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Robert Clarke & Co 


Entered according to Act of Congress, 
In the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, 

By G. W. RANCK, 
In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 


dm mri]) jjaitcli 







No American city of its age has clustering around it 
more interesting associations than Lexington. Founded in 
the midst of a great revolution; built up by daring men 
in the heart of an almost boundless wilderness, and nur- 
tured and protected through years of hardship and Indian 
warfare, she played the most prominent part in the early 
and tragic days of the Dark and Bloody Ground. Lexing- 
ton then was substantially Kentucky herself. She was more. 
She was the Jamestown of the West; the advance-guard 
of civilization ; the center from which went forth the con- 
querors of a savage empire. 

During another long and eventful era, she was the polit- 
ical, literary, and commercial metropolis of "the great 
Northwest." She was crowded with men who made her 

She has now entered upon the third epoch of her exist- 
ence, an epoch material, during which steam will give her 
an industrial prosperity proportionate to her great natural 

Very much of the rich past of Lexington has died with 
her founders. Even the traditions of her pioneer days are 
dim, and the old landmarks are being rapidly obliterated, 
liealizing these sad truths, and appreciating Lexington's 
history, the author of this book resolved to save for those 
M'ho will come after us all that could be gathered from this 


wreck of time. These pages are the result of his efforts. 
If he has preserved something which ought not to have 
been lost, or if his work will encourage some abler hand 
to gather and perpetuate other annals of our city which 
he overlooked or slighted, he will have attained his object. 

The author has used every means to make his work ac- 
curate. If it is not entirely so, the fault is to be attributed 
to the peculiar disadvantages which always surround the 
local historian. In the preparation of these pages, he has 
consulted many of the oldest and best-informed inhabitants 
of Lexington and Fayette county, and also every other at- 
tainable authority considered reliable. For reasons obvious 
to every fair-minded person, he has ignored the many ex- 
citing events which occurred in Lexington during the late 
war between the States. It is to be hoped that they will 
receive attention of a chronicler in the unprejudiced future. 
As propriety required as little extended mention of the 
living as possible, the writer confined himself, in that re- 
spect, to sketches of a few aged citizens, and brief notices 
of ministers of the gospel and persons in some official 

As it is the work of the local historian to furnish the 
first elements of general history, to record facts rather than 
deductions from facts, the author has contented himself 
with a plain statement of past events, to the neglect of or- 
namental rhetoric and romantic conclusions. 

Lexington, Ky., August, 1872. 

History of Lexington. 


Ancient Lexington. 

The city now known as Lexington, Kentucky, is built of 
the dust of a dead metropolis of a lost race, of whose 
name, and language, and history not a vestige is left. 
Even the bare fact of the existence of such a city, and such 
a people, on the site of the present Lexington, would never 
have been known but for the rapidly decaying remnants 
of ruins found by early pioneers and adventurers to the 
" Elkhorn lands." 

But that these remains of a great city and a mio^hty 
people did exist, there can be not the shadow of a doubt. 
The somewhat notorious Ashe, who published a volume of 
travels in 1806, says : " Lexington stands on the site of an 
old Indian town, which must have been of great extent 
and magnificence, as is amply evinced by the wide range of 
its circumvallatory works and the quantit}'- of ground it 
once occupied." These works he declares were, at the time 
he saw them (1806), nearly leveled with the earth by the 
ravages of time and the improvements that had been made 
by the settlers. The testimony of the lenrned Prof. C. S. 
Rafinesque,* of Transylvania University, fully corresponds 
with this, and proves the former existence in and about the 
present Lexington of a powerful and somewhat enlight- 
ened ante-Indian nation. Other proofs are not wanting. 

♦Western Review, 1820. 


The first settlers of Lexington found here a well, regularly 
and artificially built with stone,* a domestic convenience 
unknown among the American Indians, and they plowed 
up curious earthen vessels,! such as could only have been 
manufactured by at least a semi-civilized people. In 1790, 
an old lead mine, which had every appearance of having 
been once worked and abandoned, was opened near this 
city.J Kentucky's first historian^ tells us of stone sepul- 
chres, at Lexington, built in pyramid shape, and still ten- 
anted by human skeletons, as late as two years after the 
siege of Bryant's Station. "They are built," says he, "in 
a way totally different from that of the Indians." Early 
in this centurj', a large circular earthen mound, about six 
feet in height, occupied a part of what is now called Spring 
street, between Hill and Maxwell. It was located between 
the property of Dr. Bell and the rear outbuildings of Mr. 
P. Yeiser. In course of time it was leveled, and was 
found to consist of layers of earth of three different colors. 
In the center was discovered an earthen vessel of curious 
forna and a quantity of half-burnt wood.§ The mound is 
supposed to have served the purpose of a sacrificial altar. 
A stone mound, which stood not far from Russell's cave, in 
this county, was opened about 1815 and found to contain 
human bones.* 

These well-attested facts, together with the tradition re- 
lated to this day of an extensive cave existing under the 
city of Lexington, relieve of its improbable air the state- 
ment that a subterranean cemetery of the original inhab- 
itants of this place was discovered here nearly a century 
ago.f In 1776, three years before the first permanent 
white settlement was made at Lexington, some venturesome 
hunters, most probably from Boonesborough, had their curi- 
osity excited by the strange appearance of some stones they 
saw in the woods where our city now stands. They removed 
these stones, and came to others of peculiar workmanship, 

* Morse. j Im'-'iy^ P^S^ 2^^- J Old Kentucky Gazette, 1790. 

^ John Filson. g Benj. Kciser. * Prof. Rafinesque. 

t Letter to Robt. Todd, published in 1809. 


which, Upon examination, they found had been [)laced there 
to conceal the entrance to an ancient catacomb, formed in 
the solid rock, tifteen feet below the surface of the earth. 
They discovered that a gradual descent from the opening 
brought them to a passage, four feet wide and seven feet 
high, leading into a spacious apartment, in which were 
numerous niches, which they were amazed to find occupied 
by bodies which, from their perfect state of preservation, 
had evidently been embalmed. For six years succeeding 
this discovery, the region in which this catacomb was 
located, was visited by bands of raging Indians and aveng- 
ing whites; and during this period of blood and passion, 
the catacomb was dispoiled, and its ancient mummies, prob- 
ably the rarest remains of a forgotten era that man has 
ever seen, were well nigh swept out of existence. But not 
entirely. Some years after the red men and the settlers 
had ceased hostilities, the old sepulchre was again visited 
and inspected.'^ It was found to be three hundred feet 
long, one hundred feet wide, and eighteen feet high. The 
floor was covered with rubbish and fine dust, from which 
was extracted several sound fragments of human limbs. 
At this time the entrance to this underground cemetery 
of Ancient Lexington is totally unknown. For nearly 
three-quarters of a century, its silent chamber has not 
echoed to a human footfall. It is hidden from sight, as 
effectually as was once buried Pompeii, and even the idea 
that it ever existed is laughed at by those who walk over 
it, as heedless of its near presence as were the generations 
of incredulous peasants who unconsciously danced above 
the long lost villa of Dioraedes, 

That Lexington is built upon the site of an ancient 
walled city of vast extent and population, is not only evi- 
dent from the facts here detailed, but the opinion becomes 
almost a certainty when viewed in the light of the historic 
proofs that can be produced to support the claim, that all 

* Ashe. 


the region round about her was at a distant period in the 
past the permanent seat of a comparatively enlightened 
people. As early as 1794,* it was well and widely known 
that in the neighborhood of Lexington there existed two 
distinctly defined fortifications furnished with ditches and 
bastions. One of these ancient monuments was visited in 
1820 by Rafinesque, the celebrated professor of natural 
history in Transylvania University, a gentleman whose 
opinions on the subject of the ancient remains in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley are so often quoted by historians and so 
much respected. His map and plate of the remains near 
Lexington constitute one of the most valuable features of 
the " Smithsonian Contributions."t He says| of the forti- 
fication already named : 

"I have visited, wnth a friend, the ancient monument 
or fortification situated about two and a half miles from 
Lexington, in an easterly direction, and above the head of 
Hickman creek; and we have ascertained that it is formed 
by an irregular circumvallation of earth, surrounded by an 
outside ditch. 

"The shape of this monument is an irregular polygon 
of seven equal sides. The whole circumference measures 
about sixteen hundred of my steps, which I calculate at 
nearly a yard, or three feet each ; or, altogether, four thou- 
sand eight hundred feet — less than a mile. The difierent 
sides measure as follows : west side, three hundred and sixty 
feet; southwest side, seven hundred and fifty feet; south 
side, seven hundred and fifty feet ; east-southeast side, six 
hundred and sixty feet ; east-northeast side, one thousand 
and eighty feet ; northeast side, six hundred feet ; north- 
west side, six hundred feet. Total, 4,800 feet. 

" The angles are rather blunt. Two of the angles .have 
deep ravines ; one lies at the angle between the west and 
the southwest sides, and the other between the east-south- 
east and the east-northeast sides. This last is the largest 
and deepest — it reaches to the limestone, and had water in 

* Imlay's Western Territory, page 368. t Vol. I, page 27. 

X "Western Review, April, 


it. It forms a brook running easterly, and is formed by 
two rills meeting near the angle and nearly surrounding 
the central. Another ravine comes out near the north cor- 
ner. All these originate within the circumvallation, which 
incloses one of the highest grounds near Lexington, and 
particularly a large, level hill which is higher than any in 
the immediate neighborhood, and stretches, in part, toward 
the northwest. 

"The sides are straight. The earthen walls are raised 
upon a level or raised ground, and are nowhere lower than 
tlie outside ground, except for a few rods toward the north- 
east side. The situation is, therefore, very well calculated 
for defense, and it is very probable that there were for- 
merly springs within the walls. 

"The whole surface is covered with trees of a lar^e 
growth, growing even on the walls and in the ditch; ex- 
cepting, however, a small corner toward the northwest, 
which is now a corn-field. It may include from five to six 
hundred acres. 

"At present the heighth and breadth of the wall and 
ditch are variable — from eight to sixteen feet in breadth, 
and from two to four in depth, the average being twelve 
in breadth and three in depth ; but these dimensions must 
have been greater formerly. The wall was probably six- 
teen feet broad throughout, and four feet high, while the 
ditch was rather narrower, but deeper. The walls are 
made of the loose earth taken from the ditch. There is 
only one large distinct gateway, on the northeast side, 
where there is no ditch and hardly any wall." 

After this survey some little interest was excited in the 
subject, and other remains were visited and inspected. 
Several in the vicinity of the one described; another, a 
square inclosure, west of Lexington, " near the northern 
Frankfort road;" many mounds and graves south of the 
cit}^ and two groups lying on the south side of North Elk- 
horn, about a mile from each other. Extraordinary as it 
may appear, these monuments, though so near our city, 
and as singular as any on this continent, were never sur- 
veyed till as late as 1820. Some months after he had ex- 


amined and described the fortification at the head of Hick- 
man creek, Prof. Ratinesque surveyed the upper group on 
!N^orth Elklioru, near Russell's cave, or what is now known 
as the West place. We quote his description of it, which 
will be read with more and more interest and wonder as 
time passes, and slowly but surely levels with the earth and 
blots out forever all that is left to remind us of a lost race, 
whose stupendous structures covered the fertile tract which 
afterward became the favorite hunting ground of savage 
tribes. He says :* 

"I visited this upper group of monuments, a few days 
ago, in company with two gentlemen of Lexington. They 
are situated about six miles from this town, in a north- 
northeast direction, on the west and back part of Colonel 
Russell's farm, which stands on the road leading from Lex- 
ington to Cynthiaiia. 

"The ground on which they stand is a beautiful level 
spot, covered with young trees and short grass, or line turf, 
on the south side of a bend of North Elkhorn creek, nearly 
opposite the mouth of Opossum run, and close by Hamil- 
ton's farm and spring, which lie west of them. They ex- 
tend as far as Russell's cave, on the east side of the Cyn- 
thiana road. 

"No. 1, which stands nearly in the center, is a circular 
inclosure, six hundred feet in circumference, formed of four 
parts: 1. A broad circular parapet, now about twenty feet 
broad, and two feet high. 2. An inward ditch, now very 
shallow and nearly on a level Avith the outward ground. 

3. A gateway, lying due north, raised above the ditch, 
about fifteen feet broad, and leading to the central area. 

4. A square central area, raised nearly three feet above the 
ditch, perfectly square and level, each side seventy feet 
long and facing the four cardinal points. 

" No. 2 lies northeast of No. 1, at about two hundred and 
fifty feet distance; it is a regular, circular, convex mound, 
one liundred and seventy-five leet in circumference, and 
nearly four feet high, surrounded by a small outward ditch. 

►Western Review, 1820, page 53. 


" No. 3 lies nearly north, of No. 1, a»id at about two hun- 
dred and fifty fuet distance from No. 2. It is a singular 
and complicated monument, of an irregular square form, 
nearly conical, or narrower at the upper end, facing the 
creek. It consists: 1. Of a high and broad parapet, about 
one hundred feet long and more than five feet high, as yet, 
above the inward ditch on the south base, which is about 
seventy-five feet long. 2. Of an inside ditch. 3. Of an 
area of the same form with the outward parapet, but 
rather uneven. 4. Of an obsolete broad gateway at the 
upper west side. 5. Of an irregular raised platform, con- 
nected with the outward parapet, and extending toward 
the north to connect it with several mounds. 6. Of three 
small mounds, about fifty feet in circumference, and two 
feet high, standing irregularly around that platform, two 
on the west side and one on the east. 

"No. 4. These are two large sunken mounds^ connected 
with No. 3. One of them stands at the upper end of the 
platform, and is sunk in an outward circular ditch, about 
two hundred and fifty feet in circumference, and two feet 
deep. The mound, which is perfectly round and convex, is 
only two feet high, and appears sunk in the ditch. An- 
other s'milar mound stands in a corn-field, connected by a 
long raised way to the upper east end of the parapet in 
No. 3. 

"No. 5 is a monument of an oblong square form, con- 
sisting of the four usual parts of a parapet, an inward 
ditch, a central area, and a gateway. This last stands 
nearly opposite the gateway of No. 3, at about one hun- 
dred and twenty-five feet distance, and leads over the ditch 
to the central area. The whole outward circumference of 
the parapet is about four hundred and forty feet. The 
longest side fronts the southwest and northeast, and is 
one hundred and twenty feet long, while the shortest is 
one hundred feet long. The central area is level, and has 
exactly half the dimensions of the parapet, being sixty 
feet long and fifty wide. It is raised two or three feet as 
well as the parapet. The end opposite the gateway is not 
far from Hamilton's spring. 


"No. 6 is a mound without a ditch, one hundred and 
ninety feet in circumference, and live feet liigh. It Uea 
nearly west from No. 1. 

" No. 7 is a stone mound, on the east side of Russell's 
spring, and on the hrim of the gulley. It lies east trora 
the other monuments and more than half a mile distant. 
It is ten feet high and one hundred and seventy-five feet in 
circumference, being formed altogether by loose stones 
heaped together, but now covered with a thin soil of stone 
and grass. 

" No. 8 is a similar stone mound, but rather smaller, lying 
north of No. 7, at the confluence of Russell's spring with 
North Elkhorn. 

"Among the principal peculiarities, which I have no- 
ticed in this group of monuments, the square area of No. 
1, inclosed within a circular ditch and parapet, is very in- 
teresting, since it exhibits a new compound geometrical 
form of building. The ditch must have been much deeper 
once, and the parapet, with the area, much higher; since, 
during the many centuries which have elapsed over these 
monuments, the rains, dust, decayed plants, and trees must 
have gradually filled the ditch, etc. I was told by Mr. 
Martin that Avithin his recollection, or about twenty-five 
years ago, the ditch in the monument at the head of Hick- 
man's creek was at least one foot deeper. Whenever we 
find central and separated areas in the AUeghawnan monu- 
ments, we must suppose they were intended for the real 
places of worship and sacrifices, where only the priests and 
chiefs were admitted, while the crowd stood probably on 
the parapet to look on; and, in fact, these parapets are 
generally convex and sloping inward or toward the central 

" The ditched mound. No. 2, is remarkable, and must 
have had a peculiar destination, like the sunken mounds, 
No. 4, which dift'er from No. 2 merely by being much 
lower, and appearing, therefore, almost sunk in the ditch. 

" The stone mounds, Nos. 7 and 8, are also peculiar and 
evidently sepulchral. But why were the dead bodies cov- 
ered here with stone instead of earth ? Perhaps these 


mounds belonged to different tribes, or the conveniency ot" 
finding stones, in the rocky neighborhood of RusselTs 
cave and spring, may have been an inducement for employ- 
ing them," 

Some of these mounds described by Rafinesque were 
visited in 1846, and found to be nearly obliterated ; others, 
however, near the dividing line between the old military 
survey of Dandridge and Meredith, were still distinct, and 
were described in 1847* as follows, viz : " The most east- 
erly work is on the estate of C. C. Moore. It is on the top 
ot a high bluff, on the west side of JSTorth Elkhorn, in the 
midst of a very thick growth, mostly of sugar trees, the 
area within a deep and broad circular ditch is about a quar- 
ter of an acre of bind. The ditch is still deep enough in 
some places to hide a man on horseback. The dirt taken 
from the ditch is thrown outward ; and there is a gateway 
where the ditoli was never dug, some ten feet wide on the 
north side of the circle. Trees several hundred 3'ears old 
are growing on the bank and in the bottom of the ditch 
and over the area which it incloses, and the whole region 
about it. There is another work a quarter of a mile west 
of the above one. It commences on the Meredith estate 
and runs over on the Cabells' Dale property, and contains 
about ten acres of land. The shape of the area is not unlike 
that of the moon when about two-thirds full. The dirt 
from the ditch inclosing this area is thrown sometinaes out, 
sometimes in, and sometimes both ways. An ash tree was 
cut down in the summer of 1845, which stood upon the 
brink of this ditch, which, upon being examined, proved to 
be four hundred years old. The ditch is still perfectly dis- 
tinct throughout its whole extent, and in some places is so 
deep and steep as to be dangerous to pass with a carriage. 

A mound connected with this same chain of works was 
opened in thesummer of 1871. It is situated about half a mile 
west of the earthwork already described as on top of the 
bluff, and about a quarter of a mile north of tiie larger oval 
one. It is on the farm of Mr. James Fisher, adjoining the 

* Collins. 


plantation on Avhich Dr. Eobert Peter at present resides, 
and is part of the old Meredith property before mentioned.* 
The mound has a diameter of about seventy feet, and rises 
with a regular swell in the center to the height of three and 
a half to four feet above the general level of the valley pas- 
ture on which it is located, only about fifteen feet above 
low water in the iJ^Torth Elkhorn creek, and about three 
hundred and twenty-live feet south from its margin. Mr. 
Fisher made an excavation into the center of this mound 
about four to five feet in diameter and about three and a 
half feet deep, in which, in a bed of wood-ashes containing 
charred fragments of small wood, he found a number of in- 
teresting copper, flint, bone, and other relics of the ancient 
Mound Buiklers, which were carefully packed by Dr. 
Robert Peter (who resides on the adjoining Meredith farm), 
and transmitted to the Smithsonian Institute, at Washing- 
ton, for preservation. 

The copper articles were five in number; three of which 
were irregularly oblong-square implements or ornaments, 
about four inches in length and two and one-eighth to three 
and three-quarter inches wide and one-quarter inch thick at 
lower end (varying somewhat in size, shape, and thickness) ; 
each with two curved horns attached to the corners of one 
end, which is wider and thinner than the other end. 
These were evidently made of native copper, by hammer- 
ing, are irregular in thickness and rude in workmanship, 
and have been greatly corroded in the lapseof time, so that 
they not only have upon them a thick coating of green car- 
bonate and red oxide of copper, but the carbonate had 
cemented these articles, with adjoining flint arrow-heads, 
pieces of charcoal, etc., into one cohering mass, in the 
bed of ashes, etc., in which they were found lying irregu- 
larly one upon the other. 

The other two co}>per implements were axes or hatchets ; 
one nearly six inches long, the other nearly four inches; 
each somewhat adze-shaped wider at one end, which end 
had a sharp cutting edge. 

* Description by Dr. Peter. 


With these were found nearly a peck of flint arrow-heads, 
all splintered and broken, as by the action of lire ; also, three 
hemispherical polished pieces of red hematitic iron ore about 
two inches in diameter; some door-button shaped pieces of 
limestone, each perforated with two holes; several pieces of 
sandstone, which seemed to have been used for grinding 
and polishing purposes ; and many fragments of bones of 
animals, mostly pai'ts of ribs, which appeared to have been 
ground or shaped ; among which was one, blackened by 
tire, which seemed to have been part of a handle of a dag- 
ger; also, some fragments of pottery, etc. The fragments 
of charcoal, lying near the coi)per articles, were saturated 
with carbonate of copper, resulting from the oxidation of 
the coj)per articles, i)arts of which were oxidized to the cen- 
ter, although a quarter of un inch in thickness; and many 
pieces of this coal and portions of flint arrow-heads remain 
strongly cemented to the copper implements by this carbo- 

To what uses these rude, obl(^ng- square horned copper 
articles were put, except for ornament, can not be conjec- 
tured. No inscription or signiticant mark was found on any 
of them. 

No human bones could be distinguished among the 
fragments found, but only the immediate center of the 
mound was opened. 

The citizens of Lexitigton may, in truth, muse among the 
ancient ruins and awe-inspiring relics of a once mighty 
people. Who and what were the beings who fought with 
these weapons, ate from these vessels, built these tombs and 
mounds and altars, and slept at last in this now concealed 
catacomb ? Where existed that strange nation, whose 
grand chain of works seemed to have Lexington for its 
nucleus and center? We can only speculate ! One* inclines 
to the opinion that they were contemporaries of the hardy 
Picts. Anotherf declares them identical with the Alleglia- 
wians or progenitors of the Aztecs, and cites as proof, the 
remains of their temples, which are declared to be wonder- 

* Imluy, page 369. t Rafinesque. 


fully similar to those of the ancient Mexicans described by 
Baron Humboldt. The earthen vessels here plowed up 
from the virgin soil, he says, were like those used by the 
AUeghawians for cooking purposes. Still another writer,* 
dwelling upon the mummies here discovered, sees in the 
original inhabitants of Lexington, a people descended from 
the Egyptians. Other authors, eminent and learned, almost 
without number, have discussed this subject, but their 
views are as conflicting as those already mentioned, and 
nothing is satisfactory, except the negative assurance that 
the real first settlers of Lexington, the State of Kentucky, 
and the entire Mississippi valley, were not the American 
Indians, as no Indian nation has ever built walled cities, 
defended by entrenchments, or buried their dead in sepul- 
chres hewn in the solid rock. 

Who, then, were these mysterious beings? from 
whence did they come? what were the forms of their 
religion and government? are questions that will probably 
never be solved by mortal man ; but that they lived and 
flourished centuries before the Indian who can doubt? 
Here they erected their Cyclopean temples and cities, with 
no vision of the red men who would come after them, and 
chase the deer and the buti:'alo over their leveled and grass 
covered walls. Here they lived, and labored, and died, be- 
fore Columbus had planted the standard of old Spain upon 
the shores of a new world ; while Gaul, and Britain, and 
Germany were occupied by roving tribes of barbarians, 
and, it may be, long before imperial Rome had reached the 
height of her glory and splendor. But they had no litera- 
ture, and when they died they were utterly forgotten. 
They may have been a great people, but it is all the same 
to those who came if they were not, for their greatness 
was never recorded. Their history was never written — 
not a letter of their language remains, and even their name 
is forgotten. They trusted in the mighty works of their 
hands, and now, indeed, are they a dead nation and a lost 
race. The ancient city which stood where Lexington now 

♦Josiah Priest's "American Antiquities." 


stands, has vanished like a dream, and vanished forever. 
Another has well said: " Hector and Achilles, though mere 
barbarians, live because sung by Homer. Germanicus lives 
as the historian himself said, because narrated by Tacitus; 
but these builders of mounds perish because no Homer 
and no Tacitus has told of them. It is the spirit only, 
which, by the pen, can build immortal monuments." 



The Indian Occiqyation. 

It is a favorite theory of many that the Indians of I^orth 
America migrated from Asia; that the once noble race, which 
Ijas almost melted away, was descended from the ten tribes 
of Israel* which were driven irom Palestine seven hun- 
dred years before the birth of Christ. But this is a theory 
only. The advent of the Indians and the stock from which 
they sprung will never be determined ; but that they came 
after the " Mound Builders" is evident. Tlie appearance 
of the Indians was the death-knell of that doomed race 
whose rich and beautiful lands and spoil-gorged cities in- 
flamed the desperate and destitute invaders. The numer- 
ous tumuli which yet remain attest the fierceness of the 
conflict which ensued. A great people were swept out 
of existence, their cities disap)peared, the grass grew 
above them, and in time the canebrakes and tlie forests. 
Out of all this vast extent of conquered territory, the In- 
dians selected a portion as a hunting-ground and called it 
" Kantuckee," because it had been in truth to them a 
"dark and bloody ground." It was a shadow-land to the 
Indians. In 1800, some Sacs who were in St. Louis said of 
Kentucky that it was full of the souls of a strange race 
which their people had long ago exterminated.! They 
resrarded this land with superstitious awe. Here they 
hunted and here they fought, but no tribe was ever known 
to settle permanently in it.J And while they hunted and 
roamed and paddled here their bark canoes, unknown cen- 
turies rolled away. Jamestown, the germ and herald of a 

* Roger Williams, Dr. Boudinot. and others. tPri^JSt's Antiquities. 

X Hall's (Sketches, 



mighty empire was building', and royal colonies of tlieir 
future enemies waxed strong, while they sported and slept; 
and even when their brethren " across the mountains " 
were falling like ripe grain before the reaper, while forests 
were disappearing, and villages, and towns, and churches, 
and mills, and colleges were multiplying, they built their 
camp-fires undisturbed where Lexington now stands — for 
even to Virginia, the vast area since called the ISTorth western 
Territory was then an unexplored and unknown country. 
But the handwriting was upon the wall, and the same fate 
to which the lied Men had consigned the Mound Builders 
was in waiting for them also. 



Coming of the White Man. 

The genius of civilization pointed out to her chosen 
pioneer a savage land to be reclaimed; and on the ever 
memorable 7th of June, 1769,* Daniel Boone, the " Colum- 
bus of the land," stood upon a lofty cliff which towered above 
a branch of the Kentucky river, and gazed enraptured 
upon the Italy of America, and feasted his eyes upon the 
beauty and fatness of a country celebrated now the wide 
world over in story and in song. The conqueror of the 
wilderness had come, a vast army was following at his back, 
and the future of the Dark and Bloody Ground was decided. 
In 1770,t the Long Hunters crossed the rocky barrier which 
shut out the old settlement from the wilderness, and pene- 
trated the fabled region, and in 1773 they were followed by 
a band of Virginia surveyors appointed by Lord Dunmore.| 
Parties of colonial soldiers from the Old Dominion came 
out in search of homes. Cabins were erected and corn 
raised at Old Town, now Harrodsburg, in 1774,§ and the 
spring of the year following found Boone building on the 
Kentucky river the log fort and capital of the famous 
Transylvania Colony. " With this year," (1775,) says 
Marshall, " begins the first permanent and real settlement 
of Kentucky," an event which filled the Indians with rage. 
To them the white men were invaders and robbers. From 
their first appearance they had tracked them with torch 
and tomahawk and scalping knife, never doubting but that 
by bloodshed and cruelty they would be able to drive them 
from their hunting-ground ; and now when they saw them 

* Filson. t Annals of the West, 119. 

% Marshall. § Butler. 


deliberately preparing^ perniaiient settlements, their indig- 
nation and mortification knew no bounds. They resolved 
to utterly exterminate their persistent foes, to repossess 
every foot of soil so daringly appropriated — and from this 
time for many a long year after were enacted scenes of 
blood and horror, the recital of which is enough to sicken 
the stoutest soul. 



Discovery and Naming of Lexington. 

Until the 3'ear 1775, no white man is positively known to 
have visited the place now called Lexington, but in that year, 
sa^'s General Robert McAfee, in his history of the war of 
1812, "Robert Patterson, Simon Kenton, Michael Stoner, 
John ILiggin, John and Levi Todd, and many others took 
possession of the north side of the Kentucky river, includ- 
ing Lexington. " Fortunately the names of a few of those 
included in the indefinite phrase, "many others" are pre- 
served. They were John Maxwell, Hugh Shannon, James 
Masterson, William McConnell, Isaac Greer, and James 
Dunkin. * They were sent out from the fort at Harrods- 
burg. Clothed in their quaint pioneer style of buckskin 
pantaloons, deerskin leggit s, linsey hunting-shirt, and 
peltry c;ip, and armed each with a trusty flint-lock rifle, a 
hatchet and scalping-knife, they toiled tlirongh the track- 
less woods and almost impenetrable cane-brakes in the 
direction of the future Lexington. On or about the 5th of 
June, the approach of night ended one of their solitary 
and dangerous marches; and glad forest, the tired hunters 
camped on a spot afterward known successively as McCon- 
nell's Station, Royal's Spring, and the Headly dirftillery prop- 
erty. It is only a few steps from the present " Old Frank- 
fort road," and is nearly opposite the beautiful Lexington 
Cemetery.f The spring from which the pioneers drank 
and watered their horses still exists, with a stream as cool, 
clear, and grateful as then. After posting one of their 
number od the "look out" for the "redskin varmints," 
who were ever on the alert to slay the "pale-face," the 
rest seated themselves around a blazing brush-heap on logs 

*Brad ford's Notes. 

tBradford's Notes, and Observer and Keporter of July 29, 1809. 


and buflalu hides, and, with hnn^er for sauce, supped with 
gusto upon the then inevitable '"jerk" and parched corn. 

While eating their simple meal, they talked with enthu- 
siasm of the beautiful country they had just traveled over, 
and surprised and delighted with the prospect about them, 
they determined that their place of settlement should be 
around the very spot where they were then encamped. 
And no wonder they were delighted with their new-found 
home, for of ail the broad rich acres they had seen in all 
" Kan-tuck-ee, " these were the fattest and most fertile. 
Never before had their eyes feasted on such an untold 
wealth of blue grass pasture. The deer, the elk, the bear, 
and buiialo crowded the woods with juicy food. They 
forgot the skulking savage and the dangers on every hand, 
and glowed with the excitement which only a hunter can 
feel, as the}' surveyed the virgin glories of the red man's 
most cherished hunting-groumls, and realized the full truth 
of the wondrous tales they had heard of a distant El 

The hunters assisted William McConnell to build a rude 
little cabin on their camping-ground as the foundation for 
a title, for Virginia as early as the year 1774, had oficred 
four hundred acres of land to each person who cleared a 
piece of land, built a cabin, and raised a crop of Indian 
corn.* The name of the settlement that was to be, was 
discussed with animation. One suggested " York, " another 
*' Lancaster, " but both were dropped with a shout for " Lex- 
ington !"f as the conversation turned to the strange news 
that had slowly crept through the wilderness, and which, 
after being weeks on the way, they had just heard, of how 
''King George's troops, on the 19th of April, had called 
American ' rebels,' and shot them down like dogs at Lex- 
ington, in Massachusetts colony." The story of Lexing- 
ton's christening — the historic fact of how she got her 
name, is as romantic as the legend of the beautiful Princess 
Pocahontas, and is an incident far more interesting, because 
more true than the fabulous one told of the founding of 
ancient Rome. 

*Iml;iv. t-B rad ford's Notes. 


So the hunters called the new settlement Lexington, in 
memory of that bloody field hundreds of miles away, and 
some of them soon after joined the Continental army, and 
fought long and bravely to avenge the minute men who 
fell that day. How strange the story of that pioneer camp ! 
Here almost a hundred years ago, when Kentucky was a 
wilderness territory of the royal province of Virginia ; 
here, far away from civilized life, in the heart of an un- 
broken forest, at the dead of night, a little band of adven- 
turers erected the first monument ever raised on this conti- 
nent in honor of the first dead of the revolution ! It is true, 
the ceremonies of its dedication were not attended with 
glittering pomp or show, for the oflS.cials were only clad in 
buckskin and honest home-spun, and the music of their 
choir naught but the scream of the panther, the howl of 
the wolf, or the far-off yell of the savage ! But it was con- 
secrated by the strictest virtue and truest patriotism, and 
nature smiled benignantly upon it from an Eden of luxu- 
riant beauty. Those pioneers have long since passed away, 
and some of their graves are still to be seen not far from 
the spot where they encamped on that memorable occasion. 



Lexington an Indian Camping Ground. 

The frail and hastily-built little hut of McConnell gave 
Lexington her name, and that was all, for no settlement 
was efiected until four years after its erection. The sum- 
mer of 1776 found no white man in all the length and 
breadth of the present Fayette county. McConnell's 
cabin was deserted and falling to pieces, and the would-be 
settlers of Lexington had all retired to the much needed 
protection of the few log forts then in existence. The 
American Revolution had now fairly opened. Ticonderoga 
had been captured, the battle of Bunker's Hill had been 
fought, and one of the saddest tragedies of that eventful 
struggle had been enacted upon the Plains of Abraham. 
The Indians, consistent with the policy they ever pursued 
of leaguing with the strongest, had early enlisted on the 
side of England, and the northwestern tribes in particular 
were not slow to act. They came to Kentucky with the 
buds of spring, and summer had not commenced before all 
Fayette county and the adjoining region were filled with 
roaming bands of angry Shawanese, Cherokees and their 
associates.* All ideas of attempting to make new settle- 
ments were abandoned by the whites, personal safety was 
the one thing thought of, and fear and anxiety prevailed, 
for the savages clearly indicated that they had not aban- 
doned their cherished desire of driving their enemies from 
the country. Settlers were killed every few days ; on the 
14th of July two of Colonel Calloway's daughters and one of 
Daniel Boone's were captured within rifle shot of Boones- 
borough, and about the same time Hinkston's settlement on 

* Western Annals, 154. 


Licking creek was broken up. Dark days had come and still 
darker were ahead, and many even of the stoutest-hearted 
settlers left the country entirely.* 

The wilderness country heretofore a part of Fincastle 
county, Virginia, was formed into " Kentucky county," on 
December 7, 1776,t but the protection of the " Old Do- 
minion," whose forces were needed to lead the van of the 
contineutial array was barely felt in the newly-creaeted 
department. The handful of brave pioneers struggled 
with their savage foes alone and unaided, and to their suf- 
ferings were added the horrors of the winter of starvation, 
which marked the opening of the year 1777. The succeed- 
ing spring and summer gave them as little encouragement. 
To attempt to raise corn was certain death, game was shot 
at the peril of the hunter's life. Harrodsburg, Boones- 
borough, and Logan's fort were constantly watched, and 
each in succession attacked by the Indians ; and at this 
time the whole military force of the newly-made Kentucky 
county amounted to only one hnndred and two men.J 
Fortunately Colonel Bowman arrived from Virginia early m 
he fall with a hundred men, and hope rose again in the 
hearts of the almost despairing settlers. The prospect con- 
tinued to brighten during the year 1778. The well-planned 
and swiftly-executed movements of that brilliant soldier 
and remarkable man. Colonel George Rogers Clark, against 
the British posts of Kaskaskia and Vincennes, met with 
wonderful success ; the grand attack of an overwhelming 
force of Indians and Canadians, under Du Quesne, upon the 
heroic little garrison of Boonesborough, signally failed, 
confidence was restored, immigration again commenced, 
and the settlers once more ventured out to " possess the 

*Col. Floyd's Letter. tMorehcad's Address. t^utler and Marshall. 



Settlement of Lexington — The Block-House — The Settlers — 
Col. Robert Patterson — John Maxwell — James Masterson — 
The McConnells and Lindsays — John Morrison — Lexing- 
ton Fort — McConneWs Station — Bryant's Station — Its Set- 
tlers — Grant's Station — Col. John Grant and Capt. Wil- 
liam Ellis — Natural Features about Lexington Station — 
Soil, Forests, Game, and Flowers. 

In the latter part of March, 1779, Col. Robert Patterson, 
since distinguished as the founder of two cities, was a^ain 
ordered from the fort at Harrodsburg, to establish a garri- 
son north of the Kentucky river,* and this time he was 
successful. At the head of twenty-five men he commenced 
his march for the beautiful and fertile garden spot he had 
visited four years before, and which he had never forgotten. 
The party reached its destination the last day of the month, 
and encamped, for rest and refreshment, at a magnificent 
sprnig, whose grateful waters, in an unusual volume, 
emptied into a stream near by, whose green banks were 
gemmed with the brightest flowers. The discovery of 
this spring determined the location of the little garrison, 
and bright and early on the morning of the next day, the 
Ist of April,f the axes of the stout [)ioneers were at work; 
trees were felled, a space cleared, and a block-house, sur- 
rounded by a stockade, and commanding the spring, was 
soon under headway. This rude but powerful defense was 
quickly completed, as no unnecessary labor was spent upon 
it. The logs for the walls were chopped out, provided with 
ports, and " raised;" the long and wide clapboards, rough 

* McAfee. t Butler and Marshall. 


from the ax and firmly secured by wooden pins, formed the 
roof; trees split in two, and cut to the proper length, made 
the floor; a substantial slab door was provided, and these, 
together with openings to admit the light and carry off the 
smoke, constituted the block-house. 

The ground upon which this block-house was erected, 
and which is now so rich in historic associations, is at 
present occupied by the "Carty Building," on the corner of 
Main and Mill streets, and upon no other spot has the pro- 
gress of Lexington been more distinctly indicated. The 
infancy of our city was here shown, in 1779, by the rude 
block-house ; this was succeeded, in 1788, by a frame one ; 
in 1807, what was then called " a splendid two-story brick," 
was erected, and in 1871, this gave place to the four-story 
iron front which now marks the spot where the settlement 
of Lexington commenced, and is, at the same time, an ap- 
propriate monument to commemorate the beautiful char- 
acter of one of her greatly beloved and respected citizens— 
the lamented John Carty. The spring near the block- 
house was the principal one of the series of springs now 
concealed by a number of buildings on Main street, which 
have been erected over them. When Lexington grew to 
be a "station," the spring was embraced within the walls 
of the stockade, and supplied the entire garrison with 
water, and when the fort was removed, the spring was 
deepened and walled up for the benefit of the whole town,* 
a large tank for horses was made to receive its surplus 
water, and for many years, under the familiar name, "the 
public spring," it was known far and wide. 

As soon as the block-house was completed, it was occu- 
pied by Col. Eobert Patterson, John Maxwell, James Mas- 
terson, William and Alexander McConnell, and James and 
Joseph Lindsay, who proceeded to raise a crop of corn on 
the ground now covered by Cheapside, the court-house, 
and a part of Main street, and all other necessary prepara- 
tions were made to insure a permanent settlement, f The 
year 1779, thanks to the pioneer successes we have mcn- 

* City Eecords. t Butler, Marshall, and old documents. 


tioned, was one of comparative peace. Immigrants came 
to Keutiicky in increasing numbers, eager to be in time to 
get the benefit of the " settlement right," under which Vir- 
ginia guaranteed them a magnificent estate, which "right" 
was to cease iu 1780.* A tew of the bolder of tliese new 
comers ventured, during the summer, to the solitary block- 
house at Lexington, "the forlorn hope of advancing civil- 
ization," and built cabins adjoining its protecting walls. 
In the autumn, a little company, of which John Morrison 
and his wife were a part, removed from Harrodsbu rg, and 
still further additions were made to the defenses of the set- 
tlement. The fort, which had by this time become a place 
of some importance, had assumed the shape of a parallelo- 
gram, two sides of which were formed by the exposed 
walls of two rows of cabins, the extreme ends of the fort 
being defended by stockades of sharpened posts fixed se- 
cure!/ in the ground, and furnished with ports. The pickets 
and walls were about ten feet high. 

Another row of cabins stood in the center of the in- 
closed place, which was largo enough to shelter, not 
only the settlers and new comerc*, but also all the live stock 
which might, at any time, have to be driven in Ironi 
the reach of their destroying foe. The fort had but one 
gate, a large slab one, and it was on the side of the station 
which extended from the Wock-houso, on Carty's corner, 
to about the center of West Main street, near or on the 
site of the building now occu[)ied by Celia Allen, between 
Mill and Broadway, where James Masterson's house once 
Btood.f The station embraced and inclosed a part of Main 
street between the two streets just named, and a good por- 
tion of the ground now covered by business houses on East 
Main, included between the same streets. While this little 
outpost was being established on the extreme frontier of 
Virginia, a large part of her territory, nearer home, was 
benig devastated by an enemy but little less savage than 
thor-o who were the terror of lier distant county of Ken- 
tucky, and great events, brilliant, disastrous, and motnent- 

* Filson, 1784. t Butler and old inhabitnnls. 


ous, were rapidly occurring and shaping the destiny of a 
nation, of whose future greatness no mind was so daring 
as to dream. 

Lexington was founded in the midst of a mighty revo- 
lution, and her founder was a man suited to the time and 
born for the purpose. Col. Robert Patterson was of Irish 
parentage, and was born March 15, 1753, near Cove Moun- 
tain, Pennsylvania. He came to Kentucky in 1775, and 
settled at Harrodsburg, and in that year, as we have already 
related, he visited Fayette county. In 1776, he assisted in 
building a fort at Georgetown. During the years which 
intervened between this time and the settlement of Lexing- 
ton, he figured conspicuously as a gallant Indian tighter. 
As Captain Patterson, he served under Clark in his expe- 
dition against the Shawanese, on the Little Miami. He 
was promoted to a colonelcy for important services, and 
was second in command in the terrible battle of Blue Licks. 
He was badly wounded in 1786, while with General Logan, 
in his expedition against the Shawanese towns. Subse- 
quently, he became the owner of a third of the original 
town plot of Cincinnati, and may be called the founder of 
that city also. In 1783, Col. Patterson built him a log 
house, on the southwest corner of Hill and Lower streets, 
near or on the site of the present residence of S. T. Hayes. 
The large tract of land owned by Col. Patterson in that 
part of the city, included the present property of M. C. 
Johnson. The log house was, in course of time, succeeded 
by a substantial two-story stone one, which stood there for 
many years. In 1804, Col. Patterson removed to Dayton, 
Ohio, where he died, August 5, 1827. In person. Col. Pat- 
terson was tall and handsome. He was gifted with a fine 
mind, but like Boone, Kenton, and many others of his 
simple-hearted pioneer companions, was indulgent and neg- 
ligent in business matters, and, like them, lost most of his 
extensive landed property by shrewd rascals. 

Those who aided Col. Patterson in founding Lexington 
are not to be forgotten ; and of these, none are more wor- 
thy of mention than John Maxwell. He was born in Scot- 
land, in 1747, and was brought to America by his parents 


while in the fourth year of his age. He was one of the 
early adventurers in the wilds of Kentucky, arriving before 
a solitary station or even a cabin existed within its limits. 
In pioneer days, he owned a large part of the land now in- 
cluded in the city limits of Lexington, but, true to the old 
hunter nature, it rapidly slipped from his grasp. He and 
Sarah, his wife, were the tirst persons married within "the 
fort." John Maxwell was the first coroner of Fayette 
county; was one of the original members of Dr. Rankin's 
Presbyterian church; was one of the founders of the old 
St. Andrew's Society, and from him "Maxwell's spring" 
gets its name. This useful and greatly respected citizen 
died in 1819, and was buried in what was then "Maxwell's 
Graveyard," but which now forms part of the neglected 
old City Cemetery, on Bolivar street, in which stands the 
"Mission Church." 

James Masterson, after whom "Masterson's station," five 
miles west of this city was named, was a genuine specimen of 
the pioneer type. He was straight as an Indian, and de- 
voted to the woods and the excitements ot a woodman's 
life. Long after Lexington had become an important town, 
he continued to dress in the primitive hunter style, and in- 
variably wore his powder-horn and carried his rifle. He 
loved to tell of the dangers which threatened " the fort" 
when he was married in it, and the number of deer and 
buffalo he had killed between it and the present " Ash- 
land."* His walking ability and powers of endurance 
may be inferred, from the fact that he undertook to go to 
a point considerably below the falls of the Ohio and return, 
in " a day or so," with a big bag ot salt. He returned in 
the time specified with the bag of salt on his back. It 
was the first used in the fbrt,t and was welcomed with a 
shout. He lived to a green old age. 

The McConnells and Lindsays were among the first ad- 
venturers who followed Boone out into "the wilderness." 
They assisted Col. Patterson in several dangerous enter- 
prises, and shared iu the perils of the Blue Licks disaster. 

♦ McCuUough, S. D. t McCubo. 


William McConnell established "McCoimell's station," at 
"Eoyal's spring," in 1783, but it was soon merged in Lex- 
ington station. McConnell's station stood on the ground 
lately occupied by Headley's distillery,* on the old Frank- 
fort road, and the fine spring there ("Koyal's") was, at an 
early day, the favorite resort of the people of Lexington 
on public occasions. Alexander, the brother of William 
McConnell, was the hero of the thrilling adventure nar- 
rated in another chapter, in which he proved himself, un- 
aided, a match for five Indians. The McConnells and 
Lindsays were buried in the " Station Graveyard," opposite 
the present Lexington Cemetery. The wife of Major Mor- 
rison, ah'eady mentioned was the first white female that set- 
tled in " the fort," and her son, Capt. John Morrison, who 
fell at Dudley's defeat, in 1813, was the first native of Lex- 

One of the results of the increased immigration to Ken- 
tucky, in the fall of 1779, was a settlement, made at a point 
about five miles northeast of the Lexington "fort," and 
known as " Bryant's station."^ The immigrants were 
principally from I^lorth Carolina, the most conspicuous of 
whom were the family of Bryants, from whom the place 
took its name. There were four brothers, viz.: Morgan, 
James, William, and Joseph, all respectable men, in easy 
circumstances, with large families of children, and mostly 
grown. William, though not the eldest brother, was the 
most active, and considered their leader. His wife Avas a 
sister of Col. Daniel Boone, as was also the wife of Mr. 
William Grant, who likewise settled in Bryant's station, in 
1779. The death of William Bryant, who died of a wound 
received near the mouth of Cane run, so discouraged his 
friends that they returned to North Carolina, and the 
greater part of the population from that State left the fort 
about the same time, which would have so reduced the 
strength, as to compel the remainder also to remove, if the 
fort had not acquired new strength, in a number of families 
from Virginia. Kobert Johnson (the father of the lion. 

*F. McCallio. tMcCabe. page 6. Jliradford's Notes. 


Richard M. Johnson), the Craigs, Stuckcrs, Hendersons, and 
Mitcliells were among the number who removed to Bry- 
ant's station, and kept up the strength of the place at 
what it had been, if not greater than at any former period. 

A buffalo " trace" fortunately ran from this station close 
to Lexington, and the settlers of both places joined forces 
in clearing it of logs, undergrowth, and other obstructions ; 
a wise measure, as subsequent events proved, for, owing to 
it, the troops from Lexington that went to the assistance 
of the besieged station, in 1782, were enabled to reach it 
much sooner than they could otherwise have done. 

One day, late in September, 1779, a little caravan of 
armed and watchful hunters, leading their loaded and tired 
pack-horses, stopped for a night's rest at Lexington fort. 
They were all up and moving bright and early the next 
morning, and before the week closed had established Grant's 
station, in what is now called the Huffman, Ingels, and 
Hardesty neighborhood, five miles irom Bryant's, in the 
direction of the present town of Paris. The settlement 
was made under the direction and leadership of Col. John 
Grant, of North Carolina, and Capt. William Ellis, a native 
of Spottsylvania county, Virginia, and grandfather of 
Mrs. John Carty, of Lexington. The station was, subse- 
quently, greatly harassed by the Indians; in 1780, they 
made pioneer life such a burden to the settlers, that they 
returned to Virginia. Capt. Ellis entered the Continental 
army, and commanded a company until the close of the 
Revolutionary war, when he and Col. Grant came again 
to Kentucky, and Col. Grant settled permanently at 
the old station. Capt. Ellis, Timothy and James Parrish, 
and a number of other Virginians, settled a fertile tract 
of country on the head waters of Boone's creek, in Eay- 
ette county, near their old neighbor from Spottsylvania, 
the Rev. Lewis Craig, the most prominent of the early 
Baptist preachers in Kentucky. In 1786, Capt. Ellis mar- 
ried Elizabeth Shipp. Subsequently, he was with St. Clair 
in the terrible " defeat," of November 4, 1791. After arriv- 
ing at an advanced age, the old pioneer died, and was buried 
in the county he had helped to settle. lie was a man of great 


energy, liberality, and hospitality. The strength of his 
mind and the integrity of his character gained for him 
the respect and esteem of all who knew him. 

With the building of "the fort," at Lexington, came 
also the cutting of the cane, the girdling of the trees, and 
the opening of the land for cultivation ; and civilization 
had never before demanded the sacrifice of the primeval 
glories and wild beauties of such a region as that of which 
Lexington was the center. Boone styled Kentucky " a 
second paradise," and if its general characteristics merited 
such a eulogy, what must have been the virgin charms of 
the country around Lexington, which is conceded by all to 
be the finest in the State. John Filson, the biographer of 
Boone, and who was himself one of the early settlers and 
residents of Lexington, refers to it as the most luxuriant 
portion of "the most extraordinary country on which the 
sun has ever shone." The black and deep vegetable mold, 
which had been accumulating for untold centuries, made it 
" a hot-bed of fertility," and an early traveler says of it,* 
"in the spring no leaves are found under the trees, for the 
ground is so rich and damp that they rot and disappear 
during the winter." It was in such a soil as this that the 
founders of our city raised their first crop of corn, the 
only grain cultivated at that time. The surrounding for- 
ests abounded in game, and it was an unusual thing for the 
fort not to be well stocked with the meat of the deer, buf- 
falo, bear, elk, and minor animals. The thick canebrakes, 
though the chosen retreat of the panther and the wildcat, 
were thronged with birds prized by the hunters. Provender 
for the horses and cattle was not wanting. They waded, up 
to their knees, in native clover; they reveled in waving 
oceans of wild rye and buft'alo grass, and grew fat upon 
the young shoots of the nourishing cane. The earth 
glowed with the beauty of numberless natural flowers, 
many of which are now rarely, if ever, seen here. Lilies, 
daisies, pinks, wild tulips, and columbines delighted the eye; 
beds of sweet violets and fragrant wild hyaeiuths perfumed 

•American Museum. 


the air, and the brilliant cardinal flower and the admired 
crown imperial grew spontaneously here, in greater beauty 
than in any other part of the world.* A scene of wild 
and picturesque loveliness, such as is rarely accorded to men, 
must have greeted the eyes of the settlers of Lexington ; 
and it had not lost all of its natural charms, even as late as 
1794, when visited by Captain Imlay, an officer of the 
Revolutionary army, if his florid language is an indication. 
He says, " Lexington is nearly central of the finest and 
most luxuriant country, perhaps, on earth. Here, an eter- 
nal verdure reigns, and the brilliant sun, piercing through 
the azure heavens, produces in this prolific soil an early 
maturity, which is truly astonishing. Flowers, full and 
perfect as if they had been cultivated by the hand of a 
florist, with all their captivating odors, and with all the 
variegated charms which color and nature can produce, 
here, in the lap of elegance and beauty, decorate the smil- 
ing groves. Soft zephyrs gently breathe on sweets, and 
the inhaled air gives a voluptuous glow of health and 
vigor, that seems to ravish the intoxicated senses. The 
sweet songsters of the forest appear to feel the influence of 
the genial clime, and in more soft and modulated tones, 
warble their tender notes, in unison with love and nature. 
Everything here gives delight, and in that wild eflulgency 
which beams around us, we feel a glow of gratitude for 
the elevation which our all-bountiful Creator has bestowed 
upoti us." 

Fortunately for the settlers at Lexington, the winter suc- 
ceeding their arrival was a peaceful one,t and they took 
advantage of it. They strengthened the fort and increased 
its comforts, with the wise design of attracting settlers, 
and their efibrts were rewarded. 

*Inilay. tCollins, page 388. 



The Indians — John and Levi Todd — Life in the Fort — Inci- 
dents and Tragedies — A Terrible Winter — Fayette County 
Formed — Early Cemeteries — First Schools — Transylvania 
University — Its Origin — Incidents — George Nicholas — Pres- 
idents Moore, Ely the, Holley, Woods, Peers, Coit, Davidson, 
Bascom, Green — Professors of the Academical, Medical, 
and Law Colleges — Fires, Buildings, Donations, Sectarian 
Contention — James Morrison, Peter, Hunt, and others — 
Normal School — Decline of the University — Consolidation 
— Kentucky University — Origin — Removal to Lexington — 
Regent Boivman — Organization of Various Colleges — Presi- 
dents, Professors, and Officers, Milligan, Johnson, Harrison, 
Gratz, Beck, and others. 

The spring which succeeded the peaceful winter of 1780 
as usual brought with it the Indians, small parties of whom 
almost constantly watched the traces leading to Lexington 
station, and the settlers were frequently fired upon. At 
this time game, and particularly the butFalo, was the chief 
dependence of the garrison for food, bread being a rare 
luxury until corn was fit to make meal of; and in order to 
get the much-needed game, and at the same time escape 
the Indians, the hunters found it necessary to start early 
enough to get out in the woods three or four miles before 
day, and on their return, to travel a like distance after 

Colonel John and Levi Todd came to Lexington this 
year, where the}' had located large tracts of land some time 
before. Colonel Todd was at this time military governor 

*Bradford's Notes. 

1780.] LIFE IN THE FORT. 33 

of Illinois, and although he settled his newlj" married wife 
in the fort here, he was soon compelled to leave her, to at- 
tended to the affairs of that new county of Virij;-iMia. He 
managed, however, to pass a good part of his time at Lex- 
ington, and in 1781, made it his permanent home, and was 
one of its most prominent and highly esteemed citizens. 
He commanded the Lexington militia in the battle of the 
Blue Licks, 1782, and died gallantly fighting at their head, 
leaving his wife and one child (a daughter), who afterward 
became the wife of Robert Wicklift'e, Sen.* 

Levi Todd came from Virginia to Harrodsburg, in 1775, 
and some years after attempted to settle a station in Fay- 
ette county, but being compelled by the Indians to aban- 
don it, he came to Lexington. He was the first county 
clerk of Fayette; represented her in conventions and in 
the legislature, and was long one of her most useful and 
respected citizens. f 

Life in the fort in 1780 was more picturesque than easy 
and delightful. The men "by tnrns " stood guard, and 
kept up a sharp lookout for the enemy ; while those off 
guard risked their lives in hunting to supply the garrison 
with food, cleared the land, planted, plowed, brought in 
the cows, and did mending, patching, and all manner of 
work. The women milked the cows, cooked the mess, pre- 
pared the flax, spun, wove, and made the garment of linen 
or linsey, and when corn could be had, ground it into meal 
at the hand-mill, or pounded it into hominy in the mortar. 
Wild game w^as the principal food, and that was eaten 
most of the time without salt, which w^as seldom made at 
the "licks" without loss of life. Sugar was made from 
the mai)le trees, coffee was unknown, but fine milk sup- 
plied its place as long as the lutlians spared the cows. 

Wooden vessels,^ either turned or coopered, were in com- 
mon use as table furniture. A tin cup was an article of 
delicate luxury, almost as rare as an iron fork. Every 
hunter carried his knife; it was no less the implement of a 
warrior. Not un frequently the rest of the family was left 

*Collin9, 536. tCollins, page 274. tMarshall. 


with bat one or two for the use of all. The cradle was a 
small rolling trough. A like workmanship composed the 
table and the stool — a slab hewn with the ax, and sticks 
of a similar manufacture set in for legs supported both. 
Buffalo and bear-skins were frequently consigned to the 
iioor for beds and covering. When the bed was by chance 
or refinement elevated above the floor and given a fixed 
place, it was often laid on slabs placed across poles, sup- 
ported on forks set in the earthen floor; or, where the floor 
was puncheons, the bedstead was hewn pieces pinned on 
upright posts, or let into them by anger holes. Other 
utensils and furniture were of a corresponding description, 
applicable to the time. The now famous Kentucky hunting- 
shirt was universally worn by the settlers. It was made 
either of linsey or dressed deerskin, and provided with a 
pocket in the bosom for tow used in cleaning the rifle. 
Every hunter carried a tomahawk and scalping-knife, wore 
deer-skin breeches, moccasins of the same material, and 
generally a bear-skin hat. The little money in circulation 
was depreciated Continental paper. 

The spring of 1780 marked the beginning of an era in 
the history of Lexington, so rich in deeds of daring, and 
so fraught with thrilling adventures, experiences of intense 
suffering, and incidents of danger and of blood as to rival 
in romantic interest the days of Wallace, or the times of 
the hunted Huguenots. Could a record of all the forgotten 
events of this eventful period be gathered and combined 
with those that are preserved, Lexington, and the region 
round about it, would in time become as favorite a theme 
for the poet and the novelist as are now some of the story- 
lands of the old world. 

As the spring advanced, the number of the Indians in- 
creased, and several parties of hunters pursued by them 
were compelled to take refuge in the fort. One of the set- 
tlers named Wymore, having ventured out alone, was killed 
and scalped by the Indians near where the Masonic HiU, 
on Walnut street, now stands, and another barely escaped 
a like fate near the present residence of Mr. F. K. Hunt, 


where he had been waylaid by an Indian, who was quietly 
awaiting his chance to slay him. He discovered his foe 
barely in time to save his life; shot him just as he was 
preparing to throw his tomahawk, and carried his reeking 
scalp in triumph to the station.* One of the saddest trag- 
edies of the year took place about the first of May. A 
very young man, brave as he was handsome, and greatly 
beloved by the settlers, was mortally wounded by a band of 
the savages, who fired upon him while he was driving up 
the cows, and pursued him nearly to the fort. He staggered 
up to the gate, which a pitying and courageous woman 
who loved him unbarred with her own hands, and covered 
with blood, he died a few minutes after, clasped in her last 
fond embrace.f Closely following this was the attack on 
Strode's station, near the present town of Winchester, by 
a large body of Indians,! and the news of this event in- 
creased the gloom at Lexington, caused by anxiety and an- 
ticipations of evil. These forebodings were not without 
foundation, and were only providentially kept from being 
realized. Suddenly, in June, the settlers discovered the 
woods about the station swarming with Indians, who de- 
stroyed their corn, drove off' all the horses that were not 
hurriedly sheltered within the walls of the fort, and then 
without doing further damage, disappeared as quicklj'^ as 
they had come. The astonishment of the alarmed garri- 
son at this unaccountable proceeding was increased ten-fold 
on hearing faint but unmistakable reports of distant artil- 
lerj^ the first sounds of that kind which had ever awak- 
ened the echoes of the dark and bloody ground. Anxious 
but determined, the little force remained closely within the 
stockades, with ready rifles, watching and wondering day 
and night until all was explained, and the dark cloud lifted 
by the arrival, foot sore and hungry, of the brave Captain 
John Hinkston, who had just escaped from the retreating 
Indians, who constituted a large part of the formidable 
force under Colonel Byrd, during this, his celebrated inva- 
sion of Kentucky. Captain Hinkston gave the settlers the 

*01d Journal. tTradition. JOollins, 234. 


first news of the capture of Ruddell's and Martin's sta- 
tions,* both of which were distant only a few hours march 
from Lexington. The discouraged inmates of Grant's sta- 
tion, which was between Bryant's and the present town of 
Paris, dreading a like fate, abandoned it and sought refuge 
in the more secure fort at Lexington, where some of them 
remained during the winter. But the immediate danger 
was now over. Colonel Byrd, either from disgust and in- 
dignation at the barbarous conduct of his savage allies, or 
through fear of the sudden falling of the waters of the 
Licking, hastily retreated without an attempt at the capture 
of Lexington and Bryant's stations, though strongly urged 
by the elated Indians to move against them.f The eifect 
of this invasion was the rapid formation of another expe- 
dition of retaliation by the Indian's dreaded foe, Colonel 
G. Rogers Clarke, who again swooped down upon them 
like an eagle. Lexington was largely represented in thia 
campaign, which was made against the Indians of Ohio. 
It was secret, short, and so decisive, that no large bodies of 
the enemy invaded Kentucky during the whole of the next 

The hardships and sufte rings of the Puritans, in the two 
first years of the Plymouth settlement, were not greater than 
those of the founders of Lexington for a like period in her 
infancy. To the wearing anxieties, constant alarms, and 
bloody afflictions, endured by the inmates of the fort, must 
be added the privations of the terrible winter which fol- 
lowed Byrd's invasion.| It was a season not only of intense 
sufferings, but of protracted sufiering. The pioneers had 
never known a winter in Kentucky to set in so early, and 
to continue so long. Snow and ice were on the ground 
without a thaw from November to the succeeding March. 
The small streams were solid ice. Snow fell repeatedly, 
but as it did not melt it became almost impassible for man 
or beast, and it was only with the greatest difficulty that the 
hunters were able to find such of the wild animals as had 
not been starved or frozen to death. § As the corn had been 

^Collins, 343. fid. 342. JBoones Nar. §Marshall. 


destroyed in the summer, bread was rarely seen in the fort, 
and when it was, a single johntiie-cake was divided into a 
dozen parts, diritribiited and made to serve for two meals.* 
The use of bread ceased entirely, long before the winter was 
oyer. On one occasion when Colonel Todd returned to the 
fort almost famished, the provisions were so nearly exhausted 
that his wife could offer him nothing but a gill of milk and 
a little piece of hard bread two inches square, and this was 
turned over in silence to his starving servant.f The cattle, 
after starving to death for want of fodder, were devoured by 
the inmates of the station, and from the time the cattle died 
until spring the settlers subsisted upon venison carefully dis- 
tributed, and water; clothing was insufficient, the roughly- 
built cabins let in the piercing cold, and the firewood was 
chopped from trees incased in walls of snow and ice. Freez- 
ing and starving — such was the condition of the heroic 
settlers of Lexington, througli this long and fearful winter 
of suffering. 

Ill the month of November of this j^ear (1780), Virginia 
formed Kentucky county into a district, composed of the 
three counties of Faj^ette, Lincoln, and Jefferson.J The 
new county of Fayette was given the name of that dis- 
tinguished friend of Washington, General Gilbert Mortier 
de La Fayette, and was defined as " all that part of the said 
county of Kentucky which lies north of the line, beginning 
at the mouth of the Kentucky river, and up the same and 
its middle fork to the head, and thence south to the Wash- 
ington line-"|j Fayette then included more than a third of 
the present State of Kentucky, and since that time she has 
enjoyed the proud distinction of being the mother of great 
counties and populous cities, and her sons have helped to 
lay the foundations of many of the emjiire states of the 
mighty West. The organization of the county was not 
completed until the next year (1781). § 

The settlers killed by tlie Indians, in the summer of 1780, 
were sadly and reverently carried, by an armed band of 

»Davidsou, 62. tCollins, 536. JCollins, 24. ||Marshull, gButler. 


their surviving companions, along the cow-path which ex 
tended by the side of the fort, on to what the garrison called 
the "first hill," now known as the Baptist churchyard, on 
Main street.* A small space on this hill was cleared of 
cane, and here, after a silent prayer, the earliest settlers of 
Lexington were buried. This ground was afterward set 
aside by the trustees of the town for religious purposes.f 
This was the first cemetery used, and was for a long time 
the only one. During the fatal cholera season of 1833, when 
the citizens of Lexington were swept off by the hundreds, 
tier upon tier of bodies were buried in this graveyard, and 
it ceased to be used after that terrible time. The next 
earliest graveyard established was that of the McConnells, 
opposite the present Lexington cemetery, and between 
Main street and the track of the Louisville, Lexington and 
Cincinnati Eailroad, and there many of the pioneers of the 
city and county rest in obliterated graves. The Maxwell 
burying-ground, on Bolivar street, was used shortly after 
that of the McConnells. In 1834, the city bought the 
ground adjoining the Maxwell graveyard, and the two were 
merged in what is now called the "Old City Graveyard." 
Here the mother of John Maxwell was buried in 1804, his 
wife in 1811, and the old pioneer himself in 1819. In this 
neglected spot the ancient tablets are broken and crumbling, 
and upon one of them can scarcely be made out the in- 
scription : 

John Maxwell, sr., 

Died July 13tli, 1819. 

Aged 72 years. 

Emigrated from Scotland to the United States in 1751, and to 

the wilds of Kentucky in 1774. 

The Catholic cemetery, on Winchester street, was conse- 
crated about forty years ago. Dr. Samuel Brown, Judge 
Hickey, Annie Spalding, the first superioress of St. Catha- 
rine's Academy, are among the sleepers in this last resting 
place. The Episcopal cemetery had its origin in 1837. Many 
prominent persons are buried there, and there are few Lex- 

*01d Journals. tCity Records. 

1780.] FIRST SCHOOLS. 39 

iiigton families that have not a sad interest in its sacred 
ground. The same can be said of the Presbyterian burying- 
ground established shortly after the last mentioned. The 
large trees which now throw so grateful a shade over it, owe 
their presence to the mournful interest of Dr. Daniel Drake, 
whose wife was buried there. lie raised the means to pay 
both for the trees and their planting. For history of Lex- 
ington cemetery, see year 1849. 

The history of education, in Lexington, dates from the 
commencement of the city itself; and the germ of that 
which afterward made her the literary and intellectual 
center of the state was laid with her foundation. Because 
the settlers of Lexington were out on "the frontier," because 
their life was one of hardships, and because their rude huts 
were destitute of costly adornments, did not prevent many 
of them from being what they certainly were, men of cul- 
ture, education, and refinement, and endowed with all the 
ease and polished manners of the best society of Virginia? 
North Carolina, and Pennsylvania. The fort had its little 
school as early as 1780, taught by John McKinney, who 
had settled at Lexington the year before, at the solicitation 
of Colonel Patterson ; and Transylvania Seminary, which 
was subsequently located here, was chartered by the legisla- 
ture of Virginia the same year. After the close of the 
Revolutionary war, when the British and Indians ceased to 
annoy and distress the settlers, McKinney moved out of the 
fort, and taught in a log school -house, erected on tlje site of 
the pump on the present Cheapside.* It was in this house 
that his famous fight with the wildcat took place, an ac- 
count of which will be found in the chapter on 1783. The 
tirst trustees of the town took an early op[)ortunity to lay off 
and reserve ground for "Latin and English schools,'"f and 
this encouragement brought to Lexington, in 1787,| Mr. 
Isaac Wilson, of Philadelphia College, who established the 
"Lexington Grammar School." He informs the citizens, 
in his advertisement, that " Latin, Greek, and the different 
branches of science will be carefully taught. Price of 

*^cCiibe, 9. tCity Records. |01d Ga/.ette. 


tuition four pounds, payable in cash or produce, and board- 
ing on as reasonable terms as any in the district." The fol- 
lowing spring "John Davenport" opened in what was then 
known as Captain Young's house, which stood on part of 
theground now occupied by Jordan's Row,* the first dancing 
school Lexington ever had, and from that day to this the 
saltatory art has had a host of admirers in this city. In 
1788, Transylvania Seminary was opened in Lexington, 
and from this day forward schools accumulated, and the love 
of literature grew, gaining for the city an enviable fame 
throughout the country. 

Transylvania University was the first regular institution 
of learning founded in the mighty West. The influence it 
has exerted, both morally and intellectually, has been im- 
mense, and its name is not only venerated and respected in 
all civilized America, but is well known in Europe. Its 
history begins with the history of Lexington, and its estab- 
lishment has been attributed to the enlightened exertions 
of Colonel John Todd, then a delegate from the county of 
Kentucky in the Virginia General Assembly — the same 
Colonel Todd who soon afterward fell at the disastrous 
battle of Blue Licks. In 1780, nearly twelve years before 
Kentucky became a member of the Union, the legislature 
of Virginia passed a law to vest eight thousand acres of 
escheated lands, formerly belonging to British subjects, in 
the county of Kentucky, in trustees for a public school ; in 
order, says the preamble of the bill, " to promote the diffu- 
sion of useful knowledge even among its remote citizens, 
whose situation in a barbarous neighborhood and savaare 
intercourse might otherwise render unfriendly to science. "f 

In 1783, the school was incorporated, and styled Tran- 
sylvania Seminary; the name "Transylvania" — a classical 
rendering of "the backwoods" — being the same that Co- 
onel Richard Henderson & Co. applied to the proprietary 
government they attempted to establish in Kentucky, in 
1775, regardless of the authority of Virginia. The teach- 
ers and pupils were exempt from military service. At the 

*McCabe, 8. fActs Virginui Assembly. 


time of its incorporation, the seminary was endowed with 
twelve thonsand additional acres of hmd. 

Alter Kentucky was erected into a state, laws were 
passed exempting lands from escheat, the eft'ect of which 
was to deprive Transylvania Seminary of all the escheated 
lands with which she had been endowed by the State of 
Virginia, except eight thousand acres, from the sale of 
which she received thirty thousand dollars. This sum of 
money was afterward invested in the stock of the Bank 
of Kentucky. The legislature repealed the charter of that 
bank, by which a loss is alleged to have been subsequently 
sustained by the "university" of twenty thonsand di)llars. 

Tlie trustees of the seminary met at Crow's station, in 
Lincoln county, November 10, 1783, when the Rev. David 
Rice was elected cliairnian, and the enterprise was en- 
couraged by the donation of a library (the nucleus of the 
present one), from the Rev. John Todd, the first Professor 
of Sacred Literature in the seminary, and uncle of the 
above-named Colonel Todd. 

In February, 1785, the seminary was opened, in the 
house of Mr. Rice, near Danville, and that gentleman be- 
came its first teacher, the endowment being too unproduct- 
ive to afford more than a scanty salary for one professor. 
" Old Father Rice," who was one of the very first pioneer 
Presbyti'rian ministers who emigrated to Kentucky, was 
born in Hanover county, Virginia, December 20, 1733, and 
was educated at "Nassau Hall," now Princeton College. 
He was ordained in 1763, and came to Kentucky in 1783. 
He was largely instrumental in raising up both Transyl- 
vania Seminary and its subsequent rival, Kentucky Acad- 
emy. After a long life of ministerial usefulness, he died, 
June 18, 1816, in Green county, Kentucky.* 

In 1787, Virginia further endowed the seminary with 
one-sixth of the surveyor's fees in the District of Kentucky, 
formerly given to "William and Mary College. This law 
was repealed by the legislature of Kentucky in 1802. 

In 1788, the school w^as located in Lexington. " Tuition, 



five pounds a year, one-half cash, the other in pj'operty. 
Boardino^, nine pounds a year, in property, pork, corn, to- 
bacco, etc." John Filson, to whom Daniel Boone dictated 
a memoir of his life, was a zealous friend and advocate of 
the school. Being a northern man, he favored the em- 
ployment of teachers from that section, which caused a 
correspondent of the old Kentucky Gazette to ask hiru the 
vevy sensible question : " What peculiar charm have 
northern teachers to inspire virtue and suppress vice that 
southern teachers do not possess?"* 

The first building used by Transylvania Seminary, in 
Lexington, was a plain two-story brick one. It stood on the 
north end of the "college lawn," facing Second street, and 
with the present Third street in its rear. The lot on which 
it was erected, was donatedf by a number of citizens of 
Lexington, who were anxious to have the school in their 
midst. Isaac Wilson, of Philadelphia, was a teacher in 
the seminary at this time. 

Another teacher was added t > the seminary upon its 
removal to Lexington, its course was extended, and nothing 
occurred to mar its prosperity until 1794, when the trustees, 
with John Bradford as chairman, elected as principal 
Harry Toulnim, a talented Baptist minister, with strong 
inclinations to the priestly school of theology, and who 
subsequently became secretary of state under Governor 
Garrard. Sectarian jealousy was at once developed. The 
Baptists claimed equal rights in the seminary, as a state 
institution. The Presbyterians claimed control, on the 
ground that its endowment was due to their exertions, and 
they finally withdrew their patronage from the school, and, 
in 1796, established and supported " Kentucky Academy," 
at Pisgah, near Lexington. 

Fortunately, the troubles between the rival institutions 
were adjusted, and, in 1798, both schools were merged in 
one, under the name of "Transylvania University," with 
Lexington as its seat. But one department of the univer- 
sity, the academical, was in existence in 1798. The first 

*01d Gazette. tPresidcnt's Report. 


president of the united institutions was the Rev. James 
Monre,* noticed at length in the chapter, in this volume, 
on ('hvist Church. His colleagues were the Rev. Robert 
Stuart and the Rev. James Blythe. 

In 1709, the institution was given the appearance of a 
regular university, by the addition of law and medical de- 

Colonel George Nicholas,! who became the first profes- 
sor in the law dejiartment, was an eminent lawyer of Vir- 
ginia, who had served as colonel in the Revolutionary war, 
and came to Kentucky at an early day. He was an influ- 
ent'al member of the Virginia Convention which ado[)tcd 
the Federal constitution, and was one of the most promi- 
nent spirits in the convention which framed the first con- 
stitution of Kentucky. This able man, whose statesman- 
ship* was long prominent in this commonwealth, was for 
many years a citizen of Lexington. His residence was on 
the site of the present Sayre Institute. He died at about 
the age of fifty-five, shortly after he accepted the law pro- 
fessorship in Transylvania University. 

Colonel Nicholas was succeeded in the chair of law by 
Henry Clay, James Brown, John Pope, and William T. 
Barry (of whom see biographical sketches in this volume). 
In 1819, when Dr. Holley became president of the univer- 
sity, the law college was regularly organized with three 
professors, and it soon attained a reputation co-extensive 
with the country, and no similar college in the United 
States was considered its superior in reputation, the ability 
of its teachers, and the number of its students. Its law 
society was noted. Its library, donated by the city of Lex- 
ington, was, at that time, the best one of the kind in the 
West. The following professors have adorned the law 
department since the incumbency of those already named, 
viz: Jesse Bledsoe, John Boyle, Daniel Mayer, Charles 
Humphreys, George Robertson, Thomas A. Marshall, and 
A. K. Woolley. (See biograpical sketches in this book.) 

Tlie earliest professor of medicine in Transylvania and 

♦Davidson. tCollins. 


ill the West was the distino^uislied Dr. Samuel Brown,* 
who was born, January 30, 1769, and was a son of the Rev. 
John Brown, and Margaret, his wife, residents of Rock- 
bridge county, Virginia. After graduating at Carhsle Col- 
lege (Pa.), he spent two years studying medicine in Edia- 
burg, after which he removed to Lexington. He was pro- 
fessor of medicine in the university until 1806, when he 
resigned, but was again appointed in 1819. He died in 
Huutsville, Alabama, January 12, 1830. Dr. Brown was a 
man of unusual learning and scientific attainments. 

His name appears among those of the contributors to 
the American Philosophical Transactions, and to the med- 
ical and scientific periodicals of the day, in this country 
and in Europe. He is specially noted as the first introducer 
of vaccination into the United States.f 

The first place where medical instruction is believed to 
have been given to students, in Lexington, was in the orig- 
inal old University building. 

Dr. Frederick Riilgely, who was appointed a medical 
professor very shortly after Dr. Brown, was the first who 
tauglit medicine by lectures in the West. He was appointed 
surgeon to a Virginia rifie corps in the Revolutionary army, 
when nineteen years old, removed to Kentucky in 1780, 
was one of the foumlers of the medical college, and was 
one ot the early preceptors of the distinguished surgeon, 
Dr. Ben. W. Dudley. Dr. Ridgely lectured his class at 
one time in a room in "Trotter's warehouse," which stood 
on the site of the present china store, on the corner of 
Mill and Main. 

The first president of Transylvania University, Rev. 
James Moore, was succeeded, in 1804, by Dr. James Blythe. 
Rev. James Blythe, M. D., was born in North Carolina, in 
1765, and was educated for the Presbyterian pulpit at 
Hampden- Sidney College. He came to Kentucky in 1791, 
and two years after was ordained pastor of Pisgah and 
Clear Creek churches. He continued to preach up to the 
time of his death. For six years before his accession to the 

*Annals of Transylvania University. tMichaux, 1802, 


presidency of the university, he was professor of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy, and often supplied the 
pulpit of the First Presbyterian churcii. lie was president 
for nearly fifteen years, and after his resignation, filled 
the chair of chemistry in the medical college until 18-31, 
when he accepted the presidency of Hanover College (Indi- 
ana), which prospered greatly under his charge. He was a 
faithful and animated preacher and fine debater. He died 
in 1812. 

The first academical degree was conferred in 1802. 

In the spri!ig of 1801, a party of Shawunese Indians 
placed their children at Transylvania University to be in- 

In 1805, llev. James Fishback, M. D., was appointed to 
the chair of the Theory and Practice of Medicirie. It was 
in the office of Dr. P., that Dr. Ben. Dudley studied the 
rudiments of physic. At this early period, the medical 
department met with but small success, and in 1806,* the 
professors resigned. 

An eftbrt was made to organize a full faculty and estab- 
lish a medical school in our university, in the year 1809. 
Dr. B. W. Dudley was appointed to the chair of Anatomy 
and Surgery; Dr. Elisha Warfield, to that of Surgery and 
Obstetrics; the noted Joseph Buchanan, referred to in an- 
other chapter, to that of the Institutes of Medicine, and 
Dr. James Overton, to that of the Theory and Practice of 

It does not appear, however, that any lectures were de- 
livered at this time. In 1815, Dr. William H. Richardson 
was added to the medical faculty, and his connection with 
the school continued until his death in 1835, Dr. Daniel 
Drake was appointed to the chair of Materia Mcdica in 
1817. Dr. Drake resigned in a short time, and afterward 
became a professor in the Cincinnati Medical College. He 
died in 1852. The class of 1817 numbered twenty pupils. 

The degree of M. D. was conferred, at the end of this 
course, in 1818, for the first time in the West, perhaps, on a 

*Dr. Peters' Lecture. 


citizen of Lexington, one of this class, John Lawson 
McCullough, brother of our worthy fellow-citizen, Samuel 
D. McCullough.* 

In 1817, a large and handsome college building was 
erected in the college lawn and in front of the old edilice. 
The house and lot known as the Blythe property was bought 
and donated to the university by a number of liberal gen- 
tlemen, Mr. Clay being among the number. The grounds 
of the institution were beautified with trees, flowers, and 
shrubbery, and a determined eftbrt was made to great!}'^ in- 
crease the usefulness of the university. The trustees of 
the institution and the citizens of Lexington labored to- 
gether in the work of its up-building, and Dr. Horace Hol- 
ley, then of Boston, was invited to the presidency, which 
he accepted, and was inducted into office, December 19, 
1818, and voted a salary of three thousand dollars. 

Dr. Holley, the third president of Transylvania Univer- 
sity, was born in Salisbury, Connecticut, February 13, ITSl.f 
He assisted in the store of his father (who was a self- 
taught and self-made man) until he was sixteen, when he 
was sent to Yale College, where he graduated, in 1803, with 
a high reputation for talents and learning. Soon after, he 
studied theology with Dr. Dwight, and, in 1809, accepted 
the pastorate of the Hollis-street church, in Boston, and 
such was his popularity that a larger and more elegant 
edifice was soon rendered necessary. In this charge he re- 
mained nine years, greatly admired and beloved. To a re- 
markably tine person was added fascinating manners and 
brilliant oratory. His eloquence may he inferred from the 
fact that, during one of his sermons delivered before the 
ancient artillery company of Boston, he extorted a noisy 
demonstration of applause, the only instance known of a 
staid New England audience being betrayed into forgetful- 
ness of their wonted propriety.^ 

Dr. Holley was welcomed to Lexington with the most 
flattering attentions, and immediately set to work to make 
the university a success. The institution was at once thor- 

♦Peters' Lecture. tCaldwell's Memoir. jPierpont. 


onglily reorganized, and the medical school in particuhir 
dates its astonishing progress from this time, when the 
eminent surgeon, Dr. B. W. Dudley, the apostle of phre- 
nology in the West, Dr. Charles Caldwell, and the learned 
antiquarian. Dr. C. S. liatinesque, were called to its chairs. 
These gentlemen are specially mentioned in other chapters 
of this hook. At this time, lectures were delivered to the 
medical class in a large room in the upper story of a then 
tavern huilding, on Short street, between Upper and Market, 
now occupied by banks. 

The events which took place during Dr. Ilolley's presi- 
dency are full of interest. 

In the year 1819, the legislature of Kentucky appropri- 
ated the bonus of the Farmers and Mechanics' Bank at 
Lexington, for two years, to the use and benefit of Tran- 
sylvania University, which amounted to the sum of $3,000. 
In 1820 the sum of $5,000 was appropriated to the medical 

In the year 1821, an act was passed appropriating one- 
half of the clear profits of the Branch Bank ot the Com- 
monwealth of Kentucky at Lexington to the university, 
from which it is stated the sum of $20,000, in the paper 
of the said bank, was received — equal to $10,000 in specie 
— and there was a grant of twenty thousand dollars from 
the state treasury in 1824. All ot which suras of money 
were expended in the purchase of books, philosophical ap- 
paratus, and in the payment of the debts of the institution. 

There was probably no college library in the United 
States superior to that of Transylvania University in 1825. 
In addition to the books purchased through the liberality 
of Lexington and the State, the library had been enriched 
by a handsome donation from the British government, and 
by contributions from many private individuals, among 
whom may be named Edward Everett, who presented a 
collection of line classical works which he had personally 
selected in Europe. The medical library selected by Pro- 
fessor Caldwell, in France and England, was the best in the 
country at that time. The university was visited by Pres- 


ident Monroe, General Jackson, Governor Shelby, and 
others, in 1819. In 1825 it was visited by Marquis de La- 
fayette, at which time it was the center of attraction in the 
entire West to all scholars and eminent characters, both 
native and foreio;n. About this time, also, Lord Stanley, 
afterward Earl of Derby, made a personal examination of 
the institution. At the time of his visit, Judge Barry, one 
of the law professors, was absent. Dr. Hoi ley, in addition 
to his regular duties, temporarily filled the judge's chair, 
and lectured the class before the distinguished visitor, on 
the subject of the similarity of the governments of the 
United States and England as regards the responsibility of 
public agents to the people.* 

The rise and prosperity of the medical college of the 
university was remarkable. In 1818, the class numbered 
twenty, with one graduate, and in 1826, it numbered two 
hundred and eighty-one, with fifty-three graduates. f In 
1827, the medical college had attained such a position and 
celebrity as to be regarded as second only to the University 
of Pennsylvania. It was complete in its corps of eminent 
professors, and in its magnificent library and chemical and 
anatomical apparatus. In addition to the distinguished 
men already mentioned, the following professors had been 
connected with the medical college up to 1827, and some 
of them remained in it for years after, viz: Dr. John Estin 
Cooke, of Virginia, author of the celebrated congestive 
theory of fevers; Dr. Lunsford P. Yandell, editor of the 
Transylvania Journal of Medicine, founded in 1827; Dr. 
H. H. Eaton, of New York, who greatly improved the 
chemical department, and Dr. Charles W. Short, who re- 
signed in 1838. 

In 1823, the "Morrison Professorship," in the academical 
department, was endowed and established by a bequest of 
twenty thousand dollars from Colonel James Morrison, 
of Vk^hom mention will again be made in this chapter. 

The grand design of Dr. Ilolley was to make Transyl- 
vania a genuine university, complete in every college, and 

*0b3erver and Reporter. tt!ollege Eecords. 


liberally sustained by a great endowment. Under great 
disadvantages he accomplished much of his work, but his 
own imprudent conduct and Unitarian sentiments, together 
with prejudice and sectarian animosity, prevented its coni- 
pletiou. Ilis religious opinions and his love of amuse- 
ments were unceasingly discussed and denounced by secta- 
rians, who were disappointed in obtaining control of the 
institution. Finally, a storm of opposition was raised, 
which was continued with great bitterness by ministers of 
all denominations,* until Dr. Ilolley was forced to resign 
the presidency, which he did in 1827, to the great regret 
of a majority of the citizens of Lexington, and the sorrow 
of his pupils, a large number of whom immediately left 
the university. Two facts speak volumes for Dr. Ilolley's 
administration. When he came to the university, it was 
comparative!}' little known — when he left it, it was cele- 
brated all over this country and Europe. During the six- 
teen 3^ears before he came, twenty-two students had grad- 
uated in it — in the nine years of his presidency, the insti- 
tution turned out six hundred and sixty-six graduates.f 

Immediatelj^ after his resignation. Dr. Holley was en- 
gaged as president of the College of New Orleans, and 
was meeting with the most flattering success when he was 
prostrated by fever. Upon his recovery he embarked for 
the North, in hopes that the sea air would benefit him. 
On the voyage he was seized with yellow fever, and, after 
suffering intensely for five days, he died, and on the 31st of 
July, 1827, the body of this distinguished man was com- 
mitted to the deep. The scholar's cloak was his winding 
sheet, the ocean is his grave, and the towering rocks of the 
Tortugas are his monument. 

Tiie academical department, or college of arts, of Tran- 
sylvania University was crowded with students daring Dr. 
Holley's administration. Its corps of instructors, near the 
close of his term, were : President Ilolley, Professor of 
Philolog}'', Belles-lettres, and Mental Pliilosophy; John 
Roche, l*rofessor of Greek and Latin Languages ; Rev. 

*Flint's Mississippi Valley 1826. tCaldwell's Memoir. 


George T. Chapman, Professor of History and Antiquity; 
Thomas J. Matthews, Morrison Professor of Mathematics; 
Rev. Benjamin O. Peers, Professor of Moral Philosophy. 

The resignation of Dr. Holley was a heavy blow to the 
university; but the trustees were not idle. On the 16th of 
April, 1827, the corner-stone of a new medical hall was 
laid by the Masonic fraternity, on the site of the present 
City Library, on the corner of Market and Church streets. 
The eloquent William T. Barry delivered an appropriate 
oration before the immense crowd assembled. The trustees 
of the university, at that time, were John Bradford, Thomas 
Bodley, Charles Humphreys, Benjamin Gratz, Elisha War- 
field, James Fishback, John W. Hunt, James Trotter, 
Elisha I. Winter, George T. Chapman, William Leavy, 
Charles Wilkins, and George C. Light. 

In June, 1828, the trustees called to the presidency of 
the university the Rev. Alva Woods, D. D.,* who was then 
at the head of Brown Univiversity. Dr. Woods was a 
Baptist clergyman, and the oldest child of Rev. Abel 
Woods, of Massachusetts, and had a high reputation for 
learning and liberality. He was president of Transylvania 
for but two years, when he resigned, and accepted the 
presidency of the University of Alabama. A few years ago 
he was still alive and residing at Providence, Rhode Island. 

On the night of May 9, 1829, during Dr. Woods' admin- 
istration, the principal building of the university, together 
with the law and societies' libraries, was destroyed by fire. 
The exercises of the institution were not interrupted a 
single day, nor did a solitary student leave in consequence 
of the disaster. 

The Transylvania Literary Journal, Professor T. J. Mat- 
thews, Editor, was established in 1829. 

In 1832, Dr. Robert Peter, the present able and noted 
Professor of Chemistry, became connected with the univer- 
sity, and has continued to reflect honor upon it for forty 
years. Dr. Peter was born in England, in 1 805. He is a 
graduate of the Transylvania Medical College. 

♦Observer and Keporter. 


The fifth president of Transylvania was the Rev. Benja- 
min O. Peers, an Episcopal minister, who was born in 
Loudon county, Virginia, in 1800, and brought to Kentucky 
in 1803. After graduating at Transylvania, he studied 
theology at Princeton, after which he joined the Episcopal 
Church, and located in Lexington, where he established the 
Eclectic Institute, which soon became one of the most val- 
uable educational establishments in the West. He did 
much to bring about the present common school system of 
Kentucky, for which, together with his sound learning and 
ardent piety, he will long be remembered. Mr. Peers was 
president of Transylvania about two years. He died in 
Louisville, in 1842. The assistants of President Peers, in 
tiie academical department of the university', were Profes- 
sor S. Hebard, of Amherst College, and Professor John 
Lutz, of the University of Gottingen. 

During the Peers term, the present Morrison College 
building was completed, and on the 14th of November, 
1833, it was thrown open, with appropriate inauguration 
ceremonies, at which time the oath of office was adminis- 
tered to Mr. Peers by the chairman of the university board 
of trustees. While Mr. Peers was president, a theological 
department, under the auspices of the Episcopal Church, 
was opened in the university. 

Morrison College was founded through the liberality of 
Colonel James Morrison, who was born in Cumberland 
county, Pennsylvania, in 1775, and was the son of an 
humble Irish inmiigrant. After serving in the war of the 
Revolution, he came to Kentucky, and settled in Lexington, 
in 1792. Possessed of strong sense, energy, and decision 
of character, he rapidly elevated himself. He became, in 
succession, state representative from Fayette, quartermas- 
ter-general, president of the branch of the United States 
Bank, and chairman of the board of trustees of Transyl- 
vania University. He acquired immense wealth, much of 
which he used in the promotion of letters. He died, in 
Washington, D. C, April 23, 1823. Whether he was a 
Unitarian or a Presbyterian is undecided. He bequeathed 
twenty thousand dollars to establish a professorship in 


Transylvania University, and a residuary legacy of forty 
thousand dollars, with which the present Morrison College 
edifice was established.* 

The societies flourishing in the University, in 1833, were 
the Union Philosophical, the Whig, and the Adelphi 

The public exercises of the institution, at this time, wore 
always conducted with much dignity and state. Probably 
no state governor in this country has ever been inducted 
into office with more imposing and impressive ceremonies 
than those formerly attending the inauguration of a Tran- 
sylvania president. The long procession, composed of stu- 
dents, alumni, college societies, city associations and orders, 
members of the bar, members of Congress, governor and 
stafi', banners and music, the immense crowd of eager citi- 
zens, strangers, and beautiful women, the solemn oath of 
office, delivery of university keys, address to the president 
and his reply, all made up a scene of surpassing interest 
and brilliancy. 

Among the number of those who have acted as tutors in 
the university, we find the names of Jesse Bledsoe, Daniel 
Bradford, Mann Butler, C. S. Morehead, and James Mc- 

Rev. Thomas W. Coit, D. D., another Episcopalian di- 
vine, became tVie sixth president of the university, in 1835. 
Dr. Coit came from New England, in 1834, to fill a profes- 
sorship in the Episcopal Theological Seminary, in Lexing- 
ton. He acquired some celebrity for his writings in favor 
of Trinitarianism, and for his pungent essays on the history 
of the American Puritans. He presided over Transylvania 
for nearly three years. At present, he is rector of St. 
Paul's church, Troy, New York. 

