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Full text of "History of Long Island City, New York. A record of its early settlement and corporate progress. Sketches of the villages that were absorbed in the growth of the present municipality. Its business, finance, manufactures, and form of government, with some notice of the men who built the city .."

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HISTORY 



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Long Island City, 



NEW YORK. 



A Record of Its Earl}- Settlement and Corporate Progress. 



SKETCHES OF THE \ II. I. AGES THAT WERE ABSORBED IN THE GROWTH OF 

THE PRESENT WUNlCIPALirV. ITS BUSINESS. FINANCE. MANUFACTllRES, 

AND FORM OF GOVERNMENT, WITH SOME NOTICE OF THE 

MEN WHO Bl'll.r IHE CITY. 






sLicJ by The Long Island Star Publishing Company. 
Written by J. S. Kelsey, A.M. 
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' jtioDoccinciiotS^ 







COAT OH AKMS. 



The Common Council in 1873 adopted the Coat of Arms as emblematical 
i)t the \aried interests represented hy Loiii; Island City. It was designed 
b\- Alderman George H. Williams, nt Ravenswood. 



UBLISHERS' NOTE, 



In view of the fact that a history of this city has not heretofore been 
attempted, and that tiie records of tlie city as a distinct municipality are 
about to close, the publishers have deemed it befitting to prepare the volume 
now offered to the public. In the accomplishment of their aim to record 
only the salient points of interest in the historical survey of two and a half 
centuries, care has been taken to insure accuracy and time expended to give 
value. If affairs relating to the city proper receive greater notice, the 
critical reader is again reminded of the purpose of the work. While it is 
hoped that the story told upon its pages will not be devoid of interest, it 
also is trusted that the mechanical features of the volume will make it worthy 
of a place upon e\ery home table. 

Till: I,. I. STAR iniBI.ISHlNG COMPANY. 



I'REFATORY. 

"T^lllv liistorv of a city ori.vjinates in individuals. In its frontier days stands a household or two 
as lone prophets of better eras. In the lives of men therefore lie the records of society, 
whether it is developed into a municipality, state, or nation. 

Usually also the character of early settlers leaves a distinct impress upon that of the community 
which they founded, and is traced in their laws, customs, and pursuits. 

It is a peculiarity of our nation above every other, that its early settlers arc known. We know 
their names, their homes, their avocations, whence and why they came, the character they bore, the 
deeds they performed, and the posterity which succeeded them. We know how and by whom this 
nation was built, what spirit aroused, what causes inspired, what efforts secured, its free institutions. 

Herein consists America's greatest heritage that her early colonists possessed high intellectual 
gifts, good morals, sturdy energy of will and a love of freedom which challenged the wrath of 
thrones and dangers of unknown seas. 

Those who first trod the soil of Newtown were such men. Their lives were inwrought as a 
salutary power into the fabric of a rising community for several generations. 

Dutch and English, Saxon, and Celt were they. What their names and deeds the following 
pages will attempt to tell. 

Not a little difficulty has been encountered in the fact that until recent years the territory of 
this city was a part of the town of Newtown. To draw the line sharply at the municipal 
confines has often been at the sacrifice of important interests, yet the definite purpose of the 
history imperiously so retpiired. 

The olden past is a rich mine of surpassing value. Exhaustive exploration would require 
years of time. Such has not been the object of compiling these pages. From events, persons, 
and places, have been gathered the most accessible material, only for the purpose of preparing 
a souvenir volume historically descriptive of this city ere its individuality sliall have been lost 
in that of tireater New York. 

For favors rendered in preparation of the work we are especially indebted to the Hon 
Alvin T. Payne*; J. F. Burns, M. D.f; E. X. Anable, Esq. ; F. H. Batterman, Secretary of the Board 
of Health; Henry P. Titus, Es<i. ; Ex-School Commissioner J. H. Thiry; George McA. (iosman, Esq.; 
Captain Anthony S. Woods; Charles W. Hallett, Esq.; John J. Ilalsey. Esq.; Henry R. Blackwell, 
P>sq. ; and to the several clergymen who have contributed articles relating to tiieir respective 
churches. 

•Tlie facts in the article upon " The Bar of Long Island City " were furnisheU by Mr. Payne. 
+ " The Medical Profession " is from the pen of Dr. Burns. 



History of Long Island City. 



CHAPTER I. 

NAITRAI. KDKMATION. — DISCl IVi:K\ AM) SI. 1 I I.E.MENT. CON TROVERSIES HEIWKEN KNC.1.1>H AMI DfHll. 

r.ENEKAI. HISIliKICAL SLRVEV PREVIOUS TO THE REVOLT 1 ION. 



I()XCi ISLAND (.rrV in becominjjf a part of Greater New York returns to an ancient 
^^ allegiance. Its territory was once a part of the mainland. Topograpliic and jjeolojjic 
traces of this primitive unity still exist in the configuration of its coast line and in the f>iieiss 
and granite formations which underlie its hills and islands and rise to the surface in many 
places, particularly in the vicinity of Hell Gate. The vertical strata of these formations also 
attest their primary classification and relation to the Laurentian Group. 

When the river or lake now called Long Island Sound, receiving the mighiy floods of 
New England river basins, opened its eastern gates to the sea, the tidal battalions swept 
through with resistless power. The Sound became a Mediterranean Sea. Soil and the detrital 
deposits of ages were brushed to ocean deeps from the narrower channels at the western end 
of the Island. Naught remained but the granite rocks to defy the violence of marine 
currents. The channel became the foaming strait of Hell Gate and the East River. Nortli 
and Snulh Brother, Rikers, Berrian and Luyster islands, were fornud on the north. The 
jutting peninsula of Hallett's Point and the outstretched arm of Blackwell's Island broke the 
tides intii swirling eddies which, like the buckets of the excavator, bore their detrital loads 
into sheltered places. The wooded hills were corroded by other natural forces and added 
their wash to tidal deposits. The western shore became scenes of .salt marshes, lagoons and 
creeks, which made other islands of the modern Ravenswood with its then frowning mcky 
blutT; and Hunter's Point with its solitary hill standing sentinel like at the mouth of Newtown 
Creek and its jagged reef reaching scores of rods into the snarling tides of the river. 

Heaver, deer and other fur and food producing animals roamed the forests, while the 
streams abounded with fish and other food products of the sea. At the time of discovery 
our i)resent city domain was occupied by the Rockaway Indians, though ruled by the Mohawks 
by right of conquest. This latter tribe was one of the Five great nations whose powerful 
confederacy existed before the discovery of the continent. Their last council house may still 
be seen at Portage Falls on the Genesee. 

It is proper here to recall that the discovery of this Continent had a commercial origin. 
In l-^urope the conquest of Constantinople and Egypt by the Turks had closed the door of 
commerce with the East Indies against the merchants of the West. New paths of trade were 
a necessity to which, it was believed, the untried seas held the key. East India companies 
were organized in almost every European state. The golden age of Portugal dawned, but 
speedily waned upon the alliance of that country with Spain. The end came with the wars 
of Spain. The East India companies of Holland and England rose into competitive supremacy. 
Exploration and discovery were the order of the day. 

DISCOVERY. 
In the summer of 1497 the keen eye of Long Island's savage hunter saw huge white 
wings upon the horizon of the sea fleeing .southward. It was the single vessel of John Cabot, 
who in the previous year had obtained from Henry VII. a iiatcMit to .search for lands in 
western seas. 



Jf/SrORY or LONG ISLAND CITY 



In May of the following year the vision was again seen, though even more startling. 
Two great white winged canoes swept down from the North and vanished in southern mists. 
Sebastian Cabot, inspired by his father's failure, was searching for a northwest passage to 
China and Japan with two' English ships having on board a large company of volunteers. 

Tlie red man had told this miraculous story to his son and a new generation was hunting 
hill and stream when again the vision appeared upon the sea. It was in 1524 and John dc 
Verrazano, a Florentine navigator, was abroad upon a discoverer's quest. 

Four score and five years passed and aboriginal tradition, akin to that of Hiawatha, had 
descended from sire to son, when the natives of our present municipal territory received the 
astonishing news from the Canarsies, their southern neighbors, that the apparition of their 
fathers was again upon the sea and had entered the bay. It was September 3, 1609. 
Hendrick Hudson in the Half-Moon— a vessel of sixty tons burthen— was upon his third voyage 
in search of a northwestern passage to India. In each of the two previous years, while in the 
service of the English companies, he had failed, and now in the .service of tlie Dutch 
East India Company was running up and down the coast hunting for a passage through the 
great continent. His baffled effort at Delaware Bay had not cooled the ardor of his purpose and 
he turned into this new arm of the sea through the gateway of Sandy Hook. 

The natives, clad in "mantles 
of feathers" and "skins of divers 
sorts of good furs," with "orna- 
ments of copper about their necks," 
Hocked to the coming of the great 
white winged "Canoe." They told 
the strange pale faced navigator 
tliat their land was " pleasant with 
grass and flowers and goodly trees 
as they had ever seen." 

Hudson spent twenty days ex- 
ploring the river which bears his 
name and returned to Amsterdam. 
After repeated voyages in 1610 and 
1612 the merchants of that city, 
encouraged by the glowing accounts 
of discoverers, obtained, March 27, 
1614, from the States General, a 
decree granting the exclusive rights 
of trade for four years in the 
countr)' which they called New 
Netherlands. 

Thus the ancient title of our municipal territory was claimed by both the English and 
Dutch, the former by jiriority of discovery, and the latter by di.scovery and commercial 
occupation. 




^^K^.K] AsroKiA. 



SETTLEMENT. 

Events rapidly multiplied as the impulse of trade opened the era of .settlement. 

In the same year of the decree, Adrian Block, a navigator in the employ of the Dutch 
East India Company, sailed through Hell Gate, giving its original name of }h//ti;nt, a 
narrow passage. 

Upon tlie expiration of the charter, a new organization, called the Dutch West India 
C'lmpany, was formed, and in June 3, 1621, was granted the trade monopoly of the province 
of New Netherlands for twenty-one years. When in 1626 Peter Minuit bought Manhattan 
Island from the Indians for $24, and was vested with the title of Director General, James I. 
of England granted a patent to a company which also claimed the entire territory of the Dutch 
by right of discovery by the Cabots. To establish proprietorship both nations encouraged 



///SVOA'V OF LONG ISLAND C/TY. 9 

settlement, the Dutch colonizinj,^ New York and New Jersey, the Eng^lish settlinjj north and 
south <jf the Dutch, thoujjh claiming all intervening territory and not infrequently mingling 
with them in chosen localities as colonists. 

This explains how both nations were represented in the early settlement and subse(|ucnt 
development of the territory now comprising Long Island Citj'. The Indian name of ".]/fs/>ti/" 
was given to the town of Newtown. That part of the town north and west of the old Bowery 
Ray road was further distinguished as tiie "Out Plantations," which were nearly co-tcrminous 
with our present municipal boundaries. 

This section of Newtown was settled under the administration of Gov. William Kieft, who 
in 163.S succeeded Gov. Van Twiller. The first settlers were Hendrick Ilarmensen, Richard 
Hinitnall and Tyman Jansen, whose occupancy of the soil appears to have been nearly simultaneous. 

Ill 1640 Harniensen took up a grant in the northeastern part of the city which extended 
from the bay south along an Indian trail (now the old Bowery Bay road), "by the way of 
the big tree and James Dickinson's to Dutch Kills." He was a Holland blacksmith and was 
brained by an Indian with a tomahawk, perhaps forged by his own hands. His property 
came into the possession of the Dutch Church of New Amsterdam during the official term of 
Gov. Kieft for a poor farm and was known as the "Poor Bowery." Later, in 1656, Pieier 
Luyster, another Hollander, purchased the land from its ecclesiastical proprietors from whom 
the title finally passed to the Riker famil)', whose ancestor, Abraham Rycken, married 
Hendrick Harmensen's daughter. 

Brutnall settled on the east side of Canapaukah (now Dutch Kills) Creek. He was a 
native of Bradford, England. Having emigrated to the new world he resided for some time 
at Hempstead, finally removing to this locality. His grant, comprising somewhat more than 
one hundred acres, was confirmed to him by Governor Kieft, July 3, 1643. 

Jansen, a ship carpenter in the employ of the West India Company, loc.ited upon the west 
side of Canapaukah Creek where he had secured a holding, which afterward came into 
possession of Joris Stevensen de Caper, from whom was descended the Van Alst famil}'. 

This trio of pioneers soon had neighbors and the "Out Plantations" took up its march 
towards an organized community. To the north of Jansen came " Burger Jorissen," a Silesian 
from Hersberg. His busy anvil awoke civilization's first echo among the wooded heights of 
Dutch Kills and only ceased when the tunc was changed to the basso of a grist mill, which 
he erected prior to 1654 at tide water on tiie Kill, which thereafter, from this circumstance, 
was called "Burger's Kill." Jorissen's "ground-brief" bore the same date as Brutnall's 
confirmatory deed, viz. : July 1643. Having married Lugettia Mans, a .Swedish maiden, just 
before emigrating, his five children were born upon his new patent ; Joris, in 1647 ; Hermanns, 
in 1652 ; Claes, in 1657 ; Johannes, in i66i, and Enos, in 1664. Dying in 167 1, his estate 
passed on till it reached ownership in William and Abraham Payntar. 

The river front, embracing Hunter's Point and Ravenswood, was first acquired from the 
government of New Netherlands b)' Everard Bogart (Dutch, B(jgardus), a minister of the Dutch 
Church, from whom it became known as "Dominie's Hook." This was the sturdy old preacher 
who called Governor Van Twiller to his face a "son of the devil," because of his duplicity, 
and promised to give him such a "shaking" from the pulpit as he had never known. 
Returning to Europe in 1647 with G<jvernor Kieft, who had been recalled by rea.son of his 
ill-success with the Indians, he perished in a shipwreck off the coast of Wales and the property 
was decreed to his widow, Annettie Jans, November 26, 1652, liy Peter Stuyvesant who had 
been appointed (xovernor, November 26, 1646. 

Astoria was settled by William Hallett, an Englishman, who had previously belonged to 
the Colonists of New England. He obtained from Gov. Stuyvesant, December i, 1652. a 
grant of about 160 acres extending from Sunswick Creek to Berrian Island. The Indians 
having destroyed his house and plantation he removed to Flushing, but subsequently returned 
to his homestead where !ie lived to the age of ninety years. Mr. Hallett was of the Quaker 
faith toward which he displayed a loyalty which left a deep impress upon the primitive 
period in which he lived. From its original owner, that section of the city was known 
as Hallett's Cove for two hundred years. 



, o l/!S 7 OK ) ■ OF L ONG I SLA ND CITV. 

REVIVAL OF CON IROVKKSV IIKIWEKN ENGLISH AND DUTCH, AND ITS EFFECT UPON THE 

SETTLEMENTS. 

Scarce!}- had these settlers become established upon their grants in the most strategic parts 
of our city domain, when the controversy concerning territorial jurisdiction again arose be- 
tween the English and Dutch. Charles I. had already in April, 1636, issued to the Earl of 
Stirling a patent for Long Island and adjacent lands. An agent of the Earl in the follow- 
ing year came fully empowered to assume the management of affairs within the limits pre- 
scribed. Stuyvesant, however, with sensible diplomacy effected amicable arrangements, not 
only with the Indians, but with the United Colonies of New England as well. Peace com- 
missioners met at Hartford. September 19, 1650, and succeeded in adjusting the adverse 
claims of the colonists. Thus the government remained essentially Dutch for several years 
without interruption. All English settlers took an oath of allegiance thereto. Titles to land 
were granted by the Governor, who extinguished native title by purchase. 

The relinquishment by the red man of his rights vested in his native soil, is not without 
a due degree of pathos. Civilization in its westward march was beginning its conquest of the 
continent, which from time immemorial had belonged to his race. With it he could not cope. 




IHK OLD WOULSKY MANOK IIOUSK, KKECIEIJ AHOL 1 1 726. 

As if instinctively recognizing the inferiority of his natural endowments, he yielded to the decrees 
of fate and vanished from his hunting grounds, himself pursued from frontier to frontier by the 
relentless pale face. It is to the honor of the English and Dutch, who settled in Newtown, 
tliat they dealt justly with him, not depriving him of value without an equivalent, least of all 
wresting from him his rights by the atrocities which marked the advance of the Spaniard in 
tropical climes. Wlien he was no longer owner of the soil, he sought other solitudes rather 
than ailapt himself to the conditions of civilization. Most of the Indians crossed from the 
island to the mainland and were absorbed in other tribal relations. A few only, remained 
to perpetuate for a comparatively brief period the lineage and traditions of their race. Naught 
now marks the previous presence of the Indian within our city bounds save the occasional shell 
heap, axe of stone, arrow head, or skull, which mother earth reluctantly yields to the modern 
exi)lorer, having treasured them in her bosom for a decade of generations. On the Kouwenhoven 
homestead at Steinway, sleep we know not how many of the vancpiishcd race in a burial plot 
which has lost every trace of its hallowed purpose, and mingled with the common soil of 
the fields which invite the plowman. 

Thus the (lovernor cxerci.sed autocratic supremacy. lie extinguished the Indian title and 
arbitrarily i)arcclle(l out the land to whom he pleased. His selection of magistrates awakened 
protest. Even in the little "Out Plantations " colony, law manifested its imperfections and 
justice its short-comings. Grievances were presented to an as.scml)ly which was '^cld in New 



J/IS/ORV OF L(\\(; JSI.AM) CI IV. ii 

Amsterdam, November 26, 1653. The Governor, however, ignored the popular voiee and 
intimated that the Enj^lish were the authors of discontent. 

Local difficulties attested the presence of much remaining territorial jealousy. It rose 
into more threatening form in 1664 when Charles II., without a shadow of right, granted to 
the Duke of York, afterward James II., the whole country lying between the Connecticut and 
Delaware rivers. In the month of August Colonel Richard NicoU arrived with a naval force 
to take possession of New Amsterdam in the name of the British Crown. Governor Stuyvesant 
reluctantly surrendered and New Amsterdam became the English Colony of New York. The 
effect upon the colonists promised at first to he salutary. The patroon system, which was a 
kind of modified feudalism, was abolished. The Colonists anticipated the enjoyment of all the 
privileges of English subjects and accjuicsced in the bloodless, though unjust revolution. 
They swore allegiance to the British Crown. Confirmatory deeds were given under the hand 
of Governor Nicolls. Hallett had already secured a release of native title by purchase of 
his claim from Mattano, their Sagamore, August i, 1664, for fifty-eight fathoms of wampun, 
seven coats, one blanket and four kettles. This sale was further confirmed by the English Governor. 

Thomas Lawrence, an Englishman, who came to the "Out Plantations" from Massachusetts 
had obtained from vStuyvesant a grant of Berrian Island, then called "Round Island," which 
patent was also confirmed by Governor Nicolls, August 23, 1665. Lawrence also was vested, 
by purchase from several smaller landholders, with the title to about three hundred acres 
which is now held by the Woolsey estate. 

Hewlett Island, so called from its original occupant who was driven from it by the 
Indians, was patented by the Director General, August 19, 1664, to Abraham Rycken, and by 
English authority became the established posession of tliis ancestor of the Riker familv, 
December 24, 1667. 

Brutnall's Manor mi 1659 was acquired by Thomas Wandell from whom it descended to 
Richard Alsop, a nephew, in 1691. The Alsop mansion stood near the Penny Bridge on the 
English Kills, as that part of Newtown Creek was then called. 

Dominie's Hook, which appears to liavc been unoccupied for about fifty years after it 
became the feudal domain of Parson Bogardus, was confirmed by (iovernor Nicoll to Annekc 
Jans Bogardus, widow of the minister, March, 1669. This original document is still carefully 
preserved in the library of Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. 

But while validity of title was secured to the colonists by the new government, there was 
little progress toward an increase of civil liberty. Under the Dutch system, the patroon was 
lord of the manor. Could he within four years bring fifty individuals above si.xteen years 
of age into his colony, his rights to legislative privileges were maintained. He was allowed 
-•s many African slaves as were required by demands of the soil, and was withal not an 
unworthy type of the ancient feudal chieftain. 

The conquest of the English could not efface the impress of the Dutch upon the colonial 
life of New Amsterdam. To this day that impress lives, as lived the national character of 
the Greeks long after their subjugation by the Romans. But measures were employed to 
thoroughly Anglicize the people. A new code of laws known as the " Duke's Laws " was 
])romulgated. Deputies were elected, and a provincial assembly was organized, which met at 
Hempstead, February 28, 1665. Newtown became the West Riding. Yet popular representation 
was as unknown as under the former regime, and the colonists, whose numbers had considerably 
increased, were not British subjects in respect to their immunities and privileges. Even this 
early stage of colonial history evinced the fact that no government can be successful which 
is not in intimate touch with the people. 

Events near at hand .set this principle in clearer relief. Wlicn Louis .\1\'. of France 
and Charles II. of England, united without adequate cause in war against Holland, Lovelace 
supplanted Nicolls in authority lest New York should be wrested from the Crown. But 
when the Dutch troops, recruited by discontented colonists, marched down Broadway, Captain 
Manning, the English Commandant, marched out of Fort Amsterdam, and the English rule 
was as effectually broken as was Manning's sword over his own head for cowardice. New 
York became New Orange, August 14, 1673, and the forefathers of this city bent the 
knee to the States General once more and the Prince of Orange besides. The Dutch, how- 



H/SrOKV OF LONG JSLAXD CITY. 



ever, could not seal the fate of the province, for King Charles in the succeeding suromer 
repeated the grant of 1664, and before the coming of Mayor Andros, October 31, 1674, New 
Orange again became New York. The popular demand for a share in legislation enlisted 
the counsel of William Penn, and a popular assembly convened October 17, 1683. Thus in 
the development of this city after nearly fifty years from the time whon its site was first 
chosen for settlement, popular government began its victorious career. 

"Ridings" were abolished, counties constituted, the "Dutch laws" abrogated, and courts 
of justice everywhere established. True, the Duke of York upon his accession to the throne 
as James II., despotically overturned these achievements of progress, but the interruption 
was temporarj-. Upon his abdication in 1688, Mary, his daughter, and her husband, William, 
Prince of Orange, were hailed with delight by the colonists of New York, though their 
territory in the same year was annexed to New England. 

CF.NKKAI. UISTOKIC.M. SURVEY TO IJIF. REVOLUTION. 

The founders of state on this continent were men of sturdiest faith and character. They 
built our institutions while braving hardship. A realm of liberty seen only in the visions of 

faith they translated into a land 
where liberty was actual. To this 
class belonged those who, whether 
English or Dutch, lived on the 
historical frontiers of our city's 
liistory. 

The development of Dominie's 
Hook began with its purchase in 
1697 friini the heirs of Annettie 
Jans by Peter Praa, a Hollander 
of Huguenot origin. To escape 
religious persecution in the Old 
World he transported his family to 
llie New. The original purchase 
extended from Ravenswood to Wil- 
liamsburgh, the manor house being 
erected in Greenpoint. 

One of the five daughters of 
Captain Praa, having married Wil- 
liam Bennett, received Dominie's 

•nil. wAMiiN.ii.N II..' -I. Hook for a homestead. Upon her 

death, her father, who survived, 
bequeathed the home to her children, and it became known as Bennett's Point. One of the 
son.s, Jacob, acquired by pnrcha.se from the family in 1767, sole owner.shij), which he retained 
till his death in 1817. 

Long Island City began its I)usiness career at Hallett's Cove. Perhaps a lime-kiln erected 
by William Mallett was the first enterprise. Sunswick Creek, which connected with the Dutch 
Kills, was a navigable stream and was utilized by settlers for many years for the transportation 
of jiroduce to the Ea.st River. 

One hundred years after Hallett had here established a home, a descendant, Joseph Hallcit, 
together with Jacob Blackwcll, constructed a grist mill upon the creek, which afterward was 
operated by Hlackwell, then by Hendrick Suydam, in Revolutionary days. 

In 1 688, William Hallett's estate was divided between his sons Samuel and William, the 
former receiving the lands south, the latter those north of Main Street and Newtown Avenue. 
Thus the old trails became divisional lines, many of which still cluster, wilii ancient associations 
now forgotten, under the hurried tread of a busy generation. 

The locality of Dutch Kills until a later day was an unobtrusive factor in our commercial 
development. The grist of Burger Joris' mill, we may assume, was in ready demand and was 
among the products which were transported on the bosom of the navigable creek to the river. 




j/fsroRV OF i.oxc; islaxp city 



The bailiwick of Juris Stevenson dc Caper stretcheil from Dutch Kills Creek to the Harris 
farm. Here in 1766 was erected the Van Alst mansion, wliich still stands in its desolate 
grandeur upon Jackson Avenue above Jane Street. Tlie doors are still in halves, but the 
old brazen knocker which summoned the hospitality of its inmates for several generations is 
gone. Time and the cruel abuse of heedless strangers are rajiidly effacing this interesting 
relic from human sight and memory. 

This ancient mansion was once surrounded by farm lands upon which the Van Alsl 
generations lived till within the memory of many now living. The name of Van Alst has 
been traced to West Flanders, whence CJeorgc, "the sailor," emigrated in 1652. It is said 
that he laid aside the prerogatives of a noble lineage and leaving the walls of an ancient 
manor in which a titled ancestrj- had lived and passed away, he came to the New World 
and established a rude home upon the "Canajjaukah." Two plantations were confirmed to 
him by patent, September 16, 1670, which remained in the family from generation to generation. 
This district, now embraced for the most part witliin the Third Ward of the City, is described 
as having been singularly attractive. With increase of population the farms grew smaller, 
averaging not more than one hundred acres. Fields and woods yielded wild strawberries in 
such profusion that an old writer 
declares the landscape at points 
exposed to view was crimsoned 
with them. The natural conditions 
of those early days add probability 
to this otherwise remarkable obser- 
vation. The Indian was a lover, 
as well as child, of nature. The 
mighty trees of the forest were his 
companions and he knew and loved 
them. He suffered but little under- 
brush tc) grow that the land might 
remain for the chase, the cultiva- 
tion of maize and tobacco, and that 
he might pitch his wigwam in the 
deeper shadows of kingly trees. 
The first settlers, therefore, began 
improvements without any previous 
clearing for clearings there were 
already. They chose large tracts of 
land for planting and pasture and 
enclosed it with a fence. In fact, 
at the time whereof we write, every inhabitant of Newtown at a town meeting was ordered to 
make twenty poles of fence for enclosure of a field of corn which was grown for common 
u.se. The sufficiency of cleared land for the limited agricultural demands of the time appears 
also from the public sentiment favoring the jjreservation of trees save for necessary purposes. 
In 1668 Newtown voted a penalty of twenty shillings a load for all timber transported by water 
beyond its limits. We may understand then how Dutch Kills seemed a veritable arcadia when 
the farmer from Europe added his improving touch to the waiting fields of nature which the 
redman had cleared as if in preparation for his coming. 

In 1656 Major Thomas Lawrence, built what is now the Woolsey Mansion, at Pot Cove, 
upon land deeded to him by that enterprising old lady, Annettie Jans, who had received it 
from Gov. Stuyvesant imder the great seal of the colony of New Amsterdam. The Duke of 
York confirmed the validity of the Dutch title by a patent to Thomas Lawrence, dated 
September 29, 1677. The patent recites that it was executed by "Edmund Andros, Lieu- 
tenant and Governor General of His Royal Highness, James, Duke of York and Albany, of all 
his territory in America," in consideration of his receiving therefor "yearly and every year 
imto his Royal Highness' use, as a quit rent, a i)eck of good winter wheat." A.X. his 
death in 1703, Thomas Lawrence was the owner of the tract eastward to Bowery Bay. 




I HE 01. I> MOORK HOUSE. 



14 /ffsroKV or long island city. 

Major Lawrence had also In- patent from Governor Nicolls, August 23, 1665, acquired posses- 
sion of "Round Island" which subsequently was owned by Timothy Wood. In 1727 the 
island havinij been purchased by Cornelius Berrian, became known by his name. 

The Northeastern part of the City, which as we have seen was one of the points of earliest 
settlement within the present City limits, has been marked in its development with rich historical 
reminiscence and later with industrial importance. The whole of North Beach from the Grand 
Pier — then called Fish's Point — westward for nearly a mile, including Luyster Island, had been 
granted by the Dutch Government to the Dutch Reformed Church for the purpose of a poor 
farm, whence the name of "Poor Bowery." In 1656 it was purchased by Peter Luyster, who, 
dving in 1695, transmitted the estate to his son Cornelius, whose descendants, dividing it among 
themselves, held the title for more than a century. 

Here also Abraham Rycken the ancestor of tlie Riker family, obtained a grant and 
established a homestead in 1654. A considerable portion of the original estate is still retained 



in the family. Abraham 
have emigrated to 
at that time Gov. Kieft 
land at the Wall about. 
' ' Poor Bowerj' " he soon 
Island still known as 
death in 1689, his son, 
to the estate, who in 
his sons, Abraham and 
ham lived till February 
ticularly active in the 
Newtown. Devout wor- 
enjoyed religious privi- 
Often with their fami- 
to Flatbush, returning 
Dutch Church of New- 
interest therefore and 
of its trustees, subse- 
After his father's death, 
homestead and resided 
in 1809. Hisson Daniel 
which then passed into 
Rapelyes. The Island 
drew, a son of Abraham, 
father to son to the 
However unaccoun ■ 
is true that the Lent 
identical with the 




Rycken is supposed to 
America about 1638 as 
made him a grant of 
To this grant at the 
afterward added the 
Riker's Island. At his 
Abraham, became heir 
turn transmitted it to 
Andrew. This Abra- 
20, 1770, and was par- 
erection of a church at 
shippers had hitherto 
leges at much sacrifice, 
lies had they walked 
the same day. Tlie first 
tciwn was of special 
Mr. Riker became one 
([uently a ruling elder. 
Jacobus purchased the 
upon it until his death 
received the estate 
the possession uf the 
was occupied by An- 
and has passed from 
present generation, 
table as to origin, it yet 
family are generically 
Rikers. Abraham Lent, 



who resided at the Poor Bowery from whom the Lents derived title to the landed estates of 
the family, was a lineal descendant of Abraham Rycken. 

The same is historically true of the Suydam family. A grandson of i\braham Rycken 
in 1710 for reasons not recorded, adopted the name Suydam, thus originating a lineage of 
that name now known in many states of the Union. 



ORIGIN OF IlIF, NAMK Ol' R A V liNSWOOl ). 

The name of Ravenswood was given to the village l)y the Rev. Francis L. Hawks, 
L. L. D., an eminent divine of his day. Mr. Hawks lived in the vicinity for some time, when 
the village bore the name of Matona. The name first given by the divine was Ravenscroft, 
in honor of his particular friend, the Right Reverend John S. Ravenscroft, who was Bishop 
of North Carolina from 1823 to 1830. It being suggested that the Bishop might not feel 
himself highly honored on account of the smallne.ss of the place and the slender number of 
its inhabitants. Dr. Hawks decided to name the village Ravenswood. S(jme suppose that he 



HfS TOR Y Oh' LONG /SL AhW CITY. 15 

selected this name on accmint of the great number of crows (the American raven), that then 
frequented this section during the spring and fall. Others, that it was drawn from Sir 
Walter Scott's "Bride of Lammermoor," where the name of Ravcnswood is made famous by 
the historical features of the romance. 

Ravenswood, north of the land of Dominie Bogardus, was first settled by Capt. Francis 
Fyn, who in 165 1 had acquired from the Dutch fJovernment, title to a large tract lying 
along the river. It would appear that upon the accession of the English to the sovereignty 
of New Amsterdam in 1664, this title ceased, for one Jacob Blackwell received from the new 
-ovcrnor, a grant including the land in question. Jacob Blackwell was the son of Richard 
Blackwell, who, coming from Elizabethtown, New Jersey, had married the step-daughter of 
Capt. Manning, whose manor embraced the island in the East River bearing his name. 
Through this alliance Richard subsetiuently came into the possession of the island which 
since has been called Blackwell's Island. The old homestead, it is said, .still stands on the 
island and may be seen by the tourist from the deck of his vessel. The house now standing 
at the foot of Webster Avenue is the original mansion of Jacob Blackwell, built by him 
upon his accession to his new grant. The fortunes of this ancient structure tempt the 
liistorian to halt. We can, however, only refer the reader to such references as are made 
to it in remaining chapters. 

MISCELLANIES. 

Most of the families made their own cloth and linen, and had looms and spinning 
wheels for the use of itinerant weavers. 

All males over sixteen, except the minister, constable and school-master, were compelled 
to do mililarv diitv, which consisted of four days once a year in Company drill and once at 
general training. Each was to have a "good serviceable gunn, good sword, bandoleers, a 
home, a worme, a scowerer, a pruning wire, a shot bag, charger, one pound powder, 4 
pounds pistol bullet.s, 4 fathom of serviceable inat.-li for nialcli lock gunn or 4 good flints 
for fire lock gunn." 

Wampum resembled beads in shape and color. licui- ukiul- only of shells its value was 
fixed by its color. The English and Dutch enacted that three black or six white beads 
should be equal to one penny. Blue wampum was the gold of Indian commerce. After 
the permanent settlement of the colonies wampum become a medium of exchange. By the 
colonial laws of 1633 one fathom of blue wampum was fixed at 20 shillings, of white at 10 
shillings. Long Island supplied nearly the whole country. The vast shell heaps found at 
Bowery Bay for many years were remains of wampum factories. John Josselyn who visited 
ihis country in 1633 was much impressed by the skill and ingenuity with which the natives 
coined their money. "Jew nor devil" he remarks "can counterfeit wampum." 

The Algonquin language was spoken throughout the colonies and became a familiar 
tongue to many primitive settlers. 

The population of Queens County in 1670 was 3565, compo.sed as follows: men 1465; 
women 1350; children 551, and negroes 199. 

Sand was used for house floors, chairs had high fiddle backs, dishes were of wood and 
pewter, casks mounted with brazen ornaments and tankards of silver contained rum, gin, 
cider and sherry for the wealthier classes. 

The Governor granted all marriage licenses, and where marital disputes ensued appointed 
special deputies for investigation. 

Funerals were attended with feasts. 

Teachers tolled funeral bells. 

Santa Klaus was a veritable personage. 

Xegro whippers were appointed in various towns. April 4, 1729, the town of Newtown 
appointed William Tallier "general whipper " for the town. Besides being whipped, slaves 
were often branded in the forehead with a hot iron. 



1 6 HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CllV. 

On the night of Januarj' 24, 170S, William Hallett, jr., wife, and five children were 
murdered by an Indian named "Sam" and a negress, who were slaves of the family. 
The motive was to secure possession of the land. This extraordinary tragedy absorbed 
popular attention for a long time, and was influential in legislation for the suppression of 
slave conspiracies. Speedy, though terrible, punishment awaited the perpetrators of the 
crime, who were burned at the stake at Jamaica, February 2, 1708. The Hallett home was 
in the vicinity of what is now known as the "German Settlements." 

January 27, 1753, three children and a negro of John Parcells were drowned in the East 
River. 

July 4, 1756, a cyclone swept from Hell Gate south across the island leaving a track 
80 rods wide strewn with uprooted trees, demolished houses and barns, and like results of 
its destructive power. The storm lasted half of a minute. 

liarthquakes were distinctly felt in this section December 7, 1737; November 18, 1755; 
and June iS, 1773. 

Snow fell two and a half feet, March 5, 1772. 

In 1768 the dwelling of widow Rapelyc (now Woolsey) was Inirnt. 

In 16S3 there were in Newtown, 109 horses, 107 o.xen, 340 cows, 464 sheep, 1563 acres 
of land occupied. The families numbered about 90. 

It was many a day after the English and Durch had selected new homes in a new 
world — in fact generations passed, before there was a store within the present precincts of 
this city. Domestic wants were simple and few, and were readily supplied by industry. 
What was desired beyond home production was found across the river in New York. 
Purchasers thither went without money, and in place thereof took along for exchange 
produce, tobacco, beer and negro boys. 

The first mention made of cattle is a distribution made by Van Twiller in 1638. The 
Governor let George Rapelye have two cows for four years, to be returned with one of their 
increase with the exception of a heifer, which tlic (lovornor presented to one of the 
daughters of Rapelye. 

Riker relates that in the Fall of 1780 the British frigate "Hussar" struck Pot Rock and 
floating to Morris Island, there filled and sank with several of the crew. She was bound for 
New England carrying pay for the British army. Several attempts were made, subsequently 
to the Revolution, to recover the chest of money which was supposed to have gone down 
with the wreck, but without results. It is suspected that the money had been embezzled 
upon the previous day when the vessel lay at anchor in Hallett's Cove, and that the disaster 
was intentional, to conceal the crime. 

In 1845, Charles Conklin,^ a lessee of the Schuyler farm, Blissville, found near his barn a 
pot of silver coins which had been disturbed by some newly purchased swine. From 
subsequent developments it was learned that the coins were English, and amounted to more 
than five hundred dollars, and doubtless had been hidden during the British occupancy 
of the soil. 

Though the sweet potato was among the presents which Columbus took to Oueen 
Isabella, tlie white potato was unknown to North America. Having been introduced into 
Europe only a generation or two before the emigration of settlers to New Amsterdam, it is 
probable that this vegetable, which has done more than any other to ward off the famines 
of the world, was not among the products of agriculture in primitive days. 

Tlie old Moore Mansion still stands upon the roadside leading from Steinway to Bowery 
Bay. It is now owned by Henry C. Titus, Esq., who loyally preserves it in a condition 
for occuijancy. Upon the grounds about this old homestead once grew the world famed 
Newtown pippin.s, which have been known to sell at $20.00 a barrel. Some of these his- 
toric trees are still to be traced by their blackened stumps, which, though in the last pro- 
cesses of decay, are valued memorials of a horticulture, envied by the present day. 



CHAPTER II. 



FROM THE REVOLUTION TO THE INCORPORATION OF LONG ISLAND CITY EFFECT OF THE DECLARATION 

UPON THE COLONISTS OF (JUEENS COUNTY — CAUSES OF DIVISION OK SENTIMENT — DELIN- 
QUENTS DEPRIVED OK THEIR RIGHTS HV CONGRESS PAIKIOTS SUFFER 

NEWTOWN CREEK AND THE CAPTURE OK NEW YORK — INTER- 
ESTING INCIDENTS — THE OLD BLOCK HOUSE — INCOR- 
PORA HON OK ASTORIA UNION COLLEGE 

AM) hunter's POINI. 



At the opening of the War of Independence the inhabitants of Queens County formed a 
considerable portion of the colony of New 'S'ork. The conservatism of the Dutch element, 
while sympathizing with the great principles of liberty and human rights declared by the 
Colonial Congress of 1774, appre- 
hended consec[uences which might 
imperil ultimate triumph. The 
disposition to doubt the expediency 
of war, and the desire of advance- 
ment without an appeal to arms, 
resulted at first in diffidence toward 
the active measures espoused 
throughout the Colonies. 

It w-as especially among the 
English colonists that the spirit of 
resistance was manifested. The 
abuse of power by the Governors, 
and the constant coercion of Asseni 
blies to the will of the Kinj 
together with the abridgement 1.: 
personal and civil rights, had pre- 
cipitated a struggle between the 
people and the Crown. Petitions 
for redress of grievances met with 
contempt. Alarm at the arbitrary 
proceedings of Parliament spread 
throughout the colonies, lest their religion, laws and liberties should be subverted. 

The Congress of 1774 promulgated its Declaration of Rights, its address to the people of 
(Ireat Britain and its great "memorial to the inhabitants of the British colonies." As the 
long conflict between the spirit of liberty and the encroachments of arbitrary power approached 
culmination, the freeholders of Queens County were divided in their sentiments of loyalty. 
Thompson ascribes as the cause, "motives of safety and the preservation of their property — 
the abandonment of Long Island to the Hritish after the engagement of August 27, 1776 — 
the conduct of town committees in repudiating the legislative authority of Congress — the com- 
pulsion of many by Tory commanders to subscribe to the oath of fidelity to the King, and 
the barbarous hostilities of many royalists who contemned all rules of civilized warfare." 
But whether through fear, expediency or conviction, Toryism in Kings and Queens Counties 
predominated. Yet patriots there were who held their "lives, liberties and sacred honor " above 
considerations of selfish advantage. A provincial convention was held in New York, April 22, 
1775, t<^ appoint delegates to the Continental Congress, which was to meet in the following 
May. The name of Jacob Blackwell occurs among others assenting to its proceedings. Else- 
where more particular reference is made to Mr. Blackwell's character and patriotic sacrifices. 




THE OLD Dl'RVEA IIOI'SK. 



i8 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



The ardor of those who had taken arms for independence, and the stern justice of their 
cause, could not brook pronounced delinquencies. Those who refused to send deputies to 
the convention, however numerous, were known. The committee on the vState of New York, 
in the Congress of January, 1776, reported a resolution as follows: 

" IV/ifnas, a majority of the inhabitants of Queens County, in the colony of New York, 
being incapable of resolving to live and die free men, etc., 

Rfsolvid, That all such persons in Queens County aforesaid, as voted against sending 
deputies to the present convention in New York and named in a list of delinquents in 
Queens Count}', published by the convention of New York, be put oat of the protection of 
the United Colonies and that all trade and intercourse with them cease, etc." The names 
of such were published monthly, and many were placed under arrest, divested of their arms 
and ammunition, and imprisoned for non-compliance with legislative authority. The preva- 
lence of sentiments of royaltj' invited the presence and oppression of the enemy; of these 
the present domain of this city was at times an active scene. Here are a few links in the 
long chain of our municipal history, associated with the names of men great in deeds of 
arms and the prowess of war, or great only in the love of liberty. The whole of Newtown 

was occupied by the British from 

1776 to 1783. 

Ill the house of Jacob Rapclye, 
on the Shore Road, Dominie 
Froeligh, of the Dutch church, 
at Jamaica, found refuge from 
Tory wrath, having "prayed the 
iVhnighty to strike the lleets of 
the invaders with his bolts and 
sink their soldiers in the seas." 
Fortunately his host was a skillful 
boatman or else the patriotic 
refugee would never have placed, 
as he did next day, the swirling- 
currents of Ilell Gate between 
him and his pursuers. 

Newtown Crock, on the fif- 
teenth day of September, 1776, 
encouraged a plot against the 
cit\- on the yonder side of the 
I 111, I ; ij 1 1 , . 1 .: I. river, for which its subsequent 

achievements in peace may be 
accepted as an apology. On that day the first division of the British Army, commanded 
by Cornwallis and Clinton, lay in boats a sufficient distance up the creek to be concealed 
from the view of the Continental Army. Five menacing ships of war conveyed them across 
the river to Kipp's Bay, perhaps the most defenceless, and, therefore, for the enemy, the 
most strategic point of New York at that time for the purposes of attack. Not that the 
fire of freeman was wanting, but rather because the fusillade from the ships was hotter, the 
enemy landed and the capture of New York was complete. 

Newtown Creek, during most of the great conflict, was a secure retreat for all sorts of 
British vessels. Naval boats were alsvays nigh at hand on patrol duty doubling their 
security. A cannon ball, now in the possession of Geo. H. Payntar, Esq., and taken by him 
from a tree oi the heights of Sunnyside, was doubtless shot from these hostile deck.s. 

A medal since placed in the collection of the Long Island Historical Society, was dug 
from a Blissville giirden a score of years ago. The head of the King is encircled with the 
legend " Georgius HI., Dei Gratia," while the reverse shows the shield, unicorn and the 
crown. It is of pure brass (not the metal of the mint), and perchance fell from a Britisher's 
waistco.it while upon "shore leave." 




l/fSTORY OF f.OXC fSLAXP CITY 



At this period theru were ten farms on llie heights of Blissville embraced within the 
present territorial limits of this city. These were the farms of Francis Duryea, 75 acres; John 
Debcvoise, 80 acres; Abraham Payiilar, 80 acres; Abraham Rapelye, over 80 acres; William 
Payntar, 78 acres; Richard Hraj^aw 88 acres; Abraham Schuyler, over 100 acres; Andrews 
Brajjaw, cousin to Richard, 84 acres; George Brinckerhoff, over too acres, and William 
Morrell, extent not ascertained. Of the old mansions that graced these estates, nine arc 
still standing, six being in such a state of preservation as to admit of occupancy. To the 
south of the city pumping station is the Debevuisc mansion; still further south, and just 
across the trolley track, mutely stands the ancient Duryea homestead. With silent elotjuence 
all these olden manor houses tell of British pomp and Hessian vandalism, for not one was 
exempt from the events which marked the customs of warfare. The British camp covered 
the hills. The ovens, wherein the soldiery baked, their bread have been seen by the gener- 
ation of to-day on the Bragaw and Brinckerhoff farms. Window panes, taken from some of 
these dwellings, may be seen at the rooms of the Long Island Historical Society, written 
with the names of British officers. The Hessians, with characteristic wantonnes.s, celebrated 
the flight of William Payntar to Staten Island, by using his mahogany furniture for fuel, 
and utterly denuding the house 
of every article of value. 

Over a passing word of the 
Lawrences we ask the reader to 
linger for another testimony of 
the patriotic experience of the 
days of '76. 

Of the eleven sons be- 
queathed by John and Patience 
Lawrence to the struggle for In- 
dependence, Major Jonathan Law- 
rence was the eighth. Merchant, 
navigator, financier, soldier, 
statesman, patriot, he marked 
each sphere of duty with rare 
ability and distinction. The in- 
scription upon the Doric monu- 
ment which rises above his grave 
at Greenwood records that " he 
was a member of the Provincial 
Congress of 1776, and of the 
Convention that framed the Con- 
stitution." Under the State C<.nstiluti<jn of 1777 he became a State Senator and was an 
active Commissioner in treating with the Indians. Having embarked in the expedition of 
Rhode Island, 1777, on board the French man-of-war Hector, a cannon-ball from the enemy 
cut down a man working on the gun by his side. Still closer came the fortunes of war after 
the disastrous battle of Long Island, when yelling, hungry marauders swept through our city 
bounds from South to North. In search of plunder and food ruthless troops of red coats 
burst through the enclosure of iiis residence under th'^. cover of darkness. The days that 
tried men's also tried women's souls. Mrs. Lawrence and Mrs. Rikor (wife of the Captain 
who yielded his life at Valley Forge), hastily caught the children from their beds and Hed to 
the shore under the protection of a faithful slave. Safely reaching Harlem through the tur- 
bulent waters of the night, an exile of eight years followed, during which the home, by the 
hand of the despoiler, was shorn of its beauty and value. 

John Bcrrian Riker was a surgeon under Washington during the entire period of the war. 
He was a brother of Abram, who died at Valley Forge. 

Col. Jacob Blackwell had participated in the French and Indian war. When the British 
troops invaded Newtown, room was not left for patriots such as he, and he fled to Hope- 
well, New Jersey. His home at the foot of Webster Avenue (which we adjure the reader to 




TIIK OI.IJ GOSMAN 1101 SK, 



H/S70RV OF LOXG ISLAND CITY 



see before it falls under the infirmities of age), was confiscated and marked with the Broad 
Arrow of the King of England. In 1780, returning to end his days amid native scenes, he 
found it still occupied by the military chieftains of the enemy, who long made it their head- 
quarters. 

Turn to a point of land jutting out into the tides of Hell Gate at Hallett's Cove. The 
guns of the enemy are trained upon Horn's Hook on Manhattan Island, and bring a spirited 
response from the sons of freedom, who now have well learned the smell of gunpowder. 
The Britishers, commanded by General Robertson, had hastened from Brooklyn to this position 
at Hell Gate, under the supposition that General Lee was here to effect a landing with his army. 
The rumor proving gratuitous, the opportunity was improved to hold controversy with the Con- 
tinental rebels upon the opposite shore. Both sides confided temper and shot to the engage- 
ment, which lasted two days. The enemy was emboldened to push out into the river, for 
the purpose of crossing, but our men made it altogether too hot for them, and they were 
satisfied to remain on the Long Island side. General Robertson's army was encamped at 
Hell Gate for about three weeks. 

Five years later, in about the same locality. Colonel John Connolly was quartered an entire 
winter with the Royal Foresters. One of the officers, Lieutenant Barry, having died, was 

buried at Hallett's Cove with 
military honors. 

The vicinity of the present 
light-house on Hallett's Point, 
marked the sight until recent 
years, of Fort Stevens. Upon 
the terraces of the hills which 
rise eastward from the point, stood 
ihc residence of Major General 
Fbenezer Stevens. This gallant 
officer began his brilliant career 
when twenty-one j-ears of age, by 
IKirticipating in the historic ''Tea 
Party" Avhich nccurred at Boston, 
Dec. 16, 1773. From that hour, 
to the close of the war of Inde- 
pendence, by his skill in handling 
artillery, he rendered invaluable 
service to his countrj-. He con- 
veyed his artillery parks over the 
Green Mountains and commanded 

lift 111 P IK \i. \\\ iliM M . 

the batteries of Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point. When with the army of General Lafayette, he was promoted by Congress 
to the head of the Artillery Department of the Northern division, and when Washington, 
at the dropping of French anchors at the mouth of the Chesapeake, threw his troops 
around Yorktown, it is .said that it was the well-trained guns of General Stevens that 
persuaded Cornwallis to surrender his sword to the Commander-in-Chief. 

The.se various sites within our municipal bounds, therefore, perpetuate reminiscences 
worthily a.ssociating the soil of our city with the conflict which for all time demonstrated to 
the world man's capacity for self-government by establishing a nation of freemen whose 
])rosperity is the astonishment of mankind. 

The end of the struggle was hailed by Whig and Tory, both alike rejoicing in a 
promised era of peace. 




rHK OLD lU.OCK HOUSE. 



In the war of 181 2, the causes of which it is not within our province to discuss, the 
western part of Long Island was not the theater of conflict, though British war ships cruised 
along the American coast, and British frigates occupied the lower part of New York Harbor. 



iffsroKV OF f.o\(; /si..i\n c/i v. 



The eastern coast of the United States, with the exception of a part of New England, was 
under blotkadc. Vet there was a daily menace to the inhabitants of Kings and Queens 
Counties of active hostilities. The capture of so ^f-at-.i'- n point a« X<-',v York City was 
as desirable as it was in 1776. 
To a call to arms for the defence 
of our territory there was a tre- 
mendous response. From every 
walk of life citizens j,''athered for 
organization. Under the inspira- 
tion of the hour Yankee blood 
rose abo%'e normality. 

Anionj;- the means adopted 
fur self-defence was the erection 
of block houses. Such a crude fort 
was located at Fort Hamilton, two 
others at New Utrecht, another 
at Rockaway, and still another 
upon old Mill Rock, in Hell Gate. 
On the north side of Stevens 
Street, near Franklin, Astoria, 
stood one of these picturesque 
structures for many years after 
the incorporation of the village. 
It was erected during this war 
scare, every stone being laid by 

patriotic hands. Could it have endured, it would now be a cherished monument of a critical 
period that marked our development as a people into a lasting and mighty nationality. 




THE Ol.U VAN lELT HOUSE. 



IMCOKPORA rillN AND IIRC. A \ I / A TION 








IHK 1)1.11 PA\MAK Hi 



ASTORIA AS A VILLAGE. 

One of the first and most decisive steps 
in the historical development of Long Island 
City into a municipality, was the passage of 
a bill, April 12, 1839, entitled "An act to 
incorporate the village of Astoria." 

This being the only village charter whicli 
has ever been granted to any community within 
the town of Newtown, it is worthy of the 
record herewith given. 

The people of the State of New York, 
represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact 
as follows: 

Section i. — The village hereby incorporated, 
shall be composed of all that part of the 
town of Newtown which lies within the follow- 
ing lines and bounds — to wit : commencing on 
the East River at the point of intersection 
between the farms of John Lawrence and Charles 
Richmond, and following the dividing line of 
said farms to the land of Stephen Hallett, 
deceased; thence, following the line between 
said John Lawrence's land and the land of .said 
Stephen Hallett, deceased, to the land owned 
by Henry F. Blackwell and G. C. Furman ; 
thence, following the line dividing last mentioned 
land of the before mentioned John Lawrence. 



HfSrORY OF I.OXG ISI.AXD CfTY 



to the land of one Rapelye, deceased ; thence, along the division line of the last mentioned land 
and land of the before mentioned Blackwell and Furman, to the land of Jeromus J. Rapelye ; 
thence, along the line dividing land of the said Jeromus J. Rapelye, and land of the before 
mentioned Rapelye, deceased, to the land of James McDonald ; thence, along the line dividing the 
land of said James McDonald and land of the before mentioned Jeromus J. Rapelye, to the 
i'lusliing avenue ; thence, crossing the Flushing avenue and following the line dividing land of 
said James McDonald from the land of Dr. Baylies, to Newtown avenue ; thence, crossing said 
Newtown avenue and following the south side of the said avenue to the land of Abraham 
Polhemus ; thence, following the line dividing said Polhemus' land, from land of the before 
named James McDonald, to the land now, or late of, Lewis Hartman and others ; thence, along 
the line dividing the land of said Hartman and others, and the land of said James McDonald, 
to land of Samuel Stevens ; thence, along the line dividing land of said Samuel Stevens from 
the land of said James McDonald and the farm of Samis, to land of William R. Prince ; 
thence, following the line that divides the land of said William R. Prince from the farm of 
said Abel Samis, to the ridge road ; thence, crossing the ridge road to the land of Richard 
Clark, and following the line dividing the said Richard Clark's land from the farm of the 
before mentioned Abel Suuis, to the land of William R. Prince, known as the McDonough 

farm ; thence, following the line 
dividing said McDonough farm 
from the land of said Richard 
Clark and of H. L. Penfield, to 
other lands of said Richard Clark; 
ihence, along last mentioned line 
to the land of Jacob Polhemus; 
thence, along the line dividing 
land of said Jacob Polhemus from 
the land of before mentioned 
Richard Clark, to Sunswick Creek ; 
thence following the middle of the 
channel of said creek to Hallett's 
Cove or Bay ; thence, following 
the line of the cove or bay, and 
thence, following the line of the 
cove and East River at low water 
mark, to land of John Lawrence, 
at the place of beginning, shall 
hereafter continue to be known 
and distinguished by the name of 
the " Village of Astoria," and the 
free-holders and inhabitants residing in said village are constituted a body corporate, by name 
of the trustees of the village of Astoria. 

Ski. rioN II. — The corporation hereby created shall possess all the powers and privileges 
and be subject to all the restrictions and limitations which are granted or imposed upon the 
trustees of the village of Angelica, by the act incorporating that village May 2, 1835. 

The first election under this charter, June 11, 1839, resulted in the election of Homer 
Whittemore, Robert M. Blackwell, William B. Bolles, Alfred R. Mount and Stephen A. Halsey 
as trustees; Henry F. Blackwell, Hersey Baylies and John B. Reboul as assessors; William 
T. Payntar as treasurer and clerk; James O. Jack.son, collector and constable. 

At the time of the passage of this charter. Astoria had a population of two thou.sand 
mhabitants. The village was in its infancy. It had but one main street, with two turnpike 
roads branching o!T, one leading to Williamsburgh on the south, the other to Flushing on the 
east. For a long lime after corporate organization, the many improvements projected by the 
progressive men who iiad been chosen to o.Tfice. met with that proverbial opposition on the part 
of the old conservative element which is incident lo the development of every community. 




IIIK ol.n STKVK.NS MANslO.N. 



HfsroRV or /.o.\(; /sL.wn en v 



23 



X 



f./^. 




OLL> BLOCK HOUSE, HALI.ETT's POINT — 1S14. 



The slightest increase of taxes marshalled old fog>-ism into united activity. Increase of rights, 
privileges and immunities under better social conditions were not recognized as involving the 
rights of property. 

<iradually, however, the village government passed into the hands of the people through 
their representatives, the trustees, and through the gates thus opened, a new era entered. Many 
of the old estates to which reference 
has been made and which had long 
remained tied up, yielded to its de- 
mands. With increa.se of population 
came increase of business, the opening 
of new streets, and the erection of 
new and better type of buildings. 
Communication with New York was 
improved by enlarged steamboat and 
ferry facilities — an advance the advan- 
tages of which the people were not 
slow to recognize as superior to the 
old stage coach system which required 
two and a half hours for a trip to 
City Hall, N. Y. 

The incorporation of the village 
and the numerous improvements which 
followed, were chiefly due to the public 
spirited activity of Stephen A. Halsey. 
Attracted by the beauty and natural 

advantages of the village site and surroundings, he removed from Flushing in 1835, having 
purchased the Perrot and Blackwell farms, comprising nearly all the land lying between Pot 
and Hallett's Coves, west of what is now Stevens Street. Devoting himself at once to public 
improvements, the community soon evinced new life and enterprise, was incorporated as has 
l)een related, was named "Astoria" in honor of John Jacob Astor, an old friend of Mr. 
Ilalsey's, and business associate in the fur trade, was connected with Eighty-sixth Street. 
X. Y. by ferry known as "Home's Hook Ferry" for thirty years, had facilities of travel 
with Flushing and Williamsburgh, had the first fire company in the city, whose house, built 
by Mr. Halsey, forms a part of the saloon now standing on the southeast corner of Fulton 

Avenue and Halsey Street, saw 
churches rise by his aid — the 
Reformed Dutch Church in 1836, 
and the Presbyterian Church in 
1846 — received the donation of a 
plot of ground 100x200 feet for 
school purposes, on which the 
Fourth Ward School now stands, 
was sui>plied with gas by the 
"Astoria Gas Co.," which he 
organized in 1853, and in short 
the present village may be said 
to be the creation for the most 
part of the intelligent enterprise 
of this progressive citizen. Mr. 
HaLsey was a trustee of the village 
of Astoria nearly the whole period, 
from its incorporation to its ab- 
sorption into the municipality of 
Long Island City. Other trustees have served as follows: Homer Wittemore, 1839, 1840, 
1S43-48; Joseph M. Mcjinsey, 1841; Nathaniel Fjlb^y, 1849, 1850; Josiah M. Whitney, 1851, 




SCENE ON THE SHORE ROAIi. 



^J'rfi.viA-y 



«^l 



24 HISTORY OF LONG ISLAXD CITY. 

1856. 1857, 1869; W. J. Townsend, 1852; H« nry . Baylies, 1853; C. R. Trafford, 1854, 1855, 
1S64; John R. Morris, 1S58; John McAlonej-, 1S59, i860; A. Gallatin Stevens, 1861; Gabriel 
'ti^JOVi^\gi^ 1862: Charles W. Strang, 1865: R. M. C. Graham, 1S66-68, W. R. Taylor 1870. 

During tlie years between 1845 and 1S71, Astoria was a highly prosperous village, and 
was a favorite suburb for many prominent and wealthy New York families. Its charming 
water front was adorned with superb residences, many of which still linger amid generous 
grounds in testimony of former grandeur and an honored history. Thousand who daily pass 
the Astoria shores on the waters of the Sound, catch glimpses of the fine old mansions and 
of ideal homes amid environments still bearing traces of beauty despite the encroachments of 
the surveyor and sales agent. 

hunter's point .and union college. 
Fifty years ago Hunter's Point was the most retired region around New York. The 

explorer, if he paid his toll upon 
the road leading from Flushing, 
or was ferried in a skiff across 
the river from Kip's Bay, might 
see the o 1 d Hunter homestead 
crowning the solitary hill at the 
mouth of Newtown Creek, and the 
old well at its foot on the south. 
Now, however, the hill lies in the 
river under Borden Avenue and the 
ferry houses of the Long Island 
Railroad, while the Hunter House 
which was let down to the present 
city level and used for a blacksmith 
shop, was swept away some twenty 
years ago, before the advance of 
the railroad company. Thus another 
ancestral hall was removed, which 
was associated with the deeds and 
memories of colonial days. When 
the locality was called Bennett's 
Point, as elsewhere narrated, a mur- 
der was committed here, for which 
the guilty parties were hung in 1782, 
three j'ears later upon a chestnut 
tree at the Wallabout. In more 
recent days, about 1850 perhaps 
two Polanders enticed a fellow coun- 
tryman into the sand pits near 
Ferry Street for the purpose of rob- 
bery and murder. The episode is 
chiefly remarkable from the inverted 
nature of the proceedings, for the 
intended victim killed the intend- 
ing murderers. These tragic occurrences are the only ascertainable traces of romance which 
linger about the locality of Hunter's Point. 

The extensive landed interests and the development of this .section of the city are closely 
identified with Union College, an institution concerning which a brief word-sketch is befitting 
before connecting it with the narrative where it was stopped upon a previous page. 

Union College situated at Schenectady, New York, was founded in 1795, largely through 
the instrumentality of General Philip Schuyler, of Revolutionary fame, who at that time had 
just completed a term of service in tlie United vStates Senate. The name of "Union" had 




IiR. JAMKS D. TRASK. 



IffSrOKY OF LOXC ISLAXP CITY 



25 



its origin in the circumstance of several relij^ious denominations coiiperatinjj- in its organization. 
It was incorporated directly by the Regents of the University of the State of New York. In 
point of time it was the second college in the State, and as to place, the first beyond the 
limits of New York City, to receive its charter. During the century of its illustrious service, 
it has repeatedly enlarged its curriculum and widened its field until it has obtained influential 
rank as a University. Besides its classical department, it has a special school of civil engineer- 
ing founded in 1845; a medical college which was established in 1838; a la\\% school organized 
in 1851 ; and the Dudley Observatory in Albany, which was so named in honor of Charles 
E. Dudley, whose widow bestowed liberal endowments resulting in the addition of a meteoro- 
logical department. The Institution has a library of 20,000 volumes and valuable philosophical 
apparatus and natural history collections. 

Its management is vested in a board of trustees consisting of the permanent trustees of 
Union College, the Governor, Lieu- 
tenant-(iovernor, Attorney-(ieneral, 
Secretary of State, Comptroller and 
Treasurer of the State of New York, 
as ex-officio members of the Board, 
and four representatives of the Al- 
umni Association elected annually. 

Its list of presidents constitutes 
a line of honored names. First 
came the Rev. John Blair Smith, 
of Philadelphia; then Jonathan Ed- 
wards, son of the great Calvinistic 
divine, the profound impression of 
whose genius will long remain in 
the world of religion ana theology ; 
then Jonathan Maxcy, President of 
Brown University, Rhode Island; 
and then in 1804 the Rev. Eliphalet 
Nott, D.D., who held the office more 
than sixty-one years, until his death 
in 1866. Dr. Nott was one of the 
foremost educators of the continent. 
More than 3700 students graduated 
during his presidency. He gave 
much attention to the physical sci- 
ences and was a prolific inventor. 
The first stove made for the con- 
sumption of anthracite coal was one 
of his notable inventions. The Rev. 
L. P. Hickok succeeded him, but 
resigned in 1868. The Rev. Charles 
A. Aiken followed, and then the 
Rev. Eliphalet Nott Potter, grand- 
son of Dr. Nott. 

The resources of the College are large and are invested in productive securities. 

In the war of 181 2 Newtown Creek was a prominent naval rendezvous and afterwards 
was considered an eligible site for a permanent naval station. With this in view and partly 
under the impulse awakened by the project Dr. Nott became the possessor of the Hunter 
homestead and other adjoining tracts. 

The title of Union College to its property in this city is short, straight and valid. 
Hunter's Point, from 1650 to 1800, known as Dominie's Hook, then for twenty-five years as 
Bennett's Point and from 1825 by its present name, was, in the early days whereof we write, 
bounded as follows: on the north by a small creek and ditch separating these premises from 




JOHN E. LOCKWOOD. 



,6 HISTORY OF LOXG ISLAND CITY. 

the lands once owned by the Mayor, Aldermen and Coinmonalty of New York; easterly by 
a creek formerly Peter Mann's Killitie, late Jack's Creek; southerly by Newtown Creek and 
westerly by the East River. "Killitie" is the diminutive of Kill, and means small Creek. 

We have already seen that Jacob Bennett acquired his title by four releases, each from 
his brothers and sisters individually. It may be interesting- to note that the value of Hunter's 
Point with one house upon it, was, with Jacob's share included, valued at ^2550. The pound 
British then meant a pound of the provincial currency of New York, which was half of a 
British pound sterling. Hunter's Point, therefore, in 1780 sold for $6375. 

Jacob Bennett uving in 1817, his will was found to contain this provision in favor of George 
and Anne Hunter. "I give, devise, and bequeath unto my son-in-law, George Hunter, and to my 
daughter, Anne Hunter, the wife of said George Hunter, the premises in question, to have and to 
hold the same etc., forever." There were nineteen heirs-at-law who had serious doubts as to Jacob 
Bennett's testamentary capacity and entered a contest. The will was not probated, on the other hand 
was thrown into chancery in 1S18. It was, however, ultimately pronounced valid, whereupon all the 
heirs-at-law released their claims to the lands to George Hunter and wife, and the name of Bennett 
gave place to Hunter in connection with the given locality. George Hunter died 1825, bequeathing 
the property to his wife Anne, who at her death in 1833, thus disposed of the estate: " I give, devise, 
and bequeath all my real and personal estate which I may die seized or possessed of, on Long- 
Island or elsewhere, to my executors herein mentioned, being my sons, Jacob Hunter, John B. 
Hunter, and Richard Hunter, their heirs and assigns forever. In trust, nevertheless, that they shall 
sell and dispose of the same as they may deem most expedient and advantageous, and duly ccinvey the 
same to the purchasers thereof, within three years, after the time of my death, and to divide the 
proceeds thereof according to the bequests hereinafter particularly mentioned." 

This will was the instrument whereby Hunter's Point pa.ssed beyond the Hunts of olden 
systems and became the field of modern enterisrisc, for the sons, who had been made trustees of 
the estate with power to sell and convey, on the 17th day of June, 1835, sold the estate to 
Jeremiah Johnson for §100,000. In this transaction Jeremiah Johnson was the representative 
of Eliphalet Nott, of Union College. An agreement between Nott and Neziah Bliss provided 
that one-half of the property purchased by Johnson should be conveyed to Bli.ss for one-half 
of the consideration paid to the trustees under the will. On September 27, 1S37, Jeremiah 
Johnson released to Eliphalet Nott all the premises in question for the consideration of $200,000. 
In 1838 Eliphalet Nott quit claimed to the Trustees of Union College the undivided half of the 
premises for $100,000. In May, 1S43, Neziah Bliss released to Eliphalet Nott the undivided 
half of the premises for $135,000. On April 12, 1847, the Trustees of Union College, in con- 
sideration of $100,000, released the undivided half to Eliphalet Nott. At this point Jonathan 
Crane and Charles Ely appear as participants in the interests at stake. To them as joint tenants 
December 28, 1852, Eliphalet Nott and Urania, his wife, conveyed the premises. By this 
instrument Messrs. Crane and Ely were constituted representatives of Dr. Nott in the manage- 
ment and sale of the property. They were to pay to Nott one-third of the net profits, retaining 
$1500 annually as a compensation for supervision. In pursuance of their obligation as stipulated, 
Charles Perkins, a civil engineer, was employed to survey the Hunter Farm and prepare a map 
of the same. From this map, various lots and parcels were sold till the year 1861, when, the 
Van Alst Farm having been added to the tract, Peter G. Van Alst made a nnq) of the entire 
property which has remained the authoritative plot thereof. 

The further business conduct of this enterprise assumed the form of two trusts, one of 
which was known as the " Nott Trust," the other as the " Hunter's Point Trust." 

The "Nott Trust" may briefly be summarized as follows: On December 28, 1853, Eliphalet 
Nott and wife duly a.ssigned in trust to Union College, the property for the establishment and 
maintenance of nine professorships, six assistant professorships, tutors, fellow and scholarships, 
the purchase of scientific apparatus, a special library and specimens for a geological museum. In 
this conveyance Nott reserved to himself certain powers in trust for the purpose of fulfilling his 
obligations to Crane and Ely, and to place the property in as advantageous condition as ]5ossible 
for the production of value. 

The "Hunter's Point Trust" was created by act of the Legislature, April 14. i860. 

By it Union College undertook the control of the "two-thirds undivided " of this ])ropcrty for the 




:ll.l'.|-.l;i' K IIAi:i;(il N, liii;Asrni;ii oi- Ixkix Cm.i.iMiK. 




rxiON COI.I.Ki;!;. S(HI:m;<T.\I>V. N. Y. Xiiktii Tollkcm: Itr 




ImN . i.I.I.EOI':, SCHKMCCTADY. N. Y. Sor-rn Coi.i.Kci: Hiii 




I Mi>\ ( (ii.i,i;>;i:. si iii:M;('r.\i)V. n. y. ,\ri:\TiiniAi. ii 



W.vsiiiii iiNi: Urii-iiiNc 



I //STORY 01- LONG IS/.AA'D C/TY. 



27 



benefit of "Crane, Judson, and the two Elys;" in c(jnneclion with the "one-third undivided," which 
belonged to the Nott Trust. This responsibility was assumed b)' the College as Trustees, at the 
retiuest of Dr. Nott, for the purpose of more rapidly marketing the one-third belonging to the Xott 
Trust. 

Under these two distinct Trusts, Union College as Trustee controlled the estate till 1884. The 
College having brought a suit — an action in equity — to wind up the trust of i860, and separate its own 
property from that of others interested, ten years of litigation followed. Judgment of partition, how- 
ever, was finally entered in 1S84, and the several parties interested, had their proportion of lots set 
otT to them, the College receiving iwo-thirds of the entire property then remaining. There were in 
all 1800 lots, the total valuation of which, as fixed by the Commissioners, was over §900,000; of these 



lots, Union Col- 
course 1 200; since 
College has hand- 
erty. The i n - 
tion of the realty 
which in 1780, 
more than §6000, 
stood by the vol- 
actions of Union 
tee from i860 to 
reached $2,300,- 
the College had 
provement and 
lands about $800, 
$415,463 was ex- 
ing, docking, and 
ments. Divi- 
clared among 
a m o u n t i n g to 
ing of improved 
bonds, mort- 
more recent years 
marked diminu- 
ductiveness of the 
to economic 
modified values 
The develop- 
Point, therefore, 
tified with the 
prise of Dr. Eli- 
later with the 
ests of U n i o n 
development was 
the deed of Nott to Crane and 



^ 



^^ 




CORNEl.U S RAIF.I.VE TRAl lORl). 



lege received of 
that time the 
led its own prop- 
crease in valua- 
of Hunter's Point 
was held at little 
may b e under- 
ume of the trans- 
College as Trus- 
1881, which 
000. Up to 1873 
paid for the im- 
development of 
000, of \v h i c h 
pended for grad- 
general improve- 
dends were de- 
stockholders 
$843,000, consist- 
lots, money, 
gages, etc. In 
there has been a 
tion in the pro- 
propert)', owing 
causeswhich have 
in general, 
ment of Hunter's 
was at first iden- 
speculati ve enter- 
phalet Xott, and 
policy and inter- 
College. That 



inaugurated b y 
Ely. Under the management of these men important changes 
occurred in the topography or Hunter's Point. In 1853, the year following the passage of the 
property under their control, they applied to the Commissioners of the Land Office for a grant 
of the lands under the waters of Newtown Creek and of the East River, adjacent to their 
premises. The lands in question being ceded, the lofty hill which from ages immemorial had stood 
as a sentinel at the mouth of Newtown Creek, and from whose summit Peter Praa had often surveyed 
his possessions, was cast into the river. The reef over which the maddened tides had rushed from 
prehistoric eras, was buried beneath the soil of the Hunter farm. The shore front which theretofore 
had been West avenue, was pushed nearly to its present limit. 

Messrs. Crane and Ely were succeeded in 1855 by H. S. Anable, who continued in the manage- 
ment of the extensive interests of the College until 1884. During this period great advance was 
made in important directions. 



28 



HIS TOR Y OF L ONG ISL A ND CIT\ '. 



Three blocks of the territory, new-made along the river front, were given to the ?3ast River 
Ferry Company by the College Trustees. 

The Flushing Railroad, which had been established in 1S54, received from the College a 
gift of land, valued at §20,000, which subsequently was bought back by the College. 

The tract of land occupied by the Long Island Railroad, extending from Vernon avenue 
to the East River, was originally procured from the College in i860 on advantageous terms. 
Every street in the First Ward to Nott avenue was opened and graded. 
The erection and maintenance of a school on Sixth street has already been cited. 
Two miles of bulk heads and docks along Newtown Creek and the East River to the canal 
were constructed. 

The turnpike, now Jackson avenue, leading from the ferry to Flushing, was built largely 
through the instrumentality of the College. The College also contributed to the construction 
of the railroad between Astoria and Hunter's Point. 

A block of land comprising forty-eight lots was donated by the College for a site for the 
present court bouse. 

As the representative of the College, Mr. Anable was influential in aiding the passage of 

the Improvement Act, whereby 
needed improvements were further 
promoted in the First Ward. 

The participation of Mr. Anable 
in the organization of Long Island 
City has elsewhere been noted. To 
his public-spirited sagacity and en- 
ergy Hunter's Point will long remain 
a debtor. During his connection 
with the interests of Union College 
more than two and a quarter millions 
(jf dollars passed through his hands. 
The final audit of his accounts 
.showed a perfect balance. 

He was succeeded in office by 
liis son, Eliphalet Nott Anable, who 
acted as the representative and attor- 
ney of the College tmtil i886, when 
the oflice of College Treasurer, 
which had been located at Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., was transferred to Long 
Island City, and the management 
of the property passed directly into the hands of the treasurer, S. E. Stimson. 

In 1893, tjilbert K. Harroun, the present incumbent, succeeded to the management of the College 
property. Early in his administration of affairs marked evidences of energy, mature judgment, and 
conservatism of action were discoverable on every side. The extensive landed interests were speedily 
gotten well in hand and every effort put forth for bringing to the attention of manufacturers and 
controllers of business enterprises generally, the many magnificent water front sites and business 
blocks and plots, that still remained open to purchasers in one of the most accessible and desirably 
located sections of the Greater New York. And the result has done credit to the tact and energy of 
the gentleman, while the many benefits that have accrued to the College interests, as well as to the 
general material interests of the entire city, have led to outspoken and deserved commendation. One 
achievement, above all others, that has stamped Treasurer Harroun's management with phenomenal 
success, particularly along lines that are most vital to the continued development of the extensive 
landed estates of the College, was the final adjustment of the di.sputed question of the regularity and 
justice of the local taxes. For a number of years these taxes had been accumulating, based 
upon unfair and discriminating assessments as levied by the local Assessors, and Mr. Harroun, 
immediately upon assuming the duties of his charge, set to work to discover some means of 
unraveling the tangle with a view to bringing about a speedy and amicable settlement. After 




THE KAI'EI.YE MANSION. 



I/ISTOKY OF J.ON(; IS/. AM) CITY. 



29 



nianv nionlbs of earnest consideration, a plan was evolved that proved eminently just and satis- 
factory to all concerned, in which the State, through the Legislature, gave willing and substantial 
aid, and in the early fall of 1895, upwards of a quarter of a million dollars was turned into the 
city treasury in full liquidation of all claims to date standing against Union College upon the 
tax hooks of Long Island City. This memorable and important achievement gave good evidence 
of the ability, tlie energy, and the unflagging zeal displayed by Mr. Harroun in the planning and 
prosecution of the momentous undertaking, which, at the outset, seemed surrounded by adverse 
circumstances that were well nigh insurmountable. It was a grand piece of work, and placed the 
College and its interests upon a solid basis and, free and clear of all claims on the part of the city. 

No one will question the fact that Union College has been a leading factor in the development 
and up building of the Hunter's Point section of the city. It has annually paid into the public 
treasury from S5000 to $10,000 in local taxes, and has always been found in the forefront of every 
movement looking to the development of the interests and the betterment of the condition of affairs 
connected with the local government. The College still controls large areas of unimproved lands in 
the lower wards of the city, and under the judicious management of its present representative, the 
corporation should, and no doubt will, reap a deserved and bounteous reward in the early years of the 
materializing of the Greater New York. 

In Hunter's Point are now located the leading industries of the city. Over it the spirit 
of enterprise seems to have especially hovered. Its offices, stores, factories and ferries represent 
the greater proportion of popular traffic and tra\-el. These results necessarily follow its 
natural advantages of water front and facilities of immediate intercourse with business sections 
of New York and Brooklyn. Not so, however, was its condition in years preceding 1870 and the 
Incorporation of the city. Then was the era of preparation for the greater things of to-day. 
The entire section had to be raised almost from the level of the sea, its marshes, lagoons and 
"killities" filled, and the site of a city created at vast expenditure of time and capital before the 
advantages afforded bj' nature could be made available. A territory so uninviting in its original 
state was fortunate in becoming the field of a corporate enterprise endowed with means com- 
mensurate with the demands of its development. 

A MEMORAin.E SEASON. 

The winter of 1779 was one of almost unparalleled severity. .Snow began to fall November 
10 and continued more or less daily till the following March. " In the woods it lay four feet 
upon a level," says a certain chronicler. A fuel famine was abroad. All over New York Island 
trees of every sort were cut down, gardens, court yards, and avenues, as well as lanes and 
forests, were depleted. Apple, peach, plum, cherry and pear trees fell before the woodman. 
The cold was extreme. The bay and harbor of New York was solid as terra firma. Likewise 
the Kast River and Long Island Sound nearly to Now Haven. 




Hi--:;5.y 



CHAPTER III. 



THI-: VILLACE OF STEINWAV. 

ITS EARLY HISTORY PRESENT INDISTRIAI, IMPORTANCE THE GREAT STEINWAY PIANO FACTORY LIVES OF 

HENRY EXGLEHARD STEINWAY AND WILLIAM STEINWAY FOUNDING OF THE %VORLD-RENOWNED 

HOUSE OF STEINWAY & SONS SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT AND INVENTION RISE INTO 

UNRIVALED SUPREMACY — PURCHASE OF THE VILLAGE SITE — ERECTION OF THE 
GREAT PLANT — INTERESTING ECONOMIC FACTS — MR. STEINWAY's POLICY 

AS AN EMPLOYER THE STEINWAY MANSION THE DAIMLER MOTOR 

COMPANN — THE ASTORIA HOMESTEAD COMPAXV. 

The northeastern section of Long Island City is kno\vii under the name of "Steinway." 
It is the geographical center of greater New York. From the earliest historic period it has been a 
field of surpassing interest. It has been the scene of important geological changes. The present 
site of the Steinway Mansion and of the world-famed Steinway Piano Manufactory was once Luyster 
Island. The waters of the Sound once laved the shore in the vicinity of Winthrop avenue. 

Here also was the point of one of the earliest settlements in the town of Newtown. The 
English had not taken Newtown Creek before the Dutch had seized upon this charming locality. 




Hero the merry cling-clang of Harmensen's anvil awakened the solitudes and tempted the approach 
of the savage who laid the hardy pioneer low with his tomahawk. 

The action of the Dutch Governor, in granting this whole section to the Reformed Church for a 
Poor Farm, was equally inexplicable. The day of redemption, however, began in 1656, when Peter 
Luyster blazed the way to renewed settlement and was followed by the progenitors of the long line 
of the Rikers, Rapelyes, Moores, Lawrences, Berrians and Kouwenhovens. The fertility of the 
soil has yielded wealth to the industry of these families for two hundred and more years and left for 
the " Poor Bowery," nothing but a barren name in ancient history. 




C. K. THEODORE STEINWAV. 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 33 

Could the acres of this picturesque settlement speak, they would also tell of the rude tramping of 
the Hessian soldiery in 1776, while foraging the fields or crowding the halls of the manor houses in 
search of fugitive patriots, or springing from ambush at midnight hours to pillage peaceful homes 
and drive the occupants from their insecure jsillows to encounter the perils of the swift tides of the 
Hell Gate. 

Eventful, therefore, has been the history of the olden settlement which has now developed into 
the prosperous community of "Steinway. " Yet the greatest event which has marked its career was 
left for this latest day to record. It bears a name which is inscribed upon one of the greatest indus- 
trial triumphs of this or any other age — a name which is associated with the musical prestige of the 
world. It was here that the firm of Messrs. Steinway & Sons, chiefly through the individual efforts 
of William Steinway, in 1S70 and 1871, acquired title to over four hundred acres of land with a front- 
age upon the East River and canal of about a mile, built a steam saw mill, iron and brass foundries, 
boiler and engine houses, a large building for the finishing of metal frames, storage sheds, drying 
kilns, docks, bulkhead wharves, a lumber basin, and in 1879, an immense structure to serve as a 
piano case factory, 248x60 feet, together with an additional new engine house. In 1877 the keyboard 
making and wood carving branches of their piano manufactory where removed thither from the New 
York factory. 

