From the Earliest Settlements to the Present Time
Including much Valuable Information for the use of
James J. Hauser.
Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1901.
By JAMES J. HAUSER,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.
All rights reserv^ed.
CHAPTER I. — Treaties with the Indians. First purchase of land from
the Indians. Second and third purchases. Walking purchase.
William Markham, William Penn, James Steel, Edward Mar-
shall, James Yeates, Solomon Jennings, Timothy Smith, John
Chapman, Maughanghein. ii
CHAPTER II. — The first white men, traders, Seneca Indians, Delaware
CHAPTER III — Indian raids. Braddock's defeat. Pontiac. Massacre
of Gnadenhutten. Whitehall Massacres. John J. Mickley, Hans
Snyder, Zachary, J. N. Wethehold^ Margaret Frantz, Deschler's
Fort. ' 16
CHAPTER IV.— The First White Settlers. Germany. Switzerland.
Henry Harbough. Holidays. 21
CHAPTER V. Flying Camp. Wagon brigade. General Hospital.
Bethlehem. Allentown. Friess Rebellion. W^ar of 1812. Civil
War 1 86 1 to 1865. Spanish American War. 26
CHAPTER VI. — Internal Improvements, Canal, Railroads, Furnaces,
Factories, Founderies. 33
CHAPTER VII.— First Schools, Dillingersville, Emaus; Egypt, Centre-
ville, New Tripoli, Allentown, Balliettsville, Free School
CH.\PTER VIII — Soil, animals, mountain and hills, rivers and creeks,
botany, trees. Religious denomipiation. 36
CHAPTER IX — Geography of the Township. Population, soil, indus-
tries, villages. Old landmarks. Education. 38
CHAPTER X. — Countyseat and Boroughs. Industries, newspapers,
education, denominations, history. 50
CHAPTER XI.— Duties of the County Officers, Township OflBcers, Bor-
ough and City Officers. 57
CHAPTER XII— Civil list.- Members of Congress, State Senators,
Members of House of Representatives, Judges, Associate Judges,
County Superintendents of Schools, Allentown City Superinten-
dents of Schools, Sheriffs, Prothonotaries, Recorders of Deeds,
Registers of Wills, Clerks of Court of Quarter Sessions, Clerks
of Orphans' Court, Coroners, Treasurers, Surveyors, Commis-
sioners, Clerks of the County Commissioners, Auditors, District
Attorneys, Justices of the Peace. 63
CHAPTER XIII,— List of §oldiers furnished by Lehigh County. French
and Indian War. Revolutionary War. Warofi8i2. Mexican
War. Civil War. Hispanio-American War. 70
CHAPTER XIV.— Post Offices, Attorneys, Physicians, Eminent Divines
Teachers, Population of Pennsylvania, Lehigh County, Gover-
nors of Pennsylvania, Township Populations. no
CHAPTER XV.— Early Churches and Settlers. 106
School Statistics for 1901. 117
Population from 1820 to 1900. 118
Governors of Pennsylvania from 1790 to 1903. 119
Valuation of Lehigh County. 120
Lehigh County's Debt. Lehigh County as a Manufacturing
It is both interesting and instructive to study the history of our fathers,
to fully understand through what difficulties, obstacles, toils and trials they went
to plant settlements which struggled up to a position of wealth and prosperity.
These accounts of our county have been written so as to bring before
every youth and citizen of our count)-, an account of the growth of the popula-
tion, its resources, the upbuilding of the institutions that give character and sta-
bility to the county.
It has been made as concise as possible, and everything which was thought
to be of any value to the youth and citizen, has been presented as best as it could
be under the circumstances with the hope that by perusing its pages, many facts
of interest can be gathered that will be of use in future years.
Hoping that any shortcomings of the work will be kindly overlooked by
a generous public.
It is now presented to the public for its careful perusal and w^e hope that
the youth of our county will be benefitted thereby, and that the teachers of our
public schools will find nmch valuable aid which the author has tried to gather
w-hile engaged in the schoolroom, and that b}- perusing its pages the grand prin-
ciple of patriotism and love of country will be instilled into the minds of our
In preparing this work I acknowledge the assistance of aid given by
Profs. Alvin Rupp, the County Superintendent of Schools, J. O. Knauss, of the
Department of Public Instruction, Mr. Clinton A. Mohr of the Emaus Times,
Mr. Steltz and others.
This volume is now dedicated to the teachers, pupils and fellow citizens
of Lehigh County, Pennsylvania.
Emaus, Penna., May ii, 1901. J. J. Hauser.
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION.
This new edition has been thoroughly revised and largely rewritten.
Every effort has been made to profit by the suggestions and friendly criticisms of
many friends, to all of whom the author is greatly indebted.
Great pains have been taken to correct all errors in statements of fact,
dates and references. The aim of this work is to give the main facts of the his-
tory of our County, clearly, accurately and impartially. To give the people a
short but concise record of all that is of interest to the general public.
The author acknowledges the valuable aid and suggestions in the revision
of this work to Rev. Dr. A. R. Home, Supt. Alvin Rupp, Hons. J. F. Moyer, J.
W. Mayne, Harry G. Stiles, Mr. David Miller of The Morning Call, Mr. Daniel
F. Leiby and others. JamEvS J. Hauser.
Ai,i,ENTOWN, Pa., May i, 1902.
TREATIES WITH THE INDIANS.
LEHIGH COUNTY embraces the beautiful Kittatinny Valley, lying between
the Lehigh or South Mountains on the South and Blue Mountains on the
north. It is dotted with thriving towns and villages, fertile fields, running
streams of water flowing through every part of the valley, making the soil very
productive, also part of the beautiful and romantic Lehigh Valley stretching
along the Lehigh River, and the fertile Saucon Valley south of the Lehigh or
South Mountains. The advent of the white settler and his adventures with the
Indians are full of incidents and hairbreadth escapes, showing at a glance that
our forefathers had to undergo the same trials and cares as his western friend had
in building up the country. The Aborigines or Indians, living in what is now
Lehigh County, where the Minsies or Delaware tribe of Indians, who were the
owners of our beautiful Lehigh County. It was undoubtedly included in the
second purchase of land from the Indians. It will perhaps be of interest to the
reader to know the different purchase.'^ and what was acquired at each.
The first purchase of land was made in 16.S2 by William Markham, Dep-
uty Governor of the colony, before the arrival of Penn, wdiich included the coun-
try between the Neshaminy Creek and Delaware River to Wrightstown and Upper
The second and third purchases were made by William Penn himself and
included the land along the Pahkehoma (Perkiomen). In 1686, it is claimed an-
other treaty was made with the Indians, but no copy of the treaty is known to
e.xist. The treaty of 1684 was made by William Penn and Maughaugsin (Macun-
gie), the leading chief of the Delawires, and was for a consideration of two
Matchcoats, four piir of Stoccings and four bottles of Sider. The Indian deed is
as follows :
" Upon my own desire and free offer. I, Maughaughsin, in consideration
of two Matchcoats, four pair of Stockings and four bottles of Sider, do hereby
grant, make over all my land upon the Pahkehoma, to William Penn, Propr.
and Govern'r of Pennsvlvania and territories, his heirs and Assignees forever,
with which I own myself satisfied and promise never to molest any Christian so
call d yt shall seat thereon by his orders.
Witness my hand and seal at Philadelphia ye third day day of ye fourth
The mark of Maughaughsin.
Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence of us,
Philip Thomas Lehman, Thomas Hohnes, John Davers, George Emlin."
The Indians removed beyond the Blue Mountains, only a few remaining
on their old hunting grounds, the beautiful Kittatinny Valley.
The purchase of i6S6 was said to include all the land beginning at the
lane of the former purchases to as far northwest as a man could ride in two days,
but as no copy of the treaty was preserved, the claim was disputed by the Indians,
and the purchase was undecided, but settlers began to flock into the new region
which they supposed had been purchased from the Indiams, who believed that
their rights were being encroached upon. They held several meetings with the
proprietors of the colon}' to fix definitely the limits of the ceded territory.
The first meeting was held in Durham, sevc ral'miles below Easton, 1734.
The second meeting was held at Pennsbury, 1735, and the last meeting was held
at Philadelphia, which resulted in an agreement that the treaty of 1686 should be
followed, and the purchase should be repeated in a novel way, nan^ely, the colony
of Pennsylvania should receive as much land as was included in a line drawn
northwest from a point at Wrightstown as far as a man could walk in a day and
a half . This treaty is known as the "Walking purchase." Subsequent to the
treaty, the proprietors caused a trial walk to be made to ascertain what amount of
land could be obtained ; this trial walk was made in April, 1735, and the trees
along the route were blazed so that the parties engaged in making the walk, de-
ciding the ownership of the land, would have the advantage of a marked pathway.
So when the treaty was signed August 25th, 1737, the Receiver General of the
colony, James Steel, secured the man who had endured in the trial walk. Ed-
ward Marshal, James Yeates and Solomon Jennings, were selected, all noted for
their power of endurance. The sheriff of Bucks County, Timothy Smith, and
John Chapman, the surveyor, accompanied the three walkers, provided their
meals, etc. The time set for the walk, according to the treaty, was September
I2th, 1737, but was postponed until September 19th. It had been agreed that the
Indians should send some of their young men along to see that the walk was
fairly made. The compensation of each of the walkers was five pounds in'nioney
and five hundred acres of land. The point of starting was at a large chestnut
tree near the fork of the Pennsville and Durham roads at the meeting house m
Washington, Bucks County, very close to the Markham purchase. The three
walkers stood close to the tree, their hands resting upon it, and as the sun rose,
Sheriff Smith gave the signal for starting. The route was as straight as it possibly
could be, on account of the ground and obstructions in the way, it led along the
Durham road. Yeates led the way with an easy step, followed by Jennings with
two Indian walkers who were followed by Marshall, at a distance, swinging
a hatchet and walking with an easy and careless step. In two and a-half hours
they reached Red Hill, Bedminster township, where they took dinner with Wil-
son, the Indian trader. Durham Creek, where the old furnace stood, was fol-
lowed and they crossed the Lehigh River a mile below Bethlehem at Jones Island,
and from this place they passed to the Blue ridge at Smith Gap, Moore township,
Northampton Count}', and they slept at night on the northern side of the moun-
tain. At sunrise the next morning they resumed their journey and concluded
their walk at noon. Marshall alone held out and throwing himself upon the
ground, grasped a small tree which was marked as the end of the line. Jennings
was the first to give out about two miles north of Tohickon, but he straggled
along until the Lehigh River was reached.
He left them there, and went to his home on what is now the Geissinger
farm, a few miles north of Bethlehem, which is now in Salisbury township,
where he lived for twenty years after. He was a famous hunter and woodsman.
One of his sons, John Jennings, was sheriff of Northampton County from 1762 to
Yeates gave out at the foot of the mountain on the morning of the second
day, when he was picked up he was nearly blind and died three days after,
while Marshall the champion walker was not the least injured by exertion, lived
to be seventy-nine years old, and died in Tinicum, Bucks County. Walking Pur-
chase, the Indians said was " No sit down to smoke, no shoot squirrel, but lun
lun, lun all day long."
Marshall received 5^ and five hundred acres of land in Monroe County,
The Indians were disgusted with the walk, and frequently said to the
walkers that they should not run and they were so disgusted with the walk, that
they left before it was completed. The distance traveled was 61 ^'4^ miles. When
the end of the line had been reached in a northwest direction, it still had to be
run to the Delaware River, which made another disagreement between the Pro-
prietors and the Indians. The Indians thought that the line should be drawn
straight to the river from the nearest point, instead they ran the line at right
angles reaching the river at the Laxawaxen, taking in about twice as much ter-
ritory as the other way. The survey embraced nearly all the land between the
forks of the Delaware and Lehigh Rivers, including all the land south of the
Blue Mountains, comprising 500,000 acres of land.
The Receiver General, James Steel, wrote to a friend of his, in 1737,
said that it took four days to walk from the upper end of the "Long Walk"
(day and a-half,) and that very little good land for settlement was to be seen.
This walking purchase, as it was called, gave a great deal of dissatisfac-
tion to the Indians, and was one of the principle causes of the council held in
Easton, in 1756, where it was ably discussed. The complaint of the Indians was
ist. That the walkers walked too fast. 2d, That the walkers should have
stopped to shoot game and smoke. 3d, That they should have' walked as they
do when on a hunt. 4th, That the line was not drawn to the river as it should
have been drawn. 5th, They claimed the line should have been drawn from the
nearest point to the river. 6th, They accused the Proprietors of trickery and
Whether true or not, the " Walking purchase" drew upon the Proprie-
tors the hatred of the Indians and was the beginning of a feeling which was
fanned into stirring events a generation later, creating great havoc among the
settlers in the region now composed of the counties of Lehigh, Northampton
THE FIRST WHITE MEN.
LEHIGH COUNTY was a part of Bucks County, hence was a part of one of
the three original counties established in 1682. Its first settlers were for
the most part settlers who pushed northward from the older parts of the
county. The word Lehigh or Lechaweki is the Indian name for the river and
the German settlers left away the latter part of the word and called it " Lecha."
The word means where the way makes a fork. The Lehigh was at first called the
west branch of the Delaware.
Lehigh (Lecha) Valley is a part of the great Kittatinny Valley, which
extends from Lake Champlain on the north, to the Mississippi River in Tennesse
in the southwest. The boundaries of the Kittatinny Valley are the Blue Moun-
tains on the north, and on the south the South Mountains in Virginia, and Blue
Ridge further south.
The name Kittatinny means large, long, without end. The Lehigh, or
more properly speaking Lecha Valley, receives its name from the Lehigh River
which flows through it. The name Lecha is an Indian word derived from
Lechaweki. The first white men who came within the present limit of Lehigh
county, were the traders in the seventeenth centtiry, who came and went, transact-
in^- their business with the Indians, sometimes creating animosity between Indians
and white men. As early as 1701, these men were brought to the notice of the
Proprietors by the troubles they was a part of made, the same time the Seneca
Indians made incursions with the view of harassing the more peaceful Delawares.
The first settlement, within the present limits of the county was made
near the Swamp Church, Lower Milford, in 1715, by some German emigrants ; as
is shown by the inscription upon an old stone building which bears the above
The first settlement of which authentic knowlege is known, was
made in 1730, in the Lehigh Valley. In 1734 the whole region was thrown open
for settlement, when the newly arrived settlers from Germany began to flock
thither. That the settlers were enterprising is shown from the fact that they
began to secure good roads. As early as 1735 the emigrants came rapidly to the
county so when it became a part of Northampton County, in 1752, it had a
population of 2800 souls, as follows: Milford, 700 ; Upper Saucon, 650 ; White-
hall, 800 ; including about 200 which resided in Hanover, making the entire
In 1773, some thirty years after the first settlement had been made, the
county showed great improvement as can be seen by the following number of
acres of cleared laud, in what is now Lehigh County, namely, 37,394 ; 8,869 acres
of grain and 886 farmers. Slowly and slowly the red man receded before the
coming of the white man, as few Indians were remaining in what is now Lehigh
County, after 1740. They had nearly all passed beyond the Blue Mountains, only
here and there a family or individual Indian remained in a tent upon some
chosen spot on the ancient hunting ground. One of the chief of these was Kola-
pechka, an old chief residing on the creek which bears his name, Coplay.
He was on friendly terms with his white neighbors and he was frequently
employed by the government to carry messages and act as interpreter. The last
Indian living in the county was in 1742, when the last of the Delawares was com-
pelled to remove from this region to the Wyoming Valley.
After that date it was still the common custom of the Indians to come
from the north and pass down into Lehigh and wander much as they chose to do
in former times, when they were at peace with the other tribes of Indians. They
brought usually game and poultry for trading purposes and purchased such arti-
cles as they needed for their primitive life in the forest. They were never seen
aftei the second Indian raid.
C'^HE Delaware or Lenape Indians were divided into three tribes, — the Unatnis
or Turtle triVje, the Unalachtpo or Turkey tribe, the Winsi or Wolf tribe.
These tribes were again divided and usually received their names from the
place where they resided. Each settlement had its chief, who was subject to the
head chief or sachem and reported to him.
The government of the Indian was similar to our national, state and
county government. Allumapes and Teedyyuscung were the chief sachems from
the time of the landing of William Penn to the time when the Indians disap-
peared from this part of the country. The Indian headquarters were at Minni-
sink and Shamokin. Wampum is the Indian name for money. The word is an
Iroquois word meaning a muscle. They had three kinds of money, the wampum,
the fathom of wampum and belt of wampum. The different wampums repre-
sented the various value of their money. A number of muscles strung together
was called a string of wampum, when it was a fathom long it was called a fathom
or belt of wampum.
At the time when the first white settlers came to this country the Indians
made their wampums of small wooden pieces of equal sizes, and stained them
either black or white. Only a few muscles were used to make the wampums
before the advent of the white man. The wampums were very valuable before
the white people came.
The white men made wampums from muscles, and soon the Indians dis-
carded the wooden ones for muscles. These wampums were round or oval in
shape, one-fourth of an inch in length, and one-eighth of an inch thick with a
hole in them lengthwise and strung like beads.
Scalping was another trait of the Indian. No victory was complete with-
out it and is very revolting. The living and dead were scalped, as well as inno-
cent women and children. The following mode was followed by the Indians in
scalping their victims : They fastened the prisoner to the ground with their arms,
legs and necks bound to large stakes and a cord to a free Indian. If any dispute
arose among the Indians in regard to the prisoner, the prisoner was killed and
scalped. The Indians placed their feet on their prisoner's neck, and seized the
hair with the left hand twisting tliem tightly together in order to separate the
skin from the head ; then they would cut all around it with a sharp knife and
tear it off. In one minute they had finished the scalping. The principle food of
Indians were meat, vegetables, nuts and berries. The flesh of the deer and bear
they liked the best.
Potatoes, corn and tobacco were the only products raised by the Indians.
They were very cunning and skillful strategists in alluring the settlers into am-
bush, or elude them when pursued. They were honest, never stole or robbed
each other. When they left home they did not lock their wigwams, but put a
stone or piece of wood against the door, and nothing was stolen during their ab-
sence. They were strong and muscular, ^vhich was gained by their constant
exercise in walking and running. The Indians in that way acquired agility and
endurance by which they were able to flee from the white people.
The first breach of friendship between the Indians and the Government
happened in 1754, before that time it was only between the individual Indian and
The minerals used by the Indians were aluminous rock, quartz, quartz-
ite, jasper, basanite chalcedony, slate and soapstone. To make their axes and
pestles they used diabase, syenite, dioryte and pyroxene. Quartzite was used to
make spear heads, knives and arrowheads.
When the Indians wanted to make a canoe, they would cover the sides
of the log with ground, burn ouc the middle part and used the axes to remove the
Governor John Penn offered in 1764, by proclamation, the following
bounties for capturing Indians :
For every male above the age of ten years, fiso.oo ; for every male,
(being killed) above the age of ten years, ^^130. 00 ; for every female above the
age of ten j-ears, scalped (being killed), $50.00.
In the first Indian raid of 1755, the settlers escaped the Indians' wrath,
which fell so furiously upon the settlers of Carbon and Northampton Counties,
which resulted in the massacres of the Moravians in Carbon County, and other
atrocious murders. One of the principal causes of the raid was the " Walking
Purchase" of 1737, which seems to have given great dissatisfaction to the Indians,
and also seems to have been the chief cause for it. But the defeat of Braddcck in
1755. operated powerful!}- as a stimulus in the minds of the red man, arousing
hatred and inciting murderous desire. When peace was made in 1758, it gave a
sense of relief to the settlers again which lasted for about five }-ears.
The conspiracy of the powerful chief Pontiac incited once more their
hatred against the white people, and had much to do with the IiKlian raids of
1763 in the county anrl the massacre of a number of settlers. The settlers in
Whitehall were entirely innocent, having always treated the Indians with kind-
ness in their dealings with them.
It seems as if the Indians had lost confidence in the descendants of Penn,
whose memory they revered, or they ma}^ have longed for regaining their ancient
hunting grounds. It is doubtful if they would have commenced hostilities against
the settlers if they had not been incited by the l<'rench. It was the French more
than any others that provoked the conflict between the whites and Indians.
The first war was provoked bv the intrigues of the French, in which the
colony of Pennsylvania was involved with the red man. The French knew very
well that by securing the aid of the Indians as allies living in Pennsylvania there
was a chance of carrying on successfully their military operations in the Ohio
Valley, for that reason they flattered and cajoled the Delawares and other tribes
of Indians. This course of action had the effect of winning their allegiance from
the English and was the cause of many deeds of bloodshed in the white settle-
ments of the frontier. The massacre of Guadenhutten led to others nearer at
home on the south side of the mountain.
Every day some new murder was committed by the wily Indian. The
whole frontier was in a state of alarm, settlers began to forsake their homes flee-
ing to more secure places. The people at Bethlehem were in suspeuse as they
had seen the lurid glare beyond the mountains made by the burning of the build-
ings and knew that bad news awaited them. The first news of the massacre of
Guadenliutten came after midnight by those v ho fled frcm the disaster, during
the day eight white settlers and from thirty to forty Indian Brethren, including
men, women and children arrived from New Guadenliutten at Bethlehem. From
this time for several days the people of the remote settlements began to flock to
the more secure settlements abandoning everything. They were all filled with
the wildest alarm, many came only with enough clothing to shield their bodies
from the cold, while all were destitute of the necessities of life Hundreds of
farms were abandoned in Lehigh and Northampton Counties by their occupants.
They were kindly cared for by the Brethren at Bethlehem and other places.
There were Indian villages near Schnecksville, on the lands of Laurence Troxeil,
James Scheuerer, Hilarius Kernal, and Jerry Kuhns, numerous burial grounds of
the red men are found in the above vicinity.
The relation between the settlers and the Indians were of the most
friendly character. But after Braddock's disastrous defeat in 1755, the hatred of
the Indians was aroused and the settlers were constantly disturbed. Before retir-
ing at night they often went out with rifle in hand, ascended some high knoll near
their houses to look for blazing cottages, they were kept in constant alarm until
1758, when peace was made, which lasted until 1763, when the troubles broke out
In 1756 they killed two children of Frederick Reichelder, Jacob Gerhart,
two women and six children, George Zeielof, wife and a \oung man, a boy and
girl at Allemangel (now Lynn township) and scalped them. In 1763 Jacob
Alleman's wife and child and a boy and girl were killed and scalped.
One of the main causes of the Whitehall massacres were as Heckewelder
says, "That some Indians who had come to Bethlehem in the summer of 1763 to
trade, when returning, they stopped at John Stenton's tavern, Allen township,
Northampton County over night, the place being aVjout eight miles from Bethle-
hem, where they were badly treated and robbed of some of their most valuable
articles they had purchased, returning to Bethlehem, they lodged complaints with
a justice of the peace who gave them a letter in which he strongly urged that they
should return the Indians' property to their owners. But instead of getting their
property back they were driven from the house, they did this, meeting some other
Delaware Indians on the banks of the Susquehanna River who had been treated
in the same way. They told each other their stories. They resolved to take
revenge in their own way for the insult they had received as soon as their nation
would make war upon the colonists."
Captain J. N. Wetherhold with his soldiers murdered Zachary, his wife
and little child and a woman named Zippora in August 1763, near the Lehigh
Gap. Zachary was a friendly Indian who had come to adjust the difiiculties and
while in this act of humanity, was killed like a dog. These and many other
crimes like the above led the Indians to take the war path.
This company was raised in Macungie and vicinity.
Among the first places they attacked was Stenton's tavern and killed all
the inmates among whom was Captain Wetherhold who had claimed he w^ nnvul-
nerable (kuglefest). They robbed the house of everything and from there they
went to the house of Andrew Hazlett who tried to defend bis heme but was killed
with his family, from there they went to the homes of James Allen and Philip
Kratzer which they plundered. Undoubtedly the inmates had heard of the Haz-
lett tragedy and had fled. The Indians now proceeded to the Whitehall settle-
ments in true Indian style.
On October 8, 1763, a bright and beautiful autumn day a small band of
Indians crossed the Lehigh at Whitehall fresh from their attack on the settlers in
Allen township, and went to John J. Mickley's place finding three of his children
in the woods gathering chestnuts, killed two of thim and went to the homes of
Hans Snyder and Nicholas Marks, killing Snyder, his wife and three children,
and wounding two daughters of Snyder, left both of them for dead, and one of his
children was taken captive and never restored. The wounded daughters recover-
ed from their wounds. The Assembly passed a bill for their relief as they were
very poor and never afterwards enjoyed good health. The one that was scalped
was a pitiable sight to see with her scalped head.
The Mickley's children which had been killed were buried at the foot of
a large chestnut tree, the place is still pointed out where they had been buried.
Nicholas Marks' family escaped, they had seen the Indians coming. The Indians
set fire to his house and among others of the settlers that were killed by the In-
dians were Jacob Alleman's wife and child who were found in the road scalped.
The number of settlers killed were twenty, the others escaped fleeing to
Deshler's Fort, about two miles from the scene of murder. The fort is standing
and well preserved, it is a substantial stone building strongly built, having heavy
walls and was made to serve for other purposes than an ordinary dwelling, was
built in 1760, adjoining the same was a large frame dwelling, where twenty sol-
diers could be quartered and a large quantity of military stores be kept. The
frame part has passed away, the place was a kind of military post during the In-
dian troubles and was furnished free by Mr. Deshler who was one of the most lib-
eral and humane men of the settlement. It stands on a little eminence overlook-
ing the Coplay Creek. The building was forty feet long, thirty feet wide, two and
one-half stories high, the walls are eighteen inches and two feet thick supported
by heavy timbers in the interior. There were a few small windows in the sides
with four panes of glass, in the gables were loopholes A large hearth was in the
middle or the building, each story was divided into two apartments and in the
mantle piece can still be seen the builets holes made by the Indians. It was a
place of refuge for the neighborhood.
