Lenox and Richmond,
CHARLES J. PALMER.
Press of the Sun Printing Co.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Early History of Lenox and Richmond.
Sketch of Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond.
Account of Fourth of July Celebration of 1809.
Sketch of History of St. Helena's Chapel, New Lenox.
List of Soldiers in Revolutionary and Civil Wars.
List of State and County Officials from Lenox and Richmond.
Sketch of Berkshire County, England.
In this little volume an attempt has been made to tell the
story of the towns of Lenox and Richmond in a simple way with the
incorporation of such statistics, as are usually sought for in a work
of the kind. Of course there is much more which might be said,
especially concerning the use of Lenox as a summer resort and
concerning the eminent literary men who have made it their home.
But these and many other kindred topics have been amply treated
in the well known volume by Rev. R. DeWitt Mallary, to whose
admirable book the present volume is supplementary.
There is so much of interest in a comparison between commu-
nities in England and America bearing the same name that a
chapter on Berkshire County, England, has been Inserted. No men-
tion has been made of the history of Trinity Church, as that subject
has been fully treated by the author in another pamphlet.
A few pictures illustrative of the town have been inserted.
Special indebtedness is acknowledged to Rev. A. J. Benedict for use
of some plates of his preparation. His pictures as embodied in his
Bits of Berkshire and other publications should be in the hands of
every lover of the county.
If any demand should be made, a supplementary volume on the
Vital Statistics of Lenox and Richmond will be published. Mean-
while any enquiry on Geneological matters can be sent to the au-
thor or to Mr. Rollin H. Cooke of Pittsfleld, and will receive
EARLY HISTORY OF LENOX AND
In this sketch we treat the somewhat vague region known as
Lenox and Richmond, which does not possess exactly the same
boundaries as the original towns.
The portion of the township lying north of the east and west
line by the Congregational church on Lenox hill was formerly
known as Yokun. The portion lying westerly was known as Mount
Ephraim. There were also portions known as the Williams grant
and the Dwight grant and the Hartwood grant, which last was in
part the same as the modern town of Washington.
The first inhabitant of this region was Jonathan Hinsdale, who
came from Hartford, Ct., at least as early as 1750, and whose house
stood on the east side of what is known as the county road about
50 rods south of Court House hill. Mr. Hinsdale belonged to a
family of considerable prominence, and from one member of the
family the town of Hinsdale derived its name. From another mem-
ber, the town of Hinsdale, N. H., took its name. The ancestor of
the family fell in the battle of Hatfield, in King Philip's war. The
original spelling of the name was Ensdale, being, apparently, de-
rived from the fact that the family originally lived at the end of
a vale or valley.
Mr. Hinsdale came to Lenox in order to get away from the
world, the growing population in Hartford rather disquieting him.
He was, however, soon followed by others, and it is somewhat
melancholy to read that he derived his livelihood by selling rum.
His house, which stood near the presnt watering trough, was for
many years used as a school. His grave now lies in the village
cemetery and the stone states that he was born in Hartford on St.
Patrick's day, March 17, 1724, and that he died in Lenox on January
COOPER BUILT A HOUSE.
In the spring of 1751, a man named Cooper built a house in the
south part of the town on the west side of the county road, and
also a man named Dickinson erected a dwelling a little north of
Mr. Hinsdale's. The first man who cleared ground in this north-
erly part of the town was Jacob Bacon. Wolves and deer abounded
at this time, so much so that a bounty of $10 a head was offered
for wolves in Lenox as recently as 1782. In 1755. all of the in-
habitants were obliged to remove to Stockbridge on account of the
invasion of some Indians fi'om New York state who came to avenge
the deadi of one of their tribe, and who killed at least one person,
a Mr. Stevens, in Lenox.
On the withdrawal of the Indians a number of new families
entered the town, persona bearing the name of Hunt, McCoy, Gle-
zen, Steel and Waterman, settled in the north part of the town.
On East street, parties by the name of Root, Miller and Dewey set-
tled. In what is now the village, Messrs. Whitlock, Parker and
Richards took up their abode. In 1773 Josiah Osborne of Ridgefield
came, bringing his goods in an oxVcart, and settled in what
was unbroken forest. In 1765, on June 20, the township
was incorporated under the name of Richmont, which was a mere
misspelling of the name Richmond, the town deriving its name
from Sir Charles Lenox, duke of Richmond, a great friend of the
When the township was divided the name was also divided,
the name of Lenox being a Scottish title, being given to the east
side, and name of Richmond, the English title, being given to the
first part. The first town meeting was held on March 1, 1767. In
1770 and in 1771 the town was fined by the legislature for neglect-
ing to elect a representative. The population begins to increase.
A word may be well added in description of the sources from
which Lenox was peopled. Although the early settlers came from a
considerable number of towns in Connecticut and Long Island, the
principal sources were West Hartford and Wallingford. West Hart-
ford was somewhat well known as the former home of the cele-
brated Noah Webster, author of Webster's dictionary, and also as
the home of the Rev. Joab Brace, father-in-law of Dr. Todd.
WHEN DR. TODD WAS MARRIED.
It is an interesting reminiscence that when Dr. Todd was mar-
ried the wedding happened to be on Sunday, and according to
usual custom in those days, when weddings fell on Sunday, a ser-
mon was preached on the somewhat singular text of "In the Resur-
rection they neither marry nor are given in marriage."
Some notion may be gained of the rigidity of the customs in
tuis town from the fact that when William Faxon, subsequently
assistant secretary of the navy, drove into town the first four-
wheeled vehicle ever seen in the town that it happened to be on
Sunday. This occasioned the collection of a great crowd to examine
so singular a contrivance and caused many to be late to church.
The next day a committee called on Mr. Faxon to warn him that no
such Sabbath breaking contrivance could be allowed on Sunday
and that it could not be expected, should such a vehicle appear, but
that many would watch it to their spiritual hurt. After a pro-
tracted controversy he was allowed to use it on condition that it
be driven very slow.
In those days it was customary to use only the psalms of David
in public worship, and when the attempt was made to introduce
occasionally one hymn of Dr. Watt's, for variety, it met with great
opposition, and it was expressly stated that Dr. Watts never could
have foreseen that it would be soberly proposed to substitute his
productions for the book of Psalms.
At this time, in Wallingford and Hartford, only ten tunes were
in use, and when some new ones were published a petition was
made to use the Wallingford church to learn them in, which was
granted after considerable opposition. And then, as might have
been imagined, it was requested that some of the new tunes might
be sometimes used in public worship. But this was regarded as a
great innovation and they only very gradually crept into use.
HYMN BOOKS WERE FEW.
It was the custom in those days, when hymn books were in the
hands of a very few, that the hymns should be read one line at
a time by one of the deacons and then sung also, one line at a time,
accompanied by the violin, viol, flute, bugle, clarionet and trom-
bone. There were some, however, who were opposed to the use of
these instruments on the ground that they unpleasantly resembled
the flute, harp, sackbut and dulcimer which accompanied the wor-
ship of Nebuchadnezzar.
At this time there was no scripture in public worship unless
accompanied by exposition. And even prayers were regarded with
some suspicion as savoring of popery. The hour glass always sat
upon the pulpit as an indication of the proper length of a discourse.
Subsequently, half an hour was considered as the proper limit,
giving rise to the well known saying, "No conversions after the
LIQUOR AT FUNERALS.
At funerals there was no hearse, but the remains were car-
ried by successive relays, usually composed of persons of the same
sex as the deceased, it not being considered proper for the two
sexes to walk together at funerals. The mourners were expected to
ride on horseback, two abreast. It was customary that gold rings
and mourning scarfs and gloves should be presented to those in
attendance, and sometimes even suits, especially to those who were
tenants of the estate. It was considered a great breach of decorum
if the pall bearers should not take a drink before starting for the
cemetery. In fact, the usual custom was, that the funeral services
should be held at three, and after an exceedingly brief service, the
entire interval until four, was spent by all participating in the
drinks which were liberally provided, and it is significant that we
read that there was always a large attendance at funerals.
In Wallingford it was always the custom that every year the
town should provide one hogshead of good beer for the minister
and me captain, but tobacco was not allowed to anyone under twen-
ty years of age, except by order of a physician, nor to adults unless
ten miles from home, and then only once a day.
NO FIRES IN CHURCH.
On Sunday there were no fires in church, but there were what
were calieu Sabbath-day houses near by the church, where there
were fires, whither the people could resort to warm themselves dur-
ing the intermission between services. During the winuer the min-
ister preached in a large blue overcoat, and with a red bandanna
handkerchief about his neck and with woolen mittens upon his
hands, and complaint was sometimes made that during the sermon
tne voice of the preacher was drowned by the stamping of the peo-
ple's feet in order to keep warm. The people were called to church
by the beating of a drum and as the town grew larger an appro-
priation was made for buying a larger drum and for selling the
little drum, and it is curious to remark the intermingling of Con-
necticut thrift was a measure of increasing church attendance by
noting that the provision was expressly made that whoever pur-
chased the little drum must pay for it within the course of a year.
The last trial for witchcraft in Connecticut took place in Wal-
lingford when the jjenham family were accused with undue famil-
iarity with Satan, and of havng, by many preternatural arts, in-
jured sundry people.
Such were some of the customs of the ancestors of the town
of Lenox and some of these customs lasted down to a somewhat
The Congregational church in Lenox was built at the town ex-
pense, the town meeting expressly adjourning on the third day of
August, 1768, to witness the driving of the stake in the center of
the proposed lot. The present lot was a gift of the Rev. Mr. Reyn-
olds, and the present church was first occupied January 1, 1806.
The Rev Samuel Munson was the first minister, but during the
stormy period of the Revolution, public worship was largely dis-
used, there being no celebration of the communion for several suc-
cessive years; and when the Rev. Dr. Samuel Shepard assumed
charge of the parish, on April 30, 1795, ther were only fifteen male
members; but in 1799, 60 persons were added in a revival. In
1808 there were added 56 more; in 1815, 160 more; in 1821, 76
more, and in 1826, 103 more, and in 1828, there had come to be 408
members, and an historian of that day declares the village of Lenox
presents fewer temptations to vice than almost any other place
of equal population.
FIRST MINISTERS SALARY.
When the first minister was called it was stipulated that his
salary should be arranged on a sliding scale, contrary to the modern
impression, it being supposed that his services would grow more
valuable the longer he remained. The salary for the first year
was $225 and fire wood, which last was about 40 cords of wood.
The second year the salary was $250; the third year $275; the
fourth year $300. It apparently was not deemed best to stipulate
that the increase should continue beyond this amount, and as Dr.
Shepard remained for 51 years, it was wise that this precaution
At the same time that this salary was fixed, with equal wis-
dom and foresight it was provided that the choir must agree among
themselves as to who should fixe the psalm tunes and not bring
the minister into controversy on this subject.
