HISTORY tf 1 IGH COUNTY " YLVANiA. 1 * •!„ . >c Our Best Thoughts go into the making of our Men's $10 Suits The' re the acme of perfection in every detail at the price. But Ten Dollars is not the only price. We are showing a superb assortment in Plain and Fancy Weaves, ranging in price from $5 to $17. Shankweiler & Lehr, CLOTHIERS. ALLENTOWN. The Pennsylvania German AN ILLUSTRATED QUARTERLY MAGAZINE. (All but Poetry in English.) Devoted to the History, Biography, Geneaology, Poetry, Folk-Love and General Interests in the Pennsylvania Germans and their Descendants Edited and Published by Rev. P. C. Croll. A. M.. "-"^^on. subscription Everybody, who sees it, falls in love with it. Sample Copy 25 cents PER YEAR N ADVANCE Home's Pennsylvania-German Manual Printed in Pennsyivania-German, English and High German. Inshlich licht, col al licht, gas ui\ electric licht. — Pennsylva- 7iia-German. Tallow candle, coal oil light, gas and electric light. — English. Unschlitt Licht, Kohloel-Licht, Gas und Electrisches Licht. — High German. The "col al licht" is an illustration of the time when the coining of Pennsylva- nia-German words ceased, and English speaking commenced to predominate among the Pennsylvania-Germans. Home's "Pennsylvania-Cerman Manual" con- tains much valuable information as follows: many miscellaneous illustrations with Pennsyl- vania German, English and High German names, the popular Pennsylvania-German ballads (illustrated), customs of the Pennsylvania-Germans in "Ye Olden Times" (illustrated), his. torical facts, poetry, songs, proverbs, conundrums and anecdotes (illustrated), shows differ- ent styles of writing Pennsylvania-German, dictionary, with English and High German equivalents, English vocabulary with Pennsylvania-German equivalents. 415 pages, Price. 90c. By mail, $1.05. THE NATIONAL EDUCATOR, Allentown, Pa. The above Is one of the miiny illustrations in Home i Pennsylvania-German Manual. WE ASK BUT THIS We ask any person who at any time desires to purchase a Piano or Organ, to pay our store a visit before making a decision. That is all. We do not beg or implore anyone to buy here. We place before you some fifteen or twenty world famous makes. We show you their music making capabilities. We point out the especially advantage- ous prices which we, as very large dealers, are able to offer. We give you every possible facility for examining the merits of our in- struments. Can it be wise for any possible piano buyer to make a choice without viewing what the largest and oldest music house in the Lehigh Valley has to offer. G. C. ASCHBACH, 539 HAMILTON STREET, ALL.ENTOWN, PA, N.B. — We can furnish anything in the music line and at very reasonable prices M. E. HAUSER, Carpenter arid Builder, Jobbing promptly attended to. Estimates Furnished. Shop and P. O. Address Wyncote and Glenside, Pa. Dotterer & Mohry, Taticv and Staple Groceries Coffees and Spices Choice Country Produce. 6th and lUalnut $t$., illlentoipn. Pa. If you want the BEST try Mcn^s 'Walk-Over^^ Shoes Ladies* ^^Queen Quality** at $3.50 and $4.00. the Famous Shoe for wear at $3.00. Sold only by Many styles, width A to E in stock. H. F. LAROS, The BIG BOOT Shoe Store, 709 Haoallton Street, ALLENTOWN. PA. JOHN J. HAUSER & CO., ..FINE SHOES.. Largest Stock Leading Prices ^ 64J Hamilton Street, Allentown, Pa. WOMEN Find the Wonderful PO-MO-NA preparations cure Diseases peculiar to themselves. PO-MO-NA PREPARATIONS are made with that one object only in view. DANIEL F. LEIBY. Manufacturer and Dealer 518 Washington Street, ALLENTOWN, PA. Write and a Representative will call. J. R. Schuler A. R. Schuler J. R. Schuler Schuler Bros., 401 Gordon Street, ALLENTOWN, PA. VERA CRUZ, Lehigh Co., Pa. Dealers in General Merchandise Dry Goods Groceries Hardware Hats, Caps Boots Shoes Come and see our goods and be convinced that v?e carry everything you v^ant and at the very lowest prices. O. T WERLEY Dealer in ^ DRY GOODS, GROCERIES, HARDWARE, BOOTS, SHOES, HATS, CAPS, QUEENSWARE, General Merchandise. None but First-class Goods in stock, which are sold at the lowest cash prices. Remember the place 333 MAIN STREET, EMAUS. PA Under New Management. First-class Accommodations. Choice Wines, Liquors and Cigars at the Bar. Central - House. MRS. ELLEN J. HEILMAN, PROP'R. Board by the day or week. Stabling. Corner 3rd and Main Sts., EM AUS, PA. A HISTORY cf LEHIGH COUNTY PENNSYLVANIA From the Earliest Settlements to the Present Time including much Valuable Information for the use of SCHOOLS FAMILIES LIBRARIES Published By James J, Hauser. ^. 1902. AULENTOWN. PA. JACKS, THE PRINTER. Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1901. By JAMES J. HAUSER, In the OflSce of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. All rights reserved. P. PuW. V 9 ^ CONTENTS. o cr- CHAPTER I.— Treaties with the Indians. First purchase of land from the Indians. Second and third purchases. Walking purchase. William Markham, William Penn, James Steel, Edward Mar- shall, James Yeates, Solomon Jennings, Timothy Smith, John Chapman, Maughanghein. n CHAPTER II. — The first white men, traders, Seneca Indians, Delaware Indians. i4 CHAPTER III— Indian raids. Braddock's defeat. Pontiac. Massacre of Gnadenhutten. Whitehall Massacres. John J. Mickley, Hans Snyder, Zachary, J. N. Wethehold, Margaret Frantz, Deschler's Fort. i6 CHAPTER IV.— The First White Settlers. Germany. Switzerland. Henry Harbough. Holidays. 21 CHAPTER V. Flying Camp. Wagon brigade. General Hospital. Bethlehem. Allentown. Friess Rebellion. War of 1812, Civil War 1861 to 1865. Spanish American War. 26 CHAPTER VI.— Internal Improvements, Canal, Railroads, Furnaces, Factories, Founderies. 33 CHAPTER VII.— First Schools, Dillingersville, Emaus, Egypt, Centre- ville. New Tripoli, Allentown, Balliettsville, Free School System. 34 CHAPTER VIII — Soil, animals, mountain and hills, rivers and creeks, botany, trees. Religious denominiation. 36 CHAPTER IX— Geography of the Township. Population, soil, indus- tries, villages. Old landmarks. Education. 38 CHAPTER X.— Countyseat and Boroughs. Industries, newspapers, education, denominations, history. 50 CHAPTER XI.— Duties of the County Officers, Township Officers, Bor- ough and City Officers. •'^7 CHAPTER XII— Civil list.- Members of Congress, State Senators, Members of House of Representatives, Judges, Associate Judges, County Superintendents of Schools, Allentown City Superinten- dents of Schools, Sheriffs, Prothonotaries, Recorders of Deeds, Registers of Wills, Clerks of Court of Quarter Sessions, Clerks of Orphans' Court, Coroners, Treasurers, Surveyors, Commis- sioners, Clerks of the County Commissioners, Auditors, District Attorneys, Justices of the Peace, 63 CHAPTER XIII.— List of Soldiers furnished by Lehigh County. French and Indian War. Revolutionary War. Warofi8i2. Mexican War. Civil War. Hispanio-American War. 7° CHAPTER XIV.— Post Offices, Attorneys, Physicians, Eminent Divines Teachers, Population of Pennsylvania, Lehigh County, Gover- nors of Pennsylvania, Township Populations. 1 lo CHAPTER XV.— Early Churches and Settlers. 106 School Statistics for 1901. 117 Population from 1820 to 1900. 118 Governors of Pennsylvania from 1790 to 1903. 119 Valuation of Lehigh County. 120 Lehigh County's Debt. Lehigh Coiinty as a Manufacturing Centre, 121 C2^s&i^' INTRODUCTION. It is both interesting and instructive to study the history of our fathers, to fully understand through what difficulties, obstacles, toils and trials they went to plant settlements which struggled up to a position of wealth and prosperity. These accounts of our county have been written so as to bring before every youth and citizen of our county, an account of the growth of the popula- tion, its resources, the upbuilding of the institutions that give character and sta- bility to the county. It has been made as concise as possible, and everything which was thought to be of any value to the youth and citizen, has been presented as best as it could be under the circumstances with the hope that by perusing its pages, many facts of interest can be gathered that will be of use in future years. Hoping that any shortcomings of the work will be kindly overlooked by a generous public. It is now presented to the public for its careful perusal and we hope that the youth of our county will be benefitted thereby, and that the teachers of our public schools will find much valuable aid which the author has tried to gather while engaged in the schoolroom, and that by perusing its pages the grand prin- ciple of patriotism and love of country will be instilled into the minds of our youth. In preparing this work I acknowledge the assistance of aid given by Profs. Alvin Rupp, the County Superintendent of vSchools, J. O. Knauss, of the Department of Public Instruction, Mr. Clinton A. Mohr of the Emaus Times, Mr. Steltz and others. This volume is now dedicated to the teachers, pupils and fellow citizens of Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Emaus, Penna,, May ii, 1901. J. J. Hauser. PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. This new edition has been thoroughly revised and largely rewritten. Every effort has been made to profit by the suggestions and friendly criticisms of many friends, to all of whom the author is greatly indebted. Great pains have been taken to correct all errors in statements of fact, dates and references. The aim of this work is to give the main facts of the his- tory of our County, clearly, accurately and impartially. To give the people a short but concise record of all that is of interest to the general public. The author acknowledges the valuable aid and suggestions in the revision of this work to Rev. Dr. A. R. Home, Supt. Alvin Rupp, Hons. J. F. Moyer, J. W. Mayne, Harry G. Stiles, Mr. David Miller of The Morning Call, Mr. Daniel F. lyciby and others. James J. Hauser. Ai,i,ENTowN, Pa., May i, 1902. CHAPTER I. TREATIES WITH THE INDIANS. LEHIGH COUNTY embraces the beautiful Kittatinny Valley, lying between the Lehigh or South Mountains on the South and Blue Mountains on the north. It is dotted with thriving towns and villages, fertile fields, running streams of water flowing through every part of the valley, making the soil very productive, also part of the beautiful and romantic Lehigh Valley stretching along the Lehigh River, and the fertile Saucon Valley south of the Lehigh or South Mountains. The advent of the white settler and his adventures with the Indians are full of incidents and hairbreadth escapes, showing at a glance that our forefathers had to undergo the same trials and cares as his western friend had in building up the country. The Aborigines or Indians, living in what is now Lehigh County, where the Minsies or Delaware tribe of Indians, who were the owners of our beautiful Lehigh County. It was undoubtedly included in the second purchase of land from the Indians. It will perhaps be of interest to the reader to know the different purchases and what was acquired at each. The first purchase of land was made in 1682 by William Markham, Dep- uty Governor of the colony, before the arrival of Penn, which included the coun- try between the Neshaminy Creek and Delaware River to Wrightstown and Upper Wakefield The second and third purchases were made by William Penn himself and included the land along the Pahkehoma (Perkiomen). In 1686, it is claimed an- other treaty was made with the Indians, but no copy of the treaty is known to exist. The treaty of 1684 was rn.ade by William Penn and Maughaugsin (Macun- gie), the leading chief of the Delawires, and was for a consideration of two Matchcoats, four pair of Stoc cings and four bottles of Sider. The Indian deed is as follows : " Upon my own desire -and free offer. I, Maughaughsin, in consideration of two Matchcoats, four pair of Stockings and four bottles of Sider, do hereby grant, make over all my land upon the Pahkehoma. to William Penn, Propr. and Govern'r of Pennsylvania and territories, his heirs and Assignees forever, with which I own myself satisfied and promise never to molest any Christian so call d yt shall seat thereon by his orders. Witness my hand and seal at Philadelphia ye third day day of ye fourth month 1684. The mark of Maughaughsin. Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence of us, Philip Thomas Lehman, Thomas Holmes, John Davers, George Emlin.' The Indians removed beyond the Blue Mountains, only a few remaining on their old hunting grounds, the beautiful Kittatinny Valley. The purchase of 1686 was said to include all the land beginning at the line of the former purchases to as far northwest as a man could ride in two days, but as no copy of the treaty was preserved, the claim was disputed by the Indians, and the purchase was imdecided, but settlers began to flock into the new region which they supposed had been purchased from the Indiams, who believed that their rights were being encroached upon. They held several meetings with the proprietors of the colony to fix definitely the limits of the ceded territory. The first meeting was held in Durham, several miles below Easton, 1734. The second meeting was held at Pennsbury, 1735, and the last meeting was held at Philadelphia, which resulted in an agreement that the treaty of 1686 should be followed, and the purchase should be repeated in a novel way, namely, the colony of Pennsylvania should receive as much land as was included in a line drawn northwest from a point at Wrightstown as far as a man could walk in a day and a half . This treaty is known as the "Walking purchase." Subsequent to the treaty, the proprietors caused a trial walk to be made to ascertain what amount of land could be obtained ; this trial walk was made in April, 1735, and the trees along the route were blazed so that the parties engaged in making the walk, de- ciding the ownership of the land, would have the advantage of a marked pathway. So when the treaty was signed August 25th, 1737, the Receiver General of the colony, James Steel, secured the man who had endured in the trial walk. Ed- ward Marshal, James Yeates and Solomon Jennings, were selected, all noted for their power of endurance. The sheriff of Bucks County, Timothj' Smith, and John Chapman, the surveyor, accompanied the three walkers, provided their meals, etc. The time set for the walk, according to the treaty, was September 12th, 1737, but was postponed until September 19th. It had been agreed that the Indians should send some of their young men along to see that the walk was fairly made. The compensation of each of the walkers was five pounds in money and five hundred acres of land. The point of starting was at a large chestnut tree near the fork of the Pennsville and Durham roads at the meeting house in Washington, Bucks County, very close to the Markham purchase. The three walkers stood close to the tree, their hands resting upon it, and as the sun rose, Sheriff Smith gave the signal for starting. The route was as straight as it possibly could be, on account of the ground and obstructions in the way, it led along the Durham road. Yeates led the way with an easy step, followed by Jennings with two Indian walkers who were followed by Marshall, at a distance, swinging a hatchet and walking with an easy and careless step. In two and a-half hours they reached Red Hill, Bedminster township, where they took dinner with Wil- son, the Indian trader. Durham Creek, where the old furnace stood, was fol- lowed and they crossed the Lehigh River a mile below Bethlehem at Jones Island, and from this place they passed to the Blue ridge at Smith Gap, Moore township, Northampton County, and they slept at night on the northern side of the moun- tain. At sunrise the next morning they resumed their journey and concluded their walk at noon. Marshall alone held out and throwing himself upon the ground, grasped a small tree which was marked as the end of the line. Jennings was the first to give out about two miles north of Tohickon, but he straggled along until the Lehigh River was reached. He left them there, and went to his home on what is now the Geissinger farm, a few miles north of Bethlehem, which is now in Salisbury township, where he lived for twenty years after. He was a famous hunter and woodsman. 13 One of his sons, John Jennings, was sheriff of Northampton County from 1762 to 1768. Yeates gave out at the foot of the mountain on the morning of the second day, when he was picked up he was nearly blind and died three days after, while Marshall the champion walker was not the least injured by exertion, lived to be seventy-nine years old, and died in Tinicum, Bucks County. Walking Pur- chase, the Indians said was " No sit down to smoke, no shoot squirrel, but lun lun, lun all day long." Marshall received 5^ and five hundred acres of land in Monroe County, near Stroudsburg. The Indians were disgusted with the walk, and frequently said to the walkers that they should not run and they were so disgusted with the walk, that they left before it was completed. The distance traveled was 61^ miles. When the end of tlie line had been reached in a northwest direction, it still had to be run to the Delaware River, which made another disagreement between the Pro- prietors and the Indians. The Indians thought that the line should be drawn straight to the river from the nearest point, instead they ran the line at right angles reaching the river at the Laxawaxen, taking in about twice as much ter- ritory as the other way. The survey embraced nearly all the land between the forks of the Delaware and Lehigh Rivers, including all the land south of the Blue Mountains, comprising 500,000 acres of land. The Receiver General, James Steel, wrote to a friend of his, in 1737, said that it took four days to walk from the upper end of the "Long Walk" (day and a-half,) and that very little good land for settlement was to be seen. This walking purchase, as it was called, gave a great deal of dissatisfac- tion to the Indians, and was one of the principle causes of the council held in Easton, in 1756, where it was ably discussed. The complaint of the Indians was ist. That the walkers walked too fast. 2d, That the walkers should have stopped to shoot game and smoke. 3d, That they should have walked as they do when on a hunt. 4th, That the line was not drawn to the river as it should have been drawn. 5th, They claimed the line should have been drawn from the nearest point to the river. 6th, They accused the Proprietors of trickery and dishonesty. Whether true or not, the "Walking purchase" drew upon the Proprie- tors the hatred of the Indians and was the beginning of a feeling which was fanned into stirring events a generation later, creating great havoc among the settlers in the region now composed of the counties of Lehigh, Northampton and Carbon. 14 CHAPTER II. THE FIRST WHITE MEN. LEHIGH COUNTY was a part of Bucks County, hence was a part of one of the three original counties established in 1682. Its first settlers were for the most part settlers who pushed northward from the older parts of the county. The word Lehigh or Lechaweki is the Indian name for the river and the German settlers left away the latter part of the word and called it " Lecha." The word means where the way makes a fork. The Lehigh was at first called the west branch of the Delaware. Lehigh (Lecha) Valley is a part of the great Kittatinny Valley, which extends from Lake Champlain on the north, to the Mississippi River in Tennesse in the southwest. The boundaries of the Kittatinny Valley are the Blue Moun- tains on the north, and on the south the South Mountains in Virginia, and Blue Ridge further south. The name Kittatinny means large, long, without end. The Lehigh, or more properly speaking Lecha Valley, receives its name from the Lehigh River which flows through it. The name Lecha is an Indian word derived from Lechaweki. The first white men who came within the present limit of Lehigh county, were the traders in the seventeenth century, who came and went, transact- ing their business with the Indians, sometimes creating animosity between Indians and white men. As early as 1701, these men were brought to the notice of the Proprietors by the troubles they was a part of made, the same time the Seneca Indians made incursions with the view of harassing the more peaceful Delawares. The first settlement, within the present limits of the county was made near the Swamp Church, Lower Milford, in 1715, by some German emigrants ; as is shown by the inscription upon an old stone building which bears the above date. The first settlement of which authentic knowlege is known, was made in 1730, in the Lehigh Valley. In 1734 the whole region was thrown open for settlement, when the newly arrived settlers from Germany began to flock thither. That the settlers were enterprising is shown from the fact that they began to secure good roads. As early as 1735 the emigrants came rapidly to the county so when it became a part of Northampton County, in 1752, it had a population of 2800 souls, as follows : Milford, 700 ; Upper Saucon, 650 ; White- hall, 800 ; including about 200 which resided in Hanover, making the entire number 3000. In 1773, some thirty years after the first settlement had been made, the county showed great improvement as can be seen by the followit^g number of acres of cleared land, in what is now Lehigh County, namely, 37,394 ; 8,869 acres of grain and 886 farmers. Slowly and slowly the red man receded before the coming of the white man, as few, Indians were remaining in what is now Lehigh County, after 1740. They had nearly all passed beyond the Blue Mountains, only 15 here and there a fatally or individual Indian remained in a tent upon some chosen spot on the ancient hunting ground. One of the chief of these was Kola- pechka, an old chief residing on the creek which bears his name, Coplay. He was on friendly terms with his white neighbors and he was frequently employed by the government to carry messages and act as interpreter. The last Indian living in the county was in 1742, when the last of the Delawares was com- pelled to remove from this region to the Wyoming Valley. After that date it was still the common custom of the Indians to come from the north and pass down into Lehigh and wander much as they chose to do in former times, when they were at peace with the other tribes of Indians. They brought usually game and poultry for trading purposes and purchased such arti- cles as they needed for their primitive life in the forest. They were never seen after the second Indian raid. l6 CHAPTER III. INDIAN RAIDS. /^HE Delaware or Lenape Indians were divided into three tribes,— the Unaniis L or Turtle tribe, the Unalachtpo or Turkey tribe, the Winsi or Wolf tribe. These tribes were again divided and usually received their names from the place where they resided. Each settlement had its chief, who was subject to the head chief or sachem and reported to him. The government of the Indian was similar to our national, state and county government. Allumapes and Teedyyuscung were the chief sachems from the time of the landing of William Penn to the time when the Indians disap- peared from this part of the country. The Indian headquarters were at Minni- sink and Shamokin. Wampum is the Indian name for money. The word is an Iroquois word meaning a muscle. They had three kinds of money, the wampum, the fathom of wampum and belt of wampum. The different wampums repre- sented the various value of their money. A number of muscles strung together was called a string of wampum, when it was a fathom long it was called a fathom or belt of wampum. At the time when the first white settlers came to this country the Indians made their wampums of small wooden pieces of equal sizes, and stained them either black or white. Only a few muscles were used to make the wampums before the advent of the white man. The wampums were very valuable before the. white people came. The white men made wampums from muscles, and soon the Indians dis- carded the wooden ones for muscles. These wampums were round or oval in shape, one-fourth of an inch in length, and one-eighth of an inch thick with a hole in them lengthwise and strung like beads. Scalping was another trait of the Indian. No victory was complete with- out it and is very revolting. The living and dead were scalped, as well as inno- cent women and children. The following mode was followed by the Indians in scalping their victims : They fastened the prisoner to the ground with their arms, legs and necks bound to large stakes and a cord to a free Indian. If any dispute arose among the Indians in regard to the prisoner, the prisoner was killed and scalped. The Indians placed their feet on their prisoner's neck, and seized the hair with the left hand twisting them tightly together in order to separate the skin from the head ; then they would cut all around it with a sharp knife and tear it ofif. In one minute they had finished the scalping. The principle food of Indians were meat, vegetables, nuts and berries. The flesh of the deer and bear they liked the best. Potatoes, corn and tobacco were the only products raised by the Indians. They were very cunning and skillful strategists in alluring the settlers into am- bush, or elude them when pursued. _They were honest, never stole or robbed each other. When they left home they did not lock their wigwams, but put a stone or piece of wood against the door, and nothing was stolen during their ab- 17 sence. They were strong and muscular, which was gained by their constant exercise in walking and running. The Indians in that way acquired agility and endurance by which they were able to flee from the white people. The first breach of friendship between the Indians and the Government happened in 1754, before that time it was only between the individual Indian and settler. The minerals used by the Indians were aluminous rock, quartz, quartz- ite, jasper, basanite chalcedony, slate and soapstone. To make their axes and pestles they used diabase, syenite, dioryte and pyroxene. Quartzite was used to make spear heads, knives and arrowheads. When the Indians wanted to make a canoe, they would cover the sides of the log with ground, burn out the middle part and used the axes to remove the charcoal. Governor John Penn offered in 1764, by proclamation, the following bounties for capturing Indians : For every male above the age of ten years, $150.00 ; for every male, (being killed) above the age of ten years, $130.00; for every female above the age of ten years, scalped (being killed), $50.00. In the first Indian raid of 1755, the settlers escaped the Indians' wrath, which fell so furiously upon the settlers of Carbon and Northampton Counties, which resulted in the massacres of the Moravians in Carbon County, and other atrocious murders. One of the principal causes of the raid was the " Walking Purchase" of 1737, which seems to have given great dissatisfaction to the Indians, and also seems to have been the chief cause for it. But the defeat of Braddock in 1755. operated powerfully as a stimulus in the minds of the red man, arousing hatred and inciting murderous desire. When peace was made in 1758, it gave a sense of relief to the settlers again which lasted for about five years. The conspiracy of the powerful chief Pontiac incited once more their hatred against the white people, and had much to do with the Indian raids of 1763 in the county and the massacre of a number of settlers. The settlers in Whitehall were entirely innocent, having always treated the Indians with kind- ness in their dealings with them. It seems as if the Indians had lost confidence in the descendants of Penn, whose memory they revered, or they may have longed for regaining their ancient hunting grounds. It is doubtful if they would have commenced hostilities against the settlers if they had not been incited by the French. It was the French more than any others that provoked the conflict between the whites and Indians. The first war was provoked by the intrigues of the French, in which the colony of Pennsylvania was involved with the red man. The French knew very well that by securing the aid of the Indians as allies living in Pennsylvania there was a chance of carrying on successfully their military operations in the Ohio Valley, for that reason they flattered and cajoled the Delawares and other tribes of Indians. This course of action had the effect of winning their allegiance from the English and was the cause of many deeds of bloodshed in the white settle- ments of the frontier. The massacre of Guadenhutten led to others nearer at home on the south side of the mountain. Every day some new murder was committed by the wily Indian. The whole frontier was in a state of alarm, settlers began to forsake their homes flee- ing to more secure places. The people at Bethlehem were in suspense as they had seen the lurid glare beyond the mountains made by the burning of the build- ings and knew that bad news awaited them. The first news of the massacre of Guadenhutten came after midnight by those -who fled frcm the disaster, during the day eight white settlers and from thirty to forty Indian Brethren, including men, women and children arrived from New Guadenhutten at Bethlehem. From this time for several days the people of the remote settlements began to flock to the more secure settlements abandoning everything. They were all filled wtth the wildest alarm, many came only with enough clothing to shield their bodies from the cold, while all were destitute of the necessities of life Hundreds of farms were abandoned in Lehigh and Northampton Counties by their occupants. They were kindly cared for by the Brethren at Bethlehem and other places. There were Indian villages near Schnecksville, on the lands of Laurence Troxell, James Scheuerer, Hilarius Kernal, and Jerry Kuhns, numerous burial grounds of the red men are found in the above vicinity. The relation between the settlers and the Indians were of the most friendly character. But after Braddock's disastrous defeat in 1755, the hatred of the Indians was aroused and the settlers were constantly disturbed. Before retir- ing at night they often went out with rifle in hand, ascended some high knoll near their houses to look for blazing cottages, thej- were kept in constant alarm until 1758, when peace was made, which lasted until 1763, when the troubles broke out anew. In 1756 they killed two children of Frederick Reichelder, Jacob Gerhart, two women and six children, George Zeielof, wife and a young man, a boy and girl at Allemangel (now Lynn township) and scalped them. In 1763 Jacob Alleman's wife and child and a boy and girl were killed and scalped. One of the main causes of the Whitehall massacres were as Heckewelder says, "That some Indians who had come to Bethlehem in the summer of 1763 to trade, when returning, they stopped at John Stenton's tavern, Allen township, Northampton County over night, the place being about eight miles from Bethle- hem, where they were badly treated and robbed of some of their most valuable articles they had purchased, returning to Bethlehem, they lodged complaints with a justice of the peace who gave theoi a letter in which he strongly urged that they should return the Indians' property to their owners. But instead of getting their property back they were driven from the house, they did this, meeting some other Delaware Indians on the banks of the Susquehanna River who had been treated in the same way. They told each other their stories. They resolved to take revenge in their own way for the insult they had received as soon as their nation would make war upon the colonists." Captain J. N. Wetherhold with his soldiers murdered Zachary, his wife and little child and a woman named Zippora in August 1763, near the Lehigh Gap. Zachary was a friendly Indian who had come to adjust the difficulties and while in this act of humanity, was killed like a dog. These and many other crimes like the above led the Indians to take the war path. This company was raised in Macungie and vicinity. Among the first places they attacked was Stenton's tavern and killed all the inmates among whom was Captain Wetherhold who had claimed he was invul- nerable (kuglefest). They robbed the house of everything and from there they went to the house of Andrew Hazlett who tried to defend his home but was killed with his family, from there they went to the homes of James Allen and Philip Kratzer which they plundered. Undoubtedly the inmates had heard of the Haz- lett tragedy and had fled. The Indians now proceeded to the Whitehall settle- ments in true Indian style. 