These combined factories contain eight steam boilers of the aggregate of 500 horse power, by 
which the necessary amount of steam is generated for the 60,000 feet of pipe used in heating the dry- 
ing rooms and workshops and driving four steam engines, aggregating 300 horse power, which in turn 
put in motion the various labor-saving machines. Besides this machinery in operation, the process of 
grand piano case manufacture is most interesting. Logs are specially selected, 18 to 23 feet long, 
sawed into veneers one-eighth of an inch thick, which, after a thorough course of open air and kiln 
drying, are glued together and bent into the proper form of parlor and concert grand piano cases, by 
means of immense iron presses heated to the necessary degree by steam. 

About 600 workmen are employed in these works which are connected by telegraph and tele- 
phone with all the New York establishments of the firm. 

In capacious yards are stored millions of feet of crude lumber; at busy wharves is received iron 
ore in vast quantities, and these materials are transformed into ca.ses, actions, steel frames and other 
component parts of a piano, and then shipped to the New York factory at Fourth (Park) avenue, and 
Fifty-third street, where they are put together and adjusted into finished instruments, which are 
imiversally acknowledged to be the chef d'ouvre of art in musical mechanics. 

Such an extensive industrj', whose products have fought their way to pre-eminence solely upon 
their merits, necessarily represents a prolonged conflict with difficulties, profound knowledge of the 
musical art, intellectual ability, inventive skill and genius of a peculiarly high order, the exercise 
of large execute powers, and the wisest management of commercial resources. 

It is requisite, therefore, that we should dwell somewhat at large upon the personal history of 
the men who have won celebrity, not only for themselves, but incidentally, for that section of our city 
which bears their name. 

HENRY E. STEINWAY. 

Henry Englehard Steinway, of New York City, founder of the great piano manufacturing house 
of Steinway & So::s, was born February 15, 1797, in Wolfshagen, a small forest hamlet of the Hartz 
Mountains, in the Duchy of Brunswick, North Germany, and died in New York City on the 7th of 
February, 1871. He was at the time of his coming to this country fifty-three years of age This was 
surely rather an advanced age for an immigrant, and one, too, who was to be the pioneer of a new 
era in an important industry, but such was the fact. He was a skilled piano maker in his native land, 
Brunswick, Germany, until he came to New York, June 9, 1850, with his family. 

Before taking up the later and more important events of his life at this time, it may be well to 
review his honorable antecedents and some interesting incidents of his earl}' life. In the early part 
of the seventeenth century, one of his ancesters, a Captain Steinway (or Steinweg, as the name was 
originally spelled), had fought against the Austrian Army in "The Thirty Years' War," and had 
received serious wounds at the Battle of Lutter, on the Barenberg, in 1626. He was a native of 
Pomerania, where his family and ancestors were well-to-do patricians in the fortified town of 
Stralsund, on the Baltic Sea, and while that city belonged to the Hansa Union, even before "The 



HfSrOKY Of LONG ISLAND CITY. 35 

Thirty Years War," various members of the family had occupied important positions in the magis- 
tracy. One of them, who was Burgomaster of Stralsund, became famed for his stalwart and success- 
ful defence of the town when it was besieged by the Austrians under General Wallenstein, in 1628. 
With the final fall of the fortune of the city, the family disappeared from it. This family seemed 
strangely fated to sufl'er through war. Of the immediate family of Henry E. Steinway — he was the 
youngest of twelve children — he was left the sole survivor at the age of fifteen years, all of the others, 
as well as his father, falling victims to the Franco-Prussian War of 1806, the Franco-Russian War of 
1812, and a terrible disaster — a lightning stroke during a severe storm — which killed, in a collier's 
hut, where they had taken shelter, his father and three older brothers, and two men who had accom- 
panied them, Henry alone of the party of seven escaping, and he only after being prostrated and 
long lying in a semi unconscious state. The lad thus orphaned and left solitary in the world suffered 
still further through the seizure of his father's property, consisting of several houses, which were sold 
by the French Westphalian officers of the crown, who made away with the proceeds. Penniless now, 
as well as alone, he was forced to earn his meagre living by hardest toil, from which he soon turned 
to the army, at the call of the Duke of Brunswick for soldiers to serve against Napolean. He was 
theii but seventeen years old. 

Young Steinway had a natural fondness for music, and beguiled the tedium of garrison life by 
mastering the art of playing on the cithera, having constructed during his leisure hours an excellent 
instrument of seasoned spruce, which was greatly admired for its superior tone. At this era the 
liberty-breathing and heroic songs of Kiirner and Schenkendorf were in great vogue among the 
German troops, and on many occasions the yoimg soldier-musician accompanied on his instrument the 
chorus of a whole company of his stalwart companions. His musical memory was phenomenal, and 
he was able, without having had any special musical training, to find accompaniments tti any of the 
simple melodies of the time after having once heard them sung, and enjoyed the reputation among 
his acquaintances of being a musical genius. At twenty-one years of age, having declined the post 
of sergeant, which was offered to him as an inducement to remain in the army, he received an honor- 
able discharge, and quitted a life which was dailj' becoming more uncongenial. He lost no time in 
going to Goslar, where he sought to apprentice himself to the cabinet-making trade. Contrary to his 
hope, he encountered most discouraging difficulties. The trade guilds were in full sway. Five years* 
apprenticeship and five years' service, as a journeyman, were inexorably required, before the workman 
could acquire independent action. This, at Steinway's age, was too much for him, and he decided to 
learn the art of building church organs, which was not subject to the hampering and " red tape " of 
the guilds. He prepared himself for this work by devoting a year to cabinet-making imder a so-called 
"wild boss," and was well able at the expiration of that period to turn out his "masterpiece" as a 
cabinetmaker, according to the requirements of the times, had he been called upon to do so. He 
then took employment as a journeyman organ builder, although his aspirations were to become a 
maker of stringed musical instruments. 

After a year's apprenticeship he took employment as a journeyman organ builder in the little 
town of Seesen, at the foot of the Hartz Mountains, and the site of the famous "Jacobsohn's 
School." The chief justice of Seesen had accidentally seen a " masterpiece " of cabinet-making — an 
elaborate writing-desk, with secret drawers and artistic inlaid work — from the hands of young 
Steinway, and notwithstanding the long-established usages of the guilds, which proscribed the entry 
of such work into competition with that of the long-experienced workman, the magistrate purchased 
this production, therebj- giving the young man a handsome lift in life. About the same time the 
town was destroyed by fire, and the suddenly increased demand for artisans, occasioned by the 
rebuilding and re-establishment of industries, offered the young workman an opportunity for full 
employment and fair remuneration. 

This, too, enabled him to marry, and in February, 1825, he took as his wife a beautiful young 
girl, w'ho had for some time reciprocated his love. In the same year, in November, their first child, 
a son, was born, who was christened C. F. Theodore. The father now bent all of his energies 
toward the building of a business and a home. Foremost in his thought was the idea of giving his 
infant son, as he came to a condition to appreciate them, the advantages which his own youth had 
lacked, and now began his identification with the piano which extended throughout his long life, and 
reached its culmination in America. He was a skilled artisan, a musical genius, fully comprehending 



36 



HISrORY OF LON(; ISLAND CITY. 



the desideratum to be met in an instrument, and capable as any man, he conlidenlly believed, of 
supplying it. 

He worked whole nights constructing the piano upon which his boy was to learn to play. Old 
English and new German pianos he knew, and combined their merits in an original construction. 
The labors of a year saw the instrument completed and witnessed the widespread attention which had 
been attracted by its superiority. Its purity and volume of tone soon won a purchaser; and now, 
before the struggling mechanic, a path opened toward the realization of his hopes. He could become 
a master workman and did. He devoted his entire energy and skill to piano making, and soon a 
thriving trade greeted his efforts at the hands of the music-loving inhabitants of the Hartz Mountains. 

As early as August, 1839, Mr. Henry Steinway exhibited one grand, one three-stringed, and one 
two-stringed square piano at the State Fair of Brunswick, Germany, with the celebrated composer, 
Albert Methfessel, as chairman of the jury, who, besides granting him a first prize medal, bestowed 
the highest encomiums upon the tone and workmanship of the instruments. As his sons, Theodore, 
Charles, and Henry, grew up, they became skilful piano-makers under their father's direction, acquiring 
at the same time a thorough education. In time Mr. Stein wav found himself the centre of a large 
and happy family, the owner of an extensive factory, with ample capital at his command; and with 
such a thriving trade that he was unable to meet the demand for his instruments, although he 
employed a number of workmen to assist him in their manufacture. His was indeed a happy home. 
All worked in perfect harmony, and in the evening the boys might have been seen playing, oftentimes 
four-handed, the immortal compositions of Mozart and Beethoven, while tlie sweet voices of the girls 
sang the beautiful songs of Schubert and Schumann. 

The quiet contentment of plodding prosperity, however, was broken. Political complications, the 
cutting off of territory tributary to Seesen in a commercial sense, the imposition of almost prohibitory 
duties by the establishment of the German Customs Union, which Brunswick joined, but Hanover 
kept out of, in 1843, and generally changed conditions hampered the thrift of the family industry, and 
finally the Revolution of 1S48 completely destroyed the small local retail trade that alone had 
remained to that time. 

The idea, which had been cherished for some time, of emigrating to America, now took on new 
life, and one and all determined that a home in " the land of freedom " was a desideratum. In April, 
1849, Charles Steinway sailed for the western world and arrived in New York the following month. 
His reports home were so favorable that the whole family, with the exception of the oldest son, 
C. F. Theodore, who remained behind to complete the unfinished work, emigrated to the New AVorld, 
leaving Hamburg on the steamer llclenc Sloinan, in the beginning of May, 1850. This vessel w;is one 
of the first ocean propellers, and it was her first trip. Instead of a direct-acting engine the vessel 
had a high cogwheel, which connected with the smaller cogwheel on the shaft. On the third day out 
when opposite Deal and Ramsgate, England, the large cogwheel broke with a terrific crash, and the 
vessel came to anchor. After a delay of nine days a new cogwheel was cast at Ramsgate, and the 
vessel continued on its way to New York, which it reached on the 9th of June, 1850, after a passage 
of twenty days from England. The trip was an unusually pleasant one, as the sea, from the time of 
leaving Hamburg to the arrival in New York, was as smooth as a mirror ; not a wave nor a ripple 
was to be seen. As the sequel proved, this was extremely fortunate, for on her third trip the llclciic 
Sloinan, encountering stormy weather, foundered in mid-ocean, happily with little loss of life. On 
their arrival in New York the family consisted of Henry Steinway, the father, aged fifty-three years; 
his wife, Julia Steinway, aged forty-six years; Charles, aged twenty-one; Henry Steinway, Jr., aged 
nineteen; William, aged fourteen; Albert, aged ten; and three daughters, the eldest twenty-two, the 
next seventeen, and the youngest eight. The eldest .son, C. F. Theodore, aged twenty-four years, 
remained in Germany. 

Henry Steinway, as we have seen, had attained prosperity in his native land not without priva- 
tions and struggle. These, however, had tested and strengthened his fiber and assisted that sym- 
metrical development which now was of splendid service and lay at the very foundation of his suc- 
cess in the New World. If he was a genius, he was singularly free from the weaknesses that usually 
accompany that order of mind, and, with a most commendable prudence and patience, he studied the 
commercial conditions of the country and of the piano trade before embarking his means in a venture. 
In the old country his progress had been .slow, but comfortably sure, and while he aspired to a 
greater field than could be there obtained, he did not propose to enter upon its conquest hastily or ill- 



^"i 




MB^Mz:ii 



/7^,^ 






t,- 



HENRV E. t-TF.lNWAY. 



If [STORY OF LONG fSLAND CITY. 39 

advisedly. He therefore put his capital in a safe place, and went to work as a journeyman in a New 
York piano factory, his sons following his example. Nearly three years they toiled thus, adding not 
a little to their capital of money and useful knowledge. 

Their commencement in business on their own account was made March 5th, 1853. The found- 
ing of the house of Steinway & Sons was an extremely modest and cautious undertaking — the plant- 
ing small in inverse proportion to the growth. They rented a small rear building in Varick Street, 
and with most solicitous care made their first piano, a "square" which, on being exhibited to a num- 
ber of teachers and expert musicians, created at once a very favorable impression, and was speedily 
sold for a good price. 

Their success was assured from the lirst by their thorough mastery of the trade and art of i)iano- 
making and the infinite pains they devoted to their initial production. They gained standing in the 
regard of the critical professional element, and there was soon a demand for their work. Soon out- 
growing their very limited original quarters, where, with about ten workmen, they produced one 
square piano per week, they secured more commodious ones at 88 Walker street, a few doors east of 
Broadway. In March, 1854, when they had been but one year in operation, they received their 
earliest official testimonial of appreciation in the form of the first premium from the judges at the 
Metropolitan Fair, held at Washington, D. C, for the best three and two-stringed instruments. In 
the fall, of the same year, they experienced a further gratification in the securing of the first prize, a 
gold medal, at the American Institute Fair, in the Crystal Palace, in New York. 

In the following year they exhibited at the latter place a square piano constructed on a new 
system, which received the unanimous verdict of the jury, and was awarded a gold medal in compe- 
tition with all the principal piano manufacturers of the country. This new invention may be briefly 
described as an overstrung, square piano, in which the newly constructed iron frame was so applied 
as to secure its benefits to the durability and capacity of standing in tune, while the nasal, thin tone, 
which had heretofore characterized pianos with the iron frame, was done away with, and a lasting tone, 
of full harmonious quality, produced. This new system of construction achieved so great a success 
that Steinway & Sons invariably received the first prize at every art exhibition in which they partici- 
pated, and the new method soon became, and has since remained, the standard for square pianos, and 
is now used by all manufacturers. The business of the firm increased to such an extent that in 1858 
they purchased almost all the entire block of ground bounded by Fourth and Lexington avenues, 
Fifty-second and Fifty-third streets, on which a model factory was erected during 1859, and occupied 
in April, i860. In 1863 it was found necessarj' to add the southern wing, by which the building was 
brought to its present colossal proportions. The architecture of the building is of the modern Italian 
style; it is built in the most solidly substantial manner, of the best brick, with lintel arches of the 
same, and brick dental cornices. The side wings are separated from the main front building by solid 
walls, extending from basement to roof; passageways running through them, each of which is 
provided with double iron doors on either side, so that in the event of a fire occurring only that 
portion of the building in which it originated can be destroyed. The factory buildings proper cover 
twenty city lots, the whole property consisting of twenty-six lots, with a street frontage of 892 feet. 
The floors of the New York factory buildings have a surface of 175,140 square feet. Beneath the 
3'ard there are fire-proof vaults for the storage of coal, and here are also placed four steam boilers, 
aggregating 340 horse-power, by which the necessary amount of steam is generated for the 76,000 
feet of pipe used in heating the workshops and driving a large steam engine, this in turn putting in 
motion the different labor-saving machines. It would require the extent of a goodly sized volume to 
describe the 165 different planing, sawing, jointing, drilling, mortising, turning, and other machines used 
in this and the Astoria factory, and to elucidate their various objects; it must, therefore, suffice to state, 
that from careful and moderate estimate, they replace the hand labor of at least nine hundred work- 
men, added to which they do all the hard and difficult work, which formerly to so great an extent 
endangered the health, and even the lives, of the workmen employed in this description of 
labor. In the meantime the warerooms had remained in Nos. 82 and 84 Walker street, 
these having been brought into connection with the factory, three and a half miles distant, by a 
magnetic telegraph built expressly for the purpose. The improvements which had been made in such 
continuous succession since 1855 by Messrs. Steinway & Sons, and for which they had obtained 
patents, extended also to the manufacture of grand pianos. In these latter instruments an entirely 
new system of construction was introduced, with such unqualified success that they were very 



40 HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 

extensively used in the concert room and by musical people generally. Theodore Stein way, 
in Brunswick, at the same time made pianos of the newly invented construction, on the model 
of those manufactured by his father and brothers in New York, and as early as the season of 
1 860-6 1 many renowned pianists performed on these new grand pianos at their concerts in 
tiermany. Messrs. Steinway & Sons have received for their pianos, from the year 1855 to 
1862, at the leading industrial exhibitions in the United States, no less than thirty-five first prize 
medals; and at the World's Fair, in London, in 1862 the pianos there exhibited by them received 
the highest recognition and were honored by the award of a first prize medal. The New York 
warerooms of the firm had become the rendezvous of leading artists and connoisseurs, and were soon 
found totally insufficient in accommodation for the large dimensions the business had reached. 

There was consequently erected in 1863 a depository and sales house, an extensive and handsome 
marble palace on East 14th Street, between Union Square and the Academy of Music. In connection 
with tiiis there also arose, through the enterprise and public spirit of this successful hou.se, the famous 
Steinway Hall, one of the most celebrated concert rooms in America. This building, the public use 
of which was inaugurated October 31, 1866, with a concert of great distinction, in which Parepa Rosa 
was the leading singer, in reality contained two halls, one capable of seating two thousand, and the 
other four hundred persons, and until 1890, when it was rebuilt to give way to the demands of 
business, it is not an exaggeration to say that it was more prominently identified with the musical 
history of America than was any other assembly place in the country. It was practically a gift from 
Steinway & Sons to the musical and art-loving people of the metropolis. 

But while pecuniary success and artistic achievement were at their very height — while the huge 
accretion of business had rendered necessary the erection of immense buildings, and connoisseurs 
crowded the salesrooms of the firm and vied with each other in praise of the great excellence that had 
been given to the Steinwaj- instruments — the talented family that had labored together as a unit for 
the accomplishment of these results met with its first great bereavement. Death twice invaded that 
devoted family circle in the year 1865. Henry, the third son, succumbed on the nth of March to 
disease which had depressed him for several years, and Charles, the second son, while on a European 
tour, died in Brunswick, Germany, of typhoid fever, on the 31st of the same month and year. 

It was in consequence of these misfortunes that C. F. Theodore Steinway, the eldest son, who had 
remained in German}' and carried on there a very successful business in the manufacture of pianos, 
gave up his individual enterprise at Brunswick, and, coming to New York in October, 1865, merged 
his fortune with that of the family, the business being thus continued by Henry E. Steinway, the 
father, and his three remaining sons, William, Theodore, and Albert. William Steinway retained 
special charge of the financial and business affairs of the firm. The new member of the firm became 
the scientific director, and many of the succeeding triumphs of the house were attributable to his skill 
and inventiveness. He brought with him from the fatherland several experienced workmen, who 
became the nucleus for the great department soon organized for the manufacture of the upright piano 
which William Steinway had patented June 9, 1866, and were introduced and brought to such great 
popularity that it took precedence over all others. The square piano has now become extinct, and 
ninety -seven per cent, of all the pianos manufactured in the United States are now uprights, and, in a 
greater or less degree, imitations of those first constructed and patented by William and Theodore 
Steinway. 

The valuable improvements made in this form of piano by the Stcinways were various, but the 
most imixirtant — which amounted, in fact, to an entire new construction and included the introduc- 
tion of a double iron frame and numerous devices which secured a sustained singing tone of pure and 
sympathetic quality, together with the capability of standing long in tune — were embodied in said 
patent of June 5, 1866. Another very pronounced improvement, made applicable to the grand as 
well as upright piano, was "the Steinway metallic tubular frame action," patented in 1868. It was 
by this invention that the touch of these instruments was brought to its present perfection and nn- 
changealileness by atmospheric influences. 

As one of the first results of the earlier of these improvements came an unprecedented triumph 
in the Universal Exposition in Paris in the year 1867. The Steinways competed there with consider- 
able confidence, and yet they were scarcely prepared for the honor which they received. They were 
awarded by the uiianinwus verdict of the jury the first prize grand gold medals on all three styles, 
grand, square, and upright pianos. This gave the Steinway piano a prestige and primacy abroad, as 






l^r^-^ 




H^'^ 



'/. 



V 



^^ f 




///STORY O/' LONG /S/.AND C/TY. 43 

well as in America, and a world-wide fame, which constantly grew more pronounced as one great 
artist after another added his encomium of praise to the verdict of the Universal Exposition Jury of 
Awards. Of these expressions the keynote was sounded when Dr. Joseph Joachim said: " Steinway 
is to the pianist what Stradivari is to the violinist." Felicien David gave speedy evidence of his 
recognition of the superlative achievement of the firm, and Franz Liszt, the great Richard Wagner, 
Anton Rubinstein, and tiie celebrated French composer, Charles Gounod, soon followed with spon- 
taneous and enthusiastic C(jngratulations. These were only the first few among the famous music 
masters of the world who, sooner or later, paid tribute to the winners of the triumph. 

As these results were reached, Henry Englehard Steinway was approaching the alhjtted span of 
life — the three score and ten years of the jisalmist's promise. He lived a few years beyond it, in 
semi-retirement, and beheld the culmination of his long lifetime of well-directed endeavor experienc- 
ing with praiseworthy and profound gratification the crowning of his labor.s. His last active duties, 
of any considerable moment, were in the superintendence of the erection of Steinway Hall, in 1866, 
and he died, after a .short illness, Feb. 7, 1871, aged seventy-four years. 

By virtue of his abilities and his inborn strength of character, he, an orphan boy, became one of 
the greatest manufacturers in his special industry, not only of his own country, but of the world ; and 
died universally regretted and lovingly remembered by all who had known him, as was evidenced by 
the many kindly obituaries which appeared at tiie time of his death. His remains were interred by 
the side of his sons Charles and Henry, Jr., and his youngest daughter Anna, in the family vault on 
Chapel Hill, Greenwood Cemetery, which the deceased had caused to be erected during 1869-70 at a 
cost of §80,000. Tliis mausoleum, built of granite, is one of the most imposing structures of Green- 
wood Cemetery. 

The year 1877 again brought misfortune to the family, Mr. Albert Steinway dying of typhoid 
fever. May 14, 1877, after an illness of two weeks, aged nearly thirty-seven years; and Julia Stein- 
way, his mother, the widow of Henry Steinway, Sr. , dying August 9 following, aged nearly seventy- 
four years. 

Following the example of their revered father, the surviving sons industriously toiled on in their 
several spheres as is shown by the following biographical sketclies. 

C. F. THEODORE STEINWAY. 

C. F. Theodore Steinway, at the time of his decease, head (together with his brother William), of 
the great piano manufacturing house of Steinway & Sons, New York, was born November 6, 1825, in 
Seesen, near the city of Hrunswick, Germany. Being the oldest son, his early history was closely 
interwoven with the development of the business career of his father, the late Henry E. Steinway, 
wliose portrait and biography are given in preceding pages. The subject of this sketch received his 
first tuition in music in 1833, and until the year 1839 attended the celebrated high school of the 
Jacobsohn Institute at his native town. At this time young Theodore's highly developed skill in 
playing the pianoforte, and his acute musical ear, had become too valuable to his father not to be 
utilized, and, being already able to perfectly tune and regulate a piano, he entered his fathers 
business, and step by step, under his father's careful training, perfected himself in the art of build- 
ing pianos. As early as August, 1839, he attended and publicly showed off and played the three 
pianos, viz., one grand, one three-stringed, and one two-stringed square, exhibited by his father at 
the State Fair in Brunswick, with the celebrated composer Albert Methfessel as chairman of the jury, 
who, besides granting the First Premium, bestowed the highest encomiums upon the tone and work- 
manship of the pianos. Dr. Ginsberg, Director of the Jacobsohn Institute, him.self a thorough 
scientist, manifested deep interest toward young Theodore, carefully guiding his scientific education, 
placing at his disposal the Jacobsohn library and lecture-room, the latter containing all the acoustic 
and scientific apparatus known at that period. In return Theodore a.ssisted the teachers and profess- 
ors of acoustics and mathematics in their lectures and experiments. Here it soon became clear to 
him that a pianoforte in reality is a physical instrument for the production of sound. But the reali- 
zation of this early-conceived conviction was destined to be delayed for several decades, when 
Theodore Steinway, as matured inventor and creator of the new system of building pianos, finally 
and totally abandoned the old school of piano-making, which depended entirely upon autodactic usages, 
and tenaciously adhered to contradictory systems, unable to stand before the application and tests of 



44 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY 



scientific principles. But leaving this theme as too voluminous for the object of this biography, we 
return to the early history of Mr. Theodore Steinway. In May, 1850, when the father, Henry E. 
Steinway, with his family, emigrated to the United States, young Theodore was free from military 
service, and this was the principal reason why he was selected to carry on and finish up the father's 
business. In the year 1852 Mr. Theodore married a highly cultured young lady in his native town, 
and the cherished idea of winding up business and joining the rest of the family in New York was 
abandoned, the more so as the social and political conditions of Germany had vastly improved, and 
with it Mr. Theodore's business, which became so extended and prosperous that in 1859 it was 
removed to the city of Brunswick, where within a few years he built up a large, lucrative business, 
the reputation of which extended all over central Europe.- In 1862 he met his brother Henry, Jr., 




MAI' OK LONG ISI,ANI> crfV WITH "STEINWAY. ALSO SHOWING LOCATON OF NORTH IIKACH WITH TUK GRAND PUiR 



at the World's Fair in London, where Steinway & Sons w^cre awarded a First Prize Medal for their 
pianos exhibited on that (iccasion. In May, 1864, Mr. Theodore and his wife made a trip of pleasure 
and recreation to New York, when the whole family — father, mother, five sons and two daughters — 
were for the first and last time reunited. In March, 1865, great private misfortunes fell upon the 
family, the second son, Charles, succumbing to an attack of typhoid fever while on a visit of recrea- 
tion to Brunswick, Germany, and the third son, Henry, who had been ill for several years, dying in 
New York. These misfortunes were the direct cause of Mr. Theodore's removal to New York, for 
though himself in afHuent circumstances, the sole po.ssessor of a lucrative celebrated piano manufac- 
tory, his loyalty and devotion to the family and his aged parents outweighed all other considerations. 



n /STORY OF LONG ISLAND CI TV 



45 



In October, 1865, ^Ir. Theodore accompanied by his wife, arrived in New York, entered as full 
|);utner in the business of Steinway & Sons, and became scientific director of the factory, to which he 
devoted his inventive genius and ener<jy, while his brother William, continued in the mercantile and 
financial alTairs of the firm. In 1866 they erected Steinway Hall, the splendid acoustic pro])erlies of 
which are well known and appreciated by artists and musicians. With every circumstance and advan- 
tage favorable, Mr. Theodore Steinway 's inventive genius rai)idly developed. He first constructed 
upright pianos, which were able to stand the effects of the severe Xorth American climate as well as 
the grand and square had done. Inferior French upright pianos had created widespread prejudice 
against upright models, particularly against poor American imitations. 

In Germany his upright pianos had achieved much reputation. He had al.so brought along work- 
men highly skilled in making such instruments. These men formed the nucleus of a department for 
the manufacture of upright pianos in Xew York. Though great success attended the venture, and 
ui)right pianos of superior tone, touch, and durability were constructed, yet a great obstacle was met 
in the disinclination of workmen, who had been trained to make grand and square instruments, to 
learn the making of uprights. But Theodore was nothing daunted. His energy, perseverance, and 




PROTESTANT INION CHURCH, STEINWAY. 

skill introduced the new instruments, and now they are preferred by the American public to the 
square pianos. Of the 80,000 pianofortes annually made in this country, fully 95 per cent, are 
upright pianos, more or less imitations of the systems inaugurated and patented by Theodore 
Steinway. Of the 34 patents granted by the United States to Theodore Steinway from 1866 to 1869, 
no less than 62 claims in patents relate to upright pianos. Shortly after introducing the upright 
pianos, his attention was directed to the grand piano, the most natural and perfect stringed 
instrument in existence. B}- national patent to Henry Steinway, Jr., December 20, 1859, for his 
overstrung system, vast improvements in tone and durability of grand pianos had already been 
achieved in comparison with the old parallel-string system in grand pianos of other makers. While 



46 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



the total tension (pull) of the strings in a European grand never exceeded 20,000 pounds, Steinway & 
Son's grands already averaged 25,000 pounds of strain. Meanwhile piano strings of steel had V)een 
greatly perfected and Theodore's scientific tests on, his own constructed testing machine, had 
convinced him that the tension of the strings in a grand piano might be doubled, and beauty and 
power of tone vastly increased, provided the power of resistance to this increased pull of the strings 
could be secured in the construction of the instrument. The difficulty was well nigh insurmountable. 
The cast-iron frames produced for all piano manufacturers in ordinary foundries were not firm and 
reliable enough to withstand such increase of strain. Theodore, in the spring of 1869, went to Europe 
and carefully studied the latest achievements of the steel and iron industry (in the fall going also to 
Egypt to witness the ceremonies of the opening of the Suez Canal), until the fall of 1870, when he 
returned to New York, and finally succeeded in producing a steel casting invariably withstanding a 
crushing strain of upward of 5000 pounds per square centimetre, while ordinary cast-iron will break 




under one-half of such pull. Steinway & Sons, in 1872, erected their own foundry at Astoria, opposite 
One Hundred and Twentieth street. New York, producing their own steel cupola-shaped frames for every 
piano manufactured by them since. After inventing and patenting in 1872 his duplex scale, and, in 
1875, the present grand piano repetition action, and new steel frame construction in grand pianos — 
all of which secured to his firm the highest award for pianos and piano metal-frame castings, viz., 
" Highest degree of excellence in all their styles of pianos," at the Centennial Exhibition, Philadel- 
phia, 1876 — Mr. Theodore in 1877-78 invented and patented an entirely new system in the wooden 
architecture of grand pianos. The old way of building up the interior and exterior grand-piano cases 
of .short pieces, joined together like brick, was abandoned, and in its stead an entirely new system 
created, by which a series of layers of wood in one length were glued together and bent into the 
required form by means of immense steel presses. Thus the problem was solved to apply the law of 
science, according to which the tone vibrations invariably follow the longitudinal fibre of the wood, 
while cross-fibres interrupt the vibrations. A parlor grand only six feet long was constructed embody- 
ing the new construction of the steel cupola frame and construction of exterior and interior case, of 



///.S/V'AT (>/•■ LONG ISLAND CITY. 47 

comparative lightness and elc<;ance, yet having fully 50,000 pounds tension of strings and being far 
superior in power and beauty of tone to even the large concert grand, which, at the Paris Exposition 
of 1867, had been crowned with the first of the grand gold medals of merit. This new system was at 
once applied to all parlor and concert grands produced by the firm, necessitating the establishment of 
Steinway & Sons' own steam saw-mill at Astoria, in order to saw logs of twenty-three feet length into 
the veneers and layers required. In his thirty-four United States patents, sixty-three claims relate to 
grand pianos. Mr. Theodore Steinway attended personally to tiie exhibition of Steinway & Sons' 
grand, upright, and square pianos at the Paris World's Fair of 1S67. His inventions shown in the 
pianos at that time, especially the compression of the sound-board and regulating its tension to the 
pull of the strings, created considerable sensation in musical and scientific circles. His Majesty, the 
King of Sweden, Carl v., awarded the grand honorary gold medal to Mr. Theodore Steinway, and 
tlie Swedish Royal Academy of Fine Arts bestowed academical honors upon him. In the fall of 1867, 
on invitation, Mr. Theodore Steinway delivered an oration before the assembled Royal Academy of 
Fine Arts, Berlin, Prussia, and was (together with his brother William), elected Academical Member. 
In the same year Mr. Theodore was voted a grand testimonial medal of merit, and elected an Honorary 
Member by the Societe des Beaux Arts, Paris. In 1880 His Highness, the Duke of Brunswick, 
bestowed upon Mr. Theodore Steinway the grand gold medal of the State for his achievements in the 
art of piano-building. Mr. Theodore Steinway traveled extensively; in his younger days, all over 
central Europe to study in his business, and later on in America, Europe, and Africa, always with a 
view of studying the achievements and requirements of the different races as to musical instruments. 
He possessed one of the rarest collections of musical instruments of all ages in existence, and was 
himself a most profound student and thorough expert in that direction, and acquainted with every 
form of piano ever attempted in any country. Under Mr. Theodore Steinway's personal practical 
tuition his grown-up nephews, Charles H. Steinway, Fred. T. Steinway, George A. Steinway, and 
Henry Ziegler, were trained as expert, scientific piano-makers, to enable them to successfully 
conduct Steinway & Sons' establishments in New York, Astoria, London, and Hamburg, under 
Theodore Steinway's motto: 

"Geselle ist wer was kann, 

Meister ist wer was ersann, 

Lehrling ist Jedermann." 

TR.\NSLAT10N : 

"Journeymen are all who can. 
Master, he who invents the plan. 
Apprentice each and every man." 
C. F. Theodore Steinway died March 26, 18S9, while at Brunswick, Germany. 

\VII.I.1.\M STEINWAY. 

William Steinway, President of the world-renowned house of Steinway & Sons, and distinguished 
alike for public spiritedness, marked ability, and purity of character, was born in Seesen, near the 
City of Brunswick, Germany, March 5, 1836. He came from a family of good reputation, some of 
whose members had served their country with honorable distinction as soldiers and magistrates. His 
father, Henry Englehard Steinway (see preceding biography), was a successful artisan and prosperous 
piano manufacturer of Seesen. William was educated at the excellent and thorough schools of his 
native town, finishing at the celebrated Jacobsohn High School. At the age of fourteen he was 
proficient in English and French, as well as in German, and had already begun to display remark- 
able aptitude for music — a trait which, in practical America, is often looked upon as a token of 
weakness in a busy man, but with him was an indication of genius. At fourteen he could play the 
most difficult compositions upon the piano, and his unerring ear enabled him to tune the instrument 
perfectly, even for concert use. His father, Henry E. Steinway, was a man of active mind and 
extended reading and awake to opportunities; and he conceived the idea of transferring his business 
to the New World. 

William Steinway, who was fourteen years of age, upon arriving in America was offered by his 
father the choice of a trade or education as a great musician. He preferred the formei' and was 
apprenticed to William Nunns & Co., of 88 Walker Street. On March 5, 1853, he joined his father 



4^ 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



and his brothers Cliarles and Henry in the founding of the house of Steinway & Sons. Father and 
sons had sufficient capital to manufacture on an extended scale, but they wisely began in a small way, 
in a rear building on Varick street, rented for the purpose. At that time, many cultivated people 
thought no piano good which was not imported from Europe. With four or five workmen the 
Steinways built one square piano a week, father and sons taking part, as artisans, in their production. 
William'made the sounding-boards. Their pianos soon attracted the attention of musicians and the 
public. The beauty and power and the fine workmanship shown in the instruments were recognized 
at once. The Steinway pianos conquered their way by their own indisputable merits, and the demand 
for them rapidly increased. More extensive quarters soon became necessary, and were engaged, in 
1S54, at No. 88 Walker street. Mr. Nunns had failed, and the Steinways rented the quarters he had 
occupied. It may be said here that William Steinway lost $300 back wages by Mr. Nunns' failure. 

He forgave the debt, however, and 
through affection and respect even 
assisted Mr. Nunns with monthlj' 
contributions until the latter's death, 
in 1864, at the age of eightj- years; 
thus early in life displaying the 
largeness of heart and unostentatious 
generosity of character which have 
always been conspicuous traits of the 
man. The growing magnitude of 
the business now compelled father 
and sons to resign their fascinating 
work at the bench and to devote 
their whole attenti<.>n to the general 
management of the affairs of the 
rising liouse. It fell to the lot of 
^Villianl Steinway to conduct the 
n)ercantile and financial affairs of 
the firm; and he brought to his 
department an abilit}' and force 
which insured the continual tri- 
umphant growth of the business. 
In 1S59 the Steinways built their 
present factory on Fourth avenue, 
from Fifty-second street to Fifty- 
third street, taking" possession in 
April, i860, and in 1863, by the 
addition of its southerly wing, bring- 
ing same to its present colossal 
proportions. In March, 1865, 
C.liarles and Henry, Jr., died; and 
Theodore, giving up the flourishing 
business in Germany, as has been said, came to New York and became a partner in the New York 
house. 

The Steinway pianos soon began to attract the attention of the world. After being awarded thirty- 
five American medals, they won a first prize medal at the World's Fair, in London, in 1862. In 1867, 
at the Paris International Ex|)osition, tliey won the first of the grand gold medals of honor for their 
perfect .stjuare, upright and grand pianos after a close and exciting contest with the best makers of 
Europe. This was a remarkable success; and the Steinway system of construction thereupon became 
the standard with the jnano makers of the world. Equally great were their successes at the Centen- 
nial lixhibition, at Philadel))hia, in 1876, and the International Inventions Exhibition, at London, in 
1885, on which latter occasion the grand gold medal was awai-ded them for the supreme excel- 
lence of their pi inofortes and their useful and meritorious inventions; and a grand gold 
medal was :dso awarded them by the London Society of Arts, the Prince of \V'ales being 




I AUNG l.ll'.KAKY. 



insroRY or /.(<.\(, /.s/..t.\/> c 1 1 v 



49 



President. Large orders and dislinj;iiislied honors poured in upon the firm from all quarters. 
They became the Court piano manufacturers to the Queen of Enj;land, the f>ueen of Spain, 
the Emperor of Germany, the Prince and Princess of Wales, and the (Jueen of Italy. Illustrious 
composers and artists bought and used their instruments, including Liszt, Wagner, Helmholtz, Rubin- 
stein, Paderewski, Theodore Thomas, Patti, Gerster, JoserTy, Rosenthal, and others. The public of 
America was conquered, and the lirm prospered in fortune and in reputation every year. The 
finishing of piano No. 25,000, made for the Czarowitz of Russia, was celebrated bj- the firm and its 
thousand workmen. May 4, 1872. Piano No. 50,000, believed to be the finest grand produced by the 
house up to that time, was bought by Baron Nathaniel de Rothschild, of Vienna, and dispatched by 
the Hamburg Steamer, Bohemia, September 15, 1883. The number reached July i, 1895, was 85,000, 
and Steinway & Sons' Piano Works are conceded t(j l)e by far the largest establishments in their line 
in the world. William now remains alone at the head of the house, its only surviving founder, though 
grandsons of the original founder have been admitted to membership in due succession. It is chiefly 
owing to the executive efforts and foresight of William Steinway, that this city is indebted for the 
section called "Steinway." That part of [,ong Island City represents an economic policy, which has 
passed the experimental stage and developed into prosperous results, which may well attract the 
ttention of those interested in questions of ca])ital and labor. The project of such a manufacturing 
community had its inception in the labor troubles, which twenty-five years ago embarra.sed the work 
of the Steinwav factorv between 




1 



Fifty-second and Fifty-third streets, 
New York. In 1869, and again in 
1872, there were strikes in this 
factory which necessitated police 
protection of faithful employes. 

Speaking of the origin of Stein- 
way village recently, Mr. William 
Steinway said: "For several years 
previous to 1870 we had bcr 
looking for a plot of land away fron 
the city, and yet within easy acce.'-s 
of it, for the erection of an ad 
ditional factory rendered necessary 
by the extension of our busines.-- 
Tliere were two reasons why we 
.sought a place outside the city. , 1. m 1 a n 

In the first place, we wished to 

escape the machinations of the anarchists and socialists, who even al that time — twenty-live 
years ago — were continually breeding discontent among our workmen and inciting them to strike. 
They seemed to make us a target for their attacks, and we felt that if we could withdraw our work- 
men from contact with these pco])le. and the other temptations of city life in the tenement districts, 
they would be more content and their lot would be a happier one. Then there was a growing demantl 
for more room to extend our facilities. The Fourth avenue factory was inadequate for our wants, 
and we needed in addition shipping facilities near the water, and a basin in which logs could be stored 
in water to keep them moist and prevent them from cracking. We also needed a large space for a 
lumber yard, a steam .saw mill and a foundry, and many other important adjuncts to our factory 
facilities. After looking about for several years, we found the ideal spot at the place now known as 
Steinway. At that time it was a beautiful garden spot, surrounded by waste lands and vacant lots. 
It was partly wooded, and on a bluflf stood the handsome mansion of Benjamin F. Pike, the well- 
known optician. This property gave us upward of half-a-mile of water front, a navigable canal, and 
plenty of room for our own foundry. Of course we had to create means and facilities for reaching 
the place quickly, which occasioned a great outlay of money, and while difficulties had to be 
surmounted, the project has proved a great success. It is the geographical center of Greater New- 
York. It is nearer to the City than Harlem, as it is only five miles from City Hall. The whole 
matter has had an ideal result, the relations between employer and employed are cordial in 
the extreme, and as an indication of how the latter have prospered, no less than sixty of 



je HISTORY OF LOXG fSLAXD CITY. 

the men t-inpiuscd in Steinway & Sons' factory, own their own houses, while some of them own 
two houses." 

Steinway is a remarkably thriving village now of over 7000 inhabitants. Every house in the 
village is supplied with pure drinking water from the Long Island City mains. An excellent system 
of sewerage has been established there, and gas is supplied by the East River Gas Company. The 
gas is manufactured in the city, and is also conveyed from Long Island in a tunnel under the East 
River all over New York Citj-. 

A Protestant church, situated on a plot of ground 100 by 125 feet, corner of Albert street and 
Ditmars avenue, was built in 1889, accommodating over 1000 persons, which is well attended by the 
people of the neighborhood, and contains the cathedral organ, formerly at Steinway Concert Hall, 
New York City. A German Baptist church has also been erected, which is now in a flourishing 
condition. 




£ 













■•■m^fsM 




The public spirited and philanthropic endeavor of the firm has resulted in solving some serious 
economic problems, and offers conditions worthy of study and emulation. Model houses have been 
erected for the workmen, with good ventilation, perfect drainage and pure water. A public school- 
house for one thousand children was erected in 1877, and the firm maintains at its own expense, in 
addition to the course of instruction furnished by the city, a teacher who gives free tuition in the 
(ierman language and music. A public bath-house, with fifty dressing-rooms, was opened in the spring 
of 1.S81, and, adjoining at the riverside, a park was laid out for a popular resort for old and young. 

The Post Office Department at Washington, in 1881, established a post-office in the place, but 
now the free delivery system has been introduced all over Long Island City, delivering mails four 
times daily, directly to every house. 

In addition to the facilities for education afforded by the public school, Steinway .t Sons have 
erected a handsome building for the Steinway Free Circulating Library, and the Free Kindergarten. 



if/sroRV OF LOX(; jsi..l\ n u i v. 51 

It is situated on the Shore Road and Albert street, in the centre of the vilhigc. All of these advan- 
tajres, which they enjoy throiijjh the thoughtful generosity of the firm, are appreciated by the army of 
employees, and their relations are most cordially friendly. 

Upon William Steinway, personally, though in recognition of the attainments of the house of 
which he is the head, rather than of the other successful enterprises in which he has engaged, more 
honors have been conferred than can well be mentioned in any article less ample than an exhaustive 
monograph. As far back as 1867 he was made (as was also his brother, C. F. Theodore), a member of 
the Royal Prussian Academy of Fine Arts, at Berlin, and the same year the grand gold medal was 
bestowed upon William and Theodore, by King Charles of Sweden, accompanied by an autograph 
letter from Prince Oscar, now King of vSweden. While abroad in the autumn of 1892, Mr. Steinway 
was invited to an audience with the Kmpcror and Empress of (icrmany, and the Emperor jiresented 
him with his portrait bearing the imperial autograph, written in the presence of his guest. " Wilhelm, 
German Emi)eror and King of Prussia, Marble Palais; ii-ix-1892." The Empress also wrote him an 
autograph letter, thanking him for his gifts to the Emperor William I. Memorial Church in Berlin. 
These honors were followed June 12, 1S93, by the bestowal upon him by the Emperor of the Order of 
the Red Eagle, third class, the highest distinction ever conferred by the German crown upon a 
manufacturer. Another honor, rare, if not unique, in America, was that conferred ujjon him in April, 
1894, when he w;is elected honorary member of the oldest and most renowned academy in the (dd 
world, the " Royal Academy of St. Cecilia of Rome," founded by the celebrated composer, Pnlestrina, 
in 15S4. This, as the diploma reads, was " on account of his eminent merit in the domain of music." 

It is not alone upon his achievements in connection with the production of the perfected piano that 
Mr. Steinway's prestige in music rests. It is not too much to say that he <nnd his house have been the 
greatest chcrishers of musical endeavor this country has ever known. The Steinways, and particularly 
William, supported Theodore Thomas' immensely valuable musical enterprises during the darkest days 
of that great conductor's career, and but for them it would have been impossible for New Yorkers, and 
the people of the country generally, to have heard many of that great conductor's early concerts, and 
the cause of orchestral music would have lacked the powerful initial impetus which his efforts gave it. 
Mr. Steinway has been a liberal supporter of other great artists, instrumental and vocal, and nearly 
every movement of .serious and ambitious nature in the musical jirogress of the metropolis and the 
nation has felt the encouragement of his influence and received his aid in tangible form for the ])ast 
third of a century or more. During a period of twenty-five years Steinway Hall was the center of the 
musical history, not alone of New York, but of the United States. Mr. Steinway is a member of the 
(ierman Liederkranz Society, one of the oldest and most powerful musical organizations in the country, 
and for fourteen seasons was its president. As has been heretofore noted, he was, in his younger 
days, noted for his extraordinary physical strength, and as the possessor of a beautiful tenor voice, 
which has been freipiently heard in the high-class concerts of this society. On November 9, 1859, at 
Schiller's one hundredth birthday festival, in the performance of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, he sang 
the great tenor solo, " Free Like the Sun," with splendid success. The primacj' which he is by 
common consent accorded in musical circles, was attested by his being made president of the Columbus 
Festival, held at the Seventh Regiment Armory, October 10, 1S92, and honorary president of the great 
musical festival held at Madison Square Garden, New York, on June 23-28, 1S94. His speech on the 
opening night, before 20,000 people, was most satisfactory in matter and delivery, and was published in 
full by the press of the entire country and partly in Europe. We see, therefore, that large as is the 
responsibility of chief command of the large forces gathered in his great piano industry, it does not 
entirely monopolize Mr. Steinway's energy or ability. His outside investments are of such magnitude 
as alone to distinguish him in the business and financial world, were it not eclipsed by his generalship 
in the conduct of piano manufacture. His business ability is phenomenal. Since 1865 he has been a 
trustee and vice-president of the German Savings Bank, one of the solid institutions of New York. 
He was one of the founders of the Bank of the Metropolis, in 187 1, and since that time has been one of 
its directors. He is vice-president of the Oueens County Bank of this city, a director of the New York 
and College Point P'erry Company, president of the New York Pianoforte Manufacturer's Society, and 
officially connected with numerous other similar institutions. Mayor Grant, in 1890, appointed him 
one of the committee of one hundred citizens to carry out the World's Fair project. At the public 
meeting in City Hall, Mr. Steinway opened the subscription lists with the sum of $50,000, and when 
Congress located the Fair in Chicago, he subscribed and paid in cash §25,000 for the Fair in that city. 



52 HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 

The field of politics is inviting to Mr. Steinvvay's tastes and talents. While often declining public 
honors and responsibilities, his high sense of duty has at times led hira to the acceptance of some 
high positions. He was on the famous "committee of seventy " that in 1871 successfully prosecuted 
William M. Tweed and the Tammany Ring. lie presided at the immense popular meeting at Cooper 
Institute. October 29, 1S86, which indorsed the nomination of Abram S. Hewitt for Mayor. He 
conducted the meeting with ability, and aided in the achievement of its results by his eloquent 
address. In 1888 he was the member of the Democratic National Committee of the United States, 
representing the State of New York, and a delegate to the convention which nomniated Mr. 
Cleveland for a second term. 

October 27, 1892, Mr. Steinvvay presided at the immense mass-meeting of German-Americans at 
Cooper Institute. Grover Cleveland, Carl Schurz, Oswald Ottendorfer, and Dr. Joseph Senner being 
the other speakers. Upward of 20,000 people were assembled. Mr. Steinway's speech was reported 
in full all over the United States, and in synopsis cabled to Europe. In the Presidential election of 
1892, Mr. Stein way was one (;f the Democratic Electors at Large for the State of New York; and 




SCENE ON SIEINWAV AVENUE, STEINWAY, L. I. C. 



he was unanimously elected President of the Electoral College at the Capitol at AHkuiv, when it met 
on January 9, 1893, to cast the vote of the State of New York for President of the United States, 
His activity, influence and ability were recognized by President Cleveland by the offer of a number 
of important Federal offices, which, however, he preferred not to accept. 

The ra|)id transit problem in New York has been one of the great questions (if jniblic interest 
which Mr. Steinway has had at heart during the past two years. As member of every one of the rapid 
transit commissions since 1890, he has labored diligently to discover the best possible plan for 
furnishing the metropolis the ra])id transit which it needs, and soon the city will be a heavy debtor 
for the discretion, zeal and integrity which he has brought to this onerous work. He was unani- 
mously re-appointed a commissioner by the State Legislature under the new law, passed May 22, 
1894, which abolished the old commission, and in the fall of that same year distributed the sum of 
.■$6250, allotted to him by the Supreme Court for his services on said commission, among fifteen charity 
organizations of New York City, and did the same thing in the fall of 1896 with the second sum of 
S5000 allowed him. 



l/ISTORY or LONG ISLAND CITY. 53 

Mr. Stein way has exercised systematically for years a very liberal, philanthropic, and benevolent 
spirit. Mis benefactions at Steinway, Li)nj>f Island City, have already received mention. They form 
only a small part of the foundation for good that lie has built. Beside a large number of charitable 
societies, he is assisting schools and libraries with annual contributions in money, has annually a 
number of young people taught music at his expense, and he has presented many charitable institu- 
tions and schools with pianofortes, and founded annual prizes in others. In 1894 he founded two 
annual prizes of $75 in gold each in the New York Normal College. He is one of the staunchest 
supporters of the German Hospital, and has endowed in it a free bed and various sums of money. 
In February, 1SS9, the great fair given at the American Institute, for the benefit of this institu- 
tion, and managed by him as president, at great expense of time and effort, realized a net profit 
of §1 12,000. 

As if these and .scores of other benefactions and his constant standing as a rock of refuge for the 
needy and aspiring artist, musician, and teacher, were not sufficient, he has crossed the ocean to lay 
his largeness of heart to the benefit (jf the people of his native town. He has founded in See.sen six 
annual prizes for students, and pays the annual school money for no less than seventy- five parents. 
He has annually sent large sums for the poor, and also presented the town with a lieautiful plot of 
ground, which by official vote of the people was named in his honor. " Steinway Park," and has been 
unanimously elected " honorary citizen." He is a Protestant in faith, and his liberality has been felt 
in numerous churches and their auxiliary institutions, regardless of creed. 

Mr. Steinway has been twice married. Hy his first wife, whom he lost in 1876, he has two 
children, George A. Steinway, born June 4, 1865, now a member of the house, and a daughter, Paula 
T. Steinway, born December 13, 1866, wife of Louis von Bernuth. On the i6th of August, 1880, he 
married Miss Elizabeth C. Ranft (daugliter of Mr. Richard Ranft, of New York City, a well-known 
importer of pianoforte materials). She died, after a brief illness, March 4, 1893. Their happy union 
was blessed by the birth of two sons, viz.: William R. Steinway, born December 20, 1881, and 
Theodore Edwin Steinway, born October 6, 1883, and a daughter Maud Louise Steinway, born 
April 6, 1889. 

Mr. Steinway has preserved that wise old world capacity for enjoying the amenities of 
life. He is a cultivated gentleman, greatly appreciated for the many genial qualities which 
he possesses and the gentle bearing which marks the possessor of greatest and truest strength. 
He is a prominent figure in the highest club and social circles, and valued universally 
for his huge achievements, his manly integrity and moral stamina, fine mental ecpiipment, 
equipoise of nature, and all that contributes to the symmetrical development of a forceful 
character. 

His high social standing is illustrated by his membership in the Manhattan Club ; the 
Liederkranz Society, of which he has been fourteen times president ; the Arion, of which he 
is an honorary member ; the American Geographical Society ; New York Historical .Societv : 
the New York Chamber of Commerce ; the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Berlin, and his 
honorary membershi]) of the Royal St. Cecilia Society of Rome, Italy. A sound, enterprising, 
clear-headed, benevolent, and versatile man, and ready speaker, the metropolis is constantly 
the gainer by his remarkable genius. 

The Steinway mansion, the summer residence of William Steinway, is a beautiful building 
of axed granite and iron, with a French slate roof. It is situated on an elevated site east 
of the factory, in the center of large grounds, with extensive lawns, a beautifully laid out 
flower garden and orchard, and a fine stable. It is an ideal summer home, and Mr. 
William Steinwav and his family spend the warm months there every year. 

IHE U.^IMLEk MoroR COMI'.ANV. 

The most important and extensive industry at Steinway, next to Steinway & Sons' piano factory, is 
the Daimler Motor Company, which is engaged in the manufacture of gasoline motors for boats, 
carriages, fire engines street railway.s, and vehicles of all kinds, and for stationary engines, manu- 
facturing and other purposes. This company is the sole owner of the United States and Canada 
patents of Gottlieb Daimler, of Cannstatt, Germany. 

Mr. William Steinway is also at the head of this company. He became interested in the enter- 



54 



IffSrOKV OF LOXG ISLAXP CITY. 



prise in a manner rather incidental. In i88S, while traveling in Germany, his attention was attracted 
by a horseless carriage which had been invented by Gottlieb Daimler, at Canstatt. Vehicles of this 
nature liad for many years been the subject of much inventive experiment and popular interest, hence 
Mr. Steinwav requested the inventor to give him an exhibition of the merits of his motor. The 
inventor calling for him at his hotel, Mr. Steinway rode to the Canstatt factory, a distance of ten miles. 
The journey, which was up and down hill, was made in forty-eight minutes, and after a visit to 
the Daimler factory the return trip was made to Stuttgart in the same vehicle, without mishap of any 
kind. This satisfied Mr. Steinway of the practical nature of the motor, and after his return home he 
introduced one of the motor cars on the line of the Steinway Railroad Company and repeatedly 
carried thirty-five passengers at the rate of twelve miles an hour nnder twelve horse-power. The 
companv, which now has an extensive motor factory at Steinway, was organized, and the patent 
rights to manufacture the Daimler motors in the United States and Canada were acquired. The 
factory, in which the manufacture of motors was commenced, was a small Ijuilding, 25 feet wide by too 




.Daimler Motor Co's.M'f'g. Works. 






NEW YORK Office IIILia^-St. 



feet deep, but the company now occupies a frontage of 150 feet and is constantly adding to its plant 
as the increasing necessities of the business demand. 

Until recently the company only built motors tip to ten horse-power, but it is now prepared to 
receive orders for sixteen, twenty, and twenty-five horse-power motors, and expects in the near 
future to increase the appliances at its command so as to increase the motors to sixty horse-power. 
The uses to which these motors may be applied are various and multiform. They are already in use 
for all sorts of purposes where power is required, and are adaptable to almost any condition, owing to 
the lightness of the motor in proportion to the power generated. The Daimler motor is in use all 
over the world in launches, both for pleasure and business traffic, carrying freight as well as passen- 
gers. The motors have also been utilized for harbor towing purposes and as tug-boats in shallow 
waters, on account of their light draught. They have also been mounted on trucks and wagons for 
freighting purposes. Horseless carriages, driven by the Daimler motors, have been used in Central 
Park and on suliurban roads, and have given great satisfaction. 

The motor has also been put to the odd use of spraying trees in city parks for the killing of 
insects, and t)f turning grindstones for wandering scissor grinders. It is used to propel inspection 



HfsroKV or /.o.yg island city. ss 

cars over railroads and, when fitted to a traveling electric-lij^ht ])lant, attracted much attention at the 
Columbian Exposition atChicaj^o. The wagon, thus fitted out, is thought to be of the greatest possible 
use tor temporary illumination of large buildings or fields where battles have been fought. 

The motor has been also applied to fire engines for smaller towns, a perpendicular stream of 
I 20 feet being easily thrown. 

Daimler launches are on many (lerman steamers, are emjiloyed in harbors, and in cases of 
emergency, as in the following instance, during the Columbian JCxposition : 

A sailboat in which were six persons capsized in Lake Mich.igan. The Captain of the iJaimler 
boat hastened to the rescue, and a fleet of steam launches followed, but the Dxiimlcr boat, which 
developed a speed of sixteen miles an hour, easily distanced all the other craft and had rescued and 
taken on board all the imperiled persons before the other boats reached the spot, the last person 
rescued having been taken out of the water after he had sunk for the second time. Had the Daimler 
boat been two minutes later, at least two of the imperiled lives would have been lost. 

The Daimler motor launches are also very extensively ii.sed in Europe as police boats for harbor 
and river service, and quite a number of them are in service in the United States Navy, as well as in 
the navies of all the European powers. The German Government is just now especiallj' interested 
in utilizing the Daimler motor f(jr torpedt)-boat purposes. 

A Daimler motor car is put to a curious use at the great Krupp Gun Works, in (Germany, where 
one of them has been constantly employed for the last six years. At these wt)rks there is naturally a 
great deal of experimenting in regard to the merits of new guns. The distance nowadays between 
the targets and the gun is much greater than formerly. Officers detailed by their respective 
Governments to watch these experiments are required, first to see the shot fired, and then to proceed 
as cpiickly as possible to the target and note the effect of the shot. Formerly they rode to the target 
on horseback ; now they ride to the target in a Daimler motor car, which runs over a single track 
laid for the purpose, and much greater speed is obtained. 

As a matter of economy, the motor has been adopted on certain of the German railroad lines on 
which the traffic is intermittent. The lines run from outlying farming villages to the contiguous 
market towns, where there are periodical market daj's. On such days the traffic is very heavy, and 
long trains drawn by the regular steam locomotives are run, but on other than market days the traflic 
is very light, and it was found that on such days there was no money in running the regular trains, as 
the cost vvas too heavy. So on what might be called the off days, the Daimler motor is used to draw 
single cars, which are sufficient to accommodate the lighter traffic, and thus a great saving in the 
running expenses is made. The Daimler Company in Germany has just received a large order for the 
motors from several of the railroads on which they have been tried and have proved such an eminent 
success. 

From the facts given above it is apparent to what many and diversified uses the Daimler motor 
has already been put, but what promises, after all, to be the greatest achievement in this direction is 
the perfected horseless carriage or wagon, which must prove of vast importance to the commercial 
world, and which opens up a great field to the practical use of the motor. Wherever a Daimler 
motor has entered a race it has invariably come out victorious over all competitors, with a great 
margin to spare. Recently one of the Daimler carriages went from Paris to Bordeaux and back, a 
distance of 750 miles, in forty-eight hours, a feat which has never been equaled by any similar 
machine. But not only for pleasure vehicles have they been employed and successfully used, but 
they have been also utilized for heavy traffic, such as dry goods delivery wagons, omnibuses, vans 
and heavy trucks, as they are now being built in Germany up to sixteen horse-power. Large dry 
goods houses and other stores, having many parcels to deliver, will doubtless use them instead of the 
delivery wagons now in use, sending them to the outskirts of the city and the suburbs, and they will 
find this method of transporting their packages both rapid and cheap as compared with the present way. 

A three horse-power motor, it has been demonstrated, can be run at a cost of 3 cents an hour. 
Such a motor can do the work of two horses, which, of course, costs many times more than that 
amount. 

The machine is easily handled and does not require the services of a licensed engineer. It is 
cleanly and does not easily get out of order, and has many other advantages over horse traction. 

A very interesting festival took place last December at the home of Mr. Gottlieb Daimler, the 
inventor of the motor now so generallj- in use, when the completion of the one thoussindth motor was 



S6 



HISIVKY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



celebrated. The town of Cantsatt, in Germany, where Mr. Daimler lives, and where the works are 
situated, was decorated and illuminated in honor of the event, and the inventor received numerous 

congratulations on his success. A 
similar event will probably be soon 
celebrated at the factories in France, 
and at Steinway, L. I. 

The works at Steinway have 
been greatly enlarged recently, and 
active preparations are now making 
to increase the facilities so as to 
keep pace with the orders that are 
continually coming in from all 
quarters. Although it is found 
impossible at the present to fill orders 
promptly, the Company will strain 
every nerve to push the horseless 
carriage industry as much as is 
consistent with the high class of work 
it has always turned out. At present 
the Company is building the smaller 
yachts from sixteen feet up to twin- 
screw boats from sixty to seven tj'' 
feet long. The larger motors, now 
under way, will enable the company 
to build boats one hundred feet long 
and over. For this purpose a large 
boat-building establishment has been 
constructed on the water's edge at 
Steinway, with a roomy interior 
harbor or basin where the boats will 
be sheltered from the spring and 
aulimm gales. 

The orticers of the Daimler 
]\lot(ir Companv are : William 
Stemway, President ; tredenck 

Kuebler, Vice-President ; Louis von Bernuth, Treasurer, and Herman E. Kleber, Secretary. Mr. 

Kuebler is the General JIanager at the Stcinwav works. 




ASTORIA HOMESTEAD CO. 



The Astoria Homestead Company, founded and developed by Mr. William Steinway, has been a 
potent factor in building up and populating a picturesque section of country which had been neglected, 
and which, as it has been proved, was exactly suitable for homes of working men. After Steinway & 
Sons had acquired the tract of land on the Long Island shore and had founded the village of 
Steinway, the senior member of the firm, despite the call upon his time and talents, due to the 
management of the largest piano manufacturing concern in the world, was, like Alexander the Great, 
loi iking about for more worlds to conquer. Despite his many engagements, he found time to look 
about him for investments in the neighborhood of the property on Long Island, which he owned, and on 
which the large factory of the firm had been erected. With almost prophetic vision he foresaw that it 
would only be a question of time, and a comparatively short time at that, when the facilities of 
communication between New York City and the contiguous shores of Long Island would be so 
increased by ferries, railroad.s, bridges and tunnels that the Long Island shores would be cho.sen for 
modest homes for artisans, clerks with limited incomes, and thrifty mechanics, away from expensive 
city dwellings. He was also convinced that Long Island City would sooner or later become a part of 
New York City, and what may have l)cen considered by some of his conlemporarics a vi.sionary 



/USIORV OF I.O.Xa fSLAXn CITY. 57 

scheme, has now actually come to pass. Mr. Stcinway has the satisfaction of sceinjj what he had long 
contemplated as a possibility ripen into an actual fact. 

Ill pur.suance of his ideas a large tract of unoccupied land was purchased, and the Astoria 
Homestead Company was incorporated. From a comparatively small beginning this corj)oration 
has grown to be a mighty concern, embodying as it does all the property owned by Mr. 
Steinway per.sonally on the Long Island shores and in New York, Long Island City and 
other parts of the country. Its capital is $1,000,000. 

Immediately upon acquiring the property on Long Island, improvements were com- 
menced. The land, where necessary, was graded and leveled, and laid out in building plots. 
Roads were made and streets were cut through the properly. A large number of cottages 
and dwellings were erected by the company, and were either sold or rented to respectable 
people on easy terms, thus affording to a great many deserving people, healthy, airy and 
comfortable homes within easy distance of their occupations in New York. What a boon this 
has been to the families who had before been cooped up for years in the dark, ill-ventilated, 
and unwholesome tenements may be readily imagined. But the work of the company does not slop 
at simply building homes for tenants and occupants. It has built schoijlhouses, fire engine houses 
and other necessary public structures, and has provided places of recreation and plea.sure grounds 
at the disposal of the residents, and in many other ways has contributed to the comfort, the safely 
and well-being of the community. 

Tile liberal and charitable nature of Mr. Stcinway was evidenced liy the assistance given by him 
to the Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor of this city. A large area of the property 
on the Long Island shore, owned by the company, is composed of vacant lands. When the a.ssociation 
appealed to the owners of vacant lands for the temporary u.se of it for cultivation by the deserving 
poor, Mr. .Steinway at once gave permission to the association to parcel out the unoccupied but very 
fertile lands of the company among such families of the deserving poor as it might select, entirely free 
of charge. The association furnished the occupants of these vacant lots with the necessary tools and 
utensils, seed and fertilizers, had the land plowed for them, and then simply required them to look 
after the cultivation of the land allotted to them. The association e.\pected them to reimburse itself 
for the advances made to the tillers of the soil at the beginning of the season from a certain percent- 
age of the products raised : the rest of the crop, which the occupants did not consume themselves, they 
had the privilege of selling to the neighbors or sending it to market to be disposed of to the best 
advantage. The association only exacted that each occupant of a lot should, during the season, devote 
a |)art of his or her time to the care and cultivation of a portion of the land which the association 
retained as a sort of home farm for the purpose of enabling it to realize enough money for the 
purchase of seeds and fertilizers for the next season's work. The surplus from this farm for last year 
was S6000, and the association offered this sum to Mr. Steinway, but with his usual liberal spirit he 
refused to accept it. lie told the association that he was not in the habit of doing charity by halves, 
and, therefore, it was his desire that the surplus money be employed in furnishing seed, fertilizers and 
agricultural implements for the following season. He also gave the association the free use of ninety 
additional acres of the unoccupied lands of the Homestead Company for the present year. It is 
the greatest source of satisfaction to Mr. Steinway to drive through these lands with his little 
grandson, William Steinway von Bernuth, beside him, and see these miniature farms with their 
ripening crops of potatoes, beans, oats and garden truck that are raised on these vacant lots. 

In addition to the dwellings which have been built and are occupied on the lands of the Astoria 
Homestead Company, there have been also a number of large factories erected there, giving 
emiJloyment to hundreds of men. One of the latest acquisitions to these factories is that which has 
just been completed by the Virgil Practice Clavier Company, situated on Theodore street. The 
building has a frontage of one hundred and seventy-five feet and is two hundred feet deep. It has 
been occupied but a short time. 

The property of the Astoria Homestead Company will be rendered still more accessible when the 
projected Blackwell's Island Bridge is built. The New York terminus of this bridge will be at Sixty- 
fourth street and Fourth avenue, ami the Long Island terminus will be on the land owned by the 
Company. The railroad tunnel, beginning at Hunter's Point, passing under the East River and 
Blackwell's Island, and under Forty -second street, and thence, under the North River to the Jersey 
shore, will, when constructed, make a valuable connection with the Long Island Railroad and tend to 



58 



HISTORY OF LONG IS LA. YD CITY. 



improve property on all parts of Long Island. A bridge lias also been projected from New York to 
Long Island, passing over Ward's Island, and the Long Island terminus of this bridge will be on the 
land of the Company. 

The officers of the Astoria Homestead Company are Louis von Rernuth, President ; David Horn, 
Vice-President ; H. D. Low, Treasurer, and Russell Schaller, Secretary. 

Remarkable interests, therefore, have been centered in this favored section of Long Island City, 
because remarkable men have arisen and chosen it for the scene of a vast enterprise, and wise 
philanthropy. The genius of the firm of Steinway & Sons has given world-wide prestige to our 
municipality and placed humanity under a debt which will be long recognized in history. 







a£,4^fe^^5 







lilAl'TKR IV 



LONG ISLAND CITY. 

UOf N'DARIES AND NATURAL ADVANTAGES NAME ACCOUNT OK INCORPORATION ORGANIZATION INDKR 

CHARTER POLITICAL CHANGES SCHOOLS, CHIRCHES, HANKS, liRlDOES HISTORICALLY 

SKETCHED THE MEDICAL PROFESSION THE HAR THE CITY DEPARTMENTS 

AND OKKICIALS — UNION C(>I.LE(;K HISTORICAL INCIDENTS. 



LONG ISLAND CITY was formed by the consolidation of Blissville, Hunter's Point, Astoria, 
' Ravenswood, Dutch Kills, Steinway and Middletown under a coinmon municipal govern- 
ment. It is separated from Brooklyn on the south by Newtown Creek, from New York 



on the west by the 
the town of Newtown 
the old Bowery Bay 
Cemetery road. Its 
eastern boundaries are 
Bay. The City stra- 
the very heart of New 
miles of water front, 
developed, oflfers facil- 
of the world and is 
any district within tlic 
Newtown Creek, de- 
its commercial advan- 
depth, and in the iii- 
bridges spanning its 
annual mercantile ton- 
valued at §20,000,000. 
the East River from 
though already show- 
velopment, awaits for 
of these larger in- 
to their service the 
the approach of this 
perity, the present 
industries are a pro- 
suburbs of New York 
City as a manufac- 
sive manufacturing 




HENRY S. ANAIILE. 
( Deceased. 1 



East River, and fro m 
on the southeast by 
turnpike and Calvary 
northern and north- 
Hell Gate and Bowery 
tegically lies opposite 
York City. Its ten 
though but partially 
itics for the shipping 
scarcely surpassed by 
watersof the metropolis, 
spite the limitation of 
tages in the want of 
adecjuacy of the draw- 
banks, represents an 
nage of 2,000,000 tons 
The wharfage along 
the Creek to Astoria, 
ing considerable de- 
the most part the rise 
terests which beckon 
fleets of the sea. Of 
era of greater pros- 
growth of capitalized 
phetic indication. The 
have no rival to this 
turing center. Exten- 
plants, some of them 



the largest on the continent, have been located within its bounds for a greater or less period, 
demonstrating the conditions inviting to capital. Spacious and numerous sites still remain. 
Economic production and unexcelled transportation facilities will place them in certain demand 
when a broader municipal policy shall smite the demagogue from political ascendancy and power. 

It being the western terminal of the Long Island Railroad, Long Island City is a 
distributing point, not only for the traffic of Long Island, but for a majority of its populati<.)n 
who have business intercourse with New York. Thirty fourth street ferry has probably more 
railroads focussed at its gates than any other ferry on Manhattan Island. Communication 
with the lower part of New York has long been maintained by James Slip ferry, and in 
summer months by steamboat from Hunter's Point to Wall Street. 

The uplands of Dutch Kills, Astoria, and the sections of the city to the east and north, 
east, arc well adapted for residence. Proximity to the great business centers of the 



6o 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAXD CI TV 



metropolis and the unity of interests which are inseparable from consolidation, are destined 
to result in great appreciation of property values. 

ORIGIN OF THE NAME. 

The honor of first suggesting "Long Island City" as the uaine of the united villages of 
Hunter's Point, Ravenswood, and Astoria probably belongs to Captain Levy Ilayden, Super- 
intendent of the Marine Raihva\% formerly located at Hunter's Point. In 1853, or thereabouts, 
it is chronicled, a member of the Bebee family, of Ravenswood, was induced to take a number 
of shares of the railway stock, and inquired from Captain Hayden what name should be 
given to the concern and to the surrounding country, which was then wild and undeveloped. 
The Captain suggested that before many years the several communities would probably be 
united in a large city, the name of which he said should be "Long Island City." An immense 
flag with this name written in full was hoisted upon the building. 

Thus, in this patriotic manner, the name, by which the coming city became known to his- 
tory, had its auspicious origin. 

The name became fixed in the public mind by the publisher of the Star, who in May, 
1865, had opened a printing office at 63 Vernon avenue. Confident of a coming city and its 

prosperous future, he issued the 
initial number of his new jiubli- 
ealion, Friday, October 20, 1865, 
under the title of Long Island City 
Star. From this time the Star 
devoted its energies to the realiza- 
tion of the project, which steadily 
gained favor, of incorporating 
the several sections of the old 
" Out Plantations " into one. When 
success was achieved after pro- 
longed preliminary work, the name 
which had been inscribed upon 
"Old Glory" prophetically and 
flung to the breeze twenty-seven 
years before. and subseijuently 
adopted for the heading of the 
newspaper, was recognized as a 
befitting one for the new munici- 
pality, which henceforth became 
known as Long Island City. 
Situated as this jjortion of Newtown was relative to the great cities of New York and 
Brooklyn rising on the southern and western boundaries, it inevitably came under the over shadowing 
influence of those vast communities. Farm lands soon had greater than agricultural 
values. Population, houses for business and residence, and intercourse between the 
various parts of the territory rapidly increased, requiring improved conditions. An awakening 
spirit of ])rogress was manifested in popular expressions of discontent. That a higher order 
of things should prevail, and that a prosperous and populous city could be built from the 
clustered villages of western Newtown, had long been urged by progressive citizens. Hunter's 
Point had no pavements save a sidewalk of flags up Borden Avenue. Roads were of ordi- 
nary dirt and often impassibly muddy. There were no sewers, no lights, and no water except 
that obtained from surface pumps. Fever and ague, of the kind that made the bones to 
rattle and shake, had prevailed from the time when the memory of the oldest inhabitant ran 
not to the contrary. In the decade preceding 1870 it assumed a typhoid form and prevailed 
several times as an epidemic. In 1865 the incorporation of Hunter's Point as a village had 
been proposed as a relief from existing conditions. The press, as represented by the Star, 
warmly espoused a larger movement, looking toward the organization of a city. Henry S. 
.\nablc, Ksq., representing the extensive interests of Union College, earnestly supported the latter 




l;OI)INE CASTI.E. 



HISTOKY OF /.ChV(; /S/.-LYP CITY. 



6i 



proposition. Throughout the lower part of the town sympathy therewith was universal. The 
outspoken opposition of Astoria was to be expected in the nature of the case. That village 
had good streets, good lights, good schools, and all the appointments of a first-class village. 
However, public sentiment developed in favor of a municipal government, and culminated, in 
the fall of 1869, in a 
meeting held in Mr. 
Anable's office on Borden 
Avenue. Besides Mr. 
Anable, there were 
present twelve or fifteen 
leading citizens, including 
William Bridge, Thomas 
H. Todd, and fharlcs 
Stevens. The propo- 

siti(jn to draft a charter 
was favorabh' considered, 
and the work was as- 
signed to ^Ir. Anable, 
whose report at a sub 
sequent meeting receiveil 
unanimous approbation. 
Interest now ran high. 
Popular assemblies con- 
vened, and agitation for 
incorporation as a cit\' 
ruled the hour. 

The bill for the in- 
corporation of the vil- 
lages of Astoria, Ravens- 
wood, Hunter's Point, 
Dutch Kills, Blissville, Middletown, and Bowery Bay, under the proposed charter, was presented 
in the Legislature by Assemblyman Francis B. Baldwin, b}' whom, with the earnest support of 
^Ir. Anable and others, its passage was secured through the Assemblj' and Senate. When in the 

it met pronounced opposition at a hearing granted pre- 
paratory to executive action. Friends and opponents 
of the charter were present in large numbers, each side 
being represented by counsel. Remonstrances and 

arguments were presented against executive approval, 
while voluminous petitions evinced prevailing public sen- 
timent in favor. Ex-Governor Lowe and Henry S. Anable, 
Esq., were the leading advocates of the passage of the 
charters. 

lUKIH OK LONG ISI..A.\L) CI IV. 

The bill, having received the unanimous assent 
of the Legislature, was signed by Governor Hoffman, 
May 4, 1870. The intelligence of the Governor's favorable 
action was received throughout the newly consiituied city 
with expressions of approbation. 

IMK I IIAKTKR AND TFS I.KAUING KEATUKEP. 

The most important provisions of the Charter were as 

follows: 

I. THE BOUNDARIES OF THE CITY. 

' All that part of the town of Newtown, in the Count\' 

THK c.KF.ATKR NEW YORK HuTEi . (jf Ouceus. includcd witliiu tile following boundaries, to wit: 




SCENE AT JACKSON AM) VERNON AVENUES. 



hands of Governor John T. Hoffman, 




62 



HfSrORY OF LOXG fSLAXD CITY. 



Bejjinning at the mouth of Newtown Creek, on the east side of the East River, running 
thence easterly, along the center-line of said Newtown Creek to the easterlj- side of Penny 
Bridge (so-called) ; thence northerly, along the center of the Bushwick and Newtown turnpike 
and road from Calvary Cemetery to Astoria to the intersection of said road with the old 
Dutch Kills road; thence easterly, to the center of Woodside avenue; thence northerly, along the 
center of said avenue to Jackson avenue; thence northeasterly, along the center of the Bowery 
Bay road to high water mark in Bowery Bay; thence westerly, along high water mark to the 
harbor commissioners' bulkhead and pier line on the East River; thence southerly, along said 
harbor commissioners' said bulkhead and pier line, on the East River; to the place of beginning, 
shall be a city known as Long Island City; and the citizens of this State, from time to time 
inhabitants within said boundaries, shall be a corporation by the name of "Long Island City," 
and as such may sue and be sued, complain and defend, in any court, make and use a common 
seal and alter it at pleasure; and may receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest or purchase, and 
hold and survey such real and personal property as the purposes of said corporation may require. 

2. DIVISION INTO WARDS. 
Said city shall be divided into five wards, as follows, to wit : 

THE FIRST WARD 
Is bounded by Newtown Creek on the south, by the East River on the west, by Nott 
avenue and Boundarv street on the n(jrth, and the center of Dutch Kills Creek on the east. 





THE SECOND WARD 

Extends from the junction of Dutch Kills and Newtown Creeks northerly along Dutch 
Kills Creek to Boundary street ; thence to Jackson avenue ; thence easterly, to the center of 
the old Dutch Kills road ; thence, to the center of the New York and Flushing Railroad ; 
thence easterly, to the center of Sixth avenue ; thence, to the center of the Bowery Bay road: 
thence southerly, along center of Woodside Avenue, Dutch Kills road and road from Calvary 
Cemetery to Astoria and Bushwick and Newtown road to the center of Newtown Creek at 
the Penny Bridge ; thence westerly, along the center of Newtown Creek to the place of 
beginning. 

THE THIRI) WARD 

Extends from a point on the East River, which would be the center of Nott Avenue when 
extended; thence northerly, to Sunswick Creek ; thence easterly and .southerly, along the center 
t)f said Creek to center of Pierce avenue ; thence easterly, to center of First avenue ; thence 
.southerly, to center of Webster avenue ; thence easterly, to junction of Sixth and Jackson ave- 
nues ; thence .southerly, to center of New York and Flushing Railroad ; thence southwesterly, 
to the center of the old Dutch Kills road ; thence westerly, to the center of Jack.son avenue; 
thence .southwesterly, to the center of Nott avenue ; thence westerly, to the place of beginning. 



II/SrORV OF LONG ISLAM) CITY. 



63 



THE KOURTII WARD, 
inning on the East River at the center of Sunsvvick Creek; thence easterly, along 
bulkhead line to the center of Franklin street; thence easterly, to the intersection of Flushing 
avenue; thence easterly, to the center of Bowery Ray road; thence southerly, to the center 
of Jackson avenue; thence south- , 

westerly, to the center of Webster « • 

avenue; thence westerly, to First .4^ 

avenue; thence northerly, to the 
center of Pierce avenue; thence 
westerly, to the center of Sunswick 
Creek ; thence northerly and west- 
wardly to place of beginning. 

THE FIFTH WARD. 

Beginning on East River at 

the center of Franklin street; 

thence northerly and easterly, to 

high-water mark in Bowery Bay; 



".CTBr-sks^mJ .$ < 



lit III III J ^ i '££i S I 

J'ihn's H0spn.\i 



'■•! 



thence easterly, to Bowery Bay road; thence southerly, to the center of Flushing avenue; 
thence westerl)'-, along Flushing avenue and Franklin street to the place of beginning. 

CITY OFFICERS. 

The officers of said city shall consist of one mayor, one collector, one treasurer, one re- 
corder, two justices of the peace, and two constables, to be elected by the city at large; two 
aldermen to be elected from each ward; and one superintendent of streets, one marshal, one 
clerk, one sealer of weights and measures, and such other officers as are hereinafter author- 
ized for the city at large, who shall be appointed by the mayor and common council, except 
that special police constables may be appointed by the mayor as hereinafter provided, and one 
chief engineer and two assistant engineers of the fire department, who shall be elected as 
hereinafter provided. 

ELECTIONS. 

An election shall be held in each of the wards of said city on the first Tuesday of July, 
1S70, and on the first Tuesday of April in each year thereafter. 

Said wards shall constitute the 
election districts for all State, 
general and other elections to be 
held in said cit)*, and all provisions 
of law applicable to election dis- 
tricts and to the inspectors of 
elections therein, shall apply to 
said wards and said inspectors. 

