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Full text of "History of Litchfield county, Connecticut"

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HISTORY 



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LITCHFIELD COUNTY, 



CONNECTICUT, 



WITH 



LUSTRATIONS AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



OF n-s 



PKOMINENT MEN AND PIONEERS. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

J. W. LEWIS & CO., 
1881.- 



PRESS OF J. B. LIPPINCDTT k CO., PHILADELPHIA. 



PREFATORY, 



The province of the historian is to gather the threads of the past ere they elude forever his 
grasp, and weave them into a harmonious web, to which the " art preservative" may give immor- 
tality; therefore he who would rescue from oblivion the deeds of a community, and send them 
on to futurity in an imperishable record, should deliver " a plain, unvarnished tale," — 

" Nothing extenuate, 
Nor aught set down in malice." 

In such a spirit have the compilers of the following pages appi-oached the work of detailing the 
history of the county embodied herein, and trust they have been fairly faithful to the task 
imposed. 

It has been our lionest endeavor to trace the history of the development of this section 
from that period when it was in tlie undisputed possession of the red men to the present, and to 
place before the reader an authentic narrative of its rise and progress to tlie prominent position 
it now occupies among the counties of New England. 

That such an undertaking is attended with no little difljculty and vexation none will deny ; 
the aged pioneer relates events of the early settlements, while his neighbor sketches the same 
events with totally different outlines. Man's memory is ever at fault, while Time paints a 
different picture upon every mind. With these the historian has to contend ; and while it has 
been our aim to compile an accurate history, were it devoid of all inaccuracies that jjerfection 
would have been attained of which the writers had not the faintest conception, and which Jjord 
Macaulay once said never could be reached. 

From colonial and other documents in the State archives, from county, town, and village 
records, family manuscripts, printed publications, and innumerable private sources of informa- 
tion, we have endeavored to produce a historj' whicli should prove accurate, instructive, and in 
every respect worthy of the county represented. How well we have succectlitl in our task a 
generous public, jealous of its reputation and honor, of its traditions and triumphs, must now be 
the judge. 

We desire to acknowledge our sincere thanks to the etlitorial fraternity generally for much 
valuable information, which has greatly lessened our labor in the j)rej>aration of this work, and 
also to each and every one who has assisted in its compilation, and would clieerfully make jxr- 
sonal mention of each, but it is impracticable, as the number reaches over a tliousnnd. 

I'UILADBLI'UIA, Junc 10, 1881. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/historyoflitchfiOOjwle 



COJSTTENTS. 



I3:iSTOI?.IOJ^I-i. 



CHAPTER I. 
Geographical and Descriptive. 
Geographical — Topographical — Organization of Litchfield County — Lo- 
cation of Countj'-Seat — Conflicting Claims — First County Officials — 
County Buildings — List of Sheriffs, Treasurers, Clerks, and State's At- 
torneys from 1751 to 1882 — Chief Judges Court of Common Pleas from 
1761 to 1854 13 

CHAPTER II. 
Bench and Bae 14 

CHAPTER III. 

Medical History. 

Organization of Medical Association In 17G7 — Early Physicians — Names 
of Members of Medical Society from 1808, with Dates of Admission — 
List of Presidents and Secretaries from 180S to 1881 — Present Members 
—Present Onicers 48 

CHAPTER IV. 

Military History. 
The Second Regiment— The Vifth liegimcnt— The Eighth Regiment — 
The Ninth Regiment — The Tenth Kegiment — Tlie Eleventh Regiment 
—Tlio Twelfth Regiment— The Thirteenth Regiment GO 

CHAPTER V. 

Military History (ConliHuetl). 

TiiK Ni.vetrentii Rkoimkst „ 63 

CHAPTER VI. 
Military History {Coalinutd). 
The Twonty-tliird Regiment — The Twenty-eighth Rogiment— FInt 
98 



Beginieiit Heavy Artillery., 



CHAPTER VII. 

Intkrnal Imphovkiifnts. 

The UoueatoDlc Railroad— The Naugatiick KnllnMul — The Connecticut 
Weeteru — The Shepoug— The New Haven and Northampton 100 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Population a»d School Statistics. 

Population of LitchAeld County 104 

CHAPTER IX. 

LiTCIIKIKLh. 

Ooofrnphlcal— Topogmptilcnl— Tile Indian Pnrchano— The Eiplorallont 
of the Township— M<t of rropricloni— The Town Plvhlml Into Slily 
8harc«— Court of Probate, 1719— Original ('o»t of the Town— One Penny 
Three rurlhluipi per Aero- The Patent of l.llchlleld-The Kirat .Sellle- 
menlo — NaniOMof Ploneera— " Houm Lots" — The Pii>ne<*r Homea— The 
Forta— Indian Depre<lnllon8— Incldeul— LItchfleld In the French War, 
ITSt-Ol— Namee of Soldiera IDS 

CHAPTER X. 

LlTcnriKLD (C'mlinmd). 
First Indlcatlona of Ruvoluthmary Spirit In MIchneld— Letter of Aaron 
Uurr~Tho Firat Cuni|>anjr of Soldlora— (^apt. Ihaaleal llMba— The 



Bowling Green Statue of George III. Demolished — Carried to Litch- 
field — Converted into Cartridges — Continental St'ires — .\rmy Work- 
shops — Prisoners of War — Arrest of David Matthews, Mayor of New 
York — Conveyed to Litditield — Governor Franklin a Prisoner here — 
Visit of Count Rochambeau and Gen. Lafayette — Gen. W'ashington 
Visits the Village — Various Votes of the Town — Rev. Judah Cham- 
pion's Prayer — Resident British Soldiers — Incidents, etc., etc 110 

CHAPTER XI. 
Litchfield (Coiiilinied). 
Ethan Allen — Elisha Sheldon — Oliver Wolcutt — .\ndrew .\dams — Beza- 
leol IJeebe — Jedediah Strong — Benjamin Taluiadgc — Tapping Reeve — 
Mosee Seymour — Elisha Mason 120 

CHAPTER XII. 

Litchfield (ChiiiIhiiciI). 

Congregational Church, Litchfield— Congregational Cliurch, Milton — 
Congregational Cliurch, Norlhfielil— St. Michael's Clinix-h, LitchfieM — 
Methodist Church, LitchBeld— SI. Paul's Church, Bantam Falls- 
Trinity Clinrch, Milton— Baptist Church, Bantam Kulls— Roman Cath- 
olic Church, Utchfield 129 

CHAPTER XII L 

Litchfield {Coniluned). 
The Village of Lttchneld— Incorporation— Firvt Offlcers — Presidents and 
Clerks from 1818 to l.ss.'- Ilorongh Ornanliation- The Pr>iis— The 
Weekly Monitor and American Adverll^ier — The Witne«a— The E^ll- 
ion ConTlctetl i>f I.llH-l~liiiprisoiietl — Political Kxcitement throughout 
Immediate and Distant Slates — Granil Oration to the InipriscmeU 
Editor- Excllement In the Town— The Lilchflcld Gazette— The Lilch- 
field Journal— The Lilihfleld Republican— The Mlsiellaiiy — The 
American Fjigle- The LilchHrld County P<»l— The Lib hfleld En- 
quirer— The I.IU'hAeld Democrat— The MtcliHebl Sun— The Mercur; 
—The Dt'mociBllc Wat. Iiman— The Lllclitleld Kepubllcan— The Litch- 
field Senllnel— The Mlrhfielil Law-School- The P<»lonic(^llanke— 
Barings S<iclely— Insurance Company— "Spring IIIU"— St. PanP's 
Lodge, No. 11, F. and A. M.— SllnemN— Teni|ieranco In 1780— Slavery 
in Litchfield— Danlani Falla— Northnibl— Milton- Blogmphlral Note* 
— College Oraduatca— Physicians — Lawycra 137 

CHAPTER XIV. 

LiTcnriKLD (CuHiinHtd). 

Incorporation of tiie Town — Fint Town Offlcers Elected — Reprtaenla- 
liTeafrom l740-18l»2->lllll«ry lllntory IftS 

CHAPTER XV. 

Wl.tCHMTBIl. 
Gsographical— Topographical — List of Pn^prlelorv i-r Wlnrlir«ter— Allot- 
Oienl of l,aniU — Surrey, etc. — Indian Hitlory' Flrat Conveyance of 
Land — First Iloa<U — Tlie Ploneen<— Their I.acall<inii— lii< Idrnts of 
Pioneer Life— Initial Kvenia— Ilinihil«cence» of Mr«. .•iwlfl The First 
Forge— The Pioneer Grist-MIII— The FIIM Sao-JIIII -The RevoluHon 
— Names of Soldleta, etc.— AaMsmenl Boll of 17KI „ 1ST 

CHAPTER XVI. 

WixcnKTr.ii (raiiri'Miie<<). 

pioneers In WlnslMl S^lety— Manufaclurlng Inierent* — The WInatsd 
Bank— Tlie llurllMil lUnk-Tlie Hurlbul National Hank— The FIret 
National Bank— The Wlnatwl National Bank— The Wln>te<l SaTlnga 
Bank— Tlie Uechanlca' Sailnfs Uoiik-Sl. Andrew Lodga, Nu. M, T. 



Tl 



CONTENTS. 



aud A. M. — Meridian Cliapter — Tyrian Council — Orion and Union 
Lodges, I. 0. of 0. F. — Temperance Organizations — Palmor Post — 
Kniglits of Pytliiiis — Liliraries — Early Schools — The M'iusted Herald — 
The Wiiisted Press— The Winsted News— Post-Oflice Difficulties— List 
of Old Inhaliitants— Tlie Borongli of Clifton— Tlic liorough of Winsted 
— Incorporation — First OHiceis Elected — Wardens from ISoS to IS81 — 
Burgesses from 1S5S to 18S1 — Clerks, Treasui-ers, and Bailitl's from 1858 
to 1881 — Water-Works— Fire Lepartment, etc. — Population of Town 
from 17S(itol880 18G 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Winch i-^STKR [Continued) 



198 



C 11 A P T E K XVIII. 

WixcHESTKii (Continued). 

First Congregational Clnuch, Winchester- First Cungregutional Chnieli, 
Winsted — Second CongiegiitionalCliiMch — McthudistEliiscopalChnicli 
— St. James' Church — St. Joseph's Church — The Women's Christian 
Temperance Union 2013 

CHAPTER XIX. 

WlNCIlKSTKI! ( Culllilillcd). 

Incorporation of the Town — First Town-Meeting — Officers Elected — 
Documentary History — List of Senators — llepreseutatives— Judges of 
Probate — Town Clerks — Selectmen — Military Kocord '2HJ 

CHAPTER XX. 

l!AnKii.vji.sriSD ^'^ 

CHAPTER XX :. 
BaHKIIAMSTKU (Ci'lltillllcll) 239 

CHAP T E R XXII. 
Baukhasisted {Cuiiliiiiicil) 243 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

BAItKnAMSTCn (CoHliuued) ■'41' 

CHAPTER XXI V. 
Bakkiiamsted (ConlillllcU) 240 

CHAPTER XXV. 

Bkthi.kiiem. 

Geographical- Topogiapliical— The First Grunt— The Indian Purchase 
— Tlic Survey— The First Settlements—The' Pioueers— Petitions for 
" Winter Privileges" — Incidents — Prices of I'rovisions in 1747 — Ec- 
clesiastical Histiuy- Congregational Church — Christ Church— Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church— Bethlehem Library Associations— Physicians 
-The '■ tireat Sickness" of 1711U— Civil and Military History- Organi- 
zation ol Town— Olticers Elected— Town Clerks — Selectmen from 1787 
to 1881— Keprescntatives from 1787 to 1881— Preseut (.1881) Town Offi- 
cers — Military Uecord 251 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

BRIDliEWATEU. 
Geographical — Topographical — Incorporation of Town— First Town- 
Meetiug — Officers Elected- List of Town Clerks — Representatives Ironi 
1857 to 1881— Ecclesiastical History -Congregational Church— St. 
Mark's Church — Methodist Episcopal Church — Baptist Church — 
Roman Catholic Church— Grand List, 1881— Military Record 265 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

Canaan. 

Geographical— Topographical— The Housatonic Falls— Sale of the Town 
— First Meeting of Proprietors — Held at Wethersfield— Name of the 
Town— First Settlement of the Town— Names of Pioneers aud Gran- 
tees — Early Births and Marriages — Ecclesiastical History — Congrega- 
tional Church, South Canaan — Congregational Church, Falls Village 
—Methodist Episcopal Church, Falls Village — The Iron Bank — The 
Falls Village Savings Bank 264 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Canaan (Coniinned). 

Incorporation of the Town — First Town-Meetings — Bounty on Rattle- 
snake Tails — Religious Service — The Ringing of Swine — Pounds — 
Church Service — Extiacts from Town Records — Unwholesome Inliah- 
itants— Fire-Locks- Grist-Mill — New County— Petition for Bank — 
Trouble with Proprietors — Iidiabitants Aduntted — Bounty on "Squir- 
rels," etc. — List of Representatives iVom 1757 to 1881 — Military 
Record 267 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

Colehrook. 
Geographical — Topographical — Towns Patented to Hartford and Wind- 
sor — The Controversy — Survey of the Town — Ministerial and School 
Lots — Initial Events — Incorporation of the Town — First Town-Meet- 
ing — Highways — Early Settlors and theii Locations — The First Death 
— The Fiist Birth — The Church Controversy — Ecclesiastical History — 
Congregational Church — Representatives from 1790 to 1882 — Military 
Record 274 

CHAPTER XXX. 

Cornwall. 

Geographical — Topographical— The Indians— "Tom Warrups" — Sale of 
the Town — Its Bounds — The First Meeting of Proprietors — Early Reg- 
ulations—The First Settlers and their Locations — Grand List of 1742 
—Family Sketches — The Old Emmons Tavern — The Whipping-Post 
and Stocks 287 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

Cohnwall ( Cuiiiiiiiied). 

Congregational Church, Cornwall— Congregational Church, North Corn- 
wall — Cornwall and Sharon Baptist Church — Baptist Church, Cornwall 
Hollow— Bajdist Church, East Cornwall— Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Cornwall Biidge — Educational — The Foreign Mission-School — Cream 
Hill Agiiinltural School— W. C. and Miss L. Rogers' School — Noah R. 
aud E. Burton Hart's School — Young Ladies' Institute — The Alger 
Instilute — Physicians — Cemeteries — Organization of Town — Represen- 
tatives from 17GI to 1882 — Soldiers of the Revolution — Soldiers of the 
Rebellion, 1801-05 300 

C H A 1' T E R XXXII. 

Goshen. 

Geographical- Topographical — The First Settlements — The Laying Out 
of the Town — New Bantam — Goslien — Troubles between the Town 
and the Colony — The Moh — Committee of Investigation— Settlement 
of the Controversy — The Fiist Grant and Survey — The Surveyor — The 
College Farm — Division of the Town into Rights — First Proprietors' 
Meeting— The First Birlh— The First Meetiug-Honse— The Pioneer 
Minister — The Pioneer Taverns — Location of Early Settlers — Pioneer 
Merchants— The First Saw- aud Grist-Mill, etc 322 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 
Goshen ( Continued) 



333 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Goshen (Continued). — Ecclesiastical, Civil, and Military. 

The Congregational Church— The Episcopal Church— The Methodist 
Episcopal Church — Methodist Eiiiscopal Church, North Goshen — The 
First Town-Meeting — Officers Elected — Extracts from Recoi'ds — Rep- 
resentatives from 1700 to 1880— Military History— The Heroes of 
Three Wars— The Freucli War— War of the Revolution— War of the 
Rebellion — Names of Soldiers — Interesting Statistics 346 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

Harwinton. 

Geographical — Topographical — Original Proprietors — The Pioneers — 

Early Schools— Votes — The Revolution- Names of Soldiers, etc.. 374 

CHAPTER XX'XVI. 

Harwinton { Continued). 
The Congregational Church— The Episcopal Church— Incorporation — 
First Town-BIeeting — Officers Elected — Representatives from 1757 to 
1882— Military 3'?9 



CONTENTS. 



vu 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

Kent. 

Geographicnl — Topographical — The Indians — Tlie Moravians — The Grant 
— First Proprietors' Bleetiug — List of Proprietors — Tlie First Settle- 
ments — Grand List, 1745 — The Fii-st School — The Congregational 
Church— St. Andrew's Cliurch— St. Luke's Lodge, No. 48, F. and A. M. 
— Civil History — Incorporation of Town — Tlie First Town-Meeting — 
First Marriage, Births, etc. — Bepresentatives from 1757 to 1881 — Mili- 
tary Kecord 384 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

Morris. 

Geographical — Topographical — Pioneer Settlement — Parish of South 
Farms Incorporated — History of Congregational Church — The Advent 
Society — James Morris and fliorris Academy — Incorporation of the 
Town — First Town-Meeting— Officers Klecled — Extracts from Societies' 
Records- Bepresentatives from 1800 to 1882- Military Becord 388 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 
New Hartfoud 393 

CHAPTER XL. 

Nkw Mii.Fimi). 

Geographical — Topographical — Indian History — Documentary History — 
Original Indian Deed, etc 422 

CHAPTER XL I. 

Nkw MiLCiiiin (C'lmlinued), 

Early E-xplorations — Purcliases — Indian Map of tlio Town— Tlio Patent 
— The First Settlement — First Pnipriotors' Meeting— List of Original 
Proprietors— Initial Events — Tlio Nortli Purchase— Names of Proprie- 
tors — liiograpliical N'otes of Some of the First Settler* — Town Uill and 
Town Street 426 

CHAPTER XLir. 

Nkw Mii.roitu (('onliuued). 

Home-Lots of Original Purcliamiri* — Proprietors of Common Fields — 
Proprietors* Meetings — Kccurd of Higliways 438 

CHAPTER XLIII. 

NlW Mll.FOliD (CvHlluiied) 445 

CHAPTER XLTV. 

New Mii.FORn {C"iiiliiued). 

Congregational Church, New fiillford— Mettimllst Episcopal Church, 

Kew Milford— Slethudlst Epl>co|>al Churrli, Gnylurdsrllle— Bapliat 

Church, Nortliville— llaplisi Cliunli, GayhinUTlllv-Jrniluia Wilkin- 

lOD, the Universal Friend- (Quaker S«Miety — Ituman Catliidlc Church. 

461 
CHAPTER XLV. 

Nkw Milford {CoaliHutd}. 

Ths Prem— The New Milfonl Il.pnl.llcan- The New Mllfonl Junrnal— 
Tlie Iloiisalonic Ray— The New MllfurU Guxellp— Flist National Dank 
—Savings Hank— l.llirary- St. Peter's Lodge, No. 21, F. aud A. M. — 
Ousuloiilc Chapter, .No. :I3, K. .\. M.— Oouil Shetihcnla' La<lgo, No. 05, 
I.U.O. K.— Fire Deparlnieut— Adelphic Instilulo— Old AdterllMnicnla 
—The Tohac.o Iiitereat-liranil U»t, IHMO— Im..ri»>nill.in of Town— 
BepreseiitHtivea from 172.'> to lK81 — l*n>liato Judges from 1787 to IHUl 
—unitary History _ 4S6 

CHAPTER X L V I. 

NoiiroLK. 

Osographlcal— Topographical— Tho Plone«ra— 8ala of tba Town— rirst 
Proprietorn' Meeting— War of the llevolutlon— Names of Solillen — 
l«L.jr lleguhilions, I77S— Tloneer Mills— Schools— The Flnl ■'••l-Onii e 
— (kcleslasllrHl History— Ciingregallonal Church— MethiMlUtE|>lM-o|ial 
Church— TomiKMunre S<«loly— Civil History— Iniorporallon of the 
Town-Mst of HeprMenlallves from ilTi In 1)WI— List of Physician* 
— Oiillrgr Uraihiale*— Military Uislury- Nams* of Holdlare— tkildlar*' 
UoMunMul - 4S8 



CHAPTER XLVII. 

North Ci.vaan. 
Geographical — Topographical — Incorporation of the Town — The Bevolii- 
tion — Incidents — The First Town-Meeting — Officers Elected — Select- 
men from 1859 to 1882— Clerks from 1869 to 18S2— Probate Judges 
from 1847 to Present Time — Representatives from 1859 to 1882 — Eccle- 
siastical History — Congregational Church — Christ Church — Methodist 
Episcopal Church — Connecticut Western News — Tillages — Military 
Becord 482 

CHAPTER XL VII I. 

PLV.MOl-Tn. 

The First Settlements— The Old Lead-Mine— Petition for " Liberty of 
Planting" — Petition for Winter Privileges — Charter of the Town — Or- 
ganization of the Society, etc 48G 

CHAPTER XLIX. 

Pltmoith {Conlinued). 

Congregational Church, Plymouth — Congregational Church, Terryville 
—St. Peter's Church, Plymouth 492 

CHAPTER L. 
Plymouth {Conlinued) 600 

CHAPTER LL 

RoXBt-KV. 

Organization — Topographical — The Indians — The First Exploration — 
The First Settlements — Initial Event;* — The War of the Itevolulion — 
Ethan Allen — Col. Seth Warner — Cupt. Keniember Itaker — War of 
1812 — The Schoids — Prominent Citizens— Physicians, etc — Eccleslaa- 
tical History — Congregational Church— Episcopal Church— The Bap- 
tist Church— The Methodist Church— Civil and Military — Organization 
of Town— List of Representatives from 1797 to 1881— Organization of 
Probate District — List of Judges — Military Record 612 

CHAPTER HI. 
Salisbiry. 
0«og;T»phical— Topographical- The Indians — The Firet Purchase of 
Land*— The First liraut— The First Settlements— Early Highways — 
The Pioneer*- Early Schools — Ilvu Interests — l.awyeni, Physicians 
— Pivmlnont Citizens— Graud Lint, 1742— Market-Placo— The Firat 
Puat.offlco— Pioneer Mill — Indian Uountis — The Kevolutlon — War of 
181'.i— The Iron laleresls. 618 

CHAPTER LIU. 

Salisbury (CoHtinued)- 633 

CHAPTER LIV. 
Sai.isbi'RY (riiiitiiiiiei/). 
Oongragallunal Cliurch— St. John's Chutch—Trinlly Cliurvh, Lima Rock 
— Methoillsl Episcopal, Lakavillr — Melliodlst Episcopal, Lima Rock— 
Catholic, Lakeville 641 

CHAPTER LV. 

Sali.sbiry (''"MiiMMcJ).— Civil A!<i> Milftary. 

Flnt Proprietors' Meeting — Incorporation of the Town- Tlis First Town- 

UoctjDK — Ofllcars Elected — Uocuntrnlary— OrlgluofthoNamsof Town 

— ItopnaauUtlvM froni 1767 U> 1881 — Military IlUtury 647 

C UAPTEK LVI. 

BlIARilX. 

Q«o(nphk«l— Topiigraphkal— CoDllk-tlng Claims to Territory — Surrsy 
of tU« Town— Line Itetwsen New York and Connecticut Defined — 
IndUn History— The Klisl Selllrnient— Rh hsr<l Sackelt— Sale of the 
Town— List of OrtKttisI Purchaser*— Patent of the Town— Tlie Settle- 
ment In DiKtrees— Tlio KIrsI Death— The Klnt lllrth— First Marriage 
—The Huravlans— TheResolullouary War— Sluky's Rebelllou— LMof 
KarlySalUeta. _ ~ — . 8«S 

CHAPTER LVII. 

SlIAMUX (CoHlimitJ). 

OwcngaliolMl rhun-li, Shamo — OongreKational Charvh, KHaWDrtb — 
Iflnafal Church- Mslhodlsl E|i4acopal Church— Inourporatioa of th* 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



Town— Firat Town-Meeting— Officers Elected — llepresentatives from 
1755 to 1881 — Members of tlio Governor's Conncil — Senatois — Judges of 
the County Court — Justices of tlie Peace — Town Clerks — Attorneys — 
PI 1 ysici a ns— College Graduates— Military Record 583 

CHAPTER LVIII. 

Tho.vaston. 

Geograpliical — Topographical — Thomaston in 1825 — Seth Thomas — The 
Seth Thomas Clock C'umpany — Kcclesiaetical History — Civil History — 
Incorporation of the Town — First Town-Meeting — Officers Elected — 
Present Town Officers — Kepiesentatives 599 

CIIAPTEK LIX. 

TonniNGTON. 

Geograpliical— Topographical-Naming the Town— List of Proprietoi-s — 
Grand List, 1733— Divisiou of Lots— The First Settlers and thfir Lo- 
cations — Initial Events — First Deeds of Conveyance — The Indian Fort 
— The FiiBt School-house — I'ioneer Taverns — AVarof the nevohition — 
Proceedings of the Town — Names of Officers and Soldiers — Taxes 
During the Revolution — The Whipping-post — A Prosecution for Pro- 
fanity— Slavery-Organization of County Anti-Slavery Society atWo!- 
cottville — The Convention Routed by a Mob — "Nigger Pew" in Tor- 
riugton and Toningford Churches— Emancipation of Slaves in Tor- 
rington — John Ilrown GIO 

CHAPTEll LX. 

ToRRINOTON {Ctmtiuued). 

Wolcottville — Its Inception — United Movements— The Village in 1819 — 
In 183G— In 1881— Seneca Lodge, F. and A. M.— Wolcottville Savings 
Bunk — Brooks Brothor-s' Banking-Office — Physicians — Atturneys — 
Torringford — Holbrook's Mills— Hart's Hollow — Torrington Hollow — 
Wrightvillo— Burrville 020 

C 11 A P T E II L X r. 

Tokhin(;ton ( Coutiuued), 
Congregational Church, Torrington — Congregational Church, Torring- 
ford — Wolcottville Congregational Church — Methodist Episcopal 
Church, Wolcottville — Trinity Clinnh, Wolcottville — St. Francis' 
Church, Wolcottville — Baptist Church, Newlield — Methodist Episcopal 
Church, Nowfietd 626 

CHAPTER LXII. 
Torrington {Cuutiuved). 
The Coe Brass Mauufiicturing Company — The Coe Furniture Company 
— The Union Manufacturing Conijiany — The Turner & Seymour 
Manufacturing Company — The Excelsior Needle Company — The 
Hardware Company — C. H. Hotchkiss Jt Sons — The Alvord Manu- 
facturing Conii)any — The Hardware Manufacturing Company — The 
Bendy Machine Company, Etc 634 

CHAPTER LXIir. 

TOHRINGTON { Continued). 

Incoi-poration of Town — Representatives from 1762 to Present Time — 
Military Record, 1^61-05 637 

CHAPTER LXIV. 

Warren. 
Geogi-aphical— Topographical — The Fii-st Settlements— Names of Set- 
tlers — Early Marriages — Organization of Parish and Town — The First 
Town-Meeting — Officers Elected — Documeutary History — Ecclesiasti- 
cal History — Representiitives from 1786 to 1881 641 

CHAPTER LXV. 

Washington. 

Geographical — Topographical — Judea and New Preston Societies — The 
First Settlements — Names of Pioneers— Oiganization of Judca Society 
— Ecclesiaslii al History — The Congregational Church, Washington — 
CoDgrcgational Church, New Preston — Congi'egational Church, New 
Preston Hill— St. John's Church— St. Andrew's Church— Rising Sun 
Lodge, No. 27. F. and A. M. — Phyticians — Revolutionary Incident — 
Gunn's Seminary — The Sliepaug Railroad — Lake Weroanumg — Civil 
and Military History — Organization of the Town — The First Towu- 



Mceting— Officers Elected — Documentary History— List of Selectmen 
from 1786 to 1881— List of Representatives— Probate Judges — Military 
Record .-.; 651 

CHAPTER LXV I. 

Watertown. 

Geographical— Topographical— The First Settlements— The Pioneers- 
Organization of the Parish of Westliury — Incidents — Reminiscences of 
Hon. F, J. Kingsbury — Physicians — Men of Promitience — Lawyer's — 
War of 1812— Notes— Evergreen Cemetery— Jlortality List— Agricul- 
tural — Summer Resort — Railroad — lleminiscenccs of Mrs. Rev. Fred- 
erick Holcomb 660 

CHAPTER LXVII. 

Watertown ( Contiuvcd). 

Congregational Church — Christ Church — Methodist Episcopal Church- 
Methodist Episcopal Church in North Part of Town 670 

CHAPTER LXVIII. 

Watkrtown {Continued). 

Incorporation of Town— Firet Town-Meeting- Officers Elected— Ex- 
tract- from Town Records— The Revolution — Division of the Town — 
Representatives from 1780 to 1881— Town Clerks— Probate Judges- 
Military Record, 1861-65 672 

CHAPTER LXIX. 

Woodbury. 

Introductory — Six Purchases from the Pootatucks — First, or Pomperaug 

Purchase — Keltletown Purchase— Fourth, or Nounewaug Purchase — 

Fifth Purchase — Sixth, or Confiiinatory Purchase— Reservation, or 

"Purchase" — Indian "Marks" — A Bulled Race 685 

CHAPTER LXX. 

Woodbury (Continued). 

Church Dissensions in Stratford the Cause of the Settlement of Wood- 
bury— Action of the Geneial Court in 1GG7, 1669, 1670— Pomperaug 
Granted, and Settlement Commenced in 1672 — Fresh Arrivals Next 
Year — Pomperaug made a Town and called Woodbury iu 1674 — Sig- 
nification of the Name 687 

CHAPTER LXX I. 

Woodbury (Continued). 

King Philip's War in 1675- Inhabitants of Woodbury go back to Strat- 
ford-Orders of the General Court— Rev. Mr. Walker's Letter— Inhab- 
itants Return in 1677- The First Three Corn-Mills- Town First Rep- 
resented in the General Court in lOS-i — Patent Granted to the Town 
in 168G — General Court grants tlio North Purchase to the town in 
1703— Same Purchased of the Indians in 1710 691 

CHAPTER LXXIL 

Woodbury (Continued). 

Character of tlie Firet Settlers— Capt. John Minor — Capt. William Cur- 
tiss— Hon. Samuel Sherman— Hon. John Sherman— Lieut. Joseph Jud- 
8on — Lieut. Israel Curtiss — Col. Joseph Minor — Ilackaliah Preston — 
Hon. William Preston 693 

CHAPTER LXXIII. 

'WootiBVHY- (Continued). 

Home-Lots — Rev. Z. Walker's House— Palisaded Houses — First School- 
House— Second, or Stoddard Parsonage— First Meeting-IIouse— First 
Birth, Marriage, and Death— Fii-st Clothier— First Physician— First 
Blacksmith— First Divorce— Pardon Stoddard Kills Two Indians — 
Wood Creek Expedition — Slavery 695 

CHAPTER LXXIV. 

Woodbury (Continued). 

Character of Rev. Zechariali Walker— Rev. Anthony Stoddard Settled- 
Rev. Noah Benedict Settled— Ilalf-Way Covenant Abolislied, 1760— 
Rev. Samuel R. Andrew Settled — Remaining Pastors of the Church 
— Recapitulation — Strict Congregational Church — Rev. Grove L. 



CONTENTS. 



Brownell Settled— Kev. John CliiirLhill Settled— W. L. R. Wychorf 
Settled— Episcopal Clmrcli— Methodist Chiircli—CiitUolicCLurcb. 697 

CHAPTER LXXV. 

WoODBUKY ( Continued). 
French and Indian Wars — War of the Revolution — War Convention at 
liitchfield in 17G6 — Town-BIeeting3 in 1774 — Iloston Alarm— Commit- 
tee of Oliscrvatioii — Capture of Ticondei'oga and Crown Point by 
Woodbnry Men — Woodbury the Biithplace of Col. Ethan Allen, Col. 
Seth Warner, and Capt. Remember Baker — Tories — Events of 1775 — 
Events of 1776— Events of 1777— Events of 1778 — Shadrach Osborn- 
Commissary Supplies — Events of 1779 — Events of 1780 — Volunteers 



till New York should be taken— Events of 1781 and 1782— Conclu- 
sion 700 

CHAPTER LXXV I. 

Woodbury {Continned), 
List of Public Officers in Ancient Woodbnry — Representatives, 1684-1S81 
— List of Soldiers in Fort William Henry Alarm — List of Soldiers in the 
Revolutionary War — List of Soldiers in the War of 1812 — Woodbury's 
lioU of Honor— War of the Rebellion, 1861-65— Alphabetical List of 
tlie Soldiers of Woodbury in the War of the Rebellion 705 

SUPPLEMENT 723 



BIOG-KyJ^IF'iailO-A.ILi. 



P.\GE 

Patridgo Thatcher U 

Daniel Everitt 15 

Tapping Reeve 15 

John Allen ,- 16 

Barzillai Slosson 17 

ISanniel \N'. Southniayd 18 

Juo. C. Smith 20 

Nathaniel Smith 20 

James Gould 21 

Noah B. Ileuedi.t 22 

Jabe/. W. Iluulington 23 

Phineas Sliiier 23 

Leman i'hurch 24 

An»cl SlirliuB H 

Stephen T. Hummer 25 

Jiio. T. IVtcrs 20 

A^a (/'hapman 27 

William llrislol 27 

Jeremiah G. Drainard 27 

David Daguelt 27 

John W.l.li 27 

Jabrz Snift 28 

Adouijah Strunic 28 

Jos. Cunfleld 28 

Martin Strong 28 

Asa IlaroM 28 

ElUlla Stirling 28 

David 8. lloarilnnin 29 

William (i. Williama 29 

John Strong, Jr 20 

Calvin lliitlor 29 

CyniaSwan 20 



Jo>. Mlllei 



ao 



William M. Burrall 30 

William (V'LEjtawcll 30 

Selh I'. Uiera 30 

Perrjf Shiiih „ 30 

UogMMIIl. 30 

Michael K. Mllln SO 

Charln H. rliel|>« 31 

Mnttlion Minor SI 

Nathaniel P. Perry 31 

llolbnKik <'urll« _ SI 

Wlllinni K. Cntlla 32 

Imuic Leavenworth and R, li. Ulnmau 33 

Jmwph II. Ihillnmy » 33 

Thaodorti North 33 

Wllllani a. Ilulal.lrd 33 

GiNirg* S. Iloanlmau 33 

John Klmoro „..,. 3:1 

Samuel Church 34 

CIdi-un Hall '. 34 

Tnimao Smith 34 

ninrlaa F. Sclgwlck 38 

OiNirg^. WiKHlruir 30 

J. 11. iftbbai 



Bbbanl.. 



a« 



PAG p. 

0. S. Seymour 36 

Miles T. Granger 37 

Henry B. Graves 38 

William Cothren 38 

George A. Ilickox 40 

Marcus \. Pelavan » 40 

Jacob B. Hardenborgh 42 

Gettrgo Whoaton 43 

F. D. Fyler. 43 

Aui:n!4tus 11. Fenn 44 

A. P. Bradntreet 44 

Augnstu-H Pettibuuo 44 

John B Welch 51 

L. W. WeaselU 76 

Julius Deming 155 

GIdetiu II. Ilolliilor 160 

Illnini Stono - 156 

J. P. Brace 157 

JuhnCatlln 168 

F. H. Callin 150 

Myron O«hom_ 1*» 

Anion lllaMll 180 

The Blwll Family IW 

Ellada Klll«.urn -.. I«l 

Koali Guerimey 108 

Ouy t'allln tW 

llrnry W. Burl „ I«li 

Payne It. Kllbourua 102} 

Daniel .Sheldon 1«44 

Samuel II. Dudley » IBS 

llemau Bearh » 163 

Charire D. Whealar 103 

Levi foe 1«» 

Jacob Mone « « 1M 

Uavld M. Gmnl „._.__. -...._ IW 

The Plumb Family. _ _ - 1« 

Philip S. IV<!l« _- ~ ~ !•• 

George Dudley « - SSS 

John Boyd ...» - «. Mi 

Jaine« Wel<;h » »•.. 8M 

Jno. W. BIdwell _ - 2*6 

Elliot llcard«ley 2»6 

William II. Phelpt _.. - «B 

John G. Welnnire » » « 230 

W. L OilWrt -, ta 

KllaA K. Gtlmau ».. 2St 

John illnalair ;. ...__ ~ ~ -- —. M» 

Harvey B. Steele «. betwwn 22*, »• 

Henry Gay m>« - - — . ** 22*,tti 

Lyman Baldwin »*— *» 2SB 

David iilinng „ _ ~.. >M 

Samuel W. Cue „'. -„....«« » — batveen S30,tJl 

Franklin Moure „.„_«_.._ ~ _....« 131 

CbarliiC.xik 2W 

Bugeiie Potter- « -.. tai 

J. U. Norton — ....„._.__...„.>.-»«...feclB| tli 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

William V. Hatch 233 

Timothy Hulbert ; 233 

E. Manchester 234 

Thoron Hroiisoii 235 

Henry H. Drake 236 

■William Lawrence 236 

D. H.Stephens 241 

James Allen 20r. 

Glover Sanford 2oH 

Lyniuii Smith 250 

James H. Keeler 260 

Henry S;inforil X 261 

Marcns U. Mallett 261 

Boswell Morris 262 

John Wooster 263 

U. H. Miner 26!' 

A. C. Ranrlall 270 

Whiting fi. Kellogg 271 

Charles Hnnt 271 

Nathan Millanl 272 

Milo Ilolal.iril 272 

Jonathan Bates 273 

Pitkin t'owles 273 

Edward A. Phelps 284 

Uenlien Kockwoll 284 

Timothy I'ersons 284 

John .S. Wheeler 2-5 

Asaph 0. I'inney 285 

Solomon Sackett 286 

LucienO. liass 2!<r, 

Wm. P. Lawrence 2Sfi 

Loron l)e Wolf 286 

Lnther I'helps 286 

Harvey W. Pinney 287 

Theodore S. Gold i'.ll 

The llaTiison Family 313 

John U. Harrison 313 

Myron Harrison 314 

Frederick Kellogg 315 

Edwin White 315 

Ezra I). Pratt 316 

Isaac Mari^li 317 

The Noali Ko|;ers Family. 318 

Sylvester II. Hailinm '. between 320, 321 

Charles N. .she|iard 321 

Henry Norton 3.H 

Capt. William Uaylord 354 

Moses liynum '. 355 

Erastns Lyman 3.~>7 

The Wadclam Family 358 

Daniel N.Lucas 366 

Frederick A. Lucas 367 

r. E. llnrllmt 370 

Henry G. Wright 370 

Fessenden Ives 371 

Norman Norton 371 

William Norton 372 

Charles L. Norton 372 

Truman P. Clark 373 

William L. Griswold 373 

Acors W. Lawton 374 

Rufus Fuller facing 386 

Kussell Stone 388 

Dan Tliroop facing 300 

Pbiueas W.Camp 391 

Lymau L. Griswold 391 

Abel C. Tracy i 392 

William H. Faruham 302 

John C. Smith 419 

Henry Jones 410 

The Goodwin Family between 420, 421 

Charles F. Maxfield .'. 421 

Chester W. Gilman 421 

E. M. Chapin 421 

Ambrose S. Rogers 461 

George Taylor 463 



PAGE 

D. E. Sonle 465 

Albert N. Baldwin 465 

George S. Noble 466 

H. G. Sperry 467 

Joseph Eldridge 480 

Austin A.Spaulding 481 

E. T. Bntler 481 

William Bennett 480 

James Terry 504 

Andrew Terry 506 

Augustus C. Shelton 507 

Byron Tutlla 608 

George Pierpont 509 

Lynuin D. Baldwin 510 

William B. Feiiu 611 

Aaron I*. Fenn 511 

Oliver Smith 512 

Charles Beardsley 517 

Geoi'ge Ilurlhnt facing 518 

John M.HolIey 650 

A. II. llolley 651 

The Moore Family 553 

Frederick Miles 554 

Henry M. Knight 564 

Peter P. Everts 556 

Newton J. Beed 558 

H. P. Harris 658 

Daniel B. Cook 559 

Robert Little 5,69 

James M.Selleck 660 

Erastns 1>. Goodwin 560 

James Landon 660 

Charles H. Bissell 562 

John F. Cleaveland 662 

Thomas N. Smitl i 562 

John C. Jackson 690 

John S. Jewctt 591 

Ralph Deming 691 

Gamaliel H. St. John 692 

The Peck Family 592 

Lemuel Peck 694 

Charles M. Parsons 594 

F. L. Pierson 694 

Sannu-l Skiff, Jr 695 

Gihbs W. Skill. 695 

Seth H. St. John 596 

Henry St. John 506 

Samuel Dean 597 

Asa Everitt - 598 

Ichahod S. Everitt 598 

Augustus Eveiitt 598 

Benjamin S. Reed 599 

Setb Thomas 602 

Seth Thomas, Jr 603 

Edward Thomas G03 

Aaron Thonuis 603 

Thomas J. Bradstreet 603 

William Woodruff 605 

George W. Gilbert 006 

Marcns Prince 606 

llandal T. Andrews 607 

Benjamin Piatt 607 

George B. Pierpont 60& 

Miles Morse 608 

Israel B. Woodward 608 

F. E. Warner between 608,60* 

Henry F. Reynolds 609 

William P. Judson 609 

Hiram Pierce 610 

Milo Burr 640 

Jesse B. Rose 640 

F. P. Hills 641 

Orson Barber 641 

William Hopkins 650 

Daniel N. Brinsmade 656 

Daniel B. Brinsmade 656 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



PAGE 

r. W. Gunn 657 

Henry Upson 657 

Gregory Seeley 658 

Samael J. Averill 659 

Leman W. Cutler 675 

Herrit lleminway 675 

John De Forest 076 

Samuel Elton 676 

A.M. HuDgerford 677 

Eli Ciirtiss 678 

Benjamin Deforest 678 

E. B. Dickerman 679 

Alanson Warren 080 

Frederick Holcomb 681 

E.C. Bowers 6S2 



PAGE 

Caleb T. Hickox 683 

■William G. French 683 

Frederick J. Partree 684 

The Curtiss Family 717 

Daniel Curtiss 718 

Stanley E. Beardsley 719 

Thomas Bull 720 

Benjamin Fabrlque 720 

Horace Hurd 720 

George B. Lewis 721 

Harmon W. Shove 721 

Joseph Battel! 723 

The Coe Family 724 

Hufus Babcock 725 



ILXjTJSTI?.^TIOIsrS. 



I'AGr. 

Outline Map of County facing 13 

Portrait of James Gould " 22 

" Ansel Sterling " 24 

" Michael F. Mills " 30 

" Holbrook Curtis " 31 

" William E. Curtis " 32 

** Charles F. Sedgwick " 35 

" 0. S. .Seymnur " 36 

" George C. Wnodruff. between 36, 37 

" John H. Hubbard " 36,37 

'* M. T. Granger facing 38 

" W. Cothri'u " 39 

" George Whcaton ** 43 

" Augustus Pettibune between 44, 45 

" Albert P. Bradslroot " 44,45 

" John Sedgwick facing 50 

" JohuB. Wohh " 62 

" L.W. WoMolls " 76 

LITCHFIELD. 

Portrait of Moses Seymour facing 128 

" Julius Dendng " l.')5 

" Hiraui Stone " 15fi 

" J. V. lirace '• 167 

" John Callln " IM 

F. II. Catlln " 150 

" Myion Osborn between 160, 101 

" Amos Blssell •• 160,161 

" Henry B. Illiwoll " 160, l«l 

" Kliada KillK)nra „ ** Itti, Itil 

" Noah Guoruaey , faring IM 

" Guy Catlin between 182, 102' ; 

H. W. Uuol • Ikdng Wi>i 

" Dan. Sheldon _ " 162'..j 

" 8. II. Dudley between 162, 16.1 

" Human Binch '• 102, 1«3 

" Churl™ D. Wheolor " 102, 163 

Bealdenco of Charles D. Wheelor (two riewe).- ■* 182, IKI 

" I.evU'oo " 162,16:1 

• Portnat of Levi Coe " 164,106 

" Jacob Mon.0 " 164, 166 

" Duvhl M. Urmnt " 164, 165 

** 8elh K. Plumb _ -IkclnR 165 

' William Iteebe.- between 106, 107 

" Philip S. llocbe " 166,107 

WINCHESTER. 

Boeldence of George W, Phi<li« facing ■i:o 

Portrait of Gcurgo l>udloy - « « " 223 

" Jnu. Ihiyd between 224, 225 

" W. H. Phi-lpe •• 224,224 

" Jalum Welch „ " 224, 226 

" J.W. Bidwell ; " 224,225 

" J. U. Welmure.. _ _ „ " 2M,IBa 



PAGE 

Residence of J. G. Wctmore between 226, 227 

Portrait of William L. Gilbert facing 227 

" Elias E. Gilnian " 228 

" Harvey B.Steele between 228, 229 

" Henry Gay " 228,229 

" John Hinsdale " 228,229 

" Lyman Baldwin facing 229 

" David Strwng. " 230 

" Snmnel W. Coe between 230, 231 

" Franklin Moore being 231 

" CTuirlia Cook 232 

" J. II. Norton facing 232 

" Eugene Potter between '2:12, 233 

'• W. F. Hatch " 232,233 

" Timothy Hulbcrt facing 233 

" E. Mancheetor 234 

Reeidenco of K. Slanchestcr facing 234 

Portrait of Therun Uronson _ " 236 

'* William Lawrence ** 236 

Iteiddencear L. 8. Nuh " 237 

BARKHAMSTED. 
Portrait of D. II. Stephens Ilulng 241 



BETHLEHEM. 

Itmldemo of Jamre Alien between 2S2, 2BS 

Portrait of Jamoa Allen Ikclnf 3S6 

BRIDOCWATEB. 

Portrait of (Hover SauforU between KM, tU 

" Lyman Smith ■■ 258,169 

" Junce II. Koeler a 900 

" Marrui 11. ilallelL - being MI 

•' Henry Sanfortl Ml 

Ruawell >Iorri> „ .facing MX 

John Wuoater „ - " MS 

CANAAN. 

Portrait of Joel Miner facing 2«» 

V. 11. Miner _ „ .between 270,271 

A. C. Bandall _ " ITO, 271 

W. O, K. Hogg „ „ _ faring 271 

Charln Hunt. ...__ _...„ > " 272 

W. W. Millanl....„»! between S7«, »7S 

" Jonailian llalea....... _ _ ** V7S, 3TS 

Mil.' llulaliirO „ -„ -fedog m 

COLEBROOK. 

Iteebleuceof I.. A. Plielps « 

Portrait of K. A Pli<.||a __ 

" TlDuilhy IVraiin* _..^ _ 

** John 8. Wh>4.|er .,....m..»... ....... 

" Bauben HtKkwall,.. .„..„_ 

■■ A. O. Ptnney «_-... 

" SokiiBan IkukelL.-.,. _>._ 



..hdDg m 



..between Md B> 
.. ' 264, MB 
- " Mt,MB 
.. ■ Mt,Mt 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Portrait of William P. Lawrence facing 28G 

" L. 0. Bass belween 2SG, 287 

Eesidenceof L. O. I3asa " 286,287 

Portrait of Loreti DoWolf. " 2SC, 287 

" Luther Phelps " 286,287 

Eesidenceof Harvey W. Piuney facing 287 

COEN"WALL. 

Portrait of T. S. Gold facing 311 

" George C. Harrison " 312 

Besideuce of George C. Harrison between 312, 313 

Portrait of John U. Harrison facing 313 

" ^lyrun llan-ison " 314 

" Freclerick Kellogg " 315 

" Edwin White 316 

E, D. Pratt 310 

" Isaac Marsh facing 317 

" Dwight Uogers " 320 

" Sylvester H. Barnura between 320, 321 

" Charles N. Shepard facing 321 

GOSHEN. 

Portrait of Honry Norton facing 354 

" William Gaylord..... between 354, 355 

" Moses Lyman " 354,355 

Besidence of Moses Lynnm facing 335 

Portrait of Erasing Lyman ** 357 

John M. Wadhams " 363 

" Daniel X. Lucas " 305 

" Fretierick A. Lucas " 367 

" F. E. Hnrlbut ■' 370 

" Henry G. Wright between 370, 371 

" Fcssenden Ives " 370,371 

Residence of Fessendeu Ives '* 370,371 

Portrait of Noilnan Norton facing 371 

" William Norton between 372, 373 

" Charles L. Norton " 372,173 

*' Truman P. Clurk facing 373 

" William L. Griswold between 374, 375 

" Acora W. Lawton " 374, 375 

KENT. 

Portrait of Rnfns Fuller facing 386 

" Russell Stone *' 388 

•MORRIS. 

Portrait of riau Tliroop facing 390 

" P. W. Camp between 390, 391 

" Lyman L. Griswold ■ " 390, 391 

" William H. Fainham " 392,393 

" Abel C.Tracy " 392,393 

NE'W HARTFORD. 

Portrait of John C. Smith between 418, 419 

" Henry Jones " 418,410 

" E. M. Chapin facing 420 

" Caleb C. Goodwin between 420, 421 

" Charles r. Maxfleld " 420,421 

Kesidence of Charles F. Maxfleld " 420, 421 

Portrait of C. ^V. Gilman facing 421 

NE^W MILFORD. 

Portrait of Ambrose S. Uogei-s between 460, 461 

Residence of Ambrose S. Rogers *' 4G0, 461 

Yiews of A. S. Rogers^ grounds " 462, 463 

Portrait of George Taylor facing 463 

Residence of D. E. Soule " 464 

Portrait of D. E. Soule 465 

" Albert N. Baldwin facing 465 

" George H. Noble " 466 

" H. G. Sperry " 407 

NORFOLK. 

Portrait of Joseph Battel! facing 478 

" JosepliMdridge " 480 

" E. T. BMer between 480, 481 



PAGE 

Eesidenceof E. T. Butler between 480, 481 

" Austin A. Spaulding facing 481 

Portrait of Austin A. Spaulding 481 

NORTH CANAAN. 
Portrait of William Bennett facing 486 

PLYMOUTH. 

Portrait of James Terry facing 504 

" Andrew Teny " 506 

" A. C. Shelton " 607 

" Byron Tuttle " 508 

" George Pierpont " 509 

" L. D.Balilwin between 610, 511 

" William B. Fonu " 510,511 

" Aaron P. Fenn facing 611 

" Oliver Smith " 612 

ROXBURY. 

Residence of Charles R. Hurd between 514, 515 

Portrait of Charles Beardsley 617 

" George Hurlbut facing 518 

SALISBURY. 

Portrait of Milo Barnum facing 630 

" Leonard Richardson " 632 

Residence of A. H. HuUey between 534, 535 

" Mrs. M. H. Williams " 634, 535 

Portiait of John M Holloy facing 550 

" Alexander H. Holley " 651 

" Silas B. Moore " 553 

" Albert Moore " 654 

'* Frederick Miles between 554, 555 

H.M. Knight " 654,655 

" Peter P. Everts facing 556 

'* Newton J. Reed " 568 

" H. P. Harris between 558, 559 

" Daniel B. Cook " 558,559 

" Robert Little facing 559 

" Albert Selleck " 660 

•' James M. Selleck between 560, 561 

" Enistus D. Goodwin " 560,561 

*' James Landon facing 661 

" Charles H. Bissell " 562 

" John F. Cleaveland between 502, 563 

" Thomas N. Smith " 562,563 

SHARON. 

Residence of John C. Jackson facing 588 

Portrait of John C.Jackson " 590 

Residence of S. B. Jewett between 690, 691 

Portrait of John S. Jewett " 590, 591 

" Ralph Deniiug facing 691 

" Gamaliel H. St. John " 592 

" Euoch P. Peck between 692,593 

" Augustus L. Peck..* " 592,593 

" E. R. Peck " 592,593 

" Charles W. Peck facing 593 

" Lemuel Peck " 694 

" Charles M. Parsons between 594, 595 

GibbsW. Skiff " 594,595 

" Samuel Skiff facing 595 

" Frederick L. Pierson 695 

Residence of Ichabod S. Everitt facing 596 

Henry St. John " 596 

Portrait of Seth B. St. John between 596, 697 

" Henry St. John " 596,597 

" Samuel Dean 697 

" Ichabod S. Everitt facing 598 

" Asa Everitt between 508, 699 

" Augustus Everitt " 698,599 

" Benjamin S. Reed facing 599 

THOMASTON. 

Portrait of Setb Thomas between 602, 603 

" Seth ThomSs, Jr " 602,603 

" Aaron Thomas " 602,603 



CONTENTS. 



Xlll 



FAQE 

Portrait of Edward Thomas tetwecn 602, 603 

" Tliomas J. Bradstreet facing 003 

_" William Woodruff. " 60.5 

" G. W, Gilbert between 606, 6117 

" Kandal T. Andrews " 600, 607 

" Marcus Prince " 600,607 

" Benjamin Piatt " 606,607 

" George B. Pierpont " 60S, 600 

" Miles Morse " 608,000 

" Israel B. Woodward " 608,609 

" Henry F. Keynolds " 608,609 

," F. E. Warner " 608,609 

" William P. Judson facing 609 

TOEEINGTON. 

View of John Brown's birthplace 020 

Besidence of John M. Burr between 638, 039 

Portrait of Milo Bnrr facing 640 

" Jesse B. Rose between 640, 041 

" Frederick P. Hills " 640,641 

" O.Barber .' " 040,041 

"WAEEEN. 

Besidence of H. H. Morehouse facing 646 

Portrait of William Hopkins " 650 

Besidence of George C. IIoi>kinB between 650, 651 

■WTASHINGTOIT. 

Portrait of Daniel N. Brinsmade between 656, 657 

" Daniel B. Brinsmade " 656,657 

" F. W. Gnnu " 656,657 

" Henry UpsoD *' 656,657 

Upson Semi nary facing 657 



PAGE 

Portrait of Gregory Seeley facing 658 

" Samuel J. Averill " 659 

WATEKTOWN. 

Besidence of Buell Heminw.ay facing 670 

" the late Eli Curtiss " 672 

Portrait "of Leman W. Cntler between 674, 675 

" Merrit Heminway '* 674,675 

" John De Forest " 076,077 

" Samuel Elton " 076,677 

" A. M. Huugerford facing 677 

" Eli Curtiss " 678 

** Benjamin De Forest between 678. 679 

" E. B. Dickerman ■' 678, 679 

" A. M'arren facing 680 

" Frederick Hidcomb " 681 

" E. C. Bowers " 682 

" Caleb T. Hickox between 682, 683 

" Dayton Mattoon " 682,683 

" Wm. G. French '. facing 683 

" F. J. Partree " 684 

TVOODBURY. 

Portrait of John Curtiss.... facing 716 

" Henrj S. Curtiss " 717 

" Daniel Curtiss " 718 

" Stanley E. Bearxlsley " 719 

" Thomas Bull between 720, 721 

" Bciijumin Fabriquo '* 720,721 

" Horace Hurd. " 720,721 

H.W. Shove •' 720,721 

" George B. Lewis " 720,721 



STATE. 







TV*-'-^-WlS;''*StV5l!N'f!S!N5''^ 



CONN. 



HISTORY 



OF 



LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



CHAPTER I. 

GEOGHAPHICAL AND DESCKIPTIVE. 

Geograpbical — Topographical — Orgauization uf LitclifieM County — Lo- 
cation of County-Seat — Conflicting Claims — First County Otficials — 
County Buildings — List of SlieritTs, Treasurers, Clerks, and State's At- 
torneys from 1751 to 1882 — Chief Judges Court of Common Picas from 
1751 to 1854. 

GEOORAPHICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE. 

Litchfield County lies in the extreme north- 
western portion of the State of Connecticut, and is 
bounded as follows : On the north by Massachusetts, 
on the east by Hartford and New Haven Counties, 
on the south by New Haven and Fairfield Counties, 
and on the west by the counties of Dutcliess and Co- 
lumbia, in New York. It comprises about eight hun- 
dred and eighty-five square miles of territory, and is 
the largest county in area in the State. 

The physical features of Litchfield County present 
a bold outline of irregular hills and deep valleys. 
The county is watered by the Housatonic, Naiiga- 
tuck, Shepaug, and Farmington Rivers, and numer- 
ous smaller streams. The Naugatuck anil Shepaug 
are tributaries of the Housatonic, which flows into 
Long Island Sound, while the Farmington empties 
into the Connecticut River a few miles above Hart- 
ford. The soil is generally a gravelly loam, in many 
portions strong and fertile, and well adapted to graz- 
ing. The manufacture of iron is carried on in this 
county — principally in the town of Siilisbury — more 
extensively than in any other section of the State. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY. 
Litchfield County was organized in the year 17ol, 
and at that time consisteil of the following towns: 
Canaan, Cornwall, Goshen, Harwiiitoii, Kent, New 
Hartford, New ^lilford, Salisbury, Sharon, Torriiig- 
ton, and Wnodbiiry, — eleven in number. .\s the |Mip- 
ulation increased new towns were f4>rmed, and at the 
present time the county consists of twenly-six civil 
subdivisions. The following is a list, with dates 
of incorporation: Ilarkhamsted, 177'. * ; IJethleliem, 
_1787; Bridgewater,JSo(]j (;anaan,"jT37; Colebrook, 
1779; Cornwall, 1740; Goshen, 174'.i; Harwinton, 



1737; Kent, 1739; Litchfield, 1724_l Morris, 1859j^ 
New Hartford, 1733, about ; New Milford, 172->^ prob- 
ably ; North Canaan, 18o8_^Norfolk, 17oS; Plymouth, 
1795 ;. Roxbury, 180U Salisbury, 1745; Sharon, 1739 j_ 
Thomaston, 1875 ^ Torrington, 1732 ; Warren, 1786 ; 
Washington, 1779j Watertowu, 1780; AVinchester, 
WoodtJurv, 



1771j WoodlJiTry, UiZii 

When the movement started for the organization 
of the county much diversity of opinion existed re- 
garding the location of the county-seat. Cornwall 
and Canaan made their claims and had their advo- 
cates, but the chief contest was between Litchfield 
and Goshen. The latter town was supposed to occupy 
thegeograjdiical centre, and many persons had settled 
there in expectation that that would become the fixed 
seat of justice, and, among others, Oliver Wolcott, 
afterwards Governor of the State. But at the October 
session of the General Court, in 1751, Li tchfielil County 
was organized with Litchfield as the county-seat. 

THE F[R«;T COUNTY OFFICERS. 

The fidlowing were appointeil by the General Court 
fipit officers of the county: Chief Justice, William 
Preston, of Wootlbiiry; Associate Justices, John Wil- 
liams, of Sharon ; Samuel Canfield, of New Milford ; 
and Ebenezer Marth, of Litchfield; Clerk, Isaac 
Baldwin: SheritV, Oliver Wolcott. 

Mr. Kilbourne in his history says, — 

" EvMi aftpr thu county «n» lliu!i formetl ami Its offli-ers Apindnteil the 
towo of Wtxxlbury cnntlnuml tii manlfrat her 4llisatlj»fiu-t)on In Tnrloui 
ways auij at all reasunatio tinira. I nslead uf ticlng niailv the central and 
slilra town of the new cuuiity, ttlie wiu left quilo In one ci>rncr. She Ant 
petlttone«l the LrKlnlaturc (in Mny and Apiln In Oi-tol cr, 175-') to (h< n^ 
annexeil to the county of Falrflehl. Twenty years later an efl^irt was 
again ninde to pcrauade llie General Aawnildy to orfcaoUe a CKinnly 
to be talle,! Wiio«lbury. On this ucr.t,i|un Iho town of Woudbury laid a 
rate of a jK'nny and a half i>n the pound, In addition tu the rvipilar t.i\, 
ti> lie npplltxl towanls ererlluK the cowHfy ImiliHinj* : and. further, nhe 
genortuuly ofTercO the use of her Toitm'll'tH for a CocaT-llotsa. 

" Mr. Collirrn liifurina us thai In Uay, I74ti, the lnhal>ilants of Wuol- 
bury sp|«ilntnl Od. William Preston an a^teut tu prefer a memorial tu 
the General Assembly for the organitaflon of a new ci>unty to Iw calle.1 
the county of Wtimlbury, to embrmce the t^wnsuf WiMnllmry, Walerlmr}-, 
New MllfonI, Llttlifleld, and New Falrflehl, and as many of tbe norlheni 
towns as mitiht cIunwo to J.dii them, with WiMMlbiiry for the cvunty-s»<aL 
The reaull necl not lie told." 



* Uarllaiid, HarUiml Co., originally boloDgeU lo Uil* county. 

IS 



u 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



The County Court at its first session in Decemberof 
the same year appointed Samuel Pettibone.of Goshen, 
to be King's attorney, who was within a few years 
succeeded by Reynold Marvin, of Litchfield, and these 
two gentlemen Avere the only ones in this county in 
this capacity who ever represented the King's majesty 
in that administration of criminal justice. 

COUNTY BUILDINGS. 

The first jail erected was a small wooden building, 
on the north side of East Street. This stood but a 
few years, and in its place a more commodious one 
was built, nearly on the same foundation. The present 
jail was built in 1812, and has been subsequently im- 
proved. The first court-house stood on the open 
grounds a little easterly from the West Park. It was 
a small building, but in it were often witnessed some 
of the most able eflbrts of American eloquence. In 
this humble temple of justice Hon. S. W. Johnston, 
of Stratford, Edwards, of New Haven, Reeve, Tracy, 
Allen, and the Smiths, of this county, exhil)ited some 
of the best essays of forensic power. The present 
court-house was erected in 1798. 

CUIEF JUDGES COUKT OF COMMON PLEAS.* 
William rieatou, WodJburj', 1751-54; Jolin Williams, SliHron, 1754-":!; 
Oliver Wok-Dtt, T,itilifii-lil, 177:i-8C; Uunii-l Slierman, Woodbury, 
1780-01; Jus'.ina Porter, Salisbury, 1701-1808; Aaron Ausliu, Now 
Ilartforil, 1808-16; Augustus I'ettibolie, Norfolk, 1810-30; David S. 
Uoardiiuin, Now Milford, 1831-:i0; William M. Burrall, Cuiuiau, 
1830-38; Ansel Sterling, Sharon, 1838-39; Culvin liuller, Pljnioutli, 
18:KI-40; Ansel Sterling, Sharon, 1840-42 ; William M. Burrall, Ca- 
iman, 184;;-44; Abijah Catlin, llarwinton, 1844-40; Elisha S. Abor- 
liethy, Litehlield, 1840-47; llolbrook Curtis, Watertown, 1847-40; 
Ilir.im Goodwin, liarUliainsted, 1849-50; Charles 1!. I'hel|i6, Wood- 
bury, 1850-51; Hiram Goodwin, Darkliamsted, 1851-52 ; Charles B. 
Phelps, Woodbury, 1852-54; Uirain Goodwin, BnrkhamBted, 1854. 

SHERIFFS FKOM 1751-1SS2. 
Oliver Widcotl, 1751-72; Lynilo Lord, 1772-1801; .John R. Landon, 1801- 
19; Bloses Seymour, Jr., 1819-25; Ozias Seymour, 1825-34; Albert 
Sedgwiek, 1834-:i'.; Charles A. Judson, 1835-38; Albert Sedgwick, 
1838-54; Levorett W. Wessels, 1854-06; H. W. Botsford, 1806-70; 
George U. Baldwin, 1570-78; John D. Yale, 1878-81; Charles J. 
Porter, 1881. 

TREASUEEIiS FROM 1751-1882. 
John Catlin, 1751-01; Elisha Sheldon, 1701-79; Reuben Smith, 1770- 
1801; Julius Deming, 1801-14; Abel Catlin, 1814.42; Charles R. 
Webb, 1842-04; G. A. Hiekos, 18C4-7C ; William C. Buell, 1876-81. 

COCNTT CLERKS, 1751-1882. 
Isaac Baldwin,1751-93;Freilericl;Wolcolt,1703-1830;Oiigcn S.Seymour, 
183G-44 ; Gideon H. Ilollister, 1844-40 ; Origeu S. Seymour, 1840-47 ; 
Gideon II. Ilollister, 1847-50; Elisha Johnson, 1850-51; Frederick 
D. Beeman, 1851-01 ; W, L. Rausom, 1801-81. 

STATE'S ATTORNEYS. 

Kia^'if Atlm-iipyn. — Sanuiel Pettibone, Goshen; J. Whitney, Cauaan; 
Reynold Marvin, Andrew Adams, Litchfield. 

iStal'i^s Altoriit^lfs. — Andrew Adams, Tapping Reeve, Litchfield; John Can- 
field, Sharon; John Allen, Uriah Tracy, Daniel W. Lewis, Uiiel 
Holmes, Jr., Litchfield; Elisha Sterling, Salisbury; Selli P. Beers, 
Litchfield; Samuel Church, Salisbury {and Litchfield); Leman 
Church, Canaan ; David C. Sanford, New Milford (and Litchfield); 
John H. Hubbard, Salisbuiy (and Litchfield) ; Julius B. Ilanisou, 
New Milford; Gideon Ilall, AVinchester ; Charles F. Sedgwick, 
Sharou ; James Huntington, present iucuDibent. 

* Court abolished in 1855. 



CHAPTER IL 



BENCH AND BAK.l 



Among the prominent agencies which give shape 
and order in the early development of the civil and 
social condition of society, the pulpit, press, and bar 
are perhaps the most potential in moulding the insti- 
tutions of a new community ; and where these are 
early planted, the school, academy, and college are 
not long in assuming their legitimate position, and the 
maintenance of these institutions secures at the start 
a social and moral foundation upon which we may 
safely rest the superstructure of the county, the State, 
and the nation. 

The establishment of court and judicial tribunals, 
where society is protected in all its civil rights under 
the sanction of law, and wrong finds a ready re- 
dress in an enlightened and prompt administration of 
justice, is the first necessity of every civilized com- 
munity, and without which the forces of society in 
their changeable developments, even under the teach- 
ings of the pulpit, the direction of the jiress, and the 
culture of the schools, are exposed to peril and disaster 
from the turbulence of passion and conflicts of in- 
terest ; and hence the best and surest security that 
even the press, the school, or the pulpit can find for 
the peaceful performance of its highest functions is 
when prDtected by and intrenched behind the bul- 
warks of the law, administered by a pure, independent, 
and uncorrupted judiciary. 

The Litchfield County bar has from its beginning 
numbered among its members able jurists, talented 
advocates, and safe counselors. Here many have lived, 
flourished, and died, while others still are upon the 
stage of action who have been prominent in the ad- 
vancement of the interests of the county and figured 
conspicuously in the councils of the State. 

" Patridge Thatcher was the firet man who 
practiced the legal profession in New Milford. He 
was not educated to the profession, but took up the 
trade because there were none of the craft hereabout 
when this county was organized, which was after he 
came to middle age. He was a native, I have been 
told, of Lebanon, in this State, and came to New Mil- 
ford I know not how long ago. He was, however, a 
married man at the time. He had no children, but 
a large number of negroes, whom he treated with 
kindness enough to put to shame the reproaches of 
all the abolitionists in New England. He was a man 
of strong mind, of rigid morality, and religious to the 
letter according to the strictest sect of orthodox Epis- 
copacy. He adored Charles I. as a martyr, and he 
hated Oliver Cromwell worse than he did the evil 
one. Loyalty, unconditional loyalty, was the prime 
element of his political creed. Of course, his name 

f This chapter embraces the reminiscences of the late David S. Board- 
man, of New Milford ; the remainder, except sketches of living lawyers, 
being furnished chiefly by Gen. Charles F. Sedgwick, of Sharou, to whom 
wc are under special obligations. 



BENCH AND BAE. 



15 



was not found in any list of the wicked Whigs of the 
Eevolution, and had he lived in these days he would 
most thoroughly have eschewed Democracy and Ab- 
olitionism. On the breaking out of the Eevolution- 
ary war his loyalty necessarily silenced his voice in 
court, and he died soon after its conclusion. Lawyer 
Thatcher, as he was always called, was undoubtedly 
a very odd, a very honest, and a very good man. 

" Daniel Eveeitt was a native of Bethlehem, and 
settled in New Milford as a lawyer some time during 
the early part of the Eevolutionary war, probably as 
early as 1776 or 1777, possibly earlier, as from a record 
I have access to I see he was married to a daughter 
of the Eev. Nathaniel Taylor on the 1st of January, 
1778, and I remember that he lived here some time 
before that event. He had not a collegiate education, 
but was a man of good education and received an 
honorary degree. He read law with Judge Adams, of 
Litchfield, and I remember to have heard him say that 
he occasionally officiated in Mr. Adams' place as State's 
attorney when he (Adams) was absent in Congress, 
which he often was during the war of the Eevolution. 
Mr. Everitt was a man of much wit, boundless ex- 
travagance of expression, quick conception, and in 
command of language and fluency of utterance unsur- 
passed, but not a man of much depth of mind, nor 
had he much legal learning, his library extending 
little beyond Blackstone and Jacobs' Law Diction- 
ary. 

"He had, I believe, a very good run of practice, 
when the court rca//yopened to do civil business after 
the conclusion of the war. His success in tliis respect 
was, however, of rather sliort duration, a number of 
younger lawyers having about that time commenced 
practice here, and otlier circumstances conspired to 
carry business away from liim, and he never recovered 
it. While studying law I heard him argue a case or 
two, keeping tlic court-house in a roar by his wit and 
sarcasm, but by tlie time I was admitted — viz., in 1790 
— he had about given up attending courts at Litchfield, 
though ho was not fifty years of age, and indeed he 
was, I think, but fifty-seven when he died, in 1805. 
I met him, however, a few times before arbitrators 
and justices, and had enougli to do to parry his home- 
thrusts of good-natured wit. Before him I often 
went, as lie tried almost all the justice ca.ses, which 
he always did with entire integrity and usually came 
to a correct conclusion. He represented this town, I 
think, tiirec times in the General Assembly, and as 
a member of the convention which ratified the Con- 
stitution of tliu United iStates. He was a man of 
strict honesty, entire moral rectitude of conduct, and 
a professor of religion. He was, however, much given 
to sociality, and to that conviviality which sometimes 
borders on a kindred indulgence. Mr. Everitt suc- 
ceeded the late Col. Samuel Canfield n-s judge of 
probate in this district in 171K), and held that utBcu 
till his death, at the time above mentionetl. 



" Tapping Eeeve.* — I saw much of Judge Reeve's 
practice at the bar for nearly five years, during which 
time he was engaged in almost every case of import- 
ance tried in the Superior Court at Litchfield, and 
never failed to argue every one in which he was en- 
gaged, if argued at all. In the County Court, after I 
became acquainted with him, he did not practice. 
His school had become numerous, and he gave up his 
practice in that court because (I suppose) it too much 
interrupted his course of daily lectures, and knowing 
as he did that he should have a part in every cause 
expected to be tried in the Superior Court. And, by 
the way, trials were then managed and got through 
with in a reasonable time, and not suft'ercd to be 
dragged out to the abominable and shameful length 
which they now are, to the disgrace of the profession 
for indulging in it, and of the courts for permitting it. 

"I joined Judge Reeve's school in the fiiU of 1793, 
and he was not placed on the bench till the spring of 
1796 ; so that I saw him at the bar during nine ses- 
sions of the Superior Court, and never failed to listen 
to him, if 1 could avoid it, with unqualified love and 
admiration through every speech he made to its con- 
clusion. I say with love, for no instructor was ever 
more generally beloved by his pupils, and indeed en- 
tirely so, except it was by those whose love would 
have been a reproach to the object of it. As a rea- 
soner he had no superior within the compass of my 
observation of forensic performances. I mean true, 
forcible, and honest rciisoning. In sophistry he was 
too honest to indulge, and too discerning to sutler it to 
escape detection in the argument of an adversary. 

"As a speaker he wjis usually exceedingly ardent, 
and the ardor he displayed appeared to be prompted 
by a conviction of the justice of the cau.se he was ad- 
wpating. Hia ideas seemed often, and, indeed, usu- 
ally, to How in upon him faster than he could give 
utterance to tliem, ami sometimes seemed to force him 
to leave a sentence unfinished to begin another, and 
in his huddle of ideas, if I may so express it, he was 
careless of grammatical accuracy, and, though a thor- 
ough scholar, often made bad grammar in public 
speaking. Careless as he was of his diction, and 
thoughtless as he wits nf ornament in ordinary eiLtes, 
yet some elegant expressions and line sentences would 
seem, as if by accident, to escape him in almost ever)' 
speech. But in such coses as atlbrded the proper field 
for the display ofeloquence, such as actions of slander, 
malicious prosecutions, etc., and in that part of such 
cases as usually prompt to exertions of tlie kind, his 
hurried enunciation and grammatical inaccuracies 
all forsook him, and then he never faileil to electrify 
and astonish his audience. Many of these used to bo 
recited to mc by tlioAC who had often heard him, and 
it fell to my lot to witness one such occasion. In an 
action for malicious prosecution, in closing the argu- 
ment on entering U|K)n the subject of dumage.'t, he 



• Sm Uiitvrjr gf Lllchfltlii, clHwbrr* Im Uil< work. 



16 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



burst forth into such a strain of dignified and soul- 
tbrilling eloquence as neitlier before nor since has 
ever met my ear. The first sentence he uttered 
thrilled through every nerve of my entire frame to 
the very ends of my fingers, and every succeeding 
sentence seemed to increase in overwhelming effect. 
I was perfectly entranced during its delivery, and for 
an hour afterwards I trembled so that I could not speak 
plain. His manner was as much changed as bis lan- 
guage, and to me he looked a foot taller than before. 
The next day I went to him and asked him to commit 
to writing the concluding part of bis speech, to W'hich 
request ho said in the simplicity of bis nature, 'Why, 
if I should do that, perhaps I should make it better 
than it really was, and that would not be fair.' We 
told him (Mr. Bacon was with me) there was no 
danger of that, for we knew it could not be bettered. 
Well, ho said, he would try, but he did not know 
whether he could recall it to memory, for there was 
not a word of it written beforehand. A day or two 
after he saw me in court, behind his seat, and beck- 
oned me to him and said he had tried to comply 
with my request, but it was so gone from him that he 
could make nothing of it. 

" I believe I have said enough in regard to Judge 
Reeve as an advocate, and that is the e.xtent of your 
inquiry. As a judge you are acquainted with his rep- 
utation historically, though you probably never saw 
him on the bench, as he left it in May, 1816, to the 
regret of all admirers of legal learning and lovers of 
impartial justice. 

"John Allen was born in Great Barrington, 
Mass., some time, I believe, in 1762, of respectable 
parents, though not distinguished in society, as I re- 
member to have heard him say that he was the son 
of a joiner. There were but two children in ^e 
family, a son and a daughter, both much distinguisned 
in life for many good qualities, and especially for dig- 
nity of manner and deportment, but the winning and 
amiable accomplishments all fell to the lot of the fe- 
male, gaining her many admirers, and among others 
a husband worthy of her in that excellent man, Elizur 
Goodrich, of New Haven. Their father died during 
the minority of both the children. Mr. Allen, having 
an excellent common-school education, though not a 
classic education, became a teacher, and, being im- 
pelled by a spirit of adventure, somewhat romantic 
as he was thought in those days, went suddenly, and 
without the knowledge of his friends, and while yet 
a minor, to Germantown, near Philadelphia, where 
he obtained a place as instructor of the younger 
classes of an academic establishment of some note at 
the time. How long he remained in the above-men- 
tioned establishment I do not know, but soon after 
leaving that place, and I believe almost immediately, 
he came to New Milford, and taught a school for some 
six mouths, and from here went immediately into Mr. 
Reeve's law-school, and after the accustomed period 
of study was admitted to the bar, and immediately 



settled in practice in Litchfield, where he spent his 
life. He confined himself almost entirely to the 
practice of Litchfield County, though occasionally, 
when calted, in consequence of the eminence to which 
he soon attained in the profession, he practiced in other 
counties in some cases of importance, and especially 
in the Federal Circuit Court, in which, for a few 
years after the formation of the present Constitution 
of the United States, some considerable business was 
done. Mr. Allen, however, never went abroad in 
quest of business, thinking that the very great share 
of attorney business which he acquired in being al- 
ways found in his otfice equal, at least in point of 
profit, to what counselor business he might obtain by 
attending courts in other counties, considering that 
all the counselor business flowing from the attorney 
business which he did he was sure to be engaged in. 
From the time I entered the law-school, in the fall of 
1793, 1 occupied a room in his oftice, and had free ac- 
cess to his ample libi'ary, and boarded at the same 
house with him. During all that time, and all the 
remaining years of his prosperous practice, which 
indeed lasted till the apparent commencement of his 
rapid decline, soon followed by death, he was engaged 
in almost every case of any importance in the Sujoe- 
rior and County Court. He was certainly a very suc- 
cessful and powerful advocate, equally with the jury 
as with the court, a thoroughly read lawyer, equal in 
point of legal science to any one at our bar during 
the fore part of the time I am speaking of, except 
Tapping Reeve, who had no rival, and in the latter 
part of the period James Gould, of whom I need say 
nothing, as you knew him in his meridian light. Mr. 
Allen always made diligent and faithful preparation 
of all cases committed to his care, and made himself 
fully acquainted with every point of law and every 
accessible point of evidence which could arise in the 
case, and was, therefore, usually successful when the 
case deserved success. 

" He was six feet four or five inches high, very 
erect, and with an attitude and walk well calculated 
to set off his full stature, and, though quite lean, 
weighed full two hundred and thirty pounds. His 
countenance was strongly marked and truly formi- 
dable, his eyes and eyebrows dark, bis hair dark, what 
little he had, for he was quite bald, far back, even be- 
fore middle age, and indeed his whole appearance 
was calculated to inspire dread rather than affection. 
His manners and conversation were, however, such 
as to inspire confidence and respect, though little cal- 
culated to invite familiarity, except with bis intimates, 
of whom he had a few, and those, knowing the gen- 
erous and hearty friendship of which he was capable, 
were usually much attached to him and ready to over- 
look all his harsh sallies, imputing them to the ' rough 
humor which his mother gave bim.' His feelings 
were not refined, but ardent, generous, and hearty. 
His friendships were strong and his aversions equally 
so, and, as I used to say of bim speaking to others. 



BENCH AND BAR. 



1( 



' his feelings were all of the great sort.' He neither 
enjoyed nor suffered anything from many of those 
little incidents which so often affect, either pleasingly 
or painfully, minds of a more refined texture. As 
he had no taste for such things, nor, as it would seem, 
any faculty of perceiving, so he knew no language 
appropriate to their description, but in respect to those 
things and principles which he thought worthy of his 
regard he lacked no power of language to make him- 
self fully and forcibly understood. For neutral ground, 
either in morals or politics, he had no taste, and but 
little less than absolute abhorrence. As a specimen 
of his feelings and language, better than I describe, 
I will give you the laconic answer to an inquiry 
of him, why he took the Aurora, the leading Demo- 
cratic paper in the county, then under the guidance 
of that arch-Democrat, Duane ; he replied it was be- 
cause he wanted to know what they were about in the in- 
fernal regions. And after giving this specimen I need 
make no further attempt to give you an idea of his 
humor, manners, and language. 

" After Mr. Allen was married, which was not till 
he was towards forty years old, and went to house- 
keeping, I boarded at his house at his express solicita- 
tion for many years while attending court, though 
he took no other one, nor ever named to me any price, 
nor would he count the money I handed to him when 
leaving for home, seeming to receive it only because 
I refused to stay on any other terms. I therefore saw 
much of him in his family, where his conduct wiis 
always dignified, proper, and kind. He was proud, 
very proud, and justly so, of his wife, who was a 
woman of much jjcrsonal beauty, polished manners, 
and great and even singular discretion, and for whom 
he entertained, I believe, an ardent affection. 

"Before his marriage and at the age of thirty-fivo 
Mr. Allen was elected a member of the Fifth Con- 
gress, where he distinguished himself at a time when 
Connecticut Wiw never more ably represented in the 
House of Representatives, and would undoubtedly 
have been chosen for as long a period as he would 
have desired to be a member of that body, but ho 
declined a further election. He was elected an as- 
sistant in 1800, and was re-electe<l for tlio five suc- 
ceeding years, and as such was one of the judges of 
the Supreme Court of Errors. For several ycnrrt pre- 
vious to his election to Congress he had represented 
the town of Litchfield in the General Assembly. His 
wife was a granddaughter of the first (loveruor Gris- 
w old. 

" Bahzii.lai SLoasoN. — In speakingof Mr. Slosson, 
I must first observe that I had Ibrnu'd a toleralily 
correct notion of him before I ever saw liini. When 
I was a boy his father was often at my father's house, 
intimately ac<|uainted there, and, I believe, scarcely 
ever pa.s.sed that way without calling and holding a 
pretty long chat, for he never was in a hurry, and his 
peculiar turn of mind, abundance of common .nense, 
and great fund of wit, joined to his singularly slow, 



emphatic, and sententious mode of talking, was such 
as to secure the attention of any one, and especially 
a boy. He used occasionally to speak of his children, 
and especially of his oldest son, Barzillai, of whom he 
was manifestly very proud, representing him to be 
always at the head of the school when small, and af- 
terwards used to speak with high gratification of his 
industry and tact at acquiring the higher branches 
of knowledge without the aid of an instructor, and 
more particularly the knowledge of the dead lan- 
guages, of which he knew nothing himself. And this 
account given by the old gentleman, from intimate in- 
tercourse and frequent conversation with his son when 
I afterwards became acquainted with him, I found was 
by no means exaggerated. And to his excellent and 
accurate common-school education he owed much, very 
ranch, of his character for exact accuracy and correct- 
ness in all that he said and did through life. He was 
about the best reader I ever heard, wrote a fair, hand- 
some, and legible hand, and in the unfailing correct- 
ness of his orthography and use of terms no lexicog- 
rapher excelled him, and in everything pertaining to 
mere English, home, and common-school education 
no one appeared to be a more thorough proficient. 
And in Greek and Latin I never saw his superior, 
except old President Stiles, nor, with that exception 
perhaps, his ei|uitl, unless it was old Parson Farrand, 
of Canaan, and in the other branches of collegiate 
education he was, to say the least, above mediocrity. 

, As he entered college not until the senior year, and, 

; I believe, did not even attend during the whole of 
that year, he could not, of course, expect to shine and 
did not shine in the college lionors depending upon 
the faculty, but availed himself of the right to become 

I a candidate for the honors of Dean Scholar, and ob- 

I tuned the first premium for excellence in Greek and 
Latin in a class of unusually high reputation. This, 
I suppose, he did merely out of a laudable pride, for 
he did not avail himself of the ]iecuniary reward, 
which would have refpiired him to reside in New 
Haven ; for he went, immediately after his gradua- 
tion, with one of his classmates (Mr. — afterwards the 
Rev. Dr. — Smith) to resiile in Shan>n as one of the 

I instructors in the Sharon Academy, then in full and 
succe-Hsful operation. lie soon after became a stu- 
dent-at-law under Governor Smith's instruction, and 
the first County Court, which sat Bl\er his two years' 
clerkship had expired, being in Fairfield County, he 

, went there for examination and admission to the bar. 

, This was, I believe, at the November term, I'Wi. It 
was not until he began to atteixl court at Litclifield, 
and while I wa.s in the law-school there, that I first 
became personally acquainted with Mr. Slixinon, 
though I had barely seen him onco or twice before. 
After my admission to the bar, being locateil in ad- 
joining towns, wo often met each other before justictw, 
anil conHecpiently before the upper courts. From our 
frequent meetings and intercourse at Litchfield and 

' elsewhere I became greatly attached to him, and 



u 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, COXNECTICUT. 



finally for <a number of years he and I, with South- 
niayd for our constant companion, always occupied 
the same room at Catlin's Hotel during every court 
until his death, and there was the last time I ever 
saw him in life. Soon after the court adjourned, 
hearing of his rapid decline, I set out to visit him, 
and on the way heard that he had died the night 
before. I however went on and stayed with the fam- 
ily until I assisted in burying him. This was in Jan- 
uary, 1813, and in that grave I felt that I had buried 
a sincere, and I am sure a much-loved, friend, on 
whose character and conduct in life I could reflect 
with melancholy satisfaction unmarred by a single 
reproacliful recollection or one which I could wish 
to have forgotten. 

" Mr. Slosson's great fondness for ancient litera- 
ture rendered him scarcely just in his comparative esti- 
mate of that with modern improvements. As a lawyer 
he was highly respectable in theory and remarkably 
accurate in practice ; as a pleader I do not remember 
that he ever had occasion to ask for an amendment 
or to alter a tittle of what he had written. As an 
advocate he was clear, deliberate, methodical, and 
logical in his deductions. He sjioke in much of the 
peculiarly emphatic numner of his fother above 
mentioned, though not with his unusual slowness. 
He was always cool and self-possessed, rarely warm- 
ing into any high degree of animation or aiming at 
efi'ect to appear eloquent, but he never failed to secure 
a respectful and satisfied attention. Though not one 
of the most leading advocates, of which there are al- 
ways some three or four at the bar, he might, at least, 
be estimated an equal to any of the second class of the 
Litchfield bar, which was then certainly a highly 
respectable one. 

" Though not an aspirant after public preferment, 
and from his habitually modest and retiring habits 
not calculated to push his way when opportunities 
ofiered, he was yet at the time of his decease in a fair 
way of promotion. He was early and often elected 
to the Legislature from his native town, and indeed 
their usual representative until the October session, 
1812, when he was elected clerk, which in those daj's 
was a sure stepping-stone to future advancement; 
and having myself been a witness of the manner in 
which he performed the duties of that office, for 
which no man was better qualified, I am sure he es- 
tablished a reputation, which, had Providence per- 
mitted, promised a solid and lasting existence. 

" Mr. Slosson's political opinions were of the gen- 
uine Washingtonian political school. None of your 
heady, rash, and merely partisan notions found favor 
with him. He was a constant and honest adherent 
to the political views then prevalent in this State. 

" The foregoing sketch of the leading incidents in 
Mr. Slosson's life may be a sufiicient indication from 
which to deduce his true character, but I must indulge 
myself in adding that I never knew or heard of a 
single act of his life, either in youth or mature years, 



that left even a shade upon his reputation. Cool and 
deliberate in his temperament, never hurried away 
by enthusiasm, — for enthusiasm never manifested it- 
self in his nature except in his passion for ancient 
literature, — he was sure to think and act with pro- 
priety. He was nevertheless warm and faithful in 
his attachments, but not so far as to warp his con- 
scientious regard for integrity. He was perfectly 
just and generous in his intercourse with the world, 
honest in his predilections, and uncompromising in 
his love of virtue and detestation of vice. In moral- 
ity his principles were without a taint, and his prac- 
tice through life in conscientious conformity with them. 
In religion he was a firm and steadfast believer in the 
great doctrines of the gospel, though not a public pro- 
fessor. His principles were those of true rational 
Calvinism, unswayed by vindictive zeal or hysterical 
weakness. 

" He was a small man, not much, if any, under 
medium height, but of slender frame and counte- 
nance. Though not dark complexioned his coun- 
tenance was rather dusky, his skin not clear; his 
features, though far from handsome, bespoke intelli- 
gence, and were therefore not disagreeable. His gen- 
eral appearance was more like that of the late Leman 
Church than any other member of the bar I can think 
of, though he was somewhat larger and more erect. 
J\r' Samuel W. Southmayd. — In the life, conduct, 
/nd cnaracter of Samuel W. Bouthmayd there were 
some peculiarities, such as render it a matter of diffi- 
culty to describe him in such a manner as to make 
them intelligible to one who did not personally know 
him. 

"I never saw or heard of him until I became a 
member of the law-school, in the fall of the year 1793, 
of which he had then been a member about one year, 
I believe, and of which he continued a constant at- 
tendant during the eighteen months which I spent 
there. He was admitted to the bar the next term 
after I was, — to wit, September term, 1795, — and 
passed as good an examination as I ever heard there or 
elsewhere, he having been for the full period of three 
years under Judge Reeve's tuition. He was a native 
of W.atertown, where he settled in practice, and where 
he spent his life. Like Mr. Slosson, he had an ex- 
cellent common-school education. Beyond that his 
acquirements did not extend far in an academic course, 
enough, however, I believe, to enable him to under- 
stand the homely law Latin used in our books. Few 
have entered upon the practice of law with a better 
store of legal learning than Mr. Southmayd, but the 
place in which he settled was not calculated from its 
location and the habits of the people, by no means 
litigious, to furnish much practice, and he was too 
honest to promote litigation ; and furthermore, he 
had no legal adversary there except an old gentleman 
who never had any more legal learning than was 
necessary for a church warden, and whose ignorance 
made him the victim of Southmayd's merry witchery 



BENCH AND BAR. 



19 



and innocent cunning, of both of which he had a 
superabundance, though he never indulged in ma- 
licious or even very serious mischief, and indeed in 
none except such as would do to relate for the pur- 
pose of making fun in merry company. Anecdotes 
of that description used to be related in great num- 
bers. As a pleader Mr. Southmayd was always sure 
to have all in his drafts which was requisite and per- 
tinent to the object in view, and in all his declarations 
affording room for coloring circumstances to be in- 
serted there was pretty sure to be found, slyly slipped 
in, some ingenious slang whang, or Southmaydism, 
as we used to call it. He was not ambitious of argu- 
ing cases in court, but when he did he always dis- 
played much ingenuity, and attracted respectful at- 
tention from the audience as well as from the triers. 
And before arbitrators, referees, and committees a 
more formidable opponent could hardly be found. 
And although his practice was not large, and as was 
observed of Mr. Slosson he was not among the lead- 
ing practitioners at the Litchfield bar, he was certainly 
a very respectable lawyer, upon a par with the fore- 
most of the second class, and much beloved and re- 
spected by all whose good opinions are desirable. 

" As was observed in the outset, there were peculi- 
arities in Mr. Southm.iyd's private character and de- 
portment which it is difficult to dcscril)c or reconcile. 
Though of a benevolent disposition and full of good 
nature and kind feelings, there was yet in him a vein 
of adventure after intellectual amusement, which, from 
it« very nature, could not be gratified but at the ex- 
pense of others, and often to such an extent as to render 
them ridiculous in the view of third ))ersons to whom 
the result of the adventure wa-s related. I have many 
times joined most heartily in the laugh at the relation 
of the result of many such seemingly innocent pieces 
of roguery, though I could not help condemning the 
mischief while participating in its fruits. In all such 
indulgences Southmayd never cntcrtuined the loii-st 
malice, for his heart wivs a stranger to it, but his in- 
tense love of fun and enjoyment of the ridiculous 
often impelled him to go beyond the line of honest 
propriety. I used often to reproach him with it, but 
my admonitions were not well calculated to take ed'ect 
when given at the close of a hearty laugh. 

" From what I have been saying of Mr. Southmayd 
you would, 1 presume, bo ready to concluilo that he 
was one of the most clicerly and happy of men. But 
the case was directly the reverse, and during a consid- 
erable period of his life, and that, too, the most val- 
uable part of it, he was a very unhappy man indeed, 
and I have no doubt he had recourse to much of the 
indulgence of that peculiar propensity I have at- 
tempted to describe for the purpose of dispelling a 
mental malady which for a long timo opprc8.sed and 
preyeil upon his heart. Ho was for many years the 
victim of tlu^ strongest species of hypochondria that 
ever mortal man was. It never showed it.self in long 
tits of settled melancholy or monomania, but in sud- 



den fits and starts. After hours of cheerful conversa- 
tion, and while in entire health, he would suddenly 
complain of great distress, and exhibit unmistakable 
evidence of great terror and apprehension of imme- 
diate dissolution. One very extraoi-dinary instance I 
will relate. He and I had been alone many hours, 
conversing and reading together, and he not in the 
least complaining, when he at once sprung from his 
seat and with a scream as would have alarmed me 
had it been any other person, and pressing both hands 
upon his breast, he exclaimed that he was going to die 
immediately. I stepped to him and gently and calmly 
said to him, ' Don't be alarmed, you are not going to 
die' (for we never treated him as if we thought his 
distress imaginary), and put my hand gently upon 
him to lead him to the bed, when he raised one hand 
from his breast and thrusting his finger against the 
side of his head declared, with another outcry, that 
something was passing through his head. I persuaded 
him to lie down, telling him the feeling would pass 
off in a few minute.s, but he continued to groan for 
some time. I, knowing what would cure him, took 
up and began to read to him one of Uurke's finest 
essays, which lay by rae, and, turning to a passage of 
extraordinary eloquence, read it, on which he sprung 
up on end in the bed, and exclaimed, ' Was ever 
anything finer than that I' I continued on reading, 
and in the course of half an hour he wius well and 
cheerful as ever. This was the most extraordinary 
instjince I ever saw in him, but those in a degree like 
it were frequent. He always went to bed an hour or 
two before Slosson and I did, he saying that he never 
was able to get asleep until he had gone through a 
great deal of such feelings as he never would attempt 
to describe. 

" Mr. Southmayd was greatly esteemed in his na- 
tive town by, I believe, almost every one, both old and 
young. He was early in life sent to the Legislature, 
and that often, and was so, I know, the last year of 
his life. He ilied of lung fever in Xfarch, 1H13, about 
two months after the death of his friend Slo.sson. At 
the December term, ISl:!, the three who had .so long 
occupied the same room in perfect harmony were for 
the last time there together. At the February term of 
the Siiprome Court, Southmayd and I oceupiiil it, 
but felt that we were in solitude, and in the next term 
it seemed U> me most emphatically a solitude, and 
more like a family vault than like an abode for living 
men, and I believe I have never been into it since. 

" .Mr. Southmayd was undoubtedly an honest and 
honorable man, of uncommon pleasing manners and 
much beloved, and I never heard that he hail an 
enemy. Indeed, the amenity of his mannem and the 
gentleness of his temper almost forbade it. 

"The family to which Mr. Southmayd bclongeil 
was of the Congregational order, and two of bis sis- 
ters married Congregational clergymen. He, how- 
over, joined himself to the Kpi^copal Church, o( 
which bo was a member after he settled iu life, and 



20 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



of which I believe he was a comiminicant, but am 
not sure. He died unmarried, ami I believe in the 
thirty-ninth or fortieth year of his age. 

"Hon. John Cotton S^mith, the most eminent 
citizen of the town of Sharon, was a son of Rev. 
Cotton Mather Smith, and was born Feb. 12, 1765. 
He was graduated at Yale College in 1783, ad- 
mitted to the bar of Litchfield County in 1786, and 
married to Miss Margaret Evertson, of Amenia, 
N. Y., in October of the same year. Their only 
child, the late William M. Smith, Esq., was born in 
August, 1787. Mr. Smith was soon introduced into 
the active duties of his profession in his native town 
by rea.son of the pecuniary embarrtissments of the 
community in consequence of the Revolutionary war, 
and particularly from the extensive and embarrassed 
affairs of his uncle, Dr. Simeon Smith, who removed 
to Vermont, leaving the management of his extensive 
and complicated concerns in the hands of his young 
and inexi)erienced nephew. Through unwearied ex- 
ertions he was able to extricate the affairs of his uncle 
from a nearly hopeless condition by the full ]iay- 
ment of all just demands against liim, and leaving 
him at last in the enjoyment of a handsome estate. 
It is but justice to his uncle to .say that he, having 
no children of his own, made ample compensation to 
his nephew by the bequest in his will of a large and 
valuable estate. He was first elected to the Legis- 
lature in 17!).3, and was very frequently a member, 
and twice Speaker before 1800, when he was elected a 
member of Congress. There he remained six years, 
when the declining health of his father compelled his 
resignation. He was immediately elected to the Leg- 
islature of the State, and represented the town with- 
out intermission till 1809, and held the place of 
Speaker at each session. He was then elected to the 
Council, and in the October .session of the same year 
was appointed a judge of the Supreme Court. In 
1811 he was elected lieutenant-governor, and in 1813 
Governor, of his native State. In this office he was 
continued till 1817, when the public voice demanded a 
change in the form of the government of the State, 
and the substitution of a written constitution for the 
less stable provisions of the charter of King Charles 
II. Governor Smith, not sympathizing with the ma- 
jority on this question, retired to private life, and 
lived, for nearly thirty years, a private citizen of 
Sharon. In jjublic life he was never appointed to a 
position which he was not fully competent to fill. As 
a presiding otficer in a deliberative assembly he had 
no peer, and although while he was member of Con- 
gress, except for one short term, he was associated in 
principle and feeling with the minority, he was called 
upon to preside in committee of the whole more fre- 
quently than any other member. The late Luther 
Holley, an eminent citizen of Salisbury, who had 
been a member of the Legislature when Governor 
Smith was Speaker, once remarked that he had never 
seen a man who could take a paper from the table 



and lay it back again so handsomely as could John 
Cotton Smith. 

"In private life Governor Smith was a fine speci- 
men of the polished Christian gentleman. He de- 
voted some of his time to reviewing the studies of 
his early life, and in the preparation of useful and 
entertaining articles for the more elevated literary 
periodicals. He was for several years president of 
the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions, and of the American Bible Society, which 
latter olfice he retained till his death, which occurred 
on the 7th day of December, 1845, when he had 
nearly reached the age of eighty-one years. 

" Nathaniel Smith.* — I received a line from my 
friend, Gen. Sedgwick, stating that it was your de- 
sire that he would ask of me, in your behalf, to 
furnish you with some facts in relation to the late 
Nathaniel Smith, and my views of his character, 
which might be of use to you in the preparation of 
the work you have in hand. 

" I am, of course, aware that this application is 
owing to the accidental circumstance that I am the 
oldest, if not the only, member of the profession now 
living who had much personal acquaintance with 
that truly able and excellent man, or saw much of 
him in the exercise of his forensic or judicial talents. 
Judge Smith was indeed one of nature's nobles, and, 
considering the limited range of his early education, 
he had few equals and perhaps no superior in the 
profession which he chose, and which he eminently 
adorned. You are doubtless aware that Judge Smith 
had only such an education in childhood and youth 
as the common schools of the country afforded at the 
time. It was such, however, as a boy of unusual 
capacity and industrious habits would acquire from 
such a source, and such as, under the guidance of un- 
common discretion through life, rarely permitted its 
defects to be disclosed. 

" When I first went to the law-school in Litch- 
field, which was in the fall of 1793, Mr. Smith, 
though not over thirty years old, was in full practice, 
and engaged in almost every cause of any import- 
ance. Indeed, he was said to have established a high 
reputation for talents in the first cause he argued in 
the higher courts. It was upon a trial for man- 
slaughter, which arose in his native town, and in 
which he appeared as junior counsel, and astonished 
the court, the bar, and all who heard him. Not long 
afterwards, in the celebrated case of Jedediah Strong 
and wife, before the General Assembly (she having 
applied for a divorce), he greatly distinguished him- 
self again, and thus became known throughout the 
State as a young lawyer of the first promise, and the 
reputation thus early acquired was never suffered to 
falter, but, on the other hand, steadily increased in 
strength until his elevation to the bench. 

" During my stay in Litchfield, and after my ad- 

* From HoUister's " History of Connecticut." 



BENCH AND BAR. 



21 



mission to the bar, I of course saw Mr. Smith, and 
heard him in almost all the important cases there; 
and as I was located in the southwest corner town in 
the county, adjoining Fairfield, I almost immediately 
obtained some business which, though small, was 
such as during nearly all my professional life caused 
me to attend the courts in that county, where I found 
Mr. Smith as fully engaged and as highly esteemed 
as in his own county. In New Haven I also know he 
had a very considerable practice. 

" It is worthy also to be observed, in forming an 
estimate of Mr. Smith's professional talent and char- 
acter, that there never at any period was an abler bar 
in Connecticut than during his practice. In Litch- 
field County were Judge Reeve, Judge Adams, Gen. 
Iracy, John Allen, Judge Gould, N. B. Benedict, 
and others ; at the Fairfield County bar were Pier- 
pont Edwards, Judge Ingersoll, and Judge Daggett, 
constantly from New Haven, Judge Edmunds, S. B. 
Sherwood, R. M. Sherman, Judge Chapman, and 
Governor Bissell ; and in New Haven, besides the 
three above named, were James Hillhouse, Judge 
Baldwin, and others. 

"As I suppose it not probable that you ever saw 
Judge Smith, as he ceased to attend courts in 1819, 
and died wlien you were very young, I will observe, 
what you have doubtless heard, that he wa.s a large 
and fine-appearing man, much of the same com- 
plexion of the Hon. Truman Smith, his nephew, with 
whom you are so well acquainted ; less tall than he, 
but of rather fuller habit. His face was not only the 
index of high capacity and .solid judgment, but un- 
commonly handsome; his hair wa< dark and tliin, 
thougli not to baldness, e.\ce|)t on the fore part of his 
head, and was very slightly sprinkled with gray. His 
fine, dark eyes were remarkably pleasing and gentle 
in ordinary intercourse, but very variable; always 
kindling when highly excited in debate, they became 
almost oppre.-isive. His voice wa.s excellent, being 
both powerful and harmonious, and never broke 
under any exertion of it.s cajiacity. His manner wa.s 
very ardent and the seeming dictate of a strong con- 
viction of the justice of liis cause, and his gestures 
were the natural expression of siu-h a conviction. 
Mr. Smith's style was jiure and genuine Saxon, with 
no attempt at classic ornament nr allusion. His 
train of reasoning was lucid and direct, and evincive 
of the fact that the whole of it was like a map .spread 
out in his mind's eye from the beginning. IFis in- 
genuity was always felt and drea<led by his opponent. 
He spoke with much fluency, but with no undue 
rapidity ; lu^ never hesitated for or har/i/lcit at a word, 
nor did he over tire his audience with undue pro- 
lixity, or omit to do full justice to his ca.se for fear 
of tiring them ; and indeed there was little danger of 
it. Though certainly a very fine speaker, he never 
achieved or aspired to those strains of almost super- 
human eloquence witli which hiw old master Heevc 
sometimes electrified and astonished his audience, 



and yet, in ordinary cases, he was the most correct 
speaker of the two, though Judge Reeve was, and he 
was not, a scholar. Mr. Smith, though quite unas- 
suming, and often receding in common intercourse 
and conversation, was, when heated in argument, it 
must be confessed, often overbearing to the adverse 
party, and not only them, but to their counsel. 
Upon all other occasions he appeared to be, and I 
believe was, a very kind-hearted, agreeable, and 
pleasant man. To me he always so appeared, and I 
have been much in his company. 

" Mr. Smith came early into public life, and was 
frequently elected to the General Assembly from 
Woodbury. In 1795 he was elected a member of the 
Fourth Congress, and in 1797 he was chosen to the 
Fifth Congress, but declined further election. In May, 
1799, he was made an assistant, and was re-eleeted for 
the five following years, when he resigned his seat at 
that board in consequence of the passage of the act 
in 1803 i)rohibiting the members of the then Supreme 
Court of Errors from practicing before that court. 
He remained in full practice at the bar until October, 
180G, when he was elected a judge of the Superior 
Court and continued to fill that office until May, 1819, 
when the judiciary establishment of that year went 
into operation, from which time he remained in 
private life until his death. 

"In every public station in which Mr. Smith was 
placed he distinguished him.Helf He did .so in Con- 
gress, at a time when our representation was as able, 
perhaps, as it ever has been, and when the character 
of the house to which be belonged was far higher than 
it now is. In the Superior Court he was certainly very 
greatly respected and admired as an able and perfectly 
upright judge. 

" In private life his name was free from all reproach. 
A strictly honest and pure life, free from any of those 
little blemishes which often mar the fame <if distin- 
guished men, may, I think, be fairly claimed by his 
hiogrnpher to be his due. As a husband, a parent, a 
friend, a neighbor, a moralist, an<l a Christian, I be- 
lieve few have left a more faultle.-w name." 

" Jame.>* Gori.i), the son of Dr. William Gould, an 
eminent jdiysician, was born at Brandford, in this 
State, in the year 1770. The goodness of his com- 
mon-school eiluention is inferable from the perfect 
accuracy of it, which showed itself in all lie did or 
said in after-life. He graduated, when a little over 
twenty -one, at Yale College, in September, 1791, with 
distinguished honor in a class distinguished for 
talents. 

" The year next following his collegiate course he 
spent in Baltimore as a teacher. He then returned 
to New Haven and commenced the study of law with 
Judge Chaunccy ; and in Se|>tenibcr of that year he 
was chosen a tutor in Yale College, in which office he 
continued two years. He then joined the hiw-schofd 
of Mr. Reeve, at Litchfield, and witt soon at^er ad- 
' mitted to the bar. Imuiediutelv atler his adiuissioii 



25 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



to the bar he opened an office for practice in that 
town, where he resided during the remainder of his 
life. 

"On his first appearance as an advocate he evinced 
such an apparent maturity of intellect, such a self- 
possession, such command of his thoughts and of the 
language appropriate to their expression, that he was 
marked out as a successful aspirant for forensic emi- 
nence. His i^rogress in the acquisition of professional 
business was steady and rapid. 

" Fortunate circumstances concurring a few years 
before his choice of Litchfield as the field of his ))ro- 
fessional labors, in the removal by promotion of two 
very distinguished i)ractitioners at that bar, opened 
the way to such a choice, and by like good fortune a 
similar event removed one of the two only remaining 
obstructions in that town to his full share in the best 
business as an advocate, the only business to which he 
aspired. As a reasoner Mr. Gould was forcible, lucid, 
and logical ; as a speaker his voice was very pleasant 
and his language pure, clear, and always appropriate. 
He never aspired to high strains of impassioned elo- 
quence, and rarely, if ever, addressed himself to the 
passions of the court and jury, but to their under- 
standing only, and was a very able, pleasing, and 
successful advocate. His argument was a fair map of 
the case, and one sometimes engaged against him, l)ut 
feeling his superiority, observed that he had rather 
have Gould against him in a case than any other of j 
anywhere equal powers, because he could perfectly 
understand his .argument, and if suscejitible of an 
answer could know how to apjily it. In his practice 
at the bar he was always perfectly fair and honorable. 
Within some two or three years after Mr. Gould com- 
menced jiractice, Mr. Reeve, the founder and until 
that time the sole instructor of the Litchfield Law- 
School, accejited a seat upon the bench of the Su- 
perior Court. This court made it necessary for him 
to give up the school or to associate some one with 
him in its management, and to deliver lectures in his 
absence upon the circuits. The judge selected Mr. 
Gould as that associate, and for a number of years 
they jointly conducted and received the profits of the 
school ; and on the final retiring of Judge Reeve 
from any participation in the instruction of the 
school, Mr. Gould became its sole instructor and so 
continued until elevated to the bench of the Superior 
Court in the spring of 1816, when lie in turn had to 
have recourse to temporary aid for the short time he 
remained on the bench. But a thorough political 
revolution having taken place in this State, and a 
new constitution formed which entirely new-modeled 
the courts of law, Mr. Gould took no further share in 
public employments ; and, his health being greatly 
impaired, he never resumed practice at the bar, but 
confined himself wholly to his school during the re- 
mainder of his life, as far as severe infirmities would 
permit. He died, as appears by the college catalogue, 
in 1838. 



" In person Mr. Gould was very handsome. Of 
about medium height, or perhaps a little over, but 
r.ather less in body and limbs than medium size; his 
complexion fair, with fine dark eyes and beautiful 
brown hair; all his features good, and in connection 
indicative of much intelligence and good nature, and 
his form for symmetry and gracefulness could hardly 
have been mended ; and in all respects, in body, 
mind, and education, he may be fairly styled a fin- 
ished man. In private and social intercourse he was 
highly pleasing, facetious, and witty. 

" Soon after his settlement in Litc'.ifield he married 
the eldest daughter of the Hon. Uriah Tracy, so well 
known for his long and distinguished services in the 
councils of the State and nation. 

"Mrs. Gould in person and mind was a fit wife for 
such a husband, and partook with him in the happi- 
ness of raising a very numerous and promising family 
of children. 

" Judge Gould wrote and published a volume of 
pleadings, which, together with his fame as an in- 
structor, gave him a distinguished name among the 
eminent jxirists of the country." 

" Ho>f. Noah Bkxnet Bexedict was a native of 
Woodbury, in which he resided during his whole life. 
He was the son of the Rev. Noah Benedict, long the 
pastor of the First Congregational Church in that 
town. Mr. Benedict's early school education must 
have been correct and good, as its fruits invariably 
showed itself in after-life. He graduated at Yale 
College in September, 1788, when a little short of 
eighteen years of age. His legal studies commenced 
soon after his graduation, which were, I believe, pur- 
sued principally, if not wholly, in the oflice of his 
brother-in-law, Nathaniel Smith, afterwards so highly 
distinguished as a jurist, which was near the residence 
of Mr. Benedict's father. As soon as he arrived to 
lawful age Mr. Benedict came to the bar, and for the 
remainder of his life — to wit, about thirty-nine years — 
it is believed he never failed to attend every regular 
session of the courts holden at Litchfield ; and, though 
he never habitually attended courts in other counties, 
he occasionally did so for the purpose of arguing a 
particular case. During the long course of his prac- 
tice Mr. Benedict had an ample share of business, and 
for the latter half of that period he was, especially 
in the Superior Court, the leading advocate on one 
side or the other in most of the trials either to the 
court or to the jury. His management of a trial was 
discreet, his arguments sgund, sensible, and, being 
aided by the well-known and generally esteemed in- 
tegrity of his character, had their due etTect. He 
never attempted to play the orator or to attract atten- 
tion by fine turned periods, but contented himself 
with plain reasoning, of which he was no indifferent 
master. 

" At a very early period Mr. Benedict was a mem- 
ber of the Legislature. But the political majority of 
the voters in Woodbury, becoming about this time 




JAMES UUUJLU. 



BENCH AND BAR. 



and for long afterwards decidedly Democratic, proved 
an effectual bar to his political promotion, as far as 
depended upon that town, but by the vote of the State 
at large he was elected in 1813 one of the twelve as- 
sistants (as they were then styled who composed the 
upper house of the Assembly), and was re-elected the 
two following years ; but in the year 1818 an entire 
political revolution took place in Connecticut, and 
Mr. Benedict shared the fate of almost every one who 
held any post of dignity or profit depending upon 
public suflrage at large in the State. He was subse- 
quently many years later elected once more to the 
lower house. He was also for several years judge of 
probate for the district of Woodbury, an appointment 
then depending upon the Legislature. Mr. Benedict 
was twice married, but left no living issue. He died 
in June or July, 1831, at the age of sixty, or in his 
sixtieth year. 

"In private life Mr. Benedict was entirely unas- 
suming, and a very pleasing companion to all who 
could relish purity of moral character and conduct, 
which his whole life was an eminent example; his 
feelings were peculiarly sensitive and delicate; a loose 
or profane expression never escaped his lips ; and in- 
deed so fastidious was he in respect to the former 
that it used to be a matter of amusement with his less 
scrupulous associates in jocose conversation to tease 
his feminine delicacy upon sucli subjects. Tiiough 
wlien alone and unoccupied he had a propensity to 
indulge in somewhat gloomy reflections, yet he was 
not averse to participate in facetious conversation 
when due delicacy was observed. He liad a profound 
respect for religion, and was in all respects a gooil, a 
very good, nuoi. 

"Mr. Benedict was of somewhat less than middling 
size, of a medium complexion, but his eyes and hair 
rather dark. 

" Hon. Jabez W. Huntington, son of the late Gen. 
Zachariah Huntington, of Norwicii, and grandson of 
the Hon. .Tabo/. Huntington, of that place, tlie tHK- 
sistant and a.ssociato of the first (tovcrnor Trumbull, 
was born in Norwich in the year 1787 or 1788. He 
received his early training and in.struction in his na- 
tive town, which after-times evinced to be accurate 
and good. He became a member of Yale Oolloge in 
September, 18((2, ami gnuluatod in September, ISOC), 
with the reputation of a good scholar. Soon after 
his graduation he became a teacher in an academic 
school under the government of it.s founder, Esquire 
Morris, of Litchfield South Farms, as then calleil, miw 
the town of Morris, named after the founder of saiil 
school. After about a year thus employed, Mr. Hun- 
tington entered Judge Heeve's law-school, in which 
he continued a diligent .student until admitted to the 
bar in Litclifield County, of wliich ho soon showed 
himself to be a worthy member, and in due time a 
distinguislied one, lie having commenced the practice 
of his profession in F<itchfielil, and there continueil it 
until its final termination by an ofiico conferred upon 



him incompatible with its further pursuit. In prac- 
tice his whole aim and ambition was to become an 
advocate, and had no desire to obtain any share of 
collecting business, though in many hands not less 
lucrative, and, as he was always ready to aid the less 
ambitious of speaking, he early acquired a very con- 
siderable share of the portion of practice of which he 
was ambitious, and which was improving to him. 
His forte as an advocate was in detecting error in 
declarations and other parts of pleadings, and in a 
lucid manner of pointing them out. Upon the whole, 
he was an advocate clear and accurate, rather than 
peculiar for the gracefulness of manner or refinement 
of diction, though his manner was by no means dis- 
gusting, and his language entirely free from any ap- 
proach to vulgarity. His manners were pleasing and 
popular, and he repeatedly represented Litchfield in 
the General Assembly, and distinguished himself 
there. He was elected to the Twenty-first Congress, 
and re-elected to the Twenty-second and Twenty- 
third Congresses, and near the expiration of the last of 
his congressional career he was chosen a judge of the 
Superior Court, and held that office until 1840, when, 
being chosen a senator of the United States, he re- 
signed the judgeship and accepted the latter appoint- 
ment, and continued to hold it by virtue of a second 
ap))ointment until his death, in 1847, in all which 
stations he performed the duties thereof with honor 
to himself and to the entire satisfaction of the public. 
His moral character was irreproachable ; a professor 
of religion and an observer of its precepts. Late in 
life he was married, but it is believed left no issue. 
Soon after election to Congress he removed to his na- 
tive town, and ilied there. 

" PiuxEAS MiXEK, a very respectable and some- 
what eminent member of the Litchfield County bar, 
was a nativeof Winchester, in that county, and there, 
and in that region, as far as by the writer hereof 
known, received his entire training and education in 
all respects. At an early period in life he commenced 
the practice of law in the place of his birth, in the 
society of Winsted, as is believed, a place of a great 
deal of active manufacturing business and furnishing 
an ample share of employment for gentlemen of the 
legal profession, of which Mr. Miner soon acipiired an 
ample share, and at no distant period an engrossing 
one, with wliich he appeared in court from term to 
term until ho felt warranted in the expectation of 
drawing after him an engagement in all the disputa- 
ble caseH from that fruitful (piarter, when ho removed 
to Litehfied, and wiut much employed as an advocate for 
a number of years, ami until his health rather prema- 
turely failed, and he became the victim of great men- 
t4il and bodily sutfering, until relieved by death before 
reaching the ordinary period at which old age begins 
til make its elleets much perceptible in the human 
frame. As an advocate Mr. Miner was ardent, impas- 
sioned, and Huent, but in his apparent great ambition 
to be eloquent he often made use of figures of speech 



24 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



w]iich a more chastened and correct training in youtli 
would have taught him to avoid, and less wounding 
to an ear of taste, but the fault apparent to all was 
the extreme prolixity of his arguments, but, these 
faults notwithstanding, Mr. Miner was a respectable 
and able advocate. 

" Before his removal to Litchfield, Mr. Miner was 
an early and frequent member of the Legislature from 
his native town, and after his removal there a member 
of the State Senate for the Fifteenth District, and was 
also elected to fill a vacancy in the second session of the 
Twenty-third Congress. 

" Mr. Miner was twice married, but, it is believed, 
left no issue, but of this the writer is uncertain. He 
led a strictly moral life, and was justly esteemed a 
good man. 

" Leman Church, a late member of the Litchfield 
County bar, was a native of Salisbury, in this county, 
a son of an opulent farmer of that town, and in it, it 
is supposed, he received his education, both scholastic 
and professional, the latter in the office of his half- 
brother, Samuel Church, afterwards a judge of the 
Superior Court, and finally chief justice of the same; 
and after his admission to the bar he opened an office 
in North Canaan, where he resided during the re- 
mainder of his life. Mr. Church was successful in 
acquiring at an early period a promising share of pro- 
fessional business, which steadily increased, until 
by the middle of professional life he occui)ied a 
stand among the leading advocates at the bar ; and 
towards the close of life there was scarce a cause, 
especially in the higher courts, of considerable im- 
portance, discussed in which he was not engaged. 

" In September, 1833, Mr. Church was appointed 
by the court State's attorney as successor to his brother 
Samuel, on the latter's elevation to the bench of the 
Superior Court, and held that office by annual reap- 
pointments until September term, 1838, when by a 
political change in the court he was required to yield 
the place to another ; it is believed, however, that he 
afterwards for a time reoccupied that place, but not 
positively recollected. 

" As a speaker he was cool, unimpassioned, and in- 
genious ; he never attempted to affect the passions of 
those he addressed, and, being destitute of passion 
himself, was consequently incapable of moving the 
passions of others ; he never attempted to be eloquent 
or made use of a merely ornate expression, his object 
in speaking was effect, and that wholly directed to his 
cause and not to himself; in the management of a 
case he was always cool and self-possessed ; no sudden 
and unexpected turn in the progress of a trial discon- 
certed him or appeared to be unexpected by him ; no 
collision at the bar ever appeared to affect his temper 
in the least. With such a temperament, it is obvious 
that the legal profession was of all the professions the 
one for him, and that in which he was calculated to 
excel. 
" Mr. Church was always entirely regardless of per- 



sonal appearance and dress ; he was very small, 
meagre, and. ill formed, his features quite ordinary, 
but all this very indifferent appearance was rescued 
from inattention by a most remarkably attractive and 
intelligent eye. 

" Mr. Church was frequently a representative to the 
Legislature from Canaan, and never failed to make 
an impression upon that body ; and to his sagacious 
management is attributable the preservation of the 
Housatonic Railroad from ruin, as a commissioner 
thereon appointed by the Legislature, with power, to- 
gether with his associate in office, Mr. Pond, to sell 
and consequently to destroy the road, which seemed 
to be a favorite object with them for a time. 

" Mr. Church died in the midst of life as a profes- 
sional man, July, 18-19." 

The Hon. Ansel Sterling was born in Lyme, 
Conn., Feb. 3, 1782, the seventh son of William Ster- 
ling, a man of position and considerable wealth in 
that town. His grandfather, Joseph Sterling, born 
in 1700, was one of the early settlers of Lyme. The 
name originally was spelt Stirling, as seen in the old 
cemetery in that place. 

On the maternal side Judge Sterling is descended 
from William Hyde, whose name is on the monument 
in the old cemetery at Hartford, Conn., as one of the 
original settlers of 1G3G, and one of the original pro- 
prietors of the town of Norwich, Conn. 

Mr. Hyde's great-great-great-granddaughter, Jemi- 
ma Sill, married Capt. William Stirling, Jan. 3, 1763, 
the subject of this sketch being their tenth child and 
seventh son. 

Judge Sterling, at the early age of twenty-three, 
was a iiracticing lawyer at the bar of Litchfield 
County, and for fovli/ years there were no interrup- 
tions to his attending each session of the different 
courts. He studied his profession with his eldest 
brother, Hon. Elisha Sterling, of Salisbury, Conn., 
who was a graduate of the class of 1787 of Yale Col- 
lege, " a man of a high order of talent." 

Judge Sterling settled in Sharon in );he year 1808, 
where he spent his life. Oct. 8, 1804, he married 
Isabella Canfield, seventh daughter of Hon. John 
Canfield and Dorcas Buell, of Sharon. 

Hon. John Canfield was a son of Samuel Canfield, 
Esq., of New Milford, Conn., a judge of the court of 
Litchfield County, and deacon of the Congregational 
Church in that place. Samuel Canfield's wife was 
Elizabeth Judson, the great-great-granddaughter of 
William Judson, who came from Yorkshire, England, 
in 1634. 

The Hon. John Canfield was born in New Milford, 
Conn., 1740 ; was graduated at Yale College 1762. He 
was a great-grandson of Matthew Canfield, an original 
settler of Norwalk, Conn., a judge and leading man 
in the colony. Hinman says, — 

*' As a proof of liia. standing, I may only mention lie was one of the 
nineteen signei-s of the petition to King Cliarles II. for the Charter of 
the colony, and his name is mentioned in that invaluable grant to Con- 



BENCH AND BAR. 



25 



necticut in 1C02. TUis is ample proof of liis exalted standing in the 
colony, as no gentleman would have been called upon to sign the peti- 
tion but sucli men as had sustained a high reputation in England before 
they came to New England." 

John Canfield established himself in his profession 
in Sharon, 1765, being the first lawyer in the town. 

He fitted for the legal profession several gentlemen 
who afterwards rose to eminence; among them his 
son-in-law, Ambrose Spencer, chief justice of the 
State of New York, Hon. John Cotton Smith, and 
Noah Webster. 

"Mr. Canfield enjoyed a most enviable reputation 
and was held in the highest estimation by his fellow- 
citizens. He represented the town in the Legislature 
at ten different sessions." In 1786 he was elected a 
member of the Continental Congress, but died on the 
26th of October of the same year. Not living to take 
his seat in that body, his name is omitted from the 
honorable roll of those early days. 

Mr. Canfield wa^ a friend of Benjamin Franklin, 
with wliora was held many earnest consultations, the ' 
"ta.\ on tea" being at one time a subject of special in- 
terest. His wife, Dorcas Buell, was the only daughter 
of Solomon Buell, eighth son of John Buell, and 
grandson of William Buell, who came from England 
in 1643. Their children, eight in number, were 
Laura, wife of Ambrose Spencer; Annis, wife of' 
Andrew Adams, Jr., son of Chief Ju.stice Adams, of 
Litchfield; Eunice, wife of Samuel Rockwell, M.D. ; 
Avis, who died aged thirteen years; Alma, wife of' 
Hon. Elisha Sterling; Almira, wife of Gen. Elisha 
Buel ; John Montgomery, married Fanny Harvey ; 
Isabella, wife of .\nsel Sterling. 

Judge Sterling was a man of unimpeachable in- 
tegrity, "of diversified talent. As a lawyer his fo- 
rensic ability was of a high order, nor wa.-i he deficient 
in legal science. His language flowed rapidly, and at 
times his appeals to the jury were verj' cflective." 

Judge Church, of the Supreme Court, thus writes 
of him : 

"This dhtiugiilshwl gentleman wiu lung an active and prominent 
member of the bar of LltchflelU County, for many tcMlons an tnrtuentlal 
member v»f the (Jeiieral A«embly of the Sliito of Connwiicut, a circuit 
Judge uf Die County Court, a nienil>or of Congreaa for two M«>lon«, and 
an estimable man hi all tlio relalluiia uf loclal and doniesllc life." 

Judge Sterling died Nov. 6, IS.W, aged sevonty-onc. 
His wife died July 2G, 18-')5, aged seventy-four. 
Their children, eight in nuinhor, are Laura Spencer; 
George Aupustino, who graduated at West Point, 
served for a time in the I'nited Stati-s army stationed 
at Fort Gibson, in the then Territory of Arkaii!*a.t, 
resigned ami entered the ministry of the Kjiiicopal 
Church. He died at Sharon, Oct. 17, IWl". He 
married Flora J. Chamberlain. Their children were 
Mary Isabella, wife of Walter M. I'atterson, E"M|., 
who died Feb. 18, 1864; George Ansel, M.D., married 
Mary 1'. Havens. 

Ambrose Spencer, second son of .Vnsel Sterling, 
died July 1, 1880. His wife, Louisa M. Clarke. 



Their children were Louisa M., wife of L. H. Stewart ; 
Pierre Clarke; George Edward. 

Charles Ansel, third son, married Augusta A. Shel- 
ton. Two children : Charles Frederick, M.D., wife, 
Mar}- C. Anthony ; Isabella Canfield, wife of William 
C. Atwater. 

Isabella Dorcas, married Eev. George Kyerson ; one 
son, George Ansel Sterling Ryerson, M.D. 

Thomas Sterling, fourth son, married Louisa T. 
Winchell, deceased. 

Avis Canfield, married Frederick S. Bogue. 

Eev. John Canfield, fifth son, was graduated at 
Trinity College, Connecticut, a clergjman of the 
Episcopal Church; died at Hartford, Conn., Dec. 10, 
1874. He married Caroline Sargent L'pson. Their 
children are Caroline, Isabella, Alice, Clarance Can- 
field. 

For notices of Ephraim Kirby, Uriel Holmes, E. 
C. Bacon, Francis Bacon, and John Bird, see Litch- 
field history ; and for John and Judson Canfield, see 
history of Sharon. 

" Stephen Titus HosMER was a lawyer of eminence 
in his peculiar way. He had no very high standing 
as an advocate, but, as a lawyer learued in elementary 
principles, his position was a very good one. A gen- 
tleman who had heard him told me that his manner 
was hard and dry and his elocution very defective, 
but in some branches of legal science he had few 
superiors. He seemed to delight in e.vploring an- 
cient paths in search of legal principles, and in get- 
ting up old legal tracts and dissertations. In the first 
volume of Day's Reports there is a note of forty pages 
of fine print containing an opinion of Lord Camden, 
of the English Court of Common Pleas, which has 
hardly a rival injudicial learning or eloquence. Mr. 
Day informed me that this was presented to him in 
manuscript by Mr. Hosnier, there being then no 
printe<l copy of it on this side of the Atlantic. He 
was appointed a judge of the old court in 1815, but, 
being one of the younger judges, it never fell to his 
lot to preside on the trial of a ca.-<e until his accession 
to the chief justiceship. His career on the whole 
was very successful, both at niti priut and on the 
bench of the Supreme Court. His opprehension of 
the points involved in the case before him wa.n very 
(|uick, anil the (irst intimation he gave on incidental 
matters occurring in the course of the trial was a sure 
indication of what the result would be, and, although 
he would take special pains to soy to the counsel that 
ho had formed no opinion, the party against whom 
he leaned knew that his fate was sealed. His labors 
in his otllcial iliities must have been immense. It 
fell to his lot to give the opinion of the court in neorly 
all the cases tried in the Supremo Court for sovenil 
years after his appointment, and nearly all the ma- 
terial of the third, fourth, and fifth large volumes of 
the Connecticut RoporU ore the result of his study 
of the ciuses belbre the court, and some of them arc 
very learned uud labored. His illustrations in the 



26 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



case of Mitchell vs. Warner, in the second of Connec- 
ticut Reports, of the extent of tlie obligations incurred 
in the covenants of a deed, explained the subject to 
me when I was young better than anything I had 
before read on the subject. 

" It seemed to be his object to render himself as 
agreeable as possible to the members of the bar, 
sometimes employing his leisure moments on the 
bench in furnishing prescriptions for human ail- 
ments, such as corns on the toes, and handing them 
over to such members as stood in need of them. 
Then he would hand over a formula for making, as 
he said, the best kind of liquid blacking for our 
boots. In fact, everything which he had prescribed 
he always designated as t/ic very best. At one term 
of the court, Phineas Miner, Esc)., who had lived a 
widower for several years, was about being married, 
which fact was intimated to the judge. While he 
sat waiting on the bench for the preparation of some 
business, he s])oke out suddenly : " Gentlemen, is there 
a vacant cell in your jail ? Won't it be necessary for 
me to commit Mr. Miner to prevent his doing some 
rash act?" The laugh was thoroughly turned upon 
poor Miner, and the whole scene was very enjoyable. 
He employed all his leisure hours in obtaining all 
the relaxation which was within his reach. He 
played on the piano and violin, and sang with great 
power and effect. 

" There was no perceptible waning of his powers, 
physical or mental, during the time of his service on 
the court. He retired from the bench at the age of 
seventy years, in February, 1833, and died, after a 
short illness, in less than two years thereafter." 

"John Thompson Teters was the senior asso- 
ciate judge of the court, and he held his first circuit 
in this county. He was a native of Hebron, and a 
lawyer of respectable standing. His fellow-citizens 
had often honored him with a seat in the Legislature, 
and thus he had become tolerably well known in the 
State. When the United States direct tax was laid, 
in 1814, he was appointed collector for the First Dis- 
trict, removed to Hartford, and held that office when 
he was appointed judge. He had been one of the leaders 
of the Democratic party from its formation, and as an 
Episcopalian had opposed the claims of the 'Standing 
Order' to ecclesiastical priority, and some apprehen- 
sions were felt lest his well-known views on these 
subjects might temper his opinions on those questions 
incidentally involving them. Many fears were en- 
tertained as to the stability of ecclesiastical funds 
which existed in almost every Congregational parish, 
and those who desired to break them down looked to 
Judge Peters and to his influence with the court to 
aid them. But those who entertained such hopes 
were destined to an early disappointment, as their 
past experience of his administration on such ques- 
tions showed him to be disposed to stand firmly on 
the old paths. He used to tell an amusing anecdote 
relating to his first trial of such a case in one of the 



eastern counties of the State, where he was appealed 
to very strongly to decide that a promise to i)ay money 
in aid of such funds was without consideration. But 
he told the parties that the law on that subject was 
well settled, and, in his opinion, founded on correct 
principles, and that if he had the power he had not the 
disposition to change it. It had been the practice of 
the Congregational pastor of the village to open the 
proceedings in court with prayer, but, considering 
Peters to be a heretic (I use the judge's own lan- 
guage), he had never invited Divine favor for him, 
but after that decision every prayer was charged with 
invocations of blessings upon ' thy sarvant, thej^idge.'' 

" He was very severe in meting out the punishments 
of the law to convicted criminals, generally inflicting 
the severest sentence that the law would allow. One 
case was tried before him which excited much remark 
and some reprehension. A man had been convicted 
before Judge Lanman of a State-prison offense;' had 
been sentenced to four years' imprisonment, and had 
served a part of a year, when he obtained a new trial. He 
was tried again, before Judge Peters, and again con- 
victed. When the time came to pass sentence on the 
last conviction, his counsel asked for some mitigation 
on account of the imprisonment already suffered. 
Said the judge, ' He must settle that account with 
Judge Lanman. He owes me five years' imprison- 
ment in State prison,' and such was the sentence. 
One prisoner who had received a severe sentence at 
his hands after the expiration of his confinement 
burned the judge's barn, and he petitioned the Leg- 
islature of the State to pay for it in 1831, but they 
declined to make the compensation. 