The first residence of the first minister was on the spot where
the house now occupied by Mr. John B. Parsons stands. It is proper
to remark that two ministers had preached as candidates before
anyone was settled, one of them the Rev. Elijah Mason, officiating
for fourteen Sundays, and the other, the Rev. James Richards, offi-
ciating for sixteen Sundays. It is interesting to know that the
land set apart for the support of the ministry, at the time the town
was settled consisted of a thousand acres exactly where the village
of Lenox now stands which, if it had been retained instead of com-
muted, would have now obviously been worth an exceedingly large
Mention should be made at this stage of the origin of that
portion of the town known as New Lenox. In 1757 a company of
men from Hartford and Suffield purchased of one Robert Watson,
a tract of land which they named Watsontown, but soon after, hav-
ing discovered that Watson did not own the land at all and was
insolvent and in jail they were compelled a second time to pur-
chase the land from the Indians, and then discovering that even
the Inaian title was doubtful, they were compelled to obtain a
grant from the province, which was only secured by the payment
of an auuiiional sum. Iney had at first changed the name of the
township to laartwood, but subsequently altered it to Washington,
and when the boundaries of the town were rectified, quite a portion
were set off to Lenox. The early proprietors made up for their dis-
appointments by confiscating the bulk of the school and ministry
KNOWN AS RICHMOND.
A few words as to the early history of the western part of the
town, now known as Richmond. The first white settler was Mich-
ael Mudge of Stockbridge, who settled in 1760 very near the West
Stockbridge line, his daughter, Elizabeth, being the first child born
in Richmond. Ichabod Wood of Rehoboth, came in the autumn of
the same year and settled where the Congregational church now
stands. The first meeting in this part of the town was held on
April 17, 1764, at the house of John Chamberlain, and at this meet-
ing it was decided to build a church 45 feet long and 35 feet broad,
$5 being assessed on each 100 acres of land for this purpose. In
1761 parties by the name of Brown, Pixley, Chamberlain, Patterson,
Timothy and Rowley followed and settled in the south and west
parts of the town. These and many others came from the towns of
Kent, Tolland, Guilford, Norwich, Stonington, Haddam, Southing-
ton and a few other Connecticut places. There were also a few
families from Long Island, such as Peirsons, Scotts and Hands.
In 1765 a church was established under the Rev. Job Swift of
Bennington, a man evidently of much more than ordinary ability,
being characterized by President Dwight of Yale as "one of the best
and most useful men I ever knew." Most of his ministry was spent
in Vermont, where he was known as the apostle of the state, and
when he died it was declared that in the death of no other man
could the church of Vermont have sustained in human estimate a
greater loss. It is curious to note, however, that in Richmond his
ministry was less acceptable. His conceptions of the duty incum-
bent upon him, to spread the truth, led him to the very dubious
experiment of establishing conferences for the free discussion of
doctrinal subjects, and as we may well imagine not all present took
the same views as did the pastor as to what some of the doctrines
of that time might consist of, especially by ministers who, like Mr,
STEVEN S GLEN, RICHMOND.
Swift, had been trained in the school of Jonathan Edwards. The
record goes on to say that he could not be persuaded to accommo-
date himself to the feelings of those who opposed what he conceived
to be the true form of Christian doctrine, and that his disposition
tended to increase the dissatisfaction and at length they declared
themselves irreconcilable and, as might have been forseen, Mr.
Swift was soon dismissed from his pastoral charge.
Alter ten years of the usual interregum which follows like
episodes, the well known David Perry came, who continued in a
model pastorate of thirty-two years. It was said of him that he
did not try to do good by strong arguments, but rather by present-
ing motives for duty. During his ministry there were several re-
vivals. It was an interesting fact that his son, Capt. iisa Perry, in
the 95th year of his age, was able to lay the corner stone of the new
It is proper to remark that the first church in Richmond was
erected in 1('66, the second one in 1795, being built by the town at
a cost of $4,000, and lasting on until destroyed by fire in 1888, after
which the present church was erected. During this time, on the Len-
ox side of the hill, there was a somewhat similar history as regards
controversies over doctrinal preaching. In the ordination sermon,
at the settlement of old Dr. Shepard, it was strongly affirmed that
any who from delicacy or prudence omitted preaching on doctrinal
subjects were assuming more wisdom than the Creator and that they
had no authority for softening or accommodating truths for men's
errors or prejudices, and when Dr. Shepard came to preach his
fiftieth anniversary sermon he stated that these principles had al-
ways guided him in his preaching, and that he had steadily pro-
claimed the doctrines commonly called Calvanistic and considered
them essential to the Gospel. And that he did this in no uncertain lan-
guage, we may well believe since Dr. Dodd in the sermon preached
at his funeral declared that he was a singularly frank man, and al-
ways talked exactly what he felt, and that he was so frank that very
few could be found so much so who had not lost all their friends,
also that he was distinguished for firmness and that no one ever
even pretended that he could be induced to alter his ground in the
smallest particular, and that he was the only minister but one
in the entire county who had been able to retain his place.
Pass now to the political history of the day. On Christmas
day, 1775, it was resolved that no more warrants in the King's
name should ever be issued for town meetings in Lenox in the
provincial legislature in the following language: "You are directea
to use your best endeavor to suppress all the tyrannical measures
that have or may take place from Great Britain and likewise take
as much care that you do not set up anything of a despotic gor-
ernment among yourselves. Let us have freedom at home al-
though we have war abroad, and we pledge that if you think it
safe to declare independence, we do declare that we will stand
with you by our lives and fortunes."
It is interesting to note that so prompt were Lenox people that
a regiment under Col. Patterson started for Cambridge before the
battle of Lexington and arrived there on the following day, and
were the ones to erect the first fort in the sieze of Boston. Some
of these soldiers accompanied the army of the invasion of Canada
under Montgomery and Arnold. Some of them took part with
George Washington, in crossing the Delaware, and in the battles
of Trenton and Princeton, and some were with General Gates at
the time of the capture of Burgoyne.
DOCTORS GAVE BONDS.
In 1776 people, having to contend not only with enemies
abroad but with the small-pox at home, decided to introduce inocu-
lation. The town clerk, evidently not being familiar with the
word, spelled it "enokalition" and it was decided that the process
should take place under strict inspection, a bond being exacted of
the physician that there should be no spread of the disease.
It is of interest to note that Francis Guiteau, the grandfather
of the assassin, was one of the Berkshire physicians who was
prominent in connection with this method of meeting the small
pox. Some light may be thrown on the prevalence of contagious
diseases on learning the fact that it was customary to throw all
decaying vegetables and clam shells and debris of the household
into the public streets, and that swine, and even rams, ran at large.
It was customary in those days that when anyone was so unfortu-
nate as to become a pauper he was auctioned off to the lowest
bidder. But it is creditable to learn that, in Lenox, the families
of the poor were not allowed to be separated.
ASSIGNED THE PEWS.
A practice that grew full in discord was that of assigning the
pews each year according to the supposed social standing of differ-
ent people. But in process of time there was so much controversy
as to the relative standing of different families that this course
was necessarily abandoned. There was a somewhat singular reso-
lution adopted by the town that, owing to the habit of Lenox people
being always late at public meetings, no meetings should com-
mence until one hour after the advertised time, and even after
the railroad was opened, from West Stockbridge to Hudson, it was
thought necessary to warn the public that, owing to the fact of
the road having only a single track and there bening only one
place for trains to pass, it was necessary for trains to leave strictly
on time. Apparently, it would not have been otherwise thought to
have been needful.
TORIES IN LENOX.
There were great difficulties during the Revolution on account
of the presence of numerous Tories. Some notion may be derived
of the state of things from the following petition of Lenox people
to the general court, which is only a sample of many others: —
To the Honourable the Council & House of Representatives of
the State of Massachusetts Bay: — We your Compainants for our-
selves & in behalf of a large Number of People in the County of
Berkshire beg leave by way of Complaint to communicate our
Sentiments rei^pecting a Number of Persons who not long since
were apprehended in said County as Dangerous Persons, they had
a fair & impertial Trial before a Special Court of the General
Sessions of the Peace & a very respectable Jury for that Purpose,
were found guilty after a lengthy, deliberate & expensive Trial, of
such base, Wicked & inimical Conduct that their residence any
longer with us, was judged to be Dangerous, wherefore by one
certain Law of this State, made & provided for Transporting
inimical Persons. The Court upon the Verdict of the Jury ordered
Edward Martindale & Elisha Martindale, John Burgheadt 3d,
Gideon Smith & James Taylor to be conducted to the Board of
War, under a proper Officer & a Sufficient Guard for that Purpose,
now while we were Solacing ourselves, that Justice had taken
Place & that the Sentence would soon be put in execution, & those
dangerous Enimies restrain'd of their Liberty; we were at once
surprised with the Disagreeable News of those Persons & a great
number of others under like Circumstances being at full Liberty
in the Capatal of this State, where their helish splean might have
its full latitude, & while we were ruminating on the very disagree-
able Tidings, behold a number of these Persons made their Per-
sonal Appearance in this County, we are surprised & in this Alarm
are constrain'd to observe that we the People of Berkshire, by
some of our former Representatives, have been stigmatized &
branded as being a Lawless and disobedient part of this State,
while we essert that the hand of Violence was never lifted so high
in opposition to tlie Legislative & executive Authority of this State
as by those Diabolical emissaries who were sent to the Board of
War, who are a disgrace to Humane Nature, Religion, Reason &
everything that is Honourable praise Worthy in God's World of
Intelligences. All this in the face of our supreme Authority, those
who are the vilest of Men escape with Impunity and unnoticed for
aught we know; Now as faithfull Friends to the Cause of our Bleed-
ing Country, we are constrain'd in this Way to call on the Wis-
dom & Segacity of our General Court, we flatter ourselves we shall
be heard in that behalf; we beg leave to give a fair but imperfect
account of several Crimes, that some if not all of those Persons
are guilty of, beyond the least possibility of a doubt, by a number
of Witnesses whose truth & veracity will not be disputed.
In the first place some of them are guilty of braking open
Continental Stores & Stealing large quantitys of goods, to the
amount of five or six Hundred Pounds & attempting to justify their
Conduct by saying we had taken the same Goods from their King, &
that they had as good or a better right to them than we, and also
in a most private & designing manner with a Number of their
Associates, collected in Great Barrington, when Arming themselves
& disfiguring & painting their Faces, this Banditti entered the
House of Timothy Younglove, by force, where there was a guard
for the safe keeping of a number of inimical Persons who were
legally apprehended, they assaulted the Guard, resqued the Pris-
oners & in the Scurmish, badly wounded the Officer, and many
other enormities done & perpetrated by those Cruel and Blood
Thusty Tools of the Tyrant of Great Britain, and in this Alarming
Situation, viewing ourselves neglected, have no oiner alternative
felt, but to put forth every manly exertion to restrain those Wicked
& designing Men from putting into execution their Wicked and
Cruel Combination & to prevent their further disturbing the Peace
and Tranquility of the People of this county, untill Lraw & the
Civil authority be found Sufficient to bring them & others to con-
dign Punishment, which we most earnestly desire may be our
speedy Situation. We have further to inform your Honours, that
one of he Persons above mentioned, namely said John Burgheadt,
has since his Absconding from the Board of War gone over to the
Enemy & has since been taken in Taritown upon Hudsons River,
in arms against us, of which Town the Enemy are now in pos-
session & from late intelligence passing up the River. And being
in this Alarming Situation have taken up, Elisha Martindale, above
/nentioned & resrain'd him of his Liberty, for the present, to pre-
vent him from acting the same Villinous Part with the said
TWICE HUNG AND CUT DOWN.
