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Illustrations & Biographical Sketches 

Some of its Prominent Men and Pioneers, 


Williams Brothers. 







Scenes in and around e:lyria, ohio. 





Prefatory Note, 

N tlie preparation of this History, accnrafv has lieen the aim of the publishers. They have 
endeavored to confine themselves within the limits of aseei'tained facts and reliable (hita, and 
while they have not published every item of history belDngino- to the county of Lorain, all tliat is 
realU' important is given, and that which is published may l)e regarded as authentic. 

(ientlemen of experience, as writei-s, liave assisted the author in the production of this book: 
and it is believed that the subjects, which eacli writer luxs severally dealt with, have been treated \\ith 
care and thoroughness. In the general history department, A. G. Riddle, of Washington, D. C 
contributed the cliapter on "Pioneer Life:"' Jay Terrell, the "Geology" and "Fossil Fishes:"" 
P. H. BoYNTON, the "Bar of Lorain County:"" George G. Washburn, the "Press of Lorain County;"" 
K. Baker, the "Lorain Agricultural Society." The history of "Elyria" was mainly prejiared by 
Dr. L. T>. Griswold; that of "Russia,"" including "Oberlin," by Rev. Henry Matson; that of 
'• Wellington,"" by Hon. J. H. Dickson, while iSL-s. Nesbett contributed the greater part of " Grafton."" 
To the pen of President Fairchild, the publishers are indebted, in the main, for the history of 
" Brownhelm,"" and the biography of "Father Keep."' They are also under obligations to many 
others who have aided them greatly in collecting and furnishing data for this history. 

The publishers feel that they have done the work, they undertook to do, faithfully; and while 
the book may not be found entirely free from blemishes, they are confident that none of a serious 
character Avill be discovered. 

Hitherto the publishers have had their county histories published in Philadelphia, by J. B. 
LiPPiNCOTT & Co., but this volume is from the press of the Leader Printing Company, Cleveland, who 
have done themselves credit by the high degree of typographical excellence shown in the printing of 
this book. Every inhabitant of the Western Reseiwe has cause for congratulation in the fact, — of 
which this Histoi-y of Lorain County is proof, — that Cleveland is al)le to maintain successful rivalry 
with Philadelphia, New York and Boston, in the publication of books whose beauty of typography 
is of the highest standard attained by the " art preservative." 





are F 



(!H \PTER 

I. — Biseovery 
II. — The Connecticut Western Re; 
III. — The Connecticut Land Comp; 
IV. — Physical Features . 

V. — Fossil Fish, and Where they 
VI.— The Mound-Builders . 
VII.— The Indians . 
VIII. — The Moravian Missions 
IX. — Pioneer Life . 

X. — Civil Organization 
Xr.— Civil List . 
XII. — The Bar of Lorain County 
XIII.— The Press of Lorain County 
XIV. — Lorain Agricultural Society 

XV. — Lorain in the Rebellion 
XVT. — Roster of Soldiers . 






Columbia . 


Ridgeville . 






Black River 












Avon . 




Rochester . 






Lagrange . 



Wellington . 


Pittsfield . 




I Xj Xj TJ s a? I?, j^ T I o 3sr s. 

Scenes in and around Elyria (Frontispiece) 
Outline Map of Lorain County . 
Dentition of Dinichthys Terrelli (Front View) . 
" " " (Side View) , 


Residence of A. Bccbe, Sr. 
Edwin Hall . 
" A. Beebe, Jr. 

Beebe House 

Tavern, opened in 1820, l)y A. Beebe, 
Portraits of Artemas Beebe and Wife 
Portrait of N. B. Gates 

Wm. H. Tucker 

Iral A. Webster 
St. .Andrew's Episcopal Church 
Portrait of Elizur G. Johnson 

" Judge John C. Hale 

Residence of Geo. G. Washburn, Esq 
Union Hall Clothing House 
Portrait of Dr. E. C. Perry 

" Dr. Chas. F. Cushing 

" Frederick S. Reefy 

C. A. Ely (steel) 
Residence of Mrs. C. A. Ely 
Elyria Library Building 
Portrait of Hon. P. Bliss (steel) 

Dr. L. D. Griswold 

W. A. Braman . 

R. E. Braman . 

E. D. Holbrook 

Wm. W. Aldrich 

E. P. Haines . 

L. C. Kelsey . 


; Title 




between 1114, 105 

104, 105 

104, 105 

104, 105 

104, 105 

104, 105 

facing 108 





bi-twocn lis, 119 

facing 123 

" 123 

between 130, 131 

130, 131 

facing 131 

between 134, 135 

134, 135 

. 136 

facing 137 








Portraits of M. W. Pond and Wife 
Residence of Martin W. Pond . 
Portrait of Hon. Stevenson Burke (steel) . 
" Houston H. Poppletoh (steel) . 


Portraits of Ransom Brouson anrl Wife 
Portrait of Jesse Eddy .... 


Congregational Church and Centre Cemetery 
Portrait of Harry Terrell . 
Residence of M.ark Humphrey . 
Portraits of Mark Humphrey and Wife 

N. H. Hinckley and Wife 
Residence of E. W. Hinckley 

" N. T. Meach . 

" C. L. Sexton . 

Portrait of Richard Blain . 


Residence of C. L. Freeman 

Portraits of C. L. Freeman and Wife 

Portrait of Sylvester Hart . 

Homestead of Mrs. R. B. Hart . 

Portraits of Mrs. Relief B. and E. C. Hart 

Portrait of John Keep (steel) . 

Residence of Charles Bassctt 

Portraits of Charles Bassctt and Wife 

Residence of Lott Parsons . 

Portraits of Lott Parsons and Wife . 


Residence of Lemuel Abbey 
Portraits of Ebenezer Abbey and Wife 


facing 143 



between 146. 147 

between 156, 157 
'* 156, 157 



facing 169 

" 169 

between 184, 185 

184, 185 

184, 185 

facing 192 

between 196, 197 

" 196, 197 

196, 197 

196, 197 




Portraits of Lemuel Abbey and Wile 
Residence of John Roacb . 
'* Oel Durkee . 

Portraits of Ocl Durkee and Wife 
Portrait of William 11. Phillips . 



Portrait of Conrad Keid .... 
Residence of E. Gregg .... 


Residence of George G. Morse . 
Portrait-^ of George G. Morse and Wife 
Portrait of Anna Ray Jlorse 

" Elisha Peck (deceased) 

" Colonel E. F. Peck and Wife 

Residence of E. F. Peck . 

'• Solomon Whittlesey, 1S24 

Portrait of Solomon Whittlesey . 
Residence of Cyrus L. Whittlesey 
Portraits of William Sayles and Wife 
Portrait of Mrs. Sarah C. Sayles (deceased) 
Residence of William Sayles 

" Chester A. Cooley . 

Portraits of Chester A. Cooley and M'ife 
Residence of W. H. Cooley 
Portrait of W. H. Cooley . 
" Leonard Bradley 

Portraits of George, Catharine, and Maria B. Wells 
The Amherst Mill .... 
Residence of John H. Ileymann 
Portraits of John II. Ileymann and Wife 


Residence of the Heirs of David Bennett 
Portraits of David and Jane Bennett . 
Residence of Lorenzo Clark 
Portrait of William Patterson 
" Chauncey Prindle 


Residence of L. F. Parks . 

Portraits of L. F. Parks and Wife . 

Residence of the late Geo. B. Crehore 

Portraits of Geo. Crehore and Wife . 
" Erastus Ileeock and Wife 

" Zopher Irish and Wife . 

Portrait of Isaac Burrell . 

" Jonathan C. Bennett 







veen 218, 















iveen 224, 




















tveen 248, 


■■ 248, 



Residence of Henry B. Rawson . 
Portraits of H. B. and Grindall R.-iwson . 

" B. S. Corning and Wife . 

Birthplace of Duke MeuncU, Yorkshire, Eng 
Residence of " •' (Grafton, Mich. 

Portraits of Crispin and Duke Mcnnell 
Residence of A. W. Nichols (double page) 
Portraits of A. W. Nichols and AVife . 
Birthplace of A. W. Nichols, York, N. Y. . 
Residence of Dr. C. B. Knowlton 
Portrait of " " . . 

" Mrs. Harriet I. Nesbett . 

Portraits of Stephen H. and Margaret R. Brown 


Portrait of Edwin Snow 

Residences of Edwin, C. 11., and T. L. Snow . 
Residence of G. W. and W. 0. Hurst 



facing 250 




between 254, 255 

" 254, 255 

" 254, 255 

" 254, 255 

facing 256 

" 256 

between 258, 259 

260, 261 

260, 261 

260, 261 

264, 265 

264, 265 

264, 2G5 








Portraits of William and Lucina Hurst 
Portrait of Albin Stickney 

Joseph Schwartz 

E. G. Moon 

Dr. T. B. Dailev 


Residence of Abram Holland 
Portraits of Abram Holland and Wife 


Portraits of Roswell B. Boice and Wife 


Residence of John Rose, Kipton 
Portraits of John and Lueinda Rose . 


Residence of William W, Penfield 
Portraits of Truman Penfield and Wife 

" Elisha and Sally Sheldon 

Residence of Elisba Sheldon 

" the late Beri Andrews . 

Portraits of Beri and Amy S. Andrews 

" Orrin Starr and Wife 

Residence of Orrin Starr . 

" Street Goodyear 

Portraits of Street Goodyear and Wife 


Residence of Dr. E. D. Merriam 
Portraits of Dr. E. D. Merriam and Wife 

" Roman and Amanda Freeman 

" E. H. Sanders and Wife 

Residence of E. H. Sanders 

'* Boman Freeman 

" Allen Sanders 

" Delos M. Sanders 

Portraits of Allen Sanders and Wife 

" Delos M. Sanders and Wife 

" R. B. Muuro and Wife . 

Residence of " "... 

Portrait of Nathan P. Johnson . 


Residence of James Whipi>le 

Portraits of Leonard H. Loveland and Wife 


Residence of Capt. Samuel Flint 

" C. Bailey 

Portraits of Curtis and Lovina Bailey 
Residence of J. J. Rice, and Foundry of J. J. 

& Co 

Portraits of J. J. Rice and Wife 
Residence of Emeline Cook 
Portraits of L. R. Cook and Wife 

" Samuel and Jane Kendeigh 

Residence of Samuel Kendeigh . 
Late Residence of Geo. Dudley . 
Residence of Casper Dute . 
Portraits of Casper Dute and Wife . 
Residence of Captain E. P. Frink 
Portraits of Captain E. P. and Aurilla Frink 

** George and Adaline L. Bryant 

" John J. and Cecilia Kendeigh 

Views of Clough Stone Co.'s Quarries (double 
Portrait of Henry Warner .... 

" Baxter Clough .... 

" A. A. Crosse, M.D. . 

Portraits of Jacob Hildebrand and Wife , 



facing 274 



facing 284 

facing 297 

" 297 







between 310, 311 


310, 311 

" 310, 311 

312, 313 

312, 313 


•' 312, 313 

facing 314 





between 226, 227 

facing 325 



between 326, 327 

" 326, 327 

326, 327 

" 326, 327 

" 328, 329 

328, 329 

328, 329 

330, 331 

.330, 331 

" 330, 331 

" 330, 331 

332, 333 

" 332, 333 

336, 337 

facing 338 








"Evergreen Hill," Residence of F. S. Wadsworth 

between 358 


Residence of D. L. Wadsworth . 

facing 347 

Portraits of Roswell and Jane Smith 



" James Sheldon 

between 348, 349 

" Selden Hall and Wife . 



" S. D. Bacon . 

348, 349 

Portrait of Abner Loveland .... 

• ■ 


Portraits of James Sheldon and Wife 

348, 349 

Portraits of Silas and Ljdia Miller . 



" S. D. Bacon and Wife . 

348, 349 

Residence of Silas Miller 



Residence of Homer Mason 

facing 350 

W. H. H. Sutliff .... 



" and Portrait of J. H. Dickson 


Portraits of W. H. H. Sutliff and Wife . 


Carriage Manufactory of T. Doland . 


Residence of B. B. Herrick 



Portraits of Lawton Wadsworth and Wife 

between 358, 359 

Residence of J. T. Carter 




Ebenezer Lane . 
Elijah Parker 
Reuben Mussey . 
- Woolsey Welles . 
Frederick Whittlesey 
?. J. Andrews 
Edward S. Hamlin 
Horace D. Clark 
Joel Tiffany 
Albert A. Bliss . 
Judson D. Benedict 
Philemon Bliss . 
Wm. F, Lockwood 
Sylvester Bagg . 
John M. Vincent 
Lionel A. Sheldon 
Artemas Beebe, Sr. 
Nahum B. Gates 
William H. Tucker 
Iral A. Webster . 
Elizur G. Johnson 
Judge John C. Hale 
Judge W. W. Boynton 
Edwin C. Perry, M.D 
Charles F. Gushing, M.D. 
Frederick S. Reefy 
Charles A. Ely . 
Hon. Philemon Bliss 
Dr. Luther D. Griswold 
Wm. A. Braman 
Ransom E. Braman 
Dr. L. C. Kelsuy 
William W. Aldrich 
Martin W. Pond 
Hon. Stevenson Burk 
Elwood P. Haines 
Edwin D. Holbrook 
Houston H. Poppleton 
David Bennett . 
Ransom Brondon 
Jesse Eddy , 
Harry Terrell 
C. Lester Sexton 
Richard Blain . 
Sylvester Hart . 
Charles G. Finney 
Rev. James H. Fairchild 
John Keep . 
Samuel Matthews 
Charles Bassett . 
Lott Parsons 
Luther Freeman . 


. 45 
















between 104, 105 

facing 108 




between 118, 119 

" - 118, 119 

130, 131 

130, 131 

facing 131 

. 134 

. 137 

. 138 

facing 140 


. 141 






between 146, 147 

facing 147 

between 156, 157 

" 156, 157 

facing 159 

. 167 

. 168 

between 184, 185 

. 190 

. 191 

. 192 

. 196 

. 196 

. 197 



Lemuel Abbey 204 

Oel Durkee 205 

William H. Phillips, Esq 206 

John Roach 206 

Conrad Reid facing 208 

Ebenezer Gregg .......... 216 

Capt. Samuel L. Flint 216 

George G. Morse between 218, 219 

Col. E. F. Peck . " 220, 221 

Chester A. Cooley " 226, 227 

Leonard Bradley facing 228 

Deacon George Wells 233 

Solomon Whittlesey ......... 233 

William Sayles 234 

John H. Heymann 234 

Henry Brown .......... 234 

Rev. Alfred H. Betts 235 

William Patterson between 248, 249 

Chauncey Prindle " 248, 249 

Erastus Hecock " 254, 255 

B. S. Corning " 258, 259 

Crispin and Duke Menncll .... " 260, 261 

Mrs. Harriet I. Nesbett 268 

Grindall Rawson 269 

Henry B. Rawson 269 

Allen W. Nichols 269 

Dr. C. B. Knowlton 270 

Stephen H. Brown facing 270 

Edwin Snow 276 

William Hurst 276 

Joseph Schwartz .......... 276 

Albin Stickney ........ facing 276 

Elbridge G. Moon 277 

Dr. Truman B. Dailey 277 

Abram Holland 283 

Roswell B. Boice facing 284 

John Rose ........... 297 

Truman Penfield ......... 305 

Elisha Sheldon 305 

Beri Andrews .......... 306 

Orrin Starr 306 

Street Goodyear and Family ....... 307 

Nathan P. Johnson facing 316 

E. D. Merriam, M.D 316 

R. B. Munro 317 

James Whipple 322 

Leonard H. Loveland ........ 323 

Selden Hall, Sr 323 

Samuel Kendeigh between 328, 329 

George Bryant " 332, 333 

John J. Kendeigh '• 332, 333 

Henry Warner facing 338 



Biixtcr Clough 
Asahel A. Crosse . 
Curtis Bailoy 
Joseph aud J. J. Kicc 
Lewis Rodman Cook . 
Caspor Duto 
Capt. E. P. Frink 
lion. J. II. Dickson . 
Lawton Wadsworth 
Francis S. Wadsworth 

between 358 


, 359 

Sereno D. Baeon . 

Abner Lovcland, Jr. . 

Roswell Smitli . 

Homer Mason and Family 

James Shelden " 

Silas Miller 

Bert B. Herrick '* 

Dr. John W. Houghton 

Wm. H. H. Sutliff 

R. J. Robinson . 









The year 986 signalizes the first visitation of white 
men to the New World. Then it was that Herjulfson, 
a Xorse navigator, in sailing from Iceland to Green- 
land, was driven by a storm to the coast of Labrador, 
or, as some historians claim, to that of Newfouu-dlaud. 
The uninviting character of the coasts of the new land 
deterred him from landing. What Herjulfson first 
saw, it was reserved for other discoverers to expore. 
The Norsemen returned to Greenland, and there re- 
lated wonderful stories of the land they had seen, but 
made no further attempts at discovery. 

Fifteen years later Lief Erickson, a brave and daring 
Icelandic captain, with mind inflamed with the fabu- 
lous accounts of his brother Norseman, resolved to 
extend the discovery of Herjulfson, and in the year 
1001 set foot upon the shore of Labrador. He directed 
his course southwest along the coast, and finding the 
country pleasant and attractive extended his explora- 
tions, and finally reached the territory embraced 
within the present State of Massachusetts, where he 
and his companions remained one year. They pro- 
ceeded along the coast bordering upon Long Island 
Sound, and it is claimed that the persevering band 
even found their way to New York harbor. 

That this early discovery of American soil may not 
be deemed a myth, we will say, that while ujitil 
recently historians have been incredulous, they now 
almost universally concede the fact; and by way of 
trustworthy information we quote fi'om Humboldt's 
"Cosmos," as follows: "We are here on historical 
ground. By the critical and highly f)i"a'ise worthy 
efEorts of Professor Rafn and the Royal Society of 
Antiquaries in Copenhagen, the sagas and documents 
in regard to the expedition of the Norsemen to New- 
foundland, Nova Scotia, and Vinland, have been pub- 
lished and satisfactorily commented upon. The dis- 
covery of the northern part of America by the Norse- 
men cannot be disputed. The length of the voyage, 
the direction in which thev sailed, the time of the sun's 

rising and setting, are accurately given. While the 
Caliphate of Bagdad was still flourishing America was 
discovered, about the year 1001, by Lief, the son of 
Eric the Red, at the latitude of forty-one and a half 
degrees north." 

Nor did the explorations of these intrepid Icelanders 
cease with the ex2)edition of Erickson and his compan- 
ions, but in the following year — 1002 — Thorwald 
Erickson, brother to Lief, stimulated with a desire to 
see the new and beautiful country, made a voyage 
to the coast of Maine. He is said to have ended 
his days in the vicinity of the present town of Fall 
River, Massachusetts. In 1005 still another brother, 
Thoi'stein Erickson, with a baud of adventurers, made 
a similar voyage, and was followed in 1007 by Thor- 
finn Karlsefne, a celebrated mariner, who sailed 
southward along the coast as far as Virginia. 

The Norsemen must be regarded as a band of roving 
adventurers, who effected no settlements, and of 
whose discoveries but few imi^ortant records have 
been preserved. The enthusiasm which the first dis- 
coverers excited gradually subsided, and as there were 
no spoils in the wilderness which might fall prey to 
the Norse freebooters and pirates, further occupancy 
of the country was not attempted. The shadows 
which had been for a moment dispelled began to 
darken over the shores of the New World, and the 
curtain was not again lifted for nearly five hundred 
years. Then came the achievement of Columbus, in 
the year 1492. Born of a holy faith and an inflexible 
purpose, it was the greatest maritime enter25rise in 
the history of the world. He touched upon an island 
subsequently called San Salvador, and planting there 
the banner of Castile, formally claimed jjossession of 
the land in the name of Isabella, Queen of Spain. 
Marvelous were the results of discovery and explora- 
tion which followed. England and France vie with 
Spain and with each other for the mastery in the New 
World. The Spanish nation, led on by an insatiable 
thirst for gold, pushed forward her explorations in 
America with such energy and spirit that in less than 
fifty years from the time of the great discovery of 




Columbus, she liad explored and laid claim to nearly 
one-half of tlie present territory of tlie United States. 
Her adventurers had visited the pi-osent States and 
Territories of Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North 
Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, 
Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, the Indian Territory, 
Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Ne- 
vada and California. 

France likewise made large acquisitions of Ameri- 
can soil, though of later date. Tlie discoveries and 
explorations of James Cartier, of tlio patriotic De 
Monts, of Samuel Chami)lain, of Marquette, of 
Joliet, and of the gallant La Salle, secured to 
France, before the close of the Sixteenth century, 
claims to North American territory greater than 
those of any other European power. At the time 
referred to, her sovereignty in America embraced 
Newfoundland, Acadia, Nova Scotia, Hudson's Bay, 
all the Cauadas, more than half of Maine, Vermont, 
and New York, the whole valley of the Mississippi — 
including its eastern tributaries — the great chain of 
lakes at the north and Texas at the south, as far as to 
the Rio Bravo del Norte. 

England's dominions in America lay along the 
Atlantic seaboard. The thirteen original colonies 
skirting the Atlantic from Florida to the verge of 
Nova Scotia were the planting of the English people, 
and constituted that nation's possessions up to tiie 
time of the Treaty of Utrecht, in 1713. By virtue 
of this treaty England obtained large concessions of 
territory from France. The entire possessions of the 
Bay of Hudson and its borders; of Newfoundland, 
subject to the rights of France in its fisheries; and all 
of Nova Scotia, or Acadia, according to its ancient 
boundaries, passed from the dominion of Fra^.ce to 
tliat of England. And now the strife in America for 
the possession of colonial monopolies and territorial 
sovereignty was confined to these two great powers. 
France still maintained lier claim to much the larger 
extent of territory, but her poi)ulation, scattered over 
tiiis immense area, numbered only eleven thousand 
two hundred and forty-nine persons in 1G88, while 
that of the English colonics in tiie same year exceeded 
two luindred thousand. A contest of fifty years' 
duration between these two great powers for territo- 
rial acquisition in America foHowed, resulting in the 
Treaty of Paris, in 17fi:?, by virtue Of which France 
lost and England gain(>d the whole foiintry between 
the Allegheny mountains and tiie Father of \A^aters, 
except a small tract lying at tlie montii of the gn^at 
river. The valley of the Ohio, foi- wliose special 
conquest a seven years' war li:iil Ixtm Ix^gnn, tJnis 
passed to the possession of Britain. 

Strangely enough, for the success of tiiis under- 
taking the English nation was mainly indel)ted to the 
very hero, who, a few years later, as Commander-in- 
Chief of the American armie's, was eiiffasfed in 
wresting it — in common witli tlie territory of the 
whole country — from British rule, in order to transfer 
it to the free jieople who should make for humanity a 

new existence in America. In less than a decade the 
dominions which England took from France were in 
turn taken from her, and the United States of 
America obtained a place among the nations of the 
world, and undertook the glorious work of tilling a 
territorial continent with commonwealths. 



The Western Reserve of Connecticut lies l)etwecn 
the panillels of 11'" and 12° 2' of north latitude, com- 
mencing with the western boundary line of Pennsyl- 
vania, and extending thence one hundred and twenty 
miles westward. The entire tract embraces an area of 
seven thousand four hundred and forty square miles, 
nearly one-third of which is water. If the whole were 
land, there would be four million seven hundred and 
sixty-one thousand six hundred acres. It is composed 
of the counties of Ashtabula, Trumbull, Portage, 
Geauga, Lake, Cu3'ahoga, Medina, Lorain, Huron, 
Erie, Summit (except the townships of Franklin and 
Green), the two northern tiers of townships in Ma- 
honing, the townships of Sullivan, Troy, and Ruggles, 
in Ashland, and several islands lying north of San- 
dusky, including Kelly's and Put-in-Bay. This is the 
land portion of the Reserve. The portion consisting 
of water lies between the southern shore of Lake Erie 
and the forty-second degree of north latitude, and is 
bounded on the east and west by the same parallels of 
longitude that form the east and west boundaries of 
the land ])ortion. 

There liave been numerous claimants to tlie soil 
of the Reserve. In addition to the red man's title. 
France, England, the United States, Virginia. Massa- 
chusetts, New York, and Conneccicnt have all, atone 
time or another, asserted ownership. The claim of 
France arose by reason of its being a portion of the 
territorv which she ])ossessed by right of discovery. 
England laid claim to all territory adjoining those dis- 
tricts lying along the Atlantic seaboard, whose soil she 
jiossessed by right of occupancy, asserting ownershiji 
from sea to sea. The greatest ignorance, however, 
prevailed in early times as to the inland extent of the 
y\merican continent. During the reign of James I.^ 
Sir Francis Drake reported that, from the top of the 
mountains on the Isthmus of Panama, he had seen 
both oceans. This led to the belief that the continent 
from east to west was of no considerable extent, ami 
(hat the South Sea, by which appellation the Pacilic 
then was known, did not lie very far removed from 
tlie Atlantic. As late as 1710, the Duke of Newcastle 
addressed his letters to the "Island of New England." 
This ignorance of the inland extent of America, gave 
rise, as we shall see, to conflicting claims of western 

* For the facts upon which this chapter ishased we are largely indebted 
to an address deUvered by Judge Boynton. at Elyria, July 4th, 1876. 



territory. Eiialand's valid title to the great west was 
obtained through conquest, conipelliiig France, in 
1713 and 1763, to surrender nearly the wiiole of her 
American possessions. The United States succeeded 
Great Britain in her riglits of ownorslii[) in American 
soil, and tiius came to have a claim to tlie lands of 
the Reserve. Tiie claims of Virginia, .Massaciiusetts, 
Xcw York and Couueeticut were obtained by virtue 
of charters granted to English subjects by English 
sovereigns. The tract of counti-y embraced in the 
London Company's charter, granted by James I. in 
1009, whence arose Virginia's claim, commenced its 
l>onndaries at Old Point Comfort, on the Atlantic, 
and extended two hundred mdes south, and two hun- 
dred north from this jioint. From the southernmost 
l)oint, a line drawn dne west to the Pacific formed the 
southern boundary; from the nortliernmost point, a 
lino running diagonally northwesterly through Penn- 
sylvania and Western Xew York, across the eastern 
portion of Lake Erie, and terminating finally in the 
Arctic ocean, formed the nortliwcstern boundary; 
and the Pacific Ocean, or what was then called the 
South Sea, the western boundary. Tlie vast empire 
lying within these four lines included over one-half 
of tlie North American continent, and embraced all 
of what was afterwards known as the Northwestern 
Territory, including of course the lands of the Ke- 

The claim of Massaciiusetts rested for its validity 
uiion the charter of 1630, granted by James I. to the 
('ouncil of Plymouth, and embraced all tlie territory 
from (lie Atlantic to the Pacific lying between the 
fortieth and forty-eighth degrees of north latitude. 
This grant comprised an area of more than a million 
sipiare miles, and included all of the present inhabited 
lii'itisli possessions to the north of tiie United States, 
all of what is now New England, New York, one-half 
of New Jersey, very nearly all of Pennsylvania, more 
than the nortliern half of Ohio, and all the country to 
the west of tiiese States. In 1630, the Earl of War- 
wick olitained a grant to a part of the same territory, 
and in the following year assigned a portion of his 
grant to Lord Brooke and Viscounts Say and Seal. 

In 1061, Charles II. ceded to his brother, the Duke 
of York, and afterwards King James II. of England, 
the country from Delaware Bay to the River St. Croix, 
and afterward it was insisted that the granted territory 
extended westward to the Pacific. This constituted 
New York's claim to western territory, of which the 
lands of the Reserve were a jiortion. In 1662, the 
same monarch granted to nineteen patentees an ample 
charter, from which Connecticut derived her claim to 
a territory bounded by Massachusetts on tiie north, the 
sea on the south, Narragauset Bay on the east, and 
the Pacific on the west. This grant embraced a strip 
of land sixty-two miles wide, extending from Narra- 
gansett Bay on the east to the Pacific ocean on the 
west; and the northern and southern boundaries of 
this tract were the same as those which now form the 
boundaries at the north and south of the Reserve. 

Thus arose conflicting claims. The extent of terri- 
tory to which Virginia insisted tiiat she was rightful 
owner was the largest, and included all the other 
claims. That of Massachusetts was next in size, and 
included the whole region claimed for Connecticut, 
as did the territory embraced in New York's claim. 

The United States did not appear as a contestant 
until the time of the Revolutionary war, when she, 
with good reason, insisted that these disputed lands 
belonged of right to Great Britain's conqueror; that 
a vacant territory, wrested from a common enemy 
by the united arms, and at the joint expense and 
sacrifice of all the States, should be considered as the 
jiroperty of the conquering nation, to be held in trust 
for the common benefit of the people of all the States. 
To show how groundless were the claims of these 
contesting States, it was pointed out that the charters 
upon which their titles were founded had in some 
instances been abrogated by Judicial proceedings, and 
the companies to Avhom they had been given dissolved; 
that the charters were given at a time when much of 
the territory, to which ownership was claimed under 
them, was in the actual possession and occupancy of 
another power; that all the various grants were made 
in the grossest ignorance of the inland extent of the 
American continent; and that George III. had cither 
repudiated the charters of his royal jiredecessoi's, or 
denied to them the right of sovereignty over territory 
of so vast extent, by issuing a proclamation forbidding 
all persons from intruding upon lands in the valley of 
the Ohio. 

Popular feeling ran high. Contentions between 
conflicting claimants frequently resulted in bloodshed. 
The prospects of the American Union were darkened; 
the ratification of the Articles of Confederation was 
retarded; the difficulty and embarrassments in prose- 
cuting the war for independence were greatly aug- 
mented. Mainland would not become a member of 
the Union unless the States claiming western territory 
would relinquish to Congress their title. In the midst 
of these gloomy and foreboding events, in which 
disaster to the common cause was more to be feared 
at the hands of its friends than of its enemies. Con- 
gress made a strong appeal to the claiming States to 
avert the approaching danger by a cessation of con- 
tentious discord among themselves, and by making 
liberal cessions of western territory for the common 
benefit. New York was the first to resjiond, and in 
1780 ceded to the United States the lands she claimed 
lying west of a line running south from the western 
bend of Lake Ontario, reserving an area of nineteen 
thousand square miles. Virginia, in 1781, relinquished 
in favor of Congress her title to lands lying northwest 
of the Ohio, reserving a district of land in Ohio lying 
between the Scioto and Little Miami, which came to 
be known as the Virginia Military District, which 
reservation was made in order to enable Virginia to 
fulfill pledges to her soldiers in the Revolutionai-y 
war of bounties payable in western lands. In 1785, 
Massachusetts ceded the western territory to which 



she had been a chiiniiint, reserviiiE; tlic same nineteen 
thousand square miles reserved by New York, which 
disputed territory was afterwards divided equally be- 
tween tiiese two States. Connecticut was the most 
reluctant and tardy of all the contesting States iu 
sacrificing State pretensions for the common benefit. 
Ilowever, on the 14th day of September, 1786, her 
authorized delegates in Congress relinquished all the 
right, title, interest, jurisdiction and claim that she 
possessed to land within her chartered limits lying 
west of a line one hundred and twenty miles west of 
and parallel with the western boundary line of the 
State of Pennsylvania. The tract of laud and water 
lying west of Pennsylvania for one hundred and 
twenty miles, and between latitudes 41° and 42° 2' 
north, was not conveyed, — hence reserved by Con- 
necticut, and hence was called the Western Reserve 
of Connecticut. 

As Connecticut's claim included nearly the whole 
of the northern half of the present State of Pennsyl- 
vania, it infringed upon the rights of the jseojile of 
the latter State or colony, who alleged ownership by 
virtue of the charter to William Penn. granted by 
James II. of England, in 1681. Both States strove 
for the occujiancy of the disputed soil, and Connec- 
ticut sold to certain individuals seventeen townships, 
situated on or near the Susquehanna river, organized 
the tract into a civil township, called it Westmore- 
land, and attached it to the probate district and county 
of Litchfield, in Connecticut. Westmoreland repre- 
sentatives occupied seats in the Connecticut legisla- 
ture. Pennsylvania protested, and, when the Revolu- 
tionary contest closed, sent an armed force to drive 
the intruders from the lands. The shedding of blood 
resulted. The controversy was finally submitted to a 
court of commissioners appointed by congress, upon 
the petition of^ Pennsylvania, as provided in the ninth 
article of the Confederation, which gave to congress 
the power to establish a court for the settlement of 
disputed boundaries. 

This court sat at Trenton, New Jersey, in 1787, when 
the case was tried, and decided against Connecticut. 
The title to lauds lying west of Pennsylvania was not 
involved in this adjudication, and Connecticut still 
insisted upon the validity of her claim to lands not 
ceded by her to the United States. 

At a session of the Connecticut legislature, held at 
New Haven, in 178G aiul in 1787, it was resolved to 
offer for sale that part of the Reserve lying east of the 
Cuyahoga, the Portage path, and the Tuscarawas 
branch of the Muskingum, and a committee of three 
persons was appointed to cause a survey to be made 
and to negotiate a sale. Nothing, however, was 
immediately done. On the 10th of Feln-uary, 1788, 
however, certain lands lying within the limits of the 
Reserve were sold to General Samuel H. Parsons, then 
of Middletown, Connecticut. This was afterwards 
known as the Salt Spring tract. No survey had been 
made, but in the description of the land conveyed the 
numbers of the ranges and townships were designated 

as if actually defined. General Parsons had explored 
the country, and had found the location of a salt 
spring near the Mahoning. He selected his tract so 
as it should include this spring, from which he 
expected to manufacture salt and to make his fortune. 
The entire number of acres thus sold and conveyed to 
Mr. Parsons, as afterwards determined by the survey 
made by the (!onnecticut Land Company, was twenty- 
five thousand four hundred and fifty. The descri))- 
tion in the deed is as follows: 

" Beginning at the northeast corner of the first township, in the third 
range of townships; thence rnnning northwardly on the west line of 
the second range of said lands to forty-one degrees and twelve minutes 
of north latitude; thence west three miles; thence southwardly parallel 
to the west line of Pennsylvania two miles and one-half; thence west 
three miles to the west line of said third range; thence southwardly 
parallel to the west line of Pennsylvania to the north hue of the first 
township, in the third range; thence east to the first bound." 

In 1795 Connecticut sold all the Reserve, except 
the "Sufferers' Lands" and the Salt Spring tract, to 
a number of men who came to be known as the Con- 
necticut Land Company, The "Sufferers' Lands'' 
comprise a tract of five hundred thousand acres, taken 
from the western end of the Reserve, and set apart by 
the legislature of the State on the 10th of May, 1792, 
and donated to the suffering inhabitants of the towns 
of Greenwich, Norwalk, Fairfield, Danbury, New and 
East Haven, New London, Richlield and Groton, who 
had sustained severe losses during the Revolution. 
Upwards of two thousand persons were rendered 
homeless from the incursions of the British, aided 
by Benedict Arnold, and their villages pillaged and 
burned. To compensate them for this great calamity 
this donation was made to them. The lands thus 
given are boundel on the north by Lake Erie, south 
by the base-line of the Reserve, west by its western 
line, and east by a line parallel with the western line, 
and at such a distance from it as to embrace one-half 
million of acres. The counties of Huron and Erie 
and the township of Ruggles, in Ashland, comprise 
these lands. An account of each sufferer's loss was 
taken in pounds, shillings and pence, and a price 
placed upon the lands, and each of the sufferers 
received lands proportioned to the amount of his loss. 
These lands finally took the name of '' Fire Lands," 
from the fact that the greater part of the losses resulted 
from fire. 

The resolution authorizing the sale of the remain- 
der of the Reserve, adopted at a session of the General 
Assembly, held at H;irtford, in May, 1795, is as 

" Resolved, By this Assembly, that a committee be appointed to re- 
ceive any proposals that may be made, by any person or persons, 
whether inhabitants of the tTnited States or others, for the purchase of 
the lands belonging to this State lying west of the west line of Pennsyl- 
vania as claimed by that State, and the said committee are hereby fully 
authorized and empowered, in the name and behalf of this State, to nego- 
tiate with any such person or persons on the subject of any such pro- 
posal. And also to perform and complete any contract or contracts for 
the sale of said lands, and to make and execute, under their hands and 
seals, to the purchaser or purchasers, a deed or deeds duly authenti- 
cated, quitting, in l)ehalf of this State, all right, title, and interest, 
juridicial and territorial, in and to the said lands, to hira or them, and to 
his or their heirs, forever. That before the executing of said deed or 
deeds, the purchaser or purchasers shall give their note or bond, paya- 
ble to the treasurer of this State, for the purchase-money, carrying an 



interest of six per centum, payable annually, to commence from the 
date thereof, or from such future period, not exceeding two years from 
the date, as circumstances, in the opinion of the committee may re- 
quire, and as may be agreed on between them and the said purchaser 
or purchasers, with good and sufficient sureties, inhai)itants of this 
State, or with a sufficient deposit of banlc or other stock of the United 
States, or of the particular States, which note or bond shall be taken 
payable at a period not mrre remote than five years from the date, or, 
if by annual installments, so that the last installment be [layable within 
ten years from the date, either in specie, or in six per cent., three per 
cent., or deferred stock of the United States, at the discretion of the 
committee. That if the committee shall find that it will be most bene- 
ficial to the State, or its citizens, to form several contracts for the .sale 
of said lands, they shall not consummate any of the said contracts apart 
by themselves while the others lie in a train of negotiation only, but all 
the contracts which taken together shall comprise the whole quantity 
of the said lands shall be consummated together, and the purchasers 
shall hold their respective parts or proportions as tenants in common 
of the whole tract or territory, and not in severalty. That said com- 
mittee, in whatever manner they shall find it best to sell the lanils, 
whether by an entire contract or by several contracts, shall in no case 
be at liberty to sell the whole quantity for a principal sum less than one 
million of dollars in specie, or if the day of payment be given, for a sum 
of less value than one million of dollars in specie, with interest at six 
per cent, per annum from the time of such sale." 

The following were appointed a committee to nego- 
tiate the sale: John Tread well, James Wadsworth, 
Marvin Wait, William Edmonds, Tliomas Grosvenor, 
Aaron Anstin, Elijah Hubbard, and Sylvester Gilbert. 
These eight persons were selected, one from each of 
the eight counties of the State. They effected a sale 
in separate contracts with forty-eight different indi- 
viduals, realizing for the State the sum of one million 
two hundred thousand dollars. Most of the pur- 
chasers made their bargains each separately from the 
others, although in some instances several associated 
together and took their deeds jointly. The contracts 
made were as follows: with 

Joseph Howland. I jg,, 45, 

Daniel L. Coit, ( ' 

Elias Morgan, I c, .^9 

Daniel L. Coit. f "''^"^ 

Caleb Atwater 22.816 

Daniel Holbrook S.T.jO 

Joseph AVilliams 15,2;il 

William Law 10..500 

William Judd 16.250 

Elisha Hyde. I =- ,nn 

UriaTraeey, f ^••*'" 

James Johnson 30,lM0 

Samuel Mather. Jr 18,461 

Ephraim Kirljy, I 

Elijah Boardman, y 60,000 

Uriel Holmes, Jr., ) 

Oliver Phelps. I on nnn 

Gideon Granger, f *''"™ 

Solomon Griswold 10,000 

William Hart 30,46J 

Henry Champion 2d 85,675 

Ashur Miller .34,000 

Robert. C. Johnson 60.000 

Ephraim Post 42.000 

Nehemiah Hubbard, Jr... 19.039 

Solomon Cowles $10,005 

Oliver Phelps 108.180 

Ashael Hathaway 12.000 

John Caldwell. I lemin 

Pel eg Sandtord, f ^^'"^ 

Timothy Burr 1.5,2:31 

Luther Loomis, ( j. 0,0 

Ehenezer King, Jr., ( «,oio 

William Lyman, ) 

John Stoddard, }■ 21,730 

David King, ) 

Moses Cleaveland .32.600 

Samuel P. Lord 14,092 

Roger Neivljury, J 

Enoch Perkins, V 38,000 

Jonathan Brace, \ 

Ephraim Starr 17,415 

Sylvanus Griswold 1,683 

,labez Stocking, I ,, ,,,« 

Joshua Stow, f "•^'^* 

Titus Street 22,846 

James Bull, ) 

Aaron Olmstead, V 30,000 

John Wyles. j 

Pierpont Edwards 60,000 

Amounting to 81,200,000 

The State by its committee made deeds to the several 
purchasers in the foregoing amounts, each grantee 
becoming owner of such a proportion of the entire 
purchase as the amount of his contract bore to the 
total amount. For example: the last-named indi- 
vidual, Pierpont Edwards, having engaged to pay 
sixty thousand dollars towards the purchase, received 
a deed for sixty thousand twelve hundred thousandths 
of the entire Reserve, or one-twentieth part. These 
deeds were recorded in the office of the Secretary 
of the State of Connecticut, and afterwards copied 
into a book, commonly designated as the "Book of 

The individuals above named formed themselves 
into a company called the Connecticut Land Company, 
a brief history of whose doings will be presented in 
the succeeding chapter. 



The members of this company etiected an organi- 
zation on the 5th day of September, 1795. This was 
done at Hartford, Connecticut. They adopted articles 
of association and agreement, fourteen in number. 
Their first article designated the name by which they 
chose to be known. Article number two provided for 
the appointment of a committee, consisting of three 
of their number, — John Caldwell, John Brace, and 
John Morgan, — to whom each purchaser was required 
to execute a deed in trust of his share in the purcliase, 
receiving in exchange a certificate from trustees 
showing that the holder thereof was entitled to a 
certain share in the Connecticut Western Reserve, 
which certificate of share was transferable by proper 
assignment. The form of this certificate is given in 
Article IX. Article III. provides for the appointment 
of seven directors, and empowers them to procure an 
extinguishment of the Indian title to said Reserve; to 
cause a survey of the lands to be made into townships 
containing each sixteen thousand acres; to fix on a 
township in which the first settlement shall be made, 
to survey the township thus selected into lots, and to 
sell such lots to actual settlers only; to erect in said 
township a saw-mill and a grist mill at the expense of 
the company; and to lay out and sell five other town- 
ships to actual settlers only. Article IV. obliges the 
surveyors to keep a regular field-book, in which they 
shall accurately describe tiie situation, soil, waters, 
kinds of timber, and natural productions of each 
township; said book to be kept in the office of the clerk 
of said directors, and open at all times to the inspec- 
tion of each proprietor. Article V. provides for the 
appointment by the directors of a clerk, and names 
his duties. Article VI. makes it obligatory upon the 
trustees to give to each of the proprietors a certificate 
as named above. Article VII. imposes a tax of ten 
dollars upon each share to enable the directors to 
accomplish the duties assigned to them. Article 
VIII. divides the into four hundred shares, 
and gives each shareholder one vote for every share up 
to forty shares, when he shall thereafter have but one 
vote for every five shares, except as to the (juestion of 
the time of making a partition of the territory, in 
determining which every share shall be entitled to 
one vote. Article X. fixes the dates of several future 
meetings to be held. Article XI. reads: 

'*And whereas, some of the proprietors may choose that their propor- 
tious of said Reserve should be divided tu them in one lot or location, it is 
agreed that in case one-third in value of the owners shall, after a survey 
of said Reserve in townships, signify to said directors or meeting a re- 
quest that such third part be set off in manner aforesaid, that said 
directors may appoint three commissioners, who shall have power to 
divide the whole of said purchase into three parts, equal in value, 



according to quantity, quality, and situation; and when said commis- 
sioner's sliall have so ilivided said Reserve, and made a report in writing 
of their doings to saiil directors, describing precisely the boundaries of 
each part, tlie said directors shall call a meeting oE said proprietors, 
giving the notice required by these articles; anil at such meeting the 
said three parts shall be numbered, and the number of each part shall 
be written on a separate I)iece of paper, and shall, in the presence of 
such meeting, be by the chairman of said meeting put into a box, and 
a person, appointed l)y said meeting for lluit purpose, shall draw out ipf 
said box one of said numbers, and ihe part designated by such number 
shall be aparted to su h person or persons requesting such a severance. 
and the said trustees shall, ttpon receivmg a written direction from 
said directors for that purpose, execute a deed to such per-ion or per- 
sons accordingly; after which, such person or persons shall have no 
power to act in said conq)aii.y." 

Article XU. eniiiowt^Ts the company to raise money 
by a tax on tlie ]iroi)rietor.s, anil to, iiiioii 
certain eoiulition.s, of so niiicli nf a |ii-o[irietor"s in- 
terest, in case of (leliiii(iHincy,, as shall be necessary to 
satisfy tlie as.sessment. Article XIII. provides for 
the apiiointiiu'iit liy tlie comiiaiiy of a successor to a 
trustee who may have caused a vacancy in the ofilce 
by deatli. Article .\i\'. places the directors in the 
transaction of any business of the company under the 
control of the latter "by a vote of at least three- 
fourths of the interest of stiid company." 

The following gtqitlemen were chosen to consti- 
tute the board of directors: Oliver Phelps, Henry 
Champion ("-Jnd), Moses Cloaveland, Samuel W. 
Johnson, KiihraJm Kirby, Saiimel Mather, Jr., and 
Roger Newbury. At a meeting liehl in April, 17!)U, 
Ephraim Root was made clerk, ;ind continued to in 
act this capacity until the dissolution of the company 
in 1809. A moderator was chosen at each meeting, 
and changes of directors were made from lime to time. 

]..\N1) COMl'ANY. 

The following arc Ihe names i.if the persons who 
subscribed to the " .Vrticles of Associtilion and Agree- 
ment constituting the Connecticut Land Company:'' 

Ashur Miller, 
Uriel Holmes. Jr.. 
Ephraim Starr, 
Luther L->oniis. 
Roger Newbury for 
Justin Ely, 
Elisha Strong, 
Joshua Stow, 
Jabez Stocking, 
Solomon Oowles, 
J<:inathan Brace, 
Daniel L. Coit 
Enoch Perkins, 
Elijah Boardman, 
"Williaiu Hart, 
Samuel Mather,, Jr., 
Caleb Atwaler, 
Nehemiah Hubbard, Jr., 
Lemuel .Storrs, 

,lose[)h Ihnvland, 
Pierponl Edwards, 
James Bull, 
Titus Street, 
William .ludd, 
Rol)ert C. .lohn.son, 
Samuel F. Lord, 
Ephraim Kelly, 
Oliver Phelps, 
(Jideon Granger, ,Jr. 
Tephaiiiih Swift, 
Moses Cleaveland, 
Joseph Williams, 
Peleg Saudford, 
William M. Bliss, 
John Stoddard, 
William B.attle, 
Benajab Kent, 
Timothy Burr, 

William I.,aw, 
James Johnson, 
Elisha Hyde, 
Uriah Tracey, 
William Lyman, 
Daniel Holbrook, 
Ejihraim Root, 
Solomon Griswold, 
Tliaddeus Levvett, 
Ebenezer King, Jr., 
Roger Newbury, 
Elijah White, 
Eliphalet Austin, 
Joseph C. Yates, and 
Samuel Mather, in be- 
half of themselves 
and their associates 
in All)any, State of 
New York. 

Before this organi/.ed body of men lay the impor- 
tant work of obtaining a perfect title to thciri)urchase; 
of causing a survey of the lands to be maile; of making 
partition of the same; and then of inducing colonies 
of men to undertake tlie settlement. 

To these tasks tlie purchasers addressed themselves 
in right good earnest. In order to make sound their 
title they must obtain from the United States a release 

of the government's claim, — a very just and formid- 
able one, — and to extinguish the title of tlie Indian, right to the soil rested upon the substantial 
basis of actual occujiancy. Whatever interest \'irgiiiia, 
Massachusetts, and New York may have had in the 
Western Reserve had jiassed to the United States, and 
if none of the claiming States had title, the dominion 
;ind ownership were transferred to the general govern- 
ment by the treaty made with Gretit Britain at the 
close of the Revolution. There was, therefore, a very 
reasonable solitutude ujion the [lart of the Connecticut 
Land ('omi)any, lest the claim of the United States 
Would, if issue were made, be proven to be of greater 
valiilily than that of Connecticut, the company's 
graiitor. Another difficulty made itself felt. AViien 
an attempt was made to settle the Reserve, it was 
discovered that it was so far removed from Connecticut 
as to make it impracticable for that State to extend 
her laws over the same, or to make new ones for the 
government of the inhabitants. Congress had pro- 
vided in the ordinance of 17S7 for the government of 
the Northwestern Territory; but to admit jurisdiction 
by the general government over this part of that terri- 
tory would be a virtual acknowledgment of the validity 
of the government's title, and therefore an indirect 
proof of the insufficiency of the company's title. The 
right to siu;h jurisdiction was therefore denied, and 
Connecticut was urged to obtain from the Unitetl 
States a release of the governmentid claim. The result- 
was that congress, on the :J8th day of Ajiril, ISOO, 
authorized the President to execute and deliver, on 
the part of the United States, letters i)atent to the 
governor of Connecticut, releasing all right and title 
to the soil of the Reserve, upon condition that Connec- 
ticut should, on her part, forever renounce and release 
to the United Sttites entire and complete civil juris- 
diction over the Reserve. Thus Connecticut obtaine(l 
from the United States her claim to the soil, and 
transmitted iind confirmed it to the Connecticut Laml 
('onn),-iny and to those who had purchased from it, 
and jurisdiction for the purposes of government vested 
in the United States. 


At the close of the Revolution the general govern- 
ment sought by peaceable means to acquire the red 
man's title to the soil northwest of the Ohio. On the 
2 1st of January, 1785, a treaty was concluded at Fort 
Mcintosh with four of the Indian tribes, the Wijnn- 
ihts, Ddaiiidrcx, C/iijjpewa.s, and Ot fawns. By this 
treaty the Cuyahoga and the portage between it and 
the Tuscariiwtis were agreed upon as the boundtiry on 
the Reserve between the United States and the Indians. 
All east of the Cuyahoga was in fact ceded to the 
United States. The luditms soon became dissatisfied, 
and refused to comply with the terms of the treaty. 
On January 0, 1789, another treaty was concluded at 
Fort Harmar, at the mouth of the Muskingum, be- 
tween Arthur St. Clair, acting for the United States, 
and the Wyandots, Dclawares, Clivppeioas and Siac 



Nations, l)y which the terms of tlio former treaty were 
renewed and confirmed. Bnt only a short timeehipsed 
before the Indians viohited their pompact. Peaceful 
means failing, it became necessary to compel obedience 
bv the use of arms. Vigorous means for relief and 
protection for the white settler were called for and 
enforced. At first the Indians were successful; ])ut 
in 1794, General Wayue, at the head of three thou- 
sand five hundred me:), encountered the enemy on the 
2()th (lay of August, on the Maumee, and gained a 
decisive victory. Nearly every chief was slain. The 
Treaty of (h-eenville was the result, (ioneral Wayne 
met in grand council twelve of tlie most powerful 
northwestern tribes, and the Indians again yielded 
their claims to the lauds east of the Cuyahoga, and 
made no further effort to regain them. 

We quote as follows from Judge Boynton's Histori- 
cal Address, to which we are chiefly indebted for the 
facts given in this and the preceding chapter: 

"The Cuyahoga river and the portage between it and the Tuscarawas, 
as between the United States and the Indians, constituted the western 
boundary of the United States, upon the Reserve, until .July 4th, ISO.j, 
On that day a treaty was made at Fort Industry with the chiefs and 
warriors of the iVyaiidot, Ottawa, Chippewa, Munsee, Delaware, 
Skawnee and Pottawatomie nations, by which the Indian title to all the 
lands of the Reserve lying west of the Cuyalioga was extinguished. By 
this treaty all the lands lying between the Cuyahoga and the Meridian. 
one hundred and twenty miles west of Pennsylvania, were ceded by 
the Indians for twenty thousand dollars in goods, and a perpetual 
annuity of nine thousand five hundred dollars payable in goods at first 
cost. And although this annuity remains unpaid, l)ecause there is no 
one to claim it, the title to the laud on the Reserve west of that river 
was forever set at rest." 


The title having been perfected, the comjiany made 
preparations to survey the portion of the Ileserve 
lying east of the Cuyahoga. In the early part of 
May, 17'JC, the company fitted out an expedition for 
this puri)ose, of which Moses Cleaveland was the 
leader of a company — all told of about fortv men — • 
live of tlieni surveyors, one a physician, and the rest 
cliaiumeu and axemen. 

By i)revious arrangement they met at Scheiiectadv, 
New York, at which point they commenced their 
journey, ascending the Mohawk in four flat-lioMomed 
boats, proceeding by the way of Oswego, Niagara and 
Queenstown to Buffalo, reaching the soil of tiie 
Reserve on the -Itli of July. 