" For a few years the services of Judge Peters on 
the bench were very acceptable. His decisions were 
prompt and generally founded on a sensible view of 
the matter before him, without any affectation of 
learning or a display of oratory. His entire candor 
and fairness were never called in question, and the de- 
cay of his powers, which was very apparent towards the 
close of his career, was observed by the bar with sor- 
row and regret. I witnessed an aff'ecting scene con- 
nected with his experience on the bench which excited 
a deep feeling of sympathy. He had a favorite son, 
Hugh Peters, Esq., whom he had educated at Yale 
College, and in whom all his hopes seemed to centre. 
This young man, in connection with George D. Pren- 
tice, the noted editor, had much to do in conducting 
the New England Weekly Review, a paper just estab- 
lished in Hartford, and which was the organ of the 
party which elected William W. Ellsworth, Jabez 
VV. Huntington, and William L. Storrs to Congress. 
He had acquired a wide reputation as a writer of 
brilliant promise, and after a while went to Cincin- 
nati to go into business as a lawyer. On his way 
across Long Island Sound he wrote a farewell to New 
England in poetry, which was published with great 
commendation in most of the newspapers in the 
country. Soon after his arrival at Cincinnati his 



BENCH AND BAK. 



27 



dead body was found floating in the Ohio, several 
miles below the city, and circumstances were such as 
to create the belief in some minds that it was a case 
of suicide. The intelligence of this sad event was 
brought to Litchfield while the Court of Errors was 
in session, in June, 1831. It was first communicated 
to Judge Williams, who sat next to Judge Peters, 
and he, with all possible tenderness, informed the 
latter. The reporter, Mr. Day, in giving the report 
of the case on trial, closes it by saying, ' Peters, 
Judge, having received, during the argument of this 
case, intelligence of the death of his son, Hugh 
Peters, Esq., of Cincinnati, left the court-house, 
' multa gemens casuque animum concusstis,' and gave 
no opinion.' I witnessed the mournful scene, and I 
well remember the loud aud plaintive groans of the 
afflicted old man as he passed out of the court-room 
and down the stairway to his lodgings. 

" When Chief Justice Hosmer retired from the 
bench, the Legislature, by a very strong vote, elected 
Judge Peters' junior. Judge Daggett, chief justice. 
Pie felt the slight, but did not retire, aud held his 
place till his death, in August, 18.34. A few weeks 
longer and he would have reached the age of seventy 
years. ' 

" Asa Chapmax. — The next judge in seniority was 
Asa Chapman, of Newtown, in Fairfield County. 
For several years before he received the apjioiiitment 
he practiced to some extent in this county, and was, of 
course, well known here. He was the father of the late 
Charles Chapman, of Hartford. He was somewhat 
taller than the son, and, with his bald head, white locks, 
thin face, and gray eyes, he resembled him not a 
little in persona! appearance, but lie hail none of that 
bitterness of nuinncr or spirit whicli cluiracteri/ed the 
efforts of the younger Chapman. He was an Epis- 
copalian in religious faith, and he Iiad very naturally 
fallen into the ranks of tiie new party, and, being 
well (jualified for the place in point of legal ability, 
he made a very acceiitable and popular judge. He 
was a man of good humor, genial temper, and great 
colloquial powers, which lie exercised very freely on 
the trial of cases. If a lawyer undertook to argue a 
case before him, he soon found himself engaged in a 
friendly, familiar conversation with the judg(', the 
evident intent of the latter being to draw out the 
truth and justice of the case. His ndniinistrntion 
was very popular, and his early death was greatly 
deplored. He died of consumption, in 1826, at the 
age of fifty -six years. 

" Jekkmiaii Oaths IJitAiXAun, of New London, 
the fatlur of the poet ISraiiianl, was next In seniority 
on the bench. He ha<l been a member of the old 
court from 1807, and he wa-s elected to the new court 
under the circumstances which I have mentioned. 
He was a man of no showy pretensions, verj* plain 
and simple in his manners, and very familiar in his 
intercourse with the bar. He affected very little dig- 
nity on the bench, aud yet he was regarded an un ex- 



cellent judge. He despatched business with great 
facility, and implicit confidence was placed in his 
sound judgment and integrity. He resigned his place " 
on the bench in 1829, his health not being equal to 
the duties of the office, having served as judge for 
twenty-two years. 

" WiLi.iAM Bristol.— Of all the judges on the 
bench, William Bristol, of New Haven, was the 
youngest in years as well as in rank. He had not 
been much known as a lawyer out of the county of 
New Haven, and, of course, his coming here was 
looked for with considerable interest. He evidently 
had a high sense of judicial dignity, his manners on 
the bench being very taciturn, approaching severe- 
ness, very seldom speaking except to announce his 
decisions in the fewest possible words, and I doubt if 
any one ever saw him smile in court. His decisions 
were sound and well considered, and upon the whole 
his administration was respectable, although he could 
not be said to have had much personal popularity 
with the bar. 

" David Daggett.— The decease of Judge Chap- 
man and the resignation of Judge Bristol in 1826 
created two vacancies in the court whicli were to be 
filled at the session of the Legislature of that year. 
The same party which had effected the change in the 
government of the State and in the constitution of the 
court was still in power, but nearly all the eminent 
lawyers in the State adhered to the Federal party. 
Probably the most obnoxious man in the State to the 
dominant party was David Daggett, not so much 
from personal dislike as from his prominence in the 
ranks of his party. His talent.s, integrity, and high 
legal abilities were conceded by every one, but when 
tlic Legislature assembled there was probably not a 
man in the State who looked to his election as a 
judge. 

"There were a few men in the State belonging to 
the toleration party who felt deeply the importance 
of having a reputable court, and who, on this ijues- 
tion, were willing to forego all party considerations. 
Morris Woodruff, of Litchfield County, Thaddeus 
Belts and Charles Hawlcy, of Fairfield County, Wal- 
ter Booth, of New Haven County, and Charles J. Mc- 
Curdy, of New London County, were men of that 
stamp; and it was through the influence of these 
men, and of othera of k-ss pmmineru-e, that David 
Daggett was elected a judge of the Supreme Court. 
The same influences, exerted by the same men, se- 
cured the election of Juilgca Williams and l<is.sell, 
three years later. 

" .\fler the election of Judge Daggett was effected 
no one seemed to care who the other juilge might bo, 
OS with Chief Justice Hosmer at the head of the 
court, and Judge Daggett as an a«8ociate, it was felt 
that it could have a highly respectable character. 
The Hon. James Lanmun received tlie nj>|Hiintment, 
but af^er a short term of service resigned. 

" JoHX Welch. — The Junior judge of the court 



28 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



was the Hon. John Welch, of Litchfield. He was a 
native of the parish of Milton and a graduate of Yale 
* College in the class of 1778, — a class which is said to 
have produced more eminent men in proportion to 
its numbers than any other which ever graduated at 
that institution. Joel Barlow, Zephaniah Swift, 
Uriah Tracy, Noah Webster, and the last Governor 
Wolcott, with many other distinguished men, were 
of the class. 

" Judge Welch never entered either of the profes- 
sions, but he lived to a very great age. He was ap- 
pointed a judge of the County Court in the place of 
Cyrus Swan, Esq., of Sharon, who had resigned his 
position on the bench of the court in 1819. Judge 
Welch continued on the bench till lie became dis- 
qualified by age in 1829. He made no pretensions to 
legal learning, but his decisions were based on a fair, 
impartial view of the questions as they came up. He 
always gave reasons for the opinion he had formed, 
always made himself well understood, and his candor, 
fairness, and sound judgment were admitted by all. 

"JuiXiliS BURRALL, WoollRfl'F, AND BoARD- 

MAN. — In 1829, when Judge Welch must retire on 
account of his age, it was deemed jjroper by the Legis- 
lature to make new appointments of both associate 
judges. Judge Strong had been twelve years on the 
bench, and in his place William 51. Burrall, Esq., of 
Canaan, was appointed senior associate judge, and 
Gen. Morris Woodrurt" tonk the |ilace of Judge Welch. 
The court continued thus organized till the resigna- 
tion of Judge Pettibone, when, not only with the 
consent, but with the decided approval, of both asso- 
ciate judges, David S. Boardman, Esq., of New Mil- 
ford, was taken from the bar and installed chief judge 
of the County Court, which as then constituted held 
a high position in public confidence. 

" Jauez Swift was the first lawyer who settled in 
Salisbury. He was a native of Kent, and upon the 
breaking out of the war of the Revolution he joined 
the army in Boston, and there died. 

" Adom.jah Strong was a pupil of Mr. Swift, and 
succeeded him in practice. Col. Strong was a man 
of vigorous mind, had a large practice, but possessed 
none of the graces of eloquence. For many years he 
was an efficient magistrate, and a member of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. He died in February, 1813. 

" Joseph Canfield, Esq., commenced his profes- 
sional studies with Col. Strong, and finished them at 
the Litchfield Law School. He commenced his prac- 
tice at Furnace Village, in Salisbui-y, about the year 
1789. Mr. Canfield was a gentleman of graceful 
manners and good talents; he died in September, 
1803, having been several times a member of the As- 
sembly. 

" Martin Strong, of Salisbury, son of Col. Adon- 
ijah Strong, of that town, was a lawyer of the olden 
time, of whose wit, as well as blunders, many stories 
were rife fifty years ago. Col. Strong had four sons, 
all of whom entered into professional life, — two as 



clergymen, and two as lawyers. His son, the Eev. 
William Strong, was father of the Hon. William 
Strong, of Pennsylvania, now one of the associate 
justices of the United States Supreme Court. Judge 
Martin Strong had been a member of the bar for sev- 
eral years, but had never made a very high mark in 
his profession; in fact, he had never devoted himself 
assiduously to the discharge of its duties. He owned 
a very large and valuable farm on the town hill in 
Salisbury, and his principal business was to attend to 
that. When he came upon the bench he seemed to 
have a recollection of a few plain legal maxims, but 
his method of applying them to cases was not always 
the most skillful. He was a man of immense physi- 
cal dimensions, and when he had taken his seat on 
the bench he sat in perfect quiet until the loud proc- 
lamation of the sheriff announced the adjournment of 
the court. He remained in office till 1829, when 
William M. Burrall, Esq., of Canaan, took his place. 

" Asa Bacon was a native of Canterbury, and came 
to Litchfield as early as 1806, after a short period of 
practice at East Iladdam, and for a while was a part- 
ner of Judge Gould. lu 1820 he had become a leading 
spirit at the bar. He had a fine personal appearance, 
being tall and well proportioned, and usually richly 
dressed. The first time I saw him before the jury his 
head was well cased in powder and jjomatum, and a 
long queue was dangling at his back; but he soon laid 
aside this conformity to old-time fashions, although 
he was the last member of the bar to do so. He was 
undoubtedly a very hard student, and his briefs were 
the result of extensive and faithful study. He was 
not a very fluent, but was after all an interesting, 
speaker. He would sometimes interlude his argu- 
ments with specimens of drollery and flashes of wit, 
and the expectation that these would be put forth se- 
cured a very strict attention from all his hearers. He 
frequently quoted passages of Scripture and com- 
mented upon them, not always irreverently, but some- 
times with rather unbecoming levity. He was a mortal 
enemy of universal suffrage, and once in commenting 
upon the parable of the talents he called the bailee 
of one talent who had hid it in the earth a universal 
suffrage man. He was a genial, jolly, companionable 
man, and, although not addicted to excessive liberality 
in his benefactions, still kept himselfin good standing 
while he remained here. When he had reached the 
age of sixty years he was appointed president of the 
branch of the Phoenix Bank, located in Litchfield, 
and after that was never seen professionally engaged 
in court. The last years of his life were spent in New 
Haven, where he died at a very advanced age. 

"Gen. Elisha Sterling was a native of Lyme and 
a graduate of Yale College in the class of 1787. He 
studied law with the Hon. John Canfield, of Sharon, 
who was his father-in-law, and settled in Salisbury iii 
1791. He was a man of a high order of talent, and 
had he addressed himself solely to professional points 
would probably have stood at the head of the bar in 



BENCH AND BAK. 



29 



this county. But he loved money and gave much of 
his time to different kinds of business, and acquired 
great wealth for those times. Notwithstanding this 
propensitj' he had an extensive practice and was en- 
gaged in most of the cases coming from the northern 
portions of the county. He was a ready speaker, not 
very select in tlie clioice of his words, and not elo- 
quent by any established rule of elocution, but there 
was a kind of impetuosity in bis manner, accompanied 
by a rapid but distinct utterance of language, which 
gave him, popularity as an advocate. He was ap- 
pointed State's attorney in 1814, and held the office 
six years, when Seth P. Beers, Esq., was appointed in 
his place. He retired from practice soon after, and 
died in 1836, at the age of seventy-two years. His 
wealth enabled him to indulge the strong taste he had 
for a handsome style of living and equipage, and in 
that direction his mind had strong aristocratical tend- 
encies. 

"David S. Boardman was a native of New Mil- 
ford, and settled there in the practice of law after bis 
admission to the bar, in 179o. He wiis a man of re- 
tiring disposition, in no way giving showy display of 
his powers, but he was a finished legal scholar, and 
was deemed a very safe and prudent professional ad- 
viser. He had a very nice literary taste, and the 
least grammatical blunder by a judge or lawyer at- 
tracted his attention and frequently liis ridicule. His 
arguments were pointed specimens of pcrs))icuity, 
precision, and force, but he failed to attract much at- 
tention as an advocate tlirougli a defect of vocal 
power. His voice was feeble and could scarcely be 
heard except by those who were near him. Ho had 
a high character for moral rectitude, and his four or 
five years' service at the liead of the County Court 
gave it a dignity and moral power whicii in other 
years it had scarcely obtained. Sketches from Iiis 
pen descriptive of some of the members of the bar 
in this county of the last century may be found in 
the beginning of tliis chapter. He was a college 
classmate of Asa Bacon, and they wore warm personal 
friends. He lived to the great age of ninety-seven 
years. 

" Ehineha.s Mixer, the last, because tlie youngest, 
of the class of lawyers to whom I iiave referred, de- 
serves a much more extended notice than I sliull be 
able to give him. His amiable and genial temper as 
a man seemed to make him very popular iis a lawyer. 
Fidelity to his clients and a laborious attention to their 
interests was a marked trait in his professional career. 
He commenced practice in Wincliester, his native 
town, and had there acquired a good standing in his 
profession, when he came to Litchfield in 181(i. He 
had an extensive practice and was notrd for the dili- 
gence with whicli he pressed every jmint, however 
unimportant, which could be made to tell In favor of 
his client. His arguments were generally extended 
to a great length, and I have known him to receive a 
gentle hint from the Judge recomuicudiug a condensa- 



tion of his thoughts. He died in 1839, at the age of 
sixty years, and Mr. Day, the reporter, gives a flatter- 
ing estimate of him in a foot-note on 134th page of 
the 18th volume of Connecticut Keports. 

" William G. AVilliams, of New Hartford, stood 
as high as any member of this class. He belonged to 
the eminent and reputable Williams family, of Massa- 
chusetts, his father being a nephew of Col. Ephraim 
Williams, the founder of Williams College, and him- 
self the first cousin of Bishop Williams, of the Epis- 
copal Church of Connecticut. As a special pleader 
he had no superior at the bar. He had a tolerably 
fair standing as an advocate, and was indefatigable in 
pursuing to the last possible effort any purpose he had 
undertaken. If he failed iu one form of action he 
would try another, and never gave up till further per- 
sistence was hopeless. He commenced business as a 
lawyer in Sharon, where he married, but after a few 
years he removed to New Hartford, where he re- 
mained during his life. He had scarcely reached the 
age of sixty years when he died. 

" John Stkoxg, Jr., of Woodbury, his native town, 
was a lawyer of very fair standing. I remember once 
to have heard Judge Boardman say ' that if he found 
John Strong differing from himself on a law point, he 
always doubted the correctness of his own conclusions.' 
He was a ready speaker and had a peculiar habit of 
looking all over the hall, frequently directly behind 
himself, while he wiw addressing the jury. His argu- 
ments were clear and logical, and he was always lis- 
tened to by the court with attention. He had scarcely 
reached the age of fifty years when he died. 

" Calvix Bl'TLER, of Plymouth, had a very good 
reputation as a lawyer. He also stood well witli his 
fellow-citizens of Plymouth, as he was often a mem- 
ber of the Legislature, and he Wius nl' the convention 
of this State. He was also a member of the Senate in 
1832. He had a part in all cases which came from 
that town and managed a trial very well. He was 
earnest iu his manner of addressing the jurj-, and he 
was in full practice up to the tinu' of his death, when 
he had reached the age of seventy-two year^. He 
died suildenly while away from hi>me, and left behind 
a good record as a faithful lawyer and an honest num. 

"Cyhis Swax, of Stonington, cunie to the bar of 
this county in 17'.>S. He -settled in Sharon, and con- 
tinued in full practice for twenty years. He wa.s ap- 
pointeil a judge of the County Court in 1S18, and reap- 
pointed for the succeeding year, but resigneil the of- 
fice before the close of the term. His health becom- 
ing intolerant of sedentary liabits and ropiiring out- 
door pursuits, he never resumed full practice, although 
he occasioiuilly appeared in trials where his old friends 
denuuided his aid. His arguments were clear, sound, 
and sensible, and were listeiu-d to with attention. 
His mind was well stored willi sound legal maxims, 
and his aim seemed to be to make a sensible applica- 
tion of these to the case in hand. He died in I5si5, at 
the age of sixty-five years. 



30 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



" Joseph Miller, of Winsted, who died recently 
in Michigan at a very advanced age, was a man of 
moral talent and of a higher order of legal acquire- 
ments than he usually had credit for. After the re- 
moval of Mr. Miller to Litchfield his practice was 
large, and continued to be so for several )-ears. His 
arguments were short, compact, and logical, and were 
listened to with attention and interest. In middle 
life he removed to Michigan, where he had a pros- 
perous career. 

" William M. Burrall, a native, and through 
life a resident, of Canaan, was a lawyer of very ex- 
tensive practice in one branch of busines.s. He com- 
menced a great many cases to the court, but never 
argued one on the final trial. He would sometimes 
argue motions for continuance or for other purposes, 
and liis success on such occasions showed that he had 
underrated his own powers. Although he did not 
argue his cases, he was the master-spirit in managing 
all the details of the trial, iu what order witnesses 
should be called, and the points of testimony brought 
out. His associates depended greatly on his skill in 
conducting this part of the proceedings. He had a 
kind, affable, and winning way in his social inter- 
course, and his offices were employed in adjusting and 
settling legal controversies. He acted as committee 
and arbitrator in more cases than any other member 
of the bar of his time, and if a desire to make him- 
self as indifferent as possible to all parties sometimes 
seemed to hold him back from decisive action, he 
always, in the end, showed true firmness and integrity. 
He was an associate judge of the County Court from 
1829 to 1836, and after that chief judge for ten years. 
He died at the age of seventy-seven years. 

"CoL. William Coggswell, of New Preston, a 
very worthy and respectable gentleman, was a mem- 
ber of the bar, and was very seldom absent from the 
courts. He never engaged in the trial of a case, and 
very seldom spoke to the bench, but he was always a 
busy man in the court-room. He was one cf the 
electors who cast the vote of Connecticut for John 
Quincy Adams for President in 1824. He died before 
he had reached a very advanced age. 

" Seth p. Beers. — When I came to the bar, in 
1820, Seth P. Beers, Esq., was in full practice. He 
was appointed State's attorney soon after, but re- 
signed in three years, having been appointed commis- 
sioner of the school fund, which office he held for 
twenty-five years. I have heard him say that at some 
terms of the court he had commenced as many as one 
hundred and fifty cases, and he was very thorough in 
all matters committed to his trust. His talents as an 
.idvocate were respectable, his briefs being very full 
and his knowledge of every minute point being very 
complete. 

" Perry Smith, of New Milford, held a somewhat 
prominent place at the bar, and his practice was ex- 
tensive. So many different estimates have been made 
of Mr. Smith's real qualities that it is difficult to 



speak of him with any very strong assurance of cor- 
rectness. That he had talents and friends the success 
which he achieved both as a lawyer and a politician 
renders certain, but those who remember the time of 
his professional experience here know that he had 
enemies, and such would be the natural result of the 
unrelenting bitterness with which he pursued his ad- 
versaries in his efforts before the courts. There was a 
bitterness in his invectives, a persistence in his perse- 
cutions, an implacability in his enmities, which gave 
a decided character to his professional career, and 
which insured to him the enmity of all against whom 
his efforts were directed. He was always listened to 
with a kind of inquisitiveness as to what new fountain 
of bitterness he would open, or what new invectives 
he would invent to pour out upon his adversary. 
These were sometimes directed against the opposing 
counsel as well as the opposing party, and upon the 
whole he incurred a great amount of hatred. I am 
only speaking of what occurred in court, and express- 
ing the opinion which we would form in witnessing 
his professional conflicts. It cannot be doubted that 
he had many friends and supporters outside of this 
scene of action, and it is not unlikely that he was as 
warm and constant in his friendships as he was bitter 
and unrelenting in his hatreds. After his election to 
the United States Senate he retired from the bar and 
was very seldom seen here. 

" Roger Mills, of New Hartford, was at one time 
a partner with Mr. Williams, of whom we have 
already spoken, from whom he differed in every re- 
s])ect except that both held the position of honorable 
and worthy gentlemen. BIr. Mills was slow in his 
conception of thoughts, slow in all the movements of 
his mind, and very slow in the delivery of his argu- 
ments, and yet when all his duties in a case were ac- 
complished it would be seen that he had made a cred- 
itable effort, and that he was far from being a lawyer of 
indifferent pretensions. His son of the same name 
succeeded him in the practice of law at New Hart- 
ford, but has since removed to Wisconsin, where he 
has had a successful career. 

Michael F. Mills was born in Norfolk, March 
22, 1776. He was the youngest of a family of nine 
children, all of whom attained advanced age except 
one brother, who died in early life. Mr. Mills sur- 
vived all of them and most of his early friends, and 
at the time of his death, with one exception, the late 
Deacon Amos Pettibone, was the only male first de- 
scendant of the original landed proprietors of Nor- 
folk. The other members of the family were born in 
the town of Simsbury, Hartford Co., from whence 
Mr. Mills' parents as well as many others of the first 
settlers of Norfolk emigrated. 

Mr. Mills, never having lived out of his native town 
and never having held any high public station, may 
not have been as publicly known out of his own town 
and county as many other men less gifted, but so far 
as his townsmen could testify their respect and con- 



{ 







^^^d^x ^. 






It 



BENCH AND BAR. 



31 



fidence in him they did so by elevating him to every 
place of trust and responsibility within their gift. He 
represented his town in several sessions of the Legis- 
lature, was appointed judge of probate in 1822, and 
held the office twenty years; in 1812 was appointed 
justice of the peace and officiated in that capacity 
until he was seventy years of age. He w.as the first 
postmaster at Norfolk, appointed by Thomas Jeffer- 
son in 1804. At that time the mail only arrived twice 
a week in Norfolk, and only two papers were received 
at the office, — the Connecticut Courant and Litchfield 
Monitor. 

Mr. Mills never figured conspicuously as an advo- 
cate in the higher courts, but was regarded by the 
ablest lawyers as one of the best men in the State to 
prepare a case. Most people know how very liable 
members of the legal profession are to make enemies 
in discharging the duties of their calling, but in this 
Mr. Mills was peculiarly fortunate. Being of a happy 
and generous disijosition, whatever he said or did 
never partook of ill-will or malignity. 

Mr. Mills died Aug. 2, 1857, and a friend, in speak- 
ing of the departed, says, "As might be expected, the 
funeral obsequies of the deceased were solemn and 
impressive to his friends and neighbors and particu- 
larly to the aged inhabitants of the town. The funeral 
discourse was delivered by Rev. Joseph Eldridge. 
We have attended a great many funerals, but seldom 
one where we have seen so large a number of mourning 
relatives, a circumstance thatgoes to show theantiquity 
of the family in the town." Mr. Mills was interred 
in the old burying-ground, where his remains rest 
amidst departed kindred and friends. 

Gen. Charles F. Sedgwick, in speaking of Mr. Mills, 
says, "He never attempted to argue cases in the higher 
courts, but on the trial of motions as they came before 
the courts he was very prominent. We all thought 
well of 'Uncle Mich,' as we used to call him, and so 
did the people of Norfolk, for he was always a promi- 
nent man in the affairs of the town. He was a mem- 
ber of the Legislature in 1830 and 1831." 

Two daughters of Mr. Mills survive, — Mrs. John A. 
Shepard and Mrs. John K. Shepard. 

"Ei>WAiU) AiKEX resided in Norfolk, and gained 
some prominence lit the bar. 

"CllAKLES B. I'll ELI'S settled in Woodbury soon 
aftor his admission to the bar, nearly si.xty years ago. 
He continued in jiractice while he lived. Ho died 
suddenly from a disease of the heart, at the age of 
seventy-two years. He held a respectable position as a 
lawyer, and for two years was a judge of the County 
Court while that court was holden by a single judge. 
All who knew him have a very pleasant memory of 
his genial humor, pertinent anecdotes, and witty and 
pungent sayings. The younger members of the bar 
were delighted with his company, and all deeply de- 
plored his sudden death. 

"Matthew Misou, of Woodbury, was a lawyer 
of good classical education and respectable legal at- 



tainments. He had a native diffidence which pre- 
vented him putting himself forward very often on the 
trial of cases, but when his powers were brought out 
he made a respectable show. He belonged to one of 
the eminent families of Woodbury, and for personal 
qualities was very much respected. 

" Nathaniel P. Perry, of Kent, was a quiet, un- 
obtrusive, conscientious man. He was the only law- 
yer in that town during the greater part of his profes- 
sional life, and did a good local business. He was 
very diligent in the pursuit of his profession, and gen- 
erally argued the cases that he commenced. He was 
a member of the Senate for two successive years, and 
died at the age of about sixty years." 

HoLBROOK Curtis, lawyer, of the class of 1807, 
died at Watertown, Conn., Feb. 21, 1858, of apoplexy. 
The deceased was born at Newtown, Fairfield Co., 
July 14, 1787. When eleven years of age he was 
placed by his parents in the family of the Rev. Dr. 
Burhans to be prepared for college. Remaining with 
him two or three years, he subsequently pursued his 
studies with that accomplished jurist and classical 
scholar. Judge Chapman, from whom he imbibed a 
taste for the cla.<isics, which he cultivated and enjoyed 
through life. He entered the junior chiss of Yale 
College in 1805, and on graduating returned to his 
native town, studied law with Judge Chapman, and 
was admitted to the bar, at Fairfield, in 1S09. 

He pursued the practice of his profession at New- 
town until 1SI3, when upon the death of Samuel W. 
Southmayd, Esq., a lawyer, at Watertown, Litchfield 
Co., Conn., he was invited by several gentlemen of 
that place to remove there. The invitation w:i3 ac- 
cepted and he remained there until his death. During 
almost fifty years of professional life he received the 
confidence and e-steem of those around him, and bis 
good sense and kindness of heart were very frequently 
enlisted to make peace and heal dis.sensious among 
neighbors and friends. He |>ursued an honorable, 
highminded, liberal course in the performance of his 
duties as n lawyer, as a citizen, and as a man. In the 
various public trusts he was called upon during periods 
of many years to discharge, as a magistrate, member 
of the Legislature, judge of probate and of the county, 
and member of the general conventions of the Epis- 
copal Church, in which he wils educated and thniugh 
life attached, his sound judgment, strict integrity, and 
conservative views were pre-eminent. 

He was a man of constiint and extensive reading, 
had made sonic progress in modern languages, and of 
the Latin poets could repeat large portions of Horace 
and Virgil from memory. He was warm and nocial 
in his feelings and possessed an immense fund of 
anecdote, not only of tbo bench and bar of his early 
days, but the traditional, extending back into the 
colonial tiun-s; and even the unpublished! stanzas 
with vhich the legal witd honored the king's attorney 
in the days of the Stamp Act, or the ancient clergy 
occoaionally prepared iu commemoration of some 



32 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



ludicrous mishap of one of their number, were stored 
away in his retentive memory. 

The men of those times have long since passed away, 
and he has been called to follow them, regretted by 
all who knew him. 

" Jam te premet nox, ftibiilieque Maues, 
Et domiiB exiliB Plutonia." 

AViLLiAM Edmoxd Curtis was the eldest son of 
Holbrook and Elizabetli (Edmond) Curtis, and was 
born at Watertown, in the same room in which he 
died, Sept. 29, 1823. A sketch of his father appears 
elsewhere in this work. His maternal grandfather. 
Judge William Edmond, of Newtown, Conn., was of 
Irish descent, but was born in this State, graduated at 
Yale College in 1773, served as a volunteer, and was 
wounded in the attack on Danbury in 1777 ; married, 
for his second wife, a daughter of Benjamin Payne, 
Esq., of Hartford ; was a member of Congress and a 
judge of the Supreme Court of this State. 

Young Curtis had a brother Henry, near his own 
age, and the two boys grew up together, studying 
partly at the schools of the town and partly witli their 
father until about twelve years of age, when Henry 
died, leaving William the only child of his parents. 
He had begun the study of Latin with his father at 
the age of eight, and pursued his classical studies 
under his guidance until he was tifteen, when he went 
for a year to the Episcopal academy at Cheshire, then 
under the care of the Rev. Allen C. Morgan and the 
Rev. Dr. Beardsley, where he finished his preparation 
for college, and entered Trinity College, Hartford, the 
ensuing year. He graduated with distinguished honor 
in 1843, and entered the law-office of Hon. William 
Curtis Noyes, then a prominent member of the New 
York bar. 

He undertook, in addition to his legal studies, the 
acquisition of a more thorough knowledge of the 
French and Spanish languages, and with such success 
that by the time he was admitted to the bar he was 
able to speak both langu.iges with sufficient facility 
for business purposes, and immediately reaped the 
benefit of his labors by attracting French and Span- 
ish clients, and thus early laying the foundation of 
an extensive and successful practice. 

It is worth while to notice, however, for the encour- 
agement of younger members of the profession, this 
entry in his diary : 

"June 2G, 1846. Notlnng to do; business dull. If things are not bet- 
ter, I sliall emigrate to Texas." 

This probably does not indicate any intention of 
going to Texas, but was a figurative expression of the 
time, indicating merely the intention of making some 
change of location for the purpose of bettering his 
fortunes. 

Soon after his proposed emigration to Texas busi- 
ness prospects began to improve, and from that time 
forward he never lacked professional occupation. He 
was not only a careful student of the law, but he was 
a man of excellent business judgment, so that his 



advice was much sought and greatly valued. Faith- 
fulness to duty was a marked feature of his character. 
He prepared his cases with care and fidelity, giving 
careful thought to every consideration by which his 
clients' interest might be affected. As a consequence 
of this he won many causes without a trial. He was 
fair and honest by nature, and people instinctively 
confided in him in regard to their property interests 
and their personal affiiirs. His courtesy was remark- 
able, and it was only when occasion seemed to demand 
it that he assumed a tone of severity with the air of dis- 
charging a duty rather than of giving way to the in- 
dulgence o-f personal feeling. His whole demeanor 
was eminently dignified and judicial, and when, in 
1871, he was elected on the Reform ticket one of the 
judges of the Superior Court of the City of New 
York, there was a very general feeling that he was in 
his right place. His career on the bench fully justi- 
fied this feeling, and on the death of Chief Justice 
Monell, in 1876, he was with great unanimity selected 
as presidingjudge. 

One of his late associates, in speaking of his char- 
acter at a meeting of the bar held with reference to his 
death, said, " He seemed to have an intuitive idea of 
right and justice from which he never swerved. He 
was a safe guardian of every interest committed to his 
management, and allowed no selfish purpose to swerve 
him from entire justice to others. This sentiment 
was carried in instances to self-sacrifice. He was a 
large-minded man, and the current of his thoughts 
and actions was limited by no narrow bounds ; it 
deepened and widened according to the subjects he 
was called upon to consider." 

Perhaps the highest praise that can be given to a 
judge is that he has no history but the reports. 

Outside of his profession Judge Curtis' chief efibrts 
were in the cause of education. To Trinity College, 
as his Alma Mater, his ties were strong and his rela- 
tions intimate. In 1846 he was appointed to deliver 
the Master's or.ation. In 1857 he became a Fellow of 
the college and a member of the corporation, and in 
1862 he received the honorary degree of LL.D. 

In 1857 he was elected a member of the board of 
education of the city of New York, and served in 
that capacity for nine years and, during the last four 
years, as president of the board. He was a vestry- 
man of St. George's Church, a member of the council 
of the New York Geographical Society, and of various 
other religious, literary, and social organizations. 
All these duties he discharged with conscientious 
fidelity, and especially to those connected with the 
board of education he devoted a large amount of 
time. 

His personal friendships, though not demonstrative, 
were lasting, and an old friend or acquaintance in 
need never appealed to him in vain. Many could 
testify to this, but he was naturally secretive, and 
probably few comparatively of these acts of kindness 
were ever known beyond himself and the recipient. 




/^rf 




//oWj 



BENCH AND BAR. 



33 



His local attachments were very strong. He always 
retained the old place in Watertown which he had 
inherited from his father, where he himself was born, 
and which had always been his home. Here his 
family spent their summers, and here he came to rest 
when ^est was permitted, thoroughly enjoying the 
scenes of his childhood and the familiar faces and 
voices that greeted each return. He was deeply at- 
tached to the place and greatly respected and esteemed 
by the people. " We have lost our great man," was 
the simple tribute paid to him by one of his towns- 
men. 

The character of his mind was in all things strongly 
conservative, and although he kept pace with the time 
in knowledge and habit of life, yet to him personally 
change was painful, and he endured rather than en- 
joyed the little that circumstances compelled him to 
adopt of what was new in all his personal belongings. 

In his youth he was tall, slender, and delicate, and 
although in later years he became a large man, and 
had the ajipearance of physical vigor, he was not as 
strong as he appeared. Nearly two years before his 
death ie had a severe .sickness which prostrated him 
for many weeks. The following summer he spent in 
Europe and partially regained his health; but the 
severe work of a long winter was torj great a tax upon 
his enfeebled vitality, and on the (Ith day of .luly, 
1880, at his old home, and surrounded by his family, 
he suddenly sank under what appeared to be but a. 
slight indisposition. 

Judge Curtis married, Sept. 2, 1851, Mary A., 
daughter of William H. Scovcii, Esq., of Watcrbury, 
and great-granddaughter of the Kev. Jame.^ Scovill, 
a native of Watertown, and the first Episcopal min- 
ister of Watertown and Waterbury. 

His widow, with five sons and two daughters, survive 
him. 

" Isaac Leavenworth and Royal R. Hin.man. 
— There were two lawyers in Roxbury fifty years ago, 
Isaac Leavenworth and Royal R. Ilinnian, wlio made 
a considerable show of business before the courts, but 
who retired from practice in the course of a few years. 
Mr. Leavcnwortli went into other busine.** in New 
Haven, where it is said he has been very successful, 
and is still living at a very advanced age. Mr. Hin- 
man held the office of Secretary of State for eight 
years, and published several pamphlets containing 
the statistics of many of the most prominent families 
in the State. 

"JosKPir II. Hkm.amy, of IJethiehem, deserves 
more than a pa.ssing tribute. He was a grandson of 
the celebrated divine of that name, and was a man of 
great moral worth. He never had a very extensive 
practice as a lawyer, but was much employed in va- 
rious branches of public business. He was frci|uently 
a member of the Legislature, and once rcprcsentcil the 
Sixteenth District iu tlie Senate. He died in middle 
life, and all, of all names and parlies, pay him the 
tribute of an alluctionatc and respectful remembrance. 



" Theodore North, of Goshen, his native town, 
removed to Chenango Co., N. Y., about 1823. He 
graduated at Williams College in 1806 with the high- 
est honors of his class. He was a remarkably well- 
read lawyer, and had a respectable standing as an 
advocate. He attained to eminence in his profession 
in the State of New York. He died some twenty 
years since. 

" Hon. William S. Holabirp, a native of Canaan, 
Conn., studied law with Hon. W. M. Burrall, attended 
the law lectures of Judge Gould at Litchfield, was 
admitted to the bar about 1820, and soon after 
commenced j)ractice at Colebrook, Conn., whence 
he moved to Winsted in 1S24, and soon after secured 
a large practice and high standing at the bar. He 
held the appointment of district attorney for four 
years under President Jackson, and was Lieutenant- 
Governor of the State in 1842 and 1844 ; besides which, 
he held the offices of po.stma.ster and a.ssignee in 
bankruptcy. He was a man of commanding person 
and pleasing address. As a lawyer he was adroit 
rather than learned, thorough in preparing his cases, 
([uick to discern the weak points of his adversary, 
and energetic beyond most men in carrying forward 
his cases to a final issue. The same qualities were 
prominent in his political career, but his success as a 
lawyer was more decided than as a politician. About 
IS.jO he withdrew from legal practice and devoted 
himself to financiering with decided success. He 
died May 22, ISoS, at the age of sixty-one. 

"Geokok S. 15oaui>.mas, son of the Hon. Elijah 
noardman, of New Milford, was admitted to the bar in 
1821. He was a young man of decideil promise, and 
was a special favorite of his uncle, Judge Boardman. 
His death was greatly lamented throughimt the com- 
munity. His efforts at the bar gave proof of decide«l 
talent, and lie had made liimsclf a special favorite 
among the members. 

" Joiix Ei.MoKK was a native of Sharon. He set- 
tled as a lawyer in Canaan about 17'J3. He hail no 
great eminence at the bar, but was a great favorite 
with his associates for liis genial humor, |»ertinent 
anecdotes, and witty sayings. He lived to a very ad- 
vanced age. The last years of his life were devoted 
to zealous etfort.s in the cause of temperance. His 
son, of the same name, wa.s also in the practice of the 
law for several years in Canaan. 

"Oeoruk Wiieaton" spent a somewhat protracted 
life in (^irnwall in the practice of law. He was ad- 
mitted to tlie bar about IH12, and at once engaged in 
professional occupations. He was an ingenious, sa- 
gacious, and jierliaps it may be said crajly, lawyer, 
for opiHMing counsel were always fearful that ho 
woubl spring upon them some new point.s to which 
their attention had not been directed. He wius defi- 
cient in early education, but even his blunder* in the 
use of language were often witty, and he was always 
listened to 'in his argument.-< with close att^-ntion. 
He undchttooti well all the points in his caxr, and 



34 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



presented them with great skill to the court. He had 
a successful career, and left a good name behind him. 

"Samuel Church was a native of Salisbury, and 
a graduate of Yale College of the class of 1803, and 
he continued his residence in Salisbury while he was 
a member of the bar. He held quite a respectable 
standing as a lawyer, and for several years was the 
State's attorney for the county. He had not attained 
to the higher ranks in his profession when, in 1S32, 
he was appointed a judge of the Supreme Court, but 
to the duties of the latter office he devoted himself 
with great assiduity and success, and was in no degree 
inferior to his associates on the bench in those qual- 
ities which go to make a good judge of our highest 
court. On the ex|>iration of the term of Chief Justice 
Williams, in 1847, he was appointed his successor, 
and held that position during the remainder of his 
life. After his appointment as judge he removed to 
Litchfield. He died a few months before he had 
reached the age of seventy years. 

■'Jabkz W. Huntington, a native of Norwich, 
graduated at Yale College in 1806 ; came to Litch- 
field as a teacher and student-at-law in 1807, and 
continued to reside here until October, 1834, when he 
returned to Norwich, and died there in 1847, in his 
sixtieth year. While a resident of Litchfield he was 
elected a representative member of Congress, and 
judge of the Superior Court. From 1840 until his 
death he was a member of the United States Senate. 

" Gideon Hall was a native of Winchester, and 
had abundant early advantages for an education, 
although he did not go through a college course. His 
father was a man of large estate, and the son was left 
in easy circumstances. He had a fair standing at the 
bar and did a considerable amount of professional 
business. Towards the close of his life he received 
the appointment of judge of the Supreme Court, but 
after a short term of service in that office consump- \ 
tion terminated his life." 

Hon. Tku.man Smith was the oldest son of Phin- 
eas and Deborah Ann (Judson) Smith, and was born 
in Roxbury, on the 27th day of November, a.d. 1791. 
His father was the oldest son of a family, two of whose 
members, Nathaniel Smith, of Woodbury, and Nathan 
Smith, of New Haven, became very distinguished at 
the bar and in public life in Connecticut. Phineas 
Smith was a farmer, and was in no degree inferior in I 
intellectual ability to either of his brothers. The sub- i 
ject of this notice was brought up on his father's farm, 
and owes whatever success he achieved in after-life to 
habits formed and principles inculcated in the home 
of his childhood. He was graduated at Yale College 
in 1815, and soon after commenced the study of law. 
He was admitted to the bar of Litchfield County in 
March, 1818. In the fall of the same year he opened 
an office for the practice of the law in Litchfield, and 
that village was his home until 1854. The bar of 
Litchfield County then numbered more than forty [ 
members, and several of them were eminent in the 



profession. Mr. Smith felt that at such a bar as this 
faithful study and indefatigable labor alone would 
insure success, and to such study and labor he devoted 
himself strictly, and he soon became known as a 
5'oung lawyer of decided promise and marked ability. 
He soon acquired professional business, and at the end 
of ten or twelve years took rank among the able mem- 
bers of the bar in the management of the most im- 
portant cases before the courts in Litchfield County, 
and was sometimes engaged in such cases in other 
counties in the State. His habits and methods of 
practice were peculiar to himself. In the examination 
of witnesses and in the discussion of interlocutory 
questions he showed peculiar ability. The reluctance 
of a witness to disclose the truth and give a fair state- 
ment of the matters of which he was testifying, would 
sometimes provoke the most severe reprehension of 
the advocate, which he was not backward in exhibit- 
ing in court. He never went into the trial of an im- 
portant case without having made a thorough study 
of all questions likely to arise in the course of the 
proceedings, and was generally well prepared to give 
such questions a thorough discussion. His method of 
argument to the court and jury was also peculiar to 
himself His style and manner showed nothing of 
the polished refinement which marked the perform- 
ances of James Gould and Roger M. Sherman, but 
there was a power of thought and a strength of argu- 
ment attending his oral deliveries which made him a 
popular advocate. In his arguments at the bar he 
discussed nothing but the merits of the question, and 
he was hoard with strict attention by the triers whom 
he was addressing. Upon the whole, his career as a 
lawyer was eminently successful. 

Mr. Smith early took a deep interest in public af- 
fairs, and a considerable portion of his subsequent 
career was devoted to public employments, to which 
he was appointed by the voice of his fellow-citizens, 
and to all matters which agitated the public mind he 
devoted the same assiduous attention and thorough 
examination which marked his professional labors. 
It followed, of course, that he became a prominent 
member of the different legislative bodies to which 
he was elected, and all the speeches which he de- 
livered in either house of Congress, to which he was 
elected, bore evidence of thorough labor in their 
preparation. He was elected to the Legislature of 
Connecticut, by the town of Litchfield, in 1831, 1832, 
and 1834, and had much to do in shaping the legisla- 
tion of those years. But a wider field soon opened 
before him, and higher posts of duty awaited him. 
It was not the fashion of those times for candidates 
to urge their own claims, or spend their money in 
promoting their own advancement in public life. It 
has been said of Mr. Smith, and probably with truth, 
that he never packed a convention, never solicited a 
nomination, never asked a man to vote for him, and 
never addressed a political meeting when he was a 
candidate for office. 



BENCH AND BAR. 



35 



In 1839, and again in 1841, lie was elected to the 
National House of Representatives by decided ma- 
jorities in the district to which he belonged, which 
then embraced the county of Litchfield. The census 
of 1840 rendered necessary a new apportionment of 
members of Congress in the different States, and 
under that arrangement the counties of Fairfield and 
Litchfield were embodied into a single district, and 
from this district, thus enlarged, he was twice elected 
by large majorities. He was elected to the Senate of 
the United States for the term commencing March 
4, 1849, but he resigned his place before the expira- 
tion of the time to which he had been appointed. 
His career in both branches of Congress was honor- 
able and successful, and the speeches which he made 
in each were marked by the evidence that much study 
and reflection had been employed in their prepara- 
tion. In the House of Representatives his published 
speeches were : 1. On the New Jersey Broad Seal elec- 
tion case. 2. On our wool-growing and wool-manu- 
facturing interests. 3. On the territory to be acquired 
from Mexico by a treaty then pending. In the Sen- 
ate he delivered speeches on the following subjects: 
1. Ou removals from oflice. 2. On a bill to admit 
California into the Union, and to establish several 
territorial governments. 3. On French spoliations, 
etc. 4. On the proposition of Mr. Douglas to levy 
tonnage on the States for the improvement of rivers 
and harbors. 5. On the construction of a railroad to 
the Pacific coast. 6. On the Nebraska question. Of 
the speech on the bill to admit California into the 
Union, and to establish several territorial governments, 
Mr. Webster, in a sjjeech on the same question, made 
a few days afterwards, said, " It contained one of the 
clearest and strongest demonstrations that I have 
heard from the mouth of maji." All the speeches of 
Mr. Smith were fraught with good sense and sound 
logic. The last one delivered, Feb. 10 and 11, lSi)4, 
was a discussion on the repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise, and expressed his full conviction that the 
measure foreboded incalculable mischief to the coua- 
try, and he felt bound to oppose to it an uncompro- 
mising resistance. He undertook to denionjitrate that 
there was, and had ever been, an entire harmony in 
the elements on which the jirosperity of the ditlereat 
sections of the Union depended; that there was au 
utter impossibility of maintaining an equilibrium be- 
tween the free and slave States, and that such etiui- 
libriuni, if attainable, would be useless to the latter; 
that the slavery ([ucstiori, which, during the few pre- 
ceding years, had made so much <listurbance in and 
out of Congress, was of very little impurtance. Sub- 
sequent Itistory has disclosed events which no one 
then foresaw. 

Mr. Smith had a decided preference for Gen. Tay- 
lor as a candidate for the Presidency in 1848, and was 
a member of the convention which gave him the 
nomination. He was also the chairman of the Na- 
tional Whig committee by which the canvass for the 



general was . conducted. One of his colleagues ou 
this committee was Abraham Lincoln, who spent a 
considerable time in Washington as a member of the 
committee during the canvass. 

On the accession of Gen. Taylor to the Presidency 
he proposed to Mr. Smith to make him Secretary of 
the Interior, thus constituting him a member of his 
cabinet, but Mr. Smith preferred to occupy his seat 
in the Senate as best suited to his habits and method 
of life. 

Soon after the accession of Mr. Lincoln to the 
Presidency, a treaty was entered into between the 
United States and Great Britain for establishing in- 
ternational courts, to be located, two in Africa and 
one in the city of New York, to adjudicate slave- 
trading cases, each to consist of two judges, one rep- 
resenting the United States and the other Great Brit- 
ain. Mr. Smith was appointed to the New York 
court, and held the .situation for several years ; but 
our coiist having been blockaded during the war, and 
slavery in the United States being abolished, there 
could be no cases to be submitted to the court except 
in connection with Cuba or some other slave-holding 
country, of which there was very little probability, 
the two governments, by a new treaty, abrogated the 
courts and left the matters regarding them to the or- 
dinary courts. This was the last public office held 
by Mr. Smith. 

Mr. Smith established his home in Stamford in 1854, 
where he has ever since resided. Ho had a law-office 
in New York, and practiced in the courts of that State 
and in the Supreme and Circuit Courts of the I'nited 
States till 1872, when he retired from the profession. 
He has, to some extent, of late years occupied him- 
self in submitting his views to the public on topics 
which he deemed important, sometimes in pamphlets, 
but more generally through the newspaper press. He 
has tuken much interest in the temperance cause, and 
his articles on that subject furnish very strong argu- 
ments in favor of the entire suppression of the traffic. 
Various other matters of much public interest hare 
also received his attention. 

Mr. Smith was married, June 2,1832, to Miss Maria 
Cook, daughter of Roger Cook, Ii*q., of Litchfield. 
She die<l April 24, 1849. He was again married, Nov. 
7, 18f)0, to Miss Mary .Vnn Dickinson, who still sur- 
vives. 

He now (1881), at the ago of ninety years, enjoys 
comfortable beallli and bus a good shore of mental 
activity. 

Cjiaules F. SKiMiWifK, of Sharon, was born in 
Cornwall, Conn., Sept. 1, 1795. He prepan-d for col- 
lego with Rev. Truman ^larsli, of Litchfield, and 
Rev. A. R. Robbius, of Norfolk, principally with 
the latttT. He entered Williams College in 18U9, 
and grailuatcd in 1813. After graduation he taught 
about three years and fitted several young men fur 
college. He studied law with Gen. Klislia Sterling, 
of Salisbury, aud Cyrus Swan, Esq., of Sharon, and 



3G 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



in March, 1820, was admitted to the liar. He married 
a daughter of Mr. Swan in 1821. He has been much 
in jniblic life, and has ever been faithful to the trusts 
imposed. He was a member of the House of Repre- 
sent.atives in the Legislature in 1830 and 1831, and of 
the Senate in 1832; was .ippointed brig.adier-general 
of militia in 1829 and major-general in 1831 ; was ap- 
pointed State's attorney in 1856, and held that office 
by reappointment for eighteen years. Soon after he 
retired from office, and has since been a citizen of 
Sharon. 

Gen. Sedgwick has a decided taste for literary 
pursuits, and has added many highly interesting and 
valuable works to the historic literature of this sec- 
tion, among which may be mentioned "Sedgwick's 
History of vSharon," two editions, an excellent work, 
sketches of members of the Litchfield bar, various 
historical addresses, etc. Gen. Sedgwick has taken 
an active interest in historical matters, and to him 
more than any other person is due the preservation of 
thehistoryof the barof Litchfield County.— (Editor.) 

Oeigen Storks Seyjioue was born at Litchfield, 
Conn., Feb. 0, 1804; has always resided in his na- 
tive village and within a few rods of the place of his 
birth. After graduation he commenced the study of 
law. His own eyes were too weak to allow him to 
read for himself; his friend and classmate, Treat, 
therefore read aloud to him. He was admitted to the 
bar September, 1826, and at once commenced the 
practice of the law. He devoted himself without in- 
terruption to his professional duties for the space of 
twenty-five years ; during that time, however, he sev- 
eral times represented his town in the General As- 
sembly, and in 1850 served as Speaker of the House. 

In 1851 he was elected a member of the United 
States Congress, and then for four years was occupied 
in public political life. He was elected as a Union 
Democrat, pfedgcd to the earnest support of the com- 
promise measures then receutly adopted on the subject 
of slavery. He strenuously opposed the well-known 
Kansas and Nebraska bills as being a violation of 
those compromises. 

On his retirement from Congress he was elected 
a judge of the Supreme Court, and held that laborious 
office eight years, from 1855 to 1863, that being the 
term for which be was elected. He then resumed the 
practice of law in cop.irtnership with his son, Edward 
W. Seymour, and continued in a full practice till 
1870. He was then chosen judge of the Supreme 
Court of Errors of Connecticut, which office he held 
until he became seventy years of age, having been 
chief justice during his last year of service. The con- 
stitution of the State limits the term of judicial life to 
the age of seventy. Since his retirement from judi- 
cial life he has declined to appear as an advocate at 
court. He, however, spends some of his time in office 
business and as arbitrator and referee. 

Mr. Seymour was married, Oct. 5, 1830, to Lucy 
M. Woodruff, daughter of Hon. Morris AVoodrufT, by 



whom he had four children, — Edward WoodruflT, set- 
tled at Litchfield in the legal profession ; Storrs Ozias, 
clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal Church, set- 
tled in Litchfield, Conn. ; Maria (deceased) ; Morris 
Woodruff, settled in the legal profession at Bridge- 
port, Conn., present State senator. 

He is a member of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, and as such was one of the lay delegates for 
the Diocese of Connecticut in the Triennial General 
Conventions of 1865, '68, '71, '74, '77, and '80. Re- 
ceived the degree of LL.D. from Yale in 1873. 

George C. Woodruff, descended from Matthew 
Woodruft", one of the earliest settlers of Connecticut, 
and from Nathaniel Woodruff, one of the first settlers 
of Litchfield, is the eldest son of the late Gen. Morris 
AVoodruff, of said town, and was born in Litchfield, 
Dec. 1, 1805. He graduated at Yale College in 1825, 
studied at the Litchfield Law School, and came to the 
bar in 1827. For more than half a century he has 
been in the successful practice of his profession in his 
native town, where he has ever been intrusted with 
positions of honor and responsibility, besides repre- 
senting his district in the Thirty-seventh Congress. 
In 1845 he published a history of his town. In 1829 
he married Henrietta S. Seymour, daughter of the 
late Ozias Seymour, and sister of ex-Chief Justice 
Origen S. Seymour, by whom he has one child living, 
—George M. AVoodruff, of Litchfield. 

John Henry Hubb.\ed was born in Salisbury, 
Conn., in 1804. His childhood and youth was 
spent on his father's farm, with only those advan- 
tages for education which the district school af- 
forded. Of these he made such diligent use that at the 
early age of fifteen he was found qualified to be a 
teacher. Shortly after this he entered the office of 
the Hon. Elisha Sterling, of Salisbury, then a very 
prominent lawyer, as a law student. AVhile a student 
he supported himself by teaching school winters. 

In addition to his studies in the law, before he 
reached his majority he had acquired a very good 
knowledge of Latin, and had read many standard 
books with great care, such as '• Rollin's Ancient His- 
tory," "Plutarch's Lives," "The Spectator," and 
others. He also attained some proficiency in mathe- 
matics. In these studies as well as in law he 
was guided and encouraged by the sound advice of 
Mr. Sterling. In later life he extended his reading 
into works of fiction, and somewhat into the realm of 
poetry ; of AYordsworth and Burns he was especially 
fond, reading and rereading their poems with the 
keenest interest. 

At the April term of the County Court in Litchfield 
County, 1826, and before his twenty-second birthday, 
he was admitted to the bar, and immediately estab- 
lished himself in practice at the village of Lakeville, 
in his native town, where he continued to reside for 
nearly thirty years. At that time Samuel Church, 
afterwards chief justice of the State, was living in 
Salisbury, and was in full practice at the bar, as was 




'U-(i/-^^^Sc/j^i2^'. 



i^|/.^.^^ j(:UkydyrV\^y.^l^^^ 




^o^^^ oi- )<i-i^n^6-l^'^'*^ 



BENCH AND BAR. 



37 



Philander Wheeler, a man of high ability. Leman 
Church and Judge Burrill were in Canaan ; Ansel 
Sterling, Cyrus Swan, and Charles F. Sedgwick were 
in Sharon ; George Wheaton was at Cornwall, all of 
them men of eminence and lawyers of great skill. 
Surrounded by such opponents and competitors, 
young Hubbard found no time for idleness. He was 
spurred to his best. But whatever he may have 
lacked, he did not lack industry. Genuine mettle 
was in him, and before he left Lakeville he had liter- 
ally conquered for himself a jslace among the very 
foremost lawyers in the State, and had secured a very 
handsome estate. 

As a practitioner he was painstaking to the last de- 
gree. He spared no effort. He was always intensely 
in earnest, believing thoroughly in his client and his 
cause. As a student of the law he practiced all his 
life upon the maxim, which he said was given him by 
Gen. Sterling, " to know a few books well." He had 
studied "Swift's Digest," "Starke's Evidence," and 
" Chitty's Pleadings," till he knew them by heart. 
He knew the " Connecticut Reports" so familiarly 
that there was no case and hardly a dictum that he 
could not recall. Other books were to him books for 
reference and not for study in the sense that they 
were. He was wont to say that everything could be 
found in our own reports ; if not expressly decided, the 
principle was there which would control. 

In 1847, and again in 1849, Mr. Hubbard was 
chosen State senator from the Seventeenth District. 
The latter year ho gained considerable ockl)rity for a 
very able and vigorous opposition to the sclicmc for 
bridging the Connecticut River at Miildletown. He 
defeated the project for a time, but lived to sec it ac- 
complished more than twenty years later. The same 
year, 1849, he was appointed State's attorney for Litch- 
field County, which office he held for four years. In 
1855. Jlr. Hubbard removed to Litchfield, where he 
resided till his death. 

All his life Jlr. Hublmrd had been a Wliig, and 
subsequent to 1850 he was one of the " Conscience 
Whigs," synipatlii/.ing deeply with the anti-slavcr)- 
feeling then prevailing all over the North, and so 
naturally lie became a leader in the Republican party 
from its formation. He took an active part in the 
campaign of ISOO, which resulted in the choice of Mr. 
Lincoln to the Presidency. On the breaking out of 
the Rebellion he sacrificed a large part of his practice. 
The cause of the Union wa-s to him in the place of a 
client. He actively engaged in rousing up a war 
feeling and in enlisting men. Knjoying a gcnerou.s in- 
come, he si>cnt money liberally to promote thejse ob- 
jects. He made presents of needful articles to the 
men who volunteered, or gave them money. >[any 
times he i)rovided for their families, and in all other 
ways lie sought to carry forward the work of defeat- 
ing Bcce-ssioii. Ho devoted him.ielf to this work for 
the greater portion of the time <luriiig the years ISlil 
and 18G2, rendering especial aid in recruiting the 



Thirteenth and the Nineteenth Regiments. The lat- 
ter regiment (afterwards the Second Heavy Artillery, 
Connecticut Volunteers) was composed entirely of 
Litchfield County men. 

In the spring of 1863 he was elected a member of 
Congress from the Fourth District, and was re-elected 
in 1865. In the Thirty-eighth Congress he served on 
the committee on patents, and also on committee on 
post-offices and post-roads. In the Thirty-ninth Con- 
gress he was continued on the committee on patents 
and was on committee on roads and canals. He also 
was placed on several special committees. No man 
was ever more faithful to public duties than he. 
During the entire four years of his service in Congress 
he never failed to answer on a call of the House, ex- 
cept when absent on official duty by its direction, and 
once when sick. Outside this official labor, Mr. Hub- 
bard while in AVashington found himself under great 
responsibility in caring for the soldiers from his State. 
Many Connecticut regiments were in the army of the 
Potomac, among them the Litchfield County regi- 
ment. In the terrible battles of the Wilderness hun- 
dreds of their numbers were killed, and hundreds 
more were brought wounded to the hospitals around 
Washington. In the battle of June 1, 1864, more 
than four hundred men of his own county regiment 
were killed and wounded. They were his neighbors, 
his acquaintances, his friends. Many of them had en- 
. listed at his solicitation. It was an anxious time. 
Every hour that he could snatch from his public duty 
he devoted to the soldiers. There was not a day that 
he did not visit one or more of the hospitals. He 
sought out every Connecticut man, .tat by their bed- 
sides, wrote letters for them, procured for those who 
were themselves unable medicine and delicacies at 
his own expense. No one appealed to him in vain. 
Many dying mes-^agcs he faithfully transmitted to 
loved ones at home. He assisted friends to identify 
and obtain the bodies of their dead, and in more than 
one instance he paid from his own pocket for embalm- 
ing bodies to be sent North. All this was to him 
a labor of love. He never regretted it. He always 
declared that he had his abundant reward in the suc- 
cess of the cause for which these men had fought. 

After his return from Congress, Mr. Hubbard en- 
gaged again in tlie practice of his profession, and con- 
tinued in it up to a short time before liis death. He 
died on the 30th day of July, 1872. 

MlLE.s T. Gn.vNiiER, son of James L. Granger and 
.Vbigail Tobey, was born in .Vew Marlborough, Hcrk- 
shire Co., Masw., .\ug. 12, 1>*17. Early in life he be- 
came dejiendcnt ujion his own resources for a liveli- 
hood, having commenced at the early age of ten years 
to work in a woolen-mill for twelve and a half cents 
jier day. He reniaineil in this employment about two 
years and then hired to a farmer in Norfolk, receiving 
twenty-five cents per day, and continued working as 
a farm-hand in various localitie.-* until 183.">, when, 
concluding that farming was a hard life, and, at the 



38 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



wages then paid hired men, not a quick way to get 
rich, — besides his health was failing, — he concluded to 
try teaching school. He entered the office of Dr. 
Benjamin Welch, in Norfolk, and began "reading 
up" for a schoolmaster. In the fall of the same year 
he p.assed examin.ation and engaged a.s a teacher 
at twelve dollars and fifty cents per month for four 
months. He continued chiefly in this occupation 
until 1838, when he was induced to attend the 
seminary at Araenia, to better qualify him for the 
work he had chosen — teacher of common school. He 
remained here one terra, and returned to Canaan, 
helped his uncle do the " harvesting" on the Benedict 
farm ; worked out in haying during the balance of 
season, and then concluded to return to Amenia, com- 
plete two or three branches of study which he had 
commenced, and at the close of the term find a school 
for the winter. He fully expected to close his " going 
to school" at the expiration of this terra, but things 
transpired quite otherwise. Upon his arrival at the 
seminary the second term, the principal, Davis W. 
Clark, sent for him to come to his room, and, after 
paying him some compliments upon his scholarship, 
etc., advised him to prepare for college. He followed 
his advice and commenced the studies required at 
Wesleyan University to enter freshman year. Went 
over the course during the academic year, and, with 
what he had done the first term at the seminary, he 
entered Wesleyan a freshman, in August, 1839, and 
was allowed to enter the sophomore class in mathe- 
matics. He was then, and always had been, without 
any means or money except what he had earned, and 
his earnings were well-nigh exhausted; but he ob- 
tained a school in Glastonbury in the winter after 
entering college (six months for twenty dollars per 
month), kept the school and kept up with his class, 
except that he fell back at the end of the college year 
in mathematics. Entered on sophomore year with- 
out condition in all studies. Kept school that year 
three months, and managed to be up with the class 
at the end of the year. Junior year he asked and ob- 
tained from the faculty the privilege of taking the 
junior and senior year together — to do two years' 
work in one. He undertook it, had double recita- 
tions every day in most of the studies, kept school 
three months that winter, -was examined in both 
classes at end of year, passed, and received his diplo- 
ma as A.B., August, 1842. In August, 1845, received 
the degree of A.M. In 1843 went to Louisiana; em- 
ployed as preceptor in family of Francis A. Evans, 
parish of West Feliciana ; engaged for a year. Kead 
law at same time. In April, 1845, was admitted to 
the bar in Wilkinson Co., Miss. Came back to Ca- 
naan, June, 1845. Entered the law office of Leman 
Church, Esq., as student. In October, 1845, he was 
admitted to the bar in Litchfield County. Remained 
in Mr. Church's office till the spring of 1847, when 
he opened an office at the old village of " Canaan 
Four Corners," in Couch's "hat-shop." Here he re- 



mained a year, and then went to the Depot, where he 
remained during his whole practice. In 1849 he was 
elected judge of probate, and held the office, with 
exception of two years, till elected judge of Superior 
Court. Was town clerk and treasurer. In 1857 was 
elected member of House of Representatives ; Gen- 
eral Assembly of Connecticut in 1860. Elected sen- 
ator of Seventeenth District in 1867. Re-elected sen- 
ator, and during this session was elected judge of Su- 
perior Court for eight years. At expiration of term 
was re-elected, and in 1876 elected to present position 
— associate judge of the Supreme Court of Errors ; 
term commenced Nov. 16, 1876. He was married 
Oct. 22, 1846, to Miss Sarah C. Ferguson, of Sheffield. 
Judge Granger says, " For the benefit of young men 
dependent on brain or muscle in the battle of life, it 
might be stated that I never had but one dollar in my 
life except what I earned by hard work. My father 
once gave me a silver dollar, — my whole inheritance 
and patrimony." 

Henry B. Graves was born in Sherman (for- 
merly a part of Litchfield County) on the 4th day of 
April, 1823. He received a good common-school ed- 
ucation, and for a few months pursued more liberal 
studies in an academy with a view of entering college, 
but, owing to a sudden death in his father's family of 
an elder brother, the boy of fourteen was needed upon 
the farm, where he remained till he was eighteen 
years of age, when he entered the law-office of James 
C. Loomis, Esq., of Bridgeport, and after pursuing 
the study of the law with that gentleman for three 
years and a half was admitted to the bar, at Litch- 
field, in April, 1845, and upon the 1st of May, 1845, 
commenced the practice of his profession at Plymouth, 
and continued there till October, 1849, when he 
opened an office in Litchfield, where he has since 
continued in the active labors of the forum. He 
represented Litchfield in the General Assembly in 
1868, 1866, 1867, 1876, 1877, and in 1879, taking a 
leading position in the legislation of the State, and 
drafting many of the laws now to be found in the 
public statutes. For many years he has been re- 
garded as one of the prominent attorneys of the 
county, and has been engaged in a large practice, as 
the dockets of the courts will attest, and the volumes 
of the Supreme Court of the State will verify. 

As a counselor he has been faithful and true to 
his clients, deferential to the court, courteous to op- 
posing counsel, and kind and helpful to his younger 
brethren. 

William Cothren, son of Willi*'.i and Hannah 
Cooper Cothren, was born at Farmiugton, Me., Nov. 
28, 1819. He prepared for college at the Farmington 
Academy ; graduated at Bowdoin College (Maine) in 
1843 ; received his second degree in course at the 
same institution in 1846, and the degree of Master of 
Arts, ad euiidem, from Yale College in 1847. He 
studied law under the direction of Hon. Robert 
Goodenough, of Farmington, Me., a member of Con- 




^^^^^/^^ ^^ 




6^^ 



Z-£.^n^ 



nr wnoDBVRT, coy' 



BENCH AND BAR. 



39 



gress from his district, and the leader of the bar in 
his countj', and with the late Hon. Charles B. Phelps, 
of Woodbury. He went to Woodbury in 1844, taught 
school for a while, continuing his law studies at the 
same time, and was admitted to the Litchfield County 
bar October, 1845. He immediately commenced the 
practice of his profession at Woodbury, and has con- 
tinued there in the performance of his duties as coun- 
selor to the present time. He immediately acquired 
a large practice in the several courts of the western 
half of Connecticut, and later in the District, Circuit, 
and Supreme Courts of the United States. For many 
years he has taken rank among the leading members 
of the bar of Connecticut. He takes great pride in 
his profession, and prefers excellence in that to any 
oflScial station. He has mingled little in the political 
controversies of hi.s time, preferring to devote his en- 
ergies to professional and literary pursuits. In the 
practice of his profession he prefers the investigation 
and discussion of intricate legal questions to the more 
strong display of forensic eloquence before a jury, 
though he holds himself ready for the performance 
of any duty of his profession. In short, he has a, 
sincere love of his profession, and believes in no 
higher honor than that of a wise and upright coun- 
selor. 

A marked feature in the professional career of Mr. 
Cothren is his faithfulness and untiring devotion to 
the interests of his clients. No matter how trifling 
the amount at stake, or how uncertain the prospects 
of remuneration for his services, he labors just as 
hard and with the same zeal as though the case in- 
volved large interests and abundant reward. As a 
man of unflinching rectitude and integrity, as a care- 
ful and sagacious counselor, as a bold and successful 
advocate, ever contending for the right, he occupies 
an enviable position. 

He has a strongly contemplative mind, and he is 
never happier tlian when lie can steal a passing hour 
to be "alone in nature's fane," in the grand old 
woods, by the falling waters of the silvery cascade, 
or in the .shaded dell, where he can hold silent com- 
munion with nature, in all her beauty and granileur. 

He has a strong, logical, and practical mind, an 
exceedingly retentive memory, and great clearness 
and quickness of apprelieasion. He (teizes a point 
at once, and states it clearly and precisely. lie 
makes careful preparation, and manages bis cases 
with skill and ability. Dilfu iilties do not discourage 
him; obstacles do not emliarra.is him; they but serve 
the purpose of making the attainment of his object 
the more secure. He is emlowed with a will of the 
ver)- highest order. It subjects the material to the 
spiritual in a degree rarely attaine<l. He is the most 
diligent and laborious of men, never losing a mo- 
ment from his occupations. 

No man treats his r<|ual.'< with more courtcay and 
candor, his superiors on the beiieh or elsewhere with 
more respect and deference, and his juniors and infe- 



riors with more aflability and kindness. Liberal and 
honorable in his practice with his professional breth- 
ren, he scorns all subterfuge, trick, or unfair advan- 
tage. As a citizen he is public-spirited and generous. 
His liberality is bounded only by his ability, and he 
gives freely to every worthy object for which appli- 
cation is made to him for assistance. His hand has 
aided every public work or improvement in his com- 
munity during his time. 

On the 3d of September, 1840, he was married, in 
Woodbury, to Jliss Mary J. Steele, daughter of the 
late Dr. Samuel Steele, of the same place. They had 
one son, who died young. They have now an adopted 
daughter. He joined the First Congregational Church 
in Woodbury, July 7, 1850, of which he continues 
an influential member. 

He was elected a county commissioner for Litch- 
field County at the May session of the General As- 
sembly in 1851. He was elected senator of the Si.\- 
teenth Senatorial District in 1855. In April, 18.5G, he 
was admitted an attorney and counselor of the United 
States Circuit Court, and on the 8th of March, 1865, 
he was admitted an attorney and counselor of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States. He was elected 
corresponding member of the New England Historic 
Genealogical Society at Boston, Ma.'is., May 5, 1847; 
a member of the Connecticut Historical Society, Nov. 
2.3, 1852, of which for many years he has been a vice- 
president ; an honorar)- member of the Old Colony 
Historical Society, at Plymouth, Mass., April 24, 18.54 ; 
a corresponding member of the Wisconsin Historical 
Society, Jan. 17, 18.55 ; a corresponding member of 
the Vermont Historical Society, Feb. 3, ISfiO ; a cor- 
responding member of the Maine Historical Society, 
Sept. 18, 18G1 ; an honorary member of the Rutland 
County Historical Society, Oct. 8, 1868 ; and a mem- 
ber of the Phi Beta Ka|>pa Society, .\lpha of Maine, 
Sept. 20, 1873. 

From the twentieth year of his age he has been a 
fre<iuent contributor, in prose and verse, to the press 
and the stjindard magazines of the day. Ho has 
steadily pursued this course in his leisure moments 
as a sort of rt'st and recreation, his latest literary 
lalK)r being the preparation of the article on Wooil- 
bury for this volume. No one holds a more rcaily 
and facile pen. It has Ix'en well said that a lawyer 
who confines himself exclusively to the study of his 
profession is a " man of one book." A dread of 
being inipale<I in this category led him, in part, to ^ 
literary labor. ^^ 

.V short time after his settlement in Woodbur)' ho 
turned his attention to the collection of the historical 
dataof tho town. The result has l>ecn the publication 
of an elalMimto history of that town, comprising throo 
octavo volumes, and containing alniut two thousand 
five hundred pages in tho whole. The fint volume 
was issued in 18.54, and was the pioneer work, as a 
full history of a town, tliat had In-en i.«tuc<l. Many 
histories of towns have succeeded, but none bare 



40 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



excelled it. It has received the highest commenda- 
tions of the public press and of well-informed critics. 
Though professedly a local work, it contains a very 
complete epitome of the historical events of Connec- 
ticut. His chapter on the early ecclesiastical troubles 
of the colony of Connecticut is the most complete, 
exhaustive, and authoritative that has yet been pub- 
lished. 

Of this work the late Rev. Dr. Chapin, of Glaston- 
bury, Conn., remarked : " The author has made a 
place for himself among the ' men of the times,' and 
his name will be blessed as long as ' Ancient Wood- 
bury' has a son living worthy of herself." The late 
Governor Button, of Connecticut, said of it, " It 
embodies a large number of historical facts not to be 
found in other publications, of great interest not only 
to those who have a peculiar regard for the town of 
Woodbury, but to all who cherish the memory of our 
forefathers." Rev. Dr. Fuller, late of Andover, Mass., 
said of it, "The historical portion, extending through 
a period of nearly two centuries, has all the absorbing 
attractions of a romance. The author has placed 
Connecticut, and the community generally, under 
perpetual obligations to him." Judge Williams, late 
chief judge of Connecticut, said, " It will be highly 
valuable to the future historian of Connecticut." 
Ex-President Day.of Yale College, remarked, "That 
the style of composition is such as history, biography, 
and statistics require ; simple, lucid, and unostenta- 
tious." Hon. Thomas Day, LL.D., late of Hartford, 
Conn., speaking of the work, said of it, " As a part 
of the history of the State, no authority is more re- 
liable. It is minutely accurate, without being in the 
least degree tedious." In a letter to Mr. Cothren, 
President Wayland, late of Brown University, assured 
him, " I have no doubt yours will take an honorable 
place in this most interesting class of historical works ; 
for you have done laborious and patriotic service to 
our common country, and will have the thanks of all 
those who cherish a veneration for our Puritan fore- 
fathers." 

In all the social and confidential rel.ations in life 
the character of Mr. Cothren is worthy of imitation. 
Few men have had truer or more devoted friends than 
he has always found for himself wherever he has been 
intimately known. The sentiment of friendship with 
him partakes of a high nobility. Of course it is not 
promiscuous, but is confined to those who can appre- 
ciate the same afl'ection which he himself feels. For 
such his respect and esteem are entire. Those that 
are once loved are loved to the end. He does not see, 
or seeing, has not the heart to notice a fault in one 
whom he admits as a friend. To others he is gener- 
ous ; with a friend he is more than paternal. He rev- 
erences only what he truly admires, and- can love no 
one whose character he does not really respect. With 
these sentiments he has won for himself a circle of 
warm friends both in his public and private relations. 
It is to be hoped that he may long enjoy their friend- 



ship, and live many years to add to the well-earned 
fame which already gathers around his name. 

George A. Hickox was born in Washington, 
Conn., in 1830, and graduated from Trinity College, 
Hartford, in 1851. He pursued the study of the law 
in the law school at Ballstou, N. Y., and Y''ale law 
school, and in the office of Hollister & Beeman, in 
Litchfield. In 1853 he was admitted to the bar and 
commenced practice in Litchfield, where he has since 
resided. Since 1866 he has combined the practice of 
his profession with editorial work, having in that 
year become editor of Tlie Litchfield Enquirer, and 
three yeai's later its sole proprietor. He was a mem- 
ber of the Legislature in 1862. 

Marcus L. Delavan. — When nearly half a mil- 
lion of Huguenots left France because of the revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes, they sought homes in 
those countries where their Protestant faith would be 
respected and could be enjoyed. Every nation that 
opened its arms to receive them brought within its 
limits a class of citizens honest, conscientious, 
deeply religious, industrious, energetic, intelligent, 
and generally far advanced in all arts of industry, — a 
class whose presence was of immense benefit to it. 
JIany came to what, about a century later, became 
these United States. Among them was the progenitor 
of the present Delavan family, the name then being 
spelled De La Van. Later the last capital was dropped 
and the last two syllables were united, making the 
name De Lavan, and in process of time it became the 
more convenient Delavan of the present time. At 
the time of the Revolutionary war there were eleven 
brothers, descendants of the progenitor alluded to, 
all of whom took an active part in our struggle for 
national independence. Gen. Daniel Delavan was 
the trusted friend and adviser of Gen. Washington, 
and the warm, personal, and intimate friend of La- 
fayette, who presented him with a beautiful sword as 
a mark of his esteem. Gen. Delavan was wounded in 
the engagement at Stony Point, but not one of the 
brothers was killed, — a fact which, historians have 
declared, finds no parallel in the recorded history of 
this or of that of any other country. The general 
was also actively engaged in the war of 1812. The 
subject of this sketch came from the same stock. On 
the maternal side his ancestors, as far back as can be 
traced, — which is for several generations, — have been 
among the most solid, respectable, influential, and 
well-to-do natives of the towns adjoining New Haven, 
Conn., in which city, on the 23d day of August, 1832, 
Mr. Delavan first saw the light. By the dishonesty of 
those who should have protected the defenseless, the 
property his mother should have received was never 
permitted to come to her, and when she married she 
could call only a few hundred dollars her own. Hav- 
ing a large family, and her husband being laid up for 
many years with consumption, the little pittance which 
had been inherited, and that which had been accumu- 
lated in the early life of their union, was swept away 



BENCH AND BAR. 



41 



before our subject was boru. At three years of age 
one of the members of the church with which his 
parents were identified called upon them, and, taking 
the little one upom his lap, began to question him 
about religious subjects. He was so pleased with the 
child's answers, questions, and remarks that he wrote 
a Sunday-school book about him, — a work, however, 
which he never saw, the only copy his parents had 
carefully treasured up to present to him when he be- 
came old enough to fully appreciate it having myste- 
riously disappeared before that time arrived. When 
he was five years of age his father died, leaving one 
son younger than our subject, and one son and four 
daughters older. The death of his father forced his 
mother, in order that she might engage in the means 
of supporting those who were too young to care for 
themselves, to send him to the orphan asylum, where, 
however, she paid his board weekly. His health had 
always been quite poor, and, after several months of 
living on the the meagre and innutritious food of the 
institution, it was found necessary to send him to a sea- 
side country town in order to save his life. There his 
health improved, and, returning to the place of his birth, 
he was sent to school until he was ten years of age ; then, 
with a maturity unusual in one so young, he saw the 
necassity of contributing to the support of the family, 
which, by the second marriage of his mother, was in- 
creasing. The illness and death of his step- fat her, at 
about this time, strengtlicncd his conviction that he 
should be a help to, and not a drain upon, the family ; 
so he obtained a situation in a printing-office, — that of 
the New Haven Daily Herald. This was finally merged 
into the Courier, and made a morning paper. As this 
change required nigiit-work, ancl only the poorest ' 
kind of lights were used, — for ga.s had not then been ' 
introduced into New Haven, — our subject's eyes com- 
pelled him to give up his position, after about seven 
years' service in the same office without the loss of a ' 
single hour. Finishing his trade, a few months later, 
in the Waterbury.lwf nV(n office, he worked there for a 
while as a journeyman, in Litchfield, and in Chicojtce, 
Mass., and otlier places, in the same capacity, for a 
short time, and then gave up the mechanical part of [ 
the business. From his earliest recollection lie had 
had an intense desire to (lunlify himself for the prac- 
tice of law, l)ut he saw the necessity of a general 
education before he could properly pursue legal 
studies ; so, befiire his day's work was begun, and after ' 
it was finished, until long alter midnight, it was his 
daily custom to take his books to a quiet place and 
study them. So intense was his desire for an educa- 
tion that he used to carry his ilinner and his hooks to 
the office where he woa employed, and di'vote the 
noontime to study. This course was adopted when 
he first entere<l a printing-office, at about ten years of 
age, and was persevered in until after his admission 
to the bar. He has often said he " never had a l)oy- 
hood." He seldom engaged in the pa.stinu's which 
gave others of his age great delight, but always pre- 



ferred his books, or the society of much older persons 
than himself, to them. He had also a strong love of 
disputation and of public speaking, and while in his 
" teens" he would walk ten miles any evening, how- 
ever bad the walking was, or however stormy it might 
be, for the purpose of attending a lyceum. He was 
" brought up" in the Democratic party, and his first 
votes were cast for that party ; but when the struggle 
for prohibitory legislation was going on in this State, 
and slavery was pushing itself into the Territories, he 
thought the main-springs of that party were " Rum, 
Romanism, and Human Bondage," so he left it, and 
as soon as the Republican party was organized he 
united with it, and at every Presidential election since 
then he has " stumped" some portions of this or some 
other State for that party. He has been elected a 
number of times collector of taxes of the town of 
Naugatuck, and has often been named for other offices, 
for which he has declined to run. As we have inti- 
mated, he qualified himself for admission to the bar 
before people were generally awake in the morning, 
or after they were asleep at night, though he attended 
a course of lectures before the law-school of Columbia 
College. An incident connected with his admission 
to the bar may be worth giving here. His strong 
political convictions, and his outspoken manner of 
presenting them, gave great otfence to a former judge 
of one of the highest courts in the State and his son- 
in-law, and when his application for admission waa 
presented by the State's attorney of the county, who 
was his warm friend, the judge and his son-in-law ob- 
jected to its reception. IJeing pressed for the reason 
for such an unusual objection, they claimed that the 
ajiplicant was not a resident of that county. Liter- 
ally, at that moment, that may have been the fact, 
but it was not when the application was placed in the 
State attorney's hands, nor would it have been at any 
time for many months before that. Some of the mem- 
bers of the bar learned that the reason assigned was 
not the real one entertained, and it did not take them 
long to become convince<l that the opposition was 
really for political reasons. Still the judge and his 
obedient son-in-law had succeeded in presenting the 
matter in such a way that the members present were 
fearful of oH'ending them if they were found to bo 
verj' strongly opposed to them, so, though they voted 
to accept the application and examine the apjdicaut, 
not a single member would consent to be one of the 
committee of examination. For forty years three at- 
torneys, appointed by the bar, had constitutol the ex- 
amining committee, but so much feeling had been ex- 
cited in this case that it was decided the whole bar 
should conduct the examination. There were alKiut 
thirty or tliirty-five members of the bar present. Mr. 
Delavan had listened to nil that had been said in op- 
position to him, and, taking into considerntidu tlio 
bitterness shown, the fact that he, though nominally 
in a law-office during his studies, had really had to 
pursue thcui when he shuuld have been osleei', ^'^ 



42 



HISTOKY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY", CONNECTICUT. 



he had not had the most ordinary advantages of law- 
students, and that instead of being examined by a 
committee of three who were without prejudice, he 
must be examined by the entire bar, some of whom 
were known to be strongly opposed to his admission, 
he keenly felt the injustice, and also the danger of 
rejection. It seems, however, to have made him all 
the more cool and determined, and, after an examina- 
tion lasting nearly three hours, conducted by some of 
the best lawyers in the State, in which he answered 
correctly every question put to him except two, and 
corrected himself on one of those before it passed 
from consideration, the bar voted unanimmtiibj for his 
admission, paying him a very high comiiliment for the 
way in which he passed through the trying ordo.al. 

When the war broke out Mr. Delavan was under 
bonds of many thousands of dollars as tax-collector, 
but, collecting all he could collect, he made a satisfac- 
tory arrangement with the authorities of the town, 
by which another collector took his place and his 
bondsman was released, and he hurried to enlist in the 
Fifteenth Regiment Connecticut Volunteers, influen- 
cing many to go with him. 

For his interest and activity in the Union cause he 
was ottered various official positions, but his reply 
always was, " No ! If I live through this struggle I 
want to feel th.at no man can say he has borne more 
of the ' brunt of the battle' than I have ; and I do 
not mean that any one shall have even the shadow of 
a reason for saying that I enlisted only for some office." 
So he remained a private until physical disability ren- 
dered him unfit for military duty and confined him in 
the hospitals at Washington and Darby, near Phila- 
delphia, from which latter place he was discharged, 
greatly to his surprise, and in opposition to his earnest 
protest. From the age of sixteen he had been a pro- 
lific writer for newspapers, and before the close of the 
war he was employed editorially on various papers. 
Twice he was one of the editors of the New Haven 
Palladium, for extended ]>eriods ; for about two years 
he edited the New Britain Record, and for over five 
years he was the owner and chief editor of the Meri- 
den Daily Republican. For a number of years he 
also owned and edited the State Temperance Journal. 
All these papers were in Connecticut. While editing 
the Daily Republican his health became so shattered 
that his physician insisted upon a change. For a 
number of years he had been a licensed preacher in 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, supplying the pul- 
pits of pastors who were ill or absent, and visiting the 
various school districts in Meriden, evenings, to hold 
religious meetings, and when he was compelled to 
give up his Meriden paper a church in Hartland, 
Conn., which is situated in a very mountainous and 
healthy region, invited him to become their pastor. 
Believing that he could recover his health there while 
laboring in a cause to which he was warmly wedded, 
his presiding elder sent him there, putting him in 
charge of three churches. Five months after he went 



there the greatest revival ever known in that section 
broke out, and about forty professed conversion. The 
labor of attending meetings every evening for a 
month, and being out until about midnight every 
night, brought his health back to the point where it 
was when he first went there, and recuperation seemed 
impossible. He remained more than a year afterwards 
with his people, but finally had to bid them good-by. 
Believing that a weekly paper would furnish sufficient 
mental exercise to keep him in working order, he pur- 
chased a paper in New Milford, named it The Housa- 
tonic Ray, and has published it ever since. Though 
so attached to newspaper labors, he has, much of the 
time while engaged in them, been in the full practice 
of his legal profession. In this State he has practiced 
at Southington, at New Britain, in New Milford, 
where he now is, and in other places. He has taken 
a somewhat unusual stand in his practice, publishing 
to the world that he will be connected with only those 
cases in which he feels that the moral right is on his 
client's side, and no inducement is sufficient to make 
him violate that rule. 

CoL. Jacob B. Hardenbeegh was born in Wa- 
warsing, Ulster Co., N. Y., Aug. 4. 1831, the son of 
Col. L. Hardenbergh. At the age of thirteen he 
entered the Kingston Academy, at Kingston, for a 
four years' business course, from which he graduated 
in 1848. Immediately after his graduation he took 
up the study of law, in the office of Judge J. O. Lin- 
derman, with whom he remained four years, being 
admitted to the bar in 18.52. He practiced in King- 
ston until the breaking out of the Rebellion in 1861, 
when the Twentieth New York militia, of which he 
was a member, under Col. George W. Pratt, entered 
the " three months' service," during which term he 
was elected major. At the expiration of the engage- 
ment the regiment returned home and immediately 
proceeded to reorganize for the war, entering the 
service again in October, 1861. Col. Pratt was killed 
in the battle of Second Bull Run, when Lieut.-Col. 
T. B. Gates took command, Maj. Hardenbergh suc- 
ceeding the latter as lieutenant-colonel. He was 
appointed colonel on the muster out of Col. Gates in 
the fall of 1864, and by that title he is familiarly 
known, although justly entitled to the preface of 
"general," having received the appointment of brevet 
brigadier-general, " for gallant and meritorious ser- 
vices," in 1865. His regiment participated in some 
of the fiercest and most decisive battles of the war, 
Second Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam, Fred- 
ericksburg, Gettysburg, Wilderness, Petersburg, and 
earned a most honorable record. They were mustered 
out Feb. 1, 1866, after having served nearly five years. 

At the close of the war, Col. Hardenbergh returned 
to Kingston, and resumed the practice of law until 
the fall of 1867, when he came to North Canaan, and 
purchased the law-office of Judge M. T. Granger, his 
present location. He was appointed clerk of the 
Probate Court — Frederick Watson, judge — the same 




-%«!ft^' *^ 



<Y^£^^r-,-d^ 



S'^i 



C^-;^^ 



BENCH AND BAK. 



43 



year, and was subsequently elected by the Democrats 
judge of probate, town clerk, treasurer, registrar, etc., 
which offices he still holds. He was married in April, 
1869, to Miss Delia Watson, of North Canaan. In 
1870 he was elected to represent the town in the 
General Assembly, and in 1876-77 was senator from 
the Seventeenth Senatorial District of Litchfield 
County. He has several times been chosen as 
delegate to attend Democratic conventions, and is 
identified with almost every enterprise relating to 
the welfare of his town. He purchased the Connecti- 
cut Western News on Dec. 18, 1878, from which, in 
connection with his law business, he derives a com- 
fortable income. 

As a lawyer, Col. Hardenbergh is widely known 
for his natural ability, dignified courtesy, and thorough 
knowledge of the science of law ; and his biting sar- 
casm, combining these three elements, makes him an 
opponent to be respected. Of the confidence reposed 
in him by his fellow-citizens, witness the various town 
offices he has held consecutively since his location 
here. 

The fraternal disposition of Col. Hardenbergh can 
be felt and appreciated only by those whose privilege 
it is to enjoy his confidence and intimate acquaintance. 
His unconscious dignity, almost severe, inspires at 
once respect, and the impression that his stem ex- 
perience on the field and the cynical character of 
his profession have blunted the .susceptibility in his 
nature that is calculated to insure .success in one's 
social and domestic relations. But a thorough ac- 
quaintance with the man discovers the contrary to be 
the fact. Few men iiavc a faculty for retaining friends 
and commanding their respect to a greater extent 
than Col. Hardenbergh, and no man has a greater 
respect for the rights and opinions of others than he. 
No adequate review of his life and characteristics can 
be given in a brief sketch like tliis. In him arc com- 
bined tlie qualities found only in that rarity to which 
can truly be applied the words — without the irony — 
of Antony : " An honorable man." 

GeokoeWheaton was boni in East Haven, Conn., 
in 1790. He lost his father when very young, and 
went to live with a Congregational clergyman, prob- 
ably in ."^outhbur)', when about twelve years of age. 
His mother died soon after. He availed himself with 
eagerness of his advantages for e<lucation, soon be- 
came a teacher, and steadily pursued his studies in 
preparation for the profession of his choice — law; and 
in course of time came to Salislmry to l>ecomc a stu- 
dent in the oflioe of Judge Cliurch, wlm oecupieil a 
high standing in legal circles. He wiu» a close and 
careful stn<Icnt, was admittiil to practice in ISl.S, and 
settled in Cornwall Centre, then a thriving jilace. Ho 
there married Lcwey, daughter of Medad .\lling, an 
early settler of Canaan. Their children were Nancy 
(Mrs. William Baldwin), Cynthia (Mrs. Klbert Shep- 
ard), and ( ieorge A. Mr. Wlieaton soon became an 
important factor in Cornwall, and was .selected to hold 



various positions of public trust, was many times the 
representative of Cornwall in the General Assembly 
of the State, and for twenty years the postmaster at 
Cornwall Centre. For his second wife he married 
Eliza, daughter of Andrew Cotter, of Cornwall. 
Their only child, Lucetta, married Dr. P. C. Cum- 
mings. 

About 1840, Mr. Wheaton moved to West Cornwall, 
then making rapid growth from the advantages given 
by the opening of the Housatonic Railroad, and made 
that place his home until his death, Nov. 5, 1865, at 
the age of seventy-five years. 

For over half a centurj- Mr. Wheaton moved among 
the citizens of Cornwall, active in political, educa- 
tional, and religious matters, and none ever questioned 
the purity of his motives, the honesty of his convic- 
tions, or the soundness of his judgment. He was a 
member of the Congregational Church for years. In 
politics he was in early life a Whig, afterwards a Re- 
publican. 

As a lawyer he was not so much noted as an advo- 
cate as for the thorough manner in which he prepared 
his cases. They were carefully arranged, and every 
little point on which dispute might arise was properly 
fortified. His knowledge of law was extensive, and 
it has been said of him that he never gave advice 
that was not the very best that could have been given 
under the circumstances as expressed to him. In pre- 
paring a case he was absorbed in his work, paying no 
attention to meals or sleep, and when made up and 
presented to a court he was uniformly found to be 
successful. Of one thing his clients were assured: 
all the law favoring their side would be presented, and 
in the clearest, briefest manner, and the court always 
listened when they were presented. As a consctjuence, 
he had many and good clients and acquired a hand- 
some property. 

As a citizen, Mr. Wheaton was conservative, and in 
favor of all things tending to improve, elevate, and 
dignify society, but he did not a.H.snme that all things 
claiming to be of benefit were really so. If, on in- 
vestigation, they pnived to be desirable, he gave 
them his persistent and unwavering 3up|>ort. By his 
death Cornwall lost an able lawyer, a gootl citizen, and 
an honest man, one lamented by all of the better class 
of the community. 

(1. W. Shepanl, son of Elbert Shepanl, bears bis 
grandfather's name, and inserts his portrait in this 
work. 

Florimoxd D. Fyi.er was bom in Torrington, 
Conn., Dec. 11, 1S.'14. He commence*! the study of 
law in the oHice of Judge Gideon Hall, at Winsled, 
where he continued a.s his lu-ulth wouM allow until 
the spring of 1S6-1, when he attended Yale Law School 
that term. He was admitted to the bar in 1864, and 
returned to Yale Law School and Mtudied one year, 
and received the degree LL.B., July, ISO.'i. In Se|>- 
teniber, l*;.'), he located in Winsted n-x an attorney-at- 
law. Ho was a member of the Legislature in tho 



u 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



May session of 1872. He was elected by the Legisla- 
ture of 1S77 judge of the District Court of Litchfield 
County for four years from July 1, 1877. 

Au(irsTr.s Hall Fexn was born in Plymouth, 
Conn., Jan. 18, 1844. In March, 1862, he commenced 
the study of the law in the office of Ammi Giddings, 
of Plymouth, and in the following August enlisted in 
the Nineteenth Regiment Connecticut Volunteers, 
subsequently the Second Artillery. 

The following extract concerning his military 
career is taken from Vaill's history of the regiment: 

" He proveil liimself one of tlie best ilrill-nmeterB and disciiiliDarians in 
tlio regiineut, and cue of the most competent otiicei's in every position. 
Before going to tlie front he was made captain of Company C. Ou tlie 
22d of June lie led liis company into tlio sliirniish at Petersburg as far 
as it advanced, and was tlien and tliere detailed assistant adjntatit-gen- 
eral on Upton's staff, vlcf Capt. Sanborn, of tlie Fifth Maine, and, mount- 
ing a horse whicli had been brought to him, comineiiced his duties at 
once. When the regiment left the Sixth Corps at Tenallytown, in July, 
he was relieved. In September he was appointed judge-advocate of tlie 
division court-martial, which tried twenty-live cases. At Cedar Creek 
he lost his loft arm. The surgeons at Annapolis proposed to muster him 
out and discharge him for disability, but he protested, and wrote t*) Gen. 
Mackenzie, urging his interference. Tho consetpionce was that he was 
retained, and in less than aei-en u-eeJ;s from the time lie had an arm taken 
off at tho shoulder he reported for full duty at the front, and was at once 
detailed as assistant adjutant-general of the brigade again, which detail 
was afterwards changed to brigade insjiector. He suliBefjuently partici- 
pated in several fights. Ho was detailed as judge-advocate five difl'erent 
times, was brevetted major after Cedar Creek, promoted to major in Jan- 
nary, lyG5, brevetted lieutenant-colonel for Little Sailor's Creek, and 
colonel for 8er\'ices during the war." 

At the close of the war he returned, and in Septem- 
ber, 1865, resumed his studies in the office of Kellogg 
& Terry, in Waterbury, Conn. He remained there 
until Feb. 15, 1867, when he was admitted to the bar 
at Litchfield. After passing one year in the law 
school of Harvard University, obtaining the degree 
of LL.B., he commenced practice, Jan. 1, 1868, in 
Waterbury. Eetnoved to Plymouth, April 1, 1869, 
remained there until March 14, 1876, but opened an 
office in Winsted, July 1, 1875, where he has since 
practiced and now resides. 

Col. Feiui was city clerk of AVaterburj' in 1866-67 ; 
judge of probate, town clerk, and register of births 
and deaths in Plymouth, 1869 to 1876 ; and is now 
judge of probate for the Winchester District. In 
1875 he was the Republican candidate for Secretary 
of State. 

Albert P. Bradsteeet, son of Thomas J, and 
Amanda T. Bradstreet, and grandson of Seth Thomas, 
deceased, was born in Thomaston ou the 9th day of 
June, 1846. He attended school in his native village 
and worked uiJOii his father's farm until the fall of 
1867, when he entered Yale College, where he gradu- 
ated in the year 1871. In October of the same year 
he entered the law department of Columbia College 
in New York City, and graduated with the degree of 
LL.B. in the spring of 1873. After remaining in the 
office of Webster & O'Neil, in the city of Waterbury, 
a few months, he opened a law-office in Thomaston, 
where he has since remained, in the enjoyment of a 



lucrative practice. He was elected as representative 
of Thomaston in the Legislature in the years 1877 
and 1878, and in the year 1880 was elected senator 
from the Sixteenth District for two years, being the 
first Republican elected to that position in his district 
since 1873. He was also appointed deputy judge of 
the Waterbury City Court in 1879, a position which, 
he now holds. Mr. Bradstreet has held the office of 
town clerk of Thomaston since the incorporation of 
the town in 1875, and is at present a member of the 
board of education. Mr. Bradstreet is held in high 
esteem by the bar of Litchfield County, and his 
legislative experience has brought his name quite 
prominently before the people of the State. 

Hon. Augustu.s Pettibone was born at Norfolk, 
Conn., Feb. 19, 1766. He was a descendant of John 
Pettibone, who came from Wales, and served under 
Cromwell until the end of the wars, and emigrated to 
I America about 1650. He was admitted a citizen of 
Windsor in 1658. John Pettibone shortly after this 
removed from Windsor to Simsbury, and was the 
ancestor of the Pettibone family now spread abroad 
through most of the United States. Giles Pettibone, 
a descendant of this John Pettibone, removed from 
Simsbury to Litchfield County, and settled in that 
portion of it which the next year (1758) was incorpo- 
rated under the name of Norfolk. At the first town- 
meeting, held in 1758, forty-four citizens attended, 
three of whom were Pettibones,^Eli, Isaac, and Giles, 
the father of Augustus Pettibone. Giles Pettibone 
was the first representative from Norfolk in the 
General Assembly, a position which he occupied for 
twenty-six sessions; he was also judge of probate 
from 1779 to 1807 ; justice of the peace for thirty 
years ; and treasurer of the town for forty years. He 
served in the war of the Revolution, as a commissioned 
officer, at the battles of Saratoga and the capture of 
Burgoyne, and in the campaigns on the Hudson, 
carrying his title of colonel during his life. He was 
twice married and had eleven children. The mother 
of Augustus Pettibone was the daughter of Col. 
Michael Humphrey, of Simsbury, and left four chil- 
dren. Augu.stus Pettibone, at the age of fourteen, 
accompanied his father to the field and served several 
months. In 1784 he entered Yale College, where he 
contiuu-ed about two years, but did not graduate. In 
1787 he began reading law with Dudley Humphrey, 
Esq., of Norfolk, then in practice there, and continued 
with him from September to the following April, 
when he went to Litchfield, and attended Judge 
Reeve's lectures until March, 1790. He was admitted 
to the bar in Litchfield in 1790, and settled in prac- 
tice at Norfolk. He continued in active practice 
until 1812, when from infirm health he relinquished 
his practice ; but in the same year he was appointed 
associate judge of the County Court for Litchfield 
County, and continued such until 1816, when he was 
appointed chief judge of the County Court, and held 
that office until May, 1831. At the age of sixty-five 




'_J^^:^^-iJ^2^; : 




^///a/- .^ ."^^^^0^6^^/- 



BENCH AND BAR. 



45 



years he resigned, declining to hold any public office. 
Judge Pettibone represented the town of Norfolk 
in thirty-two sessions of the General Assembly, and 
in 1830 and 1831 he was senator from the Seventeenth 
Senatorial District. In 1818, Judge Pettibone was 
a member of the constitutional convention, and a 
member of the committee which drafted the con- 
stitution for consideration of the convention, and 
voted for its adoption. He was a justice of the peace 
for nearly forty years, and judge of probate from 1807 
to 1822, succeeding his father in that office. 

Judge Pettibone occupied an honorable position 
in his profession, and was greatly esteemed by his 
brethren of the bar for his ability and integrity. He 
was forcible and logical in his address, but wholly 
without effort at display, and with little personal 
ambition. Thoroughly sincere and earnest himself, 
he despised all attempts at deception or trifling, and 
could not endure any resort to subterfuge, or any 
hypocrisy. 

The latter years of his long life were spent at his 
home in Norfolk, in the care of a small farm, which 
afl'orded him needed exercise and recreation, and in 
the management of the e.state he had accumulated in 
his business. He died Oct. 4, 1847, leaving a wife, 
but no children. 

The following inscription, found upon the monu- 
ment of his father, Col. Giles Pettibone, in the old 
burying-ground at Norfolk, so fitly describes and 
applies to the life of Judge Pettibone that it is in- 
serted here : 

"Ili« life was lionoralilo to liiniself ami useful to socli'ty. Ho wm 
diatiiiguislicd by various niiirks uf huuur fioui IiIh (vllow-inon, was prompt 
lu their service and elijnyed tlieir coutideiice tItrouKli u long life devotwl 
to {lublic eniploynjenlrt. To tlie newly niid utiprolecled |M>nr lie wiw a 
fattier and a friend. Teunt of stuTow liedcw lii-* jfnivo wlio felt for the 
■utlerings of others. Mortality, tho' it presents a barrier to tlie works of 
good men, does not oliscure their virtues. Tho life uf the Just mausl)iue« 
with lustre beyond the grave. " 

Rufus Pettibone, a brother of Hon. Augustus Petti- 
bone, graduated at Williams College in 180.'>, studieil 
law, and about 1818 emigrated to Missouri, then a 
territory, and settled there as a lawyer. He vioa a 
man of brilliant talents and education, and imme- 
diately took high rank as a lawyer. He wn.s a mem- 
ber of the constitutional convention of Missouri, and 
was chosen one of the circuit judges of the Stutc. 
Afterwards he was appointed chief justice of the 
Btate by Governor McNair, the first Governor of the 
State, and held the otilce until his death in 1825. 

8. Pettibone, another brother of Augustus Petti- 
bone, a man of exci'llent ability and education, also a 
lawyer, was a graduate of Williams College, class of 
18110. He died in Norfolk, Conn., in the prime of 
life. 

Levi Pettibone, another brother of Augustus Petti- 
bone, was tho companion of Henry U. Schoolcraft in 
his exploring tour through Southwestern Mis-soiiri and 
Arkansas in 1817, and iiflerwunls settled in Mis.souri, 
where he was many years in responsible positions, as 



judge of probate and clerk of the Circuit Courts. He 
is still (in 1881) living in the city of St. Louis, in his 
one hundred and Jirst year, in the enjoyment of lair 
health and considerable vigor. Until his eyesight 
failed, when he was ninety-seven years of age, he w;is 
an excellent correspondent, and engaged to a con- 
siderable extent in active business pursuits. 

Hiram P. Lawrence was born at Norfolk, Conn., 
in 1833. Was a member of tlte class of 1855 in Yale 
College, but did not graduate. Read law with Hon. 
F. D. Fyler, of Wiiistcd, in 1870, was admitted to the 
bar in Litchfield County in 1873, and is settled in 
practice at Winsted, Conn. 

James Huntington was born in South Coventry, 
Conn., June 4, 1833. He studied his profession in 
the office of Loren P. Waldo and Alvan P. Hyde, at 
Tolland, Conn ; subsequently graduated at the law 
school at Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; was admitted to the 
bar of Fulton County in ISoS), and in the same year 
commenced practice in Woodbury, where he has since 
resided. He is judge of probate for Woodbury Dis- 
trict, and State's attorney for Litchfield County. 

ATTOllNEYS- FEES IX 1T93. 

The following interesting extracts are from the 
records of a " Barr" meeting held Dec. 18, 1793 : 

"At a meeting of tlie bur held Dee. IS, 179:),..f whi. h Ailoiiijah Stning, 
Ksq., was chairman, it was vttleO, * that Frederiek Wolentl, K-*q., of Litch- 
field, be Clerk of this Uurr, and have iiouer tu make lU'corda of ail Re- 
solves of this Rarr, to make and certify Copies lliereof, and to jturform 
all other Duties incident to sui.l Onlcc.' 

" Itetohed, That in future tho Fe*t to lie ehargo<l by each Momlwr of 
this llarr in all Causes iu which ho may IfO employed bo eetllUUhed aa 
follows, vlz<: 

" /m CVmtaoH rtftu. 

t .. d. 

"Retainer 12 

Term Fee« U 18 

On aiipiilntmenl of Audltiire 1 10 tl 

ArKuiiig Itemonstrnnce to Kepurt uf Aadilure „ 2 2 U 

Atteii'ling Arbitrator ert.-h Pay 1 10 

" Before' a Justice, nine Shillings at least, and 

uii>re iu pro|iorliou tu tho distance and Iniportuuce of 
tlie case. 

"Tho MenilK'f* presout and who stilM.'rll-e.t to the alN)ve table of fe»« 
are aa follows: Tnpplnc Keeve, .\doiilJah Stnuig. I>»iil<-1 Rverilt. Ihivld 
N. Diiusuiade, iraac lUldwiu, Jr , EptirMlni Kirb\, itonjamln Stilea, Jr., 
Nathan Proatun, JudK>u (.'anltrhl, Samuel Ibailnlck, John C. ^Smilh, 
Nicholas S. Master*, John Allen, I'llel IIuIiuck, Nathan Smith, John 
Elmore*, Jueeph Canfleld, Augiittus Pettibone. 

£ •. i. 
"Arguing Plea of .\twtement, there being iio other tiefonso 

in the ca«e 14 

The same with further defeneo » I> IJ (I 

Arguing Deuiiirrer oi IVililun for new trial 1 Ifl 

Hill in Chaurery 2 2 

Silent .\p)>«.al, Im lii.lliig term feee 14 

Arguing Issue In fwl 2 2 

" Motion ill ArreNt of Judgment. .- 14 

On appointment of Aiidltora 14 

Arguing Itenionstraiice to repi>rl of Audllure 14 

" /n Stip^iur (berC 

t l. d. 

"Retainer - U U 

Term K.-o 1 4 

Arguing Plea u( Abaleweat ~ I 10 

IVuiurrer - 2 » O 

iBuelurael „ »....«....»....„..,. SOU 

ArgiiluK Moll'iii In Am-slof Judgmrol 1 10 M 

Hill lu Cbaurery ». 4 10 

"(Ulmond Aklns, Plillo Itiigglea, Daniel W. I.ewis William Togswell, 
MetUtew U. Whlllleaey, I'tederlck Wolooll, LlUlia Slodlug, Jarm Thou. 



46 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



8011, David Tiillinan, Eli Curtis, Aaron Smith, Roger Skiuner, David Dag- 
gett, Isaac Mills, M. Strong, Joel P. Pcttett." 

THE COURTS I\ 1S20. 
Under the old goverument the Superior Court con- 
sisted of nine judges, and they were selected annually 
by the Legislature. Under the constitution the num- 
ber was reduced to five, and they held their office 
during good behavior or until they reached the age 
of seventy j'ears. In like manner the judges of the 
County Courts were reduced from five to three. 
Formerly these judges held the Superior Courts, but 
now they are holden by one judge. 

THE SUPERIOR COURT. 

Tlicrc were sessions of the Superior Court in each 
year, holden on the third Tuesdays of August and Feb- 
ruary, and the terms rarely extended beyond two weeks. 
If they reached to the third week, they were deemed to 
beof extraordinary length. The Superior Court had no 
original jurisdiction except as a court of equity. All 
iis actions at law came up by ajipeal from the County 
Court, and generally important cases were carried up 
without a trial in the court below. The party wishing 
to appeal his case would demur either to the declara- 
tion or plea, as the case might be, suffer a judgment 
to be entered against him, and appeal from it, and 
then change his plea in the Superior Court as the 
exigencies of his case may require. The making of 
copies iu the case appealed was a very profitable item 
in the business of the clerk. All cases at law wherein 
the matter in demand exceeded seventy dollars were 
ajqiealable, and all matters in equity in which the 
sum involved exceeded three hundi-ed dollars were 
l)rouglit originally to the Superior Court. In criminal 
matters the jurisdiction of both courts was concurrent, 
except in crimes of a higher grade, which were tried 
exclusively in the Superior Court. A case was pretty 
certain to reach a trial at the second term after it was 
entered in the docket unless special reasons could be 
shown for its further continuance. 

THE COUNTV COURT. 

The County Court had an important agency in the 
administration of justice fifty years ago. Under the 
old form of government it consisted of one judge and 
four justices of the quorum; under the constitution, 
of one chief judge and two associate judges. 

There were three sessions of the old County Court 
iu each year, in March, September, and December. 
The September term was generally short, merely dis- 
posing of the criminal business and such other pre- 
liminary matters as could not be passed over. The 
March term lasted three weeks, and the December 
term from four to six weeks, as the business might de- 
mand. The first half day was always taken up in 
calling the docket. Mr. Woleott had his files ar- 
ranged alphabetically, corresponding with the entries 
(jn the docket, and of these some member of the bar, 
usually one of the younger, had charge. The sheriff 



took his station in the centre of the bar, and as the 
eases were named by the clerk the proper entries were 
made both on the docket and on the file, and then the 
file was passed to the sheriff, who delivered it to the 
party entitled to it, and thus, at the close of the pro- 
ceedings, all the files had passed into the hands of the 
members of the bar, where they remained until the 
case received final disjjosition. Three hundred cases 
were considered as constituting a small docket, and 
there were as many as nine hundred entered at a 
single term. 

In 1820 there were two grades of lawyers in the 
State. The first admission only authorized the candi- 
date to practice at the County Court, and a service of 
two years was required at that bar before he was al- 
lowed an examination for admission to the bar of the 
Su)ierior Court. The statutes of the State were sub- 
sequently revised under the superintendence of Judge 
Swift, and many and material alterations had been 
made to conform the provisions of the law to the new 
order of things under the constitution. The question 
came before Judge Mainard, and he decided that 
under the revised statutes an admission to the bar of 
the County Court gave the candidate authority to 
practice in all the courts in the State; and that de- 
cision was assented to by all the judges. 

The matter of examining candidates for admission 
to the bar was, in those days, an imposing solemnity, 
and the day for that proceeding was a marked day of 
the term. All the members of the bar were expected 
to be present, and few failed of attending. The com- 
mittee of examination occupied the judges' seats, 
the chairman, holding the place of the chief judge, 
indicating to each separate member of the committee 
the subject in which he was expected to examine the 
candidate, and thus a thorough and searching exami- 
nation was had. After the examination was closed 
the candidates retired, and the members of the bar 
gave their opinions seriatim on the question of the ad- 
mission of the applicant. Sometimes candidates 
were rejected. It had been the practice in early 
times to have an entertainment at the close of the ex- 
amination at the expense of the successful condidates, 
but this had been dispensed with when I was ex- 
amined. Stories were told of some eminent members 
of the bar who, on such occasions, indulged in prac- 
tices which were not credible to their reputation for 
temperance and sobriety. Perhaps it was for this 
reason that the practice was abolished. 

PRACTICE. 

Statutory provisions and the advance of legal sci- 
ence, as well as a more just sense of what is due to 
the best interest of litigation, have made great 
changes in the course of proceedings before the courts 
during the last fifty years. Then it was customary 
for counsel to take advantage of any trivial omission 
which could be found in the proceedings, and a case 
never came to trial until every possible effort for 



BENCH AND BAR. 



47 



abatement or delay had been exhausted. Our statute 
in relation to amendments had not then received so 
liberal a construction, nor was it in itself so liberal 
in its provisions as it now is ; and thus opportunity 
was aftbrded for the display of much ingenuity in the 
prosecution of dilatory pleas. 

Then there were no statutory provisions relating to 
injunctions, all the power which the court had in 
that matter being that with which it was invested by 
the common law as a court of equity, and hence 
very little will be found in our reports on this subject 
until about 1826, after the statute authorizing the 
judges to grant temporary injunctions had been 
passed. This statute was introduced into the Legis- 
lature by Judge Swift, who was a member for several 
sessions after his retirement from the bench. Since 
then many cases relating to this branch of jurispru- 
dence have been before our courts. 

Probably more than half the suits commenced in 
our County Courts fifty years ago were brought to 
enforce the collection of debts, and in some localities 
this was a ]>rofitable business. The County Court 
then had jurisdiction in all cases where the matter in 
demand exceeded the sum of fifteen dollars, and this 
brought into it a great number of suits now tried by 
single justices, and accounts for the great diminution 
in the number of cases now brought here. 

Piles of learning were devoted to destruction by the 
edict of the Legislature admitting parties and other 
persons in interest to be heard as witnesses. The 
nicest and most refined legal questions were fre- 
quently brought before the courts for decision in 
matters relating to the interest of witnesses, but now 
they are almost forgotten by the most learned of the 
profession. 

THE AUTUORITIES THEN IN USE. 

The statutes then in force were the revision of 1808, 
by far the most elaborate and complete of any ever 
publislu'd. It contains a complete history of the 
legi.slatioii of Connecticut on all subjects of statutory 
enactment from the first, and is still a useful hook for 
study by the profession. The principal labor of its 
preparation for publication was performed by Thomas 
Day. 

Comparatively few American authorities were cited 
in our courts tlien. Mr. Day had published four vol- 
umes of Day's Reports, and then had suspended 
further publication for want of encouragement. The 
Legislature, in 1815, had authori/.ed the court to ap- 
point a reporter, and had given him a salary. Under 
such an uppointment .Mr. Day had commenced pub- 
lishing the Connecticut Heport.s, and had published 
three volumes of them when he j>ublisheil the fifth of 
Day, thus filling the gap between the fourth of Day 
and the first of Connecticut. The New York Re- 
ports, by Caine and Johnson, down to the twelfth of 
Jolinsoti, and twelve volumes of the Massachusetts 
Reports were out, and these, with our own reports, 



were about all the American authorities which were 
cited in our courts. Not a single American ele- 
mentary work had then been published except Swift's 
(System and Swift's Evidence. The Engli.sh Reports 
from Burrows down, including Douglas', Cowper's, 
Term, and East's Reports, down to the twelfth vol- 
ume, with Blackstone's Commentaries, which were 
always on the table, were the staple authorities of the 
times. Judge Reeve said that he considered Cowper's 
Reports the best that had then beeu published of the 
decisions of the Court of King's Bench. 

The following is a list of the present members of 
the Litchfield bar : 

Litchfield. — George C. AVoodruff, George M. Wood- 
rufi" (railroad commissioner), Origen S. Seymour (does 
not appear in court as counsel), George A. Hickox, 
Henry B. Graves, Henry H. Prescott, Dwight C. Kil- 
bourn, Wm. L. Ransom (clerk of the Superior Court), 
Charles B. Andrews, Frank AV. Wessells, Edward W. 
Seymour. 

Winchester.—'R. Hitchcock (judge of the Superior 
Court), Augustus H. Fenn, Hiram P. Lawrence, Wel- 
lington B. Smith, Samuel B. Home, William H. Ely, 
William F. Hurlbut, Florimond D. Fyler, Samuel A. 
Herman. 

New Hartford. — Jared B. Foster, John B. Betts, 
Nathan Morse. 

Jiiverlon. — Hiram Goodwin. 
Uo/'v,//(iV/e.— Gideon H. Welch, George AV. Cole. 

Tliomnnton. — Albert P. Bradstreet, F. AV. Ethcridge. 

Terryville. — Henry Plumb. 

Harwinton. — Abijah Catlin. 

UouMuri/. — James Huntington, AVilliam Cothren, 
George F. Shelton. 

Neir Mi/jord. — Jolin S. Turrlll, James H. McMahon, 
T. Dwight Merwin. 

Sharon. — J. AVade Hughes, Charles F. Sedgwick. 
Wal Cbrnira//.— Arthur D. AVarncr, N. A. Nicker- 
aon. 

Lakeville. — Hubert AVillianis. 

Salithuri/. — Donald J. Warner, Donald T. AVarncr. 

Canaan. — M.T. Granger (judgeof Court of Errors), 
Jacob li. Hardenbcrg, A. T. Roraback. 

Fnlh Vi/lage.—Lvc P. Dean, Dwight W. Clarke. ' 

Wathinf/lon. — AVillium H. O'Haru. 

The senior member* of tlie bar of this county have, 
many of them, made up their records; those still left 
arc soon to follow, and the juniors arc to a.ssume their 
places at the bar and on the bench ; to them will soon 
be committed these great responsible trustii. The per- 
petuity of our free institutions is committetl to the 
guardianship ami keeping of the bar and judiciary of 
our free country, for the history of the world teaches, 
and all free government illustrates, this truth,— treat 
the subject lightly as you will, — that to the profemioii 
of the law civil government is indebted for all the safe- 
guards and intrcnchmeiits with which the liberties of 
the people are protected ; that legislation is shape*!, 
eoDstitutious eularge<l, amended, and adopted by the 



48 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



enlightened administration of the statesmen, both of 
England and the United States, who have been in 
both, and are in all free governments, educated for the 
bar, and, ascending by the inherent force of their dis- 
ciplined, professional life, they become the directors of 
the destinies of states and nations. 

Military chieftains may spring into power, tyrants 
may dazzle with the glamour of military parade and 
the pomp of war an oppressed and frenzied people, 
but they turn as the cannonade dies away to the states- 
manship of the country, and call to the parliaments 
and congressional halls for final debate the arbitra- 
ments of the liberties of the people. 

From the days of King John to the present hour 
the bench and bar have furnished the statesmen who 
have erected the bulwarks of constitutional law, and 
extorted from tyrants the Magna Chartas which have 
secured to the oppressed the guarantees of free insti- 
tutions. 

Imbued with the historical traditions of their pre- 
decessors, and tracing the paths they have trod, emu- 
lating their good example, it should become more and 
more tlie resolute purpose of the Litchfield County 
bar to so walk in the light of their professional teach- 
ings that when they are called to follow them to that 
ujiper court, and file their judgment-roll of the great 
trial of life with that (Supreme Judge from whose bar 
they can take no appeal, — 

" Thou go not like the quarry-slave at night 
Scourged to his dunpeon, but, sustnined and soothed 
By iiu uufiiltpiing trust, upproach thy grave 
Like one who wraps the drapery of liis couch 
About him aud lies down to [deasaut dreams,'* 



CHAPTER IIL 

MEDICAL HISTOKY. 

Organization of Medical Aesociatiou in 17G7 — Early Physicians — Names 
of Jlenibers of Medical Society from 1808, with Dates of Admission — 
List of Presidents and Secretaries from ISOS to 1881 — Present Members 
— Present Officei's. 

As early as January, 1767, a medical association 
was formed in this county, composed of the most emi- 
nent physicians then in practice here. Its object was to 
establish rules of practice and intercourse, promote 
medical science by providing for annual consultations 
aud dissertations, and to protect the reputation of the 
profession and the health of the community from the 
inroads of ignorant pretenders to medical science. 
Among the gentlemen composing this body were 
Joshua Porter, Lemuel Wheeler, Joseph Perry, Seth 
Bird, William Abernethy, Samuel Catlin, Simeon 
Smith, Cyrus Marsh, Ephraim Gitteau, John Calhoun, 
etc. One of the earliest physicians of the county was 
Oliver Wolcott. He was the son of Hon. Roger Wol- 
cott, of Windsor, a former Governor of the colony. 



He had served as an officer in the French war, and 
settled himself in Goshen before the organization of 
the county in the practice of his profession. Whether 
he continued in practice as a physician after his re- 
moval to this town is not known ; probably, however, 
his official duties as sheriff prevented it. He was sub- 
sequently honored with almost every official place 
which a good man would covet : he was a member of 
the House of Representatives, of the Council, a judge of 
probate, a judge of the County Court, a representative 
in Congress, a signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, lieutenant-governor and Governor of his native 
State, and, more than all, the father of an excellent 
family. He is said to have been a man of uncommon 
diffidence and distrustful of his own ability. His 
public communications display sound judgment, and 
his more confidential correspondence a warm affec- 
tion and a pure purpose. 

Dr. Seth Bird, of Litchfield, probably held the 
first place among the early physicians of the county. 
His reputation was widespread. For acuteness of 
discrimination and soundness of judgment he was not 
excelled. 

Dr. Joseph Perry, of Woodbury, was not only 
eminent in his profession, but, what was unusual in 
his day, he excelled as a belles-leltre scholar and 
was a gentleman well read in various branches of 
science. 

Later generations produced eminent and accom- 
plished physicians : Db. Nathaniel Perry, son of 
the gentleman just named ; De. Daniel Sheldon, 
of Litchfield ; Dr. Fowler, of Washington ; Rock- 
well, of Sharon ; Welch, of Norfolk ; Ticknor, of 
Salisbury. 

Dr. Samuel Woodward, of Torrington, was not 
only a physician of high repute himself, but he was 
almost literally a father of the faculty. 

Among the surgeons of note, in earlier times, were 
Dr. Samuel Catlin, of Litchfield, and at a later 
period Dr. Samuel R. Gauer, of Sharon. 

The medical profession in this county has pro- 
duced some writers of respectability. Dr. Elisha 
North was for several years a physician of extensive 
practice in Goshen, and he afterwards removed to 
New London. He published an approved treatise on 
spotted fever, which extensivelj' prevailed in Goshen 
and its vicinity while he resided there. 

Dr. Caleb Ticknor, of Salisbury, was brother 
of the late excellent Dr. Luther Ticknor, of that town, 
and of Dr. Benajah Ticknor, for many years a surgeon 
in the navy of the United States, and, although a 
young man when he removed to New York City, 
about the year 1832, he rose rapidly to a high place 
in his profession. He published several medical 
works, the most popular of which was the " Philoso- 
phy of Living."* 

* The above reference to the physicians of the early days is taken 
from the address delivered by the late Judge Samuel Church at the 
Litchfield centennial, in August, 1851. 



MEDICAL HISTORY. 



49 



THE MEDICAL SOCIETY.*- 

The records of the old society are doubtless lost. 
The following is a list of members of the Litchfield 
County Medical Society in 1808 : Samuel Woodward, 
President ; Samuel Buel, Clerk ; Anson Tuttle, John 
Kaymond, Aaron Coleman, P. B. Fowler, Ebenezer 
Smith, William H. Taylor, Roswell Abernethy, Jesse 
Carrington, John Calhoun, Samuel Rockwell, J. R. 
Eastman, Elijah Lyman, Samuel Orton, Timothy 
Clark, Gideon Woodruff, Asahel Humphrey, Joshua 
Cornwall. 

Since then the following admissions have been 
made : 

1808. — Anson Wright, John C. Warner, Dftvid Warner, Launcelot Phelps. 

1809.— Samuel B. Woodward, Ueury Tuttle. 

1810.— Jeliial Williams, Edmond Allen. 

1811.— Elisha North. 

1812. — Frederick Graves, John Warner. 

1813.- James R. Dodge, Conaut Catlin, Asahel Hale, E. L. Hart, Ira N. 

Bronson. 
1814.— John M. West, Elmore Everitt, Curtis Hard. 
1815. — Normau Smith. 

1816. — William Bnel, Eriistus Bancroft, William Marsh. 
1817.— Benjamin Piatt. 
1818.— Samuel Enstie. 
1819. — Henry Fisli, I.uther Tichnor, Gaylord Wells, Samuel Andrews, 

George 0. Jarvi**, Orv'id Plumb. 
1820 — Boswell Ahoruethy, John M. West. 
1821.— Horatio Grldloy, Chauncey B. Foot, Samuel W. Gold, Johnson C. 

Hatch. 
1822.— Benjamin Welch, Ellas W. Williams, Thomas Brinsmade. 
1823. — Sherman Woodward, Clark Chapman, Samuel Chittenden. 
18li4.— Ji'hial Abljott, Uriah Turner. 
182.'>. — Benjamin F. Cleavoland, Samuel B. Cliitds. 
1820.— Eli Keed, Ives Cowles, William Woodruff. 

The following is the first complete list of members, 
made in 1827: 

Alanson Abbe, William Buel, Samuel Buol, John M. West, Samuel R. 
Childs, Manly Peters, John W. Kunell, Norman Ijaadon, Samuel 
W. Gould, Solyman RusMell, William Mar!.h, Luther Tirknor, Houry 
Fish, Adonijah Slronc, Benjamin Wflrb, JomIiua S. Cornwall, Amaaa 
Kellogg, Benjamin Welch, Jr., John Cnlhouu, Uriah Turner, John 
Scars, George Taylor, Jeliial Williams, Clark Chapman, Itjilph Den- 
ning, Reuben Warner, Lyman Catlin, Rijyal Cook, Ives Cowles, 
William Woodruff, Gaylord Wells, Joel G. Caudee, Ruswell Alier- 
nethy, Frederick II. WoodwanI, Comint Catlin, Kllaa Williams, Nor- 
man Buel, Johnmui C. Hatch, Remus 31. Fowler, William C. Wil- 
linms. George O. Jones, Kra»tus Baii.r..n, H. Scovlll, William 0. 
Talcolt, Andrew De Wolf, Wells IWardslcy, 11. .well II. Graham, Slllos 
Belden, Garry 11. Miner, Jnrvls Cose, Amos Beech er. Will iajn Krwin, 
Andrew Abernethy, Paul W. auseboruugb. Ell Reed, William Otr- 
rlngton, Warren U. Fowler. 

The following have been admitted since that date: 

1828.— Stephen Reed, Jothro Hatch, Bushroil Camp. 

1820. — Norman Lyman, llolllster, John I>e Forest, Joolah Bameo, 

Amos Buller, Jofforaon Stone, C. 8. TIcknor, A. S. Lewis. 
1830.— HoM>s A. Lee, Albert Wright, William I", Buel, J. 0. U«:kwilh, 

Burritt North, Mynui Downs. 
1831.— Oeorgo L. lliiiil, Theodore C. Ilunl, George M. Fowler, Charlsa 

Vain, E.l»lu C. Kly, L. !». Adauu. 
1832.— Charles 11. Webb, .Stanley Qrlswold, 0. II. St. John, Samuel Mc- 

Alpen, Ambniee Ives. 
1833.— Wolter P«k, Asahel Humphrey, KIbbe, Horace Judam, A. 

M. Huxley, Ullas Lewis, AlUrt C. Knight. 

1834.— Aaron Wlldnian, J. II. Kaalman, K. D. Hudson, Karson. 

la-ld.- Horace K. Dencli, Wells lleanlsley, I'lillando Stewart. 

1830.— Joins* Barrx, Joseph MrComb, Klniore Kversit, Rasssll CTsrsIL 



* Oontrlbntsd by J. J. Newcomb, U.D., of LltcliBeld. 



1837.— Samuel T. Salisbury. 

1838.— John S. Wolcott, R. Tiffany, Loomis North, Horace Buttolph, 
Reuben M. Woodrnff, W. J. Barry, William B. Lacy, J. A. 
Gillette. 

1839.— George Adams, C. H. Reed, Moody, Sylvanus Stew.«t. 

1840.— William W. Welch, Eliada Osborn, Perry, Piatt, 

Freeman. 

1841.— Henry Baldwin, William B. De Forest. 

1842. — George Seymour, L. S. Turner, Myron K. Hubbard, Sidney P. 
Lyman, Charles Byington. 

1843. — Baldwin Seeley, Thomas Seeley, William Cockie, Edward P. Ly- 
man, Joseph North. 

1844. — John Stootcote, George Lyman, John Yale, 

1847.— W. E. Bulkley, David E. Bostwick, Seth Porter. 

1848.— John L. WakefieM, Graham Lee, J. Edward Smith. 

1849.— G. S. Bissell, P. Beardsley. 

1850.— William Werden, Ilhaneer H. Smith, II. G. Westlake. 

1851.—OrIandoBrown,Erastmu3Hugins, Asiibel Catlin, Jr., J. W.Phelps, 
J. B. Whiting, Setri Pease, John H. Welch, Samuel Catlin. 

1852.— Charles B. Maltby, George B. Parsons. 

1854.— Henry M. Knight, William J. Burge, Gaylord B. Miller, J. U. T. 
Cockey, J. W. Bldwell. 

1855.— Albiu E. Barber, Henry W. Buel. 

1856. — John B. Derrickson. 

1857.— William W. Kuight, William Deming. 

1858.— William Bissell. 

1859.— Harmon W. Shove. 

I860.— Edward Sauford. 

1863.— Henry Davis. 

1807. — Francis J. Young. 

1808.— J. K. Bacon. 

1809.— G. W. Bell, J. 11. Blodgett. 

1870.— J. Jlorgan, 11. E. Gates, William Porter, B. S. Goodwin, T. S. 
Ilancholt, W. S. Munger, C. \V. Dull, W. J. Deach. 

1S7I.— Franklin Booth, R. C. Eu>igu. 

1872.— E. H. Heady, L. T. Piatt, C. F Couch. 

1873.— T. G. Wright, J. H. North, L. H. Wood. 

1874.— F. r. Eaterler, C. W. Camp. 

1875.— Virgil Buel, J. J. Newcomb. 

1876.— J. II. Stevens, A. .M. Keaaler. 

1877.— A. G. Ileaney, W. L. Barbour, B. S. Thompaan, Samuel II. Hunt- 
ington, F. W. Brown. 

Itna.—J. H. Trent, W. P. SwetU 

1879 — Ooirge K. Roberts, Jerry Durwrll, C. L. DIake, Isaac R. SanforU. 

I8«0.— Frederick E. Barrows. 

LIST OF OFFICERS. 
The following is a Hat of presidents and secretaries 
from 1808 to 1880: 

PRESIDKNTS. 