In 1837, an efiort was made by a majority of the faculty 
of the medical college, to remove it bodily to Louisville. 
They were unsuccessful, and such was the public indigna- 
tion, that the enemies of the Lexington College found it 
convenient to resign. 

^Davidson's History. 


The Medical College suffered by the treachery of pre- 
tended friends and open enemies, but it speedily recovered. 
The faculty was at once reorganized, and the following 
gentlemen were elected : 

To the chair of Anatomy and Surgery, B. W. Dudley, 
M. D., Professor, and J. M. Bush, M. D., Adjunct Professor; 
Institutes of Medicine and Medical Jurisprudence, James 
C. Cross, M. D. ; Theory and Practice of Medicine, John 
Eberle, M. D.; Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and 
Children, William H. Richardson, M. D.; Materia Medica 
and Therapeutics, Thomas D. Mitchell, M, D. ; Chemistry 
and Pharmacy, Robert Peter, M. D. 

The interest of the entire community was strongly 
awakened, and a united eflbrt made to increase the en- 
dowment of the university. In 1838-39, the city of Lex- 
ington donated S70,000 ; seventy gentlemen, incorporated 
February 20, 1839, by the name of the Transylvania Insti- 
tute, contributed §35,000, out of part of which fund the 
present dormitory building was erected; £Mid the profes- 
sors of the medical department, by private contributions, 
purchased the lot of ground on which a new medical hall 
was soon built. These gentlemen also paid, out of their 
own funds, residuary debt on that building to the amount 
of more than $15,000. 

The libraries, museums, chemical and philosophical appa- 
ratus, and the means of instruction generally, were greatly 
increased, and the university was put on a more favorable 
footing than it had ever been. The new medical hall re- 
ferred to was built on the corner of Second and Broadway, 
and occupied the site of the present residence of Dr. Bush. 
The corner-stone was laid July 4, 1839, and the oration was 
delivered by Robert Wicklifte, Jr. 

In 1838, after the resignation of Dr. Coit, the Academical 
Faculty consisted of Dr. Louis Marshall, President 'pro tern.., 
and Professor of Ancient Languages; Rev. Robert David- 
son, Professor of Moral and Mental Philosophy; Dr. Arthur 
J. Dumont (who succeeded Mr. Priczminski), Professor of 
Mathematics ; Robert Peter, M. D., Professor of Natural 


History and Experimental Philosophy; Rev. Charles Crow, 
Principal of Preparatory Department. 

Rev. Robert Davidson, D. D., a Presbyterian minister, 
referred to more especially in the clia[)ter in this volume on 
the Second Presbyterian Church, was the seventh regular 
president of Transylvania University, and was inaugurated 
in November, 1840. 

In the fall of 1842, the Methodist Church was given the 
control of the university, which by this time had become 
considerably prostrated, particularly in the literary and 
academical department. The eloquent and untiring bishop, 
Henry B. Bascom, D. D. (see chapter on First Methodist 
Church), was made president of the institution, and it soon 
prospered as it had not done for years. There were four 
times as many students in it two years after the Methodists 
obtained control than there was the year before they took 
possession. Bishop Bascom resigned in 1849, and the uni- 
versity again reverted to the state. 

Professor J. B. Dodd, well known as the author of a 
number of mathematical works, succeeded Dr. Bascom, 
and acted as presiilent ^ro tern, up to the reorganization of 
the university in 1856. Professor Dodd died in Greensburg, 
Kentucky, March 27, 1872, aged sixty -hve. 

In 1855, the chairs of the Law College were filled by 
Professors George Robertson (see chapter on year 1835); 
George B. Kinkead, a native of Woodford county, Ken- 
tucky, Secretary of State under Governor Owsley, and dis- 
tino:uished both for his hifi^h-toned character and lesjal 
ability ; and Francis K. Hunt, born in Lexington, a gradu- 
ate of Transylvania Law School, a gentleman of rare graces 
and culture, and one of the first lawyers in Kentucky. 

The university was reorganized in 1856,* and in connec- 
tion with it, a normal school, for the education of teachers, 
was established, under the patronage of the state, as an 
indispensable aid to the common school system of Kentucky. 
The scheme was a noble one; the legislature appropriated 
§12,000 per annum to its support, and the cause of popular 

♦Acts L(.'gii?l;iture. 


education in Kentucky never looked more promising. Rev. 
Lewis "W. Green, D. D., was called to the presidency, and 
the university opened March 4, 1856, with eighty pupils. 

Dr. Green, the ninth and last regular president of Tran- 
sylvania University, was the son of Willis and Sarah Reed 
Green, and was born near Danville, Kentucky, January 28, 
1806.* He was a student at Transylvania for some time, 
but graduated at Centre College, in 1824, after which he 
entered the Theological Seminary at Princeton, studied for 
the Presbyterian ministry, and was finally ordained. He 
spent two years in Europe, at the Universities of Bonn and 
Halle, and while studying biblical literature and the oriental 
languages, enjoyed the instructions of Neander, Hengsten- 
berg, and other distinguished scholars. When called to 
Transylvania, he was president of Hampden Sidney College, 
Virginia. He labored, with satisfaction and success, at 
Lexington, for two years, at the end of which time, for 
some reason, the legislature withdrew the yearly appropria- 
tion for the normal school, and abandoned the project. Dr. 
Green accepted the presidency of Centre College, entered 
upon his duties there in January, 1858, and filled the posi- 
tion up to the time of his death, which occurred May 26, 
1863. He was buried in the Danville cemetery. Dr. Green 
was an eloquent divine, and, in point of learning, had few 
equals in the Presbyterian Church in the West. His tine 
character and amiable disposition always gained for him 
the sincere love of his pupils. 

The Medical School continued to exist with varying suc- 
cess up to the commencement of the late war betw^een the 
States. In 1859, its faculty was composed of Drs. Ethel- 
bert L. Dudley (see year 18G2), S. L. Adams (see First 
Methodist Church), W. S. Chipley (see Lunatic Asylum), 
B. P. Drake, S. M. Letcher, H. AL Skillman,and J.M. Bush. 

Dr. Drake is a graduate of this school, and now hves in 
Mt. Sterling, Kentucky. 

Dr. Letcher, a native of Lancaster, Kentucky, was also a 
graduate of the Transylvania Medical College. He is well 



remembered, not only as a fine physician, but as a fine in- 
structor in his department. He died in Lexington, in 1862. 

Dr. Bush, born in Frankfort, Kentucky, and Dr. Skill- 
man, a native of Lexington, are both graduates of the 
school in winch they were teachers, and both now stand in 
the front rank of their profession in Kentucky. 

From its founding up to its dissolution, at the beginning 
of the late war, the Medical College had conferred the de- 
gree of M. D. upon nearly two thousand graduates.* 

The university, which had been declining for years, sunk 
hopelessly after the failure of the normal school. The 
academical department struggled on for a few years, owing 
its existence mainly to that superior instructor, Mr. Abram 
Drake. It settled into a grammar school, during the late 
war, under whose depressing influences all educational in- 
stitutions languished, and through that period its principal 
was Professor J. K. Patterson, the present accomplished 
presiding officer of the Agricultural and Mechanical College 
of Kentucky University. 

In January, 1865, the trustees of Transylvania, desiring 
to perpetuate for Lexington her character and usefulness 
as an educational center, conveyed the entire property of 
the institution to, and consolidated it with Kentucky Uni- 
versity, on the condition of its removal to Lexington. 
From 1865, the history of Transylvania University blends 
with that of Kentucky University, of which it now forms 
a part. 

The record of Transylvania, both at home and abroad 
is a proud one. Among the names of her thousands of 
graduates, appear those of Jefferson Davis, Thomas F. 
Marshall, Dr. B. W. Dudley, Richard H. Menifee, John 
Boyle, James McChord, Dr. Joseph Buchanan, Richard M. 
Johnson, John Rowan, W. T. Barry, Jesse Bledsoe, C. 
S. Morehead, Elijah Hise, "Duke" Gwin, C. A. Wickliffe, 
and a host of others — with cabinet ofiicers, foreign minis- 
ters, governors, generals, physicians, divines, and men of 
every grade and business of life. There is scarcely a town 



of any size in all the West and South that does not con- 
tain one or more of her graduates. 

Tlie power that Transylvania has exerted will be felt for 
generations to come. 

Kentucky University, the successor and perpetuator of 
Transylvanin, was incorporated in February, 1858, and 
located in Harrodsburg, Kentucky. Its endowment then 
consisted of $150,000, obtained by Mr. John B. Bowman, 
from members of tlie Christian Church and other liberal 
friends of education. At the same time, it received the 
funds and property of Bacon College, an institution founded 
by the Christian Church in 1836, in Georgetown, but which 
was removed to Harrodsburg in 1840, and finally failed for 
want of a sufficient endowment.* 

John B. Bowman, the founder of Kentucky University, 
its present regent, and the one to whom its efficiency and 
pros[)enty is so largely due, was born at Bowman's station, 
near Harrodsburg, Kentucky, October 18, 1824. His grand- 
parents were among the first settlers of Mercer county. 
His father, born near Lexington, is probably the oldest liv- 
ing native of Fayette county. Regent Bowman gradu- 
ated at Bacon College under President Shannon, and in 
February, 1846, married Mary D., daughter of Dr. Charles 
Williams, of Montgomery county, Kentucky, The accom- 
l»lishraents and self-sacrifice of Mrs. Bowman have had no 
little to do with the success of Kentucky University. From 
the time he left college, up to the year 1855, Mr. Bowman 
was occupied in farming, but ever since that year, his life 
has been devoted to the up-building of the great institution 
of which he is the head. He is a man of extraordinary 
energy, executive ability, and financial sagacity. 

" Taylor Academy," a preparatory school ot the univer- 
sity, was opened in the old Bacon College building, at Har- 
rodsburg, in September, 1858, with nearly one hundred 
students in attendance. 

The College of Arts, the first regular department of the 
university to go into operation, was opened iu September, 

•University Records. 

58 niSTORY OF LEXINGTON. [1780. 

1859, under the presidency of Robert Milligan. Pesident 
Milligan is a native of Ireland, and is now in the lifty-niuth 
year of his age. He is a graduate of Washington College, 
Pennsylvania, and was at one time Professor of Matiie- 
matics in Bethany College. His colleagues at Harrodsburg 
were Professors R. Richardson, Robert Graham, L. L. 
Pinkerton, Henry White, and J. H. Neville. All of the 
professors with one exception (Professor Richardson) sub- 
sequently taught in the university after its removal to Lex- 
ington. There were about two hundred students in the 
university during its first session.* 

In February, 1864, the old edifice of Bacon College, used 
by the university at Harrodsburg, was destroyed by fire, 
together with its apparatus and library. At this juncture, 
it was found that the trustees of Transylvania University 
were willing to convey the gounds and buildings of that 
institution to the curators of Kentucky University, on the 
condition of its removal to Lexington. The board left the 
w^hole question of removal and location to a committee, of 
whom Mr. Bowman was chairman. f 

Accordingly, Mr. Bowman called the committee to meet 
at Frankfort, in January, 1865 ; but an expected denouement 
followed. While there, the proposition of Congress to do- 
nate to Kentucky 330,000 acres of land, for the purpose of 
agricultural and mechanical education, came up for consid- 
eration. The state was not prepared to accept the grant 
with the conditions imposed, and the munificent provision 
of Congress seemed likely to be lost to the state. Mr. 
Bowman proposed to make the State Agricultural College 
a department of Kentucky University, and to consolidate 
into the great institution the University of Harrodsburg, 
Transylvania, and the Agricultural College, and the whole 
to be located at Lexington. He further proposed, if this 
should be done, to provide an experimental farm, and all the 
requisite buildings, and to give gratuitous instruction to 
three hundred students, to be selected by the state ; and 
he furthermore pledged, that the board of curators would 

♦University Jiecords. fid- 


cany out, in the agricultural department, the spirit and 
intent ot the act of Congress encouraging the education of 
the industrial classes. 

A bill to this eftect was accordingly drawn up, and, after 
long and animated discussion in the General Assembly, it 
was jia-sed by a large majority, and Kentucky University 
was removed from llarrodsburg, the grounds and buildings 
and endowment of Transylvania were transferred, and the 
State Agricultural College was made a part of the univer- 
sity, with an aggregate capital of more than one-half 
million of dollars. As a condition of this removal, the cura- 
tors of Kentucky University bound themselves to refund 
to citizens of Mercer county $30,000 which they had con- 
tributed to the institution, and also furnish $100,000 more, 
to be invested in an experimental farm and buildings. 
Mr. Bowman set to work at once to secure the amounts 
needed, and the following gentlemen, in a printed address,* 
strongly urged the people of Lexington to assist him, viz: 
M. C. Johnson, John Carty, Benj. Gratz, J. G. Chinn, 
John B. Tilford, J. G. Allen, II. T. Duncan, Jr., John B. 
Payne, Jr. In three months the money was obtained by 
subscription, principally from the citizens of Lexington 
and vicinity, of all creeds and denominations. 

The first session of Kentucky University, at Lexington, 
commenced on Monday, October 2, 1865,* with formal and 
appropriate exercises, in the chapel of Morrison College. 
Four otlier departments, in addition to the College of Arts, 
had, in the meanwhile been created, and went at once into 
active ojieration. At its opening in Lexington, therefore, 
the university consisted of the College of Arts, the Law 
College, the Agricultural and Mechanical College, the 
Bible College, and the Academy. 

The college of arts, up to the present time, has ha<l 
i'our presiJents, viz: R. Milligan, 1859; R. Graham, 18G5; 
J. Aug. Williams, 18G8; Ilen^ H. White, 1870. The old 
Morrison College building ie used by the college of arts, 
llenry H. Wtiite, Professor of Mathematics, and John H. 

•Observer and Keporter. fid. 


i^eville, Professor of Greek Language and Literature, 
have long reflected credit upon this ably conducted col- 
lege of the university. Dr. Peter, so long associated 
with Transylvania, is the distinguished Professor of Chem- 
istry in this college. 

The organization of the Agricultural and Mechanical 
College was the work, to a very great extent, of its thor- 
oughly accomplished first president, John Augustus Will- 
iams, now the head of Daughter's College, at Harrodsburg, 
and noted as having few equals in the West as an educator. 
His successors were J, D. Pickett, 1867; Henry H. White, 
1868, and J. K. Patterson, 1870. This department enjoyed 
for some time the services of Professor A. Winchell, now 
the well-known geologist of Michigan University. The seat 
of the Agricultural and Mechanical College was purchased 
in 1866, and cost one hundred and thirty thousand dollars. 
It consists of " Ashland," the homestead of Henry Clay, 
and the adjoining estate of " Woodlands," which extends 
within the limits of the city of Lexington. The entire 
tract contains four hundred and thirty-three acres of land, 
unsurpassed for beauty and fertility. Four brick build- 
ings, for the use of officers and students, were erected at 
" Woodlands," during the year 1867. The large and hand- 
some edifice, used by the mechanical department, at "Ash- 
land," was built in 1868. 

The Law College is the full equal of its famous Transyl- 
vania predecessor. Madison C. Johnson was elected its 
president in 1868, and still occupies that position. Major 
Johnson is a graduate of the Transylvania Law College, and 
was one of its professors in 1850. His strong mind and 
laborious application have placed him in the front rank at 
the Kentucky bar. 

Of Judge W. C. Goodloe, professor in 1865, see chapter 
on year 1863. 

Judge R. A. Buckner, also a professor in 1865, is a na- 
tive of Green county, Kentucky. He was circuit judge 
by appointment of Governor Letcher ; speaker of the Ken- 
tucky House of Representatives in 1859, and is at present 


engaged as one of the commissioners appointed by Governor 
Leslie and the Supreme Court to revise the Kentucky Code 
of Practice. Judge Buckner's legal attainments are of the 
first order. 

General John B. Huston, who succeeded Judge Buckner 
as professor, in 1865, and who still retains the position, is 
a native of Nelson county, Kentucky, and a graduate of 
Center College. He represented Clark county in the legis- 
lature, and was speaker of the house. He removed to 
Lexington in 1863. General Huston is greatly gifted, both 
as a lawyer and a speaker. 

James 0. Harrison, elected professor in 1870, was born 
in Mount Sterliug, Kentucky, in 1804, and, after graduating 
at the Transylvania Law College, settled in Lexington, in 
1824. Though he has, at different times, been tendered 
high ofiicial appointments by the general government, Mr. 
Harrison has confined himself strictly to his professional 
duties. He is distinguished for his integrity, literary cul- 
ture, and superior legal attainments. 

The Bible College has had but one president, viz : Robert 
Milligan, from its organization, in 1865, to the present 

The academy had three principals during its existence, 
viz: A. R. Milligan, 1866; G. W. Ranck, 1867; D. 
G. Herron, 1869. This department was discontinued in 

The principals of the commercial department, since its 
organization in 1867, are named in the order of their suc- 
cession, viz: J. P. Marquam, W. H. Marquam, A. HoUings- 
worth, H. P. Perrin. 

The societies of the university, viz : the Periclean, Cecro- 
pian. Union Literary, Christomathean, and Pliilothean, have 
reflected no little honor upon the institution, and are rapidly 
attaining literary efliciency and celebrity. 

In 1870, Congress appropriated twenty -five thousand dol- 
lars to the university, to compensate for the destruction, 
by fire, of the Transylvania Medical College building, 
while in the possession of Federal troops, during the late 


The present executive committee of the university is 
composed ot J. B. Bowman, Benjamin Gratz, Joseph 
Wasson, Joseph Smith, and Joseph S. Woolfolk. The 
oldest member of the committee, Mr. Gratz, was born in 
Phihidelphia, September 4, 1792, and settled in Lexington 
in 1819. He became a trustee of Transylvania in the dis- 
tinguished Dr. HcjUey's time, and has been connected with 
that institution and its successor, Kentucky University, for 
nearly half a century, and has always been known as one 
of the firmest and most influential friends of education 
and public improvement in Lexington. 

James B. Beck, the present distinguished congressional 
representative from the "Ashland district," is a member 
of the board of curators of the university. Mr. Beck is a 
native of Dumfriesshire, Scotland, but came to the United 
States at the age of sixteen, and settled in Lexington, 
where he graduated at the Transylvania Law College. He 
was elected to Congress in 1867, and has been returned 
at every succeeding election. Mr. Beck overcame many 
very discouraging obstacles in early life, and is a self- 
made man of the best type. His mind is of extraordinarj- 
strength and clearness, and is only matched by his energy 
and industry. 

The various libraries of Kentucky University comprise 
about ten thousand volumes, and the anatomical museum, 
the museum of natural philosophy, and the collections ot 
chemical, astronomical, and philosophical apparatus are 
large and valuable. In June, of the present year, ap- 
peared the first number of "The Collegian," a monthly, 
established and ably supported by the literary societies 
of the university. The endowment and real estate ot 
the institution now amount to eight hundred thousand 
dollars ; and as many as seven hundred and seventy-two 
matriculates have attended its various colleges in one 

The States of Virginia and Kentucky, the city of Lex- 
ington, individual members of all parties and sects, and 
the United States Government, have all contributed, at 
various times, to this consolidated fund and this great 


success; and if the institution is governed and directed as 
it should be, in accordance with these facts; if its econ- 
omy is liberal and generous, and free from sectarian 
bigotry and shortsightedness, it will continue to grow, and 
will become the full equal ot any institution of learning in 
this country. 



First Trustees of Lexington — Adventures of McConnell, Bry- 
ant, and Hogon — County Governmejit — List of Clerks and 
Sheriffs — Charles Carr — Court-Rouses — Toioyi of Lexing- 
ton Laid off — First Lot Owners. 

The blow given by Clarke to the Miami Indians pre- 
vented any formidable invasion during this year (1781), but 
it could not keep out small bands of the enemy, who con- 
stantly hung upon the outskirts of the settlements, and 
captured or killed many of the pioneers. But, despite 
their savage enemies and all other drawbacks, the inhab- 
itants of Lexington station persisted in the up-building of 
their village. The terrible winter gave place to a delight- 
ful spring; game for the settlers and food for the live stock 
were abundant, and energy came with renewed hope. Early 
in the spring more land was cleared; planting was com- 
menced as soon as possible; a road (Main street) was cut, 
cleared, and extended some distance from the gate of the 
fort, and the settlers assembled and elected their first board 
of trustees, composed of Robert Patterson, Levi Todd, 
Henry McDonald, David Mitchell, and Michael Warnock.* 
The trustees held their first meeting, March 26, in one of 
the log cabins of the fort, and, with an eye to the growth 
and prosperity of Lexington, acted with a most commend- 
able spirit of enterprise and liberality. By this time, the 
first court of Fayette county had been formed, and one of 
the first resolutions of the trustees was, "To inform the 
court of Fayette county that, if they should deem Lexing- 
ton a proper plaee for holding courts in the future, the sum 
of £30 in gold or silver, or the value thereof in continental 

*City Records. 


cnrrenev, will be granted by the trustees for public build- 
ings."* At this meeting it was also, " Ordered that the town 
land be hiid off in lots, the in-lots to contain onc-tliird part 
of an acre each ; and that the}' be granted to each free 
male person above the age of twenty-one years, and each 
widow ; every J'oimg man who can make it appear he acts 
in his own behalf, and not under the immediate control 
and jurisdiction of some other person, who, at the time of 
laying them off and distributing them, appears to be an actual 
resident within the place, subject to such conditions and 
penalties as shall be hereafter required; that a number of 
lots, not less than thirty, be reserved for public uses, and 
such other purposes as may hereafter be requisite."t Proper 
persons were selected for the work of laying off the town, 
but the plan was not adopted for nine months after this 
meeting:. Whether the Indians were the cause of the 
delay or not, we can not speak positively ; but that they 
continually harassed the settlers of all the stations in Fay- 
ette county during the entire spring and summer, we 

One charming day in April, Alexander McConnell took 
his rifle and went out from the fort to hunt deer, in the 
woods near where Mr. Frank McCallie now lives, on the 
Versailles turnpike. He soon killed a large buck, and re- 
turned to the station for a horse, in order to bring it in. 
During his absence, a party of five Indians, on one of their 
usual skulking expeditions, accidently stumbled on the 
body of the deer, and perceiving it had been recently 
killed, they naturally supposed that the hunter would speed- 
ily return to secure it. Three of them, therefore, took 
their station within close rifle shot of the deer, while the 
other two followed the trail of the hunter, and waylaid the 
path by which he was expected to return. McConnell, si;8- 
pecting no danger, rode carelessly along the path which 
the two scouts were watching, until he had come within 
view of the deer, when he was fired upon by the whole 
party, and his horse killed. While laboring to extricate 

*Cily Records. tib. 


himself from the dying animal, he was seized by his ene- 
mies, instantly overpowered, and borne off a prisoner. His 
captors, however, seemed to be a merry, good-natured set 
of iellows, and jDermitted him to accompany them unbound; 
and, what was rather extraordinary, allowed him to retain 
his gun and hunting accoutrements. He accompanied 
them with great apparent cheerfulness through the day, 
and displayed his dexterity in shooting deer for the use of 
the company, until they began to regard him with great 
partialit}'. Having traveled with them in this manner for 
several days, they at length reached the banks of the Ohio 
river. Heretofore, the Indians had taken the precaution 
to bind him at night, although not very securely ; but on 
that evening he remonstrated with them on the subject, 
and complained so strongly of the pain which the cords 
gave him, that they merely wrapped the bulialo tug loosely 
around his wrists, and having tied it in an easy knot, and 
attached the extremities of the rope to their own bodies, in 
order to prevent his moving without awakening them, they 
very composedly went to sleep, leaving the prisoner to follow 
their example or not, as he pleased. 

McConnell determined to etitect his escape that night, if 
possible, as on the following night they would cross the 
river, which would render it much more difficult. He 
therefore lay quietly until near midnight, anxiously rumi- 
nating upon the best means of efiecting his object. Acci- 
dentally casting his eyes in the direction of his feet, they 
fell upon the glittering blade of a knife, which had escaped 
its sheath, and was now lying near the feet of one ot the 
Indians. To reach it with his hands, without disturbing 
the two Indians to whom he was fastened, was impossible, 
and it was very hazardous to attempt to draw it up with 
his feet. This, however, he attempted. With much diffi- 
culty he grasped the blade between his toes, and, after re- 
peated and long-continued eftbrts, succeeded at length in 
bringing it within reach of his hands. 

To cut his cords was then but the work of a moment, 
and gradually and silently extricating his person from the 
arms of the Indians, he walked to the fire and sat down. 


He saw that his work was but half clone. Tliat if he should 
attempt to return home, without destroying his enemies, 
he would be pursued and probably overtaken, when his fate 
would be certain. On the other hand, it seemed almost im- 
possible for a single man to succeed in a conflict with live 
Indians, even although unarmed and asleep. He could not 
hope to deal a blow with his knife so silently and fatally, 
as to destroy each one of his enemies in turn, without 
awakening the rest. Their slumbers were proverbially 
light and restless; and if he failed with a single one, he 
must instantly be overpowered by the survivers. The knife, 
therefore, was out of the question. 

After anxious reflection for a few minutes, he formed his 
plan. The guns of the Indians were stacked near the fire; 
their knives and tomahawks were in sheaths by their sides. 
The latter he dared not touch for fear of awakening their 
owners ; but the former he carefully removed, with the ex- 
ception of two, and hid them in the woods, where he knew 
the Indians would not readly find them. He then returned 
to the spot where the Indians were still sleeping, perfectly 
ignorant of the fate preparing for them, and taking a gun 
in each hand, he rested the muzzles upon a log within six 
feet of his victims, and having taken deliberate aim at the 
head of one and the heart of another, he pulled both trig- 
gers at the same moment. 

Both shots were fatal. At the report of their guns, the 
others sprung to their feet, and stared wildly around them. 
McConnell, who had run instantly to the spot where the 
other rifles were hid, hastily seized one of them and fired 
at two of his enemies, who happened to stand in a line 
with each other. The nearest fell dead, being shot through 
the center of the body; the second fell also, bellowing 
loudly, but quickly recovering, limped off into the woods 
as fast as possible. The fifth, and only one who remained 
unhurt, darted off like a deer, with a yell which announced 
equal terror and astonishment. McConnell, not wishing to 
fio-ht any more such battles, selected his own rifle from the 
stack, and made the best of his way to Lexington, where 
he arrived safely within two days. 


Shortly afterward, Mrs. Eve Dunlap, who had been 
several months a prisoner among the Indians on Mad 
river, made her escape, and returned to her home at Lex- 
ington station. She reported that the survivor returned to 
his tribe with a lamentable tale. He relates that they had 
taken a fine young hunter near Lexington, and had brought 
him safely as far as the Ohio ; that while encamped upon 
the bank of the river, a large party of white men had fallen 
upon them in the night and killed all his companions, to- 
gether with the poor defenseless prisoner, who lay bound 
hand and foot, unable to either escape or resist.* 

A large pignut tree, under which McConnell was cap- 
tured by the Indians, was carefully preserved for a long 
time by the father of Mr. Frank McCallie, who subsequently 
owned the land upon which it grew.f 

After the capture of McConnell, the Indians annoyed the 
stations in Fayette county greatly. They lurked in the 
canebrakes, waylaid the traces, stole horses, butchered 
cattle, and not unfrequently killed and scalped indiscreet 
settlers. Finally, the Indians became so bold and haras- 
sing, that it became necessary for hunters to go out in bands 
so as to be able to repel attacks. 

One afternoon, about the 20th of May, William Bryant, 
at the head of twenty men, left Bryant's station on a hunt- 
ing expedition. They moved with caution, until they had 
passed all the points where ambuscades had generally been 
formed, when, seeing no enemy, they became more bold, 
and determined, in order to sweep a large extent of country, 
to divide their company into two parties. One of them, 
conducted by Bryant in person, was to descend the Elk- 
horn on its southern bank, flanking out largely, and occupy 
as much ground as possible. The other, under the orders 
of James Hogan, a young farmer in good circumstances, 
was to move down in a parallel line upon the north bank. 
The two parties were to meet at night, and encamp together 
at the mouth of Cane run. 

Each punctually performed the first part of their plans. 

*McClun-'h fekit. hes. 1\McC:illio, F. 


Hogaa, however, had traveled but a few hundred yards, 
when he heard a loud voice behind him exclaim in very 
good English, "stop, boys!" Hastily looking back, they 
saw several Indians on foot, pursuing them as rapidly as 
possible. "Without halting to count numbers, the party put 
spurs to their horses, and dashed through the woods at full 
speed, the Indians keeping close behind them, and at times 
gaining upon them. There was a led horse in company, 
which had been brought with them for the purpose of 
packing game. This was instantly abandoned, and fell 
into the hands of the Indians. Several of them lost their 
hats in the eagerness of flight ; but quickly getting into 
the open woods, they left their pursuers so far behind that 
they had leisure to breathe and inquire of each otjier, 
whether it was worth while to kill their horses before 
they had ascertained the number of the enemy. 

They quickly determined to cross the creek, and await 
the approach of the Indians. If they found, them superior 
to their own and Bryant's party united, they would imme- 
diately return to the fort; as, by continuing their march to 
the mouth of Cane run, the}' would bring a superior enemy 
upon their friends, and endanger the lives of the whole 
party. They accordingly crossed the creek, dismounted, 
and awaited the approach of the enemy. By this time it 
had become dark. The Indians were distinctly heard ap- 
proaching the creek upon the opposite side, and after a 
short halt, a solitary warrior descended the bank and began 
to wade through the stream. 

llogan waited until they had emerged from the gloom 
of the trees which grew upon the bank, and as soon as he 
had reached the middle of the stream, where the light was 
more distinct, he took deliberate aim and tired. A great 
splashing in the water was heard, but presently all became 
quiet. The pursuit was discontinued, and the party, re- 
mounting their horses, returned home. Anxious, however, 
to apprise Bryant's party of their danger, they left the fort 
belore daylight on the ensuing morning, and rode rapidly 
down the creek, in the direction of the nioutii of Cane run. 
When within a lew hundred yards of the spot where they 


supposed the encampment to be, thev heard the report of 
many guns in quick succession. Supposing that Bryant 
had fallen in with a herd of buffalo, they quickened their 
march in orJer to take part in the sport. 

The morning was foggy, and the smoke of the guns lay 
so heavily upon the ground that they could see nothing 
until they had approached within twenty yards of the 
creek, when they suddenly found themselves within pistol 
shot of a party of Indians, very composedly seated upon 
their packs, and preparing their pipes. Both parties were 
much startled, but quickly recovering, the}^ sheltei-ed them- 
selves as usual, and the action opened with great vivacity. 
The Indians maintained their ground for half an hour with 
some firmness, but being hard pressed in front, and turned 
in flank, they at length gave way, and being closely pur- 
sued, w^ere ultimately routed with considerable loss, which, 
however could not be distinctly ascertained. Of Hogan's 
party, one man was killed on the spot, and three others 
wounded, but none mortally. 

It happened that Bryant's company had encamped at the 
mouth of Cane, as had been agreed upon, and were unable 
to account for Hogan's absence. That, about daylight they 
had heard a bell at a distance, which they immediately rec- 
ognized as the one belonging to the led horse which had 
accom[ianied Hogan's party, and which, as we have seen, 
had been abandoned to the enemy the evening before. Sup- 
posing their friends to be bewildered in the fog, and unable 
to find their camp, Bryant accom})aiiied by Grant, one of 
his men, mounted a horse and rode to the spot where the 
bell was still ringing. They quickly fell into an ambus- 
cade and were fired upon. Bryant was mortally, and Grant 
severely wounded ; the first being shot through the hip and 
both knees, the latter through the back. Both being able 
to keep the saddle however, they set spurs to their horses 
and arrived at the station shorth^ after breakfast. The In- 
dians, in the meantime, had fallen upon the encampment 
and instantly dispersed it, and, while preparing to regale 
themselves after their victory, were suddenly attacked, as 
we have seen, by Hogau. The timidity of Hogan's party 


at the first appearance of the Indians, was the cause of 
Bryant's death. The same men who fled so hastily in the 
evening were able the next moriiing, by a little firmness, 
to vanquish the same party of Indians. Had they stood 
at first, an equal success would probably have attended them, 
and the life of their leader would have been preserved.* 

During the summer, and in the midst of trials and blood- 
shed the organization of the government of Fayette county 
was completed. Governor Jefferson, of Virginia, appointed 
John Todd colonel, Daniel Boone lieutenant-colonel, and 
Thomas Marshall surveyor of the county.f John Max- 
well was made coroner.J Levi Todd was chosen as clerk of 
the county court, and held the office for twenty-five years 
after.|l The successors of Todd were John D. Young, 1807; 
James C. Rhodes, 1817 ; James A. Grinstead, 1845 ; Sanders 
D. Bruce, 1849; Joseph li. Gross, 1862; Ernest Brennaa, 
1863; AUie G. Hunt, 1866. 

The justices of the county court were successively sher- 
iffs of the county until the law was changed in 1792. § The 
first sheriff under the succession rule was Charles Carr. 
Mr. Carr was a native of Virginia, and emigrated to this 
state when he was but ten years of age. lie was a private 
soldier in the American array, under General Anthony 
AVayne, in 1794, and took an active part in his celebrated 
campaign against the Indians. 

In the war of 1812 he served as captain, and was at one 
time a prisoner. Subsequently he was a member of the 
state legislature. He died in Fayette county, at an ad- 
vanced age. His successors as sheriffs were Thomas Clarke, 
J. C. Richardson, Leonard Young, A. Young, James Wood, 
W. R. Morton, Edward Payne, John Bradford, G. W. 
Morton, Waller Bullock, A. Thomson, Oliver Keene, T. S. 
Redd, R. S. Todd, T. A. Russell, M. Fiournoy, J. R. Sloan, 
Moses Ellis, J. B. O'Bannon, Waller Rhodes, Abraham 
Dudley, Jor^eph Gross, C. S. Bodley, Thomas Nichols, W. 
W. Dowden, R. S. Bullock. 

♦McCIung's Sketches. fMarsliall, 140. JKy. Gazette. 

JIUounty records. gMurshall. 


The proposition of the trustees of Lexington to the 
county court was accepted, and in December, 1781, "the 
trustees agreed to pay the commissioners a[)pointed by the 
court a sum sufficient to build a court-house, prison, and 
office to answer the present necessity, and grant one square 
for that purpose."* 

But the "present necessity" was such that the court 
could not wait until buildings were erected, and its sessions 
for some time were held in one of the cabins within the 
station. The next house used was a log one, erected about 
two years after this, on the corner of Main and Broadway, 
now known as "Yeiser's corner." It was still standing in 
1796, and was used at that time by "William McBean, as a 
dry goods store.f A small stone coart-house was erected 
about the year 1788, on the square granted by the trustees, 
and where the present one stands. Levi Todd, the first 
county clerk, had his office separate from this building, and 
used a little 12 by 15 one which stood on what is now called 
the Wickliffe farm, on the Richmond turnpike. This was 
destroyed by fire on the night of January 'SI, 1803, and 
with it most of the records of the county. | The fohowing 
commissioners were appointed by the governor, "with full 
powers and authority, to meet at some convenient place, 
and adjourn from time to time, as they shall think fit, and 
to summons, hear, and examine witnesses, at the instance 
of any person who has been or may be injured by the de- 
struction of the records of county courts," viz: Tiiomas 
Lewis, Robert Todd, Henry Payne, Thomas Bodley, James 
Trotter, John A. Seitz, Walker Baylor, John Bradford, 
John Richardson. This calamity, and the rapid growth of 
the city, now necessitated the erection of a larger building, 
and in 1806 the present brick court-house was built. About 
the year 1814 it was remodeled and the town clock was 
put up, and now altogether constitutes the venerable disfig- 
urement at present so unpleasantly prominent upon the 
pul>lic square and so disgraceful to the county. The court- 
house can boast of nothing but its associations. Its walls 

*City records. tOld Gazette. ^Gazette. 


liave echoed to the voices of Chiy, Barry, Bledsoe, Crit- 
tenden, the Wicklitfes, Menifee, E,. J. and John C. Breckin- 
ridge, Thomas F. Marshall, and a host of other distinguished 
men both living and dead. 

On the 26th of December, 1781,* the trustees of Lexing- 
ton station adopted a plan for the town, and the lots defined 
in it were disposed of by them to the inhabitants, who " were 
required to pay a proportionable part of the money neces- 
sary to build the public houses and expenses arising toward 
good order and regularity in the town." 

The names of those who secured lots at that time are 
recorded as Follows in " the Trustees' Book : " James jSIaster- 
son, William McDonald, Henry McDonald, Samuel McMul- 
lins, David Mitchell, Thornton Farrow, Nicholas Brobston, 
James McBride, William Henderson, Samuel Martin, John 
Torrence, William Martin, Sen., John Clark, William Nib- 
lick, Francis McDonald, Francis McConnell, Daniel Mc- 
Clain, Robert Stanhope, John Wymore, Hugh Martin, Da- 
vid Vance, William Mitchell, Timothy Payton, Elisha 
Collins, John Morrison, Stephen Collins, Levi Todd, Eph- 
raira January, Alexander McClain, Caleb Masterson, Sam- 
uel Kelly, Joseph Turner, Samuel Kelly, John Wymore, 
William McConnell, John McDonald, Joseph Lindsey, Jane 
Thompson, John Todd, James Lindsay, Alexander Mc- 
Connell, Hugh Thompson, James Morrow, Robert Thomp- 
son, Hugh McDonald, James McGinty, John Martin, Sam- 
uel Johnson, James Januar}^ James Wason, William 
Haydon, Josiah Collins, Matthew Walker, James Mc- 
Connell, John M. McDonald, Michael Warnock, William 
Martin, James McDonald, Alexander McConnell, William 
McConnell, a clergyman, John Williams, Peter January, 
Joseph Waller, John Niblick, Charles Seaman, Francis 

*City Records. 



Trouble with the Indians — Incidents — The War Closed — Lex- 
ington Incorporated — The Great Invasion — Siege of Bryant's 
Station — Aaron Reynolds — Battle of the Blue Licks — Ben- 
jamin Netherland — The Terrible Defeat — Burial of the Bead 
— Sorrow and Gloom — The Women of Lexington — James 
Morgan — Clark's Expedition — John Filson — Thomas Mar- 

The year 1782 was one of excitements, stirring events, 
and mournful disasters to Lexington and Fayette county. 
The outlook, so bright with hope to others, was gloomy 
indeed to them. Far across the Atlantic, even from the 
commencement of the year, the British House of Commons 
had been ringing with eloquent demands for a termination 
of the war against the American colonies; but here, on this 
side of the great ocean, even while those cries for peace were 
going up, the tribes of the great Northwest were gathering 
their incensed and desperate warriors, to strike what they 
hoped would be a final and crushing blow at the frontier 
settlements. ]Sl umerous small scouting parties of Indians 
were ordered to Kentucky, and soon the woods teemed 
with savages, and no one was safe beyond the walls of a 
station. Late in March, a hunter from the fort at Lexmg- 
ton was killed by some Indians in ambuscade near the 
present Lexington Cemetery,-^ and a few weeks after, an- 
other settler was shot and dangerously wounded in a field 
where the jail now stands, and his savage foe was running, 
knife in hand, to scalp liim, when he was himself shot by 
a skillful marksman then on watch in the block-house, and 



fell dead upon the body of his wounded enemy.* It is 
strongly iutimated by one historianf that the marksman 
who made this iamons shot was the celebrated Daniel 
JBoone himself. Certainly, the "picking oii'" of an Indian 
at such a distance, while he was kneeiinij above the fallen 
settler, and a shot so directed as to kill the one without 
injury to the other, was a feat not unworthy the grand old 
pidneer. In May, a courier brought the news to Lexington 
of Estell's defeat, a calamity which made a profound sen- 
sation in every settlement, and the more because the bold 
and masterly movement of the Indians which decided the 
fate of the day, indicated an advance in military science, 
which presaged no good to the settlers. Lexington and 
Brj'ant's stations were now the most exposed points in 
Kentucky, and as Estell's defeat confirmed the general im- 
pression that another Indian invasion was imminent, the 
settlers were weighed down with anticipations of evil. 

At this gloomy juncture, the second board of trustees of 
Lexington received a copy of the law passed by the Vir- 
ginia Assembly, at Richmond, on the 6th of May, incorpo- 
rating Lexington % The law was entitled, "An act to 
establish a town at the court-house, in the county of Fay- 
ette,** and was worded as follows, viz: 

" Whereas, It is represented to this assembly that six 
hundred and forty acres of unappropriated land in the 
county of Fayette, whereon the court-house of said county 
stands, has been by the settlers thereon laid out into lots 
and streets for a town; and that the said settlers have ]»ur- 
chased seventy acres of land lying contagious to the said 
six hundred and forty acres, being part of a survey made 
for John FJoyd ; and whereas, it would tend greatly to the 
improvement and settling of the same if the titles of settlers 
on the lots were confirmed, and a town establisiied tiiereon: 

Be it therefore enacted, That the said seven hundred and 
acres of land be and the same is hereby vested in fee simple 
in John Todd, Robert Patterson, William Mitchell, Andrew 
Steele, William Henderson, William McConnell, and Will- 

♦Eoone's Narrative. tBogart, 226. ^Trustees' Book. 


iam Steele, gentlemen trustees, and established by the name 
of Lexington. 

And be it further enacted, That the said trustees, or any 
four of them, shall, and they are hereby empowered and 
required to make conveyance to those persons who have 
already settled on the said lots, as also to the purchasers of 
lots heretofore sold, agreeable to the condition of the con- 
tracts, and may also proceed to lay ofi' such other parts of 
the said land as is not yet laid off and settled into lots and 
streets; and such lots shall be by the trustees sold or other- 
wise disposed of for the benefit of the inhabitants of the 
said town, and convey the same in fee simple agreeable to 
the condition of the contract : Provided, always, that the 
lots in the said town which have been laid off and set apart 
for erecting thereon the public buildings of the said county 
shall be and remain to and for that use and purpose, and 
no other whatever. 

And be it further enacted, That the said trustees, or the 
major part of them, shall have power from time to time to 
settle and determine all disputes concerning the bounds 
of the said lots, and to settle such rules and orders for the 
resrular buildin": of houses thereon as to them shall seem 
best and most convenient. And in case of the death, re- 
moval out of the county, or other legal disability of any of 
the said trustees, it shall and may be lawful for the remain- 
ing trustees to elect and choose so many other persons in 
place of those deceased, removed, or disabled, as shall make 
up the number; which trustees so chosen shall be, to all 
intents and purposes, individually vested with the same 
power and authority as any one in this act particularly 

And be it further enacted, That the settlers, as well as pur- 
chasers of lots, in the said town, so soon as they shall have 
saved the same according to the conditions of their respect- 
ive deeds of conveyance, shall be entitled to have and enjoy 
all the rights, privileges, and immunities which the free- 
holders and inhabitants of other towns in this state not 
incorporated by charter or act of assembly have and enjoy. 


And be it further enacted, That the said trustees shall cause 
the survey and plat of the said town to be recorded in the 
court of the said county of Fayette, leaving to all persons 
all such right, title, and interest which they, or any of them, 
could or might have to the lands, or any part thereof, hereby 
vested in the said trustees as if tbis act had never been 

The Indian invasion, so dreaded by the infant settlements, 
was now near at hand. JMost of the summer following 
Estell's defeat had been spent by the savages in perfecting 
a plan by which they hoped to regain for themselves the 
possession of their lost hunting grounds in the West. 

Early in August, detachments of Indian warriors from 
the Cherokee, Wyandot, Tawa, and Pottowatomie nations, 
as well as from several other tribes bordering on the lakes, 
assembled in grand council at Chillicothe, where they were 
met by Simon Girty, James Girty, and M'Kee, three rene- 
gade white men, who urged tbem to proceed at once to 
the step the}^ so much desired to take. 

The advice of the white savages was quickly acceded to, 
the council ended with a war whoop, and the IndiaUv^, with 
a few Canadian allies, took up the line of march for Ken- 
tucky, with the understanding that Bryant's station should 
be taken first, and then Lexington station, after which 
they were to act as circumstances should direct. The force 
in this noted expedition has been variously estimated from 
six hundred to one thousand. 

Of the two stations marked out for destruction, Lexington 
was the strongest. Its garrison consisted of about sixty 
efiective men,* and it enjoyed the very superior advantage 
of an abundant and never-failing supply of water iy}side its 
walls. Bryant's station stood on a gentle rise on the south- 
ern bank of the Eikhorn, a few paces to the rigiit of the 
road from Maysville to Lexington, and consisted at this 
time of about forty cabins, was built in the usual parallelo- 
gram siiape, was about two hundred yards long by fifty wide, 
strengthened with block-houses at the angles, and where the 

*Bradford's Notes. 


cabins did not join, the vacancies were filled with strong 
pickets. The garrison consisted of fort3^-four men. Unfor- 
tunately, there was no supply of water within the fort, and 
the only rlependence was a spring on its northwestern side. 
The station was situated on a tract of land admired by all 
the settlers for its natural beauty; and it doubtless merited 
the o-lowing praise of the poet*, who speaks of 

" A picketed station on fair Elkhorn, 
Surrounded by groves of the milk-white thorn, 
And paw-paw, with long and silvery stem, 
And dogwood of beautiful diadem ; 
Green meadows with antlered deer yet dotted, 
And lawns with flowers the loveliest spotted." 

The savage array entered Kentucky, and penetrated with 
celerity and great secrecy into the very heart of the district. 
A party was at once sent out to demonstrate against Mc- 
Gee's and Strodes' stations, with the object of drawing 
away from their posts the garrisons of Bryant and Lexing- 
ton stations. On the morning of the 14th of August, this 
party defeated Captain Holder, and the stratagem of the 
wily red men barely escaped being crowned with complete 
success, as subsequent events will show. The main body 
of the Indians moved carefully forward, and on the night 
of the 14th gathered as silent as the shadows around Bry- 
ant's stationf. The great body of Indians placed them- 
selves in ambush in some high weeds, within pistol shot of 
the spring, while one hundred select men were placed near 
the spot where the road now runs after passing the creek. 
Providentially for the garrison, a messenger had arrived just 
before night with the intelligence of Holder's defeat, and 
they set to work immediately to prepare for an early march 
in the morning to the general rendezvous at Hoy's station. 
The Indians seeing the lights glancing from block-houses 
and cabins, and hearing the bustle of preparation, believed 
that their approach had been discovered, though the settlers 
were utterly unconscious of their presence. Under the im- 
pression that their stratagem to decoy the garrison from the 

»"W. D. Gallagher, t^cClung's Sketches. 


fort had failed, the band of a hundred men was ordered to 
open a brisk fire early in the morning, and show themselves 
to the garrison on that side of the station, for the purpose 
of drawing them out, while the main body held themselves 
in readiness to rush upon the opposite gate of the fort, hew 
it down with their tomahawks, and force their way into the 
midst of the cabins. Day stole through the forest, the set- 
tlers rose from their brief slumbers, took their arms, and 
were on the point of opening the gates to march, under the 
command of Captain Elijah Craig, to the assistance of their 
friends, when the crack of rifles, mingled with yells and 
howls, told them in an instant how narrowly they had es- 
caped captivity or death. The former practice of this fort 
was known, and the Indians expected every man to run to 
the spot where the firing commenced, which would leave it 
undefended on the side where the main body lay; but the 
number of guns discharged, and the near approach of the 
party, convinced the people of the fort that it was a plan to 
draw the men out ; and, instead of falling into this trap, the 
opposite side of the fort was instantly manned, and several 
breaches in the picketing at once repaired.* Their greatest 
distress rose from the prospect of suftering for water. 

The more experienced of the garrison felt satisfied that 
a powerful party was in ambuscade near the spring, but at 
the same time they supposed that the Indians would not 
unmask themselves until the firing upon the opposite side 
of the fort was returned with such warmth as to induce the 
belief that the feint had succeeded. 

Acting upon this impression, and yielding to the urgent 
necessity of the case, they summoned all the women, with- 
out exception, and explaining to them the circumstances 
in which they were placed, and the improbability that any 
injury would be offered them until the firing had been re- 
turned from the opposite side of the fort, they urged them 
to go in a body to the spring, and each to bring up a bucket- 
ful of water. Some of the ladies, as was natural, had no 
relish for the undertaking, and asked why the men could 

♦Bradford's Notes. 


not bring water as well as themselves, observing that they 
were not bullet-proof, and that the Indians made no dis- 
tinction between male and female scalps! 

To this it was answered that women were in the habit of 
bringing water every morning to the fort, and that if the 
Indians saw them engaged as usual, it would induce them 
to believe that their ambuscade was undiscovered, and that 
they would not unmask themselves for the sake of firing 
at a few women, when they hoped, by remaining concealed 
a few moments longer, to obtain complete possession of the 
fort; that if men should go down to the spring, the Indians 
would immediately suspect that something was wrong, would 
despair of succeeding by ambuscade, and would instantly 
rush upon them, follow them into the fort, or shoot them 
down at the spring. The decision was soon made. 

A few of the boldest declared their readiness to brave 
the danger, and the younger and more timid rallying in the 
rear of these veterans, they all marched down in a body to 
the spring, within point-blank shot of more than five hun- 
dred Indian warriors! Some of the girls could not help 
betraying symptoms of terror, but the married women, in 
general, moved with a steadiness and composure which 
completely deceived the Indians. ISTot a shot was fired. The 
party were permitted to fill their buckets, one after another, 
without interruption, and although their steps became 
quicker and quicker on their return, and when near the gate 
of the fort degenerated into a rather unmilitary celerity, at- 
tended with some little crowding in passing the gate, yet 
not more than one-fifth of the water was spilled, and the 
eyes of the youngest had not dilated to more than double 
their ordinary size.* 

Being now amply supplied with water, they sent out thir- 
teen young men to attack the decoy party, with orders to 
fire with great rapidity, and make as much noise as possible, 
but not to pursue the enemy too far, while the rest of tiie 
garrison took post on the opposite side of the fort, cocked 
their guns, and stood in readiness to receive the ambuscade 

*McClung and Bradford. 


as soon as it was unmasked. The firing of the light par- 
ties on the Lexington road was soon heard, and quickly 
became sharp and serious, gradually becoming more distant 
from the fort. Instantly, Girty sprung up at the head of 
his five hundred warriors, and rushed rapidly upon the west- 
ern gate, ready to force his way over the undefended pali- 
sades. A small body of the most daring reached the fort, 
and set fire to a few houses and stables, which were con- 
sumed; but the rest of the fort and the lives of the people 
were saved by an easterly wind, which drove the flames from 
the houses. Into the immense mass of dusky bodies the 
garrison poured several rapid volleys of rifle balls with de- 
structive effect. Their consternation may be imagined. 
With wild cries they dispersed on the right and left, and in 
two minutes not an Indian was to be seen. At the same 
time, the party who had sallied out on the Lexington road, 
came running into the fort at the opposite gate, in high 
spirits, and laughing heartily at the success of their ma- 

A regular attack, in the usual manner, then commenced, 
without much effect on either side, until two o'clock in the 
afternoon, when a new scene presented itself. Upon the 
first appearance of the Indians in the morning, two of the 
garrison, Tomlinson and Bell, had been mounted upon fleet 
horses, and sent at full speed to Lexington, announcing the 
arrival of the Indians, and demanding reinforcements. 

Upon their arrival, a little after sunrise, they found the 
station occupied only by some women and children and a 
few old men, the rest having marched to the assistance of 
Holder. The two couriers instantly followed at a gallop, 
and, overtaking them on the road, informed them of the 
danger to which Bryant's station and Lexington were ex- 
posed during their absence. The whole party, with some 
volunteers from Boone's station, instantly countermarched 
and repaired, with all possible dispatch, to Bryant's station. 
They were entirely ignorant of the overwhelming numbers 
opposed to them, or they would have proceeded with more 
caution. The couriers had only informed them that the sta- 
tion was surrounded, being themselves ignorant of the num- 


bers of the enemy. At about two p. m. the men from Lexing- 
ton and Boone's station arrived in sight of the fort, at the mo- 
ment the firing had ceased, and no indications of danger ap- 
peared. The reinforcement believed it had been the victim of 
a false aUirm, and the sixteen mounted men approached the 
fort the usual route along a narrow lane, which was lined for 
more than one hundred yards by the enemy on both sides, who 
commenced a fire unperceived at a few feet distance. It is 
believed the great dust which was raised by the horses' feet 
in a considerable degree protected the party; they got safely 
into the fort without the shghtest wound on man or horse.* 
The men on foot were less fortunate. They were advancing 
through a corn-field, to the left of what is now the Mays- 
ville and Lexington road, and might have reached the fort 
in safety but for their eagerness to succor their friends. 
Without reflecting that, from the weight and extent of the 
fire, the enemy must have been ten times their number, 
they ran up, with inconsiderate courage, to the spot where 
the firing was heard, and there found themselves cut off 
from the fort, and within pistol shot of more than three 
hundred savages. 

Fortunately the Indian guns had just been discharged, 
and they had not yet had leisure to reload. At the sight 
of this brave body of footmen, however, they raised a 
hideous yell, and rushed upon the Lexington infantry, 
tomahawk in hand. Nothing but the high corn and 
their loaded rifles could have saved them from destruction. 
The Indians were cautious in rushing upon a loaded rifle, 
with only a tomahawk, and when they halted to load their 
pieces, the Kentuckians ran with great rapidity, turning 
and dodging through the corn in every direction. Some 
entered the wood and escaped through the thickets of cane, 
some were shot down in the corn-field, others maintained a 
running fight, halting occasionally behind trees and keep- 
ing the enemy at bay with their rifles; for, of all men, the 
Indians are generally the most cautious in exposing them- 
selves to danger.f A stout, active young fellow was so hard 

♦Bradford's Notes. tid. 


pressed by Girty and several savages, that he was compelled 
to discharge his rifle (however unwilling, having no time 
to reload it), and Girty fell. 

It happened, however, that a piece of thick sole-leather 
was in his shot-pouch at the time, which received the ball, 
and preserved his life, although the force of the blow felled 
him to the ground. The savages halted upon his fall, and 
the young man escaped. Although the skirmish and the 
race lasted for more than an hour, during which the corn- 
field presented a scene of turmoil and bustle which can 
scarcely be conceived, yet very few lives were lost. Only 
six of the white men from Lexington were killed and 
wounded, and probably still fewer of the enemy, as the 
whites never fired until absolutely necessary, but reserved 
their loads as a check upon the enemy. Had the Indians 
pursued them to Lexington, they might have possessed 
themselves of it without resistance, as there was no force 
tiiere to oppose them; but after following the fugitives for 
a iew hundred yards, they returned to the hopeless siege of 
the fort. 

It was now near sunset, and the cattle and stock, while 
attempting to return, as usual, to the fort, were mostly 
killed; the few sheep were totally destroyed. 

By this time the fire on both sides had slackened. The 
Indians had become discouraged. Their loss in the morn- 
ing had been heavy, and the country was evidently arming, 
and would soon be upon them. They had made no im- 
pression upon the fort, and without artillery could hope to 
make none. The chiefs spoke of raising the siege, but 
Girty determined, since his arms had been unavailing, to 
try the efiB.cacy of negotiation. He approached, under cover 
of a thick growth of hemp, to a large stump of a tree, 
which stood not far from the spot where the dwelling-house 
of Mr. Rogers was afterward erected, and hailed the fort, 
demanding a surrender, stating that the forces were com- 
manded by him, and inquired if he was known to the peo- 
ple of the fort. He declared that the prisoners should be 
protected if they would surrender, which was out of his 
power if the place was taken by storm, as it would be that 


night, on the arrival of his cannon and strong reinforce- 
ments, which were hourly expected.* This language from 
Girty, and the recollections by the people in the fort, that 
cannon were employed in the reduction of Ruddle's and 
Martin's stations, was calculated to create considerable 
alarm. But one of the garrison, a young man by the name 
of Aaron Reynolds, remarkable both for wit and courage, 
and afterward distinguished for a noble act at the battle of 
the Blue Licks, perceiving the effect of Girty's speech, took 
upon himself to reply to it. To Girty's inquiry, " whether 
the garrison knew him," Reynolds replied " that he was 
very well known ; that he himself had a worthless dog to 
which he had given the name of ' Simon Girty,' in conse- 
quence of his striking resemblance to the man of that 
name ; that if he had either artillery or reinforcements, he 
might bring them up and be d — d ; that if either himself 
or any of the naked rascals with him found their way into 
the fort, they would disdain to use their guns against them, 
but would drive them out again with switches, of which 
they had collected a great number for that purpose alone ; 
and, finally, he declared that they also expected reinforce- 
ments ; that the whole country was marching to their as- 
sistance ; and that if Girty and his gang of murderers 
remained twenty-four hours longer before the fort, their 
scalps would be found drying in the sun upon the roofs of 
their cabins." 

Girty took great offense at the tone and language of the 
young Kentuckian, and retired with an expression of sor- 
row for the inevitable destruction which awaited them on 
the following morning. He quickly rejoined the chiefs; 
and instant preparations were made for raising the siege. 
The night passed away in uninterrupted tranquillity, and 
at daylight in the morning the Indian camp was found de- 
serted. Fires were still burning brightly, and several pieces 
of meat were left upon their roasting-sticks, from which it 
was inferred that they had retreated a short time before 
daylight, t 

*Bradford's Notes. tMcClung. 


And thus ended one of the most remarkable and cele- 
brated sieges known in the history of Indian warfare, and 
one crowded, brief as it was, with strange and thrilling 
events. The firing in the morning was in time to prevent 
the march of nearly all the men to a distant point, and the 
enemy so far overrated their plan, that instead of drawing 
the men out, every one prepared for a siege. Then there 
was the providential circumstance of the wind springing up 
from the east, and saving the place from the flames. Add 
to this, the almost miraculous escape of the two couriers to 
Lexington, the daring charge of the sixteen death-defying 
heroes from Lexington through a cross-fire of hundreds of 
Indians, and their entrance into the fort unhurt, and the 
escape of their gallant comrades on foot, with a loss of only 
six killed and wounded, when all of them seemed doomed 
toutterdestructiou, and we have a chapter of truths stranger 
Tar than many a page of highly-wrought fiction. Only two 
persons, Mitchell and Atkinson, were killed in the fort. 
One of the most heroic of the brave little garrison, Nicho- 
las Tomlinson, was slightly wounded in the arm. He was 
one of the most active defenders of his country, and was 
employed in Harmer's expedition, in 1790, as a spy. At 
the defeat of a detachment of the army under Colonel John 
Hardin, on the Oglaze, the daiing Tomlinson, being in ad- 
vance, was literally shot to pieces by an ambuscade of more 
than one thousand Indian?.* 

The loss of the Indians in the seige of Brj'ant's station 
has never been accurately ascertained, but it is known to 
have been very considerable. The residence and improve- 
ments of Mr. Charlton Rogers now (1872) cover part of tlie 
ground upon which the fort stood. The famous spring, from 
which the heroic women of the garrison drew water, still 
pours forth a grateful stream. 

Swift couriers carried the news of the presence of the 
Indian army to the various stations, and while the savages 
were retreating, the hunters were rapidly gathering at Bry- 
ant's station, to pursue them. Colonel Daniel Boone ac- 

*Bradford's Notes. 


companied by his youngest son, Isaac, and Samuel, the 
brave brother of the old pioneer, headed a strong party from 
Boouesborongh. Colonel Stephen Trigg brought up the 
force from Ilarrodsburg, and Colonel John Todd com- 
manded the Lexington garrison. Todd and Trigg, as senior 
colonels, took command.* 

Dispatches had been sent to Colonel Benj. Logan, in Lin- 
coln county, during the seige, and he had hastily collected 
about three hundred men, and started upon his march, but 
before he was able to reach Bryant's station, the Indians 
had raised the seige and 2;oue. Colonel Loofan followed as 
fast as possible, in the ho[»e of coming up with those who 
marched from the neighborhood of Lexington before they 
overtook the Indians, but met them not far from Bryant's 
on their return. In the Uiidst of trying scenes of tears 
and sadness, the misgivings of the wife, and the forebod- 
ings of the mother, the brave men made every preparation 
for the march. On the morning of the 18th of August, 
their force amounted to one hundred and eighty-two men,t 
and thousrh it was well-known that the numbers of the 
enemy were overwhelmingly superior to this, the pursuit 
was urged with that precipitate courage which has so often 
been fatal to Kentuckians, and on the afternoon of the 
same day, the march was commenceil.| 

The Indians had followed the buffalo trace, and the Ken- 
tuckians had not proceeded more than nine or ten miles, 
before the lynx-eyed Boone discovered certain signs on the 
route indicating a willingness on the [»art of the Indians 
to be pursued, which was plainly evmced by their leaving 
a plain trail. Notwithstanding, they evidently used all 
the means in their power, to conceal their number, for 
which purpose they marched in single lile, treading in each 
other's footsteps. 

The pursuing force, after a hard march, camped that 
night in the woods only a few miles distant from th.e now 
sadly famous battle-gound, the appearance of which, at 
that time, is thus quaintly described by one§ who fought 

*G. Rogers Clark. IBradford'a Notes. JMcClung. ^Bradford. 


upon its 8ano;uinary soil: "The Blue Licks are situated 
about forty miles from Lexington, and about thirty -five 
from Bryant's station. The Licking river at this place is 
about three hundred feet wide at common water, and forms 
a semi-elipsis, which embraces on its northeast side, toward 
Limestone, a great ridge of rocks which had been made 
bare by the stamping of buffalo and other game, drawn 
together from time immemorial to drink the water and 
lick the clay. Two deep ravines, heading in this ridge 
near each other, and extending in opposite directions, 
formed the longest diameter of this elipsis. This ridge had 
very little timber on it, and what it had was very indiffer- 
ent, and exhibited a very dreary appearance; but the ravines 
were furnished not only plentifully with timber, but with 
a thick brushwood also." 

On the following day, by an easy march, the Kentuck- 
ians reached the lower Blue Licks, where for the tirst time 
since the pursuit commenced, they came within view of an 
enemy. As the miscellaneous crowd of horse and foot 
reached the southern bank of Licking, they saw a number 
of Indians ascending the rocky ridge on the other side. 

Tliey halted upon the appearance of the Kentuckians, 
gazed at them for a few moments in silence, and then calmly 
and leisurely disappeared over the top of the hiU. A halt 
immediately ensued. A dozen or twenty officers met in 
front of the ranks, and entered into consultation. The 
wild and lonely aspect of the country around them, their 
distance from any point of support, with the certainty of 
their being in the presence of a superior enemy, seems to 
have inspired a portion of seriousness, bordering upon awe. 
All eyes were now turned upon Boone, and Colonel Todd 
asked his opinion as to what should be done. The veteran 
woodsman, with his usual unmoved gravity, replied: 

"That their situation was critical and delicate; that the 
force 0[>posed to them was undoubtedly numerous and 
ready for battle, as might readily be seen from the leisurely 
retreat of the few Indians who had appeared upon the 
crest of the hill; that he was well ac([uainted with the 
ground in the neighborhood of the lick, and was appre- 

88 HigTORF OF LEXINGTON. [1782. 

hensive that an ambuscade was formed at the distance of 
a mile in advance, where two ravines, one upon each side 
of the ridge, ran in such a manner, that a concealed enemy- 
might assail them at once, both in front and flank, before 
they were apprised of the danger. 

"It would be proper, therefore, to do one of two things. 
Either to await the arrival of Logan, who was now un- 
doubtedly on his march to join them, or if it was deter- 
mined to attack without delay, that one-half of their num- 
ber should march up the river, which there bends in an 
elliptical form, cross at the rapids, and fall upon the rear of 
the enemy, while the other division attacked in front. At 
any rate, he strongly urged the necessity of reconnoitering 
the ground carefully before the main body crossed the 

Such was the counsel of Boone. And although no meas- 
ure could have been much more disastrous than that which 
was adopted, yet it may be doubted if anything short of 
an immediate retreat upon Logan, could have saved this 
gallant body of men from the fate which they encountered. 
If they divided their force, the enemy, as in Estill's case, 
might have overwhelmed them in detail ; if they remained 
where they were, without advancing, the enemy would cer- 
tainly have attacked th-em, probably in the night, and with 
a certainty of success. They had committed a great error 
at first, in not waiting for Logan, and nothing short of a 
retreat, which would have been considered disgraceful, 
could now repair it. 

Boone was heard in silence and with deep attention. 
Some wished to adopt the first plan; others preferred the 
second; and the discussion threatened to be drawn out to 
some length, when the boiling ardor of McGary, who coald 
never endure the presence of an enemy without instant 
battle, stimulated him to an act, which had nearly proved 
distructive to all. He suddenly interrupted the consulta- 
tion with an Indian war whoop, spurred his horse into the 

♦Bradford and McClung. 


stroain. ami shouted aloud, " Let all who are not cowards, 
follow me." 

The rasliness of McGary was contagious. He was fol- 
lowed in quick succession by the whole party, who crossed 
the river in great disorder and confusion, whilst the officers 
were relnctantly borne along in the tumult. After cross- 
ing the river, no authority was exercised, nor any order 
observed in the line of march, but every one rushed for- 
ward, tumultuously pursuing the road over the rocks to 
the end of the ridge of hills, where a forest of oaks and deep 
ravines, with underwood, concealed the enemy from view, 
who awaited in their ambuscade to receive them. 

McGary lead the van of the army, closely followed by 
Major Ilarlan and Captain William McBride, supported by 
the men on horseback. They reached the spot mentioned 
by Boone, where the two ravines head on each side of the 
ridge, when Girty, with a clidsen part of his tawny host, 
rushed forward from their covert, and with horrid shrieks 
and yells, attacked them with great impetuosity. The con- 
flict instantly became hot and sanguinar3\ The advan- 
tageous position occupied by the Indians enabled them to 
assail the whole of the whites at the same moment. The 
officers suflered dreadfully, and many were already killed. 

The Indians gradually extended their line to turn the 
right of the Kentnckians and cut off their retreat. This 
was quickly perceived by the weight of the fire from that 
quarter, and the rear instantly fell back in disorder, and 
attempted to rush through their only opening to the river. 
The motion quickly communicated itself to the van, and a 
hurried retreat became general. The Indians instantly 
sprung forward in pursuit, and falling upon them with their 
tomahawks, made a cruel slaughter. From the battle- 
ground to the river, the spectacle was terrible. The horse- 
men generally escaped, but the foot, particularly the van, 
which had advanced farthest within the wings of the net, 
were almost totally destroyed. Colonel Boone, after wit- 
nessing the death of his son and many of his dearest friends, 
found hini:<elf almost entirely surrounded at the very com- 
mencement of the retreat. 


Several hundred Indians were between him and the ford, 
to which the great mass of fugitives were bending their 
flight, and to which the attention of the savages was prin- 
cipally directed. Being intimately acquainted with the 
ground, he, together with a few friends, dashed into the 
ravine which the Indians had occupied, but which most of 
them had now left to join in the pursuit. After sustain- 
ing one or two heavy tires, and baffling one or two small 
parties, who pursued him for a short distance, he crossed 
the river below the ford, by swimming, and entering the 
wood at a point where there was no pursuit, returned by a 
circuitous route to Bryant's station. In the mean time, the 
great mass of the victors and vanquished crowded the bank 
of the ford. 

The slaughter was great in the river. The ford was 
crowded with horsemen and foot and Indians, all mingled 
together. Some were compelled to seek a passage above 
by swimming; some, who could not swim, were overtaken 
and killed at the edge of the water. One of the Lexington 
militia, by the name of Benjamin Netherland, who had 
formerly been strongly suspected of cowardice, here dis- 
played a coolness and presence of mind equally noble and 
unexpected. Being finely mounted, he had outstripped the 
great mass of fugitives, and crossed the river in safety. A 
dozen or twenty horsemen accompanied him, and having 
placed the river between them and the enemy, showed a 
disposition to continue their flight without regard to the 
safety of their friends who were on foot and still strug- 
gling with the current. Netherland instantly checked his 
horse, and in a loud voice, called his companions to halt, 
fire upon the Indians, and save those still in the stream. 
The party instantly obeyed, and, facing about, poured a 
close and fatal discharge of rifles upon the foremost of the 
pursuers. The enemy instantly fell back from the opposite 
bank, and gave time to the harassed and miserable footmen to 
cross in safety.* The check was, however, but momentary, 
The Indians were seen crossing in great numbers above and 

♦Bradford's Notes. 

1782.] AARON REYNOLDS. 91 

below, and the flight again became genorah Most of the 
footmen lett the great butfalo track, and plunging into the 
thickets, escaped by a circuitous route to Bryant's station. 

But little loss was sustained after crossing the river, 
although the pursuit was urged keenly for twenty miles. 
From the battle ground to the ford the loss was very heavy, 
and at tiiat stage of the retreat, there occurred a rare and 
striking instance of magnanimity, which it would be crimi- 
nal to omit.* Aaron Reynolds, already famous for his 
reply to Girty at Bryant's station, after bearing his share 
in the action with distinguished gallantry, was galloping 
with several other horsemen in order to reach the ford. 
The great body of fugitives had preceded them, and their 
situation was in the highest degree critical and dangerous. 
About half way between the battle-ground and the river, 
the party overtook Colonel Patterson, of Lexington, on foot, 
exhausted by the ra|)idity of the flight, aud in consequence 
of former wounds received from the Indians, so intirm as 
to be unable to keep up with the main body of the men on 
foot. The Indians were close behind him, and his fate 
seemed inevitable. Reynolds, upon coming up with this 
brave officer, instantly sprung from his horse, aided Patter- 
sou to mount into the saddle, and continued his own flight 
on foot. Being remarkably active and vigorous, he con- 
trived to elude his pursuers, and turning oft from the main 
road, plunged into the river near the spot where Boone 
had crossed, aud swam in safety to the opposite side. Un- 
fortunately, he wore a pair of buckskin breeches, which 
had become so heavy and full of water as to prevent his 
exerting himself with his usual activity, and while sitting 
down for the purpose of pulling them oft*, he was overtaken 
by a party of Indians, and made prisoner. 

A prisoner is rarely put to death by the Indians, unless 
wounded or infirm, until they return to their own country; 
and then his late is decided in solemn council. Young 
Reynolds, therefore, was treated kindly, and compelled to 
accompany his captors in the pursuit. A small party of 



Kentuckians soon attracted their attention, and he was 
left in charge of three Indians, who, eager in pursuit, in 
turn committed him to the charge of one of their number, 
w^hile they followed their companions. Reynolds and his 
guard jogged along very leisurely; the former totally un- 
armed; the latter, with a tomahawk and rifle in his hands. 
At length the Indian stopped to tie his moccasin, when 
Eeynolds instantly sprung upon him, knocked him down 
with his fist, and quickly disappeared in the thicket which 
surrounded them. For this act of generosity. Captain Pat- 
terson afterward made him a present of two hundred acres 
of first rate land. 

Late in the evening of the same day, most of the survivors 
arrived at Bryant's station; but many familiar forms were 
missing. Colonel John Todd, of Lexington, had fallen fight- 
ing to the last, with the blood flowing from many a wound. 
Colonel Stephen Trigg, Miijors Silas Harlan, Edward Bulger, 
Captains John Gordon and William McBride, together with 
Isaac Boone, son of Colonel Daniel Boone, had all fallen.'*' 
Sixty men had been killed in the battle and flight, and 
seven had been taken prisoners,! part of whom were after- 
wards put to death by the Indians, as was said, to make 
their loss even. This account, however, appears very im- 
probable. It is almost incredible that the Indians should 
have suflered an equal loss. Their superiority of numbers, 
their advantage of position (being in a great measure shel- 
tered, while the Kentuckians, particularly the horsemen, 
were much exposed), the extreme brevity of the battle, and 
the acknowledged bloodiness of the pursuit, all tend to con- 
tradict the report that the Indian loss exceeded that of the 

At Lexington, Boone tells us, " many widows were made," 
and the whole station was given up to the most frantic 
grief. It was the same at Bryant's station, and soon the 
melancholy news spread throughout the country and the 
whole district of Kentucky was covered with mourning for 
many a long and dreary day. Colonel Logan, after being 

♦Bradford. tBradford. 


joined by many of the friends of the killed and missing 
from Lexington and Bryant's station, continued his march 
to the battle-ground, with the hope that success would em- 
bolden the enemy, and induce them to remain until his 

On the second day after the battle, in solemn silence the 
whole party reached the field. The enemy were gone, but 
the bodies of the Kentuckians still lay unburied on the spot 
where they had fallen. Immense flocks of buzzards were 
soaring over the battle ground, and the bodies of the dead 
had become so much swollen and disfigured, that it was im- 
possible to recognize the features of the most particular 
friends. Many corpses were floating near the shore of the 
northern bank, already putrid from the action of the sun, 
and partially eaten by fishes.* The whole were carefully 
collected by order of Colonel Logan, and interred as de- 
cently as the nature of the soil would permit. Being sat- 
isfied that the Lidians were by this time, far beyond his 
reach, he then retraced his steps to Bryant's station, and 
dismissed his men. 

The fatal battle of the Blue Licks like the massacre 
of Wyoming and Braddock's defeat, which it so much 
resembled, brought misery and slaughter when least ex- 
pected, and like them, will be read of with increasing in- 
terest as time advances. The last great blow struck by the 
Indian for the recovery of his favorite hunting grounds, 
will become adorned by age, with a golden halo of roman- 
tic attractions not less bright than that which now encir- 
cles the last struggle of the chivalric old Moors for the 
possession of Spain. 

The women of Lexington — women like the one who 
came to the rescue of the dying hunter at the gate of the 
fort — were not idle during this time of siege, and battle, 
and retreat. With tearful hearts, but brave words, they 
hastened on their husbands and brothers to the aid of Bry- 
ant's station, and with but feeble help, guarded the fort 
until relieved by the footmen who escaped from the savages 

*Bradford'8 Notes. ^ 


who surrounded that apparently doomed place.* They 
tenderly dressed the wounds of the brave fugitives with 
many a thought of Kuddell's and Martin's station, shud- 
dering at the sound of the distant war whoop, and praying 
for the defeat of the savage army. The seige was raised. 
Elated with success, the settlers, young and old, abandoned 
Lexington to join the force now wild to pursue the In- 
dians; and again the fort was left to be garrisoned this 
time, almost entirely, by the brave women wlio were fit 
companions of the men who charged through twenty times 
their number, to aid the little band in Bryant's station. Who 
can picture the hours of watchfulness and solicitude, the 
alarms, the terror, and the heroic conduct of these true, de- 
voted, and undaunted mothers of Lexington, while dis- 
charging their sublime duty. The pioneer women of Lex- 
ington, may we not class them with the patriotic women 
of the Revolution ? Were the women of old colonial Lex- 
ington stouter-hearted than those of the Lexington of the 
savage wilderness? 

" The mothers of our forest land, 

Their bosoms pillowed men ; 
And proud were they by such to stand 

In hammock, fort or glen. 
To load the sure old rifle, 

To run the leaden ball. 
To watch a battling husband's place, 

And fill it, should he fall." t 

One of the most thrilling and remarkable incidents in 
the entire history of border life and warfare, occurred at 
this time.| A settler named James Morgan, with more 
daring than prudence, lived with his wife and one infant 
child in a cabin outside the fort at Bryant's station. When 
he discovered the presence of the Indians by their firing on 
the fort, he raised one of the slabs of the cabin floor, con- 
cealed his wife under it, strung his baby to his back, and 
unbarred the door to escape. As he bounded out he was 
attacked by several Indians. He killed two of them and 

*^radford. tW. D. Gallagher. J Western Monthly, 1833. 


outstripped the rest, but an Indian dog pursued him witla 
all the ferocity of a wild cat; he finally succeeded in kill- 
ing him: and then looking back for the first time, saw his 
cabin and part of the station in flames. In agony at the 
imjDeudiiig fate of his tenderly beloved wife, but utterly 
unable to assist her, he w^atched his burning dwelling until 
he was on the point of being captured, when he again re- 
treated, and finally arrived at Lexington. 

When the Indians raised the seige he left his baby in the 
care of one of the s^'mpathizing women in Lexington 
station, and hastened witli a throbbing heart to the spot 
where his cabin had so lately stood. He found a heap of 
ashes, some smoldering embers, and a few poor charred 
bones which he reverently gathered and buried, almost in- 
sane with grief and the desire for revenge. He went to 
the Blue Licks, and while rushing into the midst of the 
conflict, he saw an Indian wearing a handkerchief which 
he recognized as his wife's. He raised his rifle and killed 
him with savage joy. During the retreat he was wounded, 
and after dragging himself some distance from the scene 
of conflict, he had laid himself down to die, when he was 
discovered and rescued by the wife he had mourned as 
dead. It turned out that the Indians who rushed into his 
cabin after his escape, quarreled over the little spoil in it, 
got to fighting, and one of them was killed. In her fright, 
Mrs. Morgan screamed, was discovered, and was carried a 
captive along with the retreating savages, but managed to 
escape, and at once set out to find her husband and child. 
The bones found and buried by Morgan, were those of the 
Indian who was killed by his comrades. 

Clark and retribution followed the Indiana after the 
battle of the Blue Licks, as Sullivan and extermination fol- 
lowed them after the massacre of Wyoming. The call of 
the Lion of Kentucky for troops was promptly answered 
by a thousand mounted riflemen, a number of whom were 
from Lexington, and in September, after a rapid march 
under their brilliant leader, they penetrated the heart of 


the Indian country.* Five of the Chillicothe towns, where 
the savages had gathered before starting to Bryant's station, 
were reduced to ashes, their crops were destroyed, the 
country for miles around made desolate, and such of the 
swiftly-fleeing Indians as were overtaken met with no 
quarter at the hands of the enraged avengers of the pioneers 
who were slaughtered at the Blue Licks. The Indians 
were disheartened. They had dealt their heaviest blow, 
and it had rebounded against themselves. They now dis- 
paired of ever recovering Kentucky, and no great body of 
them ever after invaded the state. But though they came 
not with an army, the rifle, tomahawk, and scalping knife 
of the plundering and murdering Indian was not yet en- 
tirely banished from the now truly Dark and Bloody 

Lexington station gained another school-teacher this 
year, in the person of John Filson, the author, in 1784, of 
the first history ever written of Kentucky. He afterward 
gave to Cincinnati her first name, "Losantiville." Filson 
was an early adventurer with Daniel Boone, and after the 
discoverer of Kentucky returned to Lexington, in October, 
from the Chillicothe towns, Filson wrote, at his dictation, the 
only narrative of his life extant from the old pioneer's own 
lips. This narrative was indorsed at the time by James 
Harrud, Levi Todd, and Boone himself. Filson taught in 
Lexington for several years, and did no little to secure the 
early organization of Transylvania Seminary.f He was 
killed by the Indians near Cincinnati, in 1789. 

In the November after the Blue Lick's massacre. Colonel 
Thomas Marshall, surveyor of Fayette county, opened an 
office in Lexington, and a calamitous scramble for land re- 
commenced. J Colonel Marshall was a Virginian, had dis- 
tinguished himself in the war of the Revolution, and soon 
became one of the leading citizens of Kentucky. 

*Butler and Marshall. tOld Gazette. JButler. 



Peace— McKinney and the Wild Cat— The Old Fort— Lot 
Owners and Early Settlers — Christopher Greenwp, Humph- 
rey 3IarshaU, John Sharp, Robert Todd, John Cariy, Sen., 
Benjamin Howard, William Dudley, William Russell. 

On the 20th of January, 1783, nostilities ceased between 
the armies of the United States and England, and the news 
was received with great joy by the settlers in Fayette 
county. This much desired event did not necessarily bring 
with it secuuity from the Indians, but the pioneers hoped 
it would. At any rate Clark had demoralized the savages, 
80 that this year was one of comparative peace. The Lexing- 
ton settlers Avere now, for the first time, encouraged to build 
cabins outside the walls of the fort, and the land which they 
had bought with the heavy price of blood and suffering 
they commenced to occupy and improve. Some attention 
could now be paid to gardening; vegetables and other 
comforts of civilized life began to appear. The live stock, 
unmolested by the Indians, fattened and multiplied, and 
the settlers, free from the prison-like restraints of the fort, 
felt a new pleasure in life. 

A log school-house, located on Cheapside, was one of the 
first buildings erected outside of the fort walls, and here, 
early one morning in June,* Mr. John McKinney, the 
teacher, became the hero of a now celebrated combat. He 
was sitting at his rude desk waiting for the appearance of 
his little band of pupils, when a wild cat of uncommon size 
made its appearance at the door, and, without seeming 'to 
notice him, suddenly leaped into the room, snapping its 
jaws and foaming at the mouth. On observing it, his first 

•Western Review. 


thought was, what fine s[)ort it might aflbrd him, if he had 
a good dog and the door was closed. 

But, to his great surprise, on casting its eyes around and 
seeing him, instead of precipitately retreating as he had 
expected, it advanced toward him in a menacing manner. 
He instantly reached forward to a table near him, and at- 
tempted to grasp a ruler, but before he had obtained it, 
the animal was upon him, and seized him by the teeth 
on the collar bone near his throat. With some difficulty, 
by striking at it upward under his jacket, he relieved 
himself from this grasp, but the enraged animal instantly 
caught him by the right side, and, with its long crooked 
tusks, pierced through his clothes, and penetrated between 
his ribs, where it held him so fast that he found it impossi- 
ble to extricate himself. At the same time its sharp claws 
were employed with astonishing rapidity in cutting off his 
clothes, and tearing the flesh from his side. From its sit- 
uation he was unable to strike it with any considerable 
force, but, in the eflbrt, only wounded his own hand against 
the table. Finding he could do nothing in that way, he 
seized the animal with both arms, brought its hinder part 
between his thighs, and pressed it with all his force against 
the table. It struggled violently, and fearing it might es- 
cape from his grasp and again attack bim with its claws, 
he now for the first time made an exclamation, in the hope 
that some one might come to his relief. The ladies, who 
were engaged near the place milking their cows, were most 
of them alarmed at the cry, and ran precipitately into the 
fort, exclaiming that something was killing Mr. McKinney 
in the school-house. Three of them, however, Mrs. Mas- 
_^, terson, Mrs. Collins, and Miss Thompson, being less timid 
than the rest, ran toward the house, and after some delib- 
eration among themselves as to who should venture to look 
in first, entered the door. Mr. McKinney, perceiving that 
they were females, and knowing Mrs. Masterson to be in a 
delicate state of health, was fearful of alarming them, and, 
notwithstanding his own dreadful situation, assumed an air 
of composure, and, with a smile, observed : " Do n't be 
alarmed, it is only a cat I have caught, and I want some 


person to assist me in killing it." He was thus careful not 
to inform them, as he might have done with far greater 
correctness, that the cat had caught him. The ladies then 
boldly advanced toward him, and one of them, stooping 
down and observing the size of the animal, exclaimed, 
" what a monster !" ran to the door and called a gentleman 
who happened to be passing by. He came in, and proposed 
cutting off the claws of the cat, but Mr. McKinney, per- 
ceiving it to lie perfectly still, concluded he had killed it, 
which, on rising, he found to be the fact. They then en- 
deavored to draw out the animal's teeth from Mr. McKin- 
ney's side, but finding them so hooked in between the ribs 
that they could not extricate them, the whole party left the 
school-house, and advanced toward the fort, to which, by 
this time, the alarmed and excited people were rushing in 
crowds, under the impression that the Indians were about 
to attack the place. After reaching the fort, new efforts 
were made to relieve Mr. McKinney from the tusks of the 
cat, which were at lengtli rendered successful by placing its 
head in the same position as when it made the attack. 

Notwithstanding his wounds, Mr. McKinney attended 
his school that morning, but at noon found himself so ex- 
hausted, and his pain so extreme, that he was compelled to 
dismiss his scholars and resort to his bed. By proper ap- 
plications, however, he was soon relieved; his wounds 
healed rapidly and his usual health was speedily restored. 
McKinney afterward settled in Bourbon county, and lived 
to a green old age, and the account here given is au almost 
verbatim statement made by him in 1820. 

The alarm occasioned by the wild cat's attack upon Mc- 
Kinney was the last one that ever brought the garrison 
together in arms within the fort. The block-house re- 
mained standing for several years after this, however, as 
the settlers never knew at what time they might need the 
protection of its friendly walls. At last, the only vestige 
of the "Old Lexington Fort" went down before the power 
of advancing civilization, but the memory of the trials and 
sufieriugs endured within it, recollections of Boone, Ken- 
ton, Harrod, G. Rogers Clark, Patterson, Todd, and many 


Others it had sheltered, and remembrances of the days of 
grief and anguish that huog like a pall over all its inmates 
after the bloody ambuscade at the Blue Licks, consecrated 
it till death in the hearts of the pioneers of Lexington. 

In this year (1783), the trustees reserved three lots 
" where the garrison stands," for public use, and other lots 
were disposed of to the following persons,* viz : Humphrey 
Marshall, Benjamin Netherland, Caleb Williams, Robert 
Todd, John Carty, Martin Dickinson, Samuel January, 
Christopher Greenup, Wm. Anderson, John Sharp, Thomas 
Marshall, Patrick Owens, Robert Parker, Valentine Dick- 
inson, Widow McDonald, Christopher Kirtner, George 
Shepherd, John Mikins, Archibald Dickinson, Andrew 
Steele, John McDowell, William Steele, Stoffre Zunwalt, 
James Mitchell, Benjamin Haydon, Jane Todd, David 
Blanch ard. Widow Kirtner, Amor Batterton, John Brooke, 
Matthew Patterson, William Galloway, Adam Zunwalt, 
Jacob Zunwalt. 

The names of many of these lot owners are linked with 
the history of the state. Christopher Greenup, who had 
been a soldier in the war of the Revolution, settled in Ken- 
tucky, together w^ith many of his comrades in arms, at the 
close of that struggle. When he located in Lexington, he 
had just been sworn in as an attorney at law in the old dis- 
trict court. He was elected governor of Kentucky in 1804, 
and died in 1818.t 

Humphrey Marshall, eminent in his day as a land lawyer, 
represented Fayette in the Danville convention of 1787, and 
in the Virginia convention which ratified the constitution 
of the United States. His duel with Mr. Clay is well known. 
He subsequently removed to Franklin county, and was long 
one of its most distinguished citizens. After having served 
as United States Senator, he published a well-known and 
greatly esteemed, though rather partisan history of Ken- 
tucky. He died at the residence of his son, Thomas A. 
Marshall, in Lexington. | 

Major Ben. ISTetherland, named in the above list of lot- 

*Trustees' Book. tCollins, 332. JCollins, 317. 


owners, who had made himself noted by his gallant con- 
duct at the Blue Licks battle, was born in Powhatan county, 
Virginia, on the 27th day of February, 1755. During the 
war of the Revolution he volunteered his services as a 
private soldier in the army of the South, under General 
Lincoln, and was taken a prisoner of war at the siege of 
Savannah, where he was kept in close coiifinenient for ten 
months. At the end of this time he made his escape, but 
was retaken again as a prisoner of war, and confined at San 
Augustine, a British post in Florida. Whilst the American 
army was in full retreat from Savannah, he again attempted 
to make his escape, and was successful. He joined the 
army at Beaufort, in South Carolina. After he had served 
twelve months as a private soldier, he was promoted to a 
lieutenancy. He came to Kentucky in 1781, settled at Lex- 
ington station, and became a prominent actor in all the In- 
dian wars that for so long a time deluged Kentucky in 
blood. He finally removed to Jessamine county, where he 
died, in October, 1838, and was buried with the honors of 

John Sharp, whose son was afterward jailer of Fayette 
county, was one ot the Lexington militia ambuscaded at 
Bryant's station. He was pursued by several Indians, but 
managed to keep them at bay with his rifle, until he es- 
caped in a cane thicket. 

Robert Todd was senator from Fayette in the first ses- 
sion of the legislature; was for a long time circuit judge, 
and held other important positions. 

John Carty, Sen., was born in 1764,tin Burlington, New 
Jersey, of which place his parents were old citizens. His 
young school-days were interrupted by the bloody struggle 
of the colonists for independence, and while yet a boy, at 
the age of seventeen, he assisted at the repulse of the Brit- 
ish at Springfield, in his native state, and shortly after 
shared in the campaign which ended in tlie defeat and sur- 
render of Cornwallis. At the close of the war he joined 
the host of westward bound emigrants, and settled perma- 

*01d Kentucky Statefiman. fFamily Eecord. 


neutly at " Lexington station," together with a number of 
his comrades in arms. His wife, Mary Ayers, was born 
near Annapolis, Maryland. 

The freaks of fortune are marvelous. Shortly after his 
arrival, the young settler was ofl'ered a large tract of land 
comprising several " outlots," then thickly covered with 
cane and forest trees, in exchange for his well-worn old 
fashioned "bull's eye" watch; but, as the ancient time- 
piece had been his father's, and as he had already one lot 
to improve, he refused to exchange it for " cheap cane- 
brakes."* Much of the best part of Hill street now occu- 
pies the refused "canebrakes," and is valued at several 
hundred thousand dollars. 

John Carty, Sen., was one of the organizers of the 
"Society of the Cincinnati," established at a very early 
day in Lexington, by citizens who had participated in the 
Revolutionary war;f and he and the elegant and amiable 
Waldemarde Mentelle, Sen., introduced into Kentuck)' the 
manufacture of earthenware,;!: which, in that day of slab 
tables, wooden spoons, and horn cups, was welcomed with 
gratitude by the pioneers, and soon became an important 
branch of trade. John Carty, Sen., was with General 
Anthony Wayne in his celebrated Indian campaign oi 
1794, and participated in the decisive victory of August 20, 
near the river Miami of the lakes. During that war, he 
was sergeant of a company of which the afterward " Gen- 
eral" Harrison was then lieutenant. Mr. Carty lived to 
see an elegant and flourishing city take the place of the 
canebrakes and the old fort. He died at his residence in 
Lexington, November 25, 1845, at the green old age of 
eighty-one, and was buried in the family lot in the Episco- 
pal Cemetery. He was raiourned by a multitude of friends, 
by whom he had long been greatly beloved and respected. 
One of his sons, Henry Carty, died a glorious death on the 
bloody field of Buena Vista, and now sleeps under the 
shadow of the state military monument at Frankfort. 