In some instances the Lenox people did not trust to petitions
but took tiie law into their own hands. The story is told in most
of the histories of a notorious Tory who was twice hung, each
time being cut down and restoratives being administered and
threats being made that if he were strung up for the third time
he would not be cut down. He deemed it prudent at this stage of
proceedings to conform to the wishes of the settlers. It is only
fair to say, however, that Lenox people did not ordinarily resort
to irregular methods, for enforcing the law, but were among the
first and foremost to insist on legal and orderly proceedures even
in those troublous times. That they suffered some outwardly from
their deference to orderly measures, may be inferred from the fol-
lowing petition, which also illustrated the fact that they were
among the first to insist on settled government and the regular
constitution as soon as the war was over: —
We the subscribers Delegates from the several Towns in the
County of Berkshire, chosen & appointed for the Special purpose
of Petitioning the Great and Gen'l Court to call a special con-
vention of Delegates from each Town in this State, for the purpose
of forming a Bill of rights & a Constitution or form of Govern-
ment — Humbly shew —
That your Memorialists have from the time of the Stamp Act
to this present Day, manifested a constant and uniform Abhorrence
and Detestation (not only in Sentiment but overt Actions) of all
the Unconstitutional Measures taken by the British Parliament to
tax, depauperate and Subjugate these now United and Independent
States of America: —
That they can Vie with any County in this State not only in
Voluntarily appearing in Arms upon the least notice, when their
Brethren in Distress needed their Assistance as at the Massacre
at Lexington, the Fight at Bunkers Hill &c., &c. But also in filling
up their Quotas of Men from time to time, demanded either by this
State or the Commanding Officer in these Parts: altho' our Situa-
tion has been such, as might have justified the Genl. Court thad
called upon Us for no such supplies, over and above wch our Zeal
in the Common Cause has carried Us beyond our Ability in the
frequent Excursions against the Common Enemy, as in the Battle
of Bennington, in assisting Col. Brown in the Capture of so many
Hundreds at the Carrying place at Tyconderoga, in the quelling
the Tories at divers times in a Neighboring State, which otherwise
might have suffered amazingly, and in instances of the like Nature
too many to enumerate: —
Notwithstanding this Our Fidelity to the State and our exer-
tions for the Common Gauze. We have by designing and dis-
affected Men been represented as a Mobbish, Ungovernable refrac-
tory, licentious and dissolute People, by means whereof have been
threatened with Dismemberment, more especially, as we conceive,
on Account of our not admitting the Conrose of common Law —
It is true we were the first County that put a Stop to Courts,
■and were soon followed by many others. Nay in effect by the whole
State — And we are not certain but that it might have been as well
(if not better) had they continued so, rather than to have Law
dealt out by piece meal as it is this Day, without any Foundation
to support it, for "We doubt not we should before this time have
had a Bill of rights, and a Constitution wch are the only things.
We at this time are empowered to pray for — And We do now with
the greatest Deference Petition your Honors, that you would issue
your Precepts to all the Towns and places within this State (called
upon to pay public Taxes) requiring them to choose Delegates to
set as soon as may be in some suitable place to form a Bill of
Rights and a Constitution for this State.
At the time of Shay's rebellion Lenox people were especially
insistent on law and order, and after the battle of Egremont many
of the Rebel prisoners were brought to Lenox for confinement un-
der the escort of a procession of sleighs a mile long.
NAMED FROM CHARLES LENNOX.
A few words as to Charles Lennox, the man after whom the
town was named, will bring this sketch to a close. He was the
great-grandson of Charles the Second, and was born on the his-
toric day of February 22.
Charles Lennox, third Duke of Richmond and Lenox, (1735-
1806) third son of Charles, second Duke of Richmond and Lennox,
by his wife. Lady Sarah Cadogan, was born in London, on the 22d
of February, 1735. He was educated as a town-boy at Westminster
School where Cowper remembered seeing him set fire to Vinny
Bourne's "greasy locks and box his ears to put it out again." He
graduated at Leyden University on October 28, 1753, subsequently
traveled on the continent. Having entered the army he was
gazelled captain in the Twentieth regiment of foot on June 18,
1753, lieutenant colonel in the Third regiment of foot on the 7tli
of June, 1756, colonel of the Seventy-second regiment of foot in
May 1758, and is said to have served in several expeditions to the
French coast, and to have highly distinguished himself at the bat-
tle of Minden in August, 1759. He succeeded his father as third
Duke of Richmond and Lennox on August 8, 1750, and took his
seat in the House of Lords for the first time on the 15th of March,
1756. On November 25, 1760, he was appointed a lord of the bed-
chamber, but shortly afterwards quarreled with the King, and re-
signed office. He carried the sceptre with the dove at the corona-
tion of George III., in September 1761, and became lord-lieutenant
of Sussex on October 18, 1763. He subsequently broke off his rela-
tions with the ministry, and attached himself to the Duke of Cum-
berland. Upon the formation of the Marquis of Rockingham's
first administration he refused the post of cofferer, and in August,
1765, was appointed ambassador extraordinary and minister plen-
ipotentiary at Paris, being admitted to the privy council on Octo-
ber 23 following. Though young and inexperienced he conducted
his mission with great prudence and good temper. Upon his re-
turn to England he became in spite of the king's strong personal
dislike, secretary of state for the southern department (May 23,
1766), in place of the Duke of Grafton, and retired from office on
the accession of Chatham to power in the following August. In
recording Rockingham's resignation Walpole writes:
"To the Duke of Richmond the king was not tolerably civil;
and in truth I believe the seals which I had obtained for his grace
were a mighty ingredient toward the fall of that administration "
During the debate on the bill of indemnity on December 10, 1766,
Richmond called Chatham "an insolent minister," and when called
to order replied "that he was sensible truth was not to be spoken
at all times and in all places." Both lords were required to prom-
ise that the matter should go no further. After this quarrel
Chatham during the whole of the remainder of his administration
appeared no more in the House of Lords. On June 2, 1767, Rich-
mond moved three resolutions in favor of the establishment of civil
government in Canada, and censuring Lord Northington's neglect
of cabinet business, but was defeated by 73 to 61. On May 18, 1770,
his eighteen conciliatory resolutions relating to the disorders of
America were met by a motion for adjournment, which was carried
by a majority of thirty-four votes. On April 30, 1771, he moved that
the resolutions of the house of Lords of February 2, 1770, relating
to the Middlesex election, should be expunged, but, though sup-
ported by Cnatham. he failed to elect any reply from the ministers,
and the motion was negatived. In 1772 Richmond unsuccessfully
advocated secession from parliament. He constantly denounced the
ministerial policy with reference to the American colonies, and dur-
ing the debate on the second reading of the American Prohibitory
Bill in December, 1775, declared that the residence of the colonists
was neither treason nor rebellion, but In perfectly justificable in
every possible political and moral sense. In August, 1776, Rich-
mond went to Paris in order to register his peerage of Aubigny in
the France parliament, a formality which had never been gone
through. It was during the memorable debate upon Richmond's
motion for the withdrawal of the troops from America, on April 7,
1778, that Chatham was seized with his fatal illness when attempt-
ing to reply to Richmond's second speech.
In consequence of a misunderstanding with George III., which
had lasted several years, Richmond, previously to accepting office,
wrote an apologetic letter to Rockingham, in order that it might be
shown to the king. At a meeting held at Richmond's house early in
May, 1782. a resolution proposed by Sheridan requesting Pitt to
bring forward a motion on parliamentary reform in the house of
Commons was carried. In a letter to Rockingham dated May 11,
1782, written after the defeat of Pitt's motion, Richmond insisted
upon the appointment of a committee upon parliamentary reform
during the session, reminding Rockingham that "it was by bargain."
Tbe committee was never appointed, for Rockingham died on July
1, 1782. Upon his death Richmond expected to be named by Rock-
ingham's friends as his successor in the leadership of the party.
His nephew, Charles James Fox, tried in vain to pacify him, by
pointing out that they were *Doth out of the question owing to the
decided part we have taken about parliamentary reform," and there
can be no doubt that his chagrin at the adoption of the Duke of
Portland considerably influenced his subsequent political conduct.
On July 10, 1782, Richmond explained in the house of Lords
his reasons for not having followed the example of Fox and Lord
John Cavendis in leaving the administration on the accession of
Lord Shelbourne to the treasury. He appears to have objected to
the cession of Gibraltar when proposed in the cabinet, but his opin-
ion was viewed with indifference by Lord Shelbourne. In January,
1783, Richmond, disproving of Lord Shelboume's assumption of too
much power in the negotiation, refused to attend the council meet
ings any longer, but remained in office at the king's request. In the
following month he expressed his disapproval of the terms of peace
with France and the United States in the House of Lords. Rich-
mond refused an invitation to join the 'ioalition ministry, and re-
signed his office on April 3, 1783, but resumed it again on the ac-
cession of Pitt to power. At first he declined a seat in Pitt's cabi-
net, but was admitted to it a few weeks afterwards at his own
request. His firmness during the struggle against the opposition in
1784 is said to have prevented Pitt from resigning in despair, and
it was on this occasion that George III. is reported to have said
* there was no man in his dominions by whom he had been so mucli
offended, and no man to whom he was so much indebted, as the
Puke of Richmond." In spite of many previous declarations Rich-
mond now developed into a zealous courtier, and soon grew dis-
inclined to all measures of reform. He became extremely unpopu-
lar, and his domestic parsimony was frequently contrasted with
the profusion of the public money at the ordinance office. On
March 14, 1785. his plans for the fortification of Portsmouth and
Plymouth were violently attacked in the House of Commons. Pitt,
v.hile consenting to their delay, defended Richmond's character. A
board of military and naval officers having pronounced favorably
upon the plans, Pitt, on February 27, 1786, moved a resolution in
favor of effectually securing the Portsmouth and Plymouth dock-
yards "by a permanent system of fortification founded on the most
economical principles," which was defeated by the casting vote of
the speaker. In March, 1787, an acrimonious discussion took place
between Richmond and the Marquis of Lansdowne during the debate
upon the treaty of commerce with France, which put an end to their
friendship, and nearly ended in a duel.
In November, 1790, he remonstrated with Pitt and an able and
angry letter on Grenville's promotion to the peerage, and declared
that this change, "which is avowedly made for the sole purpose of
giving the House of Lords another leader," added to his desire of
retiring from public business, "which you know I have long had in
view." In March, 1791, he dissented from Pitt as to the advisability.
of "the Russian armament." On May 31, 1792, during the debate
on the King's proclamation against seditious writings, Richmond
was violently attacked by Lord Latiderdale for his apostasy in the
cause of reform. After an altercation Lauderdale challenged the
Duke of Richmond, and was himself challenged by General Arnold,
but the duel in the former case was averted by the interposition of
friends. In November, 1794, Richmond was called as a witness at
the trials of Thomas Hardy and John Home Tooke for high treason,
when this letter "on the subject of a parliamentary reform," ad-
dressed to Lieutenant-colonel Sharmon, chairman of the Committee
of Correspondence, appointed by the Irish Volunteer delegates, and
dated August 15, 1783, in which he insisted that universal suffrage,
"together with annual elections," is the only reform that can be
effectual and permanent, was read at length. This letter, which
became as Erskine said, "the very scripture of all these societies,"
was originally published in 1783 and passed through a number of
In May, 1802, Dichmond characterized the terms of the treaty
of peace as humiliating, and condemned the conduct of the war and
the lavish expense in subsidising German princes. He spoke for
the last time in the House of Lords on June 25, 1804, during the
debate on the second reading of the additional Force Bill, which he
condemned as feeble and inadequate measure. He died at Good-
wood, Sussex, on December 29, 1806, in the seventy-second year of
his age, and was buried in Chichester Cathedral, his body having
been first opened and filled with sack lime, according to his di-
Richmond as a Handsome Man.