19 On October 8, 1763, a bright and beautiful autumn day a small band of Indians crossed the Lehigh at Whitehall fresh from their attack on the settlers in Allen township, and went to John J. Mickley's place finding three of his children in the woods gathering chestnuts, killed two of thim and went to the homes of Hans Snyder and Nicholas Marks, killing Snyder, his wife and three children, and wounding two daughters of Snyder, left both of them for dead, and one of his children was taken captive and never restored. The wounded daughters recover- ed from their wounds. The Assembly passed a bill for their relief as they were very poor and never afterw^ards enjoyed good health. The one that was scalped was a pitiable sight to see with her scalped head. The Mickley's children which had been killed were buried at the foot of a large chestnut tree, the place is still pointed out where they had been buried. Nicholas Marks' family escaped, they had seen the Indians coming. The Indians set fire to his house and among others of the settlers that were killed by the In- dians were Jacob Alleman's wife and child who were found in the road scalped. The number of settlers killed were twenty, the others escaped fleeing to Deshler's Fort, about two miles from the scene of murder. The fort is standing and well preserved, it is a substantial stone building strongly built, having heavy walls and was made to serve for other purposes than an ordinary dwelling, was built in 1760, adjoining the same was a large frame dwelling, where twenty sol- diers could be quartered and a large quantity of military stores be kept. The frame part has passed away, the place was a kind of military post during the In- dian troubles and was furnished free by Mr. Deshler who was one of the most lib- eral and humane men of the settlement. It stands on a little eminence overlook- ing the Coplay Creek. The building was forty feet long, thirty feet wide, two and one-half stories high, the walls are eighteen inches and two feet thick supported by heavy timbers in the interior. There were a few small windows in the sides with four panes of glass, in the gables were loop holes A large hearth was in the middle or the building, each story was divided into two apartments and in the mantle piece can still be seen the budets holes made by the Indians. It was a place of refuge for the neighborhood. A number of the settlers were taken captive by Indians, and those with black hair and eyes were spared and adopted. Among them was one Mayer, his wife and son who were adopted into a tribe. Margaret Frantz was taken prisoner while washing flax with another girl named Solt whom they took along to near where Ballietsville now stands. Margaret was 15 years old when taken captive and was with them seven years. Before she was exchanged, her father was killed by the Indians and she was married two years after her return from captivity to Nicholas Woodring. She was known far and wide for her knowledge of herbs which she had acquired of the Indians. Her services for relieving the sick were in great demand, she always journeyed on horseback. She died in 1829, at the age of seventy-eight years, among her descendents are Ritters, Steckles and Browns. Her companion Solt lived with an Indian as his wife and had two chil- dren, when she returned from captivity she was allowed to take her little girl along. Captain Volck's (Foulk's) Company of Allemangel, now Lynn township, consisting of forty-six men, Captain Wetherhold's company of forty-four men and Captain Trexler's company of forty-eight men, raised in the other parts of what is now Lehigh County, flocked to the standard of Colonel Benjamin Frank- lin, for the defence of the frontier, and gathered at Guadenhutten in January, 1756, where they began the erection of Fort Allen on the site of the present town of Weissport. The settlers of South Whitehall had their share of Indian troubles like the other settlements, the dangers were so great that it was impossible for them to attend the meeting of the Lutheran Synod held at Philadelphia in 1753. The Synod was asked to pray for the safety of the Paster (Rev. Schartier) of the Jordan's congregation and the settlers. The Governor in his message to the Assembly said "Their houses are burned, farms laid waste, etc." Another incident happened which showed how cunning the Indians were to capture young children. Some children were play- ing "Hide and Seek" in the barn when several Indians who had lurked around and when the children had hid themselves and at the proper time they came forth and took captive all they could lay hold on, only a few escaped to tell the tale. Then the settlers arose and followed as best they could, but were unable to rescue the young captives. The children were kept in captivity for some time before they were released and restored to their anxious parents. CHAPTER IV. THE FIRST SETTLERS. C^^HE FIRST SETTLERS of the county came principally from the older parts of the colony who pushed their homes northward from Philadelphia, Bucks and Chester counties. Others came from Germany seeking homes in this new country where there was no religious persecution and could worship God in accordance to the dictates of their conscience. There were in 1735 many squatters in what is now Lehigh County, and the proprietors of the province placed one hundred thousand acres of land on drawing, the drawing of the lottery never came off. But the settlers got the land cheap. More than threefourths of the inhabi- tants of the county are German or their descendents, and the localities in which they settled were generally named in honor of the Fatherland as Hanover, Wies- senberg, Heidleberg, etc. They came principally from Bavaria, Baden, Alsace, Wurtemberg, Swit- zerland, Darmstadt, and Palatinate, while of the townships which bear English names have been germanized by the Germans encroaching upon their English neighbors, as can be seen by the intercourse with the people of Lowhill, Milford, Whitehall, etc., which are just as German as the rest of the County. They speak a dialect of the German language which is akin to the language of their fore- fathers who came from Palatinate where the same language is spoken. It is not "High German," as it is just as old or perhaps older, and often more expressive than the High German as a spoken language, as it was from time immemorial in the South German dialects. Some of its roots of words can be traced back to older roots than High German, for example, colt, English, fullen. High German which is derived from Greek and Latin roots, while hutsch and hutschli, a young colt from Wesserwald huzz, Lausatian, huzche, Swabian, hutschle, is more purely German than the High German, horse, E. ; pherd, H. G. ; gaul, P. G. ; calf, E. ; kalb, H. G. ; homeli, P. G. ; pig, E. ; Schwein, H. G. ; sou, P. G. ; potato, E. ; kartoffel, H. G. ; grumbeer, P. G. ; etc., are some of the derivations. If as has been said in an index to their character, then the expressions as proverbs, adages, songs and sayings of people handed down from one genera- tion to the other are very original and expresive. They by frequent repetition have made strong impressions upon the people to influence their life and charac- ter. Their songs are delightful, spirited and impressive. Here are some of the sayings of the Pennsylvania Germans. "Wie mers mocht so hut mers. Die kin- ner un die norra sawga die wohret. Fors denka konn en niemont henka. Gross gekrisch un wennig woll. Gut gewetst is halver gemeht. Eh eer is die onner werth. Wer awhaltgewinnt. Mer hut nix unna druvel. Die morga schtund hut gold im mund. Zub on deiner egna naws. Mer muss leva un leva lossa. Wer net komnt zu rechter zeit muss nehme was iwwerich bleibt." And many other sayings show that the)^ have sayings which for beautiful thought, etc., compare well with the High German and the English languages. The poems of Dr. Henry Harbaugh, written in the Pennsylvania German language, compare with the best poems of any language. His most touching and beautiful poems are the following: "Das Alt Schulhaus An DerKrick." (The Old Schoolhouse At The Creek.) "Heemweh," (Homesickness) the last one a most beautiful poem, descriptive of the sweet rest of Heaven, etc., and others. The people are as a whole a religious people. When they first came they built side by sidec hurch and schoolhouse, by which it can be seen that both the spir- itual and temporal wants of the young were attended to, and they were early brought into the church. The greater part of the Pennsylvania Germans are farmers and are hardy, robust, strong, healthy and industrious. They are socia- ble, performing many works in common, assisting each other in whatever way they can. In former times, during haymaking and harvest time when there were a number of workmen together, at nine o'clock they would take lunch, relate anec- dotes in which both men and women engaged In. At breakfast, dinner and sup- per, the tables were always laden with food which were keenly relished by them all. At noon came the " Ruhe schtund," (hour rest), which was spent by sleep- ing, telling stories under the shady tree, or grinding the scythes. After " Feier ovet," (after the day's work) all enjoyed themselves well after their hard day's work, taking for their proverb, " Nuch der erwet is gute zu ruhe." Corn husking was another enjoyable feature of former time, when a large number of young men and women went to a neighbor and assisted him in husking corn. Quilting and applebutter parties were some of the other pastimes of former days, where old and young gathered and helped each other in quilting and mak- ing schnitz, (pared apples) in the afternoon, in the evening the young folks spent the time in a lively manner such as music, dancing and other amusements. Battalion drills was another institution of days gone by. The Militia had their drills in Spring and the weapons used were usually corn.stalks, hoe handles and bioomsticks. When the Battalion Day came in May everything was in readi- ness of which these were the preparatory exercises. When the day came. Infantry and Cavalry were on hand. The officers that were in commaud were the Gen- erals, Colonels, Majors and Captains with their cocked hats and plumes, epaulets on their shoulders fully uniformed. The command was generally [given in thun- dering tones. " Atten— shone, company !" The brave and gallant Lieutenants re- peated the words in the Pennsylvania German, " Gebt Acht Buva Now Horcht bosst uff," A finer and more imposing sight was never seen or command given. Oh ! what a time were those old fashioned " Badolga (Battalion) Daga." At the age of eighteen, everyone was compelled to become a soldier, the very age when the young maidens were at liberty to marry. Every one went to the Battalion day, old and young, and when the young people were strangers to each other, they were introduced not exactly like in polite society, but in blunt Penn.sylvania German, as " Des ist der Bill," " Des ist die Sal, Kum her, huckt dich onna zu mir." All was fun, in the evening there was dancing which lasted till early morning. The holidays (Feirdaga, ) of the Pennsylvania Germans are worthy of notice. Christmas was a pleasant time, Christmas trees were found almost in every home, and the churches were beautifully and tastefully decorated !with evergreens. Their " Krischt kindil " is not the fantastic St. Nicholas, but the Giver of good gifts. When the children met each other on Christmas morning, they did not ask "where is my Christmas present?" but " Wo ist mei Krischt 23 kindil," meaning a gift of God in Jesus, the Christ child. New Year was another of their festivals. At that time they shot out the old year and shot in the New Year, a practice that is not common anymore. The shooting was not all of it, beautiful verses of the scriptures and hymns were com- mitted to memory, and repeated under the windows of those who were visited by them, they went through storm and snow. " En glickselig nei yohr " was heard on all sides, each vicing with each other to be first in the greeting among friends, or strangers. Doctor bills in the olden times were not as high as at present. Dr. John M. Otto made out the following bill for one of his patients (Marcus Hulig), the bill is dated Bethlehem, May 4, 1746, and is as follows : To heal a broken leg, 3^" ; to heal three ribs, 3s. and other necessary things 2s. The hotel bills were not as high either. Captain Jacob Wetherhold's bill at the "Crown" hotel, in 1763, where he was brought when mortally wound- ed and died a few days after, was as follows : i pint of "Wine, I s. 2 d., i pint beer 2>^ d., eating and drinking for nurse, 2 s., feed for two horses, 3 s., funeral garment, 6 s., carriage fees for nurse, ten times, 2 s. Subscriptions for the newspapers w^ere as follows : Franklin and Hall's paper, 10 s. 7 d., Miller's German paper, 6 s. per year. Taxes were as follows : In 1767, Province (State) tax 5^, 18 s., 6d., and County tax 2^, 7s., 6d. The following is a copy of a bill for a day's expenses at one of the popu- lar hotels in Easton in 1781 and thus you can see the value of Continental money at that time. To Toddy - fio To i Grog " Cash - 8 " Washing " Cash - 12 " I Bowl Punch " I Bowl Punch 30 " I Grog " I " " 30 " I Bowl Punch 30 Total I667 Received the above amount, JACOB OPP, Landlord. Merchants, shoemakers and tailors charged the same rates. The price of a yard of Calico in Continental money cost ten times as much as the best yard of silk now does. Travelling by the early settlers was generally done on foot or horseback. The following were among those who served offices from what is now Le- high County : Christian Rinker was County Commissioner in 1753, and Lewis Klotz, of Macungie, was elected County Commissioner in 1754. George Taylor, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence owned a farm of three hun- dred and thirty-one acres in Allen township, in what is now a part of the present borough of Catasauqua. The assessment value of his property was in 1770, 416^, which included six horses, eight cows and three negroes. The tax on the same was thirty-seven shillings and two pence, ($4.96). The farm consisted at that time of one hundred and thirty-six acres of clean land, and one hundred and ninet\ -five acres of woodland. Mr. Taylor resided on the farm until 1764 when he moved to Easton, Pa. In 1776 Mr. Taylor sold his farm in Allen township to Mr. Benezet, of Philadelphia, for looO;^ ($4800). Mr. Benezet afterward sold the farm to David Deshler. Our County is but a small one, but helps to make up the State of Penn- sylvania, the Keystone in the arch of the thirteen original colonies. In 1773, in what is now Lehigh County, it comprised the following num- ber of acres of clear land and the number of acres of grain sown, also the number $8 To 21 Quarts of Oats $52 49 " Hay 90 30 '• Meals 260 8 " Lodging 40 24 of farmers in each township: Upper Milford had 7,096 acres of clear land, and 1,283 acres of grain aiid 156 farmers ; Macungie had 6,459 acres of clear land, and 2,002 acres of grain, and 136 farmers. Whitehall had 6,070 acres of clear land, and 1223 acres of grain and 117 farmers ; Upper Saucon had 5,792 acres of clear land, 1028 acres of grain and 84 farmers ; Lynn had 3,412 acres of clear land and 860 acres of grain and 118 farmers ; Heidelberg had 2,905 acres of clear land and 904 acres of grain and loi farmers ; Salisbury had 2,400 acres of clear land, 522 acres of grain and 48 farmers ; Weisenburg had 2,179 acres of clear land and 562 acres of grain, and 78 farmers; Lowhill had 1,131 acres of clear land and 435 acres of grain and 48 farmers ; and there was 180,000 acres of wood land in what is now the present County of Lehigh. The taxes for a farm of 200 acres of land was from eighty cents to I1.50. Laborers received from ten cents to twelve cents a day and boarding. The house rent was from four to eight dollars a year, including fire wood and some acres of land for a potato and corn patch and grazing and feed for a cow. Fifty poor peo- ple did not pay any tax. The farmers and others on ordinary occasions used rye bread and buck- wheat cakes, but on special occasions they used wheat bread. Expenses of Le- high for the year ending January i, 1813, were as follows : G. Stabler, for election expenses at Millerstown, (Macungie) f34.8o ; J. Mummy for election expenses, Grim's district,g|37 20 ; A. Shiiferstein, foi election expenses, Saeger's district, $44.20 ; F. B. Shaw, for election expenses, AUentown district, |49'5o; G. Kramer, commissioner on seat of Justice, I50.00 ; George Savitz, rent of rooms for court, November 20, 1812 to January i, 1813, I55.91 ; quarrying stones for prison, $67.21. Total amount, $368.82. In 1813 the total receipts of the County from all sources were $15,448.30, of which sum $1558 66 was the balance at the settlement, $13,254.55 taxes were collected out of $16,772.60 assessed. Sheriff Peter Hauck paid into the treasury the same year $3.90 Sheriff's fees. Balance in the treasury at the end of the year, $6693.80 In 1814 the receipts of the County were $18,325 91 ; in 1815 the receipts were $15,050.89 ; in 1816 the receipts were $17,214.05. In 1816 the first bank loan of $2,176.53 was made for County purposes of 1816 and 1817. The first Court House was built at a cost of $24,93608, rebuilt 1S64 at a cost of $57,235.86. In 1813 the first jail was built at a cost of $8,420.00, rebuilt at a cost of $200,222.95. The Poor House was erected in 1845 at a cost of buildings of $51,154.21. The Poor House farm consists of 254 acres of land and was purchased for $27,062.32. The first great flood of the Lehigh River known to the white settlers oc- curred on the 6th of October, 1786, between ten and twelve o'clock at night, and known as "Tippy's Flood," on account of the destruction of the home of Mr. Tippy, near Weissport, and in which the two children of Mr. Tippy were drown- ed, the parents were saved. They had clung to the branches of a tree until res- cued. The next great flood occurred in 1841 doing great damage, and in 1862 in which hundreds of houses and bridges were destroyed and hundreds of people were drowned. 1841, January 8th, heavy loss ; 1862, June 4, loss $200,000, bridges destroyed, great loss of life, eighteen inches higher than in 1841. In 1869 a great flood occurred doing considerable damage. On Friday evening February 28th, 1902, one the of the most destructive floods in the Lehigh Valley occurred. It had rained very heavily for several days, and the warm temperature so that by noon time it became apparent there would be a flood if it would keep on raining. The Little Lehigh, Jordan Creeks and the lesser streams throughout the county began 25 to overflow their banks, and instead of looking like small streams appeared like large rivers and raging torrents. The Jordan Creek rose twenty-five feet above low water mark at Allen- town, while the Little Lehigh Creek came almost up to Lawrence street in Allen- town, within seven hours after the waters began to rise they had reached the highest mark and then commenced to recede. The flood, by the marks shown on Kline's Island, that the flood was twenty-two inches higher than the flood of 1862. At that time the waters ro.se to sixty-five inches from the base of the house. In 1869 the water rose forty-seven inches from the base of the house, and on Friday, Feb. 28, 1902, the flood rose up to eighty-seven inches from the base. The dam- ages done by the flood were greater than that of the great flood of 1S62, but the lo.ss of life was much less for the simple reason that the last flood came in day time, while the great flood of 1862 came in the night time. The bridges across the Lehigh River at Allentown and the Central Railroad bridge across the Lehigh River at Kline's Island were swept away by the flood and many bridges along the Little Lehigh and Jordan Creeks were carried away and many of the others were so badly damaged that they were unsafe for traveling. There were also many washouts along the railroads and roads, causing great damages and delay of trains for several days. The many manufactories throughout the county were heavy losers in the carrying away of goods, destruction of buildings and the spoiling of goods. The loss incurred by th- flood was about a million dollars in the entire county . The destruction of the bridges and the damages to same alone amounted to over four hundred thousand dollars. In 1773 the assessment list showed that there were 34,894 acres of cleared land in Lehigh County, of which 8869 acres were sown in grain as follows : Upper Milford, 7096 acres ; Macungie, 6459 acres ; Whitehall, 6070 acres ; Upper Sau- con, 5792 acres ; Lynn, 3412 acres ; Heidelberg, 2905 acres ; Salisbury, 2400 acres; Weisenberg, 2189 acres ; Lowhill, 1131 acres. Taxes were low, farm of two hun- dred acres, eighty cents to $1 .50. Laborers wages ten to twelve cents per day, the rent for a house and lot from $4.00 to $8.00 a year, including several acres of land and fire wood. Wheat raised twice on newly cleared land, corn not cultivated before 1780. The first election held after the county was formed was held on the 30th of October, 1S12. to elect the county officers. The market price at Allentown on January 28, 1813, were as follows : wheat per bushel, 13 shillings and 12 pence ; rye per bushel, 5 shillings and J'A pence ; corn per bu,shel, 4 shillings and 9 pence ; flax seed per bushel, 8 shillings. Philadelphia price was wheat per bushel, 15 shillings and 6 pence ; flour per barrel, $10.50. 26 CHAPTER V. WAR RECORD. REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. At the time of the Revolutionary War, Lehigh County was a part of Northampton County, but it raised its full share of quotas for the American Army. At the outbreak of the war a company was raised in what is now Lehigh County, every one enlisting in the company received a bounty of three pounds ($3 oo). The company formed a part of the 2d Penn- sylvania Battalion of which Colonel Arthur St. Clair was the commander. Cap- tain Thomas Craig was captain of the company. The Flying camp of T776, was formed by Captain John Arndt, and took part in the battle of Long Island, August 27, 1776, in which the company suffered heavily in killed and wounded, losing in all 21 men. At the battle of Fort Wash- ington it again suffered heavily in killed, wounded and prisoners, Nov 16, 1776, losing in all 37 men. Washington, after his defeat at Harlem Heights, New York, retreated across the North River and through New Jersey by the way of Newark, Princeton and Trenton where he crossed the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. General John Warren, Surgeon General, sent the following communication to Bishop Etl- wein of the Moravian Church at Bethlehem. "According to his Excellency, Gen- eral Washington's Orders. The General Hospital of the army is removed to Beth- lehem, and you will do the greatest act of humanity by immediately providing proper buildings for its reception." Bethlehem had been selected as the most advantageous location by Washington when it had been found necessary to re- move the hospital from Morristown, New Jersey, in the sunmier of 1777. Allen- town was the centre of operation for the formation of the Wagon Brigade. The bells of Christ Church, Philadelphia, and the State House bell were removed to Alfentown for concealment, when the British took possession of Philadelphia. AUentown was also the depot where the Revolutionary army got its supplies, cart- ridges were manufactured, muskets repaired, etc. Alexander Miller, James and Charles Craig were commissioned as officers to raise and organize military companies, the bounty was three pour.ds in Penn- sylvania money equal to |8.oo. Congress authorized the raising of the " Flying Camp," of 10,000 men, apportioned as follows : Pennsylvania, 6,000 men ; Maryland, 3,400 men ; Dela- ware, 600 men. From the i8th to the 25th of June, 1776, the Continental Congress met in Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, and the delegates from Northampton County were Levers, Col. Nichol Gray, John Weitzel, Nicholas Depue, Daniel Deschler, and Benjamin Depue. Congress ordered on the 8th of July, 1776 that an election should be held in the different counties of the province. 27 Lehigh County was embraced in the second election district of North- ampton County, and was composed of Northampton, Sahsbury, Upper Saucon, Upper Milford, Macungie, Weisenberg, Lynn, Whitehall and Heidelberg, and the election place, Allen's Town. The election officers were John Gerhart, David Deschler and George Brienig. One hundred and twenty recruits came from Al- lentown and vicinity to join the "Flying Camp." On a hill on this side of the Monocacy Creek and on the right side of the road, leading to Allentown, now occupied by West Bethlehem, lie buried about one thousand Revolutionary soldiers, who died while the military hospital was located at Bethlehem. A monument should mark their last resting place. After 1778, the seat of war was transferred from the banks of the Del- aware to the North and South, after that the beat of the drum and the tramp of the ar nies ai mira rasouaied throtr^h the valley of Lehigh. General Charles Lee with his division of the American army were encamped for some time at Bethlehem. General La Fayette, after being wounded in the battle of Brandy- wine, was brought to Bethlehem and there nursed till he got well. At one time or other many of the American officers stopped at the Sun Hotel, Bethlehem. The citizens of that town and throughout the county were ever ready to help the American cause in whatever way they could. The next important event was the Friess Rebellion. In 1797 Congress passed certain laws which were objectionable to the people, among them were the Alien, Sedition and the House Tax Laws which were regarded as unjust and burdensome. The peoplearose to resist the enforcement of them and an Insurrec- tion broke out in Milford, Bucks County, under the leadership of John Friess, who bad been an officer in the Revolutionary Army, he was ably seconded by Fred. Heany and John German. The opposition of Friess prevented all assessments in Milford township that year. The Insurrection spread rapidly into Northampton County, also into what is now Lehigh County, where the Assessors were chased from one township to another. Some time after the above occurrence, seventeen of his followers were captured and imprisoned in the Sun Hotel, Bethlehem. Fries went to their help and rescued them. The President, John Adams, sent troops to quell the Insurrection, when they came Friess went into hiding and a month afterwards was captured near Bunker Hill, Bucks County. The following followers of Friess were sentenced by the Court : Hen- ry Jarrett, two years imprisonment and f 1000.00 fine ; Conrad Marks, two years imprisonment, $800.00 fine; Valentine Kuder, two years imprisonment, I200.00 fine ; Jacob Eierman, one year imprisonment, $50.00 fine ; Henry Shankweiler, one year imprisonment, I150.00 fine ; Michael Schmeier, nine months impris- onment, I400.00 ; Henry Schmidt, eight months imprisoment, $200.00 fine ; Philip Desch. eight months imprisonment, I150.00 fine ; Jacob Klein, eight months imprisonment, $150.00 fine ; Herman Hartman, six months imprison- ment, $150 00 fine ; Philip Ruth, six months imprtSCmtff^nt, $200.00 fine ; John Eberhard, six months imprisonment, $100 00 fine ; John Huber, six months im- prisonment, $150.00; Christian Sachs, six months imprisonment, $150.00 fine; John Klein, Jr., six months imprisonment, $100.00 fine ; Daniel Klein, six months imprisonment, $150,00 fine ; Jacob Klein, six months imprisonment, $150.00 fine ; Adam Breich, six months imprisonment, $150.00 fine ; George Mem- berger, six months imprisonment, $150.00 fine ; George Getman, six months im- prisonment, $100.00 fine ; William Getman, six months imprisonment, $100.00 fine ; Abraham Schantz, four months imprisonment, $100.00 fine ; Henry Mem- 28 berger, four months imprisonment, ^loo.oo fine ; Peter Hager, four months impris- onment, f loo.oo fine ; Abraham Samsel, three months imprif-onment, $50 00 fine ; P. Huntzberger, three months imprisonment, $50 00 fine ; Peter Gabel, two months imprisonment, ^^40. 00 fine ; Jacob Gabel, two months imprisonment, 140.00 fine. He and a number of his followers were placed on tiial for treason, and were convicted and sentenced to death, biat they were pardoned by the President. Friess returned to his home near Trumbauersville, Bucks County, and resumed his occupation of crying public sales. Thus ended the Insurrection, also known as the " Milford Rebellion, " The Hot Water War," and " The House Tax War." After that there was no opposition to these laws which were soon after repealed. There was peace till the war broke out with England in 1812. During that war the people of the county went forth to the front with an alacrity which was highly commendable. The following companies responded to their country's call Captain George Dinkey raised a company of Infantry and marched to the seat of war 1S12. Captain John F. Ruhe's Company of Light Infantry, Co. 5th, 2d Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Light Infantry, ist Brigade, 2d Division was raised in Whitehall. Captain Abraham Gangewere's Company of riflemen, (Co. i) First Bri- gade, Second Division, Pennsylvania Militia, Brigadier General H. Spering, com- manding the Brigade, Major General Shitz, commanding the Division. Captain Abraham Rinker's Company of riflemen, ist Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Riflemen, Col. Thomas Humphrey, commanding; Captain Peter Ruch's Light Horse Company was raised in the Whitehalls, and Captain John Dornblaser's Co. of Infantry raised in Lehigh, Northampton and Pike counties, and Captain Joseph Wilt's Co. raised in Upper Milford ; by which it can be seen that Little Lehigh at the very beginning of its existence, nobly sent forth her sons to defend her Nation's honor. A few went to the Mexican war, 1845-48, but the same martial spirit was displayed as in former wars. Among those who went to war was Colonel Harry C. Longenecker. After a period of peace for thirteen years, the tranquility was broken by the firing upon Fort Sumter by the South Carolina soldiers and the capture of the fort by the same was wired over the entire country. April 12th, 1S61. On that day the Governor of Pennsylvania received the following telegram : "The war has commenced, the batteries opened fire upon Fort Sumter at 4 A. M." This conflict began by the people of the North and South placing diflfer- ent construction to the Constitution of the United States," of the Slave question and by continually agitating the same, at least each section came to distrust each other and regard each other with contempt The North believed that tlie South would not dare to go to war and fight for the cause they advocated. The North would never dare to strike a blow against the South was believed by the South. When the actual hostilities commenced many of the North said that it would only be a breakfast, but before the war was over they had in addition to breakfast— dinner and supper. While the South said we will capture W^ashing- ton and bring the Government to terms in very short time, and have our Inde- pendence acknowledged by the Government. How sadly were both sides dis- appointed, and how. through four long and sad years, each side contended for the mastery, which at last fell to the lot of the North, the "Stars and Stripes" which had cost an enormous amount of money and a great loss of life. The war taught both the North and South a lesson which they had not known before, they learned to know each other better and by that struggle show- 29 ed foreign nations the true valor of an American citizen ; and slavery extinguish- ed forever from the American soil. On April 15th, 1861, President Ivincoln issued his proclamation calling out the Militia of the several states, to quell the Rebellion. Pennsylvania was called upon to furnish sixteen regiments, two of which were wanted within three days to defend the National Capital which was unprotected. One of the first com- panies to respond to the call of the President were the Allen Guards. Captain Thomas Yeager of Al]ei!tov\n, the offered their services to the Governor, April 17th, and mustered into services April i8th, arriving at the same time at Harris- burg were Ringgold's Light Artillery, Captain McKnight of Reading; Logan Guards, Captain vSelheimer, of Lewistown ; Washington Guards, Captain Wren and the National Light Infantry, Captain McDonalds, of Pottsville ; and Co. H, Fourth Artillery Regulars under Lieut. Pemberton, (afterwards a general of the Confederate army). They all started for the seat of war on the i8th of April. The Regulars for Fort McHenry and the others for Washington. For their promptness in mirching to the defence of Washington, arriving there on the 18th of April, iS6i^ "the thanks of the House of Representatives, which are rarely tendered except for great and signal service to the state were expressed in ihe following terms ; "37th Congress, U. S. July 22d, 1861. Resolv- ed, that the thanks of this house are due and are hereby tendered to the 530 soldiers from Pennsylvania who passed through the n:ob at Baltimore and reached Washington on the iSth of April last for the defence of the National Capital." Galisha a. Grow, Speaker of the House of Representatives. Little Lehigh nobly came to the aid of the country as can be seen by the number of men furnished to the different regiments, (namely 13), Companies I, Capt. W. H. Gausler, ist regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers ; D, Capt. G. D. Hand, 9th regiment, three months men ; C, Capt. A. C. Lewis, 46th regiment, three year men ; B, Capt. E. P. Rhoads ; F, Capt. H. S. Hart ; G, Capt. Charles Mickley ; I. Capt. A. G. K. Coleman ; K, Capt. George Junkert, 47th regiment, Col. T. H Good, Allentown, was the commander of the regiment ; A, Capt. S. H. Schneck, 9th Cavalry ; D, Cape. John P. Dillinger ; G. Capt. W. W. Hammersly, i2Sch re^iniut, niiie months men; A, Capt. Levi Schmoyer, B, Capt. S. D. Lehr, D, Capts. David Schaadt and Charles L. Koch, E, Capt. Tilghman Sleiker, G, Capt. L. P. Hecker. I, Capt. A. F. Creitz, K, Capts. S. C. Lee and G. Neitz, 176th y regiment, nine months drafted militia; E, Capt. W. H. Seip, 202d regiment ; H, ^ Capt W. H. Miller, 209th regiment ; E, Capt. W. Marx, G, Capt.G B. Schall, H, Capt. W. H. Hoffman, 5th regiment militia; H. Capt. I. N. Gregory, 27th regi- ment Emergency troops, 1863; H, Capt M. H. Home and part of Co. C, 38th / regiment militia, 1S63 ; D, Capt. \\\ H. Seip, L Capt. Charles Keck, K, Capt. ^ John H. Oliver, 41st regiment militia, 1S63. Thus it can be seen that Little Lehigh done its part nobly and well, and that it was just as patriotic as any county of our grand old Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, according to its size and population, and by its aid helped to sus- tain the Government of the United States. By which help the Government was able to assert its authority and power and show the nations of the world that though a Republic, it could go through severer trials and ordeals than any nation of the old world was ever subject to, and which would have wiped them off the face of the earth. Hut Our Country came out victorious and the glorious old banner the "Stars and Stripes" once more floated over a united country. As 30 soon as the war had begun the Commissioners of the county and public look ac- tion as soon as the first soldiers had left for the seat of war to relieve such families as needed help. At a special meeting of the Commissioners they drew up a petition and presented it to the Court, praying for an appropriation out of the common funds to support the families of those who might be in need, during the absence of the husbands or soldiers who proposed to go and defend their country's flag. It was resolved that five thousand dollars be appropriated for that purpose in install- ments of five hundred dollars each to be distributed at such periods as may be deemed necessary. January, 1862, the county tax was raised to forty cents upon everj' one hundred dollars, and the state'tax to twenty-five cents upon every one hundred dollars, and a special tax of fifty cents per head for militia purposes. The same year a bounty of twenty dollars for each recruit was offered, (the quota being 200 men). The Commissioners made an appropriation of ten thousand dollars for the purpose. The bounty was afterwards raised to one hundred dollars for each recruit, the bounty offered until September 25th, 1862, after which no bounty was paid any more. April, 1863, the county tax was raised to fifty cents upon every one hun- dred dollars and the state tax 30 cents per hundred dollars. June 30th, 1863, the Commissioners resolved to give twenty dollars per month to each recruit for ser- vices, not exceeding three months, the time being Gen. Lee's invasion into the V State. Captain W. H. Seip's company of eighty-five men were the first to leave for the field of action. They received a month's pay in advance, the other com- panies that went at the same time received similar compensation. Our brave and noble soldiers were engaged in many a hard conflict, and earned a reputation for bravery and gallant conduct, excelled by none, and many a life was sacrificed to defend the Union The ist regiment was engaged in the first battle of Bull Run, Virginia, 1861. The 46th regiment was engaged in capture of Leesburg, Charlestown, Martinsburg, "Winchester, Kernstown, Cedar Mountain, Antietem, Fredericksburg, 1862, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, operat- ing along theRapidan, Virginia, 1863, transferred to Tennessee to support Gen. Rosecrans, re-enlisted in 1864, for a term of three years, helped to fight the bat- tles of Resace. Dallas, Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek, Pine Knob, Marietta, Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia, 1864, with Sherman through the Carolina's in capturing Columbus, Goldsboro and Johnston's army at Raleigh, 1865. They were mus- tered out of service July i6th, 1865, after four years of hard and faithful service, having lost during that time in killed, wounded and prisoners about three hundred men. The 47th Regiment was engaged in many hard conflicts, during its term of service. Served in the Florida campaign, under General Brannan, in Virginia under General J.J. Stevens, South Carolina under Major-General O. M. Mitchell. Captured St. John's Bluff, Jacksonville, Florida, engaged in the battles of Poco- taligo and Frampton, South Carolina, garrisoned Forts Taylor and Jefferson, Key West, Florida, went to Franklin, Louisiana in 1864, participated in the Red River expedition under General Banks, fought in the battles of Pleasant Hill, Cave Hill, transferred to Virginia in the fall of 1864, and helped to drive awav the Confederate army from Maryland under General Hunter, placed under Gen- eral Sheridan in the Shenandoah campaign, helped to fight the battles of Opequan Winchester, Fisher's Hill, Port Republic and Cedar Creek. After the surrender of General Lee, the regiment did garrison duty at Savannah and Charleston. They were mustered out of service after seeing four 31 years and four months of great hardship, during the time it was in the field it participated in seven states, marched twelve hundred miles, made twelve sea voyages, lost during the time it served in killed, wounded and prisoners, five hundred men. The 92d regiment, the 9th calvary, saw service in Kentucky and Tennessee in the battles of Bowling Green, Lebanon, Sparta, Moore's Hill, Tompkinsville, Richmond, Shelbyville, Perryville, Watauga, Holston River, Franklin Rover, Middletown, Cowan, Lafayette, Chickamauga, Dandridge, New Market, Mossy Creek, Fair Garden, McMinnville, and with General Sherman on his march to the sea, and was engaged in the battles of Lovejoy Station, Macon, Bear Creek, Waynesboro, Buckhead Creek, Buckhead Church, Aiken, Lexington, Black States Station, Averysville, Bentonville, Hillsboro and Morrisville. This Regiment had the honor of firing the last gun before the surrender of General J. E. Johnston at Bentonville and received the flag of truce sent by General Johnson asking for the surrender. They were mustered out of service July 12th, 1865, seeing 4 years of hard service and losing in killed, wounded and prisoners many of its men. It was engaged in the capturing of the rebel General J. H. Morgan when he was on his raids in Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio. The 128th regiment saw service in Virgmia, was in the battles of Bull Run, Chantilly, Antietem, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, in the last named battle it was reduced to one hundred and seventy two men, more than two hun- dred were taken prisoners. They were mustered out of service May 12th, 1863, having proven their loyalty to the cause. The 176th regiment of drafted militia entered into service November, 1862 and were engaged in doing garrison duty in Virginia, North and South Carolina, and were mustered out of service August i8th, 1863. The 202d regiment saw service in the Shenadoah campaign where it shared with the rest of the army the laurels of the same. Mustered out August 3d, 1865. The 209th regiment fought in the battles of Chapin Farms, Fort Stead- man and in the battles around Petersburg and the surrender of General Lee at Appomattox Court House. Mustered out May 31, 1865. The Militia The 5th rejiiment was called out in 1862. to repel the in- vasion of the Rebel army, and the rapidity with which they moved showed that they knew well the import of their mission. The 27th Emergency regiment of 1863, was recruited to help to guard the border of the state from the invasion of General Lee, did not see active service, but fulfilled its part well. The 38th regi- ment of militia, of 1863, was called out to defend the border too which duty it performed faithfully. The 41st regiment which shared with the others the trials of the campaign and fought with great gallantry at South Mountain. The Allen Guards and the 9th regiment were engaged in doing guard duty and paving the way for others to do the work they so nobly commenced by responding so quickly to their country's call. Thus it will be seen that the sons of noble Lehigh were in every way in full for their share of the work of bringing and subduing the discontented states and by it w-e see that they performed their part of the work faithfully, showing that they possess the true qualities of a faith- ful citizen, which, when called upon in the hour of need, responded nobly ; and if needed, lay down their lives upon the altar of freedom that the nation might live. Then after an interval of 33 years of peace war broke out between the United States and Spain on account of Spain's mode of warfare in Cuba, and at the call of the President, Little Lehigh responded nobly by sending two full companies and others who enlisted in other companies. Companies B, Capt. Medlar and D, Capt. Spangler, 4th regiment National Guards of Pennsylvania. 