The names of this surveying-jjarty, a company of 
fifty-two persons, all told, are as follows: Moses 
Cleaveland, the Land Company's agent; Joshua Stow, 
commissary; Augustus Porter, principal surveyor; 
Setli Pease, Warren, Amos Spafford, Milton 
Holley and Richard M. Stoddaid, surveyors; Theodore 
Shepard, ])hysician; Josepii Tinker, principal boat- 
man; Joseph Mclntyre, (feorge Proudfoot, Francis 
Gray, Samuel Forbes, Elijaii Uunn, wife and child, 
Amos Sawtel, Samuel Hungerford, Amos Barber, 
Stephen Benton, Amzi Atwater, Asa Mason, Michael 
Coffin, Samuel Davenport, Samuel Agnew, Shadrach 
Benham, William B. Hall, Elisha Ayers, George 
Gooding, Norman Wilcox, Thomas Harris, Timothy 

Dunham, Wareham Shepard, David Beard, John 
Briant, Titus V. Munson, Joseph Landon, Olney F. 
Rice, James Hamilton, John Lock, James Halket, 
Job V. Stiles and wife, Charles Parker, Ezekiel 
Morley, Nathaniel Doan, Luke Hanchet, Samuel 
Barnes, Daniel Shulay ami Stephen Burbank. 

It is a noteworthy coincidence that this advance- 
guard of the army of civilization that was soon to 
people the territorial limits of the Reserve, first 
touched her soil on the anniversary of America's 
independence. Thus, in this signal manner, did a 
new colony, destined to play so important a part in 
the future of the nation, l)cgin its existence on the 
same day of the same month in which the nation 
itself began to exist. Nor were these sons of 
Revolutionary fathers oblivious of the day which not 
only commemorates the birth of their country's 
freedom, bnt should henceforth be to them and their 
posterity the anniversary of the day on which their 
pilgrimage ended, and on which Ijegan their labors, 
toils and sufferings for the establishment, in the 
wilderness of Ohio, of homes for themselves and their 
children. Animated with emotions appropriate to 
the occasion, these Pilgrim Fathers of the Western 
Reserve celebrated the day with such rude demonstra- 
tions of patriotic devotion and joy as they were able 
to invent. 

They gathered together in groups on the eastern 
bank of the creek now known as the Conneaut; the}' 
pledged fidelity to their country in liquid dipped 
from the pure waters of the lake; they discharged 
from two or three fowling-pieces the nati(nial salute; 
they ate, drank, and were merry, blessing the land 
which many of them had assisted in delivering from 
British oppression; and they may have indulged in 
glowing predictions as to the future greatness and 
glory of the colonies they were about to plant. Could 
one of their number who shared their fancies, bnt 
who lived to see no part of them realized, behold to- 
day the changes wliich have proceeded in so wonder- 
ful a manner, we think that he would admit that the 
boldest anticipations of the little party of 179G were 
but a feeble conception of the reality. However diffi- 
cult it might be for him to understand the stages of 
the process by which so great a transformation has 
taken ijlace, the actual truth would still present itself 
for his contemplation, Wliat would astonish him 
most would be, not the conquest of forests, but that 
they have been succeeded by the numerous thriving 
cities and villages and the multitudinous homes of 
the prospering farmei', established on nearly every 
quarter-section of land in this county; that distance 
has been annihilated by the use of steam and the con- 
sequent acceleration of speed; that wealth and popu- 
lation have been so rapidly cumulative; that the com- 
munity is so opulent and enlightened; that education 
is fostered by so admirable a system of free schools; 
that intelligence is universally diffused by so many 
representatives of a free press; that moral oi^iuion has 
gained such ground; that religion is sustained by the 



convictions of :in cnliglitcncd faith, and that the hap- 
piness of tlie people is universal and secure. 

They christened the place where occurred these 
demonstrations of patriotism and joy. Fort Inde- 
pendence, and the following are the toasts which 
they drank: 

1st. The I'resiilent of the United State's. 

2d. The State of Connecticut. 

3d. The Connecticut Land Company. 

4th. May the Port of Independence and the fifty sons and daughters 
wlio have entered it this day be successful and prosperous : 

5tli. May tiiese sons and daughters multiply in sixteen years sixteen 
times fifty : 

6th. May every person have his bowsprit trimmed and ready to enter 
every port that opens. 

The surveyors proceeded to tlie south line of the 
Reserve, and ascertained the point where the forty- 
first degree of north latitude intersects the western 
line of Penn.sylvauia, and from this line of latitude 
as a base, meridian lines five miles apart were run 
north to the lake. Lines of latitude were then run 
five miles apart, thus dividing the Reserve into town- 
ships five miles S([uare. As the lands lying west of 
the Cuyahoga remained in possession of the Indians 
until the Treaty of Fort Industiy, in 1805, the 
Reserve was not surveyed at this time farther west 
than to the Cuyahoga and the portage between it and 
the Tuscarawas, a distance west from the western 
line of Pennsylvania of fifty-six miles. Tlie remainder 
of the Reserve was surveyed in 1806. The Land 
Company made a contract with Abraham Tap})an 
and Anson Sessions, in 1805, for the survey of the 
lands of the Reserve between the Sufferers' lands and 
the Cuyahoga. The limited width of range nineteen, 
emliracing in Lorain county the townships of Brown- 
helm, Henrietta, Canxden, Brighton and Rochester, 
is proof of the fact that the Reserve is less than one 
hundred and twenty miles in length. Judge Boynton 

"This tier of townships is gore-shaped, and is much less than five 
miles wide, circumstances leading the company to divide all south of 
Brownhelm into tr.acts, and use them for purposes of equalization. 
The west line of range nineteen, from north to south, as originally run, 
bears to the west, and between it and range twenty, as indicated on the 
map, there is a stri]) of land, also gore-shaped, that was left in the first 
instance unsurveyed, the surveyors not knowing the exact whereabouts 
of the eastern line of the "half million acres '" belonging to the Suf- 
ferers. In 1801), .\mos Spafford, of Cleveland, and Alnion Ruggles, of 
Huron, were agreed on by the two companies to ascertain and locate 
the line between the Fire Lands and the lands of the Connecticut Com- 
pany. They first surveyed off the "half million acres " belonging to tlie 
SulTerers, and, not agreeing with Seth Pease, who had run out the base 
and west line, a dispute arose between the two companies, which was 
finally adjusted before the draft by establishing the eastern line of the 
Fire Lands where it now is. This left a strip of land east of the Fire 
Lands, called surplus lands, which was included in range nineteen, and 
is embraced in the western tier of townships of Lorain county." 


.M'ler this survey was completed, the Land Com- 
]iaiiy, in cn-iier tlutt the shareholders might share 
eipiitabiy as nearly as possible tlie lands of the 
Reserve, or to avoid the likelihond of a part of the 
.shareholders drawing the best and others the medium 
and others again the poorest of the lands, appointed 
an eijualizing committee, whose duties we will explain. 

The amount of the purchase-money, one million 
two hundred thousand dollars, was divided into four 
hundred shares, each share value being three thousand 
dollars. The holder of one share, therefore, had one 
four-hundredth undivided interest in the whole tract, 
and he who held four or five or twenty shares had 
four or five or twenty times as much interest undi- 
vided in the whole Reserve as he who held but one. 
As some townships would be more valuable than 
others, the company adopted, at a meeting of share- 
holders at Hartford, Connecticut, in April, 1796, a 
mode of making partition, and ajipointed a committee 
of equalization to divide the Reserve in accordance 
with the company's plan. The committee appointed 
were Daniel Holbrook, William Shepperd, Jr., Moses 
Warren, Jr., Seth Pease and Amos Spafford, and the 
committee who made up their report at Canandaigua, 
New York, December 13th, 1797, were William 
Shepperd, Jr., Moses Warren, Jr., Seth Pease and 
Amos Spafford. 

The directors of the company, in accordance with 
Article III. of the Articles of Association, selected 
six townships to be offered for sale to actual settlers 
alone, and in which the first improvements were 
designed to be made. The townships thus selected 
were numbers eleven, in the sixth range; ten, in the 
ninth range; nine, in the tenth range; eight, in the 
eleventh range; seven, in the twelfth range; and two, 
in the second range. These townships are now 
known as Madison, Mentor and Willoughby, in Lake 
county; Euclid and Newburgh, in Cuyahoga county; 
and Youngstown in Mahoning. Number three, in 
the third range, or Weathersfield, in Trumbull 
county, was omitted from the first draft made by the 
company owing to the uncertainty of the boundaries 
of Mr. Parsons' claim. This township has sometimes 
been called the Salt Spring township. The six town- 
ships above named were offered for sale before partition 
was made, and jiarts of them were sold. 

Excepting the Parsons claim and the seven town- 
ships above named, the remainder of the Reserve east 
of the Cuyahoga was divided among the members of 
the company in accordance with the following 


The four best townships in the eastern jiart of the 
Reserve were selected and surveyed into lots, an 
average of one hundred lots to the township. As 
there were four hundred shares, the four townships 
would yield one lot for every share. When these lots 
were drawn, each holder or holders of one or more 
shares participated in the draft. The committee 
selected township eleven, in range seven, and town- 
ships five, six and seven, in range eleven, for the four 
best townshijis. These are Perry, in Lake county, 
Northfield, in Summit county, Bedford and Warren- 
ville, in Cuyahoga county. 

Then the committee proceeded to .select from the 
remaining townships certain other townships that 
should be next in value to the four already selected. 



which were to be used for equalizing purposes. The 
tracts thus selected being whole townships .and parts 
of townships, were in number twenty-four, as follows: 
sis, seven, eight, nine .and ten, in the eiglith range; 
six, seven, eight and nine, in the ninth range; and 
one, five, six, seven and eight, in the tenth range; 
and sundry irregular tracts, as follows: number four- 
teen, in the first range; number thirteen, in the third 
range; number thirteen, in" the fourth r.ange; number 
twelve, in tlie fifth range; number twelve, iu the 
sixth range; number eleven, in the eighth range; 
number ten, in the tenth range; number six, in the 
twelftli range; and numbers one and two, in the 
eleventh range. These tracts are now known as 
Auburn, Newbury, Muusou, Chardou, Bainbridge, 
Russell and Chester townships, in Geauga county; 
Concord and Kirtland, in Lake county; Springfield 
and Twinsburg, in Summit county; Solon, Orange, 
and Mayfield, in Cuyahoga county. The fractional 
townships are Conueaut gore, Ashtalnila gore. Say- 
brook gore, Geneva, Madison gore, Painesville, Wil- 
loughby gore, Independence, Coventry and Portage. 
After this selection had been made they selected the 
average townships, to the value of each of which each 
of the others should be brought by the equalizing 
process of annexation. The eight best of the remain- 
ing townships were taken, and were numbers one, 
five, eleven, twelve and thirteen, in the first range; 
twelve, in the fourth range; eleven, in the fifth 
range; and six, in the sixth range. They are now 
known a« Poland, in Mahoning county; Hartford, in 
Trumbull county ; Pierpout, Monroe, Conneaut, 
Saybrook, and Harpersfield, in tabula county; 
and Parkmau, in Geauga county. These were the 
slamlard townships, and all the other townships of 
inferior value to these eight, which would include all 
the others not mentioned above, were to be raised to 
the value of tlie average townships by annexations 
from the equalizing townships. These last named 
were cut up into parcels of various sizes and values, 
and annexed to the inferior townships in sueli a way 
as to make them all of equal value in tlie opinion of 
the committee. Wlien the committee had performed 
this task, it was found that, with the exception of 
tlie four townships first selected, the Parsons tract, 
and the townships that had been previously set aside 
to be sold, the whole tract would amount to an 
eipiivalent of ninety-three shares. There were, there- 
fore, ninety-three ecpialized townships or parcels to 
be di-awn for, east of the Cuyahoga. 

To entitle a shareholder to the ownership of an 
equalized township it was necessary for him to be the 
])roprietor of twelve thousand nine hundred and three 
dollars and twenty-three cents of the original purchase 
of the company. This division by draft took place on 
the 29th of January, 1798. 

The committee appointed to make partition of the 
lands west of the Cuyahoga divided the entire tract 
into forty-six parts, for the purchase of one of which 
the sum of twenty-sis thousand six hundred and 

eighty-seven dollars was required. This draft took 
place April 4, 1807, and the mode of procedure was the 
same as in the first draft. The townships were num- 
bered from one to forty-six, and the numbers on slips 
of paper placed in a box. The names of shareholders 
were arranged in alphabetical order, and in those 
instances in which an original investment was insuf- 
ficient to entitle such investor to an equalized towusliip, 
he formed a combination with others in like situation, 
and the name of that person of this combination that 
took alphabetic precedence was used in the draft. If 
the small proprietors were, from disagreement among 
themselves, unable to unite, a committee was ap- 
pointed to select and classify them, and those selected 
were compelled to submit to this arrangement. If 
after they had drawn a township they could not agree 
in dividing it among them, this committee, or another 
one appointed for the purpose, divided it for them. 
That township which the first number drawn desig- 
nated belonged to the first man on the list, and the 
second drawn to the second man, and so on until all 
were drawn. Thus was the ownership in common 
severed, and each individual secured his interest in 
severalty. John Morgan, John Cadwell, and Jona- 
than Brace, the trustees, as rapidly as partition was 
effected, conve3'ed by deed to the several purchasers 
the lands they had drawn. 

" The lands of Lorain county, that were taken for the purpose of 
equalizing townships of inferior value, were those of Rochester 
Brighton, Camden, Black River, and that pai't of Henrietta that did not 
originally belong to Brownhelni. Tract eight in range nineteen, being 
partly in Brighton and partly in Camden, consisting of three thousand 
seven hundred acres, was annexed to LaGrange, to equalize it. Tract 
number three in LaFayette township, Medina county, consisting of four 
thousand eight hundred and ten and one-half acres was annexed to 
Penfield. Tract one, in gore four, in range eleven, consisting of two 
thousand two hundred and twenty-five acres, was annexed to Eaton. 
Tract two, in gore four, range eleven, consisting of two thousand six 
hundred and fifty acres, was annexed to Columbia; one thousand seven 
hundred acres, in tract four, in Rochester, were annexed to Huntington; 
two thousand seven hundred and sixty nine acres, in fraction number 
three in range eleven, in Summit county, were annexed to Ridgeville; 
tour thousand six hundred aci-es in tract nine, in Camden, were annexed 
to Grafton ; four thousand acres, tract seven, in Brighton, were annexed 
to Wellington; four thousand three hundred aeres, iu tract three, gore 
six, range twelve, were annexed to Russia; fifteen hundred acres iu 
tract fourteen, in Henrietta, were annexed to Shefflekl ; three thousand 
acres in tract eleven. In Camden, were annexed to Pittsfield ; tract three 
consisting of four thousand and fifty acres, in Rochester, was annexed 
to Elyria ; four thousand acres in tract two, in Black River, were annexed 
to Amherst; Bass Islands, numbers one and two, and Island number 
five, lying north of Erie county, consisting of two thousand and sixtj- 
three acres, were annexed to Avon; and Kelley's Island, consistmg of 
two thousand seven hundred and forty -seven acres, was annexed to 


The first draft was made January 29, 1798, and 
was for that portion of the Reserve east of the Cuya- 
hoga. In this draft the lands drawn were divided 
into ninety-three parts, each representing twelve 
thousand nine hundred and three dollars and twenty- 
three cents. 

The second draft was made iu 1802, and was for 
such portions of the seven townships omitted in the 
first draft as remained at that time unsold. This 
draft was divided into ninety shares, representing 
thirteeen thousand three hundred and thirty-three 
dollars and thirty-three cents of the purchase-money. 



The fliivd ili'iift was maile in ISO?, and was for the 
hinds of the comjiany lying west of the Cnyalioga, 
and was divided into forty-six parts, each representing 
twenty-six tliousaiid .six luuKlrcd and eiglity-seven 

A fourth draft was made in 1809, at which time the 
snrphis hind, so called, was divided, including sundry 
notes and claims arising from sales that had heen 
effected of the seven townships omitted in the first 


Land east of the Cuyahoga, exclusive of the Parsons tract 

inacres 2,0()a,!)T0 

Lanil west of the Cuyahofra, exclusive of surplus land, 

islands, and Sufferers' Lands 827.291 

Surplus land, so called 6,280 

iC!unninj?ham or Kelley 's 2749, or B.ay, No. 1 1322 
" " " I;;;::;;:;:::;::::;::;;::;: 709 
" " '• 4 403 
"5 32 


Parsons', or "Salt Spring Tract" 2.'), 4.50 

Sufferers', or Fire Lands 5IK1,OI10 

Total amount of acres in the Connecticut Western Reserve. 3,300 921 




Lorain county is bounded on the north by Lake 
Erie, on the south by portions of Medina and Ashland 
counties, on the east by Cuyahoga and Medina, and 
on the west by Huron and Erie. Its capital town is 
Elyria, which is situated in longitude 83° C 49" 
west from Greenwich and in latitude 41° 22' 1". It 
is divided into twenty-one townships, most of which 
are five miles square, whose names ai'e as follows: 
Columbia, Avon, Ridgeville, Eaton, Grafton, Shef- 
field, Elyria, Carlisle, LaGninge, Penfield, Black 
River, Aiiiherst, Russia, Pittsfleld, Wellington, Hunt- 
ington, Brownhelm, Henrietta, Camden, Brighton 
and Rochester. The principal towns and villages 
named in the order of their population arc Elyria, 
Oborlin, Wellington, Amherst, Kipton, and Grafton. 
The population of the county in 1S70, by town.ships, 
was as follows: 

Amherst 2,482 , Henrietta. 


LaG range 





Russia.exclusive of Oberlin 



Wellington township 

Welhngton borough 









Avon 1,924 

Black River 8;18 

Brighton 508 

Brownhelm 1,401 

Camilen S'tfi 

C'arlisle 1 ,219 

Columhia 892 

p:at(>n I,0ri2 

Elyria, exclusive of city... 1,088 

Elyria City 3,0;)8 

Grafton 980 

Total .30,308 


There is perhaps no subject at the present- time 
that excites a deeper interest among thinking and 
.scientific minds than the science of Geology. Several 

• By Jay Terrell. 

reasons may be given for this, one of which is that it 
is the newest among all the sciences; another is tliat 
it upsets all of our old preconceived notions as to the 
age of the world. Whereas we had been taught tliat 
it was almost horc-'y to believe that the world was more 
than six thousand years old, and that Moses' account 
of the creation in its six solar days of twenty-four 
hours each was literally correct, geology has proven 
beyond a doubt that it has been as many millions or 
even more years in existence, and that it was countless 
ages before it was jirepared for, or even was jiossible 
for man to have lived uj)on it. Hence at first many 
divines were found opposing this new science with its 
new theories. 

These controversies have been fraught with very 
much good. They have laid the fouiuhition for deeper 
thought and investigation, and now, instead of lift- 
ing up liands with holy horror at the teachings of 
this great geological book, we find onr most eminent 
divines quoting it as authority to substantiate just 
what at first they supposed it disproved. 

We have neither space nor time to go back over 
these old controverted grounds, whose errors, like 
cobwebs, are fast being brushed away by the hand of 
time as new light lireaks in upon the intelligent 
mind. Neither have we time to open out this grand 
old book of nature, and commence at the beginning, 
every page of which shines like letters in gold, telling 
of the great Creator's power and goodness; how that, 
stej) by stej), for millions of years, the earth was being 
fitted and prejiared for the al)odc and ha])piness of 
man. (We use the term "millions of years" not that 
geological time can be counted or expressed in years, 
but this term, perhaps, gives us the best idea of the 
lapse of ages.) But we must begin almost at the very 
ending and only study a portion of that chapter that 
relates to onr immediate surroundings. 

We do not propose, therefore, in this brief chajiter, 
to take the reader all over the world to teach geology, 
but shall confine ourself to Lorain county and that 
which jiertains to and a£Fe(;ts it. 

Nearly every farm in the county has material 
enough upon it to fill pages with interesting matter, 
and if the geology of Lorain county was fully written 
up it would more than fill every page of this beautiful 
history. I shall, tlierefore, merely give an niitline, 
and confine myself to what I have seen and what the 
rocks teach us. This will of necessity take us back 
into the far-away ages of the past when there was no 
human eye to behold the heauties in the morning 
dawn of creation (no less lieautiful then than now), 
nor human hand to record their history; and yet the 
everlasting rocks have left their record as plainly and 
distinctly marked as if "graven with an iron pen." 
The geologist reads these " footprints of the Creator " 
with clearness and just as much assurance as the 
astronomer marks the course of the stars, or the 
historian records the events of a nation. 

Geology being the newest of all the sciences, it is 
very probable that some of the theories now held by 



our leiuliiiij scientists will have to be abandoned as 
new liyli( breaks in with the lapse of time. It would 
indeed sliow but little progress and be very strange if 
this were not the case. It behooves us, therefore, to 
lie very careful about adopting new theories until we 
are well assured that they are based upon solid foun- 
dation, or rather solid rock. I hold it as a cardinal 
l)rinciple that theories can always afford to wait until 
fully tested and facts are brought to prove the validity 
of their claims. There ai-e, however, some theories in 
geology that must of necessity be founded on negative 
proof. For example: the great Ohio fossil fishes are 
said to have had no scales from the fact that none 
have ever yet been found with their remains. This, 
coupled with the fact that their structure was such 
that they seemed not to have needed scales, is deemed 
sufficient to establish the theory that they had none, 
although it is based upon negative testimony. 

In some respects the study of geology has been 
with me a life work, and for manyyears some portion 
of each year has been devoted to jiractical field work. 
In Canada, and on the islands of Lake Erie; in Ohio, 
and other States; in summer, under broiling suns; in 
rain and storms; in winter, amid snow and ice, — have 
I tried faithfully to work out these grand problems 
of nature; and yet how little do we know of the great 
Creator's power and 2)ur2JOses. Evidently the world 
has passed through a thousand changes, all seemingly 
for the benefit of the last crowning act of creation — 

We will now take up the geology of Lorain county 
in detail, beginning with the clay drift, the first 
formation or surface deposit, and so step by step, 
along down to the Huron shale, the lowest exposed 
deposit in the county. 

The mechanical force which distributed this wide- 
spread drift, we will sjieak of further on, under its 
proper head, "Glaciers." The soil which rests im- 
mediately upon this drift, or clay-bed, and which we 
plow and cultivate, is of vegetable origin and produced 
by the slow process of the decomposition of vegetable 
matter. It is usually only a few inches in thickness 
over the surface except where it has accumulated on the 
lower lands, either by the wash from the higher lands 
or water standing a sufficient length of time to collect 
leaves, mosses, etc., which eventually became swamps. 

This soil although rpiite thin, nevertheless bears the 
evidence of having been ages in its accumulation, ere 
it was able to sustain the first scanty growth of forest 
trees. .Just what tliat first growth of forest trees in 
Lorain county was, we are unable definitely to deter- 
mine; Init from drift-wood which is more or less found 
under all our ridges, and some other "foot-prints," 
we are led to conclude, that our first forest trees 
belonged to the pine or cedar family. 

For several years I have been led to believe tiiat one 
race of trees succeeded another in the cycles of time; 
that is, they came in the order in which the climate 
and soil are prepared for, and adapted to receive them. 
This we know to be true of animals ; one race becomes 

extinct and another follows in its course and takes its 
place. As changes are constantly going on in the 
world, new beings are created to meet these changes, 
and the old ones, that can no longer exist under the 
new order of things pass away. These climatic and 
other changes, humanly speaking, are very slow: so 
slow, that to us they are not percci^tible. To us there 
seems to be a profound rest; but these changes are 
just as sure and certain as summer and winter; sunrise 
and sunset. 

The evidence of the succession of tree-growth is 
very clearly shown on Point-au-Pelee, one of the 
islands of Lake Erie. All over the higher lands, the 
soil is literally filled with red cedar roots, showing 
conclusively that there once existed on this island a 
dense groAvth of this species of conifers. These roots, 
lying as they do, intermixed with the hard clay drift, 
are as nearly imperishable as almost any thing can be, 
except it be the "everlasting rocks." 

In all probability this was the first tree or shrub (it 
could only have been a shrub in its incipient stages) 
that took possession of the soil, and it must have held 
complete possession for a long period of time, until 
their slowly decaying leaves, with other scanty vege- 
tation ultimately produced a soil sufficient for the 
sustenance of other trees, and a more rank vegetation. 
Around the margin of the island, on the almost 
barren sandy beach, I found the red cedar still flourish- 
ing where scarcely anything else could grow. These 
cedars must have been "nionarchs of all they sur- 
veyed" for tens of thousands of years, until they 
slowly gave jilace to the growth of another class of 
trees, for which the accumulated soil of ages became 
especially adapted. 

The next growth in the succession we find were truly 
" nionarchs of the forest," great oaks. No such trees 
are now growing upon the island, nor indeed have 
been for many generations in the past, but their 
prostrate decaying bodies lie half buried beneath the 
soil of centuries, and are scattered here and thei'e over 
the surface, among the thickly wooded timber of the 
present forest. As I stepped upon some of these 
trees, they would sink beneath my feet, as nothing 
but their moss-covered bark holds them together. 
Probably within the present generation they will 
entirely disappear, leaving no trace behind them as 
evidence of their having once existed. 

No doubt there is many a missing link in the long 
chain of geological events, which, if we had them all 
connected together, we could read the sequences of 
time much plainer than we can now. Nevertheless 
there is still enough left to give us a tolerably correct 
idea of the progressive stages in the earth's history 
since the dawn of creation. A mixed growth of 
timber now covers the island, such as oak, hickory, 
ash, maple, etc. I give this as an illustration, to 
prove the succession of forest trees and the ages of 
time that must have elapsed, from the dejjositiou of 
these drift clay-beds, until they accumulated a suf- 
ficient soil to sustain such a mass of vegetation as that 



whicli now everywhere meets our gaze. I am of the 
o]iinion that the earth is, and always has been occu- 
liicd at each successive period with the liighest type 
of life, both uiiiiual and vegetable, that the conditions 
will allow. 

The drift formation of Lorain county, is mostly 
the product of the Huron and Erie shales, intermixed 
with other material that has been transinorted long 
distances by the action of ice. These shales have 
been plowed, torn uj), crushed, and massed together, 
by the plow-share of the Almighty: an agency that 
the All-wise Father has used to tit and prepare this 
part of his heritage for the habitation of man — a 
power that has plowed and ])laned down mountains 
into valleys, and leveled the whole into vast plains. 
Such a power is, and only can be, immense fields of 
ice in the form of glaciers. 

That these glaciers existed on the North American 
continent at one period in the far-away-past, and that 
they were the direct cause of the distribution of our 
clay-beds there can now be no reasonable doubt. These 
clays are more or less filled with fragments of lime, 
granite, fjuartz, gneiss, green stone and other pebbles, 
all foreign material, brought down from the moun- 
tain-side, and transported hundreds of miles from 
their place of origin — mixed and intermixed with these 
shales which were so evenly distributed over the un- 
derlying rocks. 

The dairy-farmers of Lorain county owe to these 
shales, which were thus ground up and mixed to- 
gether, their peculiar clay soil, — hai-d, tenacious, 
unworkable when wet, but when well drained, and 
seeded, nothing can excel it for grazing and dairying 
purposes. Along the border of tiie lake, especially in 
Avon and Sheffield, this soil is jieculiarly adapted to 
grape culture; and here may be seen nuiny beautiful 
vineyards, from which hundreds of tons of grapes 
are annually gathered and shijjped to all parts of the 

There is perhaps no part of the county where the 
di'if t is so well shown as on the lake shore in Sheffield 
township. Here commences a long line of beach 
which extends almost to Vermillion. Tlie direct 
cause of this beach is that the glacier dipped deeper 
into the rock here than farther east, tearing up the 
hard shale to a considerable depth below the present 
surface of the lake, leaving the clay banks to come 
down to the water's edge. Farther east the shale 
being above the water, forms a bluff bank (we call it 
iron-bound shore) against which the waves almost 
constantly dash. At the eastern end of this beach 
the banks are about eighteen feet high. About half 
way from top to bottom the clay drift lies directly 
upon the Huron shale; the line of demarkation be- 
tween the two is as well defined as would be one board 
lying upon another. Farther on we find the shales 
torn from their bed and the upper portion thoroughly 
mixed and incorporated with the lower stratum, or 
base of the clay. The lower portion of the shale that 
was torn from the rock, was broken up, ground and 

shoved along, but still remained unmixed with the 
clay above, and unexposed to atmospheric changes; it 
therefore remains a stratum of broken shale between 
the clay and the solid rock l)elow. 

Still farther on we find where, in some way, the ice- 
field got a foot-hold in a seam in the rock and moved 
the whole mass bodily to the west several feet, making 
quite a large fissure; then, passing on over, filled this 
fissure to its very bottom with clay-mud and gi-avcl. 
This great ice-field was working westward, and all 
through Sheffield it was on a downward grade: that 
is, working deeper into the rock. 

Just before it reached the point wliere Lake Breeze 
is now situated, (it wasn't Lake Breeze then,) it plowed 
still deeper into the rock and soon dipped below the 
surface of the lake (it wasn't lake then either), and 
did not rise again above the present water level until 
it reached almost to Vermillion in Erie county. 

The glacial action in this drift formation is as 
readily traced along this lake shore beach as may 
be the course of a river, and its "foot-prints" are 
as plain and unmistakable as those of a man or a 
horse. No written record can be plainer or more 
easily studied, than can be the drift along tliis lake 
line. Wliilo so many scientific facts are left in sucli 
obscurity that it takes a long life of patient toil and 
research to comju-ehcnd only a few facts, here tlie 
drift which has been so little understood in the past 
is laid bare before us like a panoramic view, so that 
we may study it at our will. 

Tlu^re is no dei)artment in the science of geology 
that has tieen heretofore so little understood as the 
drift formation. Tliis is accounted for by the fact 
that it was produced by ditferent causes and at widely 
separated periods of time. We are now coming to the 
light, and as we learn to classify these periods and 
depositions of drift, instead of massing them together 
into one general deposit, we are better able to under- 
stand their formations. 


The erratic rocks, wliich we call boulders or " hard 
heads," that are so profusely distributed over the clay 
soil of Lorain county, are from beds of different 
deposits. They are composed of granite, quartzite, 
diorite, crystalline lime-stone, gneiss, silician slate, 
etc. Although of different formations and deposits, 
they are all classed with and belong to the Eozoic age 
of the world. It was called Azoic (that is, " without 
life ") until within a few years. Although there have 
been no fossils found in tiie Eozoic rocks, it is now 
very generally believed among geologists and scientific 
men that even in this very remote period in the earth's 
history there did exist some of the lower forms of 
animal and vegetable life. This, we think, is clearly 
proven by the abundance of graphite, iron and lime- 
stone that is found in these rocks, each of which is 
the direct product of either animal or vegetable or- 
ganisms: graphite and iron are the products of the 
carbon of plants. When you pick up a piece of native 



ii-oii ore to examine it, beiir in mind tliat it was not 
l)ro(lnco(l like lava, by passing tliroagli a melting pro- 
cess, bnt that it is of vegetable origin. Although it 
may have, as all our Lake Superior ore has, passed 
tiirougii this metamorphio process, yet heat has noth- 
ing to do with its origin as iron, but was merely an 
after result of internal disturbances. 

Limestone is almost wholly made up from the 
shells and minute skeletons of marine organisms that 
have the power of secreting the carbonate of lime 
which forms their shells. We have no reason to 
believe that iron or limestone were produced in the 
Eozoic age by any different process than it is now. 

We find these rocks stratified, an:l tint they were 
originally deposited in even horizontal bods, l)ut have 
since been metamorphosed by heat, and are now much 
displaced and broken up by upheavals and internal 
forces. They are divided into two groups — upper and 
lower — called Huronian and Laurentian: lluronian, 
from their fine exjiosure ou the north of Lake Huron; 
Laurentian, from the lower St. Lawrence region, 
where these rocks abound. They are the surface 
rock over a broad belt of country, extending from 
Labrador, on the east, to Lake Superior, and then 
stretching away northward to the Arctic Sea. 

The Adirondac Mountains, although outside of this 
belt, belong to the same epoch and formation, and 
were raised above the oceen at the same time. They 
are called the oldest rocks in the world, and deservedly 
so; for they are the oldest surface rocks now known, 
and never have been submerged since they were first 
raised above the old eozoic ocean. While most parts 
of our continent have been raised above the sea, only 
to be submerged again, (and this occurring many 
times, as each stratified formation plainly testifies.) 
yet these old eozoic rocks have proudly held their 
giant heads above the surrounding ocean almost from 
the time that the sun first penetrated the thick cloud 
of darkness that surrounded the eartli, wlien God 
said, " Let there be light; and there was light."' 

We call the eastern continent the Old World; but 
the Adirondac mountains of New York, the region 
around Lake Superior and the Ozarks, of Missouri, are 
ages older than any land on that continent. The 
igneous rocks which nnderly these metamorphic rocks 
are of course much older than they; but all that we 
know about them is by their being thrown to the 
surface by eruptions, as they are nowhere found 
exposed on the surface. They have jiassed through 
inconceivable heat, first in the gaseous and then in 
the molten state, and were the first rocks formed by 
the cooling of the earth's surface, and are therefore 
not stratified. They belong to that age of the world 
of which they are the only record. We find these 
fused rocks frequently among our erratics of the 
* iceberg drift. 

Sir William Logan, an eminent Canadian geologist, 
estimates the eozoic rocks in Canada to be about forty- 
seven thousand feet in thickness. When we consider 
that all this vast rock formation was the accumulation 

from the destruction and slow wearing away process of 
an older continent, and that older continent perhaps 
from the debris of one still older, we can form but a 
faint conception of the myriads of ages that have 
passed away since "in the lieginning, God created 
the heaven and the earth." 

The boulders were broken and torn from these old 
eozoic rocks by glaciers coming down from the moun- 
tainous region of the north. As they shoved them- 
selves out into this great inland sea of fresh water, 
which had been formed by the scooping out of the 
lake basin, they were lirokcn up and floated out to 
sea. No longer traveling by land and grasi)ing in 
their icy arms massive boulders and all other material 
that lay in their course; now they are icebergs, trav- 
ersing the sea and carrying their boulders, sand, 
gravel and ot\\Qv debris whithersoever the wind drives 
them. We therefore call the boulders a part of the 
iceberg drift, as they were deposited by icebergs and 
not by glaciers. 

The surface clay of Lorain county is glacial drift, 
and was deposited at the time the Lake Erie basin 
was formed. This was long before the period of 
which we are now speaking. At this time the clay 
had already been deposited, the glacier had passed on 
and left the basin which was now filled with water to 
the brim, from the summit on the south to the Cana- 
dian highlands on the north, and extending east and 
west from the Adirondacks to Lake Superior. We 
sjTOke of the mountainous region of the north from 
whence the glaciers which produced the icebergs 
came. Nothing now remains but the bases of these 
mountains to tell of their long ag<i existence, as they 
were eroded and worn away by these immense fields 
of ice. 

Glaciers are being formed at the present time in the 
monntainous region of the interior of Greenland, and 
as they push their way to the ocean, the foot is shoved 
out into the sea, is broken np and rises to the surface. 
They are no longer glaciers, but icebergs. Floating 
away to the southward, they are often stranded on 
the banks or sand-bars of Newfoundland, and there 
perform the same work that these did here in the drift 
age, depositing large quantities of their debris over 
the floor of the ocean. In ages to come, when the 
bottom of the ocean shall have again been raised above 
the water, the same conditions will lie found to exist 
there that we now find here. 

The northern border of this great inland sea was 
along the base of the highlands in Canada, called by 
geologists Laurentian highlands. They are about three 
hundred miles north of Lake Erie. As these icebergs 
pushed out into the water from this northern shore, 
they were driven hither and thither by every stormy 
change of wind. They deposited their debris wherever 
and as fast as they melted. Sometimes being driven 
into shallow water, they stranded. Here they slowly 
melted away until they were light enough to clear 
themselves and float again. At such points they 
dropped larger quantities of boulders than elsewhere. 



These places may readily lii.^ i)i(jke(l out all over the 
(•(Mint rv, and many of our farms are made less valuable 
by the iiiimenjus boulders ou some of their lields. 

That these boulders were dropped from floating ice- 
I>ergs, is very clearly proven by their position as we 
now find them in our lields. Almost every farmer 
knows that these big boulders, or "hard-heads," are 
very dillicult to get out of the ground, for the simple 
reason that the largest end is always in the ground. 
This of itself is almost conclusive evidence, aside from 
any other, that they must have fallen S(jme distance 
through water, and in falling the larger end would 
naturally go down. We can account for this phe- 
nomenon by no other theory. We find no boulders in 
or upon the sand ridges, for the reason that the ridges 
were deposited at a later period, and conse((uently 
whatever boulders may have been on the surface are 
now buried beneath the sand. 

'I'he reader will observe that we have spoken of three 
different and distinct drift de])osits, which occurred 
at different periods in the earth's history. We will 
therefore place them in the order in which they occur: 
1st. Glacial drift — clay, sand, gravel, etc. 
2d. Iceberg drift — boulders, sand and other deln'is. 
3d. Water drift — Hood-wood and sand ridges. 
The great ditiiculty in studying the drift has been 
in not keeping the different periods and causes sepa- 
rate: this will enable us to do so. I am aware, however, 
that good authority dilfers with me on some of these 
])oints: but after great care and research, I think the 
evidence will beai- me out in my drift theory. 

It may be askeil, how do we know that these boulders 
came from this northern region beyond the lake? In 
the first j)lace, we Jiave no evidence of glaciers push- 
ing themselves into this great body of water from any 
other direction than on the north; and then, too, we 
find that these boulders exactly correspond with the 
rocks found in place along this northern belt, so that 
now we may readily trace some of the erratic rocks 
found here back to their original beds of deposition. 
1 have lying before me a jiieee of granite, that is filled 
witii graphite (black h^ad we call it, though there is 
no lead about it). Tiiis fragment I broke from a 
lioiildrron my father's farm, in Ridgeville, nearly forty 
years ago. We can now trace this graphite directly 
back to its home on the Georgian Bay, in Canada. 
Copper is not unfrenueutly found in the boulders 
of our county, plainly showing their Lake Superior 

Tims, by iUc composition of these boulders, and 
the minerals they carry with them, we are able to tell 
where they came from; and l)y the position in which 
we find them, ami the grooves and markings on the 
surfiK-e rocks, we are enabled to tell how they came 


Beneath the sand ridges there are nu)re or less of the 
remains of forest trees, called "flood- wood." It was 
drifted into its present resting place when the lake 

was from one to two hundred feet higlier than it now 
is, and covered beneath the sand when the ridges 
were formed. About forty years ago my father, in 
digging a well (on the ridge), one mile east of the 
center of Ridgeville, came upon trees altoutone foot in 
diameter, at a depth of fifteen feet below the surface. 
This wood, although changed, was not fossilized, 
but was soft and yielding, and could easily be cut 
with a sharp spade. I very well remember the men 
examining it very closely by whittling, tasting, smell- 
ing, etc., and after much deliberation pronounced it 
cedar wood. Their decision was probably correct, as 
all the timber, so far as I know, found beneath the 
ridges, is coniferous (cone-bearing trees). We have 
the record, however, in some localities, of hickory, 
sycamore, willow and some other kinds of wood being 
found beneath the drift. An old forest bed was very 
widely distributed over the northern half of our conti- 
nent. To give some idea of its nnignitude and extent, 
I (juote from different authorities the following: 

■'Ross County, Ohio. — Wood apparently cedar, from a well thirty feet 
deep." — Col. Charles Whittlesey. 

"All through Southern Indiana.— Ancient soil, with peat, muck, 
rooted stumps, trunks, branches and leaves of trees, sixty to one 
hundred and twenty feet below the surface, called *Noah"s Cattle Yard.' 
Wells spoiled by them. "—JoAh Collvtt. 

" Iowa. — An old soil, with buried timber from forty to fifty feet be- 
neath the surface, struck in sinking wells in several counties."— 3/orris 

*' Wadsworth County', Wisconsin.— Timber resembling white cedar, 
from a well eighteen feet deep in the prairie region, and about two 
hundred and fifty feet above the surface of Lake Michigan."— J. A. 

'• Grand Sable, South Shore of Lake Superior.— Layers of roots, 
and timber of trees, sometimes twelve or fourteen feet thick, resting on 
clay, inter-stratified with gravel, three hundred feet thick." — Sir Wm. 
Lf>tjan, in Geology of Canada. 

"Montgomery County, Ohio. —Beds of peat, from twelve to twenty 
feet in thickness, containing qu.antities of coniferous wood, with twigs, 
branches and berries of red cedar ; also containing bones of the elephant 
and mastodon, and teeth of the giant beaver; the whole covered with 
ninety feet of sand."— Pro/ Ortoti. 

"Toronto, Canada.— Trunks and branches of trees, embedded m 
yellow cla.y, at a depth of from ten to twenty feet from the surface." 
—Prof. Hind. 

We do not wish it understood that these remains 
of trees and animals were all buried beneath a drift 
deposit at one and the same time; but we do say that 
all over this wide extent of country there once existed 
a heavy growth of forest trees, with animals of huge 
dimensions roaming through tlieni. both of which 
have become extinct, and are now deeply buried be- 
neath a drift deposit. From all the light that we can 
gather from these and other facts, it is evident that 
our continent has been raised and again submerged 
beneath the ocean several times since the eozoie age, 
at least all of it except the few localities heretofore 


Not only forest trees, but the remains of large ani- 
mals have been found in many localities in Northern 
Ohio, Indiana and Michigan. These remains ai'e 
mostly found in deep marshes and peat bogs, which 
were, when these animals lived, small lakes. In some 
instances, the leg and other lower bones of the mas- 


todon and elephant have been fi)uiid in a standing 
position, sliowing that in going to these places for 
water, they mnst have been mired, and their great 
weight and clnmsiness prevented their extricating 
themselves. These lakes have now become peat 
marshes by the continued accumulation of leaves, 
mosses and other vegetation which now cover their 
bones many feet deep. No remains of these animals 
have been fo>ind in this county, but it is ])ossible 
that there might be. upon proper search for them 
in and about the swam])s of Brighton and Camden; 
as, fi-om the location of these swamps, I have no 
doubt that those places were favorite resorts for these 

A few yeai's since, some of the ribs, vertebrsp, a jiart 
of a tooth, the tusks and some other bones of a mas- 
todon were found in Montville, Medina county. The 
bones were more or less broken, and were supposed to 
belong to a young animal. The tusks were broken off 
at tJieir points, and were about four feet long, largest 
in the middle and tapered towards the point and base; 
the ribs, which were somewhat broken, were five 
inches wide. 

In Cleveland the remains of a large animal were 
found in excavating a cellar on Ontario street. The 
knights of the spade and pick, not knowing what they 
were, or not caring, carted tlie most of them off, and 
they were dumped away, broken and destroyed. How- 
ever, a few teeth and vertebra? were saved, and are 
now in the Western Reserve Historical Society rooms 
in that city. Dr. E. Sterling called my attention to 
these bones at the time. Upon examination they 
were found to be the remains of a very large elephant. 
(Elcphas Americanus.) These bones were not found 
as nsual in a low marshy place, but on high land, in 
sand and gravel. It is altogether probable that they 
were washed in and covered up when the lake stood 
at that level. These huge animals roamed over all 
of northern Ohio for a long time after the accnmn- 
lation of its ancient soil and great forests, up to a 
recent period, geologically sjieaking, that is up to 
aliout the time of the formation of the sand ridges. 
Whether they became extinct about this time, by some 
sudden climatic or otlier change, or gradually died 
out, we are unable to determine. The only record we 
have of them is their bones and the location in which 
they are fonnd. Their bones not being fossilized arc 
liable to decay on exposure to the atmosiihere, except 
the teetli and tusks, which being enameled are usually 
well preserved. There are, however, a few well 
l>reserved whole skeletons of these great American 
animals of our primeval forests. 


We now come to the last e}>och or ]ihase in the 
series of drift deposits: "Terraces and Sand-ridges." 
These belong to our present geological time, that is, 
there have been no great changes since their deposi- 
tion, or rather they are the result of the last change 
in the Lake Erie basin. Although we speak of them 

as of a recent formation, or the last, }'et we mnst 
i-emember that they were formed ages before man 
came into being. This was the last act in the geologi- 
cal drama that was performed to fit and prepare the 
earth for man's abode. 

At no time previous to this epoch could man have 
lived upon the earth for a single year, but now all is 
changed, the right conditions have been reached as to 
soil, climate, and the class of animals suited to his 
wants; all is prepared and ready for his advent; and 
in his own good time the Lord God formed man of 
the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils 
the breath of life and man became a living soul. 

Of the terraces I can only give a very meager 
description, having given them but a passing thought 
among my other researches in the county until about 
two years ago, when I became convinced that they 
held a very conspicuous place in the topogrophy 
of the county; I then commenced regular field work 
upon them and have traced out and located two of 
them quite satisfactorily. The last terrace now visible 
I found about one and a half miles from the present 
shore line, and at an altitude of forty feet above lake 
level. It follows nearly the present contour of the 
lake shore. It is very evident that the water receded 
to a broad river after these terraces were formed, and 
now by gradually wearing its way back inland, its 
shore follows nearly the same lines that it left in its 
recedonce. I have traced this terrace most of the way 
from the Vermillion to Black River, and all the way 
from Black River east fifteen miles into Dover, Cuya- 
hoga county. I have no doubt but that it can readily 
be traced the whole length of the lake shore. At 
Avon Point it does not make the sharp angle of the 
shore, but merely makes a gentle curve to the north. 
The soil is clay, with its surface somewhat mixed with 
gravel. The timber upon it is mostly hard maple, 
beech and hickory, and that upon either side of it, is 
black ash, soft maple, elm, &c. Its rise from the 
north is very perceptible, and upon the farms through 
which it passes it is usually selected as the building spot 
if at all convenient, as it is the dryest land. These 
terraces were formed by the natural wearing of the 
water against the shore, at which level the water stood 
for a considerable period of time, and then by a sudden 
recedence caused liy the breaking away of the Ijarrier 
at the outlet, the water dropped away from this line 
leaving it a natural terrace. Should Lake Erie, by 
the sudden breaking away of Niagai-a, be drained forty 
feet lower than it now is, its present shore line would 
form Just such a terrace as the one now under consid- 
eration was when it was left by the retreating waters. 
Its many years of weather-wear since, has given it its 
present appearance and sloping condition. There is 
a succession of these terraces, each one higher than 
the last, as we go south through the county, one south 
of Wellington has an altitude of three hundred and 
sixty feet above lake level. Please remember that I 
reckon all altitudes from lake level, — that when I 
speak of any height, it is so many feet above the level 



of the lake. Lake Erie is five hundred and sixty five 
feet above the ocean level. 

These terraces no doubt continue on up to the 
summit, tjiat is, tlie hi<;h-lands or divide, between the 
waters of the Oliio river, and Lake Eric, which here 
have an altitude of seven hundivd and seventy-tliree 
feet. The liighest land in the State, whicli lies south- 
west from here in Logan county has an altitude of nine 
hundred and seventy-tive feet. Wellington stands at 
two liundred and eigiity-six feet; Oberlin, two hun- 
dred and lifty-three feet; Elyria one liundred and fifty- 
tive feet, and Amherst one hundred and twenty-two 
feet, gradually sloping away to the lake. These dif- 
ferent altitudes are caused, partly by the glaciers plow- 
ing dee]>er into the rocks in its center, and partly by 
the formation of these terraces by the retreating waters. 
The next terrace south of the one above described is 
the largest and most distinct of all of them. This 
was undoubtedly caused by the water standing at this 
level for a longer period of time than clsewdiere. It 
lies about four miles back from the lake, at an altitude 
of about one hundred and five feet. In Amherst, 
Sheffield, Avon and a i>art of Dover, the old sand- 
beach, called the North ridge, rests directly upon it, 
but in some places in Cuyahoga county, as in Dover, 
liockport and Euclid, east of Cleveland, it is separate 
and distinct from the ridge, and very marked in its 

I hardly deem it necessary to go back farther and 
trace out others of these shore line terraces, a dcscrip- 
tion (if these two being sufficient to give us all tlie 
knowledge we need as to their formation and char- 


Our beautiful ridges, running through the couiitv 
nearly parallel with the lake east, and west, are tlie last 
link in the geological chain. They are the last land- 
marks, or rather the last water-marks, that were left 
by the retreating waters. Upon these ridges the 
liioueer first built his log-cabin; along them ran the 
first wagon-roads. The first settlers all strove to build 
upon, and cultivate the ridges. Their light sandy 
soil, natural drainage, and easy cultivation, made 
them a very desiral)le location for the pioneer. There 
are several theories as to the cause of their formation: 
one is that tiiey are moral ns left by the retreating 
glaciers; (morains are the debris that is pushed out 
from under the glacier and left at its sides as it moves 
on over the suiface); another is that they are off-shore 
sand-liars; luit the one that is now most generally 
accepted is that they are old beach-lines left by the 
receeding waters in their successive stages of rest. 
There are three continuous lidges running through 
the county besides several local ones. 

The liulltrnut RUlye was the first formed. At this 
level the water remained for a long period of time, 
until all the accumulation of that old beach was 
washed and binwn uji by the combined agency of the 
water and the winds; then a sudden breaking away 

of the barrier at the outlet cansed the water to fall 
thirteen feet, and then another period of rest that 
formed Chestnut ridge. A breaking away of twenty- 
four feet more and we have Sugar ridge; of seven 
more and we have Center ridge. Here was a longer 
period of rest, which formed a continuous ridge the 
whole length of the lake. Aiiotherrecedence of fifty- 
two feet brought it to the line on wdiich the North, 
or last continuous ridge now rests. I have examined 
no less than ten of tliese sand ridges in our county 
and have taken their altitude in many places. 

The fact that both terraces and sand ridges were 
the result of old shore lines, naturally led to the 
question why do we not find sand-ridges as far south 
as we do terraces? This question, to my mind, is 
easily answered. The ridges were formed from the 
sand that was worn from the rocks by the action of 
water; hence these ridges are only found within the 
limits of the horizon of sand-rock exposure. 

It is evident that tliese rocks could be worn but 
very little, if at all, while submerged; but when the 
water receded and became low enough to expose 
them as cliffs and shore lines, then the ever-ceaseless 
waves of summer, of which no rock-bound shore can 
resist their slow but sure advance, and the frosts and 
grinding ice of winter commenced their destructive 
eroding process, which ground from these rocks large 
quantities of sand, which was taken up Ijy the under- 
tow and waves and piled high upon the near shore 
beach . 

We will now take uji the ridges in the order in 
which we find them, beginning at the lowest or last 
sand lieaeh formed, giving only their location, altitude 
and most interesting features: 

North Ridge. — This ridge at Avon, one mile east 
of the center and four from the lake, according to my 
measui-ement in 1806, has an altitude of one hundred 
and six feet. At the centre it is some sixteen feet 
higher, composed of finer sand, blown up by the 
winds into a broad knoll, upon which the early set- 
tlers buried their dead, and upon which now" rests the 
beautiful Avon cemetery. This ridge bears nearer 
the contour of the present lake shore line than any of 
the other ridges. It runs through Avon, Sheffield, 
southeast corner of Black River, Amherst and Brown- 
helm. I shall only give the townships in our county 
in which these ridges are located. 

Ceil/ re Ridfje. — In Ridgeville tliis has an altitude 
of one hundred and sixty-two feet. In the eastern 
jiart of Ridgeville, it takes the form of a double ridge, 
liuginning on the farm of Laurel Beebe and extending 
about a mile and a half to the farm of Ichabod Ter- 
rell, when it divides into two distinct ridges, and 
these continue on to the western part of the township, 
where, on the farm of John Cahoon, they unite again 
into one ridge. In this double ridge is remarkably 
well shown the part the winds played in the forma- 
tion of these ridges. The north, and very much the 
lower half, is coarse sand and gravel, while tlie south 
and larger part is comijosed of fine sand, which, being 



lighter, was separated and blown up from the coarser 
by the winds, day by day and year by year, as it 
accumulated upon the beach, until it was piled high 
above the other. I can give no other theory for this 
phenomenon. This ridge was used as the first wagon 
road in the county, and as long as stage coaches were 
run, it was the old stage road between Buffalo and 
Detroit. It lies through Ridgeville, Elyria, Amherst, 
extreme northwest corner of Russia and Henrietta. 

SoutJt, or Buttermd Ridge, in Ridgeville, has an 
altitude of two hundred and four feet. It runs 
through Ridgeville, northwest corner of Eaton and 
Carlisle. A description of either one of these three 
continuous ridges is a description of the other two, 
with the exception of its location and altitude. The 
balance of the ridges in the county are intermediate 
or local. Of these. 

Chestnut Ridge is the longest. It lies between the 
center and south ridges. It commences in Olmsted, 
Cuv'ahoga county, and runs through Ridgeville, north- 
west corner of Eaton, and ends in Carlisle. Its course 
is northeast and southwest, its altitude one huiulred 
and eighty-one feet. 

Siiijiir Ridge lies in Ridgeville, between the Chest- 
nut and Center ridges; commencing a mile southwest 
of the center of Ridgeville; it runs due southwest two 
miles, and has an altitude of one hundred and sixty- 
seven feet. 