Richmond was a remarkably handsome man, with a dignified
bearing and graceful and courteous manner. As a politician he was
both hasty and ambitious. Though an indifferent speaker, "at the
Epst India House," in his quality of a proprietor, no less than as a
peer of parliament at Westminister, he was ever active, vigilant
in detecting and exposing abuses, real or imaginary, perpetually
harrassing every department with inquiries, and attacking in turn
the army, the admiralty, and the treasury. Horace Walpole, who
never tired singing Richmond's praises, worshiped his thousand
virtues beyond any man's, and declared that he was intrepid and
tender, inflexible and humane beyond example. But Burke, while
drawing a long and flattering picture of Richmond, expresses his
opinion that "your grace dissipates your mind into too great a
variety of natural vehemence of your temper, you follow with al-
most equal passion."
Richmond married, on April 1, 1775, Lady Mary Bruce, the
only child of Charles, third earl of Ailesbury and fourth earl of
Elgin, by his third wiie, Lady Caroline Campbell, only daughter of
John, fourth Duke of Argyll. The perfect match, says Walpole, in
the world — youth, beauty, riches, alliances and all the blood of the
kings from Bruce to Charles IL They are the prettiest couple in
England, except the father-in-law and mother.
Richmond was gazetted a major-general on March 9, 1761,
lieutenant-general on April 30, 1770, general on November 20, 1782,
colonel of lue royal regiment of horse guards on July 15, 1795, and
field marshal on July 30, 1796. He was elected F. R. S. on Decem-
ber 11, 1755, and F. S. A. on June 6, 1793. He was a patron of litera-
ture and of the fine arts, and in March, 1758, opened a gratuitous
school for the study of painting and sculptor in a gallery in his
garden at White hall, engaging Giovanni Battista Ciprani, the
painter, and Joseph Wilton, the sculptor, to direct the instructions
of tiie students. The collection of casts from the antique formed by
Richard for this purpose was the first of the kind in England.
Some of them eventually came into the possession of the royal
Academy. Horace Walpole dedicated to Richmond the fourth
volume of his "Anecaotes of Painting," printed at Strawberry Hill
FOURTH OF JULY CELEBRATION.
The following sketches of how the Fourth of July was cele-
brated in the early days of Lenox may be of interest.
From Pittsfield Sun of July, 1809.
On Tuesday, the fourth of July, the anniversary of American
Independence was celebrated at Lenox, by the scholars of the
Academy. At ten o'clock a procession was formed at the Academy,
which moved to the Court-house, escorted by Captain Sabin's Com-
pany of Infantry, and attended by a band of music. An oration,
replete with patriotic and moral sentiments, was there delivered
by Mr. Calvin Yale, a member of Lenox Academy. When the exer-
cises were closed, the procession repaired to Mr. Burnham's Inn,
where the scholars, accompanied by many young gentlemen of the
town and vicinity, partook of an elegant repast, under a pleasant
bower prepared for the occasion. After dinner, the following toasts
were drunk, under the discharge of cannon: —
1. Columbus, the discoverer of America — His name will be
remembered with gratitude by generations yet unborn.
2. George Washington, the political father of these United
States — May a recollection of his heroism in the field, and of his
decision in the cabinet, be an incitement to imitate his virtues.
3. American Independence — 'Its celebration this day reminds
us of the heroes who bled, and the statesmen who counselled for
4. The constitution of the United States — A stupendous fabric
of human invention; may it ever be held sacred and inviolate.
5. The general government of the United States — May it be
wisely administered, that all who live under it may be united and
6. The officers of the United States, both civil and military —
May they so act as to support the Constitution, and promote the
best interests of the People.
7. The Union of the States; the only support of our political
8. James Madison, President of the United States.
9. Agriculture and commerce; real sources of emolument to
the people of the United States.
10. Infant manufactures — May they be encouraged in propor-
tion to the population and necessities of the country.
11. The American Eagle; having fluttered from the paws of
the European Lion, may she ever soar within the atmosphere of
12. Patriotism — May it glow in the breast of every American,
and burst into an inextinguishable flame on the flrst infringement
of our national rights.
13. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts; the first in the
struggle for Liberty, may she be the last to relinquish the Inde-
pendence of the Union.
14. The true American; let his noble mind never be enervated
by luxury, or submissive to slavery.
15. The American Youth — May they ambitiously emulate the
character of being zealous defenders of the Independence for which
they bled, and for which they died.
16. Party spirit — A venomous substitute for reason, and the
destroyer of sound principles; may it soon recede from the breast
of every American.
17. Literary institutions — May they flourish like the bay-tree,
and blossom like the rose.
Volunteers. — The Orator of the day.
The rising generation- — May magnanimity, liberality, and can-
dor be their ruling principle, and public good their pole-star.
The constitution of the United States — May it never need able
supporters and defenders.
Liberty, equality, and the rights of man — A safe guard against
civil dissensions, a bulwark to national peace; may they ever con-
tinue to breathe forth their pure spirit of benignity, and coextend
with the earth.
The young gentlemen of Lenox, worthy patterns of public spirit.
The Preceptor of Lenox Academy; a zealous promoter of the
interests of the rising generation — may his scholars ever show him
that respect which is due to his extraordinary exertions for their
The following account of additional celebration of July 4th,
1809, as given in the contemporaneous press, may still further il-
lustrate early customs:
The anniversary of American independence was celebrated at
Lenox, on the 4th inst. with the utmost harmony and festivity. The
procession was formed at half past 11 o'clock, a. m., and proceeded
to the Meeting-house, where the usual exercises were performed.
The Throne of Grace was addressed with fervency and genuine
patriotism, by the Rev. David Perry, of Richmond. An accurate,
elegant and genuine republican oration was delivered by Mr. Jo-
seph Donnison. The procession returned to the house of Col.
Elijah Northrup, and partook of an elegant dinner, after which the
following toasts were drunk, under the discharge of cannon:
1. The day we celebrate — Let posterity hail its annual return
as the natal day of a great Republic, and remember that American
independence was purchased with their father's blood.
2. The people of the United States — The constitution their
guide, independence their motto, and justice their shield.
3. The constitution of the United States — The admiration of
the world, and the glory of America.
4. The congress of the United States — Men who know their
country's rights, "and knowing, dare maintain."
5. The president of the United States — The patriot and states-
man, unchanged in political sentiment; while we are agitated by
divisions at home, and oppressed by the unjust Orders and Decrees
•of the belligerents of Europe, let it be the consolation of America
that she has a Madison at her head.
6. The vice-president and heads of departments.
7. The memory of George Washington, whose valedictory voice
fore-warned us of the Junto, who have lately attempted to dissolve
the Union, and alienate one portion of the people and states from
8. Thomas Jefferson, late president of the United States —
May he long continue to enjoy the merited approbation of his
country, and his last days be as happy as his former were useful.
9. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts — May her unavailing
opposition cease, and from the great example of the majority of
her sisters, learn to discover the genuine principles of government,
what are American, and wliat are European.
10. The executive of Massachusetts — No alliance with Eng-
land; no "unfurling of the Republican banners against the Imperial
11. The Embargo and Non-intercourse laws — England again
humbled, while smarting under the lash, she repents; but may the
scars forever remind her that American rights are not to be in-
vaded with impunity.
12. The American flag must protect from impressment all who
sail under it, or no treaty of amity and commerce.
13. The militia of the United States — May they ever remem-
ber, that not by standing armies, but by their bayonets, traitors and
enemies of their country must be chastised.
14. Levi Lincoln, the farmer, the statesman, the patriot, and
true republican, whose merits are brightened by federal friction.
15. Agriculture, commerce and manufactures.
16. Our brethren who are celebrating this day through the
United States and wherever dispersed.
17. The American Fair.
Modern Federalism, like modern breeches, requires suspenders
to keep it up.
The venerable patriot John Adams — His exposure of the wiles
of Federalism, merits the approbation of all true Americans.
SKETCH OF RELIGIOUS SERVICES
IN NEW LENOX.
The earliest religious work in New Lenox of any continuous
character consisted of a Bible Class conducted by Deacon Franklin
Pease of the First Congregational Church, Pittsfield, about fifty
years ago, at the house of Captain Dewey, nearly opposite the pres-
ent Parish House. This work developed into a regular Sunday
School held in the Hall over the School House, which continued
with occasional brief interruptions up to the time of the erection
of the Chapel.
In connection with this work there were occasional preach-
ing services conducted principally by pastors of the Methodist
Churches of Lenox and Pittsfield, Rev. Messrs. Salisbury, Prindle
and Carter; and prayer meetings conducted by the Young Men's
Band of the Methodist Society of Pittsfield. A short time previous
to the erection of the chapel an effort was made to have regular
services as nearly as possible every Sunday evening. These services
were inaugurated by Rev. Mr. Mallary, who was subsequently as-
sisted by Rev. Messrs. Grosvenor, Stafford and Ray, all of Lenox.
After the erection of the chapel in 1893 (a full account of
which is given elsewhere) services were regularly maintained, two
Sundays a month by Rev. Mr. Grosvenor, one Sunday a month by
the Young Men's Club of the Methodist Church, Pittsfield, and the
fourth Sunday by other workers, usually of the Baptist denomina-
Soon after the arrival of Rev. Harold Arrowsmith as rector
of Trinity Church, Lenox, in 1896, more systematic efforts were
put forth for organized work, and the general responsibility for
the services was assumed by Trinity Parish. For about two years
the services were conducted by Mr. Arrowsmith and Rev. Mr.
Murray of Lee, with the occasional assistance of others. In 1898
the Rev. F. E. Aitkens was installed as resident minister and
morning services were instituted. After a year's service he re-
moved to St. George's, Lee, and was succeeded by Rev. Stephen Van
Rennselaer, who remained about a year and a half. He was fol-
lowed by Rev. Frederick Buck who remained nearly a year. He
was followed by Rev. C. 0. Arnold who is now in charge. About
the time of Mr. Arnold's arrival a new and beautiful Parish House
was erected oy Mr. John E. Parsons. This building is used also
as a rectory and has greatly increased the possibilities of useful-
ness for the mission which has now every prospect of a long and
The following extracts from the Pittsfield Sun graphically de-
scribe the circumstances of the erection of St. Helena's chapel and
the impressions the work made at the time:
PITTSFIELD SUN, September 8, 1892.
One of the grandest days in the history of New Lenox went on
record Saturday, the laying of the corner stone of the Union Chapel
being erected by John E. Parsons of Lenox and New York. It was
a perfect day and ceremony. The services were opened by singing
"Rock of Ages," then prayer by Dr. Clymer of Pittsfield, reading of
Scripture by Rev. R. D. Mallary of Lenox, singing "I Love Thy
Church Oh God," then service by Rev. William M. Grosvenor, read-
ing collect, Apostles Creed and prayer, laying of the corner stone
in loving memory of Helen Reed Parsons.
The assembly then listened to short addresses by Rev. Dr.
Newton of Pittsfield and Rev. Mr. Stafford of Lenox, singing of
doxology and benediction. Mr. Parsons and family with a large
circle of friends were present. The chapel is being built of grey
stone from the east mountain and will probably be the finest in
the country. The floor is of tile with border; the walls inside are
buff tile with border and windows of colored glass. It is built
with a view to strength, durability and beauty, and with ancient
appearance. May the worshippers follow so closely their Saviour
that it will be a memorial indeed.