John Carty, the successful merchant and true man, who 

•Old Inhabitants. tOld. Gazette. JS. D. McCuUough. 


died April 8, 1867, was another son, whose rare sagacity and 
noble qualities will long be remembered by Lexington. 

Benjamin Howard, a native of Goochland county, Vir- 
ginia, was another soldier of the Revolution, who settled in 
Fayette about the year 1783. He received five wounds at 
the battle of Guilford Court-house. One of his dauo^htera 
was the first wife of Robert Wicklifie, Sen., and his only 
son, Benjamin, was governor of Missouri. This venerable 
pioneer died at the extraordinary age of one hundred and 
three years, in Lexington, at the residence of Major Wool- 
ley (who married a grand-daughter), after having been a 
member of the Presbyterian Church for upward of eighty 

Colonel William Dudley, of Spottsylvania county, Vir- 
ginia, emigrated to Kentucky when quite young, and 
settled at an early date in Fajette. His tragic fate is well 
known. He served under General Harrison in the cam- 
paign of 1813, as colonel of Kentucky militia. On the 5th 
of May in that year, he was sent with some raw troops to 
silence a British battery opposite Fort Meigs. He suc- 
ceeded in spiking the guns, and then, in a moment of rash 
gallantry, attacked some troops in the vicinity, was sur- 
rounded by the Indians, and terribly defeated. Weak and 
disabled by wounds. Colonel Dudley defended himself des- 
perately against a swarm of savages who closed in upon 
him. He fell at last, and his body was mutilated in a most 
barbarous manner.f The disastrous fate of this brave man 
and his command will cause "Dudley's defeat" to be long 
remembered by Kentuckians. 

Colonel WilUam Russell, one of the most distinguished 
of the settlers of Fayette county, arrived in 1783. He was 
a native of Culpepper county, Virginia, and was born in 
1758. He served his country well in the revolutionary 
struggle, and bore a valiant part in the glorious and deci- 
sive victory of King's Mountain. After removing to Ken- 
tucky, he successively held posts of danger and honor un- 
der Scott, Wilkinson, and Wayne, in their expeditions 
against the Indians ; was made colonel in the regular 

*CollinB. tCombs and Collins. 


army ; was a prominent actor on the bloody field of Tippe- 
canoe; was assigned the command of the frontier of In- 
diana, Illinois, and Missouri, and led several successful ex- 
peditions against the Indians. He represented Fayette 
repeatedly in the legislature, and was always one of her 
most useful and honored citizens. liussell county, in this 
state, was, with great propriety, named in his honor.* 
Colonel liussell died, July 3, 1825, at his old home in the 
county he had served so well. 




The Village of Lexington — Fiist Dry Goods Store — A Dis- 
ciple of Tom Paine — The First General Election — James 
Wilkinson — John Coburn — First Presbyterian Church — The 
Rankin Schism — Pastors — Church Edifices — Incidents. 

By this time (1784), Lexington had assumed the appear- 
ance of a frontier village. The few cabins which existed, 
were all log ones, and very much scattered ; Main street 
was extended a short distance through and beyond the fort, 
in the direction of the present Lexington Cemetery, but it 
was sadly obstructed by roots and stumps, and in bad 
weather was almost impassable ; the favorite paths of the 
settlers were "traces" made as hard as modern roads, by 
the wild animals which had traveled over them for centu- 
ries. There was a one-story log school-house, but no church 
building, and most of the present city was then occupied 
by groves, corn-fields, cow pastures, and patches of cane. 
But the coming and going of emigrants made the village 
look lively in spite of disadvantages, and as the emigrants 
frequently brought with them articles much needed by the 
settlers, and as game was abundant, and the soil was being 
successfully cultivated, the inhabitants began to live better, 
and they even found time for amusements. Trials of skill 
with the rifle, horse and foot races, and dancing were the 
pastimes, as most of them are yet, in modern Lexington; 
'•house raisings" are not to be forgotten, nor "fives," nor 
" long bullets," a game in which the sturdy settlors vied 
with each other, in efibrts to jerk a cannon bail to the 
greatest distance. Much to the delight of the inhabitants, 
particularly the female portion, that extraordinary and 
welcome novelty, a dry goods store, was opened in the vil- 


lage by General James Wilkinson, in the spring of 1784.* 
It was the second one of the kind opened in Kentucky, 
and the gaudy calico and other " store iinery," gave im- 
mense satisfaction. The goods came from Philadelphia to 
Pittsburg by wagon, from thence by iiat-boat to " Lime- 
stone," now Maysville, and from thence to Lexington on 
pack horses, which traveled slowly in single file over the 
narrow " trace " which connected the two settlements. 

A novel trial took place in the village of Lexington, in 
the latter part of May, 1784, caused by the appearance of 
a disciple of Tom Paine, named Galloway, who propagated 
the doctrine of his master, that Virginia had no right to 
the lands of Kentucky, which ought to be taken possession 
of by Congress. Encouraged by Galloway, several persons 
actually took preliminary steps toward appropriating their 
neighbors lands, under an act of Congress which he assured 
them would soon be passed. A great hubbub was the re- 
sult, and Galloway was arrested ; but upon what ground 
could he be punished, was the perplexing question. For- 
tunately, after much searching, an old law of Virginia was 
found, which inflicted a penalty in tobacco at the discre- 
tion of the court, upon the " propagation of false news, to 
the disturbance of the good people of the colony." Gal- 
loway was quickly fined a thousand pounds of tobacco, but 
as it was impossible to get so much tobacco at that time in 
Kentucky, he had a fine chance to spend some time in the 
stocks. At last he was let off on condition that he would 
leave the district, which he joyfully did without loss of 

During the summer, at the suggestion of prominent cit- 
izens of Kentucky, the militia companies of Fayette and 
of the other counties of the district each elected a delegate 
to meet in convention, at Danville, to consider the subject 
of self-defense,:|: as it was believed at that time that the 
Indians were preparing to again invade Kentucky. The 
election was accordingly held, and the convention met, 

♦Marshall. Tld- Jld- 


December 27, 1784. This convention proved to be the 
entering wedge to separation from Virginia. 

General James Wilkinson, whom we have already men- 
tioned as having settled in Lexington this year, was prob- 
ably the most eminent of the many distinguished officers 
and soldiers of the Revolution, who had so much to do with 
the rapid advancement which Lexington made in refine- 
ment and intelligence. General Wilkinson was born in 
Maryland, in 1757. He went into the American army at 
the very commencement of the Revolution, and was ap- 
pointed captain when but eighteen. He served with Arnold 
in Canada, was on Gates' staff as lieutenant-colonel, was 
brevetted brigadier-general in 1777, was at the surrender of 
Burgoyne, and subsequently served in the legislature of 
Pennsylvania. When he came to Lexington, at the close 
of the war, he represented a large trading company formed 
in Philadelphia. From this time forward, he was one of 
the most energetic and influential of the leaders in the 
early civil and military conflicts of Kentucky. In 1784, 
he made a speech in Lexington, urging the immediate sep- 
aration of Kentucky from Virginia, headed the "country" 
party which favored it, strongly opposed the "court" 
party led by Colonel Thomas Marshall, and was twice a 
delegate from Fayette to Danville conventions. His ap- 
pearance at this time is thus described by one with whom 
he was by no means a favorite :* 

" A person not quite tall enough to be perfectly elegant, 
was compensated by its symmetry and appearance of health 
and strength. A countenance open, mild, capacious, and 
beaming with intelligence; a gait firm, manly, and facile; 
manners bland, accommodating, and popular; an address 
easy, polite, and gracious, invited approach, gave access, 
assured attention, cordiality, and ease. By these fair forms 
he conciliated; by these he captivated. The combined efl:*ect 
was greatly advantageous to the general on a first acquaint- 
ance, which a further intercourse contributed to modify." 
During the summer of 1787, General Wilkinson origi- 

*H. Marshall. 


nated and opened up trade between Lexington and New 
Orleans. He subsequently commanded successful expedi- 
tions against the Indians, was made brigadier of regular 
infantry, and commanded the right wing of "Wayne's army 
in the battle of the Maumee. In 1796, he was appointed 
general in chief of the northwestern army, and in 1806, 
governor of Louisiana Territory. It was while he occu- 
pied this last position, that he was charged with favoring 
Burr's designs to form a new empire, of which l!Tew Orleans 
was to be the capital, but an investigation demanded by 
himself cleared him of these allegations.* In 1816, he 
wrote his voluminous '' Memoirs," another example of his 
great physical and mental energies. This enterprising man 
and distinguished soldier, who did so much for the material 
welfare of Lexington, and reflected so much honor upon 
his adopted home, died near the city of Mexico, Decem- 
ber 28, 1825. General Wilkinson's residence in Lexington 
was on the site of the house now standing on the corner 
of Main and the alley next the negro Baptist church, 
between Broadway and Jefferson. 

The prospects of Lexington as a future mercantile point 
gave her another accession in 1784, in the person of Judge 
John Coburn, who afterward became an influential demo- 
cratic politician, judge of the territory of Michigan, and 
one of the most efficient political writers of his time in 
this state. He was a citizen of Lexington for ten years, 
during which he married Miss Mary Moss, of Fayette. He 
finally settled in Mason county, and died there in 1823.f 

The first Christian church established in Lexington was 
organized in 1784, by the Presbyterians,! who were more 
numerous in the village at that time than any other relig- 
ious people. They secured a lot and erected a log house 
of worship, on the southeastern corner of Walnut and 
Short streets, where city school No. 1 now stands, and 
called to the pastorate of the church, the Rev. Adam 
Rankin, of Augusta county, Virginia, who arrived early in 
October of the same year (1784). The church was first 

*Am. Ency. tBishop and Davidson. JId. 


known as "Mount Zion," but is now more generally recog- 
nized as " Mr. Rankin's Church." 

Mr. Rankin's call was the signal for strife. The Pres- 
byterian churches at that time were convulsed with dis- 
putes upon Psalmody, one party strongly claiming that the 
literal version of the old Psalms of David should be used, 
and the others as stoutly demanding the version of Dr. 
Watts. Mr. Rankin was a declared enemy of the Watts' 
version, and finding it in use in Mount Zion church on his 
arrival, labored earnestly for its expulsion. In course of 
time, two parties were formed, and the congregation was 
soon in the same distracted condition as many bodies of 
their brethren. Finally, in 1789, charges were preferred 
against Mr. Rankin, before the presbytery of Transylvania, 
one of them being, that he had " debarred from the table 
of the Lord, such persons as approved Watts' psalmody." 
Mr. Rankin made a trip to London about this time, and 
his case was not tried until April, 1792, when he protested 
against the proceedings of the presbytery, and withdrew 
from it, carrying with him a majority of his congregation 
which sustained and indorsed his action, and claimed and 
held the meeting-house, on the corner of Walnut and Short. 
In May, 1793, Mr. Rankin and adherants joined the Asso- 
ciate Reformed Church, and remained connected with it 
for twenty-five years, but at the end of that time, broke 
ofi" from it and became independent. After Mr. Rankin 
resigned the pastorate of Mount Zion, in 1825, the church 
rapidly declined, and after struggling on for some years, 
finally became extinct. 

Mr. Rankin was a native of Pennsylvania, and was born 
in 1755. He graduated at Liberty Hall (now Washington 
and Lee University), in 1780, and two years after married 
Margaret McPheetors, of Augusta county, Virginia. He 
was a talented, intolerant, eccentric, and pious man, and 
was greatly beloved by his congregation, which cluno- to 
him with a devoted attachment through all his fortunes. 
After leaving Lexington, he set out on a tour to Jerusalem, 
but died on the way, in Philadelphia, jN'ovember 25, 1827. 

The party in Mr. Rankin's church favoring Watts' 


psalms, and adhering to the presbytery, gave up Mount 
Zion church to the seceders, and took " the new meeting- 
house," a half-finished frame building commenced some 
time before the church trouble had culminated. This edi- 
fice stood on the corner of Short and Mill streets, fronted 
on Mill, and the lot on which it stood, which had been 
"granted to the Frisbyierians,'"^ by the trustees of Lex- 
ington, extended back to the present Cheapside. The sub- 
scriptions for building this house were mostly paid in ba- 
con, hemp, and corn.f By 1795, through the exertions of 
Robert Patterson, John Maxwell, James Trotter, Robert 
Megowan, Robert Steel, and other members of the church, 
the building was put in a comfortable condition, and the Rev. 
James Welsh, of Virginia, was called to fill its pulpit, and 
was ordained the succeeding 3-ear first pastor]: of what is 
now called the First Presbyterian Church. Ministers of 
all churches were so poorly paid at that day, that most of 
them had to resort to other means than preaching to obtain 
a living. Mr. Welsh was no exception to the rule, and was 
obliged to practice medicine to support his family, and did 
so up to 1799, when he was appointed professor of languages 
in Transylvania University. In that year, also, the church 
edifice was further improved, a gallery was made, a cupola 
raised, and a bell hung. Mr. Welsh continued in the pas- 
torate of the church up to 1804, after which the pulpit was 
temporarily filled by Dr. James Blythe, then president of 
Transylvania University ; Rev. Robert Stuart, nearly forty 
years pastor at Walnut Hill, and the faithful and earnest 
John Lyle, all of whom served at different times until the 
installation of the second regular pastor, the Rev. Robert M. 
Cunningham, of Pennsylvania, in 1807. 

Just before Mr. Cunningham came, the church leased or 
sold its property on Mill and Short, and commenced the 
erection of a brick house of worship on the southwest 
corner of Broadway and Second streets. This house was 
opened and the pews rented in the summer of 1808.|| 

Mr. Cunningham remained in charge of the church until 

*Truslees' Book. tKentucky Gazette. |Diividsons. 

||01d Journal. 

1784.] PASTORS. HI 

1822. He died in Alab:ima, in 1839. Mr. Cunningham's 
pulpit was frequently tilled by Rev. William L. McCalla,then 
a young minister, and alno by Dr. John Poage Campbell. 
Mr. McC^allawas the son o^ that good man, Andrew MeCalla, 
of Lexington, Kentucky. He w^as at one time chaplain to 
the navy of the Republic of Texas, and was noted for his 
powers as a debater. Dr. Campbell (whose father was one 
of the early settlers of Lexington) was born in Virginia in 
1767, and lived to be one of the most brilliant and scholarly 
ministers of his church in Kentucky. Gifted as he was, he 
was compelled to eke out a living on a miserable salary, and 
at one time his family existed for six weeks on pumpkins 
only ; but so proud and sensitive was he, that the fact did 
not become known until accidentally discovered by his 
neighbors.* He died in 1814, from disease contracted by 
exposure while preaching. In 1815, the Second Presby- 
terian Church was founded, and its history will be found 
under that date. In July, 1817, during the pastorate of 
Mr. Cunningham, while the congregation was at worship, 
the church was struck by lightning, and two ladies were 

The Rev. Nathan Hall, of Garrard county, Kentucky, 
succeeded Mr. Cunningham in 1823. He was the initiator 
of the protracted meetings which resulted in the great re- 
vival of 1828, which gave the finishing blow to infidelity, 
which before that had been only too prevalent in Lexington. 
Mr. Hall was a powerful exhorter, and on one occasion, after 
several vigorous efforts, admitted over a hundred persons to 
the church. . Mr. Hall was pastor of the church for twenty- 
three years, during which time it greatly prospered ; but, 
unfortunately, just a little while before he resigned his 
charge, a number of his congregation became dissatisfied, 
seceded, and united with the McChord or Second Church. 
Mr. Hall died in Columbus, Missouri, June 22, 1858. 

Dr. Robert J. Breckinridge, long the most prominent 
mmister of the Presbyterian Church of Kentucky, followed 
Mr. Hall in 1847, and continued in the pastorate until 1853, 

*Diividson's llistory. 


when he removed to Danville, having been appointed pro- 
fessor in the Theological Seminary at that place. Dr. 
Breckinridge was a son of Hon.' John Breckinridge, and 
was born in Fayette county, Kentucky, March 8, 1800, 
graduated at Union College in 1819, commenced the prac- 
tice of law in Lexington in 1823, after which he repeatedly 
represented Fayette county in the Kentucky legislature. 
In 1828 he connected himself with the Second Presbyterian 
Church of Lexington, retired from political life, devoted 
himself to the study of theology, and in October, 1832, 
was ordained pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Baltimore, where he became distinguished as a minister, 
and noted for his anti-slavery views and for his bold and 
uncompromising opposition to Roman Catholicism. During 
his pastorate of the First Presbyterian Church of Lexing- 
ton, he wrote his wo?'k on the "Internal Evidences of 
Christianity," and a few years after, published his "Theol- 
ogy, Objectively and Subjectively Considered," which are 
considered his most able productions. At the beginning 
of the late war, Dr. Brecken ridge and others established 
the Danville Review, which strongly supported both the 
Federal Government and the General Assembly. Dr. 
B. died December 27, 1871, and was buried in the Lex- 
ington Cemetery. 

The successor of Dr. Breckinridge was Rev. J. D. Mat- 
thews, whose ministry was so acceptable to the congregation 
that he was for many years retained as pastor, and much 
beloved and esteemed. In 1853 he succeeded Dr. Breckin- 
ridge as Superintendent of Public Instruction. In 1857, 
while Dr. Matthews had charge of the church, the old 
house of worship, which had been used for fifty years, was 
torn down, and the building now owned and used by the 
Broadway Christian Church was built, and all went on 
harmoniously and prosperously until the beginning of the 
late war. All during the war, trouble was brewing from 
causes too recent to require mention, and resulted, at the 
close of that terrible struggle in an open rupture in both 
the First and Second Churches, and the formation of two 
congregations in each church. In tbe First Church, Dr. 

1784.] CHURCH EDIFICES. 113 

Matthews was the pastor of the Southern Assembly party, 
and Rev. R. Valentine pastor of that of the General As- 
sembly. In May, 1869, the difficulty was adjusted, and the 
church property distributed. The pastors of the several 
churches resigned. The two congregations adhering to 
the Southern Assembly united, and the other two adhering 
to the General Assembly did the same, forming two churches 
out of four. The property of the churches was valued and 
divided in proportion to membership. The Broadway 
property fell to the Southern Assembly party, now known 
as the First Church, and the Market street house to the 
General Assembly adherents, or the present Second Church. 
In March, 1870, Rev. William Dinwiddle, of Virginia, the 
present efficient and beloved pastor of the First Church, 
commenced his ministerial labors in Lexington. In May 
of the same year, the church on the corner of Second and 
Broadway was sold to the Christian congregation, and a 
new, large, and handsome edifice was commenced on Mill 
street, between Church and Second, and completed in the 
spring of 1872. 



Town Fork — Taverns — Streets — Electiojis — Bourbon County 
Created — Mrs. Vaughn, the First White Woman born in 

The state of affairs in Lexington, in tlie year 1785, may 
be inferred from a number of things. " Main Cross street," 
now Broadway, was opened. The trustees ordered '' ail 
cabins, cow-pens, and hog-pens to be removed from the 
streets."* Notice was given that all vacant lots would be 
reclaimed, " if not improved in one year by the erection 
of a good hewed log-house on the same."t Robert Parker 
was appointed the first surveyor of the town, and clerk of 
the trustees, and allowed four shillings and sixpence for 
every deed by him drawn."| Boys were prohibited from 
obstructing the "gangway" over Town Fork, when fishing 
in that stream, which was then of quite a respectable size, 
in fact, frequently when there was a " rise," it would cover 
the entire width of the present Vine and Water streets. 

The first tavern of which Lexington could boast, was 
opened about this time. It stood on West Main street, " be- 
tween Main Cross (Broadway), and the graveyard" (Baptist 
churchyard). A little swinging sign in front of the com- 
fortable size log-house bore the coat of arms of Virginia, 
and the ambitious announcement, " Entertainment for man 
and beast, by James Bray." 

The early taverns of Lexington were veritable old En- 
glish " Inns," with quaint signs, smiling bonifaces, and every- 
thing to match. Robert Megowan's tavern, sign of the 
" Sheaf of Wheat," was the second one built. It was atwo- 

♦Trustees' Book. tid. i'^^- 


story lofic-house, stood on Main street, between Upper and 
Limestone, occupying the site of the building now used by 
Thomas Bradley. In 1792, the first State Treasurer's office 
was temporarily in this tavern. These taverns were suc- 
ceeded by " The Buffalo," kept by John McNair, on Main 
street, opposite the present court-house, and Riser's" Indian 
Queen," which stood on the corner of Hill and Broadw^ay, 
on part of the lot now owned by Mr. John T. Miller. This 
"house of entertainment" was kept by the grandfather of 
our highly respected fellow-citizen, Mr. Ben. Kiser, now 
probably the oldest native resident of Lexington. Ayers' 
tavern, sign of the " Cross Keys," was on the corner of 
Spring and ^fain. Satterwhite's " Eagle" tavern was on 
Short, back of the court-house. Usher's " Don't Give up 
the Ship," stood on Short, near the Lusby house, and the 
noted old Brent tavern was on Jordan's Row, near the corner 
of Upper and Main. The Phoenix Hotel is the oldest house 
of entertainment now in existence in Lexington. It was 
first known about the year 1800, as " Postlethwaite's tavern," 
and then as "Wilson's." The famous Aaron Burr was its 
guest at one time during Wilson's proprietorship. His pres- 
ence was first detected by a young boy,* who saw him as 
he entered town on horseback, followed by his white man- 
servant, and recognized him by a wonderfully faithful rep- 
resentation he had seen of him in a collection of wax 
works exhibited in Lexington, a short time before. The 
tavern was next known as " Keene's," and then as " Postle- 
thwaite's and Brennan's," since which time it has been 
kept by Messrs. John Brennan, Chiles, Worley, Robinson, 
and others, and under the name of " Phoenix Hotel," has 
for many years been known far and wide. 

We might mention here, that Mill street, which was not 
opened for some time after "Main Cross," received its 
name from a cow-path which led out to a wind-mill, which 
stood near the present work-house. Limestone street was 
opened still later, and was so called from the fact that it 
was part of the road leading to " Limestone," now Mays- 

*Ben. Kiser. 


ville. This street is now inappropriately and unfortunatel}'^ 
called " Mulberry." 

A new county was created by Virginia, in 1785, out of 
the immense territory of Fayefete, and given the name of 
Bourbon. Two elections were also held in Fayette this 
year, to choose delegates to the second and third Danville 
conventions, which assembled in May and August respect- 
ively. The delegates elected to the second convention 
were: Robert Todd, James Trotter, Levi Todd, and Caleb 
Wallace. Those elected to the third one were: James 
Wilkinson, Levi Todd, Caleb Wallace, and Robert Pat- 

The first white woman born in the savage wilds of Ken- 
tucky hved for many years in Lexington. Here she died, 
and here she sleeps. Many now living still remember the 
venerable Mrs. Rhoda Vaughn, the first born of the wil- 
derness. She was the daughter of that Captain John 
Holder, spoken of by Boone in his narrative, as the man 
who pursued the Indians who had attacked Hoy's station 
in August, 1782. Captain Holder was one of the old pio- 
neer's earliest companions. He assisted in building and 
defending Boonesborough fort ; and within the palisades 
of that noted stronghold, and about the year 1776, his 
daughter, afterward Mrs. Vaughn, was born. Her earliest 
recollections were of savages, sufferings, alarms, and blood- 
shed ; and she passed her infant years in the midst of mem- 
orable sieges and desperate conflicts. When she grew to 
womanhood, and was married, her father started her in 
life with a home and servants, but she lost both in a few- 
years, by her husband's mismanagement, and after his 
death, times with her grew worse and worse. 

At a very early day, she settled in Fayette county, and 
subsequently made Lexington her home, and here she re- 
mained and raised her children. One of her sous was the 
gallant adjutant, Edward M. Vaughn, a Lexington volun- 
teer, who fell upon the bravely contested field of Buena 
Vista, in 18-17. His blood-soaked gauntlets were carried 
reverently to his mother, and they told at once, to her 
stricken heart, the same tragic and elorpient story that the 

1785.] MRS. VAUGHN. 117 

armless and battered shield expressed to the Spartan mother 
in the classic days of old. Other afflictions and misfortunes 
followed; and destitute and desolate, the brave old lady 
struggled on through a life, not unfrequently made brighter 
by kind and sympathetic friends. Mrs. Vaughn lived for 
some time in the residence lately occupied by Rev. J. D. 
^latthews, on "Winchester street, between Limestone and 
Walnut. She died, however, at the residence of Mrs. Susan 
Craig, on the south side of Short street, between George- 
town and Jefferson street, in the month of June, 18G3, aged 
about eighty-seven years, and was buried in the Whaley lot, 
in the Ei>iscopal Cemetery, where her remains still repose. 

The only relic of the venerable heroine known to be in 
existence is a patch-work quilt which she made with her 
own hands, and gave to a sympathetic lady of Lexington, 
who was a friend to her in her days of sorrow and af- 

That Mrs. Vaughn was the first white woman born in 
Kentucky, there can not be the slightest doubt; the fact is 
placed beyond dispute by the frequent declarations of many 
of the earliest settlers of this state to persons still livino*. 
Mrs. Vaughn, herself, always declared that she had never 
heard a statement to the contrary. 

Mrs. Vaughn was a woman of excellent mind, warm 
heart, and sincere piety; and neither her true pride, nor 
the beautiful characteristics of her christian life, were 
abated by her poverty and misfortunes. How strange were 
her experiences. The fate-star of sorrow, which beamed 
upon her birth, seemed ever to follow her with its saddening 
influence. She was born when the tomahawk and the torch 
were busiest; the hope of her declining years died upon a 
field of battle, and she breathed out her own life in the 
midst of a terrible civil war. Her parents helped to reclaim 
and settle an empire; their daughter died without a foot 
of land that she could call her own. "Will justice, even 
now, be done to her memory? Will the state appropriately 
mark the spot where rest the mortal remains of the first 
white woman boru in the now great Commonwealth of 



Baptist Church — Pastors — Incidents — The Creath, Fishback, 
and Pratt Troubles — Fires. 

The Baptists were the pioneers of religion in Kentucky, 
and were the most numeroub body of Christians in the early 
settlement of the state ; but, as we have seen, they were not 
the first to found a church in Lexington. But they were 
not far behind, for a little baud of them were meetiug, 
from house to house, as early as 1786,* and were frequently 
preached to by Elder Lewis Craig, who, in 1783, had organ- 
ized, in Fayette county, on South Elkhorn, the first wor- 
shiping assembly in the state.f This valiant soldier of the 
cross was born in Spottsylvauia county, Virginia, and was 
several times imprisoned, in the Old Dominion, for preach- 
ing contrary to law. He was greatly gifted as an exhorter, 
and his constant theme was, " practical godliness and every- 
day Christianity." He died in 1827, aged eighty-seven 
years, sixty of which he spent in the ministry. In 1787, 
Elder John Gaao, of New York city, settled in Central Ken- 

tucky,J and, in conjunction with Elder Payne, aided 

greatly to build up the church in Lexington. In 1789, the 
congregation erected a log meeting-house on the same lot 
where the present church stands, in the "old Baptist grave- 
yard," and Rev. John Gano became its first pastor. Mr. 
Gano, who was born at Hopewell, N. J., July 22, 1727, ha(i 
been a chaplain in the American army during the Revolu- 
tionary war, was one of the most eminent, eccentric, and 
successful ministers of his day, and was personally known 
almost throughout the United States. Elder Gano, after 
being connected with the Lexington church for many yeard, 

*01d Journal. fTaylor's History. ^Benedict. 

1786.] BAPTIST CHURCH. 119 

moved to Frankfort, and died there in 1804. I£e was buried 
at Harmony Church, "Woodford county, Kentucky. 

The Baptist Church in Lexington had its troubles, too, 
and early in its history. In 1799, Arianism crept into the 
flock, and created some dissention, but linally died out 
under the vigorous blows of Elder Gano, who, upon one 
occasion (while a cripple from a fall), was held up in the 
arms of his friends to preach against it. But the Arian 
trouble had hardly died out before another one came up. 
In 1804, the " Emancipators," who claimed that no fellow- 
ship should be extended to slaveholders, commenced to dis- 
tract the church with their zealous efforts, and the mischief 
grew into a mountain in 1807, when the notorious difficulty 
about a negro trade took place between Jacob Creath, Sen., 
and Thomas Lewis; and great party strife and injury to 
the church ensued. At last peace came with the secession 
of the " Emancipators," who formed a separate association, 
long ago extinct, but the church was greatly weakened. 
It languished on with decreasing numbers until 1817, when 
prosperous times dawned upon it. In that year, on the 4th 
of January, a number of its best scattered members assem- 
bled and reorganized the church, with the assistance of 
Elders Toler, Jacob Creath, Sen., and Jeremiah Vardeman ; 
Berry Stout being moderator, and Samuel Ayers, clerk. On 
the church list of members about that time, we find, among 
others, the names of James Trotter, R. Higgins, William 
C. Wartield, Walter Wartield, W. H. Richardson, William 
Stone, Matthew "EUder^William Payne, Edward Payne, J. 
H. Morton, J. C. Richardson, Gabriel Tandy, Thomas Lewis, 
and William Poindexter. 

The congregation met at this time in the chapel of Tran- 
sylvania University, but immediate steps were taken to 
build a new house of worship. It was completed and occu- 
pied in October, 1819,=*= and was located on North Mill street, 
opposite the college lawn. It was a substantial two-story 
brick, provided with galleries, and is noted as being the 
building in which the first general Baptist Convention of 

'Church Records. 


Kentucky was organized. Immediately after the reorgani- 
zation of the church, Dr. James Fishback, who had just 
been ordained to the Baptist ministry, was called to the pas- 
torate, at a salary of four hundred dollars per year, a sum 
considered at that time quite extraordinary for a preacher's 
services. A quaint feature of the day was the custom, kept 
up for a long time in the Mill Street church, of giving out 
hymns line after line. 

In 1826 the influence of the religions movement headed 
by Barton Stone and Alexander Campbell caused the intro- 
duction of a resolution into the First Baptist Church, to 
change its name to "the Church of Christ,"* which was ad- 
vocated and opposed by the two parties which had then 
formed in the church. After a prolonged discussion, the 
party favoring the resolution " swarmed out," under the 
the leadership of Dr. Fishback, and organized " the Church 
of Christ," and worshiped in the building now known as 
the Statesman office, on Short street, between Upper and 
Limestone. This church was eventually dissolved. Many 
of the congregation went back to the First Baptist Church, 
and the remainder connected themselves with the body now 
called the " Christian Church." 

When Dr. Fishback left the First Baptist Church, Rev. 
Jeremiah Vardeman was called to the pastorate. Mr. Var- 
deman was born in Wythe county, Virginia, July 8, 1775, 
and came to Kentucky in 1794. He was a faithful and 
laborious minister of the gospel, and in the pulpit was clear, 
earnest, fervid, and convincing.! He was often assisted by 
Elders W. C. Breck and J. B. Smith. Mr. Vardeman was 
pastor up to 1831. 

Rev. R. T. Dillard was the next incumbent. Mr. Dillard 
was born in Caroline county, Virginia, November 17, 1797, 
served in the war of 1812, came to Kentucky, and settled 
at Winchester in 1818, and began the practice of law, which 
he abandoned in 1825, when he was licensed to preach. 
He came to Fayette in 1828, and was for very many years 
pastor of David's Fork and East Hickman Baptist Churches. 

•Church Record. tSprague's Annals. 


111 1838 he traveled in Europe for his health. lie was sub- 
sequently Superintendent of Public Instruction, has mar- 
ried six Imiulred and seventy couples, and is at present a 
resident of Lexington. 

Rev. Silas M. Noel* succeeded Mr. Dillard, in October, 
1835. Dr. Noel was born August 12, 1783, in Essex county, 
Virginia, and was educated for the bar. He came to Ken- 
tucky in 1806, and practiced law until 1811, when, after 
much study of the subject of religion, he united with the 
Baptist Church, and was ordained to the ministry in 1813. 
Being poorly paid, like all the Western preachers of that 
day, he accepted, in 1818, the position of circuit judge in 
the Fourth Indiana district, without relinquishing his supe- 
rior office. Mr. Noel was the originator of the Baptist 
Educational Society of Kentucky. He was a man of much 
more than ordinary powers, and as a speaker was noted 
for his flueucy, chasteness, and elegance. He died May 5, 
1839, and was buried near Frankfort, Kentucky. 

Mr. Noel's successor was Eev. W. F. Broadus, who was 
born in Culpepper county, Virginia, about the year 1802. 
He was descended from a preaching family, and was himself 
a laborious pastor and excellent preacher. He filled the pul- 
pit in this city until 1845, after which he became president 
of a female college, in Shelbyville. He is now one of the 
prominent Baptist ministers of Virginia. 

The church called Rev. William M. Pratt, of New York, 
in 1845. During his administration the congregation 
worked together with harmony, its efibrts were attended 
with great success, and in 1854, the old church opposite the 
college lawn was sold, and a handsome new one erected 
on Mill, between the present new First Presbyterian house 
of worship and Church street. It was dedicated the 19th 
of November, 1855, the regular pastor, Mr. Pratt, being 
assisted by Rev. R. T. Dillard and Dr. S. W. Lynd, then 
president of the Theological Seminary at Georgetown. This 
house was unfortunately destroyed by tire, January 1, 1859, 
but in the May following the erection of another one was 

*Sprague's Annuls. 


commenced in the old churchyard, on Main, the site of the 
pioneer Baptist Church of Lexington. While digging the 
foundation many relics of the old settlers and citizens were 
exhumed, and all not identitied were buried in a vault 
under the church. This house was dedicated January 1, 
1860. President Campbell, of Georgetown, Rev. G. C. 
Lorrimer, and the pastor officiating. 

In 1863, after having been pastor for seventeen years, 
Mr. Pratt resigned, and the Rev. W. H. Felix, a native of 
Woodford county and graduate of Georgetown College, was 
called. Some months after Mr. Felix came the church was 
again burned, but mainly through his eflbrts another one 
was built on the same spot, and dedicated August 20, 1865, 
only to be visited by fire again in February, 1867. The 
untiring congregation set to work once more, and the pres- 
ent building was completed in a short time after the disas- 
ter. Even at this late date the war feeling had not entirely 
died out. A little while after the last fire, Mr. Pratt, W. 
E. Bosworth, and others asked and were given letters of 
dismission, and they proceeded to organize a " Second 
Baptist Church." The little congregation met for some 
time in the City Library building, but is now disbanded, 
most of the members having returned to the First Church. 
Mr. Felix resigned his charge in April, 1869, and was suc- 
ceeded the June following by Rev. George Hunt, the 
present faithful pastor, a native of Fayette county. The 
Baptist Church has exhibited great energy under many 
misfortunes, and is now enjoying the abundant prosperity 
it so well deserves. 

1787.] CONVENTIONS, ETC. 123 


Paint Lick Expedition — Delegates to Conventions — Society for 
Promoting Useful Knowledge — Old Kentucky Gazette — The 
First Western Newspaper — Lexington Racing Clubs — Ken- 
tucky Association — Founders — Incidents — Officers — Great 
.Horses — Improvements — Turfmen — Breeders — The Great 
" Lexington." 

The events of the year 1787, if not of great importance, 
were of more than ordinary interest. The Indians con- 
tinued to show great restlessness and dissatisfaction. On 
information given by some friendly Shawanese that a party 
of Cherokees, at Paint Lick, were meditating a predatory 
raid, Colonel Robert Todd made an expedition against them 
and dispersed them, killing three, and taking seven pris- 
oners, who escaped the next day after capture.* 

Fayette sent two delegates to the Virginia convention, 
which in this year ratified the constitution of the United 
States. The delegates were Humphrey Marshall and John 

Another convention, the fifth, met at Danville, in Septem- 
tember, 1787, and Fayette was represented by Levi Todd, 
Caleb "Wallace, Humphrey Marshall, John Fowler, and 
"William "Ward.J 

A number of gentlemen, alive to the interests and ad- 
vancement of the district, assembled in the month of De- 
cember, 1787,11 and arranged for the establishment of the 
" Kentucky Society for Promoting Useful Knowledge." At 
least half of the members of the society were citizens of 
Lexington, and many of them were afterward counted 

*Mar£hall. fButler. |01d Gazette. ||Gazette. 


among the most eminent men of the state. We give the 
names of all the members. They were : Christopher 
Greenup, Humphrey Marshall, J. Brown, Isaac Shelby, 
James Garrard, Charles Scott, George Muter, Samuel 
McDowell, Harry Jones, James Speed, Wm. McDowell, 
Willis Green, Thos. Todd, Thos. Speed, G. J. Johnson, 
Joshua Barbee, Stephen Armsby, J. Overton, Jr., John 
Jewett, Thos. Allen, Robert Todd, Joseph Crockett, 
Ebenezer Brooks, T. Hall, Caleb Wallace, Wm. Irvine, 
James Parker, Alex. Parker, John Fowler, John Coburn, 
George Gordon, A. D. Orr, Robert Barr, Horace Turpin, 
Robert Johnson, John Craig, David Leitch. 

The first newspaper ever published west of the Alle- 
ghany mountains was established in Lexington, in 1787, 
by John Bradford. It was then called the Kentucke Ga- 
zette, but the final e of Kentucky was afterward changed 
to y, in consequence of the Virginia legislature requiring 
certain advertisements to be inserted in the Kentucky Ga- 
zette. This paper was born of the necessities of the times. 
The want of a government independent of Virginia was 
then universally felt, and the second convention that met 
in Danville, in 1785, to discuss that subject, resolved, "That 
to insure unanimity in the opinion of the people respecting 
the propriety of separating the district of Kentucky from 
Virginia and forming a separate state government, and to 
give publicity to the proceedings of the convention, it is 
deemed essential to the interests of the country to have a 
printing press." A committee was then appointed to 
carry out the design of the convention ; but all their 
efl^brts had failed, when John Bradford called on General 
Wilkinson, one of the committee, and informed him that 
be would estabhsh a paper if the convention would guar- 
antee to him the public patronage. To this the convention 
acceded, and in 1786 Bradford sent to Philadelphia for the 
necessary materials. He had already received every en- 
couragement from the citizens of Lexington, and at a 
meeting of the trustees in July, it was ordered "that the 
use of a public lot be granted to John Bradford free, on 

1787.] FIRST NEWSPAPER. 125 

condition that he establish a printing press in Lexington ; 
the lot to be free to him as long as the press is in town." 
Mr. Bradford's first office was in a log cabin, on the corner 
of Main and Broadway, now known as " Cleary's," but 
then known as " opposite the court-house." lie subse- 
quently used a building on Main, between Mill and Broad- 
way, about where Scott's iron front building stands. 

At last, after being months on the route, the precious 
printing material arrived, and on August 18, 1787, ap- 
peared the first number of the first newspaper ever pub- 
lished in the then western wilderness. It was a quaint 
little brown thing, about the size of a half sheet of com- 
mon letter paper, "subscription price 18 shillings per 
annum, advertisements of moderate length 8 shillino-s." 
It was printed in the old style—/ being used for 5. The 
first number is without a heading, and contains one adver- 
tisement, two short original articles, and the following 
apology from the editor : 

" My customers will excuse this, my first publication, as 
I am much hurried to get an impression by the time ap- 
pointed. A great part of the types fell into pi in the car- 
riage of them from Limestone (Maysville) to this office, 
and my partner, which is the only assistant I have, throuo-h 
an indisposition of the body, has been incapable of render- 
ing the smallest assistance for ten days past. 

"John Bradford." 

No wonder " the types fell into pi," for they had to be 
carried from "Limestone" to Lexington on pack-horses 
that had swollen streams to cross, fallen trees to jump, and 
many a terrible "scare" from the sudden crack of Indian 
rifles, for there was not a half mile between the two places 
unstained with blood. The Gazette of 1787 is the only 
indicator extant of the size and importance of Lexington 
at that time. We are able to surmise some things, at least 
after looking over the first volumes of the Gazette. They 
are adorned «\vith rude cuts and ornaments gotten up by 
Bradford himself. It is well known that he cut out the 
larger letters from dog-wood. In these volumes we tiud 


advertised, among other things, knee-buckles, hair-powder, 
spinning wheels, flints, buckskin for breeches, and saddle- 
bag locks. "Persons who subscribe to the frame meeting- 
house can pay in cattle or whisky." In another place the 
editor condemns the common practice of " taming bears," 
and also that of " lighting fires with rifles." Proceedings 
of the district convention are published. No. 5, of volume 
1, contains the constitution of the United States just framed 
by the " grand convention " then in session. Notice is given 
to the public not to tamper with corn or potatoes at a cer- 
tain place, as they had been poisoned to trap some veg- 
etable stealing Indians. In another number, "notice is 
given that a company will meet at Crab Orchard next Mon- 
day, for an early start through the wilderness; most of the 
delegates to the State Convention at Richmond (to adopt 
constitution of United States), will go with them." Chas. 
Bland advertises, " I will not pay a note given to Wm. 
Turner for three second-rate cows till he returns a rifle, 
blanket, and tomahawk I loaned him." Later, the names 
of Simon Kenton and 'Squire Boone appear. The columns 
of the Gazette are enriched with able and well-written ar- 
ticles, full of that mental vigor and natural talent for 
which our pioneer fathers were so justly celebrated; but 
"locals" are vexatiously scarce. Still the editor got up 
some. He often speaks of stealing, murdering, and kid- 
napping by Indians. At one time he speaks of a wonder- 
ful elephant on exhibition in a certain stable, and at another, 
"the people of the settlement are flocking in to see the 
dromedary" — quite a menagerie at that day. We must re- 
member, if we think his " items " scarce, that at that time 
steamboats did n't explode, nor cars run off the track, for 
none of these, or a thousand other modern item-making 
machines, were in existence. 

Still the Gazette must have been read with the most in- 
tense interest ; in fact, a writer in one of its earliest num- 
bers says : "Mr. Bradford, as I have signed the subscription 
for your press, and take your paper, my curiosity eggs me 
on to read everything in it." And no wonder, for all docu- 
ments of public interest had up to this time been written, 

1787.] FIRST NEWSPAPER. 127 

were often illegible, and one copy only was to be seen at 
each of the principal settlements. And then it was the 
only paper printed within five hundred miles of Lexington, 
and there was no post-office in the whole district. It was 
published, too, at a time of unusual interest in politics, and 
while party spirit ran high. The old national government 
was crumbling to give place to the new ; the settlements 
were distracted by French and Spanish intrigues; the peo- 
ple were indignant and hot-blooded over the obstructed 
navigation of the Mississippi, and convention after conven- 
tion was being held to urge on the work of separation 
from Virginia. What a treat the Gazette was to the pioneers ! 
Often when the post-rider arrived with it at a settlement, 
the whole population would crowd around the school- 
master or " 'squire," who, mounted in state upon a stump, 
would read it, advertisements and all, to the deeply inter- 
ested and impatient throng. 

Bradford's editorial situation, contrasted with the mag- 
nificent surroundings and princely style of a Xew York 
journalist of the present day, was quite interesting. His 
steamboat, railroad, telegraph, and mail carrier was a pack 
mule. His office was a log cabin. His rude and unwieldy 
hand-press was of the old-fashioned style, that for centuries 
had not been improved, and, in addition, it was a second- 
hand one. He daubed on the ink by hand with two an- 
cient dog-skin inking balls, and probably managed to get 
sixty or seventy copies printed on one side in an hour. If 
he wrote at night, it was by the light of a rousing fire, a 
bear-grease lamp, or a buftalo tallow candle; an editorial 
desk made of a smooth slab, supported by two pairs of 
cross legs ; a three-legged stool, ink horn, and a rifle com- 
posed the rest of the furniture of his office. The Gazette 
was, for some time, in its early history, printed on paper 
made near Lexington, at the mill of Craig, Parker & Co. 
This pioneer journal of the "West existed for nearly three- 
quarters of a century. There is no greater treasure in the 
Lexington library than the old files of the Kentucke 


Johu Bradford became a citizen of Lexington in 1788. 
This useful man, whose name is so closely linked with llie 
early history of our city, was born in Fauquier county, 
Virginia, in 1749, and married Eliza, daughter of Captain 
Benj. James of the same county, in 1761. He took part 
in the Revolutionary war, and was also in the battle with 
the Indians at Chillicothe. In 1785, he brought his family 
out from Virginia, and settled in Fayette county. He founded 
the Kentucke Gazette in 1787, and published the next year 
the Kentucke Almanac, the first pamphlet printed west of 
the mountains. Mr. Bradford was chairman of the Lex- 
ington Board of Trustees, which welcomed Governor 
Shelby, in 1792, to our city, which was then the capital of 
the state. He was the first state printer, and received from 
the legislature one hundred pounds sterling. He printed 
books as early as 1794, and some of them of that date are 
still to be seen in the Lexington library. He was at one 
time, chairman of the Board of Trustees of Transylvania 
University, and filled many places of trust and honor in 
Lexington. He was greatly respected, and after leading a 
life of much usefulness, went to his rest, sincerely mourned 
by all who knew him. His residence was on the corner 
of Mill and Second streets. It was built by Colonel Hart, 
and is the same one now occupied by Mrs. Ryland. 

The center of " the garden spot of Kentucky," justly 
famous the world over for its magnifi.cent blood stock, was 
devoted to the turf while Lexington was scarcely a village. 
As early as 1787, "the commons," as our present "Water 
street was then called, was a favorite resort of horsemen 
when their charming pastime of racing through Main 
street was interfered with by the troublesome trustees of 
the rising town.* The settlers pursued pleasures under diffi- 
culties in those days, as the "red-skin varmints" had all 
by no means disappeared from the state. In August, 1780, 
the only newspaper published in Kentuckyf contained the 
ioUowing notice, which we give verbatim, viz : " A purse- 
race will take place at Lexington, on 2d Thursday in Octo- 

*Trnstees' Book. tOld Kentucke Gazette, 


ber next, free for any horse, mare, or gelding; weight for 
age agreeable to the rules of Xew Market (three-mile 
heats), best two in three. Each subscriber to pay one 
guinea, and every person that enters a horse for the purse 
to pay two guineas, including his subscription. The horses 
to be entered the day before running with Mr. John Fowler, 
who will attend at Mr. Collins' tavern on that day. Sub- 
scriptions taken by I^icholas Lafon, Lexington." Races 
were pretty regularly kept up after this time. Simeon 
Buford and Colonel Abraham Buford owned the winning 
horses in 1795. In 1802, races were in full blast in Lex- 
ington, and in 1809, the Lexington Jockey Club was organ- 
ized. It existed until 1823, and held its meetings near 
Ashland. The report made by the secretary, W. G. Wilson, 
of its final October meeting, is as follows :* 

" The first day's purse, for the four-mile heats, was taken 
by Mr. Burbridge's gelding. Tiger by Tiger, 5 years old, at 
two heats, beating Captain Harris' b. h. Paragon, by Whip, 
4 years old, and Colonel W. Buford's s. m. Carolina, by Sir 
Archie, 4 years old. Paragon was drawn the second heat. 
Time of the first heat, 8:15; of the second heat, 8:25. 

" The second day's purse, three-mile heats, was won by 
Mr. Wateon's s. h. Sea Serpent, by Shylock, beating Mr. 
Blackburn's Sophy Winn, by Whip, at two heats. Time 
of the first heat, 6:7 ; of the second heat, 6:10. 

" The third day's purse, two-mile heats, w^as won by Mr. 
Barnett's s. h. Diamond, by Brilliant, 3 years old, at three 
heats, beating Mr. W. Sanders' Stifler, by Ex-Emperor, and 
Mr. Harlan s gelding. Black Snake, by Sky Lark. The 
Black Snake won the first heat and was drawn the third 
heat. Time of the first heat, 4:2 ; of the second heat, 4:8 ; 
the third heat was won by Diamond with ease. 

"The Handy Cap purse on Saturday, one mile heats, best 
three in five, was won by Captain Harris' Paragon, beat- 
ing the Irishman and Virginia. Time of the first heat, 
1:52 ; of the second heat, 1:51 ; of the third heat, 1:53 ; each 
heat was closely contested by the Irishman and Virginia." 

•Lexington Paper. 


The present noted Kentucky association was organized 
at Mrs. Keene's inn, Lexington, July 29, 1826, by about 
fifty of the prominent turfmen of Central Kentucky, 
among whom were E. Warfield, T. H. Pindell, Jas. K. 
Duke, Leslie Combs, J. Boswell, R. Downing, J. L. Down- 
ing, Geo. H. Bowman, John Bruce, John Tilford, B. W. 
Dudley, W. R. Morton, R. J. Breckinridge, Wm. Buford, 
John Brand, and Robt. Wicklitfe.* The object of the 
association, to use the words of the original agreement, 
was " to improve the breed of horses by encouraging the 
sports of the turf." The first racing meeting held under 
the arrangement commenced October 19, 1826, on the old 
Williams' track, which was on what is now known as the 
Lee property, near the Lexington Cemetery. The first 
race was for a purse of $300; four started; was won 
by Andrew Barnett's Diomed gelding, Sheriffe, in two 
straight heats. For the second day's purse of $200, three 
started. Won by Ralph P. Tarlton's horse, Old Count. 
The thirJ and last day's racing, for the purse of $100, was 
won by Ludwell Berkley's gelding, Sir Sidney. For this 
purse, five horses started. The time is not given. f 

For the year 1827, the race for the first day was for a 
purse of $150, for two miles and repeat; the second day, a 
race of four miles and repeat, for a purse of $400, and the 
third day a race of three miles and repeat, for a purse of 
$250. The first was won by Willa Yiley's b. m. Mariah, 
in 4:15. The time of second heat not given. The four 
mile race was won by R. B. Tarlton's s. s. Old Count, in 
8:17, 8:48. The three-mile race was won by Sidney Bur- 
bridge's b. m.. Limber. Tiie heats were broken. The 
time as follows: 6:09, 6:07, 6:46, 6:18. A sweepstakes was 
opened for the following day, one mile, best three in five, 
which was won by Willa Viley's Mariali. Time, 1:53^, 
1:521, l:51i, 1:51, 1:51.^ 

The old Williams' track was used by the association 
until 1828, when the present track, at the east end of 
Fifth street, was bought by John Postlethwaite. In 1834, 

♦Association liecords. tt>bscrver and Reporter. JId. 


a tract of land adjoining the course, was purchased from 
Jeremiah Murphy, and added to the original purchase. 
The association now own about sixty-five acres of land, all 
of which is inclosed with a high plank fence. In this 
year (1834), it was ordered that the wieghts heretofore 
adopted, be changed to conform to those established by 
the Central Course of Maryland. It was also ordered that 
Wm. Buford, W. Viley, J. K. Duke, A. K. Woolley, and 
Leslie Combs, be appointed a committee to apply to the 
legislature for a charter.* 

A motion was adopted instructing the secretary to have 
a bulletin of the races published every morning, giving a 
description of borses and rider's dress, which is carried out 
to this day. 

An early frequenterf of the course says of this period 
(1834): "We can recollect when nothing but an old post 
and rail fence inclosed the track; the judges' stand stood 
at the cow-pens, and the grand stand was an old, rickety 
building, with high steps, which stood on top of the hill 
in the center of the course. Admittance to the course 
was free, to the stand twenty-five cents. John Wirt was 
secretary. We recollect seeing Woodpecker, the sire of 
Gray Eagle, run. We remember vividly the race between 
Dick Singleton and Collier, when the latter sulked, and 
John Alcock rode Collier and broke a beautiful ivory whip 
over the head of the obstinate beast. 

"We can recollect when the judges' stand was placed 
where the timing stand is now, when Kodolph ran at Lex- 
ington, auu subsequently defeated the great Tennessee 
crack Angora, at Louisville, Kentucky', in 1836. The year 
the course was fenced in, about 1835, we witnessed the 
great sixteen-mile race between Sarah Miller, Jim Allen, 
and Gray foot; the great and exciting struggle between 
May Dacre (afterward Belle Anderson, the dam of Zenith) 
and Susette, three-mile heats; the brilliant promise of Gray 
Eagle, as a three-year old, in 1838, and his subsequent de- 
feat by the renowned Wagner, at Louisville, in 1839. 

♦Association Records. fSee Turf, Field, and Farm, April, 1872. 


These two great races between Wagner and Gray Eagle 
excited the highest interest throughout the country." 

The year 1840 was memorable at Lexington for the great 
three-mile heat race, in which nine stallions started. 
Blacknose, by Medoc, out of Lucy, by Orphan, won the 
first heat in 5:40, the fastest and first time 5:40 had been 
made in America, lied Bill, another son of Medoc, won 
the second and third heats in 5:48, 5:49. The following 
year, 1841, was no less memorable, when Jim Bell, by 
Frank, ran a second heat in 1:46, the fastest mile up to 
that time ever run in America. This time stood for many 
years before it was beaten. In 1842 the great match be- 
tween Zenith and Miss Foote was made. Zenith broke 
down in training, and Miss Foote walked over. The last 
of the same meeting Miss Foote beat Argentile and Alice 
Carneal, the honored dam of the unapproachable Lex- 
ington, four mile heats, in 7;42, 7:40, the best time ever 
made in Kentucky before.* 

In 1843, the Great Produce Stakes for three-year olds, 
seventy-two subscribers, at $500 each, $100 forfeit, with a 
gold cup valued at $500 added, was won by Ruffin, by imp. 
Hedgford, dam Duchess of Marlborough, by Sir Archy. 
This was one of the most valuable stakes ever run for in 

In 1836, the date previously fixed to be taken in deciding 
the age of horses, was changed to the 1st of January. The 
months of May and September were decided upon in 1844, 
as the times for the spring and fall meetings, and have been 
adhered to ever since. 

The fastest time for three-quarters of a mile ever run on 
the association course is 1:1 8|^. 

The fastest time for one and one-quarter miles is 2:14|. 

The fastest time for one and half miles is 2:38, which was 
made by Exchange in the spring of 1870. This time has 
never been beaten on any course except by Glenelg, who 
ran in 2:37|. 

The fastest time for two and one-half miles is 5:22J. 

♦Turf, Field, and Farm. 


The followinf^ is the number of races run on the course 
since its organization up to 1871, for the different distances : 
Three-quarters of a mile, 4 races; oue mile, 213 races; one 
and a fourth miles, 2 races ; one and a half miles, 3 races; 
two miles, 141 races; two miles and a half, 2 races; three 
miles, 49 races; four miles, 23 races; hurdle races, 2.* 

The following is a list of the presidents and secretaries 
of the association from the date of its organization, in 1826, 
to the present time, viz : 

Presidents.— IS'26, Wm. Pritchart; 1830, E. J. Winter; 
1833,Thos.H. Pindell; 1845, Thos. II. Hunt; 1848, Charles 
Buford ; 1853, Leslie Combs ; 1855, John R. Viley ; 1864, B. 
G. Bruce; 1866, John K. Viley; 1871, John R. Viley; 
1872, John C. Breckinridge. 

Secretaries.— 1S26, John Wirt; 1837, Thos. P. Hart ; same 
year, Richard Pindell; 1845, J. R. McGowan ; 1850, E. E. 
Eagle; 1857, Charles Wheatly; 1865, E. E. Eagle; 1869, H. 
Rees; 1871, T. J. Bush. 

The efficiency and accomplishments of Captain Bush in 
his department are too well known to require comment. 

The Kentucky Association is the oldest living club in 
America, and General Combs is believed to be the only 
living representative of the original fifty subscribers who 
formed it. 

That it is the fastest course in America can easily be 
demonstrated.f Fadladeen and Salina each ran a mile on 
this course in 1:43, in 1871. Frogtown ran one and one- 
quarter miles in 2:09|^, in 1872. Exchange ran one mile and 
a half in 2:38, in 1871. Frogtown ran one mile and three- 
quarters in 3:07, in 1872. Lyttleton ran two miles in 3:34J, 
in 1871. 

Tlie time here given is the fastest and best on record. 
It is true that Glenelg ran two miles in 2:37| with 100 lbs.; 
but Exchange, carrying 110 lbs., ran the same distance on 
this course in 2:38, which makes his the best time. Ileo-ira 
ran two miles on the Metairie course, carrying 71J lbs., in 

*Observer and Reporter, 1871. tHome Journal. 


3:34^, butLyttleton, with 104 lbs., made it on the Kentucky 
Association course in 3:34|. 

This old course has been the scene of the debut and sub- 
sequent renown of the most noted horses that have figured 
on the American turf for the last thirty years. Here Jim 
and Josh, Bell, Sarah Morton, Rocket, Motto, Grey Medoc, 
Rufiin, Ludu, Alaric, Darkuess, Doubloon, Florin, Louis 
D'Or, Rube, Zampa, Star Davis, Sally Waters, Frankfort, 
Blonde, the renowned Lexington, Wild Irishman, Charley 
Ball, Dick Doty, Vandal, Balloon, Princeton, Daniel Boone, 
Ruric, Bonnie Lassie, JS'antura, Lavender, Satellite, Mollie 
Jackson, Lightning, Thunder, Asteroid, Lancaster, Sherrod, 
Colton, Magenta, Solferino, Mamraona, Bettie Ward, Good- 
wood, Lilla,Herzog, Versailles, Fadladeen, Littleton, Long- 
fellow, Enquirer, and a host of others, first gave promise of 
their after fame and renown. 

Extensive improvements were made by the association 
in the spring of 1872.* The track was regraded and 
widened to about double its former width. It is now just 
one mile and six inches long. The old stands have been 
torn down and new ones erected. The grand stand, which 
is built twenty-seven feet back from the track, is a model 
building of its kind, being one hundred and fifty by thirty 
feet, and about thirty-two feet high. The lower story is 
built of brick. Immediately in front of the grand stand, 
and just at the edge of the track, is the judges' stand, an 
octagon building, with a small room below, where the scales 
are placed to weigh the riders. Just across the track is the 
timers' stand. The old distance stand has also been re- 
moved, and a new one erected. Where the old stand was, 
there has been built a substantial frame building, which is 
intended to accommodate all those who formerly went to 
the field. The cooling ground has been changed from the 
rear to the front. There are eleven stables on the ground, 
in which more than seventy-five horses can be accommo- 

The association course is now one of the handsomest in 

* Daily Press. 


the United States. Captain O. P. Beard, who directed and 
personally superintended these improvements, was presented 
with a line timing watch, ordered from England, by his 
friends, as a token of their appreciation of his taste and 
untiring energy. 

Nearly a hundred horses owned near Lexington were 
present at the last spring meeting of the association. The 
Btables in attendance belonged to J. A. Grinstead, B. G. 
Thomas, H. P. McGrath, John Clay, Zeb. Ward, J. F. Rob- 
inson, A. Buford, George Cadwallader, John Harper, Daniel 
Svvigert, J. W. Hnnt Reynolds, Warren Viley, A. K. Rich- 
ards, Caleb Wallace, and others. 

We may mention with propriety, in this connection, that 
in addition to the twenty-five or thirty regular breeding 
establishments in Fayette county, nearly every farmer in it 
is to some extent a breeder, and the whole county is one 
vast stock farm. Here was bred, bj^ Dr. Elisha Warfield, 
the world-renowned " Lexington," and this county is the 
native place of the famous thorough-breds, " Grey Eagle," 
bred by H. T. Duncan, Sen. ; "Daniel Boone," " Kentucky," 
and "Gilroy," bred by John M. Clay; "Herzog," bred by 
B. G. Thomas; "Fadladeen," bred by Mr. McFadden ; and 
"Frogtown," bred by William Stanhope and H. A. Head- 
ley. At the head of the list of noted fast trotters that were 
bred in Fayette are Dunlap's "Lady Thorn," William Brad- 
ley's "John Morgan," Enoch Lewis' " Ericson," Andrew 
Steele's " Blackwood," and Dr. L. Herr's " Mambrino Ber- 
tie." The following is a list of the principal breeders and 
the names of the stallions at the head of each stud, viz : 

Thoroughbreds. — John M. Clay, " Star Davis ;" J. A. Grin- 
stead, " Lightning" and " Gilroy ;" H. P. McGrath, " Blar- 
ney Stone ; " B. G. Thomas, ; J. R. Viley, ; Zeb. 

Ward, ; George Cadwallader, . 

Trotters. — Dr. L. Herr, "Mambrino Patchin;" Enoch 
Lewis, "Ericson;" Drs. S. and D. Price, "Sentinel;" R. 
Lowell, "Abdallah Pilot;" Hunt Brothers, "Darlboy;" 
Thomas Coons, " American Clay;" John Mardis, "Clark 
Chief, Jr.;" Charles Headley, "Banquo;" A. Coons, ; 


"W. J. Bradley, ; Alexander Brand, ; R. & J. Tod- 
hunter, Jos. Bryant, Jr., . 

The names of the professional trainers in Fayette are: 
Thomas Britton, C. B. Jefireys, B. J. Tracy, R. Lowell, 
James Chrystal, W. R. Brastield, A. L. Rice, H. Lusby, and 
W. J. Bradley. 

The history of the Kentucky Association, and also of 
Fayette county, " the breeder's paradise," would never be 
considered complete without a sketch of the pride of both, 
viz: the famous race-horse, "Lexington," the blind old 
Milton of the turf, and the king of coursers. "Lexington" 
was bred by Dr. Elisha Warfield, of Lexington, Kentucky, 
and was foaled in 1850, at his home, " The Meadows," 
which is about half a mile from the association grounds. 
"Lexington"* was by Boston, out of Alice Carneal, by 
Sarpedon, dam Rowena, by Sampler ; great granddam Lady 
Gray, by Robin Gray. Boston was by Timoleon out of 
Robin Brown's dam, own sister to Tuckahoe and Revenge, 
by Florizel. Alice Carneal, Lexington's dam, was foaled 
in Kentucky, in 1836, and although she ran second in the 
first heat of a four-mile race to Miss Foote in 7:42, being 
distanced in the second heat, she never won a race. Lex- 
ington was first known on the turf as Darley, and under 
that name won his first race, a three-year old stake, at the 
Lexington, Kentucky, May meeting, 1853, mile heats, beat- 
ing thirteen opponents. He was purchased on the evening 
after this race by Mr. Ten Broeck, and his name changed 
to Lexington. At the same meeting he won a two-mile 
heat race for three-year olds, and his owner soon after 
matched him to run a three-mile race against the four-year 
old filly, Sally Waters, by Glencoe, out of Maria Black, 
for $8,500 ; the backers of the filly staking |5,000 to $3,500 
on Lexington. The race occurred on the Metairie course, 
New Orleans, December 2, 1853, and Lexington won, dis- 
tancing Sally Waters in the second heat. The time was 
6:23| and 6:24J, and the track very heavy. His next en- 
gagement was in the three-year old stake, at New Orleans, 

^Cincinnati Commercial. 

1787.] THE GREAT ''LEXINGTON." 137 

January 7, 1854, two-mile heats, but being amiss, he paid 
forfeit to Conrad the Corsair, Argent, and Hornpipe. The 
following April, on the same course, he won for Kentucky 
the Great State Post Stake, for all ages, four-mile heats, 
beating Lecomte, the representative of Mississippi, second 
in both heats, Highlander, of Alabama, and Arrow, of 
Louisiana. Highlander was distanced in the second, and 
Arrow in the first heat ; time 8:08f , 8:04, and track heavy. 
The next meeting of Lexington and Lecomte was on April 
8, over the same track, for the Jockey Club purse of $2,000, 
four-mile heats, and here Lexington sustained his only, de- 
feat, Lecomte winning two straight heats in the fastest time 
ever made up to that date, viz: 7:26, 7:38|. Lexington 
was second in both heats, and Reube, third on the first, 
was distanced in the last heat. Notwithstanding his horse's 
defeat, Ten Broeck offered to run him against Lecomte's 
best time or against Lecomte himself for S-0, 000, four-mile 
heats. Eventually, a match was made for $20,000, Lexing- 
ton to run against the fastest time, at four miles, that is^ 
Lecomte's 7:26, over the Metairie coarse, New Orleans. 
This memorable race occurred April 2, 1855, and Lexington, 
carrying 103 pounds — three pounds over- weight — and rid- 
den by Gilpatrick, won in 7:19f, which, for seventeen years, 
has never been equaled. The time was l:47i, 1:52^, 1:51J, 
and l:48f ; total, 7:19|-. Not satisfied with this. General 
Wells started Lecomte against Lexington for the Jockey 
Club purse of $1,000, with an inside stake of $2,500 a side, 
four-mile heats, April 24, 1855, on the Metairie course, and 
this time Lexington obtained a decisive victory over his 
old conqueror, winning the first heat in 7:23|, and gallop- 
ing over in the second heat, as Lecomte had been with- 

Lexington soon after broke down, and, being withdrawn 
from the turf, was purchased by the late R. A. Alexander, 
of Woodburn, Woodford county, Kentucky. He is now 
blind, and has been so for some years. Mr. Alexander 
paid Mr. Ten Broeck $15,000 for "Lexington," and was 
ridiculed for giving so large an amount; but subsequent 
events justified his foresight. A few years later, Lexiug- 



ton's son, "ISTorfolk," won the two stakes for three-jear olds 
at St. Louis, and was then sold for $15,000. Since then, 
another son, "Kentucky," sold for $40,000, and double that 
sum would not purchase « Harry Bassett," the greatest of 
his progeny. 



First Celebration of the Fourth of July — Convention Election — 
Woodjord County Formed — Cincinnati Settled — Free Ma- 
sonry in Lexington — Native and Resident Painters: Westj 
Jouett, Frazer, Bush, Price, and others. 

The first regular and formal celebration of ludependence 
Day iu Lexington took place in 1788. The scene then ex- 
hibited stands in striking contrast with modern usage, and 
the toasts and sentiments of the occasion not only show at 
once the native strength and clearness of the pioneer mind, 
but the condition and feelings of the people on the state of 
affairs in the then District of Kentucky. 

At one p. M. on the day mentioned, a large company of 
ladies and gentlemen assembled at what was then known as 
Captain Thomas Young's tavern, where an elegant enter- 
tainment and feast of fat things had been prepared, and an 
hour was passed in festive enjoyment. After dinner an ode 
composed by a Lexington gentleman was sung to the tune 
of " Rule Britannia," the entire company joining iu the 
chorus — 

" Hail Kentucke, Kentucke, thou shalt be 
Forever great, most blest and free." 

This unique production was a poetic embodiment of the 
universal desire of the people for a separate state govern- 
ment, and was sung with the greatest spirit and enthusiasm. 

The following toasts and sentiments were then drank, 
with a discharge of fourteen rifles at each interval : 

The United States of America. 

The illustrious George Washington, Esq.; may his serv- 
ices be remembered. 


The Western World : perpetual union on principles of 
equality or amicable separation. 

The navigation of the Mississippi at any price but that 
of liberty. 

Harmony with Spain and a reciprocity of good offices. 

May the savage enemies of America be chastised by arms, 
and the jobbing system of treason be exploded. 

" The Convention of Virginia." May wisdom, firmness, 
and a sacred regard for the fundamental principles of the 
revolution, guide her councils. 

Trial by jury, liberty of the press, and no standing army. 

May the Atlantic States be just, the Western States be 
free, and both happy. 

1^0 paper money, no tender laws, and no legislative inter- 
ference with private contracts. 

The above presents a perfect picture of affairs in Ken- 
tucky at that date, and at no subsequent period in her 
history up to the eve of the late war has our state been so 
strangely situated. While Kentucky was struggling for 
separate state sovereignty the ruins of the old confederation 
were lying all around her. The Virginia Convention to 
deliberate on the constitution of a new union was then in 
session, listening to the eloquent wisdom of Henry, Mason. 
Pendleton, Grayson, and its other great and sagacious states- 
men, and Kentucky was watching with the most eager in- 
terest for its decision. Here, in the very infancy, or rather 
at the very birth of the republic, we see the Yankee at 
work. Louisiana was then a Spanish province, and Don 
Gardozni, Minister from Spain, was making every exertion 
to effect a political union between the West and Louisiana, 
and Kentucky was being tempted with the free navigation 
of the Mississippi; and to all this may be added the rav- 
ages of the Indians and the dissensions among her own 
citizens. Kentucky has never celebrated a mach more mo- 
mentous " Fourth." 

A regular old "five days election" for delegates to the 
Seventh Danville Convention was held in Lexington and 
Fayette county this year, and was an unasnally spirited one. 
Colonel Thomas Marshall, at the head of the "Court" 


party, and General Wilkinson, the leader of the " Country" 
party, labored with unusual zeal. The " Court" won, and 
sent Thomas Marshall, Caleb "Wallace, William Ward, and 
John Allen to the convention. General Wilkinson was the 
only one on the " Country" ticket elected. 

Virginia contracted the wide borders of Fayette consid- 
erably this year, by organizing Woodford county out of 
part of her territory. 

The city of Cincinnati was settled by a company from 
Lexington; two citizens of Lexington owned most of the 
ground on which it stands, and one of them gave it its 
original name, " Losantiville."* The following notice, which 
we give verbatim, was published in the old Kentucky 
Gazette, September 6, 1788: 

" Notice. — The subscribers, being proprietors of a tract 
of land opposite the mouth of the Licking river, on the 
northwest side of the Ohio, have determined to lay ofl' a 
town upon that excellent situation. The local and natural 
advantages speak its future prosperity, being equal, if not 
superior to any on the bank of the Ohio between the 
Miamis. The in-lots to be each half an acre, the out-lots 
four acres; thirty of each to be given to settlers, upon pay- 
ing one dollar and fifty cents for the survey and deed of 
each lot. The 15th day of September is appointed for 
a large company to meet in Lexington, and mark a road 
from there to the mouth of the Licking, provided Judge 
Symraes arrives, being daily expected. When the town is 
laid oil", lots will be given to such as may become residents 
before the first day of April next. 

"Matthias Denman, 
Robert Tatterson, 
John Filson." 

The road was marked, the present site of Cincinnati 
was duly visited, and a settlement was made there by Col- 
onel Patterson's party, in December, 1788. Li the follow- 
ing June the little village was strengthened and protected 
by the building of Fort Washington, by which name Cin- 

♦Cist Papers, 12. 


cinnati was long known to the pioneers of the West. After 
efi'ecting the settlement, Colonel Patterson returned to 
Lexington, where lie continued to reside until 1804. 

Freemasonry in Kentucky, and in all the region west 
of the Alleghany mountains, had its commencement in 
"Lodge N"o. 25," established in Lexington, District of Ken- 
tucky, November 17, 1788, by the Grand Lodge of Vir- 
ginia. "Masons' Hall," in Lexington, was at that time a 
small house of primitive style, located on the same lot 
where the present hall stands, on the corner of Walnut and 
Short streets. The ground on which it stood was donated 
to the lodge by William Murray, the first Grand Master of 
the Grand Lodge of Kentucky. In 1796, the hall was im- 
proved from funds realized from a lottery gotten up for the 
purpose, and the membership of the lodge had so increased 
by 1799, that St. John's day was celebrated with consid- 
erable display.* On the 8th of September, 1800,f a con- 
vention of delegates from all the lodges in Kentucky met 
at " Masons' Hall," to consider the propriety of separating 
from the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Virginia, and 
forming a Grand Lodge in Kentucky. James Morrison, 
of "No. 25," was chairman. The delegates at this conven- 
tion from "Lexington Lodge, No. 25," were Thomas Bod- 
ley, Alexander McGregor, and James Russell. Separation 
was determined upon, and was agreed to by the Virginia 
Grand Lodge ; and on Thursday, October 16, 1800, in Ma- 
sons' Hall, in Lexington, the representatives of the lodges of 
Kentucky opened a Grand Lodge for the State of Ken- 
tucky, " the first on the great American roll of the nine- 
teenth century." Nearly half the oflScers of the Grand 
Lodge were selected from "No. 25," viz: Alexander Mc- 
Gregor, Deputy Grand Master ; James Russell, G. Sec- 
retary; John Bobbs, G. Tyler. At this first session, the 
seal of Lexington Lodge, No. 25, was adopted by the 
Grand Lodge, and used for some time. "No. 25" was also 
placed first in the order of subordinate lodges, in deference 
to its priority of age, and then became " Lexington Lodge, 

*Kontucky Gazette. tProceeclings of G. L. 

1788.] FREEMASONRY. 143 

No. 1," by which title it has been known ever since that 
time.* Among the distinguished men who were members 
of Lodge No. 1 may be named Henry Clay, W. T. Barry, 
Joseph H. Daviess, Jesse Bledsoe, George M. Bibb, Felix 
Grundy, and B. W. Dudley. In 1806, Lodge No. 1 sent 
Daniel Bradford and John Bobb as delegates to the con- 
vention, which met in Lexington that year to frame a 
Grand Lodge constitution. At the meeting of the Grand 
Lodge, August 27, 1812, in Lexington, an imposing funeral 
ceremonial was performed in honor of the heroic Grand 
Master, Joseph H. Daviess, who fell at the battle of Tippe- 
canoe, November 7, 1811. The pall bearers were eight 
Master Masons of Lodge No. l.f 

Daviess Lodge was erected this year (1812) by a num- 
ber of the members of Lodge No. 1, and was duly char- 
tered by the Grand Lodge. It was named in honor of the 
lamented hero, to whom funeral honors had just been paid, 
and formed the first instance, in Kentucky, of a lodge being 
named after an individual. David Castleman was first 
master, and John Pope, one of the first members, repre- 
sented it at the next session of the Grand Lodge.| The 
sword of Colonel Daviess, incased in a casket made of the 
wood of the oak under which he was standing when he re- 
ceived his death wound, was presented to the Grand Lodge in 
October, 1858, by Levi L. Todd. Daviess Lodge ranks third 
in age among the lodges now in existence in Kentucky. 

In 1813, the propriety of erecting a grand hall in Lex- 
ington was first discussed in the Grand Lodge; and in 
1817, Lexington Lodge, No. 1, presented to the Grand Lodge 
its lot on Walnut street as a site on which to build the new 
temple, "No. 1" reserving to itself the privilege of meeting 
in said temple.§ The donation was accepted, but it was 
finally concluded to erect the hall on East Main street, west 
of Broadway, below what is now known as " Cleary's 
corner." The building was commenced in 1824, and was 
dedicated, with appropriate ceremonies, October 26, 1826. 
The hall was a handsome one, three stories high, and cost 
between $25,000 and ^30,000. It was in this hall that 

♦Pro. G. L. tOld Journals. JKobert .Moiria' Hist. jjrro. of G. L. 


General Lafayette was received by the Masons of Lexington 
in 1825. Two Indians — one of them the celebrated Colonel 
Ross — were duly examined, introduced and welcomed to 
the Masons in this hall. They were the only full-blooded In- 
dian Masons ever thus received in Lexington. The hall was 
used as a hospital during the terrible cholera season of 1833. 

The question of removing the Grand Lodge from Lex- 
ington to Louisville was first agitated in 1830, and in 1833 
it was located in Louisville, after having existed in Lexing- 
ton thirty-three years. 

The Grand Hall on Main street was destroyed by fire in 
1837. This event caused the question of the location of 
the Grand Lodge to be again agitated. The lot of No. 1 
was again tendered to the Grand Lodge on the original 
terms, again accepted, and with the understanding that the 
sessions of the Grand Lodge would be permanently held in 
Lexington, another hall, the present one, costing $25,000, 
was erected upon the site of the first building devoted to 
masonic purposes in Kentucky. This hall w^as solemnly 
dedicated to masonry, according to the ancient form and 
usage, September 1, 1841, and the next day the Grand 
Lodge " ordered that its annual communication should be 
held in the city of Lexington." 

Devotion Lodge was chartered in September, 1847, Oliver 
Anderson being first master. 

In August, 1848, Good Samaritan Lodge was chartered, 
Samuel D. McCullough, first master. 

The Grand Lodge was again removed from Lexington 
to Louie^ville in October, 1858, and its sessions are still held 
in that city. Lexington was the meeting-place of the 
Grand Lodge, including both times of its occupation, for 
sixty years. 

The high character of the masonic lods'es of Lexington 
is known everywhere, and is abundantly attested by the 
great number of officers they have furnished to the Grand 
Lodge. The lodges, at present, are fully up to the old 
standard of merit and prosperity. 

The art annals of Lexington are not to be despised. 


"William West, who came to this city in 1788, was the first 
painter that ever settled in the vast region "this side the 
mountains." He was the son of the then recfor of St. 
Paul's Church, Baltimore, and had studied under the cele- 
brated Benjamin West, in London. His family was a 
talented one. His brother, Edward West, who had pre- 
ceded him to Lexington three years before, was the won- 
derful mechanical genius who invented the steamboat in 
this city in 1793 (see chapter of that date), and his son, 
William E. West, is now remembered for the portrait he 
painted of Lord Byron, at Leghorn. William West painted 
but few pictures, and they were of only moderate merit. 
He is best known as " the first painter who came to the 
West." He died in New York. 

Asa Park, a Virginian, was the second painter who set- 
tled in Lexington. He was an intimate friend of William 
West, in whose family he lived, greatly beloved, for years. 
He died in the year 1827, "and was buried by the West 
family on their lot, near the corner of Hill and Mill streets, 
opposite the present Letcher property. Though Mr. Park 
attempted portraits, his best productions were fruit and 
flower pieces. His pictures, like West's, owe their value 
mainly to the fact of his having been one of the pioneer 
painters of Lexington. One of the very few of Park's 
productions is still in existence, and in the possession of 
Mrs. Kanck. It is an oil portrait of her grandfather, 
Lewis Ellis. 

Mr. Beck, erroneously mentioned in Dunlap's Arts of 
Design as "the first painter who penetrated beyond the 
Alleghanies," settled in Lexington about the year 1800. 
He belonged, at one time, to a company of scouts under 
General Anthony Wayne. He and his wife conducted a 
female seminary in this city for many years, in which paint- 
ing was a prominent feature. Mr. and Mrs. Beck were 
both artists of some ability, and painted many pictures, 
principally landscapes. W. Mentelle, S. D. McCullough, 
John Tilford, Mrs. Thomas Clay, and many others own 
pictures by Beck. Mr. Beck died in 1814. His wife sur- 
vived until 1833. 


Ill 1818, John Neagle, afterward known as the painter 
of "Pat Ljon, the Blacksmith," visited Lexington with 
the intention of settling, but he found Jouett so far his 
superior that he left and settled in Pliiladelphia. He came 
to this city again in 1844, at the instance of the Whigs of 
Philadelphia, to paint for them a full length portrait of 
Henry Claj^, which he did, Mr. Clay sitting for him at the 
Phoenix Hotel. In November of that year, he presented 
to Daviess Lodge, of this city, a portrait of Colonel Joseph 
H, Daviess, from the original by Jouett. The picture is 
now owned by Major S. D. McCuUough. 

Chester Harding, a native of Montgomery county, Ken- 
tucky, and who afterward acquired a national reputation, 
painted some excellent portraits here in 1819. Mrs. H. J. 
Bodley, Mrs. Wm. Preston, Mrs. Woodward, Mrs. A. H. 
Woolley, and others have pictures by him. Harding's 
studio was in "Higgins' Block." 

Louis Morgan, a native of Pittsburg, settled in Lexing- 
ton in 1830, and remained here for many years. He painted 
pictures which evinced a very high order of talent, and 
it was only the lack of energy that prevented him from be- 
coming noted. His best eiibrt is his well-known portrait 
of Simon Kenton from life. He was gifted with exquisite 
taste and remarkable feeling for color. He died about the 
year 1860. Dr. Robert Peter owns some of his pictures. 

The greatest painter that Kentucky has yet produced, 
and one whose name has shed no little lustre upon the art 
annals of America, was Matthew H. Jouett. He was born 
near Lexington, in 1783, and educated for the bar. After 
participating in the war of 1812, he returned to Lexington, 
where he attempted to practice law, but being devoted to 
art, and rendered dissatisfied by the aspirations of his 
genius, he abandoned his profession, and in 1817 went to 
Boston and studied under the noted Gilbert Stuart. In 
less than five years from that time, he was celebrated as 
the best portrait painter west of the Allogliany mountains. 
His studio in Lexington, was first in a two-story brick build- 
ing, which formerly stood on Short street, between the 
Northern Bank and the residence of the late D. A. Sayre. 


Subsequently he used a room above the first National Bank 
on the same street. Among his best pictures are those of 
Henry Clay, Joseph H. Daviess, Dr. llolle}^, Major Morri- 
son, Governor Letcher, John J. Crittenden, Isaac Shelby, 
and the full length portrait of the Marquis Lafayette, 
now owned by the State of Kentucky. Mr. Jouett died in 
Lexington, August 10, 1827, having just returned from a 
professional trip to the South. Mr. Jouett was tall and 
thin of form, gifted with great taste, rare humor, and 
splendid conversational powers, and his literary and social 
culture was only second to his great artistic genius. 
Nearly half a century has elapsed since Jouett's death, but 
his superior as a portrait painter has never yet arisen in 
the West. 

Oliver Frazer, another artist-son of Lexington, was born 
February 4, 1808, and studied for several years under 
Jouett. After the death of his distinguished instructor, 
Mr. Frazer, in company with George P. Healy, went to 
Europe, where he remained for four years, studying the 
great works of the old masters. On his retun, he married 
Miss Martha, daughter of Dr. Alexander Mitchell, of 
Frankfort, and achieved flattering success as a portrait 
painter. He died, April 9, 1854, and was buried in the 
Lexington Cemetery. Unfortunately, his eyesight became 
injured some years before his death, which prevented him 
from being a prolific painter, but the few productions of 
his pencil are of rare merit. His portrait of Clay, and a 
family group in the possession of Mrs. Frazer, are consid- 
ered among his best efforts. Mr. Clay spoke in the strongest 
terms of satisfaction of his portrait by Frazer, who received 
a number of orders for copies of it. Others of Mr. Frazer's 
pictures are owned by Major Lewinski, F. K. Hunt, Mrs. 
M. T. Scott, Wm. Warfield, Judge Kobertson, Mrs. W. 
A. Dudley, J. S. Wilson, Mrs. A. K. Woolley, J. J. Hunter, 
and others, and are characterized by their delicate coloring 
and accurate delineation. Another has well said that Mr. 
Frazer was a true artist, aud loved his profession for its 
own sake. He was honest, kind, and true, and was de- 
voted to the retirement of his ha[)py home. He was greatly 


gifted in conversation, well read in the best art and other 
literature, and his taste was exceedingly delicate and correct. 

Another artist, Joseph H. Bush, made Lexington his 
home for many years. Mr. Bush was born in Frankfort, 
Kentucky, in 1794, and was the son of Philip and Eliza- 
beth Bush. At the age of eighteen, he went to Philadel- 
phia, under the care of Mr. Claj^ and remained there three 
years, studying under the celebrated artist. Sully, after 
which he pursued his profession in New Orleans, Vicks- 
burg, Louisville, and Lexington, and attained an enviable 
distinction. How skillfully he handled his pencil is evi- 
denced in the reputation of his full-length picture of General 
Zachary Taylor, and the coloring and the beautiful effect 
of light and shade in his portraits of Dr. Ben. Dudley, 
Mrs. Fanny Bullitt, and the rest of his numerous produc- 
tions. Mr. Bush died in Lexington, January 11, 1865, 
only a few months after the decease of his fellow-artist, 
Oliver Frazer. 

Mr. Bush was a man of deep religious feelings, ana ex- 
tensive reading and culture, and was most genial and com- 
panionable with those he knew well. His studio was in 
an upper room over Sayre's banking house, corner of Mill 
and Short. 

In 1867, Mr. Alexander painted some fine pictures in 
Lexington, one of General John C. Breckinridge, and 
another of Judge W. B. Kinkead, being among the 

Since Jonett's time, a number of artists have either 
sojourned in Lexington temporarily, or made it their home. 
John Grimes, who excelled in delicate forms and colors, 
painted here, for several years anterior to 1832, at which 
time he died in Lexington, and was buried in the Episcopal 
Cemetery. His studio was in the building on Main street, 
now occupied by Mr. Thomas Bradley. Several of his pro- 
ductions are in the possession of his aunt, Mrs. Thos. Grant, 
and Mrs. Fannie Dewees and J. J. Hunter each have one. 

The well-known miniature engravings of Clay and Jack- 
son are from original portraits by Dodge, who resided for 
some time in Lexington. 


J. H. Beard, the American Landseer, during a visit to 
Lexington, painted portraits of the late Robert Alexander, 
Colonel W. S. Price, and one or two others. 

William Ver Bryck, who has since attained much celeb- 
rity, executed some very fine portraits in this city, in 1868, 
one of Mrs, Dr. Whitney, one each of Mr. and Mrs. Joim 
Carty, and portraits of several members of Dr. II. M. Skill- 
man, and Mr. Isaac Scott's families. No visiting artist 
ever met with as much success in Lexington as Mr. Ver 
Bryck. His studio was in the Phoenix Hotel. He come 
to Lexington from the city of N^ew York. 

Mr. B. F. Rhineheart, in 1869, had a temporary studio 
in the present Library building, and painted in very supe 
rior style, portraits of General John C. Breckinridge, Gen- 
eral John H. Morgan, Mrs. Basil Duke, Dr. and Mrs. 
Warren Frazer, Mr. Thos. Mitchell, and others. His chief 
excellences are tine modeling and coloring. Mr. Rhineheart 
is a native of Ohio. 

Mr. E. Troye, who was born in England, but has long 
been a resident of New York, has painted a number of fine 
animal pictures. Some of his best efforts — pictures of 
blood liorses — are in the possession of Messrs. J. A. Grin- 
stead, A. K. Richards, A. Buford, M. Alexander, of Wood- 
ford, and others. As an animal painter, Mr. Troye has no 
superior in this country. He has, as yet, attempted but 
few composition pictures, the " Dead Sea " being one of 

General W. S. Price is one of the most promising resi- 
dent painters Lexington has had since Jouett. He is a 
son of the late Daniel B. Price, of Nicholasville, Ky., and 
was a pupil of the lamented Oliver Frazer. His first effort, 
made at the age of seventeen, was a portrait of "Old King 
Solomon," the unterritied grave-digger during the cholera 
of '33, and long one of the "institutions" of Lexington. 
This picture merits the celebrity it has attained. Another 
early picture is a fine portrait of Postmaster Ficklin. The 
portrait of President Fillmore, in the Phoenix Hotel dining- 
room, is by Price, and was painted in 1855. One of his 
most successlul eiiorts is a large picture of General George 


H. Thomas, which has become extensively known. Mr. 
Price has received letters highly complimenting his work 
from both Mr. Fillmore and General Thomas. A striking 
likeness of Judge Kobertson must not be forgotten. Lat- 
terly, General Price has attempted composition pictures, 
and with marked success. The " Night before the Battle 
of Chickamauga," the "Young Artist," and "Caught 
Napping," indicate the latitude, as well as the superiority 
of his talents. He has reflected honor upon the art history 
of his state. His studio is in the second story of the Post- 
otiice building, on the corner of Mill and Short streets. 

Mrs. Eliza Brown, widow of Professor John Brown, of 
Transylvania University, who died in 1855, has painted a 
number of beautiful landscape^:, the merit of which is 
heightened by the fact that Mrs. Brown commenced with 
the pencil at a time of life when art eflbrts generally cease. 
A Rhineland scene, the " Yosemite Valley," a Canadian 
landscape, and an exquisite bit of Minnesota rock and 
water, are worthy of special mention. Mrs. Brown, who 
is now nearly seventy, attempted a few months ago, and 
for the first time, portrait painting, and with extraordinary 
success, considering her age. Her residence and studio is 
on the corner of Short and Upper streets. 

Mr. Stuart, a South Carolinian, but now a resident of St. 
Louis, painted some excellent portraits in this city last 
spring; one each of Mrs. Rosa Jeffrey, Mr. Cooper, city 
Librarian, and li. A Buckuer, Sen., deceased. 

1783.] TOWN AFyArj;s- JAMES BROWN. 151 


Town A fairs — James Brown — The Methodist Church — Father 
Foythress — The Cloud — Adams and Centenary Seces- 
sions — Pastors and Incidents — The Lexington Light In- 
fantry — Its Brilliant Record — Share in the War of 1812 — 
Death of Hart and Searles — llie Killed — Incblents — The 
Man who smoked out the Indians — List of Captains. 

In 1789, the trustees of Lexington, with an eye to the 
public comfort and welfare, directed " all fences to be re- 
moved from the streets," and prohibited " the cutting and 
removing of timber from the pubhc grounds." A curious 
phenomenon caused great anxiety among the good citizet>s 
this year. It was so dark in the afternoon of October 31, 
that the people had to dine by candle-light, and the dark- 
ness lasted nearly three hours.* 

James Brown, who became one of the eminent public 
men of this county, settled in Lexington in 1789. He was 
born in Virginia, September 11, 1766, and was educated at 
William and Mary College. He commanded a company of 
Lexington riflemen, in Wilkinson's expedition against the 
Indians, in 1791. At the organization of the common- 
wealth in this city, the next year he became the first secre- 
tary of state of the new government, which subsequently 
necessitated his removal to Frankfort. Soon after the ces- 
sion of Louisiana, he removed to that state, and was twice 
elected to the United States Senate. He was also minister 
to France from 1823 to 1829. He died in Philadelphia, in 
1835, distinguished for his eloquence and legal ability. 
When Mr. Brown lived in Lexington, his residence was 

♦Old Gazette. 


on the corner of Mill and Short streets, on the site of the 
building now owned by Mr. Wolverton. 

The Methodist Church commenced its history in Lexing- 
ton, in 1789, with a feeble but devout little baud of 
Christians, who assembled at times in a dilapidated log 
cabin which stood on the corner of Short and Dewees 
streets, where the Colored Baptist church now stands. 
Two years before this, the first Methodist church built in 
Kentucky (a log one) had been erected at Mastersou's station, 
five miles northwest of Lexington, and in 1790, the first 
annual conference of the church in Kentucky was held 
there, and had the great and good Bishop Francis Asbury 
as its presiding oflicer.* The father of the little church at 
Lexington was the impassioned, the self sacrificing, and 
the unfortunate Francis Poythress, who went from station 
to station, preaching and toiling and sufl'ering in silence. 
At a conference in Baltimore, in 1776, Father Poythress 
bad been admitted into the traveling connection, and in 
1778 he was sent to Kentucky. As a preacher, few, in 
those days, excelled him. His v6ice was clear and musical, 
his knowledge of the Scriptures vast and accurate, and his 
sermons fell as the dews of life upon the hearts of his con- 
gregation. His mind finally gave way, from the excessive 
draughts made upon it, and he never preached again after 
the fall of 1800, He died and was buried near Nicholas- 
ville.f John Page, James O'Cull, and Thomas Allen 
preached at various times to the Methodists in Lexington, 
from 1792 to 1800, when Lewis Hunt, a Virginian, was ap- 
pointed to "Lexington town," where he labored with much 
acceptability to his little flock. In 1803, the church at 
Lexington was detached from the circuit, and organized 
into a station. 