Stonji Ridge is another of the Ridgeville ridges, and 
is rightly named, it is the stoniest ridge in the county, 
and the stoniest one I ever saw. It begins about a 
mile and a half northwest from the center, and runs 
west-northwest. From its peculiar location with ref- 
erence to the other ridges, and the topography of the 
surrounding country, and also its formation being 
water-worn sandstones, many of them quite large, I 
am inclined to believe that this ridge was formed as an 
off-shore sand bar in shallow water, and not as a sand 
beach. These water-worn sandstones are from the 
shelly cliffs of the Ohio sandstone, and are so thickly 
scattered over the surface that in many places cul- 
tivation is impracticable until they are picked up 
and thrown into heaps. They are thin, flat, rounded 
stones, from the size of gravel to fifteen or twenty 
jMunds weight. It seems to me impossible that this 
ridge could have been formed as a beach line. I 
therefore give it as my opinion that it is an off-shore, 
shallow-water sand bar. 

Murray Ridge is a short ridge two miles west of 
Elyria, in that township. Its course is ucfirly north 
and south; it branches off from the main or center 
ridge to the south; altitude, one hundred and ninety- 
eight feet. 

Middle Ridge commences in the extreme southwest 
corner of Sheffield, runs through the northwest corner 
of Elyria, and through Amherst in a southwesterly 
direction; altitude, one hundred and forty-eight feet. 
Wltittlesfij Ridge is about two miles from the lake, 
and has an altitude of from ninety to one hundred 

feet. It extends southwest from Beaver creek in 
Amherst to the Vermillion river in Brownhelm. It 
is the nearest of all the ridges to the lake that runs 
parallel with it. 

A ridge runs out from Elyria west of north through 
the township upon which is located the Black River 
road. Its altitude is about one hundred and fifty 
feet. It is a spur or offshoot from the Center ridge. 
Often while driving along this beautiful ridge, have 
I looked off across to the east and north over the well 
cultivated farms, and pictured to myself this arm of 
a great inland sea coming up to the very foot of this 
ridge and extending off to the east along the slope of 
the Center ridge, forming in this obtuse angle a 
beautiful bay. This was long before there was a 
human being upon the face of the earth to behold 
the beautiful things that God had created; and yet 
there were no less beautiful things then than now, 
with all the teeming millions of human eyes to behold 
with wondering admiration. 

The main ridges all run parallel with the lake, and 
as a consequence presented a barrier to the natural 
drainage of the land. The water coming down from 
the higher lauds on the south, settled in behind these 
ridges, forming ponds or small lakes, which, as vege- 
tation slowly accumulated, finally became swamj^s. 
Hence we find on the south side of all our ridges, 
these swamps. 


By the fossil remains of the fauna and flora, in the 
geological strata of past ages, the geologist is enabled 
to read with tolerable certainty the condition of the 
globe at any given period of its history. Fossils are 
the working capital of the geologist, for by these 
only can he tell equivalent rocks and their relative 
positions. No Silurian fossils are ever found above 
or below the Silurian age ; Devonian fossils are 
never found in the Silurian or carboniferous ages; 
but each distinctive age had its own peculiar animal 
and vegetable life for which it was then adajited; 
that is, the fauna and flora which belonged to that 
and no other age. This is also true of the different 
epochs and subdivisions of time. No fossils are found 
in the one that belong to the other. Hence, when 
the Silurian age closed, with it closed all the teeming 
millions of animal life that then existed; and so it is 
with each successive age. No bridging over from 
one age to the other; no connecting link between the 
two. But, on the contrary, the line of demarkation 
is very plainly drawn between each successive age of 
the world, by means of the fossils they contain. 

I do not wish to be understood that we do not find 
fossils in one age that may not represent in some way 
those of another, for we know that we find trilobites 
which are a crustacean in the very lower Silurian, and 
we find living crustacean to-day but no trilobites. 
The farmer knows that he gathers apples from ajiple 
trees, and hickory nuts from hickory trees. Just as 
sure does the geologist know when he finds a fossil 



to what class of rocks and age it belongs. " By their 
fossils ye shall know them." 


The highest or first surface rock in Lorain county 
is called the Cuyahoga sliale, from its fine ex]iosui'e 
on the banks of the Cuyahoga river. It underlies all 
the souMiern ])art of the county, and is the first rock 
above ilic sandstone, having its out-crop along the 
streams through the middle and sontlieru portion of 
the conniy. It is a fine, hard, impervious, argilla- 
ceous, gray shale, with occasionally thin l)ands of 
pearly sandstone running through it, but is of no 
economic value. In its decomposition it produces a 
cold, wet, tenacious soil, of little value for tillage; 
and it is well for the farmers that they get but little 
of it. It is one of the most uninteresting of all the 
series. It holds no minerals of value and but few 
fossils of interest. Much of its upper portion has 
been removed hj glacial attrition, leaviug its average 
thickness about one hundred and fifty feet. 

The Cuyahoga shale is tlie uppermost member of 
the Waverly group. The Waverly is of carboniferous 
age and is the lowest group of carbouifereous rocks. 
In Lorain county this group is subdivided into four 
members, namely: Cuyahoga shale, Oliio sandstone, 
Bedford shale, and Cleveland shale. 



In the fall of 1877 I made a tour of tlie rocks and 
quarries of Elyria, Amherst and Brownhelm. For 
years I have occasionally visited some one or more of 
these magnificent quarries, but never before made a 
tour of the whole. I was hardly prepared to realize 
the vast magnitude of the work going (ui licre. 
The stone annually handled is simply enormous. In 
nearly all these quarries work was being vigorously 
pushed although it was late and in the closing season. 
It was cheery and pleasant to hear the click, click of 
the pick, chisel and drill, as I went from quarry to 
quarry. 1 found more or less fossilized wood, appa- 
rently coniferous (cedar family), but no shells or 
other animal fossils. Althougli at Berea, in the same 
formation, tliere has been found shark's teeth {rJn- 
(liitlus), and a species of shells {lingiihi srn/ii-n). 

In Clough's quarry I found a seam in tlie rock tliat 
deserves more tlian a passing notice. It was about 
two feet wide from top to bottom and nearly vertical, 
extending from the top to the depth they had quar- 
ried, fifty feet, and how much farther we cannot tell, 
but undou])ledly to the very bottom of the rock. 
There ai'e two causes combined which could have pro- 
duced tiiis singular break, although tliey may have 
been long ages apart: an internal disturbance which 
raised the rock and opened tlie seam. But had the 
rock remained in its raised position the crevice would 
not have been of uniform widtli, but would have been 
V shaped, or widest at the top; or, had the rock set- 
tled back to its original level, the seam would have 

been closed. This last is probably just what was 
done, as we find it of the same width all the way 
from base to summit, filled with bluish clay and frag- 
ments of stone, some of them showing erosion. Now 
it hardly seems possible that this massive rock of 
millions of tons in settling back to position could 
have moved at its base sufficient to have left such a 
seam as this, and certainly it would not have been 
filled with such a mass of luird clay and other nuite- 
rial that we now find in it. 

But in the ice period there was another agency at 
work: tlie great glaciers, whicli passed over these 
rocks (for their marks are on them) from east to west, 
tearing down mountains and filling up valleys in 
their course. This jjower, and this alone it seems to 
me, was adequate to have separated this rock (the 
break having already been made) and moved it to the 
west sufficient to leave this crevice which we now find 
filled up with clay-mud and otiier debris. 

I do not wish to be undei'stood tliat this is the only 
possible solution of this strange plienomenon. But 
after giving it careful study, this is the theory I have 
arrived at. I also found a similar break nearly in 
the center of the Worthington quarry. 

We found upon inquiry at tlie different quarries 
that the number of men employed dui'ing the season 
is aboiit six hundred. And here let me say that the 
gentlemanly jiroprietors and their foremen laid us 
under many obligations for valuable information. 
They were all, without a single exception, willing to 
stop and show us through their quarries and machin- 
erv, and also to give any information desired in regard 
to the quality of stone, shipments, etc. We found 
these foremen not only well informed, intelligent 
men, but some of them quite good geologists, who 
cduld talk about other rocks than Amherst sandstone. 

In nearly all these quarries the rock is very mas- 
sive but easily accessible; standing, as it does, in 
ledges, the stripping is comparatively light. None j 
of them have as yet gone to the bottom of the I'ock. 
At Worthington's they have gone down some eighty 
feet and not touched bottom yet. 

There are many small (juarries scattered here and 
there throughout this wliole sand-stone district, 
mainly used for home consumption and local trade. 

We will now try to give a description of this vast 
deposit, its distribution, composition, economic value, 
etc. It is the most valuable element in all our geo- 
logical series, and reaches its greatest maximum of 
excellence in quantity, quality and accessibility in the 
quarries at Amherst and Brownhelm. These rocks 
underlie the wliole eastern half of the State, and have ' 
their out-crop from Brownhelm <hi the north and 
west, through the entire central ]iortion of the State 
to Portsmouth, on tlie Ohio river. Although dcei)ly 
buried in many places by drift deposits or the Cuya- 
hoga shale, yet they are readily accessible in more 
than fifteen counties in the State: of which Lorain. 
Cuyahoga, Geauga, Trumbull, Medina, Fairfield and 
Pike are the most important. 



These rocks have a gradual thinning out as they go 
east and south, so that in Tennessee and Kentucky 
there is but very little if any sandstone in the series, 
and in eastern Ohio and Pennsylvania argillaceous 
material enters largely into the composition of its 
beds. Its greatest thickness is ohtaiued at its very 
mn-thwestern out-crop. Here it attains a depth of 
eighty to one hundred feet or more. At Amherst and 
Brownhelm tlie topmost layers are removed as strip- 
pings, wlieu afew feet of flagging is generally obtained, 
and then the solid homogeneous rock is reached. At 
Independence, in Cuyaiioga county, nearly all the 
flagging material has been removed by glacial erosion 
leaving about twenty-five or thirty feet of massive 
sandstone. At Berea it is still different. Hero the 
flagging stone comprises nearly one half of its entire 
thickness, or about twenty feet of flagging to thirty 
feet of building stone; so that at Berea its entire 
thickness is only about half of that at Amherst. 
There are good ([uarries at Elyria, Ridgeville, Colum- 
bia and Avon. Tiie stone at Ridgeville does not come 
al)ovc the surface, but is of very suj)erior ([uality, fine 
in texture, very white, and free from iron and clay 
balls. The upper stratum of these ledges at Amherst 
and Brownhelm, stands about sixty or seventy feet 
above the natural drainage of the surrounding country, 
consequently there has been for ages, atmospheric 
moisture passing through these rocks, thoroughly 
oxydizing the iron they contain; thus leaving those 
cheerful mellow tints, so highly appreciated by the 
architect and builder. The prevailing color is a light 
warm bull or drab, changing as tlie rock dceitens 
below drainage, to a light gray or dove color, and at 
its base to a bluish tint, known as '' blue Amherst," 
and very highly prized in the New York market. 

The texture of the stone is fine and homogeneous, 
usually without iron, and very few flaws or breaks, 
so that it is very readily worked into any desiraljle 
shape or size, working very easily under the pick or 
chisel, and yet retaining with faithfulness all its 

Its strength is equal to ten thousand pounds to the 
square inch, one thousand pounds more than the 
celebrated brown stone of Connecticut; four times 
that of the best l^rick, and much stronger than the 
best marble or granite. 

Its durability is greater than any other known sedi- 
mentary rock; being nearly pure silex, it resists the 
erosive action of the atmospliere to a wonderful 
degree, and is not affected by weathering any more 
than the very best Scotch gi-anite. Its durability is 
beautifully shown on the I'ocks north of the Haider- 
man quarry, where there are very fine glacial grooves 
and markings, which have remained intact for ages. 
and also in the hierogly])hic markings on the surface 
rocks on the farm of J. J. Rice, in Amherst township. 
Here these markings must have lain exposed to the 
denuding agencies of the frosts and storms of a 
thousand years or more, and still the sharp markings 
of the pick are plainly visible to this day. 

It is also very refractory and will resist the action 
of fire where limestone, marble and granite are en- 
tirely destroyed. This was very clearly demonstrated 
in the great Chicago fire. Its chemical analysis is as 

Silicic acid (the substance of pui'o quartz) 00.22 

iVlumnia ^■'■^ 

Peroxide and protoxide iron 2.37 

Lime 0.87 

Magnesia tJ.26 

Alkalies OO'i 


Thus it will be seen that the great beauty, strength 
and durability of this rock will command for it the 
highest price in any market. Hence, as a building 
stone, it is shipped to nearly every city in the Union, 
irom the Atlantic to the Mississippi, and from Her 
Majesty's Dominion in Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. 
From the Amherst quarries some of the finest build- 
ings of Boston, New York, Chicago and St. Louis 
were constructed; as were also the Parliament build- 
ings of Canada. 

We have only spoken of it as a material for build- 
ing purposes. Thousands of tons of grindstones and 
coarse whetstones are made and annually shipped to 
all parts of the civilized world, and in New England 
they come into competition with the best Nova Scotia 
stones; and for dry grinding they are not excelled 

The annual product of these quarries is quite large. 
We have the average figures before us, kindly fur- 
nished by the difl'erent companies, which show the 
annual shipment of block stone to be three hundred 
and eighty-five thousand cubic feet. Of grindstone, 
eleven thousand two hundred tons and of other stone 
large amounts. Total annual receipts over 1500,000, 
and the business is increasing from year to year. 
This great deposit so widely distributed over our State 
belongs to the Waverly series, and is of carboniferous 

The question is often asked, how and why are tlie 
different names given to the different geological for- 
mations, and how divided. The equivalent of our 
Devonian rocks were first described and classified at 
Devonshire in England, hence the name Devonian. 
The Silurian from Siluria, in Wales. The Huron 
shale (which belongs to the Devonian) was deter- 
mined and located, as to its relative position to the 
otlier rocks, on tlie Huron river, hence its name. 

The Waverly sandstone was brought into note by 
the large quarries at the town of Waverly, in Pike 
county, from which this stone was taken to build the 
massive loelvs of tlie Ohio canal. Tlie first geological 
survey in 1837 gave these rocks the name of Waverly 
sandstone; but they have been called by so many 
local names since that we adopt the name "Ohio 
sandstone." Our present State geologist called them 
"Berea grit," from the fact that at Berea the first 
grindstones were manufactured from it and sent into 
market, which brought them into such a world-wide 
reputation. The name Waverly is retained and at- 
tached to the class of rocks to which this belongs. 



The outcrops of these rocks at Amherst and Brown- 
hclni, of which we have been speaking, were once 
liigh bhiffs against which a great, inland sea dashed 
its ever-ceaseless waves for countless ages, wearing 
away the softer portions and leaving those ledges like 
little islands amid a boundless ocean. 


The next rock below the sandstone is the Bedford 
shale, which is about seventy feet m thickness. Its 
upper portion is of a reddish color, caused by the 
oxidation of iron from the sandstone lying immedi- 
ately above. This is the only red shale in the coun- 
try, and is a good guide to those in search of the 
sandstone. This red shale is well exposed in nearly 
all the creeks and gorges the whole widih of the 
county along the base of the sandstone. The l)est ex- 
posure of the Bedford, however, is shown on the Ver- 
million river in Brownhelm township, at and near 
the mouth of Chance creek. Here the banks are one 
hundred and thirty-two feet in height, and nearly 
the entire thickness of both the Bedford and Cleve- 
land are shown together. The upper strata of the 
Bedford are red, the middle and lower portions a dull 
bluish gray. 

The Vermillion river was so named from the color 
this shale gives to its banks. The upper strata being 
red, as it crumbles and dissolves, the storms wash it 
down from above thus giving the banks at a little 
distance the appearance of having been painted red. 
On Black river the Bedford is also well exposed, and 
here is shown its uneven upper surface which was cut 
away by currents of water while it was soft clay. 

These channels were filled with sand which was 
eventually hardened into stone. This will account 
for the uneven lower surface of the sandstone at 
Grafton and other places. 

There are some very interesting fossils in the Bed- 
ford, although they are not numerous, for which see 
chapter on " Fossils." 


I quote from Prof. Newberry, a description of this 
shale which is better than any I can give: 

*■ This is a black bituminous shale from fifty to sixty feet in thiclcness, 
which is well exposed beneath the Bedford shale in the valles'S of Black 
and Vermillion rivers. It contains over ten per cent, of carbonaceous 
matter, and this gives it a black color by which it may at once be recog- 
nized when freshly broken. Where long exposed, its carbon is burned 
out by oxidation and it becomes gray; hence its out-crops, taking the 
color of the other gray shales in the series, may not be identified with- 
out some excavation. 

"The only fossils found in the Cleveland shale of Lorain county up to 
the present time, are rbomboidal enameled fish-scales. These belong to 
a ganoid fish, probably a species of Pakisoitiscus but no entire individual 
has as yet been obtained. The Cleveland shale has no economic im- 
portance, except that it is clearly the source of the petroleum found at 
Grafton and Liverpool." 

Since the above description of this shale was written 
by Prof. Newberry I have made this shale an especial 
study, and have finally discovered in it the remains of 
some of the most remarkable jolacoderm fishes the 

world has ever known, nearly, if not quite equal to 
those of the Huron epoch for which see chapter on 

This shale is literally filled with sea-wee ds and nther 
carbonaceous matter. There are good exposures on 
nearly all the streams emptying, into Lake Erie, from 
the Vermillion, east; but the best are found on the 
Black and Vermillion rivers. Here may be seen its 
entire thickness at a glance, and the student in geology 
may use his pick, and chisel, with a fair prospect of 
success. There are thin bands of cone-in-cone lime 
running through it. From its i)eculiar structure at 
first it was taken te be fossiliferons, but ujion careful 
examination it was found to be mechanical, and not 
organic. Some of this cone-iu-cone takes the form of 
half a clam-shell, and as they slip out from the rock 
in this shape with their folds and serrated edges, it is 
ditlicult to persuade one's self that tliey are not fossils. 
We often find a group of these, very uniform in size, 
shape, and appearance; but mostly the cones are 
massed in together wedge-shape, and can only be 
taken out by breaking up the rock. At present the 
economic value of the Cleveland shale is but slight. 
There can be distilled from it about ten gallons of 
petroleum to every ton of shale, and the time may, 
and probably will come when, with improved ma- 
chinery and better knowledge, this will be made an 
additional source of wealth to our county. It is 
impossible for us to even remotely comjirehend the 
vast resources of the earth. What wise provisions 
there have been made for the comfort and happiness of 
man! — "Treasures new and old" hid away in the 
great storehouse of nature, ready to be brought to 
light and use, as man needs tliem along down the 
course of time. 

One of the most wonderful of all these productions 
of nature, is petroleum; and as the Cleveland shale is 
unquestionably the source from which the petroleum 
at Grafton is obtained, we will consider it in connec- 
tion with these rocks. We shall speak of it only in 
general terms, but for a detailed account of the oil 
wells at Grafton, we refer the reader to the history of 
that township in this volume. 

The early settlers of Grafton found along the creeks 
in that township sinkholes or pits, in which oil col- 
lected. In many places the soil was saturated with 
asphaltic tar, produced by the evaporation of this oil. 
These pits bear every evidence of having been made 
for the i)urpose of collecting the oil, by the ancient 
peojile who inhabited the country long before the 
white man trod the soil. AVhether it was the old 
Mound-Builders, or the red man of a later period, we 
of course cannot tell; but probably the former, as the 
whites have no knowledge of the Indians coming to 
these oil jjits, after they came into i)ossession. What 
use this ancient people made of this oil is of course 
all conjecture; but the most rational theory is, that 
they used it for its medicinal qualities. This also 
seems to have been the first use made of it by the i 
whites. " 



These oil springs, as they were culled, extended 
from Grafton into Liverpool, five miles east. And 
here, as early as 1843, Harris Warner suuli a well in 
one of these springs down to the rock, from which he 
collected the oil and sold it as "rock oil," for the 
cure of burns, sprains, rheumatism, etc., for which it 
ac(|nired quite a reputation. 

In 18G1, the oil excitement ran high, and wells were 
drilled in Grafton. Tlie Jones well, about a mile 
north of the center, was sunk to a deptli of six hun- 
dred feet, but drew its oil from a dejith of one hundred 
feet below the surface. The Rising well was sunk 
one hundred and fifty feet, but drew its oil from a 
point eighty-five feet below the surface. From these 
and other experiments, it was soon learned that it 
was useless to go below the base of the sand rock. 
The oil from these wells is a thick, heavy oil, of a 
specific gravity of 33° to 38° (Baum.): too heavy to 
jirofitably distill for illuminating purposes — the only 
use then made of petroleum. Since that time, it has 
becQ discovered that this heavy oil is an excellent 
lubricator, and consequently more valuable than the 
lighter oils. 

The rock in which this oil is found is the "Ohio 
sandstone," which here varies very much in tliickncss, 
and consequently makes the production of oil more 
uncertain. In one place, it was found to V)e only one 
foot in thickness, and a few rods away one hundred 
feet thick. Now, we have before stated that this 
sand-rock is nearly pure silex, or quartz: it is tiiere- 
fore very evident that it cannot produce the oil — no, 
not one drop in a thousand tons. Then it may be 
asked, if it is found here, where does it come from, 
and how does it get into these rocks? And why don't 
we find it everywhere in the sand-rocks, as well as 
here? We will try to answer these questions satis- 
factorily by investigating these rocks at Grafton. 

Now then, commencing at the turf, we go through 
a few feet of drift-clay into the Cuyahoga shale, hard 
argillaceous, of a bluish-gray color, and fine in tex- 
ture. Its composition jjrecludes the idea of its being 
an oil-producing rock. Then we go down some forty 
or fifty feet to the sand-rock; tiiis we know does not 
produce it, although we find it here. And now, we 
remember that oil always works up, not down; and as 
we find it here, we must still go lower for its origin. 
So we go down again some eighty or one hundred feet 
to the next shale below the sand-rock; this is called 
" Bedford shale." A few feet of this is red, and then 
the color is light and dark gray. This is -not what 
we are looking for; so down we go sixty or seventy 
feet more, and we strike a hard, black, bituminous 
shale called the "Cleveland shale." Ah! this, we 
think, must be it: bituminous it is, iu every sense of 
the word. We will now take some of this shale to 
Prof. Wormely, at Columbus, and have him analyze 
it by distillation, and what is the report? Ten to 
fifteen gallons of oil to every ton of shale. We have 
now found where this oil comes from; and now we 
want to know what produces it. Prof. Wormely tells 

us, and our eyes can plainly see that these rocks (we 
call all the members of the series rocks) are literally 
filled with sea-weeds, and other fatty vegetable mat- 
ter, so we conclude that it is a vegetaljle production, 
and not of aniuud origin. 

The conditions under which oil is found a,re alike 
in all parts of tiic wdrld: whether in Oiiio, Pennsyl- 
vania, China, or elsewhere. It must be an open, 
porous sand-rock, which can absorb and retain the 
od; or broken up into crevices, as reservoirs for its 
accumulation, and a hard impervious shale resting 
immediately upon the rock to prevent its esca))e. 
These are the only conditions under whicli oil is found 
in quantity. 

At Gi'afton we find that internal disturbanc(^s from 
far below the surface have 02)ened seams iu the rocks, 
from below the Cleveland shale up to the sand-rock, 
which permitted the oil to escape above; and as the 
sand-rock was harder and more compact tluin the 
other rocks, the shock was correspondingly greater, 
thus rending them into fissures, into which the oil 
flowed for ages by the process of slow distillation. 
The impervious Cuyahoga shale resting directly upon 
this rock, acts like the cover to a pot to hold tlie oil 
in these fissures and prevent its escape. Here it has 
remained foruntold ages, until man's inventive genius 
has probed the earth and brougiit this wonderful 
treasure forth. Tlie Cleveland shale is the lowest 
mendjer in the Waverly group, which belongs to the 
carboniferous age. 


We might almost pass the Erie rocks, without 
mention, so unimportant are they in our county. 
They have no fossils, and hold no minerals or other 
matter that can contribute materially to the wealth of 
the county. I only find the Erie a few feet tliick on 
the Vermillion near its mouth. A thin outcrop 
aiq)ears about a mile or so east, on the lake shore, 
and from this we find r.o more of it until we reach 
Avon point, where it forms the rocky cliffs of the 
shore. Here it has an exjiosure of twenty-six feet; 
and four miles east, of sixty feet, and continues to 
form the shore-line to Dunkirk. 

In New York and Pennsylvania the Erie shale 
reaches a thickness of more than two thousand feet, 
so that we here in L(jrain county are on the extreme 
western edge of the basin of that old l-Crie sea, which 
in New York State was more than two thousand feet 
deep when this deposit was formed. 

This shale may readily be distinguished by its color, 
which is a dull blue or greenish gray. There are tiiin 
bands of lenticular iron ore running through it, 
which were used in an early day for smelting botli 
at Vermillion and Black river, but since the Lake 
Superior and other iron mines have been made acces- 
sible, this kind of ore has been abandoned for the 
reason that it could not be obtained in any quantity, 
as it could only be gathered along the shore as it 
washed out from the cliff by the action of the waves; 



and also the expense and ditRculty of smelting. I 
luivc lieen told by those who iiave worked this kind of 
iron-stone that it prodiu-od aljoiit forty per eent. of 
iron. The Erie belon^^s to the Devonian and is the 

ii[ipcrniiist iin'inhcr in this jiroup. 


We now come to the last or lowest rock that is 
exposed on the surface in the county. Like the Cleve- 
land, it is a black bituminous shale filled with car- 
bonaceous matter. The oil, of which it is the origin 
and of which it contains from ten to fifteen gallons to 
the ton of shale, is of a lighter grade than that 
obtained from the Cleveland shale. It is supposed to 
be the source from which is obtained all the oil of 
Pennsylvania. This rock underlies all of Ohio, has 
its outcrop in Kentucky, Tennessee and some of the 
western States. Its thickness here is about three 
hundred feet, but in the eastern part of the State it 
is nearly twice as thick. Aside from the petroleum 
production the most interesting feature of the Huron 
is its gigantic fossil fishes, fm' which see chapter on 

Not only is the llur.m the source of petroleum, but 
it is the origin of the carburetted hydrogen gas which 
escapes from the ground at numerous points all 

through the county. Almost every township has 
more or less of these "gas-springs." All along the 
lake shore, in still weather, this gas may be seen 
bubbling up, and in some places the flow is so copious 
that they never freeze over in winter. Often have I 
touched a lighted match to the escaping gas as I have 
been sailing along, to see it flash. lu some parts of 
the county these gas-springs have been utilized for 
lighting and heating purposes, and it seems to me 
the time is not far distant when this gas will be used 
to a considerable extent. 

I have now given as full a descrij)tion of these 
rocks and their economic values as it is possible to 
give in one short chapter in a work like this. I have 
given their relative position to each other, as laid 
down in the books. That this will be changed and 
very much modified hereafter I have do d(Uibt, but at 
present we leave them here. 

I hardly think it necessary, or that the reader will 
wish me to go on and tell about the Hamilton group, 
that lies next below the Huron, and the coniferous 
groui), which is next, and the Oriskany which is the 
lowest member of the Devonian age. None of these 
rocks come to the surface in Lorain county, but are 
found as surface rocks in adjoining counties. 


Front View (Diagram) one-tentli natural size, linear. 

Dentition of Diniclithys Terrelli. — Newb. 

ITntil a few years since it was sujiposed that the 
rocks of Lorain county were ban-en of fossils, except 
small fragments of wood found in ([uari-ying the sand- 
stone at Amhei'st, Elyria and some other places. 
These, of themselves, are ([uite unimportant, except 
it be to sliow that in the ejjoch of the deposition of 
these sand rocks there existed coniferous trees. 

In the year 186G I came to the lake shore and 
purchased the place now known as " Lake Breeze." 
In walking along the beach I found water-worn frag- 
ments of a new, and to me unknown fossil, of which 
Prof. Newberry, in the " Report of the Geological 
Survey of Ohio," says: 

"About the time of Mr. Hertzer's discovery of fish remains at Dela- 
ware, Mr. Jay Terrell, of Elyria, found several large, water-worn frag- 
ments of lilack. mineralized bone on the beach of the lake west of Avon 
Point. These had evidently fallen out of the cliff of Huron shale which 
here forms the lake shore. On examining these bones when brought to 

»By Jay Terrell, 

Cleveland by Mr. Terrell, I discovered that they were portions of the 
'OS niedi'itm dorst ' of Dmichthys. This is a plate which covers the arch 
of the back immediately behind the head; and was, in some cases, two 
feet in length and breadth, and more than two inches thick at its cen- 
tral anterior portion. Since his discovery of the first of these interesting 
relics, Mr. Terrell has pursued the search for them with much enthu- 
siasm and success." 

These water-worn sjjecimens did not give me any 
cine as to where they might be found in place; still I 
made a careful, and thorough search for them when- 
ever the lake was still and clear enough to admit of 
it, supposing them to be under the water, but near 
the shore, or they would not thus be broken up and 
thrown upon the beach. 

I continued this search for more than a year, and 
had nearly given uji the hope of ever finding them in 
place, and as we often found pieces upon the beach, 
I had began to think that possibly they might have 
been brought here in the ice period. 



About this time Park, one of my little boys, (who 
was then ten years old and wlio had been with me 
considerable in my researches, and had become much 
interested in hunting for "our fish-bed" as we had 
already begun to call it) went out alone one day and 
in hnntiug along the banks of shale found a specimen 
embedded in the solid shale. He immediately came 
to me to tell me of his success, and to show me where 
it was that I might get it out. This was the start- 
ing point, — -''our leader." From this we certainly 
could find others. It was not then a bed of bones 
massed together as I had supposed, but in detached 
pieces, scattered here and there through the shale. 
Enough was now known to tell us where to look 
for them; and a vigorous search was at once com- 
menced. It was, however, three weeks before another 
single trace was found; and I had almost given up in 
despair, when one day, about a mile below our starting 
point, I found another specimen clearly defined in 
the rocky shale. My field of labor was now fully 
located, and a systematized search commenced in 
earnest. From that time to the present I have exca- 
vated more thau a thousand bones. 

Sometimes I have had to work for days, and blast 
the rocks in order to reach them; others have been 
readily accessible by the pick and chisel. In one 
instance I worked five days, with several men, in 
blasting and clearing away the debris, bafore we 
reached the rocky floor in which these bones were 
embedded; but it was a grand find. Prof. Newberry, 
in speaking of it says: 

"Since the publication of the first vohime of this report, a lar^e 
amount of interesting material, illustrating the structure of this genus, 
has been brought to light. In this material is to be found nearly the 
entire bony system of one large individual, which gives us a more com- 
plete representation of Dinichthijs than has yet been obtained of any 
of the larger fossil fishes of the (_>U1 World, These specimens we owe to 
the enthusiasm and intelligence of Mr, Jay Terrell, who found them 
near his home in Sheffield, Lorain county. Here the upper portion of 
the Huron shale forms, along the Lake shore, cliffs which are being 
constantly worn away by the waves. These cliffs have been Mr, Terrell's 
favorite hunting-ground, and as the erosion of the surface reaches here 
and there the projecting point of a bone, each indication has been fol- 
lowed up with care, and the bone taken out, perhaps in many fragments, 
but yet complete in all its parts, Mr. Terrell has carefidly preserved 
and united these fragments, and thus has been able to contribute to 
science some of the most interesting and valuable Paheonfological 
material ever discovered," 

"Some months since, while scanning the cliff near his house, his 
attention was attracted to a bone of which only a small portion 
visible, the remainder being concealed in the rock. On taking this out, 
others immediately associated with it were revealed, which were, h<iw- 
ever, so deeply buried, as to be inaccessible by ordinary means. In 
these circumstances Mr, Terrell began operations on the cliff above, 
and excavated a spa;e about twelve feet square down to the locality of 
the bones. Here he found the ventral shield, before unknown, quite 
complete: one mandible, a "premaxillary" and two "raaxniary;"a 
perfect dorsal shield, two feet in diameter; two scapulo-coracoid*, with 
a large number of additional bones, including the ossified rays of a 
large fin. From the same locality Mr. Terrell had before obtained a 
cranium almost complete, and two supra-scapulas: thus giving, as has 
been said, nearly the entire bony structure." 

" Since this important discovery Mr, Terrell has found a complete 
mandible and maxilLary of larger size than any before met with; the 
mandible (under jaw) being twenty two inches in length," 

The class of fishes to which these bones belonged, 
are now called Diiiiehfhi/s-Terrelli (Terrell's terrilile 

Dentition of Dinicbthys Terrelli. 

Side view (diagram); one-tenth natural size, linear. 

They were armor-clad monsters of the old Huron 
sea, which rolled over nearly all of the North Amer- 
ican continent, long ages before the formation of the 
coal measures. A thick, massive, bony coat of mail 
covered all the vital parts of their upper surface, 
while the plates that protected the under side of the 
body were large but relatively thin. No scales have 
as yet been found with their i-emains; hence it is 
inferred that the posterior portion of the body must 
have been covered witJx a thick, tough skin. It is 
evident that they were cartillagenous, from the fact 
that no bones of their internal structure have been 
found. Hence it is more difficult to calculate their 
size and shape, which has not yet been fully deter- 
mined; but probably tliey were from fifteen to twenty 
feet in length, with very massive bodies. The head 
is composed of thick, bony plates, strengthened with 
massive internal arches, all firmly anch\dosed together, 
forming a bony bos which is two feet in length and 
thii'ty inches in breadth and in some places more than 
three inches in thickness. 

Prof. Newberry says of the os arficulare rapifls of 
the head plate: 

" The joint itself is formed by a deep cylindrical socket, into which 
fits the condyle of the mtpra-ncaimlar, in such a way as to form one of 
the strongest and most complete articulations in the whole animal 

Of the .iaws, he says: 

" The dental apparatus of Dinichthys is its most remarkable feature. 
The massive jaws are themselves transformed into teeth more singular 
in their structure, and more formidable than any living fish. These 
powerful jaws terminate in four dense teeth, which aj-e five inches long 
and three broad. They have shining black enamel on their wearing 
edge. Back of these front teeth, the under jaw is formed into a sharp 
cutting edge of jet black enamel, one-third their entire length. An 
upper tooth with a thin, long, beveled edge (six inches long), fits and 
corresponds to the under jaw in such a manner that the two pla,y upon 
each other precisely like the blades of a pair of shears." 

With such a pair of jaws as these, set in a head more 
than three feet and a half In-oad, it is easy to see that 
these great monsters were able to crush a much larger 
body than that of a man. I have one bone (middle 
plate of the back) which is twenty-four inches long 
and twenty-seven broad; is three inches in its thickest 
jiart, and weighs thirty pounds. 

I need not here give a detailed descriiition of the 
many bones which belong to this wonderful fish. The 



tlirec al)Ovc mentioncil, are sufficient for our present 
purpose. It is impossible in hmgiiiige, to give any 
correct idea of these specimens. Suffice it, therefore, 
to say, tliat they are the remains of the hirgest fossil 
fishes now known to tiie scientific world. 

Such a lish as this must have had formidable 
enemies, or he would not have been clad with such a 
bony coat of mail; and then his teeth clearly indicate 
that he was carnivcrDUs, and therefore fed on other 
large animals of the deep. Hence, in all my re- 
searches for his remains, I have ever been on the 
lookout for something else; and my labors have been 
rewarded as follows: 

In the rocks u)) Black River, which Prof. Newberry 
designates " Cleveland Shale," and as belonging to 
the W.averly series, T discovered the remains of very 
large placoderni fishes, nearly if not quite as large as 
those belonging to the Huron epoch, some of the 
bones weighing many pounds each. I am not quite 
satisfied that the location of these rocks is correct; 
at present, however, we leave them as they are placed 
by the geological survey. 

I also found in the same locality the spine of a large 
denacanf/ius shark; dadodus. and other small sharks' 
teeth ; jugular and other plates, of different parts, of 
these little carboniferous sharks; together with the 
scales of other fishes. 

In the Bedford shales below Elyria I have obtained 
shells of a small Llnijiihi, not yet described and 
named; also a shell, new, but proljably allied to the 
SpirifiTS, and (puuitities of mollusks, (Miirrndon- 
Haiiiilfoniu'); also a species of small shark, and some 
other fossils. These were all found in a baud of 
limestone, of about one foot in thickness, lying in 
the upper stratum of this shale and extending two or 
throe miles along its exposure on Black river. 

I have obtained from the Huron shale at the lake 
shore, iu addition to those already mentioned, several 
bones and teeth of small, and as yet undescribed fossil 
fishes, some cones, apparently belonging to Lepido- 
dendron, fruit pods and seeds, of sea weeds, and an 
undescribed species of Goninfites, (chambered shells). 
Broad, flag-like impressions of sea-weeds are very 
common all through this shale. 

We now come to three classes of large fishes, that 
have recently been described and named by Professor 
Newberry. I give extracts from his descriptions, 
pulilished in the Annals of the New York Academy 
of Sciences, 1878: 

nil'LOON.VTIIUS Mrit.VBILIS* (n. sp.) X. 

" Dentary bone of mandible (under jaw), about eigliteen inches long, 
by two inches in width, anterior half thickens as in Dinichthys. vising 
inU^ a prominent point anteriorly, which diverges from its fellow of 
the opposite dentary bone, to form a forked extremity to the under 
jaw. Upper margin of the anterior half of dentary bone set with strong, 
conical, smooth, acute, incurved teetii, which dimish in size as they 
ascend the elevated point. Four larger, conical, recurved teeth, are set 
on the inner side of the triangular extremity of the mandible, filling 
the space between the point and the symphysis. A broad, roughened 
depression or pit at the symphysis marks the place of attachment of a 

♦Wonderful double-acting jaw. 

strong ligament, which unites the mandibl»s, and prevents the splitting 
of the forked extremity of the jaw. 

" The remarkable stnictnre of the jaw on which the foregoing descrip- 
tion is baseil. is without parallel, so far as known in the animal kingdom^ 
The dentary bones are produced forward into triangular divergent 
points, which are set with teeth on either margin; thus the extremity 
of the lower jaw forms a fork set with strong recurved teeth. This 
would form a very effective instrument for catching slender slippery 
fishes like eels .and was doubtless used for that purpose," 

" From the Huron Shale, SheCReld, Lorain couuty, Ohio. Discovered 
by Jay Terrell," 


" Dorsal plate four to five inches long, shield-shaped, terminating 
anteriorly in an obtuse, posteriorly in an acute point; the sides, irre^- 
larly rounded, f«)rin a feather-edge, probably btiried in the ii, tegument, 
U|iper surface gently arched, marked by several obscure longitudinal 
striic, anil by a peculiar transverse crape-like wrinkling. The under 
surface is uniformly excavated, and arched transversely on either side 
of the low and sharp central crest. This crest is prolonged into a nar- 
row neck-like process, which projects forward and downward from 
the margin of the shield, and is excavated in v broad furrow on its 
upper surface. 

"The supra-occipital bone is wedge-shaped and truncated fonvard, 
rounded behind, with a low point at the center of its margin. The 
upper surface is marked with characteristic transverse crape-like 
wrinkling; the under surface slopes backward from the middle, with a 
prominent ridge, which forms the terminal point; anterior to the slope 
is a semi-elliptical excavation, divided at the bottom in two by a longi- 
tudinal ridge," 

" An imperfect jaw found with the dorsal plate, and correspond ng in 
size, is about four inches in length, posterior extremely spatulate and 
thin; the anterior portion polished without, and terminating above in a 
sharp edge; the anterior extremity broken away," 

" From the Huron Shale, Sheffield, Lorain county, Ohio, Discovered 
by Jay Terrell." 


■'Spine of medium size, perhaps six inches long, much compressed, 
by one inch and a half wide, strongly arched above; anterior margin 
smooth, posterior flattened with a well-marked rounded ridge along the 
central line. Upper half of posterior face thickly set with conical 
recurved teeth. Exposed portion wholly covered with fine longitudinal 
ribs, which are highly ornamentedby closely approximated transverse 
" Pectination finest on middle and lower portion of sides," 
" From the Huron Shale, Sheffield, Lorain county, Ohio, Discovered 
by Jay Terrell." 

I have now mentioned and described all the fossils, 
so far as I know, that have been discovered within the 
limits of our county. The Cuyahoga shale which is 
exposed along the streams in the southern portion of 
our county, has yielded in Medina and some other 
places crinoids, mollusks and other small shells, and 
no doubt these might be found here upon proper 
search made for them; and possibly new genera and 
new species. 



A people, concerning whom nothing beyond the 
fact of their existence is known, are called Mound- 
Builders. This name was given them because of the 
earthworks, mounds and fortifications which they 
erected, — generally along the courses of streams. 
Some of are works of defence, others burial 
places. These mounds and their contents furnish us 
the only information obtainable in reference to this 
strange people. That the period of time at which 
they existed reaches far back into the past is evi- 
denced from the fact that the races of red men who 



succeeded them have been unable to furnish us any 
account of mIio they were, whence they came and 
whither they went. A veil of impenetrable mystery 
enshrouds their history. Their mounds are a proof 
of tlieir existence, for tlieir chai'acter and the place 
and mode of their erection attest the handiwork of 
intelligent beings, while the bones, weapons of war- 
fare, stone implements and arrow-heads which have 
been discovered and are still found buried in these 
earthworks, furnish a still stronger proof of the ex- 
istence of a pre-historic people. The skek'ton re- 
mains of lium m beings of such dimensions as to show 
that their one-time possessors were beings of almost 
gigantic proportions, were exliumed from their ancient 
cemeteries by the tirst settlers. The Indians, dis- 
claiming them as kindred, could give no information 
in regard to them. These ancient earthworks are 
found in several t>laGes in Lorain county. We de- 
scribe one or two of them. Professor Newberry says: 

"The best preservf-tl fortifications in the county are on land owned by 
R. Burrell, Esq., in the angle formed by the union of French and Sugar 
creeks, in Sheffield township. The valleys of these two streams are 
quite deeply excavated, and inclose a narrow triangle of high land at 
their juncture, which is bounded by cliffs of shale forty-five feet in 
height and almost perpendicular. Across the base of this triangle, at 
the distances respectively of three hundred and fifty and two hundred 
and seventy-eight feet from the apex, are two deep, parallel trenches, 
each one hundred and thirty-five feet long, reaching from bluff to bluff. 
Mr. Burrell states that when the land was first cleared in 1816, these 
trenches were eight feet deep. They have been plowed over from year 
to year since, but are quite plainly discernible. The purpose of these 
trenches was evid<'ntly to defend from attack, a village or citadel situ- 
ated on the level surface of the height. The plateau was evidently in 
habited for many years, perhaps centuries, as the soil which covers it 
is a ' made soil,' abounding in bones of animals, stone implements 
and arrow-heads. Probably the efficifncy of the trenches was increased 
by palisades or some other defence of wood, all trace of which has dis- 
appeared by decaj". 

"An ancient fortification erected by the Mouad-Builders is discernible 
on land owned by Mr. Jacob Delker on a bench of the west bluff of the 
Vermillion river, where it makes a bend after entering the township 
from Henrietta, not far below the bridge. The descent upon this pro- 
jection of land is quite rapid. About midway of the descent a trench 
was dug and breastworks were thrown up. They now stand out dis- 
tinctively, but have been cut through in the middle to permit the pass- 
age of wagons. The trench has been mostly filled in by the washing 
down of the gravelly bluff above. A young peach orchard is in the old 

** About seven acres are included in a large fort on Mr. Jacob Ennis's 
land, on the east bank of the Vermillion river, three miles above its 
mouth. The Mound-Builders must have considered this an important 
station, as shown by these extensive intrenchments, now sonipwhat ob- 
scured in outline on one side by reason of many years' plowing. The 
soil of this fort contains quantities of fragments of bone and potteiy 
and chippings of flint." 



The aboriginal tribes that are known to have inhab- 
ited this region, together witli the entire conntry in 
Ohio lying to tlie south of Lake Erie, belonged to one 
(u- the other of two great families of Indians: the 
Algonkin, or Huron-Iroquois. The tribes whieh may 
l)e named as having been at one time or another 
dwellers upon the soil of what is known as the Western 
Reserve, are: 

Of the Huron-Troquois family: The Erics, followed 
by the Iroquois proper, or tlie six nations — the Mo- 
hawks, the CaijHfjas, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, 

the Senccas and the Tuscarawas — and the Hurons 
proper, or the Wyandots. Of the Algonkin family: 
The Delawares, the Shawnces, the Ottawns, the Mi- 
amis, the Chippewas, the Pottaiuattomies and the 


The Eries arc the only red men, who as a complete 
tribe have inhabited the region bordering the southern 
shore of the lake that bears their name. They were 
known to the first French explorers and discoverers 
of the great west, and by them were called the FeJinns 
or the Cat nation. Why they received this name is 
not known, except it was that throngh the forests in 
which they dwelt there prowled great numbers of 
the animal known as wild cats. They have given to 
the lake near which they dwelt the name that desig- 
nated their tribe. More than this, we do not know 
aught of this strange people, except the interesting 
information which the traditions of other tribes 
furnish us in regard to their overthrow and complete 
destruction. These traditions come from their con- 
querors, the fierce and powerful Iroquois, and by them 
we are assured that the account is accurate and 
trustworthy. AVe give herewith the narrative as taken 
from the lips of Black Snake and other venerable chiefs 
of the Senecas and Tonawandas, and published in 
the Buffalo Commercial of July, 1845. That i^aper 

"Near the mission-house, on the reservation adjoining the city of 
Buffivlo, can be seen a small mound, evidently artificial, that is said to 
contain the remains of the unfortunate Eries, slain in their last great 
battle. The Indians hereabouts believe that a small remnant of the 
Eries still exist beyond the Mississippi, The small tribe known as the 
Qtoapaws, in that region, are also believed to be the remains of the 
Kankwas, the allies of the Er/cs/^ 

This sanguinary conflict is supposed to have taken 
place a few years prior to the year 1700. 


The Uries were tlie most powerful and warlike of 
all the Indian tribes. They resided south of the great 
lake (Erie), at the foot of which stands the city of 
Buft'alo, the Indian name for which was Tu-slm-way. 

When the Eries heard of the confederation which 
was formed between the Mohairks, who resided in the 
valley of that name, the Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayti- 
gas, and Senecas, who lived, for the most part, upon 
the shoi-es and the outlets of the lakes bearing respec- 
tively their names (called by the French the Iroquois 
nation), they imagined it must be for some mischiev- 
ous purpose. Although confident of their superiority 
over any one of the tribes inhabiting the countries 
within the bounds of their knowledge, they dreaded 
the power of such combined forces. 

In order to satisfy themselves in regard to the 
character, disposition, and power of those they con- 
sidered their mutual enemies, the Eries resorted to 
the following means: They sent a friendly message to 
the Senecas, who wei'e their nearest neighbors, invit- 
ing them to select one hundred of their most active, 
athletic young men to play a game of ball against the 



same iinnilicr to be selected by the Fries, for a wager 
wliich sliould be considered worth)' the occasion and 
the character of the great nation in whose belialf the 
ofPer was made. 

Tlie message was received and entertained in the 
most respectful manner. A conncil of the "Five 
Nations" was called, and the proposition fully dis- 
cussed, and a messenger in due time dispatched with 
tJie decision of the council, respectfully declining the 
challenge. This emboldened the Erics, and the next 
year the offer was renewed, and, after being again 
considered was agaiji formally declined. This was far 
fi'om satisfying the proud lords of the great lake, and 
the challenge was renewed the third time. 

The blood of the j'oung Iroquois C(mld no longer 
be restrained. They importuned the old men to allow 
them to accept the challenge. The wise counsels 
which had hitherto prevailed at last gave way, and the 
challenge was accepted. 

Nothing could exceed the enthusiasm with which 
each tribe sent forth its chosen champions for the 
contest. The only difiiculty seemed to be to make a 
selection where all seemed .so worthy. After much 
delay one hundred of the flower of all the tribes were 
finally designated, and rhe day of their departure was 
fixed. An experienced chief was chosen as the leader 
of the party, whose orders the young men were strictly 
enjoined to obey. A grand council was called, and in 
the presence of the assembled multitude the party 
was charged in the most solemn manner to observe a 
pacific course of conduct towards their competitors and 
the nation whose guests they were to become, and to 
allow no provocation, however great, to be resented by 
any act of aggression on their part, but in all respects 
to acquit themselves worthy the representatives of a 
and great powerful people, anxious to cultivate peace 
and friendship with all their neighbors. Under these 
solemn injunctions the party took up its line of march 
for Tii-slni-waij. When the chosen band had arrived 
in the vicinity of the point of their destiiiation, a mes- 
senger was sent forward to notify the Eries of their 
arrival, and the next day was set apart for their grand 

The elegant and athletic forms; the tasteful, yet 
not cumbrous, dress; the dignified, noble bearing of 
the chief, and, more than all, the modest demeanor 
of the young warriors of the Iroquois party, won the 
admiration of all beholders. They brought no arms; 
each one bore a bat, used to throw or strike a ball, 
tastefully ornamented, being a hickory stick about 
five feet long, bent over at the end, an<l a thonsr 
netting wove into the bow. After a day of repose and 
refreshment, all things were arranged for the contest. 
The chief of the Iroquois brought forward and depos- 
ited upon the ground a large pile of elegantly wrought 
belts of wampum, costly jewels, silver bands, beauti- 
fully ornamented mocca.sins, and other articles of 
great value in the eyes of the sons of the forest, as 
the stake or wager on the part of his people. These 
were carefully matched by the Eries, with articles of 

equal value, article with article tied together and 
again deposited on the pile. 

The game began, and, although contested with 
des])eration and great skill by the Eries, was won by 
the Iroquois, who bore off the prize in triumph. 
Thus ended the first day. 

The IroqwAs having now accomplished the object 
of their visit, pi'oposed to take their leave, but the 
chief of the Eries, addressing himself to their leaders, 
said their young men, though fairly beaten in the 
game of ball, would not be satisfied unless they could 
have afoot-race, and proposed to match ten of their 
number against an equal number of the Iroquois 
party, which was assented to, and the Iroquois were 
again victorious. 

The Kdukirus who resided on Eighteen-Mile creek, 
being present as the friends and allies of the Eries, 
now invited the Iroquois party to visit them before 
they returned home, and thither the whole jiarty 
repaired. The chief of the Erjes, as a last trial of 
the courage and prowess of his guests, proposed to 
select ten men, to be luatched with an equal immlier 
of the Iroquois party, to wrestle, and that the victor 
should dispatch his adversary on the spot by braining 
him with a tomahawk and bearing off his scalp as a 
trophy. This sanguinary proposition was not at all 
])leasing to the Iroquois; they, however, concluded 
to accept the challenge ; with the determination, 
should they be victorious, not to execute the bloody 
part of the proposition. The champions were accord- 
ingly chosen. A Senecn was the first to step into the 
ring, and threw his adversary, amid the shouts of the 
multitude. lie stepped back and declined to execute 
his victim, who lay passive at his feet. As quick as 
thought the chief of the Eries seized the tomahawk, 
and, at a single blow, scattered the brains of his van- 
quished warrior over the ground. Ilis body was 
dragged away, and another champion of the Eries 
presented himself. He was ([uiekly thrown by his 
more powerful antagonist of the Iroquois party and as 
(|uickly dispatched by the infuriated chief. A third 
met the same fate. 

The chief of the Iroquois party, seeing the terrible 
excitement which agitated the multitude, gave a signal 
to retreat. Every man obeyed the signal, and in an 
instant they were out of sight. In two hours they 
arrived at Tu-shu-waq, gathered up the trophies of 
their victories, and were on their way home. 

This visit of the hundred warriors of the Fire Ay/- 
fions and its results only served to increase the jeal- 
ousy of the Eries, and to convince them that they had 
powerful rivals to contend with. It was no part of 
their policy to cultivate friendship, and strengthen 
their own power by cultivating peace with other tribes. 
They knew no way of securing jK-ace to themselves 
but by exterminating all who might oppose them. 
But the combination of several powerful tribes, any 
of whom might be almost an e(|ual match for them, 
and of whose personal prowess they had seen such an 
exhibition, inspired the Eries with the most anxious 



forebodings. To cope wifli tliem collectively they saw 
was impossible. Tlieir only hope, therefore, was in 
beinjr able by a vigorous and sudden nioveniont to 
destroy tliuni in detail. With this view a powerful 
])arty was immediately organized to attack the Seitecas 
who resided at tlie foot of Seneca lake (tiie present 
site of Geneva), and along the banks of Seneca river. 
It happened that at this period tiiere resided among 
tile Fries a Seneca woman, who in early life had been 
taken prisoner, and liad married a husband of the 
Erie tril)e. He died and left her a widow without 
children, a stranger among strangers. Hearing the 
terrible note of preparation for a bloody onslaught 
upon her kindred and friends, she formed the resolu- 
tion of apprising tliem of their danger. As soon as 
night set in, taking the course of the Niagara river, 
she traveled all night and early next morning reached 
tiie shore of Lake Ontario. She jumped in a canoe, 
which she found fastened to a tree, and boldly pushed 
into the open lake. Coasting down the lake, she 
arrived at the mouth of the Oswego river in tlie night, 
where a large settlement of the nation resided. She 
directed her steps to tlie house of the head chief, and 
disclosed the object of her journey. She was secreted 
bv tiie chief, ami runners were dispatched to all the 
trilies, summoning them immediately to meet in coun- 
cii, wliicli was held in Onondaga Hollow. 