The contents of the box put under the corner stone were as
follows: Records of the Union Society, its purposes, members and
officers, the date of its foundation and names of persons residing
in New Lenox and vicinity September 3, 1892, name of architect,
contractor of masonry, carpenter and foreman. Papers: The New
York Daily Tribune, Herald, World, Sun, Times, Evening Post,
Observer, August 25, 1892; the New York Illustrated American,
August 20, 1892; The Evangelist, August 25, 1902; The Boston
Daily Globe, September 3, 1892; The Boston Daily Herald. Septem-
ber 3, 1902; Berkshire County Eagle, September 2, 1892; Berkshire
Evening Eagle, September 3, 1892; The Pittsfield Sun, September
1, 1892; The Weekly Journal, August 31, 1892.
April 27, 1893.
Workmen have begun this week laying the tile floor in the
Parsons memorial chapel at New Lenox. The beautiful stained
glass windows were put in last week. One of them has the initial
"P" in the glass and is a memorial window. The chapel is built
of grey stone on a foundation laid deep and strong, in fact they
seem to be strong enough for a structure ten times the size. The
interior walls are buff brick, the woodwork, oak. A 500-pound bell
has arrived and will go into the tower in a few days.
It was expected it could be dedicated in May but the aeath
of Phillips Brooks postpones the ceremony until his successor is
chosen. Mr. Parsons is doing great things for the neighborhood of
Lenox, having bought property in Curtisville to be prepared for
the reception of city children of the fresh air fund, and fitted up in
Lenox Dale a reading room with the post-office in the same building.
June 8, 1893.
From Greylock to Monument Mountain, fifty miles or more, is
the extent of the view north and south from the little station at
New Lenox. On the east is October Mountain, with Roaring Brook
rushing down its side, and in a narrow ravine holding the famous
Tory's Cave. Legend has it that here some half-dozen of the revo-
lutionary tories found a safe retreat, being fed by friends. The
cave is nearly filled up now, but the grand old mountain stands,
yielding her secrets to no one, firm and true; and keeping guard
over the quiet little settlement on which it seems to look with
John B. Parsons, lawyer, of New York and Lenox, has always
taken a warm interest in New Lenox. Fourteen years ago, he
became interested in the Sunday school here, and since then his help
and encouragement have always been willingly given. His daughter,
Helen Reed Parsons, was his energetic assistant in many a good work.
In loving memory of her the New Lenox chapel has been built;
strong, as she was strong in goodness, beautiful as her life was beau-
tiful, and non-sectarian, as she gave her help freely to all alike.
The building will be dedicated this month, with three ser-
vices, one by the children. Everything is nearly complete. The
pews of solid oak are in place, and the chapel will seat 200 people.
The handsome Tiffany windows are in with the exception of a
large round one at the rear of the room and Bryan O'Laughlin's
men of Pittsfield are putting the last touches to the hard-wood
finishings. The oak lecturn, chancel lamp of solid brass and
chancel chairs have arrived and will soon be in order. Several
valuable gifts have been received, a font and solid communion
service from Mr. Parson's friends among them. There is talk of
a memorial window to Miss Parsons, to come from the New Lenox
people, and other donations will make the furnishings of the chapel,
as the structure itself is, in every way complete.
In the library room, reached by an outside entrance and also
from the chapel, work is nearly done. The room is 14 by 14 feet
in size, of Nova Scotia buff brick to match the chapel, with deep
red trimmings. The wood-work is all oak. A comfortable fire-
place fills one side and is flanked by oak book shelves. The floor
is oak and will be covered by a handsome rug. The lights are
made especially for the room, of solid brass, and oak tables and
easy chairs are to make this a most delightful room.
Mrs. Parsons' gardener is to personally superintend the lay-
ing out of the grounds of the chapel. The lot contains half an
acre and has been beautifully graded. The walks are laid and
flowers will soon blossom around the edifice; particularly at the
west, just under the tower where the 500 pound bell hangs. Master
Oscar Hutchinson, who, by the way, has been a most earnest ob-
server of the building every day since the corner stone was laid,
sent the first peal from the new bell; ringing down the valley, and
it is declared that at sunrise on the dedication day the same hand
will set the bell gladly ringing. The chapel is in all ways fire-
proof, is built by Dodge & Devanney of Pittsfield in the most solid
manner from a handsome grey stone quarried on M. P. Gaylord's
farm, and will cost, when complete, fully $15,000. Mr. Rathbun
was the architect and he has given the people an everlasting place
of comfort, security and beauty.
July 6, 1893.
At 4 o'clock Friday morning the 550-pound bell in the new
chapel at New Lenox woke the people of that locality and told
them that the day bad come, so long looked forward to, when the
final beauty was to be added to this memorial building — the bless-
ing of God.
For days the people had been busy adorning the chapel with
flowers and greens, and at 11 o'clock, when the exercises com-
menced, the place was a bower of beauty, made so by loving ones
in glad acknowledgement of the handsome gift that they had re-
ceived. The history and description of the chapel has been given
in the Sun. It is well known that Mr. John E. Parsons has erected
the building in tender memory of his daughter, Helen Reed Par-
sons, who died of typhoid fever, contracted while on a visit in the
South. The chapel is now complete in all its furnishings, and
there have been several valuable presents received, among them
a silver and gold communion set from the family with whom Miss
Parsons was visiting in the South. The altar was covered with
daisies and hydrangeas. In the front of the arch, which was
elaborately festooned with laurel, hung a large, open star of daisies
in the center of which was suspended a wreath of roses. Wilu
roses and ferns were used in quantity about the chapel and in the
library. A good likeness of Miss Parsons has been hung in the
latter room, and it was wound with roses, as was also the picture
of Phillips Brooks. The fireplace was filled with ferns and roses,
and the windows were decorated.
The chapel and library were filled to overflowing when the ser-
vices began at 11 o'clock, people being present from Pittsfield,
Lenox, Stockbridge and Great Harrington. The service opened
with the 1061st hymn, "Jerusalem the Golden," and was followed
by the Episcopal dedication service. Rev. Arthur Lawrence of Stock-
bridge reading the psalms and lesson, and Rev. Mr. Grosvenor of
Lenox the collects and prayers. After the hymn, "Nearer, My God
to Thee," Rev. Dr. Brooks, rector of the Church of the Incarna-
tion, New York, preached the sermon from L Thessalonians, fifth
chapter, tenth verse: "Who died for us, that whether we wake or
sleep, we should live together with him."
To a great many in the congregation it seemed almost as
though time had turned backward and they were once more listen-
ing to the beloved bishop of Massachusetts. Rev. Arthur Brooks
has a great resemblance to his brother, though lacking something
of the latter's great height and strength. The voice is the same,
even to the occasional correction, and though not equalling Bishop
Brooks, he is a very rapid talker. The face, the gestures, the won-
derful light in the eyes, are very like, and there is the same deep
thought and earnestness of the elder brother. Dr. Brooks said
St. Paul always endeavored to convey in a single word or sen-
tence the idea he wished to impress upon his hearers. He wished
the thought to be perfectly plain and was willing to go over
the picture again and again but he wished the impression to be
perfect. The Bible is a picture gallery, with every picture com-
plete, and each one fitted for a special time. The picture I wish
to bring before you is the ever-presence of God, and the great
thought of association. It should be that when men meet together
they should grow better, not worse. Man dreads to be alone and
only when he is in touch with his fellow-men is he at his best.
So this chapel stands for a place where men can meet in the best
way, in purity and goodness. The chapel is non-sectarian, it bids
all welcome, and makes no distinction of creed or belief. We al-
ways dread having our young go into the world, we fear its tempta-
tions. Character is formed by association, and if we see that good
associations are around our children we need not fear. This chapel
is a good place for young and old. The nearer a man gets to God
the nearer he gets to mankind.
Association breeds association. When a man is in his chapel
he is a member of a great family, not in a cell by himself. This
association makes life worth living. We touch men on all sides,
in the business, in society, why not in religion? A man will be
better in every way who goes to church. This idea of association
is the key Christ gave us with which to unlock the gate of heaven.
The question is asked why need we die? We all dread what we
call great sundering of associations but this is really the strength-
ening of them. There is no perfect association without suffering,
no great joy without pain. We need the storm to appreciate the
blue sky just behind it, and so death brings us nearer to God and
nearer our loved ones. There is no greater blessing to a com-
munity than a good church. I would sooner see a man without a
home than without a church. May this day be a day of great beauty
and joy, because "the joy of the Lord is your strength."
St. Helena Chapel, July 6.
The ladies of New Lenox certainly know how to entertain
strangers within their gates, and the lunch, which was spread un-
der the tents on Mr. Oscar Hutchinson's lawn, was a feast indeed.
Everyone was well served and not a soul went hungry from w*
tables. A shower came after the dinner, during the afternoon ser-
vice, but no one was inconvenienced.
Prof. Monroe of Albany, organist at the Episcopal church in
Lenox, played in the morning and a choir of 20 voices sang the
hymns in an excellent manner. In the afternoon the music at the
children's praise service was under the charge of Miss Almeda Hutch-
inson and the children sang splendidly under her direction. Miss
Stella Hutchinson had charge of the recitations, and the little ones
showed careful training. Miss Stella Hutchinson also gave the ad-
dress of welcome, and all who have heard this clever elocutionist
know how well it was done.
Dr. Newton talked to the Sunday school and thoroughly de-
lighted them with lessons from Bunyan's "Holy War" and the
temptations from Eyegate, Eagate and Hellgate Hill. A great many
think Dr. Newton at his best when talking to children, and the
young and old alike gather a great many good lessons from his talks
a^. such times He is very popular in New Lenox and a great many
hope to hear him often at the chapel in the future.
The evening service was conducted by Rev. L T. StalTord, and
ll-.ere were addresses by Rev. R. DeWitt Mallary of Lenox and Rev.
Dr. Clymer of Pittsfield. The chapel was crowded and at this eve-
ning service the music was particularly good, Miss Stella Hutchln-
son singing a soprano solo and Mr. Bolter of Lenox, tenor, sang
an excellent "Ave Maria."
The thanks of a great many are due to Mr. and Mrs. Hutchin-
son, who so kindly opened their home to all out of town people and
made pleasant the hours of waiting for trains. All the arrange-
ments for the day were perfect, and every one congratulates New
Lenox, both on her possession of a handsome chapel and the good-
ly fellowship which prevails.
SOLDIERS IN REVOLUTIONARY
AND CIVL WARS.
Brigadier General John Patterson, Colonel Caleb Hyde, Adju-
tant William Walker.
Colonel Miles Powell, Colonel David Rosseter, Major Thomas
Lusk, Major Oliver Root, Major Aaron Rov^^ley.
Lenox Soldiers in the Revolution.
Elijah Allen, Samuel Allen, Barzillai Andrus, Elias Armstrong,
Matthev^f Butler, Lyman Barber, Roswell Ballard, Elisha Bangs,
Lemuel Barlovi^, Samuel Barney, Oliver Benlding, Thomas Bene-
dict, Bunman Benson, Peter Berry, David Birge, Jesse Bishop, Joel
Blinn, Solomon Blinn, Silas Blinn, Daniel Bonge, Samuel Boyd,
Oliver Belden, Oliver Belden, Jr.