1808, Samuel WoodwanI ; I8ns-I(l, Jrae Carrington ; 1811-13, Nathaniel 
Perry; IK14, Jesse Carrington ; li<l.VIO, Nathaniel Perry; I8IT, Jesse 
Carrington; 1«I8, Wllllnm Buel; 1XI9. Nslhanlel Perry; 1820-22, 
Samuel Rockwell; U■:^. Wllllnm lluel ; 1824, Samuel ll<ickwell: 
1824, Warren S. Fowler ; IS2C., lUmwell Alwrnethy ; 1S27- 29, William 
Buel; 1830, llowell AlxTUelliy; IKIl, Iteulx'n 8. W<>i.l»ar^l; 1832, 
William Buel; l«13-34, Norman Lyman; IK.U, Johnson C. Hatch; 
1830, Remus M. Fowler; 18.^7, Samuel lluel; 1K18, Gaylord Wells; 
1830, Ik-ujanilu Welch; IMo, Samuel W. (^.dil; 1841, U. II. St. John; 
1842. Mauley Polsrs; 1843, Char In Vaill; 1H44, HenlKin Woodruff; 
18».\, Wllllsni J. Harry; 1 Ml,, Harvey HiMwiri; 1S47, A. M. ICmley; 
1848, Johwm C. Hatch; IH4'J. Ilurrit II. North; IKMI, Ralph Deniing; 
18SI, James Welch ; I8.V2, M)rou Downs; 18^1, S. T. Salisbury ; I8M, 
Sidney II. Lyman; 1K.U, William II. Welch, IHM, William Wood- 
ruff; I8i7, George Seymour; I.^M, Henry M. Knight; IV,'.I, Joniss 
Welch; laCO, Henry W. Duet; IKOI, J. H. Welch; 1802, D. K. BoM- 
wlck; 1861, C. II. Welili; 18G4, J. W. l-hel|« ; DMU, 11. M. Knight; 
18«<I, J. W. Phelps; IHi;7, Henry M. Knight; 1808, J. W. Phelps; 
1800, r. S. Yoiing; Is7u 71, Henry W. lluel; 18*2, J. W. Illdiiell; 
1873-74, Orlan.lo Brown; 187^-70, Durrllt D. North ; 1877, William 
Pemlng; lll78-7«, R. 8. Goodwin; 1880, W. 8. Munger. 

SKCRETARIIX 
1808-11, Samuel Buel; I8l2-l.'i, KlUah I.ynun; I8IC-I>, ConanI Osllln; 
1810, Eroslus L. Heart; l.'>2U-X.-, Ikawell Abernethy, 1821-211, llo- 
rallu Gridley ; la-M-211, SomueU-hllds ; !«»■«), Bkmnsl Uvid ; 1831, 



50 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUiSITr, CONNECTICUT. 



Moses A. Lee; 1832-47, J. C. Beckwith; IMS-IO, A. M. Huxley; 
1650-54, George Lyniiui; ISoS-ST, Henry W. Biiel; 1858-50, David 
E. lioBtwick; 1800-02, G. B. Miller; 1803-00, Henry Diivis; 1807-08, 
J. G. Beckwilli; 1800, G. W. Bell; 1870^71, Ilowarii E. Gates; 187-', 
William Porter; 1873-74, Willis J. Bench ; 1875-77, T. G. Wright; 
1878-80, J. J. Nowcomh. 

The following record appears among the proceed- 
ings of the society under date of April 21, 1828: 

" A conmiuiiicatioii from the American Temperance Society was laid 
before the society, and the following resohition was passed: 

"* Itesotvpilf That this society liiglily appreciate the exertions of the 
Temperance Society for the suppreshion of the deplorahle evils under 
which our country is sulTering from the abviso of ardent spirits, and tliat 
wo will tiso our best endeavors to further the views of that highly-re- 
spectahte association; and we hereby pledge ourselves that we will at 
this and at all future meetings of our society abstain from and discourage 
the use of that highly deleterious article.' " 

The present officers and members are as follows : 
President, Walters. Mungcr, Watertown ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, WillLs J. Beach, Litchfield ; Secretary, J. J. 
Newcomb, Litchfield ; Committee on Membership 
and Ethics, Henry W. Buel, J. W. Bidwell, Luther 
H. Wood ; Fellows to the State Society, R. S. (rood- 
win, (t. H. Miner, J. B. Derrickaon, Orlando Brown, 
W. .1. Beach. 

Reporter, L. H. Wood. 

Members, Henry AV. Buel, W. J. Beach, J. W. Bid- 
well, 0. Brown, William Bissell, T. W. Brown, J. 
Burwcll, C. L. Blake, T. E. Barrows, C. W. Camp, C. 
F. Couch, William Deming, J. B. Derrickson, Myron 
Downs, H. E. Gates, R. S. Goodwin, F. P. Esteriey, 
T. S. Hanchett, A. G. Heavey, W. W. Knight, E. P. 
Lyman, G. H. Miner, W. S. Munger, J. J. Newcomb, 
J. H. North, Edward Sanford, J. H. Stevens, H. 
W. Shove, W. P. Swett, I. R. Sanford, B. S. Thomp- 
son, James Welch, William Woodruff, L. H. Wood. 



CHAPTER IV. 

MILITAKY HISTORY. 

The Second Kegiment— Tlie Fiflli Regiment— The Eighth Regiment— 
The Ninth Regiment— The Tenth Regiment— The Eleventh Regiment 
— The Twelfth Regiment— The Thirteenth Regiment. 

The lightning had scarcely fl.ashed the intelligence 
to the expectant North that Maj. Anderson and his 
gallant band had surrendered as prisoners of war to 
the Southern confederacy ere the patriotic sons of 
old Litchfield were rallying to the support of their 
imperiled country. Men and money were promptly 
raised, aud the record of the county during the whole 
struggle is one in which her citizens may justly feel a 
patriotic pride. 

SECOND REGIMENT INFANTRY. 
The Second Regiment of Infantry was enlisted for 
three months and recruited from the volunteer militia. 
It w.as mustered into the service May 7, 1861, under 
the command of Alfred H. Terry, of New Haven, an 
efficient and accomplished officer. The regiment left 



for Washington, May 7, 1861, numbering seven hun- 
dred and eighty. There were two companies from 
Litchfield County in this regiment, — infantry com- 
pany B, Abram G. Kellogg, of New Hartford, captain, 
Charles W. Morse first lieutenant, and Charles War- 
ren second lieutenant, and rifle company E, with 
Sherman T. Cooke as captain, Wheelock T. Batchel- 
lor first lieutenant, .and Charles E. Palmer second 
lieutenant. The former company was recruited prin- 
cipally from Winchester and New Hartford, and 
the latter, except eight men, entirely from Win- 
chester. The regiment was present at the battle of 
Bull Bun, where both officers and men acquitted 
themselves with honor. It was mustered out of the 



THE FIFTH REGIMENT 

was organized in the summer of 1861, and entered the 
service with ( )rris S. Ferry, of Norwalk, as colonel. 
He was subsequently United States senator. There 
was one company principally from this county in the 
regiment, — Company I, — withG. A. Stedman, of Hart- 
ford, captain. The first and second lieutenants, W.. 
S. Cogswell and W. H. Webster, were also from 
Hartford. The regiment participated in the follow- 
ing engagements : Winchester and Cedar Mountain, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Resaca, Dallas, Mari- 
etta, Peach-Tree Creek, Atlanta, Chesterfield Court- 
house, and Silver Run. 

THE EIGHTH REGIMENT. 

This regiment was mustered into the service in 
September and October, 1861, under the command of 
Edward Harland, of Norwich. Litchfield County 
was represented by two companies, — C and I. Com- 
pany C was officered as follows : Captain, Charles W. 
Nash ; first lieutenant, Samuel Glasson ; second lieu- 
tenant, Robert H. Burnside ; sergeant, Henry R. 
Jones. Company I had for its officers F. W. Jackson, 
of Danbury, captain ; William J. Roberts, of New 
Milford, first lieutenant ; and F. E. Nearing, of 
Brookfield, second lieutenant. The regiment left 
Connecticut Oct. 17, 1861, one thousand and twenty- 
seven strong, and at Annapolis, Md., was joined to 
Burnside's corps. " Its earliest services were in the 
battle of Newbern, N. C, March 14, 1862, and the 
siege of Fort Macon the following month. It accom- 
panied Gen. Burnside when he was ordered to join 
the Army of the Potomac, and subsequently went 
with the corps into Maryland. At Antietam, in Sep- 
tember, 1862, the regiment lost: Killed, one officer 
— Lieut. Mason Wait, of Norwich — and 3.3 men ; 
wounded, 10 officers and 129 men ; missing, 21 men ; 
total, 194. 

" In December the Eighth was engaged at Fred- 
ericksburg, but suffered slightly, and in February, 
1863, was sent to Southeastern Virginia. In April the 
regiment was in the fight at Fort Hagar, Va., and 
remained in Virginia until January, 1864. It then 




^.y. . 



^,^ y ,^:- /< 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



51 



returned to Connecticut on veteran furlough, three 
hundred and ten men having re-enlisted as veterans. 
In March it returned to its old camp near Portsmouth, 
Va., and, after outpost- and picket-duty at Deep Creek 
and vicinity, was in the battle at Walthall Junction, 
May 9th, and lost eighty men. Col. Harland having 
been promoted to be a brigadier-general, the regiment 
was at this time in command of Col. John E. Ward, 
who was severely wounded by a shell at the battle 
named. A week later the regiment participated in 
the engagement at Fort Darling, and on the night of ! 
the 16th returned within the fortification, the men 
worn out with eight days' constant warfare. In this 
short time the Eighth lost one-third of its fighting 
strength. Early in June it was engaged with the 
enemy at Cold Harbor, and from June 16th to Aug- 
ust 27th in skirmishes and siege-work around Peters- 
burg, losing heavily. The following four weeks were 
spent on the James River, picketing the Bermuda 
Hundred post, and September 27th the regiment lost 
seventy-three men in the storming of Battery Harri- 
son. This was the last general engagement of the 
regiment, which was mustered out Dec. 12, 186.5." 

The regiment saw severe service, and participated 
in the following engagements : Newbern, Fort Macon, 
Antictam, Fredericksburg, Fort Hagar, Walthall 
Junction, Fort Darling, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, 
Fort Harrison. There were killed, 72 ; died of 
wounds, 40; died of disease, 132; missing, 11. 

THE NINTH REGIMENT 

was mustered into the service in the fall of 1861 as 
the " Irisli Regiment," under the comman<l of Thos. 
W. Cahill, of Hartford, with Richard Fitzgibbons, of 
Bridgeport, lieutenant-colonel. It had a few men 
from this county. 

Its principal engagements were Baton Rouge, 
Chackaloo Station, Deep Bottom, and Cedar Creek. 
Mustered out Aug. 3, 1865. 

THE TENTH REGIMENT 

was recruited in tlie full of 1861, and mustered into 
the service during Scpteniber and October of that 
year, with Charles L. Uus,sel1, of Derby, lu colonel, 
and A. W. Drake, of Hartford, as lieutenant-colonel. 

There was one company from this county, — Com- 
pany D, — commanded as follows: Captain, Lewis 
Judd, of Ro.xbury ; first lieutenant, Charles II. Ilurl- 
burt, of Roxbury ; second lieutenant, Sanford B. 
Palmer, of Sharon. 

The regiment left for the seat of war in October, 
and wa.s assigned to Gen. Burnside's command. The 
Tenth received its baptism of fire at the battle of 
Roanoke Island, where it fought nobly, and its gal- 
lant colonel, Russell, was killed while leading the 
charge. 

"A month later the regiment lost twenty-throe 
killed and wounded in the battle of Newbern, and 
then had rest from close warfare until the 14th of 



December. It then participated in the sanguinary 
battle of Kiugston, ^. C, and lost one hundred and . 
six officers and men, and only two days later was in 
another fight at Whitehall. March 28, 1863, after a 
winter's "rest, the Tenth was in the battle of Seabrook 
Island, S. C, and spent the spring, summer, and fall 
before Charleston. December found the regiment in 
Florida, where twenty-two men were lost in a fight at 
St. Augustine. 

" In the spring of 1864 the regiment went to Vir- 
ginia, and suffered the loss of all the garrison and 
camp equipage and regimental and company records 
by the sinking at Norfolk of the transport on which 
they were stored. Its first fight in the Virginia cam- 
paign was at Whitehall Junction, May 7th, and from 
this time the history of the organization shows battle 
after battle clear through to the surrender of Appo- 
mattox, the Tenth being 'in at the death.' " — Battle- 
Flarj Day. 

A total of 2124 was credited to the organization 
during its existence, embracing the original 9% ; re- 
cruits, 848; re-enlisted vetcran.s, 280. Casualties: 
Killed in action, 57; died of wounds, 59; died of dis- 
ease, 152. 

The regiment sustained a very heavy loss of olHcers 
and otherwise. It had four cob)nels during its first 
eighteen months of service. 

The Tenth participated in the following engage- 
ments : Roanoke Island, sieges of Charleston and St. 
Augustine, Walthall Junction, Drury's Blulf, Ber- 
muda Hundred, .Strawberry Plains, Deep Bottom, 
Deep Run, siege of Petersburg, Laurel Hill Church, 
New Market Ro.id, Darbytown Road, Johnson's Plan- 
tation, Hatcher's Run, Fort Gregg, and Appomattox 
Court-house. 

THE ELEVKXTH llKcJIMENT. 

This regiment hail one company from Litohlield 
County, — I, — officered as follows; captain, John D. 
Griswold, of Old Lyme; first lieutenant, P. C. Cum- 
niings, North Canaan ; second lieutenant, William 
H. Sacfcett, of Hartford. The regiment was raised in 
1SI'>1, and nccember li'ith left Hartforil for the front, 
under command of Thomas H. C. Kingslmry, of 
Franklin. It participatcil in the following engage- 
ments: Newbern, South Mountain, Antietam, Fn-d- 
erick.sburg, Suffolk, near Suffolk, Swift's Creek, 
Drury's Uluff, Cold Harbor, before Petersburg. Total 
loss of men, 85. 

THE TWELFTH UE(iIMENT. 

The Twelfth Regiment was mustered into the ser- 
vice in the winter of 18l>l-<32. It had but few men 
from this county. Dr. John B. Welch wius uaintant 
surgeon. 

JOHN IIENJAMIN WELCH. 

John Benjamin Welch was horn at Winsted, Conn., 
Sept. 14, 18.'W. Me coniinenceil regularly the study 
of medicine with his father at the age of sovcntcrn. 



52 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



During the term of his professional study, his time, 
when not in attendance upon lectures, was divided. 
A portion of it was spent in the office of his father, 
and portions of it in the offices of his uncles, Dr. 
Benjamin Welch, of Salisbury, and Dr. William W. 
Welch, and Dr. John H. Welch, of Norfolk. He at- 
tended his first course of medical lectures in Washing- 
ton, D. C, his second and third at the medical college 
in New Haven, where he received the degree of M.D., 
January, 18<;0. Much the larger part of the two 
years after his graduation lie spent with his father, 
more or less engaged in the practice of his profession, 
the last year especially, doing quite as much business 
as was best for so young a man. 

He was ardently devoted to his profession, nobly 
ambitifius to excel in it, and eager to avail himself of 
every opjiortunity within his reach to i'ully qualify 
himself for its responsible duties. 

On the breaking out of the late Rebellion there 
arose a demand for surgeons for the army. He pre- 
sented himself to the Military Board of Medical Ex- 
aminers for the State of Connecticut, and underwent 
an examination. He applied for the jiost of assistant 
surgeon, for wliich he was recommended by the board 
of examiners and by others. He obtained the posi- 
tion, and received his commission, which was dated 
Dec. 11, 18G1, as assistant surgeon of the Twelfth 
Regiment, Connecticut Volunteers, then stationed at 
Hartford. 

He immediately went to Hartford, signified his ac- 
ceptance of the appointment, and soon entered upon 
its duties. The regiment remained in Hartford till 
Feb. 24, 1862, when it left to join the division of 
Gen. Butler, at Sliip Island. 

During the voyage he was quite sea-sick in rough 
weather. On pleasant days he often mounted the 
wheel-house, and appeared to enjoy very much ocean 
scenery. On the 6th of March he began to complain 
of lieadache and debility. These symptoms, however, 
excited no serious alarm, as they were attributed to 
the eft'ects of the sea-sickness ; and it was confidently 
anticipated that they would disappear on his reaching 
land. 

The .steamer came to anchor off Ship Island at sun- 
rise, March 7th, when Dr. Brownell hastened to the 
state-room of Dr. AVelch to give him the information 
and to offer him his congratulations. He requested Dr. 
Brownell to look at his throat, remarking that it felt 
sore. Two or three small ulcers were visible, and the 
next day the rash made its appearance, — decisive 
symptoms of scarlatina. 

The accommodations being much better on ship- 
board than ashore, Dr. Brownell decided that it would 
be better for Dr. Welch not to attempt to land in 
the condition in which he then was. Dr. Brownell 
came off shore to see him daily, and Dr. Fernandez, 
the surgeon of the ship, was constantly at hand. 

Dr. George W. Avery, in his letter, says, — 

" When the steamer ' Fulton' dropped anchor in 



our harbor, I hastened to the wharf to greet your 
son, my old college friend and professional brother. 
I was disajijiointed as to seeing him, and was told by 
Dr. Brownell that he was slightly ill, and that it would 
not be advisable to attempt to bring him ashore. Im- 
mediately I obtained permission of Gen. Phelps to 
visit him. He was much rejoiced to see me, and I 
spent nearly all of Sunday afternoon with him. I 
found a b.id pulse ; it was soft and small. On Tues- 
day following, the 11th, I visited him again, and found 
him, as before, very glad to see me. It had now been 
decided to send hira home, a furlough to that effect 
having been granted by Col. Deming. I found him 
so weak that it was with great difficulty that he could 
speak. He complained very much of his throat." 

The late Dr. Eldridge, who preached his funeral 
sermon, in speaking of his prominent traits, said, — 

" His intellect was clear, strong, and remarkably 
well balanced. Endowed with strong common sense 
and a sound practical judgment, he was peculiarly re- 
liable, and always proved liimself adequate to an 
emergency. Though modest and unobtrusive, he 
shrunk not from responsibility, and on several import- 
ant occasions met and sustained it with a composure, 
self-possession, independence, and ability that even 
surprised his most intimate friends. They hardly 
looked for so much vigor and force in one whose 
kindness of heart had been deemed his most promi- 
nent characteristic. He evidently possessed traits that 
gave promise of tlie higliest distinction as a physician 
and as a man. His disposition was exceedingly ami- 
able and affectionate. He was greatly beloved. He 
soon won a jjlace in the hearts of those who were 
brouglit into association with him. 

" Dr. Brownell says, — 

" ' His affectionate disposition had endeared him 
very much to myself. ]My heart grows heavy as I 
think of the many dull hours I shall pass in my tent 
alone, when I had expected to have his pleasant face 
before me ; for I had decided that he and I should 
have quarters together.' 

" Dr. Avery observes in his letter, — ■ 

" ' When your son was a student in New Haven I 
formed a very strong attachment to him, and have al- 
ways considered him as a man of great pui'ity of char- 
acter. I had anticipated much pleasure in having him 
here.' " 

Dr. Welch had gained the confidence and the love 
of the soldiers of his regiment, who deeply deplored 
his death. His piety was humble, sincere, and un- 
questionable. He had quarters with the chaplain at 
Hartford and on ship-board. Rev. Mr. Bradford, the 
chaplain, mentions a circumstance that was very sig- 
nificant. He says, " I have seen Dr. Welch in his 
private devotions, both in Hartford and on the 
steamer." Hence, it is evident that he did not in- 
tend to be deprived of his communion with his God, 
though he could not command that degree of retire- 
ment that he would have desired. He was sincere ; 




^ 



C^-^^yC^ 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



53 



he bad a true, manly independence. How clear it is 
that he was getting ready for that event which, though 
then unlooked for, was so near at hand ! 

Such was the young man whom God in his Provi- 
dence removed from the earth. He summoned into 
eternity a native of this place, known, esteemed, and 
beloved by all ; he took from the family a beloved 
and devoted son and brother; he called away from 
the medical profession a well-educated and promising 
young physician ; he struck from the roll of the 
United States army a genuine patriot ; he took to 
Himself, from the bosom of the Church here, a sincere, 
humble, devoted member. 

"It were easy," says Dr. Eldridge, "to imagine 
reasons, many and weighty, why the life of such a 
young man should be prolonged : his promise of use- 
fulness in his profession and as a man; the comfort 
and the stay be would have been to his parents; the 
honor he would have done religion. Oh, how many 
such things crowd on the mind !" 

The reasons why God took, though satisfoctory to 
God, are hidden from man. Still it is the Lord that 
hath done ; be content to leave the mystery unex- 
plained now. You shall know hereafter. 

Then the affliction is very severe ; the sensibilities 
wounded are very tender; the hopes blighted were 
very bright; the object taken away was very dear. 
Yet complain not; murmur not. It is the Lord, your 
Father, and the Father of him who is gone. 

•' For Gild hna marked each sorrowing day. 
And Diinilicred every Bocret tear, 
And heaven's long years of IiIIsh shall pay 
For all his children suffer hero.*' 

THE THIRTEENTH REGIMENT 

was organized in November, 1801, and mustered into 
the service with Henry W. Birge as colonel, and 
Alexander Warner as lieutenant-colonel. 

Only one company was recruited entirely from this 
county, — C,— officered as follows : Captain, f 'hiirles 
1). lilinn, of Cornwall ; first lieutenant, Isaac F. Nat- 
tleton, of Kent ; second lieutenant, Ciiarle;* K. Til)- 
betts, of New Milford. Company I wa.s raised prin- 
cipally from this county, its captain being H. L. 
Schleiter, of New London. Its first lieutenant, Frank 
Wells, was from Litchfield. The second lieutenant, 
Josepli Strickland, wsis also from New London. 

The regiment enjoys the distinction of having been 
in the service longer than any other Connecticut or- 
ganization. In Januarj-, 1864, the Tliirtecnth, almost 
to a man, re-enlisted. In the following December it 
was consolidated into five companies, called "The 
Veteran Battalion Thirteenth Connecticut Volun- 
teers." 

During the regiment's long service it jmrticipated 
in numerous hard-fought battles, a few of which are 
here enumerated: Georgia Landing, Irish Bend, 
siege of Port Hu<lson, Cane River, Mansura, Ope- 



quan, Winchester, and Fisher's Hill. It was mus- 
tered out April 25, 1866, and paid off May 5th follow- 
ing, having been in the service four years and six 
months. 



CHAPTER V. 

MILITARY HISTORY (Continued). 

THE XINETEENTU REGIMENT.*' 
This regiment was raised during the dark days of 
1862, when the glamour of military life bad died 
away and grim-visaged war in all its horror stood out 
before the jieople of the country. At the close of 
Gen. McClellan's disastrous Peninsula campaign, 
1862, President Lincoln called for three hundred thou- 
sand volunteers, and on the 22d of July a meeting of 
the citizens of this county was held at Litchfield, and 
it was resolved to recruit an entire regiment from 
this county, and the convention unanimously recom- 
mended Leverette W. Wessells, of Litchfield, for col- 
onel, and requested the Governor to rendezvous the 
new regiment at Litchfield. Recruiting immediately 
commenced, and on the 24th of August nine com- 
panies had been raised, as follows : Company A was 
recruited by Wm. Bis.scll, A. B. Shumway, and C. B. 
Hatch ; was composed of men from the following 
towns: Litchfield, 63; Harwinton, 10; Morris, 7; 
Washington, 5; other towns, 7. Company B, re- 
cruited by James Hutton and F. A. Cooke: Salis- 
bury, 43 ; Kent, 24 ; Canaan, 7 ; other towns, 14. 
Company C, recruited by James Q. Rice and W. T. 
Spencer : Goshen, 42 ; Torrington, 34 ; other towns, 
12. Company D, recruited by A. H. Fenn, W. H. 
Lewis, Jr., and Robert A. Potter: Plymouth, 53; 
Walertown, 18; Harwinton, 13; Burlington, 1; 
Morris, 1. Company K, recruited by Jetlrey Skinner, 
B. F. Hosronl, ami IL D. Gaylord : Winchester, 62 ; 
Norfolk, 16; Barklianistcd, 5 ; other towns, 7. Com- 
pany F, recruited by E. W. Jones and James Dean : 
New Hartford, 30; Canaan, 16; North Canaan, 19; 
Colebrook, 14; Barkliamsted, 0. Company G, recruited 
l>y Lyman Teator and tieorge N. Smith : Sharon, 41 ; 
Conwell, 34; other towns, IT). Company H, recruited 
by G. S. Williams: New Milford, 37; Washington, 
21 ; Warren, 5; other towns, 3; Company I, recruited 
by EliSperry : Woodbury, 61 ; other towns, 20. Com- 
pany K was composed of recruits from the dilTerent 
towns in the county. The rendezvous of the regi- 
ment was at Camp Duttnn, Litchfield. 

"On the 10th of September the regiment marche<l 
to the village to receive an elegant stand of colors 
from Mrs. William Curtis Noyrs, and to listen to a 
jiresentatiiin address by her husband, then in the ze- 
nith of his power and fame. On the Ilth the regi- 



* rumpilfid and oindenii«il from th* «ic«ll<*nt " lltvlory of the Svcond 
Coiinrcllctit Voitnitecr lle*Ty Artillnry, urigliialty the NluetMutli Coo- 
neclicut Viilunteon," t>y ThftMlore F. ViUll. 



54 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



ment was mustered, hy Lieutenant Watson Webb, 
into the service of the United States ' for three years 
or during the war;' arid on the 15th, having formed 
in line and given three parting cheers for Camp 
Dutton, the long and firmly-treading battalion, con- 
sisting of eight hundred and eighty-nine officers and 
men, moved to Litchfield Station, where a train of 
twenty-three cars stood ready to take them to New 
York. The journey was a continuous ovation. The 
deep interest everywhere felt in the 'Mountain County' 
regiment was attested by crowds of people at the 
stations and all along the railw.ay, and by white hand- 
kerchiefs and white hands that waved us a farewell 
and a blessing from window and veranda and hill-top. 
The good people of Bridgeport and Stamford entered 
every car without ceremony, and fortified the soldiers 
with melons and cakes and sandwiches, and with the 
last cup of real, civilized, cultivated Connecticut 
cofl'ee that they were to taste for months and years. 
The next day found us in Philadelphia, that noblest 
city of America, where we were treated like royal 
guests, as hundreds of other regiments had been, by 
the beneficence of her private citizens. At night we 
slept on the floor of the immense railway station at 
Baltimore, and the next night in the barracks at 
Washington, where the government insulted us with 
coffee that was viler than anything else in the world 
except the unwashed cups that lield it. On the 18th 
we moved to Alexandria in transports, and bivouacked 
after dark just north of the city. The line wheeled 
into 'column by company,' and, being informed that 
that would be their rest for the night, the tired men 
spread their blankets on the ground, and, with their 
blue overcoats for a covering and their knapsacks for 
pillows, were soon deeply and earnestly sleeping their 
first sleep on the 'sacred soil,' all unconscious of the 
rain that washed their upturned faces. 

" ' What are they going to do with us ?' was the 
question in every man's mind the next morning, as 
soon as he was sufficiently awake to take his reckon- 
ing. Would an hour later find us en route for Har- 
per's Ferry to join McClellan's army and take the 
place of those who had fallen at Antietaui only forty- 
eight hours before? or on board a transport bound 
for Charleston or the Gulf? Nobody knew. Out 
came pencils and rumpled paper from hundreds of 
knapsacks, and behold a bivouac of reporters, all 
briskly engaged in informing friends at home that we 
had got so far, but there was no telling where we 
might be to-morrow. But the order which was to 
decide our fortunes for at least eighteen months had 
already been issued, and before night the regiment 
moved to a pleasant slope about a mile west of Alex- 
andria which had been selected for a permanent 
camp ; and it was announced that we were attached 
to the command of Gen. John P. Slough,* military 
governor of Alexandria, and that our first actual 

* Pronounced like " plow." 



milit.ary service was to consist in doing patrol- and 
picket-duty in that city. On the following day we 
received our first hard bread, and our arms and A 
tents ; and the Nineteenth Connecticut thenceforth 
had a local habitation as well as a name. 

" Yes, a name. Alexandria, under martial law ever 
since the breaking out of the war, had suffered un- 
speakable things from the troops on duty in her streets 
or quartered in her environs, and the Alexandrians 
had come to regard a soldier as a scoundrel, always 
and everywhere. But the Nineteenth Connecticut 
had not been a week in Virginia before the self- 
respecting good behavior of its men became the gen- 
eral theme, and the authorities were petitioned by the 
citizens — nearly all of whom were rebels — not to re- 
move that regiment from Alexandria. 

"The arms were Enfield muskets. In process of 
time the men became acquainted with the nomencla- 
ture and functions of every part of the weapon from 
bayonet to butt-plate, although at first it seemed 
wonderful how so awkward and inconvenient a tool 
could ever have been constructed. Emery paper and 
crocus cloth were soon brought to bear upon the 
bronzed barrels, and by the middle of October there 
were a good many men — the foremost of whom was 
Pendleton, of Company C — who could use their 
' lock-plate' or ' upper band' for a looking-glass. 
The A tents were of linen, woven about as compactly 
as a sieve, and were intended for just five men and no 
more ; and woe to the stiuad that contained a fat man 
or one over six feet long, for somebody, or at least 
.some part of somebody, must sleep out of doors. 
' Sjjoon-fashion' was the only possible fashion ; no 
man could make a personal revolution on his own 
axis without compelling a similar movement on the 
part of each of his tent-mates, and a world of com- 
plaint besides. Most of the days of that autumn 
were warm, and even hot; but the chill of night 
would penetrate the bones of the soldiers and cause 
them to turn over and over from midnight until dawn, 
when each company, without waiting for reveille, 
would rally in a huddle on the long sheet-iron cook- 
stove at the foot of the street, and endeavor to burn 
the pain out of their marrows while toasting their 
bread. 

" On the 22d of September a detail of five officers 
and seventy men relieved the patrol of the Thirty- 
third Massachusetts in Alexandria, and the same was 
daily furnished during the remainder of 1862. It was 
the duty of the patrol to move about the city in 
small squads, or stand guard at theatres and certain 
other places, and arrest all soldiers who could not 
produce passes, or who were in mischief, and bring 
them to the provost-marshal's office, whence they 
were usually escorted to the 'Slave-Pen' in Duke 
Street, — a horrible den, with the following sign in 
large letters over the door : ' Price & Burch, Dealers 
in Slaves.' It had a large room or yard, about fifty 
feet square, with windowless brick walls fifteen or 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



55 



twenty feet high, a door of iron bars, and no floor 
except the earth. It had been one of the chief insti- 
tutions of Alexandria, and any urchin could direct a 
stranger to the ' Slave Pen' as readily as a New York 
boy can point out the City Hall. 

" From the soft beds and regular habits of Connecti- 
cut homes to the hard ground, severe duties, irregular 
sleep, bad food, and worse water of a Virginia camp 
was a change that could not be made without loss of 
health and life. Measles and mumps began to pre- 
vail, rheumatism made the men lame, chronic 
diarrhoea weakened them, typlioid fever fired their 
blood, and jaundice painted their skins and eyeballs 
yellower than saffron. Two hospital tents were soon 
filled to overflowing, and an African church near by 
was appropriated as regimental hospital ; while the 
'sick call' brought to the surgeon's quarters a daily- 
increasing crowd who desired medical treatment or 
an excuse from duty. The first death— that of Daniel 
E. Lyman, of Company C — occurred on the 2d of 
November. Corporal Frederick B. Webster, of D 
Company, followed him on the 6th, and Arthur G. 
Kellogg, of C Company, on the 10th ; and by New 
Year the number had increased to seventeen. Some 
of them were embalmed and sent home, and some 
buried in the soldiers' cemetery in the southern edge 
of the city with military honors, which consisted of 
an escort of their comrades with reversed arm.s, a roll 
of muffled drums, the mournful ' Pleyel's Hymn' 
tremulously executed upon the fife, and a salute fired 
over the grave, with sometimes a prayer from the 
chaplain, and sometimes without. 

" Colonel Wessells, having been taken ill soon after 
reaching Alexandria, was confined at King Street 
Hos])itaI during the greater part of the fall, and went 
home about New Year on a two months' leave of 
absence; so that Lieut.-Col. Kellogg had almost un- 
interrupted command from the time the regiment left 
Connecticut until the following April. 

"Comi)any A was .sent into the city and quartered 
at the foot of Duke Street on the l.'ith of November, 
to guard the government stores, wlierc it remainc<l 
until about New Year, when the regiment was trans- 
ferred to Gen. Robert O. Tyler's command, which now 
consisted of the Nineteenth Connecticut, First Con- 
necticut Artillery, Fourteenth Massachusettt*, and a 
New York regiment, and was entitled the 'Military 
Defenses of Alexandria.' 

"Jan. 12, 1803, the regiment moved up the Lees- 
burg pike, passeil Fairfax Seminary, and encamped 
among the stumps a few rods from the abatis of 
Fort Worth. The liability of an immediate call to 
the front wius now .so far diminished that there wivs a 
very noticeahle relaxation of military rigor. Dre.^s 
parade, guard mounting, and camp guard were for 
some days the only disciplinary dutie-s required, and 
great was the enjoyment atforded by the respite. 
Stumps were to be cleared away, and dit<-hing and 
draining done for a camp and parade-ground, and the 



change from constant duty under arms to chopping, 
grubbing, and digging fresh earth was extremely 
grateful and beneficial. True, the month of January 
witnessed a greater mortality than any other of the 
entire twenty months passed in the ' Defenses,' but 
it was the result of disease previously contracted. 
The improved and improving condition of the regi- 
mental health is shown in the record of deaths for 
186.3, which is as follows: January, 16; February, 5; 
March, 3 ; April, 5 ; May, 1 ; June, 1 ; July, ;* Au- 
gust, 1 ; September, 3 ; October, 3 ; November, 2 ; De- 
cember, 2. 

" Fort Worth was a neat little earthwork, situated 
about a quarter of a mile in rear of Fairfax Seminary, 
overlooking the broad valley of Hunting Creek and 
the Orange and Alexandria Railway, and mounting 
some twenty-four guns of all kinds, — Rodman, Par- 
rott, Whitworth, eight-inch howitzers, and iron and 
Coehorn mortars. Here the winter was passed. 

" After the middle of March a large number of men 
were daily sent to load cars with wood, several miles 
out on the Orange and Alexandria Railway, and each 
man always brought home a stick on his shoulder, so 
that firewood was no longer dug out of stumps. On 
the 13th of April orders were received from Gen. 
Heintzelman, the commander of the Department of 
Wa.shington, directing the Nineteenth Connecticut 
Volunteers to be i)rovided with shelter tents and seven 
days' cooked rations, and to be held in readiness to 
march. The regimental pulse was instantly quick- 
ened. Troops were hourly parsing, on their way to 
join Hooker's army, and the command to ' fall in' 
and take the ' route stop' in the same direction 
was hourly expected. Superfluous property was dis- 
posed of, and bushels of letters dispatched northward. 
Capt. His.scll, <[uite as much excited as any of his men, 
gave an enormous ham to a squad in Company A, 
with much the same liberality wherewith a death- 
doomed voyager flings liis gold and jewels about the 
cabin of a sinking ship. lUit army life is full of va- 
rious surprises. Troops sometimes unexpectedly go, 
and sometimes unexpectedly stay. Not only that 
April, but the next April also, left us still in the de- 
fenses of Washington. 

" On the rith of May the regiment was for the first 
time broken up into separate garrisons. Companies 
n, F", anil G went to Fort Kllsworth ; Company A, 
to Redoubt A; CNmipany D, to Redoubt 15; Com- 
panies C and K, to Redonbt C ; and Comjianies E, 
H, anil I, t<) Redoubt I); and this arrangement oon- 
tinueil during the summer. These redoubln were 
snuill works in the vicinity of Fort Lyr)n, mi the 
Mount Vernon road, and commanding the land and 
water approaches to .\lcxandria on the south. About 
this time Gen. Tyler wits relieved in command by 
Qen. Do Russy, and all the fortiflcations from Alex- 



• Jaljr, IMS. 1 
dmih occurrwl. 



I tlM oalf moDlh o( Uw tsUn thra* 7Mn In wlikli do 



56 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



andria to Georgetown received the name of the ' De- 
fenses of Washington South of the Potomac,' and 
the troops stationed therein constituted the Twenty- 
second Army Corps. During the entire season the 
Nineteenth was called upon for nothing more labori- 
ous than drilling, target practice, stockade-building 
in Alexandria, picking blackberries, drinking a quar- 
ter of a gill of whisky and quinine at reveille and 
retreat, and drawing pay from Maj. Ladd every two 
months. Yet a good many seemed to be in all sorts 
of affliction, and were constantly complaining because 
they could not fjo to the front. A year later, wheu the 
soldiers of the Nineteenth were staggering along tlie 
Pamunkey with heavy loads and blistered feet, or 
throwing up breastworks with their coffee-pots, all 
night under fire, in front of Petersburg, they looked 
back to the defenses of Washington as to a lost 
Elysium, and fervently longed to regain those bliss- 
ful seats. O Happiness ! why is it that men never 
recognize thy features until thou art far away ? 

" Col. Wessells resigned, on account of ill health, 
on the 16th of September. In October the regiment 
was withdrawn from the redoubts and brigaded with 
the First Connecticut Heavy Artillery, under the 
command of Col. Henry L. Abbott. The regimental 
headquarters were established at ' Oak Grove House,' 
and the companies distributed at three forts, — Ells- 
worth, Williams, and Worth, — where they remained 
until the following May. 

" About the middle of November, Gen. Barry, chief 
of artillery of the Department of Washington, re- 
viewed Col. Abbott's brigade, and made a particularly 
carcliil inspection of the Nineteenth Connecticut ; 
and, from what occurred a day or two thereafter, it 
was inferred that he bore to Washington a good report 
of Col. Kellogg and his command, for on the 23d 
of November the War Department issued an order 
changing the Nineteenth Connecticut Infantry to a 
regiment of heavy artillery,* and directing it to 
be filled up to the maximum artillery standard. 
This was joyful news. It did not take long (for every 
man was his own tailor) to exchange the faded blue 
straps and chevrons for bright red, and that soldier 
could not be accused of overmuch ambition who did 
not see some chance for promotion among the two 
majors, two companies, two captains, twenty-eight 
lieutenants, forty-six sergeants, and sixty-four cor- 
porals that would be required in addition to those 
already on hand. Lieuts. Edward W. Marsh and Oren 
H. Knight were already in Connecticut on recruiting 
service, and on the 30th of November Lieut. Benja- 
min F. Hosford, with a party of ten enlisted men, 
left for home on the same duty. A draft was then 
pending and enormous bounties were oflFered for vol- 
unteers, and these officers and men entered upon their 
duties with vigor, and achieved a success which, it 



* The name of " Second Connecticut Artillery" was given by Governor 
Buckingham, 



may safely be said, had no parallel in the history of 
recruiting during the entire war. The first install- 
ment — 68 men — arrived on the last day of the year ; 
on New Year's day (1864), forty-four more; fifty on 
the 6th of January ; another lot on the 9th ; one 
hundred and fifteen on the 10th; more on the 17th; 
and so on until the 1st of March, by which time the 
regiment had received over eleven hundred recruits, 
and now contained eighteen hundred men. The new- 
comers were divided equ.iUy among the several com- 
panies, and the full complement of officers and non- 
commissioned officers forthwith ordered. It was as- 
tonishing to see with what celerity a promoted ser- 
geant would shed his enlisted man's coat and appear 
in all the pomp and consequence of shoulder-straps 
and terrible scimitar, and it was for some time a 
question of serious discussion among the older officers 
whether the fort gates would not have to be enlarged 
in order to facilitate the ingress aad egress of the new 
lieutenants who drew such an alarming quantity of 
water. 

" After the resignation of Col. Wessells, the colo- 
nelcy remained vacant for some time. It was sup- 
posed that Governor Buckingham hesitated to give 
the eagles to Lieut.-Col. Kellogg on account of his 
rude treatment of Maj. Smith a few months before, 
and a rumor reached camp that a certain unpopular 
major of the First Artillery was endeavoring to ob- 
tain this position. A petition praying that Kellogg 
might not be thus ignominiously 'jumped' was in- 
stantly signed by nearly every member of the regi- 
ment and forwarded to the Governor, who thereupon 
immediately sent him a colonel's commission. 

" It was about one o'clock on the morning of the 
17th of May when an orderly galloped up and dis- 
mounted at headquarters near Fort Corcoran, knocked 
at the door of the room where Col. Kellogg and the 
adjutant lay soundly sleeping, drew from his belt and 
delivered a package, received the indorsed envelope, 
and mounted and galloped off again, as little con- 
scious that he had brought the message of destiny to 
hundreds of men as the horse which bore him. The 
dispatch, as nearly as can now be remembered, read 
thus: 

" ' War Depaetmest, AnjT -Genl's. Office, 
"Washington, May 16, 1864. 
" ' [Special Oedehs, No. 438.] 

"'The commanding officer of the Second Connecticut Heavy Artil- 
lery will proceed at once, with his command, to join the Army of the Po- 
tomac, now in the vicinity of Spottsylvania Court-house. Transporta- 
tion from Alexandria to Belle Plain will be furnished by Capt. A. S. 
Lee, A.Q.M. At Belle Plain he will report to Brig.-Gen. Abcrcrombie 
for supplies, and for directions how to proceed. 

" ' Having arrived at the Army of the Potomac, he will report imme- 
diately to Maj.-Gen. Meade, commanding, for duty. 
" * By order of the Secretary of War, 

" ' E. D. TowNSENn, 

" ' AssUtant AdjuUint-Generol.^ 

" Five minutes had not elapsed before staff-officers 
and orderlies were hurrying from fort to fort, and in 
less than five minutes more the sound of the reveille 



MILITARY HISTOEY. 



57 



and the sharp command ' Fall in /' broke upon the still 
night air, and the soldiers came pouring from their 
cosey bunks, like angry bees when their hive is rudely 
disturbed, and formed in line to hear the order. 

" The day was passed in busy preparation for de- 
parture. In the evening the companies assembled 
near the Arlington House, and the regiment moved to 
the outskirts of Alexandria, where it bivouacked a 
little after midnight. Early in the morning* we em- 
barked for Belle Plain, at which place we arrived in 
the afternoon, in a pouring rain and in mud knee- 
deep, in floundering through which many a soldier 
lost one or both of his shoes. Night found us curled 
up and shivering under shelter tents among the drip- 
ping bushes on the steep hillsides, each man svipplied 
with five days' rations and one hundred rounds of 
ammunition, with orders to carry the same somehow 
on his person. About midnight the rain ceased, and 
Maj. Ladd, who had failed to reach us at Alexandria, 
and had followed right on, paid off the regiment. On 
the 19th we marched to Fredericksburg, at that time 
the hosijital city, nearly every house of which was 
filled with wounded, and on the 20th, after passing 
Massaponax church and crossing the Mat, the Ta, the 
Po, and the Ny, four small streams that form the Matta- 
pony, we reached the headquarters of the Army of the 
Potomac, and were at once assigned to the Second Bri- 
gade, First Division, Sixth Corps. The army had been 
lying for several days where we found it, resting a 
little (although with constant skirmishing and picket- 
firing) after the recent severe fighting in the Wilder- 
ness, and waiting for reinforcements, and now, having 
received them, it began to swing to the 'left,' — i.e., to 
the southward. On the 21st the Second Connecticut 
found itself for the first time face to face with the 
enemy. Yes, that dingy-looking line, slowly moving 
to the north along that slope, a mile and a lialf in 
front of us, wa.s a body of real, live Jnhnniet, and 
those puffs of smoke in the woods below were from 
the muskets of rebels wlio were firing on our pickets. 
During that afternoon and evening our regiment, al- 
though so lately arrived in the field, occupied a posi- 
tion perhai)s more important and iKuardoiis than any 
other portion of tlie entire army. Tlie Ninth Corps 
had been withdrawn from tlie right aiul luid pa.sscd by 
our rear to the left, leaving the Si.xth Corps on the 
right, and for several hours our men lay with their 
bayonets pointing over a semi-circular line of breast- 
works which constituted tlic extreme riij/il of the vast 
army, nearly all of whicli, except our own brigade, 
was in motion towards tlie left. Just at dark our 
batteries opened on the rebel lines, eliciting no reply, 
but fru.stratiug an attempt nf the enemy to get in 
upon our left and cut us off from the rest of the army. 
Late in the evening we silently moved out, following 
the track of the troops that had preceded us, and 
began that long and terrible series of marches which 

* Hay 18. 1864. 



were continued, almost without a breathing-spell, until 
the 1st of June. The next dayf we passed Guienna 
Station and reached Bowling Green. About noon of 
the following dayj the first rations were issued since 
we left Belle Plain, and late at night we arrived at 
the North Anna River, near Oxford. The men were 
strung along for miles in the rear, so that when a 
picket detail of one hundred and twenty men was 
ordered, immediately upon our arrival, it seemed to 
take half the regiment. The pickets, although hardly 
able to stand up, were sent across the river that night. 
The rest of the men, as they came up, tumbled upon 
the soft and delicious ground of the corn-field where 
we had halted, and 

*'*Not poppy nor manilragora, 
Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world,' 

could have medicined them to a sounder sleep than 
their unutterable weariness quickly brought them. 
On the 24th the river was crossed by pontons at 
Jericho Ford, and the corps disposed for action ; but 
no general engagement occurred, although there was 
lively skirmishing all day, in which the " first blood" 
of the Second Connecticut was drawn. The rebels 
fired upon and drove our pickets, but they were ral- 
lied behind rifle-pits by Capt. Wadharas, who was in 
command, with the loss of Patrick Keegan, of Com- 
pany M, killed, ami three others wounded. Our regi- 
mental and brigade headquarters that day were at the 
house of one Fontaine, a wealthy and grand old rebel, 
who had fled on the approach of our army, with all 
his household except one or two slave women. 

" While some of the field- and stall'-otticers were ly- 
ing on the ground near this house that afternoon, 
Maj. Hubbard suddenly asked, 'What was that? I 
thought I heard a "thud" just now.' Maj. Uice, who 
lay not more than six feet off, replied, ' I guess you 
did, for I felt something go through me ;' and, putting 
his hand beneath his clothing, drew it forth stained 
with blood. It was the work of a rebel sharpshooter, 
who could not have been less than a mile distant, and 
whos« telescopic rifle had probably mistaken the ma- 
jor's gilt leaves for the stars of a major-general, 
which they resemble. The projectile piuksed through 
the scrotum ami the fleshy part of the rump, and 
could not have exceeded the sixteenth part of an inch 
in diameter. Maj. Rice was disabled but two or 
three days. It was in this manner tliat Maj. -Gen. 
Sedgwick had been picketl off a week before, and 
possibly by the same skillful hand. 

I " On the 2Gth the Fifth and Second Corps were 
engaged on our left, which extended tnwards Hano- 
ver Junction ; but our own operations were confined 
to tearing up a quantity of railroad-track near Noel's 

' Station, and forming a line of battle nl>out nightfall 
in a thick wood on the crest of a hill ailjaceiit to Lit- 
tle Uivcr. Here again we were on the extreme right 
of the army. Whether this formation was for the pur- 



t M*T «, 1804. 



tlt«]P«S,18M. 



58 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



pose of making or resisting an attack 1 do not know ; 
but, at all events, the attempt to dislodge Lee from his 
position here seems to have been abandoned about 
that time, and at daylight we recrossed the river and 
marched to Chesterfield Station, where we halted 
from noon until evening. During the afternoon 
Upton called on Col. Kellogg and said, ' Colonel, let 
your men know that we are to have a liard march to- 
night, so that they may get as much rest as possible. 
We shall jirobably be within fifteen miles of Rich- 
mond to-morrow morning.' At eight o'clock the col- 
umn was again in motion, on the road following the 
left bank of the Pamunkey ; and oh ! what language 
will convey to those who were not there the least idea 
of the murderous cruelty of that march? We had al- 
ready sull'ered all that flesh and blood seemed able to 
bear on the road from 8pottsylvania to the North 
Anna, and the future had in store for us many other 
marches that were grievous beyond expression ; but I 
am persuaded that if all the regiment were to be sum- 
moned — the living and the dead — and notified that 
all their nuirches except one must be performed over 
again, and that they might choose vhich one should 
be omitted, the almost unanimous cry would be, ' De- 
liver us from the accursed night-march along the Pa- 
munkey !' In darkness and silence, hour after hour, 
without a rest of more tlian five minutes at a time, the 
corps was hurled along that sandy road. There was 
no danger that the head of the column would lose its 
way, for a large body of cavalry had preceded us a 
day or two before, and dead horses lined the road 
throughout at intervals averaging not more than a 
quarter of a mile, sickening all the motionless air. 
Ten o'clock, — eleven o'clock, — midnight, — two 
o'clock, — four o'clock, — the darkness began to fade 
before the inflowing tides of the morning light, but 
still the jaded men moved on. Capt. Burnham, with 
stockings and rags bound upon his blistered feet like 
sandals (his boots h.aving been used up and thrown 
away), hobbled painfully along beside his men, whose 
feet, like those of all the rest, were in the same con- 
dition. In the morning, after passing Mongohick 
and turning to the right, we crossed the Pamunkey 
on pontons, and encamped on the southern bank, 
not I'ar from Hanovertown, where we lay until the 
afternoon of the next day, when we moved three 
miles and encamped again. The whole army seemed 
to be close along, and there was considerable cavalry 
skirmishing somewhere in the neighborhood. 

" On the 29th the First Division was sent on a rec- 
onnoissance, and marched in a roundabout way until 
it struck the railroad. Having thrown out a strong 
picket and destroyed a portion of track, we lay down 
for the night on the direct road leading from Han- 
overtown to Richmond. On the 30th we were roused 
at dawn, returned to the Richmond road, drew three 
days' rations, and marched five or six miles towards 
Mechanicsville. Some of our men were on picket, 
and there was more or less firing all day in front. 



On the 31st we lay along the edge of a piece of woods 
near Tolopotomy Creek, behind breastworks, passing 
the day without much danger of position. During 
the entire day there was very lively firing along our 
front, and we had two B men and three L men 
wounded, — those two companies being on the skir- 
mish-line until afternoon, when they were relieved 
by A and another company. Here again the Sixth 
Corps held the right; but only twelve hours elapsed 
before it had been moved (and our regiment with it, 
of course) in rear of the rest of the army and ap- 
peared on the extreme left at Cold Harbor. 

" June relieved May at midnight. Half an hour 
afterwards we had withdrawn from the Tolopotomy 
and were swinging along the road, through pitchy 
darkness, towards the south. Having marched, with 
short and few rests, nearly until the following noon, 
we halted along the eastern edge of a pine wood, 
where we lay for perhaps half an hour. Col. Kel- 
logg remarked that it seemed as though he had been 
on that ground before, and so he doubtless had in 
JlcClellan's campaign. At first there was nothing to 
indicate that this was more than an ordinary halt, 
and the men fell to hard-tack and sleep, according as 
their hunger or weariness predominated, though it 
was generally the latter, for hard-tack could be taken 
on the march, while sleep could not. Near us was an 
unpaiuted house, inferior looking in everything ex- 
cept its dimensions, and about half a mile to the 
south were two or three others of the same sort. At 
the time we did not know, nor care, what buildings 
these were, but those of us who were alive the next 
day learned that they constituted the settlement 
known as Cold Harbor. In a few minutes the ad- 
vance of several other columns, together with bat- 
teries of field artillery and ammunition-trains, began 
to appear on the open level fields in our rear; but 
we were so nearly dead with marching and want of 
sleep that we hardly heeded these movements, or re- 
flected on their portentous character. ' Jim, there's 
a pile of troops coming. I guess there's going to be 
a fight. You'd better wake up.' Such a jiiece of in- 
telligence and advice as this, given to a prostrate sol- 
dier by some less exhausted comrade, would elicit 
some such reply as this : ' I don't care a damn. I 
wish they'd shoot us and done with't. I'd rather be 
shot than marched to death.' And the sleeper would 
not even raise his head to look. But if the prosi^ect 
of a coming battle could not move them, there was 
one other thing that could, and that was the com- 
mand 'Fall in !' The brigade moved again towards 
the left about one o'clock, and, leaving the road, fol- 
lowed along the edge of the woods until our regiment, 
which was in the advance, reached a position almost 
in front of the Cold Hai'bor houses before mentioned, 
and about fi fteen rods north of the road that led from 
these houses direct to Richmond. Some of the men 
began to go for water and to gather fuel for cooking 
coffee, having eaten nothing except raw hard-tack 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



59 



since the night before ; but this was at once forbidden, 
and they were ordered to keep near the stacks of 
muskets. Sheridan's cavalry had been skirmishing 
on this ground tlie day before, and five dead rebels 
lay within thirty feet of where we had halted. Our 
men dug a grave about two feet deep on the spot, and 
scarcely were the five laid side by side therein and 
covered up before a few shots from pickets or sharp- 
shooters came singing over our heads from a little to 
the left of our front. It was evident, therefore, that 
the enemy was there, but in how great force we did 
not know. It is said that Longstreet's corps, which 
was in front of the Sixth Corps on the Tolopotomy 
the day before, had moved, in like manner, from one 
flank of the rebel army to the other, and now again 
confronted us at Cold Harbor. But it is hardly prob- 
able that there was any such force in our front at 
noon as was found there at five o'clock. 

" Just at the left of the spot where we had stacked 
our muskets was a hollow, basin-like spot, containing 
about an acre of land and a few pine- and chestnut- 
trees, and well protected on the front by a curved 
line of breastworks which were thrown up during 
McClellan's campaign, two years before, or else had 
been erected by Sheridan's cavalry. In this hollow 
the three battalions of our regiment were massed 
about two or three o'clock, preparatory to a charge 
which had been ordered by Gen. Meade to take place 
at five. By this time the field-pieces of the First Di- 
vision had taken position directly in our rear, while 
the rebels had batteries directly in our front, and for 
a long time the solid shot flew back and forth between 
them, riglit above our heads, lopping off twigs, limbs, 
and even large branches, wliicii came crasiiing down 
among the ranks. Said Col. Kellogg to the first bat- 
talion, ' Now, men, when you have the order to move, 
go in steady, keep cool, keep still until I give you the 
order to charge, and then go, arms a-port, with a yell. 
Don't a man of you fire a shot until we are within the 
enemy's breastworks. I shall be with you.' Even all 
this, added to a constantly-increasing picket-fire and 
ominous signs on every liand, could not e.xcite the men 
to any great degree of interest in what was going on. 
Their stupor was of a kind that none can d&'<cribc, 
and none but soldiers can understand. In proof of 
this only one incident need be mentioned. Corp. 
William A. Hosford, then of Com|)any E, heard the 
foregoing instructions given by Col. Kellogg, and yet 
wa.s waki'il out of a »ound tiecp when the moment 
came to move forward. 

" Col. Upton, the brigade commander, was in almost 
constant conference with Col. Kellogg, giving him in- 
structions how and when to proceed, -lurveying the 
ground, and an.xiously hut <|uietly watching tlii.s new 
regiment, which, although it now constituted more 
than half his command, he had never seen in action. 
The arrangement of companies and battalions was 
the same that had been c.slablished in the defcnsc.t 
ujiou the change from infantry to artillery. The 



following diagram will show the formation at Cold 
Harbor : 

FEONT. 

FIRST BATTALION — MAJOR HUBBARD. 

A B K E 



Left. - 



Wadltaitts. 



Lewis. 



-I- 



Spencer. 



Skinner. 



■ Eight. 



SECOND BATTALION— MAJOR RICE. 

C H 



Denne. Fttiii. Berry, 

THIRD BATTALION — MAJOR ELLS. 

M D I 



Gold. 



Hon/urd. Bumh'tm. 



Jones. 



" Ai five o'clock — or it might have been somewhat 
later — the three battalions were moved just in front 
of the curved breastworks, where they remained for 
two or three minutes, still closed in mass. Knapsacks 
were left behind the breastworks. Pine woods — or 
rather a few tall pine-trees, not numerous enough to 
hide our movements — extended about ten rods to the 
front, and then came an open field. Col. Kellogg, 
having instructed Majs. Kice and Ells to follow at 
intervals of one hundred paces, placed himself in front, 
and gave the command, 'Forward! Guide Centre! 
March !' The first battalion, with the colors in the 
centre, moved directly forward through the scattering 
woods, crossed the open field at a double-quick, and 
entered another pine wood, of younger and thicker 
growth, where it came upon the first line of rebel rifle- 
pits, which was abandoned at its approach. Passing 
this line, the battalion moved on over sloping ground 
until it reached a small, o])en hollow, irilliin fifteen 
or twenty yarih of the enemy's main line of breastworks. 
There had been a thick growth of pine sprouts and 
saplings on this ground, but the rebels had cut them, 
probably that very day, and had arranged them so 
as to form a very eflective abatis, thereby clearing 
the spot, and thus enabling them to see our move- 
ments. Up to this point there had been no firing 
sutllcient to confuse or check the battalion; but here 
the rebel musketry opened. The cummander of the 
rebel battalion directly in our front, whoever he was, 
had his men under excellent control, and his fire was 
held until our line had reached the abatis, and then 
.systematically delivereil, — first by his rear rank, and 
then by his front rank. \ sheet of (lame, sudden as 
lightning, red a.s blood, and so near that it .seemed to 
singe the men's liices, burst along the rebel breast- 
work ; and the ground and trees close behind our line 
were plowctl and riddled with a thousand halls that 
just missed the heads of the men. The battalion 
droppe<l flat on the ground, and the second volley like 
the first, nearly all went over. iSeveral men were struck, 
but not a large number. It is more than probable that if 
there had been no other than this front fire, the rebel 
breastworks would have been ours, notwitlistanding 
the pine boughs. But at that moment a long line of 
rebels on our left, extending all the way to the Uicb- 



60 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



mond road, having nothing in tlieir own front to 
engage their attention,* and having unobstructed 
range on the battalion, opened a fire which no liunian 
valor could withstand, and which no pen can ade- 
quately describe. The appended list of casualties tells 
the story. It was the work of almost a single minute. 
The air was filled with sulphurous smoke, and the 
shrieks and howls of more than two hundred and fifty 
mangled men rose above the yells of triumphant 
rebels and the roar of their musketry. About Face ! 
shouted Col. Kellogg; but it was his last command. 
He liad already been struck in the arm, and the 
words had scarcely passed his lips when another shot 
pierced his head, and he fell dead upon the interlacing 
pine boughs. Wild and blind with wounds, bruises, 
noise, smoke, and conflicting orders, the men stag- 
gered in every direction, some of them falling upon 
the very top of the rebel parapet, where they 
were completely riddled witli bullets, others wan- 
dering oti' into the woods on the right and front, to 
find their way to death by starvation at Anderson- 
ville, or never to be heard from again. LIE DOWN! 
said a voice that rang out above the horrible din. It 
was the voice of Col. Ui)tou, whose large bay horse 
was dancing with a bullet in his bowels. The 
rebels in front now fired a-s fast as they could load, 
and those of our men who were not wounded, 
having worked their way back a few yards into the 
woods, began to reply with energy. But the wounds 
showed that nine-tenths of our Ciisualties were inflic- 
ted by that unopi)Osed fire on the left flank. The 
second battalion followed the first, according to in- 
structions, crossed the open field under a» scattering 
fire, and, having moved through the woods until within 
perhaps seventy-five yards of the first battalion, was 
confronted by Col. Upton with the command Lie 
down! LIE down! — which was obeyed with the 
utmost alacrity. Maj. Ells was wounded very soon 
after the third battalion commenced to follow, and 
his command devolved upon Capt. Jones. Upon 
reaching the woods, this battalion also had orders 
to lie down. The rebel fire came through the woods 
from all parts of the line, and most of the losses in 
these two battalions occured while lying here. ' Put 
xip your sabre,' said Col. Upton to a young officer, 
' I never draw mine until we get into closer quarters 
than this. See the Johnnies ! See the Johnnies ! 
Boys, we'll have these fellows yet!' said he, pointing 
to the front, where a long string of them came run- 
ning through the lines towards us. Tliey were the 
very men who had delivered the first two volleys in 
our front, and (there being a lull in the firing at the 
moment) they came tumbling over the breastwork in 



* The rest of the brigade— i.''., the One Hundred and Twenty-first and 
Sixty-fifth New York, Ninety-fifth Pennsylvania, and Fifth Maine — wore 
formed in three lines immediately on our left, and advanced when we 
did. But they received a heavy fire, and advanced but part of the way. 
Indeed, the first battalion of our regiment went uji to the enemy's breast- 
work alone. Our right was nobody's left, and our left nobody's right. 



a crowd, within two or three rods of where Kellogg's 
body lay. We had too much on hand just then to 
run after safely-bagged prisoners, and when they got 
to the rear the Third Division (who, by the way, 
having at first advanced on our right, had broken 
and run to the rear through our first battalion as it 
was charging, and were consequently in a convenient 
position to make the 'capture') jjut a guard over 
them and triumphantly marched them to army head- 
quarters ; and in due time Gen. Meade issued an 
order complimenting the Third Dicision of the Sixth 
Arviy Corps for having captured between three and 
four hundred prisoners, which they never captured 
at all.t The lines now became very much mixed. 
Those of the first battalion who were not killed or 
wounded gradually crawled or worked back ; wounded 
men were carried through to the rear; and the woods 
began to grow dark, either with night or smoke, or 
both. The news of Kellogg's death quickly found its 
way everywhere. The companies were formed and 
brought up to the breastwork one by one, and the 
line extended towards the left. As Lieut. Cleveland 
was moving in with the last company, a squad of 
rebels rose directly in front, fired a volley very wildly, 
and drojijjed. The fire was vigorously returned, and 
the enemy soon vacated the breastwork in our im- 
mediate front and crept off through the darkness. 
Thousands and thousands of bullets 'zipped' back 
and forth over the bodies of the slain, now striking 
the trees high uj) with a ' spud,' and now piercing 
the ground under foot. Upton stood behind a tree in 
the extreme front, and for a long time fired muskets 
as fast as the men could load and hand them to him. 
Some sudden movement caused a panic, and they 
started to flee, when he cried out with a voice that no 
man wlio heard it will ever forget, 'lien of Connecti- 
cut, stand bij me! We MUST hold this line!' It 
brought them back, and the line was held. Firing 
was kept up all night long, by a few men at a time, 
to let the enemy know that we were there and awake, 
and thus to deter them from attempting to retake the 
line, which they could easil}' have done. Maj. Hub- 
bard sent word twice to Col. Upton that if the enemy 
should attempt to return he could not possibly hold 
it. Upton's reply was, ' He must hold it. If they 
come there, catch them on your bayonets and pitch 
them over your heads.' At the first ray of dawn it 
was strengthened and occupied by skirmishers; and 
during our stay at Cold Harbor, which lasted until 
midnight of June 12th, it remained our front line, 
the rebel front line being about thirty-five rods dis- 
tant and parallel with it. 

" On the morning of the 2d the wounded who still 

t Kvery surviving man of the Second Connecticut Artillery will bear 
witness that the Ninth New York Artillery (which belonged to tho 
Third Division) came pell-mell through our regiment towards tlie rearaa 
we were charging, and that the captuie of these prisoners was made by 
our regiment alone. Col. Upton, who saw the whole of it, said that the 
matter should be rectified, aud the credit given to the Second Connecti- 
cut. But it never was. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



61 



remained were got off to the rear and taken to the 
division hospital, some two miles back. Many of 
them had lain all night, with shattered bones, or weak 
from loss of blood, calling vainly for help, or water, 
or death. Some of them lay in positions so exposed 
to the enemy's fire that they could not be reached 
until the breastworks had been built up and strength- 
ened at certain points, nor even then without much 
ingenuity and much danger ; but at length they were 
all removed. Where it could be done with safety, 
the dead were buried during the day. Most of the 
bodies, however, could not be reached until night, and 
were then gathered and buried under cover of the 
darkness. 

" On the morning of the 3d the regiment was again 
moved forward, under the personal command of Col. 
Upton, from the same spot whence the fatal charge 
had been made thirty-six hours before ; but this time 
we proceeded by a circuitous route which kept us tol- 
erably well protected. Several, however, were killed 
and wounded during this movement, and after we had 
taken position. The line was pushed to the left, con- 
siderably nearer the Richmond road than we had been 
before, and there speedily covered by breastworks. 
This, I presume, was our part of the movement of 
June 3d, which the larger histories regard as the battle 
of Cold Harbor. Perhaps it was. It has always 
seemed, however, to the survivors of the Second Con- 
necticut Heavy Artillery (Upton's Brigade, Russell's 
Division, Wright's Corps) that the affair of June Ist 
was entitled to more than the two or three lines of 
bare mention with which it is tossed off in ' Greeley's 
American Conflict,' ' Dcming's Life of Grant,' 'How- 
land's Grant,' and i)robably every other of the more 
important and comprehensive histories of the war. 

"Artillery and picket firing continued through the 
entire twelve days during which the lines at Cold 
Harbor were held, and casualties occurred in the reg- 
iment almost daily. 

"The ranking officer* of the regiment, after the 
death of Col. Kellogg, was Lieut.-Col. James Hub- 
bard, to whom Governor Buckingham immediately 
forwarded a commission as colonel. Hubbard, how- 
ever, was unwilling to a-ssume the responsibility of 
the command. In common with all the officers and 
men, he was worn out. The purely murderous charge 
of June 1st was our first, and thus far our only, fighl- , 
ing experience, and Lieut.-Col. Hubbard drew the , 
hasty inference that all the fighting was likely to con- 
sist in a similar walking right into the jaws of hell. 
He afterwards found that this was a mistake. During 
the ten months which fullowcd, the regiment was in 
the hottest of many a hot fight, and did its whole 
duty, but it never found another Cold Harbor. Col. 
Upton advised him to head a recommendation from 
his officers for the appointment of Randal 8. Macken- 



* MiO. Nathkiilel .Sniltli wiu imininto'l t» lioiiloii*iit.culuu«l u|<oii tlig 
cliBiigo to nrtlllory, ouU migiinl for dlauMllt}', M«y 0, 1804. ' 

6 



zie, a graduate of West Point, and cagtain of engi- 
neers, who was then on some duty atarmy headquarters. 
Hubbard called a meeting of his officers and laid the 
matter before them. They unanimously opposed the 
proposition ; but he assured them he should decline 
the colonelcy, and at his request all the officers 
joined him in recommending to Governor Bucking- 
ham the appointment of Capt. Mackenzie. The 
recommendation was forwarded ' through the regular 
channel,' favorably indorsed by Upton, Russell, 
Wright, Meade, and Grant ; and on the 6th of June 
Col. Mackenzie appeared and assumed command. 

" New and strong lines of breastworks were built 
at Cold Harbor during the 10th, 11th, and 12th of 
June, and it began to be the general opinion that the 
place was to be permanently occupied and fortified. 
By the term ' general opinion' I mean the opinion 
along the line ; and that was not always well founded. 
Things had changed in the Army of the Potomac 
since the peninsular campaign, and it was not now 
the custom to inform the rank and file, and the news- 
papers, and the enemy, of intended movements. Work 
was continued on the breastworks, by large details of 
soldiers, until almost the hour of leaving Cold Har- 
bor, — probably to protect the withdrawing troops in 
case of attack. It was nearly midnight on the 12th 
of June when we found ourselves in motion on the 
road to White House, and innumerable were the 
conjectures as to our destination. The night was in- 
tensely dark, and after having nuirched a mile or two 
we became entangled with the Second Corps (which 
was also in motion) in such a manner that there 
would have been ugly work in the event of an attack. 
But at length the difiiculty was overcome, and we 
moved rapidly on until morning, when the sun indi- 
cated that our destination must be some other place 
than White House, for we were marching south- 
east instead of northea.st. ISy seven o'clock that 
evening we had marched thirty miles, and were en- 
canij>ed a mile and a half south of the Chickahominy, 
and six miles from Charles City Court-house. On 
the 14th we marched at seven o'clock A.M., and en- 
camped about noon not far from the river. On the 
15th we moved a mile and a half. On the IGth 
moved again a short distance; hoard firing for the 
first and only time since leaving Cold Harbor; threw 
up a line of breastworks, and took a bath in the river. 
It was the only luxury we had had for weeks. 
Troops were embarking all day at the landing, and at 
midnight we went aboani, — half the companies on 
one transport, and half on another, — and soim were 
so quietly and pleasantly gliding up the brond and 
beautiful river that imagination and mcnior) could 
make it seem, for a moment now and then, like some 
pleasure excursion on the Hudson or Long Island 
Sound. 

" Companies C, D, F, I, L, and M disembarked soon 
after sunrise at Point of Rocks, on the Ajiponiattox ; 
while the other transport, being a little too late for 



62 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



the tide, landed A, B, E, G, H, and K at Bermuda 
Hundred, whence, after a march of three miles, they 
joined the others, and bivouacked until noon. In the 
afternoon we moved two miles farther, and encamped 
in the woods, in the neighborhood of the Sixth and 
Seventh Connecticut, and the First Connecticut Ar- 
tillery. At one o'clock next morning we moved out, 
marched a mile or two in the darkness, halted, and 
stood in ominous silence for a few minutes while 
mounted officers rode silently by, after which we 
returned by the same way to camp. It has always 
been supposed that this move was intended for a 
charge, which, for some reason not known (but which 
would doubtless have been deemed abundantly suffi- 
cient by the regiment, if their opinion had been asked), 
was not made. 

" Reveille was sounded next morning* at three 
o'clock, rations issued, and orders received to be ready 
to move at four; but the "pack-up" bugle did not 
sound until five. Such delays may or may not cost a 
campaign ; they are always welcome to soldiers while 
cooking their breakfast. After marching back for 
some distance towards the Point of Hocks, and cross- 
ing the Appomattox by a ponton, we moved directly 
towards the city of Petersburg. 

" In the afternoon we movedf to Harrison's Creek 
and relieved a portion of Hinks' Brigade of colored 
troops, who were holding a line of rifle-pits which, 
together with two guns, they had captured four days 
before. 

"The day was Sunday, — and what a Sunday 1 
Shells whistled and muskets rattled, both to the right 
and left, as far as the ear could reach. Petersburg 
and its inner defenses were in jilain sight; and if our 
troops had not captured the city, we had at least got 
so near that it would be an uncomfortable place for 
trade and residence unless we could be pushed farther 
offi After dark (for no such move could be made by 
daylight) the regiment moved down a steep bank in 
front of Harrison's house, relieved the Eleventh Con- 
necticut, and took position on the eastern edge of a 
broad, level wheat-field. The minie-balls that came 
singing along overhead with a Kee-ooh! oo-oo, told 
that the enemy held the opposite side of the wheat- 
iield, and no time was lost in ' covering.' Spades 
did not come for a long time, and only a few of them 
at last. Tons of loamy earth were thrown, all night 
long, with coffee-pots, bayonets, hands, and shovels 
whittled out of hard-tack boxes. Pickets were sent 
ahead several rods into the field, and three men sta- 
tioned at each post. The 'posts' were holes dug in 
the ground by bayonets and fingers. The deeper the 

* June 19, 1864. 

f The term " we," which so frequently occurs in this volume, is used 
Bometinies for the regiment, sometimes for the hrigade, division, corps, 
or avniy, according to circunistiinces. And tlie writer himself does not 
always know how large a "we" it is. The whole of Kussell's Division 
moved in at Harrison's Creek ; but whether the other two divisions of 
the corjts were there theiimited ninge of vision enjoyed by a regimental 
officer did not enable the writer to know. 



hole, the higher the bank of earth in front ; and the 
pickets very naturally kepi digging to strengthen 
their position. The tall wheat rustled with ripeness 
as they moved through it to and from their posts. 
Are these men who lie here and there dead or asleep? 
Here is one who, at all events, has krinkled and spoiled 
a good deal of wheat in settling down to his rest. Is 
he a reb or one of our men ? It is difficult to tell, on 
account of the darkness, but that is the Union blue. 
Take hold of his arm. Ah ! there is a certain stiff- 
ness that decides the point at once. He probably 
answered to his name this morning at the roll-call of 
the Eleventh Connecticut ; but he will not do so to- 
morrow morning. 

" The first and second battalions dug all night. 
The third went to the rear about nine o'clock, and 
lay in some old rifle-pits, but were ordered to the 
front again just after midnight to help dig. The city 
clocks could be heard" tolling the night-hours away, 
for they were not so far off as Camp Button from Litch- 
field Hill. The morningj revealed a magnificent line 
of earthworks which had grown up in the night for 
our protection. Had they sprung by magic, like the 
palace of some Arabian fable ? No. Our worn and 
weary men knew where they came from. 

" This was the most intolerable position the regi- 
ment was ever required to hold. We had seen a dead- 
lier spot at Cold Harbor, and others awaited us in the 
future ; but they were agonies that did not last. Here, 
however, we had to stay, hour after hour, from before 
dawn until after dark, and that too where we could 
not move a rod without extreme danger. The enemy's 
front line was parallel with ours, just across the 
wheat-field ; then they had numerous sharpshooters, 
who were familiar with every acre of the ground, 
perched in tall trees on both our flanks ; then they 
had artillery posted everywhere. No man could cast 
his eyes over the parapet or expose himself ten feet 
in rear of the trench without drawing fire. And yet 
they did thus expose themselves ; for where there are 
even chances of being missed or hit, soldiers will take 
the chances rather than lie still and suffer from thirst, 
supineness, and want of all things. ' Keep down I' 
roared Maj. Skinner at a man who seemed bent on 
making a target of himself. ' Tell John Meramble 
to stop putting his head over,' said Col. Mackenzie, 
' or he will get it knocked off.' Harvey Pease, of 
Company H, straightened himself up and essayed to 
walk, but was struck in the head before he had taken 
five steps, and fell like a log. Matthias Walter, of 
Company D, was wounded in the thigh by a sharp- 
shooter. John Grieder, of D, received a fatal wound 
in the thigh from a piece of three-inch shell. Corp. 
Disbrow, of H, was hit in the shoulder ; and other 
casualties occurred, until there were eleven in all. 
There was no getting to the rear until zigzag passages 
were dug, and then the wounded were borne off. A 

\ June 20, 18G4. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



63 



new relief of pickets had gone on just before day- 
break, and each man was notified to have two can- 
teens of water, because they must remain until night. 
Reader, do you like to drink warm water ? Then en- 
list in the next war, and stay twelve hours in a hole 
in the ground, without shelter from the fierceness of 
a Virginia sun in June, with bullets passing two feet 
above your head, with dead bodies broiling all around 
you, and with two tin canteens of muddy water. 

"The day wore on, and welcome darkness came at 
last, giving us a chance to stand erect. Our occupa- 
tion continued during the night and the next day, 
the regiment being divided into two reliefs, the one 
off duty lying a little to the rear, in a corn-field near 
Harrison's house. But it was a question whether 
' off' or ' on' duty was the more dangerous. During 
the day* Col. Mackenzie directed his staff-officers to 
occupy separate shelter tents, and to leave him in one 
by himself, in order to diminish the ' chauces' of in- 
jury. When one of them looked into his tent an hour 
afterwards he pointed to a hole through his straw hat, 
remai-king that if any one else had been there some- 
body would have been hurt. Frequent shells came 
just overhead and plunged into the corn-field behind 
us. Company E had a man killed, and K had several 
wounded. A three-inch shell struck right among the 
boys of Company H and threw dirt into their coffee, 
but did not explode. The only shot that was ever 
unmistakably meant for the author of this history, so 
far as he knows, was on that day. There was a well 
ill front of Harrison's house, covered by a roof, which 
was supported by four posts. Tlie writer was sitting 
and drinking with his head leaning against one of 
these posts, when a musket-ball buried itself with a 
' tuiik' in the wood just about four inches too high 
to prevent the writing of this history. I luive ever 
since had some desire to see tliat well. If the post is 
still there, I am quite sure it contains lead. 

"At eight in the evening we were relieved by the 
Eighth Connecticut, and there saw the brave and 
noble Lieut. Seth F. Plumb, of that regiment, for the 
last time. Moving by the left-in-front ( wliieli, by the 
way, was the order of march all the way from Spott- 
sylvania to Petersburg), we rros.sed the City Point 
Railroad, passed Grant's headquarters, and nuirchcd 
by a semi-circular route towards the east, southeast, 
south, and west until three in tlie morning, when we 
bivouacked, not much farther from I'etersburg than 
before. How can we march so far and yet go so little 
way? was the (luestion here, as it iiad been between 
the Toloi>otomy and Cold Harbor. At eight o'clock 
in the morningf we entered the woods, and alter sun- 
dry moves and halts came to a square, open field 
surrounded on all sides by thick woods, where the 
l)rigade was disposed in two lines. \n officer and 
twcTity men were immediately sent out by Mackenzie, 
with orders to push into the wooils directly in ("rout, 



and find the left of the Second Corps pickets. They 
were soon found, and the line was extended from the 
left by details from our regiment. Upton and Russell 
were both out in the jungle on foot, to see the connec- 
tion made. Soon afterwards the first line of the bri- 
gade, which contained our regiment, was advanced 
into the dense wood, perhaps two hundred yards, 
the second line being not far behind, and a few min- 
utes later the pickets were engaged in a sharp skir- 
mish with Hill's rebel division close in our front, 
which resulted in a loss to the Second Connecticut of 
six killed, seven wounded (several of them mortally), 
and six missing, some of whom were afterwards heard 
from at Andersonville. Mackenzie had two fingers 
shot off and afterwards amputated. A good deal of ma- 
noeuvring followed which was difficult to underetand. 
We retired to the open lot, moved about a regiment's 
length to the right, and advanced again, somewhat 
farther than before, into a wilderness of woods, bushes, 
brambles, and vines so thick that a man could hardly 
see his neighbor. This position became a permanent 
picket-line, while the main line was established the 
next dayt along the open field in the rear, and daily 
strengthened until it became impregnable. Here, as 
at Cold Harbor, there was no telling where we were 
until the day after the fight. Kellogg, Wadhams, and 
the multitude who fell with them on the 1st of June, 
never knew that they fell at 'Cold Harbor," — indeed, 
most of them never heard that name, which ha-s since 
become so familiar to their surviving friends. And 
so with the victims and the survivors of June 22d. 
Pine woods, with a jungle of undergrowth, extended 
to an unknown distance in every direction, and the 
only data from which any sort of reckoning could be 
made were the sun and the moon and the firing. 
Time revealed the fact that we were about three miles 
south of Petersburg, and a mile cast of the Weldon 
Railroad, which the enemy held. 

Here, then, the .\rmy of the Potonuic settled down 
to stay. The little barricade of rails where Knight, 
Hempstt^'ad, Guernsey, and many others had found 
their deaths grew day by day into brea-stworks, par- 
allels, batteries, and mighty forts which all the artil- 
lery of the World could not shake. The enemy began 
to fortify with equal strength, and henceforth there 
was more digging than fighting. The seventeen days 
following the 22(1 of June furnished several episodes 
which miijhl have grown (but happily did not) into 
events that would have required a chapter instead of 
a lew lines, — such, for example, as moving out on the 
night of the 2.'t(l and nuissing for a charge; building 
brea-stworksall night on the 24th; marching to lieanis' 
(Station on the 30th to support troo]>s that were tear- 
ing up eight miles of track ; and being under arms 
before daylight, on the (>th of July, in anticipation of 
an attack. Nevertheless, these were days of compar- 
ative rest, quiet, uml comfort. Cam|>s were regularly 



• Juna 21, 1804. 



t Jnn* ^ 1804. 



t JuB* 13, 1801. 



64 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



laid out and well policed. The band and drum corps 
encamped with the regiment, which was an infallible 
sign that danger had evacuated. Each company 
dug a well in the clay and provided it with an old- 
fashioned ' sweep ;' and, inasmuch as the deepest 
well drained all the rest, they were constantly scoop- 
ing out deeper and deeper. The commissary-wagons 
came up, and rations consisted of hard-tack, salt pork, 
coffee, sugar, potatoes, pepper, salt, and rice. The 
sutlers also — those noble patriots — drew near, and the 
soldiers renewed their almost-forgotten acquaintance 
with sardines, bologna, bolivars, condensed milk 
(si.xty cents per can), canned fruits, and a kind of 
bog hay tea, which, after all, was tea. The region 
abounded in young pines ironi one to three inches 
in diameter, and every man had a bedstead con- 
structed of these pine ' poles,' while the long, needle- 
shaped pine leaves made bedding which, if not luxu- 
rious, was certainly better than none. And thus the 
Second Connecticut Heavy Artillery played its part 
on the theatre of war, until a sudden bugle blast on 
the night of the 9th of July announced a shifting of 
the scene. The regiment was then ordered to City 
Point. 

" The morning of July 10, 1SG4, found us— the First 
and Second Divisions of the Si.xth Corps, perhaps 
twelve thousand men in all — embarking at City 
Point as fast as the transports could get up to the 
dock, load, and move off", era route to Washington to 
defend the capital from the expected attack of Gen. 
Early. 

" We passed Alexandriajust aftersunriseof the 12th, 
reached Washington at six o'clock, and marched di- 
rectly up Seventh Street. At ten in the evening the 
regiment marched two or three miles up the road, by 
Fort De Russy, to Fort Kearney, and after much 
shifting lay down on their arms to sleep. In the 
morning Companies C and H were sent to man a 
battery, but returned in half an hour. Early had 
learned of the presence of the Sixth Corps, and also 
of the Nineteenth (Emory's), which had opportunely 
arrived from New Orleans; and he concluded not to 
capture the capital and Capitol, Congress and ar- 
chives, arsenal and navy-yard, Lincoln and Cabinet, 
until (as Pollard says), 'another and uncertain time.' 
He had begun his retreat towards Snicker's Gap, and 
pursuit was instantly made by the Sixth and a divi- 
sion of the Nineteenth Corps, under command of 
Gen. Wright. Our brigade moved up the river at 
2.20 P.M., and bivouacked late in the evening near 
Potomac Cross-Roads. Next morning* we moved at 
half-past five, but not much progress was made for 
some hours, on account of a handful of rebel cavalry, 
who annoyed our advance and covered the enemy's 
retreat. Two of them were captured. But after noon 
the pace was quickened, and, it being intensely hot, 
the march was very severe. Mackenzie stormed at 

* July 14, 1864. 



the company commanders on account of the strag- 
gling, but it was no use. The men fell out inces- 
santly. At seven in the evening we were only two 
hours behind the graybacks, whose rear-guard, as we 
learned from citizens, had skirmished over that region 
during the afternoon. 

" On the 16th we forded the Potomac at Edwards' 
Ferry, and after marching through Leesburg and a 
mile beyond encamped in plain sight of the rebels. 
During this entire march they kept moving as fast as 
we approached, manifesting little or no disposition to 
dispute our progress ; and there was a delay in the 
pursuit which Mr. Greeley, in his ' History of the 
American Conflict,' characterizes as 'timid and fee- 
ble.' It was certainly neither timid nor feeble after 
Ricketts came up with his Third Division on the 17th. 
Starting before sunrise, the entire force moved all 
day and had nearly all passed through Snicker's Gap 
at sunset. The top of the Blue Ridge, overhanging 
the gap, afforded an excellent position for counting 
our troops, and several rebels, thus occupied, were 
captured. As we reached the middle of the gap we 
caught our first glimpse of the beautiful Shenandoah 
valley, with which we were destined, before long, to 
have an intimate and bloody acquaintance. Lively 
artillery-firing could be seen upon a knoll a couple of 
miles to the west, and sharp musketry heard to the 
right of it. We cleared the gap, filed to the right 
into a blind, steep, and narrow defile, which suddenly 
became almost impassably blocked by troops who had 
been driven by the enemy, and were in confused re- 
treat. Having forced a passage through them, we 
reached an opeu field sloping to the Shenandoah 
River, and encamped. Nothing remarkable occurred 
the next day, except an issue of three days' rations, 
including beans and dried apples, with instructions to 
make them \sLStJive days. On the 20th we forded the 
Shenandoah, — which was about four feet deep, and as 
wide as the Housatonic at New Milford, — and moved 
towards Berryville, left in front. The Second Con- 
necticut was the advance regiment of the advance 
brigade, and a portion of it was deployed as skir- 
mishers and marched through the fields parallel with 
the column, and about forty rods on the right of it. 
Few of the regiment will ever forget the shower that 
soaked us that day. A halt was made in the woods 
not far from Berryville, and foraging-parties detailed, 
who secured a large quantity of bacon, vegetables, and 
meal. There must have been some conflict or misun- 
derstanding in the foraging orders, for Lieut. Warren 
Alford, who was on his way to camp with several 
head of cattle and a barrel of flour, was directed by 
Gen. Russell to take them back where he found them. 
Cavalry scouts reported no enemy within eight miles, 
and at midnight the column moved eastward. The 
river was forded again by bright moonlight, and the 
gap passed before day. It seems to have been the 
presumption (an erroneous one) that Early, having 
succeeded in decoying a large army into the valley on 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



65 



a wild-goose chase, was now hurrying back to Peters- 
burg to enable Lee to strike a heavy blow at Grant 
before the Sixth and Nineteenth Corps could be 
moved back to City Point. This, then, was the ex- 
planation of our return through Snicker's Gap. 

" The march back to Washington was severe enough 
to be called a forced march. Moseby's guerillas 
were close upon our rear, and although straggling was 
continually punished by rail-carrying, yet a vast 
number of stragglers were 'gobbled' by the enemy, 
and doubtless found their way to Andersonville or 
some other prison. Tenallytown was reached, by 
way of Chain Bridge, on the 23d, and the stiff", lame, 
sore, tired, hungry men found thirty-six hours' rest, 
new clothing, new shoes, soft bread, and surreptitious 
whisk)', for all of which they were truly thankful ; 
also cross-cannon to adorn their hats, for which they 
would have been more thankful if this brazen badge 
had not been to them such a bitter mockery. 

" But it suddenly seemed as though the cross-cannon 
w-ere to be no longer a mockery. The powers at 
Washington had been pretty well shaken up by the 
thunder of the enemy's guns at the gates of the capi- 
tal, and they resolved that the Sixth and Nineteenth 
Corps should not embark for Petersburg again with- 
out leaving at least a few troops to reinforce the in- 
valids and hundred-days men. For this purpose the 
Second Connecticut Heavy Artillery wsis detached 
from the Sixth Corps and ordered to report to Gen. 
De Riissy, at Arlington. 

" July 25, 1864, the regiment moved through George- 
town, across A(iueduct Bridge, up to Fort Corcoran, and 
by noon the companies were distributed at the same 
eleven forts which they had garrisoned for forty-eight 
hours before going to the front in May. The Ohio 
regiment of hundred-days men which had relieved 
us in May and was still there, with its gawky officers, 
moved out and turned over its comfortable barracks, 
bunks, cook-houses, and light duties to those who 
were able to appreciate them. 

"From this time until tiie following September 
the time was principally passed in marching and 
countermarching. 

"Sei)tcmber 2d found us at Clifton, where we en- 
camped and remained for two weeks, drilling and 
]>rcparing for the grapple which was hidden in the 
immediate future. 

"At three o'clock on the morning of the 19th of 
September the advance was in motion. Our brigade 
started from Clifton about daylight, and, having 
struck the Borryville ])ike, moved five or six miles 
towards Winchester, and halted for an hour aliout 
two miles east of the Opequan, while the Nineteenth 
Corps was crossing. The cavalry had previously 
moved to secure all the crossings, and firing was now 
heard all along the front, and continually increasing. 
The Sixth and Nineteenth Corps, following Wil- 
son's cavalry, which fought the way, croH.se<l at and 
near the pike bridge, our brigade wading the stream 



a few rods north of it. West of the creek the pike 
passed through a gorge over a mile long, from which 
the rebels had been driven by the cavalry. The 
Nineteenth Corps and a portion of our own had 
moved through it and formed a line of battle some 
distance beyond, under a heavy artillery-fire, when 
our division emerged from the gorge and filed to the 
left into a ravine that ran across the pike, where it 
was held in readiness as a reserve. This was about 
half-past nine. The fighting now waxed hotter, 
louder, nearer; nevertheless, some of the men found 
time while their muskets were stacked in this ravine 
to dig potatoes from a neighboring field. At length 
the enemy made a vigorous charge upon the centre 
of the front line, at the point where the Third Brigade 
of the Second Division joined the left of the Nine- 
teenth Corps. The line broke and retreated in com- 
plete disorder, each broken flank doubling and crowd- 
ing back on itself and making for the rear. The 
enemy pushed its advantage and came rolling into 
the breach. It was the critical moment of the day ; 
for if he had succeeded in permanently separating 
the two parts of the line, there would have been no 
possible escape from utter defeat for Sheridan's army. 
At this juncture Gen. Russell, who was watching 
from the rise of ground just in front of the ravine 
where his division lay, exclaimed, 'Look here, it is 
about time to do something! Upton, bring on your 
brigade.' The brigade was at once moved out of the 
ravine, passed through a narrow strip of woods, crossed 
the pike, halted lor a moment in order to close and 
dress up compactly, then went at a double quick by 
the right Hank into the gap that had been made in the 
first line, and made a short halt, just in rear of a 
piece of woods, out of which the reninanta of the 
Second and Third Divisions were still retreating, and 
on the other side of which was the advancing line of 
UdcIos' and (fordon's rebel divisions. The first fire 
that struck our brigade and regiment during the day 
was while coming to this position, (ien. Ru.ssell was 
killed by a shell at the same time, having been pre- 
viously wounded and refused to leave the field. It 
was this movement of our brigotle that checked the 
enemy until the lines were restored and the two or 
three thousanil fugitives brought back. Some of our 
men began to fire, but were quickly ordere<l to desist. 
After a very k\\ minutes the brigade was pushed for- 
ward, the letl half of it being somewhat covered by 
woods, from which position it instantly opene<l a 
terrific fire, while the Second Connecticut, which 
constituteil the right half, passed to the right of the 
woods into an open field of uneven surface, and 
halted ou a spot where the ground was depressed 
enough to atlbrd a little protection, and only a little ; 
for several men were hit while lying there, as well as 
others while getting there. In three minutes the 
regiment again advanced, passed over a knoll, lost 
several more men, and halted in another hollow spot 
similar to the first. The enemy's advance hail now 



6G 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



been pushed well back, and here a stay was made of 
perhaps two hours. Col. Mackenzie rode slowly back 
and forth along the rise of frround in front of this 
position in a very reckless manner, in plain sight and 
easy range of the enemy, who kept up a fire from a 
piece of woods in front, which elicited from him the 
remark, ' I guess those fellows will get tired of firing 
at me by and by.' But the ground where the regi- 
ment lay was very slightly dei)ressed, and although 
the shots missed Mackenzie they killed and wounded 
a large number of both otBcers and men behind him. 
Lieut. Candee merely raised himself from the ground 
on his elbow to look at his watch, but it was enough 
to bring his head in range of a sharpshooter's ball, 
and he was instantly killed. About three o'clock, an 
advance of the whole line having been ordered by 
Sheridan, the regiment charged across the field, Mac- 
kenzie riding some ten rods ahead, holding his hat 
aloft on the point of his sabre. The distance to the 
woods was at least a quarter of a mile, and was tra- 
versed under a fire that carried off its victims at 
nearly every step. The enemy abandoned the woods, 
however, as the regiment approached, in consequence 
of which the line obliqued to the left and halted. 
Companies F and D were here detached and taken off 
to the right on a small reconnoissance, but were soon 
brought back, and the regiment proceeded to the 
right of the woods and partly through them, and ad- 
vanced to a rail-fence which ran along the side of an 
extensive field. Here, for tiic first time during the 
whole of this bloody day, did the regiment have 
orders to fire, and for ten minutes they had the priv- 
ilege of pouring an effective fire into the rebels, who 
were thick in front. Then a flank movement was 
made along the fence to the right, followed by a 
direct advance of forty rods into the field. Here was 
the deadliest spot of the day. The enemy's artillery, 
on a rise of ground in front, plowed the field with 
canister and shells, and tore the ranks in a frightful 
manner. Maj. Rice was struck by a shell, his left arm 
torn off, and his body cut almost asunder. Maj. 
Skinner was struck on the top of the head by a shell, 
knocked nearly a rod with his face to the earth, and 
was carried to the rear insensible. Gen. Upton had 
a good quarter pound of flesh taken out of his thigh 
by a shell, and was laid up for some weeks. Col. 
Mackenzie's horse was cut in two by a solid shot, 
which just grazed the rider's leg, and let him down 
to the ground very abruptly. Several other oflicers 
were also struck, and from these instances, as well as 
from the appended list of casualties, some idea may 
be gained of the havoc among the enlisted men at 
this point. Although the regiment had been under 
fire and losing continually from the middle of the 
forenoon until it was now almost sunset, yet the losses 
during ten minutes in this last field were probably 
equal to those of all the rest of the day. It was 
doubtless the spot referred to by the rebel historian 
Pollard when he says, ' Early's artillery was fought 



to the muzzle of the guns.' Mackenzie gave the 
order to move by the left flank, and a start was made; 
but there was no enduring such a fire, and the men 
ran back and lay down. Another attempt was soon 
made, and after passing a large oak-tree a sheltered 
position was secured. The next move was directly 
into the enemy's breastwork. They had just been 
driven from it by a cavalry charge from the right and 
were in full retreat through the streets of Winchester, 
and some of their abandoned artillery, which had 
done us so much damage, stood yet in position, hiss- 
ing hot with action, with their miserable, rac-a-bone 
horses attached. The brigade, numbering less than 
half the muskets it had in the morning, was now got 
into shape, and, after marching to a field in the east- 
ern edge of the city, bivouacked for the night, while 
the pursuit rolled miles away up the valley pike. 

"Koll-call revealed the fact that the regiment had 
lost one hundred and thirty-six in killed and wounded, 
fourteen of whom were officers. Company A, out of 
its entire list of officers and non-commissioned officers, 
had left only First Sergt. Henry Williams, who had 
command of the company during nearly the whole 
of the fight, and two corporals. Company H had 
three noble officers killed, including Capt. Frederick 
M. Berry, of whom Col. Kellogg once said that he 
was the most perfect officer, gentleman, and man, all 
things considered, in the regiment. Companies A, 
B, and E suffered heavily ; C and G still more ; and D, 
F, and I most of all. 

" But, unlike Cold Harbor or Petersburg, there was 
victory to show for this fearful outlay. And it was 
the first cup of palpable, unquestionable, unmistak- 
able victory that the Second Connecticut, with all its 
marching and fighting, had ever tasted. 

" Nobly did the valiant regiment sustain itself in 
this sanguinary conflict, and, summing up his opera- 
tions in the Valley, Sheridan said, — 

"'At Winchester, for a moment, tlie contest was uncertain, but tlie 
gallant attack of Gen. Upton's l>rigade, of the Sixth Corps, restored tlie 
line of battle, until the turning column of Crook, and Merritt's and 
Averill's divisions of cavalry, tinUer Torbert, "sent the enemy whirling 
through Winchester." ' 

" It would seem, from Sheridan's report, that the 
brunt of the fighting at Fisher's Hill did not fall on 
Wheaton's division. Nevertheless, the Second Con- 
necticut had five killed and nineteen wounded, while 
the entire loss of the Sixth Corps was only two hun- 
dred and thirty-seven. So that the loss in our regi- 
ment was fully eight per cent, of that of the entire 
corps, although the regiment probably did not con- 
stitute more than four per cent, of the corps, — perhaps 
less. Among the killed was Quartermaster-Sergt. 
David B. Wooster, of Company D, one of the best 
men that ever entered the service. The Nineteenth 
Corps lost sixty, and Crook probably less; so that the 
victory at Fisher's Hill was very easily and cheaply 
bought, in comparison with the price paid for some 
other victories. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



67 



" The regiment moved from bivouac near Win- 
cliester before daylight on the 20th, and by the mid- 
dle of the afternoon encamped just south of Cedar 
Creek, remaining until the afternoon of the next day, 
when it moved off to the right of the pike, taking a 
circuitous route through wooded ravines and over 
wooded hills, and at length came out upon open 
fields about a mile and a half west or southwest of 
Strasburg. This was on tlie evening of the 21st. 
Here lines of battle were formed, and a stay was 
made of about two hours, after which the march was 
continued by the right flank, up a steep and winding 
hillside, until midnight, when the regiment halted 
under arms until daylight on the very top of a hill 
fully as high as Fisher's Hill, and separated from it 
by Tumbling River. The enemy's stronghold was on 
the top of the opposite hill, directly across the 
stream. In the morning breastworks were com- 
menced, part of the men building while the rest re- 
mained in line of battle. Lively skirmishing was 
going on all day, and once or twice things were 
hastily put in readiness to meet an anticipated 
charge, which, however, did not come. About three 
o'clock in the afternoon orders were given to pitch 
tents, but while the men were at it a general advance 
was ordered. The regiment had but just commenced 
to move directly forward when the rebels (who knew 
every inch of the ground, and could tell where our 
lines oiKjht to be, whether visible or not) began to 
drop shells into their new breastworks and upon the 
very spot where they had begun to pitch tents. The 
regiment moved down the steep liill, waded the 
stream, and moved up the rocky front of the rebel Gib- 
raltar. How they ever got up tiicrc is a mystery, for 
the ascent of that rocky declivity would now seem an 
impossibility to an unburdened traveler, even though 
there were no deadly enemy at the top. But up they 
went, clinging to rocks and bushes. The main rebel 
breastwork, wiiich they were so confident of holding, 
was about fifteen rods back from the top of the blutf, 
with brush piled in front of it. Just as the top was 
reached the Eighth Corjw struck tlic enemy on the 
right, and their flight was very disordered and pre- 
cipitate. The Second Connecticut wius the first regi- 
ment that reached and i)lanted colors on the works 
from the direct front.* After firing until tlic rebels 
were so far ott"that it was a waste of powder, the pur- 
suit was resumed and kept up all night, although 
but little progress was made on account of the block- 
ade of the road both by tiie pursuing army and the 
property abandoned by the enemy. Although the 
regiment experienced considerable marching, nothing 
of especial importance occurred until October 10th, 
when the Sixth Corps left Strasburg and moved to 
Front Royal, on its way to Alexandria, — whence it 



* Tho men wore so bowlldorml by th« dmlly antl Dlgbtly nmixblnc nod 
flgbtlng tbat Mtnio of tlioiii Imt tbrlr rcrkonliiK, anil tbor« hfts «v»r 
sliico bi'oii a dlHpulo whittlit^r ttiv Finhor'* HIM afTnir cliaio off on the 
2lBt or 22d. It wiu on tho 22d, ftt about live o'clock In the aftvrnooD, 



was to embark for Petersburg. It was believed that 
the punishment inflicted on the rebels at Winches- 
ter, Fisher's Hill, and all through the valley would 
incline them to give up the project of carrying 
the war across the Potomac. This was evidently the 
opinion of Grant, Sheridan, and the authorities at 
Washington ; and thus it happened that we were on 
the way back to City Point, leaving the valley in the 
care of the Eighth and Nineteenth Corps and the 
cavalry. After resting near Front Royal until the 
morning of the 13th, the corps started to cross the 
Blue Ridge ; but, instead of going through Manassas 
Gap, as was at first intended, the route was changed 
for the one via Ashby's Gap, a few miles farther 
north, and we moved in that direction. We had 
passed through White Post and Millwood, and the 
advance had almost entered the gap, when there was 
a sudden ' right about,' and the whole corps moved 
back and encamped at Millwood. 'What's up now?' 
was the universal question. And when the answer was 
given that Early, strongly reinforced, had followed us 
up again, and was in his Gibraltar at Fisher's Hill, 
and his outjwsts challenging another 'set-to,' the 
next universal and wondering question was, ' Hasn't 
old Jewball had drubbing enough yet'?' 

" He doubtless had. But Mr. Davis' government 
was in a fearful strait, and the suddenness and vigor 
of Early's return to the ' scratch' proved that even 
before the roar of battle at Fisher's Hill had died 
away it had been decreed that one more desperate 
attempt should be made to defeat Sheridan in the 
Shenandoah valley. 

"The corps moved westward early in the morning.t 
struck the valley pike at Newtown, rejoined the 
Eighth and Nineteenth Corps at Middletown, and 
the whole army encamped between Middlotow n and 
Strasburg, along the northern bank of a tributary of 
the Shenandoah called ' Cedar Creek.' The Eighth 
Corps was on the left, the Nineteenth in the centre, 
and ours on the right, and somewhat in tho rear. For 
the next few days there was much quiet, and a good 
deal of speculation among the troops as to what would 
be tho next shift in the scenes. The enemy was close 
in front, just as he had been for weeks preceding the 
battle of Winchester; but this attitude, which might 
once have been called defiance, now seemed to be 
mere impudence, anil it was the general opinion 
that Early did not wish nor intend to fight again, but 
that ho was to bo kept there, with a small force, ns a 
standing threat, in order to prevent Sheridan's army 
from returning to tirant. And yet there wa.s some- 
thing mysterious in his conduct. He was known to 
be reociving reiiilVircoment.s, and his signal-llags on 
Thrcetop MountJiin (Just south of Fisher's Hill | were 
continually in motion. From the top of Massiinutton 
Mountain— the peak at the north end of the range 
that separates the Luray from the main valley— his 



t Oct. 14, IVU. 



G8 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



videttcs could look down upon the whole Union 
army, as one can look down upon New Haven from 
East Rock; and there is no doubt that the exact 
location of every camp and the position of every gun 
and every picket-post were thoroughly known to him. 
Nevertheless, it seemed the most improbable thing in 
the world that he could be meditating either an open 
attack or a surprise. One would liave supposed that 
the more he saw of our camp, the less inclined he 
would have been to disturb it. The position was 
strong, the creek and its crossings in possession of our 
pickets, both along the front and well out on either 
flank. 

"Mr. Greeley, in his 'American Conflict,' thus de- 
scribes the surprise : 

"' Our forces were enermiped on three creeta or riilgea : the Army of 
West Virginia (CrooU'aUn front; tlie Nineteenth CorpB (Emory's) half 
a niilo behind it; the Sixth Cori« (Wright's) to the right nnd rear of 
the Nineteenth. Kitehing's provisional division lay behind Crook's 
left ; the cavalry, under Torbert, on the right of the Sixth. It is a fact, 
though no excuse, tiiat they had no more apprehension of an attack from 
Early tlian from Canada. 

"'Early had arranged his army in two columns, in order to strike 
ours at once on both flanks. He had of course to leave the turnpike 
and move over rugged paths aUmg the nionntain-sido, climbing up and 
down steep liills, holding on by bushes, where horses could hardly keep 
their feet, and twice fording the north fork of the Shenandoah,— the 
second time in the very face of our pickets. For miles his riglit column 
skirted the left of Crook's position, where an alarm would have exposed 
him to utter destruction. .So imperative was the requirement of silence 
that his men had been made to leave their canteens in camp, lest they 
should clatter against tlieir muskets. The divisions of Cordon, Kamseur, 
and I'egram thus stole by our left, those of Kei-shaw and Wharton 
simultaneously flanking our riglit. 

"'At two A.M. the pickets of the Fifth New York Heavy Artillery 
(Kitching's division) heard a rustling of underbrush and a sound as of 
stealthy, multitudinous trampling, and two |>ost8 were relieved and 
sent into camp with the re|X)rt. Gen. Crook thereupon ordered that a 
good lookout be kept, but sent out no reconnoitring party; even the 
gaps in his front line caused by detailing regiments for picket-duty were 
not filled ; and, when the crash came, the muskets of many of our men 
were not loaded. There was some suspicion and uneasiness in Crook's 
command, but no serious preparation. 

"*An hour before dawn the rebels had all reached, without obstruc- 
tion or mishap, the positions severally assigned them, and stood shiver- 
ing in the chill mist, awaiting the order to attack. No sound of alarm, 
no hum of preparation, disquieted them. At length, as the gray light 
of dawn disclosed the eastern hilltops, a tremendous volley of musketry, 
on either flank and away to the rear, startled the sleepers into bewil- 
dered consciousness; and the next moment, with their well known bat- 
tle-yell, the cliargiug lines came on. 

"'"Tell the brigade commanders to move their men into the trenches," 
said Gen. Grover, calmly ; and the order wiis given ; but it was already 
too late. The rebels, disdaining to notice the picket-fire, were them- 
selves in the trenches on Ixith flanks before our soldiers could occupy 
them in effective force. On our side, all was amazement and confusion; 
on theii-s, thorough wakefulness and perfect comprehension. In fifteen 
minutes the Army of West Virginia was a flying mob; one battalion of 
its picket-lino had lost one hundred killed and wounded and seven hun- 
dred prisoners. The enemy, knowing every foot of ground iia familiarly 
as their own door-yards, never stopped to reconnoiter or consider, but 
rushed on with incredible celerity.' 

" The Second Connecticut had its full share of 
the varied fortunes of that wondrous day. The 
exact number present for duty on that morning 
cannot be given, — for there was no time for roll- 
calls, — but the morning report of a day or two pre- 
vious showed 



Officers. 


Enlisted Men 


Present, 25 


Present, "08 


Absent, 25 


Absent, 648 



"These six hundred and forty-eight absent men 
were scattered all over. Every hospital at City Point, 
Alexandria, Washington, Baltimore, Annapolis, Sandy 
Hook, Georgetown, Philadelphia, Newark, New York, 
and New Haven had a share of them, sick, wounded, 
convalescent, or on duty as nurses : besides which, 
there were prisoners, stragglers, men on sick furlough, 
men absent without leave, and men on detached ser- 
vice. Of the seven hundred and eight reported pres- 
ent, probably not more than two-thirds were ' pres- 
ent for duty,' — that is, there were not more than four 
hundred and seventy-two muskets — probably not so 
many — that went into the fight. The remaining two 
hundred and thirty-six are to be accounted for in va- 
rious ways. They were detailed in the medical, com- 
missary, quartermaster, and ordnance departments ; 
also as pioneers, blacksmiths, butchers, cattle-drivers, 
stretcher-bearers, teamsters, ambulance- drivers, offi- 
cers' cooks, guards, and orderlies at brigade, division, 
and corps headquarters. Some were sick in the field 
hospital. Company L and part of Company E were 
on picket. Then there were the drummers, fifers, and 
band. Nor were all the twenty-five ' present' offi- 
cers available for action with the regiment. Out of 
that number must be deducted Lieut. Cleveland, who 
was on duty as inspector-general on the staff of Gen. 
Hamblin, the brigade commander; Surgeon Plumb 
and Assistant Surgeons Hassard and Andrews, all of 
whom were sure to have a multitude of new patients 
on their hands in a few minutes ; Quartermaster Hux- 
ley and Chaplain Phelps ; and Lieuts. Henry Skinner 
and Austin P. Kirkham, both of whom were on picket, 
and were taken prisoners early in the morning. The 
appended list of casualties will show, therefore, that 
our losses at Cedar Creek were greater, in proportion 
to the number engaged, than in any other fight, not 
even excepting Cold Harbor. 

" On the morning of the 19th most of the regiment 
were up long before reveille, and many had begun to 
cook their coffee, on account of that ominous popping 
and cracking which had been going on for half an hour 
off' to the right. They did not exactly suppose it meant 
anything, but they had learned wisdom by many a sud- 
den march on an empty stomach, and did not propose to 
be caught napping. The clatter on the right increased. 
The musket-shots reverberated through the fog, and at 
last, ' Whang ! ng-ng-ng' ! went a piece of artillery. 
And then another. And then a smart cannonading, 
and more musketry. It began to be the wonder why 
no orders came. But suddenly every man seemed to 
lose interest in the right, and turned his inquiring 
eyes and ears towards the left. Rapid volleys and a 
vague tumult told that there was trouble there. ' Fall 
in!' said Mackenzie. 'Shoulder.' Arms! Battalion! 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



69 



Left! Face! File Left! March! Double Quick! 
March ." The brigade moved briskly off towards the 
east, crossing the track of other troops and batteries 
of artillery which were hurriedly swinging into posi- 
tion, while ambulances, orderlies, staff-officers, camp- 
followers, pack-horses, cavalrymen, sutlers' wagons, 
hospital-wagons, and six-mule teams of every de- 
scription came trundling and galloping pell-mell to- 
wards the right and rear, and making off towards Win- 
chester. It was not a hundred rods from our own 
camp to the place where we went into position, on a 
road running north. Gen. Wright, the temporary 
commander of the army, bareheaded, and with blood 
trickling from his beard, sat on his horse near by, as 
if bewildered, or in a brown study. The 8ixty-fifth 
New York was on our left, and then came the Second 
Division. The First Brigade* (Penrose's) was on the 
right of ours, and then came the Third Division. 
The ground was cleared in front of the road, and 
sloped off some thirty rods to a stream, on the oj)po- 
site of which it rose for about an equal distance, to a 
piece of woods, in which the advance rebel line had 
already taken position. Truly does Pollard say that 
'a heavy fog favored them.' The newly-risen sun, 
huge and bloody, was on their side in more senses than 
one. Our line faced directly to the east, and wo could 
see nothing but that enormous disk rising out of the 
fog, while they could see every man in our line, and 
could take good aim. The battalion lay down, and 
part of the men began to fire, but the .shape of the 
ground afforded little jirotection, and largo numbers 
were killed and wounded. Four-fifths of our loss for 
the entire day occurred during the time we lay here, 
which could not have been over five minutes, by the 
end of which time the Second Connecticut found itself 
in an isolated position, not unlike that at Cold Harbor. 
'Go and ask Penrose where he's going witli that liri- 
gade,' said Col. Mackenzie to the writer hereof. (Tiie 
Jerseys had withdrawn from our riglit, and were mov- 
ing directly across our rear to tiic left, with Penrose 
on foot, some distance ahead of his line.) 'Col. Pen- 
rose, Mackenzie wants to know where you are going 
with that brigade.' ' I'm not going anywhere. I'm 
wounded,' was the energetic reply, wliich wa-s carried 
to Col. Mackenzie. Just then Lieut. Cleveland rode 
up on a keen jump and said, ' Col. Mackenzie, (Jon. 
Wheaton wants you to move directly to the rear by 
right of companies.' Mackenzie replied, ' My God ! 
I cannot! This line will break if I (h..' ' Well," said 
Cleveland, pointing to the left, 'there goes the Sixty- 
fifth, and the First Brigade is gone.' A few scconils 
later, Mackenzie's horse, ' Old Pop,' was struck sijuare 
in the head, and after spinning around two or three 
times on his hind-legs went down dead as u stone ; 
and the colonel, who had previously got a shot through 
the heel, went off over his head. The fog had now 
thinned away somewhat, and a firm rebel line, with 

* Alio o*)l«d th« Jetiajr Brigiida. 



colors full high advanced, came rolling over a knoll 
just in front of our left, not more than three hundred 
yards distant. ' Rise up ! Retreat !' said Mackenzie ; 
and the battalion began to move back. For a little 
distance the retreat was made in very good order, but 
it soon degenerated into a rout. Men from a score of 
regiments were mixed up in flight, and the whole 
corps was scattered over acres and acres, with no more 
organization than a herd of buffaloes. Some of the 
wounded were carried for a distance by their comrades, 
who were at length compelled to leave them to their 
fate in order to escape being shot. 

" About a mile from the place where the retreat 
commenced there was a road running directly across 
the valley. Here the troops were rallied, and a slight 
defense of rails thrown up. The regimental and bri- 
gade flags were set up as beacons to direct each man 
how to steer through the mob, and in a very few min- 
! utes there was an effective line of battle established. 
1 A few round shot ricocheted overhead, making about 
! an eighth of a mile at a jump, and a few grape were 
i dropped into a ditch just behind our line, quickly 
clearing out some soldiers who had crawled in there, 
but this was the extent of the pursuit. Mackenzie 
and Hamblin now left for the hospital to have their 
wounds dressed, and the whole brigade (and a very 
small brigade it wa-s!) was deployed as skirmishers 
under Col. Olcott, of the One Hundred and Twenty- 
first New York. Three lines of skirmishers were formed, 
and each in turn constituted the front line, while the 
other two passed through and halted; and so the re- 
treat was continued for about three miles, until a halt 
was made upon high ground, from which we could 
])lainly see the Johnnies sauntering around on the 
very ground where we had slept. 

" It must have been after noon when we left that 
position, and moved eastward through the wood, by 
Sheridan's order, to join the Second Division and meet 
the enemy. 

" About two o'clock we were posted, in two lines, in 
the southwestern edge of a piece of woods, in front of 
which was an open, side-hill field, at the top of which, 
along a stone wall, was the rebel skirmish-line, while 
the main line w:is not a great distance back of it. 
Their assault had already been m.iilc, and repulsed by 
the Nineteenth Corps. .Vbout three o'clock we could 
hear the cheering to the right as Sheridan rode along 
the line, but that personage did not get within sight 
of our regiment. By this time Hamblin and Macken- 
zie had returned to Hike part in the ' left half-wheel' 
which had been onlered. The lines moved for^vard 
over the ascending ground, under a galling but not 
very destructive fire from the rebel skirmishers, who 
soon gave up the stone wall to us and retreated on 
their main line. A square musketry fight wius kept 
up here for ten minutes, when the enemy left, not, 
however, before inflicting considerable damage on us. 
Here Col. Mackenzie was again struck by a solid shot 
or shell which just grazed his shoulder. A reniarka- 



70 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



bly large number of our officers were wounded at this 
point, but none fatally, nor even verij severely. (In 
the morning the casualties among officers had been 
few and severe, Hosford being killed, and Fenn and 
Gregory losing each an arm.) 

" The enemy attempted to rally behind another 
fence, a little farther back, but after a moment or two 
gave it up and ' retired.' Not only in front of our 
regiment, but all along as far as the eye could reach, 
both to the right and left, were they flying over the 
uneven country in precisely the same kind of disor- 
der that we had exhibited in the morning. The 
shouts and screams of victory mingled with the roar 
of the firing, and never was heard 

" 'So musical ft discord, sncli sweet thunder,' 

The sight of so many rebel heels made it a very easy 
thing to be brave, and the Union troops pressed on 
utterly regardless of the grape and canister which, to 
the last moment, the enemy flung behind hira. It 
would not have been well for them to have fired loo 
much if they had had ever so good a chance, for they 
would have been no more likely to hit our men than 
their own who were our prisoners and scattered in 
squads of twenty, squads often, and squads oi one all 
over the vast field. At one time they made a deter- 
mined stand along a ridge in front of our brig.ade. A 
breastwork of rails was thrown together, colors planted, 
a nucleus made, and both flanks grew longer and longer 
with wonderful rapidity. It was evident that they 
were driving back their men to this line without re- 
gard to regiment or organization of any kind. This 
could be plainly seen from the adjacent and similar 
ridge over which we were moving, the pursuers being 
in quite as much disorder (so far as organizations were 
concerned) as the pursued. That growing line began 
to look ugly, and somewhat quenched the ardor of the 
chase. It began to be a question in many minds 
whether it would not be a point of wisdom to 'survey 
the vantage of the ground' before getting much farther. 
But just as we descended into the intervening hollow 
a body of cavalry, not large, but compact, was seen 
scouring along the fields to our right and front like a 
whirlwind, directhj towards the left flank of that for- 
midable line on the hill. When we reached the top 
there was no enemy there ! They had moved on, and 
the cavalry after them. Thus the chase was contin- 
ued, from position to position, for miles and miles, for 
houi-s and hours, until darkness closed in, and every 
regiment went into camp on the identical ground it 
had left in such haste in the morning. Every man 
tied his shelter tent to the very same old stakes, and 
in half an hour coffee was boiling and salt pork sjjut- 
tering over thousands of camp-fires. Civil life may 
furnish better fare than the army at Cedar Creek had 
that night, but not better appetites ; for it must be 
borne in mind that many had gone into the fight di- 
rectly from their beds, and had eaten nothing for 
twenty-four hours. 



" Late in the evening, after many were sound asleep, 
the regiment was ordered to be formed in line with- 
out arms. When the command to ' fall in' was heard 
the general question was, ' Well, old Jubal hasn't for- 
gotten anything and come back after it, has he ?' The 
clause, ' without arms,' however, showed that he had 
not, although the soldiers expressed their perfect wil- 
lingness to fight him in that way if he found himself 
still unable to restrain his pugnacity. The line being 
formed, Capt. Jones — now in command of the regi- 
ment — said, 'Soldiers, I have just received a dis- 
patch from Gen. Sheridan's headquarters which an- 
nounces that we have this day taken not less than 
two thousand prisoners, forty-seven guns and caissons, 
a large number of battle-flags, all the wagons and 
supplies taken from us this morning, besides horses, 
mules, wagon-trains, and material of all kinds in un- 
known quantities, and that our victory is complete. 
I now propose three cheers for Sheridan, ourselves, 
our army, and the Union !' They were given with 
indescribable heartiness, while all the camps far and 
near joined in full chorus. The battalion was dis- 
missed, and thus ended the day that had witnessed 
a battle which was, in many respects, without a par- 
allel in ancient or modern history. 

"The killed, wounded, and missing of the Sixth 
Corps were two thousand two hundred and fifteen, 
of which the Second Connecticut had its full share. 
Men from every company started out the first thing 
after reaching camp to look for our dead and wounded, 
many of whom lay not fifty rods off". The slightly 
wounded who had not got away had been taken jsris- 
oners and sent at once towards Richmond, while the 
severely wounded had lain all day on the ground near 
where they were hit. Some of the mortally wounded 
were just able to greet their returning comrades, hear 
the news of victory, and send a last message to their 
friends before expiring. Corp. Charles M. Burr, of 
Company E, went into the fight with Company B (his 
own company being on picket), and was shot above 
the ankle just after the battalion had risen up and 
started to retreat. Both bones of his leg were shat- 
tered, and he had to be left. In a few minutes the 
rebel battalion, which I have already mentioned, came 
directly over him in pursuit, and was soon out of his 
sight. Then, being alone for a short time, he pulled 
off' the boot from his sound leg, put his watch and money 
into it, and put it on again. Next a merciful rebel 
lieutenant came and tied a handkerchief around his 
leg, stanching the blood. 

" Capt. Benjamin Hosford was shot in the morning 
through the head and instantly killed. His brother 
and other men of Company D carried the body about 
half a mile on the retreat, and were compelled to 
leave it there. At night it was found that the rebels 
had taken a ring from his finger, the straps from his 
coat, and the shoes from his feet. Corp. Henry L. 
Vaill, of Company C, was found alive stripped of 
everything, and so were many othei's. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



" Company D mustered only nineteen muskets, 
and its commanding officer was Sergt. Hough. Tlie 
other companies were reduced to nearly the same 
extent. The loss in officers was so great that for a 
few days there were but six officers on duty with 
twelve companies ; while little short soldiers who had 
always been at the left end of the companies suddenly 
found themselves corporals and sergeants. We re- 
mained at Cedar Creek until the 9th of November, 
when, on account of the scarcity of wood, and the 
long distance from our base at Harper's Ferry, the 
army was moved to Camp Russell, near Kearnstown, 
about four miles south of Winchester, where it re- 
mained until the 2d of December. The morning re- 
port for November 20th showed three hundred and 
seventy-nine men and seventeen officers present for 
duty, and the regiment was recruited daily both in 
numbers and condition. 
..^ *'Now that the rebels bad been thrice defeated in 
the valley, there remained no temptation for another 
invasion of the Northern States. It was absolutely 
certain that it would not be again attempted ; and 
therefore the Sixth Corps was ordered to City Point 
again. On the 1st of December, Wheaton's Division 
marched to Stephenson's Depot and took the cars for 
Washington, en route to City Point. The regiment 
went into camp at Parke Station. 

** From this time until the Otli of Februarj* the 
regiment had no fighting to do, and no very startling 
experiences of any kind. Some mention, however, of 
the more noteworthy occurrences of this period will 
be acceptable, at least to my soldier readers ; and it 
will perhaps be well to transcribe them direct from 
some of the diaries in my pos.scssion. The following 
entries are copied, mostly witiiout alteration, from 
the diaries of several officers and men, besides my 
own : 

" Dec. II. Tweiity-tiino convalescents returned. 

"Dec. 12. Kifty conviiK-accnU retiirneti. 

" Dec. 13. Cajit. A. H. Feun rotiirne<t and loportod for duty, although 
it is not seven weeks since he lust his iirm at Odnr Crook. What hts 
heconie uf the iiiljntnnt'e dettk ? It woii turned over tn tlio r)tiarterniaater 
at Camp KuiiHcll, Imt liues nut conio. 

" Dec. 14. Gnud ileal of anxiety in camp alHiiit Sherman's march ooftst- 
nard. A Richmond minister told hb congregation last Sunday that 
God tind a hook tu Shennao*s nose, aud wu loading hfm to dntnicUoo. 

Kout verroiu I 

"Dec. \ti. Wo now linvc to furnish four ufflrem and one hundred and 
twenty-flvo men dally for |iickct. They are |ioslod out hy Ihe rohel lead 
mines. They froqnnntly see the Johnnies atnl talk with them. 

" Doc. 10. Heavy cannonading, Ser^t. Soulu and fl<|Ufid of carpenters 
detailed fur duty at divisiun heo'liiuartora. They will flx things up gor- 
geous. This is the regiment they tuivo to apply to when they want 
tilings done nice. 

" Dec. 18. One hundred guns from Fort Sedgwick In honor of Thomas* 
victory over Hood. Tliey ninnt enjuy the salnlo In IVterslmrg. 

"Dec. 21. Rain played lullahy on the tent nil last night. Quarters 
Mell ventilnteii this murnhiK. l>ecau»o rain wnshivl mud otT logs. Put it 
on again. I*h>nty of water to mix mortar with. Kolley, McKiuuey, 
Tuttlo, Twiss, and Jo Fenn mnntorrd as first lieutenants hy Capt. Tyler, 
conimlsMiry of mnstora. 

" D* •'. -Z3. Went clear up to IIaucock*i StatloDi via corduroy, tu have 
a brigatio drill under Mackenzie. 

*' Dec. 2fl. Sherman presents Lincoln with a \-mas gift of Savannah, 
one hundred and fifty guus, and tweuty-llve Ihouaand hale* cotton. 



Much rejoicing thereat. Story afloat that Lee is going to do something 
surprising on New Year's day. 

"Dec. 21. Muster day. Very busy with the pesky rolls. Capt. 
Marsh's rolls firet in, of course. 

"ISGo. 

"Jan. 1. Gad Smith and John Wlieeler returned. 

"Jan. 2. Wheeler mustered as first lieutenant, and goes on brigade 
Btaflf as A. A. A. G., vice Ed Hubbard, who is discharged and goes home. 

"Jan. 3. Eight companies on fatigue duty. News received of Butler's 
fizzle at Wilmington. 

"Jan. 4. Three inches snow. Good many men sit by their fires all 
night because too culd to sleep. 

" Jan. 5. Muddy. New Springfields came to take the place of En- 
fields. Farewell, uld Enfields! Every one of you could tell thrilling 
tales if you could speak. And you can speak ! 

"Jan. 6. All our division moved down corduroy, a mile to left, and 
formed square to witness execution of Peter McCox, deserter from Com- 
pany A, Fourth New Jereey, First Brigade, First Division, Sixth Corps. 
Stood ' in place rest' an hour, waiting. Prisoner unable to walk, brought 
clear round the square in ambulance, preceded by band playing Dead 
March in Saul. Coffin placed on the ground in front of open grave. 
PiTsoner seated on foot of coffin. Proceedings, findings, and sentence 
of court-martial read in front of each regimeut. Prisoner blindfolded, 
aud firing party of twelve men drawn up in front, in single rank, about 
twenty paces off. Captain of provost-guard gave the order 'Fire!' 
Good many men turned away their lieads. Prisoner fell Imck and off ou 
the ground, leaving uue leg on the coffin. Division then w*heeleil into 
column by companies, marched by the coffin, and then home. 

"Jan. 7. Inspection. Mackenzie appeared in stars. Cleanest man 
in eacli regiment to go to division headquarters to compete for a twenty 
days' furlough. One man from cacli of B, D, K, E. and M Cumpaniee 
sent to brigade headquarters. Sam Terrell, the lucky man out of the 
whole division. 

"Jan. 0. Rebels made charge on Third Division picket-line, a little 
to our left. Promptly met and defeated. Caused no disturbance In 
camp, 

"Jan. 10. Snowdy returned. Our doily picket detail is now five uffl- 
cors and one hundred and five tneu. Pretty rough. Makes a man's turn 
Come pretty often. 

" Jan. 1 1. Got eighteen potatoes from brigade commissary. Moj. Jef- 
frey Skinner appointed tu conrmaud the Sixty-fifth New York while 
Col. Fisk is absent on leave. 

"Jan. 12. Nuisy picket firing. Curtis made regimental onlnancc 
ofhcor. Capt. Cleveland ordnanro officer on Wheaton's staff. 

" Jau. 14. Picket tiring in our front. 

"Jan. 15. Cuiumenced to have hrigailo giianl-mounting. Gen. Mac* 
kenzie rutio over to insiMH:tion on his nankiMjn, in that new gawky hat, 
and Inspected the regiment nt a support. Niram Buttolph, of Company 
G, sent to division headquartere, aud got the division furlough. Qen. 
W'healon said he was the handsomest eoldlor he ever saw. Cleveland 
ami Fonn ore minora. 

"Jan. 10. Il«M:eive4l four hundriMl and eighly-nlno sets of 'Mann's 
Patent Accoutrrments.' Hoys duu't like 'em. Call 'em * Iwlly trunks.' 
Company F Is at Fort 31c>lahun. 

"Jan. 17. Salute of ono hundrni guns for Terry's capture of Fort 
Fisher and twelve hundred pr1s<mcrs. Ckpt. Woodman made A. A. A. O., 
and Johnny Wh«>eIor A. A. D. C. 

"Jan. IH. Lieut. t>Mar Piatt dischargM. Ab. Dunham and Mr. 
Dewell arrived. Their goo<ls are at City Point, awaiting tmns|iortaUou. 
Thirty-eight conraleitconts and suUtltules arrived in evening. 

"Jan. 20. Mackcnxlo on fifteen days' leave. Lleul.-Col. Olcolt, One 
Hundred and Twenly-liist Now York, commands brigade. Lleut.-Ool. 
Skinner ruturneil to regiment. 

"Jan. 22. In the oveniug went with Capt. Marah and chaplain to 
Mi^. Jone^' quarters to hour a large dlocusoion on (ho resurrection. 
Later, wont over to Capt. Blareh's and talked of war, love, and the kin* 
dred deetructlvu arts.* 

"Jan. 2^1. I^argo lot of dnn'rtors came In on the left. They c«>me 
thicker since the fall of Kort Fisher, CliarleMton, and Savannah. Won* 
der what Is going on at the right * Furious canitonadlug. heaviest we ever 
heard; fairly shook the rarth. 

"Jan. 24. It was the l«ttlu of the mi>nltor«. Rel»rls tried tu take 
City Point. Wo should hare l>e«n In a pretty fix If they had succeeded 1 
Inepoctlon, Qrannb (of D Company) eent to brigade head<iuar1aii as 



• Cortli* dtaiy. (Of eoara*.) 



72 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



cleanest man, liut Olcott villainously tlirew him out, and sent a One 
Hundred and Twent,v-fir3t man to division Ueadiinartei-s. 

"Jan. 2G. Hubbard mustered a^ colouel, and relieves Olcott in com- 
mand of brigade. Skinner mustered as lieutenant-colonel, and commands 
regiment. 

"Jan. 29. Inspection. Zelotes Grannis got it this time. Iselton, of 
H, Dugette, of L, Atwood, of A, and a B man also received furloughs. 

"Feb. 1. Orders received at three a.m. to be ready to move at a mo- 
ment's notice. Ed Sedgwick mustered as second lietitenaut of Company 
C. Somebody checkmated. 

"Feb. 2. James W. Dixon, son of Senator Dixon, has been kindly 
given to the regiment, and mustered into a vacant lieutenancy, to serve 
on the staff of Gen. Wright. Gen. Wright mu«t liave a poor opinion of 
his corps if he cannot by this time find timlier jn it good enough to 
make aides-de-camp of without going to Connecticut. There are plenty 
of men in this regiment yet uncommissioned, and yet unkillcd, as re- 
spectable, as able, and protxihli/ as brave, as can be found anywhere, and 
they deem it ratlier shabby treatment, after thoy have marched through 
fire and blood for montlis, after many of them have been perforated with 
rebel bullets, and are now on duty with scarcely healed wounds, for 
Gen. Wright to fill a vacancy in tlie Second Connecticut by the 'dona- 
tion' (that is what they call it) of a boy who ha.s remained with his 
mother all through the war, until the fighting is all over, and the whole 
world knows that the Rebellion is in the article of death. But then, you 
know, his father has beeu of enormous service to the coutUry. SoMiers 
must take what they can get. They must put their heels together, keep 
their eyes to the front, and ask no questions. If I ever get home with 
a whole cuticle, I will be grateful evermore. 

" Feb. 4. Biisk firing on right. Officers' recitation at brigade head- 
quarters two evenings per week. 

