The above is 
a true statement of the election in Leatherwood Township, certified by me. 

August 8, 1816. James Gregory, Judge. 

One year later than this the following voters polled their votes in 
Leatherwood Township, at the house of James Stotts: William Bene- 
field, David Cummings, John Bailey, Samuel Irwin, James Dale, James 
Johnson, John Hunter, Joel Vandeveer. Reuben Kilgore, Jeremiah Raukins, 
James Mendell, Robert Hunter, Robert Brooks, Isaac Stotts, Richard 
Hiers, Martin Beaver, Hiram Kilgore, Wilson Moore, Thomas Moore, 
Matthew Dale, Willis Keithley, Arta Garrison, Charles Kilgore, James 
Laughlin, James Gregory, Joseph Andrew, William Dale, Samuel Will- 
iams, John Dean, James Stotts, John Dale, Squire Dale, Edward Moore, 
Thomas Henton, John Cook, Charles Boiling, William Julian, Robert 
Mitchell, Nathan Laughlin, Moses Lee, Robert C. Stotts, Joseph Keith- 


ley, William Kinnick, George Julian, Thomas Irons, William Irons, 
William Offield, Phillip Starr, Samuel Mitchell, Samuel Dale and John 
Allen; total, 51. Robert C. Stotts, Inspector; Thomas Henton and 
Moses Lee, Judges; James Gregory and Robert Mitchell, Clerks. 


On the 11th of March, 1818, Ambrose Carlton, Thomas Beagley and 
James Stotts, County Commissioners, met at the house of James Gregory 
for the transaction of business. The election of Circuit Clerk was con- 
tested by John Lowrey, and a new election was ordered held after exami- 
nation of the case and deliberation. James Stotts, Jr., was appointed 
County Lister; John Anderson, County Treasurer, and Robert M. Carl- 
ton, County Agent. On the third day the county was divided into town- 
ships; Shawswick — Beginning at the mouth of Salt Creek; thence up 
to the line dividing townships 5 and 6; thence east to the county line; 
thence south to Guthrie Creek; thence down the same to where Sections 
11, 12, 13 and 14 unite; thence west with the line dividing Sections 11 
and 14 one mile; thence south with the line dividing Sections 14 and 15 
to the county line; thence west to the southwest corner of Section 17, 
Township 3 north. Range 1 west; thence north to White River; thence 
up to the beginning. Spice Valley included all of the present Spice 
Valley Township, together with all of Indian Creek Township south of 
the line dividing Sections 19 and 30, Township 5 north. Range 2 west. 
Indian Creek Township comprised all of Lawrence County west of Salt 
Creek and north of the line dividing Sections 19 and 30, Township 5 
North, Range 2 west. Bono Township comprised all of the county south- 
east of Shawswick Township. Pleasant Run Township comprised all of 
the county east of Indian Creek Township, and north of Shawswick . 
Pleasant Parks was appointed Inspector of Elections in Shawswick, and 
elections were ordered held at the cabin of Thompson, on the north bank 
of White River, near Palestine. Elections in Spice Valley were ordered 
held at Absalom Field's, with himself as Inspector; in Indian Creek, at 
the house of Mr. Stipps, with Joseph Sullivan, Inspector; in Bono at 
Bono Village, with Elisha Simpson, Inspector; in Pleasant Run, at the 
house of Joseph Dayton, with Thomas Henton, Inspector. Two Justices 
of the Peace were ordered elected in each township, April 25, 1818. The 
report of the Commissioners appointed by the L^^gislature to fix the 
county seat was received, adopted and spread upon the records. It was 
as follows: 
To the Board of Commissioners inandforthe Count;/ of Lawrence, State of Indiana: 

We, the Commissioners appointed by an act bearing date January 7, 1818, to 
fix the seat of justice in the county of Lawrence have in conformity to our appoint- 
ments met at the house of James Gregory, and in pursuance of the duty assigned 
us by law after being sworn proceeded to discbarge the duty enjoined upon us by 
law, and therefore take the liberty of reporting accordingly that we have selected 


and fixed upon 200 acres of land on the north side of "White River and on both 
sides of the second principal meridian line, which said land is given as a donation 
to the county aforesaid by Benjamin and Ezekiel Blackvsrell, Henry Speed and 
Henry H. Massie. Said land is bounded as follows: Beginning on the river below 
the meridian line 64 poles; thence north 69 degrees west 30 poles to a gray ash; 
thence north 14 degrees west 82-poles; thence north 54 degrees west 80 poles; thence 
north 36 degrees east 176 poles; thence south 54 degrees east 167 poles to the river; 
thence with the meanders of the same to the beginning — containing 200 acres. 
Having taken the necessary bond for the title your Commissioners find nothing 
further to do in the discharge of the duty assigned them by law, and beg leave to 
report. Given under our hands and seals this 31st day of March, 1818. Further- 
more, we the Commissioners as aforesaid have thought proper to make a reserve of 
one lot for Benjamin Blackwell provided the said Blackwell will for the same [pay] 
such price as lots lying in the same situation and in value sell for at the sale of lots 
in said town. Abraham Huff, 

Abraham Bosley, 
Joel Holbert, 
William Hobbs, 
. George Boon, 

Locating Commissioners. 
We, the Commissioners as above do state that we spent each the 
number of days affixed to our names: Abraham Huff, 8 days, $24; 
Abraham Bosley, 8 days, $24; Joel Holbert, 8 days, $24; William Hobbs, 
8 days, $24; George Boon, 11 days, $33. 


Upon the recommendation of the Locating Commissioners, at the 
suggestion of Benjamin Blackwell, the county seat was named Palestine. 
Certificates for the above amounts were ordered given to the Locating 
Commissioners, to be paid out of the first moneys arising from the sale 
of lots in the county seat. The County Agent, Robert M. Carlton, early 
in May, under the direction of the County Board, laid out 276 lots in 
Palestine which were ordered advertised for sale May 25, 1818, in the 
Louisville Correspondent, the Indiana Gazette, the Western Sun, the 
Salem Tocsin and the Madison paper. Steps were immediately taken 
to build a court house and a jail. Numerous petitions began to be 
received for the opening of county roads and viewers were appointed. 
The following county tax was levied: On each 100 acres of first-class 
land, 37 J cents; on each 100 acres of second-class land, 33 cents; on 
each 100 acres of third-class land, 22 cents; Blackwell & Co.'s ferry 
license, $20; Towel & Dixon's ferry license, $20; Milroy & Callans, 
ferry license, $6; horses, 37| cents each. In August meetings of the 
Board were held at Palestine. John Lowrey was paid $36.87| for books 
for the county offices. A seal was adopted, being a scrawl with the 
words, "Commissioner's Seal." Numerous roads were projected and 
Superintendents appointed. John Brown, John Milroy and John Lowrey 
assisted in the survey of Palestine. The following ferry rates were estab- 
lished: Wagon and four horses, 75 cents, and on each extra horse, 64 cents; 


a two- wheeled, one-horse vehicle, 12| cents, and with lead horse, 6^ cents 
more; each person over twelve years, 6^ cents; under twelve, 2 cents; 
sheep, each, 1^ cents; hogs, 1 cent each. Tavern rates, each meal, 25 
cents; bed, 12| cents; horse, over night, 50 cents; single feed, 12^ cents. 
The second sale of lots in Palestine was advertised for November. Rob- 
ert Mitchell who listed the county in 1818 instead of James Stotts, Jr., 
was paid $30. The Sheriff, under whose supervision the elections of 
February and of April, 1818, were held, was paid $22. 


Early in 1819 the Board adopted a seal designed with a harp, a plow 
and three sheaves of wheat, and a pair of scales, and a weather cock on 
top. Andrew Evans, the contractor ^to clear the public square, was paid 
$38. At this time, and before, courts were held in the building of 
James Benetield. The tax for 1819 was, 37^, 33^ and 25 cents on each 
100 acres of first, second and third class land; Blackwell's ferry, $18: 
Beck's, $8; Milroy & Callans, $5; Towel & Dickson's, $16; Field's, $8; 
horses 25 cents. Robert Mitchell was paid $32 for listing the county in 
1819. During 1819, work on the permanent court house was rapidly 
pushed. In November, 1819, Robert M. Carlton, County Agent, reported 
as follows: Total receipts for town lots, $6,579.38; paid to County 
Treasurer, $5,303.56; paid to County Library, $657.93; balance on hand, 
$618.09, For some reason the agent failed to make a satisfactory settle- 
ment to the Board, wherefore he was removed, and William Templeton 
appointed his successor; but Carlton refused to settle with him, or turn 
over the funds to him, and Winthrop Foote, attorney, was hired to com- 
mence suit on his bond. At last Carlton made such a satisfactory report, 
that he was continued as County Agent; indeed he held that responsible 
position more than thirty consecutive years, with high credit to himself. 
John Brown was census taker of the county in 1820. Isaac Farris furn- 
ished a house in which to hold court in March, 1820. The following 
bill was allowed the County Agent: 

Laying out 276 lots in Palestine 1132.00 

Selling 249 lots, giving bond, etc., 13-50 

Drawing 432 notes @ 6i cents 27.00 

Superintending erection of temporary court house 7.00 

Taking bonds, advertising court bouse, etc 10.00 

Taking bonds, advertising jail, etc., 6.00 

Letting the clearing of the public square 4.00 

Letting the building of the stray pen 2.00 

Total $201.50 

By the 3d of February, 1821, the total sales of town lots amounted 
to $17,580 cash; $8,639.01; notes $5,551.12; due bills $2,927.40. Early 
this year Allen Brock was appointed County Inspector of flour, beef and 
pork. Much of the money received for town lots was in the shape of 
bills of all the banks of the Southwest, the value of which was variable 


and at all times exceedingly doubtful, In 1821 the county bad on 
hand several hundred dollars of very doubtful bills, which were sold to 
the highest bidder at auction. The Eighteenth Regiment of State Mili- 
tia had been organized some time before this in Lawrence County. In 
1821 the following men were released from the performance of military 
duty, owing to conscientious scruples, upon the payment, each of $4: 
Joseph Harton, William Trueblood, John Cloud, John Caveness, David 
Oakes, William Kerras, Percival Tyler, Philip Tyler, David Sears, James 
Malloy, George Rubottom, William Rubottom, William Dicks, Silas Dixon, 
James Dixon, Thomas Clark, Reuben Davis, Jesse Davis, Warner Davis and 
Alexander Clark. Joseph Anderson was paid a balance of $13, for work 
on the public square. In June, 1821, $49 in counterfeit bills, taken by 
mistake were ordered burned by the Board; also, $126.50 in doubtful 
bills were sold at auction for $29.98. In this connection the following 
entry was made on the records: " Ordered that William Kelsey [Treas- 
urer] be paid out of the treasury, out of the moneys arising from the 
sale of town lots in Palestine, the sum of $3 for liquor furnished by him 
and for his attendance at the sale of uncurrent money belonging to the 
county." The County Agent was ordered to receive nothing but specie 
for debts due the county, but this order was soon rescinded. Robert Mit- 
chell was County Lister for the years 1818, 1819, 1820 and 1821, and 
Joseph Rawlins for 1822, and John Brown for 1823. John Brown was 
appointed to procure a set of standard weights and measures for the 
county. A big case in the Circuit Court at this time, was the State vs. 
James Chess, for counterfeiting gold coin. In May, 1822, Perry Town- 
ship was created, and Indian Creek Township was extended south to the 
river. In August, 1822, Samuel Dale was appointed agent to have a 
well dug on the public square in Palestine. He hired Winston Crouse. 
John Brown was paid $2 for making a map of Lawrence County. In 
May, Flinn Township was created with the present boundary, except 
that it extended south to Fort Ritner. That portion of the county south 
of Fort Ritner, in the bend of the river, was attached to Bono 
Township. In 1823, all inn -keepers were required to confine 
themselves to the following charges: meals 25 cents; lodging 6^ 
cents; one-half pint French brandy, 25 cents; one-half pint rum 18| 
cents; one-half-pint wine, 25 cents; one-half pint apple or peach brandy 
I2f cents; one-half pint whisky, 6^ cents; home feed, over night, 25 
cents; single feed, per horse, 12^ cents. 


For some reason, though the land was high, Palestine had been a 
very sickly place. Many deaths of malarial or malignant fevers had 
occurred until the feeling became general that the location of the town 
had something to do with the disorders. This led to the first demand 


for a re- location of the county seat. Taking advantage of this, a few 
men who desired a change whereby iheir interests would be benefitted 
gave wide circulation to the prevailing opinion, and finally culminated 
the question by securing the passage of the following law: 

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, That Amassa 
Joselyn, of Owen County, John Ketchum, of Monroe County, Jonathan Lyon, of 
"Washington County, Ezekiel S. Riley, of Orange County, and William Marshall, of 
Jackson County, be and they are hereby appointed Commissioners to relocate the 
seat of justice of the county of Lawrence. The Commissioners aforesaid, or a 
majority of them, shall meet at Palestine, in said county, on the second Monday 
in March next, and after being duly sworn shall proceed to the discharge of their 
duties, and shall procure by donation or by purchase a quantity of land suflBcieut to 
lay out a town of an equal number of lots with the town of Palestine on an eligible 
and healthy situation. They shall receive the same pay and be governed in all 
respects by the provisions of an act entitled " An Act to establish seats of justice in 
new counties," approved January 14, 1821. 

Section 2. When the Commissioners aforesaid shall have re-located said 
county seat it shall be the duty of the agent of said county -to lay off the said town 
on a plan as nearly similar as may be with the town of Palestine and with a corre- 
sponding number of lots, and any and every person who shall or may have 
purchased and paid for any lot or lots, in whole or in part, on completing the pay- 
ment for the same in the town of Palestine shall have the privilege of exchanging 
the same for other lot or lots correspondingly situated in the new town that may be 
laid off by the said Commissioners, by filing and acknowledging before the Recorder 
of said county an application for such exchange, and the same shall be entered on 
record by the said Recorder at the expense of the county, which shall pay to the 
Recorder therefor 50 cents, and the same shall have the effect of an absolute 
release of all the right, title and interest of such applicant in and to such lot or 
lots; and it shall be the duty of the agent on being presented with the Recorder's 
certificate of such relinquishment and application to give to the applicant a good 
and sufficient warranty deed of the lot or lots in the new town which shall be in a 
corresponding number with the lot or lots relinquished in Palestine; Provided, that 
the applications for such exchanges shall be made within twelve months after the 
re-location of the said county seat. 

Sec. 3. The Commissioners aforesaid shall also value the donation which was 
given to the said county of Lawrence for the countj' seat at Palestine, not taking 
into consideration any improvements made thereon, and the value thereof shall be 
refunded to the persons who donated the same, or their legal representations out of 
the moneys arising from the sale of such town lots or other public property as may 
belong to said county. 

Sec. 4. The Sheriff of the county of Lawrence shall notify the Commissioners 

aforesaid of their appointment by this act, and the time and place of meeting; for 

which he shall receive such compensation as by the Board of Justices of said 

county shall be deemed just and reasonable to be paid out of the county treasury of 

said county. 

Sec. 5. Any person owning any lot or lots in the town of Palestine on which 
any buildings are erected, and who shall feel himself aggrieved by the re-location 
of said county seat, may at any time within twelve months after the passage of 
this act make application to the Board of Justices of said county to have the said 
lot and buildings valued; and it shall be the duty of the Board of Justices there- 
upon to appoint one Commissioner, the applicant another, and the two Commis 
sioners a third, neither of whom shall be residents in said county, of any kin to the 
applicant or the owners of any real estate therein, who shall meet at Palestine on 


some day, to be agreed on by themselves, within thirty days after their appoint- 
ment, of which timely notice shall be given by the applicant, and after taking an 
oath faithfully and impartially to discharge their duty, shall view and value the 
lot or lots and buildings so improved in Palestine and the lot or lots correspondingly 
situated in the new town; and they shall certify the difference in the value thereof 
to the Clerk of said county, to be by him laid before the Board of Justices, and if 
the difference should be in favor of the lot in Palestine to be allowed and paid, as 
required in the third section of this act. The said Commissioners appointed under 
this section shall be allowed the sum of one dollar per day each for their services, 
to be paid by the county: Provided, however, that the applicant for such valuation 
shall first file in the Recorder's ofiice of said county an application and relinquish- 
ment of the same nature, and to leave the same effect as is provided for in the sec- 
ond section of this act. 

Sec. 6. The agent of said county shall reserve ten per cent out of the proceeds 
of the sale of such lots as may be sold for the use of said county in the said re-locat- 
ed county seat for the use of a county library, which shall be paid over in the same 
manner as is now provided for by law. 

Sec. 7. The Board of Jusf;ices for the said county of Lawrence shall, as soon 
as practicable, commence the erection of the necessary public buildings at said new 
county seat, and the Circuit and other courts of said county shall be holden at Pales- 
tine until the said buildings shall be ready for their reception. This act to take 
effect and be in force from and after its publication in the Indiana Journal. 

Approved February 9, 1825. 


One month later the Commissioners appointed by this act to re-locate 

the county seat, having met at Palestine, made their selection and 

secured the donation of land by certificate, made the following report to 

the County Board, which was accepted: 

To the Board of JusUces of the County of Lawrence, State of Indiana: 

The subscribers, being the Commissioners appointed by an act of the General 
Assembly of said State entitled "An Act appointing Commissioners tore-locate the 
seat of justice of Lawrence County," approved February 9, 1835, make the follow- 
ing report, to wit: That we all met at Palestine of said county of Lawrence, on the 
second Monday of March, instant and were duly sworn as the law provides 
for the faithful discharge of our duties, and immediately proceeded to the 
discharge of the same, and have continued therein from day to day imtil the 
present time, and have obtained by donation the following described tract or 
parcel of land for the permanent seat of justice of said county, to-wit: Beginning 
on the dividing line of Sections 23 and 24 in Township 5 north. Range 1 west, 100 
poles south of the corner of Sections 23, 24, 13 and 14; thence west 160 poles to a 
stake; thence north 200 poles; thence east 160 poles to a stake on the line dividing 
Sections 13 and 14; thence south 200 poles to the beginning, containing 200 acres of 
land, for which said tract we have taken a bond for the conveyance to the Board 
of Justices of said county as the law provides within twelve months from the date 
hereof in the penal sum of $20,000, conditioned also that the donors shall within 
six months from the re-location or survey of said town plat, dig and stone on the pub- 
lic square of said town a well of living and durable water, and within the same time 
erect and finish in a suitable manner a temparary court house of hewn logs to be at 
least of equal dimensions with the old temporary court house in Palestine, which 
bond is executed by Samuel F. Irwin, Joseph Glover, John Owens, Reuben Kilgore, 
Moses Woodruff and Isaac Stewart as principals, and Moses Fell, Joseph Rawlins, 
Robert M. Cailton, Marquis D. Knight, John D. Laughlia and John Lowrey as 


sureties, and which we now give to the board as a part of our report. We have 
•heref ore agreed on the tract of land before mentioned, and selected the same for the 
permanent seat of justice of said county. We have also valued the donation which 
was given to the said county of Lawrence for the county seat at Palestine, agree- 
able to the provisions of the act first aforementioned, and have appraised the value 
thereof at the sum of $3 per acre. In witness whereof we have hereunto set our 

hands this 9th day of March, A. D. 1825. 

Jonathan Lyon, 

Amassa Joselyn, 

John Ketchum, 

William Marshal, 

E. S. Riley. 


Immediate arrangements were made to erect the necessary building 
at the new county seat, and to dispose of the property at Palestine, such 
as could not be removed. The name Bedford was selected for the new 
seat of justice. The public square was ordered sold to the lowest bidder 
to be cleared. At this time county business was transacted by the Board 
of Justices. A committee of these Justices was appointed to assist the 
County Agent to lay out the county seat, March 30, 1825. Roads were 
projected in all directions from the county seat like the spokes from the 
hub of a wheel. The County Clerk was directed to remove his oflSce to 
Bedford at the earliest moment after the completion of the temporary 
court house. Committees were selected to value the corresponding lots 
in Palestine and Bedford in accordance with the legislative enactment. 
The county buildings at Palestine were ordered leased to merchants or 
others. Numerous claims were tiled against the county — differences 
between the valuation of corresponding lots. The men (Benjamin Black- 
well, Ezekiel Blackwell, Henry Speed and Henry H. Massie) who had 
donated the 200 acres at Palestine to the county were to be paid accord- 
ing to the above enactment $3 per acre for their land. Every lot owner 
in Palestine could transfer his claim to the corresponding lot in Bedford 
by complying with the law. Many did not do this through neglect, or 
through the fact of their non-residence, and their ignorance of the neces- 
sary requirements. Much trouble was caused by this neglect, and sundry 
lawsuits arose over the settlement of the complications. The fol- 
lowing act was tinally passed by the Legislature to furnish relief: 

An act supplemented to an act entitled "an Act appointing Commissioners to 
relocate the Seat of Justice of Lawrence County " approved February 9, 1825. 

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, That John Raw- 
ley and all such other persons, their heirs and legal representatives and lawful 
attorneys, as may have been, on the 9th day of February, 1825, owners of any lot or 
lots in the town of Palestine in Lawrence County, for which the purchase money 
has been paid to the agent of said county, and who may have neglected to apply for 
the benefit of the act to which this act is a supplement, shall and may within eighteen 
months from the 1st day of February, 1829, apply for an exchange of lot or lots so by 
him or them owned in said town of Palestine, for the corresponding lot or lots in the 
town of Bedford, according to the provisions of said act. And if such corresponding 


lot or lots shall have been sold, such owner or owners shall be entitled to receive 
from Ihe county treasujy of said county by order drawn by the Board of Justices 
of said county, the price such corresponding lot or lots sold for. 
Approved December 26, 1828. 


The following report was spread upon the records: 

The subscribers, being a committee of the Board of Justices of the county 

of Lawrence, appointed to settle with the agent of said county, have attended to 

that duty, and now make the following report, to wit: 

That the agent be charged with the following amount, 
being the amount of the sales of lots in Palestine, as 

appears by the sale billsof said town $17,826 00 

Also to interest received on money collected 172 56i 

Total 17,998 56i 

They find also that the agent is entitled to the following credits, to wit: 
On orders heretofore filed in the Clerk's oflice, and now 

examined by us $12,726 00 

New orders now exhibited, and now filed in the clerks 

office 1,009 53 

Amount of notes now exhibited, and in the hands of the 

agent, after deducting the credits thereon 2,553 82 

Amount of sales of the following lots on which no pay- 
ments have been made, and which have forfeited to the 
county, to-wit: lots No. 95, 96, 268, 274, 275. 239,240, 
227, 196, 183, 184, 148, 144, and fractional lots Nos. 32, 

25 and 3, the amount of the sales of said lots being 435 00 

Receipts exhibited by the agent for notes in officers' 
hands for collection after deducting therefrom the 
amount indorsed thereon as paid over by said officers. . . 978 48i 

Total 17,702 83i 

Leaving a balance due from the agent of 295 73 

To offset against the above, it appears by an order on 
the books of the Board of Commissioners of said county, 
that the agent is entitled to a compensation of 3 per 
cent on all moneys received by him, for his services; 
which amount received as appears by the foregoing, is. . 13,908 09 

and the per centage thereon is 417 24 

Leaving a balance due to the agent of 121 51 

All of which is submitted. 

Samuel G. Hoskins, 
Louis Roberts , 
RoLLiN C. Dewey, 
Dated March 24, 1825. Committee. 


Richard Evans hauled the county records from Palestine to Bedford. 
In September, 1825, the public well was reported finished at Bedford in 
accordance with the above enactment and was received by the County Board. 
Abraham Music was paid $29. 50 for work done in clearing the public square 
at Bedford, Several slight changes were made in the boundaries of 


some of the townships at this time. Marion Township was created Jan- 
uary 3, 1826, with its present limits, eight miles east and west, and from 
Orange County to the river, north and south. John Owen assisted to 
clear the public square. In May, 1826, all the townships were laid off 
into road districts for the first time. Tax was levied upon brass clocks, 
gold watches, silver or pinch-back watches, etc. John Brown was 
Connly Lister in 1825 and 1826. Samuel S. Francis was paid $55 for a 
pump for the town well. 

In 1827 it was found necessary to bring suit on the bonds of the 
donors of land to the county at Bedford, to enforce the signing of the 
deeds of conveyance. Town orders were ordered received in payment 
for town lots. At this time the Clerk's office was in a building furnished 
by Winthrop Foote. Considerable money began to be paid out for wolf 
scalps. In 1830 the County agent was authorized to dispose of the 
county property at Palestine, including the land, on credit if no better 
terms could be obtained. Moses Fell was School Commissioner at this 
date and had been for many years. In September, 1831, the Legislature 
re-established three County Commissioners in place of the Board of Jus- 
tices. William Kelsey was appointed agent of the three per cent fund. 
John Brown made another map of the county, which showed all the water- 
courses, section lines, etc. In November, 1834, the postoffice, which 
for some time had been kept in the County Clerk's office, was ordered 
removed. In January, 1830, George G. Dunn, who liad been appointed 
by the Board to settle with R. M. Carlton, County Agent, reported that 
the total debits of the agent were $20,168. 09f, and the total credits 
$20,018,374, leaving a balance due the county in the hands of the agent 
of $149.72^. The proceeds from the sale of lots in Bedford were of 
course not near so large as from the sales in Palestine, owing to the fact 
of the transfer of ownership of lots from Palestine to Bedford. The first 
sale in Bedford took place June 12, 1826, the proceeds being $1,849.25, 
of which $201.01 were in notes, a portion of which was not realized. 

In 1840 the following rates for liquor license were established: 
Bedford, $40; Leesville, $40; Bono, $30; Lawrenceport, $30; Fayette- 
ville, $30; SpringvilJe, $30; Paris, $25; Port William, $25; Pinhook, 
$25; Helton's store (Pleasant Run Township), $25, and each of all other 
places in the county $25. In this year Moses Fell, School Commissioner, 
died, and was succeeded by Michael A. Malott. A fence was built around 
the court house by Robert M. Alexander and William Stone, at a cost of 
$140. Richard Butler was paid $100 for laying a stone pavement around 
the court house. The presence of the Branch of the State Bank at Bedford 
made the town quite a financial center, and several brokers established 
offices, their licenses being fixed by the County Board at $100 per annum. 
George G. Dunn was agent of the surplus revenue, which in 1840 
amounted to $10,202.91. In 1844 Henry T. Templeton was selected as 


student to enter the State University free of tuition to represent the 
county. Ambrose C. Parks was also sent as a student. In 1845 G. G. 
Dunn was given the south jury roora in the court house for an office. 
The Masonic lodge was privileged to occupy the room one night in each 
week In 1846 the pressure for appointment to the State University 
became so great that the following selections were made: W. M. Davis, 
1849-53; F. M. Dixon, 1850-54; J. B. Armstrong, 1851-55; Newton 
Dixon, 1852-56; Levi Hanson, 1853-57; Wiley Dixon, 1854-58; W. G. 
Hastings, 1855-59; W. A. Burton, 1856-60; James Reed, 1857-61; 
John Q. A. Blackwell to Wabash College, 1852-56. County offices were 
built in 1848 by B. F. Huston. All shows and dances for exhibition 
were excluded from the court house. In about 1849 John Reed suc- 
ceeded M. A. Malott, as School Commissioner. 

In 1851, the Sons of Temperance, the Masons and all other secret 
societies were ordered excluded from the court house. A lot in Bedford 
owned by the county library was ordered sold. In 1852 J. W. Thomp- 
son, County Treasurer, became ex-officio School Commissioner. In 1853 
G. A Thornton, County Clerk, was paid $17 for registering seventeen 
negroes and mulattos; he also bought for the county a new set of weights 
and measures. June 4, 1855, the township of Marshall was created, its 
limits being all and no more of Congressional Township 6 north. Range 
1 west, all southeast of Salt Creek, was afterward (1856) attached to Shaws- 
wick. Elections were ordered held at the town of JMarshall. In 1855 
the Congressional school fund amounted to $14,701.61, and the common 
school fund to $16,238.12. A new jail was built in 1859 by John X. 
Miller. As early as August, 1861, the County Board' began to furnish 
means from' the county treasury for the relief of soldiers' families; but 
this act soon met with considerable hostility, and the question of appro- 
priating county funds for that purpose was submitted to the qualified 
voters of the county at the October election, 1861, and was carried by a 
large majority. Under the call of December, 1864; for volunteers, the 
county quota was 149 men. To raise this number a bounty of $100 was 
offered by the board for each volunteer, and bonds to the amount of $14,- 
900 were ordered sold. Large amounts of funds were distributed for the 
relief of soldiers' families. In March, 1866, a petition signed by 180 
residents of the territory concerned .was presented to the Board asking for 
the formation of a new township out of the townships of Shawswick, 
Bono and Flinn, and asking that the same might be called Morton Town- 
ship, After diie deliberation the township was created, but was named 
Guthrie, after the prominent family there of that name. It was bounded 
almost exactly as at present, and in June of the same year was made 
exactly as at present. In 1868 the Board paid $150 for a county map for 
each of the four leading county offices. In the summer of 1869 it was 
decided to commence preparations for the erection of a large court house. 



At the first meeting of the County Board, in March, 1818, a temporary 
court house was ordered built of logs, on some suitable lot in Palestine 
prepared for that purpose, the structure to be 20x24 feet, of logs " that 
will face one foot front," and to be two stories high "built in a good 
workmanlike manner," with a substantial cabin roof, and the contract to 
erect this building was ordered sold to the lowest bidder April 11, 1818. 
Samuel Dale took the contract, but at what price cannot be stated, though 
at about 1500. The house was completed late in the fall after several 
stoppages from unknown causes. This building was used about two 
years, or until the first real court house was completed. 


In November, 1818, steps were taken to build a large court house. 
John McLane was appointed to superintend the erection of the building, 
which was to be octagonal, with stone foundation and brick walls and 
with forty-five windows of twelve lights each, and to be two-storied and 
tAventy- three feet to the square. In December this order was rescinded. 
In January, 1819, the sale of the building of the court house was ordered 
advertised in the Salem Tocsin and the Indiana Gazette at Corydon, the 
plan of the building to be drawn by Robert M. Carlton and John Lowrey. 
In general the building was to be two stories high, of brick, the bight of 
the first story sixteen feet, and the second fourteen, the foundation to be 
of stone 45x45 feet, the walls of brick, two feet thick, three doors, thirty- 
six windows, four chimneys, six fire hearths, each window to have twenty- 
four lights of 10x12 inches each, the judges' bench to be fifteen feet long 
and five feet wide, the building to be surmounted with a cupola bearino- 
an iron rod and two brass balls with a brass eagle between the latter 
three feet from tip to tip, ' ' the body to be hollow and the eagle to be 
curiously and artistically wrought," the building to have four rooms 
above and to have a steel lightning rod and a bell weighing 300 pounds 
and to be ready for occupancy within two years. The contractor was to 
receive $1, 500 in advance, $2,000 when the roof was on, and the balance 
when the structure was completed. James Gregory and John Anderson 
took the contract, and were allowed the privilege of making brick and 
dressing stone on the public square. Work was immediately begun, 
changes being made from time to time in the building as above described. 
The contractors received their advance payment of $1,500 in February, 
1819. Sixteen windows were omitted from the original plan. The sec- 
ond installment was paid the contractors December 17, 1819, showing 
that the roof was on the court house. After this work on the house lan- 
guished. The contractors for some reason failed to go on with the build- 
ing and in July, 1821, the Board appointed a committee of three brick- 
layers and three masons, William Rodman, Peter Nagle, Lemuel Ford, 


James S. Means, John E. Clark and Jabez Anderson, to examine the 
building and estimate the value of the work already done. They reported 
it worth $3,670.70. Samuel D. Bishop was then appointed special agent 
to finish the house. He did so during the fall of 1821 at a cost of 
$1,791.37. This made the building cost about $5,291.37, exclusive of 
the finishing and foundation, which increased the cost to about $5,500. 
Winthrop Foote plastered the house, and in August, 1822, it was 
ready for occupancy. 

The old court house — the temporary building — was ordered leased, 
which was done to Kelsey & Mitchell, merchants, but a little later to 
Isaac Stewart, merchant, for $50 per year. It was weather-boarded and 
painted with Spanish brown. Later, the price was reduced to $33 per 


In May, 1818, the construction of a combined jail and jailor's resi- 
dence was sold at auction to Thomas Beagley. The building was to be 
15x17 feet 9 inches, two stories high, to be of heavy logs one foot square, 
eight feet between floors in each story, to be lined with heavy planks 
spiked on perpendicularly. In February, 1819, Thomas Beazley was 
paid $1,000 on his contract, and in August $500 more; but after this 
further work on the building was dropped. In 1820, upon petition of 
twelve citizens suit was brought upon the contractor's bond which, after 
search, could not be found, and proceedings were therefore suspended. 
In July, 1821, the same committee appointed to value the court house 
also valued the "gaol and gaoler's house," making a reduction of $237.- 
03| on the contract price, which was $2,000. The contractor had previ- 
ously been paid $1,500, and he was now paid a balance of $262,964- 
The building was immediately finished and occupied. 


Early in 1825 a temporary court house of logs, 22x26 feet, two stories 
high, and in all other essential respects similar to the temporary court 
house in Palestine was built at Bedford, the cost being about $500. This 
house was used for many purposes for several years. School was taught 
therein, and religious gatherings occupied it. In 1827 it was weather- 
boarded by Samuel D. Bishop for $34.66. No thought was entertained 
for a new house until 1831, when in March the Board called for propos- 
als to construct a court house similar to the one ia Salem. Robert M. 
Mitchell went to Salem in May, and procured complete plans of the 
structure there. The old buildings at Palestine were ordered sold, the 
proceeds to be used in the construction of the new house. John Lowrey 
took the contract at $5,000, to be paid in installments of $1,000 in ad- 
vance; $1,333. 33| in May, 1832; $1,333.33| in January, 1833, and the 
remainder upon completion of the building, which time was set for May, 


1834, Lowrey's bond bears date May 3, 1831, with Winthrop Foote, ' 
William Kelsey and Moses Fell as sureties. The contract was in all re- 
spects complied with by the contractor, and the building was accepted in 
May, 1834. Baker & Phelps, who did extra woi-k on the house, were 
paid extra. 


In May, 1828, proposals were called for to build a jail in Bedford, 
and in July the contract was awarded to Samuel D. Bishop for $660. 
The house was of logs, and was paid for in installments of $200, and 
completed late in 1829. The Building Committee were Roilin C. Dewey, 
Francis Williams and Robert Mitchell. This building was used many 
years. The old court house lot in Bedford was sold in 1833. In the 
spring of 1848 B. F. Huston took the contract to build on the square a 
small sti^ucture for county officers. On the 7th of March his first install- 
ment of $300 was paid. The house was completed the same year at a 
cost of about $1,000. The following memorial was presented to the 
County Board, January 9, 1839: 

To the Honorable, the Board of Commissioners of Lawrence County: 

We, the undersigned citizens of the town of Bedford and county of Lawrence, 
respectfully represent to your honorable body that that portion of the public square 
immediately contiguous to the court house is in such a condition that the quantity 
of dirt washed away at every rain is materially injuring the court house. In 
behalf, therefore, of the citizens of Bedford, and to protect the court house, we 
hereby petition your honorable body to appoint a suitable Commissioner with 
authority to fence in and grade such portion of it immediately around the court 
house (not less than one hundred feet) as you may think necessary, and we, the 
said citizens of Bedford, will grade and finish the remainder of said square. Janu- 
ary 8, 1839. 

M. A. Malott, Matthew Borland, Henry Hendricks, N. D. Glazebrook, 

R. Mitchell, James W. Freeman, Thomas Owens, F. W. Dickson, 

Mortimer Bostick, Jean Hall, H. Edwards, Isaac Rector, 

Michael W. Houston, Alpheus Phelps, John Brown, William M. Hunter, 

S. F. Irwin, L. Q. Hoggatt, E. C. Moberly, William M. Mason, 

Daniel Dunihue, John B. Buskirk, Marquis D. Knight, Zeno Worth, 
William McLane, Turner Sullivan, R. W. Thompson, John Vestal, 
James T. Smith, Joseph Rawlins, R. M. Carlton, Isaac Fish, 

Isaac Denson, S. Rankin, George G. Dunn, John Edwards, Jr., 

Andrew Owens, D. R. Dunihue, H. J. Acoam, Lewis Younger. 

William H. Pro, Richard Evans, 

This proposition was accepted by the Board, and the work was car- 
ried into effect. 


In December, 1857, the work of building a new combined jail and 
jailor's residence was begun. Specifications were prepared calling for a 
brick jailor's residence aad a stone jail to be built together, and proposals 
were called for. During the winter the contract was awarded to John X. 
Miller at $9,900, and early in the spring work was begun. It was found 
necessary to issue county bonds to carry on the work, which was done to 


the amount of $4,300. The year 1858 saw the building go up, but it 
was not fully completed until September, 1859, at which time it was for- 
mally accepted by the Board, and the remainder of the contract price 
paid. This building is yet in use, is substantial, with strong rooms for 
prisoners and a comfortable home for the jailor or sheriff, and bids fair 
to last many years. 


In the summer of 1869, bids were called for from contractors for the 
erection of a new court house. Plans were prepared and in July the work 
was let to William and George Muir for $12,700. It was advertised that 
the old court house could be used in the construction of the new. The 
contract with the Muirs was not consummated, and July 16, 1869, Napo- 
leon B. Wilson's bid to erect the building for $16,900 was accepted, but 
he soon withdrew his offer. August 11, 1869, Thomas N. Stevens and 
Thomas A. Whitted proposed to erect the building according to the plan, 
for $18,300, and gave bond for the faithful discharge of the contract. A 
strong effort was made at this time and later to have the new building 
erected elsewhere than on the public square, for the reason that the loca- 
tion at the latter place, being contiguous to the depot, was too noisy and 
dustv, and that the buildings then standing were valuable, but would not 
be so if torn down. This was opposed by others, but the County Board 
bought Lot 27 of W. C. Winstandley for $700 and Lot 28 of Clarissa 
Acoam for $1,000, intending to erect the building thereon, and made 
preparations to carry that intention into effect. The matter ran on until 
April, 1870, when the Board were petitioned to erect the house on the 
public square, and a donation of about $1,500 was offered as an induce- 
ment to change the location. This offer was at last accepted, and 
arrangements were made to erect the building where it now stands, and 
an entirely new plan was prepared and contracts entered into with Thomas 
N. Stevens for $75,000 including the two lots 27 and 28, which had been 
bought by the Board and which were now turned over to Stevens at their 
purchase price, $1,700. Prior to this Hall & Harrison had erected the 
foundation of the present court house for nearly $8,000. In September, 
1870, court house bonds to the amount of $10,000 bearing 10 per cent 
interest were issued and sold at par. June 5, 1871, court house bonds to 
the amoiint of $50,000 in denominations of $1,000 each, bearing 10 per 
cent interest, $12,000 due in two years, $12,000 in three years, $13,000 
in four years, and $13,000 in five years, were issued and sold at par, 
$48,000 to Joseph Rawlins and $2,000 to E. D. Pearson. With the 
money thus promptly realized, the work was rapidly pushed and was 
completed in 1872. The old court house was sold June, 1871, to Davis 
Harrison for $1,100. If the author mistakes not. the money donated by 
the citizens as an inducement to have the building erected on the square, 
was refunded to the donors. September 3, 1872, $7,000 bonds were 


sold to get means to grade the square; they were payable nine months 
after date. The court house is a line two-story structure, with court 
room above and county offices below, with a roomy basement containing 
the water-closets, which are thoroughly washed by water from the roof 
and drained by an ample sewer. It was built of the famous St. Louis 
gray limestone or ' ' Bedford stone, " cost, including everything, about 
$100,000, and is a credit to the county. 


The law creating the county provided for the appropriation for a 
county library of 10 per cent of the proceeds of the sale of town lots. 
As the proceeds were considerable, the library was early placed on a firm 
footing, and has endured until the present. Its usefulness during this 
long period cannot be told in language. Every old resident of the coun- 
ty has read over those antiquated books until their contents are part and 
parcel of himself, and are difiused through society with his intelligence. 
The information they contain has left its permanent impression on the 
manners and comprehension of the county. The first books were pur- 
chased in 1819, and were kept in the court house by John Lowrey, Coun- 
ty Clerk, and consisted of about 100 volumes of the standard books of 
that day, such as Josephus' "Works, Curran's Speeches, Pope's Essay on 
Man, Simpson's Plea, Cowper's Poems, Shakespeare's Poems, Life of 
Washington, Life of Fi'anklin, American Constitutions, Dialogue of 
Devils, Clark's Travels, Encyclopedias, Rollin's Ancient History, Wes- 
ley's Philosophy, Paradise Lost, Polite Learning, etc., etc. Late in 
1819 the library fund amounted, with what had already been spent, to 
$530.35, and by February, 1821, to $749.13. Tbe greater portion of 
this was put out at interest. In 1821 a neat book-case was made 
and placed in the northeast room of the court house at Palestine, and in 
this the books were kept. Nearly all the prominent early residents of 
Palestine and Bedford were at times members of the Library Trustees. 
In 1840 there were about 500 volumes of books, and this figure has been 
about the height of the collection. In 1824 the fund was $895, and its 
probable extent was about $1,200. Not more than half of this amount, 
if that much, was spent, the remainder being loaned out at interest. At 
one time the library owned a lot in town, which was finally sold. The 
permanent fund now amounts to about $2,000, and the books are kept in 
the Recorder's office. In 1856 the State furnished the county with eight 
township libraries, which were distributed in proportion to population. 
Each library comprised about 300 volumes of general matter. Some of 
these are yet in good shape^ though the most are scattered and useless. 
Late in the fifties the McClure Libraries were received — two or three in 
the county, and laboring men's institutes were formed for their manage- 
ment, but after about six years the design of the benevolent testator was 


carelessly thwarted by the distribution of the books to the members, oi 
possibly by their actual sale at public auction. 


The first order that appears upon the records as having been paid by 
the county for the relief of the poor was in the summer of 1819, and was 
for $30, to James H. Johnson, of Bono Township, who furnished the 
relief. The pauper was Matthew Rose, who continued upon the county 
for several years. In November $29 more was paid to Johnson for keep - 
ing. Dr. Winthrop Foote was paid $5 for medical attendance upon this 
poor person. Later Allen Brock was paid for keeping Rose. Dr. Ezra 
Child was also paid for attending Rose. In 1820 Robert Dougherty was 
paid $41. 11 for care of one Ritter, a pauper. Foote was paid $10 for 
medical attendance on this pauper. Other reports began to be received. 
Each township had Overseers of the Poor, who hunted out poor persons, 
farmed them out to the lowest responsible bidders, received and audited 
the expense accounts of the keepers, and sent the bills to the County 
Board for final arbitrament and settlement. In 1820 there was spent 
for paupers $73. 20, and in 1822 $103. In 1825 the amount was $1 22.65 ; 
in 1827, was $130; in 1830, was $157.80; in 1833, was $187.29, and in 
1835 was $467.45. By this time the poor were quite a burden. Dr. 
John C. Gavins was county physician about this time. 


In June, 1842, William Newland was appointed agent to select and 
purchase a site for a poor asylum, in amount not to exceed 160 acres nor 
be less than 80 acres, and to be within eight miles of Bedford. By 
November he had accordingly bought a farm of 160 acres, of Green- 
bury Owens, for $800. Upon this farm was an ordinary dwelling of that 
period, which was immediately fitted up with new floor, etc., for the 
reception of paupers, with Mr. Owens as Superintendent. The Superin- 
tendent was to have charge of the farm, and was to care for all paupers, 
and be furnished all necessary supplies by the county. Winthi"op Foote 
was employed as County Doctor at $1 per visit, medicine extra. In March, 
1843, there were seven inmates. Owens tiled his bills which were paid 
by the Board, the bill in March, 1843, being $97.35 for the quarter for 
pork, lard, corn, cofi'ee, sugar, dressed deerskins, etc. In March, one cold 
night, an inmate named James Bird, a worn-out old man, who was about 
half demented, ran away from the asylum, and when found the next day 
was dead, frozen to death. The Superintendent in 1843 sowed thirteen 
acres of oats, and planted fifteen acres of corn. In the spring of 1844 
there were four inmates, and in 1845 only one. In 1845-46 James W. 
Freeman, Greenbury Owen and John Colwell were Poor Superintend- 
ents jointly. They gave a hired man charge of the farm. The poor of 
1840 cost about $320, and of 1844-45 only $322. 50. M. A. Malott was 


one of the Superintendents in 1846. New and detailed arrangements 
for the management of the paupers were adopted about this time. The 
poor expense of 1845—46 was only $165.92, a great falling off. Free- 
man, Malott and Owen were yet Superintendents. An orchard of apple, 
peach and cherry trees was planted on the poor farm in 1847. There 
were six inmates in 1846, and seven in 1847. The expense of 1846-47 
was $835.47. J. T. Woodward was Poor Doctor in 1847. The poor of 
1848 — six in number in the asylum — cost $469.21. One man, Jonathan 
Loveall, became Superintendent in 1849, for three years. A new roof 
was put on the old building in 1849. The poor expense of 1849-50 was 
$648.93. A new frame building was erected on the farm in 1851, by 
Levi Overman, for $790, and was moved into in November of that year. 
A visiting committee at this time had general charge of the asylum and 
farm. Eli Wilson leased the poor farm in 1853 for three years. He was 
paid $60 each year for each permanent pauper, and given the free rent 
of the farm. Wilson had enemies who endeavored to oust him from his 
position, but failed. The question was settled in the Circuit Court. He 
resigned and was succeeded by M. W. Medearis, Dr. D. J. Hostetter 
being the physician. The expenses of 1855-56 were $1,619. 93. Joseph 
Stillson was also county physician. Each permanent pauper cost $80 
per year. Daniel Baker was Superintendent in 1857-58. Ben Newland 
doctored the paupers. John Henderson was Superintendent in 1859-60. 
There were twelve inmates in 1860. The rules for the keeping of the 
paupers and for the management of the farm adopted in 1855 continued 
to be the guidance until within the last ten or fifteen years. The poor 
of 1859-60 cost $2,132.60; of 1862-63 cost $1,941.85. W. C. Mitchell 
was Superintendent from 1861 to 1870. He was paid $75 for each pau- 
per, and was to pay $75 for rent. This price was changed from time to 
time, being in 1867 the rent of the farm free and $140 for each pauper. 
The expenses of 1864-65 were $4,412.90; of 1867-68 were $5,004.79. 
William Day became Superintendent in 1870, and was to receive $2.15 
per week for each pauper, and to pay $275 for the use of the farm. 
There were eighteen permanent paupers in March, 1873. Early in the 
seventies Archibald Anderson contracted to erect a two-storied frame 
poor-house for $1,700. This house was built and is yet in use. Early 
in the eighties John Scaggan served as Poor Superintendent. There are 
at present about thirty inmates. The number admitted during the aver- 
age year lately is about fifty. William Day is the present Superintendent. 


Surplus revenue $10,202 91 

Saline fund 560 44 

Bank tax fund 756 26 

From sale of county seminary 1,066 30 

Sinking fund of 1872-73 5,558 64 

Fines, forfeitures, etc., to June, 1884 10,833 28 

Total f 28,977 83 



Section 16, Township 3 north, Range 1 east | 317 55 

Section 16, Township 3 north. Range 2 east 327 89 

Section 16, Township 4 north, Range 1 east 880 65 

Section 16, Township 4 north. Range 2 east 615 53 

Section 16, Township 5 north. Range 1 east 2,381 20 

Section 16, Township 5 north, Range 2 east 737 00 

Section 16, Township 6 north. Range 1 east 1,240 00 

Section 16, Township 6 north, Range 2 east 580 01 

Section 16, Township 3 north. Range 1 west 828 90 

Section 16, Township 3 north. Range 2 west 1,503 00 

Section 16, Township 4 north. Range 1 west 1,016 66 

Section 16, Township 4 north. Range 2 west 1,048 60 

Section 16, Township 5 north. Range 1 west. 1,255 60 

Section 16, Township 5 north, Range 2 west 810 00 

Section 16, Township 6 north, Range 1 west 557 50 

Section 16, Township 6 north. Range 2 west 1,227 00 

115,327 09 


Samuel G. Hoskins, Isaac Anderson, Edward Moore, Daniel Pyle, 
James Fidler, Daniel Green, Joel Conley, Absalom Fields, Samuel 
Owens, William Tweaky, William Kelsey, 1818; John Short, William 
Elrod, William Dale, 1819; Robert McCann, Christian Zabrisky, 1820; 
Rollin C. Dewey, 1821 ; John Vestal, Robert Gartain, Adam House, 
Basil Gaither, Simon Gilbert, 1822; Isaac Fish, Daniel Pyle, James 
Taggart, John Williams, William Flinn, Lewis Roberts, Robert Ander- 
son, 1823; John Donaldson, Reuben Rainey, John Hammersly, Robert 
Millsap, William Blair, 1824; William Dale, 1825; Jonathan Todd, 
JosiahBeasley, 1826; R. C. Dewey, Jacob Roberts, Oily Crooke, John J. 
Barnett, Robert Anderson, 1827; Francis Williams, Joel Conley, 
Sanders McHoward, John R. Crooke, Robert Flinn, Daniel Pyle, Mark 
Trueblood, S. G. Hoskins, 1828; James Batman, Drury Davis, 1829; 
Stephanus Hoggatt, Thomas Jolly, William Patersou, Matthias Lemon, 
1830; Alfred Athon, Alfred Alexander, John Humston, Robert Porter, 
Samuel D. Bishop, 1831; S. G. Hoskins, Granville Crump, Noah Boone, 
Oily Crooke, William Blair, Thomas W. Stephens, Jacob Roberts, 1832; 
Alexander H. Dunihue, P. G. Panghl, George Carr, James Henderson, 
J. R. Crooke, Mark Trueblood, Joseph Henderson, Robert Flinn, 1833; 
Lyman Gould, John Chestnut, 1834; William Fish, Dean Barns, Mat- 
thew Borland, Felix G. Rawlins, Daniel Dunihue, John Rains, 1835; 
James Wilder, David R. Lilly, Alexander H. Gainey, J. J. Barnett, 
James W. Freeman, 1836; James Davis, R. M. Alexander, Samuel Pot- 
ter, Granville Crump, Reuben Simpson, 1837; William Blair, Johnson 
Fitzpatrick, James Ellison, William Shields, James Henderson, Russell 
Mitchell, John Winfrey, 1838; Alexander Sutherland, Robert Flinn, 
Oily Crooke, L. Q. Hoggatt, Elias P. Kennedy, Mortimer Bostick, 
James Batman, James Erwin, 1839; Eli Burton, Alonzo S. Wilcox, Dean 


Barnes, Matthew Borland, Zachariah Whitted, John Rains, 1840; Will- 
iam Rains, A. H. Burton, "William Templeton, 1841; John R. Nugent, 
Henry Withers, 1842; Robert Ellison, John Rains, James Henderson, 
Henry Davis, Jesse Keitley, 1843; John D. Thomasson, Oily Crooke, 
William H. Anderson, 1844; Russell Mitchell, James Batman, Arthur 
Hastings, Lewis J. Baker, Dean Barnes, William Root, Matthew Borland, 
Robert Holaday, James Hughes, 1845. 


Ambrose Carlton, Thomas Beazley and James Stotts, March, 1818; 
James Fulton, 1819, vice Carlton; Richard Williams, 1819, vice Fulton; 
Jacob Wagoner, 1820, vice ytotts; James S. Mitchell, 1820, vice Wag- 
oner; Benjamin Blackwell, 1821, vice Beazley; Winthrop Foote, 1821, 
vice Blackwell; William MoLain, 1821, vice Williams; Moses Lee, 1822, 
vice McLain; John R. Crooke, 1823, vice Mitchell; John D. Laughlin, 

1823, vice Foote; John Brown, 1824, vice Crooke; Winthrop Foote, 

1824, vice Laughlin. In September, 1824, the Justices of the Peace 
took the place of the County Commissioners in the transaction of county 
business, but were replaced by the following Commissioners in Septem- 
ber, 1831: Samuel F. Irwin, Absalom Fields, John Newland, 1831; 
Hugh Hamer, 1833, vice Fields; Joseph Rawlins, 1834, vice Irwin; Vin- 
son Williams, 1835, vice Rawlins; Thomas Lemon and William Fish, 
1836, vice Williams and Newland; William Johnson, 1838, vice Lemon; 
Felix G. Rawlins, 1839, vice Hamer; Vinson R. Williams, 1840, vice 
Fish; Thomas Dixon, 1841, vice Johnson; Ephraim Brock, 1842, vice 
Rawlins; Vinson Williams, 1843; Thomas Dixon, 1844; Ephraim Brock, 
1845; Vinson Williams, 1846; Thomas Dixon, 1847; David S. Lewis, 
1848, vice Brock; Abraham Kern, 1849, vice Williams; Thomas Dixon, 
1850; John Rains, 1851, vice Lewis; David Mclntire, 1852, vice Kern; 
Thomas Dixon, 1853; Uriah Dilley, 1854, vice Mclntire; John Rains, 
1854; Lewis J. Baker, 1855, vice Rains; Thomas Dixon, 1856; David 
Mclntire, 1857, vice Dilley; James W. Prow, 1858, vice Mclntire, 
resigned; John Rains, 1858, vice Baker; Robert R. Stewart, 1858, vice 
Prow; Henry C. Huston, 1859; J. W. Prow, 1860, vice Stewart; Am- 
brose Kern, 1861, vice Rains; W. A. Holland, 1861, vice Huston; Allen 
C. Burton, 1862, vice Huston; William H. Anderson, 1864, vice Kern; 
H. M. Guthrie, 1865, vice Holland; Allen C. Burton, 1865; Alfred 
Guthrie, 1866, vice H. M. Guthrie; Oliver P. Anderson, 1867, vice W. 
H. Anderson; Thomas J. Reed, 1868, vice Guthrie; Allen C. Burton, 
1868; David L. Sheeks, 1870; Ari Armstrong, 1870; William A. Hol- 
land, 1871; Wesley Edwards, 1872, vice Sheeks; Ari Armstrong, 1873; 
William Hunter, 1874, vice Holland; Wesley Edwards, 1875; Alexander 
C. Glover, 1876, vice Armstrong; Cranston T. Dodd, 1877; David L. 
Sheeks, 1878, vice Edwards; A. C. Glover 1879; William Stickles, 1880, 



vice Dodd; Tilghman H. Williams, 1881, vice Slieeks; A. C. Glover, 
1882; William Stickles, 1883. 


Samuel Chambers (of Orange County), 1818; Joseph Glover, 1822; 
Vinson Williams, 1823; William Erwin. 1824; Lewis Roberts, 1826; 
Vinson Williams, 1828; Pleasant Parks, 1829; Hugh L. Livingston and 
William B. Slaughter, 1832; John Brown and Absalom Fields, 1833; 
Pleasant Parks and Richard W. Thompson, 1834; R. W. Thompson and 
Noah Boone, 1835; Vinson Williams and Noah Boone, 1836; V. Williams 
and Melchert Helmer, 1837; M. Helmer and George W. Carr, 1838; 
Hugh Hamer and Robert M. Carlton, 1839; H. Hamer and G. W. Carr, 
1840; Ralph G. Norvell and John J. Barnett, 1841; same 1842; R. G. 
Norvell and William Burton, 1843; W. Burton and Lucian Q. Hoggatt, 
1844; G. W. Carr and John Edwards, 1845; same 1846; Samuel W. 
Short, 1847; G. W. Carr, 1848 (Speaker of the House); G. W. Carr, 
1849; George Isom, 1850; Melchert Helmer, 1851; David S. Lewis, 
1852; * * D. S. Lewis, 1854; * * Robert Boyd, 
1856; Nathaniel Williams, 1861; Robert Boyd, 1864; Moses F. Dunn, 
1866; William H. Edwards, 1872; A. J. Williams, 1874; Alfred Guth- 
rie, 1876; Mr. Dalton, 1878; Joseph Gardner, 1880; James McClelland, 


John DePauw, 1818; (see Orange County History), James Gregory, 
1821; Samuel Chambers, 1822; John Milroy, 1826; John G. Clendenin, 
1829; Samuel Chambers, 1832; Richard W. Thompson, 1836; Gustavus 
Clark, 1838; George W. Carr, 1841; Hugh Hamer, 1844; M. A. Malott, 
1847; George G. Dunn, 1850; * * A. J. Hostetler, 1855; Thomas 
R. Cobb (Lawrence and Martin Counties), 1858; Aaron Houghton 
(Martin and Lawrence Counties), 1867; James Hughes (Lawrence and 
Monroe Counties), 1869; George W. Friedley (Lawrence and Monroe 
Counties), 1872; W. B. F. Treat (Lawrence and Monroe Counties), 1877; 
William Taylor (Lawrence, Martin and Dubois Counties), 1881; James 
H. Willard (Lawrence, Martin and Dubois Counties), 1883. 


Wiley Dixon, Newton F. Malott and James T. Shields, 1858; Newton 
F. Malott, Eli Baldwin and Wiley Dixon, 1859; A. C. Voris, John L. 
Stewart and Dodridge Short, 1860; W. N. Bullett, A. C. Voris and 
Dodridge Short, 1861; George Sheeks, June, 1861, under the new law 
for three years alone. A. D. Lemon, September, 1861, vice Sheeks 
gone to the war; J. M. Stalker, 1866; William M. May, 1867; James 
B. Crowe, 1868; William B. Chrisler, 1872; James P. Funk, 1873; 
first Superintendent, William B. Chrisler, 1874; E. B. Thornton, 1879; 
W. B. Chrisler, 1881; W. D. Ellison, 1883. 



Benjamin Blackwell, 1824; William Erwin, 1829; Rollin C. Dewey, 
1832; Ashier Wilcox, 1833; William Duncan, 1836; Isaac N. Senter, 
1844; William Newland, 1846. 


John Milroy and William Erwin, 1818; William Fields, 1820; vice 
Milroy; Joseph Athon, 1831; Pleasant Padget, 1831: Elzy Woodward, 
1835; JohnWhitted, 1838; Joseph Hosteller, 1841; Alexander Butler, 
1845; John Whitted, 1849; Zachariah Whitted, 1851. 


John Anderson, March, 1818; Samuel W. Biggs, 1819; William 
Kelsey, 1819; Rollin C. Dewey, 1822; Ezekiel Blackwell, 1823; Rollen 
C. Dewey, 1824; John Brown, 1828; R. C. Dewey, 1829; Francis F 
Williams, 1831; Edward C. Moberly, 1832; William Templeton, 1834 

A. H. Dunihue, 1835; Joseph Rawlins, 1836; Winthrop Foote, 1839 
John W. Thompson, 1841; Henry Davis, 1853; George Sheeks, 1856 
Dean Barnes, 1858; Thomas H. Malott, 1862; Hugh Erwin, 1864; John 

B. Glover, 1868; Robert Kelly, 1872; E. C. Newland, 1874; F. A. Sears, 
1877; J. D. Moore, 1880; Robert Kelly, 1882. 


Robert C. Stotts, March 2, 1818; John Lowrey, 1819; John Brown, 
1829; John Vestal, 1831; John Lowrey, 1845; Andrew Gelwick, 1852; 
Charles G. Berry, 1860; W. A. Mathes, 1864; John F. Richards, 1868; 
William Erwin, Jr., 1875. 


John Lowrey, May 5, 1818; John Brown, 1829; Robert Mitchell, 1832; 
Gustavus Clark, 1845; George A. Thornton, 1852; David Harrison, 1860; 
John Riley, 1864; John M. Stalker, 1872; Robert H. Carlton, 1880. 


Before 1841, the clerk was ex-officio Auditor. John Peters, 1841; 
James A. Pender, 1855; John M. Harson, 1859, Andrew Gelwick, 1863, 
Charles T. Woolfolk, 1867; J. E. Dean, 1874; Isaac H. Crim, 1878. 


Joseph Glover, January 13, 1818; Moses Fell, 1882; Joseph Glover, 
1826; Robert Mitchell, 1828; Joseph Glover, 1831; Isaac Fish, 1835; 
Lucian Q. Hoggatt, 1841; Felix L. Raymond, 1843; Andrew Gelwick, 

1847; Jesse K , 1851; William W. Cook, 1852; Thomas S. Enochs, 

1852; Dixon Cobb, 1855; E. S. Thompson, 1856; J. R. Glover, 1858; 
Joseph Tincher, 1862; William Daggy, 1864; V. V. Williams, 1868; 
Isaac Newkirk, 1872; M. A. Burton, 1876; F. T. Dunihue, 1878; J. M. 
McDowell. 1882. 



Thomas Henton, August, 1818; Peter Harmason, 1819; Joseph Raw- 
lins, 1820; Samuel F. Irwin, 1824; T. H. Briggs, 1826; Elbert Jeter, 
1828; Rufisel] Mitchell, 1832; E. P. Kennedy, 1833; Lewis Younger, 
1837; E. P. Kennedy, 1841; James W. Freeman, 1845; Henry Ander- 
son, 1847; L. W. Thompson, 1850; Henry C. Hardy, 1852; Christian 
Seibert, 1854; Henry Anderson, 1856; William A. Cook, 1857; J. P. 
Potter, 1860; H. C. Hardy, 1861; John Reath, 1863; A. G. Young, 1864; 
Charles Cramer, 1865; W. C. Carson, 1867; Lewis Younger, 1870; 
Joseph Stinehazen, 1872; Ezekiel Stout, 1874; Joseph Stinehazen, 1876; 
Alfred C. Harrison, 1877; Alfred Hamm, 1878. 


Robert Mitchell, May, 1818; William Duncan, 1828; Boliver Dun- 
can, 1852; Lycurgus Duncan, 1858; Dodridge Short, 1870; John B. 
Malott, 1872. 


At a preliminary meeting held at Bedford July 4, 1851, a committee 
was appointed, of which William Duncan was Chairman, to prepare a 
constitution and by-laws of a proposed agricultural society. On the 9th 
of August, 1851, a large meeting was held at the court house in Bedford, 
to effect a permanent organization and adopt the constitution^prepared by 
the committee. John McCrea was made Chairman and Leonard Green 
Secretary. The constitution and by-laws, after discussion and amend- 
ment, were adopted. The following men then enrolled their names as 
members of the organization: John McCrea, William Duncan, Jesse 
Johnson, G. M. Brown, Ralston Ferguson, H. C. Houston, Ambrose 
Kern, Robert Boyd, Pleasant Parks, Samuel F. Irwin, Edward McCrea, 
John Whitted, Daniel Johnson, Leonard Green, Boliver Duncan, Lewis 
Rout, Charles Miller, Austin Hubbard, J. W. Newland, David Ikerd, 
John Glover, William Fisher, Caswell Donica, William Malott, Enoch 
Faubion, John Borland, Jesse A. Mitchell, Isaac Denson, George G. 
Dunn, G. H. Monson, Ezra Kern, David Long, J. R. Nugent, George A. 
Thornton. The following permanent officers were elected: John Mc- 
Crea, President; John Borland, Vice-President; G. A. Thornton, Secre- 
tary; Samuel F. Irwin, Treasurer; Ralston Ferguson, Caswell Donica, 
J. R. Nugent, Lewis Rout, Charles Miller, Robert Boyd, William Dun- 
can and Austin Hubbard, Directors. No fair was held in 1851. Full 
arrangements were made for the fair of 1852. During the early part of 
the year F. R. Nugent, J. M. Bishop, Ben Newland, James T. Parks, W. 
M. Tannehill, T. L. Carlton, Winthrop Foote, Edmund Reed, William 
Smith, Isaac Johnson, Lewis Carlton, S. W. Short, D. R. Laforce and 
Howard Ferguson became members of the society. It was determined 
that the fair should be mainly a stock show, to be held at Bedford, south- 


west of town, on the land of Jesse A. Mitchell, on the 9th of November. 
The following awarding committees were appointed: On cattle — Stever 
Younger, William Duncan and John Borland; on sheep — William Dun- 
can, R. Ferguson and William Stipp; on horses — John Ragsdale, Henry- 
Brown and G. G. Dunn; on jacks — Frank Houston, W. M. Tannehill and 
William Ragsdale; on mules — W. M. Tannehill, John Campbell and 
Franklin Houston; on hogs — John Whitted, William Henderson and Joseph 
Rawlins; on poultry — Jesse Johnson, Enoch Faubion and James Beaty. 
Thompson H. Biggs was appointed to prepare and read an essay on fruits, 
and R. R. Bryant one on fowls; on corn — Jesse Johnson, Elisha Boyd 
and James Woods; on manufactured articles — G. M. Brown, B. Duncan 
and William Root. The officers of 1852 were: Pleasant Parks, Presi- 
dent; John Whitted, Vice-President; Isaac Rector, Treasurer; R. R. 
Bryant, Secretary. The fair was held with quite a respectable attend- 
ance. Premiums on cattle were awarded G. M. Brown, Lewis Rout, 
Isaac Rector, Jesse Johnson, William Stipp and G. B. Owens; on sheep 
to Enoch Faubion and Jesse Johnson; on horses to Fred Stipp, William 
Fisher, John Rogers, William Duncan, G. M. Brown, Ben Newland and 
David Ikerd; on jacks to William Duncan and Daniel and Peter Myers; 
on poultry to R. R. Bryant; on manufactured articles, to Enoch Faubion, 
best plow; on agricultural products to Enoch Faubion, best white corn; 
Lewis Carlton, best yellow corn; John B. Buskirk, best beet, 8f pounds; 
Enoch Faubion, best wheat; H. B. Richardson, best pumpkin; Enoch 
Faubion, best sweet potatoes; Joseph Caldwell, best turnips. Judge 
Duncan read an essay on the management of stock, and R. R. Bryant on 

No fair, except a public sale of stock, was held in 1853. This was 
quite interesting, however, and many leading farmers and stockraisers 
of the county were present. In 1854, strong efforts were made to merge 
the society into the joint fair of Orange and Washington Counties, but 
without success. At none of the fairs thus far was there a gate fee. 
The membership dues in 1851 were $18; in 1852, were $14.75, and in 
1853, were $13 In the spring of 1854, arrangements werermade to 
purchase a fair ground by means of stock subscriptions. Grounds had 
been leased, only, heretofore. The plan was dropped until April, 1856, 
when W. Duncan, Hiram Louder, Denton Sheeks, Howard Ferguson, 
Jesse H. Bailey, Ezra Kern, Uriah Dilly, William Embree and Meek 
Beck were appointed to purchase a ground after getting subscriptions 
sufficient to pay for the same. In June, the committee reported the pur- 
chase of a tract just west of, and adjoining, town, 30x40 rods, or nearly 
eight acres, of Jesse A. Mitchell. For some reason no fair was held 
here and the grounds were sold in 1857, and a tract northwest of town 
consisting of ten acres was purchased of William Fisher for $1,000. At 
this time (July, 1857), the society owed Mr. Mitchell $540, and had paid 


Mr. Fisher all except $250 of the 81,000, and had made complete arrange- 
ments for building, fencing, etc. The original subscription of stock for 
the piurchase of a fair gi'ound was S50 each by the following men: 

David Sears, Noah Kern, Louis Rout, Samuel A. Eariden, Jesse H. 
Baily, Caswell Donica, Frederic R. Nugent. Daniel Pafford, John C. 
Gavins, John Reed, Henry Culbertson, Anderson Fish, Bolivar Duncan, 
Dixon Cobb, Israel Judah, William Duncan, Jesse Johnson, M. A. Malott, 
George A. Thornton, John Baker. George G. Dunn. Noah Boone, John 
Boyd, Logan Fish, William Sherrill, Greenberry Owens, Jesse Steven- 
son, Samuel Scoggan, George Whitted, John Y. Dunlavy, Isaiah Lamb, 
Alexander Cox, Jack Williams, Bartemus Williams, Denton Sheeks, 
Ezra Kern, Isaac Denson, Levi Houston, Jesse A. Mitchell, William 
Fisher, William Ragsdale, John Ragsdale, Alexander H. Dunihue, 
Humphrey Anderson, James Wilkerson, John R. Nugent. The total 
amount of this subscription was 82,300, a portion of which was never 


The first fair of the Lawrence County Agricultural Society was held 
in the autumn of 1857, and was successful. The total receipts from all 
sources were 82,369. 15, which amount was mostly from the stock sub- 
scriptions. The valueof the real estate and improvements was 82,090.83, 
showing, if the land cost 81,000, that the improvements put thereon had 
been 81,090.88. The liabilities of the society were 81,941.75. The 
grounds, ten acres, were surrounded with a tight board fence, seven and 
a half feet high, had 150 stalls for stock, had a track for trotting and 
had an amphitheater capable of accommodating 2,000 persons, besides 
several smaller buildings for floral and agricultural displays. The second 
fair was held in 1858, and was also highly successful. The total receipts 
were 81,200. The premiums cost 8470. There were 520 entries and 
170 premiums awarded. The President in 1857, was Robert Boyd; in 
1858, Isaac Denson. At this time the grounds and improvements were 
covered by a mortgage. While this society existed the total number of 
persons belonging was 228. The debt of the society was so great that 
all attempts to hold a fair in 1859 was abandoned. The same of 1860, 
but in November of that year a joint stock company was formed to pay 
the bank debt and the debt due the estate of George G. Dunn. A new 
constitution was adopted at this time and other arrangements made to 
place the society on a firm basis, biit the war coming on the project was 
temporarily dropped. 


October 8, 1869, a meeting was held to re-organize the society, Henry 
Davis being called to the chair, and Isaac Rector made Secretary. A 
Committee was appointed to prepai'e a constitution, etc., to be reported 
the following night, and another Committee was appointed to solicit 




additional members or stockholders. At the next meeting the constitu- 
tion was adopted, and the following permanent officers elected: Jesse A. 
Mitchell, President; Henry Davis,. Vice-President; C. T. Woolfolk, Sec- 
retary; W. C. Winstandley, Treasurer; William Daggy, Superintendent; 
James Eagsdale, W. A. Holland, Dodi-idge Short, Daniel Boone. Wesley 
Rout, F. R. Nugent, J. A. Smith, Wilson Anderson, Alfred Guthrie, 
William Duncan, William Ragsdale, Robert Kelly, Henry Culbertson, 
William Daggy and S. W. Short, Directors. Several other meetings 
were held, one on the 30th of October, when a Committee was appointed 
to select a fair ground, and shares of stock were fixed at $25 each. July 
14, 1870, the society after receiving the report of the special Committee 
ordered bought of Thomas A. Whitted the following tract of land : The 
south part of the west half of the east half of the southwest quarter of 
Section 11, Township 5 north. Range 1 west, in all 13.75 acres; also 
24 acres of the same tract of Stever Younger. These grounds were 
ordered improved. A fair seems to have been held in 1869, the gross 
receipts being $1,304. It was the first under the present organization, 
which makes the coming one of 1884 the sixteenth. The fair of 1870 
was of four days' duration, the gross receipts being $1,189.50, all of 
which was awarded in premiums as follows: horses, $774; mules, $25; 
cattle, $141; hogs, $46; sheep, $31; poultry, $3; farming implements, 
$74; domestic manufactures, $19; equestrianism, $16.50; mechanical 
department, $20; other, $40. The Treasurer reported that $2,377.75 
had been spent on the grounds, and that the expenses of conducting the 
fair were $278.70. In August, 1871, two acres of adjoining timber land 
were purchased of Mrs. George A. Thornton for $200. Extensive 
arrangements were made for the fair of 1871. This fair awarded $1,128 
in premiums on 470 entries, and in special premiums raised the awards 
to $1,443.90. The total entries in the live stock department in 1869 
were 99; in 1870 were 206, and in 1871 were 245. The Treasurer's 
report was as follows: 

Receipts of fan- 1871 $1,626 50 

Stock receipts 2,659 85 

Total $4,386 35 

Premium expenses, etc $1,443 90 

Improvement of grounds, etc 2,870 95 

Total $4,314 85 

Debtor balance $ 28 50 

In October, 1872, the Treasurer made the following report: 


From stockholders $2,888 00 Land of Younger $ 175 00 

Show license 609 60 Land of Whitted 825 00 

Lumber 13 50 Land of Thornton 150 00 

Fair of 1871 (net) 180 55 Improvements, etc 2,539 77 

Total $3,691 65 Total $3,689 77 



At this time there were 120 stockhcjlders, and the debt of the society- 
was about $313. The total receipts of the fair of 1872 were $1,479.65, 
and total expenses $1,462.65; total entries, 557; total premiums award- 
ed, $1,186. The total receipts of 1873 were $1,763.35, and expenses 
$1,698.90; entries, 545; premiums awarded, $1,539. In 1874 the re- 
ceipts were $847.53, expenses $767.68; total entries, 461; premiums 
awarded, $586 50. The receipts of 1875 were $321.65; expenses, $285.75. 
In 1877 the entries were 246, and awards $1,014.50; receipts, $1,120.61; 
expenses, $1,031.33. In 1878 the receipts were $1,596.45, and expenses 
$1,427.80. In 1880 the receipts were $1,056.45; expenses, $1,033.15. 
Other and later statistics cannot be given. The following is an imper- 
fect list of the stockholders: S. W. Short, Robert Kelly, C. F. Wool- 
folk, Hostetler & Co., Cosner & Glover, T. H. Malott, Lycurgus Dalton, 
W. A. Ragsdale, A. A, Malott, E. E. Johnson, R. H. Carlton, J. P. 
Francis, Fred Stipp, M. N. Messick, A. H. Dunihue, James Meglemeric, 
Jesse A. Mitchell, William Daggy, Wilson &. Vor is, W. C. Winstandley, 
Palmer & Thornton, W. W. Malott, G. H. Ragsdale, Jefferson Ragsdale, 
Parks & Lane, J. W. Palmer, J. H. Bailey, Gordon Bailey, Aylett Hous- 
ton, Wesley Rout, W. H. Bryant, Thomas Stipp, Daniel Boone, C. C. 
Williams, A. J. Williams, Abner Armstrong, A. G. Gainey, J. H. Rags- 
dale, H. H. Batman, R. L. Rout, D. R. Bowden, W. A. Holland, Ander- 
son Fish, Hugh Erwin, Stephen Fountain, John Younger. Michael Stipp, 
Alfred Guthrie, E. N. Ikerd, Alfred Grayson, Homer Rawlins, Henry 
Culbertson, Samuel Bristow, Charles Kramer, J. D. Knight, J. D. Thom- 
asson, John Owens, M. A. Malott, Alexander Bivens, Lycurgus Duncan, 
William Duncan, G. W. Glover, Logan Fish, Wesley Armstrong, James 
Watson, William Day, G. G. Dunn, J. L. Campbell, Samuel Bennett, 
P. W. Younger, R. H. Ellison, E. C. Newland, John Holland, Peter 
Myers, Moses F. Dunn, James Stipp, H. M. Batman, Mrs. G. A. Thorn- 
ton, John Bass, E. E. Embree, G. T. Starr, J. W. Newland, Ziba Hop- 
kins, Daggy, Hodge & Co., John Riley, G. W. Friedley, J. P. Parks, D. 
Harrison, B. W. Lee, Felix Armstrong, W. W. McFadden, H. C. Dun- 
can, Samuel Judah, T. N. Stevens, D. F. Tilford, Jesse Mann, W. 
McKnight, J. McKnight, Alexander Starr, M. D. Lyon, V. V. Williams, 
Eb. Jeter, Noyes E. Strout, N. L. Hall, Bolivar Duncan, William Ed- 
wards, G. P. Lee, W. C. Mitchell, William Smith, Robert Mitchell, Dan- 
iel Myers, W^illiam Tannehill, John Short and Alfred Short. 


Statements of the early finances of the county cannot be given, as no 
record was kept. The following are the receipts and expenditures from 
January 7, 1833, to November 4, 1833: 




Store licenses 

County revenue. 
Extra revenue. . . 
Road tax 

.$ 209 37 

, 2,836 88 

40 00 

59 00 


Elections $ 12 75 

Wolf scalps 3 00 

Improper assessments. 6 65 

Poor 187 29 

Improperly collected. . 26 33 

Attorneys 40 00 

County Board 48 00 

Bailiffs, etc 41 50 

Court house, third pay- 
ment 1,333 33 

Jailor's fees 2 31 

Assessors 50 00 

Fuel, etc 19 50 

Road viewers 3 00 

Contested election 14 94 

Road Supervisors 102 25 

Associate Judges 36 00 

Grand jurors 67 50 

Petit jurors 88 50 

Delinquencies 246 95 

Treasurer's fees 79 00 

Collector's fees 161 46 

Orders redeemed 450 73 

Cash on hand 124 27 

Total $3,145 25 Total |3,145 25 

From November 3, 1834, to November 3, 1835, the store license was 
$357.72; county revenue, $1,470.53; total receipts, $2,207.76; county 
orders paid were $1,886.05; county offices cost $310.50; total expenses, 
$1,936.11; leaving on hand, $271.65. From this date nothing can be 
given until the fiscal year 1844-45 as follows: Receipts from merchants', 
grocers' and other licenses, $388.53; tlelinquent tax receipts, $693.16; 
county revenue, $3, 778.65 ; total receipts, $4, 956. 90. Roads cost $137. 38 ; 
bridges, $811; county offices, $369.81; total expense, $3,541.46, leaving 
on hand, $1,415.44. For the year 1845-46 there was on band at the be- 
ginning $1,415.44; received for merchants' license, $166.47; grocers' 
license, $35.46; county revenue, $2,442.06; delinquent revenues, $514.44; 
total receipts, $4,617.72. The coui'ts cost $114; the poor, $165.92; county 
officers, $406.17; total expense, $2,807.65; leaving on hand, $1,810.07. 
In 1846-47 the receipts for merchants' license were $185.75; grocers' 
license, $47.32; county revenue, $2,646.89; total receipts, $4,787.33. 
The poor cost $335.47; county officers, $464.79; total expense, $2,487.98; 
leaving on hand, $2,299.35. In 1849-50 there was on hand $1,352.61; 
merchants' and grocers' license, $294.15; ferry license, $20; county rev- 
enue, $2,251.54. The total expenses were $2,730.19, and balance on 
hand, $1,188.11 less $92.75 in old orders redeemed. In 1852-53 there 
was on hand $809.31; received from licenses, $311.55; county revenue, 
$3,333.05; total receipts, $4,548.16; poor cost, $796.65; county officers, 


$800.05; total expense, $3,687.79; old orders redeemed, $55.81; leaving 
on hand $804.56. In 1855-56 there was od hand $1,669.65; county rev- 
enue, including delinquency, $7,263.52; the poor cost $1,619.93; county 
officers, $842,43; total expenses. $5,170.40; total receipts, $9,281.68; 
leaving on hand, $4,111.28. In 1857-58 there was on hand $4,154.25; 
county revenue receipts were $8,353.52; total receipts, $12,873.75; coun- 
ty officers cost $1,782.59; poor, $1,940.26; courts, $1,975.27; total ex- 
pense, $9,318.60, leaving on hand, $3,555.15. The cash on hand in 
1859-60 was $4,836.65; county revenue received, $4,923.28; receipts 
from county bonds sold, $2,763; total expenses, $13,203.56. The courts 
cost $1,574.63; county officers, $2,848.08; total expense, $12,400.55; 
leaving on hand $803.01. 

In 1862-63 there was on hand $6,679.13; county revenue, $8,086.56; 
total receipts, $14,795.69; courts cost, $1,109.36; county officers, 
$1,840.12; total expense, $7,821.69; leaving on hand $6,872. In 1864- 
65 there was on hand $6,831.43; county revenue, $11,370.91; from the 
sale of county bonds, $16,245.13; total receipts, $34,930.34; the courts 
cost $1,325.77; county officers, $3,320.76; soldiers' families, $1,260.92; paid 
on county bounty bonds, $13,500; total expense, $29,263.19, leaving on 
hand $5,667. 15. In 1867-68 there was on hand $8,998.91 ; county revenue, 
$11,122.53; bond tax receipts, $10,646.55; new bonds sold, $12,000: 
total receipts, $42,943.69; bridges cost, $5,250.86; courts, $2,306.21; 
bonds redeemed, $11,800; county officers cost, $5,315.46; total expense, 
$36,988.79, leaving on hand $5,954.90. In 1869-70 there was on hand 
$4,098.66; county revenue, $39,554.06; total receipts, $44,270.61; the 
courts cost, $3,965.92; public buildings cost, $4,522.10; county officers, 
$4,078.29; agricultural society, $360; total expense, $26,987.57, leaving 
on hand $17,283.04. In 1871-72 the receipts from the sale of the old 
court house were $552.50; county bonds sold, $50,000; county officers 
cost, $7,444.03; public buildings cost, $60,456; public square cost, 
$2,707.61, there was left on hand $11,932.82. The next year $20,443. 71 
was spent on public buildings, and $2,453.76 on the public square. In 
1872-73 there was on hand $11,932.82; receipts from bonds sold, $7,000; 
county revenue, $42,630.76; total receipts, $63,305.88; county officei's 
cost, $6,427.71; the courts, $2,002.69; county bonds redeemed, $7,000; 
interest paid on county bonds, $5,375; total expense, $36,141.14; leaving 
on hand, $27,164.74. In 1875-76 there was on hand $22,140.67; county 
revenue, $40,357.63; bonds paid, $17,000; interest on bonds, $3,513.86; 
the courts cost, $4,448.20; county officers cost, $6,211.34; balance on 
hand, $15,766.71. In 1877-78 the receipts fi*om the sale of bridge 
bonds were $19,800; county revenue was $49,601.43; bridges cost, 
$23,402.07; county officers, $3,983.40; balance on hand, $1,454.78. In 
1879-80 the county revenue was $29,250.92, there being on hand at the 
beginning of the year $6,212.88, the total receipts being $59,549.84. 


Bridges, including $5,000 worth of bonds, cost $7,094:. 13; county officers 
cost, $3,453.85; poor, $7,281.51; total expense, $52,930.08; balance on 
hand, $6,619.76. In 1882-83 there was on hand $9,584.50; county rev- 
enue was $25,156; borrowed from Jesse Johnson, $2,000; total receipts, 
$37,287.62; county officers cost, $4,268,85; poor, $7,437.15; bonds 
redeemed, $4,000; total expenses, $33,353.01. The following is the full 
report of the county for 1883-84: 


Balance in treasury June 1, 1883 $ 3,934 61 

Bridge bonds sold 63,000 00 

Bridge orders sold 4,000 00 

Costs from Monroe County 534 00 

Costs in road cases 30 85 

Interest rebated on bonds sold ' 13 50 

From Ferguson and Benzel 3 00 

From land redemption 344 91 

Costs from Orange County 454 35 

Common scliool fund interest 413 04 

Congressional school fund interest 501 87 

SpecialJudges 350 00 * 

Costs from Greene County 193 80 

Jury fees received 9 00 

Damages and costs received 13 30 

Erroneous tax receipts 55 36 

County revenue 34,305 73 

Bridge revenue 6,144 14 

Total $103,078 36 


Poor $ 6.300 33 

Circuit Court 5,366 51 

Assessing property 1,438 00 

Tax refunded 55 36 

Bridges 55,668 01 

Specific 1,485 66 

County offices 5,157 33 

Jail ■ 353 30 

Public buildings 159 30 

Fox scalps 36 50 

Special Judges 350 00 

Board of Equalization 10 00 

Benevolent institutions 338 30 

Redemption of land 333 18 

Printing 338 10 

Costs and damages * 4 70 

Stationery 1,675 96 

Insanity 1,340 33 

Attorney's fees 338 50 

County Superintendent 1,054 95 

Roads 143 50 

Interest on county orders 319 74 

Fines 433 91 


Inquest 37 10 

Insurance 60 00 

County Institute 50 00 

Mileage of Justices 7 85 

State and county revenue 154 93 

Negotiation of bridge bonds 370 00 

Total $82,950 05 

Bonded indebtedness $63,000 00 

County orders outstanding 6,248 00 

Total county debt $68,248 00 

Isaac H. Crim, Auditor. 


In 1820 4,116 

In 1830 9,234 . 

In 1840 11,782 

In 1850 12,097 

In 1860 13,692 

In 1870 14,628 

In 1880 .18,543 

In 1884 (estimated) 20,000 


The lirst railroad built across the county was the New Albany & Salem 
Railway in 1851-53. So far as known no funds of the county were 
appropriated to assist this project. The citizens, however, individually 
contributed largely to the success of the enterprise. In every instance, 
so far as known, the right-of-way was given. Aside from this, the citi- 
zens in subscribed stock and labor, contributed over $100,000, and gave 
their hearty support to the speedy completion of the road. The next project 
was the Ohio & Mississsippi Railway across the southern portion of the 
county, in 1855-57. No funds of the county were appropriated for this 
enterprise, but, as in the other case, the citizens gave in subscribed stock, 
labor and the right-of-way, a consideration worth more than $100,000. 
In 1870 Marion Township voted 264 for and 169 against a tax of two 
per cent to assist the Rockport & Northern Central Railroad. The tax 
was levied, but not collected, the road having been abandoned. In 1872 
the question again came up, the township voting 359 for and 239 against 
a two per cent tax. The tax was levied. It was at this time that an 
effort was made to create a new township out of the northern half of 
Marion, to be called White River, but without success. As the road was 
not built the collection of tax was abandoned. Other questions of this 
nature have come before the county, two being the question of aiding the 
Indianapolis & Evansville Mineral Railroad, and the Bedford, Browns- 
town & Madison Railroad. 


The Bedford & Bloomfield Railway (narrow gauge) was built under 


the name the Bedford, Springville, Owensburg & BloomSeld Railway. 
The capital was fixed at $1,000,000, divided into 20,000 shares of $50 
each, and the route covered a distance of thirty-six miles. Clark, Biiel, 
, Donahey & Co. organized in November, 1874, contracted to build 
and equip the road and secure the bonds for the individual stock sub- 
scriptions, the right of way and the township tax of two per cent. The 
first Directors were Jesse A. Mitchell, T. H. Malott, Nathan Hall, John 
D. Thomasson, S. A. Rariden, James W. Palmer, Davis Harrison, Felix 
Armstrong, "Wesley Short, J. N. Conley, W. H. Irwin, Alexander Hat- 
field and Seymour Cobb. The question of furnishing a two per cent tax 
in Shawswick Township, when voted upon in February, 1875, resulted 
402 in favor and 160 against the tax. Perry voted 92 for and 55 against 
a two per cent tax. Indian Creek voted 157 for and 75 against. The tax 
in Shawswick amounted to $42,000; in Perry, to $10,900; in Indian 
Creek, $13,000. In June, 1875, one per cent of this tax was ordered 
levied. In 1875 Conley, Mason & Co., residents of Greene County, 
bought the railroad in its then unfinished condition, but soon afterward 
went into bankruptcy, and the Indianapolis Rolling Mill Company, as 
assignees, took the road in July, 1876, and completed it by October of 
that year, but did not get complete ownership until December, 1882. 
This company, in turn, February, 1883, sold all the stock, bonds, fran- 
chises, and equipments of the road to the Bedford & Bloomfield Railway 
Co. a local organization, which yet owns the property. The first 
officers of the road were: W. O. Rockwood, President; W. C. Winstandly, 
Vice President and Treasurer; C. B. Parkman, Secretary; E. Hul- 
bert, Superintendent. In February, 1884, the company bought the short 
line from Bloomfield to Switz City. The road cost the present company 
a consideration of about $400,000. The principal stockholders at pres- 
ent are: John Thomas, President; W. C. Winstandley, Vice-President and 
Treasurer; J. W. Kennedy, General Superintendent; Aquilla James, W. 
W. Manson, Frank Landers, W. P. Malott, A. C. Voris and others. 


As early as 1819 a bridge 280 feet long and 16 feet wide was built 
over Guthrie Creek on the Palestine & Bono Road, by Samuel and Thomas 
A. Dale, at a cost of over $2,000. The next bridge of note was one 
over Salt Creek, which cost $1,258.15, built in 1832-33. Various other 
bridges in the county prior to 1870 cost a total of over $25,000. Since 
then the following costly bridges have been erected: 

On Salt Creek, 1870 $ 2,400 

On White River at Davis' Ferry 27,000 

On White River at Tunuelton 27,000 

On White River at Dawson's Ferry 25,000 

On White River at Williams' Ferry 19,000 



In Februaiy, 1874, the Mitchell District Medical Society was orcran- 
ized at Mitchell, and comprised the following counties: Lawrence, 
Orangfi, Washington, Martin, Monroe, Owen, Brown, Jackson, Jennings 
and Greene. The first officers were S. A. JRariden, President; E. D. 
Laughlin, Vice-President; G. W. Barton, Secretary; M. D. Grim, 
Treasurer; Joseph Gardner, Corresponding Secretary. In organizing a 
district society, it was thought that by getting together the leading 
physicians over a large tract of country, the causes which usually prove 
the death of country societies within a few years could be avoided. 
Among the members of the profession present at the organization were 
the following: Ben Newland, Hiram Malott, B. J. Hon, A. W. Gray, 
H. C. Dixon, Royce Davis, J. W. Pearson, A. W. Barr, A. L. Berry, 
W. F. Homer, F. Lee, Q. S. Hancock, W. H. Smith, John Burton, 
L. A. Grim, E. S. Mclntire, J. C. Pearson, J. L. W. Yost, J. B. Lar- 
kin, W. A. Burton. Gradually the bounds of the district were enlarged 
until now several States are included. Semi-annual meetings are iield 
alternately at Mitchel and Seymour. The charter members (so to speak), 
of this society, were Ben Newland. E. S. Mclntire, G. W. Burton, 
J. B. Larkin, H. L. Kimberlin and S. A. Rariden. The society is now 
very strong, with 175 members from over a large section of country. 
From this society, as a branch, sprang the Ti-i-State Medical Society of 
Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky, the limits of which have been enlarged 
and changed, the organization being now known as the Mississippi Val- 
ley Medical Society, comprising twenty-two States. The present officers 
of the Mitchell District Society are J. S. Arwine of Columbus, Indiana, 
President; J. B. Shipman of Seymour, Secretary and Treasurer. Much 
of the time of the society is spent in the discussion of scientific subjects. 
This is the most important organization of the kind in this portion of the 
country, but was at first very weak, and largely the laughing stock of 
the local profession. 


The first organization of this kind in the county was in 1853. A 
malpractice suit brought together many physicians, who thereupon held 
a meeting, effected a partial organization, and adopted a code of ethics 
and a fee bill. This organization was short-lived, though many interesting 
meetings were held. In 1864, a meeting was held at Bedford to revive 
the society; the physicians present being: John C. Cavins, W. H. Smith, 
Ben Newland, S. A. Rariden, J. W. Newland, Joseph Stillson, W. 
Burton, J. B. Larkin, Isaac Denson, John A. Blackwell, G. W. Burton, 
W. B. Woodward, F. W. Beard, John Burton, James Dodd, P. G. Pugh, 
A. W. Bare, T. P. Conley, H. C. Malott, H. L. Kimberlin, J. T. Biggs, 
J. J. Durand, Hiram Malott, John Gunn and perhaps others. The organ- 
ization seems to have been postponed to 1866, at which time it was 



effected, and was then conducted for several years with much profit to 
the members. It has continued until the present. .In about 1875, it 
became a branch of the State Medical Society, and is thus at present. 
The officers of 1883, were E. D. Laughlin, President; E. S. Mclntire, 
Vice-President; G. W. Burton, Secretary; C. E. Rariden, Assistant 
Secretary; S. A. Rariden, Treasurer; W. H. Smith, A. L. Berry and 
Hamilton Stillson, Censors. This very short and imperfect sketch can- 
not be improved, owing to the loss of the records. 


So far as can be learned the county during its early history was Demo- 
cratic with a majority varying all the way from very small to several 
hundred. The election returns were not preserved and definite statements 
cannot be given. The vote given below during the fifties, exhibits the 
average Democratic majority. In some cases if the man was unusually 
prominent and popular, he went in though a Whig. This was often the 
case as will be seen elsewhere in this chapter. The free soil movement 
in the forties had but little following in the county. From 1858 to 1860 
this county gradually became Republican and has thus remained to the 
present. The Greenback or Inde'pendent party has had respectable sup- 
port. The following exhibit illustrates the political situation since 1852 : 

November, 1852. 


TOWSHIPS. Pierce and Scott aad 

King. Graham. 

Shawswick 317 244 

Bono 64 84 

Marion 109 248 

Spice Valley 32 136 

Indian Creek 112 100 

Perry 130 159 

Pleasant Run 161 41 

Flinn 188 42 

Total 1113 1054 

November, 1856. 


TOWNSHIPS. Buchanan and Fremont and Fillmore and 

Breckinridge. Dayton. Donelson. 

Shawswick 268 196 92 

PleasantRun 158 24 16 

Marshall 91 40 9 

Perry 57 110 33 

Indian Creek 78 45 63 

Spice Valley 28 14 125 

Marion 148 17 219 

Bono 87 30 67 

Flinn 211 4 37 

Total 1126 480 660 



For Governor, O. P. Morton (Republican) received 1,061 votes and A. 
P. Willard (Demoorat) 1,079. J. W. Dawson (Republican) received 1,041 
for Secretary of State, and Daniel McClure (Democrat) 1,080. In 1858 
McClure (Democrat) received 1,065 for Secretaiy of State and Peelle 
(Republican) 1,057. In 1860 H. S. Lane (Republican) received 1,272 
for Governor and Thomas A. Hendricks (Democrat) 1,143. For Secretary 
of State W. H. Schlater (Democrat) received 1,107, and W. A. Peelle 
(Republican) 1 , 233. At this time the Republicans had a decided majority. 

November, 1860. 