A number of the settlers were taken captive by Indians, and those with
black hair and eyes were spared and adopted. Among them was one Mayer, his
wife and son who were adopted into a tribe. Margaret P'rantz was taken prisoner
while washing flax with another girl named Solt whom they took along to near
where Ballietsville now stands. Margaret was 15 years old when taken captive
and was with them seven years. Before she was exchanged, her father was killed
by the Indians and she was married two years after her return from captivity to
Nicholas Woodring. She was known far and wide for her knowledge of herbs
which she had acquired of the Indians. Her services for relieving the sick were
. in great demand, she always journeyed on horseback. Slie died in 1S29, at the
age of seventy-eight years, among her descendents are Ritters, Sleckles and
Browns. Her companion Solt lived with an Indian as his wife and had two chil-
dren, when she returned from captivity she was allowed to take her little girl
Captain Volck's (Foulk's) Company of Allemangel, now Lynn township,
consisting of forty-six men. Captain Wetherhold's company of forty-four men
and Captain Trexler's company of forty-eight men, raised in the other parts of
is ow Lehigh County, flocked to the standard of Colonel Benjamin Frank-
lin, for the defence of the frontier, and gathered at Guadenhutten in January,
1756, where they began the erection of Fort Allen on the site of the present town
The settlers of South Whitehall had their share of Indian troubles like
the other settlements, the dangers were so great that it was impossible for them
to attend the meeting of the IvUtheran Synod held at Philadelphia in 1753. The
Synod was asked to pray for the safety of the Paster (Rev. Schartier) of the
Jordan's congregation and the settlers.
The Governor in his message to the Assembly said "Their houses are
burned, farms laid waste, etc." Another incident happened which showed how
cunning the Indians were to capture young children. Some children were play-
ing "Hide and Seek" in the barn when several Indians who had lurked around
and when the children had hid themselves and at the proper time they came
forth and took captive all they could lay hold on, only a few escaped to tell the
tale. Then the settlers arose and followed as best they could, but were unable to
rescue the young captives. The children w^ere kept in captivity for some time
before they were released and restored to their anxious parents.
THE FIRST SETTLERS.
t'^HE FIRvST SETTIvERS of the county came principally from the older parts
of the colony who pushed their homes northward from Philadelphia, Bucks
and Chester counties. Others came from Germany seeking homes in this
new country where there was no religious persecution and could worship God in
accordance to the dictates of their conscience. There were in 1735 many squatters
in what is now Lehigh County, and the proprietors of the province placed one
hundred thousand acres of land on drawing, the drawing of the lottery never came
off. But the settlers got the land cheap. More than threefourths of the inhabi-
tants of the county are German or their descendents, and the localities in which
they settled were generally named in honor of the Fatherland as Hanover, Wies-
senberg, Heidleberg, etc.
They came principally from Bavaria, Baden, Alsace, Wurtemberg, Swit-
zerland, Darmstadt, and Palatinate, while of the townships which bear English
names have been germanized by the Germans encroaching upon their English
neighbors, as can be seen by the intercourse with the people of Lowhill, Milford,
Whitehall, etc., which are just as German as the rest of the County. They speak
a dialect of the German language which is akin to the language of their fore-
fathers who came from Palatinate where the same language is spoken. It is not
"High German," as it is just as old or perhaps older, and often more expressive
than the High German as a spoken language, as it was from time immemorial in
the South German dialects. Some of its roots of words can be traced back to
older roots than High German, for example, colt, English, fullen, High German
which is derived from Greek and Latin roots, while hutsch and hutschli, a young
colt from Wesserwald huzz, Lausatian, huzche, Swabian, hutschle, is more purely
German than the High German, horse, E. ; pherd, H. G. ; gaul, P. G. ; calf, E. ;
kalb, PL G. ; homeli, P. G. ; pig, E. ; Schwein, H. G. ; sou, P. G. ; potato, E. ;
kartoflel, H. G. ; grumbeer, P. G. ; etc., are some of the derivations.
If as has been said in an index to their character, then the expressions
as proverbs, adages, songs and sayings of people handed djown from one genera-
tion to the other are very original and expresive. They by frequent repetition
have made strong impressions upon the people to influence their life and charac-
ter. Their songs are delightful, spirited and impressive. Here are some of the
sayings of the Pennsylvania Germans. "Wie mers mocht so hut mers. Die kin-
ner un die norra sawga die wohret. Fors denka konn en niemont henka. Gross
gekrisch un wennig woll. Gut gewetst is halver gemelit. Eh eer is die onner
werth. Wer awhaltgewinnt. Mer hut nix unna druvel. Die morga schtund hut
gold im muud. Zub on deiner egna naws. Mer muss leva un leva lossa. Wer
net komnt zu rechter zeit muss nehme was iwwerich bleibt." And many other
sayings show that they have sayings which for beautiful thought, etc., compare
well with the High German and the English languages.
The poems of Dr. Henry Harbaugh, written in the Pennsylvania German
language, compare with the best poems of any language. His most touching and
beautiful poems are the following: "Das Alt Schulhaus An DerKrick." (The
Old Schoolhouse At The Creek.) " Heemweh," (Homesickness) the last one a
most beautiful poem, descriptive of the sweet rest of Heaven, etc., and others.
The people are as a whole a religious people. When they first came they built
side by sidec hurch and schoolhouse, by which it can be seen that both the spir-
itual and temporal wants of the young were attended to, and they were early
brought into the church. The greater part of the Pennsylvania Germans are
farmers and are hardy, robust, strong, healthy and industrious. They are socia-
ble, performing many works in common, assisting each other in whatever way
In former times, during haymaking and harvest time when there were a
number of workmen together, at nine o'clock they would take lunch, relate anec-
dotes in which both men and women engaged in. At breakfast, dinner and sup-
per, the tables were always laden with food which were keenly relished by them
all. At noon came the " Ruhe schtund," (hour rest), which was spent by sleep-
ing, telling stories under the shady tree, or grinding the scythes. After " Feier
ovet," (after the day's work) all enjoyed themselves well after their hard day's
work, taking for their proverb, " Nuch der erwet is gute zu ruhe."
Corn husking was another enjoyable feature of former time, when a large
number of young men and women went to a neighbor and assi.'^ted him in husking
corn. Quilting and applebutter parties were some of the other pastimes of former
days, where old and young gathered and helped each other in quilting and mak-
ing schnitz, (pared apples) in the afternoon, m the evening the young folks spent
the time in a lively manner such as music, dancing and other amusements.
Battalion drills was another institution of days gone by. The Militia had
their drills in Spring and the weapons used were usually cornstalks, hoe handles
and bioomsticks. When the Battalion Day came in May everything was in readi-
ness of which these were the preparatory exercises. When the day came. Infantry
and Cavalry were on hand. The officers that were in comniaud were the Gen-
erals, Colonels, Majors and Captains with their cocked hats and plumes, epaulets
on their shoulders fully uniformed. The command was generally Jgiven in thun-
dering tones. '* Atten — shone, company !" The brave and gallant Lieutenants re-
peated the words in the Pennsylvania German, " Gebt Acht Buva Now Horcht
bosst uff." A finer and more imposing sight was never seen or command given.
Oh ! what a time were those old fashioned " Badolga (Battalion) Daga." At the
age of eighteen, everyone was compelled to become a soldier, the very age when
the young maidens were at liberty to marry. Every one went to the Battalion
day, old and young, and when the young people were strangers to each other,
they were introduced not exactly like in polite society, but in blunt Pennsylvania
German, as " Des ist der Bill," " Des ist die Sal, Kum her, liuckt dich onna zu
mir." All was fun, in the evening there was dancing which lasted till early
morning. The holidays (Feirdaga,) of the Pennsylvania Germans are worthy of
notice. Christmas was a pleasant time, Christmas trees were found almost in
every home, and the churches were beautifully and tastefully decorated [with
evergreens. Their " Krischt kindil " is not the fantastic St. Nicholas, but the
Giver of good gifts. When the children met each other on Christmas morning,
they did not ask "where is my Christmas present?" but " Wo ist mei Krischt
kindil," meaning a gift of God in Jesus, the Christ child.
New Year was another of their festivals. At that time they shot out the
old year and shot in the New Year, a practice that is not common anymore. The
shooting was not all of it, beautiful verses of the scriptures and hymns were com-
mitted to memory, and repeated under the windows of those who were visited by
them, they went through storm and snow. " En glickselig nei yohr " was heard
on all sides, each vieing with each other to be first in the greeting among friends,
Doctor bills in the olden times were not as high as at present. Dr. John
M. Otto made out the following bill for one of his patients (Marcus Hulig), the
bill is dated Bethlehem, May 4, 1746, and is as follows : To heal a broken leg,
3/ ; to heal three ribs, 3s. and other necessary things 2s.
The hotel bills were not as high either. Captain Jacob Wetherhold's
bill at the "Crown" hotel, in 1763, where he was brought when mortally wound-
ed and died a few days after, was as follows : i pint of Wine, is. 2d., i pint
beer 2, '2 d., eating and drinking for nurse, 2 s. , feed for two horses, 3 s., funeral
garment, 6 s., carriage fees for nurse, ten times, 2 s.
Subscriptions for the newspapers were as follows : Franklin and Hall's
paper, 10 s. 7 d.. Miller's German paper, 6 s. per year.
Taxes were as follow's : In 1767, Province (State) tax 5^, 18 s., 6d., and
County tax 2^, 7s., 6d.
The following is a copy of a bill for a day's expenses at one of the popu-
lar hotels in Easton in 1781 and thus you can see the value of Continental money
at that time.
To I Grog - $S To 21 Quarts of Oats I52
" Washing - 49 " Hay - 90
" I Bowl Punch 30 '• Meals - 260
" I Grog - 8 " Lodging - 40
" I Bowl Punch 30
Received the above amount, JACOB OPP, Landlord.
Merchants, shoemakers and tailors charged the same rates. The price of
a yard of Calico in Continental money cost ten times as much as the beet yard of
silk now does. Travelling by the early settlers was generally done on foot or
The following were among those who served offices from what is now Le-
high County : Christian Rinker was County Commissioner in 1753, and Lewis
Klotz, of Macungie, was elected County Commissioner in 1754. George Taylor,
one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence owned a farm of three hun-
dred and thirty-one acres in Allen township, in what is now a part of the present
borough of Catasauqua. The assessment value of his property was in 1770, 416^,',
which included six horses, eight cows and three negroes. The tax on the same
was thirty-seven shillings and two pence, ($4.96). The farm consisted at that
time of one hundred and thirty-six acres of clean land, and one hundred and
ninet\ -five acres of woodland. Mr. Taylor resided on the farm until 1764 when
he moved to Easton, Pa. In 1776 Mr. Taylor sold his farm in Allen township to
Mr. Benezet, of Philadelphia, for looo;^ (^4800). Mr. Benezet afterward sold the
farm to David Deshler.
Our County is but a small one, but helps to make up the State of Penn-
sylvania, the Keystone in the arch of the thirteen original colonies.
In 1773, in what is now Lehigh County, it comprised the following num-
ber of acres of clear land and the number of acres of grain sown, also the number
" I Bowl Punch
" I " "
of farmers in each township: Upper Milford had 7,096 acres of clear lard, and
1,283 acres of grain and 156 farmers ; JSIacungie had 6,459 acres of clear lai d, and
2,002 acres of grain, and 136 farmers. Whitehall had 6,070 acres of clear land,
and 1223 acres of grain and 117 farmers ; Upper vSaucon had 5,792 acres of clear
land, 1028 acres of grain and 84 farmers ; Lynn had 3,412 acres of clear land and
860 acres of grain and 118 farmers ; Heidelberg had 2,905 acres of clear land and
904 acres of grain and loi farmers ; Salisbury had 2,400 acres- of clear land, 522
acres of grain and 48 farmers ; Weisenburg had 2,179 acres of clear land and 562
acres of grain, and 78 farmers; Lowhill had 1,131 acres of clear land and 435
acres of grain and 48 farmers ; and there was iSo,ooo acres of wood land in what
is now the present County of Lehigh.
The taxes for a farm of 200 acres of land was from eighty cents to $1.50,
Laborers received from ten cents to twelve cents a day and boarding. The house
rent was from four to eight dollars a year, including fire wood and some acres of
land for a potato and corn patch and grazing and feed for a cow. Fifty poor peo-
ple did not pay any tax.
The farmers and others on ordinary occasions used rye bread and buck-
wheat cakes, but on special occasions they used wheat bread. Expenses of Le-
high for the year ending January i, 1813, were as follows :
G. Stabler, for election expenses at Mil]ersto\\n, (Macurgit) ^54. 80 ; J.
Mumni}' for election expenses, Grim's district, ^1:37 20 ; A. Shiffersteiu, foi election
expenses, Saeger's district, f 44.20 ; F. B. Shaw, for election expenses, Allentown
district, I49.50; G. Kramer, commissioner on seat of Justice, $50. 00; George
Savitz, rent of rooms for court, November 20, 1812 to January i, 1SJ3, ^55. 91 ;
quarrying stones for prison, $67.21. Total amount, I368.82.
In 1813 the total receipts of the County from all sources were f 15,448.3c,
of which sum $1558 66 was the balance at the settlement, 1^13,254.55 taxes were
collected out of 116,772.60 assessed.
Sheriff Peter Hauck paid into the treasury the same year fc.90 Sheriff's
fees. Balance in the treasury at the end of the year, 16693.80
In 1814 the receipts of the County were 118,325 91 ; in 1815 the leceipts
were $15,050.89 ; in 1816 the receipts were 117,214.05. In 1816 the first bank loan
of $2,176.53 was made for County purposes of 1816 and 1817. The first Court
House was built at a cost of $24,936 08, rebuilt iJ-;64 at a cost of $57,235 86. In
1813 the first jail was built at a cost of $8,420.00, rebuilt at a cost of $200,222.95.
The Poor House was erected in 1845 at a cost of buildings of $57,154.21. The
Poor House farm consists of 254 acres of land and was purchased for $27,062.32.
The first great flood of the Lehigh River known to the white settlers oc-
curred on the 6th of October, 1786, between ten and twelve o'clock at night, and
known as "Tippy's Flood," on account of the destruction of the home of Mr.
Tippy, near Weissport, and in which the two children of Mr. Tijpy were drown-
ed, the parents were saved. They had clung to the branches of a tree until res-
cued. The next great flox>d occurred in 1841 doing great damage, and in 1862 in
which hundreds of houses and bridges were destroyed and hundreds of people
were drowned. 1841, January 8th, heavy loss ; 1862, June 4, loss $200,000, bridges
destroyed, great loss of life, eighteen inches higher than in 1841. In 1869 a great
flood occurred doing considerable damage. On Friday evening February 28th,
1902, one the of the most destructive floods in the Lehigh Valley occurred It had
rained very heavily for .several days, and the warm teniperature .so that by noon
time it became apparent there would be a flood if it would keep on raining. Tbe
Little Lehigh, Jordan Creeks and the lesser streams throughout the county began
to overflow their banks, and instead of looking like small streams appeared like
large rivers and raging torrents.
The Jordan Creek rose twenty-five feet above low water mark at Allen-
town, while the Little Lehigh Creek came almost up to Lawrence street in Allen-
town, within seven hours after the waters began to rise they had reached the
highest mark and then commenced to recede. The flood, by the marks shown on
Kline's Island, that the flood was twenty-two inches higher than the flood of 1862.
At that time the w-aters rose to sixty-five inches from the ba.se of the house. In
1869 the water rose forty-seven inches from the base of the house, and on Fridaj-,
Feb. 28, 1902, the flood rose up to eighty-seven inches from the base. The dam-
ages done by the flood were greater than that of the great flood of 1862, but the
loss of life was much less for the simple reason that the last flood came in day
time, while the great flood of 1862 came in the night time. The bridges across
the Lehigh River at Allentown and the Central Railroad bridge across the Lehigh
River at Kline's Island were swept away by the flood and many bridges along the
Little Lehigh and Jordan Creeks were carried away and many of the others were
so badly damaged that they were unsafe for traveling. There were also many
washouts along the railroads and roads, causing great damages and delay of trains
for several days. The many manufactories throughout the county were heavy
losers in the carrj'ing away of goods, destruction of buildings and the spoiling
of goods. The loss incurred b}- th^- flood was about a million dollars in the entire
county. The destruction of the bridges and the damages to same alone amounted
to over four hundred thousand dollars.
In 1773 the assessment list showed that there were 34,894 acres of cleared
land in Lehigh County, of which 8S69 acres were sown in grain as follows : Upper
Milford, 7096 acres ; Macungie, 6459 acres ; Whitehall, 6070 acres ; Upper Sau-
con, 5792 acres ; Lynn, 3412 acres ; Heidelberg, 2905 acres ; Salisbury, 2400 acres;
VVei.seuberg, 21S9 acres ; Lowhill, 1131 acres. Taxes were low, farm of two hun-
dred acres, eighty cents to $1 .50. Laborers wages ten to twelve cents per day,
the rent for a house and lot from $4.00 to ;f8.oo a year, including several acres of
land and fire wood. Wheat raised twice on newly cleared land, corn not cultivated
The first election held after the county was formed was held on the 30th
of October, 1812, to elect the county officers. The market price at Allentown on
January 28, 1813, were as follows : wheat per bushel, 13 shillings and 12 pence ;
rye per bushel, 5 shillings and 71^ pence ; corn per bushel, 4 shillings and 9
pence ; flax seed per bushel, 8 .shillings.
Philadelphia price was wheat per bushel, 15 shillings and 6 pence ; flour
per barrel, I10.50.
REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. At the time of the Revolutionary War, Lehigh
County was a part of Northampton County, but it raised its full share of
quotas for the American Army. At the outbreak of the war a company was
raised in what is now Lehigh County, every one enlisting in the company received
a bounty of three pounds ($S oo). The company formed a part of the 2d Penn-
sylvania Battalion of which Colonel Arthur St. Clair was the commander Cap-
tain Thomas Craig was captain of the company.
The Flying camp of 1776, was formed by Captain John Arndt, and took
part in the battle of Long Island, August 27, 1776, in which the company suffered
heavily in killed and wounded, losing in all 21 men. At the battle of Fort Wash-
ington it again suffered heavily in killed, wounded and prisoners, Nov 16,1776,
losing in all 37 men.
Washington, after his defeat at Harlem Heights, New York, retreated
across the North River and through New Jersey by the way of Newark, Princeton
and Trenton where he crossed the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. General
John Warren, Surgeon General, sent the following communication to Bishop Ett-
wein of the Moravian Church at Bethlehem. "According tohis Excellency, Gen-
eral Washington's Orders. The General Hospital of the army is removed to Beih-
lehem, and you will do the greatest act of humanity by immediately providing
proper buildings for its reception." Bethlehem had been selected as the most
advantageous location by Washington when it had been found necessary to re-
move the hospital from Morristown, New Jersey, in the summer of 1777. Allen-
town was the Centre of operation for the formation of the Wagon Brigade. The
bells of Christ Church, Philadelphia, and the State House bell were removed to
Allentown for concealment, when the British took possession of Philadelphia.
Allentown was also the depot where the Revolutionary army got its supplies, cart-
ridges were manufactured, muskets repaired, etc.
Alexander Miller, James and Charles Craig were commissioned as officers
to raise and organize militar}' companies, the bounty was three pounds in Penn-
sylvania money equal to fS.oo.
Congress authorized the raising of the " Flying Camp," of 10,000 men,
apportioned as follows : Penn.sylvania, 6,000 men ; Maryland, 3,400 men ; Dela-
ware, 600 men. From the i8th to the 25th of June, 1776, the Continental Congress
met in Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, and the delegates from Northampton
County were Levers, Col. Nichol Gray, John Weitzel, Nicholas Depue, Daniel
Deschler, and Benjamin Depue.
Congress ordered on the 8th of July, 1776 that an election should be held
in the different counties of the province.
Lehigh County was embraced in the second election district of North-
ampton County, and was composed of Northampton, Salisbury, Upper Saucon,
Upper Milford, Macunj^ie, Weisenberg, Lynn, Whitehall and Heidelberg, and the
election place, Allen's Town. The election officers were John Gerhart, David
Deschler and George Brienig. One hundred and twenty recruits came from Al-
leutown and vicinity to join the "Flying Camp."
On a hill on this side of the Monocacy Creek and on the right side of the
road, leading to Allentown, now occupied by West Bethlehem, lie buried about
one thousand Revolutionary soldiers, who died while the military hospital was
located at Bethlehem. A monument should mark their last resting place.
After 1778, the seat of war was transferred from the banks of the Del-
aware to the North and South, after that the beat of the drum and the tramp of
thaarnies n? mire resoua led through the valley of Lehigh. General Charles
Lee with his division of the American army were encamped for some time at
Bethlehem. General La Fayette, after being wounded in the battle of Brandy-
wine, was brought to Bethlehem and there nursed till he got well. At one time
or other nianj^ of the .'\merican officers stopped at the Sun Hotel, Bethlehem.
The citizens of that town and throughout the county were ever readv to help
the American cause in whatever way they could.
The next important event was the Friess Rebellion. In 1797 Congress
passed certain laws which were objectionable to the people, among them were
the Alien, Sedition and the House Tax Laws which were regarded as unjust and
burdensome. The people arose to resist the enforcement of them and an Insurrec-
tion broke out in Milford, Bucks County, under the leadership of John Friess, who
had been an oflicer in the Revolutionary Army, he was ably seconded by Fred.
Heany and John German. The opposition of F'riess prevented all assessments in
Milford township that year. The Insurrection spread rapidly into Northampton
County, also into what is now Lehigh County, where the Assessors were chased
from one township to another. Some time after the above occurrence, seventeen
of his followers were captured and imprisoned in the Sun Hotel, Bethlehem.
Fries went to their help and rescued them.
The President, John Adams, sent troops to quell the Insurrection, when
they came Friess went into hiding and a month afterwards was captured near
Bunker Hill, Bucks County.
The following followers of Friess were sentenced by the Court : Hen-
rj- Jarrett, two years imprisonment and $1000.00 fine ; Conrad Marks, two years
imprisonment, $800.00 fine ; Valentine Kuder, two years imprisonment, $200.00
fine; Jacob Eierman, one year imprisonment, $50.00 fine; Henry Shankweiler,
one year imprisonment, $150.00 fine ; Michael Schmeier, nine months impris-
onment, $400.00 ; Henry Schmidt, eight months imprisoment, $200.00 fine ;
Philip Desch. eight months imprisonment, $150.00 fine ; Jacob Klein, eight
months imprisonment, $150.00 fine ; Herman Hartman, six months imprison-
ment, $150 00 fine ; Philip Ruth, six months imprisonment, $200.00 fine ; John
Eberhard, six months imprisonment, $10000 fine; John Huber, six months im-
prisonment, $150.00; Christian Sachs, six months imprisonment, $150.00 fine;
John Klein, Jr., six months imprisonment, $100.00 fine ; Daniel Klein, six
months imprisonment, $150,00 fine ; Jacob Klein, six months imprisonment,
$150.00 fine ; Adam Breich, six months imprisonment, $150.00 fine ; George Mem-
berger, six months imprisonment, $150.00 fine ; George Getman, six months im-
prisonment, $100.00 fine ; William Getman, six months imprisonment, $100.00
fine ; Abraham Schantz, four months imprisonment, $100.00 fine ; Henry Mem-
berger, four months imprisonment, Jioo.oo fine ; Peter Hager, four months impris-
onment, lioo.oo fine ; Abraham Samsel, three months imprisonment, I50 00 fine ;
P. Huntzberger, three months imprisonment, $50 00 fine ; Peter Gabel, two
months imprisonment, $40.00 fine ; Jacob Gabel, two months imprisonment, $40 .00
fine. He and a number of his followers were placed on tiial for treason, and
were convicted and sentenced to death, but they were pardoned by the President.
Friess returned to his home near Trumbauersville, Bucks County, and resumed
his occupation of crying public sales. Thus ended the Insurrection, also known
as the " Milford Rebellion, " The Hot Water War," and " The House Tax War."
After that there was no opposition to these laws which were soon after repealed.
There was peace till the war broke out with England in 1812. During that war
the people of the county went forth to the front with an alacrity which was highly
commendable. The following companies responded to their country's call
Captain George Dinkey raised a company of Infantry and marched to the seat of
war 1812. Captain John F. Ruhe's Company of Light Infantry, Co. 5th, 2d
Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Light Infantry, ist Brigade, 2d Division was
raised in Whitehall.
Captain Abraham Gangewere's Company of riflemen, (Co. i) First Bri-
gade, Second Division, Pennsylvania Militia, Brigadier General H. Spering, com-
manding the Brigade, Major General Shitz, commanding the Division. Captain
Abraham Rinker's Company of riflemen, ist Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer
Riflemen, Col. Thomas Humphrey, commanding; Captain Peter Puch's Light
Horse Company was raised in the Whitehalls, and Captain John Dornblaser's
Co. of Infantry raised in Lehigh, Northampton and Pike counties, and Captain
Joseph Wilt's Co. raised in Upper Milford ; by which it can be seen that Little
Lehigh at the very beginning of its existence, nobly sent forth her sons to defend
her Nation's honor. A few went to the Mexican war, 1845-48, but the same
martial spirit was displayed as in former wars. Among those who went to war
W3S Colonel Harry C. Longenecker.
After a period of peace for thirteen years, the tranquility was broken by
the firing upon Fort Sumter by the South Carolina soldiers and the capture of the
fort by the same was wired over the entire country. April 12th, 1861. On that
day the Governor of Pennsylvania received the following telegram : "The war
has commenced, the batteries opened fire upon Fort Sumter at 4 A. M."
This conflict began by the people of the North and South placing differ-
ent construction to the Constitution of the United States, of the Slave question
and by continually agitating the same, at least each section came to distrust each
other and regard each other with contempt The North believed that the South
would not dare to go to war and fight for the cause they advocated. The North
would never dare to strike a blow against the South was believed by the South.
When the actual hostilities commenced many of the North said that it
would only be a breakfast, but before the war was over they had in addition to
breakfast — dinner and supper. While the South said we will capture Washing-
ton and bring the Government to terms in very short time, and have our Inde-
pendence acknowledged by the Government. How sadly were both sides dis-
appointed, and how, through four long and sad years, each side contended for the
mastery, which at last fell to the lot of the North, the "Stars and Stripes" vhich
had cost an enormous amount of monej- and a great loss of life.
The war taught both the North and South a lesson which they had not
known before, they learned to know each other better and by that struggle show-
ed foreign nations the true valor of an American citizen ; and slavery extinguish-
ed forever from the American soil.
On April 15th, 1861, President Lincoln issued his proclamation calling
out the Militia of the several states, to quell the Rebellion. Pennsylvania was
called upon to furnish sixteen regiments, two of which were wanted within three
days to defend the National Capital which was unprotected. One of the first com-
panies to respond to the call of the President were the Allen Guards, Captain
Thomas Yeager of Allentovvn, the offt-red their services to the Governor, April
17th, and mustered into services April iSth, arriving at the same time at Harris-
burg were Ringgold's Light Artillery, Captain McKnight of Reading ; Logan
Guards, Captain Selheimer, of Lewistown ; Washington Guards, Captain Wren
and the National Light Infantry, Captain McDonalds, of Pottsville ; and Co. H,
Fourth Artillerj' Regulars under Lieut. Pemberton, (afterwards a general of the
Confederate army). They all started for the seat of war on the i8th of April.