Levi Carr, Daniel Canfield, Caleb Carver, Ephraim Cary, John
Case, Silvanus Chadwick, Christopher Chester, James Churchill,
Bildad Clark, David Clark, Jesse Clarkji John Clements, William
Coan, John Coats, Ashbell Collins, Lemuel Collins, Eliakim Colver,
Raphel Cook, Asa Cooper, John Coonroyd, David Cowdrey, Jediah
Crittenden, Seymour Crittenden, Stephen Crittenden, Thomas Crit-
tenden, Timothy Crittenden, Caleb Culver, Samuel Culver, Daniel
Curtis, David Curtis, Joel Curtis.
Israel Dancy, Paul Dewey, Solomon Davis, Elijah Dewey,
Charles Dibble, Israel Dibble, William Dillingham, Joshua Doane,
David Dunbar, Samuel Dunbar, Jr., Joseph Dwight.
Elijah Edwards, John Ellis.
Samuel Filsey, Jonathan Foot. Thomas Foster, Dayton Fuller.
Elijah Gates, Seth Gibbs, Allen Goodrich, Ashbel Goodrich,
Ashley Goodrich, Gilbert Goodrich, Jacob Goodrich, Lemuel Good-
rich, Samuel Goodrich, Noah Goodrich, John Grace, Elisha Gripon,
David Gray, John Gray, Isaiah Gray, James Guthrie, Joseph Guth-
rie, Samuel Guthrie.
Thomas Hale, Matthias Hall, Miles Hall, Watkins Hall, Asa
Hamlin, Joseph Hamlin, Asahel Hawkins, Levi Hatch, Moses Hay,
Benjamin Hewitt, Jedediah Hewitt, Jeremiah Hewitt, John Hewitt,
Lodowich Hewitt, Eliada Hickok, Cyremus Hill, David Hinds, Isaac
House, Ephraim HoUister, Jesse Hollister, Joseph Hollister, Wil-
liam Hollister, Jabez Howland, John Hoyt, Thomas Hudson, Jere-
miah Hull, Benjamin Hunt, Silas Hurlbut, Andrew Hyde, Caleb
Hyde, Charles Hyde.
William Ingersoll, Oliver Isbel, Isaac Isaacs.
Samuel Jerome, Edward Johnson, Michael Johnson, ving
miel Keith, Patrick Kelly, James Kilby.
Aquila Landers, Asahel Landers, Ebenezer Landers, Joseph
Landers, Peleg Landers, Richard Larabee, George Leonard, Job
Leonard, John Lewis, James Livingston, Charles Lewis, Curtis
Lewis, John Lewis.
Johnathan Maltby, William Maltby, Israel Markham, Gershom
Martindale, Stephen Martindale, William Martindale, Patrick Mc-
Keown, Samuel Merriman, William Merry, Daniel Messenger, Isaac
Morse, John Morell.
Josiah Newell, John North, Job Northrop, Caleb Northrop,
Isaac Olds. Jeremiah Osborn, Robert Owen.
George Parker, Linus Parker, Rufus Parker, Samuel Phipps,
Prosper Polly, Abel Pond, Phineas Pond, Silas Pond, Amos Porter,
Raphael Porter, Asa Presto.
Abijah Richards, James Richards, Jonas Root.
Ziza Sabine, Jacob St. John, Aquila Sanders, Zacheus Sandford,
David Sears. Asha Sedgwick, Perez Simmons, Amos Smith, Simeon
Smith, Thomas Steel, Paul Stephens, Charles Stewart, Amos Stod-
dard, Philo Stoddard, Enos Stone, Peleg Stone, Gustavus Stoughton,
Horatio Strong, Lemuel Suffield.
Berijah Taylor, Ezra Tillson, Nathaniel Tobey, John Treat,
Thomas Treat, Timothy Treat, Timothy Tuttle.
Caleb Walker, William Walker, Samuel Walner, Silas Walton,
William Warner, Jason Warren, Timothy Way, William Wells, Hen-
ry Wensey, Caleb vv^est, Levi West, Ebenezer Whalon, Ebenezer
Wheden, Richard Whitney, John Willard, Simon Willard, Peter
Wise, David Wood, Moses Wood, Andrew Wright, Timothy Wright,
Gad Woodruff, Simon Woodward.
Josiah Yale, Noah Yale.
Richmond Soldiers in the Revolution.
John Bacon, William Banks. Alexander Barnard, David Beers,
John Bemis, Stephen Benton, S. Comstock Betts, Samuel Brewer,
Benjamin Britten, John Brown, Nathaniel Brown, William Brown,
Silas Callender, Simeon Carpenter, Joshua ChamberlaiiL Sam-
uel Cnamberlain, Amaziah Chappell, Joshua Chase, Ashahel Chit-
tendden, Isaac Coggswell, Levi Coggswell. Nathan Coggswell. Sam-
uel Coggswell, Reuben Coggswell, John Collins, Dan Collins. Levi
Cook, Pitman C. Cook, John Crocker, Elisha Crippens, Levi Critten-
den, William Crittenden, Barnet Cum.
Nathan Dart, John Dudley.
Bethuel Finney, Ansel Fox, Hubbard Fox, Jeremiah Fuller,
James Olmstead Gates, David Gates, John Garvey, Alexander
Gaston, David Gaston, Thomas Gaston, William Gaston, Richard
Giadings, Samuel Goodrich, Isaiah Gray, John Gurney.
Samuel Hackley, Daniel Hall, Jonathan Halley, Asa Hamblin,
Aoraham Hand, Daniel Hand, Isaac Herrick, John Herrick, Seba
Higley, Ambrose Hill, Arumah Hill, Elisha Hill, Frederick Hill,
Shadrack Hill, Titus Hill, Jr., Robert Hillock, Thomas Hillock,
Elijah HoUister, Joseph Holly, Nathaniel Holly.
Robert Kasson. Robert Knowlton.
William Long, James Linsey, Jacob Luke, William Lusk.
John Matthews, Ebenezer Martin, John McKerley, Isaac Mer-
rick, Eleazar Miller Richard Minor, Hugh Mitchell, Micah Mudgen.
Joel Osbom, Thomas Osborn, Barnabas Otis.
Asa Parmelee, Rufus Parmelee, Jacob Pettibone, Barzillai
Phelps, Francis Plummer, Samuel Porter.
Joseph Raymond, William Raymond, Jacob Redington, Ishmael
Richards, Joseph Richards, James Riley, Edward Robinson, David
Rosseter, Elnathan Rosseter, Noah Rosseter, Zenas Root, Aaron
Rowley, David Rowley, Moses Rowley, Richmond Rowley, Seth
Rowley, Sylvester Rowley, Thomas Rowley.
Roger Savage, Thomas Scott, Thomas Scott, Jr., William Skeele,
Eben Smith, Thomas Smith (negro), Solomon Solomon, Stephen
Squire, Jonathan Stoddard.
Henry Talmage, George Tanners, Samuel Taylor, Isaiah Til-
den, Paul Topping, Daniel Tubbs.
Joseph Welch, Walter Welch, John Wilcox, David Williams,
Frederick Williams, Ebenezer Williams, Thomas Williams, Gideon
Lenox in the Crnx War.
Alexander Adams, Jacob Adams, James Anderson.
Thomas Back, Ransom Bailey, Charles G. Bangs, Morris Barry,
Henry J. Bliss, Arthur J. Bliven, Charles J. Bliven, John Broderick,
Michael Broderick, Crowell H. Brooks, Edward Brown, William D.
Buclinam, James B. Bull, Wlllard L. Burkett.
Barn^ E. Carey, Franklin Carpenter, Noble Carrothers, Henry
J. Carter, Alonzo Clark, Obed Coffin, Cbarles G. Coleman, Elbridge
Collamer, Lewis E. Collins, Peter Come, Thomas Conners, Albert D.
Cook, David Cote, Mark H. Cottrell, Oliver Cottrell, John Crooks,
Patrick Cummings, John H. Curtis,
William E. Donnelly, William Doren, Michael Doyle, William H.
Hiram Farling, Joseph Fisher.
John Hall, Walter Hammett, James Hartley, Benjamin F. Hast-
ings, Thomas Henry, Henry P. Hines, William Hogan, George Hoi-
brook, Charles M. Hollen, William Hunt, Frank Hurst.
Thomas Jackson, William H. Jennie, William L. Jennie.
John Kearsley, John King.
Jerry Lahee, James Larkins, John Lassure, John Leahey, Say-
Henry R. McCullock, John McDonough, Luke McGrath, Wil-
liam McGrath, John S. McKibbon, John Mahony, Charles O. Maine,
George Manning, Augustus N. Martin, Jacob Martin, John Mason,
John Manning, Henry N. Merry, Alfred Michael, James Miles, Hen-
ry Miller, Daniel Morrissey, Samuel H. Myers.
Isaac J. Newton, Albert H. Northrop.
Theron F. Parker, Edwin W. Parsons, William H. Parsons,
Charles F. Patterson, Solomon E. Peck, Charles W. Perry, Edward
J. Perry, George G. Peters, Ogden H. Plarike, Elijah Plass, Edward
Porter, Peter H. Pruyn.
Daniel Reardon, Edward M. Reynolds, Hugh Riordan.
Henry M. Sabine, Julius Schoder, Daniel A. Sedgwick, William
D. Sedgwick, Darius See, William H. Sheffield, Joseph M. Sherman,
Patrick Shields, Alexander Smith, Chauncey W. Smith, William A.
Spaulding, Antoine Steinhardt, William R. Sterrett, Joseph Stumph.
Henry D. Thomas, John Thompson, Henry R. Tucker.
Charles Van Allen, John E. Vasburgh.
Benjamin D. Wade, Charles J. Wade, Henry W. Wade, George
F. Waterman, Samuel Weever, Amos D. Whittaker, Ames Whittaker,
Garrett H. Whittaker, Charles E. Wink.
Charles E. A. .
Richmond in the Civil Wab.
John Carey, Edward W. Chapin, Araid L. Chapman, Joseph P.
Chapman, Henry F. Chamberlain, Robert B. Chamberlain, Wallace
Chamberlain, Horace Church, Michael M. Clapper, Nicholas Conley,
Albert D. Cook, John Crocker.
Franklin J. Dickerson,
John H. Jones.
Lorenzo S. Knapp.
Amidie Lagueness, George W. Lane, William E. Lane, William
Linen, Charles D. Lynch, Edwin E. Lynch, John Lynch, John D.
Francis Madison, Alfred Markham, Charles Markham, Henry P.
Merrill, Wells B. Morgan, Euward Morrison.
Henry C. Nichols, Edward H. Norton.
David Perry, John Plass, Michael Plass.
Charles M. Renshaw, John H. Richards. Abram Rossiter, Wil
liam M. Rossiter.
Frank Slasson, Romanzo Stevens, Philip Sullivan, Howard K.
Thomas Toben, William H. Tyler.
Revello H. Vallinger, Albert Van Bramer.
Charles H. Walker, Silas D. Webster, Wells E. Wheldon, Benjar
min C. Wilbur, Charles Wilcox, Charles Woodward. Charles L.
STATE AND COUNTY OFFICIALS.
Sheriff— Caleb Hyde, 1781.
County Clerks— Charles Sedgwick, 1821; Henry W. Taft, 1856.
Treasurers— Caleb Hyde, 1810; Joseph Tucker, 1813; George J.
Senators— Azariah Eggleston, 1807-08-09; William P. Walker,
1810-11; William Vvalker, 1815; Caleb Hyde, 1816, 18, 19, 20;
Charles Mattoon, 1828; Henry H. Cook, 1844, 1853; William Phelps,
1849, 1858; Joseph Tucker, 1866; Richard Goodman, 1871; Thomas
Senator— David Rosseter, 1799-1800.