This was the first Methodist station in Kentucky, and 
comprised seventy-seven members, forty-seven white and 
the rest black. Thomas Wilkinson was pastor at that 
time. He was succeeded by Nathaniel Harris and Burwell 
Spurlock. Dr. Caleb W. Cloud was assigned to the care 

♦Kedford's History. tCollins, 126. 


of the church in 1811, at which period he was one of the 
most able and prominent preachers in the state. Dr. Cloud's 
ability and piety was only equaled by his eccentricity and 
independence, and his elaborate "spencer," nick-tailed 
horse, and imprudent language soon occasioned trouble 
among the members of the church, which, at that day, was 
noted for its great simplicity. 

An incident, characteristic of the man, occurred when 
Postlethwaite's tavern was burned. The doctor, who was 
then an enthusiastic officer of a fire company, saw a man 
sitting on a horse amusing himself by watching the fire. 
He ordered him to assist at the engine; the man declined, 
saying that he was a "county" man, and "didn't have to 
help at town fires." Without more ado, the doctor, with 
words more plain than elegant, pulled him from his horse 
and made liim "help." 

The church became so dissatisfied with the doctor's 
"ways," that, in 1812, he withdrew from it, carrying a 
number of the members with him, and formed the Inde- 
pendent Methodist Church. After preaching for several 
years at his own house, he built " St. John's Chapel," on 
Main street, where Douglass' carriage factory now stands. 
The doctor officiated gratuitously, and often invited the 
various denominations to worship in his chapel. After 
preaching independently for a long series of years, he at 
last went back to the church he had left. He died May 14, 
1850, aged sixty-nine, and was followed to his grave by the 
Masons, the medical profession, and a large number of 
other citizens. 

But to return. After the withdrawal of Dr. Cloud, the 
church was blessed with the services of Mr. Akers, but the 
congregation, crippled by the secession of the independent 
doctor and his adherents, languished until 1820, when it be- 
gan to grow under the pastorate of Edward Stevenson, and 
was still further enlarged by Richard Tydings. Its pros- 
perity was such in 1822, that a new church building was 
erected on Church street, between Upper and Limestone, 
at a cost of $5,000, and was dedicated in that year by 
Bishop George. It was a plain, well-finished, brick edifice, 


measuring fifty by sixtj^ feet. It held seventy-five pews on 
the ground floor, and was provided with a gallery above. 
T. P. Satterwhite, Stephen Chipley, iNicholas Headiugtoii, 
John Shrock, T. K. Lay ton, Thomas Gibbons, James Ham- 
ilton, J. W. Russell, Harvey Maguire, and B. W. llhoton 
were members of the church at that time. In 1829, William 
Holman was pastor. His successor was Bishop H. IL 
Kavanaugh, who was born January 14, 1802, in Clarke 
county, Kentucky. He joined the Methodist Church at 
the age of fifteen, was licensed to preach in 1822, and was 
regular pastor of the Lexington church, both in 1830 and 
1847. He was elected bishop at the general conference of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church South, at Columbus, 
Georgia, in 1854. Bishop Kavanaugh was a resident of 
Lexington for many years, and was greatly beloved and 

Among the ministers who succeeded him maybe named 
George C. Light; the worthy and useful Spencer Cooper, 
who died in 1839, and the eccentric, widely-known, and 
now aged Peter Cartwright. The wonderfully eloquent 
Maffit conducted a revival in the church on Church street 
in 1834. Immense audiences were entranced by his glow- 
ing words, and many connected themselves with the church. 
Maflit preached in Lexington again in 1837. 

The present church edifice on Hill street, between Upper 
and Mill, was commenced in 1841, and dedicated by the 
gifted bishop, Henry B. Bascom, in 1842. Bishop Bascom 
was born in New York, May 27, 1796. His boyhood life 
was a hard one, and his early manhood full of trials and dis- 
couragements, but surmounting everj^ obstacle, he lived to 
gain from Henry Clay the eulogy, "He is the greatest nat- 
ural orator I ever heard." He was appointed chaplain to 
the House of Representatives in Congress in 1841, but soon 
resigned, and accepted, in 1842, the presidency of Tran- 
sylvania University, which position he held for seven years. 
In 1849, his volume of sermons was published. He died 
in Louisville, Kentucky, Se[jtember 8, 1850. 

On the division of the Methodist Church in the United 


States, ill 1844, the church in Lexington connected itself 
with the Southern Conference, and it had abundant pros- 
perity until 185G, at which time a dispute arose, concerning 
the power of the officers of the church, and ended in the 
secession of a large number of the members, under the 
leadership of Samuel Adams and Nicholas Ileadington. 
The seceders bought the old medical hall lot, on the corner 
of Church and Market streets; built the house now known 
as the City Library with subscriptions raised from the 
general public; organized an inde[)endent church, and made 
Samuel Adams their pastor. The church was called 
"Morris Chapel," after Bishop Morris, of Ohio. A disa- 
greement between the congregation and the officers of the 
new church resulted in the resignation of Mr. Adams and 
the calling of C. B. Parsons, who failed to give satisfaction, 
and at last, after existing independently for eight or nine 
years, most of the members returned to tlie "church on the 
hill,"" and deeded their property to the Church South. 

The names of some of the ministers who labored for the 
Hill Street church before this secession are William Gunn, 
L. D. Huston, S. Adams, T. C. Shelman, J. H. Linn, E. P. 
Buckner, R. Heiner, W. C, Dandy, Mr. S[)ruell. 

The Methodist Church, like the Baptist and Presbyterian, 
had its war troubles also, which grew worse and worse, 
until they culminated, in September, 1865, in an open rup- 
ture, when the party favoring the ]Srorthern Conference se- 
ceded, and formed what is now called the Centenary Meth- 
odist Church (see chapter on 1865). Since that time the 
Hill Street church has enjoyed the services of the followino- 
pastors, viz : H. P. Walker, B. M. Messick, K. K. Hargrove, 
S. X. Hall, H. A. M. Henderson, and W. S. Rand, the 
present untiring and acceptable minister. No church in 
Lexington has had more discouraging circumstances to con- 
tend with than the Hill Street church, but she has come 
out nobly from them all, and is now rapidly growing in 
strength and usefulness. 
^ The Lexington Light Infantry, of glorious memory, and 
the oldest military company in Kentucky, and perhaps in 


this country, was organized in 1789.* Its formation was due 
to a threatened Indian invasion, and to the martial passiou 
of General James Wilkinson, who was chosen its first captain. 
Its first ensign was John Fowler, afterward postmaster of 
Lexington. Since that time a host of stirring associations 
have chistered about the simple name " Old Infantry," for 
it has been connected with victories and defeats, conflicts 
and massacres, and with some of the most brilliant military 
achievements recorded in the annals of Kentucky. It was 
led by Wilkinson in successful expeditions against the In- 
dians; shared in the disastrous defeats of Harmar and St. 
Clair ; bore a gallant part in the victorious campaign of 
"old Mad Anthony" Wayne against the Sciota and other 
Indians,! and, in 1792, escorted Governor Shelby into Lex- 
ington, then the capital of the state, and assisted in the 
ceremonies of his inauguration. These were the days when 
the " Old Infantry" delighted in flint-lock muskets, and in 
tinder-boxes and steel. 

In 1803, the company was called out by President Jeffer- 
son to go to Louisiana, but the purchase of that state by 
the government superseded the necessity. It was about 
this time that the well-known and historic uniform suit of 
the company was adopted. It consisted of a blue cloth coat, 
with cutis, breast, and collar faced with red and ornamented 
with bell-buttons. The pantaloons were of blue cloth, the 
hat black, and the plume red. The favorite parade ground 
of the company, at this time, was a beautiful level spot back 
of, and belonging to the property of Mrs. John Cartj', on 
Broadway. Subsequently, the Maxwell Spring grounds 
were used. A "turn-out" of the Old Infantry in early 
days was a grand event in Lexington, and was always wit- 
nessed by a large and admiring crowd of natives of all 
ages, sexes, colors, and conditions. 

The Lexington Light Infantry was one of the first com- 
panies to volunteer in the war of 1812, it having organized 
for the campaign on the 11th of May of that year, with 
N. S. G. Hart as captain. The " silk-stocking boys," as 

*01d Journals. tGsizette, and Ob. and Rep. 


the members of the company were then often called, were 
attached to the Fifth Regiment of Kentucky Volunteer 
Militia, commanded by Colonel William Lewis, and marched 
for the Northwestern army in August, 1812. On the march 
to Fort Wayne an incident occurred, which, amusing as it 
may appear, speaks volumes for the principles which ac- 
tuated the men. A member of the company having stood 
manfully up under the severe fatigues of the march until 
the last day, at length sank on the grass of the prairie 
through which the company was marching, and, whilst his 
comrades were passing rapidly on, he shed bitter tears at 
his condition. An officer* approached him, in company 
with one or two others, to aid him to one of the few wagons 
that attended the march, and on inquiring the cause of his 
tears, he earnestly exclaimed, " What will they say in Lexing- 
ton when they hear that James Huston gave out?" 

The glorious share which the "Old Infantry" had in the 
terrible battle and sickening massacre at Frenchtown, on 
the river Raisin, in this campaign, is told in our chapter on 
the year 1812. At that river of death, the heroic band lost 
half its members in killed, wounded, and prisoners ; the 
brilliancy of their uniform causing the men to be readily 
picked ofi' by the enemy. The gallant captain of the com- 
pany, who was wounded and disabled in the battle, was 
barbarously murdered by the savages after having trusted 
himself to the protection of his pretended friend, Ca[)tain 
Elliott, of the British army, who infamously abandoned 
him to the mercy of the Indians.f 

The heroic death of Charles Searles, another gallant mem- 
ber of the Light Infantry, wounded in the battle of the 
18th, should never be forgotten.f On the morning of the 
23d, by strong exertion, he was able to walk, and so to con- 
ceal his wound, that he was allowed to accompany his cap- 
tors unmolested, until they stopped for the night. No 
doubt the fatigue, aided by the suiterings from his wound, 
at length revealed to the savages his disabled condition, and 
marked him out as a victim. He, with several other prison- 

*Gen. J. M. McCalla. tWestcrn Annals. JMcCalla's Address. 


ers, was seated on the ground, partaking of some food, 
when one of the savages rose up, and drawing his toma- 
hawk, approached Searles from behind. 

The prisoner marked the movement, and apprehending 
his intention, watched the descending blow, and tried to 
catch it in his hand, but only partially succeeded, the wenpon 
inflicting a deep wound in the shoulder. Rising to his feet, 
he seized his antagonist, who was unprepared for such a 
bold resistance, and snatching the tomahawk from his hand, 
was about to inflict a deserved vengeance on his cruel as- 
sailant, when Dr. Bower, of the regiment, told him that if 
he struck the Indian all the prisoners would be murdered, 
and his death, now inevitable, would not be prevented. As 
soon as he found that he might endanger his comrades by 
resisting, he dropped the uplifted arm, let fall the weapon, 
and, without a murmur or a complaint, waited until the as- 
tonished savage picked up the tomahawk, and coolly and 
deliberately dispatched his victim. 

Can Roman or Grecian annals display a more sublime in- 
stance of manly generosity and magnanimity than this ? 

It was at the battle of Frenchtown that a member of the 
" Old Infantry " company, James Iliggins,* astonished even 
the boldest of his comrades by his daring contempt of death. 
Vain efforts had been made to dislodge a large number of 
Indians from a barn, into which they had crowded, and 
from which they were pouring a destructive tire into Colonel 
Lewis's command. The soldier we have mentioned asked 
permission to " smoke 'um out." It was granted. He then 
coolly picked up a large blazing " chunk " from a camp fire, 
deliberately walked up to the barn in the very face of a hail 
storm of bullets, and applied the " chunk." The barn was 
soon one mass of flames, and the brave infantryman quickly 
had the satisfaction of seeing all the Indians "smoked out." 
The most remarkable feature of the case was that the man 
had always been regarded at home as ridiculously timid, 
and had often been imposed upon, both by his neighbors 
and comrades in arras. But after this bold deed, the past 

*Gener:il S. L. Williams and T. P. Dudloy. 



was forgotten, and it was not safe for any one to say any- 
thing in the presence of the "Old Infantry" against the 
man "who smoked out the Indians." James Iliggins, the 
hero of this glorious incident, was born near Side View, 
Montgomery county, Kentucky, but removed to Lexington, 
and was one of her citizens when he enlisted in the Old 
Infantry. This gallant man died many years ago. 

A few names of the killed of this company have been 
preserved, viz: N. S. G. Hart, Charles Searles, J. E. Blythe 
(son of President Blythe, of Transylvania University), Jesse 
Cock, Alexander Crawford, Samuel Elder, William Davis, 
Jesse Riley, Armston Stewart, George Shindlebower, Sam- 
uel Cox, and Charles Bradford. 

On the 11th of September, 1839, the Light Infantry cele- 
brated in Lexington its fiftieth anniversary. At eleven 
o'clock A. M., a procession, consisting of the Louisville 
Guards, Captain Anderson ; the Volunteer Artillery, Cap- 
tain Trotter; the Mechanics Infantry, Captain Forbes; and 
the "Old Infantry," under Captain G. L. Postlethwaite, 
marched to the beautiful woodlands of John Love (now 
J. H. Mulligan's, adjoining the Maxwell Spring grounds), 
where an exceedingly appropriate and interesting address 
was delivered by General John M. McCalla, after which 
came a banquet, and then the survivors of the war of 1812 
reviewed their hardships and dangers, and fought their bat- 
tles over again. 

At the commencement of the war with Mexico, the Light 
Infantry again took the field, under the command of Captain 
Cassius M. Clay, and was known in the army by the remark- 
able name of the "Lexington Old Infantry Cavalry." In 
that war, the Kentucky cavalry used as its regimental fiixg 
the colors which the ladies of Lexington had presented to 
the " Old Infantry," some years before, on an anniversary 
of the battle of the Raisin. 

In times of peace, the company amused itself with target 
shooting at Maxwell's spring. On one of these occasions, 
Captain Richard Parker, then commanding the Old Infan- 
try, but now one of our oldest citizens, was accidentally 


shot in the hip, and he still suffers from the wound then 

In 1860, the Old Infantry took its stand in the Kentucky 
State Guard, with the following officers, viz : Captain, 
Samuel D. McCullough ; First Lieutenant, George W. Did- 
lake ; Second Lieutenant, S. W. Price ; Third Lieutenant, 
J. B, iTorton; Ensign, R. H. Prewett; Surgeon, Dr. G. W. 
McMillin; Right Guide, Charles Dobyns; Left Guide, W. 
W. Dowden; Third Sergeant, B. W. Blincoe; Fourth Ser- 
geant, Charles Schultz ; Fifth Sergeant, M. Hogarty. 

In the memorable summer of 1861, just before Kentucky 
was drawn into the gigantic civil contest then waging, the 
Old Infantry held a reunion in the densely crowded Odd 
Fellows' Hall, on the corner of Main and Broadway. The 
company was conducted to the hall by those two noted or- 
ganizations, the " Lexington Rifles " and the " Chasseurs," 
headed by the splendid Newport band. An opening address 
was delivered by Judge L. L. Todd, of Indianapolis, a former 
captain of the Old Infantry, after which a new flag was pre- 
sented to the company by General Combs, in behalf of the 
donor, Mr. David A. Say re. The old flag of the Old In- 
fantry, which had gone through the leaden storm of Buena 
Vista, was then unfurled, a roll of all the captains called, 
and the Star Spangled Banner sung, after which the meeting 

Many of the members of the company served gallantly 
on either side in the terrible war between the States, and 
fully maintained the ancient renown of the venerable or- 
ganization, which, for the credit of Lexington, should never 
be permanently abandoned. 

From the year 1789 to the present time, the Lexington 
Light Infantry has been commanded by the following cap- 
tains, viz : General James Wilkinson, 1789 ; James Hughes 
and Samuel Weisiger, 1791 ; Cornelius Beatty, 1793 ; John 
Postlethwaite, 1797; Thomas Bodley, 1803; N. S. G. Hart, 
1811-12 ; and since the last date by Daniel Bradford, J. G. 
Trotter, Adam Beatty, "William Logan, Levi L. Todd, 
Robert Megowan, Richard Parker, G. L. Postlethwaite, T. 




P. Hart, Thomas Smith, R. Morrison, John M. McCalla, 
Lawrence Daly, James O.Harrisou, T. Monks, T. W. Lowry, 
W. Allison, Levyis Barbee, F. G. West, Joseph Hoppy, G. 
L. Postlethwaite, J. B. Clay, C. M. Clay, S.D. McCullough, 
S. W. Price. 



Town Affairs — Harmar's Defeat — John Pope — The Jail — 
Fire Companies. 

While the actual population of Lexington, in 1790, was 
not large, the town was a place of some importance as a 
stopping point for traders, as it was on the line of com- 
munication between the East and the West. In this year, 
the trustees ordered a " canal " to be dug to carry the 
water of the " Branch " straight through town. They also 
made the announcement that "the town commons shall 
hereafter be known as Water street." Lexington's encour- 
agement of art in 1790 is exhibited in the eagerness of the 
citizens to obtain " black profile likenesses, taken by the 

In July of this year, the delegates from Fayette attended 
the eighth convention, held at Danville. At this convention, 
an act of separation, passed by the Virginia legislature, 
was finally accepted, and a ninth convention, to form a 
state constitution, was called for April, 1791. 

Incursions and murders by the Indians had now become 
so frequent and unbearable that the new general govern- 
ment, which had just gone into operation, sent out a mili- 
tary force to protect the frontier. In the fall, Colonel 
Trotter, with some volunteers from Lexington, went to 
Fort Washington (Cincinnati), and joined the expedition 
of General Joseph Harmar against the Miami towns. The 
campaign ended disastrously. 

That distinguished statesman, John Pope, came to Lex- 
ington in 1790, at which time he was about twenty years 
of age. He lived in this city for many 3'ears. Mr. Pope 
was born in Prince William county, Virginia, and emi- 

1790.] JOHN POPE— THE JAIL. 163 

grated to Kentucky while quite a boy.* He was a man 
of great ability and remarkable talents, and was one of the 
most formidable opponents Mr. Clay ever had; and, like 
Mr. Clay, he attained distinction by his own exertions. 
Mr. Pope was often a member of the Kentucky legislature, 
was for many years a representative in Congress, was 
United States Senator in 1807, and was for six years gov- 
ernor of the Territory of Arkansas. He died in Wash- 
ington county, Kentucky, in 1842, aged seventy-two. He 
built and resided in the house now occupied by Joseph 
Wolfolk, near the junction of Rose and Hill streets. 
When Mr. Pope ran against Mr. Clay, in the Lexington 
district, it was in the vigor of their days, when each one 
was able to do his best. It was Wagoner and Gray Eagle 
against each other. Mr. Clay was the winner, but did not, 
we believe, distance his competitor. The race was honor- 
able to both, and if Mr. Pope had had the same passionate 
determination, and the same fiery and never- relaxing am- 
bition of Mr. Clay, there would have been two Clays in 
the state without room enough to hold them. An amus- 
ing incident occurred during this race.f Mr. Pope had but 
one arm. On the approach of the contest, Mr. Clay called 
upon an Irishman in Lexington, who had been his political 
friend heretofore, but now declared his intention to go for 
Pope. Mr. Clay wanted to know the reason. The answer 
was, "Och, Misther Clay, I have concluded to vote for the 
man who has but one arm to sthrust into the sthreasuiy." 

A log jail succeeded the pillory and the stocks in Lex- 
ington in 1790, and stood near the first court-house on 
Main, not far from the corner of Broadway.J In these 
early days, when imprisonment for debt was in vogue, the 
"jail bounds," or the precincts within which a debt pros- 
oner could walk, was marked on the pavements and the 
houses near the jail by a broad stripe of black paint. A 
larger jail was erected in 1797, on the same ground where 
the present jail stands, was destroyed by fire in 1819, and 
another one was completed the next year. The building 

♦Collins. tCorrospondence Cincinnati Gazette. fOld Gazette. 


of the present prison commenced in 1850. The fol- 
lowing is an incomplete list of those who have filled the 
office of jailer, viz: Innis B. Brent, Clark, Bar- 
ker, "Wm. Bobbs, Nathaniel Prentiss, Richard Sharp, 

Joseph R. Megowan, T. B. Megowan, White, Ben. 

Blincoe, W. H. Lusby, and Thos. B. Megowan. Including 
all the terms he has served, Mr. T. B. Megowan has been 
a jailer for nearly forty years. 

Lexington's first regular fire company was organized at 
Brent's tavern in 1790, with John Bradford as secretary. 
It was styled the Union Fire Company, and used buckets 
only. Before this, in case of a fire, each citizen was re- 
quired, when the alarm was given, to attend with a bucket 
filled from his own well. The Union company's " bucket- 
house " was a building on Main, near Scott's block. Later, 
it was on Water street, and was finally converted into an 
engine house. In 1805, the officers of the " Union" were: 
Captains — Dan'l Bradford, Christopher Keiser; Directors — 
William Macbeau, George Anderson, John Jones, Alex- 
ander Frazer, Thomas Hart, Jr., John Jordan, Jr., Thomas 
Bodley, Alex. Parker, Charles Wilkins, Lewis Sanders, 
William Ross, Thomas Whitney, Maddox Fisher. The 
trustees passed a resolution in 1812, authorizing a committee 
"to procure four additional ladders, four fire-hooks, three 
rope-ladders, and three tubs to put under the pumps, all to 
be marked with the name of the company, etc., and a fine of 
ten dollars imposed on any person who will use them, un- 
less in case of fire." In 1818, two little " newly-invented" 
engines w^ere bought by the town authorities. They at- 
tracted great attention and admiration. 

The fire department was organized in 1832, when the city 
was incorporated. In 1840, the city could boast of the 
" Kentuckian," "Lyon," and "Resolution" hand-engines, 
and others were added from time to time. The period in- 
cluded betwee.j 1850 and 1860 was the golden age of the 
fire companies m Lexington. Then the Fourth of July was 
the day of their glory, and the old Lyon, Clay, Kentuckian, 
and other engines, with their hose carnages, were resplen- 
dent with beautiful decorations fashioned by the ladies of the 

1790.] FIRE COMPANIES. 165 

city. Three hundred firemen have been known to turn out 
in procession on such occasions, presenting a splendid ap- 
pearance with their brilliant uniforms and gay trappings. 
But these are memories of an age which ended with the 
purchase of the first steam fire engine, in March, 1864. 
The "Lyon" engine house was on Limestone street, near 
the corner of Hill ; the " Clay," on Broadway, betweeu 
Short and Second, now known as Pruden's marble works; 
the '* Union," on Short, between Upper and Limestone, is 
now the headquarters of the steam fire department. 



Survey of Lexington — Expeditions of Scott and WiUc'rison — 
St. Clair's Defeat — Delegates to the Ninth Conoention. 

During the spring of 1791, the trustees of Lexington 
made war on " wooden chimneys," the use of which, for 
the future, was prohibited. They also ordered "all the 
post and rail fences across Short street to be taken down." 
In the latter part of March, the following survey of the 
town was made, the report of which we give verbatim, with 
the drawing which accompanied it.* 

" Surveyed by order of the trustees of the town of Lex- 
ington, 204 acres of land, including the court-house of 
Fayette county in the center, in a circular figure of two 
miles in diameter. Beginning at A, one mile southeast 
from the said court-house, at a post on the northeast side 
of the road, running thence south 56|^, west 125 poles 
to a post crossing Tate's creek road at 85 poles ; theuce 
south 78f, west 125 poles to a post, thence north 78|, west 
125 poles to post ; thence north 56|^, west 125 poles to post 
crossing the Hickman road at 25 poles, thence north 33f, 
west 125 poles to post crossing Craig's mill road at 45 
poles ; thence north V\.\^ west 125 poles to a stake in 
Hackney's field, about 40 poles southeastwardly from his 
house; thence north llj, east 125 poles to post; thence 
north 33f, east 125 poles to post 15 poles northeast of the 
old Leestown road, crossing the head of McCounell's mill 
pond at 45 poles; thence north 56^, east 125 poles to post, 
passing and leaving out Eckle's and Brown's plantations ; 
thence north 78|, east 125 poles to post, crossing John- 
ston's mill road at 35 poles ; thence south 78|, east 125 

•Trustees' Book. 




poles to post, leaving out Irvine's house, 14 poles; thence 
south bfj\, east 125 poles to post crossing Russell's road at 
75 poles ; thence south 33f , east 125 poles to post near 
Springle's house in the survey, and crossing Bryan's road 
at 25 poles; thence south Vl\, east 125 poles to post; 
thence south 11:^, west 125 poles to post near Captain Wil- 
son's house, leaving him in the survey ; thence south 33|, 
west 125 poles to the beginning, leaving Javell 14 poles in 
the survey, and passing Masterson, and leaving him out." 



The Indians, greatly emboldened by their success over 
Harmar, extended their incursions, and immigrants were 
killed by them even in the neighborhood of Lexington. 
In May, General Charles Scott organized an expedition of 
mounted volunteers to punish the Indians on the Wabash, 
and General James Wilkinson, who was appointed second 


in command, augumented the force with a number of men 
from Lexington. Tlie troops began their march from Fort 
Washington, May 23, 1791, and early in the following June, 
destroyed three Kickapoo towns, killed thirty warriors, and 
took fifty-eight prisoners, without the loss of a man.* By 
the 18th of June, all the volunteers from Lexington had re- 
turned, highly elated at their success. It is a matter of 
great regret that only the following few namesf of soldiers 
from this city have been preserved, viz : Thos. Allen, Jas. 
M'Dowell, Jas. Brown, Wm. M'Millin, John E. King, Sam' I 
Patterson, Jos. Jones, Rich'd Bartlett, John Peoples, John 
Arnold, Benj. Gibbs. 

Ill July, General Wilkinson was appointed by Governor 
St. Clair to complete the work so successfully commenced 
by Scott. He organized his expedition iu Lexington, and 
engaged the celebrated Indian-hunter, Bland Ballard, as his 
guide. He started for the Wabash country August 1st, and 
on the 7th, surprised and burned the town of Kathtippeca- 
munk, not far from the ruins of which afterward stood 
the celebrated Prophet's town destroyed by General Har- 
rison in 1811, killed six braves, and took thirty-four pris- 
oners, for all of which he was duly thanked by his country. 
Wilkinson's loss was two killed and one wounded. The 
prisoners taken justified their defeat by constantly declaring 
" Kentucky too much." Only the following names of the 
volunteers from Lexington and Fayette in this expedition 
are extant, viz :| James McDowell, Levi Todd, F. M'Murdie, 
Jos. Logsdon, Dav. Caldwell, W. M'Dowell, Wm. Lewis, 
Wm. Berry, Thos. Atkins, Rich. Bartlett, Moses Caldwell, 
Patrick Burk, Philip Phillips, John Arnold, Chas. Snedeger, 
Samuel Harrod, Wm. Clark, Thos. Bruer. 

During the entire spring, and while these expeditions 
were in progress, preparations for the great invasion of the 
Indian country by General St. Clair were progressing. As 
early as May, St. Clair had come to Lexington in person to 
get the aid of the militia; but the infirm old man, with his 
well-known character for rigid discipline and bad luck, 

*01d Gazette. tOld Gazette. ^Kentucky Gazette. 


met with very small encouragement. One company of 
sixty men, under AVilliam Ellis* (one of the founders of 
Grant's station), comprised all the volunteers from the 
whole of Lexington and Fayette county. The balance of 
the troops obtained by St. Clair from Kentucky had to be 
drafted, and they, without confidence in their commander's 
ability, and regarding the regular force which they were 
compelled to serve with as doomed to destruction, deserted 
every day.f Beset by a combination of unfavorable cir- 
cumstances, St. Clair, with his disaffected troops, commenced 
his march from Fort Jefferson against the Miami villages, 
and on the 4th of November, while encamped on a tribu- 
tary of the Wabash, was suddenly attacked b}' twelve hun- 
dred Indians, and suffered one of the most terrible and 
overwhelming defeats recorded in the annals of savage 
warfare. The news of this great disaster brought sorrow 
to many a household in Fayette county; but no record of 
her loss is known to be in existence. In an old journal,| 
mention is casually made that " Israel Hart, William Bryan, 
Charles Bland, William Lee, Matthew Robinson, ]!^oble 
Wood, and James M'Farin had been paid for their services 
during St. Clair's campaign." An incident of the day was 
the arrival in Lexington of a band of friendly Chickasaw 
warriors on their way to join the army of St. Clair, who 
had been defeated just the day before they got to this city. 
In December, 1791, Fayette elected the following dele- 
gates to the convention to form a constitution for Kentucky, 
viz : Hubbard Taylor, Thos. Lewis, George S. Smith, Robert 
Frier, and James Crawford. This was to be the last of the 
long series of Danville conventions, as Congress, on the 
4th of the preceding February, had admitted Kentucky 
into the Union. 

*St. Clair's Report. tCollins, 44. |Kentucky Gazette. 



Indian Depredations — First Session of the Kentucky Legisla- 
ture: Proceedings, Addresses, Ceremonies, and Appoint- 
ments — Removal of the Capital — List of Public Officers since 
1792 — Circuit Judges and Clerks — State Representatives and 
Senators — United States Representatives and Senators. 

The spring of 1792 had hardly come, before the Indians, 
exulting in St. Clair's defeat, renewed their incursions, and 
the danger soon became such that immigrants and settlers 
were compelled when traveling to go in armed bands. 
About the first of March, the Indians burnt two houses, 
and killed a man and woman on ]!^orth Elkhorn, and 
shortly after, as if determined to aggravate their white foes 
by every possible means, they crept even nearer to Lexing- 
ton, and stole negroes, carried them ofi" and sold them.* 
The last man killed by the Indians, in the vicinity of Lex- 
ington, was shot and scalped in the spring of 1792. His 
body was brought to town, and was prepared for burial in 
a house on Hill street, between Spring and Merino. Bad 
as matters were, no expeditions against the Indians were at- 
tempted, as fruitless eftbrts were then being made by the 
government to effect a peace with the enraged savages. 

The ninth and last convention met in Danville, April 1st 
of this year, and on the 19th of the month, and the seven- 
teenth anniversary of the battle of Lexington, Massachu- 
setts, the first constitution of Kentucky was adopted, to go 
into effect on the 1st of June following. In May, the gov- 
ernor and other officers, and the members of both houses 
of the legislature, were elected. On the 4th of June, 1792,t 
commenced in Lexington the first session of the Kentucky 

*01d Gazette. tState Papers, and Old Gazette. 


legislature, and the orgai)ization of the state government. 
Early in the morning ot" that eventful day, the infant cap- 
ital of the new state presented a scene of unusual bustle 
and excitement. The streets were crowded with citizens 
and soldiers. Men, women, and children, arrayed in the 
gayest pioneer fashion, poured in from the country in every 
direction. Orderlies dashed about, drums beat, sabers clat- 
tered, and ramrods rattled, and such a cleaning of rifles, 
patching of buckskin suits, snapping of flints, and gather- 
ing of provisions, was wonderful to behold. The day was 
well worthy of the attention it received. It had been 
eiigerly and anxiously desired by the people of Kentucky 
for years, and was destined to be an era in their history, for 
on that day Isaac Shelby was to take the oath of ofiice as 
governor of a commonwealth then but three days old, and 
the work of setting up the political machinery of the new 
state was to be regularly begun. 

As the morning waned, news came in that the governor, 
then being escorted from Danville by a detachment of the 
Lexington troop of horse, was approaching the town, and 
forthwith the " county lieutenant," the board of trustees, 
the members of the legislature who had arrived, and a large 
number of prominent gentlemen, went out to meet him. 
At the corner of Main and Broadway, he was received with 
military honors by the " Old Infantry Company,'' and, in 
the midst of enthusiastic cheers from the great crowd there 
assembled, was presented by the chairman of the board of 
trustees of Lexington with the ioWowmg written address: 

" To His Excellency^ Isaac Shelby, Esq., Governor of the State 
of Kentucky: 

" Sir : The inhabitants of the town of Lexington beg leave 
through us to present to your excellency their sincerest 
congratulations on your appointment to the oflice of chief 
magistrate of the State of Kentucky. 

" Truly sensible that no other motive than a sincere de- 
sire to promote the luippiness and welfare of your country 
could have induced you to accept an appointment that must 


draw yon from those scenes of domestic ease and private 
tranquillity which you enjoy in so eminent a degree. 

" Having the fullest confidence in your wisdom, virtue, 
and integrity, we rest satisfied that under your administra- 
tion the constitution will be kept inviolate, and the laws so 
calculated as to promote happiness and good order in the 

" In the name of the inhabitants of Lexington, we bid 
you welcome, and assure you that we, and those we repre- 
sent, have the warmest attachment to your person and char- 

" May your administration insure blessings to your 
country, and honor and happiness to yourself. 

" By order of the trustees of Lexington. 

"John Bradford, Chairman." 

After the presentation of this address, the oath of ofiice 
was administered; then the horse and infantry paraded on 
the public square, and, after firing alternately fifteen rounds, 
a general discharge of rifles was given in honor of the new 
governor, who was escorted to his lodgings by the largest 
and most picturesque procession that the western country 
had then known. " Store clothes" were scarce in that mul- 
titude, while tow-linen shirts, powder-horns, moccasins, 
buckskin pants, and coonskin caps were abundant. 

Later in the day the following reply to the address of 
welcome was sent by Governor Shelby : 

'* To Mr. John Bradford, Chairman of the Board of Trustees 
of Lexington : 
" Sir : I receive, with the warmest sentiments of gratitude 
and respect, your very polite and genteel address,which, added 
to the friendly treatment exhibited by you this day in con- 
ducting me to this place, commands my most cordial respect 
and esteem ; and, although I am thoroughly sensible of my 
want of experience and abilities to discharge the very im- 
portant duties committed to me, the warm congratulations 
only of my country induce me to come forward, with some 
hope that by a strict attention to the duties of my ofiice, 


and a firm adherence to public justice (both of which, I 
trust, are in my power), I may in some degree merit a part 
of that confidence which they have placed in me. 

" Unacquainted with flattery, I only use the plain lan- 
guage of truth to express my warm attachment to the in- 
habitants of this place, and assure them, through you, sir, 
that I shall be happy to render them any service in my 
power which may not be incompatible with the interests of 
our common country. 

" I have the honor to be, with great regard and esteem, 
sir, your most obedient servant, 

"Isaac Shelby." 

This address was read to the citizens, and also the 
announcement of the appointments, by the governor, of 
James Brown as secretary of state, and George ISTicholas, 
attorney -general.* The legislature met and organized by 
electing Alexander S. Bullitt, of Jefferson county, speaker 
of the senate; Robert Breckinridge, speaker of the house, 
and John Logan, of Lincoln, state treasurer, after which 
it adjourned, and the rest of the day was spent in rejoic- 
ing and in interchange of courtesies between the citizens 
and their distinguished guests. 

On the 6th of June, after the general assembly had been 
fully organized, the members of both houses assembled in 
the senate chamber of the state-house, a two-story log 
building of the regular old pioneer type that stood nearly 
in the center of the east side of Main street, between Mill 
and Broadway. At twelve o'clock. Governor Shelby entered 
the hall, attended by the secretary of state, and was imme- 
diately conducted to a position on the right of the speaker 
of the senate, where, after respectfully addressing, first the 
senate and then the house, he proceeded to read the com- 
munications he had prepared. He was listened to with the 
deepest attention, and amid the most profound silence on 
the part of the mass of the legislators and citizens, who 
tilled almost to suftocation every nook and corner of the 
gloomy but substantial editice. At the close of his address, 

♦Kentucky Gazette. 


the goveruor delivered to each speaker a copy of the man- 
uscript, and retired as he had entered. The two houses 
then separated, and, after voting an address in reply to that 
of his excellency, adjourned.* What a scene for a painter, 
w^hat a subject for a glowing pen, was that of the opening of 
the first session of the Kentucky legislature, where the 
courtly practice of the British kings and colonial governors 
appeared in such strange and striking contrast with the 
rude and simple surroundings of early western life. The 
pomp and state of the house of lords in a log cabin, the 
royal ermine, and the republican coonskin, European refine- 
ment and elegance, western simplicity and virtue. Proba- 
bly just such another scene has never been enacted before 
or since. The example set by Governor Shelby, of ad- 
dressing the legislature in })ersoii, was followed in Kentucky 
up to the time of Governor Scott, when it was changed to 
the present one, in accordance with a precedent established 
by President Jefferson. 

The legislature was engaged during its first session in 
organizing the government, the judiciary and revenue re- 
quiring much of its attention. The session lasted twelve 
days. The first bill that secured the sanction of the gov- 
ernor was entitled " an act establishing an auditor's office 
of public accounts."! Acts were passed " establishing the 
town of Versailles, at Woodford court-house;" and form- 
ing the county of Clark from a part of Fayette. Bills 
were passed establishing the various courts, and taxes were 
imposed on land, carriages, cattle, billiard tables, ordinary 
licenses, and retail stores. Commissioners were appointed 
by the house of representatives to select a permanent seat 
of government, then a matter of great jealousy and con- 
tention between the people of the opposite sides of the Ken- 
tucky river.| Five gentlemen were chosen, any three of 
whom might fix upon a location. Their names were Robert 
Todd, of Fayette; John Edwards and John Allen, of 
Bourbon; Henry Lee, of Mason; and Thos. Kenneday, of 
Madison. The commissioners met soon after their appoint- 

*Kentucky Gazette. tState Papers. |Butler. 


ment, when it was found that two were in favor of Frank- 
fort, and two for Lexington. The matter was decided by 
the vote of General Robert Todd for Franktbrt Why 
General Todd decided against his own town has long been 
a mystery to many, but it is known that he regarded his 
position as a delicate one, inasmuch as he owned a large 
amount of laud in this vicinity, and feared if he gave his 
vote for his own place of residence, it might be attributed 
to motives of personal interest. Modern legislators are 
seldom troubled with such acute sensibilities. What a pity 
it is that General Todd listened to the seductive voice of 
old Mrs. Grundy. But he did, and Lexington lost the 

Some of the first appointments in the militia made by 
the governor were those of Benj. Harrison, Tlios. Kenne- 
day, and Robert Todd, as brigadier-generals; William 
Russell, James Trotter, Henry Lee, William Steele, and 
Levi Todd, lieutenant-colonels; James McDowell, John 
Morrison, and John McDowell, majors. Robert Parker 
was appointed surveyor of Fayette county.* 

The members of the assembly received one dollar per 
day for their services, and as no revenue had yet been col- 
lected, the treasurer had to borrow that, and when they 
were at last paid they had to rest content with " cut money;" 
silver dollars cut into convenient "change," sometimes 
counted, but oftener weighed.f Old time wages of a dollar 
per day in "cut money," would not be extravagantly rel- 
ished, we imagine, by our present public servants. The 
office of the first state treasurer, who had neither treasure, 
nor building to put it in if he had, was in " the big log 
tavern" of Robert Megowan, deceased, then the tavern of 
this place, which stood on the spot now covered by Mr. 
Thomas Bradley's hardware store on Main street.| 

At the time of this first session, Lexington was the 
largest town in the state, and contained one thousand in- 
habitants, the population of the entire commonwealth 
being about ninety thousand. The nine counties then in 

*State Papers. t^arshall. JOld Inhabitants. 


existence were Fayette, Mercer, Madison, Lincoln, Jeft'er- 
son, Mason, Bourbon, Nelson, and Woodford. 

As we said above, tbis first meeting of tbe Kentucky- 
legislature was an event of great moment and heartfelt 
satisfaction to tbe people. Tbe infant republic of tbe vast 
wilderness bad seen notbing but trials, vexations, and dis- 
heartening obstacles in its way from tbe time it was a dis- 
trict of Virginia till it became an independent state. Nine 
conventions met and toiled before tbe mucb-desired result 
was obtained. Tbe whole work was done over and over 
again. They were aggravated by tbe tardiness of Virginia 
to complete tbe work of separating the district from tbe 
mother State. Tbe old Congress of 1788 declined emphat- 
ically to act on Kentucky's petition to be received into tbe 
Union. The distinguished John Brown, first and only 
member from Kentucky in tbe old Congress, said that "the 
New England states wanted no new Southern states ad- 

Here was another delay. Kentucky had to wait till the 
old crumbling government bad dissolved, and the new one 
had gone into effect. To these repulses may be added the 
other troubles of French, Spanish, and English intrigues, 
tbe ambitious and disturbing conduct of some of her own 
statesmen, and ever recurring Indian troubles. But all 
difficulties were overcome. The first legislature met, and 
the citizens of tbe new commonwealth rejoiced with ex- 
ceeding great joy. 

Tbe magistrates composing tbe Fayette court of quarter 
sessions in 1792 were Thomas Lewis, John McDowell, and 
Robert Todd ; and those of tbe county court were James 
Trotter, Walter Carr, Percival Butler, Edward Payne, 
Joseph Crockett, AVilliam Campbell, Abraham Bowman, 
Hubbard Taylor, and James McMillan. The other public 
officers who have served the town and county since tbe 
organization of the state government are as follows, viz: 




Samuel McDowell, Buckner Thurston, John Coburn, 
Thomas Lewis, Robert Todd, Benjamin Howard, Henry 
Payne, John Monroe, John McDowell, John Parker, Will- 
iam Warren, Benjamin Johnson, Benjamin Mills, Jesse 
Bledsoe, T. M. Hickey, Daniel Mayes, A. K. WooUey, 
Richard A. Buckuer, W. C. Goodloe, C. B. Thomas. 


Thomas Bodley, H. I. Bodley, T. S. Redd, James Wood, 
J. B. l!^ortou, J. B. Rodes. 


First Representatives of Fayette in Legislature of Ken- 
tucky, May 1, 1792 — William Russell, John Hawkins, 
Thomas Lewis, Hubbard Taylor, James Trotter, Joseph 
Crockett, James McMillan, John McDowell, Robert Pat- 

1793. David Walker, James Hughes, Edmund Bullock, 
Joseph Crockett, John South, Thomas January, Robert 
Frier, Reuben Searcy. 

1794. Joseph Crockett, E. Bullock, John McDowell, J. 
Hughes, D. Walker, J. South. 

1795. E. Bullock, J. Crockett, John Parker, J. Mc- 
Dowell, J. Hughes, D. Walker. 

1796. Bullock, Parker, William Russell, Hughes, Mc- 
Dowell, Walker, Walter Carr. 

1797. McDowell, Bullock, Parker, Russell, John Brad- 
ford, Thomas Caldwell, James Morrison. 

1798. Bullock, C. Beatty, J. Parker, J. H. Stewart, R. 
Patterson, McGregor, Carr, Breckinridge, H. Harrison, 
McDowell, Thomas Caldwell, W. Russell. 

1799. W. Russell, John Breckinridge, John Bell, John 
South, Hez. Harrison, W. Carr. 

1800. W. Russell, John Breckinridge, John Parker, 
Hez. Harrison. 

1801. Benjamin Graves, James Hughes, Benjamin How- 
ard, John Bell. 


1802. Benjamin Howard, "Wm. Russell, James Hughes, 
John Bradford. 

1803. "Wm. Russell, Jas. Hughes, James True, Henry Clay. 

1804. Henry Clay, Wm. Russell, Benj. Graves. 

1805. Henry Clay, Wm. Russell, Grimm R.Tompkins. 

1806. Henry Clay, Wm. Russell, John Pope. 

1807. Henry Clay, W^m. Russell, John Pope. 

1808. Henry Clay, John Parker, James Fishback. 

1809. W. T. Barry, H. Clay, Alfred W. Grayson, Geo. 
Trotter (elected to fill vacancy by Clay resigning, who 
went to United States Senate). 

1810. David Todd, John H. Morton, Joseph H. Hawkins. 

1811. George Trotter, David Todd, J. H. Hawkins. 

1812. J. H. Hawkins, David Todd, Jesse Bledsoe. 

1813. D. Todd, J. H. Hawkins, Robert Russell. 

1814. "W. T. Barry, Henry Payne, T. T. Crittenden. 

1815. H. Payne, James True, Levi L. Todd. 

1816. Jos. C. Breckinridge, J. Parker, J. True. 

1817. Jos. C. Breckinridge, J. Parker, W. T. Barry. 

1818. Jos. C. Breckinridge, Thos. T. Barr, Thomas T. 

1819. J. Parker, H. Payne, R. Wickliffe. 

1820. Percival Butler, H. Payne, George Shannon. 

1821. Jas E. Davis, John R. Witherspoon, Matthias 

1822. James Trotter, Geo. Shannon, J. R. Witherspoon. 

1823. Wm. Russell, R. Wickliffe, James True. 

1824. H. C. Payne, R. Wicklifle, James True. 

1825. R. J. Breckinridge, H. C. Payne, J. True. 

1826. R. J. Breckinridge, M. Flournoy, J. True. 

1827. R. J. Breckinridge, Leslie Combs, J. True, Jr. 

1828. R. J. Breckinridge, Leslie Combs, J. True, Jr. 

1829. Edward J. Wilson, Combs, and True. 

1830. John Curd, Combs, and True. 

1831. H. E. Innis, Chas. Carr, R. H. Chinn. 

1832. A. K WooUey, J. R. Dunlap, H. E. Innis. 

1833. L. Combs, G. R. Tompkins, J. R. Dunlap. 

1834. G. R. Tompkins, J. R. Dunlap, A. K. Woolley. 

1835. Jacob Hughes, John Curd, Robt. Wicklifte, Jr. 

1792.] STATE SENATORS. 179 

1836. H. Daniel, W. Rodes, Robt. Wicklifte, Jr. 

1837. H. Clay, Jr., W. Rodes, Robt. Wickliffe, Jr. 

1838. H. Clay, Jr., W. Rodes, Larkin B. Smith. 

1839. Jacob Hughes, Rich'd Pindell, J. Q. McKinney. 

1840. C. M. Clay, J. Curd, Clayton Curie. 

1841. Neal McCann, Robt. S. Todd. 

1842. R. S. Todd, ^y^A^, Pijdley, 0. D. Winn. 

1843. T. S. Redd, Elislia Hogan, C. R. Thompson. "" 

1844. Robt. S. Todd, Thos. A. Russell. 

1845. L. Combs, G. "W. Darnaby,J. Cunningham. 

1846. L. Combs, Richard Spurr. 

1847. L. Combs, D. L. Price. 

1848. George Robertson, R. J. Spurr. 

1849. H. C. Pindell, John C. Breckinridge 

1850. R. A. Athey, C. C. Rogers. 

1851. Changed to two each second year. 
1853. M. C. Johnson, F. K. Hunt. 
1855. R. J. Spurr, R. W. Hanson. 
1857. Leslie Combs, M. C. Johnson. 
1859. T. H. Clay, R. A. Buckner. 
1861. R. A. Buckner. 

1863. R. J. Spurr. 
1865. J. C. Yanmeter. 
1867. R. C. Rogers. 
1869. D. L. Price. 
1871. W. Cassius Goodloe. 


1792, Robert Todd and Peyton Short; 1796, James 
Campbell; 1800, James Trotter; 1805, Edmund Bullock; 
1809, Edmund Bullock; 1813, Edmund Bullock; 1817, W. 
T. Barry; 1821, Matthias Flournoy; 1825, Robert Wick- 
liffe; 1829, Robert Wickliffe; 1833^, R. H. Chinn ; 1837, A. 
K.WooUey; 1841, William Rodes; 1845, R. S. Todd; 1849, 
Oliver Anderson ; 1851, Elihu Hogan ; 1853, J. F. Robin- 
son ; 1857, W. S. Darnaby ; 1859, W. BTDarnaby ; 1861, J. 
F. Robinson; 1865, W. A. Dudley; 1867, W. A. Dudley; 
1869, A. L. McAfee. 



1796, John Fowler; 1804, John Fowler; 1806, Benjamin 
Howard; 1808, Benj. Howard; 1810, W. T. Barry; 1812, 
Henry Clay; 1814, Henry Clay; 1816, Henry Clay; 1818, 
Henry Clay; 1820, S. H.Woodson; 1822, Henry Clay; 1824, 
Henry Clay; 1825, Herman Bowmar; 1827, James Clarke; 
1829, James Clarke; 1831, James Clarke; 1833, Chilton 
Allen; 1835, Chilton Allen; 1837, R. Hawes ; 1839, R. 
Hawes ; 1841, Thos. F. Marshall ; 1843, Garret Davis ; 1845, 
Garret Davis ; 1847, C. S. Morehead ; 1849, C. S. More- 
head; 1851, J. C. Breckinridge; 1853, J. C. Breckinridge; 
1855, A. K. Marshall; 1857, J. B. Clay; 1859, W. E. Sims; 
1861, R. A. Buckner ; 1863, Brutus Clay; 1865, G. S. Shank- 
lin; 1867, J. B. Beck; 1868, J. B. Beck; 1870, J. B. Beck. 


The following citizens of Fayette county have served 
terms in the Federal Senate, viz: 1792, John Brown; 1796, 
Humphrey Marshall, John Brown; 1801, John Breckin- 
ridge, Buckner Thruston; 1813, Jesse Bledsoe, John Pope; 
1818, Henry Clay; 1825, Henry Clay; 1836, Henry Clay; 
1861, John C. Breckinridge. 



Lexington Indignant — A Virginia Town — Democratic Society 
Founded — John Breckinridge — Invei^tors and Inventions — 
West and the First Steamf)oat — Barlow's Planetarium — 
Music of Light — Speeder Spindle — Burrowes' Mustard — 
Locomotive — Vaccination. 

The removal of the state capital to Frankfort, iu 1793, 
caused great disappointment in Lexington, and no little 
indignation, as Lexington was at that time the most impor- 
tant settlement on the frontier. A few months after the 
removal, and while the general assembly was in session in 
Frankfort, the Indians drove some hunters within five 
miles of the town, and shortly after actually penetrated 
into the place.* These incidents formed a standing sub- 
ject of wit and ridicule among disappointed Lexingtonians 
for weeks after their occurrence. 

Lexington, in 1793, was a perfect type of the Virginia 
towns of that period. The manners, tastes, and appear- 
ance of the people, and the general characteristics of the 
place were Virginian, and though many of the citizens 
were emigrants from Maryland, North Carolina, New 
Jersey, and Pennsylvania, the great mass of them had 
come from the Old Dominion. The grand old customs and 
distinguishing features of the mother of states and states- 
men, then impressed upon Lexington by her children, are 
happily not yet extinct. 

Early in the summer of 1793t was founded the "Dem- 
ocratic Society of Lexington," John Breckinridge being 
president, and Thomas Bodley and Thomas Todd, clerks. 

♦Old Gazette, August 2, 1794. fBiitler. 


This society was noted for its hostility to federalism, its 
efforts to secure the free navigation of the Mississippi river, 
and its passionate sympathy for the young republic of 
France. The members of the society, which embraced all 
the democrats in Lexington, wore tri-color cockades, and 
planted poles, surmounted with the cap of liberty, on every 
corner. One of these " liberty poles " remained standing 
for several years, on the corner of Main and Cheapside. 
The federalists, to show their aversion of the tri-color, wore 
a black cockade with an eagle button on the left side of 
the hat. Party spirit was high and fierce, and if the dem- 
ocratic society of Lexington, with little regard for the gen- 
eral government, encouraged the agents of the French re- 
public in their efforts to organize a force to wrest from 
Spain her Louisiana territory, it is not to be wondered at 
when we remember that Spain stubbornly refused the 
western people an outlet to the ocean, and the federal gov- 
ernment, in addition to the almost studied coldness shown to 
Kentucky, was remarkably slow in bringing Spain to terms. 

John Breckinridge, president of the Democratic Society, 
had arrived in Kentucky just a few months anterior to 
the formation of the society. lie was born in Augusta 
county, Virginia, December 2, 1760. His father's early 
death compelled him, while but a boy, to labor hard to sus- 
tain his widowed mother and her impoverished family. 
Under these discouraging circumstances, Mr. Breckinridge 
practiced law in Albemarle county, Virginia, from 1785, 
until his removal to Kentucky, and as a lawj'er, no man of 
his day excelled him, and but few could compare with him. 
While a member of the Kentucky legislature, he inaugu- 
rated the movement against the alien and sedition laws, 
and was prominent and influential in the convention which 
framed the state constitution of 1799. 

As a senator in Congress, as attorney-general of the United 
States under Jefferson, and as a great leader of the old 
democratic party, he displayed the qualities of a patriot, 
and made himself famous as a statesman. He resided for 
some time in a house which stood in the rear of the present 
residence of Mr. B. Gratz, fronting on Broadway, and be- 


tween Second and Third. He died near Lexington, Decem- 
ber 14, 1806. Mr. Breckinridge was the grandfather of 
our distinguished fellow-citizen, General John C. Breckin- 

With the year 1793 commences the history of invention 
in Lexington, for at that time, in all reasonable probability, 
was invented the first steamboat that ever successfully 
plowed the waters of the world. The inventor, Edward 
West, was a Virginian, aaid moved to this city in 1785. 
He was the first watchmaker who settled in Lexington. 
His shop and residence both were near the corner of Mill 
and Hill streets, opposite the present residence of Mrs. 
Letcher. Mr. West was a hard student and close investi- 
gator. He spent all his leisure time in exi>erimenting with 
steam and steam machinery of his own construction, and 
the little engine that so successfully propelled his little boat, 
was the result of years of untiring industry. He obtained 
a patent for his great invention, and also one for a nail- 
cutting machine, the first ever invented, and which cut 
5,320 pounds in twelve hours, the patent for which " he sold 
at once for ten thousand dollars."* Models of both inven- 
tions were deposited in the patent oflice, but they were un- 
fortunately destroyed when Washington was burned by 
the British in 1814. It is said that John Fitch, of Pennsyl- 
vania, made the initiatory step in steam navigation in 1787, 
but it is also known that he had no success till August, 1807, 
while West's boat was notoriously a success as early as 
1793, years before Fulton had built his first boat on the 
Seine. In that year (1793), in the presence of a large 
crowd of deeply interested citizens, a trial of West's won- 
derful little steamboat was made on the town fork of Elk- 
horn, which was darajfed up near the Lexington and Frank- 
fort freight depot for that purpose. The boat tnoved 
swiftly through the water. The first successful application 
of steam to navigation was made, and cheer after cheer 
arose from the excited spectators. A number of our most 



respected and venerable citizens remember witnessing this 
experiment when boys. In confirmation of the early date 
of this invention, we quote the following editorial notice 
from the old Kentucky Gazette, dated April 29, 1816 : 

"Steamboats. — A steamboat owned by a company of 
gentlemen of this town (Lexington) was to sail for New 
Orleans yesterday, from near the mouth of Hickman creek. 
"We are informed that she is worked on a plan invented 
by Mr. "West, of this place, nearly twenty years ago, and 
in a manner distinct from any other steamboat now in use. 
On trial against the current of the Kentucky, when that 
river was very high, she more than answered the sanguine 
expectation of her owners, and left no doubt on their minds 
that she could stem the current of the Mississippi with 
rapidity and ease." 

The editor settles the question of the antiquity of the 
invention, but speaks indefinitely. John B. West, the 
inventor's son, states decidedly that it was in the year 1793. 
The memory of Edward West should be cherished by all 
his countrymen ; for to his genius is due one of the 
grandest inventions recorded in the " geographical history 
of man," since Jason sailed in search of the golden fleece, 
or the Phoenicians crept timidly along the shores of the 
Mediterranean, in their frail, flat-bottomed barges. The 
time when steam was first used as a motive power will 
form an era in the world's history, for the revolution it 
has w^orked has been a mighty one, and a hundred years 
from now, the little stream called the " Town Fork of Elk- 
horn" will have become classic. The identical miniature 
engine that West made and used in 1793 is now in the 
museum of the lunatic asylum in this city. Edwin West 
died in Lexington, August 23, 1827, aged seventy. 

In 1796,''' Nathan Burrowes, an ingenious citizen of Lex- 
ington, introduced the manufacture of hemp into Kentucky, 
and also invented a machine for cleaning hemp. Like 
many other inventors, he was betrayed, and derived no 

*S. D. McCuHough. 


benefit from either. He afterward discovered a superior 
process of manufacturing mustard, and produced an article 
which took the premium at the World's Fair, in London, 
and which has no equal in quality in existence. The secret 
of its compounding has been sacredly transmitted uure- 
vealed. It is now three-quarters of a century since " Bur- 
rowes' Mustard" was first made, and it is still manufactured 
in Lexington, and has a world-wide celebrity. Mr. Bur- 
rowes settled in Lexington in 1792, and died here in 1846. 

At the beginning of the present century, John Jones, 
who died in Lexington in 1849, at the advanced age of 
ninety years, invented a speeder spindle and a machine for 
sawing stone, which were afterward "caught up" by eastern 

Though not an invention, it may not be inappropriate 
here to state that vaccination had been introduced for sev- 
eral years in Lexington by Dr. Samuel Brown, of Transyl- 
vania University, when the first attempts at it were being 
made in New York and Philadelphia.* Up to 1802, he 
had vaccinated upward of hundred persons in Ken- 

In 1805, Dr. Joseph Buchanan, long known as one of the 
most remarkable citizens of Lexington, invented, at the age 
of twenty, a musical instrument,! producing its harmony 
from glasses of ditterent chemical composition, and origi- 
nated the grand conception of the music of light, to be ex- 
ecuted by means of harmonific colors luminously displayed ; 
an invention which will, if ever put in operation, produce 
one of the most imposing spectacles ever witnessed by the 
human eye. 

About 1835, Mr. E. S. Noble, of Lexington, invented an 
important labor-saving machine, for the purpose of turning 
the bead on house-guttering. 

One of the greatest mechanical geniuses, or inventors, 
that Lexington has produced, and one who has done honor 
to America, was Thomas Harris Barlow. His shop was, for 
a long time, located on Spring street, between Main and 

*Michaux's Travels. tOollins, 559. 


Water. He settled in Lexington in 1825, but first attracted 
public attention in 1827, by making a locomotive which 
would ascend an elevation of eighty feet to the mile, with 
a heavily-laden car attached.* He, at the same time, con- 
structed a small circular railroad, over which the model lo- 
comotive and car ran successfully in the presence of many 
spectators, some of whom are still alive. This model is yet 
in existence in the Lunatic Asylum of this city. Lexing- 
ton can claim, therefore, the first railroad and the first loco- 
motive ever constructed in Western America. After this, 
Mr. Barlow invented a self-feeding nail and tack machine, 
which was a success. He sold it to some Massachusetts 
capitalists. In 1855, he invented and perfected a rifled per- 
cussion cannon, for the testing and experimental manufac- 
ture of which Congress appropriated $3,000. f This gun 
attracted the attention and admiration of the Russian min- 
ister at Washington during the Crimean war, which was 
then raging, and is believed to be the pattern which subse- 
quent inventors of rifled guns have more or less followed. 
It weighed seven thousand pounds, the bore was five and a 
half inches in diameter, twisting one turn in forty feet. It 
was cast at Pittsburg. 

His last, and greatest achievement, and one that will long 
cause his name to be gratefully remembered by the learned 
and scientific throughout the world, was the invention of 
the planetarium, now so celebrated, both for the wonderful 
ingenuity of its harmonious arrangement and working, and 
for the ease and accuracy with which it represents the mo- 
tions and orbits of the planets. The planetarium was the 
result of ten years' patient study and labor, having been 
commenced in 1841, and finished in 1851. ;{: It was finally 
perfected and exhibited in a room in the upper story of the 
building which formerly occupied the site of the present 
banking-house, on the corner of Main and Upper streets.] | 
The first planetarium Mr. Barlow made, was purchased 
for Transylvania University. The instrument is now used 
at Washington, West Point, and in most of the great ed- 

♦Obs. and Kep. tMilton Barlow. ild- ||Wm. Swift. 


ucational institutions of this country. At the late grand 
Exposition at Paris, in 1867, Barlow's planetarium was ex- 
amined with delight and admiration by the savants of 
Europe, and received a premium of the first class. Mr. Bar- 
low was born in Nicholas county, Kentucky, August 5, 
1789, and died in Cincinnati in 1865. 



Qame — Wayne's Victory — Lexington Post-office — Incidents, 
and List of Postmasters — The Catholic Church — Father 
Badin — Pastors. 

Game, once so abundant about Lexington, had greatly 
diminished by the year 1794. Teal and duck were still 
plentiful, and the deer had not left the forests, but the 
buffalo and the elk had disappeared, and wild turkeys were 
never seen. Immense numbers of quails, which before the 
settlement of Kentucky had been unknown, now migrated 
from the other side of the mountains, following up the 
grain scattered by emigrants. 

Kelief from the plundering and murdering Indians was 
now at hand. General Anthony Wayne, the successor of 
the ill-fated St. Clair, after having organized his forces with 
great care and deliberation, moved against the Miami sav- 
ages in the summer of 1794. General Wilkinson, Robert 
Todd, and Thomas Lewis, and a large number of mounted 
volunteers from Lexington and Payette county, constituted 
a part of the army, and participated in Wayne's brilliant 
and decisive victory over the Indians at the rapids of the 
Miami, August 20, 1794. A few months after the battle, 
peace was effected with the northwestern tribes, and, after 
long years of bloodshed and misery, anxiet}' and watching, 
the settlers of the Dark and Bloody Ground had rest from 
their savage foes, who never again ventured upon Kentucky 

The Lexington post-office was established about the year 
1794, the inefficiency of the old confederation and the 
incomplete organization of the new government rendering 
it impossible until that late period. Before that time, all 


letters and papers received by the citizens were obtained 
through the kindness of friends and immigrants, or came by 
private enterprise. A lady in Lexington, at that early day, 
wliose husband had gone to Crab Orchard, received a letter 
from him which he had intrusted to a party of settlers who 
intended to go through Lexington on their way west. In 
l)assing through the " "Wilderness," the Indians attacked 
the part}'^, killing the man who had the letter, and his com- 
panions carried it to the anxious wife stained with his 

In 1787, Bradford's "post-rider" brought letters to the 
citizens, and in 1790 to still further accommodate them, he 
opened a letter-box in his office where all letters and papers 
brought to town could be deposited, and he published a 
list of them in the Gazette once a month.* The first post- 
master, Innis B. Brent, who was also jailer, had his office 
in the log jail building which stood on Main street, between 
Graves' stable and the corner of Broadway. It was next 
located in " Postlethwaite's tavern " (Phoenix). In 1808, it 
was in a building with immense hewed log steps, which oc- 
cupied the site of the new Odd Fellows Hall, on Main. Mr. 
Jordan was then postmaster, and our venerable fellow- 
citizen, Mr. Ben Kiser, was his deputy. 

In the year 1812 and for some time after, the post-office 
was located in a little red frame-house which stood on the 
site of Hoagland's stable, on Main, between Limestone and 
Eose. Persons are still living who remember when the 
news came to Lexington that the war with England was 
over. The post-rider, with the mail bag strapped behind 
him, and furiously blowing his horn, dashed up to the post- 
office door with the word "Peace" in big letters upon the 
front of his hat. 

At a later period the post-office was near the old Ken- 
tucky Gazette office, near Clark & Bros, grocery, on Main. 
In 1861, it was removed from the building now known as 
Rule's cigar store, on the corner of Main, to its present lo- 
cation, on the corner of Mill and Short streets. 

♦Cist, 129. tOld Gazette. 


Joseph Ficklin, who was appointed postmaster in 1822, 
is believed to have held the office longer, and through more 
presidential administrations than any other postmaster in 
this country. The names of the postmasters of Lexington, 
in order of their succession, are Innis B. Brent, Peter G. 
Voorhies, John W. Hunt, John Jordan, Jr., John Fowler, 
Joseph Ficklin, Thomas Kedd, Squire Bassett, Jesse Wood- 
ruff, L. B. Todd, S. W. Price. 

The Catholic church in Lexington owes its establish- 
ment to the self-sacrifice and untiring energy of the Rev. 
Stephen Theodore Badin,* who commenced, in Januaiy, 
1794, to gather together the few Catholics then in the town. 
Father Badin was a native of France, and had been a sub- 
deacon of the diocese of Orleans. He escaped from Bor- 
deaux in 1792, while the furious Jacobins were murdering 
his fellow-priests, and sailed for the United States. He 
was ordained in Baltimore, by Bishop Carroll, the following 
year, being the first priest of his church ever ordained in 
this country, and shortly after set out for Kentucky. He 
journeyed from Limestone (Maysville) to Lexington on 
foot, and passed over the field of the disastrous battle of 
Blue Licks, and though the defeat had taken place more 
than eleven years before, the scene of it was still marked 
by the whitened bones of the massacred settlers. For a 
number of years after his arrival in Lexington, Father 
Badin, like the majority of the pioneer preachers, fared 

A little hut was his home; he ground his own corn with 
a hand-mill, and once had to go several days without 
bread.f Father Badin celebrated mass in private houses 
until the year 1800, when his congregation erected a log 
church in a corner of the lot on which the First Baptist 
Church, on Main, is now located. Here he officiated until 
1812. when the wants of his flock demanded a larger house. 
A gothic chapel of brick was accordingly built in the old 
Catholic graveyard, on Winchester street, and was dedicated 
Mav 19, 1812. 1 The subscription for this new church was 

*Spalding. tDavidson. |McCabe. 


opened on St. Patrick's day in 1810, at which time the Rev. 
F^OTJIynn preached in the court-honse an eloquent pan- 
egyric on Ireland's patron saint. Three hundred dollars 
were subscribed on the spot, and enough was raised shortly 
after to commence work on the chapel. 

Father Badin labored in Lexington for many years, be- 
loved by his congregation, and respected by all who had 
the good fortune to know him. This early and zealous 
missionary, whose goodness, learning, and wit would have 
made him an ornament in the most polished society, spent 
his life with hunters and hardy settlers, in doing what he 
believed to be the best for his fellow-men. In 1822 he went 
to Paris, France, and while there published a book entitled 
"Early Catholic Missions in Kentucky." In 1832 he labored 
among the Potawatomie Indians. After traversing Ken- 
tucky and other states on missionary duty a hundred times 
through rain and storm, and heat and cold, he went to 
his rest at last in 1853. 

Rev. G. A. M. Elder, born in Marion county, Kentucky 
in 1793, succeeded Father Badin. He was a student at 
Emmettsburg College, Maryland ; was ordained by Bishop 
David in 1819, and is noted as the founder and first presi- 
dent of St. Joseph's College at Bardstown. He was a man 
of strong miind and unconquerable energy. Rev. Elder died 
September 28, 1828, in the institution he had established, 
and which remains as his monument. 

St. Peter's Church, on Limestone street, was built during 
the pastorate of Rev. Edward McMahon, a native of Ire- 
land, and was dedicated December 3, 1837. On Sunday, 
August 13, 1854,* just a few moments after the congrega- 
tion had retired from this building, the entire ceiling fell 
in with a crash that would have carried death and destruc- 
tion with it if it had occurred a little while before. Fathers 
Butler, John Maguire, and Dismarise succeeded each other. 
Father Dismariae was an Italian, learned and scholarly, and 
endowed with unusual philosophical talents. He died in 

•Observer and Reporter. 


Philadelphia, a few years ago. In 1859, Rev. Peter Mc- 
Mahou and Rev. H. G. Allen were the resident priests. 

Rev. John H. Bekkers, a Hollander, took charge of the 
church in 1864, and has remained its faithful and efficient 
pastor ever since. Under his direction, the present hand- 
some and commodious St. Paul's Church, on Short street, 
between Broadway and Spring, was completed. The corner- 
stone of this church was laid by the Rt. Rev. G. A. Carroll, 
on Sunday, November 12, 1865, and was dedicated, with 
impressive services, October 18, 1868, by Archbishop Purcell. 

1795.] BRICK BOUSES, ETC. 193 


Brick Houses — Immkjralion — Infidelity — Free Navigation of 
the 31ississipin — German Lutheran Church — Lexington Li- 
brary^ Founders^ Incidents^ Librarians. 

Brick houses began to take the place of wooden ones in 
Lexington in 1795. The first one erected is believed to have 
been the one built by Mr. January in the back part of the 
lot, between Mill and Broadway, on which the residence of 
Mr. Benjamin Gratz now stands.* 

The fear of all future invasions by the Indians having 
been removed by the decisive campaign of General Wayne, 
immigrants in great numbers poured into Kentucky, and 
many of them settled in Lexington, whose substantial 
growth dates from this year. Unfortunately, some of the 
newcomers were admirers of Thomas Paine, and exerted 
themselves to spread his peculiar views through the com- 
munity, and being aided by the existing partiality for French 
ideas, met with some success, and laid the foundation of the 
infidelity and lax morality which became unpleasantly 
prominent shortly after. 

There was great rejoicing inLexington, in the fall of 1795, 
over the welcome news that a treat}^ had been concluded 
with Spain, by which the United States was conceded the 
free navigation of the Mississippi river to the ocean, with 
a right of deposit at JS[ew Orleans. 

About this time (1795), the organization of a German 
Lutheran church was efiected in Lexington, mainly through 
the efforts of Captain John Smith, Jacob Kiser, Casper 
Kernsner, and Martin Castel.f Money enough was secured, 
by means of a lottery, to purchase the lot on Hill street, be- 
tween Mill and Upper, on which the Southern Methodist 

*McCabe. tOld Kentucky Gaz.etto. 


Church now stands, and to erect a story and a half frame . 
building, which was used both as a church and school-house. 
The pastor of the church was the Rev. Mr, Dishman, the 
teacher was Mr. Leary. The congregation was composed 
almost entirely of Germans, among whom were Henry 
Lanckart, Jacob Springle, John Xiser, Adam Webber, 
George Adams, Haggard, Edward Howe, Malcolm Myers, 
and Mr. Bushart. Many members of the Lutheran Church 
were buried in their old graveyard, which is still to be seen 
back of the present Hill Street Methodist Church. 

About the year 1815, the little frame Lutheran church 
was destroyed by fire, and no other was ever erected. The 
congregation became scattered, and finally died out, even 
from the memory of many. "When the old church lot was 
sold to the Lutheran Methodists, only one trustee of the 
Lutheran Church, Adam Webber, was still alive. 

The Lexington Library, the oldest institution of its kind 
in Kentucky, if not in the AVest, commenced its existence 
in this year (1795). On New Year's day, a number of gen- 
tlemen met in the " old state-house " to consult in regard to 
establishing a library for the benefit of the citizens of Lex- 
ington and the students of Transylvania Seminary. It was 
resolved to organize such an institution, to be called " Tran- 
sylvania Library," and the following citizens were appointed 
a committee to perfect the work, viz : Robert Barr, John 
Bradford, John Breckinridge, James Brown, R. W. Down- 
ing, Thomas Hart, Thomas January, James Parker, Samuel 
Price, Fred. Ridgely, H. Toulmin, and James Trotter. 

So earnest were these gentlemen in the good work to 
which they had been called, that in a few days they had se- 
cured subscriptions from the public amounting to five hun- 
dred dollars. A purchasing committee was appointed, and 
the money forwarded for the books.* At this time, Tran- 
sylvania Seminary, as the present university was then called, 
was a small school, with no collection worthy the name of 
" library," and there were no private libraries iu the city, 
though it could boast, even at that early day, of many citi- 

*Kentucky Gazette. 


zens of culture and education, who no doubt waited with 
the greatest impatience for the infant library. Patience 
was needed, for it took nearly a year to collect and transport 
the books to Lexington. But they came at last (four hun- 
dred volumes) in January, 1796, and were placed for safe 
keeping in the seminary building. 

In 1798, when the Presbyterian grammar school, "Ken- 
tuck}' Academy," was merged in Transylvania Seminary, 
forming Transylvania Universitj^ the library was increased 
by the addition of the little library of Kentucky Academy. 
By this means, the library came in possession of valuable 
theological works, obtained through the generous exertions 
of Rev. Doctor Gordon, of Loudon,* and also books bought 
by subscriptions obtained by Rev. James Blythe from 
President Washington, Vice-President Adams, Aaron 
Burr, and other distinguished gentlemen. The library now 
numbered over six hundred volumes, and the committee, 
believing it could be made more useful if placed in a more 
central location, removed it to the drug store of the first 
librarian, Andrew McCalla, which was located at that time 
on the corner of Market and Short streets, where the Dailv 
Press office now stands, and its name was changed to 
" Lexington Library." By this name it was incorporated 
November 29, 1800. The shareholders named in the 
charter are : Thomas Hart, Sen., James Morrison, John 
Bradford, James Trotter, John A. Seitz, Robert Patterson, 
John McDowell, Robert Barr, William Macbean, James 
Maccoun, Caleb Wallace, Fielding L. Turner, Samuel Pos- 
tlethwait, and Thomas T. Barr. At a general meeting of 
the shareholders, held at the house of John McNair, on 
the first Saturday in January, 1801, a complete organiza- 
tion under the charter was eflfected by the election of a 
board of directors. 

In 1803, the library contained seven hundred and fifty 
volumes, and had been removed to a room in the old state- 
house on West Main street, between Mill and Broadway. 
The juvenile library of one thousand one hundred and 

•Winterbotham's History, vol. iii, p. 155. 


thirty-five books, which had been collected by an associa- 
tion of ambitious and energetic boys, was consolidated 
with the Lexington Library in 1810. It was further in- 
creased by donations and sales of shares, until, in 1815, it 
had grown to two thousand five hundred and seventy- 
three volumes. In 1824, the books of the Lexington 
Athseneum were turned over to it. Small as it was, the 
Lexington Library was now the largest and most prominent 
one in the western country, and it received frequent con- 
tributions of books, pamphlets, journals, and documents 
from various literary, scientific, and philosophical societies 
throughout the country, not to mention many donations 
of books from private citizens of Lexington and Fayette 
county. The library numbered over six thousand volumes 
in 1837, and was increased the next year through the 
efforts of Henry Clay, Robert Wickliffe, Jr., and A. K. 
Woolley, who addressed public meetings in its behalf. In 
1839, Leslie Combs gave one thousand three hundred dol- 
lars in turnpike stock to the institution. At present, the 
number of books in the library is estimated at ten thou- 
sand, a small number when the age of the library is con- 
sidered, but its stnallness is due, to some extent, to the 
vicissitudes it has encountered during an eventful history. 
It has suffered from frequent removals, from fire, and from 
water. At one time, the books were kept in the old Odd- 
Fellows' hall, on Church street, between Upper and Lime- 
stone. The building was destroyed by fire, and the books 
sadly damaged. They were then removed to the Medical 
hall, which at that time occupied the site of the present 
library building, on the corner of Church and Market 
street. This hall was also destroyed by fire, and many 
books were lost. The library found another refuge in the 
new Medical Hall, erected on the corner of Broadway and 
Second streets, but still the fire fiend pursued it; the hall 
was burned, and the books, for the third time, were dam- 
aged, both by the fire itself and water from the engines. 
That the library was not scattered and almost entirely de- 
stroyed, Lexington may thank the watchful care of our late 
fellow -citizens, Leonard Wheeler, and also William A. 


Leavy, Lymau W. Seeley, and John S. Wilson. The 
library finally lauded in the house now owned by the 
library company, on Jordan's row, and at present occu- 
pied as the internal revenue office. 

In 1865, the present library building was bought by 
money raised from issuing bonds of the company for six 
thousand dollars, and the books were forthwith removed to 
it. This important occasion is the result of Mr. Thomas 
Mitchell's enlightened exertions. 

The following bondholders have, up to the present time, 
given up their bonds, and have accepted, instead, perpetual 
shares, viz: Benjamin Gratz, M. C. Johnson, Mrs. John 
Caity, D. A. Sayre, Wm. Wartield, H. T. Duncan, Jr., E. 
D. Sayre, J. B. Payne, J. S. Wilson, J. M. Elliott, W. W. 
Bruce, M. P. Lancaster, 8. S. Thompson, J. B. Morton, 
M. E. Graves, C. W. Fouschee, M. G. Thompson, J. W. 
Berkley, J. W. Cochrane, J. W. Cochran. 

At the meeting of the Kentucky Press Association in 
Lexington, in January, 1870, the editors in attendance re- 
solved to send their various journals free to the library. 
The Lexington Library is an exceedingly valuable one, 
abounding as it does in rare old works, which can not now 
be obtained elsewhere for any consideration, and the good 
that it has done can not easily be overet^timated. The 
names of the librarians, in the order of their succession, 
are : Andrew McCalla, Lewis H. Smith, David Logan, 
Thomas M. Prentiss, James Logue, Lyman W. Seeley, 
James Logue, Wellington Payne, William M. Matthews, 
Henry C. Brennan, Allie G. Hunt, Joseph Wasson, William 
Swift, and J. B. Cooper. The office was held longer by 
James Logue than by any other librarian. He was custo- 
dian of the books for more than twenty-tive years. Mr. 
Swift will be remembered for his accurate and extensive 
information and for his extraordinarj" memory. The in- 
stitution has never had a librarian more devoted to its in- 
terests than the present one, Mr. Cooper. 



Episcopal Church — First Building — Rev. James Moore — 
Early Members — The " St. Paul" Schism — List of Hectors 
of Christ Church — Fresent Condition. 

The history of the Episcopal Church in Lexington com- 
mences with the year 1796, when a feeble little band or- 
ganized the present Christ Church, in a dilapidated frame 
house which stood on the site of the present church, on the 
corner of Market and Church streets. Rev. James Moore, 
who w^as the first minister of the Episcopal Church of the 
United States who settled permanently in Kentucky, was 
the first rector of Christ Church. He came from Virginia 
to Lexington in 1792,* and was at that time a candidate for 
the ministry in the Presbyterian Church, but shortly after, 
considering himself too rigorously treated by the Transyl- 
vania Presbytery, he connected himself with the Episcopal 
Church. He was a man of learning, great piety, and beau- 
tiful manners. In 1798, he was ajtpointed acting president 
of Transylvania University, which office he held for several 
years. He died June 22, 1814, at the age of forty-nine. 

A little brick house succeeded the frame one, in 1808 
and was furnished by means of a lottery, of which William 
Morton, Walter Warfield, Daniel Sheely, and John Wyatt 
were managers.f Among others, who were either members 
of the church at that time, or were adherents of it, may be 
namedj John D. Cliiford, Thomas January, John Bradford, 
Henry Clay, John W. Hunt, Thomas B. Pinkard, Frederick 
Ridgely, John Jordan, Elijah Craig, Alexander Parker, 
John Postlethwaite, William Essex, John Brand, Matthew, 
Elder, Matthew Shryock, and T. King. 

*Collins. tOld Gazette. JChurch Records. 



The Rev. John Ward succeeded Mr. Moore in November, 
1813. Mr. Ward conducted a successful female school in 
Lexington for many years. He died in this city in 1860, 
aged eighty-two. After performing the duties of the rec- 
torship for six years with great acceptability, he was suc- 
ceeded, in September, 1819, by Rev. Lemuel Burge, who 
officiated as pro tern, pastor for five mouths, when he was 
called to the church eternal. 

The zealous and talented Dr. George T. Chapman, who 
is still living, at a very great age, in Massachusetts, became 
the next regular rector, in July, 1820. His volume of " Ser- 
mons to Presbyterians of all Sects," which was published in 
1828, passed through several editions.* He was rector of 
Christ Church for ten years. 

During Dr. Chapman's ministry, the little brick chapel 
gave way to a larger and more church-like edifice, which 
was built on the same spot which had been occupied by 
both of its predecessors. The building was of brick, stuc- 
coed to imitate stone, and the aisles and other parts of it 
were, in time, strewn with memorial slabs and tablets to 
those who were buried in and around the edifice. This 
church building was badly constructed, and it became more 
and more insecure every year. A knowledge of this fact 
made the growth of the congregation very slow as long as 
it was occupied. 

The present bishop of the diocese, the Rev. Benjamin 
Bosworth Smith, was called to the rectorship of Christ 
Church in November, 1830. Bishop Smith was born June 
13, 1794, in Bristol, R. I., was graduated at Brown Univer- 
sity in 1816, ordained priest in 1818, and consecrated bishop 
in St. Paul's Church, New York city, October 31, 1832. 
This learned, faithful, and now aged minister, resigned the 
rectorship in October, 1838, since which time he has been 
constantly employed in a laborious oversight of the diocese. 
In addition to publishing several sermons and charges. 
Bishop Smith has contributed largely to religious journals. 
Dr. Henry Caswell,t an English clergyman, was assist- 

*Ca?wull. TB. ii. aiiiitki. 


ant rector of Christ Church for a part of Bishop Smith's 
term. In 1834, he was called to the professorship of Sacred 
Literature in the Episcopal Theological Seminary, then just 
established in Lexington, which position, with that of assist- 
ant rector, he held for three years. In 1839, he published a 
volume entitled "America and the American Church," and, 
about the same period, returned to England, and was for 
ten years vicar of Eigheldean, Diocese of Salisbury. He 
came back to the United States a few years ago, and sub- 
sequently died in Franklin, Pennsylvania. 

In 1887, Christ Church became divided* upon some com- 
paratively unimportant questions, and a part of the congre- 
gation organized a church, which they named " St. Paul's." 
They worshiped in Morrison College, but only for a short 
time. The trouble was soon settled, and the seceding mem- 
bers renewed their connection with Christ Chrrch. 

For a short time after the resignation of Bishop Smith, 
the amiable Rev. Edward Winthrop, a native ot New Haven, 
Connecticut, was temporary rector. He died in New York, 
in 1865. 

The regular successor of Bishop Smith was Rev. Edward 
F. Berkley, who entered upon the duties of the rectorship 
in January, 1839. Mr. Berkley was born in Washington 
City, September 20, 1813. He came to Lexington in 1835, 
was for three years a member of the Episcopal Theological 
Seminary in this city, and was ordained to the ministry in 
Christ Church in December, 1838. Mr. Berkley's fine qual- 
ities of head and heart so endeared him to his congregation, 
that he was retained in the service of the parish for nearly 
nineteen years. He resides at present in St. Louis, Mis- 

On the 17th of March, 1847, the corner-stone of the 
present tasteful and elegant church edifice was laid, with 
appropriate ceremonies, and a dedicatory address was deliv- 
ered by the Rev. James Craik, of Louisville. The remains 
of those buried in and around the church were subsequently 
removed to the Episcopal Cemetery. The memorial tablets 

*Church Records. 


of ^Ir. Moore, first pastor of the church, and Mr. John D. 
Clifford, one of its early and generous benefactors, were 
preserved through the provident attention of Mr, John S. 
Wilson, and, in 1858, when the church was still further im- 
proved, they were set in the wall of the building, where 
they still remain. 

Mr. Berkley resigned in November, 1857, and was suc- 
ceeded, in March, 1858, by the Rev. James II. Morrison, of 
Pemberton, Virginia, a gentleman of superior scholarly 

The present rector, the Eev. Jacob S. Shipman, took 
charge of Christ Church on the 14th of October, 1861. Mr. 
Shipman was born in Niagara, New York, November 30, 
1832. In completing the Yale College course he enjoyed the 
special instruction of Dr. Joseph M. Clark. Mr. Shipman 
was ordained to the priesthood in 1858, and had been rector 
of two churches successively before he was called to Christ 
Church. Scholarly and original, possessed of a cultivated 
mind and a warm and generous heart, Mr. Shipman has 
gained the hiiihest esteem of his congregation, which has 
enjoyed abundant peace and prosperity under his efficient 

Christ Church has been, steadily increasing iji membership 
and influence for many years, and its present very flourish- 
ing condition is a source of great gratification to all christian 



Lexington Immigration Society — Size of Town — Town Prop- 
perty — Market Houses — Theater — Henry Clay: His Char- 
acter as an Orator, Statesman, and Man — Incidents. 

The year 1797 produced an association in Lexington, 
whose influence was so salutary that it was soon imitated 
in other places; and this was the "Lexington Immigration 
Society." Strong exertions, and successful ones, were made 
by it to induce industrious farmers and mechanics to re- 
move to this region. Publications were made and circu- 
lated full of information regarding the amount of the or- 
dinary products of the soil per acre, the common prices 
of marketing, the various species of mechanical labor, and 
productions, etc. Of this society, Thomas Hart was presi- 
dent ; John Bradford, secretary. 

The following particulars from one of these documents 
are extracted for the benefit of the curious: 


Of wheat sown in corn-ground, 25 bushels ; in fallow- 
ground, 35; corn, 60; rye, 25; barley, 40; oats, 40; pota- 
toes, Irish, 250 — sweet, — ; hemp, 8 cwt. ; tobacco, 1 ton; 
hay, 3 tons. 


Wheat, per bushel, $1; corn, 20 cents; rye, 66 cents; 
barley, 50 cents; oats, 17 cents; potatoes, Irish, 33 — sweet, 
$1 ; hemp, per ton, $86.66; tobacco, per cwt., $4; hay, 
per ton, $6. 

The establishment of this society shows that our enter- 
prising ancestors were determined to build up their flour- 
ishing town, which consisted of sixteen hundred inhabit- 


ants, and over two hundred houses,* a few of them brick 
ones, many of them frame, but the most of them log ones, 
with chimneys built on the outside. A town lot was 
worth thirty dollars, and good farms in the vicinity could 
be bought for five dollars per acre.f The best farmers lived 
in log cabins, and even when they went "to town" wore 
hunting-shirts and leggings. The then beautiful vale 
through which town fork poured, was variegated with 
corn-fields, meadows, and trees. The means used for car- 
rying on the town government were not as extravagant 
then as those of modern times, as all the town property 
in the hands of the trustees consisted of " two oxen, a cart, 
a wheelbarrow, sledge, mattock, crowbar, shovel, and a 
two-foot rule."t 

B}^ this time, the ground-room of the old state-house, 
which had been converted into a market-house, had become 

entirely too small for the ambitious citizens of Lexinsfton 
" . . . ' 

and a subscription was raised, which resulted in the build- 
ing of a substantial market-house on the public ground, 
between the present court-house and Cheapside, from 
which circumstance Market street derived its name. 

In 1814, a market-house was built on Water street, but 
the Cheapside structure was not removed until 1817. The 
market-house now in use was built in 1844. 

How Lexington supported a place of amusement in 1797, 
we are not prepared to say, but she certainly had one. "An 
exhibition-room, adjoining Coleman's tavern," was erected 
by George Saunders, and opened to the public Monday 
evening, June 5th. "Admission at sunset; performance 
to begin at dark; pit, 3s. 9d. ; gallery, 2s. 3d."§ A theat- 
rical performance was held in the court-house in 1798. In 
1807, Melish, the traveler, was in Lexington, and visited 
the theater, which then stood on the corner of "Water and 
Limestone, but his metropolitan tastes were not entirely 
gratified, as he said afterward, that " the performance did 
very well, but there was a deficiency of actresses, and one 

♦Joseph Scott's Directory. t^rown's Gazetteer. ^Trustees' Book. 

gold Gazette. 


of the men liad to play a female part, which did not suit 
my taste at all." 

In 1812, "Macbeth" was played at the "Hotel Theater," 
and on the evening of May 30th, in that year, "John 
Bull," a comedy, was performed before a packed audience, 
by Thespian amateurs belonging to the " Old Infantry" com- 
pany, in honor of the Lexington volunteers for the war 
against England. A goodly sum was realized, and used to 
buy arms, clothing, and camp equipage for the soldiers.* 

"Usher's Theater" was built about the year 1816.f It 
was located on the old Brueu property, at the corner of 
Spring and Vine streets, and, though it was on a small 
scale, it could boast of regular boxes, a pit, and a gallery. 
The celebrated Drake family constituted one of the Urst 
regular companies which appeared in the theater. Edwin 
Forest, who had before played minor parts in Philadelphia, 
made his debut as a leading actor in " Usher's Theater." 
He was brought out by Collins and J ones. J Sol. Smith, 
the noted comedian, who died in St. Louis in 1869, 
raised his first theatrical company in Lexington, and played 
in this theater for several weeks previous to his first tour. 

In 1832, and frequently thereafter, the Masonic Hall was 
used for theatrical purposes. The theater was located, in 
1837, on the lot now occupied by John S. "Wilson's resi- 
dence, on Upper street, and here the noted Mrs. Duff' made 
her first appearance in Lexington. The remarkable Gus 
Adams charmed a crowded audience, in 1840, in a building 
neither very large nor very pretentious, which the citizens 
dignified with the name "Theater." It stood on Short 
street, between Broadway and Jefferson, opposite the resi- 
dence of J. B. Wilgus. 

After this time, Melodeon Hall and other rooms were 
used ; but for the last fifteen years, the Odd Fellows' Hall, 
corner of Main and Broadway, has been " the theater." 
The followers of Thespis and Orpheus who have visited 
Lexington would make an army, and we can only mention, 
in addition to the distinguished artists already named, the 

"■■Observer and Reporter. tBenj. Kiser. JMarsh. 

1797.] HENRY CLAY. 205 

famous elder Booth, the great pioneer actor Cooper, Julia 
Dean, Murdoch, Mrs. Lander, Joe Jefferson, Sontag, Patti, 
Parodi, Briguoli, and Ole Bull. 

Henry Clay, whose greatness is crystallized in history, 
and whose name is the most illustrious one associated with 
Lexington, came to this city in November, 1797, and made 
it his home for the rest of his life, a period of more than 
half a century. Here he struggled. Here he triumphed. 
Here he sleeps. 

On the 12th of April, 1777, in the "Slashes" neighbor- 
hood, of Hanover county, Virginia, in the midst of a great 
revolution, Henry Clay was born. His father, a Baptist 
minister, died when Henry was four years old, and left his 
family no legacy but poverty and toil. Fortunately, the 
mother of Henry was a woman of vigorous intellect and 
great energy, and she managed to maintain her large family 
in comparative comfort. Both parents were natives of Vir- 
ginia. The early years of the future orator were years of 
much labor and little education, and it was then that he 
was known as "the milhboy of the slashes,"* from the fact 
that he was often seen, when the meal-barrel was low, going 
to and fro between his mother's house and the mill, on the 
Pamunky river, mounted on a scrub pony, with a meal-bag 
for a saddle and a rope for a bridle. Up to the age of 
fourteen, he had received three years' "schooling," in a log 
house of the period, and from Peter Deacon, of whom little 
is known, except that he was the only teacher of Henry 
Clay. He was now placed by Captain Henry Watkins, 
whom his mother had married, in the store of Riciiard 
Denny, of Richmond. At the end of a year, Peter Tinsley, 
of Richmond, clerk of the high court of chaueory of Vir- 
ginia, gave him a situation in his office, and about the same 
time, namely 1792, his mother removed with his ste[)father 
to Kentucky, and settled in Woodford county, where she 
died in 1827. 