32 The regiment was commanded by Colonel D. B. Case, of Lancaster, Lieut Colonel O'Neill, of Allentown. They saw service in Porto Rico and they gave a good ac- count of themselves, showing the same spirit of patriotism as the forefathers did in the Revolutionary war, War of i8i 2, Mexican war and Civil war, ready at a moment's notice to answer to their country's call in the hour of need. During the war times many things happen which are both funny and heartrending, showing the anxiety of the people. Some are full of life and seem indifferent, while others taking a more serious view of the matter are wishing they could stay at home with their friends. It is a sad thing when time for part- ing comes, when the wife and children bid husband and father goodbye, friend bids friend good bye, etc., with ihe thought on their minds that perhaps the}' would never see each other any more. No one who has not witnessed the de- parture of the soldiers to the seat of war, can comprehend it. Waving of hands and handkerchiefs, cheering amid the sobs and cries of the dear ones that left. But when the soldiers came back from war the .scene was different, everybody was in cheerful glee and trying to do all they could to give the brave defenders of their country a ro3'al welcome. 33 CHAPTER VI. INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT. t^^HE INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS of the county were begun with the ad- vent of the first settlers. The principal works of improvement are the Le- high Canal which was built from above Mauch Chunk toEaston for bringing the Carbon countv oil to the Philadelphia and other markets, and by its construction it brought into operation the iron industries along the Lehigh Val- ley. The destruction of the same by the great treshet in June, 1862, led the Le- high Coal and Navigation Company who owned the canal, to abandon the idea of rebuilding their dams and locks above Manch Chunk and substitute a railroad in its place, thus began the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad, all the improve- ments had for their object the development of the Lehigh Valley. In 1838, the Hamburg, Allentown, Bethlehem and Easton R. R. Com- pany was chartered by the Legislature. It was begun near Hamburg, passing through Kutztown to Allentown and from there to Bethlehem and Easton. The road was to have been commenced within five years and completed in ten, the road was never built, the building of the other roads led the projectors to abandon it. The Perkiomen R.R. Company was chartered in 1852 and finished in 1876, passing through the lower end of the county. The Catasauqua & Fogelsville R.R. was chartered in 1853 and finished in 1857. It passes through the centre of the county and is an outlet for the iron ore mines, and crosses the Jordan Valley by the celebrated iron bridge in South Whitehall township, a distance of 1165 feet, consisting of 1 1 spans of 100 feet each. It connects the East Pennsylvania branch of the P. & R. R.R. at Alburtis and with the Lehigh Valley and Lehigh & Sus- quehanna Railroads at Catasauqua. The Lehigh Valley R.R. connects Easton with Mauch Chunk and with its extensions and branches forms a great trunk line between New York and the West, passes through the beautiful Lehigh and Wy- oming valleys. The East Pennsylvania R. R. Company was chartered in 1S57, connects Allentown and Reading and has large and increasing trafic for freight and coal. The fronton R.R. Company was chartered in 1859 and connects Coplay and Ironton. It was built by the Coplay Iron Company to bring ore for their furnaces. The Berks & Lehigh R.R. Company was chartered in 1871 and connects Reading and Slatington and runs through the upper part of the county and is an outlet for the products of that section. Besides there are many other improvements as can be seen in the cultivation of the farms and the improvements of the public road and the various manufactories, mines and quarries, etc. 34 CHAPTER VII. EDUCATION. CHE EARLIEST schools of the County were almost without exception, estab- tablished at or in connection with the Lutheran and Reformed churches and the pastor was the teacher. In most cases the school houses preceded the churches and served the double purpose of church and school. These schools were not strictly church schools, they were not supported by the church. Each parent who sent children to school was compelled to pay in proportion to the number of days sent. In those days the teacher generally boarded around. In- struction was given in reading, writing and arithmetic. The first school in the County was established in 1725 in connection with the Swamp church, Lower Milford township, and remained open until recently. The Mennonites opened a school in Upper Milford, near Zionsville, between 1735 and 1749. A little later a school was established by the same denomination in a fine grove between Centre Valley and Coopersburg. At Dillingersville, Lower Milford, a school was established by the Lutherans in 1743. The congregation selecting a tract of land of about thirty acres, a little west of the village, for which they received a patent thereon in 1770, and erected a school house which served the double purpose of church and school until 1791. After that it was used only for school purposes and known as the Upper Milford school house. By Act of Assembly, this property was sold in 1871, for the sum of $4,050 which amount is placed on interest as a special school fund, giving the sub- district at present a ten months' term. The children living within two miles of the school house are entitled to attend the school during the summer term, giving them a great advantage over the surrounding districts. The Moravians com- menced a school at Emaus in 1746, one year previous to their organization of the church in 1747. Christopher and Mary Heyne were the first teachers at Emaus, in 1752 the Moravian school at Oley, Berks county was removed to Emaus, and in 1753 both were removed to Bethlehem on account of the Indian troubles in the County. At Egypt, Whitehall township, a school was established in 1733. At New Tripoli, Lynn Township, the oldest school in the upper part of the county was established in 1750. At the same time schools were established at the Le- high church, Lower Macungie and at Heidelberg church, Heidelberg township. In 1790, John and Jane Wetzel conveyed by deed to the trustees and their successors, two acres of land for school purposes at Centreville, near the borough of Macungie. The property was sold in 1868 on ground rent reservation and the annual receipts therefrom, amount to one hundred and fifty dollars, which with the sum otherwise provided, enables the district to have ten months school term annually. Andrew Eisenhard, Cornelius Hughes and John Herman, in 1790, donated two acres of land at East Texas for school purposes and erected 35 thereon, at their own expense a school house, this property was sold in 1874 for 13,750. The district derives the sum of two hundred and twenty-six dollars an- nually, a portion of which is expended in maintaining a summer school. In 1760, a great drawback was made in the schools of the county, caused by the teachers leaving their profession and entering the ministry, as many of the congregations could not secure regular pastors. And less qualified teachers took the places as teachers, consequently the schools suffered much from the change. When the schools were first started the instruction was exclusively in the German language until iSoo. In 1820, the English language was introduced in most of the progressive schools of the County, and taught in connection with the Ger- man. During the same period very few entirely Engiish schools had been estab- lished in the County. The first entirely English school was established at Egypt in 1809, and Jacob Kern was the first teacher at a salary of fourteen dollars a month, the school was kept open until 1857. The English School Society of New Tripoli was organized in 1812 and opened a school there which was kept until 1850. At the same time English schools were opened at Allentown and Balliettsville in 1816, in Upper Saucon in 1833. When the free school system in 1834 was first put into operation it met with fierce opposition, but which soon passed away and since that time the schools have made rapid progress. There are many graded schools in the County outside the boroughs. The schools are under the supervision of the County Superintendent of Public Schools, who is elected for three years by the school directors of the County, the first Tuesday in May every third year. His duties are to hold examinations for examining applicants for teachers certificates and grants the same to those who pass the examination successfully. He has power to grant two grades of certificates, the first one is a provisional certificate, good for one year only and cannot be renewed. The second one is a professional certificate which holds good during his term of ofiice and is good for one year under the new superintendent, is granted only to those who have acquired pro- fessional skill in the art of teaching. He holds teachers and directors meetings, the County teachers institute, local institute and other meetings that seem necessary for the benefit of the schools under his supervision. He has charge of all the schools outside of Allen- town, and his entire time is given to the attention of the schools under his charge. 36 CHAPTER VIII. SOIL, ANIMALS, ETC. THE SOIL of the County is very fertile and suitable for raising all of the grains pertaining to the temperate zone. The grains raised are wheat, rye, corn, oats, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, etc. Dairying and trucking are carried on a large scale. The products raised find ready market in Allentown and surrounding towns. The climate is delightful and healthy, well suited for the industry of the people, and the natural resources are great, nowhere can be found a people that are more industrious and frugal than the people of Lehigh County. The principal industries are cotton and woolen, boot and shoe, silk and knitting manufactories, hardware, cutlery, breweries, furnaces, foundries, flour mills, tobacco, cement, etc., which gives employment to many people. The other em- ployments are farming, mining, dairying and trucking. The geological ages are as follows : ist. Azoic, 2d, Palaeozoic, 3d, Mesozoic, 4th, Camozoic (new life), representing three period sand four divisions. To the Azoic age belong the South Mountain belt of rocks, extending from Eas- ton on the Delaware to Reading on the Schuylkill in a broken line, where they sink under a plain of the next higher order or Palaeozoic age, which constitute in our county, the limestone and slate in the valley and the sand rocks in the Kittatinny Mountains. In the past ages the South or Lehigh Mountains now averaging one thousand feet above the sea level, were an immense mountain sys- tem of five miles in height, covered by 30,000 newer rocks, comprising the lime stones and slate of the Lehigh Valley, the sand rocks of the Blue Mountains, the shales, hydraulic limestones and sand of Stroudsburg and Lehigh Valley. The red and white sand stones of the Mauch Chunk Mountain and the one north of it. Remnant of the Palaeozoic age are still found in the patches on the South Moun- tains. The character of these rocks are principally of two kinds: — ist, strictly stratified, thick bedded, massive gneiss, a mixture of granular quartz, while or pink feldspar with the absence of mica, belonging to that variety of gneiss called granulite. 2d, stratified syemite, a mixture of hornblende feldspar, little or no quartz, magnetic oxide of iron is found abundantly in the hornblende rocks In Lehigh county, the mountain mass is split in two by the Saucon Valley, the western half called the Lehigh Mountains, is a belt two miles wide composed chiefly of the harder .syemite gneiss, extending from Bethlehem through Upper Saucon, Salisbury and Upper Mil ford townships The other belt is mostly con- fined to portions of Upper Saucon and Lower Milford townships. The Palaeozoic rocks in the County are the Potsdam sandstone of which only two members have been found in the County, the sandstone, the upper slate, magnesian limestone and others. The Mesozoic age is found along the Bucks countv line in Upper Saucon and Lower Milford townships. The Camozioc 37 is the new age and is found sparingly in the nuid and gravel along the Lehigh river. Principal formations of the different townships of Lehigh county are as follows : Hanover, shale, slate and limestone ; Heidelberg, shale and slate; Lower Macungie, syenite and limestone ; Lower Milford, red sand, stone and syenite ; Lowhill, shale and slate ; Lynn, shale and slate; North Whitehall, shale and limestone ; Salisbury, syenite, quartzite and limestone ; South White- hall, limestone ; Upper Macungie, limestone and shale ; Upper Milford, shale and slate ; Upper Saucon, red sandstone, syenite and limestone; Washington, shale and slate ; Weisenberg, shale and slate ; Whitehall, shale and slate. Mountains an? Hills. The Blue Mountains form the northwest boundary of the county, the Lehigh or South Mountains in the southern part are the only mountains within the County. There are several hills or knolls which will be mentioned under the head of townships in w^hich they are located. Rivers and Creeks. The Lehigh is the only river in the County, and forms the boundary between the Lehigh Gap and the north line of Hanover town- ship, Lehigh county, and of Northampton county, and from there forms the boundary line between Hanover and Salisbury townships. Its most important branches in the county are Trout creek, which rises at the foot of the Blue Mountains in Heidelberg township, flows east in the Lehigh River two miles below thd Lehigh Water Gap, turning a number of mills. Antelawny or Maiden creek rises in Lynn township flows west along the Blue Mountains into Berks county where it empties into the Schuylkill river. It turns many mills. Coplay creek rises in North Whitehall township, flows southeast into the Lehigh River, between Catasauqua and Hokendauqua about 5 miles north of Allentown, turning several mills but often fails in the dry season. Jordan creek rises at the foot of the Blue Mountains in Heidleberg township flows in a very crooked course south- west into the Little Lehigh creek at Allentown about 100 feet above its mouth. This stream turns many mills and the quantity of its water depends on the season. The Little Lehigh Creek rises in Lower Macungie township flows east into the Lehigh river at Allentown, many mills are along its banks. There are numerous smaller streams in the county, which are principally in the townships where they will be described. Animals. The following wild animals are found in the county, the red and grey foxes, raccoon, mink, rabbit, opossum, woodchuck, skunk, cat, flying, ground, red and grey squirrel, chipmunk and weasel. Birds. The birds are the eagle, turkey buzzard, screech and great horned owl, fish hawk, heron, whippor- ville, night hawk, mocking bird, swallow, quail, bluebird, blackbird, crow, robin, gold finch, oriole, wren, jay, crane, cat bird, sparrow and others. Botany. Among the plants that are found in the county are the daisy, calomel, mullein, bitterwort, thistle, burdock, golden rod, aster, balsam, bella- donna, bloodroot, buttercup, catmint, chamomile, etc. Trees. The forest trees are white, red, black, burr and scrub oak, chestnut, maple, hickory, birch, beech, pine, walnut, wild cherry, etc. ; the fruit trees are the apple, apricot, peach, plum cherry, pear, quince, crabapple and others. Religious Denominations. The following denominations are found in the County : Protestant Episcopal, Lutheran, Reformed, Baptist, Presbyterian, Methodist Episcopal, Evangelical Association, United Evangelical, United Brethren, Mennonite, Mennonite Brethren in Christ, Free Methodist, Sweden- borgian. Catholic and Moravian. 38 CHAPTER IX. GEOGRAPHY OF TOWNSHIPS. HANOVER. This township lies east of the Lehigh River, and is bounded on the north and east by Northampton county, south and west by the Lehigh river. The population was at the last census of 1900, 3,324. The Lehigh river and Monocacy creek are the principal streams that water the township. The soil is fertile and of limestone formation ; The land is level and the principal occupations of the people are farming, stock raising, dairy, trucking, and there are also iron works, flour mills, silk mills, tanneries, brick works, fire brick works, lime kilns, limestone quarries, etc. VILLAGES— Rittersville, a town midway between Allentown and Beth- lehem on the Allentown and Bethlehem turnpike and the Lehigh Valley Traction railway ; it has a fine park and is a nice Summer resort for the city people, has numerous stores, hotels, churches, schoolhouse and cemetery. It was founded in 1808 by Michael Ritter. The population in 1900 was 525. Schoenersville, situ- ated on the boundary line between Hanover township, Lehigh county and Han- over township, Northampton county, the population in 1900 estimated about 200. It contains a store, hotel, post office, and was founded in 1784 by Adam Schoener. East Allentown was founded in 1S28 is a suburb of Allentown, it contains several stores, hotels, mills, tannery, fire brick works, lumber yards and limestone quar- ries. The Lehigh canal, Lehigh and Susquehanna R.R. and the L. V. Traction railway pass through the place. It is connected with Allentown by a fine large bridge. Population 1200. Post office— Allentown. The earliest schools in the township were at Schoenersville, Rittersville and West Bethlehem. The free school system was accepted in 1834, while the other townships in the County rejected it in that year. It contains excellent .schools both graded and ungraded. The first road in the township was the one leading from Bethlehem to Gnaden- hutten, (now Lehighton), and was laid out by order of the court of Bucks county in 1747, it was used as a military road from 1755 to 1761. The next road was the one leading from the Philadelphia road in Salisbury township crossing the Le- high river by a ford near the old house on the Geissinger's farm, passing through what is now Rittersville and Schoenersville. This township is bounded on the north by Carbon county, east Heidelhpro' ^^ Washington township, south by Lowhill township, west by "^ o Lynn township. Population in 1900 was 141 1. It was organ- ized as a township in 1752, it included at first Lynn and Wash- ington township, and lies in the northern part of the County. The surface is hilly and the Blue Mountains cross the northern part of the township. Bake Oven Knob is situated in the northwestern part, the soil is white gravel and is, however, capable of producing good crops, if well cultivated. The principal streams that 39 drain the township, are the Jordan and Trout creek with a number of smaller streams, and furnish abundant waterpower for mills and manufactories. Alle-mangel, the whole region embraced in Heidelberg and Lynn town- ships to Albany township, Berks county, known by that name, meaning wanting everything, namely, no roads, no place of defence against the Indians. The settlers were of German descent and were kept constantly in alarm, during the Indian Wars in the colonies in 1755-56, the township was nearly de- serted by the settlers, who fled to Bethlehem and other places for refuge from the savages who h?d threatened their lives and properties. The next alarm was when the settlers heard of the Whitehall massacres in 1763. The settlers belonged to the Lutheran and Reformed denominations, and churches were founded all over the township and were well attended. They .strictly adhered to their faith and tried their utmost to bring their children up in the precepts of Christianity. They were honest to the core ; as the following il- lustration will show : When a man loaned I500 or f 1,000 from his neighbor the lender did not even take a note but merely marked down the amount of the money and the time opposite. When the amount or interest, was paid, it was marked with a piece of chalk against the house joists or on the large house clock. When the money with interest was due it was always forthcoming and there was hardly a failure. It was considered a crime if one failed to fulfill his agree- ment. Thev held to the old maxim "His word as good as his note." The oldest church in this township is Heidelberg church, organized in 1740 and is one mile east of Saegersville nearly in the centre of the township. Rev. J. F. Schertlein was the first Lutheran pastor and Rev. P. J. Michael was the first Reformed minister. The settlers of this township were nearly free from incursions, scarcely a murder was committed while nearly all of the surrounding settlements were de- stroyed. Fathers Longnour, Kemmerer and others went to Gnadenhutten and assisted in burying the dead after the massacre there. The reason that the set- tlers were so free from Indian troubles was due to the Providence of God and the fact that no Indian villiage stood within the limits of the township. The nearest one was in Lynn township on the other side of the Blue Mountains and south of the Slue Mountains on the other side of the Lehigh River. An Indian path led in a straight line from Lehigh Gap through Saegersville. The first public road laid out was in 1770, and during the later years many good roads were made in this township. The highest point in the township is Bake Oven Knob on the top of the Blue Mountains, 1560 feet above the sea level, it being the center of the county line of Lehigh and Carbon counties, and it has been for years a signal station in the United States Coast Survey. The summit of the knob affords a fine view of the surrounding country. Bear Rock, two miles west of the Bake Oven Knob, is another point 1 ,500 feet above the sea level. There are three rocks standing in a row connected by smaller ones piled on top of each other ; it is the dividing line between Lehigh, Carbon and Schuylkill counties, a fine view can be had from its summit, looking southwest, the city of Reading can be seen, by the naked eye, the sm^ke as it pours forth from the stacks of the numerous fur- naces, factories, mills, etc. Looking south over our county, Allentown and the beautiful Kittatinny valley dotted with thriving towns and villages can be dis- tinctly seen by the naked eye at least twenty miles distant. Viewing Carbon county. Switchback, Delaware Water Gap, etc., are seen distinctly. Tourists proclaim the finest scenery they have ever viewed with the exception of the Alps. The scenery that one can view from the Bear Rock presents the grandest view 40 that can be met with anywhere. In 1832 a rifle factory was established by Philip Hess, Jr., one mile west of Balliett's furnace, on a road leading from the road from Saegersville to Lehighton across the mountains ; the road is still known as the factory road. The factory was in successful operation for a long time and was later on used as a distillery. The first grist mill was erected in 1808 by John J. Snyder, on Jordan creek later known as Kressly mill. The Schuylkill and Lehigh R. R. passes through the township, giving an outlet to the farmers for their products. The schools compare favorably with those of the other town- ships in the County, and are steadily advancing ; the teachers are progressive and the Board of Directors are energetic, domg the best for the schools under their supervision. VILLAGES — Saegersville. a post village situated six miles west of Slat- ington, contains a carriage factory, hotel, one store, post office which was estab- lished in 1829, daily mail. It was founded in 1760 and is a popular stopping place for city folks who leave the confines and tumults of our large eastern cities during the sultry Summer months. Population 460. Deibertsville is situated two miles east of Saegersville, contains a post office and a number of dwellings, was founded in 1842, population in 1900 was 60. Germansville, one mile west of Saeg- ersville, contains a store, hotel, machine shop, brick kilns, post office, is on the Schuylkill and Lehigh R.R. Founded in 1742 by Adam German, and the present population is about 320. Pleasant Corner is one and one-fourth miles southwest of Saegersville, contains a store, hotel, grist mill. Founded 1744 by John Rice and population in 1900 was 300. Bounded on the northeast by Salisbury township, southeast by Lower upper Milford township, northwest by Upper Macungie town- ,. ship, southwest by Berks county. Population in 1900 was IVl&CUngie 2,920. It is one of the richest townships in the County, the soil is very fertile and productive and is of limestone formation. Rich and valuable hematite ores are found. The Flats near East Texas in this township are especially rich in iron ore. The principal streams that drain the township are the Little Lehigh and Swabia creeks. Industries are the Lockridge furnace near Alburtis, Macungie furnace, flour mills, etc. The people are largely engaged in farming, mining, dairying, trucking. The schools are in fine condi- tion and compare favorably with the schools of the County. The teachers and directors are working together for the welfare and advancement of the schools under their supervision. The first settlement was made in 1738, near Macungie, by some German settlers led by Michael Schaeffer. VILLAGES — Centreville is a suburb of Macungie, contains a hotel, store, schoolhouse and number of dwelling houses, post cffice Macungie, electric rail- way passes through the town. Population 360. Albuitis on the East Pennsyl- vania Branch of the P. & R. railroad and the terminus of the Catasauqua & Fog- elsville branch of the same railroad, is a thriving town and has several stores hotels, silk mill, .shirt factory, post office, school house containing four schools'; was founded in 1857 and its population in 1900 was 780. East Texas is a small village, seven miles from Allentowu on the line of the Allentown & Kutztown Traction Co., it contains a store, hotels, school house and post office. The popu- ation in 1900 was 240. Wescoesville. a small village, five miles from Allentown, has a store, hotel, church and school house, the Allentown & Kutztown Tractioti Co.'s electric railway passes through. Population in 1900 was 200. 41 This township lies in the southern part of the county, and is I e>\Art*r bounded on the northeast by Upper Saucon township, south- ^ west by Bucks county, northwest by Upper Milford township, Milford and southwest by Montgomery county. Population according to the census of 1900 was 1233. It was organized a separate township in 1S47. The soil is very fertile, being shale and gravel and very pro- ductive, the surface is very irregular. Farming is the principal pursuit of the people. The following hills are within the township, Hosensack Hill (Muehl- berg) in the southern part, Chestnut Hill in the northeastern part, Mosser's Ridge (Dillingers) in the northwestern part, Mill Ridge in the central part. Hosensack creek rises on the west side of Chestnut Hill, flows southwest into the Perkiomen creek, Dubbs, Eberhard, Dickenshied, Schantz, Walter, Indian, Trump, Swamp, Hickens, Saucon, Krauss and Ortt's creeks are the other streams which drain the township. The first settlement was undoubtedly made in 1715, about one-fourth mile west of the Swamp Church , the building was still standing a few years ago and the date 1715 could still be seen on the mantel piece. The early settlers came principally from Germany as can be seen by the names of Schuler, Eberhard. Ortt, Yeakel, etc. OLD LAND MARKS. The Old King's High Road and the Great Phila- delphia Road were the first roads in the township. Walbert's tavern near Krauss- dale which was founded in 1735 is now abandoned ; Larosch's tavern, between Hosensack and Zionsville on the property of the late Dr. John Ziegler, was open- ed in 1786, and is now abandoned ; the Swamp church was built in 1730 near the county^ine of Lehigh and Bucks counties, on the road leading from Dillingers- ville to Spinnersville, it belongs to the Reformed denomination. Chestnut Hill Union church (Lutheran and Reformed) was founded in 1740 ; Schwenkfelder's church was founded in 1755. Schools were early established and among the first schools were those at Swamp Church, 1725-30, Hosensack, 1734, Chestnut Hill is not known, Kraussdale, 1742. The schools at the present time compare favorably with the schools of the other townships, there are eleven schools and term is seven months. John and Andrew Krauss, sons of Baltzer Krauss, Jr., built their first organ in 1790, and continued the business in the vicinity of Kraussdale until 1840 when they moved their factory to Palm. Montgomery county, and it was there, for a long time, continued by George S. and Edwin B. Krauss. The first grist mill was built in 1745 near Hosensack on the Hosensack creek, and was known as Kriebel's mill ; Schantz's mill, 1800 ; Gehrhard's mill, T785 ;"stauffer's mill, 1786; Heiler's mill, 17S0; Heist's (Walter's) mill, 1790- and Dubbs' mill, 1800. Among the other industries were Antrim's Casement mill, Dubbs' pottery, Dillinger's oil mill, Burkhalter's and Dubbs' tanneries and Dubbs' forge. Limestones are found in large quantities and limekilns for burn- ing lime found everywhere. There are four creameries in the township at Hosen- sack, Kraussdale, Limeport and Plover, all of which are doing an excellent business. VILLAGES— Dilling'ersville. is situated on the road leading from Zions- ville to Spinnersville. It was founded in 1735, contains a store, hotel, post office and is the election place of the township. Population in 1900 was 150. Hosen. sack is situated on the old King's High road, twelve miles southwest of Allen- town, it was founded in 1759 and contains a store, hotel, creamery and post office. The Farmer's Alliance of the lower end of the County has its headquar- ters there and are in good condition. Population 100. Limeport is on the road leading from Allentown to Steinsburg, it was founded in 1825, and contains two 4 2 stores, two hotels, post office, creamery, limestone quarries and lime kilns. Pop- ulation in 1900 was 200. Kraussdale, on the old King's High road, founded in 1735, contains a creamer)-, grist mill and the machine shops of Krauss Bros, were until lately located here. Population in 1900 was 30. Corning, on the Perkiomen R.R. contains a store, post office and coal yard. Population in 1900 was 130. Plover, on the road leading from Dillingersville to the Swamp church, contains a store, creamery and post office, founded in 1S81 by \V. R. Schuler. Population in 1900 was 70. is bounded on the north by Heidelberg and Lynn townships, 1 r«XA7fii11 on the east by North Whitehall, on the south by Upper Ma- cungie and South Whitehall townships, and on the west by Weisenberg. Population in 1900 was 715. It was organized in 1753- The principal streams flowing through the township are Jordan and Lyon creeks, they furnish water power for a number of mills. The soil is fertile, the principal grains are raised, and potatoes extensively cultivated. The surface is hilly and abounds in springs. The principal occupation of the people is farming. The first land warrant was made in 1743 to John Conrad Redd. The other settlers were Henry Hauser, Michael Kimbald, Richard Vodgas, John Rifle and others. Some of the old land marks were Mosser's mill (Hollenbach's) built in 1700. Balzer Fritz kept the first store in the township on the road leading from Fogels- ville to Claussville. Lowhill church was built in 1769, in the northwestern part of the township. The third building was erected in ] 858. Morganland church in the southeastern part, was built in 1858. One of the first public roads waslaid out in 1813, from Christian Hartman'.s house to the Great Philadelphia road. The schools are comparing well with the schools of the surrounding to-^nships, the first schools were established in connection with the church. Among the earlier teachers were John David, Jr., Jacob Hart, John Benner and Israel Benner. The first public house was opened before the Revolutionary war at Leather Corner Post. VILLAGES — Weidasvllle was founded in 1765. Population in 1900 was 100. It contains a store and post office. Lyon Valley, founded in 1845. Population in 1900 was 200. It contains a store, hotel and post office. Clauss- ville, founded in 1801, contains a store, hotel and post office. Population in igco was 132. Leather Corner Post, the oldest village in the township, and con- tains a store and hotel. Bounded on the north by Schuylkill countv, east by Heidel- Lynn ^^^^ township, south by Weisenberg township and West by Berks coun.ty. The population in 1900 was 2,366, and was or- ganized in 1752. The soil is productive. Grain and other cereals are raised. The principal occupation of the people is farming. The first mill in the township and probably the first in the county, w^as erected on Sweit- zer's creek in 1740, one fourth mile below where Greenwald's mill now stands. The first English school was established in 1812, other schools connected with the congregations existed earlier. The free school system was adopted in 1838. Ebenezer church, at New Tripoli, w.-is erected in 1761 ; Jacob's church, at Jack- sonville, was built in 1750; St. Peter's church, south of Lynuville, was built in VILLAGES — New Tripoli was founded in 1812, was at first called Saegersville, and was changed in i8i6to New Tripoli in honor of the success of the American navy at Tripoli, in 1815. The town is regularly laid out, the streets 43 running north, south, east and west at right anj^les ard mostly named after prominent men of the United States, it has two stores, two hotels, mills and post office. Population in 1900 was 400. Jacksunvflle was founded in 1820, it contains stores, church, hotel and post office. Population in 1900 was 329. Steinsville, founded in 1756, and contains a store, hotel, post office, narble vard, mill :ind foundry. Population in 1900 was 596. Lynnville, founded in 1S06, contains a store, hotel, post office and school house. Population in 1900 was 16S. Rabert's Corner, formally Oswaldsville, was founded in 1S60. The population in 1900 was 126. , Lynnport, founded in 1S14, contains a store, hotel, post office, mantel factory and school house. The population in 1900 was 436. New Slatedale was founded in 1854, Population in 1900 was 100. is bounded on the northeast by Northampton county and «, ,, Whitehall township, southeast by South Whitehall township, *]|*^5 , nortliwest by Washington township and southwest by Lowhill Whitehall township. Population in 1900 was 3,280. It was organized in 1753. The surface is undulating and the soil is very fertile and all the principal grains are raised. Iron ore, limestone and cement are found in large quantities. The principal streams that drain the township are the Jordan. Rock, Fell's, Mill and Coplay creeks, on the banks of Mill creek were committed the Indian massacres of 1763. The people are engaged in farming, mining and manufactnring. The schools are among the best in the county, the first school was estab- lished in 1755, at what is nowUnionville. The first English school was establish- ed at Balliettsville in 1S16. Union church is the oldest church and was built in 1750 ; the first Reformed minister was Rev. John D. Gross, and the first Lutheran minister was Rev. John H. Schaum. VILLAGES— Balliettsville. founded in 1749 by Paul Balliett, contains a store, hotel and post office. Population in 1900 was 120. Unionville, founded in 1S15, contains a store, hotel and post office. Population in 1900 was 200. Iron- ton, founded in i860, is situated in a rich mining district and is connected with Coplay by the Ironton R. R. and contains a store, hotel and post office. Popula- tion in T900 was 300. RuchsviUe, founded in 1800, contains a store, hotel and post office. Population in 1900 was 1 12. Siegersville. founded in 1750 contains a store, hotel and post office, is simated in a rich mining district. Population in 1900 was 125. Schnecksville. founded in 1845, contains a .store, two hotels and post office. Population in 1900 was 200. Laury. founded in 1S32, contains a store, hotel, flour mill and post office. Laury's Island in the Lehigh River is a well know summer resort. Population in 1900 was 250. Rockdale, founded in 1856, contains a store, hotel and post office. Population in 1900 was 150. Kernsville, founded in 1806, contains a store. Population in 1900 was 60. is bounded on the northeast by the Lehigh River, northwest Q |. , by South Whitehall township, southeast by Upper Saucon Salisbury to^.uship^ southwest by Upper Milford and Lower Macungie townships. Population in 1900 was 4,583. It was organized in 1753 as a township. The surface is rolling and the soil very fertile. The Lehigh Mountains form the southern boundary, between Salisbury and Upper Saucon town- ships. The most important streams that drain the township are the Little Lehigh, Trout and Little Trout creeks. The principal occupations of the people are farm- ing, manufacturing and mining. Iron ore is found along the Lehigh Mountains. The first settlement was made in 1736, on what is now the Geissinger farm on the Lehigh River, by Solomon Jennings. 