The Regulars for Fort McHenry and the others for Washington.
For their promptness in marching to the defence of Washington, arriving
there on the iSth of April, 1S61. The thanks of the House of Representatives,
which are rarely tendered except for great and signal service to the state were
expressed in the following terms ; "37th Congress, U. S. July 22d, 1861. Resolv-
ed, that the thanks of this house are due and are hereby tendered to the 530
soldiers from Pennsylvania who passed through the mob at Baltin;ore and
reached Washington on the iSth of April last for the defence of the National
Galisha a. Grow,
Speaker of the House of Representatives.
Little Lehigh nobly came to the aid of the country as can be seen by the
number of men furnished to the difTerent regiments, (namely 13), Companies I,
Capt. W. H. Gausler, ist regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers ; D, Capt. G. D.
Hand, 9th regiment, three months men ; C, Capt. A. C. Lewis, 46th regiment,
three year men ; B, Capt. E. P. Rhoads ; F, Capt. H. S. Hart ; G, Capt. Charles
Mickley ; L Capt. A. G. K. Coleman ; K, Capt. George Junkert, 47th regiment.
Col. T. H. Good, Allentown, was the commander of the regiment ; A, Capt. S. H.
Schneck, 9th Cavalry ; D, Cape. John P. Dillinger ; G. Capt. W. W. Hammersly,
r28ch re^fiiHjnt, nine months men; A, Capt. Levi Schmoyer, B, Capt. S. D. Lehr,
D, Capts. David Schaadt and Charles L. Koch, E, Capt. Tilghman Sleiker, G,
Capt. L. P. Hecker, 1, Capt. A. F. Creitz, K, Capts. S. C. Lee and G. Neitz, 176th
regiment, nine months drafted militia; E, Capt. W. H. Seip, 202d regiment ; H,
Capt W. H. Miller, 209th regiment ; E, Capt. W. Marx, G, Capt.G B. Schall, H,
Capt. W. H. HofTman, 5th regiment militia ; H. Capt. I. N. Gregory, 27th regi-
ment Emergency troops, 1863; H, Capt M. H. Home and part of Co. C, 3Sth
regiment militia, 1863 ; D, Capt. W. H. Seip, I, Capt. Charles Keck, K, Capt.
John H. Oliver, 41st regiment militia, 1863.
Thus it can be seen that Little Lehigh done its part nobly and well, and
that it was just as patriotic as any county of our grand old Commonwealth of
Pennsylvania, according to its size and population, and by its aid helped to sus-
tain the Government of the United States. Hy which help the Government was
able to assert its authority and power and show the nations of the world that
though a Republic, it could go through severer trials and ordeals than any nation
of the old world was ever subject to, and which would have wiped them off the
face of the earth. But Our Country came out victorious and the glorious old
banner the "Stars and Stripes" once more floated over a united country. As
soon as the war had begun the Commissioners of the county and public took ac-
tion as soon as the first soldiers had left for the seat of war to relieve such families
as needed help.
At a special meeting of the Commissioners they drew up a petition and
presented it to the Court, praying for an appropriation out of the common funds
to support the families of those who might be in need, during the absence of the
husbands or soldiers who proposed to go and defend their country's flag. It was
resolved that five thousand dollars be appropriated for that purpose in install-
ments of five hundred dollars each to be distributed at such periods as may be
January, 1862, the county tax was raised to forty cents upon every one
hundred dollars, and the state tax to twentj'-five cents upon every one hundred
dollars, and a special tax of fifty cents per head for militia purposes. The same
year a bounty of twenty dollars for each recruit was offered, (the quota being 200
men). The Commissioners made an appropriation of ten thousand dollars for the
purpose. The bounty was afterwards raised to one hundred dollars for each
recruit, the bounty offered until September 25th, 1862, after which no bounty was
April, 1S63, the county tax was raised to fifty cents upon every one hun-
dred dollars and the state tax 30 cents per hundred dollars. ]une 30th, 1863, the
Commissioners resolved to give twenty dollars per month to each recruit for ser-
vices, not exceeding three months, the time being Gen. Lee's invasion into the
State. Captain W. H. Seip's company of eighty-five men were the first to leave
for the field of action. They received a month's pay in advance, the other com-
panies that went at the same time received similar compensation.
Our brave and noble soldiers were engaged in many a hard conflict, and
earned a reputation for bravery and gallant conduct, excelled by none, and
many a life was sacrificed to defend the Union The ist regiment was engaged
in the first battle of Bull Run, Virginia, 1861. The 46th regiment was engaged in
capture of Leesburg, Charlestown, Martinsburg, Winchester, Kernstown, Cedar
Mountain, Antietem, Fredericksburg, 1862, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, operat-
ing along theRapidan, Virginia, 1863, transferred to Tennessee to support Gen.
Rosecrans, re-enlisted in 1864, for a term of three years, helped to fight the bat-
tles of Resace, Dallas, Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek, Pine Knob, Marietta, Atlanta
and Savannah, Georgia, 1864, with Sherman through the Carolina's in capturing
Columbus, Goldsboro and Johnston's army at Raleigh, 1865. They were mus-
tered out of service July i6th, 1865, after four years of hard and faithful service,
having lost during that time in killed, wounded and prisoners about three
The 47th Regiment was engaged in many hard conflicts, during it« term
of service. Served in the Florida campaign, under General Brannan, in Virginia
under General J.J. Stevens, South Carolina under Major-General O. M. INIitchell.
Captured St. John's Bluff, Jacksonville, Florida, engaged in the battles of Poco-
taligo and Frampton, South Carolina, garrisoned Forts Taylor and Jefferson,
Key West, Florida, went to Franklin, Louisiana in 1864, participated in the Red
River expedition under General Banks, fought in the battles of Pleasant Hill,
Cave Hill, transferred to Virginia in the fall of 1864, and helped to drive away
the Confederate armj^ from Maryland under General Hunter, placed under Gen-
eral Sheridan in the Shenandoah campaign, helped to fight the battles of Opequan
Winchester, Fisher's Hill, Port Republic and Cedar Creek.
After the surrender of General Lee, the regiment did garrison duty at
Savannah and Charleston. They were mustered out of service after seeing four
years and four months of great hardship, during the time it was in the field it
participated in seven states, marched twelve hundred miles, made twelve sea
voyages, lost during the time it served in killed, wounded and prisoners, five
hundred men. The 92d regiment, the 9th calvary, saw service in Kentucky and
Tennessee in the battles of Bowling Green, Lebanon, Sparta, Moore's Hill,
Tompkinsville, Richmond, Shelbyville, Perryville, Watauga, Holstcn River,
Franklin Rover, Middletown, Cowan, Lafayette, Chickamauga, Dandridge, New
Market, Mossy Creek, Fair Garden, McMinnville, and with General Sherman on
his march to the sea, and was engaged in the battles of Lovejoy Station, Macon,
Bear Creek, Waynesboro, Bupkhead Creek, Buckhead Church, Aiken, Lexington,
Black States Station, Averysville, Bentonville, Hillsboro and Morrisville. This
Regiment had the honor of firing the last gun before the surrender of General J.
E. Johnston at Bentonville and received the flag of truce sent by General Johnson
asking for the surrender. They were mustered out of service July 12th, 1865,
seeing 4 years of hard service and losing in killed, wounded and prisoners many
of its men. It was engaged in the capturing of the rebel General J. H. Morgan
when he was on his raids in Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio.
The 128th regiment saw service in Virgmia, was in the battles of Bull
Run, Chantilly, Antietem, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, in the last named
battle it was reduced to one hundred and seventy two men, more than two hun-
dred were taken prisoners. They were mustered out of service May 12th, 1863,
having proven their loyalty to the cause. The 176th regiment of drafted militia
entered into service November, 1862 and were engaged in doing garrison duty in
Virginia, North and South Carolina, and were mustered out of service August
18th, 1863 The 202d regiment saw service in the Shenadoah campaign where it
shared with the rest of the army the laurels of the same. Mustered out August
3d, 1865. The 209th regiment fought in the battles of Chapin Farms, Fort Stead-
ma,n and in the battles around Petersburg and the surrender of General Lee at
Appomattox Court House. Mustered out May 31, 1865.
The MiLiTi.\ The 5th regiment was called out in 1862. to repel the in-
vasion of the Rebel army, and the rapidity with which they moved showed that
they knew well the import of their mission. The 27th Emergency regiment of
1863, was recruited to help to guard the border of the state from the invasion of
General Lee, did not see active service, but fulfilled its part well. The 38th regi-
ment of militia, of 1863, was called out to defend the border too which duty it
performed faithfully. The 41st regiment which shared with the others the trials
of the campaign and fought with great gallantry at South Mountain.
The Allen Guards and the 9th regiment were engaged in doing guard
duty and paving the way for others to do the work they so nobly commenced by
responding so quickly to their country's call. Thus it will be seen that the sons
of noble Lehigh were in every way in full for their share of the work of bringing
and subduing the discontented states and by it we see that they performed their
part of the work faithfull)-, showing that they possess the true qualities of a faith-
ful citizen, which, when called upon in the hour of need, responded nobly ; and
if needed, lay down their lives upon the altar of freedom that the nation might
Then after an interval of 33 years of peace war broke out between the
United States and Spain on account of Spain's mode of warfare in Cuba, and at
the call of the President, Little Lehigh responded nobly by sending two full
companies and others who enlisted in other companies. Companies B, Capt.
Medlar and D, Capt. Spangler, 4th regiment National Guards of Pennsylvania.
The regiment was commanded by Colonel D. B. Case, of Lancaster, Lieut Colonel
O'Neill, of AUentown. They saw service in Porto Rico and they gave a good ac-
count of themselves, showing the same spirit of patriotism as the forefathers did
in the Revolutionary war, War of 1812, Mexican war and Civil war, ready at a
moment's notice to answer to their country's call in the hour of need.
During the war times many things happen which are both funny and
heartrending, showing the anxiety of the people. Some are full of life and seem
indifferent, while others taking a more serious view of the matter are wishing
they could stay at home with their friends. It is a sad thing when time for part-
ing comes, when the wife and children bid husband and father goodbye, friend
bids friend good bye, etc., with the thought on their minds that perhaps they
would never see each other any more. No one who has not witnessed the de-
parture of the soldiers to the seat of war, can comprehend it. Waving of hands
and handkerchiefs, cheering amid the sobs and cries of the dear ones that left.
But when the soldiers came back from war the .scene was different, everybody
was in cheerful glee and trying to do all they could to give the brave defenders of
their country a royal welcome.
^HK INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS of the county were begun with the ad-
%^ vent of the first settlers. The principal works of improvement are the Le-
high Canal which was built from above Mauch Chunk to Ea.'iton for bringing
the Carbon county coil to the Philadelphia and other markets, and by its
construction it brought into operation the iron industries along the Lehigh Val-
ley. The destruction of the same by the great treshet in June, 1862, led the Le-
high Coal and Navigation Company who owned the canal, to abandon the idea of
rebuilding their dams and locks above Manch Chunk and substitute a railroad in
its place, thus began the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad, all the improve-
ments had for their object the development of the Lehigh Valley.
In 1S38, the Hamburg, AUentown, Bethlehem and Easton R. R. Com-
pany was chartered by the Legislature. It was begun near Hamburg, passing
through Kutztown to AUentown and from there to Bethlehem and Easton. The
road was to have been commenced within five years and completed in ten, the
road was never built, the building of the other roads led the projectors to abandon
it. The Perkiomen R.R. Company was chartered in 1852 and finished in 1876,
passing through the lower end of the county. The Catasaucjua & Fogelsville R.R.
was chartered in 1853 and finished in 1857 It passes through the centre of the
county and is an outlet for the iron ore mines, and crosses the Jordan Valley by
the celebrated iron bridge in South Whitehall township, a distance of 1165 feet,
consisting of 1 1 spans of 100 feet each It connects the East Pennsylvania branch
of the P. & R. R.R. at Alburtis and with the Lehigh Valley and Lehigh & Sus-
quehanna Railroads at Catasauqua. The Lehigh Valley R.R. connects Easton
with Mauch Chunk and with its extensions and branches forms a great trunk line
between New York and the West, passes through the beautiful Lehigh and Wy-
The East Pennsylvania R. R. Company was chartered in 1857, connects
AUentown and Reading and has large atid increasing trafic for freight and coal.
The Ironton R .R. Company was chartered in 1859 and connects Coplay and
Ironton. It was built by the Coplay Iron Company to bring ore for their furnaces.
The Berks & Lehigh R.R. Company was chartered in 1871 and connects Reading
and Slatington and runs through the upper part of the county and is an outlet for
the products of that section. Besides there are many other imj^rovenients as can
be seen in the cultivation of the farms and the improvements of the public road
and the various manufactories, mines and quarries, etc.
CHE EARLIEST schools of the County were almost without exception, estab-
tablished at or in connection with the Lutheran and Reformed churches and
the pastor was the teacher. In most cases the school houses preceded the
churches and served the double purpose of church and school. These schools
were not strictly church schools, they were not supported by the church. Each
parent who sent children to school was compelled to pay in proportion to the
number of days sent. In those days the teacher generally boarded around. In-
struction was given in reading, writing and arithmetic.
The first school in the County was established in 1725 in connection with
the Swamp church, Lower Milford township, and remained open until recently.
The Mennonites opened a school in Upper Milford, near Zionsville, between 1735
and 1749. A little later a school was t-stablLshed by the same denomination in a
fine grove between Centre Valley and Coopersburg. At Dillingersville, Lower
Milford, a school was established by the Lutherans in 1743. The congregation
selecting a tract of land of about thirty acres, a little west of the village, for which
they received a patent thereon in 1770, and erected a school house which served
the double purpose of church and school until 1 791. After that it was used only
for school purposes and known as the Upper Milford school house.
By Act of Assembly, this property was sold in 1871, for the sum of $4,050
which amount is placed on interest as a special school fund, giving the sub-
district at present a ten months' term. The children living within two miles of
the school house are entitled to attend the school during the summer term, giving
them a great advantage over the surrounding districts. The Moravians com-
menced a school at Emaus in 1746, one year previous to their organization of the
church in 1747. Christopher and Mary Heyne were the first teachers at Emaus,
in 1752 the Moravian school at Oley, Berks county was removed to Emaus, and
in 1753 both were removed to Bethlehem on account of the indian troubles in the
At Egypt, Whitehall township, a school was established in 1733. At
New Tripoli, Lynn Township, the oldest school in the upper part of the county
was established in 1750. At the same time schools were established at the Le-
high church. Lower Macungie and at Heidelberg church, Heidelberg township.
In 1790, John and Jane Wetzel conveyed by deed to the trustees and
their successors, two acres of land for school purpo.ses at Centreville, near the
borough of Macungie. The property was sold in 1S68 on ground rent reservation
and the annual receipts therefrom, amount to one hundred and fifty dollars,
which with the sum otherwise provided, enables the district to have ten months
school term annually. Andrew Eisenhard, Cornelius Hughes and John Herman,
in 1790, donated two acres of land at East Texas for school purposes and erected
thereon, at their own expense a school house, this property was sold in 1874 for
$3t750- The district derives the sum of two hundred and twenty-six dollars an-
nually, a portion of which is expended in maintaining a summer school.
In 1760, a great drawback was made in the schools of the county, caused
by the teachers leaving their profession and entering the ministry, as many of the
congregations could not secure regular pastors. And less qualified teachers took
the places as teachers, consequently the schools suffered much from the change.
When the schools were first started the instruction was exclusively in the German
language until 1800. In 1820, the English language was introduced in most of
the progressive schools of the County, and taught in connection with the Ger-
man. During the same period very few entirely Engiish schools had been estab-
lished in the County.
The first entirely English school was established at Egypt in 1809, and
Jacob Kern was the first teacher at a salary- of fourteen dollars a month, the
school was kept open until 1857. The English School Society of New Tripoli was
organized in tSi 2 and opened a school there which was kept until 1850. At the
same time Euj<lish schools were opened at Allentown and Balliettsville in 1816,
in Upper Saucon in 1833. When the free school system in 1834 was first put into
operation it met with fierce opposition, but which soon passed av\ay and since
that time the .schools have made rapid progress. There are many graded schools
in the County outside the boroughs. The schools are under the supervision of the
County Superintendent of Public Schools, who is elected for three years by the
school directors of the County, the first Tuesday in Way every third year. His
duties are to hold examinations for examining applicants for teachers certificates
and grants the same to those who pass the examination successfully. He has
power to grant two grades of certificates, the first one is a provisional certificate,
good for one year only and cannot be renewed. The second one is a professional
certificate which holds good during his term of office and is good for one year
under the new superintendent, is granted only to those who have acquired pro-
fessional skill in the art of teaching.
He holds teachers and directors meetings, the County teachers institute,
local institute and other meetings that seem necessary for the benefit of the
schools under his supervision. He has charge of ail the schools outside of Allen-
town, and his entire time is given to the attention of the schools under his charge.
SOIL, ANIMALS, ETC.
THE SOIL of the County is very fertile and suitable for raising all of the
grains pertaining to the temperate zone. The grains raised are wheat, rye,
corn, oats, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, etc. Dairying and trucking are
carried on a large scale. The products raised find ready market in Allentown and
surrounding towns. The climate is delightful and healthy, well suited for the
industry of the people, and the natural resources are great, nowhere can be found
a people that are more industrious and frugal than the people of Lehigh County.
The principal industries are cotton and woolen, boot and shoe, silk and knitting
manufactories, hardware, cutlery, breweries, furnaces, foundries, fiour mills,
tobacco, cement, etc., which gives employment to many people. The other em-
ployments are farming, mining, dairying and trucking.
The geological ages are as follows : ist, Azoic, 2d, Palaeozoic, 3d,
Mesozoic, 4th, Camozoic (new Hfe), representing three period sand four divisions.
To the Azoic age belong the South Mountain belt of rocks, extending from Eas-
ton on the Delaware to Reading on the Schuylkill in a broken line, where they
sink under a plain of the next higher order or Palaeozoic age, which constitute
in our county, the limestone and slate in the valley and the sand rocks in the
Kittatinny Mountains. In the past ages the South or Lehigh Mountains now
averaging one thousand feet above the sea level, were an immense mountain sys-
tem of five miles in height, covered by 30,000 newer rocks, comprising the lime
stones and slate of the Lehigh Valley, the sand rocks of the Blue Mountains, the
shales, hydraulic limestones and sand of Stroudsburg and Lehigh Valley. The
red and white sand stones of the Mauch Chunk Mountain and the one north of it.
Remnant of the Palaeozoic age are still found in the patches on the South Moun-
tains. The character of these rocks are principally of two kinds : — ist, strictly
stratified, thick bedded, massive gneiss, a mixture of granular quartz, white or
pink feldspar with the absence of mica, belonging to that variety of gneiss called
granulite. 2d, stratified syemite, a mixture of hornblende feldspar, little or no
quartz, magnetic oxide of iron is found abundantly in the hornblende rocks In
Lehigh county, the mountain mass is split in two by the Saucon Valley, the
western half called the Lehigh Mountains, is a belt two miles wide composed
chiefly of the harder syemite gneiss, extending from Bethlehem through Upper
Saucon, Salisbury and Upper Mil ford townships The other belt is mo.sitly con-
fined to portions of Upper Saucon and Lower Milford townships.
The Palaeozoic rocks in the County are the Potsdam sandstone of which
only two members have been found in the County, the sandstone, the upper
slate, magnesian limestone and others. The Mesozoic age is found along the
Bucks countv line in Upper Saucon and Lower Milford townships. The Camozioc
is the new age and is found sparingly in the mud and gravel along the Lehigh
Principal formations of the different townships of Lehigh county are
as follows : Hanover, shale, slate and limestone ; Heidelberg, shale and slate;
Lower Macungie, syenite and limestone ; Lower Milford, red sand, stone and
syenite; Lowhill, shale and slate; Lynn, shale and slate; North Whitehall,
shale and limestone ; Salisbury, syenite, quartzite and limestone; South White-
hall, limestone ; Upper Macungie, limestone and shale ; Upper Milford, shale
and slate ; Upper Saucon, red sandstone, syenite and limestone; Washington,
shale and slate ; Weisenberg, shale and slate ; Whitehall, shale and slate.
Mountains and Hills. The Blue Mountains form the northwest boundary
of the county, the Lehigh or South Mountains in the southern part are the only
mountains within the County. There are several hills or knolls which will be
mentioned under the head of townships in which they are located.
Rivers and Creeks. The Lehigh is the only river in the County, and
forms the boundary between the Lehigh Gap and the north line of Hanover town-
ship, Lehigh county, and of Northampton county, and from there forms the
boundary line between Hanover and Salisbury townships. Its most important
branches in the county are Trout creek, which rises at the foot of the Blue
Mountains in Heidelberg township, flows east in the Lehigh River two miles
below thd Lehigh Water Gap, turning a number of mills. Antelawny or Maiden
creek rises in Lynn township flows west along the Blue Mountains into Berks
county where it empties into the Schuylkill river. It turns many mills. Coplay
creek rises in North Whitehall township, flows southeast into the Lehigh River,
between Catasauqua and Hokendauqua about 5 miles north of Allentown, turning
several mills but often fails in the dry season. Jordan creek rises at the foot of
the Blue Mountains in Heidleberg township flows in a very crooked course south-
west into the Little Lehigh creek at Allentown about 100 feet above its mouth.
This stream turns many mills and the quantity of its water depends on the season.
The Little Lehigh Creek rises in Lower Macungie township flows east into the
Lehigh river at Allentown, many mills are along its banks. There are numerous
smaller streams in the county, which are principally in the townships where they
will be described.
Animals. The following wild animals are found in the county, the red
and grey foxes, raccoon, mink, rabbit, opossum, woodchuck, skunk, cat, flying,
ground, red and grey squirrel, chipmunk and weasel. Birds. The birds are the
eagle, turkey buzzard, screech and great horned owl, fish hawk, heron, whippor-
ville, night hawk, mocking bird, swallow, quail, blue bird, black bird, crow,
robin, gold finch, oriole, wren, jay, crane, cat bird, sparrow and others.
Botany. Among the plants that are found in the county are the daisy,
calomel, mullein, bitterwort, thistle, burdock, golden rod, aster, balsam, bella-
donna, bloodroot, buttercup, catmint, chamomile, etc. Trees. The forest trees
are white, red, black, burr and scrub oak, chestnut, maple, hickory, birch, beech,
pijne, walnut, wild cherrj*, etc. ; the fruit trees are the apple, apricot, peach, plum
cherry, pear, quince, crabapple and others.
Religious Denominations. The following denominations are found in the
County : Protestant Episcopal, Lutheran, Reformed, Baptist, Presbyterian,
Methodist Episcopal, Evangelical Association, United Evangelical, United
Brethren, Mennonite, Mennonite Brethren in Christ, Free Methodist, Sweden-
borgian, Catholic and Moravian.
GEOGRAPHY OF TOWNSHIPS.
HANOVER. This township lies east of the Lehigh River, and is bounded on
the north and east by Northampton county, south and ^vest by the Lehigh
river. The population was at the last census of 1900, 3,324. The Lehigh
river and Monocacy creek are the principal streams that -water the township.
The soil is fertile and of limestone formation ; The land is level and the principal
occupations of the people are farming, stock raising, dairy, trucking, and there
are also iron works, flour mills, silk mills, tanneries, brick works, fire brick
works, lime kilns, limestone quarries, etc.
VILLAGES^Rittersville, a town midway between Allentown and Beth-
lehem on the Allentown and Bethlehem turnpike and the Lehigh Valley Traction
railway ; it has a fine park and is a nice Summer resort for the city people, has
numerous stores, hotels, churches, schoolhouse and cemetery. It was founded in
1808 by Michael Ritter. The population in 1900 was 525. Schoenersville, situ-
ated on the boundary line between Hanover township, Lehigh county and Han-
over township, Northampton county, the population in 19C0 estiniattd about 200.
It contains a store, hotel, post office, and was founded in 1784 by Adam Schoener.
East Allentown was founded in 1828 is a suburb of Allentown, it contains several
stores, hotels, mills, tannery, fire brick works, lumber yards and limestone quar-
ries. The Lehigh canal, Lehigh and Susquehanna R.R. and the L. V. Traction
railway pass through the place. It is connected with Allentown by a fine large
bridge. Population 1200. Post office — Allentown. The earliest schools in the
township were at vSchoenersville, Rittersville and West Bethlehem. The free
school system was accepted in 1834, while the other townships in the County
rejected it in that year. It contains excellent schools both graded and ungraded.
The first road in the township was the one leading from Bethlehem to Gnaden-
hutten, (now Lehighton), and was laid out by order of the court of Bucks county
in 1747, it was used as a military road from 1755 to 1761. The next road was the
one leading from the Philadelphia road in Salisbury township crossing the Le-
high river by a ford near the old house on the Geissinger's farm, passing through
what is now Rittersville and Schoenersville.
This township is bounded on the north by Carbon county, east
-- ., |, . by Washington township, south by Lowhill township, west by
nciaClDcrg Lynn township. Population in 1900 was 141 1. It was organ-
ized as a township in 1752, it included at first Lynn and Wash-
ington township, and lies in the northern part of the County. The surface is
hilly and the Blue Mountains cross the northern part of the township. Bake Oven
Knob is situated in the northwestern part, the soil is white gravel and is, however,
capable of producing good crops, if well cultivated. The principal streams that
drain the township, are the Jordan and Trout creek with a number of smaller
streams, and furnish abundant waterpower for mills and manufactories.
AUe-mangel, the whole region embraced in Heidelberg and Lynn town-
ships to Albany township, Berks county, known by that name, meaning wanting
everything, namely, no roads, no place of defence against the Indians.
The settlers were of German descent and were kept constantly in alarm,
during the Indian Wars in the colonies in 1755-56, the township was nearly de-
serted by the settlers, who fled to Bethlehem and other places for refuge from the
savages who h?d threatened their lives and properties. The next alarm was
when the settlers heard of the Whitehall massacres in 1763.