While engaged in the chancery court office, Henry Clay 
attracted the attention of Chancellor Wythe, who engaged 

*Colton Papers, 19. 


him as an amanuensis, assisted him in mental improvement, 
and encouraged him to study law, which he subsequently 
did, in the office of Robert Brook, then attorney-general of 

Mr. Clay, having obtained a license to practice law from 
the judges of the court of appeals of Virginia, immigrated 
to Lexington, Kentucky, in November, 1797. Here (to use 
his own words), *" I established myself, without patrons, 
without the favor of the great or opulent, without the means 
of paying my weekly board, and in the midst of a bar un- 
commonly distinguished by eminent members." Lexington 
was then the metropolis of the West, claiming sixteen hun- 
dred inhabitants, and George Nicholas, Joe Daviess, James 
Brown, John Breckinridge, William Murray, and James 
Hughes were the leading lawyers. Mr. Clay, at this time, 
seemed to be in bad health. f He was delicate in person 
and slow in his movements; but he quickly rallied. His 
first speech in Lexington was made in a young men's de- 
bating club. The smiles provoked by his awkward begin- 
ning were succeeded by cordial cheers and congratulations.^ 
The first fee Mr. Clay received was fifteen shillings. His 
first public speech he made at the age of twenty-one, in the 
summer of 1798. The news had just arrived in Lexington 
that Congress had passed the infamous alien and sedition 
laws, and while crowds of excited and indignant men were 
discussing the news on Main street, a cart was drawn out, 
and Clay was put in it and told to " speak." He did speak; 
and the brilliant and crushing eloquence of his denuncia- 
tions of those odious enactments, revealed his genius to the 
people, and laid the foundation of his fame. He rose rap- 
idly in his profession. In 1799 he married Lucretia, 
daughter of Thomas Hart, one of the earliest citizens of 
Lexington. The marriage took place in the house on the 
corner of Mill and Second, now occupied by Mrs. Ryland. 
Mrs. Clay was born in Hagerstown, Maryland, 1781. 

As we have seen, Mr. Clay united himself at an early 
period with the Jefiersonian or Democratic party. In 

♦Speech at Lexington, 1842. tColHns. JColton. 



1803, he was elected from the county of Fayette to the 
lower house of the Kentucky legislature, and was re-elected 
to that body every succeeding session, until 1806, when he 
was chosen United States senator, to fill out the unexpired 
term of General Adair. The rapidity with which these 
favors were showered upon Mr. Clay evidence how soon he 
had gained a strong hold upon the popular heart. After 
servino- during the session for which he was elected, Mr. 
Clay resumed the practice of his profession in Lexington. 
He was now thirty, the leader of the bar, and overwhelmed 
with important cases. 

In the summer of 1807, he was again sent to the state 
legislature, and was elected speaker of the house. He was 
continued in the assembly until 1809, when he was returned 
to the United States Senate to fill out the unexpired term 
of Buckner Thurston. He bore a conspicuous part in the 
discussion of the great national questions before the senate. 
His first speech of the session foreshadowed the outlines 
of that vast scheme of " protection," known as the "Amer- 
ican system," of which Mr. Clay has been called the 
" father." His powerful eftbrts in favor of the " protection " 
of domestic manufactures, on the "line of the Rio Per- 
dido," and in opposition to the rechartering of the United 
States Bank, stand pre-eminent in congressional history. 
Mr. Clay subsequently changed his opinion, and urged the 
chartering of the United States Bank, and gave his reasons 
for the change with characteristic force. 

In 1811, Mr. Clay was elected to the lower house of Con- 
gress, and entered on the great period of his life, commenc- 
ing with his election as speaker of the house of represent- 
atives, and terminating with his death, during which all 
his great endowments became so conspicuous through 
services and eflbrts so illustrious.* He had never before 
been a member of that house, which renders it still more 
remarkable that he should have been elected its speaker on 
the day he took his seat. He was re-elected speaker six 
times, and after occupying the chair about thirteen years, 

^Address of Dr. R. J. Breckinridge. 


left it to become secretary of state in the cabinet of the 
younger Adams, in 1825, which situation he held till the 
close of that administration in 1829. He was out of Con- 
gress during two short periods; first in 1814-15, while en- 
gaged as one of the American commissioners in negotiat- 
ating the treaty of Ghent, and again in 1820-22, when the 
condition of his private affairs obliged him to return to the 
bar. After the close of his service as secretary of state, 
in 1829, he remained in private life till the autumn of 1831, 
when he was elected to the senate of the United States for 
the third time, and commenced a senatorial career even 
more protracted and glorious than his previous career in 
the more popular branch of Congress. He was elected to 
the senate the fourth time in 1837. In March, 1812, after 
twelve years continuous service in the senate, covering six 
years of the administration of General Jackson, the whole 
of Mr. Vim Buren's administration, and the first two years 
of Mr. Tyler's, he resigned his seat in the senate, and re- 
tired, as he supposed, finally to private life. In 1848, he 
was elected to the senate for the fifth time, and was a mem- 
ber of it till his death, in 1852. From his entrance into 
public life, just fifty j^ears had expired at his death; and 
of these more than forty years had been passed in the most 
laborious public service. From his entrance into the house 
of representatives, in 1811, he had served thirteen years as 
a speaker of that house, about sixteen years as a senator, 
and four years as secretary of state, thus occupying far the 
greater part of the last forty years of his life in a career 
unsurpassed by any statesman of his era. 

That career of forty years was as diversified as it was 
brilliant.* During the war of 1812 he was "• the master spirit, 
around whom all the boldness and chivalry of the nation 
rallied. He was the life and soul of the war party in Con- 
gress." In 1815, we find him one of a commission con- 
cluding a treaty of peace with England, in the ancient city 
of Ghent, and shortly after enjoying the society of the most 
noted characters in Europe. Then comes his review of the 

*Niles' Kegister and Congressional Globe. 

1797.] HENRY CLAT. 209 

Seminole war; bis triumphant efforts in behalf of internal 
improvements, and for the reco<^nition of the South Ameri- 
can republics ; his Herculean labors to avert the convulsion 
which threatened the nation in 1821, on the application of 
Missouri for admission into the Union ; his eloquent appeals 
in behalf of Greece ; his achievements in the protection 
battles of 1832-33 ; opposition to the sub-treasury system 
in 1836; thrilling farewell scene in the senate in 1812; re- 
tirement to Ashland; practice of his profession; recall to 
the senate in 1848 ; and the mighty efforts of " the old man 
eloquent" during the perilous slavery excitement in Con- 
gress in 1850-52. 

Mr. Clay was thrice a candidate for the presidency; first, 
in 1825, when his opponents were Andrew Jackson, John 
Quincy Adams, and W. H. Crawford. The people failed to 
make a choice. The election was thrown into the house 
of representatives, where Mr. Clay gave his vote and influ- 
ence for Mr. Adams, w^ho thus became President. Upon 
the inauguration of the new President, Mr. Clay was made 
secretary of state. The course pursued by Mr. Clay on this 
occasion sul)jected him to the bitterest denunciations and 
abuse. It was charged that he had bought his seat in the 
cabinet, and the cry of "bargain and corruption" was re- 
peated over and over again, to the end of his life, and de- 
feated him in every subsequent race for the presidency. 
Where now is the man who may hope to keep his greatness 
and purity undeliled from the ever accumulating filth of the 
political arena? Slander is the soul-scorching price of po- 
litical eminence. In a speech delivered at Lexington, Ken- 
tucky, September 9, 1812, Mr. Clay said: "My error in 
accepting the office tendered me arose out of ray under- 
rating the power of detraction and the force of ignorance, 
and abiding with too sure a confidence in the conscious in- 
tegrity and uprightness of my own motives." It is enough 
to say that the life-long friends of Mr. Clay, those who 
knew, indeed, the integrity and clearness of his inner life, 
have always scouted this charge with scorn and contempt. 

In 1832, Mr. Clay, who had disconnected himself from 
the Jeffersonian Democrats, was again nominated for the 


presidency by the "National Republicans," or Whigs (as 
they were beginning to be called), a new party, mainly 
created by himself. His great antagonist was General Jack- 
son, the candidate of the ''Democratic" party. This con- 
test was one of the fiercest and most stubborn that had yet 
been waged in America, and never did the energy and genius 
of Mr. Clay shine out more resplendent. Mr. Clay's tri- 
umph was complete in his own state, but the indomita- 
ble old hero of New Orleans was re-elected President. The 
Whig party, of which Mr. Clay was the idol, passionately 
desired to lift him to the chief magistracy of the nation, 
and again nominated him in 1844. He was opposed by 
James K. Polk, the Democratic candidate. Mr. Clay was 
powerfully and almost successfully supported by his party. 
The contest, which was remarkably close and long, seemed 
doubtful, and was decided by the vote of New York, and 
the prize fell to Mr. Polk, while apparently within the very 
reach of Mr. Clay. 

On the slavery question, Mr. Clay was conservative. 
While deprecating the evils of African slavery, and favoring 
its gradual abol-ishraent, he invariably denounced the wild 
and violent sentiments of radical abolitionists. 

Mr. Clay was engaged in two duels. The first was with 
Humphrey Marshall, author of the History of Kentucky. 
Mr. Clay was wounded in this duel. The second was with 
John Randolph. 

The voice of the world has pronounced Mr. Clay a great 
man — great as a statesmen, and pre-eminently great as a 
lawyer; but it is as an orator that he will live longest in 
the memory of men. The accompaniments of his great 
intellect were a finely-formed, graceful, and commanding 
person, fascinating manners, a piercing eye, and a voice of 
wonderful melody and power. Upon great occasions, he 
was all earnestness, all feeling, body and soul seemed merged 
in one spiritual essence, and from his lips flowed a stream 
of irresistible eloquence, which has given him a place in 
history as one of the grandest orators the world has ever 

1797.] HENRY CLAY. 211 

Mr. Clay's personal appearance in 1845 is thus described :* 
" He is six feet and one inch in height; not stout, but the op- 
posite ; has long arms and a small hand ; always erect in 
carriage, but particularly so in debate; has a well-shaped 
head and a dauntless profile; an uncommonly large mouth; 
upper lip commanding, nose prominent, spare visage, and 
blue eyes, electrical when kindled; forehead high, hair nat- 
urally light, and slow to put on the frosts of age ; a well- 
formed person, and an imposing aspect," Taken as a whole, 
his appearance and bearing were singularly impressive. His 
presence was always felt. 

Mr. Clay was accurate in business, and exceedingly care- 
ful to attend to the little things of life.f If he casually 
borrowed even a dime, he returned it punctually and scru- 
pulously. He met all his obligations, and expected every 
one else to do the same. He was always neat in his dress. 
He sent for a barber on the morning of his death, and was 
cleanly shaved at his own expressed desire. He always 
showed great respect for religion. He was born with an 
appreciation of the courtesies due on all occasions. He was 
a hard worker. He prepared himself for all public occa- 
sions. His speeches were the result of study and fore- 
thought. While he was ready at all times to defend his 
honor at the pistol's mouth, he was magnanimous and gen- 
erous, and if, in the heat of the moment, he gave unmerited 
offense, he was quick to apologize and ask forgiveness. 
He was great everywhere. He towered when among the 
most distinguished. One of Mr. Clay's most remarkable 
traits was his power over men. He was born to command. 
On one occasion, after the burning of the old court-house, 
and while court was being temporarily held in the " old 
Rankin Meeting-house," which stood on the site of the 
present city school-house, on the corner of Walnut and 
Short streets, Mr. Clay was called upon to defend a pris- 
oner. Mr. Clay demanded the warrant, looked at it, found 
it defective and illegal, and turning at once to the prisoner, 
said to him, "Go home, sir!" The man hesitated. "Go 

*Colton. tJames O. Harrison, executor of Mr. Clay. 


home!" thundered Mr. Clay. The man jumped up at 
once and "put out," without an effort on the part of the 
astounded sheriff or judge to stop him. No one thought 
of resisting that imperial personal power. 

On the 25th of June, 1847, Mr. Clay united with the 
Episcopal Church in Lexington. 

The tremendous exertions made by Mr. Clay in 1849-50, 
in behalf of the compromise measures, which employed 
his whole heart and brain, night and day, sapped his 
vital powers. The excitement while it lasted kept him 
alive, but bodily decay soon followed. The last summer 
Mr. Clay spent with his family and friends in Lexing- 
ton was in 1850. His health was quite delicate. He 
looked like a victim of consumption.* Returning to Wash- 
ington city, "broken with the storms of state," and scathed 
with many a fiery conflict, Henry Clay gradually de- 
scended toward the tomb. After the month of March, 1852, 
he wasted rapidly away, and for weeks lay patiently await- 
ing the stroke of death. For some days before his death^ 
he was not allowed to walk, even with the support of 
others. His physician, the eminent Dr. Jackson, of Phila- 
delphia, told him on one occasion not to attempt to walk, 
that if he stood erect he would faint, and that if he should 
faint he would breathe no more. "Why is this?" asked 
Mr. Clay. " Because there is not enough of vitality in 
the heart to give circulation to the blood." " Has it then 
come to this," said Mr. Clay, and for a moment sorrow- 
fully. And seeing the necessity, he suffered himself to be 
borne like a child to and from his bed. 

On the morning of June 28, the great change commenced, 
and found him ready. The dying statesman whispered to his 
friend, the Rev. Dr. Butler, "I have an abiding trust in 
the merits and mediation of our Savior." At night he 
was calm, but his mind wandered. In a low and distinct 
voice he named his wife and son and other relatives in a 
disconnected manner. On the morning of the 29th, he 
continued perfectly tranquil, though exceedingly feeble, 
and manifesting a disposition to slumber. About ten 

*Jou mills. 

1797.] HENRY CLAY. 213 

o'clock he asked for some cool water, which he was iu the 
habit of taking through a silver tube; upon removing the 
tube from his mouth, he ap[)eare(l to have more difJicultj 
in swallowing than previously. He turned to his son and 
said, " Do n't leave me." Soon after he motioned to have 
his shirt collar opened, and then added, " I am going soon." 
iSerenely he breathed his last, at eleven o'clock a. m., in the 
presence of his son Thomas, Governor Jones, of Tennessee, 
and his favorite servant, Charles. His last moments were 
calm and quiet, and he seemed in full possession of all his 
faculties, and apparently suffering but little. His counte- 
nance to the last indicated a full knowledge of his condition. 

He had long since made every preparation for his death, 
giving his son full instructions as to the disposition of his 
bod}^ and the settlement of his worldly afl'airs. 

The sad news was at once flashed to Lexington, when 
every place of business was immediatel}^ closed, and the 
solemn tolling of the bells announced the great grief that 
had fallen upon the home of Clay. After every tribute of 
respect and love had been rendered the illustrious dead iu 
Washington, solemn and impressive funeral honors and 
services were conducted in the senate chamber at twelve M. 
of June 31, in the presence of the President and his cabinet, 
both houses of Congress, the di[)loniatic corps, and a host 
of distinguished men from all parts of the country. After 
laying in state in the capitol building until four o'clock 
p. M., the body was placed upon a train for Baltimore, but 
did not reach Lexington until the whole nation, by the 
most extensive and beautiful demonstrations, had evinced 
its love and sorrow for the departed sage. 

On the morning of Saturday, Jul}' 10, his funeral took 
place at his home, Lexington. (See chapter on 1852.) In 
the presence of a mighty concourse of the sorrowing, at 
the sound of the dirge, the minute guns, and the tollino* 
bells, a great procession of his mourning fellow-citizens car- 
ried him tenderly, and with every token of love and respect, 
from the old house at Ashland to Christ Church, and from 
thence to the Lexington Cemetery. Mr. Clay's body was 
first deposited iu the public vault, afterward it was iu- 


terred by the side of his mother, and lastly, in 1857, it was 
incased in a beautiful marble sarcophagus, and placed per- 
manently in the chamber of the Clay monument, tlien 
completed. On one of the last days of his life, he said to 
Judge Underwood, his colleague in the senate, " There 
may be some question where my remains shall be buried. 
Some persons may designate Frankfort. I wish to repose 
in the cemetery at Lexington, where many of my friends 
and connections are buried."* And so it is this day. 
Upon the marble sarcophiigus, in enduring letters, can be 
seen these memorable words, uttered by Mr. Clay : 

" I can, with unshaken coniidence, appeal to the Divine 
Arbiter for the truth of the declaration that I have been 
influenced by no impure purpose, no personal motive, have 
sought no personal aggrandizement, but that, in all ray 
public acts, I have had a sole and single eye, and a warm, 
devoted heart, directed and dedicated to what, in mj' best 
judgment, I believed to be the true interests of my country." 

Another marble sarcophagus rests near that of Mr. 
Clay. It contains the remains of his wife and life-long 
companion, Mrs. Lucretia Clay, who died in April, 18d4, 
aged seventy-three. 

Mr. and Mrs. Clay had eleven children — six daughters 
and five sons. Two daughters died in infancy. Lucretia 
died at Ashland, aged fourteen. Eliza died at the same 
age, while en route for Washington city. Mrs. Duralde 
only lived to be twenty. Mrs. Irwine died in 1835. Henry, 
Jr., was killed at Buena Vista, in 1847. James B. died in 
Canada, in 1864, aged forty-seven. Theodore died in 1871, 
at the age of sixty-nine. Thomas H., born in 1803, died 
in 1872. John M. Clay, born in 1821, is the only surviving 
child of the Cicero of the West. All of the deceased mem- 
bers of the household sleep in thefamily lot in the Lexing- 
ton Cemetery, where also repose the remains of Elizabeth 
Watkins, the mother of the great Clay. 

Ashland, for nearly half a century the home of Mr. Clay, 
is situated about a mile and a half from the Lexington 

*Judge Underwood. 

1797.] HENRY CLAT. 215 

court-house, on the southwest side of the turnpike leading 
to Richmond. The grounds are beautiful, and the forest 
trees magnificent. The land, which is not surpassed for 
richness in the famous " Blue Grass Region," cost Mr. Clay 
about ten dollars an acre, in 1805 or 1806. The " old house " 
which Mr. Clay occupied, stood on the site of the present 
beautiful residence, which was erected by James B. Clay, in 
1857. The "old house" was a spacious and comfortable 
brick mansion, devoid of architectural adornment. Here 
Mr. and Mrs. Clay entertained, with simple elegance, Daniel 
Webster, Lafayette, President Monroe, Mr. Lowndes, 
Martin Van Buren, Mr. Politica (the Russian minister), 
General Bertrand, Lord Morpeth, and a host of other dis- 
tinguished men of this and foreign countries. 

Mr. Clay's law office* was, for a long time, in the house 
now occupied by Dr. Bruce, on Mill, between Church and 
Second streets. He, and his son James, also used the office 
now occupied by Judge Carr, on Short, between Upper and 
Limestone streets. Some of Mr. Clay's grandest oratorical 
eflbrts were made in the present court-house, and in the 
yard surrounding it. Before Mr. Clay purchased Ashland, 
he lived in a house erected on the site of the Hunter resi- 
dence, on Mill street, and opposite his old law office. 

*Jas. O Harrison and Wm. Swift. 




Resolutions of " '98 "St. Andrew's Society : List of Members— 
Caledonian Club — Jesse Bledsoe. 

Nowhere in the United States was the administration of 
President John Adams more odious than in Lexington, 
and when, on the 9th of November, 1798,* the Kentucky 
legislature passed the resolutions introduced by John Breck- 
inridge, of Fayette, protesting; against the notorious alien 
and sedition laws, the gratification and excitement of the 
citizens was intense. Liberty poles and tri-color cockades 
were more numerous then in Lexington than in any other 
place in the whole country. 

The Scotchmen ot Lexington organized an association 
on the 17th of November, 1798,t which they entitled the " St. 
Andrew's Society of Lexington, in the State of Kentucky." 
John Maxwell was the chairman of the meeting oF organiza- 
tion, and George Muter, afterward one of the judges of the 
supreme court of the state, was elected the first president. 
The objects of the society, as stated verbatim in the pre- 
amble to its constitution, were : " To promote philanthropy 
amongst those of the natives of Scotland who have chosen 
as tlieir residence ditterent parts of the State of Kentucky, 
and to promote a friendly union and intercourse with the de- 
scendants of parents who came originally from that coun- 
try; desirous, also, to extend the benevolent hand of relief 
to such of this description, whether presently residing in 
paid state, or who may hereafter arrive therein." 

The first anniversary meeting was held in Megowan's 
tavern, on Friday, November 30, 1798, when a dinner was 

*Buller. t'^<^ciety Records. 

1798.] JUDGE BLEDSOE. 217 

given, which was enjoyed by the members of the society, 
and a number of invited guests. The original members 
of the society were Alexander McGregor, John Cameron, 
WilHam McBean, John Maxwell, David Keid, Richard 
Lake, John Arthur, William Todd, Thomas Reid, George 
Mntor, Miles McCoun, James Russell, Alexander Springle, 
and James Bain. Up to 1806, the following additional 
names had been added to the roll of the society, viz: Rob- 
ert Campbell, Allan B. McGruder, John Bradford, Daniel 
McBean, John Brand, John Ferrier, Thomas Bodley, E. 
Sharpe, William Miller, George Anderson, John Jackson, 
and Jose[ih McClear. The St, Andrew's Society has been 
succeeded by the present " Caledonian Club," which regu- 
larly celebrates the birthday of Robert Burns. 

About the year 1798, Jesse Bledsoe commenced the study 
of law in Lexington.* Judge Bledsoe was born in Cul- 
pepper county, Virginia, April 6, 1776, and was the son of 
Joseph Bledsoe, a Baptist preacher, and Elizabeth Miller, 
his wife. Judge Bledsoe was brought by an elder brother 
to the neighborhood of Lexington when a boy, and was 
sent to Transylvania Seminary, where he soon made him- 
self conspicuous by his talents, industry, and scholarly 
attainments. After completing his collegiate course, he 
studied law, and commenced its practice with success and 
reputation. About this time, he married the eldest daughter 
of Colonel Nathaniel Gist. 

He early attracted popular attention and favor, and was 
frequently elected to the Kentucky legislature. He was at 
one time state senator from Bourbon county, after which 
his superior abilities caused him to receive the appointment 
of secretary of state under Governor Charles Scott. In 
1812, while a member of the legislature, he was elected to 
the United States Senate, the distinguished John Pope 
being his colleague. He was appointed circuit judge in 
the Lexington district, by Governor Adair, in 1822, where- 
upon he removed to, and settled permanently in Lexing- 
ton; where, before, he had only resided at times. Simul- 



taneoLis with his appointment as judge, he was made pro- 
fessor of law in Transylvania University, and after ably 
filling both places for a number of years, he resigned, and 
resumed the practice of 1 iw. 

Subsequently, he abandoned his profession for a short 
time for that of the ministry; and in 1831,* he preached 
the dedication sermon on the opening of the Christian 
Church, on the corner of Mill and Hill streets. In 1833, 
Judge Bledsoe removed to Mississippi, and from theuce, in 
1835,t to Texas, and was gathering materials for a history 
of that new Republic, when he was taken sick and died, 
June 25, 1886, at Nacogdoches. Judge Bledsoe was a man 
of powerful intellect, no little eccentricity, and remarkable 
eloquence. His speeches were noted for strength, wit, 
originality, and fire, and rarely failed to carry conviction 
with them. In his best days, but few men were considered 
the mental equals of Judge Bledsoe. Amos Kendall, who 
knew him in his palmiest day, said of him :| " Mr. Bledsoe 
was a man sui generis. He was endowed with splendid 
talents, and with the exception of Henry Clay, was the 
most eloquent man in Kentucky. His manner was slow 
and deliberate, his language beautiful, his gestures graceful, 
and his thoughts communicated with the utmost clearness." 
Judge Bledsoe's residence in Lexington was, at one time, 
on the place now occupied by Mr. A. M. Barnes, fronting 
on Fourth street, and at the head of Walnut. At another 
time, he lived on Short, between Walnut and Dewees 
streets, and in the house now occupied by Mr. Armstrong. 

*Observer and Keporter. tCollins. IKendall's Biography. 



Street Improvement — Second Constitutional Convention — Ken- 
tucky Vineyard Association. 

The first improvement of the streets of Lexington com- 
menced in 1799, in which year a part of Main street was 
paved. Up to this time, the citizens had contented them- 
selves with narrow " log-walks," with here and there a 
hroad, fiat stone. Macadamized roads were unknown, and 
mud-holes were so deep and numerous on Main street and 
the "public square," that the trustees had a "bridge" ex- 
tended from the court-house to what is now called Carty's 
corner.* The " Branch," or as it was then frequently 
called, the " Canal," rose so high in 1799, that it overflowed 
the bridge which extended across it on Upper street. 

It did not take the people of Kentucky many years to 
discover that they wanted a more democratic constitution 
than that of 1792, and a convention to revise it was 
accordingly called by the legislature. In May, 1799, 
the following delegates were elected in Fayette to the 
convention, which met the succeeding June, viz: John 
McDowell, Buckner Thurston, John Breckinridge, W. Carr, 
and John Bell. The convention framed the second consti- 
tution of Kentucky, which went into eft'ect in June, 1800. 
The Kentucky Vineyard Association was formed in Lex- 
ington in 1799, and seven hundred and fifty acres of land, 
"Iviiig in the big bend of the Kentucky river, near the 
mouth of Hickman creek," were purchased. The asso- 
ciation assured the public that, " in less than four years, 
wine may be drank on the banks of the Kentucky, pro- 
duced from European stock." This was, probably, the 
first regular attempt to cultivate a vineyard ic America. 

♦Trustees' Book. 



Population of Lexington — Death of Washington — The Great 


In the year 1800, Lexington was the rising town of the 
"West. Her population amounted to two thousand four 
hundred, while the adjacent village of Cincinnati, which 
bought much of its merchandise in Lexington, could only 
claim a population of seven hundred and fifty. 

The news of the death -of Washington, which occurred 
December 14, 1799, was a long time in creeping " out West ;" 
but as soon as it was known in Lexington, due respect was 
paid to the memory of the Father of his Country. On the 
22d of January, 1800,* the town council unanimously " Re- 
solved, That the trustees of Lexington will join the pro- 
cession on Saturday next from respect to the memory of 
George Washington, as commander-in-chief of the Revo- 
lutionary army of the United States, who led his country 
to independence, and then resumed his station as a private 
citizen in 1783." The " procession " formed at Masons' Hall, 
at twelve o'clock M.,on Saturday, January 25, 1800, and was 
composed of military with arms reversed, musicians, trustees, 
president, professors and students of Transylvania Univer- 
sity, Masons in regalia, clerk of the town and board of 
trustees, clergy ,j ustices of the peace, and private citizens. To 
the measure of a solemn dirge, the procession slowly moved to 
the frame Presbyterian church on Cheapside, when an ap- 
propriate address was delivered by Professor James Brown, 
of Transylvania University.f 

The remarkable religious excitement which had com- 
menced in the Green river country some time before, reached 

*Towu Kecords. tOld Gazette. 

1800.] THE OliEAT REVIVAL. 221 

Lexington and Fayette county in 1800. It was confined to 
Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists, and before tbe 
"great revival," as it is called, had ended, the most aston- 
ishing events transpired. At Lexington and Walnut Hill, 
meetings were commenced which frequently extended 
through entire daj's and nights. The people attended in 
vast crowds from all the surrounding country, on foot, on 
horseback, and in every imaginable vehicle, bringing with 
them tents, provisions, and cooking utensils for a protracted 
visit, and often a camp-meeting concourse would number 
from ten to twenty thousand persons. The wildest excite- 
ment, and the most ridiculous extravagances, characterized 
these meetings. A hymn or an exhortation was the signal 
to the living mass of humanity to shout and groan and laugh 
and scream until the noise was almost equal to the ocean in 
a storm. Visions and trances were of frequent occurrence. 
In Lexington,* a woman swooned, and when she awoke, said 
she had been walking on the tree tops. One fainted and had 
a vision of heaven, and another had a view of hell. These 
epileptic evidences of piety were succeeded by growling 
and barking, kissing and hugging, dancing, jerking, falling, 
rolling, and tumbling. The influence of the imagination 
on the nervous system has never been more strikingly 
illustrated than during the "great revival" of 1800. 

*Lyle, 7. 




The First Kentucky Bank — Nail Factory. 

The first bank chartered iu Kentucky was the Lexing- 
ton Insurance Company, which was incorporated by the 
legislature in 1801,* and inadvertently with banking privi- 
leges. The clause giving it such powers was not per- 
ceived or understood by the members, and they voted for 
the bill, while they were bitterly hostile to all banks. The 
officers of "the bank," as the institution was always called 
in early days, were : President, William Morton ; directors, 
John Jordon, Stephen Waute, Thos. Hart, and Thomas 
"Wallace ; cashier, John Bradford ; clerk, Wm. McBean. 
The bank was located on Main, between Mill and Broad- 
way, about where the Scott bakery now stands, and issued 
bills of various denominations. The bank was subsequently 
located on the site of Thompson and Boyd's saddlery store, 
on Main, between Upper and Limestone. The institution 
exploded in 1818. 

A cut-nail manufactory, the first one in Kentucky, was 
established in Lexington, by George Norton, in 1801. Ten- 
penny nails were sold at one shilling fourpence per pound, 
and six pennies at one shilling sixpence. Cincinnati 
bought all her nails in Lexington, and purchasers often 
came from points two hundred miles distant for Lexington 
nails, and carried them home in saddle-bags on horseback. 
In fact, Lexington was then the metropolis of a great ter- 
ritory, and was noted among other things forf her stores, 
manufactories, newspaper, taverns, paper and powder mills, 
tanyards, and her two rope-walks, which supplied the ship- 
ping on the Ohio. 

*Acts Lesrislature. fMichaux. 

1802-3-4.] MEDICAL SOCIETY, ETC. '223 


Medical Society — Members — Musical Society — Lorenzo Dow — 
Miscellaneous — G. M. Bibb — Dr. Joseph Buchanan. 

The "Lexington Medical Society" was in active opera- 
tion in 1802, and numbered among its members Drs. B. 
W. Dudley, Samuel Brown, Frederick Ridgely, Walter 
Warfield, J. L. Armstrong, and others.* 

Thomas Paine's writings aftbrded Lexington subjects for 
long and animated discussions in 1803. In this year, a 
musical society was formed. The excitement in regard to 
the acquisition of Louisiana was such that "volunteers for 
New Orleans" paraded on the streets.f 

The citizens of Lexington celebrated the annexation of 
Louisiana, in the spring of 1804, by a grand barbecue, at 
Maxwell Spring, at which patriotic toasts were given, and 
salutes were fired by four military companies. In June, 
twelve splendid looking Indian chiefs of the Osage nation, 
passed through the city on their way to Washington, to 
try to eifect a treaty with the United States. The noted 
and eccentric Lorenzo Dow arrived in Lexington, on foot, 
October 3d, and preached a characteristic sermon. 

In 1804, and for several years after, the late distinguished 
George M. Bibb was a member of the Lexino;ton bar. He 
was a native of Virginia, and a graduate of Princeton. 
He died April 14, 1859, aged eighty, after having been 
successively senator in Congress, chief justice of Ken- 
tucky court of appeals, and secretary of the treasury under 
Tyler. Hon. John J. Crittenden studied law in Lexington, 
under Mr. Bibb, in 1805. 

♦Old Kentucky Gazette. fid. 

224 HISTORY OF LEXINGTON. [1802-3-4. 

Dr. Joseph Buchanan* settled in Lexington in 1804, 
and poon became noted as one of her most extraordinary- 
citizens. He was born in Washington county, Virginia, 
August 24, 1785, but spent his boyhood in Tennessee, 
where he attended a grammar school, and astonished every 
one by his remarkable progress. In the course of nine 
months, in 1803, he mastered the Latin language. He was 
so fond of originality in all his essays, that he would not 
even condescend to write on any subject on which he had 
ever read anything. 

He entered Transylvania University at the age of nine- 
teen,f and was so delicate and diffident that he passed for 
a simpleton, until he detected and oftered to demonstate an 
error in his mathematical text-book (Ferguson on Optics), 
which brought him into direct collision with the professor 
of mathematics. During the vacation of the college, he 
published a mathematical pamphlet of twenty pages, in 
which he demonstrated the sufhciency of gravitation for 
all the celestial motions, and showed the inaccuracy of some 
of the hypotheses of the very distinguished Sir Isaac Newton. 

In 1805, he commenced the study of medicine with Dr. 
Samuel Brown. Removing to Port Gibson, Mississippi 
Territory [then], in 1807, in order that he might, by med- 
ical practice, obtain means to complete his medical educa- 
tion in Philadelphia, Dr. Buchanan then wrote a volume 
on fevers, which, while it defeated his lirst object, that of 
earning money, was his favorable introduction to the dis- 
tinguished professors of the University of Pennsylvania^ 
and especially to Professors Barton and Rush. But his 
means being insufficient for the completion of his medical 
studies there, as well as for the publication of his book, he 
walked back to Lexington, in 1808, in twenty-seven days, 
where the degree of A. B. having been conferred on him, 
at the instance of President Blythe, he was, in 1809, ap- 
pointed to the chair of the Institutes of Medicine in the 

In 1812, he published an able volume on the " Philosophy 

University Records. tCollins 

1802-3-4] DR. JOSEPH BUCHANAN. (2,2h 

of Human Nature," and almost immediately abandoned 
the medical profession, to visit the East to learn the new 
Pestalozzian system of education, and to introduce it into 
Kentucky. Subsequently, he invented a " capillary " steam 
engine, with spiral tubes for boilers; and in 1825, he made 
a steam land carriage which attracted general attention in 
Louisville, through the streets of which city it was run; 
and, we are told, discovered a new motive principle, de- 
scribed as being derived from combustion, without the aid 
of water or of steam. 

This remarkable philosophical, mathematical, and in- 
ventive genius died in Louisville, in 1829, "little known, 
except as a writer, to more than a small circle of friends." 

In the language of his biographer, "the life of Dr. 
Buchanan aflbrds an instructive moral," to young men, we 
add, showing that for success in this world, talents of the 
highest order, industry the most untiring, or self-denial the 
most strict, are not alone sufficient, unless combined with 
steadiness of purpose and unvarying concentration of 
effort in the right direction. 



Burr's Visit — Trustee Chronicles — William T. Barry. 

Aaron Burr, one of the most extraordinary men of his 
age, made his first visit to Kentucky in 1805, arriving in 
Lexington, August 19th, and attracting universal attention. 
After a stay of several days, he went south, but returned 
again, and remained a considerable time in Lexington. It 
was at this time that Colonel Burr commenced, it is be- 
lieved, to lay his unsuccessful plans for the erection of a 
magnificent Southern empire. He was met in Lexington 
by the studious and accomplished Blannerhasset and his 
gifted wife, around whose lives fate wove so strange and 
sad a web. 

The trustees of Lexington distinguished themselves, in 
1805, by prohibiting the citizens from keeping " pet pan- 
thers;" by encouraging the introduction of "chimney 
sweeps," and by indorsing the "Bachelors' Society for 
the Promotion of Matrimony," which met weekly at Wil- 
son's tavern. For the sum of five dollars, they " allowed 
Thomas Ardon to shew his lyon," which constituted the 
;first menagerie that ever visited Lexington. 
V William Taylor Barry commenced the practice of law in 
Lexington in 1805. This illustrious orator and statesman was 
born in Lunenburg county, Virginia, February 15, 1784.* 
His parents, who were respectable, energetic, and poor, 
emigrated to Kentucky in 1796, and settled first in Fayette 
and then in Jessamine county; and conscious that they 
could not give their son wealth, resolved to educate hira. 
Young Barry was sent to the Kentucky Academy in Wood- 
ford, and finishing his collegiate course at Transylvania 

*Observer and Keporter. 


University, after the union of the Kentucky and Transyl- 
vania Academies. 

After he left the university, he commenced the study of 
law with the Hon. James Brown, minister to France, and 
finished his law studies at "William atid Mary College in 
Virginia. Then, like his great competitor of after years, 
Henry Claj', he commenced life in Lexington at the age of 
twenty-one — young and poor, with neither family nor in- 
fluence to bring him into notice, and with nothing to rec- 
ommend him but his virtues and attainments. Shortly 
after, he commenced business he married the daughter of 
Waller Overton, of Fayette county. His first wife dying 
in 1809, in 1812, he married again, in Virginia, a daughter 
of General S. T. Mason. 

From the year of his arrival in Lexington to the time of 
his death in a foreign land, the life of the gifted Barry was 
a brilliant panorama of success. Soon after he came to 
the bar, he was appointed attorney for the commonwealth, 
which ofiice he filled for several years, and in 1807 he was 
for the first time, elected a representative from Fayette 
county, and was re-elected for several years in succession 
almost without opposition. He rose rapidly in his profes- 
sion; soon took the first rank as a great lawyer and an 
eloquent advocate, and in a little while was the recognized 
peer of Rowan Bledsoe, Haggin, and " Harry of the West." 
In 1810, Mr. Barry was elected a representative to Con- 
gress from the Ashland district, and distinguished himself 
by his eloquent denunciations of the aggressive insults then 
being offered to the United States by England. After the 
declaration of war in 1812, he not only strongly advocated 
its vigorous prosecution, but took the field as an aid to 
Governor Shelby, and served during the severe and glorious 
campaign, which resulted in the capture of the British 
army, the death of Tecumseh, and the conquest of a large 
part of Upper Canada.* 

In 1814, Mr. Barry was again sent to the state legislature 
by an almost unanimous vote; was made speaker of the 



house, and shortly after elected to the United States Sen- 
ate, where he remained for two sessions. Here occurred 
one of the most remarkable events of his life. He resigned 
his seat in the senate, to accept the position of circuit 
judge with a meager salary. Public men rarely abandon 
national honors, position, and pay so easily at this day. It 
was during Mr. Barry's judgeship that a tipsy mountaineer 
stalked into the presence of the court shouting : " I am a 
horse!" " She rili," said Judge Barry, "take that horse to 
the stable." 

In 1817, he was forced by ther people to become a mem- 
ber of the state senate. While in the legislature, Mr. 
Barry, who was ever alive to home interests, was actively 
engaged in promoting the success of Transylvania Univer- 
sity, and was persevering in his efforts to have it endowed, 
and to bring it under the patronage of the state.* He suc- 
ceeded in his undertakings, for his struggles and his elo- 
quence principally induced the legislature to give the insti- 
tution aboute $20,000, and the name of Wm. T. Barry gave 
it free passport among the people. The law department of 
this institution, with which, by his profession, he was more 
particularly connected, also commanded his attention. He 
was instrumental in giving it funds sufficient to purchase a 
good library. In this department he was the first regular 
professor and law lecturer after the reform in the uni- 
versity. Under his management it prospered beyond ex- 
pectation, and surpassed the most sanguine anticipation of 
its friends. 

In 1820, he became a candidate for the office of lieuten- 
ant-governor. The people recollected his services and his 
struggles in their cause, and gave him an overwhelming 
vote. At this period he decidedly stood foremost in the 
uffiactions of the people of Kentucky. Subsequently, he 
was made secretary of state during the administration of 
Governor Desha, and after the appellate court of the state 
was reorganized, he was appointed chief justice. In the 
change of parties in Kentucky in 1825, produced by Mr. 

♦Observer and Reporter. 


Clay's adhereuce to Mr. Adams,* Major Barry became the 
leader of the Domocratic party in the state, and was de- 
voted to its principles to the day of his untimely death. 

In 1828, Mr. Barry was the Democratic candidate for the 
office of governor, while Mr. Clay was the champion of 
the opposing party, and it was during that bitter and hotly 
contested struggle that Barry exhibited so powerfully the 
wonderful resources of his great intellect, and achieved 
his greatest triumph, for though he was defeated by a small 
majority for governor, it was mainly through his almost 
superhuman exertions in that campaign that the vote of 
Kentucky was given to General Jackson in the presidential 
election which followed. Mr. Barry's astonishing oratori- 
cal powers were all brought out in this campaign. As a 
spejikerf he was full of energy, action, and fire, and on the 
stump, tilled as he always was, on such occasions, with 
eloquence and majesty, he seemed every inch a towering 
tribune of the old Roman commonwealth. The rare pecu- 
liarity of Mr. Barry's style was, that, instead of commencing 
a speech with deliberation and coolness, and gradually 
warming up with his subject, he launched out at once with 
words as bold and eloquent as those which invariably 
attended his blaziug perorations. One of Judge Barry's 
finest eftbrts was made in 1828, when standing upon a table 
placed against the rear wall of the present court-house, he 
defended himself, before an immense crowd, against some 
partisan charges made by his political opponents. 

Mr. Barry was called to Washington in 1829, as post- 
master-general, which office he held until unable, from 
physical disability, to discharge its onerous duties. Ardently 
hoping that a milder climate would restore the now shat- 
tered health of this ornament of his cabinet. President 
Jackson appointed him minister to Spain, for which coun- 
try Mr. Barry sailed in 1835. lie was destined to never 
reach Madrid. His health rapidly declined, and Barry, the 
great orator, the favorite of fortune, the idol of the people, 
died a few days after reaching Liverpool. 

♦Collins. tJanies 0. Harrison. 


It has been truly said that " no man who has figured so 
largely in the well-contested arena of western politics ever 
left it with fewer enemies or a larger number of devoted 
friends than William T. Barry." His great abilities and 
lofty virtues made him tlie hero of his party, and his politi- 
cal opponents loved him as they felt the singular charm of 
his mild and conciliating disposition, and the influence of 
his generous and exalted soul. 

In our court-house yard stands an unpretending, weather- 
beaten monument of granite, surrounded by a plain iron 
railing. It has been there so long, and has such an old- 
fashioned look, that hundreds pass it daily without once 
giving it so much as a glance, and without the thought 
once occurring to them that it stands there to remind them 
of one of the loftiest spirits that ever did honor to Lexing- 
ton and our commonwealth. The rains and snows of many 
winters have descended upon it, but the angel of immor- 
tality has shielded that old shaft with her protecting wings, 
and it still tells its proud story. 

On one side is the inscription : 

"To the memory of William Taylor Barry this monu- 
ment is erected by his friends in Kentucky (the site being 
granted by the coutity court of Fayette), as a testimony of 
their respect and admiration for his virtues." 

On another side is carved this beautiful sentence: 

"His fame lives in the history of his country, and is as 
immortal as America's liberty and glory." 

Mr. Barry lived in the house now owned by Joseph 
Wolfolk, hear the corner of Hill and Rose streets. 

The remains of Barry, after reposing nearly nineteen 
years in a foreign land, were brought back to Kentuek}^, by 
act of the legislature, and reinterred in the State cemetery 
at Frankfort, with many honors and great res[»ect, Novem- 
ber 8, 1854. The eloquent Theodore O'Hara, who was 
the orator of the occasion, concluded his eulogy upon Barry 
in these burning words: 

" Let the marble minstrel rise to sing to the future gen- 
erations of the commonwealth the inspiring lay of his high 
genius and lofty deeds. Let the autumn wind harp on the 


dropping leaves her softest requiem over him ; let the win- 
ter's purest snow rest spotless on his grave ; let spring 
entwine her brightest garland for his tomb, and summer 
gild it with her mildest sunshine, and let him sleep em- 
balmed in glory till the last trumph shall reveal him to us 
all radiant with the halo of his life." 



Currency — Stray Pen — Felix Grundy. 

The currency used in trade in Lexington, in 1806, was 
miscellaneous in its character. Raccoon and other skins 
were given in exchange for goods, but Spanish dollars, cut 
into halves, quarters, and eighths, were mostly used, while 
very small change was effected by means of papers of 
needles and pins. In this year a Lexington merchant 
carried one hundred pounds of "cut silver'' with him to 

The Lexington " stray pen " was located about this time, 
on Market street, near the present Press office. 

Felix Grundy, long eminent as a Democratic leader and 
statesman, was a resident of Lexington and a trustee of 
Transylvania University in 1806, and for some time anterior 
to that date. He was born in Berkley county, Virginia, 
September 11, 1777, came to Kentucky when a boy, 
studied law, and soon acquired a high reputation as an 
advocate in criminal cases. Before his removal to Nash- 
ville in 1808, he had served in the Kentucky legislature, and 
as chief justice of the court of appeals. He died December 
19, 1840, after filling the positions of representative and 
senator in Congress, and attorney general of the United 



The Observer and Reporter — Editors — Biographical Notices — 


The Observer and Reporter, now the oldest newspaper 
in existence in Kentucky, if not in the "West, was founded 
in 1807,* by William AV. Worsley and Samuel R. Overton, 
and was first called the " Kentucky Reporter." Their first 
oflice, as the early copies of the paper state, was opposite 
Mr. Sanders' store," and therefore occupied the site now 
filled by Clark & Bro.'s warehouse, on East Main street, 
and was between the first capitol building of the infant 
commonwealth of Kentucky, and the Free and Easy tavern, 
80 notorious in the early history of Lexington. Near it 
was a rakish-looking craft of a building, nine feet wide and 
forty feet long, then commonly called the " Old Gun-boat." 
This was the first silver-plater's shop used in this city by the 
late David A. Sayre, and there the ring of his busy ham- 
mer was often heard far into the night. 

Mr. Worsley came to this place from Virginia at an early 
day, and married a sister of Thomas Smith, at that time 
editor of the Kentucky Gazette, and afterward editor of 
the Observer. Aside from his capacity as a writer and pub- 
lisher, Mr. Worslcy was noted for his strict integrity and 
remarkable amiability. Mr. Overton, who was connected 
with the Observer onlv a few months, and in a business 
waj^ was a son of Waller Overton, of this county. 

The Observer commenced its career as a strong JefFer- 
sonian Democratic organ, or rather "Republican," as the 
party was then called. Its first prospectus contains this 

*0b. and Kep. in Lex. Lib. 


langnasre :* " The character of the Reporter with relation 
to politics shall be strictly republican. Highly approving 
of the principles of the revolution, as contained in the fed- 
eral constitution, and duly appreciating the enlightened 
policy pursued by the present administration, it shall be the 
undeviating object of the editors, as far it may come within 
the sphere of their intluence, to contribute to the promotion 
and pre.-^ervation of the former, and embrace every oppor- 
tunity of testifying to the virtue and faithfulness of the latter. 
Whenever we may discover ourselves deviating from the 
principles held sacred by the people, we shall invariably be 
disposed to retrace our steps and make such assertions as 
may clearly and satisfactorily present themselves. We shall 
also rely with confidence on the vigilance of the people to 
point out those errors to which we may be subject and in 
which their interests may be involved." The public is also 
informed that " for the more speedy conveyance of the Re- 
porter, the editor has established at great expense some 
private posts." 

Mr. Overton retired from the paper, and left Mr. Wors- 
ley sole proprietor until February, 1816, when he took into 
partnership his brother-in-law, Mr. Thomas Smith. Mr. 
Smith married Miss Nannette Price, a niece of Mrs. Henry 
Clay. He was at one time president of the Frankfort and 
Lexington railroad. Smith bought out Worsley's interest 
in 1819, and conducted the paper alone until April, 1828, 
when he took in James W. Palmer as a partner. Mr. Palmer 
was an Englishman, whose beautiful disposition and en- 
gaging manners made him exceedingly popular. He wrote 
elegantly, but not strongly. He was a devoted Episco- 
palian, and for years, as was then the custom here, made 
the responses at public worship in behalf of the congrega- 
tion. He was well known as the calculator of the almanacs 
for Kentucky. Mr. Palmer was connected with the Re- 
porter about a year, after which Mr. Smith had entire charge 
again, until March, 1832, when the paper passed into the 
hands of Edwin Bryant and N. L. Finnell, who united 

*See files Observer and Reporter. 


with it the "Lexingtoa Observer, the consolidated papers 
being called "The Kentucky Reporter and Lexington Ob- 
server."* Mr. Smith removed to Pewee Vivlley, where he 
died only a few months ago. On his retirement from the 
paper the gentlemen of Lexington gave him a public recep- 

Mr. Finnell came to this place from Georgetown, and had 
published a paper in Winchester. He was the father of 
General J. W. Finnell, of Covington, and a practical printer, 
and often stood at the case and " set up" his own editorials. 
He was a sprightly writer, and a man of great energy. 
When his connection with this paper ceased, he, with con- 
siderable enterprise, established and labored hard to keep 
up "The Lexington Atlas," a daily paper, but without suc- 
cess. His subscription list became quite extensive, bat the 
expenses of the establishment were so great that he was 
compelled to give up the attempt, after several months of 
disastrous experience. He died near Frankfort, in 1853. 

Judge Edwin Bryant came from the old Berkshire hills 
of Massachusetts, to this city, when but a boy, and was 
soon a Kentuckian, both in sentiment and by adoption. He 
was an editor of signal ability, courtesy, and success. After 
the Observer, he assumed the management of the "Louis- 
ville Dime," in connection with Mr. W. N. Haldeman, of 
the present Courier-Journal. 

In 1847, failing health induced him to take an overland 
mule-back journey to the Pacific, and he joined Fremont in 
one of his famous expeditions. He assisted in the capture 
of California, and was the first American alcalde (judge) 
who ever administered justice on that then far distant coast. 

Returning home. Judge Bryant published a volume en- 
titled, " What I saw in California," which had a very extraor- 
dinary sale. 

He resided in Pewee Valley, Kentucky, until the time of 
his death, which took place in December, 1869. 

Robert Nelson Wickliffe, brother of D. C. Wickliffe, suc- 
ceeded Bryant in 1833. He graduated with distinguished 

♦Observer and Reporter. 


honors at Transylvania University, was admitted to the 
bar, and in all subsequent oratorial efforts evinced a rare fer- 
tility and resource of scholarship and literary knowledge. 
As an editor, he was fully equal to Prentice, and as an 
orator, was considered by many to be the peer of Clay. 

Mr. Wickliffe represented his county in the legislature, 
was a delegate to the convention which framed the present 
state constitution, and in 1851 was Democratic candidate for 
lieutenant-governor,* but he never attained the position his 
extraordinary powers entitled him to, as he lacked ambi- 
tion, and was totally indifterent to political and professional 
honors. For years after his official connection with the 
Observer had ceased, Mr. "Wicklifi'e contributed to the ed- 
itorial department. He died at the age of fifty, February' 
26, 1855. 

In September, 1838, Hon. D. C. Wickliffe became sole 
editor and proprietor of the Observer and Reporter.f 

Daniel Carraichael Wickliffe was born in Lexington, 
Kentucky, on the 15th of March, 1810. He was educated 
at Transylvania University, and graduated with much honor 
at the very early age of seventeen. He adopted the law as 
his profession. 

On the 25th of November, 1844, Mr. Wickliffe married 
Miss Virginia Cooper, a daughter of the Rev. Spencer 
Cooper, widely-known local Methodist minister of this city. 

Anterior to his marriage, and in September, 1838, Mr. 
Wickliffe succeeded Mr. IST. L. Finnell as editor and pro- 
prietor of the Observer and Reporter, and he gave all the 
rest of his active life to the profession of journalism, not 
even excepting the period when he was secretary of state 
of Kentucky, during Governor Robinson's executive term 
He was editor of this paper for nearly twenty-seven years, 
and in very many respects was the ablest one that ever 
wielded a pen in the whole commonwealth of Kentucky. 
He gave Mr. Clay no weak support. 

Mr. Wickliffe, to his great honor be it said, was almost en- 
fold Kentucky Statesman. tObserver and Exporter, 


tirely a self-made man. In June, 1865, Mr. Wicklifte sev- 
ered his connection with the press. He died May 3, 1870. 

John T. Hogan became associated with Mr. Wicklifte in 
the editorial department in 1855, and filled the position for 
four years. 

In September, 1862, the Observer office was used by Gen- 
eral John Morgan as his headquarters, and in 1864 it was 
occupied by federal troops. 

The establishment was purchased by a number of gentle- 
men in 1865, and the concern was styled the "Observer and 
Reporter Printing Company," wnth William A, Dudley as 
editor. Mr. Dudley resigned the editorial chair for a seat 
in the senate of Kentucky. He died March 19, 1870, at 
the age of forty-six, after an exertion of energy in connec- 
tion with, first, the Lexington and Frankfort, and then the 
Short Line railroad, that made him most widely known. 

W. C. P. Breckinridge succeeded Mr. Dudley, having 
been elected by the company in July, 1866. The author 
of this volume succeeded Colonel Breckinridge in July, 
1868, and became sole editor and proprietor of the Ob- 
server and Reporter. In April, 1871, he disposed of the 
establishment, which is at present owned and managed by 
a company. Dr. Thomas Pickett, of Maysville, Kentucky, 
succeeded the writer as editor, and he in turn was succeeded 
by the present editor, Mr. J. S. Smith. 

238 HHTORV OF LEXINGTON. [1808-9. 


Miscellaneous — Shee-p Excitement — Dr. Ben. W. Dudley. 

In 1808, and long after, it was the custom in Lexington 
to call the hours from twelve o'clock at night until daylight. 

All Lexington and Fayette county was excited in the 
summer of 1808 over a " living elephant," the first one ever 
seen in the community. One of the newspapers of the 
town urged every one to go and see it, as " perhaps the 
present generation may never have the opportunity of 
seeing a living elephant again." 

A long list of " school-books manufactured in this place," 
was advertised in a Lexington newspaper in 1809. 

At an early period, probably at this time (1809), a great 
excitement was created about Merino sheep, which suddenly 
acquired an enormous value, and the few in the country 
were sought after with the most ridiculous avidity. The 
extent of the speculation may be inferred from the tradition 
that a master mechanic actually received three merino sheep 
from Mr. Samuel Trotter as payment for building for him 
the residence now owned by Judge Robertson, and situated 
at the corner of Hill and Mill streets.* 

Dr. Benjamin W. Dudley, who afterward became so fa- 
mous as a surgeon, commenced his public career in 1809, 
in which year he was appointed to the chair of anatomy 
and surgery in Transylvania University. 

Dr. Benjamin Winslow Dudley t was born in Spottsyl- 
vania county, Virginia, on the 12th day of April, 1785; was 
brought by his parents to Kentucky county, where they 
landed six miles east of Lexington, on the Bd day of May, 

♦Benjamin Kiser. tObserver and Reporter. 

1808-9.] DR. BEN. W. DUDLEY. 2S9 

1786. His earlier education was obtained at country schools, 
and finished in Transylvania University. He came to Lex- 
ington in 1797, and for a time worked in the store of Samuel 
and George Trotter. He studied medicine with the late 
Drs. Ilidgel}^ and Fishback, after which he attended medi- 
cal lectures in the old school of Philadelphia, graduated in 
1806, and returned to Lexington, where he continued the 
practice of medicine, and acted as professor in the medical 
college until 1810, when he visited Europe, and spent four 
years, profiting by the instructions of the most distinguished 
medical and scientific teachers. During his stay in London, 
he was made a member of the Royal College of Surgeons. 

Return'ing to Lexington, he soon stood in the front rank 
of the profession. In 1818, on the reorganization of the 
medical college of Transylvania University, he was recalled 
to the chair of surgery and anatomy, and remained in that 
connection for forty years, during which time the college 
acknowledged no superior on this continent. Its great suc- 
cess was largely due to Dr. Dudley, whose professional fame 
spread throughout the civilized world. He attended a la- 
borious practice for about fifty years, when he contracted 
poison in performing a surgical operation, from which he 
suffered greatly, and never recovered. He died suddenly, 
after about two hours of illness, at a quarter to one o'clock, 
on Thursday morning, January 20, 1870, of apoplexy. 

Dr. Dudley's achievements in the operation of lithotomy 
alone are so great as to be actually incredible to the most 
distinguished surgeons of Europe, and are sufiicient of 
themselves to hand his name down to a distant posterity. 
He operated for stone in the bladder about two hundred 
and sixty times, losing only two or three patients. He op- 
erated upon the eye in numerous cases, and frequently per- 
forated the cranium for the relief of epilepsy. In spite of 
the fact that he left no production of his pen behind, his 
scientific triumphs will long cause him to be remembered 
as the great surgeon of Kentucky. Dr. Dudley's office was 
on the corner of Mill and Church streets, and occupied the 
site of the present residence of E. Say re. 



Great Prosperity of Lexington in 1810 — Center of theWestern 
Trade — Manufacturers and Business — Decline — Lexington 
Bible Society — Freshets. 

Lexington was at the zenltla of her commercial pros- 
perity in 1810. Situated on the great line of communica- 
tion between the older settlements of the East and the fer- 
tile West, she was benefited by every great wave of immi- 
gration that swept into the wilderness. Since 1800, her 
growth had been so rapid that her population had tripled 
itself, and was now eight thousand, while that of Fayette 
county was twenty-one thousand three hundred and seventy. 
By this time, almost the entire trade of the West centered 
in Lexington, which had also become the grand depot of 
supplies for emigrants, and the great manufacturing point 
of an immense region. It is said that in 1810 the sales 
of the most extensive business house in Lexington 
amounted to one hundred thousand dollars per month. A 
careful eye witness of the prosperity of Lexington at this 
time said :* " Main street presents to the eye as much 
wealth and more beauty than can be found in most Atlan- 
tic cities. A prodigious quantity of European goods are 
displayed and retailed to the crowds of customers who re- 
sort here from the neighboring settlements." 

A tolerably correct estimate of the business and manu- 
facturing importance of Lexington in 1810 is extant.f Its 
enumeration is as follows, viz: four paper mills, two 
tobacco factories, three nail factories, one mustard factory, 
four cabinet shops, six powder mills, five wool-carding 

*Bro\vn's Emigrant Directory. tCumming, 160. 


macliities ruu by horse power, one sail-duck factory, one 
brush factory, one reed factory, one umbrella factory, one 
white lead factory, four chair factories, one oil-mill, thirteen 
rope-walks, seven brick-yards, live hat factories, ten black- 
smith shops, seven saddlery shops, ten tailor shops, fifteen 
boot and shoe shops, three blue dyers, two copper and tin 
shops, two printing establishments where books were made, 
one bindery, seven distilleries, four billiard tables, five paint 
shops, one looking-glass factory, one Venetian blind fac- 
tory, two foundries, three cotton mills, five bagging fac- 
tories, and five coarse linen factories. One steam flour mill, 
the first in Kentucky, had just been erected by Stevens & 
Winslow. Twenty-five large stores are mentioned. Ne- 
groes from fourteen to thirty years of age quoted at from 
three hundred and fifty to four hundred dollars. " Vaux- 
hall " is described as " a public garden, kept by Mr. Terasse, 
from St. Bartholomew, with summer-houses, and arbors 
illuminated every Wednesday evening with variegated 
lamps, a fashionable resort for music, dancing, and feast- 
ing." In Lexington and Fayette there were one thousand 
looms, which wove two hundred and seven thousand yards 
of hemp, flax, and cotton cloth. "Lexington," says a 
traveler,* " is expected to become the largest inland town 
of the United States. Perhaps there is no manufactory in 
this country which is not known here." 

The trade and population of Lexington, after 1810, de- 
clined, and did not begin to grow again until about the 
year 1820, The cause of this decline is easily accounted 
for. It commenced with the successful opening of steam 
navigation upon the Ohio river, an event which revolution- 
ized the trade and trade channels of the western country. 
The same cause which produced this decline in Lexington, 
made Cincinnati, with its favorable location, an important 
city. In 1810, when Lexington had eight thousand inhab- 
itants, Cincinnati had but two thousand five hundred ; but 
the steamboat came, and, in 1820, Cincinnati had grown to 
four times the size of Lexington. The prosperity of Lex- 



inglon in the future will largely depend upon the use she 
makes of the same great agent which has operated against 
her. Steam, upon artificial highways, can bring back to 
her much of what it carried away upon the natural chan- 
nels of ti-ade. 

A "Bible Society" was formed in Lexington in 1810,* 
of which Robert M. Cunningham was jiresident. It grew 
and prospered, and, in 1820, its corresponding secretary, 
James Blythe, supplied many persons with Bibles printed in 
Lexington. Its successor was the " Lexington and Vicinity 
Bible Society," which was formed November 24, 1836,t 
and its officers were : President, L. P. Yandell ; Vice-pres- 
idents, J. M. Hewitt, J. C. Stiles, Walter Bullock, D. M. 
"Winston, George Robertson, R. T. Dillard, and Mr. Harris; 
Executive Committee, James Fishback, Edward Stevenson, 
T. K. Layton, M. T. Scott; W. A. Leavy, Corresponding 
Secretary; Edward Winthrop, Recording Secretary ; Wiil- 
liam Richardson, Treasurer. The object of this society, as 
set forth in its constitution, is, "to aid in the circulation of 
the Holy Scriptures, without note or comment. It inter- 
feres with no man's views of truth and duty; requires no 
sacrifice of principle; aims to establish no peculiar creed ; 
but wants all to meet on common ground, to give the Bible 
to their fellow creatures." The society is still in existence, 
and doing a great work of usefulness and good. 

Alarming freshets were not unfrequent at this period. 
The miserable " canal " then in existence could not accom- 
modate the water which ran from all the streets and high 
lots, and collected in the "Town Fork of Elkhorn creek," 
and sometimes, after a rain, the water extended from i he 
present Phcenix Hotel far beyond Water and Vine streets. | 
A lead factory and a paper mill were on Water street at 
that time, near w^here the present Louisville freight depot 
stands, and the milt-races were fed from the then flourish- 
ing Town Fork, now so insis^nificant. 

*0'id Kentucky Gazette. tSociety Records. JMcCuUough. 

1811.] EARTHQUAKE, ETC. 248 


Earthquake — Battle of Tippecanoe — Joseph H. Daviess, His 
Career and Gallant Death — St. Tammany Society. 

On the morning of December 16, 1811, the citizens of 
Lexington were startled and alarmed by several successive 
shocks of an earthquake,* accompanied by a sound like 
that of distant thunder. Fortunately no other damage was 
done than the breaking of window glass and the disturb- 
ance of a few bricks from chimneys. 

In 1811, the Indians of the Northwest, incited by Tecum- 
seh and the Prophet, who were encouraged by the British, 
gave such marked evidences of hostility that General Har- 
rison marched to the Wabash, where, shortly after, he was 
joined by Colonel J. H. Daviess and a number of volun- 
teers from Lexington. On the 7th of November, the mem- 
orable battle of Tippecanoe took place, and Colonel Daviess 
was numbered among the slain. 

Colonel Joseph Hamilton Daviess was born in Bedford 
county, Virginia, March 4, 1774. f His parents, Joseph and 
Jean Daviess, emigrated to Kentucky when their son was 
five years old, and settled near Danville. Young Daviess 
received his education from his mother and superior 
teachers of country schools, and became a proficient in the 
Latin and Greek languages, and evinced a remarkable tal- 
ent for public speaking. In 1792, he volunteered under 
Major Adair, and served against the Indians, and distin- 
guished himself by his daring conduct. After this, he 
studied law under the celebrated George Nicholas, in a 
class with Jesse Bledsoe, John Pope, Felix Grundy, an 1 
others, who afterward became noted, and studied with the 

*Observer and Reporter. tCollins. 


most untiring energy and perseverance. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1795, and in his first case triumphed over his 
learned old teacher. In 1801, he went to Washington 
City, and was the first western lawyer who ever appeared 
in the supreme court of the United States. There he 
gained another legal victory, which placed him at once in the 
foremost rank of his profession. He was married to Miss 
Annie Marshall, sister of the United States chief justice, 
in 1803, and in 1806, occurred his celebrated prosecution 
of Aaron Burr, during which he confronted Henry Clay 
and John Allin. 

He removed to Lexington in 1809, s\nd resided there up 
to the time of his death. During that period, there was 
hardly an important cause litigated in the courts where he 
practiced that he was not engaged in. Colonel Daviess 
was a federalist, but when the Indian war of 1811, which 
was aggravated by England, broke out, he was one of the 
first to enlist.* He was appointed major of cavalry, but- 
when he was killed in the battle of Tippecanoe, he was 
fighting on foot in a charge made at his own solicitation. 
He fell wounded in three places, and met death with great 
calmness. General Harrison said of him :f " Major Daviess 
joined me as a private volunteer, and on the recommenda- 
tion of the officers of that corps, was appointed to com- 
mand the third troop of dragoons. His conduct in that 
capacity justified their choice; never was there an officer 
possessed of more ardor and zeal to discharge his duties 
with propriety, and never one who would have encoun- 
tered greater danger to purchase military fame." Col- 
onel Daviess was a man of remarkably fine personal ap- 
pearance and impressive bearing. As a lawyer he was 
one of the ablest in the land, and as an orator he had few 
equals and no superiors. His death caused a profound 
sensation, and in Lexington imposing funeral ceremonies 
were performed, and a Masonic lodge was formed and 
named in his honor. Colonel Daviess lived in the house 
now occupied by Mr. William Fishback, opposite the Chris- 

■^Diividaon. fHarrison's Report, Battle Tippecanoe. 

1811.] ST. TAMMANV'S SOCIETY. 245 

tian Church, and between Walnut and Limestone, on 

A St. Tammany Society was instituted in Lexington 
about this time (1811), and continued to exist up to 1820. 
The " Wigwam " was in the second story of " Connell's ale 
shop/' which stood on the site of the Cleary building, on 
the corner of Main and Broadway. The sons of St. Tam- 
many often paraded through the streets disguised as In- 
dians, and magnificent in red paint, feathers, bows, toma- 
hawks, and war clubs. It was one of the most noted Dem- 
ocratic organizations in the "West. Thomas T. Barr, Rich- 
ard Chinn, and others successively filled the office of 
" Sachem." We give verbatim one of the society's 
orders,* viz : 

" St. Tammany's Day. — The Sons of St. Tammany, or 
Brethren of the Columbian Order, will assemble at the 
council fire of their great wigwam, on Tuesday, the 12th 
of the month of flowers, at the rising of tlie sun, to cele- 
brate the anniversary of their patron saint. 

"A dinner will be provided at brother John Fowler's 
garden, to which the brethren will march in procession, 
where a long talk will be delivered by one of the order. 

"An adjourned meeting of the society will be held on 
to-morrow evening, at the going down of the sun. By 
order of the grand sachem, 

*' N". S. Potter, Sec. 

" Sth of the Month of Flowers, Year of Discovery, 326." 

'Kentucky Qazette. 




War with England — Rolls of Lexington and Fayette Volun- 
teers — The Meeting and Parting at Lexington — The Review 
and the March — Russell's Expedition — Trotter s Fight vnth 
the Indians — The Barracks. 

The commencement of the year 1812 found Lexington 
fnll of excitement. The frequent and long-continued out- 
rages of England on American rights and property on the 
ocean were denounced in the strongest terms by the Demo- 
crats, and palliated by the Federalists. While the parties 
hurled at each other the epithets of "Jacobin" and "Tory," 
a war with England was openly threatened, and on May 2d, 
General James Winchester, an old officer of the Revolu- 
tion, established a recruiting office in Lexington. Early in 
June, an immense war-meeting was held in the court-house 
yard, and deafening shouts of applause greeted one of the 
sentiments proposed : " May the legs of every Tory be made 
into drumsticks with which to beat Jetferson's march."-"^ 

War was declared by the United States on the 18th of 
June, and Lexington greeted the news with a brilliant 
illumination and great rejoicing, and as soon as it was 
known that a requisition had been made upon Kentucky 
for troops, and even before the governor's orders reached 
Lexington, a company of volunteers had been formed, and 
its services tendered to the state. t Six companies in all 
were quickly raised in the city and county, and it is a matter 
of the greatest regret that complete rolls of them are not 
to be had, either in the state military office or in the war 
department at Washington. Of one company, Captain 
Arnold's riflemen, we could obtain no list whatever, and 

*01(i Gazette. tObserver and Keporter. 

1812.] VOLUNTEERS. 247 

the followino: rolls, with the exception of that of Captain 
Hurt's company, are meager, contused, and unsatisfactory. 
The subjoined fragments are ail that could be gathered, viz : 

hart's company. 

Officers. — Captain, N. S. G. Hart; Lieutenant, L. Cora- 
stock; Second Lieutenant, Geo. G. Ross; Ensign, J. L. 
Herrou ; Sergeants, Levi L. Todd, Jolin Whitney, Chas. 
F. Allen, Thos. Smith, Fielding Gosney, Tlios. Chamber- 
lain ; Corporals, William O. Butler, Chas. Bradford, Isaac 
L. Baker, Jacob Schwing, Alex. Crawford. 

Privates. — Andrew Allison, F. J. Allen, Francis Allen, 
Hugh Allen, Thomas Anderson, T. J. Anderson, Daniel 
Adams, Wm. Adams, James E. Blythe, Henry Beard, L L. 
Baker, Wm. C. Bell, John Beckley, Robt. Campbell, R. T. 
Campbell, Lewis Charless, Hiram Cliues, Elisha Collins, R. 
H. Chinn, Samuel Cox, Jesse Cock, Lawrence Daily, Will- 
iam Davis, Phillip Dunn, Benj. Davis, Samuel Elder, Ed- 
ward Elder, Thos. Fant, A. Ferguson, E. Francis, K. M. 
Goodloe, R. W. Gilpin, James Huston, Jas. L. Hickman, 
Ben net Hines, Samuel Holding, James Higgiiis, James 
Johnston, Robert Kelley, Thomas King, S. Kalker, J. E. 
Kelley, John Kay, Charles Lewis, John Linginfelter, Adam 
Lake, D. Lingenfelter, John Maxwell, Jr., Thomas Monks, 
J no. A. Moon, Peter Messmore, J. W. McChesney, Robt. 
Mather, Jumes Maxwell, James Neale, Chas. Neil, Jas. P. 
Parker, W. Pritchard, James Reiley, Robert Rolling, George 
Rogers, Geo. Rolls, Charles Searls, Armstrong Stewart, Ste- 
phen Smith, Thomas Smith, Valentine Slially, Geo. Shin- 
dlebower, B. Stephens, V. Shawley, Daniel Talhott, J. Tem- 
pleman, Sam'l B. Todd, R. S. Todd, — Townsend, Joseph 
Vance, Derrick Vanpelt, T. Verden, Zephaniah Williams, 
John Whitney. 


Officers. — Captain, Stewart W. Megowan ; Lieutenant, 
Martin Wymore ; Ensign, Levi Todd; Sergeants, Richard 
Roach, Baniet Harvey; Corporals, T. H. Blackburn, John 


Privates. — Alexander Alsop, John Brown, Ezra Bowyer, 
James Cummins, John Eaves, James Fear, Bernard Giltiier, 
T. R. Gatewood, — Griffin, John P. Hogan, John M. Hoojan, 
Hiram Jeter, Bernard Jeter, Richie Jerrett, John P. Kin- 
kcad, Solomon Kolker, Zach. Xirby, Joseph Laiikhart* 
John Litterell, John Moon, John P. Miller, Wm. Mitchell, 
Richard Masterson, Jr., S. McMakin, James ISTapper, Tom 
Petty, Lewis Pilcher, Beverly Pilcher, Geo. W. Shivery, 
Green Spyers, John Shivel, James Schoolej, David Weigert, 
Hiram Worthen, Simon Waters. 

m'dowell's cavalry. 

Captain, James McDowell; First Lieutenant, Michael 
Fishel ; Second Lieutenant, J. G. Trotter. 

Privates.— W. W. Ater, Patterson Bain, W. P. Bryant, T. 
M. Bryant, George Bowman, John Dishman, John Gist, 
George Hooker, William Long, Joseph Lemmon, William 
Montgomery, James McConnell, William McConnell, F. 
McConnell, Samuel McDouell, Salem Piatt, Alexander 
Pogue, Henry Riddle, William Royal, Thomas Royal, Byrd. 
Smith, David Steel, William Tanner. 

Edmonson's company — allen's regiment. 
Captain, John Edmonson. 

Privates. — Richard Bledsoe, Walter Carr, Jr., R. P. Kin- 
ney, Robinson Prewitt, W. D. Parrish, Dudley Shipp. 

Hamilton's company. 

Captain, John Hamilton; Lieutenant, William Moore; 
Sergeants, Tobias Pennington, R. McCuUough ; Corporals, 
Ira Barbee, Thomas Parker, Thomas Hamilton. 

Privates. — Willis Calvert, Geo. Gorman, Nathan Chinn, 
Alfred Chinn, William Doyle, Luke Field, Michael Good- 
night, James Gregg, Samuel Hicks, Philip Jones, Hartwell 
Long, Wm. Musgrove, Andrew Meftbrd, Jonathan McLain, 
W. D. Patterson, Wm. Patterson, Thomas A. Russell, Jas. 
Sanderson, William Sanderson, George Sanderson, Ander- 
son Simpson, Andrew Simson, Nelson Tapp, Linton Tandy, 

1812.] VOLUNTEERS. 249 

Willis Tandy, Thomas Venard, Absalom Venard, John 

In addition to these participants in the war, the followino* 
persons also went from Lexington or Fayette, viz : Will- 
iam O. Butler, afterward general; Major Ben. Graves, on 
the staff of Colonel Lewis; James Overton, aid to General 
Winchester; Chas. Carr, paymaster of Dudley's regiment ; 
Charles S. Todd, then a young lawyer in Lexington, but 
subsequently minister to Russia; Thomas Bodley, deputy 
quartermaster-general, who died June 11, 1833, aged sixty- 
one; and Adjutant, afterward General, John M. McCalla, 
who was reported by his commander as "distinguished" in 
the actions of the 18th and 22d of January, 1813. General 
McCalla, now a venerable and highly esteemed citizen of 
Washington, D. C, is a native of Lexington, and a grad- 
uate of Transylvania University. He practiced law in this 
city for many years prior to his removal to his present 
residence, and was well known for his bold and skillful 
support of the Democratic party. He was a clear, astute, 
and efficient political debater, and is well remembered for 
his earnestness, energy, and integrity. General McCalla 
erected and lived in the house now owned by Mr. Benjamin 
Gratz, and situated on Mill street, opposite the college 

The Kentucky quota was rapidly organized for the field, 
and the Fifth regiment, commanded by Col. William Lewis, 
and composed of the companies of Capts. Hart, Hamilton, 
and Megowan, from Fayette ; Capts. Gray and Price, from 
Jessamine ; Capt. Williams, from Montgomery, and Capts. 
Martin and Brassfield, of Clark, in obedience to orders, 
assembled in Lc^ingtou on the 14th of August, to march 
to the general rendezvous at Georgetown, at which place 
it was to join the other regiments, and be put in motion 
with them for the frontier.* It was a soul-stirring occasion, 
and thousands of citizens assembled from all quarters to 
witness the novel sight of a band of citizen soldiers march- 
ing to the battle-field. Gray-haired veterans of the lievo- 

♦General J. M. McCulla. 


lution, and their matron companions, came to behold again 
what they often saw in former days; the youth of both 
sexes, the generation which had grown up since the storm 
of the Revolution had passed away, were eager to behold 
the unwonted spectacle, and all classes came to bid an 
agitated adieu to friends, to sons, to brothers, to lovers, to 
those whom they might never again behold. Many doubted 
whether the youth and effeminacy of some of the troops 
were not unequal to the fatigues of the campaign ; all 
felt for them the deepest interest, the keenest anxiety. 
As the regiment took* up the line of march from " the 
common " (Water street), where it was formed, and wheeled 
into Main street, at Postlcthwaite's corner, such a spectacle 
was there exhibited as Lexington had never seen before, 
and probably may never behold again. The moving mass 
of people filling the street; the windows, doors, and 
even roofs of houses crowded; weeping females waving 
their parting adieus from the windows; an occasional shout 
from the crowd below; the nodding plumes and inspiring 
music; the proud military step and glancing eye of the 
marching soldier as he caught the last view of the girl he 
left behind him, or looked his last farewell to his tender 
mother or affectionate sister — neither language nor paint- 
ing can portray the scene. 

The troops marched a few miles that evening and en- 
camped, and the next day reached Georgetown, where, 
with Scott's and Allen's regiments, they were formed into 
a brigade under General Payne. On the following Sunday 
they were reviewed by Governor Scott and Generals Payne 
and Winchester, accompanied by all the field officers. The 
field was covered with the friends and relatives of our brave 
soldiers who went to take their parting farewell. The 
spectators, it is supposed by some, amounted to twenty 
thousand persons.* 

After the review was finished, the army and spectators 
formed a compact body and listened to an eloquent address 
from Henry Clay, and an animated sermon from President 

*01d Gazotte. 


BIjthe, of Transylvania University. Mr. Clay adverted to 
the causes of the war, the orders in council, the previous 
aggressions on American commerce, the impressment of 
seamen, and the incitement of the savages to liostilities. 
He concluded with a stirring appeal to the troops to remem- 
ber that much was expected of them from abroad, that Ken- 
tucky was famed for her brave men, and that they had the 
double character of Americans and Kentuckians to support. 

A tew days after the review, the brigade was ordered to 
Cincinnati to receive arms, ammunition, and camp-equip- 
age. Hardships commenced at once, for heavy rains con- 
tinued from the time the troops left Georgetown until they 
reached Cincinnati. That was, however, but a trifle to the 
labors which were awaiting them, when, having crossed the 
Ohio under the gloom of Hull's surrender, and pressed for- 
ward to Saint Mary's, they were ordered to leave their 
heavy baggage, take six days' provision, and a supply of 
anmumition, and by forced marches, to push on to relieve 
Fort Wayne, then besieged by an allied Indian and British 
force. Here en route, we leave them for the present. 

On the 29th of September, General W. H. Harrison, who 
had been appointed commander-in-chief of the "Western 
army, left Lexington for the seat of war. 

Little was done by the American forces during the year 
1812, after Hull's surrender; but what was done, was 
largely participated in by the volunteers from Lexington. 
Li October,* Colonel William Russell, with four hundred 
men, marched rapidly up the Illinois river until he got 
within a mile of one of the Peoria towns. A brisk charge 
was made upon the town defended by about one hundred 
and fifty Indian warriors, who were put to flight, with the 
loss of twenty-five found dead, besides a number carried 
ofl'. The women and children fled to a swamp at the first 
approach of the men, and the warriors soon took shelter 
under the same cover. Colonel Kussell had only three men 
wounded. Four prisoners were taken, and about sixty 
horses prepared to remove the women and children, with 

^Observer !\nd Keporter. 


all their plunder, fell into his hands. The Indians of the 
neighboring towns had heard of General Hopkins crossing 
the Wabash, and seven hundred warriors marched to meet 
him, leaving one hundred and fifty in charge of the women 
and children, who were preparing to move off when Col- 
onel Russell arrived. He destroyed everything in the town 
which he could not bring away, and left it on the same 

Captain George Trotter's company (McDowell Cavalry) 
was in Campbell's expedition* against the Mississinawa 
towns at the head of the Wabash, and was in the heat of 
the action of the 18th of December, in which the Indians 
were defeated. Two members of the company, viz : Cor- 
poral Henry Riddle and Salem Piatt were killed, and Cap- 
tain Trotter, Sergeant Byrd Smith, and David Steel were 
wounded. When this company returned to Lexington after 
the expiration of its term of enlistment, it was given a 
public dinner. 

Recruiting for the regular army was kept up in Lexing- 
ton during the entire war. A rope-walk which was on the 
"Woodlands'" property, and which ran parallel with the 
Richmond turnpike, was converted into a barracks,! and 
used by the regular soldiers until the close of the struggle. 
At this place, a deserter was shot and buried. 

^Observer and Eeporter. tT. B. Megowan. 



BafOc of Frcnchtown — The Raisin Massacre — Fate of Lexing- 
ton Volunteers: Hart, Graves, Edmonson, and others — The 
Pall of Grief — " Kentucky Squaw " — New Companies — 
Incomplete Bolls — Dudley's Defeat — Thrilling Incidents — 
Battle of the Thames — Great Rejoicing — Close of the Cam- 
paign in the Northwest. 

The year 1813 constitutes a tragic era in the history of 
Lexington, that will long be reverted to with mournful 

In the former chapter, we left the Kentucky troops on 
their weary march toward the seat of war. After under- 
going every kind of hardship, they finally reached the 
rapids of the Maumee where, broken down and disheart- 
ened, they camped by the frozen river in snow two feet 
deep. But soon the call of the sufl'ering citizens of French- 
town (now Monroe), on the river Raisin, Michigan, roused 
the feelings of the troops into zeal and ardor, and a detach- 
ment of six hundred men, under Colonel Lewis, was sent to 
relieve them. Two marches brought the detachment in 
view of Raisin, and at last they were gratified with the 
object of their desire, the sight of an enemy in battle array. 
The skill of Colonel Lewis, and the bravery of the troops, 
brought to a successful termination the battle of the 18th 
January, 1813; and after contending with the enemy until 
the darkness of the night separated the combatants, the 
troo[is collected their wounded, and took up their position 
on the spot from which the enemy had been driven. 

On the evening of the 20th, General Winchester arrived 
with two hundred regulars, and assumed command, but 
took none of the precautions which military foresight 
would have dictated, and at daylight, on the morning of 


the 22d, while in an exposed position, the little army was 
suddenly attacked by two thousand British and Indians. 
The scenes that followed, we describe, in the language of 
an eye witness and participant:* " Upon the firing of the 
first gun, Major Graves immediately left his quarters, and 
ordered his men to stand to their arms. Very many bombs 
were discharged by the enemy, doing, however, very little 
execution, most of them bursting in the air, and the fight- 
ing became general along the line, tlie artillery of the enemy 
being directed mainly to the right of our lines, where 
Wells' command had no protection but a commo.i rail 
fence, four or five rails high. Several of the Americans on 
that part of the line were killed, and their fence knocked 
down by the cannon balls, when General Winchester or- 
dered the right to fall back a few steps, and reform on the 
bank of the river, where they would have been protected 
from the enemy's guns. Unfortunately, however, that part 
of the line commenced retreating, and reaching Hull's old 
trace along the lane, on either side of which the grass was 
80 high as to conceal the Indians. At this time, Colonel 
Lewis and Allen, with a view of rallying the retreating 
party, took one hundred men from the stockade, and en- 
deavored to arrest their flight. Very many were killed and 
wounded, and others made prisoners; among the former. 
Colonel Allen, Captains Simpson, Price, Edmonson, Mead, 
Dr. Irwin, Montgomery, Davis, Mcllvain, and Patrick ; a-id 
of the latter. General Winchester, Colonel Lewis, Major 
Overton, etc. The firing was still kept up by the enemy 
on those within the pickets, and returned with deadly eflect. 
The Indians, after the retreat of the right wing, got around 
in the rear of the picketing, under the bank, and on the 
same side of the river, where the battle was raging, and 
killed and wounded several of our men. 

"It is believed that the entire number of killed and 
wounded within the picketsdid notexceed one dozen, and the 
writer doubts very much whether, if the reinforcements hud 
not come, those who fought the first battle, although their 

*Kev. T. P. Dudley. 


number had been depleted by sixtj'-five, would not have held 
their ground, at least until reinforcements could have come 
to their relief. Indeed, it was very evident the British verv 
mucli feared a reinforcement, from their luirryiii removing 
the prisoners they had taken, from the south to the west of 
the battle ground, and in the direction of Fort Maiden, 
from which they sent a flag, accompanied by Dr. Overton, 
aid to General Winchester, demanding the surrender of the 
detachment, informing thom they had Generals Wincliester 
and Lewis, and in the event of refusal to surrender, would not 
restrain their Indians. Major Graves being wounded. Major 
Madison was now left in command, who, when the sum- 
mons to surrender came, repaired to the room in which 
Major Graves and several other wounded officers were, to 
consult with them as to the propriety of surrendering. It 
is proper here to state that our ammunition was nearly ex- 
hausted. It was finally determined to surrender, requiring 
of the enemy a solemn pledge for the security of the wounded. 
If this was not unhesitatingly given, they determined 
to fight it out. But 0, the scene which now took place ! 
The mortification at the thought of surrendering the Spur- 
tan band who had fought like heroes, the tears shed, the 
wringing of hands, the swelling of hearts — indeed, the 
scene beggars description. Life seemed valueless. Our 
Madison replied to the summons, in substance, 'We will 
not surrender without a guaranty for the safety of the 
wounded, and the return of side-arms to the officers.' (We 
did not intend to be dishonored.) The British officer 
haughtily responded: 'Do you, sir, claim the right to dic- 
tate what terms I am to otfer?' Major Madison replied: 
'No, but I intend to be understood as regards the only 
terms on which we will agree to surrender.' Captain Will- 
iam Elliott, who had charge of the Indians, it was agreed, 
should be left with some men, whom, it was said, would 
afiford ample protection until carryalls could be brought 
from Maiden to transport the prisoners there, but the sequel 
proved they were a faithless, cowardly set. The British 
were in quite a hurry, as were their Indian allies, to leave 
after the surrender. Pretty soon Captain Elliott came into 


the room where Major Graves, Captain Hickman, Captain 
Hart, and the writer of this (all wounded) were quartered. 
He recognized Captain Hart, with whom he had been a 
room-mate, at Hart's father's, in Lexington, Kentucky. 
Hart introduced him to the other officers, and, after a short 
conversation, in which he (Elliott) seemed quite restless 
and a good deal agitated, (he, I apprehend, could have 
readily told why,) as he could not have forgotten the humil- 
iation he had contracted in deceiving Hart's family pecu- 
niarily. He proposed borrowing a horse, saddle, and bridle, 
for the purpose of going immediately to Maiden, and hur- 
rj'ing on sleighs to remove the wounded. Thence assuring 
Captain Hart especially of the hospitality of his house, and 
begging us not to feel uneasy ; that we were in no danger; 
that he would leave three interpreters, who would be an 
ample protection to us, he obtained Major Graves' horse, 
saddle, and bridle, and left, which was the last we saw of 
Captain Elliott. We shall presently see how Elliott's 
pledges were fulfilled. On the next morning, the morning 
of the massacre, between daybreak and sunrise, the Indians 
were seen approaching the houses sheltering the wounded. 
The house in which Major Graves, Captains Hart and Hick- 
man and the writer were, had been occupied as a tavern. 
The Indians went into the cellar and rolled out many bar- 
rels, forced in their heads, and began drinking and yelling. 
Pretty soon they came crowding into the room where we 
were, and in which there was a bureau, two beds, a chair 
or two and perhaps a small table. They forced the drawers 
of the bureau, which were filled with towels, table cloths, 
sliirts, pillow-slips, etc. About this time Major Graves and 
Captain Hart left the room. The Indians took the bed- 
clothing, ripped open the bed-tick, threw out the feathers, 
and apportioned the ticks to themselves. They took the 
overcoat, close-bodied coat, hat, and shoes from the writer. 
When they turned to leave the room, just as he turned, the 
Indians tomahawked Captain Hickman in less than six feet 
from me. I went out on to a porch, next the street, when 
I heard voices in a room at a short distance; went into the 
room where Captain Hart was engaged in conversation 


with the interpreter. He asked: 'What do the Indians 
intend to do with us?' The reply was : 'They intend to 
kill you.' Hart rejoined : 'Ask liberty of them for me to 
make a speech to them before they kill us.' The inter- 
preters replied: 'They can't understand.' 'Bat,' said 
Hart, 'you can interpret for me.' The interpreters replied: 
'If we undertook to interpret for you, they will as soon 
kill us as you.' It was said, and I suppose truly, that Cap- 
tain Hart subsequently contracted with an Indian warrior 
to take him to Amherstburg, giving him six hundred dol- 
lars. The brave placed him on a horse and started. After 
going a short distance, they met another company of In- 
dians, when the one having charge of Hart spoke of his 
receiving the six hundred dollars to take Hart to Maiden. 
The other Indians insisted on sharing the money, which 
was refused, when some altercation took place, result- 
ing in the shooting of Hart oif the horse by the Indian 
who received the money. A few minutes after leaving the 
room where I had met Hart and the interpreters, and while 
standing in the snow eighteen inches deep, the Indians 
brought Captain Hickman out on the porch, stripped of 
clothing, except a flannel shirt, and tossed him out on the 
snow within a few feet of him, after which he breathed 
once or twice and expired. While still standing in the 
yard, without coat, hat, or shoes, Major Graves approached 
me in charge of an Indian, and asked if I had been taken. 
I answered, no. He proposed that I should go along with 
the Indian who had takeu him. I replied: 'No; if you 
are safe, I am satisfled.' He passed on, and I never saw 
him afterward." 

The author of the above narrative was finally ransomed 
by a generous British officer, who gave his Indian captor 
an old pack-horse and a keg of whisky to release him. 

Another witness* of the cowardly massacre at Raisin 
gives the following experience, which particularly concerns 
the volunteers directly from Lexington, He says: 

"On the morning of the 23d, shortly after light, six or 

*G. M. Huwer, American ^State Papers — 12, 


eight Indians came to the house of Jean Baptiste Jereaiuue, 
where I was in company with Major Graves, Captains Hart 
and Hickman, Dr. Todd, and fifteen or twenty vohinteers. 
They did not molest anything, or person, on their first ap- 
proach, but kept sauntering about until there was a large 
number collected, at which time they commenced plundering 
the houses of the inhabitants, and killing the wounded 
prisoners. The Indian who claimed me as his property, 
commanded me to hold his horse, which was about twenty 
paces from the house. Shortly after going to the house, I 
saw them knock down Captain Hickman at the door, to- 
gether with several others. Supposing a general massacre 
had commenced, I made an etibrt to get to a house about 
a hundred yards distant, which contained a number of 
wounded; but on my reaching the house, to my great mor- 
tification, found it surrounded by Indians, which precluded 
the possibility of my giving notice to the unfortunate vic- 
tims of savage barbarit3^ An Indian chief, of the Tavva 
tribe, of the name of McCarty, gave me possession of his 
horse and blanket, telling me, by signs, to lead the horse to 
the house which I had just before left. The Indian that 
first took me by this time came up and manifested a hos- 
tile disposition toward me, by raising his tomahawk as if to 
give me the fatal blow, which was prevented by my very 
good friend McCarty. On my reaching the house which I 
had first started from, I saw the Indians take ott" several 
prisoners, which I afterward saw in the road, in a most man- 
gled condition, and entirely stripped of their clothing. 

"Messrs. Charles Bradford, Charles Searls, Turner, and 
Ebenezer Blythe, of Hart's company, were collected around 
a carryall, which contained articles taken by the Indians 
from the citizens. We had all been placed there by our re- 
spective captors, except Blythe, who came where we were 
entreating an Indian to convey him to Maiden, promising 
to give him forty or fifty dollars, and whilst in the act of 
pleading for mercy, an Indian, more savage than the other, 
stepped up behind, tomahawked, stripped, and scalped him. 
The next that attracted my attention was the houses on tire 
that contained several wounded, whom I knew were not able 


to get out. After the houses were nearly consumed, we re- 
ceived marching orders, and, after arriving at Sandy creek, 
the Indians called a halt, and commenced cooking. After 
preparing and eating a little sweetened gruel, Messrs. Brad- 
ford, Searls, Turner, and myself received some, and were 
eating, when an Indian came up, and proposed exchanging 
his moccasins for Mr. Searls' shoes, which he readily com- 
plied with. They then exchanged hats, after which the 
Indian inquired how many men Harrison had with him, 
and, at the same time, calling Searls a Washington or Mad- 
ison, then raised his tomahawk and struck him on the 
shoulder, which cut into the cavity of the body. Searls 
then caught hold of the tomahawk, and appeared to resist, 
and upon my telling him his fate was inevitable, he closed 
his eyes and received the savage blow, which terminated 
his existence. I was near enough to him to receive the 
brains and blood, after the fatal blow, on my blanket. A 
short time after the death of Searls, I saw three others share 
a similar fate. We then set out for Brownstown, which 
place we reached about twelve or one o'clock at night. 
After being exposed to several hours incessant rain in reach- 
ing that place, we were put into the council-house, the floor 
of which was partly covered with water, at which place 
we remained until next morning, when we again received 
marching orders for their village on the river Rouge, which 
place we made that day, where I was kept six days, then 
taken to Detroit and sold." 

The grief in Lexington and Fayette county, occasioned 
by the Frenchtown defeat, and the cold-blooded massacre 
after it, was as intense as it was widely spread. The em- 
blems of sorrow and affliction were soon seen on every hand. 
The churches and newspapers were clothed in mourning, 
and, amid the tolling of bells, the relatives and friends of 
the murdered soldiers walked sadly in a funeral procession 
to church, when the sorrow of a whole community wns 
poured out, and praters were ottered for strength to bear 
the great affliction. 

Captain John Edmonson, who fell in the battle of French- 


town, was a native of Washington county, Virginia,* but 
had settled early in Fayette county, Kentucky, where he 
had resided for many years before his death. His company 
of riflemen was connected with Colonel Allen's regiment. 
Edmonson county, Kentucky, was named in his honor. 

Major Benjamin Graves, one of the victims of the "mas- 
sacre," after the battle of Frenchtown, was also a Virginian, 
but had emigrated to Fayette county, Kentucky, when quite 
young.f He was an amiable, shrewd, and intelligent man, 
and represented the county several years in the legislature. 
He was one of the first to volunteer in 1812, and was ap- 
pointed major in Colonel Lewis' regiment, and proved 
himself a cool, vigilant, and gallant officer. Graves county, 
Kentucky, bears his name. 

Captain IS'athaniel G. T. Hart, whose tragic fate we have 
recorded, and in whose honor Hart county, Kentucky, was 
named, was born in Hagerstown, Maryland, but was brought 
to Lexington, Kentucky, when a little child.| He studied 
law, and practiced in Lexington, but abandoned the pro- 
fession for mercantile pursuits. In 1812, at the age of 
twenty-seven, he was commanding the celebrated "Lexing- 
ton Light Infantry" company, and he and the company en- 
listed as soon as war was declared. Henry Clay and James 
Brown both married sisters of Captain Hart. 

An amusing incident, II toogood to be lost, occurred during 
this tragic period. An adventurous and exceedingly useful 
female, born in Fayette, went out with one of the Lexington 
companies in the capacity of a washerwoman, shared the 
captivity at Raisin, and marched with the prisoners to 
Maiden, which was crowded with Indians, among whom 
were a number of squaws. The appearance of the washer- 
woman at once caught their attention, especially as she bore 
on her back a large blanket, well filled with her baggage. 
One of the squaws came up to her, and demanded the 
bundle, which she very promptly refused to give up, but the 
squaw seized it, and a struggle for its possession at once 
drew a crowd of warriors around them, who formed a circle 

*Collins. tid. Jld. ||Geii. J. A. McCalla. 

1813.] NEW COMPANIES. 261 

to see fair j.lay, and enjoy the sport. The pulling operation 
not being siilKcient, the female soldier determined to show 
her Kentucky play, and attacked her with her fists, and, 
pulled her hair with vigor, until at last her antagonist gave 
up the attempt, and left her in possession of her bundle. 
With laughter and huzzas for the "Kentucky squaw,"' 
tlie warriors declared she should not be disturbed as:ain, 
and she marched ofl' in triumph to join her fellow jirisoners. 
The "Kentucky squaw" remained at Maiden about six 
months, making money by her skill and industry, and then 
inarched back to Lexington in regular infantry style, on 
foot, and lived for many years to enjoy the fame of her 
brilliant victory over her rash and badly taken-in foe. 

The following names, in addition to those alreadj^ given, 
of soldiers killed and wounded, have fortunately been pre- 
served. They belonged to Captain Hart's company. 
Killed— Alex. Crawfo^-d, Wm. Davis, Sam'l Elder, Thos. 
King, "Wm. Lewis, Peter Mesner, Jas. Riley, Stephen 
Smith, Geo. Shindlebower, B. Stephens, Armstrong Stew- 
art, Thos. Fant. Wounded— Chas. Bradford, Thos. Cham- 
berlain, John Beckly, Edward Elder, James liiggins, S. 
B. Todd. 

The butchery at Raisin excited a storm of the intensest 
indignation and excitement throughout Kentucky, which 
was the greatest sufferer by it. There was a general rush 
to avenge the slaughter of the gallant men who had fallen, 
and the tender of troops was largely in excess of the de- 
mand. Lexington resounded with the notes of the bugle 
and the beating of drums. Five companies of volunteers 
were rapidly organized in the city and count}'-, and camp- 
fires blazed on every hand. The companies formed were 
commanded by Captains Archie Morrison, John C. Mor- 
rison, David Todd, Stewart W. Megowan, and M. Flour- 
noy, and belonged to the regiment of Colonels Dudley and 
Boswell. The following is a fragment of the roll of Cap- 
tain Archie Morrison's company, viz: Thomas Christian, 
A. F. Eastin, George Eave, Elijah Smith, Larkin Webster, 
John Webster, and Thomas Webster. 

We also append an incomplete list of unclassified soldiers, 


who served in the war, but .in what years and in whose 
companies is not known. The list embraces: 

Ashton Garrett, Thos. H. Barlow, Allen Baker, Thos. 
Barr, Robert Burns, Daniel Brink, Enoch Bryan, Landen 
Carter, Wm. Clark, Horace Coleman, William Chinn, 
Lewis Castleman, W. R. Combs, Enoch Ducker, J. R. 
Dunlap, A. S. Drake, John Darnaby, Joseph Edger, Peter 
Euleman, Asa Farra, John Figg, John Figg, Jr., John 
Graves, Thos. C. Graves, J. G. Goodin, John Gess, William 
Gray, Abram Hicks, Jabez Jones, John Keiser, Jeremiah 
Kirtley, Adam Lake, William Lewis, Jacob Markley, 
Robert Masterson, James Masterson, Peter Metcalf, James 
Megowau, C. C. Moore, C. S. Moore, S. Moore, T. R. 
Moore, Thos. Mcllvaine, Charles Postlethwaite, Hugh 
Paine, Francis Ratclitfe, Fielding Roach, James Sheely, 
Samuel Smith, George Simpson, George Stipp, John Stere, 
John Todd, Jacob Varble, Abram Ware, Joshua Webb, 
Benjamin Wood, George Wheeler, George Yeiser, George 

The Kentucky volunteers were hurried to the relief of 
Harrison, and succeeded in cutting their way through the 
British and Indians to Fort Meigs. But the soldiers of 
Lexington and Fayette seemed ever destined to reach vic- 
tory only after repeated baptisms of blood. Another dis- 
aster awaited them. 

On the 5th of May, General Harrison sent Captain 
Hamilton with an order to Colonel Dudley to land eight 
hundred men on the northern shore of the Maumee, oppo- 
site Fort Meigs, destroy the British batteries there, and 
then immediately return. 

Dudley succeeded perfectly in capturing the batteries, 
but instead of instantl}' returning to his boats, suifered his 
men to waste their time, and skirmished with the Indians 
until Proctor was enabled to cut them oft" from their only 
chance of retreat. They were surrounded, taken by sur- 
prise, defeated, and then came another repetition ot the 
Raisin massacre, in which Colonel Dudley, as already re- 
lated in a former chapter, was barbarously mangled and 
murdered, and only one hundred and fifty of his men es- 

1813] DUDLEY'S DEFEAT. 263 

caped captivity or death. We insert for preservatiou tlie 
following comprehensive account of the disaster by one 
who was engaged in it:* 

"When Colonel Dudley attacked the batteries of the 
onemy, opposite Fort Meigs, on the 5th of May, 1813, he 
advanced ia three columns. The right, led by himself, 
carried them without the loss of a man. The middle was 
the reserve. The left, headed by Major Shelby, formed at 
right angles oa the river, to protect from below. This ar- 
rangement was scarcely made before the spies under my 
command (about thirty in number, including seven friendly 
Indians), who flanked at some hundred yards distance in 
the woods, were attacked b}' part of the Indian force of 
the enemy. Unacquainted with the views of Colonel Dud- 
ley', they knew not but that it was their duty to fight. 
For near fifteen minutes, with the loss of several killed 
and wounded, they maintained an unequal conflict. In this 
time. Colonel Dudley having effected his object, and fear- 
ing their fate, had advanced to their relief with the right 
column. The enemy retreated. Our troops, impelled 
more by incautious valor and a desire for military distin- 
guishment than prudence, pursued. He then stood firm for 
a short time on his light, and gave way on his left, which 
threw our lines with its back toward the river, so that 
every step we i. Ivanced carried us farther from under the 
protection of our fort. Whenever we halted, so did the 
Indians, and renewed their fire— we charged on them. 
They again retreated. In this way, with the loss of from 
thirty to fifty killed on our side, and a number wounded, 
was the battle fought for upward of three hours. How 
much the enemy suffered during this time, 'twas impossible 
to ascertain from the circumstance of their bearing off' 
their dead. Soon after the commencement of the engage- 
ment, we were forced to bring our whole force into action. 
The enemy was, during this time, receiving large reinforce- 
ments from the other side of the river, which enabled him 
now nearly to surround us. Our troops were generally 

*Cftpt. Leslie Conib3' lieport to Gen. Green Clay. 


mucti exhausted, owing to the swampiness of the ground 
over which they had fought, and many of them with their 
guns wet, or without ammunition. In this situation, the 
enemy in much force, fresh to the battle, pressed with a 
most destructive cross-tire on our left. It gave way. Con- 
scious of his advantage, with a desperate eflbrt he advanced 
on the remainder. These, disheartened and confused, were 
ordered to retreat to the batteries. Unfortunately, this 
retreat soon turned to flight, which all the efforts of the 
officers could neither prevent nor stop. 

"The best disciplined troops in the world are sometimes 
panic struck — then can it be surprising that militia, under 
these circumstances, and who had seen scarce thiiiy days 
service, should become so? In small parties, by tens and 
by twenties, they arrived at the batteries, thereby falling an 
easy prey to the regular force of the enemy, who, early in 
the action, had retaken them from the right column. Thus, 
upward of eight hundred men, who had set out with the 
most flattering prospect of success, led on by imprudence, 
were overwhelmed by numbers, cut up, and defeated. 
About one hundred and seventy only having made good 
their retreat before the close of the battle, escaped across 
the river in our boats. 

" Immediately after the surrender, we were marched ofi:' 
toward Fort Maumee, one and a half miles below, near the 
British encampment. We had gone but a short distance 
before we met the head of the left line of Indians who had 
been inclosing us. Having surrendered to Englishmen en- 
tirely,! expected we should be treated with that tenderness 
and humanity indicative of a noble mind, and always due 
the ujifortanate. What was, then, my astonishment when, so 
soon as we met the Indians, they began, in face of the En- 
glish guard, of General Proctor, Colonel Elliot, and other oncers 
who were riding up theline, to rob us of our clothing, money, 
watches, etc. Almost all lost in this way their hats and 
coats, some even their shirts, and some their pantaloons 
also. He who did not instantaneously give up his clothes, 
frequently paid his life for it. No difference was made be- 
tween well and wounded in this as well as what followed. 

1813.] DVDLEY'S DEFEAT. 265 

It would be almost impossible to relate all the acts of indi- 
vidual outrage that took place. I shall never forget the 
demoniac look of the villain who stripped me, nor shall I 
soon forget those who encouraged, since, notwithstanding 
my request, they did not hinder him from doing it. I 
showed him my wound. 'Twas vain; before I could un- 
fasten the bandage, regardless of my pain, he tore my coat 
off" from my shoulders. I had gone but little farther before 
I saw ten or twelve men, lying dead, stripped naked, and 
scalped. Near them were two lines of Indians formed 
from the entrance of a triangular ditch in front to the old 
gate of Fort Maumee, a distance, I think, of forty or fifty 
feet. The idea immediately struck me that all the pris- 
oners ahead of me had been massacred. I determined, if 
such was the case, to go no further. Upon inquiring, a 
soldier told me they were in the fort, and showed me the 
way, which was between those two lines of Indians. Dur- 
ing this moment's delay, a man who was walking behind, 
stepped before me; just as we entered the defile, an Indian 
put a pistol to his back, and fired — he fell. I ran through 
without being touched. My feelings were somewhat re- 
lieved at finding about two-thirds of the prisoners already 
within. How many were killed afterward I am unable to 
say. We heard frequent guns at the place during the 
whole time the remaining prisoners were coming in. Some, 
although not killed, were wounded severely with war clubs, 
tomahawks, etc. The number who fell after the surrender 
was supposed by all to be nearly equal to the lulled in battle. 
We now hoped, however, that we were secure from further 
insult or injury — but no sooner had all the prisoners got in 
than the whole body of Indians, regardless of the opposi- 
tion of our little guard, rushed into the fort. There seemed 
to be almost twice our number. Their blood-thir:?ty souls 
were not yet satiated with carnage. One Indian alone shot 
three, tomahawked a fourth, and stripped and scalped them 
in our presence. It seems to me, even to this day, when- 
ever I think of this circumstance, that I again see the 
struggles of the dj'ing prisoner and hear him cry, in vain, 
for mercy. The whole then raised the war-whoop and com- 


menced loading their guns. What were our feelings at 
this moment, he, who has never realized, can not imagine. 
A description is impossible. "Without any means of de- 
fense or possibility of escape, death in all the horror of 
savage cruelty, seemed to stare us in the face. Rendered 
desperate by this idea, and the perfect disregard which the 
British evinced for that duty, held sacred by all civilized 
nations (the protection of prisoners), much did we wish for 
our arras, and had we then had them, they would have 
been surrendered but with our lives. Or, had this been 
carried much farther, the prisoners would, at any risk, have 
sold their lives as dearly as possible. Tecumseh, however, 
more humane than his ally and employer, generously inter- 
fered and prevented farther massacre. Colonel Elliot then 
rode slowly in, spoke to the Indians, waved his sword, and 
all but a few retired immediately. After a short consulta- 
tion with those who remained, they came and took from 
among us a number of young men, of whom the British 
said they wanted to make sons, but we feared they took 
them as hostages for the lives of those Indians who were 
wounded. Just at dusk, boats came up and carried us to 
the fleet, eight miles below. Notwithstanding the naked 
condition of the prisoners, and the disagreeableness of the 
weather (which was rainy and excessively cold for the sea- 
son), many of them were obliged to remain all night in the 
open boats in ankle-deep mud and water. The wounded 
were put into the holds of the different vessels, where their 
only bed (and a good many had not even this), was the wet 
sand thrown in for ballast, without blankets or any other 
kind of covering. Provision was issued to them the next 
day about twelve. Their treatment afterward was nearly 
as good, I am induced to believe, as the British could aftbrd, 
being themselves scant of provisions. I feel myself partic- 
ularly indebted to some of the otiicers for their politeness 
and attention. 

"I can not conclude without testifying to the bravery and 
carelessness of danger displayed by the troops throughout 
the engagement. The only contest seemed to be, while 
any hope of victory remained, who should first oust the 


enemy from his hiding places. And I am convinced, wlieii 
the retreat commenced, by far the greater part had no idea 
of surrender, but exliausted, confused, and overcome, were 
forced to it on their arrival at the batteries." 

But an end came to defeats and massacres at last. On 
the lOtii of September occurred the splendid and decisive 
victory of Perry over the British fleet, on Lake Erie. A 
thrill of joy went through Kentucky ; Lexington in particu- 
lar was given up to rejoicing. The city was illuminated, 
bonfires were lighted, and all the bells rung out their mer- 
riest peals. The Federalists of that day were most cordially 
detested by a vast majority of Kentuckians, and a chroni- 
cler^-^ does not fail to state that, " while the joy bells of 
Lexington were ringing for Perry's victory, the bells of 
Massachusetts were tolling in disappointment at the defeat 
of the British.'' 

Perry's success was the death knell of British power in the 
Northwest, where hostilities ceased entirely after the battle 
of the Thames. This glorious and eminently decisive vic- 
tory occurred on the 5th of October, and in it the volun- 
teers from Lexington and Fayette played a most gallant 
and distinguished part, and sustained heavy losses. The 
Forty-second regiment commanded by a Lexingtonian, Col- 
onel George Trotter, who served in this campaign as a brig- 
adier-general, was presented with a drumf taken at the battle 
of the Thames. The drum was ornamented with the Brit- 
ish coat of arms, and the inscription, "41st Reg." Before 
being presented, the following was added to the inscription : 
" Presented by General Harrison and Governor Shelby to 
Colonel George Trotter, for the Forty-second regiment, 
Kentucky militia, as a testimony of its patriotism and good 
conduct, and for having furnished more volunteers than 
any other regiment." 

The success of General Harrison on the Thames gave 
Lexington another occasion for rejoicing. The news was 
announced to the citizens by the mail carrier, who galloped 
into town with " victory," in big letters, exhibited on the 

"■Observer and Eeporter. tMcCabe. 


front of his hat, and thereupon all the schools were dis- 
missed, business was suspended, and there was a grand 
procession, speeches, and general rejoicing. The term of 
service of the volunteers expired about this time, and their 
return was the signal for balls, parties, and displays, in 
their honor. 

With the battle of the Thames, which closed the war in 
the Northwest, Lexington and Fayette had no farther direct 
share in the struggle, which became mainly confined to the 
eastern and southern borders of the country. It was time 
that Kentucky was allowed a little rest, for she may be said 
to have almost fought through the two first years of the 
war by herself. Virginia gave the Northwest to the nation, 
and her daughter, Kentucky, saved it from conquest by 
savage and foreign foes at the cost of her noblest blood. 



Spotted Fever — The Hero of Fort Stephenson — Joy over Jack- 
son's Victory — Drafted Men — Amos Kendall commences Life 
in Lexington — Agricultural Societies — The Kentucky and 
Mechanical Association, Officers — W. B. Kinkead — Present 
Society — William Preston — Leading Agriculturists. 

Lexington was visited with spotted fever during the 
mouth of March, 1814, and to such an extent did it rage 
that from eight to a dozen persons died daily.* 

On the 4th of September of this year, Major George 
Croghan, whose heroic defense of Fort Stephenson, in 
August, 1813, forms one of the most brilliant chapters in 
American history, was given a complimentary party in 
Lexington, and was honored by the citizens as he deserved. 
Congress, with her usual tardy justice, voted him a gold 
medal twenty-two years after his wonderful repulse of the 
British and Indians. 

The patriotic citizens of Lexington indulged in an illu- 
mination on the night of October 1st, in their joy at the 
news just received of Jackson's victory over the British at 
Mobile.f The " barracks" were resplendent with candles, 
which were placed on the tops of the buildings, and other 
lights were placed in the boughs and on the tops of the 
trees surrounding the "barracks," making a most romantic 
eft'ect. Hows of candles lined the windows of the houses 
in the town, and a procession, with a thousand candles, 
and headed by a drum and fife, paraded the streets. The 
battle had taken place on the 15th of September, and it was 
two weeks before Lexington got the news. In 1814, the tran- 
sit of the ordinary mail from Washington to Lexington oc- 
cupied twelve or thirteen days. 

^Kendall's Joiirniil. tid. 


Two companies of dratted men, under Captains James 
Dudley and A. S. Drake, were raised in the fall of this 
year, but peace was declared before they reached the seat 
of war. The whole number of companies raised in Lex- 
ington and Fayette, for the common defense, during the 
war of 1812, was thirteen. This fact is, of itself, the high- 
est tribute that can be paid to their gallant patriotism. 

Amos Kendall, who afterward became postmaster-gen- 
eral of the United States, and the devoted friend and right- 
hand man of that just and unflinching old hero, General 
Jackson, may be said to have commenced life in Lexington, 
where he arrived, a young man, in the spring of 1814.* 
He came poor and unknown, and at the instance of Judge 
Bledsoe, whom he had met in "Washington City when that 
powerful orator was a member of the United States Senate. 
Mr. Kendall walked from Maysville to Lexington. He 
started as a teacher in the family of Mr. Clay, who was 
then working at the peace negotiations at Ghent. At the 
same time, he studied law, and subsequently took the pre- 
scribed oath, and was qualified as an attorney in our pres- 
ent old court-house. Mr. Kendall died November 12, 1869, 
in "Washington City, at the age of eighty, after attaining 
a position before the nation befitting the high order of his 
mind and talents. The teacher of the children of the great 
and eloquent leader of the Whig party became one of the 
most renowned Democrats of the old regime. The poor 
tutor in Mr. Clay's family became one of the most honored 
and respected members of the cabinet of his most formid- 
able antagonist, "Old Hickory." "Who will say that truth 
is not romantic? Mr. Kendall was a native of Dunstable, 

The unsurpassed natural advantages of the now famous 
"Blue Grass Region" for stock raising were quickly appre- 
ciated by its settlers, who, at a very early day, turned their 
attention to the raising and improvement of live stock of 
various kinds. Horse and cattle "shows" were regularly 
held at Lexington, even before the commencement of the 

*K(indari's Biogn\pliy. 


present century. But it was not until 1814 that the city 
could claim to have a regular society for tlie improvement 
of live stock and the promotion of kindred interests. In 
the year named, the " Kentucky Agricultural Society "* 
was organized in Lexington, and for many years held 
annual exhibitions at " Fowler's Garden," on the Maj'sville 
turnpike, the same property in which " Scott's Pond " is 
now included, and which was then the favorite place of 
public resort. The following programme of the societyf 
will convey an idea of the character of primitive Lexing- 
ton fairs : 

"Notice. — A meeting of the members of the Kentucky 
Society for promoting Agriculture will take place at 
Fowler's Garden, adjoining Lexington, on the last Thurs- 
day in next September, and continue for three days, at 
which time and place the society will award twenty-three 
silver cups — one to each of the articles named below. 
Members are requested to be punctual in their attendance. 
*' To the best gelding, a silver cup. 
" " suckling colt, a silver cup. 

imported or country raised bull, a silver cup. 
" " " cow, a silver cup. 

stall-fed bullock, silver cup. 
country bred bull, silver cup. 

" " between three and four 

years old, silver cup. 
*' " country bred bull, between two and three 

years old, silver cup. 
" " country bred bull, between one and two 

years old, silver cup. 
" " bull calf, not exceeding twelve months old, 

silver cup. 
*' " country bred cow, silver cup. 
*' " heifer, between three and lour years old, 
silver cup. 

^Kentucky Gazette. tid. 












"To the best heifer, between two and three years old, 
silver cup. 
*' " heifer, between one and two years old, 

silver cup. 
** " heifer, not exceeding twelve months old, 

silver cup. 
" " carpeting manufactured in private families, 

silver cup. 
^ " hemp or flax linen manufactured in private 

families, silver cup. 
" " table linen manufactured in private families, 

silver cup. 
" " cloth manufactured in private families, 

silver cup. 
^ " cassinett or jeans manufactured in private 

families, silver cup. 
^ " whisky, not less than one hundred gallons, 

of this year's make, silver cup. 
*^ " cheese of the present year's make, silver 

^ " wheat, quality, quantity, and excellence of 
crop will be considered, silver cup. 
"It is confidently believed that much fine stock will be 
exhibited, and much bought and sold within the three days 
of the fair ; therefore, those who either wish to sell or pur- 
chase will do well to attend. H. Taylor, 

Jas. Shelby, 


RoBT. Crockett, 
E. Warfield. 

" Committee.*^ 

In 1832, a fair was organized by the Kentucky Racing 
Association,* and in September, 1833, the first of a series 
of annual exhibitions on the Association Course was given 
under the management of a committee, consisting of Ben- 
jamin Warfield, James Shelby, Thomas Smith, John Brand, 

♦Association Record. 

1814.1 AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 273 

and Walter Dunn, Referring to this fair, a Lexington 
newspaper says : 

"On this occasion will be assembled for exhibition, com- 
petition, or sale, specimens of the most approved and cele- 
brated breeds of English cattle, and we learn that breeders 
and others will be thus enabled, by actual comparison, to 
judge of the relative qualities of the cattle imported by 
Sanders, Smith, and Tegarden, in 1817, and the short-horns 
imported by Colonel Powell, of Philadelphia. Garcia, Lu- 
cilla, and Pontiac, of the Powell stock, will be exhibited 
for premiums, and some calves by Pontiac and Sultan, of 
the Powell stock." 

We append the list of awards for the 12th and 13th of 
September, 1834, viz : 


To" President, a bull, by Cornplanter, he by imported Te- 
cumseh, and out of Lady Monday, and she by San Martin, 
and out of Mrs. Motte (imported), is awarded the first pre- 
mium. The property of J. C. Talbott. 

To Melville, a bull, by Ilaggiu's full-blooded Teeswater 
bull, his dam by San Martin, is awarded the second pre- 
mium. The property of E. Warfield. 

To Pioneer, a two-year old bull, by Exchange, his dam 
Beauty, is awarded the first premium. Bred by B. War- 
field. The property of J. Scott. 

To Slider, by Duroc, dam Lady Monday, is awarded the 
second premium. Bred by and the property of James 

To Clay, one-year old bull, by Accommodation, dam 
Beauty, is awarded the first premium. Bred by and the 
property of B. Warfield. 

To Mordecai, by Sultan, dam , second premium. 

Bred by and the property of Lewis Sanders. 

To bull calf Accident, by Pioneer, dam Helen Eyre, is 
awarded the first premium. Bred by B. Warfield. The 
property of James N. Brown. 

To bull calf , by Oliver, dam a Patton cow by Ma. 


rauder, second premium. Bred by H. Clay. The property 
of L. P. Yandell. 

To Lady Caroline, a cow of the Holderness breed, im- 
ported, is awarded the first premium. The property of 
Walter Dun. 

To Lucilla, got by Memnon, imported, dam Virginia (be- 
gotten in England), by General, second premium. The 
property of George I^. Sanders. 

To Cleopatra, a two-year old cow, by Accommodation, 
dam Nancy Dawson, is awarded the first premium. Bred 
by and the property of S. Smith. 

To Silvia, by Contention, dam young Pink, second pre- 
mium. Bred by and the property of Dan. Boyce. 

To Helen Eyre, a one-year old heifer, by Accommoda- 
tion, dam Pink, is awarded the first premium. Bred by B. 
Warfield. The property of James N. Brown. 

To Pocahontas, by Exchange, dam Nancy Dawson, sec- 
ond premium. Bred by and the property of S. Smith. 

To Anna Eisk, a cow calf, by Oliver, dam Beauty, is 
awarded the first premium. Bred by and the property of 
B. Warfield. 

To Mary Tilford, by Symmetry, dam Holderness cow, 
second premium. Bred by and the property of Walter Dunn. 

To Mr. Boyce is awarded the premium for oxen. 

To James N. Brown is awarded the first premium for fat 

To John King, the second. 

We, the subscribers, ajtpointed judges to award prizes to 
cattle, on the 12th of September, 1834, have adjudged the 
preceding. H. Clay, 

James Rennick, 
Jacob Hughes, 
Isaac Yanmeter, 
Will. P. Hume. 

September 12, 1834. 

1814.] AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 275 


Aicard on Horses. 

To Lance, a stallion, the property of E. Blackburn, is 
awarded the first premium. 

To "Woodpecker, a stallion, the property of R. B. Tarlton, 
is awarded the second premium. 

To Sir Walter, a two-year old stallion, the property of 
A. Stanhope, is awarded the first premium. 

To Red Rover, a two-year old stallion, the property of 
E. W. Hockaday, is awarded the second premium. 

To Henry Dunca»n's yearling stud colt is awarded the first 

To Jas. Erwin's yearling stud colt is awarded the second 

To Jas. Erwin's sorrel sucking colt is awarded the first 

To Chas. Carr's young collier colt is awarded the second 

To Susan Hicks, a mare, the property of E. "Warfield, is 
awarded the first premium. 

To Letitia, a mare, the property of Jas. Erwin, is awarded 
the second premium. 

To Jas. Erwin's filly, out of Letitia, the first premium. 

To G. N. Sanders' filly, , the second premium. 

To Wm. II. Eaues' gelding, , the first premium. 

To Jos. L. Downing's gelding, , the second pre- 

To Jas. Erwin's carriage horses is awarded the first pre- 

To Jos. L. Downing's young carriage horses is awarded 
the second premium. 

We, the judges on horses, unanimously agreed to the 
above award. C. Carr, 

G. D. Hunt, 
John W. Moore, 
J. S. Berryman, 
John Hudson. 


Awards on Jacks, etc. 

Best jack — "Warrior, exhibited by P. B. Hockaday, first 

Hector, exhibited by Robt. C. Boggs, second premium. 

Best jenny — Miss Palafox, exhibited by A. McClure, first 

Calypso, exhibited by Henry Clay, second premium. 

For best pair of mules — Brown mules exhibited by Isaac 
Shelby, first premium. 

For best two-year old mules — A. Brown, exhibited by 
Isaac Shelby, premium. 

For best year old mule — Awarded to Thos. H. Shelby's 
brown mare mule. 

For best sucking mule — Awarded to Isaac Shelby. 

We the undersigned, appointed a committee to award 
the premiums on the above stock unanimously agree in 
awarding the above. David McMurtry, 

Lewis Dedman, 
James Shelby. 

James Shelby agrees to the above, with the exception of 
the mule colts, upon which he declines acting. 

On Sheep and Swine. 

To Henry Clay's Saxon ram is awarded the first premium. 

To Bird Smith's boar is awarded the premium for boars. 

We the judges, unanimously agree to the above award. 

John Hart, 
Robert C. Boggs. 

In 1850, the Maxwell Springs Company was organized 
and incorporated,* and secured the grounds fronting on 
Bolivar street, and including " Maxwell's Spring," and now 
being converted by the city into a park. These grounds 
are noted for their fine springs of water, as the time-hon- 
ored gathering-place to celebrate the Fourth of July, and 
as the spot where the " Old Infantry " and other volunteer 

* Acts Legislature. 


companies that suffered at Raisin met and bade their friends 
and relatives adieu, on starting to join Harrison. Here, 
also, on public occasions, Clay, Barry, Scott, and a host of 
oiher prominent men have addressed immense crowds. 

The Kentucky Agricultural and Mechanical Association 
^vas incorporated December 7, 1850,* and bought grounds 
adjoiiiing those of the Maxwell Springs Company, and in 
July, 1853, the two societies entered into an arrangement 
by which the Kentuck}'^ Agricultural and Mechanical Asso- 
ciation obtained provisional use of the Maxwell Springs 
Company's land, on which to hold annual exhibitions. The 
entire grounds were then greatly improved, a handsome and 
capacious amphitheater, and all other needed buildings, 
were erected, trees and shrubs were planted, and the place 
soon became noted far and wide for its extraordinary beauty 
and convenience. The lirst officers of the Kentucky Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical Association were elected April 13, 
1850, as follows : 

Benjamin Gratz, president; Henry C. Payne, vice-presi- 
dent ; Jas. A. Harper, secretary; David A. Say re, treasurer. 
Dr. R. J. Breckinridge, Abram Vanmeter, Henry T. Dun- 
can, Edward Oldham, Joseph Wasson, Charles W. Innes, 
James Kinnaird, Richard Allen, of Jessamine, James O. 
Harrison, and Isaac Shelby, were elected directors. 

On the night of December 18, 1861, the splendid build- 
ings of the association were destroyed by fire while being 
used by federal troops. Ever since that calamity the 
annual fairs have been held on the grounds of the Kentucky 
Racing Association. 

In 1868, W. T. Hughes was president of the association, 
R. J. Spurr, vice-president, and Ernest Brennan, secretary 
and treasurer. 

The agricultural associations of Fayette county have had 
no more energetic and valuable friend than Benjamin Gratz, 
whose efforts contributed greatly to their success. (See 
chapter on Transylvania University.) 

Another public-spirited and most efficient president was 

* Acts Legislature. 


Judge W. B. Kinkead, well known both as a lawyer and 
an agriculturist. He was born in Woodford county, Ky., 
and was appointed a circuit judge by Governor Letcher. 
He has been a resident of Lexington for many years. 

In the spring of 1872, the Maxwell Springs Company 
and the Kentucky Agricultural and Mechanical Associa- 
tion were dissolved to give place to a more ettectual organ- 
ization — The Kentucky Agricultural and Mechanical 
Society, of which Gen. Wm. Preston was made president. 
General Preston was born in Louisville, but has long made 
Lexington his home. He served in the Mexican war, has 
represented his state in Congress, was United States min- 
ister to Spain, and was a major-general in the service of 
the late Confederate States. General Preston is a line 
lawyer and a good speaker. He is a man of very superior 
abilities, and his highly-cultivated mind is stored with 

The last exhibition of the society was held in the beauti- 
ful grove at Ashland. Its future fairs are expected to be 
held in an extensive amphitheater, to be erected on the old 
historic grounds at Maxwell's Spring, which were so long 
in use before the late war. 

Among the agriculturists of Fayette — in addition to 
those already named — who have encouraged and sustained 
her associations, and have been awarded premiums, may be 
mentioned those short-horn breeders, Messrs. Wm.Warfield, 
Jesse H. Talbott, W. H. Richardson, W. B. Kinkead, J. G. 
Kinnaird, Hart Boswell, C. W. Innis, John P. Innis, and 
John Burgess. Among the association's other active friends, 
representing various agricultural interests, are I. C. Van- 
meter, K J. Spurr, W. H. Smith, T. 11. Shelby, Jr., J. R. 
Viley,W. K. Estill, D. S. Coleman, H. A. lIeadley,William 
Bryan, jST. P. Berry, Gran Weathers, E. C. Bryan, J.W. 
Berry, and David Prewitt. 



Battle of New Orleans — Captain S. W. Megowan — General 
George Trotter — Lexinrjlon Female Benevolent Society — 
Second Presbyterian Church — James McChord — Pastors — 
Church Buildings — Division — Peace. 

No regularly organized troops from Lexington partici- 
pated in the war with England, after the battle of the 
Thames, but this did not prevent her citizens from feeling 
the liveliest interest in the struggle. When the great 
Jackson achieved his glorious and extraordinary victory 
over the disciplined British regulars, who had fought 
against the first Napoleon, Lexington was beside herself 
with delight. The 22d of February was observed as a day 
of general thanksgiving for the brilliant ending of the 
war; salutes were fired, addresses delivered, and at night 
the whole city was illuminated. Licensed by the general 
joy, crowds of boys marched through the streets, singing, 
at the very top of their voices, this stanza, composed by a 
Lexington wit, and considered remarkably fine : 

"In his last hopes on Orleans strand, 

John Bull was quite mistaken ; 

With all his skill in Packen-hams, 

He could not save his bacon." 

The only man from Lexington known to have been in 
the battle of New Orleans was Capt. Stewart W. Megowan.* 
In 1812 he raised and commanded a company of volunteers 
from this city, and, under Colonel Lewis, joined General 
Harrison. In 1813 he raised another company, and called 
them the "Lexington Rifles." He again joined Gen. Har- 
rison, under Governor Shelby, from whom he had obtained 

*01d Statesman. 


his commission of captaincy. Captain Megowan was in 
the battle of the Thames, when Tecuraseh was slain ; and 
was present when Proctor's troops surrendered. After 
serving out that campaign, Capt. Megowan again returned 
to Lexington, and hearing !N^ew Orleans was about being 
attacked by British troops, he endeavored to raise a third 
company, but finding he would not have time to do so, he 
started down the Missi^^sippi river alone, to join General 
Jackson. After reaching New Orleans, he and a flat-boat 
captain, by the name of Twiggs, beat up for volunteers in 
the streets of that city, and raised a company composed of 
sailors and Kentucky flat-boatmen. 

Twiggs was elected captain, and Megowan first lieuten- 
ant. General Jackson gave the custom-house into their 
charge, and on the evening before the battle of New Orleans, 
Megowan obtained leave to take as many men as would go 
with him, and join General Jackson. Five Dutch sailors 
volunteered to accompany him, and although they neither 
understood the English languaije, nor were versed in mili- 
tary discipline, they followed him into the fight, and shared 
in the victory. Capt. Megowan died at the age of 79 years. 

General George Trotter, a well-known native and citizen 
of Lexington, died October 13, 1815, aged thirty-seven. 
He was several times a member of the legislature from 
Fayette, and was noted for his gallant conduct in the war 
of 1812. He served with Colonel Campbell in the Missis- 
sinewa campaign, and was acting brigadier-general in the 
famous battle of the Thames. His residence was at "Wood- 
lands," and is now used by the Agricultural College. 

The " Lexington Female Benevolent Society," now pre- 
eminent for its judicious charity, great usefulness, and 
blessed influence, was organized in 1815, and has been in 
active operation ever since. The following named ladies 
constituted one of its early board of ofiicers : Mrs. John 
Norton, President ; Mrs. Morrison, Mrs. Ross, Vice-Presi- 
dents; Miss Kidgely, Secretary; Mrs. Ward, Treasurer. 
Managers, Mrs. Palmer, Mrs. Robert, Mrs. Bell, Mrs. Han- 
son, Miss Clifl'ord, Mrs. Elliott, Miss Montgomery, Mrs. 
Beckley, Mrs. Stevens. The institution was not incorpo- 


rated until February, 1851. The charter members were: 
Mrs. John Norton, Mrs. John H. Brown, Mrs. James O. 
Harrison, Mrs. Wyett R. Iliggins, and Mrs. Isaac W. Scott. 
Among other members of the society, who have greatly 
assisted in forwarding its noble objects, may be named 
Mrs. Thomas Skillman, who was connected with it for very 
many years, Mrs. A. V. Sayre, Mrs. Eliza BIythe, Mrs. Eliza 
Ross, Mrs. Thos. C. Orear, Mrs. M. P. Lancaster, Mrs. 
John Carty, Mrs. E. McCalister, Mrs. George Brand, Mrs. 
H. M. Skillman, Mrs. MontrnoUin, and many others. 

The Second Presbyterian Church of Lexington was 
founded in 1815, and was first known as the " Market Street 
Church." It was built by the united efforts of a number of 
non-profesGing admirers of the Rev. James McChord, 
together with a few regular members of Presbyterian 
churches. The building committee was composed of 
John Tilford, T. H. Pindell, John McKinley, Alexander 
Parker, David Castleman, and Joseph C. Breckinridge. 
These, together with the following, were the signers of the 
church constitution, viz : C. Wilkins, Samuel Trotter, L. 
McCullough, J. H. Hervey, M. T. Scott, Benj. Merrill, F. 
Dewees, Matt. Kenneday, W. H. Richardson, Thos. Jan- 
uary, Thos. T. Skillman, Wm. Pritchart, C. Logan, N. Bur- 
ro wes, A. M. January, T. P. Hart, J. B. BosAvell, R. S. 
Todd, B. Chambers, T. B. Prentice, W. W. Blair, E. Sharpe, 

Butler, J. Bruen, John McChord, W. B. Logan, James 

Trotter, R. II. Bishop. Only one of these signers (A. M. 
January) is now living. 

The edifice was built after the peculiar and substantial 
style of the day, and occupied the site of the present 
church building, on Market, between Church and Second 
streets. The walls were two and a half feet thick, the pul- 
pit was in the middle of the front end of the house, and 
the seats were arranged in ascending tiers, facing the doors, 
so that persons entering found themselves confronted by 
an army of gazers. The church called the Rev. James 
McChord to be its first pastor, and he preached the dedica- 
tory sermon, July 30, 1815, at which time the church was 
opened for worship. 


James McChord was born in Baltimore,* in 1785, and 
removed with his parents to Lexington, in 1790. After re- 
ceiving a liberal education at Transylvania Universit}^ lie 
studied law with Henry Cla}', but after mature thought, 
abandoned that profession for the ministry, and entered a 
theological seminary in New York, where he held the fore- 
most rank. In 1809, he was licensed, and in 1811, ordained. 
He published a treatise in 1814, on the nature of the church, 
which was condemned by the Associate Reformed Presby- 
tery, whereupon he sent in a declinature of their authority, 
and connected himself with the West Lexington Presby- 
tery. He was pastor of the Market Street Church only 
four years, but in that short time he became famous. To 
his great intellect was added not only brilliant scliolarly at- 
tainments, but the most powerful and thrilling eloquence, 
which carried all before it as the sweeping of a mighty 
wind. Some of his congregation, who had come only to 
enjoy and admire, were converted. Others who desired 
nothing more serious than entertaining preaching, and who, 
unfortunately controlled the financial aiiairs of the church, 
took the alarm, and the gifted pastor was soon made so 
uncomfortablef that he resigned, and for a year managed 
to subsist by! teaching a school. His highly sensitive 
nature never recovered from the blow, and sad and broken- 
hearted, he died far too young, May 26, 1820. Love and 
attention revived with his death. His admirers chansfed 
the name of his late charge to " McChord Church ;" his re- 
mains were interred beneath the pulpit, and a marble tab- 
let bearing his name, the date of his birth and death, and 
the inscription, "the resurrection of the just shall unfold 
his character," was set in the wall. The memory of this 
good man is still reverently cherished in Lexington. Mc- 
Chord's sermons, including his " last appeal to the Market 
Street Church," have received great attention both in this 
country and in England. 

Mr. McChord's residence was on Limestone, between 
Fourth and Fifth streets — the same afterward occupied by 

♦Davidson's History. tid 



Mr. Armant. During tlie time which intervened between 
the resicriiation of Mr. McChord and the accession of the 
next regular pastor, the Kev. John Breckinridge, the i-ulpit 
was supplied by the accomplished Rev. William Wallace 
and Father R. H. Bishop, who was for some time professor 
in Transylvania University, and afterward became the 
founder and president of Oxford College, Ohio. 

Rev. John Breckinridge, who succeeded Mr. McChord 
in 1823,* was a son of Attorney-General John Breckinri<lge, 
and was born near Lexington, Kentucky, July 4, 1794. 
Like McChord, he turned from the law to the ministry, and, 
like him, captivated the hearts of his hearers by his charm- 
ing" el.Kiuence. After serving the Second Church three 
yetirs, he accepted the chair of pastoral theology at Prince- 
ton which he held a short time. He was an advocate of 
colonization. At the time of his death, which occurred 
August 4, 1841, he was president-elect of Oglethorpe Uni- 
versity, of Georgia. 

In 1828, the Rev. John C. Young, D. D., became pastor 
of the church. Dr. Young was born in Pennsylvania, 
Aucrust 12, 1803, and, after graduating, was licensed to 
'prt-ach in 1827. In 1830, he resigned the pastorate of the 
Second Church, and accepted the presidency of Centre 
Collecre, which prospered under his ripe scholarship and 
efficielit administration. Dr. Young died in Danville, Ken- 

tucky, June 23, 1857. 

The Rev. Robert Davidson, son of President Daviason, 
of Dickinson College, succeeded Dr. Young in 1832. Mr. 
Davidson was born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, February 23, 
1808, and graduated at Princeton. He is extensively 
known as the author of an exceedingly interesting 
"History of the Presbyterian Church in Kentucky." 
He was pastor of the church until 1840, when he was 
elected president of Transylvania University. He was 
afterward tendered the position of superintendent of pub- 
lic instruction, but declined it. In 1869, he was one of the 
delegation to the general assembly of the Free Church of 



Scotland. He lives, at present, in Philadelphia, where he 
is greatly esteemed. Dr. Davidson has been a laborious 
and useful writer. 

In 1841, Eev. John D. Matthews (see chapter on First 
Church) was called to the pulpit, which he filled for several 

The Kev. John H. Brown, D. D., succeeded Mr. Matthews 
in 1844, and was pastor until 1853, when he resigned, and 
settled in Chicago, Illinois, where he died, February 23, 
1872, afier a successful ministry in that city. 

The present elegant and tasteful church edifice was built 
on the site of the old building in 1847. After the erection 
of the church, the remains of the gifted McChord were 
again deposited beneath the pulpit, where they now rest. 
Rev. Robert G. Brank, a native of Greenville, Kentucky, 
a graduate of Centre College, and an exceedingly graceful 
and etiective speaker, succeeded Mr. Brown in 1854, and 
remained pastor of the church for fourteen years, during 
which time he made himself greatly beloved by his faithful 
and efficient ministry. 

At the close of the late war, the Second Church, like its 
sister churches, was filled with dissension between the two 
parties then formed in it — the Southern Assembly party, 
with Mr. Brank as pastor, and the General Assembly party, 
with Rev. E. H, Camp as pastor. 

In May, 1869, both of these ministers resigned, and the 
church troubles were adjusted (see chapter on First Pres- 
byterian Church). The Rev. Nathaniel West filled the 
pulpit of the church during the winter of 1869-70, after 
which the present regular pastor, Rev. Mr. Burch, took 
charge of the church, which continues to prosper under 
his earnest and efficient ministry. 



Luxurious Lexington — Eastern Lunatic Asylum — List of 
Contributors — Superintendents — Improvements — Present 

Lexington, in 1816, was known as the most elegant and 
fashionable city in the West. Great attention was given 
to music, dancing, and all the lighter accomplishments; 
pleasure gardens and other places of amusement were liber- 
ally patronized, and social entertainments were the order of 
the day. A visitor, at that time, says:* "Lexington is aa 
large as Cincinnati. The inhabitants are as polished, and, 
I regret to add, as luxurious as those of Boston, New York, 
or Baltimore, and their assemblies and parties are con- 
ducted with as much ease and grace as in the oldest towns 
of the Union. A summer view of Lexington is inexpress- 
ibly rich, novel, and picturesque, and the scenery around it 
almost equals that of the Elysium of the Ancients." 

The Eastern Lunatic Asylum, founded in 1816, f under 
the name of the " Fayette Hospital," was the first institution 
of the kind established in the western country, and the 
second state asylum opened in the United States. The 
projector of this now magnificent public charity was Andrew 
McCalla,J one of the early settlers of Lexington, and a man 
noted for his kind heart and benevolent deeds. He was 
assisted by many other citizens of like character, and all of 
them were incorporated early in 1816, under the name of 
"The Contributors to the Fayette Hospital." 

The names of these contributors, as far as known, are : 
Alex. Parker, Trotter, Scott & Co., John W. Hunt, Geo. 
Trotter, Jr., Thomas January, Lewis Sanders, J. & D. Mac- 

*Brown's Gazelte. fOld Kentucky Gizette. ^Collins. 


coun, Andrew McCalla, T. D. Owings, Sam. Trotter, F. 
liidgelj', John Bradford, R. Higgins & J. D. Young, David 
Williamson, Mrs. Eleanor Hart, Benjamin Stout, "William 
Morton, Thos. H. Pindell, William Leavy, John Pope, E, 
Warfield, Daniel Bradford, Patterson Bain, Michael Fishel, 
Adam Rankin, Robert Miller, L. M'Cullough, Tandy & 
Castlemau, Robert Frazer, Robert H. M'Nair, J. Postle- 
thwait, John H. Morton, John Hart, Jas. B. January, Sam'l 
Ayres, Asa Farrow, Thomas Tibbats, E. W. Craig, Robert 
Holme?, Sanford Keen, J. & B. Boswell, Maddox Fisher, 
E. Yeiser, David & J. Todd, Fisher & Layton, C. Coyle, 
James Wier. 

On the 1st of March, the contributors organized under 
the charter, and shortly after purchased the " Sinking 
Spring" property, on which the present buildings are 
located. The site selected owed its name to a peculiar 
spring, still used, which has its origin in an immense sub- 
terranean volume of water, from which, it is said, the "Big 
Spring" at Georgetown flows. There is a tradition* that 
a quantity of chafi* emptied into the " Sinking Spring," 
came out, some hours after, at the " Big Spring." 

On Monday, June 30, 1817, on the occasion of the laying 
of the corner-stone of the "Fayette Hospital" building, a 
procession marched from the court-house to the Sinking 
Spring, in the following order, viz : 

Two Civil Officers of the County, Judge of the Circuit 

Court, Justices of the Peace and Bar. 


Trustees and Professors of Transylvania University. 

Students of Transylvania University. 

Trustees of the Town. 


Students of Medicine. 


Architects of the Building. 

Orator of the Day. 

Hospital Committee. 



*Dillard, K. T. 


In the presence of a large concourse of spectators, after 
an appropriate prayer by Rev. Robert M. Cunningham, the 
corner-stone was laid, and in it were deposited the news- 
papers of Lexington for that week, some silver and copper 
coins of the United States, two publications in favor of the 
institution, and a brass plate bearing the name of the en- 
graver and the following inscription: 

State of Kentucky^ 


June 30th, a. d. 1817. 

Deposited in the Corner-cfone of the 


The first erected west of the 
Apulachian Mountains. 
Built by Contribution, under the Direction of 

STEPHeFcHLL^EY, \ BnUimgCon,mmeeof 
ornT-ir-,T T-.-/-( att f.-at i tlic (Jontnuators. 



Also, the 5th verse of the 11th chapter of Matthew, in the 

The ceremony was concluded by a powerful and eloquent 
oration by Henry Clay. 

By the time the hospital was roofed in, a financial crisis 
defeated the plans of the building committee, and in 1822, 
it was found best to tender the property to the state, which 
purchased it the following year, gave it the name of the 
"Kentucky Eastern Lunatic Asylum," and appropriated 
$10,000 for its benefit. The asylum was formally opened 
May 1, 1824, and the first patient admitted was " Charity,"* 
a negro woman from Woodford county. For twenty years 
after its opening, the attending physicians were Dr. S. 
Theobolds, Dr. Louis Decognets, and others, assisted by 
the medical faculty of Transylvania University. In 1833, 
and at several different times after, the cholera raged with 
fatal effect in the asylum, and several times it has been 
visited by destructive fires, in one of which a number of 

♦Superintendent's Rpport. 


patients were consumed. In 1844, the custodial manage- 
ment of the institution was changed for an enlightened 
one.* Dr. J. R. Allen was made the first superintendent 
under the new order of things. Chains and jailers rapidly 
disappeared, and the institution soon wore a civilized appear- 
ance. Dr. Allen held his office for ten years, giving great 
satisfaction to all concerned, and gaining for nimself an 
enviable reputation. 

In 1850, a liberal bequest was made to the asylum by 
James S. Megowan, "for the purpose of adding to the com- 
fort and amusement of the patients." 

Dr. W. S. Chipley, who for many years made mental 
diseases his special study, succeeded Dr. Allen in 1855, and 
continued as superintendent for fourteen years. Under his 
very efficient management, improvements were made in 
almost every respect, and the institution attained a position 
of usefulness second to none in this country. 

The capacity of the asylum was greatly increased in 
1867, by an appropriation of $150,000 by the legislature. 
The new buildings erected, gave the institution two hun- 
dred and fifty additional rooms. 

In 1869, Dr. Chipley resigned, and Dr. John W. Whit- 
ney became superintendent, a position which he still holds. 
The institution has never been more prosperous, or its 
affairs more efficiently managed, than since the induction 
of the present able and skillful superintendent. His assist- 
ants are Drs. Dudley, Layton, and Rogers. 

Since 1822, the state appropriations to the asylum have 
amounted to nearly a million of dollars. The little patch 
of ground it then owned has been increased to three hun- 
dred acres; nearly three thousand five hundred patients 
have been admitted to the institution, of whom largely 
over a thousand have recovered, besides very many who 
were so much improved as to justify their restoration to 
society. The asylum is supplied with every convenience, 
comfort, and medical and scientific arrangement calculated 
to benefit its inmates ; and stands in the first rank among 
like institutions in the United States. 

••■ Ucport. 



Carriages — Negroes — Branch United States Bank. 

Lexington was noted, as early as 1817, for her number 
of carriages, which was twice that of any other town of its 
size in the United States.* This pecuHarity has distin- 
guished her ever since, and so much so in late years, as to 
gain for her, from a pungent writer, the name of "the city 
that goes on wheels." 

The prices of negroes rose in 1817, young men being 
worth from $500 to $700. 

A branch of the United States Bank went into operation 
in Lexington, January 27, 1817. The directors were James 
Morrison, "William Morton, John W. Hunt, Alexander 
Parker, John Tilford, A. S. Bartow, Cuthburt Bullitt, John 
H. Hanna, James Taylor, W. T. Barry, John T. Mason, 
and John H. Morton. 




Relics of the Olden Time — Leslie Combs. 

The quaint and beautiful costumes of the old colonial 
days were not quite extinct, even in 1818. At entertain- 
ments, and on full dress occasions in Lexington, at that 
date, old gentlemen were frequently seen arrayed in all the 
magnificence of square coats, ruffled shirt-bosom, court 
vest, lace cufi's, short breeches, knee-buckles, and white 
stockings; and elderly ladies looked grand in wonderfully 
long-waisted dresses, with immense ruffles about the elbows, 
and with their powdered hair towering aloft on cushions. 

General Leslie Combs settled in Lexington in 1818, and 
has made it his home ever since that time. General Combs 
was born in Clark county, Kentucky, November 28, 1793. 
His father was a Virginian, and his mother a Marylander. 
During the war of 1812, General Combs, at the age of 
nineteen, distinguished himself by his courage and gal- 
lantry. In the campaign which ended at Raisin, he was 
sent with a dispatch from General Winchester to General 
Harrison, and in the execution of his trust, traversed the 
pathless wilderness through snow and water for a hundred 
miles, and endured privations which nearly cost him his 
life.* In April, 1813, he was commissioned Captain of 
scouts, and was attached to the lorce under General Green 
Clay, which had been ordered to the relief of Fort Meigs. 
Captain Combs volunteered, with the assistance of an In- 
dian guide and four men, to carry the news of Clay's ap- 
proach to Harrison. He succeeded in threading his perilous 
way through swarms of hostile savages, and had arrived 
in sight ot the closely invested fort, when he was attacked 


1818.] LESLIE COMBS. 291 

by Indians, one of his men killed, another wounded, and 
he and the rest of his little band, after intense suft'ering, 
escaped, in a starving condition, back to Fort Defiance. 

Subsequently, he took a gallant part in the disastrous 
defeat of Colonel "William Dudley, on the 5th of May, was 
wounded, taken prisoner, and compelled to run the gaunt- 
let at Fort Miami. 

After the war. General Combs settled in Lexington, 
where he practiced law for nearly half a century. In 1836, 
General Combs raised a regiment for the southwestern 
frontier, at the time of the Texas revolution. As a lawyer, 
trustee of Transylvania University, member of the legis- 
lature, railroad pioneer, state auditor, and a brilliant and 
sparkling speaker, General Combs has stood in high repute 
among his fellow-citizens. After a long and eventful life, 
the "boy-captain of 1812" is still among us. He resides 
on Main, between Limestone and Rose, and adjoining the 
First Christian Church. 



Monetary Troubles — Parody — Visit of Monroe^ Jackson, and 
Shelby — Dr. Charles Caldwell. 

The year 1819 found Lexington suffering from the finan- 
cial derangement and demoralization which extended over 
the whole country. The multitude of newly created banks 
which had been thickly planted throughout Kentucky, had 
been so badly managed as to excite universal contempt. 
The following quaint effusion, printed in the Reporter of 
1819, indicates the state of feeling at that time in regard 
to the banks : 

" To the Editors of the Bepoiier : I have ventured to send 
you another squib at the banks. Nothing, I conceive, 
can be more injurious to the country than the toleration of 
swindling and bankrupt moneyed institutions. 

" It is high time our non-paying money shops were 
closed — their credit is irretrievably lost. 

(Oh I blame not the Bard, if he fly to the bower, etc.) 

"Alas I for the banks, their fame is gone by — 

And that credit is broken, which used but to bend; 
O'er their fall, each director in secret must sigh, 

For 'tis interest to love them, but shameio defend. 
Unprized are their notes, or at ten per cent, selling, 

Unhonor'd at home, unredeem'd on demand; 
But still they've a merit — I joy in the telling — 

They 're taken for pork, though rejected for land. 

" But their glory is gone ! — ev'ry dog has his day — 

Yet their fame (such as 'tis) shall abide in my songs; 
Not e'en in the hour when my heart is most gay, 

Will I cease to remember their notes and their wrongs. 


The stranger in passing eacli village shall say, 

(As he eyes the sad spot with his hand on his breast,) 

TiiKRB ONCE STOOD A BANK ! — but, Unable to pay. 
It sutpended itself, and, thank G — d, is at rest! I" 

President Monroe and General Jackson, accompanied by 
Governor Shelby, visited Lexington, Frida}-, July 3, 1819,* 
and were escorted to Keen's tavern by the old infantry, 
several rifle and artillery companies, and a large and enthu- 
siastic crowd of citizens. Salutes were fired, both when 
they entered town, and when they arrived at the tavern. 
They visited the university, and were addressed by Dr. 
Holly and some of the students, after which they went to 
Jouett'a studio. The next day they " attended the Fourth 
of July festival at Dunlap's." Sunday, they attended 
church. Monday, they were given a public dinner at 
Keen's tavern by the citizens, who addressed the Presi- 
dent through Colonel Morrison. The distinguished guests 
left town the next day. 

Dr. Charles Caldwell, well known in medical circles in 
both America and Europe, settled in Lexington in 1819. 
He was born in Caswell county. North Carolina, in 1772. 
At the age of fourteen, he had mastered Latin and Greek, 
after which he opened a grammar school, taught three 
years, then studied medicine, and graduated under Rush in 

In 1795, he commenced his career of authorship, which 
has since made him so distinguished. He labored with 
prodigious energy, and his literary and scientific writings 
and translations are estimated at ten thousand pages. 

Dr. Caldwell was the first prominent champion of phre- 
nology in the United States, and was one of the few distin- 
guished men who openly espoused the mesmeric theory in 
the face of public ridicule. He bought, in Europe, the first 
medical library of Transylvania University. Many of the 
books he gathered in Paris from dealers to whom they had 
been sold by once eminent and wealthy physicians, who 
had been ruined by the French Revolution. By this means 



he obtained many rare and valuable works, which made 
the Transylvania Medical Library superior to any other at 
that time in this country. The books were brought from 
Maysville to Lexington on pack-horses. 

Dr. Caldwell was a resident of Lexington and professor 
in the Medical College for sixteen years, at the end of which 
time (after making himself very unpopular, by favoring 
the removal of the college to Louisville,) he resigned, and 
was largely instrumental in establishing the Louisville 
Medical Institute. He died some years ago, leaving behind 
him a wide-spread reputation as a clear writer, an able 
teacher of philosophical medicine, and a man of enlight- 
ened liberality in advance of his age. 

1820.] FUSSELL'S SPUING. 295 


Jiecuperation — John D. Clifford — RussdVs Cave — il/rs. Lin- 
coln's Birthplace. 

In 18-0, Lexington, which for several years had been 
decreasing iu population, commenced to grow again, and 
business slowly but steadily increased. 

John D. Cliftbrd died in Lexington, May 8, 1820, aged 
forty-two. Mr. Cliflord was noted for his love and knowl- 
edge of the natural sciences; for being a public-spirited 
friend of every learned and charitable institution, and for the 
liberal support he extended to the Episcopal Church. He 
was the president of the Lexington Athenseum, in a room 
of which institution he opened a museum of natural and 
sintiquarian history, and just before his death he assisted 
Professor liafinesque to survey the ancient remains near 
Lexington. Mr. Clifford married Mary S., daughter of 
William Morton. 

Russell's spring and cave, in this county, were explored 
by Professor Rafinesque, in 1820, and were thus described 
by him :* 

" Russell's spring is a natural curiosity. It is a subter- 
ranean stream of water issuing from a cave. Both have 
been traced and followed for three-quarters of a mile, and 
it is moreover connected with the sinks west of Russell's, 
since something thrown into them has been seen to come 
out at the spring. The cave is crooked, narrow, and rather 
shallow. As the stream often fills it from side to side, one 
must often wade to explore it, and even swim in some 
places. Fishes are often found in it, such as suckers and 
catfish. In freshets, the water fills the cavity. At the 

* Western Review, 1820. 


mouth the stream is usually one foot deep, and discharges 
itself into the Elkhorn, about one hundred steps below. 
The mouth of the cave is below a chain of rocky limestone 
cliffs, where some organic fossils are imbedded. A large 
and spacious hall lies next to it in the rock, forming another 
cave, which is tilled by rubbish at a short distance, but 
communicates by narrow chasms with the other cave." 

In 1820, Robert S. Todd, who died in 1849, lived on 
Short street, in the house adjoining and belonging to St. 
Paul's Church (Catholic), and at present occupied by Father 
Bekkers. Colonel Todd's daughter, Miss Mary Todd, after- 
ward the wife of President Lincoln, was born in this house. 
Mrs. Lincoln was married November 4, 1842. 



Financial Crisis — Belief and Anti- Relief — Prevailing Prices 
—Elder T. P. Dudley. 

In 1821, Lexington, like the whole state of Kentucky, 
was suffering from the financial distress which had been 
growing worse and worse ever since the close of the war of 
1812. The community was flooded with all sorts and sizes 
of depreciated "shinplasters," as they were contemptuously 
called; business was ruined, everybody was in debt, and 
every one was suing or being sued. During this terrible 
depression and stagnation of commercial interests, all the 
old political interests were lost sight of, and the crisis 
brought into existence the now famous " Kelief" and 
"Anti-Relief" parties, the first demanding a stay-law on 
executions from the legislature, the last opposing it. The 
contest was hot and protracted, and resulted in the still 
more famous " Old Court" and " New Court" parties. 

At this dark period all the farmer had to ?ell went at 
ruinously low prices, and all he bought he got at the most 
exorbitant rates.* Corn sold at twelve and a half cents per 
bushel; wheat, thirty-seven cents; flour at two dollars and 
fifty cents per barrel ; net pork at one dollar and twent}^- 
five cents per hundred pounds; butter at six cents per 
pound, and eggs at three cents per dozen ; cottons, forty 
and sixty cents, and prints, which would not be worn, at 
seventy-five cents per yard. Tea retailed at three dollars 
per pound, coffee at seventy-four cents, and Muscovado 
sugar at thirty-seven cents per pound; and, as an instance 
of the perverted taste of that day, it was the usual custom 
to exchange two pounds of tree sugar for one of the Mus- 

* Kentucky Letter in Cincinnati Gazette. 


covado. Whisky — old copper-distilled Bourbon whisky — 
sold at twenty-five to thirty cents per gallon. Milch cows 
rated from seven dollars to ten dollars per head, and good 
horses were often bought at twenty-five to forty dollars. 

The venerable Elder Thomas P. Dudley, of Lexington, 
entered the ministry of the Particular Baptist Church in 
1821. He was born in Kentucky count}^ Virginia, May 3, 
1792, and in a few days after was under the government of 
the infant commonwealth of Kentucky. He enlisted for 
the campaign of 1812 in Trotter's cavalry, but left the troop 
at Fort Defiance to act as assistant commissary to the left 
wing of the northwest army. He was in the battle and 
massacre at the river Raisin, where he was captured. After 
his release from captivity, he served as quartermaster-gen- 
eral of the Kentucky troops sent to the aid of Jackson at 
New Orleans, and was in the celebrated victory of the 8th 
of January, 1815. After serving faithfully in the ministry 
for more than half a century, Elder Dudley still survives, 
and is one of the oldest and best known citizens of Lex- 
ington. Mr. Dudley has been the pastor of the church at 
Bryant's Station for many years. This church, which was 
organized in 1786, has had but two pastors from that time 
to the present, viz : Ambrose Dudley, and his son, Thomas 
P. Dudley, the subject of this notice. 





Gambling Siq^ipressed — Female Bible Society. 

Lexington was so grievously infested with gamblers in 
the fall of 1822, that the citizens combined to crush them 
out, and after an indignation meeting, a general attack was 
made- on the sporting characters, and many of them were 
lodged in jail. A newspaper of the time,* "hoped that 
persons at a distance would understand that the society of 
Lexington does not tolerate any species of gaming." 

In 1822, the Lexington Female Bible Society was organ- 
ized. Mrs. Elizabeth Skillman, whose lovely character 
will long be remembered by our citizens, was one of the 
members of the first board of managers, and was president 
of the institution for nearly forty years. She died Febru- 
ary 18, 1872, in the eighty-sixth year of her age. 

♦Observer and Reporter. 



Thomas T. Skillman—D. A. Sayre Sf Co.—" Old Court " 
a7id "New Court" Parties — The Contest in Lexington — 
Incidents — Jos. C. Breckinridge. 

The "Western Luminary," the first religious newspaper 
published in the southwest, was established in Lexington, 
by Thomas T. Skillman, in 1823, to aid in counteracting 
the strong infidel tendency then manifested in the city. 
Mr. Skillman was one of the best and most useful citizens 
of his day. He died June 9, 1833, a victim of the terrible 
cholera season of that year, and the loss which his church 
and the community sustained, was felt to be such that it 
deepened still more the sadness and gloom that pervaded 
the suffering city. 

The banking house of D. A. Sayre & Co., was founded 
in 1823. 

In 1823, the court of appeals of Kentucky made its cele- 
brated decision that the "relief" statutes passed at prior 
sessions of the legislature, retrospectively extending re- 
plevins, were unconstitutional. This decision created an 
immense sensation. The " lieliefs " now became known as 
the "New Court" party, whose sole aim was to remove the 
ofi'ending judges of the court of appeals, and substitute 
new ones who would bend to the popular will. The "Anti- 
Reliefs," or as they were soon called, the "Old Court" 
party, formed the opposition. The struggle which ensued, 
and which extended through three years, was the most vio- 
lent and bitter one in the annals of the state, excepting the 
one at the eve of the late war. 

In no place in the state was the combat more fierce than 
in Lexington, the home of several of the ablest leaders of 


both the parties. Every weapon of political warfare was 
called into play ; argument, and invective, and sarcasm, and 
satire, and pasquinade, and ribaldry, were all exhausted 
in the strife of words. 

It was during this exciting period, that the famous brick- 
bat war broke out on the streets of Lexington,* The 
combatants in about equal numbers, were ranged on each 
side of the street, and while pick and crowbar were kept 
busy in tearing up pavements, the fighting men in the op- 
posing ranks were equal!}' busy for a full hour, by " Shrews- 
bury clock," hurling missiles at each other. Broken heads 
and bloody noses was the order of the day. When the 
fight was raging most furiously, and all were expecting a 
resort to firearms, R, J. Breckinridge and Charlton Hunt, 
opposing candidates, both of them brilliant, rising young 
lawyers, appeared on the street, with arm locked in arm, 
each waving a white handkerchief, and walking boldly be- 
tween the combatants. They thus ended the fray. 

Another incident characteristic of the day and the people 
deserves to be recorded. It was then the custom for success- 
ful candidates at the close of the polls, to give a "big treat" 
to their constituents. On one of these occasions, Robert 
"Wickliffe, Sr,, "treated" to punch, a barrel of which was 
set in the middle of Limestone street, opposite the place 
now known as the Sayre Institute. A strong partisan on 
the other side, a somewhat notorious character, who was 
always after called "Dr." Napper, secretly dropped some 
tartar emetic in the punch. Such a scene as ensued beg- 
gars all description, and could hardl}' be limned with the 
pencil of a Hogarth. The retching and heaving, the sput- 
tering, and spewing, and spouting, with 

"The two and seventy stenches, 
All well defined, and several stinks," 

"Which assailed the olfactories of the passers-by was due 
notice to give the participators in the debauch a wide berth. 
That was the last general political treat given in the interior 
of the state. 

*Kentucky letter to Cincinnati Gazette. 


Joseph C. Breckinridge, oldest son of Hon. John Breck- 
inridge, and father of Hon. John C. Breckinridge, was for 
many years a citizen of Lexington. He died in Frankfort, 
September 1, 1823, aged thirty-tive. Mr. Breckinridge was 
born in Virginia, graduated at Princeton, served in the war 
of 1812, studied law and practiced in Lexington. At an 
early age he was elected to the legislature from Fayette 
county, and at the time of his death, was secretary of 
state under Governor Adair. 



The ^^ Athens of the West" — Lexington Lyceum — Botanical 
Garden — Jefferson Davis. 

The literary culture and educational advantages of 
Lexington had become such by 1824, that the city was 
spoken of far and wide as the "Athens of the West."* 
Her claims to the title were by no means insignificant. 
The society of Lexington was noted for its intelligence, ap- 
preciation of literature, its good taste and elegance. The 
pulpits of the city were adorned by able and eloquent men, 
the newspapers were the leaders of the state press, and the 
bar was probably the strongest one at that time in the 
United States. Transylvania University, under the dis- 
tinguished Dr. Holly, had attained even a European celebrity, 
and the city was crowded with her learned professors, and 
medical, academical, and law students. Lectures were fre- 
quent and well sustained and the weekly discussions of the 
Lexington Lyceum, which was composed of the best men 
of all professions, were listened to by crowded audiences. 
The city library was the largest in the west, and lias never 
been more liberally patronized. A botanical garden had 
just been established; the pencil of Jouett had made him 
famous and was now constantly engaged ; and scholars 
and distinguished men from all parts of the country, vis- 
ited Lexington to enjoy the society in the noted seat and 
center of loarniii2^ and intellectual culture in the west. 

The Lexington Lyceum mentioned above was the suc- 
cessor of the "Lexington Junto,"f the debating society in 
which Henry Clay distinguished himself by the first speech 
he made in Lexington, in the year 1798. The Lyceum 

'Flint's Travels. tOld Kentucky Gazette. 


met atone time in Satterwhite's tavern, and afterward in 
the court-house. It existed for very many years and did 
great good by means of lectures and public deliates. The 
Lyceum now in existence was chartered March 9, 1868.* 
Its incorporators were: J. S. Phelps, J. li. Morton, H. M. 
Bnford, J. H. Webster, G. AY. Daruall, F. W. Woolley, and 
G. W. Eanck. 

The botanical garden established in 1824 was projected 
by the learned Prof. C. S. Pafinesque of Transylvania 
University, who became its first director and manager, as- 
sisted by John W. McCalla, Thos. Smith, Joseph Ficklin, 
and J. M. Pike.f The garden, which was, properly speak- 
ing, a botanical, medical, and agricultural institution 
founded to promote the natural sciences and a knowledge 
of husbandry, was situated about where Judge S. S. Good- 
loe now lives on the Richmond turn[)ike. It existed but a 
few years, but is noted as having been the first institution 
of the kind projected in the west, if not the first in the 
United States. 

Hon. Jefi'erson Davis, late President of the Confederate 
States, and who will always occupy a prominent and illus- 
ti-ions place in the world's history, resided in Lexington in 
1824, and was a member of the senior class in Transylvania 
University. He is remembered as a slender, fair-haired 
young man, quiet, unassuming, and of very studious habits.;}: 
He boarded with Postmaster Ficklin, in the brick house, 
still standing, on the southv»^est corner of Hill and Lime- 
stone streets. The historic interest now attached to this 
spot will deepen and increase with advancing time. 

*Aol,s Le;i;i»lalure. tB- G. Records. ^Letter to tlie Author. 

1825.] LAFAYETTE'S VISIT. 305 


Lafayette^ s Visit to Lexington — Reception — Ceremonies and 
Incidents — The Christian Church — First Meeting Places — 
^'' Union of the Disciples and Christians" — Early Ministers — 
Dr. J as. Fishback — Regular Pastors — Dissensions about 
Ordination — The Campbell and Rice Debate — '■'■Excommuni- 
cation" — Present Condition of the Itlain Street Church. 

Probably the grandest gathering ever seen in Lexinc^ton 
was on the occasion of the reception of General Lafay- 
ette, May 16, 1825. In no place in this country did the old 
hero recive a more cordial welcome than in the seat of the 
county which was named in his honor. An immense con- 
course of people from all parts of Kentucky and from sev- 
eral other states, companies of infantry, artillery, and cav- 
alry, Revolutionary soldiers, distinguished strangers, mem- 
bers of all professions, went out to meet him, wearing "La- 
fayette badges." 

The announcement that the marquis and suite were in 
sight was the signal for round after round of deafening 
cheers, volleys of musketry, and thunders of artillery, 
which only ceased long enough to give the following com- 
mittee time to formall}' receive and welcome him to Lex- 
ington, viz : John Bradford, William Morton, Dr. Richard 
Pindell, Dr. Walter Wartield, John Fowler, Alexander 
Parker, Andrew McCalla, William Leavy, James Lemmon, 
Charles Norwood, Col. James Trotter, and Gen. Thomas 
Bodley.* The welcome address in behalf of Lexington was 
delivered by John Bradford, and that in behalf of the 
county by Leslie Combs. Formal replies were made by Gen. 
Lafayette, after which, amid renewed cheers and salutes, a 

♦Observer and Reporter. 


grand procession moved through the principal streets of 
the town to Mrs. Keen's tavern, where rooms were pre- 
pared for the distinguished guests. 

The procession marched in the following order: 

First assistant marshal and statf, Col. McConnell. 

Division of cavalry and mounted riflemen. 

Marshal of the day and staff, Gen. McCalla. 

Committee of Revolutionary officers and soldiers. 

Sub-county committee. 

State committee, with Colonel Wash from Missouri. 

General Lafayette, with Col. Bowman, of the Eighth Vir- 
ginia regiment in the Revolutionary army, in a barouche 
drawn by four bay horses. 

Col. G. W. Lafayette, Col. Le Vasseur, and Count De 
Syon, in a barouche also drawn by four baj^s. 

Governors Dosha and Carrol, with their suites, Colonels 
Hickey and Rowan, and Colonels Shelby and Erwin. 

Revolutionary officers and soldiers. 

Trustees of the town. 

Judges of the Federal and State courts, and members of 
Congress and of the State legislature. 

Officers of the army and navy. 

Officers of the militia. 

Second assistant marshal and staff. Col. Payne. 

First division of the military escort on foot. 

Third assistant marshal and staff. Col. Beard. 

Second division of the military escort on foot. 

Fourth assistant marshal and staff, Col. Dunlap. 

President, Professors, and Trustees of Transylvania Uni- 
versity, and the clergy. 

Union Philosophical and Whig Societies of the Uni- 

Students of the University according to classes. 

Fifth assistant marshal and staff. Col. Prewitt. 

Citizens on foot. 

Sixth assistant marshal and staff", Lieut. Col. Dudley. 

Citizens on horseback. 


Division of cavalry and mounted riflemen. 

Seventh assistant marshal and staff, Lieut. Col. Combs. 

Rest and then a sumptuous dinner followed the arrival 
at the tavern, after which the afternoon was spent by the 
marquis in a cordial reception of the enthusiastic multi- 
tude which crowded in upon him. At night a grand com- 
plimentary ball was given him in the then new Masonic 
Hall, on Main, between Broadway and Spring streets, w^hich 
was beautifully decorated for the occasion. The managers 
of the ball were: E. Warfield, J. H. Morton, J. W. Hunt, 
J. W. Palmer, C. Wilkins, W. W. AYorsley, B. Gratz, J. 
Postlethwait, L. Combs, T. Smith, T. S. Caldwell, W. 
Brand. General Lafayette was welcomed to the hall by 
the Rev. John Ward in behalf of his Masonic brethren. 

Before his departure, Lafayette reviewed the old sol- 
diers of the Revolution, visited Mrs. Clay and the widow 
of Governor Scott, and spent some time with Jouett, who 
afterward completed the life-size portrait of Lafayette, 
now owned by the State of Kentucky. One of the most 
prominent features of the entertainment of Lafayette in 
Lexington was a literary reception at Transylvania Uni- 
versity. A classic address was made by President Holly, 
and eulogistic orations and poems were delivered in French, 
Latin, and English by the students. 

In 1825,* two feeble little religious bodies, which occa- 
sionally attracted attention on account of their " new 
notions," struggled for existence in Lexington. The mem- 
bers of one met at the residence of Mrs. Bell (mother of 
Dr. T. S. Bell, of Louisville), who lived on Main street, 
between Walnut and Rose, and nearly opposite Mr. S. S. 
Thompson's planing mill. They called themselves " Chris- 
tians," and their pastor was that learned, liberal, and great 
man. Barton W. Stone, who had long been at the head of 
a flourishing classical school in Lexington. The other 
little flock met in a house on Spring street, between Main 
and Water, which afterward became the machine shop of 
Thomas H. Barlow, one of the greatest inventors America 

* Old Inhabitants. 


has ever produced. They called themselves "Disciples," 
and held the peculiar views advanced by Alexander Camp- 
bell, who, two years before (1823), upon the occasion of his 
first visit to Lexington, had created a great sensation by 
his startling and powerful sermons. The "Disciples" were 
occasionally addressed by that intrepid, original, and able 
man of God, Elder John ("Raccoon") Smith, who now 
sleeps in the Lexington cemetery. Elders Wm. Poindexter 
and Thomas Smith also labored for this church. 

The "Christians" and "Disciples" agreed in most of 
their religious opinions. They kept up separate organiza- 
tions, however, for a number of years. The " Christians," 
or " Stoneites," as they were then often called, were par- 
ticularly careful not to make immersion a test* of religion, 
and it was their practice to receive unimmersed christians 
of all denominations to their communion and fellowship. 
It was this which prevented for some time the union of the 
two bodies. 

By the year 1831, the Christians had gathered strength 
sufiicient to erect a house of worship, which they built on 
Hill street, near the corner of Mill, and opposite the pres- 
ent residence of Judge Eobertson. The church was a very 
plain brick one, with an interior gallery, which, after the 
old style, ran around two sides and the end of the building. 
It was formally opened for worship on Sunday, October 
16, 1831,t and the dedication sermon was delivered by the 
eccentric and eloquent elder, Jesse Bledsoe, who, but a 
short time before, had abandoned the bar for the pulpit. 
The "Disciples," at this time, were meeting in a building 
which stood near the present residence of Dr. H. M. Skill- 
man, on Broadway. 

On Saturday, January 1, 1832, the Christians and Dis- 
ciples, between whom there existed a most fraternal feeling, 
assembled, by agreement, in the Hill Street meeting-house, 
to consider the probabilities of the union of the two bodies. 
Candid and generous addresses were delivered by Elders 
Barton Stone and John Smith; the members of both 

*Chri8tian Messenger, vol. v, p. 19. tObserver and Keporter. 


churches conferred together, harmony was arrived at, and 
the hoped-for union was effected upon the broad ground 
that the Bible was the only rule of faith and practice ; that 
all should enjoy the right of private judgment, and that 
the opinions of ecclesiastical leaders should not be allowed 
to disturb the peace of the church. The united congrega- 
tions adopted the name Christian for the church, and the 
Hill Street house became the sole meeting- place. 

Until the services of a regular pastor were obtained, 
Elders Jacob Creath, Curtis Smith, Thomas M. Allen, and 
others preached at different times for the church. 

One of the earliest and ablest of Bishop Campbell's 
indorsers in Lexington was Dr. James Fishback,* who 
subsequently became a member of tiie Christian ministry. 
He was the son of Jacob Fishback, who came to Ken- 
tucky from Culpepper count}', Virginia, in 1783. Dr. 
Fishback was educated for the medical profession, and 
as early as 1805 tilled the chair of " Theory and Practice" 
in Transylvania University. In 1816, becoming dissatis- 
fied with the stricter views of the Presbyterian Church, 
of which he was a member, he connected himself with 
the Baptists, and became one of their regularly ordained 

In 1823, when Bishop Alexander Campbell visited Lex- 
ington for the first time. Dr. Fishback paid the closest 
attention to the opinions and arguments he advanced, and 
the impressions he then received influenced the balance of 
his religious life. In 1827,t while pastor of the Baptist 
Church on Mill street, he strongly advocated a change in 
the name of the church from what it then was to that of 
"Church of Christ." Many members of the church favored 
it, and many denounced it as an "unnecessary change sug- 
gested by the spirit of the New Light heresy." The dis- 
sension which ensued resulted in the exclusion of Dr. 
Fishback, John M. Hewitt, Purnell Bishop, Alex. Gibney, 
E. Chinn, A. Graham, and thirty others, " for contumacy 
and disorderly conduct." In April, the excluded members, 

♦Davidson's History. tBaptist Church BecordA. 


who claimed the ownership of the church building, met in 
it, organized "the Church of Christ on Mill street," and in 
turn excluded their excluders from the church. Dr. Fish- 
back was elected pastor of the new church, the congrega- 
tion of which met for some time alternately with the other 
Eajitists in the Mill Street church, but subsequently left 
that ]ilace and worshiped in the building now known as 
the Statesman office, on Short street. Most of this congre- 
gation finally went back to the First Baptist Church, but 
Dr. Fishback and others, after wavering for some time, 
joined the Christian Cliurch. Dr. Fishback was a promi- 
nent preacher of this last-named body for a number of 
years, and died connected with it in the summer of 1845. 

Dr. Fishback was a preacher of superior talents, bold- 
ness, and culture, a man of great information and fine per- 
sonal appearance. He was a strong and able writer, as 
evidenced by his " Philosophy of the Human Mind," pub- 
lished in 1813, and his religious "Essays and Dialogues," 
of 1834. He was married twice. His first wife was a 
niece of Patrick Henry, and his last, a daughter of Gov- 
ernor Shelby. 

The first minister regularly employed by the United 
conffreo:ation8 on Hill street was Elder James Challen. He 
was born in Hackensack, Kew Jersey, in 1802, came to 
Kentucky at an early age, entered Transylvania University, 
united with the Baptist Church in 1823, but a few years 
after changed his opinion and entered the ministry of the 
Christian Cliurch. He became pastor of the Hill Street 
congregation in 1834. He did much to perfect a thorough 
organization of the church, and endeared himself greatly 
to his brethren by his graces and virtues. This now 
aged soldier of the cross is living at present in Davenport, 


Dr. B. F. Hall, a native of Fleming county, Kentucky, 
but who bag long made Texas his home, succeeded Mr. 
Challen. Dr. Hall was a speaker of moderate ability. 
During his pastorate the cliurch became divided on the 
subject of ordination, the parties in the contention being 
Dr. Hall, Dr. J. G. Chinn, and others, on one side, and 

1825.] REGULAR PASTORS. 311 

Poindcxter and a few followers on the other. The breach 
was finally closed. 

In 1841, Dr. L. L. Pinkerton succeeded Dr. Hall as pas- 
tor, and under his enercetic ministry the church prospered, 
and shortly after he commenced his labors (1842), the pres- 
ent large church edifice on Main street was completed. Dr. 
Pinkerton was born in Baltimore county, Maryland, January 
28, 1812, and was trained in the Presbyterian faith, but in 
1830 was baptized under the personal ministry of Bishop 
Campbell. Before he began to preach, he practiced medi- 
cine, having graduated in the Transylvania Medical College. 
Dr. Pinkerton was pastor of the Main Street Church for 
nearly three years, after which he was very largely instru- 
mental in forming the Orphan School at Midway, Kentucky. 
He was for five years professor of belles-lettres in Kentucky 
University. Dr. Pinkerton is gifted with generosity, inde- 
pendence, and liberality. His discourses are characterized 
by elegance, vigor, and originality, over which is cast the 
charm of a tender melancholy. A more uniformly inter- 
esting speaker has never filled the pulpit of the Main Street 

In November, 1843, the celebrated debate between those 
distinguished champions. Bishop Alexander Campbell and 
the Rev. IST. L. Rice took place before densely packed audi- 
ences in the Main Street Church. The moderators on that 
occasion were Hon. Henry Clay, Judge George Robertson, 
and Colonel Speed Smith. 

After Dr. Pinkerton, Elders Newton Short, William Clark, 
A, W. Robbins, and John I. Rogers became pastors of 
the church. In 1860, W. H. Hopson, a native of Christian 
county, Ky., was elected to the pastorate, which he filled 
up to the year 1862, when J. W. McGarvey succeeded, and 
he in turn was succeeded in 1867 by Elder Robert Graham, 
who was born in Liverpool, England, and graduated at 
Bethany College. L. B. Wilkes, a native of Maury county, 
Tennessee, became pastor in 1869. 

During the ministry of Mr. Wilkes, a part of the congre- 
gation, by the advice of its officers, commenced to meet for 
worship in the Odd Fellows' Hall, on the corner of Main 


and Broadway, where service was held, for the first time, 
on Sunday, January 2, 1870, and continued regularly until 
May 1st of the same year, when the First Presbyterian 
building was bought by the Main Street church, and de- 
voted to the use of its members meeting in the hall. The 
government of two congregations under one eldership 
created dissatisfaction among some members of the church, 
and was publicly condemned by one of them (Mr. Elly) as un- 
scriptural, despotic, and dangerous. It was continued never- 
theless, and, unfortunately, a spirit of illiberality at the same 
time rapidly manifested itself among some of the preachers 
and leaders of the church. Forced, by these combined 
causes, and desiring peace and freedom of conscience, a 
number of the members of the church, acting in accord- 
ance with the long-recognized rights and usage of the 
Christian body, quietly established, in the spring of 1871, 
the " Second Church of Christ," or, as it was kindly and 
very suggestively called by the public at that time, the 
"Little Church around the Corner." 

In the summer of 1871, the members of the Main Street 
Church meeting on Broadway were organized into an in- 
dependent church, after having been nearly eighteen months 
under the rule of the Main Street ofiicers. 

On the 22d of October, 1871, the Main Street portion of 
the original double body, assumed to exclude from it (the 
Main Street Church) such members qi the Second Church 
of Christ as had formerly belonged to both the Main Street 
and the Broadway congregations. The ladies and gentle- 
men supposed to be excluded, were charged with "disorder 
and schism in withdrawing and setting up a new organiza- 
tion without the consent of the church." 

M. E. Lard, the present pastor, who took charge of the 
Main Street Church late in 1871, is a native of Bedford 
county, Tennessee. 

The Main Street congregation has been rapidly increas- 
ing in numbers for several years past, and is now very large 
and prosperous. The church has lately been considerably 
improved in appearance. 



Funeral Honors to Jefferson, Adams, and Shelby. 

The citizens of Lexins^ton testified their sincere regret 
for the loss of the patriots, Jefi'erson, Adaras, and Shelby, 
by extensive and impressive funeral ceremonies on Wednes- 
day, August 15, 1826. 

At eleven o'clock a. m., a procession formed at the Grand 
Masonic Hall, under the direction of Thomas Bodley, chief 
marshal ; Messrs. John M. McCalla, Jas. M. Pike, Leslie 
Combs, C. W. Cloud, and Joseph Robb, assistant marshals; 
and proceeded in the following order to the Episcopal 
Church : 

Fayette Hussars, Captain Pindell. 
Light Artillery Cadets, Lieutenant Commandant, "W". B. 


Lexington Light Infantry, Captain "West. 

Fayette Rifle Corps, Captain Dailey. 

Other uniform companies of Fayette county. 

Committee of Arrangements. 

Officiating Chaplain and Orator of the day. 

Reverend Clergy. 


supported by eight bearers, with white bands and sashes, 

and followed by a led horse, suitably and 

appropriately accoutered. 


supported and followed in the same manner. 
The two biers of the ex-Presidents, followed by twenty-four 
misses dressed in white, with white veils and suitable 
badges, representing the twenty-four states of the Union. 



supported by four bearers, and followed by a led horse ap- 
propriately accoutered, and a female represent- 
ing Kentucky, clothed in white, with 
an appropriate badge. 
Surviving officers and soldiers of the Revolution. 
Major-general and his staff. 
Trustees of the town, Treasurer and Clerk. 
Militia Officers, General, Regimental, and Staff. 
Members of Congress. 
Members of the State Legislature. 
Fayette Circuit Judge, Attorney, and Clerk. 
Magistrates of the county, preceded by the High Sheriff 
President, Trustees, and Professors of Transylvania Uni- 
Principal, Visitors, and Teachers of the Lafayette Female 

Union Philosophical Society, ^ 
"Whig Society, Vwith badges. 

Franklin Society, j 

Teachers of the several Schools in Lexington and Fayette 

Citizens and strangers, four abreast. 

After arriving at the church, which was crowded to excess, 
a soft and beautiful dirge was played, and then, after a 
touching prayer by the Rev. George T. Chapman, an elo- 
quent and impressive funeral oration was delivered by 
William T. Barry. The ceremonies concluded with an 
anthem by the choir and a benediction. 

1827.] A GREAT RAIN. 315 


A Great Rain. 

An extraordinary fall of rain occurred in Lexington, on 
Suucluy, July 25, 1827.* It commenced with a heavy thun- 
der shower in the afternoon, and continued all night, and 
by morning so great had been the volume of water that 
had fallen, that citizens going to their places of business, 
were obliged to wade through the torrents of water which 
poured through the streets. The cellars in the level parts 
of the town were completely filled with water, causing great 
losses to o-rocers and merchants. The damage done was 
estimated at twenty thousand dollars. Several lives were 
endangered by the sudden rise of the water. In one case 
a black woman was very nigh drowned. She was sleeping 
in a cellar kitchen. The water had arisen in the street till 
it reached the cellar windows, when it rushed in so rapidly 
that she either had not time or presence of mind to make 
her escape, but catching hold of something above her, 
cried for help. In a few minutes the cellar was filled, and 
she must inevitably have been drowned had not some per- 
son ventured in and brought her out. 

*Western Luminary. 




National Republicans and Democratic Republicans. 