"On the morning of February 5th we had orders 
to be in readiness to move with four days' rations, 
leaving our pickets out, and leaving the minimum 
force necessary to hold the lines. Companies A, K, 
and portions of H and E were detailed to remain 
(which was not an unpleasant 'detail'). The Fifth 
Corps was fighting on the left, in the vicinity of 
Hatcher's Run, and it was guessed (and truly) that 
we were to go in that direction. After remaining in 
readiness until four o'clock in the afternoon, the First 
Division moved off to the left, and after going about 
five miles bivouacked for the night. It was bitter 
cold sleeping that night, — so cold that half of the 
men stood or sat around fires all night. In the morn- 
ing the movement was continued, and the day* was 
mostly consumed in manreuvring. We were there 
for the purpose of protecting the left flank of the 
Fifth Corps, which had been fighting all day. A 
little before sundown we crossed Hatcher's Run, and 
moved by the flank directly into a piece of woods, the 
Second Brigade, under Hubbard, leading the division, 
and the Second Connecticut, under Skinner, leading 
the brigade. Wounded men were being brought by 
to the rear, and the noise just ahead told of mischief 
there. As the brigade was moving into the woods, 
staff'-ofticers came riding along the column with the 
order, ' Load your pieces, load your pieces without 
halting.' Col. Hubbard filed to the left at the head 
of the column, along a slight ridge, and about half 
the regiment had filed, when troops of the Fifth 
Corps came running through to the rear, and at the 
same moment Gen. Wlieaton rode up with, ' Oblique 
to the left, oblique to the left!' and making energetic 
gestures towards the rise of ground. The ridge was 

■« February 6th. 



quickly gained, and fire opened just in time to head 
off' a counter-fire and charge that was already in 
progress; but between the 'file left' and the 'left 
oblique,' and the breaking of our ranks by troops re- 
treating from in front, and the vines and underbrush 
(which were so thick that they unhorsed some of the 
staff-officers), there was a good deal of confusion, and 
the line soon fell back about ten rods, where it was 
re-formed, and a vigorous fire poured — somewhat at 
random — a little to the left of our first position. The 
attempt of the enemy to get in on the left of the 
Fifth Corps was frustrated. Our casualties were six 
wounded (some of them probably by our own men) 
and one missing. The position was occupied that 
night and the next day, until aboutsundown, when the 
brigade shifted some distance to the right and again 
advanced, under an artillery fire, to within a short 
distance of the rebel batteries and built breastworks. 
One shot on this occasion was particularly memorable. 
The regiment was moving across a cleared field, by 
the flank, when a solid shot came through the woods 
from directly in front, and passed the column ap- 
parently so near as to singe the left ears of the whole 
line. If it had come ten feet farther towards the 
right it might have ' flanked' the entire regiment and 
cut a swath from one end to the other. The rebel 
picket-shots whistled overhead all the time the breast- 
works were building, but mostly too high to hurt any- 
thing but the trees. At midnight the division moved 
back to quarters, arriving at sunrise. Again we found 
our domiciles appropriated, this time by a regiment of 
engineers, — but out they went, and in went we ; and, 
having taken a ration of whisky, — which had been 
ordered by Grant or somebody else, in consideration 
of three nights and two days on the bare ground in 
February, together with some fighting and a good 
deal of hard marching and hard work, — the men lay 
down to sleep as the sun rose up, and did not rise up 
until the sun went down. 

" It was now the 24th of March. The weather was 
fast improving, and signs of coming great events mul- 
tiplied. No positive orders of a very important nature 
had been received ; but the discontinuing of furloughs 
plainly meant something in the aggressive line, while 
the condition of things on the other side, as revealed 
by the tattered and cadaverous deserters who now 
came over to us not only in the night but also in 
broad daylight, made it evident that Lee must do 
something of dreadful note or else give over the 
contest. 

" What would be the particular manner of his coup 
was a question much discussed, but not settled until 
the coup occurred. Very early on the morning of 
March 25th, after a noisy night all along the picket- 
line, heavy firing was heard on the right, but there 
was nothing uncommon about that, and little notice 
was taken of it until orders came from brigade head- 
quarters to 'move out instantly.' Shortly after. Gen. 
Hamblin arrived to expedite matters, and in a few 



MILITAEY HISTORY. 



73 



minutes the brigade was on the corduroy moving 
rapidly to the right, whicli was of itself quite a note- 
worthy circumstance, for we usually went to the left 
when mischief was brewing. ' Oh, we sha'n't get into 
a fight,' said the men ; ' we always have to go the other 
way to find onr fighting.' These remarks were of 
course made in a partially jocular vein, but they were, 
nevertheless, entirely true. Indeed, that very day 
proved both parts of the proposition, — viz., first, that 
the Second Connecticut never fought to the right, 
and, secondly, always did fight to tlie left. 

" The firing subsided after we had gone a mile or 
so, but there was much moving of troops, and evi- 
dently something the matter ahead. The rebel bat- 
teries had range on portions of the column, and fired 
at us as we were on the corduroy, dropping several 
shots only a few feet away. One struck within a rod 
of our regiment, splashing into a small puddle of 
water and burying itself in the earth directly under a 
soldier of the division who was sitting on the ground 
and fixing his shoes. He did not stir for a second or 
two, but then, picking uji his musket and shoe, he 
started on half a dozen double-quicks, and it is to 
this day a mooted question with our men whether 
that man has stopped running yet. After moving a 
little farther, a staff-oflicer rode up with the informa- 
tion that the rebels had surprised and cai>turcd Fort 
Stedman, on the Ninth Corps front, and a quarter of 
a mile of breastworks, including tiiree batteries; but 
that they had been retaken, together with eighteen 
hundred prisoners, and that therefore our assistance 
would not be required. 

"After a rest of half an hour the division moved 
homeward. But instead of going into camp there 
was an ominous halt of a few minutes in rear of our 
quarters, and then the march was continued towards 
the left, where a brisk artillery fire was going on. 
Grant knew that the massing of troops for the assault 
at Fort Stedman must iiave left the rebel lines with 
little or no protection in some places, and he resolved 
at once to find the weak spots. Accordingly, an ad- 
vance was ordered in front of Fort Fisher, near the 
tall frame lookout, about a mile to the left of Warren's 
Station. Our troops were posted under cover during 
nearly all the afternoon, while the large guns threw 
shot and shell at each other over our heads. At 
length a train of ambulances moved up from the 
right, and halted just in rear of the division. There 
was no mistaking that symptom. 

"The sun had already bcguti to grow large and red 
with its nearness to the western horizon when the 
brigade wiis moved down in front within twctity roils 
of the rebel picket-line, and haltcil behind a slight 
rise of ground, just high enough to intercept their 
fire. After standing there for some ten minutes wait- 
ing for orders, Col. Hubbard rode slowly along to the 
right think of his line, and said in a low tone t<> the 
writer, 'If they don't put us in soon, we sha'n't have 
much fighting to-night.' After he hud gone back, 



Sergt.-Maj. E. Goodwin Osborne stepped up and 
asked what the colonel said, and was informed. 
' There is time enough yet,' he replied, in a low but 
foreboding tone. The parting sunset ray had not 
vanished before his lifeless form was borne on a rub- 
ber blanket towards the rear, across the very spot 
where he had uttered these prophetic words. 

'-' The fire from our batteries suddenly ceased. Gen. 
Hamblin rode up to Hubbard, and said, ' Colonel, 
move directly forward. Conform your movement to 
the Second Division, on your left.' The front line, 
consisting of the Second Connecticut and the Sixty- 
fifth New York, advanced on the rifle-pits as steadily 
as though on a battalion drill, while the rest of the 
brigade followed in a second line. There seems to 
have been a vacant space in their line of rifle-pits, or 
else the Second Division and the greater part of our 
brigade must have entirely flanked their pickets on 
the left. At any rate, the only part of our regiment 
that went over any rifle-])its was the extreme right, — 
perhai)S one or two companies. When we were with- 
in fifty feet of them the rebels jumped over in front, 
threw down their muskets, threw up their arms, and 
yelled, 'Don't shoot, don't shoot!' and then passed 
through to the rear in large numbers as fiist as they 
could move. The right flank was a little demoralized 
by its success in taking these rifle-pits, and by the 
fire which came from the pits farther to the right, 
which the enemy still held ; nevertheless, the regi- 
ment moved on, across a swampy run, then over as- 
cending ground, among stumps and scrub-oaks, for 
twenty or thirty rods, and there halted and lay down. 
This distance was all traversed under a combined 
artillery and musket fire, the former coming from a 
battery about half a mile to the right and front, which 
was very effectively served. It apparently had three 
guns in use, and the air was blue with the little cast- 
iron balls from spherical case-shot, which shaved the 
ground and exjiloded among the stumps ju.st in rear 
of the line at intervals of only a few seconds. Prob- 
ably the musket fire came entirely from the enemy's 
pickets, who still remained on the right. Twenty of 
the Second Connecticut were wounded — seven of 
them mortally — in reaching, occupying, and aban- 
doning this |)osition, which, proving entirely unten- 
able, was held only a few minutes. The line faced 
about and moved back under the same mixed fire of 
.solid shot, spherical case, and musketry, across the 
swampy run, and halted not far in front of the spot 
whence it had first moved forward. Other troo]>s, on 
the right, now engaged the batterr-, and captured the 
rest of the picket-line, and after half an hour the l<ri- 
gade again moved forward to a position still further 
advanced than the previous one, where a pennuneut 
picket-line was established. Thus ended the event- 
ful 2.')th of March. Its dawn ushered in the surpris- 
ing attack on Fort Stc<lnian, an<l its close found mileo 
of the rebel picket-lines in our posscuiion, thousands 
of prisoners in our hands, and the grip of the Union 



74 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



armies upon Petersburg greatly tightened. At mid- 
night the brigade returned to camp, leaving a strong 
picket. Tlie picket detail from our own regiment, 
which had been on duty all day in front of our own 
camp, had its share in the work and success of the 
day, occupying the rebel rifle-pits that night, and cap- 
turing more than their number in prisoners. 

'* The Fort Fisher picket was relieved about noon 
of the next da}', and returned to camp. All hands 
were compelled to come out on inspection and dress 
parade that afternoon; and immediately afterwards a i 
detail of one hundred and fifty men relieved our 
regular pickets in front, who had been out since the 
morning before, — i.e., thirty-six hours. At midnight a 
working-party was also sent out to move forward our 
picket abatis to the new line. At three o'clock on 
the morning of the 27th, mounted Orderly Keith 
.came with orders to have the regiment fall in at 
four and stand by the breastworks. Lively firing 
was going on all along, but nothing momentous oc- 
curred, and at sunrise the line broke ranks and fell 
to cooking coffee. 

'*The experience of the regiment for the next six 
days cannot be set forth in a more readable manner 
than as it stands recorded in the spicy diary of Lieut. 
Homer S. Curtis, who became acting adjutant after 
the affair at Fort Fisher, although still retained as 
ordnance officer. 

**MnrcU 27. Brisk bkirtnisli uiul a charge just before light on Second 
Division picket-line. Some movement near tlie lookout to-day that 
looked like a charge ; but none came off. Picket firing nil day. Our 
picket not relieved. Got four thousand E. B. cartridges from division 
ordnance officer. Charley Goslcy runs the ailjutanfs department pretty 
much. Capt. Woodman (A. A. A. G.) ordered detail of five officers and 
two hundred men fur night fatigue. Battalion drill one hour p.ai. 

*' March 28. Spring-like, hazy, fair. Fatigue detail came into camp 
at three a.m., and the entire force was called nji and got under arms at 
four. Some officers not very punctual. Tuttle.Fenn. etc., got rats from 
the colonel. We stood till sunrise, and returned to quarters. Very funny, 
especially for the boys that have not bad any sleep in three nights. 
Plenty of swearing. I went over to brigade guard-mount, and made a 
buUof it considerable, Johnny a veiy sliowy sergeant-major, but just a 
liit careless or so. Parts of Sheridan's cavalry — Twenty-fourth and 
Twenty-fifth Corps — moving by to the left. Good news. Occupation of 
Goldbboro' by Sherman, and junction of Terry, Schofield, and Sherman. 
Owr loss on the 25th is found to have been five hundred ; rebel loss, six 
thousand. 

"March 29. Orderly came from brigade headquarters at one a.m. with 
ordei's for detail of five officers and two hundred men for reserve picket, 
and ordei's fur regiment to be under arms from four o'clock till sum iee. 
I got up and made tlie details, and had just lain down when Maj. Fenn 
came riding up and ordered the regiment out instanter. So we got out 
and stood in line until broad daj light. Capt. Redway, brigade officer of 
the day. Very quiet all along the lines through the day. Troops and 
trains moving to left all day. Gen. fliackenzie with his cavalry corps, 
two thousand strong, went by. Johnny Wheeler called at brigade head- 
quarters. We were ordered and re-ordered to pack up and be (dl ready to 
move, but stayed the day out in camp finally. Tremendous cannonade 
after taps, evening. We hustled out into line double quick, stood an 
hour or so, then went in. 

" March 30. Got out about five o'clock a.m., and Btood in line about 
an hour, in a right smart rain. Post guard-mount. Swept out huttie, 
built fire, aud took a doze. The adjutant's tent is a leaky old concern, 
and so ciibbed up that one cannot move at all. Col. H. says we are to 
make a charge at daylight. 

" Blarch 31. Rained all last night, and until ten a.m. Ordora came at 
eleven o'clock last night to pack up everything, shelters and all, for a 
march. This was accomplished in a few minutes, and we stood ready to 



form line some time, when Capt. Goi'don came over to advise us that the 
movement was temporarily suspended, and that the men might lie down 
to sleep, but uot unpack knapsacks. Gut orders soon after for picket detail 
of four officers and one hundred and forty-seven men. Also to form line at 
three o'clock A.ai. We got out and stood shivering in the rain until day- 
light, when we went in and put up canvas. Heavy firing on left all a.m. 
At two P.M. ordeis came to pack upeverything all ready for a move. We 
go this time, sure, to see what the racket is down on the left. Moved out 
as per order, formed Vine, stacked arms, unslung knapsacks, and went 
back to quarters to wait orders to move, and to draw rations. Waited 
patiently until retreat, until tattoo, and then got orders to take in guns 
and packs, and sleep in clothes, all convenient for getting out quickly. 
One thousand rumors around,— all lies, of course, except the one about 
the strengthening of the reb lines in our fi'ont. Stones of the Fifth 
Corps swinging across the S. S. K. road and occupying it, besides also 
thieatening the reb right Hank. Bush I If there were anything in it 
we should have official desi'atclies a plenty. Good-night. 
. "April 1. Lovely day. Wc got out at tliree o'clock a.m., and got up 
all the men. Sent one hundred and fifty out as picket reserve; formed 
line with the remaining three companies, but soon a stafl'-officer came 
over aud ordered them out to the line. So every man but the guard went 
out. Col. Hubbard bad the camp patrolled for bummers, but got only a 
lean haul. Companies returned alter sunrise. New picket went out at 
nine A.M., — one hundred and fifty men under Lucas, Andereon, Hojt, 
and Griswold. Smart firing in the morning on the left, but it soon died 
away, and it remained veiy quiet all the rest of the day. At two p.m. I 
rode out to new picket-line, which is one-half mile in advance of the 
old one. Found everything lovely, — boj's gay, rebs civil. Saw Itich- 
numd Henthtel of this morning, — exchanged by Fenn of 'G' for Herald, 
— no news in it. We had a dress parade, and the day altogether has 
seemed like one of the old fort days, but it cannot last long, and even as 
I write the quartermaster has orders to i)ack up all his stores. 

•'Ten o'clock p.m. Colonel has just had all the commandants of compa- 
nies up at his (juarters, giving them instructions for the morrow. We 
are to move out by tlie k-tt Uauk some time in the night, and form line 
near Fort Fisher, by brigades, in two lines. Our biigade is on the light 
of the corps, our regiment on the right of the brigade, in the front line. 
The whole army is to charge sinmltaueonsly at four o'clock in the morn- 
ing, and colonel says we are to take Petersburg. I am very hopeful. 

*' The events of the next twenty-four hours justified 
the hopefulness of Lieut. Curtis. 

" On the 1st of April, Sheridan, with cavalry and 
infantry, won a great victory at Five Forks over the 
divisions of Pickett and Bushrod Johnson. Mr. Pol- 
lard tells us that on thi?t occasion five thousand rebels, 
' having got the idea that they were entrapped, threw 
down their arms and surrendered themselves as pris- 
oners.* Indeed, the rebels all along the Hue seemed 
about this time to have 'got the idea' badly; and 
Gen. Grant determined to strengthen their hold upon 
it by a shotted salute in honor of Sheridan's victory 
at Five Forks. It was about eleven o'clock on the 
evening of the 1st of April, aud all quiet, when bang! 
went a gun frcm Fort Wadsworth. Heavy firing at a 
distance of three miles or more will not start soldiers 
from their bunks. Every shot may destroy a regiment 
or sink a ship : it will not destroy their repose. But 
Fort Wadsworth was too near camp, — only fifty paces 
offj — and the men were constrained to look out and 
see the cannonading of which that shot was the open- 
ing gun. Waterloo's opening roar and Hohenlinden's 
far flashes were but the work of pop-guns in compari- 
son with the artificial earthquakes that shook Peters- 
burg and its bristling environs, and the lightnings 
which came in such quick succession that the jaws of 
darkness were not able to devour them up. Mr. Pol- 
lard says of it, — 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



75 



" ' On the night of the let April, Grant celebrated the victory of Five 
ForliB, and performed the prehide of what was yet to come by a fierce 
and continuous bombardment along his lines in front of Petersbui'g. 
Every piece of artillery in the thickly-studded forts, batteries, and mor- 
tar-beds joined in the prodigious clamor; reports, savagely, terrifically 
crashing through the narrow streets and lanes of Petersburg, echoed up- 
wards ; it appeared as if the fiends of air were engaged in a 6uli)hurous 
conflict.' 

" At about midnight the regiment was called up 
and ordered to pack up everything. Knapsacks, 
however, were to be left behind ; and, to secure greater 
silence, canteens were to be worn on the right side. 
Six companies and a half fell in (the rest being on 
picket), and proceeded to brigade headquarters, and 
thence to the neighborhood of Patrick's Station. All 
mounted officers were ordered to leave their horses 
inside the earthworks; and the division moved out 
in front, a little to the left of the lookout. A heavy 
picket-fire was opened, under cover of which the 
lines were formed, three or four deep in all except 
our brigade, which had only two, although on the 
right of the division, and our regiment (of course) in 
the front line. The charge was expected to come off 
at four o'clock, but day began to dawn before the sig- 
nal-gun was fired. Skinner had command of the right 
wing of the battalion, Jones of the left wing, Hub- 
bard of the whole. The advance was made en echelon 
by brigades, with a great rush and yell, although a part 
of the First Brigade (the Jerseys) broke and ran in- 
gloriously. The advance was over precisely the same 
ground as on the 25th of March, and the firing came 
from the same battery and breiustworks, although 
not quite so heavy. Lieut.-Col. Skinner and seven 
enlisted men were wounded, — none of them mortally. 

"A shot, which, judging from the hole it made, was 
something smaller than a minie-ball, struck Skinner 
on the side, under the right arm, went tiirough an 
overcoat, wadded blouse, and vest, i)ierced the skin 
and traveled seven indies on tiie ribs, then came out 
and si)edon, and may have wounded another man, for 
aught that is known to the contrary. There was but 
little firing on our side, but with bayonets fixed the 
boys went in, — not in a very niatliematical right line, 
but strongly and surely, — on, on, until tlie first line 
wiis carried. Then invigorated and greatly encour- 
aged by success, tliey pressed on, — the opposing fire 
slackening every moment, — on, on, througli the abati.s 
and ditcli, up the steep bank, over the parapet, into 
the rebel camp tiiat iiad but just been deserted. Then, 
and there, the long-tried and cver-fiilthful soldiers of 
the Republic saw D.WLKillT! ami such a shout 
as tore the concave of that morning sky it were worth 
dying to liear. On the ground where so long the ' 
rebels hud formed nnrl drilled their battalions our 
line was now reformed, and then pusiied on, over the 
hills and far away, across a pike anil piust a telegra[)li, 
which was i|uickly cut, then on, until at length Col. 
Hubbard found himself and his half battalion alone 
on the Uoydtown plank road. After cutting oil' and 
burning a small wagon-train loaded with medical 



stores, we marched back to the rebel camp, where we 
found the remainder of our brigade holding the right 
of the captured line. The rest of the corps was in 
line two miles farther to the left, where it had some 
sharp fighting. Our skirmishers took several works 
and guns, but for want of support had to relinqiush 
them, and the rebels, following up their slight advan- 
tage, turned the guns on us, making it very uncom- 
fortable for a few minutes, — our flank being quite 
uncovered, — when, suddenly, hurrah ! a column of 
reinforcements come over the hill by Fort Fisher. 
The rebels turn their guns in that direction, but to 
no purpose ; for the Twenty-fourth Corps marches 
steadily forward, goes into line by regiments, ad- 
vances a heavy skirmish-line, and then a superb line 
of battle, whereupon the enemy abandon their works 
and flee. This advance of the Twenty-fourth Corps 
was one of the most magnificent sights our soldiers 
ever saw ; it drove the Rebellion before it as the 
hurricane drives dead leaves. Our men watched the 
charge until the line was a mile to the right, then 
moved inside of our own works and rested an hour. 

" The corps followed the Second Corps, — all except 
our brigade, which was detached and ordered to re- 
port to Gen. Parke, commanding the Ninth Corps. 
We marched to the right, by the old camp near War- 
ren's Station, and up the corduroy to the rear of Fort 
Hell, where a rest of an hour was made, in a fiercely 
hot sun. Then the brigade advanced through a 
covered way, past Fort Hell, and out in front to the 
works that had been capture<l early that morning by 
Hartranft's division of the Ninth Corps. There the 
men lay down in muddy trenches, among the dying 
and the dead, under a most murderous fire of sharp- 
shooters. There had been charges and counter- 
charges, but our troops held all they had gained. At 
length the hot day gave place to chilly night, and the 
extreme change brought much sud'cring. The men 
had flung away whatever was flingawayable during 
the charge of the morning and the subsequent hot 
march, — as men always will under likecircunistancca, 
— and now tliey found themselves blaukotle.'«s, stock- 
ingless, overcoatless, in cold and damp trenches, and 
compelled by the steady firing to lie still or adopt 
a horizontal, crawling mode of locomotion which did 
not admit of speed enough to quicken the circulation 
of the blood. Indeed, it was very cold. Some took 
the clothing from the deud and wrai>pcd themselves 
in it ; others, who were fortunate enough to procure 
spodes, dug gopher holes and burrowed. .\t day- 
light, Col. Fiske and the Sixty-fifth New York clam- 
bered over the huge earthwork, took possession of 
Fort Hell, opcnc<l a picket fire, and fired one of the 
guns in the fort, eliciting no reply. Just then a huge 
fire in the direction of the city, followed by several 
explosions, convinced our side that Lee's army had 
indeed left. The regiment was hastily got together, 
ninety muskets being all that couM be produced, 
and sent out qd picket to relieve the Two Uundre<lth 



76 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



PenDsylvania. The picket-line advanced, and, meet- 
ing with no resistance, pushed on into the city. 
AVhat regiment was the first to enter the city is, and 
probably ever will be, a disputed question. The 
Second Connecticut claims to have been in first, but 
Col. Hubbard had ordered the colors to remain be- 
hind when the regiment went out on the sliirmish 
line, and consequently the Stars and Stripes that first 
floated over captured Petersburg belonged to some 
other regiment. Col. Hubbard was, however, made 
provost-marshal of the city, and for a brief while 
dispensed government and law in that capacity. But 
city life was not conducive to good order and mili- 
tary discipline, and the brigade shortly moved out 
and marched gayly down to the old camp, four miles 
away. After remaining there two hours everything 
of a portable nature was packed up, a farewell leave 
taken of the camj? near Warren's Station, and the 
line of march taken up due west. The brigade now 
furnished a striking illustration of the difference be- 
tween the marching and fighting strength of an army. 
It liad come down from Petersburg to camp number- 
ing three hundred ; now nearly two thousand men, 
all of the Second Brigade, started in pursuit of the 
retreating Rebellion. 

" And now came the day of the last fight for the 
Second Connecticut. It was the 6th of April, 1865. 
Reveille sounded at 4.30, and at .5.30 the lines were 
formed for an advance upon the enemy, who were in 
force immediately in front. The affair is thus de- 
scribed by Liout. Curtis : 

" After marching back two miles on the road by 
which we came on the previous evening, we halted 
for half an hour, and were then ordered back to the 
ground from wliich we had just come. We had just 
halted there, after a muddy, slippery march, and were 
mourning that Lee had outwitted and escaped us, 
when, hark ! Firing in advance and to the right. 
All right. We'll have him yet. We moved on and 
struck the Danville Railroad at Amelia Court-House, 
marching alongside of it for two miles, and on it for 
a mile more, toward Burkesville. Here we met Johnny 
Wheeler, wounded, and Mackenzie and his cavalry. 
We struck off' west-northwest from the railroad and 
marched steadily forward, hour after hour, toward a 
distant cannonade. At four o'clock we began to over- 
take the cavalry, who reported everything going on 
well. We passed fifteen hundred prisoners just taken 
from Messrs. R. E. Lee & Co. The firing grew heavier 
and nearer, and at five o'clock we reached the cavalry 
battle-field of the morning. Although tired and 
' played out,' there was no halt for us, but we moved 
forward into position, advancing beyond our batteries, 
which were playing a lively tune from a hill close by. 
When formed, the line was advanced — sometimes by 
brigade front and sometimes by a flank, but always 
on, until we crossed Sailor's Creek* and came to a 

* A small tributary of tho .\ppoDiattox. 



halt under a steep bank, from the crest of which the 
rebels poured down a murderous fire. Two lines were 
formed, the Second Connecticut Volunteer Artillery 
and Sixty-fifth New York in the second line. Every- 
thing being ready, " Forward !' sounded along the 
wliole line, and away we went up the hill, under a 
very hot fire. It was tough work to get over the 
crest, but at last we got the Johnnies started, and 
made good time after them. The Second Heavies 
captured Mahone's headquarters train and many pris- 
oners, besides one battle-flag. We were badly broken, 
but after running on for some distance were finally 
halted and reformed. Col. Hubbard and Maj. Jones 
came up in time to present us to Gens. Sheridan, 
Wright, Wheaton, and Hamblin, who all rode along 
to the front. We also advanced soon after, and found 
things in a promising condition. Gen. Ewell and 
staff and several thousand other prisoners had been 
taken, together with wagon-trains, guns, caissons, and 
small-arms without number. One of the prisoners 
told us that they had but three guns left. Our loss 
in the charge was seven wounded, three of them mor- 
tally, — viz., Emory W. Castle and Erastus W. Con- 
verse, of D, and Charles Griswold, of F. At ten 
o'clock we moved up a mile further to the front, and 
bivouacked for the night. 

" When the long and firmly treading battalion of 
the Nineteenth Connecticut moved from Camp Dutton 
to Litchfield Station, on the lotli of September, 1862, 
followed by hundreds of relatives and friends, none 
but God knew what was to be its history. We have 
now found out. The regiment has fought its last bat- 
tle, and made up its Roll of Honor." 

LEVERTTE WARD WESSELLS. 

Leverette Ward Wessells, youngest son of Dr. Ash- 
bel and Grace (Ward) Wessells, was born in the town 
of Litchfield, Conn., July 28, 1819, where he contin- 
ued to reside till he was twenty years of age, receiving 
an academical education. In his twentieth year, in 
consequence of serious hemorrhages of the lungs, he 
went to Florida and remained two years with his 
brother, H. W. Wessells (then lieutenant Second U. S. 
Infantry), during the progress of the Seminole war. 

After his return to Litchfield he entered upon the 
study of medicine with Dr. John S. Wolcott, but was 
obliged to abandon it at the end of two years on ac- 
count of ill health. In 1842 he was appointed deputy 
sheriff, performing the duties of that office for nine 
years. Upon the death of Reuben M. Woodruff, in 
1849, he was appointed postmaster of Litchfield, 
Conn., retaining that position during President Fill- 
more's administration. 

In 1854 he was elected high sheriff of Litchfield 
County, and continued to hold the office by re-election 
for twelve consecutive years. 

In 1862, at the earnest solicitation of Governor 
Buckingham, he organized the Nineteenth Regiment 
Connecticut Volunteers, or the Litchfield County 




'V 



'/^^4-^^ 



y; 



y? 



.-s 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



77 



Regiment, as it was termed (afterwards known as 
the Second Heavy Artillery), and was commissioned 
colonel of the same July 28, 1862. The flower of the 
county was enrolled in the " Old Nineteenth," and 
no regiment achieved a more honorable record. In 
September, 1862, Col. Wessells was ordered to Alex- 
andria, Va., with his regiment, where it performed 
provost duty until the following winter, when it moved 
to Fort Worth and became a part of Gen. R. 0. Tylers 
brigade. In April, 1863, Col. Wessells assumed com- 
mand of the " Second Brigade, defenses south of the 
Potomac," occupying Forts Williams, Ellsworth, 
Lyon, and A, B, C, and D redoubts, in which he 
continued until the following September, when ill 
health obliged him to resign. In December of the 
same year he was sent to Virginia by Governor 
Buckingham to procure re-enlistments in the First 
Regiment Heavy Artillery, and on the 9th of Febru- 
ary, 1864, was appointed provost-marshal of the 
Fourth District of Connecticut, with headquarters 
at Bridgeport, where he remained until the close of 
the war, since which time he has been engaged in the 
drug business at Litchfield, Conn. 

In 1868, Col. Wessells was nominated for treasurer 
on the State ticket, with Marshall Jewell as nominee 
for Governor. He was also tendered the nomination 
the following year, but declined it. 

In politics he is a staunch Republican and as such 
represented Litchfield in the State Legislature in 
1879, though the town was strongly Democratic. In 
January of the same year he was appointed quarter- 
master-general by Governor Andrews, and performed 
the duties of that office during his administration. 
He married Mary M. Parks, of Litciifield, Conn., 
November, 1840, and to them have been born two 
children, viz. : Grace, wife of Dr. Howard E. Gates, of 
Litchfield (they have one daughter, Annie Howard), 
and Harry Walton Wessells, a merchant of Litchfield. 

ENGAGEMENTS. 

The regiment participated in the following battles: 
North Anna, near Mechanicsville, Cold Harbor, Pe- 
tersburg, Winchester, Fisher's Hill, Cedar Creek, 
Hatcher's Run, Fort Fisher, Petersburg, and Sailor's 
Creek. 

The following is a list of the colonels who at differ- 
ent times had command of the regiment: Levcrette 
W. Wessells, resigned Sept. 15, 18G3 ; Elisha S. Kel- 
logg, killed at Cold Harbor, June 1, 1864; James 
Hubbard, declined commission ; Ranald S. Macken- 
zie, promoted brigadier-general Dec. 28, 1864; James 
Hubbard, brevet brigadier general, must out Aug. 
18, 1865. 

CASUALTIES. 

Killed in action, 134 ;• died of wounds, KH) ; died 
of disease, 152 ;t missing, 24 ; died in prison, 21 ; total, 
431. 

• Th» adjatent-gsneral'a report placn the number it on* hnndrod tuil 
forly.three. 
t AilJuUnt-geDenl'i report, one hundred and fl2btT.elx. 
6 



The regiment was mustered out Aug. 18, 1865, and 
on the 20th reached New Haven, " and passed up 
Chapel Street amid welcoming crowds of people, the 
clangor of bells, and a shower of rockets and red 
lights that made the field and staff" horses prance with 
the belief that battle had come again. After par- 
taking of a bounteous entertainment prepared in the 
basement of the State-House, the regiment proceeded 
to Grapevine Point, where, September 5th, they re- 
ceived their pay and discharge, and the Second Con- 
necticut Heavy Artillery passed into history." 

THE DEAD OF THE REGIMENT. 

Field and Staff. 
Killed at Cold Harbor— Co]. Elishn S. Kellogg. 
Jt Winchegler. — Maj. Janiea Q. Kice. 
At Fort Fisher. — Sergt.-Maj. E. Goodwin Oslwrne. 

Company A. 

Killed at Cold Harbor. — 1st Sergt. Joseph P. Parks, Corp. AUiert A. Jones, 
Corp. Benjamin Meeker, Lyman J. Smith, Jr., Robert AVntt. John 
Ifiland, Willard 11. Pannelee, Almon D. Bradley, Oliver Uitch- 
cock, W'illiam Barton, William Braebing, George Everett, Stephen 
Fallen, Patrick Ryan, Robert Scull, Homer F. Tilford, James Brad- 
ley. 

At Winctiealer. — Joseph Gardner. 

Died of Tl'oinicZs lieceired ot CuM Harbor. — Cftpt. Luman Wadhoms, Corp. 
George Wilson Potter, Corp. Charles Adam, Jr., Corp. ApoUos C. 
Morse, Andrew J, Brooker, Truman Mallory, George Savage, Amos 
n. Stillson, Ransoii E. Wood, John Benedict. 

At Winchester. — Horatio P. Bennett, Corp. Franklin U. Bunnell. 

At Cedar Creek. — Corp. John L. Witcox. 

Died in Rebel Pruions. — David M. Candee, Benjamin IL Rathbun. 

Vied of Disease. — WutBon Parmelee, William S. Wilson, Henry M, Jliner, 
Nelbert V. Xewberry, Corp. Joseph E. Coe, Nonuun L. Barber, Julius 
Winship, Edward F. Perkins, Lewis Ludinglou, Sylvester Lami«ou, 
Simeon W. Loud. 

COUPAXT B. 

Killed at Cold Harbor. — Con). Walter C. Sparks. Con>. Monroe W*liitemnn, 
Corp, Myron R. Sterry, Robert W. Bragg, Francis Burger, Daniel O. 
Page, Samuel V. Benetliet, Janiea Caul, John Handel, Kxrn B. Mor- 
ris, Adam O'Strunder. Franklin D. Stevens, Jobu B. Sl<dil, George .\. 
SkllT, Ellas P. Scott, Charles U. Segur, Uunry Voelker, Henry WIe- 
sing. 

At It'iiicAssler.— Daniel Glaren. 

At f\sJterU //iU.— Lucleii O. S|iencer. 

At Fort Fisher.— Corp. John Il«it. 

Ditd of H'ounili tteceired at Old W.irknr.— Wilson W. Seville, John W. 
Coons, Henry Tanner, I'hcvtor A. Johnson, Anioe Woudin, Sergt. 
Jidin McGraw. 

At Hiiuhtsler.-'M Lieut. William H. Cogswell. 

At Fisher's Hill.— Corf. Jacob F. Rnpp. 

At Oder Ont.— Sergt. Henry S. Wheeler, Robert Amea. 

listing at CUii Harl>or.—i\ir\t. Willlum Dunn, Darld Lacy. 

J^risoner at CutJ //urfcor.— Rcul en R. Slwcd. 

Died »/ DisoiM.— John H. While. Cliarira D. Hall, Jamea Oatrander, Jr., 
Sergt. Moaea C<>ok, Jr., Peter Ostmuder, Carlf Voluseo. Tbomaa 
Hyer, Almeron Burton, Wlllinni S. Hortou, Henry Winters, Patrick 
Delaney, Gurdon C. Davidson, Hiram Fanning, 

CoitrAXt C. 

Kitted at Chid Harbor.— Sargt. David J. Thori>e, George W. Pierce, Jidin 
H. Vrv, Eira B. Bouton, Cor)'. Oraon M. Miner. 

At n'iocAnifsr.— Corp. William U. Beach, Peter Burka, Jarcmlah Mc- 
carty. 

At Olor Creek.-Carf. Georgs W. CleTeland, Corp. William II. Bray, 
Cynis SI. Bartholomew. 

Died o/ H'oiiH.b llectiMd al 04d /r.irter.— Christian Blornseo, Lucius B. 
Palnu.r, Corj). Enijtns Cleavvlanil. 

At iVinrhestrr. — Anson K. Ihik-t>m. 

At Cedar CVer*.— Corp. Henry L. Valll, Altwrt M. Scotllle 

Ditd ia lleM iVisoM.— Alfred Ulackman. 



78 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



Died of Disease. — 1st Lieut. William McK. Kice, Sergt. Matthew H. Hux' 
Icy, Daniel E. Lyman, Arthur G. Kellogg, William S. Eoliiiison, Or- 
lainlo Evans, John H. Stewart, Corp. Uri Wadhanie, William H 
Norville, William 11. Herald, George W. Brown, Giles A. Cone, Wil- 
liam Butler, William II. Hart, Andrew H.Sanford, James M. Hayes, 
Henry M. Woodruff, Corp. Willard N. Wadhams, Koyal G. Andrua, 
Harlow S. Johnson, Milo Young, James Rogers, John J. Abbott. 

Company D. 

liiUcd at Cold Harbor. — Pomeroy Beecraft, Philo A. Fenu, Henry W. 
Miller, John Murphy. 

At Vvtersbnnj. — George Comatock (real namo George Roberts), Walter M. 
Fox. 

At Winchester. — Richard Beehe, Hiram F. Coley, James Slater. 

At Fisher's llUl—Qv.-Mr. Sorgt. David B. Wooster. 

At Cx'dar Crecli. — Capt. Benjamin F. Hoaford, Corp. Edward C. Ilopson, 
(^jrp. William Wright, John H. Conklin, Daniel A'an Allen, Charles 
R. VVarner. 

Died of Wounds Received at Cold Harbor. — George L. Beach, Corp. Edgar 
J. Ciistle, Thomas Mann, Walter Stone, Hiram Mattoon. 

At Pelercburij. — Corp. Cliarlea E. Guernsey, Jacob Demuth, John Grieder. 

At Witicfie$ter. — George 11. S. Goodwin, George E. Clark. 

At Cedar Crtek: — Henry Gilboit, Henry Lynch. 

At S((i7or'8 Creek. — Emery W. Castle, Eraatus W. Converse. 

Died in Rebel Priw/w.— Bonjamiu Filley, James Strawn, Charles D. Han- 
son. 

Missiiuj. — Walter Gates, William S. Barnes. 

Died of Disease. — Corp. Froderibk B. Webster, Corp. William W. John- 
son, Burritt H. Tulles, Charles J. Cleveland, George H. Holt, Frank- 
lin W. Hubbard, Sergt. E<lgur B. L«?wi3, Joeiali J. Wadsworth, Wil- 
liam W. Richardson, James H. Pritchard, Sergt. Salmou B. Smith, 
David Davenport, Horatio G. Perkins. 

Company E. 

Kdlid at Cold Harbor. — C*.)rp. Frederick W. Daniels, Corp. Alonzo J. Hull, 
Corp. Willard Hart, Corp. Henry A. Roxford, Frederick D. Painter, 
Blyron Ferris, Lewis Downs, Alfred Conimins, John M. Teeter, 
George A. Tatro, Charles H. Stanley, Ruel II. Perkins, Daniel Mc- 
Donald, James Moouey, Walter Martin, William Kelly, Patrick 
Kaine. 

At Pelei-shnrf/. — Jared P. Evarts. 

At Cedar Creel-. — John BIcDonough. 

Died of Wounds at Qjld Harbor. — Sylvester Barrett, Qr.-Mr. Sergt. James 
A. Green, Elizur Maltbie, Stephen J. Green. 

At Peteraburg. — Birdseye Gibbs, Capt. Oren H. Knight. 

At Winchester. — Corp. George H. Pendleton, Corp. John H. Boughton, 
Asa Ilumaston. 

At Cedar CVefi.— David Backus. 

Missing at Odd Harbor.— 'Id Lieut. Calvin B. Hatch, Corp. James R. Bald- 
win, James Simpson, John J. Toole, John Scully, Boughton D. Knapp, 
Henry C. Kent, John Cook, Bernard Carberry, Martin Blake, Sher- 
man Apley. 

At Petersburg. — Charles Bohan. 

Died in Pebel Prisons, — Michael Donahue, Allen B. Tonng, Matthew Fitz- 
gerald. 

Died of Dweasf. — 2d Lieut. Hiram D, Gaylord, George W. Hurlbut, Wil- 
liam S. Hurlbut, Darwin E. Starks, Jerome Preston, Julius Wood- 
ford, William R. Hubbard, Joseph Rubinsou, Julius Rogers, Edwin 
E. Rowe, Charles Long. 

Killed b^i Accident. — Manwaring Green. 

Company F. 

Killed at Cold Harbor.— Sargt. Samuel E. Gibbs, John E. Hall. 

At Peteriiburg. —V/nimm H. Colt. 

At Winchenter. -Sergt. Lorenzo P. Light, Sergt. Alfred C. Alford, Tim- 
othy ( t'Callaghan. 

Al Cedar Creek,— George Simons. 

Died of Wonnds Peceived at Cold Harbor. — George N. AndruB. 

At Fither's i/i//.— Cornelius H. Merrell. 

Al Winchester. — Edmund Dougherty. 

At JSdi/or's Creek. — Charles A. Griswold, Jay J. Cushmao. 

Died in Pebel Prisons or After Release. — Robert Gahill, Solomon G. Hay- 
ward. 

Missing. — John Busby. 

Died of Disease. — Harlau D. Benedict, Augustus H. Barrett, Albert Beck- 
with, RithardS. Thompson, Corp. William G. Henderson, Philander 
Emmone, Peter Riley, Lorenzo K. Lamoine, Harvey Ford, Philander 



Eggleston, Horatio G. Eggleston, Henry Tan Dusen, Charles Tuttle, 
Jefferson T. Lent. 

Company G. 

Killed at Cold Harbor. — Qr.-Mr. Sergt. Joseph B. Payne. 

At Winchester. — Wilson Waterman, Cliauncey L. Warner, Henry Peck. 

Al Cedar Creek. — Corp. Charles J. Reed, Corp. George W. Page, Elisha 
Soule. 

Died of Woumls Recelced at Cold Harbor. — Horace Sickmund. 

At Winchester. — Corp. Patrick Troy, James H, Vanburon, Qr.-Mr. Sergt. 
Charles Ingei-soll, George Clinton. 

At Cedar Creek. — James M. Palmer, Barney Kinney. 

At Fort Fisher.— Corp. Dwight B. Studley, Sylvester Prout. 

Missing. — Robert Bard, Corp. James Stanley. 

Died of Disease. — Myi'on H. Hubbell, Philo Cole, Lucien Rouse, Merritt 
Stone, Charles C. Herman, Harvey Clark, John H. Bradley, Paschal 
P. North, Herman E. Bonney, Lewis Sawyer, Henry H. Waters, Al- 
bert A. Peck, Allen Williams, John M. Hamblin, William Whit«, 
Sergt. Albert Robinson, Joliu Lapham, William Slover, 

Company H. 

Killed at Cold Harbor.— Renry C. Straight, Charles W. Jackson, Theo- 
dore A. Barnes. 

At Winchester. — 2d Lieut. Horace Hubbard, 1st Lieut. Franklin M. 
Can dee. 

At Ccdiir Oeci.— Edward Blead. 

Died of Wounds Received al Cold Harbor. — Jerome Johnson. 

At Petersburg. — Harvey Pease. 

At Winchester. — Capt. Frederick M. Berry. 

At Cedar Creek. — Daniel Payne. 

Missing. — Patrick Lynch. 

Died in Rebel Prison^t. — Herbert H. Reed, Moses L. Wigglesworth. 

Died of Disease. — Henry A. Calhoun, William C. Warner, William H. 
Dains, Lewis St. John, Sheldon Clark, Sergt. Garwood R. Merwin, 
Ira S. Bradley, Henry Bridge, Sylvester C. Piatt, Joseph R. Love- 
ridge, Willis Hartwell. 

Company I. 

KUled at Cold Harbor. — Friend F. Kane, Almon D. Galpin. 

Al Winchester. — Charles Barney. 

At Ced^ir Creek. — William Fitzgerald, Samuel B. Ferris, Addison Cook. 

At Foil Fisher. — David Cramer, Thomas Wheeler. 

Died of Wotnuh Received at Cold Harbor. — Curtis Wheeler. 

At Winchester. — Sergt. Walter J. Orton, Corp. Charles F. Flueliman, 
George W. Locklin. 

Al Cedar Creet.— Seymour Lobdell, Sergt. George E. Judson, Charles 
Bennet, Corp. Patrick Brady. 

At NoeCs Station. — Ham A. Barnes. 

Missing. — Timothy F. Walsh. 

Died in Rebel Prisons. — Albert Woodruff, Marshall Lines. 

Died of Disease. — John S. White, James C. Polley, Harvey H. Fox, Corp. 
Henry F. Hard, Charles L. Thomas, Corp. Horatio S. Thomas, Banks 
Lounsbury, Timothy Elwell, James Sidney, Isaac Briggs, Corp. Ed- 
ward Bell, Joseph Colonel, Coi-p. Cornelius Goebel, John K. Northrop. 

Cosipany K. 

Kitl€<l at Cold Harbor. — Sergt. George H. McBurney, John Warner, 
Robert Sothergill, David D. Lake, Andrew Jackson, Edmund 
llickey, Peter Gallagher, Henry B. Bristol, Isaac Baldwin, Franklin 
Andrus. 

At Petersburg. — Henry H. Hyatt. 

At Winchester. — Lucien Button. 

At Cedar Greet.— Alexander D. Kasson, John H. R. Hipwell. 

Died of Wounds Received al Cold Harbor. — Jacob Wentworth, Edward B. 
Griffin, Charles Reed, Asaiiel N. Perkins, John Munson, William B. 
Leach, Patrick Kennedy, Owen Cromney. 

At Petersburg. — Alfred June. 

At Winchester. — Ist Lieut. James P. McCabo. 

At Cedar Creek. — Albert J. Miner, Charles A. Johnson, Charles Haviland. 

Mismng. — Charles H. Russell. 

Died in Rebel Prisons. — Sergt. Lant Ryan, Amaziah Downs, Noble An- 
drus. 

Died of Disease. —Corp. Wesley T. Glover, Charles B. Ferris, Sergt. Wil- 
liam S. Watson, Fifer George A. Hoyt, Leander Ide, George W. 
Harrington, Eben Norton, John Burch, Anton Barth, Wolcott Cook, 
Corp. Sidney A. Law, Henry Colby. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



19 



Company L. 
KUled at Cold Harbor.— John Martin. 
At Winc7iester.—Augii6t Berg. 

Died of Wounds Received at Wiifchester.—V^iWiam Day. 
Near Tolopotomtj.— John Pullard, Corp. Norman Mansfield. 
At Cold Harbor. — Sergt. George Parker, Amos L. Ives. 
Died in Rebel Ftnsons or After Release.— Feed. Hooker, George Grover, 

Patrick Butler, Corp. 'William Dixon. 
Died of Disease.— Corp. Henry A. Hubbell, Corp. William Morton, Horace 

B. Wood, Fred. Slade, William Malloy, Thomas B. Foster, Charles 

Davenport. 

Company M. 
EUled on Picket at NvrtJt, Anna J?ii;er.— Patrick Keegan. 
At Cold Harbor. — Samuel S. Osborne. 
At Wincliester. — Abner W. Scott. 
Died of Wounds Received at Fort Fisher.— John Fay. 
At Winchester. — Thomas Doyle. 
At Petersburg. — Thumaa Colburn. 
Missiitg. — Aaron Joseph, William Bergen. 
Died of Diseiise.- John Thomas, Loriu L. Morris, James H. Case. 

WOUNDED. 

Field and Staff. 

Col. (afterwards Brig.-Gen. and Bvt. Maj.-Gen.) Ranald S. Mackenzie. 

Maj. William B. Ells, at Cold Harbor. A musket-ball passed through 
the bone of the right leg, between the knee and ankle, in euch a 
mnnner as to inflict permanent injury. 

Mflj. (aftei wards Lieut.-Col.) Jeffrey Skinner, was twice wounded; first 
by a shell at Winchester, and at the capture of Petersburg, April 2, 
1865, by a musket-ball in the side. In the first iustauce he was 
absent from duty not more than a month, and only six weeks after 
receiving the latter wound, althongh it was quite severe. 

Capt. (afterwarcls Maj.) Cheater D. Cleveland, then ordnance officer of 
First Division, Sixth Corps, was slightly wounded in the arm al 
Cedar Creek, but did not report it. 

Sergt.-Maj. (aftenvards 2d Lieut.) Frederick A. Lucas, received a wound 
in the left thigh at Cedar Creek, which disabled him for several 
months. He returned to the regiment just in time to receive 
another wound (a slight one) in the affair at Hatcher's Itun. Ho 
was promoted for gallantry at Winchester and Fisher's IHIl, and 
Col. Mackenzie said, just after those battles, that ho never saw a 
braver man than Sergt.-Mnj. Lucas. 

iBt Lieut, and .\djt. Theodore F. Vaill, at Fort Fisher. Flesh wound, 
left hip, by cast-iron ball from spherical case-shot. 

Company A. 
At 0>ld Harbor. 

Q.-M. Sergt George W. Maaon. Head. Very severe, and at flnit sup- 
posed to he mortal, but after many montlis he recovered, and was 
muHtercd as captuln and aitsislant 4uartennasler in the geiiorul ser- 
vice, having been comnii»--<ioncd thereto by President LiDCulu before 
ho was wounded. 

Watson Cogswell. Left arm. 

Samuel Gunn. Shoulder. 

Corp. Curtis P. Wedge. Kight hand. 

Corp. Seth Whiting. Hand. 

Edward Mull. Buttocks. 

Lyman F. Morehouse. Wrist. 

Jamefl Ferris. Leg amputated. 

Robert W. Coo. Arm amputated. Also wounded Id toe. 

Charles Belcher. Shoulder. 

John Beneillct. Breust. 

Michael Brny. Hip. 

John It<iik<y. Arm. 

Charles Carter. Shoulder. 

Robert Crawford. Ann. 

EdaoD S. Dayton. Thigh. 

Myron K. Kllbonrn. Finger amputated. 

John Lawlor. Both thighs. 

David McBath. Arm. 

Noniuin B. Perkins. Han<l. 

Harvey B. Perkins. Side. 

James M. Prlndlo. Fingers. 

Jaiiun 8t. John. Knee. Had previously been wounded In the other 
kneo, when a memlwr of the Eighth Connecticut Vulunteen. 

Roubeu A. Swift. Cheek and tlilgh. 



George F. Waugh. Breast. 
David P. Wetmore. Leg. 
Ist Lieut. Hubbard E. Tuttle. Head. 
Ist Lieut. Buslirod H. Camp. Leg. 

At Winchester. 
Frederick T. Jennings. Left hand and head. Wounded while passing 

over the knoll between the two ravines. 
Capt. Alexander B. Shumway. Leg. Wounded where the regiment was 

first moved into action. 
2d Lieut. Daniel E. Marsh. Arm. Wounded in the first ravine. 
Watson Cogswell. Arm. 
Corp. Henry T. Cable. Abdomen. Severe. Wounded while going from 

the fii-st to the second ravine. 
Edmund P. Aiken. Head. 
James Moll. Leg. Real name James Moore. It was entered wrong at 

fij-st, and, like that of Hiram U. Grant, had to remain wrong. 
Edmund Haley. Leg. 

At Fisher'a HiU. 
James L. Osborn. Side. 

At Cedar Creek. 
Sergt. William S. Smith. Head. Also at Fort Fisher in foot, slightly. 
Thomas Monis. Face. 
Joseph Moody. Ankle. 

At Fort Figher. 
Corp. Horace N. Williams. Bfouth. Ball could not be found, and after 

four months was taken out from the l>ack of lus neck. The muscles 

of one eye were cut or destroyed, so that it cannot be shut. 

Com PAN v B. 
At Skirmish on Tolopotomy^ May 31, lSr4. 
Mortimer M. Lillibridgo. Foot. 
William H. Sufdom. 

At Cold Harbor. 

George W, Mansfield. Log. Also wounded at Fisher's Hill in leg, ond 
had thumb shot off at Sailor's Creek. Was scalded to death by col- 
lision on Ilonsatonic lUi)roa<l on his way home, after being dls- 
chargc<l. Had never been home since enlisting. 

Daniel 0. Page. Paroled prlnoner. 

Sergt. George L. Johnson. Hip. 

Augustus Adams. Leg. 

Horace Ball. Breast. 

Rlchanl Brown. Head. 

Sheldon Carley. Hca<l. 

Newton W. Cogswell. Arm. 

John Coonj. Breast and back. 

Ezra Clark. Neck. 

William Connell. Arm amputatod. 

John Decker. Right hand. 

Daniel Dunlavoy. Left hand. 

Henry Dryer. Foot. 

John Funk. Neck. 

Solomon llinkley. Hand and hco'l. 

R4igcr Lyddy. 

Peter Mulath. Thigh. 

Godfrey Miller. Ankle. 

Gc^orge McLauo. Hand. 

John McMolion. 

Joel Snyder. Neck. 

Henry Tanner. Thigh. 

Daniel Taylor. Hand. 

Cbarle«0. Whaplos. Thigh. 

Franris Burger. 

At n'iuch 



Capt. William II. Lowi«, Jr. Wrist. 

Sergt. (afterwants Lieut.) WlllUm S. Cooper. 

Peter FI<hmI. Leg, flesh wound. 

Gilbert McMahon. hvtf. 

Lewii Morey. Loft arm. 

.It Fi»h«r'i lliU. 
Luther E. Speed. Neck. 
John McOovern. Finger amputatfkl. 
George W. Mansfield. Leg. 

Al 0$^{ar OfcA. 
Ut Sergt. Jnme« Park*. Left leg. PIrco of thtll. 
Sergt. CuriL* Hall. Right shoulder. 



80 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



John Hughes. Fingers. 




Jonathan Hall. Head. Spent ball in forehead. 


Robert Ames. Hip. 




Wallace E. Beach. Arm. 


At Pelenlnrg, Ajiril 2, 


1805. 


George T. Cook. Shoulder. 


Corp. Daniel T. Claris. 




Zelotes r. Grannis. Head. 


Al Sailor's Creek. 




William H. Harrison. Ann. 


George Vf. Mansfleltl. 




Kelsey D. Clark. Head. 


Company C. 




James Slater. Leg. (Afterwards killed at Winchester). 


At the North Anna 




At Petershtlrg. 



James A. Bryan. 

Patrick Harvey. 

James P. Quiiiu. 
ErastHM Rnscoe. 



Cbarles G. Adams. Ilip broUeu tearing up railroad near Noel's Station. 
Returned to duty before the close of the war. 

At Skirmish on the TolojH'tomij. 

Leg. 

At Cold Harbor. 

Juno 3d. Leg. Also wounded in leg at Winchester. 

Foot. 

Arm. 

Coip. Harrison Wliituey. Loft elbow. 
Peter Bunts. Arm amjiutatcd. 
George Manning. Ileel. 
Anson Johnson. Leg. 
lienry "W. Richards. Arm. 
Royal Stone. Neck. 

Enos Benedict. J»mo 3d. Tjeg. Also at Cedar Creek, ankle. 
Newton Calkins. Juno 7th. Hand. 

At Petersburg. 
Seelyo Richmond. Juno 22(1. Arm. 

At Winchester. 
Patrick Harvey. Leg. 
Leonard Hower. Shoulder. 

Sergt. Joseph Sherry. Left arm broken; never healed. 
Sorgt. (afterwards 2d Lieut.) Calvin L. Davis. Color-bearer. Right 

shoulder and arm. 
Thomas B. Stewart. Lost buth feet. Shell. 
Lucien N. Wliiting. Arm. Flesh wound. 

1st Lie\it. Dwight C. Kilbourn. Both arms. Flesh wound. Shell. 
Anson F. Balcom. Foot. Flesh wound. 
Walter E. Foster. Hip. Slight. 

At Fitther'e HUl. 
Henry Barnes. Leg. 

At Cedar Creek. 
John Quinn. Hand. Died in California since tlio war. 
Edmund Thorn. Foot and right hand. 

Corp. Frederick A. Hills. Right shoulder-joint. Lost use of arm 
Thomas 0. Murphy. Neck. 
James Qloran. Both hips. 
Capt. (afterwards Ma^j.) A. H. Fenn. Right arm amputated. Walked 

three miles to hospital after being wounded. 
1st Lieut. Morris U. Sanford. Arm. 
George W. Brown. Arm. 
Henry D. Pierce. Arm. 

At Hatfher'e Run. 
Charles G. ^Vheeler. Breast and arm. 
Orange S. Brown. Finger. 

At Fort Fisher. 
William E. McKce. Brigade commander's orderly. Hip, 
Company D. 
At the XorthAnna. 
George W. Butler. Finger off. 

At Cold Harbor. 
Q.-M. Sergt. David B. Wooster. Thigh, slight. Afterwards killed at 

Fisher's Hill. 
Charley Warner. Hand. He was from Watertowu, and was not the 

Cbarles R. Warner killed at Cedar Creek. 
Benjamin Williams. Leg. Flesh wound. 
Justin 0. Stoughton. Shoulder and back. 

Nathan H. Geer. Leg thrice amputated. Died at Hartford in 18C6. 
Corp, Albert Alfred. Hand, Severe. 
Lawrence A. Hunt. Face and mouth. 
Everett Griswold. Hand. Finger amputated. 
Chauncey Culver. Side and breast. Severe. 
William Elliott. Back. Shell. Severe. 



Matthias Walter. 



At Winchester, 



Corp. Ira H, Stoughton, Hip. Canister. 

Corp. John A. Castle. Lung, and from shoulders to groin. Very severe. 

Emery B. Taylor. Leg. 

William H. Whitelaw. Thigh and head. 

David Davenport. Leg. Slight. 

Seeley Morse. Thigh. 

G. E. Clark, Leg. Slight. 

Philip H. Golde. Arm. 

Robert Tompkins. Face. 

George H. Bates. Side and back. Shell. Severe. 

George Hancock. Mouth. 

Frederick R, Keith. Wrist. 

At Fisher's mil 

Charles L, Bryan. Hand. Slight. 

Swift McG. Hunter. Shoulder. 

Thomas Bulluss. Shoulder. 

Edward W. Couklin. Leg and buttocks. 

Mark B. Stone. Ai'm. 

Sergt. Samuel Brown. Heel. 

James Boyce. 

Sergt. Charles P, Travor, color-bearer. Arm. Promoted to second lieu- 
tenant for gallantry. 

At Cedar Creek. 

Charles L. Bryan. Leg. Severe. Took part in the final battles, but 
died since the war (February, 1806), of the efTects of chronic diar- 
rhu-a. Buried in Watertown. 

Corp. Henry N. Bushnell. Neck. Severe. 

Corp. David A. Bradley. Neck. 

William Lindley, Finger. 

Henry Tolles. Head. 

Sergt. (afterwards 2d Lieut.) Amzi P. Clark. Foot. 

John L. Conklin. 

Nehemiah Dutton. Side. Severe. 

Robert Lowrie, Breast. Severe. 

Ist Lieut, (afterwards Capt.) Gad N. Smith. Leg. 

Coi-p, John Curtin. 

Corp. Ira Chapman. Arm. 

Edward Dwyer. Heel, 

Stephen C. Smith. Finger, 

Henry Smith. Leg. 

At Fort Fisher. 

Sergt, David A, Bradley. Thigh. Severe. 

George E, Atwood, Ankle. 

Harvey Bronson. Shoulder. Severe. 

William A. Stoddard. Leg. 

Company E. 

At Cold Harbor. 
Ernest Basney. Arm, 
August Hain. Lung. 
Peter Jordan. Jaw and hand. 
Richard Gingell. Hand. 
Patrick Lynch. Arm. 
Jacob Leroy. Arm and finger. 
Chauncey S. Loomis, Head. 
Charles G, Ma»on. Leg, 
Henry G. Mitchell. Arm and leg. 
John O'Connell. Ann and leg. 
Nathan Perry, Wrist and right shoulder. 
Edward L. Riker. Arm. 
William H, Seymour. Thigh. 
Henry P, Warner. Foot. 
Marcus J, Wbitehead, Shot himself In hand. 
Henry Weuzel. Head, thigh, and knee. 
Erastus Woodwortli. Leg. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



81 



Charles Walsh. Neck and wrist. 
Christopher Arnold. Arm. 
Edward Beach. Hip. 
Samuel U. Brewer. Leg. 
Corp. David Miller. Hand. 
Corp. William A. Hosford. Shoulder. 
Charles B. Howard. Lung. 
Philip D. Carroll. Hand. 

At Petersburg. 
Robert Bulcraft. June 22d. Thigh. 
Charles Walsh. June 2Gth. Foot. 

Al Winchester. 
Edmund B. Sage. Groin. 
Sergt. (afterwards Lieut.) William S. Cooper. 

Clark. Foot. 

James Maloy. Thigh. 
Martin Keaton. Leg. 
Elbert B. Bowe. Knee. 
Julius Collins. Groin. 

At Fisher's Hill. 
John Campbell. Leg. 

At Cedar Creek, 
Corp. Charles M. Burr. Leg amputated. 

A I Hatcher^s Bun. 



Thigh. 



Charles Walsh. Side. 
Peter Larive. Finger. 

Company F. 
At the North Anna. 
Charles J. Thompson. Right arm. 

At Cold Harbor. 
Alexander Waters. Bight hand. 
James 0. Hotchkiss. Left arm. 
William Malthouse. Left leg. 
John W. Shaw. Right leg. 
William Burke. Breast and arm. 
Bernard Kelly. Hand. 
Thomas Smyth, Hand. 
Alexander McCormick. Leg. 
Timothy F. Kelly. Hand. 

At Petertburg. 
Sergt. E. D. Lawrence. Shoulder. Severe. Juno 21!<J. 
Sergt. JameH H. Hakes. Hand. Slight. April 2, ldC5. 

At Winchttter, 
Ist Lieut. Wurron Alford. Slight. 
Corp. Byron O. Ha^vley. Leg. 
Corp. Ira D. Jones. Arm. 
Corp. Thomas Noonan. Abdomen. 
Parley B. Gammons. Thigh. 
John Johnson. Foot. 
Timothy F. Kolloy. Right Bide. 
James F. Koith. Back. 
Ephralm Tucker. Arm. 
Michael McMahon (3d). 
Edwin Wahlen. Thigh. 
Horace F. Calkins. Shoulder. 
Joseph McManus. Right Hide. Slight 
George Simons. Hand. (Afterwards killed at Cedar Creek.) 

At FUh«r*$ HUt. 
Corp. James H. Hakes. Shoulder. 
John Rodemyer. Uoel. 

At Ceilar CrtcJc. 
Sorgt. Jesse Turner. Leg and buttocks. 
Otis Billin^i). Leg. 
Klislm L. Baucrc^. Leg. 

Dwight Case. Severnl wounds,— arm, side, and thigb. 
Wuyoo B. Cnstlo. Arm and side. 
Robert Cahlll. Leg. Also taken prisoner. 
Morris E. MuDger. Toe amputated. 
Buftis B. Smith. Ann. 

At Saaor'$ Cn«k. 
James Hyde. Arm. Slight. 
Corp. Seth Uasktas. Shoulder. Serore. 



At Cold Harbor. 
Charles IngersoU. Shoulder. (Afterwards mortally wounded at Win- 
chester.) 
John Harris. Arm. 
Andrew J. BoUes. June 5th. Foot. 
Horace Sickmund. June 3d. Knee. 
John Christie. June 8th. Hand. 
let Sergt, Henry Dean. Leg and thigh. Very severe. 
John O'Dougherty. Arm. 
Timothy Leonard. Hand. 
John R. Thompson. Arm. 
Wesley Bunnell. Haad. 
John Byrnes. Arm. 
Michael Curley. Leg amputated. 
George Barton. Head. 
John Hawver. Shoulder. 

At Peterehnrg, 
Patiick Murphy. Hand, Slight April 2, 1865, 

At Winchester. 
Sergt Julius A. Glover. Shoulders and head. 
Corp. Alfred L. Benedict. Ankle. 
Michael Gidlagher. Arm. 
William Frazier. Hip. 
Asa Lee. Leg. 
George A. Case. Leg, 

At Cedar Ovek. 
Corp. Mattliew P. Bell, Jr. Thigh and back. Very severe. 
Corp. Edward Hawver. Thigli. 
William C. Bowuo. Leg. 
Peter Gilmet Foot. 
Lewis Hamlio. Arm. 
John Curtiu. Arm. 
Ira Chapman. Arm. 

At Fort Fisher. 
Ssrgt. Charles B. Swift. Shoulder. Severe. 
Corp. WllUam CUntou. Leg, Slight. 

COMPANV H. 
Jt Cold Harbor. 
Sergt Lewis W. Moelier. Elbow. Shell. 
Cori>. Henry A. Burton. L«ft hand. 
Corp. Uriah F. Snediker. N'm-R. Severe. 
Charlea H. Butler. Hand, flight 
George Chamborlnin. Leg. Slight 
John Harris, Too oniputMted. 
Henry Bf, Marshall, ]Ught forearm. 
Henry I'aino. Heel. 
Frank J. Warner. Arm and hand. 
Uugh O'Donoell. Head. Slight 
Daniel T. Somen. Foot Severe. 
Alttwi S. Whltllesoy. Shoulder. 
Charles McDennutt. Juno 8th. 1 
States B.rUndrean. Side. SheJl. 

mont 
Edward Harrington. Muutli. 



Very severe, 
laud. Accidental. 
SUght ]lail serred (n a rebel regl- 



.If Prttrthmrg. 
Corp. WUIlam E. DUbruw. June :»tli. HU while carrying Uanrey 



Pease to the rear. 



At WiiKkttttr. 



2d Lleat James M. Snowden, l^ft wrist 

Charles II. Butler. Lo«t right leg. 

Curi>. William K. lUxbrviw, Shoulder. 

Cliarlea K (:ill>ert Thigh. Serore. 

ApolliM Jeiiniugs. Hand, Slight 

Ileury W. Mullott Hand. 

Corp. Henry S. Grldlry. Forearm. 

Loulfl Weber. Nueo. 

Jeremiah Thum|«t)n. Thigh. Very eeTera. 

Charlea A. Way. Wrlut 

Alfh»] CablM. Knee. SUght 

Lucius 8. Sherman. Foot 

Uirani Cablea. Sererml places with shell. Shoulder and hand. 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



At Cedar Creek. 

1st Lieut. John M. Gregory. Kight arm amputated at shoulder. 

Sergt. Robert Erwin. Itiglit eboulder. Slight. 

Sergt. Minor A. Strong. Eight tliigh. Severe. 

Sorgt. Irwin C. Buckingham. Thigh. 

Corp. Horace N, Sanford. Shouhler and leg. Slight. 

Joseph S. Knoulea. Lower jaw shattered. 

Franklin Nichols. Back. Severe. ■ * 

Alansou Poet. Kight arDi. Slight. 

Edward O'Brien. Abdomen. 

Homer S. Sackett. Chest. 

AVilliam Smith. Foot. 

Charles llurd. 

At SaiIor*a Creel: 

Charles A. M'ay. Arm. Slight. 
Frank J. Warner. Slight. 

Company I. 

At the XoHh Anna, 

Charles Smith. Buttocks. 

At Cold Harbor. 
Charles S. Tyrrell. Back. 

Corp. Bfiujamin Wellman. Left cheek and back. 
Abner Bennett. Arm amputated. 
Samuel Eostnmu. Juno 3d. 
Daniel P. Galpin. Aukle. 
Sergt. Thounis Shaw. Arm. 
AVilliam Gregg. Lost right arm. 
Levi Hotchkiss. Hand and arm. 
John Hutchinson. Left breast. 
Israel Lucaa. Head. 
Seymour Lobdell. Thigh. (Afterwards killed at Cedar Creek.) 

At Petersburg. 
Corp. William H. Smith. June22d. Foot. 
Ruel Uazcu. June 22d. Face. 

At Winchester. 
2d Lieut. Orsamus R. Fyler. "Wounded in the leg very much in the same 

manner as Maj. Ells at Cold Harbor. 
Sergt. CyruM T. Nicliolson. Jaw and neck. 
Sergt. Marcus D. Smith. Right forearm. 
Corp. George W. Root. Leg. 
Charles Botsford. Leg. 

David Cramer. Foot. (Afterwards killed at Fort Fisher.) 
John Harrigau. Elbow. 
ThoDias Harper. Leg. 
Andrew Kuoph. Leg. 
Amos A. Lucas. Knee. 
Tlieodore Lockwood. Leg. 
William H. Reynolds. Knee. 
S«rgt. Hubbard Hotchkise. Hand. 
Henry Taylor. Breast. 
John Turley. Shin. 
Daniel B. Galpin. Leg. 
William Webster. Knee. 
Corp. Charles S. Terrell. Thigh. 

Timothy F. Walsh. Knee. (Afterwards missing at Hatcher's Run.) 
Corp. Charles T. Squires. Foot. 



William O'Brien. Breast. 



At Fi$her'8 Hill. 
At Cedar Creek. 



Capt. Walter Burnham. Tliigh. Spherical case-shot. 

Sergt. Thomas Shaw. Arm. 

Sergt. David W. Manning. Thigh. 

Sergt. Warden Stammer. Leg. 

John B. Parker. 

W'illiam Davis. Hand. 

John Hutchinson. Leg amputated. 

David Backus. 

Frederick R. Hard. Leg. 

Edwin Holland. Leg. 

John McQueeny. Head. 

Jeremiah Newcomb. Leg. , 

Andrew Tiernay. Arm. 

Daniel S. Taylor. Arm. 

Theron M. Woodruff. Face. 

Albert Woodruff. 



Charles Wright. Shoulder. 
Corp. Bela Potter. Leg. 

At Fort Fisher. 

Henry C. Rogers. Hand. Severe. 



At Sttilor^s Creek. 



Charles Fox. Arm. Slight. 

Company K, 
At Cold Harbor. 
Edgar J. Stewart. Back. Piece of shell. 
Corp. James Tracy. Head and arm. 
John A. Ludford. Right arm amputated. 
Francis SothergiU, Arm. 
Thomas Coleraine. Back. Sent to White House, and never heard from 

again. 
George A. Wood. Hip and arm. Sent to Wliite House, and never heard 

from. 
William H. Stevens. Thigh. 
Chauncey Stevens. Leg. 
George Brown. Shoulder. 
William W. Wheeler. Arm and shoulder. 
Corp. Enoch M. Warhurst. Head. 
Philo H. Bassett. Arm and breast. 
Coi"p. Patrick Farrell. Head. 
Stephen P. Harlow. Leg. 
Homer W. Hodge. Arm. 
Charles A. Hoyt. Leg. 
Bernard C. Keegan. Lost leg. 
George E. Taylor. Arm. 
Evelyn L. Thorpe. Arm. 

At Petershurg. 

Truman Favereau. Thigh. June 22d. 
Michael Convoy. June 22d. 
George H. Knapp. Left shoulder. June 22d. 
John Ette. Right elbow. June 21st. 



William S. Hines. Head, 
Allen S. Tuttle. Finger. 



At Winchester. 
At Fisher's Hill. 
At Cedar Creek, 
Slight. 



William Hart. Hip. 

Erwin Monroe. Left hip, 

John Burns. Both legs. 

Daniel Briggs. Thigh. 

Anglebert Hermann. Breast. 

George D. Bemau. Right leg amputated below knee. 

Com PANT L. 
In Skirmish near Vie Tolopotomy. 
Corp. James Wilson. Neck. 

Henry McGiuety. Leg. 

At Cold Harbor. 

Capt. James Deane. Forehead. 

Sergt. (afterwards Lieut.) Austin P. Kirkham. Head. 

Corp. (afterwards Sergt.-Maj.) John L. Parmelee. Leg. 

James Gillen. Hand. 

Edward Thomas (1st). Leg. 

William Vrooman. Groin. 

George Reed. Foot. 

Thomas Dailey. Thigh. June 3d. 

At Petershurg. 
Sergt. George Parker. Side. June 20th. 
Corp. George Babcock. Hand. Slight. April 2, 1865. 
John Owens. Hand. Slight. April 2, 18G5. 

At Winchester. 
Sergt. Andrew Clark. Leg. 
Charles H. Ryan. Arm. 
James Hyatt. Thigh. 
Peter D. Nelson. Arm. 
William Hall. Side. 
James McDonald. Arm. 
Frank Sabine. Shoulder. 

At Cedar Creek. 
2d Lieut. James M. Snowden. Arm. 
Sergt. William A. Slenker. Leg. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



83 



At Hatcher's Bun. 
Jesse Cady. Thighs. 

At Fort Fieher. 
Corp. John Uult. Mouth. Slight. 
2d Lieut. Admatha Bates. Foot. Slight. 

Company M. 

At the North Anna. 
James Graham. Thigh. 

At Cold Harbor. 
Sergt. Silas A. Palmer. Finger. 

Sergt. William E. Canfield. Hand. Slight. June 3d. 
Corp. Amaziah Livingston. Leg and arm. 
Myron W. Schultz. Face. 
Patrick Kennedy. Leg. 
John Burns. Arm. June 3d. 

At Petersburg, 
Thomas Colburn. Shoulder. June 20th. 
James Parker. June, 1864. 

At Winchester. 
Charles Brant. Back and hand. 
Thomas Doyle. Back. 
Martin H. Grube. Adbomen. 
William HofTman. Wrist. 
Theodore Drune. Leg. 

At Fisher's Hill. 

Corp. William Muneon. Leg. 

At Cedar Creek. 
Charles Allen. Leg. 
Sergt. Henry Maskell. 
Charles 0. Bosworth. Wrist. 
George Dayton. Leg. 
James FitzBimmons. Arm and breast. 
Peter Ward. Leg and breast. 
Henry Strih. Jaw. 
Patrick Fenereu. Ear. 
Peter Ilayden. Head. 
Sergt. (afterwards Lieut.) Azario N. Lamorcux. Shoulder. 

At Hatcher's Eun. 
Starr L. Booth. Leg. 
Peter Hayden. Head. Slight. 

At Fort FMier. 
Sela Wheeler. Neck. Severe. 
James Fuy. Thigli. Severe. 

CATALOGUE OF THE BEGIMEXT. 
Commissioned OrriOKSS. 
Coloneli. 
Levorotte W. Weswds, res. Sept. 15, 18C3. 
Elisha S. Kellogg, killed in action Jnno 1, 1804. 
James Hubbard, declined cumitiiwiun. 

Ranald S. Mackenzie, pro. to brigadier-general Doc. 2S, 18M. 
James Uubbard, bvt. brlgadter-gonoral ; muHt out Aug. 18, 1866. 

LieuUnant-OotoneU. 
EUsha 8. Kellogg, pro. to colonel Oct. 23. 180.1. 
Nathaniel Smith, ros. for disability May C, 1804. 
Janu'S Hubbard, pro. to colonel Jan. 7, 1^05. 
JelTroy Skinner, muHt. out Aug. IM, 1806. 

William B. Ells, mm. vacated, Liout.-ColoDel Hubbard tiavlng docllDod 
COD). OS colonel. 

Nathaniel Smith, pro. to lieutenant-colonel Nov. 6, 1803. 

JanieH Hubbard, pro. to 1 1 ou tenant -colonel May i:i, 1804. 

WIIHain n. Ells, disch. Dec. 24, 1804. 

James il Bice, killed In action Sept. 10. 1HG4. 

Jeffrey Skinner, pni. lo lloutonant-cotonfl Jan. 7, 1806. 

Eilward W. Jones, munt. out Aug. 18, 1806. 

Chester D. Cleveland, must, out Aug. 18, 1806. 

Augustus U. Fonn, must, out Aug. 18, 1806. 

A{^utaulM. 
Charle*! J. Deming, ro«. July 30, 18«j3. 
Buhlmnl II. (amp, diach. fur lUiuibiUty Nov. A, 1804. 
Theodore F. Valll, uiuat. out Aug. 18, 1866. 



Quartermasters. 
Bradley D. Lee, pro. to captain Feb. 17, 1804. 
Edward C. Huxley, must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 

Cliaplains. 
Jonathan A. Wainwright, res. Jan. 20, 18G3. 
Winthrop H. Phelps, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Surgeon. 
Henry Plumb, disch. Aug. 12, 18G5. 

First Assistant Surgeons. 
John W. Lawton, must, out to enter U. S. A. April 4, 18G3. 
Robert G. Hazzard, must, out Aug. IS, 1SG5. 

Second Assistant Surgeons. 
John W. Lawton. pro. to first assistant surgeon Oct. 28, 1862. 
Robert G. Hazzard, pro. to first nssistant surgeon July 21, 1863. 
Judson B. Andrews, must, out Aug. IS, 1SG5. 

Captains. 
William Bissoll, res. July 21, 18G3. 
James Hubbard, pro. to major Nov. 5, 1863. 
James Q. Rice, pro. to major Feb. 17, 18G4. 
William B. Ells, pro. to major Feb. 6, 1SG4. 
Jeffrey Skinner, pro. to major May 13, 18C4. 
Edward W. Jones, pro. to mnjor Oct. S, 1864. 
Edward F. Gold, di^ch. Feb. 21, 1865. 
George S. Williams, res. March IG, 1804. 
Eli Sperry, res. March 30, 18G4. 
Edward 0. Peck, res. July 25, 18G3. 
Lnumn Wadhams, died of wounds Juno 3, 1864. 
William T. Spencer, must, out July 20, 1805. 
William H. Lewis, Jr., disch. Jan. 25, 1805. 
Bradley D. Leo, com. revoked March 22, I8C4; appointed A. C. S. of 

volunteers. 
Edwnnl W. Sfarsh, must out July 20, 1865. 
Janiea Deane, mu8t. out July 20, 1863. 
Boigamin F. Hosford, killed In action Oct. 19, 1861. 
Frederick M. Berry, died of wounds Sept. 28, 1804. 
Augustus II. Fenn, pro. to miO*^'' Jan. 7, 1806. 
Waller Burnhani, disch. Feb. 2 1. 1S06. 
Oren H. Knight, died of woundn July 6. 18C4. 
Alexander II. Shumway, dlich. Fob. 4, 1806. 
Robert A. Potter, nuist out Aug. 18, 18CA. 
Morris H. Sanfonl. dlseh. (aa finst lieutonanl) Jan. 13, 1805. 
Clieater D. Cleveland, pro. to major Jnn. 7. IH06. 
Gad N. Smith. niMRt. out Aug. is, 1^06. 
Daniel E. Marvli, must, out Aug. 18, 1H06. 
Hubtiard E. Tutlle, muat. out Aug. 18, 1806. 
James N. Coe, muit. out Aug. IM, 1806. 

Theodore F. Vaill, must, out (as first lieutenant) Aug. 18, 18C6. 
Ulchaol Kclley, must, out .\ug. 18, 1806. 
Henry S. McKinney. must. «ut Aug. 23, 1806. 
Orlow J. Smith, must, nut Aug. 18, 1H05. 
Henry Sklnnt-r, must, out Aug. 18, 1806. 

FirtI LitHienamts. 
Luman Wailhama, pro. to captain Aug. 11, 1803. 
Frederick A. Cook, rea. Juno 6. 180a. 
William T. Spencer, pn). to captain Aug. 11, 1803. 
Wllllnni II. Lowls, Jr., pro. to caplaln Nov. 2<t, 1803. 
Benjiimin F. lIosr<inl, pn>. to captain Blarch 16, 1804. 
Janirt Dt-anc, pro. to capiat n Fob. 10, 1804. 
Gideon I>. Cnine. rra. P<«. 20, 1802. 
FrcHleriek M. IWrry, pro. tn raptnln March 20, 1804. 
Lyman Teater. n-a. Marrh 2, lw;;i. 
Augunlus II. Kcnn, pro. tu captain 3larch 31, 1804. 
Walter Burnham, pro. lo laptaln April 21, 1804. 
Orvn H. Kntghl. pro. U> raptnln June 21, 18i>4. 
Alexander B. Shumway. pn*. to captain July 11, 1804. 
RulHTt A. Putter, pro. to capuln Aug. 12, 1804. 
Morris II. Sanfonl, pro. tu captain CK I. 22, 1804. 
Chaaler D. Cleveland, prv. to raptain Oct. 22, 1804. 
Wilbur W. BlrgP, dl«ch. S^-pt. T, IMA. 
John M. Gregiiry.dlich. Jan. In, 1K06. 
Jaoios N. Cue, pru. to captain Feb. 4, 1906. 



84 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



Oliver P. Loomis, disch. Aug. 30, 1804. 

William McK. Rice, died of diseiise Nov. 8, 1804. 

Gad N. Smith, pro. to captniu Nov. 30, 18G4. 

Tlieodoro F. Vaill, pro. lo cuptain March 2, 1805. 

Philip E. Chapin, disch. Oct. 17, 1864. 

Edwin S. Hubbard, diach. Dec. 31, 1SG4. 

Franklin J. Candce, killed in action Sept. 19, 18Gi. 

Warren Alfurd, uisch. fur disability April 20, 18G5. 

James P. McCiibe, died of wounda Oct. 3, ISOA. 

Edward C. Huxley, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Orlow J. Smith, pro. to captain March 30, 1805. 

Henry Skinner, pro. to captain March 30, 18G5. 

Daniel E. Marsh, i)ro. to captain Jan. 7, 1805. 

Hubbard E. Tuttle, pro. to captain Jan. 7, 18G5. 

Michael Kelley, pro. to captain March 2, 1805. 

Orsamus R. Fyler, disch. as Becond lioutenaiit March 9, 1855. 

Joseph E. Fenn, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 

Henry S. McKiniiey, pro. to captain March 2, 1805. 

William L. Twins, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John E. Wheeler, disch. May 15, 18C5. 

James AV. Di.\on, must, out July 20, 1805. 

Dwight C. Kilbonrn, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 

JTomer S. Curtis, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

James M. Snowden.muHt. ont Aug. 18, 18G5. 

Lewis Mungor, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

CliarU's A. Reynolds, decPd and com. revoked Mnrch 31, 1865. 

John E. Sedgwick, must, out as second lieutenant Aug. 18, 1805. 

David C. Munson, must. ..ut Ang. IS, 1865. 

Orvillc U. Tillany, decl'd and com. revoked March 27, 1805. 

Salmon A. Granger, decl'd and com. revoked April 27, 1865. 

William A. Ho^ford, must, out Aug. 18, 18C5. 

Henian Ellis, decl'd and com. revoked March 27, 1805. 

Henry R. Hoyt, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Ilower W. Griswold, decl'd and com. revoked March 27, 1865. 

Second Lieutemmts. 

Ale.xander B. Shumway, pro. to first lieutenant July 8, 1863. 
Oren H. Knight, pro. to lirat lieutenant Marcli 21, 1803. 
Morris II. Sanfunl, pro. to first lieutenant Aug. 11. 186.1. 
Robert A. Potter, pro. to tiret lieutenant Aug. 11, 1803. 
Chester D. Cleveland, pro. to first lieutenant Nov. 20, 1863. 
Oliver P. Loomis, pro. to first lieutenant Feb. 6, l8i>4. 
John M. Gregory, pro. to first lieutenant Feb. 0, 1804. 
Walter Rurnlinu), pro. to first lieutenant Dec. 2G, 1SG2. 
Georgo E. Botts, res. Nov. 25, 1802. 
James N. Coe, pro. to first lieutenant Feb. 6, 1804. 
Wilbur W. Birge, pro. to first lieutenant Feb. 0, 1864. 
Edward W, Marsh, pro. to captain Feb. 17, 1804. 
Wm. McK. Rice, pro. to first lieutenant Feb. G, 1864. 
Himm D. Gaylord, died Nov. 19, 1803, while firet sergeant. 
Edwin S. Hubbard, pro. to first lieutenant March 31, 1864. 
Dwight C. Kilbonrn, pro. to first lieutenant Feb. 4, 1866. 
William H. Cogswell, died of wounds Oct. 6, 1804. 
Michael Kelley, pro. to first lieutenant Nov. 18, 1864. 
Orsamus R. Fyler, pro. to first lieutenant Nov. 18, 1864. 
George B. Hempstead, died of wounds Juno 30, 1804. 
James P. McCabe, pro. to fii-st lieutenant March 31, 1804. 
Calvin B. Hatch, missing since June 1, 1SC4. 
Hubbard E. Tuttle, pro. to first lieutenant Oct. 8, 1804. 
Orlow J. Smith, pro. to first lieutenant July 11, 1804. 
Edward C. Huxley, pro. to first lieutenant March 31, 1864. 
Horace Hubbard, killed in action Sept. 19, 1804. 
George K. Hyde, disch. Oct. 23, 18G4. 

Franklin J. Candee, pro. to first lieutenant March 31, 1864. 
Daniel E. Marsh, pro. to first lieutenant Oct. 8, 1864. 
Warren Alford, pro. to first lieutenant March 31, 1864. 
John E. Wheeler, pro. to first lieutenant Nov. 30, 1804. 
Henry S. McKinney.pro. to first lieutenant Nov. 30,1864. 
David R. Norman, dismissed Sept. 1, 1804. 
James M. Snowden, pro. to first lieutenant Feb. 4, 1805. 
Lewis Muuger, pro. to first lieutenant Feb. 4, 1865. 
Oscar Piatt, disch. Jan. 18, 1865. 
Henry Skinner, pro. to first lieutenant Aug. 12, 18G4. 
Homer S. Curtis, pro. to first lieutenant Feb. 4, 1805. 
William L. Twiss, pro. to first lieutenant Nov. 30, 1864. 
Austin P. Kirkham, must, out Aug. IS, 1805. 



Joseph E. Fenn, pro. to fiist lieutenant Nov. 30, 1804. 

Charles P. Travers, must, out July 20, 1805. 

Frederick A. Lucas, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Charles A. Reynolds, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 

Salmon A. Granger, must, out July 20, 1865. 

John E. Sedgwick, pro. to first lieutenant March 2, 1865. 

David C. Mnnsou, pro. to first lieutenant March 2, 1865. 

Orville B. Tiffany, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Homer W. Griswold, must, out July 20, 1865. 

Amzi P. Clark, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William S. Cooper, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Henry S. Dean, declined commission. 

Charles F. Anderson, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Henry R. Hoyt, pro. to first lieutenant March 2, 1865. 

George D. Stone, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Admatha Bates, must, out July 20, 1865. 

M''iniani A. Hosford, pro. to fii-st lieuteuant March 2, 1865. 

Heman Ellis, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Joseph Pettit, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

David E. Soule, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Seneca Edgett, must, out July 20, 1805. 

Frederick M. Cook, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

A. N. Lamoreux, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Calvin L. Davis, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

NON-COMMISSIONED StAFF. 

Sergeant-Majors. 
Wilbur W. BIrgc, commissioned. 
Bushrod H. Camp, commissioned. 
Theodore F. Vaill, commissioned. 
Lewis Munger, commissioned. 
Frederick A. Lucas, commissioned. 
E. Goodwin Osborne, killed. 
John S. Parmelee, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Qunrtennajtler-Sergemita. 
Edward W. Marsh, commissioned. 
Edward C. Huxley, commissioned. 
Edward F. Carrington, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Robert Erwin, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Commisg'trtf-SergeanU. 
Franklin M. Candee, commissioned. 
Prosper W. Smith, must, out Sept. 11, 1865. 

Hospital Steicards. 
James J. Averill, must, out July 7, 1805. 
Orson Buell, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Senior Principal Masiciajia. 
Hicks Seaman, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Wilson B. White, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Frank J. Thomas, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Junior Principal Musicians. 
Wilson B. Wniite. 
Albert R. Nettleton, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Company A. 
The original infantry company, mustered In at Litchfield, Sept. 11, 1862. 
Oyj/fiiJi.— William Bissell. 
First Lieutenant. — Luman Wadhams. 
Second Lieutenant.— Alexander B. Shumway. 

Sergeants. 
Dwight C. Kilbonrn, commissioned. 
George B. Hempstead, commissioned. 
Calvin B. Hatch, commissioned. 
Joseph P. Parks, firet sergeant ; killed. 
Henry Williams, first sergeant; must, out July 7, 18G5. 

Corporals. 
William H. Hull, disch. for disability Feb. 17, 1865. 
Hiram S. Spencer, must, out July 7, 1865 ; sergeant. 
Joseph E. Coe, died. 

Ferris Pond, must, out July 7, 1865 ; sergeant. 
Henry F. Cable, disch. for disability. 
Charles W. Hinsdale, must, out July 7, 1865 ; quartermaster-sergeant. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



85 



George W. Mason, quartermaster-sergeant ; com. as captain and A. C. S. 
Beebe S. Hall, discb. for disability Feb. 12, 1SG3. 

Musiciifiis. 

Albert R. Nettleton, trans, to field and staff. 
Frederick S. Fenton, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Wagoner. 
Edward S. Hempstead, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Privates. 
Charles Adams, Jr., died of wounds ; corporal, 
Norman B. Barber, died. 
Cbarles S. Barber, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Nelson Barker, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Howard W. Baldwin, discli. for disability April 11, 1863. 
Nelson H. Barnes, discb. for disability Feb. 9, 1863. 
Cbarles Belcher, discb, for disability. 
Hiram Bradley, disch. for disability April II, 1863. 
George Bradley, must, out June 14, 1865. 
Leonard 0. Bradley, disch. for disability April 29, 1863. 
Joseph D. Bradley, must, out July 7, 1805. 
Andrew J. Brooker, died of wounds. 
Thomas W. Beacli, must, out June 19, 1865. 
Lewis Bissell, must, out July 7, 1865 ; corporal. 
Leonard C. Bissell, disch. for disability May 8, 1863. 
John S. Bishop, must, out July 7, 1863. 
Apollos W. Bufll, disch. for disability Fob. 9, 1863. 
Franklin M. Bunnell, died of wounds; corporal. 
Lyman 8. Catlin, com. in colored troops. 
Henry H. Catlin, disch. for disability June 3, 1863, 
Edward Coe, com. in colored troops. 
Eobert \V. Coe, disch. for disability April 26, 18G6. 
Watson Cogswell, trana. to Veteran Reserve Corpe. 
Russell Curtis, must, out July 7, 1865; sorgeant. 
John Flesar, disch. for disability June 6, 18G5. 
Henry G. Gibba, disch. for disability April U, 1863; corporal. 
Silas M. Griswold, must, out June 15, 18G5. 
Samuel Gunn, must, out July II, 1865. 
William J. Hall, disch. for disiibility Doc. 26, 1863. 
George N. Hannans, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Anson "W. Heuloy, must, out June 22, 1865. 
Henry W. Hotchkiss, must, out June 14, 1865. 
Edward Hull, must, out July 7, 18Co. 
Joseph S. Hubbard, must, out May 14, 1865. 
John imand, killed. 

Frederick T. Jcnninga, must, out June 28, 18C5. 
Albert A. Jonetn, killed ; corporal. 
Myron E. Kilbourn, must, out July 7, 1865. 
James B. Lyons, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Charles Slerrlman, must, out July 3, 1066. 
Ueury W. Miner, died. 

Lyman F. Morohougo, disch. for disability Juno 21, 1865. 
Apollos C. Morse, died uf wounds; cor|)oral. 
Kolbort P. Newberry, died. 
£ben L. Cakes, must, out July 7, 1805; corporal. 
E. Goodwin Ocl-orne, klllod; sorgcant-m^lor. 
Luther Priilt, disch. for dittabilily March 27, 1806. 
Watson Parnielee, die<I. 
WlllanI H. Parnieleo, klllod. 
Edwin F. Perkins, dlod. 
Noruiau B. Perklus, disch. for disability. 
WilUam H. I'lumb, must, out July 12, 18A5. 
8«th C. Pund, niUBt. out July 7, 1865; corporal. 
Gideon D. i'ond, disch. for disability 1>«. \H, 1862. 
Edwin W. Pund, must, out July 8, 1865. 
Goorgo W. I'ottur, dlod uf woun<ls; corporal. 
Isaac L. Sauford, mutit. out July 7, 1865. 
Garwood T. Sauford, must, out July 7, 1805. 
Harry Scovillo, must, out July 7, IS05; »orgMin(. 
Whiltng P. 8mtth, trans, to Veteran Heavrv* Curpa. 
Wltllaui S. Smith, must, out May 31, 1805 : Mrgaaot. 
Lyman J. Smith, Jr., klllml. 
Goorgo 1), Stono, sorgeaDt ; comnilnlono«l, 
Jackson Tompkins, dtsch. for disability April 20, 1902. 
Thootlnro v. Vttlll, Bcrgoaut-msjor ; ctimiiilwloncd. 
Wlllard J. Watruuo. must, out July 7, 1805. 



DaTid P. Wetmore, must, out June 10, 1865. 

Seth Whiting, disch. for disability in 1865; sergeant. 

William S. Wilson, died. 

.Tohn L. Wilcox, died of wounds; corporal. 

Julius Winship, died. 

Curtis P. Wedge, must, out June 19, 1SG5; corporal. 

Robert Watt, killed. 

Tlie RecruiU of Company A. 
Atwood A. Aiken, must, out August, 18G5. 
Newton T. Abbott, disch. for disability June 16, 1865. 
Minott M. Atwood, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Josiah Atwood, must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 
John Ames, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Edmund P. Aiken, must, out June 22, 1865. 
William Barton, killed. 
John Bailey, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Edward A. Banks, must, out June 20, 1865. 
Edwin A. Banks, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5: 
Horatio N. Bennett, killed. 
William H. Brewer, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
John Benedict, must, out July 14, 1865. 
John A. Belden, must, out June 2, 1865. 
Frederick W. Brashiug, killed. 
Charles F. Blackniun, must, out Aug. 18, 1865, 
Almon D. Bradley, killed. 
Frederick G. Buetl, must, out Aug. 15, 1865. 
James Bradley, killed. 
Charles Carter, must, out Sept. 9, 1865. 
Thomaa Cashmao, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Cliarles T. Conger, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Robert Crawford, must, out Aug. 18, 1865; corporal. 
Robert Cogswell, must out Aug. 18, 1865. 
David BI. Caudeo, died at AndersoDville. 
Josoph Cusbor, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Edsoo S. Drayton, dlscb. for disability Feb. 27, 1S65. 
Bobort Elill, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Stephen Fallen, killed. 

Jamoe A. ForrK disch. for disability Aug. 4, 1805. 
Charlca F. Goaleo, must out Aug. 18, 1865. 
James Gibbons, must out Aug. 18, 1805. 
John L. Gibbons, truiis. to the uavy. 
Joseph Gardner, killed. 

Albro W. Hopkins, disch. for diaaUIIty April, 1865. 
Oliver Hitclicock. killed. 
Abram Uuotor, must out May 20, 180S. 
Edward Haley, trans, to Veteran Reaenre Oorpn 
David J. Jennings, must out Aug. 18, 1805. 
Sheldon B. Joneo, niuitt out Aug. 18, 186ft. 
William Johnson, must, out Aug. 38, 186ft. 
Mareellus J. Judd, dUch. r»r disability Juoa 10, 186ft. 
Jacob June, must out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Sylveeter Lampaon, died. 
Herman S. Lathnip, must out Jaoe 23, 1805. 
Lewis S. Ludlngton, dlod. 
Simeon W. Loud, died. 
John lAwIuf, must, out Aug. 18, 180A. 
Daniel M. Lvlghlnn. must out Juno 21, 1865. 
Tli»ma« LyiMts, must, out June 17, 1805. 
Matthew McEim>«>, must out Aug. 18, I86ft. 
JiMoph M<HMly. must out May 14, 1805. 
John L. Miulsch, must out June 17, 1866. 
Itenjaniln Merkor, kitio*!; corporal. 
James Moor*, must out Aug. 18, 186ft. 
Trunuu) Maltory, died of wouoUa. 
I>avld UcBath. must out Aug. 18, 1866. 
Tbunias Murri*, must out Aug. 18,1806; oorporaL 
James Oswald, muat. uut 
Jamoe L. Oiborn, must out May 26, 188A. 
Ueury OslKirn, must out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Jaoies M. Prindlo, must uut Aug. 18, 1866, 
William IMert-o, must, out June 14, 1865. 
Patrick Ryan, kllM. 

DoiOaniln II. Ralhbun, died al AnderaonvUle. 
Nohomlah Reynolds, mutt out June 3, 1805. 
l^iomos Ityan, must out Aug. IM, lMfi6. 
WlllU T. RJcharUson, dt«:b. fur dlsaUllly FeU 4, 1865. 



86 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



Jasoii St. John, diech. for disaltiiity June 6, 1SG5. 

AmosH. Stilson, died of wounds. 

Clarence Smith, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Robert Scull, killed. 

Michael Shearer, must, out May 20, 18G5. 

George Savage, died of wounds. 

Reuben A. Swift, disch. for disability Nov. 1, 1SG4. 

Homer F. Tilford, killed. 

Ransom E. Wood, died uf wounds. 

Horace N. Williams, diach. for disability Aug. 8, 1SG5; corporal. 

Luther L. Weeks, must, out Juno 20, 1865. 

George F. Waugh, must, out June 10, 1865. 

Not Mustered Out ivilh Company. 
Henry L. Bly, Johu J. Cogswell, Jeremiah Greany, James Hams, Charles 
P. Lamb, Thomas Ledger. 

Company B, 

Captain. — James Hubbard. 

First Lieutenant. — Frederick A. Cook. 

Second Lieutenitnt.—OvGn H. Knight. 

SergeanUt. 
William H. Cogswell, comDiissioned. 
Admatha Bates, commissioned. 
Ambrose N. Nogue, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Moses Cook, Jr., died. 
James Parks, disch. for disability June 23,1805; first sergeant. 

C-orporals. 
Charles B. Benedict, must, out May 18, 1865. 

George L. Johnson, must, out June 6, 1865; sergeant; quartermaster- 
sergeant. 
Ambrose Ilufcut, must, out July 7, 1805; sergeant. 
James S. Thayer, disch. for disability Jan. 24, 1SC3. 
John McGovern, must, out July, 1865. 
Francis J. Young, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 
George W. Mansfield, disch. for disability August, 1865. 

Musicians. 
John H. Ward, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Bradford B. Brown. 

Wagoner. 
KatbanicI Roraback, must, out July 7, 1805. 

Privates. 
Augustus Adams, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Lewis Burton, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Joseph D. Bierce, disch. Aug. 14, 1863. 
Elislia A. Briggs, must, out July 7, 1865 ; corporaL 
Heury Burgess, must, out July 7, 1865. 
John H. Bruce, must, out July 7, 1865; corporal. 
Frank Benedict, must, out July 7, 1S65 ; corporal. 
Johu H. Brazee, disch. Sept. 10, 1863. 
James Burns, must, out June 15, 1865. 
Martin A. Besler, must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 
Sheldon Carley, must, out July 7, 1805. 
James Caul, killed. 

Michael Casey, disch. for disability May, 1865. 
Thomas Casey, disch. for disability Nov. 6, 1802. 
Daniel T. Clark, must, out Aug. 18, 1865 ; corporal. 
Joseph E. Dwy, must, out July 12, 1865. 
Gurdou C. Davidson, died. 
Austin Frink, disch. Feb. 12, 1863. 
Frank Friar, must, out July 7, 1865 ; coi-poraL 
John Funk, disch. May 29, 18G5, by order of War Department. 
Franklin S. Graves, must, out July, 1865 ; corporal. 
Wesley Gibbs, must, out July 7, 1865 ; sergeant. 
James Gibbons, trans, to the navy. 
Daniel Glaveen, killed. 
Solomon Hinckley, must, out July 7, 1865. 
John Handel, killed. 
Luther Hall, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Curtis Hall, sergeant ; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 
Benjamin E. Halleck, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Dwight Halleck, must, out July 7, 1865 ; corporal. 
Charles D. Uall, died. 



William H. Ingraliam, disch. for disability Jan. 12, 1802. 

Chester A. Jolinsun, died of ■wounds. 

Lewis Slorey, disch. for disability Juno 9, 1866. 

Henry M. Mai-shall. disch. for disability Feb. 12, 1863. 

George Methveu, disch. for disability Jan. 3, 1865. 

John McGraugh, sergeant; killed. 

Peter Ostrander, died, 

Adam Ostrander, killed. 

William O'Rourke, must, out July 7, 1865. 

James Ostrander, Jr., died. 

Watson W. Peck, must, out June 1, 1865. 

DauielO. Page, killed. 

Charles Powell, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 

Jacob F. Bapp, died of wounds. 

Henry Slerry, disch. for disability April 3, 1863. 

Myron R. Sterry, corporal ; killed. 

George L. Sterry, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Charles H. Segur, killed. 

Luther E. Speed, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Warren Silvernail, disch. for disability Nov. 3, 1862. 

Joel Snyder, disch. for disability June G, 1865. 

James Surdam, must, out July 7, 1860. 

Johu W. Turner. 

Henry Voelker, corporal ; killed. 

Carlf Vohisen, died. 

John H. AVhite, died. 

Henry S. Wheeler, sergeant; died of wounds. 

Monroe Whitenuin, corporal ; killed. 

William Waters, Jr., must, out July 7, 1865. 

Amos Wooden, died of wounds. 

Heury Wiesing, killed. 

Not Mustered out with Compmnj. 
Corp. Franklin Miller, Joseph Brennan, William Beecraft, George A. 
Caul, Sheldon Daskam, Patrick EUwood, William H. Hotchkiss, 
Thomas Lee. 

The liecruiU of Company B. 

Henry L. Ayers, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Robert W. Ames, died of wounds. 

Charles H. Ball, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John Best, killed. 

Francis Burger, killed. 

Samuel V. Benedict, killed. 

Ambrose Brazie, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Richard A. Brown, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Thomas Baldwin, corporal ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Silaa Burton, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Robert W. Bragg, killed. 

Almeron Burton, died. 

William Bradley, trans, to the navy. 

Newton W. Cogswell, disch. by order War Department May 27, 1865. 

John W. Coons, died of wounds. 

Ezra Clark, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

George Cooper, must, out June 10, 1865. 

Patrick Canfield, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William Connell, disch. for disability June 0, 1865. 

Joseph Compton, must, out March 10, 1865. 

John Crothers, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

James Collins, trans, to the navy. 

Thomas Carroll, trans, to the navy. 

Thomas Carral, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

John A. Decker, disch. for disability June 9, 1865. 

William Dunn, missing. 

Daniel Duulavey, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Patrick Delaney, died. 

Philip Davis, trans, to the navy. 

Hiram Fanning, disch. for disability Feb. 26, 1865. 

John C. Foote, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Peter Flood, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Thomas Fox, corporal ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William Finn, trans, to the navy. 

Paul Gaetel, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Thomas Hyer, died. 

Walter D. Hoag, sergeant; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Thomas Huskinson, must, out June 17, 1865. 

William S. Horton, died. 

Ciiai'Ies S. Higgins, must, out June 10, 1865. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



87 



William Howard, must, out Aug, 18, ISGj. 

Louis Kraeger, must, out Aug. 18, ISGo. 

Moi-tkner M. Lillibridge, discli. for disability June 13, 1SG5. 

Thomas G. Lombard, must, out June 1, 1865. 

David Lacy, missing. 

George Lowe {1st}, must, out May IS, 18G5. 

George Lowe ('2d), must, out May 18, 1805. 

Peter JIalatli, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Ezra B. Morris, killed. 

Gillitrt McMahun, must, out June 4, 18G5. 

Godfrey Stiller, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 

John McMaliOD, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Thomas Moore, must, out Aug. 18, 1866. 

John Murphy, trans, to the navy. 

John Manross, disch. for disability Feb. 3, 1865. 

Correl F. North, quartermaster-sergeaut ; must, out July 7, l^^'es. 

John O'Brien, must, out May 23, 1865. 

William F. Ohmau, disch. for disability May 22, 1865. 

Daniel T. Phillips, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Charles Powel, nuist. out Oct. 18, 1865. 

Jolm Quirk, must, out July 28, 1805. 

Allen Rogers, must, out June 10, 1865. 

Reuben R. Speed, died after release from Andersonville. 

William H. Surdam, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Henry Stevens, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Franklin B. Stevens, killed. 

Walter C. Sparks, corporal ; killed. 

Wilson W. Scoville, died of wounds. 

George F, Sherwood. 

James Sheridan, coriroral; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Lucius 0. Spencer, killed. 

George A. Skiff, killed. 

Eliaa P. Scott, killed. 

John B. Stohl, killed. 

Henry Tanner, died of wounds. 

Horace N. Thoi-pe, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Chester A. Weller, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Charles 0. Wimples, sergeant; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Henry Winters, died. 

Not Musteretl Out with Company. 
Horace Ball, Isaac Bcardsloy, Benjamin Caae, William B. Curtia, Henry 
Dryer, William W. Foster, Janioo Graham, John Hughea, Iloger 
Lilly, George W. Ml Lean, William Mooro, Hcdf}* Ostrandor, John 
Ross, Daniel E. Taylor, Corp. Charles Turner. 

CoMp.iNy C. 
The original Infantry company, mustered in at Litchfield, Sept 11, 1862. 
Otptaiii. — James Q. Rice. 
First Z,iVi((e(ifii(r.— William T. Spencer. 
Second LUtUeiuint. — Moiris H. Sanford. 

SergtnnU. 
William SIcK. Rico, comnilHstonod. 
George K. Hyde, Ilr«t sergeant; commissioned. 
James P. MoCabe, commiiisioned. 
Mattbew H. Huxley, died. 
Orsamtis R. Fylor, commissioned. 

Oorporais. 
Humor W. Grlswold, first sergeant; commissioned. 
Url Wailhaina, died. 

David C. Munson, sergeant; commlMioned. 
George W. Nowcomb, tlrst sergeant ; must, out July 7, 18C.'». 
Frederick A. Lucas, sergeant ; sorgeaut-mi^or: commlwloneU. 
Duvid J. Thorp, killed. 

Martin L. Judil, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865. 
AVIIIiam W. Hyde, disch. for dlsabillly Aug. 8, 1803. 

MuMiciiinM. 
Hit kd Seaman, Junior primary niUBlrliin ; must, out July T, 186&. 
Andrew E. Workman, must, out July 7, 1865. 

\y<igoH*r. 
George D. Beutley, must out July 7, 1669. 

}\watm. 
Cliarlos G. Adams, corporal ; mui*t. out July 20, ISCJV, 
Wllllnm L. Adams, must out July 7, 18Q6. 



Avory M. Allyn, must out June 20, 1865. 

Milo F. Barber, disch. for disability April IS, 1804. 

Frederick Barber, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Edward M. Balcom, corporal; must out July 7, 1865. 

Cyr. M. Bartholomew, killed. 

William H. Beach, corporal; killed. 

Zophar Beach, must, out June 20, 1865. 

Darius C. Beach, corporal ; must, out July 7, 1865. 

James M. Benton, must, out May 18, 1865. 

John R. Blakeslee, must, out July 7, 1865. 

George P. Blakeslee, must, out July 7, ISGo. 

Virgil B. Bissell, must out July 7, 1865. 

Philo Cleveland, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Alberts. Cleveland, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1805. 

George W. Cleveland, color corporal; killed. 

Erastus Cleveland, died of wounds. 

Orrin H. Cooke, must, out June 22, 1865. 

George W. Curtiss, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Daniel B. Curtiss, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Calvin L. Davis, sergeant; commissioned. 

Edward M. Dunbar, corporal ; must out July 7, 1865. 

Joseph Durocher, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Orlando D. Evans, died. 

Seymour H. Eldridge, sergeant ; must, out July 7, 1865. 

John Friend, must out July 7, 1805. 

Hobart Griswold, corporal ; must, out 1865. 

William Herald, died. 

Samuel Hunter, must, out July 7, 18G5. 

Edward C. Huxle3', regimental (luartermoster^ergeant ; commissioned. 

Cornelius A. Hnnimond, disch. for disability Nov. 9, 1802. 

Fretlerick O. Hills, cori>oraI; disch. for disability Aug. 19, 1865. 

Henry H. Ives, must, out July 7, 1805. 

James Jukes, must, out July 7, 18G5. 

Arthur G. Kellogg, died. 

Daniel E. Lyman, died. 

Orson M. Miner, corporal; killed. 

Avor>' F. Miner, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865. 

Dennis Murphy, must, out June 22, 1865, 

McKonzie Millanl, must out July 7, 1865. 

James Moran, must out May IH, 18G5. 

Cliarlee E. Morse, must, out July 7, ^SG5. 

William E. McKee, disch. for dltal>illty Juno 24, 1865. 

Correl F. North, traus. to Co. II as quartormastor^sergeant 

Carlton N. Nichols, disch. for disability April 20, 1865. 

Tliood. A. Pendleton, quartermaster-sergeant; must out Juljr 7, 1865. 

Henry I). Pierce, must, out July 8, 1865. 

Joseph P. Reed, muttl. out June 1, 1866. 

Owen Reddy, must. i>ut May 20, 18G5. 

William T. Robinson, die<l. 

Sooley Richmond, must, out May 18, 1863. 

JoMpb Sherry, sergeant; dis* li. fur dlmbilUy Aug. 1, 1865. 

Charles J. Soudant, munt. out May 18, 18G5. 

Henry A. Stoddard, di»h. fur disability Dec. 20, 1862. 

George C. Stewart, must out Jul> 7, 1H05. 

John H. Stewart, died. 

Royal Stone, corpural ; must out July 7. 1660. 

Alonzo Smith, sergeant ; must out July 7, 1865. 

George C. Thompson, must out July 7, 186S. 

Henry L. Vaill, corporal ; died of wountls. 

Wright Waterhotise, curiK>ral ; inunt. out July 12, 1805. 

Wiltiiun V. Wadhanis, must out July 7, 1805. 

Wlltanl N. Wailhanis, cut-ponU ; died. 

Henry Bl. WootlrufT. illml. 

Lucien N. Whiting, disch. for disability Jan. :11, 1865. 

Harrison Whitney, corporal ; disch. for disability June 2, 1805. 

Charles G. Whooler, cor|toral ; must, out June 2, 1BO0. 

Mito Young, died. 

TAs RtcmiU of Cvrnpan^ C 
William E. Albln, corporal ; must, out Aug. 18,1865. 
Charles H. Albln, corporal ; must, nut Aug. IS, 1005, 
John J. Abliott, diml of acciilental wouuils. 
Koyal G. Andrews, died. 
Eugene G. Austin, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Thomas Bldwidl, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Alfri^l Hlnckmsn, died at .\ndorsonvllle. 
Peter ilurkc, klllo<I. 



88 



HISTORY OP LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



Jamea A. Brjan, must, out May 21, 1865. 

Eichanl Butler, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Henry Barnes, must, out Aug. IB, 1805. 

William Butler, died. 

Peter Bunts, must, out July 20, 1805. 

Ezra B. Bouton, killed. 

Chauucey E. Brown, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

George W. Brown, died. 

Enos S. Benedict, disci), for disability June 22, 1SG5. 

Orange S. Brown, corporal ; must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 

William H. Bray, killed. 

Christian Bjornsern, died of wounds. 

Newton A. Calkins, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Georgo C. Curtis, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

AdelLert M. Calkins, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Marshall A. Calkins, trans, to Vetoian Reserve Corps. 

Alfred Calkins, must, out June 14, 1805. 

Joseph II. CaiiHcliI, curporal ; must, out Aug. 13, 1865. ' 

Giles A. Cone, died. 

Charles Clark, disch. for disahility June 30, 1805. 

William Dover, must, out June 22, 1865. 

John Belowry, disch. for disability June 12, 1865. 

Watson E. Foster, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Patrick Harvey, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Franklin Iloxie, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

■\Villhim II. Hart, died. 

Leonard Ilowor, must, out Aug. 21, 1865. 

Soth M. Iloi-sey, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Engene Hyatt, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

James M. Hayes, died. 

Anson W. Johnson, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Edward B. Janes, must, out Aug. 18, 1-65. 

Harlow Johnson, died. 

Ilezekiah Johnson, disch. for disability June 23, 1865. 

William Kelley, killed. 

James Karney, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

James Lynn, corporal ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Abraham W. Losey, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Wolcott Little, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Frederick G. Lampson, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Thomas 0. Mui-phy, must, out Aug. 18, 1S65. 

Jeremiah McCarty, killed. 

Thomas Milnes, must, out May 18,1865, 

Timothy Mahar, corporal ; must, out July 18, 1805. 

John McDonald, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

George W. Manning, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William H. Norville, died. 

Andrew H. Nichols, must, out June 1, 1805. 

Patrick O'Connor, must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 

George O'Brien, must, out May 18, 1865. 

Henry W. Ostrum, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Henry Prindle, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

George Pierce, killed. 

Lucius B. Palmer, died of wounds. 

James P. Qninn, first sergeant; must. onfAug. 18,1865. 

John Qninn, must, out Aug. 18, 1S65. 

James W. Roswell, must, out June 13, 1805. 

Hawley Reed, must, out June 13, 1805. 

Erastus Ruscoe, must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 

Charles Ruscoe, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

James Rogers, ilied. 

Jarvis M. Richards, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John W, Steele, must, out Aug, 18, 1805, 

Thomas B, Stewart, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Albert M, Scoville, died of wounds. 

Andrew H, Sanford, died, 

John Smith, must, out Aug, 18, 1805. 

Edwin Thorn, disch, for disability June 5, 1865. 

George Taylor, must, out Aug, 18, 1805. 

Freeman M, Thurston, must, out Aug, 18, 1865. 

John H, Ure, killed, 
Edward White, must, out June 20, 1865. 
George E, Warren, must, out Aug, 18, 1865. 
Albert r, Williams, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
William S. Wilson, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Peter 0. Wilson, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 



Not Miislered Out with Compmnj. 
Henry Benson, Jerome Chapman, William Curtland, James Dayton, 
John Devirnne, Charles Flannigan, John H. Hayes, Andrew Harris, 
James Hill, John Jones, Philip Manly, Edward Northrop, Henry 
W. Richards, Henry Sminer, Robert Scott. 

COMI'.^NY D. 

The original infantry company, m\istered in at Litchfield, Sept. 11, 1862. 

CnjjdiiH.— William B. Ells. 

Fimt LiCTtoiii"'.— William H. Lewis, Jr. 

Second Lieutenoiit.—liohert A. Potter. 

Sergeants. 
Thomas D. Bradstreet, disch. for disability March 9, 1863. 
Theodore C. Glazier, disch. for disability Dec. 26, 1862; afterwards com. 

in U. S. C. T. 
Horace Hubbard, commissioned. 
Andrew J. Tuite, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Edgar B. Lewis, died. 

Corporals. 

Salmon B. Smith, sergeant ; died. 

Samuel Brown, sergeant; must, out June 1, 1S05. 

Lewis Munger, sergeant ; sergeant-major; commissioned. 

James McCormick, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865. 

William W. Johnson, died. 

David B. Wooster, quartermaster-sergeant ; killed. 

Emery B. Taylor, sergeant; must, out May 18, 1805. 

Frederick B. Webster, died. 

Musicians. 
Belden S. Brown, must, out July 7, 1805. 
John S. Atwood, disch. for disability Juno 3, 1805. 

W'lgoner. 
Henry Pond, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Prirates. 
Albert F. Alfred, disch. for disability May 31, 1805. 
William C. Atwood, com. in U. S. C. T. 
Norman W. Barnes, must, out July 7, 1805. 
Henry C. Barnum, disch. for disability July 11, 1864. 
George H. Bates, corporal ; must, out July 7, 1865. 
George L. Beach, died of wounds. 
James A. Beach, must, out June 3, 1805. 
Wallace E. Beach, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1805. 
John D. Benjamin, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Harvey Bronson, must, out June 2.'>, 1805. 
Charles L. Bryan, must, out July 13, 1865. 
David A. Bradley, sergeant; disch. for disability July 18, 1865. 
Henry N. Bnshnell, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865. 
John D. Castle, disch. for disability June 9, 1865. 
Emory W. Castle, died of wounds. 
Edgar J. Castle, died of wounds. 
James H. Cable, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Martin H. Camp, must, out July 7, 1805. 

John C. Chase, sergeant ; must, out July 7, 1865. 

Charles G. Cleveland, died. 

Amzi P. Clark, commissioned. 

Hiram T. Coley, died of wounds. 

George T. Cook, must, out July 7, 1865. 

David Davenport, killed. 

Philo A. Fenn, killed. 

Joseph B. Fenn, first sergeant ; commissioned. 

Benjamin Filley, died a prisoner. 

Joseph Gooley, must, out July 7, 1805. 

George H. S. Goodwin, died of wounds. 

John Grieder, died of wounds. 

Zelotes F. Grannis, sergeant ; must, out July 7, 1865. 

Charles E. Guernsey, corporal ; died of wounds. 

Albert J. Hotchkiss, must, out July 7, 1865. 

George H. Holt, died. 

Edward C. Hopson, corporal ; killed, 

Charles I, Hough, sergeant ; must, out July 7, 1865. 

Franklin W, Hubbard, died. 

Swift McG. Hunter, must, out May 30, 1865. 

William Lindloy, disch. for disability April 11, 1863. 

Timothy Malone, must, out July 7, 1805. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



89 



Thomas Mann, died of wounds. 

Hiram Mattoon, died of wounds. 

Jerome Hunger, must, out July 7, I8G0. 

Kalph W. Munsou, sergeaut; must, out July 7, 1865. 

John MurpJiy, killed. 

Simon J. tJ'Donnell, must, out July 7, 1865. 

George L. Penfield, must, out July 12, 1865. 

Horatio G. Perkins, died. 

James H. Pritchard, died. 

Daniel 0. Purcell, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865. 

^N' alter Stone, died of wouuds. 

Mark B. Stone, must, out July 7, 18G5. 

Ira H. Stoughton, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1365. 

Justin 0. Stoughton, must, out July 7, 1865. 

James Straun, died at Andersonville. 

Charles V,'. Talcott, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Samuel R. Terrell, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Rurritt H. Tulles, died. 

Heury Tollea, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Josiah J. Wadsworth, died. 

Matthias Walter, must, out Juue 13, 1865. 

Charles R. Warner, killed. 

Charles Warner, must, out Juue 13, 1865. 

William H. Whitelaw, disch. for disaUlity May 18, 1865. 

William Wright, corporal ; killed. 

William Westou, must, out July 7, 1865. 



Not Mustered Out uoUh Company. 



Abraham Dobsou. 



The BecruiU nf Company D. 
George E. Atwood, must, oxit Aug. 18, 1865, 
Dwiglit S. Atwood, missing. 
Henry Ashiairn, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
George W. liutler, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Richard Beehe, killed. 
Charles Barley, must, out May 18, 1865. 
Joseph Iluyce, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Pomeroy Becraft. kilU-d. 
William I'. Burr, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
■William J. P. Buck, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Charles F. Brown, must, out June 15, 18(J5. 
Tlioniiis BiiUuss, corponit ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Willium li. Barnes, died a prisoner. 
John H.Conklin, killed. 
Erastus W. Converse, died of woundfl. 
Edgar W. Conklin, must out Aug. 18, 1865. 
George Comstock, killwl. 
Johu L. Couklin, mutrt. out Aug. 16, 1865. 
Geurgo (>. Conklin, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Henry Can*, must, out Aug. 18, 18<!5. 
George E. Clark, Irane. to VeteraD Rosorro Corps. 
Carlos Curtis, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Chauncey Culver, must, out Juno 20, 1865. 
Joseph Cleveland, trons. to Uie DftTy. 
lliram K. Castle, muHt. out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Kelsoy I). Clark, must, out Aug. 18, 1665. 
William N. Cuckofair, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
JohnrHui S. Dow, must, out July 6, 1865. 
Nehemiah H. Diitti^n, must, out Aug. 15, 1865. 
Edward Dwyor, curpural ; must, out Aug. 15, 1865. 
Jacob Deniuth, died of wounda. 
William KIttut, Jr., must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Walter M. Fux, killed. 

Nathan II. Goer, di»ch. for dlaahHity May 31, 1865. 
Phili|> II. Coldf, must, out Juue 4, 1K65. 
Everett GnswoUl, trans, to Vt'tprou Itraerve Corp*. 
Charles B. Guttnmn, returned to a PaniuyUanU regiment. 
William 11. Harrison, tram, to Veteran ReMrve Corfia. 
Honry Jones, trans, to the navy. 
Elmore HotchklM, must out Aug. 18, 1869. 
Irfiwrence A. Hunt, must, out Aug. 18, 1866. 
CharlcM I>. Hanson, dietl a prisoner. 
Jonathan Hall, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
FmiiciM Howiinl, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Olel F. Hanson, trans, to the navy. 
William UlUikor, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 



Samuel Hine, must, out Aug. IS, 18G5. 

James Holland, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Francis Hawley, disch. for disability Oct. 3, 1864, 

Morris B. Hanford, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Frederick R. Keith, fii-st sergeant ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William Kapser, must, out June 10, 1865, 

Edwin LyoD, trans, to the navy. 

George A. Lyon, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

George L. Lyon, must, out Aug. 18, 18C5. 

Henry Lynch, died of wounds. 

Robert Lowrie, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William H. Liudley, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Seeley S. Moi-sc, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Henry W. Miller, killed. 

John Moore, trans, to the navy. 

John M. Moseley, must, out Aug. 18,1865, 

Heuiy Munger, must, out Juue 13, 1865. 

Samuel Nelson, trans, to the navy. 

Walter Gates, must, out July 3. 1865. 

Frederick Olroyd, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Frederick Patchen, nmst. out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John Peterson, trans, to the navy. 

Tompkins J. Patterson, trans, to the navy. 

William W'. Richardson, died. 

William Russell, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

CliauDcey F. Reed, must, out June 19, 1865. 

Charles H. Sherwood, disch. for disability Sept. 21, 1865. 

William Smith, disch. for disability June 19, 1865. 

Peter Schultz, trans, to the navy. 

Stephen C. Smith, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Austin Shelley, disch. for disability July 8, 1865. 

James Slater, killed. 

Henry Smith, most, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Robert Tompkins, must, out .\ug. 18, 1865. 

Frank J. Thomas, sergeant; leader of band ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Daniel Van Allen, killed. 

Alexander Vogel, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Truman D. Wooeter, dlscb. fur disability Jan. 12,1865. 

Beivjamtn Williams, must, out May 18, 18G5. 

John L. Wheeler, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William Wirt, musL out Aug. 18, 1865. 

KtU Mtutervd Out vciUt Company. 
Irwin C. Beach. Daniel Itoyce, Cliarles F.Gaio, Heur^- J. HubUrU, Mor- 
timer Uolcomb, Fraacls McLaughlin, Charles U. Webb. 

Company E. 
The original Infantry company, musleretl In at Lltchfleld, Sept. 11, 1863. 
OipfaJa. — Jeffrey Skinner. 
Fim Z.inUmaN(.— Benjamin F. llueforrl. 
Sacond IMuUmini, — Chester D. Cleveland. 

IHram D. Gaylonl, oommlMloned. 
Orlow J. Smith, first sergeant; coramUsloned. 
Salmon A. Granger, first sergeant; c«>mmlMloDeU. 
George While, disch. |ier onler March 9, 1865. 
Henry Skinner, commiailuuad. 

Cbfporaia. 
David Miller, mutL out June 30, 1866. 
Sherman II. Cowlea, dlsih. for dlsaUlltj May 31, 1863. 
William S. Cooper, sergeant; cuaunlssloned. 
Stephen W. Sage, sergeant ; raost. oat Jaljr 7, 1865. 
Mason Adkins, most oot July 7, 1666. 
Frederick W. r>aniels. killed. 
Charlrs A. Hsynohla, sergeant; commlalonad. 
Ruel U. PerklDS, killed. 



Wilson D. White, Junior priadpal moticiaD; miut o«t July 7, 1866. 
Myron Ferris, killed. 

Wagomtr, 

Alf^vd O. Dlia, must oat Jaly 7, 1665, 

Sherman A. Apley, mining. 
James R. Baldwin, cori<oral ; missing. 
Edward Beach, must, out July 7, 1665. 
Edwio 8. BMcher, dlach. Uarvh 25, 1863. 



90 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



Patrick T. Birmingham, must, out July 7, 1805. 

Almeron Bunnell, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Charles M. Burr, corporal ; disch. for digability May 23, 1865. 

Edwin R. Canfield, quart ermaiiter-sergeaut ; must, out July 7, 18G5. 

John Clirietina, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Edward F. Carrington, regimental quartermaster-sergeaut; must, out 

July 7, 1865. 
Philip D. Carroll, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1805. 
Frederick M. Cook, sergeant; commissioned. 
Alfred Comine, killed. 
Robert A. Cutler, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Henry A. Dayton, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865. 
Adam J. N. Dilly, must, out July 7, 1805. 
Edwin Downs, disch. for disability May 1, 1863. 
Lewis Downs, killed. 

Bernard W. Do.vle, must, out July 20, 1805. 
Adam Feathers, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Oliver C. Fitch, disch. Nov. 20, 1802. 
Birdsey Gibba, killed. 

George N. Gibbs, disch. for disability March 31, 1864. 
Richard C. Gingell, disch. for diaability. 
Jamps A. Green, disch. for disability July 5, 1804. 
Manwarini? Green, accidontully killed. 
Anthuny B. Guernsey, disch. Nov. 2, 1802. 
William Hall, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1805. 
Charles II. Hart, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1805. 
Luther W. Hart, disch. Nov. 25, 1803. 
Timothy A. Hart, sergeant; must, oilt July 7, 1865. 
■\Villard Hart, killed. 
George W. llinlbut, died. 
"William S. Hurlbut, died. 
William R. Hubl)ard, died. 
Asa Humiston, died of wounds. 
Alouzo J. Hull, corporal; killed. 
Julo Jacksou, must, out July 7, 1805. 
Matthew Jacknian, must, out Sept. 10, 1865. 
Henry C. Kent, missing. 

Isaac R. Knapp, corporal ; must, out July 7, 1865. 
EHziir Slitltbie, died of wounds. 
Walter Martin, killed, 
Charles G. Mason, mvist. out July 7, 1805. 
Herman P. Moore, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Henry Overton, trans, to the navy. 
George H. Pendleton, corporal ; died of wounds. 
Joseph Pettit, sergeant; commissioned. 
Charles Henry Pine, must, out June 20, 1865. 
Jerome Preston, died. 
Henry A. Rexford, killed. 

Theodore Rubbins, corporal ; must, out June 1, 1865. 
Ednuind B. Sage, must, out July 7, 1865. 
William Seymour, disch. for disability March 25, 1805. 
Lucius S. Skinner, must, out July II, 1865. 
John Smith, must, out July 7, 1805. 
Prosper W. Smith, regimental commissary-sergeant ; must, out Sept. 

11, 1865. 
Philip Stabell, musician; must, out July 7, 1805. 
Darwin S. Starks, died. 
George A. Tatro, killed. 
John M. Teeter, killed. 

Benjamin B. Thayer, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865. 
William H. Turner, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 
Hubbard E. Tuttle, sergeant; commissioned. 
Wells Tuttle, must, out July VZ, 1865. 
Hubert A. Warner, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865. 
Marcus J. Whitehead, disch. for disability June 2, 1865. 
Warren M. Wood, disch. June 13, 1865, by order of War Department 
Julius Woodford, died. 
Wallace W. Woodruff, corporal ; must, out July 7, 1805. 

Not Muetered OiU leitk Company. 
William Gager. 

The. Recruits of Company E. 
Jackson Ayres, must, out June 20, 1865. 
Jacob P. Arnold, must, out July 7, 1865. 
Christopher Arnold, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 
John H. BoughtOD, corporal ; died of wounds. 
Henry Bush, 1st sergeant; must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 



Ernst A. Basnej*, disch. for disability Oct. 14, 1864. 

Joseph E. Baton, must, out Aug. 18, 1865, 

Robert J. Bulcroft, must, out June 19, 1805. 

Samuel U. Brewer, must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 

Sylvester Barrett, died of wounds. 

Martin Blake, missing. 

Thomas H. Birge, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

James E. Billings, disch. for disability April 20, 1865. 

Henry Clark, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Welles Clark, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Benjamin G. Carman, must, out May 12, 1865. 

Bernard Carbury, missing. 

John J. Cummins, trans, to the navy. 

Julius Collins, sergeant ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John Campbell, disch. for disability June 15, 1865. 

William Downer, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Cliarles N. Decker, must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 

Michael Donahue:, died a prisoner at Salisbury. 

David Durand, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Jarcd P. Evarts, killed. 

Jolin D. Ellis, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Heman Ellis, commissioned. 

Matthew Fitzgerald, died a prisoner. 

Stephen J. Green, died of wounds. 

Francis Gallaghei', must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Thomas H. Gilbert, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Charles Griffin, must, out June 13, 1865. 

Augustus Hain, disch. for disability Oct. 1, 1864. 

William A. Hosford, trans, to Co. D and conmiissioned. 

Erie Hamilton, band ; must, out Sept. 9, 1805. 

Charles B. Howard, disch. for disability June 27, 1865. 

Peter Jordan, disch, for disability Jan. 10, 1865, 

Louis Jaeger, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Boughton D. Knapp, missing. 

John Koons, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Patrick Keegaii, tians. to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Patrick Kaine, killed. 

Jacob Leroy, must, out June 1, 1865. 

John Lemley, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Patrick Lynch, disch. for disability May 23, 1865. 

CImuncey S. Loomis, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John Leonard, must, out July 3, 1805. 

Heni-y G. Mitchell, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John McDonougli, killed. 

James Mooney, killed. 

John Mcl'herson, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Edward Moggon, must, out June 21, 1805. 

James Maloy, sergeant; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Charles Martin, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John McDonald, must, out Juue 9, 1865. 

John O'Connell, disdi. for disability May 22, 1865. 

Frederick D. Painter, killed. 

Nathan Perry, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Joseph Robinson, died. 

Edward Reicker, disch. for disability April 29, 1865. 

Jacob Riley, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Charles H. Rowe, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William H. Rowe, must, out Aug. IS, 1805. 

Julius Rogers, died. 

Edward Rugg, must, out Aug. 18, 1804. 

Elbert B. Rowe, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

John Rankin, disch. for disability June 9, 1805. 

Pliilip Shelley. 

John Sculley, missing. 

John Scott. 

James Simpson, missing. 

Charles H. Stanley, killed. 

Levi B. Stone, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Thomas Tracy. 

Edward H. Turner, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Ebeuezer C.Terrell, discharged. 

John J. Toole, missing. 

Talmer Tatro, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Henry Van Dusen, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William Warner, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Erastus Woodworth, killed. 

Prelott Wilbur, must, out Aug. 18, 1866. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



91 



Michael Welch, must, out July 10, 1865. 

Henry P. Warner, must out May 22, 1865. 

Henry Wenzel, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Thomas Welch, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Charles H. Walsh, must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 

Allen B. Young, died a prisoner at Salisbury Nov. 10, 1864. 

Charles H. Ziegelmeyer, must, out June 28, 1865. 

Not Mustered Out with Company. 
George W. Boger, William Brown, Charles Collins, William Drew, John 
Dunigan, Tierre Gigin, John Jackson, John Keon, George Kenna, 
Michael Klein, Robert Livingston, Lorenzo Moseley, Augustus V. 
Mercken, John Miller, Philip Nagle, John Neickel, Henry Saggan, 
Charles Warren, William J. Wood, Guorge Williams. 