TOWNSHIPS. Lincoln Douglas 

and Hamlin, and Johnson. 

Shawswick 317 130 

Bono 80 87 , 

Marion 217 167 

Spice Valley 132 91 

Indian Creek 96 66 

Perry 141 41 

Marshall 79 ' 18 

Pleasant Run 55 96 

Flinn .• 41 101 

Total 1158 787 



and Lane. 

and Everett 





















November, 1864. 


TOWNSHIPS. Lincoln McClellan 

and Johnson, and Pendleton. 

Shawswick.. 378 308 

Bono 87 67 

Marion 298 132 

Spice Valley 180 59 

Marshall 63 62 

IndianCreek 130 71 

Perry 129 49 

Pleasant Run 100 124 

Flinn 58 215 

Total 1423 1087 

In 1862 the vote for Secretary of State was: W. A. Peelle (Repub- 
lican) 1,154; J. S. Athon (Democrat) 1,208. In 1864 the vote for Gov- 
ernor was: 0. P. Morton (Republican) 1,462; J. E. McDonald (Demo- 
crat) 1,183; for Secretary of State: Trussler (Republican) 1,441; Athon 
(Democrat) 1,199. In 1866, for Secretary of State: Trussler (Repub- 
lican) received 1,811, Manson (Democrat) 1,427. 


November, 1868. 


TOWNSHIPS. Grant' Seymour 

and Colfax. and Blair. 

Shawswick 386 306 

Marion 386 205 

Bono 124 77 

Spice Valley 255 129 

Guthrie 85 158 

Flinn 51 145 

Pleasant Run 134 174 

Marshall 81 87 

Perry 140 51 

Indian Creek 139 136 

Total 1781 1468 

November, 1872. 


TOWNSHIPS. Grant Greeley 

and Wilson. and Brown. 

Shawswick 395 321 

Marion 410 249 

Indian Creek 160 105 

Perry 136 58 

Pleasant Run 119 170 

Flinn 46 146 

Guthrie 88 178 

Bono 128 78 

Spice Valley 275 100 

Marshall 76 98 

Totals 1833 1503 

In 1868, for Governor, Conrad Baker (Republican) received 1,752; 
T. A. Hendricks (Democrat) 1,529; for Secretary of State: M. F. A. 
Hoffman (Republican) 1,756; R. C. Kise (Democrat) 1,523. In 1870, for 
Secretary of State: Hofifman (Republican) received 1,693; Norman Eddy 
(Democrat) 1,489. In 1872, for Governor: Hendricks (Democrat) received 
1,680; T. M. Brown (Republican) 1,889: for Secretary of State: O. M. 
Eddy (Democrat) 1,661; W. W. Curry (Republican) 1,899. In 1874 for 
Secretary of State, Curry (Republican) 1,742; J. E. Nefif (Democrat) 
1,617. In 1876, for Governor, Benjamin Harris (Republican) received 
1,934; J. D. Williams (Democrat) 1,674; for Secretary of State: B. L. 
Robertson (Republican) 1,913; J. P. Gray (Democrat) 1,655. 



November, 1876. 


TOWNSHIPS. Hayes and Tilden and Cooper and 

Wheeler. Hendricks. Cary. 

Shawswick 424 334 16 

Marion 458 267 7 

bpice Valley 285 182 — 

Bono 142 87 2 

Marshall 58 106 23 

Perry 119 53 11 

Guthrie 92 179 — 

IndianCreek 189 136 10 

Flinn 61 150 6 

Pleasant Run 113 175 15 

Total 1941 1669 90 

In 1878 for Secretary of State, I. S. Moore (Repablican) received 
1,816; John G. Shanklin (Democrat) 1,735; Henry James (Independent) 
207. In 1880 for Governor, A. G. Porter (Republican) received 2,094; 
Franklin Landers (Democrat) 1,682; Richard Gregg (Independent) 175. 
In 1882 for Secretary of State, E. R. Hawn (Republican) received 2,064; 
W. R. Myers (Democrat) 1,531; H. Z. Leonard, (Independent) 122. 

November, 1880. 


Garfield Hancock Weaver 

TOWNSHIPS. and and and 

Arthur. English. Chambers. 

Shawswick 526 364 33 

Marion 459 259 22 

Spice Valley 267 154 2 

Bono 120 96 10 

Marshall 65 119 16 

Perry 128 63 3 

Guthrie 121 158 2 

IndianCreek 198 149 14 

Flinn 50 146 8 

Pleasant Run 123 193 36 

Total 2057 1701 146 




History of the Bench and Bar— First Session of the Court— Offi- 
CERS AND Attorneys — Early Suits — Phillis the Slave — Pales- 
tine — Sentence of the Lash — The first EesidentJAttorney-Other 
Practitioners— Larceny and Slander Suits— The Circuit Judges 
— The Records— Sundry Items of Interest— Character of How- 
ard, Thompson and Dunn— The Kress-Fellows Case— The New 
Constitution — The Hitchcock Murder Case— The Homicide of 
Peters— The Saunders Murder Case— The New Court house— The 
Morrow Murder Case— The Homicide of Carney— The Narrow 
Gauge Railroad Suits— General Observations. 

THE first entry in the records of the Lawrence Circuit Court is as 
Be it remembered that, at the Circuit Court in and for the 1st Circuit, begun 
and held at the house of Jas. Gregory, in the County of Lawrence, and State of 
Indiana, on the 4th day of June, 1818. Present: Hon. Thos. H. Blake, President. 

John Milroy, ) Associates .> 
Wm. Erwin, \ associates. ^ 

The house of James Gregory was situated on Leatherwood, three 
miles East of where Bedford now is, and on the David Ikerd farm, now 
belonging to Capt. Isaac Newkirk. The old house has disappeared, Jas. 
Gregory was one of the real pioneers of Indiana. He came from North 
Carolina to Indiana in 1813, and settled in Washington County. He 
was a " Ranger " in the war in 1814, and a mess-mate of Joseph Rawlins, 
still living. In 1818, he removed to Lawrence County, and settled on the 
farm mentioned. In 1820, he represented this and other counties in the 
Legislature. In 1822, he removed to Shelby County, and we soon 
find him representing that county in the Legislature, at Corydon. De- 
termined to keep in the advance of civilization, we again find him in 
1831,'removing to Warren County, He went, in May of 1842, to Yuca- 
tan, on a trading expedition, and there died of yellow fever. He was an 
estimable man, and the father of Hon, R, C. Gregory, since one of the 
Judges Supreme Court of the State of Indiana, 

the first circuit judges. 
Judge Blake's name appears as "for the plaintiff" in the first case 
reported in the Supreme Court, and we find him a candidate for the 
United States Senate in 1839, and beaten by Albert S. White. Associate 
Justice John Milroy afterward removed to the northern part of the State, 
and was the father of Gen. Milroy, whose military history is familiar. 
William Erwin was the father of the late William Erwin of this county, 


and grandfather of the present Recorder of the county. He was a man 
of fine abilities, and of an integrity which he has transmitted to the 
present generation. Their commissions were signed by Jonathan Jen- 
nings, as Governor, and R. A. New, as Secretary of State. Blake was 
sworn in by Davis Floyd, of the Second Circuit, and " Made oath on the 
Holy Evangelists of Almighty God," Each was sworn to support the 
Constitution of the United States, and of the State of Indiana, and to 
discharge his respective duties as Judge ; and took the further (iron 
clad) oath prescribed by an " Act more effectually to prevent duelling." 
John Lowrey filed his bond as Clerk, with Ezekiel Blackwell, Samuel 
G. Hoskins and Joel Vandeveer as securities. At this tex'm John F, 
Ross, of Charlestown, and afterward Judge of the Circuit, was admitted 
to the bar as an attorney and counsellor at law, and appointed prosecu- 
tor during the pleasure of the court. The first Grand Jury sworn and 
charged was constituted as follows : Jeremiah Rankin, Foreman ; 
James Fulkerson, John Horton, William Leaky, Samuel G. Hoskins, 
Reuben Kilgore, Isaac Anderson, Robert Brooks, James Muudle, Thomas 
Henton, David Cummings, William Tulley, Daniel Piles, Isaac Mitchell, 
Dixon Brown, Joel Vandeveer, John Ikerd and Beverly Gregory — with 
Malchiah Cummons as Bailiff. The record fails to give the name of 
the Sheriff, but it was probably Joseph Glover, whom we fiud serving 
as Sheriff for many years. The old tiles of the court, which would con- 
tain the name of the Sheriff, are all lost or destroyed, and many matters 
of interest to the curious thus left in obscurity. 


At this term (the first) Ebenezer McDonald, George R. C. Sullivan 
and John Law were admitted to the bar. Eli Powell, was indicted for an 
assault and battery on Thomas House, and by way of making all things 
even, Thomas House was indicted for a like indignity on the person of 
Eli Powell. Joseph Thompson was indicted for assaulting Richard 
Evans, and Richard Evans was indicted for repaying Thompson in kind. 
William F. Thompson was indicted for sending a "challenge." Whether 
the hostile meeting ever took place, and the wounded honor of the par- 
ties healed there is now no means of knowing. Who this Thompson 
" with a p " was, and what was the occasion of his desire to resort to the 
code of honor is likewise obscured in the mazy past. At the March term 
of the next year the indictment was " 7iol. prossed " for the reason that 
"he was not an inhabitant of the State, and the statute under which he 
was indicted had been repealed." It is interesting to note the character 
of the offences against the peace and dignity of the State at that early 
day. At the September term, 1818, the court was the same as before, and 
Jeremiah Rowland, William Hoggett, Isaac Naylor and Henry Stephen 
were admitted to the bar. It should be borne in mind that the circuit at 


that time consisted of several counties, and that most of the attorneys ac- 
companied the Judge in his circuit, Lawrence County had no resident 
attorney. Rowland came in the train (not railroad) from Salem, and 
Naylor from Charlestown. Both continued their practice here until the 
home attorneys took it up. The cases of the State against Thompson and 
Evans indicted at the last term for an assault upon each other came up, 
and each was fined $1 upon a plea of guilty. The case of Thomas House, 
charged with an assault and battery on the person of Eli Powell, came 
up, and in answer to the ominous question, " Are you guilty or not 
guilty?" he answered "Guilty, your honor," whereupon his honor 
assessed a tine of $10 "for the use of the seminaries of learning of Law- 
rence County." Did any body ever see one of the " seminaries of learn- 
ing" in Lawrence County at that day? The case of Eli Powell, charged 
with having assaulted the culprit in the last case came up, whereupon he 
•entered a plea of " not guilty," and " put himself upon the country," and 
the Prosecuting Attorney "did the like." The Court said "Let a jury 
come," and the jury came as follows: Robert Mitchell, John Leaky, 
Joseph Rawlins, James Cully, Albert Howard, William Elrod, George 
McNight, John Gardner, William Dougherty, Robert Hunter, Joseph 
Sullivan and James Garten, " good and lawful men," who, after due con- 
sideration, found him "not guilty," and he was permitted to "go without 


The court proceeded with the call of the docket and the next, and 
first civil case ever tried in the county, was called: Susannah Witcher vs. 
Phillis (a woman of color) — Recognizance. On the issue made Susannah 
"put herself upon the country," and Phillis — Phillis had no country to 
" put herself upon," and so the court put her upon Susannah's country, 
and the jury came, the same as in the case just tried. 

The evidence being heard, of course Phillis nor any of her color could 
testify against Susannah, because she was white — and the jury having 
duly deliberated, they returned into court with the following verdict: 
"We the jury find Phillis to be the property of Susannah Witcher." This 
is the brief history of " Phillis." The record shows that "John Brown" 
entered himself as security for her further appearance in court. The 
writer does not know who this John Brown was, but while this was 
going on there was, beyond the wide wilderness to the East, a boy by the 
name of "John Brown," who probably never heard of Phillis, and not 
far to the South another by the name of Abe Lincoln, of whom Phillis 
probably never heard, who were being raised up for the very purpose of 
making it possible for Phillis and all of her "color" to put themselves 
upon their country. Probably Joseph Rawlins is the only one of those 
whose names have been so far mentioned who is yet alive, and he has no 
recollection of " Phillis," or her case. 


The first civil judgment taken was by James Kitcbell against John 
Brown for $73, and was stayed by Patrick Callan. At this term there 
were twelve indictments returned — eleven of them for assault and bat- 
tery, four of these were against John Anderson, one each on the bodies 
of John Laughlin, James Cusick, Francis Williams and Robert Erwin. 
There was a plea of guilty in each case, and a fine of 50 cents in three 
cases and $15 in the other. John Anderson was the "buMy" of that 
day, and got in his work pretty well ia one of these cases, and hence 
the excessive fine of $15. 


At the March term, 1819, Gen. \V. Johnson j)resented his commission 
from the Governor, as Judge of the First Circuit, and took his seat as 
President Judge. Because of his military title or name, or because of 
relationship to Col. Richard M. Johnson, the slayer of Tecumseh, his 
oath of ofldce contained these words: "Also that I have neither directly 
or indirectly given, accepted or knowingly carried a challenge to any per- 
son or persons, to tight a single combat, or othei'wise, with any deadly 
weapon, either in or out of this State, since the 29th day of June, 1816; 
and that I will not directly give, accept or knowingly carry a challenge 
to any person or persons, to tight in single combat or otherwise, with any 
deadly weapon either in or out of this State, during my continuance in 
office. * * " This oath of office was administered by a Justice of the 
Peace in Knox County. 

At this term Robert Holly, Jr., and "NVinthrop Foote were admitted 
to practice. Perhaps no man in Lawrence County was better known in 
the county than Dr. Foote. He was born and brought up in Connecti- 
cut, and had superior advantages of an early education, and which he 
had diligently improved. He was a man of eccentric manners, of ex- 
tended information, of pungent wit, and of tine conversational powers ; 
and though admitted to the bar, he continued for some time in the prac- 
tice of the law, his chosen profession, and that in which he excelled, was 
that of medicine, and he belongs rather to another chapter. 


The following order is of record: "Ordered that Joseph Benefield 
be allowed $2 for the use of a house, for a court house at this term." The 
grand jurors were allowed $1.50 each for the term. For the benent of 
courts and counsel who so often have trouble over lost papers, it may not 
be amiss to copy a rule of court adopted at this term. " The Clerk of this 
court shall not suffer the papers in any case to be taken from his office 
at any time, nor daring the term from the coui't house but by one of the 
Judges." During a long practice nothing has more perplexed the writer 
than the facility with which important papers could be lost just when 
they wore needed. It was often very annoying, but seldom occasioned 


serious results, as they invariably as mysteriously turned up after court 
adjourned. In a case requiring publication, it was ordered to be made 
in the Tocsin published in Salem. 


lu June, 1819, the first term of the court was held at Palestine, " at 
the court house. " This court house was built of brick, and was in a 
town of 500 or 600 people, and yet few people in the county know where 
its site was. Like the ancient city of Troy it can only be found by 
excavation. It was beantifuUy located on the banks of White River, on 
the plateau now owned by Thomas Dodd, Esq. It continued to be the 
seat of justice of the county until 1825, when the inhabitants, finding 
it impossible to live there on account of fever and ague removed it 
bodily to where the town of Bedford now stands. At this June Term, 
Jonathan Doty, Esq., produced his commission as Presiding Judge of the 
Circuit. Daniel Shell and James R. Higgins were admitted to practice. 
The first divorce granted in the county, was entered at this term, where- 
by the " bonds of matrimony existing between Benjamin Dawson and 
Nancy Dawson, were forevei' disolved." It would surprise any one to 
know how many had since been granted. For the edification of attorneys 
bringing suits on "iron clad" notes, it may interesting to know that at 
this term judgment was rendered in favor of John Duganfor $1,308, the 
judgment of the court closing with the ominous words, " and the defend- 
ant in mercy, etc." The following receipt is on the margin: "Received 
my fee in full $5, of the son of the plaintiff, for obtaining this judg- 
ment, July 10, 1837, W. Foote." As every judgment for money then 
closed with the formal words, "and the defendant in mercy, etc." it has 
occasioned some inquiry as to what it meant. One attorney has sug- 
gested that it was commending him to the mercy of theSheriif, to whom 
an execution would issue, and that acting upon the suggestion, Sherifi^s 
became more and more lenient, until finally it has become almost impos- 
sible, especially when they are candidates for re-election, to get them to 
execute the process at all. Another says that, like the solemn appeal at 
the close of the death-sentence, it is a last appeal for mercy to the 
insatiable attorney for the plaintiff, who will probably show him no 
quarter. In truth it is a now obsolete phrase which meant that the 
defendant was " amerced" or punished for his delay of justice. 

At the October term, 1819, the first entry is "John Martin, one of 
the traverse jurors was called and appeared in coui-t, and refused to 
swear, as required by the court, for which offense the court ordered that 
he make his fine to the State in the sum of |1." Martin paid his fine 
and kept his conscience. In illustration of the old practice, in a case 
where a non- suit was ordered, "John Gardner, one of the jurors was 
withdrawn, and the rest of the jury was discharged from rendering their 


verdict." Thus the plaintiff reserved the right to bring his suit again, 
John Ross resigned his office as Prosecutor and Winthrop Foote was 
appointed in his room. » 


At the March term, 1820, John R. Porter was admitted to the bar. 
He died at Corydon a year ago. At this term came on for trial the indict- 
ment for larceny. The case was "The State of Indiana vs. John Work- 
man," and is not without interest. The defendant for plea said he was 
not guilty, and put himself upon the country, and the jury came as fol- 
lows: David Green, John Short, David Love, James Fulkei'son, John 
Grey, Robert Hunter, Joseph Rawlins, Samuel Simons, George Sheeks, 
William Elrod, John Bates and Samuel McBride. The evidence being 
heard and duly considered the jury returned into court with the follow- 
ing verdict: " We of the jury find the defendant guilty, and assess his 
tine at $1, and that he receive five stripes. " Motion was made in arrest 
of judgment, and overruled, notwithstanding the fact that one of the 
reasons assigned was that one member of the grand jury finding the bill 
was on the traverse jury. Probably the learned attorney should have 
asked a new trial. The record proceeds to say that the defendant was 
three times solemnly called and came not, but wholly made default. The 
only living member of the jury when interviewed about this verdict said: 
"I don't remember it, but it was right." It was only sixty-four years 
ago. Suit was brought at this term by the Commissioners of the County 
vs. Robert M. Carlton, Alexander Walker, Reuben Kilgore, George 
Sheeks, Pleasant Parks, Edward Johnson and Joshua Taylor, and the 
damages laid at $25,000. It never came to trial, and probably was on 
some bond and amounted to little. 

At the June term, 1820, Charles Dewey, Esq., and Hugh S. Ross 
were admitted to practice. Mr. Dewey lived first at Paoli and then at 
Charlestown, but continued to practice at this bar, and at a later date 
was associated with Col. R. W. Thompson. He was a lawyer of rare 
ability, and in 1836 was made one of the Supreme Judges of the State, 
which position he long filled with great ability. At this term there were 
twenty-one indictments returned by the grand jury: fifteen for assault 
and battery, four for affray, one for passing counterfeit money, and one 
for "marking a hog with intent to steal." The more refined mode of 
settling difficulties with pistols and knives had not yet come into vogue, 
and hence we see that though the population was sparse, and the grand 
jury met four times a year, there were nineteen cases for settling difficul- 
ties by the more cowardly method of attacking an enemy openly and 
even-handed. Commend us rather to that kind of manhood. 


At the October term, 1820, James Bramin and Rollin C. Dewey were 


admitted to practice. Mr. Dewey was the drst resident attorney of 
the county. He was a Massachusetts man, an accomplished scholar, and 
well read in the law, yet at the bar he was in many respects, a signal 
failure. In his efforts to addi'ess the court or jury his ideas were rambling 
and confused. To use the elegant language of Judge Carlton, at a much 
later day, when he was characterizing the effort of an opponent, he was 
in the habit of "slashing round" without making any point clear. After 
repeated efforts to obtain a practice and standing at the bar he was elected 
a Justice of the Peace, a position for which he was highly qualified, and 
in which he was successful and popular. He was an adept in drafting 
^egal instruments of all kinds, an elegant scribe, and had he lived at a 
later day or in an older community would have been a successful office 
lawyer. He died of cholera in 1832. At this term a jury assessed a fine 
of 37 J cents on John Bailey for assaulting Winthrop Foote, the Pros- 
ecuting Attorney; and the State having again complained of "John 
Anderson," heretofore mentioned, for assaulting a neighbor, they fixed 
his fine at "$6,401." Evidently the scales of justice tipped the beam 
at the tenth of a cent in the delicate fingers of the gentlemen of this 
jury. Probably the wisdom of a modern court would set aside the ver- 
dict on the suspicion that they had made an aggregate of their several 
judgments au J divided by twelve. At this term it was also '* Ordered 
that W. Foote, Prosecuting Attorney, be allowed the sum of $75 for 
service during the year." On the margin is found in Dr. Foote's hand- 
writing the characteristic endorsement " Rejected." William Fields pre- 
sented his commission as Associate Judge for the term of seven years, 
and being qualified took his seat. 

The case of Robert M. Carlton, agent of the county, vs. Joseph Glover, 
Sheriff, came on for trial, and it was " considered by the court, that the 
defendant go hence without day." This is the first time that the name 
of the Sheriff appears, but it is probable that Glover was Sheriff from 
the beginning [See chapter on organization of the county. — Ed. J 
"Ordered by the court that the 'Prison Bounds,' for the county of 
Lawrence be as follows: Beginning southwest, in the town of Palestine, 
at Lot No. 259; thence east with Bluff Street to the east corner of 
Lot No. 107; thence north with Meeting Street to the north corner 
of Lot No. 93; thence west to the west corner of Lot No. 272; thence 
south to the beginning." As the town of Bedford is laid off with lots 
corresponding to those in Palestine, the curious can trace these lines in 
Bedford, aad find that the debtor had more room in which to wait for 
some relief to "turn up" than " Micawber" did. 


At the November term of this year, Craven P. Hester was admitted to 
practice. He resided at Bloomington and was well known not only to 


the bar, but to the people of the State. The first trial on charge of lar- 
ceny, came up at this term, " The State vs. Young." The jury found as 
follows: "We, the jury, lind the defendant guilty as charged in the first 
count of the indictment, and that the property mentioned in the said 
county has not been restored to the said Joseph Trimble, and do more- 
over find and award that the said defendant pay to the said Trimble the 
sum of $20, and do also assess the fine of said defendant at 1 cent, and 
further find and award that the defendant be confined in the State prison 
at Je£fersonville, at hard labor for the term of five months." The judg- 
ment on this verdict was arrested. It may be of interest to attorneys to 
note that until long after this time a motion to quash an indictment was 
not made. Its sufficiency was never tested until after the accused had 
taken his chances with a jury, then, should the verdict be against him, 
he went to the court with the indictment on motion in arrest. 


At the March term, 1822, the Hon. William W. Wick, of another 
circuit was present and presided. He resigned his judgeship at the end 
of three years, because, as he said, " it was starving him out." He was 
" a fellow of infinite jest," and better fitted for a politician, which he 
afterward became, than the bench. At the June term Judge Wick was 
again present, and Addison Smith, John Kingsbury and Thomas M. 
Allien were admitted to practice,'and the " court certifying that Henry A. 
Coward and James Whitcomb, applicants for admission to the bar, are 
persons of good moral character," they were also admitted. 

Gov. Whitcomb was then a young man, and had just settled at Bloom - 
ington. He continued to practice, as occasion called for it, at this bar 
until 1836. Perhaps no man in Indiana became better or more favorably 
known than he. He was for some time Commissioner of the General 
Land Office ; twice Governor of the State, and died while a member of 
the United States Senate. He was a good scholar, an able lawyer, and 
though a strong partizan, a statesman whose life was beyond reproach. 
At this term the first "change of venue" was granted. In the case of 
Ezekiel Blackwell and Henry Lee vs. James Chess, the case was sent on 
change of venue to Bartholomew County. 


At the September term, 1822, the Hon. Ben Blackwell produced his 
commission as Associate Judge for the term of seven years, took the oath 
to support the Constitution? fight no duel, and discharge the duties of his 
office to the best of his ability. At this term came to trial the first slan- 
der suit in the county. James L. Mitchell vs. Thomas McMannis. (The 
only one of the jurors now living is Stever Younger.) The jury returned 
a verdict for plaintiff of $35, and the wound was healed. It may not be 
true that this was the first slander suit, as under the old practice the cause 


might be entitled as "Trespass on the case," and as the papers cannot 
be found, many such cases may have been for slanderous words spoken. 
It is noteworthy, however, that for many years after this many of the 
cases were of this character. Litigation is like many other things, and 
each class of cases must have its rage. At one term not long after this, 
there were eleven slander cases on the docket, and the old citizens have 
not forgotten the case of "Glover against Foote," which was so long on 
the docket and so bitterly contested. The venue was changed to Monroe 
County, where the plaintifif had judgment, from which an appeal was 
taken to the Supreme Court and there reversed. Other cases grew out of 
it, and not only the parties but their friends became involved in it. 
The lawyers were, perhaps, the only parties benefitted by it, and perhaps 
they were not even paid for their pains. Attorneys may do well to heed 
the advice of Judge Parsons, late of Harvard University, when lecturing 
on this subject: "Young gentlemen, you will find that cases of this kind 
will be the first you will have to undertake. Older lawyers will shun 
them and they will be brought to you. Be very careful before you un- 
dertake such cases, to see that you have a case, and that it does not only 
exist in the vindictive imagination of your client." Of late years such 
cases rarely appear on the docket, 


At the March term, 1823, there were present Judge Wick and his asso- 
ciates, Field and Blackwell. The Presiding Judge directed a certificate 
to be spread of record, showing the condition of the Clerk's office for the 
preceding year: "That the duties aforesaid have, during the time afore- 
said, been discharged in a manner indicative of industry, faithfulness 
and competency. Some improvement in neetness and mechanical execu- 
tion and in technicality and conciseness of style might be made, and are 
earnestly recommended." It is noticeable that in the entry of this order 
there is one interlineation of several words, and several erasures by draw- 
ing the pen through the words to be erased. It may be as well to observe 
in this connection that in the main, the records of Lawrence County have 
been remarkably well kept. The nest Clerk, Robert Mitchell, kept the 
record very neatly, and was complimented by the Judge for the manner 
in which his duties were performed. His deputy, Samuel Mitchell, still 
living in retirement in Bedford, wrote the finest hand on the docket up 
to that time. Mr. Clark kept the records in good shape, and his deputy, 
Greorge A. Thornton, Esq., both while deputy and afterward as Clerk, 
made a model Clerk, writing an unusually even hand, and being himself 
a lawyer, his entries and forms were concise in style and technically cor- 
rect. He perhaps did more to give form and tone to the records of the 
county than any other man in it. His deputy, Charles T. Woolfolk, fol- 
lowed his stvle and made a most excellent Clerk, as have all his succes- 


sors. No defalcations have ever taken place in the office, and the interests 
of litigants and the public have been carefully guarded, It would be 
passing by an efficient officer not to say that the present deputy, Joseph 
Giles, Esq., who has tilled that place for ten years past, has made a most 
laithfial and agreeable servant of the public. His record is neatly and 
artistically kept, and his genial urbanity is proverbial. It is a pleasure 
thus to be able to commend the officers of the court, and this is the testi- 
mony of one of long practice in this and other counties. 


At the June term, 1883, Edgar C. Wilson, Henry P. Thornton, 
Thomas H. Blake (formerly Judge of the Circuit), and James Whitcomb> 
were admitted. Whitcomb's admission seems to have been a repetition, 
his former admission having probably been forgotten. Thornton was an 
attorney of the old school, having been born in North Carolina, educated 
in Kentucky, and trained in all the courts of southern Indiana. In Ken- 
tucky he met the ablest men of the day at the bar, and was the friend 
and ardent admirer of Henry Clay. In southern Indiana he met and 
measured lances with such men as Amos Lane, James Marshall, Carpen- 
ter, Stevens, Howk, Harbin H. Moore and many others. He afterward 
removed to Bedford, Lawrence County, where he resided for many years. 
He was not a great lawyer — lacking in legal acumen, and in the power 
to convince and control the court or jury. His generous disposition, and 
especially in his later years, led him to yield too much to his opponent, 
and the wily adversary could, and usually did, take every advantage of 
this disposition. But he was an industrious, hard-working and pains- 
taking lawyer, and to the last term through which he lived he might be 
seen making his way to the court house, tall, commanding, and straight 
as an arrow with his carefully endorsed papers in his arm. Maj. Thorn- 
ton was well and favorably known throughout his circuit, and was an 
exemplification of the old adage, that " lawyers live a good while, work 
hard and die poor." In a divorce case — John Connelly vs. Susannah 
Connelly, it was " ordered that publication be made in the Indiana Farmer 
published at Salem." It was further "Ordered that RoUin C. Dewey 
be appointed Prosecuting Attorney, for and during the pleasure of the 
court, in the room of Winthrop Foote, resigned. 

There being no "Narrow Gauge" railroads to occupy the time of the 
courts with costly litigation, attention was turned to the public high- 
ways of the county, and we find three indictments returned against Super- 
visors of Highways, one each against Elijah Curry, Hiram Donica and 
Bartholomew Thatcher. Each gave bail for his appearance at the next 
term of the court. In the interest of economy, not to say of the peace of 
the neighborhood, these cases were af terwai'd all nol. prossed. At this 
term the first alien declared his intention to become a citizen, and the 


first was naturalized. Samuel Wilson, after being sworn, said that, as 
he believed, he was born " in the parish of Doneghmore, in the county 
of Donegal, in the kingdom of Ireland. * * That he set out for the 
United States of America, from the port of Londonderry on the 20th day 
of April, 1819, * * and arrived in New York on the 1st day of July, 
1819. * * That he was six feet two or three inches high, of fair com- 
plexion, fair hair and blue eyes. * *" He further declared his inten- 
tion to become a citizen of the United States. Samuel Lockhart came 
into court, and having heretofore declared his intention so to do, was 
solemnly naturalized, and renounced his allegiance to the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland, and more especially to George IV. 


At the April term, 1824, the Hon. John F. Ross filed his commission 
as Judge of the Second Circuit and took his seat. His commission was 
signed by Gov. William Hendricks. John H. Sampson was admitted to 
the bar. John A. Smith made an application to be declared entitled to 
the benefit of the laws of the United States, in aid of Revolutionary 
soldiers. He says he served in the First Regiment of Artillery, com- 
manded by Col. Marshall, in the Virginia line, etc. He says he is aged 
sixty-six years, that his wife is aged twenty- six years; that he has foui" 
children, too yoiing to be of service to him; that he is constantly afflicted 
with rheumatism and is poor, etc. A list or schedule of his little prop- 
erty is given, to the correctness of which the court certifies, and he 
probably became a pensioner of the Government. A number of like 
applications were made about this time. 


* The first trial on a charge of "arson " occurred at this term. The 
State vs. James Taylor, Pleasant Taylor and William Leaky. James 
Taylor and Leaky were acquitted, but Pleasant was less fortunate and 
got one year in the State's prison. A new trial was, however, afterward 
granted, because the "jury dispersed and mingled with the people after 
retiring to consult, etc." Instead of being locked up in a jury room, 
they were probably sent, in care of a bailiff, to a neighboring shade 
tree, as was often done. The following is also of record: "On motion 
of Jere Rowland, Esq., it is ordered that it be certified that Daniel Rog- 
ers, who is an applicant for license to practice law, is a gentleman of 
honesty, probity and good demeanor. " Ebenezer Post makes application 
to be declared entitled to the benefits of the act, in aid of soldiers of the 
Revolution. Says he has " one cow, one yearling, a bed and household 
furniture not exceeding $10 in value, and a contract for the value 6f 
three barrels of whisky due him in Kentucky, which it is doubtful if he 
ever gets, that he has eight children scattered abroad in the world," etc. 


"Wearing out a case" was not unknown, even at that early day. Rollin 
C. Dewey was appointed Master in Chancery. 


At the April term, 1823, tha Hoas. William CDanelly and Joha D. 
Laughlin, presented their commissions and were qaalilied as Associate 
Justices. John Lowrey presented his commission as Clerk of the Cir- 
cuit Court, for the term of seven years, he having already served as such 
for seven years. He gave bond in the sum of 12,001) with Winthx'op 
Foote, Moses Fell and Joseph Rawlins as securities. Reuben W. Nel- 
son, William W. Wick (late Judge) and Hagh L. Livingston, were 
admitted to practice. Mr. Liviugston and Rollin C. Dewey were the 
only resident attorneys of Lawrence County, for several years. Livings- 
ton was a native of South Carolina, born in the city of Charleston. He 
claimed to be a member of the distinguished New York family of that 
name. He was highly educated, eccentric in character, high toned and 
courteous in his manners, and possessed of great fertility of imagination. 
Though well versed in the law, he devoted more time to social enjoy- 
ment, and the "flashes of merriment that were wont to set the table in 
a roar" than to Chitty or Blackstone, or to the ac3umulation of stocks, 
bonds or mortgages. He afterward removed to Bloomfield and continued 
to practice there and at Sullivan for many years. 

At the August term, 1825, John Kingsbury was appointed to prosecute 
the pleas of the State. In a number of cases tried on charge of assault 
and battery, the jury assessed the fine at 25 cents. Robert ]\Iitchell, 
John Payne and Beverly Gregory filed their bond as Trustees for the 
Seminary of Learniug in Township No. 5. In a case requiring publi- 
cation it was directed to be published in the Indiana Intelligencer and 
Farmer^s Friend, published at Charlestown, Ind. 

On the 6th day of February, 1826, the first term of the Circuit Court" 
(special) was held at Bedford. As heretofore stated the town of Pales- 
tine had been removed to Bedford. Each owner of a lot or lots in that 
town taking a like lot or lots in Bedford — the plat being identical. The 
first court was held in a twostory log-house on the east side of the pub- 
lic square, on the ground now occupied by Dr. Gardner's stone front 
building. The front of the house was covered with undressed weather- 
boarding, and destitute of paint. Elsewhere "thechinkin' and the daubin' " 
served to close the open cracks between the logs. The Clerks and Record - 
er's offices were in the upper story. An old citizen says that in pleas- 
ant weather the juries made their verdicts sitting on logs in the rear of 
the building. The times were not so much "otit of joint" then as now, 
or there would have been some fearful ' ' log-rolling " with some of the jur- 
ies. At the August term, 1826, Harbin H. Moore and Milton Stapp were 
admitted to the bar. Gen. Stapp, although a practicing attorney, did not 


devote himself at all exclusively to the practice. His home was in Mad - 
ison, and many of the improvements of that old city, as well as the old 
system of internal improvements in Indiana owe their existence largely 
to him. Every attorney of Indiana and indeed every one who has been at 
all about the courts, is familiar with the character of Harbin Moore. 
He lived at the old State capitol, Corydon, and his wit, humor and inim- 
itable jokes have been repeated throughout the State. 

Our "Bill of Rights" declares that justice shall be administered 
freely and without purchase. Many a poor fellow has thought that jus- 
tice was pretty " costly " before he got it, and some have thought it 
pretty costly after they got it. At this time, however, it was next thing 
to " free " as far as the judges were concerned, for we find the following 
entry: "Ordered that John D. Laughlin and William Connelly, Asso- 
ciate Justices, be allowed and paid out of the county treasury, the sum 
of $24 each for their services for the year last past. " 

At the April term, 1867, N. G. Howard, Henry Haady, Isaac Howk, 
Willi'^m K. Howard and Albert S. White were admitted. Mr. Howk 
was a very able attorney of Charleston, and the father of Judge Howk , 
now of the Supreme Court of the State. 

Mr. White was a scholarly man from New York, and attained a 
greater eminence in politics than in the law. At this time he lived in 
Paoli, but afterward removed to Lafayette. He served his district in 
Congress, the State in the United States Senate, and was afterward again 
in Congress. He was a successful railroad man, and in 1864 was 
appointed Judge of the United States District Court, but soon afterward 


In a case between Robert Dougherty and James Glover, appealed from 
a Justice Court, we find the jury discharged because they were unable to 
agree. This is the first case of the kind in the county, and there was 
probably very little at stake between the pai'ties. Juries have largely 
adopted this practice, and it is now a very common thing for them to ask 
to be discharged for this reason. Very often some " twelfth man' ' on the 
jury finds, to his infinite disgust, that there are eleven very stubborn men 
on the jury. Uncharitable lawyers are wont to attribute this to the cor- 
ruption of " the twelfth man " It would be a pleasant privilege to 
record the opinion that this is never the case. And it is noticeable that 
this opinion is not usually entertained by these men when the "twelfth 
man " is with them. Are we not rather to suppose that the secret of d is- 
agreeing juries lies in the fact that they pay less attention to the instruc- 
tions of the court than formerly? Aud is not this due to the fact that 
the Constitution of 1852 rnade it necessary for the court, in a criminal 
case, to tell the jury, after having fully instructed them as to the law, 
"but you are the exclusive judges of the law," thus telling them that 


they may entirely ignore his instructions as to the law after he has care- 
fully given them. It is very natural that juries should carry this privi- 
lege into civil cases. It is rare that a judge will rebuke a failure to 
regard an instruction of the court, as Judge Bicknell once did in this 
court. He learned that one juror had "hung" a jury that he had dis- 
charged from the trial of the case, and having learned his name, he 
directed the Sheriff to strike his name from the panel and fill his place 
from the bystanders. 

At the August term, 1827, John Farnham was admitted. Edward 
Evans asked to be declared entitled to the provisions of the pension act. 
He says he had neglected to sooner apply, because " through ignorance 
he did not know how to make his application." Evidently the country 
was not then flooded with the circulars of fraudulent pension agents as 
now. Patrick McManus makes a like application, and says he has only 
"one small chestnut mare, one large Bible, one watch and no money." 
It was ordered that the Sheriff be authorized to furnish a suflScient guard 
to safely keep Jameson Hamilton, who had been convicted of an assault 
and battery, with intent to kill one George Miller, and who had appealed 
to the Supreme Court from a five years' sentence to the State's prison. 
It was further ordered that Wier Glover, H. Blevins, William Porter, 
James W. Freeman, Henry Hendricks and Jonathan McConnell be paid 
$1.12 each for guarding Hamilton. In April, 1828, James Collins was 
acmitted to practice. Joseph Glover, Sheriff, files an exhibit of amount 
of fines received by him for the use of the seminaries of learning in Law- 
rence County, amounting to $17.01. It is to be feared that then, as now, 
too little attention was paid to the collection of these fines. An inspec- 
tion of the records will show that the fines assessed in this court, in later 
years against one man, who afterward died by violence, in the city of 
Louisville, amounted away up in the hundreds of dollars, and that in 
each case the order of the court was that he stand committed until such 
fines be paid or replevied. Such an inspection will probably further 
show that not one cent was ever realized to the State therefrom. Indeed 
he was wont to say that he was willing to pay fees, but no fines. 


At the August term was spread of record the opinion of the Supieme 
Court in the case of Ezekiel Blackwell vs. the Board of Justices, of Law- 
rence County. It was a noted case and of importance because others 
depended on its decision. Blackwell refused to take corresponding lots 
in Bedford for his lots in Palestine, and sued the county for the value 
of his lots in that town before the removal of the county seat. The 
Supreme Court reversed the judgment of the court below, and the case 
went to Washington County on change of venue, and was probably com- 


Enos Fletcher was admitted to practice at the April term, 1829. At 
the August term one case was for " altering hog mark, " and the jury 
(three of whom, Stever Yoanger, Horatio Jeter and Elbert Jeter, still 
live) after investigation returned into court with their verdict of guilty, 
and assessed the punishment of the offender at confinement at hard labor 
for one year. Pork was cheap, but the ear mark of a hog, properly 
recorded, was sacred. For some reason this judgment was arrested, and 
a venire cle novo was ordered; he was acquitted. At this term John 
Lowrey, the Clerk, resigned, and John Brown was appointed Clerk pro 
tern., and gave bond with Moses Fell, William MoClane and James Den- 
son, sureties. 

At the next term Brown was commissioned Clerk for seven years, and 
gave bond in the sum of $2,500. The Clerk now gives bond in $12,000. 
The " Prison Bounds " for the county wore again fixed and consisted of the 
north part of the town of Bedford. 

The name of William B. Slaughter here appears for the first time. 
He was born in Virginia, and now became a resident of Bedford and 
began the practice of law. His ofilce was in a little frame shanty on the 
corner where H. B. Richardson's store now stands. He was a valuable 
young man, a tine writer and qf tine address. As a lawyer he was im- 
practical and visionary, and not calculated to meet the matter-of-fact 
men with whom he came in contact. He represented the county in the 
Legislature, and was soon after appointed Register of the Land OfiBces in 
Michigan, and was a few years ago among his old friends in Bedford. 
He was interested in peat mines in the latter State, and though he had 
not yet realized " there were millions in it." 


At the March term, 1831, Tilghman A. Howard was admitted. He 
had just settled at Bloomington and was a partner of James Whitcomb. 
After representing his district in Congress, coming very near being both 
Governor and United States Senator, he was appointed Charge D'affairs 
to the Republic of Texas in 1844, where he soon died. He was a " Chris- 
tian statesman" and a man among men. At the March term, 1832, 
Joseph Athon and Pleasant Pagett took their seats as Associate Justices, 
and Robert Mitchell presents his commission as Clerk for seven years. 
At the September term, 1833, on motion of Charles Dewey, it was 
" ordered by the Court that Richard W. Thompson be admitted to prac- 
tice as an attorney, ex. gratia, during the present term of the court." 
Col. Thompson, the "silver-tongued orator of the Wabash," is still per- 
mitted ex gratia dei, to practice and speaks for himself. He was at this 
time associated with Judge Dewey, and made rapid advance in his pro- 
fession. Afterward he and Mr. Dunn became partners and by their 
industry and ability, soon had the practice of the county, and were look- 


ing elsewhere. Col. Thompson soon afterward removed to Terre Haute, 
where he still lives. He is too well known for further notice here. An 
orator unsurpassed, a statesman of the purest type and a gentleman of 
the "old school" he holds a warm place in the hearts of his countrymen. 
At the September term, 1S34, John H. Thompson presided, by com- 
mand of tlie Governor, pro tem, until the next Legislature, vice Ross, 
deceased. Phrelan G. Paugh and Qliver H. Allen were admitted to 
practice. In June, 1835, John H. Allen presents a commission as Pres- 
ident Judge for three years, to fill the unexpired term of Judge Ross. 
At the September term 1835, Elsy Woodward took his seat as Associate 
Judge in place of Joseph Athon, resigned. 


George G. Dunn was admitted to the bar in September, 1835. Mr. 
Dunn became a partner of R. W. Thompson, and they at once took a 
high rank at the bar. Such was their success that most of the attorneys 
of the circuit previously attending this court ceased to come, except when 
following up some case of importance here by change of venue. Mr. 
Dunn deserves more than a passing notice. It is not claiming too much 
to say that though he did not pass the meridian of public life he was 
among the very first lawyers and statesmen that the State has produced. 
Born in Kentucky in 1812, he came to Indiana while yet a boy. His 
education would now be regarded as limited, having only gone as far 
as the junior class in the State University. His means were limited, and 
the facilities for obtaining a finished education, as that implies today, 
were even more limited. There were no extensive libraries with alcoves 
filled with well-selected law books this side the Alleghany Mountains, and 
a journey beyond them at that day was equal to a trip arouud the world 
to-day. Like almost every other young man of that period he was a 
stranger to the advantages of foreign travel, and he came not in contact 
with foreign men and foreign customs, but he had a strong arm and a 
brave heart, and he set out to meet and conquer the difficulties of life 
with the courage of a hero. He very soon made himself felt at the bar 
of Lawrence County, where he began and continued his practice. 
Coming in contact with such men as Thompson, Hughes, Howard and 
Marshall he proved himself the peer of the best of them. As an advocate 
he had no superior in the State, perhaps few in the country. He may 
have lacked the pleasing eloquence of the silver-toned Thompson, now 
of the Wabash; he may have lacked the " breadth of comprehension" of 
his intimate friend Marshall, but he surpassed them all in moving the 
hearts of those to whom he made his passionate appeals. He was a better 
judge of human nature than any with whom he had to contend, and no 
man knew better how to reach and control that human nature than he. 
The writer only knew him personally in the last years of his life, but a 



study of his character has satisfied him that the secret of his success lay 

not so much in his intellectual powers or in his logical or legal acumen, 
or even in his breadth of knowledge of the law as in his will power, and 
in the depth of his convictions. He was not a genius, flashing up here 
and there, to the surprise of himself and everybody else, and then as sur- 
prisiugly disappointiug himself and his friends at other points. His 
client's cause became bis own, and by as much more intensely his own as 
be was capable of deeper feeling than his client. Having undertaken 
a case, no matter of how small importance, he could only endure success, 
and never contemplated defeat. He carried conviction to the jury, not 
so much by the cold logic of facts as by inspiring them with his own per- 
sonality, and convincing them even against their will. If his opponent 
had intrenched himself in the minds of the jury he had no need of the 
usu al methods of a seige, he carried the citadel by storm, and made himself 
master of the situation. His wit was of the pungent kind which pierces 
to the quick, and not of the sparkling order that pleases and tickles the 
fancy, while it leaves no impression on its object. He was a perfect 
master of ridicule, and in invective was not surpassed in the courts of 
Indiana, while his sarcasm was withering as that of a Randolph. In 
politics Mr. Dunn was a Whig, and twice he was elected to Congress in 
districts where the Democratic party was largely in the ascendency. And 
yet while his order of talents would rank him with statesmen it is doubt- 
ful if he could ever have ranked as a successful politician. He lacked 
not in ambition, for that was a strong past of his nature. He lacked not 
in ability to fasten himself in the hearts of his constituency, for he was 
their idol. But the successful politician must affiliate with other poli- 
ticians, and as the term begins to imply, he must let policy carefully 
direct his actions in his intercourse with them. The leadei's of parties 
must pull together, and each must yield where he cannot conquer. It 
was not in Mr. Dunn's nature to yield his convictions to those of another. 
He probably spoke the truth when he said to a friend, while sitting 
beside the remains of his lamented friend Marshall, " Thei'e lies what is 
left of the only man that ever caused me to change my mind when I had 
once made it up. " He was of Scottish origin, and had inherited many 
of the traits of their character, not the least of which was that of inde- 
pendent thought and action. Just at the noon -tide of life his health 
gave way, probably from over- work in his last canvass for Congi'ess. He 
succeeded at too great a cost to his health, and never fully recovered. 
He died in the religious faith of his fathers, at his family residence, 
near Bedford, and among those who loved him, in September, 1857. 


At th e March term, 1837, Joseph Marshall, of Madison, one of Indi- 
ana's greatest men was admitted to practice. At the September term, 


T>. F. Crooke was appointed Surveyor of the county for three years. At 
the March term, 1838, T. J. Throop was admitted to practice. A com- 
missioner's deed was reported, occupying three pages of the record — 
now more than three of them can be recorded on one page. Lawlessness 
seems to be like playing marbles, base ball, etc., and each kind has its 
rage. At this term there were fifteen indictments for gaming. First it 
was assault and battery, then gaming, and finally, violations of the liquor 
law. Certain localities, too, seem to have been infected with the rage. 
At one term the grand jury struck the quiet and hitherto orderly town of 
Springville like a cyclone, and nearly all the indictments for the term 
were from that village. At this September term, 1838, our now distin- 
guished citizen, R. W. Thompson, late Secretary of the Navy, stood 
charged with having turned a broadside on Craven P. Hester, for which, 
on plea of guilty, he paid $2 for the use of the seminaries of learning. 
At the May term, 1839, Hon. David McDonald, presided, and at his side 
was John Whitted, Associate. Randall Crawford, John S. Watts, Paris 
C. Dunning, John Baker and William T. Otto were admitted to practice. 
Each of these attained distinction, and Otto and Baker ai'e still livinor. 
The grand jury having I'eturned sixty-nine indictments for gaming, say 
they have no further business, and are discharged. They had shelled 
the woods pretty generally, and reached all parts of the county. 


At this term came on for trial the suit of Daniel Kress vs. Fellows 
and Fellows. The plaintiff appeared by Marshall, Thompson, Kingsbury 
and Otto, and the defendant by Payne, Crawford and Dunn. A stronger 
array of counsel has not met at the Lawrence County bar. The suit came 
here by change of venue, and involved a large amount. It grew out of the 
loss of three flat-boat loads of pork, lost <jn their trip south. It was in 
this case that Mr. Dunn had made a powerful appeal to the jury, and as 
was his custom, had succeeded not only in suffusing the jury with tears, 
but as a starter in that direction, had become quite lachrymose himself. 
This was especially annoying to his friend Marshall, who was employed 
on the other side, and to whose tender emotions these appeals did not- 
reach. There was a cloud on his brow, but no drops followed in its 
wake. Moreover, there was no silver lining in that cloud for him. On 
leaving the courtroom he took Dunn by the arm and said, "Dunn, how can 
you do that kind of thing? Think of a man shedding tears, and having 
a jury sniffling over a boat-load of pork!" Dunn hesitated a moment, 
and exultingly replied, "True, it was only pork, but then there was so 
much of it." 


Three bills were found at this term for " Harboring a Negro " — one 
each against David Mitchell, Kip Brown and John Barnett. The last 


two were themselves colored men. Barnett is still alive. At the May- 
term, 1842, John S. Watts was appointed Prosecutor, and the name of 
A. J. Malott first appeard as an attorney, and also that of Lyman D. 
Stickney. Stickney was indicted for barratry, but was afterward 
acquitted. Proof is made of the publication of notice, in a cause, in the 
Bedford Review, by Isaac Smith, Editor. At the November .term of 
this year, W. M. Thompson was admitted as an attorney. At this term 
the first indictment was found for carrying concealed weapons ; now a 
very common offense. 


At the May term, 1843, the grand jury returned the first indictment 
for murder. It was against Polly Ann Wymore. The jury found her 
not guilty. 


At the November term, 1843, Stickney was "suspended from the 
practice during the pleasure of the court," on the motion of Winthrop 
Foote. He afterward appeared, and "made solemn promise of amend- 
ment," and moved the court to rescind the order, which was done. The 
name of James Hughes here first appears as an attorney, and Jonathan 
K. Kinney is admitted. At the November term, 1844, George H. Monson 
was admitted, and the names of "Dunn and Monson" thereafter 
appear in almost every important case. Mr. Monson was a man of 
great ability, and continued to practice until 1855, when he died at 
Bedford. John H. Butler was also admitted to practice. He was a man 
of fine mind and culture, and is still living. At the November term, 
1845, on the motion of Willis A. Gorman, Cyrus L. Dunham was 
admitted to practice ; also John J. Cummins and Daniel Long. The 
Hon. David McDonald retires from the bench, and the Hon. William T. 
Otto takes his seat as Judge of the Second Judicial Circuit. At the 
May term, 1846, Alexander Butler appears and takes his seat as an Asso- 
ciate Justice. William W. Williamson and William A. Porter were 
admitted to practice. Frank Emerson, afterward Colonel of the Sixty- 
seventh Indiana, was also admitted. The November term, 1846, opened 
with McDonald on the bench, Gus Clark as Clerk, and Felix Raymond 
as Sheriff. Andrew J. Simpson was admitted as an attorney. He was 
a long-time and prominent attorney of Paoli, and a half-brother of 
Justice Clifford, of the Supreme Court of the United States. During the 
year 1847, there were admitted to practice : George A. Thornton 
(noticed elsewhere), Samuel W. Short, John A.Miller, J. R. E. Goodlett 
and Curtiss Dunham. Andrew Gelwick became Sheriff. These pages 
are too limited to allow of any personal notice of attorneys admitted after 
the earlier years of the history of the court. During the year 1848, 
Lovell H. Rousseau (afterward Major-General Rousseau) Jesse Cox, 
Jacob B. Low, A. B. Carlton (now of the Utah Commission), and George 


A. Buskirk were admitted. John A. Miller, Prosecuting Attorney elect, 
refused to qualify, and E. S. Terry was oppointed. In 1850, A. G. 
Gavins, Alexander McCleland and E. D^ Pearson (late Judge of the Cir- 
cuit), were admitted. In 1851, George A. Thornton was appointed 
Clerk in room of Gustavus Clark, deceased. 


In March, 1853, the Hon. George A. Bicknell took his seat as sole 
judge. He served for many years, and made an intelligent, upright and 
popular judge of the circuit. He has since been a member of Congress, 
and is now one of the Supreme Court Commissioners. At this time the 
Associate Justices of Indiana quietly laid aside their ermine, and the 
courts, in the person of a sole judge, held aloft the scales of justice, 
without any to hold up their weary hands. At the same time, it will be 
remembered by members of the fraternity, the somewhat litigious neigh- 
bors, John Doe and Kichard Koe, made friends, and withdrew from the 
courts of Indiana for all time. 

The old-time lawyers were disgusted with the new code— but it was 
the code, nevertheless. Judge McDonald, who had been so long at the 
bench, and had honored the position which he held by his integrity, 
purity and legal ability, stepped down from his high place, and was 
admitted to the bar. At the same time, Morton C. Hunter, John 
Edwards, Horace Heflfren, Nathaniel McDonald and Newton F. Malott, 
were admitted. 

It would seem to the observer that with the new code, came a more 

quiet state of affairs, as all that contentious class of cases known as 

"Trespass on the Case," "Case," "Assumpsit," "Trover," etc., passed 

out of sight. In 1854 Lewis C. Stinson and Patrick H. Jewitt were 

admitted The latter was prosecutor of the circuit. In 1855 John D. 

Ferguson, Thomas L. Smith, Jonathan Payne and J. S. Buchanan were 

admitted. At the September term, Dixon Cobb was qualified as Sheriff. 

At this time highly eulogistic and feeling resolutions, by the bar and 

officers of the court, upon the death of George H. Monson, were spread 

of record, and the court adjourned. In the year 1856 Frank Emerson 

and Thomas M. Brown were admitted. In 1857 I. N. Stiles, W. W. 

Browning, Samuel P. Crawford (ex-Gov. of Kansas), S. H. Buskirk (late 

judge Supreme Court), and A. C. Voris, were admitted. At the March 

term, 1858, William Weir, William R. Harrison, Francis L. Neff, E. E. 

Rose, P. A. Parks, C. T. Woolfolk and William Herod were admitted. 

In 1859, James E. Glover became Sheriff and Oliver T. Baird, A. D. 

Lemon, Newton Crook and William Paugh were admitted. In March, 

1860, Gideon Putnam, Theo. Gazlay, John H. Martin and Thomas L. 

Smith were admitted to the bar. 




At the September term, 1860, came on for trial the case of the State 
vs. John Hitchcock, charged with mm'der in the first degree. He had 
shot and instantly killed one Graham, who was pursuing him with intent 
to arrest him for stealing a horse, which in the pursuit he had abandoned. 
The jury found him guilty and he was sent to the penitentiary for life. 
Not long after, the writer, happening in the office of Gov. Morton, heard 
a letter read from him, asking to be sent into the army, and pledging his 
word of honor that, should he not fall at the front, he would returu at 
the close of the war and resume his service to the State. Not being suc- 
cessful in this appeal, he soon after escaped. Whether he went and "fell 
at the front" is not known, as he has never since been heard from. 

Michael C. Kerr (afterward Speaker of the House) and Fred T. Brown 
were admitted. In 1861 Davis Harrison became Clerk, A. B. Carlton 
Prosecuting Attorney, and R. C. McAfee and Lycurgus Irwin were 


In September, 1862, Jefferson Brannan was indicted for the murder ' 
of Thomas Peters. After dragging its weary length along for nine years, 
it came on for trial in September, 1871, the worst "woi*n-out" case ever 
on the docket. It has the merit of having been tried after being freed 
from the excitement attending the violent act. He was committed for a 
term of years, and died in prison. 

At the September term, 1863, James Tincher became Sheriff. In 
March, 1864, neither the grand or petit jury were in attendance on ac- 
count of the prevalence of "small pox." During the year Madison Evans 
and Alfred Kyors were admitted as attorneys. At the March term, 1865, 
John Riley was Clerk, and William Daggy, Slieriflf. At about this time 
first appear the names of "Putnam & Friedley" (the Hon. G. W.) as at- 


At the March term, 1867, came on for trial the case of the State vs. 
William Sa.unders, charged with a triple murder in Orange County, and 
here by change of venue. Robert M. Weir was prosecitting attorney, and 
was assisted at the trial by Francis Wilson, of Orange County. The 
defendant appeared by D. W. Voorhees, Thomas B. Buskirk and Putnam 
and Friedley. Other counsel whose names are not now recalled were 
engaged in the case. The record of one day is, "This day was entirely 
consumed in the Saunders' trial." 

After a very exciting trial the jury failed to agree and defendant gave 
bond in the sum of |8,000 in each of the three cases for his appearance 
at next term. He never appeared, and little, if anything, was ever made 
of his bond. Probably a case of "straw bail." 




About this time the docket was cumbered with divorce cases, under 
the loose laws on that subject. An effort was made to have a law passed 
authorizing Notaries Public to solemnize marriages, and it had already 
passed one reading, and probably would have gone through, but for a wag 
at the Lawrence County bar. He sat by while another attorney obtained 
for his client the second divorce from the same woman. Turning to him 
he said, "You lawyers are nearly all notaries, and you are trying to get 
this law passed that you may do like ' Tom Banks.' " Tom had had a black- 
smith shop at an early day, 1852, at the foot of a long rocky hill on the Bed- 
ford & Bloomington State road ; and he used to shoe the horses for 
travelers in the morning before they started up the hill, and in the even- 
ing he would take his basket, follow up the hill and pick up the shoes he 
had tacked on in the morning. The joke was repeated in the Legisla- 
ture, and killed the bill. In 1867 Frank R. Ogg and W. S. Benham 
were admitted to the bar. Benham was the witty editor of a Bedford 
paper, and afterward with his estimable wife was lost in a gale on Lake 
Michigan. In 1868, the firm name of "Wilson & Voris" first appears. 
Francis Wilson had removed from Paoli to Bedford, is an able lawyer, 
and is now Judge of the Circuit. 


In March, 1869, V. V. Williams first appears as Sheriff. At this term 
Judge Bicknell entered an order, directing the thorough repair of the 
court house, locating the court room up-stairs. Attorneys Lemon, Voris 
and Putnam were appointed a Committee to supervise the execution of 
the order. They prepared plans for the work, but thinking it best to get 
the County Board to authorize the outlay, they submitted the plans to 
them. They declined to'make the changes, biit asked them to submit, at 
their next meeting, plans for a new house as well. Out of this came the 
handsome stone building which now adorns the Public Square. When 
the building was completed, in 1872, Judge Bicknell was invited to 
deliver an address on the occasion of its dedication. This he was pre- 
vented from doing, but his place was ably filled by the Hon. John M. 
Wilson, then of New Albany. Judge Emerson, of the Common Pleas 
Court, also delivered an address. In 1869 William I. Stone. B. H. Bur- 
rell and William H. Martin were admitted to the bar. 


At the March term, 1872, came up the case of Thomas Moody vs. A. 
B. Jones, Joseph I. Toliver, Milton Toliver, et. al., for damages. There 
was a verdict and judgment for $75 for plaintiff. It was a small matter, 
biit it was the entering wedge to the litigation which ended in the tragic 
death of Moody, and the imprisonment for life of Lowry and A. B. and 
Lee Jones. At the September term of this year John W. Payne and 
J. S. Smith Hunter were admitted to practice. 


At the May term, 1873, the Hon. A. B. Carlton presided, with John 
M. Stalker as Clerk, Isaac Newkirk as Sheriff, and Jeremiah F. 
Pitman as Prosecuting Attorney. John R. Simpson and John F. Pitner 
were admitted, and the firm name of Voris & Dunn (G. G.) lirst appears 
of record. A minute highly complimentary to the Hon. A. D. Lemon, 
who was about leaving the Lawrence Covinty bar for San Diego, Cal., 
was spread of record. The grand jury returned the following bill of 
indictment: , State of Indiana vs. J. Quincy, Justice — "Taking tish with 
net." The prisoner appeared at the bar, and put in a plea of "guilty." 
The Prosecuting Attorney was asked by the Court if it was an aggravated 
case, to which he replied: "Oh no, Judge, make it light. It was only 
a d — d little sucker." Fine $1. At a special July term, Richard A. 
Fulk, Emerson Short and Bruce Carr were admitted. At the September 
term of this year, Francis Wilson tiled his commission as Judge, by 
appointment. At the December term, 1873, E. D. Pearson filed his 
commission as Judge, and J. W. Tucker as Prosecuting Attorney. At a 
term held in February, 1874, W. T. Walters, W. A. Land and D. 0. 
Spencer were admitted. 


The well-known and remembered case of the State vs. John H. Mor- 
row and Luzetta V. Christopher came on for trial. Morrow was staying 
at the house of Christopher, who was a lame man, and who was sick. 
Late in the night an alarm was given, and the neighbors were horrified 
to find the husband, Christopher, dead, from Avounds with a knife. 
Morrow himself, and Mrs. Christopher and both the little children badly 
wounded with a knife. The case was, in its details, and still is, a mys- 
tery; but Morrow and Mrs. Christopher were indicted. They were ably 
and persistently defended by the local bar, Carlton, Crooke, Riley and 
Iseminger, and by D. W. Voorhees, while the prosecution was assisted by 
G. W. Friedley and A. C. Voris. The first trial resulted in a " hung 
jury," but they were afterward convicted for a term of years. Mrs. C. 
died in the woman's prison at Indianapolis, while serving her term. At 
the May term of this year Samuel C. Wilson, William Farrell and John 
R. East were admitted. At the February term, 1875, resolutions of 
respect to the memory of P. A. Parks, an Attorney of the court, was 
ordered of record. 


At the May term, 1875, came on the case of the State vs. George 
Bachtell and Arthur Bissot, charged with murder. They had entered a 
store-room at night, for the purpose of robbery. The Marshal, George 
Carney, discovered them and entered the door in the darkness, whereupon 
(as Bachtell says) Bissot fired and killed him almost instantly. Bachtell 
pleaded guilty and was sentenced to the State's prison for life. Bissot, a 


mere youth, entered a plea of not guilty. He was defended by Col. C. 
L. Dunham, and W. A. Landmers, was found guilty, and also sentenced 
for life. A few years afterward he was represented by the Surgeon of 
the prison as dying of consumption, and through intervention of his 
attorneys, was allowed to come to his home, under promise of return, m 
a few months, if he lived. He lived, but did not return. In this year 
Albert H. Davis, M. C. Hunter, Jr., Allan W. Prather andC. W. Thomp- 
son were admitted. In 1876 C. F. McNutt, B. E. Rhoades and Harry 
Kelly were admitted. In 1877 Ben Hagle, James McClelland, H. H. 
Edwards, S. B. Voyles, Frank Branaman and Fred T. Rand were admit- 
ted to the bar, and in 1878 John Q. Voyles, H. H. Friedley, Thomas G. 
Mahan, Gen. W. T. Spicely, C. H. Burton, Joseph R. Burton, Aaron 
Shaw, John T. Dye and L. C. Weir. At the September term, 1879, 
Fred T. Dunihue became Sheriff, and John S. Denny, D. H. Ellison, J. 
H. WiJlard (now State Senator), and Ferdinand S. Swift were admitted 
to the bar. At the December term, 1879, Francis Wilson again took his 
seat as Judge, this time for the full term, and M. S. Mavity became the 
Prosecuting Attorney. At the May term, 1880, appears the name of S. 
D. Luckett, as of the firm of Voris & Luckett. At the January term, 
1881, George A. Thornton was admitted to the bar, and at the March 
term resolutions of respect to his memory were put on record. 

At the October term, 1881, Simpson B. Lowe, S. S. Mayfield and 
John M. Stalker were admitted to practice, and Stalker was made Master 
Commissioner. In December H. C. Duncan became Prosecuting Attor- 
ney. In March, 1882, Harry C. Huffstetter was admitted. 


About this time terminated the cases of Hall and others against the 
Narrow Gauge Railroad, which had cumbered the docket in various forms 
for several vears. Perhaps nothing ever caused more litigation in Law- 
rence County than the construction of this road. Subscriptions had been 
made to the road, and a tax of about $40,000 voted by Shawswick Town- 
ship. A determined effort was made to prevent the collection of this 
tax, and some of the subscriptions. The cases in various shapes were 
tried before Pearson, Collins, Berkshire and Slaughter, as Judges, at 
home, and on change of venue, at Monroe, Washington and Orange 
Counties, and in the United States Courts. All the members of the local 
bar, and many foreign attorneys, appeared in them at some time. The 

tax was finally paid. 

At the May term, 1883, Francis Wilson was Judge, Robert H. Carl- 
ton, Clerk, and James McDowell, Sheriff, and at the December term James 
E. Henley became Prosecuting Attorney. In May, 1884, Francis B. 
Hitchcock and Eli K. Millen were admitted to practice. The resident 
and practicing members of the Bedford bar at this time are: E. D. Pear- 


son, George W. Friedley, Newton F. Crooke, John Riley, George O. 
Iseminger, James H. Willard, Moses F. Dunn, George G. Dunn, Robert 
N. Palmer, W. H. Martin, Samuel D. Luckett, Simpson Lowe and F. B. 
Hitchcock. Residing in Mitchell are: Gideon Putnam, C. G. Berry and 
William H. Edwards. The writer has known them intimately and pro- 
fessionally since their advent to this bar, and to their fidelity and devo- 
tion to the interests of their clients he bears cheerful testimony. 

There are other gentlemen, as appeal's in these pages, residents of 
the county, who are members of the bar, and who sometimes appear in 


The first civil suit on the records of Lawrence County, it will be 
seen, was to assert the right of property in " Phillis, a woman of color," 
and the strong arm of the law came to the aid of the owner. The help- 
less woman, who had absolutely no protection from any person or power 
on earth, having no standing in court, was remanded to the tender mer- 
cies of her mistress. Time has wrought wonders, and though only two 
generations of people have passed; and though one of the jury to 
whom her case was submitted, and in which case she figured only as any 
other species of property would have played a part, is still living, yet 
any one of her descendants has now the same right to appear in court, to 
sit upon a jury, to appear at the bar to assert the rights or claim redress 
of the wrongs of another, or to sit upon the bench and administer jus- 
tice itself, as any man in all the land. The last record made at the last 
term of this same court is in a case wherein a citizen of this county 
seeks to recover from another citizen of the county the sum of SI, 200, 
money which he alleges he paid into the hands of the defendant to secure 
his (the plaintiff's) nomination as a candidate for one of the most impor- 
tant offices of this same court. Are we advancing? And if so, in what 
direction? If we continue thus to advance, where will we be in two 
generations hence ? If the suff'rages of the people are to be corrupted 
with money, and the officers of the courts of justice are to procure their 
places by the use of money, then indeed may we say that the purity of 
the courts and the glory of the Republic is past. It would be a grateful 
office to strike this last case from the pages of this book after it is writ- 
ten, but it cannot be stricken from the records of the courts, nor from 
the history of the country. 


The Court of Common Pleas was at first of a limited jurisdiction, 
afterward somewhat extended. It did all probate business, with limited 
j civil and criminal jurisdiction. The first Judge, who took his seat in 

January, 1853, was the Hon. J. R. E. Goodlett, of Bedford. In 1857 
Col. Frank Emerson succeeded him. In 1861 he was followed by Ralph 


Applewhite, and, on his resignation two years later, Beaty McClelland 
filled out his term. In 1865 Hon. J. D. New was elected, and served 
four years, when Col. Emerson again became Judge by election. His 
term of four years lasted as long as the court, which was abolished, and 
its business transferred to the Circuit Court. These gentlemen were all 
honorable men, honest and capable. The officers of the Circuit Court 
were, ex-officio, officers of the Court of Common Pleas in their respective 

The writer is indebted to the kindness of the Clerk of the Court and 
his deputy for assistance in examining the records, and especially to A. 
H. Dunihue, Esq., elsewhere noticed in this work, for reminiscences of 
the courts in days long past. 


Towns of the County— Palestine— Its Dea'elopment and Decay— Bed- 
ford— Its Survey— Merchants — Pork Packing — Manufactures — 
Later Business Enterprises— Banking — Present Business Indus- 
tries—Secret Societies— Additions — Incorporation— The Press — 
Stone Interests — Mitchell — Town Plat and Additions, Mer- 
chants, Manufactories Secret Societies — The Press— Pres- 
ent Business— Bono— Lawrenceport—Tunnelton — Ft. Ritner— 
Huron — Bryantsville — Springville — Guthrie— Heltonville— 
Leesville-Fayetteville— Other Small Towns. 

THE first seat of justice of Lawi'ence County was named Pales- 
tine, How it came to be called thus, or by whom, is lost beyond the 
hope of recovery. The soil where it stood had been the property of 
Benjamin and Ezekiel Blackwell, Henry Speed and Henry H. Massie, 
but had been donated to the county upon consideration that the perma- 
nent seat of justice should be located there. Two hundred acres of land 
on the north bank of White River and on both sides of the meridian 
line constituted the donation of these men. At this time, so far as now 
known, no family lived there except that of Ezekiel Blackwell, who may 
be considered the first resident of the place. In May, 1818, the County 
Agent, Robert M. Carlton, employed the necessary assistance and laid 
out 276 lots surrounding a public square upon which it was designed to 
erect a court bouse and perhaps other county buildings. No sooner had 
this place become known as the county seat of a new and flourishing 
and rapidly settling county than capital and enterprise and artisans and 
mechanics made their appearance. John Lowrey, the first County Clerk, 
came and erected a log-cabin that did duty for his family and for the 
records and business of his office. This was accomplished before the 


first public sale of town lots on the 25th of May, 1818. For some rea- 
son the town was popular, as on the day of sale a large crowd was pres- 
ent, including capitalists and business men of Louisville, Vincennes and 
perhaps other points. Over 200 lots were sold, many to settlers of the 
cuunty who desired the advantage of the probable enhancement in the 
value of such property by the rapid growth of the town and the improve- 
ment of the surrounding country. Several of the best lots were bought 
by non-resident speculators, who afterward sold them for a handsome 
premium. The sale to those intending to become residents was limited. 
The second sale was in November, 1818, the proceeds of the lirst two 
sales being $6,579.38 cash. The receipts from all subsequent sales 
amounted to only a few hundred dollars, 


At first, the settlement of the town was rapid, but after the popula- 
tion had reached about 300 the growth was comparatively slow. John 
Brown, who, in 1819, became the first Postmaster, located there in 1818. 
Kobert M. Carlton, County Agent, established himself at the town in 
1818. Andrew Evans came in early, as did also Isaac Mitchell and 
James Benefield. The latter furnished house room for the courts. 
Samuel M, Briggs, who was one of the first County Treasurers, was a 
journeyman tanner, and worked in the shop or tanyard of Joseph and 
"VVier Glover, which was built about 1819. This was one of the largest 
industrial enterprises of the place, and gave employment to five or six 
hands. There were twenty-five or thirty vats. The hides were sold 
mainly in Louisville. William Kelsey was one of the first residents of 
the town. In the fall of 1818 the first store was established by Samuel 
F. Irwin and Isaac Stewart. They brought in about $800 worth of a 
general assortment of goods, which was placed in the hands of Mr. 
Irwin, Stewart being a non-resident. In 1819, Patrick Callen also 
started a store, and sold whisky as well. Dr, Winthrop Foote located 
there in 1819 and was the first resident physician, A little later, begin- 
ning about 1820, he practiced law with success. Rollin C. Dewey was 
the first resident attorney, coming in 1820. Winston Grouse, who dug 
the well on the public square, was an early resident. Henry Parsell kept 
a boarding house or hotel and sold liquor. Joseph Anderson was an 
early resident. In about 1820 or possibly 1821, John and Samuel Lock- 
hart erected a large log-cabin (all the buildings were built of logs) and 
placed therein the necessary machinery and began carding wool on quite 
an extensive scale. Edward Johnson worked for them in some capacity. 
They carded on shares; did the spinning of their share, which was kept 
j for sale. Ezekiel Blackwell opened the first cabinet shop in 1818; or 

really he did work of that kind before the town was founded. Samuel 
D. Bishop was a cai-penter of unusual skill, and it was under his super- 


vision that many of the buildings, public and private, were erected. 
Richard and Calvin Evans, Able and Foley Vaughn, Smith Mounts, car- 
penter, Thompson H. Biggs, Richard Kinnick, Lemuel Barlow, William 
Templeton, Alexander Walker, Stephen Shipman, James S. Mitchell, a 
carpenter, Nathaniel Vaughn, hotel keeper and liquor-dealer, H. Wyman, 
B. Banks, Vingard Pound, Isaac Farris, John Anderson, Willis Keithley, 
Samuel Dale, John Sutton, James Gregory, H. Boon, B. Reynolds, J. S. 
Roberts, Thomas Fulton, G. G. Hopkins, William Gooldy, harness and 
saddles, John J. Bui-fc and others were early residents. 

In the spring of 1819, there were about fifteen families living in the 
county seat. At this time it was determined to incorporate the town . 
The citizens could not boast of their numbers, but doubtless had aristo - 
cratie notions, and were proud of their town, and accordingly were deter- 
mined to tie on as much red tape as was appropriate, in order, very 
likely, that their advertisements of the sale of lots in an incorporated 
town sent south and east might influence mechanics, artisans, capitalists 
and immigrants to come there for permanent location. Accordingly, 
pursuant to notice, an election was held with the following result: 

Palestine, Monday, March 1, 1819. 
At a meeting of the qualified voters of the town of Palestine, Lawrence Co., 
Ind., agreeably to the first section of an act providing for the incorporation of towns 
in the State of Indiana approved January 1, 1817, we, the President and Clerk of 
said meeting, do certify that the polls stand thus: Eleven votes in favor and 
none against being incorporated. 

John Brown, President. 
William Kelsey, Clerk. 

An election of five Trustees was ordered, the result of which is shown 

by the following certificate: 

Palestine, March 8, 1819. 
We do hereby certify that the following gentlemen were duly elected Trustees 
of the town of Palestine for one year, to-wit: Alexander Walker, William Kelsey, 
Lemuel Barlow, William Templeton and Stephen Shipman. Given under our hands 
and seals the day and date above mentioned. 

John Brown, President. 
William Kelsey, Clerk. 

The total amount of the sales of lots in the town of Palestine was 
$17,410, of which $15,719.78 was cash or its equivalent in credits. This 
large amount was a great help to the county, and removed from the 
shoulders of the settlers the heavy burden of taxation to meet current 
public expenses. In the autumn of 1819 there were about twenty fam- 
ilies in the town, and in the autumn of 1820 about thirty. The number 
steadily increased until in 1824; it reached about sixty families, beyond 
which it did not get, owing to the re-location of the county seat. One 
of the early business enterprises of the town is shown by the following 
certificate to the County Board: 


We the undersigned do certify that Nathaniel Vaughn is of good moral charac- 
ter, and do believe it would be for the benefit and convenience of travelers for the 
said Vaughn to be licensed that he may retail spiritous liquors and Iceep a house 
for public entertainment in Palestine. 
Palestine, September 4, 1819. 

Vingan Pound. James Gregory. 

Isaac Farris. Thomas Fulton. 

John Anderson. John Sutton. 

William Templeton. James Conley. 

Willis Keithley. Weir Glover. 

John J. Burt. Joseph Glover. 

Samuel Dale. G. G. Hopkins. 

Ezekiel Blackwell. 

From the start Palestine had been a very sickly place. At times the 
whole town was shaking with the old iron-clad regulation ague, from 
which, if they ever recovered, they were left "long, lean and yellow." 
Combined with the ague were malignant malarial fevers, which took deep 
root on the strongest constitutions, and consigned persons less robust to 
pioneer cemeteries. Towns remote from the river were healthy, and it 
was soon the opinion of all residents of Palestine that the prevailing 
sickness was due to the location on the river. This view going abroad 
had much to do with the slow growth of the town during 1822, 1823 and 
1824. At last it was determined to change the county seat, which was 
done, as fully told elsewhere. The real estate owners were privileged to 
receive corresponding lots in Bedford in exchange for those they owned 
in Palestine, Several so changed, but many left the town and county . 
The removal of the county seat killed Palestine almost immediately . 
.All the residents soon left and the land was thrown out into the adjoin- ' 
ing farms and so remains to this day. 


The town of Bedford owes its origin to the relocation of the seat of 
justice of Lawrence County, in 1825. Had it not been for that event, 
there would have been no Bedford. The site was located by the Locating 
Commissioners early in March, 1825, and comprised 200 acres in a tract 
200 rods long north and south, and 160 rods wide east and west, on Sections 
14 and 23, Township 5 north, Range 1 west. This land was donated 
in consideration of having the county seat located there, by Samuel F. 
Irwin, Joseph Glover, John Owens, Reuben Kilgore, Moses Woodruff and 
Isaac Stewart. The proceedings of the Locating Commissioners were 
completed on the 9th of March, at which time they made their report. 
The legislative act concerning there-location provided that lot-holders m 
Palestine should have the privilege of exchanging such property there 
for lots correspondingly situated in the new county seat, and fui-ther 
provided that the new town should be laid out in all respects similar to 
Palestine as regarded the size, number and location of lots and the loca- 


tion of the public square. The Locating Commissioners also took from 
the donors bonds with good and sufficient surety for the construction of a 
temporary log court house and a public well, within six months from the 
survey of the new town. The County Board fixed upon March 30, 1825, 
as the day to begin the survey of the town. It took several days to 
accomplish this, but when the work was completed the plat was a 
fac simile of that of Palestine. 


Immediately after the survey of the lots the exchange of property 
from Palestine to Bedford was effected. The first public sale of the 
town lots not covered by the exchanges was held on the 12th of June, 
1826, over one year after the transfer was effected, and after the lapse 
of the year fixed by the Legislature as the limit of the right of exchange. 
The proceeds of this sale were $1,849.25, a portion of which in the foi-m of 
notes was not realized. Among the first residents of the town were 
John Lowrey, Clerk and Recorder; Henry Lowrey, merchant, of the 
firm Lowrey & Simpson, the latter being a non-resident; Samuel F. 
Irwin, merchant; Joseph Athon, hotel keeper; Rollin C. Dewey, lawyer; 
N. L. Livingston, lawyer; John Vestal, merchant; Samuel D. Bishop, 
carpenter; John Brown, postmaster; Jacob Mosier, Methodist Minister; 
Samuel Wilson, laborer; Richard Evans, miller; Gotleib Byrer, hatter; 
David Borland, tanner; Joseph Cowan, stone-mason; Turner Sullivan, 
wagoner; William Sullivan, blacksmith; Joseph Cuthbertson, cabinet- 
maker; Henry Parsell, laborer; William Benefield, hotel keeper; William 
Kelsey, Deputy Sheriff and Constable; Henry Hendricks, saddler; John 
Quaekenbush, carpenter; Henry Quackenbush, laborer; Jacob Huff, 
wagoner; Winthrop Foote, physician; A. H. Dunihue, merchant for 
Isaac Stewart; Andrew Hattabaugh, liquor dealer. These men and their 
families and perhaps a very few others were the residents of Bedford one 
year after the town was founded — that is to say, the spring of 1826. 
Among those who located in the town within the next five or six years, 
were: William Templeton, Elbert Jeter, Hugh C. Redmon, Horatio 
Jeter, Amos Leech, Matthew Borland, N. R. Brown, John Edmundson, 
Benjamin Grayson, Robert Mitchell, Francis Williams, Thomas L. 
Carlton, William B. Slaughter, Seth Lunsford, William Mitchell, P. G. 
Paugh, E. C. Moberly, Joseph Rawlins, T. H. Biggs, E. P. Kennedy, 
William Gooldy, Moses Fell, W^illiam McLane, John Thatcher, Alfred 
Athon, Nathaniel Milton, Wier Glover, Russell Mitchell, William Cooke, 
Able Vaughn, Moses McBride, William Toon, James Critchfield, Jacob 
Martin, John Wade, James Woody, Hugh L. Livingston, and a little 
later yet came E. G. Thompson, Mortimer Bostick, William H. Pro, 
Isaac Rector, George G. Dunn, W. M. Humston, Joseph Stillson, James 
Wilder, William Danley, John Geiger, MitchaeJ A. Malott, D. Francis, 


William Mason, Elisha Simpson, James W. Glazebrook, D. R. Duniliae, 
James C. Lynn, H. Ballard, H. B. Richardson, Enoch Franklin, A. C. 
Hamm, Thomas Ogg and others. The above lists, with a few names 
•omitted, comprise all the early residents of Bedford. 


The firm of Irwin & Stewart, Samuel F. Irwin and Isaac Stewart, 
the latter a non-resident, was the first mercantile house in Bedford. 
They occupied the first frame building in the town on the present site of 
Dr. Ben Newland's office, and carried a stock valued at about $4,000. 
A. H. Dunihue, who came to Bedford in 1826, entered this store as clerk 
and continued in that capacity for several years. In 1830 this store was 
sold to Joseph Rawlins, who conducted the mercantile pursuit in the 
town for a period of over thirty years, amassing a large fortune. The 
firm of Lowrey & Simpson opened a store soon after the above in a log 
building which stood on the present site of Dean's hardware store. They 
did a good business for many years. Andrew Hattabaugh opened the 
first " grocery " or liquor store in 1826, soon after the town was laid out, 
in a log building on the east side of the square. Moses Fell, a man of 
unusual prominence and worth, moved to Bedford in 1827 and opened a 
general store, which he successfully conducted until his death in 1840. 
William McLane, who had been a militia or "cornstalk" colonel, and 
who, as early as 1815, had conducted a general store at Orleans, Orange 
County, located in Bedford in 1827, where he remained many years, 
actively engaged in business. For a time he was President of the 
branch of the State Bank of Indiana located at Bedford, and was the 
owner of a large wholesale dry goods house in Louisville. He amassed 
a fortune of $150,000, and about 1854 moved to Texas, where he died 
in 1873 at the age of eighty-five years. In 1828, John Vestal, who had 
previously been in business at Springville, opened a general store on the 
southeast corner of the square, and continued many years, dying in 1873. 
His widow, a resident of Bedford, survives him at the advanced age of 
ninety years. William Benefield opened the first tavern in 1825. David 
Kelly opened a liquor store in 1827. Brown & Moberly sold liquor. 
William Kelsey began to sell liquor in 1829. Foote & Fell also began 
selling liquor about this time. The following is a copy of their " recom- 
mend ' ' : 

Bedford, January 4, 1830. 
We, the undersigned subscribers, do certify that Winthrop Foote and Moses 
Fell are men of good moral character. 

John Brown. Nelson R. Brown. 

Robert M. Carlton. William Toon. 

William Kelsey. Elbert Jeter. 

Samuel F. Irwin. Robert Mitchell. 

William Gooldy. E. C. Moberly. 

John Lowrey. David Borland. 



During the decade of the thirties, the town of Bedford was very 
prosperous. In 1834, the first newspaper was founded, and a year or 
two later the branch of the State Bank was, established. It is also said 
that the town was incorporated during this period, but nothing to clearly 
establish this fact was discovered by the writer. The presence of the 
bank made ready money plenty. This fact brought capitalists in to 
encompass the vast trade in pork and grain which found an easy ship- 
ment to southern markets by ilat-boats. This was probably the most 
active decade in the history of the town. John Vestal, Samuel F. Irwin, 
William McLane, Moses Fell, Simpson & Lowrey, Joseph Rawlins were 
leading merchants and business men. Gotleib Byrer sold liquor. Busick 
was his partner in 1831-32. Malott & Clark opened a store in 1831. 
Foote & Fell conducted an extensive liquor establishment and made 
much money. Vaughn & Moberly dealt extensively in liquor. William 
Long and Ephraim Trabue were also liquor dealers; so were Nathaniel 
Miller, John Wade, William and Charles Gooldy, Seth Lunsford, I. N. 
Glazebrook, W. M. Mason, William Pro, James Hays, William Hackett, 
11. M. Carlton, Preston King, and perhaps others. It would seem that 
all the early merchants got their start by selling liquor. The name of 
A. H. Dunihue is the only one of all the earliest at Bedford not con- 
nected with the sale of liquor, or even attached to a recommendation of 
good moral character of some resident seller. On the contrary, the 
name is found on every remonstrance against the sale of liquor iu the 
town or elsewhere in bold and conspicuous letters. However, the sale of 
liquor in those days was not enveloped in the obloquy of the present 
Good, moral, religious men countenanced the sale, and even conducted 
"groceries" (as they were called) of their own. Other merchants dur- 
ing the thirties other than those above, were: E. C. Moberly, D. R. 
Dunihue, Lankford Trueblood, John Brown, Mason & Harvey, Jacob 
Clark, Medicine, Vestal & Crooke, M. A. & W. H. Malott, F. W. Dixon 
and others. 


As early as 1826, Samuel F. Irwin erected a log building adjoining the 
town, and fitted it up for a steam distillery. At the same time he started 
a horse-mill to supply his distillery with ground grain. He did not 
grind flour and meal for the citizens. The horse-mill and the distillery 
combined were important industrial enterprises and received extensive 
patronage. At that day there was scarcely any market for corn other 
than at the distilleries. Corn was fed to hogs, which were packed and 
shipped in enormous numbers South on flat-boats. Corn that was not 
fed to hogs and thus made valuable, found no market worth mentioning 
except at the distilleries, where often the cash was paid for it, or otherwise 
it was manufactured into liquor on the shares. Large quantities of corn 


found a ready market at Ii'win's Distillery, and the whisky and brandy 
made were sold mainly in Louisville. An average of about three barrels 
of liquor were turned out each day. This represented the consumption 
of about thirty-five bushels of corn in that length of time, and as the dis- 
tillery ran steadily, its annual capacity was about 10,000 bushels of corn, 
or about 800 barrels of liquor. This distillery, then, although it did not 
reach these figures, furnished a steady and valuable market for corn and 
rye. The liquor usually sold for 12^ cents a gallon. After about ten 
years mill and distillery were abandoned. 

In about 1836, a company consisting of William McLane, Samuel F. 
Irwin, Moses Fell, John Vestal and perhaps others erected a cotton fac- 
tory in the town. They bought the machinery in Lexington, Ky., and 
hauled it to Bedford in two two-horse wagons. H. B. Richardson was 
installed as Superintendent of the factory with about six workmen. 
The cotton was purchased in the South, shipped to Louisville, and hauled 
out by wagoners. Large quantities of yarns were manufactured, and 
sold over a wide section of country, but beyond that the enterprise did 
not advance. No cloth was made and in about 1840 the factory was sold 
to Campbell & Booth, of Salem, who removed the machinery. 

In about 1834 Barker & Phelps started an ashery which they con- 
ducted about three years. They bought large quantities of ashes for 
from 3 to 7 cents per bushel and manufactured a fair article of 
black salts which was hauled to Louisville and sold. Connected with 
this was a shingle factory owned and operated by the same men. This 
factory was propelled by steam. A considerable quantity of rough shin- 
gles was manufactured from native woods, and found a ready sale at 
home. This enterprise was conducted about three years. As early as 
1826 Richard Evans built a tread-power saw-mill at or near Bedford, 
which he conducted until about 1830. The mill at first was well patron- 

As early as 1826 David Borland built a large tannery at Bedford, 
which was conducted fifteen or twenty years. It consisted of about forty 
vats, and did a large business, the leather manufactured going mainly to 
Louisville. About a year after this enterprise was founded, Samuel and 
Thompson Biggs also erected a tannery consisting of about twenty vats, 
and conducted the enterprise with profit for about fifteen years, when the 
property passed to Biggs & Young, who operated the yard until about 
1855. At the best seasons these tanneries gave employment to about ten 

In 1826 Thomas and Robert Carlton bought the machinery of the 
Lockhart woolen factory at Palestine, and removing it to Bedford started 
a woolen factory there. Carding in all its forms was as far as the factory 
advanced. At this, however, an enormous custom business was done 
from May to September, about six hands being employed. The wool 


raised over a large section of country was brought here to be carded and 
then returned to the families, where it was spun and woven into cloth. 
The Carltons also bought considerable wool, which they sold in Louisville. 
This important industry was conducted several years. In about 1834, 
James C. Lynn started a carding factory which continued in operation 
about twelve years. This factory was even more important than that of 
the Carltons. He gave employment to about the same number of work- 
men, but advanced beyond carding to fulling and coloring without dress- 
ing. His work was known by it roughness, its warmth and its wearing 

There were three important cabinet shops in Bedford at an early day, . 

the owners being Matthew Borland, William Templeton and Joseph Cul- j 

bertson. Each manufactured tables, stands, bureaus, cupboards, chairs, I 

bedsteads, coffins, etc., though the business was not extensive, two or I 

three workmen only being employed by each. One or two of these ran * 

for many years. 


The most important and extensive industry of early years was the 
packing and shipment of pork. The principal men thus engaged were: 
William McLane, Samuel F. Irwin, Joseph Rawlins and David Borland. 
Michael A. Malott packed on a small scale for a few seasons. McLane 
& Irwin began the business about 1827, when they erected a log building 
on Leatherwood Creek below town. This structure was about 120 feet 
long by 80 feet wide, and was occupied by these two men, each doing a 
separate business. Hogs were bought over a large section of country on 
credit, for which payments were made after the sale of the pork in south- 
ern markets. There was an enormous demand on the sugar and cotton 
plantations of Mississippi and Louisiana for the corn and pork of the 
famous White River country of Indiana. Here it was that the products 
of Lawrence County found ready sale. The packing season extended 
from about the middle of November to the middle of February, and dur- 
ing this period these two men, each with from twelve to twenty workmen, 
slaughtered and packed from 5,000 to 9,000 hogs, sufficient to load about 
five or six large flat-boats. Joseph Rawlins and David Borland each 
had a packing house on Salt Creek, where they did a business about as 
large as McLane & Irwin. It is said that for many years from 9,000 
to 12,000 hogs were packed annually by the above four men, residents of 
Bedford, and shipped South on flat-boats. It required about eight boats 
to carry the 12,000 hogs. These boats were built as needed, from native 
lumber, at the packing houses, and sold in the southern markets after 
the cargo had been disposed of. It is also said that during the years 
when this extensive packing was being done, an average of about seventy- 
five flat-boats loaded with corn and produce was sent annually from the 
county. During the busy months forty or fifty men were employed by 


the Bedford packers. This was the most extensive business ever in Bed- 
ford except the recent stone enterprises. 

Another early industry was the manufacture of hats. Gotlieb Byrer, 
John Hovious and William Cook owned hatteries, each giving employment 
to two or three workmen — "jours " as they were called. Each made hats 
both from wool and fur. Byrer began as early as 1826, and continued 
about ten years. Hovious began in 1829 and continued until 1836. 
Cook continued from 1837 to 1844. Hats were made from mink, otter, 
beaver, coon and other fur, and from lambs' wool bought from the neigh- 
boring farmers. As high as 1,500 hats were made in Bedford in one 
year, and sold for from 50 cents to $6. 


During the forties the following business men held forth at Bedford : 
S. F. Irwin, M. A. & W. H. Malott, McLane & Dunihue. John Vestal, 
R. R. Bryant & Co., John B. Thomasson, Timmons & McAllen, Rawlins 
& Clark, John W. Thompson, Bryant & Kelley, W. H. Pro, Peter Port- 
man, Samuel Mitchell, Gustavus Clark, John W. Sanders, Portman 
& Remey, H. H. & J. D. McLane, Knight & Richardson, Mitchell 
& Simpson, P. T. & V. Vestal, Clark & Owens, Goolett & Co., 
Doolittle & Chamberlain, and a few other merchants; Henry J. 
Acoam at first sold liquor, but later opened with merchandise. In 
1845, permission was granted the citizens by the County Board to 
erect a Market House, which was accordingly done. During this 
decade the eifort against the sale of liquor almost succeeded in ban- 
ishing " groceries" from the town. The number was greatly reduced, 
but a few old establishments like that of Phillip Renter continued to 
to thrive in spite of opposition. Strong efforts were made to prevent the 
issuance of license to Renter, and several petitions with that object in 
view, after consideration by the County Board, were duly granted, but 
the sale did not stop. One of these petitions which was granted was as 
follows in full : 

Bedford, Indiana, December, 34, 1844. 
To the Honorable Board of Commissioners of the County of Lawrence if in ses- 
sion; if not in session, to the Auditor and Treasurer of said County : The undersigned 
citizens of the town of Bedford, believing that retailing spirituous liquors within the 
limits of said town is pernicious in its effects, therefore respectfully remonstrate 
against the granting of license to any person or persons to retail spirituous liquors 
within the limits of said town for the term of five years. 

D. R. Dunihue. A. Q. Young. Eli Dale. 

Isaac Denson. Horatio Jeter. Henry Quackenbush. 

William Newkirk. John Vestal. John Webb. 

W. V. Daniel. Joseph Rawlins. Edmund B. Kennedy. 

M. W. Houston. T. N. Robertson. William McLane. 

William Smith. James R. GloVer. William S. Watson. 

Daniel Dunihue, Sr. James G. Duncan. Solomon Eldridge. 

C. P. Reed. Robert Biggs. John Gyger. 


S. F. Irwin. William Ross. William Porter. 

H. B. Richardson. F. T. Raymond. Dr. Laforce. * 

William Perkins. Oily Owens. Luke Barker. 

A. S. Ferguson. J. G. McDonald. W. W. Williamson. 

John Owen. Nancy Wilder. Ezekiel Blackwell. 

A. H. Duniliue. Edith H. Hendricks. N. D. Glazebrook. 

Elizabeth Baruer. Levi H. Dale. R. M. Parks. 

Isaac Rector. David Borland. James C. Lynn. 