By the time the year 1828 rolled 'round, old state and 
local issues were forgotten in Lexington. The Old Court 
party was now known as the " National Republican " party, 
and the New Court as " Democratic Republican " party. 
Lexington blazed with political excitement all through 
this year, and it was at its highest pitch at the November 
election, which resulted in Jackson carrying the state by a 
majority of eight thousand over Adams. 



First Road Macadamized. 

The macadamizing of the streets and roads of Lexing- 
ton was agitated in 1829, and urged in particular by Henrj 
Clay. On the 30th of October, a large public meeting was 
held, at which the McAdam plan was indorsed, and steps 
were taken to organize a company to construct a road 
" connecting Lexino:ton with the Ohio river." The follow- 
ing committee was appointed to advance the interests of the 
road, viz : Henry Clay, Charleton Hunt, Benjamin Gratz, 
Richard Higgins, E. J. Winter, John Brand, Benjamin 
Taylor, Richard Chinn, David Megowan, George Boswell, 
and D. Sayre. Work was commenced shortly after, on 
Limestone and Broadway streets, and on the road from 
Lexington to Maysville, which is believed to have been the 
first road macadamized in Kentucky. 



The First Western Railroad — Corporators — Officers — Inci- 
dents — First American Locomotive — Charles Humphreys. 

Lexington claims the honor of having constructed the 
first railroad in the West, and the second one in America. 
It was originally known as the "Lexington and Ohio Rail- 
road," and was chartered by the Kentucky legislature, 
January 27, 1830; and the corporators were* Messrs. John 
W. Hunt, John Brand, Richard Higgins, Benjamin Gratz, 
Luther Stevens, Robert WicklifFe, Leslie Combs, Elisha 
"Warfield, Robert Frazer, James Weir, Michael Fishell, 
Thomas E. Boswell, George Boswell, Benjamin Taylor, 
Elisha J. Winter, Joseph Boswell, David Megowan, John 
Norton, Madison C. Johnson, and Henry C. Payne. Elisha 
J. Winter was elected first president of the company. The 
second president was Benjamin Gratz, of Lexington, 

Engineers, at that period, were not so lavish in their es- 
timates of the cost of constructing railroads, as they have 
become in modern times, as it is a matter of history that 
the original estimate of the cost of the contemplated Lex- 
ington and Ohio road, from Lexington to Portland, was 
one million of dollars. Of this sum, about seven hundred 
thousand dollars was promptly subscribed by citizens of 
Lexington. f 

The " corner-stone " of the road was laid on Water street, 
near the corner of Mill, with great display, on the 21st of 
October, 1831. Governor Metcalfe drove the first spike, and 
an address was delivered to the assembled concourse by 
Professor Charles Caldwell. Work on this pioneer road 
was then commenced. 

*Acts Legislature. tLouisville Courier. 


The road-bed was as unique as it was substantial, and 
consisted of strap-iron rails spiked down to stone-sills. 
The cars were, for a long time, drawn by horses. The first 
steam locomotive made in the United States ran over this 
road. It had been invented by Thomas Barlow, of Lex- 
ington, as early as 1827 or 1828, and was constructed by 
Joseph Brueu, an ingenious mechanic, also a resident of 
Lexington.* The original model of this locomotive is in 
the museum of the Eastern Lunatic Asylum of this city. On 
the night of December 21, 1834, a grand ball and supper 
was given at Brennan's tavern, in Lexington, to celebrate 
the opening of the road, and the rejoicing and festivity 
was great. 

An immense and excited crowd assembled at Lexington, 
on Saturday, January 24, 1835, to witness the starting of 
the first train for the "Villa." In the following December, 
the first through train arrived at Frankfort from Lex- 

During the session of the general assembly of 1847, 
the Louisville and Frankfort Railroad Company was or- 
ganized and chartered, and at once became the purchasers 
of that portion of the road lying between Louisville and 
Frankfort. In 1848, the Lexington and Frankfort Rail- 
road Company was organized, and in turn purchased from 
the state that portion of the road between Lexington and 

Regular trains were first run through from Louisville to 
Lexington in 1851. 

In 1857, the management of the Louisville and Frank- 
fort and Lexington and Frankfort railroads was consoli- 
dated. The road is now known as the Louisville, Lexing- 
ton and Cincinnati Railroad. 

Charles Humphreys died October 1, 1830, in the fifty -fifth 
year of his age. He was a self-tanght scholar ; was long a 
law professor in Transylvania University, and was an able 
and accomplished advocate and jurist. It is said that he 
was not known to have had a single enemy. 

•Observer and Reporter, 1833. tObserver and Reporter. 



Whigs and Democrats — Physicians. 

In 1831, Henry Clay was nominated for the presidency 
asrainst Andrew Jackson, and the Whis^ and Democratic 
parties in Lexington labored for their favorites with a pas- 
sionate energy and fiery zeal never since surpassed. The 
newspapers fiamed with phillipics and denunciations. 
Caucuses, speeches, clubs, barbecues, pole-raisings, and 
mass meetings kept up a tempest of political excitement 
iu which all ages, sexes, and conditions took a part. De- 
traction and bitter animosity accompanied the heated oppo- 
sition of the parties, and when the contest ended with the 
election of Jackson for the second time, the deep mortifi- 
cation of one side was only equaled by the wild and tri- 
umphant rejoicing of the other. 

Among the prominent physicians of Lexington about 
this time (1831) were Drs. Best, Holland, William Pawling, 
T. P. Satterwhite, and Richard Pindell, the last-named 
gentleman was a native of Maryland, and had been a sur- 
geon in the Revolutionary army. He died March 16, 1833. 



Lexington a City — First Officers — Poor and Work-House — 
Trustees' Rooms and Council Chamber — List of Mayors — 
Appearance of Lexington in 1^^2 — General Jackson's Visit. 

Lexington became an incorporated city in 1832, and on 
the 12th of January of that year, the first mayor and the 
first board ot councilmen were inducted into office.* The 
brief ceremonies took place at the court-house. The 
oath was administered to the mayor, Charleton Hunt, by 
Judge T. M. Hickey, after which the mayor administered 
it to the following gentlemen, who composed the council, 
viz: William A. Leavy, Richard Higgins, Stephen Chip- 
ley, Robert S. Todd, David Megowan, Richard Ashton, 
Thomas P. Hart, Luther Stephens, Thomas M. Hickey, 
Leslie Combs, John Brand, and Benjamin Gratz. The 
city was at once divided into four wards, a municipal seal 
was adopted, a work-house established, and the general 
machinery of the new government set in motion. 

The first mayor of Lexington, Charleton Hunt, was the 
oldest son of John Wesley Hunt, and was born December 
3, 1801. After graduating at Transylvania University, he 
studied law, and held a prominent position in his profession 
at the time of his death, which occurred December 27, 1836. 
He died just as a future full of promise was opening to 
him. Few men have been more beloved in Lexington, and 
his death produced a general sensation of regret and sorrow. 

The first work-house was located on Limestone street, 
adjoining the jail, and its first keeper was T. B. McGowen.f 
In 1835 a poor-house was combined with the work-house, 
and the buildings of the joint establishment were erected 

*City Eecords. tid- 


on Bolivar street. The institutions were connected about 
thirty-five years. The poor-house is now located in the 
country. The work-house remains on Bolivar street, and 
has lately been improved. 

The trustees of the town of Lexington held their meet- 
ings first in the fort, then in the first court-house, afterward 
in a room in the old state-house, and then again in the 

The city council occupied the old Odd Fellows Hall, on 
Church street, until it was destroyed by fire in 1854. The 
Medical Hall, corner of Church and Market (now replaced 
by the library building), was used for a long time. In 
1865, the council took possession of its present hall, in 
Hunt's row. 

The following is a list of the mayors of the city, from 
1832 to the present time, viz: 1832-4, Charleton Hunt; 
1835-6, James E. Davis; 1837-8, J. G. McKinney; 1839-40, 
C. H. Wickhfie; 1841, Daniel Bradford; 1842-5, James 
Logue; 1846, Thomas Ross; 1847, John Henry; 1848, 
George P. Jouett; 1849-50, O. F. Payne; 1851-3, E. W. 
Dowden; 1854, T. H. Pindell; 1855-8, William Swift; 1859, 
T. B. Monroe; 1860-1, Benjamin F. Graves; 1862, C. T. 
Worley; 1863-5, Joseph Wingate; 1866, D. W. Standiford; 
1867, J. T. Frazer; 1868, J. G. Chinn; 1869-72, J. T. 

The appearance of Lexington at the time it was incor- 
porated as a city is thus described by an admiring visitor :* 

" The town buildings in general are handsome, and some 
are magnificent. Few towns in the West, or elsewhere, are 
more delightfully situated. Its environs have a singular 
softness and amenity of landscape, and the town wears an 
air of neatness, opulence, and repose, indicating leisure and 
studiousness, rather than the bustle of business and com- 
merce. It is situated in the center of a proverbially rich 
and beautiful country. The frequency of handsome villas 
and ornamented rural mansions impart the impression of 
vicinity to an opulent metropolis. A beautiful branch of 

^Flint's Mississippi Valley. 


the Elkhorn runs through the city, and supplies it with 
water. The main street is a mile and a quarter in lensith, 
and eighty feet w^ide, well paved, and the principal roads 
leading from it to the country are macadamized for some 
distance. In the center of the town is the public square, 
surrouuded by handsome buildings. In this square is the 
market-house, which is amply supplied with all the pro- 
ducts of the state. The inhabitants are cheerful, intelligent, 
conversable, and noted for their hospitality to strangers. 
The professional men are distingnished for tlieir attain- 
ments in their several walks, and many distinguished and 
eminent men have had their origin here. The university, 
with its professors and students, and the numerous distin- 
guished strangers that are visiting here during the summer 
months, add to the attractions of the city. The people are 
addicted to giving parties, and the tone of society is fash- 
ionable and pleasant. Strangers, in general, are much 
pleased with a temporary sojourn in this city, which con- 
veys high ideas of the refinement and taste of the country. 
There are now much larger towns in the West, but none 
presenting more beauty and intelligence. The stranger, on 
finding himself in the midst of its polished and interesting 
society, can not but be carried back, by the strong contrast, 
to the time when the patriarchial hunters of Kentucky, 
reclining on their buffalo robes around their evening fires, 
canopied by the lofty trees and the stars, gave it the name 
it bears, by patriotic acclamation." 

General Andrew Jackson visited Lexington the second 
time on Saturday, September 29, 1832,* at which time a 
grand barbecue in his honor was given by the Democrats 
at "Fowler's Garden." General Jackson was then a candi- 
date for re-election to the presidency, and Mr. Clay, selected 
by the "Nationals," was his competitor. "Old Hickory" 
was escorted into the city by an immense procession, com- 
posed of military companies, various orders and societies, 
several bands of music, and a concourse of horsemen and 
footmen bearing banners, appropriately inscribed, and sur- 



mounted by game cocks, which crowed lustily as they went 
through the streets. General John M. McCalla, Benjamin 
Taylor, and Abram Morton were marshals of the day. 
Jackson rode in an open carriage with Governor Breathitt, 
who had just been elected by the Democrats. The win- 
dows and streets were crowded with people, to whom the 
President continually bowed as they waved their handker- 
chiefs and hickory branches, and gave him cheer after 
cheer. The concourse, from the barbecue, attended the 
President's levee, which was held that night at Postle- 
thwaite's tavern. On Sunday morning, Jackson attended the 
First Presbyterian Church, corner of Broadway and Second 
street, and listened to a sermon from the Rev. E'athan Hall. 
The house was crowded almost to sufibcation, and hundreds 
were unable to enter. The curiosity to see the determined 
old hero was intense, and he never walked the streets 
unaccompanied by a crowd. On his way to church he 
passed the branch of the United States Bank (now the 
Northern Bank building), which had just been completed, 
and was then considered a very fine edifice. An amusing 
tradition, told with great gusto by old-time Democrats long 
after the reputed occurrence of the incident, declares that 
Jackson no sooner saw the bank than he gave it one of 
his most withering glances, muttering, " By the eternal !" 
and brought his cane down upon the pavement with a most 
emphatic rap. The efifect was, of course, fatal. Three 
years from that time the bank ceased to exist. The story 
indicates the intensity of party feeling at that period. 
Jackson and his suite left Lexington on horseback the 
Monday succeeding his arrival, after having been given one 
of the most enthusiastic receptions ever accorded to a dis- 
tinguished visitor in Lexington. 

1833.] CHOLERA. 325 


Cholera — Its Terrible Effects — Incidents — The Lexington Or- 
phan Asylum — First Managers. 

The terrible ravages of the cholera in 1833 will ever 
keep that fatal year memorable in the annals of Lexington. 
The devoted city had confidently expected to escape the 
scourge on account of its elevated position and freedom 
from large collections of water, but an inscrutable Prov- 
idence ruled it otherwise. About the 1st of June the cholera 
made its appearance, and in less than ten days fifteen hun- 
dred persons were prostrated and dying at the rate of fifty 
a day.* An indescribable panic seized the citizens, half 
of whom fled from the city, and those who remained were 
almost paralyzed with fear. Intercourse between the town 
and country was suspended for six weeks; farmers had to 
abandon their grain to the stock for want of laborers; the 
market-houses in the city were empty and desolate, and 
famine would have been added to pestilence but for the 
great activity of the authorities. 

The streets were silent and deserted by everything but 
horses and dead-carts, and to complete the desperate con- 
dition of things three physicians died, three more were ab- 
sent, and of the rest scarcely one escaped an attack of the 
disease.! The clergy, active as they were, could not meet 
one-third of the demands made upon them. Business 
houses were closed, factories stopped, and men passed their 
most intimate friends in silence and afar ofi:', staring like 
lunatics, for the fear of contagion was upon them. The 
dead could not be buried fast enough, nor could coffins be 
had to meet half the demand. Many of the victims were 
consigned to trunks and boxes, or wrapped in the bed- 

*Davidson's History. fid. 


clothes upon which they had just expired, placed in carts, 
and hurried oft' for burial without a prayer bein^ said and 
DO attendant but the driver. The grave-yards were choked. 
Coflined and uncotHned dead were laid at the gates in con- 
fused heaps to wait their turn to be deposited in the long, 
shallow trenches, which were hastily dug for the necessities 
of tiie occasion. Out of one family of nineteen persons, 
seventeen died. 

The hitherto festival day, the Fourth of July, came and 
found the fearful pestilence abating, and was observed in 
the churches with mingled tears, thanksgiving, prayers, and 
supplications. The fell destroyer had swept overlive hun- 
dred persons out of existence,* and the whole city was in 
mourning. The terrors and suft'erings in Lexington dur- 
^ ing the fearful cholera season of " '33 " no pen can describe. 

The Lexington Orphan Asylum originated from the cal- 
amities occasioned by the cholera, which left children desti- 
tute and unprotected. A public meeting was held at the 
court-house on Wednesday, July 17, 1833,t to raise funds 
to establish an asylum for these children. It was largely 
attended, and $4,400 were collected for the purpose. A 
house and lot, formerly the property of Dr. James Fish- 
back, and located on Third street, between Broadway and 
Jeft'erson, where the asylum has ever since remained, 
was purchased, and on Wednesday, August 14th, the institu- 
tion was organized with the following managers, viz : Mrs. 
Wicklifte, Mrs. Sayre, Mrs. Tiltord, Mrs. Gratz, Mrs. Er- 
win, Mrs. Bruen, Mrs. W. Richardson, Mrs. Putnam, Mrs. 
Chipley, Mrs. J. Norton, Mrs. Graves, Mrs. Dewees, Mrs. 
Ward, Mrs. L. Stephens, Mrs. J. W. Hunt, Mrs. Peers, 
Mrs. Leavy, Mrs. Macalester, Mrs. Koss, Mrs. Geohegrai, 
Miss Edmiston, Miss Barry, Miss M. Merrill, and Mrs. 
Short. The managers furnished the house, procured a 
matron and an assistant, and gathered and sheltered all the 
destitute orphans in the city who had been deprived of 
both parents. 

The institution has no permanent fund, and is supported 

*City Records. fObserver and Reporter. 


by subscriptions and donations from any who are disposed 
to aid in the support of orphans. 

The citizens of Lexington have never allowed it to lan- 
guish for want of support, but the most liberal and sub- 
stantial aid it has received since its establishment, was in 
1866, when, by means of public liberality, its buildings 
were greatly enlarged and improved. 



Great Revival — Branch Bank of Kentucky — St. Catharine^s 
Academy — City Schools — James 0. Harrison's Adminis- 

The fearful cholera experience of Lexington was not 
without its beneficial effects. Saddened and chastened, the 
city turned to religion for consolation, and in 1834, a great 
revival was the result. Meetings were held for nearly a 
month, and four hundred additions were made to the 
various churches.* 

A branch of the Bank of Kentucky was established in 
Lexington in 1834, its first board being Benjamin Gratz, 
Norman Porter, James Hamilton, Stephen Swift, Joseph 
Brnen, W. H. Rainey, J. G. McKinney, David Heran. 
After a successful existence of thirty-one years, the insti- 
tution discontinued business March 13, 1865. The last 
ofiicers of the bank were Henry Bell, president; H. B. 
Hill, cashier; H. B. Hill, Jr., teller; E. S. Duncanson, 
book-keeper; John Carty, D. M. Craig, George Brand, M. 
P. Lancaster, John G. Allen, directors. 

St. Catharine's Academy, on Limestone street, between 
"Winchester and Constitution, was transferred to Lexington 
in 1834,f from Scott county, Kentucky, where it had been 
founded four years before. St. Catharine's is a branch of 
the Roman Catholic Academy of Nazareth, near Bardstowu, 
in this state, and is conducted by sisters of charity. The 
first superioress of St. Catharine's was Annie Spalding, a 
relative of the late Archbishop Spalding, and a gifted and 
accomplished woman. She was poisoned, in 1852, by a 
negro woman owned by the institution, and who ghe had 

*Davidsoii'B History. t-A-cadeuiy Kecords. 

1834] CITV SCHOOLS. 329 

unwittingly offended. She was buried in the old Catholic 
Cemetery on Winchester street. The academy has been 
blessed with success and prosperity since its removal to 
Lexington, and its buildings have been greatly enlarged 
and improved. St. Johu's Academy, located on the same 
lot, was partially built from the brick that once composed 
the walls of the old Catholic Chapel in which the celebrated 
Father Baden officiated for so many years. 

The first city school established in Lexington was organ- 
ized in 1834, and, like the Orphan Asylum, resulted from 
the devastatious of the cholera, which left many children 
unprovided with means of education. The old Rankin 
Church, on the corner of Short and Walnut streets, was 
obtained by the city, and the school was opened on the 
1st day of March, 1834, with one hundred and seven pupils 
in attendance. Joseph Gayle was principal, assisted by 
his daughter. The school committee appointed by the 
council consisted of James O. Harrison, William A. Leavy, 
and Thomas P. Hart. The establishment of this school 
was largely due to the exertions of Charleton Hunt, then 
mayor of Lexington. In 1836, W^illiam Morton, an old 
and greatly respected citizen, left a legacy of $10,000 to 
advance the interests of this school, which is now known 
as "Morton School (No. 1)." The old scIk ol-house was 
replaced by the present one in 1849. Harrison School (No. 
2), named in honor of James O. Harrison, was organized 
in 1849, and Dudley School (No. 3), so culled in honor of 
Dr. B. W. Dudley, in 1851. 

In 1853, the public schools had attained a prosperity, 
character, and efliciency greater than they ever enjoyed 
before or since. The number of pupils at that time was 
one thousand three hundred and seventy-eight,* and so 
great was the public confidence in the schools, that not a 
single private fiohool for the education of boys was in exist- 
ence ^n ^he city.f Everybody, without regard to either 
ociai or financial distinctions, sent their children to the 
city schools, and the processions, speeches, festivities, and 

♦City Kecords. tid. 


crowds which attended the closing exercises of the schools, 
indicated the interest and pride that were taken in them by 
the citizens. These gratifying results were mainly due to 
the energy and enlightened management of James 0. Har- 
rison, who was for a long time chairman of the school 
committee, and who devoted a number of the best years 
of his life to the upbuilding of the schools. At the present 
time, the city schools, owing to various causes, are neither 
as well attended nor as useful as they were twenty years ago. 



Aoythern Bank — Joel T. Hart — James Haggin — George Rob- 
ertson — John Boyle. 

The Northern Bank of Kentucky was founrled in June, 
1835, at which time it purchased from the United States 
Bank its branch house in Lexington, its debt and specie, 
and became the agent to wind up the business of the con- 
cern. The first directors of the Northern Bank were B. 
W. Dudley, D. M. Craig, John Tilford, W. A. Leavy, P. 
Bain, W. Dunn, B. Gratz, H. Johnson, and W. Barr. 

The officers of the bank at the present time are M. C. 
Johnson, president; A. F. Hawkins, cashier; E. Bacon, 
teller; J. T. Davidson and C. Y. Bean, book-keepers. 

The Northern Bank, ever since its establishment, has 
used the old United States Branch Bank building, on the 
corner of Short and Market streets. 

The now justly famous Joel T. Hart dates his career 
from 1835, in which year he settled in Lexington. This 
great self-made man, who has reflected so much honor 
upon our city, was born, poor and almost friendless, in 
Clark county, Kentucky, in 1810. After going to school 
for a short time, he was compelled, by necessity and 
the unconscious promptings of his genius, to labor witli 
the stone-mason's hammer, and lived, up to the time of his 
arrival in Lexington, by building stone fences and chimneys. 
He was already twenty- five years old when he came to 
this city, and obtained work in a marble yard, on the 
corner of Upper and Second streets, where he cut his first 
letters on a tombstone. His guardian anggl, who had thus 
pushed him one step in advance, placed him full in the 
path of his great destiny two years after, when he met 


Clevenger, a young sculptor from Cincinnati, who discov- 
ered in him a fellow artist, and kindly instructed him in 
his high calling. In a short time. Hart was freed from the 
weight that held him down. The rough stone-mason had 
become what he was born to be — a sculptor. 

Hart's first studio was in a building connected with, and 
in the rear of the present residence of Mr. Thomas Brad- 
ley, on Second street, and his first efibrt, as an artist in 
marble, was a bust of Cassius M. Clay. He soon attracted 
great attention, and in a short time had made himself 
famous by superbly executed busts of John J. Crittenden, 
Andrew Jackson, and Henrj' Clay. In 1849, Mr. Hart was 
engaged by the ladies of Richmond, Virginia, to execute 
the marble statue of Mr. Clay, which now adorns the capi- 
tol grounds of that city. He went to Italy, and settled in 
Florence, where he modeled the statue, and, at the same 
time, invented two valuable instruments to be used in 
his art. By means of one of these, the workmen are en- 
abled to transfer the compositions of the sculptor from the 
plaster to the marble, with a degree of precision utterly 
impossible by the ordinary method of calipers. By means 
of the other invention, the form of the living subject may 
be transferred to the desired material, with an absolute 
exactitude. As a consequence, therefore, any of the great 
antique statues may be perfectly reproduced. 

He went to London to obtain a patent for his invention, 
and while struggling to efitect his object, suffered the direst 
extremes of poverty, until he fortunately attracted the at- 
tention of some discerning and cultivated gentlemen, who 
engaged him to make a bust of the noted Dr. Southwood 
Smith. His success was such as to obtain for him the 
patronage of the nobility of the realm, and give him a 
European reputation. Shortly after this, he shipped to 
America the marble statue of Clay, and also a bronze statue 
of the same statesman which he had modeled for the city 
of New Orleans. 

Mr. Hart returned from Italy in 1860, and was received 
by the city of Lexington with every demonstration of re- 
spect and honor. At Frankfort, also, he met witli dUnn 

1835.] JOEL T. HART. 333 

guished consideration, and the legislature, then in session, 
appropriated $10,000 to complete the Clay monument in 
this city, by surmounting it with a statue of Mr. Clay, to 
be executed by his gifted fellow-townsman, Mr. Hart. A 
compliment more just or deserved was never more grace- 
fully paid by a state to its greatest artist. But unfortu- 
nately the Monumental Association found it necessary to 
use six thousand dollars of the sura appropriated, to pay 
expenses already incurred, and the remainder was paid 
to a stranger for "the statue" which surmounts the Clay 

In the fall of 1860, Mr. Hart returned to Florence, Italy, 
where he still resides. He has never married. He is now 
known, not only as a sculptor, but also as a philosopher, a 
poet, a scientist. His poems, many of which have been 
published anonymously in England and America, are char- 
acterized by versatility, and considerable beauty and ele- 
gance of style. 

Mr. Hart is at present still working upon an ideal group, 
the "Triumph of Chastity,"* which has engaged his 
genius for several years, and which, in the opinion of noted 
foreign and American critics, will be the most perfect 
achievement of modern art. The conception is entirely 
original. Cupid, fully armed and equipped, is ignomin- 
iously defeated in an attack upon a virgin just arrived at per- 
fect womanhood. The figures are nude. An artist who has 
seen the group says : " It is scarcely too much to say that, 
as a carefully studied composition, evincing a thorough 
knowledge of anatomy and of the subtle laws of form and 
curvature, there is no modern work which may challenge 
comparison with the 'Triumph of Chastity.'" 

Lexington may well be proud of her great genius, Hart. 
He is famous throughout the old world and the new. The 
splendid productions of his chisel drew from his gifted 
fellow-artist, Hiram Powers, the lofty and generous eulogy, 
" Hart is the best sculptor in the world." 

Judge James Haggin, for many years a distinguished 
member of the Lexington bar, died of bilious fever, August 

*Cor. Evening Post. 


21, 1835. Judge Haggin was born in 1789, and re- 
moved from Mercer county, Kentucky, to Lexington, in 
1810. His wife was a Miss McBrayer. Although Judge 
Haggin never filled any prominent public station but that 
of judge of the court of appeals with Barry, in 1824, he 
was none the less known, and his influence during some of 
the most stirring periods in the political history of the com- 
monwealth was commensurate with his talents, which were 
of the first order. As a land lawyer, he had no superior in 
Kentucky, and he was long considered one of the ablest 
jurists in the western country. Judge Haggin's residence 
was on the site of the present Hocker school building, on 
Broadway, between Third and Fourth streets. 

Judge George Robertson settled in Lexington on the 
4th of July, 1835. His parents were Virginians of Irish 
descent, and were both endowed with sterling qualities of 
head and heart. They emigrated to the wilderness of Ken- 
tucky, and settled at Gordon's station, in 1779. 

Judge Robertson was born in 1790, in that part of the then 
county of Mercer which is now known as Garrard county. 
After obtaining a good English education at " neighbor- 
hood schools," he spent a year at Transylvania University, 
and then continued his classical studies under Rev. Samuel 
Finley, at Lancaster, after which he assisted that gentle- 
man in teaching. 

In 1808, he commenced the study of law at Lancaster, 
under Martin D. Hardin, and in 1809, Judges Boj^le and 
"Wallace of the court of appeals granted him license to 

At the age of nineteen, he married Miss Eleanor, aged 
sixteen, a daughter of Dr. Bainbridge, of Lancaster. The 
young couple commenced life under ditticultics. Poor and 
inexperienced, they suffered and struggled for a time, but 
the young lawyer was energetic, and in two or three years 
had a good practice. He worked on, and in 1816, was 
elected a representative to Congress against strong opposi- 
tion, and was subsequently twice re-elected without oppo- 


"While in Congress, he took an active part in the legisla- 
tion of the nation. He drew and introduced the bill to es- 
tablish a territorial government in Arkansas. On that bill 
the question of interdicting slavery vcas introduced, and 
elaborately discussed. The restriction was carried by one 
vote. A reconsideration was had and the bill finall}'- passed, 
divested of the restriction, by the casting vote of the 
speaker, Mr. Clay. 

He was the author of the present system of selling public 
lands in lieu of the old system and two dollars minimum ; 
his object being to redeem the "West from debt, and pro- 
mote its settlement and independence. Upon considera- 
tions of expediency, the bill was first carried through the 

After his retirement from Congress, Governor Adair ten- 
dered him the appointment of attorney-general of the 
state, but he declined it to pursue his profession and secure 
a competence for his family. In 1822, he was elected a 
representative to the legislature by the people of Garrard, 
in view of the all-absorbing and all-exciting relief ques- 
tions. He was made speaker of the house in 1823, and 
was re-elected every session afterward while he remained 
in the legislature, except the revolutionary session of 1824. 
He remained in the general assembly until the relief con- 
test was settled in 1826-7, and during that memorable 
period several of his speeches were extensively published. 
He wrote the celebrated protest of 1824, signed by the 
anti-relief party in the legislature, and was also the author 
of the manifesto signed by the majority in 1825-6. 

Appointments to the office of governor of Arkansas, and 
subsequently as minister to Bogota, were tendered him by 
President Monroe, and the mission to Peru by President 
Adams, but all were declined. He accepted the office of 
secretary of state under Governor Metcalfe, and for many 
years was professor of constitutional law in Transylvania 

After the rejection of the nominations of Judges Mills 
and Owsley to the bench of the court of appeals, he was 


confirmed as a judge of that court, and subsequently com- 
missioned chief justice, which elevated position he held 
until April, 1843, when he resigned it to return to the bar. 

He was called again to the appellate bench in 1854, and 
there remained for seventeen years, being chief justice 
most of that time. In the summer of 1872, after more 
than half a century of public life, Judge Robertson was 
stricken with paralysis, and on the 5th of September of 
that year, in the city of Frankfort, he resigned his elevated 
position under most affecting circumstances, and now in the 
eighty-second of his age, suftering, but in full possession 
of all his great mental faculties, he lingers yet a little while 
on this side the Jordan, in the sunshine of an honored life. 
He is the last survivor of the stormy and momentous con- 
gressional session, which ended in 1821. All of his con- 
temporaries and colleagues of that eventful period — presi- 
dent, cabinet members, senators, and representatives — have 
gone before him to the mystic land. 

Judge Robertson has been a laborious and persistent 
student, a clear, skillful, and strong speaker, noted for his 
wonderful command of language, his extensive informa- 
tion, and the power and grasp of his intellect. But it is as 
a lawyer that he is most distinguished. He studied law as 
a philosophical system; he mastered it as a science; he 
investigated, reasoned, and became one of the greatest 
jurists of this country. In dealing with constitutional 
questions of magnitude and difficulty, he was at home in 
the lists with Webster, Clay, and the other giant associates 
of his life. As a judge, his decisions are consulted and 
quoted, not only in the United States, but in Europe. This 
venerable and distinguished citizen of Lexington still lives 
in the residence he has occupied for many years, on the 
corner of Mill and Hill streets. 

John Boyle, at one time sole professor of law* in Tran- 
sylvania University, and for sixteen years chief justice of 
Kentucky, died in 1835, aged sixty-one years. He was 
born of humble parentage, in Virginia, but married, com- 

1835.] JUDGE JOHN BOYLE. 337 

menced the practice of law, and began life in Garrard 
county. He was three times elected to Congress on the 
JeiFersonian Democratic ticket, was appointed governor of 
Illinois by President Madison, and commenced his connec- 
tion with the Kentucky court of appeals in 1809. His 
great abilities as a jurist may be inferred from the fact that 
the appointment of associate justice of the Supreme Court 
of the United States was twice within his grasp, but was 
declined. At the time of his death he was district judge 
of Kentucky. 

♦University Records. 



Munt's Bow — Runaway Negroes and Negro Jails — Thomas 
A. Marshall. 

"Hunt's Row" was built in 1836, and was named by the 
city council in honor of Charleton Hunt, the first mayor 
of Lexington. In the summer of this year the "Lexing- 
ton Ladies' Legion," composed of volunteer emigrants, left 
for Texas, after having been presented with a stand of 

It was not uncommon at this period, and for many years 
after, for advertisements like the following to appear in the 
Lexington newspapers. A cut of a negro running, and 
with his bundle tied to a stick and thrown over his shoulder, 
always adorned the advertisement: 

"Three Hundred Dollars Reward. — Ran away from the 
subscriber, living near the city of Lexington, on the night 
of the 4th inst., two negroes, one a bright mulatto boy, 
named Isaac, about six feet high, about twenty-five years 
of age, very bushy hair, and very likely; the other, his 
wife, Celia, about twenty-one years of age, very dark com- 
plexion, very likely, and pretty stout built. The man had 
on a broad-brim black hat, with a beaver cloth overcoat; 
his other clothing not recollected. The woman's clothing 
is not known. 

" I will give a reward of ^10 for each, if taken in this 
county ; $20 each, if taken in any of the surrounding 
counties; $100 each, if taken in any county bordering on 
the Ohio river, and $150 each, if taken out of the state, 
and delivered to me in Lexington, or secured in jail so that 
I get them, and all reasonable expenses paid." 

There were several negro jails, or pens, in Lexington. 


where negro slaves were kept, bought, and sold. The old 
theater on Short street, opposite the residence of J. B. 
Wilgus, was converted into one. The building now used 
as the Statesman office, on Short, near Limestone street, 
was another, as was also the house on Main, between Lime- 
stone and Rose streets, now used as a barracks for federal 

Thomas A. Marshall, son of Humphrey Marshall, the 
author of a history of Kentucky, settled in Lexington in 
1836, and was for a long series of years professor of law in 
Transylvania University. Judge Marshall was born in 
"Woodford county, Ky., January 15, 1794.* After gradu- 
ating at Yale he studied law, married a niece of Mrs. Clay 
in 1816, and moved to Paris in 1819, where he practiced his 
profession until elected to Congress, in 1831. Judge Mar- 
shall was four years in Congress, and the same length of 
time in the Kentucky legislature. He adhered to the " Old 
Court" party, and was influential as a Whig leader. In 
1835, he was made a judge of the court of appeals, and 
served in that capacity for twenty-two years, all his terms 
included. During his judgeship he ignored politics alto- 
gether. He removed from Lexington in 1857, and finally 
settled in Louisville, where he died, April 15, 1871. 

Judge Marshall was more eminent as a jurist than in any 
other respect. Pure, logical, just, and honest, he was pecu- 
liarly fitted by nature for high legal station. His decisions 
are the best monument of his calm greatness. No other 
man in Kentucky did more to shape the character of our 
state laws. While residing in Lexington, Judge Marshall 
lived at the head of Sixth street, on the place lately owned 
by Mr. John Burch. 

*Louisvillo Courier-Journal. 



Independent Order of Odd Fellows— Friendship, Covenant^ 
and Merrick Lodges — Incorporators — Halls — Lexington 
AihencBum — Railroad Festival. 

The history of Odd Fellowship, in Lexington, commences 
with the founding of Friendship Lodge, No. 5, May 6, 
1887, just eighteen years after the establishment of the 
order in the United States. The charter members of this 
lodge were John Candy, T. J. Harrison, Gabriel Beach, 
"William "Wilson, N. P. Long, Abram Spolen, and A. Mayd- 
well.* The lodge was organized in the room in the rear, 
and on the second floor of the building now known as 
Whitney & Co.'s drug store, on the corner of Mill and Main 
streets, and there its meetings were regularly held for sev- 
eral years. 

The growth and prosperity of the order was such that, 
on the 4th of October, 1845, Covenant Lodge, JSTo. 22, was 
established, its incorporators being R. T. Timberlake, C. C. 
IN'orton, Jesse Woodruff, George Stoll, Sen., C. G. Young, 
W. S. Simpson, Josephus Happy, and W. H. Newberry. 
The first meeting of this lodge was held in the hall on 
the corner of Church and Market streets, where the library 
building now stands. 

The corporators of the third and last lodge established, 
Merrick, No. 31, March 3, 1856, were Daniel W. Young, 
W. S. Chipley, Edgar A. Brown, Joseph Lanckart, and A. 
H. Calvin. The organization of this lodge was effected, 
and its meetings were held in the same building first used 
by Covenant Lodge. 

The meeting places of the Odd Fellows have, at different 

* I. 0. O. F. Eecords. 

1837-8.] HALLS— ATHENMVM, ETC. 341 

times, been in Hunt's row, on Water street, in the old 
Methodist Church, on Church street, between Upper and 
Limestone, which was converted into a hall, and in the 
Medical Hall, where the library now stands. In 1856, the 
large hall, on the corner of Main and Broadway, was com- 
pleted. N"o better indication of the rapid progress of the 
order in Lexington is seen than the Grand Hall on Main 
street, between Upper and Limestone, now used by all the 
lodges in the city. This handsome and commodious edi- 
fice was dedicated with impressive ceremonies, in the pres- 
ence of a large concourse, February 3, 1870, opening prayer 
by the G. C, John W. Venabie, dedication charge by the 
R. W. G. M., Speed S. Fry, and the oration by P. G. M., 
M. J. Durham. There is probably no city in the United 
States where Odd Fellowship is in a more flourishing con- 
dition than in Lexington. 

The "Lexington Athenseum," a literary association, was 
established in Lexington, in April, 1838, and used a room 
in a building in Jordan's row. 

On "Wednesday, August 29, a festival, in honor of the 
president and directors of the Cincinnati and Charleston 
Railroad Company, was given by the citizens of Lexington, 
at which an address was delivered by General Robert T. 
Hayne, president of the company. 


Richard H. 3Iennifee. 

Richard H. Mennifeb, one of the moat wonderful men 
that Kentucky has ever produced, settled in Lexington in 
1839. He was born in Bath county, Kentucky, December 
4, 1809, and was left an orphan when but four years old, 
to struggle with poverty and obstacles of the most discour- 
aging kind. Endowed with an ambition second only to 
his great gifts, he struggled on through a wretched boy- 
hood. He longed for an education, and had succeeded at 
twelve years of age in entering a school, but was compelled, 
after a few months, to leave it and act as bar-keeper in a 
tavern in Owingsville. At fourteen, he obtained some 
" winter schooling," and, when but a boy of fifteen, he 
taught a school to get means to prosecute his studies; and 
thus he struofo^led and thus he studied until he succeeded in 
entering Transylvania University, where he made the most 
astonishing progress. Subsequently, after obtaining some 
assistance, he studied law with Judge Trimble, and his in- 
tense energy and great ability soon gained for him the 
smiles of fortune. 

In the spring of 1832, he was appointed commonwealth's 
attorney, and, in the fall of the same year, he married the 
eldest daughter of the distinguished artist, Jouett. He 
was elected to the Kentucky legislature in 1836, and there 
exhibited talents of so high an order that he was sent as 
representative to Congress the next year. He entered Con- 
gress an obscure young lawyer; he left it famous, and ac- 
knowledged as one of the great men of America. He burst 
upon his countrymen like a meteor long in darkness, and at 
once took his own place. His genius and his marvelous 

1839.] RICHARD H. MENNIFEE. 343 

eloquence were upon every tongue. At the height of his 
sudden and deserved fame, he removed, to Lexington, and 
measured his strength at the bar with the greatest legal 
minds of the state. Business rushed to him; wealth was 
at his door, and the future seemed ready to repay him for 
the bitter past. In the fall of 1840 he was engaged in a 
case of great magnitude, in which Clay and Wickliffe were 
both employed against him. He exerted himself to the 
utmost and accomplished wonders ; but his mind and body, 
powerfully overtaxed, never recovered their natural tone. 
He sank from that time, and died, " with all his blushing 
honors thick upon him," at the early age of thirty-two. Mr. 
Mennifee's residence was on the Harrodsburg turnpike, the 
same now occupied by John B. Huston, and formerly by 
John C. Breckinridge. 



Prosperity of Lexington — Trade and Manufactures — Capital 
Invested — Captain John Fowler. 

By the year 1840, Lexington had almost recovered from 
the effects of the adverse circumstances that had caused her 
decline, and was again prosperous. The Lexington and 
Ohio Railroad was in active operation. Seven turnpikes 
ended in the city, and there were six lines of stages run- 
ning, severally, to Cincinnati, Louisville, l^ashville, Mays- 
ville, Richmond, and Owingsville. Six newspapers were 
published, viz : Kentuck}'^ Gazette, Observer and Reporter, 
Intelligencer, Independent Press, Christian Preacher, and 
Transylvania Journal of Medicine.* Seven associations of 
skilled mechanics were in existence, and were entitled the 
Lexington Typographical Society, Union Society of Jour- 
neymen Saddlers and Trunk-makers, United Society of 
Cabinet-makers, Hatters' Society, Tailors and Cordwainers' 
Society, and Master Carpenters' Association. There were 
in the city eighteen rope and bagging factories, with a cap- 
ital of $1,300,000, and employing nearly a thousand men ;f 
three wholesale dry-goods and china houses ; fourteen retail 
dry-goods establishments ; nine wholesale and retail gro- 
ceries ; five saddler shops ; twelve blacksmith shops ; one 
insurance ofiice ; twelve restaurateurs ; one portrait painter; 
three dentists; one native sculptor; ten tailor shops ; one 
bookbinding establishment; four printing oflices; ten tav- 
erns; eight barber shops ; two renovating establishments; 
three coach repositories ; thirteen doctor shops ; nine livery 
stables ; two carriage-making establishments ; two book- 
stores , two gunsmith shops ; six silversmiths ; one silver 

*Observer and Keporter. tDi rectory. 


plater; three clothing establishments ; four tin and copper- 
smith shops; eight mantna-making houses; two exchange 
offices; three cigar factories; three confectioneries; two 
commission stores ; nine boot and shoe stores ; three leather 
stores ; two comb factories ; three upholstering and mat- 
tress makers ; one morocco factory ; one truss maker ; one 
lottery office; two auction stores; four drug stores; one 
machine shop ; a large number of carpenters ; one looking- 
glass manufactory ; one Bible depository ; nine law offices; 
two bath houses; one brush factory; one wheelwright ; five 
woolen factories — four driven by steam ; two steam cotton 
mills; one steam flouring mill ; one extensive iron and brass 
foundry; one large wholesale iron warehouse; three tan- 
yards; one marble yard; six brickyards, manufacturing 
about five million bricks annually ; five batteries, one of 
them employing forty or fifty hands, and carried on by 
steam; and one large brewery, producing about fifteen 
hundred barrels of malt liquor per year. 

The capital invested in the city was : In wholesale dry 
goods, $200,000; in retail dry goods, $1,200,000 ; in whole- 
sale groceries, $450,000 ; in retail groceries, $150,000 ; in 
manufacturing establishments, banks, etc-., $12,000,000. 
Total, $14,000,000. 

Captain John Fowler, a greatly beloved and respected 
citizen of Lexington, died August 22, 1840,* at the ad- 
vanced age of eighty-five. Captain Fowler commanded a 
company in the Revolutionary war; was the first member 
of Congress elected from this district, and was for many 
years postmaster in Lexington. He was one of the best 
types of the true old Virginia gentleman, and was noted 
for his mental culture, generosity, refinement, and gen- 
tleness. A large procession of military, firemen, benev- 
olent orders, and citizens, followed him to his last resting- 
place in the old Episcopal Cemetery. 

*01d Gazette. 

346 HISTORY OF LEXINGTON. [1841-45. 


John W. Hunt — Thomas M. Hickey — Grand Jury sent to 
Jail — Financial Distress — Thomas F. Marshall — His Ca- 
reer and Character — The Clay arid Polk Contest — Grand 
Demonstrations — Daniel Mayes — Removal of the '■'•True 
American'^ — C. M. Clay. 

John "W. Hunt, father of F. K. Hunt, died in Lexington, 
August 21, 1841, aged sixty-eight years. Mr. Hunt was 
born in Trenton, New Jersey. He came to Lexington at 
an early day and engaged in the manufacture of hemp, at 
which he accumulated a fortune. He married Miss Catha- 
rine Grosh. Mr. Hunt was for a long time the president 
of the old Lisurance Company, the first bank chartered in 
Kentucky, and was a liberal patron of the Orphan Asy- 
lum. He was a man of rare business capacity, sterling 
integrity, and decision of character. He died greatly 
esteemed and respected by his fellow-citizens. 

On the 27th of December, 1842, Thomas M. Hickey, 
another prominent citizen, departed this life. Judge 
Hickey was born in Lexington of Irish parentage, in Oc- 
tober, 1797, and rose to position and usefulness by his own 
energy and ability. He was educated at Transylvania 
University, studied law with Judge Haggin and was his 
partner in practice for some time. In 1828, he was ap- 
pointed judge of the circuit court by Governor Desha, 
which position he held for about ten years He was twice 
married. His first wife was a daughter of Oliver Keene, 
and his second the widow of William T, Barry. His mind 
was specially adapted to close legal investigations, and as 
a judge he was remarkable for his clear head and fine 
reasoning powers. An amusing incident is connected with 
the ludge. On one occasion, while the grand jury, of 

1841-45.] THOMAS F. MARSHALL. 347 

which Mr. Benjamin Gratz was foreman, was making ex- 
aminations in regard to the existence of gambling-liouses 
in Lexington, two of the witnesses refused to testify. The 
jury informed the judge of the fact and refused to proceed 
in the matter unless the witnesses were compelled to answer 
questions put to them. The judge construed the action of 
the grand jury as contempt of court and sent them all to 
jail, where they were kept for a day or two, much to the 
amusement of the citizens, who nevertheless justified them 
in their course. 

In 1843, Lexington felt the full force of the financial 
troubles which had been growing in intensity for many 
years. Bankruptcies multiplied, all improvements were 
suspended, the court dockets were cowded with lawsuits, 
and heavy sacrifices of property were incurred by forced 
sales under execution. It was only after much suffering 
that business again became settled and prosperous. 

That great and brilliant orator and erratic wonder, 
Thomas F. Marshall, was long identified with the bar and 
city of Lexington. In 1843, his law office was on the first 
floor of the Press building, on the corner of Short and 
Market streets. 

Thomas F. Marshall, son of Dr. Lewis Marshall, was 
born in Frankfort, Kj., June 7, 1801,* though his father's 
home place was in Woodford county, Ky. His early edu- 
cation was conducted by his mother, after which he was 
trained by some of the best classical scholars, including his 
father. He was never sent to college. His intense appli- 
cation to books and study prostrated his health, and it was 
not until he was twenty-five that he was able to commence 
his favorite pursuit — the law. After studying for two years 
under Hon. John J. Crittenden, he was licensed to practice, 
and settled down in Versailles, the county seat of "Wood- 
ford; and, in 1832, as the friend of Henry Clay, was sent 
for the first time to the legislature, where he at once ex- 
hibited his astonishing gifts. Impelled by a restlessness 
which never left him, he removed to Louisville in 1833, 
intending to devote himself to his profession ; for he was, 


348 HISTORY OF LEXINGTON. [1841-45. 

to use his own expression, "steeped in poverty to the very 
lips." But he was soon again in pohtical life, and twice 
represented the city in the legislature. 

In 1837, he ran for Congress against Mr. Graves, the 
regular Whig nominee, and was, of course, beaten by an 
immense majority. He returned at once to Woodford, was 
elected the next year to the legislature, was rejected as 
ineligible for want of a full year's residence, but was elected 
again without opposition, and the next year also. During 
all this time he was the staunch advocate in debate and 
with his pen of the slave law of 1832.* He was elected to 
Congress from the Ashland district without opposition in 
1841. He spoke often in Congress, though but two of his 
speeches were fully reported. Disgusted with the manner 
in which his first speech was reported, with characteristic 
irritability he insulted the reporters, and ordered them " not 
to attempt again to pass upon the public their infernal gib- 
berish for his English." The reporters revenged them- 
selves by ignoring his speeches and squibbing him in their 
letters from Washington. At this session, Mr. Marshall 
would not support the Whigs in several important meas- 
ures, and both voted and argued against Mr. Clay's bank bill. 
He contended that the party had departed from its princi- 
ples, and ridiculed the Tyler administration on the floor, say- 
ing that when the history of the country was written, that 
administration might be put in a parenthesis and defined 
from Lindley Murray, "a parenthesis to be the clause of a 
sentence inclosed between black lines or brackets, w^hich 
should be pronounced in a low tone of voice, and might be 
left out altogether without injuring the sense." 

In 1843, he publicly announced his resohition not to sup- 
port Mr. Clay for the presidency,! and from that time he 
either acted with the Democratic party or in some other 
connection opposed to the Whigs. In 1845, he ran tor 
Congress, but was beaten in the Whig stronghold by Hon. 
Garrett Davis. Subsequently he raised a troop of cavalry 
and served in the Mexican war. He edited the " Old 

*]3ttrre. fid- 

1841-45] THOMAS F. MAIiSHALL. 349 

Guard" in 1850, in opposition to the present constitution ; 
opposed the American party in 1855, and removed to 
Chicago in 1856, but returned the same year ; sojourned in 
Lexington, and canvassed so energetically for Mr. Bu- 
chanan as to again almost destroy his health. 

Mr. Marshall spent the most of his time in Lexington 
during the late war, and from its commencement warmly 
advocated the cause of the South. So strenuously in fact, 
that he was, at one time, under arrest in Lexington. The ex- 
citements of the war and his own imprudences told rapidly 
on his shattered constitution, and Mr. Marshall died of 
disease of the heart and lungs, at his old home in Wood- 
ford, on Thursday, September 22, 1864. 

In person, Mr. Marshall was tall, very erect, and well 
proportioned. In the latter part of his life, the hair upon 
his expansive forehead was thin, his beard heavy, and his 
fine eyes as full of lustre and of fire as of old. 

"Tom" Marshall fought more duels, and said more good 
things than any great man of his day. Had he been tem- 
perate, had he been true and just to himself, and to the 
high and noble faculties vouchsafed to him by God, he 
would have fulfilled all the loftiest expectations entertained 
of him. He would have been one of the master spirits of 
this country. He was a fine scholar, and his knowledge of 
the languages in particular, he always kept up. He was 
thoroughly grounded in the principles of law, and was a 
very giant at the bar. He was as great a writer as he was 
a speaker, as the pages of the " Old Guard " will show. 
His information was immense, and his knowledge of the 
world's history and of the political history of the United 
States was simply wonderful. Contrary to a popular fallacy 
in regard to both himself and Mr. Clay, his speeches were 
the result of hard study and labor, and not of extempore 

His eloquence was full of glowing and tropical magnifi- 
cence and luxuriance, and he painted word pictures upon 
the minds of men, as Raphael painted upon canvas. While 
he rarely moved the deepest feelings of the heart, he never 
failed to excite almost idolatrous admiration. He was 

350 HISTORY OF LEXINGTON. [1841-45. 

sometimes low when he should have been lofty, and often 
grotesquely humorous, when he should have been great. 
He was a wild, wayward, and wonderful man of talent and 
genius. Prentice, his great contemporary, who knew him 
80 well and who resembled him in so many particulars, 
sums up the character of Thomas F. Marshall in these few, 
but eloquent words : " The people seemed to think, and so 
did he, that his greatest powers were wit, humor, fancy, 
poetry, and eloquence. He had all these, but his chief 
power was none of these. It was argument, logic — stern, 
inexorable cast-steel logic. His other powers, great as they 
were, served but as adornments of the limbs of his giant 
logic. No orator had greater resources in debate. They 
were inexhaustible, and rendered him unconquerable. 
Men think of him and muse upon him as he appeared 
to them in the long past, and they fancy themselves gazing 
upon a bright star seen through a golden haze." 

The political events of the summer of 1844, in Lexing- 
ton, will long be remembered by all who participated in 
the desperate struggle between Clay and Polk, in that 
memorable presidential campaign. "Whigs and Democrats 
labored faithfully night and day for their standard-bearers, 
and barbecues, torch-light processions, pole-raisings, and 
mass-meetings seemed destined to never end. The grand- 
est political demonstrations ever witnessed in Lexington 
took place in July, of this year. On Saturday, the 20th, 
an immense procession of Democrats, with music, banners, 
polk-stalks, military companies, and game " roosters," 
erected a lofty hickory pole, after which the assembled 
concourse was addressed ' by those distinguished orators, 
John Pope and Thomas F. Marshall. 

The Whigs were not to be thus outdone. The Clay 
clubs of Fayette organized a grand tableaux procession, 
which marched the next Saturday, with flags flying, drums 
beating, and men screaming, " Hurrah for Clay ! " In this 
brilliant display, every branch of industry in the county of 
Fayette and city of Lexington was appropriately repre- 
sented in wagons decked for the occasion. The chief 

1841-45.] CASSIUS M. CLAY. 351 

feature of the day was the presentation of banners to the 
Clay clubs by the Whig ladies of the community. 

Daniel Mayes, long a citizen of Lexington, judge of the 
circuit court, and professor of law in Transylvania Univer- 
sity, died in Jackson, Mississippi, in 1844. He married 
the widow of Charles Humphreys. In pure law argu- 
ments and clear analysis. Judge Mayes had no superior at 
the Lexington bar of his day. -^ 

On the 18th of August, 1845, at a great meeting, in Lex- 
ington, of the best citizens of Central Kentucky, irrespect- 
ive of party, it was resolved that the press and materials 
of the " True American," an anti-slavery newspaper con- 
ducted in Lexington by Mr. Cassius M. Clay, should be 
sent beyond the confines of the state. A committee was 
accordingly appointed, which proceeded immediately to 
safely box up the articles, and ship them to Cincinnati, 
after which, Mr. Clay was notified of the address of the 
house to which they had been sent subject to his order, 
with all charges and expenses paid. Mr. Clay subsequently 
obtained a judgment for $2,500 against two of the com- 
mittee, which amount was paid by citizens of Fayette and 
adjoining counties. The office of the " True American" 
was located on Mill street, in the rear part of the building 
now known as Whitney's drug store. 

Cassius Marcellus Clay is a son of General Green Clay, 
and was born in Madison county, Kentucky, October 19, 
1810. He was a student at Transylvania University, but 
graduated at Yale College, in 1832. He has represented 
Madison and Fayette each in the legislature. In 1839 he 
removed to Lexington, and on June 3, 1845, issued the first 
copy of the " True American," devoted to the overthrow of 
slavery in Kentucky. He commanded the " Old Infantry " 
in the Mexican War, was captured at Encarnacion, and 
was a prisoner for some time. On his return home, he was 
presented with a sword. Subsequently, Mr. Clay was min- 
ister to Russia. Mr. Clay is dauntless and unfaltering in 
whatever he believes is right. He resides at present in 
Madison county, Kentucky. 



War with Mexico — Rolls of Beard's and Clay's Companies — 
Incidents — W. 31entelle. 

The trouble between the United States and Mexico, 
growing out of the annexation of Texas, resulted in a dec- 
laration of war by the Federal Congress, May 11, 1846, 
and a call for fifty thousand volunteers. Hardly a week 
after these exciting events, a great war-meeting was held 
in Lexington, and the organization of a number of com- 
panies was commenced. Only two companies, however, 
were perfected, and these were only accepted on condition 
of going as mounted infantry. The following are com- 
plete lists of the officers and men belonging to the com- 
panies, which were commanded respectively by Captains 
Oliver H. P. Beard and Cassius M. Clay, and were attached 
to Colonel Humphrey Marshall's regiment: 

Captain Beard's Company. — Oliver H. P. Beard, cap- 
tain; John H. Morgan, first lieutenant; Lowry J. Beard, 
second lieutenant; T. L. Campbell, first sergeant; A. S. 
Jouett, second sergeant ; N. B. Scott, third sergeant ; Ed- 
mund Protzraan, fourth sergeant ; C. F. Coppage, first cor- 
poral; Richard Adams, second corporal; Isaac Smith, 
third corporal; S. O. Berry, fourth corporal; James W. 
Forsee, first musician , Thomas Bryan, second musician ; 
Isaac Sheppard, blacksmith ; James F. Megowan, Calvin 
C. Morgan, William Weigart, John M. Lowe, James M. 
Taylor, Edward McCarty, Lawrence Daly, R. P. Whitney, 
Henry Bitterman, Henry Parrott, Abner Hudgins, James 
B. Harris, Edward Long, Samuel P. Bascom, George 
Hampton, A. B. Weigart, Henry Carty, G. W. Carter, 
Hervey Cummings, H. L Mclntyre, John Dishman, W. W. 
Bayles, M. W. McCracken, James Mahoney, William Bow- 
man, Ezekiel Twaits, Henry Fox, R. H. Jeter. James Wait, 

1846.] WAR WITH MEXICO. 353 

C. Jackson, M. Barrone, C. Jones, William Kainey, B. 
Castlenian, S. R. Patterson, John Galleghcr, A. G. Morijan, 
J. J. Levasy, J. W. Levas}', Robert Anderson, James Moore, 
Christopher Tempy, William Thomas, G. W. Runyan, S. 
E. Roberts, George M. Gorhana, James G. Martin, William 
Fitzpatrick, David Sheppard, James Leonard, John Wise 
Carver, Sylvester Conover, Samuel Byles, Joseph J. Pat- 
terson, Thomas O'Haver, Thomas T. Hawkins, G. W. M. 
Delph, William Twaits, Samuel Pigg, Eli Estill, John Shel- 
ton, G. B. Williams, J. B. Callaghan, James G. Burch. 

Captain Clay's Company. — C. M, Clay, captain ; Jesse 
Woodruft', first lieutenant; Geo. M. Brown, second lieuten- 
ant; James B, Woodruff, first sergeant; Enoch Bryan, sec- 
ond sergeant; Robert C. Richardson, third sergeant; Sam- 
uel F. Wilmott, fourth sergeant ; S. Lanckhart, first corpo- 
ral ; J. M. Friday, second corporal; W. H. Mnllay, third 
corporal ; James Schooley, fourth corporal ; W. D. Rad- 
clitfe, farrier; Geo. Mason, musician. Privates — Alfred 
Argabright, Wm. Beaver, Ambrose Burton, John W. 
Bell, Henry C. Beaver, David Barry, A. G. Bryan, A. C. 
Bryan, James Bailey, Geo. W. Benjamin, S. L. Barkley, 
Hubbard Buckner, Dempsey Carroll, David Curtis, Nathan- 
iel Crouch, B. A. Chapman, J. C. Currie, W. Duke, Charles 
C. Ellis, Richard L. Ellis, John C. Faulkner, John J. 
Finch, Henry M. Gaylord, R. M. Gaines, Jr., John Galla- 
gher, Wm. Glass, Henry H. Hillox, Wesley Holley, Har- 
rison Igo, James S. Jackson, Henry C. Jackson, David C. 
Jones, G. Lanckhart, John W. Letcher, John McMain 
James McGuire, James H. Miller, Thomas Maupin, C. E. 
Mooney, J. L. Merchant, Lewis H. Nicholson, W. S. Pren- 
tiss, Thomas Powell, James Poindexter, J. J. Phillips, Sara. 
E. Rogers, Wm. Ragin, John Richardson, Lewis H. Red- 
man, Wm. Smith, Alexander Sumk, Geo. W. Snyder, 
Henry Seesill, Wm. Shaw, John Stafford, Geo. Step, John 
H. Simpson, Charles Taylor, Jos. Thornton, Jackson Tay- 
lor, James M. Taylor, Thomas Weigart, Thomas White 
Jackson Yarbour, Alfred Young. 

On the 4th of June, the volunteers started for Louisville 
having accomplished their organization and equipment in 


less than two weeks. On the day the soldiers bade adieu 
to Lexington, to which many of them were destined never 
to return alive, they gathered at Morrison College and 
were addressed by Professor McCown, and each man was 
presented with a Bible. The reply to the address was made 
by the adjutant of the regiment, E. M. Vaughn, who after- 
ward fell so heroically at Buena Vista. The solemn and 
aftecting farewell ceremonies concluded with prayer by the 
liev. J. H. Brown, of the Second Presbyterian Church. 

On the 9th of June, at Louisville, the companies were 
mustered into service by the celebrated Colonel George 
Croghan, and on the 4th of July following, they embarked 
on the steamer " Bunker Hill " for Memphis, from which 
place they went overland to Little Rock, and through 
Texas to Camargo, on the Rio Grande, when they entered 
Mexico. There we leave them to rejoin them again in our 
next chapter. 

WaldemardeMentelle, an early resident and greatly re- 
spected citizen of Lexington, died June 26, 1846. He was 
born in Paris, France, in 1769; his father was a member 
of the French National (scientific) Institute, and was the 
author of a geography. His family adhered to the cause 
of their unfortunate sovereigns, Louis XVI and his brave 
and beautiful queen. Mr. Mentelle and his accomplished 
wife fled from France at the commencement of the Reign 
of Terror to escape the savage mob then in power, and, 
coming to America, settled in Lexington, where they lived 
until the day of their death. Mr. Mentelle was for many 
years connected both with the old United States Bank and 
Northern Bank, and is still well remembered as one of the 
most amiable, polite, and cultivated gentlemen of the old 
school. He preserved, to his latest days, all the virtues 
and manners of the ante-revolution Frenchman. 



Battle of Buena Visfa — Incidents — The Charge on Marshall's 
Regiment — Lexington's Dead — Return of the Volunteers — 
Welcome Home — Honors to the Slain. 

The volunteers from Lexington did not reach Mexico 
until after the battle of Monterey, owing to unavoidable 
delays incident to army organization and the error of going 
by land. No incident worthy of special mention occurred 
before the battle of Buena Vista, except the capture by the 
Mexicans of Captain C. M. Clay and ten of his men, at 
Eucarnacion. Lieutenant Jesse Woodruft" then took the 
captain's place and commanded the company from that 
time until its return home. The Encarnacion prisoners 
were only released after a long and dreary confinement. 

Both of the Lexington companies had a large and glorious 
share in the bloody and gallantly contested battle of Buena 
Yista, vrhich occurred on the 22d and 23d of February, 
1847, and to their share in the fight we confine ourself. 
Marshall's regiment occupied the post of honor on the ex- 
treme left of the line, on a plateau which had a ravine both 
in the front and rear of the command. The men dis- 
mounted and fought as infantry. It was in this position 
that Marshall's regiment was charged upon by an over- 
whelming force of Mexican lancers and hussars. We give 
Captain Beard's account* of the scene which ensued: 

"The enemy came rushing down the hill like so many 
devils, cursing us, and crying no quarter! As soon as we 
reached our horses we made for the plain, and when we 
turned the foot of the mountain, we discovered about four 
thousand lancers at full speed trying to cut us off. It beg- 

*Letter in Observer and Reporter. 


gars all description to relate what followed. We had a 
deep ravine to cross, with rugged banks to climb, and only 
one could pass at a time. In ascending, my horse reared 
back and threw me within fifty yards of the enemy. I 
succeeded in reaching the opposite bank, however, but was 
compelled to witness the murdering of six of my best men, 
without being able to render them any assistance, viz : A. 
G. Morgan, Clement Jones, ISTathaniel Kamey, William 
Thwaits, Henry Carty, and William Bayles, all of whom 
died with their faces to the enemy. They fought with 
desperation, until, overpowered by superior numbers, they 
were run through with the enemy's lances." In this terri- 
ble charge. Adjutant E. M. Yaughn, of Lexington, and 
private Thomas Weigert, of Captain Clay's company, were 
killed. Two other gallant sons of Lexington died upon 
this sanguinary field. The brave Colonel William K. McKee 
fell badly wounded, but struggled heroically until over- 
powered by the enemy, who stabbed him to death with 
their bayonets as he lay upon the ground. Lieutenant- 
colonel Henry Clay, or "Young Henry," as he was com- 
monly called, having been wounded, was being borne from 
the field by a detachment of his men — by whom he was 
greatly beloved — when a discharge of grape-shot from the 
enemy's batteries killed three of the men, and inflicted 
another and mortal wound upon him. He commanded his 
men to leave him and save themselves. They did so. A 
moment more, and a Mexican lance pierced his bosom 
and his heart's blood sealed his devotion to his country. 

One of the thousand incidents of the battle has a home 
interest. The Lexington boys had nothing to eat and but 
little to drink for two days; but Lieutenant John H. Mor- 
gan, afterward the famous cavalry leader of the South, 
had succeeded in procuring a canteen of water. An officer 
of an Indiana regiment saw the precious fluid, and, parched 
with the thirst which then tormented all the army, eagerly 
offijred him "twenty-five dollars for a drink." Morgan 
shared it with him, remarking that "a Kentuckian never 
accepted money for water." 

After the battle, the Lexington companies sadly gathered 

1847.] LEXINGTON'S DEAD. 357 

their dead heroes, whose bodies were found covered thick 
with wounds from Mexican hmces. No timber grew near 
the battle-ground, so the brave volunteers were wrapped in 
their soldier-blankets and buried in coffins made from the 
sides and bottoms of army-wagons, and the same material 
furnished the simple head-boards which bore their names 
and marked their honored graves. They were buried near 
the little blood-baptized village of Buena Vista, which 
then became doubly fraught with mournful interest to 

The news of the battle was received in Lexington while 
the circuit court was in session. It was immediately ad- 
journed in respect to the Kentucky slain, and the citizens 
oftered every token of sympathy and regard to the families 
of the soldiers who had so gloriously fallen. 

On the 12th of April, 1847,* a great public meeting was 
held, at which the following committee on resolutions was 
appointed, viz : John C. Breckinridge, M. C. Johnson, R. 
A. Buckner, R. Wickliife, Sen., Edward Oldham, Waller 
Bullock, Geo. R. Trotter, J. O. Harrison, Robt. K Wick- 
lilfe, Edward A. Dudley, Jas. L. Hickman, and George B. 
Kinkead. The committee reported as follows : 

" The gallant deeds of our brave sons who shed their blood 
on the glorious battle-field of Buena Vista, have added ad- 
ditional lustre to the Kentucky character for courage and 
patriotism, and it is just and proper that their dead bodies 
should not remain in a foreign country and on an enemy's 
soil, but that they should be removed to their native land, 
and rest under the protection of their kindred and friends. 

'■^Resolved, therefore, That while the citizens of Lexington 
and Fayette county rejoice with those who survived that 
memorable conflict of arms, and congratulate them on its 
great result, they mourn and sympathize with the friends 
and families of those who fell in battle, and will take im- 
mediate measures to remove their bodies for interment in 

^'■Resolved, That Capt. George P. Jouett and Nelson Dud- 

*City Papers. 


ley, Esq., be requested and appointed to proceed to the 
battle-ground of Buena Vista in Mexico, and bring home the 
bodies of Col. Wm. R. McKee, Lieut. Col. Henry Clay, Jr., 
Adjutant Edward M. Vaughn, and Messrs. A. G. Morgan, 
Wm. W. Bayles, Clement Jones, Nathaniel Ramey, Henry 
Carty, Wm, Thwaits, and Thomas Weigert." 

About the middle of June, 1847, the volunteers returned 
to Lexington, Captain Clay's company being under the 
command of Lieutenant Jesse Woodrutf. Captain Beard's 
company went out with seventy-eight men and returned 
with forty-three. Captain Clay's, which had numbered 
seventy-five, had fifty-four left. The soldiers were wel- 
comed home by an enthusiastic crowd of citizens and mil- 
itary, and were addressed by Judge George R. Trotter, and 
soon after their return a grand barbecue was given in their 
honor. Captain Clay, after a painful and protracted im- 
prisonment, returned in December and was warmly greeted 
and congratulated. 

The bodies of the heroes who had fallen, were tenderly 
conveyed from their distant resting places to a glory bed 
prepared for them in the Frankfort cemetery by the com- 
monwealth, whose honor they had so nobly defended. 

There, on Tuesday, July 20, 1847, an immense concourse 
assembled at the spot where now rises the stately and beau- 
tiful monument erected to the Kentucky soldiers who fell 
in the war with Mexico. After appropriate and impressive 
ceremonies, an oration was delivered by General John C. 
Breckinridge and an address by Rev. John H. Brown. The 
remains of the lamented dead Avere then borne to the 
graves by the pall-bearers, and after a military salute of three 
guns by the whole line of infantry and rifles, the ceremo- 
nies were concluded by the Masonic fraternity. The bodies 
were then lowered into the graves, and the most impressive 
scene of the day transpired. By an apparently impulsive 
movement, the large body of returned volunteers, headed 
by Colonel Humphrey Marshall, formed in line, marched 
around the graves uncovered, and in that way left the 
grounds with slow and solemn tread, and with sincere sor- 
row depicted in every countenance. It was a silent, but 

1847.] HONORS TO THE SLAIN. 359 

impressive manifestation of their feelings, which was com- 
municated to all around. Three rounds of blank cartridges 
were then fired from the whole line, and the burial was 
completed. It was this solemn and beautiful occasion 
which inspired the gifted Theodore O'Hara to pen that 
unequaled martial requiem, the "Bivouac of the Dead," 
commencing with that sublime stanza : 

" The muffled drums sad roll has beat 

The soldier's last tattoo; 
No more on life's parade shall meet 

That brave and daring few. 
On Fame's eternal camping ground 

Their silent tents are spread, 
And Glory guards with solemn round 

The bivouac of the dead." 

360 HISTORY OF LEXINGTON. [1848-49. 


Telegraph — Kentucky Statesman — Cholera — Lexington Ceme- 
tery — A. K. Woolley. 

In 1848, a telegraph line was established between Lex- 
ington and Louisville, and the first message was flashed 
over the wires on the 6th of March of that year. 

The Kentucky Statesman, a Democratic newspaper, was 
established by a company in Lexington, and B. B. Taylor 
became its first editor. The first number of the paper ap- 
peared October 6, 1849. The Statesman existed about thir- 
teen years. 

The cholera appeared in Lexington again in 1849, and a 
number of deaths resulted from it. 

A revision of the State constitution was demanded by the 
people in 1849, and a convention was accordingly ordered 
for that purpose. The delegates elected from Fayette 
county were James Dudley and Robert Nelson "Wickliffe. 
The convention assembled in Frankfort, and after three 
months' discussion and consultation, anew form of govern- 
ment was produced and the convention adjourned tempo- 
rarily until the people pronounced upon it. 

Though an act was passed by the legislature in Febru- 
ary, 1848, incorporating the Lexington Cemetery, it was 
really not established until the year following. At an acci- 
dental meeting of Messrs. M. T. Scott, Benjamin Gratz, M. 
C. Johnson, and Richard Higgins, on the 23d of January, 
1849, it was resolved that each one use every exertion to 
obtain a sufficient sum by subscription for the purpose of 
purchasing a suitable site for a cemetery and for the in- 
closing and laying out of the same. Their efforts were suc- 
cessful, and on February 12, 1849, the original charter was 
amended with the following gentlemen as incorporators, viz : 

1848-49.] LEXINGTON CEMETERY. 361 

Benj. Gratz, M. T. Scott, M. C. Johnson, Richard Higgins, 
S.Swift, Joel Higgins, David A. Sayre, John Tilford, A. T. 
SkiUman, E. K. Suyre, Robert Wicklifie, T. Hemingway, 
John W. Tilford, John Lutz, D. M. Craig, A. F. Hawkins, 
Benjamin Warfield, Robert J. Breckinridge, E. Wailield, 
G. W. Sutton, John Brand, H. T. Duncan, and Edward 

Shortly after the passage of this act, the beautiful wood- 
land of Thomas E. Boswell, containing forty acres, and in- 
cluded in the present cemetery property, was purchased 
for $7,000. 

The grounds were rapidly improved, and, on the 25th of 
June, 1850, the cemetery was solemnly dedicated. The 
business houses of the city were closed, and an immense 
procession, composed of the Masonic bodies. Odd Fellows, 
Sons of Temperance, societies of Transylvania University, 
and citizens in carriages and on foot, proceeded to the cem- 
etery. An opening prayer, by the Rev. Dr. Miller, of the 
Methodist Church, was followed by an ode, composed for 
the occasion by Professor P. S. Ruter, of Transylvania 
University, and concluding with this stanza: 

"O thou God ! our Friend and Father! 
May the names these grave-stones bear, 
When we all shall rise together, 
In thy Book of Life appear." 

The dedication sermon was by R, J. Breckinridge, pastor 
of the First Presbyterian Church, and the closing prayer 
was delivered by Rev. E. F. Berkley, of the Episcopal 

Under the management of Superintendent Bell, the Lex- 
ington Cemetery has grown more and more lovely each 
succeeding year, until now, in point of beauty, it has no 
superior in the United States. There many brave Confed- 
erate and Federal soldiers sleep their last sleep, and there 
repose a host of Kentucky's greatest and best children. 

Judge Aaron K. WooUey was one of the victims of the 
cholera of 1849. He was born in New Jersey, and, after 
completing his education at West Point, settled in Lexing- 

362 HISTORY OF LEXINGTON. [1848-49. 

ton, and married a daughter of Robert WicklifPe, Sen. He 
represented Faj'ette in the legislature in 1834; was for 
some time judge of the circuit court, and also professor 
in the law college of Transylvania University. He was a 
good lawyer and a line speaker, possessed of a strong, 
clear intellect, and gifted with fine conversational powers. 
He died aged about fifty years. 

1850.] POPULATION. 363 


Population — New Constitution — County Court — B. F. Graves 
—E. Wickliffe, Jr. 

The population of Lexington in 1850 was seven thou- 
sand nine hundred and twenty. 

The constitution framed by the convention of 1849, was 
approved by the people of Kentucky at the May election 
of 1850, and, in June following, the convention reassem- 
bled, and proclaimed the present constitution to be the 
fundamental law of the state. The population of Fayette 
county at this time was twenty-two thousand seven hun- 
dred and thirty-five. In 1850, Benjamin F. Graves became 
county judge, being the first judge elected in Fayette under 
the present constitution of Kentucky. 

Judge Graves was born in Fayette county, Kentucky, 
February 16, 1802. His father, John C. Graves, a Vir- 
ginian, was one of the earliest settlers of this county, having 
immigrated to it in 1781. In early life, Judge. Graves was 
engaged in the hat, fur, and tobacco trade. He was fre- 
quently elected a member of the city council. "While 
serving in this capacity, a subscription was asked of the 
city for Transylvania University, and by him was made the 
proposition that the University should give the city fifty- 
five scholarships. The proposition was carried, and there 
are to-day numbers of young men in this and adjoining 
states, who, through his instrumentality, were enabled to 
fit themselves for the positions of honor and trust they now 

The best index to his character is the fact that he 
commenced the study of law at the age of forty, per- 



severed under many discouragements, and in due time 
was admitted to the bar. In 1859, he was elected mayor 
of Lexington. He has been four times elected judge of the 
county court, and if he completes his present term, will 
have been judge for sixteen years. Judge Graves is a man 
of no ordinary ability and character. Fayette county will 
never have a more faithful judge. 

Judges County Court.— 18b0, B. F. Graves; 1854, B. F. 
Graves; 1858, C. D. Carr; 1862, C. D. Carr; 1866, B. F. 
Graves; 1870, B. F. Graves. 

Robert Wicklitfe — son of Robert Wickliffe, Sen., the able 
pioneer land lawyer — died August 29, 1850, at the early age 
of thirty-five. R. Wickliife, Jr., graduated at Transyl- 
vania University, studied law, represented Fayette in the 
legislature, and was charge ct aj^aires to Sardinia from the 
United States. He worked hard at his profession, and 
became a good lawyer and an effective speaker, but excelled 
as a scholar, being specially accomplished in the ancient 
and modern languages. Mr. Wicklifte was a man of un- 
usually fine personal appearance. He was summoned to the 
great beyond in his early manhood, when his life seemed 
most full of promise. 


1851.] RAILROADS. 365 


Railroads — Lexington and Danville — Maysville and Lexing- 
ton — Lexington and Covington. 

The railroad subject interested Lexington and Fayette 
county in 1851. Oii the 22d of xMarch, ^200,000 was 
voted to the Lexington and Danville Railroad, and the 
same amount to the Maysville and Lexington road. The 
first directors of the last-named road were Henry Waller, 
J. W. Cochran, F. T. Hord, A. J. January, W. S. Allen, 
and Christopher Shultz. The first train, from Lexington 
to Paris, went over this road December 22, 1853. For years 
no work was done on the Lexington and Maysville road, 
and the only part of the road completed, viz: from Lex- 
ington to Paris, was leased and finally purchased by the 
Kentucky Central Company. 

The sum of $200,000 was voted by Lexington and Fay- 
ette to the Lexington and Covington Railroad, September 
6, 1851. The road was completed from Cincinnati to Paris 
by the fall of 1854, when the first through train from Cin- 
cinnati arrived in Lexington. This road was advocated as 
far back as 1841. 



Visit of Scott and Wool — Lexington and Big Sandy Rail- 
road — Failure and Revival of the Road — John C. Breckin- 
ridge — Funeral of Henry Clay. 

Generals Winfield Scott and Wool arrived in Lexing- 
ton September 29, 1852, and during their brief stay ad- 
dressed a large crowd of citizens. This was during the 
political campaign which resulted in the election of Pierce 
for president, General Scott being the Whig candidate. 

In January, 1852, the Lexington and Big Sandy Railroad 
Company was incorporated by the Kentucky legislature, and 
the following persons were appointed to receive subscriptions 
to the capital stock : Robert Wicklifie, Thomas B. Megowan, 
D. C. Payne, Jacob Hughes, and Thomas Hughes, of Fay- 
ette county; Joseph H. Richard, A. Trumbo, John W. 
Barnes, M. R. Conner, and John W. Richards, of Bath 
county; B. J. Peters, W. H. Smith, Peter Everett, Joseph 
Bondurant, and Burwell S. Tipton, of Montgomery county; 
George W. Crawford, R. G. Carter, Jackson B. Ward, 
John IT. Hord, and D. K. Wies, of Carter county; William 
Hampton, John Culver, William T. Nicholls, William 
Geiger, and Hugh Means, of Greenup county. 

The company was organized with R. A. Apperson as 
president, and on the 18th of September, 1852, the city of 
Lexington subscribed $150,000 to it. Ground was broken 
at Cattlesburg, Saturday, November 19, 1853, and the work 
was proceeded with. In the summer of 1854, application 
was made by the company for the issuing of the bonds of 
the city of Lexington for $100,000, which was refused, on 
the ground that the railroad company had not complied 
with the conditions of its contract. The company insti- 
tuted proceedings in the circuit court, which ordered the 


issuing of the bonds, which was done July 6, 1854, under 
protest by the city authorities. Subsequently the company 
failed, the whole amount was lost, work ceased on the road, 
and in 1860 it was sold to a few gentlemen for $60,000. 

For many years the whole project was substantially aban- 
doned, but was finally revived under the charter of the 
present Elizabethtown, Lexington and Big Sandy Railroad 
Company, and on the 2d of August, 1869, Fayette county 
and the city of Lexington each subscribed $250,000 to its 
stock, the property and rights of the western division of 
the old company were merged in the new one, work was 
again commenced on the road in 1871, and on March 2, 
1872, twenty years after the chartering of the original com- 
pany, the first rail was laid on Water street, in Lexington. 
The road is now completed to Mt. Sterling, and its afiairs 
and prospects are most satisfactory. 

General John C. Breckinridge, the vice-president of the 
Elizabethtown, Lexington and Big Sandy Railroad Com- 
pany, was born near Lexington, January 21, 1821. He was 
educated at Centre College, graduated at the Transylvania 
law school, commenced the practice of his profession in 
Lexington, and married Miss Birch, of Georgetown, Ken- 
tucky. He served as major in the Mexican war, has been 
a member of the legislature, representative and senator in 
congress, vice-president of the United States, and major- 
general and secretary of war of the late Confederate States. 
The brilliant career of this distinguished Lexingtonian, in 
the forum, in the field, and in the councils of the nation, 
indicate the rare gifts and great endowments of the man. 

Henry Clay died in Washington City, Tuesday, June 2, 
1852. The sad news was at once dispatched to Lexington, 
and immediately upon its reception the bells were tolled, 
the business houses were closed, badges of mourning 
appeared on every side, and all ceased from their usual 
avocations.* The mayor immediately issued a proclama- 
tion for a public meeting of the citizens, which was accord- 
ingly held in the court-house the next day, for the purpose 

•Observer and Reporter. 


of giving expression to their feelings of sorrow for the loss 
of their distinguished fellow-citizen, to make arrangements 
for the reception of his earthly remains, and to perform 
such other acts as were deemed worthy of the occasion. 

The meeting was called to order by Mayor E. W. Dow- 
den, and on his motion, Dr. Benjamin W. Dudley was 
appointed chairman, and Benjamin Gratz, secretary. 

The meeting was opened with an appropriate prayer by 
the Rev. William M. Pratt, of the Baptist Church. Judge 
George Robertson then rose and oft'ered some eminently 
appropriate resolutions, which he accompanied with a brief 
but eloquent speech, in reference to the great loss which 
had been sustained in the death of Mr. Clay. The question 
was then taken, and the resolutions were unanimously 

During the meeting, initiatory steps were taken toAvard 
the erection of a monument to Mr. Clay in the Lexington 
Cemetery, and the following committee was appointed to 
effect that object, viz : H. T. Duncan, M. T. Scott, Dr. E. 
Warfield, Leslie Combs, H. B. Hill, John McMurtry, G. B. 
Kinkead, Richard A. Buckner, J. R. Desha, Willa Viley, 
John C. Breckinridge. 

The committee appointed to repair to Washington and 
accompany the body home was composed of George Rob- 
ertson, H. T. Duncan, E. P. Johnson, R. Pindell, D. C. 
Wickliffe, Henry Bell, James A. Grinstead, H. C. Payne, 
Thomas S. Redd, Charles B. Thomas, C. C. Rogers, A. 
Throckmorton, W. W. Worsley, and A. G. Hodges. 

Messrs. B. Gratz, M. C. Johnson, E. W. Dowden, H. C. 
Pindell, J. B. Tilford, J. O. Harrison, W. S. Chipley, S. D. 
McCuUough, William A. Dudley, Thomas G. Randall, F. 
K. Hunt, E. Oldham, and John R. Dunlap were appointed 
a committee of arrangements for the reception and inter- 
ment of the remains. 

A resolution, offered by Major S. D.McCullough, request- 
ing the ministers of the various religious congregations 
in Lexington and Fayette county to deliver appropriate 
addresses on the death of Mr. Clay, at their several places 
of worship, on the following Sunday, was unanimously 


adopted, as was also a motion by Dr. S. M. Letcher to 
transmit the proceedings of the meeting to Mrs. Clay. The 
meeting then adjourned. 

The body of the illustrious orator was detained in all the 
larger cities through which it passed, en route to Lexington, 
that the highest honors might be paid it, and it was not 
until tlie evening of Friday, the 9th of July, that it arrived 
in Lexington, accompanied by the senatorial committee, 
consisting of Messrs. Underwood, Jones, of Tennessee, 
Cass, Fish, Houston, and Stockton. 

Mr. Underwood, the chairman of the committee, after a 
brief address, which was replied to by Chief Justice Rob- 
ertson, delivered the body into the care of the Lexington 
committee. A procession was then formed, headetl by a 
cavalcade of horsemen, preceding the hearse to Ashland. 
The old home was reached, and the silent mourners moved 
through the grounds, guided by torches, and they laid him 
reverentl}' under the roof of the dwelling whose name he 
had made a household word. The Clay Guard, of Cincin- 
nati, watched all the night through beside his remains. 

Long before daylight on the memorable funeral day, 
Saturday, July 10, 1852, crowds of people poured into 
Lexington by every avenue to the city. All the roads 
were opened free to the public, and every hospitality was 
extended to strangers. Soon the largest crowd of people 
ever assembled in Lexington was gathered together — so 
immense, in fact, that it was estimated at one hundred 
thousand souls.* 

At nine o'clock A. M., the funeral escort, composed of 
the committee of arrangements, committee of the senate 
of the United States, conmiittees from other states accom- 
panying the body, committee of the city of Lexington 
sent to receive the body, the Masonic fraternity, and pall- 
bearers, formed on Main street, opposite the court-house, 
under the direction of Marshals John R. Allen, George W. 
Brand, R. J. Spurr, and E. L. Dudley, and from thence 
proceeded to Ashland, where a large crowd had already 

•Louisville Journal. 


gathered. On the porch, in front of the door of the states- 
man's old residence, and resting on a bier cushioned with 
fragrant and beautiful flowers, was the coffin inclosing his 
mortal remains, and all around it, and upon it, were the 
floral and evergreen oflerings of every place on the route, 
from the capital of the nation to Lexington. The liev. 
Edward F. Berklej^, then rector of Christ's Church (Epis- 
copal), in Lexington, delivered the funeral oration. He was 
equal to the occasion, and the effort was a splendid one. 
He commenced his discourse with the following beautiful 
words : "A nation's griefs are bursting forth at the fail of 
one of her noblest sous. A mighty man in wisdom, in 
intellect, in truth, lies in our presence to-day, inanimate 
and cold, and the voice which was ever raised in behalf 
of truth and liberty is silenced forever." After the sermon, 
an address from the young men of Cincinnati was then 
deUvered by the chairman of the committee to Governor 
Underwood, to be handed to Mrs. Clay. 

The concourse was then dismissed with a benediction, 
and the body was placed in a hearse beautifully decorated 
with black cloth and crape, surmounted with a silver urn 
and eagle, and drawn by six white horses. The funeral 
escort was formed under the direction of the chief marshal. 
General Peter Dudley, and it, together with the relatives 
of Mr. Clay, the officiating clergyman, and the assembled 
multitude, returned to the city, and took their places in the 
grand funeral procession, which was formed on Main street 
by the chief marshal, assisted by his aids, H. C. Pindell 
and W. J. Talbot, and moved to the Lexington Cemetery 
in the following order, viz:* 

Marshals J. R. Dunlap and O. P. Beard. 

Military in sections of six, in advance of the procession, 

with reversed arras, muffled drums, colors 

furled, and draped in mourning. 

Officers of the Army and ISTavy of the United States. 

Chief Marshal and Aids. 

*Observer and lleporter. 


Committee of Arrangements. 

Marshal Postlethwaite. 

Committee of the Senate of the United States. 

Committees from other States accompanying the body. 

Committee of the city of Lexington sent to receive the 


Marshal C.W.Kennedy. 

Masonic Fraternity. 



B. "W. Dudley, Benjamin Gratz, 

M. T. Scott, D. Vertner, 

George Robertson, Chilton Allan, 

E. Warlield, R. Havves, 

Charles Carr, Garrett Davis, 

Roger Quarles, C. S. Morehead. 

Family of Deceased, and officiating Clergyman. 

Reverend Clergy of all denominations. 

Marshal C. W. Dudley. 

Governor and Heads of Departments of tbe State of 


Committee of cities, towns, and counties of the State of 


Marshal S. D. Bruce. 

Mayor and Council of the city of Lexington. 

President and Directors of Lexington Ceraete«ry Company. 

Trustees and Faculty of Transylvania University. 

Marshal C. D. Carr. 

Judges, Members of the Bar, and Officers of the Fayette 

Circuit Court. 

Judges of the Superior and Interior Courts of Kentucky 

and Officers. 

Judges of the United States Courts and Officers. 

Members and ex-Members of the Congress of the United 


Marshal Silas Kenney. 

Independent Order of Odd-Fellows, in sections of six. 

Sons of Temperance, in sections of six. 

Marshals R. W. Bush and M. B. Gratz. 


Fire Companies, in sections of six. 

Members of the Senate and House of Representatives of 

the State of Kentucky. 

Teachers of Schools. 

Marshal Isaac Shelby. 

Citizens on foot, in sections of six. 

Marshals Clifton Weir and R. Todhunter. 

Citizens and Strangers in carriages, two abreast. 

Marshals Robert Bullock and J. Shropshire. 

Citizens and Strangers on horseback, in sections of four. 

The procession was one of extraordinary proportions and 
impressiveness. Every drum, flag, banner, and emblem 
was draped in mourning. The marshals wore white scarfs 
and a black rosette, and a streamer of crape floated from 
each hat. The sables of woe were exhibited everywhere, 
but the decorations were particularly elaborate and beau- 
tiful upon Cheapside and Main streets. Every business 
house was closed, festooned and garlanded with black. 
Across Main street, at the intersection of Mill, an immense 
golden eagle, tastefully draped, was swung high in the air, 
and mourning banners and garlands floated down almost 
to the heads of passers-by, and waved gently and sadly in 
the breeze. The streets, windows, house-tops, and every 
available place of observation were densely packed with 
spectators, but good order and a decorous silence prevailed 
while the honors were being paid to the illustrious dead. 
The firing of minute guns and the tolling of bells signaled 
that the procession was put in motion. It moved slowly 
through the silent street to the sound of beautiful but 
mournful music; sable plumes nodded, a myriad of bayo- 
nets and ornaments glittered in the sunlight, and thus, with 
tens of thousands of his sorrowing friends about him, was 
Henry Clay borne to his rest. On the arrival of the pro- 
cession at the Lexington Cemetery, the exquisite and im- 
pressive burial service of the Episcopal Church, of which 
the great orator was a member, was read, after which the 
Masonic fraternity took charge of the body, and deposited 
it in the public vault, in accordance with the ancient forms 


and touching ceremonies of their order. During all of 
these last solemn rites, the tears of family and friends and 
mourning multitudes were falling, and the soft tolling of 
bells, and the sad booming of minute guns, sounded in the 
distance. When the mortal remains of the Sage of Ash- 
land were hidden from sight, the procession returned to the 
shrouded city in its original order, and after reaching the 
court-house, each committee and company filed ofi', and 
quietly dispersed. Thirty-one guns, fired at the setting of 
the sun, completed the obsequies. 

374 HISTORY OF LEXINGTON. [1853-56. 


City Lighted with Gas — Sayre Institute — "OM King Sol- 
omon " — " Know Nothings." 

After several years discussion, gas works were at last 
established in Lexington, and, in 1853, the city took $10,000 
worth of stock in the company. The city was lighted with 
gas, for the first time, on the night of Wednesday, July 
27, 1853, and lard-oil lamps went out of use, greatly to the 
joy of the citizens, in general, and the poHcemen, in par- 

The Sayre Female Institute, on Limestone street, estab- 
lished by David A. Sayre, was organized November 1, 1854, 
under Rev. H. V. D. I^[evius. Subsequently, that accom- 
plished educator, the beloved and lamented Prof. S. R. AYill- 
iams, became principal, and retained the position, with in- 
creasing reputation, for many years. It is at present in 
charge of Prof. H. B. McClellan, a scholar well fitted for the 

" Old King Solomon," one of the kindliest souls, and one 
of the quaintest and most noted of Lexington institutions, 
died November 27, 1854, and not a few were saddened when 
they heard that he was gone. William Solomon, to call 
him by his proper name, was born in Virginia, in 1775, and 
always boasted that he and " Henry," as he familiarly called 
the Sage of Ashland, had been boys together. He ad- 
mitted, though, that "Henry" had risen somewhat higher 
than he — the "King" was a cellar-digger. Nobody knew 
when "King Solomon" came to Lexington — he seemed to 
have always been here ; and no one ever saw him with new 
clothes — his " rig," as he called his clothes, appeared to have 
been old from the start. His same old hat always had the 
same old mashed look, and his pants were about as close- 
fitting as the hide on a rhinoceros. He was never known 

1853-56.] " OLD KING SOLOMON." 375 

to catch cold from washing his face ; his hair majjao-ed itself 
and the button and button-hole of his shirt collar never met 
long enough to make the slightest acquaintance. " Old King 
Solomon" was never so happy as when, haif-seas over, 
and provided with the stump of a cigar (he never had a 
whole one), he was allowed to smoke in peace upon a com- 
fortable rock-pile. But with all these eccentricities of 
genius, "Old Solomon" was none the less honest, upriijht, 
and industrious; and he had a stout and pitying heart 
withal, for many a grave he dug during the awful cholera 
days of 1833, when many a more boastful and better-dressed 
man had fled in terror from the city. 