The settlers belonged to the Lutheran and Reformed denominations, and
churches were founded all over the township and were well attended. They
strictly adhered to their faith and tried their utmost to bring their children up in
the precepts of Christianity. They were honest to the core ; as the following il-
lustration will show : When a man loaned I500 or |i,ooo from his neighbor the
lender did not even take a note but merely marked down the amount of the
money and the time opposite. When the amount or interest, was paid, it was
marked with a piece of chalk against the house joists or on the large house clock.
When the money with interest was due it was always forthcoming and there was
hardly a failure. It was considered a crime if one failed to fulfill his agree-
ment. They held to the old maxim "His word as good as his note."
The oldest church in this township is Heidelberg church, organized in
1740 and is one mile east of Saegersville nearly in the centre of the township.
Rev. J. F. Schertlein was the first Lutheran pastor and Rev. P. J. Michael was the
first Reformed minister.
The settlers of this township were nearly free from incursions, scarcely a
murder was committed while nearly all of the surrounding settlements were de-
stroyed. Fathers Longnour, Kemmerer and others went to Gnadenhutten and
assisted in burying the dead after the massacre there. The reason that the set-
tlers were so free from indian troubles was due to the Providence of God and the
fact that no indiaii villiage stood within the limits of the township. The nearest
one was in Lyim township on the other side of the Blue Mountains and south of
the Blue .Mountains on the other side of the Lehigh River. An Indian path led
in a straight line from Lehigh Gap through Saegersville. The first public road
laid out was in 1770, and during the later years many good roads were made in
this township. The highest point in the township is Bake Oven Knob on the top
of the Blue Mountains, 1560 feet above the sea level, it being the center of the
county line of Lehigh and Carbon counties, and it has been for years a signal
station in the United States Coast Survey. The summit of the knob affords a fine
view of the surrounding country. Bear Rock, two miles west of the Bake Oven
Knob, is another point 1,500 feet above the sea level. There are three rocks
standing in a row connected by smaller ones piled on top of each other ; it is the
dividing line between Lehigh, Carbon and Schuylkill counties, a fine view can be
had from its summit, looking southwest, the cit\- of Reading can be seen, by
the naked eye, the smoke as it pours forth from the stacks of the numerous fur-
naces, factories, mills, etc. Looking south over our county, Allentown and the
beautiful Kittatinnv valley dotted with thriving towns and villages can be dis-
tinctly .seen by the naked eye at least twenty miles distant. Viewing Carbon
county. Switchback, Delaware Water Gap, etc., are seen distinctly. Tourists
proclaim the finest scenery they have ever viewed with the exception of the Alps.
The scenery that one can view from the Bear Rock presents the grandest view
that can be met with anywhere. In 1832 a rifle factory was established bj'
Philip Hess, Jr., one mile west of Balliett's furnace, on a road leading from the
road from Saegersville to Lehighton across the mountains ; the road is still
known as the factory road. The factory was in successful operation for a long
time and was later on used as a distillery. The first grist mill was erected in 1S08
by John J. Snyder, on Jordan creek later known as Kressly mill. The vSchuylkill
and Lehigh R. R. passes through the township, giving an outlet to the farmers
for their products. The schools compare favorably with those of the other town-
ships in the County, and are steadily advancing ; the teachers are progressive and
the Board of Directors are energetic, doing the best for the schools under their
VILLAGES — S&egersville, a post village situated six miles west of Slat-
ington, contains a carriage factory, hotel, one store, post oflSce which was estab-
lished in 1829, daily mail. It was founded in 1760 and is a popular stopping
place for city folks who leave the confines and tumults of our large eastern cities
during the sultry Summer months. Population 460. Deibertsville is situated two
miles east of Saegersville, contains a post office and a number of dwellinj^s, was
founded in 1842, population in 1900 was 60. Germansville. one mile west of Saeg-
ersville, contains a store, hotel, machine shop, brick kilns, post cflEce, is on the
Schuylkill and Lehigh R.R. Founded in 1742 by Adam German, and the present
population is about 320. . Pleasant Corner is one and one-fourth miles southwest
of Saegersville, contains a store, hotel, grist mill. Founded 1744 by John Rice
and population in 1900 was 300.
Bounded on the northeast by Salisbury township, southeast by
I >^-^^-. Upper Milford township, northwest by Upper Macungie town-
ship, southwest by Berks county. Population in 1900 was
Ii^&Ctingl6 2,920. It is one of the richest townships in the County, the
soil is very fertile and productive and is of limestone formation.
Rich and valuable hematite ores are found. The Flats near East Texas in this
township are especially rich in iron ore. The principal streams that drain the
township are the Little Lehigh and Swabia creeks. Industries are the Lockridge
furnace near Alburtis, Macungie furnace, flour mills, etc. The people are largely
engaged in farming, mining, dairying, trucking. The schools are in fine condi-
tion and compare favorably with the schools of the County. The teachers and
directors are working together for the welfare and advancement of the schools
under their supervision. The first settlement was made in 1738, near Macungie,
by some German settlers led by Michael Schaeffer.
VILLAGES — Centreville is a suburb of Macungie, contains a hotel, store,
schoolhou.se and number of dwelling houses, post office Macungie, electric rail-
way passes through the town. Population 360. Albuitis on the East Pennsyl-
vania Branch of the P. & R. railroad and the terminus of the Catasauqua & Fog-
elsville branch of the same railroad, is a thriving town and has several stores,
hotels, silk mill, shirt factory, post office, school house containing four schools ;
was founded in 1857 and its population in 1900 was 780. East Texas is a small
village, seven miles from Allentown on the line of the Allentown & Kutztown
Traction Co., it contains a store, hotels, school house and post office. The popu-
ation in 1900 was 240. Wescoesville, a small village, five miles from Allentown,
has a store, hotel, church and school house, the Allentown & Kutztown Traction
Co.'s electric railway passes through. Population in 1900 was 200.
This lownship lies in the southern part of tlie county, and is
I o'urt^r bounded on the northeast by Upper Saucon township, south-
west by Bucks county, northwest by Upper Milford township,
IVllllOrd and southwest by Montgomery county. Population according
to the census of 1900 was 1233. It was organized a separate
township in 1847. The soil is very fertile, hjeing shale and gravel and very pro-
ductive, the surface is very irregular. Farming is the principal pursuit of the
people. The following hills are within the township, Hosensack Hill (Muehl-
berg) in the southern part. Chestnut Hill in the northeastern part, Mosser's Ridge
( Dillingers) in the northwestern part, Mill Ridge in the central part. Hosensack
creek rises on the west side of Chestnut Hill, flows southwest into the Perkiomen
creek, Dubbs, Eberhard, Dickenshied, Schantz, Walter, Indian, Trump, Swamp,
Hickens, Saucon, Krauss and Ortt's creeks are the other streams which drain the
township The first settlement was undoubtedly made in 1715, about one-fourth
mile west of the Swamp Church, the building was still standing a few years ago and
the date 1715 could still be seen on the mantel piece. The early settlers came
principally from Germany as can be seen by the names of Schuler, Eberhard,
Ortt, Yenkel, etc.
OLD LAND MARKS. The Old King's High Road and the Great Phila-
delphia Road were the first roads in the township. Walbert's tavern near Krauss-
dale which was founded in 1735 is now abandoned; Larosch's tavern, between
Hosensack and Zionsville on the property of the late Dr. John Ziegler, was open-
ed in 1786, and is now abandoned ; the Swamp church was built in 1730 near the
county line of Lehigh and Bucks counties, on the road leading from Dillingers-
ville to Spinnersville, it belongs to the Reformed denomination. Chestnut Hill
Union church (Lutheran and Reformed) was founded in 1740; Schwenkfelder's
church was founded in 1755. Schools were early established and among the first
schools were those at Swamp Church, 1725-30, Hosensack, 1734, Chestnut Hill is
not known, Kraussdale, 1742. The schools at the present time compare favorably
with the schools of the other townships, there are eleven schools and term is seven
months. John and Andrew Krauss, sons of Baltzer Krauss, Jr., built their first
organ in 1790, and continued the business in the vicinity of Kraussdale until 1840
when they moved their factory to Palm. Montgomery county, and it was there,
for a long time, continued by George S. and Edwin B. Krauss.
The first grist mill was built in 1745 near Hosensack on the Ho.sensack
creek, and was known as Kriebel's mill ; Schantz's mill, iSoo ; Gehrhard's mill,
f785 ; Stauffer'smill, 1786; Heiler's mill, 1780; Heist's (Walter's) mill, 1790,
and Dubbs' mill, 1800. Among the other industries were Antrim's Casement
mill, Dubbs' pottery, Dillinger's oil mill, Burkhalter's and Dubbs' tanneries and
Dubbs' forge. Limestones are found in large quantities and limekilns for burn-
ing lime found everywhere. There are four creameries in the township at Hosen-
sack, Kraussdale, Limeport and Plover, all of which are doing an excellent
VILLAGES— Dilling'ersville, is situated on the road leading from Zions-
ville to Spinnersville. It was founded in 1735, contains a store, hotel, post office
and is the election place of the township. Population in 1900 was 150. Hosen-
sack is situated on the old King's High road, twelve miles southwest of Allen-
town, it was founded in 1759 and contains a store, hotel, creamery and pest
office. The Farmer's Alliance of the lower end of the County has its headquar-
ters there and are in good condition. Population 100. Limeport is on the road
leading from Allentown to Steinsburg, it was founded in 1825, and contains two
stores, two hotels, post office, creamery, limestone quarries and lime kilns. Pop-
ulation in 1900 was 200. Kraussdale, on the old King's High road, f9unded in
1735, contains a creamery, grist mill and the machine shops of Krauss Bros, were
until lately located here. Population in 1900 was 30. Corning, on the Perkicmen
R.R. contains a store, post office and coal yard. Population in 1900 was 130.
Plover, on the road leading from Dillingersville to the Swamp church, contains a
store, creamery and post office, founded in 1881 by W. R. Schuler. Population
in 1900 was 70.
is bounded on the north by Pleidelberg and Lj-nn townships,
I r\^A7Vti11 on the east by North Whitehall, on the south by Upper Ma-
cungie and South Wbitehall townships, and on the west by
Weisenberg. Population in 1900 was 715. It was organized in
1753- The principal streams flowing through the township are Jordan and Lyon
creeks, they furnish water power for a number of mills. The soil is fertile, the
principal grains are raised, and potatoes extensively cultivated. The surface is
hilly and abounds in springs. The principal occupation of the people is farming.
The first land warrant was made in 1743 to John Conrad Redd. The other settlers
were Henry Hauser, Michael Kimbald, Richard Vodgas, John Rifle and others.
Some of the old land marks were Mosser's mill (Hollenbacb's) built in lyco.
Balzer fritz kept the first store in the township on the road leading from Fogels-
ville to Claussville. Lowhill church was built in 1769, in the northwestern part
of the township. The third building was erected in 1858. Morganland church
in the southeastern part, was built in 1858. One of the first public roads was laid
out in 1813, from Christian Hartman's house to the Great Philadelphia road.
The schools are comparing well with the schools of the surrounding townships,
the first schools were established in connection with the church. Among the
earlier teachers were John David, Jr., Jacob Hart, John Benner and Israel
The first public house was opened before the Revolutionary war at
Leather Corner Po.st.
VILLAGES — WeldasvilFe was founded in 1765 Population in 1900
was 100. It contains a store and post office. Lyon Valley, founded in 1845.
Population in 1900 was 200. It contains a store, hotel and post office. Clauss-
ville, founded in 1801, contains a store, hotel and post office. Population in 19C0
was 132. Leather Corner Post, the oldest village in the township, and con-
tains a store and hotel.
Bounded on the north l)y Schuylkill county, east by Heidel-
I •vnn berg township, south by Weisenberg township and West by
Berks county. The population in 1900 vvfas 2,366, and was or-
ganized in 1752. The soil is productive. Grain and other
cereals are raised. The principal occupation of the people is farming. The first
mill in the township and probably the first in the county, was erected on Sweit-
zer's creek in 1740, one fourth mile below where Greenwald's mill now stands.
The first English school was established in 1812, other schools connected with
the congregations existed earlier. The free school system was adopted in 1838.
Ebenezer church, at New Tripoli, was erected in 1761 ; Jacob's church, at Jack-
sonville, was built in 1750; St. Peter's church, south of Lynnville, was built in
VILLAGES — New Tripoli was founded in 1812, was at first called
Saegersville, and was changed in i8i6to New Tripoli in honor of the snccess of
the American navy at Tripoli, in 1815. The town is regularly laid out, the streets
running north, south, east and -west at right angles ard mostly ranged after
prominent men of the United States, it has two stores, two hotels, mills and
post office. Population in 1900 was 400. Jacksonville was founded in 1820,
it contains stores, church, hotel and post office. Population in 1900 was 329
Stelnsville, founded in 1756, and contains a store, hotel, post office, marLle
yard, mill .md foundry. Population in 1900 was 596. Lynnvllle, foimded in
I .Su6, contains a store, hotel, post office and school house. Population in 1900
was 16S. Rabert's Corner, formally Oswaldsville, was founded in i860. The
population in 19x1 was 126. Lynnport, founded in 1814, contains a store, hotel,
post office, mantel factory and school house. The population m 1900 was 436.
New felatedale was founded in 1854, Population in 1900 was 100.
is bounded on the northeast by Northampton county and
^ ii Whitehall township, southeast by South Whitehall township,
1A/U*x U 11 northwest by Washington township and southwest by Lowhill
Wnil6nall township. Population in 1900 was 3,280. It was organized in
1753. The surface is undulating and the soil is very fertile and
all the principal grains are raised. Iron ore, limestone and cenent are found in
large quantities. The principal streams that drain the town.ship are the Jordan,
Rock, Fell's. Mill and Coplay creeks, on the banks of Mill creek were committed
the Indian massacres of 1763. The people are engaged in farming, mining and
The schools are among the best m the county, the first school was estab-
lished in 1755, at what is now Unionville. The first English school was establish-
ed at RalliettsviUe in 1816. Union church is the oldest church and was built in
1750 ; the first Reformed minister was Rev. John D. Gross, and the first Lutheran
minister was Rev. John H. Schaum.
VILLAGES— Balliettsville, founded in 1749 by Paul Balliett, contains a
store, hotel and post office. Population in 1900 was 120. Unioi^ille, founded in
1S15, contains a store, hotel and post office. Population in i90o""was 200. Iron-
ton, founded in i860, is situated in a rich mining district and is connected with
Coplay by the Ironton R. R. and contains a store, hotel and post office. Popula-
tion in 1900 was 300. Ruchsville, founded in 1800, contains a store, hotel and post
office. Population in 1900 was 112. SiegersvilJe, founded in 1750 contains a store,
hotel and post office, is situated in a rich mining district. Population in 1900 was
I 25. Schnecksville. founded in 1845, contains a store, two hotels and post office.
Population in 1900 was 200. Laury. founded in 1832, contains a store, hotel, flour
mill and post office. Laury's Island in the Lehigh River is a well know summer
resort. Population in 1900 was 250. Rockdale, founded in 1S56, contains a store,
hotel and post office Population in 1900 was 150. Kernsville, founded in 1806,
contains a store. Population in 1900 was 60
is bounded on the northeast by the Lehigh River, northwest
Si^li^htirv ^^ South Whitehall township, southeast by Upper Saucon
^ township, southwest by Upper Milford and Lower Macungie
townships. Population in 1900 was 4,583. It was organized in
1753 as a township. The surface is rolling and the soil very fertile. The Lehigh
Mountains form the southern boundary, between Salisburj- and Upper Saucon town-
ships. The most important streams that drain the township are the Little Lehigh,
Trout and Little Trout creeks. The principal occupations of the people are farm-
ing, manufacturing and mining. Iron ore is found along the Lehigh Mountains.
The first settlement was made in 1736, on what is now the Geissinger farm on the
Lehigh River, by Solomon Jennings.
The oldest homesteads are Lorentz Klein a few miles west of Allentown
on the Little Lehigh settled by Christian Kassel in 1730 and Jacob Bogert's place
on the same creek a few miles from Klein's farm, settled by Peter Bogert in 1738,
both of the farms are still in the possession of the Klein and Bogert families. The
first public house was licensed in 1786, and was kept by Martin Ritter. Salisbury
church was built in 174.1 is situate 1 on a hill, overlooking the Little Lehigh creek ,
one and one-half miles north of Emaus. The first Lutheran minister was the Rev.
J. W. Straub ; the first Reformed minister known was the Rev. J. P. Leydich.
Tradition says that over a hundred years ago a church stood on the site of what is
now Jerusalem Church, the graveyard belonging to it is still in use ; the present
church was erected in 1843. The first Lutheran minister of the present church
was the late venerable Rev. Joshua Yeager ; the first Reformed minister was the
Rev. Max Stem. The Mountainville Evangelical church was built in 1S63.
Salisbury had few schools originally; those living near Bethlehem sent
their children to that place ; those living near Emaus to that place ; and those liv-
ing in the vicinity of the Salisbury church to that place. One of the oldest school-
houses was Markle's, built in 1820. The schools are in fine condition and com-
pare well with the other schools of the count}'.
VILLAGES — Mountainville, was founded in 1856, contains three stores,
two hotels, church, carriage factory and is on the Allentown and Coopersburg
turnpike and Allentown and Emaus electric road. Population in 19C0 was 250.
South Allentown, a suburb of Allentown, contains a number of stores, hotels,
churches, flour mill, furnace. The Allentown and Bethlehem Electric railroad
passes through it. The population in 1900 was 2,000. The State Fishery in the
western part of Salisbury, is a fine place for pleasure parties and the fish hatchery
is well worth visiting.
is bounded on the northwest by North Whitehall township,
o -. jAi- southeast by Salisbury township, and southwest by Upper and
Lower Macungie townships. The population in 1900 was 2,472.
WnitCnSlll The surface is generally level with the exception of Huckle-
berry ridge, which runs west for about two miles, the soil is
very fertile. It was organized as a separate township in 1810, and was formally
included in Whitehall township, (which igijluded the three Whitehalls. ) The
two principal streams are the Jordan creek which flows through the northern
part and Cedar creek which flows through the southern part. The first settle-
ment was made in 1735, by Nicholas Kern. The Catasauqua & Fogelsville R.R.
passes through the township and is an outlet for the numerous ore mines along
its route, it crosses Jordan creek by the famous Iron Bridge which spans it, the
length of which is 1165 feet, consisting of 11 spans of 100 feet each, supported by
a series of suspension trusses.
The old roads are the Allentown and Easton and the Mauch Chunk roads.
The Jordan Lutheran church is the oldest in the township, it was founded in
1744, the first minister was Rev. Berkenstock ; Jordan Reformed church was
founded in 1752. the first minister was the Rev. J. H. Goetchius. Cedarville
Union church was founded in 1855, the first Lutheran minister was Rev. Jeremiah
Schiiidel and the first Reformed minister was Rev. Joseph Dubbs. The same
year the Evangelical church was built.
The earliest schools in the township were those that were connected with
the Jordan Lutheran and Reformed churches and were opened the same time the
churches were founded. The schools of the township compare with the other
schools of the County.
VILLAGES — Cetroni&. formerly Cedarville, was founded in 1850 by
Charles Mertz and contains a store, hotel, three churches, flour mills and post
office. Dorney Fish Wier and Park, a quarter of a mile west, is a fine summer
resort. The Allentown & Kutztown electric road passes the village and Dorney
Park. Population in 1900 was 150. Crackersport. a small village, contains a
store, hotel and carriage factory. Population in 1900 was 90. Griesmersville,
founded in 1806 by Abraham Griesemer, it contains a hotel, limekilns, and the
famous Duck Farm is located here. The Allentown & Kutztown electric railroad
passes through it. Population in 1900 was 150. Guthsville. founded in 1780, and
contains a store, hotel and post office. Population in 1900 was 50. Mechanics-
ville was founded in 1823 by John Scheirer, contains a store and hotel. Popula-
tion in 1900 was 125. Orefield was founded in 1813 by Joseph Kern, store, hotel,
post office, etc. Population in 1900 was 164. Wennersville, founded in 1837 by
William Wenner, contains a store, hotel, school house, post oflBce and church.
Population in 1900 was 140. Snydersville was founded in 1835 by George Snyder.
Population in 1900 was 25. Guth's Station, on the Catasauqua & FogelsvilleR.R.
and contains a store, hotel, vitrified brick works and post ofiice. Population in
1900 was 140.
is bounded on the east by South Whitehall township, south by
I Inn*>r Lower Macungie township, north by Lowhill and Weisenberg
*^*^ ^ townships and on the west by Berks county. The meaning of
M&CUnglC the word Macunge is of Indian origin and means the "eating
place of bears." When food became scarce on the mountains
the bears came to the valleys. Population in 1900 was 2,084. It was organized as
a township in 1742. The first settlement was made in 1729, at Spring creek near
Trexlertown, on what was later known as the Schwartz's farm, by Jeremiah
Trexler and children. The first public road through the township was made in
1732 from Trexlertown to Goshenhoppen. The surface is level, the soil is fertile
and is of limestone formation. Iron ore and limestone are found in large quan-
tities in the vicinities of Foglesville, Breinigsville and Trexlertown. The Cata-
uaqua and Foglesville R. R. passes through the township and is an outlet for the
same. The principal streams that drain the township are the Macungie creek,
Spring creek, Little Lehigh creek and Haas creek flows in the northern part and
empties into the Jordan creek. Cedar creek, in the southeastern part rises in the
Schantz spring, and empties into the Little Lehigh creek at Schreiber's Mill, turn-
ing many mills in its course. Schantz Spring which is situated in this township
about five miles west of Allentown, is a very large spring of pure water, being
nearly free from mineral substance. The power and force of the water of the
spring is very remarkable, it propels a saw^ mill at its very beginning. A 36x12
inch stream of water pours forth at one place. Cedar Creek propels four flour
mills along its course. It was a pleasant meeting place where the red men used
to assemble in days gone by. The first settler at the spring was John George
Guth in 1744, though settling about a mile from the spring and erected a grist-
mill there which he sold to his son George, together with sixty acres of land in
1766. In 1774 Adam Eppler became the owner ; in 17SS Henry Bortz, and Jacob
Schantz in 1792. In 1818 Jacob Schantz, Jr. became the owner and in 1844 his
son Hiram J. Schantz came into possession of it and lately disposed of it to David
Koch who afterwards sold it to the City of Allentown (in 1900) who intend laying
pipes and bring the water of the spring to the city. The people came from far
and near to have their grain ground at the mill in the early times.
Lehigh County Poor House was founded in 1844, upon the farm bought
from C. and S. Mertz in South Whitehall township, containing two hundred and
sixty acres for $27,742.
The first constable of Macungie was John Brandberg, appointed in 1737.
VILLAGES — BreinlgsvlIIe, contains a store, hotel, schools, church and
a postofl5ce. The Allentown and Kutztown trolley line passes through the village.
Population in 1900 was 213. Chapman's on the Catasauqua and Foglesville R.
R., contains a store, hotel, post oflBce, a coal and lumber yard. Population 1900
was 60. Trexl --rtown, the oldest town in the township, is on the Catasauqua
and Fogelsville R. R. and on the Allentown & Kutztown trolley line, 8 miles from
Allentown, and contains a store, three hotels, a Lutheran and Reformed church,
post office, coal and lumber yard, machine shop, graded school and Masonic Hall.
Population 1900, 345. Fogelsville was founded in 1798 by Judge John Fogel, and
contains three stores, two hotels, two schools, three churches and a post ofiice.
Population 1900, was 638.
bounded on the northeast bj- Salisburj- and Upper Saucon,
ITnnpr southeast by Lower Milford, northwest by Lower Macungie,
*| southwest by Berks county. The form is rectangular and was
iVlllIOru formed Into a separate township in 1852. Population in 1900
was 2,712. The surface is hilly and the soil is fertile being
principally gravel and red shale. Iron Ore of different kinds are found. Perkio-
men creek flows through the western part in the form of a horse shoe; Leibeit's
creek is in the northeastern part and flows through Leibert's Gap and empties in-
to the Little Lehigh creek; Fetterman's creek is in the northern part empties into
Leibert's creek at Vera Cruz; Miller's creek is in the northern part empties into
the Little Lehigh creek. The first settlement was made at or near Old Zionsville
in 1733. by the Mennonites. The township was organized in 1734.
The first road was the King's High road leading through Shimerville and Zions-
ville from Trexlertown to Goshenhoppen, 1736, the second road was the Great
Philadelphia road laid out in 1740, the third road was laid out at the same time
from Emaus to Chestnut Hill Among the old sites are Fisher's tavern between
Shimerville and Macungie, on the King's High road, opened prior to 1795, by
Jacob Fisher, the property being now owned by Ambrose Schantz; Seider's tavern
opened in 1785 by George Seiders, on the Great Philadelphia road upon the prop-
erty now owned by U. H. Wieand, The early churches were Zionsville Reformed
church, founded in 1750, Rev. John E. Hecker \vas the first pastor. Zionsville
Lutheran church was founded in 1735, Rev. L. H. Schrecke. was the first pastor.
The Mennonite church, was founded in 1735; St. Peters church was lounded in
1843, Revs. D. Kohler and H. Bassler were the first Lutheran and Reformed min-
isters. The Evangelical church was founded in 1830 bj' Bishop John Seybert; the
Mennonite Brethren church was founded in 1857 by the Rev. William Gehman,
who had withdrawn from the Mennonite church on account of differences of re-
ligious doctrine. Peter Walbert was appointed the first constable of Upper Mil-
ford township, in 1739.
The first schools were established in connection with the founding of the first
settlements in 1735 by the Mennonites at Zionsville, the .schools of the township
compare well with the schools of the rest of the county. There are at present fif-
teen schools, both graded and ungraded.
VILLAGES — Old Zionsville, founded in 1734, on the old Kings High road,
Hereford & S'.iiine:ville turnpike, cont liiis four stores, hotel two, churches and post
office. Population 1900 was 160. Zionsville, founded in i'^'76, on the Perkiomen
R. R., and contains a store, hotel, coal 3'ard, flour and feed store and post oflBce.
Population in 1900 was 100. Shimerville on the old King's High road and Here-
ford and Shiniersville turnpike, founded in 1734 by Durk Jasen, contains a store,
hotel and post office. Population in 1900 was 140. Powder Valley, on the Indian
creek, contains a store, pottery and post office. Population in 1900 was 125.
Sigmund, situated in the Perkionien valley and on the site where Hampton Fur-
nace stood and whose ruins can still be sten contains a store, crepniery and post
office. Population in 1900 was 120. Vera Cruz on the Great Philadelphia road,
founded in 1763. contains a store, hotel, creamery and post office. Population in
U)00 was 200. Vera Cruz Station, on the Perkiomen R. R., contains a flour and
feed store, coal yard and depot. Population in 1900 was 130. Dilling^r's on the
Perkiomen R. R., contains a store, flour and feed store, coal yard and post office.