Alexander Wall. 
Mr. Renter was denied a license, but through his attorney, James 
Hughes, demanded a rehearing, bat this was refused, and an exception 
was filed. The matter was settled in the Circuit Court in such a manner 
that Renter was permitted to go on with the sale of liquor. During this 
controversy a full list of all the resident families of the town was made 
out, there being in addition to the above the following : G. C. Walker, 
William Bell, Joseph Stillson, Chester Munson, M. A. Malott, Samuel 
Rankin, R. R. Bryant, William Templeton, Moriah Sullivan, John Bus- 
kirk, L. Q. Hoggatt, Elizabeth Iloggatt, James Warner, G. W. Grim- 
sley, Henry Culbertson, J. B. Prather, Lorinda Messick, Jacob Huff, 
William Harshberger, A. J. Malott, C. F. Hamer, Jesse A. Mitchell, L. 
B. Nunnelly, W. H. Pro, A. Gelwick, Philip Renter, R. M. Carlton, 
Thomas F. Francis, William Cook, H. J. Acoam, George G. Dunn, Levi 
Munson, James Rawlins, Matthew Borland, Scott Roach, J. W. Thomp- 
son, Elizabeth Brown, Thomas Whitter, Robert Mitchell, Zeno "Worth, 
Winthrop Foote, Job Clark and Elizabeth Fuller. These families rep- 
resented a population of about 500. 


Among the business men of the fifties were: Dunihue &Kelley, Mich- 
ael A. Malott, Joseph Rawlins, John Vestal, J. C. Cavins, drugs; W. M. 
Northcroft, clothing; John Sues, Portman & Francis, E. & E. M. Brax- 
tan, hardware; Houston & Buskirk, furniture; Krenking & Schmidt, 
grist-mill; Godfrey Schlosser, marble dealer: J. G. Unkel, jeweler; W. 
W. Owens, Postmaster; .Malott & Sons, general store; J. S. AVigmore, 
watches and clocks; James Calvert, furniture; Leach & Brown, saddles 
and harness; Adam Ruth, furniture; R. H. Carlton & Co., drugs; Malott & 
Reed, general store ;Newland &Hostetler, drugs; B. Lepman,dry goods and 
clothing, and many others whose names are forgotten. Among the business 
men of the sixties were: J. W. Thompson, general store; Parks & Williams, 
general store; Henry Ewald, grocer, Adam Ruth, furniture; J. C. Carlton & 
Co., general store; J. P. Francis, general store ; Levi H. Dale, stoves and 
tinware; Charles Kramer, bakery; Cavins & Steele, marble shop and paint- 
ing; Kahn & Brother, clothing; George McRoberts, drugs; Glover & 
Driscoll, dentists; H. F. Braxtan, gi'ocer; A. G. Gainey & Co., general 
store; D. P. Beake, jeweler; Howell & Johnson, drugs; J. V. & Z. C. 
Mathes, hardware; D. Barnes & Son. furniture; J. J. Hardy, livery; 






Adam & Ragsdale, general store; H. Jeter, gun-smith; J. G. Northcroft, 
drugs; Black & Morris, groceries; Davis & Aley, harness and saddles; J. 

C. Carlton, Postmaster; M. and S. Judah, groceries; Mrs. S. A. W. 
Brown, milliner; Anderson & Hamilton, books and stationery; Whitted 
Son & Co., planing-mill; J. "W. Acoam, saddles and harness; Palmer & 
Messick, merchant tailors; Heitzer & Brother, furniture, and others. 


Dry goods — Dunihue & Son, W. W. Ferguson, Thomas Brown, John 
Zahn, Dinkelspiel Brothers, H. B. Richardson, J. W. Cosner & Son, 
Foote & Parker, S. C. Sadler, George Elliott. Groceries— W. W. Fergu- 
son, John Zahn, Thomas Brown, William Denniston. Dunihue & Son, H. 

B. Richardson, Sr. and Jr., J. D. Thomasson, J. W. Cosner & Son, K. 

D. Owen & Co., George Elliott, Gainey & Son, Foote & Parker, Nat. 
AVilliams. Hardware — M. N. Messick, Parks & Hudson, Dean & Son, H. 
Jeter. Drugs— Malott, Crim & Co., W. V. Houston, R. H. Carlton, John 
W. Mitchell. Boots and shoes — George D. Gowen, H. B. Richardson, 
George Elliott, W. W. Ferguson, John Zahn, Thomas Brown, Dinkel 
spiel Brothers, J. W. Cosner & Son, S. C. Sadler, Dunihue & Son, Mr. 
Sharp, Foote & Parker. Clothing — George D. Gowen, Dinkelspiel Broth- 
ers, H. Kahn & Co., S. C. Sadler, Palmer & Dunihue. Jewelry — John 

C. Voss, Augustin Ellis. Milliners — Miss Nannie Younger, Mrs. Eliza 
Houston, Mrs. S. A. W. Brown, Sharp Sisters. Cigars— John L. Baker. 
Barbers — Ferguson & Mayberry, Reath Brothers, George Stoesel, W, P. 
Allen. Restaurants or bakeries — Eugene Green, August Unkel, Jacob 
Reath. Harness — John Acoam, C. R. Aley. Grist-mills — Mr. Myers. 
Saw-mill and lumber — I. F. I'orce. Planing-mills and lumber— Theo- 
dore Heitger, Joseph Johnson, Coleman Duncan, Sr. Agricultural 
Implements — M. N. Messick, Parks & Hudson, Daggy, Hodge & Walhei- 
ser, A. W. Thomas & Co., K. D. Owens. Carriages and wagons — Daggy 
Hodge & Walheiser. Photographer — J. H. Rogers. Gunsmith — David 
Miller, H. Jeter. Stoneworks — Voris, Norton & Co., Hoosier Stone Com- 
pany, Hollowell Granite Company, Chicago & Bedford Stone Company, 
Tomlinson & Reed. Banks — The Bedford Bank. Grain buyers — Gainey 
& Son. Woolen factory — Jesse A. Mitchell & Co. Contractors and build 
ers — Lewis Whitman, M. F. Pearson, Alfred Hamm, Mr. Irwin. Marble 
works — Edward Murphy, Lewis Smith, Otto Gra£f. Furniture — Fergu- 
son & Benzil, Lewis Gerber, William Peake. Butchers — George Mc- 
Donard, Schultz & Sullivan. Livery— William Day, Daggy, Hodge & 
Walheiser, Hobson & Mitchell. Hotels — Hatfield House, Commercial 
House, Diehl House, McNabb House, Central House. Live stock dealers 
— Jesse A. Mitchell, Malott & Woods, Daniel Boone, Jesse Bailey. Mer- 
chant tailors — Haase & Owen, Jack Razor. Books and stationery — 
Malott, Crim& Co. Brick kiln — Lewis Daggy. Lime kiln — E. Jeter & 


Brother. Blacksmiths — G. W. Adams, Joseph Fry, John Giegrish, 
Fidler Brothers. Dentists — W. E. Driscol, Mr. Cave, Mr. Trainer, Mr. 
Fox. Produce — Jones & Giles. "Wool buyers — Dinkelspiel Brothers. 
Coal dealers — W. P. Malott, Gainey & Sons, J. Q. Justice. Saloons — 
John Reath, Hughes & Ragsdale, Owens & Richardson, Dobbins & Beam, 
C. Gaussin, John McMillan. Lawyers — Friedley & Pearson, Dunn & 
Dunn, Luckett & Lowe, W. H. Martin, George O. Iseminger, Wilson & 
Voris, John Riley, Newton Crooke, R. N. Palmer, Gideon Putnam, James 
H. Willard, Mr. Hitchcock. Physicians — Ben Newland, J. W. New- 
^and, Mr. Fawcett, Joseph Stillson, Hamilton Stillson, S. A. Rariden, C. 
E. Rariden. Churches — Methodist Episcopal, William Telfer, pastor; 
Christian, C. P. Heudershot, pastor: Presbyterian, Frazier, pastor; 
Baptist, J. M. Stalker; Catholic, supplied from abroad. f 


The Bedford Woolen Mills were built about twenty-five years ago by 
Charles Mason & Son, of Michigan, and were soon doing a good busi- 
ness. J. H. Mason & Co. owned them at the close of the war, and at 
that time manufactured good cassimeres at 60 cents a yard, jeans at 60 
cents, satinets at 65 cents, Hannel from 45 to 90 cents, blankets $4.50 a 
pair, did extensive roll carding at 10 cents a pound, and carded, spun 
and wove for 27 cents per pound. At this time they bought extensively 
of woo], the greater portion of which they manufactured in their mills, 
selling their cloth largely throughout the surrounding country, but 
mainly in Louisville and New Albany. Soon after this, however, the 
business declined with the depreciation of values at the close of the war, 
and about this time the property was transferred to Dr. J. C. Cavins, 
who owned it until 1871, when it passed to Jesse A. Mitchell, who, with 
W. C. Winstandley, owns it at present. At one time the goods of these 
mills were sold in nine States and aggregated in value over $30,000. 
The business has greatly fallen ofif in later years, though at times it has 
rallied. Weaving was discontinued in 1882. Now a large business is 
done in carding. 

Among the more important establishments of Bedford in later years 
was the planing mill bui It by Thomas Whitted. He employed several hands 
and operated machinery of the most improved kind, and gave employ- 
ment to several skilled mechanics. His establishment was well patron- 
ized. The fine flouring-mill built by Charles Cramer, twelve or fifteen 
years ago, is a credit to the town. It has been rented to practical millers 
who have succeeded each other in charge of the same several times. The 
grade of flour furnished ranks high in home and distant markets. 
Another important business was the furniture factory of James McPhee- 
ters. Connected with it was a saw-mill and lumber-yard. All the pat- 
ented machines to manufacture bedsteads, chairs, tables, etc. , were used. 




and for a time prosperity reigned, but soon the business was found to be 
unprofitable and was abandoned. 


In October, 1834, after warm rivalry from Salem and pex'haps other 
towns, this bank was established at Bedford. It was chartered for 
twenty years, and one-half of the capital was furnished by the State and 
one-half by the stockholders, the capital being $100,000. Col. McLane 
was probably the first President, and George G. Dunn the first Cashier. 
The latter relinquished the appointment in a few months, and was suc- 
ceeded by D. R. Dunihue, who served until 1848. Isaac Rector was then 
his successor, serving until 1854. John Vestal was the second President. 
At one time there were nearly 100 stockholders, several living in adjoin- 
ing counties. Among the leading ones at the start were : William McLane, 
Moses Fell, John Vestal, Joseph Rawlins, David and Matthew Borland, 
M. A. Malott, John Inman, John Rowland, William Fish, G. G. Dunn, 
A. H. Dunihue and others. In 1838 at one time the number of borrow- 
ers was 300. The liabilities of the Directors as drawers were $38,200; 
number of stockholders holding under $500 was 25; number holding 
from $500 to $5,000 was 20; number holding over $5,000 was 1. In 
1839 the number of stockholders was 73, and the number of shares, 354 
December 14, 1839, there was in the bank specie $63,677.88, and August 
24 of the same year there was $100,590.96. The bank did a great deal 
for Bedford and the county. Its loans were very large during the fall 
and winter to pork and grain dealers. Its circulation considerably ex- 
ceeded $100,000, and the individual deposits at times greatly exceeded 
that amount. Its affairs were wound up in 1854, and from its ashes 
sprang the present bank. 

In 1857 the Bank of the State of Indiana was founded at Bedford as 
the successor of the old Branch of the State Bank, with a capital of 
$150,000, and Nvith D, Ricketts President, and G. A. Thornton Cashier. 
It did a flourishing business, with many stockholders, and its issues were 
always received at par. In 1865, M. A. Malott became President, and 
W. C. Wiiistandley, Cashier. The bank under this management was suc- 
cessfully conducted until the spring of 1871, when its long career was 
honorably brought to a close and the issues all retired. In October of 
the same year, the Bedford National Bank was organized with a capital 
of $100,000, and with M. A. Malott President, W. C. Winstandley 
Secretary; M. A. Malott, E. R. George, Alfred Grayson, W. A. Hol- 
land, H. B. Richardson, Coleman Duncan, T. H. Malott and W. 0. 
Windstandley, Directors. This organization began with large deposits 
and a flattering foreign patronage, and has steadily increased its business 
until the present. At the death of M. A. Malott in the fall of 1875, 
W. C. Winstandley became President, and T. H. Malott Cashier. In 


Augast, 1879, the bank wan re-organized, and its character as a national 
bank ended. Out of its ashes arose the Bedford Bank, a private organi- 
zation, which yet endures. The first stockholders were W. C. Winstand 
ley, Mrs. Elizabeth Malott, Mrs. Elizabeth Gardner, Mrs. Mary H. 
Duncan, T. H. Malott, N. F. Malott and John E. Malott. In the 
autumn of 1882 W. P. Malott became Cashier. This is at present the 
only bank in Bedford. It has a large business, and enjoys the confidence 
of the county. 


In June, 1851, upon petition of R. R. Bryant, J. B. Buskirk, M. W. 
Houston. John Daggy, M. W. Leach, A. N. Wilder, Benjamin Newland, 
John P. Fisher, James W. Pro, James M. Warren, S. A. Rariden and 
William Malott, the Grand Lodge granted them a charter to work as a 
subordinate lodge of the A. F. & A. M. It was called Bedford Lodge, 
No. 14, the number being the same, upon the request of the members, as 
that of the old Palestine Lodge. The first officers were: J. B. Buskirk, 
W. M. ; Benjamin Newland, S. W.; John Daggy, J. W. ; R. R. Bryant, 
Secretary; M. W. Leach, Treasurer; M. W. Houston, S. D.; G. P. Peten, 
J. D. ; J. W. Warren, Tyler. The lodge began with a good membership, 
and has steadily increased until the present, and now has a membership 
of over eighty. Its present officers are: Ben Newland, W. M. ; A. J. 
Hostetler, S. W.; James AVilder, J. W. ; A. N. Wilder, Treasurer; John 
D. Thomasson, Secretary; D. E. Mead, S. D.; George W. Hudson, J. 
D. ; Frank Honaker and Peter Filien, Stewards; J. A. Hendricks, Tyler. 
Notwithstanding the large membership of the lodge, and its prosperity, 
it has accumulated property of but little comparative value. 

Hacker Chapter, No. 34, R. A. M., named in honor of William 
Hacker, was organized under a dispensation June 6, 1870, with the fol 
lowing charter members: G. O. Iseminger, John M. Daggy, Thomas N. 
Stevens, J. A. Hendricks, Levi H. Dale, J. R. Glover, P. A. Parks, 
Henry Davis, Andrew Gelwick and R. L. Rout. The first officers were: 
G. O. Iseminger, H. P.; L. H. Dale, King; Henry Davis, Scribe; John 
M. Daggy, C. H. ; G. W. Friedley, P. S. ; J. R. Glover, R. A. C. ; P. A. 
Parks, G. M. 3d V., Robert L. Rout, G. M. 2d V.; T. N. Stevens, G. M. 
1st v.; Andrew Gelwick, Treasurer; T. C. Williams, Secretary; J. A. 
Hendricks, Guard. The chapter continued to work under the dispen- 
sation until the charter was obtained October 20, 1872. It is at present 
in a prosperous condition, with seventy- seven members, and is officered 
as follows: John M. Daggy, H. P.; W. Day, K. ; G. O. Iseminger, 
Scribe; W. H. Martin, C. of H.; Joseph Giles, P. S.; James B. Wilder, 
R. A. C. ; V. V. Williams, G. M. of 3d V. ; H. H. Edwards, G. M. of 
2d v.; H. H. Walls, G. M. of 1st V.; W. P. Hodge, Treasurer; R. N. 
Palmer, Secretary; J. A. Hendricks, Guard. 

Bedford Council, R. & S. M., No. 49, was organized April 12, 


1876, under a dispensation, with the following first members: J. H. 
Ramsey, V. V. Williams, E. C. Newland, G. O. Isemiuger, J. W. Hud- 
son, Dr. Joseph Gardner, J. R. Overman, G. G. Dunn, F. M. Lemon 
and Isaac H. Crim. The charter bears the date October 18, 1876. The 
first officers were: J. H. Ramsey, 111. M.; E. C. Newland, D. 111. M. ; V. 
V. Williams, P. C. of W. ; John M. Daggy, C. G. ; J. N. Hostetler, 
Treasurer; T. C. Williams, Recorder; A. N. Wilder, S. and S. The 
council now has a membership of about forty. The present officers are: 
J. H. Ramsey, 111. M.; A. J. Hostetler, D. 111. M.; V. V. Williams, P. 
C. W.; John M. Daggy, C. G. ; W. P. Hodge, Treasurer; R. N. Palmer, 
Recorder; John W. Hudson, S. and S. 

Emmet Lodge, No. 345, F. and A. M., named in honor of the 
eminent Irish patriot, Robei't Emmet, was organized under a dispensa- 
tion and received its charter May 29, 1867, and was a branch of the old 
Bedford Lodge, its first officers being J. M. Daggy, W. M. ; L. H. Dale, 
S. W.; J. L. Messick, J, W. ; S. Bristow, Treasurer; J. W. Glover, Sec- 
retary; T. N. Stephens, S. D. ; E. W. Howell, J. D.; J. Walhiser, 
Tyler. This lodge is in a very prosperous condition with a present 
membership of sixty-eight. The officers for 1884 are: J. M. Daggy, W. 
M. ; V. V. Williams, S. W.; H. H. Edwards, J. W.; R. N. Palmer, S. 
D.; A. Stone, J. D.; W. P. Hodge, Treasurer; H. H. Wall, Secretary; 
Joseph Hendricks, Tyler; F. T. Dunihue and Charles Putnam. 

Shawswick Lodge, No. 177, I. O. O. F., was instituted by John 

B. Anderson, R. W. G. M., of Indiana, May 21, 1856, with the 
following first members: Francis A. Sears, John Baker, W. G. R. Kemp, 
G. S. Kaufifman, Joseph J. Dean and W. C. Hopkins. F. A. Francis was 
the first Noble Grand and Henry Davis the first Vice Grand. The lodge 
was soon prosperous, and so remains at present. The total number ini- 
tiated and admitted by card since the lodge was instituted is 212; num- 
ber of deaths 11. The present membership is 86. The lodge is 
worth about $3,700, and meets every Moaday night. The present officers 
are: A. D. Campbell, N. G.; J. A. Caldwell, V. G. ; J. J. Johnson, Sec- 
retary; W. P. Malott, Permanent Secretary; A. A. Malott, Treasurer; 
E. R. Murphy, W.; Lawis Dinkalspiel, 0. ; A. Lucas, I. G. ; J. M. 
Crooke, O. G. ; G. W. Adams, R. S. N. G.; L. E. Payne, L. S. N. G. ; 
M. H. Pearson, R. S. V. G. ; C. Clark, L. S. V. G. ; E. R. Murphy, J. 
W. Mitchell and G. P. Lee, Trustees. 

Bedford Eocampment, No. 80, was instituted July 24, 1866, by 

C. P. Tuley, D. D. G. P., the following being the first members: E. D. 
Pearson, Cyrus Davis, W. VV. Malott, J. P. Francis, John AV. Glover, 
J. Basley, M. A. Malott and M. H. Pearson. The first officers were: M. A. 
Malott, C. P. ; E. D. Pearson, H. P. ; Cyrus Davis, S. W. ; M. H. Pear- 
son, J. W. ; J. P. Francis, Treasurer; J. Basley, Secretary. The pres- 
ent membex'ship is eighteen. The lodge meets every second and fourth 


Friday nights in each month. The present oflfcers are: Lee Dinkelspiel, 
C. P.; T. fl. Malott. H. P. ; J. W. Acoam, S. W.; W. P. Malott, J. W. ; 
A. A. Malott, Treasurer. 

In September, 1883, E. C. Newland Post, No. 47, G. A. R., was 
established at Bedford by Capt. Houston, of Salem. The post began 
■with a membership of about forty-five, which has since been increased to 
about seventy-six. The first ofiicers were: I. H. Crim, Commander; 
Jesse Bailey, S. V. C; Reuben B. Scott, J. V. C; William Malott, Com- 
missary; William Erwin, Adjutant; Dr. H. Malott, Surgeon. The pres- 
ent officers are: R. B. Scott, Commander; W. H. Mitchell, S. Y. C. ; W. 
P. Malott, Q. M. ; E. R. Murphy, Adjutant. The post meets every sec- 
ond and fourth Saturday afternoons of each month in the town hall. 
There have been several other secret societies in the town, such as 
Knights of Pythias, if the writer mistakes not, and Good Templars, but 
as the records are lost, nothing can be said regarding them. 


No. of Lota. 

1850, Lowrey's addition 15 

1857. Dunn's addition to the out-lots of Bedford 11 

1860. West Bedford addition 47 

1860. East Bedford addition 35 

1863. Simpson & Berry's addition 24 

1865. Steven's addition to tlie out-lots of Bedford 13 

1867. Simpson's addition 5 

1867. Ragsdale's addition 10 

1869. Fairground addition 12 

1870. Simpson's second addition 32 

1871. Stillson's addition 30 

1876. Stillson's second addition 19 

1878. Malott & Tliornton's addition 30 

1881. Messick& Duncan's addition 32 

1881. Cosner & Rariden's addition 16 

1881. Second East Bedford 16 

1882. Owen's subdivision of part of out-lot J of Dunn's addition 

to the out-lots of Bedford 13 

1883. Reath's addition 16 

1883. Thomas' subdivision of lots 10, 11 and 12 of the Fair- 
ground addition 22 

Total 397 


On the 10th of June, 1864, the County Board were petitioned to 
order an election to determine whether Bedford should become incorpor- 
ated. By survey the corporate limits proposed comprised 1,440 acres. 
The 29th of June was fixed as the date of election, and on that day 122 
votes were polled in favor of incorporating the town and 14 against it, 
whereupon, September 8, 1864, the County Board duly declared Bedford 



to be an incorporated town. The first officers were: M. N. Messick, D. 
W. Parker and J. D. Tbomasson, Trustees; John M. Stalker, Clerk; Levi 
H. Dale, Marshal; A. H. Dunihue, Treasurer. J. D. Thomasson, Trustee 
immediately resigned and was succeeded by A. C. Glover, and J. M. 
Stalker, Clerk, resigned and was succeeded by H. F. Braxtan. The first 
proceeding was to adopt a code of town ordinances. This consumed 
several weeks. E. D. Pearson was appointed Town Attorney. At this 
time the question of the right of the Board of Trustees to grant liquor 
license in the sum of $50 was raised and submitted to Judge Bicknell, 
of the Circuit Court, who decided that they had not that right. In 
April, 1865, Charles G. Berry succeeded H. F. Braxtan as Clerk. At 
this time John "VV. Newiand, Newton F. Malott and Madison Evans were 
elected School Trustees. A. H. Dunihue, Treasurer, submitted the fol- 
lowing report from Octobe)- 28, 1864, to April 22, 1865: 


Liquor license $150 00 Printing $ 31 95 

Pedlers' license 17 00 Copying ordinances, etc 34 00 

Gymnastic performers 4 00 Liquor license refunded 50 00 

Total $171 00 

Cash to balance 55 05 

Total $171 00 

The officers of 1865-66 were D. G. Gray, John M. Daggy and Madi- 
soD Evans, Trustees; John W. Mitchell, Clerk; A. H. Dunihue, Treas- 
urer; Levi Dale, Marshal. On the 22d of May, a town tax as follows 
was levied: Twenty-five cents on each poll and 10 cents on each $100 
valuation of property. The liquor license collected as above was all 
refunded. In August a petition was presented the Board asking for a 
dissolution of the corporation, which petition was taken under advise- 
ment. What action was taken cannot be definitely stated, but the muni- 
cipal government, at all events, was abandoned from January, 1866, to 
September, 1869, at which latter date an election of officers was held. 

In 1869-70, the officers were Alexander H. Dunihue, James C. 
Carlton and E. D. Pearson, Trustees; M. N. Messick, Clerk and Treas- 
urer; Erastus Ikerd, Assessor and Marshal. A full series of ordinances 
were adopted. Newton Crook was appointed Town Attorney. In Novem- 
ber the foundation walls of the high school building and the brick kiln 
were covered with lumber. G. "VV. Friedley, T. N. Stevens and W. C. 
Winstandley were appointed School Trustees. In December the Board 
was called upon by the School Trustees to issue town bonds to be used in 
completing the high school building begun before by the Township 
Trustee, who had not sufficient means at his command to continue the 
work; whereupon $10,000 in bonds of the denomination of $100 each, 
drawing ten per cent interest, due as follows: $2,000 January 1, 1871; 
12,000 May 2, 1872; $2,000 July 1, 1873; $2,000 September 1, 1874; 
$2,000 November 1, 1875, were ordered issued. In December, four 
lamps were erected on the public square. It was estimated at this time 


that it would require $15,000 to complete the school building. In Feb- 
ruary, 1870, the annual salary of the Marshal, Collector and Assessor 
was fixed at $600. Numerous streets and sidewalks were built. In April 
$7.50 was paid for a corporation seal. The report of the Treasurer from 
October 2, 1869, to April 26, 1870, was as follows: 


Fines |56 00 Marshal's salary $310 00 

School bonds sold 800 00 Jail fees 13 40 

Bond interest refunded 1 70 Elections 12 50 

Liquor license 329 85 Lamp fluid 18 50 

General license 27 00 Interest on orders 50 

Street lamps 33 75 Printing 73 80 

Tax levy 777 69 Printing school bonds 23 20 

Street lamps 116 40 

Total 12,025 99 Other expense 23 05 

Total -$591 35 

The officers of 1870-71 were: E. D. Pearson, J. C. Carlton and A. 

H. Dunihue, Trustees; M. N. Messick, Clerk and Treasurer; E. N. 

Ikerd, Marshal, Collector and Assessor. Steps were taken in May to 

gravel or macadamize the streets surrounding the public square. Bids 

were called for. That of Hall and Harrison, was accepted, as follows: 

Grading, at 37^ cents per cubic yard; macadamizing, 50 feet wide, at 

$3.20 per linear foot; guttering, 30 cents per linear foot; depth of 

work, six inches. In August Charles S. Jenkins succeeded Ikerd as 

Town Officer. Work on the school building and on the streets around the 

square was being carried on. The school bonds were sold mostly at 

Bedford, and as fast as the proceeds were realized they were used. Work 

on the streets was paid in estimates from time to time. In Decembe'r it 

was decided that the salary of each Trustee per annum should be $75, of 

the Clerk $100, and of the Treasurer $50. In January, 1871, Horatio 

B. Richardson succeeded G. W. Friedley as School Triistee. R. H. 

Carlton, Engineer, reported work done on the streets around the square 

as follows: 

Grading 1,722 yards @ 37^ cents $ 645 75 

Guttering 2,017 feet @ 30 cents 605 10 

Macadamizing 1,516 feet @ $3.20 4,851 20 

High Street culvert 93 15 

Curbing on Sycamore Street 10 00 

Change in grade 1 00 

Total $6,206 20 

Of this amount which was paid Hall & Harrison, the town paid 
$800.23; Lawrence County paid $2,453.76; the New Albany Railroad 
paid $745, and the remainder was paid in estimates of benefits by own- 
ers of real estate fronting the square, the largest amount being paid by 
W. A. Foote— $126.56. In March, 1871, upon request of the School 
Board, town bonds to the amount of $8,500 were issued in denomina- 
tions of $100 each as follows: $1,000 due three years from date; $1,500 


due four years from date; $2,500 due five years from date; $3,500 due 
six years from date. Also, additional bonds of $1,000 were sold to W. 
A. Foote, at 6 per cent discount, in denominations of $100 each. The 
statement of the financial condition of the town, 1870-71 cannot be 
given, as it was not recorded in the town record. 

The officers of 1871-72 were: J. W. Newland, A. C. Voris and T. H. 
Malott, Trustees: J. L. Messick, Clerk and Treasurer; William Cook, 
Marshal, Collecter and Assessor. The latter did not qualify, and Law- 
son B. Hughes was appointed, but resigned, and C. L. Jenkins was 
appointed, but also resigned in two weeks, and John M. Campbell was 
appointed; Lycurgus Dalton was appointed Assessor. The town was 
divided into three road districts, and Supervisors were appointed; E. N. 
Ikerd became Marshal in August. In October, 1871, town bonds of $2,500 
were issued. In November, George W. Hudson became Marshal, E. N. 
Ikerd having died. In January town bonds to the amount of $13,400 
were issued as follows: $2,000 due January 1, 1880; $2,000 due January 
1, 1881; $2,000 due January 1, 1882; $2,000 due January 1, 1883; $2,000 
due January 1, 1884; $2,000 due January 1, 1885; $1,400 due January 
1, 1886; bonds to bear 10 per cent interest. In April W. C. Winstandley, 
Davis Harrison and Francis Wilson were appointed School Trustees for 
two years. The Treasurer's report for 1871-72 was as follows: 


Cash oa hand $ 1,157 79 Town offices $ 745 75 

Bondssold 11,770 00 Jail fees 12 70 

Justices' fines 26 00 Justice fees 13 00 

Licenses 82 00 Printing 96 15 

Delinquent tax 204 72 Schoolhouse If, 770 00 

Duplicate of 1871-72 3,975 00 Roads 716 12 

Road tax 689 93 Bond interest 800 00 

Township tax 260 44 Specific 32185 

Dog tax 54 25 License refunded 20175 

Tax refunded 19 00 

Total $18,210 13 School Trustees 243 75 

Cash to balance 3,274 06 

Total... $18,214 13 

The officers of 1872 were: A. C. Voris, J. W. Newland and T. H. 
Malott, Trustees; P. P. Parks, Marshal; J. L. Messick, Clerk and Treas- 
urer. During the summer and fall several important plank sidewalks 
were built. In October town orders were ordered issued for the payment 
of interest on town bonds, the orders to draw ten per cent interest. The 
pay of the Marshal was $35 per month with extras. In March, 1873, 
Winstandley & Malott were permitted to erect Fairbanks' scales on the 
public square. In March, the tax having been collected, the Treasurer 
was directed to take up all outstanding town orders for interest on town 
bonds. At this time the School Trustees, Davis Harrison, Francis Wil- 


son and W. C. Winstandley, asked that there might be sold $10,000 addi- 
tional town bonds to be used in the completion of the school building, 
whereupon bonds were ordered sold as follows: Four bonds $500 each, 
due 1886;! four bonds of $500 each, due 1887; one bond of $1,000, due 
1887; four bonds of $500 each, due 1888; one bond of $1,000, due 1888, 
and two bonds of $1,000 each, due 1889; the bonds to be dated March 
26, 1873, to bear ten per cent interest, and to be sold for not less than 
par ■value. W. C. Winstandley took the entire issue upon these condi- 
tions. H. C. Duncan seems to have been attorney for the Board at this 
time. The following was the report of the Treasurer for the fiscal year 


On hand $ 654 81 Specific $ 85 55 

Delinquent tax 79 76 Jail 42 85 

From County Treasurer 95 45 Printing and advertising 155 10 

Licenses 83 50 . Fines returned 22 95 

Fines 64 00 Roads 196 90 

Revenue of 1872-73 921 00 Town Trustees 225 00 

Clerk and Treasurer 150 00 

Marshal and Collector 420 00 

Cash refunded 5 00 

Tax refunded 1 65 

School Trustees 25 00 

Cash to balance 567 52 

$1,897 52 $1,897 52 



On hand $ 2,619 25 Bond interest $ 2,782 83 

Delinquent tax 329 06 Bonds redeemed 3,900 00 

Tax of 1872-73 4,421 90 Paid School Trustees 20,400 00 

School bonds sold 20,400 00 Cash to balance 677 38 

$27,770 21 $27,760 21 

In April, 1873, a metaled pavement was ordered built on the east 
side of the square, fronting Lots 1 , -2, 3 and 4, the pavement to be ten 
feet wide. The officers elected for 1873-74 were James C Carlton, Aden 
G. Gainey and J. "W. Newland, Trustees; T. H. Malott, Clerk and 
Treasurer; Henry Davis, Marshal and Collector. D. D. Campbell con- 
tracted to fence the cemetery for $70. 50, and Samuel Bristow contracted 
to furnish the posts, lumber, etc., for $185.38. The Messick Pond was 
ordered surveyed and drained in the general cleaning up made in fear of 
cholera. The total of th.e estimate of benefits to real property by the 
drain was reported by the Committee — A. C. Voris, D. G. Gray and 
Davis Harrison — to be $2,260. The contract for building the sewer or 
drain with twelve- inch, hard clay pipe was awarded to Jennings Larter 
for 29 cents per cubic yard. In October, a sti'eet was ordered opened 


through the premises of J. Q. Adams and the heirs of G. A. Thornton. 
In November John V. Nicola was paid $405 for 600 feet of sewer tile 
for the Messick Pond drain. Larter'sbill for work on the Messick sewer 
was $320. 16, with $38 additional for extras. The levy upon property- 
holders for the Messick sewer was $532.89, the total cost being $781.70, 
the town bearing one-third of the expense, the rate of taxation being 
23.15 per cent of the assessed benefits. During the winter of 1873-74 
several plank walks were built in town. The School Trustees in 1873-74 
were: Davis Harrison, one year to serve; D. W. Parker, two years to 
serve; W. C. Winstandley, three years to serve. D. Harrison was elected 
his own successor for 1874-75. On the 5th of May, 1874, Henry Davis, 
Assessor, reported 229 polls in Bedford, and $363,197 worth of personal 
property. The receipts of 1883-84 were $3,202.59, and the expenses 
$2,783.70; and the school fund receipts were $5,816.14, and the expenses 

The officers for 1874-75 were: J.C. Carlton, A.G.Gainey and J. W. New- 
land, Trustees; T. H. Malott, Clerk and Treasurer; Joseph L. Shanks, Mar- 
shal, Collector and Assessor. The latter was succeeded by Henry Davis in 
October. In September $2,000 worth of town bonds were ordered issued, 
the proceeds to be used in redeeming $2,000 worth of schoolhouse bonds, 
dated September 1, 1870. The new bonds were to bear date September 1, 
1874, and to be due September 1, 1879, to sell at par, and to bear 10 per 
cent interest. In October the leading citizens of the town subscribed $141 
toward paying the Marshal for his services in assessing and collecting 
town revenue. January 7, 1875, school bonds 21 to 40 inclusive for 
$2,000 of the issue of May 2, 1870, and which had been redeemed, were 
burned; also, bonds 41 to 80 inclusive for $3,800 of the issue of July 1, 
1870, were burned; also, bonds to 10 inclusive, for $500 of the issue 
of April 1, 1871, were burned; also, interest coupons to the amount of 
$9,476.89 were burned. January 20, 1875, the Town Board offered a 
reward of $200 for the arrest of the murderers of George J. Carney, 
Nightwatch. C. S. Jenkins succeeded Carney. The total receipts for 
the year 1874-75 were $2,016.41, and the total expenses $1,663.43. The 
school fund receipts were $9,332.89, and expenses $5,840. 

The officers of 1875-76 were James P. Parks, J. W. Newland and 
John W. Cosner, Trustees; T. H. Malott, Clerk and Treasurer, but was suc- 
ceeded in July by Robert H. Carlton; C. S. Jenkins, Marshal, Collector and 
Assessor; A. N. Wilder, Deputy Marshal. George W. Friedly was paid 
$100 for services in prosecuting the murderers of G. J. Carney. In 
June, under a new law of the State three School Trustees were elected: 
W. C. Winstandley, Davis Harrison and Daniel W. Parker. Sundry 
liquor ordinances were passed in August. In September Douthill & But- 
ler built a station house for the town for $87.25 In October Henry 
Davis became Marshal, Collector and Assessor. The receipt of general 


funds for 1875-76 was $2,047.15, and the expenses $1,464.43; school 
fund receipts, $6,283.65; expenses, $7,270. 

The officers of 1876-77 were: J. P. Parks, J. W. Cosner and J. W. 
Newland, Trustees; R. H. Carlton, Clerk and Treasurer; Henry Davis, 
Marshal, Collector and Assessor; Daniel W. Parker was appointed his 
own successor as School Trustee. J. D. Thomasson was paid $25 for 
specimens of local stone, for the Centennial Exposition. In October, M. 
N. Messiek succeeded D. W. Parker as School Trustee. In January, 
1877, school bonds of the issues of 1870 and 1871, to the amount of 
$4,200, and interest coupons to the amount of $4,085, which had been 
redeemed, were burned in the presence of the town officers. Jacob Wal- 
heiser was paid $306 for the construction of a sewer in the southwestern 
part of town, of which amount $200 was borne by the town, and the 
remainder by property -holders benefited. The receipts of the general 
fund for 1876-77 were $2,310.23; expenses, $1,814.27; school fund 
receipts $5,836.85; expenses, $4,850.50; bonds outstanding $31,700; 
temporary loan $1,704.43; total indebtedness, $33,404.43; amount on 
hand applicable to the redemption of bonded debt, $3,000; actual 
bonded debt, $30,404.43. 

The officers for 1877-78 were: John W. Cosner, James P. Parks and 
John W. Newland, Trustees; Thomas V. Thornton, Clerk and Treasui'er; 
Charles S. Jenkins, Marshal, Collector and Assessor. In June, to meet 
about $3,500 of school bonds falling due, new bonds for $1,500, draw- 
ing 8 per cent interest, dated June 1, 1877, to run five years, were 
issued, and $1,979.02 was boi'rowed of the Bedford National Bank, at 
the same rate of interest. In July, 1877, redeemed bonds to the amount 
of $5,300, and redeemed interest coupons to the amount of $3,920, were 
burned. On the 5th of November, 1877, a series of resolutions was 
passed by the Town Board, deploring the death of Oliver P. Morton and 
extolling his eminent character and public services. In April, 1878, 
$700 of redeemed bonds and $2,140 of paid interest coupons were burned. 
The total receipts for 1877-78 were $2,910.36, the liquor license being 
$600, and the tax revenue, $1,562.04; the expenditures were $1,819.31; 
bond and interest receipts $9,850.31, bond and interest expenses $10,- 
164.37; total bonded debt, $33,200; paid during the year $3,800; actual 
debt, $29,400. 

The officers of 1878-79 were J. W. Newland, J. P. Parks and J. W. 
Cosner, Trustees; T. V. Thornton, Clerk and Treasurer; Charles S. Jenkins, 
Marshal, Collector and Assessor. In June W. C. Winstandley was 
re-elected School Trustee. Surveying and fencing the new cemetery cost 
$207.33. The ground of the new cemetery was Lots E and F in Malott 
& Thornton's addition to Bedford, and cost $475. In March, C. S. Jen- 
kins, Collector, absconded with $873.03 of the town funds, leaving his 
bondsmen, Thomas N. Stevens and L. B. Nunnelly, to be held for the 


defalcation. After deducting what was due Jenkins for salary, etc. , the 
bondsmen paid $750 in full satisfaction for the loss. Jenkins was 
arrested in Arkansas. His successor as Marshal, Collector and Assessor 
was Jasper H. Glover. In April $5,340 of redeemed bonds and interest 
coupons were burned. The receipts for 1878-79 were $1,759.61; 
expenses, $1,565.21, of which $448.96 had been paid on Beech Grove 
Cemetery; bond and interest receipts, $5,840.43; expenses, $5,810.03; 
outstanding bonded debt, $26,900. 

The officers for 1879-80 were Thomas C. Williams, Benjamin New- 
land and John B. Glover, Trustees; Thomas O. Daggy, Clerk and Treas- 
urer; William J. Cook, Marshal and Collector; George W. Friedley, 
School Trustee, vice M. N. Messick, time out. In September arrange- 
ments were made to refund the bonded debt of the town at a lower rate 
of interest. In October Mr. Glover, President of the Board, was sent to 
Indianapolis to negotiate the sale of new six per cent town bonds. At this 
time T. C. Williams, Trustee, resigned, and was succeeded by Logan Fish. 
On the 20th of October, 1879, the Boai'd ordered issued fifty -two bonds 
of the denomination of $500 each — a total of $26,000, the bonds to bear 
six per cent interest, payable semi-annually at the banking house of 
"Winslow, Lanier & Co., of New York City, to be dated October 20, 1879, 
and to mature in ten years, or be redeemable after five years, bonds to be 
sold for not less than par. In November John D. Thomasson succeeded 
Davis Harrison as School Trustee. In December the Bedford Light 
Guards assumed the responsibility of a hook and ladder company, and 
steps were taken to purchase the necessary articles for their use. Twelve 
thousand seven hundred dollars' worth of town bonds redeemed were 
burned in December. In March, 1880, there were issued $4,000 worth 
of town bonds to take up outstanding orders of that amount; bonds to 
bear six per cent interest, to be dated March 22, 1880, and to be due as 
follows: $1,000 due March 22, 1881; $1,500 due March 22, 1882; 
$1,500 due March 22, 1883. V. V. Williams bought $1,500 at par, and 
W. C. Winstandley bought the remainder of these bonds at par. The 
receipts of general fund for the year, -1879-80, were $2,149.69, and 
the expenses $1,750.40; school bond receipts, $27, 795.67; expenses, 
$23,881.02; outstanding bonded debt, $35,100. 

The officers of 1880-81 were Ben Newland, Logan Fish and J. B. 
Glover, Trustees; T. 0. Daggy, Clerk and Treasurer; W. A. Cook, Mar- 
shal and Collector; J. D. Thomasson, School Trustee; Newton Crook, 
Attorney. With the usual levy of tax, 5 cents on each $100 valuation 
was levied to create a sinking fund for the liquidation of the bonded 
debt. Kobert N. Palmer was elected School Trustee, vice W. C. Win- 
standley resigned. S. A. Rariden, T. H. Malott and V. V. Williams 
were appointed a Board of Health. In March, 1881, redeemed bonds 
and interest coupons worth $6,240 were burned. The School Trustees 


reported that there were 791 children of school age within the corporate 
limits, of whom 525 only could be seated in the schoolhouse, and asked 
that $8,000 in bonds might be issued to erect an addition of four rooms 
to the school building. A petition from many of the citizens asked the 
same action. The question was submitted to the voters with this result: 
For the addition, 186; against the addition, 189. The Trustees accord- 
ingly rejected the proposal. The Bedford Fire Company was fully 
organized from the militia company, and was duly recognized by the 
Board in April, 1881. Fire apparatus was ordered purchased. The 
receipts for the year 1880-81 were $2,696. 42; expenses, $1,808.90; bond 
interest receipts, $6,715.46; expenses, $4,402.19; sinking fund, $342.55; 
bonded debt, $33,200. 

The officers of 1881-2 were: J. W. Cosner, John W. Acoam and W. 
H. Lane, Trustees; Henry B. Richardson, Marshal; W. V. Houston, 
Clerk and Treasurer. Richardson declined to serve, and W. J. Cook was 
appointed Marshal. The lire apparatus was not to exceed in cost $450, 
of which Mrs. Rebecca Daniels donated $100. Robert N. Palmer was 
elected School Trustee for three years. In September the question of 
erecting water-works connected with the spring northwest of town Vas 
discussed, but a favorable consideration was not reached. The fire com- 
pany was required to meet regularly for drill. In April, 1882, redeemed 
bonds of $3,800 were burned. The Board appropriated $60 to be used 
in erecting a monument to the memory of George Carney, who was mur- 
dered while serving as Town Marshal. The total receipts were $2,678.05; 
expenses, $1,990.32; hook and ladder wagon and freight, $500; bond 
and interest receipts, $5,860.65; expenses $5,538.20; bonded debt, $30,- 
400; sinking fund, $761.83. 

The officers of 1882-83 were: John W. Mitchell, Joseph Dinkelspiel 
and William P. Hodge, Trustees; Garrison McFall, Marshal and Col- 
lector; W. V. Houston, Clerk and Treasurer; Charles Rariden, A. A. 
INlalott and H. B. Richardson, Board of Health. The question of erecting 
another school building was not favorably considered by the Board. E. J. 
Robinson was elected School Trustee, vice Friedley, time out In March, 
1883, all persons in the town not vaccinated were ordered so to do 
instanter in view of the small-pox scare. Several side-walks were built 
during the year. Bonds of $2,000, redeemed, were burned in May, 1883. 
The receipts of 1882-83 were $2,313.47; expenses, $1,234.87; bond 
receipts, $4,474.09; expenses, $5,011.20; sinking fund, $1,205.91; bond 
indebtedness, $28,400. 

The officers of 1883-84 were: J. W. Mitchell, Treasurer; W. V. 
Houston, Clerk and Treasurer; James M. Handy, Marshal; John M. 
Stalker, School Trustee, vice Thomasson, time out; William H. Martin, 
Town Attorney; H. B. Richardson, A. A. Malott and Charles Rariden, 
Board of Health; J. W. Glover, Night Watchman. In April, 1884, a 


petition signed by more than one -third of the legal voters of the town was 
presented, asking that the Town of Bedford might be duly made the "City 
of Bedford," whereupon the census of the town was ordered taken as a pre- 
liminary to that act. John W. Mitchell, census-taker, reported 2,451 
residents of the town, and an election to decide the question of city gov- 
ernment was ordered held May 12, 3884. In May, 1884, John W. Acoam 
and Michael Hackett were elected Trustees; W. V. Houston, Clerk and 
Treasurer; D. R. Bowden, Marshal; Robert N. Palmer, School Trustee; 
J. H. Willard, Attorney. Daniel W. Parker was appointed Trustee in 
June, vice Mitchell, resigned. Redeemed bonds worth $2,300 were 
destroyed July, 1884. The receipts for the fiscal year ending April 30, 
18^84, were $2,495.51; expenses, $1,714.25; bond receipts, $5,787.75; 
expenses, $4,718.10; sinking fund, $1,622.23; bonds outstanding at last 
annual report, $28,400; redeemed during the year, $2,100; present 
bonded debt, $26,300. In August, 1884, it was determined to dig four 
cisterns of 500 barrels capacity each, on the public square— one in the 
street at each corner — to be used as reservoirs to extinguish fires. 


The first newspaper established at Bedford and in the county was 
the Western Sun, a small five-column folio, subscription price $2 per 
annum. It was Whig in politics, and was owned by a stock company of 
six or eight of the leading Whigs, who purchased the material, and gave 
it in charge of O. H. Allen, who did the publishing, and whose name 
appeared as editor, though R. W. Thompson was de /acfo editor, and gave 
tone and strength to the sheet. Allen was succeeded b}- several others, 
one of whom was Marcus L. Deal. It ran on under discouragements and 
with occasional lapses for about five years, and was then abandoned. In 
1841 Isaac Smith founded the Bedford Review, which he conducted about 
three years. William Newland was associated with him in some capac- 
ity a portion of the time. It flaunted the Whig banner. In 1845 Com- 
ingore & Marts began to issue the Bedford Sun, a Democratic sheet 
edited by Judge James Hughes, and published by Jacob Marts. Mr. 
Comingore, who was conducting a paper at Paoli, was a silent partner. 
Late in 1847 or early in 1848 the issue was discontinued. 

In the spring of 1848 James V. S. Maxwell began the publication of 
the Bedford Herald, which was conducted about two volumes and was 
then abandoned. It was probably succeeded by the People's Advocate, 
conducted for a short time early in the fifties by James C. Carlton. In 
September, 1849,. the White River Standard made its appearance with 
Leonard Green as editor and proprietor. Green was a man of more than 
■ average talent, and his paper was the best up to that time in the county. 
It was a strong Whig sheet. In November, 1852, it passed to Judge E. 
D. Pearson, who issued it until late in 1855, when it was sold to Mathis 


& Berry, who after a few issues (January 24, 1856,) changei^ the name to 
Bedford Independent. In May, 1856, C. G. Berry was alone in its man- 
agement, and a little later his son was associated with him, as were others 
probably. Later S. H. H. Mathis issued a religious journal. How long 
Berry conducted the Independent could not be learned. In 1863 the 
office was in the hands of Eli Dale, who had changed the name to Bed- 
ford Press. October 6, 1863, Number 87, Volume XIV was issued. 
Early in 1864 it passed to William A. Gabe, who changed the name after 
a few issues back to Bedford Independent. Later in 1864 and during 
the early part of 1865 S. H. H. Mathis seems to have edited the paper, 
but later Gabe again took editorial charge and continued until May, 
1867, when the office passed to W. S. Benham. At this time the paper 
was a seven-column folio, filled with excellent general news and local 
current items. In April, 1868, I. H. Thomas became owner and editor, 
and conducted the paper until 1874; A. B. Cole was associated with him 
for a time. 

In June, 1856, W. E. Johns and N. F. Malott began the publication 
of the Lawrence Democrat, a bright and spicy sheet, an organ, as its 
name indicates, of the Democracy. Several changes were afterward 
made and in about three years the issue was discontinued. Its succes- 
sor made its first appearance in February, 1860, under the management 
of George Sheeks and A. D. Lemon, and was called the Bedford Enter- 
prise, a Democratic paper. Its motto was Crockett's famous maxim: 
"Be sure you're right, then go ahead." It was continued probably 
about a year. In about September, 1863, Henry M. Beadle commenced 
publishing the Bedford Appeal, a small seven- eolumn folio of strong 
Democratic proclivities. It was continued a year and a half or two 
years. The Bedford Weekly News was founded in January 1870 by 
Yockey & Conley, and was ap eight-column folio. The Bedford 
Leader was started by James Glover in about June, 1872, and was a sev- 
en-column folio. In about 1876 the True Republican was founded by 
G. A. J. Thomas. In May, 1879, the first issue of the Bedford Republi- 
can made its appearance under the editorship of R. A. Connor and W. 
S. English. John V. Smith, an old and able newspaper man bought the 
last two named offices and united them and began issuing the Bedford 
Journal, an excellent sheet, and continued with gratifying success until 
August, 1884, when he sold out to F. B. Hitchcock. On the 2d of 
August Mr. Smith commenced with commendable enterprise the issue of 
a small daily to be conducted during the campaign of 1884, but after 
fourteen issues, owing to the sale of the office to Mr. Hitchcock, its con- 
tinuance was abandoned. 

In February, 1873, M. A. Gelwick commenced the issue of the Law- 
rence Gazette and continued for some time quite successfully. In 1876, 
H. H. Friedley was connected with it in the capacity of editor. 


The Democratic Banner was started by Yockey & Conley, editors and 
managers, about 1868-69, and the material was largely furnished by the 
leading Democrats of the town and vicinity. The paper at once took an 
influential position which it yet retains. In 1871 or 1872 it was sold to 
James Carlton, but after a year or two went back to Yockey, at which 
time the present editor, A. J. Hostetler, secured an interest. Mr. Hos- 
tetler is the present editor, and has a large circulation and valuable pat- 
ronage in the job and advertising departments. The Bedford Star 
(Democratic) was founded in 1875 by John Johnson, Jr. It was at lirst 
a four-column folio, then a iive column and now a six-column. Mr. 
Johnson still conducts it, and has an excellent patronage. He has a 
large quantity of excellent new type. James Glover founded The News. 
about 1875. It became defunct in two months. Vestal ran the Morn- 
ing Call for a short time. Mathis has conducted tRe Christian Record 
for many years. The Bedford Magnet (Republican) was founded in 
1879 by H. S. Osborne, first as a daily, then as tri-weekly, then as a 
bi-weekly, and then as a five-column folio. In August, 1884, it was con- 
solidated with the Bedford Journal, which had just been purchased by 
Mr. Hitchcock. The new paper is called the Lawrence Mail. The ofiice 
is well equipped for job-work, having a steam press. The paper is a 
nine -column folio, and is owned jointly by Mr. Osborne and Mr. Hitch- 
cock. It is Republican in politics. 


Within the last eight years the limestone interests of Bedford and 
immediate vicinity have grown to enormous and valuable proportions. 
There are five companies, each doing a large business: Voris, Norton & 
Co., Hoosier Stone Co., Hallowell Granite Co., Chicago & Bedford 
Stone Co., and Tomlinson & Reed. Some are larger than others, 
and at best can work 200 men. Perhaps the capacity of all is 
600 men. Enormous quantities of stone are shipped to all points of the 
Union. A large amount of capital is employed. Thousands of car- 
loads of stone have been shipped from the town. The most improved 
channeling machines and steam derricks are used. This stone interest 
is the most valuable ever developed in the county, and promises an enor- 
mous and ceaseless revenue for the future. 


Mitchell is at present the only town in the township, three older 
places having fallen into decay. The town was named in honor of the 
late Gen. O. M. Mitchell, a commander in the Union Army, who died at 
Huntsville, Ala., 1862, and who was the chief engineer in the location 
and construction of the Ohio & Mississippi Railway, and who surveyed 
and platted the town. The town is situated on the south half of Section 

*The sketch of Mitchell was furnished by Dr. Mclntire. 



36, Town 4 north, Range 1 west, and on the north half of Section 1, 
Town 3 north, Range 1 west, and was laid out September 29, 1853, by- 
John Sheeks and G. W. Cochran. The streets running east and west are 
Oak. Brook, Warren, Main, Mississippi Avenue, Frank, Baker and Vine. 
They are 60, 70, 70, 80, 120, 70 and 70 feet wide, respectively, all run- 
ning north, 73° east. Streets running north and south are Second, 
Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth, being respectively 70, 
70, 80, 100, 70, 60 and 60 feet wide, all running north, 17° west. The 
Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Railway runs along Fifth Street, and 
the Ohio & Mississippi Railway along Mississippi Avenue. 

West Mitchell was laid ovit January 17, 1859, by Jonas Finger, add- 
ing on the west side of the original town plat, Brady, Stevens and Fin- 
ger Streets, with 115 lots. 

Kelly & Co.'s Addition to Mitchell was laid out by D. Kelly & Co., 
November 26, 1865, and consists of twenty-five lots, with an extension 
of Stevens Street. The Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Railway was 
completed in 1850 as far as Juliett. Where the town now stands was a 
dense forest. In 1854 work was begun on the Ohio & Mississippi Rail- 
way, and "The Crossing" became a lively village during the construction 
of the road, it not being completed till May, 1856. The earfy merchants 
were Silas Moore & Son, John R. Nugent and Robert Harnard. J. T. 
Biggs and G. W. Dodson were early engaged in the drug business. Sam 
Cook was the first blacksmith, J. T. Biggs kept the hotel. In 1860 the 
town contained 612 inhabitants; in 1870, 978; and 1880, 1,443. 


The town was incorporated December 23, 1864, and the following 
named as first Trustees: Joshua Budd, R. Barnard and Z. L. Warren. 
In January following Mr. Budd resigned, and Silas Moore was appointed 
in his stead. A. T. McCoy was first Clerk, but his first official act was to 
resign, and H. S. Manington was appointed. The same officers were 
elected May, 1865. In 1866 S. Moore, J. D. McCoy and F. M. Lemon 
were elected Trustees, and H. S. Manington Clerk and Treasurer. S. 
Moore, J. D. McCoy and William A. Burton were elected in 1867, and 
H. S. Manington Clerk. In 1868 S. Moore, J. D. McCoy and Z. L. War- 
ren were elected Trustees, and A. Wood, Clerk and Treasurer. In 1869 
came our first closely contested election: W. V. T. Murphy, A. L. Mun- 
son and Samuel Cook were elected. They took steps for a separate school 
organization for the town, appointing for the first School Trustees Mil- 
ton N. Moore, Elihu S. Mclntire and William M. Munson. Bonds were 
issued, and work begun on the first graded school building in July of that 
year. In 1870 the same officers were elected. In 1871 we fail to get 
names of Town Trustees from the records, but A. Wood, A. P. Adams 
and William Tanksley were elected School Trustees. In 1872, Trustees 


were A.llen Edwards, J. P. Tapp and William A. Burton, and the fol- 
lowine: School Trustees: A. Wood, I. Burton and E. S. Mclntire. In 
1873 Isaac B. Faulkner, I. H. Crira and J. A. Head were the Town Trust- 
ees, and E.-^S. Mclntire was elected School Trustee, the others holding 
over under a new law. In April, 1875, E. S. Mclntire resigned, and J. 
H. McPheeters was appointed School Trustee in his stead. The Town 
Trustees in 1875 were: Allen Edwards, D. Coleman and J. Y. Bates, and 
they elected for School Trustees: Silas Moore, A. Wood and I. Burton. 
In January, 1876, Silas Moore died, and J. W. Maningtou was appointed 
School Trustee in his place; and in June Manington resigned, and A. 
W. Jones was appointed to fill out his term. May 8, 1877, John Mead, 
I. H. Crim and M. Z. Moore were elected Town Trustees, and they elected 
J. B. Larkin School Trustee. J. O'Donnell, J. Richardson and J. Bixler 
were elected Town Trustees in 1878, and they elected I. Burton School 
Trustee. In 1880 George Z. Wood, G. W. Burton and J. D. Moore were 
elected, and they elected W. V. T. Murphy for School Trustee. In 1881 
Thomas Richardson, M. N. Moore and W. J. Humston were elected, and 
James Richardson was chosen School Trustee. Richardson held over in 

1882, and M. N. Moore and W. H. Edwards were elected, and in June 
they elected J. H. McPheeters as School Trustee. At the May election, 

1883, C. W.Campbell was elected in the First Ward, Moore and Edwards 
holding over, and W. M. Munson was made School Trustee. May, 1884, 
John Mead, M. N. Moore and Thomas Welsh were elected Town Trust- 
ees, and they chose for School Trustee David Kelly. Henry Crawford 
was elected Clerk and Treasurer, and Wesley Walker, Marshal. 


In the summer of 1865, just after the close of the Civil war, Mitchell 
was blessed with her first newspaper. J. M. Griffin bi'ought a press from 
Vincenjies and started the Mitchell Republican. Mr. Griffin did not 
prove to be popular with the citizens and the citizens were not lovely in 
Mr. Griffin's eyes. So the life of the first paper published in Mitchell 
was short ; after a few weeks it ceased to appear. The press was sold to 
some persons in Paoli and the Republican was issued from it. 

In Februai-y, 1866, a Mr. Rumrill, of Seymour, a newspaper man of 
local notoriety, associated with himself a peripatetic printer named 
Woodward, under the firm name of Woodward & Rumrill, and the 
Mitchell Commercial was issued. The paper was under the control of 
Mr. Woodwai'd, as editor, publisher and printer. He was a rather bril- 
liant fellow, and gave the Commercial a bright start in the journalistic 
world, but when the spring sunshine had dried up the winter's mud 
Woodward walked away, nobody knew whither, as so many printers are 
wont to do. Mr. Rumrill sold the office to Messrs. Simpson Burton and 
J. K. Howard, who were at that time joint Principals of Mitchell Semi- 


nary ; and Mr. Frank H. King, who was their teacher of music, took edito- 
rial charge of the paper. Mr. King gave too much time to music and 
social enjoyment to be a very brilliant political editor. He published in 
the same office a musical paper called The Musical Monthly. The pro- 
prietors found the entei'prise not a paying investment, and in 1867 
Charles Gr. Berry became editor, publisher and proprietor of the Com- 
mercial. Mr. Berry was peculiarly well qualified for the position. He 
was scholarly, a ready writer, a good mechanical printer, and sufficiently 
pugilistic to take care of himself. He was successful in the manage- 
ment of the paper and built up a good patronage. His son, H. L. Berry, 
was after a time associated with him as publisher. In July, 1872, Dr. 
E. S. Mclntire purchased the office and took charge of the Commercial 
as its editor and publisher. During the time he remained in charge of 
the paper it was radically Republican, thoroughly independent, the 
paper making many warm friends, but some very bitter enemies. The 
advertising patronage was much extended and its circulation placed on a 
substantial basis. In the fall of 1881 a new fast press was put in the 
office and the old Franklin press, the oldest in southern Indiana, was 
shipped to the foundry. It had been in use since 1835. The Doctor 
tiring of the routine of editorial life, sold the office to M. N. Moore & 
Son, in May, 1883. the junior member of the firm, Mr. W. T. Moore, 
acting in the capacity of editor. He was brilliant, especially in head- 
lines, but a short experience soon wore off the novelty of editorial life, 
and in October of the same year they sold the office to Mr. George Z. 
Wood, who, at the present time, is editor and publisher, T. J. Tanksley 
holding the position of local editor. Mr. Wood shows unusual ability in 
the management of the paper, and as a local news-gatherer Mr. Tanksley 
is a success. The Commercial is now the oldest paper within a radius of 
forty miles, and is prosperous and popular. The Commercial was sold 
to John V. Smith, late of the Bedford Journal, in September, 1884:. 

The Mitchell Times was started January, 1876. Mr. Charles L. 
Yockey was at that time publishing the Bedford Banner, he made one 
side of his paper the Mitchell Times, and the joint paper was issued 
in the two towns during that year. Dr. John T. Biggs acting as local 
editor of the Mitchell side. In January, 1877, the two-sided paper 
was abandoned, and Dr. Biggs gave the Times a separate existence as the 
Democratic organ of the south side of Lawrence County. It has always 
been a neatly gotten up, six-column paper, intensely partisan, and under 
Dr. Biggs' management it frequently sparkled with wit. Dr. Biggs 
continued as editor and publisher till January 18, 1884, when he sold 
the office to Mr. Charles L. Yockey, who is a practical printer, and who 
has had long experience as editor of country papers. He is apparently 
giving satisfaction to his patrons and to his party. 

Other ventures have been made in the newspaper line in Mitchell, 


hut they were either too short-lived or too weak to be remembered by the 
people. Mr. Albert Johnston, when quite a boy, published an amateur 
paper called the Star. Mr. Harry Davis, who was for a long time typog- 
rapher in the Commercial office, started, in 1874, a neat little paper, 
calling it the Enterprise, but the enterprise was all in the name and it 
soon failed to appear. 


The burning of lime has become quite an important industry in 
Marion Township. The kilns of Mr. Asa Erwin, located two miles north 
of Mitchell, are producing about 10,000 barrels per annum, and Maj. 
David Kelly's kilns on Rock T..ick Creek, and now under the manage- 
ment of William Hart, produce an equal amount. Mr. Benjamin Hos- 
tetler and Jonathan Turley, Esq., have each a kiln near Turley's Mill, and 
are making about 5,000 barrels per year each, making fully 30,000 barrels 
per annum that are shipped from Mitchell and Hostetler's s^witch.. The 
lime is a superior quality, and there is an increasing demand. 


In the earlier days of Marion Township there was but one Free Mason 
in the township, and he belonged to no regular lodge; this was John P. 
Burton. In 1858 there were sufficient members to organize a lodge, and 
Mitchell Lodge, No. 228, F. & A. M., was chartered May S5 of that 
year. William V. T. Murphy was the first Worshipful Master; William 
Muir, first Senior Warden; Edward Antonieski the first Junior 
Warden, and J. T. Biggs the first Secretary. June 6, 1859, 
the following officers were elected: John Riley, W. M. ; H. H. 
Marley, S. W\ ; David L. Ferguson, J. W. ; and J. T. Biggs, Secretary. 
June 18, 1860, the following were elected: W. V. T. Murphy, W. M.; 

D. L. Ferguson, S. W. ; Helmsley Wood, J. W. ; and Rice M. Brown, 
Secretary. On June 17, 1861, the following: D. L. Ferguson, W. M.; 

E. H. Cooper, S. W. ; John Keane, J. W.; J. R. Budd, Secretary. June 
16, 1862, John Riley was elected W. M. ; H. Wood, S. W.; John Keane, 
J. W.; R. M. Brown, Secretary. June 15, 1863— John Riley, W. M.; 
John Keane, S. W.; Jacob Herman, J. W. ; R. M. Brown, Secretary. 
June 20, 1864— John Riley, W. M.; R. M. Brown, S. W. ; Vardeman 
Wright, J. W. ; "H. Logan, Secretary. June 8, 1865 -W. V. T. Murphy, 
W. M.; V. Wright, S. W. ; Wilson Morris, J. W. ; J. Morgan Marley, 
Secretary. June 18, 1866— Francis M. Lemon. W. M. ; V. Wright, 
S. W. ; H. Wood, J. W. ; J. K. Howard, Secretary. Same officers elected 
in 1867. June 15, 1868 — Joshua H. Crim, W. M. ; James Richardson, S. 
W.; F. R. Nugent, J. W. ; Jacob Trush, Secretary. June 21, 1869— 
J. H. Crim, W. M. ; E. S. Mclntire, S. W. ; F. R. Nugent, J. W. ; J. 
Trush, Secretary. June 20. 1870— W. V. T. Murphy, W. M. ; H. Wood, 
S. W. ; J. T. Biggs, J. W. ; J. Trush, Secretary. December 19, 1870— 


J. Y. Bates, W. M.; William J. Humston, S. ^\.^, Jacob Trush, J. W. ; 
Joseph P. Funk, Secretary. December 18, 1871— J. L. W. Yost, W. 
M. ; J. P. Funk, S. W. ; H. McNabb, J. W. ; A. L. Herbst, Secretary. 
December 16, 1872— J. L. W. Yost, W. M. ; A. A. Pearson, S. W. ; 
Isaac H. Crim, J. W. ; D. L. Ferguson, Secretary. December 15, 1873, 
and 1874— A. A. Pearson, W. M. ; F. J. Wolfe, S. W. ; Thomas A. 
Steele, J. W. ; D. L. Ferguson, Secretary. December 20, 1875 — A. A. 
Pearson, W. M.; W. J. Humston S. W\ ; J. W. Manington, J. W.; 
Ollie Owens, Secretary. December 18, 1876 — W. J. Humston, W. M. ; 
J. W. Manington, S. W.; C. Moore, J. W. ; A. T. McCoy, Secretary. 
December 17, 1877— W. J. Humston, W. M. ; F. J. Wolfe, S. W. ; A. 
W. Jones, J. W\; A. T. McCoy, Secretary. December 16, 1878— F. J. 
Wolfe, W. M.; A. W. Jones. S. W.; John Tanksley, J. W.; A. T. Mc- 
Coy, Secretary. December 15, 1879— W. J. Humston, W. M. ; A. W. 
Jones, S. W.; D. C. Shanks, J. W.; A. T. McCoy, Secretary. Decern- 
ber 19, 1880— A. W. Jones, W. M. : John Tanksley, S. W.- A. S. Par- 
sons, J. W.; A. T. McCoy, Secretary. December 19, 1881— J. L. W. 
Yost, W. M. ; James Richardson, S. W.; A. W. Jones, J. W.; F.J. 
Wolfe, Secretary. December 18, 1882- J. L. W. Yost, W. M. ; C. W. 
Campbell, S. W. ; F. J. Wolfe J. W.; A. J. Mc Donald, Secretary. 
December 27, 1883— J. L. W. Yost, W. M.; I. B. Faulkner, S. W. ; A. 
C. Eobertson, J. W. ; A. S. Parsons, Secretary. 


Mitchell Chapter No. 23, Royal Arch Masons, was chartered October 
20, 1870; the following persons were charter members: Elihu S. Mcln- 
tire, H. P.; Milton N. Moore, King; James Richardson, Scribe; A. L. 
Herbst, Secretary ; T. J. Reed, John Gathrie and John K. Fullen. In 
the fii'st annual election, held December 11, 1871, the following officers 
were elected: E. S. Mclntire, H. P.; I. H. Crim, K.; F. M. Lemon, S.; 
A. L. Herbst, Secretary; and at the annual elections, in December of 
each year, the following pei'sons were elected to the offices named above: 
1872, F. M. Lemon, I. H. Crim, H. L. Kimberlin and D. L. Ferguson. 
In 1873— E. S. Mclntire, I. H. Crim, H. L. Kimberlin and D. L. Fer- 
guson. 1874—1. H. Crim, F. J. Wolfe, W. C. Sheeks and D. L. Fer- 
guson. 1875— F. J. Wolfe, A. A. Pearson, F. A.. Friedley and Oily 
Owens. 1876—1. H. Crim, W. J. Humston, W. C. Sheeks and G. W. 
Burton. The same were continued in 1877 and 1878. In 1879 and 
1880, the following— W. J. Humston, Noah Harper, T. A. Steele and F. 
J. Wolfe. 1881— E. S. Mclntire, J. Richardson, L. D. YanDyke and 
F. J. Wolfe. 1882— E. S. Mclntire. F. J. Wolfe, J. H. Malott and A. 
J. McDonald. 1883— E. S. Mclntire, A. J. McDonald, W. W. Webb and 
F. J. Wolfe. 

Mitchell Council, No. 48, Royal and Select Master was chartered 


October, 1876, with the following membership: F. J. Wolfe, Illinois M.; 
W. J. Humston, D. Illinois M.; F. M. Lemon, P. C. W., and Oily 
Owens. Recorder; W. H. Cornelius, N. T. Bonsel, Jesse A. Mitchell, E. 
D. Pearson, A. L. Herbst, John Kiger, G. W. Bartlett, John T. Creed 
and Frank Wilson. F. J. Wolfe has served continuously as Illinois 
Master except 1881, when W. J. Humston served in that place. 

Mitchell Lodge, No. 242, I. O. O. F., was instituted at Mitchell, 
Ind. . September 1, 1865, by sundry brothers from Shawswick Lodge, No. 
177, and Orange Lodge, No. 113, M. A. Malott, D. D.,Gr.M., officiating, the 
following being the charter members: George W. Webb, Louis B. Jack- 
son. William Wilson, James Richardson and George M. Burns. The 
following officers were elected and installed to serve the ensuing term of 
six months: William Wilson, N. G. ; David Kelly, V. G. ; George M. 
Barns, Secretary; and George W. Webb, Treasurer. Officers elected 
March 27, 1866— David Kelly, N. G.; L. B. Jackson, V. G. ; J. K. How- 
ard. Secretary; George W. Webb, Treasurer. The following officers 
Aprir2, 1867— J. K. Howard, N. G. ; L N. Thompson, V. G. ; James A. 
Head, Secretary; J. Bixler, Treasurer. October 1, lb67— I. N. Thomp- 
son, N. G. ; J. A. Head, V! G. ; William A. Burton, Secretary; D. Cole- 
man, Treasurer. April 7, 1868— J. A. Head, N. G. ; W. A. Burton, V. 
G.: J. Bixler, Secretary; M. D. Crim, Treasurer; A. W. Jones, Perma- 
nent Secretary. October 6, 1868— W. A. Burton, N. G. ; J. Bixler, V. 
G.; A. W. Jones, Secretary; M. D. Crim, Treasurer; D. Kelly, Perma- 
nent Secretary. April 6, 1869— Jacob Bixler, N. G. ; A. W. Jones, V. 
G. : James Richardson, Secretary; M. D. Crim, Treasurer. October 5, 
1869— A. W. Jones, N. G. ; James Richardson, V. G. ; J. H. Crim, Sec- 
retary; D. Kelly, Permanent Secretary; William Munson, Treasurer. 
Aprils, 1870— James Richardson, N. G. ; J. H. Crim, V. G.; CD. 
Smart, Secretary: William Munson, Treasurer. October 4,1870 — L. 
McDonald, N. G. ; C. D. Smart, V. G.; M. D. Crim, Secretary; John S. 
Downes, Permanent Secretary; Robert Todd, Treasurer. April 4, 1871 — 
C. D. Smart, N. G.; M. D. Crim, V. G. ; William M. Munson, Secretary; 
Robert Todd, Treasurer. October 3, 1871— M. D. Crim, N. G.; William 
M. Munson, V. G.; William H. Hart, Secretary; J. S. Downes, Perma- 
nent Secretary; D. Kelly, Treasurer. April 2, 1872— William M. Mun- 
son, N. G.; W. H. Hart, V. G.; VV. H. Tapp, Secretary; C. D. Smart, 
Treasurer. January 7, 1873— W. H. Hart, N. G. ; W. H. Tapp, V. G.; J. 
E. Morris, Secretary; M. A. Burton, Permanent Secretary; C. D. Smart, 
Treasurer. July 1, 1873— W. H. Tapp, N. G.; J. E. Morris, V. G. ; 
M. A. Burton, Secretary; A. W. Jones, Permanent Secretary. January 
6, 1874— James E. Morris, N. G. ; M. A. Burton, V. G.; D. Kelly, Sec- 
retary; A. W. Jones, Permanent Secretary ; Anselm Wood, Treasurer. 
July 7, 1874— M. A. Burton, N. G.; D. Kelly, V. G.; E. D. Millis, Secre- 
tary; AV. H. Tapp, Treasurer. January 3, 1875— D. Kelly, N. G. ; E. 


D. Millis, V. G. ; H. McNabb, Secretary; W. H. Tapp, Permaaeat Secre- 
tary; William A. Burton, Treasurer. 

July 6, 1875— E. D. Millis, N. G.; H. McNabK V. G. ; J. B. Wood, 
Secretary; William A. Burton, Treasurer. January 4, 1876 — H. McNabb, 
N. G.; J. B. Wood, V. G. ; Thomas Richardson, Secretary; W. H. Tapp, 
Permanent Secretary; D. Kelly, Treasurer. July 4, 1876 — J. B. Wood, 
N. G.; T. Richardson, V. G; William H. Hart, Secretary; D. Kelly, 
Treasui-er. January 2, 1877 — Thomas Richardson, N. G. ; J. H. McPhee- 
ters, V. G. ; Anselm Wood, Secretary; E. D. Millis, Permanent Secre- 
tary; D. Kelly, Treasurer. July 10, 1877— James H. McPheeters, N. G. ; 
Anselm Wood, V. G. ; J. B. Larkin, Secretary; William H. Tapp, Perma- 
nent Secretary; David Kelly, Treasurer. January 1, 1878 — Anselm 
Wood, N. G.; J. B. Larkin, V. G. ; W. H. Hart, Secretary; Thomas Rich- 
ardson, Permanent Secretary; D. Kelly, Treasurer. July 2, 1878 — J. B. 
Larkin, N. G. ; James E. Morris, V. G; Logan McDonald, Secretary; 
David Kelly, Treasurer. January 7, 1879— William H. Hart, N. G. ; 
L. McDonald, V. G. ; Thomas Richardson, Secretary; Dennis Coleman, 
Permanent Secretary; David Kelly, Treasurer. July 1, 1879 — L. McDon- 
ald, N. G. ; T. Richardson, V. G. ; L. B. Jackson, Recording Secretary; 
D. Kelly, Treasurer. January 13, 1880— T. Richardson, N. G. ; L. B. 
Jackson, V. G. ; James A. Head, Recording Secretary; W. H. Tapp, Per- 
manent Secretary; D. Kelly, Treasurer. July 6, 1880 — L. B. Jackson, 
N. G. ; James A. Head, V. G. ; Denton Burton, Recording Secretary; D. 
Kelly, Treasurer. January 4, 1881— William H. Hart, N. G. ; L. McDon- 
ald, V. G. ; William H. Tapp, Secretary; David Kelly, Treasurer. July 
5, 1881— L. McDonald, N. G. ; D. Coleman, V. G. ; William H. Tapp, 
Secretary, and David Kelly, Treasurer. January 3, 1882 — -D. Coleman, 
N. G. ; James Richardson, V. G. ; William H. Tapp, Secretary, and David 
Kelly, Treasurer. July 4, 1882— James Richardson, N. G.;W. P. Tapp, 
V. G. ; William H. Tapp, Secretary, and David Kelly, Treasurer. Jan- 
uary 2, 1883— W. P. Tapp, N. G.; F. R. Blackwell, V. G.; Zach. F. 
Wood, Recording Secretary; W. H. Tapp, Permanent Secretary; D. Kelly, 
Treasurer. July 3, 1883— F. R. Blackwell, N. G. ; Alfred Wesner, V. G. ; 
F. M. Treese, Recording Secretary; David Kelly, Treasurer. January 
1, 1884— Alfred Wesner, N. G. ; Frank M. Treese, V. G. ; W. N. Newby, 
Recording Secretary; W. H. Tapp, Permanent Secretary; D. Kelly, 
Treasurer; July 1, 1884— Frank M. Treese, N. G.; W. N. Newby, V. G.; 
John Mason, Recording Secretary; David Kelly, Treasurer. 

The C. R. Burton Post, No. 280, G. A. R., was established January 
24, 1884, and was name! in honor of Caswell R. Burton, who was killed 
in the late war. The officers and members are as follows : Columbus 
Moore, Commander; Allen C. Burton, Senior Vice-Commander; Jamas A. 
Head, Junior Vice-Commander; Samuel P. Conner, Quartermaster; Will- 
iam H. Edwards, Adjutant; Laniska Lomax. Chaplain; David Kelly, 


Quartermaster Sergeant; Charles L. Lockey, Sergeant Major; E. S. 
Mclntire, J. D. Moore, J. W. Mannington, J. H. MsPheeters, W. A. 
Burton, I. N. Braden, G. W. Burton, T. Harland, W. H. Hart, A. Wes- 
ner, A. Wood, J. C. Williams, James Wedgwood, Wesley Walker, Allen 
Edwards, Charles Ennis, Jacob Deisher, M. Dorsett, T. A. Queen, Samuel 
Cook, J. H. Cremer, H. G. Wright, A. D. Pless, Charles Pease, John 
Tanksley, F. R. Nugent, Absalom Gross, A. W. Jones, William Flora, 
Charles Tanksley, H. F. Byers, John Mead, M. C. Miller, Elijah Evans, 
James Brim, L. M. Chess, John McNabb, George Flora, C.Flora, Daniel 
Hostetler, A. F. Berry, Elijah Walker, W. H. Carr, C. W. Clouse, Henry 
Lee, J. Akin, H. Leatherman, M. Neidifer, D. Burgess, John Cates, John 
Reynolds, Moses Love. 

John Beazley started a planing-mill about 1870, and did a big busi- 
ness until about three years ago. Bowers & Walker conducted a handle- 
factory, beginning near the close of the war and ending about 1872. 
Allen Edwards also conducted one beginning about 1873. It was burned, 
as was that of Bowers & Walker. F. M. Lemon started a saw-mill in 
Mitchell in 1859. Jacob Hauck did a large brewing business for a time. 


Dry Goods— A. Wood & Co., Moore & McPheeters, Malott & G-lover, 
J. D. Moore. Groceries— E. Wood, Burton & Malott, J. H. Brown, E. 
P. Eversole. Drugs — Isom Burton, A. Dodsou, W. H. Tapp, W. A. Bur- 
ton, J. T. Biggs. Hardware — Gus. Davis, Crawford & Son. Livery — 
A. Wesner and Mr. Love. Restaurants — Thomas Richardson, Treudley & 
Gibson, Mrs. Reed. Milliners — Mrs. S. E. Newly, Mrs. William Tanks- 
ley, Mrs. Williams. Newspapers — The Commercial, by J. V. Smith ; 
The Times, by C. L. Yockey. Clothing — all dry goods stores. Boots 
and Shoes — Mr. Wible. Stoves and Tinware — Joseph Dale. Grist- 
mill — David Kelley. Saw-mill — Charles Lemon. Stave Factory — Mr. 
Harlan. Saddles and Harness — Ed Busick and R. M. Brown. Marble 
Shop — E. J. Salyards. Books — G. Z. Wood. Hotels — Putnam, Arling- 
ton, Dayson. Saloons — William Boland, Frank Deisher, John O'Donnel, 
M. C. Keane, Mark Briney. Builders — J. A. Mickey, John Mannington. 
Station Agents — W. J. Humston and H. A. Treudley. Grain Buyers — D. 
Kelley, Crawford & Son. Stock Dealers— A. D. Pless, W. O. Tanksley. 
Builders' Materials — Jacob Bixler. Lumber — Vinnege Bros. Lime 
Kilns — Asa Erwine, W. H. Hart, Jonathan Turley. Po4fcmaso3i' — G. Z. 
Wood. Butcher ^A. W. Jones. Jewelers — S. F. Martin, C. L. Barton. 
Merchant Tailors — E. C. Newton, M. Eubank. Furniture — A. P. Adams. 
Shoemakers — C. Vossler, Lyman Beebe, William Beebe. Bank of Mitch- 
ell—Private, capital 150,000, owners M. N. & W. T. Moore. Ministers 
— Mr. Davis, Baptist; Mr. Hutcherson, Methodist; Mr. McMahan, Chris- 
tian. Lawyers — C. G. Berry, G. Putnam, W. H Edwax'ds, J. L. W. 


Tost. Doctors— A. J. McDonald, J. B. Larkin, G. W. Burton, E. S. 
Mclntire, J. C. Pearson, A. L. Goodwin. 


Bono was one of the earliest settled localities in Lawrence County 
and as a town is the oldest. It was laid out April 4, 1816, and the orig- 
inal plat recorded at Paoli, in Orange County. The proprietors wei'e 
Marston Gr. Clark, William Hoggatt and Joseph Kitchell, who made a 
plat of 143 lots. For several years Bono was the commercial center of 
the county. Being located on the river it afforded special conveniences 
to those who were engaged in mercantile pursuits. 

, It is probable that the first merchant at Bono was William Holland, 
who began sometime about the year 1818. Many of the first comers were 
of the "Down East Yankee " folks, which may in some manner account for 
the early activity in business matters at this point. Holland's first store 
was not much more than a " little tea store," but it was the germ from 
which grew the later prosperity of the place. He did not continue long 
at Bono, and a short time after figures considerably in the early history 
of Leesville. Following soon after Holland was a man named Martin, 
who did a small huckster business for a few years, and about 1824, was 
in partnership with a man named John Kelly. Soon after this Martin 
disappears, but John Kelly plays an important part. About the year 
1828, Charles Miller came, and together they carried on a large and pros- 
perous business until about 1838, when they sold to Green & Brother. 
Before this time several others had begun. Amonsr these were Thomas 
Lemon, in 1830, and about the same time were James Batman and James 
Seek ( ?) Lemon and Batman remained in trade for some time, and in 
1838, and for several years after that, James W.Prow was in partnership 
with Batman. Another important early merchant was Asher Wilcox. 
Ephraim Brock and Uriah Dilly were at one time extensive traders. 
Other merchants were Albert Johnson, John Shade, Thomas W. Stevens, 
and Gabriel Harvey. 

About the year 1830 John Lindsey began a hattery at Bono, and for 
several years he made a large number of very good fur hats. After his 
death a brother-in-law, named Jet, carried on the business, and succeed- 
ing'him were Jacob Drinkhouse and James W. Prow, until some time in the 
forties, when it was abandoned. Tan-yards were run by Alonzo Taylor 
and James Batman, the latter of whom did a large amount of work. 
His successors were Spooner Brothers and the Huston Brothers. An 
ashery was owned a considerable time by a man named Albert, and a 
linseed oil mill was operated by Adam Davis. In the latter part of the 
twenties John Nunnamaker put in operation a pottery. Other owners 
were Felix Rawlings and Franklin Whisenan, the latter of whom was a 


It is probable that Walker Kelso was the first doctor to locate at Bono, 
but soon after him came James Montgomery. Williamson D. Dunn, a 
brother of George G. Dunn, was one of the early physicians. Among 
the many who have been at this place were : Doctors Hicks, Manuel, 
Hugh Montgomery, Henry Malott, E. P. Gibson and I. J. Hopper. The 
first mill at Bono, since the old float mill of Hammersly, elsewhere men- 
tioned, was built by James Oldham some time in the fifties. It was a very 
good grist-mill, and the power was supplied by steam. It was furnished 
with two sets of buhrs, one for wheat and one for corn. After several 
years it was turned into a saw-mill. It is more than likely that the poet- 
office at Bono was established as early as 1820, although on this point 
the information is not reliable; and it is equally probable that Patrick Cal- 
latf was the first Postmaster iu the office that has for the last twenty 
years had Mrs. Mary Miller for its incumbent. 

The building of the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Railroad was 
the death-blow to Bono. Prior to that time it had been one of the lead- 
ing towns in the county, but trade and business began to flow to those 
towns along the railroad and of easy communication with the larger 
cities. But a single store, and that an inferior one, is now ampl}' suffi- 
cient for the demands of business. This has for the past eighteen years 
been conducted by C. A. Knight. Surely glory annd honor have gone 
out from Bono. 


Lawrenceport was laid out in May 17, 1837. There were 179 lots in 
twelve blocks, with Front, Commerce, Market, Street and Washington 
Streets running east and west, and Roberts, Main and Water, running 
north and south. This town is at the mouth of Fishing Creek on White 
River, where the old State road from Louisville to LaFayette crossed the 
river. About the same time the first enterprise in merchandising was 
commenced by S. P. Moore, who was also owner and builder in the same 
year of the grist-mill at that place. These he continued to own and 
conduct for about ten years, when he sold to Bullitt & Throckmorton, 
who continued both the store and the mill for several years, rebuilding 
the latter in 1853. From them the mill passed to S. B. Barnes, who 
after owning it for quite a*time and repairing both the mill and dam, 
sold to Henry Harmyer, of Cincinnati. While in his hands, and one 
night in 1880, about twenty-five farmers who were landowners above the 
dam. which they claimed was too high, proceeded to tear out the obnox- 
ious obstruction in the stream. Over this a considerable litigation 
ensued, but the mill owner was defeated and since then the property has 
been of but little value. In mercantile matters Bullitt & Throckmorton 
were succeeded by a man named Kaussett, who was a Yankee and some- 
thing of a curiosity. In 1865, William Turley began keeping a store at 
Scottville on the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad and not far from the town 


of Lawrenceport From that time until 1872 there was no store in the 
place, but in that year J. T. Andrews bought out Turley, and moved the 
business back to the town, where he has ever since carried it on, doing a 
good trade in general merchandise. The town was named for Joseph 
Lawrence, one of the prominent early land owners in this community. 

One of the prominent ministers of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
Indiana was a resident of Lawrenceport. This was Bishop Roberts. Of 
the early physicians. Dr. Knight was probably the first, and since his 
time have been Dra. Charles A. Pearson, Mayberry, Brice Newkirk, Will- 
iam A. Sloss, Israel D. Bulkley, Dr. Ebberly, George Harbin, I. N. Plum- 
mer, G. W. Durment, A. F. Berry and T. W. Bullitt. After the build- 
ing of the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad, Lawrenceport lost much of its 
prestige as a point for trade. This was because of the building-up of 
Mitchell and Tunnelton, two towns that now divide what trade it then 
had. In the early days and during its prosperity there was a large 
amount of pork packing carried on, which was shipped down the river to 
New Orleans. 

Lawrenceport Lodge Number 548, of A. F. & A. M., was granted a 
charter by dispensation, August 31, 1876, with officers as follows: A. F. 
Berry, W. M.; John Mitchell, S. W.; and Harrison W. Field, J. W. The 
members in addition to these at that time, were: W. G. Todd, G. W. 
Hamer, H. T. Hamer and John Laswell, the last of whom was a resident 
of Mitchell and only belonged here for the purpose of making the 
requisite number to secure a charter. The lodge worked under a dispen- 
sation until May 22, 1877, when a charter was regularly granted by the 
Grand Lodge of the State. During this time the following eleven persons 
were made Master Masons: C. W. Oldham, C. P. Pendergrast. J, T. 
Andrews, R. E. Peudergrast, S. W. Hall, D. W. Hostetler, Willis Stephens, 
G. W. Reid, B. W. Haydeu, G. W. Todd and H. H. Hamer. Since 
that time thirteen others have been taken in full membership and dimits 
granted to seven, thus leaving the present membership at twenty- four. 
At the present time the lodge is officered as follows: George W. Hamer, 
W. M.; Daniel Hostetler, S. W.; George Reid, J. W. ; William Turley, 
Treasurer; J. T. Andrews, Secretary; Alonzo Hostetler, S. D. ; Benjamin 
Hostetler, J. D. ; J. F. Hamer and Peter Mahan, Stewards, and Nelson 
Mayden, Tyler. From its organization this lodge has been in a flourish- 
ing and prosperous condition. It now owns a good building in which 
its meetings are held and besides this has some money in the treasury. 

The postoffice called Rivervale was first established on the north side 
of the river with C. C. Lewis as Postmaster, and for about three years 
was kept in the store of J. M. Baker, near the little tunnel. It was then 
moved across the river and kept near the present site of the railroad sta- 
tion of Scottville by a man named Westcott. William Turley was the 
next Postmaster until 1872, when C. C. Lewis was again appointed and 
is still the incumbent. 



The town of Tunnelton was laid out on the land of Isaac Newkirk 
in the north part of Section 19, Township 4 north, Eange 2 east, and 
immediately on the north side of the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad. This 
was on the 28th of April, 1859, and an addition of forty- two lots was 
afterward made by C. T. Dodd as Attorney for Newkirk, March 23, 1863. 
The first merchant, and one that has ever since been identified with the 
business and growth of the town, was Alfred Guthrie. He began in 
1859 with a stock of general merchandise worth about $700. From that 
time to the present he has engaged in the retail trade at this place, and 
his business has constantly increased, until it now probably equals any 
other in the county. Beginning in 1874 his son, M. T. Guthrie, was 
associated with him for ten years. Other firms and men that have done 
a general merchandise business here are: John Dennison, Guthrie & 
Sherrill, Peter Cartright, Marshall Guthrie, James H. Malott, J. C. 
Gray, J. H. Booking, D. B. Guthrie & Bro., the last firm now in trade 
and doing a good trade. The first drug store was by J. L. Linder, who 
began about the year 1872 and remained for only a short time. The next 
was L. A. Grim & Bro., who stayed about two years, beginning in 
1875. A. Guthrie & Son succeeded this firm for about six months, and 
then sold to W. T. Price who is yet in the business. Another was started 
' in 1883 by Wells & Miller, and they are still doing a paying trade. 

Peter Baufle has for the past ten years carried on a thriving trade in 
the marble business at Tunnelton, and Morgan M. Litton has been the 
" village blacksmith" for nearly twenty years, although his honors have 
of late been/ shared by Green B. Case. The principal dealers in boots 
and shoes have been Henry and James H. Booking. The first physician 
was Hugh L. Kimberlin, and succeeding him have been William Graves, 
J. L. Linder, Mr. Davis, L. A. Crim, H. C. Dixon and Samuel B. How- 
ard, the last two now practicing here. The first mill was a steam cir- 
cular saw-mill in 1865, .owned by Henry Kipp. After a short time 
he sold it to "William Whitstone, and he in turn after a few years, sold 
to Austin & Graves, the latter of whom sold, in two years more, to 
.Alfred Guthrie. Austin & Guthrie immediately built a grist-mill which 
was run in connection with the saw-mill. It is supplied with two «ets of 
buhrs and does a good business. Guthrie in about eighteen months be- 
came the sole owner, and at once sold to Francis M. Lemon. He trans- 
ferred it to Jones & Bro., and they to Hiram J. Matthew, the present 

The postofficewas established in 1860 with Alfred Guthrie as Post- 
master. He continued to hold this position for twenty-one years, when 
he was succeeded by his son, M. T. Guthrie, the present occupant. A 
Masonic lodge. No. 329, was organized about the year 1860 with Thomas 
Carlton, John P. Foster, George Hoopingarner, John, Hiram M. and 


Alfred Guthrie, and Isaac Newkirk. John P. Foster was W. M. ; Thomas 
Carlton, S. W. ; and George Hoopingarner, J. W. This lodge was for 
several years a prosperous one, but through negligence of the members 
it gradually went down, and the charter was finally surrendered volun- 


This place was so named for Michael Eitner, the man who was fore- 
man in the construction of the large tunnel on the Ohio & Mississippi 
Railroad near there. He was the first merchant at the place and began 
while the railroad was being built. He also constructed quite a number 
of small houses that were occupied by men working on the road, besides 
a large store building that was afterward burned down. The firm of 
Reed & Waters was the next in trade, and after about two years they 
were succeeded by Moses Wortham and a man named Brosika. A few 
years after this John and William A. Holland began doing a general 
merchandise trade, which, since the death of John, has been carried on 
by William A. alone. A postoffice was established about 1858, and the 
first Postmaster was Gabriel Brock, and the present incumbent is Dr. 
Sheldon Hunter, the physician of the place. 


Huron was laid out by John Terrell, February 12, 1859, on a part of 
the northeast quarter of Section 6, Township 3, Range 2 west. 
Railroad and Jones Streets run east and west, while Terrell and Hoard 
Streets run north and south. In April, 1868, an addition of forty lots 
was made, the total number now being seventy- seven. The first merchant 
was Anderson Beasley, who began some time in 1857, and continued for 
some two or three years in an old log building. He sold to James Cole- 
man, the first blacksmith, who remained about two years. Since then 
the following persons have engaged in the mercantile trade here: A. P. 
Wilson, W. S. Gaither, Obediah Mercer, James Marley, A. Higginbotham, 
T. J. Cummings, Adolphus Ross, Solomon Bitman, Charles Kauffmau, 
James Rogers, V. R. Crim, Alexander Marley and Asher Clark. Black- 
smiths have been numerous from the first; some of them were: James* 
Coleman, Caswell Cooper, G. B. Case, Thomas Fitch, Mathew Gibbs, 
Robert Peak, W^illiam Maxwell, Thomas Snow and William DeMonth. 
Physicians have been: G. W. Burton, Mr. Larkin, Mr.McCuUough, Pat- 
man, David Chase, Walker, G. W. White, Springer, Rodney N. Plum- 
mer, Edward Millis, H. Gaither and William W. Yandell, the last being 
the only one at present located here. 