Various provisions follow, speci- 
fying the respective duties of 
officials, the qualification of voters, 
terms of office, eligibility to office, 
and the constitution and powers 
of the common council. 

A notable provision relating to 
the assessment and collection of 
taxes for city purposes read as 
follows: 

"The common council shall 
direct and cause a simi, not exceed- 
ing twenty-five thousand dollars, for 
the purpose of defraying the salaries and pay of officers and other necessan.- and contingent expenses 
of the city, not herein otherwise specially provided for, to be raised annually by a general tax." 




IHE ASTORIA HOSPITAL. 



64 



H /STORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



Imniediately upon the passage of the above charter preparations were made to carry into 
effect its various provisions for the organization of the new city government. Democratic. 
Republican and Citizens' associations were formed in every ward throughout the city. Abram 
D. Ditmars was chosen as their standard bearer by the Democrats and Republicans, while 
Aaron Bisbee was placed at the head of the Citizens' ticket. The first election under the 
charter transpired Jul}' 5, 1870, and resulted in the choice of the following officials: 

For Maj-or, Abram D. Ditmars, of Astoria; Recorder, George Parsells, of Ravenswood; 
Treasurer, John Hpran, of Hunter's Point; Collector, James Bradley, of Blissville; Justice of 
the Peace, W. Paul Brown, of Hunter's Point; Constables, James Brennen, of Ravenswood, 
and Anthony Meagher, of Hunter's Point. 

Aldermen, First Ward, Henry Rudolph, Patrick Lonergan; Second Ward, Francis McNena, 
W. E. Bragaw; Third Ward, George 
H. Hunter, George H. Williams; 
Fourth Ward, James R. Bennet, John 
Weigand; Fifth Ward, Edward ^l. 
Hartshorne, William Carlin. 

Inspectors of Election, First Ward, 
John O'Neill, Patrick Dunn; Second 
Ward, James Ryan, James Locke: 
Third Ward, George P. Hyer, Edward 
Heatherton ; Fourth Ward, John Ouinn. 
Fred. H. H. Nottbohm ; Fifth Ward, 
Chris. Lawless, Thomas Crowley. 

The following were the majorities 
balloted for the officials elected : 
Ditmars 407, Parsells 297, Horan 475, 
Bradley 895, Brown 343. 

The first charter election, though 
conducted under strict party discipline, 
was characterized with fairness and 
order, and inspired a popular hope for 
emancipation from the rings and 
cliques who long had dominated public 
affairs and fattened upon the sub- 
stance of the people under the old 
township government of Newtown. 

Mayor-elect Ditmars took the 
constitutional oath of office, July 15, 
1870, and on the eighteenth, proceeded 
to organize the new city government. 
By reason of urgent financial needs to 
carry forward public improvements, 
Mayor Ditmars generously presented to 
the city his full salary for his term of 11:1 kk <.:. \an .mst. 

office. 

The first apijointments made by the Mayor and Common Council in executive session 
were for Superintendent of streets, Robert T. Wild, of Astoria ; Deputy Superintendent of 
streets, James Dennen, of Hunter's Point ; City Clerk, Egbei-t Corwith, of Hunter's Point ; 
Sealer of Weights and Measures, J. L. Francen, of Dutch Kills ; City Marshal, A. S. Woods, 
of Ravenswood ; Police Constables, James Fantry and Thomas Darcey. 

It is to be observed that this first charter was a very simple instrument such as might 
be framed for the government of a village. While it accomplished a valuable economic end 
in constituting an organic bond between the several villages embraced within its provisions, 
yet its inadequacy in some particulars was apparent when applied to the exigencies of a 
rising city. The subject of revision was, therefore, early developed and eagerly seized u]X)n 




J/ISrORY or LONG ISLAND CI LY 



6^ 




FREUEKICK \V. IlLECKWENN. 



by politicians wlio advocated enlarged municipal powers for their own purposes. The idea was 

prevalent that the new city was to open a bonanza. Conservative men, who acknowledged the 

propriety of charter rcvisiiin within certain limitations, were overborne, and on April 7, 1871, a 

cumbersome instrument, suited to a city of two hundred 
thousand population, was presented to the Le-^'islature by 
Assemblyman James M. Oakley, and was carried throujjh by 
designing advocates to a final jjassage. The other extreme 
liad now been reached. 

As an illustration of the extravagance of the new 
charter, a city court was created with all the paraphernalia 
of a metropolitan court of justice. It proved to be cumber- 
some, expensive and useless. The Count)' and Justices' 
Courts were ample in jurisdiction to secure the ends of law. 
The people recognized the folly of such a court, and it was 
])romptly abolished by the Legislature. 

Nevertheless, the revised charter was not without 
several advantageous provisions, which met with popular 
approbation. The municipal territory was severed from 
the town of Newtown; three commissioners to be appointed 
by the Mayor were to govern the police force and act also 
as a Board of Assessors, consisting of three members to be 
appointed by the Mayor; the appointment of a Commission 
for the immediate survey of the city with a view to mapping, 
establi.shing grades and laying out streets ; the City 

Treasurer was also to be the Receiver of Taxes; measures were to be taken looking to an adequate 

water supply, and the organization of a Board of Education for the government and direction of 

the city schools. 

The election for Mavor, under the revised charter, occurred in April, 1872, and resulted in the 

choice of Henry S. Debevoise, who had been City Clerk under his predecessor. 

Perhaps the most important provision of the new charter related to the introduction of water into 

the city. A Water Department was created, which went at once into active operation. Lands, pipes 

and machinery were purchased, but the enterprise ended disastrously, and in 1875 Mr. Ditmars was 

re-elected to the Mayoralty, under whom the water system was 

successfully completed. Mayor Ditmars having resigned from 

office, John Ouinn, President of the Common Council, became 

Acting Mayor and was succeeded m 1876 by Mr. Debevoise, who 

was reelected over John Bodine, his opponent, a nominee of the 

Ditmars Democracy 

In 1878 the contest for Mayor was between John Uuinn and 

Henry S. Debevoi.se, the latter being again elected. 

In 1879 no city election was held, a law having pas.sed the 

Legislature carrying the election over to the fall. The ilayor's 

tenure of office was also changed at this time from two to three }'ears. 
In 1880, George Petry having been nominated against Mr. 

Debevoise, the latter was returned to office by a majority of 295. 

Mr. Petry contested the result of the election, and having instituted 

quo luarranto proceedings, was successful and assumed the reins of 

government. 

In 1883 Petry was renominated and re-elected, Patrick J. | 

Gleason having been the opposing candidate. • 

1 1 CT HtNJA.MI.N \k IN 

In 1886 there were four candidates. Mayor Petry, Patrick J. 
Gleason, Richard Armstrong and Dr. \V. R. Taylor. Gleason was elected through 
Petry's ticket. 

At the ensuing municipal election of 1S89 Gleason was re-L-lcctcd over F. \V 




division of 



Bleckwcnn. 



66 HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 

In 1S92 Horatio S. Sanford, the Jeffersonian candidate, defeated G'.eason, who again had secured 
a renomination. 

The mayoralty contest of 1895 was triangular. The three standard bearers in the field were Dr. 
B. G. Strong, John P. Madden and P. J. Gleason. The total vote cast was 7428. Strong received 
2146, Madden 2520, and Gleason 2550, the latter carrying the day by a plurality of 30, notwithstand- 
ing that he had polled only 34 per cent, of the popular vote. 



MUNICIPAL DEPARTMENTS. 

THE FIRE DEP.\RT.MF.NT. 

Until Januar)', 1893, the force and apparatus of the Fire Department were inadequate to the 
service required. At that time the work of thorough reorganization was instituted and continued 
imtil the department reached its present status of equipment. The Legislature appropriated $35,000 
for this purpose, and $40,000 annually for its maintenance. The proceeds of the bonds thus author- 
ized were devoted to the purchase of four new engines, two of the La France pattern and two made 
by the American Fire Engine Company, two Hay's trucks with extension ladders, two Gleason & 
Bailey hose wagons, five thousand feet of new rubber hose, and the outfitting of two trucks with six 
Hallow-ay chemical fire extinguishers. Two former fire-houses have been repaired, five others 
erected and leased to the city on five year terms, while tw-enty-four horses and thirty-eight well- 
drilled firemen, under a competent chief, complete the preparations for efficient service. 

Throughout the city there are distributed 350 fire hydrants of the Wood & Galvin pattern. In 
some localities the water pressure is sufficient to dispense with the aid of a fire engine. In 
rapidly growing sections, where other facilitieis are inadequate, running streams have beem dammed 
and temporary cisterns constructed for emergencies. 

The fire alarm system embraces twenty non-interfering alarm boxes, one bell striker, eleven 
indicators and gongs, two chemical tappers, thirty-three telegraph keys, one galvanometer and all 
other auxiliaries necessary to a first-class system. 

The total valuation of the Department is placed at $70,000. 

In addition to this equipment, there are five fire boats, all owned by the Newtown Creek Towing 
Co., in constant readiness for service. Of these, the "Protector," is under special contract with 
the city to render assistance at any needed point along the water front. She is equipped with pumps, 
hose and an eighty horse-power engine. The effective work done by these boats at various times is 
well known to the public. 

As a result of the efforts thus expended toward a higher efficiency in this department of the 
municipal service, it may be confidently claimed that few cities of like population in the State possess 
superior facilities for the control of that costly devastating element, to tlie outbreak of which there is 
constant liability. 

FINANCES. 

The present financial status of the city may be summarized as follows: 

TAX LEVY BV C(JMMON COUNCIL, DECE.MBER 30, 1 895. 

Assessors' Valuations. 



1 Ward 

2 Ward 

3 Ward 

4 Ward 

5 Ward 



$5. 3 '4, 160 
2,083,680 
2,622,772 
3,945.310 
2,933-710 

$16,899,632 



HfSTOKY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



67 



State and County Taxes. 

State and County purposes 

Interest 

Surplus 

Support of County Poor 

Expenses, Blissville Bridge 



City Taxes. 

Public Debt and Interest 

Interest on General Improvement Bonds 

Support of Schools . 

Salaries 

Police Department . 

Fire Department 

Health Department . 

Contingent Fund 

Poor Fund . 

Judgment Fund 

Board of Examiners of Plumbers, etc. 

Public Library 



Total of Taxes. 



State and County 
City . 
Ward . 



§85,224.91 
3.956-20 

1.237-56 
2,709.07 
1,510.20 

$94,637-94 



$104,658.42 

43,o'5-63 

1 12,000.00 

36, 120.00 

58,650.00 

40,000.00 

9,000.00 

37,500.00 

8,000.00 

69.937-5° 
2, 100.00 
3,000.00 

$523,981-55 



$94,637.94 

523,981.55 

76, 112.00 



Suiinnary of Rates on $100. 

City. 

1 Ward 3. to .28 .56 3.94 

2 Ward 3- 10 

3 Ward 3. 10 

4 Ward 3. 10 

5 Ward 3.10 

Selieifiile of Revenue Bonds of Long Island City Outstanding June /, iSgd. 



Ward. 


State & Co. 


A 


.28 


•S6 


Z- 


•55 


.56 


4- 


•54 


•56 


4- 


•55 


•56 


4- 


•50 


•56 


4- 



Date. 




Rate. 


Amount. 


Due. 




October i. 


1 888 


4 per cent. §106,000 


October i. 


'903 


December 2, 


18S9 


4 1-2 ' 


' 1 8, 000 


December i, 


1899 


Mav I, 


1890 


4 per ' 


' 77,000 


May I, 


1910 


July I, 


1886 


6 " 


44.500 


July I, 


1896 


May I, 


1887 


5 


' 6,500 


May I, 


1897 


May I, 


1888 


5 " 


39.000 


May I, 


1898 


November i. 


1889 


41-2 ' 


9,500 


November i, 


1899 


June I, 


1890 


4 per ' 


' 28,500 


June I, 


1900 


September i, 


1891 


5 " ' 


' 50,000 


September i, 


1901 


July I, 


1892 


4 1-2 


' 80,000 


July I, 


1902 


April I, 


1893 


4 1-2 ' 


' 50,000 


April I, 


1903 


April I, 


1894 


4 1-2 * 


' 60,000 


April I, 


1904 


April 1, 


1895 


4 1-2 ' 


' 50,000 


April 1, 


'905 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



iSg6. 



Stdtfiiiciit of Bonded Iiidcbtcdncsi, September /, 

7 per cent. Newtown Funded Debt Bonds 
7 per cent. Newtown Refunded Debt Bonds 

6 per cent. Newtown Refunded Debt Bonds 

4 per cent. Newtown Refunded Debt Bonds 

7 per cent. Funded Water Debt Bonds 

5 per cent. Refunded Water Debt Bonds . 

4 per cent. Refunded Water Debt Bonds . 

6 per cent. Water Debt Bonds 

3 1-2 per cent. Water Debt Bonds . 

7 per cent. Survey and Map Bonds 

5 per cent. Refunded Survey and Map Bonds 
7 per cent. Fire Department Bonds 

4 1-2 per cent. Fire Department Bonds 

4 1-2 per cent. Public School Bonds 
412 per cent. Public School Bonds, new . 

5 per cent. En<;inc House Bonds . 
5 per cent. Station House Bonds . 

4 1-2 per cent. Funding Debt Bonds, 1893 

4 1-2 percent. Street Improvement Bonds 

4 1-2 percent. General Improvement Bonds 

Revenue Bonds, 18S3 

Revenue Bonds, 1884 

Revenue Bonds, 1885 

Revenue Bonds, 1886 

Revenue Bonds, 1887 

Revenue Bonds, 1888 

Revenue Bonds, 1889 

Revenue Bonds, 1890 

Revenue Bonds, 1891 

Revenue Bonds, 1892 

Revenue Bonds, 1893 

Revenue Bonds, 1894 

Revenue Bonds, 1895 

Revenue Bonds, 1896 



Water Bonds delivered by Mayor, as per resolution of 

Common Council: 
Water Supply Bonds, 1895 ..... 



$8 1,500 00 
64,000.00 

1 12,500.00 
16,000.00 

150,000.00 
75,000.00 
45,000.00 
47,000.00 
40,000.00 
4,000.00 
66, 000. CO 
20,000.00 
35,000.00 

220,000 00 

122,000.00 
16,000.00 
15,000.00 

1 1 2,000.00 

573,5°°-°° 
I, 224,000.00 

106,500.00 
18,000.00 
77,000.00 
44,500.00 
6,500.00 
39,000.00 
9,500.00 
28,500.00 
50,000.00 
80,000.00 
50.000.00 
60,000.00 
50,000.00 
50,000.00 

5I3, 708,000.00 



19,000.00 



Total bonded indebtedness 



^53,727,000 00 

LrciEN Knai'p, 
Citv Treasurer and Receiver. 



rill. I'Hl.K K Dl.l'AKTMKNT. 

Previous to the incorporation of the city the enforcement of the law was entrusted .solely to 
constables supported by Justices of the Peace. Of the number who officially represented this part of 
the townshi]), now lying within our municipal boundaries, were William Heaney, Thomas Darcy, Owen 
Slaven and Bernard Keagan. That the office of a town constable, however, was not exempt from 
abuses and the liability to yield to the power of perquisites appears from the conviction, then popu- 
larly established, that the seven constables of Newtown cost the public more than the whole police 
force of the city after incorporation. The annual bills of each official were exorbitantly large and 
were liberally increased by the costs of the Ju.stices' Courts, which audited the charges of the 
constables. 



///SJVKV ()/• LOXC ISLAXD C/TY 



69 



This old system, which had degenerated from a noble ancestry, was swept away from this part of 
Xewtown upon the adoption of the charter of 1870. Acting under the police provision of the charter. 
Mayor Ditniars appninted Anthony S. Woods to the office of City Marshal, whose duties were both 
civil and criminal. Under the amended charter of 187 1, Marshal Woods was promoted to the 
captaincy of the police department, the remaining members of the force being one sergeant and ten 
IKitrolmen. Tliough the charter provided for thirty patrolmen, it was found impracticable to put on a 
larger number of men, owing to inadequate appropriation of funds. 

The first Board of Police Commissioners, duly qualified under municipal law, was composed of 
fohn Bodine, Albert Gallatin Stevens and Joseph McLaughlin. Under successive administrations the 
police department performed its functions uneventfully for the most part, and without noteworthy 
interruption. Captain Woods remained in command of the force during the entire history of the city 
until the accession of Mayor Gleason 
to power in 1896, when he was 
arbitrarily deposed. The present 
police force of the city consists of 
seventy-five patrolmen, one sergeant, 
one acting sergeant and a captain. 

While this branch of the munici- 
pal service has exhibited an efficiency 
proportioned to the legal limitations 
under which it is constituted, yet 
since the erection of these various 
villages into a city, there has never 
been a time when the police depart- 
ment has adequately responded to 
public need. The number of patrol- 
men has been insufficient to extend 
police protection over the various 
sections of the city. In each precinct 
one regular and one acting sergeant 
have necessarily failed to thoroughly 
equip a post where twenty-four hours' 
service is daily required. This has 
proven too narrow a margin for 
efficiency, and public interests have- 
proportionately sutfered. 

The most notable crime in the 
history of the city, was tlie " Masked 
Burglary" of 1874-76. A gang of 
dock thieves, half a dozen or more in 
number, led by one John James, 
crossed the East River from New 
York in a row boat late at night, and Juhn h. sutphin. 

as a first exploit stopped a car on \'ernon avenue, robbing the passengers of all available property. 
They then entered the store of Henry Green, at the corner of Broadway and Vernon avenue (now the 
Sunswick House), pistols in hand, threatened the lives of the inmates and secured a large amount of 
goods, with which they safely escaped. The same night they attacked the residence of Mr. Hiller, 
of Ravenswood, pillaging the premises of all valuables and attempting a personal assault upon one 
of the members of the family. For the latter oflfence the leader of the gang shot his companion, 
fracturing his arm. With their abundant spoils they then returned whence they came. 

The news of the raid the next morning fired the whole city. The incident is still recalled as of 
an extremely sensational character. 

15y the prompt and persistent efforts of Captain Woods, aided by a large detective force, the 
culprits were finally arrested in the Fourth Ward of New York City, brought to this city, held before 




70 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY 



the Grand Jury, indicted, tried, found guilty and sentenced, the leader, James, receiving- 35 years, 
the others 15 years, at Sing Sing. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH OF CITY SCHOOLS. 

In the educational development of a people lies their most important history. The early colonists 
of America regarded popular intelligence as fundamental to the perpetuity of free institutions. To this 
the early settlers of Newtown were no exception. The English brought the impress and advantages 
of much mental culture, and in a few instances of intellectual accomplishment. Nor were the Dutch 
wanting in these principles of character or mind, which underlie an enlightened commimity. Peter 
Berrien has left a record even of fine scholarship. He was an expert penman, good surveyor and 
commanded both the Dutch and English languages. Most of the deeds and public writings of his 
time were products of his skill. In every colonial hamlet were men of similar stamp. If not the 
lawyer and doctor, the preacher was surely there in whom lived also the schoolmaster. The first 
school was the home. The first book was the Bible, and sometimes, particularly with girls, it was the 

last also, saving perhaps the catechism. The three 
R's measured the pedagogical gamut and were an 
adequate qualification for a period yet lingering in 
the rudiments of commerce. Education, therefore, 
like other lines of individual development, was in its 
infanc3^ Yet the instincts of a people who sought 
these shores for civil and religious liberty recognized 
in intellectual and moral instruction, the strongest 
bulwark of a new society. 

In 1683, there being but yo men with families 
in the town of Newtown, and these widely scattered, 
the erection and conduct of a common school was 
impracticable. At a later period, in 1720, a school- 
house was built in Newtown, whither was sent the 
youth of Mespat Kills and the "Out Plantations." 

In the following year, 172 1, sensible of the 
need of improved facilities for education, Joseph 
Hallett, by deed dated May 20, generouslj- donated 
a lot thirty by twenty feet, "lying next to George 
Brinckerhoff's woodland, for use and benefit of a 
schoolhouse. " He associated with himself as joint 
owners Samuel Hallett, Samuel Moore, Joseph 
Moore, Thomas Skillman and Isaac Bragaw. 

This was the first school within the present 
precincts of this city. It was situated on the New- 
town road in Middletown (German settlement). 
The historian, Riker, records the undertaking "as 
hazardous, " by reason of the expense incurred. It 
remained for a later day to endow this primitive institution in an original manner. The incident 
occurred in the early part of the present century, and is thus related by Mr. Riker in his "Annals 
of Newtown." 

"This was the discovery by one of the school boys of a bag of gold to the value of $840, which 
had belonged to one John Kearns, who had taught school here during the Revolution. The mone}' 
was taken possession of by the teacher, whose name was Neal, but the neighbors, hearing of it, 
collected, and took him before William Leverich, Esq., by whose order the money was forced from 
him. Owing, however, to some irregularity in the proceeding, Neal prosecuted the several persons 
engaged in searching him, including the justice, and recovered damages for assault and battery, 
while N. Moore, as administrator for Kearns, sued and obtained the money." Rarely is capital 
uselessly buried when placed in an institution of learning. 

The old schoolhouse survived until fifty years ago, when it was sold and annexed for domestic 
purposes tf) an adjoining dwelling. 




.MAKV J. K. N. STKANU. 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



7' 



The second school building was on the Shore road, upon "one square rod of land" donated by 



1 to be kept for the education of their children." This spot of 
year to Thomas LawrcUL-e, tVirnclius i^crrian, Joseph Moore. 





r 




r 




^jHHIH^^^^^^^^HIH^^^^^^^I 



IHE l.o.SG IsL.VNU CITV HlUll SCHOOL (lOK.MKKLV HIE OLU .MU.SbU.N .MA.NSIUKJ. 



John Lawrence in 1734, '" for a schoo 

ground he deeded in the following 

William Leverich and Hendrick 

Wiltsee, for the purposes mentioned, 

and there more than one generation 

gathered the memories of a district 

school, which became the romance of 

after years. 

A strongly marked educational 

advancement occurred some years 

later at Ilallett's Cove. Probably 

rather as an attractive agency for the 

development of the community than 

as a response to local need, the 

progressive residents of that locality 

encouraged the founding of a school 

for instruction in the classics and 

other advanced branches. They 

sought patronage beyond their own 

limits, by inserting in the New York 

Mercury, of April 26, 1762, the 

following advertisement: 

" To THE Public — This is togiv^ 

notice to all ivhoin it iiiav concern. That William Rudge, late of the city of Gloucester, in Old England, 

still continues his school at Hallett's Cove, where he teaches Writing in the different hands, Arithmetic 

in its different branches, the Italian method of Book-keeping by way of Double Entry, Latin and 

Greek. Those who choose to favor him may depend upon having proper care taken of their children, 

and he returns thanks to those who have already obliged him. The school is healthy and pleasantly 

situated and at a very convenient distance from New York, from where there is an opportunity of 

sending letters and parcels, and of having remittances almost every day by the periaugers. Letters 

will be duly answered, directed to the said William Rudge, at Hallett's Cove. 

" We, who have subscribed our 
names, being willing to continue 
the schoolmaster, as we have 
hitherto found him a man of close 
application, are ready to take in 
boarders at j[,i& per annum: Jacob 
Blackwell, Jacob Hallett, Jr., 
Thomas Hallett, Jacob Hallett, 
Jacob Rapelye, John Cireenoak, 
Samuel Hallett, Jr., William 
Hallett, Richard Hallett. Richard 
Herrian, Riciiard Penfold, William 
Hallett, John McDonough. " 

In 1849, Stephen A. Halsey, 
with several others, bought several 
farms, surveyed and plotted them 
into lots, and opened through them 
Broadway, The Crescent, Emerald, 
Academy and Grand Streets, 
together with First, Second and 
Jamaica Avenues. At that time he 

donated a plot of ground 100 feet by 200 feet on Academy street and was instrumental in the erection 
the building now used bv the Fourth Ward School. This school at the time of the incorporation of 




TlllKl) WARD SCHOOL. 



72 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CI TV 




the city was known as No. 3 of the schools of Newtown. In 1S50 it was made a free school by the 
Legislature and up to the date of this writing has had an uninterrupted record as one of the most 

successful schools in the western 

section of Long Island. 

At the beginning of this century 
was built No. 4 of the schools of New- 
town. It stood on Skillman avenue, 
near School street, on the farm of 
Richard Bragaw. At that time the 
district represented by this school 
included Hunter's Point, Ravens- 
wood to Webster avenue, eastward 
to and including Woodside. The 
plain frame structure 20x60 feet, 
shingled on all sides, was in use till 
1863, when it was destroyed by fire. 
This school and its primitive 
methods of instruction is intimateh' 
interwoven with the memories of 
many of those residents of the city 
who still survive in advanced years. 
It was never a free school but cost, 
..iKMAN -11 II I MINI -'11. ml. ,^g qjtate^i \yy Gco. iMcA. Gosman, 

Esq., district collector at one time, $1475 P^i" annum. Two weeks in July was the longest resi)ite 
of the year from the exactions of the four R's (including the rod). 

Two years after the demolition of No. 4 the present huikling at Sunnysidc was erected, which is 
still in use as the Primary School of the Second 
Ward. 

In 1861 the extensive district, covered by No. 
4, was divided by the setting off of the Hunter's 
Point District. In April of that year H. S. Anable, 
representing Union College, leased a brick building 
on Sixth street, whereupon School No. 11 was at 
once organized, with Freeman Hiscox as President 
of the Board of Trustees and Isaac Sterns as 
principal. This school, by its excellent reconl. 
justified the wisdom and generosity of those wlio 
were instrumental in its origin. 

Upon the consolidation of the several sections 
into the one municipality of Long Island City and. 
especially upon the adoption of the revised charter, 
all school and educational matters were relegated to 
the custody and direction of the Board of Education. 
To systematize methods and courses of study and to 
carry forward the several schools of the city in 
harmony, under a common regime, advancing the 
standard and providing facilities for attendance as 
warranted by progressive C()nditi(^ns, was the task to 
which the Board at once addressed its energies. In 
1873 a school was organized in Ravenswood. In 
1877 the needs of the Fifth Ward and Blissville 
were met in like manner. A superb building was 
erected at Steinway, mainly by the generous aid of 
William Steinway, Esq., as elsewhere more fully stated. 

I'-njm 18S7 to 18., J the present commodious structures in the I'ir^i. S.-.cnd, '\'\\\\\\ and Fiflli Wards 




i 



I i ; 



_a^AtJi( 



IMKS'l' WAKl) 



/f/sroRY or iA>.\(; islaxp city. 



73 



were erected to meet the demands of a school population, which had increased more than two hundred 
per cent, since the date of incorporation. The present cost of maintaininif the educational system of the 
city is about $150,000 per annum. 

A unique feature of practical methods of instruction throujjhoul the schools f>f the city is the 
system of school hankinjf, by which all pupils are encourajred to save their pennies for dejwsit in the 
Savinjjs Bank. This system was introduced by John H. Thiry, Esq., school commissioner at various 
times and widely known in educational circles throujjhout the nation, because of his intellijcent interest 
in whatever relates to the welfare of public schools. This city enjoys the distinction of beinij the first 
in the nation to recojjni/.e the value of school banks. 

rill, SUKVKV COMMISSION. 

In .May, 1S71, (ieor<;e B. McClellan, William B. Franklin and Stephenson Towle were constituted, 
by act of the Lejifislature, " Survey Commissioners" for the purpose of laying out the streets, avenues, 
roads and parks, and determininj^f the gradesof Long 
Island City. These Commissioners appeared 
before the Mayor at the Clerk's office. Hunter's 
Point, on May 4, and took the oath of office. In 
the prosecution of its work, the Commission 
confined itself chiefly to the newer sections of 
the city, adjusting the already mapped portions of 
Astoria and Himter's Point thereto without 
material change, plotted the city as it now stands, 
naming its streets and avenues and filing its 
completed survey with the clerks of both cit\' 
and county. 

TIIK PUUI.IC LIBRA KV. 

Carlyle once observed that "The true 
University of these days is a collection of books." 
Every wise voice beside liisown has also celebrated 
the value of books. Say what is best, something 
better still remains to be said in their praise. Few 
greater pri\'ileges, therefore, can a communitv 
confer upon its citizens than the use of a public 
librarj-. That Long Island City is able to offer 
the advantages of such an institution to the public, 
without money or price on the part of its people. 
is owing to the munificent gift of William Xelson, 
of New York City. L'pon the acceptance of the 
gift by the city, in pursuance of the accompanying 
condition that the city should maintain the library 

at its own expense, the following trustees were apjiointed. December 2.S, 1.S95, by Mayor Sandford and 
confirmed by the Common Council: Dr. W. ('.. Frcv. V. W. Blcckwenn, Rev. W. 11. Weeks. Winthrop 
Turney and George E. Clay. 

The Library was duly opened August 14, 1.S96. and its six thousand volumes were placed at the 
command of the public. 

An excellent Reading Room is also connected with the Library, which was opened to public use 
August 7, 1896. Twenty-seven publications, embracing leading dailies and magazines, were upon its 
racks, with the probability that the number will be largelv increased. 

The Library is accessibly located at 26 and 28 Jackson avenue, between Third and Fourth streets, 
and is opened daily from 8 a.m. to 8 p..m., e.xcept Sundav. 

rUK STREF.T RAILWAYS OF LONG ISl.ANll CIIV^ /^ 

The first street railway constructed in this city, was that of the jU ivalry Cemetery line, leading 
from Thirty-fourth street ferry. Early in the seventies, a charter was obtained from the legislature, 
the track laid, and the road went into operation. This was succeeded in 1876 by the Dutch Kills hne. 




IIITM WAKl 



74 



HISTORY OF I.OXG ISLAND CITY. 



which was organized aud carried to completion mainly by the energy of William Radde, who owned 
extensive interests in land in the Third Ward. The present route is as originally surveyed. This 
line, imder the management of the late Josiah M. Whitney, responded to a public need, and was 
successfully operated for a number of years as the nucleus of that larger system which it anticipated. 
Increased facilities of transportation and intercoiirse between the various sections of the city being 
required by an advancing population, the city railways soon engaged the attention of that public 
spirited citizen, William Steinway. Amendments to the charter having been obtained from the 
legislature, the Dutch Kills line having been transferred to the hands of the Steinway Company, was 
extended through Jackson and Steinway avenues to the village of Steinway, throiigh Vernon avenue 
and the Boulevard to Ninety-second street ferry, Astoria, and up Flushing avenue to Steinway. The 
mechanical features of the entire new system were improved, and public convenience promoted. The 
introduction of electric power and the accession of a new management in 1893, inaugurated a new era 

in the development of the system. It 
is now one of the great corporations 
of Greater New York. Two years 
ago it had twcnt\'-six miles of track. 
It now has more tlian sixtx' miles. 

In place of a score or two of 
motor cars there will be 139 summer 
cars this season (1896) equipped with 
motors, and the company will have 
altogether 240 motor cars. A new 
l^nver house is jiist being completed, 
and a storage house covering acres of 
ground is in course of construction. 
I^'ormerly the ]3urchase of a dozen or 
more cars at one time would have 
been considered a great addition to 
the equipment, 'i'his year they have 
just bought 100, which are being 
delivered as rapidly as they can be 
transported from .St. Louis. 

They have ten .seats and a seating 
capacity of fifty persons. Finished 
in oak and ash, with brass trimmings, they are as comfortable and ornamental as any ears running in 
the (ireater New York district. Each is lighted by eleven incandescent electric lights and equipped 
with the latest style of weather curtains, which afford the best protection against a storm. The 
ornamented glass in the front of the roof is vari-colored, so that the line on which the car runs can be 
readily seen in the night time. The glass in the Jackson avenue cars is red, in the Flushing cars, 
white; in the Dutch Kills cars, blue; in the Ravenswood cars, yellow, and in the Calvary and Lutheran 
cemetery lines, green. This will enable a person to know the destination of a car at night when it is 
difficult to distinguish the painted dashboard signs. 

Besides the new cars several of the old summer ones are being equipped with motors. They were 
used for trailers and were formerly horse cars. They have been strengthened so that they are 
now as .serviceable as the other cars used. The intention of the company is to have a sufficient number 
of trolley cars so that it will not be necessary to use trailers. Besides the 1 00 new cars, they have thirty- 
nine old summer ears. These 139, they believe, will be sufficient to meet the demands of the public 
on all the lines, unless the increase of traffic is far beyond the anticipation of the company. 




LONG ISLAND KAIl KOAIJ STATION. 



MII.KS OF I.MPKO\l;l) IkACK. 

In the laying of the new tracks, and in extensions, the improvements have been on the same scale as 
in the addition of new cars. Thirteen miles of new track have been laid with the ninety-pound rail 
manufactured by the Cambria Iron Works, of Cambria, Penn. These rails are the best that are made, 
and are forty or fifty pounds hea\'icr than the rails used on steam railroads. The special rails used on 
curves and crossings were manufactured by the Pennsylvania Steel Works. 



n/sri-iRV OF LON(; island city 



75 



In 1895 the new rails were laid on Borden avenue up as far as Jackson and Vernon avenues, to 
replace the duplex rails, which, although laid only two years apo, had proven to be unsatisfactory and 
inadequate for the heavy travel. The new rails are laid on ties and the bed is as solid as a steam rail- 
road line. The replacinjj of the duplex rails on Jackson avenue, with the new rails, was commenced 
about a month ajjo and the work was coini)Iclcd inside nf a moiuh by cni]jloyin>if a larjce force of men 
and tearing up long distances of street. 

New rails had been previously laid from Jackson avenue to Steinway avenue, and from Steinway 
avenue to Flushing avenue. The laying of this connection made two of the lines complete to North 
Beach. The facilities for reaching that popular resort have been completed. A line <jf tracks to St. 
Michael's Cemetery, thence to Ehret avenue, thence to Silver Spring Lake, where a loop has been made 
an^und the lake, forms a double track extension from St. Michael's Cemetery, a mile in length. Another 
improvement is the running of the line up the (Irand Boulevard to a point opposite Silver Spring Lake 
turning in a southerly direction and making a loop at the Spring. This line is but twenty feet at its 
terminal from the Flushing avenue line, so that a cross over enables the cars to pass from one line to 
the other in case of accident or blockade. Over one of these extensions the Jackson avenue cars now 
run, while the Flushing avenue line runs over the other. Other projects of the company relate to the 
reconstruction and extension of the old Long Island City and Newtown Railway Com])any. 

rilK NKW srORA(;K liUII.IUXO. 

The new storage house at Woodside, just outside the city limits, is one of the most ])crfcclly ecpiipped 




>i' RAU.ROAU FERRIES ANli 



railroad storage houses in the country, and there are few larger. It has a frontage on Jackson avenue 
of 221 feet and extends back to Anderson avenue, a distance of 350 feet. 

The building is erected in three sections, making practically three separate structures. Two thick 
partition walls of brick will run the whole length of the building and rise three feet above the roof. 
These walls are built for protection against fire by direction of the insurance companies. The first 
section of the building — the section nearest Woodside avenue — is used for the repair shop; next to this 
the second section, about fifty feet, is used for storage purposes with a place on the Jackson avenue end 
for washing cars. The other section, 103 feet in width, is used exclusively for storage purposes. 

The repair shop is divided transversely into three parts. The end next to Jackson avenue is the 
machine shop. In the rear of this is the carpenter shop, and in the rear of that the paint shop. Tracks 
run through the repair shop from Jackson avenue to Anderson avenue so that cars are run from one to 
the other with the greatest facility. Traveling cranes are so arranged that a car on entering the 
machine shop can be picked up from the track and transferred to any other track or any other part of 
the machine or carpenter shop with perfect ease. It is not necessary that it should extend back to the 
paint shop. Both carpenter and paint shops are fitted up with the latest machinery, and the equipment 
is so complete that new cars can be constructed at the shops if desired. One corner of the repair shop, 
next to Jackson avenue, is partitioned off for a winding room; that is for the winding of armatures 
which often have to be done on account of the burning out of the wires. 

In addition to these three main sections of the building there is a small annex built on the sUghtly 
irregular piece of ground on the Woodside side of the building which could not have been covered had 



76 HISrORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 

the buildinuf been constructed on strictly straight Hnes. In the annex, which is as much a part of the 
building as any one of the three sections named, there are the offices, a waiting room, store rooms for 
materials for the carpenter, paint and machine shops, all separate, and a blacksmith shop which opens 
into both the carpenter and machine shop. 

Till'. I'OWKR HOfSKS. 

Down on the East river another immense electric plant is nearing completion with a capacity of 
2 200 horse-power for immediate use, which can be ultimately increased to 5000 horse-power. This 
plant is located close up to the old one. The boilers of the two houses have a capacity of 6000 horse- 
power, which is sufficient to give an engine capacity of 10,000 horse-power. Four engines are placed 
in the engine room, which is 80x92 feet. On a raised platform, extending along the entire front of the 
building, are placed fourteen dynamos. Two of the engines are Corliss make and two are vertical. One 
of the Corliss engines has already been hoisted on to its bed, and its parts adjusted. 

Another bed, for a second Corliss engine has been completed, and the engine is used for furnishing 
electrical power for mechanical purposes and for incandescent lights. The plant has a capacity for 
furnishing power for 800 arc lights and 1500 incandescent lights. The two additional engines, which 
will be put in later, will increase the capacity of the plant seventy-five per cent. 

These are the great enterprises undertaken by the Steinway Railroad Company, largely contrib- 
uting to the material prosperity and advancement of Long Island City and the adjacent territory. A 
more perfect idea of the magnitude of the undertaking can be obtained by mentioning their approx- 
imate cost. That of the new power house on Mills street was $175,000. The storage house at Wood- 
side cost upwards of $150,000. The new track cost about $12,000 per mile, or for the thirteen miles, 
$156,000. The value of the new simimer cars was $1800 eacli, enough to erect a small cottage. The 
cost of the 100 cars aggregated $180,000; a total of $661,000. 

THK LONC, ISLAND RAILROAD. 

The Long Island Railroad, which, with the many branches embraced in its system, covers Long Island 
as with a web, has its principal terminal in this city. It is a vast corporation, which, from a humble 
beginning, has grown with the population and wealth of the territory it covers. It was chartered in 
1832, which was a famous year in the history of railroads. Already had Gridley Bryant constructed the 
" (Juincy Railroad" (1825) in Massachusetts, for the carrying of granite from the quarries to the sea. 
The Lehigh River in Pennsylvania for five years had received from Mauch Chunk, thirteen miles awaj', 
its hea\y freightage of coal over the second railroad built on this continent. Both of these were oper- 
ated, however, by horse-power or gravity. 

But in 1829 Horatio Allen had returned from Europe, whither he had been sent two years before 
by the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, and landed upon the wharf in New York, two locomo- 
tives which were put into actual use. The State of Maryland had also wakened up several years before, 
and chartered the first railroad stock company on this continent for purposes of general traffic and 
transportation. A highway was opened (now known as the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), over which 
horses and mules tugged the cars for weary miles. Steam power was not much thought of. 

But a certain Baltimorean had new visions of the utility of the new motive power. The engine upon 
which he had expended some original ideas had been in operation for two years. It weighed scarcely 
more than a ton, but Peter Cooper made it pull the railroad directors from Baltimore to Ellicott's 
Mills, at the rate of eighteen miles an hour. This odd little engine was the first ever built in America 
for railroad purposes, and the first specially used in transportation of passengers. 

Well nigh the whole Atlantic Coast had been swept with the wave of Railroad ciilhusiasin. l"n)m 
Massachusetts to South Carolina the preparation or granting of railroad charters had been the demand 
of commerce and the business of legislatures. The year 1832 found sixty-seven railroads in operation 
in Pennsylvania alone. The great systems of Massachusetts and New Jersey had been begun. In 
New York .State, the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad had carried hundreds of passengers daily from 
Albany to Schenectady at a rate of speed, which in 1832 was thirty miles an hour. Though George 
Stephenson had built his first engine in 181 4, with a capacity of six miles an hour, the genius of inven- 
tors had so rapidly adapted mechanical means to recpiired conditions, that the rate of speed in England 
had been increased, in 1829, to thirty-five miles an hour by Stephenson himself. This exhibition of 
progress gave glimpses to intelligent men of the possibilities characterizing the question of railroading, 



HfS TOR 1 ■ OF L ONG ISf. A ND CITY. 77 

and fast was carrying the whole movement beyond the stajje of experiment. For this reason the year 
1832, which marked the birth of the Lonjj Island Railroad, was unusually eventful. The great advance 
was then begun which has marked every subsequent year with an increase of railroad mileage. In five 
years afterward, that is, from 1832 to 1837, the mileage of the United States exceeded that of any 
other country in the world. This prestige has never been sacrificed, nor has railroad development in 
this country ceased asserting its commanding importance in the fields of wealth, commerce, and the 
thousand other economic conditions of society, save when war and financial panics have occasioned 
temporary interruptions. 

The Long Island Railroad, like other American roads, grew up, was planned, built and maintained 
bv the region which it sought to cover. The east and west extremities of Long Island were settled 
nearly at the same time, the difference being in favor of the eastern extremity. Within a hundred 
years Suffolk County to its western limits had passed into the possession of the English, who had 
settled at Southhokl and the Hamptons in the thirties of the seventeenth century. From the west, 
populatitm went eastward to meet the Lnglish wave. Thus the entire island rapidly became a scene of 
homes and farms, and a promising field for railroad enterprise, upon which, in the early years of which 
we write, capital and pluck were stnmgly bent. 

While the Long Island Railroad, unlike many other systems, operates within a territory, wherein 
competition is geographically forbidden, and one wholly within the limits of one state, yet it also 
resembles other railroad systems in that it is a corporation of consolidated interests. Originally states 
granted charters to railroads to operate only in certain proposed regions. As increased facilities 
brought separated towns and regions nearer to each other, and the growth of great cities made connec- 
tion therewith increasingly necessary, the longer roads leased the shorter, or the more prosperous 
leased the less fortunate, or connecting roads for mutual benefit corporated for the extension of their 
respective advantages, and began systems which cover states, and even the whole national territory 
itself. 

Likewise various railroads have been chartered on Long Island, as will be presently mentioned. 
These now consolidated represent the Long Island Railroad system. 

In 1833 the charter of the Long Island Railroad was extended for fifty years. Heginning active 
operations at once, the year 1834 saw a completed line of rails laid to Jamaica. Thence on to and 
through the grassy plains of Hempstead to Hicksville, to which place trains began to run August, 1837, 
thence on through pines and scrub oaks to Suffolk Station, 1S41, till finally the last spike was driven at 
(ireenport. and that sleepy old town, on July 25, 1844, amid much jubilation, hailed the coming of the 
first train which ran the length of Long Island. The terminals of the railroad were now established at 
( ireenport on the east, and South Ferry, at the foot of Atlantic avenue, Brooklyn, on the west. 

In 1854 the Flushing Railroad went into operation between Hunter's Point and Flushing. At first 
it ran down Flushing avenue to West avenue, thence on to a long pier built out into the East River 
where the steamers, Island City and Enoch Dean, were accustomed to stop and receive passengers for 
I'ultun Market. There were at that time no ferries at Hunter's. Point, nor was there any other part of 
Manhattan Island to which the public demanded transportation facilities save to what is now called the 
lower part of the city. In 1868 a new station was built several blocks to the north, which was reached 
b\- the road which is now used exclusively for freight traffic by the Long Island Railroad. 

Owing to the negative conditions which had been developed by the rapid growth of Brooklyn in 
business and population, the Long Island Railroad, in 1861, removed its western terminal from South 
Ferry to Hunter's Point. Shortly after its machine and repair shops were removed also from Jamaica 
to the same place. 

In 1867 the South Side Railroad was opened for business between South Eighth street, BrookhTi, 
E. I)., and Babylon. Soon after it was extended to Patchogue, thence to Eastjwrt, and in 1882 to Sag 
Harbor. Thus two lines of railways were in active operation over the whole length of Long Island in 
fifty years from the time of the laying of the first rail. 

In 1874 the Stewart extension to Garden City ran its trains from the station of the F"lushing Rail- 
road at Hunter's Point. 

Finally, in i88i, the Long Island Railroad with all its leased lines was purchased by the interests 
represented by the late Austin Corbin, under whom the road, as a system, reached its present stage of 
development. Previous to this purchase, Mr. Corbin had built a railroad from Oreenpoint to Manhattan 
Beach, connection being made with New York by steamboats. This nn.vc displavid bi>; wonderful 



78 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY, 



sagacity and foresight, for the whole of the Atlantic coast has not a more delightful spot for summer 
recreation than this famous resort. Mr. Corbin's own explanation of the transaction whereby the Long 
Island Railroad passed under his control, exhibited his breadth of view, comprehensive grasp of the 
varied bearings of his action and confidence in the future as he saw it. " Representing a body of cap- 
itaUsts, I have purchased from Drexel, Morgan & Co. an interest that gives me control of all the Long 
Lsland Railroads, except two or three local lines running to Coney Island. This is not a new idea, j 
have been negotiating for the road several months. I have always believed in Long Island — -in its 
advantages as a place of residence, in its agricultural productiveness, in the attractiveness of its summer 
resorts and its value for railroad purposes. M}^ faith in this direction has, perhaps, been stronger than 
that of almost any other man who pretended to have any understanding on the subject. All the Island 
needs is development, and now that development is going to take place. It is almost too early to go 
into details, but I will outHne in a general way my plans. One object that we have in xaew is to develop 
to the fullest extent the farming sections of the Island. We shall use every effort to this end. I propose 
to make the south side of Long Island the greatest watering place in the world. Its natural beauties 
and advantages are so great that the improvement of the whole stretch of coast is as certain to come as 
the world is to stand. It is a beautiful country, that Long Island shore. I have lived there eight years 
and I know whereof I speak, when I say that the cUmate, scenery and natural attractions are unsur- 
passed in any part of this country or Europe. I have not a particle of doubt that within ten years (he 
was speaking December, 1880 — the railroad was to change hands January i, 1881) the south side, from 
Coney Island to Montauk Point, will be bordered by a continuous chain of seaside summer resorts. It 
is not, however, entirely because of my faith in Long Island as a place of summer residence that I lake 
the interest in it which I do. With proper accommodations for travel it will be an advantageous ]jlace 
of abode, both in summer and in winter." 

By the successive movements given in our narrative. Long Island City became the capital city of 

the Long Island Railroad. Its 
offices are here. From this point 
its traffic and travel are distributed 
throughout the Island. To this 
point it conveys inhabitants from 
every part of the Island and trans- 
ports them to New York over its 
abundantly equipped ferries. 
Hundred of trains go and come 
daily, for the accommodation of which its extensive yards, reaching from the river to and beyond Vernon 
avenue, afford none too large a space. Should the great project of Mr. Corbin, with respect to the estab- 
lishment of an international line of steamers between Fort Pond Bay and Milford Haven, Wales, 
receive Congressional sanction under future agitation, the advantages accruing to this city and Long 
Island in general would be incalcuable. 




RAVENSWOOD BRIDGE. 



THE NKW VOKK AND EAST RIVKR I ERKV COMPANV. 

This well-known ferry provides transportation between Astoria and Xinety-second street, New 
York. Like other organizations identified with the city, and like the city itself, it is a development 
from a humbler original. Not again to recur to the period when a solitary oarsman piloted an 
occasional passenger against the river, made ever perilous by turbulent tides, the early sixties will 
provide a starting point adapted to our purpose. 

Astoria was then a prosperous village. On the opposite shore stood the Astor Mansion, which 
now is used as a pavilion for the Park at Horn's Hook. Population was then beginning to drift along 
the avenues of uptown New York sufficiently to justify the provision of facilities for ferriage to and 
from Long Island. Accordingly, in 1864, the Queens County Ferry was organized by charter with A. 
W. Winans, as President, and Cornelius Rapelyc and Samuel Willets (of Flushing), as Directors. Two 
boats, the Sunswick and Astoria, were placed in service and daily plied the waters of the river. Though 
they had but one gangway, yet their accommodations were ample for the limited demands of the traffic. 
The fare was four cents to Eighty-sixth street. New York, which was then the ferry terminal, but the 
tr.ivel was so restricted, that the receipt of §50 a day was an unusual circumstance. In 186S the 



HISTORY OF LOXa /S/..L\/> L ITV. 79 

terminus was chanjifed to Ninety-second street. New York, where the company was able to procure a 
landinjr more eHj^ible in every respect for the purp<jses of ferriage. 

In iSSo the Astoria Perry Company was orjjanized and assumed control of the business with Cor- 
nelius Rapelye as President and John S. Ellis as (leneral Manajjer. The fare was raised to five cents 
thouj;h the new company employed but two boats, both of them old, which made their trips under 
headway of half an hour. Captain Richard Brown, who is still daily at the wheel, alert and cool headed, 
with the e-xperience and vigor of middle life, then had just entered the service. "Travel was very 
slight in those days" he remarked to the writer. "Twenty passengers was a big load. Trip after 
trip was made with not a single soul on board siive the crew." 

Another change in the administration of affairs came with 1892. On October i.of that year, the 
New York and East River Ferry Company acquired by purchase all the rights and property of the 
Astoria Company, and were organized under a new charter. The officers of this company are, William 
A. Nash, President, (who is also President of the Corn Exchange Bank of New York); Roswell 
Eldridge, Secretary and Treasurer; R. U. Clark, Cashier; John Harvey, C.eneral Superintendent, and 
Joseph Johnson, Assistant Superintendent. The Board of Directors consists of William A. Nash, 
Roswell Eldridge, li. K. Knapp, Theodore F. Jackson, and Emanuel Lehman. Under the present 
management important advance has been made in matters which relate to public accommodation. The 
waiting rooms and general entrances have been improved; the racks in the ferry slips have been 
extended; the schedule time has been reduced from fifteen minutes to twelve minutes headway; three 
boats instead of two are in constant service and all rates of transportation have been reduced, the 
greatest reduction being on vehicles. In the spring of 1896, Rhinelander's reef, which stretched across 
the front of the ferry on the New York side, and was a constant menance to the busy boats of the 
compan\-, was removed, affording a depth at low water of ten feet instead of five and a half feet as 
theretofore. A large increase of business is a marked result of these efforts to respond to public 
demands which is the policy of the present management. An average of 300 passengers per trip now 
cross this ferry morning and evening. Several causes have contributed to this growth of patronage. 
The Harlem steamers which formerly conveyed passengers from Astoria to Peck Slip, N. Y., having been 
taken from the route, the volume of travel was diverted to the elevated railroads, one of the stations of 
which is located conveniently to the ferry. The general produce market, at One Hundredth street, 
attracts hirge numbers of market gardeners from Long Island. The stone yards, also, which extend 
from Hallett's point along the shore front of this city to Ravenswood, give rise to a large traOie which 
places the ferry service in important demand. Added to all these is the great tide of travel, which, in its 
season, flows to and from North Beach and populates the boats of this company till their capacity is 
often taxed. 

It is noteworthy that during the history of the three companies which successively have operated 
the ferry from Hallett's Point, nt)t an accident of a momentous nature, save one, has occurred. Mr. 
Alfred A. McCoy, whose period of continuous service as ferrymaster covers more than thirty-one years 
and who is still at his post, recalls the sinking of the Astoria, in 1S67, in a collision with the Electra — 
a large Fall River freight steamer. When it is considered that navigation across the river at this point 
is more ditHcult than at any other on the East or North Rivers, made so by the swirling eddies, mad 
rushing tides and perilous rocks of Hell (late, this record is creditable alike to the trusty pilots and to 
the company which is careful to employ none other. 

rilK RAVK.N'SWOOO liRIDlilC. 

The plan i>f throwing a suspension bridge across the East River with abutting piers on Blackwell's 
Island, dates back as far as 1838. In the Family Magazine, Vol. V., of that year, the " Grave's plan for 
an iron hanging-bridge over the east and west channels of the East River, from between Sixty-fifth and 
Seventy-fifth streets on the City of New York side, across the northern part of Blackwell's Island to a 
feasible point on Long Island opposite " is circumstantially set forth. " It has been thought," said the 
writer, "by many, that one of the greatest obstacles to the rapid and permanent growth of the City of 
New York, existed in the fact that there is at present no certain and rapid mode of communication 
with the adjoining country. To be sure the different ferries by which the inhabitants of this splendid 
city are able, in the spring and summer months, to enjoy the society of their neighbors, might at first 
\-iew seem to render that objection futile, but when we consider the great expense of ferriage, and the 
imcertainty of the length of passage in the winter season, when the rivers are frequently obstructed 



8o 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



with ice, it will be apparent to every one that if bridges could be thrown over the North and East 
Rivers, they would certainly be a public benefit, and contribute very much to the prosperity and com- 
fort of the people." The bridge, as planned in that early day, showed an excellent degree of intelligent 
engineering details. The architect reasoned thus: "The distance from point to point on a feasible 
line of construction may be stated as follows: From New York to Blackwell's Island, six himdred and 
ten feet; and from Blackwell's Island to Long Island, six hundred and eighty-three feet, making a total 
distance of two thousand one hundred and eight feet. The bridge to have three openings of seven 
hundred feet each between the points of suspension, with abutments of arched masonry on either side of 
the channels, and spanning Blackwell's Island with three connecting arches. Height of road bed above 
high water, one hundred and twenty feet; to spring of side arches, ninety feet; from road bed to sum- 
mit of suspending piers, fifty-eight feet; span of smaller arches, one himdred and fifty feet; center 
arch, two hundred and fift\' feet, with corresponding spring; each of main piers to be sixty feet wide at 
high-water level, sloping upward in proportion. The breath of the bridge, forty-five feet, with (at each 
opening) ten ribs of twenty pieces each, connected by a cross-grated plate, and cross braces, the whole 
further secured by two horizontal diagonal cables, connected at the center point of crossing and at the 
piers. The roadway passes through arched openings in the suspension piers, to have two carriage 
tracks with a foot-path intervening; suspended from four catenarian lines of maleable iron chains and cables 
(of four cables each), by perpendicular lines of iron rods alternating from the four suspension cables 
spreading five feet apart horizontally with each side of the roadway, framed of iron lattice, left deep 
and similarly latticed below the road-bed. The suspension cables of each opening are firmly secured 
in masses of masonry resting near the ])<)ints of construction." This "hanging-bridge" as determined 



CITY OF N'EW YORK. 



liAVEXSU'OOIi. L I. 




TUNNCL " THC CAST RIVCR TAo Co 



from experiments, " would have a sur])lus of U]:)ward of twelve hundred tons remaining, denoiing the 
strength of the bridge, a weight that beyond i)nihal)ility would nc\cr be U])on the bridge at one jjoint 
of time." 

The expense of constructing this bridge would vary, it was thought, " t'rom live hundred to eight 
hundred thousand dollars." 

The " few years " in which the writer hojied " to have the pleasure of walking over this bridge" 
have multi]>lied into nearly two generations. Though its construction was never attempted, yet the 
idea was an expression f)f a commercial want then beginning to be felt, and the plans contained germinal 
suggestions from which those of a later day have not been widely different. 

The next historical development of the proposition to span the East River, at or near the point 
mentioned twenty-nine years before, was on the i6th of April, 1867, when the Legislature of New York 
granted a charter to the "New York and Long Island Bridge Company." Thirty members constituted 
the eor]3()ration, chief among whom were Isaac D. Coleman, the engineer, and Archibald M. Bliss, the 
first Secretary. 

This company was the direct (jroduct of the disa])]3roval on the ])arl of many engineers and 
business men of the location of the Brooklyn Bridge. The construction of that bridge had just been 
authorized. It was then argued and foreseen (and subsequent years have verified the views then 
expressed) that the Brooklyn Bridge, while serving perhaps as a means of local rapid transit, could 
never, by reason of its location, be made a part of any system of through transportation between Long 
Island and other parts of the nation. To connect Long Island with the mainland, the western center of 



HISTOKY OF LONG fSf.AXD CITY 



8i 






the Island should be broujjht into immediate eommunication with the eentcr of New York City. To 
thinking; men all the eonditi(jns seemed favorable to this idea. The lands of Lonjj Island leading to 
such a location were advantajfeously open, piers could be built upon rock at or near the surface of the 
river. The river itself was here at its narrowest point. The thoroujjhfares of uptown Xew York near 
Seventieth street offered less traffic obstruction. The chief railroad connections were jcravitatinj^ 
toward the upper districts of the city. Furthermore, the question of cost was reduced to a minimum 
at the contemplated locality. 

Moved by such considerations, the location of Seventy-seventh street, Xew York, was selected 
after the most skillful survey as the most stratejjfie point at which a payinj^ bridj^e could be constructed. 
The enerjjies of the Company were exerted for the realizatiim of the enterprise. The route was selected, 
lands surveyed and necessary lejjal steps taken to secure possession of the desired property. But for 
reasons relatin<j to popular misapprehension, which interpreted the scheme as of_ a purely public char- 
acter thereby prejudicinjj private sub- 
scriptions to the stock and to causes 
of a ])olitical nature, the project 
lapsed. 

In 1.S71 an attempt was ajjain 
made by llic orjfanization of the 
"New York and (Jueens County 
Bridge Company," which was char- 
tered by the Legislature, but no 
important measures were taken tn 
advance the enterprise and the move- 
ment ended in failure. Among the 
incorporators, however, was Col. R. 
M. C. (Iraham, who became instru- 
mental in thoroughly reorganizing 
the New York and Long Island Bridge 
Company and placing it upon a work- 
ing commercial basis. Tlie ])ractical 
co-operation was secured of William 
Steinway, John T. Conover, II. C. 
Poppcnheusen, Archibald M. Bliss. 
0. Zollikoffer, Edward J. Woolsey. 
(lotlob (iunther, Pliny Freeman. 
Oswald Ottendorfer, Abram I). Dit- 
mars, Charles A. Trowbridge, Willy 
Wallach, Herman Funcke, C. (Godfrey 
(iunther, ICdward liinstein, Charles 
F. Tretbar, Henry (1. Schmidt, John 
C. Jackson and Charles H. Rogers. The board of directors, consisting of twenty-one members, was 
authorized by an amended charter to extend the time for beginning operations to June i, 1S79. The 
panic of 187.^ and the important industrial depressicni which ensued, tern jjorarily embarrassed the 
employment of means to carry out the plans of the Company, but toward the end of 1.S74, General J. 
(1. Barnard, Ceneral (Juincy A. (lilmore and Oliver Chanute, were appointed a commission of engineers 
to devise preliminary measures for active and actual work. In order to secure the best engineering 
skill of the country, the commission advertised for plans, offering §1000, $500 and S300 in prizes. 
During the following three years various plans were submitted, some of acknowledged merit, but none 
of the desired superiority requisite for adoption. However, the first prize was awarded to Mr. 
McDonald, the second to Captain Eads and the third to Mr. F'laad. The only objection was on the part 
of Dr. Thomas Rainey. who had been elected to the board in 1876. He contended in favor of a cable 
instead of a cantilever bridge. Here the whole matter seems to have ended save, perhaps, the report 
of a survey which confirmed that made by Mr. Coleman under the old company. 

During this time William .Steinway had presided over the deliberations of the Board. Voluntarily 
retiring in 1S77, he was succeeded by Dr. Rainey, who enthusiastically espoused the interests of the 




KASr RIVKK TUNNEL, CRO 



IIKADINC: TIIKOl'CH ROCKS. 



82 HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 

Company, and set about the employment of means for their promotion. He interceded with Vander- 
bilt, Drexel, Morgan &• Co., and parties eonneeted with the Manhattan Elevated Railroads of New York, 
but without avail. The merits of the enterprise were everpvhere acknowleds^ed, but capital was 
obligated in other directions and could not be devoted to this. With the bridge building firm of Clarke. 
Reeves & Co., of Phoenixville, Pa., he was more successful, however. To them he submitted pro- 
posed plans, during the examination of which a better plan suggested itself which was deemed superior 
to all others, and was adopted. Dr. Rainey relinquished his official position in order to further ex- 
pedite matters and Charles A. Trowbridge was elected to the presidency. A contract was made with 
Clarke, Reeves & Co., March 25, 1881, for right of way and the construction of a " first-class double 
track railway, carriage and walkway iron bridge." In accordance with the terms of the contract, work 
was begun the following day upon a pier at Ravenswood. Stock was pledged to the amount of 
$1,600,000. The estimate cost of the structure was $6,000,000, and the revenues therefrom $2,000 per 
day. There were to be two spans of 734 feet and 618 feet respectively, with a minimum height above 
mean tide of 150 feet. The erection of this great structure was confidently anticipated. But with the 
completion of a coffer dam in the I-'ast River, its history ceased and the well planned project became a 
dead letter. 

The vital importance of commercial connection with New York by means that would admit t)f 
through transportation continued to engage the attention of capitalists. Austin Corbin, upon his accession 
to the chief executive office of the Long Island Railroad, did not permit the matter to slumber. In the 
great and feasible project whereby he contemplated the erection of Fort Pond Bay into a free port of 
entry and continuous transportation throughout the length of Long Island, thence to the mainland to 
connect with the great trunk lines of the continent, the extension of the Long Island Railroad to Man- 
hattan Island was an indispensable condition. The New York and Long Island Railroad Company pro- 
posed to bore a tunnel under the East River to achieve that end. A shaft nearly one hundred feet in 
depth was sunk in the triangle bounded by Jackson and Vernon avenues and Fourth street, and prep- 
arations were made to begin operations upon the timnel proper, when all the rights, titles and immu- 
nities of the New York and Long Island Bridge Company were transferred to and passed imder the direc- 
tion of the Board of which Mr. Corbin was the head. The tiinnel project ha\'ing been relinquished, 
work was again begun upon a bridge across the East River from Sixty-fourth Street, New York, to 
Harsell Avenue, Long Island City. Owing to litigation, operations were suspended in October, 1895, 
but were resumed in the month of March following, only again to be discontinued. 

Thus for fifty-eight years the attempt of man to form this artificial bond of immediate connection 
with the mainland has ended in failure. But it cannot be doubted that the economic value accruing 
from so great and practicable an enterprise cannot much longer defer the day of its construction. The 
far reaching results of the consolidation of Western Long Island into the (Ireater New York will ini])e- 
riously so demand. 

THE TUNNKl, OK THE EAST RIVER GAS COMPANY. 

By legislative act of 1892 the East River Gas Company was authorized to supply the City of New 
York with gas through a tunnel to be constructed under the liast River. The magnitude of the under- 
taking awakened the doubts of the incredulous and many idle prophecies concerning the failure of the 
scheme. But the possibiHties of the undertaking had previously been thoroughly canvassed by the best 
engineering skill of the day. Charles M- Jacobs, Civil Engineer of London, England, and of New 
York, was placed in direction of the work. Mr. Jacobs had been engaged in similar work in England 
and Australia and more recently had planned a scheme for Mr. Austin Ci)ri)in, for underground rapid 
tran.sit in New York. 

The first work was to determine the depth at which to cross. This was acconi])lished by a system 
of borings and soundings across the channels and Blackwell's Island. Messrs. McLaughlin and Reilly 
having successfully l)id for the work of excavation, plants were established on both sides of the river 
and operations upon the shafts were commenced, June 28, 1892. The shafts were nine feet square, 
with a depth on the New York side of 135 feet, and on the Ravenswood side of 147 feet. The distance 
between the center line of the shafts was fixed at 2541.4 feet, thus giving a drain;ige of six inches to 
the 100 feet toward the Ravenswood end where there is a sump for the same and facilities for pump- 
ing drainage to the surface. The heading is ten feet wide by eight feet six inches high at the center 



HISTORY or LONG ISLAND CITY. 83 

of the crown. This crown is struck by a radius of seven feet and joins the perpendicular sides with 
fillets of two feet radius. 

The work projjressed smoothly. The shafts were completed and the headinj^s turned at both 
sides. The rock on the New York side was found to be dry as bone. At Ravenswood many sprinj^'s 
were met. (ircat skill was required to project the lines, what with drillinjj and firing and removal of 
debris from the shafts. In 1893 about 350 feet had been run under the west channel by reasfm of the 
dry rock which was favorable to projjress, while on the east side only 285 feet had been bored. By 
reason of difference of views as to the employment of compressed air in the work of further excavation, 
the contractors relinquished the work and Mr. W. I. Aims, an experienced enjfinccr at the Hudson 
River tunnel, was placed in charge. As the work advanced, brick masonry at first, then cast iron lining 
was used, wherever soft material so required. Meantime soft rock was also encountered u]X)n the 
Ravenswood side which necessitated the use of compressed air. The work was done by a shield, 
which was a steel cylinder of sufficient internal diameter to contain the iron lining. To operate it 
sufficient pressure was applied to force it forward. It was possible to bring 600 tons to bear upon it. 
The pressure necessary for accomplishing the work was about thirty pounds. Though men were 
carefully examined before allowed to work under these strained conditions, some were overcome while 
others were more or less affected by continuance. The danger to those unaccustomed to the pressure 
was greater on emerging from the lock from the reduction of pressure, than upon entering. The effect 
was the same as experienced in high altitudes where the heart is stimulated to extraordinary action. 

W'ithin a metal case men carried on the work of excavation from both sides of the river. When 
sufficient space permitted to insert a ring, this was done and the operation was repeated. When the 
material was soft the doors of the diaphragm were closed and the water scjueezed out in the pressing 
forward. While the ring was bolted the doors were opened, the forward end cleared of debris and the 
material removed by cars. 

This difficult undertaking was completed July 11, 1894. In the morning of that day the 
measurement proved that only twenty-one feet remained between the faces, and great excitement 
prevailed among the workmen. At seven o'clock in the evening, the first drill was put through from 
Ravenswood to New York, fair in the middle of the heading, and at midnight the wall was blasted 
out, and the headings met at 1676 feet from the Xew York shaft, and those present walked through 
from New York to Long Island City, by way of the first tunnel under the East River. So great was 
the accuracy of the work, and the care and skill employed, that when the headings met the center 
lines were only one-half of an inch out of direction, and about three-cjuarters of an inch difference was 
discovered between the grade levels. 

Thus Ravenswood was united to New York by the successful execution of an engineering projett 
despite the fears of the incredulous and the difficulties which at times seemed almost insuperable. 

A 36-inch diameter gas main is now laid in place and supplies gas to large sections of upper New 
York. (Sec cut, p. Si). The idea of tunneling the East River is not perhaps to be attributed to any 
single individual, inasmuch as it had been the subject of much speculation and interest for some time 
among gas men. But to Emerson McMillin. President of the East River Gas Company, whose 
abilities along progressive lines have gained him special prominence in gas affairs, is due the merit 
of having pushed the project on to the most successful realization. 

HELL GATE. 

REMOV.VI. OK OHSTRUCTIONS — GE.V. NEWTON's GREAT ENGINEERING SKIM,. 

The twenty-fourth day of vSeptember, 1876, marked a notable event in which this city was the 
scene of mucii interest. That day witnessed the destruction of Hallett's Point Reef, the opening of 
Hell Gate to vessels of the largest draught, and the diversion of dangerous currents into channels of 
safety. This occurrence was the culmination of seven years of tiie most skillful submarine engineer- 
ing and generous financial cooperation on the part of the General Government. Perhaps we should 
have said twenty-seven years instead of seven, for as early as 1848, Charles H. Davis and David 
Porter, U. S. Naval Lieutenants, surveyed the perilous strait and indicated to the Government 
certain reefs and rocks which were the most frequent cause of disaster. These were the Gridiron. 
Way's Reef, the Bread and Cheese Reef, and Pot and Frying Pan Rocks. While the only method of 



§4 HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 

removal suggested by the Officers of the Survey was, necessarily, bhisting (cjf which only one form was 
then known), there was a diversity of opinion as to the methods of deep sea work of this order. 

Persistent interest achieved the first attempt at removal, iii 185 1, by surface explosioas of gun 
powder. While quantities of fragments were torn away, still the method proved valueless in the 
proposed gigantic enterprise. This was a disappointment to the public of New York City, whose 
citizens had raised the $14,000 expended. 

A ground swell of renewed interest was exhibited by the '"New York Harbor Commission." in 
1856, but subsided without any attempt at effective work. 

Finally, in 1866, a General appeared, by government order, in the situation which for so many 
years had been highly productive of scientific embarrassment. John Newton was a Major-General in 
the United States Engineers, and by events was proven to be eminently qualified for the arduous 
undertaking. He e.xhaustively surveyed everj^ detail of the tidal torrent, reported in extcnso his plans for 
the work, and two years later (1868) was rewarded with a Congressional appropriation of $85,000 for the 
execution of his project. The contract was let, and partially carried into effect, when the whole 
affair became the subject of an accident which left Pot and Frying Rocks temporarih^ secure from the 
steam drill. The attack was again made in May, 1871, this time with nitro-glycerine, and in July, 
1872, the famously offensive Frying Pan Rock was leveled. 

The steam drill and nitro-gl3'cerine, as an explosive, proved ec|ually powerful with Way's Reef, 
the surface of which, likewise, in 1872, was carried to a depth of twenty -six feet below low-tide. 

While the other rocks, upon which was begun work, were successfully yielding to the means 
employed by General Newton for their removal, yet not unattended with vast difficulties, seen and 
unforeseen, an heroic move was made, July 8, 1869, upon Hallett's Point Reef. This reef perhaps 
gave the fleets of Hell Gate more taste of the perils of the deep than any other single obstruction of 
their inimical number. The plan of the engineer was to undermine the whole reef extending three 
hundred feet into the river, store the tunnels with explosives, admit the water and fire the entire 
mass of explosives by electricity from a battery upon the shoi-e. 

The work was begun upon the date mentioned, with the first mechanical steps tnw.ird the con- 
struction of a coffer-dam. A shaft was sunk ninety-five by one hundred and five feet to the depth of 
thirty feet below low water; thirty-five tunnels radiated from a common center, and ten transverse 
galleries were bored twenty-five feet apart. The whole excavation occupied two and five-eighths acres. 
The total length of the tunnel was 4857 feet, and galleries 2568 feet, making 7425 feet in all. The 
number of cubic yards removed were 47,461. The total amount of explosive employed in the final 
blast was as follows: 13,596 cartridges, three inches in diameter, and nine to eighteen in length, 
containing various quantities of dynamite, rend-rock and vulcan powder. These were placed in 4427 
holes in rocks, which had been drilled ten feet apart and nine feet deep. 

Finally the work had been pronounced complete. General Newton had added tlie last of the 
infinite number of details, by laying a wire to the shore where the key was awaiting the momentous 
touch that produced the dramatic event. At this key stood the little daughter of General Newton. 
Multitudes of officials and citizens darkened the bluffs at Pot Cove, where stood the child. On tlie 
river, neighboring islands, and main land, in fact throughout a wide horizon, near and far, every 
vantage point of observation throbbed with humanity, breathlessly awaiting the impending convulsion. 
It was a Sabbath afternoon. The hour of three had nearly arrived when signal guns warned the 
countless multitudes that the explosion was about to occur. Presently the key yielded to the touch of 
the child, and in two seconds came a deep, muffled, yet powerful report, the earth slightly vibrated, a 
thick muddy column mixed with fragments of rock shot up into tlie air fifty feet or more, and 
Hallett's Point Reef, which had caused many wrecks, was itself wrecked. Submarine dredges cleared 
away the debris, and a depth of twenty-six feet at low water was discovered to be the gratifying 
result of the great undertaking. 

With General Newtown, there were associated in the work; James Mcrcur, Captain of Engineers; 
Jo-seph H. Millard, First Lieutenant of Engineers; Julius H. Striedinger, Civil Engineer, Assistant; 
Bernard F. Hoyle, Mining Engineer, Overseer; James Quigley and Robert S. Burnett, Assi-stants. 



///STORY O/-' LONG /S/.AND C/TY. 85 

THE CITY HOSPITALS. 
There arc two liosi^itals in the city to represent this important branch of benevolent work. 

ST. John's Hosi'irAL. 

This institution orijjinated in the wise forethoiiyfht of the late Rt. Rev. Bishop Louj^hlin, of 
Brooklyn. The twenty-nine lots fronting on Jackson and Nott avenues and Twelfth street were 
placed by him, early in 1861, at the command of the Sisters of St. Joseph, who at once arranged tlie 
buildings already upon the property to meet the requirements of a modern city hospital. The first 
patients were received in May of the same year. Since that time the usefulness of the hospital has 
constantly increased, as is evidenced by the magnificent structure, a cut of which is herein given. 
This new building, now in course of erection, has a frontage on Twelfth street and Jackson avenue of 
about one hundred and forty feet, and extends back one hundred and fifty feet to Nott avenue. The 
main part, at the corner of Jackson avenue and Twelfth street, will be five stories high, while the 
west and north wings will be four stories. Every sanitary requirement suggested by scientific advance, 
and all conveniences known to the fullest medical equipment and efficiency, will characterize the 
adaptation of the building to its purpose. An ambulance service is at instant call, and the sick 
of every race, religion and color are alike welcome to its benefits. 

The officers are: 

/''resident: Rt. Rev. Charles E. McDonnell, Bishop, of Brooklyn. 

Consulting P/iysician and Surgeon: Dr. John Byrne. 

]'isiting Surgeons: Dr. James B. Kennedy; Dr. James D. Trask ; Dr. John Francis Burns. 

]^isitiiig /Viysieiiins: Dr. Patrick McKcon; Dr. Joliii Tlinckson; Dr. II. Ilcrrim.in. 

//ouse Surgeon: Dr. R. Thornton Stewart. 

Sister in C/uirge: Sister Mary David. 

ASTORIA HOSPITAL. 

This hospital, organized in 1891, at first occupied a house on Flushing avenue rented and furnished 
for use by the liberality of Mrs. F. E. Hagemeyer. Increased accommodations soon became a 
necessity. By the efforts of the Advisory Board the present beautiful edifice on The Crescent, near 
Grand avenue, was erected and opened for use in the spring of 1896. It is " intended to be for the treat- 
ment of patients having acute and curable diseases, without regard to sex, creed or nationality. Chronic 
sufferers will be admitted at discretion, but for temporary treatment only."' The hospital has entered 
upon an enlarged sphere of usefulness "with every advantage that the advance of science and the 
knowledge of an improved sanitation can give." Ten to sixteen dollars per week secures private 
rooms for patients, and the best of care and attention. These rooms, as also certain beds in the wards, 
are memorial gifts. The work of the hospital is carried forward by various committees, who are 
liberally seconded by public liberality. 

Its officers are : 

/""resident: Mrs. F. E. Hagemeyer. 
/■'trst ]'iee-IWsident: Mrs. J. M. Blackwcll. 
Second I'ice-/Wsident: Mrs. Robert Benner. 
Treasurer: Mrs. Charles W. Hallett. 
Seeretarj: Mrs. R. S. Fanning. 
Assistant Secretary: Mrs. George M. Potter. 
Superintendent: Miss M. E. Wygant. 
3/alron: Mrs. J. G. Mulligan. 



86 



fllSTORY OF LONG fSLAND CITY. 



Mrs. F. E. Hagemeycr, 
Mrs. J. M. Blackweil. 
Mrs. Robert Henner, 
Mrs. C. W. Hallctt, 
Mrs. J. M. Carrington, 
Mrs. C. Rapclye, 
^^rs. R S. Fannino-, 



Mr. Ernst Lcnickc, 
Mr. C. \V Hallctt, 
Mr. H. W. Rcboul, 
^Ir. F. E. Hagcmcyer, 
Mr. (ieo. M. Potter, 
Mr. J. H. Smedlcy, 
Mr. Philip Bvirkhardt, 



BOARD OK MANAGERS. 

Mrs. Russell Smith, 
Mrs. B. W. Moore, 
Mrs. Richard Harison, 
Mrs. Daniel S. Riker, 
Mrs. Robert Tisdalc, 
Mrs. Theron Burden, 
Mrs. Z. Dennler, 
Miss Maroaret T. Lathrop. 

ADVISORY H().\RD. 

Mr. George E. l^lackwell, 
Dr. W. R. Taylor, 
Dr. Neil O. Fitch, 
Mr. Walter E. Frew, 
Mr. Fred Bowley, 
Mr. James Inuram, 
Mr. F. T. Hallett, 
Mr. ricorire Smith. 



Lei^al Adviser. 
Mr. George E. Blackweil. 

CONSULTING .STAFF. 

Surgery. 

John A. Wyeth, M.D. . . .27 East 38th Street, New York. 

Professor of Surgery in Nevv York Polyclinic. 

General Medicine. 

Egbert LeFevre, M.D. . . .161 West 23d Street, New York. 

Clinical Professor of Practice of Medicine of the University of the City of New York. 

Pediatrics. 

Dillon Brown, M.D. . . .40 East 57th Street, New York. 

Professor of Diseases of Children at New York Polyclinic. 

Gynecology. 

W. Travis Gibb, M.D. . . . 365 Lexington Avenue, New York. 

Lecturer on Gynecology at University of the City of New York. 

( Ibsletrics. 

James Clifton Edgar, M.D. . . 54 East 34th Street, New York. 

Lecturer on Obstretrics at University of the City of New York. 

Op/itlialmolflgy. 

John E. Weeks, M.D. . . . 154 Madison Avenue, New York. 

Lecturer on Diseases of the Eye in Hellevue Medical College. New York. 

Throat and Nose. 

John \\. I'.illings, M.D. . . 249 Madison Avenue, New York. 

Surgeon at Metropolitan Throat Hospital, New York. 

I'tentisl. 

Dr. F. W. Batterman. 

.MEDICAL STAFF. 
W. Renisen 'I'aylor. .NLI)., I'res. - - Franklin Street, Astoria. 

Neil (). Fitch, M.D., \'ice-I*res., for. Woolseyand Franklin Streets, Astoria. 

A. J. Andersen, M.D. - - - 26 .Stevens Street, Astoria. 
C. X. Piatt, M.D., vSec'y - - 152 Branklin Street, Astoria. 
J. R. Hinekson, M.D. - - 544 Hunter's Point Avenue, L. I. City. 

B. (;. Strong, M.D. - - - 434 Jackson Avenue, L. I. City. 
James D. Trask, M.D. - - - i('>4 Franklin Street. Astoria. 



J//STOKY O/' LOX(/ ISLAXn CITY. 



«7 






TIIK CHURCHES OF LONG ISLANO CITV. 

The early settlers of Newtown were relijijious people. In coninmn with other American 
colonists, they laid reli<;ioii at the foundation of society and the state. From them all the conviction 
is deeply rooted in the national mind, which Burke expressed while reflectinjf upon the Revolution in 
France. "We know, and what is better, we feci inwardly, that relijjion is the basis of civil society, 
and the source of all good, and of all comfort." True, that the Christian (iospel has had a rebirth 
amid the periilexitics of every aj>e, yet always the age-spirit has been increasingly tempered by the 
christian feeling of the brotherhood of man. Herein is a great mission of the church. By it the 
church appeals to what is best and noblest in man, thereby becoming the strongest force that makes 
for industrial and social progress. For this reason, in every community the church has superior 
claims to honor. 

Am])le space is accordingly given to the mention of all organizations ol this character. 

ST. George's episcopal chlkcii. 

St. (leorgc's Episcopal Church of Astoria is the oldest of all the churches established within the 
territory now included in Long Island City. In the early part of the century, services had been held 
from time to time at Ilallctt's Cove under the auspices of St. 
James' Church, Newtown, of which parish it formed a part. 
In the year 1S25 a lot of land was donated by Mr. Samuel 
lilackwell, for a church, on the Newtown road, now Main street. 
The subscription paper for raising money to build a church 
edifice bears date of March 9, 1827, and contains the names 
of most of the prominent residents of that time — such as the 
Black wells, Suydams, Whittemores, Fields, Ostranders, 
Rapelyes, Stevenses, L awre nces, Per rots, Leveriches, 
Polhemuses, Rhinelanders, and Gibbses, many of whose 
descendants are still worshippers here. The church was 
finished in 1828, and the first rector was the Rev. Dr. Seabury, 
son of the first Bishop of the American Church. After his 
rectorsliip of several years, the parish was served by the Rev. 
George Shelton, Rector of St. James', Newtown, who main- 
tained services at St. George's until about 1840, when the Rev. 
John Walker Brown was called to the rectorship. In 1849 ^''■ 
Brown's health failed, and having gone abroad to seek its 
restoration, he died at the Island of Malta. He was succeeded 
in 1850 by the Rev. Thumnv R. Chipman, who remained imtil 
1856. During his office the parish accjuired more land, extend- 
ing to what is now Franklin street, and the church was enlarged 
to meet the requirements of the increasing congregation. In 
1856 the Rev. Robert W. Harris, D. D. was called to the 
rectorship, in which he remained for thirty years. He retired 
in 1886, at the age of eighty, and within a few months after 
died at White Plains, N. V. In January, 1S87, he was suc- 
ceeded by the present Rector, Rev. Charles M. Belden. 

In January, 1894, the church, which was a frame structure, was totally destroyed by fire. Prepara- 
tions were at once made to convert the large rectory, which had been first built for an institute, into a 
parish house, since which time services have been regularly maintained in it, and participated in by a 
faithful and growing congregation. It is purposed, at no distant time, to erect a new and substantial 
church edifice on the property of the parish, near the site of the former church. 




ASTORIA REKORMKI) CHIRCU. 



THE REFORMED CHURCH OK ASTORIA. 



This church was organized on July nth, 1839. The charter members were Mr. and Mrs. John S. 
Bussing; Mrs. Sylvanus Morris, Mr. and Mrs. Abraham Polhemus, William Shaw, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Grant Thorburn, the celebrated seedsman and historical writer. Abraham Polhemus and John S. 
Bussing were the first elders. 



HIS TORY or LONG ISLAND CITY. 



This organization, under the auspices of the Dutch Reformed denomination, was the outcome of an 
enterprise engaged in for some years jointly by several people of various denominations, mainly, 
however, of the Dutch Reformed and Presbyterian Churches. 

The old church edifice, which did service until 1888, was originally built by the Reformed and 
Presbyterian people together. Bj' an equitable arrangement the claims of the Presbyterians were 
satisfied when the building was devoted to the uses of the other denomination only. In 1888 it was 

resolved to build a new edifice, of 
more modern style and larger 
capacity and the new church was 
dedicated, with impressive services, 
on June 25, 1889. It was during the 
pastorate of the Rev. Wm. S. 
Cranmer, now of Somerville, X. J.. 
that this important work was carried 
on from inception to finish. 

The pastors of the church have 
been the following: The Rev. A. 
Bishop, from 1839 to 1S53; the Rev. 
Wm. II. Ten Eyck, D.D., from 1853 
to 1874; the Rev. M. L. Haines, 
D.D., from 1874 to 18S5; the Rev. 
"Wm. S. Cranmer, from 1885 to 1893. 
The present pastor is the Rev. 
Daniel Van Pelt. D.I)., who began 
liis labors in 1 S94. 

C.KR.M.VN SECOND REIORMKU I'KOI KS- 
TANT CHURCH OV ASTORI.A, L. 1. 

At the stated session of the 
North Classis of Long Island. Sep- 
tember 20, 1854, an application was 
received from twenty-four German 
residents at Astoria, L. I., praying for 
the organization of a church. The 
Rev. ilessrs. W. II. Ten Eyck, 
John W. Ward and Giles H. 
Mandeville, were appointed a com- 
mittee to examine the applicants. 
At the stated session of Classis, April 
•8, 1855, the committee appointed reported tliat on the eighth day of October, 1854, a church had 
been organized by their authority under the title of the German Second Reformed Protestant Church 
of Astoria, L. I. Mr. John Boehrer was engaged as missionary until April 16, 1856. During his time 
services were held in the village court-house, on Broadway. From 1856 to the fall of 1861, the pulpit 
was occasionally supplied by diiTerent ministers. The Rev. John Wenisch, June 21, 1863, was installed 
pastor of this church and of the German Church at Newtown, and resigned December, 1866. During 
his pa.storate Sabbath afternoon services were held in the lecture-room of the Reformed Dutch Church, 
on Remsen street. 

Finally steps were taken to secure funds for the purchase of lots and the erection of a church 
building. With the kind a.ssistance of the Rev. Dr. W. H. Ten Eyck, pastor of the Remsen Street 
Reformed Church, lots were secured on Second avenue, between Grand and Jamaica avenues, and a 
church edifice erected. The same was dedicated June 23, 1867. The following Sunday, June 30, 
1867, the licentiate, C. D. F. Steinfuhrer, who had just fini.shedhis theological course at New Brunswick, 
N. J., was ordained to the ministry and installed as pastor of the church. A Sabbath school and a 
parochial school were established, a bell and an organ secured, a beautiful parsonage built next to the 
church, and in 1889 aboui $8000 were spent in beautifying and enlarging the church. The present 




REV. DR. C. D. F. STEINKUnRER. 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



89 



membership numbers two hundred and seventy-five, the Sabbath School two hundred and fifty. The 
present pastor is the Rev. Dr. C. D. F. Steinfuhrer, who has been servinjj; the conjjre<jation since 
May I, 1867. 

The present consistory of the church consists of the Rev. Dr. C. D. F. Steinfuhrer, President. 

Elders: Henry Mencken, Sen. ; J. H. Rott; J. D. Gcrkcn. 
Deacons: II. Korfniann ; \X . Siebrecht; D. Thielbahr. 



ST. IIIDMAS' PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CULKlH, K A VEXSWOOU. 

St. Thomas" Church stands in the center of what was once the Paradise of Lonj,-- IsLand. It is 
erected on a plot looxioo, presented by General Hopkins. The church was organized in 1849. The 
first structure was of very modest dimensions. Bishop Wainwright spoke of it as being a fine 
specimen of Gothic architecture. It was destroyed 
by fire on the morning of December 7, 1S67. 
Plans, however, were made for the now existing 
building. The foundation stone was laid in 1868. 
and the new church opened in March, 1869, 
sixteen months after the conflagration. Under 
tlie present rcctorate the church has been beau- 
tified by Mr. Walter Greenhough, a worthy pui)il 
t)f La Farge, after the pattern of that great 
master. 

There is a fine stained glass window in the 
chancel, also a memorial window to the wife of 
Mr. William Nelson. The church interior is one 
of the prettiest for many miles around. 

Some events of interest are recorded in its 
journals. On Easter Day, 1849, the first admin- 
istration of Baptism took place. The infant, 
Edward Aymer Jacot, was baptized with water 
brought from the river Jordan. A silver vessel was 
used to contain it. The first bride led to its altar 
was Miss Elizabeth Williams, by Mr. Vansault 
Mumford Moore. It would be a seeming omis- 
sion not to mention the first funeral, Mr. Daniel 
Powers, aged 75. 

For seven years past Rev. W. H. Weeks has 
been its minister. He has erected a commodious 
hall, reading and lecture rooms in the center of 
the town and is doing a flourishing work among 




cm Ri II 01 



its artisan population. 



CHURCH OF OUR L.\DV OF MOUNT CARMF.L, ASTORIA. 

This church was organized August 20, 1S40, bv Rev. Michael Curran. A frame building was 
soon erected upon two lots of ground, donated for the purpose, now used for a Sunday School room. 
Rev. Mr. Curran died October, 1856, and was succeeded in the pastorate by the Rev. John Brady, who, 
in 1858, was in turn succeeded by the Rev. James Phelan. The present church edifice was erected 
under the Rev. Mr. Phelan 's pastorate. The corner stone of the church (which stands at the corner 
of Newtown and Crescent avenues) was laid September 9, 1871, and the completed structure was 
dedicated August 7, 1873. Dying in 1880, after an administration of twenty-three years, the Rev. 
Phelan was succeeded by Rev. P. F. Sheridan, upon whose death in July, 1881, the Rev. William 
McGinniss was appointed to the pastorate. A parochial residence was erected upon adjoining land, 
the purchase of which increased the original site to two acres. The property is now highly valuable 
and well adapted to its purpose. The Rev. P. A. Walsh is the present pastor. 



90 



II/STORY OF LOXG ISLAND CITY. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, ASTORIA. 

The Astoria Presbyterian Church began its services May 17, 1846. The movement for its creation 
commenced witli a meeting, May 6, 1846, at the residence of Henry S. Mulligan. The church records 
show that the following persons were present at the meeting: Bayard Bo3'd, Andrew Comstock, 
Albert S. Cone, Simon Ingcrsoll, Edwin Mills, Thomas B. Minor, Henry S. Mulligan, Henry L. Pen- 
field, James S. Polhemus, Henry Smith, John H. Smith and George C. Thorburn. During the ses.sion 
it was resolved to request the New York Presbj'tery to organize a Presbyterian Church in Astoria. 

The Organization Committee was composed of the Rev. Drs. George Potts and J. M. Krebs, the 
Rev. John Goldsmith and Messrs. Leverich, of Newtown, L. I., and Ely, of New York. 

This committee met and had a service the night of May 11, in the Astoria Reformed Church. 
The Rev. Dr. Potts preached, Albert S. Cone was elected to the Eldership of the new body, and 

was ordained to that office, and the charge to the 
Elder and people was delivered by the Rev. Mr. 
Goldsmith, of Newtown. The Rev. Dr. Krebs 
offered the concluding prayer. 

The small congregation did not own a house of 
worship, and had to gather for Sunday services in 
a small district schoolhouse that stood on the south 
side of Franklin street, a few feet west of Willow 
street. The Rev. Dr. Dickinson and the Rev. 
Charles E. Linsley occupied the pulpit in the little 
schoolhouse during June, July, August, and 
September. 

The first Board of Trustees of the church was 
elected July 28, 1846. It was composed of Stephen 
A. Halsey, John C. Mallory, Henry. S. Mulligan, 
^Vndrew Comstock, James S. Polhemus, and Edwin 
Mills. At a congregational meeting held August 31, 
a call was extended to the Rev. Frederick (i. Clark. 
He began his labors as pastor-elect in the latter part 
cif the following October. 

The corner stone of the present edifice was laid 
November 30, 1846, and the growth of the church 
within the first few months of its existence tells 
better than words of the faithfuhiess and devotion of 
its members. At the laying of the corner stone 
prayer was offered by the Rev. Dr. Snodgrass, of 
New York. The Rev. Mr. Clark, the pastor-elect, 
delivered an address to the people upon their relations and duties to other denominations and the 
heathen world. The church was completed in a little over six months from that time, and was 
formally dedicated June 11, 1847. 

The Rev. Mr. Clark, having been formally accepted as pa.stor, was installed May 28, 1847. He 
remained as pastor until 1852, and during his pastorate one hundred and fifty-three persons were 
received into the church. The Rev. Mr. Clark resigned to accept a call from the Presbyterian Church 
in West Twenty-third street, N. Y. City. He was succeeded in the Astoria church by the Rev. Dr. B. 
F. Stead, who remained pastor of the church twenty-seven years, until his death. The Rev. William 
Alexander Barr was the third pastor. He resigned in 1881, and was succeeded by the Rev. Clarence 
Gedde.s, who resigned in 1890 and was in turn succeeded by the Rev. Charles Park, the present pastor, 
in same year. 

The Rev. Mr. Park is a young man and an eloquent preacher. Under his pastorate the church 
has assumed some of its old-time vigor and progressiveness. A parsonage was built in 1891, costing 
about S4000. It is a comely two-story structure standing upon two lots at the corner of Franklin 
street and the Boulevard. The Sabbath School has been reseated, woman's missionary society organ- 
ized, making annual contributions to the Boards of Home and I'orcign Missions, and other auxiliary 
societies have been instituted to further the work of the church. 







TllK IRESiiVTEKIAN CIH kCll. 



/ffSrORY OF LOXG ISLAND CITY. 



91 



The following' have served in the eldershij) of this church: Albert S. Cone, Bayard Boyd, Henry 
Sniilh, Robert G. Rankin, John Owen, F. H. Wolcott, Edwin Mills, William Crouthers, C. W. Hallett 
William J. Coleman, John C. Mallory, James T. Souter, Walter Edwards, Marcus B. Sanf(jrd, A. W. 
Raymond, C. H. Burr, William Gillis, Joseph Boyce and Gerrit Smith. 

The present officers of the church are: Elders, Gerrit Smith and William J. Coleman; Deacons, 
Charles W. Hallett and Charles Van Allen. 

Trustees: Charles W. Ilallclt. (}eorj;e A. Hal^ey, David Deans, Frederick T. Hallett, William 
\'iut. 

Woman's Missionary Society: Mrs. Charles W. Hallett, President; Mrs. W. H. Malcolm, \'ice- 
President; Mrs. Frederick T. Hallett, Treasurer, and Mrs. Charles Park, Secretary. 

Sewinij Society: Mrs. Geo. A. Halsey, President; Mrs. George Pfinegar, Vice-President; Mrs. W. 
H. Malcolm, Secretary; Mrs. Isaac B. Strang, Treasurer. 

King's Daughters: Mrs. Charles Park, President; Mrs. W. H. Malcolm, Vice-President; Miss 
Margaret Ingram, Treasurer; Miss Helen M. White, Secretar}-. 




(."hrislian Endeavor: Helen M. White, President; Charles Van Allen. Vice-I'resident ; Mrs. 
Charles Van Allen, Corresponding Secretary; James W. Coleman, Recording Secretary; Benjamin H. 
Pitcher, Treasurer. 

Mr. Gerrit vSmith has long served the Sabbath School as a faithful superintendent. 

GR.\CF. i\I . I.. t:iIUKCH, hunter's I'OINI'. 

This church has had an interesting history. Started as a .Sunday School Mission in 1S60 by a few 
devoted Christians from the First M. E. Church, of Greenpoint, it was not deemed prudent till the 
latter part of 1863 to organize a church society. In December of that year, a Board of Trustees, 
consisting of Thomas Butler. Samuel L. Bergstraser, John J. Foster, Gilman Harned, Carmen Peasell, 
Theodore L. Stewart, Isaac Van Riper, John Van Riper and John B. Woodruff was chosen; the name 
of The First M. E. Church of Hunter's Point selected, and the necessary legal action taken towards 
incorporation. Public services had hitherto been held in the schoolhouse. It was now decided to 
erect a church edifice. The spring and summer of 1864 were war times and adversity in many fc^rms 



92 HfSTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 

was abroad, but the house was built by brave hearts and hands and dedicated September 25th of that 
year. In this building 34x50 feet all the services of the society and all the meetings as well were held 
until 1869, when a room was added at the rear of the church for social and business meetings and the 
use of the infant class. In 1872 the erection of a choir gallery somewhat changed the front, but two 
years later a radical improvement was required by a change in the street grade. The building was 
raised ten feet and the basement built wherein the Sabbath School has since been accommodated as well 
as social and business meetings. The next improvement occurred in 1883, when twenty feet of a 
structure were added to the rear. In 1881 the society's debt was $4600, which was paid that year. A 
parsonage was erected later costing $4200. 

The pastoral record is as follows: Benjamin Downing, local preacher, to A])ril, 1864; Benjamin 
Wilson, local preacher, to April, 1865; Joseph Henson, to April, 1867; Samuel W. King, to April, 
1870, Alexander Graham, to April, 1873; Nathan Hiil)bell, to April, 1874; Henry C. Glover, to April, 
1877; Alexander Graham, to April, i88o; E. H. Dutcher, to April, 1881; William W. Gillies, to April, 
1884; Frank G. Howell, to April, 1887; George Taylor, t(j April, 1892; Joseph Baird, to April, 1893; 
Edward Cunningham, to date. 

The society has always had a prosperous Sabbath School and excellent men for vSuperintendents — 
Thomas Butler from July, i860, to July 10, 1866; Isaac Van Rijier from July 10, to December 4, 1866; 
John B. Woodruff from December 4, 1866, to July i, 18S7; Frank McKinney from Jul}', 1887, to July, 
1892; Nelson Weeks, Jr., to July, 1893; Jas. N. New, to date. From September 25, 1864, there have 
been three thousand new scholars added to the i-oll of the school. The Ladies' Aid Society, instituted 
in 1865, the Womans' Foreign Missionary Society organized in 1881, and the Epworth League, 
organized 1891, have carried forward the work of the church in their respective fields of labor. 

Since the organization of the church its financial records show that the total receipts from all 
sources approximate $100,000. With a view to the future erection of a new and better edifice, four 
lots, 90x100 foet, have been purchased upon the corner of ^'an Alst avenue and Eleventh street. 

(:hi;rch ok the redeemer, asioria. 
rkv. edmim) u. cooi'kr, d.d. kei'tok. 

The Church of the Redeemer, Astoria, was organized on the 19th day of August, 1866. 

On the 27th day of the same month the parish was regularly incori)oratcd, and the following per- 
.sons were duly chosen Wardens and Vestrymen: — Wardens: James Welling and William .Mulligan. 
Vestrymen: Edward W. Hewitt, James W. Carrington, George B. Sargent, James M. Carrington, 
Edward M. Hartshorne, Theodore W. Hewitt, Edwin A. Montell, and George Miller. On the 2d 
day of September the Holy Communion was administered for the first time by the Rev. William D. 
Walker, now Bishop of North Dakota, seventeen persons communicating. For eighteen months 
the congregation worshipped in a store on Main street, afterwards known as Lange's Drug Store. 
On the 2d day of December, 1866, the Rev. Edmund D. Cooper, D. D., entered upon his duties as 
Rector of the parish. On the 27th day of June, 1867, the corner stone of the church was laid, and on 
Sexagesima Sunday, 1868, the first service was held in the church, the sermon being preached by the 
Rev. Dr. Haight, of Trinity Church, New York. 

But so great an undertaking, by a congregation so small and feeble, was not accomplished without 
great exertion, toilsome solicitations, and severe discouragements, and even then was left heavily 
burdened with debt. 

On the 20th day of May, 1872, a resolution was unanimously passed by the Vestry that "Whereas 
the Church of the Redeemer has been wonderfully blessed in all the efforts made in its behalf, that 
the time seems to have arrived, when an organ chamber should be built, and an organ placed 
therein." The organ chamber was accordingly erected, and the years 1872-3 were also made 
memorable by the completion of the tower, and placing therein a chime of ten bells, through the 
liberality of the late Mr. Trafford. This graceful act will remain evergreen in the memory of 
A.storians, and will go down to posterity embalmed with their blessing. — Yes, 

'• His memory cannot perish. 
It must pass to future times, 
And who can tell, what souls in heaven. 
May bless the Trafford Chimes." 

In 1874 the organ chamber being completed, a fine organ was placed therein from the works of 




REV. E. D. COOl'ER, U.D. 



94 HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 

the Messrs. Odell of New York. The same year witnessed the completion of the Sunday School 
building, which was made a Memorial to the late Mr. Robert S. Fanning. 

And now the crowning triumph of the parish was reached, it was determined to paj- off its 
indebtedness, which had proved a burden, a stumbling block, and a 
hindrance in the doing of many good works, which otherwise might 
have been accomplished. So the thirteenth anniversary of the parish 
was made memorable by the paying of the debt, and the consecrating 
of the church. 

The property altogether cost over $60,000. The church is rich 
in memorials, the eye cannot glance in any direction but that it will 
fall upon some object which will bring to mind the memory of some 
dear one. The communicants have increased from seventeen to 
nearly four hundred. The Sunday School has a membership of seven 
hundred, and the Sunday School building has again grown too small. 
There is an active Church Aid Society, a Girl's Friendly Society of 
some forty members, a chapter of the Saint Andrew's Brotherhood, 
and a Company of the Knights of Temperance 
numbering over forty members. A fine vested 
choir of thirtj' voices, which is the admiration of 
the congregation, and which elicits the praise of 
all who hear it. 

The members of the present Vestry are. 
Wardens: James M. Carrington, William 
Mulligan; Vestrymen: Steuart Montell, Charles 
E. Wood, Frederick White, George N. Potter, 
Frederick L. Green, Desmond Nelson, Henry I. 
Riker and William Harison. 

The Rector still remains faithful at his post. 
and there is a strong bond of union between him 
and his people. Many honors have been conferred 

upon him; quite lately he was elected Ven. Arch- sr. mary's koman cahiomc church. 

deacon of Queen's Countj', and although he will 

not withdraw from the work of his church and parish, he will devote much of his unimpaired energy 
to the work of Missions in his Archdeaconry. In 1882 the degree of D.D. was conferred upon him 
by the University of the South. He has been the Assistant Secretary of the Diocese from its 
formation, and at the Convention of 1895 the following complimentary resolutions were passed: 

Whereas, The Rev. Edmund Drury Cooper, D. D. , has served this Convention as its Assistant 
Secretary for tvventy-si.x successive years, or from the date of our Diocesan organization, and has 
done so with conspicuous faithfulness and unvarying courtesy to all : Therefore 

Resolved, That this Convention hereby gratefully recognizes Dr. Cooper's official and valuable 
services, and begs to assure him of its best wishes for his health and happiness during many years 
to come. 

Resolved, Thai the unanimous expression of the gratitude and alTection of ilie Convention towards 
Dr. Cooper be suitably cngr(.)ssed and presented to him, duly signed by our President and Secretary. 

On motion these resolutions were unanimously adopted by a rising vote. 

He is Chairman of the Diocesan Church Building Fund Commission, Trustee, with ]\Ir. Cornelius 
Vanderbilt, Mr. AVilliam Low and Mr. Henry E. Pierrepont and others, of the Church Building Fund 
of the United States. Trustee of the General Theological Seminary. A member of the ecclesiastical 
court of the Diocese, and one of the Managers of the Church Charity Foundation of Brooklyn. 

ST. John's protestant episcopal church. 

Practically, St. Thomas' Church, of Ravenswood, was the parent of this cliurcb, through the 
generous instrumentality of William Nelson, Esq., deceased. The organization was effected in 1867, 
and subsequently the present comely little Gothic edifice was erected and consecrated to divine uses. 




HISTORY or LONG ISLAND CITY. 



95 



The first Pastor was the Rev. Mr. Neilson, under whom and his siiccessi;is the parish matured in 
efficiency and influence. Diocesan reports from time to time have shown increase in membersliip and 
revenues. A large and interesting Sabbath School has always been maintained as a branch of 
Christian service. The present rector is the Rev. George West, whose activity and zeal have greatly 
advanced the interests and strength of the organization in various ways. 



ST. MARY S RO.MAN CATMOI.IC CHURCH. 

This church was organized in 1868, with the Rev. John Crimmins as Pastor. Lots had jireviously 
been purchased upon the present site and the b\iilding was erected, tlie first services in wliicli were 
held April 11, 1869. On August 15 of 
the same year the church was dedicated 

by Bishop Loughlin, of Brooklyn. The ' 

Rev. Mr. Crimmins continued as Pastor 

till 1878, when he was succeeded by the ' 

Rev. John McGuire, under whom the 
present commodious edifice and par- 
ochial residence were erected. Having 
been destroyed by fire in one of the 
most disastrous conflagrations which 
ever visited this city (as narrated in 
notes at the close of this chapter), the 
entire property was rebuilt and is now 
one of the finest held by any ecclesias- 
tical organization in the city. 



JOSEPH S r.KRM.^N 
CHlRt H. 



CATHOI.K 




This church is on Stemler street, 
near (irand avenue, Astoria. Its house 
of worship was completed in July, 1880. 
The present pastor is the Rev. Cyprian 
liisele. 

EAST AVENUE BAPTIST CHURCH. 

This flourishing church was organ- 
ized April 10, 1869, through the efforts 
of the Rev. J. G. Ladd, General Mis- 
sionary of the Baptist Association for 
Long Island. It was at first known as 
the Hunter's Point Baptist Church. 
There were nine charter members and 
services were held for about a j'ear in 
Smithsonian Hall. A General Council 
of Baptist Churches having been called, 
May 25, 1869, it was officially recog- 
nized by the denomination as an established ecclesiastical body of its own faitli. 

The first Pastor, Rev. William B. Smith, was called July 4, 1S69, and entered upon his duties 
Sept. 12 following. On Oct. 5, 1869, the Rev. William B. Smith, William Cronin. Dr. Louis Graves, 
J. G. Evereth, and Horace Waters were elected Trustees. 

The location of the church having been changed, the name of the organiz;Uion, Feb. 3, 1S71, 
became the East Avenue Baptist church. On the 8th of the succeeding month a new house of wor- 
ship, costing nearly $30,000, situated on the corner of East avenue and Eighth street, was dedicated 
by the Rev. Drs. Fulton, of Boston, and Evarts, of Chicago. To this edifice Mrs. Horace Waters 
generously donated a bell and a costly baptistry. Messrs. B. Shoninger & Co. also ])resented the 
church with an organ. Tiiis church has had ei<>'ht Pastors, each of whom left tlie gratifying fruits of 



li'H.N MCi;llKE. 



96 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



a faithful ministration. The Rev. W. F. Benedict, called June, 1S72; Rev. W. A. liransjcr, 
September, 1874; Rev. E. H. Lovette, April, 1885; Rev. X. B. Randall, November, 1887; Rev. 
J. C. Breaker. December, 1890, Rev. T. L. Giffin, December, 1891, and the Rev. Geo. M. Evans, the 
present incumbent. 

On July 30, 1893, this church set a notable example of Christian charity and generosity, which 
attracted widespread comment, in opening its doors for worship to the congregation of St. i\Iarv's 
Roman Catholic Church, whose edifice had been destroyed b}' fire. 

The Sunday School, from the first Superintendency of Horace "Waters, in 1869, to that of A. L. 
New, the present incumbent, and the various benevolent societies belonging to the church, have 
been helpful instrumentalities in promoting its work and establishing it as one of the prominent 
religious organizations of the citv. 



small assembly room on Jackson avenue. 



rHIRD METHODIST Kl'lSCOP.A I, CHlRCll, lUlCH KILLS. 

This church is a development of a Sabbath School which was organized November, 1871, in a 

After continued preaching services, a church organization 
was shortly after duly effected with the Rev. R. H. 
Lomas as the first pastor. His successors have 
been the Rev. Benjamin Simon, who served for six 
years previous to 1878; Rev. A. Nixon, whose 
pastorate covered one year; the Rev. R. H. Lomas, 
who, upon his return, remained two years ; Rev. Alex. 
(Graham; Rev. J. H. Kirk; Rev. Francis H. Smith, 
and the Rev. E. Curtis, the present incumbent. 

A small frame edifice was begun June 26, 1875, 
and upon completion was dedicated by Bishop E. S. 
Janes, March 19th of the succeeding year. A costlier 
structure has since been erected at the junction of 
Hunter avenue and Radde street, having a basement 
well equipped for purposes of general church work, 
a Sabbath School and prayer meeting annex and a 
seating capacity of 350 in its main auditorium. To 
various societies, among which may be mentioned 
the Epworth League, organized under the auspices 
of the church, have been committed the different 
methods of Christian activity, all contributing to the 
prosperity which has marked the career of the 
church. The Sabbath School is in a flourishing 
condition, has a library of 400 volumes and is under 
the superintendency of Harry Hazlctt. 

ST. RAI'HAEL's ROMAN t:ATHOLIC CHl^RCH, BLISSVILLF.. 
TirK KA.>i AVKNUK IIAI'TISI CHLKtMI. 

This church was built in 1867. The first pastor 
was the Rev. Theodore Goetz, who organized the parish. The present pastor is the Rev. Peter Carney. 

ST. Patrick's roman catholic church, dutch kills. 
The original site of this church was at the corner of William and Henry streets, where a small 
edifice was erected in 1870. The present building stands on the Crescent, between Wilbur and 
Payntar avenues. The first pastor was the Rev. M. M. Marco, whose successors have carried forward 
the parish work with much efficiency. The present incumbent is the Rev. Mr. McGronan. 

FIRST REFORMED CHURCH, LONG ISLAND CITV. 

Tills church was the outgrowth of several causes. With the advance of population throughout 
the district of Dutch Kills, the need of a local organization was felt by those whose membership was 
with the Reformed Church of Newtown. Already a Sabbath School had been organized in the old 
Larremore schoolhouse, to which reference is elsewhere made under the head of " Historical .Sketch 




///STOKV OF LONG IS LAN I) CITY. 97 

of City Schools." Upon the revocation of the privilesje of holding religious services in school- 
houses, by the newly incorporated city, however, the barn of John W. Payntar was used for the pur- 
pose of Sabbath assembly. The attention of the North Chassis of Long Island and of the Board of 
Domestic Missions of the Reformed Church having been called to the needs of this field and its 
promises of tisefulness, the efforts of several niissionairics were here expended, which resulted in the 
establishment of a permanent church societ}-. Accordingly, on the 12th day of April, 1875, the First 
Reformed Church of Long Island City was duly organized. The committee appointed by the North 
Classis for that purpose consisted of the Revs. Alliger, Hulst and Perry. Addresses were made by the 
Revs. Shepard, of Newtown, Haines, of Astoria, and Hulst. Eleven members constituted the organi- 
zation, from whose number a consistory was chosen, consisting of two elders, John W. Payntar and 
Jabez Harris; and one deacon, Thomas Payntar. From the outstart this church and that of St. John's, 
at Laurel Hill, determined to unite their fields under a common pastorate, a union which was dissolved 
July II, 1877, by the joint action of the consistories of the respective organizations. The first pastor 
was the Rev. William D. Perry, who was chosen at the time of organization and retired September, 
1875. The pastorate of the Rev. George R. Garretson, his successor, extended from October, 1875, 
to April, 1877. On September 12, 1877, the Rev. Ernest Gutweiler was called to the pastorate of the 
First Reformed Church, and remained until ^larch, 1885. 

On April 17, 1885, the Rev. Alexander Shaw, of Jersey City, tlie present incumbent, became 
his successor, by the unanimous action of the church. 

The church edifice and parsonage are situated upon lots 98 to 102 Academy street, Dutch Kills. 
This property was generously donated to the church at its organization by Abram Payntar — a gift 
which has realized the hopes of its donor in the good accomplished for the community. 

The Sabbath vSchool, which has always been maintained in connection with the church, had for 
its first Superintendent Benjamin Thomson, of Ravenswood, who officiated while services were held 
in the old district schoolhouse. His successors have been Thomas Payntar, Alexander Milne, John 
R. Manley, Joseph Boyce and Joel S. Kelsey, who is still' in charge. Under the administration of the 
Rev. Mr. Shaw, the work of the church has been much advanced. The Ladies Missionary Society, 
Young People's .Society of Christian Endeavor, and a Junior Endeavor Society have been organized 
and are still in active and useful operation. 

It is noteworthy that this church encouraged the first effort of the Bohemian Church in Long 
Island City by granting the use of its edifice for a Sabhaih School and religious services for a period 
of several years previous to 1894. 

KIRST r.F.R.M.W .Ml. THODIST KIMSCOP.Vl. CHURCH, DUTCH KILLS. 

The First (icrman Methodist Episcopal Church of Long Island City was incorporated on the i8th 
day of February, 1890. Fi-ed. Willenbrock, Peter Blank, George Sutherland, Christian Roniann, 
Gottlieb Jehle, Fred. Hildebrandt and Paul J. Schmidt being then elected as incorporating board of 
trustees, with Rev. N. F. Boese, chairman, for the purpose of acquiring church property. 

For some years previous the young congregation had worshipped in the little Grace Chapel, 
corner Prospect and Jane streets, till compelled by increasing numbers — especially in the Sunday 
School — to seek a more commodious home. 

Soon after, the congregation decided to build a church, and selected the site where the church 
now stands, on Academy street, near Wilbur avenue, and Mr. Fred. Willenbrock surprised the 
trustees with the gift of two building lots for the church as well as an option, at a low price, on two 
more lots for a parsonage. Other encouraging circumstances paved the waj- for the success of the 
project, and on December 7, 1890, the church was formally opened and dedicated for church purposes. 

The pastors of the church have been: Rev. N. F. Boese, 1887-1892; Rev. J. Flad, 1892-1893; 
Rev. Gustav F. Hausser, Jr., 1893-1896; Rev. F. Glenk, 1896. 

The present officers of the church are: Rev. F. Glenk, pastor; N, F. Boese, Wesley Glenk, 
Gottlieb Jehle and Paul J. Schmidt, local preachers; Gottlieb Jehle, Superintendent of Sunday School ; 
Christian Romann, Chairman of Board of Trustees, and George Sutherland, Treasurer. 

Since the completion and dedication of the church building, the congregation has been enabled 
to pay off the greatest part of the church debt and to build a handsome and commodious parsonage. 

Sr. .M.XTTHKW's PROTESTANT EPISCOP.AL CH.\PF.L, STEINW.AV. 

Si. Matthew's Chapel, a mission of the Protestant Episcopal Church, began its work at Steinway, 
Long Island City, X. V., iu the year of our Lord 1S92. The Rev. Dr, Weeks, now rector of St. 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY 



Tliomas' Church, Ravenswood, being its founder. In tlie year 1893. through the Archbisliop, the 
Ven. Dr. Cox, Dean of the Cathedral of Ciarden City, appointed Mr. Kuehn as the successor. The 
Mission is now under the oversight of the new Archdeacon of Queens, the Ven. Dr. Cooper, also 
rector of the Church of the Redeemer, of Astoria, Long Island City. The Mission holds regular 
services — is doing prosperous work — and is looking forward unostentalinusly with great courage. 

REFORMED CHURCH, SUNNYSIUE. 

This church was organized July i, 1896, by a committee appointed for the purpose by the North 
Classis of Long Island. Besides the Revs. J. S. N. Demarest, of Queens, and Frederick Tilton, of 
Jamaica, who officially represented the Classis, there were present the Rev. Alexander Shaw, of 
Dutch Kills; Rev. Dr. Daniel Van Pelt, of Astoria, and Rev. Dr. Geyer, of New York, all of whom 
participated in the exercises of the day. C. Olandt and O. Johnson were chosen Elders and W. H. 
Elting and William Kelly, deacons. Sixteen members constituted the organization. 

This church had its origin in the previous missionary labors of C. Olandt, who, in 1892 and 1893, 
began a movement which contemplated the establishment of a church in that field, which was practi- 
callv unoccupied. Having interested some friends in the work, substantial aid was procured whereby 

a lot costing $700 was purchased, a foundation constructed 
for $740, and the corner stone of a new edifice laid May 11, 
1896. Funds for the new building have been partly raised. 
A Ladies' Society of forty-six members, and a Sunday 
School of one hundred and twelve members, with ten 
teachers, are encouraging evidence of the growth of the 
work and the outlook and needs of the field. The Rev. 
D. P. Doyle is the pastor in charge. Preaching services are 
regularly held in rooms temporarily secured, and weekly 
meetings are well attended and not without interest. 

IHE REFORMED t.'HURCH OF STEINWAV. 

This church has recently been organized under very 
favorable auspices. For a number of years services have 
been held in the community under the name of the Union 
Church of Steinway, the pulpit having been supplied by 
ministers of different denominations and theological 
students. As far back as 1836 a Sunday School was in 
existence, known as "The Bowery Sabbath School," of 
which the present Sunday School and church is the out- 
-rowtli. That school was held in a country schoolhouse and 
sustained by Long Island farmers resident in the vicinity. 
The schoolhouse was destroyed by fire in 1879. 
\ Vi I j i^^^gB^M^Bsxii ^sa^^^' '\'he suburb of Steinway which had grown up demanded 

better church privileges, and in the year 1879 it was decided 
to erect a church building "for the purpose of founding 
and continuing a free church in the Fifth or Bowery Bay 
Ward of Long Island City in Queens County and State of New York." The church was incorporated 
with the following trustees: William Steinway, Henry W. T. Steinway, William H. Williams, Henry 
P. Titus, Luke Kouwenhoven, Francis D. Kouwenhoven and Daniel S. Riker. The only changes in 
the Board have been the resignation of Henry W. T. Steinway and the death of Daniel S. Riker, 
their places having been filled by the election of George H. Smith and William Brodie. 

In the rapid growth of Steinway, better church accommodation was needed than the Union 
Church afforded. With commendable zeal and liberality, the people heartily entered upon the work 
of erecting a new church building. During the past year a neat frame church has been completed, 
beautifully furnished, with solid oak pews, and capable of seating about five hundred persons. 
The total cost was nearly §20.000, and the church was dedicated, free from debt. Mr. William 
Steinway, who has been one of the leaders in the enterprise, presented the handsome pipe organ from 
Setinway Hall, removing it at his own expense, putting it in thorough repair, and jilacing it in a 




>T. KAIIIAKL! 



JMAN CATHOLIC ClILRCll. 



UIS'IVRV OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



99 



recess back of the pulpit. This jjives a church property, including the ground, worth at least $3o,ooo- 
The new church was dedicated on Sunday, May 31, 1891. The sermon was preached in the 
morning by Rev. U. D. (iulick. In the afternoon addresses were delivered by the neighboring 
ministers, and the entire day was one of unusual interest in the community. Up to this time there 
had been no real church organization. Members of different churches had been gathered, and a 
flourishing Sunday School was in existence. 

But there was no organized church as a spiritual center. At a meeting of the congregation, held 
at the close of the morning service on the 26th of July, it was unanimously resolved to petition the 
North Classis of Long Island for a church organization, to be known as " The Reformed Church of 
Steinway." This organization was effected on the 27th of November, by a committee of Classis, ap- 
pointed for that purpose. The sermon was preached 
by the Rev. James Demarest, D.U., who, with 
the Rev. John Raumeister, received the members 
and ordained the elders and deacons. Twenty-two 
members were received by certificate and twenty-one 
on confession of faith. The first communion was 
held on the first Sunday in January, 1892, when five 
were received on confession, making the total mem- 
bership forty-eight. The Sunday School numbers 
three hundred and fitty-one, and a Young People's 
Society of Ciiristian Endeavor has just been organ- 
ized. There is also a Church Improvement Society, 
composed of the women of the congregation, which 
has been an exceedingly valuable auxiliary in the 

accomplishment of the results attained. 

On the first Sunday in November — Missionary 

Sunday — the statement was made from the pulpit 

that, although the church had not yet been organized, 

an opportunity was offered for any who wished to 

contribute to the cause of Foreign Missions. A 

collection of eighty dollars was taken, to which was 

added five dollars by a class of little girls in the 

Sunday School, at their own suggestion. The pews 

have been supplied with the new "Churcli 

Hymnary," which gives great satisfaction. 

The church began its work with unity, enthusiasm 

and consecrated purpose. It is financially strong, 

spiritually alive, actively aggressive. It is free to all, 

sustaining itself by voluntary contributions. It came into the sisterhood of churches, rejoicing in the 

manifest presence and power of the Holy Spirit, and ready for its full share of responsibilitj^ and work. 

rRlNMI\ MKTMnmsr EPISCOPAL CHURCH, .^sr0RI.\. 

This is the oldest church of this denomination in the city. Its organization dates back as far as 
1844. At that time Astoria itself was assuming new life and rapidly increasing in all the agencies 
which contribute to the progress of a community. The first pastor was the Rev. George Taylor, 
while the leading spirits in the history of the early church and for many subsequent years were Roe H. 
Smith and John E. Tier. At that time the church building was located at the junction of Main 
street and Fulton avenue, where it remained until 1886, when four lots were purchased at the corner 
of the Crescent and Temple street, where the present commodious chapel, costing $15,000, was 
erected. This change occurred during the ministry of the Rev. A. H. Goodenough. The present 
pastor is the Rev. James A. Macmillan, who is also president of the North Brooklyn District of the 
Epworth League. Mr. Macmillan's spirited activity in movements which relate, not only to the imme- 
diate welfare of his church, but that of the community as well, is much valued by an appreciative 
public. A Pastor's Aid Society, Epworth League organization and a Boys' Brigade are useful adjuncts 
to the work and influence of the church. It is one of the leading churches of the city. 




1 KIM IV METIIUlJl-Sl tl I2 



HIS I CRY OF LONG JSLAXP CI TV 



THE BAR OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 

America honors the legal profession. From it principally come those who are chosen to civil 
preferment and distinction. Under normal social conditions it is the profession also which reflects 
back the highest dignity upon the commonwealth. Though "in the corrupted currents of the world 
the wicked prize itself oft buys out the law," as is cynically said by the great dramatist, yet the per- 
fected character of the lawyer, as graphically portrayed by Chief Justice Story, has contributed in a 
superior degree to the formation of that solid basis upon which civil society rests. The bar of this 
city in past and present has been, and is, worthily representative of this favored profession. In 

attempting an historical sketch we 
speak first of those who were identi- 
fied with professional practice within 
the present territorial limits of the 
cit}^ before its incorporation. 

Samuf.i, Stevens was a lawyer 
whose active practice covered the 
period extending from about 1830 to 
1844. He accumulated wealth and 
acquired a large amoimt of real estate. 
In his time, as is evidenced by the 
official records, he made an impress 
upon the community and showed that 
he, more than any other, was the 
lawyer who was consulted about 
estates and landed affairs. He died 
in 1844, leaving a large estate and 
numerous descendants. His sons, 
Ry£24ii K. and Alexander, were his 
executors, and the last of the property 
has only been distributed among the 
heirs since the incorporation of the 
city. He was the father of A. 
(iallatin Stevens, who participated 
in governmental affairs as Police 
Commissioner under Mayor Ditmars. 
The Rikers were the legitimate 
successors of Samuel Stevens to his 
practice in business. John L. Riker 
studied law with his brother Richafd, 
who was District Attorney of New 
York, and for twenty years afterward 
the Recorder of that city. Entering 
upon active i)ractice he continued in the profession till 1861. He was noted for his uprightness and 
urbanity of address. He was succeeded by his sons, John H. and Samuel Riker, who were distin- 
guished, particularly the latter, for their profound knowledge of the law of real property. 

Prior to 1S70, Robert Benner and Abram D. Ditmars had, by reason of residence here, built up 
considerable practice in the community and shared with the Rikers the advantages of the profession. 
While Astoria had been for many years a pleasant and prosperous village, and Ravenswood had 
long been lined with elegant residences and many evidences of improvement. Hunter's Point began to 
be built up only within six or eight years prior to incorporation. There was, therefore, no past to that 
section and no lawyers to give prominence to the records of their day. There had been living, how- 
ever, in what is now known as the First Ward, a typical Irish gentleman, Edward Browne, whose son, 
Edward, was recently Judge of the City Court of New York. He enjoyed a good practice, stood well 
in the community, and was especially noted for his affability and those kindly forms of politeness which 
are characteristic of a warm Irish heart. 




;akreit j. gakketson. 



(3^a^^**^ 






niSrOKY OF LONG ISLAND CITY 



■^ ^•■>v 



There was also then living Robert T. Wild who had been in practice in Astoria for some years. 
He had a good clientage, was interested in politics, and held office under the first administration. 

In 1867 Alvan T. Payne commenced his practice in this city. He had moved from Steuben 
County and was engaged with his profession in New York. He foresaw, however, the future growth 
of Long Island City and especially of the First Ward, and for that reason concluded to establish him- 
self in this city. He immediately won the pioneers of advancing affairs together with their friendship 
and patronage. Politics were then rife in the lower section and the lawyers of that part of the city 
were foremost in the field. Mr. Payne was then a young man and wisely confided his chief interests 
and attention to his business. He never belonged to either of the contending factions of the democ- 
racy and for that reason, in 1875, was selected as a candidate for the Assembly from the Second 
District and was elected without 
either faction claiming him as their 
special representative. From that 
period on, however, he took a deep 
interest in the welfare of the city and 
was identified with the reform wing 
of the party. In 1880 he was nomi- 
nated for District Attorney and 
endorsed by the Republicans as 
against Benjamin W. Downing who 
had held the office for eighteen years 
previously and came within about 
500 votes of winning wlien the 
regular Democratic ticket was victo- 
rious by over 2000 majority. Pre- 
viously, in 1870, Mr. Payne had been 
a candidate for another county office, 
that of Surrogate, and was defeated 
by one vote in the convention, by 
Daniel R. Lyddy, a carpet bagger — 
who was vanquished by about 3000 
majority in favor of Alexander 
Hagner, the Republican candidate. 
Ujjon the accession of Mr. Petry t<> 
the .Mayoralty, Mr. Payne, upon tin 
solicitation of Mr. Petry, becan; 
corporation counsel of the city and 
held office during that and the suc- 
ceeding official term. 

Mr. Payne now has the leading 
practice in the city. He has won 
distinction both as an advocate and 
as a safe and conservative consulting 
lawyer. By his uprightness and 

conscientious sense of professional duty, as well as by his profound knowledge of the law, he enjoys 
the confidence of his fellowmen to a rare degree. 

About the time that the subject of incorporation was being publicly agitated, Solomon B. Xobie 
moved over from New York and took up his residence in Ravenswood and also opened offices in the 
First Ward. Mr. Noble was then in the prime of life, being about fifty years of age. As a young man 
he had shown an adventurous spirit, having been the Secretary of General Walker, who in 1856 under- 
took to revolutionize Nicaraugua, was captured and taken aboard the United States vessel at Greytown. 
He was now an affable, scholarly gentleman, possessing an unusually large experience in human 
affairs. His wife, Agnes, as an authoress and as one of the founders of Sorosis, had attracted con- 
siderable attention in the literary world. By his genial and cordial address Mr. Noble speedily 
became known to, and popular with, all classes of people. By his temperament and taste he was well 




IKiN. A. T. I'AYNE. 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



adapted to politics and it is probable that it was a kind of instinctive foresight that prompted his 
coming to a field wliich received him with much favor. 

About this time William E. Pearse, who had been admitted to the bar, but h;id engaged in the 
manufacture of oil in this city, resumed the practice of law in partnership with Mr. Noble. He 
too was given to politics, and the amended charter of 1871 having provided for the election of City 
Judge, the ambitions of both Mr. Noble and Mr. Pearse centered in the office. Curiously enough also, 
each received the nomination from the contending parties. Mr. Pearse was elected by a small 
plurality, and the partnership ceased upon his accession to the bench. Upon the abolition of the 
City Court Mr. Pearse resumed his practice and became counsel to the Improvement Commission for 
the improvement of the Finst and Second Wards, devoting his whole time in that direction. In 1878 

he was elected to the Legislature, 
and died shortly after one term of 
official service. 

Mr. Noble held various offices 
under the city administration, having 
been at one time Corporation Counsel 
under Mayor Ditmars. He was 
always identified, more or less, with 
the interests of public life until his 
death in 1895. His son, Daniel 
Noble, had been associated with him 
several years prior to his death and 
had shown special qualifications for 
professional life. Having been 
elected District Attorney, his official 
course has won pojiular approbation, 
while his accomplished address, 
which is his hy inheritance, has been 
the source of many friendships and 
widespread esteem. 

Early in the city's history Walter 

J. Foster removed to the upper part 

of the city and since that time has 

been more or less identified with the 

^^ politics of the city, having been 

■|^k ^^ ^ Corporation Counsel during the first 

^^r k| term of Maj-or Gleason. His practice 

^^K ^'wi^^^B '^ F^ '^'^^ ^^ ^■'^^ same time been well 

PB V^^BHS* ' '^^^'''>t^ii^c<^ in association with his 

two sons, Walter C. and Edgar P., 
who also are fair representatives of 
the class of junior lawyers of the city. 
soi.oM' Of those who have located in the 

city since its incorporation, and won 
promise and distinction in their practice, are L. N. Manley, who is a prominent Republican and one 
of the leaders of his party, having been honored on more than one occasion by election to office. 
In 1894 he was elected a member of the Constitutional Convention. 

We mention also Frank E. Blackwell and his brothers, Arthur and George. Arthur died at an 
age when he evinced promise of a bright career, and was succeeded in the partnership by George, 
who merits the success he has won from his practice. 

Numbers of other lawyers have come and gone. Among those who have grown uji and proved 
themselves worthy members of the bar, and been identified with the best interests of the city, are: 
T. C. Kadien, Charles T. Duffy, F. N. Smith, James T. Olwell, John R. Manley, Charles A. Wadley, 
Ira G. Darrin. E. J. Knauer, George A. Gregg, Matthew J. Smith and E. N. Anable. Also may be 
mentioned W. E. Stewart, who came to this city by ajipointment as Corporation Counsel under Mayor 




///STORY O/- /.ONG /S/.AN/) (7/ V. 



103 



Sanford, and Thomas P. Burke, the present Corporation Counsel. And other later acquisitions 

including William Lynam, son of the prominent politician who resided here many years aj^o; Win- 

throp Tnrney ; A. T. Payne, Jr., who is associated 

with his father, and Harry T. Weeks, all of whom 

are worthy representatives of the junior class of 

lawyers. 

l.MI'ORTAN 1 LITIGATION. 

The litigation which has grown out f>f, or 
been incidental to, the city affairs would fill 
volumes. Beginning with the adjustment of the 
affairs of Newtown, of which Long Island City 
formed a part, to the present time, the difficulties 
have seemed almost interminable, and litigation 
in respect to taxes and assessments have been 
continuous, occupying the attention of the courts 
to a large extent. 

The first case of importance, liowevur, was 
the suit brought in the name of the Attorney 
General to oust Henry S. Debevoise, who had 
received the certificate of the second election for 
mayor. Mr. Ditmars had been renominated for 
the office, and Mr. Debevoise, who was the 
candidate of the politicians, was his opponent. 
At the time of the election he was City Clerk, and 




t LUCIUS N. MANI.KV, ESQ. 

as such controlled the legal machinery of the election, 
and was the final canvasser of the votes. Tne 
Mt prominent citizens of the Astoria section of the city 

raised a fund to litigate his right to the office, and 
proceedings were commenced as already mentioned. 
An extraordinary circuit was appointed by Governor 
John A. Dix for the trial of the case. 
^\ The committee of citizens, who inaugurated the 

^^^k / movement, placed the matter in charge of A. T. 

^^^^^^^^^ J^ * Payne, who secured, as associate counsel, Joshua M. 

^^^^^^^^^^F\. , AA^^ Van Cott, the distinguished jurist, who recently died 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ X^ at an advanced age in Brooklyn. Mr. Debevoise 

^^^^^^^^^^^^Hk W ^ Ift V employed .several lawyers, eminent in their profes- 

^^K^^^^^^fCf\,^^ P ^'""' '" tlefend him. Those who are now recalled 

'^^^HPi^ • are Aaron J. \'anderpoel, Mr. Buckley, of Girard, 

^^^ Piatt & Buckley; Judge Samuel D. Morris, of 

Brooklyn, and Benjamin W. [)owning, of Oueens 
County. The trial lasted two weeks, and several 
hundred witnesses were callea. The case ended in 
a disagreement of the jury, a new trial never having 
been brought on account of the great expense 
involved. 

Upon the election in which ^Ir. Debevoise and Mr. Petry were candidates, the former having 
again succeeded in obtaining the official certificate of his election, quo warranto proceedings were 
commenced on behalf of Mr. Petrv tor the office of Mavor, Mr. Pavne being again counsel for the 



WAIII.EY, ESQ. 



104 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



contestant. After many vexations delays the court declared that the election of Mr. Debevoisc was 
obtained by fraud, and Mr. Petry was awarded the office. 

Immediately afterward, the action, which had been commenced by the Attorney-General against 
Mr. Debevoise for misappropriation of the city's money, was tried and resulted in a verdict ayainst 
Mr. Debevoise of over $100,000. 




Jt'l-.K.NS COUNTY COUKT llor^K. 



(The above cut was taken from an excellent pliotoRraph kindly furnished for the engraver's use by 
Mr. Thomas Cusack, of 192 Twelfth street, Long Island City.) 

Tablets, of which the following are copies, and which are prominently set up in the main corridor 
of the Court House, briefly give the facts connected with the erection of the sightly and handsome 
building: 



ijl'EENS COUNTY COURT HOUSE. 


Huildinn erected and 

euclosed by 

Edward A. Lawrence, 

Carmen Cornelius. 

Robert Burroughs. 


Building finished 
under direction of 1 

Edward A. Lawrence, 
Robert Burroughs, 

John H. Brinckerhoff, 


Isaac Coles, 

Isaac H. Cocks, 

(ieorge M. Hunter, 

James Xostrand. 


Cieorge S. Downing, 

James Bradley. 

Samuel Willel's, 

Ebenezer Kcllum. 


Commissioners 

Appointed by 

Legislature, 1872. 


Board of Supervisors 

of Queens County, 

1876. 



QUEENS COUNTY COURT HOUiJE 



Architect, 
George Hatiiokne. 

Contractors under Commissioners, 
U. C. WKiiKs & Son. 

Contractor under Board of Supervisors. 

B. CiAI.I.Ar.llKR. 



In connection with these trials there followed criminal prosecutions of minor officers for malfea- 
sance, which resulted in convictions in many instances. But no actions of that character again arose 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



until the contest over the election of 1892, by mandamus proceedings, which resulted in Mr. 
Sanford's obtaining the certificate of election through the courts, after Mr. Gleason had received 
his certificate from the canvassing officer, who was his own appointee. 

Almost every election was characterized by 
great factional bitterness, which was made more 
bitter by these litigations. 

Various suits have grown out of bonding the 
city for the erection of schoolhouses and other 
improvements, until probably no city of its size 
within the limits of the State has been burdened 
with such litigation. As has been aforesaid, the suits 
relating to taxes and assessments, and in respect to 
the construction of legal enactments affecting the 
city, have been voluminous. Hardly, however, have 
all these various questions been settled by the courts 
and legal processes begun to terminate in final 
adjustments, when the absorption of the city into 
Greater New York would seem to make vain the 
previous labors of litigation. Yet the city will have 
been better prepared for the union, which will lead 
it on to larger and better schemes of municipal 
development. 

THE COUKr HOUSE. 

L(mg Island City is the county seat of Queens 
County. In being awarded this distinction geo- 
graphical considerations were subordinated to the 
superior transportation facilities which make this 
city the most accessible point in the county. In 
1874, largely through the instrumentality of the 
members of the bar in Long Island City, and more particularly through the persistency and energy 
displayed by Judge Pearse, the county seat, which had been in the geographical center of the county, 

was removed to this city. The Court House, standing upon the 
Square at the junction of Thomson and Jackson avenues, is the 
most imposing structure in the city. It was erected and enclosed 
by the following Commissioners, who were appointed for the 
purpose by the Legislature in 1872: Edward A. Lawrence, Carmen 
Cornelius, Robert Burroughs, Isaac Coles, Isaac H. Cocks, George 
H. Hunter and James Nostrand. The building was carried to 
completion in 1876 by the Board of Supervisors of Queens County, 
which consisted of Edward A. Lawrence, Robert Burroughs, John 
H. Brinckerhoff, George S. Downing, James Bradley, Samuel Willets 
and Ebenezer Kellum. The first term of court was held by Judge 
Dykeman in 1874, and among the trials was a suit growing out of 
the construction of the Court House. Through no fault of the 
Commissioners the building has never provided adequate accom- 
modations for the purposes contemplated in its erection. The 
demands of the vast increase of business are not met by its interior 
construction. 

Since its completion in 1876 the lawyers of the County have 
organized the Queens County Bar Association, which has proven of 
incalculable advantage and value to all members of the bar, by reason of the library resulting from 
their united effort and of the strengthening of a fraternal bond by professional association. 




ELU'HAIXT N. ANAIII.E. ESQ. 




JUDGE CHAKI I 



io6 



HISTORY OF LOSG ISLAND CITY. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. 

it IS qmte dirricult to trace the early medical histor\- of Long Island Cit}-. as in colonial times 
what is now known by that name was included in the " Out Plantations," which did not have distinct 
corporate existence, but was dependent for laws and customs on either New Amsterdam, Flushino- or 
Xewtown. 

The task is rendered more ' ■' ' smuch as the " Out Plantations ' were frequently in dispute 

as regards boundary lines, and even 
the question as "to whom they 
actually owed allegiance " was deter- 
mined according to fluctuating polit- 
ical conditions ha\-ing their origin in 
European countries. 

While the legal, social and reli- 
gious customs and regulations, pre- 
vailing in those times, have been 
fairly well preserved, medical events 
figure briefly, when at all, bringing 
to mind very forcibly a fact often 
commented uf)on, that, primarr,- and 
most essential conditions which con- 
tribute to oirr happiness, morality and 
comfort, are the last to receive exact 
attention and consideration at the 
hands of the people concerned. 

Despite these facts and contraiy- 
to the generally accepted opinions 
entertained, it is probable that at all 
times, even from the earliest settle- 
ment, this region, as well as the most 
of Queens County, possessed some of 
the best medical and surgical talent 
that the times afforded, and that 
those men were as earnest and pro- 
ficient relatively as the physicians 
and surgeons of to-day. Not only 
did they possess medical men of 
ability to attend to their ailments, 
but they also produced men from 
among their families, who not only 
CDntributed to the adornment of 

medical science in their own country, but rose to positions of eminence in the medical history of the 

Lonntry. settling in larger cities and subsequently rising to the highest distinction in their chosen 

pr'>!tssii)n. 

While the lives of these early pioneers in medicine cannot be traced in historical detail, yet it 

becomes necessary in following out the early medical historj- of the city to set forth such information 

concerning them a,s has been accessible. 

As early as 1645 there was a record of James Clark, Surgeon, at Maspeth Kills, but unfortimately no 

rcc'ir.l remains of the person or the work of this medical pioneer. It is probable that he was one of the 

;>arty w h> lm'i^c originally from Massachusetts with the Rev. Francis Doughty, settling at Maspeth Kills. 




^lEL NOBI K. 



■ ^.4; a record was made ol a converance of land to Philip Gerady by Doctor Ditmars, of Hallett's Cove (Annals of 

. ■.,.,,...,• ,. „. — .•.,,. ,.;„.„■ r>';niars was a qoaliiied physician or whether the lan^anre of the historian 

fd of the early seitlers was Adrian Van der Donck. a son-in-law of the 

I^aws." He formulated the petition ot the Enclisb settlers to the Dutch 

..> ..,:......;, ,. .■.^.....■^^ . ,<; . K > ^ < -ix^es to Holland, in which country he died at>outi6j5- These men may have 

who nad followed (arming, as did mo»t others of the early settlers, no matter what their previous training. 



H /STORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY 



107 




Dr. James Clark was closely followed by a Dr. Folcks, also by Dr. John Greenfield and Dr. John 

Hazard, the two latter of whom practiced between the time of Dr. Folcks and the close of the 

century- (1699). Their early labors have left no mention. In all likelihood they had much - rough 

surgery to perform, owing to the accidents and the difficulties of the 

settlers with the Indians from time to time. It is recorded that 

small-pox, typhus, yellow and malarial fevers prevailed during these 

times, though to what extent, and what means were employed to 

prevent the spread of these diseases, and to limit them to indivi- 
duals, no information exists. Some references also found to 

tuberculosis, and to "spotted fever," by which was probably meant 

typhus rather than cerebro spinal fever. 

From 1700 to 1750, Dr. Evan (or John) Jones, Dr. Berrien and 

Dr. Hugh Rogers practiced their profession Dr. Jacob Ogden, of 

Jamaica, was frequently called in consultation. He was an able 

man and wrote several medical papers on the sore throat distemper 

(diphtheria?) of 1769. He also treated rheumatism and other 

inflammatory affictions with mercury, and was a prominent advocate 

of inoculation for small-pox. Dr. Junes was the author of the first 

surgical book said to have been published in this country, its title 

being "Wounds and Fractures, and their Treatment,'" with an 

appendix on Military Hospitals. He was also Professor of Surgery 

in the medical school at New York, and directed the formation of 

military hospitals for the provincial congress during the Revolution. It is evident, therefore, tliat a 

high standard of merit existed among the physicians of this region even in those early days, and that 

they strove to combat disease and relieve distress. 

In addition to those who espoused the cause of 
freedom, there were a number of British surgeons 
with the troops scattered throughout the countr}-. 
One Dr. Josiah Pomeroy was at Newtown, at a 
military hospital located there, and a Dr. Harper 
had charge of a similar hospital on what is now 
Thomson avenue, near Dutch Kills Creek. Dr. 
Samuel Cutter was reputed to be a very learned and 
benevolent man and well liked, although he was a 
loyal refugee from New England. 

Many of the young men in the families of those 
days took up the study of medicine and surger>% 
usually finishing at Edinburgh. Among these may 
be noted the following: 

Dr. Benjamin Moon, who died in the West 
Indies in 1745. 

Dr. William Moon, born 1753, died 1S24, was a 
nephew of the former. He practiced forty years, 
and was President of the New York Medical Society 
for many years, as well as a trustee of the New York 
College of Physicians and Surgeons. 

Dr. Thomas Sackett, of Newtown, born 1729, 
died 1769. 

Dr. Joseph Sackett, born 1733, practiced at 
Newtown, but was compelled to flee during the 
stormy days of the Revolution. He died in New 
York 1799. 
Another member of this family, Dr. James Sackett, was a surgeon in the Navy during the 

Revolution. 

Dr. John Burroughs, born November 17, 1776, died November 12. 1S12. 




HON. EhW.ilRU J. KN.^IER. 



loS 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



Dr. Dow Ditmars, born Jul}^ 12, 1771, practiced in Astoria for many years. 



Dr. Richard Lawrence, born March 3, 1764, died in 1804. 




WILLIAM E. STEWART, ESQ. 



He was educated at Edinburyh and 
practised at Newtown and vicinity. 

Dr. John Berrien Riker, born 

1738, characterized as a "d 

rebel "' by the British and forced to 
flee for his life. He served with 
Washington's army during the war 
and died at Newtown in 1794. 

Dr. Stephen Rapelye, a surgeon 
in the United States Navy. 

Dr. Isaac Rapelye, subsequently 
a practicing physician at Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

Dr. Henry Mott married Miss 
Janeway, and was the father of the 
famous Dr. Valentine Mott. Dr. 
Mott was buried in the Mott family 
burying ground on the property of 
W. H. Furman, at Maspeth, and his 
grave was in a good state of preser- 
vation in 1880, according to papers 
left by the late Wm. O'Gorman, 
Town Clerk of Newtown. Dr. Mott 
died in 1839, aged 82 year-s. 

This brings our sketch of medical 
men to the end of the last and the 
beginning of the present century and 
includes brief mention of those 
patriotic physicians and surgeons 
who were loyal to their country in 
time of need. It may safely be 
inferred also that men such as these 
were as conscientious in the per- 
formance of professional duties as 
they were loyal and sacrificing in 



behalf of their country. Nor is it to be forgotten that the troubled conditions 
of the times interfered with such labors as tend to occupy the leisure 
moments of physicians and which might tend to perpetuate the record ol 
professional achievements. 

Of the early medical practitioners known to the oldest of the living- 
residents of the city the name of Dr. Baylies is one of the most often heard 
mentioned, that is, of tho.se physicians who had their offices in Newtown 
and practiced throughout the surrounding country. 

Dr. Baylies practiced as far west as Blackwell's Island, he being rowed 
over from the mainland as occasion required. 

Dr. Gustavus Baylies was born at Uxbridge, Mass., in 1761, and as 
a boy of sixteen he served two periods of enlistment as a soldier in the 
Revolutionary army. After the war he entered Harvard College, and 
subsequently took up the practice of medicine at Bristol and Newport, R. I. 

In 1805 he moved to Newtown and continued in practice for thirty 
years. In the war of 1812 he was a commissioned surgeon in the army, and 
was evidently a man of strong personal and professional characteristics. 

It is related of him that he employed with success hydro-therapy in cases of yellow fever as early 
as 1R20, in spite of the op])osition of the public and the doubts of his professional brethren. 




IKEDERICK 



niSTORY OF LOXG ISLAM) CITY 



109 




MATTHEW J. SMI Ml, LSiJ. 



The incident that led to his adoption of this plan of treatment was peculiar and quite accidental. 

During- the war oi 1S12 Dr. Baylies, in his capacity of Surgeon for tlie Army rind \riv\-, was directly 

the cause of the removal of yellow fever patients from 

ships stationed in the East River to the Government hospital 

at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. During the progress of the 

removal one of the very worst cases fell overboard into the 

river, the water of which was ice cold at the time. 

This patient, far from dying, as was most certainly 

expected, made the most speedy and uninterrupted recovery 

of the whole number, and this fact led Dr. Baylies to more 

closely study and advocate the use of cold applications and 

effusions in diseases accompanied with high temperature. 

It is a fact worthy of record that this is the view which is 

accepted, and whose practice is adopted by the most enlight- 
ened and successful practitioners of the present day. 

Dr. Baylies died in 1834, in the seventy-third year of 

his age, and was engaged in the active practice of his 

profession up to the day of his last illness, in fact, he 

contracted pneumonia while visiting his patients during an 

inclement season. 

One son, Gustavus Baylies, Jr., Esq., is a consulting 

lawyer, with offices at New York and residence at the old 

homestead at Newtown. Another son, HftVsey Baylies, M. D. , 

married Miss Harriet Blackwell, of Astoria, and practiced medicine there during his lifetime. A 

grandson, Dr. Bradford Baylies, also practiced for some years at Astoria, but is now a resident and 

practitioner at Brooklj'n, N. Y. 

The medical history of these two successors of the elder Dr. Baylies may be briefly stated as very 

much like that of their progenitor, who was a t3'pical ph3'sician of the old school, yet had that inde- 
pendence of character and practice that stamped him as a true, progressive physician, and not a mere 

follower. His memory is held in high esteem, both as a physician and friend, by the few old residents 

who have been spared since his time. 

The Baylies family of physicians form the connecting link between the old physician, practising at 

Newtown, and those who have since practiced in Long 
Island City. At the beginning of the century the territory 
of this city had but a few hundred inhabitants, but Astoria, 
which had rapidly grown, was naturally looked upon as a 
place that afforded opportunities for the exclusive labor of a 
skilled physician and it was only natural that physicians 
should embrace the opportunity and take up residence there. 
Among the early medical names figuring in the history 
of Astoria are several of those who, while not so actively 
engaged in medicine, were and have been more or less 
engaged in practice. Lack of exact information permits 
only brief mention of them, as follows : 

Dr. Alexander H. Stevens was one of the sons of General 
Ebenezer Stevens, who lived in Astoria, and who also built 
Fort Stevens, at Hallett's Point, during the war of 1812. 
The family has always been' famous socially, commercially 
and professionally. 

Dr. Alexander H. Stevens was the first President of the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, and 
became one of the most eminent surgeons of his day. 

IKA 1;. IIARKIN, FSi.i. " - T^, 

Dr. John Stevens, a grandson ot Lbenezer, was a 
graduate of the Harvard ^^ledical College and died somewhere in the West. 

Another member of one of the oldest families who settled here was Dr. Dow Ditmars, who 




H /STORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY 



graduated from Princeton College, subsequently studying medicine under Dr. Ledyard. He practiced 
his profession at Demerara for twelve years and moved to Astoria about 1816, subsequently engaging 
in farming. He probably kept up his interest in medicine during his lifetime, for, when he died in 
i860, at 90 years of age, his medical library came into the possession of Dr. Wm. Remsen Taylor, of 
Astoria, the oldest physician in point of practice now in this city, and the honored President of the 
Long Island City Medical Society. As far as known the library is still in the possession of Dr. Taylor.* 
Dr. William Chamberlin also practiced in Astoria in the early '50's, but no record of his life work 
exists as far as can be found. 

Dr. Samuel T. W. Sanford, the father of the Honorable Horatio S. Sanford, was the earliest 
medical practitioner at Ravenswood, but in later days he took up commercial pursuits. The name 
still lives of a Dr. Woodhull, who practiced somewhere in Ravenswood, and although his medical 
record cannot be found he is still gratefully remembered by some of the older residents — a pleasant 
thing to dwell on for the present generation of workers, who sometimes are prone to imagine their hard 
work is likely to go unrecognized. 

The most eminent name from a medical standpoint of the many famous physicians and surgeons, 

who have practised in the neighborhood, is that of the late 
Professor James Dowling Trask, M. D., of Astoria. He 
was the progenitor and the best representative of the more 
modern type of physicians and surgeons, and from him we 
must certainly date the medical history of the city proper, 
for while other physicians have lived and practiced here 
at earlier periods, they were largely influenced by family or 
property connection and did not follow medicine in it.s 
entirety. 

,:■• Dr. Trask was an unusually l^rilliant man, gifted with 
a deep knowledge in many directions in subjects considered 
comparatively difficult to his own profession, and has left 
behind him a record of useful work faithfully done that will 
perpetuate his name and memory in surgical circles far 
beyond the present and coming medical generation. 

Graduating with the highest honors from the University 

of New York in 1844, he passed the next fifteen years in the 

general practice of medicine at Brooklyn and White Plains, 

X. Y. And it is a remarkable fact that, during the time 

he was engaged in the arduous work of a mixed country 

H.AkKY i. wKEKs, KM.i. practicc, he forced himself by his writings and addresses 

into the foremost position in the medical world, on his special subjects embracing the diseases of 

women and children. He was considered one of the foremost medical men of the present generation 

in this country. 

This is well illustrated in his having been selected, shortly after his removal to Astoria, to fill the 
chair of obstetrics at the Long Island Medical College, and as Professor of the Diseases of Women 
and Children in the same college. This was an unusual honor for so young a man in those days of 
"older men," for Dr. Trask was then but thirty-nine, and his special subjects were the least known 
and possibly the most neglected by the physicians and surgeons of his day. A man working in such 
an independent field of action must of necessity include, within his group, a vast knowledge of the 
general principles governing medicine and surgery. 

He was one of the founders, therefore, of the Long Island Medical College and of the Brooklyn 
Dispensary also, of which he was among the first surgeons, and associated with him in his work were 
such eminent men as the two Flints, Professor Dalton, Professor Doremus and Professor Frank 
Hamilton. It is doubtful if any college faculty, even at the present time, has had men so uniformly 
qualified and skilled in their various departments, and who have left collectively and individually so 
brilliant and permanent a record of medical achievements. 

Dr. Trask resigned from the faculty after four years, and subsequently refused v.-hat at that time 
was rightfully considered by medical men the highest honor that could be conferred in this country, 




■ Dr. Taylor ha» died >ince tbe above was written. 



H/STORV OF LOXC; ISLAND CITY. 



viz., a professorship in the Medical University of New York on his special subjects. It is to be 
regretted that Dr. Trask did not accept this position, as it would certainly have advanced the art of 
obstetrics greatly. It is easy to estimate the value of a man's service in general medicine or surgery, 
for not only are the teachings and practice of his predecess(jrs known, but they remain to guide and 
strengthen the physician or surgeon, who puts forth efforts in the same field of labor. 

In the yet untrodden paths of progress in the medical history of a country, the greatest honor 
must be given to those who "blaze" the way, and Dr. Trask was one of them. Fortunately the 
memory of such service will grow in the estimation of medical men with succeeding generations, 
when the to])ics in the field of labor followed by them will have become the common property of all. 

In addition to the many other positions of honor and distinction held by Dr. Trask during his 
lifetime, we find that he was President of the (Jueens County Medical Society, one of the founders of 
the American Gynecological Society, 
and corresponding and honorary 
member of many native and foreign 
medical and scientific societies. 
Surely a record which the medical 
l)ractitioner of to-day in this city can 
jjonder upon and strive to emulate. 

Dr. Trask died in Astoria, a 
place evidently well beloved by him, 
on the 2d day of September, 1883, and 
is succeeded in practice by his son. 
Dr. James Dowling Trask, Jr., a 
ph)-sician and surgeon of ability, 
resident also at Astoria, and who 
possesses many of his late father's 
distinctive qualities and character- 
istics. 

A Dr. Jakel practiced in Astoria 
about 1 860. He died in Europe 
while on a visit, (^ne of the earliest 
practitioners at Hunter's Point was 
a Dr. Tanksley, about i860. IK- 
went south, possibly to the war. A 
Dr. Boylan preceded Dr. Graves, 
Dr (iraves is also well remembered 
by many of the old residents of the 
lower portion of the city, but again, 
unfortunately, no record has been 
found of his early work. 

Dr. 11. lieyer was the pioneer 
l>liysician of Dutch Kills and is still 
living at Staten Island, X. Y., having 
been succeeded by Dr. De Witt 
Hitchcock. Dr. Beyer was known as a man of conservative iirinciplcs and was well i|iialiticd as a 
physician. 

Among the physicians who practiced at Dutch Kills the best known and respected were Dr. De 
Witt Hitchcock and Dr. Herbert G. Lyttle. Dr. Hitchcock retired from active practice about ten 
years ago and is now living in the upper part of the State, enjoying a well earned rest. He was, 
perhaps, the most active practitioner that ever lived in this section. He was a graduate of the 
University of New York and of the New York City hospitals— finally visiting Europe in the pursuit 
of advanced knowledge. The record he has left behind him among the people and profession is that 
of a well qualified, painstaking, conscientious physician. His i)ractice embraced a large extent of 
country and a varied clientage, yet he was esteemed by all for his professional skill and tireless 
application to his profession. He, with Dr. Lyttle, marked the advent of the trained hospital 




\JAM1N CKINNK.II. STKONl 



H/S70RY OF LOXG ISLAND CITY. 




lihvsiciiiii ill the newer i)()rtions of the cit}-, and these two men, one deceased, the other retired, did 

much to elevate and maintain the hi<jh standard of medical progress in the city. Dr. Lyttlc, who 

died in 1891, was a man universally esteemed and 
not the less for his interest in church work and 
organization. 

Another of the practitioners at Hunter's Point, 
and now deceased, was Dr. Z. P. Dennlcr, who 
graduated from the Geneva Medical College at the 
beginning of the Civil War. He enlisted in the 
service of his country as surgeon in the army, 
having charge of the hospital at Washington, D. C. 
He subsequently was in active service with the 
Seventh Army Corps and served throughout the 
war and for one year subsequently. 

It was his probe that was used to determine 
the direction taken by the bullet in the body of the 
martyred President Lincoln. The probe is still 
preserved in the Museum at Washington. 

Ur. Dennler was a good surgeon at a time when 
surgery and surgical methods were not as popular 
as they are to-day. Tlie war greatly promoted this 
science. Surgery has been called the " Daughter of 
War." Dr. Dennler was also a good physician and 
held many positions of honor and responsibility. 
He was a member of the Board of Health, surgeon 
to the Long Island Railroad, member of the Medical 
Historical Society of the State of New York, of the 
New York Medical Society, and of the Oueens 
County Medical .Society. 
Among the names that will be recognized more particularly 

by the old residents is that of Dr. Edward H. Duggan, who 

came to a sudden and unfortunate end. He was a good 

practitioner. Though he lived in Greenpoint he had quite a 

practice here as well. Dr. Morri.ssy is another of the Green- 
point physicians who has practiced more or less here for the 

past twenty years. Dr. James Day may also be mentioned in 

this connection. Dr. William Warner Meiners is well and 

favorably known in Hunter's Point. He served one term as 

CoHjner, hut poor health compelled his retirement from politi- 
cal life, which was regretted not only by his])atients hut by the 

medical fraternity. 

Several young men engaged in business here have studied 

medicine and are now graduates : notably Dr. Bartlell, Dr. 

Willken, Dr. MacNamee, Dr. Mahnken and others. Two young 

physicians remain to be more particularly mentioned, as they 

both gave promise of greatness in their chosen profession and 

both met their death at an early age in the cause of .science 

and humanity. The first was: 

Dr. Charles Bartow. He was a native of this city, the 

son of Jacob Bartow, Esq., of Astoria, and Annie K. Bartow, 

a niece of Francis Scott Key, the author of " The Star Spangled 

Banner." He graduated second in his class from Columbia 

College in 1891, being honor man in chemistry, historian of his '"' ''"'*"'•''' ^'■"' 

cla.ss, president of the Class Clui), and winner of the prize debate of the Barnard Literary Society. 

He al.sf) graduated in medicine from the College of Plivsicians and Surgeons in 1.S9.,, standing 



JOHN KRANCIS ItllKNS. 




fl/SJORV (>/■ I.OAU ISLAND CI I V. 113 

second in the class, honor man, anil winner of tlie Harsen prize. He entered the Presbyterian 
Hospital, New Vork, by competitive examination, a^ain standing second, but never served his full 
term, dyinjj October, 1895, aj^cd twenty-six years. Dr. Bartow contracted a pulmcmary disease in the 
cause of scientific invesrigation into the nature and habits of the Tubercle Uacillus, conducted by him 
at the pathological laboratory of the College of Physicians and Surgeons. lie may rightfully be 
considered a martyr to science. 

Doctor Alvah M. Thompson had a somewhat similar history. Although I>r. Thompson was not 
born in this city, he sjient the greater portion of his early days here, and also received his education 
at this i)lace, ])rcvious to his literary and medical college courses. He graduated from the University 
of New Vork in 1891, and was one of the honor men of his class. This secured him a position at the 
City Hospital, and in the discharge of his duties there he contracted tuberculosis, which cau.scd his 
death in 1S93. Dr. Thompson was beloved by all who knew him and gave promise of becoming a 
prominent physician. 

The practitioners at present actively engaged in the city are as follows: 

Andersen, A. J., Astoria. McKeown, Patrick J , Hunter's Point. 

Barry, John H., Hunter's Point. Macfarlane, R. F., Dutch Kills. 

Brennan, Francis E., Hunter's Point. Mciners, W. W'.. Hunter's Point. 

Bumster, P. H., Hunter's Point. Meyer, Paul O., Settlement. 

Burns, John Francis, Dutch Kills. Mulot, Otto L., Astoria. 

Burnett, William J., Hunter's Point. New, James L., Hunter's Point. 

Fitch, NeilO., Astoria. Piatt, Clarence, Astoria. 

Forbes, George, Ravenswood. Prentiss, Robert S. , Astoria. 

Frey, Walter G., Hunter's Point. Shulf/., Reuben, Ravenswood. 

Herrimann, Menzo W., Settlement. Smallwood, Samuel B., Astoria. 

Hinkson, John R., Blissville. Strong, Benjamin G., Dutch Kills. 

Kennedy, James B., Hunter's Point. Strong, Charles F., Astoria. 

^'oeght, Ansclm. 

Several of the physicians have been prominent politically. Dr. Taylor and Dr. Strong have both 
been candidates for the mayoralty, and the latter has served one term as Coroner. Dr. Raincy, the 
projector of the Blackwell's Island Bridge, is of course to be mentioned in a medical history of the 
city. 

Dr. Win. I. Burnett, one of the oldest practitioners here, is President < if the Long Island City 
Savings Bank. Dr. Walter!!. Frey is the founder and President of the Long Island City Free Lii)rary. 
Dr. J. Frank Valentine, although a resident of Richmond Hill, is well and favorably known in the 
city, he having an otlice in this city, being Surgeon in-Chief to the Long Island R.R. with its 575 miles 
of track centering in this city. Dr. X'alcntine has ai.so to look out for the medical welfare of 2500 
employees along the lines, and the sanitary and hygienic condition of the rolling stock and stati<jns. 

Dr. Smallwood, besides being a good physician, is an inventor of much ability and has relin- 
cpiished |)ractice to follow out his idea in the perfection of machinery. 

Starting without any regular physicians not many years ago, Long Island City now employs the 
services of many skilled physicians, and it is to be hoped that they will strive to keep up the high 
standard of medical practice which has called into e.Kistence the two beautiful new hospitals, St. 
John's and Astoria, for the reception of the indigent sick and for special cases. The city is well able 
to provide all the modern equi|)mcnts needed in medical practice, and in this respect is far ahead of 
cities of greater size. Long Island City has its own medical society, known as the Long Island Medi- 
cal Society. Its officers are: Dr. Wm. Remsen Taylor, President, smce deceased; Dr. R. F. 
Macfarlane, Secretary; Dr. Wni. J. Burnett, \'icc-President. 

Many of the members have been active in preparing papers, and the discussions have been 
profitable to all. Many are also members of the Queens County Medical Societj*. one of the oldest 
and most learned of such societies in the country during the ]iast five years. In 1894 the 
society held its first meeting in this city for fifteen years, at Miller's Hotel, and it was the 
most successful meeting, both from a professional and social standpoint, in the history of the 
society, representative men being present from many of the older county medical societies, 
notably Suffolk, Kings and New York, and the papers read were of the highest order of 



•14 



H/STOKY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



merit. Dr. Cooley, of Glen Cove; Dr. Mann, of Jericho; Dr. Henrick.son, of Jamaica, and Dr. 
Lanehart, of Hempstead, are the ones most active in the society, and who have alway.s given, 
as medical men, the most encouragement by their example, in struggling to keep up a high 
standard of work under, at times, very discouraging circumstances. Long Island City has, in fact, 
half a dozen physicians well qualified to take up various specialties if the conditions permitted. The 
scattered condition of the city and the nearness of the great clinics in New York, act as a barrier to 
the realization of the hopes of our local physicians. That they may be able to arrange their practices 
more to their tastes and inclinations, but I am convinced that the day is not far distant when such will 
be the case. It is the inevitable tendency of the medical times, and the wonderful advancement 
made in the various departments of medical science, which render it hard for a physician to keep 
track of them all. 

TUli CIVIL WAR. 

A generation has passed since the close of tiic greatest conflict known to history. Few readers 
there are still who can both tell and realize the price which this nation has paid for what it now 

enjoys. But the/story of heroic struggle with 
hardship written in letters of light, which will last 
forever, will be read with increasing difficulty by 
each successive generation. Will our young readers, 
who already are so far removed from the war in 
which their fathers fought, that they scarcely can 
see through the mist of distance what it was all 
about, permit us to pick up an almost forgotten 
thread of the old colonial days of which we have 
been writing and connect it with the great Civil 
W'ar, solely for the purpose of making more clear the 
cause of that war ? 

To do so we must no longer look on the bright 
side of history — the side of hope, health and 
promise. The very wonder of American progress, 
which the historian finds fully charging the mind 
of liis reader, is the obstacle to be removed. True, 
a liandful of people had become three millions at the 
close of that first great war — the Revolution. True, 
that thirteen colonies had in iS6o become thirty 
States and thirty millions of people. Field and 
forest were subdued. Cities, towns and villages 
had multiplied in number, wealth and comfort. 
Facilities of intercourse and communication, litera- 
ture, educational systems and commercial enterprise 
had made this people a nation, though many knew it 
not. They thought it was a mere union of sovereign 
States. Never had the sun in heaven shone upon 
fairer sceno til piu^perity. Labor w .l^, ainmdant, well rewarded and content. Want was unknown. 
The sons and daughters of other climes came across the seas and sat down with us at the bounteous 
board spread by the New World. Our young land seemed to be fair, comely and strong. It was. 
Vet it was afflicted with a disease which it is doubtful it could long have survived. Already were its 
must important vital functions imperilled. We refer to slavery. If this dread power had risen to 
supremacy, the (iod of nations only knows what kind of a spectacle this land would now present to 
the world instead of the crowning evidence of the success and grandeur of a popular government. 

It is even now difficult for those who lived in the times of slavery to believe that it ever existed 
How much more difficult must it be for the young! But exist it did. And minds are beginning to 
wonder why this Republic, singularly endowed with wisdom and humanity from its birth, should have 
tolerated, for an hour, such an accursed institution. On various pages of this volume it is recorded 
of the early settlers that they were people of devout hopes and schemes as to government, and that 




llhKRl.MA.N. 



If /STORY OF LONG ISLAND L/TV 



"5 



they wniuirlit them out in the very lij^ht ot" tlie liible itself. Yet, iiutwitlisiaiulini; all, liiimaii servi- 
tude was planted beneath the tree of liberty and flourished Ihruuyhout the land. 

And now to pick up the half forgotten thread, the obscurity of which would hardly indicate its 
relations to the very fabric of our national life. The Dutch and Knylish settlers of the territory 
now occu|)ied by this city were slavehcjlders. True that there were no scenes enacted here, such as 
transpired among the Portuguese and Spanish nations, who inflicted the evil upon European powers. 
Under the humane consideration of our Dutch and English forefathers — those sturdy old sons of the 
faith — the slave had many rights and immunities, which were never violated until the system, as 
recognized by the colonial government of New Amsterdam, could liardly be called slavery, yet the 
principle prevailed. It grew with the colonies and sjiread with their sanction. The seed was of the 
earliest planting. The thread was 
among the first to be woven into the 
life, manners and customs of the new 
world. On the slope of the northern 
hills of this city, there was once a 
burial jjlacc for slaves. But the spot, 
unhallowed by the plowshare, demon- 
strates a low estimate of the lives of 
that humble class, who lived in 
bondage and sank into oblivion. 
However, justice and truth recpiire the 
historian to emblazon to the credit of 
our colonial forefathers the fact that 
they grew to hate the very sight and 
sound of slavery. Here in the North 
it never was strong and vigorous and 
died because it could not survive in 
an uncongenial climate. But even in 
the south, where it found favorable 
conditions for prosperity, it was hated 
as we hate the name to-day. 
Virginia bravely told the British 
Monarch of its inhumanity and peril, 
and the disaster which would follow 
its continuance. Thomas Jefferson, 
in his first draft of the Declaration of 
Independence, said, " He (the King 
of England) has waged civil war 
against human nature itself, violating 
its most sacred rights of life and 
liberty, in the persons of a distant 
people who never offended him ; 
carrying them into slavery, keeping- 
open a market where Men should be 
bought and sold," etc. The half forgotten tlircai 
became a mighty cable as we shall see. 

And what did the King reply to all this ? 

" The slave trade shall not be obstructed in the American Colonies." 

England, who had cut the cancer from her own body, refused to do the same to her young 
colonies. We have called it a "bond," for like a viper it was coiling itself about arising people, 
exiiibiting a power which awakened dismay. We recognize, therefore, why Benjamin Franklin anil 
Patrick Henry saw a cioud of gloom overhanging the future. Washington, Robert ilorris and 
Pinckney opposed it. 

Vet these men, great in other things, were also great in their confidence in mankind. They were 
led, therefore, to insert a provision in the Constitution, that it should cease in 1808. And it was this 




K. likKN.NA.v 



had now become a powerful cord. Hy and by it 



ii6 



//IS'fORY or LONG ISLAND CITY 



IIUMSTEK. M.D. 



confidence also, that made the immortal Declaration to assert llial all men are created free and eijiial 
and old Liberty Bell to ring out liberty throughout the land to all the inhabitants thereof. 

Unmistakably there was a rising conflict between 

slavery and freedom. Patriots began to tremble for their 

country. Measures began to be instituted for the redemp- 

^^^B^^ tion of the land from the foul blot. In 1785 abolition societies 

^^ ^^^^^ were organized in New York and various other states. Prot- 

j ■ estant churches denounced the evil. But slavery entered 

jM^_^i^ H the District of Columbia simultaneously with the location of 

the National Capital in that place. It obtained the prestige 

of social influence. It rose into augmented power upon 

the purchase of Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia and Louisiana. 

.^^^^^ The Mexican War resulted in the annexation of Texas, and 

^^^^ ^^ an enlarged area for slavery to multiply its strength. 

^^^L ^^^^^^^^ True, Congress passed the Wilniot Proviso, prohibiting 

^^^^^^^H|^H^^^^^^^* slavery in any territory acquired by war, and the ^lissouri 

^^^^^^^^^^^^ -^ Compromise fixing the northern boundary of slavery at 

^^^^|H^ M thirty six degrees, thirty minutes. True, the Abolition and 

^^^^^^^^ S I'i'ce Soil parties were growing in numbers and power of 

^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^£^^__-^- I opposition. Hut the Kansas-Nebraska bill resulted in shaking 

^^BBBBBBB^BHi^HB^^^' I this nation to its center, when the blood of freemen crimsoned 

the soil of Kansas, and Simmer thimdercd his jihilijjpics in 
the Senate against the dread power, which now was in arms, 
and full of determination to consecrate to liuman bondage 
the soil of America. .Vt last it was evident that freedom and slavery could not live together under the 
same government. The obscure thread to which the early colonists gave little or no serious heed, 
was a mighty cable whose muscles of steel were binding the nation to its fate with Ciod-defying power. 
Masked in meekness and innocence, when Dutch governors were distributing lands to the settlers of 
Mespat Kills, slavery threw aside all pretense and demanded an ec|ual share with liberty in the 
sovereignty of this republic in the days when the hoys of Newtown, at Lincoln's call. " rallied roiuid the 
flag "and, "shouting the battle cry of freedom," marched southwanl to sniVcr antl ilie for their countrw 

We see, therefore, what the war was about. It had come 
to such a pass that slavery or this Union had to die. And 
patri(jts rose by millions and swore that their country should 
live. True, the momentous strife was decided in favor of 
life and liberty. But at what a price! Multitudes of the 
choicest sons of the natit)n never returned. They fell in 
battle or died in prison or hospital. In the seventy-nine 
national cemeteries, sleep 318,176 brave men, who were 
offered as a sacrifice on the altars of their country. Of these 
146,874, or forty-six per cent, of the whole number, rest in 
unknown graves. Imagine these marshalled in battle array! 
What a vast army it would be. Somewhere among this 
number are a few who went from homes now included within 
the present bounds of this city. Others are interred in local 
cemeteries, whose graves once a year are honored with the 
testimonies of a nation's gratitude. But great as is the 
number of the dead, greater still is the number of the living, 
who, though once they knew of the weary march, the des- 
jjerale defeat, or the glorious victory, and all amid scenes of 
carnage and hardship, at the close of the war sank back into 
civil life, and since have been found on the farm, at the forge, 
in the oflRcc or other places of industry. These are for the 

most part gathered in the organization known as the (irand Army of the Republic. Hut whether living 
or dead, the names of all belong to history's page, and are here given so far as it has been practicable 




JOHN J. McGRANE. 



///S/VA'V OF I.OXG /SI.AXn CI lY 



117 



to obtain tbcm. A few omissions have been unavoidable, because re(|iiisite information has not been 
accessible. 



NO. 62S, 



A. K., MKI'AK I'MKNT, NI-.\V VOKK. 



ih-e^niiizii/, l.oiiii hlixiiii Cit}\ July /o, /SS'S. 



Nanio. 
William J. Roimey, 
(leorye Shea, 
(leorjje NFcA. (losman, 
Samuel II. Baldwin, 
Walter II. X'erity. 
jose])h V. Copp, 

William Bouton, 

Conrad Brelinjj, 
William Clair, 
John F. Ouitzow, 
Robert U. Kelly, 
William Klauser. 
Joseph .Malidii, 
John Marr, 
Daniel Murray, 
David Robbins, 

Wni. J. Rdyers, 

Louis vSieber, 
Charles l^pton, 
IMetrieh Ilulsenbuseh, 
Christopher Farrell, 
James lirady, 
John Murphy, 
Matthew Marx, 
Michael J. Tuohy, 
Martin Blessin<;er, 
Michael Sullivan, 
Alexander Mills, 
lloldridjjl'e Smith, 
I'rank Krone, 
Louis Willing', 
Patrick Jackson, 
Wm. F. Smith, 
John Sackitt, 
Henry W. Miller, 
Henry McArdle, 
Robert F. Macfarlane, 
John Scott, 
Michael Clair, 
John A. Leek, 
Charles Neier, 
Louis Bresloff, 
Morris Ferris, 
John J. Mcdinnis, 
Albert Fitler, 
James White, 



Rank. 


Co. 


licKinicnt. 


Bvl. 


B 


i65lh .X.V.V. 


S:^t. 


L 


i.nh ii.A..\.v.\-. 


Art. 


li 


15th X.V.\'.. Ku'^. 


Art. 


B 


i5lh X.V.V., Ln--. 


I'vt. 


I-: 


Sth X.V.II.A. 


I'vt. 


C 


40th Mass. \'ols. 


I'vt. 


I-' 


io2d X.Y.V., 


shi])'sboy 




C.S.X. 


Pvt. 


l- 


31st X.V.V. 


I'vt. 


11 


107th X.V.V. 


I'vt. 


M 


1st X.V. Art. 


I'vt. 


i: 


74th X.V. Vols. 


I'vt. 


A 


3;,d X.J. Vols. 


Si;l. 


C, 


3d U.S. Inft. 


I'vt. 


1 


5th X.C.S.X.V. 


Landsman 




C.S.X. 


Pvt. 
I'vt. 


K 


15th x.(;.s.x.v. 

12th X.V. Militia; 
.5th X.V. Ind. Bat. 


Corp. 


V 


1 ilh X.V. Cav. 


I'vt. 


1) 


ist Mich. Cav. 


I'vt. 




3-nl hul. X.V. I'.at. 


I'vt. 


I-' 


.'olh Ky. Inf. 


Capt. 


F 


2d iX.V. Militia. 


Landsman 




U.S.X. 


Capt. 


1) 


S2d 111. Vols. 


I'vt. 




< )rd. Corjjs. 


I'vt. 


1- 


5Sih X.V. Vols. 


Corp. 


1) 


7Sd X.V. \-ols. 


I'vt. 


11 


5lh X.J. \-ols. 


I'vt. 


11 


inilll X.V. Vols. 


I'vt. 


I 


lolh X.J. Vols. 


Serot. 


1 


,:i9ih X.V. Inf. 


Landsman 




U.S.X. 


Seaman 




U.S.N. 


I'vt. 


I 


17th Conn. Vols. 


Corp. 


I) 


15th N.Y.V., Enjj. 


Mus. 


1-: 


140th III. Vols. 


Bvt. -nl Lieut 


. K 


12th X.V. Vols. 


I'vt. 


A 


79th X.V. Inf. 


I'vt. 


I 


9vili X.V.\'. Inf. 


Art. 


A 


.5th X.V.V.. Knjr. 


Pvt. 


H 


17th Penn. Cav. 


Pvt. 


I 


4th X.V. Cav. 


Landsman 




U.S.X. 


I'vt. 


11 


27th Militia Regt., Conn 


I'vt. 


I- 


15th N.J. Vols. 


Landsman 




U.S.X. 



Rank. 


Co. 




Rcjjniicnt. 


Pvt. 


]•: 




i5.Sth X.V. Vols. 


Pvt. 
I'vt. 


1) 




69lh X.V.S.M. 
28th Conn. Vols. 


Pvt. 


1' 




41st Mass. Inl". 


Fireman 






U.S.X. 


Pvt. 


II 




151b X.G.S.X.Y. 


Pvt. 


(; 




3d N.V. Inf. 


Corj). 


1! 




6th Mass. Vols. 


Pvt. 


1) 




5th X.V. Art. 


Landsman 






i'.s.x. 


district now 


covered 


b\ 


• this citv whose names 



, , 8 HIS TOR y OF L ONG IS LA ND CIT\ \ 

Name. 
George H. Bennett, 
James Hart, 
Michael Dowd, 
Wm. Ahearn, 
Patrick F. iMoran, 
Lyander Tuttlc, 
William Hiirly, 
Edward Stone, 
John S. Mills, 
Henry Evans, 

There were others who enlisted from the district now covered by this city whose names are not 

identified with any Post. 
Sergeant Daniel T. Bragavv, 4th N. Y. Cavalry, wounded at Winchester. 
Captain William E. Bragavv, 4th N. Y. Cavalry. 
Sergeant Townsend Bragaw, 6th N^. Y. Cavalry, wounded at Travilian Station, captured and 

imprisoned six months at Andcrsonville. 
Daniel Z. Payntar, Rcrdan's .Sh;irpshooters, killed in front of Yorktown, body received and buried 

in Newtown. 
T. Jefferson Payntar, 4th X. Y. Cavalry, killed at Travilian .Station, \'a. liody ])robabl\- buried 

with the host of the unknown. 
Solomon Z. Payntar, served in 1st Long Islaml Regiment, died from disease and wounds caused 

by the war. 
Elias T. Bragaw, 7th X. Y. Cavalry. 
Frank Madden. 
Louis Smith, 15th N. Y. iMigineers, served two years. 

Bcnjaiiiiii Riugold Post jSj was organized in i8<S2 and mustered in August 5, 1882, with fourteen 
comrades (sec the first twelve names on follo'tving list). Department Cumtnander J. S. Eraser 
installed the post on above date at Masonic Hall, corner Vernon avenue and Third street. At 
present the Post meets at Jacksonville Hall, corner of .Steinway and Grand avenues, every first and 
third Wednesday evenings of each month at 8 o'clock. The present officers are: 

Henry Karslake, Commander, Fred. W. Yunk, Quartermaster, 

Wm. H. Hopper, Sr. Vice-Commander, Aug. Hoffmeister, Adjutant, 

Wm. S. Ott, Jr. Viee-Commander, Clark E. vSmith, Officer of Day, 

Charles Horn, Chaplain, James O'Connor, Officer of Guard, 

Joseph P. Platz, Surgeon, Alex. Simp.son, Delegate to Dept., 

\^. J. Mc(iowan, Alternate Delegate to Dept. 

Clark E. Smith, born and brought up at North Salem, Westchester County, Xew York, lie 
enlisted August 27, 1862, and was mustered into the United States service as a private in Captain 
Thomas D. Sears' Company A., Fourth Regiment, New York Heavy Artillery. For three year.s, or 
during the war, was made CcM-poral on the field. The regiment was commanded by Colonel T. D. 
Doublcday. He served in heavy artillery and infantry in defen.se of Washington, D. C, until May 31, 
1S64, in the Fourth Brigade, First Division, Second Corps, and later in Artillery Brigade, Second 
Corps, and engaged in the following battles: Brandy's Station, April 12, 1864; Wilderness, May 
5 to 7 ; .Spottsylvania C. H., May 18 to 21 ; North Anna, May 26; Fredericksburg, May 28 to 31 ; Cold 
Harbor, June 12; Deep Bottom, June 17; before Petersburg, Va., June 19, 1864, to April 2, 1865, 
namely, Petersburg as.sault, Weldon k. R., Strawberry Plain.s, Reams Station, White Oak Road, 
Petersburg, Farmsville, Appomattox C. II., South Side R. R ; was in all movements of the 
regiment until the surrender of (ieneral Lee. He was honorably discharged on May 5, 1865, at the 
close of the war. 

Aug. Rassiga enlisted August 26, 1S61, 9th N. V. Vols.; discharged ^lay 20, 1863; was the first Com- 
mander and served for three years as such, and one year as Ouarlermasler; was wounded at 
Camden in 1S62. 



J/ /STORY ()/•■ LON(; ISLAND CITY. 



119 



Martin Blissinjfcr enlisted January 4, 1864, in Co. F, jSth N. V. X'ols. ; disehar^ed Oeiober 1, 1.S65; 
served one term as Commander and the first Sr. V . Commander. 

iknry Karslake enlisted March i, 1.S64, Co. F, 3d X. j. Cav. ; discharjjed Aiijjust i, 1S65; was the first 
Ir. \'. Commander, and served as Commander one year, was re-elected and is servinjjf the second 
term. 

|ac Thompson, enlisted Xovember 3, 1863, as seaman on board L'. S. Str. \'alley City; discharj^ed 
November 3, 1864, and was the first Adjutant. 

John C. Dodji'e enlisted Au.i;iist i, i.Srti, 52d Pa. \'ols., as Colonel; discharged in 1.S63, and was the first 

yuartcrniaster. 
James J. Ryan enlisted as Drummer 

in Co. C, S8th N. Y. Vols., and 

was discharj^ed in January, 1863, 

on account of disability, and 

served as Officer of Day and 

Commander t w o successive 

terms. 
.\lbert Saxton enlisted July 1 1, 1S64, 

in Co. C, 7th Delaware Vols.; 

discharj-ed Aus^iist 12, 1865, 

and was the fir.st off of the 

Ciuard; died Aui;ust 10, 1883. 
Anion liruns enlisted Jnlv J4, 1861, 

in tile 30th X. V. Ind'p't. Art., 

and was disehar>;ed July 24, 

1864. 
M. Kobcrlein enlisted .\pril S, iSC)5, 

in Ct). F, 96th X. V. Vols.; dis- 
charged February 6, iS(ii);died 

April 23, 1SS7. 
( iwen Clark enlisted July 12, 1864, 

as 2d Lieutenant in the 77th 

X. V. \'oIs. ; dischar.yfed Xovem- 
ber 9. 1864, and served as the 

tirst Cliaplain. 
Chr. J. Thurston enlisted Sci^tem- 

bcr 3, 1863, as Drummer in the 

170th Regt. N. V. Vols., and 

discharjjed July 12, 1865. 
Ernest Weiland enlisted May 22, 

1861, in Co. F, 31st N. Y. Vols. ; 

discharjjed March i, 1863. 
M. McCrath enlisted May 11, 1861, in Co. A, 25111 X. V. \'ols. ; discharged July 
Peter Conroy enlisted August 25. 1862, in Co. K. 139th Regt. X. V. \' 

died March 12, 1896. 
Peter Hans enlisted September 11, 1863, in Co. C. 171)1 X. V. Vols. ; discharged July 13. iS65:wounded 

at Joncsbourgh, Ga., September 3, 1864; died t)ctober 11, 1886. 
Aug. Robeler enlisted September 23, 1864, in Co. E, 41st N. Y. Vols.; discharged June 21, 1865. 
Thos. Williamson enlisted May 27, 1862, in Co. A, 47th X. Y. Vols.; discharged September 3, 1862; died 

September 22, 1883. 
Ale.x. Moran enlisted in 1862 as ist Sergeant and was discharged on account of disability in 1863; 

died February 2, 1890. 
\V. H. X'erily enlisted .\ugust 13, 1863, Private 5th X. Y. H. Artillery; discharged July 13, 1S65. 




DR. ROllliRT S. 



10, 1S63. 

discharged July 31, 1865; 



,20 n/SrOKY OF LOXG ISLAND Cl'l Y. 

Adam Mullcr enlisted November 7. 1S62, Private A, 103d X. Y. Vols. ; discharo;ed June 16, 1865. 
Richard Conroy enlisted May 4, 1861, Private Co. D, 9th N. Y. Vols.; discharged May 20, 1863. 
Wm. Rooney enlisted November 24, 1862, Private Co. B, 165th N. Y. Vols.; discharged September 1, 

1S65. 
Fred. Bauman enlisted November 11, 1861, Private Co. H, 103d N. Y. Vols.; discharged December 3, 

.S64. 
Patrick Rail enlisted July 28, 1862, Private Co. II, 123d N. Y. X'ols. : discharged June 18, 1S65. 
Z. P. Dennler enlisted October 30, 1862, Surgeon U. S. Army: discharged November 25, 1868. 
John W. Pfeffer enlisted March 13, 1865, Private Co. A, 35th N. J. X'ols. ; discharged July 19, 1S65. 
Alex. Simpson enlisted April 23, 1861, Corp. Co. F, 8th N. C. S. X. Y. ; discharged August 2, 1861. 
(leo. McA. (losman enlisted August 27. 1862. Artificer Co. 15, i5lh X. Y. \'()ls., Kng. ; discharged 

June 13, 1865. 
Jos. Johnson enlisted August 30, 1862, Private Co. I), i58lh N. Y. \'ols. : discharged June 30, 1865; 

died May 24, 18S3. 
Edward Ilalesworlh enlisted May 4. 1861, Landsman New Hampshire; discharged May 26, 1865. 

Jas. Harris enlisted September 22, 1864, Private Co. C, 941)1 N. \'. \'ols. : discharged June t6, 1865; 
died February j8, 1891. 

(leo. T. White enlisted September 4, 1862, 2d Lieut. Co. E, 128th N. V. X'ols.: discharged July 12, 

1865, Capt. Co. E, N. Y. \'ols. ; died November 26, 1884. 
Lewis Smith enlisted June 17, 1861, Private Co. H, 15th X. V. \'.. Ivng. : discharged June 25, 1863. 
Robt. Sling enlisted August 16. 1861, Private Co. C, 14th K\. Ca\-. : discharged September 16, 1863. 
Geo. Shea enlisted March 29, 1864, Sergt. Co. L, 13th 11. A. X. \'. X'ols.; discharged Jime 28, 1865; 

served 3 years as Quartermaster and 1 year as Commander. 
Joseph Platz enlisted March r2, 1864. Private Co. F, 73d Regt,, X. Y. \'et. \'oIs, ; discharged June 

29, 1865; at present Surgei II. 

B. J. MeGowan enlisted May 15, 1861, Unimmcr, Co. C, 36th X. Y. X'ols.; discharged Inly 15. 1863; 

served two years as Commander. 
George Ocsterlein enlisted Xovember 2, 1863, Private Co, D, 54lh X. Y. Vols. ; disehaiged May 

31, 1865. 
\. Platz enlisted January 20, 1864, Private Co. A, 15th Artillery X. Y. Yols. ; discharged August 

22, 1865. 
William II. Williams enlisted May, 1861, Private Co. A, 9th X. Y. S. M. ; di.scharged February 

22, 1S63. 
Ed. Minocke enlisted June 10, 1863, Private Co. I, 47th X. V. S. M. ; discharged July 23, 1863; 

died October 15, 1884. 
Axel Schiermacher enlisted April 9, 1864, Private Co. F, loth Regt. N. Y. Vols ; discharged June 

30, 1865, Corporal Co. F, 10th Regt. N. Y. Vols. ; died May 18, 1887. 

Anthony S. Woods enlisted January 5, 1864, Major loth N. Y. Vols.; discharged June 30, 1865, as 

Lieut. Col. 
Henry Jones enlisted April 23, 1861, Corporal Co. E, 5th Regt , N. Y. \ . ; discharged May 14, 1863. 
Julius Frank enlisted May 15, 1861, Private Co. I), 29th Regt., X. Y. Vols. ; discharged June 20, 1863. 

Samuel Shaw enlisted May 18, 1861, Private Co. C, 47th Regt., N. Y. \'. ; discharged August 8, 1864. 
Sergeant Co. C, 47th Regt., X. Y. V. 

James Smith enlisted April 20, 1861, Private Co. C, 37111 Regt., X. V. \'. ; discharged June 26, 
1863; served as Officer of Day and Senior Vice-Commander; died January 30, 1891 . 

Theo. Drake enli.sted April 19, 1861. Private Co. F, 12th Regt., N. Y. S. JI. ; discharged August 5, 
1861; died l-'ebruary 29, 1896. 

John Coughlin enlisted September, 1S61, Private Co. I, r)9th Regt.. X, Y. Vols.; discharged Imie, 
1863, Sergeant Co. I, 69th Regt., N. V. X'ols. 



HIS I OR Y C >/•■ LONC; IS LA ND CI IV. i .- 1 

James O'Neil enlisti.-d September i6, 1861, Private d). A, 63(1 Re;^t., X. V. \'. ; discliargcd De- 
cember 21, 1864; died December 20, 1S90. 

Owen Daley enlisted 1S61, Private Co. E, 51st Re;^t., X. V. X'ols. ; disehap^^ed May 30, 1S63. 

Thos. Daw enlisted June 14, 1S61, Private Co. C, 40th N. V. Vols. ; diseharj^ed December 9, 1S62. 

W'm. Dubrouijh enlisted December 14, 1S64, Private Co. F, 3d N. H. Vols.; diseharjjed July 20, 1S65. 

las. Dirry enlisted .May 24, 1S64, Landsman in the Xorth Carolina; discharged Sept. 20, 1865, Lands- 
man from the Shamrock. 

Charles Thompson enlisted March i, 1S65, Private Co. K. 194th ()hii) Inf.; discharged Oct. 24, 1865. 

|as. I'antrv enlisted January i, 1862, Private Co. k. 8Sth X. V. \'i)ls. ; discharged June 30, 1865. 

John (iarritt enlisted .\pril 2, 1862, Private Co. K. 91st N. Y. V. Vols.; discharged April 22, 1865. 

Herman Hohenhausen enlisted April 26, 1861, Second Lieutenant Co. F, 7th N. Y. Vols.; discharged 
October 9, 1862; First Lieutenant Co. 12, 7th X. V. X'ols. 

Ctco. Dorr enlisted January 3, 1865, Private Co. (i, loOth X. Y. N'dIs. ; discharged June 27. 1S65. 

|(>hn Bell enlisted September 17, 1S62, Musician Co. E, i82d X'^. Y. X'ols.; discharged July 15, 1S65. 

Augustus Heath enlisted April zt,, 1861, Private Co. B, 5th X. Y. X'ols.; discharged May 14, 1863; 
Corporal Co. B, 5th X. Y. X'ols. 

Wni. Meyer enlisted August 18, 1862, Private Co. G, 127th X'. Y. X'ols.; discharged June 30, 1865; 
served as S. X'ice-CiJmmander one term; died May 1 i, 1888. 

(ieo. Horn enlisted July 8, 1863, Private Co. A, 17th X. X'. S, >L ; discharged August 13, 1S63. 

Fred. M. Jung enlisted April 19, 1S61, Private Co. D, 5th X. \'. S. ^^ ; discharged August 17. 1861; is 
the present Ouartermaster. 

Martin Paaren enlisted April 4. 1864, Private, X. Y. 30th Ind. Battery; discharged June 23, 1865; 
lield several different offices; died December 22, 1895. 

("icorge \V. X'oung enlisted April 14, 1864, 3d assistant engineer, steamer R. R. Cuyler; discharged 
June 27, 1865; was Post Adjutant; died May 6, 1885. 

|(>hn Ivans enlisted August 9, 1862, Private Co. B, 163d X. Y. X'ols.; discharged December 18, 1862. 

Flenry ICrath enlisted .\pril 12, 1863. Private Co. L iithX. X'. S. M. ; discharged July 20, 1863. 

August HotTmeister enlisted August 3. 1861, Private Co. E, 7th X. Y. X^'ols. Inf.; discharged May 8, 
1863; re-enlisted August 11, 1S63. in 15th X. X'. H. Artillery; discharged August 22, 1865; served 
as Post Adjutant seven successive terms. 

Ji.hn Held enlisted April 23, 1861, ist Lieut. Co. B, 5th X. X'. S. M.; discharged August 7, 1861. 

John Shaffer enlisted ilay 5. 1861, Private Co. F. 67th X. X'. X'ols.; discharged July 31, 1865; Private 

Co. E.; died Oct. 25. 1S90. 
Isaac P. Jones enlisted May 27. 1861. Private Co. G, 83d X. Y. X'ols.; discharged June 2},, 1S64; 

Corp. Co. G. 

Clamor Hoefener enlisted October 24, 1864, Private Co. K, 7th X'. Y. X'. X'.; discharged August 19, 
1865. 

I'liilip Schmidt enlisted June 15, 1864, Private Co. B, 5th X. X'. II. .Vnillery; discharged July 3. 1865. 

Frederick I'ogele enlisted July 20. 1864, Private Co. K. 93d X. G. .S. X. X'.; discharged Xovember 14. 
1864. 

('■CO. Strauss enlisted January 29. 1862, Private Co. (t, 95th X. X'. X'ols.: discharged January 29, 1865: 
Sergeant. 

Chris. F. Koch enlisted June 15, 1803, Private Co. B. 6th X. X'. S. .XL; discharged July 21, 1S63; 
served as Ouartermaster 5 years and iinc year as Sr. X'ice-commander. 

Frank Lietz enlisted 1863, Private Co. H, 39th X'. Y. Vols.; discharged July i. 1865. 



,22 HISrORY OF LONG ISL A AW CITY. 

]as. 1). Wood enlisted September 3, 1S64. Private Co. E, 41 Missouri Vols.; dischari;ed July n, 1865. 
Caspar Klinjj enlisted September 15. 1S61, Private Co. H. 54th X. V. Vols.; discharoed November 17, 

1864; Lieutenant. 
Jas. MeLau.trhlin enlisted May 28. 1862. Private Co. H. 13th X. Y. S. \\.\ disehartjed September 12, 

1S62. 
John Harrinijton enlisted August 23. 1861. Private Co. K. 4tli X. V. \'ols. ; discharged May 25, 1863. 
Cermain Blessing- enlisted April 23, 1861, Private Co. E 8tb X. Y. \'ols. ; discharged May 20, 1863. 
W'm. Pfieffer enlisted July 30, 1862, Private Co. D. 131st X. Y. \'ols. ; discharged July 26. 1865; 

Sergeant Co. D. 
Sam Baldwin enlisted August 25, 1862, Artificer, Co. I!, islh X. V. Eng.; discharged June 13, 1865. 
John Evers enlisted August 11, 1862, Private Co. H, 51st X. V. Infantry; discharged July 25, 1865; 

died March 17th, 1893. 
(Jeorge Oestcrlein enlisted November 2, 1863, Private 'd^ D, 54th X. Y. Vols. ; discharged May 31, 1865. 
Robert Gaffney enlisted October 10, 1864. Private Co. A, i8ih Cav. X. Y. \'. ; discharged August 15. 

,865. 
John Walz enlisted December 9, 1863. Corp. Co. H. 5th X. J. Vet. Vols.; discharged August 25, 1865; 

died September 24, 1895. 
Sam"l M. Furman enlisted September 24, 1864, Private Co. P), 4lh X. J. \'cl. Vols.; discharged June 

22. .865. 
James MeGinness enlisted January 25, 1865, Private Co. D, 25111 Mass. \'i)ls. ; discharged July 13, 1865; 

died June 30, 1893. 
Francis Stein enlisted December 14, 1858, Private Co. D, iSih C. S. Inf.; discharged December 2^,. 

1863. 
Edmund Klespies enlisted August 29, 1863, Private Co. A, 2,^'-^ ^- ]■ \'iils. ; discharged July 17, 1S65. 
Wm. McCue enlisted September 5, 1864, coal heaver, (Siinboat Seneca; discharged June 9, 1865; 

discharged from the G. A. R. 
Thomas Darey enlisted March 5, 1865, United States Str. Corwin, coal heaver; discharged Xovember 

26, 1866. 
Geo. Casey enlisted March 5, 1865, coal heaver, United States Str. Corwin; discharged March 24, 1866. 

Edward Flaherty enlisted July 12, 1864, Private Co. G, 77th N. Y. Vols.; discharged X^ovember 19, 

1864; Corporal Co. (\. 
Thos. Carroll enlisted August 15, 1862, Pri\'ate Co. G, 51st N. Y. Vols.; discharged June 29, 1865. 
Frederick Steinmctz enlisted September, 1861, Private Co. A; discharged September, 1865; Private Co. 

G, 15th N. Y. H. Artillery. 
George M. Bosford enlisted March i, 1865, Private Co. G, 14111 Maine \'ols. ; discharged August 28, 

1865. 
Chas. Horn enlisted June 16, 1863, Private Co. B, iilh N. Y. S. M.; discharged July 20, 1863; served 

two years as Chaplain. 
Valentine Weber enlisted March 26, 1864, Private Co. Cj, ist X. J. Cav.; discharged June 9, 1865. 
Peter B. Conklin enlisted May 29, 1862, Corp. Co. F, 37lh X. Y. S. M.; discharged September 20, 1862. 
Christian Lutzens enlisted June 20, 1861, Private Co. F, 40th X. Y. Vols.; discharged June 20, 1864. 
W. Remsen Taj-lor enlisted September 12, 1862, Private Co. D, 29th N. J. \'ols. ; discharged June 30, 

1863; Colonel; died October, 1896. 

lidward Bell enlisted July 6, 1862, Sergt. Co. K, iilh R. I. X'ols.; discharged September 14, 1864; 

Captain. 
Frank Schopp enlisted February 21, 1864, Private Co. C, 3d X. J. Cav.; discharged September 21, 

1865, Corporal; died November 6, 1894. 

James O'Connor enlisted April 20, 1861, Private Co. E, 69th N. Y. S. M. ;discharged October 6, 1864, 
as Sergeant. 



I/fS-JORY OJ' LONG ISLAND CITY. 



'23 



John Xorthackcr enlisted May 2.S, 1.S62, Private Co. 15, iitli X. V. S. M. ; disehar-jed September 16, 

1862. 
Herman Hirehtield enlisted October 16, 1S61, Private Co. !•:, 54111 X. V. \"<>]s. ; diseliari;ed June S, 

1862. 
James Marshall enlisted January 4. 1S64, Private Co. (i. sth Mieh. Cav. ; diseharjjed June 10, 1865. 
John Bulbert enlisted June 21, uS6i, Private Co. H, 69th X. V. S. M. ; di.sehar<;ed Auj^ust 3, 1861. 
(ieorjfe F^oster enlisted Aujjust 25, 1S62. Private Co. B, 3d X. V. Art.; diseharj^-ed July 13, 1865. 
Riehmond Davis enlisted September 5, 1S60, Private V. S. .M. Corps diseharjj^ed June 17, iS6y, as 

Serjeant. 
Hu;^h MeKeon enlisted July 21, 1863, Private Co. (i, iSlJi X. V. Cav.; iliseharj;ed May 31. 1S66. 
Robert Southwiek enlisted August 9, 1864, Class bf)y, C S. .Navy; 

disjharj4;ed April 24, 1867, Private U. S. Navy; died April 7, 1895. 
Cor.ielius Foley enlisted February 16, 1864, Private Co. K, 13th X.\'. 

II. An.; diseharjjed June 28, 1865. 
William Hopper enlisted September, 1861, Private Co. D, 90th X. \'. 

Inf.; diseharned I'ebruary, 1866; hosjjital steward, served as Junior 

Viee-Commander, and is at present Senior \'iee-Commander. 
Miehael Berj^en enlisted September 12, i8()i. Private Co. IC, 51SI X. V. 

Inf. ; diseharjjed July 24, 1865. 
\\'iiliain A. Kinjj enlisted Xovember, 1861, Private Co. A, io2tl X. V, 

Inf.; diseharjjfcd Juiy 21, 1865, as Seryeant. 
Miehael Smith enlisted January 20. 1863, Private Co. II. X. \'. M. 

Art.; discharged January 20, 1864. 
John Weber enlisted January 16, 1861, Drummer Co. I. 68th X. V. J" 

Vols.; diseharjjed September, 1865, as Drum Major. 
Edward Steinhart enlisted Aujjust 26, 1864. eoal heaver. I'. S. Xavy 

discharged June 14, 1865. 
William S. Ott enlisted August 6, 1862. Private Co. A, 77th 111. X'ols, ; 

serving as Junior Viee-Commander. 

BANKS. 




ij.im 



discharged Jum 



THK LONO ISL.\NIJ CITV SAVINGS HANK. 

This bank was organized April 18, 1876, with the following olhcers; President, Sylvester Gray ; 
First Vice-President, John Appleton; Second X'icePresident, H. S. Anable; Secretary, J. Harvey 
Smedley. 

It has been an eminently successful institution from tiie outstart. By conservative management 
it enjoys the fullest measure of public confidence. Its list of depositors is constantly increasing for 
the people have learned how to utilize its advantages in their own interests. It is a credit to the 
city, not only because of its sound financial policy, but in its beneficiary relations with the large class 
of citizens who, from time to time, have been its patrons. 

Its present officers are: 

Prisidtiit, W. J. Burnett, 

Scirctary, J. Harvey Smedley. 



Walter E. Frew, 
Hadwin Houghton, 
H. F. Jones, 
D. S. Jones, 
B. Moore, Jr., 
John Harvey, 
L. P. Dexter, 
W. H. Siebreeht, 



'J'nistii: 



(l. W. Williams, 
C. W. Hallett, 
\Y. J. Burnett, 
Chas. A. Thompson, 
A. T. Payne, 
H. M. Thomas, 
J. Harvey Smedley, 
H. S. San ford. 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



QIJEKXS COUNTY ISANK. 



This prosperous bank was originally organized in Flushing and removed to this city in 1888, 
occupying the premises at 3 1 Borden ave. Two or three yc.irs later the present bsautif ul and commodious 
structure was erected on Front street, adjoining the ferries of the Long Island Railroad Company. It 
has a capital of $100,000, with a surplus of §60,000. Under its present management its policy is that 
of a progressive institution yet is combined with a due degree of conservatism. It does a general 
banking business and is regarded in the fmancial world as safe and sound. Its last report September 
3, 1S96, is as follows: 

Loans and discoimts, less due from dirctors, §1,010,528; due from banks, etc., $210,540; casli on 
hand, $155,000; cash items, §41,038; items carried as cash, $0991; deposits, $1,379,119; due banks, 
C!.^,-,iA': i;init.il, .'iiioo.oDo: surjilus and pr,)fits, §82,659; total resources. §1.814.942. 

Officers. 
Pnsuiiiit, Walter i:. Imx-w, 
Vice-President, William Steinw.iy. 
Cashier. James P. Rescmer. 



."^N. 



a. 4 ^ 



m 



Ull J :;-jr -r—mr t f > 




JUEKNS COU.NIV liA.NK. 



Piree/ors. 

Walter K. I'rew, President. 

Shei)herd Knapp — New York City, X. Y., 

William Steinway — Messrs. Stcinway & Sons, N. Y.. 

Wm. F. Havemeyer — Vice-Pres't Nat. Rank of North America, N. V., 

H. K. Knapp — Oeneral Manager Union Ferry C(i., Brooklyn and New York, 

ICmanuel Lehman — Lehman Bros., 22 William St., New York, 

ICmil Caiman — Emil Caiman & Co., L. I. City, 

S. K. de Forest — (Jen'l Manager loth and 23d Street Ferries, Rronklyn, 

John R. Woodruff — Long Island City, 

losei)h S. Auerbach — Cedarhurst, L. I.. 

Ci. L (larretson, Newtown, L. I. 



/IJS'JORY OF l.OXC ISL.lXn CITY. 



NEWSPAPERS. 

Various journals have at dilTcrc-nt times been published within tlie limits ui' Lon*;- Island City. 
Vet for causes which the historian is unable to trace, but one remains to connect the present with iJie 
preceding {feneration. 

In 1853 the Astoria Cazcttc was published by William S. Harrison, and had a brief career of less 
than two years. An interval of 
eleven years followed, when the 
Astoria Hiraltt began, under Mrs. 
Ritchie, a history even less brief. 

In the spring of 1865 Thomas H. 
Todd located at Hunter's Point, 
where he opened a job printing 
office, and on October 20th, of the 
same year, established the /.<'//,;,' 
fstaitii City Star. For a full and 
detailed history of that enterprise the 
reader is referred to a special article, 
elsewhere given upon the subject. 

In 1872 the Rivicii' was started 
by II. \V. Love as a daily paper, and 
was published for about three years. 

An attempt was made in 1874 
to found the Long Island City Ncics, 
but with only temporary success. 

The Long Island City Press and 
the Courier were organized respec- 
tively in 1875 and 1876. The former 
susi)ended in 1878. and the latter 
in 1S85. 

The I.cng L<land luv/'acl/ter was 
established in 1876 as a distinctively 
German news medium. It is still 
published. 

In 1880 the .istoria ChronicU 
appeared as a Democratic campaign 
organ and was published for a few 
months. 

The Long Island C ity Lnbune, 
published for a number of years under the direction of W. S. Overton, suspended in 1894. 

In 1890 the Queens County Lferald imA the Weekly Flag were established, the former in Hunter's 
Point, the latter in Astoria. In 1895 the Mirror made its appearance. 

MANltACTURES. 

Pew cities in the United States have more extensive manutacturing interests than are located in 
this city. The capital invested is vast while the market reached by the products of the various 
l)lanti; is world wide. These industries have been attracted thither by the natural trade advantages 
of the city. Desirable areas of land for sites have been, and are still, at the command of manufacturers 
while communication bv river and rail is direct and constant. 




SYI.VKSIER (JKAY, DKCKASEl) 



THE STEINWAY ENTERPRISES. 

Of these we have elsewhere spoken at large. The presence in the eil\- "f 
tor a quarter of a century a constant stimulus to prosperity. 



;iich a ]ilant has been 



THE OIL COMPANIES. 

The Standard Oil Company has here its gigantic works. The products of the Pennsylvania oil 
regions are transported thither in jjipes, refined by all manner of scientific processes and exported 



126 



HIS TOR ) ' OF L ONG IS LA ND CI TV 



to the confines of the world. Acres of land, vast capital and hundreds of hands are in daily activity, 
much to the advantage of the local interests of the city. 

Thomas Morg.'^n conducts an extensive business as a commission merchant and wholesale dealer 
in Hay, Straw, Grain, etc., on Newtown Creek, foot of East avenue. He built the present elevator 
in 1888, at which time the firm was known as Beyer «& Morgan. Upon the retirement of Mr. Beyer, 
in 1892, Mr. ^lorgan became the sole member of the firm. From the outstart the business has been 
prosperous. Large quantities of grain are bought by him on the New York Produce Exchange and 
then taken into the elevator for sale to the different feed stores in the locality, and .shipped on the cars of 

the Long Island Railroad to various 
parts of the country — switch connect 
with railroad. Orders from any part 
of Long Lsland receives prompt 
attention because of facilities for rail- 
road cars — an order to-day arrives 
at its destination on the following 
morning, the capacity of the elevator 
of which is 50,000 bushels. Increas- 
ing demands recently recjuired the 
replacement of the cild one hundred 
horse power engine with a new low 
pressure one of two hundred and 
lifty horse power. A hay and straw 
warehouse 25x100 feet, was also 
erected during the summer of 1S96. 
The plant, which is the only one 
of its kind in Long Island City, is 
eligibly located, with a frontage of 
275 feet on Newtown Creek, and 
extending back 2S0 feet to liast 
avenue. Mr. Morgan is also the 
proprietor of the large elevators and 
warehouses at the foot (jf Taylor 
street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The plant of the Nkw Yokk Aki:h- 
1 1 1 u ruKAi. Tkrra Cutta Co. occupies 
four hundred feet on Vernon avenue 
north of Harris avenue and reaches 
to the river. The company was 
formed November, 1893, by the 
consolidation of Stephens, Arm- 
strong & Conklin, of Philadelphia, 
with the New York Architectural Terracotta Co. The former is being now operated as a branch 
of the New York company, which is located at Ravenswood. The products of these works arc in the 
highest style of art, and adorn public and private edifices in almost every city of America. The ])ay 
roll in this city reaches §150,000 per annum. 

In A>piiai.t Paving and Matf.iuai, wc mention the Bakiuk Asimiai.t Pavi.nc Co., foot of Sixth 
street, and the Nk.w Yokk Mastic Works, foot of Seventh street. 

The firm of Peter Young represents an extensive industry in bags and bagging at .?;,7 X'ernon 
avenue, Ravenswood. 

VARNISH MANCKACTUKF.RS. 

The leading firms are Pratt & iMinbert, foot of Fourth, Fifth and Ninth streets. Hunter's Point; 
Keystone I'ariiish Co., foot of Fourth street. Hunter's Point. 

One of the oldest and most celebrated establishments for the manufacture of varnishes in this 
country is that of Mayer ih- Loiveiisteiii. Their goods are sold and known throughout the world. The 
firm "• i-i nr.r.-.ni/cil bv ( '..-diriel Mayer and his brother pirnh.irtl, in iS (6, and continued under that name 




WALTER E. IKEW. 



/ffsroRV OF /.o.\y; islaxd err v. 





until the year 1865, when the present factory was built in Lonjjf Island City. The eonipany was then 
orj^anized under its present form by Siegfried W. Mayer and Otto L. Mayer, sons of (labriel Mayer, 
toj^ether with Ludolph II. Atiraham, when the 
])resent firm name was assumed. 

Oi'KKNs CoiMV \'vk.\i>ii W'oKKs, 77 Ninth 
street, Hunter's Point. 

Ivhw \ui) Smiiu tV Co.. foot of Fifth street. 
Hunter's Point. The orijrin and history of this 
firm bejjins with the sprinj;; of 1827, when Pasehal 
B. Smith, oldest brother of the late Hdward Smith, 
built a small furnace in the old apple orchard which 
stood at the corner of Sixth street and .Second 
avenue, Xew York City, and there first melted 
•;imi, and made and sold varnishes as a sejjarate 
business for the first time in the United States. 
The venture became popular and was reported to 
the National (lovernment. At the present time all 
candidates for the Civil Service are tauj^ht that 
varnish, as an American product, was first made 
and sold in i8j8. The rapid increase of business 
required the assistance of the brothers, Samuel P. 
and Nathan Smith, and James L. Stratton, under 
the firm name of P. B. Smith & Co. In 1832 S. 
P. Smith withdrew and be;;an business in Newark. 
New Jersey. The oUl linn continued until 1844, 



J. IIAKVI'.Y SMEDI.F.V. 

when P. B. Smith retired, and the firm became 
Smith, Stratton & Co. In 1851 Nathan Smith 
died, whereupon the firm became Smith & Stratton. 
Previous to the death of Mr. Smith the factory 
was moved from New York to Astoria where Mr. 
Stratton resided, and was located on Mr. Stratton's 
property near Hallett's Cove, a part of which 
property became the comely residence of the late 
Robert Benner. The odors of the factory beinjj 
objectionable to many residents, the firm, in 1856, 
])urcha.sed from the Union Colle.ire six lots on 
Fourth and Fifth streets, and built the first build- 
injjs at Hunter's Point for manufacturing purposes. 
The deed of the property contained a protectin}.r 
clause ajjainst molestation on account of harmless 
odors, etc. Upon the completion of the factory 
buildiny^s. two three-story apartment houses were 
also erected on Fifth street for employees. In oneof 
these houses Richard Armstrong, the chief varnish 
maker, was born. At the death of Mr. Stratton in 
1859, Edward Smith became sole proprietor, and 
the business was conducted under his name until 
1867, when John A. Elmendorf, who had beencon- 

> ])artnership\mder the finn title of Edward Smith & Co. 

ntington became a ]);irlner as also Alexander Maitland in 



J"IIN II. IIIIKV. 



necteil with the house since 1S53, was admitted t( 
I'ljon the death of Mr. Smith in 1S7S. Chester \\\\ 



I2S 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 




1880. In 1SS9 tlie firm was incorporated iinder the laws of New York. The tinn now consists of 
Alexander Maitland. President: John A. Ehnendorf, Vice-President: S. \'. \'. Huntington, Treasurer 

and Manager; Andrew M. F)ates. Secretary; A. H. 

Sabin, chemist. 

Lawsox \'.\i.kn riNE Co. was founded by Lawson 
\'alentine. who was born at Cambridge, Mass., 
on April 13, 182S. On Monday morning, Mav 
10, 1847. at 7:30 \.M., he first went to work in 
the paint and varnish business, in Boston, Mass. 
On Tiicsday, September 15th. 1850, he became 
a member of the firm of AVadsworth, Nye & 
Co. (composed of vSamucl Wadsworth, John A. 
Xyc and Lawson A'alentinc), dealers in paints, 
oils, varnishes, etc. In 1852 he formed a co- 
jKirtnership with Augustin T. Stimson and Otis 
\V. Mcrriam, under the title of Stimson, ^'alentine 
iS: Co.. making a specialty of varni.sh. Lawson 
X'alentinc was then the only \'alcntine, anv" 
where. coTinectcd in an\- wa\' with the \'arnish 
business. 

Later Mr. Mcrriam withdrew, and in 1867 Mr- 
Stimson retired, and the house then became 
\"alentinc cV: Co., which in 1882 was incorjioratcd. 
Lawson X'alentinc l)eing the President. 



II. M. THOM.VS. 

In 1870, in a card reproducing in facsimile his 
handwriting and signature, Lawson \'alcntine first 
spread broadcast the claim that he had succeeded in 
producing a line of coach varnishes fully eqiial to the 
best English varnishes, which latter, up to that time, 
had held the American market unchallenged. 
Custom House records are the best evidence as to the 
effect of his bold claim. 

In 1882 he retired from the presidency of the 
old house of Valentine & Co., and on November 1. 
1886, with the co-operation of Mr. Hadwin Houghton, 
(whose |)ortrait we give on p. 132) and Mr. David S. 
Skaats, the former having been associated with hhii 
in the varnish business for sixteen years previouslv, 
ho inaugurated the business of the Lawson \'alentin' 
Co., of New York and Hunter's I'oint, makers of ;; 
still higher grade of coach varnish, to which business 
he devested his entire attention up to the time of his 
death on May 5, 1891. This new company has 
nothing whatever to do with the old house of 
N'alentine & Co., of New York and Williamsburg, the 
Lawson X'arnish Co., of Chicago, or any other concern 
of similar title. On the contrary, the names of the 
new goods and the appearance of their labels, 
packages, etc., are as different from all others as the company know how to make them. 




THOMAS moki;an. 



Shorth' before" 
his death Mr. X'alentinc said: "1 am willing to stand by my reputation of forty years past as a varni.sh 



///STORY o/' /.o.xc /s/..i.y/) i /I y. 



\2l) 




viKW OK THOMAS .M(ir<;an"s rlevat;>r kkom water front. 



nuikLT. I trust it will help to jjain for my new cntuTprisc a fair share of the trade in hijjh-^rrade coach 
\arnishes, and I am confident that it will as soon as the hijjh ciiiality of the new ' H. H.' brand is 
understood and appreciated. I pledji;e that reputation when I claim that the tjoods now made by tiie 
Lawson Valentine Co., under my 
supervision, are unec|ualed by any 
other varnishes in the world." 

Thk Pratt & Lamiu-.kt VAkM>M 
Co. was founded by Mr. Alfred \V. 
I'ratt, who started to learn the business 
in 1857. After devotinjf about ten 
years to this work, and havin<j jjained 
a th<)rou.y;h knowledge of the manu- 
facture of hiyfh jjrade varnishes, he 
resolved to commence business for 
himself, and erected a small plant on 
Fifth street, Lon<i Island City, in 1866. 
An early traininjc had tauj^ht him 
that the way to success, was to make 
the best varnishes that could be pro- 
ihiced, keepin«;- the quality always 
the .same, and furnishiu!,'- the trade 
at a reasonal)le profit. 

He invented and patented the 
celebrated Pratt's Patent Liipiid 
Drvcr, which still has a lar<;e sale and is manufactured extensively at all their works. 

Cnder his personal su])ervision, the business j>rew so rapidly that at the end of two years he was 
.il)li<;ed to have larj;er (juarters. and he moved to a new \Aani at the corner of West avenue and Fifth 
street. On account of increas.-d bivsiness, two years later he w.is ohlijjed to have still larger quarters, 

and in the meantime, the sales had 
increased so rapidly, that arranjje- 
ments were made with Mr. Henry S. 
Lambert to join him, and the firm 
(which had been A. W. Pratt &• Co. 
up to this time) was chanijed \.o Pratt 
«.V Lambert 

A well-eciuipped plant, which 
thevnow occupy, was built on Fourth 
street, and has been added to frt)m 
time to time, until they have one of 
the most modern and best arranjjed 
l>lants in the country. 

Mr. Lambert was acknowledtjed 
111 have been at that time, one of the 
best salesmen in the varnish business, 
md under his direction, the house 
- ion enjoyed a very larafe trade in 
every section of the country. 

The firm was organized into a 
Stock Company in 1885. The plant 
at Fourth street was found to be over- 
crowded, so they secured a place on Ninth street, in which they located their stables, and stored their 
surplus stock of raw material. 

In 1890 the business in the western part of the country had grown to such an extent, that it was 
deemed advisable to erect works at Chicago, and a location was selected at 370 to 378 Twenty-sixth 
street, on which a fine, modern plant was built. 




VIEW OK THOMAS MOROAN S K1.K\ ATOR AND YARDS. 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY 



In 1X95 llic Collinjfhaiii X'arnisli Company was urj^anizc-d ai .Monlre-al, l<i nianiifaciuri.- ilic I'rall 
& Lambert varnishes for the Canadian trade, and a new plant was erected at the corner of At water 
avenue and vSt. Patrick street, where a full line of their goods are produced. 

Their jjfoods have the hijj^hest reputation in all parts of this continent and are considered as standard 
wherever they have been used. Their facilities are most ample, and their factories arc ecpiipped with 
the best appliances ever invented for the purpose, and neither money, time nor labor have been spared 
to make their product the best in the world. These jjoods are put up in convenient packaj^es, 
handsomely labeled and securely packed for transport. Beyond this, the house jjuarantees the 
imvaryinjj quality of its product and supplies the public at the most reasonable prices. 

The reception which these jjoods has met in all parts of the civilized world has encourajjed the 
house to extra effort in meetinjj foreij^n demand and supplyinjj the exix>rt trade. To this end, they 
will ship trial orders either direct or throujjh our foreijjn commission merchants. They will pack and 
ship their goods as directed, and invite suggestions from their patrons which will be carefully heeded. 
In every case the shipment will be accompanied by the full guarantee of cjuality and quantity, and they 
conrtdently a])i)eal to buyers and users of varnishes in every country t<> make trial of their superior 
wares. 

They have large factories in New York, Chicago and Muiitreal, and their main business offices 
are located at No. 47 Jolin street and 
Xo. 5 Dutch street. 

W. n. Andrews, the present 
treasurer and manager of the com- 
pany, was born in Thomaston, Me., 
i860, left school at seventeen years 
of age, declining a college education; 
subsequently he took a course in a 
commercial college in Boston, prior 
tt) entering the employ of Wads- 
worth-IIowland Company, of Boston, 
where he began his active business 
career, September i , 1878, at a salary 
of five dollars a week. During his 
first year in this company's service 
his salary was advanced by successive 
additions, until at the end of the 
year he was receiving fifteen dollars 

a week; at the end of five years, at the early age of twenty-three, lie was admitted to the firm, 
and with Mr. John Wadsworth went to Chicago and opened a liranch house. After doing so, the 
western business grew so rapidly that he organized a stock company and bought out the western 
branch of the house. In 1891 he acquired an interest in the firm of Pratt & Lambert, and acted as 
resident manager in Chicago, and built a modern plant at 370 to 378 Twenty-sixth street. The 
business prospered under the vigorous management given it, and on the retirement of Messrs. Pratt 
& Lambert, in 1895, f'""ni the active management of their company, Mr. Andrews was very naturally 
and most appropriately singled out and transferred to New York, and elected treasurer and general 
manager of the company. 

Emu. Cai.m.an & Co., West avenue, corner of Fourth street. Hunter's Point. This firm 
consists of Mr. Emil Caiman and his two sons, Gustave B. and Charles. Mr. Caiman has been in the 
varnish business uninterruptedly since 1848, and is to-day among the oldest living manufacturers of 
varnish in the country. He was also the first to establish the varnish industry in Long Island City, 
having built his factory here in 1862, or thereabouts. The present daily production of the works of 
this firm is over 5,000 gallons, embracing the various grades, and representing everything that is 
demanded in the varnish line. 

Hii.DRETH V.vRNisH CoMi'ANv, West aveuuc, corner of I'iftli street. Hunter's Point, and \L. \. 
Thihaut & CV>., 72 Ninth street. Hunter's Point. 

Hac.an & Dalv, foot of Seventh street. Hunter's Point, are well known steam boiler makers. 




I.DF.WK.NSTEIN S VARNISH WORKS. 



'3^ 



If /STORY OF LONG IS/.AXn CITY. 



Thk XdKiH Amlkican Mktalink Co.\(panv, R. \V. Rhoades & Co., lessees, at West avenue and 
Third street, are manufacturers of pulley bearings, etc. 

tr. L. Stukbner, 168-170 Third street, Hunter's Point, has a larj^c plant for the manufacture of iron 
dock and hook blocks, hoisting tubs, chute wag-ons, etc. His goods are shipped everywhere. 

Prominent CAkRiA(;E Man-uiactukkks are Peter Beckel & Sons. 62-64 Greenpoint avenue. Uliss- 
ville, and Schwarz & Son, 200 Flushing avenue, Astoria. 

The manufacture of Cotton Yarn is carried on by David Ingram, liroadway and \'an Alst avenue. 
Astoria. 

The Ckkosotinc Works of Ep]jinger iV Russel are at First street and I-^asl avenue. Hunter's 
Point. 

firm of \V. 1. M \ I Mi:so\ iV- 



The 



Co. (liniiled). 




hadwin iioi <;in 



the I'nilec 



;()-57i Wtiiou a\'enue. Ra\'ens\vood, 
re])resents a large and well-capitalized 
industry for the manufacture of dye- 
stulfs. The site is extensive, the 

buildings cajxicious. and the economic 
value of the tirm is advantageous to 
the city. 

The Ivxsi Ri\i-;k Gas Company is 
situated at the foot of Webster avenue. 
Ravcnswood. This company is noted for 
its gigantic " holder." the second largest in 
the world and the largest in the United 
States. ^Vllen full it rises two hundred 
and forty feet in the air, holds 5,000,000 
feet of gas. and weighs 255,000 pounds. 
The gas produced by this company, averag- 
ing thirty candles, has the highest illumi- 
nating ].)ower of any made in this country, 
'i'lic company has eighty-six miles of mains 
at jircscnt. a large portion of which is in 
New York. To commimicate with lliai 
city a remarkable engineering feat, else- 
where particularly described, was requisite. 
.\ \ertical shaft was sunk one hundred and 
thirty feet deep, from the bottom of which 
the only tunnel under the East River was 
bored to the New York side, at the expend- 
iture of large capital, and the exercise of 
great perseverance. A remarkable feature 
of the company's works is the almost total 
absence of odor, the result only of strictest 
cleanliness. 

The Ikon Foinhkv line is rei^resented 
States Foimdrv Comi)an\-. Division street. 



by Joseph Me(iee, 51 to 67 Sixth street: anc 
near Vernon avenue. Hunter's Point. 

The Anchor Fknck Post Co\ri'ANV. West avenue corner Sixth street, manufactures architectural 
fencing. 

Ward &: Co.mcany, Tenth street near X'ernon avenue, are lard oil manufacturers. 

The leading machinists of the city arc the Loxi; Islanu Machi.nk and Marink Construction 
Co.mi'anv, Newtown Creek, foot of East avenue; and Sweeny & Gray, 29 Sixth street, Hunter's Point. 

The Daimler MoroR Co.mpanv is mentioned in our article upon the village of Steinway. 

Paint and Color Manikactirkrs are the Long Island Paint and Color Works, 22-24 Tenth street, 
Hunter's Point; and lulward Smith & Co., elsewhere mentioned. 



l/ISTi'^RV OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



I'atini :\Ii uiciNKsarc made on a lar>?e scale by Hiscox&Co., 390 Webster avenue, Duuh Kills; 
and Dr. S. T. W. Sanford's .Sons, 891 X'ernon avenue, Ravenswood. 

The I'l \N<> Mam 1 ACTUKE of the city, other than that of Steinway \- Sons, is conducted by Sohnier 
& Co., Boulevard and Jamaica avenue, Astoria. 

WoTHERSPoo.N &• Son own plaster mills at 725 Vernon avenue, Ravenswood. 

The Printinc I.nk. Indlstkv is carried on by the J. Harper Bonnell Co., Vernon avenue, near 
lileventh street, Hunter's Point, and by (Jeorge Mathers' Sons Co., West avenue, corner of Ninth 
street. Hunter's Point. 

The W.\kREN Che.micai. .\ni> 
Manuiacturino Co., foot of .Sixth 
street, Hunter's Point, produce 
roofinjj materials. 

lixtensive Sewkk ani> Drain 
I'li'E works are located at 79 to 89 
\inth street, Hunter's Point, and 
are owned by William Nelson. 

The Smi'iiriiiiiNo line is con- 
ducted by Ward & Co., 401052 
I'lilton avenue, Astoria. 

The Manukai TIRE ov Sii.k is 
successfully established in the city. 
The Astoria Silk Works are on 
Steinway, near Potter avenue, in 
the villaji:e of Steinway, while the 
ICast River Silk Co. is located on 
\'an Alst, c"orner of Woolsey 
avenue, Astoria. 

For SoAl' MAXLFACTfKERS, WC 

mention the East River Chemical 
Works, \'ernon avenue, corner of 
I'irst street. Hunter's Point. 

SioNE Yards are numerous, 
among' the principal firms are 
(icorjje Call & Co., \'ernon avenue 
and Eleventh street, Hunter's 
Point; James Gillies & Son, 
\'ernon avenue, foot of Fourteenth 
street. Ravenswood; J. & D. 
Morrison, 373 Vernon avenue, 
Ravenswood; McWhorter & Son, 
.\storia; Estate of Wm. Gauld, 
I'oiirteenth street, Ravenswood. 

Letters, Sions, etc., in enamel, in the hanils of Caesar Bros, has developed into a larg-e business. 
The factory occupies several lots at the corner of West avenue and Eighth street, Hunter's Point. 

'I'he MANii-AcriRK ok Carpets is a leadinsr industry of the city at Ridge and Court streets, 
.\stnria. 'I'lie firm is Joseph Wild cV Co. 

W. D. Wilson Pkinitni; Ink Co.mi-anv. — This firm was originally Palmer & Co., who 
were succeeded, in i860, by W. D. Wilson & Co. Upon the death of Mr. Wilson in 18S6 
other changes occurred and F. J. Schleicher became chemist and superintendent, and D. F. 
Barry general manager. These young men, both under thirty years of age, have advanced 
the business, even to foreign markets. The concern has facilities for the manufacture of printing 
ink of every known variety and in any quantity. All its goods are guaranteed and the house is char- 
acterized in all its dealings by honor and fairness. Its New York office is 10 Spruce street. C)n 




W. 11. ANIIRF.\V< 






IffSTOR Y OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 

Mondav October .3. .896, the company passed into the hands of Messrs. J. D. Lynch, F. J. Schlciclier 
and U 'f Barrv, who will represent the company as president, secretary and treasurer. 

The Yellow Pine Company conducts an extensive industry at the corner of Front and First 
streets, Hunter's Point. Tt is one of the largest concerns of its kind in the country. 

soci i-:t I Es. 

M.XSOMC. 

Advance Lodge, No. 635. F. and A. M., was organi/.ed I'YMM-uary 22, .867. It meets in Masonic 
Hall Fulton avenue, Astoria, every Tuesday evening. 

Island City Lodge, Xo. 586. dates its organization from August 22, .865. Meets m Smithsonian 
Hall Vernon avenue'and Third street, second and fourth Mondays. 

Banner Chapter, No. 2,4, meets first and third Mondays, in Smithsoni m Hall, Vernon avenue 
and Third street. 



m 



P- )w 111, 







^giifi^ WD uLi a ![|i4|^-S 



VARMSII WORKS OK PRATT & I.AMlil'.RT. 



ODD I'l.l.l.OWS. 

Anchor Lodge, No. 324, instituted June 11, .S72, meets at Smithsonian Hall, every Thursday. 

Astoria Lodge, No. 155, instituted October 10, .850, meets at 432 Stein way avenue, every Tluirsday. 

Florence Rebecca Degree Lodge, No. 97 , meets at Flushing, L. L, first Monday each month. 

Long Island City Lodge, No. 395, instituted June ... 1874, meets at 43-' Steinway avenue, hrst 

and third Wednesdays. 

Long Island City Rebecca Degree Lodge. No. So, meets at 43-^ Steinway avenue, hrst and third 

Mondays. 

.\iii.rr\RV. 

Deutschcr Kegel Rmid, .42 Steinwav aven.ie: Deutscher Kriegcr Hund, Sixteenth Co.n],any, 

684 Steinway avenue; Deutschcr Krieger Hund. Xincteenlh Cmpany. 45^ Broadway: liibermau 

Kiflcs, Company A, Star Athletic Hall. 

M)NS 01 Sl. (lEOKIiK. 

Willi, R,,-,,- I,.j(1mc, X... ',15, 756 Boulevard. 



///STORY Of- /.ON<; /S/..\\n (77 r. 



'35 



SlOinslI 1.1. AN.-. 

LMaii Slcwari, ;J7 \'cni(>n avenue. 

AMKKIC.W I.KCJIU.N OK IIONOK. 

Franklin Council, Xo. S71, 756 Buuk-vard. 

.\Nlll.Nr OKDIK OK HllIKKNIANS. 

A. (). H., 4^j Stu'inway avenue; A. <>.!!, 1 Skillnian avenue: County Central Hoard, .\. < •. II. 
meets I-'riday and third Simday, 
X'ernon avenue and XiiUli street. 

IM II I) WOKkMI N. 

John .Mien Lodije, Xo. 330, 75 
Main street. 

John J. Miteliell Lodjje, Xo. 33.-;. 
meets 97 Horden avenue. 

Herman Lodjje, Xo. 3.(1, 43-- 
Steinway avenue. 

KtlKKSrKKS. 

Lonjj Island City Court, No. 
7892, 97 Borden avenue. 

Astoria Court, No. 3216, 75 .Main 
street. 

Kt)V.\l. .\kC.\NLM. 

Sunswick Council, Xo. 1374, 75<) 
I'.oulevard. 

KKIl .\1KN. 

I'econie Tribe, 1 Skillnian 
avenue. 

Pocahontas Stanini, X'ernon 
avenue and Third street. 

liR.VNl) .\K.MV. 

Pienjamin Ringold Post, Xo. 283, 
43 J Steinway avenue. 

Benjamin Rinjjold Women's 
Relief Corps, 432 .Steinway avenue. 

Garfield Post, Xo. 27, S.().\'., 
50S Broadway. 

Sheridan Post, Xo. 628, 422 
Jackson avenue. 




K.\sl KUKR CAS CO. S CASOMEIKR. 



K.SlllHTS OK I'VriilAS. 

Astoria Lodge, No. i86, 432 Steinway avenue. 
Kntcrprise Lodge, No. 228, 432 Steinway avenue. 

CHOSKN KKIKNIIS. 

ICintracht Council, No. 12, 432 Steinway avenue. 

rURN VKRKIS. 

Astoria Turn Verein, 21 Flushing avenue. 

Long Island City Turn \'erein. Broadway and Steinway avenue. 

BEXKKiciAL i.oi«;ks AN1> SOCIK.rlKS. 
Algemeine Arbeitcr Kranken und Stcrbe Kasse. 452 Broadway. 
American Independent Lodge, No. no, i Skillman avenue. 
Apollo Lodge. No. 1361. 432 Steinway avenue. 



,36 HfSTORY OF LOAG ISLAND CITY. 

Astoria Gegenseitijjc Lebcns \'ersicherung. 22 Flushing avenue. 
Germania Sterbe Kasse, No. 31. 11 Jackson avenue. 
Long Island City Council, No. 379, i Skillman avenue. 

Besides, there are also several musical and singing societies embracing the local musical talent, and 
miscellaneous organizations whose names and titles have not been conveniently accessible. 

iirio.mkn's .^ssoci-^tions. 

Exempt Firemen's Association, Lockwood street, near Webster avenue. 
Veteran F"iremen's Association, 165 Fulton avenue. 
Volunteer Firemen's Association, 301 Jackson avenue. 




him;'. Mi, 



TR.M)KS UN'K)XS. 



Brotherhood Railroad Trainmen, No. 517, 97 Borden avenue. 
Bartholdi Lodge, No. 309, of Locomotive Firemen, 97 Borden avenue. 
Bricklayers' Union, No. 41, 22 Flushing avenue. 
Bricklayers' Union, No. 40, 97 Borden avenue. 
Cartmen's Union, No. 3292, 97 Borden avenue. 
Iron Moulders' Union, No. 271. Long Island Division, No. 269. 

Brotherhood Locomotive Engineers, Smithsonian Hall, Wrnon avenue and Third street, second 
Sunday and third Saturday. 

National Association of Stationary Engineers, No. 42, 237 Vernon avenue, Saturday'. 
Long Island Railroad Mutual Relief Association, West avenue near Flushing street. 



HISTORICAL 1N-CII)K\TS. 



Upon March 12, 1888, snow fell to a depth of aliout two and a half feet upon the level (the great 
"blizzard"). This was probably the heaviest snow fall since March 5, 1772, when a storm of etpial 
severity is said to have prevailed. 



HISTORY or LONG ISLAND CITY 



'37 



The jrrcatest calamity in the history of the city occurred December 28, 1892. The New York and 
Loni;- Island Railroad Company had sunk a shaft one hundred feet deep in the trianj^le bounded by 
Jackson and \'ernon avenues and Fourth street, from which a projected tunnel was being bored under 
the East River \x> East Forty-second street New York. A large ijuantity of dynamite stored at the 
mouth of the shaft exploded with terrific violence at eight o'clock in the morning of the day mentioned. 
Houses rocked <m their foundations throughout the near vicinity. Doors and windows were blown out 
injuring many passersby on their way to their day's work. Five persons were killed, more than a score 
severely wounded, while a large amount of property was destroyed. 







I I ■ • ■ 



^4 -jj*- 



I>KY i;00liS F.STAIll ISMMKNT OK O. DEMARKSV & CO. 



Several large fires have visited tlie city. One occurred on the night of July 21, 1893, in which 
St. Mary's Church and the adjoining parish building, together with the greater part of the block, were 
entirely destroyed. Most of the block on the north side of F'ifth street, opposite, was also reduced to 
ruins. As the surging flames rolled heavenward from the church spire, many miles of the surrounding 
country were illuminated. 

A spell of hot weather licginning August 4, 1S96, prevailed for eleven days, during which lime 
the average maximum temperature daily was ninety-five degrees. In New York there were reported 
six hundred and fifty sunstrokes and 1800 deaths from the effects of the heat. 

For the fourteen years, between 1882 and 1895 inclusive, there were 14.097 deaths in this city. Of 
this number 4613 were under five years of age. 

On August 8, 1880, an explosion occurred at Circcnpoint. on board the Nova Scotia bark Nictaux. 



>3« 



HIS 'JOKY OF LONG ISLAND CI TV 



There were 3300 barrels of naplnha and refined oil upon the vessel, which at nnee isjnited. Other 
vessels were also burned. The losses were: 

Bark Nictaux, $40,000 

Bark Cyclone, 36,000 

Bark Antonetta, 23,000 

Barge Nameless, 2,500 

Scow B, 1,500 

Pratt & Co. 's sheds, i.ooo 

Manhattan lieach Railroad dock, 500 

$104,500 

The explosion occurred on the Sabbath. The fire continued on the river the day and night of 
Monday following. On Tuesday at 6.30 .\..m. thirty barrels of flaming naphtha floated up Newtown 
Creek and fired the dock of the E.xport Liunber Company of this city. Quickly the numerous lumber 
piles, four canal boats, a sloop and a schooner were ablaze. The vessels were destroyed. The yards 
of the company contained ten to fifteen millions of feet of luniber A-alued at $500,000. half of which was a 
total loss. 

The New York Architectural Terra cotta ^Vorks at Raven.swood were almost wholly destroved bv 
fire on the night of July 17, 1886. The loss was $100,000. The firm was entering upon an era of 
prosperity, and were about to double their force of workmen. 

On July 30, 1872, occurred a great fire at the Standard Oil Works. It originated on the canal 
boat Dadeni, on board of which were 1,200 barrels of oil. The flames quickly reached the pier, then 
a shed where were stored 15,000 barrels of oil, and soon another containing 10,000 barrels. Five 
acres were covered by the conflagration. The total loss reached $500,000, including several vessels. 

The triangle formed by the junction of Jackson and \'ernon avenues, at Borden avenue, Ijy some 
process not known to mathematics, is called "Monitor vSquare." The name of " -Monitor " origi- 
nated in the circumstance that a little frame building, standing on the present site of the fountain, 
was begun about March 9, 1862, the day of the great victory of the Monitor over the Merrimac, at 
Hampton Roads. In honor of that event the name of Monitor was given first to the new structure, 
and afterward to the whole area thereabout. The btiiUling was used by Nelson Weeks, Sr. , as a 
restaurant, and afterward by W. J. Lynam, until it was removed by the surrender of the ground tu 

the citv h\- I'ninn ('(illiM'C. 




^^W^^-^mE. 



insrORY OF LOXO' f SI. AND CITY. 

cvv\ ('.()\i^wxMi:xi' 



I'ATKR-K J. CLKASOX. 

Cily Clerk, 
T. \\ M((;RAW. 

Corporation Coiiusil, 
THOMAS P. BURKE. 
Coiiiiiioii Coiintil, 
Wii.i.iAM Smith, President. 
KdwanlDuwlinj;. Fred. Bowky, 

George A. McNulty, \<\<z\v.^r<\ M. Kane. 

Peter A. Flanaj-an. Joseph (Iciser. 

n. CAK...N, Clerk to Committees. Wn.,..AM Mask......... Ser^^eant-at-Arms. 

iii:i>.\K'rMi:NT of i--in.\nck. 
1.1'C11;N KN.M'l'. Citj I rciisiiri-r (iiiii Riicnrr. 
luSlCPU i-li:Si-:L, n.puly rnasunr ,ui,nuctivir. 



John Boyee, 
Riehard (iosnum, 



CI.KRKS. 

William Boyle, 
Kbenezer Richards, 



Albert Boyd, 
Mason Smedlev. 



John W. Moork, 
A.tKAM Lkvkk, 

Pa ..<!< K J. (il.KASON. 

Joseph C. MeKenna, chief clerk. 

Roc. S. Johnson, clerk, 

l>aul Alexander, inspector of water meters, 

I'eter M. Coco, draughtsman. 

Peter Cass, meter inspector, 

Joseph A. Fischer, city tapper, 

Thomas Lang, gencal rei)airer. 



IWtUr ntpditiiniit. 

IIOAKD Ol WAIKK ( (l\.MI>SIONI .<>. 

FkKDKK.I k L. (;.<K.K.N, 



\Vl. I I AM S\.I I II, 



Frank T. Cannon, clerk, 

Ferdinand Kruger, clerk, 

Joseph Buchanan, inspector of plumhi.ii 

Adolph Fischer, meter ins])ector, 

Michael English, hydrant inspector. 

Morgan Murphy stableman. 



/in 



iiiiirs : 

I )enis Casey, 

ii/tii : 

lames Larscn. 



F"M 
lin 



John J. I'arrcU. 
Thomas ]. Welch. 



Owen McKlcarney, 
Owen McElearney. Jr. 

srA..ON 2. 

Andixw Rocks, 
Peter Fi>x, 



Manley B. Payntar, 
Joseph CuriMU. 

Patrick J. Solan. 
Thomas Lawlor. 



HfSTORV OF LOXG ISLAND CITY. 



Saffarino O. Allen, 



/■'in J) I at . 



Jeremiah O'Connor. 



STATION 3. 

Terance ( )'Xeil. 
Moriiiiier (ileason. 
BOARD OF POLICK COMMISSIONERS. 



Patrick Evers. 
John J. McMahon. 



John T. Clrady, President, 

Robert J. MeMahon, Stenos^rapher, 

Dr. Neil O. Fitch, Surgeon, 



William F. Fitzgibbons, Patrick Delahanty, 

John Kelly, Examining Engineer and Boiler Inspector, 
Charles Blasius, Electrician, 
Anthony S. Woods, Captain. 



FlKST PKEClNtrr. 



John Carroll, Acting Sergeant, 
Patrick Ward, Roundsman, 



Henry Buschman, Acting Sergeant, 
James Iliggins, Roundsman. 



Patroliiioi: 



Bernard Reegan. 
John J. Sheridan, 
Patrick Dohcrty, 
Stephen Sullivan, 
John A. Batmian, 
Edward Burden, 
Thomas Conroy, 
Christopher White, 
Patrick Downey, 
Thomas Crogan, 
William Weissenstcin, 



William Carlin, 
Julius Schroeder, 
Thomas J. Hunt, 
Walter J. Roach, 
John Orpheus, 
Joseph ( >livia, 
Henry J. Cassiily, 
Thomas Balbert, 
Edward Slattery, 
James J. Maher, 
Janitrf.ss, Rosina Moran. 



Hugh (iallagher, 
James O'Connor, 
Andrew Younger, 
Fred. Bliss, 
Henry Miller, 
John McGill, 
Thomas Ryan, 
John J. Nolan, 
John J, Sliea, 
Anthony F. Wood; 



>Sk(H)ni) Prkcinct. 
Thomas F. Darcy, Acting Captain, Charles A. Flanagan, Acting Sergeant. 



Peter Farrcll, 



James Fantry, 
William P. Parks, Sr. 
Richard Walsh, 
Peter Reidy, 
Joseph Brown, 
Peter Kelly, 
(ieorge S. Wheeler, 
William Dunn, 
Samuel Copeland, 
Charles Cameron, 
Daniel Bonjour, Jr., 



l\oini(isiiirii. 

Cicorge Fit/.gerald. 



Patrolmen. 

Terranee Cosgrove, 
Herbert Graham, 
Timothy White, 
Patrick Sullivan, 
John l'"laherty, 
Ambrose Clancy, 
William Duncan, 
Joseph Kane, 
( )wen Rudden, 
William S. Burke, 
William H. Irving, 
J AM IKKSS, Eliza McManus. 



Amos Gustin, 
Michael Flaherty, 
Peter J. Iltml, 
John Porn, 
Funk M. Frelingsdorf. 
John Cassidy, 
William P. Parks, Jr., 
Thomas Larkin, 
I'red Re inch, 
|ohn |. liergcn, 
John Coonan. 



I" IRK DKP.AKTiMIiNT. 

FIKK (O.MMISSIONKRS. 



F. L. (ircen, President; Mayor, P. J. Gleason; President of Common Council, Willi.im .Smith; 
Commissioners of Public Works, J. W. Moore and A. Levee. 



//fsroKY OF i.o\(; islaxp city 



141 



Lliief of Depart iiicnt. 
W. H. Dclahanty. 

I->iij;inc Ci>iii]3anv Xcp. 1, situated at No. 105 Jackson avcnui.' 

M. I. Naj;lc, ALlinji' I'orciiiaii and ICn},Min.(.r. 
T. I". Murphy, Driver. 

Enj^inc Co. No. 2 ; Gale street. 
J. I". Ryan, I'orenian T. F. Hopkins, Enj^ineer. 

H. Me(iinness, Driver. 

Enjjine Co. No. 3; Radde street. 

R. Mel'hail. .\elinj;' I'oreman. 
M. lunniett, Driver. 



I'. .MeLarney, Driver. 
1*. J. Unfiles, Driver. 



(Jeorjje Hrown, I'orenian. 
|. II I'lvnn, Driver. 



T. McKecm, Driver. 
Enj^ine Co. No. 4; Main street. 

Wm. MeLcan, Enjjincer. 
1'. Roonev, Driver. 



J. Roniain, Ivn^ineer. 
k. I-. Denii)sey, Driver. 



B. Z. Boyd, Foreman. 
F. Mulligan, Driver. 



En«;ine Co. Xo. 5; l-"Iushing avenue. 



W'ni. r.illis, Driver. 
Joseph Kelly, Driver. 

J. 1'-. Fry, Engineer. 
I. Stanton, Driver. 



M. J. Keiulriek. Driver. 
ICngine Co. No. 6; Webster and X'ernon avenues 

I. R. Smith, .\cting Foreman and Engineer. 
J. White, Driver. J. J. Creighton, Driver. Emil Kopeizna, Driver. 

Hook and Ladder Co. No. i ; 7th street. 

M. Cannon, Acting Foreman. J. Welsh. Driver. J. I'lynn, Tillennan. 

Hi)ok and Ladder Co. Xo. _' : I'lushing avenue. 
J. Slaltery, Acting Foreman. J. McKeon. Driver. Jacob Wriglit. Tillerman. 

Hook and Ladder Co. No 5; out of commission. 

J. Rider, Jr., Ci. H. Smyth, Wm. J. Furman, L. Lackner, F. McBcnnctt, I'. Mulligan, R. Lee, 
C. Dorsey, J. Schehr, J. Sheridan, J. Lynch, J. O'Brien, M. Haggerty, J. Weiland, E. Mason, C. Law, 
J. M, Rage, C. Horan and N. Minderman; dismissed without trial, sueing to be reinstated. 



\Valter Buchanan. 

John W. Moore, 
Owen Clarke, 

Louis Willing, 



John N. Pohley, 
James McMahon, 



CIVIL SEKVICK. 
I.Ml'KOVKMKN r COM.M ISSIOX. 

ICdward Dowling, 

IHl.VKI) oi- .\SSr.SSOKS. 

Charles McNamara. 

HOARD OK EDUCATION. 

John Hippie, 



vStepheii MeClancy. 



Fred. Bowley, 
Owen Woods. 

Andrew Murrav. 

Thomas O'Dea. 
Cornelius J. Jordan. 



SLPKKIXrENHENT OK SCHOOLS. 

John E. Shull. 

PRIN'CIPALS or CITV SCHOOLS. 

High School — Edward F. Fagan, Astoria — Frederick H. Lane, 



First Ward — John F. Quigley, 
Second Ward — Kate McWilliams, 
Third Ward— Edward H. Chase, 



German Settlement — Cieorge E. Atwood, 
Fifth Ward— P. E. Demarest, 
Steinway — John Melville. 



//fS/ORV OF I.ON(; ISLAND C 11 Y 
Teachers : 



Belle A. C.aiikl. 
Rose A. Majjuire, 
Clara L. Shclsky. 
May I. Molloy. 
Marjjaret L. Duhig, 
Elizabeth Sandy, 
Marijaret L. Burns, 
Catharine E. Haydcn, 
Monica Ryan, 
Clara M. McKcnna, 
Catharine Lenahan, 
Emma L. Kells, 
Emma C. Kinsf, 
Martha E. Hahn, 
Alice Robinson, 
Mary A. Comisky, 
Susan A. Coughlin, 
Loretta McKenna, 
Mary E. Durney, 
Anna L. Schreincr, 
Henrietta E. Kron, 
Helen E. (iusterson, 
Helen M. White, 
Ella I. Barry, 
Mary McGee, 
Marjjaret Bolton, 
Mary C. Mahon, 
Anjjcline E. Reboul, 
Catharine C. Loughlin, 
Charlotte Schulte, 
Loretta F. Clark, 
Anna Leahy, 
Mary A. Walker, 
Marjjaret V. McCarron, 
Sophia L. Wielinjj, 
Mary C. Coleman, 
Theresa A. Kelly, 
Sarah T. Driscoll, 
Raphael Shaujifhnessey, 
Auj^'usta Carlstrom, 
Alice Bird, 
Julia (Jerrity, 
Julia A. Green, 
May Cleary, 
Sarah Crawson, 



Rose A. Crawson, 
Annie M. Tarpey, 
Julia F. Henry, 
\'iola B. Brown, 
Ag-nes Clift, 
Kate M. Carroll, 
Anna E. Locke, 
Katie A. Locke, 
Marjjaret Scott, 
Mary li. Dobbins, 
Anna Dobbins, 
Susie Dobbins, 
Mary C. Huj^hes, 
Mary A. Hynn, 
Rose A. Lynch, 
Marion H. Gartlan, 
Fannie L. Simpson, 
Cecilia Solon, 
Catharine T. Coughlin, 
Sarah McLean, 
Carrie T. Chadsey, 
Anna Ransky, 
Anna M. Warin,^, 
Kate Milne, 
Margaret Bly, 
EllaM. Dowd. 
Adah L. Clift, 
Florence M. Harnicr, 
Catharine E. Cassazza 
Sarah E. Bracken, 
Lilian Gibson, 
Catherine I. Kielcy, 
Lilian Jackson, 
Helen G. Comisky, 
Margaret E. Knause, 
Adeline H. Brown, 
Kate Rooney, 
Catharine M. Hopkins, 
Ida Hahn, 
Jennie C. Cook, 
Anna L. Bubenik, 
Margaret Duggan, 
Rose M. Hopkins. 
Cecilia M. Murphy. 
Elizabeth T. Hradv, 



Maud A. Xewcombe, 
Margaret K. Knorr, 
Angelina Heany, 
Theresa L. Heany, 
Maud (i. Lewis, 
lilla R. Simpson, 
Katharine A. Marinan. 
Cath;irine I. Shclsky, 
Loretta Brooks. 
^Margaret Monalian. 
Mary E. Dougherty, 
Anna L. Carabine. 
Margaret T. Ciriffiths, 
AmeHa Limberg, 
Minnie Campbell, 
Catharine A. Wieling, 
Adah Parsells, 
Isabel Ryan, 
Mary McGowan, 
Nellie E. Simon, 
Alice E. Cranfield. 
Fannie S. Gillis, 
Emma Chnwn. 
Edith White, 
\'irgie E. Bartlett. 
Sarah Christie, 
Nellie Delahanly, 
Pauline E. Hanagan, 
Ella R. Bragaw, 
Marion Farrell. 
Lilian C. Lowell, 
Mary A. Chambers, 
Lottie E. Smith, 
Rebecca H. StatTord, 
Mary C. Mynn, 
Mary Gallagher, 
Edna M. lillsworth, 
Mary K. Rooney, 
Ella L. Keyes, 
Agnes T. Lunny 
Irene M. Gibbs, 
Agnes B. Murphy 
Annie S. ( )'(ieran, 
Jean C. I luston, 
Lilian II. Nichols. 



I'.O.ARl) OK HliALTH. 

Pkksioknt — Patrick J. Gleason, ex officio. 

Commissioners — James Comiskey, Jose])h Cassidy, William \V. Wright, :\Iartin Fleischer, Jacob 
Martling, Otto L. Mulot, M.D. 

Hkai-th Duicer — William j. liurnell, M.D. 
CouNSKi,— Thomas C. Kadien, Esq. 



/ffS7(V^Y or i.o.\(; /sl.i.vp city. 143 



Skcrktary — Dr. F. H. Battcrman. 

Cmif.f Sanitary Insi-kciok — John y. Colton. 

C'liii I Inspector of Pi.imium. — Tlioinas l"rc(.-niaii. 

\'fifkinarv Sl'R(;kon — Dr. W. \\. Wrij^ln. 

CoMKAcn'oK FOR Rfmovim. I)faii Ammai.s — JiiliiiC,. Wocmcr. 

I.OCAI. JUDICIARY. 

Charles T. Diiffv. , 

- justices <>t ihc Peace. 
James Injcrani, ' ' 

John Hendrickson, Stenojjrapher and Clerk. 

Conrad Dicstcl, City Constable. 

James Cameron, Court Officer. 



RESUME. 



The political history of the city from the period of its erection into a municipality in 1870 has 
been unduly characterized with bitter and acrimonious strife. There has been too much charter, 
too many offices, too numerous an army of hungry place-seekers, with the usual result of turmoil, 
contention and incalculable damage to the material interests of the placo. Administration followed 
administration, sometimes in the interest of progress, but often overturning what had already 
been accomplished, or blocking the way of future advancement. The nearness, however, of the new 
aspiiant for urban honors to the great metropolis constantly stimulated and kept alive the spirit of 
enterprise and improvement, while the steady overflow of population and business interests that were 
rapidly gathered into the accessible and inviting territory, well withstood the unfortunate drawbacks 
occasioned by the politicians, who, from time to time, were charged with the duty of directing the local 
government. Relief from these prejudicial conditions has been long and anxiously sought. The 
city's admirable situation, together with its natural advantages, eminentl)' fitted it for a populous and 
prosperous suburb of New York. But its government has been a failure. Its population is widely 
scattered and extremely heterogeneous, thereby removing to an indefinite future the development of a 
higher social and municipal type. Finally these conditions vigorously appealed to property owners, 
business men and citi/.ens generally, leading them to recognize, in the absorption of the city into 
(ireater New York, the surest hojie of a bright and prosperous future. 



CHAPTER V. 
Tin-: IX)\G ISLAND CITV "STAR." 

A SKETCH OF ITS DRKUN AM) KARI.V STKl'l ;i; I.KS THK I'lKST ISSUK (;KC)\V1H OV IHI. PAI'I-.K KKMDVAl.! 

OF LOCATION FROM TIMF, TO TIMIC THE "DAII.v" ANJ) IIS TL"(; OF \V A k IHH c;KKFNPt)INT 

EDITIONS ERECITON OF THE PRKSENl' " ST AK " llUILDINli ITS VARIOUS DEP A Kl MEN IS 

THE PRESS, JOI; AND COMPOSITION ROO.MS HUSINESS AND EDIPORIAl, OFFICES 

PRESENT IMPROVED CONDITION OF THE PAPER ITS I.ARIIE 

CIRCULATION ITS NEW DRESS THE FOUNDER AND HIS 

SUCCESSFUL At.HIEVEMENT THE LONO ISLAND 

sr\N PUI'.I.ISHINC, COMPANY. 



The Star was born before Lontj Island City was incorporated, Ibc first number Ix'in^- issued 
the 2oth of October, 1865, when the territory hereabouts was a i)ari and parcel of the town 
Newtown. The faith of its founder was so strong that a thriving- city was destined to sprini^^- up alo 
the river front from Newtown Creek to Astoria 
and Bowery Bay, that he christened the newspaper 
venture T/ic Lo7ig Island City Star and Nciotown 
Ad'c'crtiser. 

Very few successful newspapers were ever 
started under more modest auspices. It was the 
creation of Thomas H. Todd, who graduated from 
the office of the F/iishin«- Journal, where he 
had served during the extended period between 
the years 1851 and 1865. He commenced as an 
apprentice and ended his connection with the 
office as general superintendent and manager of 
the business when he determined to "strikeout 
for himself. " The late Charles R. Lincoln, editor 
of the Journal, was his warm friend and trusted 
adviser, and the venture was made with his fullest 
approval, Mr. Lincoln at the time making this 
jirediction : "That section is destined to be a 
great business center; for a yoiuig and enterpris- 
ing man no better opening, to my mind, presents 
itself. You may have a hard struggle for the first 
year or two, but the field is sure to develop, and 
you cannot but grow with it. -Sec that you stick 
to it and work; and, most important of all, don/ 
run in debt." 

With small capital, a AVashington hand press 
and the necessary types and other appliances, the 

young prospcct<jr set up business on Vernon avenue, near the 
the building now occujjied by John W. Petry as a hardware store. 




1111; IKK-Ksr 



AR i;rn.iiiNG, 41 hordex am 
rner of I'ourlh 



JOI! PRINITNO. 

.'\ fairly good job printing jjlant was connected with the office and a thorough canvass of the 



fl /STORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



'45 



ncijjhborhood was made for the securing of patronajj;c. The first job of priiuiiij^ turned out on the 
presses was a carpenter's business card, of which the followinjc is a copy: 




lC\-ery encourai;enieni was held out by the business men of the period, and the office force, which 
consisted of the "boss" and a man and a boy, were kept fairly busy in the striijixlc for "makinj^ 
both ends meet " in the unpretentious printingf establishment 

Fortunately, within a month after openinjr day, the friendship and patronajje of the late Oliver 
Charlick, ]3resident of the Lonj,'- Island Railroad, were secured, and a liberal share of the railroad 




>r.\K EDITDKIAL (Jlllc K. 



printinyf materially aided in finally placinj;- the venture upon a secure and piyiny; basis. Mr. Charlick 
])roved a i^ood and true friend, and his esteemed favor and patronajje were retained until the day of Iris 
death. 

FIRST ISSL'K OK rHK Sr.VK. 

The first issue of the Star, as above noted, was jjiven hearty welcome in Hunter's Point. Ravens- 
wood, Astoria, Dutch Kills, and other cpiarters of the town of Xewtown, it beinjif the only newspaper 
pulilishcd in the township. 

Hunter's Point at this period was small but steadily ;4i-ovving and the outlook was promising. 
Being the railroad center of the Island, with a magnificent water front, excellent ferries, and broad 
avenues opening out into the country, everything pointed to the speedy materializing of a populous 



D.Miy 



STAR 




■^-t'^<jlsu^^ 



\Vf?f:M\ STW 






Tlir iflnil t'jlanil Cidi 5lai, 



^^'^^ 



<■.■* 



a. 



(^V'>" 







HVttWwtS't; 



*t*v. 6 



1. First issue of Daily Star, March 27, 187O. 

2. First issue of Weekly Star, October 20, 1865 

3. The Daily Star of 1896. 



4. The Weekly Star of 1896. 

5. The Greeuiwint Daily Star of 1S96. 
fi. The Creenpoint Weekly Star of iSg(). 



IffSTORV 01' LONG ISLAND CfTY 



147 




city. ^Ir. H. S. Anable, at that time manaj^er of tlie Union College property, was an enthusiast in 
the belief that an important future was in store for the neighborhood, and the publisher was induced 
to unfurl and put upon record the first name-banner of the coming city in titling the newspaper 
'/'/w Loiii^- Island C ity Star. 



The newspaper business grew 
and prospered from year to year. 
Job printing increased in volume. 
Factories, dwellings and stores 
multiplied. Many needed and de- 
sirable public improvements were 
carried forward to successful com- 
pletion, and all this forward march 
along the lines of progress led, in 
1868-69, to the agitation for incor- 
poration which finally culminated 
in 1.S70, in the setting up of the 
city. The Star took prominent 
part in the preliminary work of the 
first charter and subseciuently, with- 
out avail, arraj'ed itself against the 
dangerous principle of giving arbi- ^,^i, ^jj^i^m,.^,, ,;.,(j.\i. 

trary and unlimited power to the 
Mayor as was done in the ill-starred " Revision," wliich was carried through the Legislatre in 1871. 

The Star during its career has had several "flittings." In 1S68 removal was made from its 
birth-spot to the old Foster building, a little farther south on the avenue, near the corner of Third 
street; and from there, in 1870, it marched still nearer the business center by taking up more roomy 
quarters in the Schwalenberg building on Horden avenue. Here many improvements were made 
to meet the growing wants of the times. The old hand- press was discarded, a new and improved 
and fast running cylinder purchased, and many important additions were made to every department 
cif the plant whi'-li had alrcaclv dcveli ']')ei:l into nne of the mnsi complete to be found in the county. 

IIKST SL'BSCRll'.ERS. 

A liberal subscription list grew 
apace and the Star soon made 
its way into every quarter of the 
township. John Bragaw and Peter 
Hulst, old and well-known resider.ts 
of the Blissville section (both now 
deceased), were the first citizens to 
have their names enrolled upon the 
subscription book, each one jiayipv 
his two dollars in advance, greatly 
to the surprise and delight of the 
publisher, who handed to them two 
of the first newspapers that came 
from the hand-press. 

THE nAII.V STAR. 

In the spring of 1876 the long 
contemplated plan of a daily issue 
was finally decided upon, and on 

Monday, March 28, the first number of the Long Island City Daily Star made its appearance. 

Now really came the tug of war in right good earnest. Small and insignificant as it was, the paper 




JOB Co.Ml'OSl.NG ROOM. 



148 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



proved an expensive and wearingf daily tread mill. The political rin<;f that controlled the city was 
against a "daily snemj'," and vowed that thej' would starve it out; but they "reckoned without their 
host " The publisher knew well the field and the obstacles he was to encounter, and had carefully 
counted and provided for the cost of the battle. For four long years it was a losing game and thousands 
of dollars were sunk in the struggle for saving it from shipwreck. But the clouds of adversity were 
gradually broken and scattered and success finallj' won, and in the spring of 1880, the balance sheet 
made known the gratifying fact that the " Daily was paying its way." Better and more commodious 
quarters were now again essential and two large floors were leased for a term of five years at 72 
Borden avenue. Upon their being specially fitted and provided with steam power, elevators and 
all the modern appliances, the new offices were occupied on the first of May, 1880, and the business of 
both Daily and Weekly, from that time forward, CDmmenced to boom in a manner that was 
exceedingly gratifj-ing. The dark days that had been experienced ;ind the mountains of 
discouragement that had been overcome were at last happily relegated far to the rear. 



i;ki;k.\i>oin r kditions. 

Daily and Weekly editions of the Star for (irccnpoint had been added to the list of publications, and 

the}-, also, were steadily forging for- 
ward in public favor in that populous 
and prosperous section of the city of 
r.rooklyn known as the Seventeenth 
Ward 

The business of the Stiir had 
gr.iwii to be large and remunerative, 
'i'lic foundation was well and securely 
laid with an eye single to the rearing 
of a superstructure that would insure 
the most complete and thorough-going 
journalistic inde])endence. for the 
good and behoof of all the people 
wliose interests it was established to 
espouse. 

succEssra'i.i.v kstai:! ishkd. 

After five years of laborious 
effort the daily was adjudged a fix- 
ture and a success, having been 
triumphantly established as one of the permanent enterprises of the city. It was the acknowledged, 
energetic and reliable recorder of passing events, while the Weekly had years before come to he the 
g.-eat home newspaper of the city and the adjoining townships, and was favored with a yearly subscrip- 
tio.i patronage unsurpassed by any of its island contemporaries. During all these years the Star, from 
time to time, has been out and in — (oftener out than in) — ^with the local politicians and the managers of 
the city government, but it never deviated from the even tenor of its way in championing the cause of 
the taxpayers. It has never, strictly speaking, been the organ of any man. public or private interest, 
political clicjue or faction, and herein, uncpiestionably. has consisted its phenomenal success as a busi- 
ness venture. 

I'RESK.N'r THKEK-STORV liUII.DI.NO ERICCIKI). 

In the spring of 1885 the lease of the offices at 72 Borden avenue was about to expire in the 
month of May. All efTcjrts failed in securing a renewal of the lease, the owner of the building alleg- 
ing that the jar of the steam presses endangered the structure and annoyed his other tenants. This 
ultimatum was not definitely known until about the fifth of April, and the premises were to be vacated 
on the first day of May. Quick movement and speedy determination were demanded, and it was decided 
that the time had arrived when the Star should have its own office building. The site now occupied 
was chosen and purchased on April 10. On the fifteenth. ])lans had been jjrepared !)\- Architect James 




NEWSlAl K.K 



HfSrORY OF LOXG ISLAND CITY 



149 




Ni;WSIAl'l K PRESS ROOM. 



Uunncn (latcls- deceased). (Jn the twentieth, upon the sccurinjj of estimates for the ereetion of the 
three-story buiklinjr, twcntj'-tvvo by eighty feet, the eon tract was awarded to John T. Woodruff, under 
an express agreement that "the 
job must be rushed." On the follow- 
ing day Mr. Woodruff set a large 
gang of men at work, and the solid 
twelve-inch brick walls fairly "walked 
U])." I'lirtunately good weather ful- 
lowed, and at twelve o'clock noon nl' 
May I, the roofers were topping otV 
the completed structure. In the after- 
noon, machinery, presses, etc., after 
an early issue in the old tjuarters of 
tlie .SV(//- of that day, were removed 
and set in position, and an all-night's 
struggle of a force of machinists, 
boiler-makers, etc., enabled the print- 
ers to get the daily issue of May i out 
upon the street promptly on time 
from the commodious press-rooms of 
its own handsome three-story head- 
quarters. Contractor Woodruff ex- 
ceeded all his previous records as a 
hustler in the wonderful manner in which he handled this job, and for months afterwards the Star 
building was pointed out by the ])assersby as Contractor Woodruff's " quicker than a wink job." 

.\CCi)MMoli,\ riOXS DKSCKiniil). 

The new building, with the capacious rooms of its three stories, has proved a model of convenience 
in every respect. The first floor is utilized for the business quarters, press rooms and compositors' 
job printing departuT^nt, and the arrangements as to light, steam heat, etc., are perfect and unsur- 
passed in every regard. The second floor front is occupied as the editorial rooms, and the rear as the 
stock rooms for the storage of news, book and writing papers, cards, cardboard, etc. The third floor 

is set ai)art as the newspaper compos- 
ing room. It is spacious, heated bj' 
steam, well lighted, thoroughly ven- 
tilated, and, all in all, is one of the 
coziest and best adapted for its i)ur- 
pose to be found on the Island. On 
this floor, also is the newspaper file 
room, where, conveniently arranged 
for reference, may be found copies 
of every issue of the Star from 1865 
to date — the Weeklies substantially 
bound in volumes of two years each, 
and the Dailies in volumes of six 
months. 

lAl. n.I 1 lES .Wl) BUSINESS e.ni..\kc;ei). 

Since the occupancy of tliis new 
building many improvements, from 
time to time, have been made, and 
each succeeding j'ear has seen num- 
erous additions to the machinery and 
other appurtenances of the establishment. The circulation of the several editions of the Daily 
and Weekly issues has steadily advanced; the advertising patronage has grown in a corresponding 




JOB I'RESS ROO.M. 



ISO HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 

degree; and the business of the job printing department has so developed in volume of work and 
character of output as to rank the office second to none in the vicinity of New York. One of Hoe's 
celebrated three-revolution newspaper presses and a folding machine for trimming and putting in 
convenient form for mailing purposes and delivery to carriers copies of the Star as they come from the 
):)ress, insure prompt and speedy handling of every issue, and tlie many marked advances in newspaper 
making that have been gradually evolved since the days of the old slow-going hand-press of '65 are 
truly wonderful, and especially so to the one who, indulging the retrospective review, has been 
permitted to travel along with the plodding and tireless procession during the period of improvement. 

THKN A.M) NOW. 

The territory now embraced in Long Island City had a population in 1865 of some' 7000 to 8000 
souls. The population is to day upwards of 50,000. The Star has kept pace with this development. 
and from a small and insignificant sheet in '65 it has grown to be a handsome eight-page newspaper, 
well filled with the cleanest and choicest reading matter, and is classed by popular verdict as ranking 
among the leading and influential papers of the Island. Its circulation has increased from a few 
hundred to some twelve thousand per week, and its roll of workers has grown from three at the 
beginning to the snug little army of thirty-si.\, as exhibited by the pay roll of vSeptembr 28, 1896. 

SUCCESS WON. 

The founder is still at the helm. At the beginning he was young, untiring, vigorous and hopeful. 
He has grown gray in the service, but the most complete success has crowned his efforts in estab- 
lishing a prosperous business, and in the upbuilding of a newspaper whose i)rimary aim has been the 
advancement of the best interests of the community. 

THE LONC ISL.XND SIAR l'Ur.l.lSHIN(; COMl'ANV. 

The business of the Star is now under the management and control of a duly incorporated 
company, said organization having assumed charge on lune i, 1S93, and is capitalized in the sum of 
§50,000. The stockholders are: 

Thomas II. Todd, Edward Todd, 

Theodore S. Weeks, Alvan T. Payne, 

Joseph W. McKinnev. 

The officers in charge as directors of the affairs of the company are as follows: 
President — Thomas H. Todd. 
Treasii rer — • E d wa rd Todd . 
Secretary — Theodore S. Weeks. 

A NKW DRESS. 

With the issue of September 26th of the current year a complete new dress was donned, requiring 
for the change upwards of a ton of new types and other material, the improvement giving a clean and 
sharp appearance to the print of the newspaper and aitracting v.'idc attention and favorable comment. 

ASNIVEKSARV AND OUl'LOOK. 

On the 20th of October, 1896, the thirty-first anniversary of the Star was duly celebrated. 
Before the completion of the new volume the greater New* York will probably have fully and finally 
materialized. The .S'Ar/- was a stalwart youngster at the time of the setting up of Long Island City ; 
it applauded the advent and bade God-speed to the new and promising municipality. It has continued' 
uninterruptedly in the journey, always striving to the best of its ability to protect the interests and- 
to aid in the development of the place. The city has filled its mission. It has so prepared the broad 
and magnificent territory comprised in its boundaries as to fit the lands for an important place in the 
coming greater city, and the Star he.irtily ccjinmends the new order of things as a transition to an 
enlarged and boundless field of opportunities, where greater and more marked progress and material 
advancement will be assured our citizens. The Star hopes to continue to fill the field in the future. 



HIS TOR 5 ' OF L ONG ISL A ND CI T V. ' 5 ' 

ns it h.s in the past and as the representative of the people in this district of the Greater New York 
uVpu^ishers priise that it will always be found an alert and trustworthy chan.p.on of the r,ghts of 
the masses. 

Till-: STAR STAFF, SHi'T i'-M i!i: R -'S, 1896. 



Tiio>. II. T.inn, Mana-ing Editor. 
Ei.wAKi) T()i)i>, (Icncral Business Manager. 



T..K01.0KK S. Wi-.KKs, City Editor, L. I. City edition. 

Oi ivi R II Lowuiv, Citv lulitor, Brooklyn edition. 

L..n'.,.K Ton,., of St. Jos.pli, Mn., Editor of "The Household" Department. 



|. S. K1.1.SI.V, Manager Ailvenising Dcparinicnt. 
"]. Ror.KKT Laws, Cashier and Bookkeeper, 
F. M. Devoc, Advertising Canvasser. 



George B. Case, 
F. M. Devoe, Jr. 



KKPORTERS. 

Edmund V. Mac Lean, 
Charles R. Hughes, 
George Sproston, 



Clark E. Smith, 
Geo. McKiernan, 



NFAVSi'Al'iCR CoMl'oSlNt'. RooMS. 
CiEo. E. Dkckeu, Foreman, 
Edmund 1. Cnihric, Warren A. Fenely, 

Richard W. P.lauvelt, Charles S. Runyon, 

Otto Kraemcr. 



John Worden, 
Thos. H. Todd, Jr. 



r)onald A. Manson, 
Robert W. Hume, 
John Delaney, 
Patrick Reilly, 



JOB l)KPART.Mi:XT. 

11 W. Ml KiNNi V, I'oreman. 

\Vm. Kollmeir, 

Grafton T. Norris, 

Wm. (Gardner, 

Get>. W. Young, 



Geo. J. Dahl, 
Lewis Wemlein, 
George Moore, 
Joseph Colgan. 



CHAPTER VI. 



lUOC R Al> IIIC A L. 
I.UE SKKITHES OK SOME Ol' I'llE I'KOMINENI' CMTIZENS OF LONG ISLAND CMTV AND VK;lNriV. 



Stki'hkn a. Hai.skv. — A history of Astoria without mention of this public-spirited citizen would be 
like the play of Hamlet with Hamlet left out. Stejjhen A. Halsey was born in New York City, April 
7, I 791. In 1834 he purchased a residence in the village of Flushing-; and in going to New York to his 
business by steamboat he was obliged to pass Astoria, then called Hallett's Cove, and being impressed 
by the beautv of the situation, decided to dispose of his Flushing property and remove thither. 
Consequentlv, in 1835 he bought the Perrot farm, and the Blackwell farm, comprising nearly all the 
land lying between Pot Cove and Hallett's Cove, west of what is now Stevens street. He at once 
devoted himself vigorously to the work of public improvement, laying out and opening streets, building 
wharves, etc. He built many dwellings, buildings for factories, stores, carpenter and blacksmith shops, 
and induced the mechanic and the tradesman, the butcher and the baker to occupy them and to settle 
in the place. He procured the passage, by the Legislature, in A])ril, 1839, of a bill incorporating the 
place as a village; the name "Astoria" being adopted in honor of John Jacob Astor, of New York, an 
old friend of Mr. Halsey who had been more or less interested in the fur business with him. An 
older brother of Mr. Halsey was sent out to Oregon by Mr. Astor in the early part of the century. 
About 1840 he purchased the ferry running to Eig;hty-sixth street. New York, known in old times 
as " Home's Hook Ferrv, " and improved it tor the better accommodation of the public, which ferry he 
ran for nearly thirty years. In 1840 he finished and occupied the large stone mansion on Fulton avenue, 
between Mouson and Halsey streets, now used by the L.I. City High School. It was built with stone 
quarried on the premises. About the .same time he was instrumental in opening Fulton street from 
Perrot avenue, now Boulevard, to Main street, making a direct outlet from the ferry; also, the Flush- 
ing turnpike to the village of Flushing, and the Astoria, Ravenswood and Williamsburgh lurni)ike 
road and bridges to Williamsburgh, both of which roads he managed for many years, lie was a 
trustee of the village of Astoiia during nearly the whole time from its incorporation to the chartering 
of Long Island City. The first fire company, called "Astoria Fire Engine Company, No. 1," was 
formed about 1842 by his agency, he building the house which now forms a jjart of the saloon now 
standing on Fulton avenue, southeast corner of Halsey street. In that year Owen street, now Franklin, 
was opened from Perrot avenue to Emerald street, now \'an Alst avenue, by his influence. He was 
largely concerned in the building of the Reformed Dutch Church in 1836, and of the Presbyterian 
Church in 1846, and made large donations of time and money to both. About 1849 he, with two or 
three others, bought .several farms, and laid out and opened through them, Broadway, the Crescent, 
Emerald, Academy and Grand streets. First, vSecond and Jamaica avenues, etc. At that time he 
dcinated a plot of ground, 100x200 feet, on Academy street, and procured the building of a school- 
house thereon, which is now used by the Fourth Ward School. In 1853 he organized the "Astoria 
(las Co.," and on premises now occupied by Steinway R. R., on Mills street. Fifth Ward, built the gas 
works which for nearly a quarter of a century supplied Astoria with gas. He was a gentleman of 
large and liberal spirit. When-the Astoria Catholic Church was about to be built he donated the stone 
for the foundation. In his numerous imdertakings he employed many laborers, but in all his dealings 
with them he never paid less than a dollar a day, even when others in the neighborhood were paying 
but seventy-five cents. He has been called "the father of Astoria." Was he not justlv so named ? 

John E. Lockwood. — The old-time families that in former years gave a distinctive character 
to the old village of Astoria are rapidly disappearing. The few that remain might almost be counted 
on a i)erson's fingers. As far as Long Island City is concerned the names of a majority of them are 
perpetuated in the names of streets and avenues in the upper section of the city. Among the few who 
remain is John E. Lockwood, who for more than thirty years has lived a quiet, retired life in the 
Fourth Ward. Entitled by wealth, social position and influence to aspire to high honors, he has 
preferred, in such public services as he has rendered the city, inconspicuous positions that lirought 
little notorietv. 




(^Jju^u A, ^Ut^-^ 



6lfJ-. UC 



///SIORY OF LOX(; /SLAXn CITY. 



'53 



Mi". Lockwood is of Puritan ancestry. His family was one of the earliest to settle in Connecticut, 
"vcr two centuries ago. His father, who was engaged in the real estate business, went to New York 
from Connecticut, and it was in that city Mr. Lockwood was born in 1828. His early education was 
received at a private school in the city of New York. After leaving the private school he went to 
New Brunswick, N. J., where lie spent several years in study, but did not pursue a regular course 
leading to a degree. 

Soon after leaving college he became a clerk in a commission house. In 1855 he went into the 
commission business himself. He dealt largely in naval supplies. While he was engaged in business 
as a commission merchant he resided in New York and Brooklyn. In 1864 he retired from business 
and came to Astoria. The fine old mansion, fronting on Broadway, located far back from the noise 
and turmoil, with its spacious lawn occupying the whole block between Lockwood street and 
Debevoise avenue, was for sale. It was owned at that time by a man named Sanford. Mr. Lockwood 
jnirchased the place, intending to remain one year in Astoria. He has lived on the same spot for 
thirty-two years. 

Astoria was in those days a popular suburban village. Many wealthy New York business men 
preferred the quiet village to the noisy city on the other side of the East River. The larger number of 
these old families have been driven <jut by the crowding 
in of other elements and the development of manufac- 
turing interests in close pro-\imity. Old Astorians took 
considerable pride in their village, and the Board of 
Village Trustees was always composed of representative 
men. Mr. Lockwood was elected a member of the Board 
and served a portion of the period that intervened 
Ijetvveen the time of his removal to this city and the 
incorporation of Astoria into Long Island City. His 
associates on the Board were Joshua Lathrop, Charles 
Strang, James Bennett and R. M. C. Graham — five 
members. Of these five, Mr. Lockwood is the sole 
survivor. 

From the time of the incorporation of Long Island 
City Mr. Lockwood has taken an active interest in the 
administration of its public affairs. He has several times 
filled appointive positions, but always refused to become 
a candidate for an elective office. Several times at 
different periods during the last twenty-five years his 
friends have urged him to become a candidate for Mayor, 
hut he has refused to allow his name to be used. 
Whether as a public official or as a private citizen he has 

used his influence to promote the welfare of the city and the residents. Mr. Lockwood was one of 
the first to see the necessity of furnishing an adequate water supply. When Mr. Ditmars was the 
Mayor he urged the purchase, by the city, of Trains' Meadow, which he believed would furnish an 
adequate supply of water for the city. He even offered to take one-third of the bt)nds that would be 
required in order to purchase the Meadows. The property was not as valuable then as it has since 
become, and might have been bought for a comparatively small sum. But Mayor Ditmars objected 
on the ground of expense, and because special legislation would be necessary to authorize the 
purchase. 

Under Long Island City's second Mayor — Mr. Debevoise — Mr. Lockwood was appointed Police 
Commissioner. By virtue of this office he was also a Health Commissioner and Fire Commissioner, 
the three positions being combined in one official. He served for a full term. He did not hold any 
public office again until Mayor Gleason was elected, when he was appointed a Police and Fire Com- 
missioner. The office of Health Commissirjner had been separated from the other two by act of the 
Legislature Since his retirement from this position, Mr. Lockwood has refused further political 
honors, although his interest in the welfare of the city has been as keen as before. The quietude of 
his home life is more congenial than the turmoil of politics. 




LUCIEN KNAIT. 



>54 



JI/SrOKY OF LONG ISLAXD CITY. 



In the year 1853 Mr. Lockwood married }iliss Jxilia A. Westlake, of New York. Tliey have (ine 
daughter, Mrs. S. G. Beals, who, with her husband and two young sons, resides at the old home on 
Broadway. 

Peter G. Van Ai.st was born at the Van Alst homestead, Dutch Kill.s, May 28, 1828. His 
ancestors being among the earliest settlers on Long Island. He received his early education at the 
district school, and later at the Astoria Institute. In 1.S45 he began the study and practice of 
surveying with H. F. Betts, of Williamsburg, with whom he remained until near the time of the 
latter's death, which occurred about the year 1853. Soon thereafter, Mr. Van Alst purchased of the 
estate of Mr. Betts the entire outfit and effects of his office, and in January, 1854, formed a partner- 
ship with J. V. Mesrole. The partnership lasted but two years, Mr. Mesrole withdrawing and Mr. 
Van Alst continuing in business on his own account. Mr. Van Alst has been appointed by the 
Legislature several times as a commissioner in conjunction with others to survey and supervise the 
construction of some of the leading highways, which office he has always satisfactorily filled. While 
officiating in that capacity he acted as Chairman of that body. He made surveys and maps which 

show the street lines, grades, sewerage and monumenting of the 

city, and assessment maps of the different wards of Long Island 

tkf^^^^ City. In 1893 a bill for the improvement of Vernon and Jackson 

^^^^^■k avenues and the Boulevard was passed, and Mr. Van Alst was 

^H appointed a commissioner, a position he held for some time. In 

• ^^ i^ January, 1S96, he was appointed general engineer by the Improve- 

ment Company, which position he still retains. On July 4, 1867, Mr. 
\'an Alst married Miss Eliza Johnson, to whom three children were 
born, two of whom are living, a daughter Helen G., and a son 
Peter G. , jr., the latter having been born March 13, 1874. 

CoRNKLius Rai'ki VK Tk.xkI'Oki). — A history of that portion of 
Long Island City known as Astoria, and biographical sketches of its 
most prominent people would be indeed incomplete without special 
mention of the subject of this sketch, who was born in Astoria, March 
26, 1809, and died here September 14, 1872. 

His parents were John Trafford, one of the earliest settlers at 

Ilallett's Cove — the original name of this locality — and CJrace 

HON. J. p. MADDEN. (Rapelvc) Trafford and occupied the beautiful, although more than 

a century old, homestead at the junction of Boulevard and Main 

street, now the winter home of Mrs. Lydia L. Kapelye, widow of Mr. Trafford's cousin, CfU'nelius 

Rapelye. 

Mr. Trafford was intimately identified with the iiublic affairs of the village of Astoria, and was for 
years an influential and progressive member of the board of village trustees at a time when such sub- 
stantial and public-spirited men as Mr. S. A. Halsey, J. B. Reboul, Josiah, Robert and Henry Black- 
well, James Tisdalc, and other citizens took an active interest in the governmental affairs of the then 
beautiful village, and much of the old time attractiveness of the place was due to him and his official 
associates, all, with him, long since deceased. 

Mr. Trafford was a man of large means, wliicli he expended lilierally in the building of very many 
of the most attractive dwellings in different parts of Astoria and particularly on the " Hill " — always the 
aristocratic section. He was largely interested in the Astoria ferry, and aided materially in the first 
introduction of street cars, in fact, was to the time of his decease one of the most important factors in 
the community. He was noted for his geniality, and many remember with pleasure and gratitude his 
acts of unostentatious charity. 

Mr. Trafford was never married, and therefore leaves no direct descendants to perpetuate the name. 
The beautiful chimes in the tower of the Episcopal Church of the Redeemer, on the Crescent, were 
given in his will by Mr. Trafford, and annually on the recurrence of his birthday, ring out sweet 
melodies. A massive granite cross is a striking feature on the beautiful lawn in front of the church 
and marks the last resting place of Mr. Trafford. 

Cornelius Rai'ei.ve was born in New York City, November 16, 1833, and was a son of George 
Rapelye, a native of Newtown. His mother, whose maiden name was Jane M. Suydam, died when the 





J^. ;£{i.fiM^J, JL^UI 



f 



///SrORV OF LOA(; IS/. AND C/TY. 155 

subject of this sketch was about two years olil He was reared by his aunt. Mrs. draee (Rapelye) 
Trafford, a most excellent Christian lady. Our subject received a careful education, attendinjj private 
schools in New York City. In 1853 his father died, after which he bejj'an to make his home in Lonjj 
Island City with Cornelius R. Trafford, who was larj^cly interested in what afterward became known as 
the East River Ferry Company. For many years thereafter Mr. Rapelye was president of that corpor- 
ation. 

In Newtown, December f.S57, Mr. Ra])elye married Miss Lydia L. Hyatt, dau}.^hter of John 15. 
Hyatt. Both Mr. and Mrs. Rapelye were always devoted members of the Reformed Church, and durinjr 
liis lifetime the former was for many years an elder of this church. He contributed larjje sums of 
money to the support of church work, and in a business and financial way, he was recojjnized as a 
citizen havinjj much weight, and was held in high esteem. Socially, he was a member of the Holland 
Society. 

Henkv Shki.don Anahi.i., whose demise occurred September t,, i<S87, was one of the oldest and 
best known residents of the Hunter's Point section of Long Island City; in fact, he may lie credited 
with having been the "father of the city," as he was always foremost in shaping and pushing all great 
improvements long anterior to the date of incorporation. 

Mr. Anable was born in Albany, on Jime 21, 1815, and was educated at the Albany Academy, the 
late Bishop Loughlin, of Brooklyn, being among his classmates. 

His earlier years were spent in the dry goods business in New York City, Utica and Sheboygan, 
Wis., and as a banker at Sacramento, Cal., where he went, in 1852, across the plains by means of the 
primitive mule teams and "prairie schooners" of the pioneer daj's. In 1855 he married Miss Rosanna 
I'rick. of Sheboygan, Wis., by whom he had three chiUlrcn. a son (a lawyer) and two daughters, all of 
wliom survive him. 

He was best known as the successful manager and agent, for nearly thirty years, of the great real 
estate interests at Hunter's Point and at Grcenpoint, then owned by the late Dr. Eliphalet Nott, 
president of Union College, of vSchnectady, N.Y., and Messrs. Crane & Ely, and afterwards owned by 
the trustees of Union College. Coming to Hunter's Point in 1855 as the representative of Ur. Nott, 
who had long been his friend and who had married Miss .Sheldon, an aunt of the subject of this sketch, 
Mr. Anable soon became the manager and agent of all interested in the estate, a position which he 
held after the title became vested in Union College in i86o. and until A])ril. 18S4, when he resigned his 
trust, and was succeeded by his son, Eliphalet Nott Anable. 

It is worthy of note that during his long service of the college interests, upwards of two and a 
quarter millions of dollars passed through his hands, and that at the final audit and settlement of his 
accounts there was an exact balance, to a farthing, of the large amoimt. 

During this period he was active in carrying through Jackson avenue, the first important county 
highway ever constructed; and also in the opening of the broad and fine macadamized thoroughfare 
known as Thomson avenue. It was also mainly through his instrumentality that the Long Island 
Railroad and the Flushing Railroad were induced to make their terminus at Hunter's Point, which 
finally led to the organization of the East River Ferry Company and the inauguration of a ferry system 
which has grown to its present wonderful development. And to the same influential and indefatigable 
worker the credit is chiefly to be given of making Long Island City the county scat of (Queens County. 

Under Mr. Anable's management the extended water front of Hunter's Point was docked and 
filled, hills were cut down, swamps filled in and a system of streets and avenues was laid out and 
graded, at an expense of more than $400,000, by Union College. When Long Island City was incor- 
porated he was prominent in drafting and securing its first charter and afterwards served as a member 
of the Survey Commission which was intrusted with the important work of laying out streets and 
avenues and preparing maps of the same for the entire city. Later on he served on the First Ward 
Improvement Commission, which body conducted to successful completion one of the most gigantic 
public improvements ever undertaken on Long Island. 

In pushing forward the material interests of the city, Mr. Anable was among the foremost. He 
was vice-president of our first street railway, and one of the originators and vice-president for years of 
our admirable Savings Bank. In religious matters he was prominent in the Baptist denomination, being 
one of the founders and a deacon of the First Baptist Church of Greenpoint, a vice-president of the 
Baptist Social Union of Brookh-n, and one of the founders of the Baptist Home of Brooklyn, and at 
the time of his decease was a deacon of the East Avenue Baptist Church of Long Island City. 



i=;6 



JI/S/VRV OF LOXG ISLAND CITY. 



The funeral obseqiiit-'s. which wore held Monday. September 5. iSS;. were the larjjest that ever 
oeeurred in Long Island City. His remains were interred at Albany, X. V. 

FkKDKKicK Wii.iiAM Bi.Ke k w K.NN , Senior member of the well-known Real Estate and Insurance 
tirm of Frederick W. Bleckwcnn & Son, No. 202 Lockwood street, Astoria, Long Island City, 
was born in Hanover, (Jermany, in 1839. After graduating from school he learned the book trade, 
and for several years satisfactorily managed a large circulating library, containing over 30,000 volumes, 
in the City of Hanover. It was then, right among the treasures of the old and new authors of the 
world, that he acquired a thorough literary education and an extensive knowledge of human nature. 

In the vear 1858 he came to this country and soon found employment in the Publishing and 
Importing House of William Radde in New York City. By very close application to business he soon 

advanced to a position of trust and 
confidence. Having special charge 
of the vast landed interests of his 
employer, he received a perfect and 
valuable training in the real estate 
and conveyancer business, and studied 
all the laws relating thereto. In the 
interest of the publishing branch of 
the business he wrote and translated 
a number of books and poems, and 
read the proofs of all of the new 
publications of the tirm. thereby 
putting to practical use his literary 
acquirements. 

In 1871, when his employer was 
elected an Alderman in the City of 
Xew York, Mr. Bleckwenn. in his 
confidential capacity, gained tjuite an 
extensive knowledge of public and 
municipal alTairs. 

.\ftcr important changes in said 
liDii. Mr. Bleckwenn. in 1880. accept- 
etl the position of bookkeeper and 
cashier with the well-known firm of 
Keuffel &. Esser, of New York, man- 
ufacturers and importers of dr.uving 
materials and mathematical instru- 
ments, the most prominent and suc- 
cessful firm in this trade in the 
countrv. Mr. j-ileckwenn, with good 
will and energy, soon mastered the 
intricacies of his new position. After 
a short time he was given full power 
to manage the extensive financial 
affairs of the firm. Mr. Bleckwenn moved to reside in AsU)ria, now Long Island City, in 1866, and in 
the fall of 1882, when he was with the firm of Keuffel & Esser, he \vas, without his knowledge and 
consent, appointed by the Common Council of Long Island City to fill a vacancy in the office of City 
Treasurer and Receiver. He respectfully declined the proffered appointment, and it was not until the 
Common Council offered him the appointment a second time, and after he had received the popular 
nomination for the office for the next full term, that he accepted both appointment and nomination. 
He was elected by a handsome majority over a very prominent and popular opponent for the term 
ending December 31, 1S85. In that year he was re-elected, without opposition, for another term of 
three years. In 1888 he received more majority than his i)pponent received votes, for a third term; 
andin iS'.! h.- un^ .l.-ct-.l for .1 fourtli ttrm by a large majority. Much against his own inclination 




IIAVU) IIISCO.N. 



HIS TOR ) ' OF L ONG /SLA ND CI'IY. 157 

he was induced again to accept the nomination in 1894, but was defeated in the general pohtical 
landsHde, and withdrew from piibUe life after having served for over twelve consecuti\'e years. 

When asked by a friend how it was possible that he was defeated, he answered in his characteristic 
pleasant way: " Simply because I did not get enough votes." 

At the time when Mr. Bleckwenn took hold of the responsible oflFiee the city was at the verge of 
bankruptcy, but by hard work and the application of true business principles he soon succeeded to 
re-establish the credit of the city. Of him it can be trutlifully said that no ])ublic otlicial ever worked 
harder, personally, in the public scr\-ice. 

About the time of the expiration of his last term of office, in December 1894, he declined the offer 
of a lucrative ])ublic position. The honorable position of trustee of the Public Library, to which he 
was appointed by Mayor Sanford, in December, 1894, he has resigned since. He s,'iys that he has 
served the public long enough and must now look out for himself and his family. 

Mr. Bleckwenn was the principal organizer of the Astoria and Hunter's Point Railroad Company, 
whose road now forms the " HI ue Line " branch of the present Steinway Railway. In that company 
he held the position of tlirector and secretary up to the time its road was taken charge of entirely by 
its lessee. 

Mr. Bleckwenn is now devoting all his time and energy to the development of the real estate and 
insurance business, which he established with his eldest son, Julius Bleckwenn, in 1S90, and the 
experience which both have as conveyancers, in the line of drawing legal documents, entitle them to a 
liberal share of the patronage of our citizens. 

Mr. Bleckwenn was rtrst married, in 1862, to Marie Limberg, sister of Mr. Otto Limberg. of this 
city. She died in 1S82. After remaining a widower for .seven years he contracted a second hapjjy 
marriage, in 1S89, with Katie Korfmann, daughter of the late ex-Aldcrnian John Korfmann, of this 
city. 

Of the eight children born to him by his first wife only two are now living, namely his eldest son^ 
Julius Bleckwenn, his partner in business, and his son Alfred Bleckwenn, who is a clerk in the 
renowned piano-forte house of Steinway 61: Sons. By his present wife he has one son. Rudolph 
Bleckwenn. 

During the time Mr. Bleckwenn resided here he has been a member of the (lerinan Refornied 
Church of Astoria (Dr. .Steinfuhrer). 

In politics Mr. Bleckwenn has always been an Independent Democrat. He is one of the trustees 
of the Long Island City Building and Loan Associations and a member of the " Frohsinn " and 
•' Astoria Maennerchor" Singing Societies, and of the ''Long Island City Turn Vcrein." He is a 
man of plain and correct habits and hajjpy disposition, and any pers(jn who is in quest of good advice 
will find in him an open-hearted friend. 

Bknjami.n Wincrovk, President of the Board of Aldermen, and one of the oldest residents of Cier- 
man settlement, Astoria, was born in the parish of Penn, Buckinghamshire, lingland. November 17, 
1846. The rtrst thirteen years of his life were passed in his native place, where he attended school during 
the winter and worked on farms in the summer. At that age he went to Twickenham, where he was 
apprenticed to the wheelwright's trade. Five years later he went to London, where for a period of two 
years he worked at his trade. In 1867 he came to America, landing in New York penniless and a 
stranger. On the istof May following, he began to work in the Fourth Ward. Long Island City, where 
he was first employed by Taylor &• Co., and later by Schwartz & Son. 

In January, 1868, Mr. Wingrove married Miss Johanna Schmidt, a native of Bunde, Westiihalia. 
(lermany. Three daughters comprise the family of Mr. and Mrs. Wingrove: Mary. Augusta and 
Adelaide. The family is prominent in social circles, where they are also very popular. Mr. Wingrove 
is a large real estate owner, and among the improvements made by him may be mentioned the three 
story brick block, with a frontage of fifty feet, situated on Broadway and Ninth avenue. He is greatly 
interested in the educational interests of Long Island City, and when elected school trustee, he was 
instrumental in securing the erection of the schoolhouse on Ninth avenue, which was the first ever built 
in the city. Later he served as school commissioner imder Mayor Petry. A Democrat in politics, he 
was elected to represent the Fourth Ward on the Board of Aldermen in the fall of 1887, and served two 
years. In 1891 he was nominated for aldemian-at-large, and was elected by twelve hundred majority 
and re-elected in 1893. In 1895 he was chosen President of the Board. Prior to this, he served as 
Chairman of the Public Works Committee. In 1S94 he was a delegate to the State Convention of his 



158 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



party, and during the same year, he was chairman of the Jeffersonian Democratic general committee, 
and is still a member, also chairman of the Fourth Ward general committee. While a member of the 
council, he was among the first to start the Vernon and Jackson avenues, and the Broadway improve- 
ments. vSince the organization of the general improvement committee he has served as one of its 
active members. In the organization of the Long Island City Building and Loan Association he took 
a leading part, and has been one of its trustees from the first. He is a member of a number of organiza- 
tions, including Enterprise Lodge No. 22. K. P., at Astoria. 

Chari.ks Wkslkv Hallktt, a descendant of one of the eldest families in Astoria, was born in New 
York City, July 16, 1831. He received a careful education in private schools. Mr. Hallett has resided 
in what is now a part of Long Island City ever since he was eighteen months old, he having been 
orphaned at that age. and was reared by his grand]xirents until their death. He is. and has been a 

successful merchant, doing business at 127 Fulton 
avenue for many years. Mr. Hallett is a trustee 
of the Long Island City Savings Bank. He has 
served two terms as a member of the board of 
aldermen, and has been a member of the board of 
water commissioners. He is a member of Astoria 
Lodge No. 155, I. O. O. F., and of Advance Lodge 
No. 635, F. and A.M. He is prominently identified 
with the First Presbyterian Church of Astoria. 
On March 19, 1857, Mr. Hallett married Miss 
Christina Crawford Ellison, to whom six children 
have been born, three sons and throe daugliters. 

David Hiscox was born in Newfoundland, 
N. J., October 4, 1837. Tlie family of which he 
is a member originated in England and Wales. 
The name was originally Hitchcock, but was 
changed to its present spelling during the life of 
the grandfather of this sketch. Mr. Hiscox was 
the eldest child of his parents. Freeman and Nancy 
(Westerfield) Hiscox. He was reared at Fort 
r>ec, N. J., and New York City, attending 
• iramniar School No. 15, in l*'ifth street, where 
he graduated. He then entered New York 
College, where he remained until his junior year, 
and then, owing to ill-health gave up his studies. 
For several years he was a clerk in his father's 
timber yard in New York. He afterwards began 
the study of art, making a specialty of landscape painting, but his health again becoming impaired, 
forced him to change his occupation. Entering the wholesale drug house of S. R. \'an Duzer, he 
was placed in the charge of the manufacture of patent medicines, and in that way was led into his 
present business. Resigning his position in 1875, Mr. Hiscox associated himself with other gentlemen 
and started in the manufacture of medicines in New York City. He began the manufacture of 
Parker's Hair Balsam and Ginger Tonic. His other specialties are now Hindercorns, Greve's 
Ointment and Greve's Horse Ointment. In 1868 he bought, and two years later built, at No. 382 
Webster avenue. Long Island City, and in 1890 erected a large brick building, three stories in 
height, and here he has his manufactory and store room, the business being carried on under the 
firm name of Hiscox & Co. His medicines are .sold not only in the United States, but throughout 
the world. 

Mr. Hiscox married Miss Mary Van Velsor, of Long Island City, and a daugiiter of Ebenezer 
Van Velsor, who at one time was a prominent contractor and builder, and is now living retired. Six 
children have been the fruits of their marriage, viz: Everett, Jessie, Frederick, Hattie, ^L-ly and 
Daisy. Politically, Mr. Hiscox is independent. He is a member of the Association of Proprietary 
Articles in the United States, also the Wholesale Druggists' Association. He has jjrospered in 
business to a remarkable extent, and has the warm friendship of all who know him. 




mil, DKrlcASKP 



//fsroRY or Loxc; fSL.ixn c/rv. 159 

Aukam Rm'Eivk Toi ikn was born at Bowery Bay (Norlh Beach), L. I., in the honiestcad still 
in possession of the Totten family. He is a member of the Dutch Reformed Church at Steinway. 
where he is an active worker. His two sisters, Gertrude Rapel)e T(Jtten, and Mary Catharine, the 
wife of the celebrated ])ianist and composer. Ferdinand Ouentin Dulcken, reside in their picturesque 
villa on Debevf)ise avenue, Astoria. 

Abraham Rapclye Totten had three brothers, the two eldest, Joseph and Isaac, dyini; in early 
manhood. William, the younj^est brother, is living in New York City, and is married to Emma Louisa, 
daughter of Elizabeth Larremore and Martin Rapelye, having one child, Charles Herfiman Totten. 

Abram Totten's mother was Ann Eliza Rapelye, daughter of Margaret Polhemus and Isaac 
Rapelye, two of the oldest and most respectable families of Long Island. She had two sisters, Ger- 
trude, and Aletta V. A. Van Wyck, and two brothers, Daniel, dying in boyhood, and Jacob Polhemus 
Rapelye, who died October 20, 1883. 

Mr. Totten's father was Jacob Suydam, son of Catharine Monfort and Joseph Totten. The 
famil\- has many mementoes of these old families. Old Bibles, printed in the Holland tongue, with 
the name of Monfort written on the fly-leaf and engraven on the silver clasp. A marriage certificate, 
written on parchment, well preserved, of Sarah De Blanck to Pietor Monfort, at Amsterdam, Holland, 
dated June 11, 1630, who came to this country the same year. A will of Sarah De Blanck Monfort, 
beciueathing her property to her son Yan (John). A lieutenant's commission, given to one Pietor 
Monfort, signed and sealed by Richard, Earl of Bellmont, and dated 1698, and many other old and 
curious documents. Mr. Totten is fond of reading, has a large collection of old coins and Indian 
arrowheads, found on the Totten and Rapelye properties at Bowery Bay. He has presented some 
from his collection to the New York and Long Island Historical Societies. 

John AxDRKw S.\irrn. — Among the pioneers of Long Island City none was more widely known 
than J. Andrew Smith, familiarly called " Pop" Smith. 

He was born in John street. New York City, July 12, 1S08. His boyhood days were spent in 
private schools in New York, getting there the foundation principles of the successful life which he 
afterwards led. His school days were limited, but Mr. Smith, as known, was a successful, shrewd 
business man, and self-made, as regards his educational qualities and abilities. 

Mr. Smith was born of Dutch parents, his father having emigrated to this country from Amster- 
dam, Holland, while still young in years. Our subject made several trips to his father's native home 
during his early manhood. 

Mr. Smith, Sr., moved from the city to Seneca County, New York, where he located on a farm 
while his family were yet young, taking most of his large family of boys with him, a few, however, 
remaining behind, and among those was John Andrew, the subject of this sketch. By trade he was 
a cooper, and followed it until his marriage in 1833. 

Hisfrequent changes in business made him well known in l-"uhun market and along the shores of the 
East River, where he kept fishing stations at Kip's and Turtle Bays. His changes in business sometimes 
led to a change of residence, and among the places where he resided was Thirty- fifth street and 
Forty-eighth street, where he built himself homes, these, however, he disposed of when he came to this 
city, that part then known as Hunter's Point. 

Mr. Smith moved to Hunter's Point in 1853, this was before the days of ferry communication, and 
when vacant lots and fields were the only things, where rows of brick houses now stand. He located 
on the ICast River, where what is nt)w known as foot of loth street. While there he engaged in ferry- 
ing ])eople across the river in small boats, and at the same time keeping a few boats and other necessities 
for the accommodation of fishermen. After a period of a year or two, Mr. Smith moved to his newly 
ac([uired property at and adjoining X'ernon avenue and Third street. 

On February 13, 1833. Mr. Smith married Catharine Ann Gibson, daughter of the late Sandy 
Gihsuii, of Bushwick, L. I. Mrs. .Smith still survives her husband at the age of eighty years, and is 
enjoying splendid health, and all her faculties. To the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Smith were born nine 
children, namely: Jane E., Adaline, Maria R., Mary Louisa, John A., Jr., and George P., now dead, 
and Frances C. (now Mrs. C. F. \'er Buck) of Bingham ton, N. Y. , Ehzabeth J. (now Mrs. J. (5. 
Sterner) of Allentown, Pa., and Amanda M. (now Mrs. New) wife of Alfred L. New (see sketch), 
a resident of this city. 

Mr. Smith, in 1859, entered into the general grocery business at 39 Vernon avenue, remaining in 
the same until he sold out to J. N. New & Brother. Then Mr. Smith opened an oyster saloon in the 



i6o 



HISrORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY 



basement of the liuiklinjj, later he removed to 35 Vernon avenue, two doors lielow, and remained 
there imtil the time of his death. 

He was well known throughout his life and admired by many of those who knew him. It has 
been said that he was known by his peeiiliarities, and persons who did not know "Pop" Smith 
personally, knew of him throu}»-h this eaiise. He never took any active part in political matters, not 
even when the city was chartered, on national issues and at nation elections he was a Democrat. 

He was stern and of sharp temper, althoiijfh he possessed a tender heart and felt keenly for the 

sufferings of humanity and especially that of his neighbors, and was always looked up to for counsel 

and advice. While Mr. Smith was never connected witli any church, he adhered to the Baptist Faith 

and was a regular attendant at the East Avcnne Baptist Chnrch and a liberal siipporter of the Gospel. 

Fraternally he was not connected with man\- orders. He believed a man's place was at home 

with his family and he adhered close to his belief. 
He was, nevertheless, a member of Island City, 
Lodge 5.S6, I', and .\. M. and of Banner Chapter 
-M (. I\. .\. M., of which he was ])ast High Priest. 

.Also an exempt fireman of the old New York 
X'olunteer service, having served his time as a 
member of Engine Company Xo. 4(S. Mr. Smith 
(lii'd MarcJi 6, 1883, at the age of 74 years. 

lie was one of the charter members of tlie Long- 
Island t"it\' Savings Bank and was a director from 
liinc of charter to his death. 

]. Rri rs 'ri-.KKN, wlio is a well-known contractor 
and builder, was born in Xew York City, in 185?, 
being a son of J. Rufus and Eleanor (Gardner) Terry, 
natix'es respective)}' of Riverhead and New York 
City. The subject of this sketch was the second 
(.'hi Id horn to his parents. His childhood days were 
passed in Long Island City and Jersey City, and his 
cihication was obtained principally in the New York 
Cit\- giammar schools. About 1865 became to Long 
Island City, where he grew to manhood and has 
since made his home. After gaining a thorough 
knowledge of civil engineering, he aided in the 
survey and construction ot the old Midland Railrt)ad, 
between Walton and Jersey City, and also assisted 
in a number of important contracts. Turning his 
attention from civil engineering to a mercantile life, 
Mr. Terrj' accepted a position as salesman in a hat, 
, where he remained for ten years. From that he 
drifted into the real estate and building busines.s. In 18S3 he began to take contracts for liuilding, 
and since that time he has constructed a large number of residences on Webster avenue and in that 
vicinity. While he has disposed of a number of the.se residences, he is still the owner of several 
hou.ses and many lots suitable for building purposes. He is a skillful architect and excellent 
draughtsman, and takes contracts for general building. Among his real estate sales are some of the 
largest that have been made, either here or in New York, and he has been especially active in 
handling sales in additions. 

In Long Island City Mr. Terry married Miss Mary E. Gardner, whose father, Thomas Gardner, 
was a prominent farmer of that vicinity. Mr. and Mrs. Terry attend the Baptist Church, and are 
contributors for its support. 

James Mookk Whitcomi!, one of the oldest and most prominent residents of Long Island City, 
was \v>Yn in Worcester County, Ma.ss., January 11, 1824. He has been a resident of Queens County 
since [845, and a resident of Long Island City .since 1852. The suoject of this .sketch was the oldest 
child of his parents, and grew up on his fallier's farm, receiving about two months .schooling each 




leather anil trimmings store in New York Cit\ 



/ffs I \ 'A' ) ' ( >/•" /. c )Av; /.sv. . ; A7:» ( / /• ) '. 1 6 1 

year until fifteen years old. lie then took charjie of the farm and carried it on until he had reached 
liis twenty-first year, after which he removed to Lonjj Island. In April, 1852, Mr. Wliitcomb embarked 
in the livery business in Lonjr Island City, in which he has continued ever since. 

Mr, Whitcomb is a staunch Republican in his politics. Duriiij; the years 1865-66-67, was Harbor 
Master. He assisted in starting the first Republican Club in Long Island City and at Winfield, and 
became prominently identified with his party. During the war he was lieutenant of the Hamilton 
Rifles of Astoria, and since then has been Deputy Sheriff of Queens County at different times. On 
the 6th of Ai)ril, 1846, he became a member of Pacific Lodge, I. O. O. F., in Flushing, and is now a 
r.iember of Astoria Lodge, and is the oldest Odd Fellow in Long Island City. Since 1865 he has been 
a charter member of Astoria Lodge, F. and A. M. He is one of the life members of the Queens 
County Agricultural Societj', of which he has served as Director. 

Mr. Whitcomb was first married in Flushing, L. I., to Miss Rebecca Thorn (now deceased). Five 
cliildren were born to their marriage. Mr. Whitconib's second marriage occurred in New Y(jrk, 
February 28, 1866, and united him to Miss Alta (Joins. She died in 18S7, leaving four children. Mr. 
Whitcomb served for twelve years as a member of the Board of School Trustees. He has resitled at 
Xo. 5.1 Fulton avenue since 1855. 

Mrs. M.vrv J. R. Nkw roN-SrK.\xi;, who, for the past fifteen years has held the position of school 
trustee in the Fourth Ward of Long Island City, and who recently declined to accept the renomination 
for the office, has the honorable distinction of being the only woman who was ever elected to an ofiice 
in that turbulent municipality. She has held the position for five terms, being always elected by a hand- 
some majority, which is an evidence of her popularity among the voters and those interested in school 
work in the bailiwick. Since her election, in 1S80, she has been the .Active .Secretary of the Board of 
School Trustees, writing the minutes of their various meetings and ])etitions in the interests of the 
schools. 

.\Itliough Mrs. Xewton-Strang has been opposed by Republican and (lleason as])irants for the otliee, 
who invariably made a hustling canvass by visiting various saloons in the Fourth Ward and raising ban- 
ners and transparencies in all parts of the neighborhood, together with pyrotechnic displays and mass 
meetings to boom their candidacy, she was never defeated. She docs not believe that candidates for 
public office should solicit votes, but gracefully submit to the choice of the people when they go to the 
polls. She firmly believes that a public ofHce is a public trust, and should be religiously guarded by 
those perscms chosen by the voters of the city. .Vt no time has Mrs. Xewton-Str.mg left her own fire- 
side to improve her chances for election. 

Mrs. Newton-Strang was born in Xew York City, March 30, 1826, where she taught school for five 
years. In 1852 she became a resident of the Astt>ria section of Long Island City, and a year later 
became principal of the ])rimary department of the new public school. Dr. S. T. W. Sanford, father 
of Mayor Horatio S. Sanford, was a member of the Board of .School Trustees. She retired from her school 
duties in 1864, esteemed and respected by all of her pupils and their parents. A few months later she 
moved with her family to Bedford avenue, Brooklyn, where her parents and brothers, J. H. and 
S. L. Rowland, resided. 

In 1868, Mrs. Xewton-Strang returned to Astoria and occupied her former residence on Lockwood 
street. At a meeting of those interested in woman's work associated with educational matter held at 
tile Fourth Ward schoolhouse on October 16, 1880, she was unanimously nominated for school trustee 
of the Fourth Ward. Altliough inclined to decline the honor, her many friends persuaded her to 
accept, which she reluctantly did. Siie received the unsolicited nomination of the Fourth Ward Re- 
publicans for school trustee on October 28, 1880, and was elected. Her ojjponents were greatlj- 
eiiagrined at her success. A congratulatory meeting of the friends of the newly elected trustee was 
held in Washington Hall, Astoria, on November 8, i38o, when addresses eulogizing Mrs. Newton- 
Strang, were made by Mis. Dr. Lozier, Mrs. Lillie Devereaux Blake, Mrs. H. M. Slocum, Mrs. E. 
(i. Conkling, and m iny others. In 1883, 1886, 1889 and 1892, Mrs. Strang was successively re-elected 
to the office. She has held the office under the following mayors of the city: H. S. Debevoise, 
George Petry, Patrick J. (ileason and Horatio S. Sanford. During her term of office the following 
well-known residents have been school commissioners of the Fourth Ward: Messrs. Johnson, Smythe, 
Skene, Wingrove, Moulton, lieebe, Allen, Pitcher, Neisenger and Deans. 

After fifteen years of faithful service as a school trustee, Mrs. vSirang has declined a renomination 
for the office, which was recently protYered her by the Jerfersonian Democracy, on whose ticket she 



1 6.' 



///STORY OF LOA'G ISLAA'D CITY. 



was elected in 1S92. In writing to a friend recently, Mrs. Strang said: "A while ago I promised my 
dear husband and daughter that if I were spared to see January 1, 1896, I would then cease to perform 
anyfurther duties as school trustee of the city. It is with a feeling somewhat of regret that I now 
decline the kind offer of the nomination for school trustee of the Fourth Ward of Long Island City. I 
have been identified with school work for a number of years, and enjoyed many pleasant associations 
with it and I hope, while my life continues, I will always feel a deep interest in the public schools as 
a means of doing so much good for the present and future generations of those who will avail them- 
selves of their benefit." 

It was chiefly through the indefatigable efforts of Mrs. Newton-Strang that a handsome school 
buildino- has been erected on Kouwenhoven street, in the Fourth Ward. The property, which is one 
of the most valuable in the city, has a frontage of 125 feet and a depth of 190 feet. The school liuild- 
ings and ground costing about $60,000. 

She was also much interested in theselection of the plot and buildingof the High School on Fulton 
street, which is one of the finest localities in the city. 

Duiiu" the time that Mrs. Strang has been in office there has been erected a new school building 

in each of the five wards that compose Long Island City. 

In 1858 Mrs. Newton-Strang united with the Presby- 
terian Church at Astoria, under the pastorate ol the late Rev. 
B. F. Stead, D. D. , where she taught in the Sabbath School 
for many years, and was treasurer of the Ladies' Society 
for the past twenty-three years. 

Mrs. Strang resides in a pretty cottage at 307 Jamaica 
avenue. Her home is surrounded by a large gai^den and a 
well kept lawn, and some of the rarest plants are to be seen 
on all sides. Mrs. Strang is an enthusiastic horticulturist, 
and personally looks after her collection of flowers. The 
exquisite taste in arranging her garden is admired by all 
who pass her home. Mrs. Strang's term of office expired 
with the advent of 1896. 

IsA.vc B. Str.4NG is one of the oldest living residents 
and native born citizens of Astoria, L. I. He was born 
[aniuiry 17, 1820, in the hou.se at the corner of Rem.sen 
and Welling streets, Astoria, The residence has been 
occupied for many years by the Rev. P. Bartlett. His 
])arents, Garrett S. and Susan (Bragaw) Strang, were also 
natives of Astoria. The paternal grandfather, Soloman S. 
Strang, was a native American, of iMX'nch extraction, his 




JAMES M, WlinCOMB, 



])arents having come to this country from France years prior to his birth. 



In 



he ioincd the 



American forces and fought bravely against the British for the freedom of his adopted country. In 
after years he became the owner of the farm located a mile from Ninety-second street ferry, and now 
owned by the late Francis Briell's heirs, which he sold and afterward purchased a farm in the lower part 
of Astoria, where he died. This farm was subsequently purchased by his son, Garrett S. vStrang, a 
portion of which is now the heart of Astoria. In 1835 he sold it and bought land fwur miles from 
Newtown where he lived until his death, at the age of 78 years. For many years he was a Jacksonian 
Democrat. His wife was the daughter of Isaac Bragaw, who owned a farm of eighty acres between 
what is now Broadway and Jamaica avenue, Astoria. The earthly career of Mrs, (iarrett vS, .Strang 
was closed in 1825. 

She was the mother of three sons, all of wliom reached honorable manhood. Sojonian, a carriage 
manufacturer, died in Jamaica, L. 1, 

Isaac B. is our subject, and Charles, who became a contractor and builder, died on the old hiMue 
jilace, now the Boulevard. 

Their father married again, and to his second union were given two ilaughters and one son, 
John Strang and his sister, Mrs. Ldnelin Woods, have passed from this life. Their sister Anna is still 
living 

Isaac B. Strang was educated in Astoria in the subscription schools in vogue at that time. The 



1 1 IS TOR J ' OF L (hVG ISLAND C/7V. 1 63 

Whittcmores and Blackwclls were his schoolmates. In his early years he assisted his father on the 
farm and later he learned the earpjnter's trade. In due time he eommeneed building and eontraetinjj 
on his own account, he constructed many residences in Lonjj Island City, amonjr which were those of 
Messrs. Hlaekwell, Freeman, (ien. Hopkins and many others. His own pleasant and commodious 
residence he built. 

In Brooklyn, November 26, 1.S46, he married Miss Ann Bragaw, a daughter of John <1. Bragaw, 
who was a farmer in the vicinity of L. I. City. She was an esteemed member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. She died December 3, 18S5, leaving one child, Charles (i., who was educated here 
and in New York City. He married Miss .\nnie Bergen, of Jamaica. They have two sons and a 
daughter. 

Mr. Strang's second marriage occurred in Astoria, on March 15, 1887, uniting him with Mrs. 
Mary j. (Rowland) Newton, who was born in New York City, a daughter of William Rowlaml, a 
native of Huntington, L. I. He was an Attorney-at-Law, and a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Clnirch. Politically he was an enthusiastic old line \Vhig. He died in Brooklyn, at the age of seventy- 
two years. His father, John Rowland, was in the American Xavy during the war of 1812, he owned 
a large farm at Middle Island, L. I. 

His wife, Mary Wareham, was born in New York, her father was an engraver and a member of 
St. Johns (Masonic) Lodge. No. i. Mary (Wareham) Rowland died in Brooklyn, at the age of si.xty- 
seven years, beloved by all who knew her. She was the mother of four daughters and four sons. Two 
daughters and two sons are still living, the latter oi whom, John H. and Sidney L., reside in Brooklyn. 

Mrs. Strang attended Prof. I)e Yerell's school at Patchogue, L. I., and at the early age of fifteen 
years began teaching school, which occupation she thoroughly enjoyed. She was first married in New 
York to William Xcwton. He died in Astoria, February 16, 1884. and was buried in (Ireenwood Cemetery. 
He left a widow and one surviving daughter, Anna A. N., wife of William .A. Peal. She was educated 
hero and in Brooklyn, and is the mother of four daughters anel three sons. .Mr. .Strang is a charter 
member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows of Astoria, also belongs to the Sons of Temperance, 
and has long been a faithful member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in which he has been Trustee, 
Steward and Class-leader, besides Superintendent of the Sunday School. He is a Republican politically, 
and is the oldest living settler of Astoria, remembering many interesting events connected with its 
early history. 

He has always been a u.scful citi/.en, and now in the autmnn of his life is surrounded by a host of 
warm friends. 

Hon. J.vmes A. McKknna, postmaster of Long Island City, was born in Westchester County, 
N. Y., February 17, 1857. He is of Irish descent, and is the son of Patrick and Elizabeth (Darby) 
McKenna, the former having been born in New York City, and the latter in Ireland. The subject of 
our sketch spent his boyhood days in Long Island City, and when fourteen years of age graduated 
from the high school there, after which he secured a position as bookkeeper with a firm in New York 
York City. In 187 1 he returned to Long Island City, and for si.\ months was a clerk in the Finance 
Department, and was subsequently promoted to the position of Deputy Treasurer and Recorder of 
Taxes. In the meantime, during the evenings, he devoted his time to a course of study at the New 
York Evening High School, from which he graduated in 1875. In 1876 he became managing clerk 
for Robert L. Fabian, a public accountant, of New York, by whom he was taken into partnersnip a 
tew years later, and on the death of tiiat gentleman he became sole proprietor of the business, which 
he h:is continued ever since. As an accountant he is well and favorably known all over the United 
.States and Canada. A moderate estimate of his settlements of fire insurance claims places the amount 
at more than §50,000,000. 

May 1, 1S87. Mr. McKenna was appointed postmaster of Long Island City, and in April of the 
succeeding year he organized the free delivery department, consolidating the service, and doing away 
with the offices at Astoria. Ravenswood, .Schuetzen Park, Steinway, Blissville and Dutch Kills, .said 
offices becoming stations of the Long Island City post office. In 1870 he was removed by President 
Harri.son. but in June, 1893, he was re-appointed by President Cleveland, and still continues in the 
office, and is popular with the patrons, irrespective of politics. 

Outlay 12th, 1880, Mr. McKenna married Miss Catherine Kelly, a native of Wyndham, N. Y. 
Five children have been born to them, viz. , James (now deceased), Catherine, Joseph, James and 
William. The familv is identified with St. Marv's Catholic Church. 



104 



M/STOKY OF LONG ISLAXD CITY 



Mr. McKcnna is a prominent Democrat. In the fall of 1890 he was nominated for Assemblyman 
from the Second District of Queens County, then comprising Long Island City, Newtown, Jamaica, 
and Hempstead. He was elected by a good majority. During his term he was instrumental in the 
passage of the bill providing for the improvement of Jackson and X'enion avenues. He drew up and 
l)rescnted a bill to reduce the price of gas in Long Lsland City to §1.25 per thousand cubic feet, which 
passed the House but not the Senate. His influence was felt in many bills benefiting his distrijt. It 
was due his energy and perseverance in the matter that the consent of the State was granted per- 
mitting incorporated villages to vote on the question with lighting their streets with gas or electricity. 

Of the thirty bills which he originated 
about one-half were passed. He is 
a member of the Insurance and Dem- 
ocratic Clubs of New York and the 
Jefferson Club of Long Island City. 

Hfxrv a. C.assf.hekr was born 
in New Viirk City, at the corner of 
Broome and Orchard streets, October 
14, 1S44. His early education was 
ol)tainedat the West Bloonifiekl (now 
Montclair). X. J., Academy. His 
professional studies he pursued at 
Frankfort - on - the - Main, ( Jermany, 
and at the College oi Pharmacy, 
New York City. After completing 
his education Mr. Cassebeer engaged 
in the apothecary business, being 
located at 255 and 257 Columbus 
avenue, and at the corner of East 
Seventy-second street and Madison 
aventte. New York City. He also 
has an extensive laboratory, which he 
established in 1894, at Steinway, L. I. 
His apothecary was originally estab- 
lished by his great grandfather in 
1778. The products of his labora- 
tory are known all over the United 
States, Mexico and the West Indies. 
At his laboratory in vSteinway, Mr. 
Cassebeer employs a large numl)er 
of employees. He lias resided in 
that ])lace for the past twenty-six 
years, long before any iniprovenients 
were made. 
Mr. Cassebeer is a member of the Torry Botanical Club, the Linna;an Society, College of 
Pharmacy (of which he was secretary and trustee for more tiian seventeen years), Liederkranz, 
Deutsch Verein, and a number of other social organizations. Politically, he is one of the old-line 
Democrats, and was at one time a member of the Board of Health of Long Island City. He resigned 
that position after serving for six months. 

Mr. Cassebeer married Miss Louisa Ziegler (now deceased), Januar\- 17, 1.S71, to wjiom four 
children were born. His second marriage occurred July 27, 1891, to Julia Schmidt Ziegler. 

LuciKN Knapp, City Treasurer and Receiver of Taxes of Long Island City, was born at vStrass- 
burg on the Rhine, in 1848. He is the son of John G. and Sophie M. Knapp, who came to America 
in 1855, settling in New York City, where the subject of this sketch gained his rudimentary education 
in the public .schools, after wliich he com|)leted his studies in tlie College of the City of New York. 

Mr. Knapp lias resided in yiieens County since (862 (excepting for a few years spent in Brook- 
lyn), and in Long Island City since 1890. For ten years he was connected with tjie extensive manu- 




JAMKS A. MCKKNNA. 



///STORY O J' LONG ISLAN/) CriY 



i6s 



facttiriny csuiblislmicnl of Lalancc <S: Grosjcan, located at "Woodliavcii, Long Island. Later on, witli 
his father, he established the widely-known brass goods manufacturing plant, the Knapp Jhinufactur- 
ing Company, of which he is the President and Treasurer. In 1866 Mr. Knapp began the study of 
engineering, which he preferred to remaining in the counting room. At twenty-one jears of age he 
began to do business on his own account, and for more than twentj'-five years has devoted himself 
assiduously to his manufacturing interests. As a salesman and commercial traveler he has visited 
every city of note in the United States and Europe, introducing and selling his goods in the line of 
sanitary and plumbers' specialties, and machinists' supplii-s. In 1883, in addition to his other enter- 
prises, he assumed the general management of The Metallic Burial Case Company, and the Winfield 
I'oundry Works at Winlield and Newtown, Long Island. These he successfully managed until 1889, 
when ill-health compelled him to resign from the company. 

In politics Mr. Knapp is a Republican. In 1891 he was a candidate for Senator against Edward 
I'loyd Jones. In 1S94 he became candidate for City Treasurer of Long Island City and was elected 
for a term of three years. As City Treasurer lie has attracted great attention by his stubborn and 
successful fight against a ring in the contrtil of cilj' affairs. He is a member of ComnKiUwcahh 
Lodge Y. and A. M., and Sunswick Council Royal Arcanum. 
Mr. Knapp's family consists of his wife and two children, the 
latter being Louise, wife of Walter C. Foster, Attorney-at- 
Law, and Harry W. 

Svi.vKsiER (-5r.\v was born near Monliccllo, Sullivan 
County, N. Y., April 29, 1882. He was the fourth child boi n 
to his parents, Samuel and Lydia (Hill) Gray, natives of 
Connecticut and New York, respectively. The subject of this 
sketch lived on the old homestead until a young man of 
twenty-one years. In the meantime he gained a splendid 
practical education, and for three years, from the age of 
seventeen to twenty, taught school at (Jrahamsvillc, and 
Barryville. About this time he was employed by John T. 
Roebling, the builder of the Brooklyn Bridge, to work on the 
lock on the Delaware and Hudson Canal, and also assisted in 
building the lock at the mouth of the Lackawanna. This work 
consumed about one year, and in 1850 Mr. Gray went to New 
York City, where for another year he was engaged in house 
carpentering, of which trade he had a fair knowledge. About 
this time he obtained a position with John M. Smith, at that 
time the only manufacturer of refrigerators in New York, with 

whom he remained one year, during which time he gained a fair knowledge of the business. He 
then accepted a jsosition with L. II. Mace & Co., who had just established a similar factory, with whom 
he remained for twelve years as their superintendent. On resigning his position Mr. Gray was 
occupied as a shipbuilder during two years of the war, and in 1862 located in what is now Long- 
Island City. Here he engaged in business for himself, establishing a factory in Fourth street, where 
he began the manufacture of refrigerators. He continued in business until Jtdy 21, 1893, when his 
factory w-as entirely destroyed by fire. 

In 1876 Mr. (iray organized the Long Island City Savings Bank, of which he was President until 
his death, which occurred March 20, 1896. He was also one of the organizers of the Seventeenth 
Ward Bank in Brnoklyn, of which he w-as a Director at the time of his death. 

Mr. Gray married Miss Laura A. Lane (now deceased), of Cape Ann, Massachusetts. Four 
children were born to their union, Eugene W., Mary W., Josephine 8. and Francis H. For some 
time prior to his death Mr. Gray was Excise Commissioner, and was for some time Chairman <jf that 
Board. He was for five years Chairman of the Board of Education. Politically he was a Democrat. 
He was an exceedingly clever and agreeable gentleman, liberal and public-spirited. 

John H. Thirv will be longest remembered as the introducer of the School Savings Bank system 
in this country. This is sufficient to give him fame, not alone during the present, but for all time to 
come as well. Since retiring from business and taking up his residence in this city. Mr. Thiry has 




IIKNRY A. CASbKDKKK. 



,66 IffSfORV OF I.OXG /SLAND CITY. 

devoted much of his leisure time to matters pertaining to the education of the young. Tlie successful 
operation of the school banking system in foreign lands suggested to his mind the possibilities of the 
development of the same system in this country. The new idea was first adopted in the schools of 
Long Island City in 1S85, and has gradually spread throughout the country, and the amount deposited 
by school children in banks amounts to several hundred thousand dollars. 

Mr. Thiry was born in Belgium in 1822. Entering the public schools as soon as he was old 
enough to attend, he spent several years in them. On leaving the public schools, being desirous of 
fitting himself for a teacher, he entered one of the Belgium Normal schools, from which he was grad- 
uated in 1845, receiving his graduation diploma from the Minister of the Interior. After following 
his chosen profession for a year or two, he gave up teaching to accept a more lucrative position in the 
office of the Minister of Public Works, which he held for twelve years — from 1847 to 1859. In the 
latter year he resigned his position, in order that he might realize the dream of his boyhood days by 
taking a trip to the New World. Accompanied by his wife and his two sons, aged respectively five 
and six years, he landed at Castle Garden in mid-summer, 1859. 

Mr. Thiry had no fixed business purpose when he arrived in New York, but he possessed a 
thorough knowledge of literature, was a lover of books, and he embarked in the book business. He 
started in business on a very modest scale, renting a small store at the corner of Canal and Centre 
streets at §6 a month. Prosperity attended the venture, and in less than eight years he was occupying 
the two remaining st(jres of the block between Canal and Walker streets, with a stock of 25,000 
volumes, embracing every department of literature in twelve languages. 

Following the general trend of business, in 1868 he moved uptown and rented a store at 730 
Broadway. These quarters were more commodious and better located than the old store. He con- 
tinued to carry on the business until 1875, when he s(jld out to a southern dealer and retired from an 
active business life. 

City life was not entirely congenial to Mr. and Mrs. Thiry, and after he retired from business 
they began to look around for some place in the suburbs of New York where they might quietly pass 
the remainder of their lives. After looking over the whole field, they decided to make Long Island 
City their future home. Four lots were purchased on Academy street, and a commodious dwelling 
was erected thereon. Subsequently Mr. Thiry acquired additional propert}- in the vicinity, and this, 
together with that which he already possessed, enabled ^Ir. Thiry to gratify his horticultural inclina- 
tions. One of his pastimes since he has removed to this city has been the culture of grapes. He has 
devoted much time to the study of this subject, and has been very successful. 

Mr. Thiry's thorough knowledge of educational matters and the keen interest he had taken in the 
schools of the city made him well qualified for the position of school commissioner, to which he was 
appointed by Mayor George Petry in 1884. As school commissioner he was instrumental in establish- 
ing the monthly meeting of teachers under the supervision of the superintendent, and these meetings 
have been continued since with beneficent results. The abolition of the mid-session recess after the 
plan adopted in Alban)' and Rochester was favored by him and was brought about while he was a 
member of the Board in 1885. 

On the election of Mayor Gleason, Mr. Thiry retired from the Board of Education, but when 
Mayor Sanford took office Mr. Thiry again took his place in the board, and has since been a member 
of that body. Several years ago he favored the placing of the public schools of the city under the 
Regents, and had the satisfaction of assisting in accomplishing this soon after the present administra- 
tion came into power. 

Mr. Thiry's greatest achievement in the cause of education was the introduction of the school 
savings bank system into the schools of this city. At the solicitation of the United States Commis- 
sioner of Education he made an exhibit at the World's Fair in Chicago. The exhibit occupied a 
prominent place in the educational exhibit and a jury of award granted him ;i medal and diploma in 
recognition of his efforts in behalf of the cause of public education. 

In the retirement (jf his later years Mr. Thiry still keeps up his interest in the questions of the 
day, particularly in those topics pertaining to educational matters. His library contains the latest 
works on educational subjects, as well as on gardening and horticulture. 

Mr. Thiry is now seventy-four years of age, but advancing years have left slight traces, and he 
retains all the physical and mental activity of his younger days. Having accpiired a competency in 



HfSTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 167 

business, he lives a quiet, retired life, and extends the hospitality of his home to his numerous friends 
n wliich he takes much pleasure. 

Mr. Thiry was married in Belgium to Miss Ernestine De Samblanc (recently deceased), a native 
of that country. Two sons have been born to them, Raphael O. and Joseph. Mr. Thiry is a member 
of St. Patrick's Catholic Church. 

Walter E. Frew, President of the Queens County Bank, was born on Brooklyn, July iS, ICS64. 
He is the son of George E. and Amanda Frew, both being natives of the State of New York. 
Walter E. Frew received his educational training in private schools of Brooklyn and in Greenpoint 
Academy, and when fifteen years of age began business in Wall street with Shepherd Knapp, banker 
and broker. He remained with Mr. Knapp until he was twenty years old, and in July, 18.S4, entered 
the lileventh Ward Bank as messenger, but in two weeks was made bookkeeper and later became 
assistant cashier. He remained in the bank about four years, and in March, 1889, was made cashier 
in the Queens County Bank in Long Island City. On April 11, 1895, he was elected president of that 
bank. He is the youngest man in the State of New York holding the position of liank president. 
Wlien Mr. Frew became cashier of the Queens County Bank, it was not in a very flourishing condition, 
having only $144,000 on deposit, but by his business acumen and good judgment the bank has become 
one of the sound financial institutions of the country, and has a line of deposits of over §1,500,000. 

Mr. Frew was a Director of the Steinway Railroad Company, which controls all the lines from 
Long Island City to Flushing. He is Trustee in the Long Island City Savings Bank, and is interested 
in numerous other institutions. He belongs to the American Legion of Honor, Bank Clerk's Mutual 
Business Association, New York State Banker's Association, and is a member of the E.\ecutive Com- 
mittee of Group No. 8, having served as a delegate to the convention at Saratoga. For some time he 
has taken an interest in Kent Street Reformed Church, of Brooklyn. Mr. Frew was married in 
Brooklyn to Miss Ella Louise Carman, a native of Brooklyn, and a daughter of Samuel Carman, of 
Long Island. They have one child, Helen Louise. 

J. H.VRVEY Smedlev vvas born in Lockport, Niagara County, in 1840. lie was of New England 
and Scotch descent, his father having been born in Brattleboro, Vermont, and his grandfather in 
Scotland. The latter was one of the pioneers who emigrated to the western part of the State many 
years before railroads and canals were thought of. The family lived for a time in Monroe County 
and then removed to Niagara county. His father was a machinist by occupation, and for several 
years held the position of superintendent and collector of the village in which he lived. Afterward 
he became manager of the property owned by Devoe College, an institution founded for the education 
of orphans. 

In the days of Mr. Smedley's boyhood Niagara County had no railroads. He remembers the 
first one that went through. Previous to that, people traveled on the packet boats on the canals. 
He took a trip to Albany and return in one of these boats. 

The public schools of Niagara County afforded him a common school education, and then he went 
to Rochester Institute, where his education was completed. His first position was in the distributing 
oflfice of the post ofHce department at Suspension Bridge, to which place his father had removed some 
time previously. Suspension Bridge at that time was a point for distributing the Canadian mails. 

On leaving Suspension Bridge in 1862, he went to Chicago, where he entered the employ of N. 
K. Fairbanks, a manufacturer of lard oils. He was superintendent of the factory for two years. At 
the end of that time he came to New York and became an outside salesman for P. .S. Justice & Co., a 
large importing firm, handling iron and steel. The iron industry in America was in its infancy. 
Nearly all the structural and architectural iron, as well as that used for other purposes, was imported. 
The firm of P. S. Justice & Co. were the American representatives of the Charles Campbell Cyclops 
Company, of Sheffield, England, one of the largest iron firms in the world. 

After a year and a half he came to Long Island City in 1865. He entered the employ of Dexter 
Smedlev, an uncle, who vvas engaged in the lard oil business. He became superintendent of the 
factory, which was at the coraer of Vernoi avenue and Tenth street, and held the position until 1874, 
when the place was destroyed by fire. His uncle retired from the business after this catastrophy, but 
the factory was rebuilt by L. D. Holbrook, and Mr. Smedley continued as superintendent. It was 
operated about a year, and in 1876 was sold to the Howe Lard Oil Manufacturing Company, and he 
retired from business. 



1 68 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



It was during this year that the idea of a savings bank was conceived, and finally developed into 
the Long Island City Savings Bank. Among the incorporators were Sylvester Gray, H. S. Anable, 
C. H. Rogers, John Bodine, James Corwith, H. R. White, Dr. Lewis Graves, Major Appleton, John 
B. Woodruff, J. A. Smith, Isaac Van Riper, W. H. Bowron, John J. Horan, John Claven, and others. 
At the first meeting of the directors, Mr. Gray was chosen president and J. Harvey vSmedley, secretary. 
Under the conservative management, in which Mr. Smedley had a large share, the institution has 
had a very prosperous career. Its growth has been gradual, but constant, without any retrogression. 
The number of depositors has increased until now they number many thousands. The savings bank 
is the poor man's best friend in the city. It has helped to build many homes. It has been a source 
of relief to many in times of adversity. It gains a fuller confidence of the people with each year, and 
will have an enlarged prosperitj- and usefulness under the Greater New York. 

In iS6i Mr. Smedley married Miss Frances Pierce in Niagara Falls, N. V., in which place she 
was born. She died in 1885, leaving four children: Newell D., Edith A., Mason O. and Mabel F. 
Mr. Smedley is a member of Island City Lodge and Banner Chapter, F. and A. M., of the New York 

Association of Secretaries of Savings Banks, and of St. 
John's Episcopal Church. He is a man of great public 
spirit, his influence is sufficient to bring success to various 
undertakings, both of a public and business character. 

H. M. Thomas was born at Holyhead, North Wales, in 

1S29. He came of honorable parentage, his father being a 

farmer, an occupation he followed until his death, which 

occurred in his seventy-seventh year. The mother, who 

was Ann Roberts prior to her marriage, died in her native 

land at an advanced age. Of the five children born to them, 

but two are living at the present time. Two sons came 

to America, one of whom died in Long Island City. H. M. 

Thomas is the only one of his family now in the L^nited 

States, and until he was fourteen years of age he assisted his 

father in the duties of the farm and at the same time 

acquired a practical education in the common schools of 

his native country. He was afterwards apprenticed to learn 

the carpenter and builder's trade, and in 1848 he embarked 

for America where he obtained work at his trade in Brooklyn 

and Greenpoint. In 1854 he settled in what is now Long 

Island City. He is now* the oldest contractor and builder 

Within Its limits. He has constructed many buildings in all 

parts of the city, many of which will remain monuments 

to his skill as a master builder. In the very early days of his activity he erected a steam planing, 

moulding, sash, door and blind mill on Vernon avenue and Fourth street, and after successfully 

operating it for about fifteen years, shut it down. In 1865 he moved it to its present location, and 

actively continued its management up to about 1888, when it was closed permanently. He is the 

owner of many fine residences and other valuable properties in Long Island City. He built the East 

Avenue Baptist Church at the corner of East avenue and Eighth street, and many other prominent 

buildings. Mr. Thomas has been one of the trustees of the Long Island City Savings Bank since the 

year of its founding (1889), and for some time past has Vjeen its Vice-President. 

Mr. Thomas was married in Greenpoint to Miss Georgiana Newcomb. Their union has resulted 
in the birth of one child, Annie L., now Mrs. Richerstein, of Long Island City. In 1890 or 1891 Mr. 
Thomas was appointed commissioner to pave and improve Vernon avenue and Jackson avenue. In 
various other ways he has done much to improve Long Island City. Although a stanch Republican, 
he has never had any political aspirations. He is a member of Island City Lodge, F. and A. M.and 
has attained the Royal Arch degree, and is a member of the Consistory of New York City. 

Henrv Mencken. — Among the representative men of Long Island City none arc more prominent 
than Henry Mencken, who was bom in Germany, September iq, 1826. He came to America in 1848, 
locating in New York City, and in 1S62 in Long Island City, where he engaged in the grocery 




/f/STOKY OF I.OXC /SLAXD C/TV. 169 

business, and where he has resided ever since. After conductinj^ the jjrocery business for many years, 
he enjjaged in his present business in 1881, at 839 to 847 Boulevard. 

In 1852 Mr. Mencken married Miss Anna Whetschcabon, of New York. Four children have 
been born to the marriage, one son and three daughters. 

Mr. Mencken is a member of the Second Dutch Reformed Church, in which he has been an elder 
for a great manj- years. He has served one term as a member of the Board of Aldermen, a position 
in which he did the city and himself much credit. He is a self-made man, and is highly esteemed as 
a citizen. He resides at 109 Newtown avenue. 

Rkv. C. D. F. Steinfuhrf.r, D. D., the pastor of the German Second Reformed Church of Astoria, 
enjoys the rare distinction of never having had more than one pastorate, although he has been a 
clergyman for nearly thirty years. Immediately after the completion of his theological course, he was 
crdled to take charge of the German Second Reformed Church of Astoria, Long Island City. Almost 
a generation has passed. The passing years have witnessed many changes in the congregation, which 
has increased from forty-five to nearly three hundred. Many of the original members have passed 
away. Some have sought other homes, while not a few have entered into eternal rest. The house of 
worship, also, has been remodeled and enlarged, and every department of the church bears evidence of 
the Pastor's sterling qualities. 

The Rev. Dr. Sleinfuhrer was born of Christian parents in Stargard, a city of the Grand Duchy 
of Mecklenburg, Strelitz, January 12, 1841. He was one of five children, there being three sons and 
two daughters. He is the eldest and only survivor. His brother Ernest, a well-known and very 
efficient druggist of Schenectady, died in 1883; the other brother. Dr. Gustavus, graduating from the 
College of " Physicians and Surgeons" of New York. He became a prominent physician of Schenec- 
tady, where he died in 1890. His early years were passed in the city school of his native place. 

In August, 1854, when thirteen years of age, he accompanied his parents to America. On arriving 
in New York the family went at once to Schenectady, N. Y. The future pastor entered the 
" Classical Department " of the public schools known as Union School, and took up the study of 
classics preparatory to entering college. In the fall of i860 he entered Union College, where he took 
a full collegiate course, receiving the degree A. B. Union College was then at the height of its pros- 
perity under the direction of that celebrated instructor, the Rev. Dr. Eliphalet Nott, and among the 
members of the faculty were such distinguished names as Dr. Tayler Lewis, Dr. D. L. Hickok, Prof. 
J. Foster, Prof. J.Jackson and Prof. Chandler, men famed for their learning. In July, 1864, he grad- 
uated with honor in a class of sixty-five members, among whom were the Rev. Dr. David Van Home, 
now President of the Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church, at Tiffin, Ohio; Dr. Daniel 
Stimson and Warren Schoonover, celebrated phj'sicians in New York City, and Dr. E. W. Paige, a 
prominent New York lawyer, and at one time Deputy Attorney-General of this state. 

In the autumn following his graduation from College, he entered the Theological Seminary of the 
Reformed Church at New Brunswick, N. J., where he spent three years of preparation for the 
ministry, graduating in 1867, and receiving the same year the degree of A. M. from Union College. 
While in the Seminary, he assisted Dr. Tayler Lewis in the celebrated translation and compilation of 
Lange's Genesis. 

In May of that year, having received and accepted a call to his present pastorate, he came to 
Astoria. At that time the congregation were building a home of worship on the site of the present 
edifice, and until it was completed, his people occupied the basement of the Reformed Church on 
Remsen street for their religious services. At that period the German Second Reformed Church of 
Astoria, and the German Reformed Church of Newtown were under the charge of one pastor, and he 
was pastor of both until 1873, when they were made separate charges. Since that time he was the 
pastor of the Astoria Church onh'. He has always made Astoria his place of residence. The first 
church building was occupied for the first time June 23, 1S67, and on the following Sunday he was 
ordained and installed as pastor, this ceremony having been deferred in order that it might he 
solemnized in the new building. Seven years ago, 1889, the church was enlarged by an addition of 
thirty-two feet, and remodeled to its present style. The cosy pansonage. nestling by the side of the 
church, was already built by his untiring zeal in 1870. In 1892, the twenty-fifth anniversary of his 
ordination and installation was celebrated, and was made a notable event. Nearly all the Protestant 
churches of Astoria joined in commemorating the event. In November, 1868, a parochial school was 



170 



HISTORY OF LONG /SLAND CITY. 



established in connection with the church. It has been continued up to the present time, and has 
been more or less a blessing to the congregation. 

In 1868 Mr. Steinfuhrer was married to Miss Louise Dorrmann Knecht, of Schenectady, N. Y., 
an estimable lady, who has been his efficient helpmate in all his undertakings during his long 
pastorate, especially in Simdaj' School and in connection with the church music. They celebrated 
their silver wedding in 1893, in which the whole congregation participated. The Rev. Dr. W. H. 
Ten Eyck, who twenty-five years ago united them in marriage, officiated again at this occasion, and 
the Rev. Mr. and Mrs. C. F. C. Suckow, of Philadelphia, Pa., who at the first wedding acted as best 
man and bridesmaid, respectively, acted in the same capacity at their silver wedding. 

During the years of Mr. Steinfuhrer's residence in Long Island City, many changes have taken 
place, both in municipal affairs and in the religious bodies. With the exception of one church, all the 

churches, Protestant and Catholic, have changed 
pastors several times. No clergyman of his denomi- 
nation in the North Classis of Long Island has been 
pastor of one church so long as Mr. Steinfuhrer. 

One of the most pleasant things in connection 
with his pastorate is the amicable relations that 
have always existed between him and his fellow 
clergymen in the city. 

During the time that the " Isabell Home" was 
located in our midst (1S75-1889), Mr. Steinfuhrer 
acted as the chaplain of that institution. The 
" Ottendorfer family," the founder and principal 
supporter of that noble monument, in memory of 
their deceased daughter, Isabella, impressed with 
the untiring zeal and unselfish motives of this 
humble pastor, expressed repeatedly their high 
appreciation of his kindly services to that institution. 
From the founding of the Astoria Hospital in 
1S92, he has been interested and intimatelj' associa- 
ted with its progress. The high esteem with which 
he is regarded, on account of his hearty sympathy 
in respect to this noble work of Christian philan- 
thropy, was manifested on the occasion of the laying 
of the corner stone of the new Astoria Hospital, 
November i, 1895, when the board of managers 
nnanimousl)^ chose him to deliver the dedicatory 
address, notwithstanding his earnest pi'otests. Mrs. 
Steinfuhrer is also very much interested in this 
Samaritan enterprise. She is at present a member of the board of managers of the training school 
for nurses at the hospital. 

At a meeting of the Trustees of Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., held on Tuesday, June 23, 
1896, the honorary degree of " Doctor of Divinity " was conferred upon him. The public announce- 
ment of this official act was made at the commencement exercises of the college, Wednesday, Jime 
24th. Union College, his beloved Alma Mater, has honored itself by thus recognizing one of her 
deserving sons in such gratifying form. 

The New York Times of July 12, 1896, in an article portraying the activity of the diH'erent cler- 
gymen of Astoria, writes the following: 

" Astoria has no minister more universally respected and liked, in and out of his denomination, 
than the Rev. C. D. F. Steinfuhrer, D.D., pastor of the German Second Reformed Church on Second 
avL-nue. For many years this kindly (ierman clergyman has gone quietly about doing much good with 
tongue, pen and hand, and Astoria has come to feel that no large gathering is complete that does not 
include his welcome presence. He is a prodigious worker in his modest way, and his value to 
Astoria from every ])oint of view cannot be measured even by those who from long association 
know him best." 




JOSEl'lI DVKKS 



ins 1 OR 1 ■ OF L ONG ISLAND CITY. i - 1 

Rev. l-)r. vStcinfuhrcr looks back over the perspective of nearly thirty years. Lights and 
shadows are mingled, but the former predominate. Children whom he baptized in early years 
have grown to man and womanhood ; have been joined in marriage by the same pastor, and 
their children in turn have been baptized by the same pastor who baptized them. All these 
memories serve to draw pastor and people closer together and knit more firmly the bond of 
sympathy with each succeeding year. As a minister he has been faithful, efficient and energetic. 
Possessed of more than ordinary pulpit talent, and with special gifts as a pastor, he has brought to 
his work rare earnestness and Christian consecration. In his church and out of it he has shown him- 
self a friend of humanity, deeply interested in the welfare of all, and full of sympathy for those who 
are in sorrow and distress. He has endeared himself to many friends, and has won the confidence of 
all, without respect to their differences of opinions on doctrinal and political points. As a noble son 
of his dear Alma Mater, Union College, he seems to have imbibed the very spirit of her glf>ri<>us 
motto, " In necessariis Unitas, in dubiis Libertas, in omnibus Caritas. " 

(rEoKGE II. Williamson (deceased) was born in Xcw Ilnmswick, N. I.. August 24, 1S42, and was 
a son of John and Catherine (X'oorhees) Williamson. Mr. Williamson was educated at the University 
of the City of New York. In 1877 he located in L<inL; Island City, and was a clerk in the water 
department under Mayor Debevoise, and after serving three years in that connection, he took charge 
of the Sleinway Avenue Improvement Commission. In 1883 he engaged in contracting and building, 
in which he continued until the time of his death, which occurred May 20, 1894. He was a volunteer 
fireman of the old department in New York, with which ne was connected until it disbanded. Later 
he became a member of the Veteran Firemen's Association, in which he was a trustee at the time of 
his death. He was a member of Advance Lodge, No. 635, F. and A. M., at Astoria; John Allen 
Lodge, A.O. U.W., and Lincoln Club of Long Island City. On October 9, 1878, Mr. Williamson 
married Miss Mary A. Berry, who was born at Lake Providence, La. Mrs. Williamson now resides 
at No. 241 Purdy street, with her four daughters, viz., Florence M., Sarah M., Catherine May and 
Edith L. Another daughter, Jessie, died at the age of two years. 

Joseph Cassiov, formerly Alderman from the Second Ward, and Treasurer of the Board of 
Excise Commissioners of Long Island City, is one of the prominent politicians of Queens County. He 
was born and reared in Long Island City and received his education here and in Brooklyn. His first 
position was in the wholesale house of Arnold, Constable & Co., New York City, where he was 
employed in the fur department. Such was his efficiency that within two years after taking a position 
with that firm, he had entire charge of the manufacturing department. After five years he started 
m business for himself, on Broadway and Thirty-seventh street. New York, where he engaged in the 
sale and manufacture of fur. From that time until 1889 he was general manager of the wholesale 
house of Freysted & Sons. Returning to Long Island City, Mr. Cassidy, in 1889, became a partner 
with his father in the florist and gardening business, which has since been carried on under the name 
of Cassidy & Son. 

In Hulst street, where Mr. Cassidy owns sixteen lots, he erected a fine residence, and here he 
and his wife make their home. Mrs. Cassidy, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Casey, was born in 
Connecticut. In 1893 Mr. Cassidy was appointed excise commissioner, by Mayor Sanford, and from 
the start he was treasurer of the board. He was elected Alderman in 1893 from the Second Ward, 
taking his seat January i, 1894. His time of office as Alderman and Excise Commissioner expired 
December 31, 1895, and while serving his last day in that capacity he was appointed a Health 
Commissioner, which office he still retains. He virtually held one elective and two appointive positions 
in one day, something rarely heard of. During his term he worthily represented his constituents, who 
have the greatest confidence in him. He was a charter member of the Jefferson Club. Both in 
business and in political circles he has made many friends and is held in high esteem for his sterling- 
worth and the excellencies of his character. 

JosEi'H Dykes, of Flushing, Treasurer of Oueens County. The subject of this .sketch was born 
in New York City, and is the oldest son of Captain William Dykes. His younger days were passed in 
East Williamsburg, town of Newtown, where he attended the old Fresh Pond school. From the age 
of thirteen Mr. Dykes had charge of his father's farm at Westbury. In 1867 he married the eldest 
daughter of William Phillips, oi Flushing, and in 1S68 he moved to Flushing and took charge ui the 
farm of his father-in-law. 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



Mr. Dykes engaged in the produce commission business in Long Island Citj' in 1872. This 
business he conducted until 1891. His methods of carrying on business were such that, it is said, a 
customer never left him. 

In 1 88 1 he was elected Supervisor of the town of Flushing, and held the office for ten con.secutive 
years. For six years out of the ten he was chairman of the Board. 

In 1890 he resigned the office of Supervisor to enter upon the duties of Treasurer of Queens 
County, of which office he took possession on January i, 1891. 

To Mr. Dykes, more than to any other, should credit be given for the benefits soon to be derived 
from the system of macadamized roads throughout Queens County. It was he who introduced and 
pushed through the resolution for the improvement of Jackson avenue, in the town of Newtown, 
started in 1883 and continued with perseverance until 1886, when the necessary resolution was pa.ssed. 
At that time he predicted that in less than ten years every town in Queens County, through its proper 
officers, would ask the Board to pass similar resolutions. The allotted ten years have not yet passed, 

and every town in the county is at work macadamiz- 
ing its main thoroughfares. 

To Mr. Dykes, also, is due the credit of intro- 
ducing into the villages of Flushing and College 
Point the electric railroad now in operation in those 
villages; also the electric light through Flushing 
village. He has been president of the railroad 
company since its beginning, and manager of that 
and the Electric Light Company also. 

Mr. Dykes reorganized the Flushing Bank, 
putting it on a firm and popular basis, and is now 
president of that institution. 

Mr. Dykes is a member of the I. O. O. F., the 
Niantic Club and the Flushing Fishing Club of 
Flushing. 

In jjolitics Mr. Dykes is a Democrat, but one of 
those individuals who believe that every man has 
the right to think for himself. 

Judge James Ingram, who is at present Justice 
of the Peace of Long Island City, was born in the 
city of New York, May 6, 1866. His father, David 
Ingram, is a prominent business man of New York 
and Astoria, L. I., and a manufacturer and dyer of 
cotton yarns. His mother was a Miss Violet 
Patterson, a native of Greenock, Scotland. Judge 
Ingram resided in New York until 1872, and then 
came with his parents to Long Island City, where 
he received his education in the public schools. 
When he was fourteen years of age he left school to engage with his father in business, and soon 
thereafter took charge of the financial department of the business. Since the age of nineteen he has 
had charge of the business in the New York office, at No. 96 Spring street, and although business is 
carried on in Long Island City, the principal office is in New York City. In the fall of 1893 Mr. 
Ingram was nominated on the Democratic ticket (though a Republican) to the office of Justice of the 
Peace. He was elected by about fifteen hundred plurality, far ahead of the ticket, and he has 
discharged the duties incumbent npon that position in a very able manner. He was appointed Police 
Commissioner in 1893, and served until he resigned to accept the position of justice. Mr. Ingram is a 
thirty-second degree Mason, belonging to the consistory of New York. He is also a member of the 
Mecca Temple of the Mystic Shrine Advance Lodge, 635, F. and A. M., the Astoria Athletic Club, 
Ravenswood Boat Club, Lincoln Club, Union League, and of the First Presbyterian Church of Astoria. 
He is one of the youngest justices ever elected in Long Island City. 

John T. Woodruff was born in Elizabeth, X. }., May 16, 1857. When he was six years of age 






WILLIAM W. WRIi;lfT. 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. ,73 

his parents removed to Long Island City, where he received an education in the public schools. He 
has for many years been engaged in the business of a contractor and builder, and is well and favorably 
known. He is a member of the Baptist Church, and in politics he is independent. On October 2S, 
1S80, he married Miss Mary MacFayden, to whom f(jur children have been born. 

Chari.ks Curtis Woodruff was born in Elizabeth, N. J., July 9, 1861. When he was sixteen 
years old he was apprenticed to learn the trade of a brick mason, working for his uncle, John B. 
Woodruff. After learning the business, and when only nineteen years of age, he was made foreman 
on the various buildings which his uncle was engaged upon, and continued in his employ until 1889, 
when he begun contracting on his own account. He formed a partnership with James S. Carpenter, 
under the firm name of Carpenter & Woodruff. The firm continued until 1895, at which time it was 
dissolved and our subject continued alone. Henowhashis office at No. 209 Tenth street, Long Island 
City. Mr. Woodruff has held contracts for the erection of some of the largest public and private 
buildings in Long Island City and vicinity. In 1883 he married Miss Emma Sandene, a native of 
Greenpoint, Brooklyn, and a daughter of Captain Andrew P. Sandene. One child, Adaline, has 
blessed their union. Socially, Mr. Woodruff is a member of Reliance Lodge No. 776, F. and A. M., 
at Greenpoint. He is an exempt fireman, having served with Hunter Engine No. 4. He is a Re- 
publican and a member of Lincoln Club, of Long Island City. 

Freukrick C. Trowhridgk, a popular and well-known real estate dealer of Long Island City, was 
born in Astoria, November 14, 1859. He received a careful education, and was graduated from 
Columbia Grammar School in 1876. After completing his education, he engaged with the Celluloid 
Brush Co., of New York City, with whom he remained for ten years, from 1877 to 1887, filling the 
position of head clerk from the start. In January, 1890, he became a partner in the firm of Trow- 
bridge & Stevens, real estate dealers and insurance agents. Mr. Trowbridge is a Republican in 
politics. He is a charter member of the Astoria Athletic Club, and has been a member of the govern- 
ing committee several times. 

John Messe.vger, of the firm of Clonin & Messenger, was born in New York City, May 4, 1854, 
where he was educated in the public .schools. He is a son of the late William F. Mes.senger who was 
a prominent manufacturer of New York. After completing his education Mr. Messenger filled the 
position of corresponding clerk for a number of New York firms and for twelve years was the confi- 
dential clerk for Reiche Brothers, animal importers. He then became superintendent of an aquarium 
at Coney Island, a position he retained for four years. After filling a number of other responsible 
positions he engaged in the butter and eggs business in New York. In 1890 Mr. Messenger removed 
to Astoria and formed his present partnership with Mr. Clonin. On October 31, 1876, he married 
Miss Eleanor Clark, a native of Wilmington, Delaware, who has borne him three children: John, Jr., 
Gertrude E. and Leslie A. Mr. Messenger is a member of Alma Lodge, No. 728, F. and A. M., and Alma 
Council, No. 191, R. A., of New York City. He is also identified with the American Legion of Honor, 
Amity Council, No. 576, of New York. 

l':i)wix F. White who is prominent in real estate and insurance circles of Long Island City, was 
born in Bradford, England, August 10, 1863, where he received a careful education in the public 
schools and Bradford College. Mr. White has resided in Astoria for the past fourteen years and is 
well and favorably known. He is a member of Astoria Athletic Club and of Sunswick Council, R. A. 

John W. Forssei.l, a popular young dental practitioner of Long Island City, was born in Salt Lake 
City, Utah, November 12, 1872, where he received a careful education in the University of that city. 
In 1888 he began the study of dentistry, and in 1892 entered the Philadelphia Dental College and was 
graduated from that institution in 1895, with the degree of D. D. S. On September ist of that year 
he located in Long Island City for the practice of his profession and has succeeded in attaining a posi- 
tion among his fellow practitioners that he may feel proud of. On September 15, 1894, Dr. Forssell 
married Miss May Felker. of Woodstock, Maine. They reside in a comfortable home at No. 24 Stevens 
Street, Astoria, where the Doctor also retains his ofl[ice. Dr. Forssell's father is A. Theodore Forssell, 
a prominent banker of Salt Lake City. 

(Ieorge E. Clay was born in New York City, February 17, 1851, being the .son of George and 
Mary (Martine) Clay, the former a native of Massachusetts, and the latter of New York City. The 
subject of this sketch received his rudimentary education in the public schools of his native city, after 
which he attended the College of the City of New York, graduating therefrom in 1870, with the degree 



'74 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



of B. S. In 1876 he came to Long- Island City where for several years he followed his profession, that 
of civil engineer. In 1880 he embarked in his present business, real estate and insurance. Mr. Clay 
is a member of City College Club, Salmagundi Club and St. John's Episcopal Church. He is also 
Trustee of the Long Island City Public Library. Politically he is a Republican. On October 18, 
1882, Mr. Clay married Miss Margaret Olivia Hunter, to whom three children have been born, viz., 
Mary, George Hunter, and Edna. 

Alfred L. New. — There is in the business world only one kind of a man who can successfully 
combat the man\' trials of life. That is the man of force of character, and liberal mind toward his 
fellow beings. This, combined with industry and intelligence, make up the character of the person 
of this sketch. Alfred L. New was born in Green])oint, Brooklyn, N. Y., September 2, 1844. Up 

to the age of twelve years he attended 
the public schools, then his early life, 
after the close of his school days, 
was spent in the drug business in 
Greenpoint. In 1869 Mr. New went 
as junior clerk in the old established 
drug business of Jesse M. Sands, 
Avenue C and Eleventh street, New 
York. Years of active work and 
close attention to affairs was rewarded 
by his promotion to take charge of 
business. After ten years of success- 
ful life in the drug business, our 
subject came to Long Island City, 
that part then known as Hunter's 
Point, to engage in the grocery 
business, under the firm name uf 
Smith & New Brothers. Later, the 
business became the property of the 
New boj's, and has been from that 
(lay to this, J. N. New & Bro. The 
store now is the oldest established 
in Long Island City. 

In 1885 he began dealing in 
coal and wood in connection with 
liis grocery business, with office and 
yard foot of East avenue, on Newtown 
Creek. Mr. New is classed among 
the prosperous business men of this 
city. The coal is unloaded by steam 
derricks, and handled by self-dump- 
ing and self- regulating cars. His 
I'ROF. K. (J. Di i.cKEX. father, James L. New, was reared in 

England, and engaged there in the 
dairy business, which he successfully carried on until 1837, when he came to America, and located in 
Greenpoint, where he, for a time, followed his former occupation. Giving this up, he established the 
first stage route between Greenpoint and Williamsburg, and later the first stage line on Atlantic 
avenue, from Bedford to Fulton ferry. Having sold his stage lines, in 1857, he emigrated to 
California to engage in gold mining. From there he went to Montana, and resides in the latter State 
to this day, engaged in stock ranching. His mother, Harriett Webb, is also a native of England. 
Mr. New's brothers are James N., who is his partner in business, and Levi W., a grocer in Long 
Island City, and his sister, Gertrude, married and living in Brooklyn. Mr. New's residence, at 
92 Third street, is presided over by his estimable wife, who was formerly Miss Amanda M. Smith, 
daughter of the late J. Andrew Smith, who was a grocer of Long Island City, and a pioneer settler 
of the place, having. settled here in i860, on the spot where our subject's grocery store now stands. 




HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 175 

Four children have been born to the marriaj,>^e of Mr. and Mrs. New, William G. and Howard C, 
now dead, and Alfred N., a traveling salesman in the wholesale coal house of F. A. Potts & Co., New 
York City, and Miss Gertrude E., at home. Mr. New has always been active in the various interests 
of the city, havin<j served in the old Volunteer Fire Department as a member of Franklyn Engine 
Co. No. 3 for many years. He has for years been an active member of the East Avenue Baptist 
Church, is president of the Board of Trustees, and Superintendent of the Sunday School, to which 
position he has been elected annually for eighteen consecutive years. Fraternally, Mr. New is a mem- 
ber of Island City Lodge 586, F. and A. M., of which he is past master. Also a member of Banner 
Cliaptcr2i4, R. A. M., of this city, and Black Prince Lodge, Knights of Pythias, of Brooklyn. 
Politically, he is an ardent Republican, ever ready to stand by the principles of his party. 

Jami;.5 N. New was born in Newtown, L. L, November 14, 1842. When he was four months of 
age his parents removed to Greenpoint, now a part of Brooklyn. For the past thirty-four years he 
has been a resident of Long Island City, where he is now engaged in the grocery business. When 
he was twelve years of age he began in that business in the store of John F. Allen, in Greenpoint. 
He remained in his employ for .seven years, at which time he accepted a .similar po.sition with J. 
Andrew Smith, of Long Island City. After .serving a clerkship in that gentleman's employ, he, in 
1865, entered into a co-partnership with Mr. Smith and a brother of our subject, at 39 Vernon avenue, 
under the firm name of Smith & New P.rothers. In 1868 Mr. Smith withdrew from the firm; from 
that date up to the present time it has been known as J. N. New & Brother. In 1887 the firm, in 
connection with their grocery business, added coal, the same being under the supervision of A. L. 
New, while J. N. New manages the grocery department. 

On December 25, 1867, our subject married Miss Eliza M. Gibson, to whom six children have 
been born. Mr. New is a member of Grace M. E. Church of Long Island City, and of Island City 
Lodge, F. and A. M. 

William W. Wright was born in Astoria, Long Island City, where he has resided all his life. 
He received a common school education, after which he engaged in mercantile pursuits. Mr. Wright 
has always taken much interest in public matters. He was a member of the Board of Police Com- 
mi.ssioners under Mayor Sanford's administration, and was treasurer of that body during the time. 
He is a member ol the Royal Arcanum, Masons, and St. Thomas' Episcopal Church. 

On October 20, 1883, he married Miss Anna E. Cornell, now deceased. Two sons were born to 
the union. 

TiiK iiK.M 01 I. & J. Van Riper was establi,shed in Hunter's Point in 1861, and continued until 
i8gi, when Francis G. and George T., sons of Mr. Isaac Van Riper, were admitted to the firm, 
making it I. & J. Van Riper !^. Co. This was continued until 1894, when the senior members retired, 
leaving the business under the name of F. G. & G. T. Van Riper. From the time the concern was 
first established they have been one of the leading building firms of the city. They have erected 
many of the prominent buildings, not only in this city, but in Brooklyn, New York City and through- 
out Long Island. Among some of the most prominent are the West Shore Railroad buildings, at 
Wechawken, N. J.; the main wing of the New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company, in Long 
Island City; the Masonic Temple in Greenpoint; Fleischmann & Co.'s stables at Brooklj-n and Hemp- 
stead, L. I.; the Long Island City Police Station; the Freeport Public School, and the factory 
building of W. J. Matheson & Co., Long Island City. The firm are now erecting a six-story ware- 
house on Hudson street. New York City; St. Mary's Lyceum in Long Island City; the Mutual 
Insurance building in Glen Cove, L. I. ; and the Children's Home in Yaphank, L. I. 

George E. Pavne, eldest son of Alvan T. Payne, born at Corning, Steuben County, N. Y., Septem- 
ber 2. 1861. He come to Long Island City in 1867 with his parents where he received his early 
education at the First and Fourth Ward Public Schools. He afterwards attended the State Normal 
School at Mansfield, Pa., for two years, and from there went to Professor HoUock's famous school at 
Bridgehampton, L. I., where he finished. 

His first business venture was with Col. Sage (who filled and graded the streets of the First Ward 
of Long Island City), in Ohio, where he had charge of the work of constructing the road bed of western 
extension of the Erie R. R. from Marion, Ohio, to Chicago, and was known as Chicago and Atlantic 
R. R. He remained with Col. Sage one year and returned to Long Island City in 1893, and became 
private secretary of Mayor Petry, and Mayor's clerk and continued in that position until Mr. Petry 



,76 HISTORY OF LOXG ISLAND CITY. 

retired from office in 18S7. lie then entered the real estate and insurance business in which he has 
been quite successful. He resides with his faniilj', consisting of his wife, Julie B. Payne, who is the 
eldest (laughter of Felix D. Bertlet, an old resident of Astoria, and his three children, Margaret, 
Dorothy and George, at 257 Xott avenue, in a house built by him in 1894. 

Prokessor Ferdinand Quentin Dulcken. — There is probably no citizen of Long Island City who 
has achieved in music a success more remarkable than that which has brought a national reputation 
to the subject of this sketch. Inheriting a talent for the art, he has cultivated this to the fullest 
extent, and both as pianist and composer of music, deserves the high position he holds in the estima- 
tion of the people. He has been musical director for some of the greatest musical artists of the day, 
both here and abroad. From his paternal and maternal ancestors he inherits a love for music. His 
father's grandmother, who was born in France, was a gifted pianist, and her fondness for the art was 
also cherished by her husband. During the French Revolution they were obliged to flee from their 
homes, disguised as peasants; went to Munich, Bavaria, where he founded a pianoforte factory, under 
the patronage of the Prince of Bavaria. The latter became a warm friend of this talented couple, in 
whose welfare he showed a deep interest. Recognizing the superior ability of Mrs. Dulcken, he gave 
into her charge the musical training of his daughters, one of whom afterward became the wife of 
Nicholas, Czar of Russia; another became the wife of William, King of Prussia; and the third. Queen 
of Saxony. A correspondence was maintained by these three ladies with Mrs. Dulcken until her 
death, when, in accordance with her will, the letters were returned to the writers. The Dulcken 
famih- originated in Holland, and its meml)ers have been prominent in the various countries whither 
the}' have gone. 

From his mother he inherits no small degree of musical ability. She was born in Hamburg, 
Germany, and early in life displayed the talent for music which was a family characteristic. Her 
education was thorough, and she became so proficient in the profession that she was chosen pianist to 
Queen Victoria, which honored position she filled until her death. Her brother, Ferdinand David, 
was also a noted musician, his specialty bemg the violin. The only one of her children who inherited 
her artistic tastes was Ferdinand Quentin Dulcken. A portion of his childhood years were passed 
in London, England, where he was born. From there he went to Leipsic, Germany, in order that he 
might have the advantages of a musical training. He became a pupil of Mendelssohn, and also 
studied under Moseheles, under whose supervision his technique was perfected, and his knowledge of 
music broadened. 

In 1876 Ferdinand Quentin Dulcken came to ATUcrica, and has since starred the country with a 
number of the most famous artists of the world, including Essipoff, many great singers, and Ole Bull, 
among the violinists. 

He has his headquarters in Steinway Hall, where he has given instruction to some who are now 
famous in the musical world. His ability as musical director, accompanist, pianist and composer is 
tmiversally recognized. His compositions include both vocal and instrumental numbers, and are 
widely known and admired. He has gained many triumphs in large assemblies and critical 
gatherings. 

Some years ago he spent several seasons at Warsaw, where he was one of the professors in a con- 
servatory, but the bigotry and oppression of Russian nobility became unbearable, and he sought a 
more congenial abode. For a number of years he has made his home in Astoria. 

On January 24, 1884, at her home in Bowery Bay, he married Mary Catharine, youngest daughter 
of Ann Eliza Rapelye and Jacob Suydam Totten. Her maternal grandparents were j\Iargaret 
Polhemus and Isaac Rapelye, the former of Holland Dutch forefathers, and the latter, French 
Huguenot, two of the oldest and influential families of Long Island. Her father was Jacob Suydam, 
son of Catharine Monfort and Joseph Totten, who died March, 1845, leaving his widow, Ann Eliza 
Totten, with six small children. Nobly she led them in the right path, and lived to see them all 
grown up, and died in her eighty-first year. 

Mrs. Dulcken has one sister and two brothers, Gertrude Rapelye Totten, formerly of Bowery 
Bay, now living in Astoria in their comfortable home on Debevoise avenue; Abram, living at Wood- 
side, al.so of Bowery Bay; and William Totten, of New York City, who is married and has one child. 
Many mementoes of these old families have been preserved. Old Bibles, printed in the Holland 
tongue, with name of " Monfort " on fly leaf and engraved on silver clasp; a marriage certificate, 
on parchment, of Sarah De Blanck to Pietor Monfort, at Amsterdam. Holland, dated June 11, 1630, 



Hf STORY OF LOXG ISLAND CITY. 



who came to this country the same year; also a will of Sarah De Blanck, dated 1669, bequeathing all 
her property to her son Yan (lohn); a lieutenant's commission, given to one Pietor Monfort, and 
signed and sealed by Richard, Earl of Bellmont, dated January 20, 1698; and many other old and 
curious documents. Mrs. Dulcken was educated in Long Island City and the Xew York Normal 
College, and was for years engaged in teaching.. Was principal of the Bowery Bay school and as- 
sistant principal of one of the Long Island City schools. 

Mrs. Dulcken is fond of music. Occasionally she writes. Some of her poems have been set to 
music by her husband. A visitor to the pleasant home notices many souvenirs from friends and 
pupils; the autograph of Wilkie Collins, and among the photographs and written underneath, " Henry 
\V. Longfellow. In memory of a pleasant — December 21, 1877." 

(Jarket |amks Gakretson. — The (iarretson family are among the earliest Dutch settlers, the 



name frequently 
pioneer history of 
In 1633 the Hon. 
was one of Govern- 
councilorson Man- 
In 1643 Phi 1 ip 
first public house 
tan Island, and 
is found among 
1657 and as mem- 
Reformed Church 
Island. Judge 
scendant of Gerrit 
emigrated from 
the Rhine, in Gel- 
in 1660, and settled 
X. J. Garret I. 
of John Garretson 
the subject of this 
born on his 
Hillsborough, 
N. J. He was a 
Reformed Dutch 
town, L. I. He 
Rapalie, a direct 
J ores Jansen de 
o f Rochelle, i n 
refuge in Holland 
gious wars of the 
coming to this 
He settled at Fort 
Albany, and in 
Xew Amsterdam, 
ing on L o u g 
Walkibout, in the present city of Brooklyn. 



appearing in the 
New Amsterdam. 
Martin Gerritscn 
or Van Twiller's 
hattan Island. 
Gerritsen kept the 
built on Manhat- 
the family name 
the enumerated in 
bers of the Dutch 
on Manhattan 
Garretson is a de- 
Gerritsen, who 
Wageningen, near 
derland, Holland, 
at Bergen Point, 
Garretson, the son 
and the father of 
b i o g r a p h y, was 
father's farm in 
Somerset County, 
clergyman of the 
Church, at New- 
married Catherine 
descendant of 
Rapalie, a native 
France, who took 
during the reli- 
sixteenth century, 
country in 1623. 
Orange, N e w 
1626 removed to 
afterwards locat- 
Island, near the 
Garret James Garretson was born at Newtown, L. I., 




CORD MEYER. 



July 16, 1847. After an academic education received at the Flushing Institute, Long Island, he 
entered the office of Messrs. Marvin & Daniel, and was admitted to the bar in December, 1869. 
Since that date he has been actively engaged in the practice of his profession in New York City and 
in Queens County, in which field he has achieved a full measure of professional success. In 1S77 
Judge Garretson formed a co-partnership with Henry W. Eastman under the firm name of Eastman 
>.V- Garretson, which was terminated by the death of the senior partner in 1882, when with two of 
Mr. Eastman's sons the co-partnership was continued under the firm name of Garretson & Eastman. 
Judge Garretson 's practice has been largely connected with real estate, law, mortgage investments, 
the management and care of estates, and matters connected with the probate courts. He has 



1 7 8 HIS rOK 1 ■ OF L ONG I SLA ND CI T Y. 

been and is still executor and trustee of many large estates and the custodian of important financial 
interests. 

Judge Garretson is much interested in educational work, and was for many years President of the 
Board of Education of Newtown. For the years 1873-4-5, he filled the office of School Commissioner 
for Queens County. In 1880 he became Surrogate of Queens County, and in 1885 was nominated and 
elected to the office of County Judge of Queens County. He served with great acceptance from 1886 
to 1891, when he was re-elected for a further term of six years. In June 1896 he was appointed one 
of the commissioners for Greater New York, and in November of same year he was elected a justice of 
the Supreme Court of New York. He was, in 1876, married to Eliza, daughter of Henry W. Eastman, 
Esq., his partner and a prominent and successful member of the bar of Queens County and New York. 

Judge Garretson possesses a keen and incisive intellect which penetrates to the marrow of a legal 
problem. Without any bold or abrupt statement foreshadowing his intended judgment, he reasons a 
question out by a process of subtle analysis which gives to every slip the character of a logical 
postulate. When the conclusion is reached you see at once why it becomes undisputable as an 
application of legal principles to established facts. It is this judicial quality of mind, ripened by 
experience on the bench, which has imparted so high a character to his decisions that lawyers feel in 
advance the futility of appealing from them. Not one of his judgments, while sitting as surrogate and 
passing upon these intricate questions of mixed fact and law belonging to the probate of wills, was 
ever reversed by an appellate court. His success in always adjusting the right principle to the right 
solution of the issue raised before him he owes to a happy organization of mind. Where the intellect, 
instead of being self-sufficient, is always guided by the law of conscience, silently yet steadily directing 
his judicial action. 

With such an organization it would not be otherwise than that he should administer the office of 
County Judge without fear, favor or prejudice to any man. Before him all litigants stand as impartial 
suitors. Whether as indicted criminals or parties to a civil action he is equally considerate of their 
rights and ready to protect them in their vindication. Neither politics, nor local prejudices, nor 
denominational interests have any weight in his presence. He has no preferred claimants upon his 
judicial favors, and no counsel, however intimate, has access to his judicial ear out of court. Hence he 
never comes upon the bench, like so many of otir judges, with a foreknowledge of the peculiar merits 
of one side of a controversy. Popular with the bar, because of his uprightness, his courtesy and his 
fearless adherence to the right at every stage of procedure; admired and respected by his fellow- 
citizens, as their re-election of him to the bench showed, he stands as a noble embodiment of those 
high moral qualities which constitute a great and an upright judge. 

Cord Mkver was born at Maspeth, town of Newtown, L. I., New York, in 1854. He is the .second 
of three sons of the late Cord Meyer, who came from Germany to this country in his youth. A few 
years after his arrival here, he started in business for himself as a manufacturer of charcoal, used in 
the process of refining sugar, of which he made a great success, which eventually induced him to 
enter the refining business himself as a member of the Williamsburg firm of Dick & Meyer, which, 
after many years of great success, was taken in the sugar trust at the time that corporation was organ- 
ized. 

Our subject is largely interested in the bone charcoal business, and is president and principal 
owner of the Acma Fertilizer Company on Newtown Creek. For a time he was a special partner in 
the banking house of C. L. Rathborne & Co., but since the death of his father, which occurred in 1891, 
he has withdrawn that source to attend to his many private affairs. Politically, he is a Democrat, 
and takes great interest in all political affairs. He was the representative for five years, dating from 
1884, in the Democratic State Convention, and a member and Secretary of the State Executive Com- 
mittee. He is a warm admirer of President Cleveland. In 1892 he was appointed by Gov. Flower 
one of the World's Fair Commissioners, and in October, 1893, he received the Democratic nomination 
for Secretary of State. Mr. Meyer is largely interested in real estate affairs of that beautiful village 
of Elmhurst, Long Island. 

Mr. Meyer was educated at Old Bro(jk School, Maspeth, after which he attended, and was graduated 
from Grammar School No. 40, New York City. After completing his grammar school studies, he 
attended the College of the City of New York for a period of two years. On October 9, 1878, he 
married Miss Cornelia M. Covert, who has borne him five children. 



IffSTORY OF I.OXG /SLAXP Cfl Y 



'79 



Charles G. Covkkt was born at Maspeth, L. I., New York, September 30, 1826, and was a son 
of Underhill and Maria (Johnson) Covert, the latter being a daughter of Charles Johnson, whoresided 
at Maspeth, near Covert Place. For his first wife he married Miss Nancy Leonora Aldrich, Newtown, 
October 29, 1841. Her demise occurred April 8, 1845, having borne him three children as follows: 
Underhill J., born October 19, 1848; Henry Aldrich, born September 29, 1842; and Charles Johnson, 
born March 27, 1845, t'^*^ latter dying in infancy. On March 29, 1850, Mr. Covert married Miss 
Elizabeth Welsh, of New York City, who survives him, and who bore him four children. Mrs. 
Covert was born in New York, December 24, 1827. 

In 1858 Mr. Covert was first chosen superviser. lie was re-elected to the same position many 
times thereafter. 

Alv.\n T. Payne is the leading 
Attorney and one of the most pro- 
gressive citizens of Long Island 
City, who for nearly 30 years has 
been identified with its development 
and prosperity. In political affairs 
he has been very active in serving 
the public, and in 1875 was elected 
to the New York A.ssembly from the 
Second District on the Democratic 
ticket and served during the centen- 
nial year 1876. While a member of 
that body, he was instrumental in 
securing the passage of only such 
bills as served the people, and was 
aggressive in preventing much bad 
legislation. He was the counsel to 
the Corporation of Long Island City 
during the period when the municipal 
affairs were managed upon business 
principles strictly. He ran for the 
ofiice of District Attorney as an 
Independent Democrat in 1880 and 
was defeated by about 500 votes, 
while the regular ticket upon which 
his adversary ran won by over 2,000. 
He was a candidate for the nomina- 
tion for County Judge at the last 
election to fill that office. 

The town of Southhold, SutTolk 
Countj\ where Mr. Payne was born, 
February 16, 1840, was also the birth- 
place of his father, Thomas, and 

grandfather, Captain Benjamin Payne. The latter was a well-to-do farmer in that locality and 
followed his peaceful calling until the outbreak of the war, when he volunteered his services in defence 
of the colonies. From the ranks he rose to the position of Captain of his company and was present 
at many hard-fought engagements, taking a very prominent part in the battle of Long Island. 

The great-grandfather of our subject was Rev. Thomas Payne, M.D., who was born in Columbia 
Co., N. Y., and completed his literary studies in Yale College, where he gained a fine education. In 
addition to engaging in the practice of medicine, he also held the first pastorate of the First 
Presbyterian Church Society organized in the town of Southhold. And, as it is inscribed on his 
tombstone, he ministered to the wants of the soul as well as those of the body. 

The mother of our subject was a daughter of Rev. Ezra Haynes, a Presbyterian Clergyman, and 
a native of Columbia County in this State. Dr. Daniel Haynes,[one of her uncles, was a distinguished 
physician and poet. 




HON. IHEODORE KOEHl.EK. 



,80 HfSTOKY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 

The subject of this sketch was the youngest son and fourth child in the family. At the age of 
twelve years, he was a pupil in Brainerd Academy, Connecticut, and a teacher of primary classes 
therein. Later he became a pupil of Elizabeth Mapes, a renowned teacher on Long Island for many 
years, and of whom it was said that no lady of that period surpassed her in mental acumen. 

Mr. Payne's ambition to enter Yale College was frustrated by his father's reverses in business, 
and at the age of sixteen, he began the study of law in the office of George B. Bradley, of Corning, 
now Justice of the Supreme Court. He was admitted to the bar at the age of twenty-two years and 
shortly afterwards formed a partnership with Henry Sherwood, then a member of Assembly. He was 
elected a Justice of the Peace shortly after attaining his majority. In 1864 he was appointed United 
States Commissioner for the Northern District of New York. 

In 1S67 Mr. Payne removed from Corning to New York City and formed a partnership with his 
brother Oliver. His clientage in Long Island City having increased .so rapidly, because of his residence 
there, he gave up his New York offices and devoted his whole time to his work there. 

The success of Mr. Payne has been gradual and well merited. He is regarded as an able all- 
around lawyer in whose hands the confidences and interests of his clients were never misplaced or 
betrayed. 

He has been retained in many noted cases, among them the Hoffman lunacy proceedings and 
afterwards in maintaining Mrs. Hoffman well. In the latter case he was paid $2,500 for his services 
and he was then only about thirty years olil. 

He was the managing counsel in the first case against Mayor Debevoise, contesting the validity 
of his election. An extraordinary circuit was appointed by Governor Dix for the trial of the action. 
Mr. Payne failed after a two weeks' trial, but subsequently, upon a re-election, Mr. Debevoise was 
ousted in an action brought by :Mr. Payne in behalf of George Petry. He was also successful in the 
Almquist poisoning and divorce cases which for a long time attracted public attention. 

Mr. Payne is counsel to the Queens County Bank. He is a trustee of Long Island City Savings 
Bank and has been its only counsel since its incorporation in 1876, and the bank during that period 
having invested hundreds of thou.sands of dollars upon his advice, never lost a dollar. He has the 
distinction of being the oldest practitioner in the city and the third oldest in the county. His son, 
A. T., Jr., is associated with him in the practice carried on in their commodious offices in the Savings 
Bank Building. His relations to the members of the bar have been cordial and fraternal, and he 
enjoj's the confidence and respect of the Courts. 

Mr. Payne is at the present time the President <if the Oueens County Bar Association. He is a 
member of the Ma.sonic Order, and a member of St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church, of which he 
was for many years a vestryman. He is also a member of the^ Suffolk County Historical Society. In 
politics he is a Democrat. During the political vicissitudes of which the inhabitants of the city have 
passed through, he has been in the front rank of those who have at all times sought the city's welfare. 
There has not been a lime during the period of his residence in this city when it could be truly 
said that he ever violated a trust, either public or private. 

Hon. Lucius N. Manlev is a native of the State of New York, having been born in Addison, 
Steuben County. He is the son of Nehemiah and Jane (Baker) Manley, the former a native of the 
State of New York, while the latter was born in Pennsylvania. The subject of this sketch, who was 
the only child of his parents to reach mature years, continued to live at home until he was sent to 
Alfred Academy, in Allegany County, N. Y., where he completed his education. He then made 
practical use of his knowledge by teaching school. For some time previous to this he had been de- 
sirous of turning his attention to the study of law, and began reading in the office of F. C. and J. W. 
Dinninny. In January, 1S72, he was admitted to the bar in Buft'alo, and in November of that year he 
began the practice of his profession in Long Island City, having entered into a co-partnership with 
A. T. Payne, and which was continued for one year. He then opened an office of his own, and con- 
tinued to transact business alone until 1887, when Charles A. Wadley became associated with him, the 
firm being known as Manley & Wadley. 

Mr. Manley, for a period of four years, held the office of Justice of the Peace. He has also been a 
candidate for Mayor of Long Island City. In the fall of 1893 he was nominated on the Republican 
ticket as a member of the Constitutional Convention, and was elected from the F'irst District. 
He served as one of the committee on charities, and also on the committee on Governor and State 
officers. 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



i8i 



Judge Manley is a member of the (Jueens County Bar Association, of wliicli he was \'ice-Fresiclent 
for some time. He is the second oldest practitioner in Long Island City. He is married and has four 
children. 

Charles A. Wadlkv was born in Clyde, Wayne County, X. V., June 8, 1859, the son of Martin 
and Emily Butler (Wheeler) Wadley, the former a native of South Butler, Wayne County, New York, 
and the latter having been born in Ravenna, Portage County, Ohio. The Wadleys, sometimes spelled 
" Wadleigh," are an old Xcw Hampshire family, tracing their ancestry back to England, from whence 
the first members of that family emigrated to this country over a century and a half ago. Mr. Wadley 
spent the greater part of his childhood with his parents in Clyde, where he was educated in the High 
School of that place. At an early age he learned to work. His school days were often broken in 
ui)on, and interspersed with various avocations ren- 
dered necessary to enable him to support himself. 
At the age of twenty years he entered the law office 
of Vandenberg & Saxton (the latter now being the 
Lieutenant-Governor) as a law student, and con- 
tinued with them until September, 1882, when he 
came to New York City, and accepted a position as 
storekeeper with the firm of John Matthews, man- 
ufacturers of soda water apparatus, and continued 
with them until September, 1884, at which time he 
entered the law office of Judge L. N. Manley. Since 
1883 he has made his home in Long Island City. 
vSeptember 23, 1886, he was admitted to the bar, in 
Brooklyn, and continued with Judge Manley until 
1887, when he was taken into partnership, the firm 
becoming Manley & Wadley, and still continues the 
same. On March i, 1894, Mr. Wadley was appoint- 
ed Assistant District Attorney for Queens County, 
by District Attorney Daniel Noble, which office he 
now fills with general satisfaction. 

On Februai-y 9, 1888, Mr. Wadley married Miss 
Lillie M. Salzman, of Clyde, N. Y. She died in 
Long Island City, February 28, 1892, leaving one 
child. Anna Lillian. On October 30, 1895, Mr. 
Wadley married Miss Eliza Lucretia Bostwick, of 
l'hiladeli)hia, Pa , and now resides at 158 Eleventh 
street. Long Island City. 

Mr. Wadley has always been a Republican, and cast his first vote for James A. Garfield, 
member of Mariner's Lodge, No. 67, F. and A. M., of New York City. 

Judge Daniel Nohle, District Attorney for Queens County, is a native of Long Island, and for 
many years has been one of its leading attorneys. He is active in the ranks of the Democratic party 
and has served in political positions of influence. 

The Noble family is one of the oldest Puritan families in the country. The family progenitor, 
Thomas Noble, landed in Plymouth Colony soon after its settlement in i6io. In the last four gener- 
ations of the family there have been many attorneys. Daniel Noble, great-grandfather of the subject 
of this sketch, was a justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts. Solomon B. Noble, father of 
the subject of this sketch, was born in Williamstown, Massachusetts, May 22, 1819. He attended 
school and fitted himself for college in his native town, and at the age of fourteen entered Williams 
College as a freshman. Notwithstanding his comparative youth, he took high rank, and was graduated 
with honors four years later with the class of '37, being at that time the youngest graduate Williams 
College ever had. For three or four years after finishing his education, Solomon Noble taught school, 
and in 1841 came to New York and entered the law office of the late Judge Betts. In three years he 
completed the course of reading and was admitted to the bar. Deciding to remain in New York, he 
located his office at iii Nassau street. He took a very active interest in politics as a Democrat, and 
became a member of Tammany Hall. He served two terms as a member of the Assembly. For 




JACOl; SiAHI.. 



He is 



i82 H/S'I'OKV OF LO.VG ISLAND CITY. 

nearly a quarter of a century he practiced his profession in New York, and in 1868 he removed to 
Long Island City and occupied a fine mansion in Ravenswood. After practicing for a time, Mr. 
Noble formed a partnership with the late Judge Pearse, and a few years later the two partners were 
candidates against each other for the office of Judge of the City Court, which preceded the present 
Police Court and had superior powers. Mr. Noble was defeated by a very small majority. His next 
partner was Isaac Kugleman, which later on was dissolved. Mr. Noble then continued by himself 
imtil 1884, when he associated his son, Daniel, in business with him. He took a very conspicuous 
part in politics, and the last public office which he held was that of District Attorney, having been 
appointed to that position by his son, the subject of this sketch. In January, 1894, he entered upon 
the duties of his office, and was actively engaged in the same, when stricken with paralysis. He died 
at the home of his son, Daniel, in February, 1895. In 1854 Solomon Noble married Miss Agnes, 
daughter of John Nicolson, a prominent dry goods merchant of New York at that time. Mrs. Noble 
died in Ravenswood in 1874. 

The subject of this sketch, Daniel Noble, was born in Brooklyn, December 25, 1859. He attended 
the private schools of Brooklyn until 1870, at which time he went to Germany to advance his educa- 
tion, remaining there until 1876. On his return he became a student of Columbia College, and soon 
thereafter entered the Columbia Law School, from which he graduated in 1881 with the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws. About that time he entered into business with his father in Long Island City, they 
continued together until the death of the senior member of the firm, since which time our subject has 
practiced his profession alone. In 1892 Mr. Noble was elected judge of Long Island City, and in the 
Fall of 1893 was nominated and elected District Attorney on the Democratic ticket and endorsed by 
the Republican party. 

Judge Noble married Miss Annie Moran, a resident of New York, but a native of Jersey City. 
He has an attractive home at No. 45 Woolsey street. Mr. Noble is a member of the Episcopal Church, 
an influential Ma.son, being a member of Advance Lodge, of Astoria. He is al.so a member of Knick 
erbocker Yacht Club, of College Point; the Williamsburg Yacht Club, of Long Island City; the 
Astoria Athletic Club, the Long Island City Wheelmen, and is Librarian of the Queens County I!ar 
Association. 

Rkv. J.\mks H. MircnF.Li,, Cliancellor of the Diocese of Brooklyn, was born in Astoria, Uueens 
County, N. Y., October 10, 1853. He attended the village school, also public school No. 40, of New 
York City, after which he entered the College of the City of New York. He afterwards attended 
Manhattan College and graduated therefrom with honors in 1874. In September of the same year he 
entered the Grand Seminary of Montreal, where he remained imtil his ordination as Priest, December 
22, 1877. By the permission of the Right Rev. Bishop Loughlin he attached himself for awhile to 
the Sulpician Church of St. Patrick, Montreal, where he labored fourteen months. He was called to 
Brooklyn and made an assistant at the Cathedral on Jay street. He had charge of St. James Young 
Men's Catholic Association. In 1882, at the National Convention held in Boston, he was elected first 
Vice-President of the Catholic Young Men's National Union, and in the following year was elected to 
succeed Bishop Keane, as President of the organization. Father Mitchell held this office until 1891, 
when he declined a renomination. After the death of Bishop Loughlin, Father Mitchell was one of 
those named for the Bishopric, and on the appointment of Bishop McDonnell, he was made Diocesan 
Chancellor, with pastoral care of St. John's Chapel, the nucleus of the new Cathedral. 

Et.iphalet Nott Anable. — New Yorkers are so accustomed to associate with the western end of 
Long Lsland the idea of a great and populous city, that few are able to imagine, and fewer still to 
remember, the time when farms and country residences occupied the site of Long Island City. The 
subject of this .sketch, still in the prime of life, was born in one of the first houses built on the Hunter 
farm (from whence the name " Hunter's Point "), September 1st, 1857. 

His father, Henry Sheldon Anable, was for over thirty years active and prominent in Queens 
County as one of the Committee on Incorporation of Long Island City, a commissioner for survey of 
the city and on the committee on improvements. He also had charge, in trust, of the improvement 
and sale of the Nott Lands, now part of Brooklyn, as attorney for Union College, to which institution 
they had been donated by President Eliphalet Nott. 

The subject of this sketch, being named after President Nott, is naturally :in alumnus of Union, 
having been prepared for college at the Bnwklyn Polytechnic Institute. While in Lolkge he was a 



n/sroRY OF /.ox(; /sf.Axn cfiv 



1 8.1 



member of the Philomathean Society and uf the Kappa Alpha Fraternity. He was jjraduated in the 
class of 1878 with the degree of A. B., and subsequently received that of LL. H. from the Columbia 
C'dllc.ne Law School in 1S80. 

I'jjon the retirement of his father, in 1.S.S4. Mr. Aiiahle succeeded him as attorney for Union 
follej^e, and manajjer of its real estate at Lon<i Island Cit_\', but after three years resumed the jicneral 
practice of law in New York City. 

His surroundinjjs from childhood naturally led him into real estate law, into projects for the 
jiurchase and improvement of land, and into acquisition of familiarity with municipal improvement, 
liie law of assessment and taxation. He has served as counsel for Union College, RoswcU P. Flower 
and other large landowners, in actions brought to test the validity of the tax laws of the city, and 
originated and secured legislation under which a comprehensive plrui of street imjjrovements was carried 
out on Jackson avenue and Vernon avenue, Mr. 
Anable being of counsel to the commission carrying 
on the work. 

Mr. Anable was formerly an active Republican, 
serving for years as a member of the Queens County 
Central Committee and of the (leneral Committee of 
Long Island City. Mr. Anable married, in 1891, a 
daughter of the late Wni. (J. Schenck, of New York, 
and has since taken n\) his residence in New York. 
In 1893 he left the legal profession and became inter- 
ested in the hotel business as proprietor of the West- 
minster Hotel, New York, of which ])r<)i)crty he 
subsequently became the owner. 

He is one of the executive committee of five 
of the New York City Hotel Association— the organ- 
ization through which the associated hotels of tlu 
Metropolis act upon all matters relating to their 
business. A member of the New York Board oi 
Trade anil Transportation. A Trustee of tin 
Hahnemann Hospital of New York and a member of 
the University Club and New York Athletic Club 
and the Association of the Bar of New York City. 
And still largely interested as owner in Long Island 
City real estate. 

Edward J. Knalk.r was born in New York 
City, December 7, 1855. His parents, Oscar and 
Catherine (Yost) Knauer, both natives of Germany, 
the former born in Saxony, and the latter in 

Frankfort-on-the-Main. In 1837 they came to America and located in New York City. The subject 
of this sketch attended the public schools of New York City, graduating from Grammar School No. 
18, and in 1871 he entered the office of the late President Arthur as an errand boy, remaining with 
him and his successors until the present time. In 1882 he became and is now a member of the firm. 
He studied law with Mr. Arthur, and in May, 1877, was admitted to the bar in Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Since the death of Mr. Arthur the firm name has been changed to Knevals & Perry. In August, 1876, 
Mr. Knauer became a resident of Long Island City, and resides in a pleasant home at the corner of 
Woolsey and Franklin streets. His wife was Miss Matilda Leonhard, a native of New York City, and 
a daughter of Frederick W. Leonhard, a merchant of that city. They have three children, Adelaide, 
Ransom and Florence. 

Mr. Knauer is a Republican. He has .served two terms as a member of the Board of Alder- 
men of Long Island City, representing the Fifth Ward, and was President of the Board one 
term. Mr. Knauer was active in the removal of Patrick J. Gleason, in his fight for the office of Maj'or 
of Long Island City, several years ago. He is also active in educational matters, and, in fact, takes a 
deep interest in all that pertains to the advancement and welfare of the city. He is a thirty-second 
degree Mason, being a member of Advance Lodge, No. 635, F. and A. M., and one of its past masters. 




J. i;OI.DNF.R. 



i84 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



He is a member of Mecca Temple, of New York, and John Allen Lodge, A. O. U. W. He is also 
a life member of Astoria Athletic Club, of which for several years he was President, a member of the 
Oueens County Bar Association, besides other numerous societies in Long Island City. 

Chari.es Benner, a prominent lawyer and citizen of Long Island City, was born in Astoria, July 
31, 1S55. His education was obtained in Anthon's and Hull's schools of New York City, Phillips 
Academy, Andover, Mass., and at Yale College, from which he was graduated in 1876. After 
finishing his collegiate course he began the study of law, and has practiced his profession ever since 
his admission to the bar. He has resided in what is now Long Island City all his life. Mr. Benner is 
a member of the University Club of New York City, and St. George's Ejjiscopal Church of Long 
Island City. Politically he is a Republican, and is a member of, and counsel for, the citizens' com- 
mittee of seven, which broke up the Debevoise ring. On October 28, 1885, Mr. Benner married Aliss 
Gertrude Whittemore, to whom five children have been born. 

Cn.AKi.KS T. DiFFv, a prominent lawyer and Justice of the Peace of Long Island City, was born 
in New York City, March 4, 1859. He was the only child of Michael and Maria (Kcon) Duffy, both of 
whom were natives of Ireland, the former having been deceased since 1892, while the latter still 
survives and makes her home with the subject of this sketch. Judge Duffy received his education in 
the public schools of New York, and was for two years a student of the College of the City of New- 
York. When eighteen years of age he left school to engage in business in New York, securing a 

position in the dry goods house of Lord & Taylor, with whom he 
remained in different capacities until twenty-one years old. He then 
entered the law department of the University of New York, gradu- 
ating with the degree of LL.B. After that he was chief clerk in the 
law office of Maclay & Forrest. In 1886 he engaged in business for 
himself, and in connection with his law practice actively engaged 
in the shoe and leather business at No. 271 Broadway, New York. 
In 1885 Mr. Duffy located in Long Island City, and has made that 
city his home ever since. He was married to Miss Ella Keon, to 
whom two children have been born, Arthur and Ferdinand. In 
January, 1893, Mr. Duffy was appointed attorney to the Board of 
Health, and held that position until elected Judge in the fall of 
that year, he having received a majority of sixteen hundred votes. 
He is an active Democrat, and has been President of the Jefferson 
Club of Long Island City for the past two years. He was also 
President of the Ravenswood Boat Club for three years. 

Wiii.iA.M \i. SiK\v.M<r, one of the most widely-known members 

of the legal fraternity of Long Island City, was born in New York 

City, November 9, 1852, where he was educated in Grammar 

School No. 3. After completing his education he began the study of law, a profession he has zeal- 

ousl}' followed ever since his admission to the bar. For the past four years, Mr. Stewart has been a 

resident of Long Island City, where he is well and favorably known. 

Mr. Stewart is a member of Advance Lodge, No. 635, F. and A. M.. Manhattan Cliaptcr, No. 252, 
Royal Arch Masons, Columbian Commandery, No. i. Knights Tem])lar Anciint Accepted Scottish 
Rite, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, U. S. A., Mecca Temple, Ancient ( )r(lcr of the Nobles of the 
Mystic Shrine, American Legion of Honor, Royal Arcanum, and the Order of Workmen. He is a 
Democrat, and was Corporation Counsel for Long Island City, from 1893 to 1S96. He was special 
Counsel for the United States in the French and American Claims Commission during the year of 1882. 
On May 23, 1883, Mr. Stewart married Miss Harriet Godeffroy, to whom four children have been 
born, viz. : William E., Jr., Harriet, Dorothy and Alfred N. 

IkA G. DAkRfN was born in Addison, vSteuben County, N. V,. August 5, 1858. He received his 
early education at Addison Academy, after which he entered the law department of Columbia College, 
graduating thcrefnjm in the Spring of 1880. On December 13, 1879, he was admitted to the bar, being 
at that time twenty-one years of age. During the following four years he spent his time in the oil 
fields of Allegany County, N. Y. In 1886 he removed to Syracuse, and in 1887 to New York City, 
where he has ever since practiced his profession. For the past six years he has resided in I.ong Island 




KORKMAN.N. 



HfSrOKV (V' LONG ISLAND CITY. 1S5 

City. lie is a member of the Lincoln Club and the Ravenswood Boat Cluti. In polities he is a Re- 
])ubliean. On July 28, 1886, Mr. Darrin married Miss Mary S. Davies, of Durhamville, Oneida County, 
X. v., to whom three sons have been born, two of whom are livinjj. 

In 1893, Mr. Darrin was chosen chairman of the Republican (ieneral Committee of Lonjj Island 
City. Prior to his acceptin;^ that position, he was from May, 1892, to September, 1893, counsel to the 
Board of School Buildinj^ Commissioners who had in char^je the finishinjj of the uncompleted school 
biiiUlinns of Lonij- Island Cit\'. 

M\i iiiiu J. SMirii was 1)1 nil in Lohl;' Island City, Au<just 24, 1867. His parents were Matthew 
and Mary (Sheridan) Smith, the subject of this sketch beinjj the eldest of their four children. After 
attendinjj a course in the jjrammar school of his native city. Mr. Smith entered St. Francis Collejje <jf 
Brooklyn, from which institution he was {graduated in 1885, with the dej^ree of Bachelor of Arts. Soon 
thereafter he bejjan the study of law in the office of Judjje (Joldfojjle, of New Y(jrk City, with whom he 
remained for eij^hteen months. In 1S86, or six months previous to Icavinjj Judj^e (loldfogle's office, he 
entered the Ct)lumbia Law School and was jjraduated therefrom in 1888, with the defjrec of Bachelor 
of Laws. After several years of practical work in offices of well-known law firms of New York City, 
Mr. Smith, in 1892, located for practice in Long Island City, opening an office in the Savings Bank 
building. His phenomenal success as a lawyer has brought him many valuable clients. He is coun- 
selor from Long Island City for a number of breweries and also represents the Merchants Protective Asso- 
ciation of Xew York, besides a number of wholesale houses in that city. Mr. Smith is attorney for the 
L'nited States Building and Loan Association of Long Island City. He is a member of the (jueens 
County Bar Association, the JelTerson Club and the Astoria .\thletie Club. Politically, he is a 
1 )emocral. 

I AMiN T. Oi ui I 1 , attorney-at-law, was born in Himter, N. Y., October 20, 1850. He received a 
careful educaiioii at St. Francis College, Brooklyn. After completing his education he began the study 
of law, and since his admission to the bar he has been actively engaged therein ever since. He is a 
member of the Queens County Bar Association, and filled the position of City Clerk under the admin- 
istration of Ma}-or IV'lry. He has been a resident of Long Island City since 1882. 

Tiio.\i,\s Ch.vri.ks K.ADir.N was born in Sullivan County, N. Y., February 24, 1S55, and is a son of 
Nicholas and Bedelia (Carliss) Kadien, both natives of Ireland. Mr. Kadicn spent his early life in 
I'arkville, N. Y., and in addition to a good practical education received in the public schools, he attended 
ICastman's Business College at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and afterwards St. John's College at Fordham. 
I'oUowing this he began the study of law and was admitted to the bar at Ithaca, N. Y., in iSSi. For 
eighteen months he practiced his profession in Denver, Colorado, after which he returned and settled 
in New York City, where he practiced for two years. In 1887 Mr. Kadien located in Long Island 
City, where he has since been engaged in his chosen profession. He is at present Prosecuting Attorney 
and Assistant Counsel to the General Improvement Commission. He is a member of Ravenswood Boat 
Club and the Queens County Bar Association. 

Mr. Kadien married Miss May Denen, February 12, 1889. Three children have been born to their 
marriage. 

Hakrv T. Wi-.kks was born in London, England, March 18, 1866, a son of Rev. William II. Weeks, 
pastor of St. 'I'iiomas' Episcopal Church, Ravenswood. Harry is the third of five children. When he 
was five years of age he was brought by his parents to the United States, and after one year spent in 
Philadelphia and two years in New Jersey, the family located in New York City. At this time the 
subject of this sketch was about eight years of age, and in the public schools of the latter city he received 
a thorough educational training, and graduated from a well-conducted grammar school. After 
completing his education he decided to study law, and entered the office of Owen & Gray, subsequently 
Owen, Gray &• Sturges, at No. 71 Wall street, with whom he remained until he was admitted to the 
bar in Brooklyn, in September, 18S0, after which he continued with them as managing clerk until the 
spring of 1 89 1. He was then with the firm of Benner & Benner, at No. 62 Wall street, in the same 
capacity, meanwhile being engaged in independent practice until April, 1895, when he opened an office 
at No. 95 Fulton avenue, Astoria, and has since been engaged in the active practice of his profession. 
In 1893 Mr. Weeks was appointed by Mayor Sanford as attorney to the Board of Excise. He is a 
member of the Jefferson Club of Long Island City, of Sagamore Lodge, No. 371, F. and A. .M., Amity 
Chapter. No. 160, R. A. M., the Royal .Vrcanum and of St. Thomas' Episcopal Church. 



1 86 



HfSJVRY or J.OXG ISLAND CITY. 



Frkdkrick X. Smi I'll was born in Portland, Maine, December 25, 1861. His fatiier, M. L". Smith, 
was a native of East Hampton, Conn., while his mother, Mary E. (Cobb) Smith, was born near Port- 
land, Maine. Frederick N., our subject, was the youngest of four children born to his parents. His 
family located in Long Island City in 1872. Frederick attended the Fourth Ward school, after which 
lie took a normal course and some years thereafter began the study of law in the office of Foster & 
Stevens of New York. He subsequently entered the law department of Columbia College, and in 
18S4 was awarded a diploma and admitted to the bar. Mr. Smith then entered the office of A. T. 
Payne, and remained with him as managing clerk for seven years. In December, 1892, Mr. Smith 
ojiened an office at No. 77 Jackson avenue. Long Island City, and has since that time successfully 

practiced his profession on his own 
account. For the past eight years 
he has been attorney for the Long- 
Island City Building and Loan Asso- 
ciation, and for the past five years 
has filled the position of Secretary of 
the Queens County Bar Association. 

On January 24, 1888, ^Ir. Smith 
married Miss Annie Patterson, at 
Amsterdam, N. V. Two children 
have been born to ihcir marriage: 
May C. and Oliver X. Mr. Smith is 
a member of the Knights of the 
Ciolclcn Eagle, .Master of Records of 
Slcinway Castle, Xo. 8, anil is a 
nicuihcr of (Jrand Castle, also past 
and district chief of Oueens County. 

J.-\.Mi-s Dowi.iNc. Trask. — The 
Trask family, of linglish extraction, 
was among the pioneer settlers of 
Salcni, Mass. 

James Dowling Trask was born 
in 1S21, at Beverly, Mass., of what 
would have been called "good New 
England stock " when those words 
stood, in a moral and physiological 
sense, for something ver\' like race 
or racial distinction. 

He was the oldest son of Oliver 

and Elizabeth Dowling Trask, and 

inherited intellectual tastes that 

manifested themselves at a very 

earl}' age. lintering Amherst in his 

fourteenth \-ear, at nineteen he 

graduated and chose tiie profession of medicine, studying at first with Dr. II. J. Bowdilch, of 

Boston, later being graduated with high honors from the .Medical liepartnicnt of tiie Xew York 

University in the class of 1844. 

Dr. Martj'n Paine, the President of the Universit)', says of him, that "in the graduating class of 
the University for 1844, Dr. Trask occupied the highest rank," and Dr. Draper, at the time, bore 
witness "that he has passed the most brilliant examination in chemistry that has been known in the 
University." 

In the same year he began the practice of medicine in Brooklyn, X. Y. 

In 1845 I )r. Trask married Miss Jane Cruickshank O'Farrell, daughter of Thomas O'i'arrell, 
K. C. B., and Mary O'Farrell, of Belfast, Ireland. 

In 1847 he yielded to the urgent entreaties of friends and was induced to leave Brooklyn, to accept 
a practice at White Plains, X. Y. The heroism of the man, and his calm faith in following liis sense 




JiillN W. riLIRV. 



Ills n Vv' y ' i V-" /, ONG isl a nd city. 187 

of duty, are nobly shown in liis record at tliis time. An epidemic of (typhus) ship-fever liad broken out 
in the Wliite Plains district. One of the foremost jihysicians. Dr. Roe, had lost his life by the disorder. 
Dr. Trask was importuned by those who had known and loved Dr. Roe to come to their sutcor. He 
quickly won the love and confidence of the community. 

In the midst of a laborious country practice, he found time for critical and orij>:inal research, and 
wrote valuable papers which bnjujjht him at once into the notice of the medical world. 

The prize of the American Medical Association was voted to him in 1S55, for his " I*'ssay on the 
Statistics of Placenta Previa and Rupture of the Uterus." 

Removinjj' to New York City in the Sprinjj of 1859, Dr. Trask, in the fall of that year, became a 
resident of Astoria, Lonjjf Island, which was his home thereafter. 

The strong' inducement that finally decided this determination seems to be found in his love of 
outdoors, and every living thing-. The short experience of life in a city did not atone for the loss of 
llie life among trees and fiowcrs that he loved so dearly. The close pro.ximity of New York and Hrook- 
lyn kept him in touch with the leaders of his profession, who eagerly welcomed him back, and he 
accepted the chair of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children in the Long Island College 
Hospital, of which he was a founder. After four years of service in this capacity, his professional 
duties necessitated his retirement. 

^lore than once the opportunity to change to the city practitioner was olTcred. notably, when he 
was urged to accept the chair of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children at the New York Uni- 
versity, his alma mater. His refusal was earnestly combated by the Faculty, and particularly by Dr. 
dunning S. Bedford, the retiring professor. 

He was a Founder and Fellow of the American (lynecological Society, and President of the Queens 
County Medical Society, also a member of the Oucens County Visiting Committee. At the time of his 
death, he was deeply interested in the founding of a Home for children. 

He was a member of the Citizens' Committee of Long Island City from its start. 

A notice of this part of his life says: "By his coolness and courage, and by the wisdom of his 
counsel at every turn in the many perplexities and discouraging situations in which the members of tlie 
committee found themselves, during the long and memorable contest with the 'Ring,' Dr. Trask did 
\'atiant and invaluable service, that a grateful public will not soon forget." 

Mr. Trask's life as revealed in letters, from boyhood onward, showed absolute unity of purpose. 
This was the keynote of his character. L^ncompromising toward evil or wrong, he was always charit- 
able and kindly in his judgments. " Always give him the benefit of the d(niht " when the short comings 
of a delinquent were under discussion. 

At the time of his death he was Senior Warden of St. George's Protestant lC|)iscopal Church at 
Astoria. 

His love of home, which was always strong in him, was intensitied in thowi.se and loving father, 
and companion of his children. 

At Amherst College he was happy in the friendship of Dr. lidward Hitchcock. i)y whom his 
inborn love for nature was stimulated and developed. He then began that research into the natural 
sciences, that through his whole life afforded relaxation to the tired brain. 

For a number of years his health, at no time robust, had been failing, and a rest became a neces- 
sity ; he, however, accomplished some of the best work of his life during these years. 

He died after a brief illness September 2, 1883. 

His widow, two sons and a daughter survived him. 

Xo one ever exemplified more fully than Dr. Trask the words of a wise and holy man — "it is 
impossible to estimate the large minded wisdom, the common sense, and the peculiar priestly kindness 
of an intelligent physician," 

Rarely does one see or hear of a man so beloved by all sorts and conditions of men, and the secret 
was the reality of his own nature; he was what he seemed to be. The rule of his life was love to God 
and man. His influence for good no one can tell, and many a soul to whom he gave the ministrations 
of his profession, blesses him for the strength and consolation meted to his needs. 

The Ni-if York Medical Rironl says: "It is seldom that the death of a physician is looked upon 
as a public affliction by the community in which he has labored. So it was, however, in the case of 
the late lamented Dr. Trask. The rich and poor crowded the church to pay their last tribute of 
respect to one who had served them so faithfully in life. There was an intensity of grief tliat is very 



iSS 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



rarelj- witnessed. The several departments of the city government, the citizens' committee of fifty, 
the Law and Order Society, and various other bodies were represented. Distinguished members of 
the medical profession from New York City and other parts of the State were present. As an author, 
practitioner, citizen and Christian he did his work effectively, quietly, conscientiously and for the 
' work's sake '. " 

Mkxzo W. Hkkriman, M.D., visiting physician to St. John's Hospital, cx-police surgeon of Long- 
Island City, and a general practitioner with office at No. 330 Steinway avenue, and one of the most 
influential and prominent physicians and surgeons of Queens County, was born in Syracuse, N. Y., in 
1857, being the son of Richard and Alvirah (Hartson) Herriman, natives respectively of New Jersey 
and Schuyler Lake, N. Y. The subject of this sketch is the eldest child of his parents, and the only 
one who adopted a profession. He attended school for a number of years, and was graduated in 1877, 
from the vSyracuse High School. The year after his graduation he entered the medical department of 
the University of Syracuse, and remained there until 1881, when he was given the degree of M.D. He 
began the practice of his profession in his native city, and after about eight months received an offer 
from a relative, Dr. J. A. Lidcll, to come to New York, which he did. In 1885 he was appointed 

surgeon for the United States and Brazil Steamship Com- 
pany, which position he held for four years, meantime 
making nine or ten trips each 3'ear between New York and 
Rio Janeiro. Resigning in 1889, he again began practice in 
New York City, but after six months, in September of that 
year, he removed to Long Island City and opened an office 
where lie has since conducted a general practice. While he 
has l)ccn \x'rv successful in every line, his specialty is the 
treatment of diseases of children, in which his skill is 
imiversally recognized. While in Syracuse, he was physician 
in the dispensary connected with the tmiversity of that place. 
vSince i8go he has been connected with St. John's Hospital, 
and from 1892 to i8g6 he held the position of police surgeon. 
In the Long Island City Medical Society he is a charter 
member, and is also a member of the Queens County 
Medical Society. Dr. Ilcrrinian's family consists of his wife 
and his son Rudolph. His wife, whose maiden name was 
Josephene Hirsch, was born in Austria, and who, while in 
girlhood came to this country with her parents, settling in 
New York City. Doctor Herriman is a member of Island 
City Lodge, No. 586, I*", and A. M., Herriman Lodge, 
A. < ). U. W., Order of Chosen Friends and Knights and 
Ladies of Honor, Enterprise Lodge, K. P., No. 228, Knights and Ladies of the (iolden Star. O. F. S. 
and others, for all of which he is medical examiner. He is identified with the Church of tlic Redeemer. 

Hk.njamin Grinnell Stron'(;, M.D., Coroner of Queens County, is a physician of prominent 
standing. He was born in Reading, Hillsdale Coimty, Michigan, September 19, i860, and has resided 
in Long Island City for the past seven years, having removed from his native state in 1889. Dr. 
Strong is a descendant from Puritan stock and is a member of the seventh generation from John 
Strong, the first of the family in America. His father. Dr. Asahel B. Strong, was born at Hunts- 
burg, Ohio, and was a physician of great prominence in the section in which he resided. Dr. Strong's 
mother, who.se maiden name was Cornelia Grinnell, was a native of Evans Hills, N. Y., whose family 
was prominent in that section. When eighteen years of age. Dr. Strong graduated from the high 
school of his native town. He at once began his own support by clerking in a drug store in Reading, 
a position he held until 1880, at which time he entered the medical department of the Univer.sity of 
Michigan at Ann Arbor, and was graduated therefrom three years later. He then entered into busi- 
ness with his father, and when tlie latter died he succeeded to his practice. In 1889, afterhis removal 
to Long Island City, wishing to gain more information relating to his profession, he took a course in 
the Post Graduate School of New York City, and in June of that year succeeded to the practice of 
Dr. Hitchcock, and has since continued at the old office. No. 434 Jackson avenue. 




>RGF. 11. lAV.MAK. 



f/ISTOKY OF LONG ISLAND CI I Y. 189 

In the fall of 1893, Doctor Strong was elected to the office of County Coroner on the Republican 
ticket. He has ever since filled that position with the greatest satisfaction. In November, 1896, he 
was re-elected to the same position by a plurality of 5,859. 

In 1884, at Indianapolis, Ind., Dr. Strong was united in marriage to Miss Alice Bartholomew, a 
native of Michigan. One child, a daughter, has been the fruit oi their union. 

Dr. Strong is a member of Island City Lodge and Encampment, I. O. O. F. He is also a Mason 
of iiigh degree and belongs to Banner Chapter. He is a Royal Arch Mason and was made Knight 
Templar in Hillsdale. He is a prominent member of the Knights of Pythias and of the Order of 
Sons of Veterans. 

William J. BfRXKTT, M.D., was born in Perrinton, X. V., but has been a resident of Long Island 
City for twenty-two years. He received his rudimentary education in common schools, after which he 
attended and was graduated from the University of Michigan. On February 13, 1879, he married 
Miss Clara Frick. Three children have been born to the union, only one living. Dr. Burnett has 
filled a number of important positions. He is Health Officer, County Physician, and iias been Com- 
missioner of Education. His long successful career in Long Island City has iilaceil iiim at the head 
of his profession. 

(Jkorgf. Forbks, M.I)., was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., November 5, 1.S67. His father, (leorge 
Forbes, was a native of Scotland, while his mother, Sarah A. (Johnson), was born in Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y. Dr. Forbes attended the public schools of Brooklyn until he was thirteen years of age, at 
which time he entered the drug store of his brother Henry. After following this business for four 
years he decided to adopt the medical profession. In the meantime he went to Astoria, and began 
reading medicine in the office of his brother-in-law, Dr. Neil Fitch. He afterwards entered the 
medical department of the University of New York, and in 1889 he was graduated therefrom. He 
then located in Ravenswood, where he maintains his office and residence at No. 693 \"ernon avenue. 
On July 15, 1891, Dr. Forbes married Miss Norine Cadmus, of Brooklyn. Two children have been 
born to them, Ghidys and Mildred. In politics Dr. Forbes is a Democrat. He is a member of the 
Jefferson Club of Long Island City, American Legion of Honor and the Long Island City and Queens 
County Medical Societies. He also attends the Episcopal Church. Dr. Forbes was appointed County 
Physician and Surgeon August 9, 1896. 

Robert F. MaiiF.arlane, M.D., was born in May, 1842, in Orleans County, X. Y., and is of 
Scotch parentage. His father was for many years editor of the Sciciiiific American. The subject of 
this sketch was the eldest in a family of five children, who grew to mature years. He attended the 
schools of Brooklyn and New York, and was graduated from the \Villiamsburg school of the latter 
citj' in 1854. He then accepted a position in the dry goods business, in v,-hich he continued until the 
breaking out of the war, at which time he volunteered and became a member of the Sevent}'-ninth 
New York Highlanders. He later aided in the organization of Company K, Twelfth New York State 
Militia, and was mustered into service as Second Lieutenant. At the expiration of his service he was 
honorably discharged. On his return home he continued in mercantile business until 1S84, at which 
time he began to take a thorough course in medicine. He entered the Albany Medical College, from 
which he was graduated in 1888, having been valedictorian of the occasion. After spending two 
years abroad, in 1890 he returned to America, locating for one year in Albany. At the expiration of 
that time. Dr. MacFarlane removed to Long Island City, succeeding to the practice of Dr. Lyttle. In 
1877 he married Miss Eleanor Moore, to whom one child has been born. Dr. MacFarlane is a member 
of the Long Island City and the Oueens County Medical Societies, being \'ice-President of the latter. 
He is a Master Mason, being a member of Long Island City Lodge, No. 586. 

John Francis Birns, M.D., was born in New York City, December 5, 1S63. He is a graduate 
of medicine, having received his diploma in 1889 at the University of New York. In 1892 he began 
his medical practice in Long Island City, where he has been actively engaged ever since. He is resi- 
dent physician and surgeon at City Hospital of New York, also physician at New York Maternitj' 
Hospital, also Assistant Medical Superintendent of Fort Hamilton Asylum, is visiting surgeon to St. 
John's Hospital, a member of the American Medical Association, and an active member of the Queens 
County and Long Island City Medical Societies. He is a regular contributor to a number of medical 
publications, including the AVw York Medical Journal and Record. 



190 



/ffSrOKY OF LONG fSLAXD CITY. 



Francis E. Bricxxax, M. U., was born at Greenpi)rt, L. I., January 28, 1873. He was formerly 
connected with the Metropolitan Hospital of New York City. When a lad of nine years he was sent to 
New York City, that he might complete his education. He first attended Grammar School No. 49 in 
East Thirty-seventh street, and on beinjf jjraduated therefrom, in 1890, was admitted to the College of 
the City of New York. After carrying on his studies in this institution for one year, he decided that he 
would follow a professional life, and in the fall of 1891 he entered the New York Homeopathic Medical 
College, where he pursued the entire course, graduating May 3, 1894. As a result of the competitive 
examination held May 5, he received the appointment as jimior assistant to one of the physicians of the 
Metropolitan Hospital. After a period of six months he was promoted to senior assistant, and again at 
the expiration of six months was made house physician. While in charge of the hospital, Dr. Brennan 
performed a greater number of operations than any of his predecessors, for during that time he had two 
hundred and thirteen patients o])crated upon (his nearest competitor having operated upon but 120). 
On retiring from the hospital, December i, 1895, he was awarded a diploma in recognition of the ex- 
cellent work he had done while in charge of the institution. He then began practice in Long Island 

City, opening an office at No. 76 East avenue. He is the 
only homeo]xithic physician in the Hunter's Point district, 
and he has a large and lucrative practice. 

Although Dr. Brennan was connected with the ^Metro- 
politan Hos]Mtal in New York, he has made his home in 
Long Island City since 1883. He is a mcmberof the Alumni 
Medical Society, and has contributed many articles of interest 
and great value to this body. He is also a member oi the 
Alumni Society of the Ward's Island — Metropolitan Hospital. 
He is medical commissioner to the Board of Health of Long 
Island City. Tlie doctor is also a member of the Faculty 
of the Metropolitan Post-Graduate School of Medicine, New 
York City, being assistant clinician to the followiig chairs: 
Dermatology, Rhinology, Laryngolog)-, Therapy and Physical 
Diagnosis. The parents of Dr. Brennan were Paul and Mary 
(Magee) Brennan, natives of Ireland, who are now living in 
Lnng Island City. 

Ci.AKF.xcK N. Pi. A 11, A.l!., M.l)., was born in New 
Haven, October 29, 1864, and is a son of Charles N. and 
Abigail (Prindle) Piatt, both being natives of Connecticut. 
Dr. Piatt attended the ]niblic schools of his native city, 
preparing for college. I n j .S80 he entered Yale, and four 
years later was graduated therefrom with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. In 1885 he became a 
student in the Homeopathic Medical College of New York City, and after completing the course in i888, 
had conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Medicine. After practicing his profession for a short 
time in Brooklyn, in the Spring of 18S9, he located in Asi<iria, where he succeeded to the practice of 
Dr. Vandenburg. 

On December 20, 188S, Dr. Plait married Miss Callicrinc Meeker, of Hritlgcporl, Conn. He is a 
member of the Royal Arcanum, and is examining physician uf Astoria Council He has been visiting 
physician to the Astoria Hospital since its estalilishmenl. He is a member of the New York Homeo- 
pathic Medical Society, and of St. (Jeorge's Episcopal Church. 

GoDi-KKV L. MiCHox, A.B., M.D., was born in the Province of Ouebec, Canada, in 1863, while liis 
mother was visiting there. He was reared in Troy, N. Y., where his parents removed about 1854. He 
attended the public schools until he was twelve years old, after which he was placed in the Laval Cni- 
versity, Quebec, and was graduated therefrom in 1884 with the degree of A. B. Soon after finishing 
his literary course, he began the study of medicine, and after a thorough course he was graduated from 
the medical department of the University of the City of New York in 1887, as an M. D. After practic- 
ing his profession for several years in New York, he located in Astoria in 1895. where he now enjoys a 
lucrative and growing practice. He was for one year physician to Riverside Hospital at North Brother 
Island, an instituti<in for contagious diseases. In New York, Dr. Miehon married Miss Mary Fallon, to 
whom one child (now deceased) was born in 1894. 





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IKEUERICK I'. MUKKIS. 



Jf/STOKV OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 191 

RonERT Swain Prentiss, M.D., a prominent medical practitioner of Astoria, Long Island City, 
was born in New London, Conn., October 8, 1842. He is descended on his mother's side from Ben- 
jamin Franklin, his maternal jjrandmother havinj^ been a jjrand-niece. On his father's side he is 
ilescendcd from the well-known Prentiss family, who settled in New London, Conn., in 1631. Dr. 
Prentiss received a careful education in the Bartlett Hijjh School of his native city, and was valedic- 
torian of his class in 1856. After completinjj his studies, he decided to study medicine and surj^ery. 
In 1870 he received his diploma from the College of Physicians of New York Cit^^ and immediately 
bcuan the practice of his chosen profession, and for the past six years he has been a resident of Long 
Island City, now residing at No. 65 Remsen sti^eet. 

On September 27, 1879, Dr. Prentiss married Miss MadalineC. Johnson, of New York City. She 
died April 2, 188S. In 1839, he married iiis present wife, who was a Miss Ella Forfey, a member of 
a prominent family of Nashville, Tenn. Dr. Prentiss has three children living and one deceased. 

1 1\\ Prentiss is one of the foremost, as well as one of the most popular practitioners in Long Island 
C\y\. In a comparatively few years he has attained a professional position for which many strive 
throughout a lifetime. He is a non-resident member of the New York County Medical Association, 
and ex-member of the New York Medical Society. 

Dr. Julius M. Stebbins, of Astoria, has been a prosperous dentist in that portion of Long Island 
City for the past eleven years. He is about forty years of age, and is of English extraction. His 
ancestors on the paternal side came to this country early in the eighteenth century. His great grand- 
father Stebbins was bor-n in Massachusetts about the year 1762; his grandfather Stebbins was born in 
the same State in 1792, while his father. Dr. J. Monroe Stebbins, was born in New York City, and was a 
prominent physician and surgeon of his day. His mother, who was Miss Susan B. Otis, was born in 
Wilbraham, Mass., and was a student of Wilbraham Seminar)'. On his maternal side his ancestors 
were also of English origin, and came to this country as early as the seventeenth century. 

Dr.. Julius M. Stebbins is a nephew of the late Dr. William K. Otis (his mother's brother), who 
was a prominent physician and surgeon; he is also a nephew of the late Albert G. Houghton, of the 
tirin of Houghton, Mifflin & Co., publishers. His uncle, George H. Stebbins, was an early member 
of the American Institute and also a member of the Historical Society of the Brooklyn Institute. 

After leaving the public school, the subject of our sketch took a course at Eastman's Business 
College, in Pouglikeepsie, and then commenced the study of dentistry. After graduating, he was ap- 
pointed demonstrator at the New York College of Dentistry; later, superintendent of the infirmary 
of the college, after which he became clinical professor of the same institution, and dental surgeon to 
the New York Ear and Metropolitan Dispensaries. 

Dr. Stebbins has received several patents from the United States Government on an electric 
pneumatic engine and gold filling apparatus, and on electric batteries. These batteries can be used in 
connection with other appliances to relieve pain in dental operations. There has also been issued to 
him patents on his electric batteries from the governments of Canada, Great Britain, France, Germany, 
Belgium and Austro-IIungary. He anticipates the most successful results in dentistry from the 
future use of electricity in various ways. Dr. Stebbins is the author of "Care of the Teeth at Home 
or in Emergencies," and is the inventor of the well-known dentifrice " Shelline. " 

Dr. Stebbins assisted the late Dr. Samuel Sexton in his work relating to dental irritation and its 
ctfects on the hearing of young children. He also made several hundred examinations and took 
impressions of children's teeth, the greater portion of whose teeth were captious and erupting. From 
these impressions casts were made by Dr. Stebbins and his brother (the latter being a student in den- 
tistry). These casts, with a history and description of each case, were used for several years by Dr. 
Sexton in his writings and in books on aural surgery. Through Dr. Sexton's influence these casts 
and descriptions were finally placed in the Smithsonian Institute at Washington. That gentleman 
kindly gave Dr. Stebbins credit for his services. 

Dr Stebbins is not a politician or a club man, and is seldom seen out of his place of business. 
After office hours he devotes most of his time to study and to several inventions he has in hand, one 
of which is an improvement to be used wlien administering nitrous oxide gas in extracting teeth ; 
another being an ingenious arrangement to relieve the heating of rubber plates which come in contact 
with the gums oi- the mucous membrane of the mouth. 

A visit to his workshop, or den, as he calls it, is of much interest. It is a large room, the walls of 
which are lined with shelves containing numerous books and various tools to facilitate the work he has 



1 9-' 



H/S'J'ORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY 




i 



\ 



in hand. A turning lathe and other machinery with many ingenious appliances, at much cost of time 
and monev, have been added as they were found necessary to the construction of his inventions in 
dentistry and other uses. In spite of the long hours devoted to his large dental practice and in his 
experimental laboratory, he enjoys good health and retains youthful appearance for his years. He 
always wears a gracious smile, and has a courtly word for his friends and patrons, and proclaims the 
thought that is uppermost without fear or favor. 

P. H. BuMSTER, M. D., is the youngest son of Matthew and Hannah Bumstcr, both natives of 
Ireland. Dr. Bumster was educated at the public school of Allentown, Monmouth County, New Jersey, 
and after graduating therefrom entered into the cigar manufacturing business, at Allentown, which 
business he followed successfully for si.x years, when he came to New York City. He long had a desire 
to study medicine, and in 1890 he entered the Medical Department of the University of the City of 
New York, and was graduated in April, 1895, after an honorable collegiate career. The same year he 
was appointed from that institution to the position of House Surgeon of St. John's Hospital, Long 
Island City, in which capacity he served for eighteen months. At the exjjiration of that time he 
decided to locate here for the practice of his profession, and established an office at 143 Fifth street, his 
present location. Dr. Bumster is visiting physician to St. John's Hospital, and was for a time assistant 

physician to Demilt Hospital, New York City. He is a 
charter member of Long Island City Medical Society, a 
member of Queens Coimty Medical Society, and is Exam- 

rjB|k ining Physician for the Prudential Insurance Company, also 

^^^ for the New York Life Insurance Company. 

^^ jdiiN J. Mi:Gr.-\xe was born in Cambridge, Washington 

W 1^ Countv, N. \'., November 28, 1850. In i860 his father 

removed with his famil}' to Troy, N. Y., where our subject 
received his education. At the age of sixteen he became a 
fireman on the N. Y. C. & H. R. R.R., and when twenty 
years old he began running a passenger locomotive between 
Troy and Albany. Later on he came to New York Cit}", 
and when he was twenty-two years of age, he received a 
clerkship appointment in the New York Post Office. One 
year later he was promoted to the jiosition of Chief Clerk in 
charge of the Newspaper Department. In 1876, on account 
of ill-health he resigned that position and accepted another 
in the capacity of engineer on the Manhattan Elevated Rail- 
road, where he remained eleven years. In 1889 Mr. 
;\Ic(]ranc, without any previous experience, engaged in the 
AuiJusT iiKATii. jewelry business at 187 Broadway, New York, and in this 

latter business he has made a phenomenal success. For the 
past ten years he has resided in Long Island City, where he is a large real estate owner. His properties 
consist of several houses and over one hundred building lots, most all of which are located in the 
vicinity t)f the proposed entrance to the Blackwell's Island Bridge. 

Mr. Mcdrane organized the Railroad Brotherhood Savings and Building ^Vssociation about five 
years ago, and has been its treasurer ever since. He has received for the association over §200,000, 
and its standing in New York City is of the best. He was elected Mce-President of the United States 
Watch Company, of Waltham, Mass., two years ago, and on his suggestion the first seventeen jeweled 
double-rolled large size watches were made. Since then, nearly all the watch companies imitated the 
United States Company in the manufacture of their watches. 

Mr. Mc(irane has displayed much ingenuity as an inventor, and has taken out on various inventions 
six patents, besides having applied for patents on two others on acetyline gas generators, from which an 
exhibition of light has already been shown at his residence and in his New York office. 

Mr. Mcfirane was for two consecutive years President of the Catholic Benevolent Legion. When 
he assumed charge of that organization it had but eight members, and at the time he withdrew it had 
over one hundred. He organized and was the first President of the Catholic Club, a now prosperous 
organization of Long Island City, having a large Tuembershi]). Politically he has always been a Repub- 



HfS TOR \ ■ OF L ON a IS LA ND CI TV. > 93 

lican, but has never been in sympathy with rings of any kind or their henchmen. He has never sought 
political honors of any kind, and has on two occasions refused commissioncrships on the citv boards. In 
1873 he married Miss Mary E. Sullivan, a native of Troy, X. Y. Ten children have l)ecn the fruit of 
their union, six of whom are living. 

Thkodore Koehi.kr, legislator, eldest son of C. C. T. Koehler and Dorothee von Koepcke, was 
born in the Province of Schle.swig-Holstein, July 30, 1856. He is descended from ancestors noted for 
military spirit and bravery, his grandfather having been knighted by Frederick VII, King of Den- 
mark, and his father decorated with the order of the Iron Cross. 

In April, 1871, he entered an apprenticeslii]) with one of tlie largest business houses in Leubeck, 
where he continued until November, 1875. Having completed this preparatory stage, hescrved forafew 
months with the same house, then enlisted in the army, but subsequently (in 1876), he secured a release 
from his service obligation and came to America. He landed in Philadelphia with the expectation of 
joining a friend, but that friend having died in South America, the youthful stranger was thrown entirely 
upon his own resources in a strange land. With a bravery and pluck worthy of his subsequent 
achievements he sought promiscuous employment for the sake of a livelihood, and after a few years ot 
toil and perseverance found himself in a position to achieve greater things. In 1883 he accepted an 
ofter from an English firm to represent them in South America, and joined an exploring expedition 
in the course of which he met with many thrilling experiences and on several occasions narrowly escaped 
with his life. Returning to the United States at the end of his engagement in 1884, he represented the 
firm at the New Orleans Cotton Exposition. On returning to New York at the close of the exposition 
he accepted a position as manager of a large wholesale house. In the fall of 1S85, an offer was made 
him of a head bookkecpership of one of the most important and far-reaching industries of Long Island 
City. This position was held for about ten years, during which time a wide reputation was gained as 
an expert accountant and he was frequently called upon to adjust the books of corporations and business 
firms in the vicinity of New York, and also to teach private classes. When the examination of the 
books of the various departments of Long Island City needed a thoroughly competent expert, the 
Common Council called upon Mr. Koclilcr to undertake the work, which he is still conducting to tlicir 
entire satisfaction. 

Up to this time the subject of this sketch had not been regarded as " in politics," but his merits as 
a keen business man were recognized, and being placed in nomination to represent Long Island City in 
the Queens County Board of Supervisors, he was triumphantly elected. On taking his seat he was 
accorded, by common consent, a foremost place in the councils of the board, although its youngest 
member, and throughout his entire term proved himself faithful, painstaking and hardworking. Among 
other things he accomplished the transforming of the unsightly spot of ground immediately in front of 
the Court House into a well laid-out park. He also worked hard for the construction of a tunnel under 
Newtown Creek as a means of permanent communication between Brooklyn and Long Island City. 
The question having become a burning issue, was taken to the polls, and Mr. Koehler, being re-nomi- 
nated for a second term, was elected by a large majority. A bill was passed by the Legislature author- 
izing the construction of the tunnel, but it was vetoed by the Governor. He also did efficient service in 
the cause of good roads, reducing the whole matter to a system, which, if carried out, would make the 
county the envy of the entire state. It is worthy of mention that he was the only supervisor ever 
elected from Long Island City who served three consecutive years. 

So well did Mr. Koehler serve his constituency in this office, that in the autumn of 1895, he was 
elected to the State Senate by a splendid majority over his Republican competitor, who was a candidate 
to succeed himself, 'I'hc honor was unicpie on account of the three years duration of his term as pro- 
vided bv the constitution of 1894, making him the only Senator from the Second Senatorial District 
who will ever serve for the same length of time. Likewise he was the first Senator ever chosen from 
Long Island City and the first to represent the Island District composed of Queens County alone. In 
this bodv he was recognized as a rising man, and at once assigned by Lieutenant-Governor Saxton to 
membership in three of the most responsible committees, in which he became an active worker. Rep- 
resenting one of the most populous and intelligent districts in the state, made up of many and diversi- 
fied interests, he has been called upon to present and champion many bills; so that no more busy man 
than he could be found at Albany, and considering that he belonged to the minority, he has been emi- 
nentlv successful in the major portion of his efforts. Mr. Koehler is eminently a man of the people, 
thoroughlv self-made and has a large share of that determination, push and pluck, which make him a 



194 



HISTORY OF LONG J>>LAND CITY. 



man of mark. When it is remembered that fully one-half of his life was spent upon a foreign soil, that 
here he bej^an with nothinjf, and for many years waged a hard battle with poverty, he appears as a 
veritable marvel among men. By the people of his distriet he is regarded as being thoroughh- trust- 
worthy, holding sacred his word once pledged, and above all methods of deceit to gain friendship, polit- 
ical or otherwise. 

In the section of Long Island City known as Steinway, he has a beautiful home where he spends 
his time when not engrossed with business cares. Here, with his most estimable and gifted wife, he 
entertains with a liberal hand his large circle of friends and admirers, continually showing the nobility 
of true manhood, and the full strength of an ideal citizen. He was married in 1877 to Bernardine 
Helmcke of New Jersey. 

Mr. Koehler is a member of the Advance Lodge, No. 618, of F. and A. M., Astoria; Mecca 
Temple of the Mystic Shrine; the L. I. City Wheelmen; the Century Wheelmen of New York City; 
the Institute of Accounts, New York City; the Astoria Maenncrchor, Harmonic and Arion Sing-ing 
Societies, and various other organizations. 

Hon. Jacoi! Stahl was born in Bavaria, (jermany, July 25, 1840. His parents were Jacob and 
Mary (Franz) Stahl. Our subject attended the scliool in his native place until he was fourteen years 

old, when he began working with his father, learning the 
mason's trade. He so continued until nearly his twentieth 
birthday, when, May 7, i860, he sailed for America. After 
a short stay in New York City, he located in what is now 
Long Island City. Four years later he went to Williams- 
burg, where he established a milk route, running this 
business for one year on his own account. At the end of 
that time he sold out, and returned to Long Island City and 
engaged in farming. After following farming for four 
years he decided to go into the hotel business, and for five 
years conducted the Fifth Ward Hotel. In 1894 he disposed 
of his hotel interest, and engaged in his present business, 
that of undertaking. 

In 1864 Mr. Stahl married Miss Margaretta Berbrich, 

of Astoria. Mr. Stahl was elected Alderman at large in 

1876, and remained such until 1878. In 1895 he was elected 

-Assemblyman on the Democratic ticket to seive two years. 

He is a member of the Odd Fellows, the A. O. V. W., 

the Catholic Benevolent Legion, the Turners' Society, the 

I'rohsinn Singing Society, Jefferson Club, St. Joseph's 

Catholic Church, and the County Undertakers' and Liverv 

Association. 

Matthew J. Goldnek, President of the Improvement Commission of Long Island City, was born 

in New York City, July 29, 1856. His father, Anthony Goldner, was a native of Germany, and came 

to America in 1852. 

After attending the public schools for a time, our subject was sent to De La Salle Institute in New 
York City, where he completed his studies when sixteen years of age. He then entered his father's 
marble works, and when twenty-five he was taken in as a full partner, the firm becoming A. Goldner 
& Son. They continued to operate together until January, 1886, when the junior member disposed of 
his interest in the business, owing to the fact that he had been appointed Under Sheriff to John J. 
Mitchell. He served in that capacity for three years. In 1888 he received the nomination for Sheriff 
on the Democratic ticket. He was elected, and in January, the following year, he took the oath of 
office, his term expiring in 1892. On January 20, 1893, he was appointed City Clerk by Mayor 
Sanford. He continued to fill the latter position until July 20, 1895, when he resigned to accept the 
presidency of the Improvement Commission of Long Island City. 

Mr. Goldner has erected several residences in the upper First Ward of Long Island City, and with 
his family resides at No. 153 Eleventh Street. He was married in New York City to Miss Georgietta 
Mahler. Me has always been interested in politics, and is at present a member of the Democratic 
County Committee of Queens County, and for the past fifteen years he has been a member of the Long 




JULIUS VON HUNERbEIN. 



//AS" Ti Vv? Y OF L ONG /SI. AND CITY. 195 

Island C'ity (rencral Democratic Committee. He has been School Commissioner from the Second 
Wan!, having served in 1883 and '84. He is a member of the A. O. U. W. and St. Mary's Catholic 

Cluircb. 

Ill Nkv C. KdKi MANN. SajxTvisor from Lonjr Island City, is of (Jcrman descent, as his name indi- 
cates, but he is a native of this city, ha\-injif been born in Astoria, November 13. i860. He received 
his early education in the old villaj^e school that since the incorporation of the city has been known as 
the Fourth Ward School. There was no high school at that time in Astoria, and on leaving the public 
school he pursued his advanced studies in the parochial school connected with the (Jerman Second 
Reformed Church, which was under the care of the Rev. C. I). F. Sleinfuhrer, who was then, as now. 
pastor of that cluirch. 

Leaving school at the age of fifteen, Mr. Korfmann started out to make his own living. He secured 
a position in Muchmore's drug store, where he remained five years. At the end of that time he gave 
u]) his position to accept a more lucrative one in the wholesale drug and chemical house of W. H. 
Schieffelin & Co., corner of Beekman and William streets. New York, the best known drug firm in the 
business. Mr. Korfmann's jjosition was in the laboratorv. 

On account of ilJ health produced by handling chemicals, he had to resign his charge and accept a 
clerical position in the City Treasurer's office. Mr. F. W. Bleckwenn was City Treasurer at that time. 
In September following Mr. Korfmann was appointed Deputy City Treasurer, and held the office con- 
tinuously until the close of 1894, when Mr. Bleckwenn retired from the office. In the following month 
he was appointed chief bookkeeper and cashier in the Water Department, and held that position up to 
December 31, 1895. 

Mr. Korfmann is a member of the \'eteran Firemen's Association. In 1881 he joined Mohawk 
Hose Company, and continued as a member up to the time of the disbandnient of the comjjany to 
make way for the paid fire department in the year 1890. He was foreman of the company for two 
years. Among the other organizations of which he is a member are Island City Lodge, F. and A. M., 
Enterprise Lodge, K. of P., John Allen Lodge, A. O. L'^. W., Queens County A. C, Arion Singing 
Society and Order of American Firemen. 

In politics Mr. Korfmann has always been a Democrat. For the past eight vears he has been a 
member of the General Committee of his party, and for several years President of the I'"ourth Ward 
Democratic Association. He is also one of the charter members of the Jefferson Club. On receiving 
the nomination for the office of Supervisor, Mr. Korfmann made a vigorous canvass and was elected by 
a majority of 199 over Cornelius J. Jordan, the candidate of the Gleason faction, and a majority of 353 
over Charles E. Burden, the Republican candidate. 

Mr. Korfmann is married and has three children. He resides at 315 Broadway, Astoria. 

He makes no pretense at being a public speaker, but is a young man with business ability, unblem- 
ished character, and one who can safely be trusted to look after the interests of Long Island City as a 
member of the County Board. 

Jou.N H. Sl Ti'ui.N was born at Jamaica, Uueens County, Long Island, in 1836, and received his 
education in the schools of that place. He has held many important positions, among them the office 
of County Clerk of Queens County, to which he was first elected in 1871. He is now serving his 
ninth consecutive term of three years each. Mr. Sutphin is an ardent Democrat and has been chair- 
man of the Democratic Count}- Central Committee for many years. In business life he is President of 
the Bank of Jamaica, and Vice-President of the Jamaica Savings Bank; also a trustee of the Jamaica 
Normal School. In 1857 he married ^liss Carrie M. Smith of Jamaica. Their union has been blessed 
witli five children, all of whom are living. 

Frederick Bowley was born in New York City, December 19, 1851, and is the son of jacol) F. 
and Rosanna (Dre.xzel) Bowley, the former of Stuttgart, Germany, and the latter of Austria. Of the 
four children born to his parents, Frederick is the eldest. He received a careful education in the 
grammar schools of his native city. When he was twelve years old, he was bound out to learn the 
butcher's trade and soon became familiar with every detail of the business. He then went West for 
one year and worked at his trade in several of the Western States, but subsequently returned to New 
York City, where he continued at his trade for a year, after which time he started in business for him- 
.self, but owing to his giving too much credit, succumbed to the panic of 1873. 

After his business reverses, Mr. Bowlev again went to work on a small salarv for the firm of 



.96 



N /STORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



Richard Webber of Harlem. After having saved the most of his earnings, in 1882 he branched out in 
business for himself again in One Hundred and Thirteenth street, New York, and carried on a retail 
meat market there until 1887. Then purchasing property in Long Island City, he started a branch 
store, conducting both until 18S8, when he sold out his New York establishment. He now conducts 
and owns one of the largest packing establishments on Long Island, located at Nos. 202 and 204 Main 
street, Astoria, with branches at Jamaica avenue and Winans street, and at the corner of Freeman 

avenue and Radde street. Resides these, he has a 
branch at Flushing, where he also docs a wholesale 
and retail business. 

Mr. l^jowley married iliss Anna Poics, who was 
born in New York City, but of Holland-Dutch ex- 
traction. They have no children living, but they 
adopted and reared tlie three children of Edward 
Bowley, a brother of the subject of this sketch, their 
mother having died two years ago. Mr. and .Mrs. 
Bowley are both generous, and have done much in 
practical charity for the poor of Lcjng Island Cit\-. 
In one instance they donated $1,000 to the poor and 
distributed tickets to clergymen of all denominations 
to give to all deserving people, so that they could 
procure bread and meat every other day, this good 
work to be carried on from April 1 to November i. 

Mr. Bowley was recently elected Alderman-at- 
large of the Second District on the Jefferson Demo- 
cratic ticket, and is also a member of the General 
InijMMvcmcnt Commission of Long Island City. He 
is, as a rule, independent in politics. He is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity, and an honorarv 
nienibcr of the Uuccns County Athletic Clul). 

Jou.N W. PK■|K^' was born in Paterson. N. J., 
January 9, i860. His jiarents were John II. and 
Sarah (Tibby) Petry, both natives of thai ])lace. In 
1868, Mr. Pctry came with his jxircnls to Long 
Island City. Later on. he returned to Paterson, 
where he attended the public schools until he was fifteen years old. lie then returned to Long Island 
City, where he began as a clerk in the employ of his uncle, George Petry. When that gentleman was 
elected Mayor of Long Island City, he became manager of the store. He continued in that position 
until 1894, when he embarked in business for himself under the firm name of John W. l^etry & Co., 
which was dissolved March i, 1896, when .Mr. Petry purchased the interest of his ])artncr. 

Mr. Petry was married in 18S5, to Miss Jennie Applcton, of Long Island City. Four children have 
been the fruit of their marriage: John A., Raymond, Curtis W. , and Joseph K. P(jliticall\-, .\Ir. 
Petry is a Democrat, and is a memljcr of the Jefferson Club. For two years, he was clerk of the 
Excise Board under the administration (^f Mayor George Pel r\-. He is a member of the Royal 
Arcanum. 

Gf.orue H. I'av.ntar is a descendant of a familv which has long been idenlilietl with the history of 
Long Island City, and is the son of William, Jr., and Mary H. (Van Alst) Payntar. He was born at the 
old homestead in that place Jul)' 17, 1834. At the age of fifteen he secured employinent as a clerk in 
the wholesale dry goods house of Greenvvay Bros. & Co., of New York. Shortly before the outbreak of 
the Rebellion he went to Abington, Va., as manager of the general store of John C. Greenway, but 
the Civil War coming on, he returned to Long Island. Since 1867 he has been engaged in the real 
estate business, his first venture in which was the laying out in town lots of the old home farm. Since 
then he has platted several additions in Jackson avenue and other streets, and has built up a large 
business in this line. 

Mr. Payntar married Miss Irene U. Merkle, of New York City, a descendant of the Mcrkles, 




IKEDERICK liOWI.KV. 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY 



^9- 



originally from Waldorf, (icrmaii)'. Four children have been the fruits of tlieir marriage, viz: Irene 
M., G. Augusta, Eliza D. and W. Elmer. 

Politicall)-, Mr. Payntar is a Democrat, and among the positions he has held are those of Commis- 
sioner of Highways of Newtown, Assessor of Long Island City, Commissioner of Estimate of Assess- 
ments for Thompson avenue, and Commissioner on the division of the Margaret Gosman and the 
Manley estates. He is a member of Long Island City Lodge, No. 586, F. and A. M., and Banner 
Chapter 214, K. A. M. : Columbian Commandery, No. i, K. T. ; Mecca Temple, No. r. New York 
City, A. A. O. X. M. S ; and in religious belief is identified with the Reformed Church, to which his 
wife also belongs. Until 1856 he was for some years a member of the Flushing fire department. 
May 4, 1858, he was appointed fireman of Brooklyn, E. D., and was a member of Friendship Hose 
Company, No. 3, and received a certificate as exempt fireman in February, 1864, and is now a meml)er 
iif the Exempt Firemen's Association of Brooklyn, E. I). 

Fri 1)1 ki( K P. Morris. — If it is any credit to be called a self-made man, the subject of this sketch 
is entitled to tliat ht)nor. Born in Manchester, England, in 1852, he came to America at the age of 
sixteen and started as a newsboy on the Long Island 

Railroad trains. In 1S69, after being at work on the 

trains for seven years, he was promoted to the position 
of Superintendent for the Union News Company, which 
place he filled with entire satisfaction until 1881, at which 
time the late Austin Corbin obtained control of the Long 
Island Railroad. He gave Mr. Morris the contract for 
news privileges over the entire system, which he lias 
remained in control of since that time. Mr. Morris is now 
President of the Long Island News Company, and is justlv 
]3roud of the company he organized and the position he 
holds. 

\'cry few now connected with the Long Island 
Railroad were there when he first identified himself on 
Long Island. His success has never changed him. He is 
never happier than when he is in the company of the bovs. 
as he called the employees of the News Companv. 

Mr. Morris resides- at Flushing, to which place he 
removed in 1876. He owns a comfortable home, where he 
resides with his interesting family. In 1891 he was elected 
a Trustee of the village, and re-elected in 1893. In 1894 

was elected President of the village, a position of honor gkorgk. i.. sukhnkk, 

which an\' man may well feel proud of. 

Mr. Morris is a very prominent Mason. Initiated in Cornucopia Lodge, No. 563, in 1878, he has 
filled with dignity every ofi^ce in the gift of his brethern. He was elected Master in 1884-85-86, and 
was appointed District Deputy Grand Master in 1885, and served for three years under Grand Master 
Frank R. Lawrence, during which time the sum of $9000 was raised in Queens and Suffolk Counties, 
through the earnest work of our subject, to be used towards liquidating the debt which then existed 
upon the building at Sixth avenue and Twenty-third street, New York. He has now served the Grand 
Lodge in different stations for over ten years, which is more than can be said of any other member con- 
nected with the fraternity in Queens and Suffolk Counties. At the present time he is Vice-President of 
the Board of Trustees of the Ma.sonie Home at Utica, N. Y., and the Hall in New York. Last year he 
was treasurer in charge of a fund amounting to over §250.000. In ])olitics Mr. Morris is a Republican. 
He was an elector for his district in 1892. 

John p. Maddkn resides at 27 l^ly avenue. He has lived in Long Island City fourteen ^-ears — 
since he was eighteen years of age. During the fourteen vears he has been a resident of the above city 
he has been known as one of the leading politicians and occupies a prominent place in the councils of 
the Democratic party. 

He was born inthe town of Scio, Alleghan\- Countv, N. Y., on the 22d of February. 18 — . After 
attending the ]niblic schools for several years he entered Riverside Academy, Millsville, N. Y where 




198 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY. 



his education was completed. In 1882 he came to Long Island City. He held several responsible 
clerical positions and later became a journalist. From the time of casting his first vote Mr Madden 
took an active interest in politics. For two years he was private secretary to vSenator Floyd Jones and 
clerk to the State Senate Committee on the Affairs of Cities. While holding this position he rendered 
valuable service to Long Island City by defeating legislation inimical to the taxpayers, through his 
influence. In 1893 he was the nominee of the Democratic party for the First District of Queens 
County and was defeated by a few votes. Mayor Sanford appointed him to the responsible position of 
cashier in the Water Department and he held the position until about January i, 1S95. In the fall of 
1 894 he was a second time the candidate of his party for Member of Assembly and was triumphantly 
elected over two opponents. His term in the Assembly was made notable by the passage of a bill 
reducing the price of gas consumed by the residents of Long Island City. For this and other conspicu- 
ous service, Mr. ]Madden was welcomed home by his constituents at the adjournment of the Legislature 
by a popular non-partisan demonstration — a compliment that had never before been extended a repre- 
sentative of this district in the Assembly. At the call of his party in the fall of 1895, Mr. Madden 
became the candidate for Mayor. He conducted a vigorous canvass against heavy odds and came 
within 31 votes of being elected Mayor of Long Island City. 

In the earlv part of 1886 Mr. Madden returned to his occupation — journalism, and is now publisher 
of T.lcctrual Doings, a monthly paper devoted to electricity. He is still an 
active ]jolitical worker and is chairman of the Democratic General Com- 
miitcc. He is a member of the Jefferson Club, Catholic Club, Ravenswood 

J Boat Clul) and Order of Foresters. 

Li-.oNARi) C. L. Smi III, H. S., C. M, was born in Xew York City, May 
15, 1868. He is the eighth living child born to his parents, Joseph L. T. 
^ and Elizabeth (Bilbrough) Smith, the former being a civil engineer of wide 

reputation. The subject of our sketch received his early education in 
^^^ the puhlie schools of Long I.sland City, but when twelve years of age he 

^|Bfe^ began the study of civil engineering under his father. When sixteen 

^T^ years of age he entered the University of the Cit}' of Xew York, and 

in 1888 he was graduated therefrom with the degrees of Civil Engineer 
and Bachelor of Science. In a class of twenty-two he received sejond 
honors as salutatorian and was elected an honorary member of Phi Beta 
Kappa Society. In 1889 Mr. Smith took one year's post-graduate course 
and practiced with his father until the close of 189 1. In 1892 he located 
in Long Island City, which has since been his home. In March, 1893, 
he was appointed Engineer of the Water Department, and held that posi- 
tion up to January, 1896. He is also engaged in the general practice of 
civil engineering, and now does all the work for the North Beach Company, as well as for man\- other 
firms. His office is at No. 77 Jackson avenue. 

Mr. Smith married Miss Mary H. Rcmsen, of Glenhead, L. I. One child has been born tn this 
union, Leonard C. L., Jr. Mr. Smith is a member of the Psi Upsilon Fraternity, the Alumni of Xew 
York University, and Phi Beta Kappa Society. He is a deacon in tlie Remsen Street Reformed 
Church, Astoria, and is Superintendent of the Sunday School. President of Boys' Brigade and Christian 
Endeavor Society. 

Mr. Smith stood highest in the scientific department of his class all through his college course. He 
was a member of the Lacrosse team in 1888 and contended in matches with other leading college teams. 
He resides at No. 59 Woolsey street, Astoria, in a new house planned by himself. He is an amateur 
elocutionist of considerable local re])utation,his preference being in roles of liumorous dialects. He was 
a post-graduate in geology. 

Aur.usT Heath, who has been a resident of Long Islaiul City for the past twenty-seven years, was 
born in New York City, December 10, 1842, where he received an education in the ijublic schools. 
His name in Long Island City is a household word, he being the manufacturer of the well-known 
Heath ice cream and a wholesale manufacturer of fine confectionery. 

Mr. Heath is a member of Benjamin Ringold Post, G. A. R,. and the Fifth Xew N'mk Duryee 
Zouaves, Veteran Association. On December 16. 1870, he married ^[iss Mathild i Johnson (now 



l.EONARIl c. 1.. K.\UTII (C. I;. 



If /STORY OF LOXG fSL.WP CITY 



'99 



deceased), to whom one son was born, Eugene, who is now associated with his father in business. On 
September 8, 1887, he married Miss Mina Fonstad. By the hitter niarriajje, two dauj^hters have been 
born. 

Jul. US Win Hu.NKKi'.i.iN was born in JuHch, Rhenish Prussia, derman)-, December 20, 1845. He 
was educated at the Imperial MiHtary College in Berhn, and served in the (Jerman Army as an officer. 
After coming to America, he adopted the profession of a Civil Engineer and Surveyor. In 1872, Mr. 
\'on Hunerbein came to America, and has resided in Long Island City ever since, where he has actively 
been engaged in his profession. He is a member of the Liederkranz of New York City, and the (Jer- 
man Krieger Bund. In politics he is a Jeffersonian Democrat. For some time he has held the ixjsition 
of engineer and surveyor to the Waterworks Department, and to the (General Imjjrovement Commission 
of Long Island City. 

In October, iS-i, Mr. \'(>n Hunerbein married Miss Louise Xollet of the city of Hanover, (ier- 
manv. Four children, viz.: Helen, Elsie, Arthur and Melanie, have been born to the union. 



CiisT.WLs L. SruiuiNKK was born in Reading, Pa., July 
the public schools of that city. For the past seventeen years. 
Mr. Stuebner has been a resident of Long Island City, and 
has been engaged in the manufacturing of coal handling 
appliances. He has an extensive plant, occupying the 
premises Nos. 168 to 176 (inclusive) East Third street, where 
he employs a large force of men. 

Mr. vStuebner was married in 1876. He has five 
daughters and three sons. His favorite son, Augustus, who 
was associated in business with him, died in February, 1896, 
in the nineteenth year of his age. Mr. Stuebner is a member 
of the Lincoln Club. He is also a member of the Baptist 
Church. 



15, 1854. He received his education 






Civ.omw. J. Rv.\N, an energetic and successful real estate 
and insurance broker of Long Island City, is one of the most 
popular and respected of its yoimger business men. He is 
one of a family long and favorably known in the above city 
far the uniform integrity and probity of its members. His 
father, the late George Ryan, for many years owned and 
managed the largest marble works in Long Island City, 
and his son has inherited many of his father's business 
characteristics. i^kokgk j. k\an 

Mr. Ryan being born and having grown to manhood in 
Long Island City, he received his education in the local schools and subsequently acc|uired his business 
training in the real estate and insurance district of New York City, afterward embarking in business 
for himself, at No. 44 Jackson avenue, where he has succeeded in building up a constantly increasing 
and lucrative business. His temperament and characteristics are such that they have naturally led to 
his selection for the management of estates, and the placing of money in such properties as would 
best satisfy prudent and cautious investors, and in these connections he has had especial success. His 
life-long residence in Long Island City, his intimate familiarity with the surrounding districts, has given 
him quite a reputation as an appraiser of suburban property, and he has been very successful in the 
handling of it. In addition to these special features Mr. Ryan conducts a general real estate and 
insurance business, and his affability and conscientiousness in small matters have won him a host of 
friends and customers. 

Mr. Ryan is as well known in social and intellectual circles in the lower section of Long Island 
City, as in business, and this interest antedated his business virtues, and no entertainment for charitable 
or benevolent purposes is ccmsidered complete without him as one of the moving spirits. He is Sec- 
retarv of the Catholic Club, a member of the Catholic Benevolent Legion, St. Mary's Lyceum, and 
many other societies. His home is in Twelfth street, where he resides with his sisters in a quiet neigh- 
borhood, and his business efforts may be said to have been greatly aided by the support and influence 
which a peaceful and Christian home brings coupled with a united and harmonious family. 



HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND CITY 



loHN Wood, Jr., was born in Callicoon, Sullivan County. X. V., October 16. 1853. He is the 
third child born to his parents, John and Mary (Porter) Wood, both natives of Ireland, and both of 
whom are living, aged seventy-three and seventy years respectively. Mr. Wood has resided in Long 
Island City ever since he was seven years old. The public schools of this place afforded him his educa- 
tional advantages. At the age of fourteen he became an apprentice in the tin manufacturing depart- 
ment of the Standard Oil Company, after which he was in the employ of George Petry until the 
latter's death, and rose to the position of manager of the business. In January, 1869, he opened 
an establishment of his own in Long Island City, at the corner of Seventh street and Jackson avenue. 
Six months later he took into partnership ^Mrs. Ocorge Petry, and up to May 7, 1895, the firm was 

known as A. A. Petry & Co. At 
that time Mr. Wood purchased his 
partner's interest, and since then he 
has been the sole proprietor of the 
business . 

Mr. Wood was united in marriage 
in New York City to j\Iiss Alice 
McXulty, and of this union six 
children were born, two of whom are 
dead. Mr. Wood was a member of 
Ivmpire Hose Company for sixteen 
vears. Mr. Wood has shown that he 
possesses considerable inventive 
genius, and has patented an invention 
for quickly and firmly crimping a cap 
on an oil can or other receptacle. 
It is a simple hand tool, does the 
wurk effectually, and saves a great 
deal of lime and labor. 

Ari.i>r Mlkkav was born in 
New York City in 1839, where he 
was educated in the public schools. 
.\ftcr leaving school he learned the 
trade of a monumental sculptor. He 
has erected .some of the largest and 
most costly monuments in Calvar\' 
cemetery: prominent among them is 
a \-ault constructed for William 
Murray, ex-Superintendent of Police 
of New York; and for ex-Senator 
John Fox. He has also made a fifty- 
foot monument for John Lovejov, 

lOIIN \VO<)I>, in. , . , ,1 , 

besides many handsome tombstones 
for a number of other prominent 
people. Mr. Murray is a member of the Catholic Church, and in politics is a Democrat. In 1866 he 
married Miss Ellen Conleu, of Xew York City. Six children, three sons and three daughters, all of 
whom are living, have been born to the marriage. John, the youngest son of Mr. Murray, is engaged 
in business with his father. 

John Ciiai'.man was born in the parish of Cashill, County Longford, Ireland, where he received an 
education in the schof)ls. After leaving school he learned the trade of a carpenter and builder, but of 
later years he has devoted his attention to the real estate and insurance business. He has resided in 
Long Island City for twenty-seven years, and is well and favorably known. He was for four years an 
E.xcise Commissioner, and for nine months of that period was chairman of the Board. He was also for 
one term Alderman-at-Large, and has been Overseer of the Poor. On May 10, 1886, he married Miss 
Ellen Nolan. 




HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND Cll Y. 201 

Andrew G. Appi.k(;ate was born in Freehold, N. J., January 21, 1S70, and came to Lonjf Island 
City to reside in 1891. After locating in the above place he accepted a position as foreman of the 
Queens County Herald, where he remained until 1893. In the springf of that year he enjjaged in the 
bicycle business at 127 Jackson avenue. In 1895 '^'^ business had assumed such extensive proportions 
that he removed to his present commodious quarters, 139 Jackson avenue. He is associated in busi- 
ness with Mr. Charles J. Harvey. 

On November i, 1895, Mr. Appleg^ate was appointed enmnerator of school census of Long Island 
City by Mayor vSanford. In 1889 he married Miss Amy Sherman, of Xew York City. Mr. Applegate 
is a member of the Lincoln Club, the Ravenswood Boat Club, the Long Island City Wheelmen, the 
League of American Wheelmen and the Associated Cycling Club. 

WiM.i AM H. SiKiiRK.cHT was bom at Berka, ])n)vince of Hanover, Germany, December 27, 1852, 
and is a son of Henry and Georgina Siebrecht. In 1870 he came to America, locating in New York 
City, where he remained for two years working at his trade (that of a florist) in the employ of his 
brother, Henry A. Later on Mr. Siebrecht engaged in business on his own account in a small way in 
Astoria. So successful was he that he now has one of the largest and finest pieces of property in Long 
Island City devoted to the culture of flowers and plants. Mr. Siebrecht married Miss Annie R. Heim 
of New York City. Four children have been born to her: Pauline, Henry, William and George. In 
1894 Mr. Siebrecht was appointed a member of the Fire and Water Committee by Mayor Sanford. He 
is president of the New York Cut Flower Exchange, of which he was one of the principal organizers 
and was its treasurer until appointed to his present position. He is [also a member of the New York 
Florists' Club and a trustee of tlic Long Island City Savings Bank. 

Harrv H. Hunt was born in Schooley, N. J., February 22, 1868. He received his education in 
the schools of Hackettstown, N. J., and afterwards took a full professional course at the New York 
College of Dentistry. For the past seven years he has resided in Long Island City, where he has been 
actively engaged in the practice of his profession. Mr. Hunt has built up a large and growing business 
in Long Island City and vicinity. He is prominently identified with the Presbyterian Church. 

Chari.es S. Schwarz, senior member of the firm of Schwarz & Son, was born in Germany, 
January 28, 1834, and was educated in his native place. In 1852 he came to America and located in 
Xew York City. In 1S60 he located in what is now a part of Long Island City, where he began his 
present business with Thomas Taylor, the firm being Taylor & Schwarz. In 1889 he sold out and 
started in business alone. In 1890 he took his son Frederick into partnership under the firm name of 
Schwarz & Son. On September 17, i86o, Mr. Schwarz married Miss Helen Taylor, of Astoria, to 
whom seven children have been born, viz, : Nellie, Frederick, Anna, Charles, Ernst, Florence and 
Etta. 

Thomas H. vSnedeker was born in Jamaica, L. I., September 20, 1835, 1^''* ancestry dating back 
to about 1646. He received an education in the common schools of his native place, after which he 
learned the trade of a saddle and harness maker. For the past forty years he has been a resident of 
Long Island City. He is a member of Anchor Lodge, I. O. O. F., and is District Deputy Grand 
Master for Queens District No. i. He is also a member of East Avenue Baptist Church. In politics 
he is a Republican. On November 25, 1855, he married Miss Henrietta Cousin, to whom ten children 
have been born, five of whom are now deceased. 

Charles A. Willev was born in Cabot, Washington County, Vt., in 1859, being the third of six 
children born to Curtis A. and Caroline (Williamson) Willey. Our subject spent his boyhood days in 
Vermont, where he received a practical education. When fourteen years old he was apprenticed as a 
coach painter, in which capacity he worked four years. In 1877 he went to Merrimac, Mass., 
where he worked as a master coach painter for three years. In 1880 he located in New 
York, where he was a traveling salesman for a large color manufacturing firm. After filling 
similar positions in various parts of the country for several years, in November, 1890, he started in 
business for himself in Long Island City. His present establishment, at No. 91 West avenue, is one 
of the most important industries of the city. In Fitchburg, Mass., Mr. Willey married Miss Julia A. 
Perkins. Socially Mr. Willey is a Royal Arch Mason, a member of Merrimac Blue Lodge and of 
Boston Commanderv. 



;jo2 HISTORY OF LOXG ISLAM) CITY. 

O. Demarest & Co. — One of the largest and most influential business concerns in Long Island 
City is that of O. Demarest & Company, who occupy the large three-story building at the corner of 
Jackson avenue and Fifth street, and familiarly known as the New York Department vStore. The 
establishing of this store has filled a long-felt want to the residents of Long Island City. The firm 
carry a general stock of goods that would be found in any of the largest department stores of New 
York City. Their prices are just as low, and shoppers are spared the time and trouble that would be 
incurred in a disagreeable trip by ferry to New York. Among some of the more important lines that 
will be found in this mammoth emporium, the shopper will find a large stock of dry and fancy goods, 
notions, carpets, rugs, shoes, housefurnishings, etc., etc. Mr. O. Demarest has had an extensive 
experience in the general dry goods trade, and is an energetic and indefatigable worker. The name 
of this firm in connection with any goods they carry is a satisfactory guarantee of quality. 

LuDWiG ScH.MiDT, proprietor of the Greater New York Hotel, at Nos. 29 and 31 Borden avenue. 
Long Island City, was born in Germany, July 9, 1862, where he was educated. He has been a resi- 
dent of Long Island City for the past three years. Mr. Schmidt is a prominent member of a number 
of secret and benevolent orders. In February, 1894, he married Miss Dora Meier. Mr. Schmidt has 
been unusually successful in conducting the Greater New York Hotel. It is the most conspicuous 
hostelry in Long Island City, in fact the only first-class hotel, and the tables are supplied with all the 
delicacies the markets afford. Its location is superb, being almost opposite the station of the Long 
Island Railroad Company and the ferries. 




NDEX 



Anahle, H. S 27, 28, T2, 155 ( 'ontroversy lietween Euglish 

Klinhitlet X...2S, liw, 182 and Dutch 9-11 

Andrews, \V. H 131 ( ooper. I). I)., Rev. Edmund 

Applegate, Andrew . I 2iil I) y2-!l5 

Associations, Kireinen's Kill < 'orbin. Austin 77, 78, 82 

Astoria, First Settlement ot 11 Court House, Queens Co. 10.5, 10»i 

" Incorporation of ... 21 Covert, Clmrles <i 17!) 

" Origin of Name 2:5 Cunningham, Kev. Edward.. !I2 

" Homestead Co 5t)-5.s Curtis. Kev. E '.17 

Customs. Early.. 15 



B 

Bar Association, Queens Co . Uk; 
Bar of Long Island City.. 101-10(1 

Hank, .'^cliool Savings 73 

Long Island City Sav- 
ings 12:t 

" Queens County 124 

Bavlies, Hmixi,.^ jC-Zii^f^ . 24 
Gu.stavus ... . KKt, 110 

Beach, Xortli 75 

Belden, Hev. Charles 87 

Beniier, Charles 184 

Kobert 101 

Bennett, William 12 

.Jacob 26 

Bennett's Point 12 

Berrien, Cornelius 14 

Island 14 

Blackwell, .Jacob.. .. 12. 1.5, 1!(, 71 

" Richard 15 

" Frank E 103 

Bleckwenu. F. W (55, 1,50 

Block House 21 

Bogardus, Everard 

liowley, Frederick 105 

HreiiiiJiM, Kr.uicis E 190 

British at Hallett's Cove 20 

Bridge. 'I'lie Havenswood. ..79-82 

Brutnall. Richard . 9, U 

Browne, Edward 101 

Burglary, The Masked 29 

Bumster, P. H 192 

Burns, .John Francis 189 

Burke, Thos. P KM 

Burnett. W. .1 11:!, 12:t. l«l 

C 

Cassebeer, Henry A li'>4 

Cassidy. .Joseph .'. 171 

Cemeteries, National IIU 

Chapel. St. Matthews 98 

Chapman. .John 200 

Charter. Village ot .Vstoria . 21 

Church. Astoria Presbyterian 90 

East Ave. Baptist... 90 

" First Reformed 97 

l'"irst (iernian M. E . 9S 

(irnce .M. E 91 

" (ierman Second Re 

formed 8S 

■' of the Redeemer .. 92 
•■ of Our Lady ot Mt. 

Ciirmel 89 

Reformed, Steinway 99 
" Reformed, Sunny- 
side ".. !Kl 

St. George's, Epis 87 

St..John's,Prot. Epis. 95 
" St. .Joseph's. German 

Catholic 9(; 

■' St. Mary's. R. C 9ti 

St. Patrick'.s, R. I".. 97 
St. Thomas, Prot. 

Epis 89 

The Reformed, ot 

Astoria 87 

Third M. E 97 

Trinity M. E 100 

(ily (iovernment 139 

Clay, George E 173 

(oliege, I'nion "24 

Commission, Survey 7.'i 

Company, Standard Oil 12.5 



D 

Daimler Motor Co 54-.5(l 

Darvin, Ira G 103, 1S4 

Debevoise. Henry S..ti5. 104,105 

Demarest & Co.. O -202 

Department. Fire tMi 

■' Finance 0(1 

•' Police IVS 

Discoverers, Early 7, x 

Ditmars. Dr. Don 110.111 

Abram D 101 

Dominie's Hook 9-12 

DulTv, Charles T 103,184 

Dulc'keri. Ferdinand Q 17tt 

Diirvea llDiise 19 

Diitih Kills 12, 13, 59 

Dykes..!. .M'ph 171 

E 

East River GasCo x2 

Education Early 70 

Board ot 72 

English, Conquest by 11 

Evans, !{ev. Geo. M 97 

F 

Farms. Early, in Blissville.. 19 

Ferry. Home's Hook 23 

Co. N. V. and East 

River 78, 79 

Finances 66-08 

Fire Department 66 

Firemen's Associations 136 

Forbes, George 189 

Formation of Land 7 

Forssell, .John W 173 

Foster. Walter J 103 

WalterC 103 

Edgar P 103 

Fort Stevens 20 

Frew. Walter E 134, 16? 

Frey. W. t; 113 

Froeligh. Dominie 18 

a 

(i. A. R lUi 

Garretson, Garret .J 177 

Gas Co., East River 82 

Geology 7 

Gleason, Patrick .J 65 

Golduer Matthew .J 194 

Government, City 139-143 

(Jray, Sylvester 165 

Gregg, George A 103 

(iulick. Rev. X. D Wi 

H 

Hallett. William 9, 11 

William, .Jr., Mur- 
der of 16 

Hallett, .Joseph 12, 70 

Charles W 158 

Hallet fs Cove 9, 12. 20, 71 

Halsey, Stephen A 23, 71, 152 

llariiiensen. Hendrick 9 

Harroun, Gilbert K a8,29 

Havden, Capt. Levy 60 

Heath, August 198 

Hell Gate, Removal of Reefs 

In 83-84 

Perrinian. Menzo W 188 

Hiscuik. David 1.58 



H 

I' viii:. 

Hitchcock. Dewitt Ill 

Homestead, Astoria, Co 56 

House, Moore 16 

" Debevoi.sc 19 

Old Washington.... 15, 19 

Block 21 

Hospitals, St. .John's S5 

Astoria 85,86 

Hunt, Harry H '201 

Huuler, (Jeorge and Anne.. 26 
Hunter's Point 9, 12,24, 27,-29 

I 

Incidents, Historical I:t6-i:t.'< 

Indians, Rockaway 7 

Title of, E.vtin- 

guished 10 

Ingram, .James 172 

J 

.Jansen, Tynan 9 

K 

Kadien, T. C 10:1,185 

Knapp. Lucieu 164 

Knauer. E .J 103 \«A 

Koehler, Theodore 193 

Korfmann, Henry C 195 

Kuebler, Frederick 56 

Kuehn, Kev. Mr 98 

L 

I..awrence, .Jonathan 19 

Thomas 11. i:i 

Lent, Family 14 

Library, Free Circulating.. .")0 

Public 73 

Litigation Important 1' 4-106 

Lockwood, .Jiihn E 1.52 

Jjong Island City .59 

' " Incorporation (il 

Luyster, Peter 9 

Lyttle, H. G HI 

M 

MacF^rlane, H. F 11:!, 189 

Mac.Millan, Rev. .Jas. A.... KKl 

Madden, .John P 197 

Manley, Lucius .V 103,1.80 

.lohn R lo:i 

Manufactures 12.5-i;!4 

Mayoralty Elections 64-<i6 

McGuire, Rev. .John !Hi 

McGrane, John .J 192 

.NicKenna, .Tames A 163 

Medical I'rotession 107 

Society, Queens Co. 113 

Mencken, Henry 168 

Mespat Kills .." 9 

.Me-seiiger, .John 173 

Meyer, Cord 178 

Miehon. Godfrey L 190 

Mitchell. Hev. .James H .. 182 

Moore House Hi 

>Iorris, Frederick P 197 

Murray, August "200 

N 

New, Alfred 1 174 

.James X 175 

Newspapers 125 

Xewton, Gen. John 84 

N'^ew York, Capture of 18 

Noble, Daniel 10:!, 181 

Solomon B 102 

Xott. Dr Eliphalet '25-27 

N. Y. \- L. I. Bridge Co 80 

o 

Olwell. James T 10:!, 185 

Out Plantations 9, lo 

Park, Charles flO 

Payne, Alvan T 10'2, 179 

" Jr KM 

George E 175 



P 

I'AliE. 

Pay u tar, George H 196 

Pearse, William E 10.1 

Petrv, < ieorge 05 

" " John W 196 

Physicians, City 118 

Piano Factory, Steinway & 

Sons 3i! 

Piatt, Clarence X 190 

Police Department 68 

Poor, Bowery 9, 14 

Population, Early 15 

Post, Sheridan 117 

" Kingold 118 

Power Hou.se 76 

Pi-aa, Captain 12 

Prentiss, Robert S 191 

Printing Ink Co., Wilson 13:! 



(Queens Co. Meilical Society 113 
(^iio Warranto Proceedings KM 

R 

Railroad, Long Island 76 

Railways, Street 7:! 

Rapelye, Cornelius l.>t 

Jacob 18 

Ravenswood 9,14,15 

Relics 18, 19 

Revolution. Queens Co , in.. 17-20 

Revision ol Charter 64, 65 

Riker, Abram 19 

'■ John B 109 

" John L 101 

" John H 101 

" Samuel 101 

Ryan, George J I!t9 

Rycken, Family 14 

S 

Sanfopl, Horatio S B« 

Samuel T. W Ill 

Schmidt, Ludwig 2«r2 

.Schools, Hist. Sketch 70-73 

Fourth Ward '2:! 

" Savings Banks 73 

Schwarz. Charles S 201 

Season, A Memorable 29 

Settlements Early 8, 9 

Shaw, Alexander 98 

Siebrecht, W. H 201 

Slavery 114 

Smedlev. .1. Harvey 123, 167 

Smith, Frederick N 103, 18(5 

Leonard C. I.. 198 

" Matthew J 103,185 

.lohn Andrew 1.59 

Suedeker, Thomas H 201 

Societies 131-136 

Stahl. Jacob 194 

Star, The L. I. City 12.5, 144 

'• Publishing Co 1.59 

Stibbins. Julius M 191 

Steinfuhrer. Rev C. D. F. 88, 16t» 

.Steinway, Village of 3(K!3 

• ■ Henry E .3:! 

C.F.Theodore.. . 43 

William 47 

Stevens, A. Gallatin 24, 101 

Ale.\ H 110 

Ebenezer 20 

John no 

Samuel 101 

Fort -20 

Stewart. William E 103, 18J 

Stims'jn, S. E 28 

Storms, Remarkable 16 

Strang, Mrs. J. R. N 161 

Isaac B Ki2 

Strong, Ben j. G 1H8 

Stuebner. G. L VM 



Survey Commission 73 

Sutphin, John H Ift") 

Snydam. Family 41 

T 

Terra Cotta. Architectural.. 120 

Terry. J. Kufus ItW 

Thirv, John H 78, 16.5 

Thomas, II. M 168 

Todd. Thomas H 125, 144 

Totten, Ahram K 159 

TralTord, C. R 24, 92, 154 

Trask, James n 111,186 

James D., Jr Ill 

Trowbridge, Frederick C 173 

Trust. Nott and Hunter's 

Point 26 

Tunnel. East River 83 

U 
Union College 24-26 

V 

Van Alst. Family and Man- 
sion 13 

Van Alst, Peter G 154 

Van Pelt, Rev. Daniel 88 

Van Riper, Firm of I. and J. 175 

Varnish Works I2t>-131 

Virgil Practice Clavier Co. . . .57 

Von Bernuth, Louis -"(e 

Von Hunerbein, Julius I'M 

W 



Wadley, Charles A 

War of ISia 


.103, 181 


20 


" The Civil 


.... 114 


Washington House 

Weeks W H 


. . . 15, 1!) 




llarrvT 


101, 1.S5 


We.st, George 


.... 96 


Whitcomb, James M — 


.... 160 


White. Kdwin T 


.... 173 


Whitney, Josiah M 


. . Si, 74 


Wild, RolrertT 


... 102 


Willey , Charles A 


. .. 201 


William.son. George H 


. .. 171 


Wingrove, lienjamin 


.... 1.57 


Wood, Jr., .lohu 


.... 200 


WoodrulT, John T 


.... 173 


Charles Curtis 


.... 173 


Woods, Anthony S 


. . . . 69 


Woolsey, estate 


.... 13 


Wright. William W.... 


.... 1T5 



ILLU.-^TRATIONS. 

A View of Long Island City . 

Frontispiece 

I'AiJi:. 
Ranks, L. I. City .Savings. .. 123 

Queens County 12- 

Rodine Castle 60 

Hridge, Ra%'enswood 78 

Block House 23 

Church, Astoria Reformed . 87 
Our Lady of Mt. 

Carmel 89 

" Presbyterian,Astoria 90 

" of the Redeemer ... 91 

St. Mary's, R.C.... 95 

" East Ave. Baptist.. 97 

St. Raphel's. R. C.. '.f.i 

Trinity M. E 100 

College, t'niou. North Col- 
lege Building, opp 26 

College, Union, Memorial Hall 
and Washburne Building, 

opp 27 

College. I nioii. South Col- 
lege Building, opp 27 

Court House, Queens Co 105 

Daimler Motor Works 54 

Dry Goods Est. of Demarest 

&Co 137 

Elevator, Morgan's 129 

Ferries, L. I. R. H 75 

Gasometer, E. K. (Jas Co 135 

Greater X. Y. Hotel 61 

Hospitals, Astoria 63 

St. John's 6j 

Henry Mencken's Business 
House 136 



M 

Map of L. I. City 44 

Mansion— Bragaw 20 

Debevoi.se 18 

" Duryea 17 

" Gosman 19 

Moore 13 

" Payntar 21 

" Rapelye "28 

" Stevens '23 

" Stein way .50 

Van Pelt 21 

Woolsey 10 



Piano Factory, Stein way & 

Sons 

Protestant Un. Church 



R 

P.\GE. 

Railroad Station, L. 1 74 

s 

Scene, Main Street, Astoria S 

North Beach 49 

" Shore Road "23 

" Steinway Ave., 30, .")2 

Vernon and Jackson 

.\ves 61 

" River Front, '■" 

School, High.JVflk««y:< 
Third Ward /.. 

" German Settlement. . 72 

First Ward 72 

Fifth Ward 73 

" Steinway 46 

Star, Daily and Weekly 146 

Present Building of 144 

Editorial Office 145 

'■ Counting Room 147 

" Job Composing Room 147 
" Newspaper Composi- 
tion Room 148 

" Xewspr Press Rooms 149 

■' ,Tob Press Room 149 

."^teinway Free Library 48 

T 

Terra Cotta Works, N. Y 130 

Tunnel, E, R. Gas Co 80 

" " " Cross Sec- 
tion 81 

V 
Varnish Works, Mayer & 

Lowenstein 131 

A'arnish Works, Pratt & 

Lambert 134 

Wa.shington House 12 

PORTRAITS. 

Anable, E. X 106 

" Henry S. Dec'd .59 

Andrews, W. H l:« 

Bleckwenn, F. W 65 

Bowley, Freder ck 196 

Brennau, F. E 115 

Bumster. P. H 116 

Burns, John Francis 112 

Cassebeer, Henry A 165 

Cassidy, Josepti 1('k'< 

( 'ooper. Rev. E. D 93-94 

Darrin, Ira G 110 

Duflfy, Charles T UKl 

Dulcken, F. Q 174 

Dykes, .Joseph : 170 

P'orbes, Dr. George 112 



POHTRAITS. 

p.v(;e. 

Garretson, Garret J IQI 

Goldner, Matthew J 1S3 

Gray, f^ylvester 125 

Harroun, Gilbert K.. opp.. . . 26 

Halsey, Stephen A 14 

Heath, August. 193 

Herriman, M. W 114 

Hiscox. David 1.56 

Houghton, Hadwin 132 

Ingram, .lames 108 

Knapp, Lucien I.53 

Knauer, E. .1 108 

Koehler, Theodore 179 

Korfmann, Henry C l&i 

Lockwood, John E 35 

Madden, John P 1.54 

Manley, Lucius X' 104 

Mc(;raue, John J 116 

McKenna, James A 164 

Meyer, Cord 177 

Morgan, Thomas 138 

Morris, Frederick P 190 

Xoble, Daniel 107 

Xoble, Solomon B 103 

Payne, A. T 102 

Payntar, George H 188 

Petry , John W. 186 

Prentiss, Robert S 119 

Ryan, George .1 1!KI 

Smed lev, J. Harvey 137 

Smith, Frederick N 109 

Smith, Leonard C. L 198 

Smith, .Matthew J 110 

Smith, .1. Andrew, dec'd 1.58 

StahI,.Iacub 181 

Steinfuhrer, Rev. C. D. P\. . 88 

Steinway, Henry E 31 

Steinway, C. F. 'Theodore 37 

Steinway. William 41 

Stewart, William E lOit 

Stuebner, G. L 197 

Strang, Mrs. Mary J. R. N. . . 70 

Strong. Benj. G Ill 

Sutphin, John H 69 

Terrv. J Hiifus 160 

Thirv. .7c)bi] H 137 

Thomas H M 1'28 

Trafford, C. R '27 

Trask, .lames D., dec'd '24 

Van Alst, Peter G M 

Von Bernuth, Louis 56 

Voii Hunerbein, Julius VM 

Wad lev. Charles A 104 

Weeks', Harry T 110 

Whitcomb, James M 162 

Wingrove, Benjamin 65 

Wood, Jr.. .lohn '300 

Wright, William W 173 




007 382 173 3 %