PjpiUtiou in 1900 was 120. West Emaus, a suburb of Emaus, contains several
hotels, printing office, pipe works, furnace, meat market, 2 coal and lumber yards
and Miller's Park. Population in 1900 was 500.
is bounded on the northeast by Lower Saucon township, North-
|T hampton county, southeast by Sprinfield township, Bucks
'^'^ county, northwest by Salisbury, southwest by Upper Milford.
OdtJCOn Population in 1900 was 2,721. The surface is diversified, the
Lehigh or South IMountains are in the northern part. The val-
leys are of limestone formation, the soil is very fertile and highly cultivated and
large crops are raised. Iron ore, limestones are found in quantities, and the fam-
ous zinc mines of Friedensville are in this township. The township is well drain-
ed by the numerous small streams that flow through it, Saucon creek is the prin-
cipal one and a number of mills are turned by it. The first settlement was made
near Coopersburg in 1730, by English, German and Welsh settlers. It was organ-
ized as a township in 1743.
The first public road was laid out in 1750, from Heller's tavern, Lanark across
the Lehigh Mountains. The Mennonite Meeting House near Coopersburg was
built in 173S; Blue Church, (Lutheran and Reformed) founded in 1740. The first
Lutluran minister was Rev. Henry M. Muhlenberg; the first Reformed minister
was Rev. Hofi'meir. Friedensvile, church founded in 1793. The first Lutheran
minister was Rev. John C. Yeager, the first Reformed minister was Rev. John H.
HofTmeier. The Mennonite Brethren in Christ Meeting House was founded in
1863. The Rev. Abel Strawn; was the first minister. M. E. church Friedensville
was founded in 1863 by Rev. M. B. Durrell; Free Methodist church, Centre Valley
was founded in 18S3 by Rev. Manshart.
AUentown and Coopersburg turnpike passes through the township. The North
Pennsylvania branch of the Philadelphia and Reading R. R., also passes through
it, affording an easy outlet for the products of the township.
The first school was established in 173S near Coopersburg. The schools are in
an excellent condition and keep apace with schools of tlie other townships of the
VILLIAGES — Centre Valley on the North Pennsylvania R. R., contains
two stores, three hotels, two churches, a mill and a post office. Population in
1900 was 527. Freidensville, contains several stores, two hotels, two churches
and a post office. The famous Zinc mines are located here. Population in 1900,
was 363. Locust Valley, Spring Valley and Lanark, are small post villiages and
contain a store and a hotel. There are also several creameries within the town-
The following anecdote of the early settlers has been told the writer by one
whose grandfather had been at the place where it happened. On a certain day
an Indian came to the blacksmith at Lanark, to have some work done, when the
blacksmith told him that if he would furnish the fuel he would do the work.
The Indian said if that was all that was required he would get some coal. He
went away and soon returned with coal enough to have his work done, where he
got his coal is a mystery to this day, rumor has spread time and time again that
the Lehigh Mountains contain a deposit of coal. Search for it has been made in
vain thus far to discover the place where the Indian got his coal.
bounded on the north by Carbon county, northeast by North-
ampton county, southeast by North Whitehall, west by Heid-
^Vdshin^tOn ^l^erg. Population in 1900, was 3,096. It was organized as a
township in 1847. The surface is generally level, the soil is
very fertile and the grains raised are similar to those of the
surrounding townships. Slate quarying is the principal industry, the slate is
found in large quantities all over the township. The slate is used for roofing,
school slates and black board surfaces, etc. The principal streams that drain the
township are the Trout and Little Trout creeks. The first settlement was made
in 1742, between Unionville and Slatington by Casper Peters.
The first school of which there is any record was established in 1712, and the
schools at the present time are equal to the schools of the surrounding townships,
and they are steadily advancing. ^
VILLAGES — Friedensville, founded in 1847, contains a store and a church
(Lutheran and Reformed.) Population in 1900 was 100. Slatedale, is on the Berks
and Lehigh R. R., and contains two stores, two hotels, two churches and a post
office. Population is 500 Williamstown, contains a store, hotel and church.
Population in 1900 was 150. Franklin, contains a store, hotel and slate mantel
factory. Population in 1900 was 400.
bounded on the north by North Whitehall township, east by
Northampton county and Hanover, south by Allentown, west
^Vhitehdwll ^^' South Whitehall. Organized in 1767. Population in 1900,
was 7,935. The soil is very fertile and of limestone formation.
Iron ore and cement are found in large quantities. The prin-
cipal streams that drain the township are Jordan, Coplay and Mill creeks. The
Lehigh Valley, Catasauqua and Fogelsville R. R's., pass through the township
and afford an easy outlet for the products of the farmers, iron ore and cement.
The first settlement was made near Egypt, in 1733, by some emigrants from Ger-
The first school in the township was in connection with the Egypt church 1733.
The schools of the township are among the best in the county, being graded and
The people are employed in farming, dairying, mining, quarrying and manufac-
turing. Cement works are found in Egypt and Cementon.
VILLAGES — Cementon, founded in 1770, by John Siegfried, aud contains
stores, hotels, churches and a post office, and is on the Lehigh Valley R. R.
Population in 1900, 500. West Catasauqua, a suburb of Catasauqua contains stores,
hotels, foundries, factories of various kinds and graded schools. Population in
1900 was 600. FuUerton, founded in 1862, contains car shop, wheel and forge
works, rolling mill, foundry, stores, hotels, churches, schools and post office.
It is on the I^ehigh Valley R. R. Population in 1900 was 800. Egypt, founded
in 1733. contains stores, hotels, churches, schools and a post office. The first
church in the township was built in this place in 1733. Population in 1900 was
1,200. Mickley's is a j^rowing town along the Lehigh Valley R. R., and has a
post office. Catasauqua, Egypt and Fullerton are connected with Allentown by
is Bounded on the northwest by Lowhill township, southeast
Wpis<*nhprp* ^- ^^PP^r Macungie township, northwest by Lynn township,
southwest by Berks count j'. Population, in 1900 was 1366.
The surface hilly and broken, the soil is gravel. The
following streams, drain the township ; the Jordan Spring, Shaffer's run, Hass,
Lyon, Willow, Weiss, Holben, Switzer and Silver creeks. Farming manufactor-
ies, is the principal pursuit, of the people. The first settlement was made in
1734, in the vicinity of the Ziegle's church, by people from Palatinate and
Ziegle's church, was founded in 1744 ; and Rev. Jacob Schertlein, was
the first Lutheran minister and Rev. P. J. Michael, was the first Reformed min-
ister ; Weisenberg church in the northwest corner of the towship, was founded in
1754; Rev. Jacob F. Schertlein, was the first Lutheran minister; Rev. R.
Kidenweiler, was the first Reformed minister.
The first schools were established as soon as the first settlements were
made. The schools of the township, are making the same progress as in the
VILLAGES — Seipstown, founded in 1S20, contains a store, hotel, church
and post office. Population, in 1900,200. Hynemansville, founded in 1740, is in the
central part and contains a store, hotel and post office. Population, in 1900, was
100. Seiberlingsville. founded in 1790 and contains a store, hotel and post office.
Population, in 1900, was 120. New Smithville, founded in 1812 and contains a
store, hotel and post office. Population, in 1900, was 130, Werley's Corner,
founded in 1838 and contains a store, hotel and post office.
COUNTY SEATANO BOROUGHS.
The only city in Lehigh county is the county seat, AllentoM-n,
Aii_„x__^j- the Queen city of the Valley and was founded in 1762 by James
Allen, from whom it received its name. The first settlement
was however made in 1751, is beautifully situated on the west
banks of the Lehigh river and the mouths of Jordan and the Little Lehigh creeks.
Is beautifully laid out, the streets run north and south, east and west, crossing
each other at right angles, Hamilton street running east and west is the princi-
pal thoroughfare and over two miles long. It has a fine public square at 7th and
Hamilton streets formerly called Centre Square, now called Monument Square
on account of the beautiful monument erected there to the, memory of the
Soldiers and Sailors of the Civil War, 1861-65, who had enlisted from the county.
The high flood of T841, the failure of the Northampton Bank in 1843 and
the great fire of 1848, know-n as the disastrous decade, were important events
in the history of the town from 1840 to 1850, out of which the city like a magic
sprung forth and was more substantially built. The buildingof railroads helped
to advance the growth of the city. Among the public buildings are the Court
house, banking buildings, business houses, market house, fine hotels, Opera
houses, Hospital, fine large public school buildings, the Fair Grounds and Build-
ings of the Lehigh county Agricultural Society and Cemeteries.
Manufactories. The city has many and various kinds of industries,
among which are the following : furnaces, founderies, wire mills, boiler works,
silk mills, breweries thread mills, cigar factories, carriage factories, shoe factories,
fire brick and building bricks, flour mills, machine shops, planing mills, oil re-
fineries, blank book manufactory, furniture factories, etc., which give employ-
ment to many people.
Newspapers. The first English Newspaper, was the " Lehigh Central, "
established in 1817 by C. L. Hutter. " Der Friedensbote and Lecha
County Anzeiger " was established in 1812 by Joseph Ehrenfried. " Lehigh Bul-
letin, " was established in 1837. changed to the " Democrat" by John Royer.
The " Lehigh Register, " was established in 1846 by Augustus L. Ruhe. The
■' Daily News, " was established in 1866 by Peter Correll. The Chronicle was
established in 1870 by Robert Irdell. The " Evening Dispatch, " was established
in 1866. " Daily Herald, " was established in 1873, by T. F. Emmons. "The
Bugle, " was established in 1876 by William P. Snyder and A. S. Orr. The
" Evening Telegram, " was established in 1882, by Eugene Lochman. The
" Critic, "was established in 1883, by Samuel S. Wolever. The " Allentonian "
was established in 1850, b}' William J. Grim. Der "Jugend Freund " and Die
" Lutherische Zetschrifft, " were established by the Rev. S. K. Brobst, in 1847.
" Our National Hope, " was established by H. S. Rice. "Zion's Watch Tower, "
was established by Rev. Gernert. The " Morning Call " was established in 1896
by David Miller, Charles Weiser and others. The "Daily City Item" was
established in 1873, by Cyrus Kuntz and others. The " Muhlenberg, " published
monthly, in the interest of Muhlenberg College ; Jugend Freund, published
monthly. American Phonographic and Literary Journal, published quarterly.
The " Lehigh Patriot " publi.shed monthly in the interest of the P. O. S. of A.
Founded in 1901, by David H. Jacks and W. P. Steinhaeuser. The Allentown
Star, founded in 1901, a weekly.
The National Bank, was opened for business in 1855 and the Second
National Bank, in 1863. The Lehigh Valley Trust and Safe Deposit Company
was opened for business in 1886.
Education. Schools were early established and instruction was given
in both the English and German languages. The English teachers came from
the Irish settlements, Allen township, Northampton county. Mr. Brown was the
name of the first teacher known, taken as a whole the teachers were aVjle in-
structors. The schools were kept in private houses until 1773, when the first
schoolhouse was erected in the rear of what is now Zion's Reformed Church, and
was in the shape of an Octagon. The schools of that time were all subscription
schools. A school for girls was opened in 1813, night schools were in operation
from 1813 to 1845. Allentown Academy was opened in 1831, a Ladies Seminary
in 1848. By Act of Assembly, the borough of Allentown, Salisbury and North-
ampton townships paid $421. 71 in 1824, for the instruction of their poor children.
In 1833, Allentown alone paid for the same purpose 11434.77.
The free school system was adopted in 1834, and since then the schools
have made rapid progress and are at present in the front rank of the schools of
the state. The schools are under the supervision of the city superintendent of
schools. The high school was established in 1858. The first principal of the
high school was Prof. R. W. Alpme, the first city superintendent of schools. Prof.
R. K. Buehrle, the first graduating class of the high school in 1869. Muhlenberg
College, belonging to the Lutheran church, and Allentown Female College, be-
longing to the Reformed church, are two well and widely known institutions of
higher learning, and afford all the requirements necessary for a complete colleg-
iate education, and the Allentown and the American Business Colleges are locat-
ed in the city and are well patronized by the community.
Churche./", The following religious denominations have a strong foot-
hold in the city, the Lutheran, Reformed, Presbyterians, Baptist, United Breth-
ern. Free Methodist, Evangelical Association, United "F^vangelical, Methodist
Episcopal and Catholics, all of which have fine church edifices. The Jews,
Mennonite, Brethern in Christ, Moravians and others are represented but have
no churches of their own and worship in halls and other places.
Societiej". There are many secret and beneficial societies which have a
large menrbership. And the city has several of the finest bands that can be
found in any city, and other fine musical organizations.
Transportion Fa.cilitiey. The following railroads terminate or pass
through the city, giving it great facilities for traveling and for transportation,
east, west, north and south, to New York, Philadelphia, Buffalo, Chicago, the
coal regions and other points : the Lehigh Valley R. R. and Lehigh and Susque-
hanna R. R. give it communication with the east and west, the Philadelphia and
Reading R. R. with its branches connects it north and south, and the Perkio-
men R. R.to Philadelphia. And Electric roads connects it with Bethlehem, Ban-
gor, Catasauqua, Coplay, Easton, Egypt, Emaus, Hellertown, Macungie, Nazareth,
Siegfried, Slatington and intermediate points.
History. When the Revolutionary was began in 1775, Allentown, had a
population of 350 souls. But it was a place of some importance already. After
the battle of Trenton, ( December 26, 1776.) the He.ssi an prisoners which Wash-
ington, had captured there were taken to Allentown, and confined in rude pris-
ons located near where Gordon street, crosses the Jordan creek. Other prisoners,
followed and were confined here. It was a safe place to keep the prisoners.
It is not generally known, that General George Washington, with his
staff, not long after the battle of Trenton, passed through Allentown, up Water
street (now Lehigh street). They stopped, at the foot of the street, at a large
spring on what is now the property occupied, by the Wire Mill. There are
several springs in the vicinity on both sides of the street, and near Wire street.
They rested and watered their horses, then went their way to their post of duty.
In the Spring of 1777, the only Church in Allentown, was turned into a
hospital for the sick and wounded American soldiers. The citizens of the town,
not only cared for the sick and wounded American soldiers, but also kept a
watchful eye on the Hessian prisoners, and were also menaced by hostile Indians.
The Whitehall massacres, were still fresh in the minds of our fore-
fathers, and that on one Sunday morning, the Minister in Allentown, in 1763
had to cut his sermon short, to organize his congregation into a military com-
pany, to repel the threatened attack of the Indians, now that the war had broken
out, their old enemy was more active than ever, and the citizens of the county,
were constantly menaced. The price of liberty and of their lives, was eternal
vigilance on their part.
Provision was getting scarce, meat in most families was a luxury, the
most common articles of food necessary to sustain life, were often not obtainable.
Salt was twenty dollars a bushel, the grease obtained by boiling the stems of
the "candelbeny " bush, was the only material for making candles.
In 1777 Toryism, was in the Ascendency at Bethlehem. The govern-
ment found it necessary to remove their cartridge manufactory, to a safer place,
and the town of Northampton, (Allentown,) was selected. In July 1778, the
government had 12,000 stands of arms, here for the army. Arms, saddleries &c.,
were manufactured and repaired.
In 1778 when the rations ran short in the army, the farmers in the county
brought their grain and cattle and sold them to the commissaries of the Ameri-
can army, taking payment for the same, "Continental money," instead of
The two principal roads that passed through the town, were the Old
New York and Pittsburg road, from Easton to Reading, through what is now the
Union and Jackson streets. The other from Bake Oven Knob, by the way of
Helfrich's Spring, through what is now Seventh street.
Incorporated as a borough in 1811, calkd Northampton, the name
changed to Allentown in 1S38, became the county seat in ]Si2, made a city in
1S67 ; its limits include the township of Northampton and adjacent parts of Sal-
isbury and Whitehall township, containing 3.14 square miles or 2011.27 acres.
The first Homeopathic School in the United States, was established in the city
in 1835, by Dr. Constantine Hering, several years later removed to Philadelphia,
The first officers of the new College were ; President Dr. Constantine Hering,
Vice President, Dr. John Romig, Jr., Secretary, Solomon L. Keck, Directors,
Dr. William Wesselheft, Dr. Henry Detweiler, Rev. C. Becker, John Rice,
Joseph Saeger, Christian Pretz, George Keck Sr., Trustees, William Eckeit,
Rev. P. H. Goepp, Henry Ebner, J. B. R. Hunter, John J. Krause. The school
opened in a building on Penn street, between Hamilton and Walnut streets, now
used as a public school building.
A fire on the first day of June 1848, destroyed the business portion of the
town, loss 5200,000, known as the great fire. Captain Trexler's company of 48
men marched to defend the frontier settlements, during the Indian war of 1755.
The names of the streets of AUentown, were at first as folic ws : Tilghman
now p-ourth, Penn now Lehigh, Margaret now Fifth, William now Sixth, Allen
now Seventh, James now Eighth, Union now Union, John now Walnut, Hamilton
now Hamilton, Andrew now Linden. The part of AUentown, lying between the
Jordan Creek and the Lehigh river, was formerly called Lehigh Port, by the
people, "St Domingo" Mingo. Judge Allen, of Philadelphia, owned five
thousand acres of land on both si^es of the Lehigh River, in vhat is now Salis-
burg, Whitehall and Hanover township. The whole region was known as
Macungie; where Muhlenberg College is situated, Judge Allen, erected a resi-
dence which he called " Trout Hall, " on account the trouts that abounded in
Lynford Lardner, of Philadelphia, owned a tract of land between the
Jordan and Cedar Creek, and erected thereon a building which he called " Grouse
Hall " on account of the many Quails found in the vicinity. The building being
painted white went by the name of " White Hall" which gave the name later
to the township. The above region, was a regular Paradise for the hunters and
fisherman and many of the high officials came to this famous resort for hunting
and fishing. The Governor, once came too for hunting and fishing and stayed
over Sunday with a certain farmer, whom he asked for an interesting book for
reading wherewith he could better spend the time. The farmer replied that he
had such a one, and brought in a well worn bible, and handed it to him. The
govemer took it and read it that day without any murmur.
Among the early settlers of AUentown, were the following: (1764)
Leonard Able, laborer ; Simon Breoner, carpenter ; David Deschler, shop keeper;
Martin Derr, wheelwright ; Martin Froelich, George Leyendecker, locksmith ;
George Lauer, Daniel Nunnermaker, Abraham Rinker, Peter Schwab, Peter
Miller, tailor ; George Wolf, tavern keeper. In 1766 thirty-three families resided
in AUentown, and in 1774 forty-nine families, in 1776 the town had fift}--four
houses and seven taverns. The rents for houses per year ^\ere from four to eight
dollars, and the population of the town, was in 1776 three hundred and thirty.
In 1792, the town had fifty-nine dwellings. The valuation of the property from
1762 to 1776, were twelve shillings, (J1.60) for each house, the taxes were from
ten to twenty cents for each house. Taverns were taxed, from six to ten dollars
each. In 1763, Jacob Roth, a minister petitioned the Lieutenant Governor,
James Hambleton, Commander in Chief, to form a company to repell, the in-
cursions of the Indians, and that he should send them one hundred pounds of
powder, four hundred pounds of lead, one hundred and fifty stands of guns.
The petition was granted. In i8oo,- the town had ninety families. In 1843,
the failure of the Northampton Bank, caused a financial crises from which the
town soon recovered. In 1846, the first furnace, was built. Benjamin Perry,
was the first superintendent, he was succeeded by the late Samuel Lewis. In
1848, a great fire broke out incurring a loss of |;2oo,ooo, which was covered only
b}' $40,000 insurance. The people did not get discouraged, and went to work
and soon there arose out of the ashes a new town, more substantially built.
The first borough election held in Allentown, was held in a small stone
hostelry, where the Hotel Allen now stands. The first market house in the city,
was at the corner of Seventh and Hamilton Streets. It was opened in 1817. The
first water company, was formed in 1S16. The first Fire company was formed in
181 1. The name of the town, changed from Northampton to Allentown, in 1838.
On April 23, 1853, the borough was divided into three wards. Allentown, was
incorporated as a city, March 12, 1867. The first Fire engine was bought in 1820.
The oldest church in the city, Zion's Reformed church, corner Church and Ham-
ilton Streets. Mr. Brown, opened a school in 1795. Among the other early
teachers were Messrs, Thatcher, Eberhard and John Ryan. The first teachers
meeting was held in 1827. The Allentown Academy; was founded in 1814, at the
Northwest corner of Eighth and Walnut streets. Young Ladies' Academy, was
founded in 1831, Allentown Seminary was opened in 1848. Allentown High
School, was opened in 1858. Muhlenberg College, was founded in 1867. Allen-
town Female College, was founded in 1867.
The first store was opened by Peter Snyder in 1794, the second store,
by George Graff, near the Monument Square in 1795, in a red building, which
was taken possession of in 1800 by James Wilson and continued by the same until
1815 when he took into partnership Mr. Selfridge, trading as Wilson & Selfridge
till 1845. The first hotel was opened in 1764 by George Wolf, the first post oflSce
established in 1812, before that time the people received their mail at Bethlehem,
George Savitz, the first postmaster. First Burgess, Peter Rhoads, 181 1, the first
Mayor, Samuel McHose, 1867. Population, 1900, 35,416.
This thriving borough is situated on the left bank of the
^ +acaifnii5^ Lehigh river, three miles north of Allentown with which it
" is connected by an Electric road, the Lehigh Valley and
Lehigh and Susquehanna R. R., and the eastern terminus
of the Catasauqua and Fogelsville R. R. It was founded in 1839. Population,
1900, was 3,963. It derived its name from the creek of the same name which
empties into the Lehigh river below the town, it is an Indian name. Incorporat-
ed as a borough in 1853.
It is a busy manufacturing town, the following are the principal works :
the Crane Iron works founded, by David Thomas, Catasauqua Manufacturing
Company, Founderies, Rolling Mill, Horseshoe Works, Brick Works, Planing
Mills, Grist Mills, Gas Works, Water Works, Silk Mills and several Newspapers.
The Religious Denominations of the town are the Lutheran, Reformed,
Congregational, Presbyterians, Baptist, Evangelical Association, United Evangel-
ical and Catholic.
Before it was incorporated as a borough, the schools and borough were
embraced in the Hanover School district, the first school within the borough was
located on Race street. All the school buildings are of brick structure and of
modern architecture. The High school was established in 1863 ; R. C. Ham-
mersly, was the first principal.
CoolaV Founded in 1853. Population, 1900, was 1581. Is situated
on the same side of the Lehigh river as Hokendauqua, and
was the seat of the Coplay Iron Works and has Cement Works, a number of
stores, hotels, churches, graded schools and the Lehigh Valley R. R., passes
through it, and is connected with Allentown, by an Electric road.
Founded in 1818. Population, 1900 was 556. On the North
f*r»f»npr«Kiirc^ Pennsylvania R. R., contains stores, hotels, factories,
'^ ^ churches, graded schools and Cooper's Stock farm, the
Philadelphia and Lehigh Electric road connects it with
Allentown. Incorporated as a borough in 1S79.
£in£lUS Founded in 1747 by the Moravians. Population, 1900, was
1468. Is on the East Pennsylvania Branch of the P. and R.
Railroad and the Perkiomen Railroad, contains stores, hotels, silk mill, cigar
factories, furnace, foundry, graded schools and churches. Incorporated as a
borough in 1859, and connected with Allentown, by the Allentown and Emaus
A suburb of South Bethlehem, founded in 1850. Popula-
Pminfain Hill *^^*^"' i9°*3i was 1,214. Contains stores, hotels, brick yards,
etc., the Electric road Connects it with Allentown and
This thriving town is situated on the right banks of the
Lehigh river, founded in 1854. Population, 1900, was
1,500. The seat of the Thomas Iron Works, has number
of stores, hotels, churches and graded schools is an in-
dependent school district. On the Lehigh Valley R. R. and connected with
Allentown by an Electric road.
Founded in 1776 and is four miles west of Emaus, with
NldwCUn^ie winch it is connected by the Allentown and Emaus Electri^
road and is its western terminus. Population, 1900, was 692
Contains stores, hotels, furnaces, factories, foundry, churches
and graded schools, and is on the East Pennsylvania Branch of the P. and R.
Railroad, and was incorporated as a borough in 1S57.
Founded in 1S51 and is situated on the right bank of the Le-
3l3^^irj^^Qjl high river, on the Lehigh Valley R. R. and is the eastern
terminus of the Berks and Lehigh R. R., 20 miles north of
Allentown, to which it is connected by the Allentown & Slat-
ington Electric road. Population, 1900, was 3,773. Incorporated in 1864, con-
tains numerous stores, hotels, water works, rolling mill, factories, several news-
papers, national bank, churches and graded schools, the high school was estab-
lished in 1864, H. A. Kline, was the first principal. It is in the center of the Le-
high slate region and the slate quarries and slate factories where are manufactured
school, mantel, blackboard, etc., of all kinds, is the principal industry of the
Founded in 1869, is situated on the left bank of the
Lehigh river and Monocacy creek. Population,
1900, was 3,465. Incorporated as a borough in ]S8o,
and contains stores, hotels, silk mills, factories,
foundries, churches, graded schools, connected with Allentown by on Electric
road and turn-pike, and Bethlehem by a fine iron bridge.
The schools of all the boroughs are in a fine and flourishing condition,
having regular courses of study and the pupils of the high schools, passing
through a full course of study, graduate therefrom and many are able to enter
the schoolroom as teachers or enter other vocations. The schools compare with
the best in the state and are under a supervising principal. The schools are also
under the supervision of the County Superintendent of Schools.
DUTIES OF THE COUNTY OFFICERS.
Judges. — When a County has more than 40,000 inhabitants it has
one or more judges learned in the law. The number of judges is increased
with the increase of the population. Counties less than 40,000 inhabitants or
joint districts of two or more counties in each. The counties of such districts,
have each two associate judges, not learned in the law ; the district elects one
judge learned in the law, who, is called the President judge. He holds court in
the counties in time. His duties are to preside at the trial of cases, to conduct
the trial impartially, to hear the evidence, to decide points of law raised in the
progress of the trial, to charge the jury with instruction for making up a verdict.