The first mill at Huron was built by L. Prosser in 1857. It was both 
a grist and saw-mill and was run by steam-power. This burned down 
in 1864 at a loss, including lumber that was destroyed, of about $8,000. 
Joel Smith rebuilt in a year or so after, and it is now being operated by 


Benjamin Johnson and James Terrell. In 1857 Joseph Bosler was ap- 
pointed as the first Postmaster, but for several years J. H. Crim has held 
that office. Huron Masonic Lodge, Number 381, was organized May 27, 
1868, with Thomas J. Cummings, W. M. ; Joseph Bosler, S. W., and 
Benjamin F. Prosser, J. W. This lodge has not been very prosperous, 
although it now has a little money on hand. Its present membership is 
about seventeen, and is officered as follows: J. H. Crim, W. M. ; I. W. 
Pierce, S. W. ; Nathan King, J. W. ; L. D. Vandyke, S. D. ; A. Higgin- 
botham, J. D., Jesse Connelly, Treasurer; William Yandell, Secretary, 
and John Connelly, Tyler. The present business interests of 
Huron are represented as follows: Bosler Bros. , general merchandise; 
J. H. Crim, general merchandise and grain buyer; L. D. Vandyke, drugs; 
Allen Higginbotham and John Elmore, grocers; James N. Jeter, furni- 
ture and undertaker; Terrell & Johnson, grist and saw-mill; J. M. 
Elmore and G. W. Murphy, boots and shoes. In January, 1873, Huron 
was incorporated, the vote having been taken December 28 before that, 
and stood thirty-seven votes in favor of incorporation, and none against. 


A town was laid out May 28, 1835, by Henry Connelly on Section 
24, Township 4 north, Range 2 west, and was at that time and for a few 
years later called Paris, but that was changed to Bryantsville. Among 
the early merchants were Tucker Williams, Henry Weathers, Frederick 
R. Nugent, James Taylor and William Weathers, all prior to the year 
1850. During the same time Levi Overman put up a small cabinet shop, 
and for some time worked at his trade here. Alexander Coleman, famil- 
iarly known as " Kettle-head " was the first blacksmith. At this place 
during the celebrated political campaign of 1840 a barbecue of some 
notoriety occurred at which a large number of people attended. In 1853 
Back & Rout were dealers in general merchandise, and others have been 
Davis & McGinnis, J. W. Lyons, James Standeford, John D. Thomasson, 
Nuby, and the present firm of Henry Moneyhan & Son. About the year 
1866 a grist-mill was built by George Z. Wood, and it was of good capac- 
ity and well patronized. The present owner is J. Wolfe, who also owns 
a saw-mill that was built by Stroud Bros. It is probable that the 
first physician to locate at Bryantsville was Dr. S. A. Raridan, now of 
Bedford. Soon after came Dr. William Huston, and others were Drs. 
James Wilson, A. L. Goodwin. A. W. Bare and Laban Palmei*. Since 
1853 William Weathers, John McGinnis, Henry Davis, Dr. A. W. Bare, 
Benjamin Connelly and John Lyon have been Postmasters. 


Perhaps the third town in the county both in size and importance is 
Springville, in the central part of Perry Township, on Section 22. 
It was laid out July 11, 1832, by Samuel Owens, and then con- 


sisted of two streets, Adams and Perry, and twenty-six lots along Spring 
Creek, from which the name of the town is derived. Garton's Addition 
of twenty lots was made June 26, 1835, and two additions of thirty- 
two lots were made in 1836 and 1846, by Joseph Athon. The first mer- 
chant at Springville was Samuel Owens, who began about the year 1825 
and continued aboat ten years. After him were John Vestal, A. H. 
Gainey, Eliphalet Pearson, Samuel Reddle, Giles Gainey, M. & J. 
Helmer, Cornelius Wells, Franklin Crooke, Jabez Owen, Thomas Butler, 
Winepark Judah, W. and J. Cook, Short & Rafferty, Lowrey & Helmer, 
Dr. W. B. Woodward, James Tincher, Gainey & Anderson J. E. Dean, 
and others. Those at present engaged in business are John M. Gainey, 
dry goods and groceries; Gainey & Gunn, Rafferty & Sutherland, gen- 
eral merchandise; James Pierce & Albert Ross, groceries; Dr. William 
B. Woodward, drugs. The poeto£6ce was established about the year 
1825, and it is probable that Samuel Owens was the first postmaster. 
The mail route was then from Louisville by way of Paoli, Palestine and 
Springville to Terre Haute. Jabez Owens was the first blacksmith, and 
remained about thirty years from 1827. Silas Whitted began in 1837 
and has been at it ever since. Several others have been here, some of 
whom were S. Rafferty, J. E. Dean, John and Samuel Sentney, M, D. 
H. Owen, William Hummer, Sylvester Owen, Andrew Blalock, Benjamin 
Dean, Ira Dye, and James Ferguson. 

The first doctor to locate at Springville was Henry Lingle, who proba- 
bly came in 1835, and stayed some three or four years. Soon after him 
came P. G. Paugh, Salathiel Lamb, R. G. Norvell, L. S. Spore, Julius 
Huntington, F. W. Beard, Macey Sheldon, • J. T. Woodward, W. B. 
AVoodward, Watham, J. H. Gunn, Milton Short, L G. Richardson, Sears, 
James Beathy, H. T. N. Benedict, Wesley Short, Helmer, and Lowder. 
A Masonic lodge, No. 177, was organized at Springville about the year 
1855, with the following charter members: Jewett L. Messick, W. H. 
Cornelius, Dean Barnes, E. M. Stanwood, Thomas Graves, M. B. Garton, 
and Lyons; the first three holding the three highest oflSces in the order 
named. For the first ten years after its organization this lodge was 
prosperous, and in that time received about sixty members. At the end 
of that time it began to go down on account of the other lodges that 
were established too near and drawing away the members. On the 4th 
of November, 1881, the charter was finally surrendered because of there 
being too few members to support it. At that time there were but twelve 
members, and of the^e nine paid all the expenses then due the Grand 
Lodge and received demits from that body. These were L. L. Smith, 
W^ M.; Silas Whitted, S. W.; George Holmes, J. W. ; J. H. Gunn, Rob 
ert Craig, Avj Armstrong, Calvin Rainbolt, Alfred Sterns and J. T. 
Beyers. L. L. Smith was for several years the chief member of the 
lodge, and attended the Grand Lodge eighteen different times. 




On the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Railroad in Marshall 
Township, Section 10, a town was laid out December 10, 1865, by "Wine- 
park Judah, and called by him Guthrie. On the authority of James 
Tincher, it is thought thatW. W. Owens was the first merchant, locating 
about the year 1854, when the railroad was built. He kept drugs and 
groceries for about five years and sold to Wesley Brown. After him 
came James Bryant, who stayed some two years .and was succeeded for 
only one year by a man named Anderson, after whom George Bascom was 
the only merchant for a short time. The next to embark in the mer- 
cantile trade here was James Tincher, who began in the spring of 1865 
as a partner with Gainey & Gunn, of Springville, under the name of 
Tincher & Co. After two years of success he then became the sole owner 
until 1869, when he sold to Kinsar & Bro. At the end of three 
years they moved to Harrodsburg and Mr. Tincher commenced in business 
again and has ever since been engaged in the general merchandise trade. 
He now has a full stock of goods and is doing a good business. In 
1878, Mr. S. A. May began doing a dry goods and grocery trade, which 
be has continued ever since. The postoffice was established during the 
time that W. W. Owens was merchant, and he was the first Postmaster. 
Other incumbents have been James Tincher, Eli Kniser, Joseph Pace, 
and S. A. May. 


The town of Heltonville was laid out September 8, 1845, by Andrew 
Helton, on the west half of the northeast quarter of Section 26, Town 
ship 6 north. Range 1 east. It consists of twenty-seven lots and two 
streets, Lafayette and Broadway, each thirty-three feet wide. An addi- 
tion was afterward made of eight lots on February 7, 1851. Andrew 
Helton was the first merchant and began some time prior to 1839, and 
was then a partner of William Templeton, although the partnership did 
not last long. For several years he did the leading trade. About the 
year 1849 he sold out and moved to Bloomtngton, and in that year Hous- 
ton & Ragsdale were doing a general merchandise trade, and with but 
little opposition. Soon after this they sold to Browning & Hunter, 
who continued for some years. In the spring of 1849 J. C. Foster began 
in business with Holland, of Leesville, in the firm of Holland & Foster, 
and in this way it remained until 1864, when Foster became the sole 
owner and has been such ever since, doing probably the leading business 
in dry goods, groceries, hardware, hats, caps, boots and shoes, etc. John 
R. Browninc succeeded to the business of Browning & Hunter alone for 
several years and then sold to George Brock. He transferred to Hoggatt 
& Browning, who continued the trade for two or three years later. 
Other firms have been: A. M. Ramsey, J. W. Browning, William Logan, 

James S. Denniston, William Elston, Jefferson Ragsdale, W. C. Dennis- 

1 1 


ton, M. D. Reid and Andrew S. Fountain, the last now in trade since 
1876. Dr. W. T. Ellison began in the drag trade in 1878 and has been 
successful enough to continue ever since. David Carson was among the 
first'blacksmiths, and Ziba Owens, John Raney, Luke, James and John 
Hamers and John Lane, wagon makers. 

Leatherioood Lodge Nu. 116, A. F. & A. M., was organized at Hel- 
tonsville sometime early in the fifties. The first Worshipful Master was 
Maj. Bemen. and after several years of prosperity, the lodge began to go 
down. The membership was at one time probably as much as seventy, 
and they owned a good lodge building and lot which was nearly all paid 
for. This was sold to the Odd Fellows some three or four years ago, and 
in 1882 the charter was surrendered. The Odd Fellows Lodge at 
Heltonville, No. 532, was granted a charter May 18, 1876, having worked 
a short time before that time under a dispensation. The original mem- 
bers were D. B. Dodds, John B. Haywood, T. J. Richards, H. A. 
Lutton, G. W. Rosenbaum. Wesley Denniston, William Denniston, G. 
T. Starr, Stacy Logan and Robert Todd. The fii'st Noble and Vice 
Grands were: William Denniston and G. T. Starr. Many of the charter 
members belonged at Clearspring and joined here only for the purpose qf 
organization. The lodge is in very good condilrion and owns the build- 
ing, which is all paid for. The present membership is about thirty-eight, 
of which the following are officers: R. H. Ellison, N. G. ; John Norman, 
V. G. ; G. B. Ross, Secretary, and J. T. Browning, Treasurer. 


Leesville is said to have been named for Lee County, Va., whence 
the first settlers came. It was platted and laid out in June, 1818. The 
owners of the land were the two Williams Flinn, Sr. and Jr. ' Next after 
Bono, Leesville is the oldest recorded town in Lawrence County. The 
first merchant was John Speer, who began keeping a small huckster shop 
about the year 1817. In 1829 he was still there and recommended to- 
the County Board by a number of the citizens in that community as "a 
suitable person to retail spirits in the town of Leesville." In 1819 or 
1820 Georare Still bearan the same business and continued for about ten 
years. Turner J. Holland was there in 1830 and probably succeeded 
John Speer, although he may have been there before that time. Ever 
since then some of the Holland family have been in business, and usually 
doing the leading trade. In 1833 William Turpen began and remained 
for three or four years, and about the same time was William McNealy. 
William and John Holland were among the early merchants. In 1839 
David Cummins was granted a license to keep a tavern. Another man 
in business in 1830 was Norman Benton, and in 1846 were John Fergu- 
son and W. C. Richards, who remained some three or four years; also 
John Hunter. The present business is as follows: W. R. Holland, gen- 


eral merchandise; Dr. W. H. Smith, general store and drugs; F. M. 
Lemon, Millei-, James C. Speer, saw -mill; Spencer W. and William H. 
Smith, physicians; J. M. Hill, dentist; James D. McA.fee & Son and 
John C. Consalus, blacksmiths; Pate & Walters, wood- workers and black- 
smiths; R. D. Thompson and McHemy Owen, attorneys. 

Leesville is not behind the world in many things, and in 1877 a min- 
iature newspaper was begun by Micajah Allen. This was called the 
Sun until 1879, when the name was changed to the Index. These were 
both very small, and issued more for entertainment than business. The 
Graphic was established in May, 1882, by McHenry Owen, and was at 
that time a four-column folio, but in January, 1883, it was changed to a 
six-column folio, its present size. In politics it is "Democratic. Under 
an act of the General Assembly approved January 20, 1824, Leesville 
asked the County Board, in March, 1831, to be incorporated. An elec- 
tion for that purpose was ordered and resulted as follows : For incor- 
poration were Dr. John C. Gavins, Norman Benton, James R. Critchler, 
James M. Shields, David P. Abbott, Turner J. Holland, Matthew Flinn, 
George Shrako and Samuel J. Preston; against incorporation, John 
Speer, Holman Humphreys and John Shrake. This election was held 
March 7, 1831, with Alfred Alexander and Samuel J. Preston as Clerks. 
The first Board of Trustees was composed of these men, James M. 
Shields, John Shrake, Richard Easton, J. R. Critchler and John C. 
Cavins. The incornoration did not last long. A lodge of Masons was 
organized here on the 24:th of May, 1851, called Cedar Lodge Number 
161. The officers were: Thomas J. Reed, W. M. ; Robert Henderson, S. 
W. ; and Jonathan C. Todd, J. W. Although the membership of this 
lodge is not large, it has always been in a healthy condition, and now 
has money on hand and at interest. Twenty is the number of members 
now belonging, and the officers are as follows: John Ikerd, W. M.; 
William T. Reynolds, S. W. ; John E. Stickler, J. W\; John Holland, 
Treasurer, and McHenry Owen, Secretary. 


The village of Fayetteville, in Indian Creek Township, was laid out 
February 6, 1838, by Ezra Kern, and an addition was made in October, 
1874, by Noah Kern. This place was among the first in the county for 
merchandising, and the first man to begin was John Vestal, some time 
near the year 1818. His storeroom was of logs, and for those times he 
had a large stock of goods. The goods were then hauled from Louis- 
ville bv wasrons. Later merchants were: Solomon R. Frazier, Ambrose 
Kern, Ambrose Parks, Clark & Bullars, Robert Boyd, William C. Pit- 
man, Noah Kern, Bryant & Williams, Milton Short, John Lackey, 
George W. Morris and Ezra Kern. Those now engaged in business are: 
John M. Sears, Milton Short and William J. Jordon, the first of whom 


is Postmaster, and the doctors now practicing at this place are E. F. 
Allen and Harvey Voyles. 


Is in Indian Creek Township, near the county line, and on the jine 
between Sections 19 and 20, Township 5 north, Range 2 west. It was 
laid out by Robert C. Mc.Vfee, July 26, 1855, and the recorded plat 
shows a total of seventy- sis lots. Lewis J. Baker was doing a small 
trade here about the year 1850, and soon after that Wallace Craig formed 
a partnership with him which lasted until 1882. Since that Samuel 
Sentney has done the business. He does a general merchandise trade, 
and besides him are F, Turley & Brother, and J. E. Kern in the same 
kind of business. Dr. S. D. Honnocher is a druggist and a physician. 
Dr. J. S. Blackburn is also in the practice at this place. J. E. Kern 
owns a grist-mill supplied with two sets of l)uhrs, and a saw-mill, all 
operated by steam-power and valued at about $4,000. 


In the year 1829 a town was platted and lots sold below the mouth 
of Salt Creek four and a half miles southwest from Bedford. It was 
named Liberty, and immediately after the sale of the lots some half 
dozen small one-story buildings were erected. A small hotel, a carpen- 
ter shop, and a store of general merchandise were all the business houses 
in the place. The proprietors of the store were John S. Daughton, of 
New Albany, and Frank Tilly, of Louisville. Alexander H. Dunihue, 
now of Bedford, managed the store for the owners, neither of whom ever 
lived at the place. After a continuance of one year, in which a good 
business was done, Mr. Dunihue was requested to close up the business 
for the proprietors, which he did by selling to Lakey & Beasley, who con- 
tinued about one year longer and then abandoned the trade entirely. 
The town proved so unhealthy that no addition was made to its "popu- 


Redding was laid out by Robert Porter and John R. Nugent, August 
25, 1842, and the year following the voting place for the township was 
established there. The town was situated in the southeast quarter of 
Section 15, Town 4 north. Range 1 west. There were eighty- four lots, 
lying on either side of the "old Terre Haute & Louisville road. The 
town no longer exists. At Redding was the second postoffice in the 
township, called Sink Spring; John R. Nugent was Postmaster. 

Woodville was laid out December 10, 1849, by Edwin Wood, on the 
southeast corner of Section 26, Town 4 north, Range 1 west. The 
town consisted of fifty-eight lots, lying in equal number on the two 
sides of Main Street, through which the Louisville, New Albany & 
Chicago Railway runs. Woodville was the voting place from 1851 to 


1856. The postoflice was Woodland : Edwin Wood, Postmaster. Two or 
three families still reside in the dilapidated houses of the town. The 
proprietor of the town manufactured lumber and kept a store for several 

Juliet was laid out in 1850, on the southwest corner of Section 11, 
Town 4 north, Range 1 west, at the time the Louisville, New Albany 
& Chicago Railway was completed to that point. The town being the 
terminus of the road for several months, became quite a commercial 
point; goods were wagoned from there to Bedford, Bloomington, Green- 
castle and all towns on that line; stage lines were established away up 
in the direction of Chicago; but the completion of the railroad north 
ruined the town's prosperity, and it soon fell into decay. In the soli- 
tary country store, kept there at present, is the postoffice called " Yockey." 



Military History— The Old Militia— The Company for the Mexi- 
can War— Its Public Services— The Welcoming Barbecue— Roll 
OF theCompany— Personal Notes— Sentiment in 1861— The Fall of 
Sumter— Call for Volunteers— The First Companies for the 
War— Other Enlistments— Sketches of the Regiments— Account 
OF Battles— Recruiting— The Draft or October, 1862— Enlist 
ments in 1863— Notes— Enlistments in 1864— Last Call for Vol- 
unteers—The Legion— John Morgan— The Drafts of 1864 and 
1865— Summary of Men Furnished — Bounty and Relief— Per- 

THIS county, like all other portions of the State in early years, was 
required to thoroughly organize its militia and drill or muster 
quarterly at the county seat or elsewhere designated by the authorities. 
At the first settlement of the county this was absolutely necessary as a 
measure of defense against the Indians, and continued to be in vogue 
until after all danger from that or any other source had passed, but still 
the old companies met regularly under orders and marched around under 
the command of some captain, colonel or general, who, perhaps, never 
in all his life had ''smelt" gunpowder on the field of battle. Each 
man furnished bis own gun, but after twenty or thirty years, when game 
had largely disappeared, many had no guns, and were required to get 
something with which to go through the manual of arms, and accordingly 
armed themselves with long s^^^icks, broom-sticks, corn-stalks, or other 
impleijients of warfare equally as dangei'ous and effective. This gave 


rise to the appellation, "cornstalk militia," as applied to the companies. 
Gradually the muster of the militia was relaxed until it became 
nothino- better than a fai'ce. The occasion became one for the 


sports to indulge their proclivities, and horse-races, shooting matches, 
games of chance, prize fights, and feats of strength or endurance took 
the place of the time-honored "training day." Qaite a number of the 
early settlers, prior to 1815, attached themselves to neighboring compan- 
ies of mounted rangers, and were regularly sworn into the service, and 
are, therefore, veterans of the war of 1812. In case of attack upon any 
quarter by the Indians they were called out in pursuit, but otherwise saw 
no active service. Thus the time was passed until 1846. 


The war with Mexico brought out a full company of men from Law- 
rence County. Under the act of Congress, approved May 13, 1846, the 
President of the United States called for volunteers, and three regiments 
were assigned as the quota of Indiana. The county militia formed the 
nucleus that furnished the men for the company. In prompt response 
to the call Henry Davis, Hon. G. G. Dunn, L. Q. Hoggatt, Cyrus Dun- 
ham, George Carr, Dr. John C. Gavins, E. W. Rice, James Carothers 
and others called for a company at Leesville, and war meetings were 
held there and at Bedford, Springville and perhaps elsewhere, and Avithin 
a week a fulj company was raised and their services tendered the Gov- 
ernor. So rapidly had the work been done that the company was one of 
the few accepted out of the hundreds offered, and the men were ordered 
to report at New Albany to become a part of the Second Regiment. An 
election of officers was held at Bedford with the following result: Henry 
Davis, Captain; L. Q. Hoggatt, First Lieutenant; C. S. Foster, Second 
Lieutenant; Edmund W. Rice, Third Lieutenant. Many of the men, 
including the Captain, came from Leesville, then an important place in 
the county. The old court house was used for a short time as barracks, 
while the organization of the company was being perfected. On the l9th 
of June, 1846, a very warm day, the company were drawn up on the pub- 
lic square in Bedford, quite early in the morning, to bid good-bye to their 
friends and take their departure for New Albany to join their regiment. 
They listened to an eloquent speech of parting advice from their fellow- 
citizen and neighbor, Hon. George G. Dunn, at the conclusion of which 
each member of the company was presented with a testament amid hand- 
shakings, tears, passionate embraces, loving words of farewell and the 
imposing ceremony of military departure during a flourish of martial 
music. The company went south over the Davis' Ferry road, and were 
followed to the river by a large crowd of relatives and friends who were 
loth to part, perhaps forever, with their loved ones. Upoa their arrival 
in New Albany they became Company F, of the Second Regiment. They 


were known at home and in the field as the "Lawrence Grays," and 
were a fine body of men. In July, 1846, the Second Regiment was 
transferred to New Orleans, and soon afterward across the Gulf of Mex- 
ico to the mouth of the Rio Grande River. After occupying various 
positions along the river and elsewhere, where several of the boys died 
of disease, the regiment at last in February, 1847, found itself with 
other troops, numbering in all about 5,000 men, under Gen. Zachary Tay- 
lor, in the Buena Vista Pass awaiting the approach of about 20,000 Mex- 
icans under Gen. Santa Anna. The Pass was between mountain ranges, 
and was narrow and cut up by deep ravines which extended up and down 
the sides of the elevations; and running about half way across it, thus 
narrowing the Pass still more, was a broad plateau about 200 feet above 
the general level. The Second Indiana was posted on the extreme left 
of Gen. Taylor's battle line, on the plateau mentioned and near the 
mountain -side, which extended upward, it was thought, too abruptly to 
permit the Mexicans to flank the Americans on the left. At last the 
enemy was seen moving up the Pass in solid column with banners flying 
and lances and carbines glittering in the sun. With overwhelming num- 
bers he at first attempted to force the Pass in solid column, but Wash- 
ington Battery, which was posted on a high mound on the right, was so 
well served that the enemy, cut in pieces by storms of grape and canister, 
was forced back in confusion and a temporary check was given his 
advance. He next attempted to flank the Americans on the left and suc- 
ceeded. Large columns of his troops, on foot and on horse, poured 
around on the mountain-side and up over the plateau, throwing them- 
selves upon the Second Indiana and several Kentucky regiments like an 
avalanche. The Mexican lancers on ponies swept around to the rear of 
the Americans, captured several pieces of Bragg's Battery, and the crisis 
of the battle was reached. The Second Indiana fired its twenty-one 
rounds and was ordered to retreat; but not having been drilled in that 
important maneuver (an omission in military discipline afterward cor- 
rected) and having no point designated to which to retreat, could not be 
checked in the face of the swarming Mexicans and continued on down 
off of the plateau as though pursued by the Furies. Here the majority 
was at last halted in the forks of two deep ravines, the Kentucky regi- 
ments having followed them. On came the enemy, and when within a 
few paces, a fearful storm of lead was poured into them, checking their 
advance, and encouraging the American forces, which, with a newly 
formed battle line, resolutely held the position against the repeated 
charges of the Mexican foot and the lancers on ponies. The battle was 
hotly and stubbornly fought until night, when the Mexicans withdrew, 
leaving the victory with the American forces. After this the Second saw 
no more fighting, and after occupying various positions, doing guard duty, 
was ordered home, its year of service having expired. 



When the news of the battle of Buena Vista reached the county it 
occasioned great excitement. With the report came the assertion that 
the Second Regiment had fled from the battle-field like frightened deer ; 
the details were awaited with feverish anxiety. The relatives of the 
soldier boys denied the report on general principles, but subsequent 
rumors confirmed the account. The first authentic and accurate account 
was brought by W. A. Gorman, of Bloomington, who had been in the 
same regiment, and had come home before the others. He stopped at 
Bedford long enough to deliver a speech detailing the movements of the 
battle to a large crowd which had hastily collected. Here it was learned 
how the boys came to run from the field — that they were acting under 
the orders of their commander, after they had fired their twenty-one 
rounds of ammunition and had received three successive orders to retreat. 
The facts removed the charge of cowardice from the regiment. June 30, 
1847, the Bedford boys returned. They were met at White River by the 
Bedford Brass Band, and a large concourse of citizens, and escorted to 
the town. After the first warm greetinofs were over it was determined to 
hold a barbecue, and accordingly July 6 a large crowd assembled in 
Foote's Woods, north of town — the estimated number present being 
6,000. The procession was formed on the public square and then 
marched to the grounds where a fat ox was roasting. Dr. Benedict 
delivered the principal address of welcome, to which Capt. Davis and 
Lieuts. Hoggatt and Lewis responded. The boys fi'om Leesville were 
also given a barbecue, but the details cannot be given. 

Under the shadows of the last great war the boys who went to Mex- 
ico must not be forgotten. It was no holiday undertaking to go from 
the comparatively cold climate of the Northern States, to the hot and 
peculiar tropical climate of Mexico. The sacrifice of life from disease 
abundantly attests the peril through which the boys passed. Many were 
left in lonely, deserted and forgotten graves, and the rugged cactus comes 
and kisses with its crimson blossoms the silent mounds where they sleep; 
the rich flowers of the stately magnolia shed tlieir fragrant perfume 
around; the long festoons of silvery moss hang pendant and weeping 
above the quiet graves; the rustling wind and dancing rain pay their 
passing tribute to the glory of the departed, and over all the strange, 
bright birds of that sunny clime chant the sad requiem of death. The boys 
are gone, but their names are living jewels in the bright casket of memory. 


The following complete roster of Co;npany F was obtained in the 
Adjutant-General's office at Indianapolis, but only covers that portion of 
the year of enlistment from February 28, 184:7, to June 21, 1847: Henry 
Davis, Captain; Lucien Q. Hoggatt, First Lieutenant; Josiah C. Foster, 


Second Lieutenant; Edmund W. Rice, Third Lieutenant; Isaac Caroth- 
ers, Calvin R. Fox, William F. Dobbs and Virgil Vestal, Sergeants; John 
Bishop, Ambrose B. Carlton, Eli H. Alexander, and Nathaniel B. Stearns, 
Corporals, and the following privates; Levi Bailey, UillardBell, Alexander 
Caldwell, John R.Cai-mon. Mathias Clampitt, William Clampitt, John C. 
Crawford, Lewis Crawford, Jabez Cox, Housan Clifton, William Day, J. 
F. Deckert, William Dougherty, L. G. Fell, John Foote, James Frank- 
lin, Caleb Fry, Callahan Fisher, Thomas G-oens, Joseph Gough, Alex- 
ander Hawkins, William Hawkins, Davis Hart, John Helton, David P. 
Houston, Stephen Humphreys, Philip Huff, Daniel Jackson, James Kil- 
gore, Benjamin McFarland, George Miner, E.W. Moberly, James Owen, 
Daniel A. Peck, Chalfant Purcell, W. H. Pender, John W. Pool, Finley 
Reynolds, Charles Ross, Abraham K. Smith, Austin G. Shear, John 
Thomas, William Thomas, Isaac P. Todd, Isaac Williams, Johnson 
Woods, Harvy Mathis, Harrison Wilson, N. W. Irwin, Philip Winegar, 
Jesse AVinegar, James Thomas, John Tressler, Reuben Pitcher, I. N. 
Templeton, Oscar Foote, William Purcell, John McCoy, George Tyler, 
Robert Brown, William McPike, Elijah C. Litton, Davis Harrison, Jose- 
phus Talbot, John Woody, James H. Boyd, Charles Myers, Joseph Dayton, 
Henry N. Brown, and the two musicians, James J. Brown and James Dun- 
can. The two Winegar brothers died of disease. Harrison Wilson, N. W. 
Irwin and Harvey Mathis were killed at Buena Vista, February 22, 1847 , 
and the following were discharged during the term of service for dis - 
ability: John McCoy, Oscar Foote, William Purcell, George Tyler, H. 
N. Brown, John Woody, Joseph Dayton, Davis Harrison, J. H. Boyd, 
Robert Brown, William McPike, Josephus Talbot, E. C. Lytton, Charles 
Myers and Isaac Templeton. The following additional information 
concerning other men from the county in the Mexican war was furnished 
by Robert N. Palmer, Esq. 

Robert Mitchell, father of Jesse A. Mitchell, was Quartermaster of the 
Second Indiana, and died at Matamoras, Mexico. He was for many 
years Clerk of our Circuit Court, an excellent officer and respected citizen. 
The following named were soldiers in the Fourth Indiana Regiment: 
William H. Bivens and Benjamin F. Brinegar; they were in Capt. Jesse 
Alexander's Company. Ebenezer S. Thompson, Oscar Foot, James C. Carl- 
ton, William Purcell, Thomas Purcell and James Purcell, were members of 
Company F (Capt. John S. McDougall,) of the Fifth Regiment; Jerry E. 
Dean (afterward Captain in the Fifteenth Indiana), Absalom Veach, James 
Hughes, Ralph G. Norvell, Samuel Reynolds, John Wallace, Phelps 
Reed, Charles Burkley, Seymour Cobb and James Rupert, were members 
of Company I (Capt. Thomas F. Bethell), of the Sixteenth United States 
Regulars. James Hughes was the First Lieutenant of the company, and 
Ralph G. Norvell was Major of the regiment. One McHenry Dozier, 
who was Deputy Clerk under Robert Mitchell, until he (Mitchell) went 


out of office, went to Bloomfield and joined the company of Capt. Rous- 
seau, and was killed at the battle of Buena Vista. Dozier was a brother- 
in-law of Rousseau, and it is said was brutally murdei*ed by Mexican 
lancers while lying in an ambulance suffering from wounds, and unable 
to offer any resistance. Samuel Mitchell was Quartermaster's Clerk 
under his father, Robert Mitchell, and is at this writing still a citizen of 
Bedford. Rice M. Brown, now residing at Mitchell, went through the 
entire campaign. His physical disability rendered his admission into 
the service as a soldier impossible — having a badly crippled leg — but 
nothing daunted, Brown volunteered in Davis' Company, but was rejected 
at New Albany by the mustering officer. He then took the honorable 
but non-combative position of Cook for the officers' mess, and in that 
capacity served until the company was mustered out. 

Mr. Palmer also furnished the following: 

Albert Sidney Johnston, in 1858 an officer in the Regular Army, had 
under the orders of the President started, with some two or three thous- 
and regular troops, across the plains to bring Brighara Young to under- 
stand that he was in the jurisdiction of the United States, and must obey 
its laws. Some of the young men of Bedford caught the soldier fever 
from reading the newspaper accounts of the movement, and called a 
meeting at the court house on the night of March 30, 1858. The follow- 
ing notice appeared in the Lawrence Democrat of that date: 

HO FOR Utah! 

We are requested to state that there will be a meeting at the court house 
to-night to take into consideration the propriety of raising a company of volunteers 
for service in the Utah war. 

TURN out! turn out! 

The meeting was held, and speeches were made by A. B. Carlton, P. 
A. Parks, and Walter R. Johns, editor of the Lawrence Democrat. A 
company was partially raised and officers elected, but they never got out 
of the court house yard as a company. In the same paper, of date April 
20, 1858, is the following notice: "Attention Company! The company 
of officers lately organized in this place for the Utah war are hereby 
notified, that they need not meet again until President Buchanan is heard 
from; there is some doubt yet whether he needs them. They are still 
expected, however, to keep on in their drilling exercises on stove boxes 
and grindstones." So ends the record of Lawrence County in the Utah 

State of Politics in 1860-61. 

Prior to the fall of Sumter and after the tragic act of secession of 
South Carolina, public feeling on the questions dividing the country was 
in a highly bewildered condition. It is a singular fact that a large pro- 
portion of thinking people was in doubt as to what position to take. It 
was conceded by many that inasmuch as the Union was simply a confed- 


eracy voluntarily entered into at the beginning, each State, in her sover- 
eign capacity, when she could better her condition, could rightfully with- 
draw from the compact. Perhaps the majority was in doubt on this 
question. There were but very few people in the county who wished to 
see the Union broken. The leading question was whether a State had 
the riofht under the Constitution to leave the Union. Those who inclined 
to the belief that it had were of course opposed to the contemplated 
coercion, and declared that the South was right, as a deadly menace was 
made toward her most valuable audchiefest institution — slavery. With- 
out slave labor it was thought that the large cotton, sugar and tobacco 
plantations of the South would go to ruin, and the great commercial 
importance of that portion of the country become naught. Those who 
inclined to the belief that no State had the right to leave the Union were 
of course in favor of coercion, and urged that immediate and Jackson- 
ian steps should be taken to teach South Carolina for the second time, 
and the other States, that the Federal Government was the sovereign 
power. The ominous state of affairs led to the free and in the end bit- 
ter discussion of these questions. 

Many residents of the county were of Southern birth and had rela- 
tives living there, and as a natural consequence hesitated long before 
deciding that it was best to commence the bloody attempt of coercion. It 
was seen that the institution of slavery was at the bottom of the whole 
trouble, but as yet the question of prosecuting a war to free the slaves 
was not seriously considered. The question of coercion was paramount. 
A majority of the people of Lawrence County favored coercive measures, 
and hence urged that President Buchanan should nip secession in the 
bud. When the announcement came that the President had refused to 
do this as a violation of the Constitution, indignation was freely expressed, 
and the time for "Old Abe" to take the Presidential chair was 
anxiously awaited. But after that, when it was found that the new 
Administration was doing its best to adjust matters without the shedding of 
blood, and took no active and effectual steps to check by force, if neces- 
sary, the dissolution of the Union, many lost heart and hope. The clouds 
remained dark and portentous until the fall of Sumter, when the prompt 
call to arms cleared the sky with a blast and poured a flood of hopeful 
light upon the appalling gloom. 


The news of the surrender of Fort Sumter reached Bedford and Mit- 
chell on the morning of Monday, April 15, 1861, and created the wild- 
est consternation and excitement. Crowds assembled to hear the opinions 
of political and social leaders. Farmers stopped the plow in the furrow 
and galloped to town to catch the details. Business pursuits were almost 
wholly suspended. Immediate steps were taken both at Bedford and 


Mitchell to raise volunteers, and heavy lists were enrolled. At Bedford 
George J. Brown, Kobert McAfee and Samuel W. Short were especially 
active in soliciting names. In a few hours a company full to overflowing 
was raised. Mitchell did almost as well. Efforts in other parts of the 
county were partially successful, but upon learning that their services 
would not be needed, disbanded. 


Immediately after the first excitement of the fall of Fort Sumter had 
subsided, prompt steps were taken to raise men for the war under the 
call for 75,000 volunteers. Not less than 200 men left the county with- 
in two weeks after the surrender, all or nearly all going to Indianapolis 
in the hope of getting in the three montha' service; but all were disap- 
pointed, as the first call was filled to overflowing, many of the companies, 
perhaps a majority of them, containing more than the limit. Nearly all 
remained, however, in hopes of getting into the State's service for one 
year, and in this they would have been successful had it not been 
for the heavy calls of July and August for an aggregate of about 500,000 
men for three years. Nearly all who had gone out, and many others, in all 
about 300, enlisted for three years. Nearly an entire company enlisted 
in the Fifteenth and became Company F, with the following officers: 
Frank White, of Greencastle, Captain, afterward succeeded by Jere- 
miah E. Dean, of Bedford. The latter was at the start First Lieutenant, 
and was succeeded by Alfred F. Berry, who went out as Second Lieu- 
tenant, and was succeeded as such by Lycurgus Irwin. The men of this 
company were wrongfully credited to Putnam County. The Fifteenth 
Regiment to which it was attached, was first rendezvoused at Lafayette 
for the one year's State service, but was reorganized and mustered into 
the three years' service June 14, 1861, with George D. Wagner, Colonel. 


The regiment left Indianapolis July 1, and moved to western Vir- 
ginia. It reached Rich Mountain while the battle of the 11th was in 
progress, and next day assisted in the pursuit and capture of spoils and 
prisoners. It occupied Elk Water Valley until November 19, taking 
part in the battle of Greenbrier and the repulse of Gen. Lee. Late in 
November it I'eported to Gen. Buell at Louisville. It took an active part 
in Buell's campaign, fought at Shiloh, participated in the siege of Cor- 
inth, and the close of the battle of Perry ville. It pursued Bragg to 
Cumberland Gap amid extreme hardships. In November, 1862, it was at 
Nashville, where Gustavus A. Wood became Colonel. It fought at Stone 
River December 31, 1862, and January 1 and 2, 1863, losing the appall- 
ing number of 197 men killed and wounded out of 440 engaged. It 
remained at Murfreesboro until June 24, taking part in numerous expe- 
ditions. It then participated in the movement on Tullahoma, then 


encamped at Pelbam, Tenn. , until August 17, then advanced to Chatta- 
nooga. Here it performed post duty until just before the battle of 
Mission Ridge, in which engagement it suffered the almost unparalleled 
loss in killed and wounded of 202 out of 334 engaged — over sixty per 
cent. The next day it marched to relieve Gen. Burnside, at Knoxville. 
covering 100 miles in six days, on short rations and many without shoes. 
Here it remained on post duty until February, 1864, then moved to Chat- 
tanooga, and here a portion " veteranized." It left, June 16, for Indian- 
apolis to be mustered out, June 14, the veterans and a squad of recruits 
remaining, all the latter being assigned to the Seventeenth Regiment, with 
which they served until August 8, 1865, when they were mustered out. 


Another large squad of the men vfho first left the county became 
Company B of the Eighteenth Regiment. The following were the officers 
during the war : Captains, Samuel W. Short, William S. Cook, D. R. 
Bowden and Francis M. Dugger; First Lieutenants, William S, Cooke, 
D./R. Bowden, Napoleon H. Daniels and Robert Hardwick; Second 
Lieutenants, Parker Pearson, N. H. Daniels, Coleman Duncan and Will- 
iam Mitchell. These men patiently waited at Indianapolis for their 
turn. The entire company was from Lawrence County. They were 
mustered in for three years, August 16, as were the other companies of 
the regiment, all under Thomas Pattison, Colonel. N. H. Daniels was pro- 
moted Major, and Doil R. Bowden, Colonel. The i-egiment saw hard 
service, as will be seen from the sketch elsewhere in this volume, 


In July quite a number of men entered Company F, of the Twenty- 
first Regiment, five becoming members of the regimental band. These 
men were from Bedford, and the privates were from the western pai't of 
the county. Henry F. McMillan, of Bedford, became Adjutant in August, 
1862, and was continued as such under the reorganization of the Heavy 
Artillery. James W. McMillan, of Bedford, was Colonel of the regi- 
ment, commissioned July, 1861, and was promoted Brigadier General 
November, 1862, and breveted Major-General March 5, 1865. This was 
the highest position reached by a resident of this county, and reflects 
great credit upon the possessor. In all, perhaps twenty-five men were in 
the Twenty-first from this county. Benjamin Newland was appointed 
Surgeon of the Twenty-second Regiment, August 12, 1861, but resigned 
November 4, 1862. 


An entire company was raised in June and July, 1861, for the 
Twenty- fourth Regiment, and was mustered in on the last day of July. It 
become Company A, and the following were the officers during the term 
of service: Hugh Erwin, George Sheeks and Charles H. Dunihue, Cap- 


tains ; George Sheeks and C. H. Dunibue, First Lieutenants ; Hiram F. 
Braxtan, Jesse L. Cain and Richard F. Cleveland, Second Lieutenants. 
Under the regimental reorganization John L. Stewart, of Mitchell, was 
Second Lieutenant of Company I ; John S. Bailey, of Bedford, Second 
Lieutenant of Company G; David Kelly, of Bedford, Major, and Francis 
A. Sears, of Bedford, Lieutenant- C^olonel. The sketch of this i-egiment 
will be found elsewhere. William Guthrie, of Tunnelton, Second Lieu- 
tenant of Company G, Twenty-fifth Regiment, was commissioned April 
10, 1862, died April 28, 1862, in the hospitel at Mound City, 111. 


In August, 1861, another compan}^ was raised and sent into the field. 
It went to Indianapolis to join the Twenty-seventh Regiment, which was 
organized August 30, and the entire regiment was mustered into the 
three-years' service September 12, under Col. Silas Colgrove. The com- 
pany become '* D," and its officers during the war were : Captains, 
Theodore E. Buehler, John A. Cassady and Thomas J. Box; First Lieu- 
tenants, James M. Kern, Thomas Peters, T. J. Box and George H. Steph- 
enson ; Second Lieutenants, Meredith W. Leach, Daniel R. Conrad, T. 
J. Box and Joseph Balsley. In 1863 the latter became Captain of Com- 
pany H, and was mustered out as such on November 4, 1864. Septem- 
ber 15 the regiment moved to Washington City, and a month later joined 
Banks'. Army of the Shenandoah. It wintered at Gamp Halleck, near 
Frederick City, Md., and early in March, 1862, crossed the Potomac to 
the Shenandoah Valley. It entered Winchester March 9, and after the 
battle of Winchester Heights, joined the pursuit of Jackson's army. 
May 23 it fought at Front Royal and participated "in the famous retreat 
of the next day along the Strasburg road. Winchester was reached that 
night and a furious battle began the next day, in which this regiment 
was hotly engaged. Its brigade under Gen. Gordon withstood the attack 
of twenty-eight rebel regiments for three and a half hours, and repulsed 
every assault. In a fierce attempt of the rebels to flank the brigade, the 
regiment assisted in driving back the swarming enemy, but the latter 
massed so heavily that the brigade slowly fell back, stubbornly and gal- 
lantly contesting every inch, and the fight was continued with great fury 
on the streets of Winchester. May 26 the regiment crossed the Potomac. 
Later it moved into Virginia, and August 9 fought at Cedar Mountain. 
It afterward moved north of the Rappahannock, and later joined in the 
Maryland campaign. At the battle of Antietam, September 17, it was 
actively engaged, suffering a severe loss. It was then placed on picket 
duty along the Potomac. It wintered near Stafford Court House. In 
May, 1863, it participated in the great battle of Chancellorsvi lie, and suf- 
fered severely in killed and wounded. It then followed Gen. Lee north- 
ward, and fought in the decisive battle of Gettysburg, participating in 


the famous resistance of the assault of the 3d of July, suffering heavy 
loss. It followed the retreating enemy to the Potomac, then rested until 
September, then with the Twelfth Corps was transferred west. It 
remained at and near Tullahoma during the fall and winter following, 
and a portion veteranized early in 1864 and returned home on fur- 
lough. It then took the field in the battle of Resaca, May 15, 1864, 
and in an open field fight defeated two Alabama regiments, killing and 
wounding a large number and taking about 100 prisoners and capturing 
the enemy's battle-flag. The regiment lost sixty-eight killed and wounded. 
It fought in all the battles of the Atlanta campaign and moved to Atlanta. 
Here the non-veterans were mustered out and the veterans and recruits 
were transferred to the Seventieth Regiment. It then served in the 
Carolina campaign, and later was part of the Thirty-third regiment. It 
was mustered out July 21, 1865, at Louisville. 


In September, 1861, still another company was put into the field. Ifc 
came from Springville, and its officers during the period of enlistment 
were: Alexander H. Gainey, Joseph Lane and James B. Dyer, Captains; 
Joseph Lane, John P. Potter, John Bugher, James B. Dyer, John East 
and Miles F. Richeson, First Lieutenants; Ira H. Rainwater, John 
Bugher, John R. Hall, James B. Dyer, Charles W. Holland, Second 
Lieutenants, The company became " F" of the Forty-third Regiment, 
and was mustered into the three years' service September 27. The regi- 
ment rendezvoused at Terre Haute with George K. Steele as Colonel, and 
soon after muster moved to Spottsville, Ky., thence to Calhoun, and in 
February, 1862, to Missouri, where it engaged in the siege of New Mad- 
rid and Island No. 10. It then was in the movement on Fort Pillow, and 
was the first to finally enter Memphis, where it remained about two 
months. In July it moved up White River, thence to Helena, and July 
4, 1863, distinguished itself in a hot battle against three times its force 
in support of a battery, repulsing three furious attacks, and capturing 
an entire regiment larger than itself. It moved against Little Rock, and 
in January. 1864, veteranized. In Steele's expedition it fought at Elkins' 
Fork, Jenkins' Ferry, Camden and Marks Mills. At the latter place, 
April 30, while guarding 400 wagons of supplies, was attacked by a large 
force under Gen. Marmadnke, and in the fierce battle which followed lost 
nearly 200 men killed, wounded and missing. Veterans numbering 104 
were captured. It soon afterward returned home on furlough, but on 
the way moved to Frankfort to assist in the movement against Morgan's 
Cavalry, and later skirmished with Jesse's guerillas near Eminence. 
After the furlough it went on duty at Indianapolis, where it guarded 
rebel prisoners, and was finally mustered out June 14, 1865. Ten or 
twelve captured died in rebel prisons. 



In October, 1S61, two and a half companies were raised for the 
Fiftieth Regiment, which was organized at Seymour, with Cyrus L. Dun- 
ham. Colonel. Company G was wholly from this county, and was 
oflScered during the war as follows: Isaac Carothers, Captain; Hiram 
Malott, Austin G. Spear and William C. Newkirk, First Lieutenants; 
Caswell R. Burton, A. G. Shear, W. C. Newkirk and John F. Flinn, 
Second Lieutenants. Almost all of Company I was from this county, its 
officers being: Abraham H. Miller, Captain; Jacob McHenry and Daniel 
A. Baker, First Lieutenants; Daniel J. Dean, Thomas J. Falkenburg and 
Alva West, Second Lieutenants. Company D of the Residuary Battalion 
was largely from this county. William C. Xewkirk, Captain; S. A. Har- 
rah, J. F. Leonai'd, James H. Watts, W. C. Xewkirk and John T. Flinn, 
First Lieutenants; Albert Adams, John Judy. John F. Leonard. John 
T. Flinn and James Gray, Second Lieutenants. The regimental sketch 
will be found elsewhere. Hemy C. Huston, of Bedford, was first Lieu- 
tenant of Company A. 


In January, 1862, about twenty-five men entered Company E, of the 
Fifty-second Regiment, and about ten men were raised for Company K, 
of the same regiment. John W. McCowick, of Georgia, was Captain of 
Company E. Under the reorganization much of Company D was from 
Lawrence County, the officers being: John T. Flinn, Captain; John T. 
Flinn and James Gray, First Lieutenants; James Gray and Alexander 
Marley, Second Lieutenants. All the above men from this county were 
mustered in February 1, 1862. This regiment participated in the fol- 
lowing movements: Siege of Fort Donelson, siege of Corinth, skirmish 
of Durhamville, Tenn.. numerous skirmishes with guerillas, raid on 
Meriden, battle of Jackson, Fort De Russey, Pleasant Hill, Moore's 
Plantation, Yellow Bayou, Lake Chicot, Tupelo, Hiu'ricane Creek, 
Franklin, Mo., Nashville, Tenn., pursuit of Hood, re<luction of Spanish 
Fort, Blakely, besides many expeditions, and was mustered out Septem- 
ber 10, 1865. In August, 1862, about fifteen men entered Company F, 
of the Sixty-fifth Regiment, and about ten recruits joined them in 1863. 
James Marley was Second Lieutenant and later First Lieutenant of this 
company, and was from this county. 


The Sixty-seventh Regiment was quite well represented with Law- 
rence County men. All of Company A was from here, and was mus- 
tered in August 19, 1862. The following were its officers: Francis A. 
Sears, George W. Rahm and Jacob Smith, Captains; G. W. Rahm, 
Leander P. Leonard, David T. Mitchell, Jacob Smith, Thomas Hen- 
dricks and John S. Bailey, First Lieutenants; L. P. Leonard, David T. 



>' -'«* 



^' ^, <2d4^^^U 


Mitchell and Jacob Smith, Second Lieutenants. Company H was also 
from this county, and was mustered in August 19, its oflficers during the 
war being: David Kelly, Captain; Allen C. Burton, Benjamin N.Hosfcetler 
and John T. Stewart, First Lieutenants; Wiley G. Burton and Benjamin 
Hostetler, Second Lieutenants, 


The Sixty-seventh Regiment was mustered in at Madison under Frank 
Emerson, Colonel, and moved to Louisville, thence to Munfordville, 
and there engaged the advance of Bragg's army September 14, where it 
was surrendered to the enemy after losing forty-three men killed and 
wounded. After parole it remained at home until December, was then 
exchanged and refitted and moved to Memphis. January 11, 1863, it 
assaulted Arkansas Post, suffering a severe loss. It moved to Young's 
Point, and later moved on the Yicksburg campaign. It fought at Port 
Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, and at the investment and 
capture of Vicksburg. It then moved against Jackson, thence was 
moved to New Orleans, and later in Louisiana fought at Grand Coteau, 
where 200 of its men were captured. January, 1864, it went t<j Texas, 
and later joined the Red River expedition, and fought at Sabine Cross 
Roads, Cane River and Alexandria, losing heavily. After this cam- 
paign it moved against Forts Gaines and Morgan and was thus engaged 
twenty days. It then went to Morganza, La., and remained until Decem- 
ber, 1864, participating in two expeditions. It was soon consolidated 
with the Twenty- fourth Regiment under the latter name. It moved in 
the campaign against Mobile, and was then transferred to Galveston, 
Tex. Here, July 19, 1865, the men were mustered out of the service. 
The recruits continued in the service. The regiment during its term of 
service participated in eighteen pitched engagements, besides skirmishes, 
was under fire 147 days, and traveled 17,000 miles. 


In July, 1862, a company was raised for the Fourth Cavalry (Seventy- 
seventh Regiment). It was mostly mustered in August 7, and became "G," 
its officers during the war being: Jesse Keithley and Isaac Newkirk, Cap- 
tains; Isaac Newkirk, Elihu C. Newland and Thomas C. Williams, First 
Lieutenants; E. C Newland, T. C. Williams and James Kern, Second 
Lieutenants. The regiment was organized at Indianapolis, with Isaac 
P. Gray, Colonel. At the entry into the field the regiment was divided 
and placed in various places in Kentucky. One battalion under Maj. 
Platter skirmished at Madisonville, August 26, and at Mount Washington, 
October 1, losing a number killed and wounded. October 5, it fought 
again at Madisonville, suffering loss. The other battalion under Col. 
Gray moved first to Louisville, thence to Madison, thence to VeVay, 
thence into several Kentucky counties, thence to Frankfort, October 24, 



thence to Gallatin,. tlience up Green River after John Morgan. Decem- 
ber 25 it fought Morgan near Munf ordville, defeating them with loss. 
Early in 1863 it moved to Murfreesboro, and March 10 fought at Ruth- 
erford Creek. March 28 it skirmished actively near Murfreesboro. Col. 
Shuler commanding. About this time the two battalions were united 
and the full regiment moved with Rosecrans, and was engaged at Chick- 
amauga September 19 and 20, 1803, and again on the 23d. November 
1 it fought at Fayetteville, losing several men. It remained in east 
Tennessee during the winter of 1863-64, fighting at Mossy Creek, Tal- 
bot's and Dandridge, receiving high praise. January 27, 1864, it fought 
at Fair Garden in two battalions, and did very effective work, routing the 
enemy and capturing many prisoners, a battery and a battle-flag. Lieut.- 
Col. Lislie was shot dead while cheering on his men. In May it started 
on the Atlanta campaign, fighting at Varnell's Station, Ga. , and June 2 
near Burnt Church. It moved on the McCook raid, fighting at Newnan 
July 31, and was very active. After the capture of Atlanta it marched 
to Tennessee, fighting at Columbia in October. It occupied sevei'al 
points, Nashville, Waterloo, and later fought at Plantersville and Selma, 
and June 29, 1865, was mustered out at Edgefield, Tenn. Company C, 
of this regiment, served as escort of Gen. A. J. Smith, and was in all the 
movements of that commander. 


In July and August, 1862, a full company was sent to the Sixteenth 
Regiment, three years' service, and was made "D," and during the war 
was officered as follows: Columbus Moore and David B. Moore of 
Mitchell, Captains; William Mannington, Milton N. Moore, D. B. Moore 
and Cyrus Crawford, First Lieutenants; Milton N. Moore, Second Lieu- 
tenant. This regiment was commanded by Col. Thomas J. Lucas of 
Lawrenceburg. Its sketch will be found elsewhere. Henry Davis of 
Leesville, who had been the Captain of the company from this county in 
the Mexican war, was commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel of the Eighty- 
Second Regiment, August 27, 1862, and resigned October 1, 1863. John 
W. Newland of Bedford was Assistant Surgeon of the same regiment. 
In August, 1862, about sixty men from the county entered Company F, 
of the Ninety-third Regiment. The remainder were from Monroe County. 
The officers during the term of service were: Samuel J. Bartlett, Lafayette 
Bodenhamer, George W. Reeves, Captains; Alexander Hawkins, L. 
Bodenhamer, G. W. Reeves and James S. Harvey, First Lieutenants; 
L. Bodenhamer, G. W. Reeves and William S. Sowder, Second Lieuten- 
ants. The sketch will be found elsewhere. DeWitt C. Thomas was 
Colonel. At this time also, early in August, six or eight men entered 
Company E, of the Ninety-seventh Regiment, going from Springville. 
William T. Butcher was in 1865 made First Lieutenant, and soon after- 


ward Captain. Besides the men already mentioned in the foregoing 
pages, many left the county to enter companies raised elsewhere, for 
whom it is doubtful whether the county received proper credit, on the 
19th of September. . 


In the early fall of 1862 it was determined by the State authorities, 
in order to bring backward townships throughout the State to the Doint 
of furnishing their quotas, to hold a draft, ajid accordingly a draft was 
ordered held in all townships behind in September, and was subsequently 
postponed to October 6, at which time it went into effect. Lawrence 
County made strenuous efforts to escape and succeeded. She was one of 
only fifteen counties in the State in which no draft was held on the 6th 
of October. For this she deserves great credit. However, there were 
draft officers appointed, to be ready to perform their duty should she be 
behind. Charles G. Berry was Di'aft Commissioner; James R. Glover, 
Provost Marshal, and John W. Newland, Surgeon; but the services of 
this trio were not required. September 19, 1862, Lawrence County was 
credited with the following state of military affairs by the State Enroll- 
ing Commissioners, who audited the reports ordered of the county and 
township Enrolling Commissioners: Total militia, 1,732; total volunteers, 
1,500; total exempts, 358 ; conscientiously opposed to bearing arms, none; 
total volunteers in the service, 1,500; total subject to draft, 1,374. There 
was no county in the State with a better showing than this. Think of it! 
From April, 1861, to September, 1862, the county was credited with 
having furnished 1,500 men under the various calls. It must not be 
understood, however, that the county had sent that number of different 
men into the service. As a fact each man in that number was counted as 
often as he enlisted, and quite a number were in several times; but this 
number could not possibly have exceeded 300, so that it may be safely 
concluded that 1,200 different men had gone from gallant Lawrence 
County prior to September 19, 1862, to aid in the suppression of the 
slaveholder's rebellion. This is a grand exhibit, of which the citizens of 
the county may well be proud. 


In July, 1863, the county furnished the large number of nine full com- 
panies to assist in repelling the rebel Gen. Morgan from the State. 
At no time during the war did excitement run higher than during the 
period of this raid. All kinds of false and bewildering rumors passed 
current with remarkable rapidity, and many expected to see the enemy in 
the county in a short time. A few days were sufficient to pour six com- 
panies into Mitchell from this couuty, and they were joined immediately 
by four companies from Orange, Washington and Monroe Counties. The 
regiment was called the One Hundred and Twelfth — Minute Men — and 


was under the command of Col. Hiram F. Braxtan, of Bedford ; Samuel 
P. Dade, of Bedford, was Adjutant; Ferdinand W. Beard, of Spring- 
ville, Surgeon; Addison W. Bare, of Bryautsville, Assistant Surgeon. 
The companies from this county were: B, D, F, G, H and K. Company 
B was commanded by David T. Mitchell, Captain; Henry Paugh, First 
Lieutenant, and Bolivar Duncan, Second Lieutenant. Company D — 
William Muir, Captain; George W. Douglass, First Lieutenant; Oily 
Owens, Second Lieutenant. Company F — Willoughby Blevins, Captain; 
Milton McKee, First Lieutenant; William Withers, Second Lieutenant. 
Company G — JohnH. Bartlett, Captain; Alexander Hawkins, First Lieu- 
tenant; Elisha Lee, Second Lieutenant. Company H — Zachariah B. 
Wilson, Captain; Benjamin R. Smith, First Lieutenant; Theodore 
Stackhouse. Second Lieutenant. Company K — John Beaty, Captain; 
Josiah C. Foster, First Lieutenant; John P. Potter, Second Lieutenant. 
This regiment served from July 10, 1863, to July 17, 1863. It moved 
from Mitchell to Seymour, thence to North Vernon to intercept Gen. 
Morgan, thence to Sunman's Station, and was then sent home. Under 
the same excitement three other companies entered the One Hundred and 
Thirteenth Regiment — Minute Men — and became E, N and I. Company 
E was officered as follows: A. F. Tannehill, Captain; Henry Cox, First 
Lieutenant; H. F. Pitman, Second Lieutenant. Company H — Francis 
M. Davis, Captain; Samuel Lynn, First Lieutenant; John Dean, Second 
Lieutenant. Company I — Luther Briggs, Captain; George W. Burton, 
First Lieutenant; Anderson Beasley, Second Lieutenant. These men 
were mustered in July 10, 1863, and mustered out July 16, 1863. It 
moved from Mitchell to North Vernon to intercept Gen. Morgan, thence 
marched to Sunman's Station, thence to Indianapolis, thence home. 

THE SIX months' MEN. 

Under the call for six months' men of June 15, 1863, a full company 
was sent to the One Hundred and Seventeenth Regiment. They became 
Company D, and the officers were: Hiram F. Braxtan, Captain; Robert R. 
R, Stewart, First Lieutenant; James H. Crawford, Second Lieutenant. 
These men saw but little if any fighting, but performed provost duty 
and endured harassing marches and expeditions that brought death as 
sure as bullets. 


Dui-ing the spring of 1864 the county sent twenty-five men to Com- 
pany H, and fifty- six men to Company I, of the One Hundred and 
Twentieth Regiment, three years' seiwice. Officers from this county were 
— in H, — John H. Bartlett, Second Lieutenant; in I, William J. Cook 
and John V. Smith, Captains; J. V. Smith and William Day, First 
Lieutenants: Henry H. Reath and W. Day, Second Lieutenants. The 
companies were mustered in in February and March, 1864. The regi- 


ment, under the command of Col. Richard F. Barter, took the field at 
Louisville, thence moved to Nashville, thence early in April to Charleston, 
Tenn., and later joined the Atlanta campaign. It fought at Resaca, 
charging and routing the enemy. It moved on Lost and Kenesaw 
Mountains, and July 22, fought at Atlanta, and continued for several 
days to skirmish until the evacuation of that city, and fought at Jones- 
boro, losing men in all these engagements. It moved in pursuit of Hood, 
skirmished near Columbia two days, and was hotly and gallantly engaged 
at the bloody battle of Franklin, where the enemy attacked the Federal 
lines thirteen times without effecting a permanent breach. The regiment 
lost its Major and forty-eight men killed and wounded. December 15 
and 16, it fought at Nashville and joined in the pursuit of the flying 
enemy. It then went to Washington City, thence to North Carolina, had 
a sharp fight at Wise's Fork on the 8th of March, 1865, and again on 
the 10th. The regiment lost seven killed and forty-eight wounded. It 
then moved on into the interior, and after various movements where it 
did provost duty mainly, was mustered out early in 1866. 


Early in 1864 twenty-five men entered Company H, of the One Hun- 
dred and Thirty-first Regiment. They were mustered in April 5, and the 
company had as officers the following men from this county: John W. 
Mannington and William M. Munson, First Lieutenants; W. M. Munson 
and Samuel Cook, Second Lieutenants. This regiment was properly the 
Thirteenth Cavalry. Among the movements and engagements in which 
it participated were Overall's Creek, Wilkinson's Pike and twelve other 
shirmishes, losing in all sixty-five men killed and wounded, and two 
missing. It also fought, dismounted, at Nashville; participated in the 
investment of Mobile, and in various raids and expeditions, and was 
mustered out at Vicksburg, November 18, 1865. 


Under the call for one hundred days' men a company was sent in 
May, 1864, to the One Hundred and Thirty sixth Regiment. The com- 
pany was H, and was officered as follows: David T. Mitchell, Captain; 
Francis L. Parkison, First Lieutenant; William Patterson, Second 
Lieutenant. The men were mustered in May 21. This regiment saw 
service in Kentucky and Tennessee, mostly provost duty. In September, 
1864, another company was raised for the One Hundred and Fortieth 
Regiment, and became A, with these officers: Charles P. Pendergast and 
Robert R. R. Stewart, Captains; R. R. R. Stewart and James T. 
Andrews, First Lieutenants; J. T. Andrews, Eli M. Dale and John R. 
Smith, Second Lieutenants. Pendergast became Major, E. M. Dale, 
Adjutant, and David T. Mitchell, Lieutenant-Colonel. The men were 
raised under the call of July 18, 1864, and were mustered in for one 


year in September and October. Thomas J. Brady was Colonel of this 
regiment. November 15 it moved to Nashville, thence to Murfreesboro, 
in which vicinity it participated in numerous skirmishes. December 7 it 
lost one man, wounded. lu December it moved to Columbia, and in 
January, 18G5, to Washington, D. C. It was then moved to North Caro- 
lina, where it participated in the action on Fort Fisher. At Fort Ander- 
son it was exposed to the fire of the Federal gunboats, and during the 
assault it captured the garrison flag. It participated in the rout and 
capture of the enemy at Town Creek Bridge, two of its companies being 
the first to enter the enemy's works. It moved to Kingston, thence to 
Goldsboro, thence to Raleigh, thence to Greensboro, where it was mus-' 
tered out July 11, 1865. 


In January, 1865, nearly all of Company B of the One Hundred and 
Forty-fifth Regiment was raised in the county, besides seventeen men 
for Company C and fifty men for Company D of the same regiment, in 
all about 150 men. Men from this county who wei*e officers of Company 
B were as follows: Vinson. Williams and Michael A. Gelwick, Captains; 
M. A. Gelwick, Samuel Hostetler and James M. McClelland, First Lieu- 
tenants; Samuel Hostetler, James McClelland and William J. Owens, 
Second Lieutenants. In Company C Archibald Anderson was First 
Lieutenant and later Captain. In Company D George W. Burton was 
Captain; David A. Goodin, First Lieutenant; John Stotts and Adolphus 
W^. Trueblood, Second Lieutenants. The regiment was commanded by 
Col. W. A. Adams. Joshua Biidd, of Mitchell, was Adjutant, and Vin- 
son Williams, at first Major, then Lieutenant-Colonel. The men were 
mustered in in January and February, 1865. February 18 the regiment 
left Indianapolis, arriving at Nashville, Tenn., the 21st, and the 23d 
reported to Gen. Steadman at Chattanooga. It moved to Dalton, where 
it did provost duty ; thence to Marietta, where it remained until the fall 
of 1865; thence moved to Cuthbert, and here in January, 1866, was 
mustered out. 


The Legion consisted of twelve companies, with the following officers: 
Reserved Guards of Bedford, June, 1861 — John M. Harron, Captain; W. 
N. Bivins, First Lieutenant; G. W. Rahm, Second Lieutenant. Union 
Guards of Bedford, June, 1861— Charles G. Back, Captain; W. P. 
Malott. First Lieutenant; A. P. Lemon, Second Lieutenant. Perry 
Guards, June, 1861 — John P. Potter, Captain; B. F. Dean, First Lieu- 
tenant; F. W. Beard, Second Lieutenant. Independent Grays of 
Fayetteville, July, 1861— John Foot and A. F. Tannehill, Captains; 
Eldridge W^illiams, J. H. Reynolds and Henry Cox, First Lieutenants; 
H. F. Pitman, Second Lieutenant. Mitchell Light Infantry, July, 1861 


— William Muir, Captain; G. W. Douglas, First Lieutenant; William 
Hammersley, Second Lieutenant. Big Spring Guards, »luly, 1861 — 
Samuel Hostetler, Captain; John L. Stewart. First Lieutenant; R. R, 
Stewart, Second Lieutenant. Lawrence Guards of Bedford, July, 1863 
— Henry C, Hardy, Captain; William Cook, First Lieutenant; J. W. 
Glover, Second Lieutenant. Marshal Guards, July, 1863 — A. Anderson, 
Captain; B. F. Kingrey, First Lieutenant; T. J. Borufif, Second Lieu- 
tenant. Heltonville Guards, August, 1862 — J. J. Durand, Captain; 
Hiram Malott, First Lieutenant; William Gray, Second Lieutenant. 
Leatherwood Sharpshooters, August, 1863 — Silas N. Whitted, Captain; 
Eli Younger, First Lieutenant; John Malott, Second Lieutenant. Bart- 
lettsville Guards, August, 1863 — J. H. Bartlett and S. J. Bartiett, Cap- 
tains; Alexander Hawkins, First Lieutenant; J. H. Clendenin, Second 
Lieutenant. Jefiferson Grays, August, 1863 — G. W. Burton, Captain; 
Obed Mercer, First Lieutenant; Michael Voorhis, Second Lieutenant. 
The above dates refer to the time of organization. Henry Davis was 


Many regiments had small squads of men from this county — origi- 
nally enlisted men and recruits. Late in 1862 and early in 1863 twenty- 
seven recruits left the county for Company F of the Ninety-third Regi- 
ment. In June, 186^, about ten men were recruited for Company F of the 
Sixty-fifth Regiment. Late in 1863 and early in 1864 twenty-six recruits 
left for Company G of the Fourth Cavalry. A few entered the Twenty- 
fourth, and a few the Eighteenth. Late in 1864 and early in 1865 thirty- 
five recruits left for Company D of the Sixteenth. Late in 1864 and 
early in 1865 eighty-five recruits were sent to Company F of the Forty- 
third. Other regiments contained Lawrence County men credited to 
other localities. 

THE DRAFTS OF 1864 AND 1865. 

The second draft in Indiana occurred in October, 1864. Lawrence 
County was in the third district, the draft officers of which were: John R. 
B. Glasscock, Commissioner; Albert G. Collier, Surgeon; Simeon Stansi- 
fer. Provost Marshal, to March, 1865, and then James B. Mulky. These 
officers were appointed in May, 1863. The county could not free herself 
wholly, and the draft took place in October, but how many were drafted 
cannot be stated. The county was credited with having furnished eighty 
drafted men, and of course that number jnust have reported for duty. 
The third draft in Indiana occurred in February, 1865. If this draft 
took place in the county, either it was very light or else the men did not 
report, for the credits were only two. It is probable that the draft was 
very light. The county was thus among the best in the State to answer 
the demands of Uncle Sam. 




On the 19th of December, 1862, the county was officially credited 
with having furnished 1,500 men prior to that date for the war: under the 
call of June 1,1863, for six months' men the county furnished a full com- 
pany of 100 men. Its quota under the October, 1863, call numbers 119 
men. All these were furnished during the winter of 1863-64. The 
following official table, prepared December 31, 1864, exhibits the res- 
ponse of the county under all the calls of 1864: 

i M 





! e 



Credits by 




a . 



o . 




w to 


*^ a 











® > 













o a 










































Pleasant Run.. . 






















Indian Creek. . . 










Spice Valley 








. . . . 


. . . . 









































729 i 







Under the last call of the war, December 19, 1864, the following 
table of credits was prepared by authority on the 14th of April, 1865. at 
which time all attempts to raise men in the State were abandoned : 








?§ S 




fc. a. 








a « 


C3 3 
♦? V 

2 9. 

tal of qi 





tal credi 






■ 3 
































Pleasant Run 



Indian Creek 








Spice Valley 

• 8 


















147 1 





43 , 



From the above particulars the total credits of the county during the 
war in estimated figures may be given: By September 19, 1862, the county 
had furnished 1,500 volunteers, each man being counted as often as he 


enlisted. It furnished 100 men for the six months' call of 1863, and 
149 for the October call of 1863. In 1864 it was credited with 707 men 
by enlistment, " veteranization " and draft. Under the last call of the 
war — December 19, 1864 — it was credited with 150 men, and April 14, 
1865, had a surplus of 3 men. The sum of 1,500, 100, 149, 767, 150 
and 3, gives a grand total of 2,669 men. In some cases men enlisted as 
high as three different times, and in the above estimate have been 
couated that often. The men who left the county to enlist were proba- 
bly balanced by those who entered to enlist. It has been estimated that 
1,500 different mfen left the county for the Federal army. This is a 
proud exhibit. 


The following tabular statement from the Adjutant-General's Reports 
shows the amount of bounty and relief furnished by the county during 
the war: 

Bounty. Relief. 

Lawrence County $61,700 $3,815 

Flinn fownship 4,600 500 

Pleasant Run Township 1,000 300 

Perry Township 1,650 500 

Indian Creek Township 8,400 1,500 

Spice Valley Township 1,426 650 

Marion Township 5,000 1,000 

Bono Township 3,200 1,000 

Shawswick Township 3,125 4,000 

Marshall Township 2,600 300 

Total $92,701 $13,565 

A military history of the county cannot properly be written in 
accordance with the scope of this work without a tile of newspapers pub- 
lished in the county during the years of the war. Such file could not 
be found in Lawrence County, and the historian was forced to give the 
best possible account from the Adjutant-General's Reports and other 
sources. All the valuable fund of local matter — public meetings, resolu- 
tions adopted, speeches delivered, action taken, disloyalty displayed, 
deserters arrested, mass and war meetings, celebrations, soldiers' and 
ladies' aid societies, supplies furnished, local bounty and relief, jubilee 
over the surrender of rebel commands, resolutions and eulogies of sorrow 
over the death of Lincoln, and a thousand little personal notes and 
observations of the greatest value — all is lost without a file of newspapers. 
A complete file was kept in the court house, but was doubtless deliber- 
ately stolen by some vandal who may have had an unsavory political 
career to conceal. This is the apology of the historian for the incom- 
pleteness of this chapter. 


It is matter of regret that officers and enlisted men alike cannot be 

*The8e personal sketches were furnished by Col. Voris. 


noticed here. Many a heroic act, and many a deed that would thrill the 
reader, was performed by men who carried no commission, but who 
carried a brave heart beneath the army blue, and who handled the mus- 
ket and not the sword. 

The first man to organize a company for the late service was Capt. 
Samuel W. Short. He failed to get his company into one of the first regi- 
ments organized, but went with them into the Eighteenth, and with that 
regiment through the Missouri campaign, and served with distinction, 
and a Major's command at the battle of Pea Ridge. In September, 

1862, he was compelled to resign on account of ill health. He returned 
to civil life, and to the practice of the law, and now resides on his farm 
near Vincennes, Ind. 

Jeremiah E. Dean, who had served with credit in the Mexican war, 
became First Lieutenant and then Captain in the Fifteenth Indiana Vol- 
unteers, and served until the expiration of his term of three years. He 
was afterward in business in Lawrence County, was Auditor of the 
county for a term of four years, and now, disabled by the wounds and 
hardships of the service, enjoying the Government's bounty, he resides 
quietly in Bedford. 

Capt. Columbus ]\Ioore, of Mitchell, first entered the service in the 
Sixteenth (organized for one year), and upon its reorganization for 
three years became Captain of Company D. He was a gallant ofiicer, and 
was Officer of the Day at Vicksburg on the night of the 3d day of July, 

1863, and on the memorable morning of the 4th of July conducted Maj. • 
Gen. Bo wen and Col. Montgomery, Chief of Staff to Gen. Pemberton, 
blindfold through our lines to the headquarters of Gen. Burbridge, to 
await an audience with Gen. Grant. The result of that audience flashed 
across the wires that spanned the continerit, to meet the glad gi-eeting 
from the victorious field of Gettysburg. 

Doil R. Bowden enlisted in the Eighteenth Regiment as a private; 
was made First Lieutenant in September, 1862. In March, 1863, he 
was promoted to Captain. In January, 1863, he was elected Major, but 
was not mustered. He was severely wounded at Cedar Creek, Va., in 
October, 1864. He returned to his regiment for service in December, 

1864, and took immediate command of his regiment, and continued in 
command until the 27th day of July, 1865, when he was commissioned 
Colonel, which command he held until mustered out of service at Indian- 
apolis. He has since been in business at Bedford. 

Napoleon H. Daniels also enlisted in Company B, Eighteenth Indiana 
Volunteers. He was Private Secretary to Maj. -Gen. Pope, until Septem- 
ber, 1862, when he was promoted to Second Lieutenant, and in March, 
1863, to First Lieutenant. He served as Adjutant-General or Aid-de- 
Camp to Gen. Pope most of the time until January, 1864, when he was 
made Captain, and afterward Major. He was mustered out with his 


regiment, and entered the Eighteenth United States Regulars as a Lieu- 
tenant. He was killed and scalped on the 22d day of July, 1866, near 
Fort Kearney, by the Indians, on his way across the plains to join his 
command. He was among the bravest of the brave. 

Gen. James W. McMillan was made Colonel of the Twenty-first Indi- 
ana, on the organization of that regiment, and continued in command 
until promoted to Brigadier^ General in November, 1862. He served as 
such with distinction to the close of the war. He was seriously wounded 
by guerrillas near Baton Rouge, La. He now resides in Washington 
city, and occupies an important place in the Pension Department. 

Robert C. McAfee enlisted in this regiment and became First Lieu- 
tenant. In July, 1868, he was compelled to resign by reason of disease, 
from which he soon afterward died, and was buried at Bedford. 

George J. Brown was a member of the same regiment. He was made 
Second and afterward First Lieutenant, and in August, 1864, became 
Captain of Company F, which position he held until the regiment was 
mustered out. 

Capt. Samuel Nickless enlisted in the Fourteenth Regiment, and was 
promoted to the Captaincy. This, the old regiment of Gen. Nathan Kim- 
ball, served with the Army of the Potomac, and was there regarded as 
among the best in that army, and Capt. Nickless was with them wherever 
danger led. 

Hugh Erwin served as Captain of the Twenty-fourth Regiment until 
compelled by sickness to resign, in December, 1863. He was afterward 
Treasurer of Lawrence County and, for years past, has been engaged in 
business in Kansas. 

Francis A. Sears, who had, up to that time, served as Captain and 
Major, became Lieutenant-Colonel of the Twenty-fourth Regiment upon 
its reorganization in March, 1864, and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment in 1865. He now resides in Kansas. 

David Kelly, who had also been a Captain in the Sixty- seventh, 
became Major of the Twenty-fourth upon its reorganization, and 
remained with it to the end. He has since been in business in Mitchell. 

Capt. George W. Friedley was commissioned Captain in the Sixty- 
seventh in March, 1863, and served with marked distinction with the 
same rank in the Twenty -fourth after its reorganization. A notice of 
him is given elsewhere in this work. 

Capt. Meredith W. Leach, of the Twenty-seventh Regiment, had been 
in the service in the war with Mexico. He went with his command to 
Baltimore and in the winter of 1861-62 he died of disease, near Freder- 
ick City, Md. His remains were brought to Bedford, where they were 
laid away with the honors of a soldier. The tears shed over his grave 
were among the first of the many that watered the earth during that ter- 
rible struggle for the suppression of the rebellion. 


Theodore E. Bushier was Captain of Company D in the Twenty- 
seventh, but was discharged in May, 1862, and afterward served for a 
time as Lieutenant-(Jolonel of the Sixty-seventh. • 

Thomas J. Box was made Captain of Company D upon the resigna- 
tion of Bushier, and served as such durinii: the terrible battles of the 
Army of the Potomac, and from that time until his term of service expired. 
He was severely wounded at Gettysburg, and bears other honorable scars. 
He has since been engaged in farming in Lawrence County. 

Joseph Balsley was a Lieutenant in Company D of the Twenty - 
seventh Regiment; on November 1, 1863, was promoted to be Captain of 
Company H, and served with credit until the regiment was mustered out 
in November, 1864. He is in business at Seymour, Ind. 

Alexander H. Gainey, of Springville, was made Captain of a company 
in the Forty-third Regiment, in August, 1861, but was compelled by ill 
health soon after to resign his commission. 

Capt. Isaac Carothers commanded a company (C) in the Fiftieth Reg- 
iment. He was a brave and efficient officer, and is now engaged in farm- 
ing in Martin County. 

A. H. Miller was Captain of Company I, in the Fiftieth Regiment. 
He now resides in California. 

David T. Mitchell was a Lieutenant in the Sixty-seventh Regiment, 
and on the organization of the One Hundred and Fortieth Regiment 
became itsLieut-Colonel, and served with the same until it was mustered 
out after the close of the war. He is now Postmaster at Kokomo, Col. 

Capt. (jr. W. Rahm served as such in the Sixty-seventh Regiment with 
great credit. He died, at home, of small-pox, during the war. 

Henry Davis, elsewhere mentioned for honorable service in Mexico, 
was made Lieut. -Colonel of the Eighty- second on its organization. He 
served with distinction until compelled by ill health to resign, in Octo- 
ber, 1863. He is now Postmaster in Bedford, and enjoys the esteem of 
his comrades, due to a distinguished soldier. 

Samuel J. Bartlett was Captain of Company K in thfe Ninety-third, 
largely composed of men from this county. He resigned in August, 1868, 
and resided for a time at Barlettsville. He is now in business in south 
eastern Kansas. 

AVilliam J. Cook was Captain of Company I of the One Hundred 
and Twentieth Regiment, but after a service of six months was com- 
pelled to resign on account of disability. 

William Day, who had served in the Mexican war, was a Lieutenant 
in Capt. Cook's Company, one of five brothers in the service. 

Charles Pendergrast was Major and Robert R. Stewart Captain of 
Company A. in the One Hundred and Fortieth Regiment, and served 
until mustered out with their regiment. 

On the organization of the One Hundred and Forty-fifth Regiment in 


Febriiary, 1865, Vinson V. Williams, who had served in other regiments 
during the war, and who had been severely •wounded at Fort Gibson, 
Miss., was made Major. He was afterward promoted to Lieut- Colonel, 
and served as such until the regiment was mustered out. He has since 
been Sheriff of the county for two terms and was for ten years Deputy 
United States Marshal, and is now in the stone business. 

M. A. Gel wick was Captain of Company B, and Archibald Ander- 
son of Company C, in this regiment. M. A. Gelwick is now Special 
Examiner in the Pension Department, and resides in Greencastle. Capt. 
Anderson was in business in Lawrence County until about the fall of 
1880, when he died in Bedford. 

The Fourth Indiana Cavalry was organized in August, 1862, with a 
company from this county. Jesse Keithly was made Captain, and served 
as such until his death at Madisonville, Ky., March 4, 1863. Isaac New- 
kirk, who had up to that time served as First Lieutenant, then became 
Captain, and served as such until the regiment was mustered out, by rea- 
son of the expiration of the term. Few regiments saw more hardships 
and exposure than the Fourth Indiana Cavalry. Capt. Newkirk has since 
been Sheriff of the county for two terms, and is now a successful farmer 
in Bedford. 

There are many others who deserve to be mentioned in this history. 
Dr. Ben Newland went out as Surgeon of the Twenty-second (commanded 
by Jeff C. Davis), and distinguished himself in his departmental service. 
He was Chief Surgeon of Division at the time of the battle of Pea Ridge. 
Drs. Hiram Malott, James Gardner and George W. Burton each served 
as Surgeons in the field, and have, as well as Dr. Newland, been an orna- 
ment to their profession at home. Henry C. Huston was Quartermaster 
of the Fiftieth Regiment, and has since deceased. Lieut. Jacob W. 
Martin, of the Twenty-first, was on staff duty during much of his time 
of service. The regiment was the Twenty-first, and styled First Heavy 

James G. Northcraft, of the same regiment, was noted as an efiScient 
officer of artillery. He was afterward engaged in successful business at 
Abilene, Kan., and died a year ago. 

A. C. Voris was early in the war commissioned by the President as 
Captain and Commissary Sergeant. He was twice brevetted for meritor- 
ious conduct, and was with the Army of the Potomac in the field and at 
the surrender of Lee. 

A. F. Berry, Lieutenant in the Fifteenth, deserved and would have 
received promotion, but was assigned to the Signal Service, where he did 
valuable service. He is now a physician of the county. 




RELiGiors History of Lawrencp: County from the Earliest Time to 
THE Present, with an Account of the Origin of the Various 
Organizations, a List of Members and Ministers, a Description 
OF Eevivals and Church Customs, a Statement of the Erection 
AND Dedication of Buildings, a List of Officers, and a Brief Out- 
line OF Sunday-School Work. 


THE history of the Bedford Presbyterian Church begins with the his- 
tory of Palestine. In 1819 Isaac Reed, a missionary from the Eastern 
States, entered Indiana to establish Presbyterian Churches. He was a 
very peculiar man, a "natural Yankee; " traveled in a Dearborn wagon 
and encountered many haps and mishaps, the story of which he preserved 
in a book. Entering Palestine, he preached in the temporary court house 
and organized a small church, the Elders of which were Samuel Hender- 
son and Philip Ikerd; The first members of this church were S. Hen- 
derson and family, P. Ikerd and family, William Crawford and family 
and "William Barnhill. To this congregation he preached occasionally 
till Palestine was moved to Bedford, in 1825. Occasionally, also, AV. W. 
Martin, father of C. B. H. Martin, D.D.,. acted as pastor. Likewise, 
Kemley, who lived at Livonia, preached at various points through this part 
of the State, as at Palestine, Bono, Livonia, etc. But when Palestine 
was found to be the land of unpromise and was moved to Bedford, the 
ark of the church seems to have been left behind, for not until 1831 was 
church worship observed in Bedford. But on May 7 of that year Isaac 
Reed called the members of the church together. William Crawford, 
Samuel Henderson and Philip Ikerd were the first Elders, and the follow- 
ing appear as the names of the first members of the Bedford Presby- 
terian Church: Lawrence Ikerd, Christiana Ikerd, Philip and Susana 
Ikerd, Jonathan Henderson, Jane Henderson, Samuel and Rhoda Hen- 
derson, William and Jane Crawford, Sarah McClelland, Sally Ikerd, 
James and Sarah Wilson, Robert and Margaret Robinson, Alexander and 
Rebecca McKinney, and Henry Lowrey. These are all dead now. The 
majority of them at that time lived east of Bedford. 

CHURCH buildings. 

Meetings were first held at the court house and at the houses of 
the various members at and near Bedford. Before any Presbyterian 


Chiu'ch building was erected, Mr. Kittredge held service8 regularly once 
a month at the residence of William Crawford, east of town. About 
1840 a peculiarly shaped brick house was erected where the present 
church stands. It was built by Jonathan Jones. In 1868 the present 
neat little brick church was erected in its stead. It was built by Thomas 
Stephens at a cost of $7,000; is finished and furnished in good taste with 
modern conveniences. It is located on the southeast corner of Lincoln 
and Sycamore Streets. In 1848 the church divided into Old School and 
New School factions. The Old School being in the minority, withdrew, 
leaving the New School in possession of the church building. For their 
accommodation the Old School in 1850 built a large brick house where 
the Methodist Church now stands, on the southwest corner of Church 
and Locust Streets. It was arranged for church and school purposes; 
was two-story, the upper being a large room reached by a double flight 
of stairs on the east end, outside. The lower story had two or three 
recitation rooms. When the Old School and New School factions united 
in 1859, the first building was the one occupied by the church thus 
formed. The Old School building, however, became the property of the 
Independent Church, but in 1866 it was purchased by the Methodists 
and by them remodeled into their present church building. 


The ministers have been as follows: After its organization in 1831 
by Isaac Reed, the first regular minister was Solomon Kittredge, who 
remained such with a short intermission until November, 1847. JohnM. 
Bishop succeeded him and continued to act as pastor till 1859. About 
1848 the church was divided into Old School and New School ; but these 
factions were united in 1859, forming what they termed the Independent 
Presbyterian Church. Of the Old School the fii-st minister was R. M. 
Roberts, having eighteen members. He was followed by John G. Will- 
iamson, Grarey and Sickles. The ministers of the Independent Church 
have been Edward Barr, C. B. H. Martin, F. M. Symmes, J. B. Crowe, 
Robert Shaw, Preston McKinney and W. J. Frazer, the last of whom is now 
in charge. The present Elders are: Col A. C. Voris, L. H. Dale, William 
Fisher, D. W. Parker and Thomas V. Thornton; the Deacons: S. D. Luckett 
and Hamilton Stillson. The church is in a prosperous condition, with a 
membership of about eighty-five; connected with the church is a Sunday- 
school having an attendance of eighty scholars, ten teachers and two offi- 
cers. " It is under the superintendence of Samuel D. Luckett. 


In 1826 a little band of about forty Methodists was organized into a 
regular church called the Methodist Episcopal Church of Bedford. 
Among the first members appear the familiar and respected names of 
George McNight and wife, Mrs. Joseph Rawlins, Mrs. Joseph Glover, 


Ellen Peters, Mrs. Campbell and daughters, Alex Butler and wife, Robert 
Dougherty, wife, son and daughter, Mrs. Jane Fisher, Mrs. David John- 
son, Mrs. Jesse Johnson, Mrs. Michael Johnson, Mrs. William Stipp, 
John Head, wife and two daughters, John Brown, wife and three daugh- 
ters, James Denson and wife, John Newland and wife, William Temple- 
ton and wife, Holland Pitman and wife, John Simms, wife and son, John 
Edmondson, wife and daughter. This church in its infancy had the 
good fortune to be born well. The first minister was Edmond Ray, a 
man remarkable for his earnest, plain, straightforward love of truth. 
Other early ministers of this section were Aaron and Enoch Woods, Mr. 
Tolbert and Bishop R. R. Roberts. The last, who is now so well remem- 
bered throughout the State, was a resident of Lawrence County in Bono 
Township, and by his eloquence and zeal soon became one of the fore- 
most Methodist preachers in the West. He was Bishop of the Methodist 
Church of the United States. The first Presiding Elder was John Arm- 
strong, and the following were the first officers of the church: Marquis 
D. Knight, Lazarus Barkley, David Johnson, William Stipp, William 
Johnson, Jesse Johnson, John Whitted and Michael Fai'mer. They are 
all dead now but Jesse Johnson. He is one of Shawswicks Township's 
most extensive and substantial farmers. David Johnson was a brother 
of Jesse, and during his life sought ways to make himself useful to the 
church and neighborhood. 

The church grew, and a decade of prosperity found it in need of a 
commodious church building. Accordingly, in September, 1835, land 
was purchased of John J. Barnett, on which a large brick building was 
erected. It is now occupied by the Catholic denomination, and occupies 
the northwest corner of High and Culbertson Streets. The Trustees of 
the church at the time of its building were: M. D. Knight, Alex Butler 
and John Edmondson. The old brick with its church-going bell served 
the people some thirty-five years. The bell was on the old church and 
was the first bell in Bedford. At this time or about the year .1870, the 
congregation purchased the church owned by the Old School Presbyte- 
rians. They have renovated the building and now have a very pleasant 
house of worship. Stephen Bowers was the Pastor in 1866-68; J. E. 
Brant, 1868-70; G. W. Bower, 1870-71; O. H. Smith, 1871-73; John 
Boucher, 1873-75; J. W. Asbury, 1875-76; John Walls, 1876-77; T. 
D. Welker, 1878-79; W. W. Webb, 1879-80; J. V. R. Miller, 1881-82; 
M. S. Heavenridge, 1882-84; and William Telfer is the present incum- 
bent, having been appointed Pastor in August, 1884. Present member- 
ship is 125, with 16 probationers. Value of present church and parson- 
age, aboiit $8,000. The church is free from debt. Present officers 
appointed August, 1884: Pastor, William Telfer; Local Preacher, S. A. 
Rariden; Trustees of church and parsonage, M. N. Messick, President; 
H. H. Walls, Secretary; W. P. Hodge, L. E. Daggy, and George B. Fer- 


gusoD. The Sunday-school is in good working condition, under the 
superintendency of George B. Ferguson. Its membership is 150, with 
twelve teachers. 


The true history of the Christian Church of Bedford reaches back 
over a period of about fifty years, though her authentic or written his- 
tory extends back onlv to 1846. In 1835 Elder J. M. Mathes was 
induced to leave an appointment to preach in the court house. This 
appointment was filled, and he afterward visited the town quite frequently, 
and gained some adherents. During the succeeding eleven years quite a 
number of members of this body of people moved into the town, and 
these, with the increase from those outside, gave quite an increase to that 
faith. In May, 1846, all things having been prepared, Elders O'Kane 
and Jameson were invited to visit them for the purpose of effecting an 
organization. For the first few years after the organization they met in 
the schoolhouse and Baptist Church, but later in the Presbyterian Church, 
and then in their present house. The foundation of the building was 
laid in 1854. The superstructure was reared the following year, and the 
basement, though unfinished, was occupied the fall of 1855. Elder J. 
Mathes has been connected with this church more or less intimately from 
its incipiency. Aside from him the first preacher employed was Elder 
M. J. Edmondson, and the succeeding year, 1851, Aaron Hubbard was 
selected to fill his place. 

The familiar names of Joseph Rawlins, Michael Malott, William 
McLane, Alex Dunihue, Samuel Irwin, Elisha Boyd, John Thompson, 
David Boland, Dr. Foote and George Thornton, are mentioQed as the first 
contributors to the building fund. The rest of the means necessary was 
mainly procured from the Christian brotherhood of the county through 
the personal efforts of Stever Younger and Elder J. M. Mathes. The 
charter members were thirty-three in number, comprised of the following 
persons: A. G. Young, Henrietta Young, A. Gelwick, Sarah Gelwick, 
David D. Campbell, Mary Campbell, Mary F. Reed, Mary A. Roach, J. 
T. Sullivan, Ann Sullivan, Thomas Lockhart, Nancy L. Lockhart, Solo- 
mon N. Hostetler, Catharine Hostetler, Maria L. Hostetler, Joseph Hos- 
tetler, Elizabeth Hostetler, David G. Gray, Thomas M. Boyd, Polly A. 
Boyd, Hiram Malott, Eunice Malott, Jesse Adamson, Evaline Adamson, 
Elisha Boyd, Phoebe Boyd, Tina Culbertson, William E. Boyd, John 
Williams, Elizabeth Williams, Isaac Williams, Rebecca Williams, Cor- 
nelia P. Williams. The congregation was officered as follows: Elder, 
Joseph Hostetler; Deacons, Isaac Williams, A. G. Young, Elisha Boyd, 
A. Gelwick; Clerk, A. Gelwick. On the 19th of January, 1851, Milton 
McKee was elected as an Elder of the congregation. On the 8th of Octo- 
ber, 1852, Henry Davis was chosen as Elder to act with the then present 
Board. In 1853, Henry Davis, Stever Younger and Elisha Boyd were 



elected Trustees. In July, 1853, the membership was fifty- one, an, 
increase of only eighteen for five years. In August, 1856, the members 
were seventy-eis, an increase of twenty- five in three years. On the 19th 
of April, 1858, William Duncan, Levi Houston and J. W. Newland were 
elected Trustees. The number of members August 19, 1858, was 112. 
In January 20, 1859, D. G. Gray was chosen Deacon. April, 1859, Elder 
J. M. Mathes was employed to preach monthly. In June of 1860, Elder 
Mathes commenced the first very successful meeting held under the 
auspices of this congregation, during which there wei'e 76 additions, 48 
of whom came by confession and baptism. As would be expected, the 
church was very much encouraged by this result. In September of the 
same year, J. W, Newland and Samuel W. Short were ordained Eldera 
and D. G. Gray and D. F. Tilford Deacons. In August, 1862, the mem- 
bership was 217, 66 having been received during the year. In July, 
1864, the membership was 252. Received by baptism during two years, 
30. At this time the church was officered as follows: Elders, J. M. 
Mathes, Stever Younger, S. W. Short, Henry Davis, J. W. Newland. In 
July, 1865, the membership was 269; additions for year, 15; Sunday- 
school scholars, 100; teachers, 12. Following is a list of the men 
employed as Pastors from the date of organization to present time, Sep- 
tember 1, 1884: J. M. Mathes, about eleven years; T. P. Connelly; I. N. 
Porch, one year; J. C. Winter, one year; J. Z. Taylor, three years; W. 
H. Tiller, four years; James A. Beattie, four years; C. P. Hendershot 
elected September 20, 1882, and is the present incumbent. Church 
officers in 1870: Elders— J. M. Mathes, Stever Younger, J. W. Newland, 
A. J. Hostetler, D. G. Gray; Deacons, D. F. Tilford, Jacob Walheiser, 
W. C. Winstandley, G. W. Adams, I. N. Hostetler, T. H. Malott; Trus- 
tees — J. M. Daggy, J. .W. Palmer, W. C. Winstandley, William Rags- 
dale, T. H. Malott. R. A. Beattie was elected in July, 1881. 
The following is a list of protracted meetings : 

Time of Number of 

Name of Evangelist. Meeting. Additions. 