Company F. 
The original infantry company, mustered in at Litchfield, Sept, 11,1862. 
Oii?^im.— Edward W. Jones. 
First Lieutenxnt. — James Deane. 
Second Lieuteniint. — Oliver P. Loomis. 

Sertjeants. 
Warren Alford, commissioned. 
Samuel E. Gibbs, killed. 
Alfred C. Alford, killed. 
Carlton Seymour, com. in colored troops. 
William L. Twiss, commisBioned. 

CorporaU. 
John E. Wheeler, sergeant; commissioned. 
Edward S. Roberta, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865. 
Roswell G. Benham, regimcDtal quartermaster-sergeant ; diech. June 15, 

18G5. 
Norman M. Rust, com. in colored troops. 
Edward D. Lawrence, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865. 
Thomas IJ. Spencer, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865. 
Ruel S. Rice, diseh. for disability April 11, 1863. 
John Rodemyer, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Municiatu. 

Watson H. Deming, discli. Nov. 26, 1862. 
John L. Merrill, must, out June 23, 1865. 

Wagoner. 
Henry H. GrilTln, must, out July 7, 1865. 

rrinite*. 
George N. Andrus, died of wounds. 
Abornelliy Baker, must, out July 7, 186G. 
Eli!4ha L. Bancroft, must, out May 18, 18G5. 
Augiitttus K. Barret, died. 
Albert Beckwith, died. 
Hopkins J. Bunham, niUHt. out July 7, 1865. 
Charles Burr, disch. for disability July 30, 1863. 
Harlan D. Benedict, died. 

Albert F. Bradley, discli. for dlsubflity June 21, 1805. 
Albert P. Briggs, disch. fur diaubiiity May 5, 1863. 
Henry C. Butler, i<ergeaiit; must, out July 7, 1865. 
Willlani Burku, must, out Juno 3, IKU'i. 
Horace F. Ctilkins, corporal ; must, out July 7, 1865. 
Wayne B. Castle, disrii. for disability June 3, 1865. 
William II. Cult, killed. 
John Carroll, must, uut June 1, 1865. 
Abraiu Coons, corporal ; niunt. out July 7, 18G5. 
Henry G. Dailey, dIsch. for dldabiltty March <J, 1865. 
Miles H. Day, dIsch. for diiiabiilly Full. 13, 1863. 
Edward K. Dayton, disch. for dlaabiUly 3lay 16, 1861. 
Kugeno Decker, must, out July 7, 1866. 
Watson W. Deane, must, out Juno 22, IHCo. 
Alfred M. Dowd, cor|ioral; must, uut July 7, 1806. 
Ilunillu X. Kggleston, died. 
Pliilandor Ktumonn, died. 
Georgp L. Fairchlld, must, out July 7, 1H65, 
William O, Ganluor, curpurul ; muni, out July 7, 18G5. 
William Gorman, must, uut July 7, 18ti>'>. 

Jumefi H. Hakes, sergeant; discli. for dlsublllty June 15, 1866. 
Setli Iluklus, color curpoml; disch. by order War Deimrtuicnt May 4, 
1806. 



Solomon G. Hayward, died a prisoner. 

Alg'n G. Henderson, must, out July 7, 1865. 

William G. Henderson, died. 

Bennett Hines, must, out June 15, 1865. 

Ira D. Jones, sergeant ; must, out June 11, 1865. 

Lorenzo Light, sergeant; killed. 

Joseph M. Marsh, disch. for disability Feb. 18, 1S63. 

Patrick McGrath, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Edward McGrath, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Andrew McGrath, trans, to Co. L. 

Joseph McManus, must, out June 15, 1865. 

Cornelius H. Merrell, died of wounds. 

Henry C. Merrell, must, out June 22, 1865. 

Charles H. Mitchell, disch. for disability Dec. 20, 1864. 

Edwin R. Mitchell, corporal; must, out July 19, 1865. 

Pierre Mundry, disch. for disability April 8, 1863. 

Morris E. Munger, must, out July 7, 1865. 

George Munson, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Thomas Noonan, sergeant; must, out July 7,1865. 

Joseph Nul, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Koswell Root, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Edward H. Roys, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Charles N. Rust, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Daniel Ryan, must, out July 7, 1865, 

Patrick Ryan, must, out July 7, 1S65. 

John W. Shaw, disch. for disability Aug. 1, 1865. 

George Simons, killed. 

Edward P. Smith, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1805. 

Homer D. St. John, must, out July 7, 1866. 

Allen B. St. John, sergeant ; must, out July 7, 1865. 

Richard S. Thompson, died. 

William H. Tiffany, must, out July 7, 1805. 

Oiville B. Tiffany, first sergeant ; commissioned. 

Epbraim Tucker, must, out March 28, 1865. 

Harvey Tucker, corporal; must, out July 7, 1865. 

Jesse Turner, sergeant; must, out Juno 17, 18(>5. 

Jefrers>.ui 51. Tyler, corporal ; must, out July 7, 1805. 

George W. Warren, must, out May 18, I8G5. 

Juhu C. Weeks, disch. by order uf War Deftartmeut Majr 29, 1805. 

Kot Slustered OtU teUA Compatiff. 
John H. Batterman. 

The ltf<rrv%U o/ Company F. 
George V. Allen, must, out Aug. 18, 1808. 
William Allen, mu.tt. out Aug. IH, 1806. 
Hyron C. Benson, must, out Aug. 18, 1866. 
Stautun S. Belden, must, out Aag. lb, 1866. 
Anmil Bnlley, must, uut Aug. is, 1865. 
JoiH'ph Busby, milling. 
Oils Billings, must, out June 10, 1S05. 
Juhn Brown, muttt. out Aug. 18. 1806. 
Olaph Beu«t>n, moA. out Aug. 18, iKOS. 
CliMtcr Barnoft, muMt. out Aug. IH, 1805. 
Alexander Blerce, miut. out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Jay J. Cushman, must, nut Aug. 18, 1806. 
John Crupea, muni, out Aug. 8, IHG.*!. 
PwlglK Caar. diwli. fur dlmbllity Juno 3. 1K65. 
Juhn II. M. Cbavelaud, dis< h. fur diMibtllly Feb. 8, lK>l. 
Timothy B. Cnnnon, muat. uul .\ug. ix, 1865. 
Thomas r«lnen, niiut. uut Aug. IH, IMIA. 
Rol«rt Cahlll, must uut Aug. 181, 1866. 
Gt'urge Decker, must, out Aaf. 18, 1866. 
Etlmund Dohcrty, dl*^. 
rhilaiidor Egglestuii, iHmI. 
Harvry Funl, dl«l. 
Cliarlra W. Urlswidd, dioil of woundi. 
Parley B. (iumnions, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Juhn K. Hnll. kille<l. 

Dyruuo lUuh y, cur])unil ; dlMrh. for diMblllty June 20, 1865. 
Janira Hyde, muot. out July M, 1805. 
Jamea O. Ilulclikli«, must, out June 20, 1860. 
Charica llerrllle, must uut Aug. IH, 1866. 
Ot*urge llowanl. must, out Aug. 18, IhOA, 
Juhn Johnmrn, disch. fur dlsAMIIIy June 4, 1866. 
Tinintby F. Kvlly. disch. fur dUablllly Juiw U, 1866. 
John Kelley, must, uut Juno 20, 1805. 



92 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



John Koni, must, out Aug. 18, 186.5. 

Guilford M. Kirkliam, band; muBt. out Aug. 18, 1865. 

James Keith, discli. for disability May 14, 1805. 

Lorenzo K. Lemoine, died. 

Micliael Lloyd, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Thomas Lomax, must, out Avig. 18, 1865. 

Louis Laugelile, trans, to the navy. 

Jefferson T. Lent, killed by accident. 

Oscar M. Mitchell, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Henry J. McLean, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Benjamin A. Murphy, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

George F. MoNary, Ist sergeant; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Thomas BIcMahon, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Michael McMahou (1st), must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Michael McMahon (2il), must, out Aug. IB, 1865. 

Michael McMalion (3d), nuist. out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Sherman Messenger, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Alexander McCormick, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William Malthouse, nuist. out Aug. IS, 1865. 

William C. Jlorris, nuist. out Aug. 18, 1866. 

Timothy O'Callaghan, killed. 

Robert II. Bunt, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Peter Riley, died. 

John Biley, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

William Scoville, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

George W. Scoville. corporal ; must, out .4ug. 18, 1865. 

Xlonry 0. Sweet, sergeant ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Charles Spreyor, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Rufus B. Smith, must, out July 7, 1805. 

Thomas Smith, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Charles Thompson, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Henry Van Dousen, died. 

Robert J. Van Deusen, nmst. out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Martin Wilcox, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Elibha Wells, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Edwin Walden.must out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Edward Wadsworth, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John Williams, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Alexander Waters, quartermaster-sergeant; disch. for disability May 

18, 1805. 
John Williamson, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

K«t Mmtereil Out with Company. 
Patrick Burke, Ilenry II. lleofman, Thomas Kelly. Lack Murray, James 
Mahouey, General H. Morgan, John O'Brien, Charles Van Roden. 

Company G. 
The original infantry company, mustered in at Litchfield, Sept. 11, 1862. 
C<ii)(iu'ii.— Edward F. Gold. 
FirU Lit'tttetiaitt. — Lyman Teator. 
Second Lieutenant.— J. Milton Gregory. 

Serg&nite. 
Michael Kelley, commissioned. 
Gad N. Smith, commissioned. 

Henry S. Dean, 1st sergeant; declined commission ; disch. for disability. 
Silas A. Palmer, trans, to Co. M. 
Ira Chapman, disch. by order of the War Department June 10, 1865. 

Corporals. 
Julius A. Glover, sergeant; disch. for disability July 6, 1805. 
Charles P. Tniver, sergeant ; commissioned. 

Henry P. Milford, quartermaster-sergeant; must, out July 7, I860. 
Albert Robinson, disch. for disability Dec. 21, 1864. 
Joseph B. Payne, quartermaster-sergeant ; killed. 
Gilbert E. Lake, disch. for disability April 11, 1863. 
William S. Shepard, sergeant; must out July 7, 1806. 

Musicians, 
Myron Hubbell, died. 
James H. Van Buren, died of wounds. 

Wagoner, 
Rufus S. Frink, must, out July 7, 1866. 

Privates. 
George M. Bennett, disch. for disability Dec. 31, 1862. 
William H. Bowen, must, out June 1, 1806. 
Alfred L. Benedict, must, out July 7, 1806. 



Mathew P. Bell, Jr , sergeant ; disch. for disability June 22, 1865. 

FieJerick F. Butler, must, out July 7, 1805. 

Franklin B. Bierce, must, out May 30, 1805. 

Henry W. Baker, disch. for disability Sept. 11, 1863. 

Daniel Buxton, disch. for disability Jan. 21, 1863. 

Rnsselt T. Barnum, disch. fur disability Jan. 5, 1866. 

George W. Braguc, nmst. out July 7, 1866. 

Jerome Chipman, disch. for disability Fob. 22, 1805. 

George V. Capron, must, out June 12, 1805. 

Nelson Clark, must, out July 7, 1865. 

John Chase, must, out July 7, 1865. 

John Curtin, disch. fur disability March 15, 1865. 

William Cliuton, must, out July 7, 1803. 

Michael Curley, disch. for disability March 15, 1865. 

Philo L. Cole, died. 

James B. Capron, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Harvey Clark, died. 

Jusiah B. Corban, must, out May 18, 1865. 

John 0. Doherty, must, out July 7, 1805. 

Miles E. Dean, must, out July 7, 1805. 

Patrick Delaney, must, out July 7, 1805. 

William Frazear, disch. for disability June 8, 1805. 

John Grady, must, out July 7, 1806. 

Frederick D. Holmes, must, out July 7,1865. 

Charles C. Ilinman, died. 

Edmund E. Hoffman, nmst. out July 7, 1865. 

Edward Hover, must, out July 7, 1805. 

Wesley L. Holmes, must, out June 22, 1865. 

William H. Ingrabam, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Charles Ingersoll, sergeant; died of wounds. 

Nelson T. Jennings, must, out June 6, 1865, 

George L. Janes, must, out June 1, 1865. 

Nathan H. Jewitt, disch. for disability Dec. 22, 1802. 

Barney Kinney, died of wounds. 

David Kimball, must, out July 7, 1865. 

David Killmer, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Charles King, must, out July 7, 1805. 

Walstein Lounsbury, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Sidney Lapham, must, out July 7, 1865. 

John Lapham, died. 

Elijah C. Mallory, disch. for disability Jan. 21, 1863. 

Ralph J. Miner, disch. for disability March 8, 1863. 

Rullin B. Korthrop, must, out July 7, 1806. 

George D. Palmer, must, out July 7, 1866. 

Henry Peck, killed. 

George W. Page, killed. 

John F. Peck, nmst. out July 7, 1865. 

Albert A. Peck, died. 

Charles J. Reed, killed. 

Lucien G. Rouse, died. 

Charles R. Swift, sergeant; must, out June 9, 1865. 

Frederick Skepard, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865. 

Lewis J. Sawyer, died. 

Thomas Sherman, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Dwight B. Studley, died of wounds. 

Charles II. Smith, discharged for disability June 6, 1865. 

Merritte H. Stone, died. 

George W. Studley, sergeant ; must, out July 7, 1865. 

Elisha Soule, killed. 

Henry Sliadt, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Patrick Troy, corporal ; died of wounds. 

Elmore E. Waldron, disch. for disability Nov. 1, 1864. 

Allen Williams, died. 

Horace Williams, must, out July 7, 1865. 

William Young, disch. for disability May 10, 1863. 

Ji'ot Mustered Out wUh Company. 
Robert A. Bard, Edward H. Cross, Dayton S. Reed, Isaac L. Reed. 

The liecruits of Company G. 
Edward F. Brague, must, out Aug. 18, 1866. 
Herman E. Bonney, died. 

George Burton, disch. by order of War Department April 14, 1805. 
Niram Buttolph, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Charles H. Bentley, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 
John Byrnes, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Wesley Bunnell, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



93 



Andrev J. BoIIpr, must, out Aug. IS^ 18G5. 

John H. Bradley, died. 

George W. BiiUUvin, must, out June 9, 1SG5. 

Albert H. Builey, must, out June 12, 1865. 

George Clinton, died of wounda. 

John Christie, disch. for disability Blay 17, 1S65. 

Frank L. Cadwell, band ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

George A. Case, disch. for disability June 15, 1865. 

Henry E. Fenn, must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 

Charles I. Fenn, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Lions S. Goodrich, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Eli Grover, must, out Aug. IS, 18G5. 

Peter Gilmet, disch. f .r disability May 31, 1865. 

Michael Gallagher, disch. for disability Feb. 28, 1865. 

Thomas H. Graham, must, out May I'J, 1S65. 

Frederick Ilyer, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

William H. Hosnier, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John Hawver, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

John W. Ilamblin, died. 

Lewis Ilamblin, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Michael Henry, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 

James Hicks, must, out Slay LJO, 1865. 

Hubert D. Hoxley, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Zina D. Hotchkiss, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Dwight A. Hotchkiss, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Peter Joray, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Charles Keech, disch. for disability Jan. 13, 1865. 

Timothy Leonard, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Asa Lee, disch. for disability Jan. 8, 18C5. 

Stephen McMastfi-8, disch. for disability Sept. 8, 1864. 

John BI. McLaughlin, must, out .\ug. 18, I860. 

Patrick Murphy, must, out Aug. 7, 1865. 

Paschal P. North, died. 

Sylvester Prout, died cf wounds. 

Nathan Payne, disch. for disability F«b. 13, 1864. 

"SViIliaui S. Palmer, nmst. out Aug. 18, 1865. 

James M. Palniei-, died of wounds. 

Frederick J. Pierce, corporal; must, out Aug. 18, 18C5, 

Henry W. Parker, trans, to navy. 

Gilbert G. Rose, must, out June 1, 18C5. 

Erastus Rusco, must, out Aug. 18, 1865, 

George Roberts, trans, to the navy. 

John lU-ynulds. 

Junios Stanley, must, out May 30, 18C5. 

Orville Sluver, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Swift B. Smith, first sergeant; must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 

Horace (.'. Sickmund, died of wuuuds. 

■William A. Slover, died. 

Micliuul Sliannon, muBt out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William Smith, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Thunuu Si/.br, niuttl. out Aug 18, I860. 

Albert N. Smith, must, out Juuo 1, 1865. 

George C. Short, traim. to the navy, 

Julin R. Thompson, must, unt Aug. 18, 18G5. 

John Tully, must, out Aug, 18, 18G5. 

William Thompson, trans, tu the navy. 

Quincy Thayer, trans, to Veteran ReMtve Cur|>e. 

Goorgo E. Wansor. 

Lockwuod Wuldron, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William White, died. 

Chnrlos A. Whet-h-r, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Chauncey L. Warner, killed. 

WiU.m G. Waterman, klllud. 

Heniy II. Watrons, died. 

Not 3ftut^tftl Out with Compmty. 

Lorenzo Buttulph, Jul. uByford, John Ihirn«,WlIllnm Burgi-w, Uwrenc* 
Canllold, JHnieit Lynch, Joseph Mnllor, Thoniwi MtOiuloy, John 
McCu.d, Mark SIniy. Dwight Suiilh. John II. Taylor, D«iOuuln 
WUiwn, John \V. WllUamii, ClmiloB Way. 

COHPA.NV II. 

The original infimtry company, mustore^l In at LUchfiild, 8«pt. II, I86i 
Cn])<(itti.— Goorgo S. Wltllums. 
Fir»t /.iVH/rnanf.— Frederick M. Berry. 
tkcoml /.J«u/rnaRt— Walter Buruliou 
7 



Sergeants. 
Daniel E. Marsh, commissioned. 

Charles W. Eobertsou, disch. for disability Feb. C, 1803. 
Garwood R. Merwiu, died. 

Charles F. Audei-son, first sergeant; commissioned. 
Romulus C. Loveridge, com. in colored troops. ■ 

Corporals. 
David E. Soule, sergeant; commissioned. 
Henry C. Noble, sergeant; disch. for disability Feb. 4, 1S04. 
Minor A. Strong, sergeant; nmst. out July 7, 1865. 
Lewis W. Mosher, sergeant; ilisch, for disability May 24, 1804. 
Homer S. Curtis, sergeant ; commissioned. 

Irwin C. Buckingham, sergeant; disch. for disability May 24, 1804. 
Edward F. Lyon, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1805. 
Horace E. Jones, must, out July 7, 1865. 

ilusicLans. 
Andrew E. Bailey, must out May 18, lSO.i. 
Orlo H. Buckingham, corporal ; nmst. out July 7, 1805. 

Wuijoner. 
Harmon T. Edwards, must, out July 7, 1S05. 

Pricates. 
Charles Brinell, disch. for disability May 20, 1SG3. 
Henrj- A. Burton, corporal ; disch. for disability June 7, 1805. 
Gustavus H. Black, nmst. out June IC, 1805. 
Ira S. Bradley, died. 

Edgar W. Calhoun, nmst. out July 7,1863. 
Henry A.Calhoun, died. 
Russell B. Camp, must, out June 1, 1865. 
Alfred Cable, disch. for disability Juno 1, 1865. 
Sheldon Clark, died. 

Hiram Cable, disch. for dlsjibility May IS, 1805. 
George Chamberlain, disch. for disability Juno 3, 1865. 
William E. Canflchl, trans, to Co. 31 as sergeant. 
Benjamin F. Dujihani, sergeant ; must, out July 7, 1865. 
William E. Disbrow, coriKiral ; must, out July 7, 1805. 
William H. Dains, died. 

George S. Er» In, corjiornl ; must, out July 7, 1865. 
Olivoi B. Evltb, must, out July 7, 1805. 
Sheldon Fox, corjioral; muat. out July 7, 1865. 
Henrj' Fry, must, out July 7, ISlVi. 
Frauds L. French, must, out July 7, 180.'». 
Henry S. GrlJIey, corp.rul; disch. for disahllily April 3, 18<H. 
Hornliu S. Hoyt, corporal ; uiiMl. out July 7, I8C5. 
Heury R Hoyt, trans, to Co. M ; 1st sergeant ; cumniinluogd. 
Austin 11. Humphrey, Mirgratit; mutt, out July 7, lt)6S. 
John Ilurrlngtun, must, out July 7, 1465. 
Cyrus lluwlau<l, niusl. out Juno 1, 1805. 
Ilurnmn IlorTnian, must, out July 7, 1803. 
Charica W. Jackson, killed. 
EIroy .S. Jeniilngv, must, out July 7, 1805. 
Jerome Juhnaun, dlwl. 
ADdrow S. Kinney, niutl. out Feb. 0, 1863. 
JuiH'ph S. Knowles, dlach. fur iliuMllly April 0, 1865. 
rre.lerlck J. Logan, disch. for diMblllty April 12, 18(13. 
Daniel U. Manhall, nmst. out July 7, I8C5. 
John N. .Meriinible, culor cur|>inil ; must, out July 7, 1845. 
Jalrua W. Mourvw, Jlich. for illsul.lllly March 0, 18A3. 
Henry S. Morehouse, niu.t. I'Ut July 7, 1805. 
Aiuun D. KIchuls, must, out July 7, I8S5. 
Fraiikliu NIclioU, corporal ; dlKli. for dUaklllly Mi^jr 'U, I86t. 
George P. Toller, must, out July 7, IHC'i. 
Oeorga 11. Puller, curpural ; must, uut June 12, 1806. 
Alauaon Teet, must, out July 7, 1865. 
I.uren Peel, must, uut July 7, 1805. 
ilerlert A. lived, died a prisoner. 

Nathan II. Itooi, trans, tu Co. M u 1st nrgewil; muot. out July 7, 1803. 
Henry C. Straight, killed, 
lleulien II. 8horwwKl, must, out July 7, 1805. 
Lucius 8. Sherman, must, uut July 7, 1805. 
Iltimer S. Sackett, cur^iural ; must, out July 7, 180A. 
Slppheu V. Sne<llkGr, niiut. out May 21, 1IH15. 
Uriah F. Sueillker, curiural ; disch. fur disability Judo 0, 1865. 
Onrlllo A. Sawyer, must, out July 7, 1866, 
LewlsSt. John, died. 



0-t 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



Horace N. SaiiforJ, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865. 

Dauiel T. Sumers, must, out June 22, 1805. 

Jerome Tiius, must, out July 7, 18G5. 

Setli N. Ta>lor, sergeant ; must, out July 7, 1SG5. 

Williiim H. Tliompsoii, corporal; must, out July 7, 1S65. 

Kilward K. Thompson, must, out June 22, 18G5. 

AVilliaui C. Waruer, died. 

Frank J 'Warner, corporal ; must, out July 7, 18C5. 

Charles A. Wiiy, must, out Juno 20, 18li5. 

John F. Williauis, must, out July 7, 1805. 

Alfred N. Whittlesey, diacli. for disahility June 3, 1865. 

Burr WilliamB, disih. for disahility March 27, 1805. 

David V. Wright, dis<-h. for disahility Jan. 23, 1863. 

Lewis S. Young, must, out July 7, ISOS. 

T}ie lievniits uf Compaiiij II. 
Newell W. Andrews, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 
Doctor Brouaon, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Orson Biiel, regimental hospital steward; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Charles E. Bet-man, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 
Rufus Bceman, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 
John A. Becmiin, discli. for disahility May 31, 1864. 
Henry Briilge, died. 

Henry I). Burr, corporal ; must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 
Tlieodoro A. Barnes, killed. 
Charles H. Butler, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Frank A. Beanisloy, must, out May 18, 18G5, 
Jesse A. Banlen, muwt. out Aug. IH, 180r>, 
Thomas IJono, must, out June 30, 18G5. 
Daniel Cahill, sergeant; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Daviil B. Iiishrow, must, out Aug. 18, ISGo. 
Robert Krwin, trans, to field and staff na qnartermaster-sergeant ; must. 

out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Stales B. Flandreau, corporal ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Charles V. Fhuidreau, must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 
Adam U. Graham, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Charles K. Gill'ert, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 
John B. Cavitt, must, out Juno I'.i, 18G*». 
Charles A. llnul, must, out July 15, 1865. 
Kdwin llnrringtou. 

John Hania, trana. to Veteran Reserve Corps. 
John Haley, must, out Aug. 18,1865. 
John Ilickey, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Julin J. narrower, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Willis Hartwell, died. 

Charles Iseltiui, sergeant; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Iiu Jones, must, out Aug. 18, 1SG5. 
Apollos Jennings, must, out Aug. IS, 18G5. 
William Kcclor, disch. for disahility Jan. 23, 1864. 
Michael Kelly, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Joseph R. Lovoridgo, died. 
Patrick Lyncli, missing. 

Charles E. Lampson, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
William F. Lane, must, out July 3, 1865. 
Henry Mallett, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Henry Murphy, disch. for disixhility April 18, 18G5. 
Hiram Murphy, must, out June 20, 1865. 
Charles McDermott, must, out June 30, 1865. 
Heuo' M. Marshall, must, out Aug. 18, 1863. 
Edward Mead, killed. 
Ernest Micliaelis, must, out June 1, 1865. 
Albuit N. Mai-sh, must, out July 21, ISfio. 
Harvey J. Kicliolson, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
George Northrop, must, out Aug. 18, 1SG5. 

Hugh O'Donnell, quartemiaster-sergeant ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
John O'Brien, must, out Aug. IS, 18G5. 
James M. Parsons, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Harry Payne, must, out June 10, 1865. 
Sylvester C. Plait, died. 
Daniel Payne, died of wounds. 

Marcellus R. PisUon, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 
John R. Phelps, corporal ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Harvey Pease, died of wounds. 
John Rogers. 

George Squire, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Homer Sterling, disch. for disability April 18, 1864. 
Adam Sebastian, mxist. out Aug. 18, 18G5. 



Jonathan T. Salmons, must, out June 12, 1865. 
AVilliam L. Stoddard, must, out June 19, 1865. 
William Smith, must, out June 12, 1865. 
James K. Taylor, must, out Aug, 18, 18G5. 
Henry J, Thompson, must, out June 21, 18G5, 
Jeremiah A, Thompson, must, out June 17, 1865. 
Henry Thecklenherg, must, out Aug, 18, 1865, 
George Wedge, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Botsford Whiteheiid, disch. for disahility Feb. 4, 18G4. 
Edward H. Willard. cori>oral ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Theodore F. Warner, must, out May 14, 18G5. 
Moses L. Wigglesworth, died a prisoner. 
John Williams, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5, 
Louis Weber, must, out Aug. 18, 1S65. 

Not Mustered Out irUh Company. 
Benjamin Bierce, Andrew A. Bronson. John Blaney, James Brown, Fer- 
dinand Cole, Barney Casey, Henry W, Davis, William W. Fox, 
George Hancock, William S. Kohler, Henry Miller, William H. Rice, 
Samuel Turner, George Wood, George Wilson. 

Company I. 
The original infantry company, mustered in at Litchfield, Sept. 11. 1862. 
C'tpUtiu. — Eli Sperry. 
Fir»t Lu'uteiitint. — Gideon D, Crane, 
Seeoiid Lieutenant. — George E. Belts. 

Sergeants. 
James M, Bradley, com, in colored troops, 
Walter J, Ortun, quartermaster-sergeant; died of wounds. 
Henry S. McKinney, commissioned. 
Marcus D. Smith, sergeant; must, out July 7, 18G5. 

Corporiil». 
Cyrus T. Nicholson, 1st sergeant ; disch. for disahility June 23, 1865. 
George C. Bradley, sergeant; must, out July 12, 1865. 
Herbert V. Peck, disch. for disahility Dec. 5, 1862. 
Charles M. Rowley, must, out May 18, 1865. 
Henry F, Hard, died. 
John S. White, died. 
Dexter C. Northrop, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Music inns. 
Frederick M, Minor, discli, for disability Juue 5, 1865. 
James C. Policy, died. 

Wagoner. 
Charles P. De Forest, disch. for disability April 8, 1865, 

Privates. 
Charles N, Baldwin, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Isaac Briggs, died. 

Wiljiam Barry, disch. for disability Jan. 31, 1865. 
Edward Botsford, corporal; must, out July 7, 1865. 
Patrick Brady, corporal; died of wounds. 
Charles Botsford, must, out May 18, 1865. 
Hennan Bachman, disch. for disability March 9, 1863. 
George X>. Bennett, must, out June 23, 1865. 
Charles Barney, killed. 

Henry Dunliam, Jr., disch. for disability Feb. 12, 18G^. 
Charles F, Flushman, corporal; died of wounds. 
Charles H. Fogg, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865. 
Harvey H, Fox, died. 

James W. Green, disch. for disability Feb, 27, 1865. 
AIdiou D. Galpin, killed, 

John F. lliirrigau, corporal ; must, out July 7, 1865. 
John Hutchinson, must, out July 7, 18G5. 
Ruel Huzen, disch. for disability Juue 0, 1SG5. 
Juhn S. Hall, corjKiral ; must, out July 7, 1865. 
John T. Hall, disch, for disability Nov. 20, 1863. 
Frederick R. Hard, disch. for disability May 27, 1865. 
Hubbard Hotchkiss, sergeant; must, out July 7, 1865, 
Levi H. Hotchkiss, disch, fur disahility April 26, 18G5. 
Samuel D. Hayes, must, out May 22, 18G5. 
George E. Judson, sergeant; died of wounds. 
Friend F. Kane, killed, 

Daniel E, Leach, trans, to Veteran Re8er\'e Corps, 
Amos A. Lucas, disch. for disability June 22, 1865. 
Israel Lucas, disch. for disability Dec, 18, 1865. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



95 



John McLaughlin, must, out June 22, 18G5. 

■\Villis J. Mallory, must, out July 8, 1SG5. 

Oscar H. Manchester, ilisch. for disability Feb. 7, 18G5. 

Joseph Miller, must, out July 7, lS(j5. 

Samuel M. Mallory, diach. for disability May 8, 1863. 

Arthur B. Newy. 

Harson B. Northrop, must, out July 7, 1865. 

William O'Brien, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Erastus F. Pi-ck, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Bela Potter, corporal; must, out July 7, 1865. 

William H. Reynolds, must, out July 7, 1865. 

John J. Rogers, must, out JuJy 7, 1865. 

Henry C. Rogere, corporal; must, out July 7, 1805. 

George W. Root, corporal ; must, out Maj* 28, 1865. 

Thomas Shaw, sergeant; disch. for disability June 1, ISGl. 

Frederick C. Slade, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Chauncey Seeley, corporal ; must, out July 7, 1865. 

Charles T. Squires, corporal ; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Andrew Tiernay, disch. for disability June 7, 1805. 

Charles T. Tyrrell, corporal ; must, out July 7, 1865. 

Ira Thomas, disch. for disability March 4, 1864. 

Horatio S. Thomas, died. 

Charles L. Thomas, died. 

Daniel S. Taylor, must, out June 1, 1865, 

Timothy F. Walsh, sergeant; missing. 

Curtis Wheeler, died of wounds. 

Jareb B. Wiiiton, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Ambrose H. Wilsey, disch. by order of War Department Aug. 17, 1865. 

Benjamin Wellman, quartermaster-sergeant ; must, out July 7, 1865. 

Kot Mustered Out with Company. 
Elliott Dibble, sergeant; Charles H. Lum, corporal; Jamea Burton, 
George A. De Forest, Thomas Soothill. 

The Itecrtdte of Company I. 
Edward Bell, corporal; died. 
Ham A. Barnes, died of wounds. 
Asahel 1>. Brockett, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Charles Bennett, died of wounds. 
Abner Bennett, disch. for disability Nov. 16, 1804. 
David Backus. 

George I. Babuock, Jr., trans, to Co. Los sergeant. 
Harnum Clark, niU!>t. out .\tig. 18, 1865. 
James C^>mbor, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Levi Callendor, must, out June 1, 1865. 
Addison Cook, kille<l. 
David Cramer, killed. 
Steptu'U Carney, must, out May 30, 1863. 
Joseph Ctirnal, died. 
Lewis Clark, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Francis Dugau, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 
William Davis, must, out July 8, 1866. 
Timothy Elwell, died. 
Suntufl East man, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 
Samuel B. Ferri.-*, killed. 

Charles Fux, di»ch. for dionbility Juno 17, 1805. 
William Fitzgerald, killed. 

William Gregg, dlctch. for disability Aug. 23, 1804. 
Fetlx Gillick, niuat. out Aug. 18, I80-V 
Ctuiielius Gnebel, coriwral; dlwl. 
Thonuw llarjior, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 
John llolt, coriH>ral ; muHt. out Aug. 18, 1805. 
Edwin Holland, iMncU. for diutbillty Juno 22, W>5. 
JamoH Ileuly, niUHt out June 10, \S(>^. 
Myioii M. Junnliig(4, must, out Aug. IB, 1805. 
Andrew KuofT, muHt. out Aug. 18, 1605. 
Thomoii Kooler. 

Jtwon T. liaraiieon, muit out Mf^ 18,1805. 
Mantliall Lines, illcd a prisoner. 
Charles A. Locklln, uiust. out July 8, 180A. 
Davis A. Lo4-klln, niuHt. out Aug. 18, 1805. 
Itiaac W. Lucklln, inutit. out .\ug. IH, 1805. 
tieorgo W. Loi'klln, dleil of wouiida. 
Tlu^ure LtK-kwiHxl, curpoml ; mutt, out .\ug. 18, 1805. 
Seymour LolMlelt, divU of Mouuda. 
Bunks Louiubnry, died. 
John Mcgueony, dlw:li. for dlMbllity June 10, 1805. 



Hanford Meeker, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. " 

Charles S. Meeker, must, out Aug. IS, 18G5. 

John McDavitt, must, out June 1, 1865. 

David W. Manning, corporal; disch. fur disability July 15, 18C5. 

Olin Nash, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John K. Northrop, died. 

Jeremiah Newcomb, must, out June S, 1865. 

Stephen Olmstead, must, out June 22, 1865. 

Henry Payne, must, out .\ug. IS, 1865. 

John B. Parker, must, out June 27, 1865. 

George Parsons, trans, to the navy. 

James Ragao, must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 

James T. Roche, must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 

Charles Smith, must, out June 3, 1865. 

Charles W. Speer, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

James Sidney, died. 

William Smith, trans, to the navy. 

William H. Smith, trans, to A'eterau Reserve Corps. 

Warden Stammer, sergeant ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John Smith, trans, to navy. 

James Sweeney, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Edward Sturges, disch. for disability 3Iay 23, 1865. 

Leandar Snider, must, out Nov. 23, 1865. 

John Simmons, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

John Stephenson, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

William B. Shaw, must, out June 18, 1865. 

Henry Taylor, disch. for disability April 29, 1865. 

John Turley, disch. for disjtbility Juno 20, 1805. 

Theron M. Woodruff, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Nelson B. Williams, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

John Wright, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Charles Wright, disch. for disability July 30, 1865. 

Albert Woodruff, died a pii:$oncr. 

Daniel P. Wakcman, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

John Wells, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

William P. Walker, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

George U. Walker, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William Webster, must, out June 13, 1865. 

Nut Miuitfred Ottt irtlh Ounpanjf. 
George Alfurd, Domiulck Burns, Allen Brundage, TlioDiaaS. Carter, John 
Clayton, John Farley, Williaiu HeoilUons. Jamott Hill, Joseph Miller, 
Jftoies K. Tuylor, James W. Wi-uver, Slelviu It. Warner, Irviu E. 
Warner. 

COMPANV K. 

The urigiaal infantry company, musterwl i» at Lllchtteld, ^ej-t. U, isoi. 

Cupl'tin. — Edward U. Pock. 

f'iral Z.irn/«H>iHf. — Augustus H. Fenn. 

Stcoitd LifuicHatU. — Jaoiea X. Cue. 

Smj^attt*. 
Biuhrod n. Gamp, wrgeant-iniO'ir; coiumiMionrtl. 
Joliii E. Se<lgwlck. Jr., flmt sergeant; conuniMloued. 
Oicur Piatt, commi«sluned. 
William S. WatBou, died. 
Edwla D. Deeniaii, Ant •crgeant ; must, out Julj 7, 1605. 

i'urpiirtih. 

Janiw R. JohnaoD, ilbcli. for dL«bllity Jan. 13, 1804. 

Wolcitt Co<»k, dlwl. 

ilinuii Uu UoU, disch. for dlsabllltj Nor. 17. 1802. 

Alait»tin A. Neguo, must, out July 7, 1805. 

David D. I^ke, killH. 

Tniman O. SnufonI, must, out July 7, 1805. 

Lant Kyan, died a prtaaoer. 

Jamea Martin, most, out July 7, 1805. 
Qaurce A. Uoyt, Jr., dlc«l. 

M'tiijom^r, 
Minor C. Wedge, diKli. for diMtllUy Aog. 13, ISO. 

Franklin Amlnis, kilh-l. 

Noble Audrus, nilMlug. 

laonc Baldwin, kille«l. 

Cheater L. DaiicmO, mtiaf. out July 7, 18GA. 



96 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



Hiram L, Bronson, must, out July 7, 18G5. 

John II. IJuruw, must, out Juue 24, 1865. 

Clmiles A. Ciiiuiibell, must, nut July 7, 1SG5. 

Submit B. Castle, disch. for disability Nov. 20, 1SG3. 

Cyrene M. Clark, discli. for disability Feb. 6, 18G3. 

John II. Cooper, sergeant ; must, out July 7, 18Go. 

George R. Colby, must, out May 18, 1SG5. 

Heniy Colby, died. 

Daniel Conley, disch. for disability May 1.'), 18G4. 

Frederick A. Dauchy, disch. for disability Nov. 24, 18G4. 

Frederick Ette, must, out July 7, lSCi>. 

John Ette, must, out July 7, ISGo. 

Charles D. Kerris, died. 

Patrick Farrell, sergeant ; must, out July 7, 1SG.3. 

Edward Griffin, killed. 

"Wesley F. Glover, dieil. 

Charles Gregory, corporal; must, out July 7, 18G5. 

EHzur A. Hodge, corponil; must, out July 7, 18GJ. 

Uillium Hart, must, out Blay 18, 18Go. 

John Million, disch. fur disiibility Aug. 12, 18G3. 

Steiilu'u P. Ihuluw, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Thomi\s Herbert, must, out July 7, ISCo. 

Anglehert Herman, nnlBt. out July 7, 1*>G5. 

Charlt?s Hungerford, must, out July 7, 18G5^ 

Levi X. JacMS, disch. fur disability Jan. 24, 18G3. 

Alfred Juno, died of wounds. 

Bernartl C. Keegan, disch. fur disability Aug. 11, 18G5. 

Alexander D. Kasdon, killed. 

Sidney A. Law, died. 

Artlmr Lockwood, sergeant ; mnst. out July 7, 18G5. 

John A. Ludford, disch. for disability Feb. 25, 18G5. 

George H. McBurney, killed. 

Erwin Munroe, must, out July 14, 1865, 

John Munstiu, died of wouuds. 

Henry Murpliy, disch. for disability Nov. 3,l&(>2. 

Eben Norton, died. 

John O'Connor, disch. for disi\bility May 18, 1863. 

Frank Paiker, must, out July 7, 18G5. 

"William R. Parnielee, disch. for disability Dec. 5»1862. 

Abner B. Palmer, must, out July 7, 18G5. 

Asaliel N. Perkins, died of wounds. 

Asa Pettis, mnst. out July 7, 1865. 

Charles Kecd, killed. 

John Shores, must, out July 7, 18G5. 

Allen Sawyer, trans, to "Veteran Resen-e Coii>9. 

Alonzo Stewart, disch. for Uisubility Juuo 29, 186;i. 

Edgar J. Stewart, corporal ; must, out June 9, 1SG5. 

George E. Taylor, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Thomas P. Tompkins, corjtoral ; must, out May 13, ISCSi. 

James Tracy, disch. for disability June 8, 1865. 

Enoch G. Warhurst, corporal ; must, out July 7, 1SG5. 

John AVarner, killed. 

Francis AVedge, sergeant ; must, out July 7, 1S65. 

Lebbeus J. Welch, must, out July 7, 18G5. 

Jacob AVentwoith, died of wounds. 

Thomas AVheeler, must, out July 7, 1865. 

Alfred White, must, out July 7, 1865. 

George A. Wood, mnst. out July 7, 1865. 

Ni't Mustered (hU ivUh Compnwj. 
William II. Knickeibocker. Jason W. Johnson, Ira Warner, Jacob War- 
ner, Noah B. Welch. 

The Ilerruits of Company K. 
Charles N. Beeman, sergeant ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Orson Buell, sergeant ; trans, to field aud staff". 
Lucieu Button, killed. 
George Brown, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Charles A. Bristol, corporal ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Philo K. Bassett, disch. for disability Dec. 20, 1865. 
Daniel Buckley, corporal; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
John Birch, died. 
Anton Barth, died. 
Henry B. Bristol, killed. 
Hubert E. Banker, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 
Daniel Briggs, must, out June 13, 1865. 
Charles A. Bigelow. 



John Branan, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Lucius Brown, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 

George D. Beeman, disch. for disability July 25, 1865. 

Andrew Carney, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John H. Call, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Thomas Coleraine. 

Joseph E. Camp, missing. 

Owen Cromney, died of wounds. 

Robert Clark, must, out June 1(1, 1865. 

Michael Convey, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Lymau F. Cole, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

George H. Curtis, must out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Amaziah Downs, died a prisoner. 

John Fitzpatrick, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Truman 1*. Favereau, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

John Foley, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Tliomas Fiiiiiigan, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William H. Gorham, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Peter Gallagher, killed. 

William S. Hines, must, out Aug. IS, 18C5. 

John H. R. Hipwell, killed. 

William Harrington, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

George W. Harrington, died. 

Homer AV. llodge, disch. for disability Jan. 10, 1865. 

Edward D. Hall, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Edmund D. Hickey, killed. 

Charles Ilaviland, killed. 

Dennis Haley, uiust. out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Henry H. Hyatt, killed. 

George IIo.\ley, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Benjamin W. Higby, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Leander Ide, died. 

Charles A. Johnson, died of wounds. 

Andrew Jackson, killed. 

Patrick Kennedy, killed. 

George H. Knapp, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 

Roswell Kelly, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William B. Leach, died. 

Joseph Lewis, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Edward Monioe, tiisch. for disability Jau. 24, 1864. 

Fnmcts McAdam. 

Henry Miller. 

Charles Rlay, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Ransom L. Maloney, must, out Juno 28, 1865. 

George W. Murphy, nnist. out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Charles F. Morris, niust. out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Albert J. Miner, died of wounds. 

Robert Morris, corporal ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Henry H. Mason, corj^oral ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John Martin, killed. 

Dennis Moore, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Oliver P. Piatt, must, out Aug. 21, 1865. 

George Piatt, disch. for disability March 8, 1865. 

Austin V. Rogers, must, out July 10, 1665. 

Charles H. Russell, missing. 

Isaac Smith, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John Smith, must, out July 3, 1SG5. 

Robert Sothergill, killed. . 

Chauncey Stevens, disch. for di.sability June 6, 1865. 

Edgar Smith, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William II. Stephens, disch. for disability June 6, 1865. 

James Slatery, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Robert 8. Short, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Francis Sothergill, must, out Sept. 5, 1865. 

Charles Simoson, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Evelyn L. Thorpe, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Abram A. Tolles, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Allen S. Tuttle, disch. for disability June 23, 1865. 

William W. Wheeler, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Nathan B. Westbrook, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Not Mustered Out ivith Company, 

John Bray, Henry S. Cummings, John Clarke, John Campbell, Orrin 
Ferguson, James Finnegan, Solomon Gorham, Charles A. Hoyt, Wil- 
liam Howe, James Jones, William Kendrick, Daniel Lavell, Oakley 
Middlebrook, John Murphy, Frank Morton, Jamea Monrow, Michael 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



97 



Riley, Cliarles 11. Trii,4er, Samuel Williams, Benjamin Welle, Wil 
liam Weuslor. 

Company L.* 
Captain. — Jnmea Deans. 

First Lientenanf n.—VUiUxi E. Chapin, EJward C. Huxley. 

Second LientenaulM.—J-Ames M. Snowden, Oscar Piatt. 

William H. Allen, first sergeant ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

AVilliani Alfreds, trans, to the uavy. 

George I. Babcock, Jr., sergeant; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Timothy Brown, must, out Aug. IS, 18G5. 

Calvin A. Bowers, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 

Patrick Butler, died a prisoner. 

James Busse, must, out Aug. 18, 1SC5. 

August Berg, killed. 

Tliomas Burns, corporal; must, out Aug, 18, 1865. 

"William J. Burke, must, out Aug. 8, 18G5. 

James Bishop, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

George Btackman, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

James Barry, must, out Aug. 18, ISGo. 

John Boyce, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 

Jesse Cady, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Bugald Campbell, quartermaster-sergeant; must, out June 10, 1865. 

John Caliion, must, out Juno 1, 1865. 

John Clow, disch. for disability Jan. 15, 1805. 

William J. Dixon, corporal ; died. 

Ezra Daggett, discharged April IS, 1805. 

Charles Davenport, died. 

WiUiam Postman, sergeant ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Marsliall Davenport, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John Dostman, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Anthony Douglierty, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Oliver Dugette, corporal ; must, out Aug. 18, 1855. 

William Day, died of wounds. 

Pctor Dohin, must, out Aug. 18, l.sG.j, 

Seneca Edgt-tt, sergeant; commissioned. 

Thomas B. Foster, dieil. 

Thomas Furrell, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Clark Fox, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Patiick Farrell, must, out Aug. 18. 18C5. 

George R. Grovor, die<l a prisoner. 

S>Ivt'ster Graves, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Charles A. GouUct, must, out Juno 1, 1865. 

Charles E. Groat, corporal ; must, out Juno 10, 18C5. 

James Gillin, must, out Aug. is, iHfi.'i. 

Cliarlrs W. Halo, sergeant; must, out Aug. IS, 1805. 

UMbert Ilarririgtou, disch. for disability Nov. 1, 1864. 

Noah Hart, disch. for digability Nov. 15, 18G5. 

Frederick Hooker, died. 

llciiry A. Hubbell, c(ir|toral ; died. 

William Hall, must, out Aug. IS, 181>>. 

Jainvs HnglK>ti, must, uiit Aug. 18, 1865. 

Clmrlett Ileidonrich, must, out May 31, 1805. 

Jame^ Hyatt, corporal ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Ania-s L. IvL>t), died of wounds. 

Henry Jones, traus. to the navy. 

Van liceaon Jonka, must, out Juno 12, 1805, 

Hicbard M. Kolley, trans, to the navy. 

Auatin P. KIrkham, sergeant; conunissionoU. 

iJeorgo McCoy, trans, to Votunui Iluservo Corps. 

WilUam M(dloy, died. 

Noriimn Mansfield, cor|M>raI ; diod of wuuiids. 

Thomas McDcmaM, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Andrew McGrath, Horgennt; must, out July 7, 18C5. 

Williiiui Morton, coriHirnl; dlod. 

Juhn Martin, killed. 

John Mullen, must, out Aug. 18, 18fl5. 

Henry McGinoty, must, out Aug. 18, 18C5. 

Thnnias May, must, out Aug, 18, 1865. 

ICdwanl H. Nortbi-op, torponil; must, out Aug. 18, 1805, 

Peter D. Nelson, mmtt, out Aug. IH, ISfVi. 

Goorgo Norman, must, out Juno 23, 1805. 

John Owon, nnntt. out Juno 0, 18(VS. 

DoMiinick O'Brien, muHt. out Aug. 18, 18Q5. 

Elislfa Peck, muHt. out Juno 17, 1K05. 

John 3. Pnrniuloe, lurgcant-mivlor; tnini. to fleld and tlnfT. 



* OompOMd tnliraljr of racrniU. 



Walter William Payn, disch. for disability Jan. IS, 1SG5. 

George Phelps, must, out June VJ, 1865. 

William Parr}', must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 

George Parker, sergeant; disch. for disability Sept. 24, 1804. 

John Pollard, died. 

George M. Perkins, must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 

Charles H. Ryan, corporal; must, out June 9, 1865, 

William Rodman, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Isaac Reimert, must, out Aug. IS, lS6-'». 

George Reed, disch. for disability June 5, 1865. 

■William Ragan, must, out June 10, 1865. 

Samuel X. Scranton, corporal ; must, out June 1, 1865. 

William A. Slenker, sergeant; must, out Aug. IS, 1805. 

Watson W. Stone, disch. April 2, 1S64; furnished substitute. 

John S. Strickland, 1st sergeant; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

George W. Scott, coi*poral ; must, out -Vug. IS, 1S65. 

Edward A. Snow, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Frederick Slade, died. 

Frank Sabine, discli. for disability April 29, 1865. 

Geoi-ge Stringer. 

Biard Tuttle, must, out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Edward Tliomas (2d), must, out Aug. 16, 1865. 

William Travers, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Thomas Taylor, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

William Vrooman, must, out Aug. 18, 186.1. 

Nelson Viooman, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Adclbert D. Webster, corpoiiil ; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

John Woods, must, out .\ug. 18,1865. 

William Willi;ini^, corporal; nmst, out Aug. 18, 18G5. 

Janien WilHtm, coriKinil; must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Petor Welltrot, mu<*t. out Aug. 18, 1805. 

Horace B. Wood, died. 

Clnirttopher C. Wells, must, out Juno 15, 1865. 

Morris W. White, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

Patrick Wallace. 

Sot ^Tastered Out tcUh C9mp<mg. 
<3«orge Alexander, William Brown, John Brown, Ernest Baner, Thomu 
Bntterfield, Jame« W. Blake, Robert Burk. David Brown, Adam 
Bartholomew, Byron Booth, Andrew Clark, Richartl Crawfonl, John 
Clark, Ilichanl Ibirilng, Elliott L. Dorman,(_>rtcar Itavidson, John Da- 
Tidson, EilwanI M. Dunliuiu, Thomas Daley, James EdmondR, John 
Eiuerton, Andrew IMwanli, Joecph Furni«,Ge<irgi>F«rgtM<in,r,vorfce 
FIsa, Julin Finnegan, Goirgo Kalrltaiik*. .\ll*ert Visitor, Thomas A. 
Gooilman, John M. Grant. J<weplt Gvllier, George Green, John Gil- 
muro, John GreenwtKid. It{t:hAr>l G. Hawkins, .\lbcrt Howe, JnDiee 
Haywood. Peter lUnnon. .lolin Hilton. James Hart, William Hall, 
Charter Hart, llenjiimin llawkinn, George Jackson, William Jouf«, 
Edward King, John Kt'eler, Putrhk Kelly, James Kenar, George 
King. John Lvwii«, Henry Li^wln, Wendell I.ehmiin, William I.eo. 
John McQnanne, Tlixmait McCarly, Alexander .McCArty. David 9HI- 
l«r. Thonuu Mnxwell, Janieit McDonabI, Michael Morufl, Frank Mo 
K*y, Patrick Murray, Willium Myor, John M.lntyre, Patrick Blc- 
Cormirk. John O'Brien, E IwanI O'Brien, Henry Privra, Duviil Pnnly, 
WnHamProT.«t.Jo««»ph PulmT, John K<>lH>nN, Patrick Kiley.Charlea 
Bui«<te|l, Jamen ^niith. CliArli-Hi f^nilth, Ivlwuni 1^ 9angiilon, Martin 
SiilltTiin, Jnmen SImw, (ieurge rhow|«on, Charles ThomfHiin, E<l- 
wftpl Tli'TitiiA ( Inl), William ThomiHon, John Tnt'-y <(in)"tltute for 
WaUon W. .**tiiu''). Juni -i Van Slyk«, All^n O. Wlnnejnir, Thomaii 
Weldon. John Whit*-, James Wniu, Jolm Wright, Andrew Wiljou. 

COMPAKT XLf 
Oip*.ii«.— K.lwnnl W. Mamh. 
FV«* lAeuUnnnt. — Jamen P. McOibe. 
Strotfl LirnU Hiimt. — Henry SkiniK*r. 
Henry li. Ilnyt, Urat Mirgeant; commlMlono*!. 
iMhw \. Piilnifr, •pMrtrrniailcr-ecrgnanC; niuat out Majr 12, 1805. 
CharlM Allen, mnnt. out Au(. 18, IM3w 
William lt4*rgen, nilMlng. 
George Bunnell, niUitl. out Aug. 18, ISfVI, 
Wllllan) T. Blake, mn«(. out June '^i, 18G5. 
Clurlei llrant. mnnt. out Aug. IH. 1H«A. 
John Ikiriia. nmat. out Ang. 18, 1K6A. 
Clnirli** C. IhMWorlli, niiut. out Aug. 18, 180.%. 
iNilrick r««gniv«, dif h. r>r dlwbllltr Not. -^i, 1804. 
Rlwnnl Corcuraa, mtul. out Ang. 18, 1805. 



t CunpoMil •otJnIjr of neralu. 



98 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



Samuel Cunimings, niiiBt. out Aug. 18, ISCj. 

Thomas Culburn, diud of wounds. 

James II. Case, dieii. 

Edward Crosby, must, out June 13, 18Gj. 

Oeorge 11. Couth, uuist. out June 22, 18G5. 

James Doyle, must, out Aug. IS, 18Go. 

Thomas Doyle, died. 

Theodore Drune, must, out Aug. 18, I860. 

George W. Dnytou, must, out June 1, 18G.>, 

Alexander Ellcock, must, out June 1, 18G5. 

"William Erwin, must, out May 30, lSt>5. 

Cornelius L. Eveiett, mwst. out Jnne 8, 18G5k 

•Tames Fitzsimnions, must, out June 9, 1SG5. 

John Feeney, must, out Aug. 18, 1SG;>. 

Patrick Feneren, must, out Aug. 18, 1SG.\ 

Peter Fitzgerald, must, out Aug. 18, 18G5^ 

"William Fisher, trans, to the navy. 

MnrtiQ II. Gruhe, disch. for disability May 30, I86& 

James Gallngbor, nnist. out Aug. 12, 18G5. 

Charles E. (lilbei I, must, out June 1, 18G5. 

William lIolTnian, must, out Aug. IS, 1805^ 

Peter IlaydiMi, must, out Aug. IS, 18K>. 

John Jay, nuist. out Aug. 18, 18C5. 

Patrick Keegau, killed. 

Azarie N. Lam<u-eu.\', seigeflnl; comtuissiouetl. 

Patrick Little, uuist. out Aug. 18, ISCo. 

James II. Lee, disch. for ili^nbility Oct. 8, 18C5. 

Amaziah Livingstone, disch. for disability June-SO, ISfiSu 

Williaui Munson, disch. for disability Aug. t>, 1S<>>. 

Johu McFardeu, nuist. out Aug. 18, 18G.'). 

Henry IMaskell, sergeant ; must, out Aug. IS, 1805. 

Samuel S. Osborne, killed. 

Jamee M. Piice, disch. for disability Mardi 21, ISGo. 

James Parker, must, out Aug. IS, 18C»>. 

George M. Price, must, out Aug. IS, 1S&">. 

Bernard Kiley, must, out Aug. 18, 1865. 

31iehael Roach, nuist. out Aug. 18, IStVi. 

Ellswoilli JI, llusBcll, must, out June 28, ISCA. 

Edwin Itawson, disch. for disability Feb. 17, ISGii. 

Myron W. Sehultz, nuisl. out Aug. IS, 1805. 

Sau\uel Simpson, umst. out Aug. IS, I860. 

Jlerritt W. Sweet, uuist. out Aug. IS, 1865. 

Charlie Smith, nuist. out Aug. 18, 1SC.5. 

George Schmidt, must, out Aug. IS, 1865. 

Henry Strih, disch. for disjibility Juuo 13, 18G5. 

Abiier W. Scott, killed. 

John Thomas, dietl. 

Edward S. Tubbs, must, out Aug. IS, I8G0. 

George Taylor, trans, to the navy. 

Selali T. Wheeler, must, out Aug. 18, I860. 

Peter Ward, must, out June 10, 1SC5. 

Not ^listcreii Oiti wUh Compnutj. 
Charles Andetson, James Audei"son, John Anderson, Thomas Adams, 
William .\sken, Thomas Crown, James Brauuun, .\ndrew Burns, 
James Brown, James A. Brown, Joseidi Baiber, John Blaney, Nich- 
olas Burk, John Bruce, David Bartly, Patrick Birmingham, Vinson 
Clark, Thomas Crane, Robert Colinan, Joseph Carr, Joseph M. Cooper, 
George Cashier, John Cole, William Culver, John Dow, Alfred Dick- 
enson, John Davis, Thomas Donahue, John Dnkiii, James Devine, 
James BI. Eagan, John Flannigan, Ransom J. Fargo, Thomas Foley, 
BMchael Farrell, James Flinn, Andrew Flannigan, James Gnaham, 
John Ilargent, Frank Henry, Patrick Ilyland, Patrick Ilagen, 
George Holland, William E. Joy, James Jones, Johu Jones {1st), 
John Jones (2d), George Jones, John Kennedy, John King, Arthur 
Kemp, Patrick Kennedy, John Larkins, Robert Mullen, John BIc- 
LaugliHu, Tliomas Mack, Charles 3Iilton, Charles Mareli, John Mc- 
Shajihy, Terence O'Neil, George Pennington, William Potter, John 
Perston, Edson Patrick, William Ryan, Henry Roth, John Rork, 
John Robinson, William Rouke, James Roberts, James Robinson, 
Heury Sniith, John Smith, James Smith (1st), James Smith {2d), John 
Shaahan, James Slielljuan, John Sweeny, Jacob Smith, William A. 
Taylor, John Turner, Charles Thomas, George Thomitson, Johu G. 
Terrell, Horace .\. Thompson, Peter Welch, Robert Willis, George 
M. Washington, James Wilson (1st), .Tames Wilson (2d), Joseph Welch, 
John Williams, George White, John Wilson, Charles E. Wold, James 
Winslow, James C. Williams, Julius Ziiuber. 



CHAPTER VL 
MILITARY HISTORY (Continued). 

The Twenty-third Regiment — The Twenty-eighth Regimeut — First 
Regiment Heavy Artillery. 

THE TWENTY-TIIIRD REOIMENT. 

The Twenty-third Regiment was recruited mainly 
from Bridgei)ort, Danbury, Waterbury, Newtown, 
Fairfield, Georgetown, Bethel, Naugatuck, Ansonia, 
and Trumbull, in Fairfield County, and Watertown, 
in this county, during the months of August, Septem- 
ber, and October, 1862. It was designed as a nine 
months' regiment, though every man served a year, 
and some two years, before being mustered out of ser- 
vice. 

The companies rendezvoused at Camp Terry, Oyster 
Point, New Haven, early in September, where they 
commenced the drill, and did guard duty until the 
16th of November, when they embarked on the Sound 
steamer "Elm City" for "Camp Buckingham," at 
Centreville Race Course, near Jamaica, L. I. 

This regiment was under the command of Col. 
Charles E. L. Holmes, of Waterbury, with Charles 
W. Wordin, of Bridgeport, for lieutenant-colonel, and 
David H. Miller, of Georgetown, as major. 

Camp Buckingham was a mud-hole of the worst 
possible descrii)tion, and the Twenty-third pitched 
tents in a rain-storm that lasted a week. 

November 30th the regiment marched twelve miles 
to the foot of Atlantic Street, Brooklyn, thence on 
board the " Che Kiang," a river steamer totally unfit 
for "outside" weather; and because of being over- 
loaded, after three days. Companies H and I of the 
Twenty-third, with one company of the Twenty- 
eighth and another of the Twenty-fifth Connecticut 
Volunteers, were transferred to the barracks at Pier 
1, New York. All but these companies left New York 
City for the Gulf of Jlexico, on the "Che Kiang," 
Dec. 3, 1862. The steamer was nearly swamped in a 
terrific storm on the night of December 5th, and the 
suffering on board for several days was very great. 
They arrived at Ship Island on the 11th. 

The portion of the regiment left inbarracks at New 
York received orders, December 12th, to go on board 
the ship " Windermere," while the balance were dis- 
patched on the ship " Planter," an old hulk that was 
wrecked off Florida Keys. A few stragglers reached 
Louisiana on the ship "Alice Counce." 

These divisions arrived at New Orleans at long in- 
tervals apart, and when once there were assigned to 
guard duty along the eighty miles of the New Orleans, 
Opelousas and Great Western Railroad, and kept at 
such duty almost continuously till their term of ser- 
vice had expired, though they repeatedly asked that 
they might be relieved and sent to the front. The 
I Twenty-third was never brigaded, but left to itself, 
shunned by paymasters for many months, kept a year 
I instead of nine months in service, and its officers, 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



99 



most of them, confined nearly fourteen months in 
rebel prison-i^ens. 

June 20, 1863, the rebels under Gen. Dick Taylor 
captured Terre Bonne, and on the 21st drove in the 
pickets of the Twenty-third at Lafourche Crossing. 
The same night the rebels made several attempts to 
capture Lafourche, but were repulsed with three hun- 
dred and seventy killed and wounded. Federal loss, 
thirty wounded and nine killed. 

The rebels shelled Brashear City on the 23d, which, 
being defended almost solely by convalescents, was at 
last forced to surrender. The officers captured by 
Taylor were all marched to Tyler, Smith Co., Texas 
(Camp Ford), and held nearly fourteen months, while 
the men were paroled, and Aug. 9, 1863 (Sunday), at 
one o'clock p.m., left New Orleans on a Mississippi 
River steamboat "homeward bound." They arrived 
at New Haven, Conn., at six a.m. August 24th, and 
were welcomed with military and civic honors. 

THE TWENTY-EIGIITU REGIMENT. 

This regiment was organized Oct. 11, 1862, at New 
Haven, and was mustered into the United States 
service November 15th, with the following officers : 
Colonel, Samuel P. Ferris; lieutenant-colonel, Whe- 
lock T. Batcheller; major, William B. Wesconie; 
adjutant, Charles H. Brown; quartermaster, Milton 
Bradley, Jr. ; chaplain, Richard Wheatly ; sergeant- 
major, William A. Bailey ; quartermaster-sergeant, 
Wilfred H. Mattson ; comnii.ssary-sergeant, N. B. 
Bennett; hospital steward, William E. Bissell ; sur- 
geon. Ransom P. Lyon ; first jwsistant surgeon, Levi 
S. Pease ; second assistant surgeon, Henry Rockwell. 

LINE-OFnCEn.S. 

Ciimpany A. — Captain, Francis R. Leeds ; first lieu- 
tenant, Philip Lever ; second lieutenant, F. R. War- 
ner. 

Ciimpniii/ IS. — Ca|)tain, Cyrus D. Jones ; first licu- 
tutiant, Cliarles Durand ; second lieutenant, Henry 
L. Wilmot. 

CamiMuuj O. — Captain, L. R. McDonougli ; first 
lieutenant, William M. Whitney ; second lieutenant, 
J. C. Taylor. 

Coiiijxiiii/ ]). — Captain, David D. Hoag ; first lieu- 
tenant, Cliarles M. Booth; second lieutenant, Levi 
llungerford. 

t'ompwty /^.—Captain, Cliarles B. Landon ; first 
lieutenant, Joseph Bostwick; second lieutenant, War- 
ren C. Dailey. 

Ciim/)iiiii/ F. — Captain, L. B. Wlieelock ; first lieu- 
tenant, C. P. Newman; second lieutenant, Jabez Al- 
ford. 

Comiiiiii;/ ^.—Captain, T. L. lleikwitli ; first lieu- 
tenant, William Mitchell; second lieutenant, Henry 
Ayres. 

Companij //.—Captain, George W. Middleton ; first 
lieutenant, James Kilcy ; second lieutenant, Thomas 
G. Bennett. 



Three companies, — D, E, and F, — with the excep- 
tion of one man, were enlisted from Salisbury. 

The regiment left New Haven November 18th, and 
proceeded to Camp Buckingham, L. I. Here it re- 
mained until the 28th, when, having been assigned 
to the Department of the South, it embarked on the 
" Che Kiang" for a Southern clime. The Twenty- 
third Connecticut also embarked in the same steamer, 
thus crowding fourteen hundred men in quarters 
which would comfortably accommodate about eight 
hundred. 

The steamer weighed anchor at ten a.m., December 
3d, with sealed orders, which finally assigned the regi- 
ments to Ship Island, La. During the voyage a storm 
arose, and for twelve hours the heavily-laden steamer 
battled with the angry waves which lashed in fury 
about it, seeming every moment to swallow it up in 
the awful abyss. During the night, while the storm 
was on, an officer sent the intelligence, " We shall 
never see another sunrise ; the vessel cannot stand it 
much longer." The vessel, however, rode safely on, 
and the voyage was comi)leted in safety. 

December 12th the regiment disembarked on Ship 
Island. On the 17th it re-embarked for New Or- 
leans, and after stopping a few hours in the city 
started for Camp Parapet, some seven miles up the 
river, where it landed and pitched tents, but was 
immediately ordered to re-embark for Pcnsacola, 
Fla. By eleven that night it was on board again and 
ready for starting. It reached Pcnsacola Monday 
morning, and stacked its arms on the Grand Plaza. 
On the 20tli it wits onlcred to evacuate Pcnsacola and 
go to the Barrancas Navy-Yard, where it remained 
until May 20th, when it was ordered to take the 
steamer " Cro.<cent" and proceed to Brashear City, 
La. On tlie 2.")th it w.is ordered to Port Hudson, and 
at noon reached Spririgiield Landing, having now 
come within hearing distance of the strife of arms. 
Marching twelve inile.s towards the scene of conflict, 
it found itself now, by some oversight of the move- 
ment, right between the two contending armies. It 
fairly ran the gauntlet, escaping unharmed, and the 
next day, after a march of about thirty iiiiles, when 
four might have sufiiced, it reached ( Jrover's ilivision, 
to which it had been assigned. I'ntil Juno 3d it here 
sutfcred for wantof rett and food, when it was orderc<l 
to the front. At this time Col. Ferris wiw acting briga- 
dier, with MaJ. Woscomo in charge of the regiment. 

The regiment was now called up<m to test the 
music of whistling balls, ami there was for the prt"sent 
to be no more rest for it. .luiie 4tli it wat ordereil to 
be ready to go into the rifle-pits. In spile of blun- 
dering movements, Company .\ in advance, it at length 
reached the pits, where it spent the night. The ne.xt 
day, until eight in the evening, the men did their best, 
" firing fiuit and well," to harm the enemy, when they 
were urdered hack to camp. Tliis move was exe.'Ute<l 
withiiut loss, and the regiment next did good service 
in the trenches. 



100 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



The regiment participated in tlie second assault on 
Port Hudson, when it lost fifty-nine killed, wounded, 
and missing. Among the killed were Capt. Hoag, of 
New Milford, and Lieut. Durand, of Stamford. This 
was one of the most desperate charges made during 
the Rebellion, but in that holocaust of fire not a m.an 
in that noble legion shrank from his duty. 

After the surrender of tlie place the Twenty-eighth 

did garrison duty until the expiration of its term of 

service. The regiment lost, — killed, 9 ; died of wounds, 

. 9 ; died of disease, G.5. It was mustered out at New 

Haven, Aug. 28, 18G3. 

FIRST REGIMENT HEAVY ARTILLERY. 

There was one company — I — in this regiment from 
Litchfield County. Its officers were as follows : Cap- 
tain, Sanford H. Perkins ; first lieutenant, Albert 
F. Brooker; second lieutenant, Edward H. Mix, all 
from Torrington. The regiment w»s organized as 
the Fourth Regiment of Infantry, and remained as 
such until June 2, 1862, when it was changed to heavy 
artillery. It was a gallant regiment, and participated 
in the following engagements: Siege of Yorktown, 
Hanover Court-house, Gaines' Mills, Cliickahominy, 
Golden Hill, Jlalvern Hill, siege of Fredericksburg, 
before Fredericksburg, Kelly's Ford, Orange Court- 
house, siege of Petersburg and Richmond, Fort 
Fisher. 



CHAPTER VIL 

INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

The Housatonic Railroad— Tlie Xangatiick Railroad — The Connecticut 
Western — The Sheiniu;^ — Tlio New Haven and Nortliampton. 

THE IIOUSATONIC RAILROAD CO.MPAXY 
was incorporated in 1836, with authority to bdild 
a road from Sheffield, Mass., to Brookfield, Conn., and 
from thence to tide-water at Bridgeport, or such other 
point as might be deemed expedient. 

In order to aid the undertaking, the city of Bridge- 
port, at a meeting held March 2, 1837, voted to sub- 
scribe for stock of the new company to the amount of 
one hundred thousand dollars, and individuals resid- 
ing in other towns upon the route subscribed for two 
hundred thousand dollars more. 

Ex-Governor Gideon Tomlinson acted for a time 
as president of the company, but at the first regular 
election, April 5, 1837, the following persons were 
chosen officers of the road: William P. Burrall, 
President; William H. Noble, Secretary; Jesse Ster- 
ling, Treasurer; William P. Burrall, Edwin Porter, 
Samuel Simons, Stephen Louusbury, Charles De 
Forest, of Bridgeport, Anan Hine, Asa Pickett, of 
New Milford, Alpheus Fuller, of Kent, and Peter 
Bierce, of Cornwall, Directors. 

Mr. Horace Nichols subsequently became treasurer 
of the road, and held the position until his resigna- 



tion, in 1848. A contract was made by the board of 
directors with Messrs. Bishop and Sykes to build the 
entire road for the sum of $936,000, — viz., cash, 
$636,000, and stock of the company at par, $300,000. 
Work was commenced in July, 1837, about three 
hundred men being employed by the contractors. 

Owing to the panic of 1837, which caused nearly 
all the banks and moneyed institutions of the country 
to suspend specie jiayments, subscriptions for stock 
were not received as rapidly as had been anticipated, 
and the progress of the road was delayed. 

In February, 1840, the southern division of the 
road — viz., from Bridgeport to New Milford — was 
completed and opened for travel. The cost up to 
that time had been, for the road proper, $476,000 ; ^ 
for cars, engines, depots, tanks, etc., $99,000 ; total, 
$575,000. 

The remaining portion of the road was opened Dec. 
1, 1842. Much annoyance was caused by the original 
track, which consisted of an iron .strap fastened upon 
wooden sills by spikes, which often became loose, 
when the weight of passing trains caused it to curl 
up into "snake-heads." In 1846 it was replaced by 
iron rails of the present pattern. 

March 25, 1838, the city of Bridgeport voted to con- 
firm the previous subscription of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars, and authorized an additional one of fifty 
thousand dollars, and Messrs. Henry Dutton, F. C. 
Bassett, and Lockwood De Forest were appointed 
agents for the city to raise the necessary funds by 
issuing coupon bonds. These bonds were paid to the 
railroad company in lieu of c.ish, and by the company 
were disposed of to other parties. 

At the May session in 1838 the Legislature by a 
special act validated the action of the city of Bridge- 
port, referred to above, in subscribing for the stock 
of the Housatonic Railroad Company, and in issuing 
bonds in payment for the stock. This act of the 
General Assembly was approved at a city meeting 
held for the purpose, but no provision was made for 
the payment of the bonds or of the coupons as they 
fell due. 

The action of the majority was viewed with alarm 
by many of the leading tax-payers, who in January, 
1839, appointed a "Council of Safety," to advise as 
to what measures should be taken in regard to these 
bonds. This council was composed of thirteen mem- 
bers, Philo Hurd being chairman and Isaac Sherman 
secretary. Eminent counsel were also retained by the 
city, and an effort was made to secure the services of 
Daniel Webster, but Mr. Webster was obliged to de- 
cline the case on account of other engagements. No 
active effort seems to have been made by any one to 
repudiate the debt, but a very general desire was man- 
ifested that some competent tribunal should decide 
to what extent the i^rivate property of citizens in the 
minority could be taken to satisfy a debt created by 
the vote of a majoritj', many of whom were not tax- 
payers. 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 



101 



In June, 1843, the railroad comiiany obtained judg- 
ment against the city in the Superior Court, and, an 
appeal to the Supreme Court of Errors having been 
decided in favor of the plaintifl', an execution on this 
judgment was issued and placed in the hands of 
Deputy Sheriff Smith, of Norwalk, to be by him 
levied and collected. This officer then first demanded 
payment of the amount from the mayor, clerk, and 
treasurer of the city in turn, and then, payment not 
having been made, called upon them to exhibit goods, 
chattels, or lands belonging to the debtors, — viz., the 
mayor. Common Council, and freemen of the city, — 
which they were either unable or unwilling to do. 
The deputy sheriff then, acting under legal advice, 
broke open the dry-goods store of Bronson B. Beards- 
ley and the wholesale grocery of Niles, Thorp & Co., 
and, seizing a quantity of goods from the former, sold 
them at the post. Mr. Beardsley brought an action 
against the deputy sheriff for taking his property un- 
lawfully, but in June, 1844, the case was decided 
against him. It was then carried to the Supreme 
Court of the State, where the decision in favor of the 
defendant was affirmed. Judge Church, in giving the 
opinion, using the following language: 

" The cily of Bridgeport, with great deliberatiun and unanimity, and 
under Banction of tlie General Assendily, has contracted a delit. Tlie I 
securities issued by tlio city Jiave been purclinsed hy homi-tiili- holileis, 
witli its iLst^eut, and upon tlie faitli of tho city and tlio laws. No funds, 
eitlior by taxation or otiierwiso, luive been provided for payment. A 
riglit without a remedy is not an admitted principle. M'o know of no 
other practical remedy but tho one to which this plaintiff has resorted." 

This was a very important decision, as the question 
at issue — viz., the liability of private property for 
the debts of a municipality — had never before been 
adjudicated. Once definitely settled, however, im- 
mediate steps were taken for the payment of ovenlue 
interest and legal expenses, and a tax of seven and a 
half per cent, upon the entire property of the city was 
laid and collected. 

In 18,50 a sinking fund of fifty thousand dollars — 
this being the sum derived from the sale of the stock 
owned by the city — was establi-shed by Mayor Cal- 
houn, which, by careful management, has increased 
from year to year, until the greater part of the rail- ' 
road debt of the city has already been paid olT, ami 
for the balance, due in 188(i, full provision is already 
made. 

In 1844 the road, which had largely been built 
with borrowed capital, was much crippled. It pa.><sed 
into the hands of a committee of twenty citizens, and 
for some time was operated under the name of E. 
Gregory & Co. Preferred stock to a large amount 
was finally issued, and a reorganization of the com- 
pany etl'ected. 

Judging from the last report of the railroad com- 
missioners, however, this road is now in a prosperous 
.state. At the beginning of the year 1S80 it had 74 
milosof track, extending from Bridgeport toShetlicId, 
Mass., besi<les several branches and leased lines. Its 
capital stock is «2,()00,000,— viz., i!820,000 old stock, 



and $1,180,000 preferred. Its bonded debt is $.5.50,000, 
and its floating indebtedness $228,038.73 ; total, $778,- 
038.73. It has 20 locomotives, 32 passenger- and bag- 
gage-cars, and 440 freight-cars, 420 employees, and 20 
stations. It carried last year 252,740 passengers and 
225,037 tons of freight, and its revenue from all 
sources was $599,660.09. 

The railroad commissioners, in concluding their re- 
port, say of this road, — 

" steel rails have been laid as far north as Merwinsville, and it is pro- 
posed to continue the steel track during the present year to the State 
line. The bridges, track, and rolling stock of this road are all in good 
condition. The usual dividend of eight per cent, lias been paid to the 
preferred stockholders." 

The following are the officers of the company: 
William H. Barnum, President; David S. Draper, 
Vice-President; Charles K. Averill, Secretary and 
Treasurer ; Henry C. Cogswell, General Freight 
Agent ; Hobart \V. Watson. Chief Clerk ; L. B. Still- 
son, Superintendent ; William H. Barnum, of Lime 
Rock, Conn. ; Samuel Willets, of Xew York ; Horace 
Nichols, William D. Bishop, of Bridgeport ; George 
W. Pect, of Falls Village; Edward Lcavitt, John B. 
Peck, of New York ; D. S. Draper, of Great Barring- 
ton ; A. B. Mygatt, of New Milford, Directors. 

NAUOATUCK RAILROAD. 

The Naugatuck Railroad, from Derby to Plymouth, 
was chartered in 1845. In 1847 the company was al- 
lowed an extension of one year for commencing its 
road and expending thereon the sum of fifty thousand 
dollars, and were authorized to extend its line to Win- 
sfed. Prior to the awarding of the contracts and ex- 
tending the line to Winsted, it had been transferred to 
Alfred Bishop, of Bridgeport, and his associates, who, 
in consideration of a bonus of thirty thoustiud dollars 
and payment of the land damages along its line to 
Waterbury, by the citizens interested in its comple- 
tion, contracted to build the road and open it to that 
point in 1849. Soon after the extension to Winsted 
was authorized, Mr. Bishop proposed to so extend it, 
on being secured another cash bonus of thirty thou- 
sand dollars and a right of way from Waterbury 
northward. The propf»sition was unlookcd for, but 
was promptly responded to. A meeting of citizens 
interested along the line was immediately called, and 
a division of responsibility was agrcetl upon, by which 
the citizens of Winsted a.«.sunied half the bonus and 
the securing the whole right of way antl depot grounds 
within the town of Winchester; and the citizens of 
Wolcottville and Plymouth agreed to a.ssumo the 
other half of the bonus and the whole exi)ense of the 
remaining land title. 

A spirit of liberality, before unprecedented, pre- 
vailed. Men gave their thousands who had never 
before given a hundred for any public object. Tho 
subscription was speedily fille<l up, when the chronic 
seetioiuil disease of nur coniniunity broke out on tho 
ipiestion of locating the terminus, — whether it should 



102 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



be on East village green, on the Flat, or in the West 
village. There was a backing down of a portion of 
subscriptions, which rendered a new subscription ne- 
cessary on the basis of locating the terminus on the 
Flat, where the depot now stands. A reassessment of 
the adhering subscribers was proposed and speedily 
adopted. About five thousand dollars was assumed 
by adhering subscribers to make good the withdrawn 
subscriptions, and the contract with Mr. Bishop was 
thereupon perfected. 

The iron horse i)aid his first visit to the Winsted 
depot Sept. 21, 1S49. The first passenger-train came 
up on Saturday the 22d, and returned on the follow- 
ing Mon<lay. 

Mr. Bishop, the projector and builder of the road, 
died before its completion. He was a man of far-see- 
ing and comprehensive views, of quiet energy and 
liberal si>irit. 

The present officers and directors are as follows : 
President, E. F. Bishop, Bridgeport, Conn. ; Secre- 
tary and Treasurer, Horace Nichols, Bridgeport, 
Conn. ; Superintendent, George W. Beach, Water- 
bury, Conn.; Chief Clerk, James Potter, Bridgeporl, 
Conn. ; General Ticket Agent, William Tomlin, 
Bridgeport, Conn. ; Freight Agent, B. Soules, Bridge- 
port, Conn. ; Board of Directors, E. F. Bishop, Wil- 
liam D. Bishop, R. Tomlinson, Bridgeport, Conn. ; 
J. G. Wetniore, Wiusted, Conn.; F. J. Kingsbury, 
Waterbury, Conn. ; A. L. Dennis, Newark, N. J. ; 
H. Bronson, J. B. Robertson, New Haven, Conn. ; R. 
M. Bassett, Birmingham, Conn. 

CONNECTICUT WESTERN R.MLROAD. 
After the opening of the Naugatuck Railroad, in 1850, 
the necessity of a railroad communication eastward to 
the Connecticut River, and westward to the Hudsou, 
became more and more apparent, but until recently 
seemed impracticable, by reason of the high grades 
and circuitous lines required iu running roads easterly 
and westerly over the mountain ranges between the 
Hudson and Connecticut Rivers. 

The steady growth of Collinsville, New Hartford, 
and Winsted, and the great enlargement of the iron 
interests of Salisbury and Canaan, stimulated the 
desire to overcome difficulties iu the way of the en- 
terprise which had seemed to the communities inter- 
ested to be insuperable. 

Public attention was first called to the practicabil- 
ity of the enterprise by E. T. Butler, Esq., of Norfolk, 
in 1865, and, mainly through his instrumentality, ex- 
perimental surveys were made during that year ; and 
iu 1866 a charter was granted to the " Connecticut 
Western Railroad Company," with power to construct 
a road from Collinsville, Conn., to the Massachusetts 
State line, ou the border of North Canaan. Strenuous 
eftbrts were made by Mr. Butler and others to interest 
capitalists in the scheme. The Boston and Erie Rail- 
road Company were vainly solicited to make the route 
a part of their line. Hartford and Springfield capi- 



talists were appealed to in vain. The Canal Railroad 
Company would have nothing to do w'ith it. The 
Harlem, Housatonic, and Naugatuck Companies, 
with which it was to form connections, gave it a 
cold shoulder. 

At this nearly hopeless stage of the enterprise the 
Dutchess and Columbia Railroad Company, under 
the auspices of George H. Brown, Esq., of Washington 
Valley, N. Y., had completed their road from Fish- 
kill-on-the-Hudson, opposite Newburg, to near Pine 
Plains, in Dutchess Co., N. Y., and were seeking an 
eastern connection. The existence of the Connecticut 
^\'estern charter was made known to Mr. Brown, 
who, with characteristic energy, at once embarked 
with Mr. Butler and others in the enterprise. A new 
charter was obtained from the Legislature of 1868, 
granting jjower to extend the road from the city of 
Hartford to Collinsville; thenee to follow the line of 
the charter of 18t!6, through New Hartford, Winsted, 
and Norfolk ; and thence to diverge westerly through 
North Canaan and Salisbury, in the direction of Mil- 
lerton, on the Harlem Railroad, so as to connect with 
the Dutchess and Columbia Railroad at the State 
line. The charter authorized towns along the line of 
the road, in their corporate capacity, to subscribe and 
\)a.y for stock in the road to an amount not exceeding 
five per cent, of their grand lists last made up, on 
being empowered so to do by a two-thirds vote of the 
inhabitants of such towns at meetings duly called and 
notified for that jiurpose. 

The town of Wiuchester, on the 22d of August, 
1868, by a ballot of three hundred and sixty-six to 
sixty-six, voted a subscription of five per cent, on its 
lists, amounting to one hundred and sixteen thousand 
dollars, to the stock of the company, and individual 
citizens of the town made further subscriptions to the 
amount of seventy-four thousand nine hundred dol- 
lars. Winchester was the first town on the line to 
vote on this test question, the result of which was to 
determine whether the road should be carried through. 
Subscriptions of other towns along the line were soon 
afterwards voted as follows : 

B.v Town. By Cilizens. 

Salisbury 850,000 S10:!,090 

Oiinaan 34,000 16,000 

Norf.ilk 41,501 10,800 

Canton 40.000 

Sinisbnry 50,000 20,100 

Bloomfleld 42.300 25,900 

Hartford 750,000 M.OOO 

Wincliestcr 116,000 74,900 

The surveys, estimates, and location of the road 
were completed in 1870, and the whole line was put 
under contract immediately afterwards. The first 
passenger-train passed over the road from Hartford 
to Millerton, N. Y., on the 21st of December, 1871, and 
returned the same day, and since then the communi- 
cation has been uninterrupted. Its connections with 
other roads along its line, and at its termini, will 
make it a trunk-line of equal importance with the 
other east-and-west roads of New England. Its con- 
nections with roads already completed are with three 



INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 



103 



roads at Hartford, witli the Canal Road at Simslsury, 
its branch at Collinsville, the Naugatuck at Winsted, 
the Housatonic at Canaan, the Poughkeepsie and East- 
ern, the Dutchess and Columbia at State line, and the 
Harlem at Millerton. Other connections are shortly 
to be completed with the Connecticut River and Bos- 
ton and Albany roads at Springfield, the Collinsville 
and New Britain branch at Collinsville, the Farming- 
ton River road from Lee to New Hartford, or Win- 
sted, and the road from Rhinebeck-on-the-Hudson to 
the State line, the three latter now in process of con- 
struction. 

The present officers are as follows: President, C. J. 
Camp, West Winsted, Conn. ; Vice-President, C. T. 
Hillyer, Hartford, Conn. ; Secretary, E. R. Boardsley, 
West Winsted, Conn.; Treasurer, William L. Gil- 
bert, West Winsted, Conn. ; Superintendent, John F. 
Jones, Hartford, Conn. ; General Ticket Agent, Walter 
Pearce, Hartford, Conn. ; General Freight Agent, 
John F. Jones, Hartford, Conn.; Board of Directors, 
C. T. Hillyer, T. M. Allyn, H. S. Barbour, L. B. Mer- 
riam, N. B. Stevens, Hartford, Conn. ; Joseph Toy, 
Sim.sbury, Conn.; C. J. Camp, William L. Gilbert, 
George Dudley (deceased). West Winsted, Conn. ; E. 
T. Butler, Norfolk, Conn. ; D. J. Warner, Salisbury, 
Conn. ; A. H. Holley, Lakeville, Conn. ; L. AV. Cutler, 
Watertovvn, Conn. 

SIIEPAUG RAILRO.-VD. 

The first meeting of the corporators of the Shepaiig 
Valley Railroad Company was hold at Litchfield, 
April 25, 1800, when it was voteil that books be 
opened for subscription to the ca|)ital stock. At the 
second meeting of the corporators, lield at Litchfield, 
Nov. 13, 1869, it was voted that the first meeting of 
stockholders be called at Litchfield, Nov. 27, 18fi9, for 
the purpose of choosing directors. At the meeting, 
which was held pursuant to call, tlie following were 
chosen : David C. Wliittlcsey, Ciiairman ; Edward W. 
Seymour, Clerk ; Directors, J. Deming Perkins, Henry 
W. Buel, George A. Hickox, Henry R. Coit, Edwanl 
W. Seymour, George M. Woodrulf, Willinni Dcniing, 
Simon H. Mitchell, Seth S. Logan, (ieorge C. Hitch- 
cock, Alliert L. Hodge, fJlover Sanford. J. Deming 
Perkins was elected Presidcuit; Simeon H. Mitclioll, 
Vice-President; Henry 11. Coit, Treasurer; and George 
M. Woodruff, Secretary. Sept. D, 1871), the directors 
met and voted to invite Mnj. Edwin McNeill to meet 
with the board, he having taken ii deep interest in the 
enteriiriseand made the preliniimiry survey at his own 
expense. On the 24tli of the same month it waa voted 



to adopt as the location of road the line as laid in the 
vallej'of Shepaug River, through Roxbury, more than 
four hundred thousand dollars having been subscribed 
to the capital stock. 

Maj. Edwin McNeill was elected director Oct. 1, 
i 1870, in place of Glover Sanford, resigned. The con- 
struction of the road commenced October, 1870, and 
it was opened for business Jan. 1, 1872. In 1873 the 
second mortgage bondholders foreclosed, a new charter 
was obtained, and a new company was organized in 
June, 1873, as " The Shepaug Railroad Company," 
the second mortgage bondholders of the Shepaug Val- 
ley Railroad Company becoming stockholders in the 
I new corporation. 

The first board of directors were Edwin McNeill, 

Origen S. Seymour, Henry W. Buel, George M. Wood- 

l' ruff, Henry R. Coit, F. Ratchford Starr, J. Deming 

I Perkins, and M'illiam Deming. J. Deming Perkins 

I was elected President ; Henrv R. Coit, Treasurer ; 

George M. AVoodrulf, Secretary. 

ilaj. Edwin McNeill died in September, 1875, and his 
son, Edwin McNeill, was chosen director in his place. 
The present board of directors are Henry W. Buel, 
I Henry R. Coit, William Deming, Origen S. Seymour, 
Dorsey Neville, Asahel H. Jlorse, Holmes O. Morse, 
Leverett W. Wessells, and E<lwin McNeill. The 
officers are Henry W. Buel, President ; Henry R. Coit, 
Vice-President ; William Deming, Secretary ; Henry 
R. Coit, Treasurer; Edwin McNeill, Superintendent. 
The road extends from the borough of Litchfield 
thirty-two and one-half miles to Hawleyville, in Fair- 
fielil County, where it connects with the Housatonic, 
Danbury and Norwalk an<l New York and New Eng- 
land Railroads. Arrangements have been made for 
the erection of u union freight and pas-senger station 
building and platforms for the accommodation of the 
business of the four roads meeting at that point. The 
cost of the Shepaug road has lieen about one million 
dollars, a local entirprise, the entire cost furnished by 
the section of country tniversed by the road, about 
three-quarters of the amount named having been 
raised in the town of Litchfield. The road traverses 
a good section of country heretofore conipanitively 
isolated, and mucli credit is due to its enterprising 
progenitors anil those through who«>e influence and 
energy it has been sustained. 

A branch of tliu New Haven and Northumptou 
Railroad extends :"rom Fannington to New Hartford, 
the New York ami New England road piw-nes through 
Woodbury, and a brnncli of the Nuugatuek extends 
from Waterbury to Watertown. 



104 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



CHAPTER VIIL 

POPULATION AND SCHOOL STATISTICS. 
POPULATION OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY. 





1756 


1774 


1782 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1820 


1830 


1840 


1860 


1360 


1870 


1880 


Litclifipld 

Barkhtimated 

Betliloliciii 


1,306 
18 


2,.554 
250 


3,077 
503 




4,285 
1,437 
1,138 


4.6^9 
1,506 
1,118 


4,010 

1,592 

932 


4,466 

1,715 

906 


4,03S 
1,671 

770 


3,953 

1,524 

815 


3,116 
1,264 
812 
1.941 
2,770 
1,339 
1,915 
1,356 


3,113 

1,439 
760 
877 
1,257 
1,141 
1.772 
1,223 


3,410 
1,298 
6.55 
708 
1,157 
1,148 
1,583 
1,093 


'"i',05(i" 










1,100 




1,635 

150 

974 
1,111 

6(H) 
1,018 
1,996 


2,061 
273 
1.1.58 
l,4.'-.0 
061 
1,215 
1,883 




2,137 
1,119 
1,614 
1,493 


2,203 
1,243 
1,002 
1,641 


2,332 
1,274 
1,062 
1,586 


2.301 
1,332 
1,714 
1,734 


2,160 
1,23:: 
1,703 
1,629 


2,627 
1,317 
2,041 
1,457 








500 
610 


1,470 




Hartltirul 






12 
250 

1,000 
260 

1,137 


1,367 
1,318 


1,481 
1,607 


1,718 
1,794 


1,500 
1,956 


1,616 
2 001 


1,201 
1,769 


1,175 
1,848 


1,038 
1,810 
763 
2,701 
3,400 


1,014 
1,744 

7(11 
3,078 
3,686 
1,695 
1.041 
4,149 

919 
3,303 
2,441 
2,893 

673 
1,563 
1,698 
4,096 


1,016 
1,622 

627 
3,302 
3,907 
1,637 
1,418 
2,350 

950 
3,715 
2,580 
3,327 

039 
1,589 
1,897 
5,142 


Kent 


Morris 

New Hartford 

New Milford 


1,001 
2,776 


1,296 
3,015 


""3,'i67" 


1,7,53 
.3,221 


1,.507 
3,537 


1,685 
3,830 


1,766 
3,979 


1,703 
3,974 


2,043' 
4,058 




Norfolk 


84 


969 


1,246 




1,649 
1,791 
1,121 
2,266 
2,34(1 
1,417 
1,083 
1,568 
1,022 
1,371 


1,441 

1,882 
1,217 
2,321 
2,000 
1,586 
1,096 
1,.575 
1,714 
1,460 


i,422 
1,758 
1,124 
2,695 
2,.573 
1,449 
875 
1,487 
1,439 
1,601 


1,486 
2,004 
1,122 
2,580 
2,615 
1,651 
986 
1,621 
1,.5(10 
1,706 


1,393 
2,205 

971 
2,562 
2,407 
1,707 

87^ 
1,022 
1,442 
1,667 


i,(i43 

2,508 
1,114 

3,103 
2,507 
1,916 
830 
1,802 
I,.™ 
2,179 


1,731 
3,241 

986 
2,994 
2,421 
2,206 

702 
1,656 
1,662 
3,439 












Salisbury 


1,100 

1,205 

250 


1,980 

2,012 

845 


2,225 
2,230 
1,077 








Wan-on 


790 
1,675 
3,170 








1,603 

2,732 

688 








Winchoater 


24 
2,911 


339 
1,922 
C,313 






6,063 


2,662 
1,738 


1,944 

1,767 


1,963 


1,885 


2,045 


1,948 


2,150 


1,944 


1,9:)1 


2,148 






1 






':;: i";::;vv;:i:v::::rvi vv 






3,226 




1 






















11,827 


27,345 


33,656 


«38,765 


41,214 


41,375 


41,267 


42,855 


40,448 


45,2.53 


47,318 


48,727 


52,043 



SCUOOL STATISTICS. 



Towns. 


Grand List, 

1878. 


•S 

.■a 

n 

o 

1 


"3 

o 

i 


S 

a 

a 

I 

20 
12 

8 
6 
10 


bo 

a 

,s 

1 


SCHOLIRS. 


Teachers. 


£num. 
Jos. '79. 


Register 
W. 1 S. 


ed. 

Over 
16. 


DifTnt 
Schol. 
Keg. 


o ■ 


ill 
"1 


Iv. Attend. 


Male. 


Female. 


Wages.Month. 


W. 


S. 


W. 


S. 

1 

i 

1 


W. 


s. 


Male. Female. 


Litchfield - 


$1,880,337 

442,691 

486,794 

431,708 

600,001 

440,577 

655,790 

774,108 

484,307 

493,619 

370,852 

1,088,983 

1.963,840 

763,935 

703,361 

1,030,042 

474,910 

1,948,471 

1,270,829 

1,317,345 

1,610,281 

264,113 

939,308 

1,643,347 

2,804,248 

1,138,185 


20 
11 

8 

6 

10 

10 

10 

12 

12 

13 

6 

9 

18 

13 

5 

9 

7 

13 

18 

1 

10 

7 

12 

9 

8 

14 


20 
11 

8 

6 

10 

10 

15 

11 

12 

13 

6 

9 

18 

11 

5 

9 

7 

13 

18 

4 

10 

6 

12 

9 

8 

14 

274 

1 


151.48 
134.50 
149.00 
175.33 
137.(10 


691 

274 
123 
185 
245 
289 
416 
255 
228 
361 
139 
757 
833 
356 
414 
648 
174 
889 
041 
617 
814 
171 
296 
372 
979 
428 


509 1 
267 
128 
181 
164' 
250 
329 
228 
192 
317 
133 
487 
697: 
290 
302 
443 
176 
586 
474 
4.56 
612, 
134' 
234 
327 
612 
344 


456 
205 

82 
132 
165 
252 

asi 

172 
170 
252 
111 
447 
627 
247 
270 
410 
164 
558 
450 
450 
558 
109 
238 
253 
588 
310 


44 
19 
11 

16 
15 
13 
10 
28 
10 
27 
14 
19 
48 
17 
13 
18 

27 
18 
24 
23 
32 

6 
14 
29 
66 
21 


644 
286 
141 

206 
215 
310 
394 
268 
239 
379 
164 
573 
798 
350 
365 
537 
212 
792 
612 
687 
771 
158 
318 
371 
761 
427 


70 
7 
7 
1 

21 
6 

21 
3 
2 

17 

"34 

"29 
3 

'39 
34 

"si 
"i'6 

14 

199 

6 


G2i 

17 



""5 
27' 
14 
22 
Ul 

\l 

1 

201 

66, 

20 

56 

43 

1 

74 

19 

53, 

33 

10 

3 

23 

85 

"1 


342 

179 
89 
129 
113 
174 
25(i 
164 
151 
204 
99 
360 
464 
196 
212 
3:i2 
113 
404 
289 
336 
444 
83 
175 
226 
409 
236 


311 

144 

60 

91 

97 

116 

212 

125 

132 

150 

82 

299 

358 

188 

200 

301 

90 

309 

258 

324 

420 

77 

105 

180 

449 

208 


11 

2 
4 
4 

1 


9 
10 
4 

2 
9 
7 
9 
7 

'I 

6 
7 
7 
5 
9 
4 

14 

11 
9 

12 
4 

8 

'1 


19 

'I 
5 
10 


$31.58 
24.73 
21.72 
37.06; 
20.00 1 


$25.82 
24.38 
22.67 
24.00 
22.74 
21.69 1 
24.07 
22.65 
23.37 
17.92 
22.00 
24.67 
22.17 
22.31 
28.12 
34.83 
19.32 
27.97 
23.14 
36.50 
3:1.89 
82.40 
22.94 
29.37 
39.85 
25.35 










11 150.00 
16 109.73 

11 164,00 

12 145.08 

13 183.08 
6 167.00 

13 174.62 
21 179.96 

12 137.50 
8 180.00 

13 176.38 
7,164.26 


4 2 
6 2 
4, 1 
2... 
10 ... 


9' 22.00 
13' 2S.25 
10' 20.64 

12, 30.50 

13; 2:).oo; 

5| 27.18| 

9' 38.51 ! 

191 38.19: 

9: 28.00; 

6 37.38 

10 67.14 

7 24.00 
15 28.00 

11 24.28 
9 110.00 

14 60.80 
6' 24.(lii 

Hi 28.14, 
9 41.60 

13, 62.67 
13 33.71 










Morris 


6 
8 
14 
6 
3 
4 
3 
4 
7 
1 
4 
2 
6 
3 

I 


1 
5 
2 
3 
2 
3 

■? 
1 
1 

... 

"i 
1 
4 
1 

43 


New Milford 

Norfolk 


North Canaan 






18 
18 
10 
15 
6 
12 
11 
16 


198.61 
200.00 
180.00 
176.67 
160.83 
177.92 
168.18 
187..50 






Tnrrington 


■Washington 

■\\'atertown 


Woodbury 


14 172.00 




318 




825,920,938 


276 


169.48 


11,495 


8,8667,953 


588 


10,874 


580 


878 


6,169 


6,464 


129 


193 


273 $35.11 


$26.19 



* Total for county ; no returns for other towns. 



LITCHFIELD. 



105 



SCHOOL STATISTICS (Continued.) 


Towns. 


Beceipts. 


Expenses. 


School 
Fuud, etc. 


Town Local 
Deposit. Funds. 


Town 
Tax. 


District 
Tax. 


1 
Total. ; 


Teachers' 
Wages. 


Fuel, 
etc. 


«eP«i-'<^^:^. 


Total. 




Sl,6.58.40' 

657.60! 

295.20 

444.00 

588.00' 

693.60 

998.40 

612.00 

647.20 

860.40 

3:13.60 

1,810.80 

1,999.20 

854.40 

093.00 

1,315.20 

417.601 

2.133.601 

1,638.40 

1,480.80! 

1,953.60' 

410.40 

710.40 

892.80 

2,:i49.00 

1,027.20 


1 
8622.90 896.00 

264.28 \ 

1:19.00 ' 


82,543.52 

920.80 

9811.15 

9(a.97 

1,037.99 

1.172.70 

1,531.98 

l,-.i94.22 

1,373.84 

l,:i69,94 

725.00 


8500.00 

:i4a.80 

100.00 


85,370.74 
2,241.25 
l,514.:i5 
1,573.32 
1,805.99 
2,093.99 
3,:i72.72 
2,903.63 
2,230.91 
2,976.45 
1,247,32 
5,979.49 
7,375.30 
2,582.62 
2,591.50 
6,252.80 
1.247.57 
7,560.21 
4,9.56.14 
6,185.57 
6,428.-55 
1.515.78 
2,889 89 
4,420.81 
8,850.48 
3,405.14 


84,318.15 

1,733.85 
1,245.05 
1,471.04 
1,.544.00 
1.701.40 
2,965.05 
2,088.82 
1,978.35 
2,43:1.26 
1,081.97 
3,908.18 
6,202.87 
2,280.(KI 
2,172.50 
4,602.24 
1,139.93 
6,020.00 
4.395.11 
4,088.70 
5,440.88 
1,098.21 
2,4:13.95 
2,951.84 
7,0.58 14 
3,145.19 


8344.25 

90.23 
123.30 

05.08 
157.09 
134.00 
245.44 
206.47 
112.09 
203.17 

84.:i8 
442.49 
592.03 
214.61' 
310.50| 
282.07 

78.64 
477.77 
44:1.78 
4.54.78 
575.17 

89.89 
191.67 
242.15 
801.72 
219.95 
1 


813.45 $230.50 
349.42 61.75 
100.00. 46.00 


81,922.92 
2,241.25 
1,514.35 
1,573.32 
1.805.99 
1,950.79 
3,:172.72 
2,752.71 
2,2.36.91 
2,976.45 
1,244,54 
6,726.84 
7,375.00 
2,582.42 
2,581.60 
5,922.99 
1,247 67 
7,569.21 
4,9.55.14 
5,185.57 
0,427.45 
1,406.14 
2,889.89 
4,420.81 

11,2:19.85 
3,465.14 








148.88 9.72 
180 00 


1 


36.01.1 

104.00 

65.06 






... 


Colehroi.k 

Connvrtll 

Gusheii 


92 69 


70.00 
26.81 

300.00 
73.87 

296.78 


28.73 


243.50 60.19 

241.81 

242.00 

308 35 


26.81 91.39 

52.42 105.00 

73.87 72.00 

215.80 124.22 

7.19 36.00 

935.34 420.98 

01.98 428.45 

8.40| 79.41 

7.00 71.00 

5754! 1,041.14 


Keut 

Morris 

New Hartford 

New Milfurd 

Norfolk 


l:il 02 ' 




2,259.96| 1,657.59 
4,201.30 163.00 

l,:i87.43' 

1,392.83 

3,:i9».08 1,330.70 

605.76 

3,263.42 1.90O.0O 


465.30 160.001 
222.60! 70.65i 

174.57 

159.03 










29.00 
l.-)2.92 




204.87 47.32 
4.53.00' 


1,918,52 




2,958.74 

3,545.74 

4,123.77 

080.48 




1.00 115.25 
261.76 :180.:B 
177.501 1G8.,50 
137.141 60.10 
166.27' 96.00 
9.84', 216.98 
1.604.86 1,181.43 




159.03 






285.18 






152.04 

249.80 


2:14.30 




1,029.17 166.27 
2,153,29 1.093.57 




269.15 

301.54 




6,098.02 
2,076.81 






345.l3j 6.00| 






100.00 








1 r ' ■ i 

$27,588.00 86,324.01 $449.88 853,674.97 88,201.81 898.646.18 

II 1 ' 


1 1 
879,000.18 87,192.82 86,114.83 


1 
85,513.71 899,687.47 



CHAPTER IX. 

LITCHPIEIiD. 

Goograpliical— Topogmiihical— The Indian Purchoso— The Explorations 
of the Township — List of Proprietors— Tho Town Divided into Sixty 
Shares— Court of Prolinte, 1719— Original Cost of the Town— One I'enu)- 
Three Farthings per Aero— The Patent of Lilehfiehl—Tlio FliKtSetlle- 
niouts — Names of Pioneere — " House Lotu" — The Pioneer Homes — Tho 
Forts— Iiulian Depredations— Incident— Lltthfleld in the FroDch War, 
1755-63— Names of Soldiers. 

Thk town of Litclifickl* lies near the centre of 
Litchfield County aiid is bounded aa follows: On the 
north by <.>oshcn and Torrington ; on the east by Ilar- 
winton and Thoinaston ; on the south by Thoma.ston, 
Morris, and Washington ; and on the west by Mor- 
ris, Washington, and Warren. The surface of the 
town is rolling and hilly, and the soil is generally 
strong and fertile. The town is watered by the 
Naugatuck, Bantam, and Shepaug Rivers and their 
tributaries. Bantam Lake, located partly in this 
town and partly in Morris, is the largest sheet of 
water in the State. 

THE INDIAN PURCHASE. 

By grants from the Indian occui)ants and the Colo- 
nial Legislature the title to this territory became 
vested in the towns of Hartford and Windsor. The 
initiatory steps towards the opening and settlement of 
the " Western Lands," as the tract in this section of 
the State was called, was the extinction of Indian 
titles. This was effected, by a committee appointed 
for the purpose, by tho following deed given at Wood- 
bury, March 2, 1715: 



* Named tnm LlchfloM, SiafTordahlre, EngUuitL 



THE INDIAN DEED. 

" To ttU People to iWiom thene Preienta thaU come, GreetiXO : 

" Kxow Ye that we. Chusi)uenoag, Corkscrew. Quiump, Magnash, 
Kcliow, Sepunkum, Poni. Wou[>o»et, Suckqunnoki|Ueen, Toweecume, 
Mutisuuipansh, and Norkgnotonckqny, Indian NativLti lielonging to the 
Plantation of Putiiliiel; within tho Colon.v of Connoctlcul, for and iu con- 
sideration of tho sum of fifteen (tounds money in hand received to our 
full aatisfacllon and contentment, have given granted bargained and sold 
anil l>y these presents do fully freely and nU^dutely give grant bargain 
sell and confirm, unto t'ol" \N'illiam Whillng, Mr. Jtdin Marsh, and Jlr. 
Thomas Seymour, a Cummlllee for tho town of ilartfonl. — Mr. John 
Kliot. Mr. Di4niel Criawold. and Mr. Samuel Itockwell. a (Vunndtteo for 
the Town of Wind«ir. for themselves, anil iu tho behalf of the re»l of tho 
Inhabitants of the Tuwns of llarlforti uuil Windsor,— a certain tract of 
Laud, situate and lying, north of Waterbury bounils.ubuttiiig southerly, 
imnly on Waterbury and partly on Woodbury,— fmm Woterbury Ulvor 
westwanl cross a jiart of Waterbury tioumls. and crows at the north end 
of Woodbury liouuds to She|iaug Itlvor, and so northerly. In the middle 
of Shopaug River, to the spruins i>f She|kaug Uiver liolow Mount Tom, 
then running up the eiul branch of Slie|iMUg River, to the place whor« 
the said River runs out of SIie|>iiug Pond, fnini llience to the north ol»d 
of said Pond, then eioit to Waterbury Itiver. then mutlierly as the River 
runs, to the mirth end of Wiiti-rbury Uiuiids ujMin the said Klvor; which 
uitd tract of land thus described, T<i lUva and to llnLb, lo the said Col. 
William Whiting, Mr. John Marsh, and Mr. Thomas Seymour, Mr. JuUu 
Ellol, and >Ir. Daniel Grlswold, and Mr. .Samuel Rockwell, Commllteea 
for the Towns of HnrtfonI and Wllulsor. as aforvaald. In tiehalf of them- 
selves and the rest uf the InhabllanU of wild Towns. b> them, their hein 
and aosigus, to use wcupy ami improve, as their ow n proi»«r right of In- 
heritance, for their comfort forever; together with all the privilege*, 
appurtenances and conditions to the same lielonging, or in any wise ap- 
purtaliiiiig. And further, »o the said Clius<|unnong, Corkscrew, tjul- 
umj). Miigiiosh. Kcliow, Sepunkum, Pool, Wonpoeet, Sucki|unuoki|Ueen, 
Tuweecume, Mansumpaiish, and Norkguolonckiiny.ownern and ptvprle- 
tors of the aliove grante^l IaihI, do for oupHdves and our heiro. to and 
with tho above Mid William Wlilling. Johu Marsh. Thomas Seymour, 
John Kliiil, Daniel Griswohl, and Samuel Itockwell. cumniitle« oa afore- 
said, them, their beirv and assigns, covenant and engage, that w« liava 
good right and lawlul anthoitty. b> sell the aliove grantetl land; And 
Further, nt the ilesire and rei|ue.t uf tho aforemld Conindtteea. and at 
Uielr own projier cost and charge, will give a more ample dt-eil. 

" And for n more full connnnatlon heroof. wo have set our hanils and 
•eala, this second day of March, Id tb* Mcond year iif Ub ItiOXI*'* 
Ralfu, A.D. 1715. 



106 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



" Memorajidum. — Before the executing of tliis inatruraent, it is to be 
understood, tliat the grautors above uanied have reserved to themselves 
a piece of ground sufficient for their hunting houses, near a mountain 
called Mount Tom. 



" Chvsquxnoa 



' Corkscrew 



OAQ Ctp ^lis mark. [l. 8. 
[ J his mark. [l. s. 
Qi'iiMi- /p ''■'^ mark. [l. s. 



his mark. [l. 6. 
mark. [l. s. 



'* Mansv 



"Kehow /^ 

"Skpunkum ^\^ 1''-^ 

"Pom f '"'* ""''"'^- [' 

J 

.yL his 

\Jl\r^ his mark. [t,. s. 

MPANSH I his mark. [l. 8. 



"SrCKQr.VNuCK,glEE\ 



* Taweecitmf. 



is mark. [l. s.| 
mark. [l. s, 



" Signed sealed and deliv-) 
e, J 



ered in our presence, 

*' ^VER0AMAU^1 
" WoONACVn 

'* ToXItOCKS 



2o 



is mark, 
his mark. 



t 



bis mark. 



"John Mitchell. 
"Joseph Minor. 
"The Indians tliiit snbscribed and scaled tlie above said deed, appeared 
pci"sonoll,v in Woodbnry, tlie day of tlie date tliereof, and aclinowledged 
tlie said deed to be tlieir free and voluntary act and deed. Before me 

"John Minor, Justice" 

The committees uamed in this JecJ conveyed all 
their interest in said lands to the towns of Hartford 
and Windsor by deed dated Aug. 29, 1716. 

The conflicting claims in this township, between 
the towns of Hartford and Windsor on the one part, 
and " certain considerable persons in the town of Far- 
mington" on the other, arising out of the preceding 
conveyances, were subsequently amicably adjusted by 
the parties. The Farmington company, by their at- 
torney, John Stanley, on the 11th of June, 1718, con- 
veyed their interest to the towns of Hartford and 
Windsor, and, in consideration thereof, those indi- 
viduals were invested by those towns with one-sixth 
part of this township. 

The title to the lands having been acquired from 
the aborigines, the town took immediate measures to 
explore and survey the township of Litchfield. 



Mr. John Marsh, of Hartford, one of the settlers of 
this town, and the ancestor of the Marshes of Litch- 
field, was one of the committee appointed for that 
purpose by the town of Hartford. He was an ener- 
getic and courageous man, and in May, 1715, under- 
took what was then a perilous journey into the path- 
less wilderness. His bill, as appears from the ancient 
records, was as follows : 

" The Town of Hurlford, Dr. 

To John Marsh. 
May, 1815, For 5 days man and liorse. with expenses in 
viewing the Land at the New Plantation £2 

" Tlie Tou-n of Harl/urtl, Dr. 

Jan. 22, 1715-1 0, To G days journey to Woodbury, to treat 

with the httli^wfi about the M'entem Ltimh, by Thomas £ «. rf, 
Seyniour 14 

To exp'euses in the journej* 1 14 9 

2 18 9 

" The Town of Hiirtfml, Dr. 

To Thomas Seymour, Committy. £ s. d. 

May, 1716, By '2 quarts of Bum 2 « 

Expenses at Farmington 4 9 

'■ at Waterbnry 1 7 

Paid Thomas Miner towards the Indian purchase 7 10 

Expenses at Woodbury 2 11 

*■ for a Pilot and ]trotection 1 10 

Fastening hort^e-shoes at Waterbnry 2 

Expenses at Waterliury 1 i 

" to Col. Whiting for wilting 40 deeds 1 10 

" to f'apt. Cooke for ackuowledging 18 deeds 18 

" to Ensign Seymour 10 

" at Arnold's 17 

" by sending to Windsor 4 

Aug. 4, 1718.— Sold 11 lots for 49 10 

Expenses for writing 20 deeds, to Mr. Fitch 10 

" to Capt. Cooke for acknowledging deeds 7 

" for making out a way 2 

" at Arn<ild's 11 

" toTlioVSeymour for perambulating nortli lino 16 4 

" at Arncdd's 10 4 

Feb. 10, 181S.— At a meeting of the Committees, then 

sold 16 lots reserved by Marsh for Hartford's part 37 17 9 

At same meeting, paid by John Mai-sli for expenses 12 

At same meeting, loss of money by mistake in acc't 3 

April 14, 1719. — A meeting of the Conmiittees, expenses 6 

April 27. — At a meeting of the Committees, expenses.... 7 0'* 

LIST OF PROPRIETORS. 
In 1818 a company was formed for the settlement 
of the town, and the individuals composing it were 
known as the " proprietors" of the town. The fol- 
lowing is the list : John Marsh (two rights), Samuel 
Sedgwick, Jr., Nathaniel Goodwin, Timothy Seymour, 
Paul Peck, Jr., Joseph Mason, Nathaniel Messenger, 
Benjamim Webster, Joshua Garrett, from Hartford ; 
Samuel Forward, Thomas Griswold, Jr., Jacob Gibbs, 
Joseph Birge, Benjamin Hosford, from Windsor ; 
John Hart, Timothy Stanley, John Bird, Joseph. 
Bird, Samuel Lewis, Ebenezer Woodruil', Samuel 
Root, Nathaniel Winchell, Hezekiah Winchell, from 
Farmington ; Joseph Gillett, from Colchester ; Jona- 
than Buck, from New Milford ; William Goodrich, 
Jr., John Stoddard, Ezekiel Buck, from Wethers- 
field ; Jacob Griswold, John Buel (two rights), Ed- 
ward Culver, Hezekiah Culver, Thomas Lee, Eleazer 
Strong, Supply Strong, Caleb Chapel (two rights), 
Thomas Treadway, John Caulkins, from Lebanon ; 
Ezekiel Sanford (two rights), Nathan Mitchell, 
Thomas Pier, John Mann, Joseph Peet, Samuel Som- 
ers, from Stratford ; Nathaniel Smith (two rights), 
John Collins, Ephraim French, from Taunton, Mass. ; 
Josiah Walker, Samuel Orton, Joseph Waller, Isaac 
Judson, from Woodbury. 



LITCHFIELD. 



107 



Of the above, the following became residents of the 
town : John Marsh, Paul Peck, Jr., Joseph Mason, 
Benjamin Webster, Joshua Garrett, Jacob Gibbs, Jo- 
seph Birge, Benjamin Hosford, John Bird, Joseph 
Bird, Joseph Gillett, William Goodrich, Jr., John 
Stoddard, Ezekiel Buck, Jacob Griswold, John Buel, 
Hezekiah Culver, Thomas Lee, Eleazer Strong, Sup- 
ply Strong, Thomas Treadway, Nathan Mitchell, 
Thomas Pier, Nathaniel Smith, Josiah Walker, Sam- ' 
uel Orton, and Joseph Waller. 

"The town was divided into sixty shares, three of 
which were reserved for pious uses — one to the first 
minister and his heirs forever, one for the use of 
the first minister and his successors, and one for the 
support of the school. The title was conveyed to the 
adventurers, and in May, 1719, was confirmed by the 
Legislature, which granted leave to settle a town at 
Bantam, to be called Litchfield, 

" At the October session of the Assembly of the 
same year, a Court of Probate for the town was ordered 
to be held at Woodbury, and at the October session, 
1722, the town was annexed to Hartford County. 

" The town was in length, east and west, eight 
miles, three-quarters, and twenty-three rods, and in 
breadth seven miles and a half. The cost to the pro- 
prietors did not exceed one penny three farthings 

per acre. 

THE PATENT OF LITCHFIELD. 

'* In 1724, a formal patent of the town, signed by 
Governor Saltonstall, was granted by the Governor 
and company of the colony, to John Marsh and John 
Buell and their partners."* It read as follows: 

" The Governor and Compantj of the Emjliith Colony of Connecticut in New 
Eu'jlnml, III all to ichnm the«e PreMeiiln nhnU cumf^ Gkkrtino: 
**Knuw yc, That tliu Huid Guveriiur luid Company, l>y vtrtno of the 
power gnuiteii unto tliuin by our lute wuVL'r»-i>i:ii, King Ctiurh^s tliu Sec- 
onil, of l>k>sseil nioniory, in and by IIih Mitjonty'it riitunt, under tlio grcnt 
8eul of Kngland, diitcd tho twenty-third ihiy of April, in tho fonrlcvnth 
ycaruf HJH Mt«J0Hty'e» rutgn, and In puniuiuico tliurouf and in Ouneral 
Court asstnibhHl, according to charter, did, by tlitdr act, made BI»y four- 
teonth, Anno Domini, 17l'J, upon tlio huuihio i>etitloQ of Lieut. Jolio 
3Ini-Hh, of Hartford, within thu Maid Colony, and Den. John Ilnull, of 
Lebanon, grant unto tlio Kaid John Marsh and John lluell, ami jiurtnoni, 
Kettters, being in tliu wlmto llfty-Koven in number, libvity to M'ltle « 
town weBt\^alllof Fiirmirigtnn, in the county of Ilartfttrtl, at a place 
called 7j•lfl^llll, which town wiit to Iw in length evwt ami vv%X right 
mileti, throe (inarliirtt, and twenty-eight ro<lH, and In hrrudth, aereu 
utiles and an half — to be bounded eattt on Matlatuck river ; ueat, part uu 
Shcpaug river and part on tho uildernefw; north, by tlie wlldvrneta; and 
south by Watorbury Imun^ls anti a Mont lino fnuu Waterbury corner to 
tho said Shepaug river. And Ordered, that the sanl town should be 
called by tliu name of LiTCHrii:i.i>, ns niont fully upp«>ars by the suid net. 
The Bidd Guvornor and Company, by virtue of the nftMcsaid |N>wur, aud 
by their special act bearing even date with theiie presenl*, fur divers gtKxl 
caUHes and considerations them bereuntu moving, have given, grmnteil, 
and by these presents, for theuiselves, thetr helm, aud succnsura, du 
full)', cleatjjr, and alaolutely glv«, gnnt, ratify, and couflrm auto tha 

*** The families of Jfdin Manih and John Ruell lnlermMnie<l. Their 
deecondantH had a family picnic In the gruve of Mr. K. A. Marsh, on th« 
shore uf Danlnm Lake, S<<pt. 3, 184(1, at Mbidi ut least six hundrrti of the 
family were present, and thu nanifs uf A^e hundred iind eighty -tjue were 
regintnred. Mrs. John Ihiell dlixl in 17(^, Imving bail thirteen chlblren, 
one hundred and one gmndchlldrvn, two hundred and seveuty-fuur greaC- 
grundchildrun. and twenly-two greatgreal-gmndchlldron. TuUl, four 
hundred and ten, of whom three hundreU aud tblrty>sU surrlrad h«r.** 
—JIou. Geofffe C. Woodruff, in 187ti. 



said John Marsh and John Buell, and the rest of the said partners, set- 
tlers of said tract of laud [in their actual, full, and peaceable possessiou 
and seizin being], and to their heii-s and assigns, and such as shall legally 
succeed and represent them, forever [in such proportions as tliey, the 
said partners and settlere, or any of them, respectively, have riglit in and 
are lawfully possessed of the same], all the said tract of laud now called 
and known by the name of Litchfield, in the county of Ihirtford afore- 
said, be the same more or less, butted and bounded as fuHoweth, viz.: 
Beginning at the north east corner, at a tree with stones about it, stand- 
ing iu the crotch of Mattatuek river aforesaid, and running southerly 
by the side of said river until it meets with Waterbury bounds, where is 
a well known white oak tree standing about fifteen rods west of said 
Slattatuck river, anciently marked with IS: IN: From thence running 
west twenty-three degrees thirty minutes south, to two white oak trees 
growing out of one root, with stones about them, and west one mile and 
a half to Waterbury north west corner bound mark; and from thence 
west five degrees thirty minutes nortli to Shepaug river, where is a tree 
and stones about it butting upon Waterbury township; then beginning 
at the first mentioned tree by Mattatuek river and rnuning westward 
into the wilderness, to an oak tree marked and stones hiid around it; 
then south to a crotch iu the Shepaug river ; aud thence by the wester- 
most branch of Shepaug river to Woodbury bounds. And also all 
and singular, the lands, trees, woods, underwoods, wood-grounds, up- 
lands, arable lands, meadows, moors, marshes, pastures, iH)uds, waters, 
rivers, brooks, fishings, fowlings, huutings, mines, minerals, quarries, 
and precious stones, upon and within the said land. And all other rights, 
members, heruditaments, easements, and commodities whatsoever, to the 
same belonging or in any wise appertaining, so butted and Utunded as ia 
hereiu before particularly expressed or mentioned, and the reversion or 
the reversions, remainder or remainders, rights, royalties, privileges, 
powers, or jurisdictions whatsoever, of and iu all and singular the said 
tract of land and i>rcmise3 hereby granted, aud of and iu any and every 
part and jmrcel thereof. And the reuts, services, and profits to the same 
incident, belonging, or appertaining — T'> llarromltu Jlnhi all the said 
tnict of hind, and all and singular other tho premises hereby given or 
granted, or mentioned, or inteniled to be granted, with all the privileges 
and appurtenances thereof, untn the said John Marsh and John Buell, 
and the rest of the partnem, sctlleis of the same, their heirs and assigns, 
to their only proper use, benefit, and l>ehoof, forever; and to aud for do 
other use, intent, or purpose whatst>ever. Aud the said Governor and 
Company, for themselves aud their successors, have given aud grvDted, 
and by these presents do give and grunt, unto the oahl John Marsh and 
John Diiull, aud the rest of the i>arlners, settlers of tho tract of laud 
herein before granted, their helra and owlgiis; tho said tr«ct uf laud so 
butted and Iroundoil as afoi ooald, shall from time to time and at all timoa 
forever hereafter, be deeme«l, reputed, dououdnaled. and l>e an entire 
town of llseir, and shall l>e culled and known by the name of Lit< mmbu>, 
Iu the county of Hartford, and that the aforesaid |*artn«r8, settlers, and 
inhabltunts thereof, shall and lawfully may from time to lime and at all 
times, forever hereafter have, use, exervlM-, and enjoy all such righto, 
{lowers, prlvllegra, Immuultlea, and franchises. In awl among them- 
selves, as are given, grunteil, allo«e«l, utK^I, exerrlsoil, and oidoyrd, to, 
by, and amongst the pn)i>«r luhabllants of other luwiis In ihls t'oluuy, 
according to common approval custom aud Ml»erTauci< ; and that thu 
said tract of laud and premlnca heri-by grante^l ns nforcsuid, and appur- 
touanitw, nIiaII reuutin. ciinilnuo, and U< unto the said John Marsh and 
John Buell. and tho rt^tof the iNirtuens, settlors, their helrn uud assigns, 
In pniiM-irllun afoiiwald furovor, a good, |>oaccablo, pure, (Hirfect, abauluto, 
and Indefuoslblo mlutf of luherltance In foe simple, to l>« hulilen of Uls 
Mi^esty, his heirs aud succoMom, as of Ills Mi^t-sty's Muitor uf East 
Grvenwich, In thn Cuunly of Kent, In the Klngtluni of Englnud, In fre« 
aud common succuge, and not In caplte, n<ir by Knight's service. — Yield- 
ing theii'fur and l>a)liiK unlonur Sovereign l^>nl King GiMirge, his heln 
and Huccraaurs forever, one titlU part of all ore of <iold aud Silver, which 
from time to lime, and at all tlDu<o forever herenflor, «hall Ixt there got- 
lou, had, or blatued, Iu lieu of all serrlcas, duties, aud demands whalso- 
•Ter. 
** In Witmbm wiiKRKor, Tha said Gorarnor and Company bavo cauaad 

tho Seal of the sahl Colony to Iki hereunhi afflxed. 
'*Ditle4l III iloitfoid, May tho lUth <Uy, Aniui rogul rvgla Dadnio 
Georgll, Miig'n- Brlll'ir, Fran'a'. Ilybern'ie, Aunoque Dumlol, Ou« 
ThoUMud 8f\ou lluudr\il and Twenty Four, 172-1. 

**0. ?ALTOSST»LL, Gi'v'r. 

** By orilcr of the Gov'r and ^ 
Comimuy In General Court > 
awrmblod. * 

- Hu. WTLtia, Srcrstery.** 



108 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENTS. 

The first settlement was made in the summer of 
1720, by Capt. Jacob Griswold, from Windsor, Ezekiel 
Buck, from Wethersfield, and John Peck, from Hart- 
ford. The little settlement rapidly increased, and 
within three years from the pioneer location the fol- 
lowing were residents of the town : Xehenuah Allen, 
from Coventry ; Joseph Birge, from ^^'indsor ; John 
Bird, Joseph Bird, from Farmington ; Ezekiel Buck, 
from Wethersfield ; Samuel Bcebe, from Fairfield 
County ; John Buell, from Lebanon ; John Baldwin, 
from Stratford ; Daniel Culver, Samuel Culver, Heze- 
kiali Culver, from Lebanon ; Timothy Collins, from 
Guilford ; John Catlin, James Church, from Hart- 
ford ; Joseph Gillett, from Colchester ; Abraham 
Goodwin, Joshua Garrett, from Hartford ; Benjamin 
Gibbs, Jacob Gibbs, from Windsor; William Good- 
rich, Jr., Jacob Griswold, from Wethersfield ; John 
Gay, from Deilhani, Mass. ; Benjamin Hosford, from 
Windsor; Joseph Harris, from Middletown ; Joseph 
Kilborn, from Wethersfield ; Thomas Lee, from Leb- 
anon ; Joseph Mason, John Marsh, from Hartford ; 
Nathan Mitchell, from Stratford ; Samuel Orton, 
from Woodbury; Edward Plielps, from Windsor; 
Thomas Pier, from Stratford ; Paul Peck, Jr., John 
Peck, from Hartford ; Johu Stoddard, from Wethers- 
field ; Eleazer Strong, Supply Strong, from Lebanon ; 
Joseph Sanford, Lemuel Sanford, from Stratford ; 
Nathaniel Smith, John Smith, from Taunton, Mass. ; 
Samuel Smedley, from Woodbury ; Thomas Tread- 
way, from Lebanon ; Benjamin Webster, from Hart- 
ford ; Josiah Walker, Joseph Waller, from Wood- 
bury ; Nathaniel Woodruff, from Farmington. 

" The township was divided among the proprietors, 
giving to each a home-lot of fifteen acres, as nearly 
as could conveniently be done. The choice of home- 
lots was decided by lot. The lot first selected was about 
half a mile south of the court-house, and next to 
Middle Street or Gallows Lane ; the second was half a 
mile further south, and on the corner opposite the 
residence of Mr. Arthur D. Catlin; the third three- 
fourths of a mile west of the court-house, known as 
the Strong place. 

" The eleventh choice was the lot thirty rods next 
west of the county-house corner, which subsequently 
the town voted was not fit for building a house upon. 
The mansion-house corner was the twentieth choice ; 
the corner now owned by Mrs. Bostwick the twenty- 
fifth choice ; and the county-house corner the thirty- 
third choice. Ten lots were selected on Chestnut 
Hill, southerly from the school-house, and the last 
choice (the 57th) was the lot on which is the dwelling- 
house of Mrs. A. C. Smith. 

" The home-lot of the first minister was the corner 
lately owned by Mrs. Weller, deceased, and the twenty- 
acre division appurtenant thereto was laid adjoining 
on the north, and extended to the north liue of the 
land of Mr. Charles Jones. 

" The highway from Bantam Kiver, running wester- 



ly through the village, was laid twenty rods wide, and 
called Meeting-House Street; that now called North 
Street twelve rods wide, and was called Town Street; 
that now called South Street eight rods wide, and 
was called Town Hill Street, the east line of which 
terminated si.x rods east of the front of Mrs. Bost- 
wick's dwelling. Gallows Lane, then Middle Street, 
was twenty-eight rods wide. The highway running 
southerly from Mr. David De Forest's house was 
named South Griswold Street, and that running 
northerly North Griswold Street. Prospect Street, 
then called North Street, was seventeen rods wide. 

"The first church, court-house, and school-house, 
stood nearly in the centre of Meeting-House Street; 
the court-house about opposite the centre of Town 
Street, and the church east and school-house west of 
the court-house. 

"The first white child born in Litchfield was 
Eunice, the daughter of Jacob Griswold, afterwards 
the wife of Capt. Solomon Buell. She was born 
March 23, 1721. The first white male child born in 
Litchfield was Gershom Gibbs, on the 28th of July, 
1724. He was taken prisoner at Fort Washington in 
1776, and died on board a British prison-ship on the 
29th of December of that year. 

" Mrs. Mary Adams was born in Stratford in 1698, 
and died here in 1803, aged one hundred and five. 
Mr. Keuben Dickinson was born in 1716, and died 
here in 1818, aged one hundred and two. Capt. Sal- 
mon Buell was born here in 17G7, and died here in 
1868. 

'"TliG first fuunilers built Itig houses. The settlement iiroceeded as 
fast as could reasonably bo expected. During the frequent wars betweeD 
England and France the Canadians and ludiane often liarassed our bor- 
ders, and Litchfield, being a froDlier town, was exposed to their ravages.* 

" It is not strange that the natives, accustomed to 
rove over these beautiful hills, through these pleasant 
valleys, and about our delightful lakes (gems in eme- 
rald), should have viewed with jealousy the approach 
of the white man. 

" But of course our predecessors, the owners of the 
soil by fair purchase, stood on their defense. 

" ' Between the years 1720 and 1730, five houses were surrounded by 
pallisadoes. One of these stood ou the ground near the present court- 
house, auother half a mile south, one east and one west of the centre, 
and ouo iu South Farms. Suldiel-s were then stationed here to guard 
the iuhabitauts, both while they were at work in the field and while 
they were attending public worship ou the Sabbath. 

'"In May, 1722, Capt. Jacol) Griswold being at work alone in a field 
about one mile west of tlie present court-house, two Indians suddenly 
rushed upon him from the woods, took him, pinioned his arms, and 
carried him off. 