He issues the various writs — habe corpus, of mandamus, of injunction, of quo
WARRANTO, the Staying of executions, the granting of petitions, of issjiing natural-
ization papers, removal of certain officers, the chartering of corporations, not for
profit, as cemeteries, hospitals and secret societies. Term, ten years, salary
$4,000 a year, except in Philadelphia, (fy.ooo) Alleghany, ($6,000) and in Dau-
phin and Westmoreland, (Is.ooo). He can be re-elected. The associated judges,
have the same power that the President judge has, but seldom exercise them.
They are mainly advisory members on the bench. They exercise an eqaal
voice in establishing roads, granting licenses. They reside in the county, where
there services are a convenience in the absence of the President judge. Their
salary is five ($5.00) a day when actual serving. There are three kinds of juries,
the Grand Jury, the Petit Jury and the Traverse Jury. Twenty-four men are
drawn for the Grand Jury, one of whom is excused to avoid a tie. The duty of
the Grand Jury is to decide what cases should be brought before the Court. It
hears only the evidences for the Commonwealth, that is against the accused. If
a case is made out the foreman of the Grand Jury endorses the bill of indictment,
which makes it a true bill. Only one witness is allowed to be before the Grand
Jury, at one time and no one but the district attorney is allowed to be present
during its sessions. The Grand Jury inspects annually all the public buildings,
of the county, and approves the location of county bridges. The Petit Jury,
usually consists of from thirty-six to sixty men each. This jury tries criminal
cases, after listening to the evidences, the pleas of the attorneys and the charge
of the judges, must retire to a room and make up their verdict without talking to
anyone, but the judge. Their verdict must be unanimous whether it is Guilty,
or Not Guilty. In cases of larceny of goods not amounting to ten dollars of value,
the verdict is not Guilty, they have the power to put the costs on the prosecutor,
or the defendent, or the county, or apportions them between the prosecutor, or
the defendent. If they cannot agree there must be a new trial. Traverse Jury,
the Traverse Jury, tries civil cases and their verdict is either for the Plaintiff, or
for the Defendent. If there is any damages the jury fixes the amount which
constitutes a part of the verdict. The jurymen of all the juries get fa .00 a day
and 12 cents mileage.
Notary Public— This is strictly speaking a State office and is appointed
by the Governor, for a term of four years. His salary consists of fees fixed by
law. There may be appointed a notary public in every place having a banking,
or saving institutions. He must pay $25.00 to the State Treasurer, before he can
receive his commission. His duties are to protest notes, bills of exchange,
administers oaths, takes depositions and affidavits, takes proofs and acknow-
ledgements of instruments which are intended to be recorded. He places his
seal upon all his acts which gives authenticity to them, which is recognized all
the world over.
County Commissioners. — There are three County Commissioners elect-
e 1 for three years, they correct the assessment or valuation of taxable property,
fix the rate of the county tax. They pay the county bills by orders drawn on the
county treasurer, erect the county buildings, as well as the larger bridges. They
are paid I3.50 per day actual time spent in the discharge of the duties of their
office. No person can vote for more than two commissioners so as to allow the
minority party to elect one commissioner.
County Treasurer. — He is elected for three years, and cannot be re-
elected to succeed himself, he receives the state and county taxes, pays the
former to the State Treasurer, the latter he uses to pay such bills as are approved
by the commissioners. He receives a certain percentage on all the money paid
out of the treasury, which is fixed bj^ the commissioners and approved by the
auditors. He also receives a percentage on all the state tax that pass through
his hands, as well as on special taxes that may come into his hands. He gives
a heavy bond for the faithful performance of his duties.
Sheriff. — He is elected for three years and is the county's chief ex-
ecutive officer, he serves writs and summons of the court, suppresses serious dis-
turbances and protect property, he sells property for debit of the owner, when
execution has been ordered bj' the court. He makes arrests and has charge of
the criminals during their trials and delivers them to the jails or penitentiary, in
the smaller counties is the jailer, and with the jury commissioners he draws the
juries and summons those whose names have been drawn. He gives notices of
the elections by advertisements in the newspapers or hand bills. His salary is
fixed by law and are paid in fees, he gives bonds for the faithful performance of
his duties, he cannot be re-elected to succeed himself.
Prothonotary. — He is elected for three years and is clerk of the court
of Common Pleas, he makes up and keeps records of the court, issues its writs
and summons and calls up the jurors and administers the oaths to the witnesses.
He enters in books the judgments, mechanics liens and keeps a record of the
state and national elections returns. His salary is paid in fees fixed by law.
Ci.ERK of Qu.\RTER Sessions. — He is elected for three years and keeps
a record of this court, calls up jurors and administer the oaths to witnesses, he
has charge of laying out of roads, the granting of liquor licenses and keeps a
record of all township, borough and city elections held in the county. His salary
is paid by fees fixed by law.
Ci.KRK OF Orphan's Court.— He is elected for three years and keeps a
record of the Orphan's court. His salary is paid by fees.
Register of Wii^ls. — He is elected for three years, probates the wills
left by citizens of the county at their death, he issues to the executors letters
testamentary, and if no executor or executors have been appointed bj' the will,
appoints administrators, issues to them letters of administration, copies the wills
in liooks and keeps the wills safely themselves. He gives a bond for the faith-
ful performance of his duties, he is paid by fees.
Recorder of Deeds — He is elected for three years, records all deeds
and mortgages, and his salary is paid by fees.
CoRONKR. — He is elected for three years, inquires into the cause and
manner of death of any person who is slain, or is accidentally killed or dies
suddenly, by summoning a jury of six men, if the jury finds any one guilty of
homicide, it is the duty of the coroner's jury to commit him to jail. The Coroner
performs the duties of the sheriff in case of the latter's death or removal from
oflSce, until a new sheriff is appointed. His salary is paid by fees.
District Attorney. — He is elected for three years and is public prose-
cutor, conducts the trials of persons charged with committing crimes. He must
be a lawyer and is paid by fees by the county.
County Surveyor. — He is elected for three j-ears and is official county
Jury Commissioners. — There are two Jury commissioners elected for
three years, a person can vote only for one candidate so that each party is repre-
sented. They with the sheriff draw the jurors from the list of persons selected
by the jury commissioners and the judge. They receive 1^2.50 for each day spent
in the discharge of their duties.
Directors of the Poor. — They are elected for three years and have
overseer of the poor and the management of the Alms or Poor house. Their
salary is |ioo per year.
Mercantile Appr.\iser. — He is appointed by the county con:missioners
for one year, he makes estimates on the amount of business done by the dealers
in the county, upon which a state tax is paid. He receives 75 cents for visiting
each place of business.
County Auditors. — They are elected for three years and one can vote
for only two of them .so as to give minority party a member too, they have the
disbursnient of the public fund. They see that the taxes and other duties are
collected and accounted for. Their salary is $3.00 for each day they spend in the
discharge of their duties.
Prison Inspectors. — They are appointed by the court and the county
commissioners for one year, they have charge of the prison affairs. They receive
a small salary.
County Superintendent of Schools. — He is elected by the school
directors of the county for three years, he has charge of the schools of the county,
he holds teachers exminations and grants a provisional certificate to those that
successfully pass the examination which is good for one year only, he also grants
a professional certificate to those that have acquired skill in the art of teaching,
good during his term of office for three years and can, be renewed without
examination by him, and is good for one year under his successor. He holds the
annual county Teachers Institute and local institutes, collects and trantmits the
reports and statistic of the schools to the Department of Public Instruction.
Township assessor. He is elected for three years and makes an assess-
Offir<»r^ ment of the real estate and other property in the township,
and reports the same to the county Commissioners, upon
which all taxes are laid, prepares each year a list of all the voters of the town-
ship, a copy of which he nmst place on the door of the building where the elect-
ions are held. His salary is 12.00 per day for actual work done.
Supervisors. — They are elected for one year except where otherwise
the law directs, their duties are making and repairing the roads and bridges
of the township. They fix and collect a road tax to pay the expenses of the
same, they represent the township in its corporate body in all things except
school matters. They receive from $i to $2 per day for the time spent in work
and 5 per cent for collecting the road tax.
School Directors. — Every year two school directors are chosen who
serve for 3 years, making 6 directors in all, their diaties are to provide school
facilities for all the children of school age in the township between the age of 6
and 21 years, they build and care for the schoolhouses and grounds, employ the
teachers, fix their salaries and the length of school term at not less than 7 months,
adopt the books that are to be used and make rules for the goverment of the
schools and supervise their work. They determine the school tax to be levied
for school purposes, have the right to borrow money for erecting school buildings
or purchasing grounds, they receive no pay for their services.
__ Tax Collector. — He is elected every year and collects the state and
county tax, his commission is from 2 to 5 per cent on all the money collected.
Town Clerk. — He is elected for one year and serves as clerk to the
supervisors, keeps the township record and the record of stray animals. This
officer has few if any duties to perform and is not deemed of much importance.
Auditors. — One Auditor is elected every year to serve for three years,
the three Auditors meet once a jear and audit the accounts of the township
officers, which they post in written or printed handbills, detailing the receipts
and expenditures of the township officers in different parts of the township, they
receive 12.00 a day for each day of actual duty.
Justice of the Pe.\CE. — Each township elects two Justices of the
Peace for terms of 5 yrs., commissioned by the governor, has jurisdiction any-
where within the county, issues warrants of arrest and for minor offices inflicts
punishment by fine, rarely by imprisonment, generally he sends the case to
court. For light crimes he may release the prisoner on bail until court, if he
cannot get bail, he must await trial in jail, for grave crimes the justice must send
the accused to jail, when he can only be released by the Judge through a writ of
habeas corpus, suits for debts not exceeding f30c.oo may be brought before a
justice of the peace and where his decision involves not more than I5.33 it is
final, if more it can be appealed to court. Administers oaths or affirmations,
acknowledges deeds and other papers, issues search warrants, authorized to per-
form the marriage ceremony, his pay is from fees paid by the parties interested
and are fixed by law.
Constable. — He is elected for three years, preserves the peace of the
township, makes arrests upon warrants issued by the justice of the peace, takes
persons to jail if committed by the justice, serves subpoenas upon witnesses, and
summons in civil suits. He makes searches of suspected premises for stolen
goods, seizes and sells debtors property upon the justice's execution. He gives
official notice by posters of township elections and four times a year is required
to attend the court of Quarter .<^essions and report violations of law of which he
has any knowledge. He is paid by fees which are fixed by law.
Township Treasurer. — He is elected for one year and has charge of
the funds of the township and gives bail for the performance of his duties.
U ,, CniRF P' RGESS. — He is the executive officer of the borough,
OOrOUgn Yie enforces the ordinances of the Council, preserves the order
Officers and the peace of the borough. He may punish offenders by
fit-f and short imprisonment, term is 3 years and is elected by
the people of the borough.
Council. — They are elected for three years, one third going of office
every year, they have control of the streets and sidewalks, of the nuisances, pro-
vide for the lighting of the streets, water' for general use, for protection from
fires, lays taxes for paying the borough expenses, may borrow money for borough
improvements The other officers are the school directors, constable, treasurer,
supervisor, auditors whose duties are the same as those of the township.
Mayor. — The executive officer of a city is the Mayor, his
City duties are executive and judicial. The other officers the
Officers Aldermen, controller, assessors, collector of taxes, street
commissioner, treasurer, solicitor, health officer, police, audi-
tors, superintendent of schools, sometimes other officers. A city is divided into
wards of convenient size and the officers are similar to those of the township.
The laws are called ordinances and are enacted by the select and common
councils and signed by the mayor or if he has any objections to the same, he
vetoes them. A city has a charter under which it operates.
The early justices of peace, prior to 1804 were the fol-
EZd^rly Justices lowing : Andrew Buchman, District of Heidelberg and
of the Peace Lowhill, townships, 1784. Frederick Laubach, District
of Upper Milford township, 1784. Peter Rhoads, Dis-
of Northampton and Salisbury townships, 1784. George Breinig, District of
Macungie and Weisenberg townships, 1786. Jacob Horner, District of Heidel-
berg and Lowhill townships, 1787. Ludwig Stabler, District' of Upper Milford
township, 1788. Peter Kohler, District of Whitehall township, 1791. James
Gill, District of Upper Milford township, 1791. Nicholas Sieger, District of
Whitehall township, 1794. Abraham Buchman, District of Heidelberg and Low-
hill townships, 1794. John Shinier, District of Upper Milford township, 1795.
Henry Kooker, District of Upper Saucon township, 1795. Charles Deschler,
District of Salisbury township, 1797. Henry Jarrett, District of Macungie and
Weisenberg townships, 1798. Leonard Nagel, District of Salisbury township,
1798. John Van Buskirk, District of Macungie and Weisenberg townships, 1799.
Conrad Wetzel, District of Upper Milford township, 1799. Henry Haas, District
of Heidelberg and Lowhill townships, 1801. David Owen, John Cooking, of
Upper Saucon and Lewis Merkel of Macungie, were draw as members of the first
Grand Jury, after the formation of Northampton County, October 3, 1752.
Members to the Provincial Congress from Northampton JCounty, (embracing at
that time Lehigh and Carbon Counties,) in 1775 were George Taylor, John Oak-
ley, Peter Kichlein and Jacob Arndt. Ambrose Stabler, District of Upper Mil-
ford and Upper Saucon townships, 1802.
That part which comprise of what is now Lehigh county was re-divided
into new districts in 1804 and were numbered and called as follows: District
number 4, comprising Nazareth, Bethlehem and Hanover and the justices were
from 1804 to 1809, Adam Daniel, George Brader and Jacob Sweisshaupt and from
1809 to 1S12 was Mathias Gross. District number 7, comprised Salisbury and
Whitehall townships, the justice frcm 180410 1812, was George Yundt. District
number 8, comprised Macungie and Upper Milford townships and the justices
from 1804 to 1808, were John Schuler, Anthony Stahler and Jeremiah Trexler
and from 1808 to 181 2, Jacob Klen. District number 10, comprised Heidelberg
and Lowhill townships and the justice from 1804 to 1812, was William Fenster-
macher, District number II, the justices from 1804 to 1812, were Daniel Sseger
and John Weiss and comprised Lynn and Weisenberg townships.
The County was divided again in 1812 into new districts as follows : ist
district, comprising Northampton, Salisbury and Whitehall townships and the
justices were Leonard Nagel, Peter Gross, Nicholas Sieger, Charles Deschler,
1812 Jacob Diehl and Anthony Murich 1813, 2nd district, comprising Hanover
township, the justice was C. F. Beitel, 1812. 3rd district, composed of the town-
ships of Heidelberg and Lowhill, the justice was Conrad German, 1812. 4th dis-
district, composed of Macungie and Upper Milford townships and the justices
were John Fogel, 1812 and Lorentz Stahler, 1813. 5th district, composed of Lynn
and Weisenberg townships, the justice was Peter Hass, 1814. 6th district, com-
posed Macungie and Lowhill townships, the justise w^as Henry Haas, 1814.
MEMBERS OF CONGRESS FROM LEHIGH COUNTY.
*^The figures at the end of each name represent in which congress he served : for example,
Joseph Krey, 1827-1831. 20 and 21 mean that he was a member of the 20th and 21st Congress.
Joseph Frey, 1827-1831. 20 and 21
Henry King, 1831-1835. 22 " 23
Peter Newhard, 1839-1843. 26 " 27
Jacob Erdman, 1845-1847. 29
*John Hornbeck, 1847 — 30
tSamuel Bridges, 1847-1S49. 30
H. C. Longecker, 1859-1861. 36
*Thomas B. Cooper, 1861 37
JJohn D. Stiles, 1862-1865 37 and 38
" " " 1867-1871 41
James S. Biery, 1873-1875 43
Wm. H. Sowden, 1885-1889 49 " 50
C. J. Erdman, 1893-1897 53 " 54
*Died in office.
tSucceeded the Hon. John Hornbeck, dec'd.
I.Succeeded the Hon. Thos. B. Cooper, dec'd.
STATE SENATORS FROM LEHIGH COUNTY SINCE 1812 TO THE PRESENT TIME.
♦arMembers under the fir.st constitution, lycjo, were elected for 2 years, under the constitution
of 1S38 for 3 years and under the constitution of 1874 for 4 years.
Henry Jarrett, 1813-1815 i term 2 yrs
Joseph Frey, 1817-1821 2 " 4
Henry King, 1825-1S29 2 " 4
\V. C. Livingstone, 1831-3 i " 2
John S. Gibbons, 1840-43 i " 3
Jacob D. Boas, 1846-1849 i " 3
William Frey, 1852-1855 i " 3
Jacob Schindel, 1858-1861 i term 3 yrs
Geo. B. Schall, 1864-1867 i " 3
Edvv. Albright, 1870-1876 2 " 6
Evan Holben, 1876-1882 2 " 6
M. C. Hem inger. 1882-94 3 " 12
Harry G. Stiles, 1894-1902 2 " 8
MEMBERS OF HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVE FROM 1813 TO 1901.
.^^Under the Constitution of ijcx) and 1838, the members were elected annually and under the
Constitution of 1874 for two years.
Abraham Rinker, 1813^1817 4 years.
Philip Wint, 1813-1813 4
Peter Newhard, 1817-1819 2
Wm. Fenstermacher, 1817-22 5
John J. Knauss, 1820-1822 2
Geo. Eisenhard, 1823 i
Samuel Mayer, 1824 i
Peter Newhard, 1824-26-29 3
Jacob Dillinger, 1826-1828 2
Geo. Miller, 1816-1828 2
W. C. Livingstone, 1829 i
1 83 1
Geo. Frederick, 1S36-1842
Martin Ritter, 1837-38-39
Benjamin Fogel, 1S39-40-41
Peter Haas, 1840-41
Geo. S. Eisenhard, 1842
Reuben Strauss, 1843-44-45
M. Jarrett, 1843
Jesse Samuels, 1845
David Ivaury, 1846-50-51-52-53 5
Peter Ba-uman, 1846-1847
Samuel Marx, 1847-48-49
Robert Klotz, 1848-1849
James S. Reese, 1854-1855
Joshua Frey, 1854-1855'
Herman Rupp, 1856-1857
Tilghman Good, 1858-1860
Samuel Balliett, 1858-1860
Samuel J. Kistler, 1850-61
W. C. Lichtenwalner, 1860-1
Samuel Camp, 1 862-1 863
Nelson Weiser, 1863-1864
James F. Kline, 1863-1864
John H. Fogel, 1866- 1867
I 868- I 874
Daniel Creitz, 1867- 1868
Adam Woolever, 1 869-1 870
Herman Fetter. 1870-1871
*Boas Hausman, 1872
Robert Steckel, 1872-1873
James Kimmett, 1873-1874
George F. Gross, 1874- 1876
F. B. Heller, 1876-1878
Ernest Nagel, 1876-1878
Charles Foster, 1S79-1880
Patrick Boyle, 1880-1882
Amandas Sieger, 1880- 1882
W. B. Erdman, 1880-1882
Hugh Crilly, 1884-1888
M. B. Harwick, 1884-1888
M. R. Schaffer, 1884-1888
D. D. Roper, 1887- 1888- 1890
Jeremiah Roth, 1886-1892
H. C. Wagner, 1888-1890
M. N, Bernhard, 1890-1894
Alvin Kern, 1894-1S96
John H. Pascoe, 1892-1893
Joseph C. Rupp, 1S92-1896
M, J. Lennon, 1890-1894
Perry Wannenniacher, 1894
M. J. Kramlich, 1896- 1898
Jonas Moyer, 1898-1900
Joseph W. Ma)-ne, 1900
*Died in Office.
JUDGES FROM 1812 TO 1901.
Robert Porter, 1812-1831 22 years.
Garrick Mallory, 1831-1836 5
John Banks, 1836-1847 11
J. Pringle Jones, 1847-1851 4
Washington McCarty, 1851-56 5
Henry D. Maxwell, 1856-57 i
John K. Findly, 1857-1862
John W. Maynard, 1861-1867
J. Pringle Jones, 1867-1868
A. B. Longaker, 1868-1878
Edward Harvey, 1878-79
Edwin Albright, 1879 —
ASSOCIATE JUDGES FROM 1812 TO 1874.
John Fogel, 1815-1823
Jacob Stein, 1823-1838
John F. Rufe, 1838-1839
Joseph Sijeger, 1839- 1840
Peter Hass, 1840-1843
James Frey, 1866-71
Jacob Erdman, 1866-68
Jacob Dillinger, 1843-48
John F. Rufe, 1849-51
Charles Keck, 1855-56
Willoughby Fogel, 1856-66
Joshua Stabler, 1856-66
Reuben Guth, 1866-1867
S. J. Kistler, 1868-1871
David Ldury, 1868-76
;9®"The office of Associate Judges was abolished by the Constitution of 1874.
COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OFPUBLIC SCHOOLS.
1-rom 1S54 to 1901. Term, 3 years.
Charles W. Cooper, IS54-55 i yrs. Jacob Ross, 1S62-63
Tilghinan Good, 1855-57 2 E. J. Young, 1S63-72
H. H. vSchwartz, 1S57-60 3 JO. Knauss, 1872-93
Tilghinan Good, 1860-62 2 Alvin Rupp, 1893—
*«-Salary 1854 to 63, I500, 63 to 66, $Soo, 66 to 69, $1000, 69 to 93, $1300 and 93 to 1902, S1500 per year.
1902 to — $1800.
CITY SUPERINTENDENTS, SCHOOLS OF ALLENTOWN.
From iS68to 1901. Term, 3 years.
R. K. Buehrle, 1S68-78 10 yrs. L,. B. Landis, 1881-93
George Desh, 1878-81 3 F, D. Raub, 1893
■If,; -Salary 1868, $900. From 1893 to — 11500.
From 18 1 2 to 1902. Term 3 years.
Tlie Sheriffs were appointed until 1S39, when the office became elective.
Charles L. Hutter
* Abraham Rinker
Jonathan D. Meeker
Joseph F. Newhard
Charles B. Haines
Herman M. Fetter
John P. Miller
* Served two terms.
Owen W. Faust
Thomas B. Morgan
Charles B. Maberry
Frank C. H. Schwoyer
J. B. Waidlich
From 1S12 to 1902. Term 3 years.
Charles L. Hutter
E. W. Hutter
Francis E. Samuels
Jacob S. Dillinger
Tilghnian D. Frey
Rufus E. Erdman
William H. Snyder
John F. Stine
RECORDER OF DEEDS-
From 1 812 to 1902. Term 3 years.
George S. Gross
John F. Seiberling
REGISTER OF WILLS.
From 1812 to 1902. Term 3 years.
S. R. Engleman
E. R. Newhard
Henry J. Gackenbach
E. R. Benner
W. Mattias Ritter
George E. Knerr
E. B. Horlacher
Tilghman F. Keck
James B. Smith
H. F. Longecker
CLERKS OF COURT OF QUARTER SESSIONS.
Christian F. Beitel
Henry W. Knipe
Charles S. Busch
From 1812 to 1902. Term, 3 years.
John D. Lawall
George W. Hertzel
J. E. Zimmerman
A. L. Ruhe
F. J. Newhard
John P. Goundie
James H. Crader
Allen W. Haines
Nathan E. Worman
E. Iv. Newhard
Oscar P. Werlev
CLERKS OFORPHAN'S COURT.
Christian F. Beitel
Henry W. Knipe
Charles S. Busch
From i8i2to 1902. Term, 3 years
John D. Lawall
George W. Hertzell
J. E. Zimmerman
A. L. Ruhe
John Van Billiard
Henry W. Mohr
Charles B. Klein
W. R. Klein
L. S. Lenhart
Albert O. Strauss
From 1812 to 1902. Term, 3 years.
Peter Dorney Jacob Marx Ephraim Yohe
Peter Newhard Solomon Gangewere James Busch
Henry Weaver John Eisenhard William H. Romig
Daniel Mertz Charles Troxell Americus V. Mosser
Edwin G. Martin
Thomas F. Martin
W. S. Berlin
Alfred J. Yost
From 1812 to 1902. Term, 3 years.
Charles L. Hutter
Jacob C. Newhard
John J. Krauss
Jacob D. Boas
William H. Blumer
Tilghman H. Martin
Charles H. Martin
J Franklin Reichard
John J. Trexler
John J. Schaadt
John R. Gossler
James M. Sechler
From 18 14 to 1902. Term, 3 years.
Andrew K. Witman
From 1812 to 1902. Term, 3 years.
John Spagenberg y^
Jacob A. Leiby
David L. Earner
George K. Carl
William F. Schmoyer
Charles F. Hart/.ell
W. B. Moyer
W. Stephen Knauss
John L. Scbreiber
James F. Jordan
Edward B. NeflF
George F. Schlicher
Joseph P. Snjder
CLERKS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS.
From 1S13 to 1902. Term, 3 years
Lewis M. Engelmau
Henry C. Wagner
Henry W. Fusselman
From 1S13 to 1902. Term, 3 years.
John Spangenberg 4.
Samuel Moyer .
H. W. Kneiss
H. \V. Kneiss
Jacob C. Kistler
Henry Guth Jr.
Joseph Frey Jr.
Charles C. Buroch
John D. Lawall
Charles L. Newhard
John H. Clifton
Franklin J. Ritter
Eli J. Saeger
Samuel J. Kistler
John R. Schall
Daniel H. Creitz
*W. J. Hoxworth
^Served two terms
Wilson P. Reidy
Solomon F. Riipp
J. Wilson Wood
Franklin D. Acker
Frank J. Peter
George N. Kramer
Jacob S. Renninger
Alexander J. Zellner
H. C. Kleckner
Clinton O. Fogel
Charles S. Shimer
Charles H. KraniHch
Franklin L. Roth
Thomas P. Roth
R. H. Heil
From 1S46 to 1902. Term, 3 years.
R. E. Wright
C. M Ruiik
H. C. Longecker
John D. Stiles
William S. Marx
George B. Schall
M. D. Eberhard
Hiram J. Schantz
Thomas B. Faust
Thomas B. Metzgar
William H. Sowden
C. J. Erdman
M. C. Henninger
J. M. Wright
From 1844 to 1902.
Daniel B. Mohr
Silas G. Croll
Thomas B. Faust
Marcus C. L. Kline
, Harry G. Stiles
James L. Schaadt
John L. Schwartz
Clinton A. Groman
E. J. Lichtenwalner
Willoughby S. Guth
John W. Schwartz
Samuel B. Engleman
Reubeu M. Roeder
Thomas F. Good
S. A. J. Kern
Following is the list of soldiers who marched to the defence of our
country from the French and Indian War, 1754, down to the Spanish-American
War, 1898. They were all mustered in from Lehigh County :
(*) Killed in battle or died in the service.