.1. M. Mathes June, 1860 76 

Mr. Miller May, 1866 22 

J. Z. Tavlor Sept., 1867 29 

B. F. Franklin Marcli,1868 19 

J.Z.Taylor Jan., 1869 27 

W. B. F. Treat Jan., 1870 23 

A. Proctor Jan., 1871 22 

J. L. Parsons, W. H. Tiller Feb. , 1874 43 

J. L. Parsons March,1877 . 23 

J. C. Tully Nov., 1877 11 

A. I. Hobbs Oct., 1878 14 

J. Z. Taylor April, 1880 43 

J. A. Beattie March,1881 9 

W.J.Howe March,1882 78 

W.J.Howe June, 1882 9 

C. P. Hendershot Jan., 1883 63 

T. J. Clark and C. P. Hendershot May, 1884 25 


The official Board of the congregation for 1884 is as follows: Elders 
— J. M. Mathes, elected April, 1859; Isaac Kern, September, 1882; 
E. J. .Robinson, October, 1882. Deacons — D. F. Tilford, elected Sep- 
tember, 1859; G. W. Adams, W. C. Winstandly, J. ^^ W. Mitchell, 
October, 1882; W. P. Malott, October, 1882; J. V. Mathes, May, 1883; 
J. H. Cox, May, 1883. Trustees — W. C. Winstandley, elected Septem- 
ber, 1882; W. P. Malott, September, 1882; D. F. Tilford, September, 
1882; J. W. Mitchell, September, 1882; G. W. Allen, September, 1882. 
Clerk — D. W. McDaniel, elected May, 1883. The present membership 
is 400. 

In Lawrence County there are some twenty or more congregations of 
the Christian Church, but statistics from only a portion could be gath- 
ered : 

Number of Value of 

Name of Congregation. Members. Property. 

Bartlettsville 125 $ 600 

Bedford 400 7,500 

Bryantsville 53 800 

Christian Union 60 2,000 

Indian Creek Bridge 32 400 

Leatherwood 300 250 

Leesville '. 13 800 

Mount Pleasant 60 600 

Port William 67 1,200 

Popcorn 25 800 

Springville . . : 100 2.000 


In 1840 Thomas Robertson held a revival in the court house, lasting 
two weeks. He then continued it in the Presbyterian Church building 
for some time with considerable success, the result being that in June of 
the following year a regular church organization was effected. Ministers 
from the Guthrie, Bethel, Bathahara and Salt Creek Churches were pres- 
ent, and after a sermon by T. N. Robertson, a council composed of T. 
N. Robertson, Moderator, and P. Parks, Clerk, was organized The fol- 
lowing persons presented letters for constitution: Abraham, Anna, Will- 
iam, Rachel and Martha Mitchell, Mary Borland, Nancy Wilder, Levina 
Carlton, Abisrail Scoeforans, Samuel and Lucinda Hanna, Lucretia 
Hampton, Anna Gyger, Ann Owens, Sarah Gabbart, Ruth Perry, Sarah 
Perry, Tabitha Gyger, Jane Dougherty, Jane Heacock, Ephraim Trabue, 
Elizabeth Trabue, Edna Robertson and Emily Heacock. The member- 
ship quickly grew. Within a short time the church enrollment showed 
fifty members. Among those joining were the Gelwicks, Gabbarts, Jeters, 
Phipps, Mrs. Foote, Mrs. Borland, Mrs. Carlton and others. Many of 
these names still appear as members, to which may be added a-s present 
families represented, the Harrisons, Gainej's, Elliotts, Stalkers, Parks 
' and others. Meetinors were held first in the court house, then in the 


Presbyterian Church, then at the residences of various members, as at 
John Gyger's, Alexander Beasley's and others, when, in May, 1843, the 
propriety of building a meeting-house was first agitated. A plat of 
ground was purchased from Mr. Phelps at a cost of $300. This plat 
inclosed two lots, and on one of these the church was built. On the other 
lot stood a log residence, which, for a time, was used as a parsonage; 
but to relieve the church of debt this lot and parsonage were sold to R. 
M. Parks for $300. The church building erected is the present brick. 
It is large and commodious. The brick work was furnished by McDaniel, 
and the wood-work by Thomas Whicted, having a total cost of $1,500. 
The 'following have been the ministers connected with the church: 
T. N. Robertson, who was called at the first regular meeting. He con- 
tinued as Pastor for the first seven years, and after an absence of seven- 
teen years returned in 1865 and served a short time. Then R. M. Parks, 
J. D. Crabbs, William McCoy, M. D. Gage, J. B. Porter, William 
McNutt, L. W. Bicknell and John M. Stalker, who is the present sup- 
ply. The first Deacons were Joseph Whitted and Robert Mitchell, chosen 
on the fourth Saturday of March, 1842. The Clerks have been as fol- 
lows: In January, 1842, Robert Mitchell was elected Clerk, and held 
this place until January, 1846; since that time Mr. Alexander Beasley 
served two years. In 1848 Mr. Davis Harrison was elected, and has 
served most of the time since, with the exception of two short terms of 
H. J. Reed and J. P. Parks. Soon after its organization the Baptist 
was the most prosperous church in Bedford. In 1850, ten years after 
its organization, the church enrollment was 110. Its present member- 
ship is about forty. Connected with the church is a small Sunday- 


The first German church in Bedford was a Presbyterian organiza- 
tion, whose building stood where Thomas Whitted's mill now stands. 
The house was a frame story and a half, purchased of Peter Francis, and 
afterward sold to Thomas Whitted. Their first and only pastor was Rev. 
Koph from Brownstown, who in 1864 organized a church with the following 
members: William Roach and wife, Jacob Deihl and wife, Peter Deihl and 
wife, Mrs. Jacob Walheiser and John Pegan. Koph was not acceptable to 
the members, and when in 1866 Friedrick Ruff, a Methodist minister from 
New Albany, preached in Bedford, he won most of the members to his faith. 
Occasional services were held by the Methodist Germans, but in 1871 
Philip Duher preached for them regularly, meeting at the houses of 
John Haase, John Benzel and M. Splitgaher. The following were the 
charter members: John Haase and wife, John Bensel and wife, M. Ben- 
sel and wife, William Bensel and wife, William Steinhagen, William 
Krenke and wife, M. Splitgaher and wife, and Ferd Bensel and wife. 
For a year they were without a church building. In 1872, however. 


they purchased a small frame schoolhouse on Eastern Avenue, between 
Mitchell and Culbertson Streets, which they furnished for church pur- 
poses. Their preachei's havqbeen as follows: Philip Duher, Llech, Lep- 
pert. Huber Kunschek, Schruf and Arlinger, the present incumbent. 
Their Trustees have been as follows: John Haase, William Krenke, 
Louis Gerber, Charles Haase, John Bensel, William Bensel, August 
Schultz and Ferd Bensel. Their present membership numbers fifty- 
three, with a vigorous Sunday-school of sixty. 


The following facts were furnished by Daniel Driscoll: There were 
Catholics in Lawrence County as early as 1835, but not till about 1850 
was mass said. During the biiilding of White River Railroad bridge, 
about 1850, Patrick Mui-phy, a priest of St. Mary's, Martin County, 
said mass at the residence of John Johnson, Sr. In June, 1851, he held 
mass also in the old court house in Bedford, which town he visited occa- 
sionally till 1859. During that year Louis Neyron made a few visits, 
and from 1860 to 1864 Joseph O. Reiley, of Greencastle, was the pastor 
in charge. The congregation then numbered twenty-five families, among 
whom were the Johnsons, Fillions, Francises, Gaussins, O'Briens, and 
nearly all the others who now belong. Mass during this time was said 
either in private houses or in the hall over the store of J. Peter Francis, 
the clothier, who was one of its most active members. Many masses 
were said at the home of George Heitger, Sr. With the arrival of Philip 
Doyle, the next visiting pastor, came the idea of building a church. In 
1864 a lot was secured near the corner of High and Culbertson Streets, 
just in the rear of the present building, which was then a Methodist 
Church. The building progressed until the corner-stone was laid. In 
1866 material was on the ground to proceed with the construction. Just 
at this time the Methodists were anxious to build, and an exchansfe was 
made, in which the Methodists received the material of the unfinished 
church and 1500 for their own building. They then built on the corner 
of Church and Maple Streets. This exchange was made during the 
attendance of Charles Mongin, of Crawfordsville, who remained until 
1867. The Rev. Julius Clement, of Greencastle, now made one visit. 
From the time (1868) that Henry Kessing became resident pastor at 
Blocmington, Bedford was regularly attended by him until July, 1877. 
Leopold M. Burkhardt came from July, 1877, until March, 1879. In 
March, 1879, John B. Unverzagt took charge, and visited St. Vincent 
Church until 1883, during which time many improvements were made 
on the church and a $1,100 parsonage purchased. In 1879 Francis 
Silas Chatard, D. D., visited Bedford ami administered confirmation. 
John B. Unverzagt was succeeded by T. H. Logan, who has the church 
in a veiy flourishing state. A majority of the present families consti- 


tuted the early congregatiou, consisting of the families of George Heit- 
ger, Sr., J. Peter Francis, John Johnson, Sr., John Fillion, Felix Gaus- 
sin, Patrick Sherlock, William Rynu, Martin O'Brien, James McMahon, 
John McMahon, Patrick Moran, Peter Richard, Jeremiah Driscoll, David 
Torpy, Michael O'Connell, Dennis O'Connell, Joseph Eime, Maui'ice 
Leehey, Dennis Breen, Daniel Sullivan, Joseph Barbara, and Messrs. 
Costillo, Dusard, Bissot and Bnscheree. The present Trustees are: 
George Heitger, Jr., James Leighton, Michael Hacket, George Gretzer 
and Otto Grafif. 


As a branch of the Bedford Presbyterian Church grew Bethlehem, 
Among the members appear the names of the Crawfords, Hendersons, 
Johnsons, Fishers and others, many of the best and most influential 
members of the church. Before any Presbyterian meeting-house was 
built in Bedford, Mr. Kittredge preached regularly at the residence of 
William Crawford, so that the members of the Bedford Church who 
lived in the Crawford settlement withdrew and formed Bethlehem. This 
was about 1840. The first members were William Crawford and wife, 
Cranson Swan and wife, Mrs. James Sparks, Samuel Henderson and 
wife, George Dodd and wife, David Johnson and wife and William 
Fisher and wife. The first Ruling Elders were D. R. LaForce, C. T. 
Swan, Samuel Henderson and George Dodd. In 1843 William Crawford 
donated ground for church and graveyard. The house is a frame build- 
ing, still standing, now used as a dwelling, and is owned by John C. 
Crawford, son of William. It ceased to be used for a church twentv or 
thirty years ago. The first preachers who used it were Sol. Kittredge, 
W. W. Martin, father of C. B. H. Martin, D. D., Samuel Hart, John 
Dale, occasionally, John W. Williamson and Robert Roberts. Some of 
the members who joined the church under these were Crawfords, Swans, 
Ellisons, Angeline M. Hards, Elizabeth M. Johnson, J. N. Dale, the 
Martins and others. For fifteen or twenty years this church flourished 
and did well. 


Salt Creek was one of the first Baptist Churches in Lawrence County. 
It was the third one embraced in White River Association, at its form- 
ation, "on the third Saturday in October, in the year of our Lord, 1821." 
It is a strong church. In 1821 it had forty three members, one less than 
the membership of the largest church entering into the formation of 
White River Association. It was constituted in 1819, having among its 
first Messengers Abraham Mitchell, James Mundell, Richard Williams, 
Jesse Rector, AVilliam Cook, Thomas Mundell, Beverly Gregory, Samuel 
Mundell, James Pace, Levi Mitchell, Elbert Jeter, Gideon Potter, I. 
Mitchell, L. Mitchell, G. Foster, I. Pace, J. Williams and others. The 
building expected for a meeting-house stood near the road, on the Old 


Maj. Williams' farm; was (;f logs and was torn down about ten years ago. 
T wo Associations were held here; one in 1823 and the other in 1880. 
To the first Abraham Mitchell, Jesse Rector and William Cook were the 
Messengers; Ambrose Carlton was chosen Moderator and Samuel Owen, 
Clerk. At it Ambrose Carlton delivered a very characteristic Circular 
Letter, on the subject of General Communion. He also delivered the 
sermon, taking II Timothy, ii, 15 for his text. The other Association 
iield at Salt Creek was on the second Saturday in Aiagust, 1830, at 
which Tarlton Bell delivered the introductory sermon. The Messengers 
were: Levi Mitchell, Abraham Mitchell and Beverly Gregory. The Mod- 
erator chosen was Thomas Oliphant and Clerk, Benjamin Parks. G. Dot- 
son, J. Jones and James McCoy preached Sunday morning and afternoon, 
and Royce McCoy concluded the evening service. This Association 
meeting was important, since at the request of Bloomington Church the 
Association resolved to reject the doctrines of Alexander Campbell, 
believing them to be contrary to the doctrines of God our Savior. It 
was also important, since, though Bkomington Church requested the 
Association to reject the doctrine of Missions, the Association resolved 
not to do so. It would therefore appear that the Association was at 
first missionary in spirit, though in 1834, while in convention at Clear 
Creek, the Association used the following language: "We as an 
Advisory Council, disapprove of the Baptist Board of Foreign and 
Domestic Missions, and all societies of the present day called benevolent 
institutions, but believe in that charity which the Gospel recommends 
to the followers of Christ." As we will see, this caused a division in 
the church at Salt Creek, from which followed its dissohition. Salt 
Creek was the field of two sectional Associations, one in 1835, for the 
first section of the Association. The following preachers attended it: 
B. Hicks, J. B. Burch and T. Oliphant. The other sectional meeting 
was held in 1840, at which were found: T. N. Robinson, J. B, Burch, T. 
Oliphant, J. B. Vanraeter and R. Mitchell. A difficulty occurred in the 
church in 1835, the precise nature of which is not stated in the minutes, 
but the minority was decided to be in the wrong, which decision they 
did not accept. From this division came the downfall of the church 
in 1842. 


The first church of the Christian (or Campbellite) denomination 
organized in Lawrence County was in October, 1830, at the house of 
Robert Woody, near where the present Leatherwood Church stands, five 
miles east of Bedford. The first members were: William Newland, Susan C. 
Newland, Robert Woody, Norman Woody, Peter Smith and wife Margaret, 
Martin Smith, Benjamin Hensley and Katy Peed. At their first meeting, Ste- 
ver Younger and William Newland were set apart as Elders. Mai'tin Smith 
was chosen Evangelist, and Peter Smith and Robert Woody were elected 


Deacons. At that meeting also Stevei' Younger deeded the church one 
acre of ground where the present church stands, and the congregation 
built on it at once a log church, in size 25x30 feet, furnished wiih the 
• slab furniture of the day. This building was succeeded, in 1840, by a 
brick church, 40x60 feet, erected at a probable cost of |2,500. Plans 
are now in process for the erection of a still larger and costlier building 
in its stead, more modern in its appearance and appurtenances. Their 
first Preachers were: William Newland, Stever Younger and Joseph 
Hostetler. Soon after came John and Jacob Wright and James M. 
Mathes, Elder Trimble, and others. Their last Preachers have been: J. 
W. Stanley and J. W. Newland, the last of whom is the present incuoi- 
bent. In 1850 the membership reached nearly 400, due very largely to 
the revivals held by John O. Kane and P. H. Jameson, of Indianapolis. 
The membership had somewhat decreased of late, till a year ago nearly 
one hundred accessions were made from the Bedford Church. Their 
present membership is about 300 — second in size in the county — as will 
be seen in the statistical table. 


The following complete sketch was published in the Mitchell Commer- 
cial, August 13, 1874: In a grove near where the present church stands 
the first quarterly meeting was held in the fall of 1856. A class of thir- 
teen had been formed, but not till October did it becootie a permanent 
preaching place. Rev. F. Walker was the regular appointee from Annual 
Conference of 1858. At the close of his first year he reports a member- 
ship of twenty-eight, and a Sabbath-school with thirty scholars and three 
officers and teachers. During the secojid year of Bro. Walker's pas- 
torate a frame building was erected and dedicated, and the society 
reported out of debt. In September, 1860, Rev. J. M. O'Fling came as 
preacher, he to be followed, in September, 1861. by Rev. A. J. Clark; 
and he in September, 1862, by Rev. J. N. Julian. In September, 1863, 
Rev. W. M. Zairing was pastor, followed in October, 1865, by Rev. J. 
Wharton; and he by Rev. I. N. Thompson, in September, 1866, when 
Mitchell became a station. Membership at the close of 1867 was 135. In 
1868 Rev. W. P. Armstrong began his pastorate, which lasted two years; 
then Rev. W. E. Harves for one year, followed by Rev. J. Poncher. who 
closed his pastorate in October, 1873. Rev. T. N. Friedley then became 
Pastor. The membership is strong, nearly 200, with about forty pro- 
bationers. Average attendance of ninety-seven scholars, with eighteen 
officers and teachers. In 1874 the present house of worship was erected 
at a cost of $8,000, lot and all. Of this sum Bro. Jacob Finger con- 
tributed about $2,000. The building is a large, commodious brick edi- 
fice, built by Jones Toliver and Bixler. 



The following sketch of the Mitchell Baptist Church was furnished 
by Dr. Isom Burton: 

January 30, 1864, the following-named persons met in the Pres- 
byterian Church in Mitchell to organize a Baptist Church: John 
Edwards, Lucy Edwards, A. C. Burton, Sarah A. Burton, Rachel 
Pless, Mary Z. (Pless) Wood, Thomas Giles, Adaline Giles, Maggie 
(Giles) Mead, Matilda Dodson, Mary (Giles) Edmonson, Kate (Owens) 
Bm-ton, Mary (Mantonya) Burns, Ann M. Giles, Sarah Blackwell, Simp- 
son Bui'ton, Carrie Burton, Hugh McNabb and Sarah McNabb. William 
Baker was made Chairman, and Simpson Burton, Clerk. Articles of 
faith and church covenant were adopted. At a subsequent meeting Rev. 
Wright Sanders was called as Pastor, and John Edwards and Thomas 
Giles, Simpson Burton and John Edwards, Trustees. The Pastors of 
the church have been : Wright Sanders, January, 1864, to July, 1868 ; 
Albert Ogle, September, 1868, to November, 1871; A. J. Esse. January, 
1872, to December, 1875; Noah Harper, May,. 1876, to April, 1879; W. 
L. Greene, May, 1879, to December, 1880; G. C. Shirt, January, 1882, 
to January, 1883; B. J. Davis, November, 1883, and is now Pastor. The 
Treasurers have been: Simpson Burton, William A. Burton and C. L. Bar- 
ton; the Clerks, John Edwards, J. K. Howard, C. L. Barton and Isom Bur- 
ton. The last named of each oflfice is in office at present. The present 
Trustees are: David Kelly, J. H. Brown and Isom Burton. (For history 
of the building see Mitchell Seminary.) The church has grown steadily 
in influence, and numbers at present 248. With the exception of a few 
months this church has maintained weekly preaching the entire twenty 
years of its history, and has had some very noted religious awakenings; 
in a meeting of six weeks the beginning of the present year sixty-nine 
were added to the church. At present the church is sustaining three 
weekly prayer meetings, three missionary circles, and a mission Sabbath- 
school near town. Its main Sabbath -school was organized a few years 
ago, and its members have ranged from 50 to 300. The enrollment at 
present is about 290. The present Superintendent is G. W. Burton. 
The salaries of the pastors have ranged from $600 to 11,000. 


The first part of the following sketch was compiled by Thomas 
A. Steele : The history of the Mitchell Presbyterian Church begins 
with the organization of the Presbyterian Church at Woodville, two 
miles north of Mitche^, on the 24th of January, 1855, by John A. 
Tiffany and John M. Bishop. For the organization J. H. Crawford 
and wife presented 'letters, also John L. Dodson ar^d wife, George 
W. Dodson, Elmira Braxtan, Agnes Cook and Mary J. Pless. Cath- 
arine Bass was the lirst to be received by examination and baptism. 


The services were first held in the schoolhouse at Woodville from 1855 
to 1860. To centralize the worship, in 1860 a small frame church was 
built in Mitchell, in which services were held for ten years. In 1870 it 
was moved to another part of town, and the present large brick church 
erected on its site. Silas Moore and wife, Mary E. Moore, were mainly 
instrumental in its erection. In contains two stories, the upper being an 
unfinished and unused chapel. The lower story has three rooms and a 
vestibule, and is used for the various church and Sunday-school purposes. 
The steeple of the church was added in 1875, in which a towc clock was 
placed. The first religious services were held in the "basement" of the 
church October 8, 1871, conducted by the Pastor, T. A. Steele. The 
church ofiicers were: Elders, Silas Moore (who died in 1875), J. Dodson, 
J. H. Crawford, J. D. McCoy and Oily Owen, who moved to Greencastle 
in 1873; Deacons, John Manington, William Tanksley, Dr. -James Mc- 
Pheeters and J. Y. Bates; Trustees, Silas Moore, G. W. Dodson, J. Y. 
Bates, M. N. Moore; Treasurer, M. N. Moore. The present Elders are 
"William Tanksley and Jacob Bates; the present Deacons, Edward P. 
Eversole and Milton N. Moore. The church has had few pastors on 
account of the long term of F. A. Steele. The first Minister was John 
A. Tiffany from 1855 to 1858, when John M. Bishop preached occasion- 
ally till the fall of 1863. In the spring of 1864 T. A. Steele gave the 
church his whole time, first as supply and afterward as regular Pastor, 
and for fifteen years served the congregation nobly and well. After an 
interim of two months G. W. Telle was called, and served till 1883, and 
was followed by S. I. McKee, who from failing health resigned in June, 
1884, since which time the church has been without a pastor. Present 
membership is 105. Connected with the church is a vigorous Sunday- 
school under the leadership of Dr. James McPheeters. 


The Spice Valley Church was constituted June 1, 1822, by Elders 
Abram Mitchell and William Noblitt. Abram Mitchell was chosen first 
Pastor in 1823, William Noblitt, first Clerk, and Elijah Conley, first 
Deacon. They met for worship in William Maxwell's mill-shed in the 
summer, and at dwelling houses in winter for about seven years. Dur- 
ing the ministry of Mr. Mitchell the first log church was built. The 
second Pastoi', Elder Thomas Vancouver, was elected in December, 1832, 
and served the church eight years. The third Pastor was Elder Joseph 
Odell. He was called to preach for this church the fourth Sabbath in 
June, 1840, and served the church as Pastor uninterruptedly for twelve 
years and one month. Odell was a warm-hearted minister, a fine orator, 
a good exhorter and a highly esteemed Pastor. He was a great revivalist. 
During his ministry with the church the great revival of 1842 occurred, 
in which seventy-five persons were baptized into the church. The fourth 


Pastor was Elder H. Burton, who served the church from March, 1852, to 
June, 1853. Of this pastorate but little is said in the record. He 
labored for the^ church as Pastor four different tiroes — the first as above; 
the second, from January, 1859, to May, 1860; the third time, from 
June, 1869, to February, 1871;. the fourth time, from April, 1872, to 
June, 1873. Uncle Hardy, as he was familiarly called, was well known 
and highly esteemed. The fifth Pastor, Elder Jacob D. Crabbs, was 
called June, 1853, and continued till June, 1856. During his last year's 
labor with the church the "big meeting of 1856" occurred. It lasted 
with little abatement for months. A joint call was made to Elders 
Crabb and Parks, each one preaching at alternate meetings. The sixth 
Pastor was Elder Moses C. Edwards. He was an Eastern man of 
culture, and a splendid minister; was called in November, 1857, and con- 
tinued one year as Pastor. The seventh Pastor was Elder W. Baker, 
who was called in May, 1860 (" Uncle Hardy ". having served the church 
one year on his second term.) Elder Baker labored for the church to 
March, 1866. The eighth Pastor was Elder E. M. Parks, called in 
March, 1866. The ninth Pastor, Elder I. Corothers, was called in March, 
1871, and labored only one year, then Elder V. T. Baker received a cull, 
and after five months Elder "William Baker finished out his time. The 
church, after endeavoring to obtain Eldei's R. M. Parks and Uncle Nate 
Williams from October, 1874, to April, 1875, tried the supply plan with 
Elder A. J, Essex for six months. The tenth Pastor was Elder Thomas 
J. Swan. He was elected and commenced his work in October, 1876, 
and ended in November, 1877. The twelfth was Elder Wright Sanders. 
He was called January, 1878; recalled in January, 1879; labored two 
years. The thirteenth Pastor, Elder R. M. Parks, was called in February, 
1880, and finished his year in May, 1881. The fourteenth Pastor, the 
present incumbent, is Elder W. L. Greene. 

The Clerks of the church have been as follows: William Noblitt, 
William Conley, Simon Gilbert, for about seven years, from 1822 to 1829, 
Joel Conley, Samuel Weaver, John Weaver, George Isom, Clerk for 
thirty years; Henry Miller, the eighth Clerk, is the present incumbent. 
The Deacons have been: Elijah Conley, Ezer Cleveland, A. T. Conley, 
William Edwards, Hardin Burton, John Tyre, A. C. Burton, Marvin 
Cleveland, S. M. Isom, D. B. Edwards and W. R. Williams. Other 
ministers of the church: Gentry Hodges, Elbert Jeter, William Dodson, 
Charles Pennington, John Blackwell, Jesse Goss, William Duncan, 
Arthur Pickthall, William Baker, David Elkin — who preached the 
funeral sermon of the mother of A. Lincoln — Louis Blackwell, James 
Gurges, Simpson Burton. 

The first meeting-house was built of round logs hewed down, and a 
stick- and- dirt chimney at one end. It was very low; built in 1827 or 
1828. A stove was put in it in 1831 or 1832. This house was burned 


down in about 1835, while Philip Ballard was teaching school in it. The 
second house, the present oae, is a brick, erected in 1837, is 40x30 and 
12 feet high. 

Number baptized 437 

Received by letter 127 

Received by relation 50 

Total 604 

Dismissed by letter 364 

Excluded 158 

Total 522 

Present membership 82 

Meetings are held in the following schoolhouses: Gruthrie, Dickard, 
Judah and Avoca. The meetings are conducted irregularly by the vari- 
ous denominations, principally the Baptists. Both the Hardshell and 
Missionary branches of the Baptist Church hold services at Avoca, the for- 
mer church being called Spring Creek, the latter being called Gullett's 
Creek Church. 


is one of the oldest churches in the county, beginning its career at 
Springville on the Little Spring Creek. In 1850, however, a division 
occurred in the church at Springville and a part of the membership, 
claiming to be the original church, moved their membership to Avoca, 
where the Spring Creek Church wa's continued. Among the early mem- 
bers were James Pierce and family, Stephen Tillas, William Ray and 
family, Mose Hodge and others. The present membership includes the 
families of Pereman Pierce, David Cobb and family, Mrs. Mose Hodge 
and several others. Their first preacher at Springville was Thomas 
Oliphant; at Avoca, Joseph Hanna. Their present preacher is Henry 
Oliphant. Their meeting-house at Springville was a frame building; 
when they came to Avoca they built a log church, which stood near where 
the present one stands. In 1878 they built their present little frame 
church house. 


is of rather recent origin, and belongs to the Bedford Association. It 
has no church building, but has preaching in the schoolhouse, and often 
in the neighboring groves. Their Pastor is W. H. Lemons, their Clerk 
being C. B. Mason. It is quite a strong church for the place, having 
seventy members. 


In 1887, so the story goes, a neighborhood meeting-house was built 
about three miles southeast of Leesville and called Brown's Meeting- 
house. It was four logs high —that is to say, so large were the logs 
that when they were hewn four of them made the wall sufficiently high. 
The remains of these logs may still be seen, for when the house was torn 


down in 1857, the logs were taken to Leesville and used for " side walks." 
About the only regular preacher this church had for fifteen years was T. 
N. Kobertson. The early members were: Allen Brown, M. Sparks, R. 
Newkirk, W. Hudson, Samuel Foster, Thomas Dixon, Thomas Stephen 
and James Newkirk and Ben Newkirk, the last of whom is living still. 
In 1857 the membership was moved to Leesville, where a neat little 
frame church was erected, since which time the following ministers have 
preached in it at various times: Boston, Stalker, Foster, Barr and others. 
No regular services are held at it just at present. A good membership 
exists, however, represented by B. Newkirk, I. Woolery, who is Clerk, 
Mat Henderson, Thomas Plummer, Mose Holland and wife, "William and 
Mart Dixon, Mrs. Rot Thompson and sister, Polly Brown, the oldest and 
best of them all, and others. 


Guthrie Township has the honor of entertaining the first preacher of 
Lawrence County. Unfortunately, however, it was not formed as a 
township at that time. But rumor has it that early in 1816 Armenius 
Milljgan, a Methodist preacher, located near where Tunnelton afterward 
was built, and that he held meetings at his house and the homes of his 
neighbors. These were probably the first church services held in the 
county. Among those who worshiped with him were the Chitties, 
Bakers, Becks, Guthries, F linns, Conleys, Brittons and Barnhills. It was 
on the 24th of December that Ambrose Carlton landed on Guthrie's 
Creek from North Carolina. But he had a merry Christmas with his 
neighbors next day, and talked religion from the start. His little log 
house used to stand on the hill by Carlton's graveyard, and here he con- 
stituted a Baptist Church in the first year of his sojourn. The first few 
who worshiped with him were Mrs. Stephen Smith, Ambrose Parks and 
wife, Elizabeth Newkirk and Mother Sheeks. Soon, however, he built 
the large brick residence known as the Carlton Home. In that house 
is one very large room with an unusually high ceiling, and the young 
people now-a-day who see it say, " What a glorious place to dance," little 
thinking that the large room was constructed by Mr. Carlton for a chapel 
room. In that room Mr. Carlton used to preach regularly once a month. 


L Gilgal (Baptist) Church is the oldest in Pleasant Run. It is another 
one begun in Ihe teens, probably in 1819. John Evans and John Hanna 
were probably the founders. The Heltons, Nathan Fox, William Brown- 
ing, James Winfrey, the Hendersons and Hawkinses were united in the 
formation of a church that has been called since Hardshell. It is well 
named, for it has always been a solid, substantial church. The first house 
built by this organization was a peculiar log church. It was a large 
room wirti a very high ceiling, and around the room about ten feet from 


the floor, on the east, south and west sides, extended a gallery wide 
enough for two rows of puncheon seats, on which the boys and girls were 
expected to seat themselves as quietly as their exalted position would 
indicate. Below on puncheon seats sat the old folks all day long, many 
with pipe in mouth and many wrapped in peaceful slambers known only 
to a conscience well composed. Behind a pulpit on the north side of the 
room stood their preacher, or preachers, rather; for they always had a 
good supply, and as soon as one's powers failed, another was ready to 
take his place. And thus from morn till night they worshiped. They 
increased their numbers soon and included Todds, Osbornes, Duulavies, 
Fidlers, Wooleries and others, and include in their present membership 
the Eastmans and Martins; so that eight or ten years ago a new house 
was needed and the old was torn down, and near its site the present 
large frame building was erected by the Hendersons. In this building 
services are held regularly once a month, and near it once every few 
years the Association meets too. Gilgal is one of the churches in which 
no split has happened. 


There is a Missionary Baptist Church at Heltonville, however. In the 
fifties, Joseph Trainor, architect, built for them a little frame church, 
and in it the Trainors, Carsons, Hawkinses, Rosses and others met. 
Their first preacher was Milton Parks, followed soon by Isaac Caruthers, 
Nathaniel Williams and J. M. Stalker. But for some time no regular 
services liave been held there. 


Standing near the present graveyard on the hill used to be a little 
log schoolhouse, called the Athens schoolhouse. At that house Josiah 
Athons, grandfather of Joseph Hendricks, gathered a little company 
early in the twenties. The members of that company were: Elzy "Wood- 
ward and wife, Mr. and Mrs. Hubbard, Mrs. Mary Helmer, Lucinda 
Helmer, Kin. Dye and wife, William McDonald and wife, Uncle Dean 
Barnes and wife, and Father Talley. Their first preacher was John May, 
who was followed by John Johnson, John Talbert and others. In 1838, 
they built a new church house through the enterprise of the minister, 
James Williams, and his estimable wife. The building stood in town, 
where the present church stands, and was a neat, substantial brick, placed 
on ground donated by Mr. Athons, But in 1868 it was totally destroyed 
by fire, and for several years the congregation met in the Baptist Church. 
But in 1874, through the influence of two ministers, by name of Houch 
and Cooper, the present neat little brick church was erected in its stead. 
The church is in a good condition, having a membership of seventy and 
embracing some of the best famlies in the place, among whom may be 
mentioned the Gaineys, Richards, Whitteds, Beards, Mrs. Broadus, Mrs. 
Pearson and others. 



No regular services are held in the Baptist Church at Springville, but 
it has an interesting history. It was constituted in 1825, principally- 
through the agency of Samuel Owens, who at that time owned much of 
the land on which Springville was afterward built. He was one of the 
first preachers, and among the first members were C. Brad well, Adam 
Gainey, Alexander Herrin, Martin Owens and John McDowell, and the 
church was called Spring Creek Baptist Church. In 1845, Thomas Rob- 
inson and Joseph Addle, preachers at Indian Creek Church, withdrew, 
and came to Springville to preach. From 130 members, however, it grew 
less and less, until two years ago the last regular preacher, D. Manley, 
(•ould not be retained. 


So far as it can be learned but two churches of the Friends were estab- 
lished in Lawrence County. One was near the present William Pitman 
farm in Indian Creek Township. It was very early — probably as early 
as 1819. Priscilla Hunt was the Quakeress preacher, and the Eubottom 
and Dixon families constituted most of the membership. They met twice 
a week, as Quakers always do, for five or six years, when their meetings 
were discontinued. The other Quaker Church was in Perry Township, 
on the road leading from the Dunn's to the Wood Ferry. Some of their 
members were the Lowders, Davises, Joneses and Lowes. William Hobbs 
was their preacher, assisted by Priscilla Hunt. But about 1850 their 
meetings also were discontinued. 


About 1830, Wesley Short introduced the • doctrines of Alexander 
Campbell, and so much was he honored for it, that in 1848, when Alex- 
ander Campbell first visited Lawrence County, he went to Springville, 
especially to visit Mr. Short. Moses Trimbull, Dr. Benedict, Elijah 
Goodwin and J. M. Mathes, were other of their early preachers. Among 
the early members may be mentioned Owen Short, Dodridge Short, Wes- 
ley Short, Milton Short, Mr. Laferty, Franklin Crook, the Gaineys 
and others. Most of these families form the present membership. It is 
a thriving church, under the efficient leadership of Quincy Short, grand- 
son of its founder. 


The members of the little colony which Mr. Lawrence brought from 
Maryland to settle the region of Lawrenceport were nearly all Method- 
ists. Among these were Alonzo Taylor, Shuart Moore, Joseph Moore, 
Dr. Samuel K. Knight, Charles and John Reed. Many of these returned 
to Maryland or went elsewhere, but not before they had founded a church. 
Almost the first building erected was a school and church house. This 
was 1837. To them and to this little house Bishop Robert Roberts came. 


Some of the ministers who followed him and who tried to till his place 
were Bartlett, Kemper, Dale, Tolbert, Cross, Ryan, Walker and others ; 
the more recent preachers being Ketchum, Heavenridge, Barr, and Hutch- 
inson, the present pastor. As for building, the church has none but their 
schoolhouse. They rent the old Presbyterian Church, however, and at 
present hold services regularly. Their present Stewards are James An- 
drews and William Jolly, and among their more recent members may be 
mentioned Mrs. Leathermore, Thomas Jolly and family, William Jolly 
and family, Nelson Chitty and family, John Reed and family, and James 
Andrews and family. Their present membership numbers about sixty. 


This was organized in 1819 by Isaac Reed, the traveling preacher, 
assisted by James H. Johnston. Their first Elders were David and 
William Green, Robert Kelso, Jonathan Huston and John Milroy, and 
among the charter members were Mary, Jennie and Polly Greene, Robert 
Kelso and family, and Mrs. Dr. James Montgomery. For a number of 
years J. H, Johnston and Moody Chase supplied the congregation as 
preachers, though W. W. Martin, Remley, Kittredge and others, preached 
for them occasionally. In 1845 the church was moved and re- organized 
at Lawrenceport, the Elders being Robert Holaday, Jonathan Huston 
and William Throckmorton, their preacher being Alex McFerson. Then 
in 1846 came James Brownlee. The pastorate died out in 1861, but the 
ministers from 1846 to 1851 were John Averly and John M. Bishop. 
Meetings were first held at the residence of Allen Brock, then at the res- 
idence of Mr. Huston, near Bono. When the schoolhouse was built at 
Bono in 1823, it was usgd for church purposes. Early in the thirties the 
church was built in Bono near the farm of David Green. In this they 
met till 1845, when, moving their membership to Lawrenceport, they met 
first in the schoolhouse, arranged for a church and a school. In 1850 
the Lawrenceport Presbyterian Church was built. Here two meetings of 
Presbyteries were held — one in 1850, the other in 1852, from the efiects 
of which about fifty accessions were made. But time tells. This little 
company is scattered; but a few now remain; the church building is 
rented by the Methodists, who hold occasional meetings there. 


About 1820 a little log church stood near the Tolbert Graveyard. It 
was called Sugar Creek Church, and its first preacher was Thomas Robert- 
son. It did not gain much impetus, however, and about 1840 ministers 
of all denominations were sent to hold meetings there, sometimes together 
and sometimes separately, since which time it has grown customary once 
a year to hold a basket meeting at Tolbert's Graveyard, at which all 
denominations are expected to participate. These meetings have grown 
interesting and profitable. 



Formerly Leesville was in Jackson County, and so in the early min- 
utes of White River Association we find Guthrie Creek Church described 
as in Jackson County. It is located about three miles northeast of Lees- 
ville, near the residence of Stephen Fountain. It was established in 
1820 by John Kindred, John Woodmanson, Joseph Hanna and Walter 
Owens. Among its other early preachers were John Evans, Ambrose 
Carlton, J. Cole, E. Allen and others, and its early members were A. 
Zalmon, B. Owens, A. Dodds, F. Fountain and S. E'ountain. It has 
never been a very vigorous church, though a very worthy one. Its pres- 
ent membership is composed principally of the Fountain and Owens 


New Union may be said to be the result of a new division in Shiloh. 
In a protracted meeting conducted by the Campbellites or Christians, in 
1867, the minister, J. M. Mathes, was reminded by the church Trustees 
that the terms under which the building was used prohibited sectarian 
sermons. Understanding this to be a gentle hint, the Campbellites with- 
drew to the Pace schoolhouse, situated but a mile or so to the east, 
where the protracted meeting was continued. Many Methodists united 
with the church and in a short time it was found that a meeting-house 
was needed. Accordingly, sufficient ground for a church and graveyard 
was donated by William Tannehill and the present large church was 
erected. It is a white frame building, in size about 35x45 feet, cost 
about $1,500, and stands three miles west from Bedford. The church 
and graveyard began together. The charter members of this organiza- 
tion were : George S. W. Pace and wife, Alfred Pace, W^illiam Kern, 
William Tannehill, Mrs. Thomas Cole and daughter Fannie, Sanders 
Evans and wife, William Boyd and wife, Mrs. Alexander Kern, Abra- 
ham Reynolds and family. The Deacon from the beginning is George 
S. W. Pace, and the Elders are William Boyd, Samuel Nicholas and 
"W^illiam Kern. Their first preacher was J. M. Mathes, who still occa- 
sionally holds services there. Among the various ministers who have 
been co nnected with the congregation as stated or regular supply may be 
mentioned James Blankenship, Milton McKee, Milton Short, Quincy 
Short, J. W. Newland, I. S. Stanley, A. M. Barton and others. The 
present pastor is John Williams. Connected with the church is a strong 
Sunday-school, under the direction of T. B. Cole. 


Mount Olive is an olive "branch" of old Port Williams Meeting 
House, and is located a mile and a half west of Williams Postoffice. 
The land on which the church stands was donated by Bart Williams, 
who assisted materially in the erection of the house as well. The build- 


ing itself is a neat frame, in size about 35x45 feet, and was built at a 
cost of $1,500. Finished in 1860, it was dedicated by J. M. Mathes. 
Among the charter members were Garrett Williams and wife, Richard 
Williams and wife, Canaan Williams and wife, Obed Lamb and wife, 
Tilghman Williams, William Henshaw and wife, A. D. Henshaw and wife, 
Capt. A. D. Hastings and Bart Williams and wife. The principal min- 
isters who have been connected with the church are J. M. Mathes, Milton 
McKee, William Brothers, Asbury Gardner, Martin Crim and B. F. 
Treat. B. F. Treat, who comes regularly once a month from his home 
in Bloomington, Monroe County, has been the regular supply for the 
last four years. The church is in a good healthy condition with a mem- 
bership of perhaps 200. Connected with the church is a Sunday-school 
under the direction of Elders Obed Lamb and Capt. A. D. Hastings. It 
is also well attended. 


In the latter part of the sixties Michael Waggoner donated land upon 
which a little frame meeting-house was built. It was too small to accom- 
modate their members from the start. However, into it J. Gregory, who 
was their early preacher, gathered his flock. Composing the first con- 
gregations were Mrs. Michael W^agoner, Samuel Gardner and wife, J. 
G. Hall and wife, Francis Hall and wife, Rufus Mitchell and wife. Aunt 
Nancy Baker, Joyce Smith, Mrs. Sarah Miller, Mrs. Rainey, Allen Brock, 
Mrs. Sally Cox, Frank Luttrell, John White and wife, Harvey White 
and wife. Granny White, Aunt Tilda Wagoner, Rush Wagoner. Corne- 
lius Smith and wife, John Booth and family. All with perhaps the 
exception of John White and wife and one or two others, are still living, 
members of Pleasant Grove. Soon after the establishment of the 
chui'ch, William Baker became the regular preacher. The church quickly 
grew under his care, so that about 1874 the church building was enlarged. 
At some of the revivals as many as seventy-five additions have been 
made to the church. Among the names of some of the more recent 
additions may be mentioned J. E. Kern and wife, Dr. Hornecker and 
wife, Joe Craig, the family of John Baker, John Wagoner and wife, 
James Vorhees and wife, and many others. Allen Brock was also received 
into this church. The present Clerk is John Booth. In connection with 
the church is a veiy active Sunday-school, under the leadership of Joe 
Craig. Fifty or sixty members are regularly enrolled. Once a year, for 
the last few years, the Sunday-schools of Pleasant Grove (Baptist,) 
Mount Olive (Christian,) Pleasant Hill (Methodist, ) and White's School- 
house, in Martin County, have joined to hold a union Sunday-school 
convention. The last of these conventions was held in the pleasant 
grove of Michael Wagoner's "yard," last year, and in attendance were 
eleven ministers, among whom may be mentioned Baker, Parks, Forbes, 
Treat, Heavenridge, Wagoner, Fulk and others. 



Shiloh was the tii'st Methodist Church built in Indian Creek Town- 
ship, and that denomination held services before the first Shiloh church 
building wais erected. Several families by the name of Garten had immi- 
grated from Kentucky, all of whom were Methodists. Richard Browning 
was a Methodist "circuit rider" in Kentucky, and became local preacher 
for Shiloh. In 1821 a little lo": church was erected on Mr. Pitman's 
place and called Shiloh. It stood near the site of the present meeting- 
house, three miles east of Fayetteville. Composing that first congregation 
were: Elijah Garten and wife, James Garten and wife, William Garten, 
Robert Garten and wife, Richard Browning and wife, Albert Howard 
and wife, Sandras Howard, and perhaps a few others. Their first 
preacher was Richard Browning, a man of scholarly habits and Christian 
love; eight years he served them, and was then drowned. Among the 
various persons who have preached at Shiloh since may be mentioned 
John Armstrong, Edmond Ray, Aaron Woods, Enoch Woods, Brooks, 
Heavenridge, Milligan and even Bishop Roberts. About 1840 the present 
large frame church building was erected on the same site. It is very 
commodious and convenient, but is seldom used, for the congregation is 
scattered. No regular services are now held by them, though the build- 
ing is used sometimes as the meeting place for the Baptists and Pres- 


The first church organized in Indian Creek Township was Baptist. 
In the year 1818 a little company assembled at the house of Wesley 
Short, and there an organization was effected. Jonathan Jones had 
come from Livonia to assist in the undertaking. To Wesley Short and 
Jonathan Jones is due the honor of founding the first church in Indian 
Creek Township. The first members were Wesley Short and wife. John 
Short and wife, Reuben Short and wife, Samuel Owens and wife, Henry 
Wagoner and wife, Jacob Wagoner and wife, Mrs. Boone (mother of 
Col. Noah Boone), and one or two others. In 1821 a church house was 
built. It was a small affair built of poles, and had open windows. 
There was a large double chimney in the center with a generous double 
fire-place, one fire-place fronting each end of the room. And since so 
much wood was consumed at a meeting it was no uncommon thing to see 
a good brother coming to meeting with his Bible under one arm and his 
ax under the other. This building stood near the residence of the late 
N. B. Mayfield, and continued to be their appointed place of worship 
till 1827. During this time the membership had increased to 127 under 
the earnest teaching of Wesley Short. In 1827 fourteen of the Old School, 
Regular Calvinistic, Ironside, Hardshell Baptists, as they were variously 
called, withdrew and formed a church below Silverville. The remaining 
formed the present Indian Creek Christian Church. The principal f am - 


ilies entering into its formation were the Shorts, the Mayfields and the 
Arrustrongs. A new meeting-house was erected in 1827, located on 
Indian Creek a quarter of a mile below the present church building. It 
was built of logs, and continued to be their place of worship for lifteen 
or twenty years, during which time Wesley Short, Washington Short, 
Morris Trimble and others became their preachers. On May 25, 1846, 
John Short and wife deeded sufficient land near the Indian Creek Bridge 
to John Armstrong, Abraham Wagoner and William Fields, Trustees of 
the church at that time, upon which the present large frame church was 
erected. In size it is 35x45 feet, and was biiilt at a cost of $1,500. 
Quincy Short is the present preacher. Under his direction the church is 
active and prosperous, having fifty or more earnest members. A Sun- 
day-school is conducted in connection with the church during the winter 
season, being well attended and vigorous. 


The second church established in Indian Creek Township was White 
River Union, or Old Union, as it is now called. It is situated one mile 
south of the town of Fayetteville. The leader of the little community 
was Abraham Kern, a man earnest in his convictions, original in his 
ideas and aggressive in the promulgation of truth. To the tirst settlers 
of this region he was truly an "Abraham of old," teaching them what 
he considered to be God's will, and showing them in his pure, earnest 
life that he, like Abraham of old, had "walked with God." Assembling 
his hearei's at his own house or the house of William Kern or David 
Sears, he taught them the Dunkard faith. In September, 1821, they 
organized a regular Dunkard Church. The charter members were: 
Abraham Kern and wife, William Kern and wife, David Sears and wife, 
David Ribelin, Jane Anderson and Daniel Oaks. For two or three years 
they held their meetings, usually at the house of William Kern, but 
often in "God's first temple," the native groves. In about 1823 a little 
log church 25x35 feet was erected by the members, and stood near the 
site of the present church building and was used as a meeting-house for 
twenty years. In about 1843, the present church building was erected. 
It is of brick, large, commodious, well lighted and ventilated, and was 
built at a cost of about $2,500. The preachers who have been connected 
with the church at various times are: Abraham Kern, Joseph Hostetler, 
John Ribble, O. Kane, Lovell Jamison, Morris R. Trimble, Peter Hon, 
J. M. Mathes and others. The first three named were associated together 
in the establishment of the church. To the revivals held by Joseph 
Hostetler and John Ribble is due much of the early increase in member- 


About the year 1847 the Craigs, Hacklers and others determined to 


have a Methodist meetinghouse in their neighborhood and built their 
house without further ado. It was a very large log house situated a 
short distance southeast of the present residence of Daniel Hackler, and 
had open windows. The principal persons assisting in its erection were 
Wal. Craiff, Julius Chestnut, Jacob Hackler, and Peter Baker. No reg- 
ular church organization was formed at first, but it was taken by consent 
to be Methodist. Their first preacher was James McCann, who was after- 
ward assisted by Leads, Forbes and Daily, and around them they gathered 
as their first congregation John Crai'g, wife and family, Julius Chestnut 
and wife, Samuel Taylor, Howard Chestnut and others. In this house 
they met for ten years, and then in the Craig schoolhouse. It was 
burned, but rebuilt in 1865. But being too small for the congregation, 
the present Pleasant Hill meeting-house was erected near it in 1867. It 
was built by George Richards, on land donated by Wal. Craig, and cost 
about 12,000, being in size about 35x50 feet. The building was dedi- 
cated to the service of the Lord by Bishop Simpson, the preacher in 
charge being Gideon Heavenridge. The following persons have acted 
as Trustees : George Richards, Wal. Craig, Robert Craig, J. Mosier and 
John Sentney. The present Preacher is Rev. Mr. Hawk, and the present 
congregation is composed principally of the Craigs, Hacklers, Skeenes 
and Bakers. The church enrollment numbers about thirty. 


Educational History— First School in the County— Langdon the 
Monk— Teachers in Indian Creek— Schools in Marion— Education- 
al Statistics— Teachers in Other Townships -The Mitchell Sem- 
inary—The Graded Schools— The Southern Indiana Normal 
School— The Lawrence County Seminary— The Bedford High 
School— Private Educational Enterprises— Teachers' Institutes. 

LAWRENCE COUNTY has kept constant and ready step in the 
march of education. Apace with her earliest settlements came the 
schools, and at the scene of the white man's first location in the county, 
in 1814, the first school was established. This waS at Leesville, and for 
two or three years was probably the only school in the county, and was 
taught by an Irish monk named Langdon and who was, like most of his 
class, well educated. He continued here until 1817. At that time the 
second school in the county was established and he became its teacher. 
This was on the farm of James Conley, in what is now Guthrie Town- 
ship, and the house was located about 300 yards west of the lit- 
tle tunnel and not far from the present site of Lawrenceport. The 
length of the first term was three months. The building was a little 
round log house, constructed for this purpose by Mr. Conley, whose 
children— Charles, Joshua, Hugh, Joseph, Nancy, Peggy and 


Diana — made the larofest number of scholars. After this first term of 
three months the monk went down the river to the Johnston family, 
where he found a field of labor in which he contjinued for two years. The 
Johnston children were: James, Christopher, Isaiah, David, Jonathan 
and Elizabeth, and while with them the monk spent the long win- 
ter evenings instructing in the various common branches of that 
day. Probably the third school in the county was taught at the 
site of Lawrenceport in 1818, by Thomas Fulton. The first term was 
one of three months. This schoolhouse was standing near the mouth 
of Fishing Creek, and among his scholars were James and Elizabeth 
Chess, and a Miss McManis. In 1820 a school was taught near where 
Guthrie Creek bridge now is on the George Foster farm. An old cot- 
lon-gin house answered the purpose of a school building. The name of 
the teacher in this fourth school of the county is not preserved, either in 
records or the recollection. About this time other schools began in 
, various parts of the county, but nearly all of them were taught in the little 
round log cabins of that primitive day. Settlers were becoming numer- 
ous, and an increase in schools was an imperative necessity. 


In the western part of the county where the population was rapidly in- 
creasing, schools began early to spring up. Indian Creek Township had sev- 
eral early schools, the first of which was a few hundred yards south of the 
present site of Fayetteville. This was a small round log-house with a 
clapboard roof, a '"cat and clay" chimney, a "puncheon" floor and 
greased paper windows. The furniture corresponded in all respects with 
the building and the times, the benches being made by splitting a sap- 
pling in two and putting in sticks for legs. The writing desk was made 
by hewing out a slab and putting it on some pegs in the wall along the 
window side of the building, where the best light was aftbrded. Such 
in brief is a description of frontier school houses of more than 
half a century ago. The first teacher in this school was a man 
named Ditto, who taught but one term. The name of the second teacher 
was Kirkpatrick, who also taught bat one school. The scholars that 
went were the children of William and Abraham Kern, David Sears, 
Elijah, Robert and William Garton. and perhaps a few others. None 
but these two sessions of school were ever held in this house, and in its 
stead another was built in 1822, on the land of Peter Smith, now owned 
by Noah Kern. This was in nearly every particular like the other one just 
described, and the first teacher was John R. Crooke. Milton Short,Frank- 
lin Crooke and Alexander Kern were also teachers in this community, 
and in about the order named. This schoolhouse was destroyed in a 
whirlwind a year or so after being built, and a child of Abraham Martin 
was killed by the falling of a beech tree. The house was at once repaired 
and school continued to be kept there for some time after. 




The schools in Mai'iou Township early took prominent rank in the 
county, and in the south part on the farm now owned by Wiley G. Bur- 
ton, the first hewed log schoolhouse was built, in 1824, that Lawrence 
County had. John McLean was probably the first teacher here, and the 
tuition was largely paid in provisions, with an occasional dollar to glad- 
den the pedagogic heart. The successor of McLean was Samuel Dalton, 
a one-legged man, and the next was a man named Evans, who lost his 
position on account of his habit of napping during the regulation hours 
for school. A teacher named Bethay folh^wed Evans, and in both habits 
and disposition seems to have been radically different, as it is said that 
he cleared ten acres of land outside of school hours during: the time he 
presided over the schools. Daniel Watkins, an educated Welshman, 
came next and was the last and best teacher that taught in this house. 
He remained for more than six years with the best of success. If the 
schoolhouses and their furniture differed from those of to-day, the 
methods of instruction and the manner of conducting the schools were 
not less so. Loud or open schools were in vogue at that time and con- 
tinued to be so for several years after. It is not an unusual occurrence 
in the present day to hear the gray-haired settler lamenting the degen- 
eracy of modern schools from those halcyon days when all the pupils 
read and studied aloud. To trace the origin of each school in the county 
would be an impossibility, and even were it possible the result would 
scarcely justify the extraordinary effort which such a task woulid enjoin. 

The total population in 1883 between the ages of six and twenty-one 
years was 6,658. Of these there were, of white, 3,399 males and 3,125 
females; of colored, 56 males and 78 females. For 1884 the school 
enumeration of the county is as follows: • 


School Houses. 

Teachers Employed. 














290 1 


307 1 






















1 60 

Pleasant Run 



Indian Creek 


Spice Valley 




Bono '. . 













1 6,604 







The schools of Flinn Township are perhaps in a more flourishing 
condition than any other in the county, and during the last year had 
seven months of school — a longer term than any other tc>wnship in the 
county. The schoolhouses, however, are not in so good a condition, most 
of them being old. One, the Jackson schoolhouse, is nearly new. and 
all are well furnished with patent seats and other modern supplies for 
schools. There was formerly a good school at the town of Leesville, 
and was organized about the vear 1858, called the Leesville High 
School. This was owned and established by a joint stock company 
organized for that purpose. The building is a two-story brick, with two 
study rooms and one recitation room, and was built at a probable cost of 
$5,000. It is yet owned by the company, but since 1883 there has been 
no school maintained in it. The first teacher was a man named Maxwell, 
and the second was W. L. Boston. Others have been Rev. J. M. Stalker, 
L. W. Johnson, Mr. Hobbs, R. W. May, Albert May, W. T. Branaman 
and D. H. Ellison, the present County Superintendent. 


Next after Flinn, in length of school terms, is Pleasant Run Township. 
About one-third of the schoolhouses are nearly new, and the balance 
are in fair condition and all are well supplied with the necessary school 
furniture. This township has the only log house now used for school 
purposes in the county. One of the best schoolhouses in the county is 
at Springville, in Perry Township. It is a good two-story frame build- 
ing, and covered with a slate roof. Two teachers are employed in this 
school — Mr. E. S. Southerland as Principal, and Miss Clara Yandell as 
the primary teacher — and a first-class school is kept. There are two 
other good schoolhouses in the township, and the balance are not above 
the average. In Indian Creek Township the condition of schoolhouses 
is, as a whole, the poorest in the county. They are not generally well 
supplied. Those of Spice Valley are some better, there being a few 
houses nearly new. The one at Huron is a good- sized frame, and cost 
about $1,000. There are two teachers at that place, and the rooms seated 
with patent seats. Some of the best schoolhouses in the county are in 
Marion Township, and were built by Benton Jones, as Township Trustee. 
They are all well supplied with apparatus, but the school terms are the 
shortest in the county. The best school in Bono Township is usually 
kept at Lawrenceport, although other good ones are in the township and 
they are in a first-rate condition. 


In Shawswick Township the schools are more numerous than in any 
other part of Lawrence County, and in some parts there are too many. 


They exhaust the resources of the township without obtaining the full 
benefit that uiisrht be secured in a les3 number but better and longer 
terms. The oaly brick schoolhouse in the county outside of Bedford and 
Mitchell is in this township, and they are all well fitted with patent seats 
and supplied with good apparatus and other necessaries in the modern 
schools. No township in the county is provided with better school - 
houses than Marshall, and none are better furnished. The one at Guth- 
rie was built in 1881, at a cost of $1,500. It is a good frame with two 
rooms, and is generally attended by about fifty pupils. Levi Smallwood 
has taught all the public schools that have been kept in this house. 
Within the last three years three other new houses have been built in 
this township. One of the very best township schools in the county is 
at Tuanelton, in Guthrie Township. At the head of this school is Mr. 
B. F. Maxwell, and Miss Anna Beherrall is teacher in the primary 


The town of Mitchell is of but comparatively recent date, and the 
history of its schools is more easily obtained than in some other portions 
of the county. In the year 1855 the whole township of Marion had but 
, 833 children of school age, which then ranged from five to twenty-one 
years. Now, in 1884, the whole township of Marion, including Mitchell, 
has a total school population of 1,420, and this with a year less latitude 
in age — being now from six to twenty-one years. This gives an increase 
in twenty nine years of 587 school children. This is very nearly the 
same time in which the town has been developing. In 1856 a small 
brick schoolhouse was built in the eastern part of Mitchell, and the first 
term was taught here in the winter of 1856-57 by E. M. Baldwin, who 
remained several winters, the summer schools being taught by others. 
All the schools taught in this building ware supported by subscription, 
and the house was built entirely in the same way. The school of 1859-60, 
which had use of public money, supplanted this, and the building is now 
used by the colored folks as a church. 


This institution has the following history as given by Isom Burton: 
The winter of 1859-60 Simpson Burton (who had just graduated from 
Franklin College), opened a high school in a dwelling house on corner 
of Main and Fifth Streets (now occupied by Mrs. Bartlett). The fol- 
lowing spring he, with others, began raising a stock company to erect the 
building now known as the Baptist Church. The first meeting was held 
•at Freedom, Church, near town September 4, 1860, with the following 
persons present: Robert Todd, George Miller, John Toliver, Timothy 
Murray, Joseph Miller, R. M. Parks and the following Burtons: Allen C, 
John W., William A., Caswell R., Zachariah, Simpson, William J.. 


Wiley G., Eli, John H. , Alexander and Hardin. R. M. Parks was made 
Chairman and Simpson Burton, Clerk. The object was stated to be the 
organization of an educational society, to build a building to be known 
as Mitchell Seminary. 

A constitution was read and adopted that provided that any person 
paying $25 into the treasury should be a member; its officers to be 
President, Vice-President, Treasurer and Secretary and twelve Trustees, 
two-thirds of the Trustees to be Baotist. The first officers elected were: 
A. C. Burton, President; Simpson Burton, Clerk; Simpson Burton, 
Oily Owens, A. L. Munson, Hugh Hamer, R. M. Parks, Alex Burton, 
Isaac Corother, William J. Burton, C. D. Giles, B. B. Walker, Silas 
Moore and Hugh F. Burton, Trustees. The last Trustees elected were: 
David Kelly, Eli Burton, C. L. Burton, J. W. Burton, John Edwards, 
Alex Burton, A. C. Burton, G. W. Miller, Edwin Wood, Lewis Murray 
and Isom Burton. 

The constitution of the society provided that the lower story of the 
building should be used for educational purposes and the Trustees to 
grant the upper story to the Missionry Baptists for religious worship. The 
building is of brick, of modern style, and cost about 16,000. School 
opened in the fall of 1860, with Simpson Burton as Principal, assisted by 
Carrie Graus and May Mantorga; afterward J. K. Howard was added to 
the faculty, and for a number of years the school flourished under the 
direction of Burton and Howard. No school in this part of the State did 
better and more permanent work than this one to be of so short duration. 
The Rebellion, together with the public free school system, caused the 
institution to weaken, and in 1868 Burton and Howard gave up the 
school. The following winter Prof. C. L. Donalson and wife conducted 
the school, but soon gave it up for reason before named. There went 
from the school to the war the following: Simpson Poke, Anselm Wood, 
Aaron Pless, John W. Burton, Riley D. Burton, Wesley Edwards, Will- 
iam H. Edwards, Isom Burton. The school sent to the leading profes- 
sions: Law — Heffron, Seldon Fish, J. W. Burton, W. H. Edwards, Zack 
E. Burton, J. R. Burton, William S. Burton, Joe O. Burton, Louis Mun- 
son; ministry — J. R. Edwards, Isaac Wood, John Howard, Charlie Wood; 
physicians — Ed Millis, Ai'thur McDonnell, Isom Barton. 


This was established in 1869, and gives Mitchell the honor of being 
one of the first towns in Southern Indiana to adopt the graded school 
system. The first high school building was constructed at a cost of 
nearly $3,000. It was a good two-story frame, and served its purpose- 
until the present commodious and well arranged building was erected in 
1879. This is of brick, and was contracted for at the price of $8,000, 
but before its completion cost $2,000 in addition to that amount. No 



graded school in this part of the State has been moi'e of a success than 
this, and in the Annual Prospectus for 1882 the following statement is 
made: "Forty-live teachers have gone out from the Mitchell graded 
school, six physicians, six attorneys and two ministers." 


This popular institution of higher education was founded April 6, 
1880, and incorpoi'ated as a college June 7, 1880. Many prominent men 
of Southern Indiana were interested in establishing a school at which 
teachers could be trained for the public schools, and at which young men 
and women could receive a thorough and practical education in less time 
and with less expense than requii-ed by the regular colleges of the State. 
By the energy and interest manifested by the citizens, Mitchell was 
chosen as the seat of the new institution. Among the prime-movers of 
the enterprise may be mentioned Prof. J. N. Selby, Prof. W. F. Harper, 
Dr. H. L. Kimberlin, M. N. Moore, Dr. J. L. W. Yost, J. Y. Bates, 
John Dodson, Alfred Guthrie, Dr. G. W. Burton, Anselm Wood, M. A. 
Burton, Isom Burton, Dr. W. A. Burton, Allen C. Burton, E. P. Ever- 
sole, James D. Moore, M. Z. Moore, Dr. E. S. Mclntire, with the hearty 
co-operation of all the citizens of Mitchell and vicinity. A Board of 
Reference was formed, including many prominent educators of the State, 
with leading men of other States, which with few changes I'emains as 
first established. . This organization includes such men as the following: 
Prof. J. M. Bloss, Muncie, Ind. : Hon. M. G. Urner, Frederick, Md. ; W. 
B. Wilson, Esq., Flora, 111.; Judge E. D. Pearson, Bedford, Ind. ; Prof. 
W. A. Bell, Indianapolis, Ind.; Rev. R. M. Parks, Bedford, Ind.; Hon. 
Thomas Clarke, Shoals, Ind. ; Dr. Richard Owen, Now Harmony, Ind. ; 
Prof. W. B. Chrisler, Bedford, Ind. To these and many others recently 
have been added the names of Hon. B. C Hobbs, Bloomingdale, Ind., 
and Hon. J. W. Holcombe, State Superintendent. 

About the beginning of the year 1880 active steps were taken in secur- 
ing a faculty and advertising the opening. Prof. W. F. Harper was 
elected President, and Prof. J. N. Selby, Business Manager; Prof. W. 
E. Lugenbeel, teacher of mathematics; Prof. H. T. Pickel, teacher of 
Latin and common branches; MiaslMamieC. Murphy, teacher of German, 
and Mrs. Polk, teacher of instriimental and vocal music. From the first 
movement in the matter success rewarded the managers. Upon the morn- 
ing of April 6, orders were given that all the bells in the town be rung 
for half an hour to usher in the new order of things. The stores were 
closed, and the business men with their families repaired to the Baptist 
• Church to witness the organization. The spacious audience-room was 
tilled to overflowing, and the enthusiasm was intense. Bright hopes of 
success were entertained by the men and women who had given liberally of 
money and time to the new work. This sympathy in the objects of the 


school drew the people closely to the students, and this kindly spirit has 
manifested itself daring all the career of the college. It is a general 
remark that in no other college town can be found «uch friendly relations 
between the students and the citizens. It was this spirit as much as the 
earnest labors of ihe teachers that brought such signal success the year ' 
following the auspicious opening recorded. The attendance included 
students from Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky. In July of this first year 
a teachers' class of six. members was graduated. The number of dift'er - 
ent students in attendance reached about 150. In September following, 
the year began with regular classes, scientific, teachers' and business 
classes. This was a prosperous year, and at its close the Trustees turned 
the entire management over to the President, Prof. W. F. Harper, wh o 
assumed complete control. By this change the Trustees retained only 
advisory powers, placing the active management in the hands of the Pres- 
ident, as well as the financial obligations. This plan has been contin- 
ued to the present. 

Owing to the vast amount of work devolving upon the Principal of 
such an institution, Prof. Harper found his health failing and in the 
spring of 1882 he resigned. The Trustees immediately elected Prof. 
W. E. Lugenbeel to succeed him. All recognized this as a most fitting 
tribute to one who had been with the institution from its founding, and 
who had given his best energies for its success. His administrative abil- 
ity had long been recognized, and the change was made without a jar. 
Under his careful and untiring management, the institution has sent its 
graduates into every department of society, and to all portions of the 
United States. His policy has been to build surely and firmly; to accom- 
plish only thorough work. The character of the school is thus impressed 
upon its graduates, and they may be recognized by their earnestness and 
qualifications. This policy has made the school known in every State of 
the Union, and it now draws students from the East, South, West and 
North. The success of the work under President Lugenbeel's administration 
has been uniform, except a terrible calamity in the spring of 1883. Im- 
mediately preceding the opening of the spring term, a man came to the 
town from Vincennes. He was soon reported to be a small-pox patient. 
As many persons had ignorantly been exposed to the contagion, the ex- 
citement became intense. Exaggerated reports were immediately circu- 
lated in all the surrounding towns. Many of the students in attendance 
departed, and those who had made arrangements to enter for the spring 
and summer were frightened away. Instead of 300 in the various de- 
partments, the enrollment barely reached fifty the spring term and only 
about one hundred during the summer session. The Principal lost per- 
haps $3,000. Notwithstanding this heavy loss, he continued all depart- 
ments and began advertisinof asrain as from the beginning. From this 
calamity the institution has risen stronger than before, and now has an 


enrollment which will reach 500 this year (1884). The popularity of its 
methods is so great that a branch institution was established at Milan, 
Tenn., September 1, 1884, which opened with 250 students the first day. 
The entire faculty of this Southern school were chosen from the graduates 
of the Southern Indiana Normal College. The Alumni (1884) number 
125. Such in brief is the history of this institution which gives 
Mitchell almost a national reputation, and which has revolutionized the 
methods of teaching in the common schools of Southern Indiana. It is 
a school of which Lawrence County is pro^^d. The teachers who have 
been connected with the various departments are: W. F. Harper, Pres- 
ident 1880-1882; W. E. Lugenbeel, President 1882; J. N. Selby, 
1880-80; H. T. Pickel, 1880-81; Miss Mamie Murphy, 1880-81; Miss 
Emma McAvoy, 1880-81 ; Miss Edith L Jackman. 1881; A. W. Dudley, 
1881-82; C. C. Harper, 1882-82; J. Fraise Eichard, 1882-82; Hamilton 
Stillson, 1882; J. W. Stotts, 1882; E. E. Urner, 1883-84; MissAnnaR. 
Turner, 1883-84; C. S. Lugenbeel, 1883. The teachers of the branch 
school at Milan, Tenn., 1884, are: \V. E. Lugenbeel, President; E. E, 
Urner, Principal; Miss Bertha F. Wolfe, Miss Anna R. Turner, K. E. 
Harn, D. E. Keen. 


The first school was taught in Bedford by Capt. Hill during the win- 
ter of 1826-27. This was in the court house and was attended by 
thirty-six scholars. That was in the days of select schools that were 
maintained by private subscriptions. The tuition in this school was $2 
per quarter for each pupil and instructions were given in grammar, alge- 
bra, rhetoric, higher arithmetic and the lower bi'anches. Thus began the 
e ducation of the youth at the capital of Lawrence, and in much the same 
manner it continued for the next four or five years. In January, 1831, 
the State Legislature passed an act providing for the establishment of a 


The building that was first erected for this institution is yet standing 
in Bedford and occupied as a dwelling. At the date of building it was 
considered as one of more than ordinary importance, as it was a good and 
substantial brick. For a while, during the infancy of this school, it was 
well patronized and the youth from the entire county were in attendance. 
It is probable that the first teacher employed was a man named Lynn, 
although he did not remain a great while. For the two years of 1832 
and 1833 this school was presided over by a man who has since occupied 
a prominent place in this State. This was Hon. Richard W. Thompson. 
His successor, Hon. George G. Dunn, was a man of no less ability and 
fame. After two years of success as a teacher he was followed by Joseph 
Stillson, who has long been one of Bedford's physicians. His terra as 
instructor also lasted two years, and closed in the early part of 1838. 


This school was managed by a Board of Trustees appointed by the Cir- 
cuit Court who were to hold their office for a period of three years. 
In March, 1838, Gustavus Clark, Matthew Borland, Isaac Denson, Daniel 
K. Dunihue and George G. Dunn were appointed as such Board for the 
next three years, and in a report to the County Commissioners in the fol- 
lowing January they say : " Upon examination they found the Seminary 
building considerably out of repair and in a condition subjecting it to 
rapid decay, destitute of a teacher, under the control and surpervision of 
the Trustees, the institution in debt and without a very exalted reputa- 
tion as a high school. The Board caused the necessary repairs to be 
made to the building without delay, and have it now in good order for 
the comfort and accommodation of two teachers and at least 100 pupils. 
All debts, except some trifling amounts, against, the institution, have been 
paid off, and there is yet remaining in the treasuiy the sum of S93.594, 
which, together with such sums as may be constantly coming in from 
fines assessed before the justices of the peace and in the Circuit Court of 
said county, will be amply sufficient to keep up repairs, make all neces- 
sary improvements, and in a short time, we trust, to pui'chase a suitable 
library for said institution. A female school by Miss Lovey Kittredge has 
been taught in one room of the building under the inspection of the 
Board, and by the reports of the Examining Committees of the schools, 
it appears that the conditions of that department of the school are highly 
creditable to Miss Kittredge and beneficial to those under her care. The 
best of order is observed in her school, although large ; entire harmony 
and good feeling exists in her school between the pupils themselves and 
between them and the teacher, and the scholars are making rapid 
improvement in all the useful branches of female education. The other 
room is occupied by Mr. Minard Sturgis, a young gentleman of superior 
acquirements, amiable disposition, gentle manners, industrious habits 
and strict morality. These qualities render him a valuable acquisition 
to the Seminary, as he proposes taking it permanently under his charge. 
The present condition of his department is prosperous and interesting, 
in eveiy respect, we believe, meeting the entire approbation of the public. 
The following are the rates of tuition and contingent expenses estab- 
lished by the present Board, to-wit : Reading, writing and arithmetic, 
$8 per quarter; English grammar, book-keeping, geography, composition 
and declamation, S3. 50 per quarter; the classics and other higher 
branches, S6 per quarter, to which is added upon each pupil the sum of 
25 cents per quarter as a contingent h\nd, out of which are defrayed 
all expenses necessary to the comfort and convenience of the pupils 
and teachers as connected with the seminary. The Board thought it 
necessary to fix the rates thus high in order to secure competent persons 
as teachers and guard the institution from degenerating into a mere town 
school, benefiting only a few individuals, instead of being, as it was 


intended, the resort of all who desire to procure the advantages of a lib- 
eral education." 

This i-eport was signed by D. R. Dunihue and George G. Dunn as 
committee, and gives a good idea of the condition of the school at that 
time. In Maj^, 1841, another Board was appointed and of this Gustavus 
Clark was President, John Vestal Treasurer, and Michael A. Malott 
Secretary. In September, 1842, a report was made by the Secretary, and 
from that it is learned that a Mr. John Dale had for some time before 
then been in charge of the school as teacher, and part of the time 
employing an assistant. The institution lingered along under various 
instructors until the Legislature, in 1852, provided for the sale of County 
Seminaries and applying the proceeds to the common school fund. This 
one was sold at public sale to R. M, Parks, who had formerly been one of 
its teachers, for $1,050, and thus died the Lawrence County Seminary. 


When the Lawrence County Seminary was gone the demands of the 
community for a good school were imperative and necessitous. In the 
fall of 1854, Rev. J. M. Stalker opened an academy in the base- 
ment of the Presbyterian Church, which he continued for about two 
years, and in 1856 Prof. Conley began the Lawrence High School. In 
this J. M. Stalker, William May, William B. Chrisler, Prof. Crutsinger, 
Bruce Carr and others taught in different years until 1868 or 1869, when 
this school was merged into the Bedford Male and Female College. 
This institution was incorporated, and the following persons were the 
incorporators: Stever Younger, J. M. Mathes, Joseph Stillson, A. J. 
Hotetler, David G. Gray, John M. Daggy, George W. Adams, J. N. Hos- 
tetler and William B. Chrisler. It was said in the articles of incorpora- 
tion that the purposes of this association were to "establish and perpet- 
uate in the town of Bedford, Lawrence Co., Ind., an institution of learn- 
ing of the highest grade, for the education of males and females; to pro- 
mote the arts and sciences and inculcate the evidences and morality of 
the Sacred Scriptures.'' This school was held in the basement of the 
Christian Church, and its existence continued until the year 1880, when 
it finally became defunct. 

In the latter part of the sixties the present system of graded schools 
began to be agitated and Bedford was among the early towns in the State 
to adopt it. Prof. Frank P. Smith, Superintendent of the present 
graded school, furnished the following account of the origin: 


In 1869 an attempt was made to establish a graded school for the 
benefit of the civil township in which the town is located, and the enter- 
prise had proceeded so far as that the foundation was laid for such a 


building, on the present site, by the then Township Trustee H. B. Rich- 
ardson. The movement caused great dissatisfaction between the residents 
of the town and those of the township outside of the town. This resulted 
in the incorporation of the town and its severance from the civil township 
in school matters. In the division of school funds, the building already 
begun became the property of the town, and was completed in 1871. 
The plans were prepared by J. A. Vrydagh of Terre Haute, Ind. 

It was a six-room building, very much similar in appearance to the 
present one, with capacity to seat 300 pupils. J. W. Mannington was 
the contractor for building, excepting the inside work, which was done 
by S. M. Edmondson. The house was furnished by George H. Grant & 
Co., Richmond, Ind. It was heated by Boynton's hot-air furnaces. The 
cost was $27,000. School opened in it September, 1871. November 24, 
1871, it was destroyed by tire. Cause unknown. There was no insur- 
ance. At a meeting of the citizens on the day of the burning the 
Trustees were ordered to build a more commodious house. Plans were 
immediately prepared by T. N. Stevens, architect, Bedford, Ind. ; and 
before the arches of the old building had grown cold they were being 
removed to make room for the new one. While the new building was 
being prepared rooms were rented in various parts of town and school 
continued. The present building was completed in 1873. It contains 
nine rooms, and has two spacious halls twenty feet wide, running 
through the building. The stairs are broad and easy of ascent. It will 
accommodate 500 pupils. It is a brick building two stories high, has 
slate roof, and is heated by four hot-air furnaces. Total cost, $27,000. 
The history of the school has been that of continued success, and 
although in its earlier days it had to undergo many hardships and labor 
under many disadvantages, yet it has advanced so rapidly in efficiency 
and educational standing that it now ranks among the best schools of the 
State. In 1872 a separate school was opened for the colored children, 
and kept open the same length of time as the other schools. A special 
teacher in the German language has been employed by the School Board. 


G. W. Friedley, appointed April 5, 1871, resigned January 3, 1872; 
T. N. Stevens, appointed April 5, 1871, expired April 9, 1872; W. C. 
Winstandley, appointed April 5, 1871, expired April 9, 1872; H. B. 
Richardson, appointed January 10, 1871, expired April 9, 1872; Francis 
Wilson, appointed April 9, 1872, expired April 1, 187 J; Davis Harrison, 
appointed April 9, 1872, expired April 1, 1873; W. C. Winstandley, 
re- appointed April 9, 1872, expired Api'il 1, 1873; D. Harrison, 
re-appointed April 1, 1873, expired April 1, 1874; W. C. W^instandley, 
re-appointed April 1, 1873, expired April 1, 1875; D. W. Parker, 
appointed April 1, 1873, expired April 1, 1876; D. Harrison, re-appointed 
April 7, 1874, expired April 1, 1877. 








The law concerning School TrustecB was amended in 1875, and under 
the new law D. W. Parker was appointed June 8, 1875, expired June 8, 
1876; Davis Harrison, appointed June S, 1875, expired June 8, 1877; 
"W. C. Winstandley, appointed June 8, 1875, expired June 8, 1878. 


In 1871-72 were J. H. Madden, Superintendent and Principal High 
School; Miss OUieKeeler, First Grade; Miss Sue Borland, Second Grade; 
Miss Sallie Culbertson, Third Grade; Mrs. J. H. Madden, Fourth Grade; 
Miss Emma Clifton, Fifth Grade; Eugene Balden, German department; 
Mrs. Ada Hodge, Colored School. 

In 1872-73 were J. H. Madden, Superintendent and Principal Hiah 
School; Mrs. J. H. Madden, Assistant; Miss Ollie Keeler, First Gi'ade; 
Miss H. Simpson, Second Grade; Miss Sallie Culbertson, Third Grade; 
Miss Belle Conner, Fourth Grade; Miss Sue Borland, Fifth Grade; Miss 
Reba Evans, Sixth Grade; Theodore A. Hinz, German department; Miss 
Alice Eldridge, Colored School. 

In 1873-74, J. H. Madden, Superintendent and Principal High School; 
Mrs. J. H. Madden, Assistant; Miss F. C. Simpson, First Grade; Misslsis 
Duncan, Second Grade; Miss Sallie Culbertson, Third Grade; Miss 
Belle Conner, Foiu'th Grade, Miss Sue Borland, Fifth. Grade; Miss Reba 
Evans, Sixth Grade: Theodore A. Hinz, German department; Miss Alice 
Eldridge, Colored School. 

In 1874-75, J. H. Madden, Superintendent and Principal High School; 
Mrs. J. H. Madden, Assistant; Ed B. Thornton, First Grade; Miss Isis 
Duncan, Second Grade; Miss Sallie Culbertson, Third Grade; Miss 
Belle Conner, Foui'th Grade: Miss Fannie Overman, Fifth Grade; Miss 
Reba Evans, Sixth Grade; Miss Sue Borland, German department; Miss 
Alice Eldridge, Colored School. 

1875-76, J. H. Madden, Superintendent and Principal High School; 
Mrs. J. H. Madden, Assistant; Miss Ada Rout, First Grade; Miss Isis 
Duncan, Second Grade; Miss Sallie Culbertson, Third Grade; Miss 
Belle Conner, Fourth Grade; Miss Fannie Overman, Fifth Grade; Miss 
Reba Evans, Sixth Grade; Miss Sue Borland, German; Miss Alice Eld- 
ridge, Colored. 

In 1880-81, D. D. Blakeman, Superintendent; Julia R. Hughes, 
High School; Maggie J. McCollough, First Grade; Daniel Driscoll, Sec- 
ond Grade; Sallie F. Owens, Second Grade B and Third Grade A; 
Addie Riley, Third Grade B and Fourth Grade A; Lenora Aley, Fourth 
B and Fifth Grade A; Adah E. Hodge, Fifth Grade B and Sixth Grade 
A; Mary Benton, primary classes B and C; Fannie Tilfoi'd. Colored 

In 1881-82, Julia R. Hughes, High School; Maggie J. McCollough, 
Preparatory and First Grade A ; Daniel Driscoll, First Grade B and Sec- 



ond Grade A; Sallie F. Owens, Second Grade B and Third Grade A; 
Addie Riley, Third Grade B and Fourth Grade A; Nora Aley, Fourth 
Grade B and Fifth Grade A; Adah E. Hodge, Fifth Grade B and Sixth 
Grade A; Mary Benton, B and C primary; Lilly Chrisler, Colored School; 
D. D. Blakeman, Superintendent. 

In 1882-83, D. D. Blakeman, Superintendent; Julia R. Hughes, High 
School ; Maggie J. McCollough, Prepartory and Class, A First Grade ; Car- 
rie A. Short, Class B, First Grade aod Class A Second Grade; J. M. Caress, 
Second Grade, A and B; Addie Riley, Third Grade, A and B; Nora Aley, 
Fourth Grade, AandB; Aei-ieWest, Fifth Grade, A. and B; Adah Hodge, 
Sixth Grade, A and B; Mary F. Glover, Employed, October 16,1882, Sev- 
enth Grade, A and B; Lizzie Mohler, Eighth Grade, Primary; Lillie 
Elliott, Colored School. D. D. Blakeman resigned October 1882. Julia R. 
Hughes was promoted to the superintendency and Lizzie G. Hughes 
took charge of the High School. 

In 1883-84, Frank P. Smith, Superintendent; Lizzie G. Hughes, High 
School; Maggie J. McCollough, Preparatory and Eighth Grade, Class A; 
Carrie Short, Eighth Grade, B and 7, A; Eva J. Connelly, Seventh 
Grade, B and 6, A; Addie Riley, Sixth Grade, B and 5, A; Nora Aley, 
Fifth Grade B and 4, A; Aerie West, Fourth Grade, B and 3, A; Adah E. 
Hodge, I'hird Grade, B and 2, A; Mary F. Glover, Second Grade B and 
1 A; Lizzie Mohler, Primary; Dora Reath, German Department; Edith 
Elliott, Colored School. January 1884, the Board ordered the Superintend- 
ant to regrade the schools. This he did, making an eleven vears' course; 
eight ill the grades and three in the High School. The changes were 
made February 1, 1884. 

In 1884-85, F. P. Smith, Superintendent; Lizzie G. Hughes, High 
School; Addie Riley, Eighth Grade; Eva J. Connelly, Seventh Grade; 
Leona Rime, Sixth Grade; Mellie Woolfolk, Fifth Grade; Nora Aley, 
Fourth Grade; Aerie West, Third ^Grade; Cornelia J. Ikerd, Second 
Grade; Fannie Harrison, Primary; Mary F. Glover, Primary; Dora 

Reath, German department; Garrison McFall, Colored School. 



School year 1870-71, 352 admitted; average attendance, 241; 1871-72, 
451 admitted; average attendance, 331; 1872-73, 423 admitted; average 
attendance, 333; 1873-74, 471 admitted; average attendance, 365; 1874- 
75, 485 admitted; average attendance, 410; 1875-76, 491 admitted; aver- 
age attendance, 428; 1876-77, 483 admitted; average attendance, 410; 1877 
-78, 483 admitted, average attendance, 396; 1878-79, 543 admitted; aver- 
age attendance, 418; 1879-80, 534 admitted; average attendance, 424; 
1880-81, 586 admitted; average attendance, 399 ; 1881-82,610 admitted; ~ 
average attendance, 443; 1882-83, 627 admitted; average attendance, 
436; 1883-84, 649 admitted; average attendance, 466. 



1870, males, 276, females, 266, total, 542; 1871, males, 297, females, 
317, total, 614; 1872, males, 311, females, 334, total, 645; 1873, males, 
332, females, 339, total, 671; 1874, males, 349, females, 334, total, 683; 

1875, males, 337, females, 345, total, 682; 1876, males, , females, 

^ total, , 1877, males, 339, females, 354, total, 693; 1878, males, 

396, females, 397, total, 793; 1879, males, 347, females, 358, total, 705; 
1880, males, 371, females. 389, total, 760; 1881, males, 435, females, 
396, total, 831; 1882, males, 454, females, 445, total, 899; 1883, males, 
463, females, 452, total, 915; 1884, males, 494, females, 462, total, 956. 


This has been collected chiefly under the management of the present 
Superintendent, F. P. Smith. It was began in the fall of 1883. There 
are about 400 specimens in it. The greater part of it is native fossils. 
The locality is subcarboniferous. From this age we have bellerophon, 
goniatite, pentremite and a good collection of crinoids. The class in 
geology collected these and brought them to the recitation; here they 
were named, classified and labeled. Besides these, there is shown a 
good line of rocks, comprising granites, syenites, gaeissoids, quartz and 
limestone. According to composition, these are arranged under these 
heads: Silicates, carbonates and argillates ; or according to origin, they 
are arranged thus: Igneiis, aqaeous, metamorphic. There is also dis- 
played quite a line of minerals. The present class will enlarge this col- 
lection by donations from geologizing excursi(ins and private enterprise. 
This study is taught by geologic ages. We try to put the specimens in 
the hands of the pupils. They learn the ages by daily coming in con- 
tact with their characteristic fossils. 


This enterprise is chiefly due to Mrs. Julia (Hughes) Gilbert. She 
began it in 1881. The best way to get a knowledge of animal life is to 
study the animal — not the book — hence, she put her pupils at work. The 
result is that the pupils get a better knowledge of this branch of science, 
and they have also left work that interests and instructs others, behind 
them. The collection comprises birds, reptiles and fishes. These have 
all been collected by the students. The dressing and mounting have 
been done chiefly by Eb. Stalker, assisted by Lou Erwin, Fletcher Gard- 
ner, Will Glover and Alfred Parker. The collection is chiefly of natives. 
The specimens are in a handsome case and are made an ornament for the 

teachers' INSTITUTES. 

The first Teachers' Institute of Lawrence County convened at Bed- 
ford, August 28, 1865, with an enrolled membership of forty-one. The 


first officers of the associatioD were: J. M. Stalker, Superintendent; Miss 
Mary A. Lemon, Secretary, and Miss Alice Eldridge, Regulator. The 
instructors at this session were: J. S. Graham, I. N. Porch, W. L. Bos- 
ton, D. E. Hunter, J. M. Stalker, Mary Evans, Mary Stillson and Dr. 
Calvin Cutter, of Warren, Mass. The latter delivered some highly 
interesting and instructive lectures on the subject of "Physiology." 
Evening lectures were delivered by D. E. Hunter on "Troubles and 
Pleasures of Teachers," Miss L. E. Short, an eloquent address on "Edu- 
cation," and M. F. Dunn, a learned and polished talk on " Fine Arts.'' 
The session continued for a period of five days, and great interest was 
manifested by all of its members, each performing any duty assigned in 
a creditable manner. The institute has continued to hold its sessions 
each year, and they have steadily grown in popularity and efficiency, the 
membership increasing with each annual meeting. The Legislature pro- 
vided that $50 annually should be paid out of the county treasury to sup- 
port the institute, which has greatly assisted in keeping it alive. At the 
last meeting there were enrolled 161 members, continuing in session five 
days,« with an average daily attendance of 140, which bespeaks great 
praise for the large number of the teachers of the county who desire to 
meet and discuss the methods which will best further the objects of their 
profession. At this meeting, which was opened July 30, 1883, instruc- 
tions were given in the common branches and the theory and art of teach- 
ing. Three public evening lectures were delivered by Prof. Eli T. Brown. 
Under the present efficient management of County Superintendent Elli- 
son, institutes have been organized in each township, wi-th a view of 
making them important auxiliaries to the county organization. In each 
township there is an institute held every month, and in these some one 
of the teachers is chosen as a sort of Principal or Superintendent. 

In April, 1869, a meeting of the teachers and friends of education 
was held at Orleans to organize a Teachers' Convention of the counties 
of Lawrence, Orange and Washington, on which occasion many were 
present, and much interest was manifested. Among the distinguished 
teachers present were: Profs. James May, J. M. Bloss. Donaldson, Wil- 
son, Pinkham, Misses Annie and Mollie Stillson and Messrs. N. Tower, 
J. N. Burton, H. W. May, James L. Noblitt and others, all of whom had 
secured local prominence in connection with the advancement of educa- 
tional interests. Prof. Donaldson was Chairman, and C. W. Jacobs 
Secretary of the meeting. About the only object accomplished at this 
time was the permanent organization of the convention and the adoption 
of the outline of future labor. A premium was oflfei-ed for the best map 
of North America, and the meeting adjourned to meet at Bedford in July. 

The session of three days was held in the Town Hall, ^ with J. G. 
May Chairman, and C. W. Jacobs Secretary, and was very interesting 
throughout. The question, " Should Corporal Punishment be Abolished 


in Schools?" was discussed at length and decided in the affirmative. 
Prof, J. M. Bloss delivered a lecture on the "Physical Geography of 
South America." An essay, "Onward and Upward," was read by Miss 
Mary Stiilson; J. M. Stalker lectured on "Physiology," and Prof. Bloss 
on "Map Drawing." The discussion of the question : " Are Physicians 
a Curse to Humanity?" elicited jnuch amusement, aud the question was 
decided in the negative. C. W. Ja,cobs lectured on " English Gram- 
mar,'' Prof. Barry on "History," J^ G. May on "Punctuality,'' and W. 
P. Pinkham on "School Government." The question, " What should 
be the Teacher's Course in Regard to the Reading of Fiction?'! was dis- 
cussed, and decided that such reading should not be allowed in the school 
room. Miss Emma Groves read an essay on "The Duty of Teachers," 
and C. W. Jacobs lectured on "The Relation of Teachers and Parents to 
the Common School." Premiums on map drawing were awarded Misses 
Mary Trueblood and Anna Lindley, of WasTiington County; J. H. 
Buchanan, of Orange County, and J. W. May, of Lawrence County. 
The convention adjourned to meet at Salem in 1870. 

The session held at Salem was of large attendance. The same rou- 
tine of exercises was followed, together with experimental recitations on 
all the leading common .branches and the introduction of vocal and 
instrumental music. The life of the convention was promising, but for 
some reason, mainly the establishment and success of teachers' institutes, 
no other sessions were held. 




JOHN W. ACOAM, Bedford, was born where he now lives May 15, 
1841, one of three sons of the six children born to Henry J. and Catha- 
rine (Wilder) Acoam, who were among the early settlers in Lawrence 
County, the father being a harness-maker; he died February 1, 1849. 
Subject in 1856 began to learn the harness trade, and has followed that 
occupation ever since. August 11, 1862, he enlisted in Company G, 
Fourth Indiana Cavalry, and was taken prisoner in 1863 at Huntsville, 
Ala., remaining such till 1865, being confined successively at Libby, 
Pemberton, Danville and Andersonville Prisons. After his return Mr. 
Acoam was Collector of Delinquent Taxes. In 1866 he began the saddle 
and harness business, and has a good trade, making a specialty of the cel- 
ebrated spring saddle. May 1, 1866, he married Miss Clara J. Malott, 
and one child has been born to them — Harry M., born July 10, 1876. 
Mr. and Mrs. Acoam are members of the Christian Church at Bedford, 
and he is an I. O. O. F., both Subordinate and Camp, having held all 
the important offices of the order. He is a Republican and a G. A. R. 
Mr. Otho Malott, the father of Mrs. Acoam, came to Indiana about 1821. 
He moved to Kansas in 1878, and died there in 1882. 

CHARLES G. BACK was born in Colchester, Vt., November 8, 1826, 
the sixth of nine children of Jasper and Sarah (Harrington) Back. He 
passed his youth with his parents, and at the age of fifteen learned the 
tailors' trade, having previously worked at the printers' trade. He began 
business at the tailors' trade, and dealt in clothing. In 1846 he moved 
to Indiana, stopping a short time at Bloomington, and then removed to 
Bedford, where he engaged in the grocery trade, but soon retired, owing 
to failing health. In 1867 he moved upon the farm where he yet lives. 
November 24, 1851, he married Clarissa Rout. Mr. Back has been suc- 
cessful in life, and at present owns a farm of 140 acres, all quite well 
improved and stocked. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and in 
politics is liberal as regards, party. He is an enterprising citizen and a 
good ntrighbor. 

JESSE H. BAILEY is the eldest of five children born to Levi and 
Catharine (Holman) Bailey, his birth occurring March 22, 1829. His 
father was an Indianian and his mother a Kentuckian, who was brought 
to this county about the year 1810. Jesse remained on his father's farm 
until his majority, receiving limited education. July 17, 1849, he mar- 
ried Virginia J. Long, to which union eight children were born, six 


now living: Arthur H. . who married Nannie Henderson; B. W., whose 
wife was Charlotte Mayfield; Achsa C. , who married Reuben Hudson; 
A. C, Nannie I. and Donna V. Mr. Bailey has been a successful farmer, 
as he now owns 590 acres mostly well improved and stocked. He and wife 
are members of the Mt. Pleasant Christian Church, and he is a member of 
the G. A. R. at Bedford. August 6, 1862, he enlisted in Company G, 
Fourth Indiana Cavalry, and was discharged December 23, 1864, for 
wounds received in a charge on a rebel wagon train. He participated in 
the battles of Chattanooga and Resaca. Politically he is a Democrat. 
He is one of the solid men of the county. 

HIRAM M. BATMAN was born in Bono Township, this county, 
December 6, 1833, the fifth of six children of James and Maria (Malott) 
Batman, the parents being natives of Jefferson County, Ky., who came to 
Bono Township in 1816. The mother died in 1837, and Hiram M. 
remained with his father until the death of the latter April 28, 1847, 
when he went and lived with M. B. Lemon for three years. He then 
lived with Bolivar Duncan until he was twenty-two years old. In youth 
he passed the time at hard work, and obtained only the rudiments of an 
education. November 8, 1855, he married Catharine McKnight, and 
eight children were the issue: James C, William W. (who married Ellen 
Baugh), Eliza A., Ulysses, Rebecca I., Albert, Mary M. and Pearl. When 
young, our subject learned the tanners' trade, and later the wagon-makers' 
trade, but for many years has followed farming. He owns 285 acres of 
tine land. He is a member of the Christian Church, and in politics is a 
Republican. He is one of the substantial farmers of the county, and is 
a self-made man. 