Wiien all were convened tlie chief arose, and, in tiie 
most solemn manner, rehearsed a vision, in wiiich he 
said that a beautiful bird appeared to him and told 
iiim that a great party of the Eries was preparing to 
mike a secret and sudden descent upon them to de- 
stroy tliem, and notiiing could save them Init an 
immediiite rally of all the warriors of tiie Five Na- 
tions, to meet tiie enemy before tiiey siioukl ix^ aljle 
to strike tiie ijiow. These solemn annouucenieuts 
were heard in breathless silence. When the eliief 
had linisiied and sat down, tliere arose one immense 
yell of menacing madness. The earth shook wiien 
tlie migiity mass brandished high in the air their war- 
ciuljs, and stamped the ground like furious beasts. 

No time was lost. A body of five thousand warriors 
was organized, and a corps of reserve, consisting of 
one thousand young men who had never been in bat- 
tle. The bravest ciiiefs of all the triljcs were put in 
com mind, and spies immediately sent out in search 
of tile enemy, the whole body taking up their line 
of marcii in the direction whence they expected tlie 

The advance of the party was continued several 
days, passing through, successively, the settlement of 
tiieir friends, the Onondaijas, the Cayuyas, and the 
Senecas; but they had scarcely passed the last wig- 
wam, now the fort of C'a-aii-du-f/ua (Canandaigua) 
lake, when the scouts brought in intelligence of the 
advance of the Fries, who had already crossed the 
Ce-nis-se-u (Genesee) river in great force. Tiie Eries 
had not the slightest intimation of the approach of 
their enemies. They relied on the secrecy and celerity 

of their movements to surprise and subdue the Sene- 
cas almost without resistance. 

The two parties met at a point about half-way be- 
tween the foot of Canandaigua lake, on the Genesee 
river, and near tlie outlet of two small lakes, near the 
foot of one of wiiicii (Iloncoye) the battle was fought. 
When the two parties came in sight of each otiier the 
outlet of the lake only intervened between them. 

Tlie entire force of the five confederate tribes was 
not in view of the Eries. The reserve corps of one 
thousand young men had not been allowed to advance 
in sight of the enemy. Nothing could resist the im- 
petuosity of the Fries at tiie first siglit of an opposing 
force on the other side of the stream. They rushed 
through it and fell upon tiiem with tremendous fury. 
Tiie undaunted courage and determined bravery of 
the Iroquois could not avail against such a terrible on- 
slaught, and they were compelled to yield the ground 
on the bend of the stream. The whole force of the 
combined tribes, except the corps of the reserve, now 
became engaged. They fouglit hand to hand and foot 
to foot. The battle raged horribly. No quarter was 
asked or given on eitiier side. 

As the fight thickened and became more desperate, 
tiie Fries, for the first time, became sensible of their 
true situation. What they had long anticipated had 
become a fearful reality. Their enemies hid combined 
for their destruction, and tiiey now found themselves 
engaged, suddenly and unex])ectedly, in a struggle 
not only involving the (jlorij, but perhaps the very 
existence of their nation. They were proud, and had 
hitherto been victorious over all their enemies. Their 
superiority was felt and acknowledged Ijy all tlie tribes. 
They knew how to conquer, but not to yield. All 
these considerations flashed upon the minds of the 
liold Eries, and nerved every arm with almost sujicr- 
huinan power. On the other hand, the united foi'ces 
of the weaker tribes, now made strong Ijy union, fired 
with a spirit of emulation, excited to the highest pitcli 
among the warriors of the dillcrcnt tribes, brought 
for the first time to act in concert, inspired with zeal 
and confidence by the counsels of the wisest chiefs, 
and led by the most experienced warriors of all the 
trii>es, the Iroquois were invincible. 

Though staggered by the first desjierate rush of 
tiieir opponents they rallied at once, and stood their 
ground. And now the din of battle rises higher; the 
war-club, the tomahawk, the scaljiing-knife, wielded 
by herculean hands, do terrible deeds of death. Dur- 
ing the hottest of tlie battle, which was fierce and 
long, the corps of i-eserve, consisting of a thousand 
young men, were, by a skillful movement under their 
exjjcrieiiced ciiicf, placed in tiie rear of tiie Fries, on 
tiie opposite side of the stream in ambush. 

The Fries had been driven seven times across the 
stream, and had as often regained tiieir ground; but 
the eighth time, at a given signal from their chief, 
the corps of young warriors in ambush rushed upon 
the almost exhausted Fries with a tremendous yell, 
and at once decided the fortunes of the day. Hun- 



dreds, disdaining to fly, were struck down by the war- 
clulis of the vigorous young warriors, whose thirst for 
the blood of tlie enemy knew no bounds. A few of 
tlie vanquished Eries escaped to carry the news of the 
terrible overthrow to their wives and children and old 
men that remained at home. But the victors did not 
allow them a moment's repose, but pursued them in 
their flight, killing all who fell into their hands. 

The pursuit was continued for many weeks, and it 
was five months before the victorious party of the 
Five jYrt/('o«s returned to their friends to join in cele- 
brating the victory over their last and most powerful 
enemy — the Eries. 

Tradition adds that many years after a i)owerful 
war-party of the descendants of the Eries came from 
beyond the Mississippi, ascended the Ohio, crossed 
the country, and attacked the Senecns, who had 
settled in the seat of their fathers at Tu-slm-wmj. A 
great battle was fought near the site of the Indian 
mission-house in which [\\q Erics were again defeated, 
and slain to a man. Their bones lie bleaching in the 
sun to the present day, — a monument at once of the 
indomitable courage of the terrible Eries and of their 
brave conquerors, the Seneras. 


After their conquest, the Fire Nations became the 
undisputed owners, if not the actual occupants, of the 
soil bordering the southern shore of Lake Erie. They 
carried their incursions into the far west, and became 
sovereigns of an almost boundless territory. For 
many years succeeding the subjugation of the Eries 
this region was known as the hunting-ground of the 
powerful Iroquois. The Senecas which were the 
westernmost tribe of the Fii'c Nations were oftener 
the occupants of the territory than any other tribe. 
The rivalry between the French and English for 
title to American soil involved the Indians in innumer- 
able wars, resulting in great decimation of their num- 
bers. This struggle for rivalry ceased in 1703 with 
the treaty of Paris, when England came into the 
possession of France's title to the gi-eat west. From 
this time to the close of the Revolutionary struggle 
the Iroquois retained possession of the forests of 
Northern Ohio. In 1780 the number of the Iroquois 

warriors inhabiting what now is the Reserve could not 
have exceeded two hundred. 


The peninsula enclosed between lakes Huron, Erie 
and Ontario, had been the dwelling-place of the orig- 
inal llurons. After their defeat by the Five Nations 
they became widely scattered, some descending the 
St. Lawrence, where, in the region of Quebec, their 
descendants are yet to be seen; a part were adopted 
into the tribes of their conquerors; others fled beyond 
Lake Sujierior and hid themselves in the wilderness 
that divided the Chippewas from their western foes, 
while scattered bands took refuge iu the forests of 
Northern Ohio. They were probably more familiarly 
known to the pioneers of this region than any other 
tribe of Indians. 


The Algonkins, two hundred years ago, were by far 
the most numerous family of American Indians, and 
their domain reaching from the Atlantic to the Jlissis- 
sippi river was the greatest in extent. The historian, 
Bancroft, fixes their number two centuries ago at 
ninety thousand, while the Iroquois family arc thought 
not to have exceeded seventeen thousand. A hundred 
years ago a numl)er of their tribes were quite numer- 
ously rej>resented on the soil of what is now Northern 
Ohio. The greatest numljer of these red men belonged 
to the Delaware, the Chippeioa, and the Ottawa tribes, 
although remnants of the Shawnees, the Pottawato- 
mies, the Miainis, and the Kiekapoos were likewise 
present. In the wars between the Indians and the 
pioneer settlers of Ohio, preceding the treaties of Fort 
Mcintosh (1785), of Fort liarmar (1789), of Fort 
Greenville (1705), and of Fort Industry, (1805), the 
red men were completely subdued, and thereafter this 
region, instead of being the permanent dwelling-place 
of one or more tribes of Indians, came to be tempo- 
rarily the common hunting-gi-ound of many tribes. 
Seeking permanent homes in the remoter west, they 
returned here during the hunting seasons to renew 
the sports of the chase and roam through the jjleasant 
forests where lay buried the dead of their forefathers. 
Such was the condition, for the most part, of the 
red men of this locality when first came hither the 
white settler. 





1713 1 Utrecht. England, France and other European 

1726 Albany, New York. Iroquoin and the English. 

1"W Lancaster, Pa. Same parties as above. 


France cedes to England Bay of Hudson and its borders. Newfoundland and Nova 

All the claims of the Six Nations to hinds west of Lake Erie, including a strip 

sixty miles wide along the shores of Lakes Ontario and Ei-ie from Oswego river 

to the Cuyahoga. 
AH the lands of the Iroquois that are or hereafter may be within the colony of 

Confirm the treaty of Lancaster, and consent to settlements south of the Ohio 


i'^~ I At Logstown, on the Ohio. Same parties as above 

and western Indians. 
Paris. England and Portugal on the one side, and 

France and Spain on the other. France cedes to England islands in the West Indies; the Floridas; the eastern 

half of the valley of the Mississippi; all Canada; Acadia; and Cape Breton and 
its independent islands. 






1783 Paris. England and the United States. 

ITt^ ; Fort Stanwix, New York. The Iroquois and the 

United States. 
1785 Fort Melntosb, at the mouth of Big Beaver. The 

United States and the Chippewas, Delawares, 

Ottawas, and Wyandoh. 

1786 Fort Finney, near the mouth of the (Ireat Miami. 

The United States and the Hhawnees. 


1789 At Fort Harinar. The /rocyuo/s and western tribes 

I and the United States. 

1795 At Fort Greenville. United States with twelve 

tribes, — Wyandofti, Delanmres, Shtiwnees, Otta- 
was, Chippewas, Putfdwattomies, Miainis, Kick- 
apoos, Piankashau's, a,Qd Kaskctskias. 

17% At Buffalo. The Senecas and the Connecticut Land 


1805 At Fort Industry, on the Maumee. The United 

States and Western Tribes. 



At Detroit. The Unite<l States and Western 

Brownstown, Michigan. 

Springwells, near Detroit. 

At the rapi Js of the Maumee. 

At St Mary's. 

England cedes to the United States the territory in North America lying south of 

the chain of lakes and east of the Mississippi. 
Tlie Iroquois cede to the United States all their claims west of Pennsylvania. 

The Indians cede all their claims east and south of the Cuyahoga, and the portage 
between it and the Tuscarawas to Fort Laurens l Bolivar); thence to Laramie's 
Fort (northwest part of Shelby county); thence along tite Portage path to the 
St. Mary's river, and down it to the Omee or Maumee river and the lake shore 
to the Cuyahoga. 

These Indians did not own the land occupied by them on the Scioto, and are 
allotted a tract on the heads of the two Miamis anil the Wabash, west of the 
Chippewas, Delawares, and Wyandots. 

Treaty of Fort Stanwix confirmed by the Irotptiu's. Treaty of Fort Mcintosh 
confirmed l)y the western tribes,— the Sauks and Pottairuttomies assenting. 

Boundary of Fort Mcintosh and Fort Harmar confirmed, and extended to Fort 
Recovery and the mouth of the Kentucky river. 

The Senecas, represented by Brant, cede the Connecticut Land Company their 

rights east of the Cuyahoga. 
The Wi/andots, Delaivarfs. Oftawas, Chip}>ewas, Shaimees, Munsees. and Potta- 

H'a/fom/e;; relinquish all lands west of the Cuyahoga as far west as the west 

line of the Western Reserve, and south of the line from Fort Laurens to 

Laramie's fort. 
The Ottatvas, Chippewas, Wyandots and Potfairattomies cede all tbat part of Ohio 

north of the Maumee river, with part of Michigan. 
The same parties and the Shtutmees grant a tr-act two miles wide, from the west 

line of the Reserve to the rapids of the Maumee, for the purpose of a road 

through the Black swamp. 
Thi Chijjpewas. Ottaivas, Potttiuattomies, Wyandots, Delaivares, Senecas, Shaw- 

nees, and Miamis, wlo had engaged on the British side in the War of 1813, 

confiim the treaties of Fort Mcintosh and Greenville. 
The Wyandots cede their lands west of the Uhe of 1H)I5, as far as Laramie's 

and the St. Mary's river and north of the Maumee. The Poitanattomies, 

Chippewas, and Oitanas cede territory west of the Detroit line of 1807 and 

north of the Maumeee. 
The Miamis surrender the remaining Indian territory in the north of the Gieeuville 

line, and west of the St. Mary's river. 



The earliest actual settlement made withiu the 
present limits of Lorain county, though short-lived, 
was effected by that zealous but persecuted sect known 
as Moravians, at the mouth of Black river in 1787. 
We deem it but just that a short chapter be devoted 
to this interesting people, aud believe no one will 
deem the space we accord them as unwisely granted. 

The sect had its origin in Bohemia. Always in- 
significant as to numbers, and none of them remark- 
able for wealth, position or learning, no Christian 
people have shown more zeal or enthusiasm in ex- 
tending their Master's kingdom. Considering their 
meager numbers, it may be confidently asserted that 
no other denomination of Christians has done so 
much for the missionary cause. Without extraordi- 
nary skill or ability in elucidating abstruse or difficult 
problems of l)e!ief, they have sought not to make 
]iroselytes among those already well-grounded in the 
cardinal doctrines of Christian faith, but to teach the 
elementary gospel religion to those peoples aud tribes 
who had not yet been converted to Christianity. To 
the prosecution of this work they have freely devoted 
their lives and fortunes, and no country has been too 

remote, no shore too forbidding or inhospitable to 
prevent their planting there tlie banner of the cross 
aud seeking to bring under its folds the most savage 
and degraded of mankind. 

In 1732, while their numl)ei-s were less than four 
hundred, they began tlieir missionary work, the first 
station estaljlished being at St. Thomas in the West 

In 17-40 they established a mission among the In- 
dians at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania; but as the Indians 
were being gradually driven westward, a i)ermanent 
location was impossible. 

Tlie efforts of the missionaries to civilize the In- 
dians were not wholly successful. Their contact with 
the whites was always corrupting in its influence upon 
the red men. For the missionaries to have success it 
was necessary for them to keep in advance of the wave 
of emigration. 

In 1768 a new location was sought near Oil City, 
Pennsj'lvania, and in 1770 they removed to tlie Beaver 
river, where they remained a year or more, and tlien 
turned their steps westward to tlie valley of the Tus- 
carawas, near New Pliiladelphia. Ohio. Here, in this 
pleasant and fertile valley, they tliouglit themselves so 
far in the wilderness that they hoped they might for- 
ever remain undisturbed. They built cabins, cleared 



away the forests, worshiped God in peace and happi- 
ness. Their numbers increased by conversions from 
the Indians until the seltlemont contained tiirec vil- 
lai^es named Schoeubruun, Salem and (Jnadenhutten. 

Though they exercised only the arts of peace and 
kept ah)of from war and strife, patiently suliniitting 
to wroiij,' without seeking to bestow punishnuMit, they 
could not escape persecution and marl yi'doni. They 
were distrusted by both the IJritish and the Ameri- 
cans. 'I'lie former took steps to break up their mis- 
sion and bring I he iidiabilants to Detroit as prisoners. 

It was a sad blow to the peaceful Christians to be 
forced to leave their homes and ungathered crops, 
and in a long journey through a pathless wilderness, 
sutfcring indignity, cruelty and untold hardships. 

The following s|)riug, 1782, a few of them by |)er- 
mission returned to harvest their corn; but no sooner 
were they arrived than a detachment of Americans 
came among them, and, seizing a favorable oppor- 
tunity, rushed ui)on the defenceless Christians and 
slaughtered them in cold blood. It was one of the 
most cruel, unprovoked and bloody deeds known to 
the annals of border warfare. 

Those that had remained at Detroit sought a home 
in Canada; but, after dwelling a few years among the 
C/ii/ipcwas, their hearts yearned for their old home in 
the Tuscarawas, and in 1780 they started thither. 

Reaching a point on the Cuyahoga in Independence 
township, known as Pilgrims' Rest, they received in- 
telligence that made them shrink from going further. 
They halted and remained here about one year and 
then journeyed westward until they reached the nu)uth 
of Bhick river (in 1787), and here they made a settle- 
ment. Their hope was to found here a permanent 
colony and to labor among the Indians, endeavoring 
to civilize and t'hristianize them. This cherished 
wish, however, could not be realized. But a few days 
had ela[)sed when the chief of the Delawares sent 
them a message commanding them to depart. This 
may be tei'uieil the lirst actual settlement eilected 
within the limits of Lorain county. Though these 
Moravians tarried but a few days, they had actually 
chosen a spot where they fully intended to perma- 
nently remain, and their withdrawal was obligatdry, 
not voluntary. 

l)i-i\cn from Black river, tliese valiant Christian 
soldiers next souglit for themselves an asylum on the 
banks of the Huron, about two miles north of the j)res- 
ent village of Milan, in Erie county. Here they dwelt 
for five or six years; but, after suffering many jierse- 
cutions, they were again driven away, and returne(l to 
Canada, settling on the river Thomas. 

In 1797, Congress, mindful of their ])ast wrongs, 
made grants to them of their old lands on the Tus- 
carawas, whither a portion of them returned and 
prosecuted their missionary labors. However, their 
success was retarded by the influence of the white 
settlers, which was ever demoralizing upon the In- 
dian, and some of them returned again to Canada, 
while others, among them Chai'les Frederich Dencke, 

came to the Huron river and established there a mis- 
sion. This was in ISO-i. Here they continued to 
dwell for five years, until the Fire Lauds; having 
been surveyed, the white settler began to claim the 
lands upon which their cabin homes were erected. 
Then the missionaries and their Indian adherents 
sought their brethren in (ianada. 

The mission village on the Huron was called Pe- 
quotting, or Paynothing. and consisted of a chap(d, 
mission house and a seoi'e or more of cabins, some of 
which were afterwards used Ijy the white settlers. 

Their labors consisted in teaching the Indians not 
only religion, but the rudiments of education, and 
were successful in inducing them to a certain extent- 
to procure their food by cultivating the soil, to live 
in cabins, and to leave off their paint and feathers and 
to clothe themselves in more civilized garbs. 

Among the most noted of these missionaries may 
be named Charles Frederich Dencke, who was born 
in Iceland, his father being a missionary to that conn, 
try. Tradition states that he had a library which 
filled a space of not less than ten feet in length by six 
in height, and occupied nearly the whole of one side 
of his log cabin at Pequotting. Surely the man who 
took the pains to transport these books from place to 
place under so many ditliculties, could not have been 
uncultivated and unlearned. 

These men were not the heroes of battles nor win- 
ners of renown in the noisy triumjih of civic strife. 
They cared not for the apjilause of man, but in a 
humble way, through years of hunger, toil, weariness 
and loneliness, sustained by an unwavering trust and 
faith, they sought out the rude savage of the forest 
and strove to elevate him to a higher, truer manhood. 
Is it not fitting that History spares, then, a page 
whereon to transfix their names and deeds? 



It Would seem that the good old state of Connecticut 
never attempted, perhaps never intended, to exercise 
empire over her possessions in the west. She con- 
tented herself with mere ownership; was not very loth 
to part with her property, which she made haste to 
dispose of without any expenditure to develop or 
enhance its nuirket value. The Connecticut Land 
Comjjany purchased only to sell again. For the imr- 
pose of division, it was obliged to survey its domain. 
This accomplished, the Company was immediately 
dissolved, and each with his allotment at once sought 
purchasers, and they, without concert, pushed off 
singly to their aeipusitions. Colonizing in America 
has been pursued on a somewhat different basis, under 
a different inspiration from that practiced in Europe. 
The state undertakes nothing. It is rare that there 
is organization or combination with us to effect this 

*By A. G. Riddle. 



purpose. It comes to be known that some new un- 
peopled region is open or may be opened, and by a 
common impulse, hardy, enterprising men, with their 
wives and families, or without them, push off, un- 
deteiTed by difKculties, and unappalled by obstacles 
or dangers even, and the next that the world hears, a 
new and thriving community, pcrliaps a lusty young 
state, demands recognition. 

Perha]is no section of the country, of such an 
extent, had then been so rapidly peopled as the Con- 
necticut Reserve. Witli not a score of occupants in 
1800, twenty years saw it well settled, and those years 
cover all there was of pioneer life pro})er, although 
for twenty years more, the region was souglit ]>y men 
in search of new homes. 

Planted mainly from Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts, with a little sprinkle from the rest of New 
England, New York and Western Pennsylvania, most 
of immigrants had to traverse over six hundred miles, 
two-thirds or three-fourths of which was through a 
wilderness and over the rougliest of roads. The 
wliole was generally by land carriage, and usually by 
ox teams. Not until the construction of the Erie 
canal, did Lake Erie and water carriage make any 
considerable figure in the transit. Some of the earlier 
pioneers ventured up the lake in small open boats, 
landing each night, while many found its wave-beaten 
beach a smooth and level highway. 

The crushing defeat of the western tribes of Indians 
by Wayne, in KTt-t, freed the Reserve from the fear of 
savage hostilities, and although numy small bands 
found homes and hunting grounds by her beautiful 
streams and splendid forests, they were not even a 
source of annoyance till the dark days of 1812. Save 
a few from western New York and Pennsylvania, most 
of the settlers were from older New England, where 
the hatreds and enmities against the Indians had died 
out, and where the memories of the Pequots of the 
Narragansetts, and of King Phillip, had become tradi- 
tions. Her children carried no border animosities 
into the Ohio woods, and very few of them had any 
skill as hunters, or much knowledge of woodcraft. 
No American of that time but had the memory at lea-t 
of a hunter's and soldier's life; and men in a single 
day revert to the ways of barbarism if not savagery. 
Each man and woman from the old organized states 
of civilization, as their journeys led them deeper and 
deeper into the western forests, by so much plunged in- 
to the heart of primitive life, bearing all their civilized 
needs and wants with them, which could alone be sup- 
plied by the skill of the hunter, and of men who could 
draw all the elements of subsistence, at first hand, 
from unchanged nature. The great wave of pioneer 
life, whicli slowly rolled from the east to the west, 
followed by the fixed foot-prints of ever equally 
advancing refinement and civilization, gave birth, as 
it went, to a mode of life, manners and customs of a 
])ioneer type, consisting of a few well marked pecu- 
liarities, of plainness, almost coarseness, in a stimulat- 
ing atmosphere, in that fullness of unconventional 

freedom, which left individuals to develope, in a 
striking way, the diverse peculiarities and character- 
istics of their natures. On the Reserve, this phase of 
pioneer life, with its manners and customs, was of 
but a few years duration, and affected not more than 
two generations. There is scarcely a vestige of it 
now remaining. A cherished, a regretful memory: 
it is fast fading into a tradition, which genius, art, 
enthusiasm and the warmest imagination can never 

In the peopling of the Lorain woods, no state, nor 
powerful corporation, no strong combination of indi- 
viduals had any hand. Few persons of wealth took 
any jiersoual part in it. No well constructed highway 
led from the old to the new, with convenient resting 
places. No common starting place, and no common 
point of arrival and settlement, where sujijdies wei-e 
gathered, and around and from which the new homes 
would be built. A hundred different points, remote 
from each other, were occupied at the same time, 
and the sufferings, privations and hardshijis of the 
first settler were repeated a thousand times, when by 
care and tact they might have been avoided. 

The silence of the Lorain forests remained unbroken 
a few years longer than some of her neighboring re- 
gions. The incidents of their first occupation will be 
detailed, under the names of the different townships; 
only a slight general reference can here be made to 
them. As a general rule, the pioneers were men of 
courage and enterprise. Few others would have the 
hardihood to run the risk, and take upon themselves 
the labor and privation incident to a removal into the 

It is said that the Moraviatis were the first, of 
European blood, who attempted to make a permanent 
lodgment on the soil of Lorain, and that in 1787, 
they gathered a small baud of christian Indians at 
the mouth of Black river, where they intended to 
establish a mission for the conversion of the natives, 
but were compelled to depart by the maiulate of a 
chief, who claimed jurisdiction of that region. 

One of the first efforts of a settlement, if such it 
may be called, was in 1807, by Nathan Perry, who 
established a trading post at the mouth of the same 
river. Actual clearers of the woods, and cultivators 
of the soil, first planted themselves at that point in 
1810. They were said to have been natives of Ver- 
mont. This position was on the lake coast region, 
and quite central in the present county. 

In the autumn of 1807, a strong and seemingly well 
cotisidered attem])t was made to colonize the present 
township of Columbia, the most eastern of Lorain, 
from Waterbury, Connecticut. The more prominent 
men were the three Hoadleys, Williams, Warner, 
and Bronson, most of whom had families; also, 
Mrs. Parker and five children. It is said tlie party 
were two mouths in reaching Buffalo, and undertook 
to navigate Lake Erie, which must have been extra 
hazardous at that season. They seem to have been 
wrecked near the present city of Erie, whence tliey 



made their way on foot to Cleveland, — one of the 
most disastrous of tlie early attempts to reach the 
then west. Most of the party spent the residue of 
the winter in Cleveland. Other immigrants reached 
Cohunliia iliiring tlic winter, and the ensuing season. 

Ridgeville also received her first pioneers from 
Connecticut in ISld, and Amherst her first about 
the same time. Eaton was also first settled from 
Waterhury, Connecticut, in 1810. 

Three of these points of occupation formed a sort of 
triangle, not remote from each other, in the eastern 
central portions of the county, while Black River and 
Amherst were quite distant to the northwest. The 
five seem to have lieeu tlie only settlements in the 
county, until after the dark days of the war of 1813, 
although some of them seem to have made accessions 
during that gloomy jieriod. 

Siiellit^ld, adjoining IJlack River on the east, received 
her first settlers in 1S1.5, from Massachusetts. They 
came on strong-handed. 

Avon, still east of Sheffield, was settled in ISl-l. 

Hrownhelm, west of Black River, and Grafton, 
adjoining Eaton, on the south, were settled in 181G, 
as Avas Elyria. the future county seat, ;ind all three 
from Massachusetts. Elyria was most fortunate in 
being selected as the home of the Elys. 

Wellington and Huntington, in the southwesterly 
part, received tlieir first settlers in 1S18, and both 
from Massachusetts. 

Carlisle, south of Elyria and west of P^aton, was first 
occupied in 1819, from Connecticut, and Hrigjiton, 
adjoining Wellington on the west, in 1830. Russia's 
first settler came from New York in 1818. Penfield, 
adjoining Wellington mi the east, in 18I',>, while Hen- 
rietta was settletl in 1817. The other townships, 
many of them, were first occujiied in the j'cars soon 
following these older sisters. 

These pioneers were of one origin, language, re- 
ligion, witJi political and jiatriotic sentiments mainly 
identical witii a common history and the same tradi- 
tions. They were of the intelligent working class, 
having coniuiunity of puri)ose. wiiicli they pursued 
by the sanu' methods, and in the same lieli], with 
results not widely dissimilar. The journev, arrival, 
building, mode of life, fortune and career, of almost 
any one of these, resolute, vigorous, thrifty down- 
cast families, was the couuterj)art of the histories of 
all the others. 

The leading incidents of these will more properly 
be mentioned elsewhere. .This slight reference to the 
]iei-iods of the first settlements of the older townships 
and the mention of their origin is merely to show 
that they were ijuite contemporaneous, and made by 
a jK'i'fectly limnogeneous ]>eople :ind under similar 
cnndit ions. 

The UKin of our ol<l civilization is astonished ;it the 
enumenition of his wants, and perhaps still more at 
the small nnndjcr absolutely essential to the comforta- 
ble maintenance of human life, with all of its real en- 
joyments. A renujval into the dejiths of the Ohio 

woods, where a man was directly placed face to face 
with primitive conditions, brought him at once to the 
practical contemj)lation of the problem, and the solu- 
tion was in his own hands: Food, shelter, raiment. 
Here was the earth, whose soil was to furnish bread 
and clothing, but it was covered with a thick growth 
of great trees to be removed ere it could be planted. 
Their trunks and barks must be converted into houses. 
The last was the first to be extemporized. A temporary 
supply of food, was carried by the immigrant with him. 
On making his way to his purchase he pursued the 
trail that led nearest to it, and, with his axe, opened 
the rest of the way. The iroint gained, the same 
implement with which a savage continent has been 
hewn into the rough forms of civilization, cuts down 
and prepares the tree trunks for the first cabin, which 
the hands of the whole party, Avomeu and children as 
well, help to place in the low, rude walls of the primi- 
tive structure, while the bark of the baswood and elm 
make the cover. Doorless, floorless. windowless, chim- 
neyless, the pioneer, eagerly takes possession of his 
cheerless cabin. Thousands of them within these 
seventy years were built and occupied in the Lorain 
woods. Men and women lived in them; children — all 
the elders of the new generation — were born in them. 
Death came to them there; and there young women 
became brides and dwelt there — the hajipy wives of 
happy husbands. Of all these dwellings in the 
woods, scarcely the site of one can now be identified. 
The forest was at once the great foe and lienefactor 
of the new dwellers in its midst. A war of exter- 
mination began on the trees. The axe and fire 
were the agents of their swift destruction, and 
rapidly the small ring of trees about the cabin en- 
larged, and the growing, stumpy fields, marked the 
progress of the struggle. Next to the erection of 
their own cabin, the most important event was the 
arrival of another family in the woods, and the erec- 
tion of their dwelling received the joyous help of 
every male within ten miles of it. No one born of 
later years can comprehend the strength and warmth 
of the bands of sympathy and fellowship which united 
the first dwellers in the woods in wide neighborhood! 
What an event was the erection of the first saw- 
mill! The first grist mill! The setting up of the 
first lilacksmith's forge! The advent of the first shoe- 
maker! The purchase of the first cows and sheep! 
The acquisition of the first cat, dog and hens! The 
coming of a spinning-wheel in a family and the setting 
up of a hand lo<im in a neighborhood were events. 
The raw material for all fabrics were won from the 
earth. Men raised flax, rotted, broke and swingled 
it. Women hatcheled, spun, wove and made it into i 
garments. Wool, shorn from the sheep, was turned 
into cloth, dyed with Ijark, and the first fretting mill 
was a benefaction. Then came carding machines. I 
Many men became apt and skillful hunters, and the 
pelts of elk and deer were changed by domestic tanners 
to material for clothing. A great drawback was the 
scarcity of necessary implements for the household. 




and for tlio outsido war on the savagery of nature — 
rudely extempoi'ized chairs, stools and hoxes, gourds, 
shells, sap-troughs, wooden trays and trenchers; poor 
axes, rude hoes, imperfect scythes, sickles, hand flails, 
and fans, and wooden ])lows. Money there was none, 
and vet money had to he iiaid for taxes, for leather, 
and usuallv for salt. Hut one product could he ex- 
changed for money. The Held and house ashes were 
carefully saved, rude hoiling asheries extemporized, 
and crude, hiack salts manufactured which in remote 
rittsl)urgh conunanded money. 

Not tlie least of the enemies eiu'ountered hy the 
pioneers, were the predaceous wild animals. The 
hears made war on the swine, considerahle flocks of 
sJieep were often devoured hy wolves, and the good 
wives' poultry found many enemies, while the ripen- 
ing crops were the spoil of animals and hirds of all 

The ill condition of their dwellings, the scanty 
supply of warm clothing, the sometimes lack of food, 
the general iuxrdship and exposure of their mode of 
life and labor, the endlessness of that toil, with the 
constant care and anxiety of the elders of the family, 
amid the unknown perils of the climate, and diseases 
iiu-identto pioneer life, rendered the settlers liahlc to 
hccome the victims of sicrkuess, often fatal. More 
than one epidemic, moi'e malignant than any known 
to later times, visited the pioneers, and which, in the 
.absence of skilled medical assistance, was left to work 
its fatal wi'l, often aggravated by the attendance of 
ipiacks, who find sludter and victims on the skirts of 

The presence with us, or the memory, of the few 
]iioneers who have reached remarkable age, should 
luit be taken as conclusive that such life is conducive 
to great length of years. Whoever will consult the 
tombstones of the pioneers, — men, women and chil- 
reu, — will, I think, be struck hy the average short- 
ness of their lives. 

Living on the bordeis of older .States and commu- 
nities, their lives were marked by sharp vicissitudes 
and well defined and peculiar features. Often the 
victims of the common human vices and weaknesses, 
the nobler humane and social virtues were developed 
among them in a degree never found in well estab- 
lished states of human association. If there was less 
of what is now called culture, and conventional polish', 
and relinenient, there was an hundred fold more 
warmth, spontaneous charity, abounding and widely 
extended sympathy, friendliness, and good neighbor- 
hood. Men and women were then spontaneously 
cajjable of self devoted, heroic and even great actions. 

In the nature of things, pioneer life in the northern 
Ohio woods, with its habits, manners and customs, 
was necessarily transitory. The sons and daughters 
of advanced civilization, hearing all its most precious 
elements, seeds and principles with them, rushed into 
the forest, and planted them in the stimulating soil 
of the west, resolved themselves into the primitive 
constitutions of human societv. onlv to guard and 

cherish the new growths the more certainly. And 
now, in seventy years, their descendants are in advance 
of the kindred who remain in the old seats from 
which they all sprung, retaining something of the 
warmth, much of the elevation of character, many 
features of the In-oader and freer natures and lives, 
developed in their ])ioneer fathers and mothers, by 
their sojourn in the wilderness. These are clear gains 
to the race of man, above and beyond the natural 
wealth wrought out and transmitted by their hands. 
They gave us a broader, deeper and wider system of 
education, freer .and more catholic christian institu- 
tions, lived their hard, ])aticnt, toilsome lives of 
fidelity and devotion, and dropped by the wayside, 
many of them, early, unmeutioned, with their worn, 
patient, unwearied wives, and were buried in the 
shadow of the near woods; while many more favored, 
or hardy, endured to near our day, honored and 

Of the real pioneer, the fellers of the first trees, not 
one remains: 

*' Each in his narrow cell forever laid, 
The riide forefathers of the hamlet sleep."' 


" Oft' did the hai^vest to their sickles yield, 

Their fun-ows oft' the stubhoni glebe has broke, 
How jocund did they drive their teams afield, 
How bowed the woods beneath their sturdy stroke." 

Their fields 
remain to us. 

their memories, their graves alone 



On the 9th of July, 1788, Governor St. Clair, the 
newly appointed governoi', arrived at Marietta, and, 
with the help of the judges .lud secretary, proceeded 
to organize the northwestern territory. Congress had 
appointed Winthrop Sargent, secretary, and Samuel 
Holden Parsons and John Cleves Symnies as judges. 
The district embraced was a vast one, including all 
the country lying northwest of the Ohio as far west 
,as the Mississippi. The laws adopted for the govern- 
mental needs of the territory were those provided in 
the celebrated ordinance of 1V87, which has been fitly 
described as having been "a pillar of cloud by daj', 
and of fire by night," in the settlement .and govern- 
ment of the northwestern States. 

In 17S8 the county of Washington was organized 
by proclamation of the governor and judges. It in- 
cluded that part of the Western Reserve east of the 
Cuyahoga river, the old Portage path, and tlie Tusca- 
rawas river. In the year 17!I5. Wayne county was 
established, including, with other territory of vast 
extent, the remainder of the Reserve not embraced in 
Washington county. In 17il7, .Tetferson county was 
organized, and its boundaries were such as to include 
all of the Western Reserve east of the Cnyahog.a. 

Notwithstanding the inclusion of the soil of the 
Reserve, by act of the territorial government, within 
the limits of these several counties, civil government 



was not of binding force upon the inhabitants of New 
Co7inooticnt until tlio year 1800. Prior to this date, 
Connecticut and the Connecticut Land Conqjany de- 
nied to the United States the right of jurisdiction over 
the soil of the Reserve, and refused obedience to the 
laws of the territorial government. (The reasons for 
this course are given in a former chapter of this work. ) 
Thus it hapi)ened that, from 1700-9?. the tinu' the 
first settlers arrived, until May 30, 1800, the pioneers 
of the Reserve were without municipal laws. Their 
conduct was regulated and restrained, and their duties 
were prescribed, solely by their New England sense of 
justice and right. There was no law governing the 
descent and conveyance of real property, or of the 
transfer of personal goods; there wore no regulations 
for the redress of wrongs or for the protection of 
private rights. They were literally a law unto them- 
selves. Happily but few cases of misdemeanor ai'ose; 
but if a settler was guilty of theft, or if he misused 
his wife, his neighbors constituted a court of justice. 
and decided what punishment should \)0 inflicted. 
The offender's back generally furnished the only record 
of these judicial proceedings. 

On the 10th day of July, 1800, the general govern- 
meiit having ceded to Connecticut her claim to the 
soil of the Reserve, and Connecticut on her part 
having transferred to the general government all right 
of jurisdiction within the limits of New Connecticut, 
the Western Reserve was erected into a single county 
and called Trumbull, in honor of Jonathan 'J'rundmll, 
tJion governor of Connecticut. This was effected by 
proclamation of the governor and judges of the north- 
western territory. The county-seat was at Warren. 
Now had the people of the Reserve a government to 
which they gladly acknowledged allegiance. The first 
court of this large county convened in Warren on 
Monday, August 2.5. 1800. The following were Ibc 
first officers of Truird)ull county: 

•Tolm Young, Turhand Kirtland, Camden Cleveland, .lames Kingsbury, 
Eliplialet Austin, Esqs., justices nf tlie peace and quorum. 

John Leavitt, justice of tlie peace and judge of probate: Solomon 
Griswold, Martin Sinitli, John SIrutbers, Calel) lialdwin, f'alvin Austin, 
Edward Brocli way, John Kinsman, Benjamin Davison, Epliraiin Quinby, 
Ebenezer Sheldon, David Hudson, Aaron Wheeler, Amos Si)an'ord, 
Moses Park, and John Miner, justices of the peace. 

Calvin Pease, Esq., cierk; David Abbott, Esq., sherilT; .John Hart 
Ailsrate, coroner; Eliphali't Austin, treasurer; John Stark Edwards, 

The following is an extract taken fmm -liidgo Tur- 
hand Kirthiiid's diary: 

"Monday, aMi.— Went to Warren; took dinner at Adg,ate'fs and went 
toQuinby's; met the judge .and ju.stices of the connt.y. when tliey all 
took the oath of office, and proceeded to open the court of quarter 
sessions and court of common pleas, agreeably to the order of the 
governor. They proceeded to divide the county into eight townships, 
and appointed constables in each, A veiiiri: was issued to summon 
eighteen ijersons as grand jurors." eight townships were as follows: Riehlield, 
Middlefield, Vernon, Youiigstown, Warren, Hudson, 
Painesville and Cleveland. The township of Cleve- 
land, in addition to a large extent of territory east 
of the Cuyahoga, embraced all of the Reserve lying 
west of that river. Judge Boynton says: 

"On December 1, 1S0.1, the county of Oeauga was erected. It in- 
cluded within its liiuils nearly all of the jiresent counties of Asbt.abnla, 

Geauga, Lake and tJuyahoga. On the 10th da.r of February, 1807, there 
was a more general division into counties. That part of the Western 
Reserve lying west of the Cuyahoga and north of towniship No, 4, was 
attached to Geauga, to be a part thereof, until Cuyahoga should be 
organized. .\11 of the present county of Lorain, north of (iraftou, La- 
Grange, Pittsfield and Camden, belonged to, and was a part of, the 
county of Geauga, from Febniary 10, 1807, until .Tnnuary Ifi, 1810. 
At that date, 1807, Ashtabula was erected outof Trumbull and Geauga, 
to be organized whenever its population would warrant it. Also, all 
that part of Tnimbull which lay west of the fifth range of townships, 
was erected into a county by the name of Portage, and all of the 
Western Reserve, west of the Cu.yahoga, and south of township No. :>, 
was annexed to, and declared to be a part of Portage. So that all of the 
present comity of Lorain, south of Eaton, Carlisle, Russia and Henrietta 
belonged to, and was a part of. Portage, and remained a part of it until 
January 'ii, 1811. On the lOth day of February, ]8()7, the county of 
Cuyahoga was carved out of Geauga, to be organized whenever its pop- 
ulation should be sufficient to require it. On the 16th of .lanuary, 1810. 
the population having become sufficient, the connt.y was declared organ- 
ized. On Febru.ary S, 18il!t, Htrron was erected into a county covering 
the Fire Lands, but to remain attached to Geauga and Poitage, for the 
time being, for purposes of government. 

"On .January 22, 1811, the bomidary line of Huron was extended east, 
on the line now dividing Camden and Henrietta, Pittsfleld and Russia, 
Carlisle ami I^aGrange, to the southwest corner of Eat(»n; atid from 
there, north on the line dividing Carlisle and Eaton, and Elyria and 
Ridgeville, to the northwest corner of Ridgeville; thence west to Black 
river, and down the same to the lake. On the day that these lines were 
so altered and extended, the legislature e.Ktended the south line of Cuy- 
ahoga county, from the southwest corner of Strongsville, west to the 
southwest corner of Eaton; thence north, between Eaton and Carlisle, 
to the northwest corner of Eaton ; and from that point, west between 
Elyria .and C'arlisle, to tiie east branch of Black river, and down the 
same to the lake. Here was a contlict in boundaries. The boundary of 
Huron county included all of El,vria. extending east to Ridgeville; and 
the boundary of Cu,vahoga included within its limits that part of Elyria 
lying east of the east branch of the river. The river was the dividing 
line between the two cotinties, in the one act; and the line between 
Elyiia and Ridgeville was the dividing line in the other. This conflict 
was removed at the next session of the legislature, by adopting the 
township line, instead of the river, ,as the boundarj" line between the two 
counties, at this point. This adjustntent of boundaries gave to Huron 
county the townships now kttowu as Elyria, Carlisle. Russia, Henrietta, 
Brownbelin. Amherst, and all of Black River, and Sheffield l.ying west 
of the river; and to Ou.yahoga couut.v, Eaton, Columbia, Ridgeville, 
Avon, and all of the townships of Black River and SbelTleld tying east of 
the river. At that date, 181 1. the territory now comprising the coimt.v 
of Lorain, belonged to the counties of Huron, C'uyahoga, ami Portage. 

"Thecotmty of Huron, altbongh established in 180!), and extended east 
of Black River in 1811, was annexed to Cuyahoga in 1810, for judicial 
and other purposes, and renuiined so annexed until January, 1815, when 
it was organized, and assumed control of its own affairs, 

"On tile IStli day of February, 1812, Medin.a was formed, and comjirised 
all of the territor.y between the eleventh range of townships and Huron 
county, and south of townships No. ^. It therefore included all of the 
present county of Lorain, soutli of Eaton, Carlisle, Russia and Henri- 
etta. On the 14tli y\&y of .Januar.y, 1818, that county was organized, and 
its local government put into operation, it remaining in the interim, 
from the date of its formation to the date of its organization, attached 
to the county of Portage, for countj' purposes. On the 2r)th of Decem- 
ber, 1822, Lorain county was established. It took from the county of 
Huron the territory embraced in the townships of Brownbelin, Henri- 
etta, Amherst, Russia, Elyria, and C'arlisle; and those parts of the 
townships of Black River .and .Sheffield dhat lie on the west of Black 
River, and from the county of Cu.vahciga the townships of Tro.v, (now 
Avon), Ridgeville, the west half of Olmsted, (then called Lenox), Eaton, 
Columbia, and those jiarts of Black River and Sheffield lying east of tin- 
river; and from the county of Medina, C)amden, Brigliton, Pittsfleld. 
LaGrange. and Wellington. The count.y. as originally formed, embraced 
seventeen and one-half townships, which, until the county was oi-gau- 
ized, were to rein.ain attached to the counties of Medina, Hui-ou, and 
Cuyahoga, as formerl.y. It was, however, organized imiependentl.v, 
and went into oper.atiou on the 21st day of January, 1821, In the 
organization of the couiitv, it waspr<tvided th.attbe first officers should 
be elected in .\]iril, 1821; and at that election, that part of Lenox 
was brought into Lorain, should vote at Ridgeville, and that part nf 
Brighton, lying prcviousl.v in Medina, should vote io the adjoiniuL; 
township of Wellington. 

"On .January 20, 1827, the boundary lines were changed. The towniships 
of Grafton, Penfield, Spencer, Homer, Huntington, Sullivan, Roi-licsfer, 
and Tro.v— some of them organized and some not — were detached from 
Medina, and annexed to, and became a part of. Lorain; and the half of 
Lenox, belonging to Lorain, was set otT to Cu.vahog.a, to be a ]iart of 
Middlebury, until otherwise provided. Upon the formation of Summit, 
in 1840, the townships of Spencer and Homer w*ere reattached to Medina: 
and upon the formation of Ashland county, in Febniary, 1840, Sullivan 
niid Tro.v were detached fi^m Lor.ain. .and made a part of count.V- 



Prior to this, and on the 39th of January, 1837, an act was passed, ftsiug 
the uortheni boundary of the county. The mode of forming and organ- 
izing thf cuuiities had been such as tu leave unsettled the northern limit 
of the counties of Ashtabula, Geauga, Cuyahoga and Lorain. And in 
matters inv<ilving tlie exercise of criminal jurisdiction of offences com- 
mjtffd on the lake, in the vicinity of tlie store, the question was of too 
much practical importance to be left iji doubt. The treaty between the 
United States and Great Britain fixed tlie line running through the mid- 
dle of the lakes, as the dividing Hne between the two countries. Connec- 
ticut had reserved the land between the. 41- north latitude, and 42° and 2'. 
The course and shai)e of Lake P^rie were such that the parallel of 43'^ 
and 2' would cross the middle line of the lake; and adjoining Ashtabula, 
that degree of latitude would be south of, and adjoining Lorain, north 
of the boundary line between Canada aud the United States. Tliis car- 
ried the northern boundary of Lorain to the miiUIIe of Lake Erie, with- 
out regard to tlie nortliern limit of the Western Reserve." 



On the 2-1-tli iliiy of M;iy following the organization 
of the county, the following record was made in the 
Court Journal on page one of volume one: 

"Be it remembered, that, on the :i4th day of May, A. 0. 18^, at Efyria, 
in the county of Lorain, in pursuance of a statute law of the State of 
Ohio, passed on the 10th day of February in the year aforesaid, entitled 
an 'Act regulating the time of Iiolding Judicial Court,' the first Court 
of Common Pleas, in ant! for said county of Lorain, was opened ill due 
form by the Sheriff thereof, .Tosiah Harris : holding said Court, George 
Tod, President of the Coui-t of Common Pleas for the third circuit in 
said State, in which circuit is the said county of Lorain, and his asso- 
ciates, Moses Eldred, Henry Brown and Fredei'ick Handin. before which 
Court the following proceedings were bad, to wit: Wtiolsey Welles, an 
Attorney of Kecord in the Court, was appointed the attorney to prose- 
cute the pleas of the State for this county during the pleasure of the 

The first official act of this court was the apjioint- 
iiient of administrators ui)on the estate of Almond 
Holcomb, deceased. Lucinda Holcouib, widow of the 
deceased, and Edward Durand, were appointed. 

Before the court j)roceeded to the general business 
of tlie session Woolsey Welles was appointed clerk, 
during the pleasure of tlie court. The first snit was 
for the recovery of fourteen hundred and twenty- 
seven dollars and twenty-seven cents. Simon Nichols, 
lilaintilf, and Thomas G. Bronsou, defendant. Judg- 
ment was rendered for tlie plaiutilf. The second day 
of the session Ebenczer Whiton was appointed clerk 
of the court of common pleas, and Woolsey Welles 
was discharged from further attendance as clerk. 

The following gentlemen composed the first 


who were duly sworn, charged by the court, and sent 

Benjamin Brown, Eliphalet Redington, Hcman Ely, Phineas Johnson, 
Mabel Osburn. Edward Durand, Harry Redington, Gardner Howe, 
Erastus Hamlin, Simon Nichols, Silas Willniot, Thomas G. Bronson, 
James J. Sexton, Abraham Moon and Thomas T. Phelps; Heman 
Ely, foreman. 

The grand jury returned into court, aud having 
no business before it, was discharged from further 

Edward Durand was appointed coimty surveyor. 

At the September term, 18M, Lewis Ely, Jr., was appointed deputy 

September term, 1820, Ebenezer Whiton was appointed clerk of the court 

of common pleas for the period of seven years, "if no lomj he shall 

behave MJeif." 

At the March term, 1830, Hon. Reuben Wood took his seat as presiding 
judge, with the same associates as before given. Heman Ely became 
associate judge the fall of 18.30. April, 1831, Josiah Harris and E. 
W. Hubbard, associate judges. Fall of IHTJ, Hon. Matthew Burclmrd 
was presiding judge. Spring of 1834, Hon. Ezra Dean was presiding 
judge; Heman Ely, Josiah Harris and Franklin Wells associate 
judges. Spring of 183.j, Ozias Long was associate judge. Daniel J. 
Johns was associate judge in 1837, and from this time until the 
spring of is;i'.) the record is missing. In 1840, Hon. John W. Willey 
became iiresiduig judge. Judge Willey died in office July 9, IKll, 
and the Hon. Reuben Hitchcock was appointed to fill the vacancy 
until the next spring term, when we find, January 23, 1H42, Hon. 
Benjamin Bissell presiding judge, with Franklin Wells, Daniel J. 
Johns and Josejib L. Whiton associates. In the May term, 1&45, 
Ebjah De Witt and Daniel T. Baldwin became associate judges. In 
the April term, 1848, Benjamin C. Perkius was an associate judge. 
In the May t«rui, 181tt, Hon. Philemon Bliss was presiding judge, and 
William Day, associate. 

In 1852, upon the adoption of the new Constitution, 
the office of associate judge was abolished, and that 
of .Judge made elective. The following is a complete 
list of the gentlemen who have presided as judge, 
from the above year until the j)resent, with dates of 
their election: 

1852, Hon. Samuel Humphrey ville; 1857, Hon. James B. Carpenter; 18.58, 
Hon. Thomas Bolton; 1859, Hon. WiUiam H. Canfleld ; 1802, Rons. 
John S. Green and Stevens<.in Burke. The last named resigned in 
l.St}9, and Hon. Washington W. Boy n ton was appointed to fill vacancy, 
who served, it appears by the journal, until 1877, when John C. Hale, 
the pi'esent incumbent, was elected, and Mr. Boynton was elevated 
to the Ohio supreme bench. 


The following residents of Lorain have occupied 
seats in the lower house of Congress: 

1843 to 1845— Edward S. Hamlin. 
1851 to 1853— Norton S. Towushend. 
1857 to 1859— Philemon Bliss. 
1871 to 1879— James Monroe. 

Lorain has been represented at Columbus by the 


1825 to 1830— Reuben Wood. 

18.30 to 1833— Joseph W. Willey. 

18S3 to 1&35— Frederick Whittlesey. 

is:35 to 18;3(;-John W. Allen. 

1.830 to 18:M— James Moore. 

18:38 to 1840^Heman Birch. 

1810 to 1842— James S. Carpenter. 

1842 to 1844-Josiah Harris. 

1844 to 184i;— John Codding. 

1841) to 1848- Nathan P. Johnson. 

1848 to 18.50— Harrison G. Blake. 

1850 to 1852— Aaron Pardee. 

1852 to 1850— Norton S. Townsliend. 

1850 to 1800- Herman Canfleld. 

1800 to 1864— James Monroe. 

1804 to 1860— Samuel Humphreyville. 

l.SOO to 1870— L. D. Griswold. 

1870 to 1874— James A. Bell. 

1S74 to 1878— Andrew M. Burns. 


1825 to 1827— Leonard Case. 

1828 to 1.829- Josiah Harris. 

1829 to 18:30- William Eyles. 
18:)0 to 1831— Josiah Harris. 
1831 to 1832— William Eyles. 

18:32 to 1833— Frederick Whittlesey. 

18:33 to 18:J4— Duthan Northrup. 

m34 to 1835 -Daniel T. Baldwin. 

18:B to 1839-EbBr W. Hubbard. 

18:39 to 1840— William Andrews. 

1840 to 1842— Albert A. Bliss. 1841— Lorenzo Warner. 

1842 to 1843— Richard Warner. 

184.3 to 1844— Sylvanus Parmely. 

1844 to 1840- Nathan P. Johnson. 

1840 to 1*18— Elah Park. 



I&i8 to 1W9— Norton S. Townshend. 
iSiO to ISV)— Joseph L, Whiton. 

1850 to IKil— Hiram Thompson. 

1851 to lH5'i— Daniel B. Kinney. 

1852 to 1854— Aaron Pardee. 
1854 to 1850— Walter F. llerrick. 
185G to I8G0— .James Monroe. 

1800 to 18(i:i— Walter F. Herriek and .John M. Vinceni. 

18fi3 to 18(i(J— Sidney S. Warner. 

1800 to 1868— W. W. Boynton. 

1808 to 1872— Joseph H. Dickson. ISTO— J Strong. 

1872 to 1874— Heman Ely. 

1874 to 1876— .Tohn H. Fa.\ou. 

187G to 1878— Lucius Ilerriuk. 