French and Indian War, 1754.1763.
George Wolf, Capt.
Abraham Rinker, Lieut.
George S. Schneff
John M. Derr
Revolutionary Wa.r, 1775-1783.
1st Company, 2nd Pennsylvania Battalion, Colonel Arthur St. Clair, Commardar.
Thomas Craig, Capt.
Rudolph Bumer, Capt.
Andrew Kachline, Lieut.
Isaac Dunn, ist Lieut.
John Craig, 2nd Lieut,
James Armstrong, 2d Lieut
John Arndt, Capt.
Peter Kichline, Lieut.
Total number of men
*Henry Wolf, Sr.
* Henry Bush, Jr.
furnished during the Revolutionary War. 180
John Ruhe, Capt.
Jacob Blumer, Lieut
Wa.r of 1812.
5th Company, 2nd Light Infantry.
Charles A. Ruhe
J acob Houck
Charles L. Hutter
Jf cob Seip
1st Company of Riflemen, Pennsylvania Militia
Abra. Gangwere, Capt. Charles Hauer
Daniel Moyer, Lieut,
Jacob Newhard, 2d "
Daniel C. Daniel
Israel Troxell i
John Miller Jr.
i8th Section of Riflemen.
Peter Cook 65 men
Only partial list is given as the muster roll has not
Abraham Rinker, Capt.
Light Horse Company,
Peter Ruch, Capt. Peter Troxell Michael Frack
William Boas, Lieut. Solomon Steckel John Swartz
Peter Good John Deichman Jacob Schreiber
James Seagus Peter Burkhalter Daniel Leisering
13 men Peter Leisering
Captain Dornblaser's Co. Not all the members of the company were from
Lehigh county, but from Northampton and Pike counties.
J. Dornblaser, Capt.
John V. Bush, Lieut
Jeremiah R. Holman
John W. Morrison
Cornelius Van Horn
Number of men furnished during the war of 181 2. 353.
During the Mexican War of 1845 ^nd 1848 not many volunteers went forth
from our county, because mostly of them came from the Southern States on ac-
count of their nearness to the seat of war. Among those that went from. Lehigh
county was Henry C. Longecker, who served as Lieutenant and Adjutant of his
Regiment under General Winfield Scott in his campaign from Vera Cruz to the
city of Mexico, taking part in all the battles leading to the capture of the city by
General Scott, Lieutenant Longecker, afterwards served as Colonel of the 9th
Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861 and 1S65 and acquitted himself with
gallantry and honor.
The Civil Wa.r of I86I to I865.
Allen Guards. Three months service, mustered in April iSth, 1861.
Thomas Yeager, Capt.
James Wilson, ist Lieut.
Joseph Wilt, 2d Lieut.
John E. Webster
William G. Frame
Henry W. Derr
Nathan R. F^uller
George F. Henry
Edwin M. Hittte
Martin W. Leisenring
Edwin H. Miller
Charles A. Peiffer
John F. Uhler
George W. Keiper
Jonathan W . Bieber
. F. Wilt
George W . Rhoads
Charles A. SchifFert
Lewis G. Seip
M. H. Sigman
Company I, First Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers.
Mustered in April
William Gougler, Capt.
'E. P. Rhoads, ist Lieut.
Benjamin Roth, 2d Lieut.
Edwin G. Mensch
Daniel C. Miller
Henry A. Blumer
William J. Mover
Walter Van Dyke
William P. Harris
, Joseph Steele
Company D, 9th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. Mustered in April
■24th, i86j. H. C. Longecker, Colonel; Wm. H. PL Hangen, Lieutenant Colonel.
G. D. Hand, Capt.
C. A. G. Keck, ist Lieut.
Enoch Phillips, 2d Lieut.
James R. Snyder
David A. Tombler
Company G., 46th, Regiment Pennsylvania Vcrlanteers
Charles Nolf, jr.
William T. Snyder
Mustered in Aug.
Lewns Arnold, Capt.
W. R. Thomas, Lieut.
John H. Price
W. S. Thompson
H. W. Ehret
Solomon J. Rowe
*John A. Richards
47th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. Three years service. Mustered
in from August 17th to September 20th, 1861. Colonel, T. H. Good, Lieutenant
Colonels, J. P. S. Gobin and G. W. Alexander, C. W. Abott, Majors, Wm. Caus-
ler, Levi Stuber, J. W. Fuller, W. H. H. Hangen, James Van Dyke, Francis Z.
Heebner, W. H. Ginkinger.
E. P. Rhoads, Capt. Ambrose Detrick
H. A. Halteman, Lieut. John Flemming
Allen Balliett, 2, " John Fries
William Kleckner *Edwin Fink
Thomas F. Sourwine William Geist
W. H. Ginkinger
Allen L. Kramer
Charles E. Miller
*Edwin G. Minnich
R. A. Hillard
Daniel E Hettle
Alvin J. Hartzell
Peter H. Halteman
James A. Jackson
Matthew R. Tuller
Charles H. Knauss
Allen J. Reinhard
Francis H. Strachley
John A. Darrohn
George J. Weiss
Henry A. Schwartz
John D. Albright
Josiah R. Lentz
John D. Lansteren
Allen P. Rhoads
Francis Z. Hubner
James F. Liegen
Charles A. Martin
John T. Nixon
Samuel S. Rogers
John E. Shaflfet
Isaac N. Smith
*August C. Scherer
Oliver Van Billiard
William J. Weiss
W. H. Smith
Martin Van Billard
J. D. Rabenold
Company F, 47thRegiment. From Catasauqua.
Henry Hart. Capt.
G. Fuller, ist Lieut.
Henry Bush, 2, "
T. F.Lambert, 2 "
John L. Jones
*David A, Frey
Thomas B. Glick
*Addison R. Geho
James Fuller, i, Lieut. Henry Hummel
James E. Patterson
David A. Akroth
Isaac C. Jacoby
John C. Collins
Martin C. Frey
W. Bartholomew, LieutWilliam Fried
Augustus Eagle, 2 '
John W. Heberling
Preston M. Rohn
James M. Bush
Augustus F. Eberhard George King
W. Va« Dyke
Simon P. Kiefer
J. K. Longenhagen
Peter S. Levan
Thomas A. Smith
John G. Snyder
Thomas B. Rhoads
David Schaffer >
John G. Seider
Robert M. Sheetz
James A. Trexler
John P. Weaver
James M. White
George ^V. Frame
W. H. Moyer
John F. Haldeman
William A. Hauser
Company G. 47th Regiment.
*John Gciebel, "
T. B. Leisenring, Capt.
W. Steckle, ist Lieut.
C. A. Hackman, "
H. T. Dennis, 2d "
Benjamin F. Schwartz
William N. Smith
G.IIuntzberger, i Lieut
Charles Henry, 2d "
D. K. Diefenderfer
John G. Helfried
R. M. Fornwald
William L. Eschbach
Milton A. Engelman
Peter G. Fegely
Franklin T. Good
John E. Helfrich
Daniel T. Reiser
Allen P. Kemmerer
Benjamin S. Koons
Benjamin G. Lucas
Benjamin F. Neur
Reuben L. Selp
Walter C. Smith
Edmund G. Scholl
William L. Borger
Thomas K. Crader
William C. Frame
Pi:eston B. Good
Henry C. Gracely
George T. Henry
George W. Lightfoot
Franklin C. Mertz
John R. Moody
William C. Reirismith
J. W. H. Stronninger
Ambrose L. Schultz
Frederick L. Jacoby
W. H. Trumbower
Luther M . Tooney
John A. Ulig
Simon D. Wolf
*John E. Webster
Company I. 47th Regiment.
A. Coleman, Capt.
Levi Stuber, "
Theo. Mink, "
James Stuber, 2d Lieut
William H. Moyer
Isreal F. Hartzell
Allen La wall, ist Lieut
W. Halteman, 2d,
James B. Cole
George T. Gross
Allen P. Gilbert
T. W. Fritzinger
John W. Diehl
T. T. Drawback
Walter P. Fetzer
Eli K. Hunsberger
Granville D. Hangen
*David C. Hawk
David F. Knerr
Alfred C. Pretz
S. M. Rauvenbush
Henry C. Suavely
Charles G. Sassaraan
W'illiam F. Henry
Company K. 47th Regiment.
*George Junkert, Capt.
Matthew Miller, "
Fred. Beisel, ist Lieut.
Elias Benner, 2d "
Henry D. Spinner
Edwin F. Trickier
James Van Syckel
David H. Fetterolf
*A. Schmoyer, 2d Lieut.
George J . Scherer
W. H. Berger
Henry A. Breinig
*William H. Berger
Daniel D. Dackratt
Philip W. Datzius
Jacob F. Hertzog
William P. Heller
Henry J. Schagle
Lewis G. Seip
John G. Snyder
William D. Schick
William A. Heckman
John C. Siegel
James D. Weil
James E. Knerr
*Moses F. Klotz
W. A. Liepensberger
Henry S. Romig
Christian F. Wieland
92d Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, Ninth Cavalry. Three years' service.
Mustered in the 29th of August, 1861.
Til. Miller, 2 Lieut.
Ellis T. Hanunersley
Edward G. Yeager
James R. Haniniersley
Oscar T. Hoffman
128th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, 9 mos. service. Mustered in the 15th
of August, 1861. W. W. Hammersley, Lieut. Colonel. '
John Dillinger, Capt.
Walter Seip, ist Lieut.
Wm. Miller, 2d Lieut.
Franklin C. Wasser
William G. Moyer
George F. Hawk
Tilghman F. Horn
Frederick A. Boas
Henry A. Berger
Edwin W. Fried
J. H. B. Jarrett
William D. Miller
Henry A. Breinig
Benjamin C. Roth
*Frederick A. Ruhl
James S. Hoflfert
Solomon S. Frederick
James A. Jackson
Henry K. Reiss
Henry G. Wagner
James A. Bieber
John E. Schaffer
Moses L. Klotz
Mahlon H. Beary
Company G, 128th Regiment.
Peter Huber, Capt. William A. Goranflo
Dan'l Miller, ist Lieut. William Haas
Benjamin F. Leech
Charles A. Pfeiffer
Reuben D. George
James R. Roney
Milton H. Dunlap
G. Hamilton, 2d Lieut.
Thomas J. Brader
Daniel J. Dillinger
*Thomas F. Good
William J. Miller
*Samuel B. Parker
*David O. Pritchard
*William H. Reitz
Henry W, Butz
Thomas J. Raynes
*Franklin S. Ritter
Benjamin F. Smith
John P. Weaver
Hugh O. Davis
*L. W. O. Goranflo
* Henry Wint
Franklin J. Keck
Daniel F. Mertz
Howard C. Manvill
176th Regiment, drafted Militia. Nine month service.
ber 7th 1862.
Mustered in Novem-
Levi Schmoyer, Capt.
Monroe Miller, i Lieut
A. Singmaster, 2d "
J. Franklin Mertz
Amatias W. Jacoby
James G. Gorr
Simon S. Miller
J^ William M. Flexer
William F. Seip
Jonas F. Gorr
* Augustus Fegley
L. F. Laudenschlager
James F. Romig
C. W. Fenstermacher
Samuel Lehr, Capt.
Daniel Knauss, i Lieut.
John Culberston 2nd "
Frunklin C. Balliett
B. Frank Abbott
John A. Long
David Schaadt, Capt.
Charles L- Koch, "
S. A. Brown, ist Lieut
Silas T. Biery
John P. Haas
Company B. 176 Regiment.
William J. Minnich
David D. Gilbert
Samuel J. Kramer
Joseph N. Ruch
Henry W. Jarrett
Company D. 176th Regiment
' ilghman Wetzel
Alfred T. Bernhard
Edward Y. Engleman
Edwin J. Sell
James A. Yeager
William J. Frantz
Lewis R. Brown
Company E. 176th Regiment.
T. Sleiker, Capt.
P. Graybill, ist Lieut
H. Wierbach, 2nd "
George D, King
Reuben D. Long
John C. Newcomer
William D. Weaver
George M. Hoffman
John A. Knerr
William R. Wimmer
1 ilghman Weil
George M. Pilgard
Company G. 176th Regiment.
L Hecker, Capt.
J. Cornett, ist Lieut.
W. Hecker, 2d "
William G. Freyman
J. R. Reichard
Lewis D. Steckel
Charles E. Clader
Levi E. Kistler
* Andrew Kratzer
Joseph T. Leibenguth
*Conrad C. Wolf
Mana A. Rockel
Company I. 176th Regiment
Alfred Creitz, Capt. Willoughby Camp
L. Harmony, " William Freed
W. Grosscup, 1st Lieut Edwin Harmony
Wm. Cassler Owen Krauss
Stephen Stiegerwalt David Kistler
Levi Stiegerwalt Edwin Konig
Manassah Behler Jacob Moser
Allen Xander, 2d Lieut John Miller
Amandas Harmony Robert McDaniels
Henry B. Crietz
Levi S. Follweiler
Company K. 176th Regiment.
^Charles F. Reed
*John F Snyder
S. C. Lee, Capt.
E. Seibert, ist Lieut.
P. W. Flores, 2d "
George G. Rodenberg
William M. Roeder
William E. Bennedict
James F. Smith
Richard T. Jones
William B. Williams
John D. Schell
Eugene T. Tool
C. Foster, ist Lieut.
Thomas F. Mohr
in August 30th 1864.
Walter Seip, Capt.
B. C. Roth,
J. Lucas, 1st Lieut.
A. Mellin, 2nd "
John D. Gangwere
Harrison S. Kern
John Nagle, Sr.
William F. Reinhard
* Franklin Dovle
John T. Roberts
Charles J. Fegley
*David M. Miller
Aaron P. Nagle
Lewis F. Ruhf
Milton W'. Rei chard
Henry D. Brown
Jacob H. Burger
G. H. Good, 2nd Lieut.
Hiram F. SchafFer
Henry E. Burger
John A. Griffith
One vear service. Mustered
James J. Kiinkel
William A. Lynn
Addison J. Knauss
Augustus W. Mennig
Eli L. Fatzinger
'Allen D. Burger
Jacob A. Smith
John Nagle, jr
David Miller 105 men
209th Regiment, Pennsylvania volunteers,
in September 14th 1864.
W. Miller, Capt.
W. Knerr, "
L. Fink, ist Lieut
A. O. Frankenfield
D. Overholt, 2nd Lieut Joseph Arnold
William Morton, jr Reuben Brader
C. F. Engelman
O. H. C. Fallweiler
James N. Hersh
One year service. Mustered
David Y. Williamson
Robert F. Roberts
Henry W. Weiss
5th Regiment was organized, September 13th, 1862. The field and staff
officers were H. C. Longecker, Colonel; J. B, Clemens, Lieutentant Colonel; Mel-
chior Horn, Edwin D. Lawal, Milton J. Kramer, George Mish, William M. Culver,
Thomas Metzger, Elisha Forest, Jacob Wolle, George C. Hand.
Company C, 5th, Regiment.
I. Gregory, Capt.
B. Hagenbach, i Lieut.
B. Sweitzer, 2nd "
John O. Vingling
E. F. Powell
Company E. 5th Regiment.
William H. Simons
W. Marx, Capt.
C. Mertz, ist Lieut.
Charles J. Haines
Alfred J. Breinig
Allen A. Huber
Henry A. Evans
Frederick A. Baldwin
Jacob S. Dillinger
Benjamin F. Jacoby
Edward D. Lawall
G. Schall, Capt.
T. Snyder, 1st Lieut.
S. Weller, 2nd "
Samuel B. Anewalt
Joseph E. Balliett
J. A. Aikens
Company G. 51b Regiment.
John Krauss, jr
Thomas B. Metzgar
Charles G. Sassaman
David O. Saylor
James S. Biery
Allen P. Steckel
James P. Roder
Jacob R. Wolle
Edwin L. Young
Company H. 5th Regiment.
W. Hoffman, Capt.
F. Seller, ist Lieut.
A. Heilman, 2nd Lieut
D. F. Deschler
Allen F. Barber
37th Regiment; Emergency troops. Mustered in Jime 19th, 1863.
Company H. 37th Regiment.
/ mos Guth
38th Regiment; Emergency militia. Mustered in July 3rd, 1863. Mel-
chior H. Horn, Colonel.
Companj- B. 38th Regiment.
I. Gregory, Capt.
Ed. Young, 1st Lieut
B. Sweitzer, 2nd "
Henry F. Ames
Samuel P. Bliss
Hiram E. Bectelman
Alfred V. Willeumeyer
J. Hunt, Capt.
E. Mickley, ist Lieut.
J. Morrison, 2nd "
Charles G. Harp
Reuben A. Boyer
Morgan Emanuel, jr.
William R. Thomas
David P. Bowen
Company C. 38th Regiment,
F. P. Laubach
Alfred Lynn 13 men
41st Regiment; Emergency militia. Mustered in July ist, 1863. John
H. Oliver, Major; A. B. Longaker, Quarter Master.
W. Seip, Captain.
B. C. Roth, ist Lieut.
James Lucas, 2d "
John D. Albright
George T. Young
Edward T. Engelman
Henry L. Kenner
Lewis P. Levan
Lewis P. Queen
Henry A. Heckman
C. Keck, Captian
D. Kline, ist Lieut.
S. Smith, 2nd "
Abner A. Campbell
James A. Bieber
William Bergen moyer
Alfred G. Peter
Company I. 41st Regiment.
Leon F. Roeder
Robert Young 76 men
C. Mertz, Captain
A. Heilman, ist Lieut
Henry Freed, 2d "
John A. Young
Henry C. Huber
Charles C Moore
Company K. 41st Regiment.
Stephen A. Henry
* Killed in battle or died while in service.
The whole number of men furnished by Lehigh county during the Civil War
of 1861 to 1S65, was two thousand and sixty-three. The number of men killed
in battle were eighty^three; number of men wounded in battle sixty-four; number
of men that died in camp were two hundred and thirty-three; number of men
captured by the Confederates were two hundred and fifty-seven; number of men
that were drowned three; number of men, missing in action were forty-nine and
four hundred and eighty-three men mentioned as killed and wounded and miss-
ing, making a total loss of one thousand two hundred and eighteen men.
Allen Gua..rd^. They were one of the first companies that responded to
the Nation's call for volunteers for the defense of Washington. The first Regi-
ment did garrison duty but were not engaged in any battles. The Ninth Regi-
mintdii iho ^ irrisoti duty an 1 was not in aay battles. The Forty-sixth Regiment
was in the following battles : Winchester, Cedar Mountain, Antietam, Chancell-
orsville, Getteysburg, Resaca, Dallas, Kennesaw, Peach Tree Creek, Pine Knob,
Marietta, Atlanta. The loss of the Regiment while in the service was two hun-
dred and forty-three men. The Forty-seventh Regiment was in the following
battles, St. John's Bluff, Jacksonville, Pocotaligo, Red River expedition, Shena-
doah campaign and lost during its service was five hundred and thirty-eight men.
The Ninety-second Regiment was in the following engagements, Lebanon,
Moore's Hill, Tonipkinsville, Richmond Ky., Shelbyville, Perryville, Franklin
Rover, Middleton, Cowan, LaFayette, Chickamauga, Dan bridge, Newmarket,
Mossy creek. Fair Garden, McMinnsville, Lovejoys, Macon, Bear creek, Waynes-
boro (2) Buckhead creek, Buckhead church, Aiken, Lexington, Black Stakes,
Averysboro, Bentonville, Raleigh, Hillsboro, Morrisville. Their loss was very
heavy. This Regiment had the honor of firing the last gun before the surrender
of General J. E.Johnston. The one hundred and Twenty-eight Regiment was
in the battles of Antietam, where it lost thirty-foui men in killed and eighty-five
men wounded, and at Chancellorsville where two hundred and fifty of their num-
ber were taken prisoners. The one hundred and Seventy-sixth Regiment did
garrison duty at Newberne, N. C. and Hilton Head S. C. The two hundred and
Second Regiment was in the battle of Salem and guarding railroads in the
Shenadoah Valley, during General Sheridad's campaign. The Two Hundred
and Ninth Regiment fought in the battle of Chapin's Farm, Mead Station,
Petersburg and Appomattox court house. The Fifth and Twenty-seventh Regi-
ments (Militia of 1862) were organized to aid in repelling the invasion of the
Confederate army. The Thirty-eighth Regiment (Militia, of 1863) guarded
property, repairing railroads and gathering Confederate stragglers after the
battle of Gettysburg. The Forty-first Regiment (Militia of 1863), saw service
at South Mountain and guarding property.
The Spaniyh-America.n War.
Companies B and D, 4th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers were from
Lehigh county. The officers from our county were Charles O'Neill, Lieutenant
Colonel ; W. D. Mickley, Major ; Morris F. Cawley, Surgeon Major ; Frank D.
Beary, Adjutant ; J. Howard Martz, Sergeant Major ; Harry Bower, Quartermaster
J. A. Medlar, Capt. Peter Hertzog
C. D. Rhoads, ist Lieut J. Allen Newhard
O. Miller, 2nd Lieut William Ruch
\V. F. Weiss
Otto R. Wollmuth
George A. Rex
James F. Wieand
Frank D. Baughardt
Charles E. Clader
S. A. Hammar
Orange M. Frantz
Hugh Stevens, jr.
Harry Adams •
Robert E. Frantz
Howard E. Gaulger
Company D. 4th Regiment.
C. Spangler, Capt. Harry Geansley
E. Wittemyer, ist LieutEdwin Eagle
S. Chubbuck, 2nd " William Bechtel
George Shillinger Allen Berger
John H el wig
John Schick, jr.
Oliver E. Miller
Ira T. Eudy
Oswald A. Yehl
Harvey E. Ziegler
Harve}- J. Saul
"ChafTes^ W a g n er
Harry A. Weaver
Herbert A. Warg
Joseph C. Berwick
Adam B. Weaver
William M. Wieand
The following served in other companies.
G. W. C. Snyder
William S. Roth
HISTORY OF OUR FLAG.
Mrs. Betsy Ross, of Philadelphia, made Ihe first National flag. Congress
had passed a resolution June 14, 1777 that the flag should consist of thirteen
stripes, alternate white and red and thirteen white stars on a blue field. The
flags of the navy are the following : A distinctive blue flag with four white stars
more at the top of the main mast, represents the highest naval officer and com-
mander of the ship or squadron, namely an Admiral. A blue flag with three
white stars on the top of the mizzen mast, is a Vice Admiral's flag. A blue flag
with two white stars is a rear Admiral's flag. A broad blue pennant with one
white star is a Commodore's flag. A red flag hoisted at the foremost signifies
danger, powder being taken on board.
A yellow flag is the flag for quarantine. A flag of truce is a white one.
To lower or strike the flag means to pull it down or take it in, out of respect or
submission. Sign of yielding. The sign of mourning is to hoist the flag at half
of two-thirds of the hight of the most of vessels, on land at one-half of the staff.
The stars had at first eight points. Paul Jones' flag displayed on the
Serapsis in 1779 at Texel, had eight pointed stars and the stripes were red,
white and blue.
The French navy first saluted the American flag February 14, 1778,
The first naval engagement under the American flag was between the American
ship Raugu and the E;ngli.'^h ship Drake, the latter being captured, April 24,
1778. Captain John Rathburne, first unfurled the flag over a foreign country,
when he captured Fort Nassau, New Providence Islands, February 6, 1778. The
ship Bedford, first displayed the flag in British port (London). The flag that
carried us through the war of 1812, consisted of fifteen stars and fifteen stripes.
Elken Appleton, Yonkers, New York, has the flag in his possession that waved
over Fort IMcHenry, when Francis S. Key was detained on board the British
warship during the bombardment, wrote the Star Spangled Banner. Captain S.
C. Ried, suggested that the flag should consist of thirteen stripes and a star for
each State admitted. April 4, 1818. The present flag was fixed. A new star is
added on the admission of every State, on July 4 next, succeeding such admission.
The Revenue flag, at first consisted of 16 perpendicular stripes and the
Union bore the Armies of the United States, in blue on white field, first authori-
zed in 1799, changed in 1871 to 13 blue stars, on a white field. Flags at half
mast are signs of National mourning. When the Union is turned down it is a
sign of distress. Dipping the flag is hauling it down a few feet and then runing
it up again Salutes are made by dipping the flag. In the Navy when the flag
is hoisted at "colors" or halted down at sunset, the officers and men are re-
quested to salute the same.
1775 the Virginia Militia bore a banner with the devices of a rattle snake
and the injunction of "Don't tread on me," and Patrick Henry's words "Liberty
or death." Massachusetts flag in the Revolutionary war bore the emblem of a
"Pine Tree" and the words. "An Appeal to Heaven." Colonel Moultrie's at
Fort Sullivan 1776 was blue in color, with white or silver cresent in the right
hand corner and the word "Liberty."
The Stars of white on a blue field represent our National constellation.
The stripes the thirteen original colonies. White stands for purity, red for valor
blue for justice. The only banner that upholds and proclaims liberty to all.
Post Offices, Attorneys, Physici&.ns, Etc«
fAllentown (c h)
*Money Order Offices, f International Money Orrfer Offices. c h Court House'.