"'They traveled in a northerly direction, and the same day arrived in 
some part of the township called Cansian, tiieii awilderness. The Indians 
kindled a fire, ami aflei- binding their prisoner hand and foot lay down 
to sleep. Griswold, fortunately disengaging his hands and feet, while 
las arms were yet pinioned, seized their guns, aud made his escape into 
the woods. After traveling a small distance he sat down and waited the 
dawn of day, and although his arms wt;re still pinioned he carried both 
their guns. The savages awoke in the morning, aud finding their pris- 
oner gone immediately i)ui"sued him; they soon overtook him and kept 
in sight of him the greater imrt of the day, while he was making his 
way homeward. When they came near he turned and pointed one of his 
pieces at them; they then fell back. In this manner he traveled till 



LITCHFIELD. 



109 



near snnset, viien he reacheil an eminence in an open field, about one 
mile northwest of the coiirt-hotiHe. He then discharged one of his guns, 
which immediately summoned the people to his assiatauce. The Indians 
fled, anil Griswold safely returned to his family. 

" ' The capture of Griswold made the inhabitants more cautious for 
a while, but their fears soon subsided. Afterwards, in IT2Z, Mr. Joseph 
Harris, a respectable inhabitant, was at work in the woods not far from 
tlie place where Griswold was taken, and, being attacked by a party of 
Indians, attempted to make his escape. The Indians pursued him, and, 
finding that they could not oveitake him, they shot him dead and scalped 
hiru. As Harris did not return the iuhabitants were alarmed, and some 
search was made for him, but the darkness of tlie night checked their 
exertions. The next morning tli^y found his body and gave it a decent 
burial. Harris was killed near tlie north end of the plain, where the 
road turns to Milton, a little cast of a school-house, and for a long time 
after this plain was called Harris' Plain.'* 

'*The place of his interment remained unmarked 
for more than a century, but rested in the memory of 
the older inhabitants. He was buried in the west 
burial-ground, near the village of Litchfield. In 1830 
a suitable monument, with an appropriate inscription, 
was erected at his grave by voluntary contribution. 

"The summer of 1724 was a period of excitement 
and alarm. The war between the English and the 
French was then prevailing, and the latter used great 
efforts to incite the Northern Indians to attack the 
frontier settlements of the whites. 

" The conduct of the Indians at the North and West 
during this year, and especially their hostile move- 
ments in the vicinity of Litchfield, induced the 
government to take such precautionary measures as 
the occasion demanded in order to furnish protec- 
tion to the weak and exposed settlements. A line of 
scouts was established extending from Litchlicld to 
Turkey Hills, curving around the most northerly and 
westerly settlements in Simsbury. On the 4th of 
June, 1724, Capt. Richard Case, of Simsbury, was 
directed to employ ten men on this scouting-party 
to rendezvous at Litchfield. They continued in ser- 
vice until early in October. 

"During these difficulties some of the more timid 
of the inhabitants deserted their posts, and the inter- 
position of the Legislature was deemed necessary, and 
therefore the following enactment was made, — viz. : 

"* A General Court hobleii at Now Haven, Oct. 11, IT'i-l, u|Kjn Ihc m^ 
moHal of the inhubiluntH of the town uf Ljtchflulil, bv it umurtcU «nil 
ordaiiie<I, by the Governor, nHsistanl^, and deputies In Ouiicrnl Courl as- 
sembled, and by the authi<rity of the Htime, that whowHtvor hath «r*>u^bt 
to have been an inhal'itiiiit, and !» a pn>prk'tur of iiiiy lundft wlihlu the 
town of Litchfield, or have dusorled and left suM town alnco <hl1tcullira 
have arisen there on account of an em>my, ami shall n«<tclt,>rt fiir lhi> »|Mire 
of one month nftur the rlitlnKortlilii Aueuibly to ri>lurn to the mild town 
and tlioro abide, or send (tome nnm In their r^Kjni ur ntcml to i>orfi>rni not! 
(In the nueeBMiry dntieo of watching and uardiutJ: and the like during 
Iho tontlnuancoof the iUfT)cullle« of the war, sliall lone and forfeit all 
their right and e«talo In and upon any and ull of the tundtarorrnild.an*! 
their entate, right, and InturfNt thoro.n, unto the cur|iiimtl<>n of Conneo 
ticut. And further, it Is pruvldefl, thnt If any other nmn being now a 
proprietor and Inliabltunt. or a proprietor and uiitfhl to ha\ o l*ccn nu In- 
liabltiuit in the miIiI town, shall livreancr during the conlhiuance nf frar 
an<l danger uf the enemy, dewrt and leuvo the »n|i| i>>w n, or neglect tu 
repair thither, and there pui-winully abide, without cuminnlly pn>vl«llng 
Monio other MitHelent |>er»i)n In his ruoni and strad, there to i>«rfurm all 
dntlcfl OB before inuntloneil lu the case of (hem who linvo alretidy desetletl, 
shall likewise forfeit their cstatu In and on all the lamU In Iho t>mti 
•foroMUd UDto thU ror|iurailun. 



• Horiis' •tntiitlcal acoouDt of Litohflvld. 



" * And further, it is provided, that upon complaint made to the Com- 
mittee of War at Hartford, uf or against any such deserter, upon their 
satisfaction of the truth thereof, the said committee shall declare the for- 
feiture, and the said committee are enabled to admit any other person 
who shall go and abide there in the room of the deserter, and perform 
the necessary duties as aforesaid, and that he shall hereafter receive a 
grant from this court of the estate escheated as aforesaid for his further 
confirmation therein. And it is further ordered, that five shillings per 
week shall be allowed for billeting soldiers in Litchfield for the summer 
past.' 

" In 1726, upon news of the Indian enemy coming 
down towards our frontiers, the Assembly resolved 
that thirty-five effective men be raised to march to 
Litchfield for its defense, to be under the command 
of Capt. John Marsh. 

" Dr. Dwight, the former president of Yale College, 
wrote : 

"' Not many years after the county of Litchfield began to be settled 
by the Entjlish, a strange Intliau came one day into an inn in the town 
of Litchfield, in the dusk of the evening, and requested the hostess to 
furnish him with some ilrink and supper. At the same tinio he observed 
he conld pay for neither, as he Iia»l hail no success in hunting, but prom-_ 
ised payment as soon as he 8h»)uld meet with better fortune. The hostess 
refused him both the drink and the supper, called him a lazy good-foi- 
nothing fellow, and told him she did not work so liard herself to throw 
away her earnings ujKjn aucli creatures as he was. 

'**.\ man sat by and observed that the In<lian, then turning about to 
leave so Inliospitabic a place, showed by his countenance that he was 
suffering vprj* severely from want and weariness, and directed the hostess 
to supply him with what he wished, and engaged to pay the bill himself. 
She did s >. When the Indian bad finirihed his supimr ho turned to h'n 
bencfactoi, thanked him, and assured bini that he shotiM remember his 

klndiiecs, and whenever he wm able would fulthfully recom|>eni<e it 

"'Some years after the man who had befriended him had (Kio^lun to 
go wime distance into the wllderncM between LitchlU-ld, then a fnuitler 
Kettlenient, and Albany, when lie was taken pHwmer by an Indian scuut 
and carrle<I to Canada. When he arrlve<l at the piiut'l|>nl settlement of 
t)io tribe, on Che southern Itorder of the St. Ijiwrence, it was pruitosMl by 
s<jnie of the captors that he should be put to death. Duiiiig the consul- 
tation an old Indian wotnan demanded that he shouhl be giten up to 
her, that she nilght adopt him In the place of a son whom she had lost 
in the war. lie was accordingly given to her, and Uvvtl through the en- 
suing winter in her family, exi>eriencing the customary elTvits uf savage 
hoi>|>ltHllty. 

"*Tlie following pumnter.ns he was at work In the fureiit alone, aa un- 
known Indhtu cnnie up to hini and asked hlni to meet him at a ploro 
whh'h he iH'intetl out on a given day. The prlotmer agreed tu the pm- 
|Mi«al, but not without ftoni<> apprvheiuilous that mischief was intentleU 
him. Duting the Intorviil iheoe apprtdien-ions Increiueil tt> such a de- 
grre OS to dlniuado blni eflcclunlly fr\>m fulAIIIng his etigogrmenU 
I **'StMui after the Mime Indian fi>und hint at his work ag»ln, and very 
gravely reproved blm fur not |N>rf<irniing bin prvmiiso. The man apoli>- 
gl7rd awkwanlly motigh, l<nl iu tlM< )«^t mitnner In his power. The 
Indian told him ho sluMibl be satUfiM If lie woubl meet him at the nuiie 
place un a future day w hkh he nuniod. The man prooiloed tu meet hini, 
and fuintle<l his proniUe. 

"■ When hearrtvwl at the n\^^t he found the Indian pn>r|do«l with Iwu 
muskets, anmiunltloii for them, ami kniiiwiu-k«. The Indian onlore*l 
him to take one of eoih and roll-<u him. The directb>n uf their marvli 
: was to the south. The iu»n fidbiWMl without the leoAt knowledg* of 
what he was to do <>r whittirr be was g'dng. but com bided that If lh« 
Indbiii liilfudiHl him hntni he wnutd have dhpal*. Iu'<: hlni nt the l<rg|ii. 
niiig. and at the wurvt he wa« as safe where he was as he could be in any 
other place. 

"' Within ashorttime, therefore, his fsAnsiiUlded.altliuugh the Indian 
ulwervr*! » pnifimnd and myslerluut slleiici* concvrning the object of the 
e.v|>etllllon. In Uie dny-tlme Ihry shut such gnnie as c*nie In their way, 
and at night kindled a Are, by whUh they slept. After a leilluus Journey 
of many days they c«mo one m»rnlng to the top uf an eminence preeent- 
lug a pDMpcct of aculihale^l CMnntry. In whKh was a niinilK<r of ht>UM<s 
The Indian aiik«*<l hlNCi>niiMtnl<<n whether he knew the place. Il« r«plle<l 
eagerly that It was LItirhAebl. IU» guide then, aflvr rrmlndlng hlni that 
I ho had so many years lM?f>tre relle«etl the wants of a fumUhliig Indian 
' at an Inn lu tliat town, snijolnel, " I thul lotllan; now I |>ay }ou; g> 



110 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



home." Havinff said this he bade him adieu, and the man joyfully re- 
turned to liis own house.'" 

LITCHFIELD IN THE FRENCH WAR, 1755-63. 

In this struggle Litchfield furnished her full quota 
of men and contributed largely in means. There is 
but a single list of the soldiers who went from this 
town preserved. This list appears as "A Pay-Roll 
forCapt. Archibald McNeile's Company in the Second 
Regiment of Connecticut Forces for the year 1762," 
which is on file in the Secretary of State's office in 
Hartford : 

Archibald McXeilc, captain; Isaac Moss, first lieutenant; Increase 
Moselcy, scLOud lioutenant; Klisha HHun, ensign; Tliomaa Catlin, 
Nathaniel Tayloi-, liezaleel Beehe, Ilezekiah Lee, Archibald Mc- 
Keile, Jr., sergeants; Roger Cutlin, Win. Driukwater, Nathan Stod- 
dard, James Lassly, corporals; Daniel Barns, Jacob Bartholomew, 
driiniinei-s ; Cluules BichardB, Sanuiel Warner, Samuel Gibsun, Jo- 
sepli Jones, J'diu Bariett, John Barrett, Jr., William Forster, Francis 
Mazuzan, Thomas Wedge, Reuben Smith, Jeremiah Oaborn, Benja- 
min Laudon, Isaac Osboi n, Benjamin lU^^sell, David Nichols, Icha- 
ho.l S'liiire, Comfort JucUsuu, Klisha Walker, Amos Bruugton, Na- 
thaniel Lewis, Levi Bonny, Thomas Barker, Samuel Driukwater, 
Asahel Gray, EUakim Cibbs, Samuel Peet, Ephraim Smedley, Ed- 
mund llftwes, Silas Tucker, Robert Bell, Thomas Sherwood, Ephraim 
Knajip, Titus Tyler, Robert Coe, Adum i'^Iott, Asahel Uinuiau, Roswell 
Fuller, Daniel Grant, William Emons, Bloses Stoddard, Gideon Smith, 
Jonathan Smith, Ilexekiah Leach, Adam Ilurlbut, Jeremiah Harris, 
Eli Emons, Alexander Waugh, (hnnge Stoddard, Ezekiel Shepard, 
Ozias Ilurlbul, Daniel Harris, John t'ullins, Solomon Palmer, Juna- 
llum Plielpy, Jttliu Cogswell, Maik Ivenney, Aaron Tlirall, Timuthy 
Bri'Wii, Roswell Dart, William Biilford, Janiea Mauvjlle, Thomas 
Williams, Justus Seelye, Jnnies Francior, George Peet, Nathaniel 
Bflrnum, Adonijah Ruice, Elisha Ingraham, Daniel Hurlbut, Ebene- 
zer Blackman, Domini Doughui, Amos Tulls, Tlumias Ranny, Daniel 
Hamilton, Asahel Hodge, Daniel Warner, Titus Tolls, John Ripner, 
Caleb Nichols, John Fryer, Ebenezer Pickett. 

" It is not to be inferred," says Mr. Kilbourn, " that 
all the members of Capt. ^McNeile's company belonged 
in Litchfield. Some in the list are recognized as resi- 
dents of neighboring towns. Lieut. Moseley, for in- 
stance, was a Woodbury man. He became an eminent 
lawyer, legislator, and judge in his native county, and 
afterwards removed to Vermont, and was there ele- 
vated to the bench of the Supreme Court. 

** The name of the late CoL Beebe, of his town, will 
be noticed among the sergeants of this company. At 
a still earlier date he had been a member of Maj. 
Rogers celebrated corps of Rangers, and was engaged 
in one of the forest fights, when the soldiers were dis- 
persed by order of their commander and each man 
was directed to fight, in true Indian style, from behind 
a tree. Beebe chanced to be stationed near Lieut. 
Gaylord, who was also from Litchfield County. He 
had just spoken to Gaylord, and at the moment was 
looking him in the face for a rejily, when he observed 
a sudden break of the skin in the forehead, and the 
lieutenant instantly fell dead, — a ball from the enemy 
having passed through his head. 

'* The names of some of the Litchfield officers who 
received commissions between the years 1755-63 are 
here given, as it is known that a part of them were in 
the war, — viz. : 



Solomon Buel, captain, 175G; Ebenezer Marsh, colonel, 1757 ; Isaac 
Baldwin, captain, 17''7; Jushua Smith, lieutenant, 1757; Ahner 
Baldwin, ensigns; Archibald McNeile, captain, 17o8 ; Zebulon Gibhs, 
ensign, 175S ; Stephen Smith, lieutenant, 17G0 ; Eli Catlin, lieutenant, 
1 760 ; Isaac Moss, lieutenant, 1701 ; Josiah Smith, lieutenant, 1761 ; Asa 
Hopkins, lieutenant, 17GI ; Gideon Harris, ensign, 1761 ; David Lan- 
don, ensign, ITGl ; Lynde Lord, ensign, 1762. 

" Zebulon Gibbs was in the northern army from 
1756 to 1762. In March, 1758, he was commissioned 
as ensign in Capt. Hurlbut's company, which was 
raised as a part of the force designed for the capture 
of Crown Point." 



CHAPTER X. 

LITCHFIELD (Continued). 

Fii-st Indication of Revolutionary Spirit in Litchfield— Letter of Aaron 
Burr— The Fii-st Company of Subliera— Capt. Bezaleel Beebe — The 
Bowling Gieeu Statue of George IIL Demolished— Carried to Litcli- 
field— Converted into Cartridges— Continental Stores— Army Work- 
gliops— Prisoners of War— Arrest of David Matthews, Mayor of New 
York — Conveyed to Litchfield- Governor Frankliu a Prisoner here — 
Visit of Count Kochambeau and Gen. Lafayette— Gen. "Washington 
Visits the Village— Various Votes of the Town— Rev. Judah Cham- 
pion's Prayer — Resident British Soldiers—Incidents, etc., etc. 

WAR OF THE REVOLUTION.* 

The first indication of the rising spirit of revolu- 
tion in tliis town is contained in the following docu- 
ment, which emanated from a town-meeting held Aug. 
17, 1774, of which Oliver Wolcott was moderator: 

*' The Inhabitants of Litclifiold in legal Town Meeting assembled on 
the 17th day of August, A.D. 1774, taking into consideration the distress 
to which the Poor of the Town of Boston may likely be reduced by the 
operation of an Act of the British Parliament for Blocking up their Port 
and deeply commiserating tlie unhappiness of a brave and loyal People, 
who are thus eminently sufTering in a General Cause for vindicating 
what every virtuous American considers an essential Right of this 
Country, think it is their indispensable Duty to afford their unhappy dis- 
tressed brethren of said Town of Boston all reasonable Aid and Support. 
And this they are the more readily induced to do, not ouly as the In- 
habitants of said Town are thus severely condemned for their reluctance 
to submit to an arbitrary, an unconsented to, and consequently uncon- 
stitutional Taxation, but the whole of the great and loyal Province of 
the Massaclni setts Bay have been cmulemind uuheunJ, in the loss of their 
Cbarter Privileges, by the heretofore unknown and unheard of exertions 
of Parliamentary Power, which they conceive is a power claimed and 
exercised in such a manner as cannot fail of striking every unprejudiced 
mind with Horror and Amazement as being subversive of all those in- 
herent essential and constitutional Rights and Privileges which the 
good people of this Colony have ever held sacred and even dearer than 
Life itself, nor ever can wish to survive ; not ouly every idea of Property, 
but every emolument of civil life being thereby rendered precarious and 
uncertain. 

" In full confidence, therefore, that no Degree of Evil thus inflicted on 
BJiid Town and Province will ever induce them to give up or betray their 
own and the American Constitutional Rights and Privileges, especially 
as they cannot but entertain the most pleasing Expectations that the 
Committees of the several North Amejicau Provinces, who are soon to 
meet at Pliihidelphia, will in their wisdom be able to point out a Method 
of Conduct effectual for obtaining Redress of their grievances,- a Method 
to which (when once agreed upon by said Committee) this Town will 
look upon it their duty strictly to attend. And in the mean time earn- 
estly recommend that subscriptions be forthicith opened in this Toirn, under 

* This chapter is compiled mainly from the late Payne Kenyon Kil- 
bourne's " History of Litchfield," and Hon. Geo. C. Woodruff's " Histori- 
cal Address," delivered in 1876. 



LITCHFIELD. 



Ill 



the care of Reuben Sraitli, Esq., Crtpt. Lyuilo LorJ, and Mr. William 
Stanton, who are hereby appointed a Committee to receive and forward 
to the Selectmen of Bustun, for the use of the Poor in that place, all 
Buch Donations ag shall bo thereupon made for that purpose, and also to 
correspond with the Committee of Correspondence there or elsewhere, 
as there may be occasion. 

" We also take tliis opportunity publicly to return our thanks to the 
members of the Honorable House of Representatives of this Colony, for 
their patriotic and loyal Kesolutions iiassed and published in the last Aa- 
sembly on the occasion, and order them to be entered at large on the 
Public Records of this Town, that succeeding ages may be faithfully fur- 
nished with authentic Credentials of our inflexible attachment to those 
inestimable Privileges which we and every honest Aniericau glory in 
esteeming our unalienable Birthright and Inheritance." 

At the annual town-meeting held December G, 1774, it was voted, 
" That the Honorable Oliver Wolcott, Esq., and Messrs. Jededi.ih Strong, 
Jacob AVoodruff, John Marsh, John Osborn, Jehiel Parmelee, Abraham 
Bradley, Seth Bird, Arcliibald McNeile, Abraham Kilbonrn, Nathan 
Garnsey, James Morris, and Ebeuezer Benton be a Committee for the 
Purposes mentioned in the Eleventh Article of the Association Agree- 
ment uf the Grand Continental Congress iu Philadelphia, 5th of Septem- 
ber last, and approved, adopted, and recommended by the General As- 
sembly of this Colony at their session in October last." 

*' The ' Eleventh Article of the Association Agree- 
ment' here referred to provides for the appointment 
of 'Committees of Inspection' in each city and town, 
' whose business it shall be attentively to observe the 
conduct of all persons touching this Association ; and 
when it shall be made to appear that any person has 
violated its articles, they arc to cause their names to 
be published in the Gazette^ to the end that all such 
foes to the Rights of British America may be publicly 
known and universally contemned as the enemies of 
American Liberty, and thenceforth we break off all 
dealings with him or her.' Committees of Inspection 
were also appointed at the annual town-meeting in 
1775 and 1770. In addition to the above, the follow- 
ing pers(ms were appointed, viz.: Messrs. Reuben 
Smith, Lynde Lord, Andrew Adams, Archibald ^Ic- 
Neile, Jr., Moses Sanford, Tapping Reeve, Jonathan 
Mason, Caleb Gibbs, Nathaniel Woodruff, William 
Stanton, and Nathaniel Goodwin. 

"The celebrated Aaron Burr (afterwards Vice- 
President of the United States) became intimately 
associated with Litchfield during this period. He 
graduated at Princeton College in October, 1772, and 
in the following June his only sister, Sarali Burr, 
became the wife of Tapping Reeve, Esq., of this town. 

" In May, 1774," »ay» his bfogmpher,* *' hu left tlio lU-v. Mr. IfeMamy>, 
and wont to the Ixniso of \\\a Uruther-hi-hiw, Tapphig Ilcvrp, Hhvro hit 
time wiu occnplod iu reading, principally hliitury, but cspcclully Ukim 
portlouti of It which related to wnn^ bnllloit, ami nlogen, whlrh Ivmird to 
inflame his natural Dillitary anlnr. The nlntorMng topics of inxMlion and 
the rights of the people wuro agltntlng the then British Ctdunlea fn.m 
one extreme to the other. TIh-mo subJiHts, thcrcfuro, cuuld not \mm un- 
noticed by a youth of the hnpiiriug mind and nnlvnt feellnga of Burr. 
CouHtltutlonnl law, and the n-lallvo rights of Iho crv>wn and tito culo- 
nistf, wore exanducti with all the a< umcn nhUh ho iHissoMrd, HncI ho 
became a \Vhlg from rcllectlou and conviction, an wvll ua fntm fcvllng." 

" Burr remained in Litchfield on this occasion some- 
thing over a year. The letters written by him while 
here contain frequent allusions to local matters and 
to individuals (especially the young ladies) residing 

•Dsvlt.1. 40. 



in the place. In a communication to Matthias Ogden 
(dated at Litchfield, Aug. 17, 1774) he says, — 

" Before I proceed further, let me tell yon that a few days ago a mob of 
several hundred persons gathered at Barrington, and tore down the 
house of a man who was suspected of being nufriendly to the liberties of 
the people; broke up the court then sitting at that place, etc. As many 
of the rioters belonged to this colony, and the Supreme Court was then 
sitting at this place, the sheriff was immediately despatched to appre- 
hend the ringleaders. He returned yesterday with eight prisonere. wlio 
were taken without resistance. But this minute there are entering the 
town on horseback, with great regularity, about fifty men, armed each 
with a white club; and I observe others continually dropping in. I shall 
here leave a blank to give you (perhaps iu heroics) a few sketches of 
my unexampled valor should they pn>ceed to hostilities; and should 
they not, I can tel) you what I would have done.'* 

After the " blank," the young hero adds 

"The above-mentioned sneaks all gave bonds for their appearance to 
stand a trial at the next court for committing a riot." 

" While Burr remained at the house of Judge Reeve 
he Avas startled by the news of the battle of Lexing- 
ton, which took place on the 19th of April, 1775. 
Immediately thereafter he addressed a letter to his 
friend Ogden, urging him to come to Litchfield and 
make arrangements with him for joining the stand- 
ard of their country. The battle of Bunker Hill soon 
followed (June IGth). As Ogden could not come at 
once to Litchfield, Burr started for Elizabethtown, 
N, J., to assist his friend in arranging for a speedy 
trip to Cambridge, where the American army was then 
encamped. In July they reached Cambridge, and in 
September Burr enlisted as a private soldier in Ar- 
noM's expedition through the wilderness to CJucbec. 
It may be added that Litchfield was Col. Burr's recog- 
nized home for some half-dozen years.f 

"On the morning of the 10th of May, 1775, Col. 
Ethan Allen, a native of Litchfield, at the head of 
his brave Green Mountain I5oys, surprised and cap- 
tured the fortress of Ticonderoga. Several of this 
little band of heroes were born and bred in this vi- 



tOn tb« S7th of Jannary, 1770, Jady* B«eT» wrote to Burr that: 
"Amitl llio tnnicntatluns for llie low of ft bmvc, eiiturprinlng general 
[Mulilgomery], your raca|to from such ininiinont danger \o which you 
have brrn pX|k«ch1 hait ulT>>nktl u» tho grentitit nntlsfitctiiui. Tlio i)vw« 
of tho unfnrlunale nttaik u|kiin IjuelMH; »rrt«(Ml amtuiR uh <<n tlu* 13ih uf 
thin muutli. I ctniceattHl it fmui your vlittor uiiill titu isth, whon »hu 
found it out ; but In lt>M than half an huiir I reci'lved |**ltoni frum At- 
Imny m-quniuHng mo that yoit wvro in saft^ty, and had piiuiM] girat 
hitnor by yunr Intrepid ctuiduct. ... It uu happy for us lliat wo did 
not know yuu were an aid-Ui>t-anip uiilll we heanl of your wrifaro; for 
we hoard Ihnt Mouleuniory luttl hU nldn were kille<|, without knowing 
who hi* aidi were. Your ilnter enjoyii n nilddttntj; Rtnto of health. S)io 
hiui many aiixlona houra on ymir accunut; hut bIip tells me that, aa the 
; l>fliuvi« you may terve thu rounlry In tho liu»lne« In which you are now 
, cm|>loyr<l, nho l.i C4>ii(eittod that you should remain In Uie umiy. li must 
he an exalted puhllr >|drlt Ihat could pmduce such an effect ui>un asia* 
ter a> arrectionnle as youni.** 

For several nxinths In 17?*l, Sirs. Tho^uclnProriMt (the dnwhlntc young 
wtduw uf Colonel Pro%'i«t, uf the llriilali Army) was u rtwllt'ut <>l Lltch- 
fleld ; ami a few of her U'ttvn written fnmi this |daco are piesorvnl Iu 
I>avU' life uf Hurr, vol. I. p|>. 2:i4-2-i7. She l>ecame the wife uf Ilurr, 
July 2. I7(«l>. 

Aaron Burr became ai«l-do-ramp tu Orneral Washington, Atlurney- 
Ooneral of the SUte of New York, l'iilto>l SUlea Senator, ami In 18U1 
was a candidate with JefToiK-iu fi>r tho Preshleocy of Iho L'nite*! Stalea, 
the two rvrclvluKan ciiual number of t^Kn-toral votes. AfliT an exrlllDg 
ouiileat of sevrml days Iu \\\f Uullud Stairs House of Re|trc«ruUllveis 
JeSenuu woi chueeu Proaident, aud Durr Vlce-PreaiUenl. 



112 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



cinity. Lieut. Crampton, who entered the fort by the 
side of Allen, was also a native of this town, and had 
resided here during a large part of his life. On this 
occasion was captured the first British flag that fell 
into the hands of the Americans in the Revolutionary 
contest ! The magnitude and importance of this ex- 
ploit will be better understood, when considered in 
connection with the vast amount of time, and treas- 
ure and blood, which the fortress had cost the Brit- 
ish government. The day following the capture of 
Ticonderoga the garrison at Crown Point, with all its 
military stores, was surrendered to Col. Warner, a na- 
tive of Roxbury, in this county. 

** In January, 177G, Capt. Bczaleel Beebe, of Litch- 
field, received orders to enlist a company for the de- 
fense of New York. The tidings sj>read rapidly 
throughout the town, and awakened anew the enthu- 
siasm of the Whigs. A veteran who died within the 
last few years stated that when the intelligence 
readied him he sfnried on a run for the captain's 
headquarters, fearing the roll would be full before he 
could reach there. Capt. Beebe's orders reached him 
on a Sunday, and by the following Saturday the 
company had been raised, armed, and equipped, and 
were on their march towards Fairfield. The following 
paper, with the names attached, is inserted here for 
preservation : 

" Wk, llio Sultacilbere, being convinced of tho Necessity of a Ixuly of 
Forces to dflt'iit cerluiu Wicked PnrjMJBes formed by llie instninieuts of 
Miui^toritil Tyrnnny, do solemnly en(;iige otirselvcB nud euliat as Private 
Soldiers, in n llegimont to be O.tmmaiulod by Colonel Andrew Ward, Jr., 
under tho command of Major-Gonernl Lek, for tho Term of Eight Weeks 
nt tho utmost from tho Day wo Mnrch from Fairfield, which is the place 
of Koude/vous; tho H.inoruble Miyor-General Leo having given his 
AVord nud Iluiiitr that wo shall not be Detained a single Day a^er said 
Term. Dated at Litchfield, 2l8t day of January, 1770. 

**Sergt. Benjamin Bissell, 



"Lieut. Jonathan Manon, 
Briant Stoddard, 
James Woodrufi", 
Oliver WoudrufT, 
Phineas Goodwin, 
Zebulon Bissell, 
Benjamin Taylor, 
Moses Taylor, 
Frederick Stanley, 
Jamea Crampton, 
Caleb Munson, 
Abraham Wadhams, 
Slartin Nash, 
Oliver Griswold, 
Zadock Gil)b8, Jr., 
Josiah Bartholomew, 
Jesse Stanley, 
Elisha Mayo, 
Nathaniel Newell, 
Lumau Bishop, 
Asaph Benham, 
Joseph Finney, 
Zebedee Stuitevant, 
MartiQ Curtisa, 
Levi Swan, 
Joel Barnes, 
Peleg Holmes, 
Alexauder Sackett, 



£lihu Harrison, 
Roger N. Whittlesey, 
Charles Woodruff, Jr., 
Joseph Suuford, 
Stephen Brown, 
William PattersoD, 
John Lyman, 
Obed Stoddard, 
T. Weed, 
George Dear, 
Jacob Gaylord, 
Elihu Grant, 
Abram Beach, 
Ichabod Tuttle, 
Chauncey Beach, 
George Dear, Jr., 
Adino Hale, 
Allen Lucas, 
>Villiani Starr, 
Heber Gilbert, Jr., 
Zebnlou Palmer, 
Joseph Peters, 
Truman Gilbert, 
Heman Brown, 
Luther Comstock, 
Daniel Swan." 



" Those who have a knowledge of the leading men 
of I^itchfield County from forty to seventy years ago 
will recognize in the above list the names of many of 



her most prominent and influential citizens, — men of 
wealth and enterprise, who, though surrounded by 
the endearments of domestic life, voluntarily enlisted 
a.s private soldiers in that dangerous expedition. The 
roll as here given is not complete. About two-thirds 
of the persons named in the list belonged to this town ; 
the remainder were from Goshen, Tornngton, and War- 
ren. They were all enlisted from the 21st to the 25th 
of January, 177G. The names of a few additional 
members of this company may be gleaned from the 
following appraisal: 

*' Litchfield, 2r)th Janvniry, 1776. 
"We, being requested to apprise the Arms belonging to Capt. Bezaleel 
Beebo's Company, in Col. Andrew Ward's Kegiment, going on an exp»> 
dition to New York under the command of Gen. Charles Lee — we accord- 
ingly apprized the same, beiug first duly sworn, viz. : 
Elihu Harrison's Gnn, Bayonet nud Cartridge Box, in his own hands. 

[F'i'/urfti itmitleil.] 
Roger N. Whittlesey's Gun in the hands of Briant Stoddard. 
Joseph Sanfurd's Gun, Bayonet and Belt in his own hands. 
Nathaniel Allen's Gun, Bayonet and Belt in his own hands. 
Obed Stoddard's Gun, Baynnet, Cartridge box and belt. 
Joshua Smith's Gnu in his own hands. 
Zebulon Bisscll's Gun in his own hands. 
James WoodrufTs Gun carried Viy Stephen Brown. 
Phiueas Goodwin's Gnn, bayonet and belt. 
Whiting Stanley's Gun earned by James Crampton. 
Oliver Woodruff's Gun carried by himself. 
Hezokiah Agard's Gun carried by John Lyman. 

Jedediah Strong's Gun, bayonet and belt carried by William Patterson. 
Lieut. Jonathan Mason's Cartridge box. 
Samuel Canfield's Gun carried by himself. 
Noah Garnsey's Gun carried by T. Weed. 
Sergt. Benjamin Bissell's Gun and Bayonet carried by himself. 
Asa Osborn's Gun and Cartridge box carried by himself. 
Jedediah Strong's Gun carried by Benjamin Taylor. 
Jedeiiiah Strong's Gun carried by Frederick Stanley. 
Reuben Smith, Esq's, Gun, Bayonet, Case nud Belt carried by Capt. 

Beebe. 
Capt. John Osborn's Gun carried by Moses Taylor. 



"Abraham Bradley, 
"Thomas Catlin, 
" Obed Stodder, 



:ADLEY, 1 
.IN, r 

R. J 



Appraisers on 

Oittu:* 



"In May, 1776, a regiment was ordered to be raised 
for the defense of the State, 'to be subject to join the 
Continental army, if so ordered by the Governor.' 
Captain Beebe was appointed to the command of one 
of the companies of this regiment, with Jesse Cook 
for first lieutenant, and James Watson for second 
lieutenant. Lieut. Watson was soon transferred to 
another corps, and John Smith, of Litchfield, was 
commissioned in his place. The following is a com- 
plete list of the officers and soldiers of this company : 

Bezaleel Beebe, captain; Jesse Cook, John Smith, lieutenants; Wait 
Beach, ensign; Levi Peck, Cotton Mather, Heber Stone, Solomon 
Goodwin, sergeants; Samuel Cole, Ezekiel Bissell, Elijah Loomii, 
David Hall, corporals; Joel Taylor, drummer; Epaphras Wads- 
worth, fifer; Nathaniel Allen, Cyrenius Austin, Enos Austin, Joseph 
Austin, Andrew Austin, Elihu Beach, Barnias Beach, Zebulon Bia- 
sell, James Beach, Asa Brooks, Daniel Be?iedict, Samuel Baldwin, 
Elisha Brownson, Benjamin Bissell, Daniel Barns, Ebenezer Bacon, 
Noah Beach, Elisha Bissell, Frederick Bigelow, Hezekiah Bissell, 
James Davis, Friend Dickinson, Jesse Dickinson, Solomon Dickin- 
son, Ebenezer Dinion, Gershom Fay, Remembrance Filley, Joel 
Frost, John German, Phinea« Goodwin, Beriah Birge, James Birge, 
Noadiah Bancroft, Ithamar Gibbs, Moore Gibbs, Samuel Gleason, 
Isaac Hosford, Abraham Haskins, Amos Johnson, Charles Kilbourn, 
Henry Mclntire, Thomas Mason, Oliver Marshall, Timothy Marsh, 
Alexander McNiel, Ebenezer Landon, Remembrance Loomis, Jamea 



LITCHFIELD. 



113 



Little, Juhn Lyman, Noah North, David Olmsted, Ethan Oshorn, 
Jolin Parmeley, Solomon Tarmeley, Joseph Goodwin, Benjamin 
Gihbs, Gershoni Gibhs, Henry Plumb, Eliphaz Parsons, Joseph San- 
ford, rrederick Stanley, Timothy Stanley, Jared Stewart, Joseph 
Spencer, Daniel Smith, Aaron Stoddard, Ira Stone, John Strong, 
Peleg Sweet, Stephen Taylor, Joseph Taylor, Samuel Vaill, Jeremiah 
Weed, John Weed, Gideon Wilcoxson, John Wliiting, Oliver Wood- 
ruff. 

" These names are copied from the account-book and 
billet-roll preserved among the papers of Col. Beebe. 
From various accounts and memoranda found in these i 
papers, we are able to gather certain facts in the his- 
tory of some of these soldiers. Thus : 

"August 9, To cash paid for cojHn for Ira Stone;" Sept. 7, "Lient. John ' 
Smith was discharged from the army in New York ;" *' John German was 
dismissed from my company by order of a General Court Martial, July 9, 
1776;" "Aug. 9, James Beach tUt-d about 8 o'clock in the morning;" \ 
" Sept. the 5th, 10 o'clock at night, Samuel Gleason <?(></ ;" in the account 
with Joel Taylor — "Paid one dollar to Zebulon Taylor to deliver to (/iff 
mother of the above Joel Taylor, ileceaxe'l, It being cash that was with 
him when he died;" " Sept. 27, 1777, Receive<l of Capt. Beebe 22 shillings 
for mileage from Philadelphia to Litchtield. (Signed) Abraham Has- 
kins." 

" From the account of Gershom Gibbs: 

" Received of Capt. Beebe three dollars that hrhtngfil lo my htubantl and 
son, which was part of the money sent to them whilst prisoners in New 
York. (Signed) Tabitha Gibbs." I 

" From the account of Nathaniel Allen : 

" Sept. 27, 1777, To cash left with Joseph Agard to be paid to Mm. AUm, 
that was left with me when Mr. Allen lUed." 

" From the account with Phincas Goodwin : 

"To back rations 16 days at Fort Washlnglon," Ac. 

The fate of some of these individual.^, together with 
that of many others belonging to tliis company, will 
be more fully explained in tlie narrative which fol- 
lows : 

"About the 1st of November, 177G, thirty-si.x 
picked men (all of whose names are given in the pre- 
ceding roll) were placed under the command of Capt. | 
Beebe and sent to Fort Washington to aid in its 
defense. Thia fort was captured by tlie enemy, and 
Cai)t. Beebe's company, with the rest of tlie garrison, ^ 
were crowded, with hundred of others, into the sugar- [ 
liousc and on board the prison-ships; witlioiit air or 
water, and for the first two days witliout food, conta- 
gion and death were tlie natural consopicnces. The 
dysentery, smallpo.x, anil other terrible di.sea.ses broke 
out among them, and very few of the whole number 
survived the terrible ordeal. 

" On the 27th of December, 1776, an exchange of 
prisoners t<^)ok place. Only eleven of Capt. Bccbc's 
company were al)le to sail for Connecticut, — vir.. 
Marsh, Woodrutl', U. Looinis, H. Beach, N. IWnch, 
Marshall, Brownson, liissell. Little, IJcnedict, and Ma- 
son. Six of these died on their way home, — viz., > 
Bissell, Brownson, B. Beach, Marsh, Marshall, and , 
Loomis. The remainder of those who were living at 
tha^ date, being too ill to be removed, were left be- 
hind, where nil (except S<'rgt. Mather) died within a 
few iLiys, most of them with the Hniiillpox. Here 
follow the names of these ' picked men.' The notes 



prefixed appear to have been added by Capt. Beebe 
at the different periods corresponding with the dates : 

"AN ACCOUNT OF THE PRISONER'S NAMES AND PLACES OF 

CONFINEMENT. 
Sergt. Cotton blather — returned home. 
Sergt. David Hall — died of the smallpox on board the ' Grosvenor,' Dec. 

11, 1776. 
Elijah Loomis — died. 

Gershom Gibbs — died on lioard the ship, Dec. 29, 1776. 
Timothy Stanley — died on board the ship, Dec. 26, 1776. 
Amos Johnson — died Dec. 26, 1776. 
Timothy Marsh — died on his way liome. 
Barnias Beach — died on his way home. 
Samuel Vaill — died on board the ' Grosvenor,' Dec. 27,1776. 
Nathaniel Allen— died of smallpox, Jan. 1, 1777. 
Enos Austin — died of the smallpox, Dec. 4, 1776, in the evening. 
Gideon Wilcoxson — died. 
Thomas Mason— »reac!ied home. 
Alexander McNiel — died. 

Daniel Smith — died in New York, of smallpox, Jan. 1, 1777. 
Noah Beach — reached home. 

Daniel Benedict — reached home. ' 

Isaac Gibl* — died Jan. 15, 1777. 
Oliver Marshall — died on his way home. 
Solomon, Parmeley — wont on Iwartl the ship, and I fear he is drowned, 

as I cannot find him. 
David Olmsted — died Jan. 4, 1777. 
Jared Stuart — dietl Jan. 26, 1777, in the morning. 
John Lyman — illed Jan. 26, 1777. 
Elistia Brownson — died on hts way home. 

[ The iiltort PrifiniTH arr at Lirinijottm'" Sutfar^Hotue.] 
Zebulon Bissell — died in Woodbury, on his way home. 
Aaron Sto<ldanl— died Jan. 12, 1777. 
John Parmeley— <lied Jan. 15, 1777. 
Joel Taylor — dlwi Jan. 9, 1777. 
Janiot Little — reached home. 
Phlnru Goo<lwln— died Jan. .'<, 17T7. 

[Tht al:,re al Ihr Churrk callM Uu Korik Clarrlk.] 
OllTer Woodruff— reached home. 
R«aiembruice Loouila— diod on hii way home. 
[T*r nl-rr at Brflrrrll] 

" Tti« aImjto priwnen belong to Capt. B««b«*a compttUT, Oil. Bnulley't 
regiment 

Oirji. .Samuel Cole, 1 

J>>ri-ml»)i Weed, | Were cither killed or made their eecn|s» fh>m 
Joeeph Si-encer, | Fort WashlDgton, on Uie li'.tli of Nt.irmlwr, ITTi'i." 
John Whiting. I 

" Probably no similar instance of niortiility oc- 
curred during the entire war. Only fir survivors out 
of a company of thirty-six hale and hearty young 
men is a percentage of loss rarely reached even in 
the most fatal engagements. But few, if any, of these 
men were slain in battle. They died miserable deaths 
from cold, hunger, thirxt, sulfocation, di.sease, ami the 
vilest cruelty from those to whom they had surren- 
dered their arms im a solemn promise of fair and 
honorable treatment. Well might Ethan Allen (a 
professed infidel), with elinchetl teeth, exclaim to 
Capt. Heebe, as he did on one (K-casion, ' I confess my 
faith in my own creeil Is shaken; thrre oui//tl to be a 
hell for such infernal scoundrels as that Ixiwrie!' re- 
ferring to the ollicer In charge of the pris<mer». 

" Capt. Beebe, in consiileration of his office, was 
allowetl the limits of the city on his parole of honor, 
but was compelled to proviilc hims«-lf with food, 
lodging, and shelter. He was accu.stnmed to visit his 
men daily, .so long as any reiiuiini'd, and did what- 
ever he wus allowed to do to alleviate their wn-lclitd 



114 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



condition. He was not exchanged with the other 
prisoners, but was detained within the 'limits' for 
nearly a year at his own expense. During much of 
this time Col. Allen was held in New York as a pris- 
oner of war, and, before the remnant of the Litchfield 
soldiers were exchanged, these two gallant officers 
often met for consultation. 

'"'In June, 1776, the general assembly ordered six 
battalions to be raised in this State and marched di- 
rectly to New York, there to join the Continental 
army. A company was raised in Litchfield for this 
service, of which Abraham Bradley was captain ; 
Tillcy Bhikesley, first lieutenant; Thomas Catlin, 
second lieutenant; and James Morris, Jr., ensign. 

"Defuiothn Uevoliitiun," siiys Mr. Gibbs, in Iiis ' History of t!ie Ad- 
niinietralioiis of WimlitriKton hihI Adains,* "n IcitJon equestrian Htatueof 
GoorRO III. etuort in the Huwling Groen, in tho city of Now York. At 
the broaltiiig out of tlio war tills was oveitlirowii, and lead being highly 
valuable, was sent to Gen. Wolcott's, at Litchliolii, for safe l^eeping, 
where, in process of time, it was cut up and run into bullets by his 
daughters and their friends." 

In a paper read before the New York Historical 
Society, by the author above quoted, in October, 1844, 
he gives a curious and interesting history of this 
statue, from which the following extracts are made: 

"ACCOUNT OF THE STATIJK OF GKOUGE HI, FORMERLY 
STANDING ON THE BOWLING GUEEN, NEW YOHK. 

" Most of tho membera are probably nwaro thiit an e<incBtriau statue 
of King George III, stood upon the Bowling Green, iu this city, pn'or to 
tho Itovobition, and wa« overthrown soon after its coniniencenient. I 
believe, liowovor, that its subseiiuerit fiito has never been recorded, and 
having in my possession a paper giving authentic infonuatioii on the 
subject, I have supposed that tlie royal etiigy might be worth u brief 
obituary. 

" Hoit'a (Xew Y'orlc) diJcWf, as ijuoted by Mr. Dunlup, gives tho fol- 
lowing notice of its erection: 

"'August "2181,1770, being thobirth-day of Piince Frederick, the father 
of George III., an elegitiit Equestrian Statue of his present Majesty, 
George HI., was erected in tho B"\vling Green, near Fort George. On 
this occnslon tho niembore of his Maji'sty's Council, the City Corpor- 
ation, the Cor|x>ra1ion of the Chamber of Commerce, the Corpotution of 
tho Marino Society, and most of tho gentlemen of tho City and Army, 
waited on his Honor, the Lieutenant-Governor Colden, in tho Fort, at 
bis request; when his Majesty's and other loyal healths were drunk 
under a disclnirge of thirty-two jueces of cannon from the Battery, ac- 
companied with a band of music. This beautiful Statue is made of 
metal [Dunlap says, by way of parenthesis, ' the writer did not like to 
suy tchnt metal represented his royal majesty, the best of kings— if waa 
h<t>V], being the tiret equestrian one of bis present Majesty, and is the 
workmanship of that celebrated stiituary, Mr. Wilton, of London.* 

"Symptoms of disloyalty, betokening revolution, I suppose, soon 
manifested themselves in the rude treatment of the efBgy, for on the Gth 
of February, 1773, an act was passed ' to prevent tho defacing of statues 
which lire erected iu the city of New York.' 

"Upon the above account BIr. Duulap obs -rves, 'This statue stood 
till some time in 1770. I saw it in 1775. In 1776 it was thrown down, 
and tradition says converted into bullets to resist his gracious mnjesty'i 
soldiers when sent to enforce the doctrine of ' the sovereignty of the 
British Parliament over the colonies in all cases whatsoever' — the doc- 
trine of Mr. Pitt, Lord Chatham, whicli he died in an effort to enforce 
The pedestal stood until long after the Revolution. No fragment of the 
horse or his rider was ever seen after its overthrow, and so completely 
had tho memory of the event been lost, that I have never found a person 
who could tell me on what occasion it was ordered, or when placed in 
the Bowling Green. 

"Some coteniporary notices of the destruction of this effigy have been 
pointed out to me, which I will cite. The first is from a hook of general 
ordei-8 issued by Washington, the original o f which is In the poS9ession 
of this society. It is as follows : 



"'July 10. — Though tho General doubts not the persons who pulled 
down and mutilated the statue in Broadway last night acted in the 
public cause, yet it has so much the appearance of riot and want of order 
in the army that he disappnives of the manner, and directs that iu future 
these things shall be avoided by the soldiery and left to be executed by 
projier authority.' 

" The next is in a letter from Ebenezer Hazard to Gen. Gates, dated July 
12, 177G, which will lie foundamongthe Gates papers, and in the society's 
collection, and is as follows ; 

" • The King of England's arms have been burned in Philadelphia, and 
his statue here has been pulled down to make musket balls of, so that 
his troops will probably have imhe'I mnje^i/ fired at them.' 

" Another is iu a letter from New York, of July 11, 177G, published in 
the New Hampshire OnzetU- of the 27th: 

" ' LuBt Monday evening the Equestrian Statue of George III., with 
tory pride and fully raised in the year 1770, was, by the Sons of Freedom, 
laid prostrate in the dust— the just desert of au ungrateful tyrant. Tho 
lead wherewith this nionuniont is made is to bo run into bullets, to 
assimilate with the brains of our infatuated adversaries, who, to gain a 
peppercorn, have liist au empire. A gentleman who was present at the 
ominous fall of his leaden majesty, looking back to the original's hopeful 
beginning, pertinently exclaimed in the language of tho angel to Lu- 
cifer, ' If thou be'est ho, but ah how fallen I how changed !' 

" Mr. Stephens* (Incidents of Travel iu Russia, etc., vol. ii. p. 23) men- 
tions having met with a curious memorial of its destruction, and at an 
out-of-the-way place. This was a gaudy and flaring engraving in a black 
wooden frame, representing the scene of its destruction, which he found 
in a tavern at Chii>j}\ in Ititnitia. 'The grouping of picture,' he says, 
' waH rude and grotes<iuo, tlie ringleader being a long uegro stripped to 
his trowsurs, and straining with all his might upon a rope, one end of 
which was fastened to the head of the statue and the other tied aiound 
his own waist, his white teeth and the whites of his eyes being particu- 
larly consjiicuous on a heavy ground of black.' How this picture found 
its way to Russia it wovild bo diflicult to imagine ; it would certainly b« 
not less a curiosity here than there. 

"Tlie document I have mentioui'd gives au account of its remaining 
history in a shape which history seldom assumes, that of au «ccouji/ cur- 
Tiitt. It is preserved among the papers of Gen. (afterwards Governor) 
Wolcott of Connecticut. It is a statement of the number of cartridges 
made from the materials of the statue by the young ladies of Litchfield, 
and is iu these words : 

Cartridges. 

"'Mrs. Marvin MbCt 

" " on former account 2G02 

G,058 

Knth Marvin, on former account 6204 

Not sent to court-house, 449 packs 5388 

11^92 

Laura, on former account 4250 

Not sent to court-house, 344 packs 4128 

8,378 

Mary Ann, on former account 57G2 

Not sent to the c^nrt-house, IU) packs, out of 
which I let Col. Perley Howe have 3 packs.. 5028 

10,790 

Fredeiick, on former account 708 

Not sent to court-house, 10 packs 228 

936 

37,754 

Mrs. Beach's two accounts. 2,002 

Made by sundry persons 2,182 

Gave Litchfield militia, on alarm 50 

Let the regiment of Col. AVigglesworth have 300 

Cartridges, No 42,288 

Overcharged ID Mrs. Beach's account 200 

42,088' 

"The original document is in Gen. Wolcott's hand- 
writing, and is indorsed ' number of cartridges made.' 
There is no date to it, nor is there mention made by 
him of the fact of their being made from the statue; 
but a memorandum added by his son, the last Gover- 
nor Wolcott, explains it as follows : 

"'N. B. — An equestrian statue of George the Third of Great Britain 
was erected in the city of New York, on the Bowling Green, at the lower 
end of Broadway. Most of the materials were lead, but richly gilded to 

* John L. Stephens, the celebrated traveler, was a graduate of the 
Litchfield Law School. 



LITCHFIELD. 



115 



resemble gold. At the beginning of the lievolntiou tliis statue was 
overthrowu. Lead then being scarce and dear, the statue was broken In 
pieces, and the metal transported to Litchfield as a place of safety. The 
ladies of the village converted the lead into cartridges, of which the 
preceding is an account. 0. W.' 

" The Mrs. aud Miss Marvin and Mrs. Beach, men- 
tioned in tlie paper, belonged to families who yet re- 
side in Litchfield ; the other persons named were the 
two daughters and youngest son of Gen. Wolcott." 

" A few miscellaneous facts relating to Litchfield 
men are here introduced nearly in chronological 
order. 

" It should have been mentioned previously that 
Capt. David Welch, of Litchfield, commanded a 
company that was called into active service early in 
1775, and in April of that year he was commissioned 
■ as major in Col. Hinman's regiment. He served 
throughout the war, and was an efficient and popular 
officer. During this year, also, Jedediah Strong was 
api)ointed a commissary to purchase horses for the 
army, and Oliver Wolcott was chosen a member of 
the Continental Congress. Fisher Gay, of Farming- 
ton (a native of this town), was one of the lieutenant- 
colonels appointed and commissioned at the special 
session of the Legislature held in March. 

"In May, 1776, Amos Parmeley was allowed by 
the Assembly £14 11.?. hi. lawful money 'for nursing 
his sick son, John, who was a soldier in Maj. Welcli's 
company, Gen. Wooster's regiment, in the Northern 
army, in 1775.' This is the John Tarmcley wlio died 
in captivity in New York, in January, 1777. Jede- 
diah Strong wa-s appointed commissary for the pur- 
chase of clothing, and on a committee to exchange 
bills of credit for specie. 

"t)n the 4th of July, Oliver Wolcott appended Aw 
name to the Declaration of Independence. In October 
he was reappointed a member of the Continental 
Congress. 

" Drs. Reuben Smith and Seth Bird were appointed 
by the Legislature, in October, on a committee 'to 
examine all persons in this State that shuulil be of- 
fered as surgeons or surgeons' mates in the Conti- 
nental army, and, if found (lualificd, to give thera 
certificates.' 

" Andrew Adams was appointed, with others, to 
cause the arrest of all suspected persons, and tiiose 
dangerous to the liberties of America. 

"In December tlie Legislature ap|>uintcd Tapping 
Reeve and Lynde Lord on a committee to ' rouse 
and animate the people,' ami endeavor to procure the 
enlistment of vohuiteers for Washington's army. A 
company was forthwith raised in Litchfield, and the 
following otlicers were commissioned: Nathaniel 
Goodwin, captain; Alexander Waugh, lieutenant; 
and Ozias (toodwin, ensign. At the S4ime .nessioa 
Col. Wolcott was promoted to the rank of brigadier- 
general, and given the command of the Fourth Bri- 
gade. 

"The last Governor Wolcott (then a stutlent at 
Yale College) was in Litchfield at the time of the 



Danbury alarm. Awakened at midnight by the 
summons to repair to the rendezvous of the militia, 
he armed himself; his mother, furnishing his knap- 
sack with provisions and a blanket, hastened his de- 
parture, and dismissed him with the charge 'to con- 
duct like a good soldier.' He, with the other volun- 
teers from this town, participated in the skirmish at 
Wilton, as well as in the subsequent attacks during 
the retreat of the British from the burning of Dan- 
bury. 

" Early in 1777 orders were issued for raising eight 
battalions in Connecticut for the Continental service, 
' to serve for three years or during the war.' Ninety- 
two of the soldiers for these battalions were ordered 
to be raised in Litchfield. In April, of this year, the 
town voted to pay out of the treasury to each soldier 
that should enlist for the full term specified, the sum of 
£V2 per annum, in addition to the pay they might re- 
ceive from the State or general governments. Theselect- 
men were at the same time directed to lay a tax for the 
|)urpose designated, and Messrs. Miles Bach, Leman 
Stone, Moses Barns, and Stephen Bidwell were ap- 
pointed collectors. 

"A letter written by Dr. Reuben Smith, of Litch- 
field, dated May 12, 1777, relating to the Danbury 
alarm, states that 

"'Sunday morning, 27lh .\pril, about ono o'clock, «« were alanucil ; 
our people turncU out •piriteilly ; came up willi (lio enemy next day a 
lilllc below Wittui) niw'titig-Iiiiu.'O. and pur»no<l them at>uanl Ihoir 8hip«. 
I'aul I'eck was killed in the last attack on the enemy.* 

" It is stated that on this occasion fourteen men, 
the last in JAIchfield capable oj bearintj ariiu, were 
started at midnight to aid in repulsing the enemy. 

" Of Paul Peck, alluded to in the letter of Dr. 
Smith, it is reconied 

"'That lie wu llio moat expfrt hnnloraf Ui« time In which tia llTad. 
At the Danbury alanii lie put liU lonit gun In oiJor and followed the 

enemy to ('ont|>. tliclr relrriil, ami t.Mik a ttatlou Whlnil a ituie wall. 

Every •hot told uulll he was m.lie.1 u|iiin by the enemy, wli.. i..k bl« 
gun fn>Di him and daahe<l hi< brains uut witb II.* 

"He was killed April 28, 1777, aged scveiity-five 
yeans. 

" During the war Litchfield wa.'* a place of de|>osit 
for provisions and other Continental stores. Work- 
shops fur the army were cstablishotl here. Prisoners 
of war were here confined. 

" On the 21st of .Fuue, 1776, David Matthews, the 
English mayor of New York, was arresteil by onler 
of Gen. Wiuthingtoii, in pursuance of authority from 
the New York committee, for dangerous dcstigns and 
treasonable conspiracies. lie was sent to Litchfield 
for safe custody, and while here he wrote to Mrs. 
Matthews, at Flutbush, a letter, dated Litchfield, 
Aug. 12, 1770, in which he says,— 

" ' Enr lion my aiTltml h«n I h»r» Iimo at Iha huoaa of C»|>L Mu«-« 
SvyniiHir, wild, logellier •rith hU « Ifr, bare bahavol In the moat (enlol, 
kind manner, an<l have d.ino ei.rvlhinf In thrlr ;«jwer tu auk* my 
I timeaaattieeable aa|>owlblK. lie laa One, men? fellu*, and alielta warm 
I'lolratanl ; and If It waa n.>l the Ihoughll of bvme nera cunlluually In 
m. niinJ, I might bo lia|i'y xlth mj gojd lanUlunl aixl bla family.' 



-: 



116 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



" He adds, by way of postscript : 

" * The Congress were much iifiaid I should run away if I liad my lib- 
erty, but this good ninu with wlioni I lodge, and wlio uever Iieard of nie 
liofore, lias such an opiniou of me that he has wrote to them that he will 
bo aufewerable for nio whenever they shall call for me.' 

" On the 19th of August, 177G, he was taken to 
Hartford, and on the next day wrote to the secretary 
of the Convention of New York a letter, dated Hart- 
ford, Aug. 20, 1776, in whicli he says, — 

"' It is verily believed throughout thi^ colony that I was coucernoti in 
a plot to assasshiato Gen. Washington and to blow up the magazine in 
New York. . . . Solely owing to this report I have been obliged to de- 
canip from Litchfield where I «as ctationed, and where the committee 
tliought my life was in imminent danger. I arrived here yesterday, and 
am shunned as nuicli as Lucifer would be. . . . Surely, if my life was to 
be made a sacrifice there was a more gentlemanly way of doing it than 
of being sent into a country to be filed at from behind a barn or stone 
fence.' 

" On the 22d of the same month he was reconveyed 
to Litflifield. The original ordbr of Governor Trum- 
bull directs Capt. Moses Seymour to carry Mr. Mat- 
thews to Litchfield and hold him in custody, permit- 
ting hitn to walk abroad for the benefit of the air 
and to attend divine worship. To his letter of the 
20th, Mr. Matthews adds a postscript, dated the 22d, 
saying,— 

" * I am now on my march back to Litchfield again. . . . What horrid 
treatment is this ? Our convention say I must be confined. It is too much 
for mortal man to bear. I am now to stand fire at Litchfield. May God 
spare my life to meet my enemies face to face.' 

"The British royalty evidently did not relish the 
atmosphere of freedom prevailing .at Hartford and 
Litchfield. Under date Litchfield, Sept. 26, 1776, he 
writes, — 

" ' The committee have been compelled to request my removal in order 
to pacify some people. They insist I can blow up this town. Oh that I 
could ! I would soon leave them to themselves. The sheriff has given 
orders that I shall not approach the gaol, lest the doors should fly open 
and the prisoners escape. I should not have returned to this cold wilder- 
ness had not the sheritT of Hartford declared lie must lock me up in 
gaol.' 

"The first pleasure-carriage brought into this town 
was by him presented to Mrs. Major Seymour, and 
was in use as late as A.D. 1812. The mayor's travel- 
ing-trunk is still here in the possession of the Hon. 
Origen S. Seymour, one of Maj. Seymour's descend- 
ants. 

" It is stated in a letter received in London from 
a British officer in New Y'ork, dated Dec. 2, 1776, 
that 

" ' Honest David Matthews, the mayor, lias made his escape, and arrived 
here this day.' 

"The tradition is that the public authorities did 
not well know how to deal with his case, and that 
one day when he ' walked abroad for the benefit of 
the air' he neglected to return, very much to the sat- 
isfaction of all concerned in his detention. 

"Dr. Smith, at the close of his letter of May 12, 
1777, says,— 

"'Governor Franklin is confined in our gaol, and constant guard is 
kept. We trust he will find it dilflcult to escape should he attempt 



" This gentleman was the Eoyal Governor of New 
Jersey, and was the only son of the distinguished 
Dr. Benjamin Franklin. He was accused of being a 
virulent enemy of the United Colonies, and in June, 
1776, Congress directed that he should be sent to 
Connecticut under a guard. In July, 1776, he was 
sent by Governor Trumbull to Wallingford to reside 
on his parole, and was soon permitted to reside at 
Middletown. But on the 30th of April, 1777, an 
order from Congress was received to confine Gover- 
nor Franklin without pen, ink, or paper, and directed 
him to be conveyed under guard by the sheriff of 
Hartford County forthwith to Litchfield jail. On the 
19th of September, 1777, an order on the pay-table 
was drawn in favor of Lynde Lord, Esq., for £100 
towards the expense of the guard jilaced over Gov- 
ernor Franklin. On the 15th of January, 1778, an- 
other similar order was drawn in favor of Mr. Lord, 
who was the sheriff of Litchfield County. 

"The following account of him was published in 
1856, viz. : 

*' * Dr. Fr.\nklin's O.n'lt Son. — While the name of Franklin has been 
so prominently before the public of late in connection with the celebra- 
tion at Boston, it may not be uninteresting to give some account of bis 
only son, W'illium, about whom we think little is known by the commu- 
nity at large. Unlike his father, whose chief claim to veneration ia for 
the invaluable services he rendered his country in her greatest need, the 
son was from firet to lait a devoted loyalist. Before the Revolutionary 
war he held many civil and military offices of importance. At the com- 
mencement of the war he held the olfice of Governor of New Jersey, 
which appointment he received in 1763. When the difficulties between 
the mother country and the colonies were coming to a crisis he threw 
his whole influence in favor of loyalty, and endeavored to previrnt the 
Legislative Assembly of New Jersey from sanctioning the proceedings of 
the General Congress of Pliiladelphia. These efl"ortfl, however, did but 
little to stay the tide of public sentiment in favor of lesistance to tyranny, 
and soon involved him in difficulty. He was deposed from office by 
the W'higs to give place to William Livingston, and sent a prisoner to 
Coutiecticnt, where he remained about two years. ... In 1778 he was 
exchanged, and soon after went to England. There he speut the re- 
mainder of liis life, receiving a pension from the British government for 
the losses he had sustained by his fidelity. 

"' As might be expected, his opposition to the cause of liberty, so dear 
to the heart of his father, produced an estrangement between them. 
For years they had no intercourse. When, in 1784, the son wrote to his 
father, in his reply Dr. Franklin says, 'Nothing has ever hurt me bo 
much, and affected me with such keen sensations, as to find myself de- 
seited in my old age by my only sun ; and not only deserted, but to find 
him taking up arms against me in a cause wherein my good fame, for- 
tune, and life were all at stake.' In his will, also, be alludes to the part 
his sou had acted. After making him some bequests, he adds, 'The 
jtart he acted against me in the lale war, which is of public notoriety, 
will account for my leaving him no more of an estate he endeavored to 
deprive me of.' The patriotism of the father stands forth all the brighter, 
when contrasted with the desertion of the son.' 

" Up to this period ' Fair Wyoming on Susque- 
hanna's side,' called Westmoreland, was claimed as 
ours. Its jurors and justices were officers of this 
county, and its civil processes were directed to the 
sheriff' of Litchfield County, were returned to and 
decided by the courts held in this village, and are now 
among our records. Settled from Connecticut, it may 
be imagined what grief and consternation pervaded 
us when the inhabitants of that infiint settlement 
were massacred by the ' Monster Brandt' and his Indian 
allies. 



LITCHFIELD. 



117 



" During the Revolutionary war Litchfield was 
visited by Count Rochambeau, in May, 1777, and by 
Gen. La Fayette, as the guest of Judge Reeve. And, 
according to Mr. George Gibbs, on the evening of 
Saturday, Aug. 23, 1780, Gen. Washington arrived 
here on his way from Hartford to West Point, and 
was entertained at the hospitable mansion of Gen. 
Wolcott, in South Street (now Mrs. Harney's). He 
spent the night in the village, and on the following 
morning proceeded westward, arriving at West Point 
about 11 o'clock on Monday morning. It was at this 
time that he discovered the treason of Benedict Ar- 
nold, who commanded at that post. The next year 
he was here, as appears from the following extract 
from his diary : ' May 18, 1781, set out this day for 
an interview at Wethersfield with Count de Rocham- 
beau and Admiral Barras. 19th, breakfasted at Litch- 
field.' Again he was here with Count Rochambeau. 

"From 1776 to 1780, Litchfield was a depot for 
military stores and provisions, which were guarded 
by a considerable military force. The depot for pro- 
visions stood on the premises now occupied in part by 
Dr. Buel's ' Spring Hill,' on North Street, where a 
building was erected for that purpose sixty feet long 
and two stories high. On the site of the present 
court-house was erected a building of similar dimen- 
sions as a depot for other military stores. A work- 
shop for the army (which was also sixty feet in length 
and two stories high) stood on the north side of East 
Street, just west of the burying-ground. The pris- 
oners of war were generally kept in the old jail, which 
stood in East Street. At each of the places here 
designated a military guard was stationed night and 
day, the roll being called, the soldiers drilled, and 
the guard set, at stated intervals, with as much pre- 
cision as would have been observeil by an army en- 
camped in the vicinity of the enemy. The stores and 
provisions deposited here were for much of the time 
under the general su]ierintendence of Commissary 
William Kicliards, of Elizabcthtown, N. J. Aslibel 
Baldwin, a native of this town, graduated at Yale 
College in 177C, and soon received the appointment 
of quartermaster and was stationed here. He re- 
mained at this post between two and three years, 
when he received an lionorable discharge, and was 
succeeded in oflSce by Oliver Wolcott, Jr., who gradu- 
ated in 1778. 

"On the 30th of June, 1777, Governor Trumbull 
wrote to Gen. Wolcott, informing him tiiut a team 
would be sent to Litchfield loaded with powder, lead, 
and Hints, and requesting him to send a team to Salis- 
bury for a load of cannon-shot to be forwarded to 
Hartford by the returning teams. By a sulisequent 
record of the Council of Safety, it appears that on 
this occasion there were sent to Litchfield seventeen 
hundred pounds of gunpowder, two tliousand pounds 
of lead, one thousand flints, and three hundred pounds 
of cannon-|)owder. 

" On the 23d of July following, an order was drawn 



on David Trumbull for £25 5«. lOrf., in favor of John 
and Daniel Dewey, ' for carting powder and lead from 
Lebanon to Litchfield.' Late in the autumn of this 
year a large proportion of the military stores taken 
at the capture of Burgoyne were deposited here. 

" In August, Gen. Wolcott wrote to the Governor 
and Council, stating that he had ordered all the ef- 
fective men of Sheldon's Horse and Humphreys' regi- 
ment (who had not been called to do duty under the 
recent act and were liable to be called out of the 
State) to march immediately to Peekskill, well pro- 
vided with arms, and with forty days' provisions. The 
general's course was approved, and an order was 
directed to be drawn on the State treasurer, in his 
favor, for the sum of £1000. About the same time 
Sheriff Lord was directed to procure from the mer- 
chants of Litchfield County, for the use of the army, 
four hogsheads of rum, six hogsheads of sugar, and 
two thousand pounds of coffee, at a stipulated price. 
If the merchants refused to furnish the goods at the 
price named, the sherift' was ordered io take the articles 
wherever he could Jind them, at the appraisal of two or 
three judicious freeholders, and to make return of his 
doings to the Council. 

" In September, Litchfield was established by the 
Council a.s the place of rendezvous for the Sixth 
Brigade, and Maj. Beebe was stationed here as the 
recruiting officer of the brigade. 

"On the 7th of October, a special town-meeting 
was held, of which Jacob Woodruff, Esq., was moder- 
ator. At this meeting it was voted that Messrs. Lynde 
Lord, Thomas Catlin, Caleb Gibbs, David Welch, and 
Alexander Catlin, be a committee to purcha.se and 
provide sliirts, frocks, overalls, stockings, and slioes 
for tlie nou-conimissioneil officers and soldiers in the 
Continental army belonging to this town, agreeable 
to a resolve of His Excellency the Governor and 
Council of Safety passed Sept. 12, 1777.' 

"The Committee of Safety, at a session held De- 
cember 4th, api'ointcd one person in each county to 
see that the clothing for the army demanded of the 
several towns was forthwith provided by the select- 
men ; and to furnish pack-horses or other means of 
transportation to convey the same to the commissary 
at MiddUtown. Ale.vaiuler Catlin, of this town, was 
appointed the uienibcr of this committee for the 
county of Litchfield. 

"On the 10th of December the following votes 
were passed in town-meeting, viz.: 

"■1. TolM, That Umn. Dii'l<l Wrlcli, Nalhaolel WoalnilT, Archibald 
I McNlol, Jr., KlwuMcr lleiili>n, and Tlu.n.in Wnugh are horsbji nppalntwl 
a Cuininllli'o li> [inivlilo fur tlio funilllii! of nulillon accurOhig to law and 
' to tho TotM of the town. 

i ***2. To i»y the CoDinilltM a raaaonablo companaatton fur Utclr time 
anil troul'lo. 

"■3. That Iho SeloilnH'n, logothor with McMT*. Tapping Becvo, Setli 
BInl, Anilrew Ailanis, Saniurl Lyman, and Ljnde Loid, lie a cummltta* 
to proi«re. sttte, and preaent for recovery sundry niatten and acoounta 
for moni'jr iupiiommI Io bo duo tlio town. 

" ' 4. Thai the Svlec'tnieu bo oiii|i»iworod and deainxl to dUtrllnlle to the 
nonHwmmbaloued offlcon and luMlera lu tho (Xintluonlal anny liolonglng 



118 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



to thi8 town, and to the poor of the town, and to the families of such as 
have died in tlie service, wlietlier Continental or militia, or in captivity, 
and to such other families in this town as are not in circumstances to 
sujiply tliemselves, forty-two bushels of Salt lately brought from Boston 
— in such proportion as they shall judge most suitable and right — at the 
rate of ten shillings per bushel ; and the residue to such as are able to 
purchase the same at prime cost.' 

"'At a meeting of the inhabitants of Litchfield, legally warned and 
convened on the 0th day of January, a.d. 1778, to take into considei'ation 
the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States of 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, and Providence Plan- 
tations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, ex- 
hibited by- the selectmen pursuant to a requisition from His Excellency, 
the Governor, the said articles being distinctly and repeatedly read and 
considered ; 

*" Vnled unanimously. That the said Articles of Confederation he ap- 
proved, and tliat the Kepresentatives of this town be instructed to use 
their in(iuenc4! and votes in the General Assembly to invest the delegates 
of this State with competent powers, in the name and behalf of this 
State, in Continental Congress, to subscribe and confirm the said Articles 
of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States.' 

" Andrew Adams, Esq., was moderator of the pre- 
ceding meeting. 

" At different dates during the continuance of the 
war the following persons (in addition to those al- 
ready named) were appointed to furnish clothing, etc., 
for the soldiers in the public service from this town, 
and to provide for their families, — viz. : Capt. Joseph 
Vaill, Arthur Emons, Phineas Baldwin (2d), Capt. 
Solomon Marsh, Lieut. David Stoddard, Judson Gui- 
teau, Jonathan Wright, Timothy Skinner, Gad Farn- 
ham, Benjamin Webster, John Smith, Ebenezer 
Plumb, and John Marsh. 

"In March, 17S0, the following inhabitants of this 
town were appointed Inspectors of Provisions for the 
Army, — to wit: Mr. Asahel Strong, Capt. Miles Beach, 
Capt. Reuben Stone, Lieut. Thomas Catlin, Capt. 
Archibald McNiel, Jr., Ensign Jonathan Wright, 
Mr. Abel Camp, Jr., Lieut. Lemuel Harrison, Cajit. 
Zebulon Taylor, Capt. Alexander Waugh, Mr. Edward 
Linsley, and Mr. Levi Stone. 

" In the spring of 1780, in consequence of the dis- 
tressed situation of the army that had wintered at 
Morristown, Washington appealed to Governor Trum- 
bull for assistance, and he never appealed to him in 
vain. The following was related by the late George 
Washington Parke Custis to Charles Hosmer, Esq., of 
Hartford. A special messenger was dispatched from 
Washington's headquarters to Governor Trumbull, 
to ascertain whether he could rely on any supplies 
from Connecticut. The messenger was detained but 
a short time, when Governor Trumbull placed a sealed 
letter in his hand directed to Gen. Washington. The 
contents of the letter were unknown to the bearer, 
but he arrived safely in camp and delivered it to 
Washington. After the commander-in-chief had 
looked it over in the presence of Mr. Custis, he re- 
marked, in the words of the unbelieving Lord of 
Samaris, ' If the Lord would make windows in 
heaven, might this thing be.' He then read the 
letter aloud in the presence of Mr. Custis. Its pur- 
port was, that on a certain day, and at a certain hour 
of the day, he would receive at Newburgh, by a 



wagon-train from Hartford, two hundred barrels of 
flour, one hundred barrels of beef, and one hundred 
barrels of pork. It also contained a request that a 
guard might be sent to a place specified, for the pro- 
tection of the train. Notwithstanding AVashington's 
unbelief, he sent a horse-guard, as requested. At the 
hour appointed, they saw the wagon-boys of Connec- 
ticut approaching with their train of provisions. This 
train passed through Litchfield on their way, where 
they obtained some additional supplies. When Wash- 
ington received these provisions, he remarked to Mr. 
Custis, ' No other man than Governor Trumbull 
could have procured them, and no other State than 
Connecticut would have furnished them.' Accom- 
panying the train, Col. Henry Champion had a drove 
of cattle, which were tolled across the Hudson by the 
side of small boats. Col. Champion (who held the 
oflSce of commi-ssary-general) was the father of the 
Rev. Judah Champion and Mrs. Julius Deming, and 
the grandfather of Mrs. Asa Bacon, all of this town. 
" Early in the spring of 1780 a train of sleds, loaded 
with provisions for the army, passed through Hart- 
ford and Litchfield on their way to Newburgh. Their 
progress was slow, and the teamsters (among whom 
were Eleazer Pinney and Ebenezer Nash, of Elling- 
ton) suffered incredible hardships on account of the 
unprecedented depth of snow and the unbroken state 
of the roads over which they passed. On arriving at 
the Hudson they attempted to cross on the ice, when 
their teams broke through. The horse at the head 
of Mr. Nash's team was detached from the oxen and 
floated under the ice. In due time, but not till after 
a desperate struggle, the oxen were all rescued from 
their perilous situation. The principal part of the 
stores were then drawn across the river on light sleds, 
with but a single horse attached to each. These sup- 
plies were so much needed by the army that no risk 
was considered too great in conveying them speedily 
to Washington's camp.* 

"' At a legal Town-BIeeting, holden at Litchfield on Saturday, the 8th 
day of July, AD. 1780, tlio Hon. Oliver Wolcott, Moderator, it was 
voted. That to every able and effective man belonging to this town, to 
the number of fourteen, who shall voluntarily enlist himself into the 
Connecticut Battalions of Infantry of the Continental Army, for three 
years or during the war, this town will pay every such recruit such a 
sum in money, including tlie wages he shall receive from the State or 
the United States, as shall be sufficient to procure ten bushels of good 
merchantable Wheat for every month he shall so serve, the price of which 
Wlieat shall be computed and the money paid to such recruit, or his as- 
signs, in Litchfield, in every year, on the 1st day of January, during the 
time such recruit shall serve as aforesaid; and that this town will also 
p,ay as a Bounty to every such recruit, or his assigns, in Litchfield, on the 
1st day of January of every year for so long a time as such recruit shall 
serve as aforesaid, at the rate of thirty bushels of good merchantable 
Wheat for one year's service, or the full value thereof in money, for the 
payment of which monies or wheat as aforesaid to such recruit or his 
assigns, in case he shall enlist himself into said Battalions by tlie 15th 
day of July instant, this town hereby becomes bound as aforesaid.' 

■' At the same meeting it was 

"' Vutcd, That whereas the Militia of this town are required by an 
order of Colonel Andrew Adams, grounded on an act or order of the 
Governor and Council of Safety made the 30th day of June, 1780, to fur- 
's See No. XV., " South Windsor Sketches," in Hartford Times. 



LITCHFIELD. 



119 



nisb fourteen able and effective men to serve in the Connecticut Line of 
the Continental Army until the Slst day of December next, this town, 
being fiuxiouB to give every necessary encouragement to tlie public ser- 
vice, hereby plight themselves to pay to every such recruit, or bis assigns, 
as shall voluntarily enlist himself into said Battalions by the 10th day of 
July instant, to serve in said Battalions until the last day of December 
next, such sum in money &s shall be sufficient, including the wages he 
shall receive from tliis State or the United States, to procure as much 
good mercliantable Wheat as might be obtained by the monthly wages 
of forty shillings in the year 1774. Provided, nevertheless, that the 
Militia of this town not being called upon by virtue of said order to fur- 
nish more than fourteen able recruits to serve in said Battalions. This 
town will not consider themselves bound by the votes of this day to pay 
Bounties or AVages to more than fourteen such recruits; and, in case a 
greater number shall enlist, the preference shall be given tu such as shall 
enlist for three years or during the war, and of them, to such afl shall 
first enlist. And the Colonel or Commanding Otficer of this Itegiment 
is desired to dlecharge any supernumerary recruits, agreeable to these 
votes. 

'* ' Voted, That a Rate or Tax of sixpence ou the pound, on the list of 
1779, be and tlie same is hereby laid, and made payable in Gold or Silver 
Coin or Bills of Credit of this State of the emissions of the present year, 
by tlie 1st day of September next.' 

"Judson Gitteau, Timothy Skiuner, Jonathan 
Wright, and Ozias Lewis, were appointed to collect 
the said tax. 

"At a legal Town-Meeling holden at the Meeting-House in the first 
society in Litchfield, on the 15th day of November, Anno Dom, 1780, 
Major David Welch, Modeiator, it was 

*" Voted, That a Tax of one shilling upon the pound be laid upoD the 
Polls and Rateable Estate contained in the Grand List of this toMrn, given 
in the year 1779, to be collected and paid to the Town Treasurer by the 
let day of Deceniber»-next, in the Bills of Credit emitted by this State 
since the Ist day of January last, new Continental Money issued under 
the authority of this State, Gold and Silver, or old Continentjtl Money 
after the rate of forty shillings in old Continental Money fur one tthijling 
Lawful Money, fur purchasing Provisions and requisite Supplies for the 
Army, and to defray other necessary expenses of the town.' 

"'Votiil, That Messrs. Timothy Skinner, Seth Farnham, Theodore 
Catlin, and Harris Hopkins bo Collectors of the said Tax accordingly.' 

"'Provided, Nevertheless, that any person may pay any part of said 
Tax iti Provisions required, and at the respective prices fixed in tho Act 
of Asfli-ml'ly made at their Hcssiou in October laat, entitled "An Act for 
Collecting and Storing a Quantity of Provisions for the \^l^*• or tho Conti- 
nental Army and tho Forces raiseil for tho Defense of thia State." * 

"MVWe(/, That Mesare. Timothy Skinner, Seth Furnhani, Theodore 
Catlin, and Harris Hopkins be a CommKteo to purchase Prorlaioiu agree* 
able to wiid act of Assembly.' 

"' V"ted, That Messrs. Miles Beach and Lcman Stone bo appointed to 
receive tho Salt, procure Casks to contain said Provisions, to n-iolvc and 
inspect the siinie, sue that it Is good and mercbantabic and well put up, 
and mark and store the casks, nod rei>ort to tlie Governor, agreeable tu 
said Act of Assembly,' 

" ' Voted, That said Beach and Stouo l>o also employed to purchase any 
of such ProvislouK as occasion may offer or opportunity proHeut.* 

" ' V'd>d, That said Tiuiothy Skinner, Seth Farnham, Theotloro CalUn, 
Harris Hopkiiis, Miles Beach, ami Lennm Stone be also apptdiited to 
purchase the Clothing required for the Army, ngn^oablo tu dlroctluns to 
bo given to them from time to time b] thv Selectmen.' 

"Doc. 20, I7H0. Ueuben Smith, Katy, Bloderator, * Voird, Tbnt Timothy 
Skinner, Heber .Stono, JamrH Stoddard, Itvuben Stone, David Web h, and 
Zebulon Tuylur be a Committee to liiro, at tbo cont of the town, the 
requisite nnoiborof recruits to cunipletu the quota of this town In the 
Connecticut Line of tho Army of tho United Stales for thrvu yrnn ur 
during tho war.' 

"January !l, 1781, C<donol Andrew Adams, Moderator, * VnUd, That 
whereas It la ni-cessary that thl.t town raUe a number of wddlent to ftll up 
their quota In the Anny of the lUilled .Stjite*. the town diH>ii pmnilAo and 
engage to each suldler that shall enlliit into said sei-vico In ullhor of the 
Connecticut Ballallous iM-foro Ihe lot day of February nrxl, Ihnt tticy 
will nmku good to him bin forty shilllngM |kt month by tuch a*Mlllon b) 
the pity ho ithall receive from the Stale or Iho United States as shall make 
said pay sufflclent to purchase as much Pruvlstons as forty shillings would 
have done In 1774." 

" A tax of three ponce on a pound was laid ou Iho llat of 1T70, OD^-hal^ 



to be paid in wheat flour, rye flour, and Indian corn. Capt. Abraham 
Bradley and Leman Stone were appointed receivers of the flour and corn. 

" Jan. IS, 1781.— It was voted to divide the town in classes for the pur- 
pose of procuring the requisite number of recruits; and the selectmen, 
together with Capt. Abraham Bradley, Capt. John Osborn, Ensign Ed- 
ward Phelps, and Dr. Seth Bird, were appointed a committee for that 
purpose. 

" March 26, 1781. — Nine foot-soldiers and two horsemen are required 
of this town, in addition to those already in the field ; and the necessary 
steps were taken to raise them. 

" July 9, 1781.—' Voted, That the men belonging to this town, lately 
detached for a term of three mouths by special order of the Captain-Gen- 
eral, agreeable to a resolve of His Excellency the Governor and Council 
of Safety of the 19th of June, founded on an earnest Requisition of His 
Excellency General Washington for eight hundred men, etc., have and 
receive out of the Town Treasury, by the Ist of January next, each the 
sum of twenty shillings in silver, or other equivalent, for each month he 
shall be in actual service agreeable to such detachment.' 

" Sept. 18, 1781.—' Captain Miles Beach was chosen Keceiver of Cloth- 
ing and Provisions on the 2«. G«. tax payable in December next; and 
Leman Stone was chosen Eeceiver of such part of said tax as shall be 
delivered to him.' 

" Jan. 3, 1782.—' Voted, That the Town Treasurer be desired to procure 
the order or orders drawn by the Committee of Pay Table in favor of thia 
town, for Bounties ou raising recruits iu the year 1781, now in his hands 
and office, to be exchanged for small orders to tho same amount; and to 
deliver out thirty pounds thereof to each of the respective classes, taking 
proper receipts therefor.' 

" Feb. 25, 1782.—' Voted, to raise ten men for State Service or the Regi- 
ment of Guards for Horseneck, as required by Act of Assembly, by di- 
viding the town into classes on the List of 1781.* 

" (apt. Abraham Bradley, Col. Bezalecl BeelK), and Capt. Lynde Lord, 
wore appointed a committee for that purpose. 

'" Voted, That ten men be added to the al)ove Committee, whoso buai- 
ness it shall bo to notify tho respective classes to meet at tho time and 
place by them appointed, to proceed In raising recruits as aforemen- 
tioned, viz. : 

For the Ist cIoas, Ensign Edward Phelps. 

" " 2d " Oiia* Lewis, 

" " 3d " Benjamin Peck, Jr. 

" " 4th " Ellhu llarrlfcm. 

" " 5th " Ephraim Smedley, Jr. 

" " Cth *' Learning Bmdloy. 

" " 7th •• Ensign Jonathan Wright 

" '* 8th ** Lieutenant David SttHldanl. 

II M 9t|| .1 Cnptaln Alexander Cutlhi. 

" " lOlh " Lieutenant TlmoUiy Skinner. 
" * Voted, That each non-comml!*Bloneil oflicer ond soMier that Is or shall 
bo detached out of this town Into actual Mnlcu tho current year shall 
receive twenty Hhlllings per month fur tho time ho shall thus continue In 
actual servic*' on such draft, or pnKuro a man lo servo for him; and that 
the SiliM-tmcn draw orders on Iho Treasurer acconllugly.' 

'* Mortb I'A, 17K2.— 'Stephen Stone, F.lljah Grinwold.and Dcnjamin Kil- 
liourn having lately been aasctw«don examination by tho Civil Authority 
and Stdvclmen, agreenblo to low, /or ntch n mm !/*>«« to tht mrmy, and 
having requesl<Ml a hearing In Town Meeting, and being heiinl accord- 
ingly, tho qur-ttlon was pn>|wiso4l relalivo to sold Stone In i>ar11cular; and 
tho town t>y vole did not dlschargo said AsMwnionL Whereupon, It being 
late, and other btulness requiring attention, adJourne<t till Thurvlay, the 
28lb, at 10 o'cloik I'M.' 

" At an adjourned meeting, the vote in the cose of 
Stephen Stone was reconsidered, and he was released 
front hia a'^aessment. In the other cases* mentioned 
the asae.i.sment was eonfirmed. 

Apill 2, 17(*2.— " Mcei«r». TInn-tby Skinnor, B(t«M Seymour, and Abra- 
ham Bradley wore appi>ln1oO a ci>mniltlco to niake Inquiry whether any 
of the dosortem frt^m the army IvIunglngUi this town, and not accounted 
as (tart uf the quota of tlio town Iu the late returns of the army, have 
Joln<>d or arc likely Iu Join the army in cunsv<)uenco uf tbo gouorml's 
pr^K-Uniollou, and nhelhor thh town Ls not ovcrralcnl by a mistake In 
tho rop«jrt of Iho commilteo for aerortalulngdenclencloa,"ptc. 

"Ill town-meeting, IGlh Ortol>or, 1Th3, Capt. Muera St<yniour. moder- 
atur, It was voted that the present selin tmon adjust Iho claims of tlie non- 
comnilMU)ne«l onicers and MdiUors who lately ■vrvod In the eight bal- 
talluus of this Stale as part uf the quota of this town, and ilalm a grant 



120 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUiNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



of twenty sbillings per month agreeable to a vote of tliis town passed 
April 15, 1777; and having by agreement with said claimants or otlier- 
wise ascertained tlie sum to tlieni respectively dne, to divide encli man*8 
snm into three eqnal parts, and give certificates thereof in belialf of tlie 
town, payable at tliree different periods, — viz., on the 1st days of Janu- 
ary, 1784, 1785, and 178G, tlie last to be on interest; whicli certificates 
shall be paid by tlie treasurer according to the tenor of them, the one- 
lialf of each in money, and tlie other lialf in provisions at tlie market 
price ; and tliat the selectmen for the time being make tliree town-rates 
for that purpose, — viz., in tlie years 178:i, 1784, and 1785, to be collected 
by the collectors of town-rates for those years respectively, in Docember 
annually, and paid into the town treasury and kept distinct from all 
other town-rates or moneys, orders, and accounts, whatsoever." 

" Through the entire war Litchfield was represented, 
in the persons of one or more of her sons, on the 
Committee of Safety, in the Council of State, and in 
the Continental Congress. At the regular session of 
the Legislature in May, 1780, the representatives from 
this town were Andrew Adams and Jedediah Strong; 
the former was chosen speaker and the latter clerk of 
the House. Maj. Moses Seymour commanded a Litch- 
field company of cavalry at the capture of IJurgoyne. 
Col. Beebe was, during the latter part of the war, chief 
in command of the troops raised for the defense of our 
sea-coast. Gen. Wolcott, Gen. David Smith, and Col. 
Tallraadge were active and energetic officers from tlie 
commencement to the close of hostilities. Col. Shel- 
don, commander of tlie celebrated corps of cavalry 
known in history as 'Sheldon's Regiment of Horse,' 
had been for some twenty years a resident of Litch- 
field, and his troops were raised almost exclusively in 
this vicinity. Capts. Seymour, Stanton, and Wads- 
worth, of this town, commanded companies in this 
corps ; Caj)t. Stanton being at the same time paymas- 
ter of the regiment. Col. Tallmadgo was one of Shel- 
don's most efficient majors. This regiment was Wash- 
ington's favorite corps, and continued to act under 
his immediate direction till the treaty of peace was 
signed, constituting at once his messengers, his body- 
guard, and his agents for the accomplishment of any 
enterprise, however, desperate. Capt. Morris, also of 
this town, commanded one of the companies of the 
'forlorn hope' at the siege of Yorktown. Indeed, 
the citizens of Litchfield were found at the head of 
their battalions or in the ranks in nearly all the great 
battles of the Revolution, including those of German- 
town, Trenton, Princeton, Long Island, and Stony 
Point. 

"■Mr. Hollister, in his 'History of Connecticut, 
says, — 

" When the whole country was in a state of alarm at tlie intelligence 
that Lord Cornwallis, with a large tleet and armament, was approaching 
the American coast, Col. Tallniadge h.appened to pass through Litchfield 
with a regiment of cavalry. While there he attended public worship 
with his troops on Sunday at the old meeting-house that stood upon the 
village green. The occasion was deeply interesting and exciting. The 
Rev. Judah Champion, then the settled minister of the place, — a man of 
great eloquence and of a high order of intellectual endowment, — in view 
of the alarming crisis, thus invoked the sanction of Heaven : 

" Oh Lord ! we view with terror the approach of the enemies of thy 
holy religion. Wilt thou send storm and tempest to toss them upon the 
sea and to overwhelm them upon the mighty deeji, or to scatter them to 
the uttermost parts of the earth. But, peradventure, should any escape 
thy vengeance, collect them together again, Lord ! as in the hollow of 
thy band, and let thy lightniag play upon them ! We beseech thee. 



moreover, that thou do gird up the loins of these thy servants who are 
going forth to fight th.v battles. Make them strong men, tliat 'one 
shall ch.ose a thousand, and two shall put ten thousand to flight.' Hold 
before them the shield with which thou wast wont in the old time to 
protect thy chosen people. Give them swift feet tliat they may pursue 
their enemies, and swords terrible as that of thy Destroying Angel, that 
they may cleave them down when they have overtaken them. Preserve 
these servants of thine. Almighty God! and bring them once more to 
their homes and friends, if thou canst do it consistently with thine high 
piii-poses. If, on the other hand, thou bast decreed that they shall die in 
battle, let thy Spirit be present with thein and breathe upon them, 
that they may go up as a sweet sacrifice into the courts of thy temple, 
where are habitations prepared for them from the fuuudations of the 
world." 

Several British soldiers became citizens of the 
town, among whom were Richard Morris, John I. 
Gatta, John Gla.^s, William Burrell, Henry Poulson, 
James Glass, and Adam Tilford. 

Mr. Kilbourn, in his history, says that at the period 
of which we are writing, " Litchfield was the home of 
a remarkable number of educated thinking men, some 
of whom were already distinguished and others who 
were destined to act an important part in their coun- 
try's history. Indeed, no town in the State could 
boast of a community more refined and patriotic. 
Within the present borough limits resided Oliver 
Wolcott, Andrew Adams, Reynold Marvin, Tapping 
Reeve, Isaac Baldwin, Samuel Lyman, Isaac Bald- 
win, Jr., Elisha Sheldon, John Pierce, Jr., Dr. 
Thomas Little, Lynde Lord, Rev. Timothy Collins, 
Rev. Judah Champion, Dr. Lemuel Hopkins, Dr. 
Reuben Smith, Moses Seymour, Timothy Skinner, 
Abraham Bradley, William Stanton, Ambrose Col- 
lins, Elijah Wadsworth, and Ephraim Kirby. 

To this goodly company were soon added Oliver 
Wolcott, Jr., Ashbel Baldwin, Ezekiel Woodruff, 
Julius Deming, Uriah Tracy, and Dr. Daniel Shel- 
don. 

Sixteen of the gentlemen named were graduated at 
Yale College, and one (Judge Reeve) at the College 
of New Jersey ; three were membere of the national 
Congress, or became such ; seven were captains in the 
Revolutionary war, and four rose to the rank of gen- 
eral officers; two became chief justices, and two gov- 
ernors of the State. 



CHAPTER XL 
LITCHFIELD (Continued). 

Ethan Allen — Elisha Sheldon— Oliver Wolcott — Andrmv Adams — Bez- 
aleel Beebe — Jedediali Strong — Benjamin Talmadge — Tapping Reeve 
— Moses Seymour — Elisha Mason. 

MEN OF THE REVOLUTION.* 
" The historic names of the Revolutionary period 
most intimately associated with Litchfield are those 
of Ethan Allen, Oliver Wolcott, Elisha Sheldon, An- 
drew Adams, Bezaleel Beebe, Moses Seymour, Jede- 
diah Strong, and Tapping Reeve. This chapter will 

* From Ellbourne'e " History of Litchfield." 



LITCHFIELD. 



121 



be mainly devoted to brief biographical sketches of 
these eminent and useful men. 

" Gen. Ethan Allen,* the hero of Ticonderoga, 
was born in Litchfield, Jan. 10, 1737-38. He was the 
eldest child of his parents — Joseph and Mary (Baker) 
Allen — who, when Ethan was about two years old, 
removed to the adjoining town of Cornwall. The 
subject of this sketch spent his youth and early man- 
hood in Cornwall and Salisbury ; and about the year 
1765 emigrated to the ' New Hampshire Grants,' as 
they were then called, a wild, mountainous region 
lying between Lake Champlain on the west and the 
Connecticut River on the east, and extending from 
the Massachusetts line northward to the Canadas. 
This territory was claimed alike by the governments 
of New Hampshire and New York, a fact which led 
to a fierce and long-continued struggle between the 
settlers and Governor Tryon of the latter province. 
The hardy and resolute pioneers banded themselves 
together under the name of the " Green Mountain 
Boys," chose Allen as their commander, and waged a 
war of extermination against all intruders from New 
York. This contest continued until the attention of 
both parties was diverted by the more important 
events which immediately preceded the Revolution. 
By this time Allen was famous throughout the North. 
When, therefore, the seizure of the British fortresses 
on Lake Champlain was secretly resolved upon by the 
Whigs of Massachusetts and Connecticut, Col. Allen 
was, by common consent, selected as the leader of the 
hazardous enterprise. In another part of this vol- 
ume I have referred to this subject, and can here only 
give it a passing notice. In the twilight of a peace- 
ful May morning, in 1775, the hero, followed by a little 
band of trusty soldiers, entered the fortress of Ticon- 
deroga and thundered at the door of the commander, 
demanding the instant surrender of the garrison. 
" By wiiat authority do you demand it?" asked Capt. 
Delaplace, as he stood trembling before the giant 
apparition. "In the name of the oreat Jeho- 
vah AND the Continental Conores-s 1" responded 
Allen, at the same time threatening the captain with 
instant death if his demand wixs not forthwith com- 
plied with. There was no alternative. With a coun- 
tenance and manner not to be mistaken, Allen stood 
with his drawn sword ready to execute his threat. 
The garrison were at once surrendered a.s prisoners of 
war, and all the arms, ammunition, provisions, etc., 
contained in the fort fell into the hands of Allen. The 
capture of Crown Point by Col. Warner, on the fol- 
lowing day, gave the Whigs complete possession of 
Lake Champlain. Col. Allen now visited the Pro- 
vincial Congress of New York and the Continental 
Congress at Philadelphia, and was received with 
marked consideration by both of those illustrious 
bodies. He was admitted to tlic floor of each, and 



* Severn) towiiH clniln lib Urtlipliico. 9«e bUlorjr of Woodbury, elao- 
wbcre In this work. 



permitted to detail his plan for the conquest of Can- 
ada. His plan was approved, and he was commis- 
sioned as a colonel in the Continental army. In Sep- 
tember following he made an unsuccessful attack 
upon Montreal, was taken prisoner, carried to Eng- 
land, and confined in Pendennis Castle. As Ticon- 
deroga had long been a famous place in that country, 
the renown of his exploit had preceded him thither. 
On his arrival at Falmouth, so great was the curiosity 
to see him that crowds of people thronged the high- 
ways, housetops, and rising grounds in the vicinity, 
the oflScers being compelled to force their way through 
the throng for a mile with drawn swords. He was 
dressed in a fawn-skin jacket, an underdress and 
breeches of sagatha, worsted stockings, coarse shoes, 
and a red worsted cap. On shipboard he was treated 
with great severity, being a part of the time hand- 
cuffed and impri.soned in a dirty cell. When angry 
his rage was terrible. Once, on being insulted by a 
petty officer, he twisted off" with his teeth a tenpenny 
nail with which his shackles were fastened ! During 
the spring of 1776 he was brought back to America, 
but was detained in New York as a prisoner of war 
until May 6, 1778, when he was exchanged for Col. 
Campbell. After repairing to headquarters and offer- 
ing his services to Gen. Washington, Allen visited the 
Grants (or Vermont), where his arrival was an- 
nounced by the discharge of cannon, and other dem- 
onstrations of joy. The newly-organized State of 
Vermont appointed him to the office of major-general 
and commander-in-chief of the State militia, and 
sent him as a special delegate to the national Con- 
gress. He was also elected a representative to the 
Legislature, a post to which he was repeatedly re- 
elected. 

"Aside from several pamphlets, which had their 
origin in the controversy with New York, Allen pub- 
lished a narrative of his captivity in a volume of two 
hundred pages, and a theological work entitled ' The 
Oracles of R^jison,' in which he attempts to subvert 
the doctrines of Christianity. His writings are bold, 
artful, and egotistical, and, though sometimes crude 
and unpolished, evince talents of a high order. 

" The following anecdote (indicating that Allen in 
reality had very little faith in his own system of di- 
vinity) is contained in a note to page 4tl!l, vol. ii., of 
President Dwight's ' Travels in New England and 
New York' : 

" Dr. KlUut, who reaiovcil from Guilfunl, In Connecticut, to VennoDt, 
wiia well ac<|iiaiiitc4l with Cul. Allen, An<l ltn«l mmlo lilni r vialt At a 
time when liia Oaugtit«r was very nick nml uonr dcntli. llt< wiu Intro* 
(luceil to the Ilhrary, wlioro the colonel rcail to hint Home of hli writings 
with much fi4;ir-cim)|i1ucency, nod aiketl, * Im not that well <lonu?' While 
thi-y wcru thud iMn|iloyo<l a nicncugor entereil ami Informoil Col. Alien 
that IiIh tlanglitor wiui <l>lng an<l iktilrtKl to ««<> him. tie Imninllalely 
wont to lu<r chnnilH>r accunipAniml hy Dr. Elliot, who wiu tlefflnnm of 
wlliieMlng the Intenicw. Tliuwiri>nr Alien wan a pioti« woman, and 
ha<l InntrncttHl hor diuighttT in the prlnclplDA of rhri«llnnlty. A* MMin 
as her Uthcr nitpcareU at hor boiliiile she ealtj to him, * I aoi nNrnt to die ; 
shall I Ifclleve In the principle yuii have taught me, or ihall I believe 
In what my mother hat taught me ?' Ua Iwcamo extremely agitated, bit 



122 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



cliin quivered, his whole frame shook, and, after waiting a few moments, 
he replied, ' Ddieve ichiit your mother has Utuijht yOH.' 

" While Allen was on parole in New York, a Brit- 
ish officer of honorable rank sent for him to call at 
his lodgings. On his arrival the officer told him that 
his fidelity, though in a wrong cause, had won the 
good opinion of Lord Howe, who was disposed to 
show him favor. He at the same time held out to 
him brilliant prospects of promotion and money, and 
large tracts of land either in Connecticut or Vermont 
at the close of the war. Allen replied, that if by faith- 
fulness he had recommended himself to Gen. Howe, 
he should be loth by unfaithfulness to forfeit the 
general's good opinion ; and as to the lands, he re- 
garded the offer not unlike that made by Satan to 
Christ, who promised him ' all the kingdoms of the 
world,' when in fact ' the old devil didn't own an 
acre' ! The officer thereupon sent him away as incor- 
rigible. 

" Jared Sparks, LL.D. (late president of Harvard 
College), in his biography of the subject of this 
sketch, says, — 

*' Tliere is inucli to admire iu tlie character of Etlian Allen. lie waa 
brave, generous, and frank ; true to liis country, consistent and unjield- 
ing in liis purposes, seeking at all times to promote the best good of man- 
kind, a lover of social harmony, and a determined foe to the artifices of 
injustice and thu encroachments of jiowor. Few have suffered more in 
the cause of freedom, few have borne their sufferings with a firmer con- 
stancy or a loftier spirit. His courage, even when approaching to rash- 
ness, was calm and deliberate. No man probably ever possessed this at- 
tribute in a more remarkable degree. Ue was eccentric and ambitious, 
but these weaknesses, if such they were, never betrayed him into acts 
dishonorable, unworthy, or selfish. So rigid was he in bis patriotism, 
that, when it was discovered that one of his brothers had avowed tory 
principles and had been guilty ol a correspondence with the enemy, he 
entered a public complaint against him in his own name, and petitioned 
the court to confiscate his property in obedience to the law. His ene- 
mies never liad cause to question his magnanimity, or his friends to 
regret confidence misplaced or expectations disappointed. Ho was kind, 
benevolent, humane, and placable. In short, whatever nniy have been 
his peculiarities, and however these niay have diminished the weight of 
his influence and the value of his public services, it must be allowed that 
he was a man of very considerable importance iu the sphere of his ac- 
tivity, and that to no individual among her patriot founders is tlie State 
of Vermont more indebted for the basis of lier free institutions aud the 
achievement of her independence than to Ethan Allen." 

This is certainly a high compliment, coming from 
the source it does. The theological writings of Allen, 
however, were not calculated to render him popular 
with the good people of New England. Preachers, 
poets, and critics joined in a furious crusade against 
him, to all of which he affected the utmost contempt. 
Soon after the publication of his "Oracles," alluding 
to the anticipated attacks of the clergy (in a letter to 
a friend), he says, "I defy the whole artillery of hell- 
fire." The following piece of satire from the pen of 
Dr. Lemuel Hopkins (himself for some years a resi- 
dent of Litchfield), is preserved in Dr. Elihu Hub- 
bard Smith's "Collection of American Poetry," which 
was printed at Litchfield, by Collier & Adam, in 
1792: 

*' Lo, Allen, 'scaped from British jails, 
His tushes broke by biting nails. 
Appears in hyperborean skies. 
To tell the world the Bible lies. 



See him on Green Hills north afar. 

Glow like a self-enkindled star, 

Prepared (with mob-collecting club, 

Black from the forge of Beelzebub, 

And grim with metaphysic scowl. 

With quill just plucked from wing of owl). 

As rage or reason rise or sink. 

To shed his blood, or shed his ink. 

Beholii, inspired from Vermont dens. 

The seer from anti-Christ descends, 

To feed new mobs with hell born manna 

In Gentile lands of Susquehanna; 

And teach the Pennsylvania Quaker 

nigh blasphemies against his Maker. 

Behold him move, ye staunch divines! 

His tall head bustling through the pines; 

All front he seems, like wall of brass. 

And brays tremendous as an ass. 

One hand is clenched to batter noses. 

While t'other scrawls 'gainst Paul and Moses I" 

On the 23d of June, 1762, Allen married Mary 
Bronson, of Woodbury, who died in 1784. Their 
children were Joseph, Loraina, Lucy, Mary Ann, and 
Pamela. Loraina died young, and was the subject of 
the anecdote iust given. 

Gen. Allen died of apoplexy, on his estate at Col- 
chester, Vt., Feb. 12, 1789, aged fifty-one years. 

Elisha Sheldon, a native of Lyme, and a gradu- 
ate of Yale College in the class of 1730, became a 
resident of this village in 1753, and here spent the 
remainder of his life. He was an associate judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas for Litchfield County 
from 1754 to 1761 ; at which latter date he was elected 
a member of the Council, or Upper House, in which 
distinguished body he sat until his decease, a period 
of eighteen years. He was also chosen a represent- 
ative by the freemen of this town at ten semi-annual 
elections. Mr. Sheldon was equally conspicuous in 
the civil and ecclesiastical aff'airs of the town, and 
was often called upon to preside at our town-meet- 
ings. . He also, for a period of eighteen years, held 
the office of county trea.surer. An active patriot in 
the Revolution, he was not unfrequently appointed 
by the Legislature and by his fellow-citizens on im- 
portant committees, having for their object the ad- 
vancement of the common cause. He died in the 
midst of the great contest. His remains rest in the 
West burying-ground, beneath a marble tablet, on 
which is inscribed the following epitaph : 

'* This Monument is erected to the Memory of the Hon. Elisha Shel- 
don, Esq., who departed this life September the firet. Anno Domini 1779, 
in the 79th year of his age. A Gentlenuin of e-xtensivo genius and Lib- 
eral Education, called in early life to various public employments, both 
Civil and Military, all of which he executed with punctuality and fidel- 
ity ; much respected for his Generosity and Benevolence, and greatly 
lamented by his e.xtensive Acquaintance. In early life he made a pro- 
fession of the Christian Keligion, and till his Death adorned it by a very 
E.xemplary Conversation. ' Blessed are the Dead who die in the Lord.' " 

The wife of Mr. Sheldon was Elizabeth Ely, by 
whom he had five children, — viz., Lois (married 
Lynde Lord, Esq., sheriff), Mary, Thomas, Samuel, 
and Col. Elisha (commander of the Second Regi- 
ment of Light Dragoons in the Continental army). 

Oliver Wolcott, LL.D. (son of his His Excel- 



LITCHFIELD. 



123 



lency the Hon. Roger Wolcott, Governor and chief 
justice of Connecticut), was born in Windsor, Dec. 
20, 1726, and was graduated at Yale College in 1745. 
In early manhood he commanded a company of volun- 
teers in the Northern army in the war against the 
French. Having pursued the usual course of medi- 
cal studies, he established himself as a physician in 
Goshen, and was residing there at the date of the or- 
ganization of the county of Litchfield, October, 1751. 
The Legislature appointed him the first high sheriff 
of the new county, and he immediately took up his 
abode in this village and continued to reside here 
until his decease, a period of forty-six years. He 
was thus but twenty-five years of age when he be- 
came a resident of Litchfield, and hence his fame, 
subsequently achieved, as really belongs to us as if he 
had been born in the town. In 1752 he erected the 
"Wolcott House" in South Street, which is still 
one of the most desirable residences in the place. 
With a commanding personal appearance, digni- 
fied manners, a clear and cultivated intellect, and 
a character for integrity far above the reach of 
.suspicion, it is not to be wondered at that he be- 
came a favorite of the people with whom his lot 
was cast. Besides holding the office of sheriff for 
over twenty years, he was chosen a representative to 
the Legislature five times between the years 1764 and 
1770, inclusive; a member of the Council or Upper 
House from 1771 to 1786; judge of the Court of Probate 
for the district of Litchfield from 1772 to 177!) ; judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas from 1773 to 1786; and 
member of the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1784 
(except two years). He was one of that memorable 
band of patriots and sages who, on the 4th of July, 
1776, afti.xcd their names to the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. 

In the early part of the war of the Revolution, 
Judge Wolcott was commissioned as a' brigadier- 
general, and Congress appointed him a Commissioner 
on Indian AfFairs for the Northern Department, with 
Gen. Schuyler and others. In May, 1779, he was 
elected by the Legislature and commissinneil by Gov- 
ernor Tnunbull as major-general of the militia of 
Connecticut to succeed Gen. James Wadsworth, re- 
signed. In these important and responsible stations 
lie rendered the country essential service. On the 
field, in the camp, at the rendezvous, in the depart- 
ments of tlie commi.ssary of supi)lics, in fact, wlicrc- 
ever he could render iiimself useful — he was found, 
ever prompt in planning and efficient in executing. 
At the same time he was an active member of the 
committee of safety, and when at Iiome was equally 
zealous and conspicuous in the local alVairs of the 
town, officiating as moderator, selectman, committee- 
man, etc Indeed, no man in the State at tiiis period 
discliargcd so many and varied public duties. A 
considerable share of the reputation wiiich Connecti- 
cut ac(|uircd for promptness in furnishing men and 
means lor the army is due to Gen. Wolcott. Cer- 



tainly, to no other individual in the western counties 
could Governor Trumbull or Gen. Washington appeal 
for aid, with the certainity of success, as to him. 

In 1786 he was elected to the office of Lieutenant- 
Governor of the State, and was annually re-elected 
for a period of ten years. In May, 1796, he was 
chosen Governor, the highest executive office in the 
gift of the people of his native State. To this dis- 
tinguished position he was again elevated at the 
annual election in 1797. He was now seventy years of 
age. His naturally robust constitution began to feel 
the weight of care and responsibility which had been 
so long pressing upon it. He departed this life at his 
residence at Litchfield, Dec. 1, 1797, aged seventy- 
one years. A sermon was preached at his funeral by 
the Rev. Azel Backus, D.D., which was published. 
Governor Wolcott had long been a professed disciple 
of Christ, and his faith in the efficacy of the great 
atonement sustained him in the decisive hour. 
" With all the splendor of his station and his well- 
earned fame," says Dr. Backus, " he was not ashamed 
to pray in the expressive language of the publican, 
'God be merciful to me a sinner,' and to make the 
most feeling declarations of his own personal un- 
worthiness. For several days before his death the 
shattered remains of a once noble mind and vigorous 
body were devoted continually to God. His very 
breath appeared to be prayer, until, after many pain- 
ful struggle,*, he fell asleep. O, death ! in what a 
mortifying light doth thy power put the little glory 
of this diminutive world! To what insignificance 
do earthly honors dwindle before the grandeur of 
eternity ! Nevertheless, the death of such a charac- 
ter is a grievous loss, especially under the present 
threatening aspects of Divine Providence and the 
perilous situation of the countrj'. Such tried charac- 
ters are the 'salt of the earth' and tlie pillars of our 
national existence. The presence, firmness, counsels, 
prayers, and example of such fathers should be 
esteemed the 'chariots of Israel and the horsemen 
thereof.' But God governs the world, ami his will is 
done. Let it be the -solemn care of each one of us to 
make a profitable improvement of the frown of Heaven 
in this removal." 

Joel Harlow, in his great national poem. The Co- 
lumbiad, thus refers to his zeal and efforts in the cause 
of Independence: 

" n*»M W.ii.roTT urgod tho all'ini{iorUnt caUM, 
With (tteatly hituti tlio !«<.i|t>iiiri occDe ho dniwi; 
Undaunted f1riniK>!ii »ith Ilia wlddooi Joiuod, 
Nur liliigx nur worlds cuuld warp bii stoadlut mind." 

" No resident of the town ever achieved a more 
honorable and wide-spread fame than Oliver Wolcott 
and no name in the historic annals of the town and 
State in which his life was passed is more earnestly 
and atVectionately cherished than his. His family 
have been and are distinguished— some for liigh po- 
litical stations, others for enterprise and wealth, some 
as professional or literary men, and all for their lib- 



124 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



erality, sterling moral qualities, and exalted social 
position. His mortal remains rest in the East bury- 
ing-ground, surrounded by those of many of his de- 
scendants and kindred. 

" Governor Wolcott married Lorana Collins, of 
Guilford, in 1755 ; she died April 19, 1794. Their 
children were Oliver (who died in infancy), Oliver 
(2d), Lorana (married Hon. William Moseley, M. C, 
of Hartford), Mary Ann (married Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor Goodrich, of Hartford), Frederick (see bio- 
graphical notes). Ursula Wolcott (a sister of Gover- 
nor Wolcott, next older than himself) married Gov- 
ernor Matthew Griswold, and was the mother of 
Governor Roger Griswold. Thus, her father, brother, 
husband, son, and nephew were all Governors of 
Connecticut, a fact which cannot, probably, be said of 
any other lady who ever lived in the State or United 
States. 

"Andrew Adams, LL.D. (a native of Stratford, 
and a graduate of Yale College in the class of 1760), 
commenced the practice of law in Litchfield in 1774, 
and continued to reside here until his death, which 
took place in November, 1797. He rose rapidly in 
public esteem, and was chosen a representative in 
October, 177G, a post to which he was nine times re- 
elected. A friend of the Revolution, he took a promi- 
nent part in its favor in our town-meetings, and by 
his influence and ettbrts did much to promote the 
cause of the patriots in this vicinity. He rose to the 
rank of colonel, and was for a short time in actual 
service in the war. In 1779, and again in 1780, he 
was speaker of the House of Representatives, the 
other member from Litchfield (the Hon. Jedediah 
Strong) being at the same time clerk of the House. 
Col. Adams was a member of the Council of Safety 
two years, a member of the State Council nine years, 
a member of the Continental Congress three years, a 
Commissioner of the Northern Congresses at Hartford 
and Providence in 1780; an associate judge of the 
Superior Court four years, and chief justice from 1793 
until his decease. He was also for a few years a dea- 
con of the First Church in this town. 

" The body of the subject of this sketch rests be- 
neath a marble tablet in the West burying-grouud. 
His epitaph is as follows : 

" In Memory of the Hon. Andrew Adams, Esq , Chief Judge of the 
Superior Court, who died November 27, 1797, in the 63d year of liis age. 
Having filled many diBtinguished offices witli great Ability and Dignity, 
he w.is promoted to the higliest Judicial Office in tlie State, whicli he 
held for several years, in which his eminent Talents shone with uncom- 
mon Lustre, and were exerted to the great Advantage of the Public and 
the honor of the High Court in which he presided. He made an early 
Profession of Religion, and zealously sought to promote its true Inter- 
ests. He lived the Life and died the Death of a Christian. His filial 
Piety and paternal tenderness are held in sweet Remembrance." 

• 

" Mrs. Eunice Adams, his wife, died June 4, 1797, 
aged fifty-three years. 

" The Litchfield Monitor mentions it as a sad and 
singular coincidence that Governor Wolcott and Chief 
Justice Adams (the two highest official dignitaries of 



the State), both residing in the same village and on 
the same street, should be lying apparently at the point 
of death at the same time. Governor Wolcott sur- 
vived his distinguished neighbor about three days 
only.* 

"Col. Bezaleel Beebe was born in Litchfield, 
April 28, 1741, and spent his life in his native town, 
except when absent in the service of his country. At 
the age of seventeen he enlisted as a soldier in the 
French war, and marched with Capt. Evarts' com- 
pany to Fort George, where he was for some time 
stationed. He was afterwards a member of Maj. 
Rogers' celebrated corps of Rangers, an account of 
whose exploits was published in London by their he- 
roic commander; and, with Rogers, he participated 
in the engagement which resulted in the capture of 
Maj. Israel Putnam. During much of the succeeding 
year he was stationed at Fort Miller under Capt. 
Whiting. In 17G0 he enlisted in a company com- 
manded by Capt. McNeile, of Litchfield, and con- 
tinued in the service for three years, having in the 
mean time been chosen one of the sergeants of the 
comi)auy. On the 11th of July, 1764, he was mar- 
ried to Elizabeth, daughter of Capt. John Marsh, of 
this town, and settled on the paternal homestead, 
north of Bantam Lake, which is still owned and oc- 
cupied by his descendants. On the breaking out of 
the Revolutionary contest he was once more sum- 
moned to the field, having been commissioned as a 
lieutenant in the first recruits raised for that service, 
April, 1775. He forthwith marched with his com- 
pany to Boston, and thence, after a short detention, 
to Crown Point, where he was transferred to the 
quartermaster's department. From this time onward 
he was in actual service (except while detained as a 
prisoner of war) until the spring of 1781, at which 
time he applied for and received an honorable dis- 
charge, and once more returned home. As his dis- 
tinguished public services have been frequently re- 
ferred to in the preceding pages, it will not be ex- 
pected that I should repeat them here. Suffice it to 
say, that he rose to the rank of colonel in the Conti- 
nental army, and enjoyed in an eminent degree the 
confidence and respect of his superiors in office as well 
as of the soldiers under him. While chief commander 
of the coast-guard of this State he performed the 
duties and received the pay of a brigadier-general. 
A commanding figure, and a peculiar dignity of char- 
acter and manner, united to an innate kindness of 
heart and a courage equal to any emergency, con- 
tributed to render him an efficient and popular officer. 

" He was chosen a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives for the first time in the autumn of 1781, as 
a colleague of the Hon. Jedediah Strong, and was re- 



* I have said that Judge Adams commenced the practice of law in 
Litchfield in 1774. The indications are that he became a retfident here 
some eight or ten years earlier than that date. .-Ih Andrew Adams of 
this town was a commissioner on two estates as early as 17GG, and was 
chosen a lister in 1772 and 1773. — Kilboiirne. 



LITCHFIELD. 



125 



elected during the two succeeding years. In 1788 the 
Constitution of the United States was ratified, and the 
general government reorganized. In 1792, '93, and 
'95, Col. Beebe was returned to the Legislature. He 
also served his fellow-citizens as a selectman both 
before and after the war; and through life was much 
employed by the Court of Probate in settling estates 
of persons deceased. He departed this life May 24, 
1824, aged eighty-three, his widow surviving him 
about a year. Several of his Revolutionary letters to 
Governor Trumbull, Gen.Silliman, etc., are preserved 
among the ' Trumbull Papers' in the library of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston. 

" Jedediah Strong was born in Litchfield, Nov. 
7, 1738, and here spent his entire life. He graduated 
at Yale College in 1761, and, with a single exception, 
he was the first native of the town who ever received 
a collegiate degree. He first studied divinity, but, 
being early elected to office, he abandoned the sacred 
profession for the more congenial pursuits of petti- 
fogger and politician. He acquired and long main- 
tained a political ascendency second only to that of 
Wolcott and Adams. He was a representative at 
about thirty regular sessions of the Legislature, at 
fourteen of which he was clerk of the House. In 
May, 1773, he was appointed (with Roger Sherman, 
Eliphalet Dyer, Matthew Griswold, and William Sam- 
uel Johnson) a commissioner to wait on Governor 
Penn at Philadelphia, to negotiate relative to the 
lands west of the Delaware. In May, 1779, he was 
appointed a delegate to the Continental Congress in 
place of the Hon. Stephen Titus Hosmer, resigned ; 
and was reappointed in the October following. He 
was also an associate judge of the County Court for 
eleven years, a member of the Council of Safety, a 
member of the State Council, and a delegate to and 
secretary of the convention which ratified the Con- 
stitution of the United States. He was a lister six 
years, a selectman thirteen years, and town clerk six- 
teen years. The first wife of Judge Strong was Ruth 
Patterson, who died leaving an only daughter, Ida 
Strong. In 1788 he married Susannah, daughter of 
the Hon. George Wyllys, Secretarj' of State, Hartford. 

"Col. BEN.JAMIN Tali^madoe was born at Brook- 
liaven, L. I., Feb. 25, 1754. His father, who bore the 
same name, was the pastor of the church in that place, 
and his mother was a daughter of the Rev. John 
Smith, pastor of the church at White Plains. The 
subject of this sketch graduated at Yale College in 
1773. While superintendent of the high school at 
Wethcrsfield, in this State, he received a lieutenant's 
commission, with the appointment of adjutant of the 
regiment, both commission and warrant bearing date 
June 20, 1776. In these capacities he joined the army, 
and continued in actual service until the close of the 
war. ( )n the 15th of December of the year Inst named 
he received a captain's commission in Sheldon's Second 
Regiment of Light Dragoons. As this commission 
came from Gen. Washington him.self, the honor was 
9 



conspicuous and highly appreciated. He was pro- 
moted to the rank of major, April 7, 1777, and took 
his station as a field-officer of the regiment. A sepa- 
rate detachment for special services was committed to 
him several times in the course of the war, on which 
occasions he received his orders directly from the 
commander-in-chief. On the opening of the spring 
campaign, 1777, Gen.Washington, foreseeing that Gen. 
Howe meditated some decisive blow, directed that all 
recruits should be sent forward to headquarters as fast 
as they were collected. He also sent a particular 
order to Col. Sheldon {who was at his winter quarters 
in Wethersfield) to send on all the effective men of 
his regiment. Having about men and horses enough 
for four companies, they were placed in the best possi- 
ble order, and the command given to Maj. Tallmadge. 
His own company were all mounted on dapple-gray 
horses, which, with black straps and black bear-skin 
holster-covers, looked superbly. On his route to 
Washington's encampment, at Middlebrook, N. J., 
he passed with his troops through Farmington, Litch- 
field, Kent, Peekskill (where he crossed the Hudson), 
Haverstraw, Pompton, and Morristown, reaching the 
headquarters of the commander-in-chief on the 23d of 
June. Maj. Tallmadge participated in the battles of 
Short Hills and tlie Brandywine, though before the 
latter engagement the remainder of the regiment, 
commanded by Col. Sheldon in person, had arrived. 
In the battle of Germantown the position of Mnj. 
Tallmadge's squadron was at tlie head of Gen. Sulli- 
van's division on the left of the centre. In the early 
part of this sanguinary engagement the .Vmcricans 
seemed almost certain of success, but the heavy fog 
which soon enveloped botli armies i)revented them 
in some cases from distinguishing tlieir friends from 
their enemies. They were thus thrown into confu- 
sion, a panic ensued, and our men fled in every direc- 
tion. By order of Gen. Washington, Maj. Tallmadge 
repeatedly threw his dragoons across the principal 
thoroughtare to check the retreat of the infantry, but 
the effort was inell'ectual. 

" While our army were encamped at Valley Forge, in 
the gloomy winter of 1777-78, the major was stationed 
with a detachment of dragoons, as an advanced corps 
of observation between our army and that of the 
enemy. In the perfornuince of his duty he scoured 
the country l)etween the Schuylkill and Delaware 
Rivers, a distance of five or six miles, for the double 
purpose of watching the movements of the enemy, 
and preventing the disallected from carrying provis- 
ions to the enemy at Philadelphia. While on this 
service he wivs attacked, about two o'clock one morn- 
ing, by a large body of British light horse com- 
manded by Lord Rawdon, and, after defending him- 
self resolutely for u while, efTeeted his escape with the 
loss of but three or four men killed and as nmny more 
wounded. While temporarily halting soon after nt 
the ' Rising Sun' inn, within sight of the British out- 
posts at Philadelphia, a country girl arrived from 



126 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



the city, whither she had been sent with eggs, with 
instructions to obtain some information respecting 
the enemy. While slie was communicating with the 
major on the subject the British light horse were seen 
advancing. In an instant he mounted his horse, when 
he found the poor girl at his side, begging him to pro- 
tect her. Without a moment for reflection, he told 
her to mount behind him, which she did, and in this 
w.ay they rode at full speed to Germantown, about 
three miles. 

" After taking part in the battle of Monmouth, and 
in the defense of Norwalk (Conn.), Maj. Tallmadge 
planned and executed an expedition against the en- 
emy at Lloyd's Neck, on Long Island. Here was a 
strongly fortified post, manned by about five hundred 
troops, in the rear of which post a large band of ma- 
rauders were encamped. For the purpose of break- 
ing up this band of freebooters, he embarked at Sliipan 
Point, near Stamford, Sept. 5, 1779, at eight o'clock 
in the evening, taking with him about one hundred 
and twenty men. The attack was so unexpected, 
that nearly the whole party were captured. Having 
destroyed the boats and huts of the enemy, the party 
re-embarked with their prisoners, and before daylight 
landed on the Connecticut shore without the loss of a 
man. 

"In the autumn of 1780, Maj. Tallmadge was sta- 
tioned on the lines in Westchester County. Re- 
turning from below to the regiment, then near North- 
castle, on the evening of September 23d, he was 
informed that a prisoner had that day been brought 
in by the n.ame of John Anderson. On inquiry, he 
learned the particulars of his capture by three militia- 
men, — Paulding, Van Wert, and Williams. He fur- 
ther ascertained that Lieut.-Col. Jameson (who, in 
the absence of Col. Sheldon, then had command of the 
dragoons) had sent the prisoner to Gen. Arnold's 
headquarters, accompanied by a letter of information 
respecting his capture. At the respectful but earnest 
solicitations of Maj. Tallmadge, Anderson was brought 
back to Northcastle, but Jameson persisted in sending 
the letter forward to Gen. Arnold. The observation 
of the major soon led him to the conclusion that the 
prisoner had been bred to arms, and communicated 
his suspicions to Lieut.-Col. Jameson, requesting him 
to notice his gait, especially as he turned on his heel 
to retrace his course across the room. The major 
remained with him almost constantly, and became 
deeply interested in his new acquaintance. After 
dinner on the 24th he requested the use of pen, ink, 
and paper, which were readily granted him. He im- 
mediately wrote the celebrated letter to Gen. Wash- 
ington, in which he acknowledged himself to be ' Maj. 
John Andre, Adjutant-General to the British Army.' 
This letter he handed unopened to Maj. Tallmadge, 
who read it with deep emotion. The sad and im- 
portant sequel of the story is familiar to every reader. 
A court-martial of fourteen general officers (Gen. 
Greene presiding) adjudged him to be a spy from the 



enemy, and that, 'agreeable to the law and usage of 
nations, he ought to suffer death.' At five o'clock in 
the afternoon of October 2d, Maj. John Andre died on 
a gibbet, in the presence of an immense concourse of 
sympathizing people. His military suit having ar- 
rived from New York, he was executed in full uni- 
form. Maj. Tallmadge walked with him from his 
place of confinement to the foot of the scaffold, where 
he bade him an affectionate farewell. Years subse- 
quently, he wrote, 'I became so deeply attached to 
Maj. Andre, that I can remember no instance where 
my affections were so fully absorbed in any man. 
When I saw him swinging under the gibbet, it seemed 
for a time as if I could not support it. All the spec- 
tators seemed to be overwhelmed by the affecting 
spectacle, and the eyes of many were sufiused in 
tears.' 

" In the autumn of 1780, Maj. Tallmadge requested 
permission of the commander-in-chief to attempt the 
destruction of the enemy's works at Smith's Manor, 
L. I., but the general regarded the expedition as 
too hazardous to be undertaken. Maj. Tallmadge 
did not, however, abandon the project, but secretly 
visited Long Island for the purpose of making obser- 
vations and gaining information. On his return he 
made another application, and obtained the consent 
of Gen. Washington. On the 21st of November, with 
one hundred dismounted dragoons, he embarked at 
Fairfield, crossed the sound, and marched toward Fort 
George, on south side of Long Island. The garrison 
was surprised and captured, the works were de- 
molished, and the houses, shipping, and an immense 
quantity of stores were burnt. Some valuable arti- 
cles of dry goods were made up in bundles and bound 
upon the shoulders of the prisoners, who were pinioned 
two and two. The victors then recrossed the island 
to their boats with their prisoners and booty. While 
the main body were thus on the march, the major 
selected eight or ten men, mounted them on horses 
which he had taken at the fort, and made a digression 
for the purpose of destroying the king's magazine at 
Coram, which he accomplished, and in the course of 
an hour and a half joined his associates at a place 
where he had ordered them to halt. The whole com- 
pany arrived in Fairfield, only one person engaged in 
the expedition having been seriously wounded. Among 
the prisoners taken were one lieutenant-colonel, one 
lieutenant, one surgeon, about fifty rank and file, and 
a host of others in the garrison. For this daring and 
successful exploit Maj. Tallmadge received the public 
thanks of the commander-in-chief and of the Congress 
of the United States. 

" He continued in actual service until the close of 
the war, and was engaged in several other desperate 
enterprises. Our article, however, is already too long, 
and we must close the narrative of his Eevolutionary 
services with the relation of a single additional fact. 
From 1778 to 1783 an important and confidential 
correspondence was carried on between Gen. Washing- 



LITCHFIELD. 



127 



ton and Maj. Tallmadge, a large part of which is still 
in possession of the Tallmadge family. 

"In November, 1782, he purchased of Mr. Thomas 
Sheldon (for the sum of £800) the premises in North 
Street, in this village, still known as The Tallmadge 
Place. In the purchase-deed of this property he is 
styled ' late of Long Island, now of the Continental 
army.' He continued in the public service about a 
year longer, when the army was disbanded and the 
subject of this stetch retired to private life with the 
rank of colonel. Before separating the officers of 
the army formed themselves into a national associa- 
tion, called The Society of the Cincinnati, of which 
Washington was chosen the first president. At the 
same time a similar society was formed for each State. 
Col. Tallmadge was chosen the first treasurer, and 
subsequent president of the Connecticut society. 

" On the 16th of March, 1784, Col. Tallmadge was 
united in marriage to Mary Floyd (daughter of Gen. 
William Floyd, of Mastic, L. I., a signer of the Dec- 
laration of Independence), and at once took up his 
residence in this village. Here he engaged exten- 
sively and successfully in merchandising until 1801, 
when he was elected a member of the Congress of 
the United States. For a period of sixteen years 
(by re-election every two years) he held his seat 
in that distinguished body. Once more retiring 
from public life, he devoted himself witli even more 
than his usual zeal to the advancement of every 
good cause. For many years he was an officer and 
liberal benefactor of various charitable institutions 
and societies, while his contributions to the needy in 
his own town were much more freciuent and extensive 
than were known to the public. 

"On the 3d of June, 180-5, Mrs. Mary Tallmadge 
died in Litchfield, leaving five sons and two daughters, 
viz. : William S., Henry F., Maria, Frederick A., 
Benjamin, Harriet W., and George W. May 3, 1808, 
Col. Tallmadge married Maria, daughter of Joseph 
Hallctt, Esq., of New York. He died at his residence 
in this village, March 13, 1835, in the eighty-second 
year of his age. 