Representatives fbom Lenox.
David Rosseter, 1773; John Patterson, 1774; Captain Caleb
Hyde, 1775; Major Caleb Hyde, Charles Debbie, 1776; Israel Dewey,
Esq., 1780; Elias Willard, 1782; Enos Stone, 1783; William Walker,
Esq., 1784; John Patterson, Esq., 1784; Captain Enos Stone. 1786;
\\ illiam Walker, Esq., 1787; Lemuel Collins, 1788; John Stoughton,
1790; William WaiKer, Esq., 1791; Caleb Hyde, Esq., 1792; Elijah
G?tes, 1793; William Walker, Esq., 1794-95; Azariah Eggleston,
Esq. 1796-99; Joseph Govwin, 1800-01; Captain Enos Stone, 1802;
Elijah Northrop, 1803; Thomas Brown, 1804; Oliver Belden, Jr.,
1805-06; Josiah Newell, 1807; Amasa Gleason, 1808; Oliver Belden,
1809; Oliver Belden, Jr., Daniel Williams, Jr., 1810; Daniel Wil-
liams, Jr., 1811; William P. Walker. Daniel Williams, Jr., 1812;
Daniel Williams, Jr., 1813; William P. Walker, Daniel Williams,
Jr., 1814; Caleb Hyde, 1815; Oliver Belden, Daniel Collins, 181 G;
Elijah Northrop, 1817; Asher Sedgwick, 1818-19; Charles Matson,
1820-21; Daniel Williams, Charles Worthington, 1827; Charles
Worthington, 1828; Oliver Peck, 1829-30; James W. Robbins, 1831.
Lyman Judd, 1832-33; Caleb Belden, 1834-45; George J. Tucker.
1836-37; William A. Phelps, 1838; Henry H. Cook, 1839-40; William
A. Phelps, 1841; Major S. Wilson, 1842-44; Isaac Comstock, 1845;
Erastus Dewey, 1848; William S. Tucker, 1849; Hiram Pettee,
1850; M. S. Wilson, 1851; Eli Richmond, 1852; William O. Curtis,
1853; Charles Bangs, 1854; William A. Phelps, 1855; Horatio N.
Sears, 1856; James H. Collins, 1857; Henry W. Bishop, 1860; Thom-
as Post, 1863, 1866, 1882, 1887, 1897; Albert Langdon, 1869; Edward
McDonald, 1870; George O. Peck, 1872; William D. Curtis, 1875;
H. N. Cook, 1878; Chauncey Sears, 1885; William Mahanna, 1890;
John M. Johnson 1903.
Representatives from Richmond.
Captain Elijah Brown, 1775; Captain James Gates, 1777; Com-
stock Betts, 1779; Nathaniel Bishop, 1780; William Lusk, 1782-84;
Nathaniel Bishop, Esq., 1785; William Lusk, 1786-87; Nathaniel
Bishop, Esq., 1788-89; William Lusk, Esq., 1790; Nathaniel Bishop,
Esq., 1791-95; Dr. Hugo Burghardt, 1796-97; David Rosseter, Esq.,
1798-yy; Nathan Pierson, 1800; Hugo Burghardt, Esq., 1801;
Zachariah Pierson, Esq., 1802; Noah Rosseter, Esq., 1803; Zacharlah
Pierson, Esq., 1804; Noah Rosseter, Esq., 1805; Zachariah Pierson,
Pierson, Esq., 1806-07; Huga Burghardt, 1808; Noah Rosseter, 1809:
Absalom Ford, 1810; Ebenezer Hotchkin, 1811; Hugo Burghardt,
1812; Russell Griffin, 1813; Hugo Burghardt, 1815-17, 1820; Nathan
Pierson, 1822-23; William S. Leadbetter, 1824, 1826; Linus Hall,
1827; Erastus Rowley, 1828-29; John Sherrill, 1830-31; Eleazer Wil-
liams, 1832-33; John L. Plummer, 1834-35; Lewis C. Sherrill, 1S36;
Samuel Gates, 1837; George W. Kniffin, 1838; Daniel D. Kendall,
1S39; Seneca Pattee, 1840; Samuel Gates, 1841; Henry Werdon.
1842; Eli Richmond, 1843; William Pierson, 1844; John Sherrill,
1845; Walter Cook, 1846; Samuel Bartlett (to fill vacancy), 1846;
George W. Kniffin, 1850; Samuel Bartlett, 1851; William H. Nichols,
1852; Stephen R. Gay, 1853; Stephen R. Benton, 1854; Henry B.
Stephens, 1855; Selden Jennings, 1864; Henry H. Cook, 1868; Sam-
uel M. Reynolds. 1879; William H. Sherrill, 1901.
BERKSHIRE COUNTY, ENGLAND.
The name Berkshire appears to be derived from the word
Berroc, which means "box tree." In other words, Berkshire, was
the shire, which was characterized by the abundance of box trees
growing in it.
This county lies midway between London, the seat of English
pontics and trade, and Oxford, the principal educational seat, and
forms a connecting link between the two. Its principal towns are
Reading and Windsor. The castle of Windsor, having been for so
many centuries the seat of the royal palace, Berkshire is intimately
associated with the principal events in English history.
To go back to the ages of legend, within its limits lies the
traditional piace where St. George is said to have slain the dragon,
which still bears the name of Dragon Hill. Coming down to the
historic period, this county was invaded by the Belgians and Aqui-
tanians led by Divitiacus, of whom we read in Caesar's Commen-
taries. Thi.j indirectly led to Caesar's invasion of England and the
bringing of England within the influence of Roman civilization,
and it was within the limits of Berkshire County that the cele-
brated battle of Saint Albans was fought which led to the subjuga-
tion of England. At about this period was also fought in the same
vicinity the battle of Nettleton in which Cymbeline figured, a sub-
ject familiar to all readers of Shakespeare. Berkshire County be-
came a part of what was known as Britannia Prima, and within
its borders was a great deal of luxury and aristocracy during the
Roman occupancy, and Silchester, the chief walled city of Roman
Brittain, was within the borders of this county. Speen Hill in this
vicinity is mentioned in the account of the travels of the Roman
emperor, Antonius. Relics of the Roman period are frequently dis-
covered. Recently a Roman coin was found in the mouth of a
skeleton which was excavated, it being the custom in those days to
place a coin with everybody which was interred to pay for its
transportation over the River Styx, the home of the departed.
After the Romans abandoned England, Berkshire County became
part of the Saxon kingdom of Wessex, and the old Roman castle of
bi [Chester furnished the stones out of which the Abbey of Reading
was constructed, Reading, which is now the chief city of Berkshire,
was the principal seat of traflSc in this region in the time of the
Saxons. It was founded by the Radinga family, wnose name was
subsequently contracted to Reading and afterwards to Reed. The
Reed family has always been prominent in the annals of Berkshire.
Many of the early Saxon kings bear this name, Afred, meaning the
shrewd Reed, and Aethelred, meaning the good Reed. Later on the
celebrated Robin Reedsdale, well known to readers of "The Last of
the Barons," by Bulwer, was one of the great champions of the
cause of the people. The members of the Reed family are found
from an early period as High Sheriffs of this county, and for many
years have been members of the peerage. A member ot this branch
of the family came in the Seventeenth century to Woburn, Mass.,
and some of his descendants settled in Windsor from whom most of
the Reeds of the Massachusetts Berkshire are descended.
During the Anglo-Saxon period, the wars between the king-
doms of Mercia and Wessex were fought in what was even then
caned the Berkshire Hills. When Saint Augustine came as a mis-
sionary from Rome to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity, on
the conversion of the king of Wessex, Birinus became the first bishop
of Berkshire in 634. Ina, king of Wessex, founded a school at Rome
for the purpose of giving advanced education to the most promising
youths, and taxed his subjects for its support, and this, curiously
enough, was the origin of what was afterwards known as Peter's
Pence, a tax paid to the Pope, which had so much to do with tha
Reformation. In 827, under Egbert, the king of this region, the
seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united and England became a
nation. In 871 the Danes invaded England and came to Reading,
where, being attacked by Bthelred and Alfred, they fell back ta
Ashdown, which is also in this county, and there was fought th»-
battle which led to the ultimate union of the Saxons and the Danek
and the preservation of England as a separate and individual king-
dom. The last Saxon earl of Wessex, which includes Berkshire,
was the last Saxon king, namely, Harold, who was slain at the bat-
tle of Hastings. It was in this region that the great Abbey of
Abington, the principal Saxon religious establishment, was founded
as early as 675. The celebrated Dunstan figured to a considerable
extent in the history of this Abbey. The Varungarians, well known
to the readers of Scott's "Robert of Paris," were mostly from Berk-
shire county, being Saxons, who fled in despair from William the
Conqueror to become Crusaders and do the unique work for which
their band has been so long celebrated. William the Conqueror
passed through Berkshire on his way from Hastings to London.
During the troubulous days which succeeded the time of William I.,
this county figured largely, especially in the time of King Stephen
and the civil wars.
The county remained at rest during the earlier part of Richard
uie First's reign, but after his departure for Palestine the ambition
of nis brotner John led to further broils in which Windsor also
shared, for Earl John after calling a meeting at Reading in 1191
the nobles and clergy of the Kingdom, and having vainly attempted
to bring about a meeting with the Chief Justice during the King's
absence, followed him from Windsor Castle to London, and com-
peted him to resign the custodianship of Windsor. Richard's ad-
herents rose against the usurpation of power by the Earl and be-
sieged Windsor Castle and took it. Thereupon John fell to France,
and the fortress was held by Eleanor the Queen. Eventually John
became king and spent much of his time at Windsor and made many
marches thence through Berkshire on his way to Reading. He seems
to have lived well and studied well. A direction is found that there
should be sent to him two small casks of good wine to Windsor and
also the Romance of the History of England. It was on a small
island in the Thames, opposite the field called Runnymede and im-
mediately beyond the southeast boundary of Berkshire, and within
sight of Windsor Castle, that the Great Charter of English liberty
was signed. Even as late as Queen Elizabeth's day, the Vicar of
Henley was allowed an extra salary to atone for the danger of pass-
ing through the thickets of Berkshire.
As the county has several towns each with a special history. It
means best, at this point, to pause a moment to note the associa-
tions of the various important centres, first, Wallingford.
The castle at Wallingford was a fortress all through British
time. The earthern camp of the Celts had been altered by the Ro-
mans; in the ancient walls there seems to have been Roman ma-
sonry. The Saxons erected here wooden buildings defended by
stockades. Under the Normans a more permanent castle was erect-
ed, being finished in 1071, and this took a large share in the con-
tinual strife of the period. Here Henry the Third held court with
royal hospitality. During his reign it passed into the hands of the
barons and was occupied in 1262 by Simon De Montford to whose
efforts the permanent securing of the liberties granted by the Mag-
na Charter, were so largely due, and who may almost be called the
father of the liberties of English speaking peoples.
After De Montford fled to France, the castle again returned to
the royal party, but after the battle of Lewes, the King and others
were imprisoned there. In due time, Edward, the First, succeeded
to the throne and his son, the Prince of Wales, took possession of
the castle and lived there. He gave it to one of the haughtiest and
worst of his favorites, Gaveston. A tournament was held to inau-
gurate the appointment. It was at this tournament that he ad-
dressed the Earl of Warwick as the "Wild boar of the Ardenes."