A more everlasting, incorruptible, and Jackson-defying 
Whig than "Old King Solomon" never lived; he clung to 
" Henry" through thick and thin, and no one ever mourned 
him more sincerely. He was one of the most independent 
voters in Fayette. A candidate, on one occasion, gave him 
some money and advised him to go and vote. Old Sol- 
omon pocketed the money, and straightway did vote, but 
voted against his benefactor, who was not of his party and 

At one time — how it happened, we know not — " King 
Solomon" was very strangely and unfortunately mistaken 
for a vagrant, and was arrested and sold to an old negro 
woman for eighteen cents. He proved to be a good invest- 
ment, for he brought her in seventy-five cents per da3^ 

How Solomon got to be a " King," happened in this wise : 
One day, when he was not as sober as a judge, he was em- 
ployed to trim a tree in the coiirt-house yard. He got 
astride of a big limb, and, while in a meditative mood, he 
trimmed it so closely and so deeply between himself and 
the trunk of the tree, that it snapped off, and landed him 
suddenly and short of breath on the ground. The rare 
wisdom he displayed as a trimmer gained for him at once 
the title of " King Solomon," after the wisest man that ever 

When the quaint old soul went to his rest, he was ten- 
derly interred in the Lexington Cemetery. Fortunately, 

376 HISTORY OF LEXINGTON. [1853-56. 

while he was in the heyday of his attractions, an admirable 
picture of him was painted by Colonel Price. He was in- 
duced to sit for it by being provided with the wherewith to 
make himself comfortable on his favorite seat — a rock-pile. 
During the years 1855 and 1856, popular attention was 
largely directed to the " Know Nothing," or American 
party, which came into existence in 1853. The rise and fall 
of the "Know Nothings" was attended with great excite- 
ment, during which such party names as " Say Nichts," 
" Dark Lanternites," and " Blood Tubs" prevailed. 



Lexington Rifles— Eosa's Poems— Ceremonies In cicfent to Laying 
the Corner-stone of the Clay Monument — Description oj the 

The "Lexington Rifles," organized in 1857, was the first 
military company in Kentucky to report to the governor 
as a part of the state guard in 1860. The armory of the 
"Rifles" was in an upper story of the building lately replaced 
by the bank, on the corner of Main and Upper. The first 
officers of the company were : John H. Morgan, captain ; 
Chas. H. Brutton, first lieutenant; J. H. Shropshire, second 
lieutenant ; Joseph R. Gross, third lieutenant ; Richard Cox, 
ensign; C. W. Kennedy, first sergeant; R. C. Morgan, sec- 
ond sergeant; Hiram Reece, third sergeant; Harry Browne, 
fourth sergeant ; "Wm. M. Yates, first corporal ; Jas. Dud- 
ley, second corporal ; C. H. Dobyns, third corporal ; H. A. 
Saxton, fourth corporal ; Thos. Wilson, quartermaster. 

A volume of poems of much beauty, tenderness, and 
power was published, in 1857, by Mrs. Rosa V. Jeffrey. 
In 1870, her "Daisy Dare," appeared. Mrs. Jeffrey was 
born at Natchez, Miss., but has spent the most of her life 
in Lexington. 

On the 4th of July, 1857, the corner-stone of the Clay 
monument, in the Lexington Cemetery, was laid with im- 
posing ceremonies under the auspices of the Monumental 
Association, which consisted of James 0. Harrison, H. T. 
Duncan, Henry Bell, Benjamin Gratz, and H. B. Hill. The 
day was beautiful, business was suspended, the city was 
crowded with spectators, and the houses leading to the 
cemetery were adorned with flowers, evergreens, flags, 
streamers, and banners. 


The procession moved from headquarters, opposite the 
Phoenix Hotel, amid the thunder of artillery and the en- 
livening music of four splendid bands.* The Masonic fra- 
ternity, to whom the ceremonies were intrusted, and the 
Odd Fellows were out in full dress regalia. The Union and 
Lafayette fire companies of Louisville, together with all 
the Lexington companies, were present. The military or- 
ganizations in the procession were the Guthrie Graj's and 
Continentals, of Cincinnati; an artillery company from 
Frankfort; the Falls City Guards, of Louisville; National 
Guards, of St. Louis; Independent National Guards, of In- 
dianapolis; City Guards, of Baltimore, and the Madison 
Guards, of Richmond, Ky. 

The family carriage, presented to Mr. Clay, in 1833, by 
the citizens of Newark, N. J., which- was the only one ad- 
mitted into the cemetery grounds, was ornamented with 
white funeral plumes and wreaths of flowers and ever- 
greens. It w^as occupied by Aaron Dupuy, an old negro 
servant of Mr. Clay, who had been in his service for many 
years. In the back seat was a bust of Mr. Clay and an 
engraving of his leave-taking in the senate. 

Long before the procession arrived at the cemetery, a 
large concourse had assembled to witness the interesting 

Upon the platform, near the foundation of the monu- 
ment, were the members of Mr. Clay's family, consisting 
of Thos. H. Clay and James B. Clay and their families, 
Isaac Shelby and family, and others. 

The following distinguished gentlemen were observed on 
and in the vicinity of the platform : John C. Breckinridge, 
Vice-President of the United States; Governor Morehead. 
Senator Crittenden, Hon. James Guthrie, Hon. Garrett 
Davis; Ex-Gov. Trimble, of Ohio; Chief Justices Geo. 
Robertson and T. A. Marshall; J. B. Huston, Speaker of 
the House of Representatives of Kentuck}''; Hon. James 
Harlan, Attorney-General; Hon. Richard Hawes; Dr. Green, 
of the Normal School ; President Bartlett, of the American 

♦Association Pamphlet. 

1857.] CLAY MONUMENT. 379 

Council of the United ; States Hon. Oscar F. Moore, of 
Ohio; Roger W. Hanson, Esq.; Zophar Mills, Esq., of I^ew 
York, and the president and directors of the Cla^' Monu- 
ment Association. 

The Masonic fraternity occupied the inclosure wlicre the 
ceremonies were performed, while the militarj, firemen, 
and the rest of the procession, selected such positions in 
different portions of the grounds as they preferred. 

The president of the association assigned to the M. W. 
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, Mr. T. I^. 
Wise, the duty of laying the corner-stone. 

In the stone was placed a box hermetically sealed; in a 
glass jar, a history of the occasion, with the names of the 
president and vice-president of the United States, the gov- 
ernor of Kentucky, the names of the officers of the Grand 
Lodge of Kentucky, and of the president and directors of 
the Clay Monumental Association; a copy of each of the 
papers of the city of Lexington; a picture of Cincinnati 
in 1802, published in the Cincinnati Gazette ; also a parch- 
ment prepared by the Cincinnati Guthrie Grays, in testi- 
mony of their appreciation of the man who preferred to be 
right rather than to be president of the United States ; a 
medallion in copper, struck from the die of the Clay gold 
medal, presented by the Clay Festival Association of l:^ew 
York, with a copy of all the festive songs and odes sung 
and read before that association for the last twelve years, 
and giving a history of that association ; also a beautiful 
medallion likeness of Mr. Clay, by C. Younglove Ilaynes, 
Esq., of Philadelphia, together with copies of Philadelphia 
papers from the same gentleman, with coins of the present 
day (American), in gold, silver, and copper ; a Bible, and 
other articles. 

The stone was laid to its place, and pronounced by the 
grand master well formed, true, and trusty, when corn, 
wine, and oil were poured upon it, and the ceremonies con- 
cluded by prayer. During and preceding the ceremonies, 
the Newport United States band discoursed the sweetest 
music, and salutes were fired. 


After laying the corner-stone, the procession was re- 
formed and proceeded to the fair grounds, whose vast am- 
phitheater was soon filled to repletion with the gathered 
beauty, intellect, and worth of Kentucky, 

After prayer by Rev. E. F. Berkley, of the Episcopal 
Church, Dr. E,. J. Breckinridge, orator of the day, deliv- 
ered an address in every way worthy its great subject and 
the occasion. Dinners and picnics in the beautiful groves 
followed, and at four o'clock there was a grand review of 
the military by Governor Morehead, the Newport band 
discoursing beautiful music, and the regular proceedings 
of the day closed. 

The Clay monument,* some 120 feet in height, is built 
of the magnesian limestone of this state, which resembles 
very much the famed Caen stone of Normandy, and is a 
column modeled after the Corinthian style of architecture, 
consisting of a stereobate, pedestal base, shaft and capital, 
the whole surmounted by a statue of the statesman. 

The stereobate, or subbase, some 20 feet in height, and 
40 feet square, is in the Egyptian style, plain and massive, 
and has its appropriate cornice of very simple character 
throughout its whole circuit, broken on each side around a 
projecting facade in the same style, but of more elaborate 
finish. In the center of the southern face is an entrance 
to a vaulted chamber, of the dimensions 12 by 24 feet, and 
16 feet high in the center, hghted from above by heavy 
plate glass fixed in bronze frames in such manner as to be 
unseen from without. The chamber is of polished marble 
of Kentucky, appropriately finished as a receptacle for 
sarcophagi, and, if desirable, a life-size statue. The open- 
ing is closed by a screen of bronze. The remaining space 
within the subbase is a closed vault, access to which is had 
by means of a doorway, ordinarily closed with masonry. 

Above the stereobate or subbase is the pedestal of the 
column, divided horizontally into two members, each with 
its base and cornice. The lower one is 8| feet in height, 
and the upper 14 feet in height. The faces of both raem- 

*Doscription from Association Pamphlet. 

1857.] CLAY MOISVMENT. 381 

bers of the pedestal are ia sunk panel, to be filled ulti- 
mately with bas reliefs in bronze, if desirable. 

Above the pedestal rises the shaft, which, with the base 
and capital, is 69 feet in height; the lower diameter being 
6 feet 8 inches, and the upper 5 feet 10 inches, built solid. 
The shaft, instead of the ordinary 24 flutes, with their in- 
termediate fillets, is composed of a cluster of thirteen 
spears (one for each of the "Old Thirteen"), the heads of 
which, of bronze, interlaced and grouped with corn leaves 
and appropriate national emblems, form the capital of the 
column, conformable, in outline and proportion, to the best 
examples of the order. On the abacus of the capital rests 
an acroter of bronze, of a parabolic contour, and formed 
of ash and ivy leaves, serving as a pedestal to the statue. 

382 HISTORY OF LEXINGTON. [1858-59. 


Sons of Malta — 31. T. Scott — Change in City Government — 
Bobert Wickliffe, Sen. 

Helmet Lodge, No. 1, Sons of Malta, was organized in 
Lexington, April 3, 1858, and held its meetings in an upper 
story of the building, on the corner of Main and Mill 
streets, known as "Whitney & Co.'s drug store. 

Matthew T. Scott, who filled for many years the posi- 
tion of president of the ISTorthern Bank of Kentucky, died 
in Lexington, in the seventy-second year of his age, Au- 
gust 21, 1858. He was a man of rare financial sagacity and 
of irreproachable integrity, and had been identified with 
the banking interests of Kentucky for more than forty years. 

In 1859, the Democrats obtained control of the city 
government of Lexington, after it had been in the hands 
of their variously-named opponents for nearly a quarter of 
a century. 

Kobert Wickliffe, Sen., died at his residence in Lexington, 
September 1, 1859, in the sixty-sixth year of his age. Mr. 
Wickliffe came from Virginia at an early day, and by his 
energy, persistent labor, and ability, gained a conspicuous 
position at the bar. He repeatedly represented Fayette in 
the legislature, was chairman of the board of trustees of 
Transylvania University, filled other important public 
offices, and was for half a century one of the leading 
spirits in state politics. Mr. Wickliffe was one of the 
shrewdest and ablest land lawyers in Kentucky, and as 
such made himself rich. He was twice married. His 
first wife was Margaretta Howard, and his last, Mary 0. 
Hussell. He was buried at " Howard's Grove," Fayette 
county, Kentucky. Mr. Wicklifi'e resided on the corner 
of Second and Jefferson streets, where General William 
Preston now lives. 



Population — Parties — St. John's Academy — Lexington Chas- 
seurs — List of Officers and Privates. 

The population of Lexington, in 1860, was nine thou- 
sand iive hundred and twenty-one, and that of Fayette 
county, twenty-two thousand live hundred and ninety-nine. 

The political parties which acted so prominent a part on 
the eve of the great struggle between the North and the 
South, were the Douglas Democrats, Breckinridge Demo- 
crats, the Bell and Everett, or Union party, and the Kepub- 
lican or Abolition party. 

St. John's Academy, a Catholic parochial school con- 
nected with St. Catharine's Academy, on Limestone street, 
was established in 1860, mainly through the efforts of 
Father McGuire. 

The Lexington Chasseurs, one of the most noted of the 
military companies ever raised in Lexington, was organ- 
ized May 9, 1860, in the grand jury room of the present 
court-house, and in a very short time was fully equipped. 
On the 4tli of July, 1860, in the presence of the largest 
crowd ever assembled on the old fairgrounds (now the 
city park). Miss Abby Stewart, in behalf of the ladies of 
Lexington, presented the Chasseurs with a beautiful flag. 
The reply to the presentation address was made by Mr. O. 
L. Bradley, in behalf of the company. The reading of 
the declaration of independence by D. C. Wickliffe, an 
oration by R. W. Cooper, and a handsome barbecue given 
by the Chasseurs and their many friends concluded the ex- 
ercises of the day. 

The brilliant uniform and splendid evolutions of the 
Chasseurs now constitute one of the most charminof me- 


moirs of the days "just before the war." The Chasseurs were 
the favorites of everybody, and the company rarely had a 
parade that it was not invited to partake of the hospital- 
ities of some private residence. In 1861, a silver canteen 
was presented to the company, to be the prize of that mem- 
ber of the Chasseurs who should prove himself the best 
rifle shot, and to be retained by him until won by another. 
On one side is the inscription : 

Lexington Chasseurs, 


May 9, 1860. 

Non nobis sed patriae. 

The other side bears the name of the giver, and also those 
of the winners of the prize, viz: 

Presented February 22, 1861, by Jolin G. Kiser, Esq. 

Private R. T. Anderson. 

Corporal L. P. Milward, July 26, 1861. 

Private David Prewett, June 16, 1868. 

The hiatus from 1861 to 1868 represents a period too well 
and too sadly remembered to need explanation. 

The Chasseurs were not simply peace soldiers. At the 
beginning of the late terrible war, a large majority of this 
favorite company volunteered and served gallantly in one 
or the other of the contending armies. The members of 
the old Chasseurs fought bravely on many a bloody field; 
not a few attained an enviable distinction, while others 
" sleep their last sleep" from wounds inflicted or diseases 
contracted in that desperate struggle. 

The following is a list of the flrst ofticers elected by the 
Chasseurs, and the names of all the privates who have ever 
belonged to the company : 

Captain, S. T>. Bruce; first lieutenant, J. C. Cochran; 
second lieutenant, W. F. Matheny; third lieutenant, C. H. 
Harney; first sergeant, James Dudley; second sergeant, L. 
W. Ealier ; third sergeant, T. D. Carr; fourth sergeant, 
Charles Swift ; fifth sergeant, T. J. Nicholas ; first corporal, 
John B. Castlemau ; second corporal, J. M. Yates ; third 
corporal, L. P. Milward; fourth corporal, T. J. Bush; sur- 
geon, Dudley Bush; clerk, G. R. Letcher; bugler, C. H. 


Brutton ; color bearer, J. Munos. Privates — R. T. Ander- 
son, J. W. Alexander, O. L. Bradley, E. Brennan, B. W. 
Blincoe, H. C. Brennan, F. W. Brodie, John Bryan, L. 
Brechus, J. Bright, L. C. Bruce, G. R. Bell, W. Bright, D. 
M. Craig, J. Cochran, A. B. Chinn, C. Coleman, A. Clark, 
R. W. Cooper, B. T. Castleman, J. Clark, E. Cropper, G. 
Castleman, H. G. Craig, J. Cooper, H. Castleman, S. Dudley, 
E. S. Duncanson, H. C. Dunlap, J. G. Dudley, G. A. Doll, 
J. Dillon, J. Dill, G. Dozier, 11. T. Duncan, Jr., J. W. Dil- 
lard, T. P. Dudley, Jr., C. Ely, W. Ferguson, R. Ferguson, 
N. Ferguson, R. JFoley, W. F. Fulton,'j. L. Gilmore, S. C. 
Graves, W. D. Gilmore, C. Goodloe, F. Gilmore, D. S. 
Goodloe, Jr., Z. Gibbons, 11. B. Hill, Jr., J. O. Hill, F. X. 
Hollerger, D. M. Hawkins, F. A. Hanson, P. B. Hunt, P. 
C. Hartnell, J. Hayes, T. Hawkins, L. Harris, S. Hawkins, 
J. A. Harper, M. Hebrati, C. C. Johnson, Jas. Johnson, 
John Johnson, B. H. Johnson, lE. Keene, T. J. Kellj', D. 
Kastle, J. Keene, G. Kinnear, J. G. Keiser, B. Letcher, S. 
Letcher, H. Luther, J. W. Lee, S. Lawless, J. P. Lawless, 
Linzen, E. Lewis, G. L. Lancaster, P. Lampher, W. Lock- 
hart, R. McCann, J. Munos, W. M. Matthews, R. Maguire, 
H. McManus, C. Milward, T. W. McCann, H. McCann, B. 
J. McCabe, T. D. Mitchell, T. McCaw, J. Mc^eal, W. 
McCracken, Monks, W. Montmollin, K H. McClelland, G. 
McMurtry, F. Matthews, J. C. Morris, J. Montmollin, H. 
McKee, W. Maglone, J. R. Morton, S. Mahone, W. B. 
Mclntire, L. C. Nicholas, J. C. Newcomb, J. Nemelly, M. 
Oftutt, H. Cots, G. L. Postlethwaite, W. Postlethwaite, E. 
Payne, A. B. PuUum, W. Perkins, J. R. Price, J. C. Pierce, 
M. Reed, J. Reed, T. A. Russell, R. C. Scott, E. Swift, S. 
Swift, G. Sprague, J. P. Shaw, W. Spencer, J. Sellier, 
C. H. Swift, J. B. Steves, W. T. Scott, D. Scott, T. Scott, O. 
Saxton, L. Spurr, H. C. Stewart, C. Spillman, J. Shaw, J. 
Sepp, J. F. Thompson, B. F. Thompson, A. W. Trabien, R. 
Underwood, W. H. Varty, J. A. Vaughn, R. J. West, P. 
Wilging, D. V. Woolley, L. Wartield, C. AVarlield, E. War- 
field, N. Williams, L. N. Walton, W. Wood. 

386 HISTORY OF LEXINGTON. [1861-62. 


Fair Amphitheater Burnt — Pruden's Statue of Clay — Ethel- 
bert Dudley — S. D. McCullough. 

On the night of December 18, 1861, the handsome am- 
phitheater on the magnificent fair grounds of the Kentucky 
Agricultural and Mechanical Association, near Maxwell's 
spring, in Lexington, was destroyed by fire, a calamity 
still deeply regretted. 

In 1861, Mr. M. Pruden, whose talents as a sculptor are 
well known, executed a fine statue of Henry Clay, which 
is still in his possession. Several years before this, his ex- 
cellent busts of Mr. Clay and Judge Robertson were made. 
Mr. Pruden is a native of Pennsylvania, but has spent the 
most of his life in Lexington. 

Dr. Ethelbert L. Dudley, son of Ambrose Dudley, died 
at the age of forty-five, of typhoid fever, at Columbia, 
Kentucky, February 20, 1862. At the time of his death, 
he was Colonel of the Twenty-first Kentucky (Federal) 
Infantry. Dr. Dudley was born near Lexington; was edu- 
cated at Harvard University, and graduated at the Tran- 
sylvania Medical College, in which he was afterward pro- 
fessor of the principles and practice of surgery. He was 
a physician by nature, talents, and education, and before 
the commencement of the late war, he had attained a 
prominence consistent with his rare abilities and skill. He 
seemed destined to take the first place in his profession in 
Kentucky. Dr. Dudley was not more admired as a phy- 
sician than he was beloved as a man. To the strength of 
his mind and character, there seemed added every knightly 
attribute and grace. He was brave and generous, quick to 
resent, and quick to forgive. He was big-hearted, kind, 

1861-62] DUDLEY— McCVLLOUGH. 387 

sympathetic, and gentle. Littleness and meanness he 
despised unutterably, while his soul warmed instinctively 
to every high and noble action. His heart went out to 
his friends, and his multitude of friends clung to him with 
a devotion that is as rare as it was beautiful. No citizen 
of Lexington was ever more deeply and universally beloved 
than Dr. Dudley — perhaps none as much so. 

The funeral services took place on Monday, the 24th of 
February, in the Odd Fellow^s Hall,* on the corner of Alain 
and Broadway, which had been draped in mourning, and 
throughout the entire sad exercises could be heard the sobs 
of hundreds in the dense and sorrowing crowd. The re- 
mains of the greatly beloved physician were borne to the 
Lexington Cemetery, where they now sleep, followed by the 
"Old Infantry," the Chasseurs, the various orders and pro- 
fessions, and a multitude of other mourners of every rank 
and condition of life. 

The handsome form, the eagle eye, and generous heart 
of Dr. Ethelbert Dudley will long be remembered in Lex- 

Samuel D. McCullough, now one of the oldest natives 
of Lexington, was born June 26, 1803. His father, a native 
of Maryland, was one of the early settlers of Lexington. 
Major McCullough was graduated A. B., at Transylvania 
University, in 1824, and a few years after received the de- 
gree of A. M. In 1829, he married Miss Harriet Wallis, a 
great grand-daughter of Rev. Samuel Daviess, of Prince- 
ton College. After conducting a female academy for four- 
teen years. Major McCullough inherited the secret, and for 
many years conducted the manufacture of Burrowes' w^orld- 
renowned Lexington mustard. His love for painting, local 
history, and antiquities is well-known, but his particular 
forte is astronomy. " McCullough's Almanacs," Map of 
the Heavens, and Text-book on Astronomy have more than 
a local reputation. The major has been one of the " lights " 
of the Masonic fraternity since 1824. He is a quaint relic 

•Observer and Reporter. 




of the olden time of Lexington, and his warm heart and 
well-stored head, and his praiseworthy desire and efforts to 
save from destruction the monuments and memoirs of 
the past, justly entitled him to the name of " Old Mor- 

1863.] JUDGE WM. C. GOODLOE. 389 


Banking House of Grinstead ^ Bradley — Wm. C. Goodloe. 

The banking house of Grinstead & Bradley, located on 
Upper, between Maine and Short streets, was established 
in 1863. 

Judge William C. Goodloe removed to Lexington iu 
1863. He was born in Madison county, Ky., October 7, 
1805;* graduated at the Transylvania Law School in 1824; 
commenced the practice of his profession in Richmond, 
and was soon after appointed commonwealth attorney by 
Governor Metcalf. In 1826, he married Miss Almira, daugh- 
ter of Governor William Owsley. He was appointed circuit 
judge in 1846, and served under the appointment until the 
adoption of the state constitution of 1850, when he was 
elected to the same office by the people. After that he was 
twice re-elected and continued in office until 1868, having 
been upon the bench for twenty-two consecutive years. At 
the time of his death, which occurred in Lexington, Aug. 
14, 1870, he was a professor in the Law College of Ken- 
tucky University. Judge Goodloe was a fine lawyer, and 
possessed very extensive legal information. As a judge he 
was quick to comprehend cases and arrive at conclusions, 
and was exceedingly prompt and able in the dispatch and 
transaction of the duties of his office. 

^Kentucky Statesman. 



Jewish Church — James B. Clay — John H. Morgan. 

The Jews, the most ancient people of the Most High, 
are few in Lexington, and have no regular and established 
organization, but the requirements of their faith are not 
entirely ignored. In the year 1864, in their month of 
Tishri, they assembled at the residence of one of their 
brethren, and observed their Sabbath of Sabbaths, the 
great Day of Atonement, with fasting, humiliation, and 
prayer. From that time to the present, this, the most 
solemn day of the "whole Jewish year, has been annually 
commemorated by the Israelites of Lexington. 

James B. Clay, son of Henry Clay, died in February, 
1864, in (Canada, aged forty-seven. Mr. Clay was born in 
Lexington, and was educated for the bar, where, in time, 
he made a good reputation. Mr. Clay was the only mem- 
ber of the family that seemed to inherit any of the father's 
oratorical talent — he was a fine stump speaker. After filling 
the position of charge to Portugal, Mr. Clay ably represented 
his district in Congress. In the late war, he warmly 
espoused the cause of the Confederate States, and was on his 
way to join the Southern army, when he was arrested and 
exiled to Canada, where he died of consumption at the 
time stated above. His remains are buried in the Lexing- 
ton Cemetery. His residence was Ashland, which he pur- 
chased after his father's death. 

General John H. Morgan, the Marion of Kentucky, and 
the most brilliant partisan leader of the late war, was killed 
by treachery at Greenville, East Tennessee, September 4, 
1864. He was born at Huntsville, Alabama, June 1, 1825, 
and was a son of Calvin C. Morgan, and his wife, a daugh- 
ter of John W. Hunt, of Lexington, Kentucky. General 

1864.] JOHN H. MORGAN. 391 

Morgan's parents removed to Lexington when he was a 
small child, and nothing of special interest occurred in his 
life until he arrived at the age of nineteen, when he en- 
listed in the Mexican war. On his return, he married Miss 
Bruce, and engaged regularly in business in Lexington. 

At the beginning of the late war, he was captain of the 
noted "Lexington Rifles," and, espousing the cause of the 
South, escaped, by stratagem, with a number of that com- 
pany, on the 20th of September, 1861, and arrived safely at 
Green river. Shortly after, at Bowling Green, he was 
elected captain of a cavalry company, which was duly en- 
rolled in the Confederate service. From that time until the 
day of his death, he figured in great events, which made 
his name famous. As captain, colonel, and then brigadier- 
general, he led his rangers on rapid and astounding " raids," 
through the carnage of Shiloh, at the capture of Cynthi- 
ana, and in many a desperate contest. After the death of 
his wife, Morgan married again. His second wife waa Miss 
Ready, of Tennessee. His daring raid through Ohio, his 
capture, imprisonment, and romantic escape, are too fresh 
in the public mind to need recapitulation. 

This gallant leader and his famous band swept through 
Kentucky, in 1864, for the last time, and on the 10th of 
June were in possession of Lexington. In less than three 
months from that time, his knightly career was ended. 
His remains were buried first at Abingdon, Virginia, but in 
a short time were deposited in a vault at Hollywood Cem- 
etery, Richmond, where they remained until 1868. On the 
17th of April of that year, his old comrades and soldiers, 
in the presence of a host of mourners, laid him to rest in 
the Lexington Cemetery, and gentle women of the South 
wreathed, with flowers and evergreens, the grave of one of 
the greatest partisan leaders named in the history of the 
world. Up to the time of his first marriage, General Mor- 
gan lived at his mother's residence, on the corner of Mill 
and Second streets. Just before the late war, he lived on 
the corner opposite his old home, in the house now occu- 
pied by Mrs. Ryland. 



First National and City National Banks — Centenary Metho- 
dist Church. 

The First National Bank of Lexington was organized in 
the spring of 1865, and commenced business in an office 
on Jordan's Row. Its first directors were Jacob Hughes, 
W. R. Estill, William Warfield, S. F. Tebbs, and B. F. 
Buckner; Jacob Hughes, president, and Thos. Mitchell, 
cashier. The office of the bank is now on Short street, 
between Upper and Market. 

In the same year (1865), the City National Bank was 
established. W. C. Goodioe, president; A. M. Barnes, cash- 
ier; directors, G. W. Norton, W. S. Downey, Persicles 
Scott, J. B. Wilgus, and D. F. Wolf. Banking office loca- 
ted on corner of Main and Cheapside. 

The Centenary Methodist Church of Lexington was or- 
ganized, in the fall of 1865, by a number of persons who 
seceded from the Southern Methodist Church on Hill street, 
for reasons intimated in the chapter on the latter named 
church. Members of the families of Persicles Scott, Hiram 
Shaw, L. P. and W. R. Milward, J. Gunn, J. W. Cannon, 
Dr. Bright, and others, combined to organize the new 
church, which met for a short time in the present city 
library building, with Rev. H. P. Henderson, of Ohio, as 

On the 4th of January, 1866, the congregation engaged 
the city council room in Hunt's Row, and conducted wor- 
ship there for several years, under the ministry of Rev. 
Duke Slavin and his successor. Rev. J. R. Eads. Ably as- 
sisted by their next pastor, the Rev. Daniel Stevenson, 
formerly superintendent of public instruction for Kentucky, 
and a scholarly gentleman, the congregation, with great 


zeal, set to work to build a church, and on Sunday, July 
24, 1870, the present elegant edifice on the corner of Broad- 
way and Church streets was dedicated. The dedicatory ex- 
ercises were conducted by the Rev. C. II. Fowler, assisted 
by the pastor, Mr. Stevenson. The Rev. George Strow- 
bridge, the present pastor, who is an exceedingly entertain- 
ing speaker, succeeded Mr. Stevenson. The affairs of the 
Centenary Church have been conducted with great energy 
and zeal; it has met with encouraging success, aud is now 
in a most prosperous condition. 

394 HISTORY OF LEXINGTON. [1866-67. 


Kentucky Gazette — Red Men — Aaron Dupee — Kentucky States- 
man — Farmers^ Home Journal — Poems by the Misses Wil- 
son — Good Templars — Fayette Farmers' Club — John Carty. 

The first number of the present Kentucky Gazette, H. 
H. Gratz, editor, appeared June 23, 1866. 

Oceola Tribe, No. 8, Improved Order of Eed Men, was 
constituted in Lexington, August 29, 1866, with, the follow- 
ing officers, viz : James Chrystal, Sachem ; T. A. Hornsey, 
IS. S.; B. P. Watkins, J. S. ; D. A. King, P.; A. W. Tra- 
bein, C..R.; V. N. Gardner, K. W. The tribe was organ- 
ized in the third story of Viley & Co.'s drug store, on the 
corner of Mill and Short streets. It now uses the hall in 
Kastle's block, on Main street. 

Aaron Dupee, well-known as the faithful negro servant 
of Henry Clay, died in February, 1866, at the age of eighty. 
He was buried in the Presbyterian Cemetery, and a neat 
headstone, with an inscription embodying these facts, marks 
his grave. 

The first number of the present Kentucky Statesman 
appeared January 1, 1867, "William Cassius Goodloe and W. 
Owsley Goodloe being editors and proprietors; office on 
Short street, near the corner of Limestone, where it still 
remains. Subsequently, W. O. Goodloe became sole editor 
and proprietor. In January, 1871, he sold to Messrs. "W. 
C. Goodloe and L. P. Tarleton. At the present time, the 
establishment is owned by a company, and the paper is 
ably edited by Mr. Samuel R. Smith. The Statesman is 
Republican, or Radical, in politics. 

The Farmers' Home Journal was established in May, 
1867, by J. J. Miller and J. R. Marrs, on Market street, 

1866-67.] FAYETTE FARMERS' CLUB. 395 

near the Episcopal Church. It is now owned by Mcssr?;. 
H. T. Duncan, Jr., and Hart Gibson; and Mr. J. A, Rey- 
nolds, who has been so long and so favorably connected with 
the Kentucky press, is its editor. 

Miss Susie Wilson and Miss Belle Wilson, sisters, and 
both natives of Lexington, published in the newspapers, 
about this time (1867), as they have frequently since, poems 
of great sweetness, tender eloquence, and acknowledged 

The order of Good Templars originated in Lexington, 
with the organization of Arlington Lodge, November 22, 
1867, in the building used by City School No. 2. Ashland 
Lodge of Good Templars was organized December 8, 1868. 
Botli lodges now use the hall in Kastle's building, on Main, 
between Mill and Broadway. 

On Saturday, the 19th of January, 1867, a meeting of 
farmers was held in the wareroom of J. M. Tipton, on Short 
street, between Limestone and Upper, to take steps toward 
organizing a Farmers' Club. General "William Bryan was 
called to the chair, and E. C. Bryan was made secretary. 
A number of speeches were made, strongly in favor of the 
project, and the following committee was appointed to draft 
a constitution and by-laws for the proposed club, viz: W. 
B. Kinkead, J. J. Ilayden, D. S. Coleman, S. Chew, and 
E. Allen. At a meeting held at the same place the suc- 
ceeding Saturday, January 26, the constitution and by-laws 
reported by the committee were adopted, the organization 
named " The Farmers' Club," and the following officers were 
elected : President, W. R. Estill ; vice-president, J. J. Hay- 
den ; corresponding secretary, William Warfield ; treasurer, 
D. S. Coleman ; recording secretary, J. M. Tipton. Those 
who subscribed to the constitution, at this meeting, were 
William Bryan, Samuel H, Chew, W. B. Kinkead, J. J. 
Hayden, W. R. Estill, W. Halley Smith, Edward Allen, D. 
S. Coleman, C. C. Gibson, Joseph S. Frazer, William War- 
field, David Prewitt, James W. Berry, Granville Smith, S. 
P. Kennedy, R. J. Spurr, William Cassius Goodloe, E. C. 
Bryan, Elisha Smith, John Clark, William D. Sutherlanl, 

396 HISTORY OF LEXINGTON. [1866-67. 

J. M. Tipton, John L. Cassell, A. K. Marshall, S.M. Hibler, 
David Harp, and W. G. Anderson. 

The dub was established to advance the general interests 
of agriculture in this portion of Kentucky; to spread in- 
telligence of the markets for stocks and other products 
throughout the farming community, and by mutual con- 
sultation protect their interests against undue advantage 
being taken of them; to bring together experience as to 
the best method of cultivating the various crops ; of breed- 
ing and raising stock of the various descriptions ; of the 
best farming implements, and embracing also the interests 
of horticulture, fruit raising, the dairies, etc. 

The club has been in successful operation ever since its 
establishment. Its weekly discussions and proceedings, 
which have been exceedingly useful and interesting, have 
been given to the public in a clear, graceful, and able man- 
ner, by Mr. J. A. Reynolds, editor of the Farmers' Home 
Journal, and the authorized reporter of the club. In justice 
to itself and to the interests of agriculture in Kentucky, 
the club should, by all means, gather and preserve these re- 
ports in a durable volume. 

John Carty, one of the most remarkable and successful 
merchants that Lexington has ever produced, died at his 
residence on Broadway, Monday, April 8, 1867, aged sixty- 
one. His father, John Carty, a soldier in the Revolution 
and in subsequent Indian wars, was one of the pioneer set- 
tlers of Lexington. His grandfather, John Carty, was a 
native of Burlington, ]N^ew Jersey, and was of English de- 
scent. After spending several sessions at the Transylvania 
grammar school, Mr. Carty commenced life, at the early 
age of fifteen, as deputy of that elegant old Virginia gen- 
tleman. Captain John Fowler, then, and for many years 
after, postmaster of Lexington. Mr. Carty left the post- 
ofiice to assist Mr. John McCauley, who, at an early day, 
was one of the extensive grocery dealers of Lexington. 
In this new capacity, his energy and business talents were 
80 marked, and he exhibited financial sagacity of such a 
high order, that in a short time he was admitted as a full 
partner in the establishment. Subsequently, he conducted 

1866-67.] JOHN CARTY. 397 

the same kind of business with Mr. John Dudley and others, 
but for many years, and up to the time of his death, he 
was the sole proprietor of the leading grocery house in Lex- 
ington, which had also become, under his skillful manage- 
ment, one of the most extensive in Kentucky. 

Mr. Carty was one of nature's noblemen, and the seal of 
a true man was impressed upon all he did. His business 
was conducted upon the highest principles of truth and 
honor. Though a patron of learning and of every deserving 
public enterprise, and the liberal benefactor of struggling 
merit, yet all was hidden under an extraordinary modesty, 
which was not the least beautiful of his characteristics. He 
was a man of remarkable judgment; he weighed every- 
thing in his finely balanced mind, and his opinions were 
rarely at fault and always influential. Mr. Carty was con- 
stitutionally incapable of injustice, and his views on all 
subjects were comprehensive, liberal, and charitable. His 
most distinguishing mental trait was financial sagacity, and 
in that respect, in particular, he was one of the most su- 
perior men in Kentucky. His old associates will never for- 
get his marvelously black, beautiful, and piercing eyes, the 
windows of a soul as gentle as it was brave, and as rare as 
it was exalted. His spotless life and admirable qualities 
gained him a host of friends. He was universally esteemed 
and beloved, and few men who have died in Lexington 
were ever more generally and sincerely mourned. The fol- 
lowing notice of his funeral, from a Lexington newspaper, 
indicates the public feeling at his loss : 

"The funeral cortege of Mr. John Carty, on Wednesday 
last, was probably the largest which ever followed a private 
citizen of this city to the grave. He was interred with Ma- 
sonic honors, and the stores along Main street were closed 
as the procession passed by. This was an unusual testi- 
monial of respect to a private person ; but it shows how he 
had won upon the respect and aflection of his fellow cit- 



Christ Church Seminary — Baptist Female College — W. S. 


Christ Church Seminary, Rev. Silas Totten, principal, 
was established in 1868. 

The first session of the Baptist Female College, on Broad- 
way, between Hill and Maxwell streets, commenced in 
February, 1868, under Prof. A. S. Worrell. The college 
buildings are the same used by the Misses Jackson, who 
for years conducted a female school noted for its fine 
character and success. Rev. J. C. Freeman succeeded 
Mr. Worrell. The present president of this flourishing 
institution is Dr. Robert Ryland, formerly of Richmond, 

W. S. Downey died at the Phoenix Hotel, in Lexington, 
January 31, 1868, aged forty-seven.* Major Downey was 
born near Winchester, Kentucky, and having been bereft 
of his father at au early age, he was not only thrown upon 
his own resources, but was left in poverty, with a mother 
and two sisters to support. He tested freely "the good 
things that belong 'to adversity" in his early and youth- 
ful struggles. He was educated at St. Mary's College, and 
studied law with Hon. James Simpson. He was county 
attorney of Clark county for several years and up to his 
election as commonwealth's attorney for this judicial dis- 
trict, in 1856, which office he held, by successive elections, 
at the time of his death. 

Major Downey was a self-made man, and rose to position 
by his own talents and industry. He was distinguished for 
(Correct taste and polite accomplishments in literature. His 

*Observer and Keporter. 




fine command of language, arising from an intimate ac- 
quaintance with the classics, active, quick, perceptive, and 
incisive cast of intellect, gave him the power of a formid- 
able and eloquent opponent at the bar. 



Apostolic Times — Hooker School — The Great Eclipse of the 
Sun — S. S. Nicholas — Farmer Dewees. 

The Apostolic Times, R. Graham and others editors, was 
established in April, 1869; first office on Main, between 
Mill and Cheapside. 

The Hocker Female School, on Broadway, opened in 
September, 1869, with Robert Graham as president. The 
school owes its establishment to donations and loans from 
liberal citizens. 

On Saturday, August 7, 1869, occurred the great eclipse 
of the sun, and Lexington, being a most favorable point of 
observation, was visited by many strangers. The crowds, 
which commenced to gather on the streets at an early hour 
in the afternoon, grew larger and larger as the momentous 
period approched, and by the time the great celestial won- 
der began its sublime, visible work, it seemed that all living 
Lexington had abandoned shelter and emptied itself out into 
the main thoroughfares. 

The weather all day was beautiful and clear, but cool, 
becoming even chilly as eclipse time neared. By four o'clock 
most of the best points had been secured. Every hand 
held a piece of smoked glass with which to take observa- 
tions. The first indications to the naked eye of the eclipse 
was the appearance of a little concave "gap" in the sun, 
a visible change began to take place in the color of things, 
and the atmosphere was the least bit hazy. Time passed, 
and the air took on a coal-smoky hue, the darkening sha- 
dows deepened, and our beautiful trees assumed a deeper 
and deeper green. In a little while only about four digits 
of the sun's face was yet uncovered, and from this time the 
circling birds, the domestic fowls and animals, showed most 


evident signs of uneasiness. The moon moved majesticiilly 
onward, leaving only two digits unchanged, and the gath- 
ering darkness settled in ghastly shadows upon all men 
and things. The ladies drew their wrappings closer, the 
edges of the sun glowed strangely with tire, the excitement 
ran high, and at each advance made by the moon's shadow 
the intensity increased. 

At 5:25 the silence and the darkness awed the expectant 
mnltitades by their strange and mysterious influence. 
Every eye was upon the sun, the horns of the crescent di- 
minished rapidly, and at last the crescent itself became dis- 
solved into a ball of tire. Rapidly it also diminished in 
size, and at last disappeared suddenly, like a candle blown 
out. Srill, on the margin of the shadow lingered specks — 
little globules — two or three, or perhaps five of them, on 
the moon's northeast edge, like dazzling drops of dew. 
Suddenly they went out, and the merest golden edge re- 
mained a second and flashed out of sight, dropping a sud- 
den darkness on the earth. The stars flashed into the 
heavens as if they had but that moment been created. On 
the right was Mercury, on the left Venus, and still further 
left was Mars or perhaps Saturn. 

Time, 5:30. The moment had arrived — such as will not 
occur again for a lifetime — the sun was eclipsed. And 
there was something indescribably awful and solemn in 
this vailing of his face in darkness. 

Another has truly said of this moment: 

" With the flash of darkness flashed out lines of golden 
clouds in the southwest and northwest of indescribable 
beauty. No night clouds, no clouds by twilight, no clouds 
at sunset, no clouds by day, ever resembled those. The 
relations of earth and air in color and light had changed 
night on the earth, twilight in the distant mid-air, and a 
daylight in the further upper air where the clouds were 
marshaled. Golden, orange, gray, crimson, lavender, and 
the tenderest hues of olive were seen mottled and pure in 
their coloring. They lay in ledges, the lower stratum 
resting on a bank of rich orange mist that deepened and 
deepened in color till it reached and disappeared beneath 


the horizon. In tone these clouds were unlike all other 
clouds one sees. Kich in color, beyond description of 
tongue, pen, or pencil, they were not ablaze as are the 
clouds of day, and appearing and disappearing like the pic- 
tures of a phantasmagoria." 

Even while the entranced gazers are looking with 
wrapped eyes and with hearts moved to their deepest depths 
by the glory of the grandest work of the Omnipotent 
Creator, there comes a flash and a blinding, dazzling, over- 
whelming light. It is like nothing else than the breaking 
loose of great reservoirs that had long been dammed — 
grateful, warm, genial, blessed light, it came streaming 
forth, giving life and health and peace. It seemed like a 
resurrection. It seemed as if the habiliments of the grave 
had been thrown aside, and in the garments of youth the 
earth had been decked. The shadow fled away before the 
sudden burst, the old moon became the new, and once more 
it began its solemn movement around the earth, and with 
the earth around the sun. The eclipse was over. 

Judge S. S. Nicholas, noted as a profound jurist and 
publicist, died in Danville, Kentucky, at the age of seventy- 
three, on Saturday, November 27, 1869. He was born in 
Lexington, on the corner of Short and Mill streets, read 
law with R. Wickliffe, Sen., practiced in Louisville, and 
rose rapidly to a high position. He served in the legis- 
lature, upon the appellate bench, and in preparing the re- 
vised code of Kentucky. He became particularly celebra- 
ted for his able essays on constitutional law. His father, 
Hon. George Nicholas, was one of the ablest men that ever 
lived in Kentucky, and was the leading member of the 
Lexington bar for a number of years. 

Farmer Devvees, whose face had been familiar to Lex- 
ington for so many years, died at his residence, on Main 
street, July 28, 1869.* Mr. Devvees was born near Mid- 
way, Kentucky, September 15, 1792, but settled in Lexing- 
ton in early life, and was identified with her banking 

institutions for nearly half a century. He was teller, at 

♦Kentucky Gazette. 

1869.] FARMER DEWEES. 403 

one time, in the old branch of the United States Bank, 
and was subsequently the first teller of the Northern Bank, 
with which institution he remained connected until old age 
crept upon him. Mr. Dewees was distinguished for his 
gentle manners, amiable deportment, and quiet charity. 
He filled his allotted part in life with fidelity, and died 
with the Christian's hopes bright upon him. 



Population — Charter Amendment — Irish Benevolent Associa- 
tion — Fayette National Bank — Lexington Daily Press — 
David A. Say re — Fayette Historical Society. 

The census report, and the report of the city assessor of 
the population of Lexington for 1870, conflict, owing, in 
part, to the unsettled condition of the negroes. A well- 
informed citizen estimated the population at seventeen 
thousand five hundred, which is believed to be about cor- 
rect. The population of the entire county was twenty-six 
thousand six hundred and fifty-six. 

In January, 1870, the charter of the city of Lexington was 
80 amended as to require elections of municipal officers to 
take place on the last Thursday in January, 1870, and 
every third year thereafter. 

About the first of March, in this year, the banking office 
of Headley & Anderson, on Short street, was established. 

The Irish National Benevolent Association of Lexington 
was organized May 13, 1870, with the following officers, 
viz: J. H. Mulligan, president; J. A. Geary, first vice- 
president; M. Clark, second vice-president; T. J. Brogan, 
recording secretary; J. Dowling, corresponding secretary; 
A. J. Hogarty, treasurer. The objects of the association 
are to promote the cause of Ireland's independence, to 
assist distressed Irishmen in Lexington, and to honor the 
memory of Saint Patrick by a proper celebration of his 
anniversary. We may mention here, that the first observ- 
ance of Saint Patrick's day in this city was the occasion 
of a dinner at Megowan's tavern, in 1790. 

The Fayette National Bank, corner of Short and Upper 
streets, was organized September 8, 1870, by the election 
of the following directors, viz : R. R. Stone, J. S. Wool- 

1870.] DAVID A. SAYRE. 405 

folk, Horace Craig, J. M. Tipton, S. Bassett, J. Ilocker, 
R. McMicbael, aud J. B. Morton. 

The Lexington Daily Press, the first newspaper printed 
in this city by steam, was established in October, 1870, 
Messrs. Hart Gibson, H. T. Duncan, Jr., and J. J. Miller, 
being proprietors. Office on the corner of Short and Mar- 
ket streets. It is now owned by Gibson and Duncan only. 
David A. Sayre died in Lexington on the 12th of Sep- 
tember, 1870. Mr. Sayre was born in Madison, New Jer- 
sey, March 12, 1793. He was a child of poverty, and the 
hard labor of his youth left him little time for education. 
He came to Lexington in 1811, a silver-plater's apprentice, 
walking barefoot all the way from Maysville to this place, 
with a meager pack upon his back, aud only a half dollar 
in his pocket. The young mechanic was thrifty and shrewd, 
and while he labored he also saved and watched his oppor- 
tunities. In 1823, while yet a journeyman, he concluded 
to add the broker's calling to his regular business, and by 
dint of close and careful dealing, he achieved great success 
in amassing money, and in 1829, was enabled to open a 
banking-office on the corner of Mill and Short streets. He 
succeeded in his business, and long before his death was 
known for his wealth; a considerable part of which was 
devoted to public institutions connected with the Presby- 
terian Church, of which he was a member, and to the bene- 
fiting of his relatives, some of whom he raised from hum- 
ble life to prosperity and wealth. " Uncle Davy," and his 
faithful help-mate, "Aunt Abby," sleep side by side in the 
beautiful Lexington Cemetery. Mr. Sayre was no ordi- 
nary man; he did great good, and the record of his life is 
full of encouragement to ambitious strugglers with poverty. 
The Historical Society of Fayette county was organized 
in the Lexington Library building, June 7, 1870. The 
object of the society is to procure and preserve whatever 
may relate to the history of Fayette county, Kentucky, 
viz : books, relics, and memorials, and also to collect and 
publish manuscripts concerning the history of the county 
and state. The first officers of the society wore : President, 
George liobertson; vice-presidents, James 0. Harrison and 


Robert Peter ; recording secretary, George W. Ranck ; cor- 
responding secretary, Joseph D. Pickett ; treasurer, John 
S. "Wilson, and librarian, J. B. Cooper. Messrs. Leslie 
Combs, Benjamin Gratz, S. D. McCullough, Benjamin 
Kiser, William Swift, Richard Marsh, T. P. Dudley, and 
others are members of this society. 

The writer returns his thanks to the officers and mem- 
bers of the Fayette Historical Society, and to Richard H. 
Collins, of Covington, (who is now revising and enlarging 
his father's history of Kentucky,) for the valuable assist- 
ance they rendered him in the preparation of this volume. 

1871.] MISSION CHVRCff, ETC. 407 


Mission Church— Dollar Press— Broadway Christian Church 
—Second Church of Christ— Meetivg Places and Pastors- 
Hugh McKee— Knights of Pythias. 

The Mission Church on Boliver street, devoted to the 
religious improvement of the unfortunate, was dedicated 
Sunday, January, 1871. 

The first number of the Dollar Weekly Press, published 
by Duncan & Gibson, on the corner of Short and Market 
streets, made its appearance January 21, 1871. 

The Broadway Christian Church was organized, and 
became independent of the Main Street Christian Church, 
in July, 1871. (See Christian Church, 1825.) J. W. Mc- 
Garvey was first regular pastor of the church. 

The Second Church of Christ was established in the 
spring of 1871, by a number of persons who desired free- 
dom and rest from the intolerance and il liberality of cer- 
tain leaders of the " Main Street Church," with which 
they had been connected. (See Christian Church, 1825.) 
The first regujar meeting preliminary to organization was 
held on the afternoon of March 19, 1871, in the upper 
room of the library building, on the corner of Church and 
Market streets. Present, Elder G. W. EUey, chairman ; J. 
S. Wolfolk, D. S. Goodloe, J. H. Neville, J. B. Bowman, 
G. W. Ranck, and others. In addition to these persons, 
the following were among the earliest movers in the for- 
mation of the new church, viz: J. D. Pickett, Mary E.Carty, 
John Shackelford, A. M. Barnes, Lulie Mays, Marcus 
Dow-ning and family, Helen C. Kanck, John Curd, Sen., 
E. D. Luxon, W. S. Lipscomb, N. Prall, John Curd, Jr., 
Mary D. Bowman, Joseph Wasson and family, Jas. Sulli- 
van and family, E. E. Smith, S. D. Pinkerton, and others. 


The establishment of the church was duly perfected, and 
on Sunday, April 2, the opening sermon was preached in 
the library building, by Elder Elley. 

The first pastors of the church were Elders J. D. Pickett 
and John Shackelford, who acted jointly. After worship- 
ing in the library building for some months, the congre- 
gation fitted up a chapel on the second floor of the Carty 
building, on the corner of Main and Mill streets. Services 
were held in this chapel, for the first time, on the morning 
of Sunday, February 4, 1872, the sermon being preached 
by Elder R. C. Ricketts, of Harrodsburg. The congrega- 
tion still worship in the Carty building. The pastor of the 
church at this time is Elder John Shackelford, a native of 
Mason county, Kentucky, a graduate of Bethany college, 
and now a professor in the Agricultural College of Ken- 
tucky University. This faithful and earnest minister ably 
represents the charitable feelings and liberal opinions of 
his little flock. 

The gallant Hugh McKee, who was killed in the at- 
tack made by the United States naval forces upon the forts 
of Corea, Asia, June 11, 1871, was born in Lexington, on 
the 23d of April, 1844, and graduated at Annapolis, in 
1866. He was the first man to reach the fort, within which 
he died as bravely as did his father. Colonel W. R. McKee, 
upon the battle-field of Buena Vista. Admiral Rogers, in 
his report of the fight said: "The citadel has been named 
Fort McKee, in honor of that gallant officer who led the 
assault upon it, and gave his life for the honor of his flag." 
This noble son of a noble sire sleeps in the Lexington 

Lodge No. 15, Knights of Pythias, was organized 
in Lexington, October 25, 1871, with the following officers, 
namely: J. T. Uppington, W. C. ; O. S. Wood, V. C. ; 
Thomas Forman, R. S. ; G. C. Snyder, F. S. ; C. H. Nor- 
ris, W. B. The order is a charitable one; its objects, ac- 
cording to its constitution, being to "alleviate suftering, 
succor the afflicted and unfortunate, and care for the 
widow and the orphan." 



Southern Railroad— J. B. Wilgus ^ Co.'s Bank— Sons of 
Temperance — B. Gratz Brown — Business Statement — County 
and City Officers. 

In the latter part of January, 1872, the Kentucky leg- 
islature granted the right of way through this state to the 
Southern "Railroad, destined to extend from Cincinnati to 
Chattanooga. The event was celebrated with great enthu- 
siasm by the citizens of Lexington, who regard the road 
(which is now on the eve of being commenced) as another 
great means of advancing the growth and prosperity of 
their city. This important enterprise is not new in its 
general outlines. Thirty-tive years ago, a road from Cin- 
cinnati to Knoxville, and thence to Charleston. South Car- 
olina, was projected, and the right of way given by the 
Kentucky legislature. From that time to the present, the 
project has always been regarded with favor by Cincinnati 
and Central Kentucky. 

The banking house of J. B. Wilgus & Co. was established 
February 7, 1872, and commenced business in Hoeiug's 
building, on Main street. The bank now uses an office in 
the Wilgus building, on Main street, between Mill and 

Lexing^ton Division, No. 35, Sons of Temperance, was 
organized on the night of Monday, July 29, 1872, in Kas- 
tle's building, on Main street, where the division still meets 

Governor Benjamin Gratz Brown, of Missouri, and now 
the Liberal Republican nominee for vice-president of the 
United States, was born on the 28th of May, 1826, in Lex- 
ington, at the residence of his grandfather, Judge Bledsoe, 
who lived at that time on Short street, between Walnut 


and Dewees streets, in the house now occupied by Mr. Arm- 
strong, and next to the residence of Mrs. Waters. Gov- 
ernor Brown's father, Hon. Mason Brown, was a citizen 
of Frankfort, and Mrs. Brown was on a visit to her parents 
at the time of her son's birth. 

The character and importance of Lexington, at this time 
(1872), may be judged by the following: 

The city contains eighteen churches, twenty schools, four 
colleges, one university, eight newspapers, one public 
library, three railroads, thirty physicians, forty-five lawyers, 
five hemp and bagging factories, nine carriage factories, 
twenty livery stables, four planing mills, ten saddle and 
harness manufactories, eight banking houses, ten hotels, 
thirty-five drinking saloons, twenty-one boot and shoe 
establishments, fifteen confectioneries, one hundred and 
twenty-five groceries, eight sewing-machine offices, twenty- 
two dry goods houses, sixteen millinery houses, ten drug 
houses, six blacksmith shops, one woolen mill, four flour 
mills, ten clothing houses, fifteen dress-making houses, one 
foundry, one mustard factory, four wagon factories, one 
soap and candle factory, four mattrass factories, one plaster 
ornament factory, one hoop-skirt factory, one agricultural 
implement factory, two pump factories, two broom factories, 
two cigar factories, three hair ornament factories, five 
furniture houses, six bakeries, eight restaurants, ten coal 
yards, one gas company, four dental offices, five hardware 
houses, two gas and steam-fitting houses, three leather 
houses, five furniture houses, four agricultural implement 
houses, ten barber shops, five paint shops, six tin, copper, 
and stove shops, two machine shops, one cooper shop, three 
gunsmith shops, two locksmith shops, four lumber yards, 
one book-bindery, one brewery, three marble works, seven 
watch and jewelry houses, eight merchant tailor houses, 
one bath house, one dye house, three photograph galleries, 
four book-stores, six meat houses, three rag houses, one 
public laundry, six insurance offices, three nurseries, eight 
auctioneers, one lottery office, one omnibus line, four build- 
ers, four public halls, one sculptor, two portrait painters, four 
architects, several hundred carpenters, brick-masons, plas- 


terers, and stone-cutters, two quadrille bands, one agricul- 
tural and mechanical association, one racing association, one 
park, one express office, two telegraph offices, one lunatic 
asylum, one orphan asylum, one female benevolent society, 
two Bible societies, one musical society, one theater one 
-work-house, four Masonic lodges, three Odd-Fellow lodo-es, 
two Good Templar lodges, one Red Men lodge, one Knights 
of Pythias lodge, one Sons of Temperance lodge. 

The officers of Fayette county at the present time are: 
Judge of the Circuit Court, C. B. Thomas; Common- 
wealth's Attorney, J. L. Jones ; Circuit Court Clerk, J. B. 
Rodes; Judge of County Court, B. F. Graves; County 
Attorney, J. R. Morton ; County Court Clerk, A. G. Hunt; 
Sherift; R. S. Bullock; Jailer, T. B. Megowan ; Assessor' 
J. D. Sprake ; Surveyor, J. F. Slade ; Coroner, T. Logwood. 

The city officers are: Mayor, J. T. Frazer. Councilmen 
—Ward No. 1, M. C. Johnson, J. R. Cleary, C. Randall ; 
Ward No. 2, R. A. Gibney, T. W. Foster, J. Hoagland ; 
Ward No. 3, H. Chiles, W. C. P. Breckinridge, J. Laude- 
man ; Ward No. 4, Dennis Mulligan, J. F. Robinson, Jr., 
Robert Stone. Recorder, J. H. Mulligan ; Clerk, J. W. 
Cochrane; Attorney, John Webster; Physician, J. W. 
Bruce, M. D. ; Treasurer, B. T. Milton ; Collector, J. F. 
Robinson; Assessor, Jesse Woodruff ; Marshal, Wm. Til- 
lett; Chief of Police, N. Hendricks. 



Fayette County — Wealth, Population, and Fertility — Soil and 
Stock — Lexington — Situation, Trade, and Appearance — 
Characteristics and Geology. 

Fayette county, the center of the "Blue Grass Region," 
or "Garden of Kentucky,'' is situated in the middle of the 
state, and lies on the waters of theElkhorn and Kentucky. 
It is bounded on the north hy Scott count}-, on the south 
by Madison and Jessamine, on the east by Bourbon, and on 
the west by Woodford. It is twenty-five miles from north 
to south, mean breadth eleven miles, and contains 275 
square miles, or 176,000 acres. It is fair table land, gently 
undulating; all the streams rise and flow from the center 
of the county and empty into their common receptacle, the 
Kentucky river. 

The entire population of Fayette at present, including 
Lexington, is estimated at nearl}^ 30,000. The taxable 
property of the county is valued at $14,790,457,* and is sec- 
ond in amount only to Jefferson, including the city of 
Louisville. The real value of all kinds of property in 
Fayette, not including Lexington, is estimated at $25, 000,- 
000. The proverb, " as rich as Fayette county," is not 
without point. 

There is probably no richer or more productive soil on 
earth than that of Fayette county. In pioneer days it was 
a deep mass of rich, black, vegetable mold, the accumula- 
tion of ages, which made it a perfect hot-bed for fertility. 
This gradually changed after the original forests and cane- 
brakes were cleared, and the heat of the sun and the full 
influence of the atmospheric agencies were admitted to the 
soil. But then came the rich and luxuriant blue grass, for 
which this favored locality is noted the wide word over, 

*Auditor's Keport. 


and we were still left a region "beautiful as the vale of 
Tempe and fertile as Sicily, that grauary of Europe," The 
soil of Fayette county now varies from a rich dark brown 
or mulatto color to a light yellowish or reddish brown in 
the upper soil, and a light brownish or reddish yellow in the 
subsoil. The following analysis* exhibits the chemical 
composition of the soil of Fayette county, viz : 

Composition in One Hundred Parts. — Organic and vola- 
tile matters, 8.000; alumina, 4.181; proxide of iron, 6.170; 

sesquioxide of manganese, ; carbonate of lime, .494; 

magnesia, .420; phosphoric acid, .460; sulphuric acid, ; 

potash, .205 ; soda, .062 ; land and insoluble silicates, 79.910 ; 
total, 99.882. Moisture, driven off from the air-dried soil, 
at 400 degrees Fahrenheit, 4.44. 

The wheat crop of Fayette is always an abundant one. 
Of corn she averages more than a million bushels per year, 
and her last crop of hemp reached the enormous amount 
of 4,762, SOOf pounds, or very largely over one-third of the 
amount produced by the entire state. 

But with all this wonderful fertility, Fayette is properly 
a stock-raising county. The soil and grasses are particu- 
larly rich in the chemical elements necessary to the forma- 
tion of bone and muscle, and has resulted in Fayette's 
becoming one immense aggregation of breeding establish- 
ments. It is the native paddock not only of the peerless 
"Lexington," that blind old Milton of the turf, whose 
fame extends throughout Europe and America, but of a 
multitude of other great and noted coursers. Her blood 
horses and fine trotters are eagerly and constantly sought 
after by appreciators of superior stock from every quarter. 
Droves of mules and splendid herds of thorough-bred cattle 
browse in her blue grass pastures, and Southdown and 
Cotswold sheep, and Berkshire and Chestershire hogs, 
abound upon her farms. It has been said of Fayette county, 
and without exaggeration, that "the products of the tem- 
perate zone and tropic climes here grow as if upon common 
ground. From the stalk that forms the staple of Russia to 

♦Dr. Robt. Peter in Geological Survey of Ky. fAuditor's Report. 


the vine that blooms in France and Italy, there is scarcely a 
plant which does not seem indigenous to the soil. From 
the small grain and blood stock exported from England, 
to the corn and tobacco leaf known only to the native ten- 
ant of the West, there is scarcely an article which is neces- 
sary to the subsistence, or which contributes to the comfort 
of man, to which the soil and climate is not kind and 

Lexington, the seat of government of Fayette county, 
Kentucky, is situated on the headwaters of the town fork 
of North Elkhorn creek, 25 miles southeast of Frankfort, 
the capital of the state ; 64 miles southwest of Maysville ; 
77 southeast of Louisville ; 85 south of Cincinnati, and 
517 from Washington city. Latitude 38° 6' north; longi- 
tude 84° 18' west. 

The city is located on the extensive table land, on which 
Cincinnati is nearly centrally placed, formed by an uplift 
of the lower silurian rock formation, and its elevation 
taken at one of its lowest points, viz : the depot of the 
Lexington and Louisville Railroad, is, according to the au- 
thority of railroad engineers, 950 feet above the ocean level. 
V-i-lthough originally commenced immediately in what 
Bancroft styles " the unrivaled valley of Elkhorn creek," 
and on the springs in which it takes its rise, the city has 
extended up both the ascending sides of this valley and 
over a considerable portion of the level grounds above, the 
natural drainage of the place into the fork of the Elkhorn 
is therefore excellent. 

The population of Lexington at present is believed to be 
between 18,000 and 20,000. The principal trade of the 
city, and the heaviest capital invested, is in hemp- manu- 
facture, groceries, dry goods, whisky, and live stock. The 
taxable property in Lexington amounts to ^7,000,000 ; the 
real value of all kinds ot property is estimated at 
$15,000,000, and that of the city and county together at 

Lexington for a long time presented more of the appear- 
ance of an opulent, stagnant, and contented old English 
town than the air of a live American city ; but this is now 


1872.] LEXINGTON. 415 

changing. The raih-oads projected and in progress, the 
growth of an enlightened pubUc spirit, and the encourag- 
ing prospects of Lexington have created a new era as well 
as a new appearance for the city. Large and handsome 
buildings are taking the place of small and dingy business 
houses, modern improvements are to be seen on all sides, 
and the increase of mills and factories indicate the future 
manufacturing importance of the place. The streets, which 
are laid ofl* at right angles, are mainly well paved, and are 
now in a better condition than they have ever been. Fine 
macadamized roads extend through and from the city in 
every direction, and constitute the trotting grounds of a 
multitude of fleet and valuable horses, which are constantly 
driven over them. Lexington can boast of a large number 
of exceedingly handsome private residences, beautilied by 
art and taste, and surrounded by extensive grounds luxu- 
riant in flowers and shrubbery. She has long been justly 
noted for the generous and refined hospitality of her citi- 
zens, for her great educational advantages, the skill and 
standing of her medical profession, and the learnino- and 
ability of her pulpit. The Lexington bar, which has ever 
been distinguished for its strength, is now not surpassed 
and perhaps not equaled in this country, and there are few 
places where the young members of the bar constitute a 
body of such marked promise. 

The pre-eminence which Lexington enjoys for elegant 
society is due to the intelligence, culture, and refined beauty 
of her women. The striking similarity of Lexington so- 
ciety, in this respect, to that of a European capital, has 
been more than once remarked by foreigners. 

Words can not be found too strong to express the rich- 
ness and loveliness of the country about Lexington. The 
landscape is soft, luxuriant, and picturesque ; the approaches 
to the city are beautiful, and the rides and drives in every 
direction are charming. Noble English-looking home- 
steads, surrounded by evergreens and magnificent forest- 
trees, dot velvet lawns of peerless blue grass and clover 
the emerald green of which covers every inch of ground 
save where the walks and carriage drives are cut throuo-h 



the thick turf. Stone fences and osage orange hedges, or 
high snow-white pailings, inclose breeding establishments 
of fine stock on every road. Splendid blood horses and 
herds of thorough-bred cattle browse in the shade. The 
land teems with fatness, and the eye is constantly refreshed 
with scenes of plenty, comfort, and loveliness. 

The geology* of Lexington and vicinity is interesting, 
and is well worthy of careful consideration. The lower 
Silurian rock strata, which underlie the city, are mainly 
composed of layers, varying in thickness from less than an 
inch to about two feet, of a dark grayish blue, changing 
into yellowish gray, granular limestone, usually quite fossi- 
liferous, called by the Ohio geologists the blue limestone, 
the layers being often separated by seams of marl, generally 
of a lighter color. This limestone is much used in the 
construction of the admirable turnpikes and macadamized 
streets of this locality and city, and is valuable for building 
purposes, especially in stone boundary walls, foundations, 
and even walls of houses; the hard light-gray granular 
layers being quite durable and making quite a handsome 
structure, even in the undressed state, when skillfully laid 
up in the wall with good mortar. It also yields very good 
lime for building purposes, and the more earthy layers, 
containing much magnesia and silica, might be calcined into 
hydraulic cement. 

This limestone, however, is generally quite shelly and 
fossiliferous, and hence it readily and continually disinte- 
grates, in place, under the influence of the atmospheric 
agencies, giving to tbe celebrated " blue-grass" soil, which 
it produces, the superior fertility which characterizes it, 
and keeping up its productiveness under a thriftless cul- 
ture, in a most remarkable manner. 

For the same reason, the water which comes in contact 
with it is rendered "hard," and deposits, when boiled, a 
crust on the boiler composed of carbonates of lime and 
magnesia, witb some little phosphate of lime, oxide of iron, 
etc. The water of all the wells and springs, hence, is more 

*Analysis by the well-known geologist and cheniist, Dr. Robert Peter. 

1872.] OEOLOGY. 417 

or less hard, causing the inhabitants to resort, very gener- 
ally, to the use of rain-water collected in cisterns, lor culi- 
nary and washing purposes as well as for drinking. 

The very general use of this hard limestone water is be- 
lieved to have had something to do with the great preva- 
lence of calculous disease here, in former times, during the 
early surgical practice of the late distinguished surgeon of 
Lexington, Prof. Benj. W. Dudley, as the writer has at- 
tempted to show, in his publication on the Urinary Calculi 
of the Museum of Transylvania University ; and it may 
also greatly aid, according to the theory of others, in the 
very complete development of the bones and bodies of the 
animals grown in this rich limestone county. 

The waters of the deep springs and bored wells of this 
geological region very frequently contain common salt and 
other saline ingredients, as well as sulphureted hydrogen, 
and carbonic acid gases, in greater or less quantity, vary- 
ing from the celebrated salt-sulphur water of the " Blue 
Lick" springs down to water containing a mere trace of 
salts and having only a slight odor of sulphur, such as was 
obtained by boring at MontmoUin's mill, on the town fork, 
at the lower part of the city, which contains only one thou- 
sandth of its weight of saline matters ; or that at the bored 
well of the Lunatic Asylum, sunk one hundred and six feet 
below the surface, and eighty-six feet through the solid 
rock, the auger then dropping eighteen inches into a cavity, 
and the water immediately rising fifty feet in the bore, a 
soft, very weak, sulphur water, containing about one and 
one-sixth grain of saline matters to the thousand of the 
water. Most of the waters of bored wells have a smell of 
petroleum at first, and in some cases, a considerable quan- 
tity of combustible gas (light carbureted hydrogen) has 
been given out from them for some time. 

The irregular disintegration of the limestone layers has 
caused the formation throughout the whole of this region 
of extensive caverns, and underground lakes and streams 
of water, as well as numerous sink-holes. Such lakes and 
streams doubtless exist under the valley of the town fork 
of Elkhorn quite extensively, and more than one steam- 


engine is supplied at the lower part of the city, by tapping 
thera, one of which is the bagging factory of Z. "Ward. 
This gentleman, in boring, also, some eighty or ninety feet 
for water at his residence, on the high ground, near the 
trotting track, in the southeastern part of the city, obtained 
water, which was found, on chemical examination, to be 
quite impure, it containing not only carbonate of soda and 
nitrates and other salts, but also a notable quantity of fatty 
organic matter, smelling somewhat like soap, and becoming 
quite ofi'ensive on exposure, as though he had penetrated 
into a cavern or stream in the sub-strata into which some 
of the drainage of the city found access. 

Another remarkable instance of the kind, observed 
by me, was that of the well bored in 1852, by Mr. John 
S. Wilson, in the cellar of his drug store, on Cheapside, 
in this city. He obtained water at the depth of forty feet 
below the level of the street, after boring twenty-six and 
a half feet through solid limestone, containing hard masses 
of iron pyrites, and the water was such a strong chaly- 
beate water, sparkling with carbonic acid gas, depositing 
oxide of iron on exposure to the air, and containing quite 
a variety of saline ingredients (as detailed in the chem- 
ical analysis of it, published in the first volume of the re- 
ports of the Kentucky Geological Survey), that it soon be- 
came quite popular as a mineral water. Not a long time 
elapsed, however, before the changed odor of the water 
gave evidence of the admixture of impurities, and pres- 
ently it became so offensive from the undoubted presence of 
town drainage, that Mr. Wilson was obliged to discontinue 
its use for any purpose, and to plug up the well. 

These facts are not at all wonderful, when we know that 
the whole of the drainage from the extensive State Lunatic 
Asylum, with its five hundred patients and attendants, situ- 
ated on the northwestern part of the city, is discharged, 
through a natural underground channel, probably into sub- 
terranean cavities so extensive, under the city, that they 
never fill up nor become obstructed, notwithstanding the 
immense and filthy torrent which daily flows into them 

1872.] GEOLOGY. 419 

from the laundry, the water-closets, the culinary depart- 
ment, the bath-rooms, etc., etc. 

This may throw some light on the fact that every well 
bored in the valley of the town fork, below the city, is a 
saline sulphur water., for it is well known to chemists that 
the spontaneous fermentation of water containing impuri- 
ties of the kind mentioned, produces, by their decomposi- 
tion, sulphureted hydrogen, and carbonic acid gases and 
nitrate. Hence is it important that the origin and source 
of sulphur waters, found in the line of the drainage of 
towns, should be carefully studied, more especially as it is 
the result of experience that the habitual admixture of 
even very small quantities of town drainage in the water 
used for drinking is a fruitful source of disease, giving 
rise to diarrhea, dysentery, and low fevers, and aggravating 
the mortality of cholera and other epidemics. 

A good exposure of the rock strata under the city may 
be seen on the Elkhorn branch, just below its limits, espe- 
cially at the old stone-quarry of Van Akin, and that higher 
up, opposite the cemetery, near the Frankfort railroad. 
At the first-named quarry, more than twenty feet perpen- 
dicular of the rocks are exposed. The layers are from six 
inches to one foot thick (thicker in the upper quarry). In 
the lower beds some good specimens of that large trilobitey 
the isotelus (asaphus) gigas, have been found ; and in those 
above are to be seen those other characteristic fossils of 
the lower silurian formation, the chatetes lyeoperdon, leptcena, 
atrypha, reeeptaculites ; also portions of small encrinital stems, 
specimens of modiola, orthis, pleurotomaria, etc., etc. 

In the quarries at the eastern end of the city, the 
layers are usually thinner and more fossiliferous, containing 
atrypha, orthis, leptcena., etc., etc. 

We append, in a tabular form, a statement of the chem- 
ical composition of some few of the limestones of this re- 
gion, as analyzed by Dr. Peter for the late Kentucky Geo- 
logical Survey, and published in volume two of the reports 
of that survey, as follows: 

No. 507. Li7ncstone—foTmmg the thin, shelly upper layer 
at Van Akin's quarry. 




No. 508. Limestone — forming a thicker layer below, used 
for curb-stones, etc., in the city, and containing fossils 
characteristic of the Trenton limestone of the New York 

No. 511. Limestone — an upper layer live inches to one 
foot thick, at Grimes' quarry, on the Kentucky river; not 
used for building purposes, but which would probably make 
hydraulic cement. 

No. 512. Magnesian Limestone — from Grimes' quarry. A 
very good and durable building stone, used in the construc- 
tion of the Clay monument in our cemetery. This mate- 
rial, of a pleasant bufl-gray color, was also used in the Clay 
statue, placed on the top of the column. Its fine granular 
structure, and its freedom from cracks and fossils, adapt it 
very well to the chisel of the sculptor. 


Specific gravity 

Carbonate of lime ■ 

Carbonate of magnesia 

Alumina, and oxide of iron and manganese 

Phosphoric acid 

Sulphuric acid 




Silica and insoluble silicates 


























100.00 100.13 100.00 100.69 





not est 






"With these remarks, we close our history of Lexington, 
the ancient metropolis of the mystic AUeghan ; the hunting- 
ground of the Indian; the first capital of Kentucky; the 
home of Clay; the center both of the blood-stock region 
of America, and of the " Garden Spot of the World." 


Adventnre of McConnell 65 

" " Jamos Morgan 94 

Agricultural Societies 270 

Agriculturalists of Fayette 278 

Agricultural und Mechanical College 60 

Amusements, Early 105 

Ancient Kemains 1 

" Fortifications 4 

" Monuments in 1845 9 

Anecdote of General Jackson 324 

Apostolic Times 400 

Artists 144 

Ashland. 60, 214 

"Athens of the West" 303 

A Virginia Town 181 

Badin, Father 190 

Bank, First in Kentucky 222 

Barry, W. T., Biography 226 

" " " Monument 230 

Battle of Frenchtown 253 

Barlow, Thos. H 185, 319 

Barracks 252, 269 

Baptist Church 118 

" Female College 398 

Bascom, Bishop 54, 154 

Battle of the Blue Licks 87-91 

Barry and the Mountaineer 228 

Benevolent Society, Female 280 

Bekkers, Rev. J. H 192 

Beck, J. B 62 

Berkley, Rev. E. F 200 

Bible Societies 299, 242 

Bibb, G. M 223 

Blood-stained Letter, incident .». 189 

Bledsoe, Judge Jesse 217 

Block House built 23 

" " Great shot from 74 

" " Abandoned 99 

Blythe, President Jas 44 

" E., Death of 258 

Blue Licks, Battle of 87 

Bourbon County created 116 

Bowman, J. B 57 

Boone, Daniel, discovers Kentucky 16 

" " at Blue Licks 85 

" " Death of son 02 

Boone's Creek Settlement 29 

Boyle, Judge John 337 

Botanical Garden 304 

Bryant's Expedition and disaster 68 

" Station settled 28 

" " described 77 

« " Seigo of 78 

" " Heroic Women of 79 

»• " Site of 85 


422 INDEX. 

Bryant, Judge 235 

Branch Bank of Kentucky 328 

Brank, Kev. KG 284 

Brown, Dr. S 44 

" Jaines 151 

" B. Gratz 409- 

Brickbat War 301 

Bradford, John 128, 171, 189 

Breeders of Fayette 135 

Breckinridge, John 182 

" Rev. John 283 

«« Jas. C 302 

" John C 367 

" Rev. R. J Ill 

Buena Vista, Lexington Dead at 356-358 

Buchanan, Dr. Joseph 45, 185, 224 

Burr, Aaron 115, 226 

Burrowes, N 185 

Burial of Mexican Volunteers 358 

Buel, J. H., (Artist) 148 

" Dr. J. M 53 

Burying Grounds, Early 38-40 

Buc'kner, R. A 60 

Byrd's Invasion 35 

Catacomb, Ancient 2 

Caldwell, Dr. Chas ; 47, 293 

Carty, John, (Pioneer) 101, 102 

" Building 24 

»' Henry 102, 356, 358 

" John, (Merchant) 24, 396 

Catholic Church 190 

Carr, Charles, Sr 71 

Capital removed to Frankfort 174, 181 

Campliell, Rev. J. Poage Ill 

Caledonian Society 217 

Cemeteries 38-40 , 

Cemetery, Lexington 260 

Chapman, Rev. G. T 199 

Church of Christ, Second 407 

Chasseurs, Lexington, Officers and Privates 383 

Challen, Elder J 310 

Cholera of 1833 325 

Christian Church 307 

" " Broadway 407 

City Officers for 1872 411 

" Schools. .4, 329 

Circuit Judg(|fc 177 

" ClerlM. 177 

Cincinnati Smled 141 

Clay, Henry, oiography 205-215 

" " Law offices 215 

" " and the Prisoner 211 

" " and the Irishman 163 

" " Death of 212 

" " Funeral 213, 367 

" " Monument 377 

" James B 390 

" C. M 351 

Clark, General G. Rogers 22, 36, 95 

Clifford, J. D 295 

Cloud, Dr. C. W 152 


INDEX. 423 

County Officers in 1872 411 

Coburn, Judge 108 

County Clerks and Officers 71, 72 

" Judges 364 

Coming of the White Man 16 

Court Houses 72 

Coombs, Let^lie 290 

Crops of Fayette ... 413 

Croghan, Major G 269 

Craig, Rev. Lewis 118 

Elijiih 79 

Dancing School, First 40 

Daviess, Colonel Joe H 143, 243 

Davidson, Rev. R 53, 283 

Davis, Hon. Jefferson 304 

Delegates to Conventions 106, 109, 116, 123, 140, 162, 170, 219, 360 

Democratic Society, The 181 

Dewees, Farmer 241 

Decline of Lexington Trade 402 

Dismarie, Father 191 

DiUard, Rev. R. T 120 

Discoverers of Lexington 18 

Dow, Lorenzo 223 

Dc)wney, W. S 398 

Drake, Daniel 39, 45 

B. P 55 

Dudley, Dr. Ben. W 45, 47, 53, 238 

" Colonel Wm 103, 262 

•< Rev. T. P 298 

" Dr. E. L 386 

Dudley's Defeat 262 

Eclipse of the Sun 400 

Ellis, Captain Wm 29, 169 

Elder, Rev. G. A 191 

Episcopal Church 198 

Fayette County formed and named „ 37 

" " Court 64 

" " described 31, 412 

" National Bank 404 

Farmers' Home Journal 394 

" Club 395 

Fertility of Fayette 412 

Fire Companies 164 

Fishback, Dr. James 45, 120, 309 

Filson, John 96 

Financial Crises 292, 297 

First Native of Lexington 28 

" White Female Settler of 28 

" Lot Owners of 73, 100 

" Trustees of 64 

" Brick House in 193 

" Revolutionary Monument at 20 

" Councilmen of 321 

" Schools in 39 

" Dry Goods Store in 105 

" Session Kentucky Legislature in Lexington 170-174 

" Fourth of July Celebration in 139 

" White native of Kentucky 116 

" Capital of " 170 

" Officers of " 173-175 

'« Baptist Covention in " 119 

424 INDEX. 

First Methodist Station in Lexington 152 

" Road Macadamized in " 317 

" Nail Factory in " 222 

" Western Railroad 315 

" " Lunatic Asylum 285 

" " Newspaper 124 

" Locomotive in United States 186, 319 

" Steamboat ever Invented 183 

Planetarium " " 185 

Fowler, Captain John 345 

Fort Washington , 141 

Fort at Lexington built 25, 31 

" " " Life in 33 

" " " Food in 32, 37 

« " « Suffering in 36 

« " « Outside Cabins „ 97 

«' " " Last Alarm of 99 

Freemasonry in Kentucky 142 

Frazer, Oliver 147 

Funeral of Jefferson, Adams, and Shelby 313 

Game 30, 188 

Gano, Rev. John 118 

Gas, City lighted by 374 

Gazette, Kentucky, (old) 124// 

" " (new) 394^ 

Geology of Lexington, and vicinity 416 

Girty, Simon .1 .". 77, 83 

Good Templars 395 

Goodloe, Judge W. C 389 

Grundy, Felix 232 

Great Rain 315 

Graves, Major Ben 260 

" Judge B. F 363 

Grant's Station 29, 36 

" Colonel John 29 

Great Prosperity of Lexington 240 

Grinstead & Bradley's Bank 389 

Greene, Dr. Lewis , 55 

Greenup, Gov ,, 100 

Hard Winter, The 36 

Haggin, Judge 334 

Hart, Captain N. S. G 156, 256, 260 1 

" Joel T., (Sculptor) 331 

Hall, Rev. N HI 

Harrison, James J 61, 330 

Heroic Era 34 

Headley & Anderson's Bank 404 

Hemp Manufacture 184, 241 

" Crop of Fayette 413 

Hinkston's Escape 35 

Higgins, James, Gallant conduct of 158 

Historical Society of Fayette 405 

Hogan, James 68 

Horses, Noted 134 

Howard, Benj 103 

Holly, Dr. Horace 46, 48. 49 

Hunt, John W 346 

" Charleton 321, 329, 338 

" F. K 54 

Humphreys, Charles .' 319 

Huston, J. B 61 

INDEX. 425 

Immigration Society 202 

Inventions 183 

Infantry, Lexington Light 155, 204 

Infidelity 193, 223 

Incidents, Amusing 102, 157 

" Romantic 35, 37 

Indian Fighters 168, 169 

" Ravages in Kentucky 21, 22 

" Incursions to Lexington 35,68, 74, 167 

«« Tragedies 34, 74 

" The Great Invasion 77 

«« Steal Negroes 170 

" Exterminate the Alleghan 14 

Jackson's Visit 323 

Jail and Jailers 163 

Jewish Church 390 

Jouett, Matt. H 146 

Johnson, M. C 60 

Kavanaugh, Bishop 154 

Kendall, Amos 270 

Kentucky Gazette (old) 124 

" " (new) 394 

" Racing Association 130 

" Vineyard " 219 

«' University, Early History of 57 

« " Removal to Lexington 59 

« " Donations - 59, 61,62 

" " Officers 59, 60, 62 

« District of 37 

" County Formed 22 

" " Squaw," Amusing Incident 260 

Kinkead, G. B 54 

« W. B 278 

Know Nothings 376 

Last Man Killed by Indians 170 

Lafayette s Visit to Lexington 305 

Letcher, Dr. S. M 55 

Lexington Discovered 18 

" an Indian Camp 21 

" Incorporated as a Town 75 

«' " " City 321 

«« Light Infantry .' 155 

«« Lyceum 303 

" Library 194 

«« Orphan Asylum 326 

" Appearance of 19, 25, 30, 105, 202, 220, 285, 322 

« in 1872 described 414 

»' Character and Importance 410 

«« Daily Press 405 

" Rifl.'s 377 

"Lexington,' The great Race Horse 136, 137 

Lindsays, The 27 

Life in the Fort 33 

Livestock in Fayette 413 

Liberty Poles 216 

Lincoln's, Mrs., Birthplace 296 

Lunatic Asylum, E 285 

Lutheran Church 285 

Masterson, James 27 

Masonic Lodges 142 

Maffitt's Revivals 154 

426 INDEX. 

Malta, Sons of 382 

Marshall, Colonel Thos 96 

" Humphrey 100 

." Thos. A 339 

« Thos. F 347 

Mayors of Lexington 322 

Mayes, Judge 351 

Maxwell, John 26, 38 

" Spring 27 

" " Company 276 

Market Houses 203 

McGary's Kashness 88 

McChord, Rev. James 282 

McConnells, The 27 

" Cabin 19 

" Station 18, 28 

McKinney, John 39 

" and the Wildcat 97 

McCalla, General J. M 249 

McCullough, S. D 387 

McKee, Hugh 408 

Mexican War 352, 355 

'• Volunteers from Lexington 352 

Megowan, S. W 279 

Mentelle, W 354 

Medical Society 223 

Methodist Church (First) 152 

" " Centenary 185 

•« " Independent 153 

« " Morris Chapel 155 

Mennifee, R. H 342 

Mission Church 407 

Mound Builders, The 11 

" Opened, and Contents 9 

Morrison, Colonel James 51 

" Captain John 28 

" Professorship 48 

'« College 48 

Morgan, John H 399 

" " " and the Officer 356 

Moore, Rev. James 198 

Netherland, Benj 90, 100 

Negroes .\»'. 289, 338 

Nicholas, George 43 

" S. S 402 

Novel Trial, A 106 

Noel, Rev. S. M -. 121 

Northern Bank of Kentucky 331 

" Old King Solomon " 374 

Observer and Reporter 233 

Orphan Asylum 326 

Odd Fellows Lodges 340 

"Old and New Court" 300 

Paint Lick Expedition 123 

Patterson, Colonel Robert, Settles Lexington 23 

» " " Biography 26 

" " " Anecdote of 91 

Parker, Robert 114 

" Richard 159 

Peers, Rev. B. 51 

Peter, Dr. R 50, 53, 66 

INDEX. 427 

Physicians of Lexington 320 

Pioneer Women of Lexington ^^ 

Pinkerton, Dr. L. L 311 

Planetarium Ji 

Plan of Lexington Adopted '^ 

Poythress, Father •••• 5i 

Portraits ^^^ ^" 

-p T Uj. ,, lt>^ 

Pc^pulat'i'on orLeTington and Fayette;'220, 24o','295, 363, 414, 412, 383, 404 

Post Office ]^^ 

" Masters 9^ 

Presbytfriau Church, (First) l"° 

" " (Second) 281 

Preston, Wm 279 

Price, S. W -" \f 

Prosperity of Lexington •^*". ^^* 

Pruden, M ^f' 

Public Spring ^ 

Pythias, Knights of 4^8 

Kafinesque, Professor C. S *. *' 

Raisin Massacre f^^ 

Rankin, Rev. Adam oVs"Vfir'^fie 409 

Railroads 318, 365, 366, 409 

Racing Associations a^ oi 

Reynolds, Aaron «\^^ 

"Relief and Anti-Relief" 297 

Religious Excitement ^^" 

" Revival ^J° 

Representatives in Legislature 1^^ 

" " Congress i^" 

Republicans, National, and Democrats 316 

Red Men 394 

Rice, Rev. David y 

Ridgely, Dr. F "* 

Royal Spring 

Rosa's Poems 

Robertson, Judge George '^I^* 

Russell, Colonel Wm i"J 

Russell's Expedition f^Jt 

" Spring and Cave ^^^ 

Sac Legend of Kentucky :"::::::::::300, 405 

Sayre, D. A • 

" Institute ^'* 

Scott, M.T " rtl. 

Senators, United States, from Fayette is^ 

State " " •— Ml 

Searle, Charles, Heroic Death of i«^ -^JJ 

Sheriffs, List of ' \ 

Shackelford, Elder John ^"°\ 

Sheep Excitement, Incident ^^° 

Shipman, Rev. J. S ^ 

Shelby's, Governor, Address ^^^ 

Sinking Spring •• — - 

Skillman's "Western Luminary ^"^ 

Smith, Bishop, B. B J^^ 

Sons of Temperance ;*. 

Society for Useful Knowledge '-^ 

St. Clair's Defeat )^° 

St. Catharine's Academy " 

St. Tammany Society ^ 

St. Andrews Society 

428 INDEX. 

Streets Opened and Named 64, 105, 219, 114, 115, 203 

Statesman, Kentucky (old) .' 360 

" " (new) 394 

Stallions, Fayette 135 

Survey of Lexington 166 

Taverns, Early 114 

Tartar Emetic Treat, The 301 

Telegraph 360 

"The Man who Smoked out the Indians 158 

Theaters 203 

Town laid oflF 65 

Todd, Rev. John ,41 

" Colonel John 32, 40, 92 

" Robert lOl 

" Levi 32 

Town Fork 114, 162, 219, 203, 242 

Tomlinson, N 85 , 

Trade and Wealth of Lexington and Fayette 412 

Trotter, General George 26T. 280 

" Expedition 252 

True American, Removal of 351 

Transylvania University, Origin of 40 

" " Removal to Lexington 41 

«' " Donations to 47,53,54 

" Library 47, 53 

« Holly's Term 46-49 

Turfmen of Fayette - 135 

United States Bank 289 

Yardeman, Rev. J 120 

Vaughn, Mrs. Rhoda 116 

" Adjutant E. M 116 

Ver Bryck, Wm. (Artist), 149 

Visit of Monroe, Jackson, and Shelby 293 

Ward, Rev. John 199 

War 1812 Commenced 246 

" " Incident of • 189 

" " Soldiers of 247, 261, 262, 270 

«' " Killed of 159, 252, 254, 261 

Washington's Funeral 220 

Warfield, Dr. E 45 

Wayne's Victory 188 

Welsh, Rev. Jas 110 

West, Wm. (Artist) 145 

" Edward (Inventor) 183 

Whigs and Democrats 320, 350 

Wilkinson, General James 106, 107, 108, 156, 167 

Wilson's, Misses, Poems 395 

Wilgus & Co.'s Bank 409 

WickliflFe, Robert, Sen 382 

" " Jr 364 

" D. C 237 

« R. N 235 / 

Women of Lexington 93 

Woods, Rev. Alva 150 

WooUey, Judge A. K 361 L ' 

Young, Rev. J. C 283