" Col. Tallmadge possessed a tall and portly figure, 
and a courtesy and dignity of manner wiiich seemed 
to have belonged peculiarly to the era in which he lived. 
At the same time he was as accessible to the humblest 
as he was to the highest in the land. All loved and 
reverenced him. The old soldiers of the Revolution 
were wont to seek his assistance and advice, and they 
were ever received with cordiality and their wishes at- 
tended to. Officers, also, of every, grade frequently 
visited him, and never failed to meet with a hospita- 
ble welcome. 

"The beautiful homestead where Col. Tallmadge 
spent more than fifty years of his life adjoins that 
where his comrade in arms. Col. Sheldon, spent his 
chiUlhood, youth, and early manhood. 

"Taiting Keeve, LL.D., became a resident of 
Litciifield in 1772, and spent more \.\u\njijli) yean of 



his life in this town. A son of the Eev. Abuer Reeve, 
of Southold, L. I., he was born in that place in Octo- 
ber, 1744. He graduated at the college of New Jer- 
sey in 1763, and spent four years as a tutor in that in- 
stitution. On the 24th of June, 1773, he married 
Sally Burr, a daughter of President Burr, of New 
Jersey College, and a granddaughter of the renowned 
President Edwards. So long as she lived she was an 
invalid, and for many years her husband spent a large 
portion of his time in ministering to her wants. 

"Though liis domestic Hfflictions withlieUl him from the active scenes 
of the Revolution," Si-iys Dr. Beecher, in his funenxl tliscouree, "none 
entered more deeply into his country's c.iuse than he. He shared with 
his generation all the vicissitudes, hopes, fears, self-ilenials, and losses of 
that arduous day. He possessed, though early in life, the confidence, 
and participated in the couusels, of the wise and great and good men of 
that era; and at the moment ol greatest dismay, when Washington fled 
with his handful of troops through the Jerseys, and ordei^s came for New 
England to turn out m mii'*se and make a diversion to save him, the 
judge w.is among the most ardent to e.\cite the uuivereal movement, 
•and actually went in the capacity of an officer to the vicinity of New 
York, where the news met them of the victories at Trentou and Priuce- 
toD, aud once more Wasliington and the country were delivered." 

" At one time he had the honor of entertaining at 
his house in this village Gen. Lafayette and some of 
his brother officers, who were passing through this 
region on important public business. In 1784 he 
opened his celebrated law-school, of which he was 
the principal for nearly forty years. Though fitted 
to shine in public life, and though official honors were 
always within his reach, he seems rather to have 
shunned than sought promotion. He was once elected 
a repre-sentative, and once only a member of the 
council. He was an enthusiast in his profession, and 
had, indeed, but little taste fi)r anything else of a 
secular nature. In 17i'8 he was appointed a judge of 
the Superior Court and of the Supreme Court of 
Errors. Here his peculiar talents found ample scope 
for their full development. Until the adoption of 
the constitution of 1818, all our judges were elected 
annually by the Legislature. Judge Reeve gave such 
universal satisfaction that ho continued to be reap- 
pointed from year to year until 1814, when he was 
promoted to the office of chief justice, (^n reaching 
the age of seventy years he retired to private life, still, 
however, devoting much of his time to his favorite 
law-school. He died here, Dec. 13, 1823, in the 
eightieth year of his age. He was eminently dis- 
tinguished for his piety and learning. In seasons of 
revival, and indeed at all times, no layman in the 
parish was so efficient as a colaborer with the pastor 
as Judge Reeve." 

Mrs. Saliic Reeve died soon after the war, leaving 
an only smi, Aaron Burr Reeve. The latter died in 
Troy, N. Y., in 1809, leaving an only son, Tapping 
Burr Reeve, who received his first degree at Yule Col- 
lege in 1829, and died the same year. With him the 
family of Judge Reeve became extinct. April 30, 
1798, the Judge married a second wife, — Betsey Thomp- 
son, — who snrviveil him a few years. 

Maj. MosEei Sey.mouk was bom in Hartford, July 



128 



HISTOllY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



28, 1742, and liccamc a resident of Litchfield in early 
manliood. Early in the war of the Revolution, he was 
commissioned as captain of the troop of horse attached 
to the Seventeenth Regiment of Connecticut militia. 
In June, 1776, Elisha Sheldon, Esq., of Salisbury, 
was appointed major-commandant of the Fifth Regi- 
ment of Cavalry ; and the subject of tliis sketch re- 
ceived the appointment of captain of one of the com- 
panies of this regiment. Though Maj. Sheldon was 
subsequently transferred to the command of the Second 
Regiment of Dragoons in the Continental army, Capt. 
Seymour retained his connection with the Fifth until 
the close of the war. 

In April, 1777, on the occasion of the Danbury 
alarm, Capt. Seymour mustered his troojjs and pro- 
ceeded forthwith to assist in repelling the invasion of 
Governor Tryon. He participated in the skirmishing 
■which followed the retreat of the enemy towards the 
Sound. At the cajiture of Burgoyne, in October of 
the same year, he was once more at the head of his 
favorite corps, and did good service in that most im- 
portant and decisive engagement. A day or two after 
the terms of ca])itulation were signed, the American 
officers invited Burgoyne and liis associate officers to 
dine witii them. At this interesting festival Capt. 
Seymour was present. His account of tlic conversa- 
tion that took place on the occasion between the con- 
querors and the conquered, and particularly his minute 
recital of the toasts given on lioth sides, are still re- 
membered with interest by his neighbors. The utmost 
courtesy and good feeling prevailed on the jiart of the 
principal officers, and the responses to the sentiments 
given were hearty and enthusiastic. At length, Gen. 
Burgoyne was called upon for a toast. Every voice 
was for the moment hushed into the deepest attention, 
as he arose and gave — "America and Great Britain 
againitt tlie trorld.'" The response which followed 
may be imagined. 

During the night which succeeded the final battle 
between Generals Gage and Burgoyne, Capt. Seymour 
watched with a British officer who had been wounded 
and carried off the field in tlie midst of the engage- 
ment. Soon after he had entered the room the officer, 
who had not before learned the fate of the day, in- 
quired eagerly of Capt. Seymour as to the result. On 
hearing that the British had been defeated, he re- 
marked, " Then the contest is no longer doubtful ; 
America will he independent. I have fought earnestly 
for my king and country, but the contest is ended !" 
The kindness of Capt. Seymour to him, an enemy, 
deeply afieetcd him. He thanked him again and 
again; and finally offered him his w'atch and other 
rewards, which were of course refused. The gallant 
American did all in his power to relieve the distresses 
and soothe the mind of his charge, but his wounds 
proved fatal. 

During the greater part of the war Capt. Seymour 
was stationed at Litchfield as a commissary of sup- 
plies for the army. In this department of the public 



service his zeal and efficiency were conspicuous, and 
duly apjireciated by Governor Trumbull, Cien. Wol- 
cott, and others. Few men in this section of the State 
labored as untiringly or accomplished more. I have 
elsewhere stated that Litchfield was a depot for mili- 
tary stores and jirovisions. Capt. Seymour was em- 
ployed not only in the purchase of these articles, but 
assisted in storing and guarding them while here, and 
in superintending their transportation wherever they 
might be ordered by the competent authorities. In 
September, 1781, we find him with his dragoons, by 
order of Gen. Wolcott, guarding a train of wagons, 
loaded with supplies for the French army, from Litch- 
field to Fishkill.* 

With the peace of 1783, the subject of this sketch 
retired to private life with the rank of major. In 
1789 he was elected by his fellow-citizens to the office 
of town clerk, a post to which he was annually re- 
elected during the remainder of his life, a period of 
thirtij-seren years ! This uuintorrupted bestowment 
of an office upon one individual for so long a time is 
unprecedented in the history of the town. He was 
also a member of the House of Representatives at 
sixteen regular sessions, commencing with the Octo- 
ber session, 1795. In the early part of the present 
century Maj. Seymour was occasionally a candidate 
of the political party with which he was connected 
for the council of State. In 1805 he received 7426 
votes, and at the election of the succeeding year he 
received 7671 votes, for that office. 

Maj. Seymour was a gentleman of the old school, 
retaining to the last the manners and costume of that 
now obsolete class. 

On the 7th of November, 1771, he married Molly, 
daughter of Col. Ebenezer Marsh. Their children were 
Mrs. Carissa Marsh, wife of the Rev. Truman Marsh ; 
Moses Seymour, Jr., for many years sheriff of Litch- 
field County ; Ozias Seymour, also for many years 
sheriff of the county; Horatio Seymour, of Vermont, 
who for twelve years was United States Senator; 
Henry Seymour, one of the first canal commissioners 
of New York, and father of ex-Governor Seymour; 
and Epaphro Seymour, Brattleboro', Vermont. 

Maj. Seymour died at his residence in this village, 
Sept. 17, 1826, in the eighty-fourth year of his age. 

"There is yet another name which should be men- 
tioned with respect in this connection, that of Elisha 
Mason, the last of the Serolutionary soldiers in Litch- 
field. With a patriotism as unquestioned and a zeal 

* Tlie French conimissjiry, Jujardy N. Granville (who appears to have 
possessed a very iuiperfett knowledge of our language), left the following 
curious acknowledguieut of the service, which is on file in the comp- 
troller's office : 

" We, Commissary of "War, employed in the Army of Bochambeau, 
Certified that the Detachment composed of 24 Dragons or Light Horses, 
commanded liy 5Ir. Moses Seymour, capitaine, came on with our teams 
and stores from Litchfield. M'e certified beside that the said Capitain 
Moses has taken a great care for the security of our convoy and baggage 
while he stay with us till this place. 

"JuJAEDY N. Granville. 

"Fishkill, Sep. 22, 1781." 




V. 



•^/^/^ jtxJ^Titn^ 



LITCHFIELD. 



129 



as ardent as can be claimed for the most renowned of 
our heroes, he performed the humbler duties of his 
sphere as faithfully as they, though all uncheered by 
the hope of fame or pecuniary reward. He died in 
this village, June 1, 1858, in the one hundredth year of 
his age. I frequently had occasion to consult him on 
matters of local interest, and found his mind clear 
and his memory retentive almost to the last. He 
seemed like one who had come down to us from a dis- 
tant generation. In the last interview I had with him 
(Jan. 18, 1858), he assured me that he well remem- 
bered the first meeting-house ever built in this town, 
and which was demolished when he was about three 
and a half years old. He also recollected the old fort, 
which occupied the site of the present court-house, as 
well at that which stood on Chestnut Hill, both of 
which v.'ere erected as a defense against the Indians. 
In the great struggle for independence he had periled 
his life in the cause of his country. And what was 
his reward? On one occasion, at the expiration of a 
term of service, he was discharged on the Hudson, 
and paid oft' in Continental currency. Starting home- 
ward, on foot, he reached Danbury, where he spent 
the night. In the morning, on attempting to settle 
his bill, his Continental money was refused. He 
offered larger and still larger sums, and finally ten- 
dered bills to the amount of forty dollars for his lodg- 
ing and meals ; but the landlord refused to take the 
currency on ani/ terms. Mr. Mason was finally com- 
pelled to pawn his rifle to cancel his indebtedness. As 
his wages were but eight dollars per month, he thus 
oftered the avails of five months' services for his keep- 
ing for twelve hours ! But, though so poorly re(iuited 
by the country for which he had fought, tiie soldier 
lived to enjoy the blessings of a free government, and 
in bequeathing them as a rich legacy to liis posterity, 
he felt himself abundantly repaid for all his toils and 
privations." — Kilboukxe. 



CHAPTER XIL 

LITCHFIELD (Continued). 
ECCLESIASTIC.VL Ilt.-^TORY. 

Congregational Cliuruli, LitctiflcIU— Congregntlnnnl Cliiirch, Miltun — 
ConKi'cgatiuiialCliiircli, Niiitlifli>lil— St. MIlIhu'I's Cliiinli, Utcliflclil— 
Melhoilist fhuKii, Utcliflcld — St. PBiifa Cliunli, Hanlain Kiilli — 
Trinity Chiircli, Milton — lUi|ilii»t Cliurrli, ItaiitiUn Falls — Iloniuu 
Catliulk Church, Lltchfleld. 

The pioneers of this town brought with them from 
Lebanon the Rev. Timothy Collins, and at the first 
town-meeting of wiiich any record is extant, Nov. (i, 
1821, lie was "calleil to a settlement in the place in 
tlic work of the ministry." He wits orihiined a.s pas- 
tor July 19, 172.3. 

" There is no evidence, either recorded or tra<li(ion- 



ary, which would lead us to suspect that aught but 
the most perfect harmony existed between pastor and 
people during the early part of his ministry. The 
first inference to the contrary may be drawn from the 
i doings of a town-meeting held Dec. 25, 1728, when a 
memorial from Mr. Collins was read, and the consid- 
eration thereof ' postponed till the next meeting,' 
which, however, was not called until nearly three 
months afterward. It appears from the records of the 
meeting in March that the memorial had reference to 
' the discount of money since the agreement was made' 
between the parties. It was finally resolved to pay 
him ten pounds per year, in addition to the eighty 
pounds originally agreed upon as his salary, ' until 
the town shall see cause to order otherwise.' 

"On the 14th of April, 1731, the first vote was 
passed for ' seating the meeting-house.' In the doings 
of the same meeting occurs the following entry : 

"ToftW, aj'ler dark, that Mr. Cullinei have the choice of the pews for 
himself and family.' 

"The peculiar significance of the wording of tins 

vote will be understood when taken in connection 

I with a previous vote, which jprovided that 'no act of 

, the town sliould stand in force that was passed a/ler 

daylight failed to record it.' 

" The controversy, which began in a dispute con- 
cerning the salary of Mr. Collins, was continued 
through a long series of years, and increased in im- 
portance and acrimony. Though a decided majority 
of the church and society took sides against their pius- 
tor, there was still a respectable minority who sus- 
tained him. In 1744 the town voted ' not to make 
any rate for Mr. Collins under pre.-:ent difiiculties.' 
At the same time a committee was appointed to treat 
with the pastor respecting his salary 'and absence 
from the work uf the ministry.' In December, 174.'>, a 
committee wass appointed ' to eject Mr. Collins from 
the parsonage right.' In December, 17-')0, Mr. Collins 
was desired to ' resign his ministerial office.' During 
the succeeding month a committee wius appointe<I to 
carry a charge against Mr. Collins to the Consociation, 
'for unfaithfulness in the ministerial olficc.' To this 
last vote Scrgt. Joseph Ma.son, Lieut. Moses Stod- 
dard, and Messrs. ( Jeorge Marsh, Archibald McNoile, 
John Alarsh, William Teck, Sylvanus Stone, Asa 
Hopkins, and Alexander McNelle ' did protest.' 
Two years later a similar vote to the last was offered 
in town-meeting, and negatived by a decided ma- 
jority, — yeas, 13; nays, 41. 

" After a ministry in this town of about tliirty years, 
Mr. Collins vacated the pulpit in 17.'J2. Though his 
pecuniary contest with the town continued for a few 
years later, he seems to have been not unpopular 
either as a ciliiicn or civilian. Like many of the 
clergy of that diiy, he had received a medical educa- 
tion, and he continued here as a practicing physician 
during the remainder of his life. He wilh elected by 
the voters of this town to the offices of lister and 
selectman, and was appointed by the Legislature a 



130 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



justice of the peace for Litclifield County. In 17-55 
he was appointed a surgeon of one of tlie Connecticut 
regiments in tlie expedition against Crown Point. He 
is represented to have been a gentleman of good tal- 
ents and stately demeanor, but with manners by no 
means conciliatory or popular. It is worthy of men- 
tion, as indicating that he may have been ' sinned 
against' in his controversy with the town, that he was 
successful in the only lawsuit growing out of it. He 
died in Litchfield in 1776. 

"In February, 1753, the town voted a call to the 
Kev. Judah Champion, of East Haddam, who had 
graduated at Yale College in 1751. Two thousand 
pounds, old tenor currency, was voted as his settle- 
ment, and eight hundred j>ounds, old tenor, was voted 
as his yearly salary. Mr. Benjamin Webster was ap- 
pointed to visit Mr. Champion and deliver to him 
these votes of the town. Mr. Champion accepted the 
call, and was ordained as pastor of the First Church, 
July 4, 1753. 

" On the 30th of December, 17G0, the town voted 
to build a new meeting-house on the green, and Mr. 
Joseph Yuill, Mr. Alexander McNeilc, Deacon Peter 
Buel, Jacob Woodruff, Esq., and Capt. Solomon Buel 
were appointed a building committee. At the same 
time Keynold Marvin, Esq., was designated as the 
town's agent to apply to the County Court for a com- 
mittee to fix the place for said meeting-house, and 
Col. Ebcnezer Marsh, Timothy Collins, Esq., and 
Capt. Elisha Sheldon were appointed to wait on the 
committee of the court. The edifice was erected near 
the site of the old one, and was sixty-three feet long 
by forty-two feet wide, with a steeple and bell. It was 
comjiloted during the autumn of 17G2. The old meet- 
ing-house was sold at auction in November of that 
year, Mr. Asa Hopkins vendue-master. 

" Mr. Champion proved to be an able and popular 
minister, and continued here iu the pastoral ofl5ce 
until 1798. He died in this town, Oct. 5, 1810, in his 
eighty-second year. 

" From the organization of the town to the year 
1768 all business relating to schools and ecclesiastical 
affairs was transacted in town-meeting. The society 
of South Farms (or the Second Society of Litchfield) 
having been incorporated, the First Society met for 
the first time. May 9, 1768. Elisha Sheldon, Esq., 
was chosen moderator; Isaac Baldwin, Esq., clerk; 
Mr. Joshua Garrett, treasurer ; and Mr. Edward 
Phelps, Jr., Capt. Oliver Wolcott, and Capt. AVilliam 
Marsh, society's committee. There was little done at 
these society's meetings, from year to year, except to 
appoint officers, committees, and choristers. Now 
and then we find an entry in the records of a different 
character. Thus, December, 1772, measures were 
taken for ' coloring the meeting-house, and putting up 
electrical rods' At the same meeting the society's 
committee were directed ' not to let the town's stock 
of powder and ball to be store.d in said house.' Two 
years later it was voted that ' the new method of singing 



at present taught by Mr. Lyman' should be intro- 
duced into the public worship of the congrega- 
tion ; and the singers taught by Mr. Lyman were 
granted ' the use and ]irivilege of the front seats in 
the gallery.' The subject of the minister's salary still 
gave the society much trouble. Mr. Champion com- 
plained of the depreciated and fluctuating currency, 
as Mr. Collins had done before him. To obviate this 
difficulty the society, in 1779, voted to give him as 
his salary for the then current year the sum of seventy- 
five pounds sixteen shillings, money, ' to be paid in 
the following articles at the usual prices affixed, viz., 
wheat, at four shillings per bushel ; rye, at three shil- 
lings do. ; Indian corn, at three shillings do. ; flax, at 
sixpence per pound ; pork, at twenty-five shillings per 
hundredweight; beef, at twenty shillings do.; tried 
tallow, at sixpence per pound ; lard, at fivepence do. ; 
oats, at one shilling per bushel.' 

" Mr. Champion's successor was the Rev. Dan 
Huntington, who at the time he received the call to 
settle here was a tutor in Yale College. He was or- 
dained in October, 1798. As he was a gentleman of 
learning and eloquence, the church and society were 
delighted with their new pastor, and he appears to 
have been no less pleased at being settled in such a 
place and over such a people. He thus wrote con- 
cerning them, — 

" 'A delightful villnge, on a fruitful hill, richly eiiduwod with its schools, 
both professional autl scientific and their accomplished teachers. With 
its venoralde Governors and judges, witli its learned lawyers and sena- 
tors and representatives, both in the National and State departments, 
and with a population enlightened and respectable, Litchfield was now 
in its glory.' 

" During Mr. Huntington's ministry in this place a 
remarkable religious awakening overspread this and 
the adjacent parishes, resulting in the hopeful con- 
version of about three hundred persons among the 
different denominations of Litchfield. 

" ' This town,' siys Mr. Huntington, ' was originally among the num- 
ber of those decidedly opposed to the movements of former revivalists, 
and went so far, iu a regular church-meeting called expressly for the 
purpose under the ministry 6f the venerable Mr. Collins, as to let them 
know, by a unanimous vote, that tliey did not wish to see them. The 
effect was they did not come. The report circulated that Litchfield had 
* voted Ciirist out of their borders.' It was noticed by some of the older 
people that the <leath of the last person then a member of the church 
was a short time before the commencement of our revival.* 

" Previous to the settlement of Mr. Huntington, the 
society voted him a ' settlement' of one thousand dol- 
lars and an annual salarj- of four hundred dollars, 
also agreeing to continue to Mr. Champion, during 
life, a salary of one hundred pounds. In December, 
1805, a subscription was made of funds to be placed 
at interest, for the purpose of adding two hundred 
dollars to the salary of the pa.stor. It would seem, 
however, that, notwithstanding these efibrts to increase 
his income, Mr. Huntington had resolved upon leav- 
ing. The church and society, in February, 1807, 
voted not to concur in his request that a separation 
should take place between them. A council, how- 
ever, was called, and the connection amicably dis- 



LITCHFIELD. 



131 



solved. In March, 1810, the society voted a unani- 
mous call to the Eev. Lyman Beecher, which was 
accepted, and he was installed on the 30th of the 
succeeding May, President Dwight, of Yale College, 
preaching the installation sermon. After a successful 
ministry in this town of about sixteen years, he ac- 
cepted a call from the Hanover Street Church, 
Boston, and was dismissed Feb. 21, 1826. His 
successor in the ministry here was the Kev. Daniel 
Linn Carroll, who was ordained Oct. 3, 1827, and was 
dismissed, at his own request, March 4, 1829. 

" In 1827 the society voted to erect a new church 
edifice, and Messrs. Frederick Wolcott, Stephen Dem- 
ing, Salmon Buel, William Buel, and Leonard Good- 
win were appointed a building committee. This 
church was located upon the site of the present 
church, and was dedicated July 15, 1829. 

" The Rev. Laurens P. Hickok, of Kent, was the 
next pastor, having been installed July 15, 1829. 
During his ministry here of about seven years two 
hundred and fourteen persons united with the church. 
Ninety-five of these were added at two communion 
seasons in the autumn of 1831, being a part of the 
fruits of the great revival of that year. In Sep- 
tember, 1836, Dr. Hickok, having been elected pro- 
fessor of theology in the Western Reserve College, 
Ohio, requested a dismission from his pastoral charge, 
which was reluctantly granted, and he was dismissed 
Nov. 15, 1836. 

"June 12, 1838, the Rev. Jonathan Brace, of 
Hartford, was ordained as pastor of the church, and 
was dismissed, at his own request, Fob. 28, 18-14. 
During his pastorate of about six years not far from 
one hundred and fifty persons united with tlic church. 

"The Rev. Benjamin L. Swan was installed as the 
eighth pastor Oct. 22, 1846, and closed his labors here 
on the 10th of May, 1850, having supplied the pulpit 
with much ability and acceptance for nearly ten 
years. 

" Rev. Leonard Woolsey Bacon wa.s ordained Nov. 
16, 1856, on which occasion the ordination sermon 
was prcaclied by his fatlier, tlie Rev. Leonard Bacon, 
D.D., of New Haven ; resigned in 1860. Rev. George 
Richards, acting pastor, January, 1861, to December, 
1865; Rev. William B. Clarke, pastor, Dec. 27, 1866, 
to November, 1869; Rev. Henry B. Elliott, acting 
pastor, April 1, 1870, to April 1, 1H74; Rev. Allan 
McLean, acting pastor, Nov. 21, 1875, still here. 

"Beacons of the First Cliurch from 1723 to 1859, 
John Buel, Nathaniel Baldwin, Benjamin Hosford, 
Benjamin Kellogg, Benjamin Webster, Thomas Har- 
rison, Peter Buel, Moses Stoddard, Andrew Adams, 
William Collins, Ozias Lewis, Thomas Trowbridge, 
Andrew Benedict, Frederick Buel, Truman Kilbourn, 
Charles Adams, Cyrus Catlin, IKiiry W. Buel, Henry 
B. Bi.ssell, Frederick D. McNeil, George >L WoodrulV." 

The present oflicers of the church are Cliarles 
Adams, Clerk; Frederick D. McNeil, Treasurer; 
Henry R. Coit, Auditor; Henry B. Bissell, Henry 



W. Buel, Frederick D. McNeil, George M. Woodruff, 
Deacons. Present number of members, two hundred 
and seventy-four. 

Sunday-School. — George M. Woodruff, Superinten- 
dent and Treasurer ; Charles B. Bishop, George H. 
Trowbridge, Librarians. 

Jan. 4, 1867, Frederick D. McNiel and George M. 
Woodruff were chosen deacons in place of Charles 
Adams, resigned, and Frederick Buel, deceased. 

The present church edifice was completed and oc- 
cupied in 1873. 

MILTON CONGREGATIONAL CHnUCH.* 

The first record now in existence connected with 
the history of this church is dated in the year 1779, 
but the date of month and day are so dim as to be 
undecipherable, and is a record of an adjourned meet- 
ing of the Third Society of Litchfield. David Welsh, 
Esq., was chosen moderator and Jesse Judd clerk. 
It was 

" Voted, That we will hire Mr. Steplien ITeaton to i)reaLh with us seven- 
teen (lays, for which we agree to give him thirty-five bushels uf wheat, 
or equivalent in money, to be paid by the 20th of November, 1780." 

Another society meeting was held on the 8th of 

April following, when it was voted to hire Mr. Hcaton 
yet longer, a.s the language is, " to complete our winter 
privileges." There are several records of this sort : 

" Voted, That wo will improve our church pnvilcgcs this winter." 

This seems to mean that public worship was main- 
tained within the bounds of the society during the 
winter, while the inhabitants went to Litchfield 
during the summer. 

The society took tiie name of Milton on the second 
Monday of June, 1795, under an act of the tieneral 
Assembly of 1795, May se.ssion, incorporating it as 
an ecclesiastical society. The society is composed of 
the northwest part of Litchfield and adjoining terri- 
tory in the towns of Goshen, Cornwall, and Warren. 
There are persons from all four of these towns in the 
communion of the church. 

The church was organized Aug. 19, 179.S, with 
eleven male and thirteen female members. For the 
first few years it was served by supplies. April 26, 
1802, Rev. Benjamin Judd was invited to settle, and 
was installed as pastor on the 19th of May. Within 
a year, or a year and a half, tlie church was greatly 
weakened by the withdrawal of several intluential 
members, so that Mr. Judd was led to propose the 
dissolution of the pastoral relations. This took place 
in June, 1804. 

Rev. Abraham Fowler was installed Sept. 16, 1807, 
anil was dismissed June, 1813, in conseciuence of the 
financial weakness of the society. From this time 
forward there was no settled ministry or steady wor- 
ship until 1841, more than twcnty-sovon years. 
During this period, however, there were two very 
powerful revivals of religion, adding many members 



* ContrlbnM bj' B«*. Qtorg* J. n^rtbun. 



132 



HISTOKY OP LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



and preserving the church from destruction. The 
first of these occurred very soon after the dismission 
of Mr. Fowler, and in connection with the labors of 
the celebrated Dr. Nettleton. An interesting account 
of this revival is given in the "Life of Nettleton." 
As a fruit of this work twenty-seven persons united 
with the church. One of these, Daniel Page, still 
survives, after an interval of nearly sixty -seven years. 

There was another powerful revival in the winter 
of 1825-26, in connection with the labors of Rev. 
Lewis Smith, an evangelist. As a fruit of this work 
twenty-seven persons united with the church on the 
16th of April, 1826, and fourteen on the 28th of May. 
Of these, one only is still living and in the communion 
of this church. 

In the year 1841 some of the members of the church 
and society were led to feel that they could not live 
longer without regular public worship. Proper steps 
were taken, and Rev. Ralph Smith was employed as 
minister. He began his labors in October, 1841, and 
remained till April, 1844. 

Rev. John F. Norton was ordained pastor in Oc- 
tober, 1844, and at his own request, under a feeling 
of discouriigement, was dismissed in April, 1849. 

Rev. Heman L. Vaill began to supply the pulpit 
June 3, 1849, and closed hi^abors Dec. 1, 1851. The 
society was then in debt, and felt unable to continue 
worship. A meeting w.as called to arrange for the 
payment of the debt, and then to cease further effort. 
At that time Mr. A. P. Smith, a citizen of Milton, 
who hitherto had taken no active interest in the 
affairs of the church, encouraged them to go forward. 
The debt was paid, the seats rented at a higher rate, 
and Mr. Francis Williams employed as preacher. 
Mr. Williams commenced on the second Sabbath of 
December, 1851, and closed his labors on the last Sab- 
bath of April, 1853. He was followed by Rev. James 
Noyes, who remained about eleven months. 

Rev. George J. Harrison began his ministry here 
Sept. 14, 1854, and is still in charge (March, 1881), 
having now served the church nearly twenty-seven 
years. 

Jan. 1, 1881, there were fifty-five members of the 
church, — nineteen males and thirty-six females. 

This church, during its entire existence, has en- 
countered great trial and difliculty. It has been weak 
in numbers and resources, and has been maintained 
under much discouragement, and at the cost of much 
personal sacrifice and self-denial. Its members trust 
that God, who has thus far watched over and kept 
them, will continue to keep and bless them. 

CONGKEGATIONAL CHUECH Or NORTHFIELD.* 

Northfield was first known as Southeast Farms, 
and was composed of territory lying part in the town 
of Northbury and part in the town of Litchfield, from 
which the settlement obtained the name of Northfield. 
It is not known at what date an ecclesiastical society 

*Conlriljiited by Rev. H. A. Otraan. 



was formed, but the first society meeting of which 
there is a record was held Oct. 15, 1789, when it was 
voted to hire a minister for six months. 

In 1792 a committee was appointed to build a 
meeting-house, and on April 21, 1794, it was voted to 
petition the general assembly to be set ofl' as a distinct 
society. On the 10th of the following November it 
was voted to give Rev. Joseph E. Camji a call to be- 
come pastor of the church. November 24th it was 
voted to give Mr. Camp a settlement of one hundred 
pounds, and more if it could be raised, with a salary of 
seventy jjounds a year for four years, seventy-five 
pounds the fifth, eighty pounds the sixth, and eighty- 
five pounds thereafter. 

The struggle to obtain the first meeting-house was 
a long one, for not until eleven years after the com- 
mittee was ajipointed to build a meeting-house was it 
completed. The expense of the building was three 
thousand one hundred and sixteen dollars. The land 
upon which the house was built was the gift of a Mr. 
McCall. 

The Congregational Church was formed Jan. 1, 
1795, consisting of fourteen members, as follows : 
Samuel Peck, Steven Sanford, Titus Turner, John 
Warner, Abigail Sanford, Anna Warner, Tabitha 
Merriman, from the Northbury Church ; Abel Atwa- 
ter and Bethiah Peck, from the church in Litchfield ; 
Ebenezer Todd and Ebenezer Todd, Jr., from the 
church in North Haven ; Israel and Hannah Wil- 
liams, from the church in Westbury; and Zerviah 
Curtiss, from the church in Cheshire. The sermon 
was preached by Rev. Mr. Waterman, of Northbury, 
admonishing the new church to let its light shine. 

Rev. Joseph E. Camp became the first pastor of 
this church, and served it for a term of forty-two 
years, being dismissed in 1837, living only a year after 
the relation between himself and the church was sev- 
ered. During his ministry one hundred and seventy- 
five members were added to the church. 

This church was connected with the Litchfield 
South Consociation until June 20, 1859, when it sev- 
ered its connection with that body. Since the dis- 
mission of Mr. Camp the church has had but two set- 
tled pastorates, both of them being quite brief. The 
present membership of the church is one hundred and 
one. 

This church has received occasional bequests dur- 
ing the more recent years of its existence, the largest 
being a munificent gift, by Mr. Asa Hopkins, of about 
ten thousand dollars, the interest of which is used an- 
nually for the '■ support of the gospel" in Northfield. 

ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH.t 

Among the first settlers of the town of Litchfield 
none were Episcopalians. Mr. John Davies, who came 
from England in the year 1735, was in all probability 
the first Episcojialian who settled here, and for some 
years the only one. But in the year 1745, on the 5tli 

I Contributed by Rev. Storrs 0. Seymour. 



LITCHFIELD. 



133 



day of November, a number of persons, thirteen in 
all, who were anxious to have the services of the 
Church of England, met at the house of Mr. Jacob 
Griswold, who lived about a mile west of the village. 
The result of this meeting was that the services of 
Mr. Cole were secured to act as lay reader. These 
services were kept up for two years, when Mr. Davies, 
in 1747, executed a deed conveying, by a lease for 
nine hundred and ninety-eight years, fifty-two acres 
of land to Mr. Cole, for the use of the " Society for 
Propagating the Gospel," — a missionary society of 
the Church of England which is still in existence. 
For this Mr. Cole and his heirs were to pay annually 
on the trust of St. Michael one peppercorn, if law- 
fully demanded. In addition to this land, fifty acres 
more were procured and deeded to the same society. 
Both lots were to be for the benefit of the Episcopal 
minister in Litchfield. This land was situated in the 
southwest part of the town, a little northeast of " Lit- 
tle Mount Tom," and is now owned by Harvey 
Waugh and Lucius L. Griswold, and is still called 
the " Glebe." 

The first service held by a clergyman episcopally 
ordained was by the Rev. Dr. Johnson, of Stratford, 
but there is no record of the date. 

There have been three church edifices in the his- 
tory of St. Michael's parish. The first one was built 
on the hill west of Kilborn's Brook, just south of the 
barn which stands on the land now owned by Mr. 
Joseph Merriman. This building was raised on the 
2.Sd of April, 1749. It has generally been su]ipose<l 
that Mr. Davies gave the land for this building ; but 
this is a mistake. An examination of tlie town rec- 
ords shows that Mr. Davies never owned this land. 
The Rev. Mr. Mansfield, of Woodbury, officiated 
when the church was opened for divine service. 

The records of the parish do not show when the 
second church building wa.s erected. Tlie land on 
which it stood, on the east side of South Street, Wius 
given to the parish by Samuel ALirsli, Esq., of Nor- 
folk, Va., the brother of the Rev. Truman Marsh, 
who was rector at that time. The building must iiave 
been so far advanced that services could be held in it 
by 1S12, for a vote was pa.<sed in that year to dispense 
with tlie use of the old church in part, and to use the 
new one at such times as the clergyman and society's 
committee deemed expedient. 

At a special meeting held Dec. 12, 1814, a commit- 
tee was a|ipointed to dispose of the old church as they 
thought best. 

This second building was consecrated by the Right 
Rev. Bishop Brownell, D.I)., June 3, 1824. It re- 
mained in use till 1851, when it was torn down to 
make room for the present edifice. Of this the cor- 
ner-stone was laid July 15, 1851. It was finisiied 
December 10th, and consecrated by Bishop Brownell 
on December Kith of the same year. No change wiig 
made in it until the winter of 1S81, when the galleries 
were removed and some other slight changes made. 



Since the time when the services of the Church of 
England were first used here — viz., in 1745 — down to 
the present time the parish of St. Michael's Church 
has been served by a long line of able, learned, and 
godly men. The first missionary who served here 
was the Rev. Solomon Palmer, at one time the Con- 
gregational minister in Cornwall. He went to Eng- 
land, and, after being ordained to the deaconate and 
the priesthood, was sent by the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel as missionary for Litchfield, 
Cornwall, and Great Barrington, Mass. He remained 
in this position for nine years, and was succeeded by 
the Rev. Thomas Davies, a grandson of Mr. John 
Davies, to whom the church in Litchfield owes .so 
much. In one of his reports to the society in Eng- 
land, Mr. Davies says that there were sixty-one fami- 
lies in his charge here. Mr. Davies died at New Mil- 
ford in the spring of 1766. The Rev. Mr. Palmer 
then returned here, and acted as missionary until his 
death, in 1771. 

In 1772 the Rev. Mr. Moseley came here as mission- 
ary. He was not much liked, and, some difficulty 
arising between him and the people, he was with- 
drawn. He was the last clergyman whose stipend 
was paid by the English society, for, although the 
Rev. James Nichols came here in 1775, under an 
appointment from the society, the outbreak of the 
Revolutionary w-ar led, of course, to a suspension of 
relation between the church in this country and in 
England. During this war Mr. Nichols either did 
not remain in Litchfield or, if he did, did not offi- 
ciate, for Mrs. Anna Dickinson, in her account of 
the parish, says that during this time Mr. Daniel 
London was in the habit of reading service and a ser- 
mon, and that he was not deterred from it even by 
the stones which the soldiers threw through the win- 
dows while he was reading. After peace was declared, 
Mr. Nichols officiated here until 1784, when he re- 
signed and removed to Vermont. 

When the independence of the colonies had been 
acknowledged by Great Britain, and State govern- 
ment had been set up, the churchmen of Litchfield 
organized as a society under the laws of the State. 
This was done on Oct. 26, 1784, and the jiarish as- 
sumed the legal title "The First Episcopal Society 
of Litchfield." The society compriscil then, as now, 
three parochial organizations, — St. Michael's Church, 
Litchfield ; St. Paul's, Berntown ; and Trinity, Milton. 
Mr. .\slibel Baldwin was their first rector. He offi- 
ciated here as lay reader, being then a candidate for 
holy orders, for about a year. On .\ug. It, 1785, he 
was ordained deacon by the Right Rev. Samuel Sea- 
bury, D.D., the first American bishop. This ordina- 
tion, which WHS held at Middletown, was the first in 
this country. 

The following is a list of the clergymen who have 
been connected with St. Michael's Church : Revs. 
Solomon Palmer, 17.54-63; Thomas Davies, 1763-60; 
Solomon Palmer, 1766, to Nov. 2, 1771 ; Richard 



134 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



Moseley, 1772-73 ; James Nichols, April 20, 1775, to 
May, 1784 ; Ashbel Baldwin, Sept. 9, 1785, to Oct. 
28, 1793 ; David Butler, D.D., Nov. 28, 1794, to Feb- 
ruary, 1799 ; Truman Marsh, Nov. 5, 1799, to Nov. 1, 
1829; Isaac Jones (associate rector), Sept. 7, 1812, to 
April 1, 1826; John S. Stone, D.D. (associate rector), 
Dec. 26, 1826, to January, 1829; William Lucas (as- 
sociate rector), 1829-32; Samuel Fuller, D.D., Octo- 
ber, 1832, to July, 1837 ; William Payne, D.D., April, 
1838, to May, 1845 ; Samuel Fuller, D.D., July 27, 
1845, to Oct. 1, 1849 ; Benjamin W. Stone, D.D., Oct. 
8, 1849, to May, 1851 ; John J. Brundage, D.D., Aug. 
1, 1851, to Feb. 1, 1854; James M. Willey, April 8, 
1855, to April, 1858; Henry N. Hudson, June 27, 
1858, to Nov. 1, 1860 ; William S. Southgate, Nov. 1, 
1860, to Jan. 1, 1864 ; Rt. Kev. Wm. Stevens Perry, 
D.D., Nov. 27, 1864, to May 6, 1869 ; C. S. Henry, 
D.D., 1870, to Nov. 30, 1873 ; G. M. Wilkins, Feb. 20, 
1874, to Jan. 9, 1879 ; S. O. Seymour, April 27, 1879, 
present rector. 

In addition to the gifts of land spoken of above, the 
parish has received many interesting and valuable 
gifts during its existence. Early in its history it re- 
ceived from the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel a number of volumes of ecclesiastical history 
and doctrinal theology. Most of them have been 
scattered. A few, however, are still in the parish 
library. In 1803 the Hon. Ephraim Kirby presented 
to the parish a folio copy of the Book of Common 
Prayer and a Bible. These were in use for many 
years, and are still preserved. After the second church 
was erected, and about 1822, Mr. Solomon Marsh pur- 
chased a fine-toned organ and placed it in the church. 
In May, 1852, he gave it to the parish, where it was 
used till the present one was bought, about fifteen 
years ago. In 1857, Mrs. Marsh, widow of the Rev. 
Truman Marsh, gave the present rectory and the lot 
on which it stands. This was for the use of St. Mich- 
ael's parish, and not for the benefit of the whole so- 
ciety. 

In 1856, Mr. Hosea Webster, of Brooklyn, who has 
always manifested a deep interest in the parish, gave 
a thousand dollars, the interest of which is to be used 
for the benefit of the Sunday-school. In 1863 the 
parish lost a warm friend in the death of the Hon. S. 
P. Beers. For half a century he had been connected 
with the parish, and no one has ever devoted more 
time and thought to its interests than he did. The 
bulk of his jjroperty was left by will to the " First 
Episcopal Society." The income from this source is 
divided equally among the three parishes. 

Besides these, the parish has received from many 
individuals gifts of less value, but highly esteemed 
for the sake of the donors. During the last year a 
collection has been made of portraits of former rectors. 
By great pains likenesses have been found of all who 
have ever been connected with the parish excepting 
the Rev. Messrs. Palmer, Moseley, and Nichols. These 
have been hung in the vestry-room of the church, 



where, as a sort of " cloud of witnesses," they may 
seem to their successors as a reminder that " the night 
Cometh when no man can work." 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

" In June, 1790, the Rev. Freeborn Garretson, one 
of the ablest and most earnest apostles of Methodism 
in America, visited Litchfield on his way from the 
Hudson River to Boston. He was at that time super- 
intendent of the Northern District, and in his itiner- 
ant journeyings was almost invariably attended by 
his colored servant Harry, who was himself a licensed 
preacher of no mean distinction. They traveled to- 
gether on horseback, apparently vying with each other 
in their zeal for the promotion of the cause of their 
common Master. On Wednesday, June 23d (as we 
learn from Dr. Stevens' 'Memorials of Methodism'), 
Mr. Garretson 'rode seven miles to Litchfield, and was 
surprised to find the doors of the Episcopal church 
open and a large congregation waiting for him. He 
discoursed from the words "Enoch walked with God," 
and believed good was done. He left Harry to preach 
another sermon, and went on to the centre of the 
town; the bell rang, and he preached to a few in the 
Presbyterian meeting-house, and lodged with a kind 
churchman.' On the same day Mr. Garretson wrote 
in his diary : 

'"I preached in the skirts of the town, wliere I was opposed by , 

who made a great ilistiirbance. I told him tlie enemy liad sent him to 
pick up tiie good seed, turned my baciv on him, and went my way, accom- 
panied by Brotheia W. and H, I found anotlier waiting company in 
anotlier part of tlie town, to whom I declared, *' Except ye repent ye 
shall all likewise perish." In this town we have given the devil and the 
wicked much trouble ; we have a few good friends.' 

"On his return from Boston, Mr. Garretson again 
preached in Litchfield, Friday, July 13, 1790. So far 
as I have learned, these were the first Methodist ser- 
mons ever preached in this town. 

" The Litchfield circuit was organized during the 
spring of 1790, and embraced, according to Mr. Ste- 
vens, 'the northwestern section of Connecticut.' In 
May, 1791, the Rev. Messrs. Matthias Swain and 
J.ames Covel were appointed by the Conference to 
labor in this circuit. Their immediate successors, 
previous to the commencement of the present cen- 
tury, were Rev. Messrs. Lemuel Smith, Samuel Os- 
trander, Philip Wagner, James Coleman, Enoch 
Mudge, F. Aldridge, Jesse Stoneman, Joseph 
Mitchell, Daniel Dennis, AVesley Budd, Ezekiel Can- 
field, AVilliam Thatcher, Ebenezer Stevens, Freeman 
Bishop, and Augustus Jocelyn. 

" On the 21st of July, 1791, the famous Bishop As- 
bury preached in the Episcopal church in this town. 
In reference to his visit here he wrote, — 

"' I think Morse's account of his countrymen is near the truth ; never 
have X seen any people who could talk so long, so correctly, and so seri- 
ously about trifles.' 

" There are no records whatever indicating the 
progress of this denomination in Litchfield for many 
years subsequent to the last of the dates here given. 



LITCHFIELD. 



135 



The names of the following persons in the grand list 
for 1805 are put down as ' members of the IMethodist 
Society,'— viz., Noah Agard, Isaac Baldwin, Ebenezer 
Clark, Thomas F. Gross, Elisha Horton, Samuel 
Green, Jonathan Hitchcock, Roswell McNeil, Jona- 
than Rogers, Daniel Noyes, John Stone, and Arthur 
Swan." 

This church was organized Aug. 23, 1836, and a 
church edifice erected on Meadow Street. The first 
board of trustees were William R. Buell, Benjamin 
Moore, William Scoville, Abiel Barber, and George 
Bolles. 

The pastors have been as follows : Charles C. Keyes, 
first pastor; among his successore were Wm. Dixon, 
Wm. B. Hoyt, N. C. Lewis, H. N. Weed, D. Louns- 
bury, David L. Marks, Wm. Howard, Joseph Vinton, 
Wm. Lawrence, Joseph Munson, Chapman, Syl- 
vester Smith, J. Taylor, Wm. H. McAllister, Wm. L. 
Douglass, F. Cromlish, and Thomas J. Watt, present 
pastor. 

The present trustees are Leonard Stone, George W. 
Thompson, Jacob Morse, David E. Buell, P. H. Cum- 
uiings, and A. B. Shumway. The church edifice was 
erected in 1837, and a chapel has since been added. 
Extensive repairs were made in ISOG, and others since; 
the chapel was repaired and furnished in 1879. 

ST. PAUL'S CHUECH, BANTA5I FALLS* 

This church is an oiTshoot from St. Michael's, Litch- 
field Centre, and. though a separate ecclesiastical or- 
ganization, is included in the First Episcopal Society 
of Litchfield. A number of members in the western 
part of the town determined on withdrawing from the 
society, and accordingly petitioned to be released from 
paying taxes, with permission to organize a aeiiarate 
parish. The petition was granted, and on Nov. 14, 
1797, an organization was duly efl'ected under the 
name of the Second Episcopal Society of Litchfield, 
when officers were appointed consisting of society's 
committee, clerk, and treasurer. A churcli edifice 
was soon afterwards erected, fifty by thirty-six feet, 
surmounted with tower and stee|)le, the interior being 
furnished with deep galleries, a high pulpit, st capa- 
cious sounding-board, and other ancient appendages. 
This I)uilding was situated on the height directly 
opposite the burial-ground, and was known as the 
West Church. Mr. Nathaniel Bosworth contributed 
one hundred pounds for purcliasing a bell, wliich 
amount was increased by other contributions. The 
bell thus purchased bears the inscription, " Fenton & 
Cochniti, New Haven, 1802."t 

In June, 1799, the parish applied to reunite with St. 
Michael's, Litciifield, which application was granted, 
and articles of union were agreed to on the lOtli of 
the following September. It was agreed that two- 



* Contributed by Ror. Blram Bton*. 

t An mroneons ImprawioD lina somonhiil «xleiulTe1]r prevniled that 
ttilH ht'll xvu of vory tncient Jato iind cnitt In a foreign country. The 
above lii»cTlptlon Bervee to correct the luifwjiprehriuiiou. 



fifths of the clergyman's services should be given to 
St. Michael's, two-fifths to the West Church, and one- 
fifth to Milton. 

The first edifice had become much out of repair, and 
at a meeting of the parish on July 21, 1843, it was 
voted to take it down and erect a new one, forty-six 
by thirty-two feet, in its stead. Work immediately 
began, and the new church was opened for service on 
Sunday, Dec. 24, 1843. Soon after, at a parish meet- 
ing, it was voted to call the church St. Paul's, by 
which name it was consecrated, Nov. 1, 1844, by the 
Right Rev. T. C. Brownell, D.D., bishop of the diocese. 
The first edifice seems never to have been consecrated. 

In 1826 occurred the first practical separation of 
the three parishes, when a society's committee was 
appointed for this parish. In 1832 wardens and 
vestrymen were first appointed by the First Episco- 
pal Society, which manner of appointment has been 
continued annually on Easter Monday for the three 
parishes. July 20, 1879, Mrs. Mary Ann Wilmot, 
widow of the late Lucius Wilmot, died, leaving by 
will her new, commodious, and convenient house 
as a rectory for St. Paul's Church. This parish 
shares with St. Michael's, Litchfield, and Trinity, 
Milton, the proceeds of a fund given by Mr. John 
Davies about the middle of the last century, as also a 
later fund donated by Hon. Seth P. Beers. A small 
income likewise accrues to the parish from a fund left 
many years since by Mr. Nathan Landon. 

The present church edifice h.as been enlarged by 
the addition of a chancel, wiiilc receiving several 
improvements in it-s interior arrangements. 

The churches of Bantam and Milton still continue 
component parts of the First Episcopal Society of 
Litchfield, yet, as independent parislie«, they conduct 
their affairs in their own way. 

The following is a list of rectors or officiating min- 
isters: Revs. Truman Marsh, 1799-lSlO; Isaac Jones, 
1811-26; John S. Stone, 1826-31 ; David O. Tomlin- 
son, 1831-35; Amos Beach, 1836-37; Willanl Bryant, 
1837-40: Emery E. Porter, 1842-43; G. C. V. East- 
man, 1843-45; J. D. Berry, D.D., 1846-48; F. D. 
Harriman, l«48-50; G. W. Nichols, 18.50-51; Asa 
Griswold, Jan. 5, to Nov. 8, 1852 ; Daniel E. Brown, 
Jan. 5, 18.5.'5-,57; John K. Williams, Jan. 5, 18.58-60; 
J. A. Wainright, Jan. 5, 1860-61 ; J. D. Herry, D.D., 
Jan. 5, 1862-63; J. D. Berry, D.D., April 24, 1864-66; 
William L. Peck, April 24, 1866-71; F. A. Henry; 
Hiram Stone, Nov. 1, 1873, to Sept. 1.5, 1874; G. M. 
Wilkins.Sept. 15, 1874, to July 1, 1875; Hiram Stone, 
July 1, 1875, present rector. 

TRINITY CIIURCII, MILTON.: 

During the early settlement of Litchfield there were 
but few churchmen in this part of the town, but event- 
ually a number of families joined the Episcopal 
Church. In 1798 an application was made to the 
Firat Episcopal Society, which voted that a chapel 

X Contrltiutetl by R«t. Ulram Stunn. 



13G 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



might be built in the village of Milton. A church 
edifice was accordingly raised June 25, 1802, but, 
owing to a lack of means, it was only put in condition 
for use by way of being covered in and furnished with 
benches, in which incomplete condition it remained 
until finally completed in 1826. Aug. 18, 1837, it was 
consecrated by the Right Rev. T. C. Brownoll, D.D., 
bishop of the diocese. The original structure is still 
standing. The architecture is of the old style, with 
galleries and large windows rounded at the top. It 
has been enlarged by the addition of a chancel, and 
improved by way of new seats, a stained chancel- 
window, and other internal arrangements. In 1843, 
Messrs. Garritt P. Welch and Hugh P. Welch pre- 
sented the bell which now hangs in the tower. 

In 1799 the Rev. Truman Marsh commenced his 
rectorship with St. Michael's Church, Litchfield, when 
he promised to i)reach in Milton one-fifth of the time, 
in accordance with an arrangement made on the oc- 
casion of reunion of the West Church with the First 
Ei)iscopal Society. In 1803 the society voted to di- 
vide its services equally between the parishes of Litch- 
field, Bantam Falls, and Milton. In 182<! a society's 
committee was for the first time appointed for this 
parish, and in 1832 the first appointment of wardens 
and vestrymen was made. At [iresent, as also during 
a large part of their existence, the parishes of Bantam 
Falls and Milton are under the charge of one minister, 
who ofliciates in each on alternate Sundays, thus di- 
viding the services between them, each parish con- 
tributing an equal amount to his support. 

The following is a list of rectors or officiating min- 
isters : Revs. Truman Marsh, 1799-1810 ; Isaac Jones, 
1811-26; Ezra B. Kellogg, 1827-28; Harry Finch, 
1829-31 ; David G. Tomlinson, 1831-35 ; Amos B. 
Beach, 1836-37; Hillard Bryant, 1837-10; Emery E. 
Porter, 1842-43 ; Samuel J. Carpenter, 1844-i5 ; Isaac 
Jones, 1845-47; F. D. Harriman, 1848-50; George 
W. Nichols, 1850-51 ; Asa Griswold, Jan. 5, 1852, to 
Nov. 8, 1852 ; Daniel E. Brown, Jan. 5, 1853-57 ; John 
R. Williams, Jan. 5, 1858-60 ; J. A. Wainwright, Jan. 
5, 1861-62 ; W. F. B. Jackson, April, 1863, to Sep- 
tember, 1863; J. D. Berry, D.D., April, 1864-66; Wil- 
liam L. Peck, 1866-71 ; F. A. Henry ; Hiram Stone, 
Nov. 1, 1873, to Sept. 15, 1874 ; G. M. Wilkins, Sept. 
15, 1874, to July 1, 1875; Hiram Stone, July 1, 1875, 
present rector. 

BAPTIST CHURCH, BANTAM FALLS.* 

Several years ago an eminent Sunday-school laborer 
in Connecticut, to facilitate bis work, prepared an en- 
larged map of the State, on which he located every 
Sunday-school and church in the State, indicating 
the various denominations by different colored inks, 
such as red, blue, green, etc. He had exhibited this 
at a large public meeting, and explained the needs 
and peculiarities of the different localities, when he 
said, " Gentlemen, I bid you notice these green spots, 

* Contributed by Kev. H. G. Smith. 



they indicate the Baptists. And you will notice," 
said he, " that they are thickest along the shore of the 
Sound and along the principal water-courses, such as 
the Thames and the Connecticut. Like the grass, by 
whose color they are represented, you perceive they 
flourish best in wet places." This may account for 
the paucity of churches of this denomination in the 
county. Although it abounds in hills, it also rejoices 
in the most extensive sheet of water in the State, — 
Bantam Lake, — and close around this, in the old town 
of Litchfield, there have been, at different times, three 
Baptist churelios, all of them small, but large enough 
to illustrate the truth of the Sunday-school speaker's 
remark, — that they flourish best in wet places. Some- 
thing less than a century ago there was a, church in 
Northfield, and about the time that went down an- 
other was started in Footville, South Farms, now 
Morris. This was never a flourishing church ; but, if 
it did no other work than to prepare the way for two 
grandsons of Deacon Pickett to become most success- 
ful Baptist ministers, it fulfilled its mission. 

From this issued the Bantam Falls Baptist Church, 
which was constituted Oct. 31, 1850, with the follow- 
ing members : George Harvey, Sirs. George Harvey, 
Ephraim K. Bunnell, Cornelia Bunnell, Samuel 
Bronson, Polly Bronson, Christopher C. Palmer, Re- 
becca Palmer, Eurana Canfield, and Eunice Stone. 
The first entry upon the records is this : 

" Reanlred, To adopt tlie New Testament for our articles, and to be 
governed by its directions, precepts, and examples." 

The covenant is substantially the same as that of 
the Cornwall Hollow covenant, here given. In 1852 
the present house of worship was erected, and the 
same year the church was recognized as a regular 
Baptist church by a convention of sister churches. 
Its pastors have been Revs. Jackson G. Gakun, 1857- 
62; C. N. Potter, April, 1863-67 ; J. Fairman, 1867- 
71; D. F. Chapman, July, 1871-75; E. D. Bowers, 
February, 1876, to May, 1878 ; H. G. Smith, June, 
1878, to the present time (1881). 

Its present membership is forty-two, being the 
largest number of active members it has ever enjoyed. 

Its pastors have always combined with this pastor- 
ate the care of the church in East Cornwall, preaching 
in each place on alternate Sundays until the present 
year, which was opened by the pastor's preaching in 
this place in the morning, in East Cornwall in the 
afternoon, and in Cornwall Hollow in the evening of 
each Sabbath. 

At its organization C. C. Palmer was elected dea- 
con, and, with the exception of a brief absence in the 
West, when Enoch Fennell was chosen to the office, 
he has occupied that station faithfully to 'he present. 
The history of this has ever been identified with that 
of the College Street Baptist Church at East Cornwall. ^ 

The Roman Catholics also have a church in Litch- 
field, but have no resident pastor. 



LITCHFIELD. 



137 



CHAPTER XIII. 

LITCHFIELD (Continued). 
BOROUGH OF LITCHFIELD. 

Tlic Villuge of Litchfield— Incorporation— First Officers— Presidents anil 
Clerks from 1818 to 1S82— Borough Organization- The Press— The 
Weekly Blonitor and American Advertiser— The Witness— The Edi- 
tors Convicted of I.iljel — Imprisoned — Political Kxcitement throughout 
Immediate and Distant States— Grand Oration to the Imprisoned 
Editor— Excitement in the Town— The Litchfield Gazette— The Litch- 
field Journal— The Litchfield liepuhlican — The Miscellany — The 
American Eagle— The Litchfield County Post— The Litchfield En- 
qnircr— The Litchfield Democrat— The Litchfield Sun— The Mercury 
— The Democratic Watchman — The Litchfield Repuhlican — The Litch- 
field Sentinel— The Litchfield Law-School— The Post-Offlce— Banks- 
Savings Society — Insurance Company — "Spring Hill" — St, Paul's 
Lodge, No. 11, F. and A. M. — Minerals — Temperance in 1789— Slavery 
in Litchfield — Bantam Falls — Northfield — Milton— Biographical Notes 
— College Graduates — Physicians — Lawyers. 

At the May session of the Legislature of this State, 
1818, the inhabitants of this village presented their 
memorial praying for a borough charter. In their 
petition they state that " the houses are as contiguous 
as they are in many of our cities ; that the public 
schools, which for many years have been established 
in this village, make a great addition to its oj-dinary 
population ; that, on account of their local situation 
and compact settlement, they are, as they conceive, in 
an unusual degree exposed to injurj' from fire," etc. 
The application was successful, and the petitioners 
and their associates, residing within the limits pre- 
scribed, " were constituted and declared to be forever 
thereafter a body corporate in fact and in name, by 
the name of the ' Corporation of the Village* of Litch- 
field.' " The powers vested in the corporation were 
similar to those of the ordinary borough charters of 
this State, — viz., to levy ta.xcs for the purdiase of fire- 
engines, fire-hooks, ladders, and such otlier improve- 
ments as should be deemed necessary to protect the 
village against fires ; to order and direct in all matters 
relating to side-walks, shade-trees, and tlie sinking of 
public wells and pumps; to restrain cattle, slice)), and 
geese from running at large in the public liigliways; 
and to ])a.ss such by-laws and regulations, witli .suit- 
able penalties attached, as might, from time to time, 
be thought necessary for the attainment of tjic objects 
contemplated in the charter. The officers designated 
in the act of incor[)oration were a president, treasurer, 
and clerk (who were in all cases to be chosen bjr'bal- 
lot), a collector of ta.\es, and a number of fire-war- 
dens not to exceed ten, together witli such other offi- 
cers not enumerated as should be necessary to carry 
the by-laws and the provisitms of the charter into 
effect. In case the collector should refuse or neglect 
to collect the tax according to the tenor of the war- 
rant committed to him, the president must " issue his 
warrant directed to the sheritfof the county of Litch- 
field, or his deputy, to distrain the sums or rates ne- 
glected by such collector to be collected, to be paid 

• The vilhiKo of Litchfield wan changed lo borough ul LItcllflelil by 
act of Leglaluturc approved March '21, IbTO. 



out of the estate of said collector." The assessors 
were to be appointed by the County Court. 

The first meeting of the inhabitants of the borough 
under the charter was held on the 17th of June, 1818, 
at which the following officers were elected, viz., 
Hon. Frederick Wolcott, president; Dr. William Buel, 
treasurer; and Joseph Adams, clerk. A committee 
of five was appointed to prepare a code of by-laws for 
the borough, viz., Selh P. Beers, Julius Deming, Asa 
Bacon, Phineas Miner, and Ozias Lewis. At an ad- 
journed meeting holden on the 20th of June, it was 
voted to choose a bailiff by ballot, and Dr. Abel Cat- 
lin was elected to that office. Benjamin Tallmadge, 
Asa Bacon, and Charles L. Webb were appointed a 
committee of inspection, and Ashbel Marsh was chosen 
key-keeper. 

At the regular annual meeting in September, 1818, 
Judge Wolcott was re-elected president; Dr. Buel, 
treasurer ; and Mr. Adams, clerk. Messrs. Roger 
Cook, Ambrose Norton, Moses Seymour, Jr., Oliver 
Goodwin, and James Trowbridge were chosen fire- 
wardens. At an adjourned meeting Asa Bacon, Esq., 
was chosen bailiff; Charles L. Webb, Leonard Good- 
win, Jonathan Carrington, and Ambrose Norton as- 
sistant bailifls ; and Leonard Goodwin, collector. 

The finst board of a.ssessors consisted of Erastus Ly- 
man, Esq., Gen. Morris Woodrutf, and John N. Gunn, 
Esq. The amount of the grand list of the borough, 
October, 1818, as returned by the assessors, was one 
hundred and twenty-eight thousand nine hundred and 
thirteen dollars and sixty-five cents. 

In 1820 the Hon. Uriel Holmes was elected presi- 
dent of the borough. In 1824 he was succeeded by 
Dr. William Buel, who held the office for twelve years. 

THE PBESS. 

On Tuesday, Dec. 21, 1784, was issued in this town 
the first number of Thv Weekly Monitor and American 
Advertiter, printed by Collier & Co|)p, "in the south 
end of the court-house." It contains only three Litch- 
field advertisements, viz., (1) that of William Rus- 
sell, stocking-weaver from (Norwich, England), who 
announced that he was ready to make " worsted, cotton, 
and linen Jacket and Breeches Patterns, men's and 
women's Stockings, (Moves, and Mitts;" (2) that of 
/.almou Bedicnt, barber, who offers cash for human 
hair, at his barber-shop, " a few rods north of the 
court-house in Litchfield;" (3) that of Cornelius 
Thayer, brazier, who gives notice that he carries on 
business at the shop of Col. Miles Beach, in North 
Street, at which shop the Jeweler's and silversmith's 
business " is carried on lus usual by said Beach." 

The Monitor was continued for a period of twenty- 
two years, for sixteen years of which it had no rival 
in the town. It was printed on a sheet about one- 
third the present size of the Litchfield Enquirer, with 

I coarse type and coarse blue paper. A single com- 
positor might have set the ty])e in a single day for all 

' the new matter which was contained in some of the 



138 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



•weekly issues. Yet it is a most interesting epitome 
of the olden times. From it we are able to glean very 
many facts and events in the history of this town and 
county which are preserved nowhere else. Until 
after the advent of the present century both the town 
and county were Federal in their politics, and the 
Monitor was at once the organ and the oracle of the 
Federal party in this region. 

In August, 18(15, two young printers — Messrs. Sel- 
lick Osborn and Timothy Ashley — came to this town 
and established The Witness, a violent Democratic 
newspaper. The Witness was edited by Mr. Osborn, 
who, though a man of talents and energy, was a most 
unscrupulous partisan and bitter satirist. Though 
there was a formidable minority of Democrats in the 
township at this time, Litchfield Hill was the strong- 
hold of Federalism. Tallmadge, Reeve, Wolcott, 
Deming, Gould, Tracy, Holmes, Allen, Aaron Smith, 
Eev. Messrs. Champion and Huntington, and indeed 
nearly all the leading men of the village, wore Fed- 
eralists, and looked upon Jefferson as an infidel and 
reprobate. Subsequent to the Presidential election of 
1800 (which resulted in the choice of Jefferson to the 
Presidency), the partisan sermons and prayers of 
Messrs. Champion and Huntington, of the Congrega- 
tional Church, had driven several of their church- 
members (including Deacon Lewis) to Episcopacy. 
On one occasion, after a political sermon from Parson 
Huntington, his venerable colleague. Father Cham- 
pion, prayed first and fervently for " thy servant the 
President of the United States" (John Adams), and 
concluded thus : " And, O Lord ! wilt thou bestow 
upon the Vice-President (Jefferson) a double portion 
of Thy grace, for Thou knowest he needs it !" The 
summary withdrawal of so many members caused the 
First Church no little embarrassment. A formal ex- 
pulsion was proposed ; but some of them occupied high 
social positions, and others were nearly allied to re- 
maining members. The matter was finally adjusted 
by a simple withdrawal of the " watch and fellow- 
ship" of the church from the seceders. The feeling 
of hostility between Federalists and Democrats w-as 
such thatpi'ominent men living in the same neighbor- 
hood refused to recognize each other when they met ; 
Federal ladies refused even to make formal calls at 
the houses of their Democratic neighbors ; and the 
children of Federalists were forbidden to associate 
with those of the hated Democrats. Such was the 
state of feeling on Litchfield Hill when The Witness 
opened its batteries on the ranks of Federalism. At 
first its assaults were treated with contempt. Osborn 
grew bolder, more bitter, and more personal, gather- 
ing up and parading before the public the foibles or 
follies (real or manufactured) of the principal men of 
the village, against whose honor no word of suspicion 
had before been breathed. Charges and insinuations 
of hypocrisy and crime were freely blended with the 
most scathing ridicule. This was " bearding the lion 
in his den." It was not long before Osborn was in- 



dicted, tried, and convicted of a libel on Julius Dem- 
ing, Esq. Osborn and his partner Ashley were both 
subjected to a fine, in defaultof the payment of which 
both were committed to the county jail. Ashley was 
soon liberated, and Osborn might have been had he 
complied with the terms of the court ; but as — as he 
himself expressed it — " the only alternative offered 
him was to have either his body or mind imprisoned, 
of coui'se he remained in confinement." His friends 
regarded him as a martyr to his political fidelity. It 
was published far and wide through the columns of 
the Democratic journals that his health was sinking 
from confinement " in a damp and loathsome cell ;" 
that a maniac charged with murder was thrust into 
the same cell with him, etc. On the 4th of July, 
1806, a meeting of the Democi'ats of Litchfield was 
held at Phelps' hotel, at which a committee of three 
was appointed " to repair to the prison and learn the 
true situation of Mr. Osborn and his treatment since 
his imprisonment, and to report at an adjourned 
meeting." At the adjourned meeting, on the 14th, the 
committee reported in substance that they had visited 
Mr. Osborn at the jail ; that he was confined in the 
same room with two criminals, both charged with 
capital offenses ; that his room was formed of damp and 
ragged stone walls, in which the air was impure, 
stagnant, and offensive, and so dark that it was diffi- 
cult to distinguish one's features ; that his friends 
were generally denied admission to his room, and 
could only have intercourse with him through the 
outer grate of the prison ; that his health was failing, 
etc. From this date the committee visited the prison 
from time to time, and issued their weekly bulletins 
through the columns of The Witness. In vain Sheriff 
Landon denied the truth of the committee's original 
report. The story of Osborn's persecutions went 
abroad over the land. The Democracy of distant 
States held indignation meetings, at which Osborn 
was extolled, the Connecticut courts denounced, and 
the Litchfield Federalists execrated. At length it was 
resolved to have a grand ovation in behalf of Osborn 
at Litchfield, and the 6th of August was fixed ujion 
for the celebration. The great day finally arrived, 
and with it came an immense concourse of Democrats 
from this and other States. Daybreak was greeted 
with the discharge of one gun at the head of North 
Street, a responsive discharge on the flag-staff on the 
public green, and martial music until sunrise. At 
sunrise seventeen guns were fired with martial music. 
At eleven the procession moved in the following 
order, viz. : 

Military, commaiuled by Maj. Stephen Ranney, Lieut. Swett, United 
States officer stationed at Springfield, acting as marshal, John M. Felder 
as adjutant, and Chauncey Ilotclikiss as quartermaster, consisting of 
Cavalry, commanded by Capt. Carter. 
Band of music. 
Mati-oss company from Danbury, commanded by Lieut. Ambler. 
" " of tliis town, conimaoded by Capt. Bissell. 

" '* composed of boys, in white uniform. 

Liglit infantry, commanded by Capt. Shethar. 



LITCHFIELD. 



139 



lufautry, commanded by Capt. Grannis. 
" " Lieut. Stone. 

" " Ensign Norton. 

Two of the Committee of Arrangements. 
Clergy and Orator. 
Gen. Timothy Skinner, President of the Day. 
Moses Seymour, Esq., 1 

John M'elcli, Esq., }■ Vice-Presidents of tlie Day. 
Ozias Lewis, Esq. j 

Six of the Committee of Arrangements. 

Marshals of Connecticut aud Vermont. 

Collectors of New Haven aud Middletown. 

Citizens generally. 

The procession passed under Osborn's prison win- 
dow with heads uncovered, each saluting the pris- 
oner with a passing bow, and the military giving him 
a brigadier's salute. Notwithstanding the hatred 
with which many of the CongregationalLsts regarded 
Democracy, the society's committee had generously 
tendered the use of their meeting-house for the occa- 
sion. Thither the procession wended. The services 
in the church consisted of a prayer by the Rev. Asa- 
hel Morse (Baptist), of Suffield ; reading of the Dec- 
laration of Independence by Jonathan Law, Esq., of 
Cheshire ; an oration by David Plant, Esq., of Strat- 
ford [since member of Congress and Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor] ; and an address by Joseph L. Smith, Esq., of 
Litchfield. 

Before the arrival of the proce.ssion at the church 
an occurrence took place which created much ill-feel- 
ing and comment at the time. Messrs. Champion and 
Huntington entered the church, and were proceeding 
up the aisle towards the pulpit, when, according to 
Mr. Champion's statement, he was seized near the 
shoulder by Joseph L. Smith, Esq., a member of tlie 
committee of arrangements, who pulled him around, 
saying, " You have no business here, antl must go out 
of the house." Mr. Champion replied that he was an 
old man, and wished for liberty to sit in the pulpit, 
assuring him that he woulil make no disturbance. 
Mr. Smith grew more boisterous, and the two clergy- 
men withdrew. Mr. Smith and his friends published 
a very different version of tiie story; while tlic Fed- 
eralists reiterated that Smitii had at first boasted of 
the exploit, and declared that he would have called 
the military to his aid if it had been necessary in 
ejecting the intruders. Jlr. Champion seems to have 
taken the matter very seriously. 

"I was much alllicted," ho wrote, "at bring cast out of the houso of 
God where 1 had wonthippetl nlnuist nrty-fxur years, au<l could ox|)ect to 
be there but a few days more. Theeo retloctlouH crowded Into my mliid 
when ejected and reth'ing from tho place whore GoU's honor hod dwelt." 

At the annual election in October, 1805, it may be 
remarked, not a single Democrat had been chosen to 
the Legislature in Litchfield County, and tiic Feder- 
alists bad not been backward in taunting Osborn 
about the " revolution," which it wits said he liad 
boasted he would produce in this region. At the an- 
nual election in May, ISOIJ, the tables had been par- 
tially reversed by the election of two Democratic rep- 
resentatives from Litchfield by a vote of three hun- 
dred and fourteen to three hundred uud eight. A 



portion of the Democratic enthusiasm in behalf of 
Osborn is attributable to an appreciation of his ser- 
vices in producing this result. 

As an incident of the celebration, it is mentioned 
that during the day a placard was displayed on the 
door of one of the principal hotels, bearing the signifi- 
cant words, " No Democrats admitted here." 
Some gentlemen from a distance put up, as was their 
custom when this wa}', with an intimate friend who 
chanced to be a rank Federalist. He soon inquired if 
they had come to attend the celebration ; and on being 
answered in the affirmative, he abruptly replied, 
"Then you cannot be accommodated at my house. 
As old friends, I should have been glad to see you ; 
as Democrats, I want nothing to do with you !" Such 
was the spirit of the times. 

When the services in the church were over the pro- 
cession was reformed and proceeded to a large bower 
which had been erected in the meadow on the south 
side of East Street, nearly opposite the jail, where a 
cold repast had been prepared by Capt. Phelps. 
Seventeen regular toasts were drank, accompanied by 
the discharge of cannon and music from the band. 
Among them were the following : 

"Justice — May false witnesses, perjured judges, and packed juries bo 
banished from ita courts." 

"Selleck OslKjrn— Like Daniel in the lion's den, ho is teaching his 
persecutors that the beasts cannot ilevour him." [Three cheers.] 

" Liberty of the I'resa — Litchfield Jail its stronghold." [Three cheers.] 

" The Political Clergy — If there wore twenty Gods, perhaps some one 
might approve their services ; but the one God wants uu political pas- 
tors." [Three cheers.] 

"The memory of our departed friend, Epiiraim Kirby — His virtues 
win live while our memory lasts ; his merits shall be known to pos- 
terity." 

" Litchfield Jail — Our votes will level it as the nim*8 horns did the 
walls of Jericho." [Six cheere.] 

The Wlnets complains that the name of Maj. Sey- 
mour was stricken from the roll of justices of the 
peace for this county by the Legislature (May, 1807) 
because of his participation in the 6th of August cele- 
bration. 

In June, 1807, The Witness gives the following 
summary of the suita against Messrs. Osborn and 
Ashley, viz. : 

" Fine and costs In libel suit with J. Demlng, Esq S346.4G 

For publishing case of Talmudge ,V Wolcutt r*. Gen. Ilart, with 

cuninnMils Ibereon, fine and costs 606.98 

For slandering Th.iu.os Collier bii.00 

(Itcsldes costs of cuniphiint in favor of Mr. .\shl(<y against 
Thomas U. Collier, which complaint tho county court dls- 

ndsHml.) — — 

Aggregate $1474.44" 

Osborn was not the only man involved in libel suits 
in those days. The Hon. Tapi)ing Reeve and Capt. 
Thomas Collier, of Thf Monitor, were both indicted 
before the I'nited States District Court nt New Haven 
for libeling President Jetlerson ; and the Rev. Daniel 
Huntington, of this village, recovered one thousand 
dollars from Maj. Babcock, of the Hartford Mercury, 
a Democratic paper. 

The Witneu was discontinued in the summer of 
1S07, having been published about two years. Sel- 
leck Osboru was a native of Danbury, and after leav- 



140 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



ing Litchfield published The Delaware Watchman at 
Wilmington, Del. A volume of his poems was pub- 
lished in Boston. He died in Philadelphia in 1826. 

The LUchfield Monitor was discontinued in 1806, 
having been published by Mr. Collier for twenty-two 
years. Thomas Collier, son of Richard, was born in 
Boston, Feb. 20, 1760, and died in P.inghamton, N. Y., 
1844. On leaving this town he resided for several 
years in Troy. In June, 1799, an orphan lad of four- 
teen years, named John C. Wright, from Wethers- 
field, entered the Moidtor office as an apprentice, re- 
mained with Mr. Collier until of age, married his 
daughter Mary, and for some time published a paper 
in Troy. 

The Litchfield Enquirer, the oldest newspaper pub- 
lished in the county, issued its first number at Litch- 
field, June 20, 1826. It was owned and edited by 
Stephen S. Smith, and was then called the Litch- 
field County Post. Dec. 25, 1828, Smith sold the Post 
to D. C. McClarey, who conveyed it to Henry Adams 
less than a month afterwards, Jan. 22, 1829. Mr. 
Adams changed the name of the paper to The Litchfield 
Enquirer, and edited it very ably and successfully till 
his accidental death, by drowning, in February, 1842. 
The Enquirer then went into the hands of Mr. Charles 
Adams, a brother of Henry Adams, and an experi- 
enced journalist, founder of the New Haven Palladium, 
and influential in the politics of this State and of New 
York. On Oct. 2, 1845, Mr. P. K. Kilbourne suc- 
ceeded as editor, — a position he held for near eight 
years following. Mr. Kilbourne was the author of a 
valuable " History of the Town of Litchfield," and 
assisted Mr. G. H. Hollister very greatly in the prep- 
aration of materials for his " History of Connecticut." 
Mr. Henry W. Hyatt succeeded Kilbourne as editor 
of the Enquirer, March 3, 1853, selling out to Edward 
C. Goodwin, Sept. 4, 1856, who was succeeded by 
Adams & Betts, April 2, 1857, Mr. Adams resuming 
the editorial chair, while Mr. Betts was publisher. 
On Oct. 13, 1859, Mr. James Humphrey, Jr., became 
editor and proprietor of the Enquirer. He was an 
extremely bright, caustic writer, and edited the paper 
throughout the war till April 13, 1865, when he sold 
it to Henry E. Wing and Alexander B. Shumway, 
the former acting as editor, and the latter as pub- 
lisher. George A. Hickox, the present editor, suc- 
ceeded Wing, July 29, 1866, and became sole pro- 
prietor in 1869. The Enquirer started as an indepen- 
dent paper, and has been such for several years past ; 
but in its intermediate period, it was a party paper, — 
first Whig and then Kepublican in politics. Its orig- 
inal size was five columns. In 1845, Mr. Kilbourne 
enlarged it to six columns. In 1860, Mr. Humphrey 
made it a seven-column paper ; and, in 1872, Mr. 
Hickox added another column, making it about 
double the original size. It has always been fairly 
prosperous, with a good subscription-list for a local 
paper. 

The Litchfield Gazette was commenced in January, 



1808, by Messrs. Charles Hosmer and Oliver Good- 
win, and was discontinued May 17, 1809. 

Isaiah Bunce came to this town soon after, and 
commenced The Litchfield Journal, the name of which 
was changed to The Litchfield Republican in 1819 ; 
which, in turn, was succeeded by The Miscellawj, a 
small quarto, in July, 1821. In September, 1822, 
Mr. Bunce began the publication of The American 
Eagle, which he removed to New Haven in March, 
1826. Mr. Bunce was a man of enterprise, and estab- 
lished a bookstore, reading-room, and circulating 
library, and was for a few years a justice of the 
peace. 

Nov. 3, 1833, Melzer Gardner, from Hartford, com- 
menced TIte Litchfield Democrat, which was discon- 
tinued in September, 1834. Subsequently, while 
editing a paper in Richmond, Va., Gardner was 
shot on board a steamboat near that city by a man 
to whom he had given otl'ense by an article which he 
had published. 

The L^ilchfield Sun was started by John M. Baldwin 
(a native of this town) in February, 1835, who sold 
out to S. G. Hayes, of New Haven, in September, 
1837, who discontinued it in April, 1839. 

In January, 1840, Charles E. Moss & Co. com- 
menced The Mercury, which was transferred to Josiah 
Giles in the following August. It was discontinued 
some time in 1842. Tlie Mercury was soon succeeded 
by The Democratic Watchman, also published by Mr. 
Giles, which was discontinued in 1844. 

In 1845, J. K. Averill commenced the New Milford 
Republican, at New Milford; in September, 1846, he 
removed his oflice to this village, and changed the 
name of his paper to the Litchfield Republican. W. 
F. & G. H. Baldwin, Albert Stoddard, and Franklin 
Hull successively continued the publication of the 
Republican. In 1856 the oflice was removed to Falls 
Village, where it was issued under the name of 
The Housatonic Republican, and subsequently dis- 
continued. 

Tlie Litchfield Sentinel was started about the year 
1865, by S. H. Baldwin, with J. D. Champlin, Jr., as 
editor. It was owned successively by Mr. Champlin, 
Solon B. Johnson, and J. R. Farnum, and in 1873 the 
material was purchased by G. A. Hickox, the present 
proprietor of the Litchfield Enquirer. 

THE LITCHFIELD LAW-SCHOOL. 
This institution, the first of the kind in this country, 
was established by Hon. Tapping Reeve in 1784. He 
conducted it as sole principal until 1798, when the 
Hon. James Gould, LL.D., became associated with 
him in its management. From 1820, Judge Gould 
conducted the school alone for several years, and was 
then assisted by Hon. Jabez W. Huntington. In con- 
sequence of the failing health of Judge Gould, it was 
discontinued in 1833. The Litchfield Law-School 
was a celebrated institution, and at the time of its 
close the number of students had been one thousand 



LITCHFIELD. 



141 



and twenty-four, every State in the Union having 
been represented. Of this number fifteen became 
United States senators ; fifty, members of Congress ; 
forty, judges of the higher State courts; ten, governors 
of States ; five, cabinet officers, — Calhoun, Woodbury, 
Mason, Clayton, and Hubbard ; two, justices of the 
United States Supreme Court, — Henry Baldwin and 
Levi Woodbury ; one, Vice-President of the United 
States, — John C. Calhoun ; and several foreign minis- 
ters, among whom was Hon. John Y. Mason, minister 
to France. 

POST-OFFICE. 

The Litchfield post-oflice was established in 1791. 
The following announcement appeared in the Litch- 
field Monitor in January of that year : 

POST-OFFICE ESTABLISHMENT. 

"The Public, ptirticularly Gentlemen in the Town and Vicinity of 
Litchfield, have some time lanietited the want of a regular and weekly 
Intercourse with the City of Hartford, by a Post immediately fi-oui this 
Town, are respectfully assured that a Post, in conjunction with Mr. Isaac 
Trowbridge, the Rider from New York, will start from this Otfice for 
Hartford regnliirly once a week, commencing on Monday next, the 3l8t 
inst. Tliis Establishment has met the Sanction and Encouragement of 
Mr. Trowbridge, and the Undertakers wil be subject to the same Regu- 
lations and Responsibility required by the Postmaster General. Conse- 
quently, every Duty annexed to the Business will be strictly and point- 
edly observed. 

"And that the Public may be better accommodated, and derive a sitfe 
Repository for their letters, Ac., a POST-OFFICE is opened in Collier's 
Pjinting Olfice, at whicli Place all Despatches to be transmitletl through 
the Sledium of either Post must be deposited. During the Winter (and 
till the 1st of May next) the Post from Xew York will ride once a fort- 
night, and arrive on Tuesday Eveiuiig, coiiinioncing the olh of the en- 
suing month. Those who have Business or Lettora are refjuested to leave 
their directions at this office, for New York on Tit-siliy, for Hartford on 
Saltirdfiy Evenings, preceding the days of departure, as the Post will 
positively start at an Early Hour. Letters will be received at this oBico 
for any part of the United States. 

" LiTcnriELD, Jan. 24, 1791." 

The following is a list of postma.<sters from the es- 
tablishment of the office to the pre.sent time: Benja- 
min Tallmadge, Frederick Wolcott, .Moses Seymour, 
Jr., Charles Seymour, George C. Woodrurt', Jason 
AVhiting, Reuben M. Woodruff, Leverett W. Wessells, 
George H. Baldwin, It. Marsh, and H. E. Gates. 

THE PHCENIX BRANCH BANK 
was incorporated in 1814. The following were its offi- 
cers until it was discontinued Dec. 15, 1864: 

/Ve«i./<;ii(».— Benjajuin Tallmadge, l«14-20; Jaii.ea Gould, 1820-33; Am 
Bacon, 183;MC, ; Thei-on Ileacli, 184ll-,'>2 ; George C. Woudruff, IHi2-(M. 

Oii»;iier».— James Ilutlor, lXH-21 ; Austin Klll.mru, ls21-20; Henry A. 
Perkins, 1820-28 ; Charles Spencer, 1828-:Hi ; Therun Beach, 1838-30; 
Oustavls F. Davis, 1830-51; Henry R. Coil, 1851-lH. 

THE FIRST NATIOXAI, BANK 
was organized Dec. 22, 18tJ4. The first bonnl of di- 
rectors were Edwin McNeil, David C. Whiulcsoy, 
Henry W. Bucl, Frederick D. McNiil, ami Henry U. 
Coit. Tiie following is a list of the ilirectors from 
the organization to present time: 

Edwin McNeil, 1864-76 ; Henry W. lluel, Darld C. WliltlleWT, Fr«l- 
crick D. .McNeil, 1804-81 ; l),,vld K. Ctwlck, 1^C«-T3; J. Penilng 
Perkins, 187:1-75; Charles B. Andrews. Henry R. Colt, 1873-81. 

PrMi.le.i/1..— Mwln McNeil, l8(,4-73; Henry R. Coll, 1875-81. 

CWii^rt.— Henry R. Coll, 1804-73; Goorgo E. Joiici, 1873-81. 

10 



The capital is §200,000; surplus, Jan. 1, 1881, 
$40,000 ; dividends since the organization to Jan. 1, 
1881, $345,000. 

TIIE LITCHFIELD BANK 

was incorporated in 1856, and organized in 1857, with 
William H. Crossman president, and Edward L. 
Houghton secretary. It was discontinued. 

LITCHFIELD SAVIXGS SOCIETY. 

This society was incorporated in 1850 by Seth P. 
Beers, Theron Beach, Edwin B. Webster, Josiah G. 
Beckwith, George Seymour, Oliver Goodwin, Gustavus 
F. Davis, William F. Baldwin, Samuel P. Bolles, 
George C. Woodruff, G. H. Hollister, Ozias Seymour, 
Charles S. Webb, Charles Adams, and Jason Whiting. 
The first president was George C. Woodrufl"; vice- 
president, S. P. Bolles ; secretary and treasurer, G. F. 
Davis. 

/"resi^nh.— 1850-53, Georgo C. Woodruff; 1853-56, J. G. Beckwith ; 1S5G- 

02, Jason Whiting; IS73-78, Edward W. Seymour; 1878, George C. 

WoodrulT, still in office. 
Stciv(aii.»u«(/ IVwumrers.— 1830-51, G.T.Davis; 1S51-52, S. P. Bolles; 

1852-75, H. R. Coit ; 1873, George E. Jones; 1876, U. R. Cidt, still in 

office. 

Regular semi-annii;il dividends from five to six per 
cent, per annum have been paid since organization, 
with extra dividends of two per cent, per year from 
1867 to 1872. 

The pre-sent directors arc George C. Woodruff, 
George M. Woodruff, F. D. McNeil, William H. 
Brainan, Jesse L. Judd. 

Deposits, :f715,000; surplus, $31,000. 

SPniXO HILL, .. 

a home for nervous invalids, was opened in the year 
1858 l)y Dr. H. W. Biiel. The design of the liome 
is to afford the most thorougli medical cure and treat- 
ment, combined, as far as may be, with the family 
life. Under this plan tiie very best results have been 
and still are attained. Connected with tlio home are 
some three hundred acres of land, lying just in the 
border of the village, and affording ample grounds 
for recreation un<l amiiseinent. A cultivated huly 
acts as matron, ami accommodations are provided for 
from twenty to twenty-five ladie.-« and gentlemen, 
under the personal care and supervision of Dr. Bucl 
himself. 

Thi: Litchfield Mitiai. Firk Issirance 
Company was organized in 1833, with Phincas 
Miller president, Le<inard Goodwin secretjiry, and 
Oliver Goodwin treasurer. 

Till-: LiT<iiKiKi.i> IlisTiiRitAL SOCIETY was or- 
ganized in 1856, with Seth 1'. Beers president. 

The Lin hkielh Aokk lltiual Society was 
incorporateil in 1H18. 

Tin: LinnFiELK (New Bantam) Vigilant 
Society was organized in 1828. 



142 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



ST. PAUL'S LODGE, No. 11, F. AND A. M. 
The charter of this lodge was issued by the Grand 
Lodge of Connecticut, June 1, 1781, to the following 
petitioners : James Nichols, John Watkins, Thomas 
Phillips, Eaton Jones, Benjamin Hanks, John Collins, 
Noah Blakesley, William Diirkee, Daniel Starr, John 
Colvill, John Kettle, Josiah Norton, and Adino Hale. 
The lodge was organized June 13, 1781. The follow- 
ing is a list of Masters Irom its organization to 1881 : 

Ashliel HaWwin, 1781-82; Bciijnniiu Hanks, 1TS2-8G ; Jonathan Kettle, 
17Sr.-88; Julius Deniinp, 1788-90; Isaac Baldwin, Jr., 1790-93; 
Epliraim Kirliy, 1793-115; John Allen, 179.5-08; Epliraini Kirby, 
1798-99; Isaac liaUhviu, Jr., 1799-1801 ; Ephraini Kirl.y, lSOl-3 ; 
Aaron Sniitll, 1803-0 ; Peter Sherman, 1800-8 ; Aarun Smith, 1808 
-12; Eoger Cooli, 1812-14 ; Lucius Smitli, 1811-15; Elijah Adams, 
1815-10; Lucius Smith, 1810-19; David Marsh, 1819-22; James Win- 
ship, 1832-2:i; riiiueas Lord, 182:1-24; Pliineas D. Tavlor, 1824-28; 
Frederick Buel, 1828-31 ; Ileman W. Cliilds, 1831-37; Samuel Bucl 
(2d), 1837-43; Stephen Deming, 1843-40; Charles L. Welih, 1840-49; 
I'hincas B. Tajlor, IS40-,''iO; Frcdeiick Buel, 1850-52 ; Frederick!). 
Becman, 1632-54; David E. Bostwick, 18.54-00 ; Eli D. Weeks, 1800- 
08; Ale.\audor B. Shunuvay, 1808-70; Elhert G. liobcrts, 1870-71; 
Edson Staples, 1871-73 ; Samuel W. Ensign, 1873-74 ; William Dem- 
ing, 1874-75 ; Charles II, Plait, 1875-77; Walter K. Peck, 1877-79; 
Jantes J. Newcomh, 1879-80. 

MINER.iLS. 
It was thought at one time that the mineral de- 
posits in this town were of great value, particularly 
copper, and companies were organized for working the 
"mine." All, however, were unsuccessful. P. T. 
Barnuin was at the head of one of these companies. 

TU.MPERANCE IN LITCHFIELD IN 1789. 
The first teinijerance organization in this State, and 
probably the first in the world, was organized in 
Litchfield in 1780, as follows : 

" So many are the avenues leading to human misery that it is inipos- 
sihle to guard them all. Such evils as are produced by our own folly 
and weaUiU'ss are williiu our power to avoid. The immoderate use 
which the people of this State make of Distilled Spirits is undoubtedly 
au evil of this kind. It is obvious to every person of the smallest obser- 
vation that from this pernicious practice follows a train of evils difficult 
to lie euuiuerated. The morals are corrupted, property is e.\haustcd,and 
health destroyed. And it is most sincerely to be regretted that from a 
mistaken idea that distilled spirits are uecessary to laboiijig men, to 
counteract the iiitluence of heat and give relief from severe fatigue, that 
a most valuable class of citizens have been led to ccuitract a habit of such 
dangerous tendency. Hence arises the inability to pay public ta.ies, to 
discharge private debts, and to support and educate families. Seriously 
considei ing this subject, and the frowns of Divine Providence in denyiu"- 
many families in this part of the country the means of a comfortable sub- 
sistence the present year by failure of the principal crops of the eaith, we 
think it peculiarly the duty of every good cilizeu to unite his efforts to 
reform a practice which leads so nniny to poverty, distress, and ruin. 
AVhereupou we do hereby as.sociate, and mutually agree, that hereafter 
we will carry on our business without the use of distilled spirits as an 
article of refieshment, eitlier for ourselves or those wdiom we employ, 
and that instead tliereof we will serve our workmen with wholesome 
food and common simple drinks of our own production, 

"Benj.aTnin Kirby, Archibald .McNeil, 

Timothy Skiuner, Abraham Bradley, 

David Buel, I, Baldwin, Jr., 

Julius Deniing, T. Reeve, 

Bejijamin Tallmadge, Collier .t Adam, 

Uriah Tracy, Tobias Cleaver, 

Ebenezer Blaish, Amos Galpin, 

Moses Seymour, Tliouuis Trowbridge, 

Samuel Mai-sh, S. Shethar, 

James Stone, Solomon Buel, 



Samuel Seymour, Bryant Stoddard, 

Daniel Sheldon, Abraham Peck, 

Ozias Lewis, Frederick Wolcott, 

Lawrence Wessells, Nathaniel Smith (2d), 

Eli,jah W.adsworth, John Allen, 

Alexander Catlin, John Welch, 

Reuben Smith, Arthur Emmons." 

Lynde Lord, 
" By Necessity and on Principle.inconsequenceoflittleexperimentand 
much observation, I have effectually adoj.ted and adhered to the salu- 
tary plan herein projmsed during several months past, and am still re- 
solved to persevere until convinced that any alteration will be productive 
of some greater good, whereof at present I have no apprehensions whilst 
Human Nature remains the same. 
" LiTciiriEi.n, 9th of May, 1789. J. STRONG." 

SLAVERY IN LITCHFIELD. 

Slavery can hardly be said to have existed in this 
town during the present century, and it has for years 
been extinct. In the year 1800 only seven blacks 
were accounted slaves, though some born such are 
still living. During the eighteenth century, however, 
it existed here in a mild form, as it did in other parts 
of the State. The records of Wills and Distribution 
show that a considerable proportion of the personal 
estate of the most opulent of our early settlers con- 
sisted of negro servants. 

The following document, executed by the first Gov- 
ernor Oliver Wolcott, we find on our town records : 

" Know all meu by those presents that I, Oliver Wolcott, of Litchfield, 
in the State of Connecticut, in expectation that my negro servant man, 
Caesar, will, by his iudustry, be able to obtain a comfortable subsistence 
for himself, aiul that he will nnike a jrroper use of the freedom which I 
hereby give liim, do discharge, liberate, and set free, him, the said Ca;sar, 
and do Iiereby exempt him from any further obligations of servitude to 
me, my heii-s, and from every other person claiming any authority over 
him, by, from, or under me. And that my said servant, whom I now 
nuike fi ee, as aforesaid, may be kuow n hereafter by a proper cognomen, 
I hereby jiiw hiiu the name of .Tamus, so that hereafter he is to be 
known and distinguished by the name of Ca-sar Jamus. As witness my 
hand and seal, in Litchfield, Nov. 23, a.d. 1780. 

'•OLIVER WOLCOTT. [l. s.] 
"In presence of 

"Mary Ann Wolcott, 

" Frkdehick Wolcott." 

During the latter part of the last century the blacks, 
in imitation of the whites, chose for themselves a 
Governor and other State officials. Their last Gov- 
ernor was Will, a resident of this town, whose obitu- 
ary appears in the Monitor of Wednesday, March 6, 
1793, as follows : 

" Died, on Thursday, of consumption, M'ill, a free negro (formerly 
owned by MaJ. Seymour), governor of the blacks in this vicinity. His 
integiity and faithfulness through life wilt, we hope, entitle him to the 
rewards of the (jood and/aUhfvl serreui."* 

" As was the case with the settlers of the New Eng- 
land towns generally, the founders of Litchfield re- 
garded the subject of education as a matter of primary 
importance. As stated elsewhere, one-sixtieth j^art 
of the township (about seven hundred acres) was 
originally set apart for the support of schools. In 
December, 1725, eight pounds were appropriated from 
the town treasury ' for hiring schoolmasters and 
school-dames' to instruct the children in reading and 

* Judge Woodruff. 



LITCHFIELD. 



U3 



writing for the year next ensuing, and a like sum was 
ordered to be raised by a tax upon tlie parents or 
guardians of the children, to be gathered by the 
town collector. Messrs. Marsh, Buel, Hosford, and 
Goodrich were chosen a school committee. Two years 
later ten pounds were paid out of the public treasury 
for the same object, with the proviso that four pounds 
of this sum should be given for the support of a 
writing-school, and the balance ' for teaching of chil- 
dren by school-dames,' from which we are to infer 
that the female teachers did not give instruction in 
loriting. The first reference made by the records rel- 
ative to building a school-house is contained in the 
doings of a town-meeting held Dec. 23, 1731, — Mr. 
Joseph Kilbourn, moderator, — which is as follows: 

" ' Voted to build a school-lioiise in ye center of ye town, on ye Meet- 
ing-Huuse Green; and Joseph Kilbourn, Jr., Ebeuezcr Marsh, and Jolin 
Giiy were chosen a committee to carry on said worli.' " 

" At the same time it was voted to build the school- 
house twenty feet square. The school committee were 
authorized to hire a schoolmaster, and set up a school 
during the succeeding fall and winter. 

" Messrs. Jacob Griswold and Benjamin Gibbs were 
appointed in December, 1727, to run the lines and 
set up monuments 'between the school-lots and Pine 
Island.' 

" The question as to how the school-lands should 
be disposed of to the best advantage appears to have 
been very difficult to settle. On the 12th of March, 
1729, it was voted to sell them for one thousand pounds, 
and Jlessrs. Marsh and Bird were designated to man- 
age the sale. Some one, doubtless, called in question 
the right of the town to make such a sale, as a week 
later the inhabitants, in general town-meeting con- 
vened, appointed IVIr. Marsii their agent to apply to 
the General Asseml)]y ' for liberty to make sale of the 
school-lands in Litchfield.' The application was un- 
successful, but the people soon found a way to evade 
the letter of the law. On the 29th of November, 
1729, it was ' voted that the school right in Litch- 
field should be leased nut for the maintenance of a 
school in said Litchfield for nine hundred iind ninety- 
nine years ensuing.' Messrs. Marsh, Buel, Hosford, 
and Bird, were appointed a committee to lease the 
lands accordingly. As if apprehensive that even 
this lease might ultimately expire and thus give 
their descendants unnecessary trouble, with a far- 
reaching glance into futurity, they proceeded to 
bind their successors 'in ye recognizance often thou- 
sand pounds lawful money, to give a new lease of said 
Right at the end of said term of nine hundred and 
ninety-nine years //' there shull be orcajiion.' " 

In pursuance of these votes the committee appointed 
for that purpose, on the li5th of April, 1730, leased to 
sundry individuals the school right for the time des- 
ignated ; the grantee paying twenty-seven pounds 
annually for eight years for tlie support of the school, 
and the ninth year paying to the selectmen four 
hundred and fifty ]>ouuds, to be forever kept for the 



support of a school in Litchfield. To the lease was 
annexed the following : 

" Postscript — Before signing and sealing, the above-mentioned signei-s 
and sealers agreed, that whoever occupies and improves all the above 
land or lands, or any part of ttiem, shall pay all rates or taxes that shall 
arise upon them or any part of them during the whole term of the 
lease." 

In the year 1867 it was " voted to divide the money 
for which the school right was sold between the old so- 
ciety, the South Farms Society, and the Church of 
England in proportion to the list of each part." 

In addition to the law-school mentioned on a pre- 
vious page, the following educational institutions 
flourished here, all of which are now extinct : Litch- 
field Female Academy (incorporated in 1827), the Elm 
Park Collegiate Instutute, the Wolcott Institute, and 
the Gould Seminary. (For present condition of 
schools see Chapter VIII.) 

EXECUTIONS. 
It is believed that no native of Litchfield was ever 
convicted of murder, and that willful murder was 
never committed by or upon a white man within the 
limits of this town. In 1708 an Indian, named John 
Jacob, was hanged for the murder of another Indian. 
In November, 17.S."), Thomas Goss, of Barkhamsted. 
was executed for the murder of his wife. In these 
days he would have been acquitted on the ground of 
insanity. On the plea that his wife was a witch, he 
split her head open with an axe. Though at times 
apparently rational, he .sometimes declared that he 
was the .second Lamb of God, that ho was brother of 
Jesus Christ, and that he was the child born of the 
woman mentioned in the Revelation of St. John, 
"before whom the dragon stood ready to devour the 
child ;" he forbade his counsel to apply for a reprieve, 
declared the sheritf could not hang liim, etc. May 8, 
1780, Barnet Davenport, aged twenty years, was ex- 
ecuted for murder and arson in Washington. Resid- 
ing as a laborer in the family of Caleb Mallory, he 
entered the sleeping-room of Mr. and Mrs. Mallory 
at midnight and heat them to death with a club, and 
' their little grandchild shared the same fate. .Vftcr 
rol>bing the house and setting it on fire the murderer 
fled, leaving two other persons asleep who perishc<l in 
j the Hames. These persons, it is understood, were ex- 
I ecuted in Gallows Lane, in this village. Other con- 
! vietions for capital crimcj have taken place before the 
courts, but these are the only individuals who have 
I ever suffered the extreme penalty of the law in this 
I county. 

ASSIGNED TO SERVICE FOR DEIiT. 

j Formerly, by a law of this State, if debtors had no 
other means to pay their debts they were a-nsigiied in 

, service for that purpose. And it is said to have been 

I common for poor foreigners, who could not pay their 
passage money, to stipulate with the captain of the 
ship that he might assign them to raise the money. 

; I'ersons so assigned were called redcmptioners, uud 



144 



HISTOKY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



several were so held in service in this town. Among 
them was Matthew Lyon, a native of Ireland, who 
was assigned to Hugh Hannah, of Litchfield, for a 
pair of stags valued at twelve pounds. Lyon was 
afterwards a member of Congress from Vermont and 
from Kentucky. He was convicted under the famous 
alien and sedition law, and fined. The fine was sub- 
sequently remitted by Congress to him or his heirs. 

BANTAM FALLS 

is a pleasant village about four miles west of Litch- 
field, a station on the Shepaug Railroad, situated on 
the Bantam River, which here falls one hundred and 
twenty-five feet in a distance of less than three- 
quarters of a mile, an excellent site for manufactur- 
ing, as, in addition to the great descent of the river, 
it has the advantage of Bantam Lake for a reservoir. 
This picturesque lake has a superficial area of about 
one thousand acres, the outflow being controlled per- 
fectly by a dam fourteen feet in width, about half a 
mile from the lake. There are several manufacturing 
establishments now in operation, — a cotton-mill, a 
very complete grist- and flouring-mill, a successful 
carriage-factory, also several dams and unoccupied 
mill-sites. There are also two thriving stores, one of 
which is owned by the postmaster and used as a post- 
office. It is connected by telephone with Litchfield, 
and the railroad telegraph passes through the village. 
With the unfailing water-power, which has stood the 
test of the severe droughts and frost of past years, the 
inhabitants of Bantam anticipate a future of great 
prosperity. 

The west side of Bantam Lake has attracted much 
notice from visitors by reason of the picturesque views 
from the road, which passes along closely hugging the 
water. One of Brooklyn's world-famous divines, who 
is also a great traveler, declares that in all his travels 
he has seen nothing more lovely than this drive. 

The cotton-mill referred to above was built in 1876 
-77 by Dorsey Neville & George E. Jones. Its pro- 
duction has been doubled since business commenced. 
The carriage-factoiy is the property of Flynn & 
Doyle. The flouring-mill belongs to E. McNeill, the 
gate at the outlet of the lake being owned and con- 
trolled by G. E. Jones. 

NORTHFIELD 

is a hamlet located in the southeastern part of the 
town. It was incorporated as a parish in 1794. 

THE NORTHFIELD KNIFE COMPANY 

was organized and incorporated in January, 1858, as 
a joint stock corporation, the original stock of ten 
thousand dollars being taken by some forty workmen, 
only a small portion of the capital being paid in at 
the start. The company then leased the buildings 
and water-power of the Northfield Manufacturing 
Company (organized several years previous for the 
manufacture of carriages and a variety of other goods, 



and which venture proved unrenumerative), and in 
their factory, then nearly new, commenced the man- 
ufacture of pocket-cutlery. John S. Barnes, a native 
of Sheffield, England, was elected jjresident of the 
corporation, and held that office for about four years. 
Then Samuel Mason, the former secretary, also from 
Sheffield, was chosen president, continuing in that 
office for about three years, when (in January, 186.5) 
the management of the business was placed in the 
hands of F. H. Catlin, of Northfield, he being elected 
president of the corporation, and which management 
and office he has had since that time and still retains. 

In 1865 this company purchased the entire property 
of the Northfield Manufacturing Company, including 
a good water-power, with a fall of over fifty feet, 
which they have since greatly improved by the build- 
ing of large reservoirs on the two streams whose waters 
they control. They have also erected additional fac- 
tory buildings, numerous dwellings, and a fine store, 
and provided the village with an increased mail ser- 
vice. Their cutlery has always ranked high for 
quality, and has achieved an enviable reputation. It 
received high awards at the Centennial Exhibition at 
Philadelphia, in 1876, and at the Paris Exhibition of 
1878, is well and favorably known in nearly every 
State and Territory of the Union, and has been sold 
for export to several foreign countries. The difterent 
styles of pocket-knives kejjt in stock by this company 
number about four hundred, while their exhibit at 
Philadelphia comprised about eight hundred, and 
that at Paris about nine hundred styles. The annual 
business is about one hundred thousand dollars, em- 
ploying about seventy-five operatives, nearly all of 
whom are skilled Sheffield workmen, many of whom, 
together with their families, the company has brought 
over from England. 

The present officers of the company are F. H. Cat- 
lin president and treasurer, and J. Howard Catlin 
secretary. 

MILTON 
is a hamlet located in the northwestern part of the 
town, and was incorporated as a parish in 1795. 

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES.'? 
Samuel Adams, a native of Milford and long a resi- 
dent of Stratford, came to this village to reside a few 
years previous to his death, which took place here 
Nov. 12, 1788, in the eighty-fifth year of his age. He 
had been a prominent lawyer and judge of the Fair- 
field County Court. His widow, Mrs. Mary Adams, 
died in this town, Aug. 29, 1803, in (he one hundred 
and sLrth year of her age. " She retained," says the 
Monitor, " her memory, reason, and activity remark- 
ably until about two years before her death. After 
she was an hundred years old she rode on horseback 
thirty miles in one day." She was a daughter of Mr. 

* Condensed from " Kilbourue^e History of Litchfield.'* 



LITCHFIELD. 



145 



Zachariah Faircliild, and was born in Stratford, May 
7, 1698 ; thus having lived in three centuries. 

John Allen, a native of Great Harrington, Mass., 
was admitted to the Litchfield bar in 1786, and con- 
tinued to reside here as a practicing lawyer until his 
death, in the year 1812. He was a representative at 
seven sessions ; clerk of the House in 1796 ; member 
of Congress from 1797 to 1799 ; and member of the 
State Council from 1800 to 1806. He not only pos- 
sessed great powers of mind, but was remarkable for 
his imposing presence, having been nearly seven feet 
in height, and with a proportionably heavy frame. 

John W. Allen, son of the preceding, was born in 
Litchfield, but left his native town soon after the 
death of his father. Having studied law, he settled 
in Cleveland, Ohio, where he became eminent in his 
profession. 

Rev. Horace Agard, son of Mr. Noah Agard, was 
born in Litchfield, received a license to ])reach from 
the Methodist Conference, and for some time labored 
successfully in his native town. He was subsequently 
presiding elder of the Susquehanna and Berkshire 
districts. He died Jan. 8, 1850. 

Epaphroditus Champion Bacon was born in Litch- 
field in 1811 ; graduated at Yale College in 183.3, and 
settled in his native town as a lawyer. In 1839 he 
was a delegate to and secretary of the National Con- 
vention which met at Harrisburg and nominated Gen. 
Harrison for the Presidency of the United States. 
Mr. Bacon was elected a rei)resentative from this town 
in 1840, and again in 1841. Wiiile traveling in 
Europe, he died at Seville, Spain, Jan. 11, 1845, aged 
thirty-four years. 

Lieut. Frederick A. Bacon, son of Asa Bacon, Esq., 
was born in Litchfield in 1813; entered the navy in 
his youth, and was attaclied to the United Statt-s 
schooner "Sea Gull," of the exploring expedition, 
which foundered ofl" Cape Horn, May 1, 1839, and 
all on board perished. He was twenty-six years of 
age. 

Gen. Francis Bacon, youngest son of Asa Bacon, 
Esq., was born in Litchfield in January, 1820; gradu- 
ated at Yale College in 1829; stuilied law with the 
Hon. O. S. Seymour, and settled ua i\ lawyer in his 
native town. With the exception of two or three 
years he continued to reside here until his death. 
In 1847 and 1848 he was first clerk of the Hou.se; 
and in 1849 he was elected to the senate of this Slate. 
He was also major-gcnoral of nil the militia of Con- 
necticut. He died in this town, Sept. 16, 1849. 

Isaac Baldwin graduated at Yale College in 1735, 
settled in Litchfield in 1742, and died here Jan. 15, 
1805, aged ninety-five years. He was a representative 
at ten sessions, clerk of the Probate Court twenty-nine 
years, town clerk thirty -one years, ami clerk of the 
Court of Common Pleas forty-two years. 

lU'v. Ashbel Baldwin, son of Isaac Baldwin, Esq., 
was born In Litchfield, March 7, 1757, and gniduated 
at Yale College in 1776. He was onlained deacon at 



Middletown, by Bishop Seabury, Aug. 3, 1785, beinr; 
the first Episcopal ordination in the United States. In 
September following he was ordained priest by the 
same bishop. From 1785 to 1793 he was rector of St. 
Michael's Church in this town, and was afterwards 
for about thirty years rector of Christ Church, Strat- 
ford. He was secretary of the diocese of Connecticut, 
and member of the general convention. Mr. Bald- 
win died in Rochester, N. Y., Feb. 8, 1846, in his 
eighty-ninth year. From his register it appears that 
he had preached and performed service about ten 
thousand times ; baptized three thousand and ten 
persons ; married six hundred couple ; and buried 
about three thousand persons ! 

William B. Baldwin, son of Capt. Horac? and 
grandson of Isaac Baldwin, Esq., was born in Litch- 
field, Jan. 7, 1803, and for more than twenty years 
was one of the editors and proprietors of the New 
Haven daily and weekly Heijister. 

Amos Barnes, son of Mr. Enos Barnes, was born in 
Litchfield. He was an oiBcer in actual service in the 
last war with Great Britain. 

Lyman Beecher, D.D., was born in New Haven, 
Oct. 12, 1775 ; graduated at Yale College in 1797, and 
was ordained pa.stor of a church in East Hampton, 
L. I., in December, 1798, with a salary of three hun- 
dred dollars per year. In 1810, at the age of thirty- 
five years, he was installed |)astor of the First Church 
in Litchfield, and remained here in that capacity for 
a period of sixteen years. This was, as he himself 
states, by far the most active and laborious part of 
his life. In addition to his ordinary pastoral services, 
he was probably more conspicuously identified with 
the establishment of the great benevolent a-ssociations 
of the day than any other country p.istor in New 
England. Returning full of zeal from the first 
meeting of the American Boartl of Cumniissioners 
for Foreign Missions in 1812, he called together, in 
this village, several clergymen ami laymen fron\ vari- 
ous parts of the county, who organized the Litchfield 
County Foreign Mission Society, the first auxiliary 
of the American boanl. He was active in all the 
reforms of that period. Hi' was three times married. 

Rev. Henry Ward lleeclicr wa.s born in Litchfield, 
June 24, 1813; graduated at .Vinlierst College in lS;t4; 
was licensed to preach in April, 1838; and was settled 
as pastor of a church in Lawrenceburg, Ind., in the 
fall of the same year. From August, l«.39, to October, 
1847, he was piustor of a church in Indianapolis, Ind. ; 
anil since the last named ilate he has been pastor ot 
the Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

John Bird, son of Dr. Seth Bird, was bom in Litch- 
field, Nov. 22, 1768 ; graduated at Yale College in 1786 ; 
practice<l law for a few years in his native town ; re- 
moved to Troy, N. Y., in 1794, ami die<l there in the 
year 18(Hi, aged thirty-eight years. He had been a 
meml)er of the Legislature of New York, and a mem- 
ber of Congress from that State. F]jc- President Van 
Duron, in speaking of him, said, — 



146 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



"John Bird I diJ not know perBonally, but have always taken much 
interest in liis cliaracter ami career. lie must, according to all accounts, 
have been one of the very ablest men in the State, though a very eccen- 
tric one. There have been but few men among us who have left behind 
them 60 many racy auecdotes illustrative of their peculiarities." 

His first wife was a daughter of Col. Joshua Porter, 

of Salisbury ; his second wife was Sally Buel, daughter 
of Mr. David Buel, of Troy, formerly of this town. 
He loft several children. 

Gen. John Ward Birge was boru in Litchfield, Jan. 
7, 1803, and in his youth went to reside with an uncle 
in Cazenovia, N. Y. He received his medical degree 
at Geneva College, and was a successful practitioner 
in Utica, where, as a surgeon and oculist, he had a 
high reputation. 

George Beckwith Bissell, son of Mr. John Bissell, 
was born in Litchfield, Sept. 12, 1823 ; entered the 
United States navy in his youth. In August, 1840, 
he was attached to the United States brig " Truxton" 
when she was wrecked on the coast of Mexico, and 
with others was seized and held as a prisoner of 
war. On his release he made a visit to his native 
town ; but soon rejoined the navy, and for eighteen 
months was attached to the scientific department at 
Washington. He joined the frigate "Cumberland" 
in New York, as sailing-master, on the 81st of August, 
and died at the naval hospital in Brooklyn, Sept. 10, 
1848, aged twenty-five years. 

Lyman Bissell, son of Mr. Hiram Bi.ssell, was born 
in Litchfield, Oct. 19, 1812; was captain in the United 
States army, and paymaster of the New England reg- 
iment in the war with Mexico. 

John P. Brace was born in Litchfield, Feb. 10, 1793 ; 
graduated at Williams College in 1812; and was for 
some years principal of the Litchfield Female Acad- 
emy, and subsequently of the Hartford Female Semi- 
nary. For a long time he was one of the editors of 
the Hartford Courant. 

Charles Loring Brace, the celebrated traveler, is a 
son of John P. Br.ace, Esq., and was born in Litchfield, 
June 19, 1826. Having graduated at Yale College in 
1846 and pursued a course of theological studies, he 
spent several years traveling in Europe, as a part of 
the fruits of which he has given to the public three 
or four very interesting volumes, — viz., " Hungary in 
1851," "Home Life in Germany," " The Norse Folk," 
etc. In May, 1851, during the Hungarian struggle for 
independence, Mr. Brace was seized as a spy by the 
Austrian authorities and imprisoned at Gross War- 
dein ; but after a lapse of thirty days he was released 
through the intervention of Mr. McCurdy, then Ameri- 
can minister to Austria. 

Abraham Bradley, son of Abraham Bradley, Esq., 
was born in Litchfield, Feb. 21, 1767, studied law, and 
became a judge in Luzerne Co., Pa. From 1799 to 
1829 he was first assistant postmaster-general of the 
United States. 

Dr. Phineas Bradley, brother of the preceding, was 
born in Litchfield, July 17, 1769; m,arried Hannah 
Jones, of this town, and settled here as a physician 



and druggist. When the oifice of second assistant 
postmaster-general was created by Congress, Dr. Brad- 
ley was appointed and retained the position for about 
twenty-five years. He was a gentleman of wealth, and 
distinguished for his hospitality and benevolence. He 
died at his beautiful seat, "Clover Hill," two miles 
north of the national capital, in the spring of 1845, 
aged seventy-six. 

William A. Bradley, son of the preceding, was born 
in Litchfield, July 25, 1794, and settled in Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

David Buel, Jr., was born in Litchfield, Oct. 22, 
1784; graduated at Williams College in 1805; settled 
as a lawyer in Troy, where he still resides. In 1821 
he was a delegate to the constitutional convention of 
his adopted State ; for some years held the office of 
first judge of the Court of Common Pleas for Rens- 
selaer County, and in 1842 he was elected a regent of 
the State University. From 1829 to 1847, Judge Buel 
was a trustee of Williams College. 

Rev. Horace Bushnell, D.D., son of Ensign Bush- 
nell, Esq., was born in Litchfield in 1802; graduated 
at Yale College in 1827, and was a tutor in that insti- 
tution from 1829 to 1831. For the last tweuty-seven 
years he has been pastor of the North Congregational 
Church in Hartford. 

Julius Catlin, son of Mr. Grove Catlin, was born in 
Harwinton in 1799. When he was about one year 
old his parents removed to this village, and this con- 
tinued to be his home for the succeeding twenty 
years, though at the .age of fifteen he commenced his 
clerkship in Hartford. He became a successful mer- 
chant in that city, where he still resides. Many years 
ago he was a director of the Connecticut branch of 
the United States Bank, and was one of the commit- 
tee appointed to wind up the afiairs of that institu- 
tion, when the parent bank had been crushed by the 
veto of Gen. Jackson. In 1846 he was appointed 
commissary-general of the State, and subsequently he 
held the ofl5ce of auditor of public accounts. The 
President of the United States, in 1847, commissioned 
Col. Catlin as a member of the board of visitors to the 
National Military Academy at West Point. In the 
autumn of 1856, Col. Catlin and ex-Governor Dutton 
were chosen Presidential electors for the State at 
large. At the annual election in April, 1858, he was 
chosen Lieutenant-Governor of Connecticut, and was 
re-elected. 

Putnam Catlin, son of Mr. Eli Catlin, was born in 
Litchfield, studied law with Gen. Tracy, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in this town in 1786. He settled in 
Montrose, Pa., and there held the office of judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas. He was the father of 
George Catlin, the celebrated artist and historian of the 
American Indians, who was himself educated in 
Litchfield. 

John Allen Collier, son of Capt. Thomas Collier, 
editor of the Monitor, was born in Litchfield, Nov. 13, 
1787 ; settled as a lawyer in Binghamton, Broome Co., 



LITCHFIELD. 



147 



N. Y. He was a member of Congress, comptroller of 
the State, commissioner to revise and codify the laws, 
senatorial elector for President and Vice-President 
of the United States, and delegate to and chairman of 
the Whig National Convention of 1848. 

Gen. James Collier, brother of the preceding, was 
born in Litchiield, May 30, 1789 ; settled in the State 
of New York, and was quartermaster and acting ad- 
jutant at the battle of Queenstown, and participated 
in that fight. In 1819 he removed to Steubcnville, 
Ohio. He was a prominent citizen. . .-- 

Julius Deming, an eminent merchant of Litchfield, 
was born in Lyme, April 15, 1755, and about the year 
1781 commenced business in this village. A gentle- 
man of remarkable energy and enterprise, he soon 
visited London, and made arrangements to import his 
goods direct from that city, which, probably, was not 
true of any other country merchant in Connecticut. 
He wa.s universally recognized by the citizens as the 
most thorough and successful business man who has 
ever spent his life here. Prompt in his engagements, 
scrupulously upright in his dealings, and discreet and 
liberal in his benefactions, few men in any commu- 
nity ever enjoyed more implicitly the confidence of 
all. Mr. Deming had little taste for public life. He 
was three times elected a member of the House of 
Kepresentatives, and for several years was one of the 
magistrates of this county. From 1801 to 1814 he 
served in the office of county treasurer. His position 
and influence were such that, had he l)een an aspirant 
for political honors, there were few offices within the 
gift of the people of this State which he might not 
have filled. He died in this town, Jan. 2;!, 1838, aged 
eighty-three years. 

Miner R. Deming, son of Stephen Deming, Esq., 
was born in Sharon, Feb. 24, 1810; came to Litch- 
field with liis parents in 1820, and contiiuied to reside 
here for the ne.xt sixteen years. In 183C he removed 
to Cincinnati; and in 1839 lie became a resident of 
St. Mary's, 111. As brigadier-general he was ciiief in 
command of the Illinois State troops during the fa- 
mous Mormon war. Gen. Deming dic<l suddenly, of 
brain fever, Sept. 10, 1845, while holding tiic ollice of 
high sheritf of Hancock County. 

Col. Fisher Gay, son of John Gay, Esq.. was born 
in Litchfield, Oct. 9, 1733 ; graduated at Yale College, 
and settled in Farmington, whore he was long n jus- 
tice of the peace and representative. In the early 
part of the Revolution he commanded a regiment of 
Connecticut troops sent for the defense of New York, 
in which city he died in 177(). 

Uriel Holmes, Jr., a native of Harlland, graduated 
at Yale College in 1784, and settled in Litchfield as a 
lawyer a few Jejirs subsequently. He was elected a 
representative nine times, was a judge of the Litcli- 
field County Court from 1814 to 1817, and during the 
latttT year he was chosen a member of Congre.ss. 
While residing in Lilclilield he was thrown from his 
carriage in Canton, from the ellects of which lie died, 



May 18, 1827, aged sixty-two. Judge Holmes mar- 
ried a daughter of the Hon. Aaron Austin, and had 
three children, — viz., Henry, M.D., a distinguished 
physician in Hartford ; Uriel, who died July 4, 1818, 
while a member of the theological seminary at An- 
dover ; Caroline, who died young. 

Charles P. Huntington, son of the Rev. Dan Hunt- 
ington, was born in Litchfield, March 24, 1802 ; grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1822 ; settled as a lawyer 
in Noj:Aampton, Mass. ; he filled various official 
positions. 

Col. Charles Kilbourn, son of Mr. David Kil- 
bourn, was born in Litchfield, March 3, 1758 ; fled 
to Canada in the Revolution, and finally settled near 
Lake Memphremagog, in Stanstead, L. C, where he 
erected mills of various kinds. The locality still 
bears the name of Killbourn's Mills on many English 
and American maps. In the war of 1812 he com- 
manded a corps of provincial troops known as the 
Frontier Light Infantry. Ho was also for many years 
a magistrate, and justice of the Commissioners' Court. 
Col. Kilbourn died in Stanstead, June 19, 1834, aged 
seventy-six. 

Ephraira Kirby, son of Mr. Abraham Kirby, was 
born in Litchfield, Feb. 22, 1757; studieil law and 
settled in his native town. He was often chosen a 
representative; appointed supervisor of the national 
revenue for the State of Connecticut in 1801, and 
United States judge for the Territory of Louisiana in 
1804. Willie on his way to New Orleans, whither 
the duties of his office called him, lie died at Fort 
Stoddard, Mississippi Territory, Oct. 2, 1S04, aged 
forty-seven. Col. Kirby married Ruth, daughter of 
Reynold Marvin, Esq., and left eight children. He 
published a volume of law repoVts in 1789, the first in 
the United States. 

Maj. Reynold .M. Kirby, United States army, a son 
of the |(receding, was born in Litchfield, March 13, 
1790. For many years before his death he was assist- 
ant adjutant-general of the army. 

Col. Edmund Kirby, United States army, a brother 
of the iireccding, was born in Litchfield, April 8, 1794 ; 
entered the army as a lieutenant in 1812; appointed 
aid-de-canip to his father-in-law, Maj-(icn. Brown ; 
served in the IJIackliawk, (.'reck, and Seminole wars ; 
was chief of the pay department, ami ald-de-camp 
to the commander-in-chief during the late war with 
Mexico. He died at Avon Springs, N. Y., Aug. 20, 
1849, aged fifty-five. On the election of President 
Taylor, Col. Kirby was freiplently referred lo in the 
publiu prints lus a probable member of the new 
cabinet. 

Rev. Ethan Osborn, son of Capt. John Osborn, was 
born in Litchfield, Aug. 21, 1758 ; graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 1784, and was settlc<l as pastor of the 
Congregational Cliunh in Fairfield, N. J., in 1789. 

J. dm "S\. I'ock., D.L)., son of .Mr. Asa Peck, wiw 
born in Litchiield, » let. 31, 1789, uiid became a cele- 
brated Baptist preacher in Illinois. 



148 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



William V. Peck was born of Litchfield parents 
in Cayuga Co., N. Y., where his father, Mr. Virgil 
Peck, died during his iufanc}'. AVhen the subject of 
this paragraph was three years old his mother re- 
turned with him to this town, and subsequently mar- 
ried Dr. Abel Catlin, in whose family he was brought 
up. After spending about twenty years in this village 
he settled as a lawyer in Ohio, and was a judge of the 
Supreme Court of that State. 

Professor William G. Peck, son of Mr. Alfred 
Peck, was born in Litchfield, Oct. 16, 1820; gradu- 
ated at West Point, where he was for a few years as- 
sistant professor of mathematics. As lieutenant of 
topographical engineers in the United States army, 
he was associated with Col. Fremont in his celebrated 
exploring expeditions. He has since been a professor 
in the University of Michigan, and is now professor 
of mathematics in Columbia College, New York. 
He married Elizabeth M., daughter of Professor 
Charles Davies, LL.D. 

Samuel Sliethcr Phelps, son of Capt. John Phelps, 
was born May 13, 1793; graduated at Yale College 
and the Litchfield Law-School, and settled in Mid- 
dlebury, Vt. Having been successively a paymaster 
in the war of 1812, aid-de-camp to Governor Galusha, 
colonel, nioniber of the Council of Censors, member 
of the Legislative Council, and judge of the Supreme 
Court, he was elected a senator in Congress in 1838, 
an office which he held for twelve years. As a law- 
yer and statesman he ranked with Clay, AVebster, 
Crittenden, and Clayton. Judge Phelps died in 1857. 
Col. John Pierce, son of Mr. John Pierce, of Litch- 
field, early entered the jniblic service, and rose to tlie 
rank of payma.ster-general in the army, and was a 
commissioner for settling the accounts of the army. 
Though his parents never resided out of Litchfield after 
their marriage. Col. Pierce is said to have been born 
at the house of his maternal grandfather, Maj. John 
Patterson, in P^armington. Col. Pierce died in New 
York, Aug. 6, 1788. He was a brother of the late 
Miss Sarah Pierce, founder and principal of the Litch- 
field Female Academy. 

John Pierpont, son of Mr. James Pierpont, was 
born in Litchfield, April 6, 1785; graduated at Yale 
College and at the Litclifleld Law-School, and settled 
in Newburyport, Mass., as a lawyer. Abandoning 
the legal profession, he entered the ministry of the 
Unitarian denomination, and was for many years 
pastor of the Hollis Street Church, Boston. 

Robert Pierpont, son of Mr. David Pierpont, was 
born in Litchfield, May 4, 1791 ; studied law and set- 
tled in Rutland, Vt. He was Lieutenant-Governor of 
that State and judge of the Supreme Court. 

John Pierpont, brother of the preceding, was born 
in Litchfield, Sept. 10, 1805 ; graduated at the law- 
school in this town, and settled in Vergennes, Vt. 
He was a judge of the Supreme Court of that State. 

Albert Sedgwick was born in Cornwall Hollow in 
the year 1802; removed to Litchfield in 1830, and 



continued to reside here for the succeeding twenty-five 
years. In 1834 he was appointed high sheriff^ of this 
county, an ofiice which he continued to hold (with the 
exception of one term of three years) until 1854, when 
he was appointed by the Legislature commissioner of 
the school fund of Connecticut. 

Horatio Seymour, LL.D., son of Maj. Moses Sey- 
mour, was liorn in Litchfield, May 31, 1778 ; graduated 
at Yale College and at the Litchfield Law-School, and 
settled in Middlebury, Vt., where he died a year or 
two since. He was a member of the State Council 
from 1809 to 1816 ; and of the United States Senate 
from 1821 to 1833. In 1834 he was the Whig candi- 
date for Governor of Vermont, but the anti-Masonic 
candidate was elected. He was also for a few years 
judge of probate. Judge Seymour received the de- 
gree of Doctor of Laws i'rom his alma mater in 1847. 

Henry Seymour, brother of the preceding, was born 
in Litchfield, May 30, 1780; settled as a merchant at 
Pompey, Onondaga Co., N. Y., where he became 
wealthy. Removing to Utica, he died there, Aug. 26, 
1837. He was a representative, senator, canal com- 
missioner, mayor of Utica, and president of the Far- 
mers' Loan and Trust Company. Ex-Governor Ho- 
ratio Seymour, LL.D., of New York, is his son. 

Daniel Sheldon, Jr., son of Dr. Daniel Sheldon, was 
born in the adjoining town of Washington in 1780, 
and during the following year his parents removed to 
Litchfield ; and here the subject of this sketch con- 
tinued to reside until he entered public life. Gradu- 
ating at the Litchfield Law-School in 1799, he accepted 
a clerkship in the treasury department, and retained 
it until the appointment of Mr. Gallatin as ambassador 
to France, when he was nominated and confirmed as 
secretary of legation to that country. AVhen the am- 
bassador was recalled, Mr. Sheldon remained in France 
as charge d'affaires until the arrival of Mr. Gallatin's 
successor. He died in Marseilles, April 14, 1828, 
aged forty-eight. His funeral was attended by all the 
foreign ministers and consuls present in the city, and 
the flags of all the American ships in port were placed 
at half-mast. 

Roger Skinner, son of Gen. Timothy Skinner, was 
born in Litchfield, June 10, 1773; became a lawyer, 
and removed from this town to Sandy Hill, N. Y''., in 
1806, where he was elected a representative in 1810, 
1811, and 1812, and a senator from 1818 to 1821. In 
1820 he was a member of the Council of Appointment ; 
from 1815 to 1819, United States attorney for the 
Northern District of New York ; .and from 1819 until 
his death judge of the United States District Court. 
On being appointed judge he became a resident of 
Albany, at which place he died Aug. 19, 1825. He 
was an intimate friend of the Hon. Martin Van Bu- 
ren. 

Richard Skinner, LL.D., brother of the preceding, 
w.as born in Litchfield, May 30, 1778 ; graduated at 
the law-school in his native town, and settled in Man- 
chester, Vt., in 1800. He became State's attorney, 



LITCHFIELD. 



149 



speaker of the House, judge of probate, member of 
Congress, chief justice of the State, and Governor. 
He received the degree of LL.D. from Middlebury 
College. Governor Skinner died in Middlebury, May 
23, 1833, aged fifty-five. 

Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, daughter of the Rev. 
Lyman Beecher, D.D., was born in Litchfield, and 
married the Rev. Dr. Stowe. She i.s the author of 
"The Mayflower," "Uncle Tom's Cabin," " Dred, 
a Tale of the Dismal Swamp," " Sunny Memories of 
Foreign Lands," etc. 

Frederick A. Tallmadge, son of Col. Benjamin Tall- 
madge, was born in Litchfield, Aug. 29, 1792; gradu- 
ated at Yale College in 1811, and settled as a lawyer 
in New York City, his present residence. From 
18.34 to 1836 he was an alderman ; from 1836 to 1840, 
a member of the State senate, of which body he was 
elected president; from 1840 to 1845 and from 1848 to 
18.53 he was recorder of the city, and chief justice of 
the police court ; and from 1846 to 1848 he was a 
member of Congress, etc. 

Gen. Uriah Tracy, a native of Norwich, and a 
graduate of Yale College, settled as a lawyer in Litch- 
field in 1780, and here spent his entire professional 
life. He was a representative at nine sessions, mem- 
ber of Congress three years, and United States senator 
eleven years, and rose to the rank of major-general of 
militia. He was one of the most brilliant men of his 
day. Gen. Tracy died in Washington City in 1807, 
and was the first person buried in the Congressional 
Cemetery. 