44 The oldest homesteads are Lorentz Klein a few miles west of Allentown on the Little Lehigh settled by Christian Kassel in 1730 and Jacob Bogert's place on the same creek a few miles from Klein's farm, settled by Peter Bogert in 1738, both of the farms are still in the possession of the Klein and Bogert families. The first public house was licensed in 1786, and was kept by Martin Ritter. Salisbury church was built in 1741 is situate 1 on a hill, overlooking the Little Lehigh creek, one and one-half miles north of Emaus. The first Lutheran minister was the Rev. J. W. Straub ; the first Reformed minister known was the Rev. J. P. Leydich. Tradition says that over a hundred years ago a church stood on the site of what is now Jerusalem Church, the graveyard belonging to it is still in use ; the present church was erected in 1843. The first Lutheran minister of the present church was the late venerable Rev. Joshua Yeager ; the first Reformed minister was the Rev. Max Stem. The Mountainville Evangelical church was built in 1863. Salisbury had few schools originally; those living near Bethlehem sent their children to that place ; those living near Emaus to that place ; and those liv- ing in the vicinity of the Salisbury church to that place. One of the oldest school- houses was Markle's, built in 1820. The schools are in fine condition and com- pare well with the other schools of the county. VILLAGES — Mountainville, was founded m 1856, contains three stores, two hotels, church, carriage factory and is on the Allentown and Coopersburg turnpike and Allentown and Emaus electric road. Population in 1900 was 250. South Allentown, a suburb of Allentown, contains a number of stores, hotels, churches, flour mill, furnace. The Allentown and Bethlehem Electric railroad passes through it. The population in 1900 was 2,000. The State Fishery in the western part of Salisbury, is a fine place for pleasure parties and the fish hatchery is well worth visiting. is bounded on the northwest by North Whitehall township, South southeast by Salisbury township, and southwest by Upper and _^_.. , - Lower Macungie townships. The population in 1900 was 2,472. Wniten&ll The surface is generally level with the exception of Huckle- berry ridge, which runs west for about two miles, the soil is very fertile. It was organized as a separate township in 1810, and was formally included in Whitehalltownship, (which included the three Whitehalls.) The two principal streams are the Jordan creek which flows through the northern part and Cedar creek which flows through the southern part. The first settle- ment was made in 1735, by Nicholas Kern. The Catasauqua & Fogelsville R.R. passes through the township and is an outlet for the numerous ore mines along its route, it crosses Jordan creek by the famous Iron Bridge which spans it, the length of which is 1165 feet, consisting of 11 spans of 100 feet each, supported by a series of suspension trusses. The old roads are the Allentown and Easton and the Mauch Chunk roads. The Jordan Lutheran church is the oldest in the township, it was founded in 1744, the first minister was Rev. Berkenstock ; Jordan Reformed church was founded in 1752. the first minister was the Rev. J. H. Goetchius. Cedarville Union church was founded in 1855, the first Lutheran minister was Rev. Jeremiah Schindel and the first Reformed minister was Rev. Joseph Dubbs. The same year the Evangelical church was built. The earliest schools in the township were those that were connected with the Jordan Lutheran and Reformed churches. and were opened the same time the churches were founded. The schools of the township compare with the other schools of the County. 45 VILLAGES— Cetronia, formerly Cedarville, was founded in 1850 by .' Charles Mertz and contains a stdre, hotel, three churches, flour mills and post office. Dorney Fish Wier and Park, a quarter of a mile west, is a fine summer resort. The Allentown & Kutztown electric road passes the village and Dorney Park. Population in 1900 was 150. Crackersport, a small village, contains a store, hotel and carriage factory. Population in 1900 was 90. Griesmersville, founded in 1806 by Abraham Griesemer, it contains a hotel, limekilns, and the famous Duck Farm is located here. The Allentown & Kutztown electric railroad passes through it. Population in 1900 was 150. Guthsville. founded in 1780, and contains a store, hotel and post office. Population in 1900 was 50. Mechanics- ville was founded in 1823 by John Scheirer, contains a store and hotel. Popula- tion in 1900 was 125. Orefield was founded in 1813 by Joseph Kern, store, hotel, post office, etc. Population in 1900 was 164. Wennersville, founded in 1837 by William Wenner, contains a store, hotel, school house, post office and church. Population in 1900 was 140. Snydersville was founded in 1835 by George Snyder. Population in 1900 was 25. Guth's Station, on the Catasauqua & FogelsvilleR.R. and contains a store, hotel, vitrified brick works and post office. Population in 1900 was 140. is bounded on the east by South Whitehall township, south by _- Lower Macungie township, north by Lowhill and Weisenberg Upper townships and on the west by Berks county. The meaning of Macungie the word Macunge is of Indian origin and means the "eating place of bears." When food became scarce on the mountains the bears came to the valleys. Population in 1900 was 2,084. It was organized as a township in 1742. The first settlement was made in 1729, at Spring creek near Trexlertown, on what was later known as the Schwartz's farm, by Jeremiah Trexler and children. The first public road through the township was made in 1732 from Trexlertown to Goshenhoppen. The surface is level, the soil is fertile and is of limestone formation. Iron ore and limestone are found in large quan- tities in the vicinities of Foglesville, Breinigsville and Trexlertown. The Cata- uaqua and Foglesville R. R. passes through the township and is an outlet for the same. The principal streams that drain the township are the Macungie creek, Spring creek. Little Lehigh creek and Haas creek flows in the northern part and empties into the Jordan creek. Cedar creek, in the southeastern part rises in the Schantz spring, and empties into the Little Lehigh creek at Schreiber's Mill, turn- ing many mills in its course. Schantz Spring which is situated in this township about five miles west of Allentown, is a very large spring of pure water, being nearly free from mineral substance. The power and force of the water of the spring is very remarkable, it propels a saw mill at its very beginning. A 36x12 inch stream of water pours forth at one place. Cedar Creek propels four flour mills along its course. It was a pleasant meeting place where the red men used to assemble in days gone by. The first settler at the spring was John George Guth in 1744, though settling about a mile from the spring and erected a grist- mill there which he sold to his son George, together with sixty acres of land in 1766. In 1774 Adam Eppler became the owner ; in 1788 Henry Bortz, and Jacob Schantz in 1792. In 18 18 Jacob Schantz, Jr. became the owner and in 1844 his son Hiram J. Schantz came into possession of it and lately disposed of it to David Koch who afterwards sold it to the City of Allentown (in 1900) who intend laying pipes and bring the water of the spring to the city. The people came from far and near to have their grain ground at the mill in the early times. Lehigh County Poor House was founded in 1844, upon the farm bought >/ 46 from C. and S. Mertz in South Whitehall township, containing two hundred and sixty acres for $27,742. The first constable of Macungie was John Brandberg, appointed in 1737. VILLAGES — Srelnigsville, contains a store, hotel, schools, church and a post office. The AUentown and Kutztown trolle}- line passes through the village. Population in 1900 was 213. Chapman's on the Catasauqua and Foglesville R. R., contains a store, hotel, post office, a coal and lumber yard. Population igco was 60. Trexl-Ttown, the oldest town in the township, is on the Catasauqua and Fogelsville R. R. and on the AUentown & Kutztown trolley line, 8 miles from AUentown, and contains a store, three hotels, a Lutheran and Reformed church, post office, coal and lumber 5'ard, machine shop, graded school and Masonic Hall. Population 1900, 345. Fogelsvtile was founded in 1798 by Judge John Fogel, and contains three stores, two hotels, two schools, three churches and a post office. Population 1900, was 638. Upp bounded on the northeast b\' Salisbury and Upper Saucon, _ southeast by Lower Milford, northwest by Lower Macurgie, southwest by Berks county. The form is rectangular and was iVllllOrQ formed into a separate township in 1852. Population in 19C0 was 2,712. The surface is hilly and the soil is fertile being principally gravel and red shale. Iron Ore of different kinds are found. Perkio- men creek flows through the western part in the form of a horse shoe; Leibeit's creek is in the northeastern part and flows through Leibert's Gap and empties in- to the Little Lehigh creek; Fetterman's creek is in the norihern part empties into Leibert's creek at Vera Cruz; Miller's creek is in the northern part empties into the Little Lehigh creek. The first settlement was made at or near Old Zionsville ill 1733. by the Mennonites. The township was organized in 1734. The first road was the King's High road leading through Shimerville and Zions- ville from Trexlertown to Goshenhoppen, 1736, the second road was the Qreat Philadelphia road laid out in 1740, the third road was laid out at the same time from Emaus to Chestnut Hill Among the old sites are Fisher's tavern between Shimerville and Macungie, on the King's High road, opened prior to 1795, by Jacob Fisher, the property being now owned by Ambrose Schantz; Seider's tavern opened in 1785 by George Seiders, on the Great Philadelphia road upon the piop- erty now owned by U. H. Wieand. The early churches were Zionsville Reformed church, founded in 1750, Rev. John E. Hecker was the first pastor. Zionsville Lutheran church was founded in 1735, Rev. L. H. Schrecke, was the first pastor. The Mennonite church, was founded in 1735; St. Peters church was founded in 1843, Revs. D. Kohler and H. Bassler were the first Lutheran and Reformed min- isters. The Evangelical church was founded in 1830 by Bishop John Seybert; the Mennonite Brethren church was founded in 1857 by the Rev. William Gehman, who had withdrawn from the Mennonite church on account of differences of re- ligious doctrine. Peter Walbert w^as appointed the first constable of Upper Mil- ford township, in 1739. The first schools were established in connection with the founding of the first settlements in 1735 by the Mennonites at Zionsville, the schools of the township compare well with the schools of the rest of the county. There are at present fif- teen schools, both graded and ungraded. VILLAGES — Old Zionsville, founded in 1734, on the old Kings High road, Hereford & Shime.-vrille turnpike, cont das four stores, hotel two, churches and post office. Population 1900 was 160. Zionsville, founded in 1S76, on the Perkiomen 47 R. R., and contains a store, hotel, coal yard, flour and feed store and post ofiBce. Population in 1900 was 100. Shimerville on the old King's High road ?nd Here- ford and vShimersville turnpike, founded in 1734 by Durk Jasen, contains a store, hotel and post office. Popiilation in 1900 was 140. Powder Valley, on the Indian creek, contains a store, pottery and post office. Population in 1900 was 125. Sigmund, situated in the Perkionien valley and on the site where Hampton Fur- nace stood and whose ruins can still be seen contains a store, creamery and post office. Population in 1900 was 120. Vera Cruz on the Great Philadelphia road, founded in 1763, contains a store, hotel, creamery and post office. Population in 1900 was 200. Vera Cruz Station, on the Perkiomen R. R., contains a flour and feed store, coal yard and depot. Population in 1900 was 130. Dilling€r's on the Perkiomen R. R., contains a store, flour and feed store, coal yard and post office. Popalation in 1900 was 120. West Emaus, a suburb of Emaus, contains several hotels, printing office, pipe works, furnace, meat market, 2 coal and lumber yards and Miller's Park. Population in 1900 was 500. is bounded on the northeast by Lower Saucon townsliip, North- _- hampton county, southeast by Sprinfield township, Bucks Upper county, northwest by Salisbury, southwest by Upper Milford. Saucon Population in 1900 was 2,721. The surface is diversified, the Lehigh or South Mountains are in the northern part. The val- leys are of limestone formation, the soil is very fertile and highly cultivated and large crops are raised. Iron ore, limestones are found in quantities, and the fam- ous^zinc mines of Friedensville are in this township. The township is well drain- ed by the numerous small streams that flow through it, Saucon creek is the prin- cipal one and a number of mills are turned by it. The first settlement was made near Coopersburg in 1730, by English, German and Welsh settlers. It was organ- ized as a township in 1743- The first public road was laid out in 1750, from Heller's tavern, Lanark across the Lehigh Mountains. The Mennonite Meeting House near Coopersburg was built in 1738; Blue Church, (Lutheran and Reformed) founded in 1740. The first Lutheran minister was Rev. Henry M. Muhlenberg; the first Reformed minister was Rev. Hoffmeir. Friedensvile, church founded in I793- The first Lutheran minister was Rev. John C. Yeager, the first Reformed minister was Rev. John H. Hoffmeier. The Mennonite Brethren in Christ Meeting House was founded m 1863. The Rev. Abel Strawn; was the first minister. M. E. church Friedensville was founded in 1863 by Rev. M. B. Durrell; Free Methodist church. Centre Valley was founded in 1883 by Rev. Manshart. Allentown and Coopersburg turnpike passes through the township. The North Pennsylvania branch of the Philadelphia and Reading R. R., also passes through it, affording an easy outlet for the products of the township. The first school was established in 1738 near Coopersburg. The schools are in an excellent condition and keep apace with schools of the other townships of the county. VILLIAGES— Centre Valley on the North Pennsylvania R. R., contains two stores, three hotels, two churches, a mill and a post office. Population in 1900 was 527. Freidensville, contains several stores, two hotels, two churches and a post office. The famous Zinc mines are located here. Population in 1900, was 363. Locust Valley, Spring Valley and Lanark, are small post villiages and contain a store and a hotel. There are also several creameries within the town- ship. The following anecdote of the early settlers has been told the writer by one 48 whose grandfather had been at the place where it happened. On a certain day an Indian came to the blacksmith at Lanark, to have some work done, when the blacksmith told him that if he would furnish the fuel he would do the work. The Indian said if that was all that was required he would get some coal. He went away and soon returned with coal enough to have his work done, where he got his coal is a mystery to this day, rumor has spread time and time again that the Lehigh Mountains contain a deposit of coal. Search for it has been made in vain thus far to discover the place where the Indian got his coal. bounded on the north by Carbon county, northeast by North- ampton county, southeast by North Whitehall, west by Heid- ^Vdshin^tOn ^l^^^^g. Population in 1900, was 3,096. It was organized as a township in 1847. The surface is generally level, the soil is very fertile and the grains raised are similar to those of the surrounding townships. Slate quarying is the principal industry, the slate is found in large quantities all over the township. The slate is used for roofing, school slates and black board surfaces, etc. The principal streams that drain the township are the Trout and Little Trout creeks. The first settlement was made in 1742, between Unionville and Slatington by Casper Peters. The first school of which there is any record was established in 1712, and the schools at the present time are equal to the schools of the surrounding townships, and they are steadily advancing. VILLAGES — Fricdensvillc, founded in 1847, contains a store and a church (Lutheran and Reformed.) Population in 1900 was 100. Slatedale, is on the Berks and Lehigh R. R., and contains two stores, two hotels, two churches and a post office. Population is 500 Williamstown, contains a store, hotel and church. Population in 1900 was 150. Franklin, contains a store, hotel and slate mantel factory. Population in 1900 was 400. bounded on the north by North Whitehall township, east by Northampton county and Hanover, south by Allentown, west ^^hitehdwll by South Whitehall. Organized in 1767. Population in 1900, was 7,935. The soil is very fertile and of limestone formation. Iron ore and cement are found in large quantities. The prin- cipal streams that drain the township are Jordan, Coplay and Mill creeks. The Lehigh Valley, Catasauqua and Fogelsville R. R's., pass through the township and aflFord an easy outlet for the products of the farmers, iron ore and cement. The first settlement was made near Egypt, in 1733, by some emigrants from Ger- many. The first school in the township was in connection with the Egypt church 1733. The schools of the township are among the best in the county, being graded and ungraded. The people are employed in farming, dairying, mining, quarrying and manufac- turing. Cement works are found in Egypt and Cementon. VILLAGES— Cementon, founded in 1770, by John Siegfried, aud contains stores, hotels, churches and a post office, and is on the Lehigh Valley R. R. Population in 1900, 500. West Catasauqua, a suburb of Catasauqua contains stores, hotels, foundries, factories of various kinds and graded schools. Population in 1900 was 600. FuUerton, founded in 1862, contains car shop, wheel and forge works, rolling mill, foundry, stores, hotels, churches, schools and post office. It is on the Lehigh Valley R. R. Population in 1900 was 800. Egypt, founded in 1733. contains stores, hotels, churches, schools and a post office. The first 49 church in the township was built in this place in 1733. Population in 1900 was 1,200. Mickley's is a growing town along the Lehigh Valley R. R., and has a post office. Catasauqua, Egypt and Fullerton are connected with Allentown by Electric roads. is Bounded on the northwest by L,owhill township, southeast WpisenhGftf ^^ Upper Macungie township, northwest by Lynn township, * southwest by Berks county. Population, in 1900 was 1366. The surface hilly and broken, the soil is gravel. The following streams, drain the township ; the Jordan Spring, ShaflFer's run, Hass, Lyon, Willow, Weiss, Holben, Switzer and Silver creeks. Farming manufactor- ies, is the principal pursuit, of the people. The first settlement was made in 1734, in the vicinity of the Ziegle's church, by people from Palatinate and Switzerland. Ziegle's church, was founded in 1744 ; and Rev. Jacob Schertlein, was the first Lutheran minister and Rev. P. J. Michael, was the first Reformed min- ister ; Weisenberg church in the northwest corner of the towship, was founded in 1754; Rev. Jacob F. Schertlein, was the first Lutheran minister; Rev. R. Kidenweiler, was the first Reformed minister. The first schools were established as soon as the first settlements were made. The schools of the township, are making the same progress as in the surrounding townships. VILLAGES — Seipstown, founded in 1820, contains a store, hotel, church and post office. Population, in 1900, 200. Hynemansville. founded in 1740, is in the central part and contains a store, hotel and post office. Population, in 1900, was 100. Seiberlingsville, founded in 1790 and contains a store, hotel and post office. Population, in 1900, was 120. New Smithville, founded in 1812 and contains a store, hotel and post office. Population, in 1900, was 130, Werley's Corner, founded in 1838 and contains a store, hotel and post office. ^ 50 CHAPTER X. COUNTY SEATAND BOROUGHS. The only city in Lehigh county is the county seat, Allentown, AllentOWn ^^^ Queen city of the Valley and was founded in 1762 by James Allen, from whom it received its name. The first settlement was however made in 1751, is beautifully situated on the west banks of the Lehigh river and the mouths of Jordan and the Little Lehigh creeks. Is beautifully laid out, the streets run north and south, east and west, crossing each other at right angles, Hamilton street running east and west is the princi- pal thoroughfare and over two miles long. It has a fine public square at yth and Hamilton streets formerly called Centre Square, now called Monument Square on account of the beautiful monument erected there to the memory of the Soldiers and Sailors of the Civil War, 1861-65, who had enlisted from the county. The high flood of 1841, the failure of the Northampton Bank in 1843 and the great fire of 1848, known as the disastrous decade, were important events in the history of the town from 1840 to 1850, out of which the city like a magic sprung forth and was more substantially built. The building of railroads helped to advance the growth of the city. Among the public buildings are the Court house, banking buildings, business houses, market house, fine hotels, Opera houses. Hospital, fine large public school buildings, the Fair Grounds and Build- ings of the Lehigh county Agricultural Society and Cemeteries. Manufactories. The city has many and various kinds of industries, among which are the following : furnaces, founderies, wire mills, boiler works, silk mills, breweries thread mills, cigar factories, carriage factories, shoe factories, fire brick and building bricks, flour mills, machine shops, planing mills, oil re- fineries, blank book manufactory, furniture factories, etc., which give employ- ment to many people. Newspapers. The first English Newspaper, was the " Lehigh Central, " established in 1817 by C. L. Hutter. " Der Friedensbote and Lecha County Anzeiger " was established in 1812 by Joseph Ehrenfried. " Lehigh Bul- letin, " was established in 1837, changed to the "Democrat" by John Royer. The " Lehigh Register, " was established in 1846 by Augustus L. Ruhe. The ^' Daily News, " was established in 1866 by Peter Correll. The Chronicle was established in 1870 by Robert Irdell. The " Evening Dispatch, " was established in 1866. " Daily Herald, " was established in 1873, by T. F. Emmons. "The Bugle, " was established in 1876 by William P. Snyder and A. S. Orr. The " Evening Telegram, " was established in 1882, by Eugene Lochman. The " Critic, " was established in 1883, by Samuel S. Wolever. The " Allentonian " 51 was established in 1850, by William J. Grim. Der "Jugend Freund " and Die *' Lutherische ZetschriflFt, " were established by the Rev. S. K. Brobst, in 1847. *' Our National Hope, " was established by H. S. Rice. "Zion's Watch Tower, " was established by Rev. Gernert. The " Morning Call " was established in 1896 by David Miller, Charles Weiser and others. The "Daily City Item" was established in 1873, by Cyrus Kuntz and others. The " Muhlenberg, " published monthly, in the interest of Muhlenberg College ; Jugend Freund, published monthly. American Phonographic and Literary Journal, published quarterly. The " Lehigh Patriot " published monthly in the interest of the P. O. S. of A. Founded in 1901, by David H. Jacks and W. P. Steinhaeuser. The Allentown Star, founded in 1901, a weekly. The National Bank, was opened for business in 1855 and the Second National Bank, in 1863. The Lehigh Valley Trust and Safe Deposit Company was opened for business in 1886. Education. Schools were early established and instruction was given in both the English and German languages. The English teachers came from the Irish settlements, Allen township, Northampton county. Mr. Brown was the name of the first teacher known, taken as a whole the teachers were able in- structors. The schools were kept in private houses until 1773, when the first schoolhouse was erected in the rear of what is now Zion's Reformed Church, and was in the shape of an Octagon. The schools of that time were all subscription schools. A school for girls was opened in 1813, night schools were in operation from 1813 to 1845. Allentown Academy was opened in 1831, a Ladies Seminary in 1848. By Act of Assembly, the borough of Allentown, Salisbury and North- ampton townships paid I421.71 in 1824, for the instruction of their poor children. In 1833, Allentown alone paid for the same purpose I434.77. The free school system was adopted in 1834, and since then the schools have made rapid progress and are at present in the front rank of the schools of the state. The schools are under the supervision of the city superintendent of schools. The high school was established in 1858. The first principal of the high school was Prof. R. W. Alpme, the first city superintendent of schools. Prof. R. K. Buehrle, the first graduating class of the high school in 1869. Muhlenberg College, belonging to the Lutheran church, and Allentown Female College, be- longing to the Reformed church, are two well and widely known institutions of higher learning, and afford all the requirements necessary for a complete colleg- iate education, and the Allentown and the American Business Colleges are locat- ed in the city and are well patronized by the community. Churche.y. The following religious denominations have a strong foot- hold in the city, the Lutheran, Reformed, Presbyterians, Baptist, United Breth- ern, Free Methodist, Evangelical Association, United Evangelical, Methodist Episcopal and Catholics, all of which have fine church edifices. The Jews, Mennonite, Drethern in Christ, Moravians and others are represented but have no churches of their own and worship in halls and other places. Societie.r. There are many secret and beneficial societies which have a large membership. And the city has several of the finest bands that can be found in any city, and other fine musical organizations. Transportion F2k.cilitie./-. The following railroads terminate or pass through the city, giving it great facilities for traveling and for transportation, 52 east, west, north and south, to New York, Philadelphia, Buffalo, Chicago, the coal regions and other points : the Lehigh Valley R. R. and Lehigh and Susque- hanna R. R. give it communication with the east and west, the Philadelphia and Reading R. R. with its branches connects it north and south, and the Perkio- men R. R. to Philadelphia. And Electric roads connects it with Bethlehem, Ban- gor, Catasauqua, Coplay, Easton, Egypt, Emaus, Hellertown, Macungie, Nazareth, Siegfried, Slatington and intermediate points. History. When the Revolutionary was began in 1775, Allentown, had a population of 350 souls. But it was a place of some importance already. After the battle of Trenton, (December 26, 1776.) the Hessian prisoners which Wash- ington, had captured there were taken to Allentown. and confined in rude pris- ons located near where Gordon street, crosses the Jordan creek. Other prisoners, followed and were confined here. It was a safe place to keep the prisoners. It is not generally known, that General George Washington, with his staff, not long after the battle of Trenton, passed through Allentown, up Water street (now Lehigh street). They stopped, at the foot of the street, at a large spring on what is now the property occupied, by the Wire Mill. There are several springs in the vicinity on both sides of the street, and near Wire street. They rested and watered their horses, then went their way to their post of duty. In the Spring of 1777, the only Church in Allentown, was turned into a hospital for the sick and wounded American soldiers. The citizens of the town, not only cared for the sick and wounded American soldiers, but also kept a watchful eye on the Hessian prisoners, and were also menaced by hostile Indians. The Whitehall massacres, were still fresh in the minds of our fore- fathers, and that on one Sunday morning, the Minister in Allentown, in 1763 had to cut his sermon short, to organize his congregation into a military com- pany, to repel the threatened attack of the Indians, fiow that the war had broken out, their old enemy was more active than ever, and the citizens of the county, were constantly menaced. The price of liberty and of their lives, was eternal vigilance on their part. Provision was getting scarce, meat in most families was a luxury, the most common articles of food necessary to sustain life, were often not obtainable. Salt was twenty dollars a bushel, the grease obtained by boiling the stems of the " candelbeny " bush, was the only material for making candles. In 1777 Toryism, was in the Ascendency at Bethlehem. The govern- ment found it necessary to remove their cartridge manufactory, to a safer place, and the town of Northampton, (Allentown,) was selected. In July 1778, the government had 12,000 stands of arms, here for the army. Arms, saddlers &c., were manufactured and repaired. In 1778 when the rations ran short in the army, the farmers in the county brought their grain and cattle and sold them to the commissaries of the Ameri- can army, taking payment for the same, "Continental money," instead of British gold. The two principal roads that passed through the town, were the Old New York and Pittsburg road, from Easton to Reading, through what is now the Union and Jackson streets. The other from Bake Oven Knob, by the way of Helfrich's Spring, through what is now Seventh Ptreet. 53 Incorporated as a borough in 1811, called Northampton, the name changed to Allentown in 1838, became the county seat in 1812, made a city in 1867 ; its limits include the township of Northampton and adjacent parts of Sal- isbury and Whitehall township, containing 3.14 square jniiles or 2011.27 acres. The first Homeopathic School in the United States, was established in the city in 1835, by Dr. Constantine Hering, several years later removed to Philadelphia. The first officers of the new College were ; President Dr. Constantine Hering, Vice President, Dr. John Romig, Jr., Secretary, Solomon L. Keck, Directors, Dr. William Wesselheft, Dr. Henry Detweiler, Rev. C. Becker, John Rice, Joseph Saeger, Christian Pretz, George Keck Sr., Trustees. William Eckert, Rev. P. H. Gcepp, Henry Ebner, J. B. R. Hunter, John J. Krause. The school opened in a building on Penn street, between Hamilton and Walnut streets, now used as a public school building. A fire on the first day of June 1848, destroyed the business portion of the town, loss |;20o,ooo, known as the great fire. Captain Trexler's company of 48 men marched to defend the frontier settlements, during the Indian war of 1755. The names of the streets of Allentown, were at first as follows : Tilgbman now Fourth, Penn now Lehigh, Margaret now Fifth, William now Sixth, Allen now Seventh, James now Eighth, Union now Union, John now Walnut, Hamilton now Hamilton, Andrew now Linden. The part of Allentown, lying between the Jordan Creek and the Lehigh river, was formerly called Lehigh Port, by the people, "St Domingo" Mingo. Judge Allen, of Philadelphia, owned five thousand acres of land on both sides of the Lehigh River, in what is now Salis- burg, Whitehall and Hanover township. The whole region was known as Macungie; where Muhlenberg College is situated. Judge Allen, erected a resi- dence which he called " Trout Hall, " on account the trouts that abounded in the streams. Lynford Lardner, of Philadelphia, owned a tract of land between the Jordan and Cedar Creek, and erected thereon a building which he called " Grouse Hall " on account of the many Quails found in the vicinity. The building being painted white went by the name of " White Hall " which gave the name later to the township. The above region, was a regular Paradise for the hunters and fisherman and many of the high ofl&cials cam e to this famous resort for hunting and fishing. The Governor, once came too for hunting and fishing and stayed over Sunday with a certain farmer, whom he asked for an interesting book for reading wherewith he could better spend the time. The farmer replied that he had such a one, and brought in a well worn bible, and handed it to him. The govemer took it and read it that day without any murmur. Among the early settlers of Allentown, were the following: (1764) Leonard Able, laborer ; Simon Brenner, carpenter ; David Deschler, shop keeper; Martin Derr, wheelwright ; Martin Froelich, George Leyendecker, locksmith ; George Lauer, Daniel Nunnermaker, Abraham Rinker, Peter Schwab, Peter Miller, tailor ; George Wolf, tavern keeper. In 1766 thirty-three families resided in Allentown, and in 1774 forty-nine families, in 1776 the town had fifty-four houses and seven taverns. The rents for houses per year were from four to eight dollars, and the population of the town, was in 1776 three hundred and thirty. In 1792, the town had fifty-nine dwellings. The valuation of the property from 1762 to 1776, were twelve shillings, (|i.6o) for each house, the taxes were from ten to twenty cents for each house. Taverns were taxed, from six to ten dollars each. In 1763, Jacob Roth, a minister petitioned the Lieutenant Governor, 54 James Hambleton, Commander in Chief, to form a company to repell, the in- cursions of the Indians, and that he should send them one hundred pounds of powder, four hundred pounds of lead, one hundred and fifty stands of guns. The petition was granted. In 1800, the town had ninety families. In 1843, the failure of the Northampton Bank, caused a financial crises from which the town soon recovered. In 1846, the first furnace, was built. Benjamin Perry, was the first superintendent, he was succeeded by the late Samuel Lewis. In 1848, a great fire broke out incurring a loss of |2oo,ooo, which was covered only by $40,000 insurance. The people did not get discouraged, and went to work and soon there arose out of the ashes a new town, more substantially built. The first borough election held in Allentown, was held^ in a small stone hostelry, where the Hotel Allen now stands. The first market house in the city, was at the corner of Seventh and Hamilton Streets. It was opened in 1817, The first water company, was formed in 1816. The first Fire company was formed in 1811. The name of the town, changed from Northampton to Allentown, in 1838. On April 23, 1853, the borough was divided into three wards. Allentown, was incorporated as a city, March 12, 1867. The first Fire engine was bought in 1820. The oldest church in the city, Zion's Reformed church, corner Church and Ham- ilton Streets. Mr. Brown, opened a school in 1795. Among the other early teachers were Messrs. Thatcher, Eberhard and John Ryan. The first teachers meeting was held in 1827. The Allentown Academy; was founded in 1814, at the Northwest corner of Eighth and Walnut streets. Young Ladies' Academy, was founded in 1831. Allentown Seminary was opened in 1848. Allentown High School, was opened in 1858. Muhlenberg College, was founded in 1867. Allen- town Female College, was founded in 1867. The first store was opened by Peter Snyder in 1794, the second store, by George Graff, near the Monument Square in 1795, in a red building, which was taken possession of in 1800 by James Wilson and continued by the same until 1815 when he took into partnership Mr. Selfridge, trading as Wilson & Selfridge till 1845. The first hotel was opened in 1764 by George Wolf, the first post oflace established in 1812, before that time the people received their mail at Bethlehem, George Savitz, the first postmaster. First Burgess, Peter Rhoads, 181 1, the first Mayor, Samuel McHose, 1867, Population, 1900, 35,416. This thriving borough is situated on the left bank of the f*^Xj. ^j.