ALEXANDER H. BIVINS was born in Shawswick Township, 
March 21, 1842, being the youngest of eight children of Richard and 
Elizabeth (Bivins) Bivins. The father was a native of Maryland, born 
January 7, 1799, and was married in Kentucky, March 21, 1826, and the 
next year he moved to Lawrence County. His wife died May 4, 1880. 
Alexander H. had little advantage of securing an education. At the 
age of about twenty-three years he was united in marriage with Melinda 
Bailey, (December 8, 1864). Four of their five children are now living — 
Clarence M., Charles W., Eddie N., andErtaM. — their ages being, respect 
ively, eighteen, sixteen, twelve and five years. Mr. Bivins now owns a farm 
of 118 acres, all good land. In 1864 he enlisted in Company E, One 
Hundred and Thirty-sixth Regiment, and served one hundred days, receiv- 
ing his discharge in September, 1864. Mr. and Mrs. Bivins are members 
of the Christian Church. He is a good Democrat, a Mason, and an enter- 
prising citizen. His good wife has largely contributed to his success in 
life. Their son Clarence has been attending school at Danville, Ind. 

AMBROSE CARLTON was a native of Virginia, born in 1764, and 
about the year 1788 married Mary Montgomery, of his native State. 
Their family consisted of five children, and in 1816 they settled in Law- 
rence County, Ind., where they lived the balance of their lives. Mr. 
Carlton was one of the pioneer preachers of Indiana in the Baptist faith. 
His death occurred in 1832. Robert M. Carlton, one of their sons, was 
born in Berks County, N. C, in the year 1794, and was with his father's 
family when they came to Indiana in 1816. He married Levina Barlow, 
of Kentuck5% about 1821, and together they reared a family of six chil- 
dren, these five now living: William, Ambrose, Maria L. (Huston), James 
and Robert H. Robert M. Carlton was one of the principal men of the 


county, and at different times carried on farming, grist and saw-rnilling, 
wool-carding and merchandising on the river to New Orleans. In politics 
he was a Jeffersonian Democrat, and held several important positions in 
the county, among them being that of Representative in the State Legisla- 
ture during the term 1837. His youngest son is Robert H. Carlton, born 
November 27, 1834, and has been engaged in the drug trade at Bedford 
ever since 1855. He received a high school education, and is considered 
one of the best mathematicians in the county, having followed civil engi- 
neering on the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Railroad for some 
time. His marriage to Miss Sally L. Denson, of Bedford, was June 19, 
1877. He is Master Mason, and has held nearly all the offices in Bed- 
ford Lodge No. 14. Politically he is a Democrat, and as such was Treas- 
urer of Bedford two years and in 1880 was elected County Clerk, being 
the only Democrat in the county elected that year. 

JOHN W. COSNER one of the principal merchants of Bedford, was 
born in Spice Valley Township, this county, December 16, 1836. He 
is a son of William and Mary (White) Cosner, who removed from North 
Cai'olina to Lawrence County, Ind. , at an early day and participated in 
many of the pioneer scenes of that time. When about eight years old John 
AV. began living with the family of John D. Thomasson, making their 
home his till twenty-four years old. In 1853, he began clerking in the 
general store of Mr. Thomasson, continuing until 1861, when he became 
one of the three partners composing the firm of Thomasson & Co. Cosner 
& Glover succeeded the latter firm, and in January, 1878, Mr. Cosner 
began in business aloue. In Januai'y, 1881, A. N. Butler became a part- 
ner, and the firm of J. W. Cosner & Co. continued in business two years, 
when Mr. Butler was compelled to retire by reason of ill health. Since 
then Mr. Cosner, with his son William H. , under the firm name of J. W. 
Cjsner & Son, have continued an andiminished trade. September 29 
1861, he was married to Sarah E. Jeter, and the names of their children, 
are: Hattie, William H. , Josephine, Laurenie, Oliver, Ralph, Frank 
and Rollan. All are living but the last named. Mr. Cosner is one of 
the self-made men of Bedford, is a Republican in politics and a member 
of the Subordinate Lodge of Odd Fellows. 

ISAAC H. CRIM was born in Martin County, Ind., January 1, 1812, 
one of four children born to John and Sarah (Burns) Crim, who were 
natives of Kentucky, and settled in Indiana about the year 1835; he 
dying in Johnson County, in July, 1844, where they had lately moved. 
Mrs. Crim then moved to Illinois with her children, and there our sub- 
ject, Isaac H. was mostly reared, being engaged when a yonng man in 
farming. In the fall of 1860 he came to Indiana on a visit, where he 
remained until the following spring, when he enlisted April 23, 1861, in 
Company C. Fourteenth Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, serving 
till January 15, 1863, when be was honorably discharged on account of 
a wound received at Antietam. He was engaged in the following battles: 
Rich Mountain, Green River, Cheat Mountain, Winchester, Antietam 
and other minor battles. On his return he was made Postmaster at 
Shoals. He also was railroad agent at various points, and telegraph 
operator for the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad. He was married to Mary 
E. Newkirk, October 25, 1866, and to this union, two children have been 
born: Carrie, August 15, 1867, and Lulu, December 2, 1868. The 
family are all members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and Mr. Crim 
is an A. F. & A. M. — Blue Lodge, Chapter and Commandery — and a 


member of the I. O. O. F. He is a Republican, his party electing him 
Auditor in 1878, and re-electing him in 1882 by a majority of 1,700 votes, 
the largest ever received by any one in the county. He is the Chairman 
of the Republican Central Com>nittee of the county. 

WILLIAM DAGGY, a native of Augusta County, Va., was born 
December 2, 1820, and is a son of Jacob and Ellen ^^Lockridge) Daggy, 
who emigrated to Indiana, and settled in Henry County in 1832. He 
received what education he has in the country schools of his native State, 
was raised on a farm, and when twelve years old came with his parents 
to the Hoosier State. In 1844 he came to Bedford, and began working 
for Hon. George G. Dunn, and in May, 1847, was united in marriage 
with Miss Rebecca Mitchell, by whom he is the father of six children, the 
following named living: Mary E. (Ogg), John N., Thomas O., M. J. 
(Ragsdale) and Martha A. For a time after his marriage Mr. Daggy 
farmed, then traded in stock until the close of the war. He was 
elected Sheriff of Lawrence County in 1864, re-elected in 1866, serving 
in all four years, and after this was engaged in the stock business in the 
South. At present he is engaged in milling two miles north of Bedford. 
He is one of the well-to-do and public-spirited men of Lawrence County. 

JOHN M. DAGGY, son of Jacob and Ellen (Lockridge) Daggy, and 
brother of William Daggy, whose biography precedes this, was born in 
Augusta County, Ya., June 22, 1823. His schooling was limited to the 
backwoods log-schoolhouses of his day, and until nineteen years old 
followed farming. He then began learning the blacksmith's trade at 
Nashville, Ind., and with but two years' exception has ever since fol- 
lowed his trade. In 1846 he located at Columbus, remaining there four 
years, then moved to Fayetteville, in Lawrence County. In March, 1858, 
he settled in Bedford, and has been working at his trade with John 
Owen, John K. Hummer, Mr. Owen and A. C. Glover as partners. In 
1856 he became a member of the firm of Daggy, Hodge & Walheiser, 
one of the principal business firms of Bedford, and has ever since been 
senior partner. June 15, 1851, his marriage with Isabel J. Mitchell, 
daughter of Thomas Mitchell, one of the pioneers of Lawrence County, 
was solemnized, and to them have been born five children, only the fol- 
lowing two yet living: Frank E. and Addie L. (Lary). Both parents 
belong to the Christian organization at Leatherwood Church. Mr. Daggy 
is an ardent member of the Masonic fraternity, in which he has attained 
the Knight Templar degree. He has been W. M. for about twenty years, 
since residing in Bedford, and for the past ten years High Priest of 
Hacker Chapter. He is now holding one of the principal offices in 
the Bedford Council. 

COL. HENRY DAVIS, a veteran of the war with Mexico and of the 
Rebellion, was born in Franklin County, N. C, October 9, 1812, and is 
one of five children of Wiley O. and Susan (Kitchen) Davis. When yet 
a small lad he moved with his parents to Haywood County, Tenn., and 
when about fifteen years old began a three- years' apprenticeship at the 
saddler's trade, which has been his occupation until within the past few 
years. To his marriage with Elizabeth T. Davis, which occurred 
December 22, 1833, these children have been born: Frances, Sai-ah J., 
Melissa, Albert H., Gustavus C. and three deceased. In 1838 he 
removed to Leesville. Lawrence Co., Ind., where he resided a num- 
ber of years. June 20, 1846, he was enrolled in Company F, Second 
Regiment Indiana Infantry, of the Mexican war, and of this he was 


chosen Captain. He served with Gen. Taylor through the battle of 
Buena Viata, and was honorably discharged June 21, 1847. In 1849 
hfi moved to Bedford, from where he enlisted in September, 1862, in the 
Eighty -second Indiana Volunteer Infantry, of which he was commis- 
sioned Lieutenant-Colonel. At the battle of Chickamauga he not only 
lost a son but was severely hurt by a Minie ball, which struck his sabre 
squarely and with tremendous force. Besides the above battle, he served 
through Perrysville, Hoover's Gap and Stone Kiver. Owing to his 
injury he resigned, and was discharged in October, 1863. Col. Davis 
is a Sir Knight in Masonry, a Camp Degree Odd Fellow, a stanch 
Republican, and for four years, beginning in about 1850, served as County 
Treasurer. In 1877 he was commissioned Postmaster at Bedford, and 
is yet serving as such. August 26, 1858, his wife died, and December 
9 of the same year, Christina (Culbertson) Kern became his wife. 
This lady died April 4, 1872. Col. Davis is a member of the G. A. R. 
and the Christian Church. 

WILLIAM DAY was born in North Carolina, October 12, 1826, and 
was the fourth child ol eleven born to Archibald and Ruthie (Woody) 
Day, both natives of North Carolina, who came to Shawswick Township 
in 1827. Our subject spent his early years on his father's farm at hard 
labor, and continued thus until the age of twenty -three years, receiving 
poor educational advantages, but making the most of what he could get. 
September 19, 1850, he married Elizabeth Woody, who has borne him 
eleven children, eight of whom are now living: Robert W., who married 
Isis Duncan; Jesse M., who married Mary I. Malott (deceased); Ruth 
E., who married John F. Wright; Lewis F., Kitty C, William W., 
Elizabeth E. and Nannie B. Mr. Day has followed farming through 
life, and now owns 208 acres of fine land. In March, 1848, he enlisted 
for thi'ee months in the war with Mexico, and was honorably discharged 
at the expiration of his term of enlistment. In December, 1863, he 
enlisted in Company I, One Hundred and Twentieth Indiana Regiment, 
and served with distinction until he was mustered out in January, 1866, 
as Lieutenant. He was at Kenesaw Mountain, Resaca, Decatur, Ga., 
Atlanta, Franklin, Nashville, Kingston, N. C, and other battles of less 
note. He is a Republican and is active in politics, having been candi- 
date for Sheriff. He has served often as County Poor Superintendent, 
and has been prominently connected with the Agricultural Society. He 
belongs to three secret societies: Mason, Odd Fellow and G. A. R. ; 
and he and wife are members of the Christian Church. 

CAPT. JEREMIAH E. DEAN, a veteran of the Mexican and late Civil 
wars was born in Clark County, Ky., October 25, 1821 and is one of five 
children born to James and Mary (Campbell) Dean. When a small lad 
he went to Marion County, Ind. , making that his home until about four- 
teen years old, when he moved to Orange County to live with an uncle. 
Until attaining his majority he worked on a farm, then worked two years 
in a grist-mill at Lawrenceport, after which he moved to Bedford. May 
7, 1847, he enlisted in Company I, Sixteenth Regiment of United 
States Infantry, served in the Mexican war until he was honorably dis- 
charged at Newport, Ky., July 28, 1848. May 24, 1849, Mary A. Owens 
became his wife, shortly after which he moved to Springville. where for 
over twenty years he was engaged in blacksmithing. June 7, 1861, he 
enlisted in Company F, Fifteenth Indiana Volunteers, and on the organi- 
zation of the company was elected First Lieutenant, a position he held 


until after the battle of Stone River, when he was advanced to the Cap- 
taincy of his company. Besides various skirmishes in which he was 
encraged he was an active participant in the battles of Shiloh, Stone River, 
Chickamauga and Mission Ridge. Mr. Dean is a member of the Blue 
Lodge in Masonry, is a Republican in politics, and in 1875 was elected 
Auditor of Lawrence County, serving as such four years. He is at pres- 
ent engaged in the hardware trade. Both Mr. and Mrs. Dean are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Chni'ch, and the following named of 
their ten children are yet living: Samuel M., Sarah C, D. J., Amanda 
L. , Harriet C. and Jeremiah H. 

DR. ISAA(j DENSON, a pioneer physician of this county, was born 
Augusts, 1804 in Somerset County, Md. , and is one of four children 
born to James and Mary (Collins) Denson, who moved to Hamilton 
County, Ohio in 1808, and and from there ten years later to Lawrence 
County, Ind. Dr. Isaac Denson was educated in the country schools 
of his day and the State University of Indiana. Owino- to the cholera 
of 1833, which broke up the latter school, he was prevented from grad- 
uating. He read medicine with Dr. Winthrop Foote, at Bedford, and in 
the winter of 1835 attended lectures at Jefferson Medical Colleo-e. Phil- 
adelphia, then began practicing his profession at Bedford with his pre- 
ceptor. Once since then Dr. Denson has had a partner in Dr. S. A. 
Rariden, but for years he was alone in the practice of medicine. Since 
1876 he has been living a quiet and retired life. March 24, 1840, his 
marriage with Sarah J. Rawlins was solemnized, and their eleven chil 
dren are: Daniel (deceased), Mary, Susan, Sarah, Josephine (deceased), 
Harriet, Elizabeth, Gustavus (deceased), James, Amy and Joseph. The 
mother is a member of longstanding in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Dr. Denson was a Whig in politics until 1856, since when he has acted 
in unison with the Republicans. As a physician he was eminently suc- 
cessful, as his many patients yet living testify. In later years he has 
turned his attention to agricultural pursuits, and in this as in other mat- 
ters he has made a success. 

JAMES H. DONICA, a native of Shawswick Township, born October 
22. 1834, is the fourth of seven children of Caswell and Henrietta 
(Thatcher) Donica, the father a native of Greene County, Tenn., born 
December 25, 1803. The parents of Caswell came fi'om Kentucky to 
Indiana in 1818. The marriage of the latter to Miss Thatcher occurred 
November 6, 1827, and soon afterwai'd he located on a farm to do for 
himself, living many years, becoming well respected and securing a tine 
farm of about 570 acres. His death occurred August 4, 1883. He was 
a stanch Democrat. His widow yet survives, at the age of about seventy- 
eight years. She was a native of Bourbon County, Ky. , born January 
22, 1807. At the age of twenty-three years, with a limited schooling, 
James H. began for himself. October 7, 1858, he married Nancy Hunter, 
who bore him one child: William L. His wife died August 18, 1865, 
and September 21, ISd, he married Naomi Trogdon, who has presented 
him with three children: James F.-, Henrietta A. and Lawrence C. His 
occupation has been farming and stock raising His farm of 470 acres, 
well stocked, shows his success. He is a Republican; belongs to the 
Christian Church, and his wife to the Methodist Church. The family 
are among the best citizens. 

HON. GEORGE G. DUNN, deceased, was a native of Kentucky, 
born in December, 1812, and when yet a boy settled in Monroe County, 


Intl., where he received the greater part of his schooling. "While a 
member of the junior class in the State University, he quit college and 
for a time was engaged in school teaching in Switzerland County, but in 
1838 located in Bedford, where he identified himself as an instructor in 
the public schools, occupying his spare hours in reading law. He was 
admitted to the Lawrence County Bar and soon afterward became associ- 
ated with Col. R. W, Thompson, ex-Seci-etary of the Navy, in the practice 
of his profession. While serving as Prosecuting Attorney of his circuit 
he became widely known, and being an ardent Whig in politics, 
became the nominee of his party for Congress. Although in a dis- 
trict strongly Democratic, he was elected after a heated contest by twenty- 
two votes, and served with marked ability. Succeeding this he was 
elected to the Indiana State Senate, but in 1852 resigned his seat to look 
after a large law practice which he could no longer neglect. In 1854 he 
became an Independent candidate for Congressional honors, and after 
one of the most spirited campaigns in which Mr. Dunn was ever engaged 
he was elected with a majority of 1,660 votes. The exposui'e and hard 
work of this campaign were, no doubt, the ultimate cause of his death. 
He lived to serve in the session to which he had been elected, and died 
in September, 1857, regretted by many warm friends. Without flattery 
to the memory of Mr. Dunn, it can be honestly said that he was possessed 
of legal and legislative attainments unsurpassed by any man of his day 
in Southern Indiana. He was an eloquent and effective speaker and a 
man of undoubted integrity and great personal courage. 

ALEXANDER H. DUNIHUE, one of Bedford's oldest merchants and 
most respected citizens, was born at Marietta, Ohio, April 26, 1807, and 
is the oldest and only survivor of a family of eight children born to Dan- 
iel and Abigail (Pool) Dunihue. and is a grandson of Daniel O'Donoghue 
who was a native of Northern Ireland, where he was identified with the 
Protestant religion. The latter emigrated to the United States at an early 
day and here the family name became changed to Dunihue. The father 
of Alexander H. removed from Marietta, Ohio, to near Columbus, in 
1814, and from there three years later to what is now Carroll County, Ky. 
The fall of 1818, they settled at Paoli, Ind., but seven months afterward 
moved to Livonia, in Washington County, where, after a residence of four 
years, they removed to Mooresville. In 1833 the family settled in Bed- 
ford, where Mr. Dunihue died in 1850, preceded by his wife in 1846. 
Alexander H. Dunihue received the greater part of his education in a 
high school at Livonia, taught by Rev. W. W. Martin, a distinguished 
Presbyterian minister. While at Greenville, Maj. Isaac Stewart induced 
him to begin clerking in his store at 25 cents per day, and voluntarily 
increased it to dl^ cents, then 50 cents and in 1826 sent him to take charge 
of a branch store at Bedford at $87. 50 and board and clothing per year. 
The second year he received with his board and clothes $150, and the 
third year $250, which at that time was enormous wages. During the 
third year the store was sold, after which he was employed by Daughton 
& Co., of New Albany to dispose of a $7,000 stock of goods at the 
mouth of Salt Creek, in Lawrence County. In 1830, he began clerking 
in the store of Col. William McLane, at Bedford, with whom he remained 
four years at $250 per annum; then accepted a position in the office of 
Register of Lands at Indianapolis, at much higher wages. In July, 
1834, Mr. Dunihue returned to Bedford and was accepted as a partner by 
Col. McLane, and in 1836, Ann McLane, his partner's daughter, became 


bis wife. Since 1834 — fifty years — Mr. Dunihue has been constantly and 
actively engaged in business in Bedford for himself, and at present is 
connected with one of the town's best biisiness hou&es, known as Dunihue 
& Sons. During this long and eventful career he has made considerable 
money and lost considerable, but out of the t/e6ris he has saved sufficient to 
keep himself and wife the remainder of their days in peace and plenty. 
Mrs. Dunihue was born at Orleans, Ind., in 1816, and for fortj^-eight 
years has been a member of the Presbyterian Church. During his life, 
Mr. Dunihue has made fourteen different trips to New Orleans, ten times 
on Hat-boats. In politics he is a Republican, formerly a Whig, and there 
is no man more intimately connected with the history of Bedford than is 
Alexander H. Dunihiie. 

JOHN Y. DUNLAVY is a native of Montgomery County, Ky., born 
July 15, 1804, the second of ten children of Daniel and Martha (Yocum) 
Dunlavy; the father a native of Pennsylvania and the mother of Ken- 
tucky. John Y. passed his youth at hard work on his father's farm, 
securing little education, and at the age of twenty-two years went to 
Henry County, Ind., and a little later to Wayne County, but soon there- 
after came to Lawrence County. January 8, 1829, be married Nancy 
Woolery, and to this miion twelve children have been born, six now liv- 
ing: Emily, wife of David S. Johnson; Kebecca, who married Robert 
Foster, deceased; Norval, who married Evaline Fish; Joseph L., who 
married Flora R. Griffith; Oeorge C, unmarried, and Margaret A., wife 
of W. Reynolds. Mr. Dunlavy was formerly a carpenter and wheel- 
wright, but his leading occupation has been farming. He owns eighty 
acres of good land, and is an influential Democrat, and has been for sixty 
vears. He has been Justice of the Peace and is well respected. 

LYCURGUS DUNCAN, born in this township, August 8, 1835, the 
fourth child of eight of William and Mary H. (Malott) Duncan, remained 
with his parents on the farm, receiving an average education, until he 
was eighteen years old, when for two years he attended the State Univer- 
sity at Bloomington, being forced then to leave owing to failing health 
and being forced to remain idle for about one year. He then taught 
school and afterward entered a hardware store at Bedford, which estab- 
lishment was the first in the place. Eighteen months later he moved to 
the farm upon which he now lives. He has by good management and 
industry secured 400 acres of good land. June 30, 1858, he married 
Sallie A. Bryant, who bore him eight children, six of whom are now liv- 
ing: Mary P., Morton, Sarah E. , William, Carrie T., and Nannie, all at 
home with their parents. March 18, 1879, Mrs. Duncan died, and March 
8, 1883, he married Amanda E. Driscoll, who has borne him one child, 
Kate. Mr. Duncan has served as County Surveyor for fourteen years. 
He is a Republican, a Mason, and himself and wife are members of the 
Christian Church. His parents were natives of Jeflferson County, Ky. 
They reached Lawrence County, December 25, 1825. The family is one 
of the best in the county. 

WILLIAM EDWARDS was born in Ashe County, N. C, June 16, 
1811, the ninth of twelve children born to Starling and Salin (Cobb) 
Edwards. Our subject came to this State in 1827, and has been a resi- 
dent of this county ever since. In consequence of his father's death his 
educational facilities were limited, and he was cast out upon the world 
to carve his own fortune, and well he has done it. July 18, 1833, he was 
married to Elizabeth Fish, and to this union twelve children have been 


born, six of whom are now living: Serelda, who was united in marriage 
to Thomas KiJgore; Sallie, wife of B. F. Kilgore; John, who married 
Retta Williams; Lucien, whose wife was Martha Long; a sou, who 
married Delilah Cariss; Virginia F. , who married George Kinniek. 
Farming has always been his occupation, and he now owns 208 acres of 
land. Mr. and Mrs. Edwards are members of tbe Christian Church, and 
he is a Democrat, having in by-gone years taken quite an interest in 
political matters. He is well respected. 

AUGUSTIN ELLIS, jeweler, was born August 30, 1836, in Hendricks 
County, Ind., and is one of six children born to William and Sarah 
(Blackwell) Ellis, who were among the earliest settlers in Indiana from 
the South. Mr. Ellis received such school privileges as were to be had 
at that early day in Indiana, and was left when young by the death of 
his parents tocai-e for himself. In youth he learned the carriage-makers' 
trade, which he followed about four years in Canton, and Morgan County, 
Ind. He was engaged in business in Salem, Washington County, at the 
time of the famous Morgan raid in .that locality, and was by Gen. 
Morgan taken prisoner, but soon after released. Mr. Ellis w^as married 
April 18, 1860, to Drusilla Green, and to their union six children were 
born, four of whom are now living: Samuel, Oliver, Magnolia and 
Augusta. June 12, 1874, he located in Bedford in the jewelry business, 
where he owns the store room where he is doing a prospei'ous business, 
and has a stock of goods valued at ^6,000. Mrs. Ellis died April 6. 
1876, and July 17, 1879, Mr. Ellis was married to .Ellen LeForce. and 
by her is the father of one child, named Frank. Mr. Ellis is a member 
of the Methodist and his wife of the Presbyterian Church. He is a 
Democrat in politics, although he takes little interest in public affairs. 

V^'ILLIAM EBWIN, deceased, was a native of Randolph County, 
N. C, from whence he emigrated with his family to Indiana Territory in 
1808, locating in Clark County. In 1815 he removed to Lawrence 
County, where he became widely known, serving for a time as County 
Judgje. Previous to this he served as one of the Territorial Magistrates 
under Gov. Harrison. The eldest of his children and his name sake 
was the father of William Erwin, the present County Recorder. By 
Bishop Roberts, William the second was married to Elizabeth Dodd, a 
native of Kentucky, in March, 1835, and to them twelve children were 
born, Mr. Erwin was a farmer throughout life, a member of long stand- 
ing in the Methodist Church, and a man of undoubted honor and integ- 
rity. Early in life he espoused the Whig faith in politics, but in 1856 
was one of seventeen in Marion Township who renounced their old 
party for Republicanism and cast their ballots for John C. Fremont for 
President. During the Rebellion he took advanced grounds for the pres- 
ervation of the Union. His death, which occurred November 19, 1881, 
was universally regretted. His oldest son, Hugh Erwin, was elected to 
the Indiana Legislature in 1860, at that time being the youngest member, 
but in 1861 resigned, and enlisted in the Twenty-fourth Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry, and was elected Captain of Company A. Ho participated in 
the battles of Shiloh, Port Gibson, Champion Hills and Vicksburg, but 
by reason of failing health was compelled to resign his commission. He 
was twice elected Treasurer of Lawrence County, and was afterward 
appointed Government Ganger by President Grant. He is now a resi- 
dent of Cherokee County, Kan. William Erwin, the third of that name 
here mentioned, and Hugh's brother, was born April 1 1, 1843, and with 


his brother was raised on a farm. July 9, 1861, he enlisted in the same 
company and regiment as his brother, served through the Missouri cam- 
paign and waa honorably discharged June 11, 1862. For a time succeed- 
ing this he attended Asbury University at Greencastle, and in May, 
1864, graduated from Bryant & Stratton's Business College at Indiana- 
. poll 8. In this same month he became a member of Company E, One 
Hundred and Thirty- sixth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, serving until the* 
expiration of his term of enlistment. After this he served as Deputy 
Treasurer and Auditor two years, and in 1875 was appointed County 
Recorder to fill the unexpired term of John F. Richards. In 1876 he 
was elected to this office and re-elected in 1880 with an increased major- 
ity. Mr. Erwin is a stanch Republican, a Free Mason and a member of 
the G. A. R. May 15, 1878, Miss Flora A. Irwin became his wife, 
and Mary, born October 11, 1879, is their only child. His mother, now 
in her sixty-eighth year, and one sister, now live on the old homestead in 
Marion Township; two sisters in Eureka, 111. His brother, Thomas 
Erwin, resides in Marion Township on his farm; one sister in Anchor- 
age, Ky., one in North Vernon and one near Springville, Ind. 

JAMES D. FARMER, born in Shawswick Township, July 21, 1821, 
is the eldest of three children of Michael and Jane (Stevenson) Farmer, 
both natives of Grayson County, Va., who settled in Lawrence County in 
1821. The father came to the wilderness with little property, but at the 
time of his death was worth about $10,000. He and wife were esteemed 
citizens. At the age of nineteen, with a limited education, our subject 
began clerking in the dry goods store of Samuel Irwin, Bedford, remain- 
ing seven years, then accepting a position as clerk in the State Bank at 
Bedford, continuing until the charter expired in 1854. October 18, 
] 849, he married Emeline R. Rawlins, who bore him seven children, of 
whom the following six are living: Lucy J. (wife of A. B. Tressler), 
Frank, Charley D., E. W., Edward E. and Adda, the latter two being 
twins. Since leaving Bedford Mr. Farmer has been a farmer, and now 
owns over 500 acres of land, mostly well improved. He is a prominent 
Republican, and an earnest exponent of all movements to improve soci- 
ety. He and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

ANDERSON FISH was born in Lincoln County, N. C, January 
17, 1815, and is the seventh of eleven children of William and Sarah 
(Kale) Fish, natives of North Carolina, who came to Orange County, 
Ind., in 1816, but in the spring of 1817 located where our subject now 
resides. The parents became honored citizens of the county. The father 
(William) was born in 1781 and died in 1855, full of years, revered by 
all. Our subject, at the age of twenty-two, with meager education, 
secured at the old subscription schools, married Melinda Long, May 25, 
1837, and this lady has borne him twelve children, of whom ten are liv- 
ing: John W., who married Eliza J. Bridgewater; Minerva, who married 
Charles Mason; Frances, wife of James Owen; Adolphus, who married 
Lydia Bridwell; Levi L., who married Lydia Ragsdale: Oscar H., who 
married Jane Anderson; Kate, wife of Lycurgus Ferguson; Felix, who 
married Mary Pace; Virgil E., who married Carrie Stipp, and Lloyd E., 
unmarried. September 26, 1882, Mrs. Fish died, and October 30, 1883, 
Mr. Fish married Nancy Nugent. He owns a fine farm of 550 acres, is 
a leading Democrat, and himself and wife are members of the Christian 


WINTHROP A. FOOTE is a native of the town and county where 
he now lives and has always resided, his birth occurring December 15, 
1832, one of five children' born to Dr. Winthrop and Cynthia C. (Barlow) 
Foote. Dr. Winthrop Foote was born November 30, 1787, early in life 
graduating in both law and medicine, as well as the classics and sciences. 
He left Connecticut to seek his fortune in the West, and in 181(5 located 
at old Palestine, in Lawrence County, Ind. Ten years later, on the 
removal of the county seat, he came to Bedford, where for a time he 
engaged in legal pursuits, and was elected State's Attorney. Preferring 
the practice of medicine to that of law, he resumed the practice of the 
former and made his home at Bedford until his death, August 2, 1856. 
Dr. Foote was a man far superior to his early associates in point of edu- 
cation and intellect. He acquired a large amount of property by indus- 
try, and May 22, 1823, was married. He at one time predicted that 
stone fi'om what is known as the " Blue Hole " would be shipped to New 
York. This prediction, when there was no railroad or prospect of one 
in this part of the country, was remarkable. He lies buried by the side 
of his brother in a solid stone vault near Bedford. W. A. Foote, subject 
of this sketch, received a liberal education at Newton, Conn., and also 
took a commercial course at Cincinnati. He then clerked in Bedford 
five or six years; then embarked in business for himself with D. W. 
Parker, bis present partner, and their partnership has continued about 
twenty-two years. September 16, 1858, Juliet Curtis, of Newtown, 
Conn., became his wife, and both he and wife belong to the Presbyte- 
rian Church. Although no children have been born to them, they have 
reared two, adopting one. Until the firing of Fort Sumter Mr. Foote 
was a Democrat; since then he has been a Republican. 

COL. GEORGE W. FRIED LY, one of the members of the Lawrence 
County Bar, was born in Harrison County, Ind., June 1, 1840, one of 
four children born to John M. and Sophia Friedly, who were both 
of Pennsylvania Dutch descent, settling in Harrison County in 1816, 
but afterward removing to Bartholomew County for the purpose of edu- 
cating their children; and it was there that our subject received his edu- 
cation— in the Hartsville University. He was reared on a farm, and 
while yet a boy began reading law. In July, 1862, he enlisted in Com- 
pany I, Sixty-seventh Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and served 
in the late war till its close, when lie was honorably discharged August 8, 
1865. He was elected First Lieutenant of his company, and afterward pro- 
moted to Captain, with which rank he was discharged. After the war he 
located in Bedford, and began the practice of law. He was married to 
Edith Kelley January 16, 1867, and to tbeir union have been born four 
children: Clara, Olive, Georgie and Emma. Mrs. Friedly is a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he is an A. F. & A. M. — Blue 
Lodge, Chapter, Commandery and Council — and a G. A. R. Col. Friedly 
has a fine practice, and is attorney for the L. , N. A. & C. R. R. He is a 
Republican, that party having elected him to the Lower House of the 
Legislature, and afterward to the Senate. In 1872, at a special session, 
he was elected President of the Senate to fill the unexpired term of Lieut. 
Gov. Cumback. He has served as Chairman of the Republican State 
Central Committee; was a delegate to the Chicago Convention, and was 
tendered the position of Register of the Land Office at Helena, Mont., 
but declined. 


LEVI. FKY, bora in Shawswick Township, March 3, 1825, is the 
fifth of ele\en children of Henry and Sarah (Ikerd) Fry. The pai'ents 
married in North Carolina, and in 1816 came to Clark County, Ind., but 
five years later removed to Shawswick Township, both being natives of 
North Carolina. The father was born April 10, 1794, and died August 
8, 1861; the mother was born July 9, 1796, and died May 22, 1879; both 
were sober, industrious and honored citizens. Levi received a meager 
education at the primitive schools, and at the age of twenty- tkree years 
married (November 9, 1848) Elizabeth Ikerd, who presented him with the 
following children: Mary A., who married John L. Long; George A., 
who married Louisa Dolt; John F. , who married Catharine Williams, 
and Willis L. , who married Clara Likens. December 18, 1862, Mrs. Fry 
died, and April 24, 1864, he married Mary Smith, who has borne him 
eight children, as follows: Virginia E., who married William Sable; 
Henry, Lawrence, Jesse, Catharine, Lydia J., Nancy A. and Ivy. Mr. 
Fry is a farmer, but works at carpenter and joiner work. He owns 297 
acres of land. He is a Democrat and a Baptist, his wife being a 

DR. JOSEPH GARDNER, one of the three children of George 
and Alice (Randall) Gardner, was born September 15, 1833, in Clark 
County, Ind. George Gardner was a native Rhode Islander, but early 
in 1812 was residing in Canada. Instead of swearing allegiance to the 
King, he joined a band of Canada Rangers and served his native country 
faithfully until the close of the war. He was once captured, and being 
a supposed spy was tried and sentenced to death by a drum -head court- 
martial, and narrowly escaped having the sentence carried into execution. 
After the war he went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and was thei-e married, sub- 
sequently moving to Indiana, where both he and wife died. Dr. Joseph 
Gardner was left an orphan when fourteen years old. He served an 
apprenticeship at the painter's trade, but in 1856 began the study of med- 
icine, graduating in 1861 from the Medical Department of the University 
of Louisville. After serving in the United States Marine Hospital as 
House Surgeon he was, in the spring of 1862, appointed a surgeon in the 
military hospitals, but while doing his duty at the battle of Atlanta, he 
received a severe wound from a Minie ball. By special request from the 
Provost Marshal -General of Kentucky, he was detailed to assist in the 
examination of drafted men and recruits, and on the resignation of Prof. 
T. S. Bell, Surgeon of the Board of Enrollment for the Fifth District, 
he was appointed in his stead and as such served until June 15, 1865. 
In 1866 Dr. Gardner came to Bedford, and until within the past five 
years practiced his profession. He is a Sir Knight in Masonry, a mem- 
ber of the I. O. O, F. and G. A. R. fraternities, belongs to the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Society of 
Microscopists, and is also a member of the Tri-State, the State and the 
County Medical Societies. As a Republican in politics, he was elected 
Representative to the Indiana House of Representatives in 1880, serving 
in the special and regular sessions of that term. In 1852 Miss Amelia 
Bennett became his wife, who died in 1867, leaving four daughters — 
Alice, Mary, Sarah and Susan, In 1868 he was married to Miss Eliza- 
beth Malott, his present wife, and by her is the father of two sons, named 
Fletcher and Thomas, 

JAMES GARRISON, manufacturer and repairer of boots and shoes, 
is a native Hoosier, born in the county in which he yet resides, September 


1, 1849. He is one of three sons born to Henry and Pernetta (White) 
Garrison, who were of German descent and among the jiioneers of this 
locality. James was reared to manhood on a farm, in youth receiving a 
good common school education, and when twenty years old beofan the 
shoemaker's trade, at which he worked without interruption until June, 
1873, when he embarked in business for himself. He is now preparino- 
to add to his large custom trade a carefully selected line of ready-made 
goods, which with his knowledge of what goods should be, will undoubt- 
edly be the best line of boots and shoes in Bedford. Mr. Garrison is a 
Eepublican politically, and is one of the steady and reliable men of the 
place. He married Miss Mary U. Bernhardt, March 2, 1871, and Mabel. 
Frederick I. and William A. are the names of their children, who vyere 
born June 10, 1874 ; October 18, 1876 ; and October 27, 1880. respect- 
ively. The parents are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

CONSTANT GAUSSIN, a native of France, was born October 1, 
1854, and when three years old came with his parents, Felix and Mary 
E. Gaussin, to the United States, landing at New Orleans, from whence 
they came directly to Bedford. Constant received liberal schooling 
advantages in youth, and at the age of seventeen began the shoemaker's 
trade, at which he continued three years. In partnership with John L. 
Baker, in 1875 he embarked in the retail liquor business, continuing 
until 1878, when he began in the business alone and has ever since con- 
tinued it. Asa business man Mr. Gaussin has been very successful, and 
through his own exertions he has become possessed of one of the finest 
residences in Bedford, besides the block and lot where his store is located. 
In politics he is a Democrat. October 11, 1875, Miss Ella Vaughan 
became his wife, and Nellie and Clarence C. are the names of their two 

JOHN GLOVER is a native of this county and was born November 
7, 1815. He is the second of twelve children of Joseph and Mary 
(McManus) Glover, the father a native of Grayson County, Va., and the 
mother of Barren County, Ky. The father came to Orange County in 
1811, where he was married June 17, 1813, but a year later moved to 
Lawrence County. He was thus one of the very first settlers in Orange 
County. John lived with his parents until their respective deaths, the 
father dying July 21, 1844, and the mother about ten years before. John 
secured a fair education for business, and has made the old bomestead 
his home. October 15, 1852, he married Olive Shaw, a native of New 
York, and to them eight children were born, of whom five are now living: 
Joseph, Mary, Emma, Morton and John. Mr. Glover owns 160 acres of 
choice land, and is comfortably situated and prosperous. Mr. and Mrs. 
Glover are members of the Methodist Church. Mr. Glover is an Odd 
Fellow and a Republican, and is one of the county's best representative 
men. He has been township) Assessor four terms. His father was an 
early Sheriff of the territorial county and was a prominent man. In the 
family are many traditions of the times when Indians and wild animals 
roamed the forests of Lawrence County. 

ALEXANDER C. GLOVER was born in Shawswick Township, Jan- 
uary 13, 1820, third of ten children born to Ware and Hetta (Redus) 
Glover, natives respectively of Kentucky and Virginia, he coming to this 
State in the fall of 1810, and she in 1813. Alexander received a limited 
education in the common schools, his father havintr died when he was 
only thirteen years of age, and remained at home with his mother till he 


was twenty-six years of age, taking charge during that time of the farm 
and his younger brothers and sister. October 21, 1845, he married Ann 
Eliza Carter, who died about one year after marriage. April 13, 1848, 
he married Rachael E. Glenn, and to this union have been born ten chil- 
dren, yfour of whom are living ; Samuel W., who married Sophia Steinha 
gen ; James W., whose wife was Eliza Owen ; Alpheus and Mary. Sub- 
ject formerly followed blacksmi thing but his occupation now is farming, 
owning: 160 acres of land. Mr. and Mrs. Glover are members of the 
Presbyterian Church, and he is a Mason and a Republican. He is now 
serving as County Commissioner and has been the choice of his party for 
that office three times. 

GEORGE W. GLOVER was born in Shawswick Township, February 
28, 1829, the fifth of nine children of Joseph and Mary (McManus) Glover, 
natives of Virginia and Kentucky; and came to Indiana at an early day. 
At the age of sixteen years, our subject, after having passed his youth on 
his father's farm, obtaining limited schooling, began to do for himself. 
He married Ann C. Brown, October 21, 1852, and to this union the fol- 
lowing family have been born: Charlotte, who married Aylett Whitted; 
George, who married Nettie Ferguson; John, whose wife was Belle Jack- 
son; Robert, unmarried; Emmett, whose wife was Sarah Palmer; Will- 
iam and Mary, the last two being single and at home with their parents. 
Mr. Glover has followed the occupation of farming, and now owns eighty 
acres of well improved land. He is a Republican and a member of the 
Masonic Lodge at Heltonville. He is an enterprising man and a good 
citizen and neighbor. 

DAVID G. GRAY, a native of Monroe County, Ind"., and a son of 
William and Mary Gray, who were among the first pioneers of that local- 
ity, was born March 31, 1826, and is one in a family of ten children. 
His education was limited to the primitive schools of his day, and until 
seventeen years old he worked on a farm. At that age he began working 
at the tanner's trade, and for thirty-eight years made that his vocation, 
most of , the time at Bedford, and for twenty-five years as a partner of D. 
R. LaForce. Since the death of Mr. LaForce in 1873, Mr. Gray has 
been retired from active pursuits, and resides with his wife at their 
pleasant and comfortable home near the Bedford High School building. 
He owns valuable town property, is a Republican in politics, a member 
of the Masonic order, and is well known and universally respected. On 
the 2d of February, 1854, his marriage with Elizabeth Long was solem- 
nized, and both he and wife belong to the Leatherwood Christian Church. 

GEORGE W. GYGER was born in Lawrence County, December 25, 
1825, the fifth of thirteen children born to George and Tabitha (Hender- 
son) Gyger, the father a native of Pennsylvania, and the mother of Ten- 
nessee, both coming to Indiana at a very early day. The father died 
when George was quite young, and the boy lived with his mother receiv- 
ing a limited education. May 3, 1854, he married Matilda F. Kennedy 
who bore him four children : Susan B., Robert D., Charles E. and James 
H. Charles E. is telegraph operator at Bedford; the other children 
are at home. Mr. Gyger owns 140 acres of land, his occupation being 
farming. In I^ebruary, 1862, he enlisted as a private in Company B, 
Fifty-third Indiana Regiment, and served honorably and well until 
August 10, 1865, and was then mustered out. He participated in several 
of the most fiercely contested battles of the great war — was at Pittsburg 
Landing, siege of Vicksbm'g, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, capture of 


Savannah, Columbia and Raleigh, and in all the movements on the 
famous march to the sea. He is justly proud of his military record. He 
is a Baptist, a Republican, a Mason and an excellent citizen and 

CHARLES E. HA.LL is the son of Nathan L. and Sarah (Carter) 
Hall, and is one of eleven children born to these parents, of whom 
the following ten are now living: Josephine, Cliarle3 (our subject), Liz- 
zie, Isis, Jessie. Ella, Nathan, Josephus, Grertrude and Lewis. The 
father was a native of Xenia, Ohio, boi-n iu 18'^ L bat died in 1882, after 
a lino-erincr illness. He came to Bedford in 1859 and assisted on the 
stone- work of the old jail. A little later he opened one of the hrst 
stone quarries in the county, and was largely the instrument to bring to 
public notice and favor the valuable local stone deposits. He was a 
stone-cutter, and eminently a self-made man. By industry he succeeded 
in accumulating a competency. He was a man of unusual activity in 
the pursuit of business, which fact contributed to his sickness and death. 
His industrious habits descended to his children, all of whom are exemp- 
lary membei's of society and respected citizens. 

HAASE & OWEN, who creditably represent the merchant tailoring 
interests of Bedford, is composed of John M. Haase, a native of Pro- 
vince Posen. Germany, and Frank Owen, a native of Lawrence County. 
Mr. Haase was born January 14, 1842, was educated in hi.s native county 
where he also learned the tailor's trade, working at that nine years, and in 
the fall of 1871 he emigrated to the United States, which has since been 
his home. On his arrival he immediately came to Bedford, where he was 
first employed by Palmer & Messick, remaining with that firm and its 
successors eight years, then becoming a member of the firm of Palmer, 
Dunihue & Haase. Mr. Haase is married, his nuptials with Christine 
Benzel being celebrated in Germany, on the 28th of November, 1865. 
Frank Owen is a son of John C. and Elizabeth (Dye) Owen, who were 
among Lawrence County's first settlers. His education was obtained at 
the Bedford schools and the Northern Indiana Normal School, and for 
three years he was employed as clerk in the dry goods house of Dunihue. 
& Son. In February, 1884, the firm of Haase & Owen was formed, and 
by honorable conduct and diligence they have secured a comfortable 
trade in their gents' furnishing department, as well as a liberal patronage 
for their tailoring department both at home and abroad. 

HECTGER BROTHELiS, one of the leading business firms of Bed- 
ford, is composed of George C and Joseph A., sons of George and 
Catharine (Fritch) Heitger, who emigrated from Prussia to America at 
an early day and resided at various times in Buffalo, Louisville, New 
Albany, aud lastly settling at Bedford in 1856. George Heitger, Sr. , 
has passed the greater part of his life engaged in shoemaking, and of 
the nine children born to him and wife, hve are yet living. George C. 
Heitger was born June 18, 1849, and after attending the common schools 
in youth, learned the tinner's trade at Mitchell, worked at his trade 
about one and one-half years as journeyman, and then settled in business 
for himself at Tunnelton. April 27, 1871, Martha Wiegman became 
his wife, and four children, named Anna, Katie, George H. and Louis C. 
have been born to them. Joseph A. Heitger obtained the better part of 
his education in the High School at Bedford, and in 1871 began learning 
the tinner's trade with his brother. On the l8th of May, 1881, his 
union with Mary C. Traud was solemuized and Joseph D. is their only 


child. The aummer of 1872, Heitger Brothers purchased L. B Jack- ^ 
son's store at Mitchell, and for two years conducted a creditable business 
at that point. The fall of 1881 they erected their present brick build- 
ing in Bedford, subsequently moving to this place and engaging in 
business. They carry about $2,000 worth of stoves, tinware, house furn- 
ishing goods, pumps, etc., and are doing a healthy business which is 
steadily on the increase. Besides valuable property in Bedford, the 
firm owns property in Mitchell, and both members belong to St. 
Vincent de Paul Catholic Church at Bedford. 

AVILLIAM P. HODGE, of Daggy, Hodge & Walheiser, was born in 
England, December 25, 183G, one of six children born to William and 
Elizabeth (Peters) Hodge. He received his schooling in his native coun- 
try, and when twelve years old emigrated with his parents to the United 
States. When aboiit iifteen years old he began the carriage and wagon 
trade at Cleveland, where he worked three years as an apprentice. For 
two and a half years after this he worked at his trade in, Sheboygan, 
Wis., then came to Indiana, and in the fall of 1856 located in Lawrence 
County. In about 1857 he started a wagon shop at Heltonville, which 
he continued about two years, then began in business at Bedford. This 
has ever since been his home, and, with but a short time while merchan- 
dising, has been working at his trade. The spring of 1866 the firm of 
Daggy, Hodge & Walheiser was formed, and to-day do an extensive busi- 
ness in the manufacture of wagons, carriages, etc.; deal in agricultural 
implements and operate the leading livery of the place. Mr. Hodge is 
a member of the Chapter and Council in Masonry; is a Republican, and 
he and wife belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church. December 28, 
1858, Mr. Hodge and Miss Mary M. Malott were united in marriage, and 
they adopted for their child. Fanny Elder, now Mrs. H. H. Walls. 

HON. A. J. HOSTETLER, owner and editor of the Bedford Banner, 
was born in Washington County, Ind. , November 22, 1818, and is a son 
of Jonathan and Sarah (Ribble) Hostetler, with whom he removed to 
this county when an infant. His father was a Kentuckian by birth, but 
in 1816 became a resident of Indiana and followed farming until hie 
death in 1828, preceded by the death of Mrs. Hostetler live years. 
Being cast upon his own resources when yet a small lad, our subject was 
reared by relatives until seventeen year's old, when he went to Decatur, 
111., and learned blacksmithing. In 1837 he returned to Lawrence 
County, which has ever since been his home, with the exception of one 
year, while a resident of Orange County. He was engaged in black- 
smithing until 1854, and for the succeeding ten years farmed. In 1865 
he engaged in merchandising in Bedford, at which he has largely been 
engaged until within the last few years. As a Democrat in politics Mr. 
Hostetler has been a faithful worker for his party, and from 1854 to 
1858 served in the upper house of the State Legislature of Indiana, 
declining a re-election. In 1878 he was elected to represent the old 
Eighth District in the Forty-sixth Congress, and in 1880 was the dele- 
gate of his party to the National Democratic Convention at Cincinnati 
from the Second District. In September, 1883, he began the editorship 
of the Banner, which has thrived under his management. In February, 
1842, Miss Margaret Newland became his wife, and Jonathan N. , John 
F. (deceased), Sarah A. and Kate, are the names of their children. Mr. 
Hostetler is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and he and wife belong 
to the Christian Church. 


JESSE A. IKERD is a native of Lincoln County, N. C, born April 
15, 1816, the ninth of ten children of John and Margaret (Smith) Ikerd, 
both natives of North Carolina, who came to Indiana about 1818. Jesse 
A. remained on his father's farm during youth, but at the age of eighteen 
years, with nothing but his hands and his energy, began doing for him- 
self, without education, save the rudiments. In March, 1836, he married 
Eliza Smith, who has borne him nine children, of whom the following 
seven are now living: John, who man-ied Susan Rout; Peter, who manned 
Mary Rout; Joseph, who married Mary J. Beavers; Margaret, who mar- 
ried Harvey Swan; William H., who married Mary Stipp; Polly A., who 
became the wife of James Tague, and James M. April 28, 1881, Mrs. 
Ikerd died, and October 1, 1883, he married Elizabeth Smith. Mr. Ikerd 
is an industrious, thoughtful and prosperous farmer, owning a line farm 
of 400 acres. He is a Republican, and he and wife are members of the 
Christian Church. His parents were true pioneers in Indiana, and 
passed through all the hardships incident thereto. 

ABEL L. IKERD, a native of Lincoln County, N. C, born Septem- 
ber 14, 1817, is the fourth of nine children of Philip and Susanna 
(Lutz) Ikerd, the parents natives of North Carolina, who came to Indi- 
ana in 1821. Abel L. received a meager education at the pioneer log- 
schoolhouses, atd remained with his parents on their farm until near 
the age of twenty-six years. He married Elizabeth A. Litten, April 13, 
1843, but July 12 of the same year this lady died, and January 14, 1845, 
Mr. Ikerd married Ann B. Campbell, and to this union seven children 
were born, the following live now living: Susan C, the wife of Will- 
iam Lovell; John W., who married Em Listen; Samuel B., Philip H. 
and Abel C. February 17, 1866, Mrs. [kerd died, since which sad event 
Mr. Ikerd has remained single. He is a prosperous farmer with eighty- 
four acres of good land; he is a Democrat, a member of the Methodist 
Church and an influential citizen. 

PETER IKERD, a native of Shawswick Township, born December 
18, 1835, the second of nine children of Jesse and Eliza A. (Smith) Ikerd, 
passed his youth on his father's farm. His schooling was very limited, 
though by improving his time he mastered the rudiments. November 15, 
1855. at the early age of twenty years, he married Mary E. Root, and to 
this union six children were born, four of whom are now living: Jesse 
A., who married Cansada Spears; Florence I., who married James L. 
Starr; Sadie J. and Julius O. Mr. Ikerd has secured a competency by 
hard work, good management and good habits. His occupation has been 
the foundational one of farming, and he now has 212 acres, a large, fine 
farm. He and wife are members of the Christian Church. He is a 
Republican and takes an appreciative interest in politics and in all mat- 
ters that tend to better the community in which he lives. 

JOHN JOHNSON, Jr., editor and proprietor of the Bedford Star, is 
a native of Bux'lington, Vi., born September 18, 1850. When but six 
months old his parents John and Catharine (Murphy) Johnson, moved to 
Lawrence County, Ind., where John Jr. was raised, educated, and which 
has ever since been his home. When eighteen years old he began learn- 
ing the printer's trade in the office of the Bedford News, and after serv- 
ing an apprenticeship he undertook the mechanical work of the Bedford 
Banner, then owned by James Carlton, which he continued about one 
year. In February, 1875, he published the first number of the Bedford 
Star, then a four-column folio, but in October, 1877, enlarged it to a five- 


column periodical, and in November, 1879, again enlarged it, this time 
to its present size, a six-column folio. From the beginning, Mr. Johnson 
has made his paper a success, and it not only enjoys a large circulation 
but an extensive advertising patronage as well. The office is well 
equipped with a quantity of the best kind of type, and its presses con- 
sist of a Washington hand and a Gordon jobber. Mr. Johnson has made 
the paper what it now is, and has ever conducted it in the best interests 
of the Democratic party. 

ROBERT KELLY was born in Chester County, Penn., July 8, 
1816, one of eight children born to William and Rachael (Thompson) 
Kelly. Our subject was raised on a farm, and in 1838 went to New 
Orleans, but shortly afterwai'd came to Bedford, Lawrence County, and 
settled, where he followed carpentering for some time. May 26, 1845, 
he married Emily J. McLane, and to their union five children have been 
born: Edith, May F., Clarissa H., Josephine (Houston) and William Mc- 
L. Mrs. Kelly died March 15. 1878. In 1845 Mr. Kelly began doing 
a general merchandise business, under the firm name of Dunihue & Kel- 
ly, at which time all goods had to be brought from Louisville by wagon. 
They did a large trade by flat-boats to points on the Mississippi; until 
1865, when Mr. Kelly sold his interest, since which time he has been 
engaged extensively in farming, having at the present time over 500 
acres. He is an A. F. & A. M. and a Republican, that party having 
elected him Treasurer of the county in 1872, and again in 1882. 

JEPHTHA D. KNIGHT, the fourth of six children of Marcus and 
Susan (Anderson) Knight, was born May 4, 1817, and received but little 
education from the old subscription schools. His youth was passed with- 
out noted event, and he continued to live with his parents until their 
respective deaths. January 18, 1853, he married Sarah Peniston, who 
bore him two children, only one being now living — Eliza, wife of Frank 
Hitchcock. March 4, 1881, Mrs. Knight died, and January 16. 1883, 
Mr. Knight married Juliet Faris. He has followed the occupation of 
farming and stock-raising with success, and now owns 245 acres, all 
being well stocked. He affiliates with the National party, and is one of 
the county's most substantial citizens. His father was a native of Ken- 
tucky, and his mother of Virginia, and they came to Lawrence County at 
the very early date of 1815. Here they became prominent and well- 
respected, and passed away lamented by all who knew them. 

BAZEL W. LEE is a native of Orange County, Ind., his birth occur- 
ring July 8, 1826, the third of eight children born to Spencer and Eliza- 
beth (Tegarden) Lee, the parents being natives of Kentucky, who came 
to this State about 1815. Bazel was educated to a limited extent at the 
old subscription schools, and passed his youth and early manhood at hard 
work on his father's farm. June 7, 1849, he married Nancy Hostetler, 
who has borne him eight children, four of whum are now livina:: Law- 
rence G., who married Ellen Stipp; Francis M. ; A. J. and Claud. Jan- 
uary 8, 1880, Mrs. Lee died, and November 2, 1881, Mr. Lee married 
Ellen (Mills) McElyea. Mr. Lee is an industrious farmer, and owns 340 
acres of good land. He and wife are exemplary members of the Chris- 
tian Church. He is a Mason, and a supporter of the principles of the 
National party. He deals in tine stock, and owns a fine horse of the 
Morgan blood. 

GILEAD P. LEE, a native Hoosier, was born in Orange County, 
December 18, 1828, one of a family of eight children born to Spencer 


and Elizabeth (Tegarden) Lee, who settled in Orange County from the 
South at an early day. Being among the Srst families to settle in that 
locality, Gilead P. only seciured such education as the old backwoods 
cabin schoolhouses aflForded, Farming has been his principal occupation 
through life, and with the exception of one year while a resident of 
Moultrie County, 111., he has always resided in Indiana. He became a 
resident of Lawrence County in November, 1865, and of Bedford in 1870, 
the tirst four years after moving to town being engaged in the agricul- 
tural implement business. He owns 200 acres of valuable land in 
Illinois, 80 acres in Lawrence County and valjiable town property in 
Bedford. His marriage with Eliza J. Finley was solemnized September 
16, 1851, and to their union seven children have been born, these three 
named being the only survivors: Sarah M. (Mrs. Fish), Merrill S. and 
Carrie B. (Mrs. Giles). Both parents are members of the Christian 
Church. Mr. Lee belongs to the Subordinate Lodge of Odd Fellows, 
was first a Democrat in politics, but in 1861 became a Republican and in 
1874 changed to the National party, with which he yet affiliates. 

DAVID LONG is the fourth of twelve children of John and Eliza- 
beth (Martin) Long, and was born in Woodford County, Ky., October 
26, 1823. His father was born near Richmond, Va., November 6, 1796, 
and his mother in Woodford County, Ky. They were married in 1818, 
and came to this county in 1829. David remained at home until twenty- 
five years of age, receiving in youth limited schooling. February 22, 
1848, he was united in marriage with Sarah Fish. Eight children have 
blessed this union, five of whom are now living: Charlotte, Aretas W., 
Eli A. , Jesse R. and C. Edith Mr. Long' is a farmer and owns ninety- 
one acres of excellent land in the famous Leatherwood District. He is 
a Republican, and he and wife are members of the Christian Church. 
His son Jesse R. is teacher of penmanship and phonography and type- 
writing at the Central Indiana Normal School. Eli A. is practicing 
short-hand at Memphis, Tenn., and Aretas W. is mining in Mexico. 
Grandfather William Long was a German, who first settled in Pennsyl- 
vania, thence moved to Virginia, thence to Kentucky, where his mar- 
riage occurred. 

DR. HIRAM MALOTT was born in Lawrence County, Ind. , Decem- 
ber 2, 1823; one of ten children born to Otho and Margaret (Beaty) 
Malott, who settled in Lawrence County in 1821, coming from Kentucky, 
where they lived till about three years before his death, which occurred 
in Kansas, where they had moved. Dr. Malott was reared to farming, 
and also taught school. In the fall of 1855 he. began a course of medi- 
cine in the Eclectic Medical College at Cincinnati, afterward practicing 
at Heltonville, Ind. In 1861 he enlisted in Company G, Fiftieth Reg- 
iment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and was elected First Lieutenant, 
but resigned in 1863 and i-eturned to Heltonville, where he remained 
till 1873, at that time moving to Bedford where he remained only one 
year, when he located at Sullivan till 1883, at that time coming back to 
his native county and entering the drug trade, the firm being the suc- 
cessors of one of the oldest firms in Bedford. May 16, 1844, he married 
Miss Eunice Peed, and three children have been born to them, only one 
living— William H. Mrs. Malott died in 1869 and in July, 1870, he 
married Mrs. Mary ^ Riley) Morrow. Self and wife are members of the 
Christian Church, and he is an A. F. & A. M., both Blue Lodge and 
Royal Arch; is also a member of the G. A. R. and a Republican. 


WILLIA.M P. MALOTT is a native of the town and county where 
he now lives and was born February 16, 1840. His father, Michael A. 
Malott, was one of the earliest settlex's and business men of Bedford. In 
early years William P. attended the public schools of Bedford, and when 
sixteen years old became a clerk in his father's store, where he remained 
until the breaking out of the RebellioD. July 21, 1861, he enlisted his 
services in his country's cause and was made leader of the Twenty-first 
Regiment band, serving as such until he was honorably discharged Sep- 
tember 11, 1863, near New Orleans. He participated in the Butler 
campaign around the coast of New Orleans and also in the capture of 
that city and Baton Rouge. After his return home he again engaged in 
merchandising, and for some time was in partnership with a brother. 
In October, 1874, he took charge of «the woolen mills at Bedfoi'd and 
operated them eight years, then, having become a stockholder in the 
Bedford Bank, he was elected Cashier in the winter of 1882, and has 
since served in that capacity. In politics Mr. Malott is a stanch 
Democi-at. He is the Quartei-master of the G. A. R. Post at Bedford, 
and a Camp Degree Odd Fellow. June 20, 1865, he was united in 
wedlock with Miss Florence O., daughter of Jesse A. Mitchell, of Bed- 
ford, and these three named of their six childi'en are now living: Frank 
E. , Charles M. and Attie L. Both parents together with the two oldest 
of their children are members of the Christian Church. 

WILLIAM H. MARTIN, a son of Col. Roger Martin, appropriate 
mention of whom is made elsewhere herein, was born May 7, 1848. 
Until fifteen years of age he resided at Salem, Ind., and for the succeed- 
ing two years was employed as a clerk at New Albany. He then began 
the reading of law and did not relinquish his studies while acting as 
shop book-keeper in the Pennsylvania Central Railroad office at Pitts- 
burgh. Early in 1868 he came to Bedford and for a time studied in the 
office of Wilson & Voris, but in October, 1869, he moved to Paoli, and 
opening an office began the practice of his profession. He remained at 
Paoli until 1881, since when he has resided in Bedford, where he has 
acquired a lucrative practice. Mr. Martin is a Republican, a member of 
the I. O. O. F. and Masonic fraternities and was married on his twenty- 
sixth birthday to Miss Mattie F. Dougherty, of Liberty, Mo., by whom 
he is the father of one living child — Roger. 

JAMES M. McDowell, a native of Lawrence County, Ind., of 
which he is now Sheriff, was born July 31, 1843, one of nine children 
born to John and Ann (Owens) McDowell, who moved from North Caro- 
lina to Indiana when it was yet a Territory. James M. received a com- 
mon school education in youth and was raised a farmer, which occupation 
he has principally followed since. March 1, 1874, he was married to 
Miss Ellen Armstrong and to their union four children have been born, 
three of whom are living — Edith J., Gail H. and Lena M. Mr. and 
Mrs. McDowell are members of the Christian Church at the Popcorn 
Society near Springville, and Mr. McDowell is a member of the Knights 
of Pythias, having a demit card from that order. He is a Republican 
in politics and as a candidate of his party has been elected Justice of 
the Peace in Perry Township, and in 1882 Sheriff of his county where 
he is now serving. In 1880 he was the census enumerator of Perry 
Township. Mr. McDowell has recently purchased a hardware store and 
hotel at Owensburg, where he expects to move early in 1885 and devote 
his entire time and attention to looking after his interests in that place. 


CHARLES McFADDEN, when six years old, lost his father by death 
and his mother when he was seventeen. The parents were Andrew and 
Maro-aret McFadden, the mother coming to Indiana about 1838. Charles 
was born iu South Carolina September 21, 1834, and remained with his 
mother until her death, receiving little education. August 7, 1862, he 
married Sarah, daughter of Richard and Elizabeth Bivins, who has borne 
him four children: Mary, Kate, Lizzie and Grace. Mr. McFadden has 
been successful in his occupation of farming and owns a farm of 170 
acres. In politics he is a Democrat. Richard Bivins, father of Mrs. 
McFadden, was born January 7, 1799, in Frederick County, Md. He 
was taken to Kentucky at the age of three years, and remained there 
until twenty-eight, when he came to Lawrence County. The McFaddens 
are well known and respected. 

SAMUEL Mcknight was born in Lawrence County, April 25, 1824, 
being the second of eight children born to Christopher and Rebecca (Von- 
trece) McKnight. The father was a North Cai'olinian, andcame to Indi- 
ana on the day of the battle of Tippecanoe, settling first on Lost River, 
Orange County, but going to Lawrence about the year 1814. The mother 
was a native of Shelby County, Ky. Samuel remained on his father's 
farm, securing in youth rnerely the rudiments of an education. October 
26, 1846, he married Samantha P. Ikerd, and they are parents of the 
following children: Robert E., who married Ellen Kinnick; Theophilus 
F., whose wife was America Jones; Eliza J., who married Thomas Rags- 
dale: Mary E., who is the wife of P. H. Ikerd; James D., who married 
Nancy A. Younger, deceased; Rebecca A., unmarried; Harriet K., who 
is the wife of John Alexander; Samantha E., who married William 
Lanier; William E., Massie E., Susan E. and Sarah I., the last four un- 
married. Mr. McKnight comes of an old and prominent family. He is 
a successful farmer, owning 280 acres of land. He deals to some extent 
in line stock. He is a Democrat and his wife is a member of the Meth- 
odist Church. 

WILLIAM Mcknight, born in Shawswick Township, December 6, 
1842, the youngest of nine children of Christopher and Rebecca fVon- 
trece) McKnight, lost his father when quite young and passed his youth 
with his mother. His father was a native of North Carolina and his 
mother of Kentucky, both families being early settlers in Indiana. His 
mother died October 20, 1876. Educational advantages to him wei-e 
almost wholly lacking. November 8, 1876, he married Anna Smith, 
who bore him six children, five of whom are living: Ella, Alice, Clara, 
Lottie and Bessie. Their little boy Hugh, died March 19, 1883, a sad 
loss. Mr. McKnight has been and is a successful farmer, and owns 327 
acres of good land. In 1861 he enlisted in Company B. Eighteenth 
Regiment, and served for about two years, being discharged April 18, 
1863, by reason of a severe wound received at Pea Ridge. Mr. McKnight 
is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and a member of the G. A. R. 
He is a member of the Democratic party, and is a good citizen. 

DAVID W. Mcknight was bom in Shawswick Township, February 
26, 1834, being the eighth of twelve children born to George and Polly 
A. (McGee) McKnight, he being a native of North Carolina, born in 
1796, coming with his parents to this State about 1815. In 1820 he 
married Miss McGee, and settled down to farming, and afterward owned 
350 acres of land; he died September 10, 1868; his wife was a native of 
Virginia, and died April 30, 1873. Subject received an ordinary educa- 


tion, and February 26. i860, married Sallie A. Johnson, and six children 
have been born to them, five of whom are living: Inez, Elmer G., Louisa E., 
Sarah M. and Jesse J. Mr McKnight's occupation has always been 
farming and stock-raising, making a specialty of Berkshire hogs, Durham 
or short-horn cattle, and mammoth jacks. Mr. M'K. and family are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he is a Mason and a 
Republican; is also Superintendent of Sabbath-school. He owns 422 
acres of good land. His daughter, Inez, has been teaching school for 
the past three years. 

MICHAEL N. MESSIOK, one of the oldest business men of Bed- 
ford, was born March 6, 1830, in Orleans, Orange Co., Ind., one of six 
children born to Michael N. and Laurinda (Kamsey) Messick, who were 
among the earliest settlers of Orange County, Ind., from Kentucky. M. 
N. Messick, Jr., came to Bedford in 1838 with his mother, who whs a 
widow with six children. He received a common school education in the 
schools of that early day, and at the age of twelve years began to learn 
the printer's trade in the office of the Bedford Sun, which he followed 
for three years, and at the end of this time began work on the Louisville 
Democrat. From there he went to Paoli, Orange County, where he 
learned the cabinet trade, and remained three years; then located at 
Point Commerce in Greene County, where he did a general furniture 
trade for eighteen months, and then returned to Papli. May 18, 1852, 
he was married to Sarah J. Johnson, and by her is the father of hve 
children, only two now living: Elizabeth C. and Carrie V. (Webb). In 
1852 Mr. Messick began working at his trade in Bedford; then clerked 
for a time, and in December, 1856, in partnership with William Duncan 
and Dr. J. W. Newland, embarked in the hardware trade. From 1856 
to December, 1873, he was actively engaged in this business in Bedford 
with different partners, but since that time he has been alone, and is now 
the leading merchant of hardware in the place. He is one of the self- 
made men of the place, beginning life poor, and by diligence and indus- 
try acquiring a comfortable income. April 24, 1867, his wife died, and 
for a second wife he married Mrs. Sarah J. (Davis) Simpson on the 2d 
of June, 1868. To this union have been born four children, named: 
Sally, Laurinda, Mary and Michael H. Mr. Messick was President of 
the first Board of Trustees of Bedford; is a Republican, a member of 
the F. & A. M., and he and wife belong to the Methodist Episcopal 

ELIJAH H. MILLER, born July 11, 1838, is the eldest of two chil- 
dren of John W. and Susan J. (Utterback) Miller, both natives of Ken- 
tucky, the father coming to Indiana about the year 1835. When Elijah 
was eighteen years old his father died, and being the only male child he 
took charge of the old farm and of his mother. The latter died in June, 
1882. Elijah received a limited schooling in youth, and on the 1st of 
March, 1866, was united in marriage with Eliza Scott, who has presented 
him with the following family: Effie M. , Emma C, John B., Elgin J. 
and Robert H, all of whom are at home yet with their parents. Mr. 
Miller has followed farming during life, and now has a good farm of 150 
acres, all quite well improved. He has dealt and is at present dealing 
in live stock. Mr. and Mrs. Miller and their two daughters are members 
of the Christian Church, and all are exemplary members of society. 
Mr. Miller aliiliates with the Republican pai'ty. 


JESSE A. MITCHELL. Among the prominent men and pioneers of 
Lawrence County was Robert and Martha (Suter) Mitchell, parents of 
the subject of this sketch, wlio settled here in 1819. Mr. Mitchell was 
an active citizen of the county, served as County Sheriff and Clerk, was 
a Colonel of State militia, and during the Mexican war was Assistant 
Adjutant-General. He died of camp fever at Matamoras and was there 
buried. Jesse A. Mitchell was born September 11, 1822, in Lawrence 
County, and was here raised and educated. He early began clerking in 
his father's store, but in 1840 began in business for himself at Spring- 
ville, subsequently continuing' at Heltonville. In 1842 he returned to 
Bedford, which has ever since been his home. For the past forty years 
he has been engaged in a variety of pursuits, and beyond a doubt has 
been one of the most active business men in Lawrence County during 
that time. Merchandising, pork-packing, stock-dealing, speculating 
and dealing in real estate has absorbed the greater part of his time, and 
at present he owns and controls over 3,000 acres of land in Lawrence 
and Pike Counties, besides valuable town property. Mr. Mitchell began 
in life poor, and deserves much credit for the signal success his energies 
have met with, and his boast is that he has never been sued on his own 
account. April 28, 1842, Miss Clarrissa Houston, a native of Bourbon 
County, Kentucky, became his wife, and to them have been born eight 
children, six only being yet alive, whose names are Alice M., Florence 
O., Robert, Jesse H., Martha and William A. Both parents belong to 
the Christian Church. Mr. Mitchell has been a life-long Democrat, and 
in the Masonic fraternity has advanced to the Chapter. 

E. R. MURPHY is a native of New Albany, Ind, where he was 
born April 29, 1888. He is one of five children, and a son of Richard 
G. and Elizabeth Murphy, who were natives respectively of Harper's 
Ferry, Va., and Newark, N. J., and who settled in Indiana in 
1835. E. R. Murphy was educated in the public schools of his native 
city, and December 2, 1861, enlisted in the Seventh Independent Battery 
of Indiana Light Artillery. He was an active participant in the battles 
of Perryville, Stone River, Lookout Mountain, Chickamauga, Resaca, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Jonesborough and a large number of lesser engage- 
ments, and was honorably discharged December 2, 1864. In 1868 Mr. 
Murphy came to Bedford, and having learned the business before the 
war, engaged in the stone-cutter's trade in partnership with W. H. Lane, 
which continued for two years when Mr. Murphy assumed the entire 
business alone. In 1879 he admitted Thomas H. Malott as a partner, 
and this continued until May, 1883, since then he has been associated 
with Arthur Fuilen. This firm is reliably established and their annual 
sales reach $3,000. April 29, 1873, witnessed the marriage of Mary E. 
Butler to E. R. Murphy, and their union has been productive in the birth 
of two children, named Edith M. and Frank B. The parents belong to 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Murphy is one of the finest work- 
men on stone in the State, and makes a specialty in cleaving and drawing. 
In politics he is a Republican, and is a member of the Subordinate Lodge 
of Odd Fellows. 

BENJAMIN NEWLAND, M. D., was born in Jackson County, 
Ind., July 19, 1821, the third of nine children born to Wm. and Susan C. 
(Harold) Newland, early settlers of Indiana. Tutil he was twenty years 
of age Dr. Newland followed farming, although he taught school some. 
At the age of twenty-one years he entered the office of Dr. Elijah New- 


land at Salem, with whom he studied two years, and then took a course 
at the University at Louisville, Ky., graduating from that institution in 
1847. In October, 1846, he married Miss Louisa A. Curry, and to their 
union four children have been born: Helen, Mary, Laura and Kate. 
The doctor is an A. F. & A. M. , Blue Lodge, Chapter and Commandery, 
being the present W. M. of Bedford Lodge. In politics he is a Democrat, 
that party electing him to the State Senate in 1852, which position he 
tilled with ci'edit to himself and constituency. During the late war he 
was Surgeon of the Twenty-First Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 
remaining in the service eighteen months. There is no physician in the 
southern part of the State more eminent in his profession than Dr. Ne*w- 
land. He is prominently connected with all the local medical societies, 
and has a state reputation in extreme cases of disease. His convictions 
ai'e deeply I'ooted, and his positions strongly taken. His portrait appears 

JOHN W. NEWLAND, M. D., was born in Lawrence County. Ind., 
July 26, 1827, one of eleven children born to John and Agnes (Alien) 
Newland, who came to Indiana in 1819 from Berks County, N. C, he 
being a native of Virginia. After their location in this county they lived 
here till their deaths, his occurring August 14, 1838; and hers October 
16, 1867. They were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Dr. Newland was raised on a farm, and at the age of nineteen 
began the study of medicine with Dr. Ben Newland, and afterward 
taking the course at Louisville Medical College, from which institution 
he graduated in March, 1850, immediately beginning the practice of his 
profession at Leesville, coming to Bedford in 1854. October 1, 1848, he 
married Sarah E. Duncan. The Doctor and wife are both members of 
the Christian Church, and he is a Republican, though never taking an 
active interest in politics. He was a member of the Board of Trustees of 
Bedford for eight years. 

H. S. OSBORNE, publisher of the Bedford Magnet, was born in 
Toronto, Canada, November 8, 1849, the youngest of four children, one 
yet living, born to John and Lydia (Jones) Osborne, both of whom died 
in Canada when H. S. was yet a mere lad. Until sixteen years old he 
resided with his paternal grandfather, the two succeeding years being 
passed at Trinity College in Toronto. On the death of his grandmother 
he inherited property in his native city which he exchanged for property 
on the Humber River, the product of which was largely used' as rubble 
stone for macadamizing. Owing to inexperience and mismanagement he 
soon lost his quarries. In 1873 he located in Cincinnati, Ohio, where 
for a time he was connected with a dramatic company, and as such trav- 
eled extensively over the Southern and Middle States. The fall of 1876 
he located at Bedford, Ind., where for a number of months he was 
employed as a typo on the Bedford Banner. For about one year, begin- 
ning in 1877, he published the Owensburg Gazette, then purchasing the 
material he removed the office to Bedford, and in company with C. L. 
Yockey published the Banner for two months. Early in the fall of 1878 
he began issuing the Daily Magnet, then a four-column folio, which 
shortly thereafter was merged into tri -weekly, then a semi-weekly, and 
finally to a five-column folio weekly. The weekly Magnet has ever since 
continued, but with prosperity it has changed from its first weekly 
appearance respectively to a six-column, then a seven-column, and lastly 
to its present size, a five-column quarto. Mr. Osborne first began in the 


printing business a poor man. but by diligence and economy be has 
cleared his paper of all encumbrances, and now issues one of the newsiest 
papers of Lawrence County. In politics he has faithfully advocated the 
principles of the Republican party, and as a journalist is esteemed by 
all his cotemporaries. To his marriage with Miss Annie S. McCormick, 
which was solemnized in 1877, two children were born, named Edith B. 
and Roy H. Mr. Osborne is now engaged in the publication of the Law- 
rence Mail, into which the Magnet was merged. 

K. D. OWEN, a native of the county in which he yet resides, and 
son of John C. and Elizabeth (Dye) Owen, was born September 29, 1839. 
John C. Owen was one of the pioneer blacksmiths of Lawrence County, 
and plied that vocation many years. He died in May, 1875, but his 
widow yet survives him. Of their children these are still alive: K. D., 
Mary (Williams), John W., Almira, George K., Eliza (Glover) and Frank. 
The eldest of these, K. D., has always made his home in his native 
county, and is one of Bedford's leading merchants. After receiving a 
fair education in youth he began the blacksmith's trade, following that 
five years in Bedford, and one year at Springville, but later he began 
clerking in a dry goods store at Bedford. About one year later he 
embarked in business with an uncle at Mitchell, which was discontinued 
about a year later, Mr. Owen returning to Bedford and clerking until the 
fall of 1860. In September of that year Anna A. Burton became his 
wife, and Wallace I., Carrie and Charles A. are the names of their chil- 
dren. Until 1870 Mr. Owen was engaged in -farming and working at the 
blacksmith trade; then re-commenced clerking, but in August, 1872, in 
company with V. V. Williams and John W. Owen embarked in the 
grocery and provision trade in Bedford. One year later Col. Williams 
retired from the firm, since when Iv. D. Owen & Co. have continued the 
trade, and from a small beginning have increased in prosperity until 
they now own their brick store building and about $4,000 worth of gro- 
ceries, provisions, wooden, willow, glass and queensware. In 1872 they 
began the delivery system, which compelled their competitors to adopt 
the same plan. 

JAMES W. PALMER, who was born March 18, 1826, in Fauquier 
County, Va., is one of thirteen children born to Joseph and Elizabeth 
(Fuller) Palmer, who came to Lawrence County, Ind., at a very early day 
and entered Government land within six miles of Bedford, where they 
died at the advanced age of eighty-two and ninty-four years respectively. 
Joseph Palmer was one of the leading early settlers of the county, and 
during his life never sat on a jury or was sworn as a witness, a fact 
almost incredible. James W. Palmer received such schoolingr as was to 
be had at that early day in Lawrence County, and in early life followed 
farming, but in 1852 opened a general merchandising store in Bedford, 
which he continued until 1861, when he began dealing in clothing, at 
which he is still engaged. The winter of 1847, his marriage with Laura 
Newland was solemnized,. and to their union two children were born, 
named Robert N. and Phetna. Mrs. Palmer's death occurring in March, 
1852, Mr. Palmer was married July 31, 1856, to Miss Jane Johnson by 
whom he is the father of five children: Isaiah, James, Mary, Golda and 
Edward. Mr. Palmer was a Whig in early life but in 1856 allied him- 
self with the Republican party and during the war took strong grounds 
against slavery. Mrs. Palmer is a member of the Christian Church at 


EEV. EGBERT M. PARKS was born in Bono Township, this county, 
December 16, 1815, one of seven children born to Pleasant and Esther 
(Carlton) Parks, who emigrated from Burke County, N. C, to Lawrence 
County, Ind., in 1815, and made it their home the remainder of their 
days. Pleasant Parks was elected from this county to the Indiana House 
of Representatives two terms, and in early days was a Colonel of State 
militia. He and wife were charter members of the Baptist Church of 
this county. Robert M. Parks was educated in the country schools of 
the county and Lawrence County Seminary. At twenty-one years of age 
he began teaching school, which he continued for twenty years, and in 
March, 1837, united with the Baptist Church foiu- miles east of Bedford. 
Since that time until the present the greater part of his life has been 
passed in preaching and teaching, largely in his native couoty. March 
1, 1842, his marriage with Miss Jane T. Short was solemnized, and this 
lady has indeed been his helpmate, taking an active interest with her 
husband in all matters pertaining to religion or education. For nearly 
twenty years Mr. Parks served as Clerk of the Bedford Association of 
Baptists, at the same time acting as Moderator. He undoubtedly has 
married more couples and attended more funerals than any man now in 
the county. In politics he is a Democrat but was opposed to slavery and 
is an active worker in the temperance cause. For a time he was Post- 
master under President Pierce's administration, and by an upright life 
has gained many warm friends and few enemies. Mrs. Parks has been 
a church member fifty-two years, joining when only twelve years old. 

LUCIEN E. PAYNE, Trustee of Shawswick Township, was born in 
Lawrence County, Ind., June 25, 1846, one of fourteen children of 
George and Sarah (Woody) Payne, who emigrated West in 1822 and set- 
tled in this county. George Payne, besides being a pioneer of this 
locality, was a man widely known for his many virtues. He was a farmer 
and stone-mason and by a life of hard labor acquired a competence. 
Until the breaking out of the war he was a Democrat, but after that was 
a Republican. He was an influential member of Roberts Chapel, situ- 
ated six miles east of Bedford, as was also his wife, and their respective 
deaths occurred June 25, 1866, and May 17, 1850. Lucien E. Payne 
received his education in the common schools of his native county and 
has passed the greater part of his life upon a farm. Januai'y 17, 1865, 
he enlisted in Company B, One Hundred and Forty- fifth Indiana Vol- 
unteer Infantry, but the war soon afterward closing he did not get to see 
any active service. August 2, 1866, he was married to Sarah J. Younger, 
who has borne him four children, named Emma F., Charlie A., Nellie 
M., and Willie E., deceased. Both parents are members of the Christian 
Church. Mr. Payne belongs to the G. A. R., the L O. O. F. and the 
Blue Lodge in Masonry. He is an active Repu.blican in politics and in 
the spring of 1884 was elected to his present position. 

JUDGE E. D. PEARSON, a pioneer of the Lawrence County bar, 
was born at Springville, December 18, 1829, the eldest of eleven children 
boi'n to Eliphalet and Amelia (Lemon) Pearson His father was a native 
of Waltham, Mass., and in 1818 settled at Jeffersonville, Ind., where he 
kept a ferry until 1826, when he was married. After their removal to 
Lawrence County, they i-esided at Springville until 1863, when Mr. Pear- 
son died. His widow moved to Bloomington after his death, remaining 
there until 1882, when she came to Bedford, where she is yet living. 
E. D. Pearson attended the common schools in early years and in 1847 


entered the State University, where he remained two years. He received 
a diploma from the Law Department of the State University in 1850, 
after which he immediately engaged in legal pursuits at Bedford. The 
fall of 1852 he purchased the White River Standard, a paper published 
at Bedford, which he edited until 1855, when he sold out and turned his 
attention to the exclusive pi-actice of his profession. In 1852 he was 
elected State's Attorney for Lawrence and Jackson Counties, and October 
11, 1853, mai-ried Caroline, daughter of Woodbridge and Harriet 
(Thornton) Parker. In his profession Mr. Pearson has made a success, 
both in legal and pecuniary sense. In early life he was a Whig, but since 
1856 has been an outspoken Republican. As the nominee of his party 
he was elected Judge of the Tenth Judicial Circuit in 1873, serving until 
1879. He and wife have had born to them eleven children, only Mabel, 
Caroline, Martha, Henry, Rena and Charles E. yet living. Mrs. Pearson 
and three daughters belong to the Presbyterian Church. Judge Pearson 
is a Camp Degree Odd Fellow. The death of Mrs. Pearson occurred 
March, 1883. 

JESSE T. PHIPPS was born in Shawswick Township May 1, 1823, 
the fourth of nine children of Lewis and Margaret (Rector) Phipps, the 
father a native of North Carolina born July 19, 1783, the mother a native 
of Grayson County, Va., born February 17, 1793. In the winter of 1822 
the parents located near Bedford where the father became prominent and 
well known, and owned at his death November 22, 1858, a farm of 146 
acres. The father was a consistent member of the Baptist Church. Our 
subject's youth was passed without event, and at the age of twenty-six 
he married (March 29, 1849,) Nancy M. Dothitt, who bore him six chil- 
dren, of whom four are living: Henry C, Sarah M., Oliver M., Par- 
thena A. Henry is in Kansas; the others are with their parents. Mr. 
Phipps has followed farming principally through life, though for four 
years he was a merchant in Daviess County. He owns 156 acres of land, 
is a Republican, takes an earnest interest in all public enterprises, and is 
universally respected. 

JEFFERSON RAGSDALE was born in Lawrence County, August 15, 
1847, being the third of nine children of Gabriel H. and Elizabeth (Cain) 
Ragsdale. His father, a native of Kentucky, came to this county about 
1823. His mother was a native of this county. Our subject remained 
with his pareDts on their farm until the age of twenty-four years, and 
November ], 1871, was united in marriage with Minerva E. Alexander, 
the issue of which union was one child — Alden C, born August 23, 1875. 
On the 18th of July, 1876, their little boy died, a loss that will be ever 
mourned by the parents. Mr. Ragsdale is a successful farmer, now own- 
ing seventy-one acres of good land. He and wife are members of the 
Christian Church. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and is a 
Democrat of the practical school. 

JOSEPH RAWLINS, the oldest settler now living in Lawrence 
County, is a native of the town of Danville, Boyle County, Ky., born 
April 21, 1796, one of live children born to Charles and Aristicia (Gre- 
gory) Rawlins, early settlers of Kentucky. In the fall of 1812 he set- 
tled in what is now Lawrence County, lud., and has made that his home 
ever since. His father dying when he was four years old, he was left to 
the care of an uncle, with whom he came to Indiana. He served as a 
•Ranger in 1814, from which service he saved money enough to buy 
eighty acres of land. In December, 1817, he married Miss Sallie Mc- 



Manis, and began farming, taking his produce to New Orleans by flat- 
boat. In 1826 Mr. Rawlins began doing a general mercantile business 
at Bedford, which had only then been naade the county seat, and which 
was named at the request of Mr. Eawlins, from Bedford County, Tenn., 
from whence his uncle had brought him. He built a flouring mill, also. 
Mr. and Mrs. Rawlins raised a family of teo children: James, Sarah J. 
(Denson), Miranda, Benjamin F., Mary (Hickman), Homer, Joseph, 
Susan (Mitchell), Emeline (Farmer), and Nettie (Voris). Augusts, 1855, 
Mrs. Rawlins died, and about the same time he abandoned the mercan- 
tile trade entirely. He was the first Assessor of the county. He was 
elected County Commissioner, but resigned that office. He has generally 
been a Republican, although not strictly so, as he has always voted for 
men and principles, not party. 

THOMAS T. RAY is the eldest child of seven of Squire and Sallie 
A. (Woolery) Ray, and was born ]\iay 16, 1843. The father, Squire, 
while yet a boy, came to Indiana from Kentucky in company with Jacob 
Woolery at an early day, and his parents came later and lived to the age 
of eighty years. When our subject was in his tenth year his parents 
died, and he went to live with his uncle, Thomas Stafford; but four years 
later made his home at his grandfather Woolery' s, where he remained 
two years, and then enlisted in Company G, Fourth Indiana Cavalry, 
and served with distinction for one year, and was then discharged for 
disability. November 24, 1863, he married Susan E. Kern, who has 
presented him with eleven children as follows: Elmer C, Viola E., 
Wallace E., Ethel R., Harry R., Jesse G., Charlie N., Dailey C, 
Thomas E., Freddie M. and Sallie. Our subject has been a successful 
farmer, now owning 375 acres of well-improved land. He and wife are 
members of the Christian Church. He is a Mason, an Odd Fellow, a 
Granger, and affiliates with the National party. 

HORATIO B. RICHARDSON was born at Waltham, Mass., Febru- 
ary 10, 1813, and was one of ten children born to Ruel and Orra (Bird) 
Richardson. He was educated in the common schools of his native 
State and Connecticut, and when a young man learned the machinist's 
trade of his father. When only about dfteen years old he was made 
second overseer in a cotton spinning mill at Glastonbury, and besides 
having worked at this business in Glastonbury he was also at Lowell 
and other places. In 1833 be came to Bedford to start the woolen mills, 
then in course of erection, and remained one year, then went to Louis- 
ville, Ky., and from there a year later to Missouri. Two years later he 
returned to Bedford, which has ever since been his home. In 1847 he 
embarked in merchandising which for thirty-seven years he has con- 
tinued without interruption, and to-day represents one of the oldest and 
most reliable business houses of Bedford. He owns, besides his grocery 
and provision store and building, nine dwellings and other business 
property in Bedford and Springville, and eighty acres of farming land. 
He has served in local positions of trust in the county, is a Republican 
and has always been identified with the best interests of his county and 
particularly in the erection of the High School building in Bedford. 
On the 19th of May 1842, Nancy A. Webb became his wife, and to their 
union eleven children have been born, only the following being yet alive: 
Henry, Horace, Allen, Orra, Mary, Ellen and Louise. 

JOHN RILEY, attorney at law, was born in Harrison County, Ohio, 
September 19, 1824, and is one of ten children born to William and 


Nancy (Ewing) Riley. He was reared in his native State, educated in 
the common schools and began when a young man to teach school at the 
same time studying both law and medicine. In October, 1845, he mar- 
ried Rebecca Agnew, who died during the summer of 1848, leaving one 
son — Clinton C. — to survive her. The fall of 1849, Mr. Riley removed 
to Lawrence County, Ind., locating near the present town of Mitchell, 
where he continued to reside until 1864, when he was elected County 
Clerk. He moved to Bedford, served one term of four years, was 
re-elected to a second term and served in all eight years, after which he 
resumed the practice of law, associating himself in partnership with 
George O. Iseminger at Bedford. This partnership has since continu.ed, 
and is recognized as one of the leading legal firms of Bedford. August 
14, 1851, Mr. Riley was united in marriage with Nancy J., daughter of 
John R. Nugent, and the following named of their nine children are yet 
living: John R., Euphemia (Mrs. Dunn), Mary (Mrs. Erwin), Sarah A., 
Nancy J. and Louise. As a member of the Masonic brotherhood, Mr. 
Riley has several times served as Worshipful Master. In early years he 
was a Whig in politics, but on the death of that party, joined the Amer- 
ican party, and in 1860 was an Elector for the Bell and Everett ticket. 
When the war broke out he unhesitatingly united with the Republicans, 
and has since been an active worker in that party. 

JOHN SCOGGAN was born in this township December 10, 1831, the 
fourth of ten children of Samuel and Lucy (Martin) Scoggan, natives of 
Kentucky. Each of the parents was the eldest of his or her father's 
family, and is the only one now living. They came to this State at the 
early date of 1828, when the country was yet a wilderness. John had 
no such school advantages as exist at present, but managed to secure the 
rudiments. His youth was passed without event on his father's farm at 
hard work. January 11, 1855, he married Elizabeth (Austin) Nolan, 
and nine children are the issue, seven now living: Thomas W., who 
married Mary I. Smith; Margaret M., who married Jesse Mitchell, Jr.; 
Katharine B., who became the wife of Hugh Gray; Sarah A., who mar- 
ried Samuel E. Mitchell; Susan E., Clara M. and Albert W. Mr. Scog- 
gan is a successful farmer and owns 195 acres of good land. He is a 
Republican in politics, and one of the county's best and most influential 

REUBEN B. SCOTT was born in Rush County, Ind., May 30, 1839, 
the third of five children born to Joshua and Nancy (McCoy) Scott, both 
of whom died when our subject was quite young. At the age of eight 
years, he came with his grandparents to Lawrence County, and here in 
youth by diligence secured a fair education, teaching afterward about 
five years. October 4, 1865, his marriage with Mary E. Miller was cele- 
brated. July 15, 1861, he enlisted in Company B, Twelfth Illinois Regi- 
ment, and served three months, and was then discharged for disability. 
He came home and taught a term of school, and at its termination re-en- 
listed in Company A, Sixty-seventh Indiana Regiment, and served three 
years, participating in the very large number of seventeen engagements, 
among which were the siege of Vicksburg, capture of Forts Morgan, 
Gaines, Blakely and the city of Mobile, and Fort Hindman in Arkansas. 
He was twice taken prisoner and paroled, and was confined fifty -two days 
in the rebel prison at Alexandria, La. Since his return from the army 
he has been an invalid. He is now United States Pension Claim Agent. 
He owns 167 acres of land, is a member of the G. A. R., is a Republican, 
and he and wife are members of the Christian Church. 


JOSEPH H. SHERRILL was born in Shawswick Township, Feb- 
ruary 24, 1845, being the fifth child of six born to John and Thursa 
(Woody) Sherrill, The father was born in North Carolina in 1800, knd 
came to Indiana at an early day. Joseph H. remained with his parents 
in charge of the old place until their deaths. His youth was passed as 
that of all other boys of pioneers — without advantages of schooling or 
society, and at hard work in the woods. He chose the occupation of 
farming, which he has followed to the present. He now has a tine farm 
of 253 acres of well-improved land. He is a Democrat politically and a 
member of Bedford Lodge, A. F. & A. M., No. 14. October 21, 1870, 
he married Emily Payne, and to this union two children have been born, 
as follows: Minnie M. and Henry W. Mr. Sherrill is prosperous in his 
occupation, and is an enterprising citizen. 