John S. Gibbons
Augustus r\ Boas
Robert S. Brown
John D. Roney
Andrew L. King
H. C. Longecker
William P. Miller
S. E. Buzzard
Charles M. Runk
James S. Reese
J. Depuy Davis
W. S. Marx
Gilbert G. Gibbons
James R. Struthers
A. B. Schwartz
R. Clay Hannnersly
Arnold C. Lewis
Robert S. Leyburn
Henry A. Bigler
\Vm. H. Sowden
Wm. H. Deschler
Henry S. Floyd
C. J. Erdman
Eli G. Schwartz
H. C. Hunsberger
Samuel A. Butz
W. D. Luckenbach
George H. Rupp
R. E. Wright
James S. Biery
Wm. S. Young
J . Winslow Wood
M. L. KaufFman
George K. Wilson
James B. Deschler
E. A. Muhlenberg
E. A. Lochman
Harry F. Kramer
W^m. P. Snyder
J. M. McClure
Nathanial M. Orr
Oscar E. Hollman
M. C. L.Kline
John M. Kessler
M. G. Henninger
W. H. Muschlitz
A. G. Dewalt
R. A. B. Hausman
A. B. Longaker
J. L. Marsteller
S. S. Dufly
F. G. W. Runk
T. F. Diefenderfer
F. M. Trexler
E. F. Schoch
A. P. Crilly
E. H. Renninger
H. A. Weller
M. E. Schaadt
E. F". Lichtenwalner
Norton Marti a
D. R. Home
E. E. Butz
F. T. L. Keiter
A, L. Biery
A. N. Ulrich
A. H. Sieger
J. T. Schantz
O. R. Leidy
Jacob S. Dillinger
Thomas B. Metzgar
F. A. R. Baldwin
J. D. Christman
P. E. Stem
M. E. Hornbeck
S. C. D. Fogel
J. A. Fetherolf
F. W. Quig
N. T. Hallman
W. J. Lochman
W. LaMonte Gillette
J. M. Wright
E. S. Beaver
L. B. Balliet
E. G. Steinmetz
H. T. Trumbauer
F. M. Laubach
W. E. Loyd
B. P. Backus
A. J. Becker
G. T. Fox
John A. Roth
William A. Riegel
Oscar E. Schaeffer
W. O. Smith
Morris F. Cawley
Anna C. Clarke
John A. Helfrich
A. H. Howard
Irvin F. Huff
A. Eugene Heimbach
S. A. Apple
M. J. Kline
Charles D. Martin
D. W. Follweiler
E. L. Reichard
J. D. Erdnian
\\ el come Powell
E. A. Gearhart
C. L. Johnstonbaugh
Isaac I. Kalbach
John A. Laros
F. M. Laubach
Charles A. Moyer
Henry T. Wickert
M. J. Backenstoe
E. M. Bingaman
John S. Behm
John N. Bauer
Jacob T. Butz
Leo F. Elsion,
H. A. Litzenberger
E. S. Mantz
R. C. Peters
H. T. Wickert
*Joseph Dubbs R
*N. S. Strassburger R
*A. J. G. Dubbs R
*Williah Helfrich R
Eli Keller R
J.J. Fogel R
A. R. Bartholomew R
J. Dubbs R
*W. H. Richards L
*Joshua Yeager L
*S. K. Brobst L
*J. Schindel L
*W. H. Rath L
T. L. Seip L
J. D. Schindel L
Wm. Wackeruagel L
C.J. Cooper L
* J. Wood P
W. H. Heil U E
C.K. Fehr E
J. C. Bleim E
A. R. Home L
J. A. Little P
M. C. Peters R
*W. R. Hufford R
T. J. F. Schantz L
J. B. Rath L
S. G. Wagner R
*Jacob VanBuskirk R
*W. G. Mennig L
*Abraham Blumer R
R. Lichtenwalner U. E.
B. J. Schmoyer U. E.
R. Kline P E.
Thomas Bowman E.
^Richard Walker P
^Cornelius Earl P
*Jeremiah Schindel L
*J. C. Becker R
*John Helfrich R
J. D. Acker U. E.
J. D. WoodringU. E.
E. S. Woodring U. E.
J. A. Brunner U. E.
J. Shirey U. E.
*J. Daniel Gross R
H. J. GlickU. E.
S. A. Repass L
G. A. Geiss L
^Deceased. R. Reformed, L. Lutheran, P. Presbyterian, U.
Evangelical, E. Evangelical Association, P. E. Protestant Episcopal.
Teachers that were granted Permanent Certificates from 1868 to 1901.
R. K. Buehrle
R. Clay Hammersley
F. W. Siegfried
F. G. Bernd
J. O. Knauss
G. W. Brinker
E. D. Rhoads
Anna M. Smith
Katie M. Smith
George P. Bates
E. J. Haines
A. E. Reichard
William K. Derr
Henry G. Paff
Samuel C. Lee
B. C. Snyder
R. A. Little
A. F. K. Krout
F, S. Hartzell
Owen R . Wilt
Wm. T. Morris
Joel P. Geiger
Wm. R. Henninger
E. A. Troxell
E. J. Young
F. B. Heller
Mrs. C. Stoneback
M. N. Bernhard
Lewis P. Hecker
B. F. Abbott
L. B. Landis
Ella T. Gabriel
F. D. Raub
P. B. Oswald
Laura E. Busse
J. George Kerschner
H . Rosenberger
H. S. Schell
Sarah J. McTntyre
M. Lizzie vSteltz
Wm. S. Erney
E. A. Nunnenmacher
I. A. Conrad
A. R. Ritter
O. J. Heilman
Mary M. Craig
J. J. Hauser
Henry D. Andreas
P. J. Lantz
F. A. McCafferty
M. V. Cafferty
James F. Guth
P. B. Nuss
Chester A. Frantz
N. N. Benfield
E. R. Hottle
Clinton N. Bauder
W. B. Neumoyer
W. O. Lichtenwalner
S. K. Wetzel
O. P. Leh
H. W. Stephen
J. W. Gernert
W. E. Hoffman
C. S. Kunkel
W. G. Gehman
A. L. Christman
S. E. Heilman
S. F. Gehringer
Alice E. Ay res
I. H. Bartholomew
Peter A. Lantz
Frank J. Stettler
Clara A. Unger
J. Winter Rogers
L. J. Basse
M. R. ShafTer
A. G. Romig
A. J. Herber
R. D. Wotring
D. W, Benedict
T. F. Frederick
E. Jane Sykes
S. C. Schmoyer
W. A. Henry
Population of Pennsylva^nia from 1790 to 1900.
1790. 434.373 ;
1800, 602,365 ;
1810, 810,091 ;
1820, 1,047,507 ;
1880, 4,282,821 ;
1830, 1,458, 233;
1840, 1,724,033 ;
1890, 5,258,014 ;
i860, 2,906,215 ;
Population of Lehigh County from 1820 to 19OO.
1820, 18,895 ; 1830, 22,256; an increase of 3,361 ; increase per cent, of
17.7; 1840, 25,787; an increase of 3,531; increase per cent, of 11. 3; 1850,
32,479, an increase of 6,692 ; increase per cent, of 25.9 ; i860, 43,753 ; an increase
of 11,271 ; increase per cent, of 34.7 ; 1870, 56,796 ; an increase of 13,043 ; increase
per cent, of 29.8 ; 1880, 65,969 ; an increase of 9,173 ; per cent, of 16. i ; 1890,
76,631 ; an increase of 10,662 ; increase per cent, of 16. i ; 1890, 93,893 ; an increase
of 17,162 ; increase per cent, of 22.5.
EARLY CHURCHES AND SETTLERS.
Mennonite Congregation was founded in 1735, is between Old^'Zicnsville
and Zionsville and among the first members of the congregation were :
Great Swamp Church, was founded between the years 1725 and 1730,
belongs to the Reformed Church. Among the members of the congregation were :
John R. Kitweiler
Moria C. Klein
Annie M. Hillegass
Jacob Wetzel, jr
Joseph Eberhard, jr
Michael Eberhard, jr
John Huber, sr.
John Huber, jr.
J. G. Titlow
E. Dubbs, (Schwenk;
John G. Ruch
Anna M. Ruch
Anna M. Eberhard
John P. Mumbauer
Rudy Frick John Blyler
Abraham Titlow Conrad Schmidt
J. Nic Mannbauer John Dubbs
Saul Sampsel Anna B. Blyler
Rev. John Henry Goetschius, was the first Pastor.
Chestnut Hill Church was founded in 1757. Among the members of the
congregation that established the church were the following :
George Wei den
First Reformed pastors known were Rev.
Nain, an Indian village, was situated in Hanover township, Lehigh
county, two miles northwest of Bethlehem and one mile east of Rittersville, on
what was formerlj' Geissinger's farm, later known as the Mack farm, was
founded as a home for converted Indians and was their home for five years from
1757 to 1762.
Shoenersville church was organized in 1780 by Rev. John Faust, the first
Lutheran minister and Rev. Gross, the first Reformed minister. There were
twenty -four communicants at the organization of the church. The first church
built in 17S0 was a log building which was replaced in 1819 by a stone structure,
and in 1872 by the present church.
Schwenkfelders were among the first settlers in the lower part of the
county, at Hosensack where the following settlers lived and are buried :
Rev. George Kriebel was the first pastor of the congregation at Hosen-
sack. The congregation at Krauseville was founded in 1772 upon land formerly
owned by George Schumacher, in 1734, who sold it to Baltzer Krauss, Sr., in
1749 and he sold it to his son Baltzer Krauss, Jr., in 1772, who deeded it to the
trustees of the congregation, who used it for a cemetery and erected thereon a
church in 1815. The following were among the members of the congregation :
Baltzer Krauss, sr.
Baltzer Krauss, jr.
The Dillingersville congregation was founded in 1735 from which origin-
ated the Zionsville church. Among the founders of the congregation were
Christian A. Guthnian
The first pastor known was Rev. L. H. Schrenke.
berg visited this congregation.
The present Zionsville Lutheran Church, was founded in 1757 and 1758.
The pastor was Rev. Schaffer, Peter Hittle gave the land upon which the church
is built. Among the first members of the congregation were :
Rev. H. M. Muhlen-
Annie E. Schwartz
John G. Yeakel
The Reformed Church at Zionsville, was founded between 1740 and 1750.
One of the first ministers of the Reformed Church was Rev. John Hecker.
Among the early members of the congregation were :
Jacob Rum f eld
Anna C. Derrin
Anna C. Reiss
John G. Reiss
Anna M. Hertzog
John Nic Seidel
Anna Rosina Danison
Anna C. Folk in
Anna B. Kercherin
Maria C. Flexer
Anna M. Steininger
Early settlers of Upper Saucon township were the following :
George Peter Knecht
John Matthias Eichner
John George Blank
Henry Rinkard, jr.
They had no wagons, horses, cattle, farming implements or provisions and
often they had to go to the settlements on the Lehigh to get grains and other
necessary articles. During the French and Indian war, 1754 to 1763, many of the
settlers of Heidelberg and Lynn townships fled to Bethlehem and other places
for protection from the Indians.
Western Salisbury Church, founded in 1741. First Lutheran pastor Rev.
John William Straub, Rev, Daniel Schumacher, was the first Lutheran pastor after
the church had joined the Synod, 1753. The date 01 tl e erection of the second
church is not known, but the third one was built in 1819. Among the first mem-
bers of the congregation who lived, died and are buried at the Western Salisbury
Church were :
John G. Glick . Adam Dorney
Elias Weber George Keck
George H. Mertz Michael Bastian
John P. Kohler Christopher Bortz
Jacob Danner Jacob Wieand
George Bieber Henry Diefenderfer
On Geissinger's farm is the burial place of Solomon Jennings, and his
wife and also 10 or 12 Revolutionary Soldiers. Saucon is an Indian word mean-
ing, — the valley, — where the creek has its beginning.
Northampton County was taken frAn Bucks County in 1752 and the
county line of Northampton was made by John Chapman, John Watson, jr., and
Samuel Foulke, the following counties were taken from Bucks County : North-
ampton, Lehigh, Monroe, Pike, Wayne, Susquehanna, Wyoming, Luzerne,
Lackawanna and part of Schu3lkill and Northumberland counties.
The early settlers of the Macungies were
George M. Brader
The Lehigh Church was founded in 1745 by Rev. Philip Henry Rapp,
Lutheran minister. The first church was built in 1750. The first Reformed
minister was Rev. C. G. Herman.
Ziegel's Church was founded in 1745 and was later known as the Ma-
cungie Church. The first members of this congregation were the families of Carl,
Fenstermacher, Haas, Zimmerman, Reichard, Brauss, Schmidt, Schneider, Lynn,
Mayer, NefT, Bernhardt. In 1771 Adam Brauss and Jacob Grim deeded the prop-
erty to the congregation.
Trexlertown Church was founded in 1784 by John Helfrich.
The Evangelical Association's first church within the County was organ-
ized in 1828 in Upper Milford township near Zionsville and the first building' was
erected in 1831. Bishop John Seybert was the first one to preach in these parts.
Rev. W. W. Orwigand Charles Hammer were the first pastors.
Among the first members were David Schubert, Christopher Schubert,
George Yeakel, Peter Wiest and others.
Early Settlers of the County.
John C. Yeager
John G. Kurtz
Jacob Bachman, jr
Ulrich Henry Neff
was organized in 1740.
was organized in 1769.
First members were
Hans Ulrich Arndt
John Christian Stahl
John Conrad Redd
First members were
Jacob Bachinar, Sr.
John Simon George
J. W. Schneider
Valentine Barontheisel Michael Miller
Michael Baumgardnrr Michael Moser
Michael Brobst, Sr.
John A. Geiss
J acob Bar
V^-George A. Guthekunst
\ Adam Duess
Philip Wert man
George L. Schut
Philip Gabriel Vogel
Ebenezer Church, was founded in 1740. The first members were
Philip Gabriel Vogel
John George Guth
George L. Breinig
UPPER MACUNGIE TOWNSHIP
George F. Schaffer
LOWER MACUNGIE TOWNSHIP.
Rev. Jacob VanBuskirk
John Y. Erdman
Lehigh Church, was founded in 1740. The first members were
John Matthias Egner
John P. Fetherolf
Gaumer Matthias Steinlein
John Peter Klein
George Adam Bortz
_ Henry Rum field
UPPER SAUCON TOWNSHIP.
Carl Ludwig Keiper
Samuel Everhard Kopp
Rev. J. Berkenstock
John Adam Euberoth
G. W. Moritz
Jacob Gauge wre
John Philip Flexer
John Adam Stout
Charles L. Koch
Ziegel Church, founded in 1749
The first members were
John George Schumacher
Rev. Daniel Schumacher
Philip Wendel Klein
Rev. John H. Helfrich
Known at first as the Macungie church.
John N. Gift
Melchior Ziegler .
Weisenberg Church, was founded in 1747.
George Emery Schick
John Adam Klein
John Dietrich Herman
The first members were
John A. Giess
John U. Weiss
John Daniel Werley
John C. Leisenring
John N. Saeger
NORTH WHITEHALL TOWNSHIP.
John Ulrich Ahlmer
SOUTH WHITEHALL TOWNSHIP
George L. Schutz
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NOTE :— Under the Constitution of 1790, a Governor could serve 9 years
out of 12 years. Under the Constitution of 1S3S, he could serve 6 vears out'of 9
years. Under the Constitution of 1S73, he could serve i term of 4 years only and
he cannot be re-elected to succeed himself.
Valuation of Lehigh County for 190I.
Allentown, Taxables, 13,042 ; Real estate valuation, $20,290,311 ; Count)'
assessment, 120,594,216; County tax, $45,307.11 ; State tax, 118,778.94 ; Money
on interest, $4,694,729. Catasauqua, Taxables, 1,266 ; Real estate valuation,
$1,715,745. County assessment, $1,770915; County tax, $3,896.00; State tax,
$1, 964.44 ; Coopersburg, Taxables, 222 ; Real estate valuation, $266,310 ; County
assessment, $288,300 ; County tax, $633.25 ; State tax, $969.44. Coplay, Taxables
617 ; Real estate valuation, $501,495, County assessment, $543,035 ; County tax $1,-
194 69 ; State tax, $1 13.29. Emaus, Taxables, 539 ; Real estate valuation. $433,745 ;
County assessment, $478,835 ; County tax, $1 052 99 ; State tax, $602 11. Foun-
tain Hill, Taxables, 374 ; Real estate valuation, $700,525 ; Count}' assessment,
$576,530 ; County tax, $1,268.36; State tax, $592.26. Macungie, Taxables, 337 ;
Real estate valuation, $271,661 ; County as.se.ssment, $287,281 ; County tax,
$632.01 ; State tax, $573 Slatington, Taxables. 1,315 ; Real estate valuation,
$1,070,256 ; County assessment, $1,178,995; County tax, $2,593.79; State tax,
$519. West Bethleheci, Taxables, $1595; Real estate valuation, $1,326,663;
County assessment, $1,308,928 ; County Tax, $3,099.63 ; State Tax, $773.49.
Hanover, Taxables, 1,370; Real estate valuation. $1,473,798; County
assessment, $1,525,618 ; County tax, $3,356 36 ; State tax, $1,255 26. Heidelberg,
Taxables, 486 ; Real estate valuation, $569,088; County assessment, $600,034;
County tax, $1,320 05. State tax, $5,694 32. Lower Macungie, Taxables, . 1076 ;
Real estate valuation, $1,360,906 ; County assessment, $1,450,106; County tax,
$3,190.24; State tax, $599.46. Lower Milford, Taxables, 507 ; Real estate valua-
tion, $701,590 ; County assessment, $736,480 ; County tax, $1,620.25 ; State tax,
$651.81. Lowhill, Taxables, 256 ; Real estate valuation, $315,307 ; County assess-
ment, $325,917 ; County tax, $717.02 ; State tax, $206.58. Lynn Taxables, 686 ;
Real estate valuation, $1,131,860 County assessment, $1,177,212; County
tax, $2,589.85 ; State tax, $587.64. North Whitehall, Taxables,
1,165 ; Real estate valuation, $1,250,561 ; County as.sessment, $1,335-
271; County tax, $2,938.59 ; State tax, ^672. 40. Salisbury. Taxables, 1789; Real
estate valuation, 51,776,864 ; County assessment, Si, 898, 819 ; County tax, $4,177 40
State tax, $582.96. South Whitehall, Taxables, 820 ; Real estate valuation, $1,459-
755 ; County assessment, 5i, 506,955 ; County tax, $2,315.30 ; State tax, $780 97.
Upper Macungie, Taxables, 756 ; Real estate valuation, $1,168,804 ; County assess-
ment, $1,216,904 ; County tax, $2,677.18 ; State tax, $406.49. Upper Milford, Tax-
ables, 1042 ; Real estate valuation, $1,505,307; County as.sessment, $1,083,271;
County tax, $2,383.20 ; State tax, $845.77. Upper Saucon, Taxables, 1024 ; Real
estate valuation, $1,140,040 ; County assessment, $1,233,775 ; County tax, $2,714.31
State tax, $967.67 ; Washington, Taxables, 1,041 ; Real estate valuation, $825,-
025 ; County assessment, $896,396; County tax, $1,972.07; State tax, 567.72;
Weisenberg, Taxables, 492 ; Real estate valuation, $591,535 ; County assessment,
$607,048 ; County tax. ^1,335.50 ; State tax, $349,39. Whitehall, Taxables, 2,646;
Real estate valuation, $3,398,340 ; County assessment, '3,512,635; County tax,
$7,728,02 ; State tax, $857.14.
Total valuation, Taxables, 34,625 ; Real estate, $44,735.91. Count)- assess-
ment, $46,233,726 ; County tax, $101,714.12 ; State tax, $34,767.96 ; Cleared land,
174,957 acres ; Timber land, 18,175 acres ; County debt none.
LEHIGH COUNTY'S DEBT.
HOW IT HAS BEEN PAID OFF IN THIRTY YEARS.
In 1S73 Lehigh county had a debt of 1404,742.61. In 1886 the last rem-
nant of indebtedness was paid off, and no other has been created since. The
total amount of county taxes levied and collected from 1856 to 1886 was $4,227,-
$ 22,625.01 I 5,840.00
46,606 24 29,849.00
The following figures were taken from the official census report and
show Lehigh's importance as a manufacturing centre :
Invested in land, $ 2,328,543
Invested in buildings, 7,445,807
Invested in machinery tools
Children under 16 j'cars 1,100
Miscellaneous expenses :
Rent of works 151,269
Taxes, not including internal
Rent of offices, interest etc. 1,279,692
Contract work 529,855
Total miscellaneous expenses
Cost of materials, including mill
supplies and freight 15,833,723
Total cost of materials 17,593,067
Value of products 31,250,205
OMITTED ON P.A.GE 50— .\LLENTO\VN NEWSPAPERS— Daily Leader established in
1803. National Educator founded in 1S60 by Rev. Dr. A. R. Home, an educational paper, having
a large circulation among the teachers of L,ehigh and neighVxjring counties.
Cash and sundries,
Total capital invested
Men over 16 years
Women over i6 years
Have you ever stopped to consider
what a prompt historian the the daily newspaper is ?
has always aimed to present the complete news of
Lehigh County as promptly as possible and that
this is appreciated is attested by its large and well
distributed circulation covering the entire county.
Delivered in the City early each morning and
reaches every Post Office in the County
on the Day of Publication.
UNSURPASSED AS AN ADVERTISING MEDIUM.
Marcus C. L. Kline,
ATTOR N EY-AT-LAW
S27 HAMILTON ST., STILES building
MILK and CREAM.
Buy your milk
fresh from the dairy. Noue
but pure milk and fresh
cream handled. Milk deliv-
ered to all parts of the city.
Watch for MOI^LET'S Milk De-
HARRY A. MOLLET
P. O. Allentown, Pa.
1). Fritz. J. R. Wahler.
FRITZ & WAHLER,
Staple and Fancy
Provisions and Meats,
Teas, Coffees, Canned Goods, Etc.
Fresh Eggs and Choice Butter.
4th &nd Gordon Sts., Allentown, Pa.
Goods delivered to all parts
of the city.
John F. Kemmerer,
1 8 SOUTH FIFTH ST., EMAUS.PA
PIANO AND ORGAN.
For L0C&.I History
You are concerned about.
Published Weekly at
An excellent Advertising
J. C. RACE,
Cor. Third and Main Sts.,
Dealer in all kinds of
Fresh and Smoked Meats,
Groceries and Green
Which will be sold at lowest
PHAON C. WEAVER
Real Estate and
P.O. Box 322.
Flour, Feed, Grain Baled
Hay and Straw.
T* Niemoyer & Co*
Dry Goods, Groceries,
Boots, Shoes, Hats,
Caps, Queensware, and
Second and Main Streets,
R. C. KING, M. D.
Physician and Surgeon,
Limeport, Lehigh Co., Pa.
OFFICE HOURS :
Until 9.00 A. M.
From 12.00 M. to 2.00 P. M.
After 6.00 P. M.
Practical Funeral Director,
And dealer in
All kinds of Furniture
J 38 Main St., Emaus, Pa.
For the Best made
and Saddlery Goods in
Lehigh County, visit
J. F. Smith & Son,
OLD ZIONSVILLE, PA.
Harness, Collars, Flynets, Cairiage Robes.
For Pictures go to
R. Ul. Ulint*$
627-629 Hamilton Street,
Also fine assortment of Brooch Pins.
A. S. MILLER.
General Merchandi.se, Dry Goods,
Boots and Shoes.
POWDER VALLEY, PA.
Country produce is taken in exchange for
which highest cash price is paid.
J. F. Fretz. J. E. Fretz.
J. F. Fretz & Bro.,
327 MAIN ST., EMAUS, PA.
MANFACTURERS OF FINE
H. S. FUNK,
H. H. FUNK,
Times Publishing Co.,
Advertising rates reasonable.
Fine job work a specialty.
3obn P. Sbive,
BREAD AND CAKE
Picnics and Parties Supplied at
J. R. DILLER, M. D.
7 to 8.30 A. M.
OFFICE HOURS: 12 to 1.30 P.M.
7 to 9 P. M.
A large Variety of Goods at the
very Lowest Prices always to
be had at my Store.
Dry Goods, Notions
Gents' furnishing goods a Specialty.
Cor. 3rd and Main Sts.,
Reliable Gipr Factoryp
E. H. HAMMAN.
FINE HAVANA and SEED CIGARS.
Factory :— Railroad Street.
Office :— South 3rd Street.
W. R. SCHULER, Prop.,
Of the original
Manufacturer of the finest
Butter and Cheese,
and Dealer in
E. H. FRETZ,
333>^ Main St., Emaus, Pa.
Watches, clocks, vSilverware and Jewelry of
evevy description at Lowest Prices
Give nie a call.
Satisfaction guaranteed and good and
Life-Sized Portraits and Frames furnished on
Repairing of all kinds promptly attended to.
Reliable Cigar Factory.
E. H. Hamman,
and Seed Cigars,
Factory, Railroad Street, 'C-^.,-..- p„
Office, South 3d Street, J-iIIlaUb, 1 <1.
WM. W. KUHNS,
Dealer in FLOUR and
Orders promptly filled and goods
delivered. Office, Yard and Store
J. H. J. HALLMAN,
Tobacco and Oysters,
The best and nicest goods in town.
BUTZ & CO.,
Wholesale Dealers in
140 N. 7th St., ALLENTOWN.PA.
E. F. ROMIG,
BREAD AND CAKE
And Manufacturer of the
Tamous "Bos$" Steam Pretzels.
Picnics and Parties Supplied.
our Presses by electricity enables us to turn out about twice as
much work as the old fashioned foot-power printer, and we can,
with all the Modern Appliances, do any class of work that is
done in all the large printing offices in the community.
10-12 South 6th Street.
Manufacturers of the
BEST BURNED BRICKS
for building purposes.
Give them a trial when in need of bricks.
S. A. DICHL.
BREAD and CAKES.
Watch for Diehl's Bakery team, mak-
ing daily rounds. Fresh goods every
n46 Liberty Street,
Onr Best Thoughts go into the making of our
Men's $10 Suits
The' re the acme of perfection in every detail at the price.
But Ten Dollars is not the- only price. We are showing
a superb assortment in Plain and Fancy Weaves, ranging
in price from <^5 to $17.
Shankweiler & Lehr,
(All but Poetry in English.) Devoted to the History,
Biography, Geneaology, Poetry, Folk- Love and General
Interests in the Pennsylvania Germans and their Descendants.
Edited and Published by
Rev. P. C. Croll. A. M.. •""^r"' ^"^^p*=B?ir'°'*
Everybody, who sees it, falls in love with it. Sample Copy 25 cents
Home's Pennsylvania-German Manual
Printed in Pennsyivania-German, English and High German.
Inshlich licht, col al licht, gas un
electric licht. — Pennsylva-
Tallow candle, coal oil light, gas and
electric light. — English.
Unschlitt Licht, Kohloel-Licht, Gas
und Electrisches Licht. —
The "col al licht" is an illustration of
the time when the coining of Pennsylva-
nia-German words ceased, and English
speaking commenced to predominate
among the Pennsylvania-Germans.
Home's "Pennsylvania-German Manual" con-
tains much valuable information as follows;
many miscellaneous illustrations -with Pennsyl-
vania German, English and High German names, the popular Pennsylvania-German ballads
(illustrated), customs of the Pennsj'ivania-Germans in "Ye Olden Times" (illustrated), his.
torical facts, poetry, songs, proverbs, conundrums and anecdotes (illustrated), shows differ-
ent styles of writing Pennsylvania-German, dictionary, with English and High German
equivalents, English vocabulary with Pennsylvania-German equivalents.
415 pages. Price, 90c. By mail, $1.05.
THE NATIONAL EDUCATOR, Allentown, Pa.
The above U one of the many lIlnBtratlons Id norne's