Gen. Elijah Wadsworth was born in Hartford, Nov. 
14, 1747 ; settled in Litchfield jirevious to the Revo- 
lution ; was captain in Sheldon's Regiment of Light 
Dragoons during nearly the entire war. 

John Welch, son of Maj. David Welch, was born 
in Litchfield, Sei)t. 23, 1759; graduated at Yale Col- 
lege in 1778; settled as a merchant in hi.t native town, 
and continued to reside here until his <leath, which 
took place Dec. 26, 1845. He was successively a Jus- 
tice of the peace, representative, senator, member of 
the Constitutional Convention, associate judge of the 
County Court, and a candidate for Congress. He was 
successful in business, and left a large estate. 

Henry W. Wessells, .son of Dr. Ashbcl Wessells, 
was born in Litchfield, Feb. 20, 1809; graduated at 
AVest Point in 1833, and entered the army as brevet 
second lieutenant. He was actively engaged in the 
Creek war, the Florida war, the war with Mexico, and 
the late Rebellion. He is licutenant-colom-l in the 
regular army, and brigadier-general by brevet. 

t)liver Wolcott, Jr., LL.D., was born in Litchfield, 
Jan. 11, 1760, and died in New York, June 2, 1833. 
He graduated at Yale Collcgi', and was successively 
comptroller of this State, auditor and secretary of the 
L'nited States treasury, judge of the United States 
Circuit Court, president of the Bank of America, 
president of the Constitutional Convention of Con- 
necticut, and Governor of his native State from 1817 



to 1827. He was one of the most illustrious statesmen 
of the early days of the repuljlic, — the intimate friend 
and adviser of Washington, Adams, and Hamilton, — 
and, for some time previous to his decease, he was the 
last surviving member of Washington's cabinet. 

Frederick Wolcott, brother of the preceding, was 
born in Litchfield, Nov. 2, 1767; graduated at Yale 
College in 1787, and died in his native town May 28, 
1837. For more than forty years he was constantly 
in public life — as clerk of the courts, judge of pro- 
bate, representative, member of the State Council, 
senator, etc. No man ever lived in the town who en- 
joyed more implicitly the confideuce of the public. 
There was a dignity and nobleness in his person and 
manner which left their impress on all who came 
within the sphere of his influence. 

Gen. Morris Woodrufl', son of Mr. James Woodruflf, 
was born in Litchfield, Sept. 3, 1777 ; educated at Mor- 
ris Academy, and was bred a merchant. He com- 
menced his mercantile life with Messrs. David Leavitt 
and Simeon Harrison; and alter his connection with 
them was dissolved he prosecuted the business chiefly 
on his own account for many years. He was through 
life much employed as executor, administrator, and 
commissioner, in settling estates, and as an arl)itrator, 
auditor, and committee appointed by the courts. He 
was an active and influential member of the church 
and ecclesiastical society, and of the community gen- 
erally to which he belonged ; repeatedly discharged 
the duties of various public offices ; represented the 
town of Litchfield in the Legislature fourteen sessions, 
and was a magistrate of the county twenty-si.v years. 
In 1818 he was ai)pointeil brigadier-general of the 
Sixth Brigade ; and in 1K24 the Legislature appointed 
him major-general of the Third Division. From 1829 
until his death — a period of eleven years — he held 
the office of a judge of the County Court, and that of 
commissioner, which succeeded it; and in November, 
1832, he was chosen by the voters of the State at large 
an elector of President and Vice-rresident of the 
United States. In all the affairs of life, Gen. Wood- 
ruff' was distinguished by great activity, energy, per- 
severance, accuracy, and fidelity to whatever trust he 
assumed. 0( high integrity himself, he was stern in 
reipiiring from others observance of its dictates. 
Ready to do justice to others ; keenly alive to every 
sense of wrong ; penetrating in his scrutiny into the 
conduct and niollves of others; convincing rather 
than persuasive in his intercourse with men, he im- 
|)ellc<l their concurrence in his views by producing" 
confidence in the soundness of his judgment and the 
correctness of his purposes. He wius steadfast in his 
friendships, and few men retained with equal warmth 
the intinuK'ies begun in early years. The associates 
of his boyhood were through life his most confiding 
and devoted friends. The dependence of his neigh- 
bors an<l friends on him for advice and a.ssistnnce was 
verv great; their confidence was never abu.'<ed, their 
reliance never failed; and so his means of usefulness 



150 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



iiniong them were largo, and his influence extensive. 
In his domestic relations he was aifectionate and kind, 
inflexible in retaining a high standard of both filial 
and iiareutal duty, and never failed to sliow that the 
highest good of those who were dependent upon him 
was his invariable motive in all his intercourse with 
them. (Jen. Woodruff was nearly six feet in height, 
stout, erect, active, and of more than ordinary physi- 
cal strength. Of robust and vigorous frame and 
sound constitution, his health was rarely interrupted, 
and promise of a green old age seemed singularly cer- 
tain. But in the spring of 1839 his system received 
a shock, followed by an afl'ection of the liver, under 
which he declined, and on the 17th of May, 1840, he 
died, illustrating in his dying hour the peace and 
consolation of the Christian's hope and confidence in 
the Saviour in whose church on earth he had been 
numliered for many years. His remains are interred 
in our East l)urying-ground, where a handsome monu- 
ment has been erected to his memory. Gen. Wood- 
ruff married Candace, eldest daughter of Lewis Cat- 
lin, Esq., of Harwinton. Their children were George 
C, who still resides in Litclifield, and is well known 
to our readers as a prominent member of tlie bar of 
Litchfield County; Lucy M., who married Hon. O. S. 
i?eymour,of Litchfield, ex-chief justice of Connecticut; 
Hon. Lewis B., of New York, late circuit judge of the 
Second Judicial District of the United States, embra- 
cing tlie States of New York, Connecticut, and Ver- 
mont; Reu))en M., M.D., a physician of higli attain- 
ments, wlio died young in 1849 ; James, who died in 
infancy. 

Clark Woodruft', brother of the preceding, was born 
in Litchfield, Aug. 23, 1791, and was educated at Mor- 
ris Academy. In 1810 he left his native town, and, 
passing down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, he soon 
established himself a,s a lawyer in St. Francisville, in 
the present State of Louisiana. For many j'ears he was 
reputed one of the ablest, most eloquent, and successful 
advocates at the bar; and in the spring of 1828 he 
was appointed judge of the Eighth Judicial District 
of the State of Louisiana. He also lield the office of 
State auditor and commissioner, charged with the sub- 
ject of public improvements in that State, in which he 
took an active interest. He was also a trustee of 
Louisiana College. On resigning his judgeship he re- 
moved to New Orleans, where he resided until a short 
time previous to his death. He departed this life at 
his country-seat at Carrollton, on the IMissi.ssippi, 
about six miles above that city, on the 25th of No- 
•^vember, 1851. Judge Woodruff was a polished, 
courtly gentleman, of fine address, pleasing manners, 
and cultivated mind. He married Matilda Bradford, 
of St. Francisville, a highly accomplished lady, by 
whom he had three children. The only survivor, 
Mrs. Octavia Besancon, now lives at Carrollton, at the 
late residence of her father. 

The following named citizens of Litchfield have 
occupied the public stations annexed to their names : 



Adams, Andrew, chief justice Superior Court. 

Allen, Etimn, general Revolntionary army, 

Allen, John, representative in Congress. 

Allen, John W., representative in Congress, Ohio. 

Andrews, Charles B., Governor of Connecticut. 

Beers, Seth P., oonimissioner of school fund. 

Beecher, Lyman, D.P., president Lane Seminary. 

Beecher, Edward, D.D., president Illinois College. 

Beecher, Henry W., Plymouth Church, Brooklyn. 

Bird, John, representative in Congress. 

Bradley, Aliraham, jussistant postmaster-general. 

Bradley, Phine.as, assistant postmaster-general. 

Bnshnell, Horace, D.D., pastor and author, Hartford. 

Catlin, Julius, Lieutenant-Governor. 

Church, Samuel, chief justice Supreme Court. 

Collier, John A., comptroller, representative in Congress, New York. 

Dntton, Henry, Governor, judge Supreme Con: t. 

Deniing, Julius, commissary Revolutionary war. 

GonM, James, judge Supreme Court. 

Gould, William T , judge, Georgia. 

Gould, George, judge Supreme Court, New York. 

Hollister, G. H., minister to Hayti. 

Holmes, Uriel, judge, representative in Congress. 

Hulbard, John H., representative in Congress. 

Huntington, Jahez AV., representative and senator in Congress, judge 
Supreme Court. 

Huntington, Charles P., judge Superior Court, Massachusetts. 

Kirliy, Ephraim, United States judge, Mississippi. 

Lyon, Matthew, representative in Congress, Vermont and Kentucky. 

Marvin, Reynold, king's attorney. 

Miner, Phineas, representative in Congress. 

Peck, William V., judge Supreme Court, Ohio. 

Plielps, Samuel S., judge. United States senator, Vermont. 

Pierpont. John, poet, pastor. 

Pierpont, Robert, Lieutenant-Governor, judge Supreme Court, Vermont. 

Pierpont, John, chief judge Supreme Court, Vermont. 

Reeve, Tapping, chief justice Supreme Court. 

Sanford, David C, judge Supreme Court. 

Sedgwick, Albert, commissioner of the school fund. 

Seymour, Horatio, United States senatoi-, Vermont. 

Seymour, Origon S., representative in Congress, chief justice Supreme 
Court. 

Sheldon, Daniel, secretary of legation, France. 

Skinner, Roger, United States district judge. New York, 

Skinner, Richard, representative in Congress, chief justice Supreme 
Court, Governor Vermont. 

Smith, Joseph L., United States judge. East Florida. 

Smith, Truman, representative and senator in United States Congress. 

Strong, Jcdediah, representative in Congress. 

Tallmadge, Benjamin, uaijor Revolutionary army, representative in Con- 
gress. 

Tallmadge. Frederick A., recorder New York City. 

Tracy, Uriah, representative and senator in Congress. 

Wolcott, Oliver, repi'esentalive in Congress, signer Declaration of In- 
dependence, Governor. 

Wolcott, Oliver, secretaiy of treasury. United States judge. Governor. 

WoodrnlT, Clark, judge, Louisiana. 

Woodruff, George C, representative in Congress. 

Woodruff", Lewis B., judge Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, New York, 
and United States Circuit Court. 

Woodruff, George M., railroad common laws. 

Wright, John C, representative iu Congress, judge, Ohio. 

NATIVE AND RESIDENT GRADUATES, INCLUDING 
THOSE WHO HAVE RECEIVED HONORARY DE- 
GREES. 

The figures indicate the year of graduation. The 
t after the name indicates an honorary degree. 

1848. — Edward P. and Frederick R. Abbe,* Yale, clergymen in Massa- 
chusetts. 
1825. — Elisha S. Abernethy, Yale, lawyer; now resides in Bridgeport. 
1760. — Andrew Adams, LL.D., Yale, chief justice of Connecticut. 

* Bjru in this town. 



LITCHFIELD. 



151 



1791. — John Allen,t Yale, lawyer an<l member of Congress. 

1640.— John W. Allen,*! Yale, lawyer of Cleveland, Ohio ; member of 

Congress. 
1793. — Asa Bacon, Yale, an eminent lawyer; died in New Haven in 1857. 
1833. — E. Champion Bacon,* Tale, lawyer, legislator; died at Seville, 

Spain, 1845. 
1838. — Francis Bacon,* Yale, lawyer, senator, major-general. 
1850. — Leonard W, Bacon, Y'alo, present pastor of the Congregational 

Church, Norwich. 
1776.— Ashbel Baldwin,* Yale, formerly rector of St. Michael's, Litchfield. 
1810.— Charles A. Baldwin,* Williams, lawyer in State of New York; 

died 1818. 
1735. — Isaac Baldwin, Yale, lawyer, legislator, clerk of the courts ; died 

in 1805. 
1774. — Isaac Baldwin, Jr.,* Yale, lawyer and legislator; died in Pompey, 

N. Y.,183n. 
1801.— Isaac Baldwin (3d),* Yale, lawyer; died io 1844. Samuel S. Bald- 
win,* Yale, lawyer; died in 1854. 
l7C6.-^George Beckwith, Yale, pastor uf the chnrch in South Farms. 
1827. — Josiah G. Beckwith, MD., Union, a practicing physician in this 

town. 
1797. — Lyman Beecher, D.D., Yale, former pastor of the First Church in 

this town. 
1833. — Charles Beecher,* Bowdoin, pastor. 

1822. — Edward Beecher, D.D., Yale, late president Illinois College, au- 
thor, etc. 
1828. — George Beecher, Y'ale, died while pastor of a church in ChilU- 

cothe, Ohio. 
1834. — Henry Ward Beecher,* Amherst, pastor of Plymouth Church, 

Brooklyn. 
1843. — Tliomas K. Beecher,* Illinois, now pastor in Elmira, N. Y. 
1833. — William H. Beecher.f Yale, formerly pastor in Middlotown, etc. 
1842. — Frederick D. Beemau, Yale, lawyer, and clerk of the courts. 
1800. — Amos Benedict, Yale, lawyer; died in this town in 1810. 
184G. — Andrew D. Benedict,* Kenyon, Epi'iCopal clergyman. 
1847. — Samuel Benedict,* Trinity, late assiatunt rector Tiinity Church, 

New Haven. 
1840.- Alfred H. Beers, M.D.,* Trinity, physician in Buffalo, N. Y, 
1839. — George W. Beers,* Trinity, former member of the bar, Litchfield. 
178G. — John Bird,* Yale, lawyer in Litclifleld and Troy, N. Y.; member 

of Congress. 
1851.— Edward Bisscll,* Yale, lawyer in Fon du Lac, Wis. 
1849. — Oscar Bissell,* Yale, pastor of a church in WestminHter, N. II. 
1853.— William Bissell, M.D.,* Yale, physichin in Salisbury. 
1833. — Noah Bishop,* Yale, pastor of a chnrch in or near Springfield, 

Ohio. 
1812. — John P. Brace,* Williams, teacher, author, editor. 
1840.— Charles Loiing Brace,* Yale, autlior, secretary Childi-en's Aid 

Society, N. Y. 
1850. — Jonathan Brace, D.D.,t Yale, now pastor of a churcli in Milfortl. 
1843.— John J. Bratidagee, Yale, former rector of St. Michaol'ti, Litchflultl. 
1812. — Sulyman Brown,* Yale, dentist, author, clorgymaii, New York 

City. 
1S3G.— Frederick Buel, Yulo, agent Amotican Bible Society, Onlifornltu 
182G.— William P. Buel, M.D., Yalo, i»hysician on California stonmor. 
1844.— Henry W. Biiol, M.D.,* physiclau in his native town. 
1805.— David Buel, Jr.,* Williauw, of Troy, N. Y., lawyer, Ju»lgo, regent 

university. 
183G.— Joshua D. Berry, Middlebury, Utu president Shelby College, Ken- 

tuclty. 
1832.— Amos U. Beach, Union, late rector St. Paul's, Bantam Falls. 
1827.— Horace Bushnell, D.D..* Yalo, pastor of North Church. Hartford, 

author, etc. 
1833.— David Butler. D.D.f Washjnglon, former rector Si. Mlcha«l*f. 
1787.— Josoidi K. Camp, Yale, pastor church In Northflold. 
1822. — Albert B. Camp,* Yalo, pastor in llridgowat<>r, Ashby. Mass., etc. 
1786.— Lyndo Catlln,* Yale, merchant, and president Merchants* Bank, 

Now York. 
1839.— John Catlin,* Yolo, teacher, etc. ; reeldot In NorthfloM. 
1751.— Judah Champion, Yale, wcond pastor of the First Church in Ihti 

town. 
1780.— Amos Chase, Dartmouth, pa8t<»r church in Suutli Farms. 
1803.— Samuel Church. LL.D., Yalo, chief Justice of Connecticut. 
1844.— John Churchill,*! Yalo. f"imer pastor of a church In Woodbury. 

* Born In this town. 



1718. — Timothy Collins, Yale, first pastor of the First Church in this town. 
1758. — Ambrose Collins,* Yale, went a missionary to the Indians, and 

died. 
1758. — Thomas Davics, Yale, former rector of St. Michael's. 
1811.— William Deming,* Yale. 
1829. — George C. V. Eastman, Middlebury, former rector of church in 

Bantam Falls. 
1822. — Samuel Fuller, D.D., Union, late president Kenyon College, Ohio. 
1759. — Fisher Gay,* Yale, colonel Revolutionary army ; legislator, magis- 
trate. 
1791.— James Gould, LL.D., Yale, judge Supreme Court, principal Law- 
School. 
1827. — George Gould,* Yale, of Troy. N. Y., now judge Supreme Court, 

N. Y. 
1824.— James R. Gould,* Yale, lawyer; died in Augusta, Ga., 1830. 
181G.— William T. Gould,* Yale, judge Court of Oyer and Terminer, Au- 
gusta, Ga. 
1839. — John BI. Grant,* Yale, colporteur in Maryland, etc. 
1S44. — William H. Guernsey,* Yale, clergyman; died in Savannah, Ga., 

1850. 
1849. — Luther B. Hart, Union, late pastor Baptist Church, North Norfolk. 
1820. — Laurens P. Hickok, D.D., Union, now vice-president Union 

College. 
1851.— George A. Hicko,\, Ttinity, now a practicing lawyer in this town, 

and editor and proprietor Lilchfidd Enquirer. 
1840. — Gideon H. Hollister, Yale, lawyer, clerk of the courts, senator, 

foreign minister; deceased. ■ 
1784. — Uriel Holmes, Jr., Yale, lawyer, judge, member of Congress. 
1816.— Uriel Holmes, Jr.,* Yale, died July 3, 1818, while member Theo- 
logical Seminary, Andovcr. 
1784. — Lemuel Hopkins, M.P.,t Yale, poet, etc. 
1794.— Dan Huntington, Yale, former pastor of the First Clnirch iu this 

town. 
1822. — Charles P. Huntington,* Harvard, judgo Superior Court, Boston, 

Mass. 
1806. — Jabez W. HuotlugtoD, Yale, lawyer, Judge, member of CongreM) 

senator. 
1K24. — William P. Huntington,* Harvard, pastor in Massachusetts and 

Hliuois; artist, etc. 
1843. — George J. Harrison, Union, now Congregational minister in 

Milton. 
1702. — Isaac Jonra, Yale, minister uf St. MlchaoPs parish. 
1701. — Benjamin Judd, Yale, former pastor In Mllluu. 
1837. — James KllWurn,* Yale, luutor in Ihidgvwalor, Bllddle Hoddam, 

and HIinois. 
1840.— John Kilbourn, Yalo, teacher in Slate uf Now York. 
18£3.— P. K. Kilbourn,*t Union, author of " History of Litchfield.'* 
1787.— Ephralm Kirby,*t Yalo, lawyer, Judge, author of '* Klrby*B Bo- 

porta." 
1844.— William H. Lewis, D.D.,*f Kenyon, rector of Holy Trinity Church, 

Brooklyn. 
1788.— Daniel W. Lewis, Ynle, lawyer; Stale's attorney. 
1770.— Samuel Lyman, Yale, removod to Springfield, Mass.; member of 
I C'lngrcsii. 

j 1783.— Lyodo Lord, Jr.,* Vale, diod In his native town In 1813. 
' 1812.— Stephen Ma^on,* Williams, former |>asU>r in Washington. 
I 1748.— Boynold Marvtu, Yale, lawyer, king's attorney; died here July 
I 30, \W1. 

' 1780. — Samuel Blnmh,* Yale, lawyer in his native town, and in Norfolk, 

Va. Truman Mnr»h,« nttorof St. Michael's twenty-seven year*; 
I died hero in IH&I. 

1775. — James Morris,* Yale, t«acher, mogUtrate, legislator, capbdn ; dlod 
j 1820. 

1803. — James Morris, Jr.,* Yolo, tutor Uulveralty of Georgia; die4l lo 

Sunhury, Ga. 
' tSiH.— Reulwn S. Morris,* Yale, lawyer; dliil In Utla^ N. Y., In 18.12. 
; 1838.— Dwight Morris,* Union, lawyer In nridge|>ort. Judge of prubato, 

legislator. Secretary of State, etc 
177&.— Donjaoiin Oslwrn,* Darlntoutli, pastor In TlnniouUi, Yt, author ; 

dleil 1818. 
1770.~Isaiic OslKtrn,* Dartmouth, fanner, teacher, ile<ux>n ; died In I<itch- 

tlold, 182U. Jorvniiah Ostiorn,* Dartmouth, farmer ; dUxl Iu 

LUcliAeld in 1829. 
1784. — Jacob Osborn,* Dartmouth, farmer and teacher; dlod In Lilcli- 



* Bum In this town. 



152 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



field in 1821 ; Ethan Osljorn, Bnrtmoutli, pastor Fairfield, N. J., 
fifty-four years ; died in his hiindiirdth year. 

1729.— Solomon Palmer, Yale, rector of St. Wichaers ; died in this town 
ill 1771. 

1750.— IJenjaniin Piilmer, Yalo; died in 1780. 

185a. — John M. Peck, D.D.,*! Harvard, Bapti.'*t pastor in Illinois ; author ; 
died 18.58, Williiini G. Peck,*t Trinity (also at West Point), 
Professor of Mathematics, Columbia College, N. Y. 

1842. — James Peck,* Union, nierchaut at La Crosse, Wis. 

1807.— Amos Pettingill, Harvard; pastor church iu South Farms, 181G- 
1822. 

1837.— John H. Pettingill,* Yale, Distiict Secretary American Board, Al- 
bany, N. Y. 

1804. — John Pierpont, Yale,* clergyman in Boston, author, lecturer, poet. 

1813 —Charles Perkins, Y'ale, lawyer ; died in London, Eng., Nov. 18, 185G, 
aged sixty-four. 

1763. — Tapping Reeve, LL.D., Princeton, chief justice of Connecticut. 

1802. — Aaron Burr Reeve,* Yale, lawyer in Troy, N. Y.; died iu 1809. 

1829.— Tupping Burr Reeve;* died in Litchfield in 1829. 

1833. — James Richards, D-D., Union, was principal Elm Park Collegiate 
Institute. 

1858. — James Richards, Jr., Princeton, Profes.sor Ancient Languages and 
Matheumtics in Elm Park Collegiate Institute. 

1831. — Rollin Sauford,* Yale, merchant in Brooklyn, N. Y.; candidate 
for Congress. 

1797.— Hoiatio Seymour, LL.D.,* Yale, lawyer, U. S. senator from Ver- 
mont twelve years. 

1824. — Origou S. Seymour, LL.D.,*t Yale, member of Congress, judge 
Superior Court, chief justice of the Superior Court of Errors. 

1853.— Edward W. Seymour,* Yale, lawyer. 

1730.— Elisha Sheldon, Yale, legislator and judge ; died in Litchfield in 
1779. 

1800.— Elisha Sheldon, M.D.,* Yale, died in 1832 ; buried iu Litchfield. 

. Richard Skinner, LL.D.,*t Middlebui-y, Governor and chief justice 

of Vermont. 

1790. — Aaron Smith, Yale, lawyer, legislator, and merchant ; died in this 
town iu 1834. 

1806. — Lucius Smith, Yale, merchant, colonel in war with Great Biitaiu, 
clergyman. 

1757. — Reuben Smith, Yale, physician, magistrate, county treasurer ; died 
in 1804. 

1815. — Truman Smith, Yale, lawyer, member of Congress, U. S. senator. 

1761. — Jedediali Strong,* Yale, member Continental Congress, legislator, 
etc. 

1823.— John S. Stone, D.D., Union, former rector of St. Michael's. 

1838. — Benjamin W. Stone, Trinity, former rector of St. Michael's. 

1857. — Storrs 0. Seymour,* Yale, rector of St. Michaers. 

1822.— William Sheldon,* Y'ale, mercliant; died in France iu 182G. 

1844.— Benjamin L. Swan.f Yale. 

1773. — Benjamin Tallmadge, Yale, member of Congress sixteen years. 

1830.— Benjamin Tallmadge, Jr.,*t Yale, lieutenant U.S.N.; died off 
Giliraltar in 1830. 

1811. — Frederick A. Tallmadge,* Yale, recorder New York City, member 
of Congress. 

1778. — Uriah Tracy, Yale, lawyer, member of Congress, U. S. senator, 
general. 

1778. — Joseph Vaill, Dartmouth, pastor in Hadlyme; died 1838, after a 
ministry of fifty-eight years. 

1824. — Hermou L. Vaill,* Yale, pastor in East Lyme ; also Seneca Falls, 
N. Y. 

1848. — Louis F. Wadsworth,* Trinity, lawyer iu New York City, deputy 
clerk assembly. 

1S37.— Charles Wadsworth, D.D.,* Union, pastor Arch Street Church, 
Philadelphia. 

1795. — Hullaud Weeks,* Dartmouth, pastor in Waterbury and in Ver- 
mont. 

1807.— William R. Weeks, D.D., Princeton; died 1848, aged sixty-six. 

1778. — John Welch,* Yale, merchant, judge, legislator; died in 1844. 

1805. — William Welch,* Yale, captain U.S.A.; died in the public ser- 
vice in 1811. 
1827. — William H. Welch,* Yale, late chief justice of Minnesota Terri- 
tory. 
1747. — Oliver WolcoU, LL.D., Governor, signer Declaration of Independ- 
ence. 



* Born in this town. 



1778.— Oliver Wolcott, Jr , LL.D.,* Yale, Goveinor, Secretary U. S. Treas- 
ury, etc. 

1786. — Frederick Wolcott,* Yale, lawyer, legislator, judge of probate. 

1779. — Ezekiel Woodruff,* Yale, lawyer, adjutant Revolutionary army. 

1849.— Curtis T. Woodruff,* Yale, rector Episcopal Church in Woodburj'. 

1825. — tieorge C. Woodruff,* Yale, lawyer, legislator, judge of probate, 
member of Congress. 

1857. — George M. Woodruff,* Yale, lawyer, judge of probate, railroad 
commissioner. 

1830. — Lewis B. Woodruff,* Yalo, judge Superior Court, New York City, 
circuit judge U. S. 

1809.— Simeon Woodrutt,* Yale, clergyman, settled at the West. 

It36. — Lucius H. Woodruff,* Yale, teacher iu Insane Retreat, Hartford; 
died in 1852. 

1803. — Samuel Whittlesey,* Yale, pastor at Washington and elsewhere. 

1851.- Julius M. Willey, Trinity, former rector of St. Michael's.-I- 

Yale. 

Wm. Beebe, 1873 ; Wm. B. Clarke, 1849 ; Marshall R. Gaines, 1865; John 
T. Hubbard, 188U; T. Ephraim Mower, 1878; D. D, T. McLaughlin, 
1834; Allan McLean, 1865; Dickinson W. Richards, 1880; George 
Richards, 1872; Wm. R. Richards, 1876 ; George D. Watrous, 1879. 

PHYSICIANS. 
The following is a list of physicians who have prac- 
ticed in this town : 

Timoth}' Collins, from Guilford, the first clergyman and physician in the 
town, preached and practiced here from 1721 till his death, in 1777 ; 
Thomas Little, Seth Bird, Daniel Huntington, Phincas Bradley, 
Samuel Catlin, Hosea Hulbert, Daniel SheldoU; Phineas Smith, 
Comfort Bradley, Partridge Parsons, Robert Catlin, Abel Catlin, 
John M. West, Reuben S. Woodward, Isaac Marsh, Joseph Parker, 
William Bud, Samuel Buel, Alanson Abbe, Manly Peters, Norman 
Landon, John W. Russell, Josiiih Barnes, Moses A. Lee, Anson Wild- 
man, John S. Wolcott, Reuben M. Woodruff, Charles Vaill, Garry H. 
Minor, Benjamin Welch, Jr., Caleb Ticknor, Samuel R. Childs, Wil- 
liam Deming, James K. Wallace, George Seymour, A. Sidney Lewis, 
Eliada Osborn, David E. Bostwick, Orson Buel (botanic), E. B. W. 
Camp. 

The practicing physicians at present are as follows: 

Henry W. Buel, Willis J. Beach, William Deming, H.E.Gates, J. J. New- 
comb, Litchfield ; J. K. Wallace, Bantam; E. L. Blake, Northfield ; 
Josiah G. Beckwirh, Litchfield ; Wm. Porter was here in 1873. 

PRESENT LAWYERS. 

Origen S. Seymour, George C. Woodruff, Henry B. Groves, George A. 
Hickox, Charles B. Andrews, Wm. L. Ransom, George M. Woodruff, 
Fiank W. Wossells, Dwight C. Kilbourne, Henry H. Prescott, Ed- 
ward W. Seymour. 



CHAPTEK XIV. 

LITCHFIELD (Continued). 

CIVIL AND MILITARY. 

IncorporatioD of the Town — First Town Officers Elected — Kepreseutatives 
from n40-lSK2— Military History. 

Under the original grant this section was called 
Bantam, and was incorporated as the town of Litch- 
field in 1724. The record of what appears to be the 
first town-meeting has no date. At this meeting a 
committee, consisting of John Buel and Nathaniel 
Smith, was appointed to hire a minister. 

* Born in this town. 

I The above list to name of Junius M. Willey is substantially as it ap- 
peared in Kilbourne's " History of Litchfield." It is impossible after 
such a lapse of time to continue the pei-sonal history of each pereon. 



LITCHFIELD. 



153 



" The first meeting for the choice of town officers 
was held Dec. 1721, and resulted as follows : John 
Marsh, town clerk ; John Buel, Nathaniel Hosford, 
John Marsh, selectmen ; William Goodrich, constable 
and collector ; Benjamin Gibbs and Thomas Lee, 
surveyors ; Eleazor Strong and Samuel Root, fence- 
viewers; Daniel Culver, hayward ; Joseph Bird, col- 
lector of minister's rate. 

" The only person 'admitted an inhabitant' at this 
meeting was Mr. Joseph Kilbourn, from Wethers- 
field, who had recently purchased one-thirtieth part 
of the township, — being the original rights of Messrs. 
Mann and Peet. 

" On tlie 6th of February, 1721-22, Messrs. Buel 
and Marsh were voted ' the use of the stream of 
Bantam River and thirty acres of land,' on condition 
that they would erect a grist-mill and keep the same 
in order ; and Messrs. Jacob Griswold, William Good- 
rich, and Benjamin Gibbs were designated to lay out 
the land for their use. 

" On the 8th of the ensuing May, Messrs. Buel, 
Marsh, Smith, and Hosford were appointed a com- 
mittee, and fully empowered by the town to negotiate 
a settlement of the boundary line between Litchfield 
and Waterbury with a committee appointed by the 
proprietors of the latter town. At the same time 
Messrs. Buel and Marsh were directed to |ictition the 
General Assembly, on the town's behalf, ' for liberty 
to set uji a church and society in Litchfield.' 

" It had been one of the conditions of the several 
deeds of conveyance to the original proprietors, that 
the grantees or their sons should build a tenantuble 
house on each home-lot, or division, not less tlian 
sixteen feet square, and personally inliat)it the same 
by the last day of May, 1721, and for three years en- 
suing ; and no one was permitted ' to leave or dispose 
of his share for five years thereafter, without tlie con- 
sent of the first planters.' This was a wise provision, 
growing out of the dependent and exposed condition 
of a settlement in the wilderness. Not only wius each 
individual purcliaser expected to encourage the settle- 
ment by his personal presence and labors, but his 
a.ssistance in planning and executing the various pro- 
jects designed for the promotion of the public welfare 
was deemed indispensable. His proprietorship in 
these ' western lands' was no sinecure, resorted to for 
purposes of speculation. He must bear his full share 
of the burthens and perils incident to the life of a 
pioneer. For divers reasons, .several of the first pur- 
chasers, as has been intimated, failed to comply with 
these terms. On the 8th of June, 1722, in general 
town-meeting, it was voted that the following jiersons 
had ' forfeited their rights to lands in Litchtield by 
not performing what they were obliged to in the 
articles of the settlement mentioned in the grand 
deed,'— viz., Timothy Seymour, Timothy Stanley, 
Isaac Judson, Jacob (Jihhs, John Stoddard, Nath- 
aniel Smith, Paul Peck, John Hart, Philip lUinip, 
Nathaniel Woodruff, Thomas Griswold, John Bald- 



win, and one of Ezekiel Sandford's rights. Messrs. 
John Buel, Nathaniel Smith, and John Marsh were 
appointed a committee to negotiate with the above- 
named individuals, with power to 'prosecute the fore- 
feiture to effect,' in case the claimants should neglect 
or refuse to agree to the terms which might be oflered 
them. Probably a compromise was effected with most 
of the delinquents. Some of them became active and 
useful men in the town. 

" In October of this year the freemen, by a formal 
vote, expressed their desire to be annexed to Hartford 
County. They also voted that the tax for the support 
of the minister and for building the meeting-house 
should be laid ' one-half on the rights, and the other 
on heads and stock.' " 

REPRESENTATIVES FROM 1740-1881. 

1740. — Josepli Bii'd, Ebenezer Marsli, John Bird, John Buel. 

1741. — Ebenezer Marsh, John Buel, Samuel Culver. 

1742. — Ehenezer Marsh, Jacob Griswold. 

1743.— Ebenezer JIarsh, John Bird, Joseph Bird. 

1744. — Ebenezer Marsh, Joseph Bird, Edward Phelps. 

1745. — Edward Phelps, Joseph Bird, Ebenezer Mai-sh, Isaac Buldwin. 

1746. — Ebenezer Marsh, Jt>sc]>h Bird. 

1747. — ThoDios Harrison, Joseph Sanford. 

1748. — Ebenezer Marsh, John Bird. 

1749. — Ebenezer Marsh, Joseph Bird, Thonins Ilurrison. 

1750. — Ebenezer Mursh, Thomas Harrison. 

1751. — Ebenezer Marsh, Thomas Harrison. 

1752. — Elienezer Marsh, Thomas llurriaon, Joseph Kilbourn, BeqjamiD 
Webster. 

1753.— Joseph Kilbourn, Benjamin Welister, Thomas Harrison. 

1754. — Ebenezer Marsh, Benjamin \Vel*ster, Thomas Harrison. 

17.')5.— Peter Buel, Benjamin Webster, ElKinczer Marsh, Elisha Shelden. 

176G. — Ebenezer Marsh, Peter Buel. 

1757. — Ebenezer Slarsh, Peter Bnel, Slisba Shelden. 

1758. — Elienezer Marsh, Elisha Shelden. 

17.50 — Jiu:ob WoodrufT, Elisha Shelden, Ebenezer Mareh. 

17G0. — Ebenezer Blarsli, EILilia Shelden. 

17G1. — Ebenezer Marsli, Klisha Shelden, Isaac Baldwin. 

17G2. — Ebenezer Marsh, Isoai* Baldwin. 

ni)3. — Ebenezer Marsh, Isaac BaMwin. 

17G4.— Ebenezer Mareh, Isaac Baldwin, Oliver Wnlcott, 

1765. — Ebenezer Marsh, Isaac Baldwin. 

17riC. — Elienezer Marsh, Isaac Baldwin, John Manh. 

1767. — Oliver Wolcotl, John Mnnli, Elwnezcr Marvh. 

176H. — EWnezer Marsh, John Mnrah, Oliver Wolcoll, Jacob Woodruff. 

17G9. — Ebenezer Marsh, .\brahani Kill>ouni. 

1770.— Havlil Welch, Abraham KilUnirn, Oliver Wolcott. 

1771. — EU'iiezer Marsh, John Marsh, Je<le<liah Strvnig, Ljnde Lord. 

1772. — Ji.ilediah Strong;, l.yndo I..tril, John Mamli. 

1773.— ,le<lo.llah Strong, llavid Welch. 

1774. — JeOedUih Strong, John Marsh, David \\'elch. 

1775. — Jededhili Strony, David Welch, .\brahani Bradle.v. 

177*',. — JetledllUl Strong, Abraham Bnwtlcy, Andrew Adams. 

1777. — Jededlui Stn>ng, Andrew Adunw. 

1778. — Jeiledlah Strong, Antlrew Adams. 

1779. — JeOedlah Strung, Andrew Adams. 

1780. — Jeileillah Strong, Andrew Adjuno, David Welch. 

1781.— Jedetliah Strong, Andrew Adama, ileialeel Beebe. 

1782.— Jededlah Strong, Bezaluel Beebe, laaac Baldwin. 

1783.— Jed»llali Strong, Belaleel Baebe, Abraham Bmdle.v, Iiaac Bald- 
win, Jr. 

1784 — Ebonezir Mamli, Isaac Baldwin, laaac Baldwin, Jr. 

1785.— J(Hl|.4liali Strong, Abiaham Bivdloj, Ebeneser Manh. 

1786. — Ebenezer Blaii«h, Jeiletliah Strong. 
1 1787. — EU-nezer Mai^ih, Klieiier.er Benton, Jededlah 8troD(. 

1788.— Eltcne/er Marsh, JtHleiliah Strong, Uriah Trucy. 
I 178!).— Je<^llali String, Uriah Tnny, Ta|iping Reeve. 
I 17U0.— Ebene/er Slarsli, Uriah Tracy, Julius Demlng. 
I 1701 Julius Demlng, Uriah Tracy, Ephralni KIrliy. 

1702.— Ephralm Kirby, Uiiali Tracy, Solomon Marak, Bnaltel Beeb*. 



154 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



1793.— Jolin Allon, Uriah Tracy, Bezalepl Bee^6. 

1704— Ephraim Kirliy, John Allen. 

1795.— Ephraim Kirby, John Allen, Moses Seymour, Bezaleel Beebe. 

1790. — Moses Seymonr, Jolm Allen. 

1707. — Moses Seymour, Ephraim Kirby. 

1798. — James Morris, Julius Dcming, Moses Seymour, Ephraim Kirby. 

1799. — Moses Seymour, Ephraim Kirby, John Welch. 

18<W. — Ephraim Kirby, John Welch, James Morris. 

1801. — Moses Seymour, Ephraim Kirby, John Welch. 

1802. — James Morris, Frederick Wolcott, Moses Seymour, Ephraim 

Kirby. 
1803. — James Morris, FreJcrick Wolcott, Uriel Holmes. 
1804. — James Morris, Uriel Holmes. 
1805. — James Morris, Uriel Holmes. 

180G. — Moses .'^eymour, Norman Buel, Uriel Holmes, Aaron Bradley. 
1807. — Uriel Holmes, Aaron Bradley. 

1808. — Aaron Bradley, Aaron Smith, Nathaniel Goodwin. 
1809. — Nathaniel Goodwin, Aaron Smith. 
1810. — Moses .Seytnonr, Aaron Bradley. 
1811. — Aaron Smith, Mosea Seymour. 
1812. — Aaron Smith, Moses Seymour, Morris Woodruff. 
1813. — Aaron Smith, Morris Woodruff. 
1814. — Aaron Smith, Morris Woodniff, Uriel Holmes. 
1815. — William Beebe, Morris Woodruff, Jonathan Buel. 
1810.- William Beebe, Jonathan Buel. 
1817.— Jonatlian Duel, Ephraim S. Hall. 
1818.— Stephen Russell, Ephraim S. Hall, Phineas Lord. 
1819.— Jolm Wtdch, Phineas Lord. 
1820.— John Welch, Seth P. Beci-fl. 
1821.— Seth P. Beers, John Welch. 
1822.— Seth P. Beers, John Welch. 
1823.— Seth P. Beers, Phineas Miner. 
1824.— David Marsh, Morris WoodrulT. 
1825. — David Mai^sh, Morris Woodniff. 
1S2G. — Morris WoodrutT, Reuben Webster. 
1827. — Phineas Miner, William Beebe. 
1828.— Jabez W. Huntington, William Beebe. 
1829.— Phineas Miner, Morris WoodrulT. 
1830.— Stephen Russell, Morris Woodruff. 
183:.— Stephen Russell, Truman Smith. 
1832. — Truman Smith, Elihu Harrison. 
1833.— William Beebe, Asa Hopkins. 
1834.— Stephen Russell, Truman Smith. 
1835. — Phineas Miner, Elihu Harrison. 
1836. — Morris Woodruff, Phineas Lord. 
1837.- Morris ^^'oodrufr, Pliineas Lord. 
1838.- Samuel Buel, William Ray. 
1839.— Samuel liuel, William Bay. 
1840. — Frederick Buel, E. Champion Bacon, 
1841. — Frederick Buel, E. Champion Bacon. 
1842. — Oiigen S. Seymour, Enos Stoddard, 
1843.- Origen S. Seymour, Enos Stoddard. 
1844.- Elisha S. Aberuetby, Dan Catlin. 
1845. — Charles .\dam8, Dan Catlin. 

1846. — David Mareh, George Seymour. v 

1847. — David Marsli, George Seymour. 
1S48.— Samuel P. Bolles, William L. Smedley. 
1849. — Origen S. Seymour, Christopher Wheeler. 
1850. — Oiigen S. Seymour, Christopher Wheeler. 
1851.- George C. Wooilruff, Thomas M. Coe. 
1S52. — Josiah G. Beckwith, William Newton. 
1853.— Josiah G. Beckwith, William Newton. 
1854.— Frederick Buel, Samuel P. Bolles. 
1855. — Philip S. Beebe, Samuel Brooker, Jr. 
1856. — Josiah G. Beckwith, Garry H. Minor. 
1857. — Josiah G. Beckwith, Edward Piorpont. 
1858.— Henry B. Graves, William Bissell. 
1859. — Edward W. .Seymour, William Bissell. 
I860.— Edward W. Seymour, Daniel Stoddard. 
1861. — George H. Baldwin, Jacob Morse. 
1862.— Philip S. Beebe, George A. Hicko.\. 
1863.— George M. Woodruff, Everitt H. Wright. 
1804.— E. H. Wright, T. R. Sedgwick. 
1S66.— George M. Woodruff, D. E. Bostwick. 
186G.— George C. Woodruff, T. L. Saltonstall. 
1807.— Henry B Graves, Eli D. Weeks. 
1868. — Henry B. Graves, T. Leander Jennings. 



I860.— J. G. Beckwith, J. B. Hopkins. 
1870. — E. W. Seymour, Henry Frisbie. 
1.871.— E. W. Seymour, N. W. Beach. 
1872. — George M. Woodruff, Ransom Newton. 
1873.— Julius Deming, Charles D. Wheeler. 
1874. — George C. Woodruff, James B. Newcomb. 
1875. — William Deming, Garner B. Curtiss. 
1876.— William Deming, Henry B. Graves. 
1877.— Eli D. Weeks, Henry B. Graves. 
1878.— Cliarles B. Andrews, William Bissell. 
1879.— Henry B. Graves, Leverett W. Wcssells. ■ 
1880.— Gideon H. Hollister, Harry Clemens. 
1881. — Origen S. Seymour, Frederick S. Porter. 

MILITARY RECORD.® 
Jacob Forfe, Ist Art.; enl. April 1, 1862; disch. March 16, 1865. 
John K. Gordon, enl. Nov. 30, 1804. 
J. Donohue, enl. April 6, 1862. 

E. B. Smith, enl. May 20, 1S61; pro. to first lieutenant; res. Oct. 20, 1863. 
W. Wheeler, enl. May 20, 1861 ; disch. May 22, 1804. 
E. Buxton, enl. May 20, 1661 ; nmst. out Sept. 25, 1805. 
W. W. Davis, enl. May 20, 1801 ; disch. Sept. 25, 1865. 
J. P. Nichols, disch. May 22, 1864. 
R. H. Tompkins, L. A. Terry 1, G. W. Wheeler. 
0. 0. Whaides, disch. Sept. 1, 1862. 
C. W. Brewer, enl. April 12, 1862. 

W. W. Mathews, enl. April 12, 1862; disch. April 17, 1865. 
E. Lyman, enl. Aug. 4, 1803; died Aug. 10, 1804. 
Henry Wade, 5th Regt. ; enl. Nov. 29, 1804 ; must, out July 19, 1865. 
John Daley, 5th Regt.; enl. Nov. 26, 1804. 
H. G. West, 6th Regt. ; enl. July 22, 1861 ; wounded ; disch. May 18, 1863. 

E. A. Alvord,5th Regt.; enl. July 22, 1801 ; wounded; disch. July 19, 1865. 
H. S. Gooley, 5th Regt.; enl. July 22, 1801 ; died Aug. 22, 1862. 
Charles Gooley, 6th Regt. ; enl. July 22, 1861 ; disch. Nov. 22, 1802. 
William Somei«, oth Regt.; enl. July 22, 1861. 

0. Eaghen. 

John Rogers, enl. Maich 6, 1864 ; disch. April 24, 1805. 

0. Dolman, 0th Regt.; enl. July 31, 1863 ; nmst. out Aug. 21, 1865, 
George Landers, enl. March 3, 1864. 

A. Crowe, Sth Regt. ; enl. Oct. 10, 1801 ; disch. Jan. 8, 1863. 

George E. Caslle, 8th Regt. ; enl. Oct. 14, 1861 ; disch. Oct. 22, 1866. 

M. Castle, died Oct. 17, 1802. 

Alfonso Benza, Sth Regt. 

Peter Guirard, 8tli Regt. 

John Moore. 

C. L. Carllo, 81h Regt. ; enl. Feb. 19, 1804 ; died Aug. 4, 1864. 

1. Cohen, enl. July 29, 1804; disch. June 1, 1805. 
James Kelley, enl. Feb. 23, . 

Edward Wadhams, sergeant Co. E, 8th Regt.; enl. Sept. 25, 1801 ; ro-enl. 

as veteran; killed May 10, 1804. 
Seth F. Plnmb, sergeant; enl. Sept. 5, 1861 ; killed Sept. 22, 1864. 
S. M. Clark, 81h Regt. ; enl. Sept. 25, 1861. 
George F. Booth, killed Sept. 17, 1862. 
S. B. Fuller, disch. March 24, 1803. 
George W. Baldw in, died March, 1802. 

F. E. Barber, died Jan. 30, 1802. 

W. H. Cable, must, out Aug. 23, 1805. 

Charles Culver, must, out Aug. 12, 1805. 

R. W. Cook, enl. Oct. 0, 1861 ; disch. Dec. 16, 1864. 

Thomas Mason, Sth Regt. ; enl. Sept. 25, 1801 ; killed Sept. 17, 1862. 

W. D. Musson. disch. March 23, 1805. 

F. A. Newcomb, died May 14, 1802. 

Jerome Nichols, died Oct. 17, 1803. 

Charles Perkins, disch. Feb. 14, 1861. 

J. T. Peters, enl Sept. 27, 1801; disch. Deo. 6, 1802. 

Alva Sterne, enl. Oct. 10, 1801 ; disch. Feb. 22, 1863. 

L. E. Sweet, enl. Sept. 25, 1801 ; disch. Oct. 20, 1862. 

John Tompkins, enl. Oct. Ill, 1861 ; died Sept. 7, 1862. 

Joseph II. Vaille, enl. Sept. 27, 1801 ; traus. to Invalid Corps, May 16, 1864. 

William Brady. 

C. H. Foster, enl. Feb. 24, 1861. 

F. G. Gilbert, enl. Feb. 16, 1864; must, out Dec. 12, 1805. 

Charles M. Lauda, enl. Feb. 17, 1804. 

John McGowan. 

* For list of Nineteenth Regiment, see Chapter V. For notice of sol- 
diers^ mouumeut, see Supplement, 





-^>£.--cic^c-<<:/ 




LITCHFIELD. 



155 



John Chuke, eiil. Feb. 24, 18C4; umet. out Dec. 12, 1SC5. 
E. H.minia, enl. July 27, 1SC4 ; ijuist. out Dec. 12, 1804. 
Jolin Kelley, enl. Feb. 24, 1SG4; trans, to navy. 
John Connor. 
J.inies White, 0th Eegt. 

William Drown, Slth Kegt. ; enl. April 28, 1SC4. 
J. Dliu-cher, 9th Kegt., enl. Nov, 20, 1864. 

J. Johnson, tlth Regt. ; enl. Nov. 25, ISOi; disch, Dec. IG, 1864. 
P. Giiffney, lOlli Hegt.; enl. Nov. 25, 1864; disch. Aug. 25, 1865. 
James McGraw, lOtli Eegt. 

Charles J. Moore, lOlli Regt.; enl. Nov. 2.3, 1864. 
George Flyn, lOtli Regt.: enl. Nov. 26, 1864. 

William Ryne, 10th Kegt,; enl, Nov. 20, 1864 ; disch, Aug, 25,1865. 
Charles Warren, 10th Regt.; enl. Nov. 23, 1804, 
William Moore, 10th Regt, ; enl. Nov. 20, 1804. 

John Miller, nth Regt.; enl. Fob, 21, 1864; wounded; died Sopt, 18, 1864. 
Jos, Martin, lltli Regt,; enl, March 7, 1864; disch. Dec, 21, 1865. 
Charles Barber, 11th Kegt.; enl, Nov, 27, 1661 ; died May 13, 1802. 
E, B. Sanford, 12th Regt,; enl. Dec. 22, 1861; disch. about May 25, 1803. 
Frank Wells, first lieutenant 13th Regt.; com. Feb. 19, 1802; pro. to cap- 
tain; disch, April 24, 1866, 

C,C. Fisher, 13th Regt.; enl. Jan. 11, 1802 ; disch. May 20, 1802. 

S, S. Tuyler, 13th Kegt.; enl. Jan. 11, 1862; pro. to secund lieutenant; 
disch, April 24, 1860. 

Charles Thomas, 13th Regt, ; enl, Jan, II, 1862; disch. May 20, 1862. 

J. DulTs, 13lh Regt. ; enl. Jan, II, 1862. 

A, Luiinell.lSlh Regt,; enl, Jan, 11,1862; disch. Nov. 25,1805. 

WilliaTn Baker, 13th Regt,; enl, Jan, II, 1802; died Sept. 2, 1802. 

H, Banker, 13th Regt.; enl. Jan. II, 1802; disch. May 19, 1805. 

P. Banker, 13th Regt.; enl. Jan. 11, 1802; died May 0, 1805. 

William Benedict, 13th Regt. ; enl. Jan. 1 1, 1862 ; disch. May 20, 1862. 

C. Birge, lath Regt, ; enl, Jan 11, 1862 ; disch. Sept. 29, 1802. 

And. Bronson, 13th Regt.; enl. Jan. 11, 1802, 

M, Burke, 13th Regt,; enl, Jan, 11, 1862; disch. April 25, 1806. 

Charles Catlin, 13th Regt, ; enl. Jan. 11, 1802 ; died Sept. 2, 1803. 

A, Chapel, 13th Regt,; enl Jan, 11, 1802; died Feb, 2,1, 1803. 

E, Cogswell, 13th Regt,; enl, Jan. II. 1802 ; disch. Jan. 0, 1805. 

E. M, Curtis, I3tli Regt.; enl. Jan. 28, 1802; disch, Jan. 6, 1865. 

I. A. Davidson, 13tli Regt,; enl. Jan. 11, 1862; disch, Aug. 12,1805. 

Seth Frink, 13th Regt. ; enl. Jan. 2-', 1802. 

Loreli Ilalleck, 13th Regt, ; enl, .ran. 11, 1802; disch. Jnly 15, 1802. 

W. H. Harris, I3th Regt.; enl, Jun 11, 1802; disch. Jan. 6, 1805. 

r, Herbert, I3th Regt. ; enl. Jan. 22, 1802 ; disch. April 25, 1800. 

S, Herbert, 13th Kegt. ; eul. Jan. 22, 1802 ; disch. April 25, 186U. 

L, Johnson, 13lh Regt.; enl. Jan II, 1802; disch. May 30, 1802. 

J. KcllehiT, 13th Regt.; enl. Jan. 11, 1862; died. 

J. M. Kinley, I3th Uegt. ; enl. Jan, II, 1802. 

Heni7 Mayo, 13th Regt.; enl. Jan. II, 1862; disch. May 20, 1802. 

Thonia.s McGee, 13th Regt.; enl. Jan. II, 1802; disch. April 2.'i, 1806. 

0, plunger, 13lh Regt,; enl, Jan. 11, 1802; disch. May 20, 180.3. 

W. n. Norris, 13tli Kegt.; onl. Jan. 11, 1802; pro. to Veteran Rcoorro 
Corps. 

Charles Ustrander, 13th Regt. ; enl. Jan. 7, 1802. 

George Ostrander, 13th Regt, ; enl. Jan. II, 1802. 

W. R. Parker, I3tli Hegt, ; onl, Jan. 11, 1802. 

C. Pannehc, 13th Hegt, ; enl. Jan. 7, 1802; disch. Jun. 0, 1865. 

P. Peacock, 13th Regt, ; enl, Jan. 5, 1862 ; dUch, Jan. 6, 1805. 

G. J, Pond, 13th Regt.; eiil. Jun. 11, 1802; disch. Juue 10, 180». 

R. Provost, 13th Kegt. ; onl. Jan. 22, 1802; diacli, Oct. .'>, 1806. 

E, S, Richmond, CTil, Jan. 11, 1862; killed Nov. 7, 1802. 

George Rod, enl, Jan, 22, 1802; disch. April 25, 1880. 

E. 0. Thomas, enl, Jan, II, 1802 ; disch. April 20, ISflO. 

George Sturks, enl. Jan, II, 1862; disch. May 30, 1802. 

W. C, Wakellebl, enl, Jan. 11, 1802; disch. Sept. 29, 1803. 

William liradsbaw, Hth Regt,; onl, June 25, 18C2 ; died Juno 18, 18M. 

T, 11. Foster, ntli Regt.; onl. Nov. 26, 1804; discli. July 19, 1864. 

Walter Hale, 20tli Regt.; onl, Aug. 18. 1804; died May 3, 186.3. 

n. \. Barber, 2,id Regt.; onl. Sept. 0, 1802; disch. Aug. 31, 186). 

Monn)e Thniop, 2.1d Regt.; onl. Sopt. 6, 1862; diach. Aug. 31, 1863. 

W. H. Uunnell, 23d Rcgl.; onl. Sopt. 0, 1802. 

Georgo Davies, 23d Regt,; onl. Sopt. 5, 1802; disch. Aug. 31, 1803. 

C.J. Fish. 23d Regt.; onl. Sept. 4, 1802; disch, Aug. 31,1803. 

Henry I'.iyne, 23d Regt.; onl. Sept, 5, ISO.'; disch. Aug, 31, 186.1. 

Lyman Taylor, 2:id Regt.; enl. Sopt. 6, 1802; disch. Aug. 31, 1803. 

A. C. Tracy, 23<l Hogt. ; onl. Sept. 5, 1802 ; disch. Aug. 31, 18G;I. 

Frederick Nightingale, 25th Regt. ; enl. Oct, 20, 1802 ; disch, Aug, 20, 180.1. 

Wllllum H. Yeuiiuans, 27lh Itogt, ; onl. Si-p'- 8. 1802 ; dbch. July 22, 1803. 



Thomas Redding, 29th Regt. ; enl. Feb. 25, 1864 ; disch. Oct. 24, 1S65. 

A. Ward, 29th Kegt, ; enl. Feb, 25, 1S64 ; disch. Oct. 24, 1865. 

R, Lampman, 29th Regt.; enl, Dec. 14, 1863. 

J, Edwards, 29th Kegt, ; enl. Dec. 28, 1803 ; died March 4, 1865. 

C. V. Lampman, 29tli Regt.; eul. July 20, 1865; disch. Oct. 24, lf65. 

John Blakemau, Co. F, Ist Cav. ; enl. J.xn. 6, 1863 ; disch. Aug. 2, 1865. 

Charles Deliber, Co. F, 1st Cav.; enl. July 16, 1863; disch. Aug. 2, 1865. 

M. Deviuey, Co. F, Ist Cav. ; eul, Nov. 1, 1804 ; disch. Aug. 2, 1865. 

Plumb Johnson, Co. F, 1st Cav. ; enl. July 5, 1803 ; capt. May 5, 1864. 

Heury Smith, Co. F, 1st Cav. ; enl. Nov. 20, 1864; disch. Aug. 2, 1805. 

Levi H. Hull, Co. I, 1st Cav.; eul. Aug. 3, 1863; disch. Aug. 2, 1865. 

Charles Marshall, Co. 1, 1st Cav. ; enl. Nov. 28, 1861 ; disch. Sept. 10, 1865. 

N, H. Burnes, Co. L, 1st Cav.; eul. Jan. 5, 1864; disch. Aug. 2, 1865. 

Charles Black, 1st Cav.; enl. April 20, 1864. 

William Carnell, 1st Cav. ; enl. Nov. 23, 1864. 

William Crimplc, enl. Nov. 26, 1804, 

Nicholas Dinion, 1st Cav. ; enl, Nov, 23, 1864. 

Jos. Dehaven, 1st Cav. ; enl. Nov. 23, 1804, 

Charles Howe, 1st Cav,; enl, Nov, 29, 1864. 

Charles Jones, 1st Cav.; enl. April 26, 1804. 

E, Kelley, 1st Cav. ; eul. Nov. 15, 1804, 

P. Mockin, 1st C.tv,; eul. Nov. 2t, 1864. 

P, Slacabe, 1st Cav, ; enl, Nov. 26, 1804. 

Henry Marsh, 1st Cav.; enl. Nov. 26, 1864. 

Julo Parrit, 1st Cav.; eul, Nov. 28, 1864. 

W. Philips, 1st Cav. ; enl. Nov. 26, 1804. 

P. Kober, Ist Cav.; enl, July 27, 1863. 

Jos. Smith, 1st Cav.; enl. Nov. 25, 18M. 

diaries W. Wentworth, 1st Cav.; enl. April 29, 1804. 

William Welch, enl. Dec. 2, 1864. 

William Arnold, 2d C. Bat, ; eid. Feb. 23, 1864 ; disch. Aug. 9, 1865. 

John Davis, 2d C. Bat.; enl. Feb. 24, l.'*64. 

Jos. Hart, 2d C, Bat.; enl, Feb. 23, 1864; disch. Aug. 9, 1865. 

W. S. Kimball, 2d C. Dat. ; onl. Fob. 23, 1864. 

M. B. Lawrence, Co. A, 1st Cav. ; onl. Nov. 2, 1801 ; disch. Ang. 2, 1805. 

Eli Parmolee, Co. A, 1st Cav.; enl. Nov. 2, 1801 ; disch. April 13, lsc:i. 

Ezekiel Scovill, Co. A, 1st Cav. ; enl. Oct. 20, ISGl ; disch. Doc. 20, 1804. 

Enos Tompkins, Co. A, lot Cav.; onl. Oct. 20, 1801 ; killed by lightning 

July 16, 1802. 
James O'Brien, Co. B, lot Cav, ; onl, Oct, 26, 1804; disch. Aug. 2, 1865. 
Frank I'un it, Co, C, Ist Cav. ; eul, July 27, 1863 ; disch. Aug. 2, 1605. 
r. C. Shumway, Co. C, Ist Cav.; onl. April 1, IStil; disch. Aug, 2, 1805. 
S. A. Wheoler, Co. C, Isl Cuv.; eul. April I, 18G3; diach. June lu, 1865. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



JULirs DEMIXO. 

Julius Deming, an ciiiiiiciit uierclmnt of Litchfield, 
was born in Lyme, Aj)ril 15, 1755. He was the fourth 
in lineal descent frtmi .lohii Deininp, named in the 
charter of (,'oniiecticut in 1<!(;2. Aftorserving through 
the Kevolutionnrv war a.s dei>uty eoniinisisary -general 
(with the rank of eaptjiiii of cavalry) under his uncle, 
Gen. Epaphroditim Chaiupion, of Colchester, be com- 
menced bu.sine!«s in Litchfield. 

A gentleman of reniarltBhle energy and enterprise, 
he soon vi.iited Lonilon, and made arrangements to 
import his goods ilireet from that city, which prob- 
ably was not true of any other country merchant in 
Connectieut. He is universally recognized by our 
citizens as the moat thorough and succi^ssful business 
man who has ever spent his life among us. Prompt 
in Ills engagements, scrupulously upright in his deal- 
ings, and discreet and liberal in his benefactions, few 
men in any community ever enjoyed more implicitly 



156 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



the confidence of all. Mr. Deming had little taste for 
public life. He was three times elected a member of 
the House of Representatives, and for several years 
was one of the magistrates of this county. From 1801 
to 1814, he served in the office of county treasurer. 
His position and infiuenee were such that, had he 
been an aspirant for political honors, there were few 
oftices within the gift of the people of this State which 
he might not have filled. He died in this town, Jan. 
23, 1838, aged eighty-three years. 



GIDEOX II. HOLLISTER. 

Hon. Gideon H. Hollister was born at Washington, 
Conn., Dec. 14, 1817. He graduated at Yale College 
in 1840. He was the class poet, editor of the Yale 
Lit., and first president of the Linonian Society, then 
considered a great honor. 

Studying with Judge Seymour, he was admitted to 
the bar at the April term of the county court, 1842. 
He began practice in Woodbury, but soon removed 
to Litchfield, where, in 1843, he was appointed clerk 
of the court, a position which he held, a single year 
excepted, till 1852. In 185G he was elected to the 
State Senate, where he was largely instrumental in 
securing the election of Hon. James Dixon to the 
United States Senate, and for many years, during 
the time that Mr. Dixon was a power in Connecticut 
politics, Mr. Hollister exercised great political influ- 
ence in this part of the State. Both sided with An- 
drew Johnson in his disagreement with Congress, and 
both retired from the Repuljlican party with him. 
He was a delegate to the Peace Convention which 
met at Philadelphia at the close of the war of the 
Rebellion, and in 1868 he was sent as Minister to 
Hayti. On his return he lived for several years at 
Stratford, practicing law in Bridgeport. He returned 
to Litchfield in 1870, and represented the town in the 
Legislature in 1880. 

Mr. Hollister is best known, no doubt, as the his- 
torian of Connecticut. His history, in two volumes, 
was published In 1855, and he had designed and partly 
written a revision of this work, which was intended 
to include the war history of the State, and a volume 
of historical sketches of its prominent men. Besides 
the " History of Connecticut," he had written a novel, 
"Mount Hope," in 1851, and, in 1866, "Thomas a 
Becket, a Tragedy" (a work of unmistakable power), 
and other poems. Of the latter some are very beau- 
tiful, particularly the " Phantom Ship," founded on 
incidents actually occurring in the early history of 
New Haven, and the " Bride Brook," also founded 
upon an incident of early Connecticut history. 

At the bar Mr. Hollister was an uncommonly dex- 
terous and forcible advocate, specially adroit in cross- 
examination of witnesses. As a natural consequence 
he was very powerful with a jury, often winning 
verdicts where success seemed hopeless. He was the 
most correct of speakers. His mere extempore speech, 



always clothed in pure and powerful English, was as 
elegant and complete in composition as good writing. 
Hence he could easily accomplish the diflScult feat of 
delivering an address part written and memorized 
and part extempore, yet so thoroughly fused together, 
and so excellent and uniform of structure, that no one 
could separate the written from the extempore, nor 
detect any flaw at the points of junction. No doubt 
his thorough acquaintance with Shakspeare, Milton, 
and Tennyson, with Burke and Webster, contributed 
largely to the formation of a style of such unusual 
excellence, but much was also due to powers and 
ai)titudes such as nature has bestowed upon few. 

Mr. Hollister was a most interesting man in con- 
versation. His original way of treating every-day 
subjects, of illuminating hard facts with irresistible 
flashes of wit, and again of rising without effort into 
the higher regions of fancy and poetry, as a hawk 
slants up a hundred feet in the air without waving a 
wing, gave him a truly wonderful power of fascination 
by talk. Nor was he in the least overbearing in con- 
versation, as is often the case with good talkers, but 
added the force of unfailing politeness to marvelous 
powers of persuasion, such as one must have felt to 
have appreciated. 

In 1847, Mr. Hollister married Miss Mary S. Bris- 
bane, a native of Charleston, S. C, who survives him, 
together with one of several children, now a member 
of Trinity College, Hartford. 

He was a consistent churchman, and a member of 
St. Michael's Episcopal Church. He died March 24, 
1881. 



REV. HIRAM STONE. 

The Rev. Hiram Stone was born in Bantam Falls, 
town of Litchfield, July 25, 1824. He was the son 
of Russell Stone, and grandson of Thomas Stone, a 
non-commissioned officer in the Revolutionary war. 
His four ancestral lines are traced directly to Eng- 
land, one of which is known to extend back to the 
thirteenth century. His parents died, leaving him in 
orphanage at an early age. Supporting himself by 
secular employment, he at length realized the desire, 
cherished in his youth, of entering the ministry of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. After several years of 
preparatory study in private, he became a candidate 
for holy orders in this diocese, and in October, 1851, 
entered the Berkeley Divinity School, then in its in- i 
cipiency, at Hartford, and connected with Trinity | 
College. Having completed his theological course, 
and in the mean time pursuing some studies in the 
college department, he was ordained a deacon, Oct. j 
2, 1853, by Rt. Rev. T. C. Brownell, in Christ Church, ' 
Hartford. The next six months were spent in South 
Glastonbury, Conn., as assistant to the Rev. Dr. A. 
B. Chapin. In April, 1854, he accepted the charge 
of St. John's Church, Essex, Conn., and on the 19th 
of November was therein ordained a priest by the 




i/y y(A.Oy^^^ ^/C<r>^f-^ 




^^.>^. 



a^yf^ejL , 



LITCHFIELD. 



157 



Rt. Eev. John Williams, assistant bishop. April 10, 
1855, he married Miss Wealthy Ann Lewis, of Had- 
dam, Conn. 

In answer to an earnest appeal, he accepted an ap- 
pointment from the Board of Missions, New York 
City, as the first accredited missionary to Kansas, his 
support being assumed by St. Paul's Church, New 
Haven. Resigning his parish, he left Essex May 
12, 1856, for his field of missionary labor, which at 
that time was convulsed with civil discord heretofore 
unknown to American history. The settlement of 
Kansas was just begun, which inaugurated that period 
familiarly known as the "border ruflBan times." A 
fierce controversy was being urged between the Free- 
Soil party of the North and the Pro-slavery of the 
South, each desperately determined on supplanting 
the other for partisan ends. While on his journey 
intelligence was received that the town of Lawrence 
had been sacked, throwing the whole Territory into 
the wildest alarm. Deeming it not prudent to enter 
Kansas in the midst of this scene of tumult and blood, 
he took temporary charge of a vacant parish in Wau- 
kesha, Wis., and there waited an abatement of hos- 
tilities. 

In autumn, leaving his wife and chief effects be- 
hind, he resumed his route, arriving at Leavenworth 
City Nov. 24, 1856. He found things there in the 
most dire confusion. Thousands of desperate people 
had come to the territory armed with deadly weapons, 
every man prepared to take care of himself and carry 
out his purpose. Some had been murdered and others 
driven away, both parties inflicting vengeance with- 
out stint as occasion or opportunity oflfered. Hence 
the newly-organized Territory received the very per- 
tinent title of "deeding Kansas." In the midst of 
these surroundings an organization wa.s effected, Dec. 
10, 1856, under the name of St. Paul's Church. This 
was the first Episcopal parish in the Territory, which 
at that time extended westward to the Rocky Moun- 
tains, and out of wliicli several States and Territories 
have since been erected. The wife of tiie missionary 
joined him April 9, 1857. Religious services were 
conducted from the outset as opportunities admitted, 
sometimes in a business house or private dwelling, 
and occasionally in tiic open air. After considerable 
effort a church edifice was erected, and consecrated 
Nov. 7, 1858, by Rt. Rev. Jackson Kemper, mission- 
ary bishop. September, 1859, Mr. Stone was ap- 
pointed post chaplain at Fort Leavenworth, distant 
three miles from the city, and, resigning his parish, he 
entered upon military service. During the four ycare 
of the war he discharged duty at tliii outpost, wiiere it 
wa.s greatly exposed on the border of a slave-holding 
State. 

October, lK(i5, he attended the General Convention, 
in the city of Philadelphia, as a deputy of the Kansas 
diocese. Oct. 5, 1866, a son was born, named Lewis 
Iliram. June, 1808, by an order from tlio War 
Department, he was transferred to Fort Sully, Da- 

n 



kota, arriving there after a passage of three weeks, 
ascending by steamer the Missouri River. Here a 
daughter was born, Sept. 28, 1869, named Carrie 
Louisa. May 21, 1870, his wife died in garrison, after 
a distressing and protracted illness. Soon after this 
he went East on leave of absence, at the expiration of 
which he was transferred to Fort Totten, Dakota. 
Here he remained until June, 1872, when he was 
assigned to Fort Wadsworth, Dakota, where he en- 
tered on duty. January, 1876, he tendered hia resig- 
nation, which was duly accepted by President Grant. 
Having dissolved his connection with the United 
States army, in which he had served for more than 
sixteen years, he accepted the charge of St. Paul's 
Church, Bantam Falls, and Trinity Church, Milton, 
officiating in each of these on alternate Sundays. He 
is still in charge of these churches, residing at Ban- 
tam Falls, where he was born, and where his ancestors 
lived for several generations. 



JOHN P. BRACE. 
In losing Mr. John P. Brace, who died in Litch- 
field on the morning of the 18th of October, 1872, 
aged eighty years, the State lost one of those men 
who did, in a quiet way, so much to make Connec- 
ticut honored wherever e<lucation and intelligence 
are respected. His name is revered in thousands of 
families throughout the land, as one of the most suc- 
cessful teachers this " cradle of instructors" has pro- 
duced. Mrs. Stowe — no mean authority on such a 
subject — speaks of him in the life of her father as 
follows (pp. 534-555) : 

" iMr. Dmcu wan one of tlie nio!.t fttiniulating and inspiriting instnic. 
ton I over knew, lie wua hintself widely iiifunneil, nu eiitltiitiiuit it) 
botany, mineralogy, and the natnrut sciences generally, benideit being 
well read in EnglUh classical literature. The conxtant cuiivonMUion 
which he kept np un theite triples tended nmrc to ilovelop tlie mind and 
innpire a love of literature than any mote rxuitine stutlies. The l-oys 
were Incited liy hia example to set up minoralogical culdnets, and my 
brother George (Beecher) tramped over tlie hilln in the train of hit* 
teacher, witli hii stone hammer on his shouldem, for many delightful 
hours. Alany more were spent in recounting lo me tlie stores of ulsdoui 
derived (rom Mr. Bruce, who, ho told mo with pride, corres|ioiided with 
geologists and botanists in Kurojw, exchanging s|Hvimens witii them. 
Tills sclnsii was tlie only one I ever knew which really carried out a 
thorough ciiirso of ancient and modern history. . . . Tlio interest of 
tinise historical recitations, willi a professor so wiilely informed and so 
foscinittitig in conversation as Mr. Brace, rxtolidrd farther tlinti hiscloss. 
Much of the training and inspiration of my early days consisted, not in 
the tilings wliici) 1 was sup|i^wed to li« stndyiiig, but ill hc«riug, while 
seated unnoticed at my desk, tlieconversatitui of Mr. Draco with tlio older 
classes. Thero from hour to hour I liHteneil with eager oars to historical 
criticisms aiitl discussions, or to recitations In such works as * Palsy's 
Moral Philosophy,' ' Blair's Rliolurtc,' 'Alison on Tast*,' all full of moat 
awakening stiggestlons to my thoughts. 

" Sir. Draco excelle«l all teachore I evor know in the faculty of teach- 
ing composition. The constant excitement in which he kept tlio miiitb 
of his pupils — the wide and various regions of thought into which lie led 
them— formeil a pre|ianitioii for teaching comiKisition, the main miuisile 
for wliicli, whatever pet>ple may think, is to liavo something Ititerrsting 
to siiy. His manner Wiui to divide Ids school of aUiut a hundred Into 
divisions of threo or four, one of whicli was to write every week. .\t 
tlio samo time lie inspirtMl an ambition by calling for volunteers every 
week, and thero were some who voluuloerud lo wilto every week. 



158 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



"I remember I could have been but Dine years old, and my handwriting 

liardly formed, when the enthusiasm he inspired led nie, greatly to his 
aniusenient, I believe, to write every week. The first week tlie su! ject 
chosen by the class was ' The DiflFereuce Between the Natural and Moral 
Sublime.' One may smile at tliis for a child nine year^ of age; but it is 
the best account I can give of his manner of teaching to say, that the 
discussion lie held in the class not only made me u[iderstand the subject 
as thoroughly as I do now, but so excited me that 1 felt sure I had some- 
thing to say upon it, and that first composition, though I believe half the 
words were misspelled, amused him greatly. It was not many weeks I 
had persevered in this way before I received a word of public commen- 
dation, for it was hi-s custom to read all the compositions aloud before the 
gcliool, and if tliere was a good point it was sure to be noticed. 

"As you may see, our subjects were not trashy or sentimental, such as 
are often supposed to be the style for female schools. By two years of 
constant practice under bis training and suggestion, I had gained so far 
as to be appointed one of the writers for the annual e-\liibition, a proud 
distinction as I then viewed it. The subject assigned me was one that 
had been fully discussed in the school in a manner to show to the utmost 
Mr. Brace's peculiar jiower of awakening the minds of his pupils to the 
higher regions of thought. The question was, 'Can the Immortality of 
the Soul be Proved by the Light of Nature?' " 

Mr. Brace's acquirements were vast and multi- 
farious. He was fitted thoroughly in the studies of 
the three professions — law, medicine, and theology — 
and could have entered any one with honor. His 
knowledge of ancient and modern history was both 
wide and minute. In mineralogy he had made exten- 
sive researches and collections ; in botany he was a 
correspondent of De Candolle and other European 
botanists, and his valuable herbarium will be found 
a treasure-house of collections. Even in out-of-the- 
way subjects of investigation, such as heraldry, astrol- 
ogy, the deciphering of ciphers, and composing of 
music, he was singularly well versed. But his great 
talent and his services were in the comparatively un- 
known, but most useful, field of teacher. 

Mrs. Stowe, in her novel of " Old Town Folks," has 
pictured some of his methods and himself under the 
name of " Rossiter." His ingenuity, invention, pa- 
tience, and vast memory, with his passion for impart- 
ing knowledge, made him an unequaled teacher. So 
busy was his useful life that he never wrote any 
scientific or scholastic work, such as he easily might, 
but left his record and work in the minds and lives 
of thousands whom he educated, and who still love 
his memorj'. 

Mr. Brace was first teacher of the famous acad- 
emy of Litchfield, which was for so many years 
the leading educational institution for young ladies 
in New England, under the superintendence of the 
Misses Pierce. Subsequently (in 1882) he became prin- 
cipal of the Hartford Female Seminary, which, under 
his guidance, became equally celebrated. In these 
two institutions Mr. Brace trained many young ladies 
who have since become leading women in society, 
charities, or literature throughout the land; among 
them Mrs. H. B. Stowe, Mrs. Isabella B. Hooker, 
Mrs. Cyrus W. Field, Mrs. Cornelius Du Bois, of 
New York ; Mrs. AVilson, of Brooklyn ; Mrs. Marshall 
O. Roberts; Mrs. Bliss and Mrs. Van Lennep, of 
Hartford (the missionaries) ; Mrs. McCullough, the 
wife of the United States secretary of the treasury, 
and numerous others who became wives of ministers 



or missionaries. No teacher in the United States has 
ever^had so many influential and intelligent pupils. 
Subsequently to these efforts Mr. Brace entered the 
editorial profession, and was for a number of years 
the editor of The Hartford Daily Cnurant. For the 
past nine years he has been living in quiet and com- 
fort on the old homestead in the village of Litchfield, 
enjoying the treasures of his ample library, and the 
society of friends and pupils who gratefully remem- 
bered " the faithful teacher." To the last he pre- 
served his exquisite feeling for nature ; birds and 
flowers were his pleasure almost in his dying mo- 
ments, and the last names he forgot were the botan- 
ical. Even historical dates were remembered by him 
when many a personal event had passed from his 
memory. 

He died in a genial old age, tended with unceasing 
care by his devoted wife, and most sincerely mourned 
by this community. 

The only original literary works that Mr. J. P. 
Brace left behind him were monographs on scientific 
subjects, and a few poems and works of fiction. 

His great work — and one never to decay or pass 
away — is in the mental training he imparted to thou- 
sands of youthful minds throughout the country. 

His first wife was from a family well known in 
Maine for talent and character. Miss Lucy Porter, 
sister of Mrs. Dr. Lyman Beecher and descendant of 
the Hon. Rufus King. By her his surviving chil- 
dren are C. L. Brace, J. P. Brace, Jr., and Mrs. J. W. 
Skinner. He married again — Miss Louisa Moreau, 
of this city. He was also connected through his 
sister with the Hon. Charles G. Loring, the late dis- 
tinguished lawyer of Boston. 



JOHN CATLIN. 



John Catlin is of English ancestry, and was born in 
Litchfield, Conn., May 23, 1814. His father, Levi, 
was son of Thomas, and also was born in Litchfield. 
He (Levi) married Anna E. Landon, and had eight 
children, John being the fifth. He was a farmer, and 
lived three miles southeast of Litchfield village. He 
was a Whig in politics, and held several town offices. 
He was born Nov. 11, 1772, and died Oct. 16, 1841. 
Mrs. Catlin was born Jan. 6, 1779, and died Sept. 24, 
1868. Thomas Catlin was a farmer, a soldier in the 
Revolution, was captain, reared a family, and died 
aged ninety-three years. The children of Levi were 
Setb, Daniel, Avis, Ellis, John, Achsah, Guy, and 
Levi. All save Achsah married and had children. 

John Catlin received the advantages of a common- 
school and academic education, and wrought as a 
farmer during the summer until he was nineteen, when 
he determined to delve deeper into learning. He 
carried his determination into action, and was grad- 
uated from Yale College in 1839. Upon graduation 
he began to teach at Northfield, Conn. ; then taught at 




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LITCHFIELD. 



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Litchfield, then returned to Northfield and taught a 
private school, continuing there several years, work- 
ing on the farm during the summer. Giving up 
teaching he became a merchant at Northfield, and 
continued in trade eight years. He was postmaster 
of Northfield many years, and held it under Lincoln's 
administration. In politics he was In early life a 
Whig. From the formation of the Republican party 
he advocated its principles. He was magistrate for 
many yeare and school visitor. He is director and a 
stockholder in the Northfield Knife Company. At 
the age of seventeen years he united with the Congre- 
gational Church, and is now deacon, which oflBce was 
first given him over thirty years ago. 

He married, May 19, 1840, Laura, daughter of Sher- 
man and Polly (Tompkins) Humiston, of Northfield. 
She was a native of that town, and born Oct. 1, 1813. 
Their children were Frank H. (now president of North- 
field Knife Company), Mary H. (died young), John 
Howard (secretary of Northfield Knife Company), and 
James P., a farmer on the homestead. 

Sherman Humiston, son of John, was born in North- 
field, Conn., Sept. 24, 1789. He married Polly Tomp- 
kins, who was born May 5, 1790. He was a thorough 
and successful former, and died March 1, 1828. His 
wife died Jan. 6, 18(iO. John Humiston came from 
West Haven or vicinity, and was among the very 
early settlers of Northfield. He was a farmer. The 
first house he built in Litchfield is still standing. 



FRANK LI\ n. C.^TLIX. 

Franklin H. Catlin, son of John and Laura H. 
Catlin, was born in Litchfield, Conn., July 22, 1841. 
After fair educational advantages througli boyhood, 
entered the village store in Northfield sis clerk, re- 
maining some five years ; then attended the Litchfield 
Academy a short time, when he entered Kastman 
Business College, at Pouglikeejisie, N. Y., graduating 
in May, 18G2. 

In January, 181)3, accepted the office of secretary 
of the Northfield Knife Company, which he held two 
years, wlien he was elected president and trciisurer of 
the same corporation, taking entire charge of tlie 
business at the most critical jieriod of ii.s history, 
since which time his record has been closely identi- 
fied witii that of this company, and he has continu- 
ously held and still retains the office to which he was 
then elected. 

He married, November, 1871, Julia M. Lynum, 
daughter of Uufus and Sarah Lyman, of New Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

Politically is a .staunch Kopublican; usually, how- 
ever, not taking an active part in politics, personal 
attention to the extensive detail of the cutlery busi- 
ness leaving little time for other matters. 



MYRON O.SBORX. 

Myron Osborn is of Welsh descent. His great- 
grandfather, Benjamin Osborn, came from East 
Hampton, L. I., and settled in Litchfield, Conn., with 
his family about 1736. He was born in 1692, and 
died in 1762. He was a farmer by occupation, and 
had much to do in shaping the public mind of his day. 

He married Elizabeth , and had the following 

children, — viz. : Benjamin, Jr., Samuel, John, Be- 
thiah (wife of Ebenezer Beebe), and Rev. Sylvanus, 
who was a pastor of a Congregational Church in the 
town of Warren for many years ; his widow married 
Rev. Mr. Day, of New Preston, and became the mother 
of Thomas and Noble Day. 

Capt. John Osborn, third son of Benjamin and Eliza- 
beth Osborn, was born in the town of Litchfield, Conn. ; 
married Lois Peck, and had the following children : 
John, Ethan, Eliada, Heman (died young), Elizabeth, 
Rebecca, Anna, and Thalia, all of whom became heads 
of families. Capt. John Osborn rendereil valuable aid 
to the American army during the Revolutionary war. 
He and his wife were members of the Congregational 
Church. After living an honorable and useful life as 
a farmer, he died Jan. 4, 1814, aged eighty-four years, 
and his wife died in 1819. 

Eliada, son of John Osborn, was born in Litchfield, 
Conn., and was twice married. 

His children were as follows, viz.: Myron, John, 
Rebecca, Elisha M., Nathan L., and Eliada, all of 
whom grew to manhood and womanhood, and what 
was more remarkable, there was not a death among 
the children until after the youngest was more than 
sixty years of age. Eliaila Osborn was a tiirmer by 
occupation and a man much esteenie<l. He was for 
many years connected with the State militia, and 
was known as Capt. Eliada Osborn. In politics he 
was a Federalist and Whig. He died at the age of 
eighty-seven years, and his wife at eighty years. She 
was a member of the Congregational Church. 

Myron Osborn, the immediate subject of this sketch, 
is the eldest son of Eliada, and was born on the 28th 
of September, 1796, hence is at the present time (1881 ) 
in the eighty-fifth year of his age. 

Mr. Osborn remainecl at lionie on his father's farm 
receiving such educational advantagesas the schools of 
his clay alfordcd. .\t eigliteen he commenced to work 
for one Orin Judd, as an apprentice to the carpenter's 
and joiner's trade. After three years he began to work 
for himself at one ilollar a day, and the most he ever 
received was one dollar and a quarter a day. I )ne of 
the first houses lie built was his own, which was erected 
in 1S22. He used to take contract.^ to build residences 
and other buildings, and many are the substantial 
hou.ses in and around Utchfield that are standing 
monuments of his superior workmanship. In 1S40 
he began the nuinufaclure of linseed oil at Itantam 
Falls, with I'hilip S. Il«ebe, wliich he rolloHcii r.ome 
twelve years, since which time he has been engaged 
in agriculture. 



160 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



]Mr. Osborii has been successful iu whatever he has 
undertaken. He is. hale and he.arty, genial, social, 
and hospitable. He owns a good iarm west of the 
village of Litchfield. In politics he is a Republican. 
He married Enieline Goodwin, daughter of Capt. 
Erastus Goodwin, of South Farms, Conn., Dec. 22, 
1824. She was born Sept. 25, 1800. Both Mr. and 
Mrs. Osborn are members of the Congregational 
Church, and have been a great many years. Their 
children are, — (1) Caroline M., wife of George Ken- 
ney, of Litchfield ; (2) Cornelia, at home ; (3) Eliza- 
beth, died at six years of age ; (4) Julia E., wife of 
George William Mason, an intelligent farmer in 
Litchfield ; (5) Eliada G., was a sergeant-major in 
Company A, Second Connecticut Heavy Artillery, 
and lost his life in front of Petersburg, March 25, 
1865. He left one daughter, Katie Goodwin. His 
widow married ex-Govcrnor Charles B. Andrews, of 
Litchfield; ((J) Jlyron M., died young. 



AMOS BIS.SELL. 

Amos Bissell was born in Litchfield, Conn., July 
15, 1798. He was tlie son of Benjamin Bissell, a Rev- 
olutionary soldier, who settled in Litchfield more than 
a century ago. He had a large family of twelve chil- 
dren, — seven d.aughters and five sons. All the daugh- 
ters and four of the sons grew to adult age. He was 
an extensive farmer and large land-owner. He died 
at the age of seventy- one years. 

Amos, the immediate subject of this sketch, spent 
his early life on the home-farm, and, after the death 
of his tiither, took charge of the farm and assisted 
his mother in the family. At her death the estate was 
distributed, and Amos received two hundred acres of 
land, near the old home, where he has since resided. 
He has added other lands, and now has a large and 
fine farm. He was married when twenty-eight years 
of age to Lydia Bridgman Hall, daughter of David 
Hall, of Litchfield. She died June 12, 1863, aged 
sixty-one years, having been the mother of seven chil- 
dren, five of whom are now living : Edward is a law- 
yer at Fon du Lac, Wis. ; William is a physician in 
Salisbury, Conn. ; Elizabeth died when a young woman ; 
Julia is the wile of Dr. Allen, residing iu the State of 
New York ; Lyman died when a child ; Dwight, who 
occupies the home-farm, and has the principal care 
of the family, married Elizabeth, daughter of Sey- 
mour Pickett, of Waterbury ; they have three chil- 
dren, and have buried one ; Mary, the youngest 
daughter, is unmarried and lives at home. And now, 
after a long and industrious life of more than four- 
score years, we find this venerable citizen in the en- 
joyment of good health and the respect of all. He 
has been a consistent member of the Congregational 
Church many years. 



THE BISSELL FAMILY. 
It is probable that the Bissell family is of Huguenot 
descent, many of whom fled from France to England 
to escape the persecutions which followed the mas- 
sacre of St. Bartholomew in 1572. The family in 
England is little known, and has but one coat of 
arms, which is of a religious, rather than warlike, 
character. It is thus described in " Burke's Complete 
Armory" : 

" Bissell, Gu. on a bend, ar. ; three escallops, sa. Crest, a demi-eagle 
with wings displayed, sa. charged on the neck with an escallop shell, or." 

The family of John, who came to Windsor, Conn., 
is the only one of the name known to have come 
to this country. Tradition asserts that they came 
from Somersetshire County, England, to Plymouth iu 
1628. 

John came to Windsor, where he first appears in 
1640. Here he received the monopoly of the " Scantic 
Ferry," was the first settler on the east side of the 
Connecticut River, and the founder of a numerous, 
energetic, and honorable family even to the pres- 
ent day. 

John Bissell, Sr., died Oct. 3, 1677, aged eighty- 
six ; his wife died May 21, 1641. 

Children, — John, born in England; Thomas, born 
in England ; Mary, born in England, married Jacob 
Drake, 1649; Samuel ; Nathaniel, born Sept. 24, 1640; 
Joice, married Samuel Pinney. 

SECOND GENERATION. 

John, Jr., married Izrel Mason, of Saybrook. 

Thomas, married Abigail Moore, 1655 ; settled on 
the east side of the river, and died July 31, 1689. 
Children, — Thomas, born 1656 ; Abigail, born 1658 ; 
John, born 1660 ; Joseph, born 1663 ; Elizabeth, 
born 1666 ; Benjamin, born 1669 ; Sarah, born 1671 ; 

Isaac, born ; Esther, born 1677 ; Ephraim, born 

1680. 

THIRD GENERATION. 

Isaac Bissell, born 1673; married Elizabeth Osborn, 
May 2, 1706 ; moved to Litchfield and became the 
founder of the Litchfield branch of his family ; died 
Nov. 6, 1744; she died June 15, 1761. He bought 
one-sixtieth part of Litchfield (about seven hundred 
acres) for four hundred and fifty pounds ; also bought 
a lot in North Street for ninety pounds, April 16, 
1730, on which he settled in 1730. The "old red 
house," built by him about 1740, was at the time of 
its demolition, in 1853, the oldest house in town. 
The Congregational parsonage now stands (1881) on 
the site of the " old red house" built in 1740. 

Children,— Elizabeth, born Feb. 4, 1707, probably 
died young ; Isaac, Jr., born March 9, 1709 ; Abigail, 
born Jan. 16, 1711, married Thomas Catlin, May, 
1732 ; Sarah, born Feb. 3, 1713, married James Kil- 
bourn, Sept. 11, 1733; Joel, born Jan. 1, 1714; Ben- 
jamin, born July 2, 1717; Roger, born March 24, 




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AMOS BISSELL. 




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LITCHFIELD. 



161 



1718 ; George, born March 24, 1720 ; Joseph, born 
Sept. 7, 1722 ; Zebulon, born 1724. 

FOURTH GENERATIOS. 

Zebulon, born 1724, married Abigail Smith ; was 
a soldier of the Revolution in Capt. Bezaleel Beebe's 
company ;* was taken prisoner at Fort Washington ; 
died at Woodbury on his way home, as was supposed 
from the effects of poison given to him, previous to 
an exchange of prisoners, by the British ; was the 
oldest man in Capt. Beebe's company ; estate settled 
in 1777. 

Children,— Zebulon, Jr., born Oct. 3, 1751 ; Ben- 
jamin, born Jan. 15, 1754 ; Rhoda, born April 5, 
1760, married Arunah Blakeslee ; Abigail, married 
John Landon. 

FIFTH GENERATION. 

Zebulon, Jr., married Sarah Watkins, Jan. 13, 
1774. 

Children, — John, born Feb. 10, 1776, married Kate 
Marsh, of Litchfield ; was a merchant in Utica and 
Albany ; also built a house in Litchfield, on East 
Street, where he resided many years ; died in 1856 ; 
had children, — Samuel (deceased), John, and Edward 
(lawyers in New York City). 

Benjamin, born Jan. 15, 1754, married Esther 
Benton, Feb. 21, 1779 ; he died Feb. 28, 1825, aged 
seventy-one. She died Dec. 27, 1840, aged eighty- 
three. 

Children, — Rebecca, born Feb. 9, 1782, married 
William Smitli, of Clienango, N. Y. ; Anna, born 
Dec. 14, 1784, married Levi lloyt, of Cooperstown, 
N. Y. ; Nathaniel, born Dec. 31, 1786, married, first, 
Anna Smith, of Middlebury, Conn. ; second, Sarah 
Marsh, of Litchfield, and had children, — Erastus S., 
Henry B., Ralph, Frederick, .Julia A., and Charles; 
Benjamin married Melissa Post, of Canaan, Conn., 
February, 1822, and had children, — Oscar, Benjamin, 
George, Augustus, Lawrence, and Mcli.ssa ; Eunice, 
born Feb. 10, 1790, died unmarried ; Abigail, born 
Feb. 19, 1792, married John (Jriswold, and had a 
daughter, Cornelia (married Dr. Charles Vaill) ; 
Rachel, born Sept. 18, 1793, married Jonathan North, ! 
of Greene Co., N. Y. ; Dotlia, born Oct. 18, 1795, mar- , 
ried John Landers, of Broome t'o., N. Y. ; Herman, 
born Jan. 16, 1797, married Anna Peck, Nov. 30, 1820, 
and had children,— Leonard C, David O., Julius (de- 
ceased), Harriet, Frances J., Julius (2d) ; the family 
removed to Fon du Lac, Wis.; Amos, born July 16, 
1799, married Lydia Hall, JLircli 15, 1827, and had chil- 
dren, — E;dward, William, Elizabeth, Julia, Dwight, 
Mary. Julia married Lyman J. Smith. 

* It is related of Cnpt. no»ileel neelie, by hia •on, the Uto Wlllliim ' 
Beebo, timt In nftpr-yonrH lie litui many vl»itn from tlie KoVMtutiuiiury 
Mldlore formerly of his (-om|iiiiiy. Miiiiy of lliem, In RjiendlnK the Imnrv 
In visiting Willi tlieir old cniitain, would recount tlie iMittlen, murrliea, 
and ini|idHonniunt8 ttiey luiii gone through to^utiier. Wliilo tliey liilketi 
tlie teura would roll down tlieir aged clieokfi. In tellilig of tlie liimliil)l|i« 
and iirivatioiia tbey Imd endured in the camp and marclio6 of that event* 

ful JHTlwI. ' 



Henry B. Bissell, son of Nathaniel Bissell, was 
born April 10, 1814. He received a common-school 
education ; married Clarissa M., daughter of Capt. 
Samuel Wright, of Milton, Conn., April 7, 1841. 

They had nine children, of whom six are now liv- 
ing. He is by occupation a farmer. He is a member 
of the Congregational Church in Litchfield, and was 
chosen deacon May, 1858. 



ELIADA KILBOURX. 
Eliada Kilbourn is of English descent, and a lineal 
descendant of the seventh generation from Thomas 
Kilborne (as the name was formerly spelled), who was 
the ancestor of all the Ivilbourns in Connecticut, and 
most of those in other States of the Union and in 
Canada. Said Thomas Kilborne was born in 1580, 
during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and with his 
family, consisting of wife, Frances, and children, viz., 
Margaret, Lydia, Marie, Frances, and John, embarked 
from London, England, on the 15th of April, 1635, in 
the ship " Increa.se," Robert Lea master. The family 
settled at Wethersfield, Conn. Thomas Kilborne died 
previous to Dec. 25, 1640, as appears from tlie Weth- 
ersfield Land Records, Book L, page 135. 

SECOND GENERATION. 

Sergt. John Kilborne, only son of Thomas and 
Frances Kilborne, was born in 1625, consequently was 
only ten years of age when he came to America with 
his parents. His name appears on the Wethersfield 
Records as early as Sept. 24, 1647, and was a land- 
holder as early as May 20, 1649. Though history has 
neglected to chronicle his deeds, his name, neverthe- 
less, appears consjiicuous upon the "Old Colonial Rec- 
ords" for a period of nearly half a century. He 
seems to have been an active, energetic spirit in the 
little colony, and to have possessed in no small degree 
the confidence of his fellow-colonists. He married 

Naomi in 16.VI. She ilied Oct. 1, 1659, leaving 

three children, viz., John, Tliomas, and Naomi. He 

then married Sarah , by whom he lia<l Ebcnezer, 

Sarah, George, Mary, Joseph, and Abraham. He 
died April 9, 1703, and his wife died Dec. 4, 1711, 
aged seventy years. 

TIIIKD GKNERATION. 

Joseph Kilborne, third son of John Kilborne by 
his wife Sarah, was born in Wethersfield, Conn., about 
1672, and was married to Dorothy, daughter of Dea- 
con Samuel Butler, June 4, 1696. She died Aug. 19, 
1709, and he married, for his second wife, Hester, 
ilaughtcr of Jacob Gibbs, of Windsor, June 29, 1710. 
By his first marriage he hail the following children, 
viz., Dorothy, .losepli, Jonathan, and .lames. By 
his second marriage, Benjamin, Hester, Elizabeth, 
and Mary. Joseph Kilborne was one of the first set- 
tlers of Litchfield, Conn., and one of the founders of 
the Presbvterian Church in Litchfield. On the 12th 



162 



HISTOEY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



of December, 1721, lie was admitted an inhaliitant of 
Litchfield, and on the 17th of December, 1722, he was 
chosen a selectman, and on the 26th of December, 
1722, he was appointed, with two others, "A commit- 
tee for building the meeting-house." He filled vari- 
ous offices of trust until his death, probably in the 
year 1744. 

FOURTH GENERATION. 

Capt. Joseph Kilbourn (the 2d), son of Joseph Kil- 
bourn by his wife Dorothy, was born in Wethersfield, 
Conn., July 9, 1700, and emigrated to Litchfield, Conn., 
with his father in 1721, where he married Abigail 
Steckwell, Nov. 12, 1723. He held nearly all the 
offices of trust and honor in the town, and was a rep- 
resentative from Litchfield to the Colonial Legislature 
in October, 1752, and in May, 1753. On the organi- 
zation of the Episcopal Society in Litchfield, he gave 
to said society " one-third of an hundred acre lot sit- 
uated in South Farms." He was a farmer, as his an- 
cestors had been, and lived one-half mile west of the 
village of Litchfield. He died in 175C, having sur- 
vived his wife some eight years. His children were 
as follows, — Elisha, Benjamin, Jeremiah, Kuth, Sol- 
omon, Charles, Catharine, Anna, and Abigail. 

FIFTH GENERATION. 

Solomon Kilbourn, fourth son of Capt. Joseph Kil- 
bourn, was born in Litchfield, March 1, 1736; married 
Anna Palmer, April 8, 1756, and died July 30, 1806. 
He was a farmer by occupation. His children were 
Rachel, Hannah, Jeremiah, Solomon, Anna Olive, 
AVhitman, and Sibbil (also spelled Sybbel.) 

SIXTH GENERATION. 

Whitman Kilbourn, third son of Solomon Kilbourn, 
was born in Litchflelj^, Conn., April 12, 1772 ; married 
Thala, daughter of Capt. John Osborn, April 7, 1800. 
Their children were as follows : Myron, Ethan, Lewis, 
Eliada, Amanda, and James. His daughter, Amanda, 
married James B. Peck, of Litchfield. Jlr. Kilbourn 
was a farmer by occupation and a Whig, or more 
properly now (1881) known as Eepublican, in politics. 
He died June 18, 1843, and his wife died May 8, 1865, 
in the eighty-ninth year of her age. 

SEVENTH GENERATION. 

Eliada Kilbourn was born in Litchfield, Conn., Feb- 
ruary, 1809. He remained at home with his parents 
till their death, when he became the owner of the 
" old homestead." He married Mary Ann, daughter 
of Deacon Charles Dudley, of Litchfield, Conn., Nov. 
1, 1843, and to them have been born four children, 
viz., Myron E., born Nov. 1, 1844, married and re- 
sides in Wisconsin ; Charles D., born April 22, 1847 ; 
Caroline, born March 25, 1850 ; and Florella M. A., 
born July 5, 1853. Caroline married Frank W. Gris- 
wold, a farmer of Goshen ; Florella M. A. married 
Fremont M. Grunins, a farmer in Litchfield. Mr. 
Kilbourn ha.s always been a farmer, and a man uni- 



versally respected. In politics a Republican. Mr. 
and Mrs. Kilbourn are members of the Congregational 
Church in Litchfield. His son, Charles D., has con- 
trol of the home-farm, which consists of some two 
hundred acres, which is in a good state of cultivation. 
In politics he is a Republican, and a member of the 
Congregational Church. He married Matilda E. Nor- 
ton, of Norfolk, Oct. 4, 1876, and has one son, Harry N. 



NOAH GUERNSEY. 
Noah Guernsey was a son of Noah Guernsey, who 
settled in Litchfield, near Northfield, Conn., at an 
early day, and was born on his father's farm, April 10, 
1793. He married Amanda Crosby, May, 1816. She 
was born Jan. 29, 1795, and is still hale and hearty, 
and retains much of the vigor of youth, though she 
is in the eighty-seventh year of her age. Their chil- 
dren were William H. (deceased) ; Julia A., wife of 
Guy Catlin (deceased) ; Egbert, a prominent physi- 
cian in New York City; Noah (deceased) ; and Har- 
riet (deceased). Mr.- Guernsey was a farmer by occu- 
pation, as his father had been before him. He took a 
deep interest in political matters, and often held the 
more important offices in his town. As a Whig, he 
was often a selectman of the town. Mr. and Mrs. 
Guernsey were members of the Congregational Church. 
He died April 16, 1873. He was honest, sober, indus- 
trious, and economical. He was esteemed and re- 
spected by all who knew him. His widow is residing 
with her only living daughter, Mrs. Guy Catlin, about 
one mile northwest of Northfield, Conn. 



GUY CATLIN. 



Guy Catlin, son of Levi Catlin, was born Oct. 9, 
1819, on the farm in Litchfield, Conn., where he con- 
tinued to reside till his death, Feb. 11, 1861. His 
advantages for an education were limited to the com- 
mon schools of his day except a year spent in the 
Litchfield Academy. On the 23d of May, 1843, he 
married Julia A., daughter of Noah and Amanda 
Guernsey, of Litchfield, Conn., and to them were born 
Amelia G., a teacher in San Francisco, Cal. ; Alice A., 
a teacher in New York City ; and Austin H., a con- 
ductor on the New York Central and Hudson River 
Railroad. Mr. Catlin was a successful business man 
and farmer, and although he died in the prime of life, 
he left his fiimily in comfortable circumstances. He 
was a staunch Republican in politics. He was a 
quiet, unassuming man, courteous towards all, and 
charitable to those who diflered from him. The Cat- 
lin fiimily is one of the olde.st, as well as one of the 
most highly esteemed families in Litchfield, and the 
subject of this sketch inherited some of the noble 
qualities of head and heart of his honored ancestors. 




NOAII GUERNSEY. 




—if- " 





'^X^:..,.-^ ^-^A 



LITCHFIELD. 



162} 



HENRY W. BUEL, M.D. 

Henry W. Buel, M.D., son of Samuel Buel, M.D., 
who was a practicing physician of eminence in Litch- 
field for more than forty years, was born April 7, 
1820. In 1840 entered Yale College, and graduated 
in 1844, receiving the degree of A.B., and in 1847 
the degree of A.M. Immediately after leaving col- 
lege commenced the study of medicine, at first with 
his father, and subsequently in the offices of Dr. W. 
P. Buel and Dr. Gordon Buck, of New York City, at 
the same time attending the courses of lectures at the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons of that city. 
Keceiving the appointment of junior walker in the old 
New York Hospital he passed regularly through the 
grades of junior and senior walker, one year in each ; 
and finally, after receiving the degree of M.D. from the 
college, was appointed house-surgeon at the hospital, 
and served the regular period of one year, remaining 
also a short time longer in that position, and receiv- 
ing a certificate of recommendation from the governors 
and surgeons of the hospital. Upon leaving the New 
York Hospital, in 1849, was appointed resident physi- 
cian of Sanford Hall, Flushing, L. I., which position 
he occupied five years. In 1854 returned to Litch- 
field; in 1856 revisited Europe; and in the year 1858 
commenced the institution now known as "Spring 
Hill Home for Nervous Invalids." Has been presi- 
dent of the Connecticut Medical Society, of the 
Litchfield Medical Society, member of the State 
board of charities, and was also appointed by Gov- 
ernor Hubbard one of three commissioners to ex- 
amine into and report upon the need of provision for 
the indigent insane of the State. 



PAYNE KENYON KILBOURNE, A.M. 

Payne Kenyon Kilbourne (son of Chauncey and 
Hannah Kenyon Kilbourne) wa.s born in Litchfield, 
Conn., July 26, 1815. He was bred a printer, in the 
office of the late Nathan Wliiting, Esq., long known 
as the editor of the Relif/ioun Inldligencer, the first 
and oldest religious newspaper in the world. At the 
age of eigiiteen years lie commenced writing for the 
periodicals of the day, both in prose and verse, and 
soon achieved a respectable reputation in that depart- 
ment of literature. In the spring of 1836, Mr. Storer, 
proprietor of The Literary Kmporium, oftered a series 
of prizes for the best tales and poems that should be 
written for tiiut jjaper. The committee of award 
consisted of Mr. Storer (the editor), David Francis 
Bacon, M.D., and tlie Rev. Oliver Ellsworth Daggett, 
D.D. Young Kilbourne (though still in his minority) 
determined to run his chance of success, and accord- 
ingly wrote and sent in an article in Spenserian stanzaw, 
entitled "New England." The committee, after due 
deliberation, decided that the best poem presented for 



their examination was one written by the Rev. J. H. 
Clinch, A.M., of Boston, Mass., and the second best 
was that from the pen of the subject of this sketch. 
In December, 1837, when but little more than twenty- 
two years of age, he became the editor and proprietor 
of The New Havener, a weekly literary periodical. 
While under his supervision it numbered among its 
contributors Prof Gibbs, of Yale College, Noah Web- 
ster, LL.D., Rev. J. H. Clfnch, Mrs. Sigourney, and 
other writers of established reputation. During the 
autumn of 1839 he removed to Philadelphia, but soon 
after became associated with Mr. Naudain as joint 
editor of The Delaware Sentinel, a large tri-weekly 
political journal published in the city of Wilmington, 
Del. Here he remained through the " Harrison cam- 
paign," perhaps the most exciting one in our partisan 
annals, and had the satisfaction of believing that his 
services were generally acknowledged and appreciated. 
In the mean time he had been a frequent and well- 
known correspondent of several of the most popular 
magazines and literary papers in the Union, in the 
prospectuses of some of which his name had been 
widely heralded as a " principal contributor." 

In the summer of 1841, Mr. Kilbourne left Wil- 
mington with the intention of seeking his fortune in 
the West, but unforeseen circumstances changed his 
destination. He soon after became connected with 
E. B. Greene, Esq., in the editorship of The New 
England Weekly Beriev, in Hartford, Conn., a paper 
which had previously been edited by the celebrated 
poets John (Jreeuleaf Whittier and George I). Pren- 
tice. In June, 1842, he published a volume of one 
hundred and eighty pages, entitled " The Skeptic, 
and Other Poems," which was well received by the 
public. "The Iron Horse," a poem, also from his 
pen, soon after made its appearance in pamjihlet form. 
He remained in Hartford, as one of the editors of The 
Revieir and of The Columbian, until the summer of 
1845, when lie returned to his native town, and became 
the editor and proprietor of The Litchfield Enquirer. 

During his residence in Litchfield Mr. Kilbourne 
was four or five times elected a member of the board 
of education. In 1847 his " Family Memorial," an 
octavo volume of one hundred and fifty pages, was 
published. In February, 185(i, he was commissioned 
by Governor Trumbull as a notary public ; and in 
January, 1851, he was appointed and sworn a.s a 
commissioner of deeds for the State of Vermont. 
During the year last namecl his poem entitled " Ban- 
tam" was given to the public in a pamphlet form, 
and Ills " Biographical History of Litchfield County" 
was published in an octjivo volume of four hundred 
and sixteen pages. On the 24th of August, 1852, he 
was appointed by bis excellency Governor Bigler, of 
Pennsylvania, pursuant to an act of the Legislature 
of that State, a connnissloner, resident In Connecticut, 
with " authority to take the acknowU^lgnient and 
proof of any deed, mortgage, or cimveyance of any 
lands, tenements or hereditaments lying or being in 



162J 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



the State of Pennsylvania, or any other writing under 
seal to be used or recorded therein ; with full power 
and authority also to administer oaths, talie deposi- 
tions, and examine witnesses under any commission 
emanating from any of the courts of said State rela- 
ting to any cause depending or to be brought in any 
of said courts." 

In consequence of too close application to business 
the health of Mr. Kilbo'urne ultimately became so 
impaired that, in March, 1853, he disposed of the En- 
quirer office to Mr. H. W. Hyatt. 

At the annual commencement of Union College, 
N. Y., in August, 1853, the president and trustees of 
that institution conferred upon Mr. Kilbourne the 
honorary degree of Master of Arts. 

In politics Mr. Kill)ourne was uniformly recognized 
as a Whig. Though the life of a politician was far 
from being congenial to his tastes, his position as 
editor almost nece.ssarily compelled him to take a 
somewhat active part in the contests of the day. He 
was often a delegate to Senatorial, Congressional, and 
State conventions ; frequently officiated as secretary 
of these conventions, and on the committees on reso- 
lutions ; and in March, 1855, he was president of the 
American Senatorial Convention which convened at 
Winsted, Conn. 

In the summer of 1855 he took a trip to the Old 
World. An account of his tour through England and 
Wales, in several chapters, was published in the En- 
quirer in the summer and autumn of that year, under 
the general head of "Eides and Eambles in the 
Father-Land." 

Mr. Kilbourne was a member of the Connecticut 
Historical Society ; corresponding secretary of the 
Kilbourne Historical and Genealogical Society ; sec- 
retary of the Litchfield County Historical Society ; 
corresponding member of the Historical Societies of 
Massachusetts, New York, and Wisconsin ; Fellow of 
the American Statistical Association ; corresponding 
member of the New England Historical and Genea- 
logical Societ)', etc. Also clerk of the borough of 
Litchfield ; clerk of the Court of Probate for the dis- 
trict of Litchfield ; and commissioner of the Superior 
Court of Connecticut. 

In 1856 he published " History of Kilbourne Fam- 
ily," one of the earliest and best-arranged genealogies 
published ; was Governor Holley's private secretary 
in 1857; published "History of Litchfield," put in 
type by liimself, in 1859. This publication is a valu- 
able contribution to the historic literature of the State, 
and takes front rank among the standard local works 
of our times. Mr. Hollister, in the preface to his 
"History of Connecticut," vol. ii., gives Mr. Kilbourne 
a glowing tribute, closing, "I should have been 
unable to do even the little I have done without him, 
and am not willing to let this occasion pass with- 
out attempting to do him justice : as a genealogist, I 
have never seen his superior." He died July 19, 
1869. 



DANIEL SHELDON. 

There is no prouder or more enduring personal 
record than that of a man who devotes his life-work 
to the advancement of a noble profession and the 
amelioration of the human race. Such a one is Dr. 
Daniel Sheldon, one of the first in date and in medi- 
cal skill of the physicians of Litchfield, who enjoyed 
in an eminent degree the confidence and respect of 
his fellow-townsmen. He was entirely devoted to 
his profession, which he practiced with judgment 
and sound common sense, detesting quackery and dis- 
liking the heroic treatment. Threatened at one time 
of his life with pulmonary consumption, his experi- 
ence in his own case indicated a regimen which is 
still considered the best, if not the only, method of 
dealing with this dangerous disease. His reputation 
extended tliroughout the State and to the city of New 
York. 

Dr. Sheldon's cheerful, kind, and disinterested char- 
acter made him a general favorite. All his actions 
were directed by a strong sense of duty. He came of 
a sound Puritan stock, and was educated in those 
bracing Calvinistic doctrines which produced in the 
New England of his youth and manhood " a horror 
of sin, an enthusiasm for justice, purity, and manli- 
ness." 

Dr. Sheldon was descended from Isaac Sheldon, an 
Englishman, who settled in Dorchester, Mass., in 1634. 
He was born in Hartford, Conn., Oct. 19, 1750 (O.S.). 
Like many other New England boys his time was di- 
vided between farm work in summer and the gram- 
mar school in winter, where he acquired a knowledge 
of Latin and Greek. At the age of seventeen he 
went to reside with his uncle by marriage. Dr. Bird, 
of Litchfield South Farms, and studied medicine. 
He commenced practice in Washington, Conn., and 
was married in 1777, to Miss Charlotte Judson, of 
Washington, by the Rev. Daniel Briusmade. Mrs. 
Sheldon died in 1782, leaving two children. In 1784 
he remarried with Miss Huldah Stone. The cele- 
brated Dr. Lemuel Hopkins, whose wife was a sister 
of Miss Stone, was then practicing in Litchfield. It 
was arranged between them that Dr. Hopkins should 
move to Hartford, and Dr. Sheldon take his place in 
Litchfield. This was in 1784. Dr. Sheldon remained 
in Litchfield until he died, in April, 1840, at the age 
of ninety, having enjoyed excellent health to the 
end. 

He had six children. His eldest son, Daniel Shel- 
don, Jr., was secretary of the United States Legation 
in France, and Charge d'Aifaires. He died in Mar- 
seilles in 1828. His second and third sons, Frederick 
and Henry, were successful merchants in New York. 
His daughter, Mrs. Lucy Beach, still survives him, in 
healthy, happy, and honored old age, and resides in 
the house he built in Litchfield, and in which she was 
born. 




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yCei^M^n^ (o-cxccy/t 




CHAllLES D. WHEELER. 




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LITCHFIELD. 



163 



SAMUEL H. DUDLEY. 

Deacon Samuel H. Dudley was born in Litchfield, 
June 28, 1804. He is descended from William Dud- 
ley, who was an Englishman by birth, and the first of 
the family who emigrated to this country. He settled 
in Guilford, Conn., in 1639, and died at Saybrook, 
March 16, 1684. He was twice married ; his second 
wife was Mary Stow, by whom he had nine children, 
of whom Joseph was born April 16, 1643. He mar- 
ried Ann Robinson ; they had nine children, of whom 
William was born Dec. 17, 1678 ; married Kuth Strong, 
of Lyme, Conn., for his first wife, and Rebecca Fish 
for his second. He raised a large family, among 
whom was Medad, born Feb. 3, 1724; married Mary 
Fowler ; they had nine children, one of whom was 
Charles, who married Ruth Hart, of Durham ; they 
had five children, viz., Susan A., Lois, Samuel H., 
Frederick, and Ruth. The mother died Aug. 27, 1808. 
Mr. Dudley was again married, to Rhoda Baldwin, of 
Washington township ; they had two children, Mary 
Ann and Charles. Mary Ann is the wife of Eliada 
Kilbourn. 

Samuel H., the eldest son of Charles Dudley, re- 
sided with his father in Litchfield, and worked upon 
the farm until he was tliirty years of age, whore he 
was married, and settled on a farm near the old home. 
His wife died Dec. 22, 1873, leaving three children, 
Lucrctia, Florence A., and Caroline E. 

Mr. Dudley and his wife were consistent members 
of the Congregational Church, where lie has officiated 
as deacon tor more than forty years. 



IIEMAN BEACH. 

Heman Beach was born in Litchfield, June 23, 
1813. He was the son of Heman Beach, who was 
born on Beach Street, in the town of Litclificld, wiiere 
the fiiniily Iiave lived for several gencration.s. The 
Beach family trace their genealogy to their anccttors 
who came from England and settled at Xew Haven 
at an early day. 

Heman Beach, Sr., was a farmer on Beach Street. 
He married Clarissa Kilbourn, only child of Appleton 
Kilbourn, who was the son of James, and grandson of 
Joseph Kilbourn, one of the first settlers of Litchfield 
and one of the founders of the Presbyterian Church 
in that town. He was admitted an inhabitant Dec. 
12, 1721 (see biography of Eliada Kilbourn ). Henmn 
Beach was a farmer in Litdifield; his wife died, leav- 
ing three children, two of whom are still living, viz., 
Marcia, married James C. Xewconib, a farnu'r on 
the old Kill)()urn homestead; Milo is al.so a farmer. 
Mr. Beach was a second time married, to Phebe 
Landon. 

Heman Beach (2d) came on to the place where he 
now resides when eighteen years of ago, with his 
father, who owned the farm. Hero he has lived for 
fifty years, and is one of the substantial and respected 
citizens of his town. He has been three times married. 



First, to Eliza Thomas. She died Dec. 10, 1849, leav- 
ing six children, — Algaman G., Thomas W., Eugene 
I., Charles T., Wesley H., Eliza J., — three of whom are 
now living. Mr. Beach was again married, to Minerva 
D. Goslee. She died Jan. 29, 1853, aged twenty-four 
years. He was a third time married, to Mary K., 
daughter of Daniel Keeler, who came to Litchfield 
when seventeen years of age with his father, from 
Middlebury, and settled on a farm near the village of 
Bantam ; their children are Edgar D., Frederick E., 
Oscar D., and Mary C* 



CHARLES D. WHEELER. 

Charles D. Wheeler was born in Stonington, Conn., 
Nov. 18, 1817. He was the son of Christopher and 
Orinda (Gallup) Wheeler, who came to Litchfield in 
1819, where they raised a large family of nine children, 
as follows : Emeline, Christopher P., Eliza O., Charles 
D., Emeline Ann, William C, Elizabeth H., Mary 
Jane, and David M. The father died Jan. 24, 1858, 
and the mother August 27th of the same year. Only 
three of the children are now living, viz., Charles 
D., Elizabeth H., wife of John Williamson, and Mary 
Jane, wife of Jacoli Morse. 

Charles D. Wheeler was married when twenty-five 
years of age to Mary E. Guild, daughter of Albin 
Guild, of the fifth generation in this country. The 
family trace their genealogy to John, Samuel, and 
Ann Guild, who emigrated to this country from Scot- 
land in 1643. 

Soon after Mr. Wheeler was married he moved 
on to the farm where lie now resides, and for forty 
years has pursued the vocation of agriculture. He 
has large and commodious buildings, with such 
surroundings as inilicate the thrifty farmer. Po- 
litically Mr. Wheeler is a Democrat, and has filled 
the otfice of assessor, selectman, and represented his 
town in the Legislature in 1873. Mr. Wheeler and 
his wife arc members of the Episcopal Church. They 
have one daughter, Jennie Elizabeth, wife of Isaac 
H. Hutchin.son. They have two children, Charles L. 
and Carrie M. 



LEVI COE. 
The Goes are of English descent, but very little 
is known by the historian of the ancestors in this 
country. Thonuts was one of the first of the name to 
settle in Litchfield County, having come from Middle- 
town, Conn. Married and had children, of whom Levi 
Coe, Sr., was a son, born in Litohfiehl, Conn. ; married 
Deborah ^IcCall and had Ion ohildron, viz., Dyer, 
Ira, Walter, Emolino. William, Elizalioth, Olive M., 
Levi, Maria D., and Tliomas ^L; the three youngest 
arc living, all born mi the ohl Coo liomcstead in 
Litchfield, Conn. 



* Slues writing lb« >1iotii, Mr. Baub «H tokau niilJauljr III and died 
March 20, ISHI * 



164 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



Mr. Levi Coe, Sr., purchased this farm before his 
marriage. He was twice married, but the children 
are by his second wife. He died in 1832. Mr. and 
Mrs. Coe were members of tlie Congregational Church. 

Levi Coe, son of Levi Coe and Deborah McCall, 
was born on the farm now owned by liim, Sept. 14, 
1810. He has always been a farmer on the old home- 
stead, which he bought of the heirs after the death of 
his father. His farm consists of some two hundred 
acres well improved; the buildings are substantial, 
showing thrift and enterprise. He married Lavinia 
M., daughter of Samuel and Lavinia ( Judson) McNeil, 
of Litchfield, May 22, 1838. Their children were 
Dwight McNeil, died at twenty -three ; Frederick L., 
married Sarah C, daughter of William Norton, and 
has two children, Stanley L. and Philip F. ; and Fran- 
cis M., born Jan. 22, 1852, married Marion J., daugh- 
ter of Sherman Piatt, of Marbledale, Conn. 

Mr. Coe is a Republican in politics. He has been 
magistrate of the town several years. Mr. and Mrs. 
Coe are members of the Congregational Cliurch in 
Litchfield. 

Samuel McNeil, son of Isaac, was born in Litchfield, 
was a farmer by occupation, married Lavinia Judson, 
and had eight children, viz., Isaac H., Lewis J. 
(deceased), Louisa B., Lavinia M., Mary Ann, Julia 
E. (deceased), Frederick D., and Charles L. (de- 
ceased). Mr. McNeil died at sixty-three years of 
age, and his wife survived him and died at ninety- 
two. 



JACOB MORSE. 
John Morse, of New Haven, born in England about 
1619, emigrated and settled at New Haven, 1639, and 
removed to Wallingford, Conn., 1670. John Morse 
was one of that noble band who founded the colony 
of New Haven. His foresight, courage, and enter- 
prise in embarking in the work ; his wisdom and pru- 
dence; his self-denial, firmness, and perseverance in 
carrying it on, are well attested by records when read 
in connection with the history of his times and the 
privations and trials of his situation. He lived to 
honor God and do good. Of the time and place of 
John Morse's birth, and the date of his arrival in 
New England, we have no certain information. If he 
had attained his majority when admitted a member 
of the General Court, 1639-40, he was born as early 
as 1619, which would have made him eighty-nine 
years old in 1708, when he, as is alleged, removed 
from Wallingford. But as his removal at that age is 
improbable, and as none of his children or grandchil- 
dren are known to have attained so great an age, he 
was not probably born earlier than 1622. That he 
came unattended by relatives is improbable. Francis 
Morse and Christopher Morse, of Boston, were not 
improbably his brothers ; and John Morse, who mar- 
ried into the family of Robert Kaine, of Boston, and 
owned a house in Shoe Lane, London, might have 



been of the same race. Hopkins, Eaton, and Daven- 
port arrived in Boston June, 1637, — too intent on 
locating at New Haven to listen to proposals from 
the General Court to settle in Massachusetts. John 
Morse probably came in that company, and a careful 
perusal of all the wills of the first planters of New 
Haven establishes that fact. He was no common 
youth. Without regard to the tradition which makes 
him to have been a relative of the father of Bishop 
Morse, Sr., he must either have been of high family 
or extraordinary precocity. He doubtless arrived at 
New Haven in 1638. The first record of him was dated 
Feb. 18, 1639-40, when he signed a social compact as 
one of the proprietors and planters, and was admitted 
a member of the General Court. At this time he 
was probably a minor. " Upon the formation of the 
government he took an oath, July 1, 1644, to support 
the same." He resided in New Haven thirty years, 
when he went to Wallingford, Conn., and there re- 
sided till his death. 

John (2), born Oct. 12, 1650, married Martha La- 
throp, Dec. 12, 1677. He died March 31, 1717. His 
wife died Sept. 21, 1719. They resided at New Haven 
and Wallingford, Conn. 

John (3), born Nov. 10, 1682; died May 14, 1755; 
married Elizabeth Hall, Feb. 25, 1708; resided at 
Wallingford. His wife died Jan. 17, 1754. 

Levi (4), born Dec. 31, 1722 ; married Martha 
Fenn, Jan. 19, 1743-44 ; resided at Wallingford. 

Amos (5), born Nov. 17, 1744; married first to 
Betsey Ives, second to Esther Andrews, of Litchfield, 
Conn. He died December, 1819 ; resided at Litchfield, 
Conn. 

Jacob (6), born March 6, 1792 ; married Lucretia 
Gilbert, December, 1813. She died Sept. 18, 1818, 
and he married Harriet Morse, March 14, 1821, and 
had the following children, viz., Linus G., Lewis H., 
Lucretia, Jacob, and Albert (deceased). Mr. Morse 
was a farmer by occupation and a man much esteemed 
by all. He died Nov. 1, 1862. 

Jacob Morse, the immediate subject of this sketch, 
was born in Litchfield, Conn., Feb. 19, 1827. He was 
reared a farmer, which honorable occupation has 
been the chief business of his life. He has also 
been engaged as a trader in stock. His advantages 
for an education were such as the common schools 
aflbrded, supplemented with a few terms at the Litch- 
field Academy. On the 1st of April of 1863, he set- 
tled in the village of Litchfield, on the place formerly 
owned by Julius Deming. In politics he has always 
been a Democrat, and as such he has been constable 
and first selectman of Litchfield for more than twenty 
years, and in 1861 was elected to the State Legisla- 
ture of Connecticut. On the 16th of October, 1848, 
he married Mary Jane, daughter of Christopher 
Wheeler, of Litchfield. She was born Nov. 28, 1825. 
Their children are Ella O. (deceased) ; Virginia, wife 
of Truman Catlin ; Christopher W., died young ; Har- 
riet E. ; Arthur J. ; and Dermont L. (deceased). 




^=C^^^^-L (^V^ 



I 




DAVID M GRANT. 



LITCHFIELD. 



165 



Mr. and Mrs. Morse are members of the Methodist 
EpLscopal Church, of which he is one of its principal 
men and main supporters. 



DAVID McNEIL GRANT. 

David McNeil Grant was born in the house where 
he now lives in Litchfield, Aug. 11, 1812. He is the 
representative of one of the pioneer families of Con- 
necticut. He traces his genealogy to Matthew and 
Priscilla Grant, who came from Scotland on the ship 
"Mary and John," and landed at Dorchester, Mass., 
in 1630. Their descendants were: (2) John and 
Mary (Hull); (3) Joseph and Sarah (Cook); (4) 
Increase and Ann (Herford) ; (5) Ambrose and 
Hannah (Mason) ; (6) Charles and Hannah (Mc- 
Neil) ; (7) David McNeil and Caroline B. (Judd). 

The first Grants — Matthew and Priscilla — landed at 
Dorchester, Mass., but soon went to Windsor, Conn., 
with a colony of Scotch people, where the family 
resided for several generations. Increase Grant was 
the first of the family to settle in Litchfield County. 
He came to Torrington as early as 1730. His son 
Ambrose was the pioneer in Litchfield, and settled 
in the north part of the town, where he built a large 
and substantial residence in 1795. Here the family 
have since resided. He had a family of seven chil- 
dren, — five sons and two daughters. His son Charles 
succeeded him on the farm. Charles married Hannah 
McNeil. They had four children, — three sons and 
one daughter, Harriet Lucretia. She is unmarried, 
and resides at the old home with the only surviving 
son, David McNeil Grant. He married Caroline B. 
Judd in 1860. She died in 1865, leaving two children, 
Charles H. and Fanny L. 



THE PLUMB FAMILY. 

The liistorian is not in possession of any fact.s rela- 
tive to the history of the Plumb family prior to thoir 
settlement in Litchfield Co., Conn. They are of 
Scotch origin, however, and the first of the name in 
America of whom we have any knowledge was Ezra 
Pluml), who was born probably somewhere in New 
England, and was one of the early settlers in Litch- 
field County. He had two sons, — perhaps more chil- 
dren, — Ezra and Ebcnezer. 

Ezra Pluinli (the second) was born in Litciifield, 
Conn.; married Sarah, daughter of Nathaniel Wood- 
ruff, and had a son, John. Ebenezer Plumb was born 
in Litchfield, Conn., Jan. 23, 1747, married Deborah 
GriswoUl, daugiitcr of Elijah Griswold and grand- 
daughter of Capt. Jacob Griswold; Deborah wa.s 
born May 6, 1746, and died July 2, 1836. They had 
a daughter, Deborah. Ebenezer Plumb died Sept. 5, 
1829. 

John Plumb, son of Ezra, was born in the town of 
Litchfield, Conn., July 4, 1777, and married Deborah, 
daughter of Ebenezer Plumb. She was born Feb. 26, 



1772, in Litchfield, Conn. They had two children, — 
viz., Frederick W. and Charlotte. Charlotte married 
Asa Slade, of Kent, Conn., and is still living, and is 
a widow, eighty-one years of age. 

John Plumb was a blacksmith, and a man in mod- 
erate circumstances. In politics a Whig. He died 
in early manhood, aged thirty-four years, and his wife 
died at forty-eight years of age. 

Frederick W., only son of John and Deborah 
Plumb, was born in the town of Litchfield, Conn., 
Oct. 28, 1801 ; married Huldah Seymour Landon, 
daughter of Capt. Seth Landon, of Litchfield, Conn. 
(See history of James Landon, of Salisbury, Conn., 
for history of Landon family.) Mr. Plumb was a 
substantial farmer, and at his death left his family in 
good circumstances. In jiolitics he was a Republican. 
While he always manifested a great deal of interest 
in jjolitical matters, he never aspired to official honors. 
Mr. and Mrs. Plumb were members of St. Michael's 
Church, at Litchfield, Conn., and he was a warden of 
the same. Mr. Plumb was a man universally re- 
spected. He died Sept. 25, 1877 ; his wife died July 
19, 1854, leaving to her children the legacy of a 
Christian character. Their children are as follows, 
viz. : 

(1) John L., born Dec. 14, 1831, married Lucy 
Fields, daughter of Lyman Fields, of Watertown, 
Conn., and has five children, — (1) Frederick L., (2) 
Anna G., (3) Edward L., (4) Willcy S., and (5) John 
F. He is a farmer and Horist by occupation, and re- 
sides on the old Plumb homestead. 

(2) Seth F., born Aug. 27, 1836, received a common- 
school education, working on his father's farm sum- 
mers and attending school winters. He taught school 
several winters until the breaking out of the great 
civil war, when he enlisted a.s a private in Company 
E, Eighth Connecticut Volunteers, July, 1861, and 
was with his regiment during their tliree years of ser- 
vice. He re-enlisted with rank of first sergeant, and 
came home to get recruits for his regiment. Soon 
after his return to his regiment he was commissioned 
lieutenant by Governor Buckingham, of Connecticut. 
He continued with his regin\ont, taking part in all the 
engagement.s of the same, until he was killed at Chap- 
in's Farm, Va., Sept. 29, 1864. 

From the Connecticut war record we quote the fol- 
lowing : 

"Ono ottier lianio I niiint nientlnn atil'ingoiirhouurod tlcnil. Onr rolls 
roconl him nnlyas an oiiltatiHl mnii, with niDk of S4)rKeniit; for RithoiiKh 
having Iwvii commlMlonoil, hu had nuver Itevu miistorcd aa nontenant. 
But fairur charnctor never KrnctMl a wildior's unironn, and ho live* em. 
balnuMi In the alTectiiUiB of linnie nnd In the hearts of hU ct>nirHd4>(i. He 
le<l In the elnsiiiK pm^'er of that loMt meeting t>efore the flght, and his 
hut wordi* oi the colnnin moved for the charge were rettiMH-tlng 'that 
giNhl niroling' and the prei-loniineM of ChrUt to the Mddior. Kven the 
coaket in wlilt-h itnch a jewel haa l>eon carried Ifl prlzeil, and as wo write 
hero in i-nnip, on the burylng-gruund of Lltchflold, Conn., weeping 
fHenda aro pieparlng the gnivo of our decu- comnwif, Selli F. Plumh." 

(3) Lcmira E., born June 29, 1838, and rcsiileti with 
her brotluT William H. 

(4) William H., born Sept. 17, 1840. He enlisted 



1G6 



HISTORY OF LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT. 



Aug. 9, 1862, in the Litchfield County regiment, 
known as the Nineteenth, served three years, and was 
honorably discharged with his regiment, July 12, 
18G5. At the present time (1881) he is a farmer on 
the " Old Landon Homestead," in Litchfield. He 
married Emma T., daughter of