ELIAS SITLER is a native of Columbia County, Penn., born May 
8, 1825, the seventh of twelve children, of Samuel and Christina (Fry) 
Sitler, both natives of Germany. In 1833 Elias Sitler, in company 
with his brother-in-law, came to Indiana, locating at Indianapolis, where 
he remained until he was eighteen years old, learning in the meantime 
the carpenter and joiner ti'ade. He then went to Illinois for three years, 
then to Vicksburg, Miss., and soon afterward to this county. His edu- 
cation is limited through no fault of his own. In August, 1852, he mar- 
ried Emily Brown, and to this union five childi'en have been born : Alice, 
who married Daniel Cupps, William, Ann, Ada and Mary. The last four 
are at home with their parents. Mr. Sitler' s occupation has been his. 
trade, together with farming on his place of over 100 acres. Mr. 
and Mrs. Sitler are members of the Methodist Church. He is a 
Republican and Mason, and one uf the substantial citizens of the 

JOHN V. SMITH, a native of the township in which he now resides 
and the owner and editor of the Bedford Journal , was born November 
6, 1831, the next youngest in a family of three sons and six daughters, 
born to Peter and Margaret (Ford) Smith. The parents were natives of 
Jientucky and Tennessee respectively; were married in the former State, 
and when Indiana was yet in its infancy immigrated to Lawrence 
County, first settling in Indian Ci*eek Township, subsequently removing 
to Shawswick Township where the father died in 1849, followed by his 
widow in 1867, at the home of our subject, who then lived in Daviess 
County. John V. Smith was raised a farmer, receiving such educational 
advantages in youth as were common at that early day. After the death 
of his father he began doing for himself, and in July, 1851, was united 
in marriage with Miss Susan A. Collins, of Monroe County. Until during 
the war he followed farming, but in January, 1864, became a private in 
Company I, One hundred and Twentieth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 
served through the Atlanta campaign, but after the reduction of Atlanta 
was detached from Sherman's army and sent in pursuit of Hood. After 
the war Mr. Smith was retained in the service for provost duty in the 
South until January, 1866, when he received his discharge. He engaged 
in merchandising at Clarksburg, Ind. , continuing about ten years, the 
last five years of his stay being also editor and proprietor of the Clarks- 
burg Spy. In 1877 he returned to Lawrence County, and in June of 
that year established the Bedford Journal, which he has since edited 
with ability and managed with financial success. Mr. Smith is a Repub- 
lican and a member of the Masonic and G. A. R. fraternities. Both he 


and wife belong to the Christian (Church and are parents of eight chil- 
dren, all of whom are now dead. Mr. Smith has lately bought the Mitchell 

FRANKLIN P. SMITH, Superintendent of the Bedford Public 
Schools, is a native of Washington County, Ind., born July 9, 1854, the 
oldest of four children born to Lewis N. and Nancy J. (Worrall) Smith, 
who were also natives of that county. Until his eighteenth year he 
worked on his father's farm and attended the district schools of his 
neighborhood. At that age he began attending the Salem Public 
Schools, which he pursued for two years and teaching vacations. At 
twenty years of age he commenced a course in the State University of 
Bloomington, where he graduated in June, 1878, having taken the Ancient 
Classic Course. In August, 1878, he went to Fisherville, Ky. , and 
took charge of the public schools at that place for six months. On Octo- 
ber 23 of the same year he was united in matrimony with Miss Amanda 
E. Brewer, of Salem, Ind., and to their union two children, named Daisy 
B. and Anna M. were born March 21, 1880, and March 1, 1881, only the 
former now living. In February, 1879, he returned to Salem and 
worked on a farm until the following September. At that time he took 
charge of the Salem High Schools, which position he held for three 
years. After that he taught in the public schools at Orleans, Ind., as 
Superintendent for one year. At the end of that time he came to Bedford, 
where he has ever since held the place he now occupies with good success 
and satisfaction. Professor Smith is a member of the Methodist Church 
and his wife of the Christian Church at Salem. In politics he is a 
stanch Democrat of the old Jacksouian type, and always takes a lively 
interest in the public affairs of the day. 

HAMILTON STILLSON, A. M., M. D., was born in Bedford, Ind., 
February 14, 1857, and is one of four children now living born to Dr. 
Joseph and Eliza (Reddick) Stillson, who were among the early settlers 
of the county. Hamilton Stillson, after attending the common schools 
of Bedford until fourteen years of age, went to the May Academy at 
Salem, Ind., for two years, after which for one year he was a teacher in 
the common schools of Lawrence County. At the age of eighteen he 
commenced a course of study in Hanover College, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1879, receiving the degree of A. B., and three years later the 
degree of A. M. from the same institution. Immediately after his 
graduation he began teaching in the Southern Indiana Normal College 
at Mitchell, delivering a course of lectures on the Nervous System. The 
winter of 1881-82 he entered the medical department of the University 
of Louisville, which graduated him with the degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine in March of the latter year. He is now occupying the chair of 
German and Natural Science in the Normal School at Mitchell, and is 
one of its ablest instructors. Dr. Stillson took a special course on the 
diseases of the eye and ear, the winter of 1882-83 at the New York Eye 
and Ear Institute, after which he returned to Bedford making a specialty 
of those diseases in connection with nose and throat troubles. He is 
the author of "Normal Outline of the Essential Elements of Human 
Physiology," which is used as text-book in the Normal at Mitchell. He 
is also now engaged on a work on " School Room Diseases of the Eye, 
Ear, Nose and Throat," and is the present Secretary of the Southern 
Indiana Microscopical Society. 


ELI STULTS was born in Stokes County, N. C, January 27, 1827, 
being the eldest of four children born to William and Anna (Holder) 
Stults, who emigrated to this county about the year 1831. They were 
natives of North Carolina. Subject remained at home until he attained 
his majority, and on December 21, 1854, married Sarah A. Shields, and 
to this union seven children have been born: David R., who married 
Ruthey Allen; William D., John C. , whose wife was Dora Mitchell; 
Henry C. , Mary E. , Nathaniel V. and Sallie. He has followed farming 
all his life, and now owns 200 acres of well- improved land. He also 
owns and operates a corn-mill and tile machine. Mr. and Mrs. Shults 
are members of the Christian Church, and he always contributes to the 
support of all laudable undertakings. He is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and his political views are Democratic. He is one of the 
county's best citizens. 

JOHN D. THOMASSON, one of Bedford's oldest business men, was 
born in Henry County, Va., December 17, 1812, and is one of seven 
children of Fleming and Margaret (Davis) Thomasson. Eleven months 
and eleven days is the sum total of his schooling, confined to thf primi- 
tive log-cabin schools of his day, and until 1838 he followed farming. 
In that year he embarked in the grocery and provision trade in Coffee- 
ville, Miss., continuing until March, 1841, when he came to Lawrence 
County, Ind. , where he has almost constantly been engaged in merchan- 
dising since, residing at Bedford since 1853. Here he has been identi- 
fied with many of the business industries of the town, and has always 
taken an active part in laudable enterprises. April 20, 1834. he married 
Miss Jane Robertson, by whom he was the father of one daughter — Mary 
M., born September 5, 1840, died February 28, 1864. He is a member 
of the Blue Lodge in Masonry, and is the present Secretary of Lodge 
No. 14, and from 1879 to 1883, was Trustee of the Bedford schools. 
Mr. Thomasson was a Whig in politics, afterward a State Central Com- 
mitteeman on the Bell-Everett ticket. On the breaking: out of theRebell- 
ion he became a Republican, and from 1863 until the abolishment of the 
office was Provost Marshal of Lawrence County. In 1872 he united 
with the Liberal Republicans, and was a delegate to the Cincinnati Con- 
vention that nominated Horace Greeley. Since then he has been a Dem- 
ocrat. Mr. Thomasson has served years as a Justice of the Peace in 
Lawrence County, and in that capacity rendered general satisfaction. 

GEORGE A. THORNTON, deceased, was born at Lexington, Ind., 
October 16, 1821, a son of Henry P. and Martha (Ward) Thornton and a 
gi'andson of Thomas Thornton, the latter a native of County Donegal, 
Ireland, coming to this country when eighteen years old in 1776, and 
serving the Colonies in their struggle for independence. He was wounded 
at Eutaw Springs, and after the war, marrying Elizabeth Robinson, he 
removed to Bourbon County, Ky., in 1778, where both died. Henry P., 
Benjamin and Margaret were their children. The former was born in 
North Carolina in March, 1784, was educated in Kentucky, and was a 
member of the Constitutional Convention and Legislature of the latter 
State, and during the war of 1812 rose to rank of Captain in the com- 
pany of the regiment commanded by Col. Thompson, the same that is 
credited with the killing of Tecumseh. He removed to Indiana Terri- 
toiy at an early day, serving in the Constitutional Convention and Legis- 
lature of this State; practiced Jaw at Salem and New Albany for years, 
and June 6, 1865, died at Bedford. George A. Thornton read law with 


his brother, Volney, at Paoli, and in 1846 began practicing in Bedford. 
Shortly thereafter he was appointed County Clerk, and in 1852 and 1856 
was elected to that position in Lawrence County. In 1857 he resigned 
to become Cashier of the Bedford Bank, serving in the latter office until 
his death, September 14, 1864. He was a man of strict integrity and 
irreproachable character. To his union with Mary A. Braxtan, which 
occurred at Paoli, July 13, 1847, five sons and three daughters were born, 
six children and the mother yet living. Thomas V. Thornton, the eldest 
son of George A. and Mary A. Thornton, is the present nominee of his 
party for Clerk of Lawrence County. He was born at Paoli, May 21, 
1848, was educated in the public schools of Bedford, and in June, 1869, 
graduated from the classical course of Hanover College- He read law 
with Judge Pearson, took the junior course of lectures at the Law Depart- 
ment of the State University, and in 1871 was admitted to the Lawrence 
County Bar. With the exception of eighteen months, while dealing in 
real estate in Kansas, and three years while book-keeper in the National 
Bank at Evansville, Ind., he has always resided in Bedford, where he 
has been engaged in merchandising and saw-milling. In 1881 he 
became interested in the Hoosier Stone Company, since when he has been 
its Secretary. March 21, 1872, Miss Annie N. Martin became his wife, 
aud Claude M., George D., Charlotte and Marie are their children. Mr, 
Thornton is a Eepublican, a member of the F. & A. M., and he and wife 
belong to the Presbyterian Church. 

COL. ARCHIBALD C. VORIS, of Bedford, was born in Switzerland 
County, Ind., June 16, 1829, one of the eleven children of Cornelius R, 
and Mary (Van Nuys) Voris. The parents were natives of Kentucky and 
settled in Indiana in 1824. Col. Voris received a common school educa- 
tion in the country schools of his native county, where he was raised upon 
the farm. In 1851 he began a course in Hanover College which he com- 
pleted in 1855, receiving the degree of A. B. and afterward that of A. 
M. Immediately after graduation he located in Bedford and taught 
school one year. In 1856 he was admitted to practice law at the Bar of 
Lawrence County, and in the following year he went to Harvard Univer- 
sity and attended the Dane Law School at that institution, in which he 
took a full course. He then returned to Bedford and formed a partner- 
ship with Judge Pearson in the practice of his profession. This con- 
tinued until July, 1862, when he was commissioned a Captain by the 
President, and was assigned for duty on the staff of Gen. W. S. Han- 
cock, where he served until the close of the war. At the date of his dis- 
charge in May, 1865, he held the commission of Brevet Lieutenant- 
Colonel, awarded "for gallant and faithful service on the field." On 
November 16, 1858, his marriage with Antoinette Rawlins was solemn- 
ized, and to their union two children have been born, only one, Joseph 
R., now living. Upon his return from the army Col. Voris again engaged 
in the practice of law and at the same time studying languages, being 
able to read with fluency the Greek, Latin, Hebrew, French and Ger- 
man. For five years beginning in 1867, he was associated with Judge 
Francis Wilson in his profession. In religion both he and his wife are 
influential members of the Presbyterian Church at Bedford. In politics, 
Co). Voris has always been an ardent Republican, and was at one time 
candidate for Circuit Judge against Bicknell, but was defeated on account 
of the district being largely Democratic. In 1876 he was the candidate 
of his party for Judge of the Supreme Court, but with the State ticket 


that year was defeated. As a delegate to the National Convention at Chi- 
cago in 1860 he was one of the active men in securing the nomination of 
Abraham Lincoln. In 1882 he abandoned the practice of law on 
account of increasing business as a member of the Dark Hollow Stone 

JOHN C. VOSS, jeweler, is a native of Pei-ry Township, Lawrence 
County, Ind., born June 3, 1849, one of two liviog children in a family 
of six born to William and Elizabeth (Cook) Voss who were among the 
early settlers in Lawrence County from Tennessee. Jonn C. Voss 
received a good common school education in the schools of his native 
county, and in the fall of 1865 moved to Bloomington, where one year 
later he began a course in the State University at that place. The spring 
of 1868 he began working at his trade, that of carpentering, which he had 
learaed in early life with his father, and after this was engaged in clerk- 
ing in a drug store for some time. He then began for himself in the 
jewelry business inPaoli, Orange Co., Ind., where he continued for about 
six months and then returned to Bloomington. In September, 1881, he 
bought out George N. Rouse, and located in Bedford with a stock of 
jewelry valued at $2,000 which he has increased to the value of about 
$4,000. He is now known as one of the progressive and best business 
men of Bedford. October 5, 1882, he was married to Mary M. Hughes, 
and to their union one child — Maxwell H. — was born April 1,1884. Mr. 
and Mrs. Voss are members of the Presbyterian Church and Mr. Voss is 
a member of the Blue Lodge in Masonry and a Republican in politics. 

HON. NATHANIEL WILLIAMS, a native of Ashe County, N. C, was 
born January 12, 1817, and when only nine months old came with his 
parents to Lawrence County, Ind., then an unbroken forest. His school- 
ing was limited to the primitive log cabin conducted on the subscription 
plan of that period, and when seventeen years old he began learning the 
blacksmith trade, following that vocation forty-five years. December 27, 
1834, he married Rosanna Owens, who died November 25, 1839, leaving 
three children: Belinda, Exony and John. August 27, 1840, Susannah 
Owens became his wife, and in 1852 they moved to Morgan County, but 
four years later returned to Lawrence County, which has since been Mr. 
AVilliaais' home. Since 1856 he has passed the greater part of his life 
in merchandising, farming and working at his trade, the former being 
his present occupation. October 10, 1879, his second wife died after 
bearing him eight children, only three — William J., Martha F. and M. 
E. — yet living. Miss Ella Shaw became his present and third wife Octo- 
ber 28, 1880. "Uncle Nat," as he is familiarly called, is one of the 
well-known and esteemed men of the county as well as one of its first pio- 
neers. He is a Democrat in politics, has been twice elected Justice of the 
Peace, and in 1862 was elected Representative. For fifteen yeai's he 
belonged to the Christian Church, but for the past fifteen years has affil- 
iated with the Missionary Baptists, serving as local preacher in each 

JOHN WILLIAMS is a native of Shawswick Township, and was born 
November 27, 1842, the third of three children born to Nathaniel and 
Rosanna (Owens) Williams, the father a native of North Carolina, and 
the mother of Kentucky, who came to this county in 1817. Passing 
youth without noteworthy event and with meager education, John at the 
age of nineteen years began life's battle for himself. August 17, 1865, 
he married Sarah J. Fish. Three of their five children are now living : 


Emma C, Sudie M. and Minerva C, all at home. July 8, 1874, Mrs. 
Williams died, and July 15, 3875, he married Mary A. Fish. The issue 
is three children — Lutie M., Ella J. and Anna M. Mr. Williams through- 
out life has followed fai*ming. He now owns 120 acres of good land. 
He is a Republican, and he and family are members of the Christian 
Chm'ch. August 6. 1862, he enlisted in Company G, Fourth Cavalry, 
and served for three years, and was mustered out as Corporal July 6, 
1865. He was at the battle of Chickamauga, and participated at Resaca 
and Atlanta, and in McCook's raid and in minor actions. His military 
record is a good one. 

COL. VINSON V. WILLIAMS, a native of Lawrence County, and 
ex-Sherifif, is one of four children born to David and Ann (McClelland) 
Williams, his birth occui-ring March 28, 1841. David Williams was a 
native of North Cai'olina, and came to Lawrence County, Ind. , with his 
father, Maj. Vinson Williams, in 1818. His wife's parents were natives 
of Ireland, fi'om whence they came to this country in 1792, locating in 
Pennsylvania, where Mrs. Williams was born. In 1819 they settled at 
Old Palestine, in Lawrence County, Ind. Here Col. Williams' parents 
were married April 21, 1836, and their respective deaths occurred in this 
county January 9, 1857, and October 19, 1877. V. V. Williams received 
only the advantages of the common schools in youth. April 19, 1861, 
he enlisted in Company B, Eighteenth Regiment Indiana Volunteer In- 
fantry — the tirst company raised in Lawrence County for the late war — 
and served through the battles of Pea Ridge, Cotton Plant, Port Gibson, 
siege of Vicksburg, Fort Esperanza and other important engagements. 
At Port Gibson he was three times wounded, and of the thirty-four men 
then comprising the company twenty-two were wounded or killed. He 
was discharged May 1, 1863, and on his return home recruited what 
became Company B, Forty-fifth Regiment, of which he was elected Cap- 
tain on organization. At the organization of the regiment he was com- 
missioned Major by Gov. Morton and in June, 1865, was promoted Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. In this capacity he served until January, 1866, when 
he was honorably discharged. Since the war he has been engaged in 
various pursuits, principally farming. May 16, 1867, Miss Mary Owen, 
became his wife, and Walter C, Minnie N., Nora A. and John D. are 
their children. Col. Williams is a Sir Knight in Masonry and a life-long 
Republican. In 1868 was elected County Sheriff, serving four yeai's, 
and for eight years was Deputy United States Marshal under Messrs. 
Spooner and Dudley. 

JUDGE FRANCIS WILSON, of the Tenth Judicial Circuit of Indi- 
ana, was born in Scott County, Ind. , February 19, 1837, second of seven 
children born to Thomas B. and Ann (Lowry) Wilson, early settlers of 
Indiana, the former being a tanner, at which trade Fi*ancis was brought 
up. After the age of fifteen years our subject taught school for about 
five years; during a portion of the time, however, he attended Hanover 
College. In 1857 he went to Illinois, where for two years he taught 
school and surveyed; also began the study of law there, borrowing books 
from Judge Breese. He then taught and studied for a couple of years 
at Paoli, Orange County, and in 1862 was admitted to practice at the 
bar of that county, afterward forming a connection with Col. A. M. 
Black, now of Terre Haute, until 1867, when he located in Bedford, 
forming a partnership with Col. A. C. Voris, and afterward with Hon. 
Moses F. Dunn, which lasted until he was elected Judge in 1879. The 


Judge in early life was a Republican, but has been a Democrat since 
1872. As an evidence of the estimation in which Judge Wilson is held, 
it is only necessary to state that the judicial district over which he has 
been called to preside is not only a large one, but is Republican. Octo- 
ber 24, 1861, he married Miss Mary White, daughter of Dr. Cornelius 
White, of Paoli, and one child has been born to him — Laura, born in 
July, 1862. 

WILLIAM C. WINSTANDLEY is one of four children of John B. 
and Penina (Stewart) Winstandley, and was born January 28, 1841, at 
New Albany, Ind. , where his father and grandparents settled in 1818. 
In boyhood he attended the public schools of his native town, and when 
sixteen years old came to Bedford and was employed in the old State 
Bank at a salary of $100 per year and board. In 1860 he was elected 
Cashier of the Bank of Salem at Salem, Ind., serving as such three years, 
and the succeeding year was an assistant in the office of the Provost 
Marshal at New Albany. In September, 1864, he returned to Bedford 
and was made Cashier of the " Bank of the State," and from that time 
until the present has been connected with all subsequent banks at Bed- 
ford as an ofl&cial. Mr. Winstandley, as a citizen of Bedford, has been 
identified in the growth and prosperity of the town, and was a member 
of the first Board of School Trustees, a position he held eleven succes- 
sive years, during which time two large school buildings were erected. 
In politics he is a Democrat, and he and wife belong to the Christian 
Church. Besides occupying his present position in the Bedford Bank, he 
is President of the Hoosier Stone Company, Vice-President and Treas- 
urer of the Bedford & Bloomtield Railroad Company and a Director in 
the Southwestern Overland Telephone and Telegraph Company, the Ken- 
tucky & Indiana Bridge Company, the New Albany Steam Forge Works, 
the New Albany Water- works and the New Albany Banking Company. 
In March, 1864, Mr. Winstandley and Miss Alice M., daughter of Jesse 
A. Mitchell, were united in marriage, and to them two children have 
been born, named Jesse M. and John B. 

WILLIAM P. YOUNGER, a native of Nicholas County, Ky., was 
born March 23, 1828, being the eldest of twelve children of Lewis and 
Nancy (Crose) Younger, both natives of Kentucky, who came to this 
county in 1832, settling where our subject now resides. William P. 
remained on his father's farm until the age of eighteen years, obtaining 
limited schooling, but at that age began for himself. November 11, 
1848, he married Delilah Rogers, who has borne him three children, two 
of whom are now living: Lucretia J., the wife of Caleb Cupps, and Alice, 
who became the wife of Jasper Kern. February 14, 1857, Mrs. Younger 
died, and November 22, 1857, he was united in marriage with Elvira 
Reed, and to this union the following issue has been born: Addison, 
Kitty, Minnie, Charlie, Lillie and May. May 22, 1871, his second wife 
died, and August 16, 1873, he married Phelissa A. (Fisher) Woody, who 
has borne him three children, two living: Aylett R. and J. N. Mr. 
Younger is successful in farming, owning 200 acres of land. They are 
members of the Christian Chin-ch. He is a Republican. His grand- 
father was a soldier in the Revolution. 

JOHN YOUNGER was born in Nicholas County, Ky., July 18, 1830, 
being the second of twelve children of Lewis and Nancy (Crose) Younger 
(see i>iography of W. P. Younger). He remained at home With his par- 
ents on their farm during youth, securing a fair education, and at the 


age of eighteen years began doing for himself. October 2, 1851, he was 
united in marriage with Mary A. Ragsdale, and to this union the follow- 
ing four children were born: David A., Cora, who became the wife of 
Dewitt C, Leatherman, since deceased; William O., who married Celes- 
tia J. Ramsey, and Benjamin. On the 25th of November, 1860, Mrs. 
Younger died, and November 19, 1863, Mr. Younger married Kittie E. 
Ramsey, who has borne him two children: Robert L. and Mary H. He 
owns a' good farm of 160 acres, mostly well improved and stocked. He 
owns fine horses and jacks. He and family are members of the Christian 
Church, and he is a Republican and a member of the Odd Fellow 
fraternity. He has been Justice of the Peace for two terras, and is a 
prominent farmer and citizen. 

MICHAEL YOUNGER is a native of Nicholas County, Ky., and 
was born July 3, 1832. He is the third child of twelve born to Lewis and 
Nancy (Crose) Younger (see biography of W. P. Younger). Michael 
passed his youth at hard work on his father's farm. He did not have 
the advantages of the present of getting an education, and was forced to 
take what he could get by a limited attendance at the old subscription 
schools. At the age of eighteen he began work for himself. April 23, 
1855, he married Mary Thorn, who bore him nine children, seven being 
now living: Isis, who married Levi Keithley; Andrew J., who married 
Clara Elston; Nannie, who became the wife of Joel Hobbs; Elizabeth, 
Carrie, Coi'nelia and Thomas. Mr. Younger is a prosperous farmer with 
160 acres of well stocked and improved land. He and family are mem- 
bers of the Christian Church. He is an iniiaential Republican and a 
leading citizen. 


BURTON FAMILY. The Burton family in the United States, num- 
bering at the present time over 80,000, are of English and Welsh origin. 
The first authentic account we have of the family in this country is the 
settlement of four brothers — John, Richard, Thomas and Allen^ — near 
the present site of Richmond, Va., in the year 1655. All purchased 
large tracts of land in what is now Henrico County, except Thomas, 
and all married and reared large families, many of whom became dis- 
tinguished in military and civil life, among whom might be mentioned 
Cols. Robert and Hutchins Burton, who served on Gen. Washington's 
stafif in the war of the Revolution, and the latter as Governor of South 
Carolina after that war. William Burton, brother of Gideon Burton, a 
wholesale boot and shoe dealer of Cincinnati, was Governor of Rhode 
Island, and the Jate Allen A., of Illinois, and John W., of Tennessee, 
were jurists of recognized ability, the former being the only man in his 
county in Kentucky who voted for Abraham Lincoln in 1860. "Old 
Abe" afterward made him Minister to Chili. John Burton, of Virginia, 
was a noted Baptist divine. The family is represented in all the 
trades, professions and different departments of business, the largest 
number, however, being engaged in agricultural pursuits. In the late 
war they furnished their proportion of the army, rank and file, from 
Major-General to private. Some of the family fought for the '• lost 


cause," but whsther willingly cr not the writer of this was unable to 
learn. Those residing in North Carolina, Kentucky and Tennessee, 
however, were largely represented in the Union Army. The Burtons 
residing in this poi'tion of Indiana are descendants of Richard Burton, 
a native of the Old Dominion, who soon after the war of the Revolution 
removed with his family to Ashe County, N. C. His son, John P., was 
born in Virginia, July 8, 1758, and was married in Ashe County, to Miss 
Susannah Stamper, who was born August 22, 1767. To them were born 
the following children: Richard, Patsey, Allen, John, Mary, David, Will- 
iam, Hutchins, Hardin, Zachariah, Ann, and Eli and Isom, twins. Of this 
large family only the three youngest sons are now living. John P. Bur- 
ton came with his family to this county in 1826, locating on the farm 
now owned by Ransom Burton. Mr. Burton died July 4, 1836, and Mrs. 
Burton Aug vist 10, 1845. They were people of the highest respectability, 
and had the love and respect of all who knew them. Mr. Burton was a 
member of the Masonic Order, and a great admirer of that ancient insti- 
tution. Besides rearing thirteen children of their own, John P. and 
wife reared six orphan children, doing and caring for them as though 
they were their own. All their children married and reared large famil- 
ies. William, one of the sons, was married, in Ashe County, N. C. , to 
Miss Obedience Reeves, and in 1826 came to this county, locating on the 
farm now owned by their son, John W., which they soon afterward made 
their home, and where nine of their family of fifteen children were born. 
William was one of the best-known and most prominent of John P. Bur- 
ton's sons. He was an unswerving Democrat, and represented Lawrence 
County in the State Legislature. He assisted, in many of the early land 
surveys, and was a useful and progressive citizen. He died September 
20, 1846, and his wife July 28, 1853. Several of their children now 
reside in the county, among whom are Alfred. Allen C, Eli and John 
W. Alfred was born in Ashe County, N. C, September 22, 1816, and 
came with his parents to this county in 1826, and in 1842 was married 
to Miss Hannah E., daughter of the late Hugh Hamer. To them were 
born eleven children: Hugh H., Mary E., Caroline O., William, Felix 
G., Catharine, Alice A., George C, Theodosia, Josephine and Oscar J, 
Alfred Burton has always followed farming, and is one of the county's 
most worthy citizens. Eli, brother of Alfred, was born in Ashe County, 
N. C, October 2, 1822; was united in marriage with Miss Sarah Koons, 
August 15, 1850. She died J une 27, 1877. The following children were 
born to them: Henry A. and Nancy J., living; Franklin P., Delana, 
Florence, Eli G., Laura E., and two infants deceased. In 1879 Mr. 
Burton married Mrs. Elizabeth (Brown) Taylor. Mr. Burton owns a 
good farm and is a practical and successful farmer and stock-raiser. 
Allen C. was born in the township in which he now resides, January 12, 
3827, and received the benefits of a common school education. Septem- 
ber 10, 1840, he was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth Holmes, a 
native of Lawrence County, and to them were born four sons: William 
S., Joseph R., Zachariah T. and Charles W. Mrs. Burton died Febru- 
ary 3, 1854. Mr. Burton was united in marriage with Miss Sarah A. 
Richards, November 16, 1854. She was born in Jackson County, Ind. , 
in 1830, Six children were the fruits of this union: James B., Alonzo, 
Sallie O., Indiana, Lydia and Delia. Allen C. voted with the Demo- 
cratic party until the breaking out of the late war, since which he has 
voted with and zealously labored for the success of the Republican party. 


He has twice appraised the real estate of Lawrence County, haw been 
one of its Commissioners, and has held other positions of honor and 
trust. He has given his children liberal educations, and has taken an 
active and leading part in the advancement of all enterprises that go to 
build up the country or benefit his fellow-man. He served as Second 
Lieutenant in Company H, Sixty-seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 
in the late war, but after one year of active service was discharged on 
account of physical disability. He has always been engaged in agricult- 
ural piirsuits, and is one of the county's most progressive and useful cit- 

John W. Burton was born upon the old homestead in Marion 
Township, October 12, 1828, which has always been his home. He 
received a common school education, and December 14, 1854, was united 
in marriage with Miss Nancy J. Baker, a native of Orange County, Ind. , 
her birth occurring April 27, 1830. Eight children have been born to 
them: Volney T. , Obedience, Douglass, Clara E., Mary L., Edgar, Jesse 
L. and Virgil. Mr. Burton owns a well-improved farm of 350 acres. 
In politics he is a stanch Kepublican, and during the war did much to 
encourage the boys in the field and keep up a strong loyal sentiment at 
home. He liberally contributes to all laudable public enterprises and is one 
of the leading farmers and public- spirited citizens of the county. Rich- 
ard Burton, eldest child of John P. and Susannah (Stamper) Burton, was 
a native of Ashe County, N. C, and there was married to Miss Nancy 
Edwards, and to them were born these children: John, Jane, Young, Kob- 
ert, Noah, David E., James, Celia, Hiram, Susan, Mary, Cynthia and 
Timanza. Richard Burton and wife were well and favorably known to 
the early settlers, and were people of the highest worth. David E., 
fifth son born to these parents, is a native of Ashe County, N. C. ; his 
birth occurring August 26, 1815. His educational advantages were 
very limited, and from early childhood he was accustomed to hard work. 
He was married July 29, 1844, to Miss Catharine, daughter of Joseph 
and Margaret (McBride) Conley, both natives of the old North State, 
as was their daughter, whose birth occurred January 2, 1828. Twelve 
children have been born to David E. Burton and wife: Timanza, Joseph, 
Margaret, Nancy A., Phoebe, Richard, Susan, Rebecca, Jincie, Naomi, 
Frances and Henry. David E. has been a life-long Democrat. He is 
a self-made man, and one of the wealthiest farmers in Lawrence County, 
owning at the present time nearly 2,000 acres of land. He is a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and an upright and useful man. 
Other members of Richard Burton's family reside in the county, and are 
among its most worthy and honored citizens. Rev. Hardin Burton, 
ninth of John P. Burton's children, was born in North Carolina, in 
1798. He came to Indiana in 1827, and settled near Bloomfield, Greene 
Co. He was thrice married, his first wife being Miss Jennie Reeves, 
who bore him the following children: Jackson, John, Singleton, Chaney, 
Ann and Jane. His second wife was Miss Lucy Maxwell, to whom he 
was married in 1835. The following children were born to this union: 
George W., Nancy, James, Eli, Isom, Hardin and William J. In 1852 
he married Miss Kisiah McBride, who still survives him. In 1834 he 
came to Lawrence County, and engaged in farming and siock-growing. 
In 1843 he was licensed to preach and two years later was ordained a 
minister of the Baptist Church, and from this date on gave much of his 
time to his professional duties, and did much to build up the churches 


of Lawrence and adjoinincj counties. He was industrious, honest, phil- 
anthropic, an upright Christian, true to all of life's obligations. He 
died October 6, 1875. Several of his children are residents of Lawrence 
County, among whom are: Dr. John Burton, of Georgia, Ind. , and Dr. 
George W., of Mitchell. The former was born in Ashe County. N. C, 
March 16, 1821, and is the second child by his first marriage. He was 
brought up on a farm, receiving a common school education. He was 
united in marriage with Miss Linna Riggs, October 26, 1839. She is 
the daughter of Moses and JNIahala (Laswell) Kiggs. To this union 
have been born the following children: Mahala J., Jackson, Levisa A., 
Nancy S., Hardin R., Mary E. and Moses. Dr. Burton followed farming 
until 1845, when he took up the study of medicine, which he pursued 
until 1851, when he began practice, which he has since continued with 
unusual and uniform success, and at present has a large and steadily 
increasing practice. He owns 300 acres of good land. In politics he 
is a Democrat. He is a member of the Masonic Order and the Baptist 
Church and one of the county's leading and useful men. 

George W. Burton, M. D., was born in the county in which he resides 
July 22, 1836, and is the eldest child boi'n to the union of Rev. Hardin 
Burton with Miss Liicy Maxwell. His youth and early manhood were 
spent upon the farm. He graduated from the high school in 1852, and 
in 1853 took a commercial course. On finishing his education he was 
employed on the staff of civil engineers in the construction of the Ohio 
& Mississippi Railway. He then taught school and studied medicine 
until 1857, when he took a course of lectures at the Iowa State Univers- 
ity, and after practicing a short time took a partial course of lectures at 
the McDowell Medical College of St. Louis. On the bi-eaking out of 
the war he entered the Fifth Missouri Regiment, where he served until 
ill health compelled him to resign, when he came to Huron, Ind., where 
he followed his profession until August of 1862, when he again entered 
the service, this time as a member of the Seventeenth Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry, serving in the line and on the medical staff alternately until 
the spring of 1863, when he was again compelled to resign on account 
of ill health. He immediately returned to his home and practice. On 
the last call for volunteers in the fall of 1864 he raised Company D, 
One Hundred and Forty-fifth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, of which he 
was appointed Captain, and also acted as Assistant Surgeon, and after- 
ward as Acting Surgeon of the regiment until the close of the war. In 
1873 he came to Mitchell, where he has since remained. He has been 
prominent in all the medical organizations of the State. He joined the 
Lawrence County Medical Society on its organization in 1862, and was 
one of the originators of the Mitchell District Medical Society, which 
was organized in 1874, the first society of this kind in southern Indiana, 
and was its first delegate to the American Medical Society held at Detroit 
in 1874. In 1875 he took the degree of Doctor of Medicine at the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons at Indianapolis, Ind. In 1875 he with 
others organized the Tri-State Medical Society of Indiana, Illinois and 
Kentucky, and was made its Secretary, and has continued as such ever 
since. In 1875 he was made a member of the Indiana State Health Com- 
mission, and in 1877 took a degree at the Hospital Medical College of 
Louisville. He is an honorary member of the Southwestern Kentucky 
Medical Association, and also of those of Jackson and Orange Counties. 
He was also one of the originators of the South Central and Normal 


School of Mitchell. In 1866 he became a Mason; in 1869 he became a 
member of the Grand Lodge; in 1872, of the Royal Arch, and in 1877 
of the Council. He has been a member of the Town Council, and belongs 
to the Baptist Church. Although of a Democratic family, he is a stanch 
Republican. May 1, 1857, he was united in marriage with Miss Hattie 
C. Campbell, a most estimable lady, daughter of Dougal Campbell, of Illi- 
nois, a descendant of the old Dougal Campbell family of Scotland. 
They have had five children: Ava, Lizzie and Ella living; Grace and 
George W. deceased. 

Zachariah Burton, son of John P. and Susannah (Stamper) Burton, 
was born in Ashe County, N. C, September 12, 1801, and was reared 
upon a farm, receiving but a limited education. His first business vent- 
ure was as a huckster. He would buy a team and wagon on time, then 
load with brandy, apple butter, tallow, etc., and take them to points in 
Georgia, where he would dispose of all, when he would return to his 
home on foot, a distance of several hundred miles, when as soon as pos- 
sible the trip would be repeated. In this way he got his start in life, 
and by being honest, trustworthy, and never abusing his credit he built 
up for himself an enviable reputation, and accumulated considerable 
property. During his long and eventful lifetime he has ever sustained 
the reputation he established at the beginning of life. He was united 
in marriage with Mrs. Ruth (Core) Holmes, a native of Louisville, Ky., 
and to this union were born the following children: Ransom, Caswell R., 
Mary S. , Hugh F. , John C, Virginia C, Zachariah, Margaret R. and 
Juliet. Mrs. Burton had two children by a former marriage: William 
and Elizabeth Holmes. Mrs. Burton departed this life August 8, 1844. 
May 27, 1845, Mr. Burton married Mrs. Matilda Wright, who was born 
near Shelbyville, Ky., in 1817, and whose maiden name was Tegarden. By 
this union there were seven children: Ann, Sarah J., William H., George 
VV. , Shubel, Caroline and one that died in infancy. ' ' Uncle Zach, " as 
he is commonly called, is one of the oldest and best known of the early 
settlers of Marion Township. He has been a resident of the township 
since 1826, and has the respect and confidence of all who know him. 
He is a member of the Baptist Church, and has been a life-long Demo- 
crat. The county would be much better off had it more such men as 
Uncle Zach Burton. 

Ransom Burton, eldest child of Zachariah Burton by his first wife, 
was born in Marion Township, this county, April 13, 1829, and was 
reared upon his father's farm. October 9, 1851, he married Miss 
Elizabeth Murray, who was born in this county, January 18, 1834, and 
died July 9, 1853. There was one child by this marriage : Timothy. 
Mr. Burton's second wife was Miss Mary Finger, to whom he was married 
September 29, 1853. She was born in this county July 29, 1826, and 
died in 1863. There were seven children by this union : Francis, Julia 
A., Fannie, and four that died in infancy. February 4, 1864, Mr. Burton 
married Mrs. Fannie (Bryant) Overman, a native of this county, her 
birth occurring July 31, 3834. By this marriage there are three children: 
Caswell R., Grace T. and Ransom E. Mr. Burton owns 182 acres of 
land, which are well improved. He has the largest apple orchard in the 
county, and for several years has paid considerable attention to fruit 
culture. .He is a member of the Baptist Church, and liberal in his 
political views. He is a prominent and influential citizen. Caswell 
R., second son of Zachariah Burton, was one of the most promi- 


nent and promising young men in Southern Indiana. On tjie 
breaking out, of the war he became Lieutenant of Company G, Fiftieth 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and bravely went to the front to preserve 
his country's honor. September 16, 1862, at Munfordville, while gal- 
lantly fighting, he received a severe gun-shot wound, from the effects of 
which he died fourteen days later. He was a graduate of the State 
University at Bloomington, and of the Medical Department of the State 
University of Michigan, and his untimely death was deeply regretted by 
all. The Grand Army Post of Mitchell was named in his honor. 
Hugh F., son of Zachariah Burton, was born in Marion Township, this 
county, July 20, 1834. After attending the district schools of the 
neighborhood he attended the State University at Bloomington, some 
three years. In 1862 he enlisted in Company K, Seventeenth Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, and served until the close of the war, participating in 
many engagements. Since then he has been engaged in farming and 
school teaching. He has taught many terms of school and is a successful 
and popular educator. His wife was Miss Mahala A. Hall, who was born 
in Marion Township, April 25, 1848. Their marriage occurred August 
4, 1870. Five children have been born to them: Kosa M., Kuth, and 
three that died in infancy. Mr. Burton owns 216 acres of land, and is 
one of the most practical and successful farmers in Marion Township. 
He is a Democrat of the conservative kind, voting for men and measures 
and not for party. He is one of the county's well informed and useful 
citizens. Of the numerous members of the Burton family in Lawrence 
County, perhaps there is not one who is better known or more universally 
respected by friends and relatives than Eli Burton, Esq., of Spice Valley 
Township. He is twin brother of Isom Burton, and they the youngest of 
the family of thirteen children born to John P. and Susannah (Stamper) 
Burton. Eli Burton's birth occurred in Ashe County, N. C. , October 15, 
1807. He came with his parents to this county in 1826, which he has 
since made his home, farming and stock-raising having been his occupa- 
tion. From early boyhood he was accustomed to hard work, and although 
being one of the smallest members of this numerous family, he was not 
lacking in native pluck and energy. He began life as a poor boy, and 
by hard work, economy and good management has obtained a goodly 
share of this world's goods, owning at the present time about 1, 700 acres of 
good land. In his early life his educational advantages were very limited, 
but in after years he acquired by study and observation a good knowledge 
of some of the lower branches, and is to-day one of the most practical 
and well posted men in the county. He has appraised the real estate of 
the county three times, administered on many estates, held the office of 
Justice of the Peace some sixteen years, and Notary Public about the 
same. His entire public career has been noted for its efficiency, dispatch 
and honesty, reflecting much credit on him, and resulting in lasting 
benefits to those for whom he labored. He has been twice married. His 
first wife was Miss Mahala, daughter of John and Catharine (Miller) 
Conley, the marriage occurring February 19, 1832. To this union were 
born the following children: Simpson, Wiley G., Catharine, Rebecca A., 
Isom, John W., William H, George T. and Milton P. Mrs. Burton was 
a lady of great social and moral worth, devoting her entire life to her 
family and to the development of the social and moral condition of the 
neighborhood. This most estimable lady died July 5, 1853. She was 
born neai' Bryantsville, this county, March 17, 1812, and was one of the 


first white children born in the county. On February 26, 1857, Mr. 
Burton was united in marriage with Miss Phcebe Conley, daughter of 
Joseph and Margaret (McBride) Conley, and to this union have been 
born three children : Douglas, Joseph W. and Laura E. Mrs. Burton 
was born October 18, 1835. Mr. Burton has done much surveying in 
the county. He has for years voted in opposition to the National Demo- 
cratic party. He is well known and has the respect of all. 

Simpson Burton, son of Eli, was born September 22, 1833, and was 
brought up on the farm. He attended and taught school until 1853, 
when he entered Franklin College, from which institution he graduated 
in 1859. It was largely through his efforts that the Mitchell Seminary 
was established and became a popular and worthy educational institu- 
tion. In 1863 he married Miss Carrie Graves, a teacher in the school 
and a most estimable lady. Mr. Burton died at Bloomington, Ind., 
December 6, 1872, while engaged in ministerial labors. His wife sur- 
vives him and resides with her three children. Earnest, Ella and Grace, 
at Boise City, Idaho. Wiley G., second son of Eli Burton, was reared 
upon the farm, and after spending one year at Hartsville College 
entered Franklin College, gi-aduating in 1862. Soon after this he 
entered his country's service and was instrumental in raising Company H, 
Sixty-seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, of which he was elected Second 
Lieutenant. He died May 16, 1863, of disease contracted while in 
the service, his death greatly regretted by his comrades and friends. 
Isom, third son and fifth child of Eli Burton, was born February 26, 
1841, and passed his youth and early manhood upon the farm. He 
attended the common schools, Franklin College and the Mitchell Semi- 
nary, graduating from the last named institution. In 1862 he entered 
his country's service, becoming a member of Company H, Sixty-seventh 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and participated in the following engage- 
ments: Munfordville, Ky., where he was captured but soon after 
paroled; Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River, siege of Vicksburg, 
Grand Coteau, Mansfield, Fort Gaines, Fort Morgan and a number of 
lesser engagements. He saw much active service and is highly spoken 
of by his comrades-in-arms. He received his discharge July 19, 1865. 
Soon after his return home he took up the study of medicine and after 
some time entered the Medical Department of the State University of 
Ann Arbor, Mich., graduating in 1868. He began practice at EUetts- 
ville, but after a short time came to Mitchell and embarked in the drug 
trade, in which he has since continued. He possesses business and social 
qualities of a high order and has built up a large and steadily increas- 
ing business. He was united in marriage with Miss Kate Owen, Novem- 
ber 17, 1868, and to this union have been born three children: May, 
Lizzie M. , and Pearl. Mr. Burton has been Trustee of the Mitchell 
schools seven years and Clerk and Trustee of the Baptist Church about 
fourteen yeai's. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. , a Repviblican and 
supports all enterprises that go to build up the country or benefit his 
fellow-man. William H., son of Eli Burton, was born in Spice Valley 
Township, and reared to manhood upon his father's farm. Besides the 
education he received in the common schools he attended the Agricultural 
College of Michigan one year and the State University at Bloomington 
two years. He has since then been engaged in farming and school teach- 
ing. He married Miss Lillie J. Spencer, April 12, 1883. They have 
one child, Bertha O. Mrs. Burton was born in Spice Valley Township, 



March 29, 1866. Mr. Burton owns 380 acres of land and is one of the 
practical and successful farmers and stock-growers of Marion Township. 
Politically he is a stanch Republican. John W., another son of Eli 
Burton, resides in Gallatin, Mo., where he is practicing dental nurgery. 
Other members of the family reside at home or near the old homestead 
and are good citizens and useful members of society. Isom Burton, .son 
of John P. and twin brother of Eli, of Spice Valley Township, is a 
native of Ashe County, N. C, his birth occurring October 15, 1807. He 
came with his pai'euts to this dounty in 1826, and has ev&r since been a 
resident of the county and is well and favorably known to its people. 
Soon after coming to the county he and his brother Eli made several trips 
to New Orleans on flat-boats laden with produce, grain, lime and other 
articles. They usually started from the " Old Nugent Place," on Whit* 
River, the trip occupying several weeks and being attended with dangers, 
exposure and much hard work. The two brothers also farmed in partner- 
ship several years and were quite successful. The subject of this sketch 
owns 450 acres of well improved land in the northern part of Marion 
Township, where he has resided about half a century. He was united in 
marriage in September of 1833 with Miss Mary J. Alexander. She 
was born in Wilkes County, N. C, May 27, 1814, and to their union 
were born eleven children: Frances M., Nancy C, Amanda L., Clarissa 
M., America A., Martin A., Rachel E., Marshal T., Mary R., Sarah J. 
and Charles A. Mrs. Burton died August 6, 1866. Mr. Burton has 
devoted his entire life to farming and stock-raising, except about six 
years which he spent in Bedford engaged in mercantile pursuits and in 
giving his family superior educational advantages. He is liberal and 
conservative in his political views and has voted with and against the 
Democratic party. He and family take many of the best papers and 
periodicals and are among the most intelligent and progressive people in 
the county. 

Martin A., son of Isom Burton, Sr., was born in Lawrence County, 
Ind., May 7, 1844. He was reared upon the farm, and in addition to 
attending the common schools and the graded schools of Bedford, attend- 
ed the State University at Bloomington two years, and the Bryant & 
Stratton Commercial College of Cincinnati, graduating from the last- 
named institution He then clerked and farmed for some time. In 
1870 he came to Mitchell, and after clerking some time, he embarked in 
mercantile pursuits for himself. He was elected Sheriff of Lawrence 
County and made a popular and efficient officer. He has also held other 
positions of honor and trust, and is a useful, public-spirited and worthy 
citizen. He was married December 28, 1868, to Miss Laura H. Brown- 
field, who was born in Kentucky, April 8, 1848. Five children have been 
born to them: Jesse B., Fleta Q. and Clyde, living; Stella and Mabel, 
deceased. Mr, Burton is a Democrat, is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

William A. Burton, of Mitchell, was born in Lawrence County, Ind., 
November 18, 1832, and reared to manhood upon the farm. He is the 
eldest of five children born to William J. and Eliza J. (Core) Burton. 
The father was a son of David, and he the sixth child of John P. and 
Susannah (Stamper) Burton. In 1853 William A. entered the State 
University, and remained there some two years. He then taught school 
at St. Charles, Mo., some time. In 1858 he took up the study of medi- 
cine. He attended lectures in Cincinnati and graduated at Ann Arbor^ 


Mich., in 1861. He served as a private ten months in Company H, Six- 
ty-seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, when he was appointed Assistant 
Surgeon of his regiment, and served in this capacity until the close of 
the war. He followed his profession at Mitchell until 1869, since which 
he has been engrasred in the drug trade. He married Miss Ann R. Rari- 
dea January 30, 1862, and to them have been born five children: Frank 
J., Ida Y., Jesse M., Edgar C. and Walter W. Mr. Burton is a Demo- 
crat, a member of the I. O. O. F. , G. A. R., and the Baptist Church. 

Joseph A. Burton, son of William J. and Eliza J. (Core) Burton, was 
born in Marion Township, this county, March 6, 1841. Besides attend- 
ing the common schools of the neighborhood, he attended the State Uni- 
versity at Bloomington and Franklin College some time. In 1862 he 
enlisted in Company H, Sixty-seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and 
was color-bearer up to the capture of Vicksburg. He was at Munford- 
ville, Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, Port Gibson, Champion Hills, 
Mansfield, Fort Blakely, and many other engagements. He was a brave 
and true soldier and saw much active service. After his return home he 
attended school some time, since which he has been engaged in farming 
and stock-raising. He owns 260 acres of land, which are well improved, 
and upon which is a fine "sugar bush" of over 300' trees, and by the 
use of a new and improved method has built up quite a reputation as a 
syrup and sugar manufacturer. His marriage with Miss Laura M. Tur- 
ley occurred January 13, 1870. She was born in Orange County, Ind., 
May 27, 1844, and is the daughter of Benjamin and Parmelia (Wright) 
Turley. They have three children: Turley J., Inez and an infant. Mr. 
Burton has taught several terms of school, and takes an interest in all 
moral and educational enterprises. He is a member of the Baptist 
Church. He is liberal in his political views, voting for the man and not 
for party. He is one of the best representatives of the younger Bur- 
tons and is one of the county's best citizens. 

Richard Burton, a farmer of Orleans Township, Orange County, was 
born in Lawrence County, Ind., August 17, 1844, and is the sou of 
James and Frances E. (Hughes) Burton. He was brought up on the 
farm, receiving a common school education. In 1862 he enlisted in 
Company K, Fifty-third Indiana Volunteer Infantry. He was in the 
battles of Corinth, siege of Vicksburg, and Atlanta. Here he was cap- 
tured, and for two months was a prisoner at Andersunville. He was 
with Sherman on his march to the sea, and participated in other engage- 
ments and saw much active service. He has since followed farming and 
stock-raising. He has been married twice. His first wife, to whom he 
was married in 1868. was Miss Amanda Webb, who was born in Orangfe 
County, Ind., in 1837. By this marriage there were two sons, George 
I. and Newton A. Mr. Burton's second wife was Florence M., daughter 
of Samuel and Annie (Wyman) Mathers. Mr. Burton is a Republican, 
and a member of the United Brethren Church. He owns a good farm, 
and is one of the intelligent and progressive men of Orange County. 
There are other members of this large and most remarkable family, of 
whom space forbids more than mention. The family is represented in 
all thQ professions from the pulpit to the school room; in civil offices 
from Road Supervisor to Governor; in the military from private to 
Major-General. In religion they are principally Baptists, and are hon- 
orably represented in all the benevolent institutions. A majority of 
them are members of the Masonic Order. The most of the voters are 


Democrats. They are remarkable, as a sociable, peaceable and respect- 
able family, and the ladies are especially noted for their beauty and 
social and moral attainments. Its members hasten to marry and bring 
up large families, and all seem to do well. We find no less than eight 
een different towns bearing the name, scattered in twelve different States. 
They have a regularly organized society, known as the ' ' Burton Family 
Reunion Association," of which Dr. G. W. Burton was the projector. 
As a people they are of marked characteristics, noted for their outspoken 
honesty, morality, frugality and generous hospitality, and no more hon- 
orable name is known throughout the State or Nation. 

AMOS P. ADAMS, furniture dealer, was born in Waynesville, Ohio, 
August 19, 1833, where he was reared and educated, and at the age of 
seventeen began the trade of cabinet maker, aud after remaining three 
years removed to Richmond, Ind. , where he followed millwrighting for 
awhile, and then returned to Ohio, and from there to Illinois, but in 
March, 1858, settled in Mitchell and worked at the carpenters' trade. In 
1863 he engaged in undertaking. In 1866 he added to his business 
house furnishing goods, and in 1879 began the manufacture of furniture, 
having at present a salesroom of 125x132 feet, and doing a fine business. 
During the late war he was a member of the Home Guards at Mitchell. 
Mr. Adams has been married twice; first, in Ohio, to Eliza Hael, Octo- 
ber 28, 1855, who died July 3, 1863, leaving one child — Lydia. He mar- 
ried his present wife in Columbus, Ind., she being Miss Hannah Wright, 
September 13, 1866, and by this union two children have been born: 
Lula and Jesse Lee. He is a Republican, having cast his first vote for 
John C. Fremont. The parents of Mr. Adams were Ezra and Sarah 
(Fitzgerald) Adams, both natives of Pennsylvania, who emigrated to 
Ohio in 1817; he was a wheelwi'ight by trade. 

SOLOMON BASS, a native of Ashe County, N. C, born September 
29, 1823, is the son of John and Sarah (Fender) Bass, both natives of 
the "Old North State." Originally the Basses came from England. 
The father was a farmer and a blacksmith, and came in 1823 to this 
county, but after a year returned to Carolina, and then in 1826 came out 
to stay. He was a Whig and Republican, and an industrious, respected 
man. He and wife were parents of five sons and five daughters, all of 
whom lived to maturity. Solomon was reared a farmer, with fair educa- 
tional advantages. In youth he learned the blacksmiths' trade. March 
12, 1846, he married Catharine Sheeks, who was born in this county 
April 27, 1825, and died October 9, 1865. She bore her husband 
thirteen children: Franklin, Diadema, Daniel, David, Sarah; Willis V., 
Ruth, Nancy J., Hugh, Mary F., John T., Curtis and Clinton. Novem- 
ber 7, 1872, Mr. Bass married Mrs. Mary J. (Hall) Lewis, who was born 
in this township September 29, 1829. He now owns a farm of 450 acres, 
gained by a life of industry and honesty. He is a Republican, and an 
exemplary man. 

JACOB Y. BATES, retired, was born in Washington County, Ind., 
December 9, 1820, son of Joseph and Catharine (Fringer) Bates, both 
natives of Baltimore, Md., the former a farmer, born June 9, 1782, and 
dying October 27, 1846; the latter born September 1, 1785, and dying 
August 31, 1846. They were married about 1804, and settled in Indiana 
in 1820. Subject was reared and educated in his native county, and at 
the age of eighteen left the farm and located in Claysville, taking half 
interest in a tannery, which continued eight years. In 1850 he pur- 


chased a stock of general merchandise, and opened at New Frankfort, 
Scott County, remaining there six years; then moved to Austin, and 
remained ten years, and in 1866 located at Mitchell. He purchased an 
interest in the Mitchell Mills, which he operated about ten years, since 
which time he has retired from active business. He owns 920 acres of land, 
and nine houses and lots in Mitchell. He was married May 27, 1851, to 
Miss Emily Kelley, born in Washington County, Ind., March 17, 1827, 
daughter of John and Minerva (Jenks) Kelley, respectively of Kentucky 
and New York, atid by this union two children have been born: Rosaltha, 
born in 1854, now Mrs. Glover, and Luella F., dead. He is a Presby- 
terian. 'an A. F. & A. M., and a Republican. 

AVILLIAM Q. BOHANON is the son of James and Eliza (Todd 
Bohanon, and was born in this township, January 28, 1841. The father 
was a native of North Carolina and the mother of Kentucky. The grand- 
parents moved first to East Tennessee and then in about 1835 to this 
township. They had five children — James being one. The latter was 
married in this county and had three children : George W., Caroline and 
William G. James was a farmer, a Whig, a Baptist, and a man of much 
influence and worth. He died in 1857, but his wife yet lives. Her par- 
ents were David and Mary (Martin) Todd, who settled in Orange County 
in 1825. William G. early made farming his occupation. He was indus- 
trious and judicious and soon began to accumulate. He now owns 550 
acres and has a comfortable home. He raises stock of high grades. 
August 13, 1862, he married Ellen J., daughter of Harrison Field, who 
was born in February, 1843, and died January 24, 1873. June 27, 1880, 
he married Harriet J. Burton, who was born October 11, 1860. They 
have two children: Liza and Ida. He is a leading Republican, His 
brother, George W., served three years in the Union Army in the Twenty- 
fourth Regiment. 

MARVIN CLEVELAND was born in Shelby County, Ky., May 21, 
1810, son of Ezer and Martha (Wadkins) Cleveland, the father a native of 
New York and the mother of Tennessee. The parents came to Clark 
County, Ind., in 1814, and to Orange County in 1816. He died at Bry- 
antsville, October 20, 1853, and his wife died November 26, 1862. They 
were parents of thii'teen children and consistent members of the Baptist 
Church. Marvin was reared at hard work on his father's farm and "grad- 
uated" at a log schoolhouse with dirt floor and greased paper windows. 
To his marriage with Martha Noblitt. November 5, 1828, six children 
were born : Lavina, Mary A.,Celia, Sarah J., Sylvia and Eli. Mrs. Cleve- 
land was born in Grayson County, Va., February 1, 1809. In 1831, Mr. 
Cleveland moved upon his present farm, where, by industry, frugality and 
integrity, he has made a comfortable home. He and wife are consistent 
Baptists, Mr. Cleveland being a pioneer Superintendent of Sabbath-schools 
and a Deacon. They reared a bound boy to manhood (P. N. White), who 
fell in the late war. Eli Cleveland was born where he now resides, 
December 26, 1845, and received in youth a good common school educa- 
tion. March 15, 1868, he married Julia A. Kearby, born in this county, 
October 24, 1842. They have one child -Marvin A. The county has no 
better citizens than the Cleveland families. Later, on the 26th of July, 
1884, Marvin Cleveland died at the age of seventy-four and some months 
The community lost a good neighbor and the county one of its best citi- 


JAMES H. CRAWFORD was born in Oranore County, N. C, Novem- 
ber 16, 1822, the first of eight children born to Samuel and Elizabeth 
(Pickard) Crawford, both natives of North Carolina, he born April 12, 
1792, and died February U, 1876; she born 1797 and died in 1860. 
They came to Indiana in 1833, settling upon a farm in Lawrence County. 
Subject was reared to farming and received an ordinary education. He 
first rented a farm and afterward bought a tract of land, which he sold, 
and then farmed in various localities, buying and selling different farms. 
In 1874 he formed a copartnership with James H. Brpwn, in Mitchell, 
which he disposed of after two years, but subsequently bought an interest 
for his son Henry H. August 16, 1863, he enlisted in Company H, One 
Hundred and Seventeenth Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and 
was promoted to Second Lieutenant. He was mustered out February 24. 
1864. In 1868 he was elected Justice of the Peace, and has served four 
terms. He was married September 25, 1845, to Margaret H. Dodd, 
daughter of George and Elizabeth (Barnhill) Dodd, and born Feb- 
ruary 10, 1828. To this union have been born eight children, seven of 
whom are living: Elizabeth, Alice, Jane, Henry H, Carrie, Albert B. 
and Lyman B. The deceased was Annie, who died in 1866. The family 
are all Presbyterians, Mr. Crawford being an Elder in the church for thirty 
years. He is a Republican. 

ISOM DAVIS was born in Marion Township, this county, September 
26, 1839, son of Andrew and Nancy (Tyrie) Davis, natives of the "Old 
North State," and both early settlers of this county. Isom was the only 
child born to these parents, and when one year of age is father died. 
The mother married William Terrell, and now lives in Jasper County, 111. , 
and has a large family. Isom lived with his step- father on the farm, 
securing a limited education in youth. At the age of nineteen he began 
for himself as a farmer, which occupation he has since followed. He has 
worked some for the railroads, runs a saw-mill, owns 220 acres of good 
land, is a Republican and a useful and substantial citizen. March 10, 
1859, he married Parmelia, daughter of Daniel L. and Susan (Melvin) 
Smith, the father from Virginia and the mother from North Carolina. 
Mr. Davis and wife have these children : Henry M., Phoebe E., M. M. 
(dead), George M., Rebecca A. and Nancy S. Mr. Davis takes a meritori- 
ous interest in all worthy efforts to improve society. 

JACOB M. DEISHER was born in Berks County, Penn. , August 
22, 1844. His parents were Daniel and Lydia A. (Ebling) Deisher, 
both natives of Pennsylvania; former boi'n 1803; latter, 1810. They 
were of German and French ancestry, their forefathers coming to the 
United States in colonial times from Hesse Darmstadt. Daniel and 
Lydia were the parents of thirteen children. In 1853 they removed 
from Pennsylvania, coming by boat to Wabash County, 111., where they 
lived several years. In 1860 they moved to Clay County, 111., where the 
parents died in 1872. The father was a good scholar in the Gei'man 
and English languages and taught school, being a man of more than 
ordinary ability. His wife was also well educated. Jacob M. was 
brought up on the farm and in the mill. In the spring of 1863 he 
enlisted in Company D, One Hundred and Fifty -fifth Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry; served imtil close of the war. He participated in numerous 
engagements. After his return home was on invalids' list, having lost 
his health to such an extent that it was nearly two years before he could 
perform manual labor. Entered the employ of Ohio & Mississippi Rail- 


■way in 1867, remained with that company in capacity of fireman, brake- 
man and conductor until 1879, then was employed as baggageman and 
conductor for three years by Louisville, New Albany k Chicago Railway, 
Since then has been engaged in mercantile pursuits in Mitchell, in con- 
nection with his brother Franklin. He married Miss Sallie Cook in 
1874. She was born in Mitchell, Ind., in 1853. To this union has been 
born one child — Lydia A. Mr. Deisher is a member of Masonic and 
G. A. R. Orders. Franklin Deisher, brother to Jacob M., was born in 
Berks County, Penn., December 16, 1851. He was reared on a farm 
and in the mill, receiving, like his brother, a common school education. 
For a number of years was in the employ of Ohio & Mississippi and 
Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Railways. In 1882 entered mercan- 
tile business in Mitchell, in which he is now engaged. He married 
Miss Adaline Dodson, September 7, 1882. She was born in Lawrence 
County. November 1, 1861. Franklin and Adaline are the parents of 
one child — Earle. 

THE DODSON FAMILY, one of the oldest in Lawrence County, 
settled here as early as 1818. The father, George W. Dodson, a native 
of North Carolina, was reared there and when a young man married 
Miss Mary Thompson, and soon after the marriage moved to Kentucky, 
and in 1818 came to Indiana, locating in this county, where he died 
January 24, 1835, and his wife in 1858. Mr. Dodson's life was devoted 
to agricultural pursuits. He was well known and highly respected. In 
his family were five children. John L. Dodson, his third child, was born 
in Palestine, Lawrence County, Ind., October 19, 1819. He is said to 
have been the first male child born in Palestine. He was reared on the 
farm, and lived with his mother until he became of age, continuing on 
his father's estate until about 1847. In January, 1847, he and two 
brothers purchased 352 acres of land, which they farmed conjointly for 
about two years, when it was sold. In 1850 Mr. Dodson purchased his 
present farm, at that time comprising 333 acres, but now 500 acres, and 
also 400 acres near by in Spice Valley Township. He has been married 
twice, his first wife being Miss Nancy Bass, to whom he was married July 
10, 1849. She was the daughter of John and Sallie (Fender) Bass, and 
was born in Lawrence County, dying January 1, 1877. To this union 
were born these children: Emma, Laura, Mary, Lyman, Sarah and 
Frank. His second wife was Demma Bass, a native of Lawrence County. 
To this union have been born two children: Raymond and Bertha. Mr. 
Dodson is a man of integrity, a public spirited citizen and highly 
esteemed. George W. Dodson, fifth and youngest of the children of the 
Dodson family, was born in Lawrence County, Ind., June 20, 1826. He 
was reared on the farm, and early in the fifties settled in Woodville, 
where kept store, but later began teaching school, which he followed two 
years. He was then for several years engaged in various kinds of busi- 
ness: general merchandising, hotel, drugs, school teaching and Deputy 
Postmaster. He has an orchard of eighty acres. He has been School 
Trustee of his township, and is the patentee of the Dodson Cofiee 
Roaster, which has given satisfaction to all who have tried it, and has 
had quite an extensive sale. In 1883 he located where he is now in the 
drug trade. Mai'ch 13, 1855, he married Miss Adaline dinger, in Wood- 
ville. She was born in Harrison County, March 22, 1837, and three 
children have been born to them: Lillie, now Mrs. W. T. Moore: Mary 
F., and Lizzie, deceased. Mr. Dodson and family are membei's of the 


Presbyterian Church. In politics he is a Republican, Mr. Dodson is 
the oldest resident merchant in Mitchell, and is a man of fine business 
qualifications. Another brother, Alexander T., was born in Marion Town- 
ship, in 1823. He was reared on the farm. He is a man of great fore- 
sight, strong memory, and is remarkably well read in ancient and modern 
history. He now resides in Missouri. He married Catharine Davis, and 
to them were born several children, three of whom are still living: Will- 
iam, Mary and Ella. 

JOHN EDWARDS was born in Ashe County, N. C, August 13, 
1815, son of William and Permelia (Murphy) Edwards, natives respect- 
ively of North Carolina and Virginia; he was born in 1791; they were 
married 1813 or 1814, and in 1816 came to Indiana, traveling on foot. 
He was a soldier in the war of 1812 and a great huntsman; he died in 
1864. Our subject was brought by his parents to Indiana when quite 
young. In 1838 he purchased eighty acres of land, adding to it after- 
ward, making it 316 acres in all, which he has since disposed of to his chil- 
dren. In 1869 he was elected Township Assessor; has also served as 
Township Trustee. He was married in 1838 to Miss Lucy Burton, 
born in North Carolina March 20, 1820, a daughter of Allen and Sylvia 
(Reeves) Burton, and by this union ten children have been born: Will- 
iam H., Allen, Eli M., Malinda, Maria, John R., James W., Mary F., 
living, and Louisa and Wesley, dead. The family are members of the 
Baptist Church, and he is a Republican. Mr. Edwards has always taken 
an active interest in the cause of education, and has paid considerable 
attention to fruit-raising. 

WESLEY EDWARDS was born in this township October 6, 1822, 
son of William and Emily (Murphy) Edwards. Both parents wer ^ natives 
of North Carolina, where they were married and resided until 1816, 
when they came to Orange County, and about a year later to Lawrence 
County, locating on our subject's farm. Here the parents lived and 
farmed, well respected, until their deaths; the father dying in 1863, and 
the mother in 1850. The father was a soldier in the war of 1812, was 
a Whig and a member of the Baptist Church, and was a man of more 
than ordinary worth. Wesley was one of ten children, seven of whom 
reached maturity. He passed his youth on a farm, and at the age twenty- 
two years married Sarah, daughter of Allen Burton, who bore him seven 
children, only three now living: Herbert H. , Louisa and Harriet. Mrs. 
Edwards was born in Ashe County, N. C, March, 1822. Wesley owned 
forty acres when he married; he now has 360 acres. For six years he 
was County Commissioner, and has honorably ofiQciated in other respon- 
sible positions. He is a member of the Baptist Church. The county has 
no better citizen. 

HON. WILLIAM H. EDWARDS, attorney-at-law, was born in 
Marion Township, November 30, 1841, and after the usual common 
school training, in 1865, entered Wabash College at Crawfordsville, 
where he remained till the following May, when he went to farming, and 
after accumulating enough to pay his expenses, entered the Law Depart- 
ment of the University at Bloomington. During the year 1869 he was 
admitted to practice at the bar of Bedford, and located at Mitchell, where 
he has since remained; in 1864 was Assessor of Marion Township, and in 
1868 was made Treasurer of Mitchell. In 1872 he was elected by the 
Republican party to the Legislature, serving a special and regular terra. 
Decembe)' 8, 1868, he was married to Miss Cornelia McCoy, a native of 


Ohio, and daughter of J. D. and Catharine (Ewing) McCoy, and one 
child has been born to them — John H. August 8, 1862, Mr. Edwards 
enlisted in Company H, Sixty-seventh Regiment Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry, and participated in the following battles: Munfordville, Ky. 
(where he was captured), Vicksburg, Arkansas Post, Grand Gulf, Port 
Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, and Siege of Vicksburg, 
where he was discharged by reason of disability. He is a member of 
the G. A. R. 

DAVID H. ELLISON, County Superintendent, was born near Lees- 
ville, Lawrence County, October 7, 1851, son of James H. and Mary A. 
(Breckinridge) Ellison, natives of Indiana and Kentucky. In addition 
to the district schools, our subject attended the high school at Leesville 
two years, and in 1872 he entered the State University at Bloomington, 
where he remained three years. He then taught school two years, after 
which here-entered the State University, fi'om which he graduated June 
12, 1878, when he accepted the principalship of Leesville High School, 
remained five years, and in 1883 was appointed County Superintendent 
of Schools, receiving seven of the nine votes cast. He was married in 
Leesville June 11, 1878, to Miss Sarah Holland, born in October 3, 
1858, and daughter of William A. and Jane (Jeter) Holland, and one 
child has blessed the union — Minnie. While at college the class agreed 
to give a silver cup to the oldest child of any one of its members after 
five years, and the daughter of Mr. Ellison won the prize. He has two 
farms in Flinn Township, containing 350 acres of fine land. He is an 
L O. O. F. 

ASA ERWIN, farmer, was born in Shawswick Township, Lawrence 
Co. , Ind., January 23, 1818, where he was reared to farming and educated, 
being the fifth of thirteen children born to Robert and Mary (Pearsole) 
Erwin, respectively of North Carolina and Wales. He has always fol- 
lowed farming, and in 1838 purchased fifty-eight acres in Marion Town- 
ship at 11.25 per acre. This land he improved, and has since added to 
it until he now has 600 acres in the tract, and owns 400 acres besides. 
In 1883 he permanently located in Mitchell, and is a large-hearted, pub- 
lic-spirited man, favoring all laudable undertakings. He has been twice 
married; first to Rosana Mason, January 2, 1841; she died in January, 
1880, leaving six children — Priscilla, Beverly C, Henry C, Edward E., 
Sarah J. and Milton Grant — living, and four dead. February 24, 1884, 
he married Mrs. Elizabeth S. Adams, a native of England. The family 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he is a Democrat, 
but was a Whig until the late war, having cast his first vote for Harri- 
son. Mr. Erwin is dealing extensively in lime, producing at his kilns 
near Whitlock about 14,000 barrels per year. 

THE EVERSOLE FAMILY. The father, John Eversole, was born 
in Virginia, December 6, 1801. He went to Ohio in 1812, where he was 
married to Miss Elizabeth Lingle in 1827, she also being a native of 
Virginia, having been born in 1810. In 1838 the Eversole family came 
to Lawrence County, locating on the farm now owned by Isom Burton, 
Sr., where they kept a country tavern for two years, after which, remov- 
ing to Bedford, they conducted a hotel for about four years. From 
thence they came back to Marion Township and located on the farm now 
owned by Mr. Eversole's widow, where he passed the remainder of his 
days, dying in 1861. His widow still survives him at an advanced age. 
Prior to coming to Indiana Sir. Eversole was engaged in mercantile 


pursuits in Clarke County, Ohio; also farmed while there. In politics he 
was an Old Line Whig and Republican, and was always a strong anti- 
slavery man. Both he and his wife were well-known and highly esteemed. 
In the Eversole family were eight children: Sarah C, Jacob L., John 
D., Edward P., Mary E., Virginia, Emeline J. and James H., all of 
whom are living, and four of whom now reside in this county. They are 
all progressive people, highly respected by the communities in which 
they live. Edward P. Eversole, merchant, was born in Clarke County, 
Ohio, February 25, 1838, being the fourth of the Eversole children. He 
came to Lawrence County with his parents in 1838. He was reared on 
the farm, where he remained until of age, when he farmed conjointly with 
his father until 1862, when he enlisted in Company D, Sixteenth Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry. He participated in the battle of Richmond, Ky., 
where he was twice wounded and captured. He was discharged on 
account of disability, but in 1864 re-enlisted in Company H, Thirteenth 
Cavalry, acting in the capacity of Sergeant. At the battle of Murfrees- 
boro he was again wounded, and again discharged, and both times while 
on crutches. For some time after his return he farmed, but finally locat- 
ed at Milchell, engaging in the grocery business, which has since occu- 
pied his time. He does a business of about $20,000 annually. He has 
been married three times; first to Miss Margaret Dodson in 1861, who 
died in 1864. She bore him one child — John W. His second wife was 
Ellen Davis, whom he married in 1866, and who died in 1869. His 
present wife was Mrs. Elizabeth (McCoy) Linn, whom he married in 1871, 
and who has borne him two children: Wallace M. and Edith. The fam- 
ily are Presbyterians, and he is an I. O. O. F. and a Republican. James 
H. Eversole, the youngest of the Eversole family, was born in Marion 
Township, Lawrence County, Ind., April 2, 1848. He was reared on the 
farm, receiving a common school education. He has always resided on 
the old homestead, and most of the time since his father's death has had 
full control of the farm. He raised consideiable stock, and is known as a 
practical and very successful farmer. On October 20, 1870, he was unit- 
ed in marriage with Miss Hannah E. Wood, who was born in Lawrence 
County November 26, 1848. To this union have been born six children: 
Hattie W., Mary E., John E., Oracle H., Henry B. and Robert V.; all 
of whom are living, except Robert V. Mr. Eversole has been engaged 
in agricultural pursuits all his life. In politics he is a Republican. 
Both he and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and are well known and highly esteemed. 

HARRISON FIELD was born in Bourbon County, Ky., October 22, 
1810, son of Joseph and Jemima (Wright) Field, the father a native 
of Culpeper County, Va., and the mother of Woodford County, Ky. 
The Fields were originally from England, their settlement in this coun- 
try dating at colonial times. Members of the family served in the Revo- 
lution and in the early Indian or border wars. The grandfather, Daniel, 
served in the Revolution and afterward bought a large tract of land 
in Bourbon County, Ky. The father married Miss Wright in Ken- 
tucky, and in 1814 settled in Washington County, this State, on Twin 
Creek, and about two years later came to Bono Township, but after 
a time located on the G. R. Field farm, in this township, and there 
passed the remainder of his days. His children were Thomas, George, 
Harrison (our subject), Sarah, Daniel, Willis and Joseph J. Our subject, 
when seventeen years old, with meager education, began farming for 


himself — hiring out by the month at $5, $6 and |8 per month. He made 
four trips to New Orleans on flat boats, receiving $30 for the round trip. 
At the end of seven years he had saved considerable and he bought 
eighty acres. He now has 246 acres. His wife, Ellen Rankin, whom 
he married October 13, 1835, bore him these children: Mary A., Sarah 
J., Susan Y., Harrison ^\., Ellen J., George T., William C, James W., 
Willis P., Albert M. and John R. Sarah, Susan, George and John only 
are living. Harrison, Jr., died while in the last war. George served and 
safely retm-ned. The Rankins settled in Washington County in 1811, 
and five years later near Bedford. Mr. Field is a Republican, and he 
and wife are members of the Christian Church. They are excelleat 

GEORGE R. FIELD was born in this township September 20, 1847, 
and is the son of George and Jane (Rankin) Field, of whom more par- 
ticular mention is made, together with much of the family history, in the 
sketch of Harrison Field above. Our subject's father was a native of 
Bourbon County, Ky., and was born in 1808, and his wife. Miss Rankin, 
in 1810, in Woodford County, same State. Their children were as fol- 
lows: Sarah E., Elizabeth, Mary J., Jemima aud George R., our sub- 
ject. The father died in 1877, but the mother yet lives at Orleans. 
The father was a Whig and a Republican. George R. received a limited 
education and was trained for a farmer. He lives now upon the old 
homestead and has 120 acres of land well improved. His wife, Mary A. 
Kelly, born near Ironton, Ohio, April 2, 1849, was united in marriage 
with him August 17, 1870. Mr. Field is disposed to be liberal in poli- 
tics and is a prominent member of the community. 

I. N. GLOVER, of the firm of Malott & Glover, was born in Orange 
County, Ind., July 15, 1855, where he was reared and educated. He is 
the youngest of six children born to Thomas G. and Eliza (Elgin) 
Glover, respectively of Kentucky and Indiana; he born in 1805 and she 
in 1811, both still living. Our subject in 1872 located at Bedford, where 
he studied telegraphy and followed that business there, at Salem, Bloom- 
ington and Mitchell, being agent for the Louisville, New Albany & 
Chicago Railway. In 1881 he bought an interest in the milling business, 
and after one year sold, and opened a clothing store, soon after taking 
in as partner J. H. Malott, when the business was extended to take in 
dry goods and notions, now handling a stock of over $10,000. He was 
Town Clerk of Mitchell in 1880. He was married October 15, 1879, to 
Miss Rosa C. Bates, daughter of Jacob Y. and Emily (Kelley) Bates, 
natives of Indiana. Miss Bates was born in Scott County, Ind., October 
24, 1854, and by their union they have one child — Merle B. The family 
ai'e Presbyterians, and he is a Republican. 

GEORGE W. HAMER was born in Marion Township, Lawrence 
County, Ind. His parents were Hugh and Elizabeth (Fitzpatrick) 
Hamer, the former a native of New York, the latter of Ohio. Hugh, as 
an apprentice to Mr. Hammersley, came to Indiana at an early day. In 
1825 he and his brother, Thomas L., renled the mill in Marion Town- 
ship which still bears their name. In 1831 they purchased it, operating 
it until about 1849, when Hugh assumed full control, and conducted it 
until his death, March 10, 1872. While together the brothers also operated 
a distillery, which Hugh afterward had charge of. From about 1843 to 
1858 the family kept store there. Hugh Hamer was commissioned Post- 
master at Spring Mill (the name of the postoffice at Hamer's Mill), by 


President Jackson, and continued in this charge until the building of the 
Ohio & Mississippi Railway. He was also County Commissioner. Was 
elected to the Senate and Lower House of the State Legislature, being the 
first Whig ever elected to that body from Lawrence County. He was a 
man of great natural powers of mind. In his family were eight children. 
Mrs. Hamer, widow of Hugh, still survives him, although quite advanced 
in age. Her parents, Henry and Elizabeth (Johnson) Fitzpatrick, were 
natives of Pennsylvania; came to Bono Township January, 1814 George 
W. Hamer was reared in his father's mill and on the farm, receiving 
such education as the schools of that early day afforded. When twenty - 
one years old he rented the mill and operated it and the distillery for 
three years; then moved to the farm where he now lives, where he has 
since been engaged in farming. He owns 600 acres of land. In poli- 
tics he is a Republican. He served seven months in the war in the One 
Hundred and Seventeenth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, Company H, act- 
ing as Wagon Master. He was married to Miss Priscilla Leach, June 
16,1859. She was born in Lawrence County, September 15, 1843. Their 
union has been blessed with six children: James F., Harry C. (deceased), 
Minnie M. (deceased), Ida M. (deceased), George A. and Ralph N. 
Mr. Hamer is a Mason and is Master of Lawrenceport Lodge, No. 453, F. 
& A. M. ; and is also a Royal Arch Mason. 

SAMUEL G. HOSKINS was born in Marion Township, December 
28, 1851, the youngest of seven children, born to Joshua M. and Mary 
(Wood) Hoskins. natives respectively of North Carolina and Indiana, he 
born February 2, 1811, still living; she November 18, 1818, and dying 
May 11, 1861. Subject was reared in his native county, and completed 
his education under Prof. Funk, at Mitchell, in 1870, after which he 
turned his attention to farming for ten years. In 1882 he purchased 
his present place, a suburban residence with five acres, where he has 
since resided, engaged in the sewing machine trade. October 13, 1872, 
he was married to Miss Lucinda E. Alexander, born in Washington 
County, Ind., June 18, 1854, daughter of Elijah and R. (Overton) 
Alexander, and three children have been born to them: Cora P., Eddie 
E., and Albert. Family are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
and Mr. Hoskins is a Republican. Our subject was principally reared 
and educated by his uncle, Mr. Edwin Wood, one of the venerable pio- 
neers of Marion Township, and whose biographical sketch appears in 
this work. 

DANIEL R. HOSTETLER is a native of Bono Township, this 
county, born April 26, 1848, son of Samuel and Elizabeth (Chasteen) 
Hostetler. The father was born in this county in 1822, and the mother 
in Washington County. Jonas Hostetler came from Kentucky to Bono 
Township in 1821. One of eight children was Samuel, the father of 
Daniel R. Samuel and wife had a family of nine children, of whom six 
were reared. He farmed, and operated a saw-mill in Lawrence County 
sixteen years. He was a soldier in the Second Indiana Regiment Mexican 
war, which regiment was hotly engaged at the battle of Buena Vista. In 
the last war be was First Lieutenant of Company B. One Hundred 
and Forty-fifth Indiana Volunteer Infantry. He died in 1882, pre- 
ceded a few years by his wife. Daniel was reared on the farm and in 
the mill at hard work, and with but few advantages. He enlisted in 
Company B, One Hundred and Forty-fifth Regiment Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry, and served until the troops were mustered out. In 1871 he 


married Hulda S. Pendergrast, who was born in this county in ]850. 
They have Hve children: Oscar, Ollie, Oma, Ambrose and Malcom. Mr. 
Hostetler owns 200 acres of land. Much of his time has been spent in 
saw- milling. He is a Mason and a Republican, and a prominent man. 

DAVID KELLEY, miller, was born in J ackson County, Ind., Decem- 
ber 11, 1827, son of James and Ann (Smith) Kelley, natives of Virginia, 
but early settlers of Jackson County. The father of subject dying when 
he was eleven years of age, he left home at thirteen to make his way in 
the world. He worked at farming till seventeen, when he was bound to 
the tailor's trade. In 1848 he located in the tailoring trade at Vienna, 
and about 1850 took a contract for grading a railroad. He was engaged 
clerking and running stores at different points till 1857, when he settled 
in Mitchell, and in 1862 left his stock of goods and entered the army of 
the Union, he having raised Company H, Sixty-seventh Regiment 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry. He was promoted to Major and thus served 
till his term expired. He was in the battle of Munfordville, where he 
was captured and paroled; at Arkansas Post, siege of Vicksburg, receiv- 
ing the officer bearing the flag of truce to Gen. Grant; was at Jackson, 
Miss., and in the Red River expedition, and was captured at Grand 
Coteau and held prisoner two months. He afterward served as Provost 
Marshal of River Department at New Orleans; was at the capture of 
Mobile and discharged at Galveston in July, 1865, after which he 
returned to Mitchell and erected his present mill. He was rnarried in 
"Washington County, Ind., June 18, 1857, to Caroline Kelley, daughter 
of John and Minerva (Jenks) Kelley. Miss Kelley was born in Law- 
rence County in July, 1831, and by this union four children have been 
born : John C, Jesse E. and James E. , living, and Lillian L., dead. 
The family are Baptists and he is an I. O. O. E., a G. A. R. and a 
Republican, having cast his first vote for Fremont. He owns 600 acres 
of tine land and produces 25,000 bushels of lime per year. 

JOHN B. LARKIN, M. D., was born in Burlington, Vi, June 24, 
1833. He is the son of Daniel and Ann (Bradford) Larkin, natives of 
the north of Ireland, where they were reared, man-ied, and resided until 
1829, when they emigrated to this country, and after residing a short 
time in Canada located permanently in Vermont. The father died in 
1863. His widow is yet living in Vermont. John B. Larkin, until sev- 
enteen years of age, resided with his parents upon a farm, receiving a 
common school education. He then woi'ked in a cotton and woolen-mill 
at Newburg, N. Y. , until the winter of 1852, when he went South, and 
after visiting New Orleans and other points, found employment on a flat- 
boat. In 1854 he came to Ripley County, Ind., where he taught school, 
and then went to Shelbyville, 111., where he attended an academy, taught 
school and began the study of medicine. After attending medical school 
at Ann Arbor, Mich., he began practice at Huron, Ind. August 11, 1862, 
he enlisted as a recruit, was then promoted Assistant Surgeon, and later 
Surgeon, and served until the close of the war. Soon after coming home 
he located at Mitchell, where he has since remained, following his pro- 
fession. He has since graduated at the Hospital Medical College, Louis- 
ville, with one of his class honors. He was united in marriage with 
Miss Maggie Kincaid, December 27, 1867, born in Shelbyville, Tenn. , in 
1842. To this union have been born four children, viz. : Mamie K., 
Frederick, Fannie L. and Grace. Dr. Larkin is the Secretary of the 
Board of United States Examining Surgeons for Pensioners, located at 


Mitchell, He is a member of the Odd Fellows' order, of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and one of the progressive and public-spirited men of 

JAMES H. MALOTT, of the firm of Malott & Glover, was born in 
Jefferson County, Ky. , January 28, 1837, the eldest of nine children,^ 
born to Benjamin F. and Louisa Malott, both natives of Kentuck3^ Sub- 
ject was reared and educated in his native State, working upon the farm 
in the summer and teachinsf school in the winter. In 1863 he came to 
Bedford and found employment in the store of his uncle; he afterward 
went into partnership with Alfred Guthrie at Tunnelton. In 1876 he sold 
his interest and commenced business alone. In 1882 he came to Mitch- 
ell and formed his present partnership. He has served as Assessor, 
Appraiser and Township Trustee. He was married in Tunnelton, Sep- 
tember 12, 1871, to Miss Melvina Guthrie, daughter of Alfred and 
Isabel (Hubbard) Gathrie. Miss Guthrie was born in Guthrie Township, 
Lawrence County, January 25, 1854, and by this union three children 
have been born: Claude G. , Alfred F. and Noble. He is an A. F. & A. 
M. and a Democrat. 

L. R. MALOTT, of the firm of Burton & Malott, was born in Bed 
ford, March 26, 1858, son of A. A. and Carrie (Burton) Malott, natives 
of Indiana. Subject was reared in Bedford, and finished his schooling 
in 1874, after which he clerked for his father in Bedford for four years. 
In 1878 he served as Deputy Sheriff under his uncle, M. A. Burton In 
March, 1879, he located in Mitchell, where he found ready employment 
as clerk, at which he coutimied till 1882, when he formed a partnership 
with Mr. Burton. In 1880 he was appointed Town Clerk, and in 1881 
was elected to same position, serving about eighteen months. He was 
also employed by the Vandalia Railroad for some months as Assistant 
Road-master. He was married in Mitchell, April 15, 1880, to Miss Maggie 
V. Clark, born in Mitchell, November 30, 1858, daughter of David and 
Sarah (Moore) Clark, he a native of Livonia, Ind., and she of Louisville, 
Ky. Mrs. Malott was educated at Oxford, Ohio, finishing in 1878. Mr. 
Malott is a gentleman of fine business capacity and is one of the best 
citizens of the county. 

S. F. MARTIN, jeweler, was born in Washington County, Ind., 
June 8, 1841, the first of five children, born to Joseph W. and Mary E. 
(Mann) Martin, natives respectively of Kentucky and Tennessee; he was 
a cooper and miller by trade, and died in Washington County, in 1863, 
his wife still living. Subject taught school in 1860-61, and in August, 
1862, enlisted in Company H, Sixty-sixth Regiment Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry; he served a's Hospital Steward and was promoted to Assistant 
Surgeon, serving until he was mustered out in 1865. He participated in 
the following battles: Richmond, Ky., where he was captured; Kenesaw 
Mountain, Rough's Mills, siege of Atlanta, Dallas and the march to the 
sea. After his return home he studied medicine, and took a course at Rush 
Medical College, Chicago, practiced a while, but finally gave up his pro- 
fession and entered the jewelry and drug business, also serving as Post- 
master at Campbellsburg. He was married at Fredericksburg, Washing- 
ton Co., Ind., February 11, 1866, to Miss Ellen Bradbery, born March 
23, 1843, daughter of Amos and Sophie (Perkins) Bradbery, natives of 
Yorkshire, England, and Indiana respectively, and nine children have 
been born: Laura E., Nathan P., Benjamin F., Ada ^., Emma C, Hattie 
A., Grant, Abner C. and Bessie. The family are members of the Chris- 
tian Church and he is a Republican. 


ELIHU S. McINTIRE, M. D., was born in Mariette, Ohio, Janu^ 
arv 9 1832 His paternal grandfather was a native of the north ot 
Ireland and came to this country in 1798, locating in Pennsylvania. 
Here his son Charles was reared and educated. The latter married 
Miss Isabel Daily, a native of the Old Dominion. In 1889 he came to 
Spencer County, Ind., where he engaged in farming and yet resides at 
the advanced age of eighty-eight years. His wife died in 1881 They 
reared a family of eight children, one of wHom is the subject of this 
sketch. He was reared upon a farm, receiving such education as 
the schools of that day afforded. When about nineteen he began teach- 
ing school and soon after took up the study of medicine, which he 
diligently pursued. In the fall of 1856 he entered the medical depart- 
ment of the State University of Iowa, located at Keokuk graduating m 
the spring of 1858. He began practice at Dallas City, 111., but ^ 18b^ 
enlisted and received the appointment of Assistant Surgeon of the 
Seventy-eighth Illinois Volunteer Infantry. In 1863 he resigned and be- 
gan the practice of medicine in Crawford County, Ind., where he 
Remained until 1865; then came to Mitchell, where he has since resided. 
He followed his profession some time and then became editor ot tne 
Mitchell Commercial, which he successfully conducted for eleven 
years He was united in marriage with Miss Margaret 

Bowers in 1856. She was born in Hamilton County, Ohio^ in 
1832 To this marriage have been born six children: Ella, Mary, 
Henry, Lucy, Charles and John B. Dr. Mclntire has always voted in 
opposition to the pro-slavery party. He is a member of the Board 
of United States Examining Surgeons, located at Mitchell, also of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church and Masonic Order. As a journalist, 
physician, and citizen no man in the county is more popular and the 
county would be much better off had it more such men as Dr. Mclntire. 
JAMES H McPHEETERS is a native of Washington County, 
Ind., his birth occurring March 14, 1844. His grandfather, James 
McPheeters, was of Scotch descent and removed soon after the war ot i»i. 
to near Livonia. He was an Elder in the Presbyterian Church. He 
reared a large family, one of whom-Alexander-^married Louisa M. 
Snyder, a lady of German extraction and native of the Empire State. 
They reared a family of three children, James H.,the subject of this 
sketch, being one. Alexander McPheeters studied medicine and for 
fully fifty ylars practiced at Livonia. He was an Elder in the Presby- 
terian Church thirty years and Superintendent of the Livonia Sabbath- 
schools twenty-five years ; he died in 1882. His widow survives him. James 
H McPheeters was'reared in Livonia, receiving such education as the vil- 
lage schools afforded. In 1863 he enlisted in Company C, One Hundred 
and Seventeen Indiana Volunteer Infantry, participating m a number ot 
engagements and serving in all some nine months. After his return he 
studied medicine, but later made a specialty of dental and mechanical 
surcrery. He began the practice at Salem, and m 1868 came to 
Mit'^hell, where he has since resided, building up a good and steadily in- 
creasing business. His entire paternal ancestry were strong anti-s avery 
people, and on arriving at age he identified himself with the Republican 
party. He is now the Republican candidate for Recorder of Lawrence 
County He is an Elder in the Presbyterian Church and Superintendent 
of Sabbath-school. He has been twice married, first to Miss Mary 
E Hagan, a native of Washington County, her birth occurring De- 


il. 1S4T. This lady di«d Jnlv 19, 1S7S. His maniltge 
vith Miss I*. Flc«>?nce Robv occarrv?d Mav 26, ISSO. She was bom in 
KentiK^. June 4. 1S52. and died Mav 22. 1SS2. Br the drst marriage 
dk«re ^B^ere thre« diildre>n: FlorHiee M_, Alexander X. and Ada M. The 
froit of the s»ecc«jd mairia^ w^ a son — Earl G. Mr. MePheeters is one 
of die coontT's beet eltizjens. 

TTHXIAM MILLER w«s bom in V Township. Marrh 15. 

1S35. and is the son of John and Susan - - .. Miller. K>th natives of 
Ae ~ Old North State. " The par»its were married there, and one of 
dkeir children was bom tliereL In 1S33 ther came to this coimtr and 
located temporaiilr in an old log chnrch until they had raised a crop and 
eroded a edbtn. Tbe father was an inftoential Democrat, a good citizen, 
and he and wife wane members of the Baptist Church. The mother died 
in 1ST2, and the bitlier ten rears later. Ther were old and esteemed 
eiti2)»ts. William was reared on a fann, and secnred a fair education. 
He Ured at home till twentr-fiTe. and tfa»i began akxie &x- himself. He 
socA had considerable pn^i^lT around him. made by industry, and has 
steadily increoBed his worldfy goods, tmtil he now owns 180 acres of 
good land fairly wdl improT^ and stocked. He is a Democrat, and an 
i^t^lH^ent man. In earlier life he taught several terms of sdiool. His 
I- _ f with Louisa Isom oocurred January IT, lS6l. and to this union 

diildr»i were bora: Susan F.. Mary. Eebecca. Charity. 
- ^- T . ;^ H.. True and Xcka. Mis. Miller was bi->m in this town- 
s_ '-1:.~ 25. 1S43. The family are indoslxioas and well respected. 

James D. MOOREI, merdiant. was bom in Burlingtcm, Iowa, Sep- 

- : IS40, the third of eight children bcm to Jonathan and Cath- 

:-^ ■--. ^ 7 r- J Moore, natives lespectiTely of Kentucky and Tennessee, who 

r early settlers of Indiana, the father being a saddler. He died in 
i>->L and his wife in lST4. Subject when fomr years of ago came with his 
pareafB to Bloomingten, Ind., where he was principally reared and edu- 
cated, and where he lemied dte trade of molding. In 1S68 he enlisted 
in Company K. First Indiana Heavy Artillery, and was Sergeant. He 
was in the Red River expediti<Hi. and at Mobile, sorving till Jantiary, 
1866l After his retnm he deriEed far several years, and in 1S72 located 
IT ^r*-':-^" 'iH ?t»T?eT?d mcrdiandising. In 1S5C» he was elected Countv 
_ _ riziooatic tidet by a maj<»ity of 127. the Republican 
■~ ^ -rrying the county by 412 majority. He has given, of late 
V T -_■--■ me to furming and stock-raising. He was numried 
i- 2 2 ISTI. to M^ MMySheete. daughter of John and 

I — " ^^ natives of Kentucky. Miss Sheeis was bom 

in Mano:: X yss-nsaip. April 2Ss 1S51, and has borne hor husband three 
ciiil^iK: ^ - r*., Rov S. and Olin J. The familv are monbers of the 
Christian s^d he is an A. F. i A_ ML. anL O. O. F.. a G. A. 

R-, and as: I ^oaraL Mr. Moore started in life on IxHrowed cap- 
ital, anz 1 i a fine competerr-v. having cme of the hand- 
somest ^^ -- f- -:- :*i:-rb=iL 

T. h. ^^ I> ^'- It-. - _ - _ f Timothy and Catharine (Finger) 

Murray. -1 ominthi- -hip, October 19. 1S29. Thefatha-was 

a ns: " . _ Carolina, bom September 3. IS^'I. and in 1S16 came 

tc -_ - L _ 'F[^'-- 2= married Catharine Finger who was bom 

S : _ .- _ : him ei^it children. The father died 

July ly. 1^1 _ _ : _ : "29. 1S7S He was a Democrat 

-T lir I. :^ ^ sife were ocMisistexrt Baptists, The 

MASI05 TOW53HIP. 299 

grandfather was Elijah 'iSxarraj and gnmikmn&er ^BzabeOt Coootz. 
Ther had a familr of toi efaUdreB, and were exeriloit people, Lewismaa 
reaz«d a fanner, widi fair edaeataoD, and Maick 7, 1852, married 
IGller, who was bon in dus towiuliip November \b, 1832. Fc 
eLUdrai were bora to them: Cat l i aria e, Saiah E., Vic^ aad Maij IL 
The seeoiid and third, cnly, are iiviiig; ^ej are quite well edarated aad 
hare taught sebooL Johr 4. 1863, Mrs. :ifaiiraT died. lir. Hmrar baa 
nut remarried. He is a good farmer, and owns 33§ aeves of land. He 
is a Democrat and a ptt^re a M re eitizoi and an boBest maiL 

£. C. XE^TON. T»»*l»««* tailor, was brjrn in SammoriiJe, Obioi, 
JanTiarT 81. 1 S'S'if. where be was reared aodedneated, after which be amed 
an apprenticeship at tailoring in be nadre town. He then located 
for one year at Hamilton, after wfaicb be wasenjdojedat difinal poate 
in Oliio.' nntil Maj. 1879. idien be located m MitefaelL ^mOarn^ witk 
Jc^m Sandeor for a short time. He was tben cotter for A. Wood k, Col, 
nntil AngDst. 1882, wb«i be estaUisiied bis p r cecm t b a siu ees, in ^u^ 
he is doing finely, his tables bein^ loaded with boib iaqiorted and 
domestic goods of the best tpialititiB He was married in Be&ord, Ind., 
October 14. 1880, to Mias Fannie Wairen, wbo was bom in Lawram 
CMmtr. Ind.. in March. lS-5Vf. and tiieir anion bas be^Ueaaed with 
one child — Mvrtle. Mr. Xewton is an L O. O. F. and a BqnMieaii. 

JAMES B. QTFKMAX was bom in Lawrence GoonKy, Ind., Oetnber 
14, 1S4<. He is the Km of Levi and Eliza J. (BrfaBft) OrcrmoBL James 
Overman, his grandfatiier. wfaoi a Toong oaan. came frooei 3»orth Carolina 
in 1S14 and settled in Washix^;tDn Coontr. He married MisB Haigaret 
Mnndon. To them were bom five stms and two daaghtfrs . all at wboHK 
reached mataritr. Levi was one of the sons, and was married im tfds 
county. H>r wae bc^n in Washington Coantr, Ind.; his wife m T.iweohi 
Coonty. Ky. To them were bom &^si cbil^esD. The ^forants — Bobot 
and his wile. Lncinda CoIbertBon — came &om Kentnrfcy to ibis eosntj 
in lS^3r» : settled in S^nce Taller Tovn^ip. near wbere Ae Tillage ot 
BzrantETille is now located. Levi !&yant's fadier was ^le one wbo 
settled and laid out BrraoT's Scation. Ky. . the same jeor Daniel Boone 
settled BocmeebaroL He was a eeleteated Indian ^^iter; was killed 
at the battle of Bi^er Baisin in the war ol 1S12. Bobert Bnrantr's wife 
is still living on the old homestead in Spiee TaDey TowisbipL Of the 
eig^ children in Levi Overman's family, JanKS B. and ~~ isters are 
the only ones now living. Levi died October 8, 1879: lu^ --i<r in April, 
1^76. Jantes B. Overman was reared on a farm. He attended die eaok- 
mon sdiools of his neighbuifaood until ei^kteen years old; tben attended 
several terras of the Bedford High Scfaoid: c ata e d tbe State UniTastr 
at Blocmiii^ton in 1S6T. from vrhi^ institaiian be gradoaied in ISTL 
Fetvnarf 19. 1SS4, he was united in marriage with Miss Carrie E. 
Scantlin. Like his aneessoxs before him, be bas ahnjs vetod in t^iposi- 
tion to the DeoKxratic party and at p r cGcn t is tbe BepoMiean candidate 
for State LegislatDre, a position far wbieb be is eminent^ qnaKfied. He 
bas done nmcb to boild up tbe stock interests of tbe eoanty and is a cai- 
tnred. practical and inflnential citizen. He is a ^a^^iAu^ of the "Waflonir 
order, having taken tbe CommaBdery degreea» 

ISAIAH PHIPPS is a native of'A^ie Coantr. X. C. bora Jnlr 10, 
IS^. and came with his prwi t fe to this co muy in 1S52. aad here was 
reared and educated. In 1^1 be enlisted in Conpany A. Twenty-foorA 
Indiana Volunteer Infantrv. and served honanblr tbiee vears. He 


at Pittsburg Landing, Grand Gulf, Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Vicks- 
burg and other engagements. He married Mary C. Roby in 1861. This 
lady was born near Bardstown, Ky., in 1842, and bore her husband two 
children — Benjamin and Eve. Mr. Phipps was again married in 1867 
to Mrs. Mary A.. Parks, who was born in Madison County, Ky., in 1841, 
and whose maiden name was Hart. After coming from the army, Mr. 
Phipps farmed in Orange County till 1879, then came to Juliet and 
engaged in merchandising. He is a Republican, is Postmaster and 
storekeeper, is a Baptist, and owns eighty acres of land, and property in 
Juliet. His eyes are very weak fi'om exposure while serving his country. 
His parents were Isaiah and Eve (Kennedy) Phipps, natives of North 
Carolina, and of English and Scotch descent. They were married in 
their native State, and reared seven sons and seven daughters. The 
father was a farmer and an honest man. 

AARON D. PLESS. This gentleman was born in Marion Township, 
this county, February 12, 1842. His father, John F. Pleas, was a native 
of the Old North State, and when a young man came North, settling in 
about 1832 in this county, finding employment as a farm-hand with 
Aaron Davis. He worked for Mr. Davis several years, and married his 
daughter Rebecca. To this union were born eleven children, only fovu* 
of whom reached man and womanhood. Mr. Pless and wife always 
resided upon a farm. They were intelligent, hard-working and highly 
respected people. He died August 4, 1880, and his wife October 6, 
1874. Aaron Pless was reared like most farmer boys, and received his 
education in the common schools of the neighborhood. His marriage 
with Miss Timanza Burton occurred Augrust 30, 1866. This ladv is a 
native of Lawrence County, born August 15, 1846. They have two 
daughters — Nettie A. and Nellie T. In 1861 Mr. Pless enlisted in Com- 
pany I, Fifteenth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and faithfully and hon- 
orably served his country three years. Soon after entering he and others 
were captured while guarding, but were soon after paroled. He par- 
ticipated in the battles of Parker's Cross Roads, capture of Little Rock, 
and a number of others. He was actively engaged in farming until 
1876, when he moved to Mitchell, where he has since resided. He deals 
in stock, shipping to Cincinnati and other places, and is one of the most 
successful shippers in the county. He owns 585 acres of land and a beau- 
tiful home in Mitchell. He is a Republican, a member of the G. A. R. 
and Methodist Episcopal Church, and one of the county's most worthy 
and useful citizens. 

DAVID L. SHEEKS was born in Marion Township, Lawrence 
County, Ind., November 22, 1819. His parents were George and Eliza- 
beth (Canotte) Sheeks, the former a native of Rowan County, N. C, 
and the latter having been born near Hagerstown, Md. They were mar- 
ried in Wayne County, Ky., where their parents had settled in a very 
early day. They both descended from German ancestry, whose arrival 
in this country dates back to colonial times. George and his wife came 
to Orange County, Ind., in the spring of 1816, locating near Oi'leans, in 
which place they made one crop. On January 9, 1817, they came to 
Lawrence County, settling on Rock Lick in Marion Township, where the 
remainder of their days were passed, and where they reared twelve chil- 
dren — six sons and six daughters. By trade Mr. Sheeks was a cabinet- 
maker, but after locating in this county he engaged in farming, and for 
his day accumulated considerable property. He died in 1842. his wife 


living until 1856. David L. was reared on a farm, receiving such edu- 
cation as the schools of those days afforded. At the age of twenty-one 
years he started iu life for himself and without much of this world's 
goods, less than 100 acres of land, since which time he has been engaged 
in agricultural pursuits, paying considerable attention to stock-raising, 
and of late years also to saw-milling. By close attention to business, 
careful management and keen business foresight, he has become the 
largest land-owner and one of the wealthiest citizens in the county, 
owning about 4,000 acres. Mr. Sheeks has been married three times, 
and is the father of a large family. His first wife was Miss Syl- 
vania Lewis, a native of this county. She was a daughter of Robert 
Lewis, who settled in Clarke County, Ind., in 1811. To this union were 
born eight childi-en: John W., Delbert, Edward, Martha, Isom, Frank- 
lin P., Priscilla, and an infant imnamed. His second wife was Miss 
Susan Horsey, a native of Martin County, Ind., and a daughter of James 
Horsey, who settled in Martin County, Ind., in 1815. She bore him ten 
children: Mary, George Canotte, Halbert J., Laura, Homer, David I*., 
Rose, Albert, Isaac Lawrence and Wade. His third wife was Miss 
Melinda Payne, a native of Martin County, Ind., and a daughter of 
Riley Payne, an early settler in Lawrence County, who came from South 
Carolina. She bore him two children: Sallie and Everett. In politics 
Mr. Sheeks has always been a Democrat. His son, John W., was in 
Company D, Sixteenth Indiana Volunteer Infanti-y, and was its color- 
bearer. He lost his life while serving his coiintrv. Mr. Sheeks has 
twice been elected to the responsible position of County Commissioner, 
in which office he has proven himself capable and efficient, having saved 
to the county mafiy dollars by his financial ability. He is now a candi- 
date for that office. During ihe time of his official life he superintended 
the building of the County Infirmary and other public improvements. 

WILLIAM H. TAPP, druggist and grocer, was born in Louisville, 
Ky., March 23, 1848, son of James P. and Eliza J. (Clark) Tapp, natives 
of Kentucky. The father died in Mitchell in 1881, his wife having passed 
away the year previously; he was Captain of Company D, Thirty-fourth 
Kentucky Volunteer Infantry. Subject's parents removed to Mitchell 
when he was fifteen years of age, and there he learned the trade of 
marble-cutter, afterward working in Louisville for some months, when 
he returned to Mitchell, where he has since resided. In December, 1870, 
he and father opened a drug store, and the father dying in 1881, the 
business has been continued by himself, carrying a good stock and doing 
a good business. In 1881 he was appointed Notary Public, and in 1882 
he was elected Trustee of Marion Township. He is Secretary of the Mit- 
chell Building, Loan and Savings Association, and has been for many 
years P. S. of Mitchell Lodge, No. 242, I. O. O. F. ; is Scribe of Law- 
rence Encampment, and served as Secretary of Mitchell Agricultural 
Association. He is a Democrat. Is leader of the Mitchell Silver Band, 
being a fine musician. 

HENRY C. TRUEBLOOD is descended from John Trueblood, who 
emigrated from England to America in 1700, settling in Camden County, 
N. C. His wife's name was Agnes, and they had two sons, Amos and 
John, who married and reared large families, and their descendants are 
to be found iu almost every state in the Union. ,They were God-fearing, 
liberty-loving people, and held to the religious tenets of the Friends or 
Quakers, and left the Old World on account of religious pei'secution. 



They were always opposed to the institution of Slavery, and many of 
them settled in Orange and adjoining counties in Indiana. Josiah True- 
blood, father of Henry C, was twice married; his first wife was Miss 
Lydia Bowden, who bore him seven children; his second wife was Miss 
Rachel Field, daughter of Jeremiah and Margaret (Wilson) Field, who 
came to Washington County, Ind., soon after the war of 1812. By the 
second marriage there were four children, one of whom, Henry C. ,is the 
subject of this sketch. Mr. Trueblood came to Lawrence County in an 
early day, settling near Bryantsville, where he followed farming. He 
died in 1854. His wife survives him and resides in Marion Township. 
Hemy C. Trueblood was born in Spice Valley Township, November 
15, 1849. He was brought up on the farm and received the benefits 
of a good common education. He was united in marriage with Miss 
Millie F. Hall, March 11, 1872. This lady was born in Marion Town- 
ship, November 13, 1849. Mr. Trueblood owns a farm of 160 acres, 
which he fai'ms in a practical and successful manner. He also pays 
considerable attention to raising and grazing cattle and other stock. He 
has taught several terms of school and is one of the intelligent and pro- 
gressive men of Lawrence County. In politics he is a stanch Repub- 

JONATHAN TURLEY is a native of this township, born May 2, 
1827, son of Benjamin and Parmelia (Wright) Turley. The grand- 
parents came early to Barren County, Ky., and in 1824 to this county, 
locating at Palestine. Here the grandfather, Aaron, died. One of his 
children was Benjamin, the father of Jonathan. The father married 
Miss Wright of Orange County; was a pi-ominent and useful citizen and 
farmer; was an Old Line Whig and a Republican, and was once Captain 
of Militia. Ten of his twelve children grew up. Jonathan is a self- 
made man. His youth was spent on the farm and in attendance at the 
subscription schools. He selected the occupation of farming and his 
success is shown by his 430 acres and comfortable home. In 1879 he 
began the distillation of brandy and some whisky, making from 600 to 
1,800 gallons per year. December 29, 1849, he married Julia A. Hall, 
who was born in this county in 1828. They have four children: Mary 
F., Sarah J., Robert B. and Eliza A. Mr. Turley is a Republican. The 
mill is known as Daisy Spring Mill, and is doing a good business as it 
did in early times. Mr. Turley is just commencing to burn lime on an 
extensive scale. He is an industrious and prosperous man. 

AARON TURLEY. This gentleman was born in Orleans Township, 
Orange Co., Ind., June 19, 1854. He is the son of Benjamin and Par- 
melia (Wright) Turley, appropriate mention of whom is made in another 
part of this work. Aaron Turley was reared on his father's farm, receiv- 
ing a common school education. He was united in marriage with Miss 
Dora M. Hardman, May 9, 1878. She was born, June 25, 1858, in 
Orange County, Ind., and is the daughter of John and §arah (Reed) 
Hardman, early settlers of that county. Two children have been born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Turley: Una B. and Ralph H. Mr. Turley owns a well 
improved farm of 242 acres, and raises good stock of all kinds. He has 
never aspired to any political preferment, but is an unswerving Repub- 
lican. He is a member of the Christian Church, a man of good morals 
and habits, and a useful and influential citizen. 

THOMAS W. WELSH is a native of Erie County, Penn., his birth 
occurring June 18, 1851. His parents, Timothy and Annie (White) 


Welsh, were natives of Limerick County, Ireland, where they were reared 
and married. Soon after this event they immigrated to this counti*y, and 
located at Erie, Penu. , where they remained three years, and then moved 
to North Vernon, Ind. , and after two years removed to Poston, Ripley 
County, which they have since made their home. They reared a large 
family, and are people of great social and moral worth. Thomas W. 
received a common school education, and while yet a boy began to do for 
himself. His first job was carrying water when a boy for track-men and 
other employes on the railroad. This he did so well and faithfully that 
he found employment of this kind for five years. At sixteen years of 
age he went to work with the other employes, receiving a man's wages, 
and two years later was promoted to the position of foreman of a gang of 
men on construction and repairs of the road-bed, a position he filled a 
number of years with much credit. In 1879 be was given the position 
of supervisor of track of division C on the Ohio & Mississippi Kail- 
way, a position he now holds and efficiently fills. He was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Jennie Cox, May 12, 1877. This lady was born in Rip- 
ley County, Ind., January 30, 1856. Five children have been born to 
them, viz.: Thomas E.. Genevieve P., and three that died in infancy. 
Mr. Welsh is a Democrat, a member of the Town Council, and of the 
Masonic order. 

EDWIN WOOD, grocer, was born in Randolph County, N. C, Octo- 
ber 31, 1815, son of Zebedee and Hannah (Brower) Wood, natives of 
North Carolina. In 1818 our subject came with his parents to Lawrence 
County, who settled in Marion Township, the father being born in 1791, 
and dying in 1872, his wife also dying the same year. Our subject 
remained at home farming till he was twenty-five years of age, when he 
purchased 160 acres of land, where he remained till he located the town 
of Woodville. He was also engaged contracting on the railroad, starting 
a store at .the same time, and in addition ran a mill. In 1877 he came 
to Mitchell and opened a store, which he still runs. He has been twice 
married, first in Lawrence County, February 25, 1841, to Mary E. Sheeks, 
a native of this county, born November 12, 1824; she died September 7, 
1857, leaving six children: Anselm, George Z., John B., Hannah E., 
Malinda and Thomas J. June 24, 1858, he married Mary L. Brooks, in 
Orange County, Ind. Mr. Wood was appointed First Lieutenant of the 
company of this township, when he was twenty-three years of age. He 
is one of the pioneers of this section, and does a very fair business. He 
has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church for fifty years, 
and is a Republican in politics. 

GEORGE Z. WOOD, editor of the Mitchell Commercial, was born in 
Lawrence County, Ind., October 15, 1844, where he was reared and edu- 
cated. At the age of fourteen years he entered Mitchell Seminary, 
where he remained three vears, and then went to farming:. In 1863 he 
enlisted in Company H, One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Regiment Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, serving as Coi-poral, three months. In April, 1864, 
he again enlisted, in Company D, One Hundred and Forty-tifth Regi- 
ment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and was with his regiment when it 
released the Andersonville prisoners. He was Sergeant of his company. 
He was engaged in saw-milling three years, and then clerked awhile, 
when he and his brother formed a partnership which lasted a year. He 
again became a partner in business, until about 1876, at which time he 
was appointed Assistant Postmaster, afterward being appointed Post- 



master. In October, 1883, he purchased the Commercial, and has made 
It an excellent i^aper. It was established in 1865. In 1879 he was 
elected City Councilman. In connection with his other business Mr 
Wood IS engaged in the wholesale book and stationery trade being sue 
cessor to Anderson & Hamilton. In 1880 he established a coal-yard in 
Mitchell, which he still operates. July 6, 1876, he was married to 
JNaomi Z. Hutchinson, a native of Harrison County, Ind., and bv this 
union have been born two children: Grace A. and Francis E. the 'latter 
being deceased. Mr. Wood is an A. F. & A. M., and an I O O F 

ANSELM WOOD, of the firm of A. Wood & Co., was born in Law- 
rence County, Ind., October 13, 1842, the first of six children born to 
Edwin and Mary E. (Sheeks) Wood, natives respectively of North Caro- 
lina and Indiana. Subject completed his education at the Baptist Semi- 
nary at Mitchell. In 1861 he enlisted in Company I, Fiftieth Eegiment 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and participated in the followincr battles- 
Parker's Cross Roads, and a forty days' fight in Arkansas. He'Vas pro- 
moted to Sergeant, and discharged at Indianapolis in January 1865 
After the war he engaged in the boot and shoe trade, then in the 'o-rocery 
business, and finally m dry goods business, first being a partner with D 
L. Sheeks, and in 1879 the firm assumed the name A. Wood & Co and 
now carries a stock of about $12,000. Mr. Wood also owns a farm of 
100 acres. He has been Township and School Trustee. He was married 
in Lawrence County in September, 1866, to Miss Mary J. Piess daugh- 
ter of John F. and Rebecca J. (Daviess) Pless, and of this union ei^ht 
children have been born: Fannie, Oscar, Stella, Jesse, Aaron F Will- 
iam R., Rebecca J. and Lawrence A. The family are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and Mr. Wood is a Republican. He served 
as Postmaster under President Johnson's administration. 

AARON WRIGHT was born in what is now known as Orleans Town- 
ship Orange Co., Ind., May 3, 1816. His parents were Jonathan and 
barah (Reed) Wright. Jonathan's father was a resident of Virginia 
He was a soldier m the Revolutionary war, fighting for American Inde- 
pendence, and was killed in battle. He left a widow and quite a family 
ot children,^ who separated, some of them being bound out. Such was 
the fate of Jonathan, who, when a boy, removed with the man to 
whom he was bound from Virginia to Kentucky. Here he was reared 
He was married there to Miss Sarah Reed, and in the fall of 1815 brought 
his family to Indiana, and located two miles east of Orleans, Orancre 
County He served in the war of 1812 against the Indians. He wis 
the father of eleven children. Both he and his wife are now dead 
Their lives were spent on a farm, Jonathan devoting part of his time to 
carpentering. In politics he was an Old Line Whig. During his life he 
held positions of honor and trust, and both he and his wife were highly 
esteemed by all. Aaron Wright was reared on a farm; received a com- 
mon school education, which was mostly procured by attending subscrip- 
tion schools. At the age of twenty-one years he started in life for him- ' 
self by engaging in farming, which he has since followed. Like many 
?QQo''f P^'^^^i^^^t "aen, he began life a poor boy, with no capital. In 
1»38 he located where he now lives, in Marion Township. He owns 300 
acres of fine land, and has aided his children in procuring farms On 
November 1. 1838, he married Miss Jane Hall, who was born in Orange 
County, Ind., June 4, 1817. To them were born eight children- Per- 
rnelia, Emily, Elijah, Henry C, Green T., Sarah E., Rhoda E. and 


Elmer E. Elijah, Hemy C. and Green T. served in the late Civil 
war. Elijah went out with the Twenty-fourth Indiana Volunteer Infan- 
try, Company G, but was transferred to a colored I'egiment as First 
Lieutenant, and died while serving his country. Henry C. was also a 
member of Company G, Twenty-fourth Indiana Volunteer Infantry. 
He was at Fort Blakeley and participated in a number of other engage- 
ments. He served until the war closed. Green T. went out with the 
One Hundred and Seventeenth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, serving one 
hundred days. Mr. Wright is one of the best farmers in the county. 
In politics he is a Republican ; prior to the organization of which party 
he had always been a Whig. He is the Republican candidate for County 
Commissioner, a position he is eminently qualified to fill. He is also a 
Mason, and has ever taken a great interest in all projects which had for 
their object the country's good. He took an active part in sustaining 
the boys in the field during the war, and is one of the leading and influen- 
tial citizens of the county. 

HENRY C. WRIGHT was born in Marion Township, Lawrence 
Co., Ind., December 31, 1844. He was raised on the farm and received 
a common school education. After the war, in which he served 
with gallantry, he returned home and engaged in agricultural pursuits, 
to which he has since devoted his life. He owns a farm of 150 acres. 
He was united in marriage with Miss Clara A. Murray, January 20, 1872. 
She was born in Marion Township, Lawrence Co., Ind., April 6, 1854, 
and is a daughter of Isaac and Sophia A. (Hall) Murray. To this union 
have been born three children — Otto, Robert and Homer. Henry C. is 
a Republican in politics, and a member of the G. A. R. order. He has 
always aimed to keep good stock, and has some of the finest in the 
county. He takes great interest in educational matters and is a highly 
respected, public-spirited citizen. Messrs. Aaron and Henry C. Wright 
have the best short-horn cattle in this section of the State. They have 
spared no pains nor expense in promoting the cattle interests of the 
county, and to them is due a large share of the praise bestowed upon the 
cattle- growers of this section for the fine cattle raised. 

JONATHAN H WRIGHT was born in Orleans, Orange Co., Ind., 
December 17, 1842. He was the son of Washington and Martha A. 
(Griffith) Wright; former a native of Kentucky, latter of New York. They 
were married in Washington Count}-, Ind., and raised a family of eight 
children. The father of Washington Wright was named Jonathan, who, 
in 1815, in the fall of the year, settled in Orange County. Washington 
Wright taught school and clerked in a country store when a young man. 
He was an Old Line Whig; was a man of ability and very progressive. 
He died in Orange County, June 17, 1856. His wife still survives him, 
residing on the old homestead. Jonathan H. Wright passed his boyhood 
days on the farm; received a common school education. Enlisted in 
Company G, Twenty-fourth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and served 
three years; participated in numei'ous engagements, the principal one 
being that of Shiloh. Three brothers — W^illiam H., James H. and 
Elijah M., the two former of whom died — were also in their country's 
service. After the war Jonathan joined the family in Orange County, 
and engaged in agricultural pursuits, which he has since followed. In 
1881 he purchased the farm upon which he now resides, and moved from 
Orange County to occupy it. It contains 250 acres, the amount paid 
therfor having been almost entirely accumulated by himself . On January 


17, 1867, he was married to Miss Polly J. Hardnian, who was born in 
Orange County, Ind., April, 1843. To them have been born two children • 
Harry W. and Orra C. In politics Mr. Wright is a Republican He 
IS a member of the Christian Church; also of the G. A. R. order He is 
well known, highly respected, and takes great interest in educational 
affairs and public enterprises. 


ABNER ARMSTRONG is a native of the township, where he yet 
resides, born January 20, 1828. James Armstrong, his father, was born 

'^•xi. • ?f^f ^^' ^^^ ^^^^ *^'^ ^°^^^*y ^as yet new made settlement 
within its borders, and died in 1866. The early life of Abner Armstrong 
was passed upon the farm of his parents and in attendance upon the dis 
trict schools of that day, and since 1849 he has been doing for himself 
It 18 only necessary to add that Mr. Armstrong now owns over 1 400 acres 
of good land, besides other valuable property, to show that he'has made 
this life a success. He not only is one of the county's wealthiest citizens 
but one of its most enterprising as well, taking advanced steps in the 
welfare of all laudable public enterprises, and contributin^r liberally from 
his means to this end. In 1881 he completed the ere°tion of a fine 
arge, frame dwelling on his place, which is the best residence in the 
township, and reflects credit upon himself as its architect. His marriage 
with Miss Jeannette Boone, a native of Indiana, and the daughter of 
Col. Noah and Jane (Rhodes) Boone, who were natives of Pulaski County 
Ky., was solemnized in 1852, and five children have blessed them, named' 
Alvm B., Walter (deceased), Daniel (deceased), Flora F. and Laura C 
In politics Mr. Armstrong is an unswerving Republican, formerly a 
noSi^' ^^^^^^^ ^'^ fii'st Presidential ballot for Gen. Winfield Scott In 
1878 he was elected Township Trustee, and in 1881 was appointed to 
that office to fill an unexpired term. Both he and wife are members of 
the Christian Church. 

HORACE N. ARMSTRONG was born October 8, 1852 a son of W 
S. and Clementine (Boone) Armstrong. He is a native of Indian Creek 
lownship, this county, the eldest living in a family of six children, and is of 
Scotch-Irish descent. He was reared to manhood on his parents' farm 
secured a good common school education in youth, ^nd has taught both in 
the district schools and vocal music. In 1873 he located where he now lives 
and where he owns 200 acres of good farming and grazing land To his 
marriage with Miss Martha E. Tincher, which occurred in 1872 one 
child was born, named Opal. The mother dying in August 1876' Mr 
Armstrong married Miss Matilda Hermon, a native of Muskingum County, 
Ohio in 18/7. To this marriage two children have been born— Edgar 
and Wesley C. Mr. Armstrong and wife are members of the Christian 
Church, and he is a Republican in politics. 

JACOB BOSSERT was born in Germany in 1838, son of John and 
Christiana (Zigler) Bossert; is the third in a family of five children 
Mr. Bossert came to America in 1857, and settled in the old Pennsyl- 
vania State, and there remained two years, and then came to Indiana 


and located in Bedford, Lawrence County, where he remained about ten 
years, and then removed to his present place in Indian Creek Township. 
The major part of the life of Mr. Bossert has been spent at carpentering, 
and as an architect he has had few superiors in Lawrence County. For 
several years Mr. Bossert has been giving his entire attention to agri- 
culture and stock-raising. He owns more than 200 acres of well 
improved land, and in addition he has control of the famous Williams 
farm. Mi*. Bossert was married in 1867 to Miss Macena R. Williams, a 
native of Lawrence County. To this union have been born three children, 
viz. : Lydia, Katie and Perry. The subject of this mention enlisted in 
the United States Army in May, 1862, in -Company A, Sixty-seventh 
Indiana Volunteers, and after being prisoner of war twice, and serving 
his country three years, he was honorably discharged in 1865 at Galves- 
ton, Tex. Mr. and Mrs. Bossert are members of the Christian Church, 
and he is one of Lawrence County's best men. He was a firm and true 
friend of Bartemus Williams. He is one of the successful men of Law- 
rence County, and is a Republican. 

HENRY COX, farmer and stock-raiser, was born November 17, 1835, 
in Indian Creek Township, Lawrence Co. , Ind. , son of Alexander and 
Zibah (Adamson) Cox, and is of Irish- German extraction. Mr. Cox 
remained at home and worked on the farm for his father until about 
twenty-seven years of age, when he began farming and stock-raising for 
himself. He was united in marriage to Miss Emily J. Kern, also a 
native of Lawrence County, daughter of Benjamin Kern. The year 1836 
marks this event. They have the following children: Minnie M., Idis 
and Alex. Mr. Cox is one of the leading farmers of Indian Creek 
Township, and he now has 700 acres of land, and the same is in a high 
state of cultivation, save 150 acres which is yet in timber. On this farm 
there is one of the best as well as one of the most complete farm resi- 
dences in the county. It is a frame with a front 45x18 feet, and au L 
40x27 feet built in 1878, at a cost of $5,000. In 1863 Mr. Cox settled 
where he now resides. He is a stanch Republican and cast his first 
Presidential ballot for John C. Fremont. For twelve years he has held 
an official position in the Christian Church. Mrs. Cox is also a member 
of that denomination. Mr. Cox enjoys more than an ordinary education 
and he is manifesting: much interest in the education of his children. 
He is one of the representative and highly respected men of Lawrence 

BURGESS COX, farmer and Justice of the Peace, was born in Law- 
rence County, Ind., July 30, 1838, son of G. W. and Eliza (Etchison) 
Cox, and is of English descent. The father of Mr. Cox was born in 
North Carolina and came to Indiana at a very early day, and was among 
the pioneers of Indian Creek Township. Our subject was yet in his 
childhood when his parents were deceased, and he was placed to live with 
his grandfather, and at fourteen years was bound to an uncle, and with 
him lived until his twenty-first year, at which time he began life for him- 
self. His marriage took place in 1859 to Miss Rebecca Adamson, a 
native of Lawrence County. Four children blessed this union, two of 
whom survive their mother, who died in 1879. Mr. Cox was married 
again the same year to Mrs. Caroline Sentney (nee Shor). Mr. Cox set- 
tled where he now resides in 1879, and here he has nearly 200 acres of 
well improved land. He is a Republican. In 1876 he was elected 
Justice of the Peace for Indian Creek Township, re-elected in 1880 and 


re-elected over again in 1882. He is a member of the Christian Church, 
and Mrs. Cox is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He has 
been a resident of the county almost half a centurv. 

JOHN H. FAUCETT, M. D., is a native of Orange County, Ind., 
born September, 1840, son of William and Mary A. (Higgins) Faueett, 
and is of English origin. The father of Dr. Faueett was a native of 
North Carolina, and his mother was born in Tennessee. The parents of 
Dr. Faueett immigrated to Indiana in 1820, and'settled in Orange County, 
and here his father died in 1848. The early life of the subject of this 
mention was spent in service for his mother and attending the district 
school. In 1861 Dr. Faueett enlisted in the United States Army, in Com 
pany K, Forty-ninth Indiana Volunteers, He was at the siege of Vicks- 
burg. where he was wounded. He was honorably di.-jchai'ged in 1863. 
In 1866 Di\ Faueett began the study of medicine in the office of Dr. 
Riley, near Kecksville, Martin Co., Ind. In 1874 he graduated from the 
Missouri Medical College at St. Louis, but prior to this date had done some 
medical practice. He first located at Trinity Springs, Martin Co., Ind., 
where he remained until 1876, when he came to Fayetteville, Lawrence 
County, and here he continues in the regular practice of his profession, 
in which he has been very successful. The marriage of Dr. Faueett 
occurred in 1876 to Miss Ida Leonard, a native of Martin County, Ind., 
daughter of Samuel Leonard. Mrs. Faueett died in 1880. Dr. Faueett 
is a Republican and one of the leading physicians of his county. 

J. G. FERGUSON was born May 28, 1832, in Ferry Township, 
Lawrence Co., Ind., son of Ralston and Letitia (Armstrong) Fergu- 
son. He is next to the eldest in a family of twelve children and is of 
Scotch-Irish extraction. The father of our subject was born in Laurel 
County, Ky., and when eight years of age came to Greene County, Ind., 
in company with his parents. Mr. Ferguson was united in marriage in 
1859 to Miss Tabitha Cox. To this union were born two children, viz.: 
Canaan and Nettie. Mrs. Ferguson died in 1870, and the subject of 
this sketch was married again in 1871 to Mrs. Martha Rainbolt, who 
was deceased in 1878; and Mr. Ferguson was a third time married, in 
1879, to Mrs. Sarah Smith. Mr. Ferguson began life properly for him- 
self at a not very early day in his existence. He worked five years by 
the month on the farm. For nineteen years he has been engaged in 
farming and stock-raising, at which he has been most successful. He 
now possesses more than 300 acres of well improved land. In 1880 he 
built his present residence; the same is a frame, and cost about $2,000, 
He is one of the unswerving Republicans of Indian Creek Township and 
cast his first Presidential vote for John C. Fremont. Mr. Ferguson is 
one of the enterprising men of Lawrence County and one of its most 
public-spirited citizens. He has been a resident of this county more 
than half a century. 

JOHN HAYS was born in Hamilton County, Ohio, in 1818; son of 
Moses and Sarah (Barnes) Hays, and is of Scotch- German origin. The 
father of Mr. Hays was a native of Virginia, and his mother was born in 
Pennsylvania. His patei-nal grandfather was David Hays, a native of 
Ireland, who came to America prior to the Revolutionary war, in which 
he was a soldier during its entire continuance. The parents of Mr. 
Hays came to Indiana in 1819 and made settlement in Washington 
County. The early life of our subject was spent in flat boating and 
trading on the rivers of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. He was mar- 


ried in 1845, to Miss Sabrina Rains, a native of Lawrence County. To 
this marriage were born eight children. Mrs. Hays died in 1875. In 
1873 Mr. Hays removed from Washington to Lawrence and settled where 
he now lives. He has 400 acres of land. He is an earnest Repiiblicau 
and cast his first Presidential vote for Harrison. The father of Mr. 
Hays was an 1812 soldier. Mr. Hays is a member of the Christian 
Church. He is a successful farmer and a leading citizen of his neigh- 

HENRY INMAN, an old pioneer, was born in Orange County, Ind., 
in 1818; son of Thomas and Priscilla (Sanders) Inman. He is the 
fourth in a family of eight children and is of English blood. The father 
of Mr. Inman was born and raised in North Carolina. His paternal 
grandfather was a soldier in the war of the Revolution, and was wounded 
at the battle of King's Mountain. About 1812 the parents of Mr. Inman 
came to the territory that now composes Indiana. When the subject of 
this sketch was fifteen years of age he came with his parents to Lawrence 
County, where bis father died in 1835. Mr. Inman was married in 1836 
to Miss Sarah Mitchell, a native of Lawrence County. This marriage 
was blessed with thirteen children, ten of whom are living. In 1839 
Mr. Inman made a settlement near where he now lives. By occupation he 
has been a life-long farmer and now owns nearly 400 aci'es of well 
improved land. He has a good house and barn. He is one of the men 
who has cleared his farm from the unbroken wilderness. He is a Demo- 
crat, though in local matters he supports the best men. He had two 
sons and three sons in-law in the late war. The first cabin in which 
Mr. and Mrs. Inman lived was 12x16 feet, built of round logs and had a 
stick chimney, puncheon floor and a clap-board door. Mr. and Mrs. 
Inman have long been members of the Baptist Church and are among 
the leading old settlers of Indian Creek Township. 

NATHAN JACKSON, a pioneer of this county, was born May 6, 
1808, in the Old Dominion. His parents were John and Nancy (Farmer) 
Jackson, the former a native of England, from whence he emigrated to 
the United States, stopping for a time at the city of Baltimore, where he 
was married, then removing to Virginia, where he died at a ripe old age. 
In 1828 Nathan Jackson and Miss Martha Potter, a native of North Car- 
olina, were married, and two years later they emigrated West, where they 
expected to build a home in the new country. They came to Lawrence 
County, Ind., and made settlement near where they now reside, and Law- 
rence County has ever since been their home. By a life of industry Mr. 
Jackson has accumulated 480 acres of land. In the acquisition of this 
Mrs. Jackson has been an efficient helpmeet, sharing with her husband 
all the hardships and adversities of pioneer life. Mr. Jackson is a 
Democrat, and his wife is a member of long standing in the Christian 
Church. Ten children have blessed their marriage, six of whom are yet 

WILLIAM I. JORDAN, Township Trustee, and general merchant 
of Fayetteville, is a native of the town where he is now doing business, 
his birth occurring November 16, 1853. He is the eldest in a family of 
three children born to Thomas and Elizabeth (Hodge) Jordan, and at 
twenty-one years of age began doing business for himself. For a num- 
ber of years he was engaged in saw-milling, but in 1881 he began mer- 
chandising at Fayetteville, where he has ever since continued. In 1875 
his marriage with Miss Emma Wall, a native of England, was solemnized, 


and two children have been born to them, named Iva L and Goldy. In 
politics Mr. Jordan is a stanch Democrat, casting his first ballot for 
Samuel J. Tilden. In 1 884 he was elected Trustee of Indian Creek Town- 
ship by a majority of ninety-eight votes. 

ALBERT KERN was born in Indian Creek Township, Lawrence 
Co., Ind., January 15, 1820, son of Elder Abraham and Susan (Wilson) 
Kern, and is of German-Irish origin. The father of Mr. Kern was born 
in Nicholas County, Ky., in 1786, and came to Lawrence County in 1816. 
He was one of the pioneer preachers of the Hoosier State, and founder 
of what was long known as White River Union Church. The only 
remuneration he ever received for his services in the ministry was 25 
cents, and that was forced upon him. His death occurred in 1858. The 
year 1840 dates the marriage of the subject of this mention to Miss 
Elizabeth Hutton, a native of Lawrence County, born in 1820, daughter 
of Abel and Auzy Hutton, whose maiden name was Denson. To this 
union were born twelve children. In 1840 Mr. Kern settled where he 
now is, and has since resided. Here he owns 360 acres of well improved 
land, and the greater part of which he cleared from the unbroken forest. 
As a farmer he is one of the most successful as well as one of the best in 
his township. He is a prominent Republican,and cast his first Presi- 
dential vote for Harrison. These people are among the pioneers of Law- 
rence County, and as citizens none stand higher. Mrs. Kern is a mem- 
ber of the Christian Church, and a most amiable Christian lady. 

A. J. KERN was born in Lawrence County, June 9, 1829, son of 
Elder Abraham and Susan Kern, whose maiden name was Wilson. The 
father of Mr. Kern was one of the pioneer ministers of this county. He 
emigrated from Kentucky to Lawrence County on a sled. The subject of 
this mention is one of a numerous family, and is of German-Irish 
origin. At eighteen years of age he commenced life for himself. His 
marriage occurred in 1848. to Miss Melinda Rains, daughter of John 
Rains, ex-County Commissioner of Lawrence County. To this union 
there are six children: William H., James D., Elcaney, Vine. Decy and 
Samuel F. The first of these children is a Christian minister, and located 
at Harrison, Ohio. In 1851 Mr. Kern made a settlement on his present 
farm, which consists of 651 acres. He has a splendid residence which 
was built in 1881, and cost $2,000, and a barn erected the same year that 
cost $1,000. He is a Republican. Mr. and Mrs. Kern are members of 
the Christian Church. By energy and economy Mr. Kern has been suc- 
cessful in life, and is now in very comfortable circumstances. He is one 
of the leading stock-raisers of the county, and a much esteemed citizen 
in his community. 

ELDER MARTIN A. KERN (deceased) was born in Lawrence 
County, Ind., August 20, 1837, son of Alexander and Nancy Kern, and 
was of English- German lineage. He was married, in 1865, to Miss 
Nancy J. Sears, with whom he lived until 1871, when Mrs. Kern died, 
and the next year he was united in marriage to Miss Sarah J. Armstrong, 
daughter of Ari and Mary Armstrong, old pioneers of Lawrence County. 
Mrs. Kern was born in 1845 in Perry Township. To Mr. and Mrs. Kern 
were born the following children: Grace, Mirth, Faith, Charity, May 
and Kent K. In 1873 Mr. Kern settled where Mrs. Kern now resides, 
and here he lived until his death, which occurred in 1883. He possessed 
more than an ordinary education, which he acquired mainly through his 
own efforts. Politically he was a firm Republican. In 1882 he was 


elected Jnstice of the Peace in Indian. Creek Township. For about ten 
years he was a minister of the Christian Church. Mrs. Kern is also a 
member of that, church. Mr. Kern was successful in life, and was one 
of the most prominent men of his neighborhood. Mrs. Kern now resides 
on the homestead, which consists of more than 200 acres of fairly well 
improved land. 

DAVID L. KERN. Among the most prominent and successful 
farmers and stock- raisers of Lawrence County is the subject of this 
biography, who was born in Indian Creek Township in 1842, son of 
Albert and Elizabeth (Hutton) Kern, and is of German-Irish lineage. 
Mr. Kern remained at home and labored on the farm for his father until 
twenty-five years of age. His marriage took place in 1867 to Mies Emily 
Williams, a native of Lawi'ence County, bora 1847, daughter of Dixon 
and Cynthia Williams. To this household have been born three children: 
Norman, Oretus and Lola. In 1869 Mr. Kern settled where he now 
resides. His farm now consists of 170 acres. One hundred and thirty 
acres Mr. Kern cleared from the unbroken forest. He has about seventy- 
five acres in the White River Valley. In 1879 Mr. Kern erected his 
present residence, which is a substantial frame, with a front 40x16 feet, 
and an L 38x16 feet, and cost $1,600. Mr. Kern is a Republican, and 
cast his first Presidential vote for Lincoln. Mr. and Mrs. Kern are mem- 
bers of the Christian Church. He is an enterprising citizen, and one of 
the highly respected men of his neighborhood. 

JOHN E. LACKEY was born in Indian Creek Township, Lawrence 
Co., Ind. , May 26, 1835, and is a son of Thomas and Nancy (Short) 
Lackey, who were of English-Irish origin. When Lawrence County 
was first being settled and when everything was new, Thomas Lackey 
emigrated from Kentucky and settled in Indian Creek Township, where, 
after a long life of usefulness, he died in 1858. In 1870 the marriajre 
of John E. Lackey with Miss Mary V. Pitt, who was born in this county 
in 1854, a daughter of John C. and Sallie Pitt, was solemnized, and the 
four children born to them are: Orley, Norma, Otis (deceased) and Earl. 
In politics Mr. Lackey is a Republican; is the owner of 416 acres of 
land, and he and wife are members of the Christian Church. In about 
1856 he came into possession of the old Lackey homestead, which is one 
of the best farrns in the township, and where Mr. Lackey has resided 
almost half a century. 

OBED LAMB was born in Lawrence County, Ind., December 3, 
1835, son of Isaiah and Christiana (Fredrick) Lamb, and is of English- 
German lineage. The father of Mr. Lamb was boi-n in North Carolina, 
and his mother was of Virginian birth. The parents of Mr. Lamb emi- 
grated to Indiana about 1820, and settled in Indian Creek Township, 
Lawrence County. Here his father was deceased in 1878. The Lamb 
family emigrated from England on account of religious persecution, 
and effected a settlement in the Carolinas. The subject of this biog- 
raphy was united in marriage to Miss H. R. E. Adamson in 1859. They 
have children as follows: Charles W., Florence M., Anna L., John C. 
and Pearl S. In 1860 Mr. Lamb settled where he now resides, and here 
he has 305 acres of well improved land. As a farmer he has been suc- 
cessful, and is one of the best tillers of the soil in his neighborhood. 
Politically he is a Republican. He is of thorough temperance princi- 
ples and advocates prohibition. Mr. and Mrs. Lamb are members of 
the Christian Church, and he has held an official position in that church 


for fifteen years. Since 1864 Mr. Lamb has been engaged in bee cul- 
ture, in which science he is thoroughly posted. He possesses a 
fair common school education, and is one of the principal men of the 

HOLLAND F. PITMAN, farmer and stock-grower, is a native of 
Indian Creek Township, Lawrence Co., Ind., born in 1833, son of Hol- 
land and Elizabeth (McNeal) Pitman, of German-Irish origin, and is the 
ninth in a numerous family. His father was born in Woodford County, 
Ky., in 1793. and his mother in the same county, but four years later. 
The parents of our subject came to Lawrence County about 1824, but 
the father of Mr. Pitman was in the county in 1818 and made a land 
entrv, but then returned to his native State. The Pitman family made a 
settlement four and one-half miles west of Bedfoi'd. The father of Mr. 
Pitman died in 1854. His mother is yet living, and is about ninety 
years of age. The subject of this mention was married in 1862 to Miss 
Rachel J. Cox, also a native of Indian Creek Township, daughter of 
Alexander Cox. Mr. Pitman is one of the leading farmers of his town- 
ship, and has at present 385 acres of well impi'oved land. In 1870 he 
settled where he now lives; here he has valuable improvements. In 1881 
Mr. Pitman began giving some attention to bee culture. As an apiarist 
he has been very successful. Mr. Pitman is an earnest supporter of the 
Republican party, and, like his father, has always been a rigid anti- 
slavery man. Mr. and Mrs. Pitman have long been members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

WILLIAM C. PITMAN is a native of Lawrence County, Ind., born 
March 19, 1835, son of Holland and Elizabeth (McNeal) Pitman; is the 
tenth in a family of eleven children, and is of German-Irish descent. 
When the subject of this mention was twenty-one years of age he began 
the battle of life for himself. He was married in 1860 to Miss Phebe 
A. Kern, daughter of Benjamin and Nancy J. Kern. They have eleven 
children, as follows: Holland C. , Alice E. , William W. , Loretta, Alva 
H., Maggie E., Jennie M., Benjamin F., Frederick, Walter A. and Nel- 
lie. In 1860 Mr. Pitman settled in the vicinity in which he has since 
and now resides. He has 250 acres of moderately well improved land. 
In 1861 Mr. Pitman began stock-raising and dealing, and this he has 
since continued. He handles about 500 head of cattle per annum. For 
some years he has been giving much attention to thoroughbred stock. 
He is a Republican, and cast his first Presidential vote for Fremont, at 
which time there were only six votes of that kind in Indian Creek Town- 
ship. Mrs. Pitman is a member of the Christian Church, and Mr. Pit- 
man is by faith a Methodist. For twenty-five years the subject of this 
mention has been one of the leading and public-spirited men of Law- 
rence County. 

BENJAMIN H. POTTER, a descendant of one of the pioneer fami- 
lies of Lawrence County, Indiana, was here born May 12, 1832. He is 
the third in a family of eight children born to John and Mary (Dornell) 
Potter, both of whom were natives of North Carolina, their respective 
births occurring in 1803 and 1802. In 1830 these parents removed to 
this county, settling in Indian Creek Township where both passed the 
remainder of their days. The early life of Benjamin H. was passed 
upon the farm of his parents, and when old enough he turned much of 
his attention to flat-boating. In 1854 he settled on the farm where he 
now lives, which by diligence and economy now amounts to 220 acres. 


He began life's battle a poor boy, and emphatically is a self-made man. 
In politics he is a Republican, while both he and his wife belong to the 
Christian Church. Mr. Potter and Miss Nancy Owens were united in 
wedlock in 1852, two sons — Oscar and John L. — being the result of their 
union. Mrs. Potter's mother, one of the pioneer women of Indiana, is 
yet living at the advanced age of ninety years. 

ADAM SEARS was born in Nicholas County, Ky., in 1818, son of 
David and Anna (Kern) Sears, and is of German extraction. The father 
of Mr. Sears was born in North Carolina in 1792, and when ten years of 
age removed to Kentucky, and there remained until 1818, when he with 
his family immigrated to Indiana, and effected a settlement in Lawrence 
County. Here the father of Mr. Sears resided until his demise. The 
subject of this mention settled where he now and since has resided in 
1839, and this same year was united in marriage to Miss Rebecca 
Wright, a native of Washington County, Ind. To this marriage were 
born thirteen children, the following of whom are living: Melissa J., 
Tabitha E., Peter W., David L., Ambrose K., Nancy E., Arley R., and 
Ulysses G. Mr. Sears now has 320 acres of well impx'oved land. He is 
a Republican, but cast his first Presidential vote for the Democratic nom- 
inee. Mr. Sears is one of the pioneers of Lawrence County. Mr. and 
Mrs. Sears are members of the Christian Church. He has been a success- 
ful farmer, and is one of the well-to-do citizens of his township. 

JOHN M. SEARS was born in Lawrence County, Ind., April 23, 
1856, a son of William and Phebe (Cox) Sears, who were of English- 
German descent. At nineteen years of age he began doing for himself, 
and in June, 1876, in company with W. I. Jordan, embarked in general 
merchandising at Fayetteville. This partnership only lasted until 
August of the same year, when Mr. Sears purchased his partner's 
interest, since when he has conducted business alone. He keeps a 
large and well assorted stock of general merchandise, and has established 
a profitable trade. In politics he is a Republican, casting his first Presi- 
dential vote for Gen. Garfield in 1880. In 1882 he was the successful 
nominee of his party for the ofiice of Township Trustee, serving one term 
to the entire satisfaction of all concerned, and erecting two schoolhouses. 
He takes an active interest in educational matters of all kinds and is 
recognized as one of the county's progressive young men. He is a mem- 
ber of the Christian Church. 

J. M. SELLERS, the next youngest in a family of ten children, born 
to Edward and Amelia (Stanton) Sellers, is a native of Laurel County, 
Ky. ; his birth occurring February 2, 1826. When only four years of 
age he was brought by his parents to Lawrence County, Ind., and he was 
reared and educated in Indian Creek Township, and has always made it 
his home. To his marriage with Miss Julina Sears, which occurred in 
1845, a family was born, the following five children yet living : John 
D., Minerva, Adam, Rachel and Tla. The mother dying in 1880, Mr. 
Sellers married for his second wife Mrs. (Cox) Embree, a widow lady, 
with this family: William, Elizabeth, Mary and John. Mr. Sellers is 
one of the well-to-do and well posted farmers of the county, owning 
upward of a section of good land. As a Republican in politics he has 
always been outspoken in his party's best interest, which in 1884 hon- 
ored him as its candidate for County Commissioner. For forty years 
he has been a member of the Christian Church, and his wife for thirty- 
eight years. 


W. S. SENTNEY, general merchant, is a native of Greene County, 
Ind., born in 1854, son of John and Charlotte (Sullivan) Sentney, and is 
of English-Irish extraction. The greater part of the life of our subject 
has been spent at work on the farm, but in 1882 he began general mer- 
chandising at Silverville, Ind., which he now runs in connection with his 
farm. He engaged in the dry goods business in partnership with L. J. 
Baker, which union continued six months, when Mr. Sentney assumed 
sole control of the business, in which he still continues, and has invested 
about 14,000. The stock is well selected, and consists principally of dry 
goods, clothing, boots, shoes, drugs, etc. Mr. Sentney was married in 
1874 to Miss Clementine Baker, a native of Lawrence County. To this 
maiTiage have been born two children, viz. : Clara and Lewis. Mr. Sent- 
ney has 150 acres of well improved land. The same is a portion of what 
was long known as the L. J. Baker farm. Mr. Sentney is a Republican, 
and cast his first Presidential vote for Hayes, and they are members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Sentney is one of the self-made 
young men of his township, and is one of the most enterprising and suc- 

HARYEY VOYLES, M. D., was born in Washington County, Ind., 
in 1849, son of William and Elizabeth (Kyte) Voyles, and is of Welsh 
origin. The early life of Dr. Voyles was given to attendance at the com- 
mon schools, and in service for his father on the farm. His literary edu- 
cation was confined, in addition to the common school, to the Salem 
Academy at Salem, Washington Co., Ind., and the State University 
at Bloomington. In 1874 Dr. Voyles began the study of medicine, in the 
office of Dr. James B. Wilson, at Salem, Ind., and afterward attended 
lectures at the Medical Department of the Louisville University, from 
which he graduated in 1877, and immediately began the practice of his 
profession at South Boston, Washington Co., Ind, where he remained 
two years, and then located at Trinity Springs, Maxtin Co., Ind., and 
there remained three years, and then came to Fayetteville, Lawrence 
County, where he has since been in active practice. As a practitioner of 
medicine he has been successful. Politically he is a Republican, and cast 
his first Presidential vote for U. S. Grant. Dr. Voyles is one of the 
leading young physicians of southern Indiana. 

BARTEMUS WILLIAMS (deceased) was a native of Lawrence 
County, Ind., born in 1825, son of Isaac and Amelia (Gibbons) Will- 
iams, and was of Scotch lineage. He was descended from a long line of 
prominent ancestry, and his ancestors were pioneers of the Hoosier Com- 
monwealth. By occupation he was a tiller of the soil and a stock-grower 
and trader. He possessed about 1,600 acres of valuable land, and 
was one of the most extensive and practical farmers in Lawrence 
County. He erected one of the most extensive and expensive residences 
that the county has ever known. The house cost about $18,000. The 
subject of this memoir was three times married- — first, to Miss Rebecca 
Armstrong; second, to Miss Angeline Hammersly, and third, to Miss 
Rachel McDonald, a native of Daviess County, Indiana, and a niece of 
Judge David McDonald, of Indiana. Bj the second wife there was one 
child, viz.: Isaac, and as follows by the last wife: Cornelia, Zipporah, 
Richard G. and Bartemus L. The subject of this mention was an 
uncompromising Republican, and always manifested great interest in the 
success of that party. In 1868 Mr. Williams united with the Christian 
Church, in which he lived a consistent member until his death. He was 


one of the most public-spirited men of Lawrence County, and one of the 
most enterprising. He was extensively known as the poor man's friend. 
By his death, which took place in June, 1882, the county lost one of its 
best representative men, and his community a dear friend and neighbor. 
At the time of his death he was worth about $50,000. 

AMBROSE WILLIAMS (deceased) was born in 1840 in Indian Creek 
Township, Lawi-ence Co., Ind., son of Garret G. and Lucy (Kern) 
Williams, and was of English origin. When the twenty- first anniversary 
of the birth of Mr. Williams came round it found him doing battle in 
the world for himself. His marriage took place in 1862, to Miss Eliza 
Cox, also a native of Lawrence County. To this union were born six 
children, three of whom survive their father, viz. : Charles L., Eddie E. 
and Clay D. In 1861 Mr. Williams settled where Mrs. Williams now 
resides, and here he possessed 326 acres of land. He was a true Repub- 
lican and a member of the Christian Church. Mr. Williams was one of 
the noble men of his township and a greatly praised citizen. His death 
occurred in 1881. Mrs. Williams is in very comfortable circumstances 
and is a member of the Christian Church. 

MICHAEL E. WILLIAMS (deceased) was born in 1853, a native of 
Indian Creek Township, son of Dixon and Cynthia (Cox) Williams, and 
was of English extraction. The parents of Mr. Williams were among 
the early people of Lawrence County. Mr. Williams spent his early life 
in service for his father on the farm, and attending the district school. 
When about twenty- one years of age he was found doing the struggles of 
life for himself. He was married in 1881 to Miss Mary A. Boyd, a 
native of Pike County, 111., born in 1857, daughter of William E. and 
Martha Boyd. By occupation Mr. Williams was a prominent farmer. 
As a man he was truly honorable, and in point of charity and care for 
the afflicted, none in his township excelled him. He was energetic and 
of much public spirit. His death took place in 1882, at which time he 
possessed more than 300 acres of land. He was an earnest Republican, 
and for some years had taken part in local politics. His death was long 
mourned by a long line of relatives and numerous friends. Mrs. Will- 
iams still resides on the old homestead. She now has 212 acres of land, 
on which is a comfortable residence, which was erected in 1883. Mrs. 
Williams is a member of the Christian Church, and is a most amiable 
woman, while her husband was a man of sterling worth. 


ARI ARMSTRONG, pioneer, was born in Wayne County, Ind., 
November 4, 1814, son of John and Letitia (Dye) Armstrong; is the sixth 
in a family of thirteen children, and is of Scotch-German lineage. The 
father of Mr. Armstrong was born in the Old Penn Commonwealth in 
1776, and his mother in New Jersey. The paternal grandparent of Mr. 
Armstrong was James Armstrong, a native of Scotland, where the Arm- 
strong family is supposed to have originated. When the father of Mr. 
Armstrong was thirteen years of age, he came with his parents from 
Pennsylvania to Kentucky, where they remained until 1810, when they 



removed to the territory that now composes Wayne County, Ind., and 
there the family remained until 1815, when it came to the territory of 
which Lawrence County is now composed, and made settlement near the 
present site of the town of Mitchell, and there the family remained two 
years, and then came to what is now Perry Township, and a cabin was 
erected where Mr. Ari Armstrong's house now stands. Here his father 
died in 1866, and his mother in 1828. The father of Mr. Armstrong was 
one of the first white men to make settlement in Lawrence County. He 
was also a prominent man, and was extensively known for his upright- 
ness and integrity. He was formerly a member of the Baptist Church, 
but later in life united with the Christian Church. When the subject of 
this sketch had gained his years of majority, he took up the successes 
and reverses of life for himself. His first move was to borrow $300 of 
the Bedford Bank, and go to Cincinnati and invest it in Peacock plows, 
and bring his investment to Springville for sale. These were the first 
iron mold-board plows ever known in Perry Township, and consequently 
1834 marks the new era as far as plows are concerned in this township. 
The money which Mr. Armstrong borrowed was the first loaned from the 
Bedford Bank after its establishment. The marriage of Mr. xlrmstrong 
took place in 1835 to Miss Mary Short, a native of Pulaski County, Ky., 
but who came to Lawi-ence County in 1818. To this marriage were born 
twelve children, six of whom survive their mother, whose death occurred 
November, 1854. The subject of this sketch was married again in 1865 
to Mrs. Sarah A. Pitman, who was born in Lawrence County. To this 
union have been born seven children. Mr. Armstrong is one of the most 
extensive land-holders in the county, and now has 1,700 acres. For 
many years he has been dealing in stock, and is yet one of the leading 
stock-men of the country. Politically Mr. Armstrong is a Republican. 
Under the old law he was one of the Trustees of Perry Township for a 
number of years. In 1871 he was elected County Commissioner of Law- 
rence County, and as such he served two terms. He has been a member 
of the Christian Church for fifty-six years, and has been an officer in that 
church most of the time. For nearly seventy years Mr. Armstrong has 
been a resident of Lawrence County, and for a half century he has been 
one of its leading and successful men. 

FELIX ARMSTRONG, ex-Trustee and stock-dealer, is the eldest son 
of Ari and Polly (Short) Armstrong, born August 16, 1837, in Perry 
Township, Lawrence Co., Ind. The early life of Mr. Armstrong was 
spent in attending the common schools and assisting his father on 
the farm. When twenty-one years of age he began life for himself, and 
at the time went to Owensburg, and engaged in the mercantile business 
in partnership with Mr. Hatfield. This partnership lasted until the 
breaking out of the late war, when Mr. Armstrong was the third man to 
enlist in Jackson Township, Greene County. He was a member of Com- 
pany H, Fifteenth Indiana Volunteers. He was, after three months' 
service, honorably discharged at Indianapolis. About this time Mr. Arm- 
strong began trading and dealing in stock, which ho has since continued. 
As a trader he has been very successful. He owns 1,000 acres of good 
land. His improvements on the home farm are among the best to be 
found in Perry Township. The marriage of Mr. Armstrong took place 
in 1867, to Miss Sarah Rector, a native of Martin County, Ind. They 
have four living children, viz. : lona G., Schuyler C, Homer and Lulu. 
Mr. Armstrong has been a life-long Republican. In 1874 he was elected 


Trustee of Perry Township, re-elected in 1876, and re-elected again in 
1880. During his last administration he erected the Springville graded 
school building. Mr. and Mrs. Armsti-ong are members of the Christian 
Church. He is one of the leading men of Lawrence County and an 
honorable citizen. 

J. T. BEARD, Trustee-elect of Perry Township, was born in Harri- 
son County, Ind., May 6, 1829, son of Jesse and Charlotte Beard, whose 
maiden name was Bullock. The Beard family are of Scotch-Irish 
lineage and in America is first known in Kentacky, where the father of 
Mr. Beard was born, though his mother was of Georgian nativity. In 
1812 Mr. Beard's father came to Harrison County, Ind., or the territory 
that now composes that county. He was one of the early- day men of 
that section. His death took place there in 1880. The early life of our 
subject was passed in attending school and working for his father. 
After quitting his father he began boating, and for a number of years 
was engaged in shipping produce down the Ohio Kiver. The last boat- 
load was run in 1860. In 1864 Mr. Beard came to Lawrence County, 
and for a short time lived in Marshall Township, and then removed to 
where he now resides in Perry Township, near Springville. Here he 
has 120 acres of moderately well improved land, and for quite a number 
of years has been giving his attention to agriculture. The marriage of 
Mr. Beard took place in 1854, to Miss Nancy M. Wolfe, also a native of 
Harrison County, Ind. To this union the following children have been 
born: Ada, May (deceased), Clay, Frank (deceased), Otis (deceased), Effie 
and Olive. Mr. Beard is a Republican, and in 1878 was elected Trustee of 
Perry Township, and served one term to the satisfaction of his constit- 
uents, and was i-e-elected to the same office in April, 1884. Mr. and Mrs. 
Beard are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he is a 
Mason, having been conducted into the lodge by Postmaster- General 
Walter Q. Gresham. 

WILLIAM CULMER was born in the county of Kent, England, 
March 1, 1822, son of Stephen and Sarah (Woodruff) Culmer; is the 
fourth in a family of eleven children, and is of pure English lineage. 
When Mr. Culmer was about thirteen years of age he came with his 
parents to America and settled in Alleghany County, Penn. , where the 
family lived until 1852, when it emigrated to Lawrence County, Ind., 
and made settlement in Perry Township, and here the subject of this 
mention has since resided. By occupation Mr. Culmer is a farmer 
and stock-raiser. Formerly he gave most of his attention to farm- 
ing, but of late years has been more extensively engaged in stock- 
raising. He owns more than 400 acres of well improved land, and is one 
of the leading and successful men of Pei-ry Township. He has made his 
own way in life and through energy and economy has obtained a com- 
petence. The marriage of Mr. Culmer took place in 1846, to ^liss 
Susanna Catherwood, a native of Pittsburgh, Penn. To this union have 
been born the following children: John W., Charles C, George 
(deceased), Stephen, Eliza (deceased), Sarah E. , Fannie and William. 
Mr. Culmer has given much attention to the education of his children. 
Charles C. and Stephen are graduates of Asbury University and John 
W. of the State University at Bloomington. These sons are ministers in 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, of which church Mr, and Mrs. Culmer 
are members. Mr. Culmer is a Republican and has been Assessor of 
Perry Township. The family is well known and highly respected. 


THEODORE DAVIS, farmer, is a native of Perry Township, Law- 
rence Co., Ind. , born March 9, 1852, son of Jesse and Rachael (Dix) 
Davis, and is of English-Irish extraction. The father of Mr. Davis was 
born in Lawrence County, Ind., and his mother in Monroe County. His 
father died in Missouri in 1880. The paternal grandfather and bene- 
factor and best friend of the subject of this biography, was Reuben Davis, 
a native of North Carolina, and who came to Lawrence County in its 
primitive days. He was a member of the Friends' Church, and meetings 
were often held at the house of this old pioneer. He was a Republican, 
and one of the true and honorable men of this county. His death, which 
occurred in 1880, is yet deeply mourned by his grandson. The wife of 
this venerable old gentleman, who is known as Aunt Hannah, still sur- 
vives her husband, and is in her eighty-ninth year. The great-grand- 
father of the subject of this memoir was Jesse Davis. The Davis family 
is, in a distant way, connected to William Penn, the famous old Quaker 
of Pennsylvania. Mr. Davis has in his possession a pair of sleeve but- 
tons that were once worn by Penn. When Mr. Davis had reached the 
sixteenth anniversary of his birth, he began life for himself, and for 
some time labored on the farm by the month, and then began carpenter- 
ing, at which he continued for some time, and then began farming. 
Through energy and a will for industry, Mr. Davis has made a comfort- 
able home. He now owns 220 acres of well improved land. Mr. Davis 
was married, in 1880, to Miss Lizzie J. McConnell, a native of Ohio. 
They have children as follows: Simeon and Jessie L. IVlr. Davis is a 
thorough Republican, and one of the leading and most enterprising young 
men of Lawrence County. Mrs. Davis is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

JOHN M. GrAINEY, Township Trustee and general merchant, is the 
son of Wesley and Sarah (Barker) Gainey, born in Taylor Township, 
Greene Co., Ind., August 2, 1846, and is of Scotch- English lineage. The 
early life of Mr. Gainey was spent in attending school. In his sixteenth 
year he enlisted in the United States Army, in Company D, Fourteenth 
Indiana Volunteers, and after taking part in the battles of Petersburg, 
second Bull Run, Winchester, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania and Cold Harbor, he was honorably discharged 
March 7, 1865, in front of Petersburg, Va. The father of Mr. Gainey, 
who was a native of Lawrence County, Ind., was also a soldier in the late 
war, and was wounded at the battle of the Wilderness. He was one of 
the early-day men of Lawrence County; liis death took place in 1880. 
After this service in his country's cause the subject of this sketch engaged 
as a clerk in a dry goods store in Bedford. Either as a clerk or in the 
mercantile business Mr. Gainey has been engaged since the time of the 
war, save two years that he served as Deputy Auditor of Lawrence County. 
In 1873 he began business in Springville, at which he still continues. 
He has a general store, and has a capital of $3,000 invested. Mr. Gainey 
has one of the most complete stocks of goods in Springville, and one of 
the best selected. Politically he is an ultra Republican, and always has 
been. His first Presidential vote was cast for U. S. Grant. In 1882 he 
was elected Trustee of Perry Township. During his administration he 
increased teachers' wages, and lengthened the term of schools. Mr. 
Gainey believes in compulsory education, and is an advocate of the 
greatest possible advancement in an educational point of view. He was 
married, in 1867, to Miss Kate E. Woodward, a native of Springville. 


Mrs. Gainey is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and Mr. 
Gainey is a member of the I. O. O. F., and one of the enterprising men 
of Lawrence County. 

JOHN A. GUNN is a native of the village of Springville, this county, 
born May 5, 1859, son of Dr. J. H. and Lulu (Gainey) Gunn, and is the 
second in a family of eight children, and is of Anglo-French origin. His 
early education was secured at the public schools of his native town, but 
later he spent live years at Hanover College and the Universities of 
Asbury and Notre Dame, at the conclusion of which he returned to Spring- 
ville and engaged in stock-dealing. He now owns a fine farm of 600 
acres, a large portion of which is blue-grass pasture. Politically Mr. 
Gunn is a stanch Democrat, and cast his first Presidential ballot for 
Gen. Hancock. Since his twentieth year he has taken a hand in the 
uncertain game of politics, and is one of the most active of his party in 
the county. In 1882 he was nominated over four older competitors for 
the office of County Sheriff. He was defeated by fifty-three votes only, 
while the Republican majority on the State ticket in the county was 538. 
Of the ten townships he carried seven, an attestation of his popularity 
and confessed honor. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and his 
life, well begun, is before him. 

WILLIAM H. HAMMONDS was born in Lincoln County, Ky., July 
4, 1829, son of Joseph and Fannie (Pendlay) Hammonds; is the second 
in a family of four children and is of Irish extraction. The parents of 
Mr. Hammonds were born in Virginia. His paternal grandfather was 
Absalom Hammonds, a supposed native of Ireland. When Mr. Hammonds 
was sixteen years of age he came to Lawrence County, Ind. , and made set- 
tlement in Perry Township. In 1852 he was married to Miss Melinda 
Fields, a native of Lawrence County. Mrs. Hammonds died in 1877, and 
the same year our subject was married to Miss Elizabeth J. Pierce, 
a native of Indian Creek Township, born 1857. They have two children, 
viz.: William W. and Elizabeth E. In 1861 Mr. Hammonds enlisted 
in the United States Army. He was at Ft. Pillow, and was afterward 
with Commodore Foote's gun-boat fleet. After a continued army life of 
thirty-seven months he was honorably discharged at Camp Distribution, 
Virginia, in 1864. He is a Democrat, and has resided where he now 
lives since he returned from the army. While serving his country he 
lost his health. Mr. and Mrs. Hammonds are members of the Christian 

JACOB HOLMES, old pioneer, was born in Floyd County, Ind., 
July 24, 1813, son of Martin and Elizabeth (Young) Holmes ; is the eldest 
in a family of nine children, and is of English-Irish and Dutch origin. 
The father of Mr. Holmes was born in Virginia, and his mother in Mary- 
land. In 1811 his father came to the territory that now composes Indiana 
and settled in what is now Floyd Couaty, and here his marriage took 
place. In 1820 he removed to Greene County and there remained three 
years, and in 1823 the family made settlement in Perry Township, Law- 
rence Co., and here the father of Mr. Holmes lived until 1833, when he 
was accidentally killed by a falling tree. He was (me of the pioneers of 
Indiaua and a prominent man. At the age of twenty Mr. Holmes began 
life for himself. He went to New Albany and for a time worked upon a 
brick-yard, and then went to New Orleans and there remained a short 
time, and then returned to New Albany and engaged in running a flat- 
boat on the Ohio River, which he continued for a number of years. His 


marriage took place in 1842 to Miss Clemeatine Riddle, a native of the 
Hoosier State. To this marriage were born ten children, four of whom 
are still living. Mrs. Holmes died in 1862, and two years later Mr. 
Holmes was united in marriage to Mrs. Elizabeth Carson, whose maiden 
name was Dis. To this union were born five children, three of whom are 
living. In 1842 Mr. Holmes settled where he now and has ever since 
resided. Here he has 220 acres of moderately well improved land. As 
a farmer, he has been successful. He cast his first Presidential vote for 
Harrison, and is now a Republican. His eldest son (Paris G. ) was a 
soldier in the late war and, July 3, 1862, he died of illness contracted while 
doing his country service. Mr. and Mrs. Holmes are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

LYNDEN LOWDER was born in Orange County, Ind., December 
23, 1816, son of Ralph and Achsa (Hodson) Lowder; is the eldest 
in a family of seven children and is of Scotch-English extraction. The 
parents of our subject were of North Carolina nativity, and came 
to Orange County, Ind., in 1815, and there they resided one year 
and then came to what is now Lawrence County, and settled in the terri- 
tory that now composes the Township of Perry, and there the father of 
Mr. Lowder died in 1875. This was one of the first families that came 
to this part of the county. When the subject of this mention was in 
his sixteenth year, while out hunting one autumn day, near where he 
now lives, came upon, and killed a huge black bear. One shot from the 
rifle of Mr. Lowder brought the bear down, and when dressed, weighed 
three hundred and twenty pounds. Mr. Lowder sold one-half of old 
bruin at 15 cents per pound, and its hide at $6. This was one of the 
last bears that was killed in Perry Township, as well as one of the 
largest. The twenty- first year of our subject found him doing 
life's battle for himself, and for some time he did farm work 
by the month. His marriage took place in 1840, to Miss Mai'y H. Short, 
a native of Lawrence County, Ind. To this union were born nine 
children, and those that are living are as follows: Mary, Mai'tha, 
Lindsey, James, Nettie J., Sallie and Allen. In 1841 Mr. Lowder 
settled where he now lives, and owns 200 acres of well improved land. 
This farm he cleared from the green. He is a stanch supporter of the 
Republican party and cast his first Presidential ballot for Harrison. Mr. 
Lowder had two sons in the late war. Mr. and Mrs. Lowder are mem- 
bers of the Christian Church. 

WILLIAM LEMON PEARSON (deceased) was born in Perry Town- 
ship, Lawrence Co. Ind., January 31, 1832, son of Eliphalet 
and Amelia Ann (Lemon) Pearson and is of English extraction. The 
father of Mr. Pearson came from Boston, Mass., at a very early day and 
made settlement at Jefi'ersonville, Ind., where he remained a short time 
and then removed to Lawrence County and settled in Perry Town- 
ship. He was one of the pioneer men of this township, and one of the 
early-day merchants of Springville. The early life of the subject of this 
mention was spent in clerking in his father's store and at work on 
the farm. The battle of life began with him at twenty-one years. 
He was married April 21, 1859, to Miss Amanda J. Moore, a native 
of Lawrence County, born March 27, 1838, daughter of Uriah and 
Amanda Moore. To this union were born sis children, viz.: Emma, 
Edward E., Charles E., Eliphalet, Edith and William A. (deceased). 
In 1864 Mr. Pearson settled where Mrs. Pearson now resides. Bv occu- 


pation he was a farmer and stock-raiser, and at the time of his death, 
which occurred in 1875, he possessed eight hundred and sixty acres 
of land. He was a Kepublican, and for twelve years served as Justice of 
the Peace iu Perry Township. He was a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, a leading citizen and one of Perry Township's 
eminent men. Mrs. Pearson is one of the prominent women of her 
neighborhood and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

AVILLIAM PRESTON (deceased) was one of the old settlers of 
Lawrence County, a native of Kentucky, and born in 1792. In 1826 he 
emigrated from his native State to Lawrence County and began improv- 
ing a farm in Perry Township. He was a soldier in 1812, and was at 
the battle of New Orleans. His marriage occurred about 1816 to Miss 
Elizabeth Baker, a native of North Carolina. Of the eleven children 
born to them, only four survive: Mary, William, Elizabeth and John. 
Mrs. Preston died in 1845 and Mr. Preston in 1881. He was a Repub- 
lican. In early life he united with the Baptist Church, but later he 
joined the Christian Church, of which he was a member at the time of 
his death. He was a good man and an honorable citizen. Since the 
death of Mr. Preston, the old homestead has been owned and managed 
in common by the four children. They now have more than 300 acres 
of well improved land and have been successful. The sons are energetic 
farmers, and for some years have been giving attention to raising line 
stock. They are Republicans and upright men. 

J. M. ROBERTS is the second in a family of eight children, born to 
Stephen and Mary C. (Buchanan) Roberts, and is of Irish origin. The 
father of Mr. Roberts was by birth a Kentuckian, but when quite young 
was brought to Lawrence County, Ind., where he died in 1854. When 
our subject gained his majority, he assumed the duties of life for him- 
self, and at once began farming and dealing in stock, at which he has 
since continued. By industry, energy and economy he has been highly 
successful in life. He now owns 530 acres of choice land, 300 of which 
are devoted to pasture or grazing. In 1859 Mr. Roberts was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Lizzie Strain of Ohio nativity. To this union have been 
born the following children: Ella A., Emma, Martha, Joseph and Luna. 
For nineteen years Mr. Roberts has resided where he now lives, and in 
the home farm are 404 acres of good land, on which is a good house 
and good improvements. In politics the subject of this sketch is a 
Republican, but cast his first Presidential ballot for Stephen A. Douglas. 
Mr. and Mrs. Roberts are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, he having been a member of that church for twenty-five years. 

OWENS SHORT was born in this county March 14, 1818; son of 
Wesley and Rebecca (Owens) Short; is the seventh in a family of nine 
children, and is of Welsh-English extraction. The father of Mr, Short 
was born in Virginia, December 20, 1780, and his mother in the same 
State September 15, 1782. His paternal grandfather was John Short, 
also a native of Virginia, born February 15, 1756. In 1817 the father 
of Mr. Short came to Indiana, and for a time remained in Washington 
County, but early in 1818 he made settlement in Lawrence County. His 
death took place September 16, 1852, and was followed September 29, 
1858, by his wife. The early life of the subject of this sketch was spent 
in farming and attending school. In 1840 Mr. Short had made so much 
advancement that he taught a district school. In all, he has now taught 
sixteen terms. He has extended his education so that he is considered 


one of the best scholars and read men in his neighborhood. He attended 
the State University at Bloomington some time, and but for ill health, 
would have graduated. He was married August 6, 1850, to Miss Mary 
E. Lancaster, a native of Boone County, Ky., born September 18, 1827, 
and who, in 1846, came with her parents to Greene County, Ind. This 
union had the following children: Flora I., 1855; Victoria, 1857; Emma 
E., 1859; Ulysses G., 1868. The last named deceased in 1875. The 
other children (three) died in infancy. In 1850 Mr. Short settled 
where he now resides. Here he has a farm consisting of 450 acres, on 
land where the first house of Perry Township was erected. At the early 
age of fifteen years Mr. Short united with the Christian Church, of which 
he has ever since been a member, and for twenty years he has been a 
local preacher in that denomination. Mrs. Short has been a member of 
the same church for thirty-four years. She is a most amiable, Christian 
lady. He is an earnest Republican, and a highly respected and honora- 
ble citizen. 

ALFORD STORM, old settler, is a native of Jackson County, Ind., 
born December 18, 1817; son of Isaac and Susanna (Lunsford) Storm; 
is the seventh in a family of twelve children, and came of Dutch-Eng- 
lish blood. The parents of Mr. Storm were born in Virgina. His pater- 
nal grandfather was Peter Storm, a native of Germany, but came to 
America prior to the Revolutionary war. The parents of Mr. Storm 
came to the Territory of Indiana before it was admitted into the Union 
as a State, and made settlement in what was known as Clark's Grant, and 
then removed to Jackson County and there remained a short time, 
and then came to Monroe County, and then removed to Greene County 
and made settlement in Indian Creek. The father of Mr. Storm died in 
1862, and his mother the same year. In 1835 Alford was married to Miss 
Frances Holmes, a native of the Hoosier State. To this union was born 
one child, viz.: William Lowrey Lunsford. Mrs. Storm died in 1836. 
Mr. Storm was married again in 1838, to Miss Jane Herron, a native of 
Kentucky, by whom he had seven children. Mrs. Storm died in 1857, 
and the same year Mr. Storm was united in marriage to Mrs. Orpha 
Keck, whose maiden name was Kutch. To this union were born three 
children. Mr. Storm is one of the early-day men of Indiana, and for 
almost half a century he has farmed where he now resides. He is a 
Republican. Mr. Storm had seven sons and three sons-in-law in the late 
Civil war. One of the sons died while in the service, and was buried 
in Southern soil, but after twenty-one days his remains were disinterred 
and brought home and now repose beside their mother. 

PROF. E. F. SUTHERLAND, general merchant, is a native of 
Monroe County, Ind. ; born near the village of Harrodsburg, December 
28, 1852, is the eldest son living of F. B. and Elizabeth Sutherland, 
whose maiden name was Sellers. The subject of this biography is of 
English, Irish and Scotch extraction. The father of Mr. Sutherland was 
born in Ashe County, N. C, March 7, 1821, and his mother in Laurel 
County, Ky., September 24, 1823. His paternal grandfather was Joseph 
Sutherland, a native of Grayson County, Va. ; born 1790. His great- 
grandfather was Alexander Sutherland, of Scottish nativity, and who 
came to America prior to the Revolutionary war, in which he was a sold- 
ier, and was at the battle of Bunker Hill. The great -great-grandfather 
of the subject of this sketch was Grand Duke of Scotland. In the pio- 
neer days of Indiana the Sutherland family came to Monroe County, and 


there remained until our subject was about twelve years of age, when he 
removed to Perry Township, Lawrence County, and the major part of 
Mr. Sutherland's life has here been speot. His early life was devoted to 
the service of his father and in attendance at the country school. Mr. 
Sutherland had so far advanced with his studies by the fall and winter 
of 1872-73, that he was capable of teaching school, and during this time 
he tausfht his first term. During the summer of 1878 he attended the 
Bedfoi'd Male and Female College, and in the spring of 1874 he entered 
the Northern Indiana Normal School, at Valparaiso. In 1879 he gradu- 
ated from that institution. Immediately after his graduation he accepted 
a position in the Southern Indiana Normal School, atPaoli, and in 1880 
he became Superintendent of this school and as such, remained for three 
years and then resigned his position to engage in the mercantile business 
in Springfield, Ind., in which he still continues. During the winter of 
1883-84, however, *he superintended the public schools at Orleans, Orange 
County, Ind. The mercantile business has been a success. He has 
invested about $3,000 and adopted the cash system. The marriage of 
Mr. Sutherland took place August 19, 1877, to Miss Emma Pearson, a 
native of Lawrence County, Ind., daughter of William L. and Amanda 
J. Pearson. To this union have been born: Lola M. and Eugene F. 
Mr. Sutherland is a stanch Republican, and cast his first Presidential 
ballot for U. S. Grant. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. Mr. and 
Mrs. Sutherland are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

LORENZO DOW VOSS, Justice of the Peace, is the youngest of 
six sons born to Clement and Mary Voss, whose maiden name was Brit- 
ton. The birth of Mr. Voss occurred May 27, 1818, in Lee County, 
Va. His father was born in Delaware, and his mother was of North 
Carolina nativity. This family is of German- Welsh lineage. In 181(5 
his parents emigrated from North Carolina to Virginia, where they 
remained a short time, and then removed to Granger County, Tenn., 
and there the family lived until 1833, when they removed to Monroe 
County, Ind. His father died in 1862 in Owen County. In 1839 the 
subject of this brief sketch came to Lawrence County and settled in 
Springville, and immediately engaged in cabinet-making, at which he 
continued until 1856, when he removed to his present place of residence, 
one mile and a half south-east of the town, which was so named because of 
its numerous springs. Mr. Voss was in 1841 united in marriage to Miss 
Elvira Wilson, a native of North Carolina, daughter of James and Mary 
Wilson, whose maiden name was Campbell. When Mrs. Voss was about 
fourteen years of age she came with her parents to Owen County, Ind., and 
this union was blessed with twelve children, and those that are living are 
as follows: Badora A., Esther B., Amon C, Ellington T., William E., 
Arthur C, Emery B. and Lorenzo C. By occupation our subject is a 
farmer and stock-raiser. He now owns 200 acres of fairly well im- 
proved land. Mr. Voss is an earnest Republican, and cast his first 
Presidential vote for Harrison. In 1870 he was elected Justice of 
the Peace for Perry Township, was re-elected in 1878, and 1884 was 
re-elected again. In 1883 he held the same office by appointment. He 
was in the Quartermaster's service during the late war for fifteen mouths. 
Mr. and Mrs. Voss are leading members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and are among the prominent people of Lawrence County. 



ANDERSON BODENHAMER. Among the old pioneers of Law- 
rence CouQty was AVilliam Bodenhamer, a native of North Carolina, who 
settled in Indiaaa with his father when the State was yet new, when it 
required energy and fortitude to encounter the innumerable hardships of 
the day. He married Margaret Mason, a native of the Blue Grass State, 
and their union was blessed with the following named children: Anderson, 
Huldah, Lafayette, Mahala, Nancy Ann, John S., Phebe M., William H. 
H., James M. and Andrew C The first-named of these is the subject of 
this sketch. Born in Lawrence County, Ind., June 29, 1830, his early 
life was spent in such pioneer pursuits as were common for the boy of 
that day. February 26, 1852, he wedded Miss Sophia A., daughter of 
Edward and Polly Ann (Rice) Kern, by whom he is the father of seven 
children: Mary Ann, Margaret J., William J., Clara I., Theodore, Cora 
Delight and Schuyler K. Mr. Bodenhamer is a successful farmer, own- 
ing 159 acres of good land, is a Republican politically, and he and wife 
are members of the Christian Church. 

ANDREW J. CLARK, a progressive farmer and large land owner of 
Pleasant Run Township, was born May 30, 1844, in Lawrence County, 
Ind., and is the second son in a family of nine children born to James 
and Mary (Helton) Clark, who were natives of Kentucky and Indiana 
respectively. Andrew J. secured only a common school education and 
when rebellion was threatening to overthrow our country, he went to the 
front and although yet a boy did effective service in his country's cause 
as a member of Company G, Fiftieth Regiment Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry. Early in 1861 was the date of his enlistment, and January 7, 
1865, the date of his discharge. Mr. Clark has followed agricultural 
pursuits through life and by industry and good management has secured 
515 acres of good land. As a Democrat in politics, he has served his 
township as Assessor with credit, and in matters of a laudable public 
character he is ever ready to lend a helping hand. July 27, 1865, he 
was married to Miss Mary A. Kinser, who was born December 15, 1842, 
to Hezekiah and Mary (Hellenberg) Kinser, and by her is the father of 
this family: Dawson L., David M., Dalton N., Dorothj O., Dora P., 
Daisy Q. (deceased), Dilesta R. and Dilland S. 

DAVID CUMMINGS, a native of the county in which he yet resides, 
was born November 20, 1823, a son of Malakiah and Susan (McBride) 
Cummings, who were natives respectively of Virginia and Tennessee and 
old pioneers of this county, their advent within the State's borders being 
in the year 1815. David was reared amidst the pioneer scenes of his 
native township, remaining with his parents until he attained majority. 
Elizabeth, daughter of Moses and Mary (McPike) Faubion became his 
wife October 13, 1842, and to their union twelve children have been 
born, named: Nancy C, James W., one that died in infancy unnamed, 
Dinah M., Mary M., Susan E., Enoch J., Lottie (deceased), Jackson W., 
Kittie L., George M. and David S. James W. was one of Lawrence 
County's heroes, who went to battle for the Union during the late war. 


He was captured and died a death of great suffering at Andersonville. 
Mr. Cummiags is a successful farmer, the owner of 150 acres of land, a 
Deraocrat in politics and both he and wife are honored members of the 
Christian Church. 

DA'VID G. DOUGLASS was born in Chautauqua County, N. Y., 
December 4, 1827, the oldest son of Joel and Mahala (Green) Douglass, 
who were natives of Vermont and honest and industrious people At 
eleven years of age he became a resident of the Hoosier State which has 
been his home, largely, ever since. February 19, .1849, his marriage with 
Miss Catharine, daughter of James and Celia (Bales) Helton was solem- 
nized, and to their union this family has been born: James W. , George W., 
one that died in infancy unnamed, Sarah C, Clovis O. (deceased), A. B., 
Stephen A. (deceased), William L., Mary E., Grant and Eler. Mr. 
Douglass began life a poor boy, but by dilligence and economy has 
secured a creditable farm of 238 acres, besides a saw-mill and corn-mill. 
He is a Kepubliban in politics, and he and wife belong to the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. 

ROBERT H. ELLISON was born in Bono Township, this county, 
April 4, 1839, and is one of the following four children, yet living, born 
to James and Polly (Hamilton) Ellison: James H, Robert H. , Elizabeth 
J. and Mary A. The parents were natives of Kentucky, from whence 
they emigrated to what is now Washington County, Ind. , in the year 
1809. and from there removed to the birthplace of our subject about 
eleven years later. Robert H. resided with his parents until his mar- 
riage December 9, 1862, with Miss Nancy, daughter of Benjamin and 
Eupha (White) Newkirk, after which he engaged in farming and rearing 
stock for himself. By industry he has secured a comfortable home and 
a farm of 305 acres of good land, besides other property. Mr. Ellison 
is a member of the I. O. O. F. and Masonic fraternities; is a Democrat 
in politics, and has served the citizens of Pleasant Run Township three 
terms as Trustee, with credit and satisfaction. Mrs. Ellison is a mem- 
ber of the Missionary Baptist Church; is a native of Indiana as were also 
her parents, and is one of the following named family of two childi'en 
that are yet living: David and Nancy. By Mr. Ellison she has had three 
children, named: Polly A., Elnora and Oscar B. 

WILLIAM T. ELLISON, M. D., is the third son of eleven children of 
James H. and Mary A. (Breckenridge) Ellison, and was born August 16, 
1849, in the county where he now resides. His father was born in 
Washington County, Ind., in the year 1819, and his mother was a native 
of Kentucky. William T. Ellison secured a good practical education in 
youth, and remained with his parents until the death of his father, in 
about 1867. At that age he began the study of medicine with Dr. May, 
with whom he remained for some time, and then graduated at the Bel- 
view Medical College with distinction. ' He erabai-ked in the practice of 
his profession in the State of Illinois, but two years later located at Hel- 
tonville, where he has established a comfortable business which is stead- 
ily increasing. February 4, 1879, he was married to Miss Cora E. 
Houston, by whom he became the father of one son — Spencer — that died 
eight days after birth. Mrs. Ellison is a member of the Christian 
Church. Dr. Ellison is one of Lawrence County's progressive men; is 
a Democrat in politics and an able physician. 

JOHN H. FAUBION, a descendanc of one of Lawrence County's 
pioneer families, is the youngest of three children — William, Mary J. and 


John H. — born to the marriage of Henry and Elizabeth (Lenox) Faubion, 
who were natives respectively of Tennessee and South Carolina, immigrat- 
ing to Lawrence County, Ind. , in 1827, where each passed the remainder 
of their days. John H. was born in Pleasant Run Township December 
19, 1832, and in youth secured such education as the limited means of 
that early day afforded. He selected farming as his vocation through 
life, and by economy and industry has secured 236 acres of good land. 
October 9, 1856, he was united in wedlock with Miss Frances A. Thomp- 
son, who was born January 14, 1838, a daughter of Eli and C. A. 
(Palmer) Thompson, and by her is the father of six children, named 
William W., James M., Mary J., Louisa C, Elnora and Florence E. In 
politics Mr. Faubion adheres to the principles of the National Green- 
back party, and he and wife belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

J. C. FOSTER was born March 12, 1822, in Clark County, Ind., 
and is one of six children: John W., Josiah C. , James P., E. C, Craven, 
T. and Louis M. , born to Samuel and Mary (Craig) Foster, who emi- 
grated' to Indiana in 1818. Samuel Foster was a soldier of the war of 
1812. Josiah C. secured a fair education from the common schools, and 
remained at home until the breaking out of the war with Mexico, when 
he became a Second Lieutenant in Company F, Second Regiment of 
Indiana Infantry. He was honorably discharged at New Orleans on the 
expiration of his term of service, and returning home was married to 
Miss Phetna M. Holland, daughter of William and Phetna (Duncan) 
Holland, August 18, 1847. Nine children have blessed this union as 
follows: Mary, Laura J., Cora N., Arabella, Lizzie, Charlotte, L. E., 
Adda and George M. Soon after marriage Mr. Foster engaged in mer- 
chandising at Heltonville, where he still continues; also attending to a 
farm of 425 acres adjoining Heltonville. In all he owns 725 acres of 
land. In politics he is a Democrat, is a member of the Masonic frater- 
nity and of the Christian Church. Mrs. Foster belongs to the United 
Presbyterian Church. 

STEPHEN FOUNTAIN, a son of Stephen and Mary (Clark) Fount- 
ain who emigrated from their native State, North Carolina, to Lawrence 
County, Ind., in 1826, where they are yet living, was here born Septem- 
ber 1, 1833, and was reared and educated in his native county. Selecting 
farming as his vocation through life he has eminently made it a success, 
now owning and overseeing 1,100 acres of Pleasant Run Township's best 
land, upon which he rears large quantities of stock, taking especial pains 
in the cultivation of pure Cotswold and Lincoln sheep, Mr. Fountain 
deserves much praise for the interest and active part he has taken in the 
advancement of the stock interests of Lawrence County. As citizen of 
the county he is well posted and intelligent, is a Democrat in politics 
and he and wife belong to the Christian Church. His wife was formerly 
Miss Elizabeth Speer, a daughter of A. and D. (Kerby) Speer, and to 
his union with her nine children have been born, as follows: Andrew S., 
Mary, James W., Emma J. (deceased), Jessie, Jason C, Laura, Ida I. 
and Belle. 

PLEASANT M. HELTON, a native of Hawkins County, Tenn.. was 
born December 25, 1816, and is the oldest son of Adam A. and Polly 
Helton, who immigrated to the Hoosier State the fall of 1822, finding 
homes in Pleasant Run Township. His mother, Polly Helton, was a 
physician, and for eleven years practiced medicine and midwifery exten- 
sively over a wide scope of country. This lady is yet living at the 


advanced age of eighty- nine years, and is the grandmother of 128 per- 
sons. Pleasant M. Helton was raised to manhood on the farm of his 
parents, receiving such educational advantages as the schools of that early 
day aiforded. Miss Milly Julian was his first wife, and this lady dying 
he married Mrs. Kebecca (Hanna) Cain, a widow lady, by whom he is 
the father of five children, named Alfred, George R., Mary A., Joseph 
T. and Pleasant P. Mr. Helton has made farming his life occupation 
and is the owner of a farm containing 120 acres. In politics he is a 
Democrat and is one of the popular men of his township. 

GEORGE W. HUDSON, a native of Rowan County, Tenn., is one 
of Lawrence County's old pioneers, emigrating with his parents to Indi- 
ana when only eight years old, and locating at Fort Ritner, in this 
county, where he was raised to manhood. Like his father before him, 
he has always followed agricultural pursuits, and by hard work and 
economy has earned a good farm of 458 acres, where he lives, and 320 
acres in Iowa. Mr. Hudson was born August 15, 1820, and is a son of 
Washington and Barbara (Hunt) Hudson, who were parents of these 
children: Mary, John, William, Nancy C, George W., Jane, Caroline 
Elizabeth and Reuben. His marriage with Miss Margaret, daughter of 
Jacob and Hannah (Todd) Woolery, was solemnized January 1, 1845, 
and to them this family have been born: Mary E., John W., Hannah J., 
Thomas J., Nancy L., Sallie E., Reuben W., George W. and Mattie. 
Mr. Hudson is a Republican in politics, a member of the Masonic broth- 
erhood, and he and wife belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
The parents of Mrs. Hudson came to Indiana in the year 1818, and her 
grandfather, who was a native of Holland, settled in Pennsylvania. Mr. 
Hudson is of Irish and English descent. 

ANDREW LIVELY. The parents of the subject of this sketch, 
David and Catharine (Arwine) Lively, were natives of Virginia and Ten- 
nessee respectively. They came to Indiana in the year 1826, when wild 
game of various kinds was abundant, and when life was one continuous 
round of hard work and self sacrifice. In 1840 they moved to Lawrence 
County, which has since been the home of the family. Andrew Lively 
was born October 25, 1833, in Brown Covinty, this State; remained at 
home assisting his father until of age, and September 25, 1856, married 
Sarah Ann, daughter of Alexander and Catharine (Ramsey) East, by 
whom he is the father of nine children, as follows: William Marion, 
Henry Bateman, David Alexander, Clara Catharine, a ch