This office was created by the new constitution, and agreeably to its 
provisions an election was held in October, 1851, at which time Phile- 
mon Bliss was cliosen to (ill it for Lorain County. He was commis- 
sioned by Governor Reuben Wood January 17, 1852, and entered 
upon the dutie-^of the office March .'J, 18.52. His lirst official act bears 
date March 5, 18>2,and was the granting of a license to the Reverend 
William O'Conner, a priest (»f the Catholic faith, authorizing him 
to solemnize marriage contracts. Judge Bliss was succeeded by 
William F. Loekwood, whose commission was signed by Governor 
William Medill, and bears date November 11. 1851. Judge Loekwood 
resigned, aui.1 Lionel A. Sheldon was appointed. His commission. 
which was signed by Governor Salmon P. Chase, bears date Novem- 
ber 20, 18.5(>. Judge Sheldon was succeeded by Charles H. Doolittle, 
who was commissioned October 26, 1857. His commission was also 
signed by Governor Chase. Judge Doolittle was followed by John 
W. Steele, who was commissioned December 12, 18ti7, his commission 
being signed by Jacob D. Cox, as governor. Judge Steele resigned, 
and the present incumbent, Laertes B. Smith, succeeded him. 
Judge Smith was commissioned by/Governor Rutherford B. Hayes, 
May 26, 1871, and assumed the duties of the office June first of that 


As previously mentioned, Ebenezer L. Whiton was really the first gen- 
tleman who filled the position of clerk of the court of common 
pleas for Lorain county. He served until 18:w, when E. H. Leonard 
succeeded him, and continued to occupy the office until 18-14, when 
George H. Benham was elected to the position. Mr. Benham was 
succeeded in 1817 by Myron R. Keith, who, in 1852, was followed by 
Laudon Rood. In 1858 Roswell G. Horr assumed the duties of the 
office, and continuing until isiit, when WUliam A. Briggs was elected 
and the fact of his having held the office continuously until the fall 
of 1S7S is conclusive evidence of his fitness for the place. To him 
and also to his worthy companion who has ably assisted in the 
duties of the office, we wish to express our thanks for material aid 
in the preparation of the official roster. Henry J. Lewis is the clerk 
elect and will succeed Dr. Briggs. 


We liave seeu that Woolsey Welles was appointed to this position in 
182^1. He served two years and re-signed. Frederick Whittlesey 
succeeded him. In 18:J3, J. W. Willey was appointed. In IS^iJi, 
Frederick Whittlesey, came in; served two years; was followed in 
in 1835 by E. S. Hamlin; and he, in 1H36, by Elijah Parker, for one 
year. He was succeeded by Joel Tiffany; and his successors are 
as follows: IStO, E. H. Leonard; 1841, Joe! Tiffany; 1.^2, E. S. 
Hamlin; 1814, Horace A. Teuny; 18-15, Joel Tiffany; 1846, William 
F. Loekwood; 1850, John M. Vincent; 1854, Joseph H. Dickson; 
1856, John M. Vincent; 1858, (ieorge Ohnsted, who resigned; and 
W. W. Boynton was appointed to fill vacancy. Mr. Boynton was 
elfictcd the fall of IS.50. He was succeeded by John C. Hale, in 
185:J. Charles W. Johnston was elected in ISfl'.); and his successor, 
who was elected in IHTa, is George C. Metcalf, the present incum- 
bent, a man every way capable and worthy. 


ContemiM»raneous with the birth of the county of Lorain, Sherman 
Minott assumed the dnl,ies and responsdiilities of auditor. He 
retained the position until Henry C. Minott was appointed, and 
afterward elected, lie was succeeded in I8"i5 by Edward Duraud. 
lu 18:i6, Luther D. Griswold was elected; and in 18'J8, Edward Durand 
again became the incumbent, ami served until 1842, when we find 
John Sherman occupying the office. The following were his sue 
cessors: In 1844, Lamlon Rood; in 1851, Geoi^e Clifton; in 1855, 
William H. Root; in 1861, Richard Day; in 1863, Mozart Gallup; in 
186!», E. G. Johnson; and in 1877, Orville Root, who still retains the 
office. ' 


Upon the permanent oi^anization of the county, E. West was appointed 
its treasurer, and held the office one year. Following are the names 
of the gentlemen who have occupied this jiosition, with date of elec- 
tion or appointment: 182.5, Heman Ely; 1827. F. W. Wliittlesey; 1830, 
Elihu Cooley; 18:J.5, Charles Chaney; 1840, Elijah DeWitt; IH-lt. Henry 
M. Warner; 184.5. Henry B. Kelsey; 184H, S. D. Hinman; 1K5;J. C. S. 
(roodwin (deceased in the spring of 1856 and N. B. Gates was ap- 
pointed to ffil vacancy until the fall election, when John H. Boynton 
was elected); IMiO. William E. Kellcgg; 1861, M. F. Hamlin; IHG8. 
John H. Boynton; 1872, Isaac M. Johnson, and, in 1876, the present 
incumbent, William A. Braman. 


Ebenezer Whiton was first recorder of Lorain county, and his first offi- 
cial act was to record a deed from Benjamin Pritchard to Anna 
Merrills, conveying a parcel of land containing thirty and three- 
fourths acres, situated in township number six, range eighteen, in 
the county of Huron, and being part of lot number thii*ty-oue. This 
instrument was acknowledged on May 10, lS2-i. before Isaac Mdls, 
J. P.; was witnesseil by I. Mdls and Mary Mdls, and endorsed "Re- 
ceived April 13, 1S21, and recorded May 11, 1S2I, <m page one, 
book 'A,' Lorain county record of deeds." Mr. Whiton deceased in 
1834. and Eliphalet H. Leonard was appointed to fill vacancy; 18.37, 
E. O. Foot; 1840, H. B. Kelsey; l>ai, Elah Park; 1843, Cyrus E. Bas- 
sett; 1849, John B. Northrop; 1852, Hem-y S. Rockwood; 1861, Henry 
B. West; 1H64, William H. Tucker, and, in 1S73, the present incum 
bent, John Bhuiehard, was elected. Mr. Blanchard was one of the 
noble army who went out to do battle for the fiag, and lost his right 
forearm in its support on the bloodv field of Stone river, pecember 
26, 1862. 


The first record we are able to proc re is in the year 1827. James 
J. Sexton then filled the office. The following is a complete list: 
1830, Edwin Byington; 1S;W, William N. Race; 183-1, Justin Williams; 
18:J6, Orson J. Humphrey; 18^58, Otis Briggs; l84:i, IJiinsoni Gibbs; 
1844, Philip L. Goss; 1846, Hezekiah Brooks; 181J), John S. Stranahan; 
1852, William S. Hopkins; 18.5:3, llerrick Parker; 1857, Clark Eldred; 
1863. Nahum B. Gates; 1865, Otis Briggs; 1870, Jolm H. Faxou; 1872, 
Hiram Patterson, who is the present incunxbent. 


IS24, Edward Durand; 18;J5, J. E. Truman; ia*18, John Sherman; \f>i2, 
John H. Faxon; 1843, C. G. Cole; 1846, Joseph Swift, Jr.; 1848, 
Schuyler Putnam; 1855, John H. Faxon; 1856, Joseph Swift, Jr.; 
1877, L. F. Ward, present incumbent. 


The name of Josiali Hai'ris, who was first sheritl", occurs the last time 
(►ctober 10, I8:i3. William N. Race, coroner, acted as shei-ifl' until 
November, 18:i4, when the name of E. Griffith ajipears as sheriff. 
Mr. Griffith was succeeded by Edwin Byingtou in 18;i6. Natum H. 
Gates was sheriff in 18'i8; E. Byington iu 1812; Jolm H. Faxou in 
1844; AVilllam Patterson in 1848; John H. Boynton in 1S50; Ashbei 
Culver in 1854; S. W. Lincoln iu ISoti; H. E. Burr in 1H5'.): Mil.* Harris 
in 1863; resigned, and W. W. Dyer, coroner, filled the vacaucy imtil 
1865, when Mark Hitchcock was elected. He was succeeded by X. 
Peck, in 1H61>; and he by R. E. Braman, in 1870; and he again by 
Charles Stone, in 1877, who is the present incumbent. H. E. Corning, 
sherilT elect, succeeds Mr. Stone January 1, 1870. 


The first meeting of the commissioners of Lorain county was held at 
Elyria, on the 24th day of May, 1824. Present: John S. Reid, Asha- 
bel (Jsboi'ue, and Benjamin Bacon. Their first official act was the 
appointment of. Edmund West as county treasurer, who gave bond 
in the sum of three thousand dollars, for the faithful discharge of 
his duties. At the following June session, we find the record of the 
estalilishment of a road, as follows: "Beginning in the highway, 
a little easterly of the dwelling house of Walter Crocker, in Black 
River township, thence running in the !UOst convenient route near 
the dwellings of Fi-ederiek and Daniel Onstine, thence across Beaver 
creek, near the house of Mr. Rice, thence to intersect the North 
Ridge road, so called, a little eastwardly of the dwelling house of 
Mr. Ormsby." 1S27, Judson Wadsworth succeeded <.»sborne, as 
commissionei-. The entire succession of incumbents to this office is 
given in the following list: 18:iO, Bacon, Wadsworth, and Milton 
Garfield; 1831, Wadsworth , Garfield, and Samuel Crocker; "1832, 
Wadsworth, Crocker, and George Bacon, Jr. ; 18:54, Crocker, Bacon, 
and John Laborie; 18:S5, Bacon, Laborie and Jonathan Rawson; 1836, 
Laborie, Rawson and Conrad Reid ; 1837, Rawson, Reid and Leonard 



H. Loveland; 1838, Reid, Loveland, and Ashley S. Root; 1830, Love- 
land, George Sililey, and Wdliani Day; IHIO, Sibley, Day, and Reliisa 
Close; 1^*41, Day, Close, and Sinioti Nichols; ISK, Close, Nichols, and 
James M. Clark; 1K44, Clark, C. Onnsliy, and Uriah Thompson; 
IfUS, Clark, Thompson, and Eliphalet Reilinjiton; ISIIl, Thiimpsnn, 
Redington, and .lohii Coiuint; ISIT. Ucdingtim, Conant, and Hany 
Ten-ell; IfMS, Conant.. Terrell, and Ueorge Bacon; IHW, Tei-rell, 
Bacon, anil Samuel Knapp; ls.")0, Baccin, Knapp and (t. J. Humphrey; 
1S.)1, Kniipp, Humphrey, and ,Iohn B. Rohertson; IKfi, Humphrey, 
M. B. Beldeu, and Asa Hamilton; IMVi, Belden Hamilton and dtis 
Briggs; l>i5l, HamiltoD, Briggs, ami ,). H. Dudley; 183,5, Briggs, 
Dudley and C. O. Cole; l.'ffili, Briggs, Cole, and J. H. Dudley; IUST, 
Briggs. Cole, and Darwin D.ver; 18.")S, Briggs, Dyer, and A. Luniui; 
18.5!), Dyer, Luruui, \Vi liam rattersou; IStiO, Dyer, Patterson, .and 
Charles S. Aiken; IHOl, Dyer, Patterson, and Tabor Wood; IMIi'-, 
Dyer, Wiiud, and Thomas CImrehward; 18li8, Churidinard, 
and Darwin Dyer; 18(il, Wood, Dyer, and (Jeorjre Clifton; IHi}."., Wootl, 
Clifton, and Reuben Eddy; 18li(i, same; IsiiT, Clifton, Eddy, and B. S. 
Corning; istis. Eddy, Corning, and William A. Braman; ISOO, Corn- 
ing, Laurel Beebe, and L. W. Bates; 1R"0, same; 1871, Corning, 
Bates, and Lucius Herrick; 1873. .same; 18;;^, Corning, Herrick, and 
James Lees; 1874, Corning, Herrick, and William H. Root; 187'5, 
Corning. Herrick, and Charles S. Mills; 1.87IJ, Herrick, Mills, and S. 
B. Dudley; 1877, Mills, Dudley .and A. D. Perkins. 


Oil Miircli 17, ISiiti, Tabor Wotid, (ic'i)rj;e Clifton 
:iiul Reuben Kddy, county eoniiiii.ssioiiL'r.s, purchased 
of Jose[)h Swift, Jr., one hundred and sixty-one acres 
of land in (_!;irlisk'. township, for an iiilirniary farm, 
|i:iyiiig therefor ten thoiis;inil live liiindreil dollars. 
On .laiuniry 8, 1807, the contract for the erection of 
a suitable building for the use of the poor of Ijorain 
county, was awardeil to Joiin Childs, of Elyria. and 
Samuel C. Brooks, of Cleveliinil, for the sum of thirty- 
seven thou.saiid Ove iiundred dollars, and on Septein- 
I)er It), 1S6S, the building was completed and accepted 
liy the commissioners. The 'contractors, however, 
having done e.xtra work, were paid thirty eight thous- 
;ind five Iiundred dollars. The main building is one 
hundred and twenty-three by forty-six feet, three 
stories in height. In the center and rear of the main 
building is a wing thirty-two by seventy-tive feet and 
two stories high, — the whole containing one hundred 
and twenty rooms. 


The commissioners appointed in 1808, Isaac S. Metcalf, Samuel Plumb, 
autl Lucius Herrick, directors; 18(il), Metcalf. Herrick, and Joseph 
Swift, Jr., were elected; 187(1, Metc;df, Swift, and J. H. Huiibert 
1H71, same; l.S7ti, satne; 187^1, Swift resigned and John Cliamberlain 
was elected to fill the vacancy— the others were Metcalf and Joseph 
B. Clark; 1874, sam-; 187.'), Clark, S. D. Bacon and Isaac S. Straw. 
These geutlemeQ still occupy the position. 


September 11, 1808, Tabor Vincent was elected, and he confined as such 
until March, 187U, when he died, and was succeeded by the nresen 
superintendent, Hiram Patterson, 



At the organization of the county, in 18:i-l, there 
was scarcely what could be called a bar. 

Tiie history of the bar of Lrirain county begins 
proi)erly with the organization of the county, in the 
year 1834. It is worthy of mention, however, that 

* By p. H. Boynton. 

there had resided in the county, prior to that time, 
a lawyer who suljse((uently rose to great eininence in 
the profession in Ohio. We refer to KiiENiozEii IjANE, 
wild came to Klyria nol long after tiie original settle- 
menl, in 1817, and while that pitrt of Ihe present 
Lorain c<ninty, which lies west of llu' East IJrancli of 
]>lack river constituted ;i p;irt of Huron eounty. He 
was elected iiroseculing attorney of Huron eounty in 
the sj)ring of ISl'.t, but continued to reside in Elyria 
until October 10, of the same year, when he removed 
to Norwalk for the more convenient discharge of his 
oilicial duties. He rose rapidly in iiis profession; and 
in 1831 occupied a seat upon the supreme bench, 
which he continued U> hold until 1845. His decisions 
are reported in volumes five to thirteen, inclusive, of 
the Ohio reports. 

At the organization of the court of common jileas 
of Lorain county, May 24, 18-.J4, four gentlemen 
comiteted for the appointment of prosecuting attor- 
ney from the court. These were Woolsey Wells, 
Elijah Parker, Ebenezer An'dhews and Reuben 
MrssEY. Mr. Welles was the successful candidate. 
" Not," says Mr. Welles, in a recent letter, " because 
I was the best lawyer, but because I had more influ- 
ential friends to recommend me to the court."' 

]\Ir. Andrews must have left the county about tliat 
time, as there is nothing in the records of the court 
to show that he was practising here at any subse(pieut 
time. His name a])pears in only a single case, and 
th;it in 183!l. 

The other three gentlemen above named, with 
Frederick Whittlesey, who came shortly afterwards, 
seem to have constituted the resident bar of this 
county until about ISol. 

Mr. Parker, the eldest of these, was born .lune 22, 
177'.l. He came to Ohio from N'erinont at a very early 
day. The date of his arrival we have been unable to 
a: certain; but he was in Elyria as early as 1823. He 
remained in Elyria until his death, A[iril 3, 1859. 
His health in later years was poor, and he would 
seem, from the records, not to have practiced any 
after about 1854. He held the ollice of justice of the 
peace several times, and that of prosecuting attorney 
of the county during the years 1830 and 1837. 

Reuben Mussey, the father of Henry E. Musscy, 
who is still a resident of Elyria, was born in Hover, 
N. II., October 14, 1785. He was admitted to prac- 
tice as an attorney-at-law at Albany, N. Y., .January 
17, 1818, and as a counsellor January 13, 1831. Prior 
to his removal to Ohio he resided at Sandy Hill, 
Washington county, N. Y., where he was a partner 
with Judge Skinner in the practice of the law. Dur- 
ing this period Silas Wright was a student in their 
otliee. Mr.' Mussey settled at Elyria in the spring of 
1835, having previously located temporarily in Elyria, 
Norwalk and Cleveland, and continued to reside there 
(Elyria) until the fall of 1837, devoting himself dur- 
ing the time exclusively to the practice of his profes- 
sion, and to the duties of the office of justice of the 
peace, which ho held two or three terms within that 



period. During his residence in Elyria, Mr. Mussey 
dill a iarur business, coniparativoly, tliongli, of course 
llie whole Inisiiiess was small compared with that of 
hiter years. I le was a well-ediu-ated, thorough lawyer, 
anil a gmial, kind-hearled man. On leaving Klyria, 
in llic aiituMHi of IS.'JT, he wt'ut to Logansjiort, In- 
diana, where he remained about a year and a half, 
when he removed to Kishwaukee, HI., where he was 
joined liy his family, which, up Id that time, had con- 
tinued to ri'side in Elyria. His death occurred at 
Kishwaukee, Oetolii'r 14, 1S43. 

WoohSEV \Vei>, the first prosecuting attorney of 
Loi'ain counlv, was horn in Laneshoro, Berkshire 
eounly, !\[ass.. May 20, 18t)'>. He received an aca- 
demic education at Lewisville, Ijewis county, N. Y., 
and IJtica, Onciila county, N. V., and removed to 
Cleveland, Ohio, in Septemlier, 181'.). Ho immedi- 
ately connncnccd reading law in the othce of Kelly anil 
Cowles, in that city, and was ailmitted to the l)ar in 
182;$. In the fall of the same year he removed to 
Elvria and entered u|H)n the practice of his profession. 
He remained in Elyria about two years (receiving, as 
he says, sixty dollars per year for prosecuting the 
j)leas of the State), when he reniovi'd to Akron, where 
he ha<l been appointed collector of canal tolls. 'J'liis 
oHlce he held about a. year, and then resigned it he- 
cause he was i'ei|uired to attend to its duties on the 
Sabbath. He was also ap])ointed postmaster at Akron 
liy l'resi<lcnt John (),. Adains, and held that jiosition 
until the second term (jf President Jackson, in the 
lald'rpart of which he resigned. He also hekl the 
otlice of justice of the peace in Akron about four and 
a half years and res'gned it in 1834, at which time he 
commenced traveling over the State as agent of the 
Ohio State 'remperance Society, of which (Jovernor 
lau-as was [)rcsident. He continued this al>out a 
year, when he returned to Elyria and re-entered the 
practice of the law in partnership with Heman Birch, 
Esi|. In the fall of 1837 he remoxed to Cleveland, 
where he spent three years in the practice, at the end 
of whiidi he returned to Elyria and again opened a 
law otlice. He remained at Klyria this time some 
eight- or ten years. During this time he took part as 
an anti-slavery man in the agitations of the (piestion 
of slavery; but his success at the practice of law was 
meager, partly, no doid)t, on account of the pivjudice 
excited against him by his anti-slavery sentiments. 
At the end of this time, through the agency of Dr. 
N. S. 'rownshend. whom the Ereesoilers had suc- 
cee<lc<l in electing to the legislature, he received the 
appointment of agent of the State for the sale of 
Western Reserve school lands, and removed to Defi- 
auce, where he cout inui'd to reside about nine years, 
after which he was appointed to an Iowa land agency 
and removed to Fort Dodge, in that State, where ho 
still resides at the ripe age of seventy-seven years. 

Fkedkriok Whittlesey was born at Southington, 
Conn., Docendjer 33, 1801. From the court records, 
he would seem to have come to Elyria about 1837, 
and continued to reside there, holding a ])rominent 

position at the bar until 1835. He held the otHce of 
prosecuting attorney several years during that time, 
and twice represented Lorain county in the Legisla- 
ture. Ho continued to reside in Cleveland until his 
death, which <jceui-red November 13, 18.54. During 
his residence there, he held the otlice of clerk of the 
courts of Cuyahoga county, and afterward of associate 
judge of the court of common pleas. He also rejire- 
sented Cuyahoga county in the State senate. Mr. 
Whittlesey was a well-educated, thorough lawyer, and 
always aci|uitted himself credit-ably both at the bar 
and on the bench. He gave great satisfaction to the 
bar of Cuyahoga county while acting as associate 
judge, an office not generaf ly filled by lawyers; and his 
opinions were received with <[uite as much respect as 
those of the presiding jmlge. While in Elyria, Mr. 
Whittlesey, f(u- a short time, added to his professiomd 
labors those of an editor, having charge of the Lorniii, 
(hc.iilc, the first uowsi)aper puljlished in Lorain 
county, which was established in 1831). Mr. Whitle- 
sey's exani|ilo in this respect was followed by <|uite a 
large nundjcr of his successors in the practice of the 
law at Elyria. Of their career as journalists, liowever, 
very little or nothing will be said in this connection, 
but the reader is referred to the chapter upon the 
press of the county, where it will he set out in full. 

These were the jtioneers of the Lorain bar, men of 
learning, ability and integrity; ;ind in proportion to 
the amount of business to be done, the bar would 
seeii! to have been as large then as in the past ten 
years. The court of common pleas then, and for 
many years after, held only two sessions a year of a- 
a week each, and the sui)reino court only one session 
of a single day. The first journal of the court of 
common pleas, which extends to the spring of 1833, 
and iueludes all the probate business, cijiitains about 
the same amount of matter as the present journal of 
the same court for a single year, and the probate busi- 
ness is now all removed to the probate court. Over 
against this, however, is to be set the undoubted fact, 
that a greater proportion of the litigation was tlien 
disposed of finally before justices of the peace. Small 
as the business was, however, the Lorain bar by no 
means had the monopoly of it. Lawyers from adja- 
cent, and even from remote counties, were at Elyria 
attending court, and did no inconsiderable part of the 
business. Promindt among these were: 

Rei'isen Wood, (afterwards common pleas and 
sui)reme judge,) and John W. Willey, of Cleveland, 
afterward presiding judge of the court of common 
pleas. Samuel Cowles, of the same city, also did a- 
considerable practice. Whittlesey & Newton, both 
eminent lawyers, of Warren, TrumliuU county, and 
Thomas D. Weub, of the same place, also ap[iear 
freipieutly n\wa the records of the courts of Lorain 
during its early years. During this period, also, there 
commenced a practice which continued consecutively 
for about twenty years, and at intervals ever since. 
We refer to that of 

S. J. Andrews, of Cleveland. He was never a 



resideut of Lorain county, and hence no extended 
notice of liim will be attempted hero, but a history of 
the bar of Lorain which omitted to mention him 
wiHild 1)0 incomjilete. Admitted to tlio l)ar in Clcve- 
land in 1828, he immediately commenced attending 
the courts at Elyria, and rapidly acquired a practice. 
A thorough and accomplished lawyer, a fiery and 
fl(i(picnt advocate, quick and incisive at re|)artec, full 
ol" the spirit of gcnnineand licalthy mirthfuluess, and 
witiial a perfect gentleman, Mr. Andrews will long 
continue a ])rominont figure in the memory of the 
earliei' inlialiitaiit of Lorain county. He was for a 
slioi't time judge of the old sujicrior court of Cleve- 
land, and also a memher from tiiat county of tiieOhio 
constitutional conventions of 1850 and 187:5. lie still 
resides in Cleveland, at tiie ripe age of seventy-seven 
years, in full possession of his mental fa(niltics, and 
remarkably well preserved physically, in the regular 
jiractice of his profession — the honored Nestor of tfie 
Cuyahoga bar. 

The period from 18:11 to 184.'") with large increase of 
|iopiilation and business in the county witnessed the 
advent of no fewer than twenty new lawyers to Elyria, 
the county seat. Prominent among these were Ed- 
ward S. Hamlin, Horace D. Clark, Joel Tiffany, 
Albert A. Bliss, Phili'm<ui Bliss, .Tndson I). Benedict, 
Bobert McEachron and Williain K. Lockwood. 

The earliest of these to begin jiractice at Elyria was 
Enw.vui) S. Hamlix who held a prominent position 
at the bar and had a large practice for a period of 
about eighteen ^'cars. He commenced, as the records 
indicate, about 1X31, and soon after entered into 
|iMi'tncrsbip witii Frederick Whittlesey, which ])artner- 
sliip continued until Mr. Whittlesey left Elyria in 18;!.'). 
In 18;):)-4-."), he held the otiico of prosecuting attor- 
ney of Lorairi county. In 1837 he removed to Cleve- 
l;ind. but returned in a little over a year. In 1838 or 
1S39. he formed a partnership with Albert A. Bliss, 
(of whom more hereafter) which arrangement con- 
tinued until 1843, when Mr. Hamlin was elected to 
Congress for an unexpired term. About the time 
of its dissolution William F. Loe^kwood became his 
jiartner, and seems to have continued so until Mr. 
Hamlin left Elyria in about 1840. Mr. Hamlin was 
known as a close, thorough and indnstrious lawyer, 
and tiiough not as ebxpient an advocate as some of 
bis cotemporaries, an eminently ''safe" man to have 
the charge of litigation. He is still living and pi'ac- 
tieiughis profession, and when last heard from by the 
writer was at Cincinnati. 

HoRAf'K D. Clark, one of the lawyers who bad 
the birgest continu(nis practice in Lorain county, was 
born May 23, 1805, at Graiiby, Connecticut, where his 
mother still resides at the advanced age of ninety-four 
years. He went to district school summers till he 
was eight years of age, and in the winter till he was 
sixteen, when he was taken from' school and placed 
in a country store, where he served his apprenticeship 
a7id was taken in as a partner. In this business be 
continued some four years, at the end of which time. 

says he in a recent letter, " I found we had lost so 
much by bad debts and the stealings of clerks that 
there was but little left, and I quit the Inisiness in 
disgust.'' He studied law one year in Connecticut, 
and in November 17, 1832, started for Ohio, and 
reached Hndson in this state, in nccember of the same 
year. On the eighth of th:il month he entered the 
biw school of .Judge Van K. Humphrey, and a year 
later was admitted to the bar by the snpreme court in 
b;i,nk at Columbus. 

On the fourth of the following -luly (1834) Mr. 
Clark opened a law office in tlie southeast corner room 
in the court house in Elyria. He continued Id jiractict^ 
law in Elyria from that time for about tbirl\- years, 
having during a large portion of that time the birgest 
practice in the county — a practice never ;ipproa.elied 
in magnitude by more than one rival at a time. A. 
A. Bliss, Hamlin and P>liss, .loel Tiffany, Benedict 
and Leonard, Hamlin and Lockwood, and W. F. 
Lockwood alone, were at different times, his nearest 
competitors, but Mr. Clark steadily maintained the 
leading position be had gained, until after he ceased to 
reside in Elyria.; for though he continued to practice 
there till 18C4. he i-emoved with his family to Cleve- 
land in 1S51. 

In 184."> Jlr. Clark took in as a i)ai'tuer Cyiais Olney, 
who came from Iowa, where he had been in practice. 
He stayed about a year and returned to Iowa, where 
he was soon after elected a judge. ''He was about 
twenty-eight," says Mr. I'lark, "and the best special 
pleader of his age I ever saw.'' 

In jMareh, 1849. Mr. Clark fornu'd a ]i;nt ucrsbip 
with .Stevenson Burke, who Imd been admitted to the 
bar the August previous, having been astudent in Mr. 
Clark's office. His partnership continued til! about 
June, 18.52. John M. Vincent and John A'. Coon 
were also students with Mi-. Clark during bis practice 
in Elyria. In 18.50 Mr. Clark was elected a member 
of the constitutional convention of Ohio, and served 
in that body, which completed its labors March 10, 
18.51. This is the only otficiid position held l)y Mr. 

He was an excellent lawyci-, though not es]iccially 
an eloquent advocate. He abandoned (be practice of 
law in 180.5 and removed to IMoiilival, Canada, where 
he now resides. 

.loEL Tiffany, one of the the most remarkable men 
who ever lived in Elyi'ia, was a native of Barkham- 
stead, Connecticui. He removed to Elyria fi'om 
Medina, in 183.5. and remained in Elyria, as the 
court records indicate, until 184S. hi 1840, beseems 
to have been associated with Mr. Silliman, of Wooster. 
Mr. Silliman was an able lawyer, and ]iracliccd in 
Elyria for a number of years; though never a resident 
there. Mr. Tiffany .seems also to have been associated 
with L. G. Byington. for a short time, and with Mr. 
E. II. Leonard, for about two years. He was prose- 
cuting attorney in 1838 and 1839. Upon leaving 
Elyria, he went to Painesville, and subsequentl}- to 
New York Citv. From lSfi3 to lSfi9. he resided in 



Alhiiny, where be was reporter of the court of ai)i)e;ils 
of New Yoi'k, and pnhlished vohiines f wenty-eiiiht to 
tliirty-iiiiH', inclusive, of (lie N'ew York rojiorls. From 
there lie removed to Chicairo, where lie .still resides. 

Mr. Tiffany a|i])roaclied lu^arer to lieint^^a "genius," 
as tliat word is oi'dinarily understciod, than any other 
jiractitiiincr of the Lorain bar. Wit h acute and accn- 
i'at<e jierceptions. great mental powers of acipiisitioii 
and assimilation, a [)rodigious memory, and, withal, 
an elo(|uencc seldom equalled, he was extremely well 
ei|uipi)ed for all forensic encounters. In the locally 
c(debra(cd " counterfeit cases," Mv. Tiffany exerted 
his great powers to their utmost, and made f<ii- liim- 
self a reputation that will long endure in Lorain 
county. These were trit'(l in LSitS-O, when he was 
prosecuting, and no fewer tluin fourteen persons were 
sent to penitentiary for being implicated in the mak- 
ing and issuing of counterfeit money. 

'i'he great ipialities we have mentioned were, liow- 
cver. handicaiiiied by an unsteadiness of purpose, and 
lack i)t applicatiim to his profession, which rendeivd 
tln'in of comparatively little value to their possessor. 
He engaged in a- variety of entei'prises, outside of his 
profession, while in Elyria, none of which pro\cd 
j)ro(itable, while they j)revented his reaching that 
success in his j)i'ofcssion which he might otherwise 
Jiavc attained. 

During liis residence in Albany, in 18G4, Air. 
Tiffany, in connection with Mr. Henry Smith, pub- 
lished a work uj)iin ]iractice under the New York 
code, under the title of "Tiffany & Smith's New 
York Practice." It is highly spoken of by the law 
reviewers. A second edit ion has just been ])ublishcd. 
edited by IL (J. Woods. 

In 18(i2. in connection with E. !•'. llullard, Mr. 
Tiffany published awork, under the titki of "The Law 
of Trust and Trustees, as administered in England 
and America." I'rofessoi' Theodore W. Dwight, re- 
viewing this work, in the Ami-ricd)). Lnir Eegistcy of 
.hily. ISi;;}, says: " 'i'h is appears to be an excellent 
wiirk. The ari-angcnieiil iif topics is simiile and log- 
ical, and tlie discussion lucid and satisfactorv." 

In 1S(;.5, Tilfany & Smith luiblishcd a- bdok of 
•• I'lii'iiis ad.Mjitcd III the jiracticc and special pleadings 
in New York courts of Kecord." 

Mr. 'i'ill'any also intblishe(l, in 18C7, "A 'I'reatise 
on (iovernmeiil, an<l Const it lit ional Law. being mii 
inquiry into the source and limitation of govern- 
mental authority, according to the American Tlieorv." 

ALUKiiT A. Bliss was boni March '2:!, ISll, in 
C'antiiii, (Ninnecticiit. in IS-il. his father's family 
reinoNcd to W hitestnwn. Oneida, count v. New "^'ork. 
Li LS-.'."(, he left hoiii..', to leirn a trade, and served 
until ISIio. He then attended school for a couide of 
years at the Oneida [nstitute. at Whitestown, an 
excellent institution, on the manual labor ])lan, then 
recently organized, in the spring of IS:).'^, iM r. Uliss 
came to Elyria. and commenced studying law. in the 
office of Whittlesey & Hamlin. During the jieriod of 
his studying he engaged also in newspaper work. lie 

was admitted to the bar in C'leveland. Sejitember, 
1S;S.5, and the following sj>ring moved to that city, 
and engaged in editing a ncwsi)aper, the Daily Ga- 
zi'lle. during the political campaign of that year; after 
which he returned to Elyria, and engaged in the 
])ractice of his profession until 1847. In 1840, he 
cut red info |)arliierslii[i wilh E. S. Hamlin, and the 
linn did a large business until sometime in 1845, 
when it was dissolved. Previous to 184."), Mr. Bliss 
had, for a short time, been in paiinership with his 
brother, I'hilemon Bliss. 

A deep interest in politics, however intemipftHl the 
continuity of Mr. liliss' application to the practice of 
his profession. He was three times elected to the 
legislature — in IS.'iO, 1840 and 1841, and was occu- 
j)ied at different times in tlie editing of poliUcal 
newspapers. In the winter of 1S4G-7, he was elected 
treasurer of state by the legislature, and held that 
oHice until .January, I8.5'i. He removed to Columbus 
in the sjiring of 1847, but sc^ems to have kept up, 
somewhat, his hiw ])ractice at Elyria, as a member of 
the firm of Bliss & Bagg, until 1840. He returned to 
Elyria late in 18.'S'-J, and remained until the spring of 
18')o, when he removed to .Jackson, Michigan, and 
engaged in mercantile business until 1874, wlien, 
finding the business liceoming unprofita'de. he sold it 
out and re-engaged in the practice of the law. He 
still resides at Jackson, where he is, as he always has 
been wherever he has lived, a highly respected citizen. 

He isa n. ember ar.d the treasurer of the city school 
lioard, and one of the inspectors of the Michigan 
penitentiary, which is located at that place. 

.Ii'D.soN I). Benedict came to Elyria fi'om Medina 
in 18o8. and engaged in the practice of the law for 
about ten years from that time. In 1840 or there- 
abouts, he formed a partnership with E. H. Leonard, 
who had then recently finished a long term as clerk 
of the courts, and been admitted to the liar. This 
partnership continued some two years, the firm doing 
a large business during the time. xVfter the dissolu- 
tion of his connection with Bi'iiedict, Mr. Leonard 
soon formed a. iiartnershi]) with Mr. Tiffany, which 
lasted till al)out 184."), after which time his name does 
not appear upon the records of (his court. 

After the dissolution of the firm of Benedict and 
fjconard, Mr. Bene(lict associated with himself Robert 
.\rclvic broil, under the firm of lienediet & McEaciii'oii. 
which linn continued some three years, after which 
.Joshua Mvers was partner with AH-. Benedict for 
about two years more. About 1848, Mr. Benedict 
a.iiandoned the jiractice of law, and liecaine a preacher 
id" the denomination known as Disciples or ('ampliell- 
ites, and left Elyria. He removed to the vicMiiity of 
Buffalo. New York, where he resided most of the 
remainder of his life. He died in Canada tliree or 
four years ago. 

Mr. Benedict did a very consideralile business 
during all his residence at J<]lyria, but was no( 
considered a strong lawyer; as a pleader, he was 
especially weak. 



Philemon Bliss, a brother of A. A. Bliss, was 
admitted to the bar in Elyria in 1838. He com- 
menced practice at once in Elyria in partnership with 
his brother, A. A. Bliss, but soon after, by reason of 
ill-liealth, was forced to abandon business, and went 
west. Regaining his health, he re-commenced his 
practice in Cuyahoga Falls, Summit county, Ohio, in 
1843, but returned to Elyria in the winter of 18-H5-7, 
and remained in practice there, except when inter- 
rupted by office holding, until tlic spring of 1861. 
During that period, he was elected probate judge, 
being the first prol)atc judge of Lorain couiit}^, also 
common pleas judge in the winter of 1848-9, and to 
Congress in 1854 and 1856. 

In 1801, he was appointed chief justice of Dakota 
territory, which office he held until the fall of 1864, 
when he removed to St. Joseph, Missouri, where he 
resided until 1873. During this period, he was 
elected probate judge, and, in 1868, supreme judge of 
Missouri, which office lie filled to the end of the term 
with credit to himself and benefit to the jurisprudence 
of that state. In 1873, he was elected resident pro- 
fessor of law at the university of Missouri, and dean 
of tlie law faculty, and removed to Columbia, where 
lie still resides. Mr. Bliss is a man of great mental 
ability. A more extended sketch of his life will be 
found in that part of this volume devoted to Elyria. 
He is the autJior of a work on jileading, which is just 

Wm. F. Lockwood, one of the latest lawyers to 
settle in Elyria during the period of which we arc 
now speaking, was born April 1, 1823, in Norwalk, 
Fairfield county, Connecticut, aud there received a 
common school education. In 1837, he went to New 
York, and became a clerk in a wholesale grocery 
store. In 1840, lie came to Ohio, and, in 1841, 
settled in Elyria, where he became a law student in 
the office of Hamlin & Bliss. In 1843, he was 
admitted to the l)ar at Medina. He was a candidate 
on the wliig ticket, the same year, for the office of 
lirosccuting attorney, but was defeated by H. A. Ten- 
ney, the democratic candidate. He was elected to that 
office, however, in 1844, and held it for four years, 
being re-elected in 1846. In 1853, he was a delegate 
from his congressional district to the wliig national 
convention, whicli met at Baltimore and nominated 
Winfield Seott as a candidate for the presidency. The 
same year he was the candidate of his party for con- 
gress, but was defeated, Harvey Johnson, of Ashland 
county, the democratic candidate, being elected. 

In 1854, he was elected probate judge of Lorain 
county, succeeding Philemon Bliss. In 1856, he was 
a candidate before the Republican convention for the 
nomination for common pleas judge, but Judge Car- 
penter, of Akron, was the nominee. 

By reason of impaired health, he resigned his office, 
and in the spring of 1857 removed with his family to 
Nebraska and settled at Omaha, wliere he resided 
some two years, when he removed to Dakota City, 

which continued to be his home till he returned to 
Ohio in 1867. 

He was one of the federal judges for the territory 
of Nebraska, from April, 1861, until the admission 
of Nebraska as a State in 1867, when he was nom- 
inated by President Johnson as United States district 
judge for the district of Nebraska, but was not con- 
firmed by tlie Senate. He then returned to Toledo, 
in this State, where he still resides. 

He was the democratic candidate for congress in 
tlie Toledo district, in 1870, but was unsuccessful, 
the district being republican. 

In 1878, he was recommended by the bar of Lucas 
county for the office of common pleas judge, which 
recommendation was ratified by both the republican 
and democratic conventions, and he was elected to 
that office. 

Mr. Lockwood had a large practice when at the 
bar in Elyria, and is a man of fine abilities, as the 
large number of important positions he has held with 
credit to himself well attests. 

Other lawyers who resided in Elyria during tlie 
period of which we arc now speaking were: 

Thomas Tyrrell, from 1834 to 1838. During a 
part or all of this time, he was a partner with E. S. 
Hamlin. He engaged also in the newspaper busi- 

A. C. Penfield, from about 1833 to 1854. He did 
a moderate business for a number of years. He died 
in Elyria. 

C. Whittlesey, 1835. Heman Birch, 1835 to 
1847. Le Grakd Byington, 1837 to 1839. A. H. 
Curtis, 1838. 

L. F. Hamlin, 1838 to 1855. He was considered 
a good equity lawyer, but his practice was limited. 
He was for a time a partner with Mr. Lockwood. 
He died in Elyria. 

Robert McEachron, 1842 to 1850. He came from 
Richland county, was a partner with Mr. Benedict 
from 1842 to 1845, and with Joshua Myers under the 
name of McEachron & Myers from 1847 to 1849, and 
did a very considerable business. His health failed 
while in Elyria, and be died soon after leaving 

Joshua Myers came to the bar about 1844, and 
remained in Elyria until his death, in 1877. He was 
first associated with Mr. Benedict, then with Mr. 
McEachron, as already stated. From about 1850 to 
1854, he was associated with Judge Bissell, of Paines- 
ville, in the firm of Bissell & Myers, whicli did a 
considerable business. His practice when alone was 
never large. During his later years, he held the office 
of justice of the peace for a single term, securing his 
election partly by means of the anti-temperance excite- 
ment, which grew up in oiii^ositiou to the "crusade," 
in 1874. 

FORDTCE M. Key^th was admitted to the bar in 
1839, and commenced practice in Elyria, but removed 
to Stark county in 1840, and subsequently to Jackson 



county, Ohio. He served with distinction in tlie late 
war as major of infantry, and wajor and lieutenant- 
colonel of artillery, and in 18G5 removed to White 
Cloud, Kansas, where he now resides, engaged in the 
practice of law, and farming. 

Myron R. Keith was born in Wingfield, Herkimer 
county, N. Y., March 3, 1819; came to Elyria with 
his father, Colonel Ansel Keith in Octolier, 1832; and 
was admitted as an attorney in 1841. He commenced 
the jiracticc of law in Elyria in 1841, and in 181:2 
removed to Cleveland and practiced with Harvey 
Rice, in the firm of Rice & Keith, until 184G. In 
January, 1840, he returned to Elyria and was appointed 
clerk of the courts for Lorain county, and officiated 
in that cajiacity until the spring of 1852. In August, 
1852, he removed to Cleveland, and since that time 
he has been and still is engaged in the i)ractice of the 
law there. In June, 1807, he was appointed register 
in bankruptcy, and is still acting in that capacity. 

H. A. Tenney came to the bar in 1842, ami was 
elected prosecuting attorney that year. He remained 
in Elyria a few years engaged in the law pi-actice and 
newspaper work, and then removed to Wisconsin. 

John B. Green was admitted to the bar in Elyria 
in 1843, and, after remaining a year or two, removed 
to Newark, Ohio, where he died in 1845. 

Eleazer Wakely was admitted to tlie bar in 
Elyria in 1844, and remained there about two years, 
when he removed to Wisconsin, and, subse(iueutly, to 
Nebraska, where he held the office of federal terri- 
torial Judge, in which he was succeeded by Judge Wni. 
F. Lockwood in 1801. He still resides in Omaha 
eminent in his profession. 

During this period, 1831 to 1845, the law business 
of the county had increased, so that, in 1844, it was 
something more than half its i)resent amount as indi- 
cated ])y the jciurnal of the court of common pleas. 
Still, u}) to this time, very few, if any, of the lawyers 
had devoted themselves exclusively to the practice of 
the law, almost all engaging in newspaper publication 
and sonui in other enterprises. The relative amount 
of l)usiiiess done by foreign attorneys was much less 
than in the earliest period, but still a large number 
of attorneys from Cleveland and other points prac- 
ticed occasionally in Lorain. Prominent anuing these 
were W. Silliui;in, of Woost(U', and C. L. Lattimer, of 

Tlie jieriod from 1845 to 1800 witnessed an almost 
complete change in the personnel of the Lorain bar. 
About thirty new men came to the bar during tiuit 
period, and, at its close, Philemon Bliss remained tlie 
only resident attorney who had begun practice prior 
to 1845, although Mr. Clark, then residing in Cleve- 
land, still practiced at the Lorain bar. Of some seven 
or eight of those who came to the practice within this 
period it is proper to make somewhat extended men- 

Sylvester Bagg, who has since served a number 
of years on the bench in a sister State, was born 

August 0, 1823, at Lanesborough, Berkshire county, 
Mass. He removed to Elyria in May, 1845, and, in 
1840, entered the office of A. A. Bliss as a partner, 
and continued in the practice until December, 1850, 
when he removed from Elyria. During his residence 
in Elyria he was also associated with Mr. Edmund A. 
West, now of Chicago, in the firm of Bagg & West, 
and later with Mr. George Olmsted, now of Elyria, as 
Bagg & Olmsted. He also engaged at times in the 
drug and insurance business while in Elyria. After 
remaining a few mouths in Ciiicago, he removed to 
Iowa in March, 1857, and settled at Waterloo, where 
he now resides. He was commissioned in the army 
as A. Q. M. with the rank of captain, October 22, 1862, 
and served until November 20, 1805, being discharged 
with tlie bi'evet of major. He was elected circuit 
judge in 1808, and re-elected in 1S72 and 1876, and 
elected district judge in 1878, which office he now 

Stevenson Burke was bom in St. Lawrence 
county. New York, November 20, 1826. He com- 
menced studying law in the office of Powell & Buck, 
at Delaware, Ohio, and afterwards went into the office 
of U. D. Clark at Elyria, where he continued till his 
admission to the bar, August 11, 1848. In the fol- 
lowing March he entered into partnership witli Mr. 
Clark, which partnership continued until May or 
June, 1852. He continued to reside at Elyria with a 
rapidly increasing practice until 1801, when he was 
elected judge of the court of common pleas for the 
counties of Lorain, Medina and Summit. Prior to 
his elevation to the liench he was associated for a 
short time with Mr. Lake and Mr. Sheldon, under the 
firm name of Burke, Lake & Sheldon. This firm, 
however, lasted but a short time. In 1857 he was 
associated with E. F. Poppleton, and, in 1800, with 
H. II. Poppleton. 

Mr. Burke was a sound and thorougli lawyer antl ;i. 
man of remarkable industry, being, no doubt, the 
hardest working lawyer who ever practiced at the 
Lorain bar. He was elected to the common pleas 
bench October, 1861, and took his seat the February 
following, and continued to hold the office until Feb- 
ruary, 1809, having been re-elected in 1860. He re- 
signed his office January 1, 1809, his resignation 
taking effect at the end of the judicial year the 9th 
of the following February. Immediately upon his 
resignation he became a member of the firm of Backus, 
Estep & Bnrke in Cleveland, Messrs. Backus and 
Estep having previously been partners in the practice 
in that city. Judge Bnrke also kept for a time an 
office in Elyria, where he still resided, in connection 
with Mr. II. H. Poppleton. This was soon discon- 
tinued, however. Not long after Mr. Burke went to 
Cleveland tlie partnership of which he was a member 
was broken up by the death of Mr. Backus. After a 
short time more Messrs. Estep & Burke dissolved 
their connection, since which Judge Burke has been 
practicing alone in Cleveland, and doing a large and 
higlilv lucrative business. He has become interested 



in several railroad and other corporations, and is at 
)>resent a director and chairman of tlie finance com- 
mittee of the C, 0., C. & I. R'y Co., and general 
counsel of the company, and occupies the same posi- 
tion witli reference to the Cleveland and Mahoning 
\'alley R. R. Co., and holds prominent positions in a 
number of other railroad, mining and manufacturing 

JouN M. Vincent was bcjrn at Mount Washing- 
ton, Berkshire county, Mass., October 14, 1830. He 
came to Ohio in 1834. His collegiate course was 
begun at Oberliii, but concluded at Union College, 
Schenectady, Now York, where he graduated in 1846. 
Returning to Elyria, he entered the office of H. D. 
Clark as a law student^ and was admitted to the bar 
at the supreme court in Elyria August 11, 1848. En- 
tering at once npon the practice of his profession, he 
was elected in the fall of tlie following year to the 
office of prosecuting attorney of Lorain county, which 
he held two consecutive terms, being re-elected in 
18.51. He was elected to the same office again in 
1855 and served one more term. Mr. Vincent was a 
man of quick and accurate perceptions, a thorough 
lawyer, a ready and effective debater, and withal a 
genial, kind-hearted gentleman. With such qualifi- 
cations he could not but occupy, as he did, a promi- 
nent position at the bar as long as his health per- 
mitted him to continue in the practice. He was 
elected to the lower house of the State legislature in 
tlie autumn of 1859, and served in that body during 
tlie session of 18C0 and 1861. This legislative work 
was substantially the last of his life. Failing healtji 
forljade his continuing in the jiractice of his profes- 
sion, and, in the summer of 1863, he went to Minne- 
sota in hope of improving liis health by change of 
climate; but, finding himself growing rapidly worse, 
he started to return home, but was compelled to leave 
tiie cars at Milwaukee, where he died Sejitember 23. 
1863, mourned by a large circle of friends and acijuain- 
tances. His wife and son still reside at Elyria. 

LioNKL A. Sheldon was born August 30, 1831, at 
Worcester, Otsego county, New York, and removed 
with his parents to LaGrange, Lorain county, in 1834. 
He studied law in the office of Clark & Burke, in- 
Elyria, and also attended law school at Poughkeepsie, 
New York, and was admitted to the bar at the 
supreme court at Elyria, in July, 1851. 

In September, 1853, he commenced practice in 
connection with Mr. Vincent, which partnership 
lasted some two years. He was subse(iuently asso- 
ciated, at different times, with George 15. Lake, L. B. 
Smith, and W. W. Boynton. He remained in Elyria, 
in the practice of his profession, until the breaking 
out of the war of the rebellion, in 1861. He held the 
office of probate judge, from November 35, 1856, to 
February 8, 1858, filling out the unexpired term of 
William F. Lockwood. 

In August, 1861, he entered the army as captain 
in the 3d Ohio cavalry, and was snbseipiently a major 
in the same regiment. At the organization of the 

43d Ohio volunteer infantry, he was commissioned its 
lieutenant-colonel, and on the promotion of its col- 
onel, James A. Garfield, he became colonel of the 
regiment, and served with distinction throughout 
the war, receiving toward the close of the war, the 
rank of brevet brigadier general. 

After the close of the conflict, he settled in New 
Orleans, and resumed the practice of his profession, 
and also became interested in politics. Ho was 
elected to congress in 1868, 1870, and 1873, and 
served with credit in those three congresses. In 
1876, he was one of the presidential electors of the 
state of Louisiana. He still resides in New Orleans; 
spending his summers, however, on liis large farm 
in LaGrange, Lorain county, the home of his boy- 

George B. Lake was admitted to the bar at 
Elyria, July, 1851, and practiced in Elyria, with 
credit, until about 1857, when he removed to Omaha, 
where he still resides. He has attained tliere a 
marked eminence in his profession, and now occupies 
a seat ujion the bench of the sujjreme court of 

Houston H. Popplbton was born at Bellville, 
Richland county, Ohio, March 10, 1836. He removed 
with his father to Delaware, Ohio, in March, 1853, 
and entered the Ohio Wesleyan university, at that 
place, the same year, from which institution he grad- 
uated June 38, 1858. 

lie commenced studying law with Mr. Burke, in 
Elyria, September 9, 1858, and continued with him 
till he entered the Cincinnati law college, October 
15, 1859, and was admitted to the bar at Cincinnati 
April 16, 1860. He commenced the jiractice of law at 
Elyria, May 3, 1860, having formed a jiartnership 
with Judge Burke; and continued in the general 
practice until December 1, 1873, when he was ap- 
pointed general attorney of the Cleveland, Columbus, 
Cincinnati & Indianapolis Railway Conijiany, with 
headquarters at Cleveland, and at once took charge 
of the entire legal department of that comj^any, which 
position he still holds, and fills with marked ability. 

Washington W. Boynton was born iu Russia, 
Lorain county, January 37, 1833. He was educated 
in the common schools, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar by the district court of Lorain 
county, at its September term, 1856, and immediately 
commenced practice. In March, 1859, upon the 
resignation, by Mr, George Olmsted, of the office of 
prosecuting attorney, he was appointed by the court 
to fill the vacancy for the unexpired term, which 
ended the first Monday of the following January. 

In October, of the same year, (1859), he was elected 
to the same office, and continued to discharge its 
duties with credit to himself, and satisfaction to the 
public, until January, 1864, having been re-elected in 
the fall of 1861. Mr. Boynton continued in the 
practice of the law, at Elyria, with the exception of 
a short residence in Minnesota, whither he went on 
account of his health, until February, 1869, when he 



was appointed by tlio governor to tlie office of com- 
mon jileas Judge, left vacant by tlie resignation of 
llou. Stevenson Burke. In October, of the same 
year, he was elected to that office, for the remainder 
of .Tudgc Burke's term, which expired February, 1873. 
In liie fall of 1S71, lie was re-ek'cted for a full term, 
which expired February, 1877, at wliich time he 
entered upon the discharge of the duties of a judge 
of the supremo court, having been elected to that 
office in October, 187G. He is still a member of the 
supreme court. 

A considerable number of lawyers commenced i)rae- 
tiee m Lorain county during this time, and remained 
for longer or shorter periods, including some who are 
still at the bar, who will be mentioned hereafter. 

These were George T. Smith, 1845 to 1854. 

Edmund A. West, 184G to 1853. He was tlie son 
of Edmund West, one of the original settlers of Elyria. 
On leaving Elyria he went to Chicago where he is still 
practicing law, making a .specialty of patent business. 

Elbuidge G. Boynton, admitted to the bar Sep- 
tember, 1845, died in Elyria in 1857. 

John Curtis, 1847 to 1851. 

John G. Irving, admitted August 20, 1847. 

Bird B. Chapman, admitted in Elyria in 1843, 
practiced there for a time, about 1849 to 1853. 

George G. Washburn practiced law from 1849 to 
1853. He then al)andonod the law and devoted him- 
self to journalism, and still resides in Elyria, the 
editor and publisher of the Elyria Rejniblican. 

John Sherman, 1851. 

E. C. K. Garvey, 1851-3. 

Schuyler Putnam was admitted to the bar in 1852, 
at the first term of the district court under the consti- 
tution of 1851. He was a great-grandson of General 
Israel Putnam of revolutionary war fame. Says Mr. 
H. D. Clark in a recent letter, speaking of Mr. Put- 
nam: ''He came to the bar at an advanced age, ripe 
in judgment and experience. He had a good legal 
mind, and in a long number of years as a justice of 
the peace, never gave an opinion that was reversed by 
a higher court. He was a moral, conscientious, up- 
right man." 

C. G. Finney, Oberlin, 1854. He was a son of the 
celebrated divine. Reverend C. G. Finney, for many 
years president of Oberlin college. He returned to 
Oberlin a few years ago and entered into partnership 
with I. A. Webster, but his health permitted him to 
remain only a short time. 

John M. Langston, Oberlin, was admitted to the 
bar in Elyria in 1855, and practiced at Oberlin until 
;ii)out 18G7. He now resides in Washington, D. C, 
wliere he is a law lecturer in Howard University. 

From 1857 to 1859 Samuel and Ralph Plumb 
practiced law in Oberlin under the name of Plumb 
and Plumb, and Ralph seems by the court record to 
have continued until 1861. Samuel Plumb organized 
a bank in Oberlin under the name of "S. Plumb's 
Bank," whicli, on the jiassage of the National liank- 
inu; act was converted into the " First National Bank 

of Oberlin," of which Mr. Plumb was president as 
long as he resided in Oberlin. Both gentlemen now 
reside at Streator, Illinois. 

Cyrus B. Baldwin resided at Oberlin and did a 
small law business between 1858 and 1805. 

Laertes B. Smith was admitted to the bar in 
Elyria, in September, 1858, and practiced in Elyria, 
holding the office of justice of the peace for several 
terms, until June 1, 1871, when he was appointed 
probate judge, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the 
resignation of John W. Steele. He was elected to 
that office tlie same year for the unexi)ired term 
and still holds the office, having been re-elected in 
1873, 1875 and 1878. 

Edward D. Holbrook, son of Dexter Holbiuok 
who still resides in Elyria, was born in Elyria October 
10, 1835, studied law with Johnson and Rex in Woos- 
ter, and was admitted at that place in May, 1857. He 
commenced practice in Elyria in 1858, and remained 
until the spring of 1861 when he removed to Califor- 
nia, where he remained studying the mining laws until 
May 17, 1863, when he removed to Idaho territory, 
where he rapidly rose to prominence and acquired an 
extensive practice. He represented that territory as 
delegate in the thirty-ninth and f.irtieth congresses. 
He continued to reside in Idaho, attending to his 
increasing professional duties until his death. He 
was murdered by Charles H. Douglas, at Idaho City, 
June 19, 1870. 

Theodore H. Robertson was admitted to the bar 
in Elyria in August, 1848, and remained in Elyria in 
the practice some five or six years. 

Washburn Safford practiced in Elyria for two or 
three years, beginning in 1855, in partnership with 
.Judge Pliilemon Bliss, under the name of Bliss and 
Safford. Daring a portion of this time R. H. Allen, 
who practiced in Oberlin, was also a member of the 
firm, the title at the Oberlin office being Bliss, Allen 
and Safford. Mr. Allen remained in Oberlin a year 
or so after the dissolution of this firm. 

H. C. Safford also practiced law a few years in 
Ob'^rlin, about the same time. 

Anson P. Dayton opened a law otllce in Oberlin 
in the summer of 1856, and remained there about two 

The period from 1800 to the present time can 
scarcely be called historical, and must be passed over 
rapidly. It has witnessed the advent of many more 
lawyers than any other period of e(pial length; but a 
majority of them are still young men, and the time 
has not yet arrived for them to have reached the 
eminence and distinction to which many of the older 
members of the Lorain bar have attained. 

The most conspicuous figure among the men who 
have come to the Lorain bar within this period is Hon. 
John C. Hale, one of the jiresent judges of the court 
of common pleas. He was born March 3, 1831, at Or- 
ford. New Hampshire, and graduated at Dartmouth 
College in 1857. He was admitted to the bar in 
Cleveland in the spring of 1861, and immediately 



rcmuveil lo Elyriu in coiiiiiany willi J. C. Hill, witli 
whiini 1k' liail foi-nit'd a jiartiienshii), uiidiT the iiaine 
oi' Hale & Hill, ami tlicy opened a law office in tlie 
room occupied by Jolin M. Viiieeiit. This ]iartiier- 
ship eoiitinued one year, wlieii Mr. Hale went iiif-o 
])MrtiH'rship witli W. W. Boyiitoii. lie ra))idly 
ill his pi'ot'ession, and in 18fi:3 was elected to the otliee 
of prosecuting attorney, which he held six years coti- 
secutively, being re-elected in 18ii.j and 1807. lie 
represented Lorain county in the constitutional cou- 
vention of 1873-4, and in 187G was elected common 
pleas judge, succeeding Judge Boyntou. He is still 
on the common pleas bench. 

We shall now pass rapidly over the gentlemen who 
have been members of the Lorain bar since 1860 and 
who are not now in the practice there, and close 
this sketch with a mention of the attorneys now resi- 
dent in the county. 

0ii4KLKs A. WiiKiHT commenced practice in Elyria- 
in 1800 and remained there a year or two. 

Lewis Breckeneidge was admitted to the bar in 
18.39, commenced practice in Elyria in 1861 and I'c- 
mained until 1873 when he removed to Cleveland 
where he now resides and practices. 

J. C Hill came to Elyria as an attorney in 1801, 
as already mentioned, as a partner with J. C. Hale. 
He remained in the practice until 186-1, when he 
abandoned it and engaged in other business. He is 
now a resident of Elyria and cashier of the Savings 
l)eix>sit Bank. 

Andrew Morehouse apjjcars as an attorney on the 
records in 1863. 

James B. Huiii-nREY was admitted to the bar in 
Elyria in 1803, and practiced there until 1867 or 
1868, when he removed to Allegan, Michigan, where 
he still resides. He is, or recently was, probate judge 
of Allegan county, and occupies a prominent position 
at the bar there. 

O.MAR Bailey, .Jr., practiced law in Oberlin from 
1803 to 1807, when he removed to Norwalk, Huron 
county, where he still resides. 

KoswELL G. HoRR was admitted to the bar at the 
exjjiration of his term as clerk of the court in 1804, 
and entered into partnership with J. C. Hale. He 
continued in the practice about two years, when he 
removed to Missouri. He subse(juently removed to 
East vSaginaw, Michigan, where he still resides. He 
was elected to Congress from that district at the 
election in November, 1878. 

II. M. LiLLiE had a law ofHce in Elyria a few 
months in 1864, but did little or no business. 

A. R. HiLLYER opened a law office in Oberlin in 
1805, and remained there a year or two, when he 
removed to Grinuell, Iowa. 

Herbert L. Terrell was admitted to the bar in 
Pllyria in September, 1804, aiul entered into partner- 
ship with W. W. Boynton, remaining about a year. 
He then removed to Tennessee, but subsequently 
returned to Ohio and settled in Cleveland, where he 
is now practicing. 

I). L. ]?RECKINRII)(IE was admitted to the bar in 
1806, but continued to reside on his farm in (irafton 
till his death, in 1878, never devoting himself e.xclu- 
sively to the law. 

A. C. HouiiHTON went into partnershi]i with J. II. 
Dickson, at Wellington, in 1808, and ivmained in tiie 
l)ractice there until about 1873, when he removed to 

M. W. I'oND, Jr., in partnership with C. H. ! too- 
little, practiced in Elyria in 1869. Ho removed to 
Pennsylvania., but subse<iuently i-eturned to Cleveland, 
where he now resides, engaged in the practice of the 

(jL'stavus V. Bayley was admitted to the bar in 
1873, and in the fall of 1873 settled at Black River 
(now Lorain), and engaged also in the lumber business. 
He continued to reside there until 1877, when he 
removed to St. Louis. His law pi-actice was very 

Meric J. Sloan was admitted to the bar at Elyria 
in September, 1873, and had an office for a short time 
in Oberlin. 

P. L. Chandler removed fi-om Wisconsin to 
Oberlin in 1875, and opened a law office there. He 
remained there about a year. 

.Joseph C. Colllster studied law with Hon. J. II. 
Dickson, at "Wellington, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1874. He entei-ed into pa^rtnership with his pre- 
ceptor, and remained one year, when he left the 

D. C. Bruce, from Pennsylvania, opened a law 
otfice in Elyria in 1875, and remained about a year. 

C. A. Brintnall came to Elyiia, from Medina, in 
the summer of 1870, with A. R. Webber, who still 
remains there. They remained in partnership a few 
months, when they dissolved partnership, and Mr. 
Brintnall left the county. 

Warren W. Sampsel, son of Dr. P. W. Sampsel, 
of Elyria, was admitted to the bar in Norwalk in the 
si)ring of 1878, and entered into partnership with 
N. L. Johnson, of Elyria, but after remaining a few 
nu)nths he removed to Toledo, where he still resides. 

Judge Benjamin Bissell and Mr. Tinker, both 
of Paiuesville, had an office in Elyria in 1873, in 
connection with Mr. J. V. Coon, niuler the luiine of 
Bissell, Coon and Tinker. Judge Bissell died recently 
in Iowa. Mr. Tinker still resides in Painesville. 

The present bar of Lorain county consists of twenty- 
nine members, residing in all parts of the county, but 
principally of course at the county seat. 

John V. Coon, the one of these who has been 
longest at the bar, was admitted at Elyria in August, 
1840, and has continued to reside in Elyria or its 
mimediate vicinity ever since, and has kept a more or 
less intimate connection with the practice during all 
that time. He has not, however, devoted himself 
exclusively to the law, having been engaged in farm- 
ing and manufacturing enterprises, and real-estate 
siJceulations in Ohio and other States, during a very 
considerable portion of that time. He is now engaged 



in practice, and has a very considerable reputation as 
a real estate lawyer. 

Charles H. Doolitte came to theljar in Elyria in 
1S")1. lie was soon after elected justice of tlie jieaee, 
wliicli (iMice lie lielil aliout six years. In the fail of 
1857, lie was elected iirol)ate juilyc ami held that 
office for nine years from the following February, 
being re-elected in 1860 and 18G3. After the expira- 
tion of his term of office as probate judge, he removed 
for a siiort time to Gainesville, but soon returned to 
Elyria, where he still resides. For several years past 
he has held the office of justice of the peace. 

Hon. Joseph H. Dickson was admitted to the 
bar in August, 1853, at Elyria, and at once entered 
ui)on the practice of his profession there, forming a 
partnership with John M. Vincent. In the fall of 
1853 he was elected prosecuting attorney, for two 
years from the succeeding January. In December, 
1855, he dissolved his connection with Mr. Vincent, 
and removed to Wellington, where he has continued 
to reside up to the present time. He was elected to 
the lower house of the state legislature in 18l!7 and 
1869. He still occupies a leading position at the 
Lorain bar. 

GBOR<iE Olmsted came from New York, and 
entered into practice in Elyria in 1853, entering into 
partnership with S. Bagg, as Bagg and Olmsted. He 
was elected prosecuting attorney in October, 1857, 
and entered upon the duties of that office in the fol- 
lowing January. He resigned the office, however, in 
March, 1859, afcer having served a little over one 
year. He then removed to Indianapolis, where he 
staid about a year, when he returned, and continued 
to reside in Elyria, and practice law, until 1862, from 
which time he was absent from Elyria about four 
years. He returned to Elyria, however, in 1866, 
where he has since resided. He was elected justice of 
the peace in 1871, and held that oftice for three years, 
being succeeded l)y Joshua Myers. 

Charles W. Jouxston came to Elyria from La- 
Grange, where he had formerly practiced medicine, 
and entered upon the practice of the law in A]>ril, 
1859. He formed a partnership with Hon. P. Bliss, 
the next Septendjer, under the name of Bliss and 
Johnston, which continued until Judge Bliss removed 
to Dakota, in 1861. Mr. Johnston continued to 
devote himself exclusively to the practice, and still 
resides in Elyria, where he has an extensive business. 
He was elected prosecuting attorney in 1869 and 1871. 

Elizuk G. Johnson" was admitted to the bar in 
1861, but continued to reside in LaGrange, where he 
held the office of justice of tlie peace until March, 
1869, when he came to Elyria to assume the office of 
county auditor, to which he had been elected the 
previous October. He continued to hold that office 
until November, 1877. In the autumn of 1876, how- 
ever, he opened a law office in Elyria, and is still 
engaged in the practice. 

Norman L. Johnson came to Elyna from Massa- 

chusetts in 1863 and entered upon the practice of the 
law, to which he hiis devoted himself ever since, and 
at which he is now doing a very considerable business. 

Iral a. Webster was admitted to the bar at Elyria 
in September, 1867, and soon after opened an office 
in Oberlin, where he still resides. In 1877 he also 
opened an office in Elyria. 

Charles Downinu was admitted to the bar in 
1867 in Elyria, where he still resides. He has de- 
voted his attention mainly, however, to the business 
of insurance. 

P. II. BoYNTON was admitted to the bar in 1869 
and is still practicing in Elyria. 

George P. Metcalf was admitted in 1869. He 
was elected prosecuting attorney in 1873, 1875 and 
1877, and still holds that office. 

J. M. HoRD removed to Elyria from Wood county 
in 1S7'2, and is still in practice. 

WiNSLOW L. Fay, admitted 1870, still in practice. 

E. II. HiNMAN opened an office in 1873 in North 
Amherst, where he is still practicing. 

Amos Coe, who formerly practised law in Cleve- 
land, settled on a farm near Elyria about 1870. He 
appears in court occasionally. 

David J. Ny'e was admitted to the bar in 1873 and 
removed to Kansas. He returned in 1873, and, in 
April, 1874, opened an office in Elyria, where he still 

Walter F. Herrick commenced practicing law in 
Wellington in 187-1, and is still there. He served in 
the Ohio legislature in 1860 and 1861, and was a 
colonel in the army during the war of the rebellion. 

J. H. Lanc; has been practicing law in Oberlin 
since 1874. He engages also in other business. 

Lkster i\[(;LEAN was admitted to the bar at War- 
ren in the spring of 1875, and immediately removed 
to Elyria, where he is still engaged iu the practice, — 
now in partnership with E. G. Johnson. 

A. R. Webber came to Elyria from Medina in 
1876, and is still engaged in practice as jiartner with 
C. W. Johnston. 

CiiAS. A. Metcalf was a<lmitted in 1877, and en- 
tered into partnership with his brother, Geo. P. Met- 
calf, and is still in practice. 

J. W. Steele was admitted to the bar just before 
tlie lireaking out of the war. He entered the army 
and served through the war. He was elected probate 
judge of Lorain county in 1867, and held that office 
till June 1, 1871, when he resigned. He commenced 
practice in Oberlin in 1877, and is still there. 

Wm. H. Tucker was admitted to the bar in Cleve- 
land in the fall of 1877. He engages also in other 

John H. Faxon, of Elyria, was admitted to the 
bar at Columbus in 1876. Mr. Faxon is an old resi- 
dent of Lorain county. He was elected sheriff in 
1844 and 1846, and to the legislature in 1873 and 
1875. He has also held the office of justice of the 
peace for a considerable number of years. 



In 1877, C. G. Jeffries, an attorney of several years 
standing, moved to Elyria from Akron and ojiened a 
law office, and is still in tlic practice. 

Ed. C. Manter was admitted to tlio l)ar in April 
1878, and at once commenced practice in Elyria. 

Fred. A. Beckwith came to Elyria in tlie snmmer 
of 1878, and entered into practice in tJie office of I. 
A. We])ster. 

Fred. Weiwtek was admitted to the bar at Nor- 
walk in the spring of 1878, and now has an office at 

Alex. H. Perry, of Brownlielm, was admitted to 
tlie liar in ISCo, but still resides in that townsliip, not 
engaging in active practice. 

This completes the list of the members of the bar 
of Lorain county. This bar, throughout its history, 
lias Ijeen characterized by a high degree of morality 
and integrity, as well as ability and learning on the 
part of the members, and has been singularly free 
from that which has been the bane of so many of the 
greatest and most brilliant lawyers of the country, 
the addiction to the use of intoxicating li(:[uors. 

Ten of its members have been elevated to the bench 
(aside from probate judges) and held fifteen different 
judicial positions, viz: Frederick Whittlesey, common 
])leas judge in Ohio; Philemon Bliss, common pleas 
judge in Ohio, territorial chief justice of Dakota, 
and supreme judge of Missouri; William F. Lock- 
wood, territorial judge of Nebraska, and common 
pleas judge in Ohio; Eleazer Wakeley, territorial 
judge of Nebraska; Gyrus Olney, judge in Iowa; S. 
Bagg, circuit and district judge in Iowa; S. Burke, 
common pleas judge in Ohio; George B. Lake, su- 
]ii-eme judge of Nebraska; W. W. Boynton, common 
pleas andsuprome judge in Ohio; and .John C. Hale, 
common pleas judge in Ohio. 

Four Lorain lawyers have been members of congress, 
holding in all eight terms: E. S. Hamlin, one term; 
Philenron Bliss, two terms; Lionel A. Sheldon three 
terms and E. U. Holbrook, (delegate) two terms. 

The bar furnished one of the delegates, Mr. Clark, 
to the constitutional convention of 18.50, and the 
single one, Mr. Hale, to that of 1873. Two former 
Lorain lawyers are lecturers in law schools: .Judge 
Bliss and Mr. Langston; and two. Judge Bliss and 
Mr. Tiffany, are the authors of legal treatises. 

So far as the writer has been able to learn Philemon 
Bliss seems to have held the largest number of im- 
portant official positions: two terms in congress, and 
(including probate judgeships) five different judicial 

To Mr. Slyers belongs the distinction of having 
been the longest at the bar, from 1844 to 1877. The 
next longest, and by far the longest practice of the 
leading lawyers of the bar, was that of Mr. H. D. 
Clark, from 1834 to 1865. 

With this we take our leave of the bar. It is suf- 
ficient to say of it in closing, that it has stood high 
compared with those of similar counties, for learning, 
industry, integrity and eloquence. 



Newspapers are both "annals" and "history." 
Not only do their columns contain a record of events 
in chronological order, but the causes and effects of 
such events are also considered. Newspapers also 
contain a perfect record of their own history; but, 
like any other record, it is of no use to mankind 
unless it is carefully preserved. In the early days 
of a new settlement, the pioneers have enough bur- 
dens to bear, enough present wants to supply, to 
engross all their time, without giving thought to 
what their children, in after years, may desire to 
know of the details of their pioneer life; hence the 
rarity of the record of those events, and the difficulty 
of obtaining, in many cases, any correct data concern- 
ins them. It is doubtless for the same reason that 
publishers of newspapers took so little pains in pioneer 
times to preserve tlieir files. With the exception of 
two volumes, no files have been preserved of any 
newspapers published in this county prior to 1850. 
Wlieu it is known that there were almost yearly 
changes in the ownership and editorial management 
of these early publicatiDUS, and that only straggling 
copies can now be found, the difficulty in giving an 
accurate history of the preps in this county will be 
apparent; but through the interest taken in this labor 
by many who were formerly connected therewitli, and 
the kindness of others who have forwarded occasional 
copies of the early publications, these obstacles have 
been chietiy overcome, and, with the conviction that 
the labor of rescuing these interesting details from 
oblivion was undertaken none to soon, the reader may 
rest assuied that tlie liistory of the nearly three dozen 
newspapers and otlier periodicals tliat have been ])uh- 
lislicd ill this county will be found substantially 
correct. The history of each publication will be 
given in the order of its date, commencing in Elyria; 
and, as a matter of equal public interest, a brief notice 
of those who were prominently connected with them 
is appended. 


The first newspaper printed in Lorain county was 
called The Lorain Gazette, published in Elyria by 
Archibald S. Park, who in the spring of 18-^9 was 
conducting a newspaper in Ashtabula, Ohio, called 
The Western Journal. Desiring to change his loca- 
tion, he came to Elyria, and made arrangements 
with Mr. Heman Ely to purchase the necessary 
material for a newspaper and job office. On his 
return, he sent him a bill in detail of the articles 
needed, which Mr. Ely forwarded to New York 
The material was shii)i)ed on the 6th of May, 
by way of the Hudson river and canal to Buffalo, 
thence by steamer to Cleveland, and thence to Elyria 
in wagons. The following is a copy of the bill and 
accompanying letter, found among the papers of the 

* By George G. Washburn. 



late Heiniiii Ely. It shows th;it at that day it 
required but a small sum to purchase what was then 
considered a sufficient outlit for a newspaper and job 

11 KM AN Ely to E. White, dr. 

To S09 Uis. Small Pica 40c JSJ 60 

" 4 2-line 44 176 

" 56 " H oz. Bgs 50 !J8 33 

" 2 " 10 " '• 2-liue 44 1 15 

" 8 " 12 " Canon, shade 32 2 SO 

" 12 " Canon llower's 38 4 56 

" 5 •' Small Pica (lowers 40 ■ 2 00 

" 49 '• 4 OE. Paragon 36 17 73 

" 35 ** Canon 32 1120 

" 13 oz. L. P. spaces, etc 42 34 

*' 11 oz. Brevier do 60 41 

" 4lbsLeads.. 30 1 20 

" 1 Fount 2-line Pearl 1 .52 

" 1 '■ Rlinion Caps 162 

" 1 *' Brevier Antitiue 102 

•' 1 " Pica, black 128 

" 2 Large Dashes 1 00 

" 22 Small Dashes .50 

" IHorseCut 5 50 

" 24 Cuts, assorted 8 20 

" 17!4 feet Common Rule 37)^ 6 50 

'■ 4 •' Double " 37!^ 150 

" 12 " Single " 10 120 

2 Composing Sticks 4 00 

" 1 " " 3 00 

" 30 lbs. News Ink 33 9 90 

1 Keg for Ink 50 

1 Post Office Stamp 75 

$-»2 55 

" 3 Boxes . 40c 120 

" Cartage 25 

" 1 Super Royal Ramage Press 7() 00 

*' Boxing, Packing, etc., of Press 6 00 

Cartage on Press 50 

77 95 

J2S0 50 

(Jii tlie mai'sin is writien in pencil — 

Paid Freight $17 98 

On the opposite page of the aljove Ijill is the follow- 
ing letter: 

"New York, May 6th, 1H29. 
" Heman Ely, Esq.— 

" Dear Sir:— Herewitli you have a bill of articles shipped you tliis 
day. I think it to be judiciously arranged for a country office. Not 
finding any second-hand type that I judged would please you, and as I 
have reduced the pi-ice oi my small pica 6 per cent., and my bourgoise 
S per cent, per pound, and the price of other sizes about in the same 
proportion. I concluded it l>est to send you new type. Should you 
find anything wanting, name it, and it shall lie sent. The press, 
boxing and cartage I have charged only at what I had to pay, which is 
$10 less than you could have got it at had you applied in person. I 
purchase largely of the man, and my custom is an object to him. It 
my bill is to be charged to you as a cash sale^ you will be entitled to a 
disct. of 714 per cent, on all but the press, b<)xes and cartage, viz: on 
$202.5.5, which disct. I shall have to credit you in account. 

" Yours Sincei-ely, E. White, 

"per John T. White." 

Mr. Ely remitted the cash, thus saving nearly tjie 
amount of freight in the discount. 

Mr. Park sold his pa]ier in Aslitahula, and removed 
to Elyria with his family, arriving June 18, 1829. 
The press, known as tlie "two-pull Ramage," con- 
structed almost entirely of wood, was put up in the 
small one-story building, two dooi-s cast of East 
avenue, on the south side of ]5road street, (now No. 
22,) where the first number of the Lorain Gazette 
was issued July 24. 1829. The first stickful of type 
set iu this county was by Calvin Hall, then si.xteen 

years old, who accompanied Mr. Park from Ashtabula 
as an apprentice. It is made a part of this record, 
not only as a matter of general interest, but because 
it is doubtful if the same number of high-sounding 
words have since been compressed into a single stick- 
ful. It was as follows: 

[from the literary chronicle.] 
"The sack of the city had commenced. The fire darted from a 
hundred roofs; the crash of broken bars and bolts rang through the 
bloodstained streets of the long ])eaceful Mother of the Arts. Barbar- 
ians of gigantic stature, their hair flowing wildly on their shoulders, and 
wielding spears of prodigious length, with fierce gestures and dissonant 
cries, trampled the venerable halls of the Areoimgus, and violated the 
holy stillness of the Parthenon." 

The Gazette was a five column folio, sent by mail 
for two dollars, and delivered in the village for two 
dollars and fifty cents a year. In politics, it sup- 
ported the whig party. A copy of the first number, 
now in the Elyria library, contains the name of "A 
S. Park, printer, publisher, and proi^rietor. " Fred- 
erick Whittlesey was editor of the paper, for the first 
six months, after which its publisher assumed entire 
charge, and its columns were chiefly filletl with 
selected miscellany and news items. In the fall of 
1830, Mr. Abraham Burrell, also a practical printer, 
became a partner in the paper, and its publication 
was continuetl by Park & 15urrcll, until the spring of 
1832, when it passed into the hands of James F. 
Manter, who changed its name to The Elyria Times. 
Only an occasional copy of the Gazette is now extant. 

Archibald 8. Park served his apprenticeship iu the 
office of Ileacock & Bowen, publishers of the Ashta- 
bula liecorder. He was sul>se<piently connected with 
two more journals in Elyria, and not finding the bus- 
mess sufficiently lucrative, abandoned the case in 
1834, and engaged iu other business. He still lives 
in Elyria, hale and hearty, at the age of seventy-four 
years, where he has ever sustained the character of an 
honest and ujiright citizen. 

Frederick Whittlesey, the pioneer editor of the 
county, removed to Cleveland in 1835, where he died 
November 13, 1854, aged fifty-three years. He was 
held in high esteem, and among various offices that 
he filled with credit, were that of clerk of the Cuyahoga 
court of common pleas, and senator in the legislature 
from Cuyahoga, county, for several years. 

Abraham Burrell was tliorouohly taught the print- 
ers' art in the state of New York. lie came to Elyria 
in the spring of 1830. and went lo work as coinitositor 
in the Gazette office. He was subsecpiently printer of 
the Oliio Atlas. Jlvrkeye Sentinel, Elyria t'ovrier, 
Lorain Anjus, Lorain Eagle, and for a nnnd)er of 
years of the lt'de2]enilent Eemoerat, published by the 
writer, in whose emjiloyment he died November 23, 
1808, at the age of sixty -nine years. Mr. Burrell was 
emjihatically the veteran printer of Lorain county. 
He was a man of remarkable industry, was strictly 
honest in his dealings, but he experienced many of 
the ups and downs incident to his profession. He 
was better fitted for the mechanical than the business 
dejiarlinent of a newspaper, and worked more hours 



in a day, and more days in a week, than any person 
wlio li.-i.s ever lived so long in Elyria. 


This paper immediately succeeded the GcaeUc, and 
also supported the whig party. Mr. Manter pub- 
lished it three months, without changing its size or 
l)rioe. under promises of adequate support, which 
were not realized, and about the first of June, 18.')'3, 
he sold the office and good will to A. S. Park and 
Josiah A. Ilari'is, who added new material, enlarged 
the sheet, and changed its name to 'Ihe Ohio Atlas 
and Elyria Advertiser. 

My. Manter learned the art of printing in the office 
of the Patriot, Utica, New York. After working at 
the case in various places in that State, he removed to 
Ohio, and in May, 182G, came to Elyria, where he 
engaged in farming. The three months during which 
he published the Times, concluded his labors as 
printer and publisher. He now resides in Elyria, at 
the age of nearly eighty-one years, remarkable for his 
physical and mental vigor, and respected for his many 
excellent traits of character. He has no recollection 
of the date when he commenced or concluded the 
publication of the Times, except that it was in the 
early ])art of 1832, and, so far as is known, no copy of 
it is now in existence. 


Soon after the purchase of the Times, by Messrs. 
Park & Harris, they issued the Oliio Atlas and Elyria 
Advertiser. The first number was dated July 13, 
18.32. It was a six column folio, presenting a much 
better ajijiearance than its predecessor, and for twelve 
years, under tlie editorial charge of various persons, 
it sustained a high character, as a newspaper. Its 
motto was the interrogative, " What is it but a map 
(if busy life?" Its terms were, #2, if jiaid within six 
months, and 12.50, if not paid within one year. 
Among its regular contributors was Rev. Alfred H. 
Betts, of Brownhelm, whose letters to the young, 
over the familiar initials, " B. H. A.," continued for 
some years, and were widely read. A few months 
after the paper was started, Mr. Park sold his interest 
to his associate, and retired. Up to this period, Mr. 
Harris was its editor, and, on the retirement of Mr. 
Park, Abraham Burrell became its printer, and re- 
mained in that position until it was discontinued in 

Mr. Harris conducted the paper, as editor and 
proprietor, until the 21st day of November, 1833, 
when he sold the office to Frederick Whittlesey and 
Edward S. Hamlin. Albert A. Bliss, then a law 
student in their office, became its editor. The paper 
was increased to seven columns, and otherwise im- 
proved in its general make up, as well as in its sjiirit 
and ability. On the 10th day of July, 1834, A. A. 
Bliss and Thomas Tyrrell became its editors and pro- 
prietoi-s, and on the 27th of November, of the same 
year, Mr. Bliss published his valedictory, with an 

intimation that, although his connection with the 
]iaper had been personally agreeable, his purse had 
been somewhat depleted thereby. He did not long 
remain absent from the chair editorial, for, on the 
22d of January, 1835, as appears by a single tattered 
copy of the Atl<(s of that date, he resumed his duties 
as editor. The fragment of the copy contains the 
following editorial notice: 

For reasons, which it is iinnecsssary to detail, the subscriber lias 
again become connectetl with the Athii<. All business relating to the 
establishment, other than with the editorial department, will be trans- 
acted by the proprietors, T. Tyrrell & Co. A. A. Buss. 

The exact time when Mr. Bliss finally retired from 
the paper cannot be ascertained, Imt it was aliout the 
beginning of 1836. On the 10th of Febi-uary, 1836, 
the name of E. S. Hamlin appears as editor, and A. 
Burrell & Co. as publishers. Mr. Bliss went to 
Cleveland, temporarily, and, in connection with 
Charles Whittlesey, conducted the Cleveland Gazette 
through the campaign of 1836. Not long after Mr. 
Hamlin took charge of the pajier he sold it to an 
association of gentlemen, consisting of D. W. Lathrop, 
H. Ely, S. W. Baldwin, Wm. Andrews, Ozias Long, 
Franklin Wells, and, possibly, others, who formed a 
stock company, and, under the new management, Mr. 
Lathrop became its editor. A. Burrell continued to 
be its i^rinter. The exact date of this transfer is 
not known, but it was previous to July 27 1836. 
Under the management of Mr. Lathrop, the Atlas 
took an advanced position on all the moral questions 
of the day, and was an able champion of the princi- 
ples of the whig party. The exact date of his with- 
drawal is also not known, but it was about July 1, 
1842. Mr. Burrell continued to print the paper, and 
its editorial labor was performed by W^m. P. Lock- 
wood, and later, by Ezra L. Stevens, who, ou the 12th 
of June, 1844, became jiart proprietor of the office, 
susjiended the publication of the Atlas, and issued it 
under the name of the Buckeye Sentinel. 

Of those who were connected with the Atlas, Josiah 
A. Harris removed to Cleveland, and in 1837 inir- 
chased the Cleveland Herald, which he published for 
a number of years with distinguished ability. lie 
died in that city August 21, 1876, aged sixty-eight 
years, lamented by all who knew him. 

Albert A. Bliss was born in Canton, Conn., March 
23, 1811. He removed to Elyria in June, 1833, where 
he was admitted to the bar, and for a number of years 
occujiied the highest position as an attorney. He 
represented this county in the legislature during the 
thirty-eighth, thirty-ninth and fortieth general assem- 
blies, in 1839, '40 and '41, where he took a prominent 
jjosition as a debater. He subsequently established 
the Elyria Courier, and in 1846 was elected treasurer 
of state, serving five years. In May, 1863, he removed 
to Jackson, Michigan, where he now resides, widely 
esteemed for the unblemished character he has ever 

Thomas Tyrrell left Elyria in the fall of 1835, and, 
if living, his present residence is unknown. 



Edward S. Hamlin ranked among the best members 
of the Lorain bar, was elected to congress to fill a 
vacancy in 1844, and served during the second session 
of the twenty-eightji congress. A short time after 
his term expired, he removed to Southern Ohio, where 
he lived a number of years, and then removed to 
N'irginia. lie now resides in Egremont, Mass. Mr. 
Jhimlin first settled in Elyria in 1830. 

Rev. D. W. Lathrop, who edited the Athix for 
nearly six years, came to Elyria in 1834. He partici- 
pated in the organization of the First Presljytei'ian 
Church in Elyria, in that year, became is first pastor, 
iind hiliored in that relation for about six years. After 
I'dinquishing his editorial charge, in 1842, he was 
employed as agent of the American Home Missionary 
Society, and in 1848 removed to New Haven, C'onn. 
At this time, he is residing in Jackson, jMicli., aged 
eighty years. He was a man of much ability aiid 
untiring industry, and even now spends much of his 
time in writing. 

It is deeply to be regretted that so few copies of the 
Ohio Atlas, containing so much of personal and local 
history that would be valuable at this day, have been 


Soon after A. S. Park sold his interest in the A this, 
he went to New York and purchased a newspaper 
outfit, including an iron press, the first ever brought 
here, and on the fourth day of Octolier, 1833, issued the 
first number of a weekly paper with the above title. 
It was a three-column quarto, and was entirely filled 
with original and selected matter — no advertisements. 
It did not prove to be a profitable venture for its 
l)ublisher; and after continuing it one year, Mr. Park 
sold the establishment to Dr. Matson, H. K. Kendall, 
Edwin Byington and Dr. E. W. Htibliard, who issued 
the first democratic paper ever published in the county 
and called it 


Soon after the transfer aliove referred to, the pur- 
chasers negotiated with Samuel L.IIatch, of Chenango, 
N. Y., who removed to Elyria, and on the second day 
of October, 1834, issued the first number of the above- 
named paper. Mr. Hatch was its nominal editor, but 
most of the proprietors contributed to its editorial 
columns. It was a six-column folio, its terms being 
one dollar and seventy-five cents in advance, two dol- 
lars within six months, and two dollars and fifty cents 
within one year. In January, 1835, LeGrand Bying- 
ton, then (piite a young man, came on from Chenango, 
purchased tlic paper, and continued its publication, a 
l)art of the time in connection with Calvin Hall, until 
May 17, 1837. During this time, political excitement 
ran high, and the cause of the democratic party was 
c'hainpioiu'd by Mr. Byington with great energy, and 
his ]ia])cr fairly bristled with pungent personal ])ara- 

graphs. Not being sustained in the effort to make 
the pajier remunerative, he declined to publish it 
longer; and at the date above mentioned, the estab- 
lishment passed into the hands of Horace D. Clark, 
who drop2)ed the "atul W^rkiny-tiietis Advocate" from 
its title, and issued his first number May 24, 1837. 
Calvin Hall was employed to print it. Mr. Clark 
continued to conduct the itajicr until August 30, 1838, 
when he transferred it to E. R. Jewitt and Calvin 
Hall, the former having charge of the editurial, and 
the latter the mechanical department. Mr. Jewitt 
retained his connection with the paper for about one 
year, when he retired, and Jlr. Hall continued its 
juiblication until the spring of 1840, when it was 
purchased by Charles Chaney, who changed its title 
to The Lorain Standard. The Eepnhlicaii and its 
immediate successors were never iiecuniarily prosper- 
ous. Like some of the whig papers of that and a 
later period, they were sustained by their partisan 
friends, who came to the rescue with their contri- 
butions occasionally to relieve their ])ublishers from 
embarrassment. The whigs were generally most able 
or most willing to sustain their organs, and the amount 
of the dclin(|uency which either party was called upon 
to contribute depended largely upon the county pat- 
ronage, which at that period alternated between the 

Horace D. Clark came to Elyria, .luly 4, 1834. 
During his residence here, of nearly a quarter of a 
century, he occupied a prominent position at the bar, 
was an active politician, but not ambitious for official 
position. He was a member of the convention which 
formed the present constitution of Ohio, in 1850, and 
removed to Cleveland some time i)revious to the com- 
mencement of the civil war. He now resides in Mon- 
treal, Canada, enjoying the fruits of a long and active 
professional career. 

Samuel L. Hatch removed to Norwalk in 1835, and, 
in company with Joseph M. Farr, established the 
Norwalk E.qjeriment. His subsequent history is not 
known to his associates in Elyria. 

LeGrand Byington distinguished himself while 
here as a bitter partisan of the pro-slavery school, and 
more particularly as the author of a series of articles 
called ''Chronicles,'" in prose and poetry, which were 
published in three numbers, over the nom deplume of 
"Peter Porcupine, Esq." in which all his prominent 
political O])poncnts were savagely caricatured. He 
went to Ravenna in the spring of 1838, where he ]nil)- 
lished a paper for a few months called Tlie Bvekei/e 
Democrat, and from there he removed to Pike county, 
Ohio, He represented Pike county in the fortieth 
and forty-first general assemblies. While there he 
married, and subsequently removed to Iowa, where 
he now I'csides in Iowa City, reputed to be the 
wealthiest citizen of the State. 

Calvin Hall removed to Cleveland January 3, 1841, 
and assumed the management of the Cleveland Ad- 
vertiser, a weekly paper, and for a time issued a penny 
daily called the Morning Mercury. At the close of 



the year the Advertiser was purchased by A. N. and 
J. W. Gray, wlio, on tlie 8th of January, 1843, rrans- 
fornied it into the Plain Dealer. Mr. Hall still 
resides in Cleveland, where he has worked at the case 
for thirty-six years. 

E. R. Jewitt, who was the last regular editor of the 
RepiMican under its original name, was a man of 
very positive convictions, and, during his editorial 
charge, the pai)cr lacked none of the qualities that 
would recommend it to the intensely partisan portion 
of his party. After leaving the editorial chair he 
remained in Elyria until the fall of 1840, when he left 
and entered the ministry as a member of the North 
Ohio Conference. For many years he has devoted 
his energies to the cause of Christianity with the same 
zeal that characterized his political efforts. He now 
resides in Sandusky City, with health much impaired, 
engaged in selling books and stationery, aged sixty- 
seven years. He still retains his connection with the 
conference on the superannuated list. 


This paper was issued soon after the pui-chase of 
the press and type of the llepublicaii by Charles 
Chauey, the first number being dated April 7, 1840. 
It was also a six-column folio; terms, f3 in advance, 
and 13.50 after six months. It was printed by Horace 
C. Tenney, who was also associate editor. Mr. Chancy 
continued its publication as a democratic paper until 
November 3, 1840, when, not finding its self-sustain- 
ing, he discontinued it. A comi)lete file of this paper 
is now in the Elyria library, presented by Hon. Horace 
A. Tenney. 

Charles Chancy never again engaged in a newspaper 
enterprise. He continued to reside iu Elyria, quietly 
jiursuing the several Ijranches of business in which he 
was at different times engaged, where he died July 
30, 1874, aged eighty-two years. He was a justice of 
the peace for several yeai-s, and served one term as 
treasurer of the county. 


When Mr. Chancy discontinued the Stait(h(nl, the 
press and type remained idle until November 18, 1841, 
when the material was purchased by Edmund S. Ellis, 
who started a new democratic ]iaper with the above 
title. It was of the same size and form as the Stand- 
ard; terms $3 in advance. On the 13th of April, 
1843, Mr. Ellis sold the paper to Horace A. Tenney, 
and removed to the central })art of Ohio. Mr. Tenney 
publislied it until November 16, 1843, — the close of 
the first volume, — when he changed its name to 


He continued the Repuhlica7i in the same size and 
form, and with varied success, until the fall of 1844, 
when it was discontinued for want of adequate support. 

Horace A. Tenney came to Elyria in 1S3C, and im- 
mediately went to work as compositor iu the office of 

the Republican. He spent most of his time in jour- 
nalism while he resided here, and, in 1845, there being 
no prosjiect of a revival of the democratic j^aper, he 
boxed the press and type and shipped them to Galena, 
Illiiuiis, where they became the proiierty of the Galena 
Jejfersonian. The old press is still in use in that 
city. Mr. Tenney now resides in Madison, Wisconsin, 
where he has lived many yeai-s, and where he has held 
numerous offices of trust and responsibility. He is at 
present engaged in writing biographical sketches of 
the members of the Wisconsin constitutional conven- 
tion of 1846-1847. 


Soon after the suspension of the Republican, in the 
fall of 1844, Eleazar Wakeloy, then a young attorney 
in Elyria, issued one number of the Dollar Democrat; 
but sufficient encouragement not being given for its 
continiuince, it was suspended. Prom this period 
uutil March 14, 1848, there was no democratic paper 
published in this county. Mr. Wakeley removed to 
Wisconsin, where he was appointed territorial judge 
in 1854. He now resides in Omaha, Nebraska, where 
he has acquired wealth and honor in his profession. 


This paper, as has been before stated, was successor 
to the Ohio Atlas, the first issue a}ipearing the week 
following the susi)eusion of that paper, and bearing 
date June l!t, 1844. Ezra L. Stevens was its editor, 
and Abraham Burrell publisher. During the exciting 
cami)aign of 1844, the Sentinel urged the election of 
Henry Clay for president with much si^iritand ability, 
and, a short time after its close, Mr. Stevens sold his 
interest to Mr. Bnrrell and retired. Mr. Biirrell con- 
tinued to publish the papei-, acting in the capacity of 
both editor ami printer for nearly two years, when it 
became nececsary to reorganize the establishment 
in order to put it on a paying basis. Mr. A. Bliss 
purchased tlie press and suspended its publication, 
succeeding it in November, 1846, with a new paper 
called Tlie Elyria Courier. 

Ezra L. Stevens, after completing his collegiate 
studies at Oberlin, entered the law office of Hamlin 
and Lockwood, in tlie fall of 1843, but finding jour- 
nalism more congenial to his taste, devoted most of 
his time to politics. On retiring from the Sentinel 
he went to Olmsted Falls, and commenced the j)nbli- 
catiou of Tlie True Democrat, which he conducted 
for some time, and then removed the office to Cleve- 
land, where, in connection with E. S. Hamlin, he 
converted it into a daily. The paper subsequently 
went into other hands, and is now the Cleveland 
Leader. After leaving Tlie True Democrat Mr. 
Stevens removed to AVashington, where for a time he 
was engaged as a newspaper correspondent. He still 
resides there, and during the past quarter of a century 
has been in the government service. 

William F. Lockwood served for some years as terri- 
torial judge in Nebraska, and subsecpiently removed 



to Toledo, where lie now resides. He was recently 
elected to the office of judge of the common jDleas 
court, hy the united recommendation of the bar, of 
all parties. 


On the suspension of the Sentinel Mr. Albert A. Bliss 
purchased a now supply of type in Boston, and com- 
menced, in connection with A. Burrell, the publication 
of The Elyria Courier. The first number was issued 
Noveinl)er 10, 184(5; A. A. Bliss, editor, A. Burrell, 
printer. It was a seven column folio; terms, $2,00 a 
year. During the session of the legislature the fol- 
lowing winter Mr. Bliss was elected treasurer of state, 
and on the 27th of February, 1847, he sold his interest 
in the paper to Job n II. Faxon, then sheriif of the coun- 
ty. It was published by Faxon and Burrell, until April 
13, 1847, when Mr. Faxon became sole proprietor and 
published it until December 7, 1847, when he sold the 
paper to Edmund A. West. Mr. West employed J. 
Wesley Udall as printer, and continued its publication 
as a whig paper until the campaign of 1848, when he 
refused to support General Taylor for the presidency, 
and the Courier became an organ of the "Free Soil" 
party. About the first of November, 1849, Mr. West 
sold the paper to Jerome Cotton, who had acquired a 
good reputation as a Washington correspondent of 
several leading journals. He changed the title to 
Elyria Weekly Courier, and continued to support the 
free soil party; but many of the active whigs who 
supported Van Buren in 1848, fell back into the ranks 
of their old party, and the Courier gradually lost 
much of its support. On the first of June, 1850, an 
association of gentlemen, among whom were Myron 
R. Keith, Landon Rood, and Benjamin C. Perkins, 
j)urchased the Courier establishment of Mr. Cotton, 
with the design of converting it into an organ of the 
whig pai'ty, and on the 10th of the same month 
George G. Washl:>uru took charge of it as editor, Mr. 
Udall continuing to print it. Its original title was 
restored, and from this time forward the paper became 
self-sustaining; but on the 10th day of February, 1852, 
the office and all its contents were destroyed by fire, 
witliout insurance, in the first great conflagration that 
destroyed commercial block. After the lajtse of four- 
teen weeks a new outfit was ^lurchased by George G. 
Washburn and George T. Smith, and its publication 
was resumed, with these gentlemen as editors, and Mr. 
Udall printer, until January 35, 1854, when Mr. 
Washburn sold his interest to his partner, and soon 
after (he ('ouricr and Independent Democrat, then 
published by Philemon Bliss, were united, retaining 
the name of the latter. 

John H. Faxon, subsequently tilled various offices 
acceptably, both state and national, and for two terms 
rejn-esented the county in the lower branch of the 
legislature. He is still an honoi'ed resident of 

Edmund A. West removed to Chicago soon after 
relinquisliiug journalism, where he is now engaged in 

the practice of law, making a specialty of cases relat- 
ing to patents. 

Jerome Cotton resumed his position as correspon- 
dent, after leaving the Courier, but his health began 
to decline, and in the summer of 1851 he returned to 
Elyria, where he died September 21, 1852, of con- 
sumption, aged twenty-eiglit years. He was a ready 
and spicy writer, giving promise of much ability in 
the profession of journalism. 

George T. Smith retained his connection with the 
Democrat until November, 1855, when he sold his 
intei-est to George G. Washburn, and soon after re- 
moved to Illinois. He now resides in Cleveland, 
engaged in the practice of law. 


AVhen Edmund A. West purchased the Courier office 
he failed to make satisfactory arrangements with Abra- 
ham Burrell to print it for him, and employed J. W. 
Udall instead. Tliis threw Mr. Burrell out of employ- 
ment, but he soon foi-nied a partnership with Sylvester 
Matson, purchased a press and type, and on the 11th 
day of January, 1848, issued the first luunber of the 
Lorain Argus. It was a seven column folio; terms 
11.50 in advance, $2.50 after one year. No responsi- 
ble editor was announced, and various j'ersons con- 
tributed its political matter for nearly two years. 
Among the number of those most prominent were 
H. D. Clark, .lohn M. Vincent and John H. Sherman. 
Mr. Matson did not retain his interest long after the 
first year, disposing of it to other parties, and the 
whole management devolved upon Mr. Burrell. On 
the first of January, 1851, Mr. Sherman was an- 
nounced as editor, but he withdrew on the 22d of July 
following. Fi-om that date until December, 1851, 
Mr. Vincent was its responsible editor. Geo. B, 
Lake then took the editorial chair, sub rosa, and con- 
tributed most of the editorial matter for sevenil 
months. On the night of August 10, 1852, the 
building in which the paper was printed, called Gar- 
vey's Exchange, took fire, and was mostly consumed. 
The press, most of the type, and nearly all of the 
furniture in the printing office were destroyed. With 
the insurance money, Mr. Burrell purchased the old 
press and type formerly used by the Sandusky Eeyis- 
ter, and being aided jiecuniarily by E. C. K. Garvey, 
resumed its publication, considerably enlarged by 
lengthening its columns. Mr. Garvey soon secured 
control of the entire estalilishment, and retaining Mr. 
Burrell as printer, conducted it until November 17, 

1852, when he sold it to Bird B. Chapman & Co., and 
L. S. Everett, who had been nomiiuil editor during 
Mr. Garvey's ownership, became its responsible editor. 
The title of the paper was changed to The Lorain 
County Aryiis. 

Mr. Everett retired from the Aryvs, November 10. 

1853, and at that date John H. Sherman purchased an 
interest in the office, and became its editor-in-chief. 
The exact time when he retired is not known, but he 
remained only a few mouths; and on his retirement, 



the paper Avas published by Mr. Chapni;iii: aiulduriiiij 
his frequent terms of absence, various parties wrote 
for its columns, Mr. Burrell contributing his share. 
Having lost the county i>rinting, tlie paper began to 
be a burden to its proprietor, and on the 18th of 
April, 1855, Mr. Chapnuiu discontinued its publica- 
tion, packed the material and shipped it to Nebraska, 
wliere he established the Omaha Nebraskiun. 

Of the seven persons not previously mentioned, 
who were connected with the Aiijus, only one is now 
known to be living. 

Sylvester Matsou removed to t'levelaud, where he 
eidisted in the United States army, and served out 
his term. Ou the breaking out of the rebellion, he 
volunteered in the cause of tlie union, and was killed 
in one of the great conflicts of the war. 

John II. Sherman was a young man of considerable 
ability as a writer, but his connection with journalism 
here was brief, lie left Elyria, in connection with 
Mr. Chapman, in 1855, and went to Nebraska, where 
for sonu^ years he was connected editorially with the 
Omaha JSebrdnkian. He died in Council BlulTs, in 

E. C. K. Garvey was a man of great business activity, 
but with little business capacity. He removed to 
Kansas during the "border-ruflian '" troubles, where 
he espoused the "free State" cause with much ardor, 
and was on one occasion lynched by the rufiians, but 
was neither intimidated nor subdued. He was resid- 
ing in Kansas when last heard from, many years ago, 
but it is hardly probable that he is now living. 

Bird B. Chapman removed to Omaha and was elected 
the first delegate in congress from that territory, which 
was organized in 1854. He contested his opponent's 
seat for the second term, but was unsuccessful, securing 
however his pay and mileage. In 1859, he returned 
to Elyria, where he resided until 1802, when he re- 
moved to Put-in-Bay island, where lie died after a 
Imgering illness, Septemljer 12, 1871, aged fifty years. 

George B. Lake removed to Nebraska, and entered 
upon the ]iractice of the law with marked success. 
His character and al)ilitics were soon recognized l>y 
the jieople, who have for several terms elected him to 
the highest judicial jiosition in the State, and he still 
resides in Omaha, an honored member of the supreme 

L. S. Everett came to Elyria, a democrat in political 
oj)inions, during the Kansas-Nebraska troubles; and 
when the Iiidependent Democrat, which represented 
the free democracy, was started, he Ijecame its first 
editor. He was a man of much ability and large 
experience as a journalist, and his immediate return 
to the democratic fold, after waging a vigorous war- 
fare against that party in the columns of the Bcmocraf, 
showed that he had facility to change, as well as 
ability to assert his )>rinciples. After leaving the 
Argus, he removed from the county, and foi- a time 
wrote for the Plain Dealer, but returned in 1866, and 
commenced the publication of the Lorain. Constilu- 
tionalist, which he conducted about one j'ear, when 

he removed to Akron, where he died a few years since, 
considerably advanced in years. 

John M. Vincent was an honored mendjcr of the 
legal profession, and his connection with journalism 
w^as only incidental. He subsequently, in connection 
witii Philemon Bliss, established the Independenl 
Democrat, but immediately afterward devoted his 
entire attention to his clients. A sketch of his life 
will be found in tlie history of the bar. 


This journal was started at a very important epoch 
in the history of our country, and as its publication 
was continued for a quarter of a century, nearly all of 
the time under the proprietorship and management 
of one individual, it is due that a brief notice of its 
origin be here given. The passage of the fugitive 
slave act of 1850, and its attempted enforcement by 
lioth of the great national parties, aroused a sp;rit f)f 
hostility, both to the act and the system it sought to 
perjtetuate, on the part of many who still clung to 
their old party organizations, although opposed to 
slavery. In the campaign of 1852, both the whig and 
democratic parties virtually allowed the pro-slavery 
element to dictate their platforms, and from this 
period the tendency to break away from old associa- 
tions began to be developed. It was to aid in disinte- 
grating these old parties, and in forming a new one 
based upon tlie broad idatform of human rights, that 
the Independent Democrat was established. The funds 
necessary to purchase the outfit were contributed by 
various persons who had formerly been affiliated with 
the old parties. Prominent among tliose who fur- 
nished pecuniary aid were Norton S. Townshend, then 
a resident of this county, and Salmon P. Chase, then 
If^nited States senator from Ohio, and late chief justice 
of the supreme court. Far the greater portion of the 
necessary funds were contributed by Philemon Bliss. 

Philemon Bliss, formerly a whig, and Jolin M. 
Vincent, formerly a democrat, had charge of the 
enterprise, and on the 5th day of August, 1853, 
issued the first number, as editors and publishers. 
Jonathan I). Baker was employed as printer. It was 
a seven-column folio; terms, 11.50 per annum. It 
was ably conducted under their management until 
January 12, 1853, when Mr. Vincent retired, leaving 
Mr. Bliss in sole charge. On the 13th of April fol- 
lowing, Joseph H. Dickson was employed to edit the 
paper; and on the 10th of August, the same year, 
John H. Boynton and Mr. Dickson assumed the entire 
charge, and conducted it until the 28th of December, 
when it was again turned over to Air. Bliss, who pub- 
lished it until February 1st, 185-1. Meanwhile several 
persons printed the paper. Mr. Baker withdrew^ Oc- 
tober 12, 1853, and was succeeded by A. J. and G. 
McElleran, who remained tuily one w-eek, and were 
succeeded by Tower J. Burrell, who printed it until 
tlie 1st of February. 1854. 

At this date, the interests of the Courier •ati'X Dem- 
ocrat were united, with P. Bliss and Geo. T. Smith, 



editors and proprietors, and J. W. Udiill, of the late 
Courier, printer. Under tliis management, tliepa])er 
was continned until November ^8, 1855, when Mr. 
Smith sold his interest to the writer of these annals, 
and during the suceeeding ycai' tlie Ormucrfft was 
published by Bliss & Washliurn. Tiie hdter was 
editor and business manager, and tiie formei', who 
had previously been eleeted to congress, was coi'res- 
j)onding editor. At the (dose of the year, 185(!, Mr. 
Washburn became, ))y purchase, possessor of the 
office, and fin- upwards of twenty-one years following, 
was its sole projjrietor, editor, and business manager. 
In 1859, the title was changed to Elyria IndependvMt 
Democrat. On the 24th of March, 1858, Mr. Udall 
was eonii)elled to relimpiish his i)ost as jirinter, on 
account of failing health, and Abraham Burrell, who 
was associated with his son in the publication of the 
Emjlv, withdrew from that jounuil, and took Mr. 
Udall's place, which he faithfully retained until his 
death, November 23, 18G8. At his death, his son, 
S. A. Burrell, who was a journeyman in the ottice, 
assumed the duties of printer, and retained the posi- 
tion until the paper was discontinued. 

On the 1st of February, 1877, the interests of the 
Democrat and Eti/riu Reputilicnu were united, retain- 
ing the name of the latter, as nioi-eajjjirojiriate to the 
l)rinciples which the Democrat had, for a (piarter of a 
century, ever steadfastly advoc-ited. Coming into 
being when the public mind was in a state of unrest 
concerning the designs of the slave jiowei', the Inde- 
penilent I'emocrat took an active i)art in unifying and 
crystaliziug tiiat sentinuMit in opposition to the further 
encroachments of slavery u[ion the jiublic donuiin. 
It lived to witness the rajjid growth, and final success, 
of the new party of freedom. It witnessed the inaug- 
uration of the great slaveholdei's' rebellion, and east- 
ing its lot with the loyal millions, rejoiced with them 
in witnessing its final overthrow, and the restoration 
of nil the States under the tlag of thelhiiou. During 
all these eventful years, tlie aim of its puldisher was 
to so conduct it as to merit the ai)jU'oval of loyal men, 
and not disai)j)oint the hojies and exjiectations of its 

Of the persons jirominently connected with the 
Democrat, but a brief notice will be given: 

Messrs. P. Bliss and J. II. Dickson were more dis- 
tinguished as lawyers than as journalists, and will be 
noticed in the chaiiter on the bar. 

J. II. Boyntiiu has tilled various inipoi'tant jtositious 
in the gift of tiie jieople, with such entire acceptance, 
as to merit the puldic esteem that is universally be- 
stowed upon him. 

J. D. Baker removed to l':iulding county, Ohio, 
in October, 18.")o, and, for a time, edited and pub- 
lished the Paulding Democrat. His subseipient his- 
tory is not known. 

J. W. Udall entered the office of the Ohio Atlas as 
an errand boy, at the age of tiiirteeu years, making 
himself useful ill every part assigned liiiii. In lliose 
days, the mails were very irregular, and for a few of 

the first years of his apjirenticeship, in addition to 
his labors as "devil " and compositor, he performed 
the office of jiost-rider — taking a large sack of the 
(lapers each week, iiiioii a, and distributing 
them in bundles, to each neighborhood, in the north 
part of. the county. This duty he performed with 
remarkable fidelity; and whether it rained in torrents, 
or the scorching sun sent his heated rays upon the 
earth, or stern winter its freezing blasts, the weekly 
advent of the post-boy was expected with as much 
certainty as the rising of the sun. When the mail 
facilities of the county rendered this branch of ser- 
vice no longer necessai'y, Mr. Udall devoted his time 
exclusively to his duties in the office, serving an ap- 
prenticeship of seven years before he asi)ired to the 
position of a "jour." He became an expert printer, 
and ever enjoyed the fullest confidence of his em- 
ployers, scarcely losing a day from his case after he 
became a journeyman. When he realiz.ed that his 
disease (consumption) was beyond remedy, he went 
to his sister's house, in Hudson, Ohio, where he was 
kindly cared for until his death, which occurred 
August 18, 1858, aged thirty-three years. 


After the suspension of the Aryun, there was no 
Democratic jjaper printed in the county for nearly 
two years. In the spring of 1857, a sufficient sum 
was pledged, by subscription, to purchase the mate- 
rial, and on the seventh of March, of that year, A. 
and T. J. Burrell issued the first number of the 
Lorain Eafjle. It was a seven column folio, pub- 
lished in Elyria; price 13 a year, in advance. On the 
2-lth of March, 1858, Abraham Burrell withdrew, and 
took the position of printer of the hidependent Dem- 
ocrat. Ilis son, T. J. Burrell, continued to publish 
the Eagle until after the rebellion broke out, when, 
in consecjuence of its equivocal position concerning 
the management of the war, it ceased to pay expenses, 
and was discontinued in August, 18')1. During the 
five years of its existence, no responsible editor was 
announced, and what editorial matter was not written 
by its publishers, was furnished by various persons 
during the i)olitical cam])aigns. 


Oil the third day of October, 1860, Mr. L. S. Everett 
issued the first number of this journal, a democratic 
paper, which was a seven-column folio; terms, |i2.00 
a year. Mr. Everett was not the owner of the estab- 
lishment, but announced that he published it "for 
the proprietors," whose names are not given. F. S. 
Moore was its printer. On the 8th day of July, 1867, 
a joint stock company was formed, consisting of A. 
A. Crosse, II. U. Poppleton, N. L. Johnson, P. W. 
Sampsel and others, with a capital stock of three thou- 
sand dollars, divided into shares of ten dollars each, 
which assumed the resjionsibility of the jiublication, 
Mr. Everett still officiating as editor, until near the 
close of the first volume, when he withdrew. It was 



tlien "Published by the Lorain Printing Company," 
and N. L. Johnson, president of the company, C(m- 
tribntcd most of the editorial matter. Mr. Moore 
continued to serve as printer. This relation existed 
until June 9, 18C9, when Mr. Jumes K. Newcomer 
assumed the editorial and business control of the jiaper, 
the iiroprietary interest still remaining in the printing 
company. The word "Lorain "was drojiped from its 
title. On the night of January 22, 1870, a fire broke 
out in the oftice, and. before it was extinguished, a 
large portion of the tyj)e,was destroyed, the presses 
alone escaping injury. The damage was estimated at 
one thousand dollars. Mr. Moore, proprietor of the 
job department, lost a portion of jiis material. With 
tlie aid rendered by tlie proprietor of the Democrat, 
tlie Const tint iuinilisf ajjpeared on time the next week, 
and, after February 10, it apjieared regularly, with 
the word " I.oiain " again replaced in its title. Mr. 
Newcomer retained his position as editor until the 
close of tlie political campaign of 1870, when he with- 
drew and F. S. Moore became its publisher, N. L. 
Johnson furnishing the leading political articles. Mr. 
Moore continued to publish it until November 1, 

1871, when Mr. J. V. Faitli took charge of the edi- 
torial and business dejiartment, under an agreement 
to publish it one year without charge to the proprie- 
tors, in consideration of which lie was to become its 
owner. On the loth of March, 1872, its size was 
increased to an eight-column folio, with its outside 
columns printed on the co-operative plan, in Chicago, 
and its title was changed to Tlie Lorain Constitution. 
On the 2Gt]i of Septcmlier, 1873, the co-operative 
plan was aliandoned, and, without change in size, it 
was all printed at home. On the lOtli of October, 

1872, Mr. F. S. Reefy purchased the entire establish- 
ment, and has continued its publication to the present 
time. On the 13tli of February, 187.3, it appeared as a 
five-column quarto, and was continued in that form 
until the 5th of the following June, when it was 
clianged to a nine-column folio, on the co-operative 
]iian. On the 30th of September, 1875, it was reduced 
to an eight-column folio, and, in consequence of the 
incorpoi-ation of the village of Lorain at the mouth of 
Black River, its title was changed to Tlte Etyria Con- 
stitution, which name and size it still retains. 


II. A. Fisher issued the first number of tliis jour- 
nal, October 24, 1874. It was printed on the forms 
of the late Black River Conmicrrial (nine-column 
folio) with this exception, that its four pages were all 
]irinted in the office. He continued its publication 
until the 20th of February, 1875, when James W. 
Ciiapman became associated with him as equal part- 
ner. This relation continued until the 10th of the 
following July, when Mr. Chapman withdrew. On 
tlie 7th of August, 1875, it was changed to a six- 
column quarto (its present form), and on the 1st of 
the following November, Mr. A. H. Smith purchased 
an equal interest in the establishment, and for the 

following fifteen months the paper was jiublished by 
Fisher & Smith, E. G. Johnson lieing its political, 
and II. A. Fisher its local editor. On the 1st of Feb- 
ruary, 1877, Mr. Fisher purcliased the interest of Mr. 
Smith, and the Independent Ihmorrat and Eepuhli- 
can were consolidated. Under this arrangement the 
Democrat was discontinued and the Bejmtj.ican was 
pnblisiied by Wasliburn& Fislier, with Geo. (f. Wash- 
burn as editor-in-chief, 11. A. Fisher local editor, and 
A. H. Smitli i)rinfer. On the 1st of October, 1877, 
Mr. Wasliburn purcliased Mr. Fisher's interest and 
assumed entire control of the paper. On the retire- 
ment of Mr. Fislier, Mi-. Smith took the position of 
local editor and superintendent of the uunhauical de- 
partment, with Mr. Wni. T. Morris as job printer. 
Under this management the Ri'pvblican continues to 
make its weekly visits to its large list of readers. 

The foregoing concludes the record of the jircss in 
Flyria, with the exce])tion of a few pajieis of brief 
duration, to which reference is here made. During 
the political campaign of 1838, the whigs published a 
small sheet called The Peopte's Banner, edited by 
Albert A. Bliss, and the democrats a similar paper 
called Tlie Jeffersonian, edited l)y Joel Tiffany. Tliese 
papers were conducted with much spice and al>ility. 
In 1840 the whigs published for three months Otd 
Tip's Broom, edited by D. W. Lathrop and other 
prominent whigs of that day. It was ably conducted 
and contributed much towards securing the victory 
that followed the famous ''Log Cabin and Hard Cider" 
campaign. In 1864 II. M. Lillie published for a few 
weeks a small two-column (juarto devoted to the cause 
of temperance. Its jniblisher, who was a reformed 
inebriate, returned to his cups, and his paper was dis- 
continued. Its name cannot be recalled. About tbe 
year 1808 two or three numbers of a very creditable 
paper were issued, called 77ie Lorain Templars' Offer- 
ing. The name of its publisher is not remembered, 
but he was a stranger, and proved to be unworthy of 


This was an eight-column folio, published in Ger- 
man, by F. S. Reefy, at the oftice of the Constitution. 
TJie first number was issued February I, 1873; terms, 
$2.00 a year. For the first two months its outside 
pages were printed in Philadeli)hia, after which it was 
all printed at the pulilication office. At the end of 
three years Mr. Reefy sold the paper to Henry Minnig, 
who published it about a year, when it was discon- 
tinued for want of sujtport. The types were then 
purchased by the Biene priuting company, of Cleve- 
land, and the new proprietors made an effort to estab- 
lish a German paper here, called The Weekhi Post, 
but it was not successful. 

There have also been }iiiblished in Elyria at various 
times and for various pei-iods, a number of very credit- 
able amateur sheets, a notice of which cannot be given 
in the space allotted to this history. 



The lirst steam-power press lised in Elyria was in- 
troduced by Mr. Reefy, in tlie ofifioe of the ConstHii- 
fimi, in January, 1S73. It is called the Fairhavcn 
cylitider ])ress. This was fnllnwcil, in Juno of the 
same year, by Mr. Wasliburn, who int rodueed a large 
I'otter cylinder jiowcr press in the office of tlie Deino- 
(■>■/(/, running it, however, witliout steam. In Feb- 
ruary, 1875, another Potter press of the same size was 
introduced in the Rejnibllran office, with steam power. 



Soon after the organization of the collegiate insti- 
tute at Oberlin, on the plan of furnishing a liberal 
Christian education to botli sexes, regardless of color 
or caste, there began to be felt a necessity for some 
medium through which the eminent reformers who 
composed its faculty could reach the public ear. 
Nothing was done, however, toward supplying the 
want until November 1, 1838, five years after the 
institution was founded, when the first number of 
the Obvrlin Eranijelid was issued. It was a (piaito 
of eight pages, 9x12 inches, and was published 
every two weeks, at $1.00 a year. After live years, 
its size was increased to 10 x 14 inches. It was at 
first edited by an association of the college professors, 
and was published by R. E. Gillett. In 1844. Prof. 
Henry Cowles became its editor, and continued in 
charge until it was discontinued, December 17, 1862. 
At about the same time, James M. Fitch became its 
publisher, and remained such until December, 1858. 
He was succeeded by Shankland & Harmon, and in 
Ajn-il, 18G1, V. A. Shankland took sole charge as 
]>ul)lisher, and continued until the end. 

The Erangelisl was always an able paper, candidly 
and earnestly discussing the reforms sought to be 
secured through the aid of Christian effort, and for 
many years each number contained a sermon by 
Professor, afterwards President, Finney, reported in 
short-hand by Prof. Cowles. Its twenty-four vol- 
umes form a jiortion of the college library, and in 
after years will become of great value. 

Prof. Cowles. in addition to Jiis duties as instructor 
in the college, has published several volumes on the 
]iroi>hetical books of the Bible, besides other works 
of lesser u<ite, and still resides in Oberlin. venerable 
in years, and beloved by all. 

R. E. (iilh.'tt, its first juJjlisher, removed west many 
years ago, where he died, but at what time has ikjI 
been ascertained. 

James M Fitch conducted the book and jieriodical 
j)rintiug for the college for many years, with ability 
and credit, and died in Oberlin June 7, 18(i7, widely 
esteemed and deeply lamented b) all who knew him. 


This was the title of a small pajier conducted b}' 
Rev. Israel Mattison, and devoted to the advocacy of 
peace princijiles, as held by Elihn Buriitt. His 

residence was in "New Oberlin," a mile from the 
village, whei'c he edited the pajier and jiut it in type, 
and it was printed on the Eniiir/i'lisf press, by Mr. 
Cillett. It was first issued about the beginning of 
the year 1830, and was discontinued in 1840, when its 
jiublisher removed to Illinois. 

THE people's press. 

Sodu after James ^1. Fitch liccauie |iublishei' (if the 
Evanyclht, in 1844, he issued a small folio, 18 x 24 
inches, with the above title. It was published at 
irregular intervals, luit imt receiving sufficient su]i- 
port to warrant its cuntinuaiice, it was suspended 
after about one year. 

the oiseklin quarterly review. 

This was an octavo of one hundred and forty pages, 
published by James M. Fitch from 1845 to 1849, 
making four volumes. It was devoted to the discus- 
sion of theoldgical (jucstions, and was ably conducted, 
the first year by President Malum and Rev. William 
Ciicbran.and afterwards l)y Jfabau and Prof. Finnej'. 


This was a small, spicy little sheet that was issued 
from the press of the Evangelist, in May, 1852. But 
a few numbers were printed. Soon after it was dis- 
continued, Mr. Fitch, publisher of the Evangdist, 
made the first practical effort to establish a secular 
uewsjiaper in (Jberlin, and issued 


This was a six-column folio, very neatly printed, 
and filled with w^ell selected articles and ably prepared 
original matter. It struggled through its first year at 
quite an expense to its publisher, who, in June, 1853, 
announced that ^'The Oberlin Weekly Times. wiW not 
be issued again until we have further encouragement," 
which he failed to receive. 

THE student's MONTHLY. 

This was an octavo of thirt^'-two pages, issued in 
1858 by the publisher of the Erangelist, and, as its 
title indicates, was devoted to the interests of the 
college, being edited and sustained mainly by the 
students. It was discontinued after ncaidy three 
yeai's, at the lireaking out of the war. in ISiil. 


The first weekly jiaper in Oberlin that proved to be 
of a permanent c-haracter, was The Loraiv Covnfij 
News, the first number of which was issued on the 
7th of March, 1800, by V. A. Shankland and J. 
F. Harmon, at that time pulilishers of the Oberlin 
Evangelist. It was a six column folio, price ^1.00 
per annum. During the first year of its existence the 
News was edited by A. B. Nettleton, who laid down 
the jien to assume the sword in defense of the union. 
He was succeeded by J. B. T. Marsh, then a college 
student. At the commencement of the war, in 1861, 



Mr. Harmon sold his interest in tlie pnblisliiug busi- 
ness to his partner, and enlisted in the army where he 
served three years. Mr. Shankland eontiniu'd to 
])iil)lis]i the paper alone nntil ilareh .''), ISCri. (the 
close of the second year), when Prof. H. E. I'eck 
jiurchased an interest therein, and the bnsiness was 
continued l)y V. A. Shankland & Co., with Prof. 
Peck and ^Ii\ !Marsh as editors. In the summer of 
1803 boll) (lie editors withdrew from the A'eu's, Mr. 
Marsli enlisting in the army. In .July. l>i<i.3, William 
Kincaid, tiien a senior in college, assumed the position 
of c(lit(ir. and served in that cajjacity for one year. 
He was succeeded liy L. L. Kice, who edited the paper 
until October, lS(i.5. In .Inly, lSii4, Mr, Harmon 
retnriu'd fi'oni t be army and again liecamc joint owner 
iif the pajiei-, ami in Novendjer of the same year he 
imrchased Mr. Shankland's interest and became sole 
pi-oprietor. In October, 1805, be sold the entire 
establishment to .1. ]■?. T. Marsh, who conducted the 
pai)er as editor and proprietor until July 'M, 1807, 
when he sold it to Elbei't W. Clark, who employed 
Prof. C. H. Churchill asedit(n-. Under tliis manage- 
ment the Xcirs was puljlished for about two years, 
wlien }ilv. Clark sold theottice to E. P. Brown, at that 
time [lublisherof the BpUitkc (hizctte, who conducted 
the paper as editor and publisher until February, 
1870, when he sold it tt) Kichard liutlei', who on Feb- 
ruary 9, '1871, sold the establishment to .lusius N. 
lli'own, a graduate of llie Oberlin theological semi- 
nary. After conducting the pajier about three months 
as sole }ii-oprictor, Mr. J5rown sold an interest in the 
otlice to A. li. A\ ililman, who for some time previous 
bad been foreman in the oflice of the Standard of the 
('riixtt, and wlu) took charge of the mechanical de])art- 
nieut in February, 1875, Mi". Brown still occupying 
the post of editor. In May, 1873, Mr. Wildman sold 
bis interest to .1. H. Lang, but continued to retain the 
position of foreman. About the first of December. 
1873, Brown & Lang sold theottice to George B. Pratt 
and .J. H. Battle, Mr. Pratt being one of the projiri- 
etors of the Olx'flin 7'iiiiefi, formerly the JVew Era, 
aiul at that date tlie Times and JS'cws were consoli- 
dated, retaining the name of the latter, which was 
changed to the T/ic ObvrUn WcvkJy Xews, the title it 
now bears. The new paper stalled out with a large 
li«t of subscribers; a large addition to its stock of type 
and machinery was purchased, and the office was put 
in complete order, at great cost to its jn'oprietors, who 
anticipated a sufficient revenue to meet the liabilities 
tiius incurred. Their anticijiations were not realized, 
and on January ■27,187.'), Mr. Pratt disposed of bis 
interest and retired fnim the office. The paper was 
then conducted by.). 11. Battle, in company with his 
father, William Battle, until July, 1876, when Mat- 
thias Day, Jr., formerly editor and proprietor of the 
Manafield Herald, became the editor and proprietor. 
The paper at this time was deeply involved in debt, 
and Mr. Day reduced its size and otherwise diminished 
the cost of its publication, hoping to be able to sus- 
tain it. Finding it impossible to meet its liabilities, in 

December, 1876, he sold the office to Iral A. Webster 
and Edwin Eegal, who retained Mr. Day as editor. 
In May, 1877, Mr. Regal retired, and Messrs. W. L. 
& JI. G. Mains jiurchased an interest, the new firm 
being Webster, Mains & Co., Mr. Fred. Webster serv- 
ing as local editor. This arrangement continued nntil 
December 1, 1877, when William H. Pearee, previ- 
ously editor of the Grinds/nne Vilij Advertiser in 
Berea, ])urehased the interest of the Messrs. Mains, 
and became its editor and l)usiness nnmager, the (irm 
licing Weljster & Pearee. On tlie 1st of January, 
I87!l, Mr. Webster sold his interest and retired. The 
Xew." is now published by W. H. Pearee, who may 
well congratulate himself on seeing it established on 
a jiaying basis. 

The Neics was originally a sis column folio, price 
$1.00 })er year. For the first few years a line in the 
beading read, "Published at Oberlin and Wellington," 
one page being edited for a time by parties in Welling- 
ton. In 1863 it was enlarged to an eight column folio 
and the price advanced to $1.50, and soon after to 
ifeS.OOayear. In January, 1806, it was again enlarged 
and made a nine column folio. During a part of the 
year 1807 it was an eight column paper, but was again 
restored to the nine column, and so remained until 
December 10, 1874, when Messrs. Pratt & Battle 
changed it to a six column quarto. Two years later, 
under the management of Mr. Day, it again became 
an eight column folio, which size it still retains. At 
the same time the price was reduced to $1..50, as at 
present. The A>?/'.< has always been repulilican in poli- 
tics, and its editors have generally taken an advanced 
]iosition on all moral and educational movements. 

By the foregoing it will lie seen that tlie Xewtt has 
been owned, in part or in whole, by nineteen different 
persons since its establishment, a little less than nine- 
teen years ago, all of whom, with one exception, are 
still living, and several have acquired some prom- 
inence in their respective fields of labor. The limits 
of this history will only admit a brief notice of those 
most prominently connected witli the jiaper during 
tlie time. 

V. A. Shankland now resides in Benton Harbor, 
Michigan, where he is engaged in the culture of fruit. 

J. F. Harmon served as postmaster in Oberlin for 
nine years, and is now engaged in the drug business 
(Harmon & Beecher) in that village. 

A. B. Nettleton won a geiierafs commission in the 
army, subsequently edited the Sauduskv Register 
and the Chicago Advance, and now resides in Phila- 

.1. B. T. Marsh was subsequently one of the editors 
of the Chicago Adrance for eight years, and now 
resides in Oberlin, holding the position of treasurer 
of the college and mayor of the village. 

Prof. II. E. Peck was appointed minister to Ilayti, 
by President Johnson, and died on that island in 1807. 

William Kincaid has been for several years, and is 
now, the beloved pastor of the Second Congregational 
Church, in Oberlin. 



L. L. Rice was a veteran editor of forty-two years' 
experience when he edited tlie Neivx. had been private 
secretary of (Jovernor (Jhase, and was since for twelve 
years superintendent of i)ublic jirintino' in Cohindms. 
][e now resides in Oberlin, veneral)le in years, and 
resj)ected by all who know him. 

Ell)ert-W. Clark resides in I'ainesviile, and is the 
])ul)lislicr of the I'ainesviile Advertiser. 

Prof. (!. n. Clhurchill still occupies a chair in Olicr- 
lin College, where he is regarded as an able educator. 

E. P. ]5rown is now manager of the "Aiken News- 
paper Ilnioji," in Cincinnati. 

Richard Butler is jiublishcr of flic f'liuton (Illinois) 

Justus N. Brown is ])astor of the ('(uigregational 
Church in CHiarlotte, Michigan. 

J. H. Lang is an attorney at law, residing at 

Geo. B. Pratt for a time published the Huron 
County Chronicle, and is now jniblisher of the Cazette, 
in Menasha, Wisconsin. 

Most of the remaining proprietors of the News. 
reside in Oberlin, engaged in various pursuits. 

The News was first printed upon an Adams book- 
press, which was purchased by .J. M. Fitch, in 1848, 
and was used for printing the Evangelist and other 
papers, also, several books, including the fii'st edition 
of "President Finney's Theology." In 18(iH, a 
Campbell cylinder press, the first cylinder ])ress in 
the county, was purchased, and run by hand uj) to 
1871, when a steam engine, also the first in the 
county used for printing purposes, was attached by 
J. N. Brown. In -lanuary, 1874, Pratt & Battle dit- 
posed of the Campbell press, and procured a large 
and expensive Potter press, which, in Fcl)ruary, 1878, 
was sold by Webster & Pearce, and a country Potter 
cylinder jjress procured, which is now in use in the 
News office. 


This was a small sized quarto, published weekly, 
the first number of which was issued in Oberlin, 
in August, 1868. Rev. W. C. French, U.D., was its 
editor and ])idjlisher. It was the successor of the 
Uanibier Obserrer, (afterwards called the Western 
Episcopalian,) which was estaldished in (iambier, 
Ohio, in 18.'?0, as the representative of the I'rotestant 
Episcopal church in ()lii<i. Its editor was rect<!r of 
the greater ])ortion of the time, in rooms in the 
the clum^h in Obi'rlin, and the pa})er was printed, 
rear of the church edifice. In 1873, the office 
was removed to Cleveland, where it is still pLiblished 
by Dr. French, thi'ough whose ability and industry 
the paper has secured a general circuhilion in Ohio, 

and (Hintinues to be the recognized ex| enf nl' that 

church in this State. 


Ill April. 187:^, Dr. II. W. Libbey, of t:ievcland. 
established a newspaper in Oberlin called The Oherlin 

New Era. lie was a specialist in his practice, and in 
consef|uencc of the News declining to ]iublish his 
advertisements, he started this as an oi)position jiaper, 
and by furnishing it at a low ])riee, and canvassing, 
at considerable cost, for subscribers, succeeded in 
securing a good circulation. It was an eight column 
folio; i)rice, II a year. Rev. II. O. Sheldon, .1. I'". 
C. Iliiyes, and othei'S, were employed as wrilcrs. and 
II. P. Whitiney was its Inisiness manager. It did not 
realize the object of i!s ]iulilislier, and in the fall of 
1873. he sold itto(!. A. Sherman and Ceorge B. Pratt, 
and the name was changed to 7'he Olierlin Times. 
Aftei' flic issue of a few nundiers, it was (■(uisdlidiifi d 
with the News, by Messrs. Pi'att & Battle. 


This is a sixteen page semi-monthly paper, now 
published in Oberlin, and devoted to the interests of 
the college. It is owned and conducted by the 
students. The first number, containing twelve i)ages, 
was issued A])ril 1. 1874, with (J. N. Jones, as man- 
aging editor. It was jiriiifed in ihe AV«'.s- oflfiee, at 
11.50 a year. On the ICtb of Se]itember, 1874, it 
j)assed into the hands of the Union literary associa- 
ti()n, of Obei'lin college, a corjiorafe body couijiosimI of 
the Phi Kapiia Pi, Phi Delta, Alpha Zeta, Ladies" liit- 
erary, Aelioiaii and Beth Nun Alepli societies, which 
has continued it jiublication to the jiresent time. Its 
editor-in-chief, together with a board of associate 
editors, is elected aunually by the association. The 
following ])ersons have successfully served as edit(n-s- 
in-chief: J. A. Winters, E. J. Malle, Arch Iladden. 
E. A. Tuttle, I. W. Metcalf, W. W. Beacom, and II. 
C. King. With its second vohinic, the ]):i]>er vas 
enlarged to sixteen pages, and its subscription in- 
creased to $1.75 per year. For the jiast two years, it 
has been self-sustaining, having a circulation of nearly 
six hundred coj)ies. 


The first, number of The Oherlin (lazellc was issued 
December 7. 1876, by A. P. Wildman and E. M. 
Brice. It was a seven column folio, all home j)rint, 
for the first seven months, and its terms wei'c $1 ]ier 
annum. On the I'.Uli of .July, 1876, Mr. Wildman 
])urchascd Mr. Brieve's interest, j)rocured his jiaper 
with outside jjages ready jirinted, in Clevelaiul, and 
continued its publication until .June 6, 1878, wdicii he 
sidd it to W. W. WoodrufP, under whose direction it 
is still published on the co-o])erative plan. 

Both A. R. Wildham and E. M. Brice are j)ractieal 
jirinters, of much experiiMice, and an honor to Ihe 
craft. The latter is now editor and pi'o])rietor of the 
Blue Rapids (Kansas) Times. Mr. Woodruff is a 
novice in the art of printing. The (fazette is con- 
sidered independent in politics, though with strong 
republican i)ro(divities. During Ihe iani|iaign of 
1878, its editor mainly supj)orted the jiioliibition 





The first newsjiaper printed in Wellington was 
issued March 11, 185:i, and called The WclUnfiton 
.foitriinL (fcorge Brewster was its editor and L. S. 
(iriswiilil, associate editor. Its first proprietorship 
(Miiiiot l>e ascertained, but on the 35th of the same 
iiiiiiith Jonathan D. Baker purchased an interest in 
(he office and became its printer. April 23d of the 
liwma year Cieorge Brewster withdrew from the paper, 
tiikiiig the position of corresponding editor. On the 
•i'M\\ of April the title of the paper was changed to 
Jiiurnal and Free Democrat, but on the 23d of July 
its original title was restored. At this date J. S. 
Reed aud E. Boice became its proprietors and George 
BrL^vstor its editor. Mr. Brewster retained his con- 
ncctidu with tlic ii:t[ior for about one year, and for a 
time li. S. CJriswold edited it. Henry T. Culver, J. 
W. Hill, C. F. Brewster and T. Burus res[iectively 
succeeded each other as printer. The paper failed to 
sustain the cost of its publication, and was discon- 
tinued after about two years, but the precise date can- 
not be ascertained. 


In the summer of 1865, James A. (Juthrie of Dela- 
ware, Ohio, removed to Wellington and commenced 
tiie i)ublication of The, WelUiKjIon Uufcrprise. The 
first issue was dated Sei)teniber 25, 1865. It was a 
tiibo, printed on a sheet 25^x38 inches, and its terms 
were *3.00 a year. On March 1, 1860, Mr. Guthrie 
sold the paper to Jolin C. Artz, who reduced the size 
to seven columns, and the price to 11.50. On the 
IStii of September, 1867, the j)aper was enlarged, and 
its outside pages were furnished on the co-opei'ative 
])liin. Mr. Artz remained its editor and proi)rietor 
until Octoljer 1, 1876, wiien he sold the office to Dr. 
J. W. Ilougiiton and D. A. Sniitli. Dr. Houghton 
and ]}is wife, Mary 11., Iiecanie its editors, and Mr. 
Smith, being a pi'actical jirinter, took chai'ge of the 
mechanical dejiartment. The size of the paper was 
inci'cascd to a. slieet 26x40 inches, with co-operative 
outside l)ages, bnt its price remains at 11.50. On the 
15th of December, 1877, Mr. Houghton purchased 
his partner's interest, and is now its sole projirietor. 
Mr. and Mrs. Houghton were novices in newspaper 
Work when they assumed the cliai-ge of the Enterprise, 
but their industry and painstaking have placed it on 
a substantial basis. It has always supported the repub- 
lican party, and its column reflect the well-known 
characteristics of its editors — fairness in discussing 
dis]uited (|uestions, and })rogress in all the reforms of 
the day. 



Tlie first numl)er of this jjaper was issued May 8, 
1873, by II. A. Fisher, at Black River, now Lorain. 

It was a five-column quarto; terms, #1.50 a year. On 
the 3d of July, 1873, its form was changed to an 
eight-column folio; and on the I8th of September, it 
was reduced in size to six columns. On the 8th of 
January, 1874, it was restored to an eight-column 
folio, with patent outside pages, and ou the 9th of 
the following May, its size was increased toliine col- 
umns, and thus remained until it was discontinued, 
September 12, 1874, for want of adequate sujjjjort. 
At that date, the material was removed to Elyria by 
Mr. Fisher, who commenced the publication of a new 
paper, called the Eljiria RepuMican. 


A small flvc-colunm folio, called the Lorain Afoni- 
liir, has recently been issued in Lorain by Lawler & 
Brady, with j>atent outside pages. Its history is yet 
to be written. 



This paper was issued July 31, 1875, in North 
Amherst, by F. M. Lewis, editor and proprietor. It 
was a six-column folio, patent outside pages, iiule- 
pendent in politics, and its terms were $1.50 a year. 
After three weeks, Mr. J. K. Lewis became associated 
with his brother in its publication, and continued 
until July 22, 1876, when he withdrew, and C. II. 
Lewis took his place in the firm. On the 18tli of 
August, 1877, F. M. Lewis again took sole charge of 
the i)aper. On the 37th of November, following, its 
])rice was reduced to $1.25 a year, and its size was 
increased to seven columns. It is chiefly devoted to 
local interests, and its publication is continued by 
Mr. Lewis as editor and ])roprietor. 

In concluding the history of the press in Lorain 
county, the writer acknowledges the obligations he is 
under to various persons who have aided him in ob- 
taining the desired information, and especially to 
President J. H. Fairchild. and AV. II. Pearce, editor 
of the Newx, who have kindly furnished most of the 
data'relating to the twelve different publications in 


From the foregoing, it will be seen that there have 
been thirty-three different publications issued in this 
county during the past fifty years, viz: Sixteen in 
Elyria, twelve in Oberlin, two in Wellington, two in 
Lorain, and one in Amherst. At this time, there are 
seven weekly papers and one semi-monthly published 
in the county, viz: Two in Elyria, two weeklies and 
one semi-monthly in Oberlin, one in Wellington, and 
one in Lorain. 





The present " Loruiu County AgrieiiKiinil Society" 
was orgiuiized in (he year 184G. Previous to this time 
shows for stock, etc.. had l)cen hekl in Elyria and 
Oberlin. As early as 18i)3 a stociv show was iiehl east 
of tlie Heche House, on the site of Ely park. At this 
show sixty dollars was award(Ml as preniinni upon cat- 
tle, horses and articles of various kinds. How many 
of these exhibitions were held previous fo the organi- 
zation of the [iresent society, the writer cannot ascer- 
tain. Thei'c must have been several. In October, 
1845, a show was held in Oberlin, and il appears by 
President Kinney's report, that there had been ])rc- 
vious meetings of a like nature. This organization 
seems to have been carried on Ijy the citizens of Ober- 
lin and its vicinity, and Mr. Kinney's rejjort refers to 
the assistance given by the presiilent and professors of 
Olierlin college. At this meeting a jilowing match 
was hekl, cattle and other stock competing for pre- 
miums. The chairman of committee on plowing was 
Prof. Cowles. The names of the other committees 
are before me, but no report of their awards. The 
report was to appear the following week — so says Tltc 
Peoples, October 1, 184.5. In the evening at 
half-past six o'clock a meeting was held in tlie chapel, 
and short speeches were delivered liy several gentle- 
men, among them Dr. Townshend, President Jlahan, 
Prof. Fairchild (now i)resident), and Prof. Cowles. 
Songs had been prepared by Tutor Hodge, and the 
music was pronounced excellent. 

Whatever had been done by Elyria or Oherlin j)re- 
vious to 1S4G, no doubt partially j)aved the way for 
the organization formed under the act of the legisla- 
ture for the encouragement of agriinilture, February 
■i7, 184(i. Dr. N. 8. Townshend. then of Elyria, now 
professor of agriculture, etc., in "The Ohio State 
University," probably did more to get farmers and 
others togethei' and organize a meeting which eventu- 
ally resulted in the formation of the present society, 
than any other individual. The proceedings of the 
agricultural meeting held at Elyria, Lorain county, 
Ohio, on Wednesday, April 'M, 184(), aiv reported as 

On motiim of Dr. E. W. Hubbard, the Hon. .1. Harris was called to 
the chair, aud N. S. Townshend appointed secretary. 

On motion of .V. H. Re<iington, and after remarks by Hon. D. T. 
Baldwin, l)v. Hubbard and others, it was resolved to proceed immedi- 
ately to the organ-zation of a county .society, in accordance with the 
ndes and regulations recommended by the State board of agriculture. 
On motion of Joel Tiffany, Esq., an enrollment was made, to ascertain 
if a sufficient uundjer of persons desirous of ass<iciating themselves as 
a county agi-icultural society wel'e present, and if a sufticient sum could 
he raised to meet the provision of the act. Whereupon fifty-eight 
names were enrolled, and eighty dollars subscrilied. .\greeable to 
the recommendation of the nominating committee, the following 
gentlemen were unanimously elected, and now constitute the board of 
ilirectors: Joseph Swift, president; Daniel B. Kinney, vice-president; 
Artemas Beebe, treasurer; A. H. Re<lington, secretary; Henry Tracy, 
George Sibley, Edwin Byington, D, T. Baldwin, T. W. Osboru, managers. 

On motion, it was resolved that committees be ajipoiuted, consisting 
of two individuals in each township, to solicit subscriptions, with the 
names of i>ersons wishing to become members of the society. 

* By R. Baker. 

The following geritlemen were chosen: Amherst — H. Brownell and 
J. C. Hrj-ant; Avon— Uriah Thompson, Elah Park; Black River— C. Read, 
Sanmel Stocking; Brighton—Hosea Dunbar, P. S. Goss; Brownhelm— 
C. L. Perry, Jolin Curtis; Camden — Hiram Allen, Gideon Waugh; 
Carli.sle-R. (Hbbs, C. Primlle; Columbia-S. Reed, B. B, Adams; Eaton 
— James Firlas. O. Sperry ; Elyi-ia— D. Nesbitt, Festus Cooley, Jr. ; Graf- 
ton — A. S. Root. Thos. Inglesoll; Henrietta— Hervey Leonard, Levi 
Vincent; Huntington— Henry Ti-acey, H. P. Sage; La Grange— N. P. 
Johnstiii, H. Hubbard; Penfield— Wni. .\ndrews, Lewis Starr; Pitisheld 
— P. McKoberts, E. Ulatchem; Ridgeville— t^tis Beggs, L. Beelie; Roches- 
ter—John Conant, M. L. Blair; Russia— H. C. Taylor, Dr. Dascotub; 
Sheffleld-VVm. Day, Win. H. Root; Wellinglon— Harvey Grant, J 
Wadswoi th. 

On motion, the above committees were instructed to make all 
possible exertion, immediately, and report in person or by letter at the 
tirst meeting of the board of directors. 

It was voted that the board of directors meet at the court house, in 
Elyria, on W^ednesday, the i;ith of May, at 11 o'clock a. m.. to determine 
the sulijectsand rates of premiums, ami transact such other business 
as may be necessary. Adjourned .-iint' die. 

JosiAH Harris, ChiHrman. 

N. S. Townshend, Secretari/. 

Proceedings of the meeting of ho;i]-d df diieclors of 
the Lorain county agricultural si>ciety. May lo, 184(): 

Rraolved, That this society have an exhibition and fair at Elyria, on 
Wednesday, September 30, lS4i;. 

Resolved, That preniiuns he awarrled upon the following articles; 
The several amounts to be determined at the ne.xt meeting of the board, 
when the amount of funds at the control of the society shall he ascer- 

Committees appi>inted to examine farms .and crops: tit orge Sibley. 
P. McRoherts, Harry Terrell, E. Sanderson. 

Resolved, The ladies of this county be invited to manufacture useful 
articles, to be donated to this society, and that they hold a fair in the 
afternoon and evening of the day of the exhibition, and that all citizens 
be requested to bring choice specimens of fruit and flowers, manufac- 
tured articles, and he offered for sale at the ladies" fair, for tlie benefit 
of the society. 

Adjourned, to meet at E!yri;t, on .Moinbiy. August- 
;S, 1840. F. Swift. J 'resident. 

A. H. Redington, Svcrclitrii. 

Owing to harvesting time of the year, there was 
not any meeting on August li. 

According to previous notice, meeting at Olierlin. 
on Tuesday, August 20, 184'i. At this meeting, a 
long list of committee men were a|i|niinted. It was 
also decided, to offer premium for hcnls of cattk', not 
less tluin tifteeii he;i<l, owneil hy one farmer — tirst. 
seeimtl, third, fourtli :iiid tifth liest. The best tlock 
of sheep, not less than twenty-live head — first, secoml, 
third, fourth ;ind lifth best. Then comes a list of 
awards, at the tirst fair, September 30. Amount 
of jiremiums ;i\\;irded, one hiindi'cd and seventeen 

A statement of receipts, etc., of the Lorain county 
agricultural .society, made at that time, are as follows: 

.-Vmouut subscribed by members of the society $304 liO 

.\mount paid in 121 IMl 

Balance due 83 IIO 

Paid .\. Burrell. foj- printing 7 t)i) 

A report of the iiroceeilings of the society, and 
statement of the pros[)Cct of the crops, as re([uiretl 
by law, was made out, and forwarded to N. P, 
Johnson, the ;ippoiiited delegate by the society, to 
the annual meeting of the State boanl, at Columbus, 

It is very evident that, in the early days of the 
society, the nuinagers were men, deeply interested, 
and very zealous in the work of establisliing this, 
now, prosperous society. The constitutiou preijared 



and siiliiiiittud, and ado|itet1 bv tlie society, was short, 
and met all that was rec|niri'il in those early days, it 
was as follows: 

Art. 1. The offlcers of the society shall consist of a president, vice- 
president, secretary, treasurer, and five manaj^ers. who. together, shall 
constitute a hoard of directors for the t^eneral inanaj^enient of the 
affairs of the society. They shall be elected annually, liy the members 
of the society, and hold their offices till their successors are appointed. 

Art. '2. Members of the sociel-.y must be residents of Lf.irain county, 
and pay the sum of one dollar annually to the treasurer. 

.Vrt. ;t. Competitors for premiums nuist he members of the society. 

Art. 4. A list of articles for which premiums are to be awarded by 
the society, must be publislied in a newspaper, or in handbills, at least 
one month previous to the da.v of the exhibition. 

Art. .'). All articles offered for premiums must be owned by the 
persons offerinj^ the same, or b^' members of their family. I'roducts of 
the soil, and niantifacturcd articles, must be produced or manufactured 
within the county, agricultural iiuplements excepted. 

.\RT. 6. .\warding committees, of three persons each, shall be annu- 
all.v appointed by the directors of the society, for judging the different 
classes of articles offered in competition, and awarding premiums for 
the same. 

Art. 7. Awarding committees must conform to the provisions of 
the law in requiring competitors for premiums on crops, and other 
improvements, to furnish fidl and correct statements of the process, 
and expense of culture atid production, etc. 

Art. 8. Competitors for premiums on crops shall be required to have 
the ground and its produce accuratel.v measured. b.y not less than two 
disinterested persons, whose statement shall be in writing and verified 
by .atfidavit. 

Art. 9. Premiums on grain, and grass crops, shall not he awarded 
for less than one acre, and on root crops for not less than one-fourth of 
an acre. The whole quantity produced on the amount of laud specified 
shall be measured or weighed. Root cnips to be estimated by weight, 
divested of the tops, sixty pounds to be considered a bu.shel; and grain 
crops to be measured or weighed according to the usual standards. 
The rules in relation to other crops, and pi-oductions, to be agreed on by 
the directors of the society. 

Art. 10. The annual exhibition of the society shall l)e held at some 
period between the first da.v of .September and the first of November. 
The premiums on crops can be awarded at a later period, if thought 

The l)y-huvs are as follows: 

First. No person that is a member of the society shall liereafter 
compete for a premium as long as an annual fee against him remains 

Second. All articles drawing the first premium at a previous fair, 
cannot compete for a premium on the same article until the second year 

Third. Articles competing for a premium where there is no compe- 
tion, will be left discretionaiy with the judges, to awartl a premium 
or not. 

Fourth. The board of directors shall, at their annual meeting in 
January in each year, appoint a corresponding secretary, who shall 
hold his ofBce for one year, and until his successor shall be apjjointed. 

Having given nearly a full report of the transaetions 
of the society during its first year, which cdiild nol be 
very well curtailed, to present tlie ti-ansactions of the 
society clearly to the public, throughout the ensuing- 
years only a carefully-condensed sketch can be given, 
or this article will be entirely too long. During the 
year 1847, it will lie seen that the society made an 
elfort to phiee before the citi/.ensof Loniin countv the 
claims for, and advantages iirising from, (he organiza- 
tion, by :xp])ointing able men to deliver lectures in 
the townshijis. 

A meeting of the Society, November 20, 1840, to 
elect otticers for the ensuing year, resulted as follows: 

President, Joseph Swift; Vice President, D. B. Kinney; Johu H. Faxon, 
Treasurer, and A. H. Redington. Secretary. Edwin Byington, IL C. 
Safford, W. N. Race, A. W Wliitney, and Benjamin C. Perkins, 

At a meeting of the board, January 2S, 1847, Mr. 
Holtslander was elected manager to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of William N. Race. At this 

meeting lecturers were appointed for the different 
townships as follows: 

Dr. N. S. Townshend. for F.lyria, Carlisle, Eaton, Columbia, Ridgeville, 
Avon and Shelheld ; Prof. J. Dascomb, for (irafton. La Grange, Penfield, 
Huntington, Wellington aud Pittsfield; Professor J. H. Fairchild, for 
Black River, Amherst, Brovvnhelm, Henrietta, Cam leu, Brighton and 

At tlie next meeting, ilay 4, Ihe time was lixed 
to hold the second annual fair ;it Elyria, October 
and 7. It was resolved to award premiums on a 
longer list of articles. — increasing the amount of 
premiums from one hundred and seventeen dollars to 
one hundred and Ihirly-five dollars. The dilTerent 
awarding ctnnmittces were a])i)Ointed. 

The first day of the fair was occupied by the (hjui- 
mittees examining stock and other articles. A large 
number of farmers of the county were present, and 
manifested a very commendable zeal, in competing 
for the premiums offered. 

The plowing match took phice in the fdreiioun of 
the second day, after which the members of the soci- 
ety met in the court house aud the following persons 
were elected officers for the ensuing yetir: 

Joseph Swift, president; D. B. Kinney, vice president; J. H. Faxon, 
treasurer, and A. TI. Redington, secretary; delegate to State board 
convention at Columbus, December, 1847, N. P. Johnson. 

After the reports of committees and awarding of 
premiums, it is said that a very excellent and appro- 
priate address was given by Dr. E. W. Ilublianl, who 
had been previously invited to address the society. 

Best cultivated farm, Joseph Swift, Henrietta; second best, Alonzo 
Gaston, Russia; third best, P. Sheppard, Henrietta. Best plowing, Ed. 
Matchem, Pittsfield; second best, William Reed, same town. 

At the third annual fair, held at Elyria, a good 
attendance is reported, aud exhibition good. 

The first premium was awarded to Alonzo Gaston for best cultivated 
farm; second to N. Jackson; third to A. H. Redington. The old offlcers 
were re-elected. James Dascomb was appointed delegate to State board 
convention at Columbus. 

It appears that James Dascomb did not go to 
(Jolunibus, the report being forwarded to Dr. Towns- 
hend, who presented it at the convention, at Oolum- 
Inis in December. 

The fourth annual ftiir, held at Elyria, was a 
success. The fii-st day being, as iisua.l, for the 
examination of stock, etc.; the second, to plowing 
match; and afternoon of thfit, to election of officers, 
and other business. Elected for the ensuing year: 

President, D. B. Kinne.y; vice-president, N. B. Gates; treasurer, Wm. 
Patterson; secretary, A. H. Redington. 

The society listened to very approjiriale remarks 
from Dr. N. 8. Townshend and K. McEachron, Es(|., 
after which the several awarding committees rejjorted 
their awards. 

The tiftb annual fair was held at Olx-rlin, Septem- 
ber 20, 18,51). At this fair, higher premiums were 
offered; the premium on bestcultivated farm was raised 
from five to eight dollars, and others in [iroporliijn. 
E. Clark, best cultivated farm; A. Gaston, second. 
The same president and vice-president were elected, 
and A. H. Redington made secretary and tre;isiirer. 

The next fair was hold at Wellington, two days, 
between the 10th and 20th of September, 18.51. 



Here is the lir.sfc statement of receiiits and expendi- 

Amount recoived from members and county JSIHG 00 

Expenditures, premiums, etc 181 00 

AtiKiunt in hands of Treasurer $2 00 

At tills fail', dijiioiiias were offered (Hiite liberally 
instead of money for |ii'eiiiiiiiiis. The fair is said to 
havt' passed off satisfaetorily to iiiosi parties. The 
uleetion resulted as follows: 

President, B. C. Perkins; vice-president, N. B. Gates; secretary and 
treasurer, Ed. Matchem. 

Receipts from all sources during the year amount to $2ri5 10 

Amount paid in premiums and other expenses.. 193 17 

At a meeting of the board, held at Oberlin, August 
3, 1S52, the committee previously appointed to solicit 
subscriptions to aid the society re|)orted as follows: 

O. S. AVadsu'orth reixn-led lifty-two dollars, on con- 
dition that the next fair be held in Wellington. A. 
W. Whitney iiiadt^ an adverse rc|)ort for Pittsfield. 
The members from Oberlin and Elyria being absent, 
it was voted to hold the next fair at Wellington. At 
a later hour N. B. (rates reported one hundred dol- 
lars, pledged by citizens of Elyria, on condition that 
the fair be held in that place. On motion of 0. S. 
Wadsworth, it was voted to rescind the resolution for 
holding the fair at Wellington, and that the next fair 
be held in Elyria on Wednesday and Thursday, Gtli 
and 7th of October, 1852. 

A committee of four were a})poiiited to make neces- 
sary arraiige:nents for holding the fair at Elyria, and 
were authorized to make expenditures to an amount 
not exceeding mie hundred dollars, and not exceeding 
the amount paiJ into the treasury by donations by the 
citizens of Elyria in making an enclosure, pens, build- 
ings, etc., necessary for, the convenience of said fair. 
N. B. Gates, Edwin Byington, G. <{. Washburn and 
E. W. Hubbard were made said committee. It was 
decided to ajiproiiriate fifty dcdiars more from the 
fund, provided the said ccnnmittee fence in grounds 
so that an admission fee can be collected. 

N. B. Gates was requested to act as marshal, with 
power to choose his assistants. The above committee 
were to |trocure a suitable person to deliver the annual 

This seventh fair was a great success. The pre- 
mium list was extended and stock somewhat classi- 
fied. The ladies exhibited a long list of articles, both 
of domestic and ornamental use, and were awarded 
liberal premiums. 

N. B. dates was made president, O. S. Wadswoi-th vice-[)resi(lent, and 1 
E. IMatchem secretary and treasurer. 

The eighth annual fair was held at Klyria. and more I 
lilicral premiums were olTered. (»n cattle the amount 
to l)e awarded was seventy-live dollars and nine copies 
of ()/nu Fiirmer. On horses, fifty-three dollars and 
two Ohio Farmers. Fine arts, flowers and fruits were 
largely represented at this fair. There was a long list 
of utienuuierated articles. In this class a premium 
was awarded to Fordice Miller, a cripple, /(;/• skill in 

training dogs, etc., three d(dlars, and J. Cunningham, 
for a substitute for chocolate, tweuty-five cents. 

Gates, Wadsworth and Matchem were elected president, vice-presi- 
dent, secretary and treasurer respectively. 

The board of directors met at Oberlin dune 1, 1S54. 
This was a vei-y iniporlant meeting. The whole pro- 
ceedings ai'c fui'nished as follows: 

Memljers present, President Gates, E. Clark, Wm. r)a.v, A. W. Whit- 
ney, A. H. Redintcton, Edwin Byington and E. Matcliem. 

Af'er hearing reports from committees from Elyria and Oberlin, the 
board took into consideration the subject of locating tlie county fair for 
the next ten j-ears. 

On motion of E. Matchem. that the Lorain county fair be located at 
Oberlin, in the township of Russia, for the next ten years, the question 
being called, and the yeas and nays demanded, resulted as follows: 

Yeas— A. W. Whitney, E. Matchem, A. H. Redington. 

Nays— E. Byington. Wm. Day. E Clark, N. B. Gates. 

A. W. Whitney immediately withdrew from the society. 

On motion of E. Byington, to locate the fair at Elyria tor the next ten 

Yeas— E. Byington, A. H. Redington, Wm. Day, N. B. Gates. 

Nays— E. Clark. E. Matchem. 

The following were appointed a committee of arrangements, to pro- 
cure and enclose grounds, erect suitable buildings, and other necessar.v 
fixtures, dig a well, and superintend next fair; N. B. Gates, H. C. Safford, 
E. Byington, A. Beebe, A. H. Redington. 

Rc'soliK'd, That the committee of arrangements on the treasurer 
tor one hundred and fifty dollars, to be expended in fitting up the fair 
grounds. Adjourned. 