-.Q„^ Lehigh river, three miles north of Allentown with which it " is connected by an Electric road, the Lehigh Valley and Lehigh and Susquehanna R. R., and the eastern terminus of the Catasauqua and Fogelsville R. R. It was founded in 1839. Population, 1900, was 3,963. It derived its name from the creek of the same name which empties into the Lehigh river below the town, it is an Indian name. Incorporat- ed as a borough in 1853. It is a busy manufacturing town, the following are the principal works : the Crane Iron works founded by David Thomas, Catasauqua Manufacturing Company, Founderies, Rolling Mill, Horseshoe Works, Brick Works, Planing Mills, Grist Mills, Gas Works, Water Works, Silk Mills and several Newspapers. The Religious Denominations of the town are the Lutheran, Reformed, Congregational, Presbyterians, Baptist, Evangelical Association, United Evangel- ical and Catholic. Before it was incorporated as a borough, the schools and borough were embraced in the Hanover School district, the first school within the borough was 55 located on Race street. All the school buildings are of brick structure and of modern architecture. The High school was established in 1863 ; R. C. Ham- mersly, was the first principal. Coolay Founded in 1853. Population, 1900, was 1581. Is situated on the same side of the Lehigh river as Hokendauqua, and was the seat of the Coplay Iron Works and has Cement Works, a number of stores, hotels, churches, graded schools and the Lehigh Valley R. R., passes through it, and is connected with Allentown, by an Electric road. Founded in 1818. Population, 1900 was 556. On the North l^r»rtn*»r«hiirrf Pennsylvania R. R., contains stores, hotels, factories, Vi/OOperSDU g churches, graded schools and Cooper's Stock farm, the Philadelphia and Lehigh Electric road connects it with Allentown. Incorporated as a borough in 1879. £in&US Founded in 1747 by the Moravians. Population, 1900, was 1468. Is on the East Pennsylvania Branch of the P. and R. Railroad and the Perkiomen Railroad, contains stores, hotels, silk mill, cigar factories, furnace, foundry, graded schools and churches. Incorporated as a borough in 1859, and connected with Allentown, by the Allentown and Emaus Electric road. A suburb of South Bethlehem, founded in 1850. Popula- 'Prtifnfain Hill *^*^"' ^9°°' ^^^ 1.214. Contains stores, hotels, brick yards, r OUniain mil ^^^^ ^^^ Electric road connects it with Allentown and Bethlehem. This thriving town is situated on the right banks of the Lehigh river, founded in 1854. Population, 1900, was 1,500. The seat of the Thomas Iron Works, has number of stores, hotels, churches and graded schools is an in- dependent school district. On the Lehigh Valley R. R. and connected with Allentown by an Electric road. Hokend&uqua Founded in 1776 and is four miles west of Emaus, with IVId^CUn^ie which it is connected by the Allentown and Emaus Electrig road and is its western terminus. Population, 1900, was 692 Contains stores, hotels, furnaces, factories, foundry, churche and graded schools, and is on the East Pennsylvania Branch of the P. and R. Railroad, and was incorporated as a borough in 1857. Founded in 185 1 and is situated on the right bank of the Le- Sldwtin^ton ^^^^ river, on the Lehigh Valley R. R. and is the eastern terminus of the Berks and Lehigh R. R., 20 miles north of Allentown, to which it is connected by the Allentown & Slat ington Electric road. Population, 1900, was 3,773. Incorporated in 1864, con- tains numerous stores, hotels, water works, rolling mill, factories, several news- papers, national bank, churches and graded schools, the high school was estab- lished in 1864, H. A. Kline, was the first principal. It is in the center of the Le- high slate region and the slate quarries and slate factories where are manufactured school, mantel, blackboard, etc., of all kinds, is the principal industry of the place. 56 West Bethlehem Founded in 1869, is situated on the left bank of the Lehigh river and Monocacy creek. Population, 1900, was 3,465. Incorporated as a borough in 1880, and contains stores, hotels, silk mills, factories, foundries, churches, graded schools, connected with Allentown by an Electric road and turn-pike, and Bethlehem by a fine iron bridge. The schools of all the boroughs are in a fine and flourishing condition, having regular courses of study and the pupils of the high schools, passing through a full course of study, graduate therefrom and many are able to enter the schoolroom as teachers or enter other vocations. The schools compare with the best in the state and are under a supervising principal. The schools are also under the supervision of the County Superintendent of Schools. 57 CHAPTER XI. DUTIES OF THE COUNTY OFFICERS Judges. — When a County has more than 40,000 inhabitants it has one or more judges learned in the law. The number of judges is increased with the increase of the population. Counties less than 40,000 inhabitants or joint districts of two or more coimties in each. The counties of such districts, have each two associate judges, not learned in the law ; the district elects one judge learned in the law, who, is called the President judge. He holds court in the counties in time. His duties are to preside at the trial of cases, to conduct the trial impartially, to hear the evidence, to decide points of law raised in the progress of the trial, to charge the jury with instruction for making up a verdict. He issues the various writs — habe corpus, of mandamus, of injunction, of qvo WARRANTO, the Staying of executions, the granting of petitions, of issuing natural- ization papers, removal of certain officers, the chartering of corporations, not for profit, as cemeteries, hospitals and secret societies. Term, ten years, salary I4. 000 a year, except in Philadelphia, (I7.000) Alleghany, ($6,000) and in Dau- phin and Westmoreland, ($5,000). He can be re-elected. The associated judges, have the same power that the President judge has, but seldom exercise them. They are mainly advisory members on the bench. They exercise an eqaal voice in establishing roads, granting licenses. They reside in the county, where there services are a convenience in the absence of the President judge. Their salary is five (I5.00) a day when actual serving. There are three kinds of juries, the Grand Jury, the Petit Jury and the Traverse Jury. Twenty-four men are drawn for the Grand Jury, one of whom is excused to avoid a tie. The duty of the Grand Jury is to decide what cases should be brought before the Court. It hears only the evidences for the Commonwealth, that is against the accused. If a case is made out the foreman of the Grand Jury endorses the bill of indictment, which makes it a true bill. Only one witness is allowed to be before the Grand Jury, at one time and no one but the district attorney is allowed to be present during its sessions. The Grand Jury inspects annually all the public buildings, of the county, and approves the location of county bridges. The Petit Jury, usually consists of from thirty-six to sixty men each. This jury tries criminal cases, after listening to the evidences, the pleas of the attorneys and the charge of the judges, must retire to a room and make up their verdict without talking to anyone, but the judge. Their verdict must be unanimous whether it is Guilty, or Not Guilty. In cases of larceny of goods not amounting to ten dollars of value, the verdict is not Guilty, they have the power to put the costs on the prosecutor, or the defendent, or the county, or apportions them between the prosecutor, or the defendent. If they cannot agree there must be a new trial. Traverse Jury, the Traverse Jury, tries civil cases and their verdict is either for the Plaintiff, or for the Defendent. If there is any damages the jury fixes the amount which constitutes a part of the verdict. The jurymen of all the juries get $2.00 a day and 12 cents mileage. Notary Public— This is strictly speaking a State office and is appointed by the Governor, for a term of four years. His salary consists of fees fixed by law. There may be appointed a notary public in every place having a banking, or saving institutions. He must pay $25.00 to the State Treasurer, before he can receive his commission. His duties are to protest notes, bills of exchange, administers oaths, takes depositions and affidavits, takes proofs and acknow- 58 ledgeinents of instruments which are intended to be recorded. He places his seal upon all his acts which gives authenticity to them, which is recognized all the world over. County Commissionkrs.— There are three County Commissioners elect- ed for three years, they correct the assessment or valuation of taxable property, fix the rate of the county tax. They pay the county bills by orders drawn on the county treasurer, erect the county buildings, as well as the larger bridges. They are paid I3.50 per day actual time spent in the discharge of the duties of their office. No person can vote for more than two commissioners so as to allow the minority party to elect one commissioner. County Treasurkr. — He is elected for three 3'ears, and cannot be re- elected to succeed himself, he receives the state and county taxes, pays the former to the State Treasurer, the latter he uses to pay such bills as are approved by the commissioners. He receives a certain percentage on all the money paid out of the treasury, which is fixed by the commissioners and approved by the auditors. He also receives a percentage on all the state tax that pass through his hands, as well as on special taxes that may come into his hands. He gives a heavy bond for the faithful performance of his duties. Sheriff.— He is elected for three years and is the county's chief ex- ecutive officer, he serves writs and summons of the court, suppresses serious dis- turbances and protect property, he sells property for debit of the owner, when execution has been ordered by the court. He makes arrests and has charge of the criminals during their trials and delivers them to the jails or penitentiary, in the smaller counties is the jailer, and whh the jury commissioners he draws the juries and summons those whose names have been drawn. He gives notices of the elections by advertisements in the newspapers or hand bills. His salary is fixed by law and are jjaid in fees, he gives bonds for the faithful performance of his duties, he cannot be re-elected to succeed himself. Prothonotary.— He is elected for three years and is clerk of the court of Common Pleas, he makes up and keeps records of the court, issues its writs and summons and calls up the jurors and administers the oaths to the witnesses. He enters in books the judgments, mechanics liens and keeps a record of the state and national elections returns. His salary is paid in fees fixed by law. Ci.ERK OF Quarter Sessions.— He is elected for three years and keeps a record of this court, calls up jurors and administer the oaths to witnesses, he has charge of laying out of roads, the granting of liquor licenses and keeps a record of all township, borough and city elections held in the county. His salary is paid by fees fixed by law. Ci.ERK of Orphan's Coi^rt. — He is elected for three years and keeps a record of the Orphan's court. His salary is paid by fees. Register of Wills.— He is elected for three years, probates the wills left by citizens of the county at their death, he issues to the executors- letters testamentary, and if no executor or executors have been appointed by the will, appomts administrators, issues to them letters of administration, copies the wills in books and keeps the wills safely themselves. He gives a bond for the faith- ful performance of his duties, he is paid by fees. Recorder of Deeds — He is elected for three years, records all deeds and mortgages, and his salary is paid by fees. 59 Coroner. — He is elected for three years, inquires into the cause and manner of death of any person who is slain, or is accidentally killed or dies suddenly, by summoning a jury of six men, if the jury finds any one guilty of homicide, it is the duty of the coroner's jury to connnit him to jail. The Coroner performs the duties of the sheriff in case of the latter's death or removal from office, until a new sheriff is appointed. His salary is paid by fees. District Attorney. — He is elected for three years and is public prose- cutor, conducts the trials of persons charged with committing crimes. He must be a lawyer and is paid by fees by the county. County Surveyor.— He is elected for three years and is official county surveyor. Jury Commissioners. — There are two Jury commissioners elected for three years, a person can vote only for one candidate so that each party is repre- sented. They with the sheriff draw the jurors from the list of persons selected by the jury commissioners and the judge. They receive $2.50 for each day spent in the discharge of their duties. Directors of the Poor. — They are elected for three years and have overseer of the poor and the management of the Alms or Poor house. Their salary is f 100 per year. Mercantile Appraiser. — He is appointed by the fcounty cot::missioners for one year, he makes estimates on the amount of business done by the dealers in the county, upon which a state tax is paid. He receives 75 cents for visiting each place of business. County Auditors.— They are elected for three years and one can vote for only two of them so as to give minority party a member too, they have the disbursment of the public fund. They see that the taxes and other duties are collected and accounted for. Their salary is $3.00 for each day they .spend in the discharge of their duties. Prison Inspectors.— They are appointed by the court and the county commissioners for one year, they have charge of the prison affairs. They receive a small salary. County Superintendent of Schools.— He is elected by the school directors of the county for three years, he has charge of the schools of the county, he holds teachers exminations and grants a provisional certificate to those that successfully pass the examination which is good for one year only, he also grants a professional certificate to those that have acquired skill in the art of teaching, good during his term of office for three years and can be renewed without examination by him, and is good for one year under his successor. He holds the annual county Teachers Institute and local institutes, collects and transmits the reports and statistic of the schools to the Department of Public Instruction. Salary, $1500. Township ASSES.SOR. He is elected for three years and makes an assess- ^c£' ment of the real estate and other property in the township, VJniCerS ^^^ reports the same to the county Commissioners, upon which all taxes are laid, prepares each year a list of all the voters of the town- ship, a copy of which he must place on the door of the building where the elect- ions are held. His salary is |2.oo per day for actual work done. 6o Supervisors. — They are elected for one year except where otherwise the law directs, their duties are making and repairing the roads and bridges of the township. They fix and collect a road tax to pay the expenses of the same, they represent the township in its corporate body in all things except school matters. They receive from $i to $2 per day for the time spent in work and 5 per cent for collecting the road tax. School Directors. — Every year two school directors are chosen who serve for 3 years, making 6 directors in all, their duties are to provide school facilities for all the children of school age in the township between the age of 6 and 21 years, they build and care for the schoolhouses and grounds, employ the teachers, fix their salaries and the length of school term at not less than 7 months, adopt the books that are to be used and make rules for the goverment of the schools and supervise their work. They deteimine the school tax to be levied for school purposes, have the right to borrow money for erecting school buildings or purchasing grounds, they receive no pay for their services. Tax Collector. — He is elected every year and collects the state and county tax, his commission is from 2 to 5 per cent on all the money collected. Town Clerk. — He is elected for one year and serves as clerk to the supervisors, keeps the township record and the record of stray animals. This officer has few if any duties to perform and is not deemed of much importance. Auditors. — One Auditor is elected every year to serve for three years, the three Auditors meet once a year and audit the accounts of the township officers, which they post in written or printed handbills, detailing the receipts and expenditures of the township officers in different parts of the township, thev receive ^2.00 a day for each day of actual duty. Justice of the Peace.— Each township elects two Justices of the Peace for terms of 5 yrs.. Commissioned by the governor, has jurisdiction any- where within the county, issues warrants of arrest and for minor offices inflicts punishment by fine, rarely by imprisonment, generally he sends the case to court. For light crimes he may release the prisoner on bail until court, if he cannot get bail, he must await trial in jail, for grave crimes the justice must send the accused to jail, when he can only be released by the Judge through a writ of habeas corpus, suits for debts not exceeding I300.00 may be brought before a justice of the peace and where his decision involves not more than 1:5.33 it is final, if more it can be appealed to court. Administers oath* or affirmations, acknowledges deeds and other papers, issues search warrants, authorized to per- form the marriage ceremony, his pay is from fees paid by the parties interested and are fixed by law. • Constable. — He is elected for three years, preserves the peace of the township, makes arrests upon warrants issued by the justice of the peace, takes persons to jail if committed by the justice, serves subpoenas upon witnesses, and summons in civil suits. He makes searches of suspected premises for stolen goods, seizes and sells debtors property upon the justice's execution. He gives official notice by posters of township elections and four times a year is required to attend the court of Quarter .Sessions and report violations of law of which he has any knowledge. He is paid by fees which are fixed by law. Township Treasurer. — He is elected for one year and has charge of the funds of the township and gives bail for the performance of his duties. 6i n /L Chiff Pt rgess. — He is the executive officer of the borough, o he enforces the ordinances of the Council, preserves the order Officers and the peace of the borough. He may punish offenders by fine and short imprisonment, term is 3 years and is elected by the people of the borough. CouNCii,. — They are elected for three years, one third going of office every year, they have control of the streets and sidewalks, of the nuisances, pro- vide for the lighting of the streets, water^ for general use, for protection from fires, lays taxes for paying the borough expenses, may borrow money for borough improvements The other officers are the school directors, constable, treasurer, supervisor, auditors whose duties are the same as those of the township. Mayor. — The executive officer of a city is the Mayor, his \^lty duties are executive and judicial. The other officers the Offi^gfP Aldermen, controller, assessors, collector of taxes, street commissioner, treasurer, solicitor, health officer, police, audi- tors, superintendent of schools, sometimes other officers. A city is divided into wards of convenient size and the officers are similar to those of the township. The laws are called ordinances and are enacted by the select and common councils and signed by the mayor or if he has any objections to the same, he vetoes them. A city has a charter under which it operates. The early justices of peace, prior to 1804 were the fol- Ea^rly Justices lowing : Andrew Buchman, District of Heidelberg and of the Peace Lowhill, townships, 1784. Frederick Laubach, District of Upper Milford township, 1784. Peter Rhoads, Dis- of Northampton and Salisbury townships, 1784. George Breinig, District of Macungie and Weisenberg townships, 1786. Jacob Horner, District of Heidel- berg and Lowhill townships, 17S7. Ludwig Stabler, District of Upper Milford township^ 1788. Peter Kohler, District of Whitehall township, 1791-' James Gill, District of Upper Milford township, 1791. Nicholas Sieger, District of Whitehall township, 1794. Abraham Buchman, District of Heidelberg and Low- hill townships, 1794. John Shimer, District of Upper Milford township, 1795. Henry Kooker, District of Upper Saucon township, 1795. Charles Deschler, District of Salisbury township, 1797. Henry Jarrett, District of Macungie and Weisenberg townships, 1798. Leonard Nagel, District of Salisbury township, 179S. John Van Buskirk, District of Macungie and Weisenberg townships, 1799. Conrad Wetzel, District of Upper Milford township, 1799. Henry Haas, District of Heidelberg and Lowhill townships, 1801. David Owen, John Cooking, of Upper Saucon and Lewis Merkel of Macungie, were draw as members of the first Grand Jury, after the formation of Northampton County, October 3, 1752. Members to the Provincial Congress from Northampton County, (embracing at that time Lehigh and Carbon Counties,) in 1775 were George Taylor, John Oak- ley, Peter Kichlein and Jacob Arndt. Ambrose Stabler, District of Upper Mil- ford and Upper Saucon townships, 1802. That part which comprise of what is now Lehigh county was re-divided into new districts in 1804 and were numbered and called as follows : District number 4, comprising Nazareth, Bethlehem and Hanover and the justices were from 1804 to 1809, Adam Daniel, George Brader and Jacob Sweisshaupt and from 1809 to 1812 was Mathias Gross. District number 7, comprised Salisbury and Whitehall townships, the justice from iSc^to 1812, was George Yundt. District 62 number 8, comprised Macungie and Upper Milford townships and the justices from 1804 to 1808, were John Schuler, Anthony Stahler and Jeremiah Trexler and from 1808 to 181 2, Jacob Klen. District number 10, comprised Heidelberg and Lowhill townships and the justice from 1804 to 181 2, was William Fenster- macher, District number II, the justices from 1804 to 1812, were Daniel Saeger and John Weiss and comprised Lynn and Weisenberg townships. The County was divided again in 1812 into new districts as follows : ist district, comprising Northampton, Salisbury and Whitehall townships and the justices were Leonard Nagel, Peter Gross, Nicholas Sieger, Charles Deschler, 1812 Jacob Diehl and Anthony Murich 1813, 2nd district, comprising Hanover township, the justice was C. F. Beitel, 1812. 3rd district, composed of the town- ships of Heidelberg and Lowhill, the justice was Conrad German, 1812. 4th dis- district, composed of Macungie and Upper Milford townships and the justices were John Fogel, 1S12 and Lorentz Stahler, 1813. 5th district, composed of Lynn and Weisenberg townships, the justice was Peter Hass, 1814. 6th district, com- posed Macungie and Lowhill townships, the justise was Henry Haas, 1814. 63 ARTICLE XII. CIVIL LIST. MEMBERS OF CONGRESS FROM LEHIGH COUNTY. «»-The figures at the end of each name represent in which congress he ser^-ed : for example, Joseph Frey, 1827-1831. 20 and 21 mean that he was a member of the 20th and 21st Congress. Joseph Frey, 1827-1831. Henry King, 1831-1835. Peter Newhard, 1839- 1843. Jacob Erdman, 1845-1847. *John Hornbeck, 1847 — tSamuel Bridges, 1847-1849. 1853-1855. 1877-1879 H. C. Longecker, 1859-1861 STATE SENATORS FROM LEHIGH COUNTY SINCE 1812 TO THE PRESENT TIME. 4S=-Members under the first constitution, 1790, were elected for 2 years, under the constitution of 1838 for 3 years and under the constitntion of 1S74 for 4 years. Henry Jarrett, 1813-1815 i term 2 yrs Jacob Schindel, 1858-1861 i term 3 yrs 20 and 21 22 " 23 26 27 29 30 30 33 35 *Thomas B. Cooper, 1861 JJohn D. Stiles, 1862-1865 " 1867-1871 James S. Biery, 1873-1875 Wm. H. Sowden, 1885-1889 C. J. Erdman, 1 893-1897 *Died in office. tSucceeded the Hon. John Hornbeck, dec'd. tvSucceeded the Hon. Thos. B. Cooper, dec'd. 37 37 and 38 41 43 49 " 50 53 " 54 Joseph Frey, 1817-1821 2 Henry King, 1825-1829 2 W. C. Livingstone, 1831-3 i John S. Gibbons, 1840-43 i Jacob D, Boas, 1 846-1 849 i William Frey, 1S52-1855 i Geo. B. Schall, 1864-1867 i Edw. Albright, 1870-1876 2 Evan Holben, 1876-1S82 2 M. C. Feni inger. 1882-94 3 Harry G. Stiles, 1894-1902 2 3 6 6 12 S MEMBERS OF HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVE FROM 1813 TO 1901- 4®=-Under the Constitution of 1790 and iS Constitution of 1S74 for two years. 8, the members were elected annually and under the Abraham Rinker, 1813-1817 Philip Wint, 1813-1813 Peter Newhard, 1817-1819 Wm. Fenstermacher, 1817-22 John J. Knauss, 1820-1822 Geo. Eisenhard, 1823 Samuel Mayer, 1824 Peter Newhard, 1824-26-29 Jacob Dillinger, 1826-1828 Geo. Miller, 1816-1828 W. C. Livingstone, 1829 4 years. 4 2 5 2 I I 3 2 2 1 Daniel Edgar, 1830 Peter Knepley, 1830-31-33 Christian Pretz, 1831 John Weida, 1832-1833 Jesse Grim, 1834 Jacob Erdman, 1834-36-3? " Alexander Miller, 1835 William Stahr, 1835 Geo. Frederick, 1836-1842 Martin Ritter, 1837-38-39 Benjamin Fogel, 1839-40-41 1 yrs. 3 1 2 I 3 I I 2 3 3 64 Peter Haas, 1840-41 2 years. Geo. S. Eisenhard, 1842 i Reuben Strauss, 1S43 -44-45 3 M. Jarrett, 1843 i Jesse Samuels, 1845 i David I^aury, 1846-50-51-52-53 5 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Peter Bauman, 1846-1847 Samuel Marx, 1847-48-49 Robert Klotz, 1848-1849 James S. Reese, 1854-1855 Joshua Frey, 1854-1855 Herman Rupp, 1856-1857 Tilghman Good, 1858-1860 Samuel Balliett, 1858-1860 Samuel J. Kistler, 1850-61 W. C. Lichtenwalner, 1860-1 Samuel Camp, 1862-1863 Nelson Weiser, 1863-1864 1865 James F. Kline, 1863-1864 1865 John H. Fogel, 1866- 1867 I 868- I 874 Daniel Creitz, 1867-1868 1869 Adam Woolever, 1869-1870 1871 Herman Fetter. 1870-1871 *Boas Hausman, 1872 Robert Steckel, 1872-1873 James Kimmett, 1873-1874 George F. Gross, 1874-1876 F. B. Heller, 1876-1878 Ernest Nagel, 1876-1878 Charles Foster, 1879-1880 Patrick Boyle, 1880-1882 Amandas Sieger, 1880-1882 W. B. Erdman, 1880- 1882 Hugh Crilly, 1884-1888 M. B. Harwick, 1884-1888 M. R. Schaffer, 1884-1888 D. D. Roper, 1887-1888-1890 Jeremiah Roth, 1886-1892 I 898- I 900 H. C. Wagner, 1888-1890 M. N. Bernhard, 1890-1894 Alvin Kern, 1 894-1 896 John H. Pascoe, 1892-1893 Joseph C. Rupp, 1892-1896 M. J. Lennon, 1890-1894 Perry Wannenmacher, 1894 1895 M. J. Kramlich, 1896-1898 Jonas Moyer, 1898-1900 Joseph W. Mayne, 1900 *Died in Office. I year. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 6 8 4 4 4 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 JUDGES FROM 1812 TO 1901. Robert Porter, 1812-1831 22 years. Garrick Mallory, 1831-1836 5 John Banks, 18^6-1847 11 J. Pringle Jones, 1847-1851 4 Washington McCarty, 1851-56 5 Henry D. Maxwell, 1856-57 i John K. Findly, 1857-1862 John W. Maynard, 1861-1867 J. Pringle Jones, 1867-1868 A. B. Longaker, 1868-1878 Edward Harvey, 1878-79 Edwin Albright, 1879 — 10 I ASSOCIATE JUDGES FROM 1812 TO 1874. John Fogel, 1815-1823 8 years, Jacob Stein, 1823-1838 16 John F. Rufe, 1838-1839 I Joseph Sseger, 1839- 1840 I Peter Hass, 1840-1843 1848-1849, 1851-1852 5 James Frey, 1866-71 1861-64 8 Jacob Erdman, 1866-68 2 Jacob Dillinger, 1843-48 1852-1855 5 John F. Rufe, 1849-51 2 Charles Keck, 1855-56 i Willoughby Fogel, 1856-66 10 Joshua Stabler, 1856-66 10 Reuben Guth, 1866-1867 i S. J. Kistler, 1868-1871 3 David I/aury, 1868-76 S 4®="The office of Associate Judges was abolished by the Constitution of 1S74. 65 COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS. From 1854 to 1901. Term, 3 years. Charles W. Cooper, IS54-55 i yrs. Tilghman Good, 1855-57 2 H. H. Schwartz, 1857-60 3 Tilghman Good, 1860-62 2 Jacob Ross, 1862-63 ^ ys. E.J.Young, 1863-72 9 J.O. Knauss, 1872-93 21 Alvin Rupp, 1893 — .e®=Salary 1S54 to 63, $500, 63,to 66, $800, 66 to 69, $1000, 69 to 93, $1300 and 93 to 1902, $1500 per year. 1902 to — $1800. CITY SUPERINTENDENTS, SCHOOLS OF ALLENTOWN. R. K. Buehrle, 1868-78 George Desh, 1878-81 From 1868 to 1901. 10 yrs. 3 Term, 3 years. L.'B. Landis, 1881-93 F. D. Raub, 1893 12 yrs. 4®=-Salary 1868, S900. From 1893 to— $1500. COUNTY OFFICERS SHERIFF. From 1812 to 1902. Term 3 years. The Sheriffs were appointed until 1839, when the office became elective. Peter Hauck George Klotz Anthony Musick Charles L. Ilutter ^Abraham Rinker Daniel Mertz Jacob Hagenbuch Jonathan D. Meeker George Wetherholt * Ser%'ed two David Stein Charles Ihrie Joseph F. Newhard Nathan Weiler Henry Smith Charles B. Haines Herman M. Fetter Jacob Holben John P. Miller terms. Owen W. Faust Edwin Zimmerman Thomas B. Morgan George Bower Charles B. Maberry Frank Rabenold Frank Bower Frank C. H. Schwoyer Wayne Bitting J. B. Waidlich John Mulhollen Henry Wilson Christian Beitel Charles L. Hutter Daniel Kreamer E. W. Hutter Charles Craig Jacob Dillinger PROTHONOTARIES. From 1812 to 1902. Term 3 years. Jesse Samuels Daniel Mertz Nathan Miller Francis E. Samuels James Lackey Isaiah Rehrig Jacob S. Dillinger Henry Saylor Henry Wagner Tilghman D. Frey James Hausman Edwin Stein Rufus E. Erdman William H. Snyder John F. Stine 66 Leonard Nagel George Marx James Hall John Wilson William Boas A. Gangewere George Stein Nathan German Leonard Nagel George Marx James Hall John Wilson William Boas Samuel Marx Tilghman Good RECORDER OF DEEDS. From 1812 to 1902. Term 3 years. Charles Gross Benjamin Krauss George S. Gross Joseph Saeger Jonathan Trexler Silas Camp John F. Seiberling Edwin Breder REGISTER OFWILLS. From 1812 to 1902. Term 3 years. Edward Beck Joshua Stabler Samuel Colver Jacob Slemmer S. R. Engleman E. R. Newhard Henry German Dallas Dillinger Joseph Rupp Henry J. Gackenbach Morris Stephens E. R. Benner W. Mattias Ritter George E. Knerr E. B. Horlacher Tilghman F. Keck Obadiah Peiflfer James B. Smith Henry Heiiman Franklin Weaver H. F. Longecker CLERKS OFCOURTOFQUARTER SESSIONS. John MulhoUen Henry Wilson Christian F. Beitel Fred Hyneman Henry Jarrett Jacob Dillinger Henry W. Knipe Charles S. Busch From 1812 to 1902. Term, 3 years. W, Selfridge John D. Lawall Nathan Metzer James Mickley Boas Hausman George W. Hertzel J. E. Zimmerman A. L. Ruhe CLERKS OF ORPHAN'S COURT. Joseph Hunter F. J. Newhard John P. Goundie James H. Crader Allen W. Haines Nathan E. Worman E. L. Newhard F'rancis Kreitz Oscar P. Werley John Muhlhollen Henry Wilson Christian F. Beitel Fred. Hyneman Henry Jarrett Jacob Dillinger Henry W. Knipe Charles S, Busch From i8i2to 1902. Term, W. Selfridge John D. Lawall Nathan Metzgar James Mickley Boas Hausman George W. Hertzel 1 J. E. Zimmerman A, L. Ruhe 3 years. Francis Weiss John Van Billiard Henry W. Mohr Charles B. Klein W. R. Klein L. S. Lenhart Franklin Hartman Martin Klingler Albert O, Strauss CORONERS. From 181 2 to 1902. Term, 3 years. Peter Dorney Jacob Marx Ephraim Yohe Peter Newhard Solomon Gangewere James Busch Henry Weaver John Eisenhard William H. Romig Daniel Mertz Charles Troxell Americus V. Mosser 67 Andrew Knauss Benjamin Fogel Jacob Schantz Peter Miller Daniel Klein Charles Foster John Erdman Jacob Mayer Joshua Stabler Owen Sanger Owen Faust Edwin G. Martin TREASURERS. John Osman Israel Troxell Thomas F. Martin W. S. Berlin Howard Kramer Alfred J. Yost James Goheen From 1812 to 1902. Term, 3 years. John Pogel Charles I,. Hutter Henry Weaver Jacob C. Newhard Charles Saeger Abraham Gangewere Michael Eberhard John J. Krauss George Haberacker George Rhoads Jacob D. Boas William H. Blumer Tilghman H. Martin Joshua House Charles H. Martin Ephraim Yohe Aaron Troxell Jacob Fisher Thomas Steckel William Reimer Reuben Engelman David Schaadt J Franklin Reichard Simon Meyer Daniel Bittner Peter Heller Peter Hendricks Charles Keck John J. Trexler George Kuhl Tilghman Buskirk Daniel Wannemaker John J. Schaadt John R. Gossler James M. Sechler Sylvester Hartman SURVEYORS. From 1814 to 1902. George Eisenhard Andrew K. Witman John Sherer Francis Weiss Term, 3 years. Jonas Haas Willoughby Fogel John Lawall George Blank Solomon Fogel Jesse Samuels Tobias Kessler COMMISSIONERS. From 1812 to 1902. Term, 3 years. Wm. Fenstermacher Abraham Greisheimer John Yeakel Philip Kleckner Jacob Newhard Jacob Schaffer John Yeakel John Billig John Spagenberg John W^annemaker Abraham Schaffer Solomon Gangewere Peter Marx Conrad Knerr John Bogert John Rinker John Greenewald Joshua Frey Henry Pares Timothy Weiss John Yost Daniel Stabler Peter Romig Charles Foster Samuel Camp John Lichtenwalner Benjamin Breinig Samuel Knauss Peter Engelman Daniel Hausman Joseph Miller John Weber Samuel Sieger John Erdman Gideon Marks Levi Dornblaser John Peter Paul Bjilliett Hiram Balliett Jacob A. Leiby Jesse Soliday *Daniel Lauer *Alexander Singmaster Alexander McKee David L. Bamer Jonathan Barrall Thomas Casey George K. Carl William F. Schmoyer John Hottenstein Charles F. Hartzell W. B. Moyer W. Stephen Knaus."; Daniel Schmoyer Daniel Weiser John L. Schreiber Wayne Holben 68 Jacob Ward Casper Peters Jacob Schwent William Eckert J. Smidt Solomon Greisheimer Martin Ritter John Scherer Jacob Derr Henry Leh Philip Pierson George Neinieyer Daniel Bittner William Gabel Joseph Newhard Reuben Banner Jonas Hollenbach Daniel Focht Thomas Jacoby Henry Pearson Stephen Kern John Strauss Cornelius Acker Harrison Bortz Phaon Diehl James F. Jordan Milton Kurtz Stephen Neumoyer Richard Klotz Edward B. NefF George F. Schlicher William Brown Joseph P. Snyder CLERKS OF COUNTY CO MMlSSrONERS. From 1813 to 1902. Term, 3 years George Rhoads John Knecht George Rhoads James Hall Josiah Rhoads Abraham Ziegenfuss Jesse Line Edward Beck Godfrey Peters Lewis M. Eugelman Victor Earner Henry C. Wagner Henry W, Fusselman AUDITORS. From 1813 to 1902. Term, 3 years. George Eisenhard John Spangenberg John Weiss Henry Weber George Eisenhard J. Geiger John Stein John Wilson Samuel Moyer James Hall George Breinig Jacob Dillinger Andreas Schifferstein John Marx H. W. Kneiss Peter Kneppen Benjamin Fogel H. VV. Kneiss Jacob C. Kistler Henry Guth Jr. Joseph Frey Jr. Daniel Fried Jacob Moser Charles C. Buroch David Follweiler John Ritter George Miller Benjamin Breinig John D. Lawall Nathan Miller Charles Ritter Nathan German Herman Rupp Paul Balliett Charles L. Newhard John H. Clifton George Blank Jonas Haas Hiram Schwartz Franklin J. Ritter Eli J. Saeger Samuel J. Kistler John R. Schall Daniel H. Creitz Robert Yost *W. J. Hoxworth Charles Foster Joel Stettler Owen Schaadt *George Blank Daniel Clader Abraham Zienfuss *Served two terms Jacob Lichty Wilson P. Reidy Solomon F, Rupp J. Wilson Wood Franklin Harwick Franklin D. Acker Alvin Diefenderfer Frank J. Peter George N. Kramer Jacob S. Renninger Astor Saeger Morris Schmidt Henry Kelchner Alexander J. Zellner H. C. Kleckner Clinton O. Fogel Charles S. Shimer Edwin Heilman Frank Brinker Milton Schantz *Frank Faust Charles H. Kramlich P'ranklin L. Roth *Williani H. Knauss Thomas P. Roth Alexander Fatzinger R. H. Heil 69 DISTRICT ATTORNEYS. From 1846 to 1902. Term, 3 years. R. E. Wright C. M. Runk H. C. Longecker John D. Stiles William S. Marx Geor^^e B. Sdiall Adam Woolever Jesse Grim M. D. Eberhard John Blank Henrj' Schantz Jonas Brobst Daniel Miller Henry Diefenderfer Hiram J. Schantz Peter Romig Solomon Klein Samnel Eberhard John Maddern John Bortz Jesse Grim Thomas Faust Thomas B. Faust Edwin Albright Thomas B. Metzgar William H. Sowden C. J. Erdman M. C. Ilenninger Arthur Dewalt J. M. Wright POOR DIRECTORS. From 1S44 to 1902. Benjamin Jarrett, Leonard Meyer Jacob Andreas Perry Weaver Charles Wenner Jacob Andreas Jacob SchafFer Solomon Griesemer Daniel B. Mohr Henry Ritter Reuben Henninger John Erdman Jonas Hartzell Reuben Henninger Silas G. Croll STEWARDS. William Dech Thomas B. Faust Marcus C. L. Kline Harry G. Stiles James L. Schaadt John L. Schwartz Clinton A. Groman E. J. Lichtenwalner John Erdman Jonas Hartzell John Sieger David Wisser Jesse Marcks John Sieger Owen Schaadt Willoughby S. Guth John W. Schwartz Samuel B. Engleman William Deibert Reuben M. Roeder Tliomas F. Good Elias Bittner Erasanius Kern Josiah Henninger Moses Kern S. A. J. Kern 70 CHAPTER XIII. SOLDIERS. Following is the list of soldiers who marched to the defence of our country from the French and Indian War, 1754, down to the Spanish-American War, 1898. They were all mustered in from Lehigh County : (*) Killed in battle or died in the service. French and Indian War, I754-I763* George Wolf, Capt. Abraham Rinker, Lieut. Philip Koogler Peter Miller Jacob Wolf Simon Lagundaker George Nicholas David Deschler Abraham Savitz George Lauer George S. Schneff Michael Rothrock Leonard Abel Tobias Dittes Lorentz Hauk Simon Bremer 25 men Revolutionary Wa.r. 1775-1783. John M. Derr Peter Roth Frank Kieffer Jacob Mohr Martin Frederick John Schreck Daniel Nunnemacher Peter Schwab Frederick Schachler 1st Company, 2nd Pennsylvania Battalion, Colonel Arthur St. Clair, Commander. Thomas Dobbs Evan Evans Daniel Foulk Samuel Grimes Thomas Craig, Capt. Rudolph Burner, Capt. Andrew Kachline, Lieut. Isaac Dunn, ist Lieut. John Craig, 2nd Lieut. Leonard Haus James Armstrong, 2d Lieut William Hirkie Thomas Park Abraham Dull Robert Marshall Peter Smith Abraham Horn Christian Shous John Cary John McMichael John Minor George Gauge were Stephen Fuller Peter Byle Henry Powleson Frederick Horn George Huntsman Nicholas Kautzman George Kuhns Leonard Labar John Mann Lawrence Mann Conrad Menges John Mock Leonard Nagel George Phass Stephen Prang Conrad Rusarch Peter Fleek Henry Freedley Philip Groob John Hindman Ludwig Hoffman John Hubler Jost Martin Charles King Michael Kuhns Melchior Labar Christian Miller Matthias Miller David Minton Robert Morey Samuel Ney Jacob Powells Thomas Ramsay Daniel Reyley Abraham Rinker 71 Robert Schearer James Sweeney Samuel Mann John Acker Anthony Assur Jacob Byle Peter Bowerman John Boyer Adam Branthuwer Jacob Davenport John Davis 91 men John Arndt, Capt. Peter Kichline, Lieut. Robert Scott Jacob Kichline Daniel Lewis John McFerren Jacob Wagner Henry Wolf Henry Fatzinger Daniel Sehler Benjamin Depui Henry Unangst James Ferrill George