He soon died by violence, and then Wallingford Castle became the
possession of another favorite, Despencer, and after his fall was held
by Isabella, the Queen. For a long time after this, Wallingford
Castle was made the possession of the Prince of Wales, who was
called Lord of Wallingford. On the death of the Black Prince, it
passed to his son, Richard, and here resided the fair maid of Kent
and here as his widow after nine years of mourning died and was
buried. Richard the Second, after his farewell from his girl Queen at
Windsor in 1399, placed her in the fortress of Wallingford. After
the King had become a prisoner to Henry of Bolingbroke, his Queen
placed herself at the head of an army in Berkshire and laid hold
of Windsor, but she was herself taken prisoner and held for a long
time in close restraint. Henry the Fourth gave the castle to
Thomas Chaucer, the son of the poet, who was also speaker of
the House of Commons. Henry the Fifth bestowed the Castle on
his Queen, and his son, afterwards Henry the Sixth, was entrusted
to the care of the Earl of Warwick to be taught and instructed in
his duties at Wallingford in the summer and at Windsor in the
Wallingford Castle figured largely in the time of Henry VHI.,
and subsequently in the civil wars at the time of Cromwell, its
occupant being beheaded by Henry VIII. on the charge of making
love to Anne Boleyn, and the castle being turned by Cromwell into
a state's prison. Donnington in the immediate vicinity, was one
of the last places to be surrendered by the Loyalists under Charles
I to Cromwell.
Second, Windsor, which as the seat of royal power for so many
centuries, is the mostly widely known of all the towns of Berkshire,
and from the well known poem of Pope is enshrined in the memo-
ries of all readers of English literature. Windsor was a name
derived from the words Windle shore as it lies on the bank of the
river Windle; and has been connected from an early date with the
regal power. Windsor Castle was constructed by Edward the Con-
fessor as a votive offering, for the remission of his sins and those
of his father, mother, and ancestors. Henry I. summoned all his
nobles there and was married to his second wife, at which time
this singular episode occurred; the Archbishop of Canterbury
claimed the right to perform the marriage, and being so furious at
being prevented from so doing, he was scarce restrained from strik-
ing off the king's crown. Henry II. built part of the king's castle,
and Henry III. added more to it. It was due to the suggestions of
David, king of Scotland, and John of France, who were captured in
the battle of Crecy, that the castle was enlarged, the money for its
reconstruction being obtained from their ransoms.
Here he buried Phillippa, Queen of Edward 3d, and Jane Sey-
mour the one wife of Henry 8th, who seems never to have offend-
ed him. Here rests James of Scotland, and here side by side are
buried Edward IV. and Richard HI., united at least in death. They
are referred to in the well known lines of Pope:
"Here o'er the martyr King, the marble weeps.
While fast beside him once feared Edward sleeps.
The grave unites, where e'en the great find rest
And blended lie the oppressor and the oppressed."
In 1348 the celebrated society of the King's Garter was founded
here, and the king's bed was adorned with this emblem. Here it
was that the celebrated saying originated
"Honi soit qui maly pense."
During the wars of the Roses in the 15th century and the
stirring times of the Reformation in the 16th, Windsor Castle was
often the storm centre. In fact as the place where Katherine of
Arragon was first approached by the ambassadors of Henry VIII.
for conference as to a possible divorce, it may be called the birth
place of the political side of the English Reformation. Still despite
the frequency of these disturbing factors the town grew and pros-
pered, and in 1629, its streets were paved and some attention was
paid to cleanliness. Obstructions to the thoroughfare, such as
carts and blocks and heaps of stones, were ordered to be removed,
swine were not permitted to wander loose in the market place, and
washing was prohibited in the streets. The Puritanism of the age
was becoming more marked; fines of one shilling and upwards were
inflicted, as for instance for absence from church, for tippling in
service time, and the like, and soon again Windsor became the
theatre of politico-religious war, and in the time of Charles I., Mr.
Bagshawe reported to the House of Commons that troops of horses
and wagons of ammunition had assembled at Windsor, and Parlia-
ment adopted a resolution to put it in a state of defense. It was
stated that the people of Berkshire adjoining the forests of Wind-
sor, have a resolution to speedily come in a tumultuous manner and
pull down the pales of the great park in Windsor. Colonel Vane
and John Burksted, afterwards regicides, came by the direction
of Parliament to take special charge of Windsor Castle. It was
made the headquarters of the Earl of Essex and a rendezvous of
the royalists in 1642. It was as a result of the Battle of Don-
nington and Newbury, both fought in this immediate vicinity, that
Cromwell was led to form the so-called "model army" to which
the subsequent sucesses of the Revolution were so largely due.
At Windsor the conclave met that resolved that the king should
be prosecuted for his life as a criminal person, and in Saint
George's Chapel Cromwell and others met and prayed very fervent-
ly in regard to this subject fi'om nine o'clock in the morning until
seven o'clock in the evening. Charles I. after his execution was
buried in this chapel with no service, the place being so dismantled
that the mourners knew not where they were. It was here that
Richard Cromwell was induced to resign the chief magistracy by
Captain Fletcher, and the restoration of the House of Stuart was
brought about. At the time of the Revolution of 1688, the only
blood which was shed was in this immediate vicinity. The Pre-
tender, son of James II., who figures so largely in many of Sir
Walter Scott's novels, was born here. George III., George IV., Wil-
liam VI., Prince Napoleon, and Prince Albert are buried here;
also the captive son of Theodore, king of Abbysinia. The scenes
depicted in Shakespeare's play, "Merry Wives of Windsor." all lie,
of course, in this neighborhood and the houses of Ford and Page
and the hotel from which the Germans escaped, are all still pointed
out; also the place to which Falstaff was carried.
Third, Reading, now the largest town in the county, has always
been identified with the stirring events which have ever char-
acterized the history of Berkshire.
No monastic edifice ever shared so largely in the history of
England as the abbey of Reading. This was founded by the cele-
brated Auselm, and was associated in the circumstances of its
foundation with the union of the Norman and baxon lines in the
marriage of Henry the First, which resulted in the healing of the
strife between the races which had lasted for two centuries. Here
Henry, the First, his two wives, and two sons are buried; here were
married John of Gaunt to Blanche, daughter of Henry Plantagenet,
and the son of the Earl of Arundal, to Margaret, sister of the
Queen of Edward the Fourth. King Stephen was here; Henry the
Second was here several times; Thomas A. Becket consecrated the
abbey church; Henry the Third was here frequently; also Edward
the Third; Richard the Second was here to be reconciled to his
nobles; Edward the Fourth was here when his private marriage
with Elizabeth Woodville was made public; Henry the Seventh was
also here, and Henry the Eighth with Catherine, his wife. Parlia-
ment met here in the time of Richard the First, of John, of Henry the
Sixth, of Edward the Fourth. Heracleas, Patriarch of Jerusalem,
here had audience with King Henry the Third to solicit his aid
against the Turks, presenting him with the keys of the Holy
Sepulchre, and the royal banners of the city. Ecclesiastical coun-
cils were held here in 1206 and 1279 to settle grave matters of the
church. There were many relics accumulated here, among which
were those that claimed to be the hand of James the Apostles, two
pieces of the Holy Cross, a bone of Mary Magdalene, the skull of
St. Philip, a bone of Saint David's arm, a bone of Mary Salome,
bones of Saint Edward, the martyr, Saint Andrew, Saint Osborne,
Saint Ursula, and of Saint Annie, the reputed mother of the
Virgin Mary; also two pieces of the cross on which Saint Andrew
It was converted into a dwelling house, also called Sandelford
Priery. Here once lived Mary Montague, Johnson, Goldsmith,
Burke and Reynolds. Here originated the term "Blue Stocking" for
women of such tastes, for Dr. Stillingfleet was in the habit of at-
tending her literary parties in a full suit of cloth with blue worsted
stockings, and rendered himself so entertaining that the ladies used
to delay their discussions until his arrival, declaring, "We can do
nothing without our blue stockings". Reading has witnessed scenes
of darkness and blood as well as other Berkshire towns. Here Jul-
ius Palmer, Fellow of Magdalene College, with two associates, in the
reign of Edward the Sixth, was imprisoned and charged with
treason and sedition, but these could not be proved and so they
tried the easier charge of heresy under Dr. Jeffry. When they were
come to the place where they should suffer, they all three fell to
the ground and Palmer with an audible voice pronounced the 31st
Psalm and forthwith they put off their raiment and went to the
stake and kissed it. When the fire was kindled and began to take
hold upon their boaies, they lifted up their hands toward Heaven
and quietly and cheerily, as though they felt no smart, they cried,
"Lord Jesus, strengthen us", and so they continued without any
struggling, holding up their hands and knocking their hearts until
they had ended their mortal lives.
In Reading, Archbishop Laud, who was one of the principal
figures in the Revolution at the time of Cromwell, was born. The
celebrated Vicar of Bray, who changed back and forth from one
party to the other, so often, lived here; William Lloyd, one of the
prelates imprisoned by James II., (a matter which was one of the
Immediate causes of the Revolution of 1688), was born in this
county. The well known Archbishop De Dominis, from whom the
entire Anglican Episcopate can trace its regular succession, lived
here. In W^antage in this county, the celebrated Bishop Butler, one
of the chief figures of the last century, was born; also Dr. Pusey,
one of the chief ecclesiastical personages in the Ninete°nth cen-
tury, came from Berkshire. It is well known now as the home
of Richard Croker.
In conclusion one transaction may be mentioned which at-
tracted but little notice at the time, which was the beginning of
what meant much in after centuries to Great Britain, an'l that
was the first granting of Free Trade. The story of how this came
about in Newberry (one of the towns of Berkshire), is thus told.
Jack of Newberry was a poor clothier, who, by his energy,
raised himself to be one of the largest employers of labor in the
county. He kept a hundred looms at work in his house, each man-
aged by a man and a boy. Henry the Eighth visited the gallant
clothier, on the return of the former from France. Henry would
have knighted him, but he declined the honor for he had a greater
object in view than that. He was the champion of free trade.
He petitioned that by reason of the wars many merchant strangers
were prohibited from coming to England, and also our merchants
were forbidden to have dealings with France. Chancellor
Woolsey would not listen to him. He thought that Jack of New-
berry, if well examined, would be found to be infected with Luther's
spirit. So he was, as far as energy and determination and a certain
habit of plain speaking went. He liked not the uelays in pushing
his suit, so he answered the Cardinal's menacing remark by the less
courteous rejoinder that '"If my Lord Chancellor's father had been
no hastier in killing calves than in pushing poor men's suits, I
think he never would have worn a mitre". Jack's persistency, and
probably his previous helpfulness and hospitality to the King,
gained its reward. The clothier got the order that merchants
should freely trafHc with one another and the proclamation thereof
should be made as well on the other side of the sea as the land.
So he prospered and his descendants after him.
And from this little beginning proceeded forth a system which
for weal or woe has mightily affected the destinies of Great Britain.
For the benefit of those interested in such matters a brief list
of some of the peculiarities of Berkshire speech is herewith given:
The Berkshire dialect has many curious provincialisms; thus
the Berkshire man says "thik" for "that", "him" for "her", "not"
for a "gnat", "housen" for "houses", "littox" for "rags", "prodigal"
for "troublesome", "queezy" for "sick", "to be in great spout",
instead of "to be in great spirits", "torments" when terrifies is
meant, "terrifies" when torment is meant.
HISTORY OF LENOX
.. HY ..
CHARLES J. PALMER.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS