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Full text of "A history of Lewis County, in the state of New York : from the beginning of its settlement to the present time"




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HISTORY 



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LEWIS COUNTY, 



IN THE 



STATE OF NEW YORK, 



FROM THE 



BEGIXXIXG OF ITS SETTLEMENT TO THE 
PRESENT TIME. 



BT 



FKANKLIN B. HOUGH, 

\ 

ALTHOU OF THE III-^TOIUEH <JK MT. LAWUESCE, FRANKLIN, AND JEFFKRSOX 

COUNTIES, AND COURESPONDINQ MEMBER OF THE NEW YORK, 

CONNECTICUT, VERMONT, PENNSYLVANIA, MARYLAND, 

WISCONSIN, MINNESOTA AND IOWA ..••• 

i • • • *. • 

HISTOUICAI. SOCIETIES. ' ' *. " 



ALHANY: 

MUNSKl.l. \ KOWI.ANI), 7s ST ATK STRKKT. 

18G0. 



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PUBLIC I ^';^R^ 

153587 

TIUOE 



f, F0UI^>DaT40N*« 



Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1860, by 

FRANKLIN B. HOUGH, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the 
Northern District of New York. 



PREFACE . 



An interior county, with no antiquities older than some of its inhabitants 
and no traditionary legends, or incidents of border life, beyond the ordinary 
privations of a new settlement, appears to offer but slender materials for his- 
tory. Still there are certain duties which the Present owes to the Future, to 
transmit m a permanent form the record of the Past, that the memory of the 
olden time, and the names of those who have aided in the formation of so- 
ciety fall not into oblivion ; and although our annals may be quite void of 
those dramatic events which have too often filled the historic page, it is 
believed the quiut origin aud growth of our community, have presented facts 
that will interest the present, and instruct a future age. 

In tracing out and connecting the historical items of his native county, the 
author has been actuated by an earnest wish to do full and equal justice to 
the memory of the pioneers and founders of the several towns, and any 
omi.Hsiou or imperfection of statement is due to absence or error of informa- 
tion. All those interested in preserving facts worthy of record, were invited by 
public notice to communicate with the author, and due industry and care have 
been bestowed in the verification of our narrative, which may, notwithstand- 
ing, contain fault.s that it would have been desirable to avoid. The indulgence 
of the public is solicited toward these, aud wo sliali ever consider it a kindness 
to have them indicated, with the view to future correction, should opportuni- 
ties occur. To those who have aided by iiui)arting U)aterials for use in these 
pages, wo wish to return thus j)ul>licly our ackuowldgemeutu, aud esiwcially 
to tlm following jiersons : — To Vincent L<' Kay of I'ari.s, P. Soniorville Stewart 
of Carthage, Henry K. I'iurropont of Hrooklyn.aud Charles King of Now York 
for facts relating to land title.H. To James L. Leonard, Stoi>heu Leonard, Joseph 
A. Willard, W. Hudson Stophens, Charles Dayaii, A. (}. Dayan, Leonard C. 
Daveniuirt, N. IJ. SylveattT, Andrew W. I>oig, Kdward A. Hrown, Wm. L. 
I'liiston, Henry K. Tunutr, and W. Root Adams, of Lowville ; Apollos Stephens 
iif Deuniurk ; David T. Martin, Wm. King, Jas. H. Sheldon and Diodnto 
Peii.se, of Marlinsburgh ; S. P. Sears of Montague; Charles O. Uiggs, limory 
IS. Iloldon, Dr. C. D. Uudd, Orriu Woolworth, Ilenry Ragau, Eliiiha Crofoot, 



iv Preface. 

and Walter D. Yale, of Turin ; Seth Miller, Jonathan C. Collins, James Cro- 
foot and Homer Collins, of West Turin ; Ela Merriam, Ezra Miller, Thomas 
Baker and W. J. Hall, of Leyden ; R. T. Hough of Lewis ; Seymour Green of 
Osceola ; Lyman R. Lyon, Francis Seger, Caleb Lyon of Lyonsdale, and Cyrus 
W. Pratt, of Greig ; Nelson J. Beach and Jehiel R. Wetmore of Watson ; Jo- 
siah Dewey of Delta ; Clinton L. Merriam of New York ; Wm. Collins of 
Cleveland, 0.; Baron S. Doty of Portage city, andM. J. Stow of Fond du Lac, 
Wisconsin, and D. P. Mayhew of Ypsilanti, Michigan, for written materials 
and facts derived from documents. To Daniel S. Bailey, late editor of the 
Lewis County Republican, Henry A. Phillips of the Northern Journal (now 
Journal and Republican), Henry Algoever of the Lewis County Banner, and 
the editors of the New York Reformer at Watertown, for friendly notices of 
the enterprise while in course of preparation, we also wish to return our 
thanks. The late Alson Clark of West Turin began publishing, a few years 
since, a series of historical articles in the newspaper of that town, all of which 
we have examined, and from several of which we have derived facts. His 
useful researches were interrupted by an eai-ly death. Lewis being the fourth 
county which the author has attempted to embody the details of local history, 
an opportunity has been offered of learning from dear bought experience, at 
least some of the difficulties attending this class of researches. With what 
success this labor has been performed on this occasion, the following pages 
are an impartial evidence. The steel plates chiefly by J. C. Buttre, of New 
York, and the lithographs drawn by C. G. Crehen of New York, and B. F. 
Smith, .Jr., of Albany, and printed by A. J. Hofiman & Co. of the latter place, 
are mostly faithful likenesses, and creditable as works of art. It would have 
been gratifying to extend this already unusual amount of illustrations, but of 
many worthy pioneers and iuci^mbents of public office, no portraits have 
been preserved. 

Franklin B. Hough. 

Albany, .April \Q, 1S60. 






4 





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^ph^^uM^ ^' JuH^j4 



HISTOEY OF LEWIS COUNTY. 



* • » » 



CHAPTER I. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY. 




The rapid settlement of Oneida county on 
its liortliern and western borders, liad 
within a few years after its formation 
rendered attendance upon its courts 
and the transaction of pul)lic Inisiness 
Ijurdeni-ome and expensive.^ Tiiis 
led to the discussion of plans for divi- 
sion, in which the future location of 
county Imildings I'ccame a leading 
motive with many ol' those who were 
most active in preparing the way ior 
changes which must soon necessarily be made. 

Uedlield, Champion, Lowville, Martinsburgh, "Watertown, 
and lirownville, were each regarded by their inhabitants as 
entitled to the honor of a court house, and active partisans 
were engaged in pre.-^sing the claims of each. The hopes of 
Champion de|jende(l uj)()ii the erection of but one county 
from Diieida, and in anticipation of this result, several 
young and talented lawyers had settli'd there in their pro- 
fession.s.- Silas Stow of Lowville, and Walter Martin of 
.Martinsburgh, were largely interested in newly settletl lands 
that would be eidianced in value l>y the h)catit)n of a county 
seat near them, and each of the pl.ices named had its 

^ This region of country, oripinnlly embmced in Albnny county, wjw In- 
Imlfil ill Try«>ii, .Miiril» 12, 177-, tliuiiv'«'<l lo Munti;'>ni<>ry, April L', 17^i4, 
ii»<lii.|f,| ill llcikiin.r, I-'.'l>nii\iy HJ, IT'.'I, hikI in Oii-miIu, .M.ik li 1.'., 17'.'^. 

• Mu!i.s Kfiit (» bri>th)*r of OiuiiOfllor Kvutj, lluury U. bturrs, uud l::gU)rt 
Tttu Kyck, then rvsidtxl iu Cbauipiou. 



2 Plans for the Division of Oneida County. 

active advocates of relative and prospective importance. 
The old settled parts of Oneida county, were far from being 
nnited in tlieir approval of the selection of Eome as a 
county seat, and in the sharp personal discussion which oc- 
curred between Jonas Piatt on the one hand, and Thomas 
R. Gold on the other, each had appealed to the public. 
Active efforts were being made to secure a change, and as the 
county was ripening for a division, the bearing of every 
measure tending to this end was watched with interest, and 
favored or opposed as it affected the prospects of the several 
parties. 

Jacob Brown, then a young and enterprising land agent, 
surveyor and settler at Brownville, and afterwards major 
general, had as early as 1797 passed through the Black river 
valley to Whitestown, and then and subsequently had asso- 
ciated with Jonathan Collins of Turin, Walter Martin of 
Martinsburgh, and other prominent settlers, with whom he 
continued a friendly acquaintance, and between whom the 
plan of two counties from the north part of Oneida was 
discussed and agreed upon, if sufficient influence could be 
secured to attain it. Brown's manifest object in concilia- 
ting the southern interest, was to so arrange the boundaries 
that the centre of one of the new counties would fall within 
his reach ; but other influences were at work near each of 
these parties, equally intent upon two counties, and quite as 
eager to seize upon the prize. It is not probable that Turin 
expected to gain the county seat, and it naturally favored 
the nearest party, but in Lowville, Stow and others were 
confidently relying upon their ability to prove that the 
balance of wealth and population centred upon them. The 
citizens of Watertown were equally active, and the result 
proved that they were a match for Brown in intrigue or 
influence if not in both. The northwestern settlers of Oneida 
county, under the lead of Nathan Sage of Redfield, were 
indifferent to these schemes except so far as they interfered 
with their favorite plan of a county, having as its natural 
boundaries the gulf of Sandy creek on the north, and the 
east lines of townships 3, 8 and 13 of the Boylston tract on 
the east. 

Mr. James Constable, one of the executors of the estate 
of his brother William, travelled through Macomb's pur- 
chase in 1803, 4, 5 and 6, and has left in his diary under date 
of Sept. 20, 1804, a notice of these plans •} 

1 This diary is written out with great care from observations made upon 
the spot, and abounds in interesting historical details ; we shall have frequent 
occasion to quote from its pages. 



Convention at Denmark. 3 

* * * " Finding that Mr. Shaler was from Lome, and 
not knowing what situation his people were in, we went to 
Squire [Jonathan] Collins, who although he has left off keep- 
ing tavern, received and entertained us kindly from a very- 
heavy rain. He gives us some information of the local pro- 
ceedings about roads, the division of the county and other 
intrigues, and with, what I have heard from other quarters 
it appears that Stow and ]\lartin had made themselves very 
obnoxious and they will differ about the division of the 
county on their side of it. Each will be supported by 
opposite interests, and they will both be defeated by the 
management of the proprietors of Redfield or that of Jacob 
Brown of Brownville. 

Each of the gentlemen requires a court house near to 
himself, and if they are all to be gratified, Oneida must be 
divided into five ; but there will be opposition to their wishes 
and perhaps to any division of the county, which would be 
for the interest of the land owners as the extra expense 
Avould be saved. There will be a contest for the clerkship 
as Mr. Martin, Mr. Stow and Mr. Kelley, brother-in-law to 
Stow are all candidates. Mr. Stow has declared publicly 
be will have it in spite of all opposition, but the people are 
most in favor of Mr. Kelley. ^" 

To give definite form to these movements a convention 
of delegates, mostly chosen at special town meetings was 
called to assemble in Denmark village to unite in an appli- 
cation to the legislature for a division of the county. One 
of these delegates'- has assured us that the majority of those 
sent, were instructed to vote for but on3 new county. The 
result of their deliberations is best shown by the record of 
their secretary which is as follows : 

" At a njceting of tlirco delegates from each of the towns of 
Browiivilh', WatiM-town, Adams, Eliisburj^h, Malta, ^ Harrison,* 
Kiithiiid, Champion, Harrisl)Urj,'h, Lowvilie, .Murtiiishur>,^h and 
Tnriti, convened at the lionsu of Frced'jni Wrij^lit in Harris- 
biii^'h,* on Tuesday, the '20tli day of November, 1«04, Jonatliau 
Collins in the chair; Ej,^bert Ten Eyi'k, seeretary: 

On exaniination it aiti)(';ir(!d ihal tiie foIiowin^^ fxTSons were 
rcfniarly clinsen lo irpieHent their respective towns at this 
ine«!tinj^. 

Jacob Ihown, .John W. ('ollins, lienjainin t.'oh', for Jiratrvvi/le; 
TiUey Richardson, iltniy CoflVeii, Solomon Kobbins. Joshua 
Heals for Adams; Lyman Ellis, .Matthew Roomer, jr., John 



1 It will b« notiooJ xlMuwhuru that Uiulianl Coxe was appointed. 

- William CoHVuii,tli»u of Uullaiul. ^ Now Lorrnino. * Now IluJmau. 

& The present town of Doiimark wn.i thou included in Harriaburgh. 



4 Convention at Denmark. 

Thomas, for EUishurgh; Asa Brown, Clark Allen, William 
Hunter, for Malta; William Rice, Cyrus Stone, Simeon Hunt, 
for Harrison; Cliti' French, Ahel Slierman, William Cofi'een, 
for Rutland; John Durkee, Olney Pearce, Eg:bert Ten Eyck, for 
Champion; Moss Kent, Lewis Graves, Charles Wright, jr., for 
Harrishurgh ; Silas Stow, Jonati)an Roj>-ers, Charles Davenport, 
for Lowvillc ; Asa Brayton, Clark McCarty, Chillns Doty, for 
Martinshirgh ; and Jonathan Collins, John Ives, Elijah Wads- 
worth, for Turin.^ 

The above names being called by the secretary, respectively- 
answered and took their seats. It was ilow moved and seconded 
that the sense of this meeting be taken whether all the members 
mentioned in the above list be admitted to act in this meeting. 
Carried in the affirmative, 30 to 6. 

Moved and seconded that all questions arising in this meeting 
excepting questions of order, be taken by ayes and nays. 
Carried unanimously in the aflfirmative. 

Moved and seconded that this county be set off from the 
county of Oneida. Carried in the affirmative, 27 to 9. 

Moved and seconded that this meeting will adjourn for half 
an hour. Carried unanimously, adjourned accordingly. 

Met pursuant to adjournment. It was now moved and se- 
conded that a petition be presented to the legislature of this 
state to appoint a disinterested committee to affix our limits for 
a new county, and to decide whether we ought to have a whole 
or a half shire on the Black river, and affix the spot or spots as 
sites for the court house. Carried in the negative, 25 to 11. 

Moved and seconded that the southern boundary of the 
counties to be established in the Black river country, begin 
on lake Ontario, at the south west corner of Ellisburgh; thence 
along the south line of Ellisburgh to the south east corner of 
said town; thence along the eastern boundary of Ellisburgh to 
the corner of No. 1 and 6 on said boundary; thence along the 
line between 1 and 6, 2 and 7, to the corner of 3 and 8; thence 
along the line between 7 and 8, 12 and 13 to the line between 
Macomb's and Scriba's patent; thence along said bounds to the 
county of Herkimer; thence along- the western boundaries of 
Herkimer and St. Lawrence to the river St. Lawrence; thence 
up along said river St. Lawrence to lake Ontario; thence 
along the margin of said lake to the place of beginning. Car- 
ried in the affirmative, 20 to 16. 

Moved and seconded that so much of the above resolution as 

5 Leyden appears not to have been represented at this meeting, although on 
two previous occasions special meetings had been called and delegates choseiT 
for this purpose. At one of these held December 15, 18('3, Stephen Butler, 
Moses Ostrauder and Joel Jinks had been appointed, and at the other held 
February 3, 1804, Stephen Butler, Samuel Snow and Richard Cox were 
chosen to represent this town, at a convention to be held at Champion, on 
the first Tuesday of February, of that year. 



Petitions to the Legislature. 5 

respects the south bounds of the town of Leyden be amended in 
sucli a way as to leave it optional with the inhabitants of tliat 
town to remain with the county of Oneida or come into the new 
county. On this amendment the vote was 18 to 18. It was 
then moved and seconded that so much of tlie above resolution 
as respects the south bounds of Leyden be reconsidered, vote 
stood 18 to 18. It was now moved and seconded that all the 
country included within the boundaries as agreed to by the 
above resolution be divided into two counties. The division 
line between the two and the sites for the same to be established 
by a disinterested committee, to be appointed by the governor 
and the council of this state. The men to be appointed, 
to live out of, and have no interest in the western district; and 
that during five years no expense to be paid by the counties to 
be organized as aforesaid, for the erection of public buildings. 
Carried in the affirmative, 20 to 16. 

Motioned and seconded that a committee be appointed to 
draft a petition to the legislature of tiiis state according to the 
resolutions of this meeting, and to carry the same into eflect 
with the proceedings of this meeting. Said committee to con- 
sist of five and to be chosen from amongst the members attend- 
ing as delegates, and be chosen by ballot. 

The meeting was then adjourned for fifteen minutes in order 
that the members might prepare their ballots, on counting 
which it appeared that Jonathan Collins, Jacob Brown, Henry 
Coff'een, Clilf French and Joseph Beals were chosen. Ordered 
that the secretary supply each of the members of the com- 
mittee with a copy of the proceedings of this meeting. There 
being no further business, ordered that the meeting be dis- 
solved. Jonathan Collins, Chairman. 

EcBERT Ten Eyck, Secretary." 

During tlio winter of 1804-5, numerous petitions and 
remonstrances were presented to (ho lef^isiature, liaviiig in 
view the division of Oneida county, and of several of its 
towns. Tliese were referred to the delegation from that 
county, then consisting of fJeorge Hraytoii, Joseph Jen- 
nings, Joseph Kiikland an<l IJenjamin NVright, the latter of 
whom, from iiis intimate knowledge of the county, and 
especially of the part embraced in Alacomb's purcha.-e, was 
eminently fitted for the duty assigned him. lie accordingly 
on tlio -Ith of Maich introduced a bill for the erectiiui of 
Jejferson and Lewis counties. Seven days after, it was dis- 
cussetl in a committee of the whole, amended, the blanks 
fillerl and tdanses ailded, ehirfly relating to the k)cation of 
the county seats and the division of the jmblic moneys. 
On the 12th it pas.sod the house, and on the 22d tlio senate 
receiving from the latter a lew amendments which wore 



6 Petitions to the Legislature. 

concurred in by the house. The vote upon its passage is 
not preserved in the journals of either house, nor are the 
amendments of the senate a subject of record. The bill 
received the governor's signature on the 28th of March. 
As the morives presented to the legislature to induce the 
passage of this act, possess permanent interest, we here 
insert the petition circulated extensively throughout the dis- 
trict set off from Oneida. Many copies of it were taken for 
use in the several towns, and although its authorship is not 
stated, it bears within itself the evidence that it emanated 
from the pen of Jacob Brown. 

To the Honnrable the Legidature of the State of New York, in 
Senate and Assembly convened : 

We your petitioners, inhabitants of tlie Black river country, 
beg leave to represent, that we humbly apprehend that the time 
has arrived when our true interest and the prosperity of the 
country in which we are situated, requires a division of the 
county of Oneida. On this subject there appears but one senti- 
ment in our county, and we flatter ourselves that it will be 
superfluous to multiply arguments to the legislature, to show 
the propriety of a division. We believe that your honorable 
body will be led to inquire why we have not presented a request 
at an earlier period, for we beh'eve that no instance can be pro- 
duced of so numerous a body of people, spread over such an 
extensive and highly productive country, so remote from the 
old settled parts of the county and seat of justice to which 
they are attached, without praying for and obtaining relief. 
Relying therefore upon our former experience in the justice and 
wisdom of your honorable body, we pray the legislature to 
divide the county of Oneida by a line * * * [the same 
as that which now includes Jefferson and Lewis,] and 
we pray the Legislature to divide all the country within the 
aforesaid boundaries into two counties, the division line 
between the two counties and site in each for the seat of 
justice in the same, to be established by a disinterested com- 
mittee to be appointed by the governor and council of this 
state, the men so appointed to live out of, and to have no inter- 
est in the western district. Having appointed a committee to 
wait upon the legislature with this petition, and to make such 
further representations to the government as they may deem 
best calculated to promote the interest of this county and the 
welfare of the state, we shall not go into a detail of our reasons 
on the subject of this petition, but refer your lionorable body 
to this committee. One subject, however, being of primary 
magnitude, and involving as we apprehend the best interest of 
this country, we cannot pass in silence. That we are not ignor- 
ant of the opposition that is premeditated to the town of Ellis- 



Petitions to the Legislature. 



•d' 



bni\Q:li and Malta being- connected with the lower county on the 
Black river, and tliat the opposition to this connection is power- 
ful and respectable, but we humbly presume that we are not 
mistaken in believing that the prime mover and first cause of 
this op]>osition^ is not fully .'acquainted with the true interests 
and make of this county, and that when he is rightly informed 
on this subject he will act consistent with himself, and not 
pursue measures so injurious to a respectable portion of his 
fellow citizens. The town of Ellisburgh and Malta are sepa- 
rated from the Redfield and Camden c(mntry by the strong and 
intelligent hand of Nature, and our duty constrains us to say 
that they can not be thrown into that county (if one should be 
organized there) without violating these natural right and 
sacrificing the best interest. With the Black river countiy 
they are strongly cemented by natural boundaries and natural 
interests, and we flatter ourselves that the legislature will re- 
sist every exertion and influence so deeply injurious to tlio 
peace and prosperity, and so unfriendly to the interest of the 
state as the separation of the towns of Ellisburgh and Malta 
from the Black river country, in an}' arrangement that may be 
contemplated for the organization of new counties. Situated 
on the conflnes of the dominions of a powerful empire, we flatter 
ourselves that our country is viewed with an eye of particular 
solicitude by the government, and fondl}' cherish the hope 
that it will with pleasure pursue such measures as are best 
calculated to increase its strength, and advance its prosperity. 

We therefore conclude by renewing our solicitation that your 
honorable body will at your present session cause two counties 
to be (jrganized on the Black river and establish their southern 
boundary agreeable to our request, and your petitioners as in 
duty l)oiind will ever pray.- 

JJiac/c Hirer, JJec. 1804. 

1 Referring to Natlian Sage of Redluld. 

2 The opjio-siiig jjetitiun reft-rred to in tlio above was as follows : 

" TliH i>i;tition of the inhahituiits of the western part of the county of 
Oneida rt.'.spectfullv .shewetii, that whereu.s, a convenf'on of deiegate.s from 
the towns on the IMack Uiver has been held and tlm nieniWrs of that con- 
vention recommended a <livi><it)n of the county of Oneida, and appointed a 
comndttee to carry tiieir resolution.-; into etIVct, and tlii.s coiiiinittce having 
drawn a petition tiirected to tlie legislature of thi.s .state .setting forth their 
rou.sons for and praying isuch divi.sion. ^^'e heg leave to AUggest the pro- 
priety of a general division for wo huinhly apprehend that tho recent con- 
troversy in this county re.si)ecting a site in it for a .seat of justice will appear 
to you a sufficient argument to show the propriety of a general and early 
division. 

Wtt therefore pray the legislature at their jiresent HCMsion to divide the 
county of Oni'ida hy a lini> to commence on Lake Ontarit), at the northeast 
corner of Ivlli.shuigh, and run along the north line of Constable's 13 towns to 
the corner of 'A and 4 on said line, thencu .south hetwven 3 and 4, (• and 0, 
to the north line of No. 13, from theiic»< soiiilnust until tlie line inlersecti 
the main hraie h of Fisli creek, thence down Kish cieek to the Oneida lak«, 
thuuce along the laku and Uswugo river to lake Ontaiio, thvnco along said 



8 Act of Organization. 

The act erecting the two counties applied to them the 
names of the executive heads of the national and state 
governments respectively at the time of its passage and 
read as follows : 

AN ACT to erect part of the Comity of Oneida into two separate 
Counties iy the natnes of Jefferson and Lewis, and for other purposes 

Pafled March 28, 1805. 

I. "D E // enacted hy the People of the State of New York, represented. 
-*-' in Senate and Assembly, That all that part of the county of Onei- 
da, contained within the following bounds, to wit : Beginning at the 
fouthweil: corner of the town of Ellifburgh, on the eafterly shore of Lake- 
Ontario, and running along the foutherly line of faid town; thence along 
the eafterly line thereof to the fouthwest corner of the town of Malta ; 
thence along the foutherly line oi the faid town of Malta, and continuing 
the fame course to the corner of townfhips number two, three, feven 
and eight; thence north, along the ealT; line of the town of Malta afore- 
faid, to the northeaft corner thereof; thence in a direft line to the corner 
of the towns of Rudand and Champion ; thence along the line between 
the faid town of Champion and the town of Harrifburgh to Black-river; 
thence in a direft line to the bounds of the county of St. Lawrence, to 
interseft the fame at the corner of townfhips numbers feven and eleven, 
in great traft number three of Macomb's purchafc ; thence along the 
wefterly bounds of the faid county of St. Lawrence to the north bounds 
of this ftate ; thence wefterly and southerly, along said bounds, including 
all the islands in the river St. Lawrence and in Lake-Ontario in front 
thereof and within this ftate, to the place of beginning, fhall be and 
hereby is crefted into a feparate county, and Ihall be called and known 
by the name of Jefferfon. 

n. And be it further enacted. That all that part of the faid county of 

lake to the place of beginning. And we pray that all the tract of country 
lying wi*liin these boundaries may be established and organized into a sepa- 
rate county, and a site within the same appointed for a seat of justice at such 
place as you in your wisdom may deem best situated to promote the interests 
of the people and advance their prosperity. It appears totally superfluous to 
make use of many arguments to show the rectitude of the division lines pro- 
posed, for excepting the line between Ellisburgh and the 6th town in the 
Black river country it may with propriety be termed a natural boundary — 
between Malta and Adams the line is within a short distance of the south 
branch of Sandy creek whose course is marked by an impassable gulf for 
many miles in length ; on the east side of this county and between it and 
Blacli river the line is also marked by a continued chain of swamps, morasses 
and gulfs, and should the division line be estalilished within 8 or 10 miles of 
those natural boundaries on eitlier side it will require the aid of the legislat- 
ure at a future period to give that relief to the inhabitants that justice would 
demand. We therefore beg leave to refer you to a map of this county and 
rest fully assured that you will resist any arguments that maybe adduced 
to efi'ect a separation of any part of the aforesaid country where the interests 
of the people are so essentially connected. We conclude by renewing our 
request that your honorable body will take our case into consideration and 
gr^nt us our prayer, and your petitioners as in duty bound will ever pray." 



Jid of Organization. 9 

Oneida, contained within the following bounds, to wit : Beginning at the 
foutheaft corner of the county of JefFcrfon aforcfaid, thence foutherly on 
the wcfterly line of the town of Turin, to the fouthweft corner thereof; 
thence eaftcrly, along the fouth line of faid town, to the foutheaft corner 
thereof; thence north fixty-two degrees call:, along the foutherly line of 
the traft of land known by the name of Macomb's purchafe, to the hne 
of the county of Herkimer ; thence north, along the faid laft mentioned 
line, to the bounds of the county of St. Lawrence ; thence along the 
fouthweflerly line of the faid lall mentioned county to the liac of the 
faid county of Jefferfon, and thence along the foutherly and eallerly 
bounds thereof to the place of beginning, fhall be and hereby is erefted 
into a feparate county by the name of Lewis. 

in. And he it further enacted. That all that part of townfhip 
number nine, which is comprifcd within the bounds of the faid county 
of JefFcrfon, fliall be annexed to and become a part of the town of Har- 
rifon, in faid county ; and that all that part of the faid townfliip number 
nine, comprifed within the bounds of the faid county of Lewis, shall be 
annexed to and become a part of the town of Harrilburgh in faid county. 

IV. A/id ie it further enacted. That there fliall be held in and for 
the faid counties of JefFcrfon and Lewis, rcfpcdively, a court of common 
pleas and general fcflions of the peace, and that there fhall be two 
terms of the faid courts in each of the counties rcfpedfivcly in every 
year, to commence and end as follows, that is to fay : The firil 
term of the faid court in the faid county of JefFcrfon, fliall begin on the 
fccond Tuefday of June in every year, and may continue to be held 
until the Saturday following inclufive ; and the fccond term of the 
faid court in the faid county of JefFcrfon, fhall begin on the fccond 
Tuefday of December, in every year, and may continue to be held 
until the Saturday following inclufive ; And that the firll term of the 
faid court in the county of Lewis, fhall begin on the faid firfl Tuefday of 
June in every year, and may continue to be held until the Saturday follow- 
ing inclufive, and the fecond term of the faid court in the faid count)' of 
Lewis, fhall begin on the firfl Tuefday of December, and may continue 
to be held until the Saturday following inclufive ; and the faid courts of 
common pleas and general fcfiions of the peace shall have the fame jurif- 
didtion, powers and authorities in the fame counties rcfpedUvely, as the 
courts of common pleas and general fcflions of the peace in the other 
counties of this fiate have in their rcfpcdUve counties ; Provided always. 
That nothing in this adt contained, Ihall be conllrucd to aficdt any fuit 
or adfion already commenced or that fliall be commenced before the firft 
terms to be held in the rcfped^ivc counties of JefFcrfon and Lewis, fo as 
to work a wrong or prejudice to any of the parties therein, or to affedl 
any criminal or other proceedings on the part of the ju'opic of this Hate, 
but all fuch civil and criminal proceedings fhall and may be profecutcd 
to trial, judgment and execution as if this adt had not been paflcd : j^nJ 
provided further. That the firll of the faid courts in each of the laid 
counties, Ihall be held on the fecond Tuefday of December next. 

\' . And be it fwther enacted. That three Commiflioners fliall be ap- 
pointed by the council of appointment, who fliall not be rcfidcnt in the 



10 Act of Organization. 

weftern diftrifi: of this ftate, or intcrefted in cither of the faid counties of 
JefFcrfon and Lewis, for the purpofe of defignating the fcitcs for the court 
houfes and gaols of the faid counties refpeftively, and to that end the 
faid commiffioners, fliall as foon as may be, previous to the firft day of 
Oftober next, repair to the faid counties refpedlivcly, and after exploring 
the fame afcertain and defignate a fit and proper place in each ot the faid 
counties for erefting the faid buildings ; and that until fuch buildings 
fhall be erefted and further legiflative provifion be made in the premifes, 
the faid courts of common pleas and general feffions of the peace fhall 
be held at fuch place in each of the faid counties neareft and moft con- 
tiguous to the places defignatcd as the fcites for faid buildings, as the 
faid commiffioners or any two of them fhall determine and fix on; and 
the faid commiffioners or any two of them are hereby required as foon 
as they have defignated the places for erefting the faid buildings, and 
determined on the places for holding the faid courts, to make out and 
fign a certificate certifying the places defignated for erefting the buildings, 
and the places fixed on for holding the courts in each of the faid counties, 
and to tranfmit one of the faid certificates to each of the clerks of the 
refpeftive counties who are required to receive and file the fame in their 
refpeftive offices ; and that the faid coinmiffioners fhall be entitled to 
receive each the fum of four dollars per day, for the time they may be 
neceffarily employed in executing the trufls repofed in them by this aft, 
the one moiety thereof to be paid by each of the faid counties. 

VI. And be it further enacted. That the freeholders and inhabitants 
of the faid counties refpeftively, fhall have and enjoy within the fame 
all and every the fame rights, powers and privileges as the freeholders 
and inhabitants of any other county in this ftate are by law entitled to 
have and enjoy. 

VII. And he it further enacted. That it fhall and may be lawful for 
all courts and officers of the faid counties of Jefferfon and Lewis refpec- 
tively, in all cafes civil and criminal to confine their prifoners in the gaol 
or gaols of the county of Oneida until gaols fhall be provided in the 
fame counties refpeftively, the said counties paying each the charges of 
their own prifoners. 

VIIL And be it ftrther enacted. That the diftribution of reprefenta- 
tion in the aflembly of this ftate, shall be three members in the county 
of Oneida, and one in the counties of Jefferfon and Lewis and St. Law- 
rence, any law to the contrary notwithilanding. 

IX. And he it further enacted. That no circuit court, or courts of 
oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery, fhall be held in either of 
the faid counties of Jefferfon and Lewis, until the fame fhall, in the opi- 
nion of the juftices of the fupreme court, become neceffary. 

X. And be it further enacted. That the faid counties of Jefferfon and 
Lewis-^ihall be confidered as part of the weftern diftrift of this ftate, and 
alfo as part of the fifteenth congrcfiional diftrift, and that as it refpefts 
all proceedings under the aft, entitled " An aft relative to diftrift 
attornies, the faid counties fhall be annexed to and become part of the 
diftrift now compofed of the counties of Herkimer, Otfcgo, Oneida and 
Chenango. 



Act of Organization. 11 

XI. Jnd be it further enacted, That as foon as may be after the firfl: 
Monday of April, in the year one thoufand eight hundred and fix, the 
fupervifors of the faid counties of Oneida, JcfFerfon and Lewis, on notice 
being firfl: given by the fupervifors of the faid counties of Jefi"erfon and 
Lewis, or cither of them for that purpofe, fliall meet together by them- 
felves, or by committees appointed by their refpedive boards, and divide 
the money unappropriated belonging to the faid county of Oneida, 
previous to the divifion thereof, agreeable to the lafl: county tax lifl:. 

Xn. Jnd be it further enacted, That the votes taken at the cledion 
in the faid counties of Jefi^erfon, Lewis and St. Lawrence fhall be re- 
turned to the clerk of the county of JefFerfon, to be by him eftimatcd 
and difpofcd of as is direded by the ftatute regulating eledlions. 

XIIL And be it further enacted. That all that part of the town of 
Leyden remaining in the county of Oneida, fhall be and remain a fepa- 
rate town by the name of Boonfville, and the firlt town meeting fhall be 
held at the houfe of Jofeph Denning, and all the remaining part of the 
town of Leyden, which is comprifcd within the bounds of the county of 
Lewis, fliall be and remain a town bv the name of Leyden, and the firll 
town meeting fliall be held at the dwelling houfe of Hezekiah Talcott. 

XIV. And be it further enacted. That as foon as may be after the 
firfl town meeting in each of faid towns, the fupervifors and overfcers of 
the poor of the laid towns of Leyden and Boonfville, fliall by notice to 
be given for that purpofe by the fupervifors thereof, meet together and 
apportion the money and poor of faid town of Leyden, previous to the 
divifion thereof according to the lafl tax lift, and that each of faid towns 
fhall thereafter refpedively maintain' their own poor. 

It will be noticed, that as originally l)Oi]nded, the town of 
Pinckney was divided by a lino running tVoni the northwest 
corner of Montague, to the west angle of Denmark, and that 
east of the river the line was direct from the corners of 
Champion and Denmark, to St. Lawrence county, passing 
just south of Carthage, and including more than a quarter 
of the present town of Wilna. liio town of Pinckney 
was brought entirely within this county upon its organiza- 
tion in 1808, and the lino east of the river has since been 
twice amended, as stated in our iiisfory of Diana. 

A concise notice of the man from whom the county 
derives its name, may interest its citizens. 

MoucJAN Lkwis, of Welch ancestry, ii sou of Francis 
Lewis, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, was born in New York city, Oct. Hi, 175-1, graduated 
at rriiiceton College in 177.'i, and ontorod tho law otlico of 
John Jay. In Juno, 1775, ho joined tho army before Bos- 
ton as a voluntecM", in a rillo company of which ho was 
chosen captain in August. In Novi-ndiur he was appointed 
major of tlie 'h\ regiment of which John Jay was colonel, 
but as public duties withdrew the latter from tho command 



12 JVotice of Morgan Lewis. 

it fell upon Lewis. In June, 1776, he accompanied Gen. 
Gates into Canada as cliief of his staff, and was soon after 
appointed quarter-master-general for the northern depart- 
ment with the rank of colonel. In 1777 he was appointed 
to receive the British troops, surrendered by Burgoyne, and 
in 177S he was sent with Gen. Clinton on an expedition up 
the ilohawk against a body of partizan troops under Sir 
John Johnson. In 17S0 he accompanied Clinton to Crown 
Point to intercept the enemy who had made an incursion 
upon that frontier. At the close of the war he was appoint- 
ed colonel-commandant of a volunteer corps, and had the 
honor of escorting Gen. Washington at his first inaugura- 
tion as President. 

In 1790 and 1792 he was elected to the assembly, in 1791 
appointed attorney-general, and in 1804 elected governor 
for a term of three years. In 1810 he was chosen to the 
state senate by a larger majority than had ever before been 
given, and served four years. He was appointed quarter- 
master-general of the army of the United States April 3, 
1812, and on the 2d of March, 1813, he was promoted to 
the rank of major-general. 

The descent on Niagara in April, 1813, was planned and 
conducted solely by General Lewis, as Gen. Dearborn the 
senior ofiicer was confined to his tent by indisj^osition. 
After the evacuation of Fort George, Gen. Lewis set off in 
pursuit, but when just arrived within sight he was recalled 
by a peremptor}^ order from Dearborn. The next morning 
the latter ordered Generals Chandler and Winder to pursue 
the enemy, but upon coming up with them the latter con- 
sidering their situation desperate, turned upon their pur- 
suers. In the darkness, both of these officers fell into the 
hands of the enemy, and the American troops returned to 
Fort George. Late in the fall of 18 13, Gen. Lewis accom- 
panied Gen. Wilkinson's inglorious expedition down the St. 
Lawrence. He continued in the service until disbanded 
in June, 1815, when he resumed the practice of his profes- 
sion. While on the Canada frontier he advanced large sums 
from his private means to pay the expenses of exchanged 
prisoners, at a time when drafts upon the government would 
not be received. His indulgence towards such of his tenants 
as had served during the war either as militia or in the 
regular army is especially worthy of record. The fol- 
lowing is a copy of an order sent to his agent for this 
purpose : 

" Every tenant who has himself, or whose son living with 
and working for his father, has served in the course of the 



Decision of Commissioners. 13 

last war, either in the regular army or militia, is to have a 
year's rent remitted for every campaign they have so served 
either personally or by substitute. A regular discharge 
during a campaign on account of sickness to be considered 
as serving a campaign." 

A second order directed three years' rent to be remitted 
to every family who had a near relative killed or maimed 
during the war. Gen. Lewis married in 1777 Gertrude, 
fourth daughter of Judge Robert Livingston of Clermont, 
Manor of Livingston. This union lasted lifty-four years. 
He was a member of the New York Societj^ of the Cincin- 
nati, and at the time of his death, which occurred in New 
York city April 7, 1844, he Avas president of that body. 
The general order issued upon this occasion, after enumerat- 
ing the prominent events of his life, closes as follows : 

" His last appearance in public life was on the 22d of 
Februar}', 1832, when at the request of the corporation of 
this city he delivered an oration in honor of General Wash- 
ington at the celebration of the centennial anniversary of 
his nativity. * * * His pure life and patriotic disinte- 
restedness are worthy of all imitation and a bright example 
to those who follow him. He has gone down to his grave 
in a good old age and the fullness of his honors, and his 
memory will ever be cherished and honored as one of the 
chosen band who were prompt to respond to the call of their 
country in the "time that tried men's souls," and as one of 
the chivalrous sjjirits who were found ready to endure the 
privations and dangers of the field in our second war of in- 
dependence. Li all the relations of life he discharged his 
duties with fidelity and honor. Ho was a galhmt soldier, 
an acconi}jlished statesman, a kind parent, a benevolent 
man, and a good citizen." 

The commissioners appointed under the fifth section of the 
act organizing the county, were Mallheic Dorr of Cliatham, 
Colunil)ia county, David liotl'^ers of Washington county and 
John Van Benthuysen of Dutchess Co. The names of the 
council of appointment were at that time, John Schenck, 
.loshua II. IJrett, St(!plien Thorn and Je(h'tliiih l'i'ck,t)f whom 
'J'li(jrn was an intimate persmial friund ul \\ alter Martin, 
tiirough wlioso infhience the appointments are said to iiavo 
been arranged. It lias been reported u{)on very reliable 
authority, that tlio <lriv<'r of i\\v ooach. in which the com- 
missioners i-ame in from Utica, overheard from their con- 
versation that the location of the seat of Lewis county waa 
already decided upon, and that he made an allidavit to that 
efl'ect. 



14 County Buildings. 

Whether the formation of the 26th brigade which imme- 
diately followed the division of the county, or the appoint- 
ment of Martin as brigadier-general, or the election of 
Stow to the twelfth congress, had any connection with the 
division of the county, we may not perhaps decide; popular 
tradition has associated these events, but no written evi- 
dence is known to exist. In 1S05-6 the sum of $'74 was 
paid to Dorr, a like amount to Rogers, and $82 to Van Ben- 
thuysen as compensation for their services in locating the 
county seat. The county drew $293,54, from Oneida in 
1806.  



CHAPTER II. 

COUNTY BUILDINGS. 



The act erecting the county, made no provision for a 
court house and jail, beyond the designation of their site, 
and the expense of these was left at the request of the Den- 
mark convention till the end of five years. Mr. Martin had 
as early as 1803, began to grub up the stumps for the site of 
a court house, but upon being assured of the decision of the 
commissioners the measure was not pressed for some years. 
At Lowville, active eflbrts were at once made to secure if 
possible the location, and a wooden building was erected, 
with the design of offering it to the county for a court 
house, but failing in their enterprise, the citizens of that 
place converted the edifice into an academy. 

The first session of the court of common pleas, was held 
at the inn of Chillus Doty in Martinsburgh, Dec. 8, 1805 ; 
present, Daniel Kelley, Jonathan Collins and Judah Barnes, 
judges, Q-n^ Asa Bray ton, OMW^aTJ^ justice. This court adopt- 
ed as the county seal, the design figured at the head of the 
first chapter in this volume, proceeded to draft a system of 
rules for the regulation of its business, and established the 
jail liberties of the county. 

The jail liberties, although not peculiar in their day, or 
essentially difi'erent from those of other counties, will doubt- 
less be considered by many as a curious illustration of the 
absurd legal form and usages of the olden time, and as be- 
longing to a barbarous period in the history of our penal 
code. The limits comprised the site of the court house, 
a path two feet wide across the street to the store opposite, 



County Buildings. 15 

a path eight feet wide along the west side of the street to 
the premises of ChiUus Doty, afterwards a brick tavern 
(including the store, the house, garden and front j-ard of 
Gen. Martin, and the house, garden, barn and shed of Doty) : 
a path eight feet wide from the middle of Doty's shed 
across to the premises of David Waters, with the house of 
Mr. Waters and a space eight feet wide in front and at the 
ends, and twenty feet wide in the rear, and a path eight feet 
wide northward to, and includins; the house of John Waters. 
These were snbsecpiently extended to other houses, and 
finally included nearly every building in or near the village, 
from Foot's tannery on the north, to the inn then kept by 
John Atwater on the south, with narrow paths between, 
and crossing places at distant intervals. These liberties were 
duly surveyed and recorded, and the unlucky debtor who 
might find himself upon them, would need a sober head and 
steady eye to keep himself within the right angles Avhich 
the court had so precisely marked out for liis footsteps. 
An obstacle in the path might stop his course, or an inad- 
vertent step subject his bail to prosecution and himself to 
close confinement. In 1814 the jail liberties were extended 
from A. Foot's tannery to John Smith's hat shop, Avith a 
breadth of twenty-five rods, and since about 1822, they have 
embraced a square area of 500 acres around the court house. 
The boundaries where they crossed the public roads were 
designated by posts painted red, but these have long since 
rotted down and nothing indicates their locality. The 
county courts were held during nine terms at the house of 
Chillus Doty, and during the succeeding eight, at the house 
of Eiiud Stephens. One term of the court of oyer and 
termint.'r was hehl by Judge Ambrose Spencer at the 
Lowville academy, previous to the erection of the court 
house. 

In iSOy Gen. Alartin undertook to raise means for the 
erection of a court house by suhscription among liis town.s- 
nien ami those living south, leading olV on the list with a 
liberal sum himself. The; Lowville jjeople were not inilif- 
ferent to the movement an<l procured the signature of nearly 
every taxalihi inhabitant north of Martinshuigh, to a peti- 
tion against tlu! linal location of the courts on the site 
already designated.' 

'J'ho petitioners indirectly chargftl the commissioners 
with having acted upon slii:;lit and snpi'ificial examination, 
appctaltid to the map, ibr pruuf tliut Jiuwvillu village was 

1 A package of thoiju pnponi han (Jti2 iinnifS for and 474 againtt a chaiigu 
of site. 



16 County Buildings. 

nearer the centre of the county, and to tax lists/ military 
returns, and opinions of gentlemen who had travelled 
through the county and were acquainted with it, as evidence 
that more than two-thirds of the population lay north of 
the court house site. They stated the want of accommoda- 
tion in the little village where the site had been located as 
compared with the larger village of Lowville, and ask the 
legislature to fix by direct act, or appointment of sound and 
candid commissioners the county seat in what shall appear 
to be the centre of population; closing their memorial with 
the sentiment, "that however misrepresentation may suc- 
ceed, for a time justice and discernment may ultimately be 
expected of the legislature." 

The remonstrants claimed by the map, that the centre of 
tlje county lay a mile south of the site, and showed by the 
tax list, that over ^200,000 more of taxable property lay 
south of the court house." They denied the assertion that 
the southern portion of the county was incapable of tillage, 
and proved by affidavits that one principal cause of non- 
settlement was because the lands had not been opened for 
sale. They stated that nearly $2,000 had been subscribed 
in good faith for the erection of a court house as located 
by law, and claimed that justice entitled them to a con- 
tinuance of the site. These memorials led to the introduc- 
tion of a bill entitled "an act relative to the establishment 
of a scite for the courthouse and gaol in the county of Lewis," 
which failed to reach a third reading in the house. It was 
introduced by Dr. S. L. Mitchill of New York, as chairman 
of the committee to whom the subject was referred. 

On the 30th of October, IS 10, Gen. Martin engaged for 
$1500 to complete the court room like that of Jefferson 
county, and the jail like that of Salem, Washington county, 
and on the 1st of March, 1811, an act was passed for raising 
$'1200 by tax in one or two j^ears, and $300 by loan, to 
complete the building. The commissioners for building 
were Benjamin Van Vleck, Daniel Kelley and Jonathan 
Collins ; and the sheriff was directed to give public notice 
by proclamation when the work was finished and accepted. 
The first county courts were held in the new building 
Jan. 7, 1812, and prisoners who had previously been sent 
to Rome, were thenceforth lodged in the new county jail. 

1 The assessment rolls of 1809 gave Leyden 137, Turin 167, Martinsbiirgb. 
126, Lowville 20G, Denmark 169, Harrisbiirgh 82, and Pinckney 63 taxable 
inhabitants. Of these 630 were claimed north of the court house. 

^ The valuation of 1809 was, Leyden $188,700 ; Turin 8297,715.25 ; Mar- 
tinsburgh 870,921 ; Lowville $90,257 ; Denmark $83,556 ; Harrisburgh 
$29,405 ; and Pinckney $27,077. 



County Buildings. 17 

These premises were nearly the same as those now in use, 
consisting of a hirge wooden building, with a court room 
and two jury rooms above, and three prison rooms, the 
sherifPs ofHce and rooms for the jailor's family on the first 
floor. The front jail room has since been fitted up for the 
office of the county judge and surrogate, but otherwise there 
has been but little change. On account of the exposed sit- 
uation of the St. Lawrence county jail on the frontiers at 
Ogdensburgh, an act was passed April 6, IS 14, authorizing 
the prisoners of that county to be confined in this. We are 
not aware that any were sent hither under this act. 

In the fall of 1852, public notice was given of application 
for the removal of the county seat to Lowville or New Bre- 
men, and, in the hope of effecting this change, the citizens 
of Lowville proceeded to erect an elegant brick building 
for this pur])Ose. The effort failed, and the structure is now 
used as a town hall. No serious expectation was perhaps 
entertained with regard to the New Bremen application. 

The Clerk's office was kept in the house of Richard Coxe, 
the clerk, until the act of J811, which required it to be kept 
within a mile of the court house, after the first day of Oc- 
tober following. The office was kept in the dwelling of the 
clerk or his deputy for the time being, somewhere in the 
village of Mai'tinsburgh, until 1822, when Martin erected a 
fire proof brick office and rented a part to the county. In 
1824 an act was passed requiring the erection of a clerk's 
office, but this was not done. In 1847 an association was 
formed in Martinsburgh for the purpose of building a clerk's 
office, which was finished and leased to the county free of 
rent. It has since been in use as the clerk's office. 

Paui'IOiiism. — For many of the earlier years, the several 
towns of this county supported their own poor by an annual 
tax, and paupers were generally kept by those who would 
bid the lowest sum for their support. Persons becoming a 
public charge before they had gained a residence, were sent 
back to the town where they had last resided, or if they 
could not be removed were supported at the expense of such 
town. In 1817, a committee was aj)p<)inted in Lowville to 
conler with one IVom Martinsburgh, iijion the hulject of a 
poor house, but nothing resulted. In 1824, the secretary of 
Bfate, under a resolution of the preceding ses-sion, reported 
such statistics of pauperism as could be olitained, ;inil upon 
his recommendation an aci was passed in 1S24, untler which 
the supervisors resolved to erect a poor house in Lewis 
county. At that period this county ranked the 4()th in the 
Bcale of pauperism and the 51st in luxation, us compared 
C 



18 , County Buildings. 

with the rest of the state. Paupers formed one-fifth of one 
per cent, of the population, and the poor tax was a fraction 
over one cent per $100 of valuation. Several of the towns 
had acquired a surplus poor fund. 

In the fall of 1825, Jonathan Collins, Charles D. Morse 
and Stephen Hart were appointed to purchase a site and 
take preliminary steps for the erection of a poor house. 
The farm of Maj. David Cobb, a mile west of Lowville vil- 
lage, was bought for $1,650, and the premises were fitted 
up for the county use. The first county superintendents of 
the poor, appointed in 1826, were Nathaniel Merriam, Philo 
Rockwell, Stephen Leonard, Paul Abbott and Samuel Allen. 

The distinction between town and county poor under 
the act of 1824, was abolished in 1834, restored in 1842, 
abolished in 1845, and finally restored in 1851. Several 
to\yns have, upon each of these occasions, passed reso- 
lutions at their annual meetings with reference to this 
measure. The premises originally fitted up continued 
in use until it became necessary, in 1845, to call public 
attention to their condition, and to take measures for secur- 
ing either an extension of accommodation or the erection 
of a new building. In 1845, several of the towns passed 
resolutions instructing their supervisors to give their atten- 
tion to the subject ; and a representation of the facts to the 
legislature procured an act passed March 26, 1846, directing 
a tax of $1,500 to be levied upon the county for the repair 
and extension of the poor house. Miss D. L. Dix (whose 
earnest efforts in behalf of the poor and insane have earned 
her the appellation of the " crazy angel"), visited our county 
poor house in the spring of 1844, and her conversation is 
said to have had an influence in calling attention to the 
necessity of reform. 

A new stone building, forty by sixty feet, and two stories 
high, was erected in 1846, and has since been in use, afford- 
ing comfortable accommodation to such as are reduced to 
that dependence which it is designed to relieve. The farm 
attached contains 59 xtto acres, valued, with the buildings, 
at $3,500, and partly cultivated by the labor of paupers. 
The statistics of the institution showed, in 1858, that 30 
per cent, were foreigners, and that 54 per cent, were re- 
duced to poverty by intemperance. The expense of weekly 
support was 76 cents, and had, in early years, been half less. 

Under an act of April 20, 1818, male felons, convicted in 
Lewis county, were sent to the state prison at Auburn. 
Since the erection of the Clinton prison, convicts have 
usually been sent thither from this county. 



Statistics of Pauperism. 



19 



Statistics of Pauperism as reported animally on ike first day cf 

December, since 1829. 





Number 


Annual 


In Poor House 


Changes in Poor 


03 


Relieved. 


Expen.se. 


at end of year. 


Houde. 


Ed 


s 

o 


o 


o o 


"3 
o 


s 
8 


03 

a 

11 


"3 

■s 

19 


'6 

a> 

> 

u 

a 

39 


o 
an 

4 


'6 

C 

4 


o 

n 
s 
o 

1 


p 
15 


a 
o 


1830 


19 


20 




$388 


• • 


1831 


37 


29 




1467 


8 


9 


17 


31 


1 


2 


1 


26 


1 


1832 


33 


15 




891 


9 


8 


17 


32 


2 


2 


2 


25 


2 


1833 


20 


30 




1287 


10 


8 


18 


30 


3 


1 


1 


26 


5 


1834 


15 


55 




1615 


11 


8 


19 


11 


• • 


3 


1 


4 


2 


1835 


67 
86 

82 
87 






1119 
1421 
1955 
1633 


19 

8 
13 

12 


17 
15 
13 
12 


36 
23 
26 

24 


50 
37 
39 
27 


3 

• • 

2 
1 


3 
3 


3 
1 

1 
4 


13 

35 
43 
16 


1 


1836 






X 


1837 






3 


1838 




$1290 


4 


1839 


76 




1905 


2281 


16 


20 


36 


76 


4 


6 


• • 


36 


2 


1840 


93 




2030 


2742 


14 


23 


37 


93 


3 


3 


1 


49 


• • 


1841 


96 




1919 


2366 


23 


13 


36 


96 


1 


6 


1 


53 


• • 


1842 


89 




1861 


2288 


17 


15 


32 


89 


2 


3 


2 


50 


• • 


1843 


52 


'38 


1594 


1958 


22 


22 


44 


90 


5 


4 


• • 


41 


1 


1844 


51 


26 


1261 


1433 


18 


16 


34 


30 


2 


4 


• • 


33 


4 


1845 


192 




1285 


1758 


23 


19 


42 


35 


• • 


3 


1 


14 


4 


1846 


84 


122 


1762 


2632 


26 


26 


52 


38 


1 


6 


4 


16 


6 


1847 


181 




2.385 


2904 


35 


30 


65 


35 


1 


8 


• • 


12 


1 


1848 


205 


• • • 


2197 


2865 


32 


31 


63 


40 


2 


5 


5 


29 


5 


1849 


210 


• • • 


2002 


2692 


40 


24 


64 


68 


2 


4 


1 


34 


9 


1850 


213 


, ^ 


2461' 


3228 


31 


29 


60 


49 


2 


2 


1 


42 


9 


1851 


94 


96 


17S2' 


2.003 


27 


29 


56 


35 


1 


4 


2 


30 


4 


1852 


62 


51 


2161, 


3351 


27 


43 


70 


56 


2 


6 


5 


31' 


6 


1853 


220 


62 


3534' 


4218 


42 


33 


75 


68 


6 


8 


1 


25 


8 


1854 


175 


128 


3907' 


5354 


37 


53 


90 


153 


1 


7 


• • 


32 


6 


1855 


120 


46 


5012 


11187 


49 


45 


94 


61 


2 


10 


• • 


34 


4 


1856 


198 


52 


1478 


2297 


31 


38 


69 


43 


1 


3 


3 


56, 


7 


1857 


125' 


53 


4615 


50(J7 


24 


26 


50 


46 


2 


7 


2 


49 


9 


1858 


126' 


48 


3564 


4 126 


20 


23 


43 


35 


2 


6 


2 


25' 


• • 


1859 


152i 


28' 


38161 


4531 


20 


261 


46 


80 


• • 


5' 


1 


38| 


• • 



A cliissifioiitiou iniule in 1837, reprcsoiitod Lewis county 
as hiiviii^ tlio least amount of crime in proportion to its 
population, of any county in the .state ; and on many occa- 
sions the criminal courts have adjourned without having had 



20 Land Titles. 

any business before them. Up to 1827 but nine persons 
Avere sent from this county to tlie New York state prison, 
and from 1819 to 1834 inclusive but 17 were sent to Au- 
burn prison from Lewis. 



CHAPTER III. 

LAND TITLES. 

An unfavorable impression as to the value of northern 
lands had been acquired from the survey of Totten and 
Crossfield's purchase before 1776. This tract, embracing 
the central part of the great northern wilderness, still as 
wild and inhospitable as when first traversed by surveyors, 
was found to become worse towards the north, and the in- 
ference very naturally followed that the northern border of 
the state was not susceptible of tillage. 

On old maps this great northern region was variously 
named, as Irocoisia, or the land of the L'oquois; Coughsagraga, 
or the dismal wilderness; and the Deer hunting grounds of the 
Five JYations. An old map has inscribed across the northern 
part of New York this sentence : " Through this tract of 
land runs a chain of mountains, which, from lake Cham- 
plain on one side, and the river St. Lawrence on the other 
side, show their tops always white with snow ; but, al- 
though this one unfavorable circumstance has hitherto 
secured it from the jaws of the harpy land jobbers, yet, no 
doubt, it is as fertile as the land on the east side of the lake, 
and will in future furnish a comfortable retreat for m&ny 
industrious families." A map drawn in 1756, says this 
country by reason of mountains, swamps and drowned 
lands, is impassable and uninhabitable. 

Sauthier's map, published in England in 1777, and sup- 
posed to represent the latest and most accurate information 
then possessed, remarks that " this marshy tract is full of 
beavers and otters," and no map of a date earlier than 1795 
has any trace of the Black river. The shores of the St. 
Lawrence and lake Ontario had long been familiar to voy- 
ageurs, but Black river bay was evidently regarded as only 
one of several deep indentations of the coast ; and in Morse's 
geography of 1796, this river is represented as flowing into 
the St. Lawrence at Oswegatchie. 

The fertility of lands in the western part of the state had 



Land Titles. 21 

become known in the course of military expeditions through 
them, but no such occasion led to a knowledge of the Black 
river valley,^ and it is highly probable that when a proposi- 
tion for purchase was submitted to the land commissioners, 
the offer was regarded as favorable upon any terms condi- 
tioned to settlement. 

The Oneida Indians, sole native owners of our county, by 
formal treaty at Fort Sfcanwix, on the 22d of September, 
178S,- ceded to the state all their lands, excepting certain 
reservations, among which was a tract one half mile wide 
on each side of Fish creek, from its source to its mouth, 
which, according to Cockburn the surveyor, was retained on 
account of the " salmon fisheries." 

On the 22d of June, 1791, Alexander ^facoml) submitted 
an application*^ for the purchase of all the lands within cer- 
tain specified boundaries, including the tract since known 
as Macomb's purchase, excepting certain islands in the St. 
Lawrence. One-sixth part of the purchase money was to 
be paid at the end of one year, and the residue in five equal 
annual installments, without interest. The first payment 
was to be secured by bond, to the satisfaction of the com- 
missioners, and if paid within time a patent was to be issued 
for a sixth part, and new bonds for the next sixth were to 
be issued. If at any time the purchaser chose to anticipate 
the payments, a deduction of six per cent, per annum was 
allowed. The price offered was eight cents per acre, de- 
ducting five per cent, for roads, and all lakes of more than 
one thousand acres in area. The proposition was accepted, 
and the lands were ordered to be surveyed out at the ex- 
pense of Macomb,'* under the direction of the surveyor 
general. 

1 Bfllf-tn-H' expodition au'ainst tlie seltlfiiient at tlie fiprinau Klatt«, in 1755 
and lliat of L^ry, which capiurL'd fort Hull, laar Konu-, in 17;J7, iiiesupposed 
to liave passed through this valley. In 17711, Lieutenaiit.s McClellan and 
llaidt-ntiirgli wrre si-nt tliiouKh th« inferior to ().s«t'i,'attliit', inoro with the 
vi»nv of drawing of]' tin; friendly Oni-idu.s and j)ri'v<'ntini{ tln-in from beini; dia- 
turh'-d by the cxjiedilion iii,'uin.>st the Indians of the lienesee country, than in 
tlie liiipes of effeetint^ inmii ai,'ain.*t th<' fueniy. Si-veral musket barrels and 
otlier military relics have been found in (ireig on the line of this route, which 
may have been lost in these e.\|)editiona. Their occurrence hti.*, a.s usual, 
occasioned idle ruiuuiH of burled treitsuro. 

- (Jivi-n in full in the History of Jelh-rson Co , p. .'iO. 

•T (liven in full in the Hiiiory of St Lawrence and Franklin Counties, p. 253. 

•• Ab'xander Macomb was a son of John .Mm-umb, and emigrated from Ire- 
land in 174"J. lie resided niany years in N<w York and held a colonial otlico, 
and in 1787-8 'Hi, he wa8 in As«embly. I'uring several years he resided in 
Detroit as a fur trader, and in pa.ssing to and from .Montreal had iHconi" nc- 
<piainted with tlm value of the lands of northern New York. He furnished 
flve son* to the army in I^I'i, uuu of whom wu Uiu iUuutriou:! Ueneral Ma- 
comb of rialldburgli uumory. 



22 Land Titles. 

The sale of such enormous tracts of land at a merely nomi- 
nal price, attracted public notice throughout the state, and 
the occasion was not lost by the opponents of the state ad- 
ministration to charge the land commissioners with the 
basest motives of personal gain, and even with treason it- 
self. On the 20th of April, 1792, Dr. Josiah Pomeroy of 
Kinderhook, made oath to his belief from hearsay, that a 
company, planned by William Smith, Sir John Johnson and 
others, chiefly tories living in Canada, had been formed un- 
der the auspices of Lord Dorchester as early as 1789, to pur- 
chase an extensive tract of land upon the St. Lawrence, with 
the ultimate design of annexing it to Canada, and that Gov. 
George Clinton was privy to their scheme, and interested in 
the result.^ To this absurd charge the governor's friends op- 
posed a letter of Gen. Schuyler, and the aflidavits of Macomb 
and McCormick, full}^ denying any direct or indirect interest 
of the governor in the purchase. In the Assembly a series of 
violent resolutions was offered by Col. Talbot of Montgomery 
evidently designed as the basis of an impeachment, but, after 
a most searching investigation, that body cleared the commis- 
sioners of blame and commended their course.'^ Aaron Burr, 
then attorney general, was absent at the time of the sale, and 
escaped censure at the time, but in his after career he was 
directly charged with basely selling his influence to obtain 
the grant. The clamor against the governor was raised for 
political effect, and had its influence on the next election. 

From letters of these negotiators it appears that the im- 
mense purchase was the fruit of years of preliminary man- 
agement, and allusions to some great operation as early as 
1786 have reference, no doubt, to these events, which ap- 
pear to have originated with Constable. With a keen eye 
to the pw6/zc interests, the very parties who had secured this 
tract, influenced the passage of a law in 1794, fixing the 
minimum price of the remaining 2,000.000 acres of the pub- 
lic lands at six shillings per acre, thereby giving this value 
to their own. The unsettled state of the frontiers, and the 
refusal of the British to surrender the posts, had a serious 
influence upon the first attempt at settlement. The survey- 
ors were turned back at Oswego from proceeding further, 
and the Lidians at St. Regis drove off the first intruders. In 
a speech to the Indians in 1794, Lord Dorchester said, that 
there was prospect of war impending, and that the warrior's 
sword must mark the boundaries of the country. In the 

1 Handbills, 1775 to 1802, p. 41, 43. Library of Albany Institute. 

2 Assembly Journals. Hammond's Political History of New York, i, 58. 
Parton's Life of Burr, 176. 



Land Titles. 23 

war of 1812-15 it was proposed to render the highlands south 
of the St. Lawrence the national boundary, and some such 
hope may have led to these embarrassing interruptions in 
the surveys. 

Alexander Macomb, Daniel ]\rcCormick and William 
Constable were equally interested in the original contract, 
but ]\Iacomb became soon involved in an immense specula- 
tion styled the " Million IJauk," in which Isaac Whippo, 
TVm. Duer, "Walter Livingston and others were concerned, 
and a great number of men were pecuniary losers ; Macomb 
was lodged in jail April 17, 1792, and even there owed his 
life to the strength of his prison walls. This failure inter- 
rupted a negotiation with the Holland land company, who 
afterwards bought in western New York. 

The Fish creek reservation was not regarded in this sale, 
probably because it was supposed not to extend up into the 
tract. In the course of the survey this became a subject of 
anxiety, aiid while some considered tliat the reservation 
would extend up only so far as the salmon went, others 
would limit it to the union of the principal branches, and 
others only by the sources of its main tributaries. The 
proposition was made in 1794, to meet the Oneidas, and re- 
quest a person to be sent to fix the uppermost limit of the 
creek, and see the half mile run out on each side of it. 
Upon examining the patent it was found that the state had 
undertaken to sell the reservation, and must settle wliatever 
damages might result to the Indians. In a treaty held 
September 15, 1795, the latter engaged to sell all north of a 
certain creek falling into Fish creek, on Scriba's purchase, 
for an annuity of $'3 per hundred acres, to be ascertained 
by suivey. On the 5th of March, 1802, a provisional agree- 
ment of sale of this and other i)arts of reservations wa.s 
made, and on the 4fh of June of that year it was confirmed 
in the [nesence of John Taylor, U. S. Com'r, thus furever 
canceling the native title to the lands of Lewis county. 

Macomb's purchase embraced 3,Sl<i,9(J0 acres, from which 
deducting live jior cent, there remained 3,070,715 acres. 
On the lOtii of .lanuary, 1792, the first j)iiynients having 
been made, a patent for 1,;'20,()()0 acres was issued to Ma^ 
comb, embracing the whole purchase excepting what lies in 
St. Lawrence and Fraid<lin counties. The conveyance was 
that of a lull and nnijualilicd freehold, with no reservation 
but those of gold and silver mini's, anil no cf)ndition but the 
settlement of one family to cvfry s<inaie mile within seven 
years. The jturclnuso was subdividtMl into six groat tracts, 
of which 1, lies in Franklin, II an«l HI in St. Lawrence, and 



24 Land Titles. 

TV, includes 450,950 acres, or all of Jefferson and Lewis 
counties north of a line near the 44th degree of north lati- 
tude. The division line between V and Vl was never run, 
and they have never been recognized in land sales, being 
indefinitely regarded as including the remainder of the 
tract. In an early map, a line drawn from near the S. W. 
corner of the purchase, about N. 16° E. and crossing the 
Black river at the northern bend, east of the Watson bridge, 
is theoretically given as the line between Nos. V and VL 
Macomb conveyed to William Constable of New York, June 
6, 1792, great tracts IV, V and VI, for jecO,000,i and this 
conveyance was renewed by Macomb and wife, Oct. 3d of 
that year. Constable conveyed, Dec. 17-18, 1792, to Col. 
Samuel Ward, 1,281,880 acres, embracing tracts V, VI (ex- 
cepting 25,000 which had been contracted to P. Colquhoun 
and conveyed to Wm. Inman), for ^100,000.- On the 27tli 
of February following. Ward and wife re^conveyed these 
lands to Constable, excepting 685,000 acres which he had 
sold.=^ This sale to Ward is understood to have been a trust 
conveyance, and the sales made by Ward, to be hereafter 
specified, were virtually sales by Constable. We now ar- 
rive at a point in the chain of title from whence several 
lines diverge, and to convey a clear idea of each, they will 
be traced separately down to the sales of single towns. 
Such changes as occurred within the limits of towns, will 
be noticed in connection with their history. 

Lewis county comprises two whole and parts of seven 
other great tracts, which have been known in land sales by 
distinct names. To the townships west of Black river, 
separate names were applied by Simeon DeWitt, surveyor 
general, in his state maps published in 1802 and 1804. These 
tracts, with the numbers and original names were as follows : 
Black River Tract (id part), including-, 
Township 5, Mantua, now Denmark, 
do 9, Handel, do Pinckney. 
do 10, Plntina, do Harrisburgh. 
do 11, Lowville, do Lowville. 
Tlie remainder in Jeflerson county, south of Black river. 

1 Deeds, Sec. office, xxiv, 300. 2 Deeds, Sec. office, xxxix, 6. 

3 Deeds, Sec. office, xxv, 208. In this couvejaiice it is understood that 
Wm. Constable, Col. William Stephens Smith, and Samuel Ward were equally 
interested. A balance sheet of the accounts ot these thrte proprietors, brought 
down to July 1, 179G, shows an amount of £69,092 2.0, cost and expenses, 
and £50,47.5.10.9 profits, leaving to each one a share of $74, 778. .57. The 
current of this aflair did not always run smooth, and in a letter to Macomb, 
dated Oct. 29, 1794, Constable comphiined that Smith had never disbursed a 
sixpence, and was profiting by the labors of others, while Ward was bound 
for the bills. Smith died at Lebanon, Madison county, N. Y., June 10, 1816. 
He was a member of the 13th and 14th Congresses. 



Land Titles. 25 

BoYLSTON Tract (in part), including, 
Township 3, Shakes'pere, now Montague. 

do 4, Cornelia, do Martinsburgh. 

do 5, Porcia, do do 

do 8, Hyhla, do Osceola. 

do 9, Penelope, do High Market. 

do 13, Ruraldla, do Osceola. 
The remainder in Jefferson and Oswego counties. 

Constable's Four Towns, including, 
Township 1, Xenophon, now Lewis. 

do 2, Flora, do Lewis, High Market and West 

Turin, 
do 3, Lucretia, do High Market, Turin and Mar- 

tinsburgli. 
do 4, Pomona, do West Turin and Turin. 

Inman's Triangle, including Leyden and a part of Lewis. 
Brantingham Tract, in Greig. 

Brown's Tract (in part). The western border of four town- 
ships extend into the eastern part of the county, viz : 

Part of Township 1, Industry, now Greig and Herkimer co. 

do do 2, Enterprise, do do do 

do do 3, Perseverance, do Watson, do 

do do 4, Unanimity, do do do 

The remainder in Herkimer and Hamilton counties. 

W.vt.son's Tract, including part of Watson. The remainder in 

Herkimer county. 

Castorland, including parts of Greig and Watson, the whole 
of New Bremen and Croghan, and in Jefferson county the parts 
adjoining Black river on the north side. 

Great Tract Number Four, or the Antwerp company's pur- 
chase, including Diana and a large tract in Jefferson and a 
corner in Herkimer counties. 

The Black River Tract. — Samuel Ward and wife, on the 
12tli of December, 17'J2, conveyed to Tliunias JJoyiston of 
HoHlon,' lor jL"^0,OUO, all of Macomb's purcluise south and 
west of lilack liver, excepting Inman's triangle. Tiio only 
knowledge then had of the course of the rivor was derived 
from Siintliier's map, a coj)y of which, «-orrt>ctod at tiiu of- 
fice of the .surveyor general, from the latest ilata in iiis pos- 
session, was used in these early sales. lUack river was en- 
tirely omitted on the [»rinted nuip, and when thus laid out 
upon vaguo iidbrniation, was repre.sonted as llowing in a 

1 Hu^'lstoii pruvud to be a partnor uf I^tio, Sunnml Fnuer of Loiuion, wlio 
Boon fuileil for a liiri,'" amount, aiul tliu tillt* wn« HiilmtHjiiciilly coiivcvi'il by 
thuir a.ssigiu«c«. Hoyl.stoii was relatcil to tli« wifo of Col. Wui. S. Smitb, wUo 
la muuUonvd in couuuotiou witli Sumuul \Vurir.s opvrutiouii. 



26 Land Titles. 

nearly direct line from the High falls to the lake. The lands 
south of the river were sold for 400,000 acres, but upon sur- 
vey they measured 8 17, 155 acres. To rectify this enormous 
error is said to have cost Constable ^£60,000 sterling. On 
the 21st of May, 1794, Boylston gave a deed of trust of the 
land since known as the Black river tract, to George Lee, 
George Irving, and Thomas Latham, assignees of the firm 
of Lane, Son and Frazer of London, and they in turn con- 
veyed to John Johnson Phyn of that place,^ June 2, 1794, 
with whom by sundry assurances in law the title became 
vested in fee simple, with all the rights and appurtenances 
pertaining thereto." Phyn appointed Constable his attorney 
to sell any or all of these lands, April 10, 1795,^ and the 
latter sold, on the I5th of July following, to Nicholas Low, 
William Henderson, Richard Harrison and Josiah Ogden 
Hoft'man, all of New York city, the land between the Black 
River and a line running in a course S. 81° E. 3100 chains, 
from the mouth of Sandy creek to the river. 

In a letter from Wm. Henderson to Constable, dated Feb. 
6, 1795, tlie writer stated a difiiculty in the lodging of 
American stocks as security instead of personal responsi- 
bility. All the advantage he expected was to be derived 
from the credit allowed, and to buy stock and pledge it 
would cost more than to advance the money and make full 
payment at once. Constable was offered an interest in the 
tract if he preferred to become an associate. Mr. Hender- 
son added : "The room for speedy profit on waste lands in 
general above a dollar an acre, I do not, for my part, think 
very great ; indeed the sudden rise which they have taken 
may be considered in a great degree artificial. You will 
say, perhaps, 'Why then do you purchase V I reply, be- 
cause they have been an article in which there is great 
speculation, and therefore may answer to sell again." 

The proposition of Hamilton for bringing the western 
territory into market at a cheap rate, was looked upon as 
an alarming indication of ruin by those making this invest- 
ment. 

To give a better idea of these speculations in northern 
lands, we will quote from a letter written late in 1798, by 
one of the parties concerned, to his' agent in London. Af- 
ter stating that the capital invested might lie unproductive 
a few years, but would certainly return several hundred per- 

1 James Phyn married a sister of Constable, and traded at Schenectady 
■with John Duncan before the revolution. John Johnson Phyn, his son, was 
an unmarried man. 

2 Deeds, Sec. office, xxiv, 35. 3 Deeds, Sec. office, xxxix, 64. 



Lcmd Titles. 27 

cent, in the end, he says that in 1786, he received 3000 acres 
in Bayard's patent, on the jMohawk, valued at four shillings 
the acre, which, in 1796, he brought into market and sold at 
twenty shillings. He then mentions the purchase of the 
Boylstou tract in 1794, estimated at 400,000 acres, at two 
shillings, and adds : 

" On my ai-rival here in 1795, I had it surveyed and explored, 
when it appearing- that from the course of the river by which 
it was bounded, it comprehended double the quantity, or up- 
wards of 800,000 acres, the purchase being so mucli larger than 
I had contemplated, I was under the necessity of proceeding 
immediately to sell a part of the tract. This I found no diffi- 
culty in doing, as the land was found to be unconmioidy good. 
Messrs. Nicholas Low and his associates purchased 800,000 
acres at 8*., or 45. (id. sterling, one-fourth of the money 
payable down, the balance in five animal installments, with in- 
terest, the whole of the land remaining security on mortgage. 
In 1796, I had the wIkjIc of the remaining 500,000 acres laid 
out in townships of 25 to 30,000 acres, and sold in that and the 
succeeding year about 100,000 acres from Cys. dd. to 9s. sterling, 
receiving j^ the the monc}'' down, and taking mortgage to secure 
the balance in five annual payments with interest at 7 per cent, 
as is customary. I interested a Mr. Shaler in one-half of two 
townships, on condition of his settling on the tract, and selling 
the lands out in small farms of about 200 acres, he to be 
charged 95. per acre for his part, and to have half the profit on 
the Sides. He accordingly went out and had the lands survey- 
ed, made a road from fort Stauvvix into the midst of it, and 
built a saw mill and a grist mill. His accounts last rendered 
show the disposal of about 10,000 acres for nearly $40,000, of 
which he has paid me all the money received, b(!ing $10,000, 
and has made an account of expenses for roads buildings, &c., of 
about $4,000. lie sells alternate lots at $4 the acre, the settle- 
ment (^f which will innii(Mli;it(.-ly give an additional value to the 
internK.Mliate (Uies, which we mean to reserve." 

A deficiency of 24,624 acres being found on the survey 
of the Boylston tract, this was supplied from township 2 
[Worthj, in Jellerson county. On tlio loth of April, 1796, 
i'iiyn contirnied this sale.' One (piarter of the purchase 
was j)ai(l <li)wn and tlie balance sei:ured by niurtgage, which 
was i^aid and canceled .June 16, ]S04. It had been assigned 
to the bank of Now York witii other accounts of Constable. 

The IMack river tract was divided by ballot betwoiui the 
owners on the llth of August, 1796. liow ilrow 2, 7, and 
11, or Watertown, Adams and Lowville, and 1,578 acres of 
the surplu.4 tract; Henderson took 3, G and 9, or Rutland, 

I ||. •d^, d-e. ofllof, xxxvil, 214. 



28 Land Titles, 

Henderson and Pinckney, and 649 acres of the surplus ; 
and Harrison and Hoffman together, 1, 4, 5, S, and 10, or 
Houndsfield, Champion, Denmark, Rodman, and Harris- 
burgh, and 1283 acres of the surplus. As their guide, in 
making this division, Mr, Benjamin Wright who surveyed 
the outlines of the towns in April, and May, 1796, reported 
with a minute description of soil, timber, and natural advan- 
tages, the following general summary of his views with 
regard to their relative value : 

" Numbers 1, 2, 5,6, 7, have very little to choose in point 
of quality. 6 is best situated, but 7 is a most excellent 
town. 5 would be called best by New England people on 
account of the luxuriancy of its soil on Deer creek. 2 is 
an exceeding good town, but is not so good as 7. 8 and 9 
are very good towns. 10, the north part, is exceeding good. 
11, the west part is excellent. 7 has the preference of the 
whole for quality and situation together, and 6 for situation 
only. 1 is well situated, but I fear has not good mill sites 
on it. 8 has excellent mill sites, and 9 also, but are some 
broken. 10 is bad on the south line, and 9 also being cold 
and hemlocky.'^ 

The prejudice against hemlock timber is historically con- 
nected with the titles, and had an influence upon opinion as 
to the value of lands, which experience has not sustained. 
The indiflerent quality of these lands when first brought 
under cultivation, is found due to the large amount of tannin 
in the leaves, and as this disappears the capacity of the soil 
increases until it may equal the best, other circumstances 
being equal. 

Boylstorv's Tract and Constable^s Four Toicns. — On the lOth 
of April, 1795, Phyn reconveyed to Constable 105,000 acres 
for ,£10,000, which tract was subdivided into four towns 
adjacent to Inman's triangle, and almost reaching the S. 
E. corner of the eleven towns of the Black river tract. 

On the 1st of April, 1796, Phyn reconveyed to Constable 
406,000 acres for |400, this being the residue of the Boyl- 
ston tract. This land was subdivided into thirteen towns, 
which in common language have been denominated the 
" Boylston Tract," although strictly speaking, that tract 
included every thing between Black river, the lake, and 
Inman's triangle, amounting to 817,155 acres. The sepa- 
rate numbering of the townships surveyed out from the 
lands released in 1795 and 1796, has resulted in some con- 
fusion as, from 1 to 4, the numbers are duplicated. The 
outlines of these towns were mostly surveyed by Wm. Cock- 
burn & Son of Poughkeepsie. 



Land Titles. 29 

The contract with Wright for surveying townships 3, 4, 
6, S, and 9, into lots in 1805, provided that one acre of land 
in townships 1 and 10 was to be paid for every mile run. 
It appears that the survey of 4, amounted to 152 miles 42 
chains ; of No. 6 to ]36.\ m. ; of No. 8 to 154 m. 36 ch. ; of 
No. 9 to 110 m. 39 ch."; and of No. 3 to 161 m. 43 ch. ; 
making 715| acres due for the survey of 5 towns. 

On the 29th of December, 1795, Constable sold to Nathaniel 
Shaler of Middletown, an undivided half of 52,418 acres 
being numbers 3 and 4 of Constable's four towns, and made 
him his agent for selling the other half ^ 

On the 15th of November, 1798, Wm. Constal)le, on the 
eve of his departure for Europe, appointed his brother 
James an agent to sell lands," and under this authority the 
latter sold most of township 5, or 8000 acres, to Walter Mar- 
tin on the 18th of June, 1801, receiving $5,400, and a mort- 
gage for $6,600 due in two equal annual payments. 

Upon the death of Wm. Constable, May 22, 1803, John 
McYickar, James Constable, and llezekiah B. Pierrcpont, 
became the executors of his estate, and in 1819, the latter 
by purchase acquired the interests of the several heirs. By 
virtue of marriage with a daughter of Mr. Constable, he 
had previously become an owner of a share of the estate. 
The remaining heirs were paid about $25,000 each, princi- 
pally in lands. By this means Edward McA'ickar became 
owner of lands in the Avest subdivision of No. 5, and in No. 
9. The remaining interests in 3 and 4 of Constable's four 
towns became the property of William Constable, who set- 
tled at Constableville, and other members of the family 
became interested either in land* or contracts. 

in the beginning Wm. C. adopted the plan of deeding 
lands and taking mortgages, but this being found expens- 
ive and troublesome, it was superseded by that of con- 
tracts, guaranteeing an ample deed ujjou lull payment. 
Tills contract, originally j)repared by Alexander Uamillon, 
has not been changed. It secures legal interest annually 
to the proprietor, requires the purchasers to pay all surveys, 
taxes, and assessments, l.'inds them ni)t to abandon the pre- 
mises, or sell or assign the contract, or cut, or sutler to bo 
cut for sale, any timijer without the consent of tlie proprie- 
tor, or commit any waste, actual or permissive, upon the 
])rcniiscs. In case of dc^fault, it is optional with the party 
of the first part to abide by the contract, or consider it 
voiil, and it the latter, to re-enter and dispose of the pre- 

1 TranHcrHM>d Dot'ds, L«wls Clprk*« ofllcp, p. 155. 

2 Deods, Sec. office, xli, 623 ; Kegr'.s offico, N. Y., Ivi, 169. 



30 Land Titles. 

mises as in case of a tenant holding over without permission. 
The inflexible rule of requiring one quarter payment upon 
purchase was never relaxed by Constable, but was changed 
by his executors. 

On the 1st of March, 1817, Judge James McVickar, who 
had acquired an interest by marriage with a daughter of 
Wm. Constable, conveyed by three several deeds, to George 
Davis of Belleville, N. J., 5,224| acres in townships 3 and 
4, then Turin, for $14,225. He also on the same day, con- 
veyed about 3,760 acres to Thomas Alsop, for 1 11,500, and 
on the 1st of January following, for $'6,000, an undivided 
half of 46 lots in townships 3 and 4, of Constable's towns. 
On the l8th of December, Alsop sold for |7,000 to Davis, 
portions of his improved lands. 

Both Davis and Alsop came to reside at Constableville as 
further noticed in our account of West Turin. 

David I. Green of New York, became a purchaser under 
his brother-in-law Davis, June 16, 1818, and a few days 
after, conferred upon him powers of attorney to sell lands. 
Green was for many years cashier of the Phoenix bank, 
N. y., and by a long course of exemplary attention to its 
business, had secured the confidence of the directors to 
such an extent that they at length made but superficial 
examinations of his accounts. Soon after the purchase 
above noticed, he was found a defaulter to the amount of 
about $140,000, and large packages of bills Avhich had for 
some time previous been coming through the mails to Capt. 
Davis, together with mysterious arrangements for expedit- 
ing the journey of some traveler, should he need to be for- 
warded in haste towards Cft'nada, leave little room for doubt 
that a part of the stolen money was used in buying these 
lands, and that Davis was to some extent, at least, privy to 
the crime. Green was also deeply concerned in cotton and 
other speculations, which proved failures, and brought to 
light his robbery of the bank. He got a few hours' start of 
the officers of justice, and escaped by way of lake Cham- 
plain to Quebec, from whence he sailed to France. In two 
or three years some arrangement was made, by which he 
could return, and after going to Michigan, he came back to 
Davis' house near Constableville, and died, Sept. 5, 1826, 
aged 45 years. 

The Phcenix bank became from this transaction an in- 
terested party to the title of a portion of the lands previ- 
ously held by Davis. 

On the 25th of July, 1801, Wm. Constable, in part pay- 
ment of notes and endorsements of the firm of Wm, & Jas. 



Land Titles. 31 

Constable, and in consideration of $'95,704.50, conveyed 
townships 1 and 13 on the south Lorder of this county to 
John Jones, John McVickar and John Rathbone, in trust 
for the owners of the notes. These towns were conveyed 
to the trustees above named, July 15, 1802, and proving 
more than sufficient after making several conveyances 
amounting to 43,704 acres, they reconveyed the balance 
to Constable.^ Of the lands retained to pay the creditors 
for whose benefit this arrangement was made, 6,1 18^ acres 
in No. 1, and 5,43 1| in No. 13, were deeded to John Jacob 
Astor, Jan. 28, 1804;- and a further quantity of 3232^ acres 
was conveyed March 10 of that year.^ On the 1st of June, 
1806, Astor sold the whole of his lands in these two town- 
ships to ilezekiah B. Pierrepont, for $18,477.50, receiving a 
mortgage for a part of the amount, due in five, six and 
seven years.* 

The trustees above named on the 28th of Jan., 1804, 
deeded 743 acres of township 1, and 10,074 of township 13, 
to H. B. Pierrepont. 

Inmari's Triangle was conveyed Feb. 12, 1793, by Wrn. 
Constable to Wm. Inman, in trust, chiefly for Patrick Col- 
quhoun. The history of this transaction will be giv^en in 
our account of Leyden. 

Brantingham Tract. — S. Ward and wife, conveyed Aug. 18, 
1793, to the name of Wm. Inman a tract of land supposed 
to be 50,000 acres, east of the river, in trust for P. Colqu- 
houn, in pursuance of a contract with Constable of Feb. 13 
of that year. The price was .£5,000 sterling, and it was 
the intention of the European owner to oiler 10,000 acres 
to C;ij)t. Chailes Williamson at first cost, and he instructed 
Inman to do s(j. The latter wrote as directed, but added: 
"I have no doubt of the propriety of your refusing to ac- 
cept the share of the 18,0(J0 acres, and I confess I had 
little hopes of your doing s(j, although I am certain it would 
have been highly advantageous to you. 1 can speak my 
mind freely to you ; and 1 do not hesitate to say that Mr. 
C is capable of expressing .sentiments ho does not, when 
thuy are calculated to serve his own particjihir purposes ; 
and 1 am authorized to say, his friendship for you was 
merely a name, and his boasted attachment and prolessiou 

1 In township 1, lot.s 1 to !!• uiul part of 20.-^ 4880 ftcrtto ; and in 13 lots, 
1 to t;2, iiinl i)iirt of 1-10= l.'),4H4 acrttM. 

2 DiHil.M, Lfwis coiintv, A., 187. 

3 In towiisliip 1, 'J.'{'2(i| ai-roM mid in 13, i)Vl\ aort>s. DtM>dH, Lewis oo.^ 
A., 190. * Dir.is, I,.-\viH cniiily, A., 180. 

& liufurriug to 1'. Col<iuhouu, who lioil luadud liiu with kiudui>u8. 



32 Land Titles. 

for me was no better, and people would do well to be on 
their guard in their transactions with that gentleman." 
Within two months the writer of this letter, offered to buy 
these lauds himself, stating that Williamson declined to 
purchase. The transaction needs neither note nor com- 
ment. Upon survey by Cockburn in 1794, the tract was 
found to measure 74,400 acres. In August, 1793, Brock- 
hoist Livingston became a purchaser in trust for himself 
and certain alien owners, of whom he alone was allowed to 
hold lands. There were two associations formed, for hold- 
ing the Fellowship location, of 50,000 acres, and the 
Surplus lands, of 24,400, the latter of which belonged ex- 
clusively to B. Livingston and Patrick Colquhoun, high 
sheritr of London. In Dec, 1793, a contract was made be- 
tween B. L, and Robert Morris,^ for the 50,000, in behalf of 
the latter, and ]\Ir. Nicholson and James Greenleaf ; but 
this conveyance was never made, and on the 10th of April, 
1794, Wm. Inman, acting for another, sold to Thomas 
Hopper Brantingham" of Phila. for $23,073, the whole 
tract. The latter soon after executed three mortgages for 
.£7,692,^ and appointed, Aug. 9, 1794, Arthur Breese his 
attorney to sell a certain tract of 18,000 acres,* but no sales 
appear to have been made by this agent. Brantingham 
and wife on the 21st of Jan., 1795, sold 10,000, an un- 
divided part of the tract to Richard W. Underbill of N. Y., 
for ^67000, and other claimants became incidentally inte- 
rested;' but the mortgages being unpaid, two of them were 
foreclosed and the lands sold" according to statute. The 
lands were re-leased to Inman, and were further confirmed 
by the assignment of the judgments, upon which a sale was 
made Nov. 17, 1796, by the sheriff" of Herkimer county to 
Inman,^ in trust. The latter soon after mortgaged the 
whole to Thomas Walker, agent of Colquhoun ; and by 
sundry conveyances the title became vested in Brockholst 
Livingston, Samuel Ogden, James Kerr and Patrick Col- 
quhoun. 

The tract was surveyed into lots by Benjamin Wright in 
1806, and the tract was divided Nov. 25, 1815, into four 
parts, of which the N. E. and S. W. marked 2, were drawn 

1 Deeds, Oneida co., iv, 263. Consideration $30,000. 

2 B. was allowed to hold lands in this state by an act of April 9, 1792. 
He failed in business in the spring of 1794, and in 1795 was imprisoned for 
debt. 3 Deeds, Lewis co., 149, 151. 

* Deeds, Oneida co., ii, 224. 

5 Wm. JBird, Joseph Brantingham, Philip Grim and others are named in 
connection with this title. ^ April 1, and Sept. 1, 1796. 

7 Deeds, Lewis co., 160. 



Land Titles. 33 

b}' Kerr and Colquhoun, and the S. E. and N. W., marked 
1, by Livingston and Ogden.^ Lots 253 and 235, including 
the High fails, were not included, but remained common 
property of the four proprietors. 

By an order of chancery dated June 17, 1822. Elisha 
Wilcox, Uriel Hooker, and Nathaniel Merriam, were ap- 
pointed commissioners for making a partition so far as 
concerned Ogden and Livingston. 

In September, 18 18, Caleb Lyon was appointed sole agent 
of John Greig, the agent of Kerr and Colquhoun, and pur- 
chased about JOjOOO acres on his own account. He subse- 
quently brought Livingston's interest, and continued in the 
agency until his death, when he was succeeded by his son 
Lyman R. Lyon, and son-in-law Francis Seger. This agency 
continued until about 1851, Avhen L. R. Lyon bought out 
the remaining interest of Kerr and Colquhoun, or rather 
of Greig who had succeeded them in the title,^ and a 
part of the Ogden interest. About 25,000 acres of the 
Brantinghani tract are now in the hands of actual settlers. 

Brown's Tract. — This term strictly applicable to a tract 
of 210,000 acres, or 8 townships of land, extending across 
Herkimer and including small portions of Lewis and Ham- 
ilton counties, has come to be applied as a generic term to 
the whole northern wilderuess. 

Samuel Ward and wife conveyed, November 25, 1794, to 
James Greenleaf, a tract of 210,000 acres from the eastern 
extremity of great tracts V, VI, and the latter mortgaged 
the premises July 29, 1795, to Philip Livingston. This was 
foreclosed, and Thomas Cooper, Master in Chancery, united 
in a deed to John Brown, a wealthy merchant of Provid- 
ence, R. I., on the 2fJth of December, 1798.'' The tract 
was surveyed into towns by Natiianiel Smith in 179G, and 
township 2, was surveyed into lots l)y Clill French, in 1799. 
Townships 3 and 4 were never lotted. Tlioro wore several 
conveyances of this tract not essential to its chain of title, 
of which we have not tlio exact data. John Julius Anger- 
stein, a wealthy London merchant, Henry Newman, Tho. 

1 In tho S. W. corner 62 loLs or 12,804.77 acres. In the N. R. corner 126 

lots, 1I4,<;47.7I acres. In ull IbS lot.s of .■f7,-ir)2.4s noreri. Tho land.s drawn 
liy Livill^^stoM atxl Oijdiii w«-r« in tin- S. V',. cornor ."iO loU of 12,17'.t.S3 ncros ; 
and in lln' iN. \V. Vl't lots of 1M,753.('1 ucr«'.s niaking in all lal \oU of 
.■;<i,lt:i-J.h4 acrcH. 

- In lh;>4, 42,298 acr<'H of tlio HruntiiinhaiM trait w>rt» nolJ for taxew, tho 
1,'rfttter i>art of wliidi wa.4 liid oil' \>y .S.'mr and d«'odfd to Un'ig. We are not 
infurnx-il of tlio tran.snrtiuiiH iH-twi-on (.in-i^ and hiit ]>riii<M|>alri, ur tlie datvti of 
••onn<ition with tho lilli-s. Mr. (Sroiij W-ooni" owner in 1^21. 

•• Hmwn n;iniod his luw n.s Indnstry, lintorpriHo, I'erseveraucu, Unauiuity, 
Fru(;julity, Sobriety, Ktonoiuy, and Ui-^uhirity. 



34 La7id Titles. 

and Daniel Greenleaf, Col. Wra. S. Smith, Aaron Burr, and 
others, were incidentally concerned before Brown's pur- 
chase.^ An expensive but ineffectual efibrt was made by 
Brown to plant a settlement upon this tract, and three roads 
were opened to it. One of these led from Remsen, another 
from Boonville, crossing the Black river a little south of 
the county line, and a third from High falls. Mr. Brown 
died in 1803, and the land was held by his family until a 
few years since, when it was purchased by L. E,. Lyon and 
others. It is now contracted to the Lake Ontario and Hud- 
son River R. R. Co. 

Watson- s Tract. — In April, 1796, Constable conveyed to 
James Watson, by warranty deed, 61,433 acres, comprising 
two triangular tracts connected by an isthmus. The first 
deed being lost, it was reconveyed May 13, 1798. The out- 
lines were surve3'ed in 1794, by Wm. Gockburn. This tract 
was originally contracted to the French company, but their 
tract having a surplus, this was sold to Watson at two shil- 
lings the acre. Watson's first agreement Dec. 2, 1793, 
included 150,000 acres. 

Castorland. — The romantic scheme of settlement connected 
with this tract and the probable results that would have 
ensued, had the location been more favorably chosen, and 
the ahairs more judiciously managed, give interest to this 
title, and justify a somewhat extended notice of the com- 
pany formed under it. 

On the 31st of August, 1792, Wm. Constable, then in 
Paris, sold to Peter Chassanis of that city, 630,000 acres of 
land south of great tract number IV, and between the Black 
river and a line near the 44° N. latitude.^ From the mis- 
taken notion of the course of the river before alluded to, it 
was estimated that this amount of land lay between these 
two boundaries. Chassanis in this purchase, acted as agent 
for an association, and the lands were to be by him held in 

1 Burr was concerned with Ward, and afterwards with Smith, in this pur- 
chase, after the title had been hekl as security by Angerstein. He became 
involved in a contract Sept. 22, 1794, for the purchase at £50,000, which he 
found a hard bargain, and the means lie took to get released from Constable 
showed him the polished scoundrel. He wrote a letter Nov. 6, 1794, refer- 
ring in an insulting manner to an assumed liability of escheat from alien 
title, and the personal obligation of Constable to convey notwithstanding, 
and alluded to his ability in influencing legislative action. He professed a 
mock sympathy with his correspondent, expressed a nice sense of honor as 
to obligation, and ended with a proposition to pay £10,000 less tlian the 
sum agreed upon, or to forfeit £1,000 and be released from the contract. 

2 In a deed in Oneida Clerk's office (c. 405) this is called great lot No. V, of 
Macomb's purchase. It appears that the French originally contracted 1,255,- 
000 acres on all south of No. IV, both sides of the river, but soon relin- 
quished a part. 



Land Titles. 35 

trust for Constable until paid for, and disposed of in sec- 
tions of one hundred acres each, at the rate of eight livres 
tournois per acre.^ The state reservations for roads, &c., 
were stipulated, and a deed for 625,000 acres having been 
made out, was delivered to Rene Lambot, as an escrow, to 
take effect on the payment of ^£52,000. Constable bound 
himself to procure a perfect title, to be authenticated and 
deposited with the consul general of France in Philadel- 
phia, and Chassanis agreed that the moneys paid to Lam- 
bot should be remitted to certain bartkers in London, sub- 
ject to Constable's order, on his presenting the certificate 
of Charles Texier, consul, of his having procured a clear 
title. If the sales should not amount to .£62,750, the balance 
v/as to be paid in six, nine, and twelve months, in bills upon 
London. The preemption of great tract No. IV, for one 
moiith, was granted at one shilling sterling per acre. 

The purchasers immediately set to work to perfect a 
scheme of settlement, and in October, 1792, issued a pam- 
phlet," embodying the following programme of colonization 
under the auspices of a company organized under the laws 
of France, by the name of La Compagnie de New York. 

Like many transcendental schemes of modern times, it 
appeared very beautiful upon paper, and the untried experi- 
ment promised every advantage which associated capital 
and active industry could claim, or the most ardent hope, 
promise. 

Peculiar circumstances, at that time, favored schemes of 
emigration from France. The kingdom had been three 
years distracted by a revolution which, lor savage atrocity, 
has no parallel in history, and the reign of terror had 
deluged the royal pahices in blood, and thrown a lurid 
gloom over the future. During the negotiation of Con- 
stable and Chassanis, the fearful insurrection for which 
Danton, Murat, Robespierre, and their kindred spirits had 
been long prejiaring the Parisian mob, burst forth ; the 
j)alace of the TuilU;ries Was surroundt'd, the faitiiful attend- 
ants of th(; royal family butchere<l, and the king, himself, 
imprisoned. While the scheme wo Jire noticing wus pre- 
paring, the mock trial of the sovereign was going on, and a 
few days after it was published, Louis X\'i was brought to 
the guillotine. 

1 Eit^ht llvros toiirnoiH would equal $1.52 4-10. 

-Tilt) oUii-iul «-u|>_v imiii'Xfd to tlio origiiiul rt>iitrnct ami CHrtillfott'M (Hiiltso- 
qiu'iitly riiiicflUnl «.•> hiToivfttT t«» Im< iiotici'd), \vu« iTfMiii.<l ti) tin* Stnlo 
lilirivn- liy tlio Hon. Wm. ('. l'i«Mrc|Hiiil in I'^.'.t, at tin- siini^'i-.slioii of tlii< nii- 
tlior. .\ I'lill trau.tlution U givi<ii in tiiu lli.ttory of Juilorauii County, pagu 4(>. 



36 Land Titles. 

Amid these scenes what law-and-order-loving citizen 
could feel safe ! More especially would those who possessed 
wealth, or rank, or titles, tremble before this Avhirlwind of 
ruin, and gladly invest their money, and trust their lives in 
any scheme which promised a retreat from the dangers 
threatened from their fellow men. A wilderness had no 
terrors to such, and the perils of sea and foreign climes, 
sank into nothing when placed beside the fearful desola- 
tion around them. 

The programme of colonization offered by Chassanis, 
after a glowing allusion to the fertility of the domain, the 
fine distribution of its waters, its facilities for commerce, 
its proximity to older settlements, and the security of its laws, 
offered the 600,000 acres for sale in 6000 portions, to as 
many associates. To maintain an essential unity of inte- 
rests, the projectors proposed a division by lot, which should 
give each associate at once a clear title to fifty acres, and 
leave a like quantity to be divided at the end of seven years, 
when the whole domain should have been enhanced in value 
by their common improvements. 

The price of one share was fixed at 800 livres ($152.38), 
upon paying which, the subscriber received the following 
receipt : 

" The bearer of this certificate has paid the sum of eight hun- 
dred livres, which renders him the owner of a hundred acres in 
six hundred thousand acres which have been sold to us as repre- 
sentatives of the company of proprietors, according to the pre- 
sent contract, which requires us to pass the necessary titles of 
this portion of the estate in favor of the holder of this certifi- 
cate, whenever he may wish to receive it in his own name. 
The present certificate is for an integral part, and a fraction of 
the purchase above mentioned, by virtue of which the bearer is 
entitled to all the rights of this association, of which the articles 
and rules are fixed by the terms of the agreement annexed to 
this common title. 

This certificate bears the number . In evidence of which, 

it has been signed by myself, countersigned by the commissaries 
of the company, and inspected by M. Lambot, notary." 

Paris, this of . Pierre Chassanis. 

One tenth part of the money received was to be paid to 
the commissaries to defray the expense of the concern, such 
as the purchase of tools, materials, and provisions, surveys, 
roads, and other necessary investments. 

The 30,000 acres additional were to be divided as follows : 
2,000 acres for a city upon the great river in the interior, 
2,000 for a second city upon lake Ontario, 6,000 acres to 



Land Titles. 37 

poor artisans, to be charged to them after seven years, at 
at a rent of twelve sous per acre, and 20,000 acres to be 
spent for roads, bridges, and such other purposes as the 
society might direct. The two cities were each to be 
divided into 14,000 lots, of which 2,000 were reserved for 
markets and edifices, such as churches, schools, and other 
public establishments, and for poor artisans; and the remain- 
ing 12,000 lots, in two classes, were to be distributed among 
the 6,000 proprietors; one class immediately, and the other 
at the end of seven years, when a final report was to be 
made, and those who elected might receive their remaining 
shares and withdraw. Those who did not declare this 
intention two weeks before the advertised day for division, 
"were to be deemed to have chosen the continuation and 
non-division of the common property. 

The affairs of the company were to be managed by three 
commissaries living in Paris, and two residing upon the 
tract, who were to be chosen by an absolute majority at a 
general assembly to be held in Paris, at which each owner 
might vote in person or by proxy. Each share up to five, 
Avas entitled to one vote, but no person could have more 
than five votes, whatever the number of shares he might 
possess. The articles might be modified by a general assem- 
bly convened for the purpose, by a majority of two-thirds. 

The second section of the programme related to govern- 
ment, and was as follows : 

Article 1. Within one month, there shall be held a meeting of 
the Kubscribers, at the rooms of Siour Cluissaiiis at Paris, No. 
20, Rue de la Jussicnne, for the election of connnissiiries. 

Art. 2. The commissaries residiog in Paris, shall have the 
care of provinj^ th<? certificatos with tlic depository, and of 
personally examiiiiii}^ each to guard ap^ainst t'lrors: the notary 
shall also conipaie them as received anil paid, after which they 
shall be signed by the said Chassanis, to be delivered to the 
shareholders. Conseipiently no eeitilicate shall he issued until 
alter these inspections and signatures, and the suhscribeis slmll 
ill the mean time, only receive a provisional receipt of deposit. 

Art. 3. To guard against errors in distrihution, the certifi- 
cates shall be registered iiy their inunbers, hy Chassanis, upon 
their presentation by the holders, in the record kept in his 
oilice, and without this entry, of which notice shall be written 
U[)on the cei tifu-ate by tin; said (Miassanis, or by the one whom 
the coniinissarii's shall appoint lor the purpose, no holders of 
certificates shall be admitted to the meetings, nor allowed to 
take his chanee in the seleetion of his locution. 

.1;/. 4. The commissaries chosen for removal to Ameriea, 
shall bu bearers uf the iustructiuus ami gcucrul powers of the 



38 Land Titles. 

assembly; shall survey the land, fix the location of the two 
cities, and there prepare for the compan}^ within three months 
after their arrival, a report of their examinations and labors, 
with a detailed plan of the common property. 

Art. 5. The commissaries shall be chosen from among the 
holders of certificates. 

Art. 6. The commissaries shall decide the location of the 
fifty acres to belong at first to each certificate, after which the 
holders shall have the right of choice. 

Art. 7. The locations shall be marked upon two registers, in 
the hands of the commissaries in America, who shall retain one, 
and transmit the other annually to the General Assembly in 
France. 

Art. 8. The titles directed to be delivered to the holders of 
certificates who make known their wish, shall contain a declara- 
tion by Chassanis, that in his general purchase there belongs a 
certain portion to as his own, in accordance with a com- 
mon title, and a social regulation of which he is a part}'; this 
declaration shall bear the number of the certificate, which shall 
remain attached under pain of forfeiture of the share, even 
though tlie certificate had been previously cancelled, and this 
title shall not be completed, till after the registration of the 
commissaries to whom it shall be presented. 

Art. 9. The commissaries in America, shall be clothed with 
similar power by Chassanis, for granting like titles to those 
who require it. This power shall be granted after a model of 
the declaration, for the purpose of securing uniformity of 
registration. 

Art. 10. All decisions and acts of the company done in France, 
so far as relates to commissaries, have no need of public for- 
mality when they are legalized by the minister or other public 
functionary of the United States in France. 

Art. II. There shall be delivered, upon demand, a duplicate 
of title to the holders of certificates, containing a copy of 
the original, and in it shall be mentioned that it is a dupli- 
cate. 

It does not appear in what manner public attention in 
Paris was invited to this project. The JlfomYewr of Nov. 29, 
1792 (page 1,413), has an article on the extraordinary pro- 
fits of the potash manufacture at Cooperstown, and from 
time to time it notices with commendation, the fine oppor- 
tunities which the state of New York offered to emigrants, 
without specially naming the scheme of Chassanis and his 
associates. Other journals appear to indicate an interested 
desire to favor the formation in France, of companies of 
emigrants for settling upon property bought and held in 
common, in the northern states of the American union, and 
several French authors published romantic accouuts of the 



Land Titles. 39 

soil, climate, and resources of this country, with plans for 
associated settlement.^ 

On the 2Sth of June, 1793, the second of the French 
republic, at five o'clock in the afternoon, the actual holders 
of provisional receipts convertable into shares of the Com- 
pany ofJYew York- mot at tlie rooms of citizen Chassanis, in 
the street of Jussienne, section of Mail, iu Paris, and pro- 
ceeded to organize the basis of their society, establish its 
rules, and deliberate upon all points relative to its division, 
survey, preparation for market and sale. 

J3efore proceeding to this business, Chassanis recounted 
the origin of the title, and described its successive changes, 
from the Indian purchase to its sale by Constable, as certi- 
fied by John D. Coxe and Jared Ingersol, on the 19th of 
November, 1792, and deposited in the office of the French 
consulate in Philadelphia."' 

The prospectus issued in October, had in December (the 
period when Constable counted upon a part of tiie funds 
which the sale should have procured), failed to obtain pur- 
chasers, and Constable directed Col. Ward, his agent, to 
withdraw the lands from market Nevertheless, upon the 
representation of citizen Chassanis, Col. Ward consented to 
the sale in France of 2,000 shares, and he was assured thiL 
200,000 acres near lilack river, and extending to lako Onta- 
rio, would be reserved to these 2,000 siiares. Upon this 
basis the provisional receipts had been delivered to the 
purchasers, and to meet this new engagement. Constable, 
by a contract passed in London on the 12th and loth of 
April, 1793, had, according to all the forms of law, trans- 
ferred to citizen Chassanis, not only 200,000 'icres and 5 
p. c. over, for roads and public objects, but also 10,000 acres 
to facilitate the bringing into market the 200,000 acres. In 
this instrument, Constable was further bound to transmit 
to the company the indemnities granted by the state of 

^ Of these writers J. K. Bonnpt, was porhnps the most z.'alons. In a work 
of Iwo vohiim-s eiilitleil hltati I'nii ile I'jiintniiue a Jin ilu Xl'lIT sif clt, aiul 
niiotli'T Hcvfiftl y«'ar.s iilliT ; Tublt lu drt Ktals Unit, dt V.hntruiue nu com- 
vienttiiient du XIX lieili-, Iih |ir(>|i<>.si,'il t'livl»iiriitt' |)li\iis fur culiilijul lusociiuioli. 
Ill the liittiT, lut givi'M ct'iitrnl niiil iiDrtliiTU NfW York tlio |irer»'rt'!i(u of nil 
olIiLT 8».M tioiis «>f llio union, wt-ry lirLiiinHluiico U-iii^ titki-n into ttfcunnt. 
Ilf woA untiitiKinHtic in liin udniiiutinn of liiu Nii^ur ninplu, which lie fiifftold 
wouhl yt't supply i'luroiM' nml AiiH-iiia with siii{ur, ••xtiii^ui-.h .\friiiiii .sIhvitv 
l>y HiiitiTSfdiiii,' llif i-iiltivation of tia> .siii,'.»r luii'-, nml iiitrodiu'u u lu'W »r» of 
huninii lia|i|>iiifh.M. 

-Tiilitr ill his Mfniorial, p. '.i, «ay.s liiut 11 «hnrfhold»«ni ri'presvnting 1,808 
shari-H, atti-ii<lf(l tliiM nu'oling. 

^'Tliis iiihtrunitnt waa ackuowludgud U'foro Cloiuvut Bidulv, uotorr, on tho 
day it wo^i uxucutvd. 



40 



Company of JYew York. 




New York, in cases of lands covered by water. He also 
recognized the payment in full of ^£25,000 by Chassanis, 
for the lands above mentioned.^ These statements being 
examined and found to agree with facts, the assembly hav- 
ing listened to the report of the provisional commissaries, 
and discussed article by article, the project of an associa- 
tion which they oflered, unanimously agreed upon the fol- 
lowing 

CONSTITUTION. 
Title I. — Declaration of the Rights of the Company. 

Article 1. Citizen Chassanis declares, that all the 
lands and rights by him definitely acquired of Wm. 
Constable, by the final contract of the 13tli of April 
last, have been, for the benefit of the purchasers of 
2,0UO shares of 800 livres each, amounting to the 
total price of the said purchase, which has been 
paid to Constable, as appears from the receipt in- 
serted in the said instrument of sale, and repeated 
by him upon the fold of the said contract. Citizen 
Cliassanis acknowledges, that this payment has 
been made from funds received from the sale of 
"*"'■ nearly all of the shares, of which it is well to notice, 

that one-tenth of the price has been remitted by Constable to the share- 
holders. Consequently, citizen Chassanis cedes and conveys, so far as need 
be, to the said shareholders, all the rights of property or otherwise resulting 
from the said contract, to them collectively, consenting that from this time 
forth they shall enjoy and dispose of the whole j^roperty. 

jlrt. 2. The bearers of receipts controvertable into shares of the said 
property, who are here present, stipulate, as well for themselves as for those 
absent, that they accept, as far as need be, and collectively, the property 
wliich has been anew declared and ceded by the said citizen Chassanis, with 
the original conditions annexed to the cession by the state of New York, by 
letters patent hereinafter mentioned, it being well understood that the said 
shareholders are not held by these conditions, beyond tlie proportion of the 
land which they have purchased under the name of the said citizen Chassanis, 
hy the final contract of April 13th last. 

^rt. 3. Citizen Chassanis has exhibited and placed upon the table, the 
documents which establish the original and actual property in the lands and 
rights wliich he has bought, to wit : 

1st. A copy, in legal form, of the letters patent of Jan. 12, 1792. 
2d. A copy, also iu legal form, of the contract of sale made by Alexander 
Macomb to Wm. Constable, dated June 6, 1792. 

3d. A copy, in legal form, of the renewal of the said contract of sale by 
Alexander Macomb and Jane his wife, dated Oct. 3, 1792. 

4th. Certificate delivered by the Secretary of the Consulate General of 
France, of the act of deposit of the three above named instruments in the 
said office. 

5th. The originals of two certificates of a Master iu Chancery of New York, 
proving that the lands sold are not encumbered by any debt of Alexander 
Macomb. 

Gill. The original contract of sale of Wm. Constable to Pierre Chassanis, of 
April 12, 1793, in parchment, with the original jiledge of possession. 

7th. The original bond of the said Wm. Constable in behalf of P. Chassanis, 
of .£50,000 sterling, dated April 12, 1793, to be paid in default of ratification 
by his wife. 



1 Constitution de le Compagnie de New York, pp. 1, 3. 



Company qfJYew York. 41 

Moreover, a printed copy of the prospectus issued by citizen Chassanis, 
upon the faith of which the shareholders were led to the purchase of their 
chares. 

Lastly, a printed copy of the provisional receipts delivered to the pur- 
chasers of shares, to which is annexed a reduction of title of tlie sale proposed 
by the prospectus. 

^rt. 4. The Assembly deposits all of these papers in the liands of citizen 
Cliassanis, and charces liiin with providing a place of deposit for the archives 
of the Company of New York. 

TlTLK II. — Title of the Shareholders as a Society, and Name of their Property 

in jhncrica. 

Article 1. In adopting as for this, the arrangement implit-d in the prospectus 
above mentioned, the Assembly declare.s that all the .said sliareholders, as 
well present as absent, are, by tho act of their purcha.se, co-proprietors in 
common and of, the lands and rights declared in the first title, and by these 
presents are constituted dormant partners under the title of Company of New 
York, for the" occupation of the said lands and rights, excepting, however, the 
exceptions and modificatiuna hereinafter specilied. 

Art. 2. The lands of the Company of New York shall henceforth be known 
under the name of Castor Land A 

Title III. — Specification of the Ris;hts which the Company Enjoys and thos^ 

which it Does Not. 

Art. 1. The ends proposed by the association founded under the preceding 
title, are : \st. To extend more ra])i(lly lifa and improvement over all the 
extent of the lands acquired by the company. 2d. To relieve the greater 
part of the shareliolders who can not consent to a passage beyond seas, from 
the embarrassment and expen.se attending the first settlement of a large por- 
tion of the lands, 'id. To aid them with regard to tlie sur})lus. And-Uh, and 
lastly. To accelerate in that country the population, wliich will one day 
become its wealth. 

It ajipears indisjietisable, that in order to more speedily work these happy 
results, there .should be estalilislied over a great part of the purcliase that i.s 
to remain luidivided and in common, a general and iiapable administration, 
by the union of tlie common interests, to give value to that jiortion, and 
cause it to realize advantages above what could be derived from the separate 
exertions of the shareliolders through their .several agents. 

Art. 2. The ijorlion of the said purcliase which .shall remain with the 
company, and be held undivided by the associated shareholders, to Iw 
enhanced by a general ailministratiiiu, sliall be, 

lit. HKi.OOd aere.s of land, to be taken from the 200,000 acres fonnjng tho 
princii)al ol j>ct of the said piirchiuse. 

2d. 2(1,:j(IU acres, granted a.s above, to the shareholdera by Constable, to 
wit: ](),(il)(> for roads, canals and jiublic establi.-thment.s on account of tlie 
5 acres jjer 1(H», and l(',(i(il) to liederivi^l from the iiicjiiiinity. It is observed 
that ill the 22", filKi aei'-.s mentioned, lands covered by water siiould not be 
included, according to tlie ti-riiis of the patent, and liio sale of Constable. 

lid. Tiio tenth part remitted by (■oiistal)le as an encoiiras'eiiieiit to the 
pharelioldeis, upon the whole of llio 2,liO(» .shares, in Iho 1st Article of Title I, 
ainoiint.s to lUO.OOU livres. Tiiis huiu i.s now in the hniidd of Mr. Lauibot, 
Notary, subject to the order of the slianhold.Ts, and is reprerfeiitcd by Sl>,i»0() 
livres in credit pajuT, and a like siiiii in W" shai-fs of S<K> livn-s each, wliiclx 
alone remain of the 2, 0<in shares al)ove ni'Mitioiied, and were left by Constable 
to the .shareholders, to complete the tenth wiiich lie remitted to theni, and of 
whicii vnUies the Asiiombly dvclarex its auceptunce on acuotiut of the said 
reini.ssion. 

Art. 3. Tiiat portion of the tuiid purchase to be owiivd beparately by the 

1 Caalor, BlguUlcs UttUtr. 



42 Company ofJYew York. 

shareholders immediately, shall be divided as soon as may he, in the manner 
specified in the Title IX, and is composed — 1st, Of 100,000 acres of land ; and 
2d, Of the land which 2,000 divided lots shall occnpy in the plan of the first 
city whicli shall he projected by the Company of Associates. 

Title IV, — Form and Duration of the Society. 

Art. 1. The society -n-hich has been formed for the possession and enjoy- 
ment in common of the objects specified in Art. 1 of the preceding title, shall 
consist of 2,000 proprietary shares. 

Art. 2. The said shares shall be numbered from 1 to 2,000. These shares 
instead of being in the form announced in the prespectus, shall be divided 
into two coupons. The one shall be called coupon divis, and shall confer the 
right to 50 acres in the 100,000 acres divided, and to a divided lot in the 
plan of the first city which shall be projected upon the lands. The other 
shall be a stamped coupon indivis, and shall give an interest in a two-thou- 
sandth part of the objects remaining undivided and in company among the 
shareholders ; and the coupons shall bear the same number as the shares. 
These coapons shall be drawn in the following form : 

Company of New York. 

Purchase in the name of Peter Chassanis, of 200,000 acres of land and 
dependencies known by the name of Castorland, and situated in the state of 
New York, Montgomery co., upon the banks of lake Ontario and of Black river. 

By deed of April 12, 1793. No. Divided coupon. The bearer by full 

payment of the price of a whole share, of which the present coupon forms a 
part, is owner by virtue of the said coupon, of divided lot which shall correspond 

in division with No. as well in the plan of the first city which shall be 

laid out upon the company's land, as in the 2,000 lots of 50 acres each which 
shall be formed in the division of the divisible property of 100,000 acres 
making a part of the purchase above named, after the manner determined by 
the organization of the said comjiany dated June 28, 1793, of which a quad- 
ruple remains in the archives of the company and another shall be registered 
and deposited in the city of New York. Note. This coupon shall be ex- 
changed for a deed upon delivery of tlie lot. 

GUYOT, ClIASSAXIS, GuiNOT, 

Commissary. Director. Commissary. 

Inspected according to the act of June 28, 1793. 
Lajibot. 

(The second part or undivided coupon is similar, excepting that it gives 
the holder a final right to one two-thousandth part of the undivided property 
of the company upon its dissolution.) 

Art. 3. Agreeable with the prospectus, the coupons forming each share 
shall be signed by citizen Chassanis and two commissaries of the company, 
and inspected by citizen Lambot, notary at Paris. 

Art. 4. The provisional receipts delivered by the said Lambot, notary, who 
has been instructed to receive the payment of the said .shares, will need to be 
exchanged for shares in the above form, which shall bear the same numbers 
as the receipts to which they correspond. 

Art. 5. This exchange shall be made at the company's office, and when 
done, the exchanged receipts shall be canceled and left with the director of 
the company, to be sent to the said Lambot as they become worthless by ex- 
change, and by the discharge of the said Lambot to Constable, shall operate 
by the release inserted in the contract of sale aforesaid. 

Art. 6. The society, beginning to-day, shall continue twenty-one years 
from the 1st of July next, with the privilege of dissolving before the expira- 
tion of this term, as will be hereafter explained in Title XII. 

Art. 7. None shall be regarded as true members, except the bearers of 
coupons indivis of the two thousand shares aforesaid. 

Art. 8. The coupon divis of each of the said shares, shall never give the 



Company of Jfew York. 43 

privilege of the society, except as an action against it, to compel the delivery 
to the bearer of the dividpd lot mentioned in the coupon, in the manner here- 
inafter exijlaiiied in title IX. 

Title V. — Government of the Society, a Director and four Commissaries living in 
Paris, their Functions and Powers. 

Art. 1. The interests of the company shall he managed by a director and 
four commissaries living in Paris, where the government of the society shall 
remain fixed. 

Art. 2. The director and commissaries, shall always be chosen at a general 
meeting of the shareholders, by an absolute majority of votes and viva voce. 

Art. '6. They can only be chosen from the company, and a person to be 
director or commissary, must be the owner or holder of at least ten entire 
shares or of twenty coupons indivis, of which deposit shall be mad(> into the 
hands of citizi'n Lambot, notary, within eight days after their nomination to 
the said places, and their powers shall cease if they become the owners of a 
less amount than above named. 

Art. 4. The director once chosen, shall hold his office during the existence 
of the society, without the power of change, unless in a general assembly 
called for the purpo.se, and by a majority of two-thirds. 

Art. 5. The commis.saries 'in Paris, shall be renewed .seven times in the 
course of the society, namely, the first time in three years from the 1st of 
July next, and at intervals of three years after, until the complete revolution 
of 21 years which the society is to last. 

Art. (J. The director shall be charged with the correspondence, and the 
preservation of the titles, registers, papers, and in general with whatever may 
enter the archives of the company. Ho shall convene general assemblies of 
the .shareholders and tho.se of the commis.saries, shall provide a convenient 
place for meeting, and preserve the record of general and special meetings. 
He shall deliver shares to the bearers of receipts of citizen Lambot. He shall 
have a consultive voice in the meetings of commissaries, and a ca.sting vote 
when they are equally dividisd. He .shall hold the funds of the society, and 
pav and r"ec<;ive money, but he shall make no payment but upon an order 
signed by two commissaries. He shall keep or cause to be kept for the com- 
pany, the necessary registers, namely : 

Ist. A stock-register, for tlie verification of shares and their coupons. 

2d. A record of correspondence. 

3d. A record of deliberations. 

4th. A register of accounts. 

r>lh. A regi.iter wliich shall show the nunilnirs of coupons indivts, and the 
names of the proprietors wlio might wisii to make this known. 

La.stly. Ho shall, conjointly with the commissaries at Paris, pass to the 
credit of the shareholders, all titles of property that may fall due, for all of 
wliich acts the comiiany confers upon him the nece.ssary i)owera. 

Art. K. The coniniiss'iiries at Paris are charged with deliU'ruting and decid- 
ing among themselves upon all the allairs and interost.s of the company, with 
following and regulating all the operations in wliich it may Ih> int-rt'sted ; 
with carrying into ellecl liiu decisions of the general a.s.seml)he.«i of the com- 
pany, and with giving, in tlio name of tliu company, to the director and 
the comniissaries in America, the instruction.s and orders that may Iw 
neces.sarv ; with ilirecling the iniploymeiit of tlio fundi of the society, and 
watcliing th-i recovery of mims due to it; with ordering payments; with 
making pnrchase.s to send to America ; with i'a.s.sing conjointly with the 
director all dedaratioim of i)roperly to the name of the proprietor of shares 
or coiijioiH when they fall due ; with signing the couiton.t of dliares, to deli- 
ver to the sharelioldern, ami with watching tlie opfrmtiuuii of the director and 
commissaries in .America. They shall audit annually the account-s of the 
dire.tor, and lastly, suhmil to the general ansemblie.s all projects they may 
deem tLseful, and lor these Bervicea the company confers upon them all needed 
powers. 



44 



Company qfJVew York. 



Art. 9. The commissaries in Paris shall receive no salary, bat in recogni- 
tion of the care which they may bestow upon the common concerns, there 
shall be given them an attendance fee {droit de presence) for each special or 
general assembly where they may meet on the affairs of the company. This 
lee is fixed at two Jettons of silver, of the weight of 4 to 5 gros. They shall 
be made at the expense of the company, under the direction of the commis- 
saries, who shall decide upon their form and design.! 

Art. 10. The commissaries in Paris, shall meet at least once a month ; their 
deliberations shall be held before the director, and shall be determined by a 
plurality of individual votes. 

Art. 11. All decisions thus made, and signed by three commissaries, or by 
two of them and the director in case he shall have had a deliberative voice, 
shall have as full and entire force as if they had emanated directly from the 
majority of the society, and hence the engagements and decisions which re- 
sult, shall be binding upon the company. 

Art. 12. Nevertheless, the commissaries shall neither make nor authorize 
any loan in the name of the company, without having received a special order 
at a general assembly of the associates. 

Art. 13. The assembly confirms anew the nomination which the share- 
holders made in their deliberations of the 19th and 20t,h of the present June, 
of citizens Guyot, Maillot, Guinot and la Chaume, as commissaries of the 
company at Paris. 

1. These pieces occur in coin cabinets, and have been 

erroiieously called " Castorland half dolhuv." A Jetton 
is a piece of metal struck with a device, and distributed 
to lie kept in commemoration ot some event, or to bo 
used as a counter in games of chance. Tlie one here 
noticed was termed a Jetlon de presetice, or piece " given 
in certain societies or companies to each of the members 
present at a session or meeting." (^Dic de VAcad. 
Francaise.') 

This custom has its analogy in the existing practice of 
certain stock companies in'New York, in which a half 
eagle or a quarter eagle is given to eacli director present 
at eacli meeting held on the business of the company. 
The piece above ligured was doubtless designed to be 
given to emigrants and others as a keepsake, and was not 
a coin, as it wanted the sanction of law, nor a token, as it 
,j, , was not to be redeemed. It was eti.uraved by one of the 

ucirerse. Duvi vier brothers, eminent coin and medal artists of Paris, 

who became a shareholder in this company, and drew 

500 acres of land. This family was celebrated in this 

particular art. Joannes Duvivier, the father, died in 1761. 

The design represents on the obverse the head of C'ybele, 

as indicated by the turreted mural crown. In Classic 

Mythiilogy, this goddess personified the earth as inhabited 

and cultivated, while Tita;a or Tellus, tepresented the earth 

taken in a general sense, Ceres, the fertility of the soil, 

and Vesta, the earth as warmed by uiternal heat. The 

laurel wreath is an emblem of victory, and represents 

Cybele as conquering the wildness of nature and bring- 

irig the earth under the dominion of man. The desien is 

arranged with classic elegance, but shows a palpable 

ignorance of the country. Ceres has just tapped a maple 

tree, .and inserted a faucet for drawing ofl' the sap at will, 

and the grain, fl(jwern and loliage appear strangely 

brought into the sugar season The Latin legend reads 

on the obverse — " Frencli American Colony," and on the Jlcverse. 

reverse it presents a quotation from Virgil, which, with its context, reads as follows : 

''Salve magna parens frugum, Saiurnia tellus, 
Magnavirum: * *  » Geor, ii. 173. 

" Hail Saturnian Land, great Parent of Fruits, great Parent of Heroes!" The apostrophe thus 
addressed to Italy, was intended to apply to Castorland, a country situated in nearly the same 
latitude, and for aught these Parisians knew to the contrary, equally adapted to the vine and 
tbe olive. 

A gros was o0.02 grains, the actual weight of the piece wa.s 206.'25 grains, its fineness about 
nine-tenths, and its intrinsic value 50 cents. Df%alers value it at about $3, and Riddel, in liia 
Monotriaiili of the Silver Dollar, stales that he knows of but a single copy. Its history was 
entirely blank until noticed in Hickcox's American Coinage, where a tine steel engraving ia 
given. The figure here inserted, was engraved from a fresh copy, received trom Mr. V. 
Leray, through the favor of P. S. Stewart, Esq., of Carthage. 





Company ofjYew York. ^ 45 

Title VI.— TAc Commissaries in .America, their Functions and Powers. 

Alt. 1. Two commissaries shall rpgulat^* the affairs of the company in 
America ; this iiumbor shall be increased if there be occasion. 

Art. 2. The said commissaries shall necessarily be chosen from among the 
shareholders : the nomination shall be made in a general assembly of the 
company, by an absolute majority and viva voce. 

Art. 3. The commissaries in America, shall be required within eight days 
after their election, in case of acceptance on tiieir part, to execute a bond of 
40,000 livres, in which shall bo included at least ffii entire shares of the com- 
pany of New York, <<t at most twenty at their original value. These shares 
shall be deposited with citizen Lanibot, notary, who shall give his private 
receipt. The company leaves it to the commissaries at Paris to judge of the 
validity of the securities tendered for these bonds 

Art. 4. The mission of the commissaries in America shall be: to verify 
and mark the exterior boundaries of the whole tract sold to the shareholders 
by the said Constable ; to direct the surveys, divisions and subdivisions of 
the said lands ; to see to the formation of the divided lots mentioned in title 
IX, that their value may be nearly equal ; to put the divided lots herein 
mentioned, in pos.session of their proprietors in the manner to be speciGed, 
and to give value to that portion of the lands remaining in the society ; and 
for this end, 

1st. To cause the erection of all mills, shops, stores and cottages that may 
be needed. 

2d. To cause all cutting and burning of wood, as well as grubbing out and 
culture. 

3d. To purcliase all implements, tools, provisions and animals, necessary 
and of indispensable utility. 

4th. To sell at a moderate p.ofit to new colonists, who may settle upon the 
lands of the society, portions of the tools and provisions which may belong 
to the society. 

5tli, To make all treaties, arrangements, estimates and bargains with sur- 
veyors, artizans, workmen and day laborers which should be employed for 
tlie labor of the lands and woods. 

Gth. Tt> arrange all rents and sales, in the advantageous manner for the 
society, but only upon the lands which overrun the 100,000 acres remaining 
undivided. 

7. To fi.K the conditions and price of leases of farms upon the whole of the 
undivided lands. These leases shall nevertheless in no cases exceed the 
time of the dunition of the society, and shall b»! drawn according to the usages 
of the country, having regard to the progressive increase of the territorial 
revenue. 

8lh. To solicit of the government of New York the opening and mainten- 
ance, at its ex|)ense, of great routes and canals of conimunication. 

I'll). To i»roj«'rt and cause to be niud<-, si»«'cial roads from one district or 
canton to anotli'-r. Th'-ir mission shall also he to receive the price of Kales, 
rent.s and hiring^, and to give receipts, itiid to niak<', on iiccouiit t>f the com- 
pany, all shipments to France of tiie roMiUKxIilies harve.steJ on the lands of 
tilt) company. In Hhort, they shall carry and admini.stiT, with Jteul, econo- 
my and iiitflligunce, all the inU-n^sl.s of the society in America 

Aft. !j. ThfsM commissaries shall be utuler the surveillance of tho.He at 
I'aris, and .xhnll \hi hfl<l to coiiforni to the niundut<-s and instruction^ whi> )i 
Mhull l)t< giv- II thfir. by the comiiiissnrie.«t in I'aris, for the exercitie of the niis- 
»ion conljiled to them by the preceding article. 

Art. G. The company authorizeM the eoUlmi^»^ari»•^^ hi Paria, to confer u\>on 
those in .Aniericii the saitl {Hiwera and all others ^'I'lierhlly, whatever they tnay 
<leem necessary for managing, u.s«fully, the projMriy and utlairs of the coiu- 
l>aiiy In .Anifrica. 

»'lrt. 7. The said commi«."arie« shall n-move clin>ctiy to New York, and 
from thence upon the lanil.t of the company, to rexide there and execute the 
optrations wliicn the cumpAny or the couiuitMaxiva of i'aris may indicate. 



46 , Company of JVew York. 

The expense of their passage to America, and of their removal to the said 
lands, shall be borne by the company to the extent of 1,000 livres tournois. 

Art. 8. The company, besides the advantages hereafter mentioned in title 
IX, will allow to the commissaries in America, an amuial allowance of 8600, 
to indemnify for their expense of travelling to the place, and of building a 
house and an office. 

Art. 9. Independently of this allowance, the company reserves the privilege 
of granting to the commissaries, if satisfied with their labors, a commission 
upon the benefits which they may confer upon it. 

Art. 10. The commissaries in America, shall keep a journal of all their 
operations, and shall transmit annually to the director of the company a 
duplicate copy of this journal. They shall send at least once in three months 
to the director, the state of the labors done during the three mouths preced- 
ing, and they shall maintain a frequent correspondence with him. 

Art. 11. The said commissaries shall employ upon the spot, a clerk to keep 
their writings, and aid in their operations, who shall be allowed a salary half 
as great as tliat of a commissary. 

Art. 12. The functions of the commissaries in America, shall continue 
until their recall and the revocation of their powers by the commissaries in 
Paris, authorized to that efi'ect in a general assembly by a majority of the 
 associates present. 

Art. 13. In case the commissaries in America can not agree in opinion, 
relative to the objects of their administration, they shall then take upon the 
spot an arbitrator to decide between them. He shall be chosen by preference 
among the shareholders who may be found in the country. 

Art. 14. The assembly confirms anew the nomination which was made 
in the session of June 19 the present month — of citizens [Simon] Desjardius 
and [Peter] Pharoux, as commissaries in America, the first as honorary 
only, and the second with the emolument heretofore fixed. 

Title "VII. — Of General and Special Assemblies. 

Art. 1. Annually on the 11th day of January, May and September, or in 
case of a holiday on the morrow, there shall be held a general assembly of 
the associated shareholders, at which the commissaries in Paris shall render 
an account of ail that lias been done since the last assembly, and the news 
which shall have been received from the commissaries in America concerning 
the aflTairs of the company. General assemblies shall also be convened 
whenever the commissaries in Paris may deem necessary. 

Art. 2. General Assemblies shall be held in Paris at the house of the di- 
rector of the company, at the day and hour appointed, and shall be presided 
over by one of the commissaries. 

Alt. 3. There shall be no business done in a general Assembly, unless the 
shareholders present are collectively holders of at least 1000 coupons indivis, 
of entire shares, or of 500 only if they are to the number of ten persons] 
besides the commissaries, and the shares shall be deposited before the 
assembly in the hands of the director, who is to hold the deposit. 

Art. 4. To have admission and a voice in the deliberation of the general 
assembly, one must be the owner or bearer of five coupons indivis of whole 
shares. 

Art. .5. The number of votes in the deliberation shall be in the following 
proportion to the number of shares : Five shares give one vote, and after 
that each ten shares shall give one vote up to 45 only, but all shares found 
in the hands of the same person above 45 shall not be counted, to the end 
that no shareholder shall ever have more than five votes. 

Title VIII. — Of the Survey and Division of the Lands. 
Art. 1. The survey of the exterior of the domain belonging to the share- 
holders, shall be made at the expense and under the care of Constable, who 
has stipulated this. This survey shall be verified if there be occasion by the 
commissaries in America or their agent. 



Company ofJVew York. 47 

jSrt. 2. Tliey shall cause an interior survey of the lands after the plan of 
instructioii.s which may he given them hy the commissaries in Paris. 

Jlrt. 3 A duplicate of the results of the survey, shall be sent to Paris, to 
the director of the company. 

jlrt. 4. The general survey of the land being finished, the subdivisions 
•which may be useful and necessary shall be made. 

The first shall be the laying out of the public roads ; the second, that of 
the 100,000 acres to be divided among the bearers of coupons divis of whole 
shares, and their subdivision into 2,000 lots ; the third that of a city in the 
most convenient part of the land remaining in common, and the arrangement 
of the divided lots in this city ; the fourth and last, shall be the marking out 
of lands to be conceded to American families at a moderate price. The sub- 
divisions shall be made in the above order, unless some great interest of the 
company requires otherwise. The other subdivisions shall be made after- 
wards, after the order shall have been given by the company or its commis- 
saries in Paris. 

Title IX. — Subdivision of the 100,000 acres belonging to the bearers o/" coupons 
divi.s, into 2000 lots, and the arrangements which are designed in the first city 
projected by the society. 

MAKNER OF CDOOSING THE LOTS. 

jlrt. 1. The 100,000 acres designed to be owned separately by the bearers 
of coupons divis of whole shares, shall only be chosen from fthe good and 
medium lands, without including any land of no value, that is to say, which 
is not susceptible of any cultivation. 

Jlrt. 2. The .said 100,000 acres shall be divided into several strips, inter- 
mixed its much as possible with the lands which are to remain in common. 

.^rt. 3. As soon as the several portions of land which are to form the said 
100,000 divided acres be determined, there shall be laid out 2,000 lots of 50 
acres each, and of very equal value, and these lots shall be numbered from 
1 up to 2,(100. 

Jrt. 4. The lots on Black river, lake Ontario or other navigable waters, 
shall not have more nor a tenth nor less than a twentieth of water front, and 
there shall be reserved for the undivided portion one-half of the lands upon 
Black river and lake Ontario. 

.^rt. :'). The bearers of coupons divis .shall have a right to one-half of the 
lands which shall be approj>riated by the society to a city, deduction being 
made for tin- jiarts occupied by streets and jiublic establishments. 

Jlrt. •;. This right shall only be exercised in the location of the first city 
whi(di shall bo marked out by the society, at whatever period this city may 
be determint'il upon. 

Jlrt. 7. Tln' divided shareholderfl shall not have the choice of the portion 
of land whii li .iliall In- reserved in tlie locution of the said city, but shall bu 
bound to aice])t whatever portion may \m a.«signed llieui by tlie .iociety. 

Jlrt. K. Tliis ]iortion of land shall b'e divided into 2,000 sejmrate lots, which 
shall be .scattered through the wliole extent of the iocaliou of the city, and 
adjoining tlie property tiiut i.s to remain with the Hociuty. 

Jlrt. It. To facilitate the division of the lots above mentioned in Articles 3 
and H, among those liaving rii;hts, these lots uhall be de(tii;nated in a .state- 
ment by bounilnries, according to the nature of llie i^round, autl there tihall 
1h) prepared two maps ut the expen.ne ol tlie company. One of the two 
originals, duly HJgned and legalized, Hhall bu Heiit in the uiotith they ure 
finished, to the director of the company, at I'nri.t, to b« depo.sited in itn 
archives, and the dui>lic»tu sliull remain in the hiiudn of thu cowiuiH.sarios of 
the society in .America. 

Jlrt. 10. The liivi.Mion of the lotjt mentioned in Artieleii 3 »nd S, Hhall be 
made a.s follows, according to the pro.njiectux : The choice chall be iiimle in 
the order of the nuni>MTs of thu coupon* divit of llio nharetf, that iii to Mi/, that 
preference of choice shall ]H.-rt&iu tu priority of nuuibvra. 



48 Company qfJYew York. 

Jrt. n. The choice of divided lots will need to he made within three 
mouths after the deposit of the description and plan of division in the arch- 
ives of the society, and the shareholders shall be advertised to this effect, as 
well in the public papers as by letters. Each divided shareholder shall be 
held, within these three months to notify the director of the company of the 
choice he has made, and note upon the description his signature, the niamber 
of his coupon divis, and the precise lot which he has chosen, in default of 
which the choice shall be void. 

^^rt. 12. To facilitate this operation, at the end of the second month, the 
commissaries shall cause to be prej^ared a table of the numbers of the coupons 
divis, of which the bearers have nut made choice of lots, and in the coui'se of 
the third and last month they shall indicate the week in which a determinate 
series of shareholders must make clioice, or in default lose the opportunity 
of selection and be left eventually to the division by lot hereafter mentioned 

.drt. 13. Those who have not made choice before the end of three months, 
or who have not ?iven notice in the manner indicated, shall have no further 
privilege of choice, and the remaining lots shall then be distributed by lot to 
the numbers of the coupons which have not selected lots. 

.drt. 14. The drawing of the remaininq lots shall be done in a general 
assembly of the holders of coupons divis, convened for this purpose, and in 
the manner that shall be arranged by the commissaries in Paris. 

jlrt. 15. The bearers of coupons divis who share in this drawing shall be 
bound to accept the lots drawn, without the power of refusal, and shall note 
their signatures and the number of their coupons into several strips, inter- 
mixed as much as pos.sible with the lands wliich are to remain in common. 

Art. 16. In derogation of Article G, and those following as above given, 
since it is the interest of the society to hasten the poi:)ulation of the tract, to 
this end it is deemed proper to otfer advantages to the shareholders who may 
remove upon the lands to reside and begin improvement. It is agreed that 
every bearer or proprietor of coupons divis, upon removal to the tract, may 
choose from time to tiiiie as tlie survey progresses, without waiting its com- 
pletion and the turn of his number, provided that he shall not have more 
than ten coupons. The privilege of choosing before his turn shall be restricted 
to ten lots, and he shall not have more than 2,000 feet of land along the 
Black river, lake Ontario or other navigable waters. 

Art. 17. The choice by virtue of the privilege implied in article 16 above 
stated, shall be made in the presence of the commissaries in America or their 
agent, for this purpose, and on condition that the shareholder, before making 
choice, shall engage in writing to inhabit or cause to be iniiabited a house 
upon the whole of the lots which he may select, and this in the course of the 
year following his choice, under pain of an indemnity to the company equal 
to the value of one tenth part of the lot chosen. 

Art. 18. The commissaries sent to America, shall have the privilege of 
choice expressed in the 12th (IGth?) article above named, to the same limit 
of ten lots, but shall cause to be inhabited at least two houses upon the lands 
they may have chosen, under pain of the indemnity named in the preceding 
article. 

Art. 19. The choice mentioned in the three preceding articles shall not 
be made, except in accordance with the plan of division of the 2,000 divided 
lots, and a distinction shall be made of the lots chosen upon the map. 

Art. 20. The commissaries in America, .shall keep statements of the selec- 
tions made by virtue of articles 16 and 18 above named, and shall jjasg a 
dujilicate to France to the director of the company. 

Art. 21. Each shareholder who may make choice either in France or Ame- 
rica, and comply with the formalities heretofore prescribed, shall remit or 
cause to be remitted to the commissaries in America or in France, the coupons 
representative of the lots of which he may make choice, and the said com- 
missaries shall pass a declaration of property of the said lots by virtue of 
which declaration he shall enjoy, hold and dispose of all the property in the 
said divided lots. 



Company of Jfevj York. 49 

Art. 22. The same shall he observed by those who have submitted to the 
drawing by lot, and to them shall be passed by the commissaries the same 
declaration of projjcrty to the lots which may fall to them. 

Art. 23. The coupons surrendered shall be canceled and deposited in the 
archives of the company, and notice of this shall be made in the title above 
mentioned. 

Art. 24. The declarations of property shall be passed in the form required 
in the state of New York. 

Title X. — Of the Application of the 160,000 Livres, Derived from the Remission 
made by Cmslable to the Shareholders . 

Art. 1. The company entrusts to the commissaries in Paris, the care and 
disposal of the funds composing the 160,000 livres in shares and credit-paper 
resulting from the remission granted to the society by Constable, and allows 
them to sell as many as the wants of the society might require, of the 100 
shares forming a part of these funds, at the best price tliey cau obtain, pro- 
vided it be not less than 1,200 livres per share. 

Art. 2. The product of the said shares, with the surplus of the said funds 
existing in credit-i)aper, shall be employed by the said commissaries to the 
best advantage tlu-y may be able, as well in the purchase of utensils, provi- 
sions and otlier expenses necessary for the success of the first labors to be 
done upon the estate of the comp my in the purchase of convertible values in 
goods and credit in the funds of the bank of New York, and the wants of the 
commissaries in America shall measure these expenses necessary to the put- 
ting in vaUu; and the survey of the lands of the company. 

Art. 3. Tlie employment and destination above indicated shall be governed 
by circumstances, under the care and orders of the commissaries in Paris. 

Title XI. — Of the End of the Society, and the Division or Disposition of the 
Property and Rights which shall then bclcng to it. 

Art. 1. The duration of the society has been li.ved a.s above stated, at 21 
years from July 1, 1793, although it may be dissolved before, in the manner 
now to be indicated. 

Art. 2. Nine months before the end of the seven or fourteen first years of 
the term (ix<Ml for the life of tlie society, the commissaries in America shall 
.send to the administration in Paris, a report of the propt.Tty and riglits then 
remaining to the society and the nature of the improvements of which it is 
yet suscei'tible, and in short, their estimate from the best of thi-ir knowledge, 
calling to their aid, if necessary, tiie opinion of exjjerts near them. 

Art. 3. In the niontli following the recui{)t of the report mentioned in the 
pjreceding article, liiere shall be convoked a gem-ral assembly of the associated 
sh'ireholders, and they shall deliberatt! upon the dissolution of the society, 
botli at the end of the first seven and of the fourteen years. If the dissolution 
is not decided by a majority of the liulders of two shares, the society sliall 
continue seven years longer, yielding to efloct tliis, tho mode of voting esta- 
blished by article 2 of title VII. 

Art. 4. Six months before the jn-riod wln-n tlio .socii'ty shall eeus<', it sJiall 
deliberate in a general assenibly, ill tho manner iii(licul«Ml in Title Vll, what 
measures shall Im- taken to liquidate and divide tiie property and rigUta which 
sliull then be found to eontpose the subslanco of lli" society. 

Title XII. — On the Form of the Shuns and on the Exttution of the Clau$ts of 

the I'restnt Treaty. 

Art. 1. It is observed that tho jjroseiit act of tlu> wociety, a.s well m tho 
share.s and all otlter in.strumunt.s of tlie society in Krancv, need no further 
care for their execution but llio public fttruiality tif their legalization, which 
will be done by the luini.ster or other public functionary of the United States 
in 1' ranee, in the tcrm.s of article 10 of the .second i)ttrt of the jtrospeclus 
hurutoforu published, and tliu aajioiubly rupt-aLs, an far an ueud bv, tltis arraugu- 



60 Company of JVew York. 

ment, upon the faith of the execution of which the shareholders acquired 
their shares and established their society. 

Art. 2. All the conditions embraced in the present treaty are essential to 
the constitution of the society, and no part of them shall be derogated during 
its existence unless by virtue of a deliberation of the general assembly, and 
by a majority of two-thirds of the coupons indivis, yielding in this to the mode 
of voting mentioned in title VII. 

jlrt. 3. In consequence of the i^resent act, the prospectus under which the 
shareholders purchased their shares, shall henceforth be regarded as a simple 
record, and as such a copy shall be placed in the- archives of the company. 

jlrt. 4. The record ot general and special deliberations of the company, 
and its commissaries, shall be signed by at least two of the commissaries in 
Paris, and by the director of the company in his character as common man- 
ager ; provided, with these three signatures, the said documents shall have 
as much force as if all the deliberators had signed them. 

jlrt. 5. Collated copies or transcripts of the said records, and of the titles 
relative to the said property of the shareholders in America, shall be made 
out by at least two commissaries in Paris, and by the director as a further 
guaranty. The seal of the society .shall also be affixed. 

Art. (i. There shall consequently be engraved a special seal for the Com- 
pany of New York, and the design of the seal shall be determined by the 
commissaries in Paris. 

Art. 7. All the titles of the property of the company which are not already 
registered in New York, shall be registered there under the direction of the 
commissaries in America, and if need be, in the name of Peter Chassanis. 

Art. 8. The present treaty shall be signed in quadruple ; one shall remain 
in the archives of the society, another shall be placed in charge of Citizen 
Lambot, Notary, another shall be given to the commissaries who are to go to 
America, to be registered and deposited in New York with a public officer, 
and the last shall remain in the hands of the commissaries in America. 

Done and executed at Paris, at the dwelling of Peter Chassanis above said, the 
■year 1793, the said 2Sth day of June, i 

Desjardines and Pharoux, appointed by article 14, title 
VI, of the preceding instrument, lost no time in executing 
their mission, and leaving France July 7, 1793, arrived in 
just two months at New York, with the design of proceed- 
ing upon the tract to explore its boundaries, and take pos- 
session in the name of the company. At Albany, they met 
one of their countrymen, a political exile, who, although 
but twenty-four years of age, had already become known 
by his ingenious mechanical constructions, and who has 
since justly claimed to rank with Franklin, Brindley, Hers- 
chell, and Watt, by the brilliancy of his inventive genius, 
and his magnificent monuments of constructive art. This 
person was Marc Isambart Brunei, since celebrated as the 
founder of the machine shops of the Royal Navy yard at 
Portsmouth, the builder of magnificent rail road structures 
in England, and the engineer of the Thames tunnel. His 
son, the late 1. K. Brunei, was one of the principal origina- 
tors of the " Great Eastern" steamship recently built in 
England. 

1 Printed by Fkoulle, Quai des Augustins No. 39. Cap. quarto, 32 pages. 



Compamj of JVew York. 51 

Brunei was prepared for an}- adventure, and accepted 
with eagerness the offer made him by the commissaries, not 
only of receiving him into their company, but of appointing 
him their captain on this remote and ditHcult service. Pha- 
roux was an eminent architect of Paris, and an accom- 
plished engineer, and Desjardines, from what little we learn 
of his history, was an enterprising but visionary adventurer. 
We may infer that a cordial fellow-feeling arose between 
these strangers in a foreign land. They were entirely igno- 
rant of the tract, except that it lay somewhere between the 
Black river and 44° N. lat., but Brunei, who was a proficient 
in the use of instruments, was just the man to follow a line 
of latitude in the woods. 

The three Frenchmen hired four natives of the countr}', 
making a party of seven men. They supplied themselves 
with every anticipated want for the journey, including two 
tents, arms, ammunition, and surveying instruments, with 
such provisions as might be easily carried, depending upon 
the forests and the streams for the more delicate and sub- 
stantial viands. They spent two months in the autumn of 
1793 upon this service, and Brunei in after life, often recur- 
red to the incidents of this journey as affording the happi- 
est reminiscenses of his life, ^lany years after, he was 
relating the adventure to Louis Phillippe while king of the 
French, and described minutely the precautions which they 
had observed in fortifying their camp at night, and employ- 
ing an Indian escort to attend them. The king pleasantly 
remarked that they had traveled in the style of princes. He had 
himself been a pilgrim in the American forests with his two 
brothers, like him, exiles from France, but unlike these 
French explorers, destitute of those little aids to comfort 
which had made the journey so agreeable.^ This liegan 
Brunei's life as an engineer, lie appears to liave been 
favorably impressed with the country, as he became a sliare- 
holder, and drew 500 acres of hind in lower Castorhind. 

Early in 1794, Dcsjiirdinos iind Pharoux jietitioncMl for 
an act to allow Chassanis to hoM lands in New yt)rk. They 
stated that from the political relations then existing, he was 
unable tu change liin residence, that he was well ull'ected to 

1 Memoir of Hruii.'l, by I'MouHrd KnTi', p-ik! July .'), lH.10, hfforo tlio acaile- 
iiiy (ff Uouoii, iiiiil pulilisliid ill tliu I'lecii .iitaliivjut dt$ Travaux dt l\icitdt- 
init de» Srintces, BtUti- Ltllrti tt ^Ird de liouen, lS4y-5U, p. (57, Chambtri' 
Edinburi;h Journal, XV, 3H. 

ThH route of tlmso t'X|)lon>r!i probably Wt\ from the Muhinvk aorosji to 
Moose riv>T, mill iluwu tliiit slrt'»iii to tip' llii^li fulU. Many years .siuco, a 
.silver «|)()i>ii mark'il M. I. 11,, was found above L^ouitdulu, wUiuli, Joubtloss, 
oucu bt'loiigud to Hrunel. 



52 Company of JS^ew York. 

the freedom and j^overnment of the country, and with his 
associates was desirous of promoting its welfare. They 
also asked for themselves the same benefit, and stated that 
they had determined upon permanent residence as the agents 
of Chassanis. The petitioners were by an act of March 27, 
1794, allowed the privilege asked, but not their principal. 

Pharoux was soon after employed to survey a canal route 
from the Hudson to lake Champlain, with Brunei, and in 
the course of the summer of 1794, began the survey of Cas- 
torland. 

The extraordinary deviation of the river from its sup- 
posed course occasioned much complaint, especially since 
the river cut up their lands into several detached parcels, 
so that they could only pass from one to another by tres- 
passing upon their neighbors. Desjardines and Pharoux, 
in a letter of June 7, 1795, to Constable, insisted that the 
lines should be run with reference to the true, and not the 
magnetic meridan, and that, any deficiency should be made 
up from the south side of the river. They also urged the 
speedy execution of release of dower of Mrs. Constable, and 
the completion of surveys which he was to have made, con- 
cluding with the assurance that the equity of their case 
could not fail to arrest his attention, and that their quality 
as strangers, would give them farther claims to exact just- 
ice from an upright man. Mr. Constable replied that he 
would do every thing consistent with the rights of others, 
and cheerfully yield in whatever affected himself only. He 
could not alter the course of the river, any more than he 
could prevent the British from stopping his surve3^ors. 
Pharoux was drowned soon after with seven of his com- 
panions, in attempting to cross the Black river near the 
Long falls in 1795, and his body was found on an island in 
Black River bay.^ Many years after, Le Ray caused a mar- 
ble tablet to be prepared to be set into the rock, bearing 
this inscription : 

" TO THE MEMORY OF 

PETER PHAROUX. 

THIS ISLAND IS CONSECRATED." 

The first survey as finished by Charles C. Brodhead and 
assistants in this and subsequent 3"ears, was made with re- 
ference to two cardinal lines at r\<i\\t anc-les to each other, 
from which the lots were reckoned in numbers and ranges. 

The line from the High falls, running north to great tract 
No. IV. was assumed as the principal cardinal, and an east 

1 See History of Jefferson Co., p. 50, for details of this accident. 



Company qfJVew York. 53 

and west line, crossing this nine miles from the falls was 
fixed as a second ciirdinal. The ranges extended to 19 east, 
51 west, 27 north and about 9 south. Except on the margin, 
the lots measured 450 acres each, and were subdivided into 
nine lots of 50 acres each, which were numbered from 1 to 
4,828. Lower Castorland, or Beaveriand, west of the Great 
bend, measured 964 lots of 40,522. 1 acres and upper Castor- 
land, 3864 lots of 182,895 acres, making a fraction over 
223,417 acres. No part of the tract crossed Black river, 
although the principal cardinal crossed the river several 
times. The isolated tracts thus left, were numbered from 
the south northward, and of these No. 4 was much larger 
than all the rest together, including the large triangular 
area in the northeast part of this county and the adjacent 
part of Jellerson. 

In this survey the principal streams were named, but 
most of these have since been changed. The following are 
the principal ones that can be identified : 

Old names. Present names. 

Deer Creek. Crystal Creek. 

Siren Creek. Blake Creek. 

Swan Creek. Indian River. 

Pelican Creek. Swiss Creek. 

French Biver. Oswegatchee River. 

Linnet Creek. Blake Creek. 

The name of Lidependence creek, Beaver river and 
Murmer creek are still retained. 

The first settlers found their way upon the tract in June, 
1794, cutting their way as they came from foi't Stanwix ; 
it is generally believed that they mistook the High fulls, 
for the Long Jails, and they settled at the former, upon a 
tract scarcely wide enough for a garden, and remote from 
the great body of their lands. The death of Pharonx 
cliecked the growth of the colony, and its history during 
the first three years is nearly bhmk. Desjardines acted a 
short time as agent. 

On the 11th of April, 1797, Chassrinis appointed Ki)th)lpho 
Tiller, " member ol' the Soovercign Council of Bern,'" hi3 
agent, with power to superintend surveys and improvements, 
form useful establisinnents, give titles in tracts of 100 or at 
most 200 ac-ius to settlers and artisans, receive moneys, and 
solicit of the state the opening of roads and canuls, and of 

1 This coiimil coiisistcil of not less than 200, nor moro than 299 nu'inK-rs. 
It had j)owir tii iiuikti war, jivaco nnd uUiimo's, rniaw luoucju aud pruvido for 
expeudjture.s. It uppuiiitud the Letmur Council. 



54 Company qfJYew York. 

the general government, the same privileges to French 
citizens as were enjoyed by Americans. This privilege 
of selling lands was limited to 10,000 acres. 

The managers in Paris prescribed minutely from their 
maps, the divisions that were to be made, and the roads 
that were to be opened, having no reference to the surface, 
or the local difficulties that might be encountered. Mr. V. 
Le Ray, in writing to the author from Paris, Nov. 16, 1859, 
says : 

" I would hardly dare state such a fact, if a sample of 
this folly was not known in the country, where the traces 
of a road once opened, but of course never traveled, were 
visible a few years ago in the south part of the tract, which 
among other obstacles, was to cross an almost impassable 
precipice ; but orders were imperative, and the road was 
made on both sides, leaving them to be connected when the 
thing became feasible." The road here noticed was known 
as the " Old French Road " from the High falls to Beaver 
river and thence westward to the St. Lawrence. 

Tiller appears to have been in America in the service of 
the company the year previous, and was allowed ^600^ per 
annum from July 1, 1796, with the privilege of spending 
four months in the winter in N. Y. on his own business. 
He was to have his expenses paid, the use of four or five 
acres for a garden, two horses, two cows, and commissions 
on specific objects. The whole tract was reconveyed to 
Chasaanis by Constable, Feb. 15, 1797, from more accurate 
surveys. This deed recited the former misunderstandings, 
by which among other things, Chassanis had no use of the 
waters of Black river to the centre of the channel, and 
stipulated that if upon subdivision it should be found to 
overrun, the surplus should be conveyed back. 
Pi In Feb., 1797, Tillier, in behalf of Chassanis, petitioned 
the legislature for a law giving confidence to their title, 
stating that the company had expended large sums in sur- 
veys, roads, and other improvements, and were willing to 
do much more, but that they experienced embarrassment in 
the doubts that were entertained of the validity of their 
title, by reason of the general law of alienism. He expressed 
his confidence in the privileges of French citizens as assured 
by the treaty of 1778, and hoped the legislature would 
remove the doubts which had arisen in such a manner as 

1 Increased May 10, to $800 and two rations of food from July 1, 1797. A 
few days after his appointment, the company resolved that he should devote 
himself entirely to their business, and be allowed 20 p. c. of net proceeds of 
stores, potasheries and saw mills. 



Company qfJYew York. 55 

in their wisdom might be determined. As a motive, he 
intimated that the legislature " might find in the act, grati- 
fication to its benevolence, by doing good to many untbrtu- 
tunate persons, who, in embarking in this enterprise, had 
expected to find some relief to great misfortunes." He 
further asked some provision for authenticating instruments 
executed in Paris, to the end that they might be recorded 
in this state, as had been done with Great Britain. The 
committee reported that the question of alienism belonged 
to the federal government, and that the other request was 
too important to be settled at that late period of the ses- 
sion. 

Jacob Oboussier was appointed with a salary of $40 per 
month, to take charge of the store which was opened near 
the High falls in the little village built by the French on 
the flat east of the river, in front of Judge Seger's present 
residence. The road opened from fort Stanwix, terminated 
on the west side below the falls, and the river was crossed 
in small boats. A large stock of farming implements, tools, 
and goods, was brought on, and about twenty French fami- 
lies, several of them possessing considerable w^ealth, libe- 
rally educated, and accustomed to Parisian society, began 
the life of frontier woodsmen among the hemlock forests 
east of Black river. The imagination must delineate the 
probable results that would have followed the settlement of 
great numbers of these -people upon the fertile limestone 
and slate lands west of the river, and the diii'erences that 
would have now appeared in the social aspect of our coun- 
try, had the first emigrants been followed by crowds of 
their countrymen, after the usual custom of New England 
emigration. 

Settled as they were, nine miles away from a part of their 
tract, wide enough for a single farm, history has only to 
record the speedy and utter failure of their schfuie of colo- 
nization. Tillier is runieinljcred as a man somewhat ail- 
vanced in years, fond of display, vain, visionary, and as the 
sequel indicated, unworthy of confidence, if not a down- 
right villi;in. No sooner was ho away from ininudiate 
direction of the com[)any in Paris, than their diri'ctor began 
to meet dilficnlties, and it is not entirely certain that the 
latter wu.h blameless. In November, 17!*8, Chassanis wrote 
to Gouverncur Morris, who liad iteen minister from tlio 
United States, and with wiiom lie was well ac(iuainteil, 
asking him to accept the supervision of the company's 
affairs in America. There were certain items in 'i'illier's 
accounts of which ho could not see the aim and object, and 



56 Company of JYew York. 

the returns were so mixed up and confused, that he could 
not make out their meaning. 

Mr. Morris replied that he would prefer not to undertake 
it, as it was difficult to find a proper man for taking Til- 
lier's place, and the latter had, perhaps, left an impression 
unfavorable to Chassanis, in his first conversation with 
Morris, in which he complained that his drafts had been 
dishonored, and means of eflicient service withheld, adding, 
that " if this want of success should reach the ears of his 
enemies they would persecute him." In August, 1799, 
]\Iorris, however, submitted to the company a plan, in which 
a person was to be appointed to take charge of the store, 
upon inventory, keep it supplied with goods needed by the 
colonists at moderate prices, and each year improve a farm 
of 40 acres in the environs of Castorville, on the undivided 
lands. A tract which had been sold to a Swiss company, 
was to be put in their possession, and efforts were to be 
made to get actual settlers upon the lands. 

In September, 1799, jNIorris appointed Richard Coxe for 
four years, at $4,000, who immediately came on to make 
inquiries, and arrange for more active operations next year. 
To give Tillier no pretext for further charges, the company 
on the 26th of Feb., 1800, resolved that no expense should 
be ordered, or new establishment begun by their agency in 
America. On the 7th of April, they formally declared their 
rights and powers fully vested in Chassanis, the share- 
holders being regarded as dormant partners. They appro- 
priated 9,750 acres to to pay expenses, upon sale at not less 
than $3 per acre, vesting in G-. Morris, powers of attorney 
for selling these lands, and resolved to continue the company 
seven years longer. 

Although stripped of his agency, Tillier was not deprived 
of the power of mischief, and in an advertisement dated 
Jan. 8, 1800, and inserted in the Albany papers, he cau- 
tioned the public "not to trust to the invidious reports of 
Gouverneur Morris or Pierre Joulin, or their substitutes 
Richard Coxe, Jacob Brown, Patrick Blake, or any other 
acting under- their authority, derogatory to the powers, 
rights, and title of the subscriber as agent for the Company 
of New York, in Paris, and James Le Ray, as no sales, acts 
or deeds of the said persons, or any others claiming author- 
ity under them, in regard to the lands of the said company 
in the state of New York, or for James Le Ray, as it re- 
gards the lands known by description [as] No. 4, in Ma- 
comb's purchase can be valid, being held as a lien and 
security for the act and demand of the subscriber as their 



Company ofJYew York. 57 

agent, and will he so held until a decision is made of the 
suit in chancery, now depending and instituted at^ainst the 
subscribers bj Gouverneur Morris, the assuming agent of 
Pierre Chassanis, and Pierre Joulin, the assuming agent of 
James Le Ray."-^ 

Mr. Cox took forcible possession of the store at the falls, 
the saw mill at Castorville, on the Beaver river, and the 
property generally, in June, 1800, and on the 12th of that 
month iforris wrote, advising the erection of another saw 
mill, and a grist mill, upon a free lease of 20 or 30 years, to 
some one who might engage to build them. He noticed 
the flourishing settlement west of the river, and attributed 
the diflcrence to the mal-administration of Castorland, upon 
Avhich immense sums had been squandered or embezzled. 
He advised a road from the High falls direct to Ford's set- 
tlement at the mouth of the Oswegatchie. 

In October, ISOO, Tillier published French and English 
edi ions of a memorial justifying his administration of Cas- 
torland. He stated that upon his arrival in the United 
States, he had undertaken, with the counsels of Alexander 
Hamilton, to perfect the titles and procure tlieir record, 
and that errors in the first deed from Constal)lo had len- 
dered that instrument invalid, and required another based 
upon a new survey. He then proceeds with his narrative 
as follows:" 

" R. Tillier afterwards directed all his attention tothe buildings, 
only rough licwed upon tlie lands ofCiistoihiud, not finding uny of 
tlioso which hud been announced to him; no ground being cleared ; 
no cultivation established in the ideal town of Castor; no practi- 
cable road; no established coniniunication; only one or two bar- 
racks honored witli the iianic of iiouses; a yard sowed rather than 
a garden; in a wend, nothing which evinced the fornier seltienient 
of the pretended establishments, still less the expense which 
had been made thereon. AVhat alllicted him most at first was, 
the repugnance strongly imprtssetl on the Americans of the 
neighboring places, to establish themselves upon the lands of 
the company, where they perceived nothing enticing. 

^ Joiiliii had tjeeii tlio curA of Cliuumout, and rufuMJiig tu take the consti- 
tutioiiul oiitli, wftH sent oil" hy L<! lt:iy to hhvo liis lift*. Accustoiiiod to the 
reniifiiifiits of luiiopf, lie wu-s littlo prt'iiarud to i-nduru the privutioiis of a 
pioin'<T lifi', and in tlio loix^ly Holiliuhs of thf Uluik river jiiiicd for ttio 
comforts of whirli through his whole life he had never iK'fore known liio 
want. In conversinj; witli Jacob Hro«n, whom he met when iihoul to com- 
mence lii.H improvi'Miunt at lirownville, he siinl : " Ah ! the French revolu- 
tion name too .soon or too lato for inc !" Hud it comu Hooner he might have 
catt his energies into the Hlnii,'i<le, and shared tiie fortunes of the civil war: 
if later, 111} would not hiive witne.s.>,ed its horrors, and felt its disasters. 

- Taken from thu Kuglitth uditiou priutcd at Komu, N. Y., >>y Thomas 
Walker. 

B 



58 Company qfJYew York. 

" E. TilHer strngo'led some time ap^ainst these obstacles, but 
by conciliatory conduct and fair dealing (liis situation not per- 
mitting- any liberality, in such cases so necessary), he was able 
to procure some workmen, who all seemed desirous to purchase 
some lands, which he sold them in small portions, in hopes of 
very soon selling a greater quantity, and to unite a certain 
number of cultivators which would give a permanent footing 
to the new colony. This was the object of his ambition. He 
felt the consequence of a progressive increase to the holders of 
shares in the Company of New York. II. Tillier was unani- 
mously elected and named a justice of the peace for the county 
of Oneida, which mark of confidence and esteem from the inha- 
bitants, fortified his hopes of reaping the fruits of all his cares, 
and justifying the trust which the company had given him;^ 
he rendered an exact statement of all that related to his ma- 
nagement; his correspondence, journals and accounts, prove his 
constant attention to conform himself to the act of the constitu- 
tion. These different papers show his exertions, and how he 
was employed, and tlje manner in which the sums have been 
expended under his administration; and it can not be doubted 
that the company were sensible of his zeal and care, as he then 
received, as well as at diff"erent other times, acknowledgements 
of their satisfaction. 

" Tlie affairs were in this condition, vi^hen the company sent 
new French settlers to establish themselves upon the lands of 
Castorland. Their presence only occasioned considerable ex- 
penses without being of any utility, and they occasioned a great 
expense upon the land, consuming the provisions, introducing 
the spirit of discord and discontent, and finally they went away, 
threatening to make their complaints known in France, and to 
impeach those who had deceived them at Paris, by sending 
them into a desert. Much mildness and moderation were neces- 
sary to disperse them, but on going from Castorland they made 
bitter complaint against the place and persons, by which means 
they left traces verj' disadvantageous to Castorland and those 
interested in the said company. That these circumstances took 
place at a time when war appeared inevitable between France 
and the United States, and the greatest prejudices existing 
against the French, have also tended to destroy tliese rising 
settlements, and to injure the concerns of the company very 
much. 

"At the same time Mr. Blake arrived, calling himself the son- 
in-law of Mr. Lambot, one of the company, and particularly 
charged with his interests. Coming into the United States 
"without any resource, R. Tillier received him with kindness, 
and in such an hospitable manner that any other person would 

1 This " extraordinary trust," was conferred upon him bv the council of 
appointment, April 12, 1798. It is impossible to tell what office he might 
not have been promoted to, had he been appointed or elected ! 



Company of JYew York. 59 

have thought he merited some acknowledgment. Mr. Blake on 
the contrary, became his cainiiiniator, as well in tlie United 
States as in Europe, but it appears the company were not de- 
ceived by his calumnies; they did justice to Tillier, and they 
wrote to him through their director Chassania, that they were 
well satisfied with his services. 

" In the mean time one Pierre Joulin, also arrived at New 
York, appearing to be secretly charged with the interests of the 
company; it is at least presumable, and what we are authorized 
to believe from the mystery which has enveloped his conduct. 
This man did all he could to conceal it without showing his 
powers. He insinuated to Tillier that lie desired to see his 
accounts, who answered him with a frankness that character- 
izes him, that he had sent to Paris a faithful copy of all his 
accounts; that those of his current expenses were at Castorland, 
kept by a secretary who made his resitience there, according to 
the intention expressed in the act of the constitution; that he 
was besides ready to render them all, having no reason to delay 
a settlement. 

" R. Tillier saw that Mr. Joulin did not treat him with the 
same g0(jd faith and candor that he used towards the said Jou- 
lin. He obtained information indirectly, that he was bound by 
close and secret ties with Mr. Blake, and he was convinced of 
it by some letters which were sent him from Castorland. Finally 
he no longer doubted their employing deceit to divert him of his 
administration in tlie capacity of agent to the company, without 
his, however, receiving any direct or indirect advice either from 
that company or M. Chassanis, his agent or director at Paris. 

" The indignation of an honest man in such a case must bo 
great, and Tillier can not refrain from expressing his feelings. 
It is without doubt right to dispossess an agent when he is not 
faithful, but brfure such a step is taken, some proof should be 
obtained of his bad conduct, and they ought to take suitable 
measures that he is reimbursed all the expenses he has been at 
for the concern, and that he should be discharged from all the 
engagements which he has made by virtue of his powers to- 
wards tli(! dilferent p»>rs(jns employed, for supplies, wages and 
Work. To act as they have done toward an hotieat citizen, who 
is invested with a pulilii- fiiin-tioii, who has held in iiis country 
a |)lace at the Council of Heme, is being deficient of all respect 
and good manners. liut finally, if they admit that he is irre- 
proachable in his conduct; that In- has managed the aflairs of 
tlu! company ably and with honor, and thai there is nothing but 
caluumy aga'nsl him, they must then admit that he has been 
treated with gre;it injustice without rtui.son. Their conduct 
must nevertheless !i|ip('ar very contemptible to a reflecting aiul 
discerning nation, whose contidenct; it was the interest of tiie 
company to have cultivated. 

" I'^inally tht' plot of which these gentlemen were the agents 
is unveiled. Guuverneur Morris, late uuibussadur of the United 



60 Convpany of JVew York. 

States in France, has appeared to be the only bearer of the 
powers of tlie Company of New York, or rather of P. Chassanis. 
He lias filed in the name of Chassanis, a bill against Tillier, in 
the court of chancery of this state, and claims as his property 
the 22(X500 acres of land, when by the constitution of the com- 
pany, he lias conveyed them in the most formal manner to the 
holders of shares. He moreover pretends to annul all the choice 
made of divided lots, all the sales to divers settlers by R. 
Tillier who has acted only in conformity to, and in virtue of 
sufficient powers, and agreeable to the instructions given him; 
and this suit having been very generally promulgated, it has 
resulted therefrom, there are doubts as well as the validity of 
the original bill as the partial sales of the powers and rights 
of Chassanis and of the old and new agents. 

" These scandalous reports have given rise to every kind of 
mistrust and suspicion on the minds of the Americans, — dis- 
gusted the new settlers, and occasioned the land of the company 
to be absolutely deserted. Thus the imprudence of Director 
Chassanis, has produced tlie unfortunate effect of ruining the 
holders of shares who are the true proprietors, — of depreciating 
the land and the titles, — has caused the new settlements to be 
abandoned which will of course go to ruin, and all the expenses 
to this time will be useless and lost. It is difficult to conceive 
how the Company of New York has been induced to adopt such 
a conduct, so contrary to its interests. If from all these mea- 
sures, there was only one that had any appearance of utility, 
it might perhaps be some palliation for the others ; but they 
are all equally contraiy and destructive to the prosperity and 
success of the undertaking, 

"The object of R. Tillier in addressing the present observa- 
tions to the holders of shares, is, 1st to justify himself in their 
opinions and prove that his administration has been faithful and 
free from reproach. 2d, to exhibit all the operations of the 
company, or of the director Chassanis, and to call their attention 
to the damages which threaten them, if after having done what 
he tliinks his duty concerning it, the holders of shares remain 
indolent and careless of their interests, they are perfectly their 
own masters, but at least they will recollect, when their eyes 
are opened, the advice which R. Tillier gave them, and they 
can only blame themselves for the losses they may experience, 

" The best method, and it may be said the only one to be 
convinced whether Tillier's administration has been good and 
able, is to examine what he has done, and the means he had for 
doing it. When he came to take possession of the lands of 
Castorland, every thing was to be done; the land itself was 
not ascertained, and there was a deficiency of title to assure 
the property. When one considers a man in such a situation, 
in a strange country, at a great distance from any inhabited 
place, with \e\-y small funds, to pat in order an immense tract 
of land, the difficulty of success must be evident. But it is very 



Company of JVew York. 61 

hard to give an adequate idea to a person who has not been a 
witness to a similar uudertalviiig', of the magnitude and full force 
of the obstacles to be surmounted, and which R. Tillier had to 
encounter with. If the holders of shares will carefully examine 
his correspondence, his journal and accounts, they will therein 
see the use he has made of his time and of his means. If the 
interest of Chassanis has induced him to conceal that knowledge 
from the holders of shares, it is the interest of Tillier that these 
papers should be made public, as they afford unequivocal 
proof of his zeal, trouble and attention. Tliey will there see 
the pains he took to ascertain the lands, his steps to secure a 
valid title, his activity in causing an exact survey to be made, 
and to obtain a topographical map, the}' will there see what he 
has done, what he lias attempted, the lands which he has settled, 
the roads which he has opened, the journeys he has made, the 
arrangements which he lias entered into with ditfcrcnt families 
to establish themselves upon his lands, and by these means to 
give them a value. They will finally see the prospect of suc- 
cess which he might naturally flatter himself with, and which 
would undoubtedly in time have succeeded, if he had not been 
obstructed in his proceedings by the wrong measures of the 
director. 

" Let them once again ascertain the truth of these facts, and 
have recourse to the testimony of the neighbors, consider the 
times and moans, examine with attention his correspondence 
and journal which shew what he has done, and they will be con- 
vinced that his administration has been able, good and regular, 
lie does not pretend to say, that no other person would have 
acted as well, perhaps even his administration may not be 
totally free from faults; for mistakes are almost inevitable in 
in every undertaking which requires so many details, in which 
the objects are not specilically traced, nor the plans fixed, but 
wIkm-c, on the contrary, he had in fact, to determine on the lirst 
principles of this extensive concern, he can with the utmost 
truth declare, that no person could have exerted himstdf with 
more; pains and a|)plieation than In; tlid, and \\v thinks that it 
would iKjt have been found that he was deficient in the neces- 
sary experience and knowledge to insure the succe.ss of the 
undertaking, if Ik; had been permitted to wait the event of his 
designs. 

" Ills plans were w(.'ll formed and conceived, and he wanted no- 
thing to aecoMiplish them but to lie aideil l>y the in.'cessary funds 
which always came to hand too late, and indeed were uiuler- 
sutlieient ut any time. Ho was ulso injured in his plans by the 
measures of tht; liirector of the company at I'aris, who far from 
executing what was iKM-essary for such an establishment, took 
such steps as wen- atlverse to its success, and who has uniformly 
l)y his actions opposed the views and measures of the agent ut 
New Yolk. The main object of the undertaking was, to givi* 
a value to the lands of CaslurlumI, for which purpose ihey 



62 Company of JYew York. 

should have cultivated the confidence of the natives of the 
country, in order to entice them to settle upon places; they 
should have seen on the part of the company a regular and 
uniform plan of improving the lands, and to secure the benefit 
the property of those who were inclined to become purchasers; 
but instead of that how have the Company of New York acted? 
Mr, Pharoux the first agent sent, was a well informed and 
honest man, and he gained the esteem of the Americans, but he 
was ignorant of their language and therefore he could with 
difficulty treat with them. He lost his life by an excess of zeal 
and temerity. Mr. Desjardines succeeded him, but he was 
also ignorant of the English language, which being joined with 
a haughty character, drove the inhabitants from him, although 
he expended much of the company's money he did nothing useful 
for it. He was replaced by Rodolphe Tillier, who thinks he 
understood well the object of the undertaking, and that he 
made effort to accomplish it. His being chosen a justice of the 
peace, is a suflBcient proof that he had gained the confidence of 
the inhabitants. 

" Some time after, several Frenchmen came to settle upon 
the lands, in pursuance to an agreement made with the com- 
pany at Pans. They had scarcely arrived when disgust, mis- 
understanding and liatred took place, tranquility was destroyed 
and they left the land abusing it. Soon after Mr. Blake, a new 
envoy appeared, whose powers are mysteriously concealed ex- 
cept when he can promote discord and utter calumnies. After 
him Pierre Joulin, an ancient priest came, who imitated the 
example of his predecessor and loaded Tiller with injustice and 
defamation. At length Mr. Governeur Morris, the late American 
Ambassador to France arrived, who charged with the powers 
of Pierre Chassanis, revokes Tillier the only agent who had 
displayed activity and the only one whose zeal and experience 
had extricated the establishment from confusion and disorder. 
And to aggravate all these changes and iraprudencies, a suit is 
commenced against Tiller, who offered, and still offers, to render 
his accounts, and submit them to arbitrators. Much noise and 
clamor is raised and it is rendered more scandalous as it ap- 
pears to be designed to annul the titles given by Tiller to the 
purchasers of lands, although he granted them in virtue of 
acknowledged and approved powers; they would thus destroy 
those acts which are legal, and dispossess and ruin the pro- 
prietors. 

"This true statement, which faithfully points out the actual 
state of things, is sufficient to excite, and accounts for the 
astonishment with which the Americans view the capricious, 
irresolute and ridiculous administration of the Company of New 
York, which is increased when they compare it with the wise, 
enlightened and uniform administration of the Dutch Company 
in the vicinity of Castorland, and to the large concern under 
Captain Williamson's charge, not far from theuce, of which last 



Company qfJYew York. 63 

an able writer (Mr. La Eochefoncaiilt-Liancourt) gives so flat- 
tering an accouut, in his travels tlirough America. Let the 
holders of shares coolly reflect on the consequences resulting 
from this multitude of imprudent actions, and they will form 
some conception of the great injury which they have sustained 
in the minds of the inhabitants of America by such an incon- 
siderate series of imprudent, false, impolitic and inconsistent 
measures. Let them change their plans — let them adopt uniform 
ones and pursue them — let them trust their interests to honest 
and well informed men, attached by ties of confidence and 
esteem — let them give to their agent in America very extensive 
powers. It is in vain to imagine a great design and a large 
establishment can be governed at a distance without it. The per- 
son actually on the spot can only attain just ideas on the subject. 
In the execution, his experience will enable him immediately to 
rectify any mistake that may happen. Let them renounce the 
idea of selling lands in France, because the execution of such 
contracts is always attended with some diflSculties as to the 
places and portions of land to be given, which inconvenience 
can not take place when the purchaser sees before he purchases 
the proposed property. Let them renounce the idea of selling 
their lands half divided and half undivided, because a confusion 
results from it which endangers all the operations of the pur- 
chasers, and that plan so fine in speculation, is in fact very bad 
in execution. Let them alwaj's provide funds beforehand, that 
the managing commissary may be able without delay to accom- 
plish his plans, and that he may with confidence undertake them 
under the certainty of having it in his power to discharge in 
time, the engagements which he may enter into. Let them 
ab.stain from niuking any agreement in France, and from engag- 
ing people either from France or Switzerland, as they have 
dime, for the lands of Castorland can never be cultivated but 
by the natives of the country. These will not even settle on 
tli(! land, without they have an easy access to an agreeable 
abode, and until they are convinced of the authenticity of their 
titles to Kfcure them in their pos.session8. 

"In adopting such maxims, the lioldors of shares may reason- 
ably hope to reap a profit, and that time will give value and 
credit to tluj lands of Castorland, and that they may st-e the 
settlement flourish and increase to tiiat degree to which the 
position of th<; land justly entitles them to expect. Without 
such measures, it may be, that the design of the liolders of lands 
will totally fail, and ruin b(r inevitable. They also run another 
danger, which li. Tillier thinks he ought to warn them of; they 
arc exposed to lose their property — perhaps it is already out of 
their liand.M. 1*. ('has.sanis has given hi.s new powers — not as 
director and agent of the company, but in his own name. Mr. 
(J. Morris, who is the bearer of it, has instituted the suit against 
Tillier, for the purpose of proving I'ierre Cliassanis to bo 
acknowledged as individual proprietor of the 220,500 acres of 



64 Company qfJYew Fo?7c. 

land, whilst by the constitution of the company, he has trans- 
ferred them in the most formal manner to the bearers of shares. 
Does not this manner of acting announce on the part of Pierre 
Chassanis a desire to dispose of that propertj- as belonging to 
himself, to the prejudice of the holders of shares? Ti;ey will 
be ready to believe it, when they learn that Chassanis has 
already disposed of 130,000 acres of these same lands in favor 
of J. Le Ray, either on a deed of sale, bond or mortgage. These 
acts have, by chance, passed under the eyes of R. Tillier, to 
whom they had not an intention of showing them. One of these 
contracts of alienation is for' 90,000, the second of 22,000, and 
the third of 18,000 acres. Let them add 80,000 acres which had 
been mortgaged to Carrare & Co., of Lausanne, for what they 
have lent to the company. It appears, then, that at this moment 
there are 210,000 shares sold or engaged. These are positive 
facts which perhaps, may give reason to believe that it is at 
length time to look into, and take their concerns into their own 
hands, and watch to their own interests, and let them get pos- 
session again of their property, if it is not yet too late to do it; 
for it is clear, that if P. Chassanis appears to be the only pro- 
prietor of all the lands of Castoriand, he will have the right of 
selling them, and that if these sales are once completed in a 
legal manner, it will be in vain for the holders of the shares to 
reclaim any portion whatsoever. This danger has appeared to 
R. Tillier to be of too high importance to the holders of shares 
to leave them ignorant of it. Tillier still owes them the inform- 
ation of a fact which, in the midst of many others, will give 
them an idea of the character of P. Chassanis and Le Ray de 
Chaumont, whose interests appear to be joined and confounded 
together. Some time before the arrival of P. Joulin, Chassanis 
sent a bill of exchange to Tillier for $3,772, to provide for the 
expenses of the Company. It was drawn by that Chaumont, on 
that same Mr. Joulin. Immediately , after his arrival, Tillier 
took the first opportunit}' to present it to him for acceptance, 
but he did nothing therein, Chaumont having previously ordered 
him not to pay it. What can be said or thought of such an 
action? One may judge of Chassanis' administration from his 
conduct. R. Tillier will not extend his reflections further. His 
object is not at present to throw blame on any particular person; 
he therefore confines himself to a statement of facts, and bring- 
ing them to the view of the holders of the lands, in order to let 
them ascertain them, and that they may thereby convince them- 
selves whether their director in Paris is worthy or not of their 
confidence, and whether his connections in the affairs and inter- 
ests of Chaumont are not injurious to the interests of the com- 
pany. Tillier's object is fulfilled if he has been enabled to 
persuade them that his administration has been pure and free 
from reproach. If he has convinced them of the causes which 
the want of success in the undertaking ought to be attributed, 
and if he has pointed out to them the means of accomplishing 



Company of JVeio York. 65 

their purpose better in the luturo, lie dues not seelc to nuiintiiiu 
himself in their confidence. He is satisfied in knowing- that he 
has always been worth}' of it. He wishes to render his account, 
and to dischai'g-e himself from a trust which he has executed 
with fidelity and honor; but before he does this, it is just that 
he should be reimbursed for his advances, and guaranteed from 
all the engag-ements which he has entered into in the name of 
the compan}'. He should not have been forced to suffer a law 
suit, if the new agent had agreed to this fair proposition, which 
indeed is only an act of justice and of universal usage in similar 
cases." 

To this memorial Chassanis published the following 
reply : 

" Without doubt one who has been charged with the interests 
of a company, owes it to himself to justify his conduct; for the 
same reason the Company of New York two years ago, in vain 
recalled Mr. Tillier. But instead of justifying his conduct, this 
agent feared to expose himself to the light, he opposed difficult- 
ies, and the course he has taken will only postpone the shame 
of his condemnation. Tillier would wish, in throwing suspicion 
upon the direction of citizen Chassanis, to gain the interest of 
the shareholders, and thus cover his own disorders by a hypo- 
critical zeal; but ever}- shareholder knows, that their director 
lias never written or done anything but in accordance with the 
deliberations of the conipau}'. It would be important could 
Tillier prove the contrary; but citizen Chassanis defies him to 
produce a single fact to impair this assertion. 

" The company finding but very little result coming from so 
great expenses, and failing to obtain from Tillier any thing but 
vague information, took a decisive part against this agent him- 
self. It was impossible for the comuiissari(.'S and director in 
Paris to learu exactly the state of things in America, to remedy 
seasonably and efl'cctnally the abuses which were introduced, 
and this led llie company to a precautionary measure upon 
which depended the fate of Castorland. It authorized its di- 
rector at its session of May 1, 17US, to cimfer upon Mr. G. 
^forris, minister plenipotentiary of the United States to tho 
I'lcncii government, tiie ' [)owers necessary to investigate, re- 
form and 8cttl(! the accounts of Tillier, acting commissary of 
the conipaiiy in .V'neriea; to take cognizance of the details of 
the adininislration of Castorland, its ai-lnal eondition, the ability 
and conduct of its chief and snbtjrdinate agents ern|)[()ycd in its 
service, to suspend or discharge those who might have com- 
promised till! interests of the company, or shown themselves 
incapable of filling tho places they occupied; ami lastly, power 
in advance, of removing Tillier in case liis functions ought to 
cease.' This appointment was demanded by circumstances, 
and although of the highest iujportaucc, Tillier terms it tAe 



65 Company of JVeio York. 

recJdessness of director Chassanis, and that by the scandalous scenes 
which it occasioned, it had ruined the shareholders. But if it had pro- 
duced tliese scandahjus scenes, were they not caused by Tillier, 
who, under the false pretext of serving- the shareholders, had 
rejected the deliberations of the company, and ignored the sig- 
nature of Pierre Chassanis until now recognized? 

"InTillier's memorial, there is a grave accusation against 
citizen Chassanis, which appears specious, and must be refuted; 
for all the rest are only the declamation of a justly suspected 
servant, who defends himself with words, but has nothing to 
show in his favor. He distinctly charges Chassanis with having 
sold or bargained 210,000 acres of land without the consent of 
the shareholders. The fact, says he, is positive; and he invites 
them (page \1) to take their concerns into their own hands and watch 
to their own interests, and let them get possession again of their fro- 
perty if it is not already too late to do it. How can Tillier know 
this fact without knowing the canse? and knowing the cause, 
how can he dare to utter a calumny so easily refuted? Can he 
flatter himself that by misconstruing a fact consigned to the 
record he can prove his end without challenge? However it . 
may be, the abuse of trust with which Tillier reproaches citizen 
Chassanis, is only an imaginary phantom to tarnish his reputa- 
tion, and the apprehensions with which he would inspire the 
shareholders, have not the slightest foundation. They can regain 
their property, or rather they have never been deprived of it, 
for in this operation it has been as in all others. It was at a 
general assembly held May 14, 1798, that the conveyance of 
90,000 acres to Le Ray was decreed. The first article of that 
deliberation read as follows: 

" 'x\rt. 1. The commissaries at Paris and the director, are 
authorized to transfer to the name of Mr. Le Ray, citizen of the 
United States of America, all their real and personal estate of 
the company in the state of New York, in the name of citizen 
Chassanis its director.' 

" This conveyance did not dispossess the company of its pro- 
perty, but it was a measure required by the circumstances, 
which had no other end than to consolidate the rights of the 
shareholders and their creditors, as evidently appears in the 
next article. 

" 'Art. 2. The assembly charges the commissaries and the 
director, to take all proper measures to the end that in this 
conveyance the rights of the company be preserved, and that 
they may be maintained in the enjoyment and improvement of 
their actual possessions, according to the mode established by 
the act of the society of June 28, 1793.' 

"As to the 40,000'acres for which the director has given bonds 
and mortgages, and which completes the 130,000 acres that 
Tillier pretends to have been alienated, it v/as not a sale, but 



Company of Jfew York. 67 

simply a security to a loan ordered by the general assembly of 
March 16, 1798, and which the director was authorized to exe- 
cute. 

" Nor was this all. Tillier thought he still owed the share- 
holders information of a fact toJdck will give them an idea of Ike 
charader of citizen Chassanis. It is stated in the memorial, that 
the director sent a bill of exchange to Tillier to serve the wants 
of the company, and that Mr. Le Raj'- the drawer of the letter, 
caused its payment so be suspended. Upon this Tiilior ex- 
claims: What can be said or thought of such an action? One may 
judge of Chassanis' administration from his conduct! 

" But whom does this transaction compromise? We can see 
only its very obvi(jus bearing, and it was exceedingly bad taste 
in Tillier to allude to it. It is natural when an agent is charged 
witli having abused the confidence of a company, that he should 
remove the pretext of further censure, and to this the director 
will limit himself. Tillier had provoked this by his conduct, 
and it saved the company $3,772. It is certain that citizen 
Cliassanis ought to appear blame-worthy in the ej'es of Tillier, 
for being knowing to Le Ray's opposition to the payment of 
the draft. It is a very bad turn that both have shown hira, and 
and he can scarcely pardon them. Thus we may regard the 
refusal of payment as one of the sources of trouble which ex- 
cited Tillier to the calumnies which defile his memorial. Had 
it not been for this fatal counter-order which deprived Tillier, 
for the moment, of his salary, it is to be presumed that the 
director would have appeared as showing better management, 
and above all, greater justice. 

"If A[r. Tillier wished to prove that his administration, as he 
says, has been pure, and that it was free from reproacii, he has 
failed to show the result. It is from the fruit that we judge 
the tree. \Vv. will render him justice, if, by the establishments 
formed and iiis mtjdel accounts, he can show a good employment 
of his time and of the funds which he has received. His obsti- 
nate refusal upon these points, forces upon us the suspicion that 
he can not report an honest administration. It is not by telling 
us that his affairs have been well administered that he can per- 
suade ua of the fact; it is not by addressing a memorial full of 
absurd and calumnious accusations, found(Ml rather upon igno- 
rance of facts rather than upon ficts themselves, that .Mr. Tillier 
can conciliate our esteem. The only means of justifying his 
administration is to render his accounts in a proper manner, 
with vouchers of their correctness." 

The necessity for transferring tlio title to an Aniorioan 
cili/OM, arose from an act of congress, pas.sed July 7, 179S, 
l)y wliitdi French citizens wore lieprived of the privileges 
previously onjoyod. The conventit)n, with the French re- 
public, dutod Sept. 30, 1800, gave that uutiou uo privileges 



68 Company of JVew York. 

beyond others. Tillier's charges upon settlement as pre- 
sented in 1S03, were infamous, including salary six years, 
personal expenses, commissions of various kinds, as well 
on lands sold, as lands of which he had been promised the 
agency, charges for non-eiy'oyment of his garden, horses 
and cows, for the non-erection of the pot asliery and distil- 
lery which he had been prevented from building, &c., &c., 
amounting to $23,493.92, besides a heavy charge for the 
trouble he had taken in survey's and similar accounts which 
have few parallels in our history. The company declared 
March 13, 1803, that it had never promised a commission 
on land sales. 

Chassanis died in Paris Nov. 28, 1803. In June, 1804, 
Tillier offered to settle for the Ure farm at lllingworth's, a 
tract of 450 acres valued at $3,000, and then offered to 
throw off $'1,000. We are not informed of the final terms 
of his settlement or his subsequent history. He is believed 
to have gone off to the French settlements in Louisania, 
where he is said to have held some office under the U. S. 
government. Morris never came upon the tract. In the 
summer of 1808, he passed through the county on his way 
to St. Lawrence county, but made no stop. The amount of 
lands sold by Pharoux in Castorland, was 6,266 acres ; by 
the company itself 12,149.8 acres, and by Tillier 3,945^ 
acres. 

In 1800, after contracting a debt of 300,000 livres, the 
company could only show one saw mill, eighteen log houses, 
and 82 acres of clearing, as the fruit of this enormous ex- 
pense. There were besides, upon the tract, 11 log houses 
and 130 acres cleared, besides what belonged to the com- 
pany. Several roads had, indeed, been made, but these 
were rendered impassable by the first gale of wind, and 
from want of population speedily relapsed into the state of 
nature. 

The name of James Donatianus Le Ray de Chaumont, 
has been mentioned in connection with this title. He was 
the brother-in-law of Chassanis, and one of the original 
share holders of the company. His father's house had been 
the home of Dr. Franklin, and of many distinguished Ameri- 
cans duringthe revolution, andmuch of their corres[)ondence 
is dated from Passy, the suburban residence of Chaumont. 
The elder Le Ray was an ardent friend of the American 
cause, and in the hour of need had advanced large sums of 
mone3%to obtain which, the subject of this notice had visited 
America, and become well acquainted with many leading 
persons, and with public affairs generally. He was con- 



Company of JVew York. 69 

joined witli ^forris in the af^oncy of Castovland in ISOl, and 
subseqnently he Uecanic principal agent of the French pro- 
prietors, many of -whoso rights he purchased. PJe early 
became one of the four commissaries at Paris, and induced 
the company to order the sale of I2,0G0 acres to an Ameri- 
caii company of which he had the direction. In 1802, the 
Company of New Yoric having a debt of .'-560,000 livres to 
meet, sold 17,000 acres in Beaverland at $2 per acre, and 
might then have sold the whole at 52 cents per acre, but 
the shareholders, true to their character as aormant 'partners, 
continued to slumber in the quiet anticipation of large 
dividends ultimately resulting in some mysterious way from 
enhancement of value by neighboring improvements, or by 
some happy turn of the wheel of fortune.^ 

In July, 1814, the terra fixed by the company for its ex- 
istence ex|)ired, and a public sale was resolved upon to pay 
the debt of 561,76b livres, owed to its Swiss creditors, who, 
as no one else offered to become purchasers, bid it in. Le 
Ray became the principal American agent of this company 
and acquired a large interest in it. In 1824 he was com- 
pelled to apply for the benefit of the insolvent act, and to 
surrender his estates for the relief of his creditors. The 
management of affairs passed into the hands of his son, and 
settlement has since been continued under the name of Vin- 
cent Le Ray, for the benefit of himself and certain foreign 
proprietors who have retained from the beginning, or who 
have since acquired an interest in the lands formerly owned 
by the Company of New York. Besides Le Ray, the fol- 
lowing families now own interests in these land : Lamliot, 
Desormeaiix, De la Chaume, Franqne, Moreau, La Tram- 
blaye, Weuves, De Loys D'Orscns, and Iloust, the latter, it 
is believed, as trustee of a Swiss company. The Swans- 
mill c"ii.| any, formerly owned 3S4 lots or 10,200 acres, but 
their interests have been nearly or quite canceled. 

The elder Le Ray sjjent the best years of his life in ])ro- 
moting the settlement of his lands in JelVerson and Lewis 
counties, and in 18.'32 retunieil to Fiance. In 1836, ho 
made his last visit to the country, spending the summer 
there. I'pon his return homo ho continnod to reside with 
his daughter and two sisters, spending liis time partly in 

1 In 185G, upon the dt'nth of tlie lienJ of an old Frvncli fimiily, tlio Iieinj 
found the title pni»'rs of Hcvt-riil hh.iri'S in tint Vompn^^nit de Stw Yvrk, au- 
tlii'iitiaicd by Clm-^sanis iind Iiih r()ll»'ft'.(ui's, mid \vrott> to tlio governor of 
IVfW York for inforniutioii a.>< to how to cnin in poptiPt^.sion of Iho t'.><t..ltf, 
wlii<-li thoy (iouhlii'.Hs ininL;in«ul Imd nocuinnlntt'd enormuusly by lapso of 
time, allowing even a uioderatu per cent, of increase. 



70 Land Titles. 

Paris, and partly in the country, or in traveling. He died 
Dec. 31, 1840, a.o;ed 80 years.^ 

Great Trad JYumber Four.— On the 12th of April, 1793, 
Constable sold in London, with the consent of Chassanis 
-who held a preemptive claim, this tract of 450,950 acres 
for 300,000 florins ($125,356) to Charles J. Michael De 
Wolf of Antwerp. The town of Diana lies wholly in this 
tract which also embraces a large portion of Jefferson co. 
De Wolf published in Dutch, a plan of settlement under a 
company of which he was to be the president. Its affairs 
were to be managed by himself and four directors whose 
names were to be made known at the proper time. The 
capital was fixed at 1,200,000 florins current money, to be 
disposed of a follows : 

First. SOO.OOOF for the payment of the 400,000 acres for 
which good titles will be given and of which copies will be 
kept at'the office of the president and all other papers in rela- 
tion to this negotiation will be kept there also. 

Secondly. 400, OOOF will be invested by the said five directors 
in such stocks as they may deem advisable for the best interests 
of tlie negotiators, and in case they deem it necessary to send 
emif-rants there, or to clear some of these lands, or make other 
expenses for the improvement of the same, or if they can not 
pay the yearly dividends the said directors may sell or use so 
much of the said stock as is necessary to cover the expenses. 

Thirdly. The interest which may accrue on the said 400,000F 
shall be tor the benefit of the negotiators. 

As it v/as evident that the negotiations would be bene- 
ficial to its stockholders, the directors were to issue with 
each share of 1,000 guilders each, three coupons as a divi- 
dend, each of 50 guilders payable in 1794, 1795 and 1796. 
The tract was to be surveyed into 400 acre lots. 

It was evident that this scheme was only a trap, and as 
such it served its end, for De Wolf soon sold Jor 680,000 
florins to a company of large and small capitalists of Ant- 
werp, who organi'zed the " Antwerp Company." The 
several schemes which were devised by these people for 
improving their lands belong rather to Jefferson county. 

In January, l800, Gouverneur Morris received a trust 
deed of half of the tract and on the next day James D. 
Le Ray received a like deed for the other half "^ Morris and 

1 A biographical notice and portrait of Le Ray are contained in the History 
of Jefferson Co., p. 441, 447. 

2 These conveyances were made by James Constable, under powers from 
his brother, dated Nov. 16, 1798. Regr's. office, N. Y., Ivi., 169. See Deeds, 
Oneida Co., B., 612, E. 307. 



Land Titles. 71 

Le Ray exchanged releases Aug. 15, 1802,^ and the former 
June 15, 1809, conveyed 326 lots of 143,440 acres to Moss 
Kent \y1io conveyed the same to Le Ray June 24, 18 17.-^ 
The operations of the Antwerp company like those of its 
neighbor were a failure, and Le Ray ultimately purcliased 
thf most if not all of the rights of the individual share- 
holders in Europe. Not the slightest settlement had been 
nndertaken by the company before Le Ray's connection 
with the title. 

A large part of Diana, with portions of Jefferson county 
adjoining, were conveyed to Joseph J3onaparte, ex-king of 
Spain and brother of the illustrious Napoleon, under circum- 
stances which are thus related by Mr. Vincent Le Ray : 

"Mr. Lo Ray do Cliaumont was at his estate in Touiraine in 
1815, when he heard of Joseph Bonaparte's arrival at Blois. 
lie had known this prince before his great elevation and was 
his guest at Mortefontaine when the treaty of Sept. 30, 1800, 
between the U. S. and France was signed there, but he had 
ceased meeting him afterwards. Seeing however that misfor- 
tnne had assailed the prince, he remembered tlie man and 
hastened to Blois. The prince having invited Mr. L. to dinner, 
said suddenly to him: "well, I remember yon spoke to me 
formerly of your great possession in the United States. If you 
have them still, 1 should like very much to have some in ex- 
change for a part of that silver I have there in those wagons, 
and which may be pillaged any moment. Take four or five 
hundred thousand francs and give the equivalent in land." Mr, 
Le Ray objected that it was impossible to make a bargain 
where one party alone knew what he was about. 'Oh!' said 
the prince, '1 know you well and I rely more on your word 
than my own judgment.' Still Mr. Le Ray would not be satis- 
lied by this ilattering assuruncr;, and a long discussion followed, 
wiiichwas terminated by the following propositions inunediately 
assented to by the prince. Mr. L. would receive 400,000 franca 
and wouhl give the prince a letter for .Mr. L.'s son then on the 
lands in.structing him to convey a certain designated tract, if, 
after having visited the country (whither he was then going), 
the prince confnnied the transaction, otherwise the money wua 
to be refunded.'' 

The ])urchaser, who in the United State.s assumed the 
title of the Count do Survilliers, in closing the bargain, is 
umlerstood to have made payment in curtain diamoiida 
brought l"r(jni Spain, and in real estate. A trust deed with 
covenant and warranty, was passod Dec. 21, 1818, to l*eter 
S. Duponceau, tho coididential agent of the count, for 

1 Deeds, Jefferson Co., A. 358. Deeds, Ouelda Co., X, 464. 
'•'Deeds, Jellcrbou Co., K., 27y. 



72 Land Tillcs. 

150,260 acres, excepting lands not exceeding 32,260 acres, 
conveyed or contracted to actual settlers.^ This was re- 
corded with a defeasance appended, in which it is declared 
a security for $120,000, and it provided for an auction sale 
of lands to meet this obligation. The tract conveyed by 
this instrument included the greater part of Diana, two 
tiers of lots on the S. E. side of Antwerp, the whole of 
Wilna and Philadelphia, a small piece south of Black river 
at the Great bend, a tract four lots wide and seven long, 
from Le Ray, and nine lots from the easterly range in The- 
resa. 

Diamonds having fallen to half their former price, the 
fact was made a subject of complaint, and in 1820, the 
count agreed to accept 26,840 acres for the nominal sum 
of $40,260. These lands lay in the most distant por- 
tions of No. IV, and Mr. Le Ray, in a letter to one of 
the Antwerp company, dated April 9, 1821, complimented 
the count upon his taste in selecting a " tract abounding 
with picturesque landscapes, Avhose remote and extensive 
forests affording retreat to game, would enable him to 
establish a great hunting ground ; qualities of soil, and 
fitness for settlers were only secondary considerations. 
* * * He regrets, notwithstanding, that thus far, he has 
been unable to find among the 26,000 acres of land, a pla- 
teau of 200 acres to build his house upon, but he intends 
keeping up his researches this summer." The attempt of 
Joseph Bonaparte to establish himself in Diana, is elsewhere 
noticed. By an act of March 31, 1825, he was authorized 
to hold lands in this state, without his promising or expect- 
ing to become a citizen. Jn his memorial he alludes to the 
liberality of other states, especially Pennsylvania, in allow- 
ing aliens to hold lands, "and not being of the number of 
those who would wish to abandon this hind of hospitality, 
where the best rights of man prevail, but nevertheless bound 
to his own country by ties which misfortune renders more 
sacred," he solicited the privilege of holding titles in his 
own name.^ 

Duponceau executed to Joseph Bonaparte July 31, 1825, 
a deed of all the rights he had before held in trust.^ In 
1835, John Lafarge bought for $80,000 the remaining inte- 
rests of Count Survilliers in Lewis and Jefferson counties,'* 
and attempted more active measures for settling these lands. 

1 Mortgages, Jefferson Co., A, 626 ; Deeds N, 1. 

2 This memorial is preserved in Assembly pnpers xii, 37, 41, Sec. office, 
and is given in full in the Hist, of Jeff. Co., p. 566. 

3 Deeds, Jefferson co., N, 181 ; Lewis co., I, 16. 
4 Deeds, Jefferson CO., U, 2, 43. 



Land Titles. 73 

The hard reputation he had acquired in the sale of Penet's 
square, and the severe measures he had adopted in ejecting 
squatters and delinquents, however prejudiced the minds 
of settlers to such an extent that but few in this county 
ventured to commit themselves to his " tender mercies." 
La Farge had been a merchant at Havre, and afterwards re- 
sided in New Orleans. While in France he purchased the 
title to much of Penet's square, and in 1824 came to reside 
upon it. In about 1838, he removed to New York, where 
he became concerned in extensive pecuniary operations on 
his own account, and as agent of Louis Phillippe, who, 
while king of the French, invested large amounts of funds 
in American stocks. A magnificent hotel on Broadway, 
N. Y., was named from its owner, the La Farge house. The 
La Farge fire insurance company was also named from him. 
He died two or three j-ears since in New York. 

On the 3d of June, 1825, William and Gerardus Post, for 
$17,000, purchased 11,888 acres (out of wliich 3,503 acres 
were excepted) in the present towns of Wilna and Diana, 
portions of wliicli have since been conveyed to T. S. Ham- 
mond of Carthage.^ 

The Swiss company that made the first investment at 
Alpina, received July 28, 1846, a conveyance from La Farge 
of a tract embracing two ranges of lots in Antwerp, and 
122 lots in Diana," and the whole of La Farge's interest has 
since been sold in this county. Tlie principal owners of 
the unimproved lands of his tract in Diana, are L. Paddock 
ul AVaterlown, and David C. Judson of Ogdensburgh. 
Their agent is Joseph Pahud^ of Harrisvillo. 

A considerable part of Diana and the adjoining parts of 
Antwerp are still a wilderness, but the demand for lumber 
and bark recently created, will before long lead to the 
clearing up of these lands. 

1 Deeds, Jcllersjon co., X, li'B; mortgages B. 3, p. 311. 

2 Deeds, JeflLTHoii co., Hi, p. 53:2. 
""' Pronounced Pi-u, 



74 Croghan. 



CHAPTER IV. 

HISTORY OF TOWNS. 

The county of Lewis upon its organization embraced five 
towns, viz : Leyden, Turin, Martinsburgb, Lowville and 
Harrisburgb. Tbe present number is seventeen and tbeir 
names and dates of erection are as follows : 

Croghan, 1841. Martinsburgh, 1803. 

Denmark, 1807. Montague, 1850. 

Diana, 1830. New Bremen,. . 1848. 

Greig, 1828. Osceola, 1S44. 

Harrisburgh, . . 1803. Pinckney, .... 1808. 

Highmarkbt, . . 1852. Turin, 1800. 

Lewis, 1852. Watson, 1821. 

Leyden, 1797. West Turln, . . 1830. 

Lowville 1800. 



-") 



CROGHAN. 

Tbis town was formed from Watson and Diana, April 5, 
1841, and named in bonor of George Crogban, whose 
military services bad then been recently brought to public 
notice in tbe presidential campaign resulting in Harrison's 
election.^ Tbe name of Tippecanoe had been proposed, 
and that of New France bad been applied to the bill as 
passed in the senate, but on its third reading in the lower 
bouse, tbe present name was substituted. New Bremen 
was taken off in part, in 1848. An unsuccessful effort was 
made in 1859, to procure a division of this town into two. 
The first town meeting was ordered to be held at the house 
of John C. Fox, before Willard Barrett, Lodowick Snyder, 
and Joseph Hamen. 

1 Croghan was a native of Locust Grove near the falls of the Ohio, where he 
was born Nov. 15, 1791. His father was Major Wm. Croghan, an Irishman 
who had rendered efficient service in the revolution, and his mother was 
sister of William Clark, who with Capt. Lewis explored the Missouri country 
in 1805-7. In 1810, Croghan graduated at William and Mary's college, and 
began the study of law ; but the war soon opened a more inviting field of 
enterprise, and in the battle of Tippecanoe, and the sieges of fort Meigs and 
fort Stephenson, he won the applause of the Union. He rose from the rank 
of captain to that of inspector general ; and in 1825 he received from congress 
a gold medal for his brilliant military services. He died at New Orleans, 
January 8, 1849. His name was pronounced Craic-an, although tliat of tho 
town, is uniformly spoken Cro-gan. 



Crodian. 75 



'O 



Supervisors. — 1841, Benj. R. Ellis; 1842-4, Bornt Nellis; 
1845-50, Darius G. Bent ; 1851-60, Patrick Sweetman. 

Clerks. — 1841-3, Abraham Fox ; 1844-6, Joseph Hamen ; 
1847-8, Joseph Virkler ; 1849, Foster L. Cunningham ; 
1850, Hartwell F. Bent; 1851-4, Joseph Rofinot ; 1855, 
Joseph Catillaz ; 1856, J. Rofinot ; 1857-9, Augustus Valin. 

Bounties for the destruction of wild animals have been 
voted as follows: For wolves $'15 in 1841, $10 in 1845, 
and $5 in 1842, 6. For panthers, $10 in 1841, 5, 6, and $5 
in 1842. For bears, $5 in 1841. In 1856, the town meet- 
ings of this town and New Bremen were held in the same 
house, the town line passing through near the middle. 

In this town, the Company of New York had intended 
to lay out a city by the name of Castonnlle, on the north 
side ol' the Beaver river, half a mile above the head of 
navigation, and at the lowest water power on that stream.^ 
The details of this plan have been already stated, but it is 
believed the city was never surveyed into lots, further tlian 
as a part of the Castorland tract. The reservation amount- 
ed to 663 acres, and upon it was built about 1798, the first 
saw mill east of Black river. From this mill the first lum- 
ber used by the settlers at Lowville, was obtained. The 
mill stood on the site of the upper part of Lefever's tan- 
nery, but its last vestige had disappeared long before the 
modern occupation of this site. Tillier made a clearing at 
the head of navigation, on Beaver river, four miles from 
its mouth, and a few log huts were erected. The only 
access to and from this place, was by river navigation. A 
few French emigrants settled oii the banks of the Black 
river ; among whom were, it is believed, J. T. Devouassoux, 
A. Tassart, Jjouis Francois de Saint Michel, and perhaps 
others. Mr. J), was a retired ollicer, who owned a good lot 
on the river, and had built a log liouse a few feet from the 
water, on a beaut iftd flat piece of ground, wiiich ho hoped 
before long to see changed to a smooth verdant lawn. One 
day as he was sitting by the <loor in his morning gown and 
slijjpers, Mr. Le Ray came along, on his way clown tho 
river, to visit his lands. After tho usual salutations and a 
little general conversation, the visitor asked Mr. D. whether 
lie was not afraid tho water would reach his house in tho 
spring ? This was n new i<leu to tho old soldier, and ho 
was asked to explain. "Well," said Mr. L., "this river 
does nut, by any moans, cause such ravages as most rivers 

1 Tho Rtoamers Lnwronco and Norcross oach Mcendnd the Btrt>am to this 
point, mill iniiiil botit.H uro loaded withiu linlf a milu of tho tannur^, on tho 
lowest fall iu Ijoaver rivor. 



76 Croshan 



b' 



do in snowy countries, hut it does overflow its banks in 
very low grounds. I think I even saw some marks left by 
it on some trees near your bouse, and according to them, 
you would have been about two feet under water in your 
house next spring !" 

At these words our Frenchman felt as perhaps he had 
never felt before the enemy. " But," resumed Mr. L., after 
giving him time to compose himself, " have you not on your 
lot some higher ground ?" " Indeed, sir, I can not say." 
" Why, have you not explored your lands before building ?" 
" Indeed, no : I thought I coiild not possibly find a better 
spot than the banks of this beautiful river. I like fishing. 
Here I am near my field of operations." Mr. L. could not 
see without apprehension such apathy and levity, for know- 
ing well that Mr. D. was not an exception among his coun- 
trymen, he read in his fate that of many others. He 
persuaded Mr. D. to take a little walk upon his lot, and in 
a few minutes they found a beautiful building spot^on a 
rising ground.-^ We are not informed precisely upon which 
side of Beaver river this location was, and it may have 
been in the town of New Bremen. 

Saint Michel arrived in New York in November, 1798, 
and undertook the improvement of a tract of 1200 acres, 
owned by three daughters of Mr. Lambot, and from them 
named Sistersfield. The agreement was made with Patrick 
Blake, husband of one of the sisters, and the owner of 200 
acres of the tract. The two other sisters were named 
Renee Jeane Louise, and Reine Marguerite Lambot. Blake 
returned to Europe in 1802. Saint Michel had seen better 
days in France, and is believed to have held an office under 
Louis XVI., the unfortunate royal victim of the French 
revolution. His household affairs were managed by a 
daughter who had been tenderly reared at the schools in 
Paris, but who applied herself to the duties of her father's 
home with a cheerfulness that did much to lighten the 
gloom of solitude and lessen the sadness of both. About 
1803, as Goiiverneur Morris, Nicholas Low and one or two 
other landholders, had met at Brownville, Saint Michel 
came down with Richard Coxe to see them and enjoy the 
luxury of a conversation with some one who could speak 
his native language with fluency. The meeting is described 
by an eye witness as affording a scene worthy of a painter. 
Their visitor was a tall, thin man, with a keen and intelli- 
gent eye, and a vivacity peculiar to the French character. 



1 Related by Vincent Le Ray, Esq., in a letter to the author. 



Croshan. 77 



'S> 



The eagerness with which he grasped the hand of the dig- 
nified Morris, and the satisfaction he evinced, was as 
interesting to the spectators as it was gratifying to the 
parties.^ Saint Michel in dress and manners, indicated that 
he had been bred in polished society. IJe was a man of 
fervent piety and deep thought. His daughter married 
Louis Marselle, and adopted with grace the coarse fare and 
rustic accommodations of a new country, without a murmur. 
Pier father moved to a farm a little south of Deer River 
village, where he died. Upon the death of her husband 
she married Louis de Zotelle, who, in the summer of 1838, 
was supposed to have died ; preparations were made for the 
burial, and a premature notice of the death was printed in 
the Northern Journal. In a few days he called upon the 
editor to request that no notice be again printed unless he 
informed in person. He died " in good faith," about 1854, 
but in the absence of the authentic notice promised, we are 
unable to give the date. Still further down, and just be- 
yond the border of the county, Jean Baptiste Bossuot, settled 
at the present village of Carthage, where he held an 
acre of ground under a verbal agreement with Sauvage, its 
owner, and kept a ferry and tavern. Other men would 
have made an independent fortune out of the opportunities 
which his location offered, but the bridge destroyed his 
occupation the village of Carthage which sprung up around 
" the meagre field of his slothful farming," failed to enrich 
its tenant, and he died a few years ago at an advanced age, 
leaving a world that was getting along without him ! 

A few miles from the last, on the north bounds of Castor- 
land, lived a man whose name is familiar to the visitors of 
Mont Jilanc, as that of a family of one of the best guides 
to that mountain. Mr. Balmat's descendants still reside in 
the town of Fowler, St. Lawrence county. A neighbor of 
his, Mr. Carret, a man of good education, would iiave fared 
better had he been brought up on a i'lirm. His oldest son, 
James, a youth of bright natural talents, w.is obliged to seek 
service, and while tending ferry at the Long falls, fell under 
the notice of Lo Ray, who received him into his ollico, and 
found him so very useful that ho took him to Muroito. While 
trans, loting some businoss with Josi;ph Bonaparte, the latter 
formed so favorable an impression of the young man, that he 
prevailed upon Le Ray to allow him to become his secretary, 
and ho afterwards appointotl hini his general land agent. Ho 
subsequently returned to France, and settled near Lyons, 

1 Rflatod by .Mrs. B. Sklnucr, sister of .MaJ. i\vn. Brown. 



78 Croghan. 

where he now resides. The three last named settlers located 
in what is now Jefferson county. 

The little improvents made by the French were soon aban- 
doned, as the would-be pioneers became disheartened and 
moved away to older colonies or returned to France. 

There was scarcely a perceptible progress in settlement 
during the first twenty-five 3'ears after the French removed. 
Their clearings grew up with brambles, and their rude 
cabins rotted down, leaving but slight traces of their indus- 
try, and few evidences that this region had been traversed 
by civilized man. 

In 1824, Thomas W. Bent, from Watson, took up a farm 
on the ridge between the Oswegatchie and Indian rivers, 
about fifteen miles from neighbors, at what is still the 
frontier clearing in this quarter, and known as Bent's 
Settlement. The post office of Indian River is a mile and 
a half south of this place. 

In 1830, P. Somerville Stewart, now Le Ray's agent at 
Carthage, removed to Belfort, on Beaver river ; built a saw 
mill and store, brought in settlers, and two or three years 
after erected a grist mill. A fire occurred May 30, 1831, 
from a fallow, which consumed the only two buildings then 
finished. A post office named Monterey, was established 
here some years after, but the route has been changed, and 
the office discontinued. A large tannery has been recently 
built at this place, by Wm. H. Pier. 

About 1830, an immigration began from Europe, and has 
since continued, mainly through the exertions of agents 
employed by Le Ray, and the representations sent home by 
those who had taken up land and settled. The first of these 
was John Keefer. In the winter of 1848-49, a census taken 
in this town and New Bremen, showed 247 European families, 
of 1,275 persons, classified as follows : 

From France,. . . . 190 families, of 987 persons. 
" Germany, . . 46 " 230 

" Switzerland, II " 58 " 

Their religious belief was found to be : 

Catholic, 150 families of 787 persons. 

Protestant, 57 " 297 

Muscovite, 39 " 189 

Their residence in America had been, 1 family, 21 years 
3, 19: 5, 18 : 17, 17: 6, 16 : 10, 15: 21, 14: 4, 12, 9, 10 
16, 9 : 49, 8 : 14, 7 : 6, 6 : 9, 5 : 2, 4 : 6, 3 : 24, 2 : 35, 1 
and 10 less than 1 year. They owned or occupied 12,413 
acres, of which 4,338 were fenced and improved, and 500 



Crocrhan. 79 



^s 



partly cleared. Tbey owned 59 horses, 388 sheep, 513 
swiue and 1,256 horned cattle, and their produce the year 
previous had been 2,770 bushels of wheat, 4,430 of corn, 
7,513 of rye, 3,127 of buckwheat, 10,640 of oats, and 33,339 
of potatoes, 1,447 tons of hay, 17,068 pounds of butter ex- 
clusive of that used in families, and 27,925 pounds of maple 
sugar. 

From a pamphlet issued in 1858, it appears that there 
were then over 500 European families, numbering 3,000 
persons, upon Le Ray's lands, the greater part in this town 
and New Bremen. They were chiefly from the east of 
France, and the adjacent parts of Germany and Switzerland. 

In a list of settlers numbering over three hundred names, 
the departments of Moselle, Meurthe, Lower Rhine, Upper 
Saone and Doul)S in France, had furnished 154, Prussia 56, 
Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz 4, Hesse 
Darmstadt 5, Kur Hessen 14, Holstein and Lauenburg 3, 
Bavaria 8, Saxony and Saxe-Weimar 7, Baden 9, Wurtem- 
berg 10, and Switzerland 36. In 1849 this town had a 
population of 1,168, of whom 646 were Americans and Irish, 
and 522 French, German and Swiss. 

Mr. Le Ray employs as his sole agent in France, for the 
procuring of emigrants, M. Vanderest of Dunkirk, and has 
issued several circulars, maps and other publications in 
French and German, with the view of calling favorable 
notice to his lands. The terms advertised in Euro[)e are, 
one-fifth payment at the end of one year after the selection 
of lands by tlie purchasers, and four-fifths in six years in 
equal annual installments, with interest. The amount 
oil'ered in the two coimties is 80,000 acres. M. Vanderest 
gives a contract, binding Le Ruy to sell a tract of land to 
be selected within fifteen days or later after their 
arrival in New York, at a price varying from three to six 
dollars per acre, according to location, excepting lands 
near villages and water falls, and such as have tinilier con- 
venient lor sawing or manufacture, and engaging tlio emi- 
grant to remove within three months to New York, and 
from thence, by way of Watt'rtown, to Carthago. Tiiis 
instrument, drawn uj) witli duo formality, inchides the 
names of all persons, old and young, bi'h)nging to the emi- 
grating company, and is evidently intended to keep those 
removing, out of the hands of emigrant runners interested 
in other localities, until they may have an opportunity of 
visiting tht; lands and selecting lor thiniselvus. 

The foreigners settling in this town, are mostly industri- 
ous, frugal, and disj)ose(l to avail themselves of every ud- 



80 Croghan. 

vantage that their situation affords.^ Settling together, 
they retain in common use their native languages, in their 
families and religious meetings, but most of them readily 
acquire the English ; while their children attending the 
district schools with Americans, speak English without the 
slightest foreign accent. 

French Settlement (Croghan P. 0.), on Beaver river and 
partly in New Bremen, is a scattered village or rather a 
vicinage, half a mile long and mostly on the south side of 
the river. It has a Catholic and a Methodist church, a 
large tannery owned by Blair, Rice & Bros., a grist mill, 
two saw mills, two inns, and several mechanic shops. 

In 1852, a tannery was built at Beaver fahs, the site of 
ancient Castorville. It is now^ in the hands of W. C. Lefever, 
has 80 vats, and produces 16,000 sides of sole leather an- 
nually. It is designed to extend it sixty feet and increase 
its capacity to 25,000. A gang saw mill is built here on the 
New Bremen side. Besides these, a small Evangelical 
church, and two or three houses ; it has no claims to the 
rank of a village. This place w-as formerly called " Rohr's 
Mills." 

Upon a street parallel with the river, leading from Beaver 
falls to Carthage, is a scattered neighborhood known as the 
" Prussian Settlement." It has a post office named "Naum- 
burg," and two small chapels. 

On the 29th of March, 1843, the house of Jonathan 
Aldrich was burned, and his son nine years old perished in 
the flames. The remainder of the family w^ere compelled 
to walk three-fourths of a mile barefooted in the snow to 
their nearest neighbors. 

Religious Societies. — There are two Roman Catholic 
churches in this town. St, Stephen's church w^as erected 
at the French settlement in 1847, and sermons are preached 
on alternate Sundays in French and German. Its trustees 
were incorporated under the general statute, March 14, 1853, 
the first being Nicholas Gaudel, Christopher Milles, and 
F. E. Rofinot, Jr. There is also a small Catholic church at 

Belfort. 

The " German Evangelical Lutheran and Reformed Con- 
gregation " in Croghan, was formed Sept. 15, 1847, and 
elected Ernest Schlieder, Christian Rayser, C. Frederick 
Bachman, Frederick Wilk, and Weiss Katlen, trustees. 

A church styled the Evangelical association, was legally 

1 To this there are exceptions. A company of 16 Italians who came over 
a year since, have proved entirely unfit to settle a new country, or encounter 
the hardships of pioneers. 



Denmark. 81 

formed Dec. 1, 1854, with August Stoebe, John Holler, and 
Jacob Rohr, trustees, and in 1857 erected a plain wood 
church at Beaver falls. Another, but smaller church, is 
built in the Prussian settlement. They are sometimes 
called Methodists, or Albright Methodists. 

A society said to have been originally Lutherans, but now 
mostly Reformed Protestant Dutch, was formed several 
years since in the Prussian settlement, and has erected a 
church edifice. 

A number of Anabaptist families reside in this and the 
adjoining town, and of these there are two classes, one 
being usually termed the new, or reformed Anabaptists. 
These people have no church edifice, worshiping after the 
manner of the primitive Christians, in private houses, and 
in all their dealings and social intercourse, are as much as 
possible restricted to their own circle. 

The First Croghan Methodist Episcopal Church, was 
incorporated August 14, 1857, with Wm. G. Dealing, Aley 
Thomson, and Jacob House, trustees, A church edifice was 
built in 1858 at the French settlement. 



DENMARK. 

This town was formed from Harrisburgh, ^Vpril 3, 1807, 
with its present limits, comprising township 5 of the Black 
River tract, or Mantua, as named by the surveyor general, on 
his published maps of 1802, 4. The first town meeting was 
ordered to be held at the house of Simeon Dunham, and 
the poor and poor moneys were to be divided with Harris- 
burgh according to the lust tax list. The act took eifect 
on the first Monday of February following. 

The first town ollicers were, Lewis Graves,^ supervisor ; 
Wra. Derbyshire, cleric ; Levi Robbins, Willis Secombe and 
Elcazer Sylvester,- assessors; John Clark, Wm. Clark and 
John llurd, commissioners ; Stephen Parson and Snoton Fair- 
child, poor mas/er* ; Aaron Nash, constable, and Eloazer S. 
Sylvester, constable and collector. 

Supervisors. — ISOS, Lewis Graves; ISO'J, .John Canfield; 
1810-2, L. Graves; 1813-4, J. Cunlield ; 181i>-<j, Samuel 

1 Mr. Gruvf wiw from firovnfltld, Saratoga co., N. Y. lie represented 
this couiuy, J« irtTson nnd St. LawnMR-o in iiHSfinbly in 1KU8, ami this founty 
aloiiu in IslO. lilt wa.s Hevtral yi-ars juiIk>' and mi|)«Tvi8or, and died .May 10, 
181t<, agud Gl years. His widow snrvivLnl until IhCi'l. A brothur nuiueJ 
David also bccann- an t-ariy Hiittler. 

- Mr. Sylvostor died February 17, 1835, agud i4 yoars. 

K 



82 Denmark. 

Allen ;^ 1817-8, Israel Kellogg ; 1819-23, S. Allen ; 1824- 
37, John Clark, 1st; 1838-9, Apollos Stephens; 1840-1, 
Abner A. Johnson ; 1842-50, Lewis Pierce ; 1851, John H. 
Allen ; 1852-3, Albert G. Thompson ; 1854, Lewis Pierce ; 
1855-6, Lucian Clark ; 1857-8, L. Pierce ; 1859, Philander 
Blodget; 1860, L. Pierce. 

Clerks.— \m^, '09, Wm. Derbyshire; 1810, '11, Willis 
Secombe ; 1812, Levi Bobbins; 1813, Eleazer S. Sylvester; 
1814-19, Asa D. Wright; 1820-4, Absalom Sylvester; 1825, 
Apollos Stephens; 1826, A. Sylvester; 1827, Daniel A. 
Higlev; 1828, A. Sylvester; 1829-33, A. Stephens; 1834, 
'35, Amos Buck ; 1836, '37, Otis Shaw ; 1838, A. Buck ; 
1839, '40, Lewis Pierce; 1841-3, Charles Loud ; 1844, '45, 
John M. Hulbert ; 1846, Sidney Silvester ; 1847, Wm. N. 
Angle; 1848, '49, Elon G. Parsons; 1850, C. Loud ; 1851, 
W\ N. Angle ; 1852, Edward L. Hulbert ; 1853, E. G. Par- 
sons ; 1854, '55, John H. Angle ; 1856, E. L. Hulbert; 1857, 
Darwin Nash; 1858, '59, Silas Slater, jr. 

In 1810, '11, '12, '13, a fine of $' 10, was voted for allowing 
Canada thistles to go to seed. A bounty of 50 cents was 
voted in 1821, for killing foxes, and $10 for panthers in 

1828. 

As noticed in our chapter upon titles, this town formed a 
part of the purchase of Harrison, Hoffman, Low and Hen- 
derson, and fell to the lot of the two first, as joint owners, 
together with townships 8 and 10, or Rodman and Harris- 
burgh. On the 1st of May, 1805, Josiah Ogden Hoffman 
sold to Tho. L. Ogden his half of these towns, and the 
securities upon them in trust, to pay, first, to the bank of 
New York his share of debt due the bank as assignee of 
Constable ; second, the personal debts of Hoffman to the 

1 Dr. Mien was a native of Massachusetts, studied with Drs. Guiteau of 
Trenton, and Willoughby of Newport, settled in practice at Lowville in 1808, 
and in April, 1809, became a partner with Dr. Perry. He removed to Copen- 
hagen in 1811, engaged in trade with David Canfield, and through the war was 
concerned in heavy contracts witli the navy. The peace which followed brought 
ruin to tliis firm, although they kept on doing some business from about 1820 to 
1828. They succeeded in recovering from government, a jjortion of the 
claims which the suspension of contracts occasioned, and while on this busi- 
ness at Washington, Dr. Allen formed acquaintance of many prominent public 
men. He became the agent of V.arick, m the rope manufactory at Copen- 
hagen, and afterwards engaged in farming a little S. E. from the village, and 
adjacent to the High falls. He died, June 12, 1849, aged 66 years. Dr. Allen 
was ardently attached to the Whig party and once nominated by them to 
assembly, but not elected. With literary tastes, polished manners, and uncom- 
mon conversational powers, he was eminently fitted to please and instruct, 
while his prompt reply and keen wit, made him the life of the social gather- 
ing. 




Ja,,^^ ^^.^^ _ 



Denmark. 83 

Constable estate ; third, a debt due to Abijah Hammond ; 
fourth, to Wm. Harrison the sum due on a bond of $'9,093.50, 
given January 1, 1805 ; and lastly, what remained to Hoff- 
man. The first and second trusts were executed in the 
summer of 1809, and on the 1st of June, Harrison and 
Hoffman made a division of contracts, bonds and mortgages. 
On the 19th of July, Hoffman and Ogden conveyed the 
whole to Harrison, to satisfy his demands in full. The 
amount of securities in the three towns thus transferred, 
was $86,600.80.^ 

The first definite knowledge of this town was ascertained 
by Benjamin Wright, who surveyed around it in April, 
1796, and recorded in his field book the following: 

" This is a most excellent township of land, and is beau- 
tifully watered with small streams, with a large creek called 
Deer creek running through the middle of it. On this 
creek is a cataract,- about four miles from the mouth, of 
about 20 or 30 feet, and very curious mill seats. There are 
several large creeks of fine water running through the town, 
with mill seats on them. There is an exceeding large inter- 
vale on Deer creek near the mouth, which is of the richest 
kind of land, and will be equal in quality and extent to any 
flat in the state of New York.^ The south line of this town 
is of an excellent quality, excepting a swamp near the 
Black river, which is timbered with pine, ash, cedar, beech 
and soft maple. This township needs no other remarks, 
but only to say, that it is the best township in the 300,000 
acres, and has every good quality that can be contained in 
a township of land : mill seats, excellent timber, finest 
quality of soil, excellent water, and pretty good situation. 
Area 31,951 acres, strict measure." 

The proprietors appointed Abel French of Albany, their 
agent, and the latter employed Joseph Crary, in 1798-9, to 
subdivide the township into farms. It will be observed, 
upon examination of the map, that this survey was made 
with reference to a line since adox)ted as the route of the 



1 Hoffman while concem«?d in these titles, was attorney-general. He was 
seven yearn in assfmbly, in lSlO-13, '14 ; wo-s reconlor of New York ; and 
at the Unit) of liis (l<atli, which occurred .lauiiary 24, 1'<;!S, lio wn.s assuciatu 
Jadge of th«' .tiiiH.'rior court of lliat city. Ho wa^ u luw-y.-r of ^rv&i ability and 
strict inlfgritv. 

- Probably "King's falls. The High fiilLs upi^-ar to have been anknown at 
this tinio. 

3 Thf extent of tht-so lints is about "J/KM) acres, and their richness is not 
over estimated. They ant not ordinarily llowod over thnir whole extent, but 
in tho winter of 1850, '.'i7, the Ihxxl caui" up to the fool of the hill, a few 
rods below Deer Kiver village. On the I'Jth of May, lti33, tho iuuudaliou 
was higher than over bi'fore or since known. 



84 Denmark. 

east road, which was called the Base line ; and that the lot 
lines were run nearly parallel, or at right angles to this. 
The principal lots were intended to measure seventy chains 
on each side, and were sold as right angled, although uni- 
formly, and no doubt purposely, run at an angle varying 6° 
from this, thus falling a little short of reputed contents in 
every case. It is said that Crary remonstrated at this irre- 
gularity, but was overruled, and directed to proceed as the 
surveys now indicate.^ 

The lands of this town were offered to settlers upon terms 
that were considered very favorable, varying from two to 
three and a half dollars per acre, one-half being required 
at purchase. About 1806, Morris S. Miller became agent, 
and soon after Isaac W. Bostwick, under whom its settle- 
ment and conveyance by deed was mostly completed. 

The first location of land was made by Abel French, the 
agent, at Deer river, and the next by Jesse Blodget,^ at 
Denmark village. The latter became the first settler in 
town, and arrived with his family in the spring of 1800. 
Joseph Crary, Peter Bent,^ Solomon Farrell, William and 
Daniel Clark, James Bagg, Charles Moseley, Simeon Dun- 
ham, and others settled in the lower part of the town. 
Freedom Wright* and his sons Jabez, Douglass and Free- 
dom, Charles Wright^ and his sons Charles, Tyrannus A., 
Stephen, Erastus, Chester, Nathan and Matthew, and his son- 
in-law Wm. Merriam,* Joseph Blodget,* his son Calvin,* and 
son-in-law Shadrach Case,* Andrew Mills,* Freeman Wil- 
liams,* Darius Sherwin,* Levi and Reuben Bobbins, David 
Goodenough, John Williams, Nathan Munger and his son 
Nathan, Levi Barnes, John Clark, Joseph and Bezaleel I. 
Rich, David King, Isaac Munger, Abner Whiting, Robert 
Horr, Henry Welch, and perhaps others, in the central and 
western part of the town, are believed to have settled in 
1801-2, having in most cases come on the first year to select 
land and begin improvements, preliminary to the removal 
of families. The Wrights were from Winstead, Ct., the 
Mungers from Ludlow, Mass., Biodget and Rich from New 

1 It is a prevalent belief among the first purchasers, that Mr. French saved 
a valuable tract of land to himself, by this arrangement. He represented 
Oneida county in assembly in 1799, 1801, '02, '03, and Albany county in 
1810. He died in Albany, where he had resided most of his life, on the 17th 
of November, 1843, aged 78 years. 

2 Mr. B. died January 9, 1848, nearly 84 years of age. His wife, the first 
woman who came into town, died August 5, 1844, aged 70 years. The first 
male child born in town was Harrison Biodget, their son, in 1801. Mr. B. 
erected the large stone hotel in Denmark village in 1824. Harrison Biodget 
was member of assembly in 1831. 

3 Died, Nov. 30, 1833, aged 56 years. 4 Men with families. 






m- 



'* 



"^V- 

^ 




^^O.-^^-^^ ^^c.^1^ 




r^-?< 



4i^=. 



;>mBLIC LlBRARYl 



Denmark. 85 

Hampshire, Crary from Vermont, the Robbinses from Saun- 
dersfield, Mass., Clark from Barre, Mass., and with scarcely 
an exception, all who arrived during the first five years 
were from some of the New England states. 

The town settled with great rapidity, and in less than 
three years, most of it was in the hands of actual settlers.^ 

In the winter of 1800-1, it is believed no family but that 
of Jesse Blodget, remained in town. The next winter was 
remarkably open, and land was plowed in March. This 
may have created a highly favorable opinion of the climate 
of the new town, although the occurrence was not peculiar 
to this section in that year. 

That portion of the town south of Deer river, between 
Copenhagen and Denmark village, early acquired the name 
of Halifax, and prejudices Avere raised against it, but fifty 
years of cultivation have shown that it is equal to any part 
of the town. 

The first physician who settled at Copenhagen was Dr. 
Dunn, but he removed to the Genesee country in 1804, and 
in the year following Dr. John Loud settled and remained 
till his death, March 3, 1831, at the age of 52. 

The first framed house in Denmark village was built by 
Freedom Wright, first inn-keeper, and the first in Copenhagen 
by Levi ]3arnes. 

Li the spring of 1801, the Nathan Mungers (father and son), 
millwrights, having had their attention called to the Black 
river country, came down the river and followed up the 
Deer river to half a mile above the falls where they selected 
a site for mills, and in that season finished a saw mill and 
got it in operation. The proprietors to encourage the 
enterprise gave them the water privilege from the High 
falls up over two miles. In 1803, they got a small grist 
mill with one run of burr stones in operation, in time to 
grind the first wheat raised in the town as soon as it was in 
condition for use. The mill stood directly below the upper 
saw mill in Copenhagen village, and its vicinity gradually 
receiving a number of mechanics acquired the name of 
Murii^er's Mills. 

The firnt store was opened at this place by Urial Twitchell 
and tlio first inn on the hill south, was kept bv Andrew 
Milbs. A beaver meadow, now a l>r<iail and beautiful inter- 
vale just above the village, allordcHl liio first hay used in 
the settlement. 



1 Jonatlian Hark.>r, Nalhaiil.l .SylveHter, William Root, Uriel and Timothy 
TwitchcU, Soloiium Wiilmi, John and David Canl1t<ld, lohabod I'arsoud and 
others wuru wjirly aettltTS. 



86 Denmark. 

It so happened that roost of those living at this place 
were federalists, and as politics then ran, were presumed to 
sympathize with British measures. Soon after the arrival 
of the news of the bombardment of Copenhagen in Europe, 
in 1807, by a British fleet, in time of peace, and under cir- 
cumstances that were regarded throughout Christendom as 
highly disgraceful to the assailants, a political meeting 
was held at Hunger's Mills, by the Republicans as then 
styled. Their business being done, some one proposed to 
christen the place Copenhagen, in derision of the party who 
were in duty bound to justify the recent outrage in Europe. 
The name was at once adopted, and a few years after it 
was applied to their post office. The town had previously 
been named by the legislature, which rendered the new 
name to this village the more appropriate, as the largest 
village in town. 

About 1807, P. Card, began a cloth manufactory below 
Copenhagen, which was continued by himself and sons 
many years. The cloth principally made was satinett, but 
more recently the business has chiefly been limited to card- 
ing wool. 

In 1806, most of a militia company at Copenhagen 
failed to appear at a training, on account of some griev- 
ance at the change of their captain, and were accordingly 
summoned to a court martial to be held at the inn of 
Andrew Mills, half a mile south of the village, in January 
following. Their numbers inspired confidence in the belief 
that the proceedings of the court might be embarrassed or 
interrupted, and they agreed upon a course of proceeding, 
perhaps natural, under the circumstances of time and pre- 
vailing customs. Procuring a keg of spirits at a distillery, 
they marched to the court, and when called up for trial, 
assigned whimsical reasons for delinquency, alleging the 
want of decent clothing, short funds, the existence of vari- 
ous infirmities, and other frivolous causes tending to throw 
ridicule upon the court, and rendering it necessary to order 
the arrest of the greater number of the party. The prison- 
ers were confined in the room over that in which the court 
martial was held, and finally by their boisterous conduct, 
compelled an adjournment without trial. 

The offending parties were indicted for riot, and their 
trial came off at Doty's tavern in Martinsburgh, but resulted 
in acquittal. The rioters had in the meantime prepared a 
song, entitled The Keg and the Law, which recited minute- 
ly the transaction, and when the county court had ad- 
journed, after the trial, this song was sung in the court 



Denmark. 87 

room with great force and effect. The presiding judge 
is said to have jocosel}' remarked, that if this had been 
sung during the trial, witnesses wouhl have been need- 
less, as it embodied every fact in the case. One year 
after, the anniversary of their acquittal was duly celebrated, 
by an address, and the well remembered song was repeated. 
It was Avritten by Charles Wright, and a friend has furn- 
ished us a written copy, as taken down half a century after, 
from the memory of one of the party. It is destitute of 
rhyme, poetical measure or literary merit, although it 
miglit appear quite dillerent in its appropriate tune, now 
forgotten, or so changed as not to be applicable to the sub- 
ject. A company of silver greys or exempts, was formed 
in this town, under Charles Wright, during the war. It 
never found occasion for service. 

In June, 1815, Henry Waggoner was found dead below 
the High falls, in Deer river, under circumstances^that ex- 
cited suspicious of murder. A coroner's jury was called, 
but could not agree, and the body was buried, but the 
clamors of the public led to the holding of a second inquest 
before a jury of twenty-three persons, summoned from the 
central and southern part of the county, of whom twelve 
united in a verdict of suicide. 

It appeared that Simpson Buck of this town, had been on 
terms of improper intimacy with the wife of a son of Mr. 
Waggoner, who resided on the Number Three road, south of 
Copenhagen. The old man publicly denounced this con- 
duct, and in a recent suit against Huck, had appeared and 
testified against him. It is rehited that the latter swore 
that Waggoner should never appear against him again in 
court. When last seen, Mr. W. was going to his work of 
hoeing potatoes in a ficlil alioiit a mile south of the falls. 
When found, some days after, tho body was much decayed, 
and showed marks upon tho skull as if made with the head 
of a hoe. It is said there was also found a trail of blood 
for some distance from tho biink, and on a tree fence over 
which the body was supposed to have been taken. Forty- 
two witnesses were sworn by tho coroner, and tho evidence 
taken led to the verdict that the deceased, about tho 12th 
of .luue, 1815, " ramo to the south bank of Deer river, 
about one or two rods above the High tails, and then and 
there, b) accident, or intentionally fell, threw himself into 
the said river, and then and there passed over said falls, a 
distance of 1G4 feet, and in so doing bruised and drowned 
himself" 

Buck soon after wont off with tho young man's wife, re- 



88 Denmark. 

sided some years in Peun Yan, and then removed to Michi- 
gan, where he is said to have perished by violence. At the 
time of the event he was very strongly suspected, even be- 
fore the body was found, and in accordance with a supersti- 
tion that should rather belong to the days of Salem witch- 
craft, he was brought and required to touch the dead body, to 
ascertain whether blood would flow afresh from the wound ! 
Upon conversing with many cotemporaries of Waggoner, 
we find the belief in his murder to be very generally preva- 
lent, although two or three express doubts whether an old 
soldier, who had been living in the place some time before, 
and also went off soon after, was not employed to execute 
the deed, or to assist in it. There is reason to believe that 
the coroner and jury were conscientious, as they certainly 
were disinterested in the discharge of their duties. 

On the 9th of July, 1832, a board of health, consisting of 
the supervisor, overseers of the poor and [justices of the 
peace, was appointed in this town, to guard against cholera, 
and Dr. Erasmus D. Bartholomew was appointed health 
ofBcei'. 

In December, 1850, "Wm. Cratzenberg of this town, was 
indicted for the murder of his wife in the spring preceding, 
and tried but acquitted. The judge, in charging the jury, 
stated that the prisoner had been guilty of great cruelty 
and brutality ; but the evidence failed to establish a verdict 
of guilt. 

About 1820, Allen & Canfield,^ who had several years 
transacted a heavy mercantile and manufacturing business, 
failed, and their mill property was subsequently bid in by 
Abraham Varick of Utica.- Dr. Samuel Allen was ap- 
pointed agent for the erection of an extensive rope factory, 
and the farmers of this and adjoining towns were induced 
to engage largely in the culture of flax and hemp, hundreds 
of acres of which were raised. In 1832 a rope walk, 575 
feet long, was erected, and about 1836 machinery was in- 
troduced for the preparation of hemp. The rotting of 
hemp was not found economical by the process employed, 
and its culture quickly fell into disuse. The rope works 
were burned in the spring of 1843, doubtless by an incen- 

1 David Canfielddied Dec. 17, 1849, aged 71. 

2 Mr. V. was a son of Richard Varick, an eminent citizen of New York. A 
fire once occurred near his rope works, when he was in the village, but by 
the most active exertions it was subdued before extensive damage was done. 
He was not allowed to stand an idle spectator, but was pressed into the line 
for passing buckets. When advised to get the works insured v^ithout fur- 
ther risk, he declined, saying, that among such people insurance was need- 
less. 



Denmark. 89 

diary, and again built soon after, 400 feet in length, by 
Archibald Johnston, and the business has continued more 
or less regularly till the present time. Varick lost a large 
Bum in this investment. 

In 1853, surveys were made with the design of securing 
the location of the Rome R. R. to this place. The highest 
point on the surveyed route was 611 feet above Felt's mills, 
and about 40 above Copenhagen. At that time, a square 
mile was surveyed, and preliminary measures adopted to 
obtain a village charter. The census taken for this pur- 
pose, gave on the proposed limits, 610 inhabitants. 

The water power at this place and below is valuable for 
manufacturing purposes, and may be improved to a much 
greater extent than at present. The river is however some- 
what liable to extremes of flood and drouth, and the bridge 
at the village has been several times swept away. The last 
time this accident occurred was in the winter of 1842-3. 

In 1849, a steam saw mill was erected by Kitts & Broad- 
way, on the East road near the Lowville line and in 1858, 
C. S. Cowles & Co. erected a manufactory of staves, shingle 
and heading upon the Black river, at Blodget's landing. 

About half a mile below Copenhagen occur the celebrated 
High falls on Deer river. The stream has here worn a 
broad deep chasm in the Trenton limestone down which 
the torrent plunges a nearly vertical slope a distance of 
166 feet. The bank on the south side is 225 feet high. On 
the north side of the cascade, the rock presents a very 
steep inclination, and has been broken away, leaving a 
succession of small narrow steps, with occasional projec- 
tions, along which the adventurous visitor may creep a 
considerable distance up the bank, but not without immi- 
nent danger. 

About 1806, Miss Lodema Schermerhorn, in attempting 
rashly to climb this perilous steep, had crept over halfway 
up before she was aware of the danger, when she found 
that descent was impossible, and iier only chance for life 
depended upon her reaching the top. With cautious and 
steady nerve, she continued on, now clinging with one 
hanil in a crovico of the rock while she found a lirm hold 
for the other a little higher, she linally gained the summit, 
exhausted with fatigue, and overcome by the extraordi- 
nary nervous oxcitement which the etVort occasioned. A 
fenuile associate had followed her lead, and also found it 
necessary to go on or perish in the ellort. She also reached 
the top of the precipice in safety. Some years after, 
Thomas Parkman uttempleil to sculo the clitl", and got so 

L 



90 Denmark. 

far up that he could neither advance or recede. His com- 
panions ran to the nearest house, procured a bed cord, and 
drew him to the top. 

On the night of Sept. 17, 1853, "Wm. Ferguson, a British 
deserter, working in a foundry, having drank freely the 
day previous and retired late, sprang up from sleep, saying 
that a man had fallen into the river above the falls, and ran 
towards the precipice. A person followed, but before he 
could be overtaken, the delirious man had climbed a tree 
that overhung the chasm, when the branch on which he 
stood broke, and lie fell to the bottom, a distance of 130 
feet, striking half way down, and bounding into deep water. 
He was instantly killed by the fall. 

King's falls, two miles below, form a cascade about 40 
feet ill height and are excelled by few localities of the kind 
in picturesque beauty of scenery. They were named in 
compliment to Joseph Bonaparte, ex-king of Spain, by whom 
they were visited and much admired. The banks of Deer 
river from the High falls to Deer river village, present the 
finest section of the limestones for the study of geology 
that the county affords. 

Settlement at Deer river was begun by Abel French, a 
few years after his arrival as agent. In 1824, a large stone 
mill was built by Kichard Myers and A. Wilson. A large 
saw mill was built in 1848, and the place has gradually 
grown to one of some business, having besides a large grist 
mill, two saw mills, a shingle mill and several mechanic 
shops, two churches, a store and about thirty dwellings. 
The principally traveled road formerly crossed half a mile 
above, where there is an oil mill, once a cloth-dressing mill. 
This village has at various times borne the name of the mill 
owner, as French's Mills, Myer's Mills, &c., but since the 
establishment of a post office, it has been known as Deer 
River. The name was adopted at a meeting called for the 
purpose, 

Denmark (P. 0.) is the oldest village in the town, and its 
post office was one of the first in the county, having been 
established in January, 1804. As a business place it is now 
probably the least important. It has a hotel, store, two 
churches, and a thinly settled street of nearly a mile in 
length. 

Almon M. Norton^ and Amos Buck^ were many years 
prominent merchants in this village. The first merchant 

1 Mr. Norton died at Lockport, 111., Nov. 23, 1859, aged 73. 

2 Mr. Buck died, July 11, 1855, aged 60. He was iu assembly in 1825 
and 1843. 



Denmark. 91 

was Jabez "Wright, in 1805. Freedom Wright was the first 
inn keeper. 

The first school in Copenhagen Avas taught by Tyrannus 
A. Wright, and the first school bouse in town was built 
near the inn of Freedom Wright in Denmark village. The 
first school commissioners were Lewis Graves, Charles 
Wright, jr., and Stephen Parsons, and the first school in- 
spectors were John Canfield, Israel Kellogg and Charles 
Squire. These were chosen in 1813. 

In 1829, Charles Brown erected a wooden building in 
Denmark village for an academy, and taught with much 
success for several years. Since his removal, about 1840, 
several others have taught, but the premises have now 
fallen into ruin. 

The Alexandria library of Denmark was formed. May 6, 
1811, by Willis Secombe, Lewis Graves, jr., Charles Squire, 
Asa Fierce, Gardner Cottrell, Solomon Wood and Isaac 
Horr, trustees. It was dissolved before the introduction of 
school libraries. 

Religious Societies. — The first meetings in town were 
held by travelers. On the 9th of July, 1805, the Ilarris- 
bnrgh Ecclesiastical Society was formed, with Levi Robbius, 
Edward Frisbie, John S. Clark, Charles Wright, jr., and 
James Buxton, trustees, with the view of erecting a place 
of worship. The division of the town having made the 
name inapplicable, the Denmark Ecclesiastical Society was 
formed in its place, Sept. 21, 1810, with (Jershom Sylvester, 
Chester Wright, Daniel Babcock, Wm. Root, John Canfield, 
John Loud and Freedom Wright, trustees. This was also 
unable to erect a church, and in 1815, a third organization, 
termed the First Ecclesiastical Society in the town of Den- 
mark, was formed, having as its trustees, Josiah White, J. 
Loud, David Canfield, Lemuel Dickenson, Asa I). Wright 
and G. Silvester. Unfortunately for the interests of reli- 
gion, the I'resiiyteriansof this town employed as a minister, 
u man wholly unworthy of coniidunce, and as the se(|nel 
proved, utterly abandoned in principle. This was Walter 
IL Gerry, who was installed in 1815, and at a special ses- 
sion of the St. Lawrence presbytery, August 19, IS 17, wa.9 
(lcj)osod. The records show that ho was " a man of con- 
siderable native talent, ami in his piiMcliing advocated 
HOund doctrines, but it was found that his credentials were 
form'd, and that ho had never been a<lniitted to church mem- 
bership. His njoral character was also had, and at length 
ho abandoned his family and went to South America, where 
ho became a friar." iieforu louving he borrowed ixs much 



92 Denmark. 

money as his credit would allow.^ The Rev. Luman Wil- 
cox was ordained and installe.d, March 16, 1824, and dis- 
missed in 1826. A Presbyterian society was legally formed 
at Copenhagen, January 20, 1824, with Hezekiah Hulbert, 
Philo Weed, Wm. Eoot, John Loud, Gideon Smith and 
Malachi Van Duzen, trustees. The Denmark first and 
second churches remained one till 1827, when they were 
separated by the presbytery. The Rev. Wm. Jones, Abel 
L. Crandall and others were subsequently employed. 

A small wooden church was built at an early day in Den- 
mark village, and used by several denominations many 
years. The present Union church at that place was built in 
the fall of 1848. A Universalist church was built in Den- 
mark about 1830. 

The first church in Copenhagen was built by Presbyte- 
rians and Baptists, on the northwest corner of Main and 
Mechanic streets, and was burned Feb. 16, 1832. The 
Presbyterians thus deprived of a place of worship, united 
with the Methodists and built the church now held by the 
Unionists, and occupied it alternately until the present 
Methodist church was erected. In the month of July, 1839, 
these denominations also united in holding a camp meeting 
in a grove half a mile south of the village. A Congrega- 
tional church was legally formed at Copenhagen, May 3, 
1841, with Malachi Van Duzen, Silas Chapin, Allen Kil- 
born, jr., Lorenzo Baker, Warren Murray, Gideon Smith, 
Nathan Lawton, J. H. Allen and John Newkirk, trustees. 
Many of the members of this society and others have formed 
a church upon what is termed the Union principle, profess- 
ing to be kept together by Christian fellowship rather than 
creeds. A legal society styled the Church of Christ in 
the village of Copenhagen, was formed May 11, 1858, with 
Wm. Canfield, Wm. C. Lawton, Ezekiel Collins, Nelson 
Munger, Lyman Waters, Stephen Thompson, John D. Loud, 
Wm. L. Tompkins and Abel G. Sage, trustees. 

The first Baptist ministers in town were Stephen Parsons 
and Peleg Card, the latter of whom settled about 1807 in 
Copenhagen and engaged in the business of cloth dressing. 

1 After he absconded, various rumors of his operations came back, among 
•which was tlie sale of a large quantity of water for whiskey. This was done 
by placing bladders filled with spirits at the bung, in such a manner that the 
proof glass could dip into them. When examined as a candidate for the 
ministry, he affected to be terribly in pain from toothache. Once in preach- 
ing he evinced great emotion witliout apparent cause, turned pale, trembled 
and could scarcely go on with his discourse. When qiiestioued about the 
cause, he admitted that the thought had occurred to him, that whilst thus 
ministering religious truths to others he might himself be damned I 



Denmark. 93 

A church was formed from churches in Rutland and Cham- 
pion in April, 1808, numbering six males and five females. 
After losing their interest in the first church by fire, they, 
in 1834, built a church since owned by them. In 1835, Eld. 
Jacob Knapp, the eccentric revival preacher, held meetings 
here. Elders Geo. Lyle, Orrin G. llobbins, P. Nichols, W. 
J. Crane, M. Thrasher, A. S. Curtis, 0. Wilbur and others, 
have preached here. 

The first Methodist preacher in town is said to have been 
Mr. Willis. A society was formed in the west part at an 
early day, but not organized as a separate circuit until 1840. 
The preachers since assigned to the Copenhagen circuit 
have been : 1840, Wm. W. Wood ; 1842, Silas Skater, 
1843, Harris Kinsley ; 1844, David Ferguson ; 1845, G. 
Hall, B. S. Wright ; 1846, G. Hall, A. S. Wightman ; 1847, 
Hiram Shepherd, G. W. Plank; 1848, H. Shepherd, Silas 
C. Kenny ; 1849, Alban M. Smith, T. D. Brown ; 1850, A. M. 
Smith ; 1851-2, Orman C. Lathrop ; 1853-4, W. W. Hunt ; 
1855, L. Ckirk; l8f6-7, R. E. King; 185S-9, L. L. Palmer. 

The 2d Soc. of the M. E. Church of Denmark, was formed 
Feb. 3, 1841, with Orlando Babcock, Abner Munger, John 
Clark, 2d, Stephen Nash and John Whiting, as trustees. 
They have a church edifice in Copenhagen. 

The Baptist church in Lowville and Denmark, locally 
known as the " Line Church," was formed Aug. 25, 1819, a 
society having been organized under the statute, as the 1st 
Baptist churcli of L. and D. Feb. 9, of that year, Moses 
Waters, Luther Ilorr, Elijah Clark, Benjamin and Charles 
Davenport, Nelson Burrows, Samuel Bassett, Ichabod 
Parsons and Jacob Kitts, 2d, being the first trustees. 
An edifice was l>uilt on the town lin(; on the state road, 
in 1819, rebuilt in 1850, and rededicated Jan. 10, 1851. 
Its early ministers were elders Stephen Parsons,^ Elisha 
Morgan, John Blodget, Ruel Lathrop and others. In 
the anti-masonic troubles of 1828-30, the church was 

' Kid. I'artons wa.s l/orn Si-pt. 5, 174H, mid ortluine.l to tlu* niiuihtrv, Jun. 
.■}1, 178S. H.< was ail »nrly, zealous ami succ.-ssful nii.ssionury in tho MUck 
river 8t<ttU'nieiit.s, and active in the orKanizution of Mi<urly evt«ry liaptist 
church in th<? <ouiit_v. Il« n inoved from Middl> town to Wliiti.stown towards 
tlio clo.Ht< of tilt' last (-.•iitury, and in lM'« cunn' to l,.-yd<'M, from wlifiui«, af- 
ttir Ht!V»<ral vears, li" reniovt-d to this town. lli.sftt>n.i bfiani.i luad.s i>f lamili.-s 
and iiioHt of tliosi) of tlii.s naino, now living in tlii< founty, aru hi-tdesot-ndants 
Thi« linum.stanroa of hi.-* lU-alh w«re «o jKHuliar that thwy niadx a df.-ji and 
lasting inii>rt'M«ion u|Minth« juihlio luind. IIm hud pn-achod on a Sabbath, in 
the forenoon, from a fnyorito text, rHalmx, xc, TJ, and in tht<afttrno.>n from 
II. Sainu.'i, \\x., 'M : " //uir /o»v havt I to Uvt .»" On Koini; to tin- larn to 

feed hi.H home on the nanie day, he I'll from a jtralloiil, r« ivin^ an injury, 

from wliiih he died uncoiLsiioua, Jau. 7, 1S2U — within the itaiue week that 
this sermon win [Tiaihid. 



94 Diana. 

nearly broken up, and some twenty members withdrew at 
one time. The Presbyterian church at Denmark village 
had become nearly extinct, when one was formed at Deer 
river, in 1826, as the second Presbyterian church of Den- 
mark. It was changed in 1833 to the first Congregational 
church of Denmark, and a legal society was formed July 8, 
1841, with Lyman Graves, Wm. Shelden, L. S. Standing and 
Abner A. Johnson, as trustees- A plain stone church had 
been previously erected at Deer river by this sect and the 
Methodists. In 1859, the Congregationalists of Deer river 
erected a neat church edifice, 36 by 63 feet, at a cost of 
$3,000. 

The Methodist Episcopal society of Deer river was incor- 
porated April 13, 1852, with Rev. Horace Rogers, Tyran- 
nus A. Wright and C. A. Poor, as trustees. 

DIANA. 

This town was formed from Watson (by request of town 
meeting), April 26, 1830, and named in compliment to the 
wishes of Joseph Bonaparte, who then owned most of its 
wild lands and had begun small improvements. In his 
favorite pastime of hunting, he had here found an ample 
field for enterprise, and fancying that Diana herself, might 
covet this region as her home, by a happy turn of poetic 
fancy, he conferred upon it the name of the goddess of 
huntsmen. In classic mythology, Diana was reputed the 
daughter of Jupiter, from whom she received a bow and 
arrows, and a train of sixty nymphs. The poppy was sacred 
to her, and her temple at Ephesus was ranked among the 
proudest trophies of art. As a huntress she was represented 
as tall and nimble, with a light flowing robe, her feet 
covered with buskins, armed with a bow and arrows ; and 
either alone or followed by her nymphs or a hound. Some- 
times she rode in a chariot drawn by two white stags, and 
as goddess of night, or the moon, she was painted with a 
long starred veil, a torch in her hand and a crescent on her 
forehead. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of Robert 
Blanchard, at which Chapman Johnson was elected super- 
visor; Geo. W. Bingham, clerk; Silas D. Stiles, John Wilbur 
and Enoch Cleveland, assessors; Willis Edwards, Caleb 
Blanchard and Jesse Palmer, cojns. of highways; Daniel 
Robert, C. Blanchard and G W. Bingham, co7ns. of schools; 
E. Cleveland and Mills Sly, poor masters; James Edward, col- 
lector, and Thos. Brayton, John Wilbur and Norman Stevens, 
inspectors of schools. 



Diana. 95 

Supervisors. — 1830-1, Chapman Johnson ; 1832, Thos. 
Brayton, jr. ; 1833, C. Johnson ; 1834-5, T. Brayton, jr. ; 
1836-9, Caleb Blanchard ; ] 840-1, David D. Reamer ; 1842, 
John Wilbur ; 1843-9, D. D. Reamer ; 1850, Sherman Blan- 
chard ; 1851, Engine Burnand ; 1852-3, Jonathan Aldrich ; 
1854, Howard Sterling ; 1855, Horace Clark ; 1856, Wm. 
Hunt ; 1857-60, Joseph Pahud. 

C/gr/c5.— 1830, G. W. Bingham; 1831-2, John Wilbur; 
1833, James G. Lyndes (removed and J. Wilbur appointed 
July 11); 1834, Silas I). Stiles; 1835-9, J. Wilbur ; 1840-5, 
Horace Clark; 1846, Reuben Tyler; 1847, Henry Allen, 
jr.; 1848-9, R. Tyler ; 1850-3, H. Allen ; 1854, Nathan R. 
Carley ; 1855-9, H. Allen. 

The south line of the town was fixed between the 19th 
and 20th north ranges of Castorland, but in the erection of 
Croghan, in l84l, the north line of that tract was made the 
south line of the town. The poor and the public money of 
Watson were to be divided in the ratio of the last tax list. 
While a part of Watson, the north line of this town was 
twice changed. On the lOth of April, it was made to run 
80 as to include about 30 lots now in Wilna, and leave off 
several now in Diana, and on the 2d of April, 1813, the 
county line was fixed as it now exists.^ The Checkered 
house and adjoining neighborhood in Wilna, were under 
the former arrangement included in Lewis county, and resi- 
dents in that section could only enjoy the privilege of 
voting, by a journey to Leyden, distant about forty miles. 

A panther bounty of $5 was voted in 1831-2-5, and of 
$10 in 1836 to '42-50-51. A wolf bounty of $5 was voted 
in 1835— and of S'lO in 183 2-4-6-7-8-9-' 56. Fox bounties 
oi ^\ were voted from 1837 to 1842, inclusive. In 1845, 
a special law, allowing !j:5 on panthers, was asked by this 
town of the legislature. 

Settlement began on the old St. Lawrence turnpike by 
one Doiiarty, Itiit the first farm improviincnt was made by 
Thomas and .lurcmiah Ihayton, about 1818. Caleb, Itobert 
and Sherman, sons of Isaac iJlanchard, camo about 1824, 
and afterwards tiieir brother Daniel. They were originally 
from K. ]., l)Ut tiien from Wilna, from wlience also many of 
the other early settlers removeii. (jco. W. Uingham, Ji)hn 
Wilbur, Knoch Clovoland and others, sottled about 1830, or 
u little before. 

About 1S2S, the Cotnit do Survilliers(Josep]i Bonaj)arte), 
Imving acquired tliu title, iirtit cuuiu to uxploru hid lands, 

' Tlieatt chuiigfs nrw fully dt»acribvd on p. 2y of Jofffraon Co. Ilutorjr. 



96 Diana. 

and spend a few weeks in rural pastimes. He directed a 
road to be cut, and went in a stage coach through from the 
old turnpike to the lake, which has since been known as 
Bonaparte lake. He caused a boat to be taken through the 
woods and launched upon this water, and a log house to be 
built on an elevation, commanding a fine view of the lake 
and its shores. 

This sheet of water covers about 1,200 acres, has several 
wild rocky islands within it, and is environed by bold rocky 
shores, alternating with wooded swamps and intervales, 
presenting altogether one of the most picturesque and 
quiet woodland scenes which the great forest affords. The 
place chosen for the house, was on lot 928, on the most com- 
manding site that the shores of the lake presented. On 
the outlet of the lake at the present village of Alpina, the 
count had a clearing of some thirty acres made, and a 
framed house erected with ice house, cellars, out houses 
and other conveniences, with the view of making this a 
summer residence. He also built in 1829, at the Natural 
bridge, a large house, still standing. 

The count visited his lands four times, upon each occasion 
spending a few weeks, and always accompanied by a num- 
ber of chosen companions, some of whom had witnessed and 
shared the sunny fortunes of the ex-king of Naples and of 
Spain, the favorite brother of the great Napoleon. Upon 
one occasion, in returning from the Natural bridge to Evans's 
mills, the cortege halted upon the pine plains, and partook 
of a sumptuous feast which had been prepared with great 
care, and embraced every delicacy that the country af- 
forded, displayed upon golden dishes, and served with regal 
ceremonies. Liberal in the use of money, and sociable with 
all who were brought in business relations with him, he 
was of course popular among our citizens, and his annual 
return was awaited with interest and remembered with 
satisfaction. 

He soon, however, sold to La Farge ; the house on the 
outlet, still unfinished, rotted down, and the log house on 
the lake was some years after burned. 

This episode in the life of Joseph Bonaparte has been 
made the subject of the following poem by Caleb Lyon of 
Lyonsdale. It has been extensively quoted in the news- 
papers of the day, and presents a favorable specimen of the 
style of our Lewis county poet : 



Diana. 97 

BONAPARTE LAKE. 
From the Louisville Journal. 

Waters cnwound with greenest woods, 
And jewelled isles, the gift of Pan, 

Unsought, unseen, where Silence broods, 
Unwelcoming the feet of man. 

Gray clouds in liquid opal burn 

Above the jagged hemlock's height, 

A sunset sky outpours its urn 
In ripples of the rosiest light. 

By sinuous shore the baying hound 
Tells the stag seeks on silver sands 

Diana's mirror; here is found 

One of Eadymion's haunted lands. 

The lilies on thy glowing breast 

Loll languidly in crowns of gold, 
Were pure Evangels speaking rest 

Unto an Exile's heart of old. 

Brother of him whose charmed sword 

Clove or created kingdoms fair, 
Wliose faith in him was as the word 

Writ in the Memlook's scimiter. 

Here he forgot La Granja's glades, 

Escurial's dark and gloomy d(jme, 
And sweet Sorrento's deathless shades, 

In his far off secluded home. 

The hunter loved his pleasant smile, 
The backwuodsman his (juiet speech, 

And the fisher's cares wuuld he l)eguilo 
With ever kindly deeds for each. 

lie lived for others not in vain, 

His well kept memory still is dear — 

Once King (jf Naples and of Spain, 
The friend of Bernardin St. Pierre. 

In 1R3-2, Fannel iiiid Joniaiiio,' French capitalists of some 
GXperieiico in the iron business, began the erection of a 
blast i'urnaco on Indian rivor, at a place which thoy named 
Loiiisbiirgii. As luiilt by them, the furnace was thirfv- 
three feet .-.[iiaro at tho base, of the kind ti-chnically termed 
a quarter furnace and iiitoudod lur u cold blast. Tiiey 

lOf tlm Inll.T iiftin" tln-ni w«r« two or t}ir«'«' l)rotlH'M. Tln-v worn dirnctly 
from Porto Uico. Oao of thoui aftorwurilA died yf cholvnt iu Cuiiudn. 



98 Diana. 

got the furnace in operation in 1833, but their European 
experience did them more harm than good, and after run- 
ning two or three short blasts upon bog ore, their capital 
was expended, and their property, including about five 
thousand acres of land, was sold. 

Isaac K. Lippencott, Joseph M. Morgan and David D. 
Reamer^ became purchasers in 1836, and continued the busi- 
ness with better success, about ten years. They rebuilt the 
furnace, twenty-eight feet square, (seven and a half feet in- 
side measure), introduced the hot blast in 1839, and for 
some time made stoves and other castings, by dipping 
directly from the furnace. The establishment had been 
founded upon the expectation of finding ores in the vici- 
nity, but this failing, a supply was drawn from the Kearney 
mine in Gouverneur, and elsewhere in St. Lawrence county. 
The yield was generally three tons per day, and towards the 
end, much of it found a market in Rochester. 

In 1850 the premises were bought by James Sterling who 
procured a change in the name of the post office, to Ster- 
lingbush, avA resumed the manufacture. He paid $10,000 
for the premises and spent about $13,000 in rebuilding. 
Several blasts have been run since this change, but the work 
is now suspended.- The village consists of but little else 
than the furnace and its dependencies. The Sterling- 
bush and North Wilna plank road, built in 1853, con- 
nects this place by plank with tlie R. R. at Antwerp, and 
the iron mines, between Antwer]j and Somerville. 

In 1833, Foskit Harris" of Champion, under a promise of 
two acres of land and a waterfall on the Oswegatchie, with 
other inducements, from Judge Boyer, agent of Bonaparte, 
hired several men, and on the 25th of September of that 
year, pushed three miles be3-ond settlement, and began the 
erection of mills at the present village of Harrisville. A 
saw mill was built the first season, and a grist mill with one 
run of stones in 1835, several mechanics came in, roads 

iMr. Reamer died at Watertown, Aug. 12, 1838. He was sole manager at 
Louisburgh, the other associates being non-residents. In 1848 he was 
elected from this coimty to assembly, and soon after removed to Watertown, 
where he became an unsuccessful merchant. He was afterwards a clerk in 
the R. R. freight office. 

- The cost of drawing ore from the Kearney mine, in Gouverneur, averaged 
$2.2.5, besides $1.75 for the ore delivered on the bank. It yields readily 50 
per cent in ihe large way, although, theoretically, it should produce more. 
Most of the ore used by Sterling was drawn from his mine in Antwerp. 

3 Son of Asa Harris, who removed from Newport, N. Y., to Champion, the 
second year of its settlement. Mr. Harris died at Harrisville, Dec. 17, 1842, 
aged about 56 years. Mr. La Farge jjresented tifty acres of laud to his 
widow. 



Diana. 99 

were opened, lands cleared, and the place appeared destined 
to Ijecome a central business point. Several families were 
from Le Ray and towns adjacent ; but no sooner was it 
known that Mr. La Farge had become the owner of the 
lands in this section, than they resolved to quit the place. 
The reputation of La Farge was exceedingly bad among the 
settlers on Penet square and elsewhere, and cases of marked 
severity had created so bitter a prejudice, that no induce- 
ment, not even that of a free gift at his hand, could induce 
them to remain. Thus deserted, the place retained little 
besides a name, until about four years since, when Joseph 
Pahud, a Swiss gentleman (who had become concerned in 
the Alpiua works, towards the last of the Swiss company's 
operations), came to reside at this place. Under his aus- 
pices, a grist mill of superior finish was erected in 1858, 
and a saw mill, with double saws, in 1859. Inducements 
were offered, which led, in 1859, to the building of a chair 
factory, a sash, door and blind shop, and several buildings 
in the village. In May of that year, Messrs. Beach and 
Dodgc^ began an extensive tannery on the east side of the 
river, half a mile below the village, and in the midst of a 
forest. It is 288 feet long, has 160 vats, and is intended to 
turn out a])Out 40,000 sides of sole leather annually. A 
new saw mill has been got in operation a mile above, and 
other manufactories are in progress. The village as yet, 
embraces, besides the above, only an inn, two stores, and 
about fifteen houses. It is half a mile from the St. Law- 
rence CO. line, and by the nearest practicable route, thirteen 
miles from Koene's station, on the Potsdam and Watertown 
R. R., to which place a common or plank road, will, proba- 
bly, before long, be laid out. The Oswegatchie was de- 
clared a pul)lic iiigbway, by act of April 13, 1854, as far up 
as the junction of the middle and west branches. 

Engine Bnrnand, a Swiss, about 1844, j)urchased 48,513 
acres from I^a Farge, embracing two ranges of lots in Ant- 
werp, and \22 lots in Diana, and returned to Switzerland 
to find purchiisers to settle upon his tract. While traveling 
upon tijo lake Nouf'chatel ho met Louis Suchard, the pro- 
prietor of the steamer upon which they then were, and in 
conversation got him nnich interested in the chances of" spec- 
ulation, which his triict afforded, especially when ho learned 
that iron ores occurred in this rogit)n and that forests of 
wood were ai)undant. Selecting, at random, a lot upon tho 
map, (No. 920), he paid for it, and took u deed upon the 

* Sninui'l Ili'iiry \W:\>\\ of ("atskill, and Kolwrt Win. Dodg« of Uouvornour, 
sou of tht' Hull. I'Mwiii I)uil.:''. 



^ Jl Jv 111 / 



100 V Diana. 

spot.^ Suchard came over in 1845, and after two days 
spent in personal exploration and conversation with settlers, 
this ardent and credulous adventurer returned and in the 
winter following, organized a company with a capital of 
300,000 francs, for the purchase of the tract, and erection 
of an iron furnace.^ 

Charles Favarger was sent over to conduct operations, 
receiving a salary at first, and promised eventually an in- 
terest in the enterprise. He selected a site on the lot 886, 
on the outlet of Bonaparte lake, and began the erection of 
a furnace, giving the location the name of Alpina. Mr. F. 
was not a practical iron master, but the furnace which he 
erected was of superior construction, and after an expend- 
iture greatly exceeding the estimates, it was got in opera- 
tion in the spring of 1848, at a cost of $20,000. The local 
supply of ore proved insufficient" and it was obtained from 
the Kearney and other mines in St. Lawrence co. After 
running two blasts with hot air, making from two to five 
tons per day, the company failed. By F.'s contract with 
Burnand, he was to have a deed of 1000 acres whenever he 
had paid $1000, and under this arrangement 17,000 acres 
had been conveyed at the time of the assignment. 

Frederick de Freudenrich, to secure his own interests and 
those of his nephew, the Count de Portalis, in this Swiss 
company, bought the property of the assignee, and by care- 
ful management secured both without loss. The stock 
remaining at the furnace was worked up by Sterling, under 
an agreement with Freudenrich. 

The furnace and its dependencies, with a large tract of 
land, passed into the hands of Z. H. Benton of Ox Bow, 
Jeff. CO., who, on the 6th of June, with his associates, or- 
ganized the St. Regis Mining Co. with $1,000,000 capital, 
in shares of $10 each. The parties named in the articles 
were Thomas Morton, John Stanton, Lyman W. Gilbert, 
Wm. Hickok and Albert G. Allen, and they stipulated the 
right to work mines in various towns of St. Lawrence, Jef- 
ferson and Lewis counties. It is needless to add that this 
scheme proved a failure, and that certain parties lost 
heavily by the speculation. We are not able to follow the 

1 This lot afterwards proved to be chiefly swamp and lake. Burnand, when 
this was found, made a satisfactory change of other lands. 

2 The company consisted of about twenty persons, and its capital was af- 
terwards doubled. 

3 A few hundred tons of ore were obtained on the lands of the company and 
proved of good quality. About 1000 tons of iron were made under Favar- 
ger. Some poor sandy bog ores, obtained from the vicinity, were used as 
flux only. 



Greig. 101 

intricate management of this affair, or to state further, 
than that there is a prospect of a continuance of operations 
at the furnace. One bhist lias been run by Benton, two by 
Emmet, and one by Pahud, since the above company was 
formed. About 1853, Loveland Paddock of Watertown, 
and D. C. Judson of Ogdensburgh, became the owners of 
about 30,000 acres in this town, to secure certain interests 
growing out of the Alpina management, and are now the 
owners of most of the wild lands in great tract number 4. 
Their agent is Mr. Pahud of Harrisville. 

There are four post olTices in this town : Harrisville, 
Diana, Diana Centre and Sterlingbush. 

In 1852, Prince Sulkowski of Belitz, a political exile from 
Polish Austria, became a resident of Harrisville. His uncle 
had been a general under Napoleon, and fell in the battle 
of the Pyramids. The suliject of this notice, in the revo- 
lutions of 1848, became obnoxious to the government, but 
managed to reach America with his family, and to secure a 
small stipend from a once large estate. He removed to this 
section I'rora the opportunities it offered in the pursuit of 
his favorite diversion, that of hunting, and perhaps from 
the number of ftimilies who could speak his native language. 
In 1856 he removed to Dayanville, and he has recently been 
restored to his hereditary titles and estates. About two 
years since some attention was called to this person from a 
report that he was to marry the infamous Lola ^lontez ; 
but the story, originating from parties in Enrojjc who were 
interested in jjruventing his restoration to the royal favor, 
was easily refuted and had none of its intended effect. 

There are at present no church edifices in Diana, except- 
ing an Irish Catholic cliapd at Storliii'jbush. begun in the 
fall of 1858 and still unfinished. The Metimdists organized 
a class about 1830, and have since held meetings, more or 
less regularly, in, school houses. The Seventh Day Uup- 
tiats organized a church of 11 members in 184G. 

r.KMKi 

Tiiis town was formed from Watson undor the name of 
limnliiti^ham,^ March 1, 182S, and changfij to it.-* present 
namo, Feb, -20, IS32. It is namoii from John (Jreig, who 
was born in Moffat, Dumfrieshiro, Scotland, August 6, 1779. 

1 Nameil from ThotnM Hopper Brmntinf(liun of Phil*., in whom the title 

of n largu ]>urtioi> wu.m, fur a tiliurt tiiu>-, vciili'il ll« U uiiili<r«tood tu have 
Ixx'ii an iiii.Hurcv.-i.ifdl mi-riliatit. Th*< l<<tt<rit of cot«iuporari««, alluilo tc Uliu 
as uuwurtby of triuit and d>-atituto of honor. 



102 Greig. 

His father was a lawyer, the factor of the earl of Hopeton, 
and a landholder, who ranked among the better class of 
Scotch farmers. He was educated in his native parish and 
at the high school in Edinburgh, and at the age of eighteen 
emigrated to America with John Johnstone, a Scotch gen- 
tleman who had previously been concerned in Mr. William- 
son's settlements in western New York. After spending a 
short time in New York and Albany he went to Canan- 
daigua in April, 1800, and became a law student at the 
office of Nathaniel W. Howell. In 1804 he was admitted to 
the bar, and becoming a partner with Judge Howell, con- 
tinued in the practice of his profession until the death of 
the latter in 1820. In 1S06, upon the death of Mr. John- 
stone, he succeeded him as the agent of the Hornby and 
Colquhoun estate, and continued in that relation till his 
death. He was relieved of a portion of the duties of this 
trust, at his own request, in August, 1853, by the appointment 
of William Jeffrey as associate agent. In 1820 he became 
president of the Ontario bank, and held this office until the 
expiration of its charter in l8o6. In 1841 he was elected 
to Congress, but resigned at the end of the first session, and 
during several of his later years he was one of the ma- 
nagers of the Western house of refuge In 1825 he Avas 
chosen a regent of the university, and in 1851 he became vice 
chancellor of that board. He held niEin}' years the ofhce 
of president of the Ontario county agricultural society, and 
was one of the founders and corporators of the Ontario 
female seminary. His death occurred at Canandaigua, 
April 9, 1868. 

Through a long and active life, he discharged the duties en- 
trusted to him with an industry, method and success, which 
earned him the implicit confidence of his emp]o3'ers, while 
his indulgent kindness towards those who settled under 
him, is remembered with gratitude by hundreds of the 
pioneer families. Of his private life, the village paper, 
in an obituary notice, remarks : 

" Mr. Greig, though sometimes drawn from home by 
necessary business relations and interests, was eminently 
domestic in his habits and predilections. His chosen en- 
joyment was found in the indulgence, amidst the treasures 
of his select and ample library, of a refined literary taste — 
in the cultivation and adornment of the grounds about his 
stately mansion — in the society of a numerous circle of per- 
sonal friends, and in the dispensation of a generous and 
tasteful, though unostentatious hospitality. Almost to the 
close of his life, nearly every stranger of distinction that 



Greiff. 103 



"& 



visited the place, found a welcome and a home at his hos- 
pitable dwelling. Indeed, our beautiful village, owes much 
of its reputation abroad, for social courtesy and refinement, 
and for a frank and liberal hospitality, to him and his ge- 
nerous hearted and worthy lady." 

The first town meeting in this town was held at the house 
of Dr. Simon Goodell, at Avhich Mr. Goodell was chosen 
supervisor; Joshua Harris, clerk; Jedediah Plumb, George 
Pinney and Henry Harris, assessors; Gilbert Ford and Ezbon 
Pringle, overseers of poor; Johannes Saut, Simeon X. Garratt 
and Otis Munn, corns, of highways; Henry Harris, collector: 
Henry Harris and Daniel T. Scares, constables; "Wm. Parkes, 
Jedediah S. Plumb and John P. Myers, commis. of schools; S. 
Goodell, E. Pringle and G. Pinney, school inspectors; John 
Fisher, D. T. Sears and Milo Clark, yence viewers; John W. 
Southwick, Chancy Carroll and Judah Barnes, pound mas- 
ters. 

Supervisors. — 1828, Simon Goodell ; 1829-33. Joshua Har- 
ris; 1834-6,Wm. Dominick; 1837-9, Aaron Perkins; 1840-3, 
Francis Seger; 1844, Wm. Dominick ; 1845, John I. Domi- 
nick ; 1846, Dean S. Howard; 1847-8, David Higby; 
1849-50, Lyman P. Lyon; 1851, Aaron Perkins; 1852, J. 
L Dominick ; 1853-4, Adam Deitz ; 1855-6, Thomas 
Rogers ; 1857-9, Henry S. Shedd ; 1860, Francis Seger. 

Clerks. — 1828, Joshua Harris; 1829-33, Henry Harris; 
18.34, Joseph Atkins ; 1835, Geo. W. Sharps ; 1836-8, Adam 
Deitz ; 1839-40, H. Harris; 1841-4, J. Harris; 1845-7, A. 
Deilz ; 1848-9, H.Harris; 1850, Aaron Perkins; 1851, 
Adam Shell ; 1852, Asa Beals ; 1853-4, Chauncey Munson ; 
1855-6, Seymour iJenedict ; 1857-8, James Springsteed, jr.; 
1859, Emmet Harris. 

This town has since 1832 voted money annually for the 
support of jerries across Black river, upon the condition 
that town's peoplu should go free. The towns of Martins- 
burgh and Turin have, during several years, unitotl in the 
support of these ferries. '1 he first bridge from this town 
to the west side was the Duvis bridge, first built in 1820 
by Caleb Lyon, and since twice rebuilt by the towns. It is 
two miles alcove the High falls. I'ort Loyden bridge was 
first built in IS23, l>y the towns. A bridge iVom the point 
between Mooso and Black river to the west sitle, was built 
by C. Lyon in 1824, and lasted thrt'e or four years. A 
bridge was built opposite Turin villiige in 1824-5 by the 
towns but <lid not last long, and the travel has since been 
supplioil by a ferry. A bridge was first built over the High 



104 Greig. 

falls in 1836, and rebuilt in 1842.^ In 1849 a new bridge 
was built at the junction of Moose and Black river, so as to 
accommodate both sides of Moose river.^ 

A bridge at Tiffany's landing was built in 1846^ by this 
town and Martinsburgh, and maintained until it was cut 
away by the state authorities in 1854, as obstructing the 
navigation. A ferry had existed several years before at 
this place, and has supplied the place of a bridge since the 
removal of the latter. Two bridges have been authorized 
to be built at the expense of the state, between the falls 
and Watson bridge, and the decision of their location Avill 
have probably been made before this volume is in the hands 
of readers. Concerning the upper one of these, there has 
been an active controversy between those advocating its 
location at the steamboat dock at Lyon's falls, and those who 
wish to have it constructed opposite Turin village, at or 
near the present ferry. A bridge has been recently built 
across the Black river, one mile below the Oneida county 
line at Hulbert's saw mill. 

The first location by actual settlers was made just below 
the High falls in 1794, by the French, and their colony re- 
ceived from time to time accessions in number but not in 
strength. It may be questioned whether any number of 
tradesmen, jewelers and barbers from Paris could form a 
flourishing establishment in this wild wooded country, with- 
out a long previous course of misspent labor and fruitless 
expense ; for of what avail is industry when applied, as it 
was here, from dawn till twilight, in clearing land with a 
pruning hook? or of what use was money, but to purchase 
provisions and other necessaries of life, which could be ob- 
tained much cheaper in cities. These tender exotics from 
sunny France soon found the privations of the northern 
wilderness beyond their capacity of endurance and quickly 
began to drop off and return to New York, from whence 
numbers went back to their native country, wiser and 
poorer from the bitter lessons which experience had 
taught. 

A romantic account of this settlement, under date of 
Sept. 9, 1800, appears in the appendix of an anonymous 



1 Act of April 12, 1842, allowing the question of tax upon West Turin, for 
this object, to be submitted to a town vote. 

-The town of Greig was authorized by the supervisors Nov. 15, 1849, to 
borrow 81,000 for this purpose, which was done. 

3 Act of May 12, 1846* allowing §400 to be taxed on Greig, and $300 upon 
Martinsburgh. 



Greig. 105 

work published in Paris in 1801, from which we here 
ofler several extracts •} 

Au event, as unfortunate as unexpected, has much hindered the 
prosperity of this colony. The death of a young man of much 
talent, whom Ihe Castorland company had sent from Paris, to 
render a wild and hitherto unknown country fit to favor the re- 
iinion of a new born society, to divide the lands, open roads, 
beg-in the first labors, built bridges and mills, and invent 
macliines, where man is so rare. A victim of his zeal, in taking 
the level of a bend of the river, he perished in trying to cross 
above the great falls. His comrades so unfortunate as not to be 
able to assist him, have collected the details of this disastrous 
event in a paper, which I have been unable to read without 
emotion and which I send. 

Our rivers abound in fish, and our brooks in trout. I have 
seen two men take 72 in a day. Of all the colonies. of beavers, 
which inhabited this country and raised so many dams, only a 
few scattering families remain. We have destroyed these com- 
munities, images of happiness, in whose midst reigned the 
most perfect order, peace and wisdom, foresight and industry. 
AVolves, more cunning and warlike than the former, live at our 
expense, and as yet escape our deadly lead. It is the same 
with the original elk. It is only seen in this part of the state, 
and our hunters will soon make it disappear, for you know, that 
wherever man establishes himself, this tyrant must reign alone. 
Among the birds we have the plieasant, drumming partridge, 
wild pigeon, difierent kinds of ducks, geese, and wild turkey. 
Sec. Our chi<;f place, situated on the banks of the pretty Bea- 
ver river, and IVom tiiene(i so appropriately named Caslorville, 
begins to grow. It is still only, as you may justly think, but 
a cUister of |>i imitive dwe'llings, but still it contains several 
families of mechanics, of which new colonies have so frequent 
need. Severiil stores, situated in favorable places, begin to 
have business. The Canadians, on the right bank of the river, 
come thither to buy the goods which they need, as well as 
sugar and rum, which, from the duties being less at our porta 
than at (iu(;bec, are cheaper with us than with the:n. The 
vicinity of these French settlements arc very useful to us, iu 
many rcHpocts. Catth- are cheaper than with us, as well as 
manual l;il)<)r. Such are the causes of communication between 
the inhabitants of the two sides, that it is impossible for the 
English government to prevent it. * * * Among our 
families we have some, who, driv<'n from their country by fear 
and tyvamiy, have sought in this an asylum of peace and 

iTho arli. 1,. Ls translated in full, in tlio Hut. of Jollorsou Co., p. 52—55. 
Tho work is in three volume.M, and })iiri><)rt.'.i to l)w from a numu.sirijit oa.st 
nslioru on tlio coa.st of IVnniurk, lr.«ni tli.- wr<«rk of tin- whip Momini^ Star. 
Tim authority ol thi.s lotlvr is unknown, but that of tho work id kuowu to 
bo J. lluctor Saint John de Cr<Sveca)ur. 



106 Greig. 

liberty, rather than wealth, and at least of security and sweet 
repose. One of these, established on the banks of Rose creek, 
came from St. Domingo, where he owned a considerable plan- 
tation, and has evinced a degree of perseverance, worthy of 
admiration. One of the prf)prietors^ has a daughter as in- 
teresting by her tigure as by her industry, who adds at the same 
time to the economy of the household, the charms or rather the 
happiness of their life. Anotlier yet is an officer, of cultivated 
mind, sprightly and original ; who, born in the burning climate 
of India, finds his health here strengthened. He superintends 
the clearing of a tract of 1200 acres, which two sisters, French 
ladies, have entrusted to him, and to which he has given the 
name of Sister's Grove. He has already cleared more than 100 
acres, erected a durable house, and enclosed a garden in which 
he labors with an assiduity, truly edifying. He has two Cana- 
dians, whose ancestors were originally from the same province 
with himself. Far from his country', the most trifling events 
become at times a cause of fellow feeling, of which those who 
have never felt it, can have no idea. As for cattle, those raised 
that only bring $9 a pair, at the end of the year, are worth $70 
when they are four years old. Fat cattle, which commonly 
weigh 700 to 900 lbs., sell at the rate of $5 per hundred. Of 
swine, living almost always in the woods, the settler can have 
as many as he can fatten in the fall. It should not be omitted 
to give the.m from time to time an ear of corn each, to atta(;h 
them to the clearing, and prevent them from becoming wild, for 
then there is no mastering their wills, for they pining for their 
wandering life will not fatten on whatever is given tliem. But- 
ter is as dear with us as in old settled countries, and sells for a 
shilling a pound. * * * j have placed your habitation not 
far from the great falls, but far enough distant not to be incom- 
moded by the noise, or rather uproar which they make in falling 
three different stages. The picturesque view of the chain of 
rocks over which the waters plunge, their tumultuous commo- 
tion, the natural meadows in the vicinity, the noble forests 
which bound the horizon, the establishments on the opposite 
bank, the passage of travelers who arrive at the ferry I have 
formed, all contribute to render the location very interesting, 
and it will become more so when cultivation, industry and time, 
shall have embellished this district, still so rustic and wild, and 
so far from resembling the groves of Thessalia. The house is 
solid and commodious, and the garden and farm yards tvell en- 
closed. 

I have placed a French family over the store and am well 
pleased with them, I think, however, they will return to 
France, where the new government has at length banished in- 
justice, violence and crime, and replaced them by the reign of 
reason, clemency and law. The fishery of the great lake (On- 

1 St. Micliel, noticed in our account of Croghan. 



Greis. 107 



"o 



tario) in which I am concerned, furnishes me an abundance of 
shad,^ salmon and lierring-, and more than I want. What more 
can I say ? I want nothing- but hands. You who live in a 
country where there are so many useless hands and whose la- 
bors are so little productive there, why don't you send us some 
hundreds of those men ? The void they would occasion would 
be imperceptible; here they would fill spaces tliat need to be 
animated and enlivened by their presence. What conquest 
would they not achieve in ten years ! and what a difference in 
their lot ! Soon they would become freeliolders and respecta- 
ble heads of fatnilies. The other day a young Frenchman, my 
neighbor, seven miles distant, and established some years upon 
the bank of the river, said to me: " If it is happy to enjoy 
repose, tlie fruit of one's labors and ease after having escaped 
the perils of the revolution, how much more so to have a 
partner of these enjoyments ? I am expecting a friend, a 
brotlier; it is one of those blessings which nature alone can 
bestow. AVhat pleasure shall I not ^njoy in pointing out to 
him the traces of my first labors and in making him count the 
successive epochs of their progress and the stages of my pros- 
perity, but above all to prove to him that his memory has been 
ever present to me. The objects wiiich surround me I will tell 
liim are witnesses to the truth of tliis: this hill upon the right, 
covered with sombre pines, is designated upon ni}^ map under 
the name of Hippolites Absence, the creek which traverses my 
meadow under that of .Brothers Creek, the old oak which I have 
left standing at the forks of the two roads, one of wiiich leads 
to my hous(' and the other to the river, Union Oaf:, the place of 
my house Blooming Slope. Soon lui will arrive from St. Domingo, 
wliere T(jussant Ij'Ouverture has allowed him to collect some 
wreck of our fortune." 

The reminiscences of the French colony in this town 
liuvo been made the subject of the following poem, written 
by Caleb Lyon of Lyonsdalc, entitled 

LKWIS COUNTY IN THE OLDEN TIMK. 

From the KTrnloK Pout. 

In the lands of vinfs and olivos, ovt-r thn-f Kroro years ago. 
Where the Hourhon Rulers perLshed in unuttt>rahlo woo. 
Plans inaliiriMl for •■niinratiun sani'ticincd were with revel g»j, 
In saluons of la belle Parii, Ly the frieiid-s of Chati^iauaia. 

On an hnndrod thousand acres, never trod hy feet of men, 

lie had mapped out farms and vineyard.s, roads o'er precipice and glen, 

And, like HCfiics ol an enchanter, rose a city womlrous fair. 

With its colleges, iU cluirches, and it.s ciuitlea iu the air. 

1 White Fish. 



108 Greig. 

Theu was struck a classic medal by this visionary band : 
Cybele was on the silver, and beneath was Castorland ; 
The reverse a tree of maple, yielding forth its precious store, 
Salve magna parens frugum was the legend that it bore. 

O'er the Atlantic, up the Hudson, up the Mohawk's dreary wild, 
With his flock came Bishop Joulin, ever gentle as a child ; 
Kind words of his dispelled their sorrows and their trials by 

the way. 
As the darkness of the morning fades before the god of day. 

By la Riviere de la Famine, ocean-tired and travel-sore, 
They up-reared a rustic altar, tapestried with mosses o'er ; 
Crucifix they set upon it where the oak tree's shadows fell 
Lightly o'er the lighted tapers, 'mid the sweet Te Deum^s swell. 

Never Dominus Vobiscum, falling upon human ears, 
Made so many heart-strings quiver, filled so many eyes with tears. 
The Good Shepherd gave his blessing — even red men gathered there, 
Felt the sacrifice of Jesus in his first thanksgiving prayer. 

After toils and many troubles, self-exile for many years, 

Long delays and sad misfortunes, men's regrets and women's tears, 

Unfulfill'd the brilliant outset, broken as a chain of sand, 

Were the golden expectations by Grande Rapides' promised land. 

Few among this generation little care how lived or died 
Those who fied from Revolution, spirits true and spirits tried ; 
Or of loves and lives all ended, orbs of hope forever set — 
These the poet and historian can not let the world forget. 

Among the ruins of the French houses at the Falls, there 
have been found brick of a peculiar form and a light yellow 
color. If these were made in the locality, the source from 
■whence they obtained the clay is well worth inquiry. If 
they were brought hither from a distance, the circumstance 
has scarcely less interest, especially since stone, well adapted 
for building, could be procured abundantly near the spot, 
and must have been noticed by the first explorers, had they 
been in the least degree observant. 

The earliest criminal trial relating to this region, oc- 
curred in 1795, in the Herkimer court, at which D 

C of Litchfield, was tried for stealing SlOOO from a 

Frenchman at the Falls, and sent to state prison. In 1799, 
a white man came in at the High falls from towards lake 
Champlain, stating that a negro in his company had died 
some miles back on the Beaver river road. From his having 
some property of the other, suspicions were raised that he 
had murdered him, and upon search the body was found 
at some distance from where it was reported, but so de- 
cayed that nothing could be ascertained. The fellow tra- 
veler was arrested, but released from want of evidence 
against him, and it was thought that the negro had arisen 



Greig. 109 

from where he had been left, and come on some distance 
before lying down to die. 

The first permanent settlement in this town was begun in 
1819, under the agency of Caleb Lyon/ although improve- 
ments had been made by John H. Dickinson, several bro- 

1 Caleb Lyon was of Scottish ancestry, who removed to Hertfordshire, Eng., 
during the troubles of the Covenanters, and from thence to New England about 
1680. He was a son of a captain in the Revolution. His grandmother was 
a daughter of Judge Sherburne of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, and 
his mother was Margaret Hodges of the Island of Jamaica. 

The name Caleb has been applied to the youngest son in this family through 
many generations. He was born at East Windsor, Ct., in 1701, and removed 
when a child to Greenfield, Mass. He entered at Harvard college, but did not 
graduate, and removed, about 1800, to western New York, where he settled 
as an agent in what is now Walworth, Wayne county. He was for several 
years engaged, in the winter months, in the manufacture of salt at Salina. 
He removed in 1810 to the mouth of Four Mile creek, now North Pentield, 
Monroe county, where he laid out a village, projected a harbor and formed 
a settlement, but the enterprise not succeeding, he removed to what is known 
as Carthage landing, on the Genesee, below Rochester. He there pur- 
chased lOliO acres, erected buildings, and in 1816 sold to several associates. 
Having been for some time an agent of the Pultney estate, and thus brought 
to the acquaintance of Mr. Greig, he undertook, in 1819, the agency of the 
Brantingham tract, in which that gentleman was concerned. In 1823 he set- 
tled at Lyonsdale, wliere he built a bridge in 1829, and a grist mill in 1830-1. 
There were but one or two settlers in town when he came on as agent. He was 
elected to the assembly of 1824, and took an earnest interest in the construc- 
tion of the Hlack River canal, but died before it was assumed as a state work. 
He was found dead in the woods, about a mile from the Davis Bridge, Sept. 
15, 1835, having probably been stricken by apoplexy. Mr. Lyon was a fre- 
quent contributor to iigricultural journals, especially to Fessenden's New Eng- 
land Farmer. His temperament was ardent and poetic, and his plans of 
business were pursued with an energy that allowed no common dilficulty to 
prevent their accomplishment. He was tiie friend and correspondent of De 
Witt Clinton, and an cntliusiastic friend of the great jiublic improvements, 
brought forward under his administration. Mr. L. married Mary, daughter 
of Muj. Jean Pi-Tre Du Pont, nephew and aid of Montcalm, last French com- 
mandant at Qufbec. 

Of his two sons, Lyman R. Lyon wa.s born in what is now Walworth, 
Wayne county, in 180»), and was educated under the Rev. John Sherman, at 
TriMiton, and at tlie Lowville academy. From 1830 to 1835 lie was dejiuty 
clerk in a.ssemlily, and during several years at'ter was employd upon gov- 
ernment contracts, in ilri'dging tli<' channels of wt'stj-rn rivers and liarbors. 
He wa.s several yt-ars cashii-r and j)re.sid«'nt of the Lewis county bank, and in 
1859 was in assembly. Hi- is at pri-sont the mx.st I'XtfnsivH resident land 
proprietor in the county, ami is largely concerned in bu.siness ufTairs. lie re- 
sides in this town, near the river, and a short distance Iwlow the fulls. 

Caleb Lyon of Lyonsdale, widfly known as a poft, lecturer, traveler and 
politician, was Imitu in this town about l.*^2l. H»' wius <>du<'atcd at Norwich, 
Vt., and ill .Moiitn-al, and at an early agn IxH'aiiie known in this count v as 
a lecturer, while his jioenis and e.ssays rendercil IiIh nani«.> familiar in literary 
circles throughout the country. He was coniiiiiM.-ioiied as consul to Shanghai, 
China, Feb. 15, 1847, but eiiirustod the ollUe to a deputy, and in 184.S he 
removed to Calirornia, where, after some months .ipeiit in tlie mines, he was 
chosen one of the Mecretaries of the coiLstitiitionul convention. Oni- of the 
first diilie.s of this body was the adoption of a state .ienl, and the tiesign of- 
fered by Mr. L. was adopted Sept. 2, ls49. He was paid li 11 'UO for the design 
and seal — (Journal of Convtntton, p. 304, 323). lu 1850 he was elected to 



1 10 Greig. 

thers named Chase and others. At the present day much 
the largest part of the town is a forest, affording for many 
years to come, immense resources for the manufacture of 
lumber^ and articles of wood" and bark for tanning leather.^ 
Its Avater power, especially along the course of Moose 
river, is of great amount, and as yet mostly unimproved.* 

assembly. He resigned April 26, 1851, to run against Skinner for the senate. 
While in the legislature he took an active part in favor of free schools, the 
completion of the canals and other public measures, and upon final adjourn- 
ment was presented a silver tea service by his friends. In the fall of 1852 he 
was elected to the 33d congress. Soon after the expiration of his term he 
visited Europe and extended his travels to Turkey, Egypt and Palestine, 
from whence he returned with many souvenirs of foreign lands. While at 
Constantinople he addressed a letter June 28, 1853, to Com. Ingraham of the 
U. S. corvette St. Louis, highly approving the measures of Mr. Brown, in the 
case of the exile Martin Koszta, which excited much interest in this country 
and led to a sharp diplomatic correspondence — (Executive Docs., vol. 11, No. 
91, p. 19, 1st sess. 33d Cong.). In 1858 Mr. Lyon was defeated at the con- 
gressional election. In each instance that he has appeared before the public 
as a candidate he has been self-nominated and has always canvassed the dis- 
trict, holding frequent meetings by appointment and discussing the public 
issues of the day with his views of the policy which should be pursued with 
regard to them. The degree of LL. D. was conferred upon Mr. Lyon by 
Norwich University, the college where he graduated, in 1851. He is also an 
honorary or corresponding member of several state historical societies. Mr. 
Lyon is a popular lecturer upon subjects relating to history and the fine arts, 
as well as upon Egypt, the Holy Land, Italy and southern Russia, and his 
manner of delivery is animated, earnest and often eloquent. During Mr. 
Lyon's congi-essional term, he enjoyed the friendship of Thomas H. Benton 
and other eminent statesmen. He is a good classical and somewhat of an 
oriental scholar. 

1 Marshal Shedd, jr., and. Henry S. Shedd, have a gang saw mill on Moose 
river, a mile from its mouth. A gang saw mill was put up about 1854, on 
Otter creek, by Richard Carter, upon the tract purchased by Governor Sey- 
mour, and there are numerous other lumber mills of less extent in town. 

2 A match box and match factory have been in operation on Otter creek 
since the fall of 1855. There is an extremely thick growth of pines, soffe 
maple, birch and ash, upon a level tract extending along the creek from half 
a mile above its mouth, five or six miles up, and from one to three miles from 
its bank. The pines are small and doubtless of second growth. An old map 
has a record that this district was burnt over by hunters about the time of 
the revolution. Running fires have at different times caused great destruc- 
tion of timber, especially in July, 1849, when the woods, near Port Leyden, 
were ravaged by the flames. 

3 In 1850, Cyrus W. Pratt, son of Ezra Pratt, of Greene county, built a large 
tannery on Fish creek, three miles below the High Falls. Mr. Wm. Wil- 
liams of Troy, erected another the same year on Crystaline creek, one mile 
from the former. This, after several cliangps of ownership, in the fall of 1856, 
also passed into the hands of Mr. Pratt, and both have since been run by 
him. They are capable of tanning 50,000 sides of sole leather annually, and 
would require 5000 cords of bark. Mr. P. was in our county the pioneer in 
this business which has come to form an important element of its manufac- 
turing industry. 

* Besides a saw mill and grist mill at Lyonsdale, the only manufactory on 
this river is a paper mill, built in 1848 by Ager and Lane, and now owned 
by the Ager brothers. It turns out of wrapping, book and news paper, about 
500 pounds daily. 




■n^' 



•Hj.i 




d 



I • A 



w^- 



Greig. Ill 

The point at the junction of the two rivers has been sur- 
veyed into village lots, and mapped, but is still Avoodland, 
with no building but the forest church. It is owned by the 
five daughters of the late Caleb Lyon. 

No settlement has been attempted upon Brown's tract 
within this county. The proprietor endeavored to establish 
settlers in Herkimer county about 1795, but failed entirely. 
In 1812, Charles Herreshott", a son-in-law of Brown, formed 
a project of establishing a sheep farm on what he called 
The Manor, made a d^earing and got on a flock of sheep, 
but this also failed. He afterwards built a forge and 
attempted to open a mine, and after spending all the money 
he could draw from the family completed this failure also, 
by suicide, Dec. 19, 18 19. The soil of Greig is, in most 
parts, a light sandy loam. Many years since, Dr. S. Goodell 
undertook to dig a well in coarse gravel, alternating with 
hard fine sand. The latter often indicated water, but failed 
to afford it in quantities, and the shaft was sunk 116 feet 
before reaching a full supply. A neighbor, the next year, 
in digging a post hole, iound durable water; and a well 
twelve feet deep, not twelve rods from the deep well, gave 
an abundant supply. 

There is no village in this town. The three offices of 
Greig, Lyonsdale and Brantingham, are supplied by a side 
route from Turin village. 

Religious Societies. — A Presbyterian church was formed 
in 1825, and joined the Presbytery, Feb., 1826. No legal 
society was formed by this sect until Aug. 29, 1854, when 
the " Trustees of the Forest church, in connection with the 
Presbytery of Watertown," were incorporated by their own 
act, the first set being I). (!. l>inney, E. Schoolcraft, Heze- 
kiah Abbey,' Edmund liolcomb, Lyman R. Lyon, Henry S. 
Shedd and Cyrus W. I'rutt. A neat gothic church was built 
ol wood in the forest, on tlie point near the junction of 
Jilack and Moose rivers soon after, at a cost of about !j;.'},000, 
including a bcdl worth !»i200. Of this sum, tlie Rev. 'i'lioma.s 
Jirainerd, of IMiila., formerly of Leytlen, raised !j;7UU abr(.)Uil. 

A Free Will Baptist ciiurch was formed in this town Nov. 
30, 1844, but never built a place of worship. 

The Union Society of (Ireig, was iiu'orporatcd Aug. 
2, 185(), with Alex'r Hess, W'aitstill Cleavelaml and Atlam 
Shell, trustoos. 

The (•liurch and Socic^ty of North Greig, was formed 
Jan. 26, 1859, and Cyrus W. Pratt, Richard Carter, Win. L. 

1 Dili. AMi.y wu.s I'tirn in Wiiulliuiii, Ct., Jiiu. 31, 17feO; settled iu Urt'ig 
iu lb25, and died iu this town .March 5, 1858. 



112 Harrisburgh. 

Phillips, Wm. Hillman, Caleb Brown, Wellington Brown, 
A. F. Cole, Simeon Crandall and Stephen Burdick were 
chosen first trustees. Neither of these have erected 
church edifices. 

HARRISBURGH. 

This town was formed from Lowville, Champion and 
]Mexico, Feb. 22, 1803, embracing townships 5 and 10 of the 
Black river tract. By an act ot Mafch 24, 1804, number 9 
or Handd was annexed to this town from Mexico. Denmark 
was taken off' in 1807, and Pinckney in 1808, leaving it with 
its present limits, comprising township No. 10, or Platina, 
of the tract above named. The first town meeting was 
appointed at the house of Jesse Blodget, and adjourned to 
Freedom Wright's, in Denmark village, where Lewis Graves 
was chosen supervisor; Jabez Wright, clerk; David Graves 
and Solomon Buck, assessors; Andrew Mills, Francis Saun- 
ders and Jesse Blodget, commissioners of highways; Charles 
Wright and Freedom Wright, overseers of the poor; Nathan 
Munger, Jr., constaUe and collector; and Charles Mosely and 
Andrew ^liWii, fence vieivers. 

Supervisors. — 1803-7, Lewis Graves ; 1808-13, John Bush; 
1814-15, Ashbel Humphrey ;i 1816, Geo. A. Stoddard ;2 
1817-21, A. Humphrey; 1822-25, Simeon Stoddard; 1826, 
A. Humphrey ; 1827, Amos Buck, Jr. ; 1828, S. Stoddard ; 
1829-30, A. Humphrey; 1831, S. Stoddard; 1832-3, Wm. 
C. Todd ; 1834-7, Elias Gallup ; 1838-9, Henry Humphrey ; 
1840, Julius A. White; 1841-2, H. Humphrey; 1843-7, 
Horatio N. Bush ; 1848, Bester B. Saff'ord ; '' 1849-50, John 
M. Paris; 1851, H. Humphrey; 1852-4, J. M. Paris; 
1855-60, John Chickering. 

Clerks.— IS03-5, Charles Wright, Jr. ; 1806, Andrew 
Mills ; 1807, C. Wright, Jr. ; 1808, John G. White ; 1809-15, 
Sanford Sailbrd; "* 1816, Simeon Sroddard ; 1817-19, S. Saf- 
ford; 1820, Palmer Hodge; 1821, S. Saff'ord; 1822-24, 
Amos Buck, Jr. ; 1825-6, S. Safford (May 6, Wm. Allen) ; 
1827-30, Wm. Allen ; 1831-3, Elias Gallup ; 1834-50, B. B. 
Saff'ord; 1851, Rufus Scott; 1852-5, E. Gallup; 1856-9, 
John Young. 

From 1836 to 1846, the bounties authorized by special 
statute in this county were voted in this town for the killing 

iBorn June 20, 1771 ; died September 9, 1855. 

-Died Jan. 11, 1844, in his 72d year. He removed from Westfield, Mass., 
March, 1802. His wife died Dec. "6, 1847, aged 75 years. 
3 Died March 30, 1852, aged 55 years. 
4 Died April 21, 1826, aged 53 years. 



Harrishurgh. 113 

of wolves. In 1846, '47 and '48, a $5 bounty was voted for 
bfears. 

B. Wright, in surveying the boundaries of this town, in 
the spring of 1796, made the following memoranda : 

" The north line of this town is, in general, an excellent 
soil, timbered with basswood, maple, elm, beech, birch, 
butternut. There is one small cedar swamp near the 5 mile 
stake on this line. The country is level in general, and 
very finely watered. A large creek crosses this line near 
the one and ^ mile stake, which makes a N. E. direction, on 
which there is a fine country. The E line is excellent and 
very finely watered. I'here is some near the S. E. corner 
wliich is rather indifferent, but very little ; the timber is 
maple, bass, elm, beech, birch, butternut and hemlock- On 
the South line there is middling country, some considerable 
swamp and some beaver meadow, on which excellent hay 
may be cut. Along the W line there is a good country of 
land. Some small gulfs along it which are made by the 
streams and a considerable gulf where the Deer creek 
crosses the line. The timber, in general, is maple, beech, 
bass, ash, birch, elm and some butternut and hemlock. 
Towards the South part, the land is swampy and timber 
sprucy." Measures 24,992 acres. 

This town was subdivided into 49 lots by Joseph Crary 
of Denmark. It was named in honor of Kichard Harrison 
of New York, Ibrnier proprietor of the town. Mr. Harrison 
was of Welsh origin and a prominent lawyer. In 1788-9, 
he was in assembly, and from Feb. 15, 1798 to Aug. 1801, 
recorder of that city. He died Dec. 6, 1829, aged 81 years. 
After the deatli of Hamilton he became counsel lor Consta- 
ble and Pierrejjoiit in their landed transactions. 

The transfers of title in this town have been related in 
our account of Denmark. St'ttlement was mostly made 
under the agency of I. W. iJostwick of Lowville. The first 
improvomentH were made about 1802, along the lino of the 
West road, which crosses the N. E. corner of the town, 
and among the lirst settlers on this road were Wait Stod- 
dard,. lohn Ihish, Ashl)el llnm|)hrey,. Joseph Richards,' Jarcd 
Knapj),'- Sylvanus .Mead," Palmer Hodge and .lohn Lewis. 

In ]80(), Silas (Jreene, Thomas and Eltenezer Kellogg. 
John Snell, .Mark Petrio, John F. Snell and .Jacob Walrod, 
with families named Laiuborton and Weaton, settled on 

1 From Cmniiiiiigtoii, MasH. ; m-ttlfil in ls03 ; Am\ Vvh., 1S13, ng.il 58 
ycnis. Diivi.l K. .-Kttlfd in ls(l4, and di.il in tiiis tinvn in 1S45. 'I'luv wtTo 
dfsciMultint.s ot Jti.><)-|iii Kiciiiird.H, of Aliin^tun, .MaM.s. 

-Col. Knapj) dit-d ut CoiH-nhiigtMi, March lil», lb54, aged 73 yi'ui.s. 

3 Died Aug. 15, 1«4!3, aged Gl yi-are. 



114 High Market. 

■what is since known as the State road, across the south 
border of this town. Several of these were Germans from 
the Mohawk valley, and from them the settlement acquired 
the name of Dutch Hill, by which this region is still 
known. They have all since removed, and their places are 
held l)y others. 

In 1821, Jacob Hadcock, and soon after, Michael Parish, 
Peter Picket, Henry Cramer, Jacob Biddleman, Thomas 
and Gilbert Merrills, settled on the river road above Copen- 
hagen. 

A pompous advertisement was issued in Jan., 1849, an- 
nouncing the beginning of a village on Watson creek, in the 
south part of tliis town, to be named California. The 
affair ended as it began — in nothing. 

Schools were first legally formed under the statute in 
1814, when John Bush, John Lewis^ and Micah Humphrey 
were chosen first school commissioners, and David Richards, 
Hart Humphrey, Nathan Look, Jr., Charles Loomis and 
Seth Hanchet, inspectors. 

Religious Societies. — A Free Communion Baptist church 
was formed in this town July 16, 1822, b}'^ a council 
appointed from Lowville, Martiusburgh and Turin, and 
subsequently a regular Baptist church was formed and a 
church edifice erected on the West road. In 1847, this 
first edifice was removed and a new one, 34 by 44 feet, 
erected on its site. It was built b}^ Philo Hadcock, at a 
cost of $945, and is owned in equal shares by the two 
Baptist organizations. 

St. Patrick's church (R. C), was erected a few years 
since in the west part of the town, and is attended from 
Carthage. 

HIGH MARKET. 

This town was formed from West Turin by the super- 
visors, November 11, 1852, by the same act that organized 
the town of Lewis. The first town meeting was directed 
to be held at the house of Schuyler C. Thompson. 

Supervisors. — 1853, S. C. Thompson ; 1854-5, Michael H. 
Coyle ; 1856-8, Michael Walsh ; 1859-60, Charles Plum- 
mer. 

Clerks.— 1853, Lvnville M. Beals ; 1854, Wm. Dolphine ; 
1855, G. R. Thompson ; 1856, L. M. Beals ; 1857, Charles 
P. Felshaw ; 1858-9, William Rowlands. 

This town embraces township 9, or Penelope," of the 

1 This settler was from Westfield, Mass. Silas Bush died Jan. 21, 1829. 
2 Penelope was the wife of Uljsses, king of Ithaca. 



High Market. 115 

Boylston tract, with 35 lots of township 2 or Flora} and 64 
lots of township 3 or Lucretia^^ of Constable's Four Towns, 
its present name was borrowed from that of its post office, 
established in ]\Iarch, 1849, but since discontinued. It was 
invented by S. C. Thompson to distinguish this place from 
every other, and in this view it was entirely successsful. The 
Irish settlers wished to have the town named Sligo, and 
usage had long before applied to an undefined region, 
west of Constableville, the nondescript name of Kiabia, by 
which it is still, to some extent, known. 

Township 2, of which nearly half lies in this town, was 
subdivided by Benjamin Wright in 1797, and measures 
26,2664 acres. The bearings and distances of its outlines 
are as follows : 

N. W. side, N. 37° 30' E. 412 oh. 48 Iks. 
N. E. N. 52° 30' W. 632 50 

S. E. S. 37° 30' W. 412 48 

S. W. S. 52° 30' E. 63 23 

At the second town meeting, the owner of the premises, 
at which, by adjournment, the voters were to meet, refused 
to open his house. The majority of the voters, who were 
Irish, and not accustomed to the usages proper in such a 
case, were quite at a loss to know how to proceed, and came 
near losing their organization by failure to elect town 
officers. Just before sunset, they however organized in the 
street, as near the place of meeting as practicable, and ad- 
journed to some convenient place the next day. With the 
advice of a lawyer they went through with their meeting, 
and have since retained the management of town alTairs. 
In 1858 the town voted, with but one dissenting voice, tc 
petition for re-annexation to West Turin, but without suc- 
cess. In 1857 they purchased for $200 a store for a town 
house. 

Settlement was begun about 1814, by Alfred Ilovey and 
Liberty Fairchild, and in 18 15, John Felshaw,^ became the 
third settler. Ebonezer Thompson* and others subsequently 
located in town. 

I'pon the suspension of ihu luihlic works in 1812, groat 
numbers of Irish families removed to this town, and took 
up small tracts of land. The census of 1855 shows that 
320 persons (about one-fourth) were natives of Ireland. 

I Kli)rii wa-s tlio Koiiiaii K*)tlJ«''<'< of llowore. 

- Lui.Ti'tiii wivs a iiulilu Uoinan ludy. 

^Dieil Juno 24, \f<^>l, tiKOil 82yi«ar.H. HesottUnl in tlio county in 1813. 

■'Mr. T. ri'iiiovfil iroiu Uockiii^linui, Vt., in 1S21, ami 'lifd Juno 0, 1843, 
a^ixl (i'.i yuarri. liu was tlio tatltcr of S. C. Tliomi<:>ou, K^i[., uf Cou:iUblo- 
vili... 



1 16 Lewis. 

These, with their children, born in America, would form 
over half of the present population of the town. There 
are also a few French or Germans. 

A large part of this town is still a wilderness, including 
almost the whole of township 9, near the west part of 
which Fish creek flows southward across the town. 

The highest point of land in the county is said to occur 
on lot 50, township 3. Streams flow from this lot in several 
different directions, and in a clear day distant glimpses of 
the hills in Madison county, as well as more than half of the 
distant eastern horizon, are seen. There are at present 
neither village, church, store nor grist mill in town. 

LEWIS. 

This town was formed from Ley den and West Turin by 
the supervisors, Nov. 11, 1852. The first town meeting 
was ordered to be held at the house of Orlando S. Kenyon. 
Its name was derived from that of the county. 

Supervisors. — 1853, Orson Jenks ; 1854-5, Charles Pease ; 
1856, 0. Jenks; 1857, Hiram Jenks; 1858, Jonathan A. 
Pease ; 1859, 60, 0. Jenks. 

Clerks. — 1853-4, David Crofoot; 1855, Orson Jenks; 
1856-7, Daniel H. Buell ; 1858, 0. Jenks ; 1859, William 
Gray ; i860. Jay Pease. 

This town embraces very nearly that part of Inman's 
triangle, known as the " New Survey," the whole of town- 
ship No. 1, or Xenophon, and three rows of lots from the S. 
W. side of No. 2, or Flora, of Constable's Four Towns. The 
principal settlements are in the eastern part, and its drain- 
age is southward, by the head waters of the Mohawk and by 
Fish creek, and south westward by Salmon river. The soil 
is well adapted to grazing and the coarser grains, but fruits 
and corn have not been extensively or successfully cul- 
tivated. Its soil is inclined to clay, and in places is a 
gravelly loam, or covered with flat stone derived from the 
underlying slate rock. 

That part of this town taken from Leyden, was sold to 
settlers by Storrs and Stow. Township 1 was surveyed 
into lots by Benjamin Wright in 1797, and its outlines were 
run in 1795, as follows : 

N. W. line : N. 37", 30' E. 
N. E. do S. 52°, 30' E. 
S. E. do 8.37°, 30' W. 
S. W. do N. 68°,50'W. 
The latter is the patent line, and was surveyed in 1794, 



520 chains, 


3 


links, 


631 do 


62 


do 


339 do 


07 


do 


559 do 


20 


do 



Levns. 117 

Practically 3° further W. are allowed to the magnetic me- 
ridian to make present surveys coincide with the original 
field notes. Township 1, measures 27,105 acres, and the 
whole of Tp. 2, 26,266| acres. The connection of John 
Jacob Astor, with the titles of this town has been noticed 
on page 31. Lots 1 to 19 and half of 20, in township 1, 
were conveyed by Pierrepont to Charles Ingersol of Phila- 
delphia, agent of Consequa, a China merchant, in payment 
of a debt of ^12,000 which the captain of a vessel owned 
by Mr. P., had incurred. John G. Costar, afterwards be- 
came agent, and paid the taxes many years from a fund pro- 
vided for that ])urpose. They were finally sold for taxes 
and are now chiefiy owned by the Costar heirs. Fifteen 
lots,^ owned by Judge Wm. Jay of Bedford, by virtue of a 
marriage, were sold in 1840, to R. T. Plough, with certain 
conditions of opening roads and forming settlements. Jas. 
S. T. Stranahan of Brooklyn, the Lawrence heirs and John 
E. Ilinman of Utica, are owners of considerable tracts of 
wild lauds in this town. 

Settlement was began at West Leyden (now included in 
the town of Lewis), in the summer of 1798, by two families 
named Newel and Ligraham, who came by way of Whites- 
town and fort Stanwix, and located, the former on the 
farm of George Olney, and the latter on that of Amos B. 
Billing, adjacent to the east line of this town. Fish then 
abounded in the streams, and game in the forests, allording 
partial support, with no care but the taking, and incidents 
were not wanting to diversify the life of the first pioneers 
of this lonely spot. On one occasion, as the Avives of the 
two first settlers were returning on foot from fort Stanwix 
(Home), they saw a bear on a tree near where Jenk'a 
tavern now stands. One of the women took her station at 
the foot of the tree, club in hand, to keep bruin from 
escaping, while the other liastencd homo a distance of two 
miles, procured a gun, returned and shot the bL'.ir." These 
families remained about two years and went oil". 

Col. John Harries came in 1799, and lirought potatoes 
for planting on his back from Whitestown. A sawmill was 
built in tilt) winter following, near the present mill of Asliacl 
Fox, by Joel Jenks,'' Modad Dewey, John and Cornelius 
Putnam^ who came on with their families, Maj. Alpheus 

' NurabtTs 20, '27, 32, 41, 50, 62, 53, 55, 50, 58, 01, 04, 05, 08, 69. 

- Rfliitcd liy .Fi)siiili Dinvt-y of Dolta, N. Y., who liii.s furiiiHhed ainplo notes 
upon lliH I'lirlv history of this town. 

;' Mr. .Ii'iiks was rrum R. I., imd liold tho first upiiointment ns ningiBtmto 
H.I difil, l-'cbruiiry 1», lb3S, uged 77. 

* From Somor*, Ct. 



1 18 Lewis. 

Pease,^ took up four or five lots in ISOl, and built the first 
grist mill, one or two years after, a little above the Mohawk 
bridge, in the ]3resent village of West Leyden. Nathan 
Pelton^ and Wm. Jenks, from Stafford, Ct., Stephen Hunt,^ 

Graham, McGlashan, Levi Tifi'any,^ Winthrop 

Felshaw, and perhaps others, settled within four years after. 
Most of the lands first taken up, were sold at $5 per acre. 
Samuel Kent and Jeremiah Barnes, were early teachers, 
and the first school was taught at the house of Joel Jenks. 
The first death that occurred in town, was that of a child 
in the family of some travelers, but the first adult person 
that died in town, was Mrs. Calvin Billings, a sister of 
Stephen Hunt, in the spring of 18 10, about twelve years 
after the beginning of the settlement. 

The first road to Constableville was cut in 1803, by Mr. 
Shaler, but the first direct road was not opened until 1816, 
by commissioners appointed for the purpose. This became 
the line of the Canal turnpike, and still later of a plank 
road, which in its turn has been abandoned to the public, 
and is now maintained by the towns through which it 
passes. 

An occurrence happened in November, 1804, which 
caused much alarm in this settlement, and might have led 
to a most melancholy result. Joseph Belknap, Cornelius 
Putmau, jr., and Josiah Dewey, jr., set out from the former 
Dewey tavern stand, westward, on a deer hunt. The snow 
was about ten inches deep, and they found tracks of deer 
plenty, but no game. They had no compass, the day was 
cloudy, and towards night they attempted to return, and as 
their track was crooked, they concluded to take a direct 
line for home. After traveling some distance, they came 
around to the same place, a second and a third time. They 
were evidently lost, and no longer trusting to their own 
estimate of direction, they concluded to follow down a 
stream of water which they took to be the Mohawk, which 
would of course lead them home. They passed a number 
of beaver meadows, and were frequently obliged to wade 
the freezing stream, and at other times were forced to 
wade down its channel instead of climbing its steep rocky 
banks. They tried to kindle a fire but failed, and finally 
kept on traveling till daylight, when they came to a foot- 

iMr. Pease died April 8, 1816, aged 54 years. 

2 Died .June 7, 1856, aged 92 years. 

3 Died June 14, 1853, aged 79 years. 
■^From Somers, Ct. 



Lewis. 119 

path, which in two or three miles, led out into a settlement 
which proved to be in the town of Western, twenty miles 
by the nearest traveled road from home. They had fol- 
lowed down the Point-of-Rock stream, to near its junction 
with Fish creek. The half starved wanderers having fed, 
pushed on over a miry road, and reached home at midnight, 
when they found the country had been rallied, and a dozen 
men had gone into the woods in search of the lost. 

About 1831 ten German I'amilies settled in this town, and 
these have been followed by others, until the population of 
foreign birth equals half, and with their children, born in 
this countr}', considerably more than half of the whole 
population of the town. Of these Europeans, 376 were 
reported by the state census of 1855 as Clermans, 171 
French and 21 Swiss. They are divided between the Catho- 
lic, Lutheran and lleformed Protestant Dutch denomina- 
tions, in the relative order here named, and although they 
use their native languages at home, are mostly able to speak 
English with more or less facility, and the rising generation 
will learn to use it fluently. These foreigners are mostly an 
industrious, hardy and frugal people, obedient to the laws, 
and a large number of them naturalized citizens. The 
European settlement in this town was preceded by that in 
West Turin. 

In 1841 a bridge was built over Fish creek, and a road 
opened from Lee, near the line of the old road of 1805, 
noticed in our account of Osceola. It led only to the line 
of township 13. The first deeds to actual settlers in this 
part of the town, were issued in Ma}', 1840, amounting to 
l,746i acres, for §3,194.00. The bridge was swept olf in 
the winter of 1842-3, and soon rebuilt, and in 1843 a mill 
Avas built by Mr. Ilerron. 

Several branches of lumbering have been followed in this 
town, for wiiich it appuars to allbrd special facilities. 
About 1810, the manufacture of oars from white ash was 
begun and continued some seven years. The quantity is 
estimated at about 500,000 feet jier annum, dnring that 
period, and the principal market was JJoston. Whaling 
oars were sold in sets of soveu, of which two wore 14, two 
15, two 16, and one 18 feet long. The j)rice ranged about 
6 cts. j)or foot, linear measure. 

Of birdseye maple, Lewis county has, during twenty 
years, produced about 100,000 feet (board measure) annu- 
ally, mostly from tiiis town, and tlie greater part .sent otf by 
llielianlsou T. Hough. Of this «piant it y, nine-tenths seeks 
an European nuirket by way of New York. This accidental 



120 Lewis. 

variety of the sugar maple is found somewhat common upon 
the range of highlands, extending from this town to Adams. 
It is estimated that two-thirds of all the timber of this 
variety, used in the world has, during the last twenty years, 
come from Lewis county; the market price depends upon the 
fashions of the day, with regard to styles of furniture, and 
prices range from $'60 to $'80 per M. ft., board measure. A 
mill for cutting veneers was formerly established, four 
miles west of West Leyden, but was burned in 1845. Of 
hoops, for oyster kegs, this town and Ava, in Oneida co., 
adjoining, produce about 4,000,000, averaging $2 per M., 
shaved and delivered, on the rail road. They are mostly 
used at Fairhaven and Cheshire, Ct. They are made of 
black ash and bought in a rough state by a few dealers who 
shave and forward them to market. Considerable quantities 
of hard-wood lumber, chiefly maple and birch, for flooring, 
turning, &c., are sent from this town. 

West Leyden is the only post office in this town. The 
village of this name is located upon the Mohawk, here a 
moderately sized mill stream, and has a few shops, two 
saw mills, a grist mill, two inns, two churches and 170 
inhabitants. 

Religious Societies. — Meetings were first held in 1804, 
by Justus Billings, a Presbyterian,^ at the house of John Put- 
nam. A Congregational church was formed in the summer 
of 1806, consisting of Josiah Dewey," Justus Billings, Cor- 
nelius Putnam, Solomon Washburn and their wives, Maj. 
Alpheus Pease, Widow Horton, Cyrus Brooks and a Mr. 
Wood and their wives, of whom the last four lived a mile 
east of Ava Corners, and the others in this town. This 
church erected a house of worship a mile north of West 
Leyden, many years after, and in February, 1826, it joined 
the Watertown Presbytery. The church has become nearly 
or quite extinct. 

A Baptist church was formed May, ]829, with 14 mem- 
bers. Elders Marshall, Ashley and Salmon were present at 
the organization. A legal society was formed Sept, 9, 1837, 
with Winthrop Felshaw, Jonathan A. S. Pease and Nathan- 
iel Wadsworth, trustees, and a small plain church edifice 

has been erected. The Revs. Burdick, Wm. Rice, R. 

Z. Williams, R. W. Chafa, D. D. Barnes and others, have 
preached here. 



IDied July 31, 1847, aged 80 years. 

2 Died Jan. 14, 1&38, aged 80 years. Mr. D. was one of the first deacons 
of this church. 



Ley den. 121 

The United German Lutheran and Reformed Congrega- 
tion of West Leyden, was formed Aug. 16, 3847, with 
Frederick ileyer, Frederick Schopper and Geo. Fries, trus- 
tees. It was formed of the German Lutheran and Reformed 
churches, and their new meeting house was to be called 
the Church of St. Paul. It was to remain a German house 
of worship, so long as the number of members of the 
congregation speaking the German language, was more than 
two. A law suit has occurred between the two sects, in 
which the Lutherans have gained the case, but the other 
party have designed to appeal. The Reformed Protestant 
Dutch church of West Leyden was formed Sept. 12, 1856, 
under the authority of the Cayuga classis, with John 
Boehrer, minister, Philip Riibel and Fred'k Meyer. Elders 
Fred'k Schalfer and Valentine Glesmann, deacons. Another 
united German Protestant, Lutheran and Reformed Congre- 
gation was formed Dec. 7, I8i8, with Peter W^olf, Jacob 
Roser, Peter Kautser, George Trieps and Heinrich Roser, 
trustees. 

LEYDEN. 

This town was formed from Steuben,^ March 10, 1797, 
embracing besides Inman's Triangle, all of Lewis and Jef- 
fei"son counties lying east and north of Black river. By 
the erection of Brownville in 1802, Boonville in 1805, 
Watson in 1821 and Lewis in 1852, it has been trimmed 
down to its ju'esent limits. It derived its name from the 
setlleiueut made by Gcrret Boon in Boonville, under the 
auspices of the Holland Land Company, whose members 
chiefly resided in Leyden, in Holland. In the division of 
the town, upon the erection of Lewis co., the old name was 
retained by a suction to wliich it was not strictly ajiplicablo 
in order that Boon's name might be perpetuated in the 
christening of Boonville. 

At the first town meeting held at the house of Andrew 
Edmonds (Boonville), April 4, 1797, Andrew Edmonds 
was chosen supervisor, Julin Stormus cler/x, Asa iJravton, 
Jacob Rogeis and IMiineas Southwell assessi>rs, Jared Top- 
])ing and Lt;vi llillnian conslnbUs and colUdurs, Utda Hubbard 
and LuUe Fisher poor iiuvters, Asa Lord, Koubeii King and 
Eli.^ha Maw^VaW com' rs of h'n^liicmjs, Sheldon Johnson, Fliphalet 
Edmonds, Amasa King anil Archdiir-^ Kingsbury, road masters, 

1 WhitfHtown wns fornictl Mnrt-li 7, 17H8, t<nibrnoiiig the whole of tlie state 

%vi'st of (itiiiiaii l-'liits. StftitHii uikI Mi-xico were l\)riin'(i April 10, 17t)2, eiu- 
bniciiii? iiU t)f this foiinty iiiul u vast arua uuilh, buiilh auJ vvi'st. 

1* 



122 Leyden. 

Lilly Fisher, Asaliel Hough and Timothy Biirges, Jence 
viewers, Charles Otis and Joshua Preston, pound masters. 

Supervisors. — 1797-8, Andrew Edmonds; 1799, Phineas 
Southwell; 1800, Asa Brayton ; 1801, P. Southwell ; 1802, 
A. Brayton ; 1803, Silas Southwell ; 1804, John Dewey ;^ 
1805, Peter Schuyler; 1805 (Apr. 18), Lewis Smith ;- 1806-7, 
L. Smith ; 1808-10, James Hawley ; 1811, J. Dewey ; 1812- 
16, Nathaniel Merriara -^ 1817, John Fish ; 1818-23, Stephen 
Spencer;^ 1824-30, Michael Brooks;^ 1831, Amos Miller ;^ 
1832-3, Ezra Miller ; 1834-6, Isaac Parsons ; 1837-8, Allen 
Auger ;' 1839-42, Joseph Burnham ; 1843-4, Alfred Day ;» 
1845-8, Thomas Baker; 1849, Aaron Parsons; 1S50, T. 
Baker ; 1851, J. Burnham ; 1852-3, T. Baker ; 1854-6, Wm. 
J. Hall ; 1857-8, Wm. J. Olmstead ; 1859, Samuel Northum j 
1860, David Algur. 

C/er/a.— 1797-1803, John Stormes : 1804, Aaron Willard; 
1805-7, Stephen Butler; 1808-9, David Higby ; 1810, 
Benjamin Starr; 1811-2, Augustus Chapman; 1813, D. 
Higby; 1814-7, Stephen Spencer; 1818-9, Martin Hart; 
18:20-2, Allen Auger ; 1823, Samuel Northum,jr.; 1824-5, 
Parsons Talcott ; 1826-33, A. Auger; 1834-9; Thomas 
Baker ; 1840-2, Lewis S. Auger ; 1843-8, E. R. Johnson ; 
1849, Alfred Day; 1850-4, E. R. Johnson; 1855, David 
Algur ; 1856-8, James M. Malcom ; 1859, Chester J. Munn. 

The supervisors of Herkimer co. in 1797, allowed .£17.- 
11.2 school money to this town, then a part of that county. 
A special town meeting was held June 17, 1797, to appoint 
school commissioners, and Luke Fisher, Eliashab Adams 
and Jacob Rogers, were chosen. This is the only money 
received in this region from the state school grants of 1795. 

IBorn at Westfield, Jan. 20, 1754, .served in the revolution, removed to 
Leyden in the spring of 1802, and died, Dec. 31, 1821. 

2 Dea. Smith died May 21, 1841, aged 89 years. He was a soldier in the 
revolution. 

^Nathaniel Merriam w&s born in Wallingford, Ct., June 3, 1769, and in 
1800 removed to Leyden and settled on a place partly new and the re- 
mainder first taken up by Asahel Hough. He continued to reside at this 
place until 1838, during many years as an inn-keeper when he removed to 
Indiana, but in 1846 he returned to this town. He died Aug. 19, 1847. In 
1811, and 1820, he served in Assembly, and in 1815 he was appointed a 
county judge. He was widely known as an enterprising and public spirited 
citizen. His son Gen. Ela Merriam is elsewhere noticed. This family name 
occurs among the founders of Meriden, Ct., and has been till the present 
time a common and prominent one in that town. 

•tDied, Sept. 24, 1851, aged 72 years. 

5 Died, Feb. 1, 1841, a -ed 57 years. 

e Died, Oct. 2, 1840, aged 64 years. 

7 Died, Oct. 6, 1839, aged 64 years, 

8 Died, Nov. 17, 1849, aged 47 years. 









-^i 



/v. //7<-i nJc^ ^'4^^-^c^'-^r^ 



l^ 



L-i^ 



0X-" 



Leyden. 123 

In 1800, a special town meeting was held, for choosing per- 
sons to be appointed justices by the state council, and an- 
other, March 19, 1803, to choose two persons to a county 
convention, to nominate candidates for assembly. The 
delegates were Nathaniel Merriam and Samuel Snow. They 
were paid by the town, and present the only instance we 
have known, in which delegates were thus authorized and 
paid. 

In 1801, John Storms, Lewis Smith and Eber L. Kelsey 
were appointed to petition for a division of the town. On 
the 10th of Jan., 1802, and Nov. 14, 1804, other attempts 
at division were voted. By the latter, it was proposed to 
divide the town (as was done the next year, on the erection 
of Lewis CO.), the south part to retain the name of Leyden 
and the triangle and part east of the river Storrsburgh. On 
the .3d of Feb., 1804, Stephen Butler, Samuel Snow and 
Richard Coxe, were chosen delegates to a convention to 
be held at Champion, Feb. 1st, to take measures for securing 
the division of Oneida co. On the 18th of Sept., 1802, Asa 
Lord, Job Fisk and Asa Brayton were delegated to attend 
a meeting at Lowville, to consult about procuring a road 
from Albany to Johnstown, and thence to the Black river 
and down to its mouth. This was the beginning of a 
movement that secured an appropriation for the state road 
through the valley. 

In 1799, an unique resolution was passed to the effect, 
that if sleds of less than four feet track were found on the 
highway more than four miles from home, their owners 
were liable to a line of $1, one half to go to the informant, 
and tlie remainder to the poor. 

Bounties for the destruction of noxious animals have 
been voted as follows : For wolves, $10 in 1801, 3, 4, 6, 
10, 11. For henhawks, 6 cts. in 181.5; and for chip-squir- 
rels 2 cts. in 1806-7, if killed within one month after May 
20. 

This town is comprised within Inman's triangle, and in- 
cludes the whole of that tract excepting the ;uMitc angle 
taken oil in the erection of Lewis in 1852 This was in 
8omo early documents erroneously named "■ Storr's Patent," 
and its south line running N. (i8" E., is supposed to have been 
the earliest one surveyed in the county. The eastern j)art 
comprising its principal area, was surveyed into 126 lots 
by Wm. and .las. Cockburn of Poughkoepsio, and the 
western angle into 28 lots, liy Bronghton White. The 
latter is callo<l tin* "New Survi-y " and with tiu' exception 
of the flrst five lots is now included in the town of Lewis. 



124 Leyden. 

On the 5th of June, 1792, Patrick Colquhonn, high sheriff 
of London, purchased from his friend Wm. Constable this 
tract of 25,000 acres, at one shilling sterling per acre, and 
from his friendship to William Inman, interested him in a 
share of 4000 acres at the original cost ; and as the purcha- 
ser was an alien, and therefore incapable of holding lands in 
America, he caused the whole to be conveyed in the name 
of Inman, in trust, and made him agent for the sale and 
settlement of the tract.-^ A few of the early settlers in this 
town received their titles directl}^ from Inman, among 
whom were Ebenezer Coe, Wm. Bingham, Jared Topping, 
Thomas Brayton and Asa Lord." 

Late in 1793 Mr. Inman returned to England, and through 
his representations, Mr. Colquhonn was induced to under- 
take the purchase of what is now known as the Branting- 
ham tract, of which he was entrusted the agency. He sold 
most of the 25,000 acre tract in February, 1794, and in the 
sequel his principals found reason to sincerely regret their 
connection with him. It would be unpleasant to specify 
details, and it is sufficient to know that Mr. Inman is not 

1 Wm. Inman was allowed to hold lands in this state by an act of March 
27, 1794, He was a native of Somersetshire, Eng., and in early life was a 
clerk of Lord Pultney. He first sailed to America, March 13, 1792, and ar- 
rived in June. He soon after was entrusted with the interests of certain 
Europeans, prominent among whom was Patrick Colquhonn, and took up 
his residence in Whitestown, not far from the present lunatic asylum, in 
Utica. He was many years resident in Oneida county, and became exten- 
sively concerned in land speculations in and near Utica, where he was 
engaged in a brewery. He was afterwards a merchant in New York, where 
he met with heavy reverses. About 1825 he came to Leyden, where he died 
Feb. 14, 1843, aged 81 years. His wife Sarah died in Leyden, July 24, 
1829, aged 56 years. Their sons were William, John, Henry and Charles. 

William Inman, the eldest son, resided formerly in Leyden, entered the 
navy Jan. 1, 1812, and became a commander May 24, 1838. He is at present 
(IStiO) in the African fleet. 

John Liman was educated to the law, but turned his attention to literature, 
was connected with the N. Y. Mirror, and soon after, with Col. Stone, 
engaged as editor of the Commercial Advertiser, of which, in 1847 he became 
principal editor. He conducted for some time the Columbian Magazine, and 
died at New York, Aug. 30, 1850, aged 47 years. 

Henry Innian early evinced a great talent for painting, and at the age of 15, 
painted his father's portrait, which is still preserved. He became one of the 
most eminent of historical and portrait painters, and died at New York, Jan., 
1846, aged 45 years. He never resided in this county, but was an occasional 
visitor. 

Charles Inman, a cabinet maker, died in Cincinnati. 

2Topping received a deed of 139 acres, lot 60, Oct. 28, 1795, for £128. 
Brayton's deed of 100:J acres, was dated July 2, 1797. Coe's deed for lot 88, 
152h acres, is dated June 12, 1795, and was given by Artliur Breese, attorney 
for Inman {Oneida Deeds, iii., 39). Others were less fortunate, and some 
were recjuired to make second jjayment by a transfer of the titles by Inman, 
before their deeds were made out or their payments completed. 



Leyden. 125 

one of those to whom the town owes a grateful recollec- 
tion. 

The purchasers were Lemuel Storrs and Joshua Stow^ of 
Middletown, Ct., with whom Thomas and Abel Lyman of 
Durham, Ct,, and Silas Stow, held a small interest ; and 
sales were made by these, as joint proprietors, a few years. 
Inman reserved a few lots.^ After the division of the joint 
estate, Ezra Miller became an agent of Stow. Henry 
Champion, S. W. Dana, Zenas Parsons of Springfield, Mass.,'"' 
and others subsequently^ owned portions of the town before 
actual settlement. 

Great lot No. 7, upon Black river, containing 620 acres, 
was reserved for a town plot, and the first road traced from 
from fort Stanwix, led obliquely down to the river at this 
place, but it was never laid out or traveled. The water 
power of this point Avas supposed to offer a chance for 
important manufactories. Storrs and Stow owed a large 
sum to the Connnecticut school fund, and an act was passed 
for receiving lands in this town for security. C, C. Brod- 
head of Utica, was appointed appraiser, and the price set 
upon them, being considered too high, they long remained 
unsold, and finally proved a heavy loss to the fund for 
which they were pledged, Li 1835 an act was passed by 
that state, providing for the conveyance of lands in this 
state, and they have since been sold. 

Settlement was first made in this town and county by 
William Tojjping,'* who emigrated from ^leriden, Ct,, early 
ill 1791, with an ox team and his household, consisting of 
his wife, a son aged seven years, and a gii'l aged five years. 
They were two weekn in reaching Whitestown, and turning 
northward into the wilderness, pursued their course through 
tangled underbrush and around fallen logs, to the far off 
tract where they hoped to find a home. The wife assisted 
in driving the team, while the husband went on before, 
with axe in hand, to cleai- the way. After laying by one 
diy to nurse a sick child, they at length reached lot 00 and 

^ _ _ ^ , .. . . _ _ -t . 

1 Storm died in Middlotown city, and Stovr died in Middl«)tield, about &vo 
uuii'8 fniui Miii.ilctuwn, Oct. J, 1842, uKid Hi. Ht; wa.i many years post 
master at .Mitldlftown, and had btiou cliief judge of the Middleuox county 
county court, ntatu Hunator, !iv. 

- Aniont; thcsi- \vcri< lol.s .'t, 4, C> and t>, sold to .loJm I. (Jlovor of Nt-w York ; 
7m, 711, wold to Hui^h WliitK of \Vliitf.>ttown ; 'Jl, 'Jli, «i>ld to David I.ynian 
of Miildli'town, and |i)Tlia]>-< others. 

•'Mr. l'arson« owned lots lt>4, iM.I, IIJ, lia, 119, wliich were sold by Jona- 
than ColliuH, Ho in said to have been killed by the Indians upon the Ohio 
river. 

•• W'm. Topping diud iivpt. 17, 1641', ngvd 70 ycant. 



126 Ley den. 

selected a spot for shelter. They arrived late in April, and 
built a bark shanty by the side of a large log, with poles 
for the sides and a blanket for the door. 

This pioneer home was on the east road, a little N. E. 
of Sugar river, where the road rises from the river flat, on 
land now owned by Robert Harvey and P. Owens. His 
neighbors to the south were many miles distant, and none 
were nearer than Canada to the north. Jared, his brother, 
came on in June to assist in building a log hut, and the first 
cabin was hardly finished when Wm. Dustin, Asa Lord,-^ 
Bela Butterfield and others, came to settle in town. It is 
believed no families wintered here in 1794-5, besides Top- 
ping and Butterfield.^ 

In 1795, Allen Augur, and families named Olmstead, 
Adams, Bingham, Hinman, Miller and perhaps others came, 
and in 1796rDavid Brainerd Miller, Peter W. Aldrich, Eber 
Kelsey, Brainerd Coe and others. A road warrant dated 
May 23, 1797, has upon it the following names of tax payers 
in Dist No. 5, viz : Asa Lord, Ezra E. C. Rice, Bela Hub- 
bard, Wm. Topping, Rodolphe Tillier, Jonathan Board man, 
David B. Miller,-^ David Miller,"^ Calvin Miller, Jared Top- 
ping, Ezra Rice, Asahel Hough,^ Chandler Otis, Amos 
Miller, Brainerd Coe, Eben Wheeler, Asa Brayton, Elisha 
Randall, Paul Green, John Worden, Daniel Topping, John 
Barns, Ephraim Town, Joseph Buttolf, Jonathan Wheeler, 
Asher Holdridge, Edmund Newell, Jerden Ingham, Moses 
Warren, Thomas Stone, Eliasheb Adams, Lemuel Storrs, 
Nathaniel Dustin, Abel Lyman, Peter W. Aldrich, Samuel 
Douglass,'' John Allen, and 54 others in what is now Boon- 
ville. 

The first birth in town was that of Jonathan, son of Wm. 
Topping, who died, aged 30 years. The birth occurred in 
June 1796. 

The first death of an adult person in town was that of 

1 Mr. Lord was born ill Franklin, Ct., Oct. 6, 1767. He arrived here im- 
mediately after Topping, and built tlie first log house in the county, on Ley- 
den hill. He was brother of Thomas and Rufus L. Lord of New York, Eleazer 
Lord of Pierraont, and Qurdon Lord of Leydeii. He went to St. Lawrence 
county and was drowned April 9, 1818, with five others, at Madrid, N. Y. , 
while attempting to cross his mill pond. 

'-Mr. B. sold to the Talcotts and removed about six years after. 

3 Died, March 19, 1833, aged 82 years. 

4 Died, Feb. 8, 1859, aged 84 years. 

^Sold to N. Merriam, and removed to Martinsburgh. 

6 Died Feb. 6, 1856, aged 83 years. 



Leyden. 127 

Calvin, son of David B. Miller, March 23, 1797, at the age 
of 21 years.^ 

A man named Brayton was accidentally killed by a tree 
early in 1797 or 8. This was the first fatal accident known 
to have occurred in the county. 

The first saw mill in the county was built in 1795, at 
Talcottville, by Bela Butterfield, a few rods below the 
present grist mill, but it went off in the next spring flood. 
In 1798, he sold to the Talcott families'- from Middletown, 
Ct., who became prominent settlers in town, but adopted a 
policy adverse to the building up of a village at the point 
where natural advantages greatly favored. It is said they 
refused to sell village lots to mechanics, and retained the 
water power on Sugar river, although parties offered to 
invest liberally in manufactures. J5ela Hubbard, husband 
of Stow's sister, removed in 1795, but did not long remain 
in town. 'J'he first framed building after the saw mill, was 
a barn built by David B. iMiller in April, 1798 ; and the 
next, a house by Lemuel Storrs, the same year The latter 
is btill standing and is the oldest in the country. In 1803, 
the Talcotts huilt the second grist mill in town. The pre- 
sent stone mill at Talcottville, was built about 1832-3. 
The river has here a fall of nearly 100 feet within a quarter 
of a mile. 

Many of the early settlers of Leyden were from Iladdam, 
Middlefield and Middletown," Ct. An advertisement in 
the " Western Centinel " of Whitesboro, dated 1797, and 
signed by Lemuel Storrs, records the fact that there were 
at that time 40 actual settlers upon Inman's triangle, and 
the ollicial records of the earlier years show an uinisually 
largo number of voters, and of course of men having sullicient 
property to entitle them to this privilege, many of the 
pioneers were able to pay down for their lands, and have 

1 This historical fact in recorded on his tomb stone in the old Leyden hill 
cemetery as JoIIowm : 

" Ofall the adults which in this yard do lie 
I was llie lirst I'tfrnity li> try." 

2 Ilezfkiah Talcott, luihtr of tin> families of this name who settled in this 
town, diid, Manh IG, 1H13. Hi.s children were : /^ArA*, b. 17t)t), ni. David 

Hall, d. Jan. 182G: Sully, b. 1768, ni. Lit. Joel Coh, 'Jd ('arsons, d. 

March 'JO, 1K5- : Kliihn, h. 1770, wa.s killed .May, lh07 : Danttt, b. 177:1, d. 
June .{, 1847: Joel, b. 1774, d. .April IG, lsi;{, of the jirevailin^ epidemic: 
Mtte, h. 1775, d. Jan. 15, 184G : Johnson, h. Sept. G, 1778, d F.-b. 17, 1850: 
Ptiiiont, b 1780, d. Jan. IG, l84l» ; and Lucy, h 178'J, in. liliann'r Whetniure, 
d. March, 1852. Klisha and Daniel were men with families when they 
settled. 

•'The families of Merwin, Ndrlhum, AIi;iir, ThoniQ.*), Cone, Ac, were from 
Iladilum, those of Cue, Talcott, Brainerd, f^mith, Stuusou, Stair, kjic, frum 
Middlelicld. 



128 Leyden. 

a surplus to enable them to begin settlement free from debt. 
In 1799, the number of senatorial voters was 57, and in 
1800 it was 79, including of course the territory now known 
as Boonville. In 1798 the number of persons liable to serve 
as jurors was 14, in 1802, 61, and in 1805, 64. 

In the winter of 1799-1800, a funeral service was held at 
Talcottville upon receiving news of the death of Washing- 
ton. We are not informed who delivered the oration, but 
think it probable that Stephen Butler might have been 
designated. He was at about this time a teacher in town, 
and in former years had been one of Washington's life 
guard. He removed to Ohio many years after. 

The first grist mill in this town, and the second one in 
the county, was built on the Black river, at Port Leyden, 
in 1799, and got in operation the next j^ear, by Peter W. 
Aldrich and Eber Kelsoy, millwrights,^ from Killingworth, 
Ct. The}' came on to explore in the fall of 1796, selected a 
site and purchased two lots, extending from the river to 
near Leyden hill. In the spring of 1797 they removed 
their families, and during this season put up a frame for a 
saw mill which was swept off by the next spring flood and 
lodged on the rocks below. In 1798 the frame was again 
set up, and the saw mill got in operation, and in 1800 the 
first rude grist mill was prepared to relieve the early set- 
tlers from long tedious journeys to Whitestown in the dry 
season, and to Constableville at the more favored periods 
of the year. When first got in operation this mill was but 
partly enclosed, and its bolt was turned for some time by 
hand. It stood west of the river, a little below the present 
bridge. Aldrich sold his share to Jonathan Collins, Oct. 
25, 1802. The saw mill was burned in Feb., 1802, but 
rebuilt by K. & C, and both mills were afterwards burned. 

In the fall of 1805 a huge bear was seen on the farm now 
owned by Jas. S. Jackson, but escaped. Depredations were 
committed the next night, and Capt, Jonathan Edwards set 
out in pursuit. He found the enemy on N. Merriam's farm, 
fired at bim without effect, and followed on, till in preparing 
for a second shot, the bear turned upon the hunter and got 
within two or three rods of him when the latter hastily 
fired his half loaded gun and wounded him. Calls for help 
brought persons to his assistance, and the beast was killed 
with an axe. It was judged to weigh 500 pounds and had 

iMr. Aldricli removed to Utica, and afterwards to Ogdensburgli, where he 
died July 11, 1811. He built the first bridges at Potsdam, Waddingtou and 
Ogdeiisburgh. 

Mr. Kelsey died at Cape Viucent, Aug. 18, 1839, aged 76 years. 



Leyden. 129 

done much mischief to the settlers. Trout abounded in the 
streams when first known, and deer were numerous. They 
used to go east in November and December to winter 
beyond the Black river, and return as soon as the snow was 
gone in the spring. i\Iany hundreds used to pass lot 68 
before it was cleared. On lot No. 58 was a small strip of 
land called the Point, just above the junction of Mooso 
creek and Sugar river, where there was a beaten path. 

The first store in town was kept by Benj. J. Starr,^ at 
Talcottville. Jotham Snow was the first physician in Ley- 
den, and Manly Wellman the next. The latter removed to 
Lowville and afterwards to the Genesee country. 

Silas Southwell taught the first school in town. The first 
school organization under the act of 18 13, was effected at a 
special town meeting, held Dec. 27, in that year, at which 
Thomas Wolcott, David B. ]Miller and Winthrop Felshaw 
were appointed school commissioners, and Nathan Pelton, 
Samuel Kent, Israel Douglass, jr.,^ Amos Miller, Allen 
Auger and 13enj. Starr, inspectors. The first school house 
in town was built in 1802, at Leyden Ilill. 

The Leyden Union Library was formed Dec. 24, 1821, 
with Johnson Talcott, John Fish, Ela Merriam, Parsons 
Talcott, Allen Auger, Joseph Stirason, Ezra Miller and 
Thomas Wolcott, trustees. It acquired about 300 volumes 
and was dissolved two or three years after the introduction 
of school libraries. 

An unsuccessful application was made to the regents of 
the university Marcli 29, 1826, for the incorporation of an 
academy at Talcottville, but a sullicient sum had not been 
raised by the applicants to obtain an incorporation. 
^ On the 22d of March, 1836, Gen. Ela Merriam bought of 
Eber L. Kelsey an undivided half of 50 acres, lot 17, era- 
bracing the water power at Port Leyden and Rock Island, 
about i')0 rods below. On the same day ho bought of Daniel 
Sears his farm on lot 16, adjoining Kelsey's, and immodi- 
at(!ly sf)ld three-tburths of liis interest to Francis Seger, 
Lyman K. Lyon and Jesse Talcott. The place was surveyed 

'••11* ' 

out into vdliige lots by Eleazor Spencer in 1S3S-9, and the 
place previously ';allod Kelsey's .Mills was named I'out 
Leyden. 



1 Mr. S. rutuoved to liomu and kfpt an iiiu ou the site of the American 
hotel. lie <li(Ml on u vi.sit to t'li-veland. 

-Mr. 1). cnni" to tliis town I'l b., IbUri, wn.s two or three years in trade with 
one llii,'l<<y, tHiltd, iiiid for Ni'verul vciirs iift<r wiw eni,'iiK'ed in tiie inimufftitnro 
of i)ota.sli, uliicli, lor .some tlnio, wiiM thi> rhief iirlicUi ot' cii.sh i>rodiii'e in the 
country. I.sriu-l l)ou.s'la.s.s, Hon., diud March 26, Itjlb, agod 75, uud I. D., jr., 
Marcli 22, lS55, aged S5 yean). 



/ 



130 Ley den. 

Mrs. Pamelia J, Munn has since purchased the interest of 
Talcott. A tannery was run at this pkice many years by 
Cornwell Woolworth, who had bought the other half of 
Kelsey's interest, and in the fall of 1855 the Snyder 
brothers purchased this tannery, greatly enlarged it and it 
is now one of the largest establishments of the kind in 
northern New York. It contains 162 vats, uses 3,800 cords 
of bark, and produces 40,000 sides of sole leather annually. 
The village is situated directly upon the Black river canal, 
and had, until the diversion of the waters of the river into 
the Erie canal, an abundant supply of water power. Unless 
the natural volume of the stream can be restored by the 
construction of reservoirs, the water privilege at this point, 
as at others above the High falls, will be materially injured. 

A short distance below the village, the channel of Black 
river is contracted to less than twenty feet in width, and 
the torrent rushes through the gorge with immense force. 
Several pot-holes have been worn in the gneiss rock to a 
great depth. Bock Island, at this place, is a rugged bluff, 
surrounded by water only during tloods and easily acces- 
sible at other times. Its scenery is highly picturesque and 
as yet mostly undisturbed by the hand of man. In the map 
of a survey made before settlement, this narrow gorge is 
named Hellgate. The rock has been partially excavated 
west of the island, to afford hydraulic privileges, but the cut- 
ting off of the supply by the canals has prevented the com- 
pletion of this work. 

On the Black river, about a mile from Oneida county 
line, is a mill for the manufacture of lumber, staves, broom 
handles and other turned work. It stands near the canal, 
and a few years since was started from its foundations and 
much injured by a break in the canal directly opposite. 

Another highly picturesque locality occurs in this town 
on Sugar river, about a quarter of a mile above the canal, 
and below its junction Avith Moose creek. The river here 
tumbles down a hundred feet or more through a gorge 
worn in the limestone, which presents a succession of steps, 
having a general slope of about 45°. The banks on either 
side, above and below, are nearly vertical, and from 100 to 
200 feet in height. Below the falls, the gorge spreads out 
into a beautiful vale of some thirty rods in width and forty 
in length, covered with a dense growth, chiefly of ever- 
green timber, far above which the massive walls extend on 
either side. Several very deep pot-holes, worn by peb- 
bles occur above the falls. About a quarter of a mile 
below, the whole of the river in the summer disappears in 



Ley den. 131 

the fissures worn by the current, and about fifty rods below, 
again appears at the surface. The river road passes over 
this natural bridge thus formed. Near this place and in the 
same strata are caves which have been explored some 200 
or 300 feet in different directions. They are simply natural 
fissures worn in the formation known to geologists as the 
Black river limestone. This rock is very soluble, and 
streams almost uniformly find an underground passage when 
their course lays across it. 

A murder occurred in the northeast corner of this town 
on the morning of jNIay 4, 1S55, under tliese circumstances : 
A quarrel arose between two Irish women, near Lyons 
falls, growing out of the pawning of a pair of flat-irons. 
One of the parties, who kept a low grog shop, hired Thos. 
Rutledge and Michael Cavanaugh, two drunken sots, to 
whip James Cooper, the husband of her opponent. The 
hirelings assailed Cooper's cabin, pelted it with stones and 
broke his windows. He resolved to seek the protection of 
the law, but observing the superstition of his countrymen 
that " when the cock crows all danger is over," lie awaited 
this signal, and a little after three o'clock, started for Port 
Leyden, was watched, pursued and killed with clubs, as he 
fell exhausted with running, at the door of ^[r. Philo Post, 
llutledgo tied, and was doubtless concealed for some time 
among the Irish in High Market. Rewards were otfered by 
the sheriff and the governor, but he was never arrested. 
Cavanaugh was indicted ]\Iay 16, tried June 26, when the 
jury did not agree, and again before Judge Allen, Aug. 14, 
15, when he was convicted of murder and sentenced to be 
liung Oct. 5, The convict was respited by the governor 
till Nov. 9, 1855, and subsequently his sentence was com- 
muted to imprisonment for life in Clinton prison. An 
attempt was made by a low class of politicians to bring dis- 
credit upon the governor for this exercise of executive 
clemency, and on tl»e niglit of Nov. 9, Oovornor Clark was 
hung anil burnt in elfigy. The governor wrote a lengthy 
letter in answer to one addres.sed to him, in which he stated 
in detail, the grounds upon which the commutation was 
granted. 

There are two post ofiicos in this town. Leyden post 
otlice was lormcrly kept at the village known as Leyden 
Hill, but in 18.36 it was transferred to Talcottvillo on the 
Sugar river, two miles south, where it has been since kept. 
Leyden Hill was formerly a place of some bu.><incss, but is 
now onlv a farming vicinage. Talcottville has but little 
claims to the title of a village, having only an iiiii, stor«^ 



132 Ley den. 

cliiirch, a few houses and a partially improved ivater 
power. Port Leyden post office is at the village of that 
name on the Black river and the canal. 

Religious Societies. — The Baptist church of Leyden is 
the oldest church in this town, and the oldest of this sect 
north of Oneida county, in the state, having been formed 
at the house of Thomas Brayton, April 22, 1803, by four 
males and one female. Eld. John Clark, their first minister, 
was ordained Oct. 4, 1804, b}^ Eld. Jesse Hartwell of New 
Marlborough, Mass., Eld. Timothy Pool of Champion, 
Philips Chandler, Maltby, Wm. H. Stevens, Jeduthan, Zac- 
cheus, and John Higby, and Russell Way. In this year the 
church received an accession of 28 males and 31 females 
from a revival of religion that occurred. Elds. Thomas 
Davis, Thos. Morgan, Chandler Hartshorn, Riley B. Ashley, 
R. Z. Williams, H. Nichols, Henry W. Chata, Clement 
Haven, V. R. Waters, J. Lawrence, Reuben Sawyer and 
others, have preached here. 

On the 4th of July, 1820, a subscription was drawn up to 
procure the means for erecting a church, 35 by 40 feet, 
which was successful. The edifice was built in 1821 at a 
cost of $1,660, and on the 17th of Jan., 1825, a society was 
legally formed, having Dr. Samuel Bass, Daniel Talcott, 
Samuel Douglass, Jesse Miller, Isaac L. Hitchcock and 
Nathan Coe, first trustees. The church edifice at Leyden 
Hill was repaired in 1856. Several years since a plot of 
ground was purchased adjacent to this church by indivi- 
duals as a burial place, and the title was conveyed to its 
trustees. 

The Presbyterian church of Leyden was formed Nov. 6, 
1803, by the Rev. Ira Hart, and consisted of six males and 
eight females. The first pastor was the Rev. Jeduthan 
Higby, who was ordained Sept. 10, 1810, and preached 
three years. The second pastor was the Rev. Reuel Kim- 
ball who was installed May 14, 18 17, and dismissed for the 
want of support in 1826. The Rev. J. Murdock and others 
were afterwards employed, and Mr Kimball was re-engaged 
at a later period.^ The Rev. Evan Evans was employed 
from June 3, 1838, to Aug. 12, 1843, and one year after the 
Rev. Augustus L. Chapin began to preach. Others have 
been engaged for short periods, but for several years no 
stated services have been held, and the church now num- 
bers (1859) but two males and about a dozen females. The 
Presbyterian Church of Leyden was built in 1821, and the 

1 The Rev, R. Kimball died Oct. 1, 1847, aged 67 years. 



->**?>: 





■="»gi:inf«llyJ.C.Btiiii« 




Lovwille. 133 

First Presbyterian Society of Leyden was formed under the 
statute, Jan. 3, 1826, with Abner Porter, Calvin B. Gay and 
Wm. Parks, trustees. It was chan_G;ed to Congregational 
Jan. 4, 1836. Revivals occurred in 1824 and 1831, and 
protracted meetings have been held by Burchard, Crandall 
and Knapp. 

In 1825, an effort was made to erect a Union church at 
Talcottville, but without success. The First Universalist 
Society in Leyden was formed June 4, 1831, with Otis 
Munn, James Brooks, Joseph Burnham, Eliphalet Sears, 
Armstrong Malcom, Alfred Da}^ and Ezra Miller, first 
trustees. A church was erected^ and the society has kept 
up its organization, although for several years it has not, 
until witliin the last year, held regular meetings. 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church of Leyden was 
formed March 12, 1832, with Halsey ililler, Levi Hubbard 
and John Utley as trustees. A church edifice was erected 
at Talcottville, but this having much decayed, has been 
removed, and an arrangement recently made by which the 
Universalist church has been thorouglily repaired and is 
now owned by the two sects, but chiefly occupied by the 
Methodists. 

An Old School Baptist Church was formed May 22, 1834, 
in the shed of the Leyden church, consisting of five males. 
A few days after four females united, and Dec. 17, 1837, 
the church was dissolved, and united Avith this sect in 
Turin. 

A cliurch was erected at Port Leyden and dedicated Pec, 
6, 1853. It has been used by the Congrcgationalists and 
others, and the title of its property has been, or is now, in 
suit. A Congregational church was legally organized at 
Port liOyden, May 2, 1859, with Alanson Merwin, Daniel 
Scrallord and Sylvester Stimsun, trustees. 

The Calvinistic Methodist church of Port Leyden was 
formed March 9, 1855, with Kev. Edward lleese, Pierce 
OwcMis, David Roiierts, Richard Roberts, lOvan I'^vans and 
John Hughes, trustees. It has not now a [ilacu of worship 
and the members attend at Collinsville. 

lowvilm:. 

Tiiis town was formed from Mexico, Oswego county, 
March It, ISOO, enibrucing, besiiles its present limits, that 
part of Ueninark, south of Deer rivor, which was taken oil' 

' JoshuH Stow, former propriolor of lauds in tliLj town, gavo $60. Ho died 
about l64U. 



134 Lowville. 

in the formation of Harrisburgh in 1803. Redfield, Water- 
town, Turin and other towns were formed by the same act. 
It embraces No. 11 of the eleven towns, and is the onl}'' one 
of that number that retains the name given by the surveyor 
geueraL At an earlier date it was known as Number 
Eleven, and a few legal writings drawn here are dated in 
Mexico. The first town meeting was ordered to be held at 
the house of Silas Stow, at which the following town ofiB- 
cers were chosen : Daniel Kelley, supervisor; Moses Coffeen, 
clerk; Charles Davenport, Jonathan Rogers and Benjamin 
Hillman, assessors; Ehud Stephens, constable and collector; Billa 
Davenport and Aaron Cole, overseers of the poor; Isaac Perry, 
James Bailey and Benjamin Hillman, commis. of highways; 
Ehud Stephens, David Cobb, Asa Newton, Daniel Porter and 
and Zadoc Bush, path masters; Jonathan Rogers and Elisha 
Stevens, 'pound masters and fence viewers, and Adam Wilcox, 
Benj. Hillman, Jonathan Rogers, Daniel Kelley, Asa Newton 
and John Bush, a committee to select convenient places for 
burial. 

Supervisors. — 1800-4, Daniel Kelley ; 1805, Silas Stow ;^ 
1806-7, Wm. Darrow ; 1808, D. Kelley ; 1809-10, Benjamin 
Hillman ; 1811-3, Ela Collins ; 1814, Solomon King ; 1815, 

B. Hillman ; 1816-7, Heman Stickney ; 1818-22, Benjamin 
Davenport; 1823, Chester Buck;- 1824-6, Charles D. 
Morse; 1827, E. Collins; 1828, B. Davenport; 1829-31, E. 
Collins ; 1832-3, C. Buck; 1834, Daniel T. Buck ; 1835-41, 

C. Buck ; 1842, John Buck ; 1843, Curtis G. Lane ; 1844, 
C. Buck ; 1845-6, C. G. Lane ; 1847, Phineas Leonard ; 
1848-52, C. G. Lane; 1853, Jess Brown; 1854-5, C. G. 
Lane ; 1856-7,- Joseph A. Willard ; 1858-60, C. G. Lane. 

C/er/tx— 1800, Moses Coffeen; 1801-5, Wm. Darrow; 
1806, Daniel Gould ; 1807, Daniel Kelley ; 1808-9, Wm. 
Darrow; 1810-6, Robert McDowell; 1817-8, Charles D. 
Morse; 1819-23, Charles Dayan ; 1S24, Russell Parish ; 
1825, Andrew W. Doig ; 1826, Palmer Townsend ; 1827-34, 
Orrin Wilbur ; 1835-8, Win. L. Easton ; 1839, Ambrose W. 
Clark; 1840-1, Edwin Jarvis ; 1842-4, Wm. Thompson; 
1845-6, A. W. Clark ; 1847, Francis B. Morse ; 1848, Wm. 
A. Chase ; 1849-51, F. B. Morse ; 1852-4, Geo. S. Case ; 
1855, Francis N. Willard ; 1856-8, Loren M. Brown ; 
1859-60, Marcellus J. Murray. 

lAt a special town meeting, held one montb after, Solomon King was 
chosen supervisor. 

"Mr. Buck came from Laneshoro in 1811. He represented the county in 
Assembly in 1822 and 1840, and took an active part in public affairs. Supe- 
rior breeds of sheep were first introduced into the county by him. He died 
July 3, 1847, at his residence on the west road, aged 58 years. 



Loivville. 135 

Mtes from the Town Records.— In 1809, 1810, 1812 and 
1814, fines were voted for allowing Canada thistles to go to 
seed. 

In 1817 Stephen Leonard and Heman Stickney were ap- 
pointed a committee to confer with a committee from Mar- 
tinsburgh about building a poor honse. It will be noticed 
that this was about ten years before one was built. 

In 1830 it was proposed to build a town house, and $300 
were voted. In 1832 are solution was passed to apply for a 
law allowing $500 to be raised for a town house. Wm. 
Shull, Isaac l^ailey, John Stevens, Stephen Leonard and 
Chester Buck were appointed to superintend the building. 
A petition was presented in Assembly March 15, and 
referred to Messrs. Doig, Skinner and Moulton, but no fur- 
ther legislative action appears upon the journals. 

At a special meeting, July 7, 1832, the town voted $100, 
besides the $150 previously raised, to build a draw in the 
Black river bridge, to allow the steamboat then building at 
Carthage, to pass. The town of Watson also aided in this 
improvement. 

In 1833, voted $150 for the Illingworth bridge, if enough 
to finish it be raised by other means. 

In 1836, resolutions were passed asking for a law to tax 
the town $500 annually for five years, to aid in rebuilding 
the academy. This will be further noticed in our account 
of that institution. A committee, consisting of Chester 
Buck, Charles Hush, Luke Wilder, George D. Ruggles and 
jjonjamin Davenport, was appointed under these reso- 
lutions. 

In 1843, the town protested against the tax in this town, 
for the Carthage and lake Champlain road, and the next 
year against a county tax for the TilVany bridge, or a now 
clerk's ollice. 

In 1851, voted to borrow $1,950 from the state treasurer, 
under resolution of Nov., 1850, to aid in building Black 
river bridges. 

This town, with Adams and Waturtown, fell to the share 
of Nicholas Low, in the division between the four proprie- 
tor.s of the IJlack river tract, Aug. 5, 1796. 

Nicholas Low, tho fifth son of Cornelius Low, and Margn- 
retto, his wifn, was born near Now lirunswick, on the Karitan, 
N. J., March 30, 1739. Of his boyhood wo have no trace, but 
it may be assumed from the position and easy circumstances 
of his parents, as well as iVoui his cliarai-tor in after life, 
that ho received careful training. He entereil at an early 
day upon the career of a merchant, in the city of Now 



136 Loioville. 

York, where his eldest brother Isaac had made himself con- 
spicuous. Both brothers, at the commencement of the 
dispute between Great Britain and her colonies, embraced 
the American cause. Isaac Low, in 1774, was chosen by 
the city a member of the committee of public safety, and 
also one of the delegates of the continental congress of that 
year, having for colleagues, John Jay, John Alsop, James 
Duane and Philip Livingston, but as the quarrel became 
embittered, Isaac Low adhered to his allegiance to the 
crown, while JYicholas cast his lot in with his countrymen,-*- 
and when the British troops entered New York he aban- 
doned it and only returned after the peace. He then 
resumed business there as a merchant, enjoying the confi- 
dence and friendship of the most eminent men of the 
nation — Washington, Jay, Hamilton, Gouverneur Morris, 
Rufus King, the Livingstons and others. 

Mr. Low was alive to all the great political questions 
which agitated his countrymen, and taking such part as he 
deemed obligatory upon every good citizen, was ever averse 
to political life, and office he never sought. He was never- 
theless sought out by his fellow citizens on occasions of 
moment. He was a member of the convention that adopted 
the federal constitution, and in 1788 and 1789 was in 
assembly. His political sentiments were then of the federal 
party, as inaugurated under the auspices of Washington, 
but he was of too independent mind and habits, ever to be 
a mere partizan. 

Late in life, Mr. Low married Alice Fleming, widow of 

S Fleming, and by her he had three children, Cornelius, 

Nicholas and Henrietta, of whom the last only survives. 
In 1796, he made the purchase of the Black river tract with 
others, as we have elsewhere related. He had inherited 
from his father a considerable amount of landed estate at 
Ballston, which town in the early part of this century be- 
came a place of much summer resort by reason of its medi- 
cinal springs, and Mr. Low built there for the accomodation 
of this travel a large hotel known as Sans-Souci. 

When the embargo of 1807 and war of 1812, cut us off 
from the supply of manufactured goods usually received 
from England, Mr. Low conceived the project of a great 
manufactory of cotton at Ballston, and accordingly with his 
accustomed energy and decision of character, went to work 
at the enterprise, investing very large sums himself, and 

1 Isaac Low withdrew to Eugland in 1783, having been attainted and 
banished by an act of the legislature in 1779. He died in that country in 
1791 



\ Lovmille. 137 

inducinc^ friends to do likewise. For the brief period 
of the war, the undertaking was remarkably successful, but 
with peace came ruin to home manufactures, and those at 
Ballstou did not escape tlie common lot. The capital in- 
vested was almost a total loss, and Mr. Low soon after sold 
all his property at Eallston, of which as a watering place 
moreover the glories had been eclipsed by the neighboring 
Saratoga Springs. 

With declining years Mr. Low withdrew from business, 
occupied himselt mainly with the care of his estate, and in 
the society of his I'amily and of attached friends, exempt 
until within the last year or two of his life, to a remarkable 
degree, from bodily suifering, though with eyesight and hear- 
ing somewhat impaired, yet with mind unclouded, he passed 
serenely on to death, November 15, 1826, being then in his 
83d year. 

In personal character, Mr. Low was distinguished for 
sterling qualities. With a clear head, great self-reliance 
and independence, much observation and knowledge of 
men and affairs, ho combined a high sense of honor, the 
most scrupulous integrity, and the most exact justice and 
truth. His yea was always yea, and his nay nay, whatever 
might betide. lie was a consistent member of the Episcopal 
church, and for many years a warden of (xrace church in 
the city of New York. In personal appearance he was of 
compact and robust frame, with a full head, broad forehead, 
clear steady blue eyes, fine complexion and an expression 
indicative at once of great kindness and groat firmness. His 
manner was courteous and polished, yet very direct. He 
was the very type of an independent, upright, honest gentle- 
man. 

Mr. Low was accustomed to visit the town annuallv upon 
business duiMug many years. His son Coinelius was ap- 
pointed in IS 18, agent with Mr. liostwic-k, and remained at 
Lowville a law [)artner with him until the death of his 
father. He died June .30, 1S19, agiul 61 years. Nicholas 
Ijuw the second son, died in New York in the I'all of I8c9, 
and his only sister, nuirried the Hon. Charles King, now 
president of Coluinl»ia college iti the city of New York. 

On the 20th of April, 17US, Low deeded to Silas Stow, 
for IjjSjOOO, a tract of 4,Hi8 acres in the central part of the 
town, except iiig lOS acres in a s(pnire in the N. W. corner.' 
This tract has from this cause boon known as Stow's 

^Deods, Oneida Co., vH., 2S9. 

H 



138 Loioville. 

Square, and may he classed among the best farming lands 
of the county. 

Number Eleven was surveyed around its border in May, 
1796, by Benjamin Wright, who reported that "this town 
is very good, especially in the south part, the soil excel- 
lent, and timber, bass, maple, beech, birch, ash, elm and 
butternut and some few hemlock. Along the river there is 
a fine intervale in many places, which has very fine soil, 
and is exceedingly handsome." He also notices the swamp 
along the river and a medicinal spring in the north part, 
"which may perhaps be of some considerable importance 
when properly examined." The area reported in this 
surve}' was 24,453 acres, and in another made by him in 
subdividing the town into lots the next year as 24,615 acres, 
"Wright's survey of 1797, divided the town into 40 lots of 
from 154 to 693 acres. It was further surveyed by John 
Frees in 1S02, J. D. Hammond in J 804, Robert McDowelP 
in 1808, and by others. The swamp near the river extend- 
ing into Denmark (3,329 acres), was surveyed into 41 lots, 
of from 72 to 120 acres by McDowell in 180*8. 

A reminiscence of this town extends back to the revolu- 
tion, and is supported by very good verbal testimony, to 
the eflect, that a party of tories and Indians having cap- 
tured a Mrs. Roseburgh and her little boy Henry, in the 
Mohawk settlements, conducted them through the woods 
to the High falls. They had here left concealed a birch 
canoe, in which they came down the river with their 
prisoners till on arriving at a place above Smith's land- 
ing, they left the river and came up to some flat rocks 
near the present east road and encamped. They had at 
this place made caches of corn, and here they spent the 
night. They proceeded on,the next day to the Long falls, 
and from thence to Carleton island in the St. Lawrence, 
where Mrs. R. a few weeks after added one to the number of 
the captives. Henry was adopted by the Indians, but some 
time after was stolen away by his relatives. The child 
born in captivity, afterwards married in this county.^ 

Mr. Low having confirmed the title and caused the sur- 
vey of this town, appointed Silas Stow, a young man 

iMr. McDowell was an Irishman of good education and social manners. 
He removed from Lowville to Waddington, St. Lawrence co., where by the 
failure of D. A. Ogden, he was deprived of a farm, which had beeu mostly 
paid for in surveying. He afterwards taught school many years in Madrid 
and Ogdensburgh. 

- She was Mrs. Peter Van Atter. Jacob Van Atter was an ensign in tho 
battle of Oriskany, and an early settler. His wife died, aged 100 years. 



Loumlle. 139 

twenty-four years of age, who had previously been em- 
ployed iu the settlement of Leyden, as his agent, and 1797 
the lauds were opened for sale. A strong tide of emigra- 
tion was then setting from New England, and the central 
and western parts of this state were being explored by small 
parties in quest of new homes. One of these companies 
from Westtield, ]\Iass., consisting • of Enoch Lee, Russell 
Pond, Ehud Stephens^ and Jonathan Rogers, was returning 
from a tour to the Genesee country, where it was found 
sickly. At Whitesboro they met Mr. Charles C. Brodhead, 
who had but recently been employed in surveying lands on 
the Biack river. He turned their attention to tliat region, 
and crossing the Mohawk, set them on a line of marked 
trees that led to the future homes of three of their number. 
Mr. Stow,'^ the agent, was then stopping in Leyden, but 
spent much of his time upon number 11, and from him 

"^ Ehud Slrphens was a grandson of Thomas Stevens, who was born Dec, 
lGi)2, emigrated to America, and died at or near Newgate, Ct., March 20, 1752. 
His sons were born as folk)Ws : Thomas, Nov. 20, f72:3, (d. Oct. 17,1783); 
Solomon, Feb. 17, 172^) : Jonathan, March 1.1, 17.3-i (died in childhood), and 
itii/jts, Feb. 17, 1740, who accompanied his son to Lowvilie and died June 
26, iSliJ. The cliililreii of lliifus Stephens were, 

Ehud, b. Feb. 17, 1771, d. at Copenhagen Aug. 21, 1852. His son Apollos 
has been many years a merchant at Copenhagen. W. Hudson Sti-phens, son 
of Apollos, is a lawyer at Lowvilie. Harvey Stephens, son of Ehud, was a 
m'Tchant at .Martin.sburgh and an agent of the Pierrepout estate. His family 
reside at that place. 

Truman, h. Oct. 20, 1782, resides in Lowvilie. Settled in June, 1802. 

Ira, b. Nov. 2'J, 1777, d. at Lowvilie June 21, 1852. Settled in 1801. 

Rufut, b. Nov. 20, 1779, resides iu Lowvilie. Settled iu June, 1802 and 

Apollos, wl»o died iu infancy. His daughters were, 

Ruth, married Levi Adams of Martinsburgh. 

Ele.ta, married Pre.served Finch of Turin. 

Paulinii, marri'-ii ll.-mau Stickuey of Lowvilb', and afterwards of Turin. 

Each of tin; abovi' naiai'il, e.\c"'pt Jonathan (son of Thomas) and Apollos, 
became he^ds of familii-s, and tiieir dHst;endant.s ar« luimerous. 

Ehud Sli'phen.s marrifd Mercy, a daughter of Jonathan Rogers of JJranford, 
dl., who bfcame tlie mother of the first white oliildreu born in Lowvilln and 
Martinsburgh. Sin- was born in Sept. 28, 17G'J,and ilied .May 31, LS4'J. Mr. 
St<'pii<Mis was ai)|)ointed shcrilf in 180S and 1.^20, liolding the office, in all, 
about threi' years. 

- Siliis Stow wtt8 born in .Middltilield, Ct., Ueo. 21, 1773, and was tlie 
youngest of u family of eight children. His thn-i- older brotli-rs, Elihu, OUtd 
and .Joshna, wnrr all in tlie revolution, and his father, ii zi-alous patriot, ren- 
dereil all tli>- matt-rial aid that could b'- sjiared from his farm, and from priii- 
oiplo, rei:eivtd conlimMilal moiity at |.ar for iverylliing lif liud to «fll for tlie 
army. Ho was a faioH'r in viry mod"r.iliM-iniim.-<tanccM. Ilisi wif.< was a woman 
of remarkabli! iMn«rgy and di'votiou to tlm inlfrivsts id ht-r family. .Mr. Stow 
vfUH ofiiii 111 ard to speak of her with lt'n<lernes.'( and respii-t, ami to h<T wero 
herchildrrn largely indebted for whatever diHtiiiclli)ii lliey aft'-rwardn acquired. 
He received only a eonunon sclioul education, and U\n further ue<iiiirement.s 
wi'rt< duo to Ills mothxr'.t <Mrit and lii.s own iuithu.Miu.sm. lie studied law at 
Middletown, but U'fop' .M.tllitig In |>ra' ti<>', InH-ame coiiferni'd in th" a^i'iiey 
of Leyden, and 17U7 wn.s a]>]>oiuted l>y Low aguul fur hid towu^i uu the black 



140 Lowville. 

Stephens took the first contract in this town. June 2, 1797, 
for lot 38, at $3 per acre. Rogers, Pond,^ Daniel Kelley, 
Moses Waters, and perhaps others, selected land during the 
summer and fall of 1797, began slight clearings and put 
up one or two rude shanties, a little south of the lower 
mill, for the families that were to come on in the following 
year. 

Early in 179S the first families of this town left their 
homes in Westfield, Mass., and by slow stages, found their 
way to the last clearing in Turin. At the High Falls they 
borrowed a pit saw of the French settlers, and with the aid 
of such tools as they had, undertook to build a boat of suf- 
ficient size to transport their families and goods to their 
destination. This craft was finished in about two Aveeks, 
and ready to launch as soon as the river opened. It was 
flat-bottomed, about 25 feet long by 7 wide, and might have 
had a capacity of two tons. It was probably the first ves- 
sel larger than a log canoe that had floated on Black river, 
and may have been regarded by its non-professional boat 
builders, as a model of its kind. 

The ice broke up on the river on the 8th of April, and 
on the 10th, they launched their boat, loaded it with farm- 
ing utensils, bedding, grain and provisions until its sides 
were scarcely two inches above the water, placed upon it 
their families, and cast off upon the swolen river, on an un- 
tried and somewhat perilous voyage. The passengers upon 

river tract. He came on with the first settlers, and on the 26th of July, 1801, 
he married Mary Ruggles of Boston, a sister of Gen. Geo. D. Ruggles, for- 
merly of this town. He was appointed a judge of Oneida county, Jan. 28, 
1801, and was elected to the twelfth congress (1811-13) from the tenth dis- 
trict, by the Federal party. Following the pjrinciples they advocated, he 
spoke and voted against the declaration of war with Great Britain. In 
1814-15 he held the office of sheriff, and from 1815 to 1823, that of first 
judge of Lewis county. Although educated to the law, he never practiced 
at the bar, but was regarded as a sound and judicious lawyer, and a man of 
great native talent. He was succeeded in the agency by Miller, in 1802, and an 
unfortunate land purchase in Malta (Lorraine) resulted in a pecuniary disaster 
from which he never recovered. He died January 19, 1827, at the house of 
Lemuel Wood, aged 54 years. He left three sons, all natives of this town, of 
whom Alexander W. Stow died at Milwaukie, SejDt. 14, 1854, chief justice of 
Wisconsin. He resided many years in Rochester, from whence, in 1841, he 
removed to the state which conferred upon him its highest judicial trust. 
Marcellus K. Stow re.sides at Fond-dii-Lac. Wisconsin, where he is engaged 
in merchandise. Horatio J. Stow was educated to the law and resided many 
years at Buffalo, where he held the office of recorder. In 1846 he was elected 
to the cons.titutional convention, and in 1857, to the State Senate, in which 
office he died, at Clifton Springs, Feb. 19,1859. During several of his later 
years, he had resided at Lewiston and was extensively engaged in farming. 
He was a man of brilliant talent and much influence. 

iMr. P. never became a settler in town. This location was bought by one 
Washburn. 



Lowville. 141 

this trial trip, were Jonathan Rogers/ and his children 
Behi, Polly and Isaac ; Ehud Stephens, his wife Mercy, and 
children Clarissa, ApoUos and Harvey; Jesse Wilcox, Phile- 
mon Hoadley, Zobulon Rogers and p]lijah and Justus 
Woolworth.'^ 

The craft was towed into the stream by some Frenchmen 
but was soon caught in a current that drew it slowly around 
towards the lalls, against the best effort that those assisting 
could make, Avhen to save themselves, they cast oft" the line 
and rowed toward their own side of the river. Four of 
the men seized their oars, and by hard rowing got within 
reach of the bottom, when B. Rogers and J. Woolworth, 
jumped out and swam ashore with a rope, by which the 
craft was towed down below the eddy, and then rowed 
across to the French houses opposite. A part of the load 
was here taken off, and they again started a little after 
noon. Running down upon the swolen current they arrived 
just before sunset, at the end of their voyage, as far up the 
Lowville creek as they could push the boat, and not far 
from the residence of the late Luke Wilder. 

The day was delightfully serene, and they were borne 
rapidly and pleasantly along, with no effort except to keep 
their craft in the middle of the stream and no danger but 
from overhanging trees, by one of which, Clarrissa Stephens 
was swept off the boat, but soon rescued. They landed 
upon a tree that had fallen across the creek and prevented 
further progress, but were yet half a mile distant from the 
siianty where they were to spend the night. B. Rogers 
and J. Woolworth started with a gun to look up the s{)Ot, 
and after some time lost in finding a marked line, the rest 
followed on with such l)urdens as they could conveniently 
carry, and which wo\dd be most needed for present comfort. 
Meanwhile it grew dark, and the travelers could no longer 
SCO their route, but those who ha<l gone on before, had 

1 Jonathan Rns^trt, was a son of Jonathan, who was bom Dec. 12, 1715, 
ami ili<-<l III \V..-.-,tli.'|(l Miinli, 18(t5. His fi»nnl.v '•oiisistod of, 

i;ii. I>. Nov. 14, 174t», m.III.mI ill .Miirtiii?il)iir^li in lb02, where he diod. 

Lydiii, l>. Juif 1, 1747, niari«'d Krisbie. 

Mary, b. l*'eb. 22, 17r>;{, ni I'hileniDii lloudli.y of Turin. 

Jonathan, b. Maruh 11, \~t')C,, \\\. Mlm. y Honors. 

Abigal, b. Nov. i», 1758, in. Sanuiol Dankd. 

MiTcy, in. Klmd St'-jihens. 

Capt. J. Ki>mTM, di.'d in Lowvilbi, A|tril 10, 1S41. He was by trado a 
blatksniitli, but in this town riiii'lly dt-voti-d liiinsulf to inn ktM'pini,' and 
aflcTwiirds ti> fiir'niut^. Ilo wan an cKi'iiipUiry nitMiiU'r of tho Pn'sbyl'Tlim 
church, and in the various rulationa of lifu waji highly uooful and generally 
esteenieil. 

- Aa related by Jetjao Wilcox, August, IbSS). 



142 Lowville. 

kindled a pile of dry brush and logs, and by the sound of a 
horn, and the gleam of the cheerl'ul fire, they were led to 
the rude but welcome shelter. A hearty supper was eaten 
with relish, and such as were entitled to hospitalities of 
the roof slept under it, while the rest made a couch of hem- 
lock boughs, and lay down upon it. 

Their provisions and furniture were backed up the next 
day. They had left a number of cattle in Turin to browse 
in the woods, but finding the spring farther advanced here, 
and the leeks and wild plants up fresh and green, while the 
snow still lay in the woods near the falls, some of the num- 
ber returned in two or three days, and drove their stock 
down through the woods to Lowville. Two or three trips 
of the boat, brought the balance of their goods, when the 
craft was lent and kept running a long time after in trans- 
porting the family and goods of other settlers in this and 
the following seasons. Hoadley and the Woolworths had 
settled in Turin, whither they returned. Wilcox began 
clearing in June, upon the place he has ever since owned 
on Stow's square. Mrs. J. Rogers came on the next week, 
and during the summer quite a number of families found 
their way into town, took up land, and began improve- 
ments.^ 

The usual landing place of those who came by water, 
was at Hulbert's afterwards Spafford's landing, at the spot 
where the road from Lowville to Watson, first strikes the 
river." 

The land books of Mr. Low, show that the following per- 
sons took up farms in this town during the first four years 
of its settlement: 

1 An early incident is related upon good authority, as having been 
observed with wonder. Rogers brought on a pair of fowls the first season, 
old Logan and his mate, and in due course of time, a tender brood of chickens 
claimed a parent's care. The hen was killed by a hawk, when, with half 
reasoning instinct, Logan, perhaps thinking these the last of his race, assumed 
the nurse's care, clucked the half-orphan young around him, fed, guarded 
and sheltered them with the tenderness of a mother, and reared them to 
maturity. 

2 Col. John Spafford, from whom this landing was named, was a native of 
Ct. and one of the first settlers of Tinmouth, Vt. During the revolution he 
took an active part at the head of a company of militia. At the taking of 
Ticouderoga in 1775, under Allen and Arnold, he assisted with his company, 
and was directed to join Col. Warner, in his attempt upon Crown Point. 
He reached that important place before the latter, and received himself the 
sword of the acting commandant, which remained with his family at the time 
of his death. He died, March 24, 1823, at the age of 71 years. His son 
Horatio Gates Spafford was author of the first gazetteer of New York. — Black 
River Gazette. 



Lowville. 143 

In 1798, James Bailey,^ Jehoida and Nathan Page, Hul- 
bert and Cooley, Wrn. Darrow,- and jSIoses Coffeen.^ 

In 1799, Adam F. and Jacob Suell, Benjamin Hillraan, 
Jacob Eblie,'* James Craig, John ShuU,' Jeremy Rogers, 
John Bush, Daniel Porter, Geo. Bradford, Zadock Bush, 
Asa Newton, James Parsons, Richard Livingston,*' Zeboim 
Carter,' Noah Durrin,* Ebenezer Hill, Samuel Van Atta, 
James and Garret Boshart,'^ Wm. and Benjamin Ford, John 
Kitts, Hooper Boohall, Philes and Kitts, Fisk and Searl, 
and James Cad well. 

In 1800, Reuben Putney, Luther Washburn, Aaron 
Coles, David Cobb, Nathaniel Durham, Pardon Lanpher^'^ 
and Francis ^Murph}'. 

In 1801, Joseph Newton, Benj. Rice, Jesse Benjamin, 
Elijah Parks, Z. Plank, E. Newton", David Rice, David Wil- 
bur,^^ Jabez Puffer, Samuel and John Bailey, Joseph Pur- 
rinton, Nathan Rowlee, Hezel^iah Wheeler, Levi Bickford, 
Joseph Malby, Eliphaz Searle, Calvin Merrill, A. D. Wil- 
liams, Benj. Davenport, Daniel Porter, A. and A. Sigourney, 
Mather Bos worth,'- Loorais J. Danks, Edward Shepherd, 
Zuriel Waterman, Amasa Hitchcock, Ozen Bush, Simeon 
Babcock, Thadeus Smith, Elijah Baldwin, Jonathan Hut- 
chinson, Fiastus Iloskins, Robert Barnett,^^ Jesse Hitch- 

I From Lebanon, Ct., and father of Daniel S. Bailey. He settled on Stow's 
square, and was an early innkeeper. Dr. Ira Adams afterwards owned his 
place. 

- Dr. Darrow from Hebron, N. Y., was thn first physician in the north part 
of the county, and settled on Stow's square. He was in assembly in 1812, 
and died, Jan, 8, 1815, aged 44 years. 

•I Bought on the Kast road. Sold in 1804, and bought ijOO acres on the 
west road from whence he removed to JeflV-rson co. His brothers Henry, 
Diivid and Williiiin. w<}re pionet-rs in that county. 

•*I)i<'d, D.'c. l.'i, iH.'iT, agfd S2 years. 

i iMt'd, March 27, 1827, aged 82 years. *'Krotii John.stown. 

" From Wfstlield, Ma.'<s. He served as colonel in the war of 1812-15, and 
died in this town Aj)rii 22, 1853, aged 81 years. 

''Th*' Ilt'v. Noah Durrin, died, Jan. 21, 1853, aged 78 years. He was by 
trade a millwrigiit. 

'■'(J. Bohhart, <liid, May 4, 1k45, agi (I 7*1 years. He removed fnim the 
Mohawk .xettlemi'nt.x with several (jerman families among whom were Shull, 
Ebli<% Sm-II, Herring, Van Atta, Jcc, and settled on the hill xidu, a little 
north of Lowville village. His smooth, ample and neatly fenced llelds, were 
long the model for whoever might be emulous of success in farming. 

'".Mr. L. removed fmm Westerly, It. I., in 17'.i7, to Whitestown, and in 
March, Isdit, lame to Lowville, where he ilied Feb. 27, lsii7, ag>d .>"2 years. 
The road on which he S4'ttled, In'tweeii the Number Three and Weat Koads, 
is still often called from him L;it>|>her street. 

II From Worthington, .Mass. Died Dec. 27, 1821), aged 60. 

I'^^From Westinoreliuid. Died .May 17, 1850, aged 84 year*. Constant Bos- 
worth died June Ul, 1820, aged 80 years. 
l^Died Aug. 13, 1828, a«ed 07 years. 



144 Lowville. 

cock^, Kent and Bull, John Delap, Nathaniel Prentice and 
Lewis (Tosard, 

The first deed to actual settlers was issued April 12, 1728, 
to Daniel Kelley for lot 37, of 250 acres for $650, on the 
same day that Ihe deed of Stow's square was given. As an 
interesting? subject for comparison the following list of 
deeds given during the years lSOO-1-2, is given : 

Name. Date. Lot. Acres. Price. 

John Scliull, June 30, 1800 18 150 8450.00 

Benjamin Hillman, July 1, do 38 300 1,029.00 

Wm. Darrow, Aug. 20, do 70^ 266.37 

Jonathan Rogers, April 20, 1801 29 412^ 1,238.25 

James Baik^y, do do 10 101 345.10 

John Bush, do do 14 79 237.00 

Ebenezer Hill, do do 13 101 353.50 



Lot. 


Acres. 


18 


150 


38 


300 




lOi 


29 


412i 


10 


101 


14 


79 


13 


101 


23 


100 


23 


100 


36 


127i 


22 


129 


39 


1014 


38 


239 


9 


259 


9 


1874 


4 


2811 



AdamF. Snell, do do 23 100 325.00 

Jacob Snell, do do 23 100 300.00 

Elijah Baldwin, Aug. 20, 1802 36 127^ 381.75 

Samuel Van Atta, do do 22 129 387.00 

Noah Durrin, do do 39 101^ 332.50 

Ehud Stephens, do do 38 239 690.00 

HooD'^i Booiiall. do do 9 259 971.25 

Mather Bosworth do do 9 1874 628.12 

Zuriel Waterman do do 4 281^ 984.37 

In 1803 the following persons received deeds : Zadock 
Bush, lOSg, David Porter, 104, Simeon Babcock, 154^, Silas 
Weller, 51, Joseph Newton, 102, and Jesse Hitchcock, 50. 

Mr. Stow hired a small piece, cut off and a shanty built 
in 1797, and a log house, opposite the bridge, at the lower 
mill, in 1798. In the summer and fall of 1802 he built a 
mansion, still standing and familiar to many of our readers, 
on a beautifully chosen spot, a short distance south of Low- 
ville village, and now owned by Charles D. Morse. 

Daniel Kelley^ built a saw mill in 1798 on the south side of 

From Lanesboro, Mass. Died May 25, 1853, aged 73 years. 

"^ Daniel Kiilcy yv&s horn in Norwich, Ct., Nov. 27, 1755, married Jemima 
Stow, a sister of Judge Stow of Middletown, June 28, 1787, and removed 
from Middletown in 1798 to Lowville. He was appointed first county judge, 
and in the fall of 1814 removed to Cleveland, 0., where he held the offices 
of post master and county treasurer. He died Aug. 7, 1831, in his 76th year. 
His wife was born Dec. 23, 1763, and died Sept. 14, 1815. She evinced in a 
strong degree, the mental vigor and the enterprise which belong to the Stow 
family, and for many years was an intelligent nurse and skillful midwife in 
Lowville, freely bestowing her time and services upon the sick. 

Datus Kelley is a wealthy proprietor upon Kelley's Island, lake Erie. 
Alfred Kelley died at Columbus, 0., Dec. 2, 1859, aged 70 years. He settled 
in the profession of the law at Cleveland in 1810, was twenty-two years in the 
Oliio legislature, was the author of its canal and railroad laws and influential 
in the iiublic councils to a degree never surpassed in that state. He was 
acting canal commissioner while the canals were building and afterwards was 
president of three important railroads at the same time. Irad and Thomas 



Lowville. 145 

the creek, in Lowville village, just below tbe present bridge, 
and bis first log but built the same year, stood against a 
huge boulder, adjacent and directly opposite the bridge, as 
now built. A grist mill was raised the next year, with the 
aid of settlers summoned from all the country around, and 
got in operation Sept. 22, 1799. Its stones were dressed 
from a boulder of gneiss rock by James Parker, the well 
known mill-stone maker of Watertown, and the gearing 
was done by Noali Durrin and Ebenezer IJill, millwrights. 
It is noted by Mr. Stow that this mill, on the 24th of Octo- 
ber, about a month after its completion, had ground two 
bushels of wheat well, in seventeen minutes. Previous to 
this, milling had been obtained at ^Vhitestown and some- 
times in Turin, the boys being generally detailed for this 
service, A day was usually consumed in going to Turin 
and returning, and the sun never went down on their way 
home, if the young pioneers could prevent it by a forced 
march through the obscure bridle path. The lower mill in 
Lowville was built by Stow about 18 10. In lS03 or 1804, 
John and Ozem Bush built a saw mill on Sulphur Spring 
creek, near the Number Three Road, which they sold to 
Solomon King, who erected the first grist mill at that place. 
Mr. Kelley's mills, the erection of an inn by Jonathan 
Rogers, and a store by Fortunatus Eager,^ determined the 
location of Lowville village, which sprung up mostly on 
the farm of Ivogers, who cleared the site of its native 
growtii of timber. 

The first framed building in the village, was the house of 
Capt. Rogers, and the second was Eager's store. The 
second inn was built about 1805 by Preserved Finch in the 
\ippor part of the village, and was kept by Daniel Gould, 
and alterwarda by M. \V. WuUes.'- 



M. Kelley reHidoH at Cleveland, wlioro thvy aro prominont citizens. The luttur 
is i)rfHi(loiit of the M<r«liiiiitH' Hank, and lias Iwen for several years in the 
Ohio L<•^'irtlatllrl■. W- lliid the loliowini,' incidfnt of his lift- in tlie diary of 
un < iirly s.ttUr : May li(», IT'.HI. — "At Kfllcy's, liis child Thonia-s foil 
into his .saw mill {lond, and l:iy thero us near us wu I'oiild jiid){>', at lea.st a 
qiiarlt'r of an hunr. Kvery aj)|pfaranft< of life and In'ut was ^one. After 
muili i>ainM we n-stored hiui to litn. He lay lloutiiiK on the pond." 

' .Mr. Kagt'r was from Liiniiihiirj;, Vt., and cann- tlui .Matanl or third year 
of tliK setlii-ment. Aflt-r trading uhout three yt<ars, he h«canie a partner of 
Will. ('iir<l, and for si'Vi-ral years In- t-urried on tin' mantifut-tiire of potash 
<|iiitH ext<'n.-<ivfly, thus aidint; thx s>'ltl<rs to nxan.-i for i>aying for their lands. 
11<* wt-nt to Canada, n«ar liruekville, in ISUU, where hudieil. .Mr. Ciird died 
at Urt'onhiiMli. 

-Major Melawthon Woiilsty WtlU» was horn in Stamford, ('t., U<'o. 0, 1770, 
\va.-< .some years a munhant at .Mhany, and ronuiv.d from Ijuushoro, Miu^s., 
in l&UT. In Ifel'D he came to Lowville wheru \w resided till hit) death, Feb, 

B 



146 Loioville. 

The first birth in town was that of Harriet, daughter of 
Ehud Stephens, and afterwards wife of Dr. James M. Sturde- 
vant, which occurred Feb. 24, 1799. The first male born in 
town was Samuel, son of Jonathan Rogers, June 21, 1800. 

The first death is believed to have been that of a child of 
one Cooley, but the first of an adult, was that of Aaron 
Hovey, a young unmarried man from Johnstown. He had 
taken up a lot on the east road, but was then at work clear- 
ing land in the upper part of the village, near the present 
residence of Wm. Root Adams. He was thoughtless and 
profane, and a little before, upon receiving some slight 
injury, had intimated that he would soon have a settlement 
with his maker. He went out on a sabbath morning to 
cut down a tree, foolishly placing a round stone in the 
notch, as an experiment, to roll ofi" the trunk from the stump. 
He was struck and killed by the tree, and was, it is believed, 
the first person buried in the old grave yard, then a lonely 
spot in the woods upon the east road below the village. 

A few straggling families of St. Regis Indians, occasion- 
ally stopped a short time to hunt in the vicinity of the 
early settlers. One of these savages named " Captain Joe," 
had brutally whipped his squaw one evening in a drunken 
fit. She escaped to Capt. Rogers' house for protection, and 
was sent up a ladder into the garret by Mrs. Rogers, who 
had then no other company but two of her children. The 
ladder was scarcely taken down and hid, before Joe came 
reeling along in quest of his victim, and was the first time 
deceived and sent away. He soon, however, returned with 
a torch, following a little dog, who was good on the track, 
and by snuffing and barking soon convinced his master that 
the object of his pursuit was in the garret. The Indian 
sprang up and caught hold of a beam, Avhen the woman and 
her children seized him by his legs and brought him pros- 
trate to the ground. They held him until the neighbors 
could be rallied by a conch-shell to their aid, and Joe was 
deprived of further power to injure until sober and peni- 
tent. 

On another occasion, a camp of some twenty Indians, on 
the spot now occupied by Morris ]\!oore, became boisterous 
from drink, and a party came to Rogers' house, at which 

27, 1857, aged 86 years. Mr. Welles was a son of the Rev. Noah Welles, and 
a descendant of Thomas Welles, whose son was governer of Connecticut in 
16.55. He was related to the late Commodore Woolsey of Utica, and well 
known to the citizens of the county. From near the time of his removal to 
about 1830, he kept an inn at Lowville village. Ilis dwelling was built at 
the time when it was hoped that the old academic building might become a 
court house. 



Lowvilk. 147 

no man was present but Eli Kellogg his son-in-law. The 
Indians were extremely drunk and boisterous, when upon 
refusing to leave, they were knocked down with a club by 
the man, and dragged out by the women. 

In these primitive times, wheeled vehicles were little 
known, and had they been owned, could hardly have been 
used without roads. It" a party was to go on a visit to some 
distant cabin, a rude sled drawn by oxen, and cushioned 
with a few bundles of straw, afforded a slow, but safe and 
easy mode of conveyance, nor was the guest less welcome 
to the coarse fare and rustic hospitality ut the bark roofed 
hovel. Distinctions founded upon the possession of a few 
more of the conveniences of life than one's neighbors were 
unknown, and the privations of the present, were relieved 
by bright anticipations of the future. 

In the second summer of the settlement, Capt. Rogers 
went to the salt springs, now Syracuse, for salt, of which 
he procured a load, and brought it to near Dexter by water 
from whence it was drawn to Lowville on a dray made of a 
crotched limb of a tree. Fish and game were easily pro- 
cured, and about 1805, two men from Lowville went over 
to Crystal creek, caught each a hundred pounds of fish and 
returned the same day. Sixteen years after, an enormous 
moose was shot in this town, by a lad twelve years of age. 
His skin was prepared, and exhibited more than thirty 
years in the Albany museum. 

The road as first opened, about 1799, to Turin, was through 
what was termed the "eleven mile woods" The first road 
northward was the east road, which was probably run out the 
iSame year, in September, Stow hired Joseph Crary to 
survey out a line to township 3 (Riithin<l), which has ever 
'since been kiujun us the " Xunilier 'I'hreo road." .John Ihish, 

.'eter Swinburne and Weller were first settlers on this 

load. The west road was laid out about 1801 or 1802. 

Th street leading from Lowville to New Hoston, wa.s 
fcttled west of the west road, about 1805-tJ, by Uoswoll 
Vaturmaii, Nathaniel iienient, Malachi I'utnain, Sacket and 
iVvin l>odgo, anil about a dozen others in lliirrif^burgli. It 
issaid that at tlii; time of the war, there were about seventy 
m;n on this street in the two towns liable to military duty, 
bit not a single family of these first settlors now resides 
there. The state road from Lowville to llendor.soii ILirbor 
wa^ afterwards located on this road. 

'I'iie fii>t settliMuent upon Stow's s»piare, was liegun in the 
fall of 1797, by Moses Waters,' who camo on with u back 

» Diod, I'Vb. 5, 1852, »god 81 yviun. 



148 Lowville. 

load of provisions, and stayed while this lasted, cutting off a 
small clearing. Jesse and Iloswell Wilcox,^ Charles and 
Billa Davenport,^ Dr. Wm. Darrow, Daniel Porter, Joel and 
Wm. Bates, Isaac Perry,'' Jacob Aple}', Fortimatus and 
Mayhew Bassett, James Bailey and Absalom Williams, were 
among the first settlers of Stow's square, A store, church, 
inn and post oftice, subsequently gave the settlement upoa 
the state road within this tract some claims to the appella- 
tion of a village, but the loss of all these excepting the 
church (which is falling into ruin), has occasioned the 
locality to be regarded as only a thickly settled farming 
neisfhborhood. 

Mr. Stow was succeeded in the agency by Morris S. 
Miller,* about 1802, and the latter by Isaac W. Bostwick in 

1 These were brothers, sons of Adam and Esther Wilcox. Their brother 
Elisha, b. Oct. 2, 1768, died in Leydeii, and their sister Rebecca, b. Sept. 
1770, married Moses Waters. This wedding was the first that occurred in 
Lowville. Jesse, b. June S, 1774, resides at Stow Square. Roswell, b. Jan. 
22, 1778, died, Oct. 1, 1851. These families were from Killingworth, Ct. 

2 The D.'.venports of this town, are descendants of Thomas D., who settled 
at Dorchester about 1640, and died, Nov. 9, 1685. His third son, Jonathan 
(born, March 6, 1658, and died, Dec. 1. 1680), had seven sons, the youngest 
of whom named Benjamin, was the father of the emigrants named in the 
text. He was born Oct. 6, 1698, and died about 1785, at Spencertown, N. 
Y. His family consisted of four sons and three daughters, viz : 

Samuel who died in Sheffield, Ct. 

Hannah, who married House. 

Billa, who settled in this town, and had two sons and four daughters. 
John the eldest son, settled in Delaware co., and gave name to the town of 
Davenport ; he died, wealthy. Billa settled in this town. 

Charles, born April 15, 1751, married Elizabeth Taylor in 1778, and died, 
Dec. 12, 1812. His children were, Benjamin, born Nov. 15, 1778, died in 
Turin, Feb. 19, 1860; Ira, b., May 9, 1787, died. May 19, 1819. Sally, 

b^ Nov. 7, 1782, died . Betsey, h Nov. 17, 1791. Charles, b. Oct. 23, 

1784, m. May, 1814, to Anna Cole, died July 28, 1855; his portrait is given 
in this volume. Alexander, b. Oct. 25, 1780, d. Jan. 20, 1851. Roxanna, b. 
Aug. 1, 1796, m. Rev. J. Blodget. Ashley, h. Feb. 11, 1794, removed to 
Copenhagen in 1825 and has since resided there; he has held the offices o: 
sheriff and senator. John B., h. Feb. 18, 1798, died in Indiana in 1819. 

Jonathan, married a Culver. 

Sally, married a Clark. 

Zerphiah, married a Bliss. 

sCapt. Perry, originally from R. I., had removed from Hancock, Mass., t» 
Granville, N. Y., and thence to Palmerstown, Westmoreland and Lowvill'. 
He settled here in June, 1799, having the year previous located land. Oie 
of his daughters married Fortunatus Eager, the first merchant; anotheia 
Buell ; another Isaac W. Bostwick. He had served in the revolution, aid 
was related to Commodore Perry. His death occurred Nov. 19, 1840, at llie 
age of 81 years. 

'^Morris S. Miller, had been the private secretary of Gov. Jay, and marned 
a Miss Bleecker of Albany. He removed from Lowville to Utica, where he 
resided till his death, Nov. 16, 1824, aged 44 years. He was a memler of 
the 13th congress, and held the office of first judge of Oneida Co., from 1810 
till his death. He was a gentleman of fine manners and extensive acquire- 
ments, but his brief residence in this section scarcely allowed him to become 
generally known to our citizens. 



'^ ^. 








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F 




K 
Y 




■■■■T^^*^*:-^"^'^- r. 






^J c^c^^^-c^^J^^^^^ 



Lowville. 149 

1S06. The latter remained in this station till near the end 
of his life.^ 



1 Isaac Welton Bostwick, a son of Andrew Bostwick, was born in Watertown, 
Ct., March G, 1776, and in early childliood removed with his parents to New 
York city, but in two or three years returned to his native place. After 
attending several years a scliool taught by Mr. Pnnderson, he removed witli 
the family to Roxbury, and in a school taught by the Rev. Mr. Canfield, 
prepared for the high school at Williamstown. After two or three years 
attendance at tlie latter, he undertook his own support by teacliing, at first in 
a puhlic school in South East, and afterwards as a private tutor in tlie family 
of Mr. Livingston of I'oughkeepsie. 

Hi' here became acquainted witli a brother of Judge Piatt of Whitestown, 
who induced him to remove in 1797 to Oneida co., where he entered the 
office of Piatt & Breese, and in 1801, he was admitted to the bar of the 
supreme court, having for a short time previous served as deputy county 
clerk under Mr. Piatt. In 1804, he removed to Turin, and began the practice 
of the law, n'sidiiig two years in the family of Judge Collins, and in 180G, he 
came to Lowville the scene of his future career, with no resource but his 
profession and a steady ndiance upon his own energy. He became Low's 
agent in Lowville, Harrison's in Harrishurgh and Denmark, and Pierrepont's 
in Martinshurgh in which he earned the implicit confidence of his employers. 
A notice of Mr. B. occurs in the diary of James Constable under date of 
Aug. 7, lh"tj, which indicates the impression made at that period upon 
Messrs. Constable and Pierrepont. 

"During the last evening and this morning, we had much conversation 
witli Mr. Bostwick, the agent of Messrs. Low and Harrison in this quarter. 
He appeared to he a very intelligent, well informed and active young man, 
and very suitable for an agent. He showed us the instruments used for Mr. 
Low, which we thought well of, and should at once adopt, but our rule 
hitherto invariable of requiring part of the payment down, is not contem- 
plated, and we therefore reserve our determination." 

These landholders on their return, Aug. 23d, from the St. Lawrence 
country, further remark: " Renewed our conversation with Mr Bostwick, 
respecting the agency of town No. 4, which he now showed as well as form- 
erly a great desire to undertake, hut tlie commission whicii wt,> i)io])osed, of 
2A p. c. on sales, and 2 p. c. for collecting and remitting he thought too low, 
and during the day it ai)peared as if ho would give it up, stating that it was 
a lowiT r:it<' than had yet bei-n given in the country, and would bo no object 
to him. Our answi-r was, that if the rnte was lower, the produce would be 
greater, as a considf-rahle jiart <jf tin,' town would soon st-ll at !?G per acre, and 
4\ p. c. on lliat i)ri(j<' would be miirii bi-ld'r than '> ttr 7 at !?.'{, at whit'h most 
of tiin j)ri'ceding agents had sold, but lie <lid not agrt-e, tho' he could not 
n-ply to Hucli reasoning. He spoke at liirgt* of the labors and dilliiully in 
Huch busini^.s, a Hubject lo familiar to uh, that we soon convinced him the 
commis.sion was a full comjiensation. The subject dropjuMl for tho day with- 
out coming to an ai^reiMiK'nt. 

2Itli. Ni-xt morning early we pre|)ared a b-ttiT to liim, in wiiii-li tlu' com- 
mission was till) .same as verbally, and afli-r a viTv few words ii.< declared 
liiinsi'lf perfectly Hatislled, and that Im would exert hiiusflf to tlie utmost for 
our iht<iiv«l«. V\'e enjoined upon him a.s one of his tln«t meaMureii, to acquire 
a personal knowledge of each lot in town, which he ]>roinii<*d to do ; and 
rrcoiiinicndi-d him to \h> mild and conciliatory with the si'ttlent, a.s they 
wrp' apt to \m> appp'hiMisive of an agent of the l.-gnl proffMtion. He had 
bt't'orx di.Hclaim>'(l all idea of making money a^ a luwyi>r, through his situation 
as an agent, un<l said he had so expn-s.sed liimst-lf to Mr. Low and .Mr. 
Harri.Hon when they employed him ; and to prove hiit aversion to harrnssing 
flettlen*, he told us seviral aiifcdole.s of liin having on hin own account, 
boUk;lit in their j>roj)erty at low prioej", and d<4iveri'd it to them. We pro- 
po.sed to him to aocom|>any us to the tuwn.-«liip which bv occordiugly did, 



150 Lowville. 

The village of Lowville early became a prominent point 
in the county, from its academy, the spirited efforts of its 
merchants,^ and the location of several influential citizens 

and we introduced him to such of the settlers as were there, being nearly the 
whole, informing them that he had full jjowers as agent, that the price of $7, 
for lots on the i-oad, and those of the first quality in that quarter of the town, 
and $6 for the remainder ; the credit 5» years for the first payment, interest 
on the whole to be paid iu one year, one quarter of the pi-incipal with the 
interest iu 2 years, the same in 3 years, the same in 4 years, and tlie same la 
5. They appeared to be well satisfied, and we left them." 

We have extended this quotation for the double purj^ose of embracing the 
facts, and of showing the business habits of the parties. He continued 
Pierrepont's agent until 1834, for No. 4, and part of No. 5. Mr. Bostwick's 
subsequent life, vindicated the sincerity of the intentions, thus early declared, 
of mildness towards settlers, and his uniformly kind and conciliatory man- 
ners, have endeared his memory to multitudes in the towns of Lowville, 
Harrisburgh, Denmark, Adams, and Watertown, which were mostly sold and 
settled under his agency. 

Although he continued the practice of law many years, his land agencies oc- 
cupied a large j^art of his time, and after having been in partnership at different 
times with Ela Collins, Samuel A. Talcott, Cornelius Low and Russell Parish, 
he finally withdrew from the profession altogether, and devoted his entire 
care to his own ample estate, and his land agencies. 

He was ajjpointed surrogate upon the organization of the county, and held 
this oifice ten years. On the 29th of Sept., 1812, he was married to Miss 
Hannah Perry, daughter of Capt. Isaac Perry, a pioneer settler. This accom- 
plished partner of his life and solace of his declining years, still resides at his 
elegant seat in Lowville. 

Mr. B., was several years president of the Lewis Co. Bank, and first pre- 
sident of the bank of Lowville. Having held the office of trustee of the 
Lowville academy many years, he was elected their president iu 1840, and 
continued in that station till his death, ever taking a deep interest in its wel- 
fare, and finally leaving to its library, a munificent addition to its literary 
treasures. The was an active and consistent member of the Presbyterian 
society and church, liberal in all matters of public improvement, prompt, 
energetic and efficient in business, and of integrity without stain and above 
reproach. He died at Lowville, Jan. 3, 1857, at the advanced age of 81 years, 
universally respected for his great moral worth. 

Mr. Bostwick resigned the agency of the Low estate in 1854, and was suc- 
ceeded by Russell Parish, who lived but a few months after. It then was 
given to Nathaniel B. Sylvester of Lowville, who still holds it. Mr. Bostwick 
stated frequently with great satisfaction, that he had remitted to the pro- 
prietor more than five times the amount of the original purchase money, and 
that he left contracts exceeding the said original sum. This is to be re- 
marked alike to the credit of proprietor, agents and settlers, that iu the large 
amount of business transactions between them, no occasion arose for an appeal 
to the courts of law. 

1 Subsequent to the settlement of Eager and Card, already noticed, James 
H. and Stephen Leonard came to reside in the village, and during many 
years conducted an extensive business. 

The Leonard families of this town emigrated from West Springfield, Mass., 
and are descendants of John Leonard, who settled in Springfield in 1639. 
Abel and Josiah, probably sons of John, settled on the west side of the river 
in 16G0, and died in 1688 and 1690. James and Henry Leonard, sous of 
Thomas and supposed to be related to these, removed frorii England before 
1642, and built the first forge in America at Taunton, Mass., in 1652. (Mass. 
Hist. Coll., I., series iii,, 170). 

The descendants of the latter were remarkable for a kind of hereditary at- 
tachment to the iron business, which led to the remark that " where you can 



TUT 




aJ^^:f/^f^>^ /9^ ,^^7^ 



Lowville. 151 

within the first fifteen years of its settlement. This early- 
prestige has been maintained, and while Lowville village is 

find iron works there yon will find a Leonard." The name is somewhat 
common in New England, and in 1826, 28 had graduated in the colleges of 
that section, of whom 12 were of Harvard. 

Tluj first emigrants of this name to the Black river country were sons of 
Klias and Phineas, sons of Moses Leonard. The sons of Klias Leonard were 
James II., Rodnt^y, Loren and Francis Leonard, and those of Phineas Leonard 
were Stejihen, Chaunccy, Phinea.s and Reuben. 

James Harvey Leonard was born at West Springfield, Sept. 22, 1780, and first 
visited Lowville in ]hU4 with Stephen Leonard. Tbey came on horseback 
from Skaneateles where they had been employed as clerks, with the intention 
of settling and crossed from Rome to Talcott's. The roads were so rongh and 
the settlements so rude that tliey began to have serious doubts about tiuding 
a place that ofi'ered inducements, but as they reached the brow of the hill 
overlooking Lowville, the neat newly painted mansion of Judge Stow, and 
the tlirilty settlement beyond, gave a cheerful aspect to the spot and deter- 
mined their future course. Tliey were on their way to Chaumont, but 
did not gel nearer that place than Brownville, and returned through Red • 
field. J. H. Leonard began business in Lowville, Sept., 1804, and in Jan., 
1805, was joined by Stephen Leonard. Before this they had leased four 
acres, at what is now the city of Auburn, for 100 years, at $4 jier acre, and 
J. H. L. had leased 50 acres at $5 for 30 years. The latter lease failed from 
a refusal of Hardenburgh, the proprietor, to execute the jjapers, and the for- 
mer was sold for 8150 before a payment was made. J. II. Leonard continued 
in the firm of J. II. & S. Leonard just a quarter of a century and remiined 
in business here till his removal in 1830, except one or two years at Skane- 
ateles. This firm bec»me widely known throughout northern New York. It 
supplied rations to the troops jiassing through the country, and in embargo 
times were largely engaged with bu.siness connections in Canada. They held 
iluring thtt war a contract for supplying 40,0(i0 gallons of whi.xkey for the 
navy, and owned one-half of a like contract of Allen h Canfield, making 
t;(i,(iOU gallons at $1 jier gallon, to be delivered at Sackett's Harbor. A 
change in the moveuu-ntti of the lleet, occasioned a transfer to New York 
where most of it was finally delivered. 

Mr. J. H. Leonard wjls public spirited and benevolent, and was always 
among the foremost in every mea-sure of jmblic utility. He was an origiinil 
trustee of the academy and an elder in the Presbyterian church until liis 
removal from the county in \'n'M. Ho was also po.st muster at l.owville many 
years. He In-camt) deejily interested in the culture of the mulU-rry for silk 
after liis removal, and died at Synu:use March 14, 1845. His remains were 
interred at Lowville. Mr. L., in May, 18ii5, married .Mary, sister of Kusselt 
parish, and hiswiilow still survives. His brother Rodney died in West Mur- 
linsburgh, .Aug. 13, 1H52, and brother Loreii in Lowville. Franciit Leonard, tho 
younge-t brother, resides in Brooklyn. Corn^liuM 1'. I.<'oinird, ca.shier, au<l 
James L. lAionurd, president of tliM bank of {./owville, and Francis K. L<fouard 
of Harrisbiirgh, aro suns of James H. Ltionatd. 

Stijthtn Ltoiutrd settled in Lowville nnrly in 1>05, and has xinco, with the 
exception of a short interval, U-eu engaged in mercantile business. A» one 
of the llrm of J. II. !i ^. L'onard, he was largely eoni'<'rned in the manufac- 
ture of spirits, potash, \c., in millmg, and iu the tnide in live stoi'k, incU 
dent to the former. The liritt distillery in Lowville was lM>gun by ttiii llrm 
in the fall of l^l^, and the last one in the county, which had belunged to 
them, wod burned Feb. 10, \b42. Hw liiut Imimi many yeant a truat*<v of the 
acad.-my, was an original tru.Htec of the Priwl>rt«riati Hoolety of the villago 
and from the first, with the exception of onr year, hait Immmi tn'n.Hurt<r of tlio 
Lewis (onnly bibU MocUly. He marrried a daughter of Ui'ti. W. .Martin uf 
.Martinsbiirgh. 

Chaiincey I/oonnrd, brotlier of .'^t'phen I. , died in I'eniwylvBnia. I'hinoaii, 
auuther brother, reatdvs in Denmark, and Uoubvu diod iu Br«ntford, U. C 



152 . Lowville. 

the only one in town, it is the largest in the county, afford- 
insr to the man of" business or of leisure, one of the most 
eligible places of residence in northern New York. 



u 1 



lOf those who settled within this period in Lowville village, we may, with 
great justice enumerate, in addition to those already noticed, the following : 

Samuel Austin Talcott was born in Hartford, Ct., in 1790, graduated at 
Williams college in 1809, studied law, in part, with Thomas R. Gold, and 
came to Lowville in 1812 where he entered into a law partnership with 
Bostwick, and remained three or four years. He then removed to Utica, and 
his politics becoming favorable to the then republican party, he was ap- 
pointed Feb. 12, 1S21, to the office of attorney general, which he held eight 
years. He died in New Yorli; March 19, 1836, the admiration and sorrow of 
his friends. Few men in our country liave evinced more brilliant talents, a 
clearer perception of the great principles of law, or a more powerful and con- 
vincing eloquence than Mr. Talcott. His career was an impressive warning 
to those wlio apprehend no peril from the wine cup. 

Ela Collins was born at Meriden, Ct., Feb. 14th, 1786, and died at Low- 
ville, N. y., Nov. 2od, 1848. His parents were Gen. Oliver Collins and Lois 
Cowles. His father served seven years in the revolutionary war as an officer in 
the Massachusetts troops. Soon after the close of tlie war he removed to Oneida 
county, N. Y., and purcliased a fine farm, near New Hartford, upon which he 
resided until his death, Aug. 14, 1838. At the beginning of the last war with 
Great Britain lie held the commission of brigadier general and commanded 
during the war, the militia of Oneida, Jeflerson and Lewis counties. He 
succeeded Gen Jacob Brown in tlie command of Sacketts Harbor, which 
position he retained till near the close of the war. Bla Collins was educated at 
the Clinton academy. He read law in the office of Gold & Sill, at Whitesboro, 
and commenced law practice at Lowville in 1807. He married Maria Clinton, 
daughter of the Kev. Isaac Clinton, July 11th, 1811. They had eleven child- 
ren. On the 15th of March, 1815, he was appointed district attorney for the 
district composed of Lewis, Jeiierson and St. Lawrence counties, which office 
he held several years, until the districts were reduced to .single counties. He 
was then appointed to the same office for Lewis county, successively, until 
1840, when he resigned, having held the office for 25 years. He was elected 
in 1814 a member of the assembly, and was in the legislature when peace was 
proclaimed. He was a member of theN. Y. Constitutional Convention of 1821. 
In 1822 he was elected from the double district of Lewis, Jefferson, St. Law- 
rence and Oswego, as a member of the 18th congress. He was secretary of 
tlie last congressional caucus for the nomination of president, when William 
H. Crawford was nominated. He was for many years a trustee of the Low- 
ville academy. 

As a lawyer Mr. Collins attained a liiglr position. He was an excellent and 
successful advocate and criminal prosecutor. His manner of presenting a 
case to a jury was clear, forcible and admiralily fair. His speeches were 
always sensible, candid and to the point. And he had rare ability in present- 
ing the questions at issue, in stating the facts, and in argument upon them. 
His integrity was unsullied, and his manners were simple, cordial and unaf- 
fected. In politics he was a republican of the school of Jefferson. For seve- 
ral years he voted the local anti-masonic ticket. He was highly respected 
and popular throughout the section of the state where he was known. His 
sons are, William Collins, who studied law with his father, was appointed 
district attorney of Lewis county in 1845, and held two years, when 
lie was elected to the 30th congress. He now resides in Cleveland, 0. 
Francis Collins, another son, entered West Point academy, as cadet in 1841, 
became second lieutenant in the 4th artillery July 1, 1845, and first lieutenant 
by brevet, " for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battles of Contreras 
and Cherubusco " on the 27th of August, 1847. In the former of these he 




*>• 



'%■• 



\ v^' 








LoKwille. 153 

The first trial for a capital crime in the county, was that 
of Rachel, a servant of I. W. Bostwick, for settiupj fire to her 
master's house, and was held before Judge Piatt, about 
1821. The accused was about eighteen years old, and of 
bad temper, but as the damage had been slight, the public 
sympathy in her behalf was strong. The sentiment of that 
day had not favored commutations or pardons, and execu- 

was wounded. He became first lieutenant, Sept., 1S47, and resigned Dec. 11, 
1850. He is now a lawyer at Columbus, 0. Isaac C. Collins, youngest son 
of Eia, graduated at Yale college and resides at Cincinnati, 0., where he holds 
the office of judge of the district and circuit court. 

Russell Parish was born in Branford, Ct., Oct. 27, 1789, and graduated at 
Yale college in 1813, in the same clas.^ with Professor Fislier, who was lo.st 
in the Albion, Profs. Olnistead, Douglass and Mitchell, and .Judges Badger, 
Longstre-t and Kane, and other distinguished persons. He was employed 
in November of the same year as jn-incijjal of the Lowville academy, and in 
1814 he began the study of law with Mr. Bostwick. In due time he was 
admitted to the bar, and he spent the remainder of his life in Lowville, 
chielly in the practice of liis profession in which he was regarded as learned, 
judicious and able. In 1846 he represented the county in the convention for 
revising tlie constitution. He died Feb. 21, 1855, and the trustees of the 
academy and members of the bar testified their respect for liis character by 
calling meetings to express their sympathy with his family and by attending 
his funeral in a body. 

Charhs Dayan was born July 16, 1792, at Amsterdam, N. Y., and is a son 
of Charles D., an Austrian emigrant, who died in 1793, leaving him an infant 
in charge of hia widowed mother, in very indigent circumstances. He 
remained with *accariah Peterson till fourteen years of age, and went to 
Elliott's mills in Amsterdam, from wlience, in August, lb09, lie came to 
Lowville. After working at chopping, and upon Heman Stickney's oil mill 
(now Gen. Willard's factory), he began going to school at the academy. Ho 
wa.s thi-n entirely ignorant of the ruditm-nts of learning and was jihiced at 
first in a class of (-mall cliildnii, but by great industry and the aid of 
a Mr. Obits, an old frii-nd of his fathi-r, in Germany, he made such rapid 
jirogrt'.ss that in u few months he was alile to engage a school in Kuthind. Ho 
taught four winters iu the same district at a monthly price of twenty bushels 
of wheat, which he sold at iJ2 per bushel. He entered Bostwick's law office 
in 1816, and in 1819 vtam admitted to practice. 

From this time, till within a fc-w years, he Ims been actively engaged in his 
{jrofi-'r-ninn at Lowville, except when wilhdruwn by the duties of the public 
otliee.s to which he Ints been elected, having been at dilf'-rent times in j>art- 
nership with Kdniund Henry, Hiram (.'arjK'nter, Kusst'll Parish and Ziba 
Knox. In 1820 Mr. Dayan wait appointed by I^ Kay and the iirown family, 
an agent for M'ttling certain lands east of tint river, and he continued agent of 
till- lornuT until 1^33. In 1h26 he waM elected to the Ntate henttu to servo 
out the unexpire<l term of two years, ocea-iioiied by the re.tii;nation of (Jeo. 
Hrayton, Mid in the extra se.vdon, convened in the full of Is^*^, to adojit the 
revi.ieil Mlatiite.H, he wn.s elected Oct. 7, president j)ro. t"ni. of the s«nate. As 
the otiice of governor won then tilled by Pitcher, elected ajt lieutenant gover> 
nor, Mr. Dayan bt*cannt charged witli tho dutieit of the latter office. Ho 
)>rejiided over the Menate until itx adjournment Dec. li>th, and waa virtually 
Hi iilenant governor till Jan 1, l>»'J'.i 

On the 2iitb ol Jan , 1^29, 1 iid;ite for comptroller against 

Siliw \Vrii;ht, Jr., in the le. , . an caticuH, in which Wright 

received 5.s, Dayan 26, U. H. iialdwin 12, N. Pitcher 4 and G. Sudani, 1 vote. 
Mr. Dayan wa.s elected to the 22d cougrvtM (lb3I-3) from the 20lh district, 

T 



154 Lowville. 

tion must have unavoidably followed conviction. The 
defense was conducted by Micah Sterling and Russell 
Parish, and as the trial commenced, the latter evinced an 
elastic buoyancy of spirit which appeared to be unwarranted 
by the occasion, until it appeared upon the reading of the 
indictment a second time, that the prosecuting attorney 
had accidently omitted the word " inhabited " before 

and in 1835 and 1836 was elected to the assembly upon the canal issue. Mr. 
Francis Seger was then in the senate, and to these two gentlemen are we 
largely indebted for the passage of the act for constructing the Black river 
canal, a work, which, after more than twenty years of delay, we at length en- 
joy. On the 14th of March, 1840, Uayan was appointed district attorney for 
Lewis county, and held this office five years, discharging its duties with his 
accustomed discretion and ability. 

Ziba Knox, for several years a law partner of Dayan, is a native of Ver- 
mont. He came to Lowville about 1817, acquired his profession, and has 
since resided at this place, employed in legal practice and as a magistrate. 

Vivaldi Jt. Martin, a native of Saratoga county, settled in Martinsburgh as 
a lawyer from whence he removed to Lowville. He died Aug. 8, 1850, 
aged 31 years. His brief career was brilliant and honorable. Possessing 
talents of a high order, fine oratorical powers and a thorough education, lie 
would have adorned the highest station of public trust had his life been 
spared to the full term of human life. 

Dr. David Perry was born in Princeton, Mass., Sept. 13, 1775, studied 
medicine with Dr. Westel Willoughby of Newport, N. Y., and settled in 
Denmark in Aug., 180G. In Sept., 1808, he married Miss Nancy Hulburt of 
Holland Patent, who died Nov., 1812. In April, 1809, he settled in Low- 
ville (the first two years in company with Dr. Samuel AUct) and continued 
in the practice of medicine until November, 1858, when, in consequence of 
a paralytic attack, he was deprived of further means of usefulness in the 
profession in which he had been eminently successful. He now resides in 
Rutland in feeble health and borne down by tlie infirmities of age, 

He has evinced a great fondness for rural pursuits, and in the intervals of 
an extensive practice, has found time to devote much attention to his 
orchard and garden, which were celebrated for the extent and variety of 
their productions and the precise order in which every thing was kept. His 
orchard contained about seventy varieties of fruit. 

Dr. Perry has been greatly re.sjjected by his professional brethren for the 
soundness of his judgment and the acuteness of his perception with regard 
to disease, and they have uniformly regarded his diagnosis and treatment as 
eminently governed by a clear mind and an intelligent understanding. 

Andrew W. Doig, a native of Wa.shington county, is a sou of Andrew 
Doig, who was born in Perthshire, Scotland, Feb. 29, 1776, removed to Low- 
ville in 1809, and died March 11, 1854. He was many years a teacher and 
surveyor. A. W. Doig was elected county clerk in 1825 for one term. He 
was in assembly in 1832 and held the office of surrogate from 1835 to 1840. 
He was elected by the democratic party to the 26th and 27th congresses (1839 
to 1843) while Lewis was united with Herkimer as the 16th district. In 
1849 he joined the general exodus to California, and a few years after 
returned to Lowville where he has since resided. 

James and John Doig are sons of Andrew Doig. The former is ticket 
agent in the rail road office at Boonville, and the latter a druggist at Low- 
ville. 

Joseph Jl. Northrup from Vermont, settled at an early period as a tanner 
and conducted this business and that of harness making many years. He 
was, we believe, the pioneer in these pursuits in this town. 



%< 



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Lowville. 155 

" dwelling," and that the trial had readied such a stage 
that amendment was not admissable. The prisoner upon 
learning that she would not be hung, from abject terror 
evinced the most extravagant joy, which met with a sympa- 
thizing response in the hearts of many present. She was 
subsequently tried for arson of lower degree, and died in 
state prison. 

In December, 1828, a vein of galena, calcite, fluor spar 
and sulphuret of iron, was discovered on the south branch 
of the creek, about half a mile above Lowville village, 
which soon became widely celebrated as a silver mine. A 
company was formed, and a small smelting house was erected 
near the spot, but Ave are not informed that large dividends 
Avere made, or that the stock ever found its way to the 
AVall street market. This locality is worthy of especial 
notice by mineralogists, from the beautiful crystalized 
specimens of green iluor spar which it has produced. The 
late Luke Wilder,^ explored the vein for this mineral with 
great success. 

A health committee consisting of Russell Parish with 
Doctors David Perry, Sylvester Miller,- Seth Adams'' and 
Josiah Rathbun was appointed June 21, 1832 upon the 
approach of cliolera. They enjoined temperance, cleanli- 
ness and care in diet as preventive measures, and advised 
a course of treatment in case of an attack. The Angel of 
Death was by the beneflcient liand of Providence withheld 
from our county during this fearful visitation, which never- 
theless struck a dread upon the community, which could 
scarcely have been surpassed had the pestilence been pre- 
sent. On the day the liealth committee above named was 
a[)pointed, an act was passed authorizing oflicial action by 
the town ollicers, under which Ela Collins, (Miarles Hush, 
Orrin Willjur, Amasu Dodge, Jr., and Knswell Wilcox were 
appointed, Juno 29tli, a board of health, and Dr. Seth 

^ Mr. Wilder, died, March 31, 1851, a^ed GO years, llisi zealouH researches 
into tho iniiKtralogical ro«ource« of northorn N»'w York, «Mititl.' him to the 
rfiu>Miil>niiuri) of tho Mcinntiflc, while liin mild and aiuiuhlc chiiructor have 
ondtariid hi.M m<'mor)' to a wido circlo of friuiida. H<' wii.s an iiclivo member 
of thi- M<thi)di.tt <iiucii. 

- Dr. MiUir, M">u of S.lh Miilt-r oim <if tho (Irst mttthuii at CoiiHtableville, 
(lettli'd ill Lowvill.' iit 1SI7, liiivini; k^rudiiiilc'd witli th<' llrst rln.ss in Kairllold, 
Jan. JO, IsUi. Ho waa aj<jM>niti-d BluTilT in iMil, and Irtmi l*«'i;< to IsiJi, wiw 
8nrroj{ttto. Ho \va.H callud from hod in tho ni^ht, July 2X, 1838, to visit the 
Hick, ami mi->taking a door in hi.s t>wn h«>mn', f.-ll h>-adliins' down tho collar 
Btairs. Hit hkull wa-t friictnrtMl. and afli-r l'n»{«'ring t\vi> dayn unconMciou;), ho 
died. H" w:n jir'--idi'iit nf the l.<<\vis en. niodicnl him-, iit th« timn of his d<>ath. 

3 i>. .7ii(i"M, .-.•■ttl'd in th» pr.iflir,. of his jirof«'.H>i»>n at I.«wvilli' in the 
BprinK of Ihliti, and ha.t siuce rvaidcd there. His ttou Charles D. Adams is % 
lawyer at Lowville. 



156 Lowville. 

Adams, health officer. On the 30th a committee was em- 
powered to visit the Denmark frontier, to take measures to 
prevent infected persons from entering the county, the 
town was divided into four districts and committees ap- 
pointed in each. 

Lowville village. — This is the only incorporated village in 
the county. Notice of the application was published Feb. 
26, 1S49, and about one square mile was surve3'ed by N. B. 
Sylvester. The legal forms were not complied with until 
July 10, 1854, when the vote upon the adoption of a village 
charter, was 109 for, and 33 against the measure. The 
first trustees were Joseph A. Willard,^ N. B. Sylvester, A. 
G. Dayan, S. B. Batchellor, and Geo. W. Fowler. No 
election was held in 1857, and to remedy this, an act Avas 
procured, Feb. 27, 1858, confirming all the privileges of 
the corporation, directing the annual elections to be held 
on the first Tuesday of March, and allowing $800 to be 
raised for a fire engine and fixtures as by vote of Aug. 6, 

1857. The trustees elected in 1860, were John Doig, John 
O'Donnell, Rutson Rea, Geo. W. Stephens and Henry E. 
Turner. 

The first fire company was formed at this place July 24, 
1829, at which Stephen Leonard was chosen captain, Palmer 
Townsend, Ut lieut., and S. W. Taylor, 2d lieut. A well was 
to be sunk in a central part of the village, and in case of an 
alarm of fire, the captain was to station himself at the head 
of the company, the 1st lieut. was to form the lines for pass- 
ing buckets, and the 2d lieut. to act as fire warden in rescu- 
ing property. Five buckets were kept in readiness for im- 
mediate use. A small fire engine named the Eagle was 
purchased, and afforded the only precaution against fires 
during many years. The burning of Safford's hotel, March 
11, 1851, led to the call of a meeting to provide a better 
one. No efficient action was had until August, 1858, when 
a new fire engine named Rescue JVo. 2, was purchased at a 
cost of $800, The company to which it is entrusted, num- 
bers (Oct. 1859) thirty eight men. 

An independent Union Fire co., was formed June 30, 

1858, under E. C. Potter as captain, and an engine and hose 
cart were purchased by him for its use. 

1 Gen. Willard, was born at Hubbardton, Vt., April 26, 1803, and is a son 
of Francis Willard. He removed to Lowville upon becoming of age, having 
previously learned the trade of a clotliier. lie has since been engaged as a 
manufacturer at Lowville, and in 1858-9, he represented Jefferson and Lewis 
counties in the &ena,te.— Murphy's Biographical Sketches of Legislature, 1859, 



f( 




-V' 





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VU 



c 



Lovyville. 



157 



There is organized in the village a section of light artil- 
ler}', under Lieut. Moses M. Smith. They have a 6 pounder 
and a 24 pound howitzer, both of bronze, and are armed 
with mu.sketoons and sword bayonets. 

A Saxhorn band was formed in the fall of 1857, and con- 
sists of ten men. 

The Union band formed in this village about 1826, was 
the first that was organized in the county, and maintained 
existence several years. 

The village of Lowville reported in 1855, a population 
of 908, and must now number nearly 1200. It is much the 
most prominent business point in the county, and enjoys a 
large amount of trade with the country around, especially 
to the east and west. It is situated in a valley environed 
on all sides but the east with hills, and is about one hun- 
dred feet above Black river, and two miles from it. 

The Bank of Lowville, is among 
the earliest formed under the 
general banking law of April 18, 
1838. A public meeting was 
held at Lowville, Oct. 18, 1838, 
pursuant to a call signed by Wm. 
L. Easton, Leonard Harding, 
^lerrit 31. Norton, Stephen Leon- 
ard, John Buck, John Stevens, 
L. S. Standring, Joseph A. North- 
rop, U. N. Bush, I. W. Bost- 
wick, Andrew W. Doig, Russell 
Parish, Charles Dayan, Daniul T. 
Buck, Chester Buck, W.W.Smith, 
and Calvin Lewis; the plan was discus.'^ed and approved, 
and Khi Collins, 11. rari.-sli, A. W. Doig. W. L. Kiiston and 
I. W. Jioslwick were appointed to e.xaminS the statute and 
report at a future meeting the probable succosa of the eu- 
torprise. 

ArticloHof association wore drawn up, proposing a capital 
stock of $'100,(J(J0, in nliarcs of $50 each, with a privilege of 
increasing to $500,0(i0, and a duration till Nov. 1st, 2301, 
and on the 27th of October, L W. Bostwick, C. Dayan, A. 
W. Doig, W. L. Kaston, Chester Buck, Timothy Mills and 
1{. I'arish wore appointed to receive sul>scriptions from ilie 
26th of November till Jan. 1, unless the wltoie amount were 
sooner taken. On the first two dayn $37,000 were sub- 
scribed, and on the Stii of December the sum luul amounted 
to $78,000. The whole amount was completi-d Dec. 18, the 
books were closed, the articles fded that day in the ollico of 




Seal. 



158 Lowville. 

the count}^ clerk, and on the 26th in the secretary's office at 
Albany. The first directors chosen, Dec. 24, were I. W. 
Bostwick, C. Dayan, A. W. Doig, W. L. Easton, M. M. Nor- 
ton, L. S. Standring, L. Harding, C. Buck, T. Mills, Har- 
rison Blodget, John H. Allen, Seth Miller and Thomas 
Baker. Isaac W. Bostwick was chosen president, A. W. Doig, 
vice president, Kent Jarvis, cashier (pro tern.), and Dayan 
and Parish, attorneys. Preliminary arrangements were 
completed, and the bank commenced operations on the first 
day of July, 1839. The bank has from the beginnhig occu- 
pied rooms in a block of buildings, erected for stores and 
offices, in the summer of 1837, in the centre of the vil- 
lage. 

The officers elected by the directors have been as follows, 
with the dates of their several appointments : 

Presidents .• 

Isaac W. iSostwick Dec. 24, 1838, to March 19, 1845. 

William L. Easton April 19, 1855. 

James L. Leonard Sept. 19, 1857. 

Vice Presidents : 

Andrew W. Doig Dec. 24, 1838. 

Charles Davan Dec. 20, 1839. 

Andrew W'. Doig Dec. 18, 1843. 

Charles Dayan Dec. 30, 1845. 

Andrew W. Doig Jan. 8, 1847. 

Charles Dayan Dec. 18, 1847. 

William L. Easton March 18, 1851. 

James L. Leonard April 19, 1855, to Sept. 19, 1857. 

John Stevens Dec. 18, 1857. 

Cashiers : 

Kent Jarvis (acting) Dec. 24, 1838, to April 1, 1839. 

Samuel H. Norton Jan. 21, 1839, to take effect April 1, '39. 

William L. Easton March 31, 1840. 

James L. Leonard Feb. 16, 1846, to take effect April 1, '46. 

Francis N. Willard i Mr'h 28, 1851, to take effect Apr. 1, 1851. 

Cornehus P. Leonard June 16, 1856. 

Tellers.- 

James L. Leonard June 19, 1841, to April 1, 1846. 

Francis N. Willard Aug. 25, 1847, to April 1, 1851. 

Leonard Standring April 16, 1853, to Nov. 1, 1855. 

Directors (January 1, 1860). — James L. Leonard, John 
Stevens, Jared House, Joseph A. Willard, Moses M. Smith, 
Stephen Brigham, Cornelius P. Leonard, John Doig, Carlos 
P. Scovil, Hiram S. Lanpher, Charles M. Stephens, Rutson 
Rea and Charles H. Curtis. 

iDied June 9, 1856. He was a son of Gen. Joseph A. Willard of Low- 
ville. 



Loiwille. 159 

The statistics of this bank as reported on the 2d of July, 
1839, and near the 1st of January, annually since, have been 
as follows, as shown by the official reports, required by law 
to bo made to the department at Albany. 

Bills rec'd from 
Comptroller & 
Sup'c of Hank 
Years. Discounts. Department. Circulation. Deposits. 

1839 $1.5,000 $570 $913 

1840 $49,119 45,000 41,520 11,169 

1841 54.483 53,000 50,(J63 20,642 

1842 68,254 58,870 46,500 23,148 

184:5 59,2.35 54,600 51,436 15,841 

1844 77,060 51,000 49,891 22,758 

1S45 80,384 50,300 49,291 17,780 

l'*4(; 87,662 60,000 59,213 59,574 

1847 93,025 66,000 65,312 33.475 

184S 102,940 77,900 75,938 28^049 

1849 76,3.59 84,650 82,781 27,312 

1850 83,698 101,900 101,234 33,625 

1851 73,968 96,750 95,129 32,797 

]^-'>2 102,486 100,685 97,112 50,693 

1^53 102,527 11.5,000 110,249 50,661 

]854 125,403 119,266 115,209 55,748 

^^•",5 85,126 125,3.^7 111,802 52,154 

1856 81,370 107,050 104,390 57,985 

1857 132,386 114,500 108,131 70,984 

l^-'i8 101,038 68,200 57,643 48,050 

1859 106,288 70,850 67,560 68,238 

l>iGO 116,197 92,650 84,811 107,737 

The capital was reported July 2, 1839, as $27,855. On 
the 6th of January, 1840, it -was $100,411 ; on the 4th of 
Jan., 1841, $101,950, and since Jan 1, 1842, $102,450. 

During the commercial crisis of 1857 this bank, with 
a.ss;ets much above its lialiilities, was forced, like most of the 
other biinks in tlie state, to yield momentarily to the emer- 
gencies of the day. On the 10th of Oct., 1857, an injunc- 
tion was granted upon the request of its j)resident, and on 
the 27th nf that month this was removed upon a))plication 
of its president and John Stevens. A meeting of citizens 
was called at Lowville on the 13th of October, and resolu- 
tions were pas.sod expressing confidence in the condition of 
the bank, and an agreement to receive its liills at j)ar as 
usual. The comparative condition of the bank on the 29th 
of August (about the time when the panic began), and Oct. 
10, was as follows : 

CirculBtlon. iK'iMifiltii. Dl/rounti. 

All!,'. 22, 1857 §111,('.I4 $.'.4,898 $131,914 

Oct. 10, 1857 6'j,ltG 41,(129 117,447 

*41,8C8 $l3,bG'J $14,467 



16u Loiuville. 

From the comparison above given it appears that while 
the bank had redeemed over 37^- per cent, of its circulation 
and paid over 25 per cent, of its deposits, it had reduced 
its discounts less than 11 per cent. The bank did not com- 
mence a sipgle suit against its customers during the crisis, 
as its officers knew their entire inability to pay at that 
time. With the exception of about ^600 (which may yet 
be collected) it lost no debts from discounts during that 
period. These statements sufficiently indicate the ability 
with which the bank was managed during that critical 
period. Its history through the whole term of its exist- 
ence has been marked by no event of public interest, and 
its affairs have been conducted with a steady regard to 
equity and honor, and the advancement of the interests 
of its proprietors by promotion of the business of the 
count3^ 

Two banks, owned by James L. Leonard, an individual 
banker, have existed for short periods at Lowville, but their 
bills scarcel}' became familiar to our citizens before their 
affairs were wound up. These banks were as follows : 

The Valley Bank filed notice and certificate of residence 
in the department. May 7, 1851. Securities Jan. 1, 1852, 
$60,290 ; circulation, $60,287. Removed to Boonville, Feb. 
6, 1852, by Ela N. Merriam, who had purchased it, and from 
thence to Ogdensburgh, where it was closed up. 

Bank of the People filed notice and certificate of residence 
May 11, 1852, the circulation to be secured by public stocks. 
Securities, January 1, 1853, $51,000; circulation, 50,480. 
Filed notice of intention to wind up the bank, Sept. 22, 
1853, and bond for redemption of bills, Oct. 24, 1856, when 
its business was closed. 

These are the only banks that have been formed under the 
general statute, although a large business in the sale of 
drafts and similar banking transactions, has been conducted 
by Wm. McCulloch, Esq., of Lowville, during several years, 
and by others to a less extent, in other sections of the 
county. 

The banks of Watertown and of Utica, afforded the only 
facilities for the transaction of business in this county, 
from its settlement, until 1834, when the Lewis County 
Bank was got into operation at Martinsburgh. 

Early in the year 1852 sealed proposals were solicited 
by advertisement for building a court house in Lowville 
village, with the design of securing, if possible, the re- 
moval of the county seat there from Martinsburgh, a 





.jC 



Lovyville. 



161 








t-JjTH 




measure which from the 
beginning has been the 
favorite theme of the 
citizensof this town. The 
buikling was begun upon 
voluntary subscription, and 
in 1855 the town voted 
$500 towards this object, 
'^^===^^ssam^ upon express condition 
^^1 that the building be free 
^. — for town purposes, and 
that the money be not 
_£ - ' - ^^^-" paid until enough were 

' — ' — raised to complete it. In 

Town Hall and Trinity Church. 1856 $ 100 WCfO VOtcd for 

an iron fence, and in IS58 $325 to pay Hiram S. Lanpher a 
balance due on the building account. This last appropria- 
tion was confirmed by act of April 15, 1858. The edifice 
was put up in 1852 and finished in 1855 at a cost of less 
than $'6000. The building is of brick with an Ionic portico 
in front, and is used for town meetings, lectures and other 
public purposes, with tlie express })rovision that it shall be 
conveyed to the county whenever it may be wanted for the 
county court house. 

The Lowville Franklin society, a library association, was 
formed in the village, Sept. 20, ]808, having as its first 
trustees, Isaac Clinton, Manly Wellman, Robert ^IcDowell, 
Paul Abbot and Ela Collins. Their collection of books 
some thirty or forty years afterwards Avas deposited in the 
Academy library. 

The Franklin library of Stow's srpuirc, was formetl March 
28, 1816, with Mo.ses Waters, Constant JJosworth, Beriah 
Nickclson, Charles Sigonrney and Allen llriggs, trustees. 
The iirst numiter of associates was 33, and they liegan with 
over $100 subscriptions. After many years tiiis library 
Was, it is believed, divided Jimong its slmreholdors. 

The first school was taught in this town b\ Miss Ihinnah 
Smith, sister ol" Mrs. Klijiih lliddwin of .Miirtinsbuigh, in a 
little log school house near the lowi-r mill. Siiinuel Slocum 
tiiMght in 1804, and was one of the earliest male teachers in 
town. 'I'he first public provision for schools was made in 
!March, 1813, luider the general school act then newly passed. 
Amasa I>o(lge, Itohert .Mi'I)owell, and Moses Waters, were 
appointi'ti first cominl.wiDiicis, and these, with Isaac Clinton, 
Wm. Sackof, Benj. llillnian, IJciij. Davenport, Chester Buck, 
and Daniel Kelley, inxjnclors ; $7() wore voteil to schools the 

U 




262 Loiwille. 

first year ; and in 1815,456 scbolars were reported as attend- 
ing school, between the ages of 5 and 15. In 1842, thetown 
passed a resolution inviting the resident clergy to visit the 
schools. 

A fine brick school house was finished in the north part 
of Lowville village in September, 1854, by Morris D. Moore 

builder and architect. 

Lowville Jicademy. — An effort 
was made in the summer of 1805, 
by the citizens of Lowville to 
secure the county seat. A sub- 
scription was drawn up for a 
building that might serve as a 
Seal. meeting house or any other pub- 

lic purpose, as also for an academy and though not ex- 
pressed, there is not much doubt but that it was designed 
to offer it for a court house. One term of the court of 
Oyer and Terminer was held at this place, before the com- 
pletion of the public buildings at Martinsburgh, at which 
Judge Ambrose Spencer of the Supreme court presided. 
The decision of the non-resident commission was, however, 
sustained, or rather, the attempts made to reverse it were 
defeated, and the people of Lowville wisely determined to 
devote the premises to academic uses. The edifice was of 
wood, .38 by 52 feet, two stories high, and stood on the site of 
the present stone church in Lowville village, at the head of 
its principal street. The proposed cost was $2000, in shares 
of $25, and the five persons highest on the list were to form 
a building committee. Subscriptions in produce or other 
articles than cash were to be used or sold to the best 
advantage, and the committee were to report to the sub- 
scribers at the end of one year. The site was given by Silas 
Stow, Jan. 9, 1807, and the building when finished was 
used manv years for public worship.^ A charter was applied 
for March 4, 1808, and granted March 21, 1808, in the 
words following : 

1 The first sliareliolders were N. Low, 10 shares; S. Stow, 6; Jonathan 
Rogers and D. Kelley, each 4 ; J. H. and S. Leonard, Daniel Gould, Asa 
Newton, Ira Stephens, David Coflfeen, Luke Winchell, Rufus Stephens, Wm. 
Card, Jr., Garret Boshart, each 2 ; and Ezekiel Thrall, Gad Lane, Fortunatus 
Bassett, Fortunatus Eager, Daniel Williams, Jonathan Bush, David Cobb, 
John Spatford, Isaac Perry, Christopher P. Bennett, Thaddeus Smith, Eben- 
ezer Hill, Elijah Woolworth, Morris S. Miller, Joseph Newton, Billa Daven- 
port, Abner Rice, Ziba Cowen, Calvin Merrill, John Shull, Samuel Van Atta, 
Jacob Boshart, Adam F. Snell, Charles Davenport and Elisha Stephens, each 
one share. These were soon increased by Isaac W. Bostwick, Wellrnan & 
Foot, i\sa Brayton, John Smith, Benjamin Hillman, Jonathan Ball, Reuben 
Chase, Cliarles Newcomb, Robert Nickels, Ozem Bush, Galen Richmond, Joel 
Mix, Francis Murphy and David Hillman. 




I' L 



'* ^^KW 




Plan of the Attic Storj- of the Lowville Aciulemy, as Luilt in 18-25. 



THE NRWYORt^i 

PUBLIC UBRARVl 



A8T0R, LENOX MB 
TILDBNf'eur*"'  




Plan of the Principal Story of the Lowville Academy, as huilt in 1825. 



Lowville. 163 

Charter op Lowville Academy. 

The Kegents of the University of the state of New York, 
To all to whom these presents shall or may come, greet- 
ing: 

Whereas. Nicholas Low, by his attorney Isaac W. Bost- 
wick, Silas Stow, by his attorney Isaac W. Bostwick, Daniel 
Kelley, James IL, and Stephen Leonard, Isaac W. Bostwick, 
Christopher P. JJennett, David Cobl), ^fanly Wellman, 
Jonathan Rogers, Joseph A. Northrup, I'^lijah Buck, Anson 
Foot, William Wallis, James Cad well, Zebina Lane, William 
Card, Jr., Jonathan J>ush, Robert McDowell, Asa Newton, 
Isaac Clinton, Thaddeus Smith, Paul Abbot, Ilosea Lane 
and Rut'us Stephens, by an instrument under their hands in 
writing and seals bearint^ date the fourth day of March, in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, after stating 
that they had contriltuted more than one half in value of 
the real and personal projjerty and estate, collected and 
appropriated tor the use and benefit of the academy erected 
at the town of Lowville, in the county of Lewis, did make 
application to us the said Regents, that the said academy 
might be incorporated and become subject to tlie visitation 
of us and our successors, and that Jonathan Rogers, Daniel 
Kelley, James H. Leonard, Isaac W. Bostwick, William 
Card, Jr., Benjamin Ilillman, John Dufly, Jonathan Collins, 
James Murdock, Lewis (i raves. Moss Kent, Lemuel Dickin- 
son and ^lanly Wellman, might be trustees of the said 
academy by the name of Lowville Academy. Know ye, 
that we the said Regents, having iinpiired into the allega- 
tions contained in tlie instrument aforesaid, and found the 
same to be true, and that a |)ro|)er buihliiig for said academy 
hath been erected, and finislied, and paid for,aud that funds 
have been obtained and well secured producing an annual 
nett income of at least one hundred dollars, and conceiving 
the said academy calculated for the promotion of literature. 
Do by those |)resents, pursuant to the statutes in such cases 
made and provided, signify our ap|irobation of the incorpo- 
ration of the said .lonitlian Kog'Ts, Dunii'l Kelltiv, .lames 
II. Lt'Diiiiid, Isaac W. I5()siwi(k, Willium Card, Jr., IJenja- 
inin Ilillman, John DnlVy, Jonathan Collins, James Mur- 
dock, Lewis (Jraves, Mi»ss Kent, Lemuel Dickinson and 
Manly Wellman, by the name of Tlu) 'rruitee-, of Lowvillo 
Academy, lieing the name mentii>ned in and by saiil rotjuest 
in writing on condition that the principal or estate produc- 
ing the said income shall never bo diminishuii or otherwise 
appropriated, and that the said income shall bo a})plied 



164 Lowville. 

only to the maintenance or salaries of the professors or 
tutors of the acaderay. 

In testimony whereof we caused our common 
n seal, to be hereunto aiExed, the twenty-first day 
[L. S.J ^£ March, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and eight. 

Daniel D. Tompkins, Chancellor. 
By command of the Chancellor, 

Fe. Bloodgood, Secretary.^ 

In 1807 the Rev. Isaac Clinton was induced to remove 
from Southwick, Mass., and began a classical school in the 
academic building before the charter was procured. He 
was employed as the first principal, and (with the exception 
of one year, beginning in November, 1813), continued in 
this office till 1817, at the same time serving as pastor of 
the Presbyterian church." 

Russell Parish acted as principal one year in 1813-4, and 
in 1817 Stephen W. Taylor^ was employed. He entered 

1 Recorded in Secretary's Office, deeds, vol. 37, page 1. 

2 The Rev. Isaac Clinton was born at West Milford, near Bridgeport, Ct., 
Jan. 21, 1759. He was a cousin of DeWitt Clinton. He graduated at Yale 
college in 1786, and was distinguished in his class for his acquirements iu 
mathematics and the languages. Whilst a student in college, upon an 
emergency, he volunteered, with other students, as a private in the Connec- 
ticut militia, and was engaged in one or more battles. 

He studied divinity with Rev. Josepb Bellamy of Bethelehem, Ct. In 
1788 lie was ordained as pastor of a Presbyterian church, at Southwick, 
Mass. He married Charity Wells at New Stratford, (now Huntingdon), Ct., 
in 1787. They had six children, of whom five died at Southwick the same 
week, from an epidemic, and three were dead in the house at the same time. 
The only remaining child was Maria, who married Ela Collins at Lowville. 
Two sons, subsequently born, died at Lowville. He wrote and published, 
while at Southwick, a work on Infant Baptism, of which a second edi- 
tion was issued. He preached at Southwick twenty years, and removed iu 
1807 to Lowville, N. Y. In 1808 he built the house on the beautiful eleva- 
tion immediately west of the Presbyterian church, where he resided until 
his death. In 1808 he was installed minister of the Presbyterian church at 
Lowville, and continued for ten years. In 1807 he was ero^loyed as princi- 
pal of the Lowville academy, and was so engaged nine years (with one year 
interval), when he was succeeded by S. W. Taylor, He was president of the 
board of academy trustees for many years, and until his death. When in 
his eightieth year he completed and published a book entitled Household 
Baptism. It is a standard work of extraordinary merit, and is in use as a 
text book in many of the theological seminaries of the country. He owned 
and cultivated about two hundred acres of land at Lowville, and he was 
especially devoted to the cultivation of apples and other fruit. Lewis county 
is much indebted to him for the introduction and distribution of many of its 
best varieties of apples. He was a handsome man and dressed through his 
life in the colonial style of his youth, viz : a low-crowned broad brimmed 
beaver hat, black broadcloth coat, with wide and long skirts, velvet breeches 
and silver knee buckles, high top boots or shoes, and silk stockings. He 
died at Lowville, March 18th, 1840, aged 82 years. 

3 Stephen William Taylor, son of Timothy Taylor, graduated at Hamilton 



Lowville. 165 

upon his duties with zeal, and the institution soon gained a 
patronage which appeared to warrant the erection of new 
buildings. A contract was made Avith Mr. Taylor to con- 
duct the school for twenty years, and a plan drawn by 
Philip Hooker of Albany, under the eye of the principal, 
was approved lute in 1824. "The arrangement as applied to 
academic buildings, was patented by S. W. Taylor and J. 
W. Martin, April 16, 1825, and consisted in placing the 
pupils in small separate apartments, open on one side, so 
that every one, both on the main floor and in the gallery 
was under the eye of the teacher at his stand, while no one 
could see any other of the students. The building was 
erected on a site of four acres purchased from Ela Collins, 
paid for by Mr. Low and given for academic purposes to the 
trustees. It was a twelve sided brick edifice two stories 
high, above a high stone basement, and was surmounted by an 
attic story of wood and tin covered dome, from the centre of 
which arose a cupola for the bell. Around the attic was a 
promenade, whose deck floor formed the roof of the outer 
portion of the main building. An immense twelve sided 
column in the centre supported the attic and roof. The build- 
ing was 70 feet in diameter between its parallel walls, and cost 
$8,200. It was dedicated Jan. 12, 1826, but it soon proved 
defective ; its walls required support by shoring, and in 
1836 it was taken down. Mr. Taylor became sensitive upon 
the failure of his enterprise, which, aside from defective 
walls was found objectionable on account of echoes, dilh- 
culty in warming uniformly, and especially from the unwil- 
lingness of students to submit to the vigilance to which they 
were constantly subjected. He resigned in 1831 and was 
succeeded by Eliani H. Harney and Cyrus M. Fay, of whom 
the former remained two and the latter four years.^ 
Henry Maltby was appointed in Aug., 1834, and remained 

College in 1B17, settled noon after at Lowville, and after IiIh rv.Hignation ast prin- 
ripal in 1831, (.'ontiniiiMl to t^'iich a family hoIidoI in tlie vilIaL;i< a nhi>rt tiinf, and 
altuutuyenranda half at tlie l^npher |ilace,on tho WtMi Ruad, nuw \Ve»t Low- 
tIIIh putit ofB('4. He wan tlifn cnipluy^'l an prun-ptor of the graniinitr school, 
and aftorwiirdx i)rofe.HH<>r of niathi-niatics aii>l natural philosophy in llamilton 
ara<l)Mnv. H<< vim one of th<i foiu^lfn and lirist prctiident of thi< I^-vvislitirgh 
rnivi-r.sity.l'a. II" nturiu'd to natnllton in \'>'>^\ arcrepted th- ortic-of pri'>idfnt 
and HU'iM'k'T |>rofi-<(><or of natural and moral philoxophy in .Mu'ii.-<oM university, 
and continued in thiit otQi-u till IiIm death, Jan. 7, 1^5ti, at^ed 65 years. Ilia 
father removed to this town after hinutelf, and diud Due. 8, 1857, agwd 90 
years. 

1 Iloth of these graduated at I'nion Colle^'e In 1^.31. Mr. Barney wa.i a 
native of Jetferson uonnty and now reniih-x at I)aytt>n, •). Mr. Fuy was from 
Monti^oni'-ry countjr, went from Ia)wviII« to llulfalo, where ho taught 16 
year.-*, ami in IM'^ went to (.'alifornla by the ov<'rland route. U>turning 
itn.4ucce.s.sfal h*' .sirkened at Qraiiada and died at Sau Juan, Nicaragua, Deo. 
12, IbiO, in his -l^th year. 



166 Lowville. 

till the close of 1S35. The academy was rebuilt nearly on 
its old site by James H. Leonard and dedicated Dec. 1, 
1836. The school was opened by Henry Bannister\ who 
was succeeded by Erastiis Wentv/orth^ in Oct., 1837, Harri- 
son Miller" in 1838, David P. Yeomans^ and David P. May- 
hew^ in 1839, and by Wm. Root Adams,^ the present incum- 
bent, in June, 1852. The semi-centennal anniversary of 
this academy was celebrated July 21, 22, 1858, the proceed- 
ings of which, published by the home committee, aft'ord 
many details of its history, for which we have not space in 
this volume. The number of students that have gone forth 
from this institution is supposed to exceed 3000. The 
citizens of Lewis county owe it as a duty to themselves to 
extend its facilities, so as to meet the increasing demands 
which the general growth of the county will create. It is 
the only institution of the kind in the county. 

This academy has been designated b}' the regents for the 
instruction of common school teachers. It has a valuable 
library and an excellent collection of apparatus, minerals, 
&c. In its cabinet is a sword that once belonged to Gen. 
Pike, and was presented by him to Gen. Brady on the eve 
of his departure on the fatal expedition against Little York. 
Gen. Brady afterwards resided in Lowville and presented 
this memento to Charles D. Morse, who has placed it among 
other historical relics in the cabinet of the academy. 

1 Mr. B. was born in Conway, Mass., in 1812, graduated at tlie Wesleyan 
university in 1836, went from Lowville to Auburn seminary, was two years 
principal of Fairfield academy and went thence to Cazenovia where he 
remained professor and principal till July, 1856. He is now a professor in the 
Garrett biblical institute, at Evanston, near Chicago, 111. 

2 Mr. W. was a native of Norwich, Ct., graduated at the Wesleyan univer- 
sity in 1837, and went from Lowville to Grouverneur. In four years he went 
to the Troy conference .seminary, and about 1845 was ajjpointed president 
of McKendree college. 111. In 1849 he became professor of natural science 
in Dickinson's college, Carlisle, Pa., and in 1854 was sent by the Methodist 
Episcopal board of missions to Fuh Chau, China. 

•^Mr. M., a native of Champion, was several years at Watertown, after 
leaving Lowville, and died at Carthage, Sept. 23, 1843, aged 31 years. 

* Mr. Y. graduated at Williams college in 1837, was afterwards professor of 
chemistry in Lafayette college, Easton, Pa., and a physician in Canada. 

5 Mr. M., a native of Spencertown, N. Y., graduated at Union college, in 
1838. In 1841 he became sole principal of this academy upon the removal of 
Yeomans. While here he fitted up a chemical laboratory in the academy 
and procured the addition of important facilities for education. The academy 
prospered beyond precedent under his management. He removed to Water- 
town, and in 1853 to Ohio. He is now connected with the Agricultural 
college at Yypsilanti, Mich. 

fJMr. A. is a native of Lowville and a son of Dr. Ira Adams. He graduated 
at Union college in 1851, and was several years an assistant teacher in this 
academy. He has proved himself an efficient, faithful and successful instruc- 
tor. 



Lowville. 167 

Religious Societies.— On the 29th of November, 1799, a 
Mr. Cinney, preached in No. 11, and from time to time 
other traveling preachers visited the settlement, among 
whom were — Hassenclever, Joseph Willis, and Lorenzo 
Dow. The latter passed through to Canada in Sept., 1802, 
and preached at Noah Durrin's house near the landing. 
Judge Kelley was an occasional exhorter of the Free Will 
Baptist sect, and held stated meetings in the absence of 
regular preaching. His meetings were held as early as 
1798, and frequently at Stow's square. He was accustomed 
to take a text, and conduct the service methodically. 
Judge Stow was an Episcopalian, and is said to have some- 
times read the service to his neighbors upon the sabbath. 

On the 3d of December, 1803, the Rev. Ira Hart, a mis- 
sionary from Connecticut, organized a Congregational church 
at Stow's square, consisting of Mather Bosworth, Benj. 
Hillman, David Wilbur, Philip Shaw, and their wives, 
David Scott, Rebecca Waters, Esther Wilcox, Sarah Bates, 
Abigal Sexton, Lydia Bonnet and Sally Richmond. Bos- 
worth and Wilbur served as deacons till their deaths in 
1850 and 1829 respectively. It belonged to the B. R. 
association until 1819, when it united with St. Lawrence 
Presbytery upon the Flan of Union. The 1st Fresb. 
soc. of Lowville, was formed at Stow's square Dec. 8, 
1818, with Levi Brownson, Bela Buell and Thaxter Reed 
trustees; and in 18 19, a church edifice was built by Ezra 
I'rainerd. 'J'he society was assisted by the United Domestic 
and the Western missionary societies. 

The ministers who have preached hero more or less, were 
Messrs Lazel, J. Murdock, Royal Flielps, Nathaniel Dutton, 
Jas. Ells, Wm. A'ale, I. Clinton (March, 1808 to Feb., 1816), 
Daniel Nash (Nov., 1816 till Nov., 1822), Adam W. IMatt 
(June, 1823 till Sept., 1823), Fhineas Camp (May, 1824 till 
July, 1828), Abel L. Crandall (Jan., 1829 till Jan., 1832), 
Lewis A. Wickes (May, 1832 till May, 1836), Henry Jones 
(June, 18.36, till Dec, 1837), David Dickinson (183S), W. 
W. Wolcott ((Jet., 1810 till Oct., 1812), Charles IJowlea 
(Juno, 1813 till May, 18-1()), Calvin Yalo (July, lS-16 till 
Feb., 1817). In 1833 the chiirth numlierod Hii) lUL-mbers. 
A sal)l)atli school was hegiin in 1820 and continued every 
Slimmer since. It is idaiim-d as tlin oldest in the county. 
Revivals occurred here in J816-7, 1822-3, lS2S-y and 
1832, at which about 500 uro supposed to have been con- 
vorted, nearlv half in the second one. Meetings were dis- 
continueil in 1S17, and the church is falling into ruin. 

The Lowville Cong. soc. was formed Sept. 7, 1805, and 



168 Louville. 

was the earliest legal society in town. Its trustees resided 
chiefly at Stow's square, and effected nothing. The 1st 
Cong. soc. of Lowville, was organized Sept. 18, 1807, with 
six trustees, of whom three were to reside in the village and 
three upon the Square. The first named were B. Hillman, 
J. H. Leonard, 1. AV. Bostwick, Jas. Stephens, Jonathan 
Patten and Wm. Darrow. The plan of a church between 
the two places was tried and failed, and although reincor- 
porated Dec. 8, 1808, this organization was given up. A 
church formed in 1807, invited the Bev. Isaac Clinton to 
become their pastor, Oct. 13, 1807, and continued to worship 
in the old academy building until it was burned. On the 
22d of Nov., 1820, the Lowville Presb. soc. was formed 
having Chester Buck, Daniel Williams, Lemuel Wood, Ela 
Collins, Melancton W. Welles and Stephen Leonard first 
trustees. The old academy was purchased May 1, 1826 for 
$390, and arrangements were made for the erection of a 
church upon its site, when a fire Dec. 26, 1827, consumed 
the building. 

A new wooden edifice, 44 b}^ 64 feet, was dedicated Jan. 
15, 1829, and burned Jan. 3, 1830. It had cost $3,500, and 
was built by Ezra Brainerd. The present stone church at 
the head of Main street, was built upon the site, and after 
the plan of the former in 1831, and dedicated Sept. 1, of 
that year. The church proper, was formed July 11, 1822. 
Mr. Clinton was succeeded by D. Nash as above from 1816 
to 1821. His successors were : David Kimball (Oct., 1821 
till Oct., 1830), Jas. D. Pickand^ (Jan., 1831, till July, 1833), 
Austin Putnam (Aug., 1833 till Aug., 1834), Dexter Clary 
(Sept., 1834 till i\rarch, 1835), Thomas L. Conklin (Oct., 
1835 till May, 1836), Rufus R. Deming (Aug., 1836 till Aug., 

1837), Bellamy (Dec. 1837 till March, 1838), A. L. 

Bloodgood (Dec, 1838, till April, 1839), Moses Chase (Dec, 

1839 till ), R. M. Davis (May, 1840 till Nov., 1840), 

Geo. P. Tyler (Dec, 1840 till Sept., 1853), N. Bosworth 
(Oct., 1853 till Aug., 1857), Wm. H. Lockwood (Nov., 1857 
till the present). 

A session room was built in 1853, and a parsonage pre- 
viously. 

About 1801, two ministers attended Mr. Kelly's meeting 
and requested the privilege of explaining the creed of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. This led to the organization 
of a church, and about 1805, the first house was erected in 

1 Mr. Pickand was from Pliila. He was eccentric and peculiar in his man- 
ners, and removed west, where he run a strange career at Akron, 0., as a 
Second advent preacher. 



Lowville. 169 

this town expressly for religious worship. It stood west 
of the village, near the house of Jesse Hitchcock, and con- 
tinued in use until 1822. At a quarterly conference held 
June 1, 1822, at Martiusljurgh, Daniel Tiffany, Abner 
Clapp, Henry Curtis, Francis McCarty, Abel S. Rice, Wra. 
R. Allen, Luke Wilder, Rodney Leonard and Russell Hills 
were appointed to ascertain when the people in Lowville 
might safely attempt to build a church at the village. The 
decision was favorable, and a society was formed under the 
statute, July 25, 1822, with R. Hills, L. Wilder, D. Tiffany, 
H. Curtis, Levi Weed, Elias Wood, A. S. Rice, R. Rassett and 
R. Leonard, trustees. The present brick churoli was built in 
1823, and the parsonage about 1838. 'J'he Lowville circuit 
(first reported separate in 1832), has had the following minis- 
ters stationed : 1832, Benj. Phillips, Schuyler Hoes ; 1833, 
Luther Lee; 1834, L.Lee, J. L. Hunt; 1835, Isaac Stone; 1836, 
E. R. Fuller, F. Hawkins ; 1837, Elisha Wheeler ; 1838, E. 
Smith, John Thompson ; 1839, E. Smith, John Thomas ; 
1840, James W. Ninde ; 1841, Squire Chase ;i 1842-3, Jas. 
Erwin ; 1844, Harvey E. Chapin ; 1845, Wm. Wyatt, R. 
Lyle ; 1846, W. Wyatt, J. S. Bingham ; 1847-8, Geo. Sawyer ; 
1849-50, Lorenzo D. Stebbins ; 1851-2, M. D. Gillet ; 1853- 
4, J. F. Dayan ; 1855-6, W. W. Hunt ; 1857-8,- I). Symonds; 
1859, J. L.'lluiit. 

The Lowville Baptist church was formed from the Lino 
Church, Sept. 8, 1824, to include all south of Moses 
Waters', inclusive. Eld. M. E. Cook, moderator, Palmer 
Townsend, clerk; seven united by letter and one by proi'es- 
siou. A society was legally formed Oct. 6, 1824, with 
Moses Waters, Richard Livingston and Calvin Batchiller, 
first trustees. On the 18th of December they resolved to 
build a church of wood, 40 by 50 I'eet, which was done in 
1825. it was thoroughly repaired in 1852, and a parsonage 
was purchased at about that tiuio. 

The clergy have been : John JModget (Dec. 1, 1825, till 
March 4, 1832), (Jeo. Lyle (Marcii II, 1S32, till March 1], 
1833), Charles Clark' (March 14, 1833, till Oct. iiO, 1835), 

1 Mr. C, went twine to Llboria ns a mlsjtionarjr. He died at Syracuse, 
July 2(J, lh-l3, nf{ed 41 yi-arn, ami wu.s buri<d t»t Uoustivillc. 

- Mr. S. n iiiniiu'il only u j'urt of th«« Nfcmid yvur. 

^Tliu Jitv. Charlti Clark wum it aoii ot Klijnii (lurk of Dviiiiiurk, wIuto he 
wa.s Ixirii I'cc. -'.•, IbV't. IIl< joiiiiMl tin- cluiri ii ut 11*, ntudiodiit tlio Luwvillu 
aciult'iny uiul nud t)i>'<>liii,'y willi Kld<t. Wuriicr and l(linlt{t<t, and wait ordoint'd 
lit liooiivilli*, Hi<j>t., l.'«3(). Ill' |>rfaclii«l ut that plucu two y cant, at Murtiiiii- 
bur^li ont', and at I.owvill« llirfiv Wliil« h«'ru hi* lal>or«'d In an <'Xti*n«ive 
rt'vivul ut Ct>|i<'nliagt>n. Ilu altcrwardt jiroachctl at Wutertuwn, Adams and 
Rome with ulllck'nojr. Fur IM yuan he wai* alweut from the sauctuary but a 

V 



170 Lowville. 

Orrin Wilbur (March 20, 1835, till June 28, 1840), Harvey 
Silliman (Oct. 1, 1840, till Aug. 28, 1842), Geo. Lyle (Nov. 
20, 1842, till March 1, 1845), Charles Graves (March 7, 
1845, till Feb. 10, 1849), Lyman Hutchinson (April 7, 
1849, till Feb. 1, 1850), Daniel D. Reed (Feb. 9, 1850, till 
Feb. 7, 1852), Conant Sawyer (Jan. 7, 1853, till May 31, 
1856), Wm. Garrett (Sept. 14, 1856, till Sept. 19, 1858), 
James M. Ferris (March 1, 1859, till the present). 

A Free Communion Baptist church was formed Oct. 12, 
1816, and Amasa Dodge^ was ordained April 4, 1818. This 
sect never owned a house of worship in this town and has 
long since become extinct. 

An Evangelical Luthera nsociety was legally formed Oct. 
6, 1827, with Geo. D. Ruggles, Peter Lowks, John Guther- 
mute and Marks Petrie, trustees. It never erected a house 
of worship or became permanently established. 

The Friends held meetings at private houses soon after 
the war. They were set off from the Le Ray monthly 
meeting, Jan. 3, 1826, and Lee was set off from Lowville 
soon after. A house was bought for meetings in 1819, and 
afterwards exchanged for the present site south of the 
creek, of which they received a deed Feb. 10, 1825. Their 
meeting house was built that year. These belong to the 
Orthodox class of Friends. The Hicksites held meetings 
for a short time in this town. 

An Old School Baptist church was organized about 1834 
in the north part of the town, but was given up a few years 
after. 

Bishop Hobart visited Lowville in August, 1818, con- 
firmed several persons and reported the prospects for the 
speedy formation of an Episcopal church as auspicious. 
The Rev. J. M. Rogers of Turin occasionally officiated here, 
but after his removal to Utica, services were only occasion- 
ally performed by clergymen who chanced to "^be passing 
through. 

Trinity church, Lowville, was legally organized Sept. 24, 
1838, with Kent Jarvis- and Geo. Lyman, wardens, Leonard 
Harding, L. S. Standring, Albert Strickland, Geo. D. Rug- 

single Sabbath. He died at Rome, N. Y., Oct. 1(5, 1852, and was buried at 

Lowville. 

, lEld. Dodge came to Lowville in 1806, and died on the West Road, Aug. 
13, 1850, aged 82 years. He was remarkable for his loud, boisterous preach- 
ing. 

2 Mr. Jarvis came to reside at Lowville in July, 1828, and remained until 
Feb. 1840, when he removed to Massillon, 0., where he now resides. He 
was a merchant and took a leading interest in public affairs. 



Martinshvrgh. 171 

gles, Henry Butler, Samuel Wood, Ambrose W. Clark and 
Merrit M. Norton, vestrymen. The Rev. Edward A. Renouf 
became the first rector. 

An edifice was built in 1846 and consecrated in Novem- 
ber of that year. A tower and bell were added in 1853 at a 
total cost of about $2000. A rectory was built in 1857. 

MARTINSBURGH. 

This town was formed from Turin, Feb. 22, 1803, in accord- 
dance with a vote of that town, and originally embraced 
townships four and five of the Boylston tract, or Cornelia 
and Porcia^ as designated on the surveyor general's maps 
of 1802-4. The act took effect on the first day of March 
following, and directed the first town meeting to be held at 
the house of Ehud Stephens. Harrisburgh and Ellisburgh 
were created towns by the same act. 

By a law passed April 2, 1819, that portion of Turin, 
north of a line passing nearly east and west, through the 
point of intersection of the state and west roads, was an- 
nexed to this town.- It has been stated that this measure 
was effected against the wishes of Turin, by Levi Adams, 
then in the senate, and a few settlers east of ^lartinsburgh 
village, who found tlieir residence in Turin equivalent to a 
deprival of their civil rights, on account of their distance 
from elections. The latter town consented to a change that 
should fix the line on Whetstone creek, but upon receiving 
notice of the proposed alteration, called a special meeting, 
voted against tlie division with l)Ut one dissenting voice, 
and a[)j)ointed a committee to {jotition against it. 

'i he early records of town meetings in this town appear 
to be lost. In ISOfi tiie town ofticera were, Walter Martin, 
svpervisor; Levi Adams, clerk; Ehud Stephens, Asa Brayton 
Orrin Moore, asfussnrs-; Trninan Stcj)hcns, collector; Ehud 
Stephens iind I'llijah li.ildwin, overseers of poor; ^o\\\\ McCol- 
lister, Oliver Allisiiml Aver\ 1*. Stoddard, cammts. kiij;lncays; 
Truman Stephens and Bradiord Arthur, constables. 

Sitpen'isors. — 1805, As:i Hravlou ; lSO(i-vS, Walter .Martin ; 
180U-10, Chillus Duty; 1811-4, Levi Adams; 1815, C 

^ The latt«»r haii b<M»n HometimM •rronenudlj written Persia. These names 
\V(<ro duriv'-d from lloinnn ladit'M, coDHiiiruouM in olui.iic ttintorjr. Tiioy nnver 
r<-cfivi<(l a lorul uppliratioM niiiMiii; lln* N<<ttli<r!t, ami aru |M'rh»]>.>t nowliore 
t'oiiiul OS f^'iHi^raiihtcal Dunturt, I'xcvpt iii>uu tlut ma|>t i{iiuti't|, and on tlto 
Htatiiti'S. 

-Till* litii' wan dlr««"tt«l to Iw run from the i>oint wIuti* iIim lino of lots, Ifd, 
l.')2, luwnMlii|) :(, tunuhi'il tii« rivi-r, to tho ]ilacti wh<'rit tiio line, bftwtHtn the 
fnrm.-i of Oliver Hu.ili ami Kdwanl Johtnton Joined on the stAte road, and on 
liio siimo conrsii to tli« t'a.tt lino of townaiiij) llvo. 



172 Martinsburgh. 



Doty ; 1816-7, Bradford Arthur ; 1818-22, Baron S. Doty; 
1823, B. Arthur ; 1824, Barnabas Yale ; 1825-9, B. Arthur ; 
1830-2, Asahel Hough; 1833-5, David Miller; 1836-8, 
Noah N. Harger; 1839, A. Hough; 1840, David Griffis ; 
1841, Harvey Stephens ; 1842, Henry McCarty ; 1843, Mor- 
gan Harger; 1844, Edwin S. Cadwell ; 1845, H. Stephens ;^ 

1846, Eleazer Alger; 1847-51, Diodate Pease; 1852-3, 
Avery Babcock ; 1854, D. Pease ; 1855, Horatio Shumway ; 
1856-60, Edwin Pitcher. 

Tovm Clerks.— 1803 and 1806, Levi Adams ; (in 1804-5- 
7-8-9-10, the record not found) ; 1811-13, Enoch Thomp- 
son ; 1814, Edward Bancroft ; 1815-26, E. Thompson; 1827, 
John B. Hill ; 1828-30, Walter Martin, jr.; 1831-3, Charles 
L. Martin; 1834-5, W. Martin, jr.; 1836-7, Elijah L. 
Thompson ; 1838-40, Lewis G. Van Slyke ; 1841, William 
King; 1842, John E. Jones; 1843, C. L. Martin; 1844, 
David Griflfis ; 1845, Jas. M. Sturtevant ; 1846, Wm. King ; 

1847, Daniel A. Smith ; 1849-51, Henry W. King ; 1852, 
Edwin S. Cadwell ; 1853, Alonzo J. Buxton ; 1854, John 
M. Michael ; 1855, John S. Hill ; 1856-60, E. S. Cadwell. 

Among the town records of Martinsburgh are noticed in 
1809, '12 and '15, a vote imposing a fine of $4 for allowing 
Canada thistles to go to seed ; the money, when recovered, 
to be applied towards the support of the poor. 

Li 1823 it was voted that the collection of taxes should 
be made by the person who would bid to do it at the least 
price. The support of certain town paupers was put up at 
auction in like manner in 1820, and this practice has pre- 
cedent in the usages of other towns in the county. 

This town was named from the proprietor, under whom 
settlement was made. 

Walter Martin, a son of Capt. Adam Martin, was born in 
Sturbridge, Mass., Dec. 15, 1764, and in 1787 removed to 
Salem, N. Y., where he married a step daughter of Gen. 
John Williams, and became extensively engaged in busi- 
ness. An uncle, named Moses Martin, was one of the first 
settlers of Salem, and great numbers, from his native town, 
removed to that place. One of his sisters married Judge 
Asa Fitch, and another Andrew Freeman of Salem. Silas 
Conkey and Chillus Doty married two other sisters, and 
removed with him to the Black river country. 

While living in Salem, Mr. Martin narrowly escaped death 
from an accident which he could never, in after life, relate 
without emotion. He owned a grist mill, in which it was 

iDied April 7, 1845, and Harvey Easton elected April 19. 



Martinsburgh. 173 

found necessary to cut away the ice on a winter's morning, 
before it could be started. While engaged at this Avork, 
the miller, without knowing the danger, let water upon the 
wheel which began to revolve with Martin in it, and con- 
tinued to do so until it was stopped by his body. A leg was 
broken and he was dreadfully bruised by being thrown re- 
peatedly from axle to circuml'erence, as the wheel revolved. 
Early in 1801 Mr. Martin came up into the Black river 
country, and after spending a short time atLowville, explor- 
ing the lands south, ho went to New York in June of that 
year, and bought of James Constable 8,000 acres of land, 
including the east subdivision of township five of the 
Boylstou tract. The incidents of his settlement are related 
in these pages. A few years after his arrival, he again 
escaped death by the slightest chance. He had gone to a 
place near the West Road, which was frequented by deer, 
and climbed a wild cherry tree, for a better opportunity of 
shooting his game as it passed in the evening. A settler 
who was also out hunting, came near the place, and seeing 
a dark, living object in the tree, mistook it for a bear after 
cherries, and taking deliberate aim was on the point of 
firing, when Martin discovered his danger, and by giving a 
timely warning, escaped instant death. It would be diffi- 
cult to decide which party felt most grateful for this happy 
escape from a dreadful casualty. 

Mr. ^lartin held successively the offices of assistant jus- 
tice of the Oneida court, loan commissioner, state road 
conunissioner and state senator, ilefore the erection of 
Lewis county ho held the rank of lieutenant colonel, and 
Boon after was promoted to that of brigadier general, in 
which capacity ho served a short time on the frontier in 
IBM. lie was appointed post master upon the establish- 
raent of a post oiUco, Jan. 19, 1S04. His successors have 
been John W. Martin, May 23, 1831 ; William King, May 6, 
1845; David']'. Murliii, June 1-1, 18-1!); Danii-l S. Hailey, 
Aug. 24, I8r>3, and Janu's 11. Sheldon, Sej)t. 27, 1854. 

In whatever promoted the intorosts of the town or county 
Oen. .Miutiii felt a lively interest, and when a measure of 
]>ublic utility wantisd the inmns for its accomiilishiiH'nt, ho 
generally ct)ntrivi'd to fjiid them, ami it ap|)cart'd to ho a 
governing maxim of his life, that when a thing was to bo 
done it ynu.st be, if not by one way, by another, llo was 
never barkwurd in aiding to the full extent of his share, 
however large it might bo, in any public entor{)rise. For 
some years at'ler his first arrival, he evinced u partiality for 
a kind of investment which can never bo overdone; as 



174 Martinshurgh. 

regards convenience to the inhabitants of a new settlement, 
altliough it may be without profit to the projector. This 
was the erection of saw mills, of which he owned several 
in Martinshurgh and Turin, upon which the country around 
depended for their supply of the essential elements of a 
comfortable house or a commodious barn. Gen. Martin died 
at his residence in Martinshurgh village, Dec. 10, 1834. 
His father was born Aug. 27, 1739, removed with him to 
Martinshurgh, where he died Aug. 9, 1818, aged seventy- 
nine. He had been an officer in the French and revolu- 
tionary wars and was a member of assembly from Wash- 
ington county in 1787. His wife died in this town Dec. 2, 
1820.1 

A tract of 8,000 acres, supposed to include the east 
subdivision of township five of the Bo3dston tract, was 
deeded to Walter Martin of Salem, N. Y., June 17, 1801, for 
$• 12,000." As early as Jan. 20, 1796, Shaler of Turin, was 
endeavoring to purchase No. 5, which would then have 
sold for more than it brought in 1801. At that time Con- 
stable refused to sell less than the whole tract of 14,820 
acres, and in June, 1798, gave John Stephen a refusal for 
four months, at twelve shillings per acre. It will be re- 
membered that the political changes in Europe had checked 
emigration, and that the decline of prices in wild lands was 
general throughout the country. Just at this time, the 
land companies in the western states were opening their 
domains to settlers upon very favorable terms, the hostile 
Indian tribes in that region had been brought to terms of 
peace; and the tide of New England emigration, although 
still strong, was diverted to the broad plains and fertile 
valleys of the western country. 

The purchase of this town was made from James, agent 
of William Constable, and the tract was familiarly known 
among the first settlers as The Triangle. Upon its being 
afterwards found that it fell short of 8,000 acres, 703 acres, 

1 The three daughters of Gen. M. were married as follows: Jane, to Ste- 
phen Leonard of Lowville ; Abigail to Philo Rockwell, and Susannali to Dr. 
.John Safford, both of this town. Walter Martin, the oldest son, resides in 
Marshall, Michigan. Adam Martin, the second son, died May 1826, aged 30 
years. John Williams Martin, the third son, was elected to assembly in 
1827, became first president of the Lewis county bank, and from 1843 to 
1843, was first county judge. He resides in New York. Charles L. Martin, 
the first of the family born in this town, was for several years cashier of the 
Lewis county bank, and county treasurer. He is now connected with the 
bank of North America in New York city. Morgan Lewis Martin has resided 
many years at Green Bay. David Thomas Martin (named from liis uncle, 
formerly state treasurer,) has always resided in this town, and has been for 
sereral years a magistrate. 

2 Oneida Deeds, viii, 506. 



Martinshurgh. 175 

or parts of lots 2, 4, 15, 17 and 41, in the west subdivision 
of the same township, were conveyed to supply the de- 
ficiency, May 26, 1806. The tract was surveyed the first 

summer of the purchase, by Montgomery into sixty 

lots. Township 4, was surveyed into 111 lots by Benjamin 
Wright in 1805, and belonged to the Pierrepont family, 
until sold for settlement. Mr. Martin immediately came 
on with a company of men, to make a clearing and erect a 
saw mill He was accompanied by Elijah Baldwin^ of 
Salem and wife, who came on to cook for the laborers, and 
was during the first season the only woman in town. As 
soon as surveyed, the land was opened for sale in farms at 
S'5 per acre, and with such rapidity was it taken up, that 
in less than a month, almost the whole of it was under 
contract to persons intending to settle. The purchasers 
contracted to clear four acres and erect a house within two 
years. Numerous small clearings were begun in various 
parts of the tract, especially along the intended roads, and 
rude log cabins were put up to be ready for the families 
that were to arrive the next spring. The first clearing was 
made by Martin, west of the present mill, and before winter 
he had built a log house and a sawmill. His millwright 
was David Waters, from Johnstown, who with his brother 
John became pioneer settlers." 

Mr. Martin arrived with his family March 4, 1802, and 
during this season, many families came on for permanent 
settlement. Among those who arrived the first and second 
years, were Mrs. Richard Arthur and sons," Ehud Stephens, 
Levi Adams,* John and Orrin Moore,'' Chillus Doty,*" Silas 

1 Mr. Baldwin died at Houseville, Feb. 6, 1857, aged 84 years. 

2 iJav ill Waters died in town, Marcli 25, 1843, aged 67. John Waters 
died, Feb. 20, 1843. 

^Hichard Arthur liad dit-d in Westfiold in 1790, aged 40, leaving eleven 
childfi-ii, most of whom b<-c:im'» heads of lar).;« famiii<'8 in tliis town. The 
Hon.s w»'re namt;(l Uradfurd, L'vi, liichard, Ku.s.sell, Jo.seph and Kli.-iha. Four 
of the Hint'TH marrit-d early H'-ttlt^rH, ami tliu wiiole t'umily took up lari^o farms 
on tliM State roail north of .Martin.tliurgh villai^'i-, the mo8t of which are still 
own<-d by their fuuiiliea. Mru. Artliur dii'd in 1815. liradford came in \^^K\^ 
and h»'ld for Meveral years tlie otUcen of »uj>«TviHor, coroner, ic Ho died, 
.S(.|>t"ml>er 9, IsJ.'j. 

•'From WfHlll.'ld, h<-ltled in this town .Miircii, lh»»2, ••lect.'d to the ;- 

nte in ISl'J, and ti<irvi-<l oint t*-rm, and in ls2i> was i'ho.<«'n one of tl. il 

of a|ii>ointtnenl. 1 1« wn.s oft«Mi elected to town otlin-i, and in 1816-Ia wax 
flherid'. lb' died June lb, 1431, aged C8. He runided un the eoitt road near 
the lino of I^wville. 

^ Orrin .Moon- died in 1827. The death of Joltn Moorx U noticed on |>Age 182. 

* A/r. /)i/y m:irri<'«l a »i.il.-r oMit-n. .Marlin, was ninny yt-ar* ati iniik«'t'|i»T, 
and ditd ill town, <)i-t"b.)r It!, |>2l lb- w:»h ^h.-riir in l^M.'.-S, ami ltill-14; in 
R.S!jeml)ly in 1814-IG-17, and a nurro^alu in 1h15-23. He wan appointed 
asaessor under the law Imposing a dirvcl tax by cougn'M, and was Heveral 



176 Martinsburgh, 

Conkey/ Wm. Miller,^ John Atwater,^ Joseph Sheldon,* 
Jotham Strickland, Elisha and Daniel Tiffany,^ Nathan Che- 
ney,*^ Justus Sacket," Eli Kellogg, Stephen Root/ Roswell 
Miner, Daniel Ashley,^ Ephraim Luce, Stephen Searl, Dr. 
Danforth Shumway, Enoch and Theron Thompson,-^*^ John 
McCollister,^^ and others on Martin's triangle. The first set- 
tler near West Martinsburgh was Asahel Hough, who 
removed from Leyden in the spring of 1802. His neigh- 
bors along the west road within the next three years, were 
Lobdell Wood, Arba Jones, James Coates. Samuel Gowdy,^^ 
David and Chester Shumway ,^^ Clark McCarty, Asa Bray- 
ton, Wm. Jonas and Watson Henry, Nathaniel Babcock and 
Truman Stevens. The first settler on township 4 was Na- 
thaniel Alexander, in July, 1805.-^^ 

In the south part of the town, included in Shaler's tract, 
and annexed in 1819, the first settlers were Reuben Pitcher^^ 

years a county judge. Mrs. Sarah Doty was born April 19, 1"67, died Sep- 
tember 11, 1843, aged 77. James D. T3oty their son, removed west at au 
early period, settled in Wisconsin, and was appointed governor of that terri- 
tory in March, 1841. Baron S. Doty, another son, settled in Ogdensburgh, 
and represented St. Lawrence county in Assembly in 1826, '27. He now re- 
sides at Portage city, Wisconsin. 

1 Married a sister of Gen. Martin, and died in this town April 16, 1813, aged 54. 
His wife Zuriah, was born May 19, 1763, and died October 16, 1849, aged 86. 

2 Father of Dr. David, and Wm. Miller of Martinsburgh. 

3 Mr. A. returned to Westfield a few years after. He was the first distiller 
in the county, and kept an inn half a mile south of the village, which in 
1808 he sold to Enoch Lee. The latter died June 17, 1834, aged 77. His 
sons Winthrop, Charles, Enoch, Shepherd and Williams became heads of 
families in this town, but several have since removed. 

4 Died in Antwerp, May 16, 1844, aged 70. He was the father of the late 
Ira Sheldon of this town. 

s The Tiifanies were from Montgomery, Mass., and come in 1803. They 
joined the first Methodist Episcopal Class formed in this circuit. 

6 Removed to Ontario county, and died at Richmond, N. Y.. about 1826. 

7 Died February 28, 1831, aged 52 years. He was from Westfield. 

8 From Westfield. Died August 28, 1857. 

9 Died June 18, 1816, aged 67 years. He was the father of Stephen, Daniel, 
Otis, Cyrus, and the Rev. Riley B. Ashley, all foi-merly of this town. 

I'^E. T. died March 3, 1845, aged 61. He held many years the oflice of 
loan commissioner, and kept an inn at the brick tavern in Martinsburgh. 

11 About 1818, McCollister, in fulfillment of a fortune teller's prediction sold, 
went to Buffalo, kept tavern a while, and then removed to the far west to be- 
come the wealthy owner of a township which the hag had promised him. 
While ascending the Illinois river with two or three other families the party 
sickened, numbers died, including McCollister, and the survivors were 
scarcely able to bury the dead on the bank of the river. With great sufl"ering 
the party at length reached its destination, penniless and wretched. 

l^-Died April 19, 1840, aged 80 years. 

13 From Belchertowu, Mass. David died December 5, 1849, aged 74 years. 
_ l-^Froni Chester, Mass. He died February 14, 1829. He had sons, Nathan- 
iel and Gains. 

la A descendant from Andrew Pitcher, who emigrated from England and set- 
tled in Dorchester, Mass., in 1630. Reuben Pitcher died February 15, 1844, 
aged 81. His sons David, Daniel, Reuben, Moses, Philander and Almond, be- 



Martinsburgh. 177 

and Eli Rogers,^ from Westfield, who settled in 1802. Like 
many other families who came on in the spring of that year, 
they were delayed until late in February, by the want of 
snow. The company in which they came had twelve or 
fourteen ox teams, and were fourteen days upon the road 
from Westfield. At Albany the Hudson was broken up, 
and they were obliged to go up to Half Moon point, now 
Waterford, to cross, where the ice, although a foot under 
water was considered safe. 

The first blacksmith who settled in town was John Peebles, 
who removed from Salem in 1804. He was the ancestor of 
all of the name now living in town. The first birth in town 
was that of Jane," daughter of Ehud Stephens. Mr. Martin 
brought on the remainder of a store of goods which he had 
owned in Salem, to accommodate his settlers until a regu- 
lar merchant could be established. A grist mill was got in 
operation in 1802 or 1803, but as Lowville and Turin had 
been some years settled, the people of this town were re- 
lieved from much of the hardship arising from long journeys 
to mill. The water power wherever considered available, 
was reserved by Martin in his sale of lands. 

In James Constable's diary, under date of September 13, 
1803, we find the following notice of this town : 

"Travelled on tu Mr. Miutiii's. We had ;i rain some part of 
the day, wliicli we were glad of, as it was nnuli wanted in the 
country. Mr. Martin was not at home, and we went to look at 
his mills and other improvements, lie has a f^(Jod country 
grist mill w(,'ll finished, and a C(jmmon saw mill, but the creek 
is dry as is the case; throughout the country. There is also a 
potash work at which they were busy. His house is of logs, 
the same as first on.'cti'd, as he has not had time for a frame 
building. His father lives in a similar niii- very near. Tliere 
are several neighbors about him on his land. The cultivatioa 
is not very forward, but considering th«; time he ha.s been lure, 
for he only made the purchase in .June, ISUI, the improvements 
do him very great credit. ^U^. Martin being uncertain when ho 
might return home, and it growing late, wo took our leave, 
dined at Capt. Clapp'a aud returuod to Shaler's in tho oveniug." 



camo hendii of familleg, and oxcepUiiR th« liutt, M«ltl«*d montlj on adjaeeut 
fariMH nloiii; tlif w«»l road, ill till- .HoutlnTii jart of t)i<< town. Of liis iliruo 
diiUK'lit'T", Miirtlia inurriid I)r. Ilonitio (». I!.lu^ll and i.i ittill liviiiK; Ki)xaiia 
inarriitl Stc|)h«ii Anhlt?/, and D.-ina inarrifd I'linl U. Ynlv. Mott«« I'itchiT wan 
dro\vn.<l in Bluck riv.-r bay, D.-tfUilHT .J, l><Jt'-, and I'lillander la IIjm lllack 
river, lu-ar Iiid<i><Mid<iuf rn'fk, Si>iitiintj«T 1'', lh47. 

1 Mr Koi;<rsdiiMl .\|>ril 12, 1^-1 ' ' He lia.l ft lir " v. nuwt of whom 

Ht'ttti'd in town, Ijnl of whom ii > remain, \\n,\ i or removed. 

-Born Feliriiury liO, \WZ. The MHund birth was that of Charlva lialdwiu, 
and tho tliird tlint of CiiarU-jt L. .Martin. 

W 



178 Martinsburgh. 

The first framed house in town was built by Amos Barnes, 
in 1805, a mile and a quarter south of the village. It is 
now owned by Charles S. Lee. 

The first regular merchants were Philo Rockwell and 
Danforth Shumway, about 1806. The former, in 1816, went 
to Aurora, N. Y., but soon returned and renewed trade with 
Dr. John Safiford.^ Mr. Rockwell continued a merchant in 
this town until 1829, Avhen he removed to Utica, and in 1832 
became the first victim of the cholera at that place." 

The first inn was kept by Chillus Doty, a brother-in-law 
of Martin, in a log house a few rods west of the brick 
tavern, where the first county courts were held, and the first 
town business transacted. Business centered in the north 
part of the village in early years, and upon its transfer to a 
more southern locality, this portion long wore an aspect of 
decay until several of its buildings rotted down or were 
removed. 

The western sub-division of township number 5 was set- 
tled under Benjamin Wright of Rome, and much of town- 
ship 4 by I. W. Bostwick of Lowville, agents of H. B. 
Pierrepont of Brooklyn, the proprietor. James Constable, 
one of the executors of his brother's estate, remarks in his 
journal of Sept. 10, 1804, of the settlement of this portion : 

" Passed on from Lowville through the northeast quarter of 
number four, which is very good, to Capt. McCarty's, on our 
part of number five, distance three miles. He was from home 
but we found another of the settlers, Ehud Stephens, who with 
five or six other men whom we saw, have completed a street of 
nearly a mile long, of very fine farms in less than two years, 
and it is quite an animating- sight to see them. McCarty, 
Stephens, and two or three others have paid in full and got their 
deeds. The rest have paid generally as the money became due, 
they are all valuable men. The country we are now in, exceeds 
any part we have seen in the whole journey, and it has the ad- 
vantage of being well watered. Proceeded on a couple of miles 
to Squire Martin's, the whole well cleared and cultivated. He 
is engaged in building a stone house, nearly fifty feet square, 
after the model of Sir William Johnson's. The walls are up, 

1 Dr. Safford came from Salem about 1807, married a daughter of Gen. 
Martin and continued many years in practice. He removed to Watertown 
about 182G and died at that place. 

" Mr. Rockwdlwas from Hadley, N. Y., and married Abigal, daughter of 
Gen. W. Martin. At Utica he engaged in the hardware trade, in the firm of 
Rockwell & Sanger, and upon the approach of tiie cholera lie was appointed 
upon a sanitary committee, and doubtless exposed himself to noxious exha- 
lations in the discharge of this patriotic duty. He had made arrangements to 
leave for this town upon the first appearance of the cliolera, but was stricken 
and died Aug. 13, 1832. 



Martinsburgh. 179 

the roof nearly finished and he expects to complete at least a 
part of it for the ensuing winter." 

The original model of Martin's house, in good preserva- 
tion and but little changed from the plan designed by its 
projector, is still standing in the town of Amsterdam, three 
miles west of the village, and adjacent to the N. Y. Central 
railroad. It has borne for more than a century, the name of 
fort Johnson, and in the old French war was fortified against 
a sudden surprise by the enemy. Mr. ]\Iartin had spent a 
night at this house some years before, and was so well 
pleased with its arrangement that he sent his builder, David 
Waters, down to take its plan and dimensions. The struct- 
ure in Martinsburgh was begun in 1803 and finished in 1805, 
and is said to have been throughout, in size, style and finish, 
as far as possible, a faithful copy of Sir William's dwelling. 
To this day, there is scarcel}' a residence in the county that 
has exceeded this in cost, and certainly there is none that 
excels it in conspicuous site or substantial construction. 
Early in 1804 Martin was negotiating for the purchase of 
township four, but failed to conclude a bargain. 

The first school-house in town, was built about 1804, on 
the brow of the hill south of the village, and on the west 
side of the state road. Erastus IJarns was the first teacher. 
No legal action was taken until the annual town meeting in 
1814, when the recent act of the legislature was approved, 
and double the sum received from the state was raised by 
tax. Tiie first commissioners were Chester Shumway, Horatio 
G. Hough,^ and Orrin Moore, and the first inspectors, Barna- 

1 Dr. Horatio Gal.s llout;h, 
.sou of Tliuiiiiis ll()iik{h, and 
tlio lil'th ill descent from an 
Kn^li.sh tMni>;nknt, vrna born 
in Mvriilen, Ct., Junuury 5, 
ITT"^, anil at tlio a^e of 
tliroe years, renioveil with 
lii.s [larentd to Sutilhwiek, 
Ma.SH. Wlun sixteen years oM lie entered tlie olflce of Dr. Coit of that ploco, 
and in four yearn wa.s admitted to praetici' medicine. Uin clajtsical Ktudira 
Were pnritued witli tliu Uev. I.saac Clinton, ]>aMtor of the church of wliioli hiii 
fath<T waa an active nn^inlMT, and a warm |M-raonal friundahip coutluued 
Id'tween pri'cejilor and |)U|iil thmui^h life. 

In 17ltH, the newly lii enH.d jiliysician received a.t U\n only jiatrimony a 
licipHe, Maddle, bridi", and a few dollarn worth <>f medicine, made a tour into 
.Maine with tiie view of m<tllumeut, but not Ilndin^ an attractivu h)cation 
returned and joined the current of euilt^ration then netting tow.irdH the lijack 
river country. He came to Conntabluville and wttled on the Ursl phy.niciau 
^n the county, taklin; up a niiiiII farm, ai' owiiecl by Willard .Mien, 

and lalK>riiii; in the int*-rval.M of his prof>' - iii|ili>yment. In the fall of 

ISO.'i he marri>'il .Martha, daughtir of Keulien l*it«her, and early in 1805 
rcinuvud to .Martin.tburgh and flellKd on a form, a mile and a (piarter Houth 




180 Martinshurgh. 

bas 5rale,^ John McCollister, Asaliel Hough, Levi. Adams, 
Noah N. Harger and Ephraim Luce. The town was soon 
after divided into five districts, and for many years the sum 
voted for school purposes was $124.10 annually. The usual 
amount was afterwards equal to the sum received from the 
state. 

The first settlers of this town, coming chiefly from Salem, 
N. Y., and Westfield, Mass, or places adjacent, divided off 
into two parties, between which a certain degree of rivalry, 
and to some extent of jealousy, existed several years, audits 
existence was evinced in a wish to control business affairs 
and town ofiices. Gen. Martin might have been regarded 
as the leader of one of these, and Judge Bancroft,^ an early 

of the village, where he resided till his death, which occurred from an organic 
disease of the heart, Sept. 3, 1830. 

He was an original member, and at his death, president of the county me- 
dical society, and on many occasions he read at its meetings essays upon 
professional and scientific subjects, which evinced a strong attachment to 
philosophical studies, and much proficiency in them. In an obituary notice, 
written by his friend Dr. Sylvester Miller, the hardships of the pioneer phy- 
sician are thus graphically described : 

" How often has he been seen traveling on foot with his saddle bags on 
his shoulders, making his way through the woods by the aid of marked 
trees, to some distant log house, the abode of sickness and distress ! There 
has he been seen almost exhausted by fatigue, and suffering from want of 
sleep and food, reaching forth his hand to restore the sick, and by his cheerful 
voice pouring consolation into the minds of the afflicted family. He was an 
obliging neighbor, a kind husband and an affectionate father. In his death 
literature has lost a friend, and the world a valuable citizen." — Black River 
Gazette, Sept. 15, 1830. 

Dr. H. Gr. Hough left two sons and three daughters. The older son, 
Horatio Hough, resides upon the homestead in this town. The younger son 
is the author of this volume. 

'^Barnabas Yale, son of Amasa Yale, was born in Rupert, Vt., April 9, 1784, 
and removed when a child to Salem, N. Y., where his father died, leaving 
him and two younger children to the care of a poor but industrious mother. 
He attended the Salem academy two years, and then entered the law olfice of 
Mr. Elanchard, where he remained two and a half years. After removing 
with the family to Schenectady, Amsterdam, Johnstown, Miuden and Little 
Falls, he was, in February, 1807, admitted to practice, and settled in Martins- 
burgh. He continued a member of the Lewis county bar about twenty-five 
years, when he settled on a farm, and in 1836 removed to St. Lawrence co. 
He died October 11, 1854, at the residence of his son Lloyd C, in Norfolk, 
N. Y. Vt'liile living in Martinshurgh, he held many years the oflBce of justice 
of the peace, and in 1820, was appointed surrogate. He was an active mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian church, and took a leading part in the various reform 
movements of his day. In 1825, he oflered his name as an independent can- 
didate for the office of county clerk, and came within 24 votes of election. 
His brother Paul Baxter Yale, resides near Houseville. 

2 £dti-arrf £aMfro/if removed from Westfield 1816, engaged as a merchant, 
built a grist mill and distillery, was concerned in the manufacture of potash 
on a somewhat extensive scale, and held the offices of county clerk and first 
judge. Having proved unsuccessful in business, removed in 1832 to Detroit' 
and after another crisis in his affairs, he removed to St. Clair county, Mich., 
where he died April, 1842. 



Martijisburgh. l8 1 

merchant, of the other. It was not observable after the 
removal of the latter in 1832. 

In the month of April, 1807, an unusual fall of snow 
followed by warm sunny weather, occasioned a flood in all 
the streams of this region, more destructive than ever 
before or since, witnessed. The mill of Gen. Martin, which 
stood a few yards above the present one, was undermined 
and launched into the stream, when it floated down and 
finally lodged and partly went to pieces at the state road 
bridge. Mr. Faxton Dean, father of Samuel Dean^ the 
njiller, lodged in a small room in the upper part of the mill, 
and although advised of possible danger from the flood, 
remained there on the night that the mill was swept away. 
His cries were heard by the people on the bank, who 
followed with lanterns the floating building and its inmate, 
but were entirely unable to render the slightest aid. Ilia 
body was found among flood-wood some weeks after, 
and was the first one buried in the old grave yard a mile 
south of the village. Martin's mill was rebuilt soon after, 
and in 1822, the present grist mill, a little below the old one 
was erected. In Jan., 1826, E. Bancroft completed a rival 
mill, supplied by springs and a small tributary of Martin's 
creek, a little southwest of the other mill. After being 
used about ten years, the latter was changed to a manufac- 
tory of cotton Ijatting, wicking and wadding. It has since 
fallen into ruin. In 1833, a building was erected west of 
village as a woolen factory, but the intention was never 
fully realized. A starch factory was fitted up in 1847, in a 
building erected for a tannery, but after the lirst season it 
was never used. In the spring of 1844, a company was 
formed under the style of the Lewis Co. Manufacturing Co., 
with a prf)posed capital of }j.2;j,000, but the plan was 
abondoned hc-lbro it iiad nuitured. 

A paper mill was built Ity (Jen. Martin in 1807, on the 
creek, about a mile south oast of the village, upon the east 
road, and got in operation l>y .John Clark <t Co., in the fall 
of that year. Daniel Could wan afti^rwards in company 
with Clark. The mill never had any machinery beyond an 
engine for grinding the pidp, and although kept more or 
less employed, till about 1832, it never proved a source of 
much profit to those concerned. In the earlier years writ- 
ing paper was made, but at a later day only wrapping and 
wall papers. 

A poetical advert isomont, a parody of one of Dibdin's 

' Mr. Drnii wn.t froiu Wixtfli-ltl. He rciuorvd lo Ohio, md died at Brock- 
port, .April H, 1»4U, i4{ud bS. 



182 Martinsburgh. 

songs, wliich appeared in the Black River Gazette, Nov. 9, 
1807, is here inserted, for the double purpose of represent- 
ing the character of the type used in that newspaper, and 
the poetical talents of J. Clark & Co. 

Sweet Ladies, pray be not offended, 

Nor mind the jeft of fneering wags ; 
No harm believe us, is intended, 

When humbly we requeft your Rags. 

The fcraps, which you rejedl, unfit 

To clothe the tenant of a hovel, 
May fhine in fentiment and wit. 

And help to make a charming novel. 

The cap exalted thoughts will raife, 

The ruffle in defcription flourifh ; 
Whilft on the glowing work we gaze 

The thought will love excite and nourifh. 

Each beau in ftudy will engage, 

His fancy doubtlefs will be warmer. 
When writing on the milk-white page, 

Which once, perhaps, adorn'd his charmer. 

Though foreigners, may fneer and vapor. 

We no longer forc'd their books to buy, 
Our gentle Belles will furnifh paper, 

Our fighing Beau will wit fupply. 

Forty-five years afterwards, the principal of this firm was 
a homeless wanderer, seeking to be employed at a fee of a 
few shillings, to indicate veins of water and points for dig- 
ging wells, by the pretended traction of a hazel rod. 

Capt. John Moore was accidentally shot by Russell Ar- 
thur, early on the morning of June 3, 1811. It was on the 
day of a military muster, and some of his men had come 
as was the custom, to salute him, by firing guns ; when, 
just as he was crossing the threshold, a ball passed through 
his neck, which proved speedily fatal. This painful inci- 
dent cast a gloom over the neighborhood, and was scarcely 
less afflictive to the unhappy author of the accident and his 
friends, than to the family of the deceased. Mr. Moore 
resided on the State road, about midway between the vil- 
lages of Lowville and Martinsburgh. Otis Ashley, jr., a 
lad, was killed at a military training, in the village of Mar- 
tinsburgh, July 4, 1831, by a ball from a rifle, reflected 
from a stone, at which the weapon was fired, without the 
owner's knowing that it was charged with any thing but 
powder. 

The scheme of S. Whittlesey and wife of Watertown, to 
rob the government of $30,000, due the drafted militia of 
this and adjoining counties, the year after the war, is among 



Martinshurgh. 183 

the most remarkable incidents of crime upon record. Hav- 
ing concealed the money at home, he traveled carelessly on 
horseback as far as Trenton, where he announced that he 
had been robbed, and offered, with well dissembled anxiety, 
an immense reward for the thief The sequel, ending in the 
extortion of the secret, under threats of a terrible death, 
the suicide of the wife and the disgrace of her husband, are 
familiar to many of our readers.' On his way to Trenton, 
W. spent a night at the inn of Chillus Doty in this town, 
Avhere he was cautioned to be more watchful over his trea- 
sure. A few days after the discovery of the money, ho Avas 
seen to leave "Watertown on horseback late in the afternoon, 
and to return the next morning, with liis beast jaded and 
weary, as if he had traveled a long journey without resting. 
The late Dr. Trowbridge (who related to us the incident, 
and who, at that time, was almost the only one of W.'s late 
friends who would harbor him under their roofs,) insisted 
upon his telling the errand, when he had length reluctantly 
admitted, that he had on liis former journey, concealed 
about the premises of Mr. Doty a quantity of marked bills 
with the intention of finding them under a search warrant, 
and thus implicating an innocent man. The plot having 
been defeated he had gone to recover the money, creeping, 
at the death of night ui)on the premises on an errand of 
guilt, wliicii practiced villainy would have shunned by day- 
light. Several marked bills were found on the premises of 
Josc{)h Sheldon, who kept an inn on the site of the resi- 
dence of "Warren Salmon in ^lartinsburgh, and were 
returned to their owners in Watertown. The honorable 
character of these persons would have ensured them against 
public suspicion, had the money been found concealed upon 
their premises. 

As Miss Mary Ann Waters, a young lady about twenty 
years of ago, engaged in teaching school in the east part of 
tluj town, was returning home on horseback, Juno 20, 1829, 
her horse was startled and stopped by a tree falling across 
the road in front, and directly alter another tree foil upon 
and killed both the horse and its rider. 

In the fall of 1828 a thin vein of galena disseminated in 
calcareous spar, was iliscovured a short distance north of 
the village of .Nfart insliurgh, near the brow of the hill, and 
hopes were uxcjted wliifh further exploration did not jus- 
tify. In the spring of 1838, as Levi Mdwards, in the service 
of Richard Arthur, wa.s plowing in a Hold about a inilo 

1 Tliis fVi'iit, (Irrirud from tlioH« who woro inUiuntoljrcuiicoriiotl, Ih (ivUilfd 
ill llic History of Jtjfrrmm county, p. 1102. 



184 Martinsburgh, 

northwest of the village, the point of his plow broke off a 
bright shining ore, which proved to be galena. This led to 
an examination, and as the rock lay near the surface, the 
vein was easily uncovered and presented truly an attrac- 
tive spectacle. The ore from four to ten inches wide stood 
like a wall several inches above the surface of the rock, and 
run in a course about N. 80° W. a distance of over twenty 
rods, and so readily was it obtained that two men in two 
days threw out over four thousand pounds. Trenches dug 
across the direction of this vein disclosed others nearly 
parallel, and the prospect of mineral wealth for a time 
seemed never fairer. The right of mining was purchased 
by Thomas L. Conklin^ for $700, and a company at first of 
twelve, but afterwards of a hundred shares was formed.' 

A building, formerly a fulling mill, adjacent to the bridge 
south of the village was fitted up for smelting the ore, and 
got in operation in June, 1838, and several tons of the metal 
were reduced. Meanwhile the cost of mining rapidly in- 
creased as the excavations were sunk below the surface, 
while the yield of ore diminished, and after considerable 
expenditure during the first year and part of the next the 
work was abandoned, with heavy loss to all concerned. 

In 1853, the mineral right of this locality was purchased 
on speculation by parties in New York, and a company was 
legally formed for working the mines. The Lewis County 
Lead Co., is not "known by its works" in the county, and 
there is no present prospect of any further enterprise of the 
kind being attempted.^ 

A serio-comic incident occurred in the western part of 
this town in the summer of 1836, occasioned by a search 
after a child lost in the woods. The little wanderer was 
soon found and restored to its parents, but on counting up 
after their return it was discovered that a middle aged man 
named C. N. K., and a lad about 18 years of age in his com- 
pany were missing. This happened on Thursday, but Fri- 
day came and passed without an}^ tidings of the lost. On 

lilfr. CoiiWm was from Rensselaerville, N. Y., was admitted to the Lewis 
couuty bar about 1824, and for some time was actively engaged in his profes- 
sion. In 1831, he entered the ministry and removed to Carbondale, Pa., but 
soon after returned. After the failure of his lead speculation he mostly 
withdrew from business, and died July 1, 1851, at the age of 55, having 
mostly secluded himself from society during several years. He was acknow- 
ledged by all to be an etl'ective and elegant public speaker, enthusiastic in 
in whatever he engaged, eccentric in his theories, but withal, the possessor 
of considerable talent. He studied his profession with Simeon Ford of Her- 
kimer county. 

^ This company filed its articles Feb. 4, 1854. Capital $200,000 in shares of 
§2, each, limit fifty years. 



Martinsbur^h. 185 



' b 



Saturday the report spread generally, and towards the close 
of that day a public meeting was called, and it was agreed 
that in case they did not appear by morning, the town bell 
should be rung at sunrise, as a signal for tlie inhabitants to 
rally and engage in a careful search in the woods. The bell 
was accordingly rung on Sabbath morning, and hundreds 
of men assembled at the appointed place, agreed upon their 
signals, formed into a line, and begun their search in the 
forest. About ten o'clock, the signal for "found" was 
passed along the line, and each hastened to the spot to 
learn in what condition the lost had been found, and by 
what casualty they had been detained. The estrays were 
found in an open beaver meadow, on the head waters of one 
of the streams, but two or three miles from inhabitants, and 
almost within hearing of the town bell. The weather had 
been bright and clear, and the sluggish stream after a few 
windings in the wood emerged into the clearings. When 
asked why they did not follow out some one of the hay roads, 
for winter use, which led into the meadow, Mr. K., with 
great naivete and perfect sincerity, replied, that they had 
found a plenty of paths leading into the meadow, hut none thai 
led out. 

At the Oneida circuit of Sept., 1844, a suit brought by 
Abel Fuller, of this town, against Alanson Tyler, of Lowville 
to recover money alleged to have been paid, disclosed the 
existence of a combination of swindlers in this and adjoining 
towns, who had in various ways, for several months pre- 
vious, been operating to obtain money by fraud. In the case 
mentioned, perjury was freely olVered as evidence, and it 
subsequently appeared, that numerous schemes of extortion 
had been planned, and means the most unscrupulous ar- 
ranged to secure their execution. This club received the 
name of '' tlie forty thieves." It is said to have mot by 
night in private places, and to have enjoined secro.sy and 
fidelity by the nio8t Holonin oaths, but the result of the trial 
in Utica, by rtiinoviiig the leaders to state prison, put an 
clVectual end to their operations. 

A distressing accidont occurred Sept. 3, 1852, at the .Ma- 
ple Kidge in this town. As a daughter of Timothy Canaan, 
uged 9 years, was in a field in which the embiTs t)f log 
heaps were still burning, her dross caught fire, and iiet'oro 
she could bo relieved was literally burned alive 

The town of .Martinsburgh has three po.st otVices. Mar- 
tinsbtirgh (P. ().) village is built upon a bold terrace of 
Trenton limestone which here rises to a greater elevation 
than at any other point in tho town if uot iu the county. 

Z 



186 Martinsburgh. 

In 1855 it reported a population of 210. It has besides the 
court house and jail, four churches, an inn, four stores, the 
usual variety of mechanics and on its southern border a 
limited water power. The scenery, which the surrounding 
country affords, especially towards the east, is much finer 
than that of any other village in the county. The most 
disastrous fire which ever occurred in the county, broke 
out in this village, on the morning of Feb. 5, 1859, destroy- 
ing the only hotel,^ four stores, and all the offices, sheds, 
barns and buildings attached. The fire occured during 
court week, and the hotel was filled with guests, who were 
aroused from sleep, and several of them narrowly escaped 
with life. 

West Martinsburgh (P. 0.) three miles north west, on the 
west road, is rather a thickly settled street, with two church- 
es, an inn, store and a few mechanic shops. As a farming 
region this vicinity is one of the finest in the county. 

Glensdale (P. 0.) is a hamlet of about a dozen houses, a 
mill, store, church and a few shops, in the east part of the 
town, where Whetstone creek falls over the last terrace of 
limestone before reaching the river. The post-office at this 
place was established in March 1855, with S. D. Mason, 
P.M. 

The Lewis County Bank, was incorporated April 20, 1833, 
and located at Martinsburgh, with a limit of thirty years, 
and a capital of $100,000. The commissioners for opening 
subscriptions and distributing stock, were, Geo. D. Ruggles, 
John W. Martin, Andrew W. Doig, Wm. D. Shaler, Ashley 
Davenport, John Whittlesey, Ela Merriam, Stephen Leonard 
and Ozias Wilcox. 

In the j)etition to the legislature which procured this 
act, the annual surplus products of the county are stated as: 
cattle $40,000, horses and mules $35,000, flour and wheat 
$50,000, pot and pearl ashes, $25,000, pork and hogs, 
$25,000, and whiskey $15,000. It was stated that 75,000 
pounds of wool were sent annually, and that hemjD, iron, 
and lumber, formed a large and increasing subject of ex- 
portation. It was estimated that the merchants purchased 
$200,000 worth of goods annually, and that the products of 
agriculture and opportunities, for manufactures which our 
hydraulic privileges ofi'ered would be largely benefited and 
encouraged by a bank at the county seat. It will be no- 

1 This was originally built in 1807 for Gen. Martin, and afterwards much 
extended. At the time of the fire it was kept by T. Atwood. The hotel 
premises are about to be rebuilt by Edwin Pitcher, with the aid of a subscrip- 
tion of 82000 from townsmen. 



Martinsburgh. 1S7 

ticed that no allusion is made to that great feature of pro- 
ductive industry, the dairying interest, Avhich has conferred 
^vealth and reputation upon Lewis county, as this resource 
was entirely unknown, and did not begin to develop itself 
until about two years after. A few years before, a merchant 
in Lowville who had advertised for three hundred pounds of 
butter, payable in goods at ten cents the pound, was con- 
sidered an adventurer, in a county which now produces 
over 2,000,000 pounds of butter, and much greater amount 
of cheese.-* 

The projQts upon banking capital had for man}' years 
been great, and the prices upon bank stock had been much 
above par. The franchises implied in a charter were difli- 
cult to obtain, and it is not surprising that multitudes 
should seek this investment, or that an immense subscrip- 
tion should have been oflered beyond what could be taken. 
The charter limited the amount which one person might 
take at fifty shares, or $2,500, and left the commissioners 
the invidious task of deciding who should be favored in the 
assignation of stock. Tiie total amount offered, is said to 
have been about $1,200,000, which would necessarily leave 
eleven in twelve on the disappointed list. As an unavoid- 
able result, many were free to charge upon the commissioners 
the most selfish antl ungenerous motives. Each of their 
number took the amount limited by law. 

A bank building was erected iu Martinsburgh, adjacent 
to the court liouse in 1833, and the bank was opened for 
business in December of that year, afibrding the only bank- 
ing facilities in the county until after the passage of the 
general banking law of 1838. While the IJank of Lowville 
was in course of organization, an unsuccessfid etlurt was 
made to increase the capital of this bank tu twice tlio sum 
named in the charter. On tlio 3d of May, 18-12, the bills of 
this bank were rejected by the Coinmerciul bank of Albany, 
and on the same day an injunction was serve<l uj)on its 
ollicers. Mr. Forbes, one of the bunk commissioners, liad 
been for some days investigaiing its all'uirs and deemed the 
measure necessary as largo nssots were not avuilablo for 
use. 'V\\Q bank was allowed to resume buKiness Jan. 3, 
1843, and public ct»nfitleiu-e had not boon entirely restored 
so as to allow its bills to circulate freely at u tlistance, whou 
a secontl injunction was Horve<l in 1S45, and business was 
again resumed in September, ISlfJ. witli tlie capital reduced 
one half It went on until Noveuiber, 1S;V1, when it finally 
faileil, beyond prospect of recovery. 

1 Black River OM«tt«, Sept. 18, 1827. 



188 Martinshurgh. 

This bank paid 10 per cent dividend upon its stock until 
1842, and a single dividend upon its preferred stock after 
its first suspension. Frederick Hollister of Utica in 1845, 
bought a large interest, and for time held a controlling 
amount of stock. 

The following is a list of presidents and cashiers of this 
bank : 

Presidents. Cashiers. 

John W. Martin, 1833 Andrew W. Doig, 1833 

Isaac W. Bostwick, 1843 Charles L. Martin, 1834 

Lyman R. Lyon, 1844 Lyman R. Lyon, 1842 

Isaac W. Bostwick, 1845 S. D. Hnngerford, 1844 

Lyman R. Lyon, 1846 Andrew W. Doig, 1845 

Ela N. Merriam, 1846 

F. W. Grannis, 1852 

Statistics as reported annually near the beginning of each 
year : 

Loans Loans 

and _ Total and Total 

Years. Discounts. Circulation. Resources. Years. Discounts. Circulation. Resources. 

1834,.. $116,610 886,242 1845,.. 119,038 97,097 248,407 

1835,.. 211,484 129,525 $259,116 1846,,. 136,787 97,117 223,227 

1836,.. 245,315 192,656 349,607 1847,.. 147,165 101,824 255,649 

1837,.. 245,882 172,538 355,300 1848,.. 166,057 128,807 276,898 

1838,.. 196,890 147,066 311,123 1849, 117,912 

1839,.. 238,108 139,679 308,519 1850, 149,997 

1840,.. 236,896 128,555 329,461 1851, 149,988 

1841,.. 228,248 137,754 321,180 1852, 48,981 

1842,.. 204,763 97,422 274,878 1853, 99,987 

1843,.. 162,710 72,864 257,232 1854, 149,995 

1844,.. 114,366 72,452 229,239 

The Martinshurgh Library was formed at the house 
of John Atwater, Feb. 10, 1807, and Nathan Cheney, John 
Atwater, John McCollister, David Shumway, Truman Ste- 
phens, Enoch Bush and Horatio G. Hough, were chosen its 
first trustees. A good selection of about two hundred vol- 
umes was made, and the library was continued till the 
spring of 1835, when it was broken up and distributed 
among its remaining shareholders. Asa L. Sheldon, was 
for many of the later years the librarian. 

A wooden building two stories high and furnished with a 
small cupola, was built in the village in 1828, for an academic 
school and probably with the ultimate design of obtain- 
ing an incorporation. The expense was defrayed by sub- 
scription, and the property was to be managed by trustees 
elected by the contributors. The first Trustees were Rev. 
David Kimball, John B. Hill, David Waters, Edward Ban- 
croft, Philo Rockwell and Enoch Thompson. It was opened 
as a young ladies' seminary by Miss M. S. Williams, June 15, 



Martinshurgh. 1S9 

1829, and a few years after was used as an infant school. 
Calvin B. Gay, the Kev. Calvin Yale and others have taught 
at different times and scarcely a winter has passed without 
a select or other school being taught. Since 1854 it has 
been used as a district school house. 

Religious Societies. — The first church edifice in the 
state north of the Mohawk, was erected in Martiusburgh, 
in 1806, chiefly through the aid of Gen. Martin, who de- 
frayed the principal share of the cost, and sold out pews to 
families as opportunities ollerred. The first Presbyterian 
society of IMartiiisburgh, was formed Dec. 9, 1810, the ori- 
ginal trustees being Walter Martin, Levi Adams, John 
McCoUister, Chillus Doty, Chester Shumway, Nathan Cheney, 
Elizur Stephens, Ejiliraim Luce and Ijarnabas Yale. The 
society began with forty-seven members. The edifice wag 
painted by subscription, and furnished by Gen. Martin with 
a bell in 1827 in return for the compliment of naming the 
town after him. It was thoroughly repaired in 1832, fur- 
nished with an organ in 1838, again repaired in 1853, and 
burned by lightning, on the morning of Aug. 1, 1854. 

The first bell weighed alone about 800 lbs. and cost $400. 
It was broken in the fire, and the old metal exchanged in 
part for the present one, which weighs (with the yoke) 
1556 lbs. and cost $450. Both were from Mcneeley's found- 
ry in West Troy. The site of the church was not deeded 
to the society until 1818. A new church edifice was erected 
in 1858 on the site of the former, at a cost of $3000, and 
dedicated in Xoveml)er of that year. A ])arsonago belong- 
ing to the society, was burned, Oct. 15, 1849, 

The first religious meetings were Jield by missionaries, 
in private houses, and afterwards in the school house on 
tiie brow of the hill south of the village. The Rev. Mr. 
Clinton of Lowvillo,and others preached occasionally in tlio 
meeting house, but none wore regularly hired until about 
1809, when the Rev. Klijah Norton, an old man Uo\i\ Litch- 
field, N. Y. , was hircil a lew months. - 

The Rev. .\aroa Jordan iJoogo from Galway, N. V., 
having preached a few times, was invited to bocomo the 
statL'd supply of the society, Feb. 19, IS 10, for a term of 
four year^, liom the first ol" November, precceding. That 
ho migiit Ijo "free from worldly cares and avocations," the 
trustees promised to pay $250 per annum in (luurtorly in- 

^IIii lind \>v<t>\\ a priiton<>r with tliu ImiiAiiii in thu Revolution, ami iitrvmom- 
b«<r(<(l n.H n man zi-ikliMi.H in lilt iubun*, l>ut Miuiowlmt iiitdlcrant townnl.t otlxT 
sectM, (•.s]>«<<'inlly tli>' Mctlioiiiit.H. It no lin|i|x-ii<'il ilmi un i>nlv dan^iiter Ih< 
canto un i-ariH-.tt Ix'iii'VtT in tint it«ii-«1 nf tia'.ti) |M'iip|)>, and ehoiio to Icavo the 
paturnnl ruuf, rather than rclinqniah h«*r roligiouit faith. 



190 Martinshurgh . 

stallments. He accepted, but stooping to meddle in politics 
was silenced. While endeavoring to retrieve his position, he 
yielded in an evil hour, to a besetting sin.-^ The Rev. Mr. 
Mandeville was next employed a short time, when the Rev. 
James Murdock was installed first pastor Feb. 11, 1812, and 
remained about seven years,^ The Rev. David Kimball ac- 
cepted a call Dec. 6, 1821, and was ordained pastor of this 
church and that of Lowville village, June 24, 1822. He 
continued in this relation until Oct. 19, 1830, when he was 
dismissed at his own request.^ After employing one Fisk, 
a few months, the Rev. Leicester A. Sawyer was engaged, and 
on the 12th of Oct., 1832, he was installed.* He remained 
about three years and was succeeded by the Revs. Loring, 
Bushnell, and Joel Osborn in 1835-6, and by the Rev. 
Calvin Yale, as pastor from 1837 to Feb. 11, 1841.^ The 
Rev. Erastus S. Barnes'' was pastor from Sept. 13, 1841, to 
to Aug. 24, 1846. His successors have been, the Rev. Her- 
bert W. Morris, from March 8, 1848, to Feb. 1, 1850 ; Rev. 
Joseph Rosecrans, stated supply from 1850 to March 8, 
1852; Rev. Revilo J. Cone, (do.) from July, 1852 to Feb. 
20, 1854 ; Rev. Samuel L. Merrill from June, 1854 to June, 
1857. The Rev. R. A. Wheelock of Deer River has been 
employed on alternate sabbaths since April, 1859. 

This church, originally Congregational, was changed to 
Presbyterian, Jan. 9, 1812. In the fall of 1830, and winter 
following, a remarkable revival occurred, and a larger num- 

1 Having rode to Turin on the 4th of July, he was seen walking home on 
the 5th with his garments covered with mud and his saddle on his shoulder. 
He enlisted as a chaplain in the army June 16, 1813, and was disbanded 
April 14, 1818. 

^Mr. M. was a native of Saybrook, Ct., graduated at Yale College in 1774, 
in the same class with Mr. Booge ; came to Lewis county March, 1805, 
preached some time in Turin and Constableville. From Martinshurgh he 
went to Gouverneur, and in 1839 to Crown Point, where he died at his son's 
residence, Jan. 14, 1841, aged 86 years. 

3 Mr. K. was born in Hopldntown, N. H., March 18, 1791, learned the prin- 
ter's trade at Concord, fitted for college at Phillip's Academy, And over, gra- 
duated at Yale in 1818, and directly after entered the Theological Seminary at 
Andover. In 1821 he came to this town, and in January, 1831, removed to 
PlainSeld, Mass. He publishes a newspaper at Hanover, N. H., at the pre- 
sent time. 

"^Mr. S. was a native of Burrville, Jefferson county ; graduated at Hamilton 
College in 1828, and began his ministry here. He has since become known 
as an author, and has published a new translation of the New Testament. 

^ Mr. Yale was from Kingsboro, N. Y. He graduated at Union College in 
1812. Since the dissolution of his pastoral relation with this church, he has 
preached at Lowville, Watertown, BrownvilJe, and other places, but now re- 
sides in this town. 

*' Mr. B. was from Gouverneur. He graduated at Amherst College. From 
this place he went to Chazy, but has since resided in this county and Oneida 
several years . 



Martinsbursh. 191 



' & 



bers were added to tlie church, than at any similar period 
before or since. A sabbatli school has begun in 1821, in 
connection with this church, and held at first at private 
houses, in dillerent parts of the town. Over a thousand 
have been connected with it first and last, as teachers or 
scholars, Mr. Ezra Botsford has been many years its super- 
intendent. 

Methodist meetings were among the earliest held in town, 
and stated preaching was had by appointment many years 
before a legal organization was eil'ected. The M. E. church 
in this town was made a separate circuit from Lowville in 
1840, since which the circuit preachers have been: 1840-1, 
Jas. Erwin ; 1842, J. E. Downing; 1843, Lorenzo D. Steb- 
bins ; 1844-5, Allen 0. Wightman ; 1846, Hiram Shepard ; 
1847-S, H. (). Tilden ; 1849-50, Benj. S. Wright ; 1851-2, 
Eleazer Whipple ; 1853, W. B. Joyce ; 1854-5, 11. E. King ; 
1856-7, L. L. Palmer; 1858, G. W. Elwood, S. B. Shepard ; 
1859, :m. it. Church, A. T. Copeland. 

The First Metii. Ep. Ch. of Martinsburgh, was legally 
formed Sept. 4, 1831, with Abner Clapp, Elijah Baldwin, 
Sedgwick Coates, Burrage Hough, John C. Hough, Arnold 
Clapp and Samuel Gordon, Jr., trustees. A stone church 
was built in 1832, on the brow of the hill east of the state 
road and on the south border of the vilhige, and dedicated 
in Jan., 1833. After being used a dozen or fifteen years it 
fell into decay, and upon the erection of churches in other 
parts of the town it was discontinued, sold and takendown. 
A Mctli. Ep. ciiurch was built atijacent to the clerk's oflico 
in Martinsburgh village in tlio summer of 1857. 

The West Martinsburgh soc. of the M. E. Ch., was formed 
Jan. 30, IS'IO, with LobdcU Wood. Moses Talinadge, Giles 
Easton, Henry McCarty, Norman (Jowdy, Henry Miner, 
Henry Curtis, Noah N. Ilarger, and Moses M. Smith, 
trustees. In the summer of that year their present ciiurch 
was erectiMJ, and about 1846 was furnisheil with a liell. 

The 2d M. E. ch. and soc. of West Martinsburgh was 
was formtd Sept. 8, 1840, with I). Seymour, Joseph Drown 
and Will. ri;eblos, trustees. A small rhurch edilico was 
erected on Chapel hill, so calleil, west of the village 

A second Advent society in West Martinsburgh village, 
erected a house of worship in 1851, but mettings have not 
been regularly continued. 

A l'>a(jtist church was formed at the school house u mile 
and a half south of the village, on the 27th o[' June 1818, 
under the advice of l-ild. Slepln-n i'arsons. It at first ct)n- 
Bisted of seven meinburs, and worshiped in the school hou.se 



192 Martinsburgh. 

until the erection of a church in 1825. In 1840, it removed 
to the village where its meetings have since been held. The 
first settled minister was Eld. Samuel Marshall, Avho was 
ordained Mar. 13, 1822. Elders Martin Salmon, Riley B. 
Ashley, L. S. Baker, Charles Graves, John B. Ambler, 
0. Wilbur and others, were afterwards employed. 

A Free Communion Baptist Church was formed by a 
council of delegates from Russia, Lowville and Turin, 
convened at Martinsburgh Oct. 17, 18 18. It continued in 
existence nntil about 1840, when by death, removal, and 
union with other churches it had become so reduced in 
number, that but four females attended its last covenant 
meeting. Elder Russell Way, of Turin, was the minister 
under whom this church was chiefly formed and continued. 
The sect is considered as extinct in this town. 

The Martinsburgli United Baptist Society, was formed 
Nov. 6, 1824, with Daniel Pitcher, Enoch C. Johnson, Nor- 
man Griffis, Jonathan Searle and Daniel Ashley, Jr., as 
trustees. In 1825 it erected a church edifice one and a half 
miles south of the village, which continued to be used on 
alternate Sabbaths by the two Baptist churches about fifteen 
years, when it gradually fell into decay, until, at length, 
every vestige has disappeared. The IMartinsburgh Baptist 
society, was formed Sept. 30, 1839, with Levi Bronson, John 
Waters, Shepard Lee, Samuel Miner, James M. Sturdevant, 
and David Griffis, trustees. In the year following, a new 
church was erected in Martinsburgh village, and the congre- 
gation worshiping in the former edifice removed thither. 

A church was built at Glensdale in 1853, by the joint ef- 
forts of the Protestant and Episcopal Methodists, and dedi- 
cated Jan. 4, 1854. The societ}^ owning this was legally 
formed April 25, 1854, under the name of the People's 
Church, Jerrard Stiles, Wm. Glasgow, Alfred Arthur, 
Walter Hubbard, and Wm. Olivers, first trustees. 

A number of persons known as Unionists, professing 
to be held together by no creed or covenant but such as the 
scriptural belief and the conscience of every member might 
dictate and approve, associated in 1857, under the Rev. Ste- 
phen P. Taft in Martinsburgh village, and on the 12th of 
April, 1858, organized themselves into a corporation, styled 
" The Trustees of the Church of Martinsburgh," of which 
Charles Peebles, Horatio Hough, Lewis A. Pitcher, Warren 
A. Peebles, Diodate Pease, Perry S. Hough, Martin Sheldon, 
Mithra J. Reed and Charles E. Peebles were first trustees. 
In the summer of that year, they erected a small but neat 
Gothic chapel for worship on the eastern border of the 
village. 



Montague. 193 

MONTAGUE. 

This town was formed from West Turin by the Board of 
Supervisors, November 14, 1850, embracing Township 3, or 
Shakespere, of the Boylston Tract. The first town meeting 
was directed to be held at the school house near Iloswell 
Parmenter's. 

Supervisors. — 1851-3, "Wheaton Burington ; 1854-60, Jo- 
seph M. Gardner. 

Clerks. — 1851, Stephen A. Green; 1852-3, Elias Sears; 
1854, Leonard G. Savage ; 1855, Alfred Green ; 1856, Al- 
BonC. Rounds; 1857-8, George D. MolVatt; 1859, Bildad 
Woodward, jr. 

A bounty of $'3 was voted for the destruction of bears, 
in 1854. 

This town was subdivided into 117 lots by Benjamin 
Wright in 1805. The courses and distances of its bounda- 
ries are as follows : 

W. side, north, 533 ch., 15 Iks. (1795). 
N. " S.81°E, 551 " 25 " (1805). 
E. " south, 550 " 36 " (1795). 
S. " N. 80° W. 554 " ( 1795). 

The lines of 1795 were run by Medad Mitchell. 

This town was named from Miss Mary Montague Pierre- 
pont, a daughter of Ilezekiah B. Pierrepont foriner owner 
of this town and of large tracts in this and adjoining coun- 
ties. This lady presented a set of record books to the 
town in consideration of the compliment. She died in 
Brooklyn in January, 1853. 

Tiie first agent charged with the care of this town, was 
Dr. Samuel Allen of Dennnuk, who ollectcd nothing. In 
1838, Mr. Henry E. Pierrepont, went witii Allen upon the 
tract, and left arrangements lor opening u road from New 
Boston in i'inekney, southwiird across this town, but noth- 
ing WHS done, until 1844, when llarvey Stephens of .Mar- 
tinsl)ur';h, then agent, got a roud opened, lie died the 
next year, and in Augu.st, 1845, Diodato I'oaso, of Murtins- 
burgli, was appointed agent, and has sinci; continued in 
ellieient service. This town remained tlio undivided proj)- 
crty of tlie Pierrepont family until 1S53; when the oast half 
excepting the parts oroviou.sly convoyed, loll to the sharo 
of Joseph J. Kicknell, and the west half to .laiue.s M. Minor, 
both of whtMu h;id married daughters of Hezokiah 1>. Pierre- 
pont. 

The first settlor was Solomon lioldon, who in the fall of 
1846, moved into the town with his family, and wintered in 
u shanty on the land of Foster P. Newton. There was no 



194 JVew Bremen. 

other family in town during this winter. The first land 
•was taken up Ly Xewton, May 30, 1846, but he never resided 
iu town. Lands were also booked to several others in 
the year 1846, but they never were known as settlers. 
Alonzo Garnsey purchased May 10, 1847, and resided a 
year or two at Gardner's Corners. Joseph M. Gardner be- 
came the first merchant, and from him the settlement known 
as Gardner's Corners was named. A saw^ mill was raised 
by S. P. Sears, in the fall of 1847, and finished in July 1848. 

Samuel P. Sears, Calvin Rawson, G. Savage, Peter Dur- 
ham, Oliver Stafford, S. A. Green, "Wm. D. Bucklin, Isaiah 
Burr, Alonzo Garnsey, and Zebulon Marcellus were among 
the first settlers in this town. 

In September, 1848, when Mr. Pierrepont visited the town, 
4000 acres were contracted, and 600 deeded. In ISoO, 
13,000 acres were sold, 40 miles of road were laid out, and 
a saw mill was in course of erection on Deer river. There 
were then 100 inhabitants upon the town. Montague P. 0. 
was established about 1856. Most of the settlers w^ere from 
St. Lawrence and Jefferson counties. The town is about 
two-thirds taken up by actual settlers. The first death of 
an adult person was that of Caleb Green, Jan. 23, 1854. 

The first framed school house was built in 1850. There 
are now seven school districts in this town, the first teachers 
in which were as follows: 

Dist. No. 1, Jane Johnson ; No. 2, Sarah Kramer ; No. 3, 
Sarah Hart ; No. 4, ]Mary Ann Ten Eyck ; No. 5, Anna H. 
Bent ; No. 6, Mrs. Terrill : No. 7, Ellen Terrill. 

Religious Societies. — Two Methodist societies were 
formed in 1851, and one in 1857. A Baptist society was 
formed in 1854, but none of these have yet erected a house 
of worship. 

NEW BREMEN. 

This town was formed from Watson and Croghan, March 
31, 1848, with its present boundaries. The first town meet- 
ing was held at the house of Charles G. Loomis. Its name 
was probably applied to render it attractive to European 
emigrants. 

Supervisors. — 1848-50, Bornt Nellis ; 1851, David Cleve- 
land ; 1852-4, B. Nellis ; 1855, Roswell Bingham ; 1856-7, 
B. Nellis; 1858, R. Bingham ; 1859-60, Jerome Kilts. 

Clerks. — 1849-50, Squire H. Snell; 1851-S, Jerome Kilts; 
1859, Nicholas Gaudel. 

Panther and wolf bounties of $5 were voted in 1848. 
The population of this town when erected, w^as 1345, of 



J^ew Bremen. 195 

whom 1030 were from Watson and 315 from Croghan. 
Of the whole number 753 were Europeans. 

Settlement began under title derived from the New 
York Company by Jacob Obous?ier, clerk to Tillier, resi- 
dent agent of the French pjroprietors. His improvement 
was made about a third of a mile below the present Illing- 
worth bridge, on the banks of IJlack river. Oboussier went 
off about the beginning of this century, leaving some of his 
property in the hands of Samuel lllingworth/ and was 
never again heard from. He is supposed to have been 
drowned in the Ohio river, on a journey to the French set- 
tlements in Louisiana. The title to his tract was contested 
by Le Kay, as i-eju-esentative of the French proprietors, 
upon the ground that Tillier had exceeded his powers in 
selling more than fifty acres in one tract, and the courts 
sustained the jirosecution by setting aside the claims of 
Gilchrist, who had acquired the title. 

Illingworth remained many years the only inhabitant 
within the town. His location on the river bank rendered 
this a convenient crossing place by persons on hunting and 
fishing expeditions into the forest, and a point familiar to 
all who passed up or down the river, as was more fre(iuently 
done when the country was new, and the roads in wet sea- 
sons nearly impassable. No effort was made to bring these 
lands into market until 1821, when Charles Dayau of Low- 
ville was appointed agent by James I), and A'incent Lo Kay, 
for the sale and settlement of some twelve thousand acres, 
east of the cardinal line, and afterwards of other lands, to 
the west. 

The vilhigo of Dayanvillo was so named by Le Kay, in 
compliment to this agent. It was surveyed in the fall of 
1824 by Jason Chirk of Plessis, who, in commencing, found 
it necessary to trace one of the linos from tlio river. The 
party had reached Crystal creek just at sunset, and were 
prepiiring to cross the stream and encamp on the opposite 
bank for tlu) night, when they were startled by the howl of 
a pack of wolves in their roar. There is something pecu- 
liarly <lismal in the cry of this animal, espocially when heard 
by night, and the idea of sleeping in this lonely place was 
es|)0(ially unploiisimt to some of tho yoimgor mombors of 
tiio piirly, who could not be provjiiled upon by imy argu- 
ment to remain. They acconlingly roturnt'd to tho settle- 
ments on the river, and resumed their labors tho next 
morning. 



1 Mr. I. WM »n Rngllithman. He died Majr 4, 1847, aged 86 jeani. 



196 JVew Bremen. 

This village is situated on Crystal creek, about one and a 
half miles from Black river, in the midst of a very level 
region of light learning soil, which extends south into Watson 
and with but moderate undulations, north eastward to the 
Beaver river. Improvements began about 1826, and one of 
the first erections was a saw milL A rake factory was built 
about 1840 and run several years, and a grist mill in 1847. 
The first merchant in the village was Samuel Stevens. 
About 1853 a building, 40 by 100 feet, was erected for a 
machine shop, in anticipation of the completion of the 
Sackets Harbor and Saratoga rail road, the route of which 
passes near, and the work on which had been commenced. 
The premises remained idle until 1859 when an addition of 
40 by 150 feet was made to it for the purpose of a tannery. 
The firm conducting this business is S. Branaugh & Co., 
who have fixtures sufficient to tan from 35,000 to 40,000 
sides of sole leather annually. Half a mile below are a saw 
mill, shingle machine, sash shop, cheese box factory and a 
small manufactory of cotton batting. The village has a 
methodist church, a large school house of two stories, and 
about thirty dwellings. The post office was changed in 
May, 1848, from Dayanviile to New Bremen. 

At Beaver falls, on the north border of the town, is the 
gang saw mill and a manufactory of lath and shingles of 
Prince & Co., formerly known as Rohr's mills. 

A small part of the village of French Settlement is in 
this town. A lager beer brewery has been built two miles, 
above Dayanviile on the same stream, and a potato distil- 
lery in the north part, near Beaver river. This is, we 
believe, the only distillery in the county. 

The bridge, near Illingworth's place, was built by Thos. 
Pufler about 1833, and a bridge has since been maintained 
at this place. The supervisors, Nov. 15, 1850, authorized 
the town of New Bremen to borrow $1,400, to be repaid by 
nine equal annual installments, to aid in rebuilding this 
bridge. The town of Lowville was allowed to borrow $975 
for a like purpose, and the state constructed the abutment 
on the east side, the pier next adjacent and the draw 
between them. The other two piers, the west abutment 
and the superstructure, were built at the expense of the 
two towns. 

, _ Eeligious Societies.— The Methodists had held meetings 
in this town several years before a church was erected. The 
large school house in Dayanviile had been built with refer- 
ence to use as a house of worship, but difiiculties were 
interposed by a claim of rent, and on the 19th of Feb., 



Osceola. 197 

1849, a legal society was formed as the First Methodist 
Episcopal church of New Bremen, David A. Stewart, Grif- 
fith Meredith, Peter Van Atter, Wm. Holmes, Egbert 
Arthur, John Wakefield, Frederick Ford, Simeou Dinslow, 
and Alexander Y. Stewart wore chosen first trustees, and a 
church edifice was completed and dedicated Sept. 20, 1849, 
at a cost of $1,206. A camp meeting, held in August, 1848, 
near the vilhige, by appointment of the B. II. Conference, 
contributed to strengthen this society. The preachers 
stationed here have been, 1849-50, 0. C. Lathrop ; 1851, L. 
L. Adkins ; 1852, Benj. Brundidge ; 1853-4, T. 1). Sleeper ; 
1855-6, T. G. Whitney ; 1857, B. E. Whipple ; 1858-9, O. 
Holmes. 

A Lutheran and a Catholic church were built about 1850, 
the former on the road to the French Settlement, and the 
latter on a road leading east from Dayanville. 

OSCEOLA. 

This town was formed from West Turin, Feb. 28, 1844, in 
accordance with a vote of that town, embracing townships 
8, or Rxirahella, and 13, or Hybla^ of the Boylston Tract. 
The name was applied at the request of a young lady in 
New York," in memory of tlie celebrated Seminole chief, 
whose career forms an important item in the history of 
Florida. This warrior was a half breed and was first known 
by his father's name Powell but received the title o^ As-se-o- 
la (as pronounced in tlio original dialect), because ho could 
drink a greater rjuuntity tiian others of a drink of this name 
taken preparatory to the fast and feast of tlie green-corn 
dance. Ho arose to the rank of chief by the force of his 
native talent, and began and contiimed the Idoody wars 
which for years wasted the southern fionticrs. Tlio supe- 
rior numbers and discipline of our troops having turned the 
war against the savages, Osceobi with a train of seventy 
followers, camo into the camp of (Ji'ii. Jossup in October, 
1837. Tlicy were dotainetl ami st-nt prisoners to fort Mt)nl- 
trie, near Charleston, whore he languished and died in the 
January following. His detention has boon Hovorely con- 
suri'd, liiit facts seem to indicate that his inti'iition was to 
capture the place and release somo prisoners had he found 
it practicable, but if not, to return and continue the war. 

1 Hybly WM A town In Sicily. RuraWIU In a hog-Ut)n term for "fine 
countr.v." 

2Mi.isJay, now Mrs lli'iiry K I'lompont of Hrooklyn. She prnsenttid a 
set of blank rucurd buoka to thu town for ihu namtv 



198 Osceola. 

The Indians had been told, that when willing to remove, they 
should be received and protected, and they were made to 
understand, that they could not return when they once came 
in. Osceola's party under these circumstances could claim 
no alternative but removal. 

Some of the settlers proposed to call the town Greenfield, 
in compliment to the resident agent, but upon suggestion of 
the present name, it was approved at a public meeting called 
for the occasion. 

Supervisors. — 1844-8, Seymour Green ; 1849, John Mars- 
den ; 1850-2, S. Green ; 1853, J. Marsden ; 1854-6, S. Green ; 
1857, Henry E. Griffin; 1858, Anthony Rowell; 1859, J. 
Marsden ; 1860, Wm. Rowell. 

Clerks.— 1844, John Roberts ; 1845-6, Roswell A. Hub- 
bard ; 1847, Washington Shorey ; 1848, R. A. Hubbard ; 
1849-50, David Dunn; 1851-2, James Roberts; 1853-4, 
James Mitchell ; 1855, Jairns Rowe; 1856, Henry E. Griffin ; 
1857, Henry J. Baker ; 1858, John Gibbs ; 1859, John Bain. 

The survey of the outlines of township 13, were made as 
follows : 

W. line North, 687 ch., 65 Iks. ( 1795). M. Mitchell. 
N. " S. 80°E. 764" 19" (1795). " 
E. " S. 30°W. (1795). W. Cockburn. 

S. W. (Patent line), N. 68° 50' W. (1794). 

Area 37,041 1-2 acres by Wright's survey. Length of 
lines, 204 miles, 70 Iks. Cost of survey, ^£204 17s. 6d. 

It was subdivided by Benjamin Wright in 1795, into 151 
lots, and re-surveyed in 1839. The note book of Moses 
Wright, an assistant who was running a line in this town- 
ship in 1797, has the following entry which sets forth some 
of the hardships of a land surveyor : 

" This 9th day of October, it being Monday, had the 
pleasure of running all day in the coldest rain I ever Avas 
sensible of. The rain that fell the day before yesterday, 
last night and to-day, raised the brooks and creeks over 
their banks, and what gave me the worst feeling is, that the 
hard, pinching hand of Poverty, seven days ago took all the 
rum." In another place the weary and rumless engineer 
records : " Lots 112, 113 : 30 chains up the highest hill that 
ever was. 5,000,000,000 feet high." Had he stopped seven 
cyphers short, he might have represented with exaggera- 
tion, the rise from the flats of Salmon river to the high lands 
which border it, but his hand once started on the cyphers, 
he let it run ! 

Township 8 was subdivided into 111 lots, by B. Wright 
in 1805, and contains 28,419 /oo ^cres. AVhile surveying in 
this region in 1795, Mr. Wright remarked, that the beavers 



Osceola. 199 

were building a dam on the north branch of Salmon river, 
that would flow 400 acres of land. 

In December, 1795, a negotiation was pending for the 
purchase of township 13 by John Bernard of Rome, who 
proposed to form a company for this object. The price 
then proposed was two dollars per acre, payable bj- install- 
ments in four years, with interest from April 20, 1797. The 
bargain was not closed from the inability of Bernard to find 
associates. 

In 1805 a road was cut out from Fish creek across town- 
ship No. 1 (now Lewis), and 13 and 8 in this town, to the 
line of 7, with the design of intersecting the state road 
in Redfield, but tlie north end and the portion south of the 
Macomb purchase were never cut out, and the route soon 
relapsed into the state of nature. It entered township 13, 
on lot 137, and in townsliip S crossed lots 96, 85, 84, 73, 62,' 
61 and 50. In the fall of 1805 James Constable and Hez. 
B. Pierrepont, two of the executors of the estate of Wm. 
Constable, crossed these towns by this road, and the journal 
of the former will be read with interest. 

" Sept. 7. "After breakfast set off from Fairservice's (in 
"Western) towards Fish creek, the first two miles passable 
for teams, but the rest of the distance to the creek not cut 
out at all, but it is easy ground and not heavily timi)ered, 
and the people promised to do it this fall without fail 
Forded the creek, and on the other side our road begins. 
The ascent from the creek very well done, and the cutting 
appears to be according to agreement, although the clearing 
out of the timber is occasionally neglected. The soil of the 
whole of No. 1 is very indilVerent, the timber mostly hem- 
lock except sometimes beech or a hard mossy birch, the face 
of the country uneven an<l ridgy tliDUgh nt)t much stony. 
I fear it will not settle speedily. The southeasterly part of 
No, 13 not much hotter, though wo have occasionally some 
better timber, ash, buss, <tc. A.s wo advance to the Salmon 
river wo fiiul ln;ttor laud fit for settlers ; some good swales 
and very little hemlock. Forded the river, it being here a 
Rinall stream, and there being some grass for our horses wo 
stopped to bait them and ourseivos. A firo being soon 
kindled each man cut his slice of pork, toasted or fried it, 
aii<l wo made a liearty meal. The brandy brought with us 
and the water made a good <lrink. I'asneil on, the land im- 
proving till wo camo to the 13 and 1 I milo troo, to a good 
spring and a brook where there was a good hut of the road 
makers, and although wo might have gone two or tiiree 
miles further Iiofore dark, yet Fuirsorvico being doubtful 



200 Osceola. 

whether we should meet such good accommodations, it was 
determined to remain here for the night. Another cause 
was, that we got some hay for the horses. We made our 
fire, cooked our pork and made our meal with an excellent 
appetite. Our horses were not neglected. 

Sept. 9. After sleeping pretty soundly till daylight, the 
weather seemed likely to turn to rain, and we resolved to 
proceed on through the road so far as to insure our getting 
to Redfield in the course of the day, as the provisions would 
not hold out longer. AVent on to the 18 mile tree, and at 
another hut prepared and ate our breakfast of pork and 
bread, with brandy and water for tea. I found these articles 
less palitable at this meal than the others, however the pork 
improved (?) very mildly. We went down the road some 
miles further, leaving No. 13 and going on to No. 8, and 
. found the latter very good land, such as settlers will not re- 
fuse. The road is equal to roads as new as it is. The 
weather looked threatening, and to be sure of reaching 
Redfield in good time, we took a course southwest to strike 
the state road, and coming to a good stream which was at 
first supposed to be Salmon river (it is certamly a branch of 
it), as it aflorded some grass for our horses we thought it 
a proper place to halt and refresh. Accordingly dinner was 
provided as usual ; we ate heartily, and finished the last of 
our brandy. We had now to pass through the woods, the 
south part of No. 7 and north part of Redfield, which was 
very difiicult to ourselves and dangerous to our horses, from 
the swamps and heavy fallen trees covered with under- 
brush. We struck one of the main branches of the river, 
but the brush and fallen logs prevented us from keeping the 
bank, and the high ground was a hemlock ridge which oc- 
casioned us much trouble, but after a good deal of fatigue 
we came to the state road about two miles from Ingraham's, 
when it began to rain and we were nearly wet through be- 
fore we got there. The rain did not continue long, and we 
set out for Johnson's tavern in Redfield, half a mile beyond 
Butler's, where we arrived early in the evening a good deal 
tired with this day's journey. It is a better house than 
Butler's, and we were well provided for in supper and 
sleeping. 

Sept. 9. Mr. Pierrepont having occasion to see a man 
who lived off the road respecting his lands in No. 13, set off 
very early intending to follow us on to Rome, but having 
found the man near, he came and joined us at breakfast, and 
we all set oft' together. They are working upon the road 
and improving it much. The causeways are mostly new 



Osceola. 201 

laid and covered three inches with sand or other earth, so 
that the travelling on them is equal to any part. Stopped 
at Lyman's, 11 miles, and at Wuring's near Fish creek, but 
we decided to eat the last dinner cooked by ourselves in the 
woods at the creek and went there, having bought some 
brandy on the way. The weather was very hot, but after 
kindling a fire and bathing in the creek, we ate with as good 
an appetite as ever. After dinner we paid and discharged 
Fairservico, and set olf for Rome, intending to see the new- 
causeway lately finished near that town, but the road not 
being cut through, we had diihculty to get to it. We suc- 
ceeded, and it was worth the pains. The length is two 
miles, of equal sized logs 18 I'eet long and covered with 
earth, so that the travelling is excellent. Arrived at Rome 
late in the evening. Not liking the thought of White's 
beds wo slept in the hay-loft, and made out pretty well." 

Portions of townships 1 and 13 were sold by Wm. Con- 
stable, July 25, 1801, to John Jones, John McVickar and 
John Rath bone of New York, in payment of notes and 
endorsements of AVm. and Jas. Constable, to the amount of 
$95,704.50. Lynde Catlin received a conveyance, Jan. 28, 
1804, of the whole or a greater part.^ At the time settlement 
begun about two-thirds of No. 13 were owned by the 

Pierrepont family, and the remainder b}' (\. Lynch, 

Goddard, Hush, J. W. Taylor, J. Lawrence, 

Gentil, Stewart, Jeflerson Insurance Co., Pratt, 

G. Smith, Lyndes, S. Stevens, J. and E. McVickar, L. 

Catlin, Lishop Moore and Wm. Constable, together amount- 
ing to 51 scattered lots. 

Townsliip 8 was divided among the Pierrepont heirs Jan. 
1, 1853, as lollows : To Wm. C. P. lots 17 to 19 ; 28 to 31 ; 
39 to 44 ; 50 to 8<j ; 92, 93, W. part of 94, 95, 9(>, 110 and 
111. To Maria T. JJicknell, 87 to 91; 97 to 109; Sey- 
mour Green, agent. 'i'o K. (!. Miner, 1,2, G, 7, part of 
3 and 8 ; D. Pease, agent. To M. C. Perry, (in tru.^t) piirtsof 
of 4, 5 and 8 ; 9 to l(j ; 20 to 27 ; 32 to 38 ; 43 to 49 ; 1). 
Pease, ng»Mit. A few settlors luive located upon the ex- 
treme N. W. corner, but the remaimlor of that townwhip is 
still a wildernt'SM. One Saunders waH the lirst suttler in this 
part of the town. 

The first persons who came into this town woro Jiil)ej5 
Green, Christopher Divinn and Harvey Potter, who located 
on lot 138 about 1S2J, with»)ut tith*, but did nnt renniin. 
Samuel W. Nash also located soon after, a little above, but 
not permanently. In 182(> one Clark burnt ulV u windfall, a 



I Deeds Lewis count v, A, 53. 

Z 



202 Osceola. 

mile south of Salmon river, and planted corn, which yielded 
abundantly, but was claimed and entirely harvested by bears. 
This wind-fall was the track of a tornado that had passed 
across the town three years before, and the fire, when applied, 
ran through it with tremendous energy, sending up columns 
of flame and smoke, which were observed to an immense 
distance, the former by its reflections upon the clouds at 
night, and the latter by its dense sombre masses by day. 

The first agent of the Pierrepont estate in this town was 
James S. T. Stranahan of Brooklyn, but then of Florence. 
Settlement was delayed by various causes, among which 
was the failure of the proprietors of scattered lots, to unite 
in an agency for the opening of roads and other improve- 
ments necessary for bringing the town into market. In 
July, 1839, Seymour Green was appointed Fierrepont's agent 
in No. 13, with power to sell lands at $1.50 cash, or $2 on 
a credit of four years. A road was marked out from Flor- 
ence village northward, nearly across the township, and 
reports favorable to the tract gaining currency in the sur- 
rounding country, the landless rushed forward to secure a 
homestead with such avidity, that between the first of Sep- 
tember and Christmas, nearly 18,000 acres were sold under 
contract with the intention of settlement. The north part 
of Redfield (No. 7 or Greenboro) was opened under the same 
agency, and in the above period 1000 acres were contracted 
upon that township. In Ma}^ 1840, the proprietor, in six 
days, issued 68 contracts and 22 deeds, and received $4,000 
in cash. The lands sold amounted to 11,996 acres, and the 
price to $25,219.35. The following winter was unusually 
severe, and in 1842 half the lands sold had reverted. As there 
were no town officers accessible for laying out roads, what- 
ever was done in this line, devolved upon JNIr. Pierrepont, the 
owners of scattered lots being generally indifferent as to these 
improvements. In 1843, there were 250 inhabitants, two 
school houses and 60 children. In 1848 1,600 acres were 
under contract, and 5,491 acres were deeded. In 1850 
there were 400 inhabitants in town. The settlers were 
mostly from the older towns around. Several families came 
from the factories at Oriskany, and some from the public 
works upon the suspension of 1842. The northern part of 
No. 13 is called Vermont Settlement, from the original 
locality of tlu' settlers. The first family that actually 
settled with title, on township 13, was that of Robert Rus- 
sell, on lot 139, in December, 1839. They wintered here 
alone, and in the spring were joined by Ira and Thomas 
Hulbert and others. Roswell A. Hubbard, Wm. G. Smith, 



Pinckney. 203 

Lyman "Wellman, David Shorey, Silas A. Fox, Henry J. 
Baker, Anthony Rowell and others, were also early settlers. 
Mr. Green,' the agent, settled in 1842, and at the first town 
meeting in 1844 there were 37 voters. The first birth was 
that of Russell Chase, the first marriage that of Captain 
Edward Uumaston and Jane Smith, and the first death that 
of Agnes Russell, a child, eight years of age. The first 
school was taught in 1844 by Jerusha Wetmore, and the 
first two framed school houses were built in that year. 
The town has now five framed and one log school houses, 
and two joint districts, of which the school houses are in 
Redfield. A road, authorized by law in 1859, has been laid 
out by S. Green and I). Peaso from the Vermont Settle- 
ment to Martinsburgh, a distance of about twelve miles 
from one clearing to the other, aud about 23 miles from the 
court house to (Jsceola village. At present the distance 
around is about 70 miles by the nearest public thoroughfare 
and over 50 by the nearest passable road. 

The i)riucipal business poiut in town is at Osceola vil- 
lage and post ofiice, or as it is usually called The River, 
situated in the deep narrow intervale of Salmon river, five 
miles from Florence and thirteen from the W. and R. R. R. 
station at Camden. It has three inns, a store, school house, 
saw mill, large tannery and al)Out a dozen dwellings. The 
first saw mill in town was built by Wm. Roberts in 1841. 
A tannery, 200 feet long, was erected on the south bank of 
Salmon river in 1859, by Cowles, Slitcr Sc Co., for the 
manufacture of sole leather, chiefly from Sjianish hides. 

An Independent (Congregational) religious society was 
formed in 1850, but theru is no church edifice. 



PINCKNKV. 

Tiiis town embracing township No. 9, or Handel, was 
annexed from .Mexico to llarrisbiirgh, Mar. 24, ISO t, divided 
in the erection of the county in 1S(J5, the eastern part 
being retained by Harrisburgh, Jind the western attached 
to Harrison [Rodman] ; and tinally uroctod into u Huparato 
town Feb. rj, ISOS, with its jtresont limits. It was naineil 
by the h'gisjature, doubtless in ln)nor of ono or all of the 
three illu-^trious cili/fim of South Carolina of this njime. 

' Mr. <i. it ft ii!iiiv» i>i \S ii^iui^t^n . niiil wli^'ii 1. i^-i^n- 

cy WHS liviii>{ ill Oiitfiii* couiitv. A <t|'|H)ii<-iil in .;»!>- 

]>li)Ml to liiiii ill iUTi><i<>n tli« titl« i>( tlf " <>■«- ula cliiff,' wlucli Iim Ik'cii 
acci'pti-il »lll<lll^ hit friiMiiU, ami by wlii<-li In* lii witK<|y known. Am gu|>*>r- 
vi.sur, iisJiouiblyiuAU aiul lucai tuagijitntc, ho hu takiMi au activv part iu public 
a triiirs. 



204 Pinckney. 

Gen. Thomas Pinckney, his brother Charles C. or William, 
were alike worthy of the honor. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of Stephen 
Hart, but as the early records were burned in 1826, our 
knowledge of the earlier town officers is derived from other 
sources. 

Supervisors. — 1808-9, Ethan Green; 1810-4, Stephen Hart ; 
1815, Augustus T. Wright; 1816, S. Hart ; 1817, G. Waite; 
1818-20, S. Hart; 1821, James Hunt; 1822-3, E.Green; 
1824-6, S. Hart; 1827-8, J. Hunt ; 1829, Benjamin Jeffers ; 
1830-1, S. Hart; 1832-4, J. Hunt; 1835,' Tyrannus A. 
Wright,^ J.Hunt; 1836-7, John Spencer; 1838-43, John 
Lucas : 1844, Joseph Boynton, Jr. ; 1845-8, John Newkirk ; 
1849, Jehiel H. Hall; 1850, J. Lucas; 1851-3, Hamilton 
Cobleigh ; 1854-5, Gilbert E. Woolworth ; 1856-7, Phineas 
Woolworth ; 1858-9, Samuel H. Tolles ; 1860, John Paris. 

C/er/«.— 1826-8, James Armstrong;^ 1829-30, John 
Spencer; 1831, J. Armstrong; 1832-5, J. Spencer; 1836-43, 
J. Armstrong ; 1844-6, Lewis M. Burtch ; 1847-8, Jehiel H. 
Hall; 1849, John Lucas; 1850-5, Samuel H. Tolles; 1856-9, 
Blodgett Stoddard. 

In 1826, 31, 2, 5, a bounty of $10, in 1838, of $15, and 
in 1834 of $'5, was offered for wolves. In 1841, a bounty of 
$5, and in 1845, of $10, was voted for the killing of bears. 
In 1834, crow bounties of one shilling if killed in May and 
June, and 50 cents for foxes within the year, were voted at 
town meetings. 

This town fell to the share of Wm. Henderson, who em- 
ployed Abel French, and afterward Jesse Hopkins and 
others as agents. Henderson died about 1824, and Wm. 
Denning, his brother-in-law, subsequently became princi- 
pally concerned in the title, and under the Denning family 
most of the town has been sold. But small remnants now 
remain in the hands of the former proprietors. From B. 
Wright's field book of survey around the town in the spring 
of 1796, we derive the first estimate of its value which was 
as follows : 

" This town is a pretty good one and is extraordinarily well 
watered with large and small streams. There is a pretty large 
creek towards the S. E. part of the town known by the name of 
Deer creek on which probably there are fine mill seats, although 
I have seen none. A large gulf where the Deer creek crosses 
the east line of the town. Along the north line of this town 
there is some very fine land. The soil in general is good and 

1 Made ineligible by ordination. Hunt was elected November 6, 1835. 

2 Mr. A. died December 7, 1853, aged 74 years. 



Pinckney. 205 

well watered. There is some gulfs on the branches of Big Sandy 
wliich are rather bad. The timber is maple, beech, basswood, 
ash, birch, ehu and hemlock. Ah)ng tlic E. line is very fine 
soil for about half the distance, from the X. E. to the S. E. corner. 
The soil is not so good but rather more cold. Some hemlock 
interspersed in some places with spruce, &c. Along the south 
line the land is rather cold, some excellent spots but some 
swampy and bad. The timber is maple, beech, birch, ash, 
hemlock, bass and some elm, &c.; along the west line there is 
a very fair country except tliat it is cut to pieces with small 
streams which form gulfs." 

The outlines of this town lie 9° from the principal cardi- 
nals, and its area is 25,045 acres. The first survey gave 
its N. lino 506 chains, its E. 490, its S. 508, and its W. 498. 
The whole town is elevated from 400 to 800 feet above the 
level region around Copenhagen, and from many places 
the blue hills east of Black river, and the waters of lake 
Ontario with the vessels upon them, may both be seen. 
The horizon in a serene day, is more clear and bright than 
in the plains below, as we find in elevated regions, and a 
perceptible dillbrence is observed in its climate. Haying 
comes on an average about a week later than in the adjacent 
town of Denmark, and snows have been observed over six 
feet deep on a level in the woods. The winter of 1854-5, 
was remarkable for the depth of snow on this town. Drouth 
is however, seldom noticed, and the soil is finely adapted 
to grass and coarse grains, and since the introduction of 
dairying, the inhabitants have raj)idly acquired the means 
of comfortable support, and a steady increase in wealth. 

The streams flow east, west and north from this town, 
whi(;h is entirely underlaid by the llud.-jon river shales. 
Weak .'^ulphur springs are common, and were formerly 
frequented by deer. (lame was abundant in early times, 
especially deer, bears and wolves, the latter of which often 
proved destructive. Trout were common in the streams 
when the town was first settled. 

Usage has sanctioned the use of the prei)osition on, when 
speaking of rosidenco or the occurrence of events in thi.s 
town, as ft)r example a man is said to live on Pinckney. 
This application is by no moans peculiar to this town, 
although perlia[)S more genorallv u.**ed than in the noighl>or- 
ing towns of .lelVerson co. The early land holders adopted 
the custom of .>ipeakiiig of such and such persons, as living 
on their towns, as wo s{)eak of tiMumts on a farm. Hence 
living on Pinckney or being on the town, does not imply all 
that would bo understood elsewhere. Although there are 



206 Pinckney. 

over 1000 persons on the toicn, but a very small number are 
paupers. 

Settlement began on this town about 1803, Samuel and 
Joseph Clear, located in the S. W. part, but soon went off. 
In 1S04, Ethan Russell and J. Greene from R. L, and one 
or two years after, John Lucas, Levi and Elisha Barnes, 
Stephen Hart,^ James Armstrong,^ James Hart,^ Phineas 
Woolworth,^ Joel Webb, Silas Slater, and several Stoddard 
families became settlers. The first birth was in the family 
of James Hunt or John Stoddard, and an early death if not 
the first, was that of Mrs. Elisha Moody. The first school 
was taught by Miss Gould, before the war. 

There are three post offices on this town. Pinckney P. 
0., at Boynton's corners, Cronks Corners P. 0., and Barnes^ 
Corners. The latter is the only locality in town that has 
pretensions to the name of a village. It is situated on Gulf 
creek, a branch of Sandy Creek, and has two churches, a 
steam saw mill, a saw mill using water power, a small 
tannery, a few mechanic shops, two stores, an inn, and a 
dozen houses. The village is quite recent and considerably 
scattered. 

The stream a little below descends into a ravine worn in 
the slate rock, which presents scenery of some interest. 
From a swell of land a short distance west, there is pre- 
sented an extensive view of the lake, and a wide expanse 
of country north and west. 

JYew Boston is a neighborhood on the Deer river, where it 
is crossed by the Lowville and Henderson state road. The 
first improvement was made here by David Canfield, who 
acting as agent of Henderson, made an extensive clearing 
and built a bridge and saw mill. About eighty acres of 
wheat were sowed the first season, which yielded bounti- 
fully, but the death of Henderson and other causes prevented 
the extension of these improvements. Dr. S. Allen was 
associated in this enterprise and the locality probably re- 
ceiveded its name from them. The state road although 
opened through soon after 1816, fell into disuse, until quite 
recently. It is now well settled and considerably travelled. 

A large part of the business of this town tends to Water- 
town, and the remainder to Copenhagen. 

A small social library was formed on this town at an 

iFrom Stillwater, N. Y. 

2 Mr. W. was brother of Levi, and uncle of Elijah, Justus and Reuben Wool- 
worth, who settled in Turin. He removed from Grajville, Mass. in 1806, 
and had six sons and three daughters, several of whom became heads of 
families in this town. 



Turin. 207 

early period, and at one time numbered about two hundred 
volumes. It was broken up, and the books distributed 
several years before the introduction of school district 
libraries. 

Religious Societies. — The First Methodist Episcopal 
Society of the town of Pinckney, was formed Aug. 8, 1831, 
with Tyrannus A. Wright, Stephen Hart, Rufus Stoddard, 
Timothy Woolworth and Barney Spalding as trustees. A 
framed meeting house was erected near Boynton's corners, 
and is still in u.-^e. It was the first, and until recently, the 
only church edifice in town. The first religious meetings 
on this town, were held by traveling preachers of this sect. 
A small Baptist church was built at Barnes' Corners, in 
1854, and a Methodist church in the year following. New 
Boston ^lission, of the M. E. Ch. was formed in 1851, sup- 
plied at the discretion of the presiding elder, except in 1854, 
when J. Hall was assigned to this place. A Roman Catho- 
lic church was begun on the State road, about one and a 
half miles west from New Boston, in 1856, but it is not yet 
completed for use. 

TURIN. 

This town was formed from Mexico, (now in Oswego Co.), 
^March 14, 1800, including all of the present county of Lewis, 
west of the river, between Inman's triangle and the south 
lines of Lowville, Ilarrisville and Pinckney.^ It was named 
from the capital of the kingdom of Sardinia, in Italy, y)ro- 
IciMy upon the suggestion of Nathaniel Shalcr, agent and 
proprietor, under whom the town was settled. ^lartins- 
burgh, or townships 4 and 5 of the Boylston Tract was 
taken oft in ISOli, anotiier part annexed to that town in 1819, 
and West 'i'urin was taken olf in 1830, reducing it down to its 
present limits. The statute ordered the tirst town nueting 
to bo hcM at the houpo of Jonathan Collins, at which Jona- 
than Collins was c\\OAyi\\ supervisor, Samuel Hall, clerk, John 
Ives, Zacchens Highy and Philemon lloadley, OiSMwrs, Seth 
Miller and John ':^xi\\inn\, overseers of the jmot, Nathan Coe, 
Wm. Rico and Levi Hough, commissioners of hitfhuays, 
Elijah Wadsworth, constable and collector, Lomuel Scovil, 
Ger^hoin Birdseye, Mdward Johnson, Levi Boiu'dict, Alinor 
Rico anil Ib'inan Merwin, overseers of liii^hicnys, XnvowViw- 
80I1S, puumi muster, Ichal'od I'arsons, John Saiinon," and 
Elislui Crofoot,ye/ice viewers. 

IRodflvId, Watortown, Lowvillo and oUior town* u-.n. r.inn-<1 \>y th- in>n'< 
net. 
a Died July 2(], 1S13, ng.d 5C. IK- lived on tli.' i  r ui. 



208 Turin. 

Supervisors. — 1800, Jonathan Collins; 1801, John Ives; 
1802-4, Eleazer House ; 1805, J. Collins ; 1806, E. House ; 
1807-8, J. Collins; 1809, J. Ives; 1810, J. Collins ; 181], 
Hamlet Scranton ; 18 12, Ebenezer Baldwin ; 1813, J. Ives ; 
1814. Levi Hart ;^ 1815, Oliver Bush (Deuel Goff,- Sept. 26, 
1815); 1816, D. Gofif ; 1817. E. Baldwin ; 1818-9, J. Collins; 
1820, Walter Dewey ;^ 1821-2, James McVickar ; 1823, 
Leonard House ; 1824-9, J. McVickar ; 1830-5, Eli Rogers, 
Jr.; 1836-9, Royal D. Dewey ;^ 1840-4, Leonard H. Huma- 
son ; 1845-6, Pardon C. Case ; 1847-9, Joseph House ; 
1850-2, Wiufield S. Whitaker; 1853-4, Judah Barnes; 1855, 
J. House ; 1856, Charles G. Riggs ; 1857-60, Emory B. 
Holden. 

Clerks.— 1800-3, Samuel Hall; 1804-17, Levi Collins; 
181S-9, Ebenezer Baldwin; 1820-42, Amos Higby, Jr.; 1843, 
Henry Paige; 1844, Orrin Woolworth ; 1845, Harrison 
Barnes ; 1846-7, 0. Woolworth ; 1848, Horace R. Lahe ; 
1849, Charles D. Budd; 1850, Charles G. Riggs; 1851, Walter 
B. Foster ; 1852, Albert H. Litchfield ; 1853-5, Harrison J. 
Thayer ; 1856-7, Henry A. House ; 1858-9, John 0. Davis ; 
1860, Arthur Pond. 

If there has been anything that distinguishes the civil 
history of this town from all others, it is the unusual number 
of special town meetings that were held during the earlier 
years. At the first town meeting Jonathan Collins, Phile- 
mon Hoadley, John Salmon, John Ives, Zaccheus Higby, 
Seth Miller and Judah Barnes were appointed a committee 
to report a place for future town meetings. They reported 
the next year, that on the first Monday of May preceding, 
they had set a stake on the lot of Ebenezer Allen, as the 
most convenient point for this purpose. This locality was 
near the old Episcopal church north of Constableville. 

'^Judge Levi Hart vras a.n early and prominent settler, and in 1S]8 repre- 
sented the county in assembly. He was many years a judge of the county 
court. He died June 30, 1834, aged 61 years. 

^ Judge Goff was a pioneer settler. He died at Houseville, September 8, 
1852, aged 68 years. 

3 Dr. Walter Dewey was the first physician who settled within the present 
limits of Turin. He was a son of John Dewey of Leyden, and was iJorn in 
Westfield, Mass., August 20, 1785. He built the first 'house in Turin village 
in 1803, and in two or three years removed to CoUinsville, where he died 
February 28, 1821. He was skillful in his profession and generally esteemed. 

■^ Dr. Royal Dwight Dewey, a cousin of the above, and son of Aaron Dewey, 
was born at Westfield October 3, 1791, and removed with his father to Frank- 
lin, Delaware county, N. Y., where he lived till 1809. He studied medicine 
with Walter Dewey, at CoUinsville, attended lectures at New York and Fair- 
field, was licensed July 13. 1812, and alter practicing in company with his 
preceptor until 181G, settled at Turin village. He died November 13, 1839. 
He was appointed a justice of the peace and post master iu 1818, and held 
both offices several years. 



Turin. 209 

Tn 1802 the town voted to petition for two men for mag- 
istrates, and that Judah Jiarnes and Samuel Hall be the two 
men. 

A call signed by 15 freemen led to a town meeting, Sept. 
25, lb02, at which Walter Martin, Eleazer House and Wm. 
Rice were appointed to consult with delegates from other 
towns, as to whether there should be two half shires, if a 
county is set oil". On the 25th of Oct. 1802, Jonathan Col- 
lins was chosen a delegate to prepare, circulate and forward 
a petition for a turnpike road from "NVhitestown down the 
lilack river. In JJecember of that 3'ear the town decided 
not to send a delegate to the legislature with the petition 
above named, and agreed upon the erection of a new town 
on the north which was done at the next session. 

In December, 1803, Jonathan Collins, John Ives and Ezra 
Clapp were chosen delegates to a meeting at Denmark, in 
January, 1804, to discuss plans for a division of Oneida 
county. In February another meeting was called in Cham- 
pion, i'or a like purpose, and J. Collins, E. Clapp and Z. 
Uush were sent as delegates from this town. 

The location of the state road in this town between Hal- 
liday's tavern and Dan Taylor's, now A. R. Lee's resi- 
dence, excited the most active opj)osition of conflicting in- 
terests, and led to several town meetings, at one of wliich 
the town clerk was directed not to record the road, and the 
town voted to indeninily the clerk and road commissioners 
in any suit that might be brought in consequence of said 
load nut being recorded. Tiiey resolved : " that this meet- 
ing views with indignation and concern, the shameful and 
improper conduct of the commissioners in laying and estab- 
lishing the state road through 'I'nrin, in which they have 
neither consulted tlie interests of the inhabitants generally 
nor the town of Turin in jjarticular." 

The present village of Turin lias since been built upon 
tli(! pro>cribed .section, and more than a mile of the new 
road led over a causeway through swamps, which were not 
l)rought under cultivation until nuuiy years after. A lino 
of well cultivated farms, owned by substantial farmers, Imd 
belbre this been established along the east an*l west roads, 
and the location of the cunimissioners between thorn was 
very naturally rogartlud us hostile to ahuoat every resident 
interest in town. Their opposition however was tinavailing 
and the new section of road was soon found to oiler a more 
central and convonient point of business than had before 
been found in the town. 

A* 



2 iO Turin. 

The same year it was voted to remove all foreigners from 
the town, unless they gave bonds with two sureties to in- 
demnify the town against all charges during their natural 
lives ; to apply to all who had not gained residence. 

In 1812 a fine of $10, and in 1816, of $5, was voted for 
allowing Canada thistles to go to seed. 

The division which gave a part of this town to Martins- 
burgh in 1819 excited active hostility. A special meeting 
was called, and Geo, Davis, John Ives, Levi Hart, Oliver 
Bush and Eleazer Baldwin were appointed a committee to 
to draw up a petition to the legislature to regain the lost 
territory. 

In 1823, a committee, consisting of Levi Hart, Heman 
Stickney and Leonard House, was appointed to circulate a 
subscription for a town house at the Four Corners, and 
another, consisting of Jonathan Collins, James McVickar 
and James Miller, 2d, for a like purpose, the location to be 
near the Episcopal church, north of Constableville. In 
May a special meeting received the reports of these 
committees, and decided in favor of the former, which 
united the plan of a town house and church. This resulted 
in the union meeting house hereafter noticed. In 1824 the 
wish of the voters upon a division of the town were tested 
by a vote which gave 40 for, and 200 against, the measure. 

In 1836 a bountj' of $'5 was offered for wolves ; the only 
instance in which this town has offered these premiums. 

Turin embraces parts of townships 3 and 4, or Pomona^ 
and Lucrctia^ of Constable's Four Towns. They were sur- 
veyed by Benjamin Wright in 1795, and by a deed executed 
Dec. 29, 1795, Wm. Constable conveyed to Nathaniel Shaler 
an undivided half of these towns at $2 per acre, and made 
him his attorney for selling the remainder in farms of 100 
or 200 acres, for which he was to have half the profits over 
the price above named. ^ 

Settlement was begun upon No. 4, at the village of Con- 
stableville in 1796, as will be more fully mentioned in our 
history of West Turin. As Mr. Shaler's mills, house and 
agency was located there, we have only to notice in this con- 
nection the settlement of that portion now embraced in 
this town. The early purchasers paid $4 to $4.75 per acre, 
and in 1803 new lands were held as high as $17 per acre in 
favorite localities. The first improvements were made on 

1 Pomona was the goddess of fruits. 

2 Lucretia was the wife of Tarquinias Collatinus, and associated wjtli Roman 
history. 

2 Tlie profits of this speculation are mentioned page 27. 



Turin. 211 

township 4, or tlio more eastern of the two, about 1797, by 
emigrants from Meriden and Middletown, Ct., who were 
joined in one or two years by quite a number from West- 
field and towns adjacent in Massachusetts, among whom 
during tlie first three years were Edward Johnson,^ Zac- 
cheus and Amos Iligby,- Elijah, Justus and Reuben Wool- 
worth,^ Thomas Kilham,^ Levi and Stephen llart,'^ Giles 
Foster,*" Zaccheus JJush^ and sons, Oliver, Walter, Edward, 
Henry, Enoch and Charles, John Salmon, John Wilkin- 
son,** Winthrop and Gideon Shepard,^ Judah Barnes,^" 

"^ Edward Johnson removed at an early day to Martinsburgh, near Whetstone 
creek. He died March 11, 1851, aged 92. H'; emigrated from Middletown, 
Conn., to Whitestown, N. Y., when about 30 years of age. He was a soldier 
of the revolution and a citizen highly esteemed. 

- jlmos Hi g by (lied at Holland patent, June 14, 1848, aged 95 years. He 
removed thither in 1843. Zaccheus Higby died February 13, 1816, aged 82 
years. 

'^ Levi Woolworth, uncle to the others, came in 1806 and died October, 1835. 
He was from Sufliir-ld, Conn. Elijah came in 1707, removed to Allegany 
county, in l>lll), and died in 1828. Justus came in 1797. Opened the first 
inn at Turin village, September 1809, and died October 31, 1845, aged 71 
years. ReubHU came in 1800, and is still living. Orrin, George, Paris, 
Cornwell, Edward and Edwin, are sons of Justus Woolworth. 

•* Thomas Kilham was born March 23, 1752, and died April 25, 1825, from 
an oi)iate given in over dose by a drunken physician. His wife Mary died 
March 18, 1845, ag'-'d93. Their sons, wi-re Jb/m, wlio resides near Copenhagen, 
James and Thomas, who are dead, Heman, wli) died (October 14, 1847, at his 
residence tw<; miles north of Turin village, Solomon, who resides in Turin, 
and Samuel, who ha.s been many years inspector in the government armory, 
at Harper's Ferry, Va. 

'"Stephen //ar/ died August 12, 1857, aged 90 years. He was from Wal- 
lingfi>rd, Conn. 

>^ Giles Foster, lik'il January 1, 1^^44, aged 87 years. His sons Sylvester, 
Lsaac, Lyman, (_,'liaunri'y an'l Joimson, and .several daughters, became heads 
of famili'-.-* and mostly .settled in t<iwn. 

'Major'/,. Bui/i dit'd at Houseviilf, of cancer, Novemlx'r 21, l8ll. Major 
Oliver IJush settled on the state road near the north line of the town. Served 
as major in the war of \hVZ-Vt, an<l di.d April 1<>, ls44, of tin- prevailing 
epiilemic, aged 75 years Ht? was highly resiM'ct)^!, and in every sense a 
useful citizen. VValttr liuth ilied March 2, 1841, aged Otj years. Henry Hush 
died at Housevill.-, July 2';, 1^.{7. Knueh Hush, di<d August 2S, Ih-l'J, aged 
82 yeftrs. Charles Buih nsided in l»wville, where he died February 21, 1h52. 

>* Mr. WilkinMon cam'- to Turin in 179^, and died in tliis town January 23, 
1857, aged H'.» years. WhiMi ho settled his waa the la.st hou.se northwatd 
until We P'Urh'-d I.<twvillf. 

» Captain H'. Shrpard dl.-d SeptemU-r 24, 1Sj4, a^'tni 82, and hlit brother, 
Major (lideoti Shepard diivl DecMiilM-r 12, lH5ii, Rgid Ml. Hiilh servf.l in the 
war of 1SI2-15. Tin y wi-m sons of the Itev. Charluii Shepard of Westlleld, 
and nephewB of (Jen. William Hht-imrd, an officer of the revolution, and after- 
wards prominfUl in tlio suppres.iion of Shiiy's nd>«llion in 17*<7. He died at 
■Westli.-ld, Nov.'mlxr 11, I'^l?. G'for^c Shepnrd, noil of Winthrop, was sheriif 
of L.'wis county, from l^li; to \*^-i'J. He di.-l at ( hsmpton, .May 1, 1*^53, on 
his way homo from Kingston, and w».i biirie.l in Turin with Masonlu cere- 
monies. 

1" Judah R'lrntii vim a son of Amos Uarnns, who cam.> on afterwardH. Th«niy 
Uiuu built the Ursl saw mill lu the jiretK'Ut towu of Turiu, iu 17S)6. Judah 



212 Turin. 

Dan. Taylor/ Consider Williston,'^ Jonathan Bush, ^ Thomas 
Ragan,'^ Levi Benedict,^ Beekman Sabin, Geo. and Thomas 
Ho'skins,'^ Elias Sage, Benjamin Dowd'^ and others. The 
Johnson and Higby families were from Middletown, Ct.^ 
the Bush, Woolworth, Shepard and Kilham families from 
Meriden, Ct., and Salmon, Wilkinson, Ragan, Benedict and 
Sabin, from Pawling, Dutchess county, N. Y. 

Settlement upon township No. 3 was delayed until Oct, 
1798 when Eleazer House, ^Ezra Clapp,^ Winthrop Shepard, 
David Kendall, ^° Alexander Cooley, and others, purchased 
on the east road opposite Houseville, in March, 1799; they re- 
turned and worked through the season. Mr. House built a 
saw mill, put up the frame of a house and barn, and in March 

1800, moved on his family. He resided on the east road 
till 1808, when he moved to the place since known as House- 
ville. He kept an inn from his first removal till near the 
time of his death. He was active in opposing Clapp and 
others in the location of the state road, on the route finally 
chosen, and labored hard to secure a business point at his 
mill. A grist mill was built in 1816, and another many 
years after by his son, Leonard House. The latter stood on 
the present site of V. R. Waters' mill, and was built Feb. 10, 
1851. An incident occurred near Houseville in the summer 
of 1808, which is worth preserving, as belonging to the 
primitive days of settlement. The country abounded in 
wild animals, especially wolves, bears and deer, and the 
former became so bold as to carry off on one occasion a 
sheep from the field of Mr, Clapp, by daylight, although 

Barnes was a judge in the county court several years, and in ISOS '9, was in 
assembly. He died February 23, 1821, aged 67. 

1 Settled on the Williston place, near Turin village. He died in this town 
October 1, 1813, aged 57. 

2 Settled on the place now owned by Winfield S. Whitaker, and afterwards 
on that of Warren H. Kentner. He died September 20, 1851. 

3 Died July 3, 1825, aged SO years. 

4 Died May 13, 1820, aged 63 years. 5 Died June 11, 1833. 

6 George Hoskins died August 22, 1848, aged 66 years. He settled about 

1801. Thomas died west. 
' Died January 6, 1852. 

^ Eleazer House was born at Glastonbury, Conn., September 20, 1759 ; mar- 
ried December 25, 1782, to Miss Moseley, and held the first appointment of 
coroner north of Utica. He died January 30, 1833, and his wife survived 
only till Marcli. His sous Jared, Joseph and Leonard are well known and 
prominent citizens of the county. Jared settled at Lowville, where he was 
many years an inn-keeper. He still resides at that place, jlnson House, a 
lawyer, resides in Rochester. 

■^ Ezra Clapp was born May 28, 1760, at Westfield. Married February 22, 
1781, to Grace Mather. Settled on the farm now owned by Wm. Thompson, 
where he kept an inn 30 years. He died in Westfield, Mass, June 17, 1838. 
Horace Clapp, Esq., of this town, is a son of Ezra Clapp. 

10 From Suffield, Conn. He died April 22, 1847, aged 69 vears. 



Turin. 213 

Mrs. C. endeavored to frighten away the beast. Upon the 
date mentioned, Mr. CJapp found a large black wolf in a 
trap, half a mile west of the house, and with his neighbor's 
help, beat him with clubs until he was tjiought to be dead. 
He then took the wolf before him on horseback, and brought 
him to his barn, but as he evinced signs of life on the way, 
it was thought safe to secure him by a chain around the 
neck, the trap remaining upon his leg. Half an hour after 
the wolf was as active as ever, and the settlers upon learn- 
ing the circumstance, assembled from far and near to in- 
dulge in savage sport with the chained enemy of their flocks. 
Many large dogs were provoked to attack him separately, 
but one snap from his powerful jaws sent them howling 
from the barn, nor could they be induced to approach a 
second time. Having wearied themselves with this bru- 
tal amusement, his captors at length ended his life by a rifle 
shot. 

About 1812, several teamsters stopping at House's tavern, 
noticed wolf tracks about, and the party followed until they 
found the animal concealed under a log. He was killed by 
one of them with a hemlock knot, within a quarter of a mile 
of Houseville. 

Deer were accustomed to cross over from the hills on the 
west to the forests east of the river, at the point known as 
Proven's Hill, at the gate-house of the Turin plank road, and 
also at a point half a mile south of Turin village. They 
would begin to aj)pear late in the evening, and in the course 
of the night, hundreds would cross. On one occasion Mr. 
Cla{)p built a yard enclosed with a liigh tree fence on three 
sides, the fourth being a steep descent, and in one night 
forty deer were caught in this enclosure. As late as 1830, 
numbers of deer were shot at Proven's Hill. The last wolf 
hunt in this town, occurre»l in the swamp adjacent this place 
in the summer of 183(5, wiien three or four of these animals 
were traced thitlier, but although uumy j)er8ons surrounded 
the woods, they mostly escaped. 

An anecdote is told of a citizen of this town, who took a 
numlier of cattlo to koII at Ogdonsburgli kooii after the war. 
Upon learning that the Canadians would pay u higher price, 
ho crossed over to inak»' a bargain. He askeil ii shilling 
per [)()inid lor beef, but could only get an olVer for ten pence, 
and alter wrangling a long tiino, lie at length accepted. 
Upon being pani ho was pleasantly surprised at receiving a 
much greater sum than wa.-s expected, for while he hud been 
talking in New York currency, his purchaser was dealing in 
sterling money. 



214 Turin. 

The first mill in Turin, was a stump mortar, made by 
Christopher Clobriclge ^ in 1797, in the eastern border of 
the town, on the farm now owned by Nathan W. Douglass. 
To this the first settlers were accustomed to resort, when 
Shaler's mill at Constableville was not running. The first 
grist mill in the present town of Turin was built by Giles 
Foster, at the present site of Cadwell Dewey's mill, on the 
east road. It was once burnt. A somewhat extensive wool- 
en cloth manufactory was established by Cadwell Dewe}', 
a short distance below, which has been in active operation 
nearly a quarter of a century. 

There are two villages and post offices in Turin. Turin 
Village, formerly known as Turin Four Corners, is a place 
of about 500 inhabitants, three churches, and limited facili- 
ties for manufactures.^ It has six stores of various kinds, 
and is a place of considerable business for the country 
around. 

The Turin Brass Band at this place was formed June 1, 
1859, and numbers thirteen men, 

Houseville has a church, an inn, a store, and about 100 
inhabitants. 

Schools were first established about 1801. The first meas- 
ure taken for the visitation of schools was in 1807, when in 
the entire absence of law upon the subject, the town ap- 
pointed the Rev. James Murdock, Elder Stephen Parsons, 
Deacon Timothy Hill, David Kendall, Ebenezer Baldwin 
and Richard Cone a committee to inspect schools. 

Late in 1813 a special town meeting was called to organ- 
ize schools under the law. The town was divided into eight 
districts. Oliver Bush, Levi Collins and Seth Miller, sen., 
were chosen school commissioners, and on the 1st of Decem- 
ber the justices appointed Judah Barnes, Wm. Constable, 
Deuel Gofif, Willard Allen, John Hooker and Dr. Walter 
Dewey first school inspectors. 

The Turin Social Library was formed under the act of 
June 14, 1814, although a subscription had been started 
April 20 previous. In 1839 its prosperity ceased with the 
formation of school libraries, and in the fall of 1849 it was 
dissolved, and its books, about 600 in number, were divided 
among the proprietors. The first trustees were Levi Hart, 

iMr. C. was a Hessiau, aud had been in the Britisli service in the revolu- 
tion. He died May 8, 1844, aged 98. His son Adam, also a pioneer, died 
Nov. 2, 1849. 

2 The first steam engine set up in the county was at the tannery of Ethan 
Perry in this village. 



Turin. 2 1 

Ebenezer Baldwin, Pr. Walter Dewey, Henry Graves,^ 
Deuel Goff, John P. Kentner^ and Martin Hart. During 
most of its existence it was kept with scrupulous care by 
Amos Higby, jr.*^ 

Probably the earliest literary association in the county 
was formed in this town July 28, 1809, as a debating club. 
Their preamble read as follows : " For the promotion of 
literature, benefit of society, and advancement of useful 
knowledge in Turin, we the undersigned do form ourselves 
into a society with the title of The Columbian Society, and 
knowing that no society can flourish without well regulated 
laws and strict rules, we do all and each of us bind ourselves 
in penalty, declared in the following laws, to obey them in 
every particular, and further to promote the institution as 
lies in our power." The constitution was signed by Martin 
Hart, John Hooker, Levi Collins, Homer Collins, Urial 
Hooker, Chester Hoadle}', "Walter Dewey and Cordial Storrs. 

We are not informed of the subsequent history of this 
" Institution," nor were the debates reported in any journal 
that we have seen. The first question discussed probably 
settled for all time the doubt as to " Which has been the most 
beneficial to society ? the discovery and use of metals, or 
the labor and use of animals." 

On the 30th of April, 1839, the Turin academy was incor- 
porated but it was iievei- organized. The trustees named in 
the act were Emory B. llolden, Geo. J. Fowler, Nathaniel 
Hart, S(,'Men Ives, Leonard H. Humason, Orrin Woolworth, 
Charles G. Kiggs, Cadwell Dewey, Albert A. White, Ozias 
Wilcox and Enoch Lee. 

Religious Socikties, The first meetings were held by 
missionaries about ISOO. A Congregational rhurch was 
formed by the Kev. Jolm Taylor of lieerliold, Mass., Sept. 
19, 1802, while on a missionary tour. The first male mem- 
bers were Amos and .ludali Barnes, Joshua Rockwell, John 
and Levi Ives, Timothy Underwood, Eliphalet nuiil>ard, 
Timothy Jo1iih(mi, Ileman Merwin, Setli Miller, l>avid 
Pitelu;r, Timothy Hill, Reuben I'aiii, Samuel Smith, Jedu- 
tlsui iligiiy, jr., IMiilomon Iloatlley, George Palmer and 
J{obert Lewis. About 40 females also united. The church 

• Mr. d'ravtt wiiji IIih flrut iiivrchaiit iii Turin villngtv 

-Mr. Ktntntr WAH unu of thu pioiiveni. llu died Novcuiltr 11, 163G, aged 
86 y»'urH. 

•^ Mr. //liity was inttiiv jft-ani town cli-rk, and P-iiLTUcd wli.ii hn could no 
loniffr liiild liy unammuu* ••loclion, a.t Im had i«r>'vi<iiiiily d«>n«'. Ho waa a 
iiinii of tx.iiiplary life, eccfntrlc in nonn> r««|HTli), but xtill dt^ttrvlng and 
^•njl>yill^' lilt' fiillfHl <<»nlldfnu«' of tli» jmbllc. Hk wan of tho Unitarian faith, 
and publiithed two uditiuns of a MUiall book vx(>Uining Li« peculiar viuws of 
Bcripturu. He divd February 17, 1827, B({«d 63 y«an. 



216 Turin. 

approved, March 8, 1808, of the articles adopted by the 
Bhick river association, and June 25, 1824, it joined the St. 
Lawrence Presbytery. It again became Congregational 
March 7, 1831. It joined the Watertown Presbytery, Oct. 
5, 1852, and has since remained Presbyterian. The Revs. 
James Murdock, Reuel Kimball and John Iveson were em- 
ployed between 1806 and 1830. In July 1841, the Rev. Na- 
thaniel Hurd was installed as first pastor. Ti)e Rev. James 
Morton was employed in 1849, and the Rev. Wm. H. Adams 
in 1854, for one year. The Rev. Charles B. Pond the pre- 
sent minister, was employed in 1857. This church owned 
an interest in the union church, but in 1S42, built a church 
on the north border of the village which cost $1500, and 
was dedicated Nov. 24 of that year. In 1859 it was extend- 
ed 20 feet in the rear at a cost of $'600. 

Major John Ives, by will, dated Nov. 16, 1827, gave {|300 
to this church, of which two-thirds were to lie until it 
amounted to $1000. It has now reached that sum, and $70 
are received annually from this fund towards defraying the 
pastor's salary. 

The Methodists held meetings at an early day, and Tu- 
rin circuit was formed in 1812, but given up three years 
after having been attended by Reuben Farley and Chandley 
Lambert. The 1st M. E. church of Turin was organized 
Oct. 5, 1818, with Jonathan Bush, Wiuthrop Weller, Orange 
Hill, Francis Crane, Stephen Hart and Charles Weller first 
trustees. They built a church in 1819 on the east road 3 
miles N. of Turin village, which continued many years in 
use. In 1841 the plan of a new church at Houseville was 
discussed, and in 1842 it was erected by Elisha Wood, build- 
er. The 2nd society of the M. E. church, of Turin, was 
formed May 20, 1833, from the former, having Ozias Wilcox, 
Sylvester Hart, Heman Stickney, Deuel Goff, Leonard H. 
Humason, and Sylvester Foster trustees. A stone church, 
45 by 65 feet, was built in Turin village in 1834, at a cost 
of $3,500. It was extended 20 feet in the rear and rear- 
ranged in 1859, and rededicated Oct. 20 of that year. 

The Black river circuit, originally embracing the whole 
country north of the Mohawk, was gradually reduced down 
to the Turin church, by the formation of other circuits. It 
was changed July 13, 1844, to the Turin circuit. The 
preachers assigned have been : 1833, C. Northrup, F. H. 
Stanton ; 1834-5, Elijah Smith ; 1836, R. Houghton, J. 
Downing ; 1837, R. Houghton, C. II. Austin, W. Cummings; 
1838, Isaac Puffer, E. Whipple 5 1839, Darius Mason ; 1840- 
1, John Roper, John Thomas ; 1842, M. H. Gaylord, S. F. 



Turin. 217 

Fentou ; 1843, S. F. Fenton, Reuben Reynolds ; 1844-5, 
Jesse Penfield; 1846-7, Geo. C. Woodruff; 1848, R. M. 
Barber ; 1849, A. S. Wi^btman ; 1850-1, Royal Houghton ; 
1852, D. M. Rogers; 1853-4, E. Smith ; 1855, T. D. Sleeper; 
1856-7, Isaac Hall ; 1858-9, Cyrus Philips. 

The Baptists formed a church at an early period, the 
major part of whose members became Free Communion, 
June 3, 1812, and kept up an organization about 30 years. 
Jeduthan and Zacclieus Higby, Abner Mitchel, Elijah 
Wadsworth, Tho. Hoskins, I'^benezer Baldwin, Lydia and 
Sarah Scovil, and Elizabeth Lane, formed its first members. 
A Baptist ch. was formed April 12, 1812, by the minor part 
of the former church, under Stephen Parsons, It agreed to 
unite with a Leyden ch., Dec. 20, 1816. The associated 
Baptist church was dissolved Jan. 17, 1818, having got 
reduced to 8 members. The Revs. Calvin Phileo, Simeon 
Hersey, Riley B. Ashley, Calvin Horr and others have been 
employed. 

Tho Turin and West Turin Bap. soc. (old school) was 
formed March 22, 1842, with Newton Clark, Benham Webb ; 
Jason and Edwin Payne and Horace C. Ragan, trustees; 
and the next year built a church in Turin village. This 
sect was formed here in the fall of 1843, under the Rev. 
Martin Salmon.^ 

Tho Welsh Cong. ch. at Turin was formed Nov. 5, 1843, 
by Rev. S. A. Williams of Deerliehl, X. Y. It has increased 
from 9 to 37 memhers. D. E. Prichard. pastor, Robert 
"Williams and John O. Jones, deacons. They huilt a church 
in 1847, on the hill west of tho village, and they have a 
branch that worships in tho Iiaj)tist church in the village. 
The legal society has formed May 1, 1848, with John L. 
Roberts, David W. Roherts, Robert Williams, Wm. Roberts, 
jr., and I). K. I'richard trustees. A Calvinistic M. E. ch. 
was formed July 23, lS48, and have a small church. In 
both of these Welsh churches, worship is held in tho Welsh 
language. 

As early as 1S()7, a religious koc. was formed to build u 
union church in Turin, l-ut it failed. Its trustees were: 
Kleazer Houso, Oliver l!u>h, Uiclmrd Coxe, Timothy iiill, 
Judah IJarnes and Selh .Miller. A subscription was opened 
Nov. 23, IS'23, for a union church and town house. It was 



1 Til" Rev. Martin Salimn wa« born In I'auHnR, DutchoM county. Carao 
wlioii II rliilil to tint town, nml wiv-i many v. am u prfailuT in tint Ha|iti;it 
chiiifh.'s of Ihi.-t n-Kiiiii. H<' "lio'l >> ■'■' }»'»ni. Tho 

U. S. biiiili.Hl.s ill thlH town haw huiu' liiiu " Saliuuu- 

Iten." 



218 Watson. 

incorporated under tlie general statute, Sept. 27, 1826, as 
the Turin Union society, with Levi Hart, Heman Stickney, 
Amos Higby, jr., Royal D. Dewey and Leonard House, 
trustees, and a house was built at a cost of $2,350. It was 
used alternately many years by the two Baptist and the 
Presbyterian churches, and as a town house. In 1846, it 
was changed to a school house. A bell was purchased in 
1847, at a cost of $300, and first placed upon the union 
church, but it has been removed to a tower erected on a 
small lot opposite, belonging to the town. The latter 
premises afford a convenient place for keeping the town 
hearse. 

WATSON. 

This town was formed from Lej^den, March 30, 1821, em- 
bracing all of Lewis county east of Black river. The first 
town meeting was held at the house of John Beach, ^ at 
which Caleb Lyon was chosen supervisor; John Beach, clerk; 
Ozem Bush, Phineas Cole, and Joseph 0. Mott, assessors; C. 
Lyon, Tliomas Puffer, and 0. Bush, commissioners oj" highways; 
Samuel Smith and P. Cole, overseers of the poor; J. 0. Mott 
and Daniel B. Baker, constables; S. Smith, collector; C. Lyon, 
J. Beach, and P. Cole, com.missioners of common schools; C. 
Lyon, John Bush, and P. Cole, inspectors of schools; and 0. 
Bush, T. Puffer and David Chase,yence viewers. 

In this list we find the names of persons who lived in 
parts of the town remote from each other, and the same 
name several times repeated. The latter was occasioned by 
the small number of persons who possessed freeholds suffi- 
cient to allow them to hold ofiice. This inconvenience led 

1 John Beach from Litchfield, Ct., settled in this town in 1814, and was the 
father of Nelson J. Beach, Esq. He died xMay 15, 1845, aged 75 years. 

Nelson J. Beach came to this town when a lad with his father's family, and 
was many years a land surveyor in this region. In 1846 he represented the 
county in assembly, and in 1847 in the senate, hut the constitution of 1846 
coming into operation, his term in the senate was cut short to one ^-ear. In 
1847 he was elected a canal commissioner, being one of the first three elected 
to that ofiice, and in the classification of terms he drew that of two years. On 
the 11th of January, 1850, he was appointed a canal appraiser, and held 
about three years. He was subsequently employed in the engineering de- 
partment of the Hud.'jon River rail road, and at a later period was appointed 
to the trust of closing up the business of the Rome rail road, projected 
through this county. After several years residence at Rome, he lias now 
returned to his seat on the banks of the Black river in this town. Mr. Beach 
is a man of acknowledged ability, zealous and energetic in whatever he un> 
dertakes, and well informed upon all subjects relating to public aflfairs. lu 
regard to the question of the Black river improvement, in which his influ- 
ence and oflicial position have given his views importance, he has been the 
steady advocate of the construction of piers for narrowing and deepening the 
channel, and opposed to the plan of dams and locks. 



Watson. 219 

to an act passed Feb. 6, 1824, aiithoriziug white males, of 
legal age in this town to hold olHce, if they had contracts for 
land worth $150. There were, when the town was organ- 
ized, 44 families, and 481 acres of improved land: 115 head 
of cattle, IS horses and 107 sheep within its borders.^ 

Supervisors. — 1821-22, Caleb Lyon; 1823, Joseph 0. Mott; 
1824-27, Ozem Bush;- 1828, Simon Goodell (May, 1828, 0. 
Bush); 1829, 0. Bush ; 1830, Stephen P. Hamilton ; 1831-34, 
Nelson J. Beach; 1835-35, Nathan Lewis; 1837-38, N. 
J. Beach; 1839-44, Ralph Beach; 1845, N. J. Beach; 
1846, Jonathan Perry; 1848-51, R. Beach; 1852, Peter 
Kirley ; 1853, Jehiel R. Wetmore; 1854, Daniel S. Andrews; 
1855, Charles Chase ; 1856-58, Chester Ray ; 1859-60, P. 
Kirley. 

C/er/.x— 1821-22, John Beach ; 1823-4, Otis Munn ; 
1825-26, J. Beach ; 1827, Archibald Benjamin; 1828, Joshua 
Harris (May, 1828, A. Benjamin) ; 1829-32, A. Benjamin, 
1S33, Charles Loomis; 1834-38, Anson Ormsby ; 1839-43, 
Peter .Munn ; 1844, Thomas Kirley; 1845, John W. Merrile ; 
1846, P. Munn: 1847, T. Kirley; 1848, Squire H. Snell ; 
(May, 1848, Peter Kirley); 1849-51, P. Kirley; 1852-55, 
Isaac C. Brown; 1856, Albert M. Gillet; 1857-58, James 
(Tarmon ; 1859, L«!aac II. Brown. 

In no town in the county have so large bounties been 
paid for the destruction of wild animals as this. The 
records show a vote of $5 in 1827, 28, 32 ; $10 in 1825, 6, 
8, 9, 30, 1, 6, 7, 8, 41, 2, 52 to 59, and $15 in 1835 for 
wolves; of $5 in 1828 to 36, 1842-6, and $10 in 1839, 40, 
1, 57, 8, for panthers ; of $2 in 1833 to 8, and 5 in 1841, 2, 
for bears ; of 50 cents in 1833, 5, 6, for foxes, and of 50 
cents in 1833, 5, for crows killed lietween May 15 and June 
15. Whetlier the reliei' thus obtained from the ravages of 
these animals, or the knowledge that a large portion of the 
bounty was raised by tax upon wild lands, was a governing 
motive in lliese votes of tt)wn meeting we may not perhaps 
be allowed to decide. 

Watson was named from .lames T. Watson, the proprietor 
of a tract of 61,t.'i3 acres lying in this town and in llerki- 
njer co. James Watson, the tirst owner un<lur Con>table, 
was a native of Litchtiuld, Ct., and a wealthy merchant in 
N. Y. during and subHeijuent to the R«'VoUition. lie heKl a 

1 Thp consus of 1<?25 ff»r« l'2\ fatniUen, .'157 mik\v», M^ rtfmnl«<« ; 89 liable 
to iiiilitnry <ltily, l-S uloctopt, 4 ali«'ii« ami 4 eolon-d. Tlien* won? 1437 acrm 
imi«rc)Vi>il, .'lUl ii'' '' t, 4l>n jtliff|., ami 3ii7 HwiiK'. 

- (Joiil'!tt»'d by .- - -7, ■.•! luT.iimltcr NttttMil. .Mr. Hd^h watt a 

piiiiieur swttltir of thu cuuulr, ami died in thio tuwii .March 20, 1845, aged 70 
years. 



220 Watson. 

captain's commission in the war, served the State in several 
important offices, and died in 1808 or 9. His only son James 
Talcott Watson, made the first attempt to settle these lands, 
and for many years was accustomed to spend his summers 
in the county. He was a man of fine education and aifable 
manners, and in early life was a partner in the house of 
Thomas L. Smith & Co., East India merchants, in which 
capacity he made a voyage to China. The death of a Miss 
Livingston, with whom he was engaged to be married, in- 
duced a mental aberration which continued through life, 
being more aggravated in certain seasons of the year, while 
at others it was scarcely perceptible. In after life the image 
of the loved and the lost often came back to his memory, 
like the sunbeam from a broken mirror, and in his waking 
reveries he was heard to speak of her as present in the 
spirit, and a confidant of his inmost thoughts. 

In his business transactions, Mr. Watson often evinced a 
caprice which was sometimes amusing, and always inno- 
cent. This was, by most persons, humored, as tending to 
prevent any unpleasant result, which opposition might at 
such times have upon him. In the summer of 1838 he un- 
dertook to cultivate an immense garden, chiefly of culinary 
vegetables, upon his farm in Watson, beginning at a season, 
when, under the most favorable conditions, nothing could 
come to maturity, and insisting that he would be satisfied if 
the seeds only sprouted, as this would prove the capacity of 
his land. 

In his social intercourse Mr. Watson often evinced, in a 
high degree, many noble and manly qualities. With a lively 
fancy and ready command of language, he had the power of 
rendering himself eminently agreeable, while many of those 
who settled upon his tract, will bear witness that he pos- 
sessed a kind and generous heart. But there were moments 
when the darkest melancholy settled upon him, utterly 
beyond relief from human sympathy, and in one of these he 
ended his own life. He committed suicide with a razor, in 
New York, Jan. 29, 1839, at the age of 50 years. His estate 
was divided among 39 first cousins on his father's side and 
5 on his mother's, and some of these shares were still farther 
subdivided among numerous families. The sixty thousand 
acres, when divided, gave to a cousin's share over 1,600 
acres, but some parcels amounted to but 33 acres. Much 
of these lands have since been sold for taxes. 

The Watson tract formed two triangular areas, connected 
by a narrow strip, of which the outline was surveyed by 
Wm. Cockburn in 1794. The west triangle was surveyed 



Watsm. 221 

out by Broughton White of Remsen, in 1808, and the east 
one by N. J. Beach in 1842. 

A large part of the west, and all of the east tract, is still 
a forest, and muck of it towards and beyond the county line, 
is chiefly vahiable for its timber. There is a tradition that 
Low ofi'ered Watson $16,000 to exchange lands, before 
either knew any thing of the soil, or _the relative value of 
their purchases, which time has shown to belong to the two 
extremes of agricultural capacity. 

At the date of organization tliere were no roads in Wat- 
son, connecting the upper settlements near Lyonsdale, with 
those opposite Lowville, and for many years the only way 
of passing from one part to the other was by the roads on 
the west side of the river, from fifteen to twenty miles 
around, or upon the river itself. It was therefore a desira- 
ble object to secure the location of town meetings, which 
could not possibly be located so as to accommodate more 
than a part of the voters. In 1824 the town meeting, held 
at the house of Daniel Wheaton, at Lyonsdale, was ad- 
journed over to the same place. 

The northern section was numerically the strongest, and 
the next year privately rallying their full force, some from 
the extreme parts of what is now Diana, attended at the 
appointed house, which was, at the time, uninhabited, and 
the barn empty. They opened at 9h, an hour earlier than 
usually opening town meetings, three justices and the 
town clerk presiding, and on the pretense of the want 
of accommodation and inclemency of the weather, ad- 
journed over to the next day at the house of Thomas PutVer, 
in what is now Watson, and 20 miles from Lyoi\sdale. 

The southernerM, upon assenil)liiig, found the town meet- 
ing stolen, but upon weighing all the circumstances, con- 
cluded to go on ns if no accident liad hap{)ened, and called 
upon a justice present to organize the meeting 'Iho latter 
refused to ilo so, and the electors jjroceeded in their own 
way, elected a full set of town ollicers and adjourned for 
one year to the same part of the town. The northern 
party met the next day, pursuant to atljournraenl, also 
elected a full set of (own officers, nudprobabit/ adjotirned over 
to the siiine neighborhood. 

During ybur yfar* two town meetings wore thus annually 
held, and a double Hct of town ollicers elected. Hoth 
supervisor."* appeared at the county board, ami the one from 
the northern part alone was admitted, und the collector 
from thi.s part alone received his warrant from the board. 
The town onicor.s in the southern part received no pay for 



222 Watson. 

their services, and their authority in local affairs was 
limited to their own section, and by sufferance rather than 
law. 

In March, 1828, the upper party quietl}' mustered their 
whole force on the night before town meeting day, agreed 
upon their ticket, and leaving at home a few old men, bare- 
ly enough to conduct their own meeting, they set out before 
dawn with a dozen sleigh-loads of voters to assist their 
rivals in electing town ofiicers. The expedition was con- 
ducted with the most profound secresy, and the enemy were 
taken by surprise. To have contested the passage at the 
ferry might have been easy, had not the ice furnished a 
bridge for crossing, or to have privately dispatched a small 
party to capture the town meeting left behind in charge of 
the veterans would have been feasible had not the distance 
prevented. 

The result showed a striking unanimity at the two town 
meetings, the same persons being elected throughout and 
the adjournment of both being to the same place in the ex- 
treme south part of the town. Resolutions for a division 
had been voted in 1822-4-5-6 and 7, the latter by the north- 
ern party recommending Beaver river as the boundary line. 
In 1828, both town meetings voted against any division 
until the southern town officers had been paid for their ser- 
vices, but' before another town meeting the question of 
division was settled by the legislature. 

A suit brought by Goodell against Baker in the Lewis 
Circuit, Dec. 14, 1826, before Judge Williams, in a suit of 
trespass de bonis asportatis, for having distrained the plaintiff's 
horses for a tax, assuming to act as collecter under author- 
ity of the northern town meeting, was decided in Goodell's 
favor. The defendant appealed to the Supreme Court for 
a new trial, which was granted in February, 1828, and the 
case as reported,^ gives the circumstances of the adjourn- 
ment, and the opinions of the Court briefly as follows : 

The people at town meetings may determine the place of 
holding town meetings from time to time, and may adjourn 
to a second day and another place if they judge neces- 
sary. There could be no injury to the rights of any as all 
might attend. They were exclusive judges of the occasion ; 
and although they might have been indiscreet, their act was 
still legal and the ofldcers they elected at the adjourned 
meeting were legally chosen and the proper town ofiicers. 

Both parties voted in their town meetings to raise money 
to protect the rights of the town, and in Watson the poor 

1 Coicen's Reports, viii., 287. 



Watson. 223 

fund belonging to the town was voted to be applied to this 
law suit. 

Settlement was begun within this town by Eliphalet Ed- 
monds and Jonathan Bishop, who received deeds of Tiller, 
agent of Castorland, on the 10th of October, 1798, for 100 
and 162 acres respectively, at $2 per acre. The lots were 
surveyed by J. C. Chambers, and the settlers began small 
improvements on the banks of the river but did not long 
remain. The former in the fall of 1799, took up land in 
Adams, and the next spring became a pioneer settler in that 
town. Isaac Puifer^ and family soon after settled in this 
town, and were for several years the only inhabitants. He 
was the first purchaser under Watson, and built a saw mill 
for the proprietor on his tract near Chase's lake. In 1807, 
Melancthon W. Welles became the first agent of Watson, 
and under his direction surveys were made in Watson's 
west triangle by Kobert ^McDowell soon after. Unexpected 
difficulties prevented Mr. Welles from forming a successful 
settlement at that period, and a few years after he relin- 
quished the agency. 

The first agricultural operation of any magnitude was by 
Puffer, who in 1811 burnt over the great windfall on the 
plains east of the present bridge; and planted corn. The 
season was favorable, and the yield among the logs was 
over forty bushels to the acre. Settlement advanced many 
years but slowly, and many of those who undertook im- 
provement were of the poorer class, who possessed neither 
resources nor tact in encountering the difiiculties which the 
wilderness presented. In lS23,over twenty Wurtemburgliers 
were sent on by Watson, who paid liieir passage and win- 
tor's subsistence upon condition of three years' services, but 
most of tliem left in the spring. This is believed to have 
been tlie only attempt made by this proprietor to settle 
Europeans upon his lands. 

.Many liundred tons of l)Og iron ore were taken from this 
town to the Cartliagc furnace. The boat used iiad a burthen 
of from fifty to lifty-livc ton.s, and made two trips a week. — 
It floated down with the current, and was pushed up stream 
by poles. 

la Ibrinor times the settlers in Watson were much aii- 



1 baac Pujfrr wan from Princetown, MMiuichuHetU, but had resided about 

ten vt'iirs iii lltiff;" <i.uiity. Ili.s ftimilv wtn' /i lar, ^r., (aftiTwnnls celebrated 
ns aM'tli<'<li''t prifti'liiT,) .Sully (Mrs i>. 'lilTttiiy), A«n, KUmu'/it, Tliomus, 
Pollv (Mrs. KusM'l SloiH'), ikiiil Josiuli S<iiiiu t>f th«'H«« brother« Imvu iR-fii 
SUccVs.iliil liiiiit'T.-', ami Kb^n- /ir I'ull. r liu-s Willod 47 wulven (tivo of iho 
black Vttri<'ly), aii'l l«'ur.>, dc»T, ami ctli.r wild f,'iuiio " iu |>rt>iKjrtioii," Liu;iL- 
Puffer, HKii., died BlH>iit lH3tf. 



224 Watson. 

noyed by wolves, and it was found difficult to keep sheep 
on this account. It is said upon good authority, that 52 
sheep have been destroyed by a single wolf in one night. — 
A most remarkable event was reported as happening in this 
town, July 27, 1839, nine miles east of Lowville. The 
house of James Ranney was left in charge of a girl twelve 
years old, and a child a little over a year old was sleeping 
on a bed in an adjoining room ; hearing the child scream, 
the girl sprang to the door and saw a wild animal leap from 
an open window with the infant in its mouth. She followed 
about forty rods, thinking it was a large dog, till it reached 
a pair of bars, where, after several times trying to leap over 
with its burden, it made off into the woods without it. — 
The child was not seriously injured. Tne animal proved to 
be a huge male panther. 

An affray occurred in this town Aug. 21, 1829, between 
Samuel Shaw and Wm. Myers, in which the former received 
several large wounds from a knife. Myers was sent to 
state prison. He had evidently intended to provoke a quar- 
rel, and to kill Shaw as if in self defense. 

On the 13th of March, 1837, Isaac G. Puffer, a young man, 
was accidentally shot by an intimate companion and play- 
mate of childhood, who thoughtlessly presented a gun sup- 
posed to be not loaded, and telling him to prepare for death, 
discharged its contents, killing him instantly. 

The only capital execution that has hitherto occurred in 
Lewis county, was that of Lawrence McCarthy, for the 
murder of his father-in-law, Asahel Alford of this town, 
Nov. 15, 1838. Mr. A. had been living v/ith McCarthy some- 
time, and a difficulty had been known to exist between them. 
One day when the two were alone, the murderer approach- 
ed his victim while writing, and killed him with an axe, 
drew him with a horse by a chain fastened around his legs 
to an unfrequented spot in the woods, buried him slightly 
with stones and brush and returned. A snow soon covered 
the trail, but suspicions led to a successful search, and 
"Larry" (as he was commonly called) was indicted for 
murder on the 13tli of December, tried on the 13th of June, 
before Judge Gridley, and hung in the court room at Mar- 
tinsburgh on the 1st of August, 1839. 

In the interval between the sentence and the execution, 
fears were entertained that the Irish laborers upon the 
canal at Boonville would attempt the rescue of their coun- 
tryman, and threats to this effect were freely made. To 
provide against this, a volunteer company was formed at 
Martinsburgh, under Elijah L. Thompson, and armed from 



Watson. 225 

the state arsenal at Watertown. Sentinels were stationed 
around the jail, and arrangements were made for resisting 
any attempt that might be made. The "Larry Guards" 
and a rifle company escorted the prisoner to the gallows 
and guarded the Court House while the execution was pro- 
gressing, and an immense crowd were drawn together by a 
morbid curiosity to witness the preparation, although but a 
few were enabled to observe the final crisis. 

A few weeks before this execution, the Rev. Michael Gil- 
bride, a Catholic priest of Carthage, applied for a private 
interview with the condemned, and was refused access, un- 
less in the presence of the jailor. In this refusal the sher- 
iff had followed the letter of the statute, and the advice of 
the district attorney. The priest at once made personal 
application to the governor for his interposition or author- 
ity, and the latter addressed a lengthy letter to the sherift', 
which scarcely amounted to more than his advice to place 
a charitable construction upon the law. "Whether this let- 
ter was designed for the public eye may be surmised from 
the fact, that it was published in the papers before it was 
received by tiie sherilf. 

In July 1849, extensive damage occurred in this town 
from running fires in the woods, and an extremely dry season 
seldom occurs without a liability to this accident. In 1822, 
a settlement was begun in the eastern border of the town, 

on No. 4, Brown's Tract, by David Barber and Bunco. 

In 182G, Orrin Fenton settled, and is still with one excep- 
tion, the only settler living in that part of the town. The 
station is highly convenient to parties hunting in winter, 
and fishing in summer, and is chiclly supfjortcd by them. 

A I'liion Library was formed in this town Jul\' 14, 1829, 
with Nathan Snow, John Fox, Daniel C Wickham, Joseph 
Webb, jr., Francis B. Taylor, Hiram Crego and Lansing 
r.eiijamiii, trustees. It never became successt'ully organized. 

A ferry, regtdated Ijv the law of public convenience, 
formed the fust, and until 1828, the only means of crossing 
the river with teams in summer to this town. It was owned 
and kept by the Puller family. In 1S21, those interested 
in lands oast of the river, attempted to raise the means to 
erect a bridge, but nothing was olVected. Tho (luestion 
continued to be under consideration initil P^ob., 1828, when 
OziMii Bu>;h, Thniiias riilVer, J. C Herritigton, Lemuel 
Tooley and Danicd B. Baker, were ilesignated as trustees to 
receive subscriptions for a free bridge, and an appeal was 
j)ublished, urging tho iuipurtuncu of the proposed measure. 



C* 



226 Watson. 

As a further stimulus, an act was procured, March 29, 1828, 
allowing Nelson J. Beach to erect a toll bridge, and to hold 
the same twenty years, unless a free bridge was built before 
Jan., 1829. These efforts were successful, and a frame 
bridge was built by Tho. Puffer and finished Aug. 6, 1828. 
In 1832, a draw was placed in the bridge at the expense of 
the towns of Watson and Lowville, and a few years after, 
the bridge was rebuilt at the expense of the two towns. 

An act passed Jan. 20, 1851, authorized a loan of $1,000 
by the town of Watson, to be repaid by a tax, in from two 
to five years, and a loan by Lowville of $-975, to rebuild 
the Watson bridge. The piers, abutments and draw, were 
built by the state in a most thorough and permanent manner, 
and the money raised by the two towns was applied upon 
the wooden superstructure of the bridge. 

The balloon " Excelsior " landed in the top of a hemlock 
tree on the land of Mr. Nye near Passenger's mill, late in 
the afternoon of August 3, 1859. It contained Prof. C. C. 
Coe and C. H. Hull, and had made the passage from Oswego 
in a little over two hours. It passed over Adams, Harris- 
burgh, Lowville and Martinsburgh at a great elevation, and 
it was the intention of the jeronants to gain the sea board. 
Perceiving the immense stretch of forest which lay beyond 
them to the eastward, they hastened to descend, and finally 
landed with much peril.^ This was the first balloon ever 
seen in the county except those made of paper, and inflated 
with air rarified by heat. Of the latter the first were sent 
off about 1837, at our principal villages, by an itinerant 
juggler as the afterpiece of his performances. 

Religious Societies. — The earliest meetings here were 
held by the Methodists, and in 1834, this town first appeared 
on the conference minutes as " to be supplied." The num- 
JDcrs then claimed were 77. The Plains M. E. church was 
incorporated May 12, 1854, with Reuben Chase, Ira A. Stone, 
Eben Blakeman, Ebenezer Puffer and Adam Comstock, 
trustees, and the present church edifice was erected the 
same year. The first minister whose name appears on the 
minutes as assigned to this charge was the Rev. Isaac 
Puffer, who had spent a part of his early life in this town.- 

1 Mr. Coe at the agricultural fair in Rome, Sept. 29, 1859, made an ascension 
in the presence of 10,000 spectators, and at the height of two miles his bal- 
loon burst. By a happy coincidence of circumstances, the descent was made 
in safety, but soon after Mr. C. received a serious injury in getting his bal- 
loon down from a tree which has disabled him perhaps for life. 
_ -The Rev. Isaac Puffer was born in Westminster, Mass., June 20, 1784, and 
m 1789, removed to Otsego Co,, and in 1800 to Lewis Co. In 1809 he was 
received on trial in the N. Y. Conference and appointed to Otsego Circuit with- 



West Turin, 227 

Richard Lyle was stationed in 1844 ; H. 0. Tilden in 1845-6; 
A. S. Wightman in 1847-8. 

The Seventh Day Bai:)iists formed a society in this town, 
May 2, 1841, but have never erected a house of worship. 
Their first trustees were Burdick "Wells, K. Green, Daniel 
r. Williams and Joseph D. Davis, In 1S4G, they claimed 
73 communicants. They now consist of about 20 families, 
and the school in their district is held but five days in the 
week. 

WEST TURIN. 

This town was formed from Turin, ^larch 25, 1830, in- 
cluding besides its present boundaries ^lontague, Osceola, 
High Market and all of Lewis except the portion taken from 
Inman's triangle. While the plan of a division of Turin 
was in prospect, the old town was ofl'ered townships 3, 8 
and 9 by the parties desiring to be set oft', and a committee 
Avas sent to Albany with a map upon which was marked the 
course of the hills and the extent of settlement. The county 
was then rej^resented by a citizen of Turin village who re- 
garded the wild lands then attached to the town as poor ; 
and reasoning upon the principle that poor lands make poor 
settlers, and that the poor tax of the town would be propor- 
tioned accordingly, refused to listen to any plan which left 
these lands with the old town. The parties asking for a 
division yielded without a struggle the point which secured 
to them over $350 in non-resident taxes annually, and the 
old town's people displayed a black flag at half mast and 
evinced other signs of displeasure u[)on receiving news of 
the division. 

The land.s rated as poor had not then seen the peep of 
day, for the dairying interest had not begun to bo developed, 
and tracts which as yet, from their elevated location, liud 
failed to succeed in grain, might have been well regarded as 
destined to ull'ord a Uicagro profit to the farmer. Those very 
lands are now found admirably adaj)te(l to grazing, and loss 
liabli; to drouth than the lower ami otlierwiso more favored 
tracts that were the earliest taken up by settlers. 

in tl»o newly fonnod Oeneuee Conferenco. Ho continued to labor In central 
iiiid iiortliiTii New York, until IM.'i, wliwn by hi.t own r*t|tii-Ht, li« wiut iilnccil 
on tilt' HUi»'rnumiTiir_v li^t, utiil in 1s4.h, hi- ri<tii<>v«-il to lllinoiti. Id' jin-nchi'd 
oceR.sioniillv until Ui'c. l".'";!, when a wvoni iUiK'nn |>r«ivunt»'tl furthvr usv- 
fiiln.!(H. li- .lio'l al LiK'htliouw I'uint.OKht I'o. 111., .Muv 'lo, IhJ-l. A ittrik- 
ing ])<'i iiliarily in hi.s prcathin^, wan lint faiility and eorrvt-tnt'ito with whiih 
hi< (|uot)<d .M> ripturi), nlwavM naniin){ the |ilao« whern found. Thi.<t ruMtum 
gavf hint tho ftj>|K'll»tion of " t'ha|itt<r »nd Vir»»< " l>y which \u' was often 
known unions hiH frii'udH. Ilia ritatioiui itoin<<tini«>i t<xc««<(ii'il a hundrvd iu 
n surmun, and had generally a clvsv rulatiuu tu tho argument in hand. 



228 West Turin. 

Supervisors. — 1830, Martin Hart ; 1831, James McVickar ; 
1832, Aaron Foster; 1833-4, Peter Rea; 1835-6, Anthony W. 
Collins ; 1837, David A. Stiles ; 1838, Setli Miller ; 1839-40, 
Horace Johnson ; 1841-2, Edmund Baldwin ; 1843, Owen 
J. Owens; 1844, S. Miller; 1845-6, Wm. R. Wadsworth ; 
1847-8, S. Miller ; 1849-50, Jonathan C. Collins ; 1851, S. 
Miller ; 1852-4, V. R. Waters ; 1855, W. R. Wadsworth ; 
1856, Homer Collins ; 1857, Hiram T. Felshaw ; 1858, Riley 
Parsons ; 1859-60, Schuyler C. Thompson. 

C/er/«.— 1830, Seth Miller, jr. (resigned), Wm. R. Wads- 
worth appointed and continued till 1844 ; 1845, Ela G. Stod- 
dard; 1846, Robert W. Bennett ; 1847, V. R. Waters ; 1848, 
Charles M. Gofl'; 1849, W. R. Wadsworth ; 1850, C. M. Goff; 
1851, V. R. Waters; 1852, Luman L. Fairchild ; 1853-4, W. 
R. Wadsworth; 1855, C. M. Goff; 1856, John C. Stiles; 
1857-9, W. R. Wadsworth. 

West Turin now includes parts of townships 2 and 4, or 
Flora and Pomona of Constable's Four Towns. Of these the 
former belongs to the Pierrepont estate, and its settlement 
is modern as compared with the latter, upon which Nathan- 
iel Shaler commenced settlement in 1796.-^ In the summer 
of 1795 Shaler sent a man to explore these lands, and late 
in that year he concluded the purchase noticed in the his- 
tory of Turin. The Stows were his competitors for the 
tract, but Shaler at length secured it and at once took active 
measures for establishing a settlement. # 

A road was run from fort Stanwix, and early in 1796, 
John Ives,^ the pioneer settler, came on with his family and 

IJIfr. Shaler was a prominent merchant of Middletown, Ct., and towards 
the close of the last century, was residing in New York, and concerned in the 
West India trade. He there became acquainted with Mr. Constable and pur- 
chased one half of townships 3 and 4 of Constable's four towns, and became 
his agent for the undivided remainder. He was accustomed to spend his sum- 
mers here during several years, but never removed his family. He soon after 
undertook the settlement of lands on the Connecticut Reserve in Ohio, where 
he owned the towns of Shalersville, Middletown, Bazetta and a part of Me- 
dina. He died at Middletown, Ct., May 1816. 

A daughter of Mr. Shaler married Commodore McDonough, the hero of 
Plattsburgh. 

His son, William Denning Shaler, resided many years in this town, and 
died in New York, May 18, 1842. 

- Major Ives removed a few years after to a farm 2^ miles north of Turin 
village, where he died of a cancer, March 13, 1828, in his 66th year. His 
wife survived until Feb. 12, 1841. He was a native of Meriden, Ct., and re- 
sided at New Hartford about a year previous to his removal to this town. He 
was appointed sheriff in 1810, and was a highly esteemed and valuable citi- 
zen, systematic and successful in business, and a man of much influence in 
the county. His homestead is now owned by his son Selden Ives. Another 
son George, formerly of this town now resides in Chicago. John Ives, the 
oldest son, died in California. 



West Turin. 229 

built his first rude bark shelter by the side of a large elm 
tree, wiiich was felled late in the evening of their arrival. 
This formed their clwelling for a few days, until a regular 
log cabin could be built. In reaching this spot the family 
was compelled to cross swolen streams upon the trunks of 
fallen timber, and carry their goods across these treacherous 
bridges at great peril. The family had tarried in Leyden a 
few days, while Mr. Ives went forward and explored the 
town for a location of 400 acres which he was allowed to 
select from the whole tract. The final removal of the house- 
hold did not take place till April. 

During the summer, about twenty young men were hired 
by Shaler to put up a saw mill, which was got in operation 
in the fall, and during the summer great numbers from Mid- 
dletown, Meriden, and towns adjacent came in and selected 
farms. Among these were Joshua Rockwell,^ Levi Ives,^ 
Nathan Coe,^ Elisha Scovill,"' Daniel Iligby, Levi Hough,* 
William Hubbard,*^ James Miller," Ebenezer Allen,'' and 
perhaps others, the most of whom began clearings and made 
preparations for their families but returned back to Con- 
necticut in the fall. But two families spent the long dreary 
winter in the town, a winter which has had few equals in 
intensity of cold and depth of snow. Mr. Ives had occa- 
sion to go to Connecticut and left his family with a large 
supply of wood and a stock of provisions, sufficient to last 
till his return, lie was absent six weeks, and in the mean 
time the snow fell five feet deep, cutting off all communica- 
tion with the world. At length a young man named Caleb 
Rockwell reached the cabin on snow shoes to see whether 
the family were alive and well, and a few days after he re- 
turned with his sister, and the tedious solitude was soon after 
relieved by the return of tlio husband, and with him several 
new settlers. Soon after this, the roof of the cabin was 
crushed in by the snow, and had not the beams of the gar- 

1 Mr. Rockwell died March 2, 1825, a«ed 83 years. 

- Uroth.T of Jolm Ivi-s and fiitlu-r of L-vi Silliiiuin Ivi-x, hite l.ishop of the 
Prol<'»tiiiit Ki>inc(>|,al church in North Ciiroliiiii, mid nowiiii iccK-miwIsc in the 
Roman Catholic church. L<«vi Ivcs hucaiiie inclancholy from want of |>ros- 
pority, nnd drowned hiniHilf in Ht-ar crc<-k, near Black river, June lU, 1S15, 

:i From Mi.ldl.'ll-ld. Il- di.-d l-Vdi. 27, l'>45, a^i-d TU yearn. 

•• From M<riik<n, Ct. .Mr. Sroviil iiail n>'V»<rul . hiMn'n who n.<ttled in thia 
town and Ix.-camo headu of familii'M. H<"Z»'kiah and Kli.tha Scovill were hin 
8oni. 

6 Horn at .M-ridon, Ct., May 2, 177.<. Kiiuov.d to this town in 1/98, and 
to Martin^hiiri^h in 1814, when- he died .\u<. 21, \s:>H. 

"Mr. niil>l>.ird i* »ai<l to hav« hnilt th«' Umt framed houne in town. 

' Second Hon of Richard .Millvr. lU came April 2t), 119C, when H years of 
ago H» i.i .still livin< in thi.t town. 

8 Died .March 1, lbi2l>, aged 00 yoant. 



230 West Turin. 

ret floor been strong, the whole family would have been 
buried in the ruin. 

During the second summer, Jonathan Collins,^ Seth Mil- 
ler,- Reuben Scovil,^ Aaron Parsons,* Willard Allen,^ Eli- 

'^ Jonathan Collins was born at Wallingford, Ct., May 3, 1755, served in the 
Revolution, for which he drew a pension, and emigrated fi-om Meriden to 
this town in 1797. He arrived in March, and had great difSculty in crossing 
Sugar river then swollen by the spring flood. The goods were got across on 
a tree, tlie horses were made to swim the stream, and the sleigh was drawn 
over by a rope attached to the neap. He selected a valuable tract for a farm, 
and having considerable means, he was enabled to begin settlement to advan- 
tage, and to maintain through life an independence in property, which was 
surpassed by but few in the county. He was early selected as a magistrate 
and judge, and from 1809 to 1815, he served as the first judge of the county 
court. In 1820 he was chosen a presidential elector. Few citizens have en- 
joyed to a greater degree the confidence of the public, and in the various 
trusts reposed in him by the town and county, he uniformly evinced sti-ict 
integrity, sound judgment, and a scrupulous regard for the public welfare. 
His iDrother, Gen. Oliver Collins of Oneida co., was in service on the frontier 
in the war of 1812-15. His sons were : 

Levi, born Feb. 24, 1778, long a merchant at Collinsville, and a member of 
assembly in 1813. He died March 31, 1819. 

Selden, born May 22, 1780. Died at Ogdensburgh June 13, 1857. 

Homer, born May 15, 1788. Member of Assembly in 1858. Resides at 
Collinsville. 

Anthony Wayne, born February 10, 1797. Resides at Turin village. 

Jonathan C, born January 30, 1804, Presidential elector in 1852, and 
member of assembly in 1854. Resides on the homestead. Judge Collins 
died April 6, 1845, aged 90 years. 

2 This family was from Canaan, Ct. Seth Miller was a son of Benjamin 
Miller, and settled a short distance west of Constableville, where he died 
Feb. 20, 1855, aged 75 years. His sons were, Sylvester, a pliysician of Low- 
ville, whose death we have noticed on page 155, James, a physician, who 
settled in Johnstown, Timothy, first merchant of Constableville, now de- 
ceased, Benjamin, who removed west and died, Seth, merchant of Constable- 
ville, elsewhere noticed, and Edwin, who resides on the homestead. He had 
four daughters. 

3 Died July 9, 1846, aged 77 years. 

4 Died Aug. 26, 1854, aged 84 years. He was a son of Elder Stephen Par- 
sons, and father of Aaron Parsons, jr., sheriflTin 1853, and member of assem- 
bly in 1855. 

Eld. Stephen Parsons was thrice married and had eleven children, six of 
whom removed to the Black river country before he moved from Whitestown 
himself. 

Aaron was the oldest. His sister Eleanor married Elisha Cone and died in 
this town August, 1853, aged 82. 

Stephen died in Denmark in 1832, aged 56 years. 

Ichabod still resides in Denmark at an advanced age. He was several years 
a judge in the county court. 

Elihu, half brother of the above, died in Pompey, N. Y., in 1842. His 
sister Betsty married Elijah Clark of Denmark, and died in 1833, aged 53. 

Comfort, eldest son by third marriage, resides at Wales Centre, N. Y. 

Johnson was a physician, served in the war and was taken prisoner. He 
died in Florida July 30, 1820. His sister Sally married Johnson Foster of 
Turin. Grace, another sister, married Isaac Foster, and died in California in 
1859. Ann, the youngest, married Mr. Crane of Denmark. The death of 
Eld. Parsons has been noticed on page 93. 

6 Mr. Allen was a surveyor and farmer. He died Sept. 18, 1850, aged 77 
years. 




f^^9 



T 




trr/a/Za'f/ O^/Yi^'^i 



^^ LIBRARY 



.e-rnR LENOX AMD 



West Turin. 231 

sha Crofoot,^ James T. Ward, Pliilemon Hoadley,- William 
and Abner Rice, Elder Stephen Parsons, Jesse Miller, Wil- 
liam Daniels,'^ Ebenezer and Elijah Wadsworth,* and others. 
During the second season Mr. Shaler completed the first 
grist mill erected in the county. It stood upon Sugar 
river not far from the place where it issues from the hills. 
Within the next three years the whole town below the 
hill, and an extensive tract west of ConstablevilJe was taken 
np by settlers. Among these pioneers were Aaron Foster, ^ 
Ebenezer Baldwin,'^ Cephas Clark," James and Levi Miller,^ 
Elisha Cone,^ Dr. Horatio G. Plough, Roswell Woodruflr,^'' 
Richard Coxe,^^'Wra. Coleman,^- and Josiah V. Raymond, ^^ 

*^Mr. Crofoot \ras a native of Berlin, Ct. He removed from Middletown 
April 25, 17lt7, having ppont the snnnnfr pnivions in tliis town. He died 
March 2[f, 1S13, in his (JOth year. His wife died Marcli 16, lftl3. His chil- 
dren were Mary and John, who never came to this county ; Isaac, formerly a 
judge of the county court, and now of Fond-du-Lac, Wis.; Rachad, who died 
Marclx 11, 1813 ; James, still living in town ; Anson, who died July 23, 
182.''. ; and David, who died Sept. 2, 1814. 

2 Mr. H. settled on tliu old Frencliroad where itcro.ssed the east road, south 
of Collinsville. He was from Westfield, kept an inn several years, and 
died .Jan. 8, 1811, aged 57 years. Jacob Iloadley, his father, died aged 84. 

3 Died Jan. 12, 1849, aged 88 years. 

•*Klijah W. died Oct. 17, 1836, aged 72 years. Ebenezer W. died in 
Vienna, N. Y. Seth Miller, sen., and Willard Allen married sisters of these 
brothers. 

5 Died in Martinsburgh, April 3, 1858, aged 87 years. He settled in 1799, 
near the state road, in this town. 

•* Died Nov. 3, 1834, aged 66 years. He settled between the villajes of 
Turin and Collinsville, on the place now owned by his son, Edmund Bald- 
win. 

7 Settled in 1601, from Oranby, Ct. Died Dec. 1, 1854, aged 91. He left 
numerous di'scendants, many of wliom still reside in town, on the road be- 
tween Turin and ('oMstableville. 

^ Rev. Jaine* Milhr diid March 31, 1843, aged C7 years. He was a Metho- 
di.st preacher. His liroth'-r Ij«nM, al.so a .Mi-thodist minister, removed sume 
years after t(j Louisville, N. Y., wlierehe die<l, Jan. 26, lh.')3, aged 73 y»<ar8. 

" Settlled in 1798. Died Juno 2{5, 182^, aged CI. He waa the llrst tauuer 
in Turin. 

1" \V. was from Berlin, Ct. lu l^a4he exchanged lii.s phu-enear Collinsville 
with (!o.xe for 400 aires in JelTorHon county. Many years after he removed to 
New Hartford, where lio ilietl. He was the father of tlie lalo Norris .M. Wood- 
rulf of Walertown, who uI.ho resiileil hero several years. 

• 1 llichard Cost belonged to an olil itntl re^|«l•clab|e fuuiily, on the Delaware, 
in New Jersey, and his sinter (trace marrli'd James D. !.•• Itay. H« caute in 
1801) tosuper^ude Tillier in tlie agency uf (?nstorland, and ct)ntiinu'<) for sonto 
time tu carry un the otoru whkh the French liad erilablished under Olmuii- 
flier, lie wai* ap]>ointitd flrHt county clerk, and traded Meventl yvani ou the 
hill, a littlo Wfrit uf ('ullinsvllle, where hu built a Htylinh curb-roofed houM) 
and stop', still standing. Me went otT about I'^lti, an<l wajt afterwards many 
vearsa elerk in tie- po^t olllce depurtmuul at Washington. Charles C. Coxe, 
liis brother, wu.s several years consul at Tunin. 

1- Coleman .settled on the Ke<-s IMoi'e, eojtt ot Collinsville, and went tu thu 
Western Kewrve itlx yearn after. 

!•> Came in IStK) wittt (.'oxe, as clerk to thu French store, aud vtill living In 
town. 



32 West Turin. 

Shaler built a house near St. Paul's chapel in the village 
of Constableville, and was accustomed to spend several 
weeks of each summer in town but never came to reside. 
He employed James T. Ward,^ a man of plausible address 
and considerable means, to induce people to emigrate to 
this town ; whether the result be due to Ward or Shaler, it 
will be conceded that a better class of citizens seldom emi- 
grated to a new country than those who began improve- 
ments in this town. They were mostly in easy circum- 
stances, and early acquired clear titles to their farms. Ex- 
cepting the first year or two, the settlers did not suffer 
those hardships which are often incident to a new country, 
as the earth yielded its fruits kindly, and the principal 
difficulties arose from the poorness of the roads, and the 
difficulty of reaching markets. As an instance of the ex- 
pense attending the transportation of provisions we may 
notice that Jonathan Collins upon coming into town in March, 
1797, offered to furnish a cart and one yoke of oxen, to any 
one who would furnish another yoke and bring in a lot of 



IThe following anecdote is related by Mr. Alson Clark in his historical 
articles upon this county : 

As Mr. Ward was coming in from fort Stanwix, he met at the foot of the 
long hill now Lee Corners, two suspicious looking men, who went on before 
while he stopped at the inn. Two or three miles beyond he overtook them, 
■when one of the men challenged him to wrestle, as Ward thought to try his 
strength, and if able, to rob him. He accepted the proposal, and having 
slightly fastened his horse a short distance beyond, took from his portman- 
teau a bottle of spirits to treat them with, before beginning the contest. He 
found some other occasion to return to his horse, when springing upon its 
back he soon disappeared, leaving the bottle in their possession. 

Capt. Ward returned to Middlelield, where his habits reduced him to pov- 
erty. A pleasing incident occurred near the close of his life. One of his 
settlers, who in paying for land had given several twenty dollar notes, found 
the relation of debtor unpleasant and resolved to take them up. They were 
all written upon one piece of paper. Ward opened the paper, computed the 
sum due, and stated tlie amount at less than what was expected. Upon being 
told of this, he carefully revised his figures, assured the purchaser that it was 
all right, and gave them up with a receipt in full. The latter on going home 
discovered that one of the notes had not been unfolded. He had previously 
lost more money than this through Ward, and finally concluded to let the 
error oiJset the previous transaction and he kept the secret. About thirty 
years after, as he felt death approaching from a slow but incurable disease, 
this act came up before him, troubling his sleep, and haunting his waking 
hours with the eludings of a burdened conscience. He at length sought the 
advice of his family and for the first time related the circumstances of the 
case. They at once agreed upon the only course that should be taken. Com- 
pound interest was reckoned upon the note, and nearly sixty-five dollars were 
placed in the hands of a messenger to deliver to the owner, with an explan- 
atory letter. The agent found Mr. Ward, enfeebled by age, but forced to 
earn a scanty support by day labor among the farmer.^. He had never de- 
tected the error, and read the statement with surprise and gratitude, for an act 
which of itself possessed no merit, but which has too few parallels in the 
business dealings of mankind. 



West Turin. 233 

flour and pork from Wliitestown for half, and much of his 
first year's provisions were brought upon these terms. 
Game and fish formed an important element in the line of 
XJrovisions, and of tlie latter, salmon from Fish creek were 
taken in great numbers. A long stretch of deep still water 
in that stream still bears the name of Shaler'sIJole, from its 
its being an important fishing ground for his people. Deer, 
wolves and bears were numerous, and two men coming 
through from Iledfield to Shaler's, once killed an enormous 
panther over seven feet long, and dragged him out to the 
settlement. 

During the winter of 1799 — 1800, three deserters from 
the British fort at Kingston, escaped to this slate, and were 
making their way up the JJlack river valley, when they 
were pursued and arrested by a citizen of the district now 
included in .Jefferson co., shut up in an smoke house over 
night, and the next day taken back to the garrison, for the 
bounty offered by the JJritish government. The facts 
spread quickly through the settlements, losing nothing 
in passing from mouth to mouth, until in reaching this 
town, they had gained many details of cruelty, that were 
well calculated to excite indignation. With an impulse 
prompted by virtue, a prominent citizen of Constableville, 
seized his gun, declaring that the statutes against kidnap- 
]»ing should not lie trampled upon, and that the laws of his 
country should be enforced against the sordid villain who 
had sold the freedom of men for a few pieces of silver, 
lie called upon his nuighljors to arm and follow, and the 
expedition gaining a recruit at every cabin, amountetl to 
about forty .irmed men by the time it reached Champion. 
A warrant was taken out iVom Justice Mix, and delivered 
to a constable, with whom they proceeded to their destina- 
tion, nolwith>t;iiiding word was sent, tliat the otVeiuling 
party had ('mitloyud Indians to aid in delending him, and 
that resistance would bo made. The warrant was served 
anil the |)arly was escorted up to Cliampion, where lio was 
boiMul over to the nt'Xt term of the Onoida court, and the 
avengers (juietly returned home. The trial residtcd in the 
heaviest lino which could be imposeil, amounting with ex- 
penses, it is said, to about t$800, and a stigma was attached 
to the culprit, which half a century of virtuous life could 
not outlive, lie died in IS1.'{. 'i'he lirst local agent after 
W'aitl was Sannicl liall,' who resiiled hero but a few years. 

I Mr Hall returif'l i. Middletoirn, wherw h»» «1M about flre ypars since. 
lltj «>\viu«(l cxti'iijtivo l>rown frvcdtonit i|tiarrU<i), whicli liiiv»< Mti|)|iliud buiUliug 
maturial to an itnuiunne uxtvut, ia Nuw Yurk and I'lucwhi'ru. 



234 West Turin. 

The state of the colony in 1803 is thus described by James 
Constable in his diary : 

" Remained at Rome till Monday, Sept. 12, when I left at 9 A. 
M. for Shaler's settlement, in company wtth B. AVriglit. Travelled 
through a middling- good country but well settled, though the 
lands are principally held under lease from Gov. Clinton and 
Chancellor Lansing. This tenure is, I am told, very objection- 
able in the country, and it must be given up when the lease ex- 
pire. Came to Clark's tavern 6 miles from Rome, in the town of 
Western. This town the Governor is considerably' interested 
in, but except near Clark's the settlers are few and the soil not 
inviting. Some places appear to have been occupied, but are 
now deserted. We saw people going near a mile for water. 
This is however the driest season ever remembered through the 
country, and such a circumstance may not happen again. If it 
does the people will abandon this part. 

Passed through Lej^den^ which appears very indifferent, and 
the settlers were of course few, most of them indeed had not 
been long there. Arrived at Jones' 15 miles from Rome and ex- 
pected to find it a tavern to dine at, but they had left off that 
business as they told us was the case with their neighbors 4 
miles further, and that there was no public house nearer than 
Shaler's settlement, so we baited our horses and proceeded 
through Adgate's purchase and Inman's Triangle, both of which 
are and appear very rough and bad, though of the latter Wright 
tells me the part to the eastward is very good. We do not find 
a settler in several miles, and the road, bad as it is, is the only 
sign of improvement. Pass the two main branches of the Mo- 
hawk, now nearly dry, though very formidable streams gener- 
ally. The Triangle improves in quality somewhat, and after 
some distance we entered Shaler's No. 4, where we immediately 
saw settlers, good buildings, and crops of corn. His house and 
other buildings being not far from the south line, we soon ar- 
rived there, being 5 o'clock, so that we were 8 hours going 26 
miles, which in a new road is pretty good speed. While dinner 
was getting ready we looked at the buildings, The house is a 
good large frame house, well finished and grand for that part of 
the country. The barn, stable and other places for cattle also 
good. The mill is a common country mill with one run of stone 
and well finished. The saw mill like others of the country, but 
not covered in, though tlie boards cannot be wanting. Neither 
of these mills had run for some time for want of water. The 
dam_ seems firm and good though it has been twice heretofore 
carried away.^ There is also a house for potash work which is 

1 Leyden then included Boonville and Ava. 

2 The summer of 1803 was the driest upon record in the Black river coun- 
try. On one occasion a party of 17 men, working for Shaler, rather than to 
go without flour, mounted the wheel by turns, tread-mill fashion, and 
ground out sufficient grain for present use. Several of the early settlers went 



West Turin. 235 

equal to what I have seeu in this country; but knowing that up- 
wards of $10,000 were expended in these buildings, I was as- 
tonished to see that so much could have been laid out on them; 
but of this more hereafter. 

After our view it was near dark; we got our dinner, sat an 
liour or two and went to bod. Everything was well provided 
for us, and plenty of good liquor from Mr. Shaler's stock. Look- 
ing from the house, about 100 acres appear to be well cleared 
which is called the homestead, and there are also some very fine 
farms covered with good buildings, but tlierc is a street (as they 
call it) about a mile west from tiie house and of that length, of 
good farms in high cultivation, which the lateness of tlie hour 
and my other route did not permit me to see. I had to go to 
Martin's, 12 miles north of us, next morning, Tuesday, Sept. 13, 
and accordingly set off after breakfast, travelling over a road 
which the settlers b}' laying out judiciously and using have 
made infinitely superior to that between this place and Kome. 

Our course from Shaler's to Martin's is N. W. through No. 4, 
and part of No. 3. This No. 4 Wright considers superior to 
any land belonging to the estate. It is indeed very fine, and 
being more settled and cultivated than Ellisburgh appears to 
greater advantage, but the soil so far as I am a judge is not 
superior. There is however an advantage it possesses over the 
other in being so remiirkably well watered throughout, while 
Ellisburgh depends upon the two branches of Sandy Creek in 
the dry season. The buildings are all framed and well finished 
including Ijariis, &c. We seldcjm see log houses. On our route 
we met two men who wenj desirous of buying lands on the 
other No. 4,* which they had been to view, and which they said 
contained land good enough for any man. I told them the ex- 
ecutors^ had not yet detnininccl about opening that town for 
sale but soon would, and makt.' it known. This account of No. 
4 was pleasing, as I had formed u very indifferent opinion of it, 
and Wright says they itiust have been on the N. E. corner, us 
the n.'maiiider is Inid. Crossed from Shaler's No. 4 to No. 3, 
which seems somewhat inferior though very little. It has few 
settlers, his whole force having been hitherto applie<l to tlio 
other, but his ol»jcct now iu to settle No. 3, and he is raising the 
price of thtj olh<r to ?;i» and $7 which the people will not at 
present give, but go to the other at half the price. TasMed to 
Capt. Olapp's tavern S miles from Shaler's. 'i'he landlord is a 
very aclivt.-, imiuslrious ant] intelligent man, the buiUlings and 
farm about him in excellent order, tin; work of two years. Ho 
told me whcu ho set down there, there whh not u neighbor uorlh- 

to Whitfstuuii to mill, and one Win. lUrnvs Iwckod homo two bunli^U of 
corn meal from thai pluof. Tho find <laii» al '' ' !.'%il!«( wa.H Imilt llki> a 

loi^ lioiisf, ami "tixnl l(ri.M than a y>\t Tli" 1. vo iiK'iiliuiK'd waa af- 

lurwards biiriifil. 

I III .Marliii.sbun{h. No. 4 of tlie Itoylittoii tract. 

• Exuciitura of tliu ustatu of Wui. Con.Htablv, tlivu roouitij dooeuod. 



236 West Turin. 

ward of him as far as Lowville, and now there are about 40 
families in a distance of a few miles. I found from the conver- 
sation of him and Wright, that he knows every spot of the 
country; he informed us that he had been running a line for a 
road through the whole length of No. 3, and found the soil and 
ground good. This he did by order of Mr. Shaler, and when the 
road is cut the town will settle immediately." 

Returning the same day from Martin's, he adds : 
" Wednesday, Sept. 14. Arose and breakfasted by 5 o'clock, 
that we might go by Shaler's new road through No, 3 and 2. 
The former appeared in this part rough and hilly, the soil not 
very good and no settlers, but the road being only just cut, 
there has not been time for them to sit down. The travelling 
rather bad, there being no bridges or causeways to cover the 
mud holes. Passed on T miles without seeing a house till we 
come to Inman's Triangle. I was sorry to find No. 2 so indiffer- 
ent. The timber was mostly beech and hemlock, which denotes 
a very poor soil, and the country is rough and uneven without 
being relieved by intervale." 

In the year following, Constable notes under date of Sept. 
11, that after leaving Collins for Rome the wind blew very 
hard, and they heard and saw the trees falling in every 
direction. One dropped in the wood just before them and 
obliged them to go around it ; and in several places they 
leaped their horses over trees newly fallen. In 1805 he re- 
marks, Sept. 4 : 

"Passed on to Coxe's at the High Falls, or rather 1| mile 
west of them, where he lives and is finishing a house he 
bought. He is clerk of the new county of Lewis but has 
not yet got the books for the papers, and the records are in 
a very insecure place." 

Township No. 2, or Flora, was first opened for settlement 
under Shaler as agent, who was authorized June 13, 1803, 
to lay out a road, and sell at not less than $2.50 per acre. 
Abraham Scranton was appointed agent Dec. 15, 1804, 
through the aid of Shaler. On the 25th of August, 1804, 
Hamlet Scranton, •■• his son, was associated in the agency, 
and the rule, hitherto invariable, of requiring a quarter 
payment down was relaxed by the executors of the Consta- 
ble estate. The terms allowed were 2, 3, 4, and 5 years, in 
equal installments. The diary, under date of August 6, 
1806, says of this agency : 

1 Mr. Scranton was from Durham, Ct. The family removed to Rochester 
in April, 1812, where they became early settlers. Hamlet Scranton died of 
apoplexy, April, 1851, aged 78 years. — Memorial of the Scranton Family, p. 
61 ; Lives of Pioneers of Rochester, p. 9. Hamlet D. Scranton is the present 
mayor of Rochester. 



West Turin. 237 

" Left Rome and arrived at Scranton's in Turin towards 
evening, having travelled through the old road from Deacon 
Clark's in Western, through town No. 2, which appeared a 
good soil, thougli not a little liilly. Saw no settlers, and the 
road requires a good deal of working, which Mr. Scrauton 
informed me was to be done in about two weeks, the people 
from Leyden having undertaken to meet them and do their 
part. We find Mr. Scranton (the son) not so sanguine of 
settling this town as the father was last year, at $5, tho' he 
thinks settlers will come forward at a less price. We there- 
fore authorized him to proceed in the business on the best 
terms he could, without adhering to $5, He had a frame 
prepared for a saw-mill, which was to be i-aised to-day. The 
other ijusiness remained as last year. The grist-mill was at 
a stand both for a want of water and itself appearing to be 
worn out." 

The attempt to settle No. 2, except along the direct road 
to Rome, which crosses the N. E. corner, failed, as from its 
great elevation, grains did not thrive, and its value for 
grazing was unknown. In 1826 some Germans came to the 
office of II. I>. Pierrepont in Brooklyn, to buy lands, and 
selected portions of this town. Among these were Joseph 
Kochly, Capt. Wider and others, cliiefly from Alsace on the 
Rhine. They were joined by others from the borders of 
France and (Jermany, and from Switzerland ; and in 1834 
Kochly counted 75 (Jerman families, on 3,400 acres in No. 
2. In 183G, 2,000 acres were under contract, and as much 
more deeded, and in 1839, 5,000 acres were contracted. 
These foreigners an; chiefly Catholics and liUtherans. They 
prove a hardy, laborious, patient and well dispused class of 
people, and mostly become citizens a.s soon as the legal 
forms can be conijjlied with. Settlement was begun on Fish 
creek by one Wright, who was supported for some time l)y 
Pierrepont's agi-nt, on condition of his remaining. Others 
"were induced to venture in, and a pernumtMit settlement was 
formed. .Nbmy Irish from the canals (jottled in IS-fl, and at 
present tho greater part of the township is settled. 

The first birth, was that of Richard, a son of Joshua Rock- 
well, and tho necond that of Jidiii, daughter of .lohn Ives. 
Tl»e Hecond male child born in town was Setli Miller, jr. 
On tho second summer of setth'iiient, u young man named 
Coe was brought to Shaler's house to be nursed, and died, in 
179!> a siikly season occurred, and two men named Piatt 
(li«'d 1)1 a jiiitrid fever. About thirty por.sons who cnmo to 
attend them siekentMJ with the fever, hi the early settlement 
a child of Samuel Hall was drowned at Constableville. Tho 



238 West Turin. 

first school was kept by Miss Dorothy Wadsworth, daughter 
of Timothy Wadsworth and afterwards wife of Willard 
Allen. A school-house was built in 1798, near the house of 
Horace Johnson, Esq., in Constableville. 

In 1805 an act was procured, allowing Shaler to make 
conveyances in the same manner as if Wm. Constable, sen., 
were still alive. It was vetoed by the Council of Revision 
for the follovving reasons: 

" 1st. The bill not only enables Nathaniel Shaler, therein 
named, to complete the contracts of sale which he had made 
prior to the death of Wm. Constable, by virtue of attorney 
from him, but to proceed under the said power and sell the 
residue of the said lands therein specified, and which are 
stated in the bill to William Constable, a son of the said 
Wm. Constable, deceased, and who is now an infant under 
the age of twenty-one years, thereby absolutely disposing 
of the estate of the said minor, contrary to the just rights of 
property and the general principles of law. 

" 2d. Because if it is deemed necessary that the real estate 
of the said minor should be sold, it ought to be done under 
the direction, and at the discretion of the court of chancery, 
so that the respective interests of all parties concerned 
might be duly examined, adjusted and secured." 

The bill in a modified form passed on the last day of the 
session.^ 

i We may in this connection record a notice of tlie family so intimately as- 
sociated with the land titles of northern New York. 

William Constable was born in Dublin, Jan. 1, 1752. His father, Dr. John 
Constable, was a surgeon in the British army, and came to Montreal during 
the French war, and brought his sou William, then an infant, with him. In 
1762 Governor Cadwallader Golden granted him a commission as surgeon in 
the first regiment, in the pay of the province of New York. He then re- 
moved to Schenectady, where his daughter married Mr. James Phyn, who 
was there engaged in the Indian trade, ia correspondence with Col. Sir Wil- 
liam Johnson. 

Dr. Constable sent his son to Dublin for his education, to the care of his 
paternal aunt, Mrs. White, with whom he resided, while a student at Trinity 
college. By inheritance he became possessed of a valuable estate near Dub- 
lin. On his return to America his kinsman, Mr. Phyn, associated him in his 
business at Schenectady. On the breaking out of the war of the revolution 
Mr. Phyn and his friend Mr. Alexander EUice, removed to England under a 
pass from the committee of safety, in consequence of which their property 
was not confiscated. These gentlemen established in England the firm of 
Phyn, EUice and Inglis — a firm which gave two members to the privy council 
in the persons of their sons, Sir Robert Inglis and the right lionorable Ed- 
ward EUice. Mr. Constable joined the cause of his adopted country, and 
served in the army as aid-de-camp to General Lafayette. He ever afterwards 
continued in intimate correspondence with him. When the General visited 
this country in 1824, hearing that the widow of his deceased friend was at 
Brooklyn, at her daughter's, Mrs. Pierrepont, he paid his respects to her 
there. 

As Philadelphia and Charleston, were at that time, the chief commercial 



West Turin. 239 

William Constable, Jr., born April 4, 1786, was carefully 
educated in Europe, married Eliza, daughter of John 
McVickar, and in Juno, 1810, came to reside at Constable- 
ville, first occupying the house built by Shalcr. He received 

ports of the country, Mr. Constable associated himself with Mr. James Sea- 
grove and established a commercial house at Philadt-lphia, while his partner 
settled in Charleston. Tlieir trade was mainly with the West Indies, and 
Mr. Constable, in the course of his business, visited Havana, and there took 
the yellow fever, of which he nearly died. He married in 17s2 Ann White, 
daughter of Towusend White of Phihuhlphia ; a lady of beauty of ])erson, 
and of charncter, who had been a school friend of Miss Dandridge, and who 
afterwards became Mrs. General Washington, whose friendsliip she retained. 
After the peace, Mr. Constable, in 1784, removed to New York, and estab- 
lislied the lirm of Constabh>, Rucker & Co. On the death ot Mr. Rucker, 
shortly afterwards, the firm of Con.stable cS: Co., in which Robert Morris and 
Gouverneur Morris were partners, contributing .€r)(i,tiUO as their share of the 
capital. Tlie national debt, and that of the several states, not being yet 
funded, oflered great field for speculation, which the firm was largely con- 
cerned in, as they were also in furnishing supplies to Europe. Mr. Robert 
Morris, wlio was the chief financial agt-nt of our government, remained in 
Philadelphia, while Governeur Morris, who was sent minister plenipotentiary 
to France, aided by procuring contracts, and by his advices from thence. 
The war between France and Kngland threw the carrying trade into the 
hands of neutrals. The firm of Constable & Co. took early advantage of this, 
and in 178G sent the ship Empress to India and China, and made a very 
profitable voyage. In 178S the ship America, of COU tons, which was the 
finest ship that had been built at New York, was built by Mr. Constable for 
that trade. In 17!tlt lie i)roposed to build a ship of one thousand tons, but 
the demand for China goods in this country did not warrant it, and he aban- 
doned tli<; enterprise. He fulfilled a large'rontract with the British govern- 
ment for the sujijily of tlicir troops in Die West Indi<s. Through the agency 
of Col. Jeremiaii Wadsworth of Hartford, and Just-ph Howland of New 
London, Im shii)ped scvcnty-eiglit cargoes of cattle from Connecticut. 

liurojie c(jntinuing to draw sup]'li<s of provisions from lliis country, raised 
the price of wht;at licre to two (lollars per bushel, and even higher, wliich 
induced Mr. Constable to establish a flouring mill. For this purpose he pur- 
cha.sed the confiscated estate of Philips manor, at Yonkers, luneteun miles 
from New York, consisting of 32U acres. Here he resided and built a large 
mill, wliich he continued in operation for many yeara. He sold this estate 
for >ift;5,i'(t(i itiid lioiighl a country seat at IMooniingdale, six miles from New 
Yoric. His residence in tlie city wits first in (ireat Dock street, afterwards in 
Wall street, till 17'J7, when he hold to th.t bank of N«tw York for ii<27,(Hi(i for 
their banking house. Ho tlieu leajK-d the dM-elling of tlie Hon. Rufus King 
in llro:id\vay, where the Astor House has been built. 

.Mr. (Jon.-talile iil an early day liad ha.l hi.-* alt« iilion turned to land specu- 
lation. His first jiurcliases wen* in Ohio, a.-MMiated with companies, wlio 
with military protection, commenced settlementji, mainly of French settlers, 
on tin* Muskingum and tho Scioto. Am tiie Hritinh Ntill retained tlieir out|H>Mt.H, 
whidi they ilid not finally surrender till ten year* after the peace, tliey insti- 
gated the Indians to llara^.H then»« »ittlerH. H4sides thei44> landt h" uiaile ex- 
tt'Usive purchases in Kentucky, Virginia and (borgia. Mr. Constable wils in- 
terested in tie grant of two million.H of acres uinile by tlie state of Ma.^sacliu- 
aelts ill the Gefifsee couiitrv, which was sold to Mr. ltin<liain. He, in l7^7, 
n.MsocJateil with Ale.xander Muconib, with whom he had U^eii intiiiiAte sincu 
boyliood, in th« purchn.so of ilie tMO.INH) acrt's on the Kt. I.awrence river called 
tlie Till Tow ii-.liips. His slitue i,( tins purcliuie wiis Mndritl, polsdniii, and 
the half of buiisvillc, an I tlie half of St<ickhi>liu, in all PJ'J.IKR) acres. In 
Uiuyuar 17DI he a«»o«iated with Alvxaud-r Macoiub and I>aniel MiConuick 



240 West Turin. 

from his father, townships 3 and 4, of the four towns, sub- 
ject to the contract with Shaler, and a bond to Daniel 
McCormick. He died May 28, ]821. 

The elegant mansion erected by Mr. Constable in 1819, a 

ill the purchase from the state of New York of the great tract known as Ma- 
comb's purchase, estimated to contain four millions of acres, being one tenth 
of the state of New York, and comprising the whole of the present counties 
of Lewis, Jelierson, St. Lawrence and Franklin, with parts of Oswego and 
Herkimer. In this purchase, each of these gentlemen was jointly interested 
one-third, but the contract with the Commissioners of the Land Office was 
made in the name of Macomb, and the first patent taken out in his name, 
while the remainder of tlie tract was patented in the name of Daniel McCor- 
mick. The price paid was eight pence per acre, which at that time was deem- 
ed very advantageous to the state, as Massachusetts liad sold at that jjrice two 
millions of acres of land in the Genesee country, which was deemed far su- 
perior in quality to this land. The state was also really the gainer, in conse- 
quence of the stimulus given thereby to land speculation, which enabled the 
commissioners of the land office to sell the remaining unappropriated lands at 
advanced prices. The clause inserted in the patents, requiring settlements to 
be made within a specified time, had been usual in all grants previously made 
by the Provincial government and by the land office. It had, however, never 
been fulfilled and never enforced. When in 1791 the law granting power to 
the commissioners of the land office " to sell the waste and unappropriated 
lands of the state " was under discussion, Mr. Macomb (a member of the 
Legislature) had this clause, by an unanimous vote, stricken out. It 
veas inserted in the patents by inadvertence, and when attention was drawn to 
it by foreign purchasers, Mr. Macomb procured a certificate of the nullity of 
the clause. 

Immediately after the contract was made with tlie land office, Mr. Consta- 
ble embarked for Europe to sell, where he was joined by his family. He 
remained till the fall of 1795 and had two children born in Europe. He left 
his commercial house in charge of his brother James, whom he took into 
partnership, having dissolved his connection with the Messrs. Morris. In 
1792 the patent for Great Tracts 4, 5 and 6, containing 1,920,000 acres, was 
taken out, and the title immediately transferred to Mr. Constable, who, with 
the aid of his agents. Col. Samuel Ward and Col. William S. Smith, succeed- 
ing in selling the whole, in large tracts, to Messrs. Inman, Chassanis, Anger- 
steen, the Antwerp Company and Thomas Boylston, at prices varying from two 
to four shillings per acre. 

The surveys which were not completed till after these sales were made, 
located the Black river further north than it was supposed to be. A tract 
was sold to Thomas Boylston, bounded by the Black river on the north and by 
the line of the jjatent on the south as four hundred thousand acres more or 
less. The subsequent surveys showed this tract to be valuable, and to con- 
tain 817,155 acres ; M-hereupou Mr. Constable rei^urchased it at an advance 
of £60,000 sterling, and then sold the northern part of it, containing 305,000 
acres, for one dollar per acre to Messrs. Low, Henderson, Harrison and Hofl- 
man. This tract is now called the eleven Black river towns. 

The remainder of the Boylston tract, containing 512,155 acres, Mr. Con- 
stable retained for himself, having bought out the interests of his associates in 
it. It was subdivided into townships, called the Thirteen Towns, which, with 
the town of Ellisburgh, and Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 of Turin, called Constable's 
Four Towns, constituted the whole of it. 

If the surveys of the 640,000 acres of ten townships, and the great tracts 
of No. 1, 2, and 3, containing 1,800,000 acres, could have then been obtained, 
Mr. Constable would have succeeded in selling the whole in Europe. The 
St. Regis Indians, instigated by tlie Governor of Canada, Lord Dorchester, 
drove ofi" the surveyors, and finally did not cease their opposition, till the 



West Turin. 241 

little east of Constableville, lias since remained the home- 
stead of tiie family. This seat for quiet seclusion, elegant 
surroundings and classic heauty, is not surpassed by any in 
northern New York. The management of the landed 



Jay treaty, after which the British posts at Oswego and Oswegatchie were 
given up. 

On lii.s return to America, Mr. Con.stable exerted him.self to make improve- 
ments in roads, so as to open his lands tor settlement. He also took an active 
interest in forming a water communication between tlie Hudson and lake 
Ontario, by improving tlie navigation of the Moliawk river and Wood creek. 
The company formed for tlie purpose was called the Northern Inland Lock 
Navigation Company. This company, after succeeding in conveying boats 
of ten tons from Sciienectady to lake Ontario, with one portage, was bought 
out by the state, wlien it was determined to construct the Erie canal. The 
first township sold was EUisburgh, which subsequently reverted. Afterwards 
No3. 3 and 4, now Turin, were placed in the hands of Mr. Shaler of Middle- 
town, as we have already noticed. 

The next township sold was No. r>, to Walter Martin. For this township 
there were many competitors ; but Mr. Constable made it an invariable rule, 
not to sell but on receiving one-quarter of the payment in money. If he 
had departed from this determination, he miglit then liave sold all his town- 
ships at two dollars per acre, so great was then the rage for land speculation 
and so scarce was money. The only other township sold was No. 12, called 
Redfield, whicli was sold for two dollars per acre. The consequence of the 
European war was then severely felt in our commercial conmuniity, from the 
the cour.se taken by belUgerents in seizing our vessels. France, di.ssatisfied 
with an act of neutrality, and under a disorganized government, made seizures 
of our vessels under various pretexts. The spoliations thus made would have 
been paid to our merchants by France, but unfortunately for the claimants, 
they were assumed by our own government, wliich, to tlie di.sgiace of the 
country, has withh'ld jiayment to this day. Among the refugees from 
France, driven to this country in 17D7, were the Duke of Orleans and his 
broth'Trt Moni)ensitT, and lit-aujoli. The duke brought a letter of credit 
from (iouverneur Morris on Mr. Constable, for one thousand dollars. This 
money, witli interest, was repaid by Louis I'hillippe to the sou of Mr. Morris. 

The pat'-nts of Oreat Tracts Nos. 1, 2, and 3, were not obtained till 17'J8. 
Mr. .Macomb had faihil in IT'.t.i, for one millinn of dollars, in consequence of a 
wild sijciulatiou in slocks, witii Col. William Din-r and I.saac Whipjio. He 
thereupon assigned his third interest in tln-sc tracts to certain creditors, and 
conveyed Ids contrail with the Uind otlice to Daniel McCormick, who took 
out the I'atunts in his nanif, and made a jiarlition with Mr. Constable for his 
oiM! third interest. On his .second visit to KiirojM-, Mr. Constable narrowly 
escaped being tsiken by a jirivat'-.-r. He succeeded in France in making somo 
large .sales of laml to Mr. !.<• Kay, Mr. I'arish and to Neckar. The commer- 
cial diHlresa that prfVaiU-d in England prevented any success in that country. 
It was in I'arirt liiat lie lli.il became acquainted witli Mr. i'lerreiKjut, who in 
1M>2 biMuuie his son in law. 

Hearing tliat his brother James liad involved hlM eumniercial hoiu« by en- 
dorsements, Mr. ConsUiblo returiKil to New York in IhOl. Ti.ouijh under 
no legal obligation to ilo ho, he ]>aid ' ; consumed 

most of iiis jR'r.Honal projMirty. The -..1 and 13 

in Lewis co., wvru given to houiw ot the huidurt oi thi-n«< ohligutioiui. lliii 
health, wliich had alwayit U'«m delicalt', wim much iMi|iairt'il by tlih* luiitfur- 
tuuu. Hi* eiideavoriHl tu viiiit his luiidt, but after (joing to Home, ho found 
the roud could not U- traveled except un liorvbnck, ' '.■• wvu< unable to 

do. He thu.i iii'Ver xaw nil aen* of hi« MXtt<iinivo |.. m thi.<< county. 

Ho ajqwiintcd Mr. Itiiijuniiii Wriijl Meral lai.d uti^ui. Mr. Wright, 

who resided at Koiie-, liad In- n pt cuijiluyed by .Mr. Constable in 



242 West Turin. 

interests remaining with this family, chiefly devolved upon 
his son John Constable, whose indulgence towards settlers, 
and whose urbane manners, have rendered him deservedly 
popular in the community where he resides. 

surveys for the improvement of Wood creek, when he was interested in the 
Inland Lock Navigation company. He had also been his principal surveyor 
in subdividing Macomb's purchase into townships and lots. He continued 
his valuable agency for the family, till his services were required by the state 
in the construction of the Erie caiial. Under the agency of Benjamin Wright, 
Nathaniel Shaler, and Isaac W. Bostwick, the sale and settlement of this land 
progressed satisfactorilv. 

Mr. Constable died 22d of May, 1803, leaving a widow and seven children. 
As in questions of title in this county, the names of his heirs are often re- 
quired, we will add a list of them. 

Jnna Maria, born 1783, died 1859. She married Hezekiah B. Pierrepont, 
who died 1838. 

Eweretta, born 1784, died 1830. Married James McVickar who died 1835. 
WiUiani, born 1786, died 1821. Married Eliza McVickar. 
John, born 1788, resides in Philadelphia. He married Susan Livingston, 
and afterwards his present wife, Alida Kane. 

Harriet, born 1794, married James Daane, who died 1859. She continues 
to reside in Duane, Franklin county. 

Emily, born 1795, died 1844. Married Dr. Samuel W. Moore, who died 
1854. 

Matilda, born 1797, married Edward McVickar, and resides at Constable- 
ville, and New York city. 

The executors under the will, were James Constable, H. B. Pierrepont and 
John McVickar. The first two gentlemen made persevering efforts to open roads 
and induce settlement We give elsewhere some interesting extracts from 
the diaries of Mr. Constable, from 1803 to 1806. He died in 1807, and Mr. 
McVickar died 1812. Mr. Pierrepont continued his labors till the settlement 
of the estate in 1819, when he purchased the remaining interest of the heirs 
of Mr. Constable. The land.s in Lewis county, he became possessed of, were 
town.ships Nos. 1 and 2, West Turin, 3 Montague, 4 Martinsburgh, with part 
of No. 5, and No. 8 and 13 Osceola, and parts of Denmark and Harrisburgh ; 
comprising one hundred and fifty thousand acres. On the death of Mr. 
Pierrepont, in 1838, these lands were subdivided among his heirs. 

In concluding our notice of Mr. Constable, which we have somewhat ex- 
tended, from the connection which his history necessarily has with the history 
of Lewis county, we will add a delineation of his appearance and character 
as portrayed by that venerable and distinguished jurist, the Hon. Ogden Ed- 
w.'>rds : 

William Constable was truly one of nature's noblemen. He was a man of 
sound comprehension and fruitful mind, of high-toned feelings and vivid 
imagination. He saw clearly, felt keenly and expressed himself pungently. 
He was endowed with all the qualities necessary to constitute an orator ; and 
was, in truth, the most eloquent man in conversation I ever heard. So im- 
pressed was I by his eloquence, even at the early age of sixteen, that I asked 
my father if he did not think that Mr. Constable was very eloquent in con- 
versation. To which he cooly replied " That he was the most eloquent man 
in conversation that he had ever heard." Such were his powers, and such 
the charms of his conversation, that wherever he went he was the king 
of the company. I first saw him in 1796, at a dinner party. Among 
the distinguished persons present were General Hamilton, Colonel Burr and 
Volney. Yet, even in such company, all eyes and ears were turned to him, 
and he appeai-ed to be the master spirit. He was a man of a princely dispo- 
sition. Every thing with liim was upon a lofty scale. Whatever was laud- 



West Turin. 243 

George Davis of Bellville, N. J., formerly a sea captain, 
in 1817, purchased a large tract of wild land from James 
McA^ickar, and several improved farms, and came to reside 
at Constableville. His maritime associations had deprived 



able insured his commendation ; what was reprehensible, his fiery indigna- 
tion. 

It is a Spanish proverb, " Tell me who your company is, and I will tell you 
who you are." Testing him by this rule, 'lie must have been truly great, for 
his most intimate associates were Jay and Hamilton, and Robert Morris, and 
the other muster spirits of the time. Even in early life he was thrown into the 
society of tin- distinguished men of the revolution, being an aid to the great 
and good Lafayette. 

Ills ajjpeunuice strikingly indicated liis character, his countenance beamed 
with intelligence and expressed every emotion. So striking was his appear- 
ance that I heard a very sensible man say, "That although he was not 
ac(iuaintfd with Mr. Con.stable, yet, such was his appearance, that he felt as 
though lie- slioul<l li.' pl..-as>-d to pa.^s his days in his company." He lived in 
splendi<l style and his house was the resort of the master spirits of the day. 
The last time I .saw him was in 1802, at Lebanon Springs, the summer before 
lie died. Though in broken health, his spirits were superior to his infirmi- 
ties. Although more than half a century has since elapsed, yet .so striking 
and so interesting were his characteristics, and so deep the impression they 
made on me that I retain a vivid recollection of them to this day. I may 
say in the words of the poet : 

And that the elements were so happily blended in him 
That nature might have stood up and said to all the world 
" This was a man." 

Hezckiah Beers Pt>rr<po«f of Brooklyn, was known in Lewis county, through 
his extensive landed pos.se.ssions in tlie county, and the int'-rcourse, in con- 
sequence, he had with the inhabitants. He was born at New Haven, Con- 
necticut, 3d Nov., 1768, and was descended from the Rev. James Pierrepoiit, 
the first minister settled in that colony after its establishment. It is worthy 
of note that the town ]>lat apportion.-d to hin\ in lGs4, has ever since belong- 
ed to the family, and U'en onui)i>d by tlnni. It has thus never been sold 
since it was ceeded by the nborigines. The immediate ancestor of the Rev. 
James I'ierrepont, wa.s Jidin I'iiTrepont, who Ix-longed to the family of lloime 
l'ierrei)ont, in Nottinghamshire, wiucL family Wixs descended from Kobtrl do 
rierropont of Normuiidy. Jidm came to America about the year lG4l>, with 
bis younger brother Roheit, us tradition says, merely to visit the country, 
hut married and neiili-.l near Hoston, wlnTe he purtha.sed in lt)56, three hun- 
dred aeres, now the sit" of the town of Ko.xbury. The family name living 
I'reiicli, became Anglicized in Ihi* lountry, and was spelt I'ierpont. Tho 
lorrect H|Hlling Un» l»'eii re.Munied by this branch of tlie family. 

The Mubji it of tItiH UMtmoir <li«pluyed ut an early age an enterprising active 
Bpiril. While at cdlege he Iwcamo diswatislled with the study of Latin and 
(ireek, and the ]iro.M|»Tt of a profe.i.iional lili'. He proiMi;.ed to his lather if 
he wouM iHrinil him to leuve his «tiidi<-«t, he would provide for him.Hell, and 
not receive a hhare of hin e.itatx. Hi.s fiither con.stmted, and he fiillilled hi« 
jiromi.Mif to liiin, and IhiTenfler proviiled for himaulf. He first eiit.r»'tl th« 
otliee of his uncle, Mr. Lnaae Heent, at New Haven, to obtain a knowledge of 
bnsine.s.t. In 17'.t*> he went to New York and engaged in the ru>toui houM*, 
with the view of obtitining u lM<tter knowb-ilge of eominereial businewi. The 
ne.\t year he a-s..iiiited hiniieif with Me-e-r^. Wat.fon and (rr ileaf, and act- 
ed with them in l'liihidel]>liiit in the purchuMe of national d- t>t, in which he 
realized n HUiftll fortune. In 17i)3 ho formed a partnvnhi|> with hiM cuuain 



244 West Turin. 

him of the ability or the inclination to assume that social 
position, or to enjoy the rural independence and happiness 
Avhich one difllerently reared might have attained. He be- 
came involved in losses, his health failed, he went to sea, 

William Leffingwell and established in New York, the house of Leffingwell 
and Pierrepont. 

France Leing then in revolution, neglected agriculture, and derived large 
supplies of provisions from America. Mr. Pierrepont went to France to at- 
tend the shipments of his firm. The seizures of liis vessels by England, then 
at war with P'rance, so embarrassed the trade that he abandoned it, and in 
1795, purchased a fine ship named the Confederacy, on which he made a 
trading voyage to India and China, acting as his own supercargo. On his re- 
turn voyage, his ship with a valuable cargo was seized by a French privateer, 
and condemned and sold, contrary to the laws of nations and our treaty stip- 
ulations. He remained in France making reclamations against that govern- 
ment, with a good prospect of recovering the value of his property, when a 
treaty was made between the two countries, by the terms of which our gov- 
ernment agreed to assume the claims of its citizens against France, and France 
agreed to assume the claims of its own citizens against the United States. To 
the disgrace of the government of the United States, these claims, among other 
similar claims known as " claims for French spoliations prior to 1800," though 
brought constantly before congress, have never been paid. Twenty-one re- 
ports have been made in their favor, and the bill has twice been passed and 
been vetoed. The best men of this country have admitted their justice and 
advocated them. 

Mr. Pierrepont was in Paris during the most bloody days of the revolution, 
and saw Robespierre beheaded. He was detained in England also by the 
legal steps necessary to obtain his Insurance, part of which he recovered. 
Though war prevailed, his character as a neutral enabled him to travel be- 
tween England and France. Our country being represented in those countries 
by able men, as well in as out of the diplomatic circle, he enjoyed their 
society and cemented friendships which lasted during life. That with Mr. 
Constable was one, and also that witli Robert Fulton, in compliment to whom 
Mr. PieiTcpont named a son Robert Fulton, who died in infancy. After an 
absence of seven years Mr. Pierrepont returned to New York. He married in 
1802, Anna Maria, eldest daughter of William Constable. After his marriage 
wishing to engage in some business of less hazard than foreign trade, "he 
traveled through New England to examine its manufacturing establishments 
and finding distilling profitable he in 1802 purchased at Brooklyn a brewery 
belonging to Philip Livingston, and turned it into a manufactory of gin 
which attained a high reputation, and was very profitable as it was at that 
time the only manufactory of the kind in the state. He piirchased also a 
country seat on Brooklyn heights, which afterwards became his permanent 
residence. He was at that time one of only twenty-six freeholders, who 
owned the village of Brooklyn, now a city the third in population in the 
United States. When the profits of his manufactory were diminished by 
competition Mr. Pierrepont abandoned it, and thereafter gave liis attention 
exclusively to the management of his extensive landed estate in northern 
New York and his real estate at Brooklyn. He purcha.sed in 1806 the town 
of Pierrepont and .subsequently half of Stockholm in St. Lawrence county. 
He made large additions to his landed estate in the five northern counties by 
purchases from tlie heirs of Wm. Constable and others, and became the 
owner of nearly half a million of acres of land, one hundred and fifty thou- 
sand acres of wliich were in this county. He made annual visits to this 
county to direct the making of roads and other improvements to facilitate 
sttttlements, and spent large sums on turnpike roads, aiding in constructing, 
among others, the St. Lawrence turnpike, of which he was president, and 



fHE NE ^^f 

GBLIC U. 



3 



Wed Turin. 245 

and died off the coast of South America. His son is said 
to have paid the penalty decreed by the hiw of nations 
against pirates. 

The Welsh settlers on the hills west of Turin, mostly 
settled under Capt. Davis. 

The post office of Constablevillc, was established Jan., 
1826, with Soth sillier, jr.,^ as postmaster. The receipts of 
the first quarter were $4.12, and in the first three years 
averaged $4.01. They began to increase rapidly Jan., 
1829, wlicn they had more than quadrupled. The quarter 
ending ^Farch, IS53, gave $;C5.12, and the whole period of 
Col. Miller's terra, ending Sept., 1853 (excepting from Jan., 
'45, to May '49), gave a total of $3,744.45 received from 
postage. 

which extended from the Black river to Franklin county a distance of seventy 
miles. lie was also one of the principal proprietors of tlin turn})ike from 
Rome to Coiistableville, and was interesteil in the Albany and Sclienectady 
rail road, which was the lirst constructed in the state of New York. 

His lirst visit to this county was in 1803, with Mr. James Constable. It 
was then an almost unbroken forest, and he was obliged to travel on horse- 
back. He had the gratification to witness its gradual settlement and improve- 
ment, much of which was the result of his own exertions, seconded by hia 
agents, Mr. IJostwick, Mr. Harvey Stephens, Mr. Diodate Pease, and Mr. David 
Stiles and others. In the treatment of settlers Mr. I'ierrepont was uniformly 
kind and lenient, extending his indulgence in the collection of their indebted- 
liess, luuch to liis own inconvenience. He surrendered the care and manage- 
ment of his lands in Lewis county for five years jirevious to liis death, and 
by tlie jirovisions of his will, to his son Henry E. I'ierrejiont, who continued 
during twenty years in their ai-tivt? numagement, till the year 1853, when they 
were partitioned among thi- members ot the family. 

Mr. Fieiiej.out died lltli August, 183t<, leaving a widow, two sons and 
eight daughters. His widow died in 18.1'.). We add a li.st of tlie children of 
Mr. i'ierrepdut, to whom his posse.ssions in this county have descended. 

H'i//i(im ConttabU Pierrepont, residing at I'ierrejiont Manor, Jeff. Co. 

Henry Emlyn Pierrrjiont, re>i<liug ut IJrooklyu. 

Jlnna ConstuhU Purrepont who died iu iN.i'J, leaving a son, 0. Hubert Van 
Wai,'enen. 

Ktnily Cotitlalile Pitrrrpout, who nwirried Josejdi A. I'erry. 

Prauiis Matilda Pitrrqtont, who nuirried Rev. Frederick S. Wiley. 

Mary Montaf^uv Pirrrtpont , who died in lh.'i3. 

lluiritt ('(mstulilr Pici ripont, \\\ii.> imur'uxl KdgurJ. Harton. She died 18 . 

Miiria 'I'hin-ia Pmrrfpotti, who married Jo.s.-pii S. Hicknell. 

Jiilta Jiuephme Pitrrrpunt, wlio married Jidin ('oiistable of CoimtAbU'villv. 

EUtn A. Pirrrtpont, wlio married Ur. JanicM .M .Minor. 

' Col. Miller bemiu trmht in Ibl'.i, and ha** ' nteudily and 

fully engugeil ill bunilH'HM, pri)M«||tillg the 1' ' o( inutillll' 

cautilo eiiiployiiient iu the county. Ill th« variouri euniuuTcial crimen which 
have hapiM'Ued, hn hait not U-vii (■oiii|>ellt<d for a day to nuiipund bu»ini>».i or 
Btop {Miyinent ; an •'Xviuptiun which can bv itnid uf but (nw iiii<rchaiit« of 
e<pial bu.iiiieiM In thin A«<-tioii of th« itativ ThU Nuccoam b > du» to a 

discriiiiiiiatiiig jiidk^iiient, and ittriet ntt«iilii>ii t>> bii)iiii«it.<i, ij . .huh iii 

every pursuit, eiinure tb.ir a\<\ •  Col .MiIUt »*^ iimny wars 

a partner of Jauc-.t ('. DiitT. lb r . < iitlal in public affnir», and a 

prominent political luadir iu tho Whl({ and Hvpublicau ichoul. 



246 West Turin. 

The village of Constablevilleistbemost important business 
point in the southern part of the county, and enjoys an 
extensive trade with the country south and west. 

Collinsville, on the East road Ig m, west of the falls, was 
formerly known as High Falls village, and received its pre- 
sent name from Levi and Homer Collins. It v/as an im- 
portant business point in former times, and Jabez Foster, 
Levi Collins, John Hooker, Richard Coxe and others carried 
on extensive mercantile operations at or near this place. 
The Collinsville Institute was incorporated by act of May 2, 
1837, which appointed Dr. David Budd,^ John Whittlesey, 
Hezekiah Scovil," Ela Merriam, Alburn Foster, Jabez Rock- 
well, Jehiel H. Hall, Morgan Cummings, Rev. Russel Way, 
and Sylvester Hart, trustees. A school was taught in the 
basement of the Union church, a few terras, by A. W. Cum- 
mings, when the enterprise died out. It was never recog- 
nized by the Regents, and issued but one catalogue. The 
business of this village has been almost entirely transferred 
to other places. 

Lyons Falls, is the name of a small village and P. 0., at 
the High falls, where the Black River canal enters the river 
which is navigable from this place to Carthage. The falls 
themselves, and a narrow strip about three acres in extent 
on the west side belonged to the Brantingham tract. A lot 
of 50 acres adjacent, was bought about 1835, upon specula- 
tion by an association, and some part is still held in undi- 
vided possession. The water power belonged to Caleb 
Lyon at the time of his death. In 1829, an act was pro- 
cured for a manufacturing co. at this place, rather to call 
attention to its facilities than with a view of actual con- 
struction. The water power now amounting to 70 feet fall 
including the state dam above, has hitherto been improved 
only by a saw mill, and the importance of the village as a 
business point is mostly prospective. The high falls during 
freshets, present a scene of wildness and grandeur well 
worthy of a visit, but in low water the torrent is confined 
to narrow channels worn in the gneiss rock, down which it 
rushes with immense force. Tradition relates that in the 
revolution, a white man pursued by Indians, leaped safely 

^Dr. D. Budd was born in Schoharie, Sept. 30, 1798, attended one course 
of lectuies at Phila., received a diploma from the Sclioharie Co. Med. Society- 
June 10, 1821, and removed in that year to this town. He died in Turin 
village Nov. 4, 1848, having held for several years the offices of judge and 
justice of the peace. He was a man of scientific attainments and devoted 
some portion of his time to mineralogy. His son Dr. Charles D. Budd is en- 
gaged in medical practice in Turin. 

-Died Oct. 12, 1856, aged 75 years. 



West Turin. 247 

across these channels and escaped from his pursuers, who 
l)aused at the verge of the fearful chasm, and dared not fire 
their pieces at the heaven protected fugitive. Several fatal 
accidents have hap[jened here. In May, 1837, two men 
named Graves and Brown were drawn under the falls in a 
boat one Sunday and drowned. The body of the former 
was found a year after at an island l)elow, having apparently 
been buried in the sand most of the time. 

On the 5th of May, 1842, a son of Noble Phelps, aged 5 
years, playing in a skilf above the falls, was drawn into the 
current, Mr. J. Lewis Church seeing the peril, seized a log- 
hook IVom the mill yard, sprung upon the bridge, dropped 
down on the slope of the pier, caught the boat as it was 
passing down the falls, and saved the child's life at a great 
risk of his own. On the 9th of Jan., 1857, John Post, jr., 
aged 22, while cutting ice in a fkimo above the falls, stepped 
upon a cake which broke and dropjjed him into the stream. 
lie probably passed over the falls immediately. 

The house of D. 11. Green, adjacent to St. Paul's Church 
cemetery on the West road, was burned on the evening of 
Dec. 7, 1859, and two boys aged 12 and 13 years, who were 
sleeping in the chamber, perished in the flames. The family 
had retired to rest, and were awakened by the fire, which 
barely allowed Mrs. (Jreen and two younger children to 
escape. The stairway was already in ilames, and the lads 
stilled and bewildered by the smoke, sank down within 
hearing of their mother. The Inisband was away from 
home, and as the night was intensely cold, no help was 
rallied until the work of death was accomplishetl. 

Kklujious Societiks. — Missionaries named Hart and 
Uobinson, from Conn., camo through the country and held 
meetings at an early day. During the summer of 179(j, 
regular prayer meetings were held. About 1803, a revival 
occurred, in whicli most of the converts joined the Baptists. 
A church was formed at that time, inider Rev. Stephen 
I'arsons from Miildletown, and for several years was much 
the most thriving in town. A Baptist society was legally 
lormed in this town Juno 15, 1S35, with Aaron Parsons, 
Josso Miller, and Nathaniel Wadsworth, trustoos. After 
existing at (Jonstablevillo Buvurul yourw, it has bocomo 
nearly or (|uite extinet. 

About 1S()3, a Presbyterian church whh formed, which 
became Coiigrogatiohail, and its ujeetingH wore reint)vod to 
Turin village. On the lltliof Feb, ISJ3, the Constablevillo 
Presliyterian ehurch was organized by the Watertown 
Presbytery, consisting at first of 4 nuilos and 11 females. 



248 West Turin. 

A Presb. soc. had been legally formed June 13, 1835, with 
Edwin Miller, Nathaniel Wood and James Miller, 2d, first 
trustees, and changed to Congregational Oct. 22, 1838. 
This society has no church edifice, but owns an interest in 
the Union church at Constableville. 

The first church edifice built in town, and the first of its 
denomination north of the Mohawk valley, was St. Paul's 
church, which stood about a mile north east of Constable- 
ville, near where the Canal turnpike ended. This society 
was organized April 7, l8l7, at the house of Levi Collins, 
in Collinsville. The first vestrymen were Nathaniel Mer- 
riam, and Thomas Alsop, and the first wardens JohnKentner, 
James McVickar, Giles Foster, William Constable, Walter 
Dewey ,^ Willard Allen, Calvin Roberts, George Davis, and 
Timothy Miller. 

Arrangements were first made to build of stone near Col- 
linsville, but the influence of Geo. Davis, T. Alsop and oth- 
ers determined its final location. The first rector was 
Joshua ]\I. Rogers, who was sent hither as a missionary, and 
labored with great zeal and success to promote the objects 
of his mission.^ He was succeeded by the Revs. Amos G. 
Baldwin, Edmund Embury, Lawrence Sterne Stevens, and 
for a short period by others. St. Paul's Church was con- 
secrated by Bishop Hobart, Aug. 16, 1818," and the grounds 
were deeded to the society in October of that year. The 
edifice having fallen into decay was taken down, and its lo- 
cation being inconvenient, the society was reorganized 
Jan. 30. 1835, under the Rev. Mr. Embury for the purpose 
of rebuilding in a more convenient site. Edward McVickar 
and Wm. Van Coughnet were chosen wardens, Seth Miller 
jr., Wm. Constable, Edwin Miller, Brock McVickar, Wm. 
D. Shaler, James C. Duff", Bryant Collins and Bard McVickar 
ar, vestrymen. During that year St. Paul's chapel was 
built on the south border of Constableville village, upon a 
site deeded to Trinity church, N. Y., from which it received 
$600 in aid of the building. 

After some attempt to build separately, the Presbyterian, 
Open Communion Baptists, Bajjtists and Meth. Episcopal 
churches united in 1835, and built a union meeting house in 
Constableville. There is at present no stated preachmg in 

^Dr. Dewey died at Collinsville, Feb. 26, 1821, aged 35 .years. 

2 Mr. Rogers was born at Hudsor, N. Y., May 15, 1782, of Bapti.st parents. 
He was ordained deacon in 1816, and as prie.st in 1817. In 1833 be accepted 
a call to Trinity churcb, Utica, and in 1851 resigned and retired to Easton, 
Pa., wbere he died March 1, 1858. He was buried near New York. 

3 Two years before this date, there were but two Episcopal families in thi.s 
vicinity. In 1817, there were 16 communicants. 



West Turin. 249 

this house, except by the Methodists. In the winter of 
1842-3, a revival occurred in which nearly all these sects 
united. 

An Open Communion Baptist church was organized in 
this town about 1812, from the Baptist church previously 
existing, in which Jeduthan Iligby^ and Russell Way- be- 
came prominent ministers. They mostly resided near Col- 
linsville. They are now much reduced in numbers, but con- 
tinue to hold their covenant meetings. 

The union meeting house at Collinsville was built of stone, 
in 1836, by the Presbyterian Coiigregational, both Bap- 
tist, and Prot. Episcopal sects, each to use it in proportion 
to subscription. The society was formed Sept. 29, 1836, 
with Ansel Stocking, Lyman Lane and Lyman Iloadley, 
trustees. The church has been thoroughly repaired within 
a few years. 

An independent Baptist society was formed March 22, 
1842, with Newton Clark, Benham Webb, Edwin Payne, Ja- 
son Paine and Horace C. Ragan, trustees, but no edifice has 
been built. 

On the I3th of March, 1848, a Calvinistic ^[ethodist 
church (Welsh) was formed at Collinsville, with John 
Hughes, Evan Roberts, Edward Reese, Robert Evans and 
Robert Morris trustees, but no edifice was built by them 
until 1855, when the society was reorganized Jan. 22, and 
a neat church edifice built in that year. The first trustees 
under this organization wore Rev. Tliomas Williams, Thomas 
Lewis, Evans Evans, John Lloyd, John Hughes and Grillith 
T. Williams. A church of this sect was formed in Con- 
stablevillo, March 13, 1848, and has a small edifice. Li both 
of these the Welsh language is used. 

The church of .St. .Nlichaul in this town, four miles south 
of Constalileville, was first built by u society legally formed, 
Nov. 2, 1843, having as trustees, Casper llouck, Josepli 
Bali, Jacob DctL'nbm.k, Jo.sujjh Ryan and Nicholas Kreshuck. 
It was rebuilt in 1S51, on the plank road near the summit 
of the land <lividing the waters of the iUack and .Moliawk 
rivers. It is of ample sizo and has a bell. Preaching is 
done in the (terman langiuige, and a (ierman school was 
opened adjacent in 1857. 

Tlio ne.\t Catholic church formed in the town was St. 

I From Miililli'towii, Ct. Uin huh of thi) Mtii>* tiaiuu bec&nia k Pro'ib/tfrian 
niitii.Htfr, nii<l an a-ixuciatx of iU-rry of Dxiiiiinrk. 

-Eld. Way VIM from Miittllvtuwii. Ili< di«*<l at iiiii homo in Coiliiurille, 
Fob. 'Si, 1S48, aged CH yuani. His faihur, Muaee Wmj, died io UiU town 
April 7, 1813, agud G7 jeoni. 

F* 



250 Early Roads. 

Mary's, mostly supported by the Irish, and situated half a 
mile west of Constableville. It was built in 1846. A third 
church of this denomination, named St. Peter's and St. 
Paul's, was built in 1854, near Fish creek in the extreme 
south west corner of the town. It is attended from St. 
Michael's church, and is also almost entirely supported by 
Germans. 

A Methodist Episcopal society was formed in 1849, with 
John R. Scovill, David C. Higby and James Crofoot first 
trustees, and a chapel named the Ebenezer was built in that 
year, about two miles west of Constableville, on Crofoot 
hill, at a cost of $ 1,050. About half this cost was defrayed 
by James Crofoot and his sons William, John, Levi and 
Benjamin. Other sects assisted, and may use it to some ex- 
tent. 

A German Union Evangelical church was formed Dec. 5, 
1854, with Geo. Long, Samuel Miller and Andrew Hays 
trustees. They have a small church on the plank road, 
three miles south of Constableville, near Olmstead creek. 



CHAPTER V. 

STATE TURNPIKE AND PLANK ROADS. 

The first road projected through this section of the state 
was designed to extend from the Little falls on the Mo- 
hawk to the High falls on Black river. The measure was 
urged upon the legislature by Arthur Noble and Baron 
Steuben in 1791 and received a favorable report but no 
further action.^ The first road actually opened in the 
county, was made at the expense of the Castorland Com- 
pany and led from Rome to the High Falls. It was cut out 
about 1798 by one Jordan, and was used several years, but 
as its course lay across the current of travel as it was soon 
after directed, it soon fell into disuse and not a mile of it is 
now in existence. It is said that a branch from this road 
led to Whitesboro. The French also caused a road to be 
laid out and cut from their settlement at the falls to Beaver 
river, but this can now only be traced by a line of second 
growth trees through the forest, or the rude vestiges of its 
bridges. It was nearly direct in its course, and appears to 

1 The petition of Steuben and Noble is given in the Hist, of Jeff . co., p. 307- 
The diversion of the Canadian fur trade to Albany was urged as a prominent 
motive. 



Early Roads. 25 1 

nave been laid out rather with a view to shorten distance 
than to accommodate settlement along its course. It was 
cut by Judah jJarnes in 1797-8. 

A bridle path run with a pocket compass, with very little 
reference to the most favorable location, was opened about 
the time of first settlement. It led from Collinsville to Tug 
Hill west of Turin village and across the hill, down to the 
place first settled by Ezra Clapp ; from thence northward 
along near the line of the state road, passing west of Martins- 
burgh village and below Lowville to Deer river and Cham- 
pion. The idea of clind)ing a hill over five hundred feet high, 
and again descending on the same side, when a level and nearer 
route might have been taken, is sufficiently absurd to one 
acquainted with the topography of this region, and affords a 
striking proof of the ignorance of the surveyor. Along 
this path known as " Dustin's track," the first settlers toiled 
their weary way on foot or on horseback (for it was not 
passable lor teams), until a more favorable route was dis- 
covered and opened. 

The first routes through the county were surveyed and 
chiefly cut out at the expense of the land proprietors, but 
the principal cost of construction was borne by the settlers 
along their route. One of the earliest of these in the north 
part of the county, was that leading from the village of 
Lowvillu through Copenhagen to Kutland, or township 3, 
and on this account still named the " Number Three Koad." 
It was surveyed by Joseph Crary, before 1800, and cut 
through about 1802 or 1803. The east road in Lowville 
and J)t'nmark is a little older, and has scarcely been changed 
from its location in advance of settlement. Through Den- 
mark it is often known as the liase Line road from its 
running along the lino from which olVsets wore made in sur- 
veying tin,' lands ailjacent to the river. 

Natiianiel Shaler, in 1797, caused a road to bo cut from 
Constablevillo soiiihward to Rome. It meandered along the 
valleys not far from the present route, but in no place for 
any eonsitleraMe distance on the same line, lie established 
a family named Jones at the half way point in tiiu [)resent 
town of Avu. He also opened a road in the western |)art 
of Tuiin, which did not settle through and is now partly 
grown up. llotli of these routes were known in their day 
as the Shaler roads. 

The first state patronage for rond« in tins county, was 
obtainetl in un act of March 2<), 1S03, by whieh the sum of 
jj't 1, ;')()(), was to be raisetl by a lottery, for puMic roads, 
chiefly in the JUack Kivor country. The governor and 



252 State Roads. 

council of appointment were directed to appoint three com- 
missioners to lay out and improve a road from within two 
miles of Preston's tavern, in Steuben, to within three miles 
of the High falls on Black river, and thence through Turin, 
Lowville, Champion, &c., to Brownville, to intersect another 
road ordered in the same act to be built from Rome through 
Redfield. Walter Martin, Silas Stow and Jacob Brown 
were appointed commissioners for constructing this road, 
but subsequently Stow was succeeded by Peter Schuyler, 
and Brown was succeeded by Nathaniel Merriam, Feb. 5, 
1820. The location through Lewis county was made by 
Stow and Martin, and an active rivalry was excited, espe- 
cially in Turin, between settlers who had located on differ- 
ent routes. The east road through that town was already 
opened and traveled as far north as a mile beyond Eleazer 
House's location, and the farms on its route were all taken 
up by actual settlers. The road nearer the hill through 
Houseville had been laid out, but led through swamps diffi- 
cult to pass, but the interests of Ezra Clapp, a sub-agent, 
and incidentally those of one or two of the commissioners, 
lay in that direction. Professing no concern but for, the 
greatest good to the greatest number, the offer was made 
that the route should be given to the parties who would 
subscribe the greatest amount of free labor. Upon com- 
paring it is said that notwithstanding five hundred days 
signed by Clapp for Shaler, the east road out numbered the 
west. Whether so or not, the location, perhaps predeter- 
mined, was that of the present plank road. 

Thus deprived of their object, the disappointed party re- 
solved to connect their road with the east road in Lowville, 
and by the utmost effort finished in the summer of 1803, a 
branch five or six miles long, and from a quarter to half a 
mile east of the state road, connecting the two east roads. 
It was never much traveled and soon fell into ruin. This 
route was known as the Oswegatchie road, as it formed 
a continuation of the road from the Long falls (Carthage) 
to the Oswegatchie at Ogdensburgh, 

The cost of the State road is said to have been about 
$30,000 to the state, and its commissioners were continued 
about twenty years. In 1814 they were authorized to 
change the southern location. 

An act passed Feb. 25, 1805, appointed commissioners liv- 
ing in Oneida co. to lay out a road from Whitesboro, through 
to intersect the State road in Turin. The road was surveyed 
by John Hammond, but its proposed location gave much 
dissatisfaction in Turin. In 1807 memorials were sent in 



State Roads. 253 

for a lottery to construct a road from Whitestown to Turin, 
but these failed in consequence of the great number of 
similar grants tliat had been made. 

A road from Turin to Emilyville, or township 15, great 
tract 1 of ^Macomb's purchase, St. Lawrence co., was author- 
ized April 15, 1814, and James T. "Watson, Robert McDowell 
and Levi Collins, were appointed to locate and con- 
struct it at the expense of adjacent lands. This act was 
kept alive about 30 years, and a road was cut through from 
Independence creek to the old Albany road. By a con- 
strained l)ut perhaps justifiable interpretation of the law, a 
portion of the money was finally apjjlied upon collateral and 
tributary roads upon which settlement was progressing, 
the labor spent on the northern end of this route was lost, 
as it still lies in the great ibrest and has never been traveled. 

A State road IVum Lowvillc to Henderson Harbor was 
authorized April 17, 1816, and Robert McDowell, of Low- 
ville, Eber Lucas, of Pinckney, and Abel Cole, of Rodman, 
were apj^ointed to lay it out. The route was surveyed, and 
the map filed in the clerk's office May 2, iSlS, It was 
located chiefly upon roads previously laid out, and the 
expense of its im|)rovement was assessed upon adjacent wild 
lands. In 1820, David Canfield of Denmark, Tyrannus A. 
Wright of Pinckney, and .Sanford Sall'urd uf liarrisburgh, 
were appointed commissioners for completing the road. It 
runs from the t-tone chui'ch in Lowvillc nearly parallel with 
the south liin's of liOwville, liarrisburgh antl Pinckney, into 
Jefferson county. 

About 1824, a road was cut out from the Black river in 
Watson, north eastward to the St. Lawrence turnpike. It 
was wholly built by Watson and Lo Kay, and still bears the 
name ol the Krio canal road. It passes through Belfort 
and the Hent Settlement, 

A road from Cedar Point on Lake Champlain to the lilack 
river was authorized April 21, 182S, and the (,-ommissionors 
emerged from the lorest on a preliminary survey ou the last 
day of August of that year. They reported that GS of tho 
73 miles were saleable lands and estimated the co8t ut $'23,- 
259 besides bridges. Tho latter would cost but $350. Tho 
eastern end only was opened. A bill ajtpropriating money 
for this roatl was rejocteil in tho .sonate April S, 1S21'. 

A road from tho West road on tho north lino of Lowvillo 
towartls Denmark village, was ordered to bo luiil out by uu 
act «)f Feb. PJ, lS2i), naming Pardon lianpher, Ilarvoy 
Stephens ami Homer ('ollins as commissioners for this pur- 
pose. Thid roud was laid out and bus boon biuco traveled. 



254 State Roads. 

By an act of April 9, 1831, Peter Mann and Silas Salis- 
bury were appointed to lay out a road from one mile east 
of Watson bridge north to the Lower falls on Beaver 
river, and the north line of Watson. This road was also 
opened. 

By act of April 14, 1841, David Judd of Essex, Nelson J. 
Beach of Lewis and Nathan Ingersol of Jefierson counties, 
were appointed to construct a road from Carthage through 
township 4, of Brown's tract, to lake Champlain in Moriah 
or Crown point, the expenses to be defrayed by a tax on 
the non-resident lands to be benefited. The road was sur- 
veyed in the summer of 1841, and opened during the next 
half dozen years so as to be passable by teams. The east- 
ern portion now forms the usual route from the lake to the 
Long Lake settlements, but a portion westward has fallen 
into decay, and is growing up with trees. It is settled upon 
and traveled from Carthage to about a mile east of Belfort. 
Several acts have been passed concerning this road, among 
which was one in 1843, releasing from the tax certain lands 
in Denmark and Lowville which came within the limits first 
defined by law. 

A road from Port Leyden to the old forge on township 7 
of Brown's tract, Herkimer county, and another from the 
residence of Hezekiah Abbey to intersect this, were author- 
ized June 8, 1853, to be constructed under the direction of 
Lyman R. Lyon and Francis Seger, by the aid of highway 
taxes upon unsettled lands adjacent. The act was extended to 
1867 in 1859, but as yet the roads are not fully completed. 
They follow mainly the routes opened by John Brown about 
sixty years since. 

An act passed April 2, 1859, appointed Seymour Green 
and Diodate Pease to lay out and open a road from the 
northern settlements of Osceola through to some road al- 
ready opened in Martinsburgh, and granted most of the 
non-resident highway taxes upon the lands of the towns 
through which it passed, for a period of five years for its 
construction. Surveys have been made and the route has 
been partially opened. 

The foregoing list embraces, with an exception to be 
noticed, ail the roads located within this county by virtue 
of special acts of the Legislature, excepting turnpikes, of 
which more have been projected than built and of which the 
last rod has long since been merged in common or plank 
roads. 

The Mohawk and Black River Turnpike Co. incorpo- 
rated April 5, 1810, had power to build a turnpike from 



Turnpike Companies. 255 

Rome to the residence of Ezra Clapp in Turin. It failed to 
organize. 

The St. Lawrence Turnpike Co., incorporated April 5, 

1810, constructed a road across the northeastern border of 
the county, but no settlements were formed upon it and in 
1829 its charter was repealed and the road was divided into 
common districts. In 1830 an act was passed to tax the 
adjacent lands lor improving this road, from the tenth mile 
post beyond Carthage to the line of Ht. Lawrence county. 
The road was surveyed by B. Wright and Chas. C. Brod- 
head in I8l2. 

The Black River and Rackets Harbor Turnpike Co. 
was incorporated March 30, 1811, to build a road from Low- 
ville through Copenhagen to Watertown, capital $37,500. 
Nothing done. The Sackets Harbor Turnpike Co. formed 
by the same act had power to build a turnpike from Copen- 
hagen to Sackets Harbor, but did nothing. 

The Lewis Turnpike Co. was incorporated April 8, 

1811, to construct a turnpike from Steuben through lioon- 
ville and Martinsburgh villages to Lowville, but efl'ected 
nothing. The parties named in the act were Isaac W. Bost- 
wick, Silas Stow, Walter Martin, Chillua Doty and Peter 
Schuyler, who might associate others with them. Capital 
$37,500. 

The Boonville Turnpike Co. completed their survey in 
May, 1816, and about one mile and a half of their road 
extended into Leyden. This road was constructed and 
maintained many years, but no gate was erected in Lewis 
county. It was kept nj) until a j)lank road was constructed. 

Tlio Turin and Leyden Turnpike Co. capital $10,000, 
was formed under an act of March 26, IS 19, and laid out by 
Pelatiah I'allou, Ihoughton Wliito and Peter Post. It was 
surveyed by Mr. Wliito in .June 1819, and was constructeil 
from the State road in Leyden, south of Talcotvillo, <liroctly 
through to u point on the State road, a mile north of Turin 
village. It was completed and j)ut in excellent t-onililion, 
but no gates were ever erected upon it. One of the princi- 
pal objects of tilt) projectors of tliis entorjiriso was, to pro- 
cure a direct route whore every other moans luul tailed, 
through the opposition of parties interested in other roads. 
Applirafion to tho town commissioners and the legislature 
hail been tried in vain when this mi'asure was resorted to 
with success, and the route was left free of toll in the hope 
of diverting travel upon it. It was given up soon after us 
a common road. The oor[)orators of this r()ail were .Jona- 
than Collins, Wm. Constable, James McV'ickar, Ceo. Davis, 



256 Turnpike and Plank Roads. 

Oliver Bush, Anthony W. Collins, and their associates. The 
act gave them the existing highway so far as they needed, 
and power to buy new lands not over $3,000 in value. 

The Canal Turnpike Co. was incorporated Feb. 28, 
1823, with $15,000 capital to build a road from Stokesville 
in Lee to Olmstead creek in Turin. Subscription books 
were to be opened by Seth B. Roberts and Geo. Brown of 
Oneida, and Ela Collins of Lewis county. In May 1826, 
Stephen Ward, Ephraim Owens and John Post were ap- 
pointed (under an act passed a few days previous), to locate 
the southern end at the court house in Rome, and to ex- 
tend it northward to the store of Seth Miller jr., and thence 
to St. Paul's church in Turin. The stock was by this act 
increased to $20,000, and the rates of toll were raised. 
The location north of Constableville was actively opposed 
by interested parties. The route of this road had been sur- 
veyed under the direction of Peter Colt, James Lynch and 
Moses Wright in August, 1808, under an act of April 8, of 
that year. To open the road an act of April 15, 1815, ap- 
pointed Moses Wright assessor, and Geo. Huntington, Wm. 
Constable and Thomas E. Lawrence commissioners to as- 
sign a tax to be levied upon adjacent lands, but the super- 
visors neglecting to raise the tax, the act was modified 
April 15, 1816, and the road was opened in that year. It 
was not however passable in wet seasons until improved as 
a turnpike. It was proposed in 1823, to extend the canal 
turnpike to Martinsburgh, but the measure was opposed by 
a vote of town meeting, and means were found to suppress 
the project. 

Early in 1842 the plan of a McAdamized road through 
the county was discussed, but nothing resulted from it. In 
the spring of 1847, eiforts were made to organize a plank 
road on an extensive scale, to extend through Oneida and 
Lewis counties. A meeting was held at Boonville, Feb. 
23d, and town committees were appointed, but nothing was 
effected towards a general union of effort, and each sectional 
interest began its race of rivalry, which has produced the 
natural result. Upon neighboring and nearly parallel routes 
plank roads were laid, all of which have perished much 
sooner than was anticipated, and most of which have never 
earned beyond the cost of collection and maintenance, any- 
thing worth naming towards paying first cost or rebuild- 
ing. With the exception of the roads laid along the line of 
the State road south of Lowville, tliey have all been aban- 
doned and again laid out into road districts. In every 
instance these roads Avere constructed along old and well 



Plank Roads. 257 

settled roads, except at points where to improve the {^rade 
it was found necessary to deviate slightly from the former 
line. The excavations and embankments upon these roads 
will form a durable monument to their memory, and if the 
gain in value of farms and their market products, justly 
due to plank roads, were placed to their credit, it would far 
exceed the amount expended upon them. Unfortunately 
the public spirited citizen has in this case, as in others, often 
paid too liberally to enrich his parsimonious but more 
wealthy neighbor, and fortune, with partial hand, has dealt 
out her favors to the undeserving. 

Of the eight plank roads, with an aggregate length of 
seventy-six miles, that have been built in this county, all 
but three have been discontinued. Thehistory of these roads 
is briefly as follows: 

Rome and Turin P. R., laid on the route of the old Canal 
turnpike, filed its articles in the Secretary's office Dec. 24, 

1847. Capital $"45,000 ; cost $50,000 ; was 30 miles long ; 
was inspected July 21, Sept. 28, and Oct. 28, 1848, and aban- 
doned to the public Jan. 18, 1855. 

Turin P. R., through the town of Turin, on the State road, 
filed articles Dec. 27, 1847; cap. $8,000; was 5| m. long, 
and was inspected July 15, 1848, except 117 rods south of 
tlie village, which was inspected July 9, ]849. After pay- 
ing large dividends a few years, it was bought at a small 
price by parties interested in its maintenance, and it is still 
kept up. Large quantities of timber cut lor rail road ties, 
have been used in relaying it. 

West Martinslmrgh and Copenhagen P. R., filed articles 
Feb. 17, 1848. Cap. $25,000 ; length 17 miles ; cost 22,000, 
the whole of whicli was lost. Inspected .Inly 17, 1849, and 
uband(Hied March 19, 185(j, and April 5, iS58. It was laid 
on the West road from the south line of Murtinsburgh to 
Copenhagen. 

West Turin and Leyden 1*. K., on the lino of the former 
Turin and Leyden Turnpike (so called) from its southoin 
enil to the Uomo and Turin P. !{., one njilo north of Con- 
stablevillo. It liiod its articles Oct. 23, 184S ; cup. $«;,()()0 ; 
length [)\ m. LiMpoctod August 30, 1819, anil abandoned 
March 3, 1M5(). It was a total loss to the owners, and njailo 
but one or two small dividends. 

Lowvillo and Carthage P. U., along the State road from 
the lino of NLirtinsburgh to Denmark village, and thence by 
the direct r»)ail to ('arthage. It liled its articles Nov. 8, 

1848. Cap. $22,000, cost $2G,000, the most of which was 



258 Plank Roads, Mail Routes. 

lost. Length 16 m. Inspected July 30, Aug. 6, and Sept. 
11, 1849, and abandoned May 5, 1859. 

Boonville P. R., on the State road from the south line of 
Turin to Boonville, and southward. It filed its articles Nov. 
8, 1848. Cap. $30,000; length 20 m. Inspected Aug. 31, 
1849, and still maintained. 

Martinsburgh P. R , on the State road through the town 
of Martinsburgh. Filed its articles Dec. 13, 1848. Cap. 
$7,000; length 5 m. Inspected July 13, 1849, and still 
maintained. 

The Great Bend and Copenhagen P. R., about three 
miles of which lay in this county, filed its articles Dec- 4, 
1848, cap. $13,000; length 10 m. ; inspected July 17, 1849, 
and abandoned about 1856. 

Several other plank roads were proposed, among which 
was one from Lowville to New Bremen ; one from near 
Constableville to the High falls, and another from Turin to 
the High falls and Lyonsdale. The Lowville and Denmark 
P. R. Co., formed a regular organization but did nothing. 
During the summer of 1859, an effort was being made to 
raise the means to rebuild the road from West Le3'den to 
Stokesville on the line of the old Rome and Turin P. R., 
but without success. 

These several plank roads were chiefly laid with hemlock 
plank eight feet wide and three inches thick, the track 
being usually on the west side of the grade, so that teams 
going southward retained the plank in meeting other teams. 

Mail Routes. — The first route through the valley was 
established Jan. 19, 1804. Daniel Gould is said to have 
been the first carrier. He was succeeded by Reuben Chase 
soon after, who began in 1804, and performed one trip each 
week from Utica to Brownville. Mr. Barnabas Dickinson 
of Denmark, was the next mail carrier, and by him a two 
horse carriage was first placed upon the route for the ac- 
commodation of travellers. About 1812, or 1814, Parker 
& Co., run a line of stages. Other parties were afterwards 
engaged in this service, and in Jan., 1824, E. Backus and 
Ela Merriam, with N. W. Kiniston and John McElwaine, 
commenced carrying the mail, and with the exception of 
four years Mr. Merriam has continued in the business till the 
present time.^ It has been carried daily except on Sunday 
during 36 years, and until 1848 to 50 over as muddy a road 

1 The shortest trip from Utica to Sackets Harbor ever made over this route 
hy stages, was on Thursday, Feb. ]9, 1829. The trip was made in 9 hours 
45 minutes, and the mail was changed at every office. The stops amounted 
to 39 minutes, distance 93 miles, snow 2^ feet deep. Mr. Merriam has been 
concerned in stage routes from Denmark to Ogdensburgh, from Rome to 




(^/^ c^ /^.W 



i r4 r^ 



\t v-^ 






1 



Early Canal Measures. 259 

as could be found in the state. The spirited and sacrificing 
efforts of Mr. Merriam, in calling public attention to plank 
roads and other improvements, and in their construction 
and maintenance, entitle him to the lasting gratitude of the 
citizens of Lewis county. Without his exertions the only 
existing plank road southward from Lowville would ere 
this have been abandoned, and tlio traveling public left to 
plod their weary way over the original mud road. 

There has been since its first establishment, a daily mail 
line (except Sunday) through the county with a short 
interval in 1859. In 1821, a route w^as established from 
Martinsburgh to Adams ; and about 1826, a route from 
Rome to Turin. At a later day a side route was established 
from Turin to the post offices east, and from Lowville 
through the woods to Edwards, St. Lawrence co. There 
arc at present several short routes supplying ofiices not on 
tho central line, at intervals of two, three and six days. 



CHAPTER VI. 

TCAXAL AND KAIL KOAl) TKOJECTS. 

Black River Canal and Improvement. — Excepting tho 
vague allusion to canals and other public works, in the 
instructions of Tillier in 1796, no measure was proposed 
for constructing a canal into this county until 1825, when 
DeWitt Clinton in his annual niossage nuggostod a connec- 
tion between Hlack river and tho Erio canal, as one of 
several highly dosirablo canal routes. Under u general act 
passed K\n\\ 'JO, 1S25, a survey was ordered from tho Krio 
canal in Herkimer co., to tho head waters of lUaik river 
and tlieuco to Ogdonaburgh, and another from Rome to tho 
same. 

A survey was begun by .lames (ledtjes, one of tho chief 
engineers on tho Erio canal, July 25, 1^25, and tho leveling 
was continued down to Carlhiigo. \\y tiiis »urvoy the 
Remsen summit on thooastorn route wua found 841 feet, and 
tlio doscent from ihonce to tho juko 985 foot. From Homo 
to Buoiiville, the ritto wui» 700 feet, und from theuce to the 

Sa<-kt<t.>4 ll!»r'M>r, fhroiu-h I: il n-UU ti' ~ " to 

Turin iiiul l>.Miiiii»rk, frmu i -S"" lo \. . lua 

\iy \V(t.stiiri), tu Itouiivtllo, ami tiuw (rum ikwurlllo to LowTtU«, la coiup*a/ 
with .Mo-ies .M. Smilli of iho l»lt«.T i>lac«. 



260 Canal Statistics and Surveys. 

river below the falls 422 feet. The Camden route to 
Ogdensburgh, 129 miles, was estimated at $655,630, and 
the BooDville route, 114 miles, $931,014. Mr. Geddes 
advised two dams with locks on the river, and a towing 
path on the bank. A canal meeting was held at the Court 
house Sept. 21, 1825, at which James T. Watson reported 
Geddes's survey, the maps were left with Mr Dayan for re- 
ference, and a committee was appointed to gather statistics 
of transportation from each town in the county, specifying 
every article of which more than five tons were carried, 
with the probable increase. Other meetings were held in 
Jefierson and St. Lawrence counties, and committees of 
correspondence were chosen to secure unity of action. 

A meeting at the court house Dec. 24, 1825, prepared a 
petition to the legislature, and reported the following esti- 
mates of business : 

Denmark 1272 tons ; mean distance 60 miles, 

Lowville 1310 tons, viz : grain and flour 550 ; ashes 130 ; 
butter and cheese 10 ; sundries 620. Distance 60 miles at 
Ig cents per mile. 

Martinshurgh 1280 tons. Tnrin 600 tons. Leyden, Watson, 
Pinckney and Harrisburgh, 1200 tons. Total 5,662 tons, 
amounting to $5,435,80. From Jefferson county the esti- 
mate claimed 10,680 tons at $10,146; from St, Lawrence 
13,000 tons at $23,400, and from Herkimer and Oneida 
4,620 tons at $1,386, making with the extra transporta- 
tion added to the Erie canal a revenue of $69,145,88.^ 

The county papers of northern New York at this period 
teemed with articles favoring the measure, and a series of 
statistical essays in the Black River Gazette, signed Jcma- 
than, had a beneficial influence upon public opinion. 

The canal commissioners reported March 6, 1826, upon 
the Herkimer, Rome and Camden routes. The first had a 
rise and fall of 1831 feet, and was deemed inexpedient. The 
second had 1587 feet lockage, and would cost to Ogdens- 
burgh $931,014, and the third with 635 feet lockages would 
cost $855,630. No result followed, and on the 2d of Jan,, 
1827, a canal meeting held at the court house, renewed their 
memorial, and petitioned Congress to procure the right of 
navigating the St, Lawrence to the ocean, A meeting at 
Carthage Oct. 23, 1827, prepared the way for a general con- 
vention at the court house in Martinshurgh on the 4th of 
Dec, at which delegates attended from all the towns in- 

1 A general committee of correspondence was chosen at this meeting, con- 
sisting of Russell Parish, Isaac W. Bostwick, Ela Collins, Charles Dayan and 
James McVickar. 



Rev. J. Clinton's Address. 261 

terested in the work. Spirited addresses were delivered, 
and a resolution was passed for the incorporation of a com- 
pany to construct a canal. 

The address of the Rev. Isaac Clinton upon this occasion, 
affords data in the highest degree valuable as showing 
existing resources. It was therein stated that five towns in 
Lewis CO. made annually 100 tons of potash each, and three 
others al)Out fifty tons each. About 2500 barrels of pork, 
and 60,000 bushels of wheat were supposed to pass through 
and from the county to the canal. About 1500 head of 
cattle were driven from the county and five times as many 
from Jefl'erson and St. Lawrence. The county exported 50 
tons of butter and cheese, 20 tons of grass seed, 14 tons of 
wool, 12 tons of oil of mint, and 325 tons or 650 hogsheads 
of whiskey. It received annually 400 tons of merchandise, 
50 tons of bar iron and steel, 40 tons of gypsum, 15 tons of 
dyestufis and 20 tons of hides. The increase from the county 
and beyond had been during twelve years at the rate of 
300 tons annually. This address closed with a direct ap- 
peal to the enterprise of our citizens. It was as follows : 

" Perhaps, sir, it may be said that the remarks are plausible, 
but the undfrtaking is great and we can do without it. So we 
might do without iiiauy otlier things. A farmer on a very small 
scale might do without a scythe and cut his grass with a jack- 
knife. What are eaiiuls and what are rail roads but great labor 
saving machines '( What a grass scythe is to a jack-knife, so 
is a canal to a conirnon team. Will it he said, sir, that the un- 
dertaking is leally too great — we can not accomplish it? Let 
no such thought lodge in any man's bosom. Say we am accom- 
plish it, we must and we tcill have a canal. What if the patriots 
of the Revolution had said — ' slavery is truly detestaljle and 
liberty is equally desirable, but what are we ? We have no 
army, no treasury, no revenue, no maga/.ines of arms, ami such 
is the mighty power and prowess of (Jreat Britain that we can 
not with.staiid them V What, 1 say ! Then we and our children 
would have been slaves forever. Mut they said, we can withstand 
them ; and they did withstantl them, and with their l)li)od and 
treasure and indescribalile hardships and privations procured 
the benefits and blessings wo now enjoy. Let us not say " wo 
can't." This expression has been the ruin of thousands, has 
prevented many a glorious enterprise, — has kept many a family 
poor antl in the back ground. TImm was the im!>ecile language 
of our committee, lust winter! Let um then say we (an and wo 
will have a canal. .Many farmers may turn out if need require, 
with their toatns and wt>rk out shares. It would bo bettor to 
do this than l)e forever wearing out th<ir teams in carrying 
their produce to market aud paying toll at turnpike gates. Tho 



262 Canal Surveys. 

enterprise is only worthy of the industrious and spirited citi- 
zens inhabiting this section of the state. And from the previ- 
ous estimates I am confident the stock must be good, and after 
the canal is made and proved, will sell at any time for ready 
cash." 

A writer in the Black River Gazette, under the signature 
of ^sdrubal, at this period also urged the measure proposed 
at this convention. 

The application in the hands of Mr. Dayan then in the 
the senate, and Gen. Ruggles in assembly, procured an act 
passed March 20, 1828, incorporating the Black River canal 
company. A subscription of $100,000 by the state was 
proposed by Mr. Dayan, who was supported by Senators 
Hart, Waterman and Wilkins, and opposed by Jordan and 
Carroll. It was finally stricken out in the senate. 

The act incorporated Geo. Brayton, Isaac Clinton, Levi 
Adams, Peter Schuyler, James McVickar, James T. Watson, 
Seth B. Roberts and Vincent Le Ray de Chaumont and their 
associates, with $400,000 capital and the usual powers of 
similar stock companies. The canal was to be finished 
within three years, and the franchise included the navigation 
of the river to Carthage. The commissioners above named 
employed Alfred Cruger^ to survey and estimate a route, 
and his report rendered in September of that year, mostly 
advised inclined planes instead of locks, and placed the 
total cost of 44.86 miles at $433,571.25. The structures 
were to include 9 culverts, 8 dams, 7 waste weirs, 52 
bridges, 1015 feet rise by planes, and 75 feet by locks. He 
proposed to improve the river by wing dams, where ob- 
structed by sand bars, eight of which might be built for 
$4,168. Subscription books were opened at the ofiice of 
W. Gracie, N. Y., Dec. 15, 1828, but the stock was not taken, 
and a meeting at Lowville represented from many towns, 
Jan. 24, 1829, discussed a plan of local taxation, but finally 
abandoned it, and agreed upon a memorial urging its adop- 
tion as a state work. 

A concurrent resolution introduced by Mr. Ruggles, was 
passed April 7, 1829, ordering a new survey in case that 
made by Cruger was not found reliable, and the canal 
commissioners were directed to report the result to the 
next legislature. Canal meetings were held at Lowville 
June 4, and at Turin Oct. 17, 1829, and an effort was made 
to procure a nomination of a person pledged to the canal 

1 Mr. Cruger died at Mantanzas, Cuba, in 1845, while enffased in a rail road 
survey. 



Black River Canal. 263 

alone, irrespective of party, but did not meet with favor. 
On the 12th of January, 1830, a convention of delegates 
from Lewis, Jefier.son and Oneida, met at Lowville to me- 
morialize the legislature ; town committees were appointed, 
and again Nov. 22, of that year, for a similar purpose. 

On the 6tli of April, 1830, the canal commissioners were 
by law directed to cause a survey of the ])roposed canal, and 
Ilolmes Hutchinson employed under this act, reported his 
labors the 6th of March following.' His estimate based 
upon a canal 20 feet wide at the bottom, 4 feet deep, and 
and locks 10 by 70 feet, capable of passing boats of 25 tons, 
placed the total cost of canal and feeder at $602,544, The 
first company having expired by its own limitation, a new 
one of the same name was chartered April 17, 1832, with 
$900,000 capital, and power to construct a canal from Rome 
or llerkimcr to the IJhick river, and thence to Ogdensburgh, 
Capo Vincent, or Jackets Harbor. The work was divided 
into six sections, of which one must bo finished in three 
and the whole in ten years. Nothing was done under this 
act. 

In 1834, Francis Soger in the senate, and Geo. D. Ruggles 
in the assembly procured an act (April 22,) providing for 
an accurate survey of a canal from the Erie canal to tho 
Black river below the falls, and thence to Carthage. The sur- 
veys of Crugcr and Hutchinson wero to be adopted in whole 
or in part, at tho discretion of the commissioners, and tho 
result was to be reported at the next session. Mr. Timothy 
II. .Jervis was employed upon this duty, and his survey based 
upon a canal 26 leot wide at tlio liottom, hanks 7 feet high, 
water 4 feet deep, locks and two inclined planes, computod 
tho cost at $907,802.72, with composite locks, and $1,019,- 
226.72 with stone locks.- 

A report iVoiu the canal board in 1835, stated that tho 
actual cost of freight by rail road was 3.J cents a milo per 
ton, as shown by tho .Mohawk and Hudson rail roati. Tiiis is 
lioliovcd to have inlhuMiced favoialMo action uj)on tho IMaok 
liivor canal, althougii manilcstly iintair as regardeil rail 
roads, because ba.sotl upon tho oxporionce of u roail only 
sixteen miles long, then with two heavy inclined plane.s, and 
using locomotivo ami stationary .stouin power as well as 
horses. r 

Tho con.'^truction of the Black Rivor canal wa.>i authorized 
by an act of April 19, IS.'JfJ, which provided for a navigable 
feeder from Hlack river to nouuvillu, and a canal from tliunce 



• As.tiinMy DoiuiiuMitM, No. 'J'J'J, 1831. 

2 A!i.suinl)ljr Ducutni-iitit, Noii. 55, 150, 1S35. 



264 Black River Canal. 

to Kome and to the High Falls, and the improvement of the 
river to Carthage for steam boats drawing 4 feet water. 
The details of construction and expense were left discre- 
tionary with the canal commissioners, who were to receive 
from the canal fund such sums as the canal board might 
estimate and certify would be the probable expense, with 
such additional sums over and above the foregoing, borrowed 
on the credit of the state, and not to exceed $800,000. 
The surplus waters of Black river, not needed for the canaJ, 
were to be passed around the locks by sluices or turned into 
Lansing's kill or the Mohawk river. 

This act was largely due to the exertions of Francis Soger 
of the senate, and Charles Dayan of the assembly, whose 
active labors for the promotion of this measure deserve hon- 
orable recognition in this connection.^ Eleven years had 
passed since this work was first urged upon public notice 
by the governor, and the youth who listened with enthu- 
siasm to the glowing prospect of coming benefits from the 
completed canal, had ripened into manhood before the first 
positive step was taken towards its realization. Still they 
were destined to grow old in the anticipation, and while 
those who had fondly cherished and aided the successive 
stages of effort, became silvered with age ; full many closed 
their eyes in death, before it became a practical reality ! 
Stow, Clinton, Watson, the elder Le Ray, Lyon, W. Martin, 
Adams, J. McVickar, Collins, Parish, Rockwell, Bancroft, J. 
H. Leonard, N. Merriam, H. G. Hough, B. Yale, S. Allen, 
and many others who had served on committees, and con- 
tributed time and money to the promotion of this improve- 
ment, died before it was so far completed as to admit boats 
into the river. 

Surveys were placed in charge of Porteus R. Root, and 
in Sept., 1836, Daniel C. Jenne, resident engineer, began 
further examinations which were continued through the fall 
and in the spring following. 

The first contract for construction was made November 

1 Francis Seger removed from Albany county to this county in 1826. He 
studied law with Marcus T. Reynolds, and was admitted to the bar in 1823, 
having taught school at various times to aid in acquiring an education. He 
was several years deputy clerk, and from 1828 to 1833, inclusive, clerk of 
assembly, but yielded this position at the urgent solicitation of friends of the 
Black River canal, for a place in the Senate, where he remained four years. 
He was appointed a master in chancery, and in April, 1843, under Bouck's 
administration, became first judge of Lewis county. He continued to offi- 
ciate until 1S5G, Laving been elected judge and surrogate, at the first judicial 
election in June, 1847, and again in 1851. In 1840, he was elected one of 
the secretaries of the constitutional convention. His highest ambition ever 
seems to have been the faithful discharge of official trusts, with an ability 
and simplicity worthy of imitation. 



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:^Trr;o, L£f*lf*> 



Black River Canal. 265 

11, 1837, including 14 miles from Rome and work was at 
once begun. On the 26th of May following, the work was 
let to Boonville, including the feeder, and Sept. 7, 1838, 
eight miles north of that place. Work was begun and vigor- 
ously prosecuted until, under an act of ^lurch 29, 1842, 
entitled "An act to provide for paying the debt and pre- 
serving the credit of the state," more familiarly known as 
the tax and stop law, work was suspended. The original 
estimate upon which work had been begun was $1,068,437.20. 
The third division, extending from Boonville to the river a 
distance of ten miles, contained 38 locks of v;hich 24 were 
nearly finished, the gates and docking timbers excepted. 
The other 14 locks had not been contracted. It was esti- 
mated that $276,000 would finish this division, and $809,000 
the whole work.' There iiad been expended according to 
the report of 1842, $l,5.o0,097.67. The sum of $55,222.78 
was paid for extra allowances and for suspension of con- 
tracts on the part of the state, and much loss was occasioned 
by the decay of wooden structures, washing away of banks, 
filling in of excavations, and other damages to which half 
finished works of this class are liable. 

In the constitutional convention of 1846, Lewis county 
was represented by Russell Parish, an ardent friend and 
able advocate of the Black river canal. In a speech of 
Sept. 15th he urged the completion of this work with great 
zeal, and the clause in the constitution (art. vii. sec. 3), 
providing for the completion of this canal among other 
j)ublic works, is without d(mbt to be attributed in quite a 
degree to him." 

An act passed May 12, 1847, appropriated $100,000 to 
this canal. Work wuh soon after resumed on the feeder, and 
the next year on the canal south of Boonville, many oKi 
contracts wi-ro resumed, new portions wore let, and in the 
fall of 18 IS, the feeder was finished so far as to admit 
water on the ISth of October. The first boat pa-ssed up the 
leeder to the river Dec. 13, 184S. The canal IVum Udou- 
ville to Port LeydtMi was put under fontratt in iSiy, and 
the feeder was brought I'ully and successfully iiit*) iiperaition 
in May or Juno of that year. The first boat from Kuuie 

> Other eatiroate* t>)»mm] thin an)<»)»t 1.... .\ nj-.-oUl rvport hy acting com- 

iiiLtHioiuT KnuK, ilat-nl F«l». i'J, !»• i '•> Dm- , 41*). iraUmatml tho co«t of 

cuiii]>U-tit>ii, with Btuiiv lucka, at t".'.',''"' *'l. aud with coiupoalla Itx-lu, at 

$4:5(;,74o.9(;. 

-Tho vdIii ill Kfl> 1«.')-1, (III arri'iiiliii^ lli" ■•' ' i>ii in r- < 

the cniial.-*, wa.s in lljii rountv, i-itnl in favor oi n «v»rv ' \- 

copl Moiitamu'. Wt-at Turin, Turin, (>M-»'ola, U'WU, L»jril«ii, and l'lnckn«jr, 
amuuntiiig tu 1^1'2 for and 'J07 ag<x\n»l tliw uuMwurv. 



266 Black River Canal. 

came np May 10, 1850, and water was let in down to Port 
Leyden, Oct. 27, 1850, and it was brought into use in the 
spring of 1851.^ The part north of Port Leyden was put 
under contract in 1850, to be done July 1, 1854, and one 
mile brought into use in 1852. A dam four feet high was 
built in 1854 just above the High falls at a cost of $5,000, 
affording two and a half miles of navigation on Black and 
Moose rivers. The canal passes 45 chains in the river 
above this dam. 

The canal was finally brought into the river Nov. 13, 1855, 
by the completion of 2.7 miles of canal comprising 13 locks 
north of Port Leyden. The canal is 35.62 miles in length. 
The feeder is 10.29 miles, and the slack water above the 
dam 2 miles further. A feeder at Delta 1.38 miles, and the 
river below the falls 42.5 miles making in all about 95 miles 
of navigation, including 5 miles on Beaver river which en- 
ters 10 miles above the falls and is navigable for boats of 
three feet draft. The canal rises 693 feet by 70 locks, from 
the Erie canal at Rome to the summit at Boonville. It de- 
scends northward, 387 feet, by 39 locks to the river below 
the High falls a distance of 10.3 miles. 

The canal has 6 aqueducts, 12 waste-weirs, 18 culverts, 
36 road bridges, 40 farm bridges, 3 tow bridges and 2 
dams. Its net cost of construction and working, up to 
Sept. 30, 1857, was $4,050,406.70. It had not then paid its 
expenses for repairs in any one year.^ 

The experience of 1849 (a very dry season) demonstrated 
the necessity of reservoirs on the head waters of Black 
river to supply the Rome level on the Erie canal. Of these 
three, known as the Woodhull, North Branch and South 
Branch reservoirs, having together an area of 2,177 acres, 
and a capacity of 1,822,002,480 cubic feet have been built. 
The lakes on Moose river, appear capable of improvement 
as reservoirs, to an extent sufficient to meet all probable de- 
mands for river navigation or hydraulic power below. 

The improvement of the river channel has been made a 
subject of vacillating project, and barren expenditure, which 
reflects little credit upon the state authorities charged with 
this duty, and although large sums have been applied to 
this object, we have comparatively little benefit to show 
beyond the dam at Carthage,^ three substantial bridges, and 

1 The estimated cost of completion in 1851 was $397,761.96 including the 
river improvement. In 18.53 the e.stimated cost of finishing was $155,400, 
or according to the plan of 1851 .$248,784. 

2 Senate Doc. 129, 1858. The deficiency alluded to, is not limited to this 
canal, and might be said with reference to others, 

3 The dam at Carthage was built in 1854, at a cost of $7,500. One of the 
bridges above alluded to is at that village. 



Black River Improvement. 267 

a few landing places partly built at town or individual cost. 
In the summer of 1849 two boats were built for clearing the 
river, one at the Falls and the other at Illiugworth's in New 
Bremen. In 1851 a phui was adopted ibr constructing jetty 
dams and piers, for coniiniiig the current and thus deepen- 
ing the channel. The estimated cost of tliis work, including 
the dam at Carthage, two l>ridges and the reservoirs was 
$'153,200. On the 18th of October, 1853, after hirge expen- 
ditures, this plan was abandoned, and that of two dams with 
locks was substituted, under the advice of John C. Mather, 
then canal commissioner.^ This scheme was superseded in 
1854, by the canal commissioners, on the ground of fraudu- 
lent contracts," and that of 1851 reiidopted Dec. 19 of tliat 
year, at an estimated cost of $101,000 for comjjletion. Otlier 
heavy exi)enditures were incurred, when on the 3d of Sept., 
1857, this plan was again abandoned, and the engineer was 
directed to furnish plans for a dam and lock just above the 
mouth of Otter creek. There had then been spent on the 
jjiers, $88,320. The dam and lock are now under contract, 
and unless the [)lan be again changed, and the half linished 
work abandoned, they will perhaps be in use in one or two 
years. The estimated cost of the work at contract prices is 
$27,309.20, of which $10,810.10 were spent in 1859. The 
chamber of the lock is KJO by 34 feet, and the lift 4 feet. 

It will be noticed that the iilea of improvement of the 
rivLM- has been a subject of progressive growth. In 1828 
Ciuger estimated its cost at $4,l(i8. In 1830 Hutchinson 
fi)iind it woidd be $12,000. In 1834 Jervis ostimatetl it at 
$20,840. Its ultimate cost is to be revealed by time and our 
canal engineers. 

The Black river was declared a public highway by act of 
^larch 1(), 1821, from tin; High falls to Carthage, and on the 
24th of Jun»-, 1S53, from the falls up to the Moose rivor 
tract. The hitter act applied $5000 to the iinprovoiuent of 
the channel for floating logs, retpiirud bouiuoHitd dams to l>e 
const! ucteil with rrfereneo t«> jmssing timbers, and attached 
penaltitjs for obstructing the cluinnel. The commi.H>ioner3 
for applying this sum wore Alfred N. Hough, (ianlnor 
llinkiey, and Anson HIako, jr. 

The steamer Cornelia' was Ijuilt in 1S.'}2 at Carthage, l>y 
Paul iioynton, now uf Cautun, fur u cumpuuy iu which V. 

I ,A (Iftin Mi'«r I^>wvi" ■.,( |20.T'' ' t tor or««k 135,000, 

two bri. !.;.•.•* l>t),titMi, ih '<», ftli.l I '. 

- For <l''tniU .>»•" A't'uMii. l»i>o. .N">. •<, i^Vo. 

^ NaiiK-d from Mmlatnx ('ornuUa Juli«l a rnUtivn of tlit< L» Kajx. Amoiiff 
other iiaiiu<!< |)ri>|M)ii«l wm Dido, hy touw oiio who U prvsumvd to havn rvad 
tho Kiioacl of Virgil. 



268 Steamboats on Black River. 

Le Ray was president and principal owner, at a cost of about 
f 6,000. Its dimensions were, length of keel 90 feet, across 
the guards 22 feet, and Avhcn light it drew 22 inches of water. 
She measured 70 tons, and was furnished with two upright 
high pressure engines of ten horse power each, when first 
built, but before starting one of these was taken out, reduc- 
ing the draft to 17 inches. The machinery was built by N. 
Starbuck of Troy. Her cabin was aft, the floor a little be- 
low the deck, and the forward part was covered by an 
awning. Her first trip was made Sept. 22, 1832, having on 
board a large number of citizens, and everything went on 
pleasantly until opposite Lowville where she ran on a sand 
bar, and although the hands jumped into the water and tried 
to lift her ofi" it was of no avail. 

This was but a prelude to numerous like casualties which 
marked her short and unprofitable career, which ended with 
1833. A thrilling incident attended her first visit to the 
High falls. The man at the tiller, wishing to show the party 
on board and the spectators on shore the qualities of 
the boat in rapid water, steered up so near the falls that as 
she turned the spray from the torrent covered the deck, and 
the boat itself came as near as possible being drawn under. 
Fortunately there was a heavy pressure of steam up, and 
the next moment the craft was out of harm's way, with 
only a thorough drenching.^ This boat was dismantled, and 
a few years after was privately cut loose from the dock at 
Carthage in a freshet, and went to pieces in the rapids. 
Her engine was put on a boat upon Black lake, and her 
boiler, many years after, was used in pumping water at one 
of the iron mines near Somerville, St. Lawrence co. 

In the spring of 1853, G. H. Gould fitted up a scow with a 
small portable engine connected with a stern wheel by a band. 
This craft named the Enterprise made a few trips. The 
little steam tug William P. Lawrence, of Lansingburgh, was 
brought into the river in Sept. 1856, and on the 11th made 
the first steamboat visit to Beaver falls. She soon after 
burst her boiler near Independence creek and was com- 
pletely demolished. The captain was badly injured in 
the face, a boy was thrown through the window into the 
river, and the engineer into the hold. The fireman was 
thrown into the river somewhat scalded, and the boiler 
itself blown ashore, the steam chest going far beyond over 
the tops of the trees. The accident was attributed to fast- 
ening down of the safety valve. 

1 Related by Mr. Boynton, builder and engineer at the time. 



Rail Road Projects. 269 

In Jan. 1848, notice of an application for the formation 
of a steamboat company with $50,000 was puljlished but 
failed. The Black River steamboat comparii/ was formed at 
Lowville, April 24, 1856, and in the summer following, the 
the steamer L. R. Lyon was built at Lyons falls ; it was 
launched June 26, 1856,^ and got in operation that year, at a 
cost of $8000. When light this boat draws 15 inches of 
water ; she is built with a stern wheel, after the model of 
the Ohio river boats, with open sides and elevated cabin. 
She is chiefly employed in towing canal boats. The little 
steamer J. W. J\brcross, built at Phamix, Oswego county, 
came in from the canal in the spring of 1S58, and was em- 
ployed one season as a packet, making atrip from Carthage 
to the falls and back daily. She has since run on the Erie 
canal. 

Rail Road Project. — The Black River company, incorpo- 
rated in 1832, was empowered to construct a route by canal 
or rail road from the Erie canal at Rome or Herkimer to Og- 
densburgh, but accomplished nothing beyond a partial sur- 
vey." In December, 1852, the plan of a rail road through the 
Black River valley was discussed, and a call for a meeting 
signed by thirty-four citizens, and published in the North- 
ern Journal in January 1853, led to a favoralile res[)onse, 
and the a[)pointment of a committee consisting ol' live per- 
sons in each county interesrcd, for collecting statistics. A 
meeting was appointed at There.sa on the 20th, and another 
at Jioonville on the 26th of the same month. On the 27th 
articles of association were di-awn up forming tho Black 
River rail road company, with !>• 1,200,000 capital, for building 
a rail road from Herkimer on Mohawk village, to Clayton ou 
the St. Lawrence. Of the proposal directors Kla Merriani, 
Seth Miller, Mo.ses .M. Smith, Wui. L. Huston and John Heno- 
dict, rcsidi.'d in Lewis county. 

This movement excited immediately an active rivalry be- 
tween Utica and Konie, and on the 2iHli of Jan. 185^}, tho 
Black River and I'tirn rail road comjxiny was formed, and 
the articles liled two days after in tiio secretary's ollico. 
Tho capital was $ L000,6(J<) (increased one half Sept. 26, 
1853), and the directors were T. S. Faxlon, Spemor KelKigi;, 
John IJiittertield, Martin Hart, .\lfred Churchdl. .las. V. 1». 
fJardiner, Lenj. F. Hay, .lames S. Lynch. Wni. H. Kerry, 
llugli Crocker, Harvev IJarnard, Jonathan \i. Warner, ami 
.lohn 1'. Lchind, all ol' L'licH oxcoptinj; Leland, who resided 

iBy tint fall of k |>lRtfonn on thi- » hundnd |M«r»oiu w«>ro 

l)Cfoii)itntoil .i.«v.'r»l f<M't to ih I, ui».l ••n", Mm K.lwin Woolworth, 

died II ft'w ilftjH aft.T, from tli>- : tlHH-k thus iKvastuuvU. 

■•^Kor details a«« //i</. of Jtjftrton t'«., p. 'SM. 



2 70 Rival Rail Road Projects. 

iij Deerfield. They proposed to build a road by way of 
Boonville and Cartilage to Clayton. Daniel C. Jenne was 
at once employed to begin surveys in the midst of winter, 
and energetic elibrts were made to secure subscriptions to 
the stock. 

The citizens of Rome lost no time in raising means for a 
preliminary survey, under Octave Blanc, and on the 8th of 
March at a meeting held at Lowville, the claims of the three 
rival routes south of Boonville were presented and urged, 
and a committee of three to each town on the line from 
Boonville to the St. Lawrence, was appointed to examine 
the subject and to decide as to which of the three routes 
had the strongest claims to patronage. This committee was 
unable to agree and appointed a sub-committee of eight, to 
visit the several places proposed for junction with the N. 
y. Central rail road, and report at an adjourned meeting at 
Carthage on the 22d inst. The Lowville meeting continued 
two days, and an intense activity was shown by the rival 
parties in securing a favorable decision. At the Carthage 
meeting a rule was adopted, that two-thirds majority should 
decide upon the southern terminus. After two days' discus- 
sion it was found impossible to obtain the requisite vote 
and the committee was discharged. The Ogdenshurgh, Clay- 
ton and Rome rail road company was formed Feb. 19, 1853, 
with $2,000,000 capital. Its directors were Henry A. Fos- 
ter, John Stryker, Edward Huntington and Alex. Mudge 
of Rome, Elijah B. Allen and Henry Van Reunselaer of Og- 
denshurgh, Augustus Chapman of Morristown, Wm. L. 
Easton of Lowville, Seth Miller of West Turin, A. H. Barnes 
of Martinsburgh, Sidney Sylvester of Denmark, Samuel J. 
Davis of Wilma, and Jason Clark of Plessis.^ The Herki- 
mer location having been abandoned, the Utica and Rome 
rail road projects were pressed with enthusiasm by their re- 
spective friends. Acts were procured allowing the corpo- 
rations of Utica, Rome and Ogdenshurgh to subscribe to 
the stock. Subscriptions were urged, surveys completed, 
and right of way purchased or solicited as a donation. 

Work was begun on the B. R. and U. rail road at Utica, 
with commemorative ceremonies, August 27, and at Low- 
ville, Oct. 27, 1853. Speeches were made, in which many 
pleasant things were said of Lewis county, and cheerful 
hopes expressed that the road thus begun would before 
many months be finished. The road was put under con- 
tract Aug. 10, with Farewell Case, Lund and Co., who in 

1 Extended details of the origin of these companies will be found in the 
History of Jefferson Co., p. 339 



Rail Roads. The Necessity of One. 271 

Oct. 1853, sub-let a part extending from the north end of 
Lowville vina<];e to south of Martin's creek in Martinsburgh, 
to Solomon Phelps, Chester Ray and Albert IJuel. 

Large quantities of ties were got out, the masonry of 
bridges Avas built in a sul)stantial manner, the road was 
extensively graded, and costly excavations in rock and earth 
were begun, and in some places completed. The road was 
opened to Boonville, Dec. 15, 1855, and has since been in 
regular operation to that place, changing entirely the busi- 
ness connection between Lewis county and Rome, and divert- 
ing nearly all the travel and business of the Black River 
valley IVoni Denmark southward to Utica. A large amount 
of work has been (huie on this route north of Boonville, 
chiefly in grading and the masonry of bridges. 

AVork was begun on the 0., C. k R. R. R. at Rome, Nov. 
10, and at Carthage, Nov. 23, 1853. Sections 6, 7 and 9 
were awarded Nov. 7, 1853, to Cla|)p and Allen of Lewis co., 
and Archibald McA'ickar. & Co. of N. J. Sections 10, 11, 
and 12 in Lewis, to Bebee Williams k Co. of Onondaga. 
Much of the right of way was secured and fenced, a largo 
amount of grading was done, but no part of the road was 
ever completed, and five years after the date of organiza- 
tion the project was hopelessly and completely abandoned. 
A considcralile amount of the land granted for the use of 
the road has huen reconveycd, and the shareholders, exas- 
perated by repeated calls for installments to pay large sala- 
ries of officers and unavailing expenses, are it is believed 
mostly free from this reckless adventure. The proposition 
for two rail roads, sido by side, and seldom a mile apart, 
rnnning through tho whole length of the county, both lead- 
ing to the same markets and supplying the same wants, was 
suliicientiv absurtl. Tliero can not lie room for tlie slightest 
doulit, hut that the present businehs of the county wouUl 
render the construction of one rail road through it n safe 
and prudent iiivestmcMjt, while the now ilormunt resources 
which it must awaken, woidil ensur*' it permanent and re- 
nninerativo support. 'I'hu wealtii of its forests, the extunt 
of its water power, and the still half developed capacity of 
its soil, are Huhjects of too much iniportntico to lie long 
neglected. It is understood that the Black River and I'tica 
R. U. will change owners during the present your, and that 
it will pass into the hands of tho bond holders. If the citi- 
zens of Lowirt CO. prove true to their own intoru.stt*, tlioy 
will unite in a strong elTort to extend this road through at 
least to Lowville, and there cun be little doubt, but that 



272 S. H. & Sar. R. R. Agriculture. 

this would at least double the present business upon the por- 
tion already constructed. 

The Sachets Harbor and Saratoga rail road co. was incor- 
porated by an act of April 10, 1848, wLich granted 250,000 
acres of the state lands, upon conditions which have since 
been so far complied with that the lands have been con- 
veyed to the company. The preliminary arrangements were 
completed and the company duly organized Jan. 10, 1852. 
On the 8th of April 1852, the ceremony of breaking ground 
near Dayanville was performed with parade of martial mu- 
sic and oratorical display, but work was not actively com- 
menced until 1854. During the summer of that year, a large 
amount of grading was done on the southern portion, and 
in places in this county, but in the fall of 1854, work was 
suspended and has not been resumed. The intention of the 
company was to first construct a plank road, to facilitate 
the travel which the rail road would require until opened, 
and large quantities of road plank were sold for less than 
their worth in standing timber upon the suspension of work. 
The report at the close of 1858, states that the capital stock 
is $6,000,000 ; amount subscribed $"5,461,100 ; paid in $2,- 
714,150; expenditures $3,675,858.67; length 182 miles. 
The legislature by act of April 6, 1857, changed the name 
of the company to the Lake Ontario and Hudson River rail 
road company. 



CHAPTER VII. 

NOTICES OF SOCIETIES AND ASSOCIATIONS. 

Agriculture, &c.— From 1808 to 1814, premiums for do- 
mestic cloths were awarded by the state, to the extent of 
$15,210, mostly by the judges of the county courts, and 
specimens of each are still preserved in the Albany Institute. 
The following awards were made to citizens of Lewis 
county : 

1809, Lewis Graves, $80. 

1810, Peleg Card, $80. 

1811, Peleg Card, $40; Chester Wood, $35; Nathan 
Hunger, $30. 

1814, Moses Waters, $40 ; Ethan Card, $35 ; Lewis Card, 
$•30. 

Under an act of 1819, creating a board of agriculture, 



Lewis County JlgricuUural Society. 273 

Lewis county was entitled to $100 annually for two years, 
if a like amount should be raised by sultscription. A socie- 
ty was formed under this act in 1820, held four annual 
fairs, and distributed premiums in money and plate upon 
farms, tillage, animals and domestic manufactures. The 
secretary was Charles Dayan, and the president for one 
year at least, was the Rev, Isaac Clinton. The first fair 
was held Oct. 23, 1821, at which the address was delivered 
by Judge Stow, and premiums to the amount of over $300 
were awarded. Members were furnished with a badge 
formed of ears uf wheat, worn like a cockade upon the hat. 
The festival ended with a ball at Welle's tavern, where 
nearly a hundred coujjle attended. The last fair was held 
in 1824. 

The Lewis county association for improving the breed 
of horses, was formed in 1831, and held one or two animal 
fairs. It may be here noticed, that this county early ac- 
quired distinction for its superior breed of horses. 

On the oth of May, 1841, a law gave $.'>3 animally to 
Lewis CO., in aid of a county agricultural society, which 
has since been continued annually. A meeting called by 
the county clerk, June 21, 1841, was addressed by Charles 
E. Clarke, and a constitution adopted, which remained un- 
changed until Doc. 27, iSfjU, wlien tho nresent constitution 
was adopted, under tho law of 1855. Liider the former, a 
president, six vice-presidents, an executive committuo of 
five, a corresponding nud recording secretary, and a trea- 
surer were elected every year. Members paid !j;l annually, 
and none <jlher could receive premiums. 

The first otlicorfl elected wore, CTemont Whitaker, pre- 
sident ; .Johnson Tulcott, Carlos Hart, Charles l». ^• 
Harrison lUo.lgot, Klias Callup, .Vlburn Kostfr.r»«-//rro. . . . 
Jared Stiles, Knuch Thompson, Timothy Mills, i.evi Hurl, 
Oliver \UiAi, executive committee ; Stephen Liioimrd, correrpond- 
ing secretary ; CharW-!* \)ii\uu,recuT<' uiulH 

Stephens, /rfUTurrr. Tho oflicers <. i... ly hu\<. . .. 

as folli»ws : 

Presidents.— \Hl]-'2, Clement Whitaker; 1S43-4, Klu Mor- 
riam ; IS J.., Lyman U. hvon ; 1K4«»-.S, Norman CJowdy ; 
lS4;i-50, Hiram MdU ; 1S51, S. H. Mniioti ; 1852, A ' '■- 
Davenport; KS53, Seth .Miller; |.S55. Smifor«l Coo; 
Lewis SlephoHM ; 1857-8, Kdmuml Huldwiu ; 1S59, Mohom 

M. Smith. 

Comsixmdinii .Srir,.' ' ' " V '-'•••»••- I^'oimrd ; 1»44, 

Charles L. Martin ; I"  . '", ^'- 'i- Murlin ; 

1847, Wm. King ; 18-18-9, Coriiolius H. Wood ; 1850-4, llar- 



274 Levns County Agricultural Society. 

rison Barnes; 1855, Chas. D. Adams; 1856, Leonard C. 
Davenport ; 1857, Cornelius E. Stephens ; 1858, H. D. 
Nolton; 1859, Jehiel R. Wetmore. 

Recording Secretaries. — 1841, Charles Dayan ; 1843, Charles 
L. Martin ; 1844, C. Dayan ; 1845, S. D. Hungerford ; 1846- 
8, John Benedict ; 1849, F. W. Northrup ; 1850-1, S. P. 
Mills ; 1852-3, N. Duane Baker ; 1855-6, Charles G. Riggs ; 
1857-8, Mortimer Smith ; 1859, Charles M. Goff. 

Treasurers.— 1841, Harvey Stephens; 1848-9, Ela N. Mer- 
riam, 1850-8, Moses M. Smith ; 1859, Alfred H. Lee. 

Fairs, have been held at Denmark in 1852 ; Lowville in 
1843, 6, 8, 1856, 9, at West Martinsburgh in 1844; at 
Martinsburgh in 1842, 5, 1850, 4 ; at Turin in 1847, 9, 1851, 
5, 7, 8 ; and at Constableville in 1853. From 1852 to 1859, 
inclusive, $1,640 and 270 volumes of books were given as 
premiums. With two exceptions the receipts have steadily 
increased, and in 1859, were much greater than ever before. 
In 1856, the fairs were located alternately at Turin and 
Lowville for six years ; and in 1857, an association at the 
former place purchased about eleven acres of ground, a 
little west of the village, the most of which has been en- 
closed and fitted up for fairs.^ In 1859, a lot was purchased 
in Lowville by Norman Gowdy and enclosed at the expense 
of the society for a like use. The latter has a course about 
half a mile in length. The society was reorganized Dec. 
27, 1S59, under chapter 425 of the laws of 1855, and its 
officers now consist of a president, vice-president, secretary, 
treasurer and six directors. The officers are, James S. 
Jackson, president; Wm. W. Smith, vice-president; F. B. 
Morse, secretary; and Alfred H. Lee, treasurer; Norman 
Gowdy, Charles H. Curtis, Azro H. Buck, Ela Merriam, 
Sanford Coe and C. G. Riggs are directors. 

In this connection we may notice the total results of 
agriculture in Lewis county, as reported by the state and 
national census for the year preceding the dates of these 
official inquiries. They may vary from the truth, but are 
the nearest and most reliable data existing with regard to 
our productive resources. 

1 The owners of the Turin fair ground, are Albert Foster, Jefferson M. 
Wilcox, Edwin Woolworth, Charles G. Riggs, Alfred H. Lee, and Edmund 
Baldwin. 



Jlsricultural Statistics. 275 



Agricidtural Statistics. 

1840. 1845. 18.50. 185.5. 

Barley, bushels, 20,271 23,119 23,813 37,513 

Beans, bushels, 678 1,030 

Buckwheat, bushels, 8,498 25,803 10,117 10,443 

Corn, bu.shels, 48,984 53,180 83,027 92,398 

Flax, pound.s, 45,281 31,905 65,782 

Hay, tons, 43,284 67,280 51,802 

Hops, pounds 5,460 11,322 8,870 

Oats, bushels 144,880 202,515 295,445 

Peas, bushels, 21,925 12,978 

Potatoes, bu.shels, 634,316 498,849 287,715 243,841 

Rye, bushels, 2,473 9,278 11,383 

Sugar, pounds 257,476 236,918 

Turnips, bushels, 22,340 5,830 

Wax and Honey, pounds, 148 17,968 12,743 

Wheat, bushels, 85,191 87,406 73,584 63,785 

Wool, pounds 68,173 89,229 44,137 27,047 

1821. 1825. 1835. 1840. 1845. 1850. 1855. 

Cattle, 10,417 13,780 25,063 31,130 32,790 32,308 29,748 

Horses, 1,887 3,066 4,684 3,931 4,570 4,309 5,106 

Sheep, 18,267 34,467 40,234 36,665 40,657 15,368 10,086 

Swine 11,739 16,197 18,076 15,813 9,091 8,353 

Value of dairy products, 1840, $137,177 

In 1855, there were reported 2,423 working oxen and 
19,151 cows. The amount ol" Itutter pro(hiced, was 1,575,- 
515 pound.s, and of cheese, 1,896,741 jjounds. The amount 
oi" chjthij of" domestic manufacture formerly large had de- 
creased to 15,802 yard.s. 

Of the grains now cultivated, the surplus from the county 
is now small, and much Ic.-^s wheat is raised than consumed. 
In most sections, the jiroduction of hutter and cheese has 
been found the most {)r()iitaijle and certain, and tho true in- 
terest of thu farmer will generally be found to cultivate 
grains only su far us hy the [)roper rotation of crops to 
keep his land in tho best condition possible for the growth 
of grass. ( )f tho less common products of agriculture, seve- 
ral reipiire historical notice. 

Dye. Stt/[f's. — Tho cultivation of saflVon {Curthamtis tincto- 
ris), for dy<;ing, was ahout 181(5, a prominent business with 
several farmers in Lowville and Martinsburgli. At u some- 
what earlier period, the cidtivation of madder was attempt- 
«'d, but witliout success suHicient to induce a continuance of 
the enterprise. 

Flax has boon a subject of culture from the first, but never 
extensively us a leading business, except during tho active 
operation of the Copeidiagen works. In lS45-(j, largo 
quantities were raised, chiolly from the high price of tho 



276 Jlgricultural Statistics. Insurance Company. 

seed. Linseed oil has been extensively manufactured at 
Lowville and Copenhagen. 

Hemp was cultivated to a considerable extent in Den- 
mark and vicinity, soon after the establishment of Varick's 
cordage manufactory at Coi^enhagen, about 1832-5, The 
result was not satisfactory, chiefly from the difficulty of 
properly preparing it for use when grown. 

Essential oils. — The manufacture of the oil of peppermint, 
has been an important item of business in Lowville and 
Harrisburgh, and is still followed to a limited extent. The 
first field of mint in the county was planted in 1811, by 
Martin Guiteau and Truman Terrill, who continued the 
business several years. The Buck, Morse, Humphrey, and 
other families have since been extensively engaged in it. 
In 1814, three farmers had 40 acres planted, and the profits 
of some of the earlier adventurers were great. The plant 
is usually mown three years, and the yield per aero in oil 
generally averages ten pounds the first year, fifteen the 
second, and five or six tiie third. It is distilled soon after 
being cut, or when partially cured like hay. The price 
of this article is very fluctuating, and on several occasions, 
the transition from one extreme to the other has resulted 
in heavy losses. Other essential oils, as of hemlock, cedar, 
spearmint, &c., have been made to a limited extent. 

Silk. — In 1843, Ira Adams received a premium of $3.79, 
at the rate of 15 cents per pound, for cocoons, and $1.12 
at the rate of 50 cents per pound for reeled silk. This was 
probably the largest amount ever raised in one year by one 
person, and but few have ever attempted silk culture in the 
county. The Morus multicaulis speculation prevailed in 
this county to only a moderate degree, as compared with 
other sections. 

The Lewis County Mutual Insurance Company, was in- 
corporated Feb. 27, 1837, and Ela Collins, Isaac W. Bost- 
wick, Stephen Leonard, Andrew W. Doig, Jared House, 
Merrit M. Norton, John W. Martin, Carlos P. Scovil, Enoch 
Thompson, Isaac W, Bush, Asa L. Sheldon, Ashley Daven- 
port, Abraham Miller, John Whittlesey and Ela Merriam 
were appointed directors. The directors elected John Whit- 
tlesey president of the company, but the organization was 
never completed and no policies were issued. 

The Lewis County Bible Society was formed May 28, 
1812, when the Rev. James Murdock was chosen president; 
Rev. Isaac Clinton, vice president; Stephen Leonard, treasurer; 
Barnabas Yale, secretary; and Jedediah Darrow, jr., Dea. 
Mather Bosworth, Dea. Samuel Dean, Wm. S. RadclifF and 



Sabbath School, Anti-Slavery and Educational Societies. 277 

John McCollister, a committee. Members were required to pay 
$1 the first year and 50 cents annually until it amounted to 
$3. During- the seven first years there was no change of 
officers except in the committee, which included at different 
times the Rev. Jeduthan Iligby, Dea. ^eth Miller, Jonathan 
Barker, Paul Abbott, Lemuel Dickinson, Chillus Doty, John 
Ives and Chester Shumway. In Aug. 1827, a Bible soc, auxil- 
iary to the Am. B. S., was formed in this county. Its dona- 
tions to the parent society have been $599.08, and its remit- 
tances for bibles and testaments $3,056.39. Stephen Leonard 
has acted as treasurer from the beginning, excepting one year. 
In 1828 it established auxiliaries in each town, but this was 
found unadvisable. A Bible census has been several times 
taken, by the first of which in 1829, it was found that 400 
families in 2000 were without the Bible. In 1848 it was 
found that 708 out of 3743 families were destitute, and of 
that number 278 were supplied, the remaining 430 being all 
Catholic. 

In 1818, John W. Towne of Marlborough, Vt., agent of 
Holbrook k Fessenden, got an immense subscription list for 
a $12 quarto family bible in this county. 

The Lewis Couxty Sabbath School Union was formed 
in 1825, and held annual meetings about 5 years. It became 
auxiliary to the Am. S. S. U. The first anniversary gather- 
ing of S. S. pupils was at Lowville July 2, 1829, at which 
550 scholars were present. The services were unusually 
impressive from the funeral of Anna Shepherd, a child of 
twelve years of age, which was held upon the occasion. In 
1830, 400 mot at Martinsburgh, and similar gatherings have 
been held annually or oltencr since this period. 

The Lhwih County Anti-Slavery Society was formed 
Aug., 1835, auxiliary to the Am. A. S. Society, and reor- 
ganized Jan. 10, 1S.37, embracing at first members of both of 
the great political parties, and oi' all religious creeds. It was 
BOOM after merged in a political party which in 1S4(), num- 
bered 5 per cent of all the votes cast for governor. At no 
otluT election has their vote been so high. 

The Hducational Sofii-.Tv oe Lewis ('oi'nty was forniL'tl 
Nov. 14, 1845, with D. I'. Mayhow, prfTjV/fn/ ; Sitlney Syl- 
vester, \»t vice president ; A. i'. I'easo, 2d vice pre^idtnt ; 
Harrison Harncs, rorrv^pondiiii^ secretari/ ; A. S. Kaston, 
recordinif secretary, iwA ^. V. (Jlark,' treasurer. At'tt-r a lew- 
years this organization was given up, and a Teach^r.s' assocta- 
tion was formed which has since boon continued with great 

iMr. Clurk of Donmark, now » professor In Irving college, Tennessee. 



278 Educational and Temperance Societies. 

advantage. Teacher's institutes have been held annually 
since 1846, in different parts of the county, beginning at 
Turin. 

Lewis county was composed of 12 towns in 1844, when 
acts were passed requiring the supervisors of each county 
to appoint one or more superintendents of schools. It so 
happened that the board was equally divided, and from 
political grounds could not unite upon a candidate for this 
office. No effort was made until 1843, w^hen after three 
days' ineffectual balloting the board adjourned. Notice was 
duly given by the secretary of state that unless the county 
complied with the statute, the public school moneys would 
be withheld. This led to a special meeting of the supervisors, 
and the forenoon of the first day was again spent to no 
purpose. Upon assembling after dinner, it was found that 
but eleven persons were present, the twelfth being on his 
way from the hotel. The vote was at once pressed to an 
issue and the dilemma ceased. The incumbents of this office 
until its discontinuance w^ere Sidney Sylvester of Copenha- 
gen, Jan. 16, 1844, and Alfred H. Bush of Turin, Nov. 16, 
1846. 

Under the act of 1856 creating the office of school com- 
missioner, the county has been divided into two districts, 
the southern, or No. 1, embracing we believe the towns of 
Greig, Martinsburgh and towns south, and the other, the 
remainder of the county. 

Society for the Acquisition of Useful Knowledge. — 
Under this name an association was formed in this county 
April 26, 1843, and continued till Sept. 2, 1848. It consisted 
at one time of about forty young men, mostly students, and 
was designed for mutual improvement by the reading of 
original papers, debates, &c. 

Temperance Societies. — The first society of this kind in 
the county,^ was formed at Copenhagen, in February, 1825, 
and consisted of twelve members. It grew out of prosecu- 
tions for the sale of ardent spirits without a license, under 
an act passed February 18, 1820, requiring poor masters to 
recover certain fines for the benefit of the poor. These 
suits were instituted by Levi Robbins, poor master, and 
although judgment was got, the town would release the par- 
ties convicted, by a vote of town meeting. The discussions 
which these measures raised, led to the formation of a 

1 Turin may incidentally claim an earlier attempt at reform with regard to 
intemperance. At a town meeting held in 1821, it voted that no licenses should 
be granted (unless the applicant should first i^roduce a certificate of the town 
sealer, that his measures had been comjjared and found correct). 



Temperance Societies. 279 

society, consisting of Norman Guiteau, Levi Robbins, Wm. 
C. Lawton, David Goodenough, Dr. John Loud, Austin H. 
Robbins, Harris Bronson, Edward S. Robbins, Wm. Keen, J. 
Stoddard, and two others not remembered by our inform- 
ant. 

A town society was formed in Turin, July, 1827, in Low- 
ville in February, 1828, in West Leyden in January, 1829, 
and in Martinsburgh in October, 1830. Societies were also 
formed in Stow Square, Leyden and Greig. The first tem- 
perance tavern in the state, so far as we are informed, was 
opened by Douglas Wright of Denmark, in 1817, and con- 
tinued two years. The lirst merchants who discontinued 
the sale of liquors, were Fowler & Woolworth of Turin, in 
April, 1829, and their trade fell oft" one-third in conse- 
quence. 

A County temperance society was formed at Martins- 
burgh, September 15, 1828, and became auxiliary to the 
State temperance society, upon the formation of the latter. 
This county society in a few years fell into neglect.^ Tho 
Washingtonian Temperance movement began in 1843. A 
society styled the Washington Association of Lewis was 
I'ormed July 15, 1843, and at the close of that year 5,000 
members belonged to it in Lewis county. Anniversary 
meetings were held June 25, 1844, and July 8, 1845, and the 
interest continued until the vote upon the license question 
in 184G and 1847, divided public sentiment. A Carson 
League was formed at the county seat, July 13, 1854. 
Capital $'100,000, in shares of §5, of which 25 cents were 
ie([uirL'(l to be puid. It ih believed a i'uw prosecutions were 
begun, but a decision of the Court of Appeals terminated its 
existence. 

The H. ]{. Am. Conf., of tho M. E. Church, at Lowvillo, 
December, 1820, voted to uso its inlluLMice to prevent tho 
use of ardent si)irita in their society, and in 1832 passed 
strong resolutions, in which tho uso, uianufaiture or sale of 
liquors was declared Htrongly derogatory to Christian char- 
acter and a lit sul)jet;t of discipline. 

'I'einporanco lecturers through the country imvo been fre- 
(|uent ; urnoiig which wore Kev. D. C. Axtel, in Oct., 1S29 ; 
Samuel ('liipinan in 1S33, and Xovomber, 1S45 ; L. A. Cran- 
dull in IS3IJ ; (-'iiK<l> Lyon of Lyonsdale, in the spring of 1842 ; 
J. I*, ('otlin, ill Heceml'er, 1812, and 'i'homas N. Johnson, iu 
September, 1844. 

I In I83i>, there wuru lo tuwii HOfietiut, and 677 tnvmboii ; in 1831, thero 
wurt) 1) town aoclotiua, and 1,237 luumbvra ; iu 1832, thoru wvro 13 town 
sociotios, and 2J18 mrmbers. 



280 Excise Vote. Masons. Odd Fellows. 

The vote on the license question in May, 1846 and 1847, 
was as follows, in the several towns : 

1846. 1847. 

No No 

License. License. License. License. 

Croghan, 12 10 

Denmark, US 285 234 256 

Diana, .. . 47 33 

Greig, . . -. 30 4 

Harrisbiirgh, 53 73 

Leyden, 129 112 

Lowville, 168 218 205 176 

Martinsburgh, 173 196 214 161 

Osceola, 14 

Pinckney, 45 84 

Turin, 139 130 184 124 

Watson, 90 72 

West Turin, 169 117 189 74 

Total, 1,173 1,348 1,026 791 

Masonic Lodges. — A Mark lodge was formed at Martins- 
burgh, about 1810, at the house of Adoniram Foot, and 
afterwards removed to Denmark. It was merged in chap- 
ters about 1824. 

A Master's lodge was formed at a very early day at the 
house of Jonathan Collins, in Turin. It was the first in the 
county. 

Jefferson Lodge, No. 64, was formed in the winter of 1806-7, 
in Martinsburgh, with Chillus Doty, Master ; Wm. Derby- 
shire, S. W. ; Solomon Rathbone, J. W. It was removed to 
Lowville, and held for some time in the house of Ira Ste- 
phens, from whence it has returned to Martinsburgh. Before 
its removal it was held at the house of Chillus Doty and A. 
Foot, and after its return at the house of David Waters. 
Its charter was surrendered June 3, 1831. 

Orient Lodge was formed in Denmark about 1810, with 

Jonathan Barker, M., Sueton Fairchild, S. W., and Van 

Vleck, J. W. A new charter was granted September 6, 
1851, No. 238 ; and it has been removed from Denmark 
village to Copenhagen. 

Lowville Lodge, No. 134, was chartered June 13, 1848, and 
has since been sustained. 

Turin Lodge, No. 184, was chartered December 3, 1850. 

Odd Fellows' Lodges. — Six lodges of the I. 0. 0. F., 



Odd Fellows. Religious Bodies. 28 1 

have been formed, of which four continue in this county, as 
follows : 

Lewis Lodge, No. 92. Constableville. Meetings Saturdays. 

Copenhagen Lodge, No. 190. Copenhagen. Meetings Sat- 
urdays. 

Cynosure Lodge, No. 215. Turin. (Charter surrendered). 

Jldelphia Lodge, No. 308. Lowville. Meetings Mondays. 

Central Lodge, No. 367. Martinsl>urgli. (Extinct). 

Juris Lodge, No. 417. Port Leyden, and afterwards near 
Lyons Falls, in Greig. Meetings Saturdays. 

A few "Daughters of llebekah " were admitted at the 
Juris Lodge, in 1853 or 1854, but no others are, it is be- 
lieved, reported. 

Sons of Temperance. — Eleven lodges of this order have ex- 
isted in this county, all of which are extinct. They were 
formed between 1844 and 1850, the first at Copenhagen, 
and the last at Lowville, viz : 

Copenhagen Lodge No. 45 ; Constableville No. 46 ; Col- 
linsville No. 63 ; Port Leyden No. 64; Cedar Grove (Deer 
river) No. 65 ; AVest Martinsburgh No. 170 ; New Bremen 
No. 206 ; Housevillo No. 217 ; Dayspring (Martinsburgh) 
No. 218 ; Turin No. 219, and Lowville No. 267. Eight of 
these reported Jan. 1852, a total of 228 contributing mem- 
bers. 

Daughters of Temperance. — A society of 12 members of this 
order, named " liopo of the Fallen Union," was organized 
in Martinsburgh Jan. 9, 1851, by Mrs. J. A. Granger of 
(JhaiMpion. It was of ephemeral duration. 

(juod Templars. — This order was instituted at Martins- 
burgh in Juno and at Deer river in July 1854. 



CHAPTER VITT. 

UKLIClorS HODIKS. 

Methodist Kpiscopal. — The churclios of this county are in- 
cluded in the lUack Hivor conforonco, which was formed 
in 1835.' 'I'his ro;<ion was embraced in thu \. Y. conlor- 
(Mico till 1S()9, in that of (;onesoo from ISO'J to 1S29, und in 
that of Onuida Irom 1S29 to 1S35. The county formed u 
part of Albany district till 1SU8, of Cayuga district from 
ISOS to 1812, of Oneida district from IS 12 to 1820, and of 
JJhuk Uiver district from 1S-J() to IS.39. The llcrkimorand 
Gouverncur districts divided tho county from 1839 to 1844, 

J' 



282 Religious Bodies. 

since which theAdams district has embraced nearly its 
entire area. 

The presiding elders of the Black River district were 
Rinaldo M. Everts, 1821-2; Dan. Barnes, 1823-5; Goodwin 
Stoddard, 1826; Nathaniel Salisbury, 1827-30; Josiah 
Keyes, 1831-2; John Dempster,- 1833, and Gardner Baker 
1836-9. In the Herkimer district it was Geo. Gary" in 
1836-9, and Aaron Adams in 1840-1. In Gouverneur dis- 
trict, W. S. Bowdish, 1839 ; Lewis Whitcomb in 1841 ; and 
N. Salisbury in 1842-3. In Adams district in has been L. 
Whitcomb in 1844 ; N. Salisbury in 1845-6 ; Isaac Stone* 
in 1847 ; Geo. C. Woodruff in 1848-9 ; Geo. Gary in 1850-1; 
A. J. Phelps in 1852 ; Gardner Baker in 1853-9. 

The Black River circuit formed in 1804, embraced the 
whole of the northern part of the state west and north of 
the great forest. Turin circuit was formed in 1812, but in 2 
years was discontinued. Lowville and Martinsburgh to- 
gether formed a circuit from 1832 to 1840, when the latter 
was separated. Watson Mission was formed in 1834, and 
in about ten years it became a circuit. New Bremen be- 
came a mission in 1849, and Copenhagen a circuit in 1840. 
The Black river circuit was changed to the Turin circuit in 
1844. New Boston became a mission in 1851. 

While the Black River circuit embraced the whole county, 
its ministers were Griffin, Sweet, and Asa Cummins in 
1804 ; G. Sweet and Seymour Ensign in 1805 ; Mathew 
Van Duzan and William Vredenburgh in 1806; Datus En- 
sign in 1807 ; M. Van Duzan and Luther Bishop in 1808 ; L. 
Bishop and Wm. Jewett in 1809 ; Joseph Willis and Chand- 
ley Lambert^ in 1810 ; Wm. Snow and Truman Gillett in 
1811; Joseph Kinkead in 1812; Isaac Puffer and Goodwin 
Stoddard in 1813; C. Lambert in 18 14; Ira Fairbank and 

IThis conference was incorporated by special act, April 17, 1841, with 
power to hold real estate not exceeding $20,000, and an income not over 
§10,000 annually. 

- Mr. Dempster went as a missionary in Buenos Ayres. He is now at the Gar- 
rett Biblical institute, Evanston, 111. 

^ Mr. 'Gary was born in Middlefield, N. Y., Dec. 8, 1793, and admitted to 
trial as a preacher, while but iifteen years of age. Having been employed 
many years in New England and central New York, he was in 1844 appointed 
to take charge of Oregon mission, wh^re be remained four years. He died 
at Camden, N. Y., March 25, 185.), having labored 4ti years, of which 23 were 
as a presiding elder, 6 as a missionary, and 16 on circuits or stations. 

•iMr. S. was born in Hoosick, N. Y., March 28, 1797, and died in Onondaga 
county, Sept. 10, 1850, having served in the ministry nearly thirty years. 

1 Chandleij Lambert was born in Alford, Mass., March 27, 1781, and at the 
age of twenty-seven entered the Methodist ministry, in which he labored 
zealously about twenty years. He subsequently settled in Lowville where 
he died, March 16, 1845. 



i 



Religious Bodies. 283 



-to 



James Hazen in 1815 ; I. Fairbank and G. Stoddard in 1816 ; 
J. Willis in 1817 ; Andrew Prindle and Abraham Lippet in 
1818; A. Prindle and Henry Peck in 1819; Nathaniel 
lleeder and J. Willis in 1820; Benjamin Dighton in 1821; 
C. Lambert in 1822; Trnman Dixon, Squire Chase- and 
Elijah King (sup.) in 1823 ; Benj. G. Paddock and N. Salis- 
bury in 1824 ; B. G. Paddock and S. Chase in 1825 ; I. Puffer 
and Jolm Ercanbrack in 1826 ; I. Puffer and I. Stone in 
1827 ; John H. Wallace and 1. Stone in 1828 ; Calvin Haw- 
ley in 1829 ; Josiaii Keyes and L. Whitcomb in 1830, and 
Anson Fuller in 1831-2. 

The Black River conference was held in the grove south 
of Turin village, July 31, 1839, and at Lowville July 17, 
1846. 

The Missionary society of the B. R. Q. M. Conf. was found- 
ed Dec. 29, 1827 and a constitution adopted May 3, 1828. 

Presbyterian. — The Watertown Presbytery includes this 
county. It was formed in 1830, from the St. Lawrence 
Presb. which was organized from that of Oneida in 1816, 
and held its first session in Martinsburgh in the fall of that 
year. The Revs. Jas. Murdock, Isaac Clinton, Samuel F. 
Snowden, Jcduthan Iligby, jr.,and David Banks (of Water- 
town), were original members of this body. Tlie principal 
facts concerning the union and withdrawal of churches, are 
noted under the towns where they severally occur. 

Concrretratiunal. — The Black River association was formed 
at Lowville, Sept. 1, 1807, by delegates from churches at 
LeydiMi, West Loyden, Turin, Lowville, Denmark, and six 
towns in Jefferson county. 

The Free Communion liajUists, were first organized in this 
county in lSi:{, by persons who had belonged to the iJaptist 
church, but were led to ditVer upon doctrinal points, pro- 
bably through the influence of persons from Russia, Herki- 
mer county. The 15. R. yearly meeting, adopted its con- 
stitution in Sept., lS:i(», an<i emliracod tlio region between 
East Canada creek an<l lhe(ienesoo. In thesjiring of 1S4-1, 
this sect wuH merged in the Free Will IJaptists, and their 

2 Mr. Cliari.. wa-t »«>rn in H.ijiln, .N. Y . F<'Ij. 1'., \s03, wax liooti(ie<l to pr.'.i.Ji 
111 .lull'' l"--, ninl wa.H bodii afttT p-coived on trial in llu' Urnottoe »-onffn'ii<;t>. 
llt> jinik<-)>*-il at varioiu plai-tw in thiN ami OneiiU conrcr<»no«t, and in 1S31 
wa^ n|>]H*iiit>'<l pr<>9idin< I'lili'r of r^ttdant ditttrift. In lH3«i hu waM iit*nt hy 
IiIm knvii ri-<|u<'?>t oil n iiiixiiion tu Lil»Tia whtTi) hit rwniaiii>'il alxiut two y^'an, 
whiii Ik' rttirnctl wi'' In l'»41, wliilti at I,<>wvil!.>, 

tJH) oiiportiiiiity tor i > nUMti>>n i>lT«rtHi, and lie attain 

^»aill•d to LtU<ria wlicr*' hu rvmuinfd till .Manh I'^A.i. II" di<'d at ^<v^u(-ll.s<t 
whili< attending conffriMicv, July '2*i, 1^4.'). and wan huriud at Iluusoville. 
IU< nmrriod Julia, danghtor of Kll Uogeni of .Martinsburijh. 



284 Religious Bodies. JYewspapers. 

number in Lewis county, has become very small. They 
are embraced in the St. Lawrence yearly, and the Jefferson 
quarterly meetings. Small societies exist in Diana, Har- 
risburgh, West Turin and Watson. 

Baptists. — The Black River Baptist association, was formed 
in 1808, at which time there existed a church at Denmark 
of 29 members under the Rev. Peleg Card, and another at 
Turin of 65 members under the Rev. Stephen Parsons. The 
association then also included Jefferson and parts of St. Law- 
rence and Oswego counties numbering in all 9 churches, 
371 members, and 5 ministers. The B. R. missionary soc. 
was formed in 1817, and up to 1844, had received $7,837. 

Roman Catholics. — This county is embraced in the Diocese 
of Albany, and contains nine churches, of which two are 
unfinished. They are distributed as follows : Crogan 1, 
Diana 1, Harrisburgh 1, New Bremen 2, Pinckney I, West 
Turin 3. 

Universalists. — The B. R. association was formed June, 
1823, and includes this county, Jefferson and Oswego. The 
only churches erected within our limits are at Denmark 
and Talcottville. 

Friends. — There is but one society of this sect in the co. 
(Lowville), which belongs to the Le Ray Monthly meeting. 

Revivals of religion have occurred in the winter of 1803- 
4, at Turin (among the Baptists), in 1818, 1822, 1831, 1832, 
1842-3, and 1857. In that of 1832 the Rev. Jacob Knapp 
held meetings at the Line church, at Lowville and at Turin. 
The Rev. Jedediah Burchard in the same year held meetings 
at Stow square, Denmark and Leyden Hill. That of 1857, 
was characterized by the absence of excitement, and by its 
apparently spontaneous origin. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE NEWSPAPER PRESS. 



The Black River Gazette, the first newspaper printed north 
of the Mohawk valley within the state, was begun at Mar- 
tinsburgh, March 10th, 1807, by James B. Robbins, and con- 
tinued a year. It was Republican in politics, and chiefly 
under the patronage of Gen. Martin. The press was re- 
moved to Watertown and used in printing the first paper in 




■v' ^ , 





<^. 



ii//V>L 





'?2^^. 




JVewspapers. 285 

Jefferson county. While at Martinsburgh, this paper was 19 
by 21 inches in size, with four columns to the page, and the 
type was of the old style with the long s. Ephraim Luce 
was post rider. 

The Lewis County Sentinel was begun at ^lartinsburgh, 
Oct. 12, 1824, by Charles Nichols, and published one year, 
at $2.00 by post or $1.75 if taken at the office. The size 
was 19 by 22 inches, four columns to the page. Neutral in 
politics. 

The Martinsburgh Sentinel and Leuns County Mvertiser was 
first issued Oct. 13, 1829, by James Ketchum Averill. Terms 
$2.00 to village and mail subscribers, $1.75 if taken at the 
ollice and $l.cO in clubs of ten or more. If not paid till the 
end of the year, $2.50. It was a small sheet, with five col- 
umns to the page, and ended in Feb., 1830. Democratic in 
politics. Mr. Averill has since been long connected with 
the press in the north-eastern part of the state. 

The Lems County Gazette was begun in Lowville in the 
spring of J821, by Lewis G. Hoffman, and was continued 
nearly two years, when its publisher removed to Black Rock. 
He now resides in Waterford, Saratoga co. This paper was 
18 by 24 inches, with lour columns to the page, and was 
issued weekly at $2.50 per annum. In politics it was 
Bucktail. 

The Black River Gazette was begun by Wm. L. Easton^ at 
fjowville, Oct. 19, 1825, and published nntil Dec. 1, 1830, by 
him, when Joso[)h .M. Farr became publisher and continued 
it until 1833. It began of the same size as the Lewis Co. 
Sentinel, upon the same press that had been used i>y that 
j)api!r, but th(5 second year was enlarged by one column to 
the j)agt5, and in the nocond volume till No. 33, 11. L. ;iiid 
W. 1^. Faston were uHHOciated. It was issued at $J.l)0 per 
annum, and proftrssed to bo impartial and independent in 
piilitic^. The nominatinim of both parties wore kept stand- 
ing in itH colurnnt) proviouM to oloctions, and it waH open to 
diseus.Mion upon any nubject of [)ublic interest until 1S32, 
when it ado[)toil the anti-ina.tonic nominations and advocated 
the election of William Wirt to the pre.sidency. Mr. Fastou 
iHicamo a joint publinlior again Oct. 10, 1832, and continued 
8uch till the end. 



' W>lU«m L Fttt'm w»# horn In H«»rk^hlr» «V)anty, Mam., In 1806, omm to 
thi.'< li«l at I.<iwrl!li<. Ho wan on« 

of i! ; ^ , which ofli<-«' ho held nvarlj 

twvnty joarn, and wan for nonin tlm« iU c«hi«r aad prvaident. H« wm 
■urrogato of Lowla countjr about four joan. 



286 JVewspapers. 

The Lewis Democrat was begun by Le Grand Byington 
March, 25, 1834, and was published one year. It supported 
the whig party, advocated Seward's claims as candidate for 
governor. Size and terms the same as that of the B. R. 
Gazette, the press and type of which were employed upon 
this paper. Its editor has since figured in the Ohio legis- 
lature, and now resides at Iowa City. 

The Lewis County Republican was begun at Martinsburgh 
by James Wheeler May 18, 1830, as the organ of the Demo- 
cratic party in the county — the type and press being the 
same that had been used by Mr. Averill. On the 12th of 
September, 1836, it was transferred to Daniel S. Baile}-, who 
continued to publish it until united with the Northern Jour- 
nal, Jan. 1, 1860. It was issued from a wooden Ramage 
press until Mr. Bailey procured a new iron press, and in Jan., 
1853, a steam power press was procured. In the spring of 
1845 it was removed to Lowville, and a few years after re- 
turned to Martinsburgh. During the campaign of 1848 it 
supported the Hunker portion of the Democratic party, 
in 1852 it supported Pierce, and in 1854 it became Repub- 
lican. Being thus brought upon the same political platform 
with the Northern Journal, the proprietor of the latter pur- 
chased Mr. Bailey's interest, and Jan. 4, the first number of 
the Journal and Republican was issued. 

Few country newspapers have been conducted with more 
discretion and ability than this, during the long period it 
was in the hands of Mr. Baile3\ We are indebted to the 
early files of this paper for many valuable facts in these 
pages. 

The Leuns County Democrat, the first and only paper printed 
at Turin, was begun by Horace R. Lahe, Sept. 22, 1846, with 
new type and press bought for its use, partly by the aid of 
a local subscription, but chiefly by Clement Whitaker, 
Homer Collins and Jonathan C. Collins, who advanced 
money with the agreement that Lahe should purchase at 
the end of a year. This was accordingly done. 

It supported the Radical or Barnburning branch of the 
Democratic party, and in the campaign of 1848 was strongly 
Free Soil in politics. Terms $1.50. In Jan., 1850, it 
was removed to Martinsburgh, where a few numbers only 
were published, and soon after to Boonville where its press 
and material have since been in use. 

The Leiris County Banner was begun at Lowville Sept. 8, 
1S56, as the organ of the Democratic party and advocate of 
Buchanan for the presidency. It was conducted the first 



Newspapers. 287 

year by N. B. Sylvestei", subsequently by E. A. Teall and 
Almont Barnes, and since Sept. 1, 1858, by Henry AUgoever. 
It is the only Den^iOcratic paper in the county. 

The JVorlhern Journal, was commenced at Lowville, by 
Ambrose W. Clark Irom Otsego co., Feb. 22, 1838, at $2 per 
annum, and of nearly its present size. At the end of the 
eighth vol. 1846, Edwin R. Colston^ became its publisher, 
and in Nov., 1847, the paper appeared under the name of 
of C. W. Haven as editor. Jason C. Easton, became owner 
March 9, 1848, and in Oct. 1848, William Oland Bourne of 
New York followed as publisher, until 1850. After appear- 
ing a few months under the names of "\Vm. X. Ninde, printer, 
and V. R. Martin, editor, Mr. Easton resumed the paper 
and in the spring of 1853, became associated with Homer 
C. Hunt, under the firm of Easton & Hunt, and continued to 
the close of vol. 16. Cordial Storrs, jr., became proprie- 
tor December 28, 1S53, and having conducted the paper 
two years was followed Jan. 2, 1856, by Geo. W. Fowler. 
On tlie 27th of Oct., 1858, Henry A. Phillips, became 
publisher and has since continued. This paper was estab- 
lished as the organ of the Whig party in the county, and in 
1854, it became Republican. It has uniformly supported 
the nominees of this party, except in 1858, when it substituted 
the name of Mr. Lvdu lor congress as an independent can- 
didate, in oppositiun to tlie nominee of the Republican 
party. Late in 1859, Mr. I'hillips purchased the Lewis 
County Republican, and Jan. 4, 1860, the two were first 
issued iin<ler tiie title of 

Tlic Journal and Republican, at Lowville, Mr. Bailey re- 
maining for a time associate editor. The typographical 
execution of the now paper is neat, and its articles are well 
selecteil. It is tlio oidy organ of the Republican party in 
the county. 

The Dollar Wtekly jVoTtheni Blade, was begun at Constablo- 
villo, August, 185-1, by Fairchildand Healls. It was changed 
from Minall folio to (juarto at the end of the first year, and 
Fairchild became holo publi.sher in July, 1855. The third 
voluinu bocaniu folio. In February, 1S56, (ialusha V. Fames 
became pulilishor, and in Suptoml'er of that year, J. S. 
Kibbo'.H name appeareil as editor. While in Karnes's pos- 
Hcs.sion the paper was enhirged to 24 by 30 inches. On the 
23d of April, 1S57, Wm. R. Mornll and Edwin R. Cook 
becanio publishors and clmngcd its nuine to 



1 .Mr. loblun dird in Urookljrii, •><t 11, l-J", a>;«<l ^i.'l jroart. 



288 JYewspapers. Official Lists. 

The JSTews Register, and in the spring of 1858, removed the 
office to Carthage and began the publication of the Carthage 
Standard. 

The Hawk Eye, a juvenile four page quarto sheet supposed 
to have been printed at Lowville, appeared at Coustable- 
ville a few weeks in the fall of 1855. To oppose this 

The Young Jlmerica was printed at the Blade oftice a few 
weeks. It was somewhat larger, but scarcely more respect- 
able than its pigmy opponent. 



CHAPTER X. 

OFFICIAL AND PROFESSIONAL LISTS. 

Congressmen. — Until 1808, this county formed with Her- 
kimer, Oneida, Jefferson and St. Lawrence, the 15th Dis- 
trict ; from 1808 to 1812, with Herkimer, Jefierson and St. 
Lawrence, the 10th ; from 18 12 to 1822, with Jefierson and 
St. Lawrence, the l8th ; from 1822 to 1832, with Jeff'erson, 
Oswego and St. Lawrence (double district), the 20th ; from 
1832 to 1842, with Herkimer, the 16th ; from 1842 to 1851, 
with St. Lav»^rence, the l8th ; and since 1851, with Jefferson, 
the 23d. With one exception, the representatives from this 
county, have resided in Lowville. 

18tli Congress, 1823-5. Ela Collins. 30th Congress, 1847-9. Wm. Collins. 

26th-27tli Con., 1839-41. Andrew 33d Congress, 1853-5. Caleb Lyon, 

W. Doig. of Lyonsdale. 
22d Congress, 1831-3, Chas. Dayan. 

State Senators. — This county formed a part of the West- 
ern District until 1815, when it was included in the Eastern. 
From 1822 to 1846 it formed a part of the 5th, and since 
1846, of the 21st District, It now elects with Jefi'erson 
county. The senators from Lewis county have been : 

1809-12. Walter Martin, Martinsb'g. 1847. Nelson J. Beach, Watson. 

1819-22. Levi Adams, Martinsb'g. 1851. Caleb Lyon of Lyonsdale,^ 
1827-28. Charles Dayan,! Lowville. Greig. 

1834-37. Francis Seger, Greig. 1852-53. Ashley Davenport, Den- 
1843-i6. Carlos P. Scovil, Martins- mark. 

burgh. 1858-59. Jos. A. Willard, Lowville. 

1 Elected in place of George Brayton of Oneida county, resigned. 

2 Elected March 27, 1851, in place of Alanson Skinner of Jefferson county, 
resigned. 



Assemblymen. Judges. Sheriffs. 



289 



Assemblymen. — Lewis county was united with Jefferson 
and St. Lawrence as one assembly district, until 1808, since 
wliicli it has been entitled to one member alone. Its mem- 
bers in the assembly have been : 

1837. Geo. D. Rnggles, Lowville. 

1838. William Dominick, Greig. 

1839. Saiiford Coe, Leyden. 



1808. Lewis Graves, Denmark. 

1809. Judah Barnes, Turin. 

1810. Lewis Graves, Di-Mmiark. 

1811. Nathaniel Merriam, Leyden. 

1812. William Darrow, Lowville. 

1813. Levi Collins, West Turin. 

1814. Chillus Doty, Marti nsburgh, 

1815. Ela Collins, Lowville. 
1816-7. Chillus Doty, Martinsburgh 

1818. Levi Hart, Turin. 

1819. Levi Kobbins, Denmark. 

1820. Nathaniel Merriam, Leyden. 
ls,2l. Stephen Hart, Turin. 

1822. Cliester Buck, Lowville. 

1823. Abner W. Spencer, Denmark. 

1824. Caleb Lyon, (Jreii,'. 

182.'). Amos Buck, Jr., Denmark. 

182*;. Amos Miller, Leyden. 

Itt27. John W. Martin, Martinsb'rg. 
1828-9 Geo. D. Ruggles, Lowville. 

1830. Joseph (>. .MoU, Turin. 

1831. Harrison Blodg.t, Denmark. 

1832. Andrew W. Doig, Lowville. 

1833. Eli Rogers, Jr., Turin. 

1834. Geo. D. Ruggle.s, Lowville. 
1835-C. Charles Dayan, Lowville. 



1840. Chester Buck, Lowville. 

1841. Eliphalet Sears, Leyden. 

1842. Carlos P. Scovil, Martinsburgh. 

1843. Amos Buck, Denmark. 

1844. Alburn Foster, Martinsburgh. 

1845. Dean S. Howard, Greig. 
1840. Nelson J. Beach, Wat.son. 

1847. Thomas Baker, Leyden. 

1848. David D. Reamer, Diana. 

1849. Diodate Pease, Martinsburgh. 

1850. John Newkirk, Pinckney. 

1851. Caleb Lyon^ of Lyonsdale, 

Greig. 

1851. Dean S. Howard, Greig. 

1852. John Benedict, Lowville. 

1853. Seymour Green, Osceola. 

1854. Joiiathan C. Collins, W.Turin. 

1855. Aaron Parsons, Leyden. 

1856. David Algur, Leyd'en. 

1857. Lucian Clark, Denmark. 

1858. Homer Collins, West Turin. 

1859. Lvnian R. Lyon, Greig. 

1860. R'ichardsou T. Hough, Lewis. 



First Judges of the county court, appointed until 1S47. 

Dani.-I K.jlley, March 29, ISOt;. John W. Martin,- Marcli IG, 1833. 

Jonathan Co'llini), June 1, 1S09. Frnncis Seger,^ April 9, 1843. 

tiila.s Stow, Juuf 27, 1815. Edward A. Brown, Nov., 1855. 

Edward Bancroft, Jan. 24, 1823. H.nry K. Turner, Nov., 1859. 

Sheriffs, with the date of appointment or election. 

David Miller, Nov., 1825. 
llez.kiah Scovil, Nov., 1828. 
Ashley Davenport, Nov., 1831. 
John '\Vhitll»f!i.'y, Nov., 1634. 



Chillu.M Doty, April 3, 1^05. 
Fluid Sti'phHMH, JunM 9. D«0«. 
John Iv.-s Vvh. 2«. D»10. 
ChilluN Doly, Mur.h 2, 1811. 
8ila«Sl«.w, Mar.h 2, IM4. 
Uvi A.lanii. Mar. h 15. 1H15. 
.■^ylv.}»t.r MiIUt, Juh" 15, 1h18. 
Khiid SltpluMw, Junu 6, 1h20. 
I  ' Jan. 10. lt,21. 

l"r. Fob. 12. 1821. 
1 , .Nov., l-.'J 

' , Nov.. 1 »,■■". 



Klia*t (iailup, Nov., 1837. 

Alvin Farr, .Nov., Ih40. 

Klihu PafdoMH, Nov., 1843. 

U«?orK« Sh<«p«rd, Nov., \hA6. 

Aaron i'aniomt, Jr., Nov., 1849. 

I'etcr Kirl.'V, Nt>v , lti32. 

Oilburt K. VVoolworth, Nor., 1855, 



1 Lyon ' A]>rU 28, 1891, and Howartl WM «*im)l<ni i<> uii th« vacaucj 

for III" • •'••>• 

.1 : !..' .\UrUii In an i ' hi* n'tiring from tho 

1. 1, i. 11 .April, l'»4;i. fill tiTiii of ton yt-ant Ixa 

had not U'vii r<'«MnriHl !•> uni< |>rt«oii«r tu ■t«l« prWn. Thure wm 

not at (hat tnu« a Kiiis'l-- il ;m lh«' county. 

3 Klvvtud al th» llni Judulal oUctiou, Juuo 1;<47. 



290 Co. Clerks. Surroffafes. Treasurers. The Lewis Bar. 



^o 



County Clerks. Appointed before 1822, and since 
elected. 

Richard Coxe, April 3, 1S05. Charles Orvis, Nov., 1840. 

Edward Bancroft, March 12, 1816. Julius A. White, Nov., 1843. 

John Saflord, June 6, 1820. Lucian Clark, Nov., 1846. 

Edward Bancroft, Feh. 13, 1821. Harrison Barnes,! Nov., 1849. 

Martin Hart, Nov., 1822. Sidney Sylvester, Nov., 1855. 

Andrew W. Doig, Nov., 1825. Walter B. Foster, Nov., 1858. 
Carlos P. Scovil, Nov., 1831. 

Surrogates previous to 1846, when this office was united 

with that of county judge. 

Isaac W. Bostwick, April 3, 1805. Sylvester Miller, March 28, 1823. 

Chillus Doty, March 15, 1815. Andrew W. Doig, Feb. 28, 1835. 

Barnabas Yale, June 6, 1820. William L. Easton, Feb. 7, 1840. 

Chillus Doty, Feb. 13, 1821. Daniel S. Bailey, Feb. 7, 1844. 

County Treasurers, appointed by the board of super- 
visors until 1846, since which time they have been elected 
triennially. 1805, Oct. 25, Daniel Kelley ; 1808, Oct. 6, 
Ela Collins; 1809, D. Kelley; 1814, James H. Leonard; 
1823, Baron S. Doty ; 1824, John W. Martin ; 1840, Enoch 
Thompson ; 1845, Charles L. Martin ; 1846, Lyman R. Lyon; 
1847, Ela N. Merriam ; 1852, Moses M. Smith; 1855, Diodate 
Pease. 

The Lewis County Bar. — In the absence of a connected 
official record of the names of those who have been admit- 
ted to the bar of this county, the following list is offered as 
embracing nearl}' all of the legal profession who have 
resided, or who now live in the county. Those known to 
be deceased are marked with a star. More than a third of 
the remainder had removed from the county. The residence 
given is that while engaged professionally here. Many 
dates are blank from our inability to refer to the record as 
this goes to press. 

Adams, Charles D. Lowville, Jan. 1852. 

Barnes, Alanson H. Martinsburgh. 

*Barnes, Harrison " 

Bennett, David M. " 

^Bostwick, Isaac W. Lowville, Dec. 10, 1805. 

Brown, Edward A. " 

Brown, George L. Martinsburgh. 

Carpenter, Hiram Lowville, 1834. 

*Collins,Ela " May 6, 1807. 

Collins, William " 

*Conklin, Thomas L. Martinsburgh. 

Davenport, Leonard C, Lowville, July 7, 1851. 

Davis, Perry Copenhagen. 

Dayan, Charles Lowville, 1819. 

Doty, Baron S. Martinsburgh. 

1 Mr. Barnes died at Martinsburgh, June 29, 1859, aged 37 years. 



The Lewis Bar. Medical Profession. 



291 



Hawes, Albert 
Hazen, S. D. 
Henry, Edmund 
Keene, R. E. 
Kilham, Leonard C. 
Knox, Ziba 
Lahe, Jobn 
*Lo\:, Cornelius 
*Martin, Vivaldi R. 
Mereness, Abram I. 
Merrill, Eiaida S. 
Merrill, Nathaniel 
♦Miller, Morris S. 
♦Mott, Joseph 0. 
Muscott, J. M. 
♦Page, Henry, 
•Parish, Russell 
Pawling, Jolin 
♦Ratlibun, Solomon 
S'ovil, Carlos P. 
^^ .'.T, Francis 
•-iiiler, William D. 
Shaw, R. K. 
Stephens, Cornelius E. 
Stephens, W. Hudson, 
Sylv-st.-r. Nathaiii.d B. 
♦Talctt, Samuel A. 
Turner, Henry E. 
WiLson, Alba S. 
•Yale, Barnabas 



Copenhagen. 

Lowville. 

Copenhagen, 

Marti nsburgh. 

Lowville, 

Constableville. 

Lowville. 

Martinsburgh, 
Copenhagen, 

Lowville, 
Turin. 



Lowville, 

Copenhagen. 

Martinsburgh, 

Greig, 
Turin. 

Copenhagen, 
Lowville, 



Deer River, 
Martinsburgh, 



1854. 
Aug. 18, 1826. 



1846. 

1859. 
May, 1846. 
July, 1855. 
Dec. 10, 1805. 



May 6, 1817. 

May 6, 1807. 

1826. 

April, 1855. 
Oct. 1, 1855 
July 7, 1851. 
April 5, 1852. 
Sept. 21, 1813. 

1857. 
Dec. 20, 1808. 



Medical Pbofes.sion.— A county medical society was early 
formed, under the act of 1806, and wa.s represented at the 
state .society in 1H08, l)y Jonutliati Hush, and in IS 10 by John 
Sairord. The loss of "its record.s by lire, Oct. 15, 1849, has 
thrown ol)livionovor the proceedings of this body. Its seal 
had for its device an open lancet, and the letters L. C. M. S. 
in script, entwined. The statute, recjuiring a copy of the cre- 
dentiiils of physioiiins, to be filed in the clerk's ollice, has 
enabled us to prepare the following list. It does not embrace 
every regularly quidifiod physiciiin who has resided in the 
county, as houmj ot" lh»5 »!iirlier ono'', lilofl their papers in Oneida 
county, and (juito a number of the more rociuit luiiy have 
neglected this duty, or the papers may have been mislaid or 
accidentally ovorlooked. This list will therefore bo re- 
garded an poHitivo oidy ho far a;* it goes. 



AiUni.0, Ir«, Jiiii" 17. l"!". 
Adwiut. S«th. M»y 2\, 1n-J6. 
AUwu, KU»n..««r, .Nov 24. IS43. 
Allon, Hnmu-l. V-\>. Ul. lsi>0. 
Avprr, .Slophuit W.. Julj '1, 1S:I1. 

, 1) , May 31. 

IUm, Samuel, ."^-'pi >', l'*12 



V 

11 ;-58. 

Bli««, John S , f<«'|»t. '), i'<4.<. 
liraduih, Jktuoa H , .March 19. 1K55. 
Huckl«r, L^uaii, Vvh U«i. \M\. 
lludd. (hartM I)., Junu 120, 1S49. 
H.i.l.J. I)»vl.|, J»f. .T, IS3'J. 
1' !. 1M>7. 

!■ . , ,'. 11, 1^07. 



292 



Personal and Political Statistics. 



Foot, Anson, Feb. 25, 1806. 
French, Elkanah, Sept. 8, 1833. 
Gage, Alden, jr., Aug. 14, 1813. 
Hanon, Dennis B., Jan. 16, 1844. 
Hastings, Charles P., March 21, 1842. 
Hawn, Abraham, Jan. 6, 1832. 
Huntingdon, Ralph, Jan. 29. 1808. 
Jerome, Levi R., March 12, 1844. 
Kellogg, Joseph, April 3, 1843. 
Miller, David, March 19, 1818. 
Miller, Sylvester, Feb. 12, 1816, 
Orvis, Charles, Oct. 1, 1836. 
Peden, James T., Jan. 26, 1844. 



Perry, David, Aug. 12, 1806, 
Shaw, Otis, Oct. 25, 1833. 
Stevens, S. Rodney, July 10, 1829. 
Stone, A. C, July 6, 1842, 
Sturtevant, James M., July 19, 1832. 
Sweet, Jonathan, July 11, 1805. 
Taylor, Francis L., Aug. 1, 1832. 
Thompson, William, July 18, 1832. 
Wait, Samuel C, April 10, 1833. 
Wellman, Manly, July 19, 1805. 
Whiting, John, Dec. 15, 1826. 
Wood, Charles, May 3, 1836. 
Woodman, Joseph, May 3, 1830. 



< ^ •  » 



CHAPTER XI. 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 

Personal Statistics.— The accompanying table presents 
the total population of each town as reported in the ofiBcial 
censuses. It will be borne in mind that the decrease is in 
some cases only apparent, and due to the division of towns. 

The number of electors under the former system of 
property qualification was as follows : 



1807, 
1814, 
1821. 



Freeholders 
worth over $250. 

574 
614 
740 



Freeholders 
worth S50 to $250. 



72 
71 
34 



Renting tenements Total. 
worth over $5 
per annum. 

450 1096 

499 1184 

617 1391 



Political Statistics.— The vote upon governor at the 
several elections in this county has been as follows : 

ISQl .—Morgan Lewis, 419 ; D. D. Tompkins, 411. * 

1810.-1). B. Tompkins, 533; /. Piatt, 302. The former 
had majorities in every town except Denmark and Harris- 
burgh. 

1813.— D. D. Tompkins, 313 ; S. Van Rensselaer, 229. The 
former had majorities except in Denmark, Martinsburgh and 
Turin. ^ 

1816.— D.D. Tompkins, 326 ; Rufus King, 228. Mr. King 
had a majority only in Denmark. 

IS\1 .—DeWitt Clinton, 381 ; Peter B. Porter, 

\S20.—BeWitt Clinton, 334; B. B. Tompkins, 314. The 
former had majorities except in Harrisburgh, Lowville and 
Pinckney. 



Personal Statistics. 



293 



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294 Political Statistics. 

1822. — Joseph C. Yates, 11 Q ; Solomon Southwick, 1, in 
Martinsburgh. The vote on Lieut. Governor was 467 for 
Root, and 300 for Huntington. 

1824.-6^. Young, 678; DeWitt Clinton, 502. Clinton's 
only majority was in Denmark. 

1826.— W^. B. Rochester, 768 ; DeWitt Clinton, 726. The 
towns of Denmark, Harrisburgh, Turin and Watson gave 
majorities for Clinton. 

1828.— JVf. Van Bur en, 964 ; S. Thompson, 778 ; S. South- 
wick, QQ. Van Buren had majorities in Greig, Leyden, Low- 
ville, Martinsburgh, Pinckney, Turin and Watson, and 
Thompson in all the other towns. 

1830.— E. T. Throop, 1031 ; F. Granger, 618 ; E. Root, 14. 
Throop had majorities in Diana, Greig, Leyden, Lowville, 
Pinckney, Turin, Watson and West Turin, and Granger in 
the other towns. 

1832.— TF. L. Marcy, 1450 ; F. Granger, 836. Marcy had 
majorities in all the towns except Denmark, Harrisburgh 
and Lowville. 

1834.-^7. L. Marcy, 1230; W. H. Seward, 852. The 
majorities were the same as in 1832. 

1836.— TF. L. Marcy, 1101; /. Biiel, 400. Marcy had 
majorities in every town except Lowville. 

1838.— W. L. Marcy, 1308 ; W. H. Seward, 1156. Marcy 
had majorities in Greig, Leyden, Martinsburgh, Pinckney, 
Turin, Watson & West Turin, and Seward in other towns. 

184Q.—W. L. Marcy, 1786 ; W. H. Seward, 1690 ; G. Smith, 
40. Marcy had majorities in Diana, Greig, Leyden, Pinck- 
ney, Watson and West Turin, and Seward in the other towns. 

1842.— PT. C. Boicck, 1716; L. Bradish, 1519 ; ^. Stewart, 
64. Bouck had majorities in Croghan, Diana, Greig, Harris- 
burgh, Lowville, Martinsburgh and Turin, and Bradish in 
the other towns. 

1844.— 5*. Wright, 2080 ; M. Fillmore, 1649 ; Jl. Stewart, 
153. Wright had majorities in Croghan, Greig, Leyden, 
Osceola, Pinckney, Turin, Watson and West Turin, and 
Fillmore in the other towns. 

1846.— J. Young, 1828; S. Wright, 1172; H. Bradley, 166. 
Young had majorities in every town except Croghan, 
Diana, Osceola, Pinckney and Watson, which went for 
Wright. 

1848.— if. Fish, 1286 ; .7. Jl. Dix, 1250 ; R. H. Walworth, 
804 ; W. Goodell, 10. Fish had majorities in Denmark, Di- 
ana, Harrisburgh, Lowville, Martinsburgh, Pinckney and 
Turin ; Dix in Croghan, Leyden, New Bremen, Osceola, 
Watson and West Turin, and Walworth in Greig. 



Political Statistics. Aid to the Greeks. 295 

1850.— F. Seymour, 2004; W. Hunt, 1618; W. L. Chap- 
lin, 5. Seymour had majorities in every town except Den- 
mark, Harrisburgh, Lowville and Martinsburgh, which went 
for Hunt. 

1852.— R Seymour, 2549 ; W. Hunt, 1787 ; M. Tompkins, 
268. Seymour had majorities in Diana, Greig, Leyden, 
Martinsburgh, Montague, New Bremen, Osceola, Pinckney, 
Turin. Watson and West Turin: Hunt in Denmark, Harris- 
burgh and Lowville, and Tompkins in Croghan. 

1854.—//. Seymour, 1583 ; M. H. Clark, 1449 ; D. Ullmann, 
138; G. C. Branson, 131. Clark had majorities in Denmark, 
Greig, Harrisburgh, Lowville, Martinsburgh, Montague, 
Osceola and Turin, and Seymour in the other towns. 

1856.— J. A.King,2M9; A. J.Parker, 1173; E. Brooks, 
431. King had majorities in every town except High Mar- 
ket and Lewis, wiiich went for Parker. 

1858.— £. A. Morgan, 2bbl ; A. J. Parker, 1861; G. 
Smith, 126 ; L. Burrows, 38. Morgan had majorities in every 
town except Croghan, High Market, Lewis, Montague, 
New Bremen, Osceola, Pinckney and West Turin, which 
went for Parker. 

Constitutional Votes. — In April 1821, the county voted 
for convention, 958 ; and against convention, 94. In 1822, 
the county voted bbOJbr, and 138 against adopting the Con- 
stitution. 

In 1845, the vote for a convention Avas 1277, and against 

one, 738. The vote on the amended constitution, was 1828 

Jbr, and 370 against it. Upon granting equal suffrage to 

colored persons, tlio vote was, for 879, and against, 1,189. 

State Loans. — This county received a share of the $400,- 
000 loan of 1808, in proj)ortion to number of its electors. 
Of the $'5,355,691.28 U. S. deposit fund received by this 
State in 1837, $103,501.02 came to this county. The capi- 
tal reported Dec. 6, 1859, was $32,977.80. The present 
commissioners are Orrin Woolworth of Turin and Leonard 
C. Kilham of Martinsburgh. 

Aid to the (Jkeeks — On the 20tli of Fob., 1827, a meet- 
ing was belli in Lowville village ti) adopt measures for aid- 
ing tlie (iroeks then struggling for ind»)i)endence and re- 
ported as famishing and destitute. This expression of 
sympathy was but a part of a general feeling which at that 
time ])rovailed through the conntry. The circular of the 
Albany executive committi'O was read, and a series of reso- 
hitions adopted, in whirh the people " onco first in scienco, 
freedom, arts and arms" wert' di'clarod iMititlod to nid as a 
Christian country struggling against Tartar tyrainiy. 'I'ho 



296 Aid to the Greeks. California Companies. 

clergy were invited to call attention to the subject from the 
pulpit, and town officers were urged to solicit donations on 
town meeting day. A central committee composed of Philo 
Rockwell and Edward Bancroft of Martinsburgh, and Isaac 
W. Bostwick, David Perry and James H. Leonard of Low- 
ville, was appointed, and the following persons were re- 
quested to solicit gifts in clothing, grain or money, to be 
transmitted to the state committee at Albany, viz.: Dr. 
Sylvester Miller, chairman, Orrin Wilbur, secretary, Joseph 
A. Northrup, Stephen Leonard, Eli Collins, Palmer Town- 
send, Isaiah Bailey, Moses Waters, Truman Stephens, Wm. 
Shull, Constant Bosworth, John Stephens, Wm. Dingman, 
Chester Buck, Geo. D. Euggles, Daniel T. Buck, Lemuel 
Wood, Benjamin Davenport, James Henry, Solomon King, jr., 
Thomas Townsend, Benjamin Hillman, Eleazer Hill, Jacob 
Dimick, Melancton W. Welles, and Jared House. A spirited 
address was prepared and circulated, and in the first week 
^120 were raised. The ship C/ia?ice//or, which sailed from 
New York in the spring with supplies, arrived safely and 
proved timely and serviceable to these joeople. These efforts 
continued to the spring of ]828, when a contribution of 
$170 in cash and clothing was sent from Lowville, and 
formed a part of the outfit of the brig Herald, which sailed 
about the close of May. A general county meeting was 
held at tiie court house in Martinsburgh in April, 1828, for 
the promotion of this object, and town committees were 
appointed. 

California Companies. — While the citizens of Lewis have 
thus proved themselves susceptible to the appeals of op- 
pressed humanity in classic Greece, not a few must confess 
that the golden fame of California lost none of its essentials 
in traveling across from the other side of our continent. 
Under this impulse were formed The Lends County Mining 
Association and the Leivis County Mining Co. The former 
organized at Turin, Feb. 10, 1849, consisted of fourteen 
members who were joined by others, but disbanded in a few 
days, and only a few went to California. The latter, formed 
at Lowville a few days after, was to have expired April I, 
1851. Capital limited to 300 shares of $50, and affairs 
under seven directors, chosen annuall}'. The persons going 
to dig gold, were to have expenses paid, except clothing, 
and were entitled to half the proceeds, the balance being 
divided among the stockholders. The diggers were to act 
under a superintendent, and the articles of agreement re- 
quired them to be honest, temperate, sabbath-keeping and 
industrious. If sick, they were to be nursed, and if they 



Semi-centennial Fourth of July. 297 

died they were to be decently buried, if circumstances per- 
mitted. The constitution and by-laws, as published in the 
Northern Journal, February 27, 1849, never went into eflect, 
chiefly from the impossibility of finding any men willing to 
go on the terms proposed, and the utter inability of the 
company to raise money for sending them. Notwithstand- 
ing an allusion to the 1st day of April, there is no doubt but 
that the enterprise began and ended in good hiith. Perhaps 
fifty men from this county went to California for gold, near- 
ly all of whom returned wiser but poorer. 

The National Semi-Centennial Celebration was held 
at Lowville, July 4, 1826, and presented a feature of pecu- 
liar interest from the number of revolutionary veterans 
assembled from all parts of the county to honor it with 
their presence. Fifty-five of these were present at the 
dinner, and their names, y)resent and former residence and 
ago were presented as follows : 

Names. Residence. Former Residence. Ages. 

Levi Adams, Marti iisburgh (Jranby, Ct. 63. 

Charles Alloii, do Windsor, Ct., G4. 

Joseph Anderson, Denmark,. . .Cuminington, Vt., 71. 

Jonathan Austin, llarrisburgh, .Charleston, R. I., 71. 

Jonathan Ball, Lowville, Southborongh, Mass.,. .75. 

Jess(,> Benjamin, Martinsbnrgh, . Preston, Ct., 68. 

Luther P.in-iiani, Tiuin, Canterbury, Ct., 67. 

Taylor (Jhapnian, Lowville, . . . .Windsor, Ct., 63. 

Leonard Cliambers, Denmark, .. nulib'ii, he., 78. 

Samuel (Jlark, do Newton, Mass. 71. 

Isaac Clinton, Lowville, Milford, Ct., 68. 

Josiah Dewey, licyden, Lel)anon «)8. 

Benjamin Dowd, Turin .Middleton, Ct., 64. 

(iiles Kaston, .Martinsburgli, . . .East Hartford, Ct., 64. 

Thomas Farr, do . . .Chostertield, N. U., 67. 

Sam ml (iarnsi-y, Lowville Dummerston, Vt., i\\. 

'J'imolhy Curilcn, .\lartinsbur;^h,l'ri'fhiild, N. J., TO. 

Samuel (Jowdy, do Kniiehl, Ct., 66. 

Klijah (Jranger, tlo Southwiek, .Mass «')4. 

I'eter Hathery, Turin, .Minden, N. V oi). 

•lohn Ives, do . .Merideu, Ct 6o. 

Solomon Kiu)^, Lowville .\meniu, N. Y 70. 

WiUiam Kisner, llarrisburgli, . Canajnliurie, .\. Y., . . . . 66. 

Nathaniel Lane, Lowville. r.fk.skill, N. Y., f.S. 

K/.(;ki(d Lyman, Turin, Cuntcrbury, ('t. 66. 

Xrlak Mr. Ill, llarrisbur;,'h, Salrui. N. Y., 7;'). 

William .MiUer, .Marlinsbur^h, . .Middletown, N. V.. ..67. 

Ithamer .Morj^'un, Turin, West ."^nrinjffield, .Ma«8.,64. 

Charles Morse, Lowville IMainlield, Ct 63. 

Jereiidah .Mott, .NLirtiusburgh, . . Kli/.ubelhlown, N. J.,. .63. 



298 Revolutionary Soldiers. 

Ichabod Murray, Lowville, . . . .New Milford, Ct., 10, 

Jacob Nash, Denmark, Braintree, Mass., 90. 

Henry Muniford, Martinsburgh, . Boston, Mass., 86. 

Silas Perkins, do .Windham, Ct. 62. 

Isaac Perry, Lowville, Fredericksburgh, N. Y., 66. 

Salmon Root, Martinsburgh,. . .Farmington, Ct., 63. 

Peter Ryal, Denmark, Fishkill, N. Y., 67. 

Elijah Skeels, Martinsburgh, . . . Kent, Ct., *I3. 

Levi Smith, Leyden, Haddam, Ct, 73. 

John Shull, Lowville, Palatine, N. Y., 8L 

Hendrick SchafFer, Lowville, . .Manheim, N. Y., 66. 

Abiather Spauldi)ig, Denmark, .Dover, N. Y., 69. 

James Stevens, Lowville, Glastonbury, Ct., 69. 

Nicholas Streeter, Mart'sburgh, Stone Arabia, N. Y.,. . .74. 
Joseph Talmadge, do East Hampton, N. Y.,. . 7L 

Edward Thompson, Lowville, . . Granby, Ct., 66. 

Jesse Thrail, do . . Windsor, Ct., 72. 

Daniel Topping, Turin, Southampton, N. Y., . . . 84. 

Willard Warriner, Mart'sburgh, Wilbraham, Mass., 70. 

Joseph Yan higen, Denmark, . . Schenectady, N. Y., .... 63. 

Jeremiah AYilcox, Mart'sburgh, Middletown, Ct., 8L 

Josiah Woolworth, Leyden,. . .Ellington 73. 

Levi Woolworth, Turin, SuflSeld, Ct., 69. 

Samuel Weyman, Martinsburgh, Brethren, Mass., 67. 

Mathias Wormwood, Lowville, .Johnstown, N. Y., 75. 

Gen. Ruggles acted as marshal of the day, and the fol- 
lowing military companies participated in the celebration, 
viz : Artillery from Turin, Capt. Homer Collins ; Light 
Infantry from Martinsburgh, Capt. Conkey; Rifles from 
Lowville, Capt. Dodge ; and Rifles from Martinsburgh, Capt. 
Coates. The Union band of Lowville Academy under Capt. 
G. De Feriet, discoursed patriotic music and the Rev. Isaac 
Clinton delivered an oration at the Methodist church. 

The census of 1840, returned the names of thirty-eight 
revolutionary pensioners, of whom fourteen were widows. 
Their names and ages were as follows : 

Denmark, Elizabeth Graves, 77; John S. Clark, 78; 
Louisa Munger, 79; Hannah Mores, 88; Elias Sage, 83; 
Joseph Van Ingen ; Peter Royal, 80. 

Greig, John Slaughter, 86. 

Harrisburgh, Elias Jones, 81 ; William Risner, 81; Garret 
Marcellus, 80. 

Lowville, John Buck, 76 ; ElishaBuck; William Chadwick, 
79 ; Arthur Gordon, 80. 

Leyden, Lydia Dewey, 79 ; Elizabeth Cone, 76; Ada Mil- 
ler, 86 ; Lewis Smith, 87 ; William Topping, 75 ; Hezekiah 
Johnson, 79. 

Martinsburgh, Ruth Adams; Jesse Benjamin, 81; Anna 



Militia Organizations. 299 

Easton,69; Lyclia CxreenjSO ; Ed\vardJohnson,81 ; Salmon 
Hoot, 77; Peter Vandriessen, 75; Bartholomew Williams, 76. 

Pinckney, Catharine Forbes, 84. 

Turin, Benjamin Dowd, 79 ; Giles Foster, S3. 

Watson, Sarah Puffer, 75; Jacob Shutz, 78; Elizabeth 
Webb, 81; Lewis Day, 73; Sarah Farr, 73. 

West Turin, Jonathan Collins, 84; Simeon Strickhind, 54. 

The Militia of Lewis, Jefferson and St. Lawrence co's. 
were formed into the 26th Brigade, April 11, 1805, and 
Walter Martin was appointed brigadier general. The 46th 
regiment, formed on the same date, had for its ofhcers, 
Jonatlian Collins lieut. col., Leonard Sage pay master, Wm. 
Holladay qr. master, and Wm. Darrow surgeon. The follow- 
ing were appointed captains: Jonathan Edwards, Morris S. 
Miller, Solomon Buck, Jabez Wright, Oliver Bush, Ephraim 
Luce, Enos Scott, and Richard Coxe. Upon the appoint- 
ment of ColHns to the ollice of judge, Richard Coxe suc- 
ceeded as It. col. com., Feb. 11, 1811, and this ollicer held 
this rank when war was declared. 

The 101st regiment was formed June 15, 1808, compris- 
ing the towns of Lowville, Denmark, Ifarrisburgh, and 
Pinckney, its first ollicers Ijeing Luke ^Vinchell, /^. col. com., 
Solomon Buck ]st major, Zeboam Carter, 2d major, Wm. 
Card adjutant, Andrew Mills qr. master, and Wm. Darrow 
surgeon. Its lirst captains were John Hush, Nathan Cook, 
David Cobb, Wm. Clark, Robert Clafton, Jesse Wilcox and 
Ezra King. Zeboam Carter was colonel of this regiment 
when war was declared and these two regiments comprised 
the whoh; county through that period. 

Tiie first trooj) of horso was forniud in this ccMuity in 
ISOiJ, haviug Levi Collins fo/;/., Abner Clapp ]st lieut., Ado- 
niran Foot 2d lieut., .lohnson Talcott cornet, and Leonard 
IIoiis(;, Levi Halt and Mavid WnU'rH, .<!ergeanls.^ 

'i'ho troubles with lOnglund occasioned an act of congress 
passed March 30, ISOS, detaching 100,000 men from the 
militia and placing tliem under ilio orilors of tlio general 
government. ( H" these 1I,3.S9 were drawn from this state 
and 350 from .Martin's brigade. N»)no of the militia of tluB 
region were called »»ut under tlii.s act. On the lUth of 
April, ISj-j, in anticipation of a war, the president was 
aijthorized to retpiiro tlm several statOH to , arm 

' Tlio llrxt roll coitipriHxfl )>««iii|i-H tli<i nlxiv.-, U'nrrfU ('hiirtli, Oliver AllU, 
(Jomlort I'lirsoiH, JaiiiKM Hfiirv, Juliii Wntcn, Kllnlia niul Riclianl Arthur, 
Klijali llalUduy, Juiium ('oiit«>!<, S«*lah llilirt, J«>Nliua lAwini.t, Jo.<tc|ih llnk<lf<>rd, 
Jiiiiii's .MilliT, Itli«tiii'r \Viir<l, .\nr»n I'rtrkx, JolnLtoii Foni-r, Hoiij. liakvr, 
(iurdoii Lonl, \Viiitlir»|> Atluii, Lvvi Hunt, KUr llubburd aud John Clo- 
bridge. 



300 The War. Militia Drafts. 

and equip their proportions of 100,000 men to be officered 
from the militia then existing, or others at the option of the 
states and to receive the same pay, rations and emoluments 
as in the regular army when in actual service. The whole 
or a part of this draft might be called out as occasion 
required, and the levies were to be drawn for a term of six 
months. Under this authority, 13,500 men were detached 
in this state, and 230 from the 26th brigade. A company 
was drafted for three months, under Captain Lyman Dem- 
ing of Denmark, in the regiment of Col. Christopher P. 
Bellinger of German Flats. They served at Sackets Harbor 
from May 12 to August 21, 1812, when they were discharged. 

War was declared June 12, while these men were in 
service, and upon the receipt of the news the governor by 
general orders, dated June 23, authorized Gen. Brown to 
call upon the militia of Lewis, Jefferson and St. Lawrence 
counties, and equip them at the state arsenals at Watertown 
and Russell. Under this authority one company of 72 men 
besides officers was called into service from this county for 
a term of six months, under Capt. Nathan Cook of Low- 
ville, and placed under Col. Thomas B. Benedict of DeKalb. 
This company drew their arms at Watertown, escorted two 
heavy loads of arms to the arsenal at Bussell, and repaired 
to Ogdensburgh where they remained in the presence of the 
enemy through the season, and assisted in repelling the 
attack in October.^ Rowland Nimocks of Turin, was lieut., 
and Ebenezer Newton of Pinckney, ensign of this company. 
Major Oliver Bush was on duty in this draft. 

During the winter following some arms and ammunition 
were deposited in Martinsburgh in the care of Gen. Martin, 
and 200 muskets and some ammunition in Turin, Leyden and 
Lowville upon the bond of Richard Coxe, Daniel Kelley, 
James H. Leonard, Jesse Wilcox, Levi Hart and Levi Col- 
lins." An alarm for the safety of Sackets Harbor, occasioned 
by the arrival of Sir George Prevost in Kingston, and a 
threatened attack by crossing on the ice, led Gen. Dearborn 
to call out the militia en masse in this and other counties on 
the 1st of March, 1813, and they remained at the harbor 
and at Brownville till the 20th^ under Brig. Gen. Oliver 

1 Capt. Cook was arrested by order of Gen. Brown upon a charge of 
cowardice on the occasion of this attack, but was honorably acquitted, and 
the afi'air did him no injury where the facts were known. He was afterwards 
colonel of the regiment in which he belonged. 

2 Governor Tompkins's message of April 1, 1813. 

3 Col. Coxe's (46tli) regiment consisted of companies under captains 
Truman Stephens and Adam Conkey of Martin.sburgh, Winthrop Shepard and 
Hezekiah Scovil of Turin, Ethemer Wetmore and John Felshaw of Leyden, 



The War. Militia Drajts. 301 

CollinvS of Oneida county. The fear of an attack ceased 
with the melting of the ice, and a project for an aggressive 
movement was postponed until the fleet could cooperate. 
A third draft for three months was made in Sept., IS 13, 
consisting of 60 men under Capt. Winthrop Shepard of 
Turin, and a company under Capt. Wm. Root of Denmark. 
They served under Gen. Collins in the regiment of Col. Geo. 
H. Nellis from Sept. 14 to Nov. 4, 1813, at Sackets Harbor 
and Brownville, during the costly preparations for the mi- 
serable failure of "Wilkinson in his boasted descent upon 
Montreal.^ An inspection return dated Sept., 1813, showed 
that the :26th brigade contained in the 46th and 101st regi- 
ments (Coxe's and Carter's), seven companies each, and a 
total of 30] and 367 rank aud lile. 

A call en masse was made, and the militia of the county 
served in one regiment, under Col. Carter, from July 30 to 
August 22, 1814, at Sackets Harbor.- Gen. Martin was on 
duty upon this occasion. The last call en masse was made 
October 7, 1814, and the militia of Lewis county were com- 
prised in four consolidated companies under Col. Carter.^ 
They served at Sackets Harbor till November 11, 1814. 
Two companies of cavalry under Capt. Sanford Saflbrd, 
Abner Clapp and Calvin McKnight, served at Brownville in 
Maj. Levi Colliiis's regiment, and a company of Silver (Jraya 
under Capt. Jonathan Collins, volunteered for the service 
and were on duty from October 28, to November 9, 1814, in 
Lieut. Col. Calvin Britain's regiment."* 

The above comprises the military service of the citizens 



and Luko Winoholl of Lowville. Col. Carter's (lOlst) regiment included the 
compiiiiii's of c:i|ituinH Mose.s WatiTM, Joel Murray and ('yrus Trowbridjce of 
Lowvillf, Israel K>-llugt,' uiid Friiiicis .SaiiiuKrs of Uuninurk, an<l ('apt. Hart 
lluiiiiilirt'y of llarri-liiirKh. Winih>*irH coinimny conMi»tfil of "Silver (treya" 
or cxeiiiiit.H, Hnnlford Arliiiir Mt-rvfd ika li)tiiti-iiaiit. 

I Tlii."< dnift iiirltidcil .Moiiti,'<)iiiiTy, Madison, Olncffo, Ht*rkiiut<r, Oneida, 
Oiioiidii^ii, Jed'iTHoii and l.«*wiM I'liimtics . In tJi.i |{i<ni<ral orders t)f Uc-l. 4, the 
general rendezvous was ordered to he at .MartinHliiirK'h, Lowville or Chainjiioii 
&H Gi-n. Collint iiiis'ht direct. The 'Jtith l>ri((ade (Martin'.s) wa^ dir«*oted to 
furnish 12 caiitain.H, 4 Ili'UtonnntM, 4 eufd^nN, lU Mer^eantM, VI (■or|K>ral.><, '1 
drnniinerM ami IsO private* While «in>»nii»'<l n^-ar the harbor thoMiow fell 
a loot dec|i, ami tin* \veathi*r wa.** serere. 

-Captftins Watept, Root, Conki-y, Tallinad»^'e, Kelloi;^, Kiinpp, Trowhridg©, 
Murray, Scovil, Sliepard, Welinort) and Ftdnhnw, nerved willi their coui|>«n- 
it>s at thJM rail. 

•> Under Captainii KolloKg, Root, Tallniatli^e and \Vat<'r>«. The general orderv 
niakint; thi.H lall were dated Oet. 3, and slate that Sa<k<ts IIarl>or Im in imme- 
diate danger of invnition. Oneida, IlerkinKr Bn>l l.ewi-t rountiea were com- 
firi.sed in the i-all, the whole to Ih« under tli  - tiid of lien Collinii. 

•• This i-onipany of eX'-inntji nuuilx'red 50 n -ers and prival«ii. A few 

citizens of I'inckney Joined a company of exemptjt in Lorraine, under Capt. 
Joseph Wilcox. 



302 Azotes upon the Seasons. 

of Lewis couuty during the war.^ The settlements were . 
frequently alarmed by rumors of Indian invasions from 
Canada. The route through the county became a thorough- 
fare of armies, and every resource of the valley was called 
into use to supply the troops passing through, or the garri- 
sons on the frontier. The first body of regulars that passed 
was Forsyth's rifle company.- Armies under Gens. Dear- 
born, Izard,'^ Covington and Dodge,'* besides many small 
parties of regulars, marines, militia and sailors, trains of 
artillery and arms under escort, went through at various 
times. 

In the winter of 1813-4, some ten or fifteen teamsters 
were hired from the north part of this county, and many 
more from Jefferson, to remove flour from Sackets Harbor 
to French Mills, and from thence to Plattsburgh. They had 
returned as far as Chateaugay, where 32 teamsters had 
stopped at an inn for the night, and were carousing to wear 
away the tedious hours, as sleep in such a crowd was out of 
the question. Their gayety was suddenly arrested by the en- 
trance of a British officer, who informed them that the 
house was surrounded by his men. and that they were all 
prisoners. Their sleighs were loaded with plunder and they 
set out for Cornwall, where, after four days' detention, they 
were paid and dismissed. 

Notes upon the Seasons, 1799. — The summer pleasant, 
and cooled by frequent showers. A slight frost occurred 
early in September, which was not followed by hard frost 
till Dec. Heavy rains occurred in Sept. and Oct., followed 
by a mild and pleasant Autumn. The winter following was 
open, with snow of moderate depth. 

1800. — Snows disappeared on the last of March ; the crops 
good and the autumn more pleasant than the former. The 
winter of 1801-2 was memorable as warm and open. Many 
families, intending to remove from New England by the first 
sleighing, were detained till Feb. 24, when a deep snow fell 
but soon wasted. 

1802. — Plowing in March. Warm and wet in the early 
part of the season, giving a great amount of vegetable 
growth, but towards harvest the wheat fields were struck 
with rust, destroying the cro^). 

iThe author is indebted to Leonard C. Davenport of Lowville, for many 
facts concerning drafts and calls upon tlie militia. 

-Shadrack Snell of Martinsburgh, a lad, ran away, joined this company', was 
taken prisoner on the lines, and died in Dartmoor prison. 

<^ Izard's army passed in September, 1812. 

•iGen. D. was from Johnstown, and married Washington Irving's sister. 
His brigade of about 1000 men was quartered a few days at the old Academy. 



JVoies wpon the Seasons. 303 

1803. — Long memorable as the dry summer. The streams 
were, it is said, lower than ever since known. This region 
of country sulVered from the drouth much less than por- 
tions of Jefferson co. 

1807. — A snow storm from the north east, set in on the 
31st of March, and continued till April 5. It fell on a level 
five feet deep, did not drift, and went off almost as soon as 
it came, producing a flood which has never since been 
equalled upon lilack river. The grist mill at ^lartinsburgh 
was swept oil" on this occasion. The season which followed 
was good for crops. 

1806 to 1812. — A series of cold summers, although in 
1806 the corn crop in Lowville was excellent. 

1811. — Spring r3'e sowed in Leyden March 21. 

1813. — Oct. 12, snow two ieet deep in Denmark. In the 
winter following the snow fell deep and was much drifted. 

1815. — Crops good, wheat and potatoes excellent, corn 
light. 

1816. — Long memorable as the cold season. The spring 
was mild and a few days of April oppressively warm. This 
was ibllowed by cold, and frost occurred in every month of 
the year. On Finckney it snowed and drifted like winter. 
June 6th, 7th, 8th, the snow lay ancle deep in the fields and 
many newly shorn sheep perislied. In Denmark the snow 
lay an inch deep on the 9th of June, and ice tbrnied a quar- 
ter of an inch thick, corn and garden vegetables generally 
were killed, but grass was an average crop, and in Lowville 
the wheat was not cut off. A frost on the 26th of August, 
killed (hnvn what remained of the corn. The autumn wiia 
mild, and the winter late. On the 26th of December, thoro 
was no snow, but the ground was frozen. 

1817. — The jxjtatoo cro[) was exceedingly fine, in one 
instance 700 busiicls to the acre. Other crops were excel- 
lent. 

1820. — May 25, snow un incii deep in Denmark. 

1821. — May M, .snow four inclu-s deep in Denmark. On 
the 26lh the grounil was frozen haril, and on the 28tli of 
Octolicr, snow lay u foot and a half deep. The winter lol- 
lowing was open, ami there was not two weeks of sleighing. 
The snow was gone March l.st. 

ISJS. — Hot .Hunshine and copioils showers produceil a 
sickly season. Root crops wore excellent, but winter wheat 
i)|asted and yielded more straw than grain. 

1S29. — .\n unusually bouutitul year, wheat, ryo, corn and 
almost every fruit of tlio earth good. Apples yiuKled 
abundantly, but thuru wuro uo pliuns. Dcceuil)or was like 



304 Jfotes upon the Seasons. Epidemics. 

April, warm and spring like. Six weeks before there had 
been snow enough for sleighing. 

1830. — A more abundant yield than on any previous 
year. Barn room was every where insufficient, and most 
grains (especially wheat) superior. Corn was not as good 
as usual, owing to spring frosts. Rains frequent in harvest. 
Apples and plums plenty. A terrific hail storm crossed 
Leyden June 14. The track was half a mile wide and from 
four to five long, and the storm was preceded 15 to 20 
minutes by roaring of thunder. 

1832. — Drouth very severe. 

1833. — A rain}^ season and heavy freshets. 

1834. — May 14, snow three feet deep in drifts in Denmark, 
and on the 18th nearly as great, plum and cherry trees in 
blossom were broken down with snow, and many trees were 
killed by frost. 

1835. — A remarkable yield of wheat, averaging in some 
fields 35 to 40 bushels to the acre. 

1841. — May 6, great freshet, and much damage done at 
and below Carthage. 

1849. — Memorable for drouth and running fires in the 
woods east of the river. 

1853. — Summer dry and grasshoppers abundant. About 
the middle of September rains revived vegetation, and in 
some places fruit trees put forth blossoms in the fall. 

1856. — Sept. 15, destructive hail storm crossed Turin 
attended with wind and rain. About 3000 panes of glass, 
broken. 

1857. — May. Flood from melting snows. 

Epidemics. — A fever of a typhoid type appeared in the 
county in the winter of 1812-13 in common with a large 
district of country in the northern and eastern states, and in 
Canada. It was especially prevalent in March and April, 
and was more fatal to men of strong constitutions than to 
those naturally feeble. It was attended with great pain in 
the stomach and chest, burning fever, and in the last 
moments with delirium. 

A malignant erysipelas prevailed extensively throughout 
the county in the spring of 1843 and in 1845, proving 
especially fatal to parturient women. The slightest wound 
or abrasion would sometimes become the seat of extensive 
ulceration, and sloughing, and the loss of parts thus oc- 
casioned was extremely slow in replacing. Other less 
marked periods of mortality have occurred, but only as 
portions of wide spread epidemics, and few sections of the 



Tornadoes. 305 

union present fewer instances of sickness from local causes 
than this. Intermittent and other fevers from miasma, are 
altogether unknown, unless contracted in other places. 

ToiiNADOES. — Of these, several have swept over the county 
since its settlement, and traces of others, as shown by i'allen 
timber and young trees, indicate that these feariul tempests 
had traversed this region before its settlement. The first 
and greatest one ever witnessed in the county, occurred on 
Sunday evening, June 3, 1810, and forms an epoch in the 
memories of early settlers. It passed nearly a due east 
course from West Martinsburgh across the river near the 
Watson bridge, and far beyond into the wilderness, leaving 
a track of broken and prostrate trees over a space a mile 
and a quarter wide and of unknown length. It was attended 
by torrents of rain and vivid and incessant lightning. Its 
approach was announced by a fearful roaring in the woods, 
and the crash of falling timber was lost in terrific peals of 
thunder. The allVighted inhabitants fled to their cellars 
or sought in the open air an asylum from the dangers which 
their own dwellings threatened. The clouds which had 
been gathering in dense black masses, having poured an 
immense volume of water along the track of the storm, 
cleared up as soon as it had passed, and the remainder of 
the evening was beautifully serene and quiet. Although 
many l^uildings were unroofed or prostrated, it is wonder- 
I'ul to relate that no lives were lost. 

In 1823, a tornado passed over the unsettled country near 
the S.W. corner of the county, leaving a track two miles long 
and half a mile wide, on which no trees were left standin'r. 
This occurred about a mile south of the deep valley of 
yalmon river, and nearly parallel with it, in the j)resent 
town of Osceola. 

A tornado from the north west passed over liarrisburgh, 
Sept. 9, 18-liJ, tearing down trees over ai track in some 
places forty or lilty rods wide. It struck the saw-null of 
Jacob Windeckor un<l the house of Uichard Livingston iu 
Lowville, where it prostraleil a building attached, and did 
other damage to buildings but destroyuil no lives. Klevou 
days later, the great northern tornado swept the loresl from 
Antwerp to lake Champlain, mostly through an uniidiabitod 
region and likewise without the loss of human life. 

At hall jtast live o'rloik on the afttMnoon of Jidy o, 1850, 
a tornatlo eloiid was nv.ru, like un immenso cloud of smoke, 
rapidly whirling and aiivuncing down the lull about a mile 
south of Turin village. It passed eastward to the river, 
demolishing two or three barns, unruufuig several houses, 



306 Earthquakes. JYotes on JYatural History. 

and prostrating everything that lay in its track. It is 
reported that plank were torn up from the road, grass 
twisted out by the roots, and solid objects on the ground 
removed. No lives were lost. 

Earthquakes have been felt several times since the settle- 
ment of the county, but seldom sufficient to create a sen- 
sible motion of the earth. They were indicated by a deep 
rolling noise like distant thunder, or like wagons driven 
over frozen ground. Such an instance occurred in the 
county late in the evening of Jan. 22, 1832, and in Martins- 
burgh April 8, 1836. On the first of March 1838, a slight 
shock was felt at Lowville, at nine o'clock in the evening, 
and another in December 1839. At half past two o'clock 
on the morning of March 12, 1853, an earthquake was felt 
throughout the county, windows, stoves and crockery were 
rattled, in Lowville one chimney was thrown down, and 
even the bells in the stone church and academy were rung 
by the movement. The effect was more sensible in brick 
and stone, than in framed houses, and some persons awakened 
by the noise and frightened by the motion, ran into the open 
air, lest they should be buried in their own houses. 
The phenomenon was attended by a distant deep rumbling 
sound, gradually approaching and then dying away in the 
opposite direction. As it approached it was interrupted 
by a series of explosions like bursts of thunder, and the 
noise is described as peculiarly grand, appalling and un- 
earthly. It continued from one to three minutes, and was 
heavy in Turin, Lowville, Copenhagen and Adams, and 
light in Watertown. 

Notes on Natural History. — Beaver were known in the 
more remote sections of the forest in this county until after 
settlement. Their dams, and the meadows formed by decay 
of timber thus flowed, were common on the high plateau 
region west of the valley, and rarely on the limestone ter- 
races. It is probable that a few scattered beaver still live 
in the east woods. 

Moose have been often killed east of the river where they 
are still found. Elk's horns prove the former existence in 
our count}' of this animal, now wholly extinct in the state. 

Wolves once common and still found in the east woods. 
Of these there are two varieties, the black and the common. 
The former are large, powerful and fierce. The county 
bounties for their destruction have been ^10 till 1819, except 
1815, and on various years since. A special act, April 18, 
1838, allowed the addition of $10 for wolves and f6 for 
their whelps. State premiums of $347.50 were awarded in 



Jfotes on JYatural History. Topography. 307 

1816 ; $180 in 1817 ; $282.50 in 1818 ; $440 in 1819 ; $500 
in 1820 ; $720 in 1821 ; $40 in 1822 ; $72.50 in 1823, and 
$52.50 in 1824. In the Avhole stato during these years it 
was $88,714.15, chiefl}' in Franklin county. 

Panthers have seldom been found west of the river, and 
bounties have usually been the same as for wolves. 

Squirrel hunts, were formerly held. Large parties would 
meet, appoint two cajjtains, choose sides, and on a given day 
devote themselves wholly to the sport. The heads were 
counted in the evening, and the vanquished party paid the 
supper and sometimes the powder and shot. The unit of 
reckoning was usually a red squirrel. In one of these con- 
tests, a black squirrel was counted 2, a partridge 2, a wood- 
chuck 4, a fox 6, a deer 8, a wolf 12, and a bear 12. The 
last two were usually rated much higher. 

White swans.— iV iiock was seen on the river ^larch, 1826. 
One of them when shot was Ibund 7 feet 10 inches from tip 
to tip of wings, and weighing 17 pounds. 

Pigeons, have in some years ap[)eared in great numbers, 
especially in the spring of 1829, 1849 and 1858, when they 
nested in the beech woods of ^lontague, and West Turin. 

Fish. — In Fish creek salmon formerly abounded. No 
perch were Ibund in lllack river or its tributaries until 
about 1843, when li. Smith and A. lligl»y, jr., put about 
30 s|)ecimens into lirantingham lake. They have greatly 
multiplied, are now common. Trout, dace, suckers, bull- 
Leads and eels, form the other principal native fishes of our 
streams and lakes, 

'J'oi'0(JK.\i'iiv AND Geology. — Lewis co, lies mostly in the 
valley of the Hlack river,' which Hows contrallv through it 
from south to north. The river is broken by irequent cas- 
cades and 1 lipids, until it reaches the High falls where 
it plunges down a sleep, broken ledge of gneiss rock, to 
the still water which alVords u navigable channel to Car- 
thage, 42.i iniles L)olow. This in the lowest part of the 
county and is 714 leet above title level. The ainoimt of 
water pa.ssing ut Carthage ut the lowest Htuges has becu 

1 Tlie Inilian iinmo of thiit river, m ifiri'ii hy L. H Mor^ii of Roche«tor, in 
Ills Ltaiiut uf iht Iroijuoit, lit Kii-liu-ah-({u Am ^ivi-n \>y tliu St. Uukih liuli&iui 
to tin- inithor ill I'-.'.'J, it it Ni-k:ilii-<'ii-lm-k'>-wti, niul l>v S|iii'T, l?» liiit 
jjlioriginal M'>numtHti of .Vrir York, K >. Tin' aiitlinri' :t«'<l 

clvfM llio iiann^ d' DtnT rivt.-r, rh (in-n«' f,  . IU-hv.t riviT, .N . n« ; 

Ollor crf»<k, Dii-wwii-iiwl ; Mooih> rivur, Tu-cn-hiiii-ili,iu>-do ; (.ir«'at Kl*h 
crt'ik, Ta-K'u-n<>k« ; Salmon rivor, (i«i-li<<i»-wa-Ka; Saiiily cn-i-k, Tokii-dii- 
<>-gii-h<<; aiitl liiilian rivt<r, O-Jiwiuaok. Th" St. K'giit nani<' Iiuliaii river, 
0-t.Hi-tiua-k<>, "whuru Iho black w\x growa with kuota fur loaklog olulw." 



308 To'pogra])hy and Geology. 

computed at 30,000 cubic feet per minute. The principal 
tributaries of Black river on the east, are Beaver river, 
Crystal, Independence, Otter and Fish creeks, and Moose 
river, which issue from lakes or swamps mostly, and have 
their waters highly discolored by organic or mineral matter 
in solution. On the west, the river receives Deer river. 
Stony, Sulphur-spring, Lowville, Martin's, Whetstone, 
House's, Bear and Mill creeks. Sugar river and a few other 
streams. Such of these as rise in swamps on the western 
plateau region are also highly discolored, but the smaller 
ones, fed by springs from the slates and limestones, are 
very clear. Along the river, but little above its level, 
are extensive swamps in Martinsburgh, Lowville, and Den- 
mark, on the west side, some of which are capable of being 
brought into use. They were mostly covered with ash and 
alders, but the lower one of these was in 1854, burnt off", 
and is now covered with wild grass and reeds capable of 
being mowed. The soil of this vlaie, or natural meadow, 
is a deep black muck underlaid by clay. Along the river- 
bank is a ridge of hard land formed by its overflow, and west 
of it, a drift ridge of sand covered with hemlock timber. 
Still west of this, is a long narrow cedar swamp, extending 
several miles. It is higher than the meadow near the river 
and has furnished a large amount of bog iron ore for the 
Carthage furnace.^ A cedar lot has by many been regarded 
as an essential appendage of a farm. 

The river flows over limestone a short distance from 
Oneida county, when its bed comes upon gneiss rock, 
the primitive formation extending from about half a mile 
west of the river throughout the whole eastern part of the 
county, excepting a portion of Diana. This rock when it 
appears at the surface, rises into rounded ridges, mostly 
naked, or with soil only in the crevices and hollows. It is 
largely composed of feldspar and quartz, with particles of 
hornblende, magnetic iron ore, and more rarely of garnets. 
It is everywhere irregularly stratified and highly inclined. 
The general surface rises gradually from the river eastward, 
until it reaches an elevation of from 1,500 to 2,000 feet 
above the river on the eastern border. This rock covers a 
comparatively small part of the surface, the intervals being 

1 This ore never occurs in swamps liable to overflow from the river. It 
has been found largely in Watson, New Bremen and Denmark, occurring as 
a loam, or in solid masses, sometimes replacing the particles of roots, leaves 
and wood, but preserving their form. It is said to have been mostly exhausted, 
but if allowed to remain without drainage, would be again deposited. Limit- 
ed quantities of this ore have been found in Diana. 



Topography and Geology. 309 

a light sandy soil of drift, with occasional intervals of allu- 
vial deposit, sometimes appearing to have been formerly 
lakes. The disintegration of this rock affords the iron sand 
so common along the streams, and upon the shores of lakes 
in this region. A vein of magnetic iron ore has been opened 
in the north part of Greig, but not worked to any extent, 
In Diana, white crystaline limestone occurs, presenting a 
great variety of interesting minerals, and many instructive 
points for the study of geology. The region is highly meta- 
morphic, and presents marked indications of former igneous 
agencies. 

The minerals of Diana and vicinity, are Apatite in small 
green crystals ; Calcite in great variety, including satin spar, 
and a coarse crystaline limestone of sky blue tint; Horn- 
blende; Mica of the varieties known as Phlogopite ; Py- 
roxene, wiiito and black in crystals, and in grains known a3 
coccolite ; Quattz in crystals, and of the forms known as 
ribbon agate chalcedony ; Rensselaerite ; Scapolite in rounded 
pearly gray crystals ; Serpentine, opaque and greenish ; Sphene 
of tlie variety known as Ledererite ; Sulphurets of copper and 
of iron ; Trenwlite; Woll aston it e or tabular spar, and Zircon in 
square prisms, sometimes a third of an inch on a side, and 
with terminal prisms. Alining for silver was attempted by 
Enoch Cleveland many years since, and a small blast fur- 
nace was put up which produced a few hnndred pounds of 
very hard metal apparently iron. The reputed ore is a fine 
grained greenish black rock which occurs abundantly, and 
appears to consist of chlorite and specular iron ore in 
varialjlu proportions. 

The primitive region of this county still comprises large 
areas of unsettled lands, and presents the same wild forest 
sconei'y of lakes, dark winding streams, tangled swamps and 
80ml>ro pine ant! licndock forests, as when first e.\pU)rcil by 
surveyors and hiniters. The whole of Diana, and about 
iialf of Croghan are drained by the Indian and Oswegatchie 
rivers. A small part t>f IMana is underlaid by calcifcrous 
sandsfono, which usually occurs level and covered l)y a thin 
but fertile soil. hctached capping masses of Potsdam 
sandstone also occur in this town, but the most rcnnirkable 
locality of this rock in the countv, is dn«« east of Martins- 
burgh village, where a .stratum is founil resting directly 
upon the gneiss, in the bo«l t)f Marlin'H creek. Its thickness 
does not exceed ihrt-o foot, and it.s surface oxposuro is slight. 
It is directly covered by limestones and is composed of 
masses of pebbles and sand cemented as if by heavy 
pressure. 



I 



310 Topography and Geology. 

Parallel with the river, and on an average of about a mile 
west, rises an irregular series of terraces, consisting of 
birdseye, Black river and Trenton limestones. The first of 
these may be quarried in rectangular blocks, and is highly 
valuable for building and for lime. A portion of it furnishes 
hydraulic lime, which has been made to some extent in 
Lowville and Martinsburgti. It does not form a surface 
rock of much extent and occurs chiefly on the edge of the 
lower terrace, and in the beds of streams. It is covered 
by the Black river limestone which forms the surface rock 
between the first and second terrace, is not adapted to 
building, contains masses of flint, and is so soluble that 
every exposed angle has been rounded and every seam 
widened by the action of rains and running water. Streams 
usually sink into crevices and flow under it, often forming 
caverns of limited extent, especially in Leyden. The Trenton 
limestone forms the highest and broadest terrace of the 
series, rising from 300 to 600 feet above the river, and 
spreading out into the level fertile region which every 
traveler through the county has admired. These limestones 
seldom appear at the surface except at the edge of the ter- 
races and in the water courses, and every stream flowing 
across them has more or less of a smooth rocky bed, and a 
picturesque cascade where it tumbles down to the next lower 
level. Deer and Sugar rivers and Martin's creek have worn 
deep yawning chasms into the rock, and present cascades of 
singular wildness and beauty well worthy of a visit by the 
pleasure-seeking tourist. 

The western tributaries of Black river have usually no 
valleys, except the immediate channel they have worn. Drift 
agencies have given the appearance of several oblique val- 
leys coming down from the northwest across the limestone 
terraces, which usually have a drift deposit on their north- 
ern side, while on the south the rock is exposed and often 
furrowed in the direction of these oblique valleys. Deer river 
might almost as well have turned northward at Copenhagen 
into Sandy creek, as to have taken its present course. 

In Martinsburgh and Lowville, veins of calcite with the 
sulphurets of zinc, lead and iron have been found. In the 
former, carbonate of lead, and in the latter fluor spar oc- 
curred. These mineral veins are of scientific interest, 
from the evidence they aftbrd of electrical deposit. They 
were formed in what appeared to be natural fissures of the 
rock, and the sulphuret of zinc was attached to each wall, 
upon which was a layer of lead ore and lastly of pyrites, 
the latter often covering the crystals of calcite or appearing 



Topography and Geology. 311 

with cavities left by their sokition. The lead was some- 
times crystalized and imbedded in spar, or grouped with 
clusters of tiiat mineral in masses of much beauty. 

A range of high lands, known as Tug Hill^ runs through 
the county parallel with the river, and from three to seven 
miles from it. It rests upon the limestone and consists of 
Utica slate and Hudson river shales, rising by a rounded 
slope to an elevation of from 500 to 1000 feet above the 
flats below, and spreading out in a level or slightly broken 
region, into Oneida, Oswego and Jellerson counties. Innu- 
merable beaver meadows occur along the sluggish streams 
rising I'rom extent^ive swamps in this region, and the waters 
from this plateau flow from it into the Mohawk and Black 
rivers and lake Ontario. The largest streams flowing from 
this region are Fish creek and Salmon river, each of which 
have valleys of considerable extent, and receive numerous 
tributaries. Deer river also gathers the waters of a wide 
district. The large streams flowing down have uniformly 
worn deep channels, the larger of them several miles in 
length, and in Martiusburgh presenting some of the wildest 
scenery in tiie state.'- Every spring torrent has its ravine, 
and the limestone flats below, are so covered with slate 

1 Said to have been named by Isaac Perry and Buell, on their first 

journi-y into tlie cuiinty, upon reaching the top of the hill on the old road 
wt'st of Turin village. 

-The more interesting of these is Whtttti»ie gulf. The thiism extending 
about three niilt-s uj), is bordt-P-d by pntipitous bunks 2('U to 300 feet in 
heigiit. Thf lifht two niiliH an- mostly occupii-d by a lieavy growth of 
tinib'T, but tlur last niilo jtrt'seutd but li'tle (^f this, except what over- 
hangs the banks, or finds root on the steep, cruuibling slate roek. The 
stream in here (luito irregular in its course, presenting sharp angles and sud- 
den turns, whicli ailonl, at every step, new points of interest, and a constant 
succession of iMagnifi<'>-nt vii-ws. Thi< walls upprouch neun-r tti wc ascend the 
stream, until tli<-y muy Ut both rearhcd by tho outstretched arms, and the 
torrent is comjir" ssed into a deej), narrow cha.>.m, which forbids farther i>ro- 
gres* without ditliculty and danger. A rough wagon road has been madtf 
about two mileh up the gulf, and in low water jiartieu can cross the stream 
everywhere without difficulty. 

About two miles went of .Martinsburgh village, on .Martin's cn-ek, occurs 
another gorge worn in th« slute hills, of much the saniu character. From a 
vast triangular i)ynimid of slate rock formed by the junction of two gulfs, it 
lias acijuired the nanu- of CVumnry pomt. To the left of this, as s«fn from 
the banks uluive, a stream of moderate aize fulls in a beautiful cascade about 
sixty feet, breaking into a sheet of (oum upon the rough UhI, down which it 
glides. A few rods l>t)low it unites with the longer and larger branch, wtioto 
rnvine extends half a mile further up. 1'|miu folloHing the lutt>-r we arrive 
at a cusciide, where the stream fa'.iing fnxn a narrow chasm into a |>ool, for- 
bill* further p; The Atrala of slate, el.M'wIierv iienrly or tpnte level, 

are here highlv I, but the dinturtiance ill the ntratiticalion only extends 

a few rods. Chimney (Miint hajt the advanlag«< of preoenting its finest view 
from the luinks, but such a< prefer to demeiul, will find themsidven amply 
rewarded by the plea.-iing variety of aceuvry which the locality prusi-uts. This 



312 Topography and Geology. 

gravel, that the line of junction of the two rocks can no- 
where be seen in the county. Leyden Hill is a detached 
mass of this slate formation, cut off by a valley from the 
main portion. The road from Constableville to Rome, rises 
about lOOU feet above the latter place and runs many miles 
over this range of highlands, which comprises the whole of 
Lewis, Osceola, High Market, Montague and Pinckney, and 
parts of Leyden, West Turin, Turin, Martinsburgh, Harris- 
burgh and Denmark. The black oxyde of manganese oc- 
curs in swamps in Martinsburgh on the top of Tug hill, and 
weak sulphur springs known in the earl}' settlement as deer 
licks, are common but unimportant.^ The limestones and 
slates in this county abound in characteristic fossils of great 
scientific interest. About half a mile below the foot of Tug 
hill, on tlie line of junction between the slate and limestone, 
there occurs a strip 'of clay averaging perhaps forty rods in 
width, which may be traced from one end of the county to 
the other. In the state of nature this was a line of ash or 
cedar swamp, and when cleared and drained it affords a 
strong meadow or grass land, but it can not well be plowed. 
The slates allow the rains to percolate down through their 

ravine is surrounded by cultivated fields, but is still as wild a solitude as 
when first found by th.e surveyors. 

A thrilling incident occurred at Chimney point, in the spring of 1834, 
which, were it not well authenticated would scarcely appear credible. It is, 
however, too well known and attested to admit of a doubt, and must be 
placed on the list of wonderful escapes. Chillus D. Peebles, who lived adja- 
cent, was clearing the land, and rolling the logs off into the gulf, when by an 
unexpected motion of a log he was thrown off the precipice. He fell about 
one hundred and fifty feet, and struck on the steep slope formed by the gra- 
vel crumbled from the clifls above, from whence he bounded and rolled to 
the bottom, about a hundred feet further. The accident was seen by a man 
not far off, who hastened to descend by the usual path, expecting to find the 
unfortunate man dashed to atoms or mangled and dying on the crags below. 
To his infinite surprise he met Peebles, who had got up and started to return, 
which he did witliout aid, and in less time than the person who came to 
assist him. Upon reaching the top he was delirious, but after a few days he 
returned to his labor as usual. 

1 One of these occurs near the head of Whetstone gulf, and another 1 mile 
S. W. of Houseville on House's creek. One sulphur spring of some interest 
occurs in the limestone on the land of S. B. Dewey, on lot 14 in the N. W. 
part of Lowville, which from the earliest settlement has enjoyed a local repu- 
tation for its medicinal properties. It issues from the foot of a low terrace of 
Trenton limestone, within a few feet of tlie upper strata of that rock, and its 
sulpliurous taste and odor i.s apparently due to sulphuret of iron dissem- 
inated in tlie rock. It occurs on the west side of a sm^ill mill stream a few 
rods below Oladwin's grist mill, and the spot is shaded by a thin growth of 
trees. The spring is curbed about three feet deep and the water is clear. 
Now and then a few bubbles of inflammable gas ri.se from the bottom, and at 
some periods the discliarge of gas is said to be sufficiently active to give the 
spring the appearance of boiling. Tlie water may be easily drank and flows 
olf at the rate of about six quarts in a minute. 



Drift Deposits. Scenery. 313 

seams until the water reaching the limestone finds its way 
to the surface in this line of springs. "West of the strip, 
slate may be found anywhere, by digging through the soil 
and drift. East of it, it can be found nowhere, except in 
broken gravel Avashed down by streams. 

Drift deposits occur promiscuously over every part of the 
county, usually in rounded ridges. The largest of these are 
south-east of Denmark village, where the deposit is miles in 
extent and of great depth. By the term drift, we wish to 
include all earthly matter or detached rocky masses lying 
upon the undisturbed rock, excepting soil derived from the 
disintegration of the rock underneath, and the alluvium or 
soil washed down and deposited by water, or formed by 
organic growth. The soil of the drift is variable, being in 
some places light and sandy, while at others it is hard loom 
or clay. In the Primary region, especially in Diana, there 
are found in many places. Hat intervales and marshes which 
appear to have been formerly lakes that have been filled in 
by the encroachment of vegetable growth and by the soil 
washed down from the ridges adjacent. Peat has been 
observed in some of these marshes, and marl deposited in 
the bottom of the lakes. Boulders of gneiss and other pri- 
mary or igneous rock, are found promiscuously resting upon 
all tbe formations of the county, or imbedded in the soil. 
In many cases clusters of these masses are found together, 
favoring by their appearance the theory that thoy had been 
transported by fields of floating ice, at a period when this 
region was covered by the ocean. 

The scenery of the county, excepting the ravines and cas- 
cades above described, presents nothing majestic, and may be 
regarded as beautiful rather than grand. From the western 
side of the river, the eastern slope appears rising by 
iusensilile degrees until lost in the blue level range of the 
forests of Herkimer county, witli hero and there a point 
slightly elevated above the general surface, indicating the 
position of the iuglior mountain peaks of Hamilton county. 
The highest primary ranges in Lewis ct)unty, occur in its 
south eastern corner, in the town of (Jreig. On an autumnal 
morning, or after u summer shower, putclies of white mist 
restitig upon tbe surface, indicate the position and extent of 
the forest hikes, and at times a curtain »)f fog hanging over 
the river, may shut out the view entirely. As vieweil from 
the brow t)f the slate ranges, the panorama of the valley and 
of tiio (liKtant iiorizon is exceedingly beautiful, and sunrise 
as seen from these ImU.h on a rlear nu)rning, will amply 
repay the labor of an early walk to their summit. The 



314 Scenery of the Valley. 

beaver meadows of the western plateau region, are usually 
bordered by a thrifty growth of balsam fir trees,whose dense 
conical masses of dark evergreen, give a characteristic 
aspect to the scenery of these open meadows in the bosom 
of the forests. No prospect can be conceived more cheer- 
less than the swamps which extend for miles along the head 
waters of Fish creek, and other streams, which have their 
sources in these highlands. They are mostly without trees 
or shrubs, excepting here and there a slender tamarack, 
festooned with gray hanging moss. "Where the soil is of 
sufficient stability to support them, a growth of alder shrubs 
may be traced along the margin of the channels, but in 
many places the surface may be shaken to the distance of 
many feet, and a pole may be thrust to an almost indefinite 
depth. 

Viewed from the eastern side, the limestone terraces and 
slate hills on the west, are seen to great advantage, and the 
successive steps by which the surface rises, are distinctly 
observable. The cultivation of sixty years has quite changed 
the natural surface of the landscape, and a patch of reserved 
woodland here and there alone remains. Viewed from a 
distant eastern point, the horizon towards the north drops 
down as the hills are of less elevation towards the lake, and 
the terraces become much broader. At the period when 
lake Ontario flowed up to the lake ridges, now nearly four 
hundred feet above its surface, the north eastern portion of 
the county might have been submerged, as traces of these 
ridges are found in Wilna, near the borders of this county. 



INDEX. 



Academies, 129, 135, 162, 188, 215. 
Adams, L<'vi, 175; Dr. Seth, 155; Win. 

Root, 166. 
Aldrich, Jonatlian, house of burued, 

80; Peter W., 128. 
Alfiird, A.saln-l, murdered, 224. 
Allen, Dr. Samuel, 82, 88. 
Alpina, 73, '.Hi, UH). 
Alaop, Tlioma.s, 30, 248. 
Angerstein, .Foliii Julius, title of, 33. 
Antwerp Company's lauds, 25, 70, 71. 
Arson, trial for, 153. 
Arthur, Ricliard, uotice of fam. of, 175. 
Ashley, Oti.s, jr., shot, 182. 
Assemblymen, elirou. li.st of, 289. 
Astor, J(jhu Jaeol), owner of lauds, 31. 
Balloiyn, horn Oswego, 220. 
Jitinrroft. Kdward, uiitico of, 180. 
iJunA- of Lowville, 157; Lewi.s couutv, 

180; of tlieiVoiile, 100; Valley, lOU. 
Bannister, Rev. lleiiry, 160. 
linptist A.s.ioc-iatioli, 2H4. 
liar, list of tho l/'wis county, 2fM). 
Jiames^s Corners, I'inekney, VIOO. 
Barnes, JikIhIi, -M I. 
Barney, llliani ]■;., 165. 
Bands uf Iimtruniental MuMit-, 157, 214. 
Beach, John, '-MH ; Nel.ion, Jr., 218. 
Bears, <n<ount<r with, 1 17, 1;^. 
Beaver Fall*, (,roi<hun, IWi. 
Beaver Lands, truet known an, 63. 
J/c<ii'er«, notice of, .'KHi ; duiuM of, \'JH. 
Bel/nrt, Cronhan, 7H. 
Belief re's .•.xiM-dition, 21. 
Bentim, '/.. IL, 100. 
Bent's Settlement, Croflian, 78. 
Birdseye maple, ittikti.nticM of, 119. 
Black river, frroiieou.H luoittion «f, VU, 

25, 34 ; elxvution of, 307 , Indiun 

name of, 3ir7 ; cuniil, ■-'<13 ; cuiu|>aiiy, 

2«i2; tnut, 24, 25, '.tj, 27. 
Blake, I'atri.k, 50, W, 5"), 02, 76. 
Blixlf^et, Je.-.MO, family of, H-l. 
Boards of Health, .holtrtt. HH, 155. 
Hog iron ore, wh'To f«>un<l, 223, 3HK. 
Bonaparte. JoMtyU, 71, 72, 77, IM, 96, 

9»1, 9S ; liiko, y«J, 97. 
Booge, Rov. Aur\>n, J., 189. 



Boon, Gerret, 121. 
Biishart, Garret, 143. 
Bossuot, Ji-aii ]5aptiste, 77. 
Bostiuick, r.saac W., 84, 113, 149, 178. 
Boylstmi, Tiios., 25 ; tract, 25, 27, 28. 
Brantingham, Thomas H., 32; tract, 

25, 31. 
Brass bund, Turin, 214. 
Brecse, Arthur, land agent, 32. 
Bridges, 89, 103, 119, 135, 196, 226. 
Brodhead, Charles C, surveys of, 62, 

125, 139. 
Brown, Charles; academy of, 91. 
Brown, (»imi. Jamb, 2, 6, 56 ; Johu, 33. 
Bromi's Tract, 'ih, 33, 111. 
Brunei, Mark I., 50, 61, 52. 
Buck, Chester, 134. 
Budd, Dr. David, 246, 291. 
Burr, Aaron, lands owned by, 22, 34. 
Burnand KuL,'inc, Swiss j)roj>rietor, 99. 
Bush, Zacclieus an<l fanulv, 211. 
Cali/ornia, .so called in llarri.iburgh, 

114; companies, 29<j. 
Canaan, Timothy, child of, burnt, 186. 
Canal .statistJi-«, 200; surveys, 269; 

ile.scriplion of, 200. 
Card, I'eU'ff, 80. 

Cardinal lines of Catttorland, 52. 
('arret, James, ngiMit, 77. 
Castorland, '-'5, 34 to 70, 104. 
Castorville, 50, 57, HO. 
Cattle, sale of; itnecdotx, 213. 
Ciiriiri«u^A, .Miehui-1 ; respite of, 131. 
Caverns in liluok rivff liutestoue, 130, 

310. 
Cr.i.r timU.r, 3<W 312. 
('tUtirattitna, Hi'ml-c«'ntennUl, RC»do- 

mic, 11^; 5«Hh, of 4th of July, 297. 
Cmm-^ r.-tiiriis, •."»•.•, -tKJ. 
' • .ns of 34 to 70. 

< ...:.• iii'ikdi'my, 103. 

Chimnru J'l'irit, i;ult iu MartU)Hb'((, 311. 
(•/. , ,i. K/r:i, VI-.'. 213, 236. 
' s, l«». 

( . , , '< t!" .-..inity, 313. 

Clfrks ojice, ' i, 17. 

Climbing, exti _. , >J. 

Clinton, Unv. Imao, \tA , 261 ; 



316 



Index. 



Coin (so called), of Company of Nevf 
York, 44. 

Collins, Ela, and family, 152; Jonathan 
and family, 230. 

CollinsvillCi West Turin, 246. 

Coigu^iowmj Patrick, 24, 31, 32, 33, 124. 

Columbian society, TuriUj 215. 

Commissioner s for locating county seat 
13; Bank, 157, 186. 

Company of New York, 35, 39, 195. 

Conferences, M. E., statistics of, 281. 

Congressmen, list of, 288. 

Conklin, Thomas L., 184. 

Conscqua, a Chinaman, lands of, 117. 

Constable, James, 29, 198, 241; extl-acts 
from the diary of, 3, 177, 178, 199, 
234, 237; John, 242; William, 22, 23, 
24, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34, 39, 124, 
238; William, jr., 238, 239. 

Constable's Four Towns, 25, 28, 240. 

Constableville, West Turin, 245. 

Constitution, votes on, 295; of the com- 
pany of New York, 40. 

Contract system in land titles, 29, 236. 

Convention at Denmark, 3, 123. 

Cooper, James, murder of, Leyden, 131. 

Copenhagen, origin of name of, 86. 

Cornelia, township of, 25, 171. 

Costar, John Gr., titles of, 117. 

County, act erecting, 8; changes in, 
1 1, 95 ; seat, efforts to secure 1, 2, 13 ; 
buildings, 14, 160; clerks, 290; courts, 
14, 162. 

Coxe, Richard, 17, 66, 76, 123,231. 

Court House, Martiusburgh, 16 ; Low- 
ville, 160. 

Crary, Joseph, surveyor, 83, 113. 

Cratzenberg, Wm., indicted for mur- 
der, 88. 

Crofoot, Elisha, and family, 231. 

Croghan, town of, 74. 

Cronk's Corners, Pickney, 206. 

Darroio, Dr. William, 143. 

Daughters of Temperance, 281. 

Davis, George, notice of, 30, 243. 

Davenport families, Lowville, 148. 

Dayan^ Charles, 153, 195, 262, 264. 

Dayanville, New Bremen, 195. 

Dean, Faxton, drowned in Martin's 
Mill, 181. 

Deeds to tirst settlers of Lowville, 144. 

Deer, 129, 213; licks, 312; river, 90. 

Denmark, town of, 81. 

Deponceau, Peter S., agent of Bona- 
parte, 71, 72. 

Deserters from Kingston returned, 233. 

Dcsjardins, Simon, 46, 50, 51, 53, 62. 

Dcvouassoux, J. T., French settler, 75. 

Dewey, Dr. Royal Dwight, 208 ; Wal- 
ter, 208. 

DeWolf's purchase ; Antwerp co., 70. 

DeZotelle, Louis, sup'sed death of, 77. 

Diana, town of, and how named, 94. 

Division of Oneida co, 1 to 8, 209. 

■Doig, Andrew W., 154. 

Doty, Chillus, 176, 178. 

Drafts from militia, 299. 



Drift deposits, 309 ; defined, 313. 

Drowning, narrow escape from, 145, 
247. 

Dustings Track, first road in co., 251. 

Eager, Fortunatus, 145. 

Earthquakes, notices of, 306. 

Easton, William L., 158, 270, 285. 

Edwards, Ogden, on the character of 
W. Constable, 242. 

Elk, notice of, now extinct, 306. 

Emigration, European, 78, 119, 237. 

Epidemics, notices of, 237, 304. 

.EMro;jcaw settlements, 78, 119, 237. 

Executors of W. Constable's estate, 29. 

Expeditions through the valley, 21. 

Favargcr, Charles, agent, lUO. 

Fay, Cyrus M., teacher, 165, 

Ferries on Black river, 103, 225. 

Fire Company, Lowville village, 156. 

Fires, 80, 88 ; deaths by, 80, 185, 247; 
in woods, 78, 225, 247. 

Fish, 117, 307; creek reservation, 23. 

Floods, 89, 128, 181. 

Flora, township of West Turin, High- 
market and Lewis, 25, 114, 116, 228, 
236. 

Forged credentials of Gerry, 91. 

Foreigners, vote for removal of from 
Turin, 210. 

Forest scenery, east of river, 309. 

Fort Johnson, the model of Martin's 
house, 179. 

Forty Thieves, so called, 185. 

Foster, Giles, and family, 211. 

Fourth of July, semi-centennial cele- 
bration, 297. 

French, Abel, agent, 83, 84, 90, 204. 

French company ; see " Company of 
New York;" revolution, favored 
emigration, 35 : road, 54, 57 ; settle- 
ment, 54, 55, 80, 196. 

Freudenrich, Frederick, titles of, 100. 

Fricjids, society of, 284. 

Geology of the county, sketch of, 307. 

German settlements, 78, 119. 

Gerry, W. H., clerical imposter, 91. 

Glensdale, Martiusburgh, 186. 

Goff, Deuel, notice of, 208. 

Good Templars, secret order of, 281. 

Graves, Lewis, 81. 

Grcig, town of, 101 ; John, 33, 101. 

Greeks, aid to the, 295. 

Green, David I., titles of, 30 ; Seymour, 
agent, 202, 203. 

Greenleaf, James, 32, 33. 

Hall, Samuel, local agent, 233. 

Hamilton, Alexander, 29, 113. 

Hammond, Theodure S., titles of, 73. 

Handel, township of Pinckney, 24, 
112, 203. 

Harrisburgh, town of, 112. 

Harrison, Richard, 26, 82, 113. 

Harris, Foskit, 98. 

Harrisville, Diana, 98. 

Hart, Levi, 208; Stephen, 211. 

Health committee, Lowville, 155. 

Hemlock timber, prejudice against, 28. 



Index. 



317 



Hemp, culture of noticed, 88. 
Henderson, William, titles of, 26, 204. 
Hcrrcshoff, Charles, suicide of, 111. 
Higby, Amos, 211 : Amos jr., 215. 
High falls, Black river, 246, 307; 

Deer river, 89 ; incidents at, 89, 90. 
High Market, town of, 114. 
Hoffman, Josiah Ogden, titles of, 26, 83. 
Hough, Dr. Horatio Gates, 178 ; Rich- 

ard.sonT., 117, 119. 
House, Eleazer, and family of, 212. 
Hoiiseville, Turin, 214. 
Jiovcy, Aaron, death of, Lowville, 146. 
Hybla, town.sliip of Osceola, 25, 197. 
lllingworth, Sauuiel, 195. 
Indians, 146 ; names of streams, 307 ; 

titles 21 23. 
Jnman.'Wi'lliam, 31, 32, 124. 
Inmun's Triangle 25, 28, 31. 121. 
Instinct, reniarkaljle case of, 142. 
Irish settlers, 115, 237. 
Iron, manufacture of, 97, 98, 100, 111. 
Ives, Maj. .John, and family, 216, 228. 
Jail, 16, 17; liherties, 14; St. Law- 
rence prisoners, 17. 
Jay, William, titles in Lewis, 117. 
Jetton, of Company of New York, 44. 
Johnson, Edward, 211. 
Jones, John, title of, 31. 
Joulin, Pierre, agent and exile, 56, 57, 

59, 62, 64, 107. 
Judges, list of, first county, 289. 
Judson, David C, titles of, 73, 101. 
Kellcy, Daniel, notice of, 144. 
Kelsey, Kber, 128. 
Kerr, James, title of, 32, 3.3. 
A'lntia, .s(» culled in liigli .Market, il5. 
Kilhum, Tlio.s., notice of fiim. of, 21 1. 
A:«m/w//, Rev. David, 190; Rev. Reiiel, 

132. 
King's Falls, on Deer river, 90. 
Knox, Zilia, notice of, 164. 
La Furgf, John, title.i of, 72, 73, 90, 99. 
Jjamlxit sisters, French |>roprietor8, 76. 

J.and titles, history of, -'0. 

Lead ore, notice.-* of, lM.'i, 310. 
Leonard, JanieH 11., und family, 151 ; 
St»'|th<'ii, 161. 

Le Hay, Jaiiie« D., 66, 57, 04, 06, 67, 
GH, 70, 71, 7-', 76, 77 ; Vincent, 64, 79. 

/..cri/'.'icxjM'ditioii in tin- Fr>-neh war, 21. 
Lewis county lutnk, nolicrs of, \Hli. 

Lewis, Morgan, nauiettoku of county, 
II , town of, 116. 

Leydcn, town uf, 121 ; Hill, 131, 312. 

Lihnirita, 91, 129, 161, IKS, 306, 214, 
226. 

Livingstim, Hrockholitt, titles of, 32. 
3.1; IMiillp, 33. 

Lord, .A.HJi, nolico of, IM. 

Loit in the inxxij, 1 IH, |H4. 

Lctteru for wtute road.H, 26'.', 253. 

lA>ud,l)T. John, H6. 

l.ouishurgh now Sterlinffburgh, 97. 

Low, Cornelius, IH7 ; Nli-lioU."*, 26, 27, 
76, 135; nottiM fruiu land books of, 
143. 



Lowville, town of, 133 ; village of, 150, 

1.56. 
Lucrctia, town.ship of, Turin, West 
Turin and Martinsburgh, 24, 115, 210. 
X,w7n6cr manufacture, 110, 119, 130. 
Lyon, Caleb, 33, 111 ; Caleb of Lyons- 
dale, 96 ; Lyman R., 33, 34, 96. 
Lyonsdale, Greig, HI. 
Lyons Falls, West Turin, 246. 
McAdamizcd road proposed, 256. 
McCarthy, Lawrence, executed, 224. 
McCollistcr, John, notice of, 176. 
Maco7nb's purchase, 21 ; great tracts 

of, 23, 24. 
McDowell, Robert, surveyor, 138. 
McVicker, Kdward, titles of, 29; Jas., 
titles of, 30; John, ex'r., kc, 9, 31. 
Mail routes, notice of, 258. 
Mantua, township of Deimiark, 24, 81. 
Martin, Gen. Walter, 172; Vivaldi R., 

154. 
Martinsburgh, town of, 171 ; village 

of, 186. 
Mayhew, David P., Principal, 166. 
Medical Profession, inip'ft. list of, 291. 
Memorial of R. Tillier, 67 ; reply to, 65. 
Mcrriam, Ela, 258, 259; Nathaniel, 

122. 
Methodist Episcopal Conferences, 284. 
Militia organization, drafts, &c., 299; 

"riot,"'86. 
Mill, first in county, 229 239; in Low- 
ville, H6; swejit off, 181. 
Miller, Rev. James, 231 ; Morri.s S., 
84, 148; Col. Seth,246; Dr. Sylves- 
ter, 155. 
Mineral I, calities, 155, 309, 310. 
Montague, town of, 193. 
Monterey, Croghan, former P. 0., 78. 
Moore, Cupt. jolm, shot, 182. 
Moose, notice of, 306. 
Morris, (Jouverni-iir, 55, 66, 57, 59, 

62, 03, 6.'>, 70, 76 ; RolnTt, 32. 
Monger's Mills, Denmark, S5. 
Murders, notices of, H7, 131. 
Murdnck, Kev. James, IlKt. 
Myer's Mills, Denmark, 90. 
Natural Jlistoru, noten on, 306. 
A'uum/iurf, P. O. in Croghan, 80. 
Sfw Hiiititn, Pinekni'V, 206. 
Sew liremfn, town ol', 194. 
.\rwhj>upfr I'rexn, noticeH of, 2S4. 
Sew Surrey, in town of I.«<wis, 1 10, 123. 
Sorthrup, Joni-iih .\., 164. 
Norton, Hw. Klijuh, ISy.- 
Sumlier Three Uixid, 147. 
(tan, nninntitcture of, 119. 
ObovuMter, Jucol), 66, 196. 
Ogden, .Sttmut'l, ttlles of, 33, 33 ; Thos. 

L., H2. 
Oneida co., plana for division of, 1 to 

8, 30U. 
Oicfola, town of, Iil7. 
Oniregtttchtf riHid, 263. 
Oyster krg hiiopn, niantlfacturi< of, 120. 
raddvik, LoveUnd, lill« of, 73, 101. 
i'uAiM/, Jos^'ph, agvut, 101. 



318 



Index. 



Panthers, notices of, 224, 307. 
Paper mill, Martinsburgli, 181. 
Parish, Russell, 153. 
Parsons, Eld. Stephen, and family, 

93, 230 ; Zerah, 125. 
Patent, for academic building, 165. 
Pauperism, statistics of, 17. 
Peebles, J., 177 ; Chillus D., fall of, 312. 
Perry, Dr. David, 154; Capt. Isaac, 

148. 
Personal Statistics, tables of, 292. 
Petition for erection of Lewis co., 6. 
Pharoux, Peter, 46, 50, 51, 52, 53, 62, 

68, 105. 
Phillippc, Louis, travels in America, 

51, 241 ; La Farge, his agent, 73. 
Phcenix bank. New York, 30. 
Pickand, Rev. James D., 168. 
Pierrcpont,Hezekia.hB., 29, 31, 117, 

199, 243. 
Pigeons, notices of, 307. 
Pike, Gen. Z. M., sword of, 166. 
Pinckney, town of, 203. 
Pitcher, Reuben, and family, 176. 
Plank roads, .statistics of, 98, 256. 
Political statistics. Gov's elect'n, 292. 
Pomona, township of, 25, 210, 228. 
Poor House, notice of, 135. 
Porcia, township of Martinsb'g, 25, 171. 
Port Lcyden, village in Ley den, 129. 
Post, Wm. and Gerardus, titles of, 73. 
Potash manUifactiLre, notices of, 80, 

129, 145, 151, 177. 
Prussian Settlement, Croghan, 80. 
Puffer, Rev. Isaac, 223, 226 ; Isaac G. 

killed, 224. 
Railroads, notices of, 89. 
Rathhone, John, titles of, 31. 
Rags, poetical advertisement for, 182. 
Receipt, form used by French co., 36. 
Religious societies, 80, 91, lOl, 111, 

114, 120, 132, 167, 189, 194, 196, 207, 

215, 226, 247, 281. 
Reamer, David D., 98. 
Remonstrance ag'st erection of CO., 7. 
Revolutionary reminiscence, Lowville, 

138 ; soldiers, 297. 
Roads, 27, 34, 54, 57, 118, 123, 135, 

147, 198, 209, 228, 237, 250. 
Rock Island, near Port Ley den, 130. 
Rockwell, Philo, 178. 
Rogers, Jonathan, 141 ; Rev. Joshua 

M., 248. 
Rohr's Mills, New Bremen, 80. 
Roman Catholics, notice of, 284, 
-Rope manufactory, Copenhagen, 88. 
Roscburgh, Mrs., captivity of, 138. 
Rurahella, t'nship of Osceola, 25, 197. 
Safford, Dr. John, 178. 
Saint Michel, Louis de., 75, 76, 77. 
St. Regis mining co., 100. 
Salmon, Rev. Martin, 217 ; (fish) for- 
merly in Fish creek, 233, 307. 
Salt, lirst load to Lowville, 147. 
Satithier's map, errors of, 20, 25. 
Sawyer, Rev. Leicester Ambrose, 190. 
Scenery, general notice of, 313. 



Schools, 91, 114, 122, 129, 161, 179, 214, 

238. 
Scrantom, Abraham, and Hamlet, 236. 
Seal, first county, 1, 14; of Company 

of New York, 40 ; Bank of Lowville, 

157; Lowville academy, 162, 
Seasons, notes upon, 302. 
Seger, Francis, 33, 263, 264. ' 
Senators, state, list of, 288. 
Shalcr, Nathaniel, 27, 29, 228. 
Shaler's roads in Turin, 256. 
Shaw, Sam., wounded by Myers, 224, 
Shepard, families of, 211. 
Sheriffs, county, list of, 289. 
Silver Grays, companies of, 87, 301. 
Silver mine, so called, Lowville, 155. 
Sistersfield, tract named, Croghan, 76, 
Sligo, name proposed, 115. 
Smith, William S., titles of, 24, 25, 34. 
Snoivs, deep, 205, 303. 
Soil, of drift formation, 313. 
Sons of Temperance, 281. 
Spa ford's Landing, Lowville, 142. 
Speculations in lands, noticed, 26, 27. 
Squirrel hunts, usages at, 307. 
State loans, amount to this county, 

295 ; roads, 250, 252. 
Staves manufactory of, 89, 130, 
Steam saw mills, 89. 
Stephens, Ehud, and family, 139. 
Steivart, P. Somerville, 78. 
Sterlingbush, Diana, 98. 
Storrs, Lemuel, 116, 125. 
Storrsburgh, a proposed name, 123. 
Stoiv, Joshua, 116, 125; Silas, 139. 
(Sfow's Square, 137, 147. 
Streams of Castorland, old and modern 

names, 53 ; tributary to Black river, 

308. 
Stump mortar, first mill in Turin, 214. 
Suchard, Louis, purchaser, 99, 100. 
Sugar River falls, described, 130. 
Sulkouski, pri,nce, 101. 
Sulphur Springs, 138, 312. 
Surrogates, list of county, 290. 
Surveys, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 51, 52, 54, 

83, 113, 115, 116, 123, 138, 195, 198, 

201, 240; interrupted, 249. 
Survillicrs, Count de, see " Bonaparte 

Joseph." 
Swansmill company, title of, 69. 
Sivans, white flock of, seen, 307, 
Swiss company, 56, 59, 73. 
Talcott, Samuel A., 152 ; families, in 

Ley den, 127. 
Talcottville, Leyden, 131. 
Tanneries, 78, 80, 99, 130, 196, 
Tassart, A., title of, 75. 
Taylor, Stephen W., jjrincipal, 164. 
Tiffany bridge, Mart'sgh, Greig, 104, 
Tillier, Rodolphe, 53 to 68, 76, 195. 
Toll bridge, incorporated, 226. 
Topography of the county, 307, 
Topping, William, first settler, 125. 
Tornadoes, notices of, 202, 305. 
Totten and Crossjield's purchase, 20. 
Towns, alphabetical list of, 74. 



Index. 



319 



Town Hall, Lowville, 135, 161 ; meet- 
ing stolen in Watson, 221. 

Treaties, Indian, 21, 23. 

Treasurers, list of county, 290. 

Tug iii/i described, 311. 

Turin, town of, 207 ; village of, 214. 

Turnpikes, notices of, 209, 254. 

UnderhiU, Richard W., titles of, 32. 

Unii'crsalist association, 284. 

Valley Bunk, Lowville, 160. 

Valuation of towns in 1809, 10. 

Varick, Abraham, rope manu'fr, 88. 

Voters, nuiul)er in Lejden, 127. 

Votes at each election of Governor, 
292 ; on constitution, 295. 

Voyage, first down Black river, 140. 

Wus^gimcr, Henry, death of, 87. 

Walker, Thomas, a^'ent, 32. 

War, militia drafts in, 297. 

Ward, James T., agent and proprie- 
tor, 32 ; Samuel, 24, 25, 31, 33, 39. 

Washington, funeral address, 128. 

Water power, 89, 108, 130. 

Waters, M:iry Ann, death of, 183 ; 
Moses, 147. 

Watson, town of, 218. 



Watson, James T., proprietor, 219 ; 

tract of, 25, 34. 
Well, remarkable, Greig, 111. 
Welles, Melancton W., ag't, 145, 223. 
Wentwnrth, Erastus, principal, 166. 
West Leyden, P. O. in Lewis, 117. 
West Martinsburgh P. ()., 186. 
West Turin, town of, 227. 
Whetstone gulf, description of, 311. 
Whittlesey, Samuel, anecdote of,182. 
WilcoT, families, Lowville, 148. 
Wilder, Luke, notice of, 155. 
Wilkinsim, John, notice of, 211. 
Willard, Gen. Jos. A., notice of, 156. 
Williamson, Capt. Charles, 31, 32, 62, 

102. 
Wdh-cs, notices of, 213, 224, 306. 
TVuolworth families, Turin, 211. 
Wright, Benjamin, 28, 29, 32, 83, 113, 

115, 116, 138, 178, 198, 204; familie.S 

in Denmark, 84, 85. 
Xenitphim, township of Lewis, 25, 116. 
Yale, Barnabas, notice of, 180 ; Rev. 

Calvin, 190. 
Yeomans, David P., principal, 166. 
Zinc ore, found, 310. 



Y^ 



143