Essig Valentine Yent Jacob Miller ^Andrew Heister *Thomas Seybert *Joseph Stout *Martin Derr *Metthias Steittinger Philip Arndt Elijah Crawford Peter Richter John Middagh Robert Lyle Samuel McCracken Michael Kehler Isaac Shoemaker 88 men Jonathan Richard Timothy Roger Josiah Crane Butler Crist Alexander Cunningham Peter Daily John Darling David Darling *Evan Davis Daniel Diehl John Docker Baxter's Battalion. Christian Stout Alexander Sylleman Adam Yohe Conrad Smith John Kestler James Symonton Michael Kress *Andrew Kiefer *John DufFord *Jacob Weidnecht *George Frey *Henry Bush Peter Bush *Jeter Blyer Peter Lehr Peter Fress ^Abraham Peter *Laurence Erb *Isaac Shimer Henry Althouse *Christian Rodt *John Ross *John Bush *Paul Reiser *Isaac Berlin *Jacob Engler *Joseph Keller *Fred Wilhelm *Adam Bortz Thomas Schaffer John Shearer Peter Smith Peter Standley George Sterner Robert Wilson John Shannon Philip Smith David Stinson James Thompson Jacob Weiss Felty Yeisley Total number of men furnished during the Revol W&r of 1812. ^Frederick Wagner *Henry Fretz *Henry Straup *Chri9tian Harpel *Henry Weidnecht *Adam Weidknecht *George Edinger *Peter Kern *Anthony Frutchy *Philip Bosh *Barnett Miller *John Harpel Joseph Martin *John Arndt *John Wolf *James Hynshaw *Jacob Andrews *Conrad Bittenbender *John Shuck *Frederick Rieger *Lewis Collins *William Warrard *Henry Wolf, Sr. *Samuel Correy *Henry Bush, Jr. Isaac Koon *Joseph Minim *Jacob Transfeeter *Jacob Kreidler *Jacob Chase utionary War. iSo 5th Company, 2nd Light Infantry. John Ruhe, Capt. Jacob Blumer, Lieut. S. Fatzinger Daniel Keiper Barthold Balliett Jacob Mohr David Huber William Keiper George Mertz 72 William Miller "William Dobbins George KauiTman Isaac Gangewere John Mohr Daniel Schwander John Miller Andrew Keiper John Klotz Charles A. Ruhe George Haveracher Peter Biery Peter Keiper Jacob Mickley Henry Stattler Henry Ebner John Reep John Wagner J acob Houck Charles L. Hutter John Wilson Benjamin Raser John Stettler Christian Seip ^ Peter Keichline Leonard Nagel William Weaver John Weal David Houck Adam Gudeknecht WiUiam Keiper George Mertz Matthias Schwenk N/ Jacob Seip John Good Samuel Horn Abraham Derr Andrew Klotz William Keichline George Spinner Jacob Gossler Charles Weaver Henr}' Gross William Ginkinger Henry Reichard 58 men 1st Company of Riflemen, Pennsyl Abra. Gang were, Capt. Daniel Moyer, Lieut. Jacob Newhard, 2d '" Jacob Stein John Dull Daniel Quier Jacob Ouier Joseph Long Joseph Nagel Daniel Quear Daniel C. Daniel Jacob Schwenk \> Daniel Keik Joseph Keider Solomon Brobst Abraham Moyer James Yundt Benjamin Shoemaker Daniel Hilman James linkinger Peter Hoff Henry Brobst Henry Amheiser George Floats George Kentz Adam Keller Pitkin Minor Abraham Beidelman Abraham Keiper Daniel Bickel Jacob Keiper John Boyer Joseph Rose Charles Hauer Peter Hoffman Henry Hartman George Fisher Henry Good Jacob Long Matthias Eline Peter Laudenschlager George Henry David Huberstine Gottlieb Foght Thomas Gangwere Henry Acker Jacob Shivrj' William Shriver Gabriel Woodring John Flexer James Hamor John Miller Jacob Frack John Schantz John Guishler George Hill Michael Freyman Solomon Rownholl Adam Highleager Frederick Heller Peter Minnich Henry Rice George Breder Israel Troxell John Caldwell Henry Fatzinger vania Militia. John Diehl John Besh Michael Good Jacob Reichenbach Michael Druckenmiller John Nerfer Jacob Nagel John Miller Jr. Cornelius Reinbolt William Schleifer Frederick Rider Peter Kuntz Henry Rish Henry Snyder George Herner V Peter Seip Peter Ebenrider Jacob Koch Jacob Erich Elias Kiefer Jacob Hower Jonathan Ott John Flower Jacob Mushlitz Michael Sentel Philip Nagel Conrad Well Jacob Hillegas Henry Schantz George Wetzel John Snyder Michael Poe George Lehr 73 John Frain Nicholas Moyer Daniel Rhoads George Litzenberger Philip Kuntz John Ehrhard Henry Bering Henry Kemnierer John Laudenschlager George Besh 114 men i8th Section of Riflemen. Conrad Rau Abraham Luckenbach Jacob Schantz Jeremiah Heller Solomon Good Abraham Rinker, Capt. Adam Hartzel Peter Knauss Peter Lehr Jacob Marck John Strauss John ShiflFert George Nunnemaker Conrad Stahl John Keck Ferdinand Woodring Henry Bower Daniel Siegfried Henry Hartzell George Mayer Adam Smith Jacob Hartzell John Reinbold Solomon Lucas George Strauss Jacob Yohe Christian Deily Peter Moll Light Horse Company. been preserved. Peter Ruch, Capt. William Boas, Lieut. Peter Good James Seagus 13 men Peter Steinberger Conrad Kerschner Charles Dull Solomon Kleckner John Whiteman Michael Shoudt Henry Nunnemaker David Keck Michael Lehr Adam Lehr Adam Mensch Andrew Hartzel Jonathan Diefenderfer Jacob Deily Nathaniel Yost Jacob Whiteman George Moritz Solomon Hartzell Jacob Gordon Adam Good Peter Cook 65 men Only partial list is given as the muster roll has not George Horlacher Lewis Kunkel Jacob Beidelman Adam Hicker Michael Lower Henry Swander Daniel Fetzer George SchafTer John Billig Daniel Eschenbach George Bortz Frederick Newhard Jacob Steinberger Jonas Spangler Adam Sherer Jacob Bachman John Rau Peter Klotz John Ealer Peter Mensch Henry Frantz Peter Troxell Michael Frack Solomon Steckel John Swartz John Deichman Jacob Schreiber Peter Burkhalter Daniel Leisering Peter Leisering Captain Dornblaser's Co. Not all the members of the company were from Lehigh county, but from Northampton and Pike counties. Jacob Place Frederick Horeman Sylvester Kincaid Anthony Vanetter Robert Impson Isaac Steel John Beard John Lowman J. Dornblaser, Capt. John V. Bush, Lieut John Winters David Smith John Hartzell Nicholas Teel Samuel Stocker Isaac Saylor John Dietz Peter Snyder John Ostertack George Nolf Jacob Bunstein Adam Young George Wil lower Joseph Winner Leonard Kehler Daniel Kehler John Staufer Jacob Gangwere Lawrence Nye Joseph Stein er John Stine Philip Keeter Henry Miller 74 Joseph Shaffer Samuel Hoffert Conrad Walter David Stocker Abraham Miller Freeman Price J. Hutmacher Christian Wineland Jacob Stocker Jeremiah R. Holman Andrew Nye Daniel Miller George Hahn Peter Schick Frederick Greys John Winner Frederick Fenner John W. Morrison Jacob Hartzell Henry Barrett William Brady Jonas Hockman George Rape John Ward - John Young Peter Hahn George Myer Jacob Keyser Jacob Swartwood Philip Fisher John Crawford David Shepherd David Evans John Barr Leonard Kester Obed Morris Adam Barr William Bureau Samuel Smell John Grover George Serfass Jacob Christman John Mack George Miller James Brewer Jacob Merwine George Rinker Alexander McGammon John Faulk Cornelius Van Horn Joseph Cooper John Clark Jacob Arndt Conrad Ehrie Henry Myer Dewald Fisher John Klinetrup Thomas Pasty John Schwenk Christopher Smith John Huston Samuel Reese Peter Strunk Garret Coolbaugh Barnet Bunnel John Adams Samuel Vandenmark John Howe William Vansickel Levi Cortright George Watson 107 men Peter Jayne Number of men furnished during the war of 1812. 353. During the Mexican War of 1845 and 1848 not many volunteers went forth from our county, because mostly of them came from the Southern States on ac- count of their nearness to the seat of war. Among those that went from Lehigh county was Henrj^ C. Longecker, who served as Lieutenant and Adjutant of his Regiment under General Winfield Scott in his campaign from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico, taking part in all the battles leading to the capture of the city by General Scott, Lieutenant Longecker, afterwards served as Colonel of the 9th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861 and 1865 and acquitted himself with gallantry and honor. The Civil Wa.r of 186I to 1865. Allen Guards. Three months service, mustered in April iSth, iS6f. Thomas Yeager, Capt. James Wilson, ist Lieut. Joseph Wilt, 2d Lieut. John E. Webster Solomon Goble Daniel Kramer Charles Dietrich Milton Dunlap Gideon Frederick William G. Frame James Geidner John Houck Henry W. Derr William Early Nathan R. Fuller Edwin Gross George F. Henry Nathan Hillegass George Hoxworth Edwin M. Hittte William Kress Martin W. Leisenrinj Edwin H. Miller Charles A. PeifTer John F. Uhler Allen Wetherhold William Wagner Benneville Weyandt David Jacob George W. Keiper Franklin Leh Henry McNulty Jonathan W. Bieber Ernest Rothman John Romig Henry Storch 75 Joseph Hettinger . F. Wilt William Wolf Ignatz Gressor Norman Cole William Rulie George W. Rhoads Sanmel Sclienck Charles A. Schiffert Lewis G. Seip Company I, First Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers 2oth, 1861. ]\I. II. vSigman Adolphus Scheidler Ernville Scheidler David Weiss Joseph Weiss 51 men Mustered in April William Gougler, Capt. E. P. Rhoads, rst Lieut. Benjamin Roth, 2d Lieut. Edwin G. Mensch Noah Trumbore Mahlon Frick Charles Mertz v/' Augustus Ebert James Albright Wellington Blank Anthony Behler Nelson Christ Tilghman Dennis Perry Egge Abeile Heelman Henry Fried Henry Trumbore Daniel C. Miller Julius Benkert Tilghman Albright Henry A. Blumer ^Daniel Bechtel David Bergenstock William Desh John Eichel William Ginginger William Gaumer Jonas Heldt Peter Huber William Hilliard Charles Haines David Hardner Thomas Keck Solomon Kramer William Kleckner Henry Keiper Thomas Laubach Tilghman Miller Henry Mohr William J. Moyer John Nunnenmacher Andrew Nagel Peter Remmel Tilghman Ritz Edward Remmel Richard Saeger Charles Schwenk James Stuber Franklin Trexler Walter Van Dyke Abraham Worman Franklin Wasser Henry Wagner Henry Guth Company D, 9th Regiment, Pennsylvania 24th, 1861. H. C. Longecker, Colonel; Wm. H. G. D. Hand, Capt. Benedict Fondran C. A. G. Keck, ist Lieut. John Grate Enoch Phillips, 2d Lieut. William Semmer Morgan Richards Richard Wilson Granville Hangams William Miller Samuel Barrows Hugh Clement Richard Crogan Henry Detweiler Daniel Daniels John Hopkins James Elliot Francis Henry Robert Hammersley Joseph Jones John Kane Edwin Keiser Tilghman Leist&r Peter Leister William Meyers Charles Michael Willoughby Gaumer Oliver Hiskey William P. Harris Ellis Hammersley Martin Hackman Charles Hackman Henry Haldeman Lewis Kochler Franklin Keck Melchior Konald Alonzo Kuhns Benjamin Kleckner Zomes Leiser Henry Miller Charles Miller James McCrystal Daniel Nunnenmaker Jesse Ochs Edwin Rehr Lewis Rehr \/ James Seip Christian Stahley Joseph Steele Joseph Smith Henry Trexler George Wenner 81 m«n Volunteers. INIustered in April H. Hangen, Lieutenant Colon ef. Cornelius i\IcGee Joshua McHose John Patrick William Paul Wilson Rohn Joshua Schwab James R. Snyder William Schlosser Stephen Smith David A. Tombler Charles Vouland Robert Williams Abraham Wolf 76 John McCloskey John McHecker Levi Stubler Tilghman Miller Charles Nolf, jr. William Williams Henry Stresser Samuel Arthur William Baumeister Levi Craft Michael Cooney Isaac Davis Evan Edwards Henry Eckenberger John Graham William Hopkins James Hughes James Hetthenson Jacob Hacker Edward Kramsic Lorentz Kick William Keiser Samuel Lockwood Thomas Llewellyn John Morrison Lewis Mauley William Pauley David Ruse Augustus Ritter William T. Snyder William Sattenfuse Samuel Smith Henry Steiuberger James Vansyschell Frank Wilson William Werley Francis Xander James Young I men Company G., 46th, Regiment Pennsylvania 17th, 1 861 Vcdunteers. Mustered in Aug. Solomon J. Rowe William McGonegle John Brown William Pritchard *David McCandless *John A. Richards *Frank Ward John Blair Thomas Mooney James McCracken John Reed Samuel Zellner John McFadden Benjamin Beidelman Thomas McMurtrie Elias Beidelman James McClellan John McMurtrie Edward Rogers 57 men 47th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. Three years service. Mustered in from August 17th to September 20th, 1861. Colonel, T. H. Good, Lieutenant Colonels, J. P. S. Gobin and G. W. Alexander, C. W. Abott, Majors, Wm. Caus- ler, Levi Stuber, J. W. Fuller, W. H. H. Hangen, James Van Dyke, Francis Z. Heebner, W. H. Ginkinger. Company B. E. P. Rhoads, Capt. Ambrose Detrick H. A. Halteman, Lieut. John Flemming Allen Balliett, 2, " John Fries William Kleckuer *Edwin Fink Thomas F. Sourwine William Geist William Gangwere W. H. Ginkinger Allen L. Kramer Levi Knerr Lewis Arnold, Capt. W. R. Thomas, Lieut. Joseph Matchette Robert Wilson Daniel Davis Morgan Edwards John Moore Robert Williams Hugh Lyons Wallace Price John Leo *David Bachman Alexander Donegle *Andrew Sinly *George Hasson James McQuillen Isaac Davis Edward Cramsic William McMonagle John Patrick John Davis John H. Price Daniel Desmond John McQuillen Daniel Dyer *John Cannon Philip Hill John Kilpatrick James McLaughlin Patrick Reily W. S. Thompson Patrick Sullivan Philip Gallagher James Adams Condy Patrick Edward Mullen H. W. Ehret Jeremiah Keef T. Bergenstock Charles E. Miller *Edwin G. Minnich R. A. Hillard Daniel E Hettle John Horn *Joseph Repsher Joseph Housman Alvin J. Hartzell Peter H. Halteman Peter Halteman *William Hilliard James A. Jackson 77 *Allen Gaumer John Houck Franklin Fatzinger Oliver Hiskey Matthew R. Tuller John Eisenhard Charles H. Knauss T. Reinsmith Harrison Geiger Allen J. Reinhard Francis H. Strachley John A. Darrohn Thomas Miller *Francis Xander Henry Strominger *Alfred Eisenbrown G. Assenheimer *John Apple William Bieber Jacob Bast Frederick Bohlen *Henry Beltz H. Bergenstock G. Chamberlain Ephraim Clader John Dingier *Solomon Diehl Perry Eggye Peter Ferber George Funk Evan Geidner John Graver Charles Bachman Henry Kramer Daniel Gehrhard Valentine Fisher George J. Weiss Henry Storch Henry A. Schwartz v^ Lewis Seip *Aaron Fink Jesse Remmel James Hamilton Adam Garrett John D. Albright Cornelius Acker *Jacob Apple H. Bergenstock Alexander Blumer Lewis Brong *Josiah Braden Howard King *William Kern Leander Labar Josiah R. Lentz John D. Lansteren Samuel Lutz George Mennig Dennis Miller Henry Miller Luther Mennig Philip Metzgar *Conrad Meirknecht George Nunnenmacher Andrew Osman Henry Pauley *Edwin Pammer George Reichard Christian Reinhard Allen P. Rhoads Ernest Ruttman *Nathan George Franklin Hiskey Thad. Heckworth William Hillard Francis Z. Hubner Levenas Hedrick George Jacob *John Johnson John King Henry Knauss Henry Kramer Phaon Kein Alonzo Labar Martin Leisenring James F. Liegen James Lutz Charles Labold Albert Miller Barnett Morgan Levi Martin Joseph Mentz Charles A. Martin John T. Nixon Allen Newhard Charles PfeifFer Obediah PfeifFer Tilghman Ritz Peter Remmel Edwin Remmel George Rich Samuel S. Rogers John E. Shaffer Thomas James Isaac N. Smith Benjamin Smith William Smiley Casper Schreiner Aaron Serfass Charles Siegfried William Stuber *August C. Scherer Charles Swenk Joseph Smith Charles Savitz Allen Trexler *James Tice Oliver Van Billiard Charles Wagnar William J. Weiss John Wieand Abraham Wolf Dallas Xander Joseph Young Henry Reinhard Joseph Repshar Haldeman Reymond John Seislove W. H. Smith Barclay Smith Franklin Smith Charles Studley Hiram Schaffer Franklin Sieger James Springer F'rancis Stuber *John Schimpf George Smith *Thomas Steffen David Steffen Charles Trexler Christian Ungerer Martin Van Billard Nelson Wilhelm Harrison Wieand William Wieand Benjamin Wieand Franklin Young Daniel Young *Franklin Rhoads George Shaneberger George Deal Joseph Danohn 78 James Barry Thomas Cope J, D. Rabenold Edwin Reichard 190 men Company F, 47thRegiment. From Catasauqua. Henry Hart. Capt. Ed. Gilbert, G. Fuller, ist Lieut. Henry Bush, 2, " T. F.Lambert, 2 " Richard Schwab John L. Jones Albert McHoe *David A. Frey John Guth Thomas B. Glick *Addison R. Geho *Joseph Gross William Hollenbach Joseph Hossler Joseph Heckman James Fuller, i, Lieut. Henry Hummel Benjamin Bush F. Longenhagen Spencer Tettermer Martin O'Brien Walter Moyer James E. Patterson Joseph Schwab Franklin Arnold David Tombler Peter Andreas David A. Akroth Henry Buss Philip Bohner Stephen Beers Godfrey Betz Alfred Biege P. Bartholomew Charles Buss W. Bartholomew Joseph Hunsicker L. Hultheiser Edwin Haldeman James Johnson Abraham Jassum Isaac C. Jacoby Philip King George Kline William Kuntz Owen Kern John C. Collins John Crotto Michael Deibert William Ebert Joseph Ebertz William Eisenhard Martin C. Frey Frederick Fisher LieutWilliam Fried Augustus Eagle, 2 " James Tait Joseph Lilly John W. Heberling William Glace William Fink Preston M. Rohn Joseph Walk Geo. Longenhagen Robert Cunningham James M. Bush Augustus F. Eberhard W. Van Dyke James Ritter Simon P. Kiefer David Andrews George Armsberg Hiram Beidleman William Barnhart Amandas Fritz Joseph Geiger Preston Gettys *Rainy Grader Isaac Jacoby William Jordan Edwin Jassum *William Jackson George Kerchner Reuben Klein Nicholas Kuhns George King Charles King J. K. Longenhagen Peter S. Levan John Lucky Emery Lindster James Lilly Franklin Laubach Thomas A. Smith Gottleib Schrum Llewellyn Sleppy John G. Snyder Jefferson Kepner John Laub J. Laudenschlager Alfred Lynn Tilghman Lehr Lawrence McBride Joseph Mersch George Moll Uriah Moyer Philip McCue John Merkoffer Peter Moser Albert Newhard Michael O'Brien Thomas B. Rhoads Griff Reinhard Aaron Roeder Matthew Snyder David Schaffer Samuel Snyder Francis Schaffer Lucin Schroeder John G. Seider John Schreck Robert M. Sheetz Michael Smith Peter Shireman Fi^uklin Siegfried James Troxell *Jacob Scholl James A. Trexler George Youss Gilbert Whiteman John P. Weaver James M. White *John Weiss Ambrose Wtesner Hiram Werkheiser Conrad Warneck Franklin Wilson Adam Wuchter John Whorley Levi Werner 79 Abraham Bander Faustiu Boj-er *E. Bartholomew Ernest Bender William Clader John Curran William Christ Frederick Coulter Samuel Dankel Frederick Engel Augustus Engel Henry Falk George W. Frame Orlando Fuller Samuel Smith Franklin Mensch Sydney Miller V. Minsenberger Peter Moser Joel Michael Daniel Newhard *John O'Brien Edward Rensheimer Francis Roth Charles Rohrbacher Edward Remaly Matthew Smith Joseph Savitz Reuben Siegfried William Moll W. H. Moyer William Offhouse Henry Soltzman *Harrison Lilly *Charles Michael William Reiser Levi Getter William Heberling George Hatter John F. Haldeman Osborne Hauser William Herman William A. Hauser 184 men Company G. 47th Regiment. *C.Mickley, Capt. *John Goebel, " T. B. Leisenring, Capt. W. Steckle, ist Lieut. C. A. Hackman, " H. T. Dennis, 2d " Jacob W'orman Daniel Mertz Martin Hackman *James Crader Benjamin F. Schwartz Frederick Wilt Constant Losch William Hausler Solomon Becker Solomon Wieder William N. Smith Richard Arnbruin William Ruskirk Benjamin Bortz G.Huntzberger, i Lieut Charles Henry, 2d " James Crader D. K. Diefenderfer John Pratt John G. Helfried John Click Harrison Guth George Helpler John Kneller Nelson Coffin R. M. Fornwald Allen Wolf James Guidner Levinus Hillegass Henr}' Hornbeck *Philip Hower Jacob Rollinger George Butz Hiram Brobst David Buskirk *Jacob Beidleman Alfred Boynton Edwin Crader Charles Carter Jacob Diehl Lewis Dennis Alpheus Keck Henry Daisor William L. Eschbach Milton A. Engelman Francis Everett Peter G. Fegely William Frick Ferdinand Fisher Henrj' Gelter Franklin T. Good William Gupitill William Geissinger William Hertz Ed. Hunsberger *Jonathan Heller Cornelius Heist Solomon Hillegass Franklin HolTert *John Heil *Jacob Hay John E. Helfrich Daniel T. Reiser Allen P. Kemmerer James Knerr William Kramer Benjamin S. Koons Jacob Knappenberger Isaac Haas Emanuel Loeffler Benjamin G. Lucas George Lehr John Lynn Nathan Miller Hiram Mertz William Mertz John Meissenheimer Edmund Miller Franklin IMoyer Gideon Moyer William Mercer Benjamin F. Neur *Franklin Oland Aaron Peter Francis Pfeiflfer Jonathan Reber Israel Reinhard Jonas Scherer Francis Stuber / Reuben L. Se'lp '^ Daniel Scheetz John Schimpf Francis Schmetzer Erwin Stabler Walter C. Smith Edmund G. Scholl 8o Daniel Anspach Peter Bernd Jacob Blank Jeremiah Bernhard John Brensinger William L. Borger John Barton Joseph Barber Jacob Bowman *John Becker Adam Bachman Thomas K. Crader John Curran Timothy Deterline Timothy Donahue * Benjamin Diehl Henry Doll Charles Eckert *William Eberhard Mantes Eisenhart Malari Faust Joseph Fisher William C. Frame James Gaumer Preston B. Good John Great Henry C. Gracely John Harte Max Hallmeyer George T. Henry Henry Henn Charles Kauffman William Keck Lewis Keiper George Knauss John Kremmill *William Kennedy *John Kuntz D. Leibensperger William Leiby George W . Lightf oot *Julius Lasker Charles Moyer Wellington Martin Franklin C. Mertz William Martin Henry Meyer Orlando Miller Barney Montague John R. Moody Daniel Mead James Noddins Condy O'Donnell Moses Peter Henry Rice George Reber William C. Reinsmith J. W. H. Stronninger Ambrose L. Schultz Christian Smith Charles Stem Frederick L. Jacoby *Henry Smith Carl Shorp W. H. Trumbower Luther M. Tooney John A. Ulig Fred. Vaughn Frederick Walter Edward Wieand George Wooten ^^euben Wetzell Peter Weller George Xander *William Young Jacob Stangala William Sieger *Irwin Scheirer ^Christian Schlay *Jeremiah Strahley Florence Sly Lewis Teichman Nathan Troxell Augustus Upman *J. Vartin Simon D. Wolf Frederick Weisbach *John E. Webster Jeremiah Westcott David Wieder Joseph Young Engelbert Zanger *Henry Zeppenfelt 195 men Company I. 47th Regiment. A. Coleman, Capt. Levi Stuber, " Theo. Mink, " James Stuber, 2d Lieut William H. Moyer Edwin Camp Owen Kuder Thomas Kerr Isreal F. Hartzell Charles Dankel Alvin Hartzell D. Nunnenmacher Allen La wall, ist Lieut W. Halteman, 2d, " Edwin Keiser Thomas Burke *Charles Nolf Charles Kaucher Solomon Krecho *Elvin Knauss Samuel Lutz Peter Lynd *David Lost William Mensch Charles Matskowsky Oscar Miller Sylvester McCabe Leander Morrell *Jeremiah Metz William McLaughlin Jacob Newhard Jacob Feter Cornelius Rowan Joseph Rockell William Bayne Theodore Baker J, Bondenchlager *John Bartholomew James B. Cole John Clemmens Edwin Dreisbach John Dias Samuel Dillingham Conrad Eckhart Joseph Freeman William Fenstermacher Israel Foy Charles Gross Alexander Great George T. Gross Allen P. Gilbert 8i Stephen Hettinger Joseph Hettinger Jeflferson Kunkel Henry Miller T. W. Fritzinger John W. Diehl Joseph Kramer *William Frack Tilghman Desh John Benkhart Frank Allenspach Theodore Anderson John Bush John Bullard William Baker William Baumeister John Burns Augustus Colvine William Dreisbach T. T. Drawback Frederick Drester *L. Druckenmiller Peter Dopstadt Walter P. Fetzer Francis Farrall *Owen Fetzer John Gross Henry Guthart A. Genstenleiter Samuel Guth "Francis Gildner Eli K. Hunsberger Granville D. Hangen Francis Daufer Allen Knauss Michael Fitzgibbons Benjamin Huntzberger Whippelt Benkhart George Acher William Burger Thomas Ziegler Solomon Gross Charles Henry Joseph Hawk *William Ellis *David C. Hawk George Hartzell Uriah Henry Levi Kraft Xavier Kraflf David F. Knerr Charles Klotz Ogdeu Lewis John Lawall Franklin LefHer JaiTies Lutz Harrison Miller William Martin Aaron McHose Jesse Moyer Philip Miller John Mclntire Nicholas McKeever Samuel Moss Alfred C. Pretz George Rhoads William Reed nVilliam Radeline S. M. Rauvenbush William Schwartz Reuben Snyder David Shaffer Henry C. Suavely Charles G. Sassaman William Smith Stephen Schechterly Frank Siegfried Albert Hiller William F. Henry Daniel Kramer Edwin Keiper Frederick Ziegler Company K. 47th Regiment. *George Junkert, Capt. Charles Abbott, Matthew Miller, " Fred. Beisel, ist Lieut. Elias Benner, 2d " John Bischoff Samuel Reinert Peter Reinsmith James Robertson Marcus Roth Milton Stephens Levi Stein Jacob Seber Henry I). Spinner Frederick Scarbecker Gottleib Schweitzer Samuel Smith Charles Smith Francis Stick Jonas Snyder *Joseph Stevens Isaiah Schlocter Clinton Sage Edwin F. Trickier John Transue Israel Troxell Daniel Vansyckle William Walter Henry Weil Henry Weiser Samuel Wirebach Lewis Warner Nathan Xander Peter Yeager Henry Schlagir Frederick Stephens Peter Stockschlager Levi Schoitt Henry Trask John Troxell James Van Syckel Eli Wieder Harrison Weil Gideon Weiser William Whipky Daniel Wannemaker Francis Xander Joseph Yonkert 172 men Edwin Moyer C. Weiderbach William Hinkel Nathan Handwerk David H. Fetterolf *A. Schmoyer, 2d Lieut. George J . Scherer Samuel Kumfer *George Leonard *Abraham Landis Harrison Metzger Lewis Miller John Moser Lewis Metzger Paul Strauss Daniel Strauss 82 Phaon Guth William Landis Conrad Volkanand W. H. Berger Manoah Carl Edwin Person John Saylor Amos Sliitter George Kruck Martin Guth William Guth Daniel Fritz Benjamin Amy William Barr Francis Boger Henry A. Breinig M. Bornscheier Tilghman Boger William Brecht *William H. Berger John Bower V Peter Cope John Delp E. Druckemiller Daniel D. Dackratt Philip W. Datzius Werner Erbe Charles Fisher Paul Ferg Rudolph Fisher *Edward Frederick John Gulty Jesse Geesey *Edwin Gross Jacob F. Hertzog William P. Heller Edward Houser John Hinderer Lewis Benner Joseph Frack William Schubard Valentine Amend Charles Acker Peter Berkemeyer Charles Bower *Paul Houser *George Hoffman George Kase William Keiter John Knerr Frederick Knell Jacob Kentzler William Scherer Joseph Bachman William Barber Tilghman Breisch *Lewis Berliner William Carl Francis Dankel John Dottery Alfred Diehl *Lewis Dipple William Eastman William Fiey John Fersch Joseph Freas Harrison Fegely *Gottlieb Fiessle Benedict Glichler Lewis Warner Nathan Xander Peter Yeager Henry J. Schagle Lewis G. Seip John G. Snyder Levi Stahley James Strauss Evan Strauss Andrew Snyder John Schimf William D. Schick *Matthias Gerrett Charles Grim Charles Heiney Harrison Handwerk Henry Hantz William A. Heckman Josiah Siegler Christopher Ulrich John C. Siegel *John Sell u chard James Sieger James D. Weil Samuel Woodring *Samuel Wolf Benjamin Zellner Tilghman Sourwine William Snyder Anthony Krause *George Kilmore *John Kolb David Klotz William Leonhard Daniel Long Elias Leh William Sterner F. Sackenheimer John Scholl Alfred Smith Henry Savitz Franklin Smith Charles Stout "■^'Lewis Schneck *Augustus Scheirer Henry O'Toole David Moesner *John McConnell *Patrick McFarland *Conrad Nagle Charles Preston Martin Reifinger *Charles Resch William Schrank Benjamin Shoemaker *Nicholas Hagelgaus Jacob Hull Abraham Keiter Edward Keller James E. Knerr John Koffler John Holdhoff John Keiser *Moses F. Klotz Hiram Kolb Julius Landrock W. A. Liepensberger Lewis Long *Amandas Long *Joseph Louis *Solonion Long Jonas Metzger Peter Miller Samuel Madden Alfred Muthard *Martin Muensch *Jacob Madden William Noll Frederick Nessler Elias Read)' Henry S. Romig *Charles Richter David Semmel William Shoemaker Lewis Wasser Lovi Wagner Christian F. Wieland *William Walbert 182 men 83 92d Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, Ninth Cavalry. Three years' service. Mustered in the 29th of August, 1861. Samuel Schneck Til. Miller, 2 Lieut. Daniel Becktell . Ellis T. Hammersley \^ Henrv Mertz Company A. John Masenheimer Edward G. Yeager James R. Hammersley Charles Dickson August Ebert Oscar T. Hoffman Victor Mataner Richard Saeger 13 men i2Sth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, 9 mos. service. Mustered in the 15th of August, 1861. W. \V. Hammersley, Lieut. Colonel. John Dillinger, Capt. V Walter Seip, ist Lieut. Wm. Miller, 2d Lieut. Franklin C. Wasser Stephen Schwartz William G. Moyer George F. Hawk Tilghman F. Horn *Abraham Worman James Albright Frederick A. Boas Henry A. Berger Henry Burger Allen Blank ^Sylvester Burgen Dallas Dillinger Edwin W. Fried Daniel Fried William Glees *Henry Good Peter Hillegass Phaon Hartman J. H. B. Jarrett *George Keck William D. Miller John Nagle Henry A. Breinig Company D. Benjamin C. Roth *George Diefenderfer *Frederick A. Ruhl Ignatz Gresser George Hoxworth William Sowden *Alonzo Kuntz William Graver Stephen Henry James S. Hoffert Philip Helweid Solomon S. Frederick Victor Fahringer Edward Bloss *Franklin Bloss Aaron Frederick James A. Jackson Harrison Knauss William Kern H. Nunnenmaker Henry K. Reiss Daniel Schleigler Henry G. Wagner Joseph Yingling Henry Peiffer Rinehart KeiflFer James A. Bieber James Lutz *David Maddren Henry Nagle Theodore Siegfried William Weaver James Wetzel John George Andrew Gangwere Jacob Sutton Frederick Weaver *Tilghman Peter Jacob Richard John E. Schaffer Charles Nagel Peter Romig Charles Snyder Jeremiah Siefried Jeremiah Transue Harry Wieand William Wagner Richard Grauff Moses L. Klotz Nathan Keifer Emanuel Knauss J.B. Lichtenwalner Mahlon H. Beary Franklin Bower Company G, 128th Regiment. Peter Huber, Capt. Dan'l Miller, ist Lieut. *James Lucas Benjamin F. Leech Preston Brock Charles A. Pfeiffer Reuben D. George *John Stull James R. Roney William A. Goranflo William Haas Henry Huber William Kenner Gabriel Kern *James Krum Theodore Knauss *John Lentz *Henry Lucienbill *William Smith Henry Snyder Reuben Sorben John Watt *Hiram Wilt Thomas Zellner Milton Beaver Joseph Barriss *Lewis Daubert 84 Milton H. Dunlap Wellington Martin G. Hamilton, 2d Lieut, William Schlosser Solomon Kramer *Henry Weiler *David Hoilenbach Lewis Fink Samuel Smith Tilghman Keck *Willoughby Knauss *Elias Andraas Robert Attreed *George Berger Tilghman Bloss Thomas J. Brader J. Berkemeyer *Ira Coffin *Albert Dorward Daniel J. Dillinger C. Fenstermacher *William Fry *Andrew Flatta *Thomas F. Good *Daniel Moyer David Miller William J. Miller *Samuel B. Parker *David O. Pritchard *William H. Reitz Abraham Bechtel *Reuben Bittner Henry W. Butz Levi Reidy Thomas J. Ra^-nes *Franklin S. Ritter Henry Shenton Benjamin F. Smith *Henry Stout Jeremiah Sourwine Daniel Strauss John P. Weaver *Daniel Weiss Henry Richard William Richard Griffith Schindler William Schnerr Charles Diefenderfer Hugh O. Davis *James Eli *Edwin Fretzinger David Gackenbach *Aaron Krum *L. W. O. Goranflo *Mandes Henry *Tilghman Jacoby Jeremiah Kern *Alfred Klotz *James Kunkle *Henry Wint Franklin J. Keck *Jacob Long Daniel F. Mertz Howard C. Manvill Henry Merkel Franklin Moyer ^William Mertz Emanuel Paules *Paul Rehrig Jonathan Reber 99 men 176th Regiment, drafted Militia. Nine month service. ber 7th 1862. Mustered in Novem- Levi Schmoyer, Capt. Monroe Miller, i Lieut A. Singmaster, 2d " J. Franklin Mertz ^ Jacob Geary Amatias W. Jacoby James G. Gorr Edward Doll Jacob Hinkel Simon S. Miller Henry Schmoyer John Bleiler Jacob Acker David Bexter Henry Bleiler David Derr ^William M. Flexer Lewis Eisenhard Levi Giering v' William F. Seip Lewis Reinhard Jonas F. Gorr Charles Hiskev Company A. ^Augustus Fegley Stephen Fegely William Gorr Edward Harlacher *William Hiskey James Haines John Hoflfner Alfred Haaz William Kehm William Albitz Nathan Bortz John Fritz David Frederick Daniel Faust Linneus Gripply Amandes Knerr L. F. Laudenschlager John Mest William Miller Jacob Miller James Neumoj'er Benneville Oswald James F. Romig John Haines Carolus Hass John Keck Amandes Kemmerer John Bernhard Sylvester Engleman Joshua Fritz C. W. Fenstermacher William Guth Michael Kuder Milton Laudenschlager John Mayberry John Mongold Charles Nuso Moses Nelford Jacob Ritter William Rano Amandas Stephens *Tilghman Schwartz David Stewart William Wieder Josiah Rochel Nathan Rickert 85 Franklin Schmoyer Edwin Lorish William Jarrett John Fries John Seislove Reuben Ahner Benjamin Boyer Frank Christian William David Samuel Lehr, Capt. Daniel Knauss, i Lieut. John Culberston 2nd " Frunklin C. Balliett B. Frank Abbott Aquilla Knauss John A. Long John Lehman John Bahringer Milton Guth Samuel Roth Moses Schaadt William Acker John Beidler *Solomon Blank William Cope Alexander Kepple James Kline Nathan Adam Jacob Bast Charles Frantz Alfred Guth William Herman William Kratzer Andrew Keck James Kichline Solomon Long Andrew Loughridge Adam Miller ,*Joseph Moyer Milton Nunenmaker Daniel Roth Evan Strauss Lewis Schaller David Schaadt, Capt. Charles L Koch, " S. A. Brown, ist Lieut John Morgan Silas T. Biery Alfred Sturk Henry Schaffer Stephen Wieder James Weil John Ruhf Augustus Frederick William Gorman Jacob Horace John P. Haas Company B. 176 Regiment. Esekias Wisser Henry Schuler " Henry Smith Peter Weaver Henry Lehr Solomon Miller William J. Minnich Frederick Oswald John David Alvin Fink Daniel Fink William Fry David D. Gilbert Charles Hensinger Thomas Hoffman Samuel J. Kramer Tilghman Keinert William Kerr Solomon Ritter * Aaron Beisel Joseph N. Ruch James Kuder James Knauss Charles Beltz Aaron Fahringer Lewis Gaumer Daniel George Henry W. Jarrett Daniel Kerschner *Edwin Koch Charles Kichline Levi Levan Alfred Moyer Tilghman Beisel Company D. 176th Regimen Isaac Moyer Adam Miller Samuel Oldt Willoughby Peter Amandes Reinert Charles Remsen Peter Schiffert Charles Smelsley Henry Smith Peter Shell Jacob Sorber 'j ilghman Wetzel John Eisenhard 97 men Allen Troxell Uriah Sanders Edward Steyer Alfred T. Bernhard William Schaffer Edward Bauer Ferdinand Buchman Benneville Bart John Deily Edward Y. Engleman Charles Frick Abraham Miller John Moyer A. Nunnenmaker Edwin J. Sell Lewis Sell Jeremiah Speigle Charles Smith Madison Strauss Daniel Taylor James A. Yeager Elias Laser Nathan Muthard Franklin Miller *Daniel Ferver Phaon Guth Joseph Gackenbach Michael Hauser Josiah Knerr Franklin Kline John Kuhns Daniel Pattison Joel Steines 102 men X. William Harmony William Hunt John Kiffle Isaac Laub George Loeb 86 Joseph Koch Jacob Herling John Lindenmuth William J. Frantz Henry Lorish Isaac George Gideon Moyer Charles Menuingle Robert Newhard Herman Peter Joseph Protzellen Henry Schafler Thomas Scheirer Philip Siegle Reuben Snyder Frederick Scherer Aaron Wenner Henry Lauer Charles Miller Peter Miller Patrick Nugent Henry Olsander Jacob Roth Frederick Schermer Israel Schmoyer Tilghman Smith Edwin Trively Joseph Younkert Stephen Kechline Lewis Scheirer Edwin Biehl Andrew Buder Edwin Diehl Christian Flarkle Charles Gross Moses Hauser John Herman Evan Holben Nathan Hauser Renades Kleckner Lewis R. Brown Francis Carter Franklin Snyder William Smith *Milton Snyder AdamTuckert William Wright John Link Abraham Miller Nathaniel Moll Edmund Newhard Solomon Rawe Allen Roth Matthew Schwerer Moses Semmel Philip Storm James Frietz Lewis Hopper Company E. 176th Regiment. William Merkley Josiah Kern Jesse Wambold Reuben Helfrich Josiah Saeger Lewis Miller Joseph Miller Frank Gorden *Alexander Brown James Bates Peter Bowman M. Druckenmiller George Eisenhard Anthony Fogel William Hauser Henry Hausman Charles Holy William Wilson Alfred Miller John Martin David Lauchner Jacob Kepple Jacob Kromer Philip Horn James Fucherty Phaon Diehl Samuel Clader Louis Kratzer 101 men. T. Sleiker, Capt. P. Graybill, ist Lieut H. Wierbach, 2nd " *John Hohe John Albright Charles Rockel Joel Roth Larus Koch Charles Hohe Henry Sleiker Samuel Furry Lucas Baumer William Ziegler William Hohe Christian Neuchler Frederick Binder Charles Breisher James Carroll John Derr Francis Dimmel Edward Garlich Adam Klauss George D. King Frederick Martin Samuel Mack Charles Ziegenfuss Henry Billard John Albright Alfred Butz Hirman Burger Henry Chron Edward Dallas *Willoughby Egner Franklin Fritzinger Charles Ferguson John Hower John Hartman John Johnson Isaac Kloughertz Reuben D. Long John McFarland John C. Newcomer Edward Reichard Martin Seibert Joseph Somereither Jesse Shoemaker Tilghman SchoU John Schleifer Gideon Schnable Henry Sell Reuben Sell Jonas Schaffer Samuel Smith Henry Weichter Benjamin Wagner William D. Weaver Henry Young Tilghman Young Charles Weiss Absalom Weierbach 87 J. Fenstermacher Samuel Faust ^William Hartnian George M. Hoffman Jacob Hopper Levi Knerr Samuel Kern Paul Michael John Bergland William Brown David Ehrig Nathan Ebert Franklin Finev Joseph Moory John Boyd James Crader Henry Ehe William Ebertz Edwin Gernet Alfred George John A. Knerr Edward Klauss David Mack Ephriam Moyer Frederick Miller Washington Miller Thomas Widrig William R. Wimmer Tilghman Weil Joseph Unkel Michael Stoneback Daniel Shoemaker John Stilb William Shields Willoughby Rickert Israel Rumfeldt Moses Rau George M. Pilgard 98 men. Company G. 176th Regiment. L Hecker, Capt. J. Cornett, ist Lieut. W. Hecker, 2d " William G. Freyman Levi Oberholtzer William Kurtz Edwin Osenbach Gideon Lentz J. R. Reichard Benneville Roth Lewis D. Steckel W. Newhard Benneville Stehley Michael Klein Jeremiah Oswald William Fisher Jeremiah Deibert John George Adam Everett John Handwerk Benjamin Rockel David Buchman Peter Baer Peter Benner William Best Charles E. Clader John Deibert Solomon Deibert Henry Donvart Benneville Eisenhart Charles Frantz John Geusenleiter Carl Holier Nicholas Helms Jeremiah Kerschner Levi E. Kistler Charles Kunsraan Peter Kuntz Owen Kern Nathan Kennel *Andrew Kratzer William Krauss Joseph T. Leibenguth Henry Miller Reuben Miller Adam Minnich Reuben Mertz William Morgan Stephen Newhard William Newhard Jonathan Paul Joseph Bersheig Lewis Deibert John Fisher Frederick Frahlic Daniel Keiser Henry Kern James Krause Lewis Leh William Measimer Jeremiah Miller William Montz Richmond Newhard Moses Peter Levi Peter Tilghman Rebert Cyrus Reichelderfer Matthias Winsch Joseph Rickert Edwin Rex *Reuben Roth Henry Rex Willoughby Shaffer Elias Schneck Hilary Schneck Jeremiah Schneck Lewis Schneck Charles Schneider Henry Steibling John Samuel Henry Smith John Witmer *Conrad C Wolf Jonas Wright Valentine Wright William Wright Alfred Yehl Charles Yehl Samuel Yehl Joseph Yehl Levi Zerfoss Mana A. Rockel Elias Roth Oliver Roth Ephraim Schreiber Moses Sensenger Harrison Simons Samuel Smith Peter Snyder Josiah Steckel Tilghman Stehley 102 men. 88 Company I. 176th Regiment Alfred Creitz, Capt. Willoughby Camp L. Harmony, " William Freed W. Grosscup, 1st Lieut Edwin Harmony Wm. Cassler Owen Krauss Stephen Stiegerwalt David Kistler Levi Stiegerwalt Edwin Konig Manassah Behler Jacob Moser Allen Xander, 2d Lieut John Miller Amandas Harmony Henry B. Crietz Daniel Moose David Horn David Wartman Michael Bachert Owen Grosscup Reuben Daubert Levinus Smith, Thomas Everett *Daniel Bachman Charles Smith Elias Herber Thomas Brauscher Henry Billig C. Druckenmiller Joseph Dengler Jonas Grim Henry Hartranft Levi Greenawalt William Henninger Anthony Coleman Robert McDaniels Samuel Sechler Samuel Arnold Lewis Schultz Dennis Northstein Levi S. Follweiler Reuben H'unsicker John Shappel Jacob Hartman Samuel Follweiler Daniel Billig Jacob Brobst Charles Deppe Edward Everett Joseph Hausman William Eckroth *Daniel Heintzelman Jefferson Kunkel Daniel Creitz John Camp Joseph Handwerk Samuel Knecht Company K. 176th Regiment. Benjamin Kunkel Stephen Leh *Samuel Loch John Miller Lewis Miller Daniel Olenwine Isaac Oswalt Jonas Philips Solomon Riegel *Reuben Phillips Solomon Riegel *Reuben Phillips *Charles F. Reed Harry Snyder Daniel_ Smith *John F. Snyder Benjamin Weida Elias Zellner Solomon Zettlemoyer Jacob Oswalt Benjamin Ranch Thomas Ruch Adam Rupple Jacob Schoedler Benneville Smith Samuel Wagoner William Sicks Henry Schwens Henry Sizelove Charles Winderholder 90 men. S. C. Lee, Capt. G. Neitz, E. Seibert, ist Lieut. P. W. Flores, 2d " George G. Rodenberg Daniel Schantz *Charles Heil William M. Roeder Willoughby Stoudt Henry Bower Robert Groman William Williams William E. Bennedict Willoughby Bander George Repp William Wieand James F. Smith David Gery Richard T. Jones William Heil John Brecht Franklin Flores Franklin Weidner Levi Schuler Charles Staudt Joseph Koons Amandas Rick William Shiffert John Tombauer William B. Williams Samuel Schaffer George Schmoyer Jeremiah Swartz G. Laudenschlager Francis Schaffer Edwin Weil John Wolf Nathan Seibert Jacob Stauffer Jeremiah Steichter Daniel Thomas George Stein John D. Schell Charles Schell S. Rothenberger Gottleib Phflueger Solomon Mill Seth Miller Jesse Mangold Willoughpy Doney William Ettinger 89 Eugene T. Tool John Fegely C. Foster, ist Lieut. Thomas F. Mohr George Knoll ohn Dice Martin Ackerman Benjamin Roth Elias Diehl Josiah Doney. Franklin Dieter David Fisher Charles Furry Addison Frey 202nd Regiment, in August 30th 1S64. V Walter Seip, Capt. B. C. Roth, J. Lucas, 1st Lieut. A. Mellin, 2nd " Jeremiah Transue Henry Weiand George Benson Henry Wittenmeyer Franklin Brobst Madison Coles Lewis Fluck John D. Gangwere . David Gackenbach Albert Herman Franklin Kromer Harrison S. Kern Adam Koch Willoughby Kuhns William Knauss Levi Kraft Aaron Moyer John Nagle, Sr. Theodore Nagle William Reinhard William F. Reinhard Joel Sterner Augustus Schitz John Schaffer Joseph Trumbower Depue Ueberoth Henry. Burger W'illiam Becker Frank Ernst Thomas Baker Franklin Doyle David Rudolph William Sicher Solomon Fritz Tobias Gehrhart William Knoll Isaac Klein David Kriebel John Lewis Henry R^ohr Amos Miller John T. Roberts Michael Nuss Lewis Reinbold Charles J. Fegley Pennsylvania volunteers. Company E. *W^illiam Fusselman Amos Giess John Gorman Edwin Hess William Kieffer Anthony Kleinsmith James Kern Edwin Knechel John Keiffer Henry Knerr *David M. Miller Aaron P. Nagle John Pettitt Lewis F. Ruhf Emanuel Reinhard Aaron Frederick Milton W. Reichard *C. Laudenschlager Henry D. Brown Jacob H. Burger Jeremiah Beidelman G. H. Good, 2nd Lieut. Alfred Smith W'illiam Trexler John Knerr Eugene Stettler Milton Kichline Henry Smith Hiram F. Schaffer Edwin Troxell Jeremiah Biery Henry E. Burger Augustus Bechtel Henry Derr Nathan Gaumer Enoch Field EH George William Heft Solomon Hallman Jonathan Bickel Bernhard Behringer *S. Leibensperger James Kidd John Knoff William Jones Daniel Heimbach John A. Griffith Jonas Fritz 92 men One vear service. Mustered Amandas Hack man Charles Hartman James J. Kiinkel William Lentz Jesse Lehman James Moore Harrisson Miller Lewis Miller William Osman Herman Stettler Franklin Smith Milton Saeger Edwin Schertinger George Wolf Harrison Young Moses Hoffman Henry Kleckner Uriah Keck Charles Lick William A. Lynn Nathan Miller Addison J. Knauss Augustus W. Mennig Eli L. Fatzinger Allen D. Burger George Burger J. Bartholomew John Young John Vogel Jacob A. Smith Jacob Strieker Frederick Saxenheimer Hiram Parker John Nagle, jr David Miller 105 men go 209th Regiment, Pennsylvania volunteers, in September 14th 1864. W. Miller, Capt. W. Knerr, " L. Fink, 1st Lieut Albert Dorward John Lutz William Marshall A. O. Frankenfield Penrose Rex William Coffin Paul Michael John Kressler Francis Kuhns Albert Kleckner Hiram Kratzer *Jonathan Klotz Henry Levan Cornelius Lentz James Mace Ephraim Michael *Amandas Moyer . D. Overholt, 2nd Lieut Joseph Arnold William Morton, jr Reuben Brader William Keener Cornelius Fagen Tilghman Wagner James Snyder Levi Ziegenfuss Lewis Kratzer Thomas Arnold Moses Allender George Blocker Jacob Christ John Darrohn Jacob Ebert William Edwards Milton Eckert Jarrett Ferber William Greissley Jeremiah Geiger Tilghman Hartzell Charles Holy Aaron Handwerk Michael Herley Matthew Zimmerman Wilson Benninger *William Clark Francis Develin John Eastman C. F. Engelman O. H. C. Fallweiler William German Amandas Gernett Anthony Gehrig Tilghman Handwerk James N. Hersh Hezekiah Hippie John Jones Charles Krauss Josiah Klotz Jacob Koch Samuel Keiflfer James Kane John Lawrence Edwin Loch Moses Metzgar MILITIA. One year service. Mustered Henry Meyers Thomas Murray Samuel Mace William McDonald William Nagel Elihu Oswald Robert Ohl Joseph Rex Sanmel Roth William Ruhe William Rex Edwin Rex Tilghman Reber John Snyder Henry Sell David Y. Williamson Thomas West Francis Weaver Patrick McCann William Nicholas Robert New hart Peter Oswald Emanuel Paules Francis Rabenold Alfred Ritter Robert F. Roberts Lewis Rex Irvin Rober Amandas Roth Charles Shiffert Simon Snyder Henry Weiss Henry W. Weiss 98 men. 5th Regiment was organized, September T3th, 1862. The field and staff officers were H. C. Longecker, Colonel; J. B. Clemens, Lieutentaut Colonel; Mel- chior Horn, Edwin D. Lawal, Milton J. Kramer, George Mish, William M. Culver, Thomas Metzger, Elisha Forest, Jacob Wolle, George C. Hand. Company C, 5th, Regiment. I. Gregory, Capt. Francis Kramer B. Hagenbach, i Lieut. William Lind B. Sweitzer, 2nd " William Kress Simon Price Tilghman Kemnierer William Desch John Stopp Benjamin Lucas David Miller Charles Present Solomon Reinsmith Charles Reinsmith James Ritter John O. Yingling Gabriel Keiper William Knauss Stephen Lutz Edward Lucas Augustus Manning Tilghman Osman Charles Egge 91 Israel Yingling Charles Arthur William Basher Jeremiah Beidleman William Burnham James Christ Henry Cole George Dieffer Milton Eckert Edward Englema-n Franklin Freed Amos Guth W'alter Getter Peter Hartman Henry Heckman Solomon Helfrich Moses Kehm William Keyser Daniel Keyser Daniel Keiper x/ W. Marx, Capt. C. Mertz, ist Lieut. W. Wannemacher Charles J. Haines James Smith Thomas Ruhe Alfred J. Breinig Allen A. Huber Henry A. Evans Charles Mohr Frederick A. Baldwin Jonathan Becker John Bergland Jacob S. Dillinger Jacob Goebel John Hartzell Benneville Hine Benjamin F. Jacoby William Laubach Edward D. Lawall G. Schall, Capt. T. Snyder, ist Lieut. 8. Weller, 2nd " Cornelius Fagen Franklin Beck Elias Shingler Joseph Ruhe Henry Seagreaves Edwin Hittle Edward Young E. F. Powell Alfred Ettinger E. Roth Edward Shiffert Charles Apple Jeremiah Biery Henry Bitting J. Burger Washington Chrisman Dennis Diefenderfer Solomon Dorney Edwin Strauss Paul Wald Benjamin Weaver Henry Weikel John Weiss Company E. 5th Regiment. Eugene Master Daniel Miller S. R.Missly Isaiah Rehrig W'arner Ruhe Thomas Keck Amandas Wagner Elisha Forest Samuel B. Anewalt Joseph E. Balliett Henry Gangwere Jacob Blumer J. A. Aikens John Bechtel Samuel Becker James Cahoon Conrad Emig W. Hagenbuch Solomon Hartzell Edward Heiber Company G. 5th Regiment. John Sykes Jacob Snydej- Leonard Smucher Stephen Smith Alfred Smith Edwin Troxell Frederick Frantz Peter Grim Uriah Gnth George Hagenbuch Joreph Hecker Henry Heimbaoh Simon Houck George Kauffman Charles Quier W'alter Reinsmith Franklin Rinker Adolphus Rosstaischer Uriah Sanders William H. Simons Charles Wagner Thomas Wenner Milton Weaver Francis Weidner Henry Wuchter Emanuel Yohe 84 men John Krauss, jr Edward Laubach Walter Losch Thomas B. Metzgar Harrison Miller John Nunnenmacker William Roney Alfred Saeger Charles G. Sassaman David O. Saylor Richard Snyder George Terraberry Peter Wanner Henry W^orman Milton Sassaman Peter Shutz Sanmel Smith Willoughby Trexler Wilson Wieder 59 men Benneville Christman Henry Daubert Jacob Eckert Robert Fatzinger Peter Fegely James Gernert 92 Milton Beidler George Engelmati Daniel Gilbert Francis Strachley Alfred Adam Benneville Ecker Owen Fatzinger Amandas Greenawalt George Hand William Hertz Isaac Hummel William Kuder Henry Kercher Tilghman Kramer James Kuder Allen Mohr William Mohr James Neff Charles Richter Tilghman Ruhe Tilgeman Reinhart Henry Schwartz August Weber Jacob Wint Jesse Wombold Hezekiah Weiser Edwin Yeager William Burger Matthew Bliche James S. Biery Edward Clauss Tilghman Daubert Henry Diener Allen P. Steckel James P. Roder Allen Newhard Charles Shout Jacob R. Wolle Allen Pfeiffer Edwin L. Young Joseph Moll Allen Burger Jacob Bast James Beck Jonathan Bear Daniel Hood William Hintz Herman Haverly William Leibensperger Tobias Kessler Milton Kramer Solomon Long Samuel Miller Tobias Moser Edwin Peter Charles Ruhe Petter Yoder John Ross Peter Reinhard Augustus Schitz George Schaffer John Snyder Henry Schafier Charles Schaffer Reuben Schout Esaias Trumbore Charles Wolf 85 men Company H. 5th Regiment. W. Hoffman, Capt. F. Seller, ist Lieut. A. Heilman, 2nd Lieut Henry Ritter Henry Ruhe Franklin Trexler Henry Schwartz Owen Mertz Moses Schneck Almon Nagel Henry Borneman Peter Cortright George Daufer Edwin Eisenhard George Fried Daniel Fink Wilson Gross Charles Hertzog William Hufert Jonathan Knauss Isreal Lehr Tilghman Miller Henrj- Odenheimer Solomon Rant Lewis Roth William Ruhe Hernion Schuon Henry Fried D. F. Deschler George Hoffman Henry Trexler William Mininger Benjamin Fleckner Franklin Hersh Allen F. Barber Samuel Baum Jacob Cleaver Charles Erdman Charles Everett Tilghman Frederick Daniel Fritz Martin Heft Gottlieb Herzog William Henry Robert Latimore Hiram Mertz John Nelig William Raut William Roth William Ritter William Reinhard Morris Stemler Daniel Shitz John Sowers William Sassaman Francis Smith Lewis Shetton Peter Stark Daniel Trump Edwin Wieand Jacob Weaver Henry Zink Edward Sherer Nathan Snyder Reuben Steble Tilghman Snyder Charles Sane Francis Troxell Frederick Wilt Benjamin Wonderlj' William Yohe 71 men 93 37th Regiment; Emergency troops. Mustered in June 19th, 1863. Company H. 37th Regiment. I. Gregory, Capt. Ed. Young, 1st Lieut B. Sweitzer, 2nd " Edwin Hittle Charles Dankel Samuel Anewalt Joseph Balliett Jacob Bass James Mosser Edward Schiffert Henry F. Ames Owen Bachman Daniel Biedelman Samuel P. Bliss \ Reuben Desch William Dicht Charles Eckert William Reiser Thomas Keck Theodore Siegfried Alfred Ettinger John Stopp William Baucham John Johnson John Anthony Hiram E. Bectelman Charles Beahm Milton Brong Michael Correl Alpheus Desch Milton Eckert Jacob Fries Peter Fegely Franklin Grim Walter Guetter William Knauss Wilson Kistler Charles Knauss Constantine Martin Hiram Mertz Augustus Minnich Allan Moore George Reeder Walter Reinsmith Benjamin Smith Eugene Stettler Hiram Shimer Levi Ziegenfuss Christian Smith Aaron Tice John Weiss Alfred V. Willenmeyer Francis Weimer Milton Weaver Henry Wittenmeyer Eli Fritzinger / mos Guth Solomon Helfrich Charles KaufTman Lewis Kistler Frank Laubach Harrison Miller f Frank Mertz Theodore Mohr David Overholt William Rees Daniel Reinhard y" Reuben .Seip Franklin Smith John Shaffer John Shimer Franklin Troxell Theodore Taylor Charles Wagner M. Wetherold Allen Wolfinger Edwin Wiand Edwin Yeager 78 men 38th Regiment; Emergency militia. chior H. Horn, Colonel. Company B. 38th Regiment Mustered in July 3rd, 1863. Mel- J. Hunt, Capt. E. Mickley, ist Lieut. J. Morrison, 2nd " Henry Welty William Williams Charles G. Earp William Andreas John Nolf Milton Berger Charles Graffin John Courtney Reuben A. Boyer John Barr John Black David Bowen William Bates John Case Jacob Case George Hopkins William Hock Joseph Humphries Samuel Kieflfer Uriah Kurtz John Kieffer Charles Lantz William Stewart Robert Stewart Frederick P^agle William McKibben Llewellyn Thomas Samuel McKeague John McClenaghan Godfrey Osenheimer Johnathan Price Henry Raup J. Stofflet John Cane Joseph Cane WilHam Craig John Church John Hunter Joseph McMullen Joseph McFetridge Jacob Donecker Morgan Emanuel, jr. James Fuller Orange Fuller Adam Freund Samuel Friess Joseph Forrest Lewis Gutenday John Hille David McFetridge Dennis McFadden 94 John Conway James Moran Tilghman Michael William Miller James McCleary James McNab David Davis Owen Eastman Charles Fuller Jacob Funk Barthold Fritchej- Adam Fulton John Gross Thomas Hunt Franklin Smith Charles Troxell William R. Thomas Evan Williams Daniel Yoder George Matchett Daniel Milson Evan Edwards Franklin Eckensperger Charles Andreas David P. Bowen Joseph Broadseller William Boyle James Blair Enoch Phillips Thompson Porter William Rankin John Snyder John Steward John Thomas Benedict Vantram David Williams Peter Hunt Thomas James William Krone Peter Keeling Allen Kurtz Tilghman Moyer 96 men William Biery Tilghman Breisch Franklin Bower John Campbell Company C. 38th Regiment. William Hopkins George Minnich Samuel Wolle William Wheeler William Horn F. P. Laubach Simon Kester John Keifel Alfred Lynn 13 men 41st Regiment; Emergency militia. Mustered in July ist, 1S63. John H. Oliver, Major; A. B. Longaker, Quarter Master. W. Seip, Captain. B. C. Roth, ist Lieut. James Lucas, 2d " Henry Stanton James Roney John Nagel James Lutz Henry Burger Henry Wiand Andrew Gangwere John D. Albright Augustus Bechtel Madison Cole Solomon Fatzinger John Grotz William Schlosser Harrison Butz George T. Young Daniel Miller John Lackey C. Laudenschlager Aaron Frederick Dallas Xander Adam Beers Henry Custer Edward T. Engelman Nathan Gaumer Henry Horn Charles Huber William Ibach Henry L. Kenner Benjamin Ibach Benjamin Kleckner Emanuel Knauss Israel Lehr Jesse Lehman Lewis P. Levan Gottlieb Lutch William Mohr James Nagel Edward Ochs Lewis P. Queen George Reese Charles Richter William Roth Henry Roth Augustus Scherer Tilghman Snyder Jeremian Scholl Jeremiah Shuman Jesse Smith Otto Geier Henry A. Heckman Uriah Hartzel Moses Kehm Peter Kroner Christian Kuntz Edward Lucas Daniel Lehr Jacob Leibensperger Milton Laudenschlager Wellington Martin George Nunnenmacher Jesse Ochs Charles Preston Reuben Raub William Reinhard John Ross William Roney Tilghman Reiss Benjamin Schwartz Isreal Schneck Peter Schultz Peter Schreiber John Schreiber Clinton Trexler James linger Frederick Wilt Henry Weinsheimer Henry Willenmeyer Depue Ueberoth 95 Frederick Gangwere Jacob Goebble William Young C. Keck, Captian D. Kline, ist Lieut. S, Smith, 2nd " Abner A. Campbell James A. Bieber Daniel Reinsmith Benjamin Schlosser David Deily David Pfaflf John Roth Jacob Berger William Bergenmoyer Eugene Breyfogel Lewis Baer Francis Balliett Solomon Bachman Peter Coop James DeLong John Evans William Fry Levi Krauss George Diefenderfer Alfred G. Peter Gideon Smith Joseph Hough Henry I bach Jeremiah Scherer Company I. 41st Regiment. Leon F. Roeder Irwin Raber John Ratley Eli Reinert Paul Smith Charles Leinberger Daniel Snyder Benjamin Allender James Bachman Peter Benner Sylvester Bieber Samuel Balliett Alfred Biege David Clause Wilson Druckenmiller Aaron Druckenmiller Josiah Fatzinger Josiah Fry Lewis Frack Jonas Gery John Gerber Elias Hartman Stephen Hallman Ephriam Keeser John Long Peter Wenner Peter Weller Ellis Peter Asher Queer Jacob Seiss Daniel Snyder David Steffan Aaron West John Wilbert Phaon George John Groff Levi Haaf Phaon Hausman Milton Kachline Jonas Ludwig Jacob Oswald Alfred Peter James Reinsmith Samuel Ritter Joseph Ray Solomon Reinsmith Sebastian Silliman Joseph Snyder Levi Smith Willoughby Shoemaker Horace Troxell Philip Werley Robert Young 76 men V c. Mertz, Captain A. Heilman, ist Lieut Henry Freed, 2d " Thomas Snyder John A. Young Henry C. Huber Daniel Smith Jeremiah Transue William Hass Sylvester Weller Charles C. Moore Blackford Barnes -, Adolph Clauss Edwin Desch Tilghman Frederick Benjamin Fatzinger Benjamin Fink Andrew Gangwere Company K. 41st Regiment. William Reichard William Moyer Henry Trexler Milton Bieber David Hardner John Lentz Stephen A. Henry Samuel Apple Charles Bennett Hugh Cassidy John Eisenhard Robert Fatzinger Daniel Fritz Charles Gorr John Gorr Charles Hart George Hand David Howard Henry Moore John Manhart Aaron Moyer John Masonheimer Andrew Nagle Tilghman Ott Werner Ruhe Edward Reichard Christian Stahley Hiram Schaffer Joseph Stempfle William Landis Josiah Leferre Owen Metz William Moore lohn Moyer Josiah Doll Wilson Moyer 96 James Gallagher Philip Hill Theodore Nagle Moses Hoffman Philip Helvert William Ruhe Solomon Heberly Charles Kramer Lewis Roth Henry Hardner Harrison Kern Amandas Sieger John Hill Willoughby Kern Tilghman Steinberger Edwin Jacoby John LaRoche Ludwig Schultz Henry Kemmerer George Minnich 74 men * Killed in battle or died while in service. The whole number of men furnished by Lehigh county during the Civil War of 1861 to 1865, was two thousand and sixty-three. The number of men killed in battle were eighty-three; number of men wounded in battle sixty-four; number of men that died in camp were two hundred and thirty-three ;^oumber of men captured by the Confederates were two hundred and fifty-seven; number of men that were drowned three; number of men, missing in action were forty-nine and four hundred and eighty-three men mentioned as killed and wounded and miss- ing, making a total loss of one thousand two hundred and eighteen men. Allen Gua^rdy. They were one of the first companies that responded to the Nation's call for volunteers for the defense of Washington. The first Regi- ment did garrison duty but were not engaged in any battles. The Ninth Regi- ment did iUo 5 irrisoa daty an 1 wa^ not in any battles. The Forty-sixth Regiment was in the following battles : Winchester, Cedar Mountain, Antietam, Chancell- orsville, Getteysburg, Resaca, Dallas, Kennesaw, Peach Tree Creek, Pine Knob, Marietta, Atlanta. The loss of the Regiment while in the service was two hun- dred and forty-three men. The Forty-seventh Regiment was in the following battles, St. John's Bluff, Jacksonville, Pocotaligo, Red River expedition, Shena- doah campaign and lost during its service was five hundred and thirty-eight men. The Ninety-second Regiment was in the following engagements, Lebanon, Moore's Hill, Tompkinsville, Richmond Ky., Shelbyville, Perryville, Franklin Rover, Middleton, Cowan, LaFayette, Chickamauga, Dan bridge, Newmarket, Mossy creek. Fair Garden, McMinnsville, Lovejoys, Macon, Bear creek, Waynes- boro (2) Buckhead creek, Buckhead church, Aiken, Lexington, Black Stakes, Averysboro, Bentonville, Raleigh, Hillsboro, Morrisville. Their loss was very heavy. This Regiment had the honor of firing the last gun before the surrender of General J. E. Johnston. The one hundred and Twenty-eight Regiment was in the battles of Antietam, where it lost thirty-foui men in killed and eighty-five men wounded, and at Chancellorsville where two hundred and fifty of their num- ber were taken prisoners. The one hundred and Seventy-sixth Regiment did garrison duty at Newberne, N. C. and Hilton Head S. C. The two hundred and Second Regiment was in the battle of Salem and guarding railroads in the Shenadoah Valley, during General Sheridad's campaign. The Two Hundred and Ninth Regiment fought in the battle of Chapin's Farm, Mead Station, Petersburg and Appomattox court house. The Fifth and Twenty-seventh Regi- ments (Militia of 1862) were organized to aid in repelling the invasion of the Confederate army. The Thirty-eighth Regiment (Militia, of 1863) guarded property, repairing railroads and gathering Confederate stragglers after the battle of Gettysburg. The Forty-first Regiment (Militia of 1863), saw service at South Mountain and guarding property. 97 The Spani^h-Americ&n War. Companies B and D, 4th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers were from Lehigh county. The officers from our county were Charles O'Neill, Lieutenant Colonel ; W. D. Mickley, Major ; Morris F. Cawley, Surgeon Major ; Frank D. Beary, Adjutant ; J. Howard Martz, Sergeant Major ; Harry Bower, Quartermaster Sergeant. Company B. J. A. Medlar, Capt. Peter Hertzog C. D. Rhoads, ist Lieut J. Allen Newhard O. Miller, 2nd Lieut William Ruch Oswell Reidy \V. F. Weiss Otto R. Wollmuth Lewis Spangler Edward Fried Wilson Desch George Wieand George A. Rex James F. Wieand William Bower William Smith Harry Christ Harry Lambert Ralph Weaver George Knecht Joseph Peters John Abbott Roy Applegate Frank Bartholomew William Buckland Frank D. Baughardt Frederick Becker Albert Connolly Charles E. Clader Percival Confer Adam Epp Ray Percival Harvey Frantz Victor Geist Ernest Gross Tilghman Ginkinger Edward Goheen S. A. Hammar Philip Walters Orange M. Frantz John Thomas Hugh Stevens, jr. Frederick Able Harry Adams Harry Balliet Guy Brown John Bloss William Benson Solomon Brown W. Cox Charles Campbell Harry Elliot Clinton Fenstermacher Robert E. Frantz Howard E. Gaulger Morris Gehring John Gallmoyer Leidy Garnet Frantz Hall Harvey Held William Hohe Frank Hildenburger George Hafner Edwin Hoats Franklin Kramlich W^illiam Kunkel Raymond Kerschner George Lutz Austin Leidy Francis Laudenschlager William Labold Allen Hagenbach John Wotring Company D. 4th Regiment. €. Spangler, Capt. Harry Geansley E. Wittemyer, ist LieutEdwin Eagle S. Chubbuck, 2nd " William Bechtel George Shillinger Allen Berger Charles Matter n Robert Miller John Mover David McMahon Herman Naiell Fred Reichard Frank Schreiber George Steinberger Paul Smith John Thomas William Trump Henry Weibel Walter Ward David Yates Henry Hersh John Helwig Frank Hagei Albert Reener John Kahler Albert Kramer Edmund Lloyd Frank Lynn Newton Leidy Clement Lawskowski Robert Martz Robert Mest Calvin Moyer Charles Miller Herman Nikalai William Pierce John Schick, jr. Frank Seislove Charles Schlicher Paul Schantz Paul Tilton Thaddeus Weaver no men Edwin Seisslove William Sassaman Herbert Trumbauer George Hersch 98 Elmer Aniey Oscar NefT Oliver E. Miller Edward Rose Morris Knauss *Oscar Keinert Barney McNulty John Wetherhold Robert Ouinn William Hering Frank Ahlum Edwin Bernhard George Hamersley Edwin Keck William Wittemyer Edgar German Martin O'Laughlin Calvin Boehm Harrison Burger Harry Bush Charles Chubbuck Michael Connollj^ Horace Dennis Charles Draper Ira T. Eudy Patrick Gallagher Richard Moeder George Wieder Harry Dietrich Wellington Koch John Roberts John Potts Oswald A. Yehl Joseph Boehmer Harry Burger Herbert Boorse Wm. Collins Ira Danner Isaiah Dennis Alvin Eitner Dallas Frankenfield Irwin Gaugler John Hartzell Harry Heist Charles Hertzog John Home Edward Jacoby Walter Kleekner Lewis Krick Charles Lester Daniel McCoanaghy Charles Miller Edwin Mosser Edward Nagle Henry Nonnemacher Lewis Oswald Franklin Ott Riles Raub George Ruhmel Lewis SchafFer Oliver Schmuk John Scott Harry Sensebach John Smith Robert Steinmetz Harvey E. Ziegler Lewis Hildebrand Elmer Hoffort Edwin Keiper Henry Kressley Elmer Kuhns Robert Lucas Patrick Mahon Harvey Miller Harry Mo3-er Allen NeflF Fred Oberholzer Harry Oberly Reefe Raub Calvin Reitz Harvey ]. Saul William Scheirer *George Schwartz Leonard Sefing Jeremiah Sifnons Henry Steinbicker George Stevens William Schell Joseph Troxell Charles Wagner Edward Wagner Harry A. Weaver William Weinsbeger Herbert A. Warg Joseph C. Berwick Adam B. Weaver Harry Wetherhold William M. Wieand no men The following served in other companies. Boas Hausman James Roxberry Jefferson Mosser Edward Reichard Ray Tice Paul Ellenbogen S. Marsh Preston Fritz Warren Bover Warren Heimbach Edward Malburg Jerry Newhard William Wetzel William Fry William Walker Allen Hiskey Oliver Diehl Will Hoxworth Frank Beisel Jacob Nixon William Baines G. W. C. Snyder Arthur Yocom Frank Reese Lewis Baker Charles Osmun William S. Roth 27 men 99 HISTORY OF OUR FLAG. Mrs. Betsy Ross, of Philadelphia, made the first National flag. Congress had passed a resolution June 14, 1777 that the flag should consist of thirteen stripes, alternate white and red and thirteen white stars on a blue field. The flags of the navy are the following : A distinctive blue flag with four white stars more at the top of the main mast, represents the highest naval officer and com- mander of the ship or squadron, namely an Admiral. A blue flag with three white stars on the top of the mizzen mast, is a Vice Admiral's flag. A blue flag with two whit e stars is a rear Admiral's flag. A broad blue pennant with one white star is a Commodore's flag. A red flag hoisted at the foremost signifies danger, powder being taken on board. A yellow flag is the flag for quarantine. A flag of truce is a white one. To lower or strike the flag means to pull it dow'n or take it in, out of respect or submission. Sign of yielding. The sign of mourning is to hoist the flag at half of two-thirds of the hight of the most of vessels, on land at one-half of the staff. The stars had at first eight points. Paul Jones' flag displayed on the Serapsis in 1779 at Texel, had eight pointed stars and the stripes were red, white and blue. The French navy first saluted the American flag February 14, 1778. The first naval engagement under the American flag was between the American ship Raugu and the English ship Drake, the latter being captured, April 24, 1778. Captain John Rathburne, first unfurled the flag over a foreign country, when he captured Fort Nassau, New Providence Islands, February 6, 1778. The ship Bedford, first displayed the flag in British port (London). The flag that carried us through the war of 1812, consisted of fifteen stars and fifteen stripes. Elken Appleton, Youkers, New York, has the flag in his possession that waved over Fort McHenry, when Francis S. Key was detained on board the British warship during the bombardment, wrote the Star Spangled Banner. Captain S. C. Ried, suggested that the flag should consist of thirteen stripes and a star for each State admitted. April 4, 1818. The present flag was fixed. A new star is added on the admission of every State, on July 4 next, succeeding such admission. The Revenue flag, at first consisted of 16 perpendicular stripes and the Union bore the Armies of the United States, in blue on white field, first authori- zed in 1799, changed in 1871 to 13 blue stars, on a white field. Flags at half mast are signs of National mourning. When the Union is turned down it is a sign of distress. Dipping the flag is hauling it down a few feet and then runing it up again. Salutes are made by dipping the flag. In the Navy when the flag is hoisted at "colors" or halted down at sunset, the officers and men are re- quested to salute the same. 1775 the Virginia Militia bore a banner with the devices of a rattle snake and the injunction of "Don't tread on me," and Patrick Henry's words "Liberty or death." Massachusetts flag in the Revolutionary war bore the emblem of a "Pine Tree" and the words. "An Appeal to Heaven." Colonel Moultrie's at Fort Sullivan 1776 was blue in color, with white or silver cresent in the right hand corner and the word "Liberty." The Stars of white on a blue field represent our National constellation. The stripes the thirteen original colonies. White stands for purity, red for valor blue for justice. The only banner that ui:>holds and proclaims liberty to all. CHAPTER XIV. Post Offices. Attorneys. Physiciacns. Etc, POST OFFICES. *Alburtis fAllentown (c b) Balliettsville Best *Breinigsvine fCatasauqua ICementon *Centre Valley Cetronia Claussville *Coopersburg *Coplay Corning Dillinger Dillingersville East Texas Eckert *Egypt *Eniaus Emerald *Fogelsville *Friedensville *Funerton Germansville Guth's Station Haafsville Hoffman's *Hokendauqua Hosensack Hynemansville Ironton Jacksonville Jordan Jordan Valley Lanark ^Laury's Station Lehigh Furnace Limeport Litzenberg Locust Valley Lowhill Lynnport Lynnville Lyon Valley *Macungie Minesite Minnich Mosserville Neffs Newhard New Tripoli Old Zionsville Orefield *Plover Powder Valley Ringers Risingsun Rittersville Rockdale Saegersville Saucona Schaadt's Scheidy Schnecksville Seiberlingsville Seipstown Shimerville Schoenersville Sigmund *Slatedale tSlatington Standard Steinville Stettlersville Steins Corner Sweitzer *Trexlertown Vera Cruz Walberts Wannamaker Weidasville Weiseuberg Werley's Corner Wescoesville Zionsville *Money Order Offices, t International Money Order Offices. c h Court House, ATTORNEYS. Henry Wilson John Ewing Charles Davis Samuel Runk John S. Gibbons John Wurtz John McFarland Samuel Bridges Jesse GriflSth Augustus F. Boas Robert Wright John Stiles Nathan Miller Robert S. Brown Frederick Heller Henry King John Evans John D. Roney Henry Jarrett Andrew L. King Silas Hickox John Hornbeck Phaon Jarrett Peter Wickoff H. C. Longecker William P. Miller S. E. Buzzard Charles M. Runk Charles Cooper James S. Reese J. Depuy Davis Edmund Moore Elisha Forrest W. S. Marx Henry Bonsall Gilbert G. Gibbons James R. Struthers Adam Woolever Uriah Brunner John Oliver William Ainey George Schall H. Schwartz A. B. Schwartz R. Clay Hammersly Arnold C. Lewis Robert S. Leyburn Henry A. Bigler A. Leyburn Evan Holben W^ni. H. Sowden John Rupp Edward Harvey Levi Schmoyer Wm. H. Deschler Henry S. Floyd C. J. Erdman Eli G. Schwartz David Roper H. C. Hunsberger Wm. Glace Samuel A. Butz W. D. Luckenbach George H. Rupp R. E. Wright James S. Biery Joseph Hunter Wm. S. Young J. Winslow W^ood M. L. KauflFman George K. Wilson James B. Deschler E. A. Muhlenberg E. A. Lochman Harry F. Kramer Wm. P. Snyder J. M. McClure Willis Forrest Nathanial M. Orr Oscar E. Hollman M. C. L.Kline John M. Kessler M. G. Henninger W. H. Muschlitz Edwin Stine A. G. Dewalt Thomas Foley R. A. B. Hausman Henry Rose Albert Erdman James Schaadt A. B. Longaker Charles Runk Harry Stiles J. L. Marsteller W. Lichtenwalner Allen Focht Morris Hoats John Ulrich S. S. Duffy F. G. W. Runk Philip McNulty T. F. Diefenderfer F. M. Trexler E. F. Schoch Henry O'Neill A. P. Crilly E. H. Renninger H. A. Weller Enos Erdman M. E. Schaadt Jonas Kline E. F. Lichtenwalner Norton Martin D. R. Home Clinton Groman Oscar Stein E. E. Butz F. T. L. Keiter A. L. Biery Austin Glick A. N. Ulrich Wilson Mohr J.J. Snyder A. H. Sieger Frank Jacobs Reuben Butz Samuel Kistler John Schwartz Robert Schiffert Ralph Metzgar Calvin Arner Leo Wise C. D. Thomas Francis Lewis George Lutz H. Cyphers Robert Taylor James Bowen J. T. Schantz Frederick Wittman Joseph Stofflet Malcolm Gross Max Erdman Joseph Slough O. R. Leidy George Spang Marcus Hottenstein Ira Erdman John Diefenderfer Edwiu Albright Jacob S. Dillinger Thomas B. Metzgar F. A. R. Baldwin Mahlon Biery J. D. Christman John Kocher Thomas Martin P. E. Stem James Graver Henry Saylor John Hendricks Josiah Kern Solomon Bernd Abraham Fetherolf Samuel Young Eugene Dickenshied D. Fritch William Herbst Charles Keim John Romig Frank Schlough William Erdman M. E. Hornbeck Henr}' Riegel William Schlough S. C. D. Fogel Henry Helfrich William Hassler Thomas Cooper J. A. Fetherolf F. W. Quig Henry Grim W. Kistler Philip Palm Aaron Miller Edwin Martin Wilson Berlin Constantine Martin Robert Young Harvey Horn George Romig N. T. Hallman W. J. lyochman Peter Meyer Frank Erdman William Romig John Helfrich Albert Erdman William Romig W. LaMonte Gillette Henry German Thomas Gross Wm. Stein J. M. Wright PHYSICIANS Josiah Koch Fred Seiberling Daniel Shade Francis Frietag John Dickenshied E. S. Beaver L. B. Balliet Wilson Kistler E. G. Steinmetz Jeremiah Bowers H. T. Trumbauer Nathaniel Ritter F. M. Laubach W. E. Loyd James Cole Roger Hunt Palm Helfrich Thomas Scherer W. Hamersly William Rentzheimer Abraham Kistler Agnes Schloiigh B. P. Backus John Brobst Harvey Bean Charles Brobst Augustus Bancroft Louis Berkenieyer Oscar Blank Cornelius Bartholomew A. J. Becker Elmer Bruch William Brader Albert Bittner Joseph Blank Alfred Barrall Robert Blaksley G. T. Fox Jacob Feisel Gerhard Frick Robert Frey Harry Feller Ambrose Gery William Garvin Frank Garis Jacob Erdman Victor Tice George Aubrey John A. Roth William A. Riegel Albert Sovereen Oscar E. Schaeffer Edward Sell William Schantz Augustus Soper Charles Schaeffer Peter Steltz Daniel Shade Harvey Snyder Charles Seler W. O. Smith Harry Snyder George Seiberling John Siggins Samuel Swavely Peter Bleiler Morris F. Caw^ley Anna C. Clarke Charles Dare Henrj' Dunnell William Estes Horace Erb William Eschbach Edwin Eshleman John Egge Roger Hunt John A. Helfrich A. H. Howard William Hertzog George Haas Henry Herbst Irvin F. Huff Franklin Holben Emanuel Howerter A. Eugene Heimbach Mattie Hassler John Trumbauer Dallas Trumbauer A. Trumbauer Peter Wickert Joseph Weller Samuel Weam Charles Weida 10 3 Alfred Martin Daniel Yoder Monroe Holben S. A. Apple John Laross Robert King M. J. Kline Thomas Nagle Charles Martin Charles D. Martin John Trutnbauer Jacob Miller Eugene Mohr John Diller Thomas Strasser Louis Collins D. W. Follweiler E. h. Reichard Ralph Sowden Orlando Fegley Charles Apple William Hartzell Charles Meyer Mahlon Hill Tilghman Koons Daniel Hiestand Francis Ritter Albert Miller Joshua Seiberling Henry Clemens Edwin Miller J. D. Erdman James Pelles Welcome Powell E. A. Gearhart Edward Grewer Nathaniel Guth William Hacker C. L. Johnstonbaugh Edwin Kirkpatrick Alvin Kern John Kressly Bertram Klotz Eugene Kistler Nelson Kistler Edgar Klotz Isaac I. Kalbach Morgan Kern Frank Kessler Jesse Kistler John A. Laros F. M. Laubach E. Longshore Henry Leh James Lowright John Lehr Andrew Lieb William Laros Walter Levan Charles A. Moyer Miles MacLaggart Howard Mickley Jason Moore John Mack Thomas Nagle Nathaniel Peter Henry Riegel Franklin Scheirer David Williams John Williams Mitchell Walter Henry T. Wickert Martin Yost Norton Yeager Alfred Yost Nathan Ziegenfuss Roderick Albright M. J. Backenstoe E. M. Bingaman John S. Behm John N. Bauer Jacob T. Butz Henry Carmichael Leo F. Elsion Howard Fehr Robert Fly Irvin Heubner James Horn beck George Hubbell William Hertz Henry Keim Allan Kisner Palmer Kress George Krauss LeRoy Lechner George Lazarus H. A. Litzenberger Wallace Lowright E. S. Mantz R. C. Peters Robert Strasser H. T. Wickert *Joseph Dubbs R *N. S. Strassburger R *A. J. G. Dubbs R *Williah Helfrich R Eli Keller R J. J.Fogel R A. R. Bartholomew R J. Dubbs R *W. H. Richards L *Joshua Yeager L *S. K. Brobst L *J. Schindel L *W. H. Rath L T. L. Seip L J. D. Schindel L EMINENT DIVINES. Wm. Wackernagel L C. J. Cooper L *J.Wood P W. H. Heil U E C.K. Fehr E J. C. Bleim E A. R. Home L J. A. Little P M. C. Peters R *W. R. Hufford R T. J. F. Schantz L J. B. Rath L S. G. Wagner R *Jacob VanBuskirk R *W, G. Mennig L *Abraham Blumer R R. Lichtenwalner U. E. B. J. Schmoyer U. E. R. Kline P E. Thomas Bowman E. *Richard Walker P *Cornelius Earl P *Jeremiah Schindel L *J. C. Becker R *John Helfrich R • J. D. Acker U. E. J. D. Woodring U. E. E. S. Woodring U. E. J. A. Brunner U. E. J. Shirey U. E. I04 S. A. Repass L *J. Daniel Gross R H. J. GHck U. E. G. A. Geiss h *Deceased. R. Reformed, L. Lutheran, P. Presbyterian, U. E. United Evangelical, E. Evangelical Association, P. E. Protestant Episcopal. TEACHERS. Teachers that were granted Permanent Certificates from 1868 to 1901. R. K. Buehrle R. Clay Hammersley F. W. Siegfried F. G. Bernd J. O. Knauss G. W. Brinker E. D. Rhoads Anna M. Smith Katie M. Smith George P. Bates E. J. Haines A. E. Reichard William K. Derr Henry G. Paff Samuel C. Lee B. C. Snyder R. A. Little A. F. K. Krout J. Jacoby Rebecca Sigley Edvpin Breder Charlotte Bear Cecelia Wonderly F. S. Hartzell Owen R . Wilt Wm. T. Morris William Albright Joel P. Geiger Theodore Smith Edward Hermany Wm. R. Henninger Edwin Heilman George Kunkel E. A. Troxell E. J. Young F. B. Heller Mrs. C. Stoneback M. N. Bernhard Lewis P. Hecker B. F. Abbott L. B. Landis R. Kramm Ella T. Gabriel Annie Schwartz Alvin Rupp F. D. Raub M. Cawley P. B. Oswald Laura E. Busse J. George Kerschner C. Rhoads Solomon Rupp Henry Rupp H . Rosenberger H. S. Schell Sarah J. McTntyre M. Lizzie Steltz Margaret Sykes Wm. S. Eruey E. A. Nunnenmacher I. A. Conrad A. R. Ritter O. J. Heilman Mary M. Craig Hannah Davis J. J. Hauser George Kilpatrick Henry D. Andreas P. J. Lantz Anna Goth F. A. McCafferty M. V. Cafferty James F. Guth P. B. Nuss Maggie Roberts Chester A. Frantz N. N. Benfield E. R. Hottle Carrie Koons Clinton N. Bauder W. Nunnenmaker W. B. Neumoyer W. O. Lichtenwalner S. K. Wetzel O. P. Leh Samuel Kern Maurice Schmale H. W. Stephen J. W. Gernert W. E. Hoffman Annie Conaghan C. S. Kunkel Henry Kistler Carrie Wotring Lizzie Overfield Annie Kistler W. G. Gehman Jennie Wieder A. L. Christman Wilson Rex Frank Beary Belle Fulton Alonzo Hittle Sallie Heckrote George Haas Wm. Heilman S. E. Heilman Alice Kern Elmer Kistler Tillie Mann Jane Reichard John Ritter Mary Roth Orville Ritter Lewis Snyder Lillie Warnikessel Mary Weaver Emma Weida Margaret Home Mamie Diehl Aaron Greenwald Blanche Hallman Laura Mull H.J. Schaller S. F. Gehringer George Ross Alice E. Ay res I. H. Bartholomew Robert Norgang Minnie Blank Mary Daubert Hattie Dreifoos I05 Lewis Jacoby A. N. Ulrich Peter A. Lantz Frank J. Stettler Clara A. linger E.J. Young Wm. Knauss J. Winter Rogers L. J. Busse M. R. ShaflFer J. Muschlitz A. G. Romig Annie Haas A. J Herber R. D. Wotring Katie Lees Amanda Funk D. W. Benedict Sarah McHenry R. McMonagle T. F. Frederick Gertrude Keiper Lottie Smith E. Jane Sykes Joseph Brunner S. C. Schmoyer Charles Ott W. A. Henry Elsie Bittner Elsie Engle Sallie Hartman Population of Pennsylv&.nia from 1790 to I90O. 1790, 434.373 ; 1810, 810,091 ; 1830, 1,458, 233 ; 1800, 602,365 ; 1820, 1,047,507 ; 1840, 1,724,033 ; 1870, 3,521,951 ; 18S0, 4,282,821 ; 1890, 5,258,014 ; 1850, 2,311,786 i860, 2,906,215 ; 1900, 6,302,615. Population of Lehigh County from 1820 to 19OO. 1820, 18,895 ; 1830, 22,256; an increase of 3,361 ; increase per cent, of 17.7; 1840, 25,787; an increase of 3,531; increase per cent, of 11.3; 1S50, 32,479, an increase of 6,692 ; increase per cent, of 25.9 ; i860, 43,753 ; an increase of 11,271 ; increase per cent, of 34.7 ; 1870, 56,796 ; an increase of 13,043 ; increase per cent, of 29.8 ; 1880, 65,969 ; an increaseof 9,173; per cent, of 16. i ; 1S90, 76,631 ; an increase of 10,662 ; increase per cent, of 16.1 ; 1890, 93,893 ; an increase of 17,162 ; increase per cent. of22.5. io6 CHAPTER XV. EARLY CHURCHES AND SETTLERS. Mennonite Congregation was founded in 1735, is between OldpZionsville and Zionsville and among the first members of the congregation were : John Stahl Derrick Jensen Conrad Staunn Henry Schleififer George Weiss John Stauffer Abraham Meyer Ulrich Bassler Jacob Hiestand Daniel Stauffer John Meyer John Gehman Peter Meyer Henry Funk Michael Meyer Philip Geissinger Christian Musselman Rudolph Weiss Barbara Stauffer John Schantz Sarah Meyer Catharine Stauffer Daniel Greter Christian Oberholtzer Elizabeth Stauffer Henry Fretz Anna Meyer Great Swamp Church, was founded between the years 1725 and 1730, belongs to the Reformed Church. Among the members of the congregation were : Francis Rus Ulrich Rieser Ivudwig Bitting A. Diefenderfer Peter Lynn J. Schmidt Christian Miller N. Miller B. Weiss N. Kindig David Traub Andreas Graber John R. Kitweiler Ulrich Spinner "Barbara Rilser Moria C. Klein Jacob Witmer Annie M. Hillegass Jacob Eberhard Philip Eberhard John Hillegass 5> M. Hillegass George Klein Elizabeth Rieser Christian Willauer Catharine Rieser Jacob Dubbs Jacob Wetzel Jacob Wetzel, jr N. Kessler Felix Brunner J. Buskirk Joseph Eberhard Michael Eberhard Joseph Eberhard, jr Michael Eberhard, jr -4 Ulrich Spinner J. Bleyler Alsop Heger N. Hick J. Huber Abraham Kraft _j Henry Huber Jacob Huber Rudy Huber A. Huber N. Willauer John Huber, sr. John Huber, jr. ' Philip Boehm Valentine Kaiser Daniel Kocker N. Huber J. G. Titlow E. Dubbs, (Schwenk; Catharine Spinner John G. Ruch Eva Harlacher Anna M. Ruch John Rieser Anna M. Eberhard Sybilla Rieser Daniel Dubbs Casper Rieser George Mumbauer Eva Rieser John P. Mumbauer Henry Mumbauer Philip Ball I07 David Spinner Elizabeth Munibauer Catharine Eberhard George Harlacher John Dubbs Rudy Frick Abraham Titlow J. Nic Mannbauer Saul Saiiipsel Andrew Rieser John Blyler Conrad Schmidt John Dubbs Anna B. Blyler Rev. John Henry Goetschius, was the first Pastor. Chestnut Hill Church was founded in 1757. Among the members of the congregation that established the church were the following : George Olewein Yost Olewein Jacob Smith Martin Schwenk Jacob Bilthaus Christopher Heller Nicholas Franz George Welden Peter Kurtz Jacob Huber John Gottwalt John Schumacher Christian Miller Peter Schlosser Peter Long Andrew Englenian Frederick Dellicker and First Reformed pastors known were Rev. Casper Mack. Nain, an Indian village, was situated in Hanover township, Lehigh county, two miles northwest of Bethlehem and one mile east of Rittersville, on what was formerly Geissinger's farm, later known as the Mack farm, was founded as a home for converted Indians and was their home for five years from 1757 to 1762. Shoenersville church was organized in 1780 by Rev. John Faust, the first Lutheran minister and Rev. Gross, the first Reformed minister. There were twenty-four communicants at the organization of the church. The first church built in 17S0 was a log building which was replaced in 1S19 by a stone structure, and in 1872 by the present church. Schwenkfelders were among the first settlers in the lower part county, at Hosensack where the following settlers lived and are buried : of the Abraham Kriebel Jeremiah Yeakel George Yeakel Baltzer Yeakel Melchoir Yeakel Casper Yeakel Jacob Seibert Baltzer Schultz Jeremiah Krauss Peter Gerhard Barbara Gerhard Susanna Yeakel Anna Yeakel Casper Yeakel Rosina Yeakel David Krauss Andrew Schultz Maria Homiller Melchior Schubert Anna Schubert Anna Krauss Rev. George Kriebel was the first pastor of the congregation at Hosen- sack. The congregation at Kraussville was founded in 1772 upon land formerly owned by George Schumacher, in 1734, who sold it to Baltzer Krauss, Sr., in 1749 and he sold it to his sou Baltzer Krauss, Jr., in 1772, who deeded it to the trustees of the congregation, who used it for a cemetery and erected thereon a church in 1815. The following were among the members of the congregation : John Krauss Andrew Krauss George Krauss Jacob Kreibel George Schultz Samuel Schultz David Yeakel Charles Yeakel Christopher Neuman Jacob Gerhard Jeremiah Meschter Christopher Yeakel Casper Yeakel Baltzer Krauss, sr. Anna Andreas Susanna Krauss Baltzer Krauss, jr. Maria Krauss Rosina Hunsberger Anna Kriebel io8 The Dillingersville congregation was founded in 1735 from which origin- ated the Zionsville church. Among the founders of the congregation were Henry Reiss Christian A. Giithman Jacob Busch Leonard Lutz John Mechlin John Post Henry Dielinger Andrew Eckhard Martin Weitknecht Casper Ritter Michael Moser Peter Ross Peter Wentz Matthias Ochs The first pastor known was Rev. L. H. Schrenke. berg visited this congregation. The present Zionsville Lutheran Church, was founded in 1757 and 1758. The pastor was Rev. Rchaffer, Peter Hittle gave the land upon which the church is built. Among the first members of the congregation were : Rev. H. M. Muhlen- Frederick Kemmerer Henry Kemmerer Jacob Kemmerer Adam Gaummer Peter Kehl Balthaser Fettermau Annie E. Schwartz Cassimer Fetterman Herman Fetterman Jacob Stocker Andrew Stocker John G. Yeakel George Huft David Schartz The Reformed Church at Zionsville, was founded between 1740 and 1750. One of the first ministers of the Reformed Church was Rev. John Hecker., Among the early members of the congregation were : Christian Reinhard Gabriel Koehler Philip Flexer Jacob Rum f eld Anna C. Derrin John Fisher Anna C. Reiss Anthon Stabler John Ortt Nicholas Schwartz John Metzer Matthias Kem Eva Kem John. Reiss John G. Reiss Apolonia Schuler AnnaJVI. Hertzog Anthony Schuler Philip Walter Dcuuel Schwartz Yost Wieand Jacob Arner George Reinhard Adam Strickard Michael Ernet Philip Fisher Stephen Wander John Nic Seidel Peter Arnold Joes Leischel George Hartzel Henry Yeakel Peter Merkel Simon Schneider George Derr Peter Troutman Michael Schuley Martin Mack Anna Rosina Danison Christian Dabhnannin Margaritta Dielin Anna C. Folkin Anna B. Kercherin Maria C. Flexer Barbara Henserin Anna M. Steininger Elizabeth Metzerin Ursula Spiegelsin Early settlers of Upper Saucon township were the following : Christian Newcomb (leorge Lobus John Yoder Christian Smith Samuel Newcomb Fclty Staymetz (ieorge Troon Owen Owen Thomas Owen John Thomas William Murray r^Iichael Narer Adam Wanner John Williams John Tool Joseph Samuel Isaac Samuel John Appel Henry Kehrer George Marsteller Henry Rumfield George Hertzel Henry Hertzel Christian Laubach John Danishaus Jacob Mauser Frederick Weber Max Gumschafer Rudolph Oberly Michael Lintz Joel Arnimer Rudolph Illig George Bachman Daniel Cooper Michael Landis David Rinker 109 Jacob Hertzel Matthias Menscher Dieter Kauss George P'reiman George Peter Knecht Peter Risser Paul Frantz Matthias Riegel Jacob Muschlitz Jacob Seider Joseph Frey Christian Heller George Brinker John Matthias Eichner Daniel Cooper John George Blank Jacob Gonner George Bockman Philip Kissinger Henry Rinehard John Reeser Henry Bowman Benedic Koman Henry Rinkard, jr. Frederick Wittman They had no wagons, horses, cattle, farming implements or provisions and often they had to go to the settlements on the Lehigh to get grains and other necessary articles. During the French and Indian war, 1754 to 1763, many of the settlers of Heidelberg and Lynn townships fled to Bethlehem and other places for protection from the Indians. Western Salisbury Church, founded in 1741. First Lutheran pastor Rev. John William Straub, Rev. Daniel Schumacher, was the first Lutheran pastor after the church had joined the Synod, 1753. The date of the erection of the second church is not known, but the third one was built in 1819. Among the first mem- bers of the congregation who lived, died and are buried at the Western Salisbury Church were : John G. Glick Adam Dorney Elias Weber George Keck George H. Mertz Michael Bastian John P. Kohler Christopher Bortz Jacob Danner Jacob Wieand George Bieber Henry Diefenderfer Martin Lazarus On Geissinger's farm is the burial place of Solomon Jennings, and his wife and also 10 or 12 Revolutionary Soldiers, Saucon is an Indian word mean- ing, — the valley, — where the creek has its beginning. Northampton County was taken from Bucks County in 1752 and the county line of Northampton was made by John Chapman, John Watson, jr., and Samuel Foulke, the following counties were taken from Bucks County : North- ampton, Lehigh, Monroe, Pike, Wayne, Susquehanna, Wyoming, Luzerne, Lackawanna and part of Schuylkill and Northumberland counties. The early settlers of the Macungies were George M. Brader Lorentz Klein Henry Kemmerer Christian Schneider Conrad Marck Christian Andreas Martin Ritter Peter Trexler Peter Walbert Jeremiah Trexler Joseph Albrecht Jacob Wagner Melchoir Schmidt George Steininger John Lichtenwalner William Meyer Henry Steininger Jacob Schlauch Lorentz Schaadt Bernard Schmidt Frederick Roraich He \ Trexler Peter Haas Philip Henry Rapp, The first Reformed The Lehigh Church was founded in 1745 by Rev, Lutheran minister. The first church was built in 1750. minister was Rev. C. G. Herman. Ziegel's Church was founded in 1745 and was later known as the Ma- cungie Church. The first members of this congregation were the families of Carl, Fenstermacher, Haas, Zimmerman, Reichard, Brauss, Schmidt, Schneider, Lynn, Mayer, Neff, Bernhardt. In 1771 Adam Brauss and Jacob Grim deeded the prop- erty to the congregation. Trexlertown Church was founded in 1784 by John Helfrich, The Evangelical Association's first church within the County was organ- ized in 1828 in Upper Milford township near Zionsville and the first building was erected in 1831. Bishop John Seybert was the first one to preach in these parts. Rev. W. W. Orwig and Charles Hammer were the first pastors. Among the first members were David Schubert, Christopher Schubert, George Yeakel, Peter Wiest and others. Early Settlers of the County. Valentine Clader Adam Clader Jacob Clader Henry Kramer Mr. Hartzel Mr. Hatz Jacob Bast Jonathan Ott George Ervenreider John C. Yeager Henry Beitel Christian Beitel Charles Colver Peter Kelchner Henry Fatzinger Michael Kelchner Jacob Arndt Andrew Martin Jacob Coltner Andrew Clymer Henry Diehl Jacob Daubenspeck Tobias Eberth John Eberth Leonard Foot Henry Francis Henry Frey Leonard Fahr Philip Fiddler Henry Frantz John Feller Christopher Fahr Peter Frantz John Frey Jacob Frey Francis Gilpner Peter Granwall Adam German Henry Geiger HANOVER TOWNSHIP. Daniel Flint Joseph Albright Henry Fogelman Jacob Sterner George Meyer Nicholas Steiner Anna Laubach George Laubach John G. Kurtz Joseph Dewalt Barbara Quier Daniel Ouier Michael Reichard Abraham Sterner Christian Sterner HEIDELBERG TOWNSHIP. Nicholas Handwerk Peter Herger Henry Hair George Hafe Martin Kooger Frederick Kern George Knedler John Kuntz John Kunkel Michael Kunkel John Kern John Lapp Robert Levers Christian Lanahuer John Lintz Christian Langenohr Jacob Mowrer Jacob Moyer Peter Miller Peter Missimer Conrad Marms Felix Mantsingler Peter Musgenong John Sterner Barbara Sterner John Keim John Kelchner Jacob Keiper John Keiper Ludwig Keiper Abraham Keiper Joseph Kidd John Knauss Philip Kleckner Jacob Hauer Jonathan Hauer Christian Young Henry Brader Rudolph Peter Elias Painter Adam Reeder Peter Reege John Rhoads John Rockel William Rex Charles Ross Peter Raigh Michael Ramilie John Ruckel Peter Ruch Jacob Reedy John Rumple Conrad Reedy Henry Reinhart Andrew Shitler Frederick Schneider Melchior Schultz Daniel Schneider George Siegler Lawrence Simon William Silfoose Francis Giltner Frederick Giltner Jacob Giltner Joseph Garber Henry Hauser Henry Hoffman Michael Hevener Michael Hiskey John Handwerk Elizabeth Hoffman Heidelberg Church Jacob Peter Casper Peter William Peter John Hunsicker Jacob Mayer David Gisi Conrad Wirtz Frederick Niseli Ulrich Neff Henry Hoffman Peter Miller Henry Roeder George Kriim Jorg Schmaltz Henry Ohl Jacob Reidy Michael Fritzinger Michael Avers Peter Boll Valentine Bermerhoflf Martin Buehman John Bear Adam Kline John Correll Peter Derr Peter Doutface Michael Dieber Andrew Eschbach Martin Eighler George Ebenhart Martin Eutert Jacob Froch Henry Fuerbach Lowhill Church, Jacob Bachman, jr Jort George Nicholas Mauserbach Conrad Miller George Meal Ulrich Neff Ulrich Henry Neff Henry Oswald Michael Ohl Henry Ohl Henry Polinger Charles Pennington Jacob Peter was organized in 1740. Ulrich Sensinger Jorch Recks Peter Handwerk John Krauss Michael Mosser Daniel Burger Nickel Klein Henry Oswald Adam Winsch Leonard Mayer Andreas Schissler Frederick Schneider Jonas Matzinger Rudolph Peter Philip Wangheman John Weaver Simon Weho LOWHILL TOWNSHIP. Peter Frantz Philip Fenstermacher Henry Hauser Christian Hoffman John Hartman Jacob Horner Michael Kimbell Philip Kerger George Kint John Klotz Henry Krellon Jacob Klotz Michael Mosser Peter Neider George Oldwine George Lind Teeter Seidler Christian Smith Christian Schmidt Henry Smith Frederick Snyder Philip Lehr Jacob Traubespeck George Welger Jacob Weaver First members were Peter Woodring Casper Weaver Leonard Wassen John Yeager George Ziegler Henry Kistler Philip Hess Solomon Walter Frank Walter Creorge Newhard Nickel Burger Michael Ruch Peter Miller Jacob Schlung Hans Ulrich Arndt John Niessle was organized in 1769. Andreas Eschbach John Hartman John George Jacob Riffle Maudlin Robenholder Andrew Rees David Riffle Jacob Row Zachary Satler Henry Shedd John Christian Stahl Andrew Sendell Peter Sell Andrew Sclizer Reynard Vogdeas John Wolfshurter Jacob Weimer John Conrad Redd First members were Peter Weiss George George Engel Thomas Jacob Bachman, Sr. Nicholas Bachman Christopher Knorr Henry Kempfer Peter Kocher Paul Bachman John Simon George Sylvester Holben William Holben Elizabeth Reichel Bernhard Schneider J. W. Schneider Peter Ball Abraham Knorr Lorenz Bachman Frederick Schneider Henry Ohl Michael Deibert John Teissluss Cathrine Ennes Christian Reiss John Reinschmidt William Stump Nicholas Kocher LYNN TOWNSHIP Valentine Barontheisel Michael Miller Michael Baumgardner Michael Moser Henry Brenigh Peter Beisel Jacob Billman Martin Brobst Michael Buck Peter Baldauf Jacob Barr Henry Bredieh Adam Clause Adam Creitz Gottleib Dennet John Everitt George Enos Philip Enos Philip Eberth Thomas Everitt Gabriel Foagher John Flugh Samuel Friess Daniel Heister George Harmony Zachary Heller Christian Henry Abraham Kerper Henry Kuntznian Jacob Kistler John Kistler Henry King Evan Long Jacob Leeser Simon Moser Jacob Muntz Conrad Muntz Lawrence Miller Christian Miller Frederick Michael Adam Miller George Nongener George Neiss John Neart George Oswald Daniel Oswald David Pillman Adam Potts Michael Poke Henry Pedneck Godfried Peatzle Mathias Rhoads Baltzer Redenhower Henry Rubrecht Job Siegfried Charles Straub Henry Snyder Andrew Leachler Nicholas Smith Jacob Snyder Melchoir Geer Gabriel Vogel Sebastian Verner Martin Wydsell Michael Brobst, Sr. John A. Geiss Jacob Bar William Schmetten Jacob Musserylang George A. Guthekunst Adam Duess Jacob Horner George Folk Philip Fenstermacher Mathias Schliman Nicholas Impody Philip Wertman George Witzell Henry Wiuderstein Michael Wertman Baltzer Yeager George Zimmerman George Hermany Peter Hunsicker Jacob Fetterolf Peter Fetterolf Philip Fetterolf John Fetterolf John Heil Marcus Wanneniacher Jacob Wannemacher Philip Wannemacher Casper Wieser Sylvester Holben John Holben Solomon Holben Bernhard Follweiler Edwin Schitz Joseph Gibson Christian Weber George L. Schut Henry Oswald Philip Gabriel Vogel -" Conrad Vogel John Vogel Valentine Schneider Jacob Lynn Peter Lutz Ebenezer Church, was founded in 1740. The first members were Peter Scholl Peter Beisel Mathias Schitz William Mayer Stephen Gross Abraham Schellhammer Philip Schuman Martin Grentler Ehrhard Ziesloff Jacob Grunewald Michael Fenstermacher Jacob Oswald H3 Henry Widerstein Bernhard Schneider Aaron Hartzell Jacob Hoflfman Jacob Lynn Christian Miller Joseph Gerber John Schmidt Burkhardt Mosser Michael Bock Michael Hattinger Peter Kirschner George Moltz George Hahn John Lichtenwalner John Kuntz Abraham Yeakel Hans Jacob'Moyer Nicholas Meyer Balthaser Yeakel Richard Hockley Richard Johnson William Mohry Herman Mohr Philip Gabriel Vogel Eqidus Grim John George Guth Jacob Schwartz George Rupp George L. Breinig George Schall lacob Witchner George F. Schaffer Michael Schaeffer Frederick Roniig Adam Desh Conrad Haas Sylvester Holben Michael Habbes Adam Brentz George Brenner Philip Mosser Philip Wertman Philip Antoni Martin Schuck Dietrich Sittler Melchoir Duer Jacob Manz Joseph Holder UPPER MACUNGIETOWNSHIP Henry Hauss Conrad Billman John Kressley Andreas Straub Thomas Everitt Henry Konig George Kistler Abraham Offenbach Adam Arndt Jacob Donatt Frederick Hess William Heintz Daniel Schmoyer Casper Blyler Conrad Bean John Baar Jacob Eagner Andrew Eisenhart George Free Nicholas Free Christian Gorr Jacob Hoenberger George Hoflfman Adam Heberly Leonard Heychler John Jarrett Edward Jarret Jacob Koller Philip Kebler George Kebler LOWER MACUNGIE TOWNSHIP. Peter Butz Joseph Albrecht Philip Lauer Philip Christman Rev. Jacob VanBuskirk George Kerr George Mayne John Miller Henry Nobloch John Overcast John Reiss Andrew Reissell Casper Reiss Valentine Schick Jacob Shoemaker Jacob Strong Frederick Sikes Frederick Seitz Philip Shearer Martin Speigle Peter Trexler Godfried Tippendewer Jacob Wagner Matthias Weaver Adam Singmaster Peter Miller Lewis Larose John Y. Erdman Lehigh Church, Jeremiah Trexler John Matthias Egner M. Knappenberger John P. Fetherolf William Fegley Daniel Schmeier Frederick Seitz Christian Schmeier Jacob Barth was founded in 1740. The first members were Nicholas Schmidt Andreas Eisenhard Adam Moser Jacob Herman John Dietrich Valentine Meckley Gaumer Matthias Steinlein Michael Warmkessel Jacob Koller Bastian Druckenmiller Jacob Stephan George Christ Philip Drescher George Acker Stophel Miller Michael Shiffert Christian Gorr Balzer Federman 114 John Peter Klein Jacob Wagner Jacob Wagner Jacob Banner George Ruch Mathias Heinli George Adam Bortz John Dee Frederick Basserman Philip Boehm Christopher Eschbach George Hoffman Conrad Hertzel John Kurtz Benedict Needingler Jacob Rickey John Raun William Raup Joseph Samuels Henry Brunner David Owen Philip Geissinger John Reeser Casper Wister George Zervitz Christian Newcomer John Bush Michael Cyder Henry Keiber Henry Taylor Owen Owen Christopher Hansel Samuel Newcomer William Murry George Bachman Henry Rumfield John Rothrock Henry Weber Conrad Walp Jacob Walp Andrew Walp Valentine Young George Marsteller John Tool Valentine Steinmetz Michael Weaver Benedict Camen Balthauser Beil John Appel Simon Ham Lorentz Schod Andreas Trexler Martin Boger Peter Mattern Emanuel Pfeiffer Lorentz Kuchele Matthias Ludwig SALISBURY TOWNSHIP. George Spahn Abraham Transue George Weiss Solomon Jenning Jacob Geissinger Henry Knauss Martin Ritter T. Kemmerer Henry Keck Joseph Zimmerman UPPER SAUCON TOWNSHIP. Richard Thomas John Blackledge John Yoder George Strahan Peter Hillegas John Pugh Abraham Danahower John Bitz Carl Ludwig Keiper John Thomas Tobias Bahl Christian Meiner Samuel Everhard Kopp Peter Marsteller Christian Rinker Thomas Mayberry Adam Warner Rev. J. Berkenstock Peter Fuchs George Reinhard John Miller Philip Trapp Andrew Wint Henry Cressman Peter Meesemer John Ludwig Erasmus Boschim Frederick Derfinger Daniel Smith John Elfree Jacob Schankweiler Leonard Kuhns Conrad Kolb George Seller Joseph Albrecht John Weber Adam Desch Henry Koch Lorenz Klein Christopher Klein Bieber Philip Klein Nicholas Uberoth John Adam Euberoth William Line Jacob Spinner Jacob Merkel G. W. Moritz Daniel Diehl George Dutt John Koehler Anthony Boehm Jacob Bachman Philip Sharry Valentine Sherer Conrad Miller Frederick Gardner Matthias Egner Matthias Otto Jacob Gangewre Ludwig Bush Adam Kurtz John Philip Flexer John Adam Stout Cornelius Crump Christian Fry George Bastian Jacob Kiebler Adam Romich Richard Thomas Peter Reinhard Bastian Nave Tobias Paul Peter Bower Michael Flexer Leonard Boydelman Andrew Erdman Charles L. Koch John Erdman Equithius Grim Adam Braus Peter Grim Ludwig Reichard Conrad Neflf Daniel Knauss Michael Brobst Jacob Greenewald Daniel Stettler David Xander Casper Sunn Berndt Rupert Nicholas Beesaker Ziegel Church, founded in 1749 The first members were Adam Brauss . Ludwig Reichard Bernhard Smidt Nicholas Mayer Peter Haas WEISENBERG TOWNSHIP. Daniel Zollner Philip Henn Jacob Stein Gottleib Ettinger Adam Bear Killian Leiby John Leiby Jacob Holben Jacob Schumacher John George Schumacher Abraham Knerr Peter Herber Sebastian Werley 115 John Derr Rev. Daniel Schumacher George Rupp Nicholas Gehringer Leonard Danner Christian Seiberling Philip Wendel Klein Jacob Earner Rev. John H. Helfrich Frederick Hyneman Charles Hire John Bear Jacob Bear Known at first astheMacungie church. Jorch Schaffer Karl Oorn Urham Friebel John Merkel Daniel Krauss Michael Hotz John Hergerether Equtius Grim Zacharias Heller Frederick Windisich Adam Weber George Boyer John N. Gift George Zimmerman Michael Old Henry Gagenbach Melchior Ziegler - Philip Breinig Peter Heimbach Bartholomew Miller George Leibensperger Jacob Kuntz Albrecht Hummel David Nuzgenug Michael Confort Andreas Sassamenhausen George Schumacher >/ Melchior Seib Henry Miller Weisenberg Church, was founded in 1747. Peter Herber Jacob Herber Peter Weiss Jacob Holben Theodore Kempfer John Ehrenhard Henry Krechloch John Krechloch Jacob Bachman Christian Miller Andreas Riess John Carral George Zimmerman John Zerfass Valentine Derr Henry George John George Michael Bieber Michael Bock George Emery Schick Andrew Sinckell George Sieger George Kneedler George Schissler Eberhard Schmidt George Kind John Adam Klein Sebastian Werley Peter Frantz John DeLong Jacob Heilman Frederick Seiberling Matthias Schnieder John Dietrich Herman John Vogel Jacob Rummel John Herman Conrad Neflf John Heider Adam Schmidt Philip Klein John Bar Jacob Goho Frauz Wesco Yost Schlicher Philip Fenstermacher Jacob Acker George Falk Daniel Heftier Jacob Weitknecht John Doll The first members were Frederick Weigand Jacob Senser Jost Diehl Sebastian Gehringer Michael Hallenbach Peter Rabenold John Mayer Peter Bahl Daniel Stettler John A, Giess John Knerr John U. Weiss Christopher Frey John Daniel Werley Michael Thomas Casper Bittner Casper Hartman ir6 Adam Bar Leonard Fry Jacob Greenawald Wendel Holben Michael Broucher Nicholas Kemp Martin Buchman Abraham Diehl Michael Hoffman Lynford Lardner Peter Troxell Jacob Kohler Christian Steckel ,_John Mickley Adam Deschler Anthony Deschler David Deschler Ulrich Burkhalter John C. Leisenring Ulrich Flickinger Paul Balliet John N. Saeger Paul Gross Melchior Sieger John Schaad George Ruch John Woodring Christian Bear Adam Romich Jacob Graff Martin Semmel Nicholas Kern Lorentz Guth Casper Wister Casper Peters Henry Hoffman John Rober John Rachel Adam Rachel Jacob Rex Wm. Fenstermacher Peter Handwerk Michael Wehr John Kunkel Michael Kunkel George Kunkel Leonard Wasson Henry Hartman William Schmetter Andrew Eschbach Peter Kocher Peter Schopp Philip School Valentine Kramlich WHITEHALL TOWNSHIP. George Ringer Michael Kelchner Joseph Showalter Christopher Kern George Koehler Joseph Bosler John Schreiber George Newhard John Eastburn Godfrey Knauss Jacob Wertz NORTH WHITEHALL TOWNSHIP. Michael Laury Adam Scheuerer Anthony Frantz Sebastian Miller Michael Newhard Adam Schneck Leonard Schis.sler John Lichtenwalner Henry Geiger John Ulrich Ahlmer SOUTH WHITEHALL TOWNSHIP Jacob Henninger George Wenner John Troxell WASHINGTON TOWNSHIP Andreas Kunkel Henry Geiger Ambrose Remaly George Remaly Adam German Henry Hauser Nicholas Handwerk George Hofe Frederick Kern John Kuntz John Kunkel Michael Kunkel John Bar John Schissler Henry Schissler Leonard Schlosser Peter Schlosser George L. Schutz Henry Brunner George Hoffman Michael Harlacher Daniel Harlacher Christopher Blank Michael Kolb Adam Miller Stephen Snyder Jacob Schnarr Alexander Diefenderfer Jacob Yundt Henry Biery Philip Diehl Felix Arner John Hertzog Peter Burkhalter Jacob Saeger Nicholas Marcks Jacob Mickley Nicholas Allemang Adam Brown Samuel Sieger John Troxell Peter Steckel John Kem « Jacob Moyer Jacob Mowrer Peter Missemer George Nyhart Henry Oswald Jacob Peters Rudolph Peters Adam Reeder John Ruck el Peter Ruch Simon Wehr 0\ ON-n onftOu-iOCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQOO ^ CT^ COoEo^SjOOtoOOOOioCouoOOOOOtoO <3^ ■S^ Ih ^^ xnM ^ ro n o -^vD fo uo u lo JO o vg. ';o ^^ ^g '^ VO^M M (N i-H "OOVD^ fD'-i r<5^ t^^ t^ lO •^ lO >0^0 ro tJ (N ONCO ro O ro OnCO t^r^iOror^t^OMOrOli'''"';^ iS,'? 2 r? 1? (N rO^ O^C0 (NMt^fOCtOOiOOfOOi-'V? 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"^ ^'Si> rt "-^i a -* ":t ONCO CN lO t-- O tt co lonO lo t^ r^co r^ r-.co CO CO CO CO 00 oc O O t^ O OnnO CO UO CO ID "^ -^ CO SO CO X CO oo \0 cO On >-' I-' cO t^ CO "* CO CO lO lO CO CO CO CO CO 00 CO 00 a 5 >N o ^U-s.^. i; ' a a o'ji f^r^ 1-^^ o o v."^ '^ "^ o ^ i;i;a--'U>,aj;cn V- a a 4J a ^ t;^ o TO 1-. .^ ti a ct: <U ^ ^ ^ V. ^ ■- ^ , • -X^ a f^ a s: >■ J. • TO (/) ca D 1-^ f^ S il in -a 55 ^ ■ •-■ a • r- E ^ -? a ' o6ii JO tionmiistioo 8^81 JO uoiimnsuo^ Eo:; o a 4J u en .^ a -^ ■*-* en H TO TO JS I/! ;n t. a; rt l; 1) .^ -^ a -^ 3 — i a r. ^.^ c ;;; ca.23 en fc oS > Ji ^ is > t^^i ^ ^J a <^ a o TOi a o c •^ o to - s:^^ ,u o :? h-: 1 Cig' JO uoiinijisaoo NOTE :— Under the Constitution of 1790, a Governor could serve 9 years out of 12 years. Under the Constitution of 183S, he could serve 6 \'ears out of 9 years. Under the Constitution of 1873, he could serve i term of 4 years only and he cannot be re-elected to succeed himself. Valuation of Lehigh County for 190I. AUentown, Taxables, 13,042 ; Real estate valuation, |;2o,290,3ii ; County assessment, 120,594,216; County tax, 145,307.11 ; State tax, 118,778.94 ; Money on interest, $4,694,729. Catasauqua, Taxables, 1,266 ; Real estate valuation, |i, 715. 745- County assessment, $1,770915; County tax, $3,896.00; State tax, |i, 964.44 ; Coopersburg, Taxables, 222 ; Real estate valuation, $266,310 ; County assessment, $288,300 ; County tax, $633.25 ; State tax, $969.44. Coplay, Taxables 617 ; Real estate valuation, $501,495, County assessment, $543,035 ; County tax $1,- 19469 ; State tax, $113.29. Emaus, Taxables, 539 ; Real estate valuation, $433,745 ; County assessment, $478,835 ; County tax, $r 052 99 ; State tax, $60211. Foun- tain Hill, Taxables, 374 ; Real estate valuation, $700,525; County assessment, $576,530 ; County tax, $1,268.36 ; State tax, $59226. Macungie, Taxables, 337; Real estate valuation, $271,661 ; County assessment, $287,281 ; County tax, $632.01 ; State tax, $573 Slatington, Taxables. 1,315 ; Real estate valuation, $1,070,256 ; County assessment, $1,178,995; County tax, $2,593.79; State tax, $519. West Bethlehem, Taxables, $1595; Real estate valuation, $1,326,663; County assessment, $1,308,928 ; County Tax, $3,099.63 ; State Tax, $773-49- Hanover, Taxables, 1,370; Real estate valuation. $1,473,798; County assessment, $1,525,618 ; County tax, $3,356 36 ; State tax, $1,255 26. Heidelberg, Taxables, 486 ; Real estate valuation, $569,088 ; County assessment, $600,034 ; County tax, $1,320 05. State tax, $5,694 32. Lower Macungie, Taxables, 1076 ; , Real estate valuation, $1,360,906 ; County assessment, $1,450,106; County tax, $3,190.24 ; State tax, $599.46. Lower Milford, Taxables, 507 ; Real estate valua- tion, $701,590 ; County assessment, $736,480 ; County tax, $1,620.25 ; State tax, $651.81. Lowhill, Taxables, 256 ; Real estate valuation, $315,307 ; County assess- ment, $325,9x7 ; County tax, $717.02 ; State tax, $206.58. Lynn Taxables, 686; Real estate valuation, $1,131,860 County assessment, $1,177,212 ; County tax, $2,589 85 ; State tax, $587.64. North Whitehall, Taxables, 1,165 ; Real estate valuation, $1,250,561 ; County assessment, $1,335- 271 ; County tax, 3:2,938.59 ; State tax, $672.40. Salisbury, Taxables, 1789 ; Real estate valuation, 11,776,864 ; County assessment, $1,898,819 ; County tax, $4,177 40 State tax, $582.96. South Whitehall, Taxables, 820 ; Real estate valuation, $1,459- 755 ; County assessment, $1,506,955 ; County tax, $2,315.30; State tax, $78097. Upper Macungie, Taxables, 756 ; Real estate valuation, $1,168,804 ; County assess- ment, $1,216,904 ; County tax, $2,677.18 ; State tax, $406.49. Upper Milford, Tax- ables, 1042 ; Real estate valuation, $1,505,307; County assessment, $1,083,271; County tax, $2,383.20 ; State tax, $845.77. Upper Saucon, Taxables, 1024 ; Real estate valuation, $1,140,040 ; County assessment, $1,233,775 ; County tax, $2,714.31 State tax, $967.67 ; Washington, Taxables, 1,041 ; Real estate valuation, $825,- 025 ; County assessment, $896,396 ; County tax, $1,972.07 ; State tax, 567.72 ; Weisenberg, Taxables, 492 ; Real estate valuation, $591,535 ; County assessment, $607,048 ; County tax. $1,335.50 ; State tax, $349,39. Whitehall, Taxables, 2,646; Real estate valuation, $3,398,340 ; County assessment, $3,512,635 ; County tax, $7,728,02; State tax, 5857.14. Total valuation, Taxables, 34,625 ; Real estate, $44,735.91. County assess- ment, $46,233,726 ; County tax, $101,714.12 ; State tax, $34,767.96 ; Cleared land, 174,957 acres ; Timber land, 18,175 acres ; County debt none. LEHIGH COUNTY'S DEBT. HOW IT HAS BEEN PAID OFF IN THIRTY YEARS. In 1873 Lehigh county had a debt of 1404,742.61 In 1886 the last rem- nant of indebtedness was paid off, and no other has been created since. The total amount of county taxes levied and collected from 1856 to 1886 was 14,227 - 82S.34. Receipts. 1856 $ 26,064.79 1857 28, 979-39 1858 68.874.33 1859 87,354.66 i860 55,353-10 I86I 91,006.09 1862 118,881.36 1863 153,267.28 1864 120,713.76 1865 146,112.85 1866 199.402.97 1867 290,022.29 1868 198,997.43 1869 245.658.55 1870 367,904.25 I87I 330,392.86 1872 296,999.08 1873 273,232.51 1874 153,38947 1875 160,437.34 1876 161,967.25 1877 136311.87 1878 148.807.71 1879 154,394.58 1880 141,056.28 1 881 120,137.59 1882 129.955.30 1883 133,573.35 1884 157,488.96 1885 135,289.46 Expenditures I 22,625.01 26,505 03 64,909.36 83,352.24 46,606 24 85,54694 87,236.69 121,591.69 106,172.56 134,285.58 193,155-14 264,931.29 191,958.01 215,345-94 357,332-51 521,765.42 232,168.88 248,092.25 114,479.23 i37,3ri-65 143,315.01 108,057.27 116,186 47 134,300.54 119,659.14 102,364.19 95,572.79 88,135.97 119,558.98 118,333,56 Debt $ 5,840.00 6,540.00 15,549.00 29,449.00 29,849.00 31,349.00 33,683.06 59,321.43 57,289,11 72,776.24 134,897.67 258,922.74 288,457.87 305,891.34 290,945.83 315,028.95 311,603.68 404,742.61 250,586.30 235,697.17 192,984.17 158,730.17 148,298.17 144,94948 110,960.72 74,898.72 62,702.72 46,334-72 40,609.72 34,795.00 CENSUS REPORT. The following figures were taken show Lehigh's importance as a manufactu Establishments, Invested in land. Invested in buildings, Invested in machinery and implements Cash and sundries. Total capital invested Proprietors Salaried officials Salaries Wage earners Wages Men over 16 years Wages Women over 16 years 1,043 I 2,328,543 7,445,807 tools 6,200,807 10,279,056 26,254,303 1,252 687 640,083 16,463 6,223,386 12,243 5,361,620 3,121 from the official census report and ring centre : Wages 710,695 Children under 16 years 1,100 Wages 151,071 Miscellaneous expenses : Rent of works 151,269 Taxes, not including internal Revenue 62,829 Rent of offices, interest etc. 1,279,692 Contract work 529,855 Total miscellaneous expenses 2,041,644 Cost of materials, including mill supplies and freight 15,833,723 Total cost of materials 17,593,067 Value of products 31,250,205 122 Have you ever stopped to consider what a prompt historian the the daily newspaper is ? The AUentown MORNING CALL has always aimed to present the complete news of Lehigh County as promptly as possible and that this is appreciated is attested by its large and well distributed circulation covering the entire county. Delivered in the City early each morning and reaches every Post Office in the County on the Day of Publication. UNSURPASSED AS AN ADVERTISING MEDIUM. 123 Marcus C. L. Kline. ATTORN EY-AT-LAW S27 HAMILTON ST., STii.ES buiuoing ALLENTOWN. PA. MILK and CREAM. Buy your milk fresh from the dairy. None but pure milk and fresh cream handled. Milk deliv- ered to all parts of the city. Watch for MOLLET'S Milk De- livery Team. HARRY A. MOLLET Mountainville, Pa. P. O. AUentown, Pa. D. Fritz. J. R. Wahler. FRITZ & WAHLER, Staple and Fancy Groceries. Provasions and Meats, Teas, Coflfees, Canned Goods, Etc. Fresh Eggs and Choice Butter. 4th jwnd Gordon Sts., AUentown. Pa. John F. Kemmerer, Goods delivered to all parts of the city. Lehigh 'Phone. MUSICIAN, 1 8 SOUTH FIFTH ST., EMAUS,PA TEACHER OF PIANO AND ORGAN. For L0C&.I History You are concerned about. CAREFULLY COMPILED. READ THE MACINGIE PROGRESS. Published Weekly at MACUNGIE, PA. An excellent Advertising Medium. J. C. RACE, Cor. Third and Main Sts,, Emaus, Pa. Dealer in all kinds of Fresh and Smoked Meats, Groceries and Green Groceries. Which will be sold at lowest Cash Prices. 124 PHAON C WEAVER Notary Public, Real Estate and Collecting Agent, P.O. Box 322. EMAUS, PA. Reuben Stettler, Dealer in Flour, Feed, Grain Baled Hay and Straw. Emaus, Pa. T* Niemoyer & Co* Dealers in Dry Goods, Groceries, Hardware, Boots, Shoes, Hats, Caps, Queensware, and General Merchandise, Second and Main Streets, EMAUS, PA. R. C. KING, M. D. Physicia^n and Surgeon, Limeport, Lehigh Co., Pa. OFFICE HOURS : Until 9.00 A. M. From 12.00 M. to 2.00 P. M. After 6 00 P. M. Trcd Rein$mith« Practical Funeral Director. And dealer in All kinds of Furniture J 38 Main St., Emaus, Pa. For the Best made HARNESS. and Saddlery Goods in Lehigh County, visit J. F. Sntitli & Son OLD ZIONSVILLE, PA. Harness, Collars, Flynets, Cairiage Robes For Pictures go to Photographic Studio. 627-629 Hamilton Street, Allentown, Pa. Also fine assortment of Brooch Pins. A. S. MILLER. DEALER IN General Merchandise, Dry Goods, Groceries, Hardware, Boots and Shoes. POWDER VALLEY, PA. Shipping Station — Zionsville, Pa. Country produce is taken in exchange for which highest cash price is paid. 125 J. F. Fretz. J. E. Fretz. J. F. Fretz & Bro., 327 MAIN ST., EM AUS, PA . MANFACTURERS OF FINE Havana and Domestic Cigars. H. S. FUNK, Editor. H. H. FUNK, Manager. Springtown Weekly Times. Times Publishing Co., PRINTERS AND PUBLISHERS. SPRINGTOWN, PA. Advertising rates reasonable. Fine job work a specialty. John P. Shive, FANCY BREAD AND CAKE BAKER. AND CONFECTIONER. Emaus, Pa. Picnics and Parties Supplied at short notice. J. R. DILLER, M. D. Physician and Surg[eon MAIN STREET, Cmaus, Pa. 7 to 8.30 A. M. OFFICE HOURS: 12 to 1.30 P. M. 7 to 9 P. M. A large Variety of Goods at the very Lowest Prices always to be had at my Store. FRANK riNK, Dealer in Dry Goods, Notions and Groceries. Gents' furnishing goods a Specialty. Cor. 3rd and Main Sts., EMAUS, PA. Reliable Cigar Factoryp E. H. HAMMAN, Manufacturer of FINE HAVANA and SEED CIGARS. Factory : — Railroad Street. Office :— South 3rd Street. EMAUS, PA. 126 W, R. SCHULER, Prop., Of the original Plover Creamery. Manufacturer of the finest quality of Butter and Cheese, and Dealer in GENERAL MERCHANDISE. Plover, Pa. Shipping vStation Zionsville, Pa. E.-H. FRETZ, PRACTICAL- WATCHMAKER AND JEWELER. 3331^ Main St., Eniaus, Pa. Watches, clocks, Silverware and Jewelry of evevy description at Lowest Prices Give me a call. Satisfaction guaranteed and good and prompt service. Life-Sized Portraits and Frames furnished on short notice. Repairing of all kinds promptly attended to. Reliable Cigar Factory. J. H. J. HALLMAN B. H. Hamman, Manufacturer of Fine Havana and Seed Cigars, Factory, Railroad street, T:j^^^,,_ O- Office, South 3d Street, XilllttUS, l <X, WM. W. KUHNS, COAL Dealer in FLOUR and FEED. Orders promptly filled and goods delivered. Office, Yard and Store Zionsville, Pa. Perkiomen R.R. Dealer in Groceries, Poultry, Tobacco and Oysters, Main Street, EMAUS, PA The best and nicest goods in town. BUTZ & CO., Wholesale Dealers in OYSTERS, PEANUTS. ORANGES. Etc., 140 N. 7th St., ALLENTOWN.PA. Trank Bucbman Ulboicsale ^ Liquor Dealer^ Chestnut Street, EMAUS, PA. E. F. ROMIG, BREAD AND CAKE BAKER, And Manufacturer of the Famous **Bos$" Steam PrcSzeU. Picnics and Parties Supplied. Emaus, Pa. 127 DRIVING our Presses by electricity enables us to turn out about twice as much work as the old fashioned foot-power printer, and we can, with all the Modern Appliances, do any class of work that is done in all the large printing offices in the community. JACKS. The Printer, 10-12 South 6th Street. ALLENTOWN. LEHIGH TEIvEPHONE.