The ninth annual fair was a success. Being a full 
show, every department was well represented, ami 
there was a large attendance. Among the noticeable 
offerings at this fair were three premiums for ladies' 
horsemanshi}) : First, silver cake basket; second, 
ladies" riding hat; third, gold pencil. The success- 
ful coiiip'titors being Miss Arys Terrell, first; Miss 
iS:)i)hia I'erry, seond; Mrs. L. S. Jenkins, third. 

September 28, 18")-t, ofticers elected for the ensuing 

N. B. Gates, president; N. S. Townshend, vice-president; H. C. Saf- 
ford. secretary and treasurer. 

The next annual fair was held on the 3d. 4th ami 
5th of Ociober. One hundred and thirty dollars had 
been expended in improving the grounds. Previous 
to this fair, very few, and it is fjuestionable if any, 
pure bred cattle had been exhibited, with the excep- 
tion of Aston anil lliiiii[ihrey"s Ilcrcfords. 

During this year Ilennin Ely, Esq., ]nirchased sev- 
erid "Herd-Book"' short-horns — the bull. Sir Huni- 
jilircy, 074, and a tine cow and heifer bred by Reber 
& Kutz, Fairfield county, Ohio. These animals made 
a good showing and were admired by the visitors. 
Also, the lamented Chas. Arthur Ely had purchased 
a fine herd of pure Devon cattle. These, too, were 
on exhibition, and were of great excellence. 

l'rob:il)ly Ohio has not exhibited finer specimens of 
the Devon ii[) to this day. The fine old bull, the 
'■ Duke of Devon,"" was, in every point, a first-class 
aiiim d. K. Matchem exiiibited Devons, and owned 
some thoroughbreds. This fair is reported as being 
ahead of that of any previous fair. There was also a 
full field of ladies contending for the premiums offered 
for their skill in horsemanship, both for riding and 

For best riding. Mrs. E. T. Kirby. silver cake basket; second, Mrs. s 
Morehouse, silver spoons; third, Miss Sophia Perry, silver butter knife; 
fourth, Miss W^ooster, salt spoons. For driving, first, Mrs. Helm, gold 



chaiu; second, Mrs. .1. Manville, gold locket; third, Mrs. 6. E. Nichols, 
gold pencil ; fourth. Miss Wooster, gold studs. 

October 5, 18;")5, officers elected for ensuing yeiir: 

N. B. Gates, president; O. S. Wadsworth, vice-president; Wm. H. Root, 
secretary and treasurer; A, H. Redington, corresponding secretary. 

The constitution of the Liiniin county ;igrieultur;il 
society was revised at a meeting of the ineinl>ers of 
society liold at Elyria, Felniiary 7. l!~i5f;. We have 
not S])ace to give it as revised. 

The eleveiitii auinial fair was held Octoljer 7th, !Sth 
and 9th, 1856. This was a full show, and nearly 
every i>reniiuni offered v/as competed for. 

Alonzo (iastoii took first on best cultivated farm; 
Pitt W. Hall, second; I). 1'.. Kinney, third. Prin- 
cipal exhil)itors in short-horns and Jlerefords, Louis 
& Wooltoii, Iloyle, Redington. jMills and Wadsworth. 
In Kevoiis, C. A. Ely, Matchem, Hamlin and Rhodes. 
Horses, DeWitt, Howe, Nichols, Webster, Vincent, 
Panybow, .Smith; C. A. Ely, matched horses. 

The twelfth annual fair was held October (5, 7, and 
8, 1857. This fair was peculiar for the arrangement 
of the cattle classes. First class included Short- 
Ilorns. Devons, Ilerefords, Alderneys, and Ayrsliires, 
with three premiums to each age, from three years and 
upwards, down to a calf. In sweepstakes, there were 
also three premiums, as in the regular class, a thing 
unprecedented — -there being the second committee; 
and it was amusing, to see the same animals come m 
competition, and witness many of the previous awards 
reversed. T'here was a large amount of grumbling by 
some of the exhibitors. The show of cattle was poor, 
and there were a few well bred animals. The com- 
mittee ou sweepstakes was A. Bsebe, Sr., R. Baker, 
and C. Wheeler. The award oh bulls: A. Reding- 
ton's Gov. Morrow, 543, first; 0. A. Ely's Duke of 
Devon, second; S. C. Hoyle's, third, the Duke 
being third in class, and a Hereford second, Heding- 
ton's first. The cows 373 and over, were good. 

This classification was quite unsatisfactory to stock 
men, generally, and never rejieated thereafter. 
The hidies' horsemanship resulted in 

Miss C. Wooster taking the first premium, Miss Mary Darling, the 
second, and Mrs. S. Morehouse, the third. 

At the annual meeting, October 8, 18.57, ofiiccrs 
elected : 

Edwin Byington, president; A. H. Redington, vice-president; Wm. H. 
Root, secretary and treasurer; H. E. Peck, corresponding secretary. 

The thirteenth annual fair was held October 5, 0, 
and 7, 1858. The premium list had been extended, 
and every department full; the attendance large, and 
receipts gooiL Grounds had become too small to 
accommodate so large agathering. This year an addi- 
tion was made to the short horn cattle, R. Baker 
having purchased the bull Gen. Havelock, 2900, and 
three females, all "herd book jieiligrees," and Dr. N. 
S. Townshend had, also, purchased several animals of 
the same bree<l; the latter taking first premium on 
his bull, " Prince Albert," and the former first on 
his cow, "Harriet 2d," by Sir Humphrey, 974. 
There was, at this fair, a large fiehl of ladies, mounted. 

to contend for the premiums offered for riding and 
driving. Premiums paid at this fair amounted to 

At the annual meeting, October 7, 185S, the ollicers 
elected for the ensuing year, were: 

Ed. Byington. president; Wm. L. Smith, vice president; Wm. H. Koot, 
secretary and treasurer; J. Swift, Jr., corresp-:)nding secretary. 

The fourteenth annual fair was held Septemlier 27, 
28, and 29, 1859. The heavy rain on the first day 
kept away many exhibitors, with their stock, etc., 
also, visitors. Financially, sufficieut was made to 
meet necessary expenses attending the fair, proper. 
At this fair, an addition was made to the cattle de- 
partment, by D. A. Stocking having purchased several 
thoroughbred short horns, and some high grades. 
These were on exhibition, and having been fattened 
on the blue grass regions, were in high flesh, and at- 
tracted the attention of many, especially those who had 
not been in the habit of seeing high fed aaimils. 

The annual election of officers was held on the last 
day of the fair, resulting in the election of 

Dr. N. S. Townshend, president; A. W. Wliitney, vice-president; H. 
M. Redington, .secretary and treasurer. 

The fifteenth annual fair was well attended, and 
financially a success. There were but two entries of 
farms, and only one premium awarded, and that to A. 
(iaston, twenty dollars. Many premiums were low- 
ereil, and ipiite a number of second premiums struck 
off the list — all on grain samples and garden vege- 
tables. This injured the show in these classes, those 
tables being badly sui)plied, and ([uite a feeling of 
dissatisfaction was expressed by many exhibitors. By 
cutting off so many ]n-emiums, the expenses were 
reduced, so that at the end of the year the society had 
a balance of about eight dollars in the treasury. This 
was the last year that a premium was offered for 

The election of officers did not take place on the 
last day of the fair in 1800, owing to a regulation 
issued by the Ohio State Board of Agriculture, that 
all county agricultural societies shall hold the annual 
meeting for the election of officers, etc., sometime in 
January; consequently the old board held over, and 
at the call of the president the meeting was ordered 
for .January 7, 1801, when the following officers were 
elected for the ensuing year: 

For president, N. B. dates; vice president, J. Swift, .Tr; secretary and 
treasurer, P. A. Bishop; directors, R. Baker, Joshua Boynton, Alonzo 
Gitston, D. A. Stocking, and William H. Root. 

The sixteenth fair was held September 2.')-28 inclu- 
sive. This fair had immy things to contend with. 
A "fast day" had been proclaimed by Presidtmt fjin- 
coln, which occurred on the first day of the fair, <ind 
a continual rain the following day and also ujito noon 
of the third ilay; in conse(iuence a fourth day was 
added. Notwithstanding these disasters the receipts 
were ahead of any previous year. 

P. A. Bishop refused to serve as secretary and t rea- 
snrer, and E. C. Griswold was appointed by the board 
in his stead. 



Tlic iiiimi;tl mot'tiiig was hold January G, 18'J2, 
when tlie following officers were clectpd for the ensu- 
ing year: 

President, N. B. Gates; vice presideitt. R. Haker; secretary and ti*ea- 
surer, R. G. Horr; eorrespondinK secretary, G. G. Washliurn. 

Tho board came together and revised the i)reiiiiuni 
list, made the usual arrangements for holding the 
annual fair, hut by some of the disasters of tiio war 
and tiie gjooui ))ei'vadiug the wliolc north, the l)oard 
was called to meet in August, and at tjiat meeting it 
was decided not to liold a fair during that year. 

The annual meeting was held January 14, ISOH. 
At this meeting it was voted that all persons to be 
entitled to vote for officers shall first |)ay tiie sum of 
one dt)llar into the treasury of the society. The elec- 
tion of officers was postponed until January 31, 186;3, 
to which time the st)ciety adjoui'ncd. 

January -51, the society niet; eleven persons jiaid 
the annual fee, eac'h of cwo dollar. The follnwiiig 
persons were duly elected: 

Presiilent, N. B. Gates; vice president, R. Baker; secretary and trea- 
surer. R. (j. Horr; corresponding secietary, George G. Washburn. 

A vote was ])assed te enlarge the fair grounds, if 
ground could be had adjoining. The board met 
September Vi, and appointed N. 1>. Gates a committee 
to fit up the grounds, and that a sunt not exceeding 
two hundred and seventy-five dollars he appropi-iated 
for that purpose. 

The eighteenth annual fair was held October (i to 
9, 1803, The show was excellent; horses, calitle and 
.sheep very numerous; a large attendance of visitors. 
The last day was fixed for the extra trotting and all 
kinds of amusements, which had first been intro- 
duced in ISiil, by 1). A. Stocking. This arrangement 
was not luuinimously desireil, and was attended with 
considerable discussion; hut it was decided to sive 
the day to the j)nrposo of amusing a certain class — 
contrary, I think, to the objects for which county 
asjricultural societies were or<raiii/.ed. 

At an annual nu'eting, January 23, 1804, 

N. B. Gates was elected president; Win. Patterson, vice-president; and 
Mozart (lallnp, secretary- and tl'easurer. 

On motion, the constitution was so ;imende(l as to 
dispense with the office of corresponding secretary. 

On motion of !>,. P>;iker, the following resolution 
was atlopteil, to wit: 

Iie:it>lvi'tl, ^Tliat the Lorain county agricultural society hold a meeting 
on the second Monday in l)ecember of each year, to decide on premi- 
ums for tield crops, and to (romplete any uuninshed business relating to 
the previous fair. 

Also, on niolion of !!. Baker, the following resolu- 
tion /cds itildjilril : 

Hesoli-ed, That the Lorain I'ounty agricultural society publish an 
annual report, in pamphlet form, of tlie proceedings of said society. 

The nineteenth iiniuuil lair w;ts held October 4, .5, 
and 7. 

The regiihir :inntial niei'ting was held .l:tnn;i]-y 11, 
1865, wluui the following otlicers were elected: 

D, A. stocking, president; T. S. Metcalf, vice president ; and Mozart 
Gallup, secretary and treasurer. 

On moti 

)f J{. l^iiker, it was 

Resolved, That the constitutioa be so amended as to fix the price of 
membership at one dollar and tifty cents for each member annual]}'. 

The annual fair Wius held October 3, 4 and o. 

The annual meeting for theelecti(Hi of officers, etc., 
was held January 27, 1800. This being a meeting at 
which action must be taken with regard to a regula- 
tion of the State board of agriculture, viz: 

"That county societies shall fix the time for holding the annoal meeling 
sometime in .January, and then keep to such time; and also shall decide 
on the number of persons they with to constitute a board of directors — 
the number not to be less than eight intlividuals, and as many more as 
the society may wish.*' 

This, with other iinport;int business, sh;ill he given 
as recorded. 'I'he election resulted as follows: 

President, D. A. Stocking; vice-president. Joseph Swift, .Jr ; secretary 
and treasurer, T. S. Metcalf. 

Oil moti(ui of Mr. Swift, it was 

Resulted, That the board of managers of the society shall consist of 
eight members, to conform to the rules of the State board, and that we 
proceed to elect thes.inie by i.allot; and those elected, cast lots for the 
longer or shorter term. The result was as follows, after casting lots, viz; 
Parks Foster, W'm. A. Braman, R. Baker and L. F. Parkes. one year; 
Joshua Worcester, Bradford Race, T. S. Metcalf and M. H. Cunningham, 
two years. 

A resolution passed instructing the president to appoint a committee 
of three, to proceed to Wellington and confer with the Union agricul- 
tural society, at their aimual meeting, to ascertain whether they have 
any desire to unite with the county society, and report to the board 
forthwith. The chair apiiointed on said committee, Messrs. Parks 
Foster, T. S. Metcalf and R. Baker. 

Mr. Baker offered a series of resolutions, which 
were unanimously adopted by the society, which were 
in writing, as follows: 

1. Resolved, That the Lorain county agricultural society take steps to 
purchase land for fair grounds, and that as near the county seat as 

2. Resolved, That so soon as the board of managers can select a 
proper site, the}* are authorized to puix^hase not less than fifteen acres 
of land, to be deeded to the society for the of .said society. 

3. Resolved, That the President appoint one or more members in 
each township of the count}', to solicit subscriptions in the several town- 
ships, and report on the first Saturday in .-Vpril, ISIJIi. 

4. Resolved, That the president request the county conmussioners 
(to the full extent of the power vested in them) to appropriate of the 
county funds toward pm-cliasiug and fitting up proper grounds for the 
use of our county agricultural society, and that he report on the first 
Saturday in April, IStJtJ. 

Laiivl for fair grounds w;is finally jmrchased of 
Ilenuin Ely in ISOT, being lots one hiiiidreil and 
twelve and one hundred and thirteen west of river, 
being eighteen and tive-hundredths acres of land, at 
one hundred and fifty dollars per acre. A cash pay- 
ment of five hundreil dolhirs was m;iile. Election of 
officers resulted as follows: 

President, Win. A. Braman; vice-president, J. Swift, Jr. 

Voted, that the society employ an agent to solicit 
subscriptions. Mr. J. H. Boynton was appointed 
such agent. .\t this meeting it was again voted, that 
the coniniissioners be requested to api)ropriate funds 
to the equal ;inioiint raised by the soeiety. K. Baker 
i>ffered the following resolution, wliich u'(t)< dixrussed 
inifl adapted: 

" WHERE.4S, Many of the members of the Lorain county agricultural 
society are opposed to the admission of side shows, etc.: 

^•Resolved, That we will not admit to the fair grouiuis any side shows, 
swings, auctions, or intoxi.-ating drinks, during the days of the annual 

Adjourned .linp die. 

T. S. Metcalf, Sccretanj. 



January 20, 1S6T, the new board was organized, and 
elected T. S. Metcalf secretary and treasurer for the 
ensuing year. It was decided to remove the build- 
ings from the old fair grounds to the new grounds 
immediately. The buildings were taken down early 
in the week and a "Bee" called on Saturday, and 
the old buildings were moved across the river. At 
this meeting it was (Cor the first time) voted, that the 
secretary and treasurer be paid for his services the 
past year. 

Bids for furnishing lumber for the fair grounds 
were opened at a meeting of board held February IG, 
18()7. The l)ids varied from eighteen dollars per thou- 
sand to twenty-three dollars per tliousand. The board 
decided to have oak posts and pine boards for fences. 
Hiram Woodward furnished a part of oak posts at 
eighteen dollars per thousand. The grounds were 
graded, and the " trotting ring " constructed, under 
the superintendence of D. A. Stocking. 

During the summer, wells were dug, the fence and 
suitable buildings, offices, and stalls for horses and 
cattle, pens for sheep and swine were all fixed up and 
put in good shape at a cost of 13,928. !)6. Wm. A. 
Braman, who was the president of the society, 
deserves the good wishes and gratifications of the 
society for his indefatigable labors during this sum- 
mer, in superintending the arrangement, and fitting 
up these new grounds, which were presented to 
the public, at the exhibition, in a shape not only 
satisfactory to the exhibitors and the society, but an 
ornament to Lorain county. All visitors pronounced 
this, the twenty-second, the best exhibition and the 
largest fair ever held by the society, up to this 

The public were well pleased, and expressed them- 
selves satisfied with the new grounds, and especially 
for their proximity to the village. The new bridge 
having been erected during the summer, made the 
transit from the city to the grounds all tiiat could be 
d sired. 

At annual meeting, held .January 35, 1868, 

Wm. A. Braman was elected president; J. Swift, Jr., vice-president; 
T. S. Metcalf, secretary and treasurer. 

During this year, additional ex])ense was incurred 
by rounding off corners of track, and in putting n\) a 
large dining hall, at a cost of $1,017.48. 

The twenty-third annual fair was held September 
15, 10, 17 and 18, 1868. The exhibition was success- 
ful in every department. 

At the annual meeting, January .30, 1869, the 
following officers for the ensuing year were elected: 

President, Wm. A. Braman; vice-president, J. Swift, Jr.; secretary 
and treasurer, C. W. Jolinston. 

The twenty-fourth annual fair was held October 5, 
0, 7 and 8. The first :ind second days were rainy and 
cold. The morning of the third was bright and clear, 
and the grounds were packed with visitors, and an 
immense crowd on the last day made the fair finan- 
cially a success. 


At the annual meeting, January 29, 1870, the 
following officers were elected: 

President, Wm. A. Braman; vice-president, Chas. S. Mills; secre- 
tary and treasurer, C. W. Johnston. 

In August of this year, an excursion to Put-in-Bay 
Island was enjoyed by the society. A special train 
on the L. S. road conveyed passengers to Vermillion, 
where the party embarked on the steamer " Reindeer." 
A very pleasant time was had. 

The annual fair (twenty-fifth) was fixed for October, 
but the Northern Ohio fair association being organized, 
they fixed to hold their fair on our days. The Lorain 
county fair was changed to September 20 and follow- 
ing days. In August of this year, the society allowed 
their grounds to be used for a horse or trotting fair. 
Many attended this that were not disjiosed to turn out 
again at the September fair. This, with the novelty 
and excitement of attending the large fair to be held 
at Cleveland in October, greatly influenced the peoi)le 
against attending our county fair. Tlie show was 
never better, but visitors 7.ot so numerous as at the 
two previous fairs. 

At the annual meeting, held .Tanuary 28, 1871, the 
following officers, for the ensuing year, were elected: 

Chas. S. Mills, president; R. Baker, vice-president; George P. Metcalf, 
secretary; C. W. Johnston, treasurer. 

This year, a new "floral hall" was erected, at a 
cost of twelve hundred dollars. This was greatly 
needed, there not being room in the old hall; neither 
was it fitted up in proper shape for ladies to arrange 
and display their handiwork to the best advantage. 
This year an other excursion was made to the island, 
the boats "Fieris" and "Gen. Grant "being char- 
tered for the i)ur])ose. This was an enjoyable and 
profitable undertaking. All passed off in good order, 
and there were realized for the treasury, three hun- 
dred and twenty dollars. 

The twenty-sixth annual fair came off September 
19, 30, 31, and 23. More entries than at any other 
fair heretofore. Attendance quite large. Premiums 
actually paid this year, fifteen hundred dollars. It 
cannot be maintained that, the Northern Ohio fair 
lessened the attendance at Lorain county fair. Never 
in the history of our society, did all pai-ties seem so 
harmonious and enthusiastic, as at this fair. The 
new hall, with the well arranged, and equally well 
manufactured articles, from domestic, ornamental, 
floral and fine arts, made a display that had never 
been equalled in the history of the Lorain county 
agricultural'society. The hall was crowded all the 
time. Expressions of delight wei-e continually heard, 
and the board of directors wei'e very grateful for the 
helping hand of the ladies of Elyria, and the county, 
who made their display so attractive, which gave a 
finish to the exhibition, which its predecessors never 

It had been a subject of considerable talk: "Why 
cannot the agricultural society do something more 
than hold its fair, and meet once a year, to elect 



officers?" a question always timely, and very import- 
ant. At a meeting, lield January 27, 1873, R. Baker 
(who had previously read an address) moved a resolu- 
tion, which was unanimously adopted: 

"Tliat, horeafter, the rule of the Lorain county agricultural society, 
at the annual meetiuss, shall be to meet at ten o'clock a. m. That, 
after the reading of the secretary and treasurer's reports, short papers 
and addresses, on matters pertaining to the society, shall be in order. 
That the ;eIection of officers shall take place at 1 o'clock p. m , after 
which, discussion shall be resumed , " 

The election of officers resulted as follows: 

Clias. S. Mills, president; R. Baker, vice-president. 

On motion of ex-president Gates, it was voted that 
the board call on the commissioners of the county, 
and again request them to make an appropriation 
I'rniu the county funds, to relieve the society of its 
indebtedness. In support of this resolution, Col. 
Gates made quite an e.\tended speech. On motion, 
his speech was ordered printed. The board met and 

Geo. P. Metcalf, secretary; and C. W. Johnston, treasurer. Mr. .lohn- 
ston refused to serve, and Jay Terrell was appointed treasiu'er for the 
ensuing year. 

March 4, 1873, the Itoard met, and a resolution was 
ailojited, asking the following persons to act as a com- 
mittee to solicit donations of money, to be applicil 
toward liquidating the present indebtedness of said 
society. The conditions upon which said subscribers 
are to pay their subscrijttions, are: that the committee 
secure, pledged for said purposes, the sum of 13000.00. 
The men selected for the several townships, com- 
menced the work, headed by J. 11. Boynton, Esf|., 
who himself subscribed seventy-five dollars, he being 
assigned Elyria and Oberlin. The amount, by the 
next annual meeting, was nearly all promised, but 
the fire in March, 18G3, destroyed the lists, with 
books, and other documents, of the society; after 
which, the persons who had subscribed, and promised 
to advance the as soon as the two thousand 
dollars were all promised, could never be prevailed 
upon to come forward and pay the various sums. 
Had they done this, the debt would have been lifted 
in 18G3. 

The third annual picnic and excursion was held at 
the opening of the T. C. V. liailroad. Three steam- 
ers were chartered for the occasion, viz: the "Evening 
Star," "Ferris," and "Sarah Van Epps." All were 
ready to t;'.ke on jiasseugers at the mouth of Black 
river, before and on the arrival of the train from tiie 
south. Quite a number went from Elyria and vicin- 
ity, but the crowd by railroad was immense. The 
"I'erris" was ordered to touch at Vermillion, to take on 
one hundred and thirty ])a.ssengers, but she neglected 
to enter, and the "Star" having a full load could not. 
Consequently, the "Van Epps" l)eiug the last to set off, 
and I'l'esideiit Mills being aboard of her, it was decided 
I'lir her to call at V'enniJiion, for wliicli the captain 
deniMuded extra ])ay, she not l)eing chartered to enter 
llijt port. The two former boats made good heading 
and landed the pas.sengers in good time, but the 
"Van Epps," was away back many miles. After 
spending an enjoyable time on the island — though 

the pleasui-e of many was greatly marred by the non- 
arrival of the other boat, — the two boats left in due 
season. Being witli tlie comnumder of the "Even- 
ing Star" he called my attention to a boat just going 
into port on the nortli side of the island, which he 
claimed was the "Saridi Van Epps." They landed, 
and commenced the return. None of the passengers 
happened to die of old age, but they did not get to 
Black River till nearly two o'clock, a. m., of next day. 
This was hard on those who had to stay over at Black 
River. The train could not go without the Ijalance 
of her passengers. Tjiis made confusion, and spoiled 
the day's enjoyment. The "Van Epps" was a poor 
sailor, and worse yet, it was proved afterwards, that she 
was unseaworthy at the time. This was kept back 
from our excellent secretary, who chartered her at 
the eleventh hour. Notwithstanding, the society 
gained eight hundred and eighty-four dollars by tiie 

The twenty-seventh annual fair was held Septemlier 
17, 18, 19, and 30. The entries were full, bnt the 
second and third days, rain was falling incessantly. 
The grounds were miserable. The board, on the 
tliird day, decided to hold open on the fifth day. The 
fourth day opened fine, and continued all through the 
two days. A large attendance each day, so that the 
society was saved from loss. 

The annual meeting was held January 35, 1873, at 
ten o'clock, a. in. After treasurer's report. President 
Mills made his annual address. Papers and discussion 
byR. Baker, N. B. Gates, L. M. Pounds, William A. 
Braman, D. A. Stocking, and W. W. Aldrit'h. Ad- 
journed to H, p. m., when a ])apcr was read by II. 
II. Pojipleton, and further discussiDii. The election 
resulted as follows: 

R. Baker, president; L. M. Pounds, vice president. The board imme- 
diately on adjonrnment of society, met and appointed T. S. Metcalf, 
secretary, and J. C. Hill, treasurer. 

At a subsequent meeting it was voted to Inive ;i 
2)icnic on the fair grounds, on the fourth of July, 
horse trot, exhibition of new fire engine and a speech 
from Governor Noyes, or Prof. Monroe. Tiie latter 
gave the address at the appointed time, which -vvas 
listened to by a large number of j)ersons. All were 
greatly pleased, and expressed satisfaction. 

On August 30, the annual excursion on the lake 
and iiicnic at river came off. The fine steamer ' 'Nort ii- 
west" was chartered. The trip on the lake was en- 
joyed by all; but this large boat was too costly. ;ind 
the receipts did not meet expenses. 

The annual fair was held September in to 10. The 
early part of the season was very dry; grass sutferecl 
by grassho]ipers being so numerous: fruits mostly .-i 
failure, so that some departments of tlie exliiliition 
were not ei[ua! to some previous years. But the dis- 
play was fair. The receii)ts at this fiiir exceeded aii\ 
previous one. the total being two thousand four liuii- 
dred and ten dolhirs and twenty-six cents; about se\en 
hundretl dollars cleared from the fair proper. 




At the aimuiil meeting lielil Jiimiary 31, the presi- 
dent gave liis annual address, secretary and treasurer 
their rejiiirts; also other addresses and discussion fol- 
lowed. It was also voted, to hold the annual fairs 
for the future but three days instead of four days. 

Election of ofilcei-s, the rules being suspended, to elect by ballot. R. 
Baker was uuaniniously elected president for the ensuing year; also L. 
M. Pounds, vice-president, in like manner. The new board organized by 
appointing J. C. Hill, treasurer, and E. G. Johnson, secretary. 

An arrangement was made for an excursion to the 
coal fields, which came off August 21. The profits of 
tJiis excursion amounted to one hundred and ninety- 
nine dollars and sixtj'-three cents in cash, also a great 
amount of pleasure. 

The twenty-ninth annual fair was held September 
30 to October 2. The fair was well attended, and the 
exJiibition hardly up to the average of the two or 
three previous years. The total receijits from fair was 
two thousand two hundred and eight3'-oue dollars. 

The annual meeting was held in the town hall, 
Elyria, .January 30th, 1875. Secretary and treasurer's 
ivi>i.irts; jiresideut's annual address; essays by T. S. 
Metealf, Win. A. Braman; address by Prof. N. S. 
Townshend, of the '' Ohio State University," and 
discussion by several others. D. A. Stocking con- 
demned the prartice of trotting Itorses for money, 
claiming that the money could be put to a better ad- 
vantage by offering larger premiums on cattle and 
horses for all purposes. This gratified and greatly 
amiLsed the convention, that the veteran horseman 
should give such good and sound advice, and, if acted 
ujion, would bring our society to a position which 
would better meet the reipiirements of the act pro- 
viding for the organization of county agricultural 
societies. The election resulted, as follows: 

Wm. A. Braman, president; and N. B. Gates, vice-president; J. C. Hill, 
treasurer; and E. G. Johnson, treasurer. 

This year an excursion to Niagara Falls was made 
August loth. This was gotten up at considerable 
expense. Arrangement was made to accommodate all 
by starting cars from Wellington, V^ermillion and 
Norwalk. When the train left Cleveland there was a 
respectable party. The train was conducted by one 
of the most experienced of the Lake Shore's able con- 
ductors, and wc arrived at the falls nearly on time. 
The party had nearly six hours to view the falls 
from the different points. President Braman had 
previously been to Niagara and procured tickets at 
the lowest prices, and made every arrangement as 
favorable for the excursionists as possible. Never was 
greater enthusiasm manifested by any party than by 
the Lorain visitors. The day was fine and all that 
could be wished. The clear profits were upwards of 
one thousand dollars. Though a large crowd took 
advantage of this triji, others were sorry they did not 
go; and a second trip was had, which proved very 
enjoyalile to those who went, though not many dol- 
lars were added to the treasury; but, as no loss was 
sustained, all passed oil pleasantly. The society being 
so deeply in debt, the excursion was very beneficial 
and created a determination to lift the debt as soon 

as possible. Consequently it was not to be wondered 
at that the zeal so manifest over the trip to Niagara 
should be continued to make the fair next year a great 
success. Every department was full and some over- 
flowing. A larger crowd visited the grounds than 
had in any previous year in the history of the society. 
Old and young of both sexes were thoroughly aroused 
to make such a display as should be a credit to old 
Lorain. Consequently the reccijits were ahead of any 
other fair, being two thousand four hundred and 
sixty-eight dollars and seventy-three cents. This was 
fifty-eight dollars more than in 1873. Taking this 
year all in all, so far as the finances are concerned, it 
was the greatest success the Lorain county agricultural 
society had ever witnessed. But before another year 
was to be entered ui)ou, our much respected and effi- 
cient president was to suffer a long and painful 
illness — brought even to death's door. All who knew 
him, as did the agricultural board, j)assed many anx- 
ious days, almost hojiing against hojje. But the 
good Providence saw fit to restore him, and, as we 
gathered at the annual meeting of 187(i, our society 
and his many friends had bright hopes of his sjieedy 
recovery. On that 39th day of January, 1876, W. A. 
Braman, though confined to his room and scarcely 
out of danger, was unanimously, for the sixth time, 
elected president for the ensuing year, and N. B. 
Gates vice-president. At this meeting Vice-Presi- 
dent Gates presided and made the annual address. 
Papers were read by R. Baker, D. A. Stocking, and 
discussed by several others. A resolution was also 
adopted, to i)resent President Braman with a suitable 
gold watch and chain, as a token of respect and 
appreciation of his services to the society, and for his 
indefatigable exertions during the past successful 
year, which was accordingly done. 

This being centennial year, it was decided to hold 
a celebration (ui the fair grounds on July the -Ith. 
The board decided to erect a "log cabin" on the 
grounds on that day — members of the society having 
been requested to send in a log each, and be on hand 
at an early hour, to erect the building. The logs 
were on hand, and the building commenced, but a 
regular deluge set in early in the day, and jare vented 
its completion. Every possible arrangement was made 
to .secure a day of jJeasure and profit for the multi- 
tude. A large procession was formed, and paraded 
the streets of Elyria. Almost every trade in the county 
was represented, and manufacturing going on, while 
the procession was marching, the rain coming down 
all the time, and greatly marring the proceedings. 
In the afternoon, Hon. W. W. Boynton read a care- 
fully prepared address, being the early history of 
Lorain coiintv. The .Judge delivered it in his easy 
and happy style; a large concourse of people were 
attentive listeners, all exjiressing themselves as highly 
gratified, and gave the Judge a i-ousing vote of thanks 
for his able production. Fortunately, the rain ceased 
previous to the address, but the inclement weather 
prevented the carrying out of the full programme. 



The unfinished cabin was finished at an early day — 
a residence being greatly needed for tlic Iveeper of the 
grounds. Tliis cabin adds to the vaUie of the j)roperty, 
it being a substantial building, made very comfortable 
for a family. Mr. S. Rawson, a faithful overseer of 
the grounds, occupies the house. 

The fair of this centennial year was not expected 
to compare favorably with that of 1875, so many 
having given tlieir time in attending the exhiljitiou 
at Philadelj)hia, could not afford to give attention to 
the Lorain exhibition as they otherwise would have 
done. Several, who generally exhibited largely, were 
at the centennial during our fair. The receipts were 
upwards of two thousand dollars, though not quite 
sufficient to cover all the expenses of the year, includ- 
ing those of the fourth of July. Quite an amount 
was incurred in fitting up the cabin, viz: two hundred 
and twenty dollars. The value of the house was five 
hundred dollars at least. 

At the annual meeting, .January 21, 1877, President 
Braman gave the annual address; secretary and treas- 
urer's reports, followed. Papers were read by N. L. 
Cotton, N. B. Gates and K. Baker; discussed l>y others. 

C. S. Blills was elected president; B. Race, vice president; and E. G. 
Jolmson, secretaiy and treasurer. 

The society of this year gave another excursion to 
Niagara Falls, August 21, which passed off satisfacto- 
rily to all jjarties. Upwards of three hundred and 
fifty dollars were added to the treasury. These excur- 
sions have been a great help in reducing the society's 
indebtedness. Three years ago tiie amount of debts 
was three thousand tliree hundred dtdlars, which is 
now reduced to seven hundred and fifty dollars. 

The thirty-second annual fair was held September 
19, 20 and 21. The show was scarcely up to those of 
a few years past, though ((uite creditable; the receipts 
were two thousand two InUidrt^d and twenty dollars. 
The iM'emiums paid amounted to one thousand one 
hundred and thirty-nine dollars, leaving a good bal- 
ance in the treasury. 

The annual meeting of 1878 was held January 2(J, 
President Mills in the chair. The secretary and 
treasurer gave his report. The president delivered 
the annual address. N. L. Cotton i-ead a paper on 
"winter care of stock;" N. B. Gates, on "what I 
know about farming;" and R. Baker, on " the best 
breed of cattle for Lorain county." Some discussion 
followed. A motion was made by R. Baker that a 
report of the transactions of the Lorain county agri- 
cultural society be ]iublished annually, in pamphlet 
form. After considerable discussion, the motion was 
laid on the table for one year. The election of officers 
resulted in re-electing 

(;. S. Mills, president; Bradford Race, vice-president; and E, G. 
Johnson, secretary and treasurer. 

August 20, an excursion to Niagara Falls, resulted 
in adding two hundred and two dollars to the treasury 
of the society. 

The thirty-third annual fair was held October 1, 2, 
and 3. Every dei)artment of stock, products, and 

mechanic arts was well filled. Vegetables and apples 
made a splendid show, being, not only very numer- 
ous, but of largo size and excellent quality. Tiie 
1 idics' departments, in floral hall, were well filled uj) 
with useful and ornamental articles, fine arts, etc. 
Miss Wasldnirne, the assistant superintendent, showed 
her skill, in arranging the articles so tiistefully. The 
hall was crowded each day with the ladies, who were 
unwilling to leave the building until they had ex- 
amined every article. The decorations made liy 
the young ladies, jirevious to tJie exhibition, were 
highly appreciated by the visitors. The receipts at 
this fair amounted to two thousand, two hundred and 
thirty-six dollars. It was ((uite clear to the board of 
directors that, ere the annual meeting of 1879, the 
society would be free from this long and heavy bur- 
den of indebtedness. A plan was suggested, to ask 
all favorable to the association, to subscribe one dcillar. 
This was done, and more than was sufficient for the 
})urpose was raised, leaving, at the aniuuil meeting of 
the l)oard, December 28, 1878, a cash balance, in the 
hands of the treasurer, of fifty dollars and twenty- 
five cents. Some further receipts and payments since 
that date, leave the account, at this day, January 26, 
1879, viz: twenty-four dollars and twenty-five cents 
in the treasury. 

At the thirty-fourih annual meeting, held .January 
2G, 1879, the secretary and treasurer presented his 
report. President Mills read his annual address, 
which contains a list of jiayments, made on land con- 
tracts, frjm the purchase, in 1867, up to taking pos- 
session of the deed. The address of President Mills 
gave the greatest satisfaction. After the president's 
address, a discussion followed. 

The election of officers resulted in the choice of 

C. S. Mills, president; John W. Hart, vice president; directors for two 
years. Freeman Parmely, H. Moores. Ed. Hanoe, and William W. Pen- 
field ; for one year, (per J. W. Hart, vice president) H. M. Axttll, Those 
holding over, S. B. Dudley, R. Baker, and H. E. Corning. The present 
board appointed E. G. Jolmson, secretary and treasurer for the ensuing 

After the election, papers were read by R. Baker 
on "the necessity of a better system of husbandry;" 
William A. Braman (claimed by the writer to be) "a 
paper without a subject," and N. B. Gates presented 
a paper, in part, and finished with his accustomed off- 
hand remarks respecting farming in Connecticut, etc. 
To the society was sent, by a member of the legisla- 
ture, for distribution, some seventy copies of the 
"Ohio State Board of Agriculture Reports." 

The history of the society is here given from its or- 
ganization up to the thirty-fourth annual meeting, 
1879. To have given all the details would have en- 
croached too much on the pages of this county history. 
Sufficient is included to give a correct idea of its pro- 
gress, the many difficulties the early officers had tcj 
contend with, and the determined zeal manifested by 
them. Much is missing on account of the loss of im- 
portant papers consumed by the fire of 1873. It is to be 
regretted that the names of persons, and the amounts 
subscribed by them, for the fitting up of the new 



grounds iu 1867 cannot, be inserted, tlie list being 
also burnt up. But, to the credit of ni.xny let it be 
recorded, tluit individuals g:ive liberally, from twen- 
ty-five to fifty dollars, and also donated a part, and 
in many cases the whole of the prenaiums awarded to 
tliem in 1807 and 18(58, some waiting over a year for 
their premium money. It will be admitted by many 
readers of this history that many of the members 
subscribed all, or more, than they were able. Many 
of the enterprising farmers of the county appreciate 
tiie benefits derived through this organization. It 
must be conceded that through the influence of this 
society, the agriculture, etc., of the county has been 
improved to such a degree that the wealth of the 
county, by way of live stock and improved culture, 
is vastly greater than it otherwise would have been. 
It will be disputed by none that this society has been 
the means of vast improvement in the breeds of stock, 
and of great benefit to agriculture and the mechanic 
arts. The fanners raise better cattle, horses, sheep, 
and swine, while the number, variety, and quality of 
manufactured articles are far in advance of what tliey 
would have been but for this organization. It has 
imparted a healthy stimulus to every branch of in- 

The dairying interests of the county are being de- 
veloped. Dairymen, having excellent breeds of cattle 
"to select from, are endeavoring to use those tiiat will 
make the best return, by way of milk, cheese aud 
butter. The county is noted as producing tlie finest 
quality of cheese, and the richest and sweetest butter 
of any county in the State. In the opinion of the 
most thoughtful, it would have been better had the 
society conformed to the requirements of the act, 
passed in 1846, for the encouragement of agriculture, 
etc. For years, the society offered inducements for 
improved plowing. The last contest for best jjlow- 
ing was in 1800. Here was the first great mistake. 
Also, encouragement was given for the best cultivated 
farm. This was dropped in 1803. The offering 
made for the best crops of grain, etc., have been dis- 
continued since 1873. All these, I think, should have 
been continued, and should have formed a prominent 
part in the premiums oifered by the society. But, not- 
withstanding all these shortcomings, we find, by the 
reports of various county societies, of Ohio, sent in to 
the State board of agriculture, at the convention of 
1879, that Lorain stands nearly at par with the best, 
and, iu some matters, takes the lead. 

Tlie society was fortunate iu selecting the present 
location; the grounds being beautifully situated, and, 
have become valuable, by increasing from two thous- 
and seven hundred and seven dollars and fifty cents, to 
upwards of twenty thousand dollars. In the year 1873 
previous to the panic, it was claimed that the grounds 
could be sold for twenty-five thousand dollars. There 
may be larger county fair grounds in the State, but 
none better located, or grounds better adapted for 
holding a county exhibition. And now, the debt 
being removed, improved and more a^jprojiriate build- 

ings can shortly be erected, and the organization will 
be in such a position that every member will, not only 
appreciate, but be proud of it, and, in the next dec- 
ade, it will become more efficient, and, consequently, 
more useful and beneficial to the agriculturists, hor- 
ticulturists, mechanics aud stock raisers of Lorain 



All remember the early days of 1801. Sumter had 
fallen; the Southern Confederacy was formed; the 
South, with stolen munitions of war, and stolon 
money, had organized a formidable army; secession 
was unmistakably resolved upon. So appalling were 
tliese events, that the North stood awhile jiaralyzed 
and awe stricken. Then came our President's call 
, for seventy-five thousand men. Everywhere through- 
out the Northern States there was a hearty response — 
nowhere was it heartier than njion the Reserve of 
Northern Ohio. Lorain took a gallant part in this 
first outburst of northern jiatriotism; and during the 
entire period of the war, there was no time when she 
was found faithless to duty. Where\er danger lurked 
tliickest, there we find the Lorain boys. Manv, very 
many never returned; their lives went out as a sacri- 
fice. They died the noblest deaths for their country, 
and beneath the skies of the sunny South, where the 
groves of the magnolia and the orange shed an 
undying perfume — the spot, perhaps, unmarked and 
unknown — they "sleep the sleep that knows no wak- 

"Rest on, embalmed and sainted dead. 

Dear as the blood ye gave; 
No traitor's footsteps e'er shall tread 

The iierbage o'er your grave; 
Nor shall your glory be forgot 

While Fame her record keeps, 
For Honor mourns the hallowed spot 

"Where loyal valor sleeps." 

" ' The real heroes of this war are the great, 
brave, jjatient, nameless people.' It is to their service 
through these varied scenes that we now gladly turn. 
The victory was not won through generalship — it is a 
libel on the word to say that generalship delayed for 
four years the success of twenty-five millions in con- 
flict with ten millions, or required a million men in 
the closing campaigns to defeat a hundred thousand; 
it was won by the sacrifices, the heroism, the suffer- 
ings and the death of the men in the ranks. Their 
story we now seek to tell. It will not be picturesque 
or attractive, but full of dry details of fruitless fight- 
ing, of tedious marches, of heroic endurance, of 
])atience, and of weariness. Even such was the life 
they led for us; and its record, we are firmly per- 
suaded, will newer cease to be cherished by their 
grateful countrymen." 

But let us not forget to pay a tribute of gratitude 
and just praise to the noble aud heroic women of 
Lorain county, for their labors of affection and mercy 



durinn; tliese weary, gloomy days. Their generous, 
loving hearts sent forth pitying tears and prayers for 
the safety of loved ones, and the preservation of the 
Union. Wiiile fair hands, many of them unused to 
labor, were oeeujiied in ])rej)ai'iiig comforts for the 
well, dainties for the siek, necessaries for the wounded, 
and cheer for all, noMe and seU'-sacrilicing women all 
over the North formed themselves into aid societies, 
the good results of which can hardly be over-esti- 
mated. Early and late these angels of mercy toiled 
and gathered, forw'arding bo.xes of everything needed 
by the soldier. Yet, could the senders have seen the 
tears of joy which often greeted its reception, they 
would have felt amply compensated. 

The historical sketches of the organizations follow- 
ing are from the very valuable work, "Ohio in the 
War," by Whitelaw Keid. We have spent consider- 
able time at the office of the adjutant-general, at 
Columbus, in procuring records. Many muster-rolls 
are incomplete, or missing altogether; those of the 
three-months' men especially are nearly all destroyed. 
In cases wliere less than full companies of men report 
for muster, tlie column on the muster roll, headed 
'•whei'e enrolled,"' will be lillcd with the place of 
rendezvous — for instance, the greater part of the 
s((ldiers from north-eastern Ohio rendezvoused at 
Camp Taylor, near Cleveland. They are so recorded 
at the office of the adjutant-general, and no reference 
whatever is made to the county in whicli they resided 
when enlistment oecurreil. We have, liy correspend- 
ence with ex-company officers, endeavored to obtain 
(lie name of every citizen of Lorain county who was 
a soldier of the rebellion, ami if omissions occur, tlie 
•'boys" will, we trust, be eharitalile, believing that 
we have done all that circumstances would allow. 

Tiie spelling of names is ver/mtim as given on mits- 
ter-in-rolls, and the writer cannot be held responsible 
for errors of that kind. 


The lirst rebel gun tired at l^'orl .Suinter was the 
signal for the assemblage of this regiment, and its 
echo had scarcely died out in the North ere this 
regiment was in eamj). It was made up entirely in 
Northern Ohio, went into camp near Cleveland, Ohio, 
and was mustered into the United States service on 
Ajiril lit), 1861. .John S. Casement, of Painesville, 
was its first major. He resigned after a time, and 
assisted in raising other organizations. He ascended 
the stei)S of promotion until, we believe, he was 
brigadier-general when he left the service. At the 
expiration of the term of service for which they were 
mustered, the regiment re-enlisted, almost to a man, 
for three years; and on .lune :iK, 1861, it started for the 
field to take part in the opening of the camijaign in 
Western Virginia,, and on the following day first set 
foot on rebel soil, near Beuwood. They marched 
along the line of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad to 
Clarksburg and went into camp. Here a beautiful 
stand of colors was presented to the regiment by 

Cai)tain Schulte, in behalf of the "Social Turnverein," 
of Cleveland, .June 29. The regiment made its lirst 
march fully e({uipj)ed. The day was oppressively hot, 
and before one mile had been laboriously overcome, 
many valuable and useful articles, su])posed to be 
ahsoliitdy indispensable, had become an intolerable 
burden; at three miles, when a halt was ordered, the 
men went deliberately to work reducing their baggage. 
Blankets, dress uniforms, books, under-clothing, and 
every article that could possibly be dispensed with, 
were emptied on the ground and left there. This 
march terminated at Weston. After doing consider- 
able marching, the regiment reached Cross Lanes on 
the IGth of August; and it was here, on the 25th of 
the same month, that they had their first fight, which 
proved a disastrous affair; the regiment being obliged 
to retreat, although they held their position for some 
time against overwhelming numbers. Their loss was 
one hundred and twenty in killed, wounded and pris- 
oners. The next battle was at Winchester, March 2.'5. 
At three o'clock p. m. the battle began in earnest and 
raged furiously until dark, resulting in success to the 
Union army. Again at Port Keimblie the "Seventh'' 
fought splendidly and cfiEectively. Here, with less 
than three thousand muskets, "Stonewall" -Jackson's 
force of fourteen thousand rebel troojis were held at 
liay for five hours. The Union forces were, however, 
obliged finally to retreat. On August 9, at Cedar 
Mountain, the regiment was again at the front and 
eiigage<l in a fierce hand-to-hand contlict. Of the 
three hundred men engaged in the "Seventh'' only 
one hundred escaped unhurt. Their next battle was 
at Antietam, but it would i-e(piire a volume to tell of 
all the fighting this regiment did. On Saturday, 
.lune 24:, 1864, the regiment took its departure for 
Cleveland, wliere it was mustered out of the service 
on the Sth day of July following, having served a 
little more than three years. During that time 
eighteen hundred men had served in it, and when 
mustered out there were but two hundred and forty 
men remaining to bring home their colors, pierced by 
till' shot and sliell of more than a score of battles. 


was originally organized as a three months' regiment 
under the first call of the President, most of the com- 
])aiiies having been enlisted between (he IGth and 
22d days of April, 1861, and all of them arriving at 
Cam]) Taylor, Cleveland, as early as April 29. 

On the 2d of May, all the companies haying been 
mustered into the service, the regiment was ordered 
to Camj) Dennisou, where it arrived on the 3d, dur- 
ing a drenching rain, and many of the men, for 
the first time in their lives, slept in the open air, 
with only a soldier's blanket for floor, roof, walls 
and bed clothes. The regimental organization was 
here completed by the appointment of the field and 
staff officers. | 

Instructions in the "drill" now commenced, and I 
vigorous efforts were put forth to fit the regiment for 



service; but it soon became evideut that the troops at 
tills camp would not be sent to the field as three 
months' men, and an effort was made to re-enlist the 
regiment for three years. To this everj' company 
responded except Conijiany I, and the regiment of 
nine companies was mustered into the service for 
three years, on tlie 22d, 25th and 2(ith of .Tune. 

In the following September, t'oniiiany I joined the 
regiment at Grafton, Virginia. 

On the 9th day of .July, 1861, the regiment left 
Camj) Dennison for (Jraftou, Virginia, and on the 
12th ai'rivod at West Union, Preston county, Va., on 
the summit of the Alleghany mountains where they 
are crossed by the Great Western Turnjiike, and along 
which Garnett's rebel army was then being rajiidly 
driven by McClellan's troops. 

For some weeks after this the regiment was sta- 
tioned at various places among the mountains and 
along the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, during which 
time it suffered severely from typhoid fever; at one 
time over three hundred men were in hospital, and 
some tliirty-f(nir deaths resulted from the fever in a 
short time. On the 24th of September the regiment 
particiiiated in an attack on Romncy. At the "Hang- 
ing Rock" it was ex]iosed to a severe fire, and lost 
several men in killed and a number wounded. The 
regiment again ]iarticipated in an attack on Romnev, 
October 21; which, being evacuated by the enemv, 
was occupied by the troojis under General Kelley 
until January 12, 1SC2. The next fight was at Blue 
(!ap. In January the troops were removed to Patter- 
son's Creek, and the following month to Pawpaw 
Tunnel. On February 14 the Eighth participated in 
a brisk fight at Bloomey Gap, in which C'olonel Bald- 
win, with his staff and a part of his command, were 
'captured. General Lander died March 2, and shortly 
after the division moved to the Shenandoah Valley, 
where General Shields took command. On March 22, 
the outposts at Winchester were attacked by Ash by 
and General Shields severely wounded. The next day 
the battle of Winchester was fought. But few of the 
troops had ever been under fire, and none of them, as 
then organized, in any serious engagements. Colonel 
Kimball commanded, and made his arrangements to 
whii> Stiniewall Jackson, who had arrived during the 
night. The battle was one of the most severe of the 
war. .Jackson, towards evening, attenijited to turn 
our right fiank, but was met by Tyler's brigade in 
front, when Colonel Kimball threw several regiments 
"11 his right flank, and, after a desperate fight, whicli 
in some instances was hand to hand, the enemy was 
routed and driven furiously fnnn the field. The regi- 
ment followed the enemy up the valley, skirmishing 
at Woodstock, Mount Jackson, Edinburgh and New 
Market; thence it joined McDowell at Fredericks- 
burg. Here it remained a few days and was ordered 
back to the valley again. In the meantime Banks 
had executed one of those retrograde movements for 
which he became eminently CDmjjicnous ere the close 
of the war. In August following the Eighth was 

united to the Second corps, then commanded by 
Sumner, and with his corps it continued to act dur- 
ing the remainder of its service. 

The Potomac was crossed at (Jhain Bridge, and the 
march through Maryland commenced, which ended 
in the battles of South Mountain and Antiefani. 
Near Reedyville the whole army was massed by the 
miirniug of Soptemlier 10, and a furious artillery duel 
commenced. One of the first of the enemy's shots 
killed W. W. Farmer, a color-sergeant of the Eighth. 
This cannonade lasted all day. The next day the 
battle of Antietam was fought. The second corps 
crossed the river and occujiied the center of the line. 
It did effective work that day. 

Ill the terriWe battle of Fredericksburg, on Decem- 
ber 13, the Eightli formed the right wing of the 
forlorn hope. At the battle of Chancellorsvilie, be- 
ginning April 2S, 18G3, the Eighth was almost con- 
stantly under fire for four days, and yet its loss was 
only two killed and eleven wounded. The brigade 
was at this time, and subsequently, commanded by 
General (Jarroll. 

No further active service was had until the Gettys- 
burg camiiaign. In that I>attle the regiment bore a 
conspicuous jiart, capturing three stands of colors. 
After the escape of Lee's army across the Potomac, 
the Eighth marched with the army to the Raindau; 
but we have not space to record all the fighting done 
by the regiment; suffice it to say, that, from this 
date until June 25, 1804, when its term of service 
expired, and the little scjuad, who numbered but 
seventy-two officers and men, fit for duty, were taken 
from the trenches before Petersburg and returned to 
Ohio for muster out, they were almost constantly 
ill active service of the severest character. 

The regiment was formally mustered out on July 
13, 18G4, at Cleveland, Ohio, by Captain Douglass. 


At the commencement of the war it was organized 
and otlicercd as follows: Colonel, William S. Kose- 
crans; Lieutenant-colonel, Stanley Matthews; Jlajor, 
Rutherford B. Hayes. 

The jiosition of these ofllcers has lieeii (|uite different 
since those days — In fact, too well known to need 
repetition. Under command of Colonel E. P. Scam- 
moii, the Twenty-third went into active service in 
West A'irginia, meeting with the new and exciting 
events common to inexperienced soldiers, which were 
almost forgotten amid the sterner and sad realities of 
active warfare. 

The regiment participated in the battles of Carni- 
fex Ferry, Virginia, Septeinher lo. 1801 ; Giles Court- 
house, May 10, 18(!2; and had the honor of oi)ening 
the battle of South Mountain, Septeml)er 14, 18(i2, 
where it lost tliirty-three men killed and eiglity 
wounded, among the latter Rutherford B. Hayes, 
now President of the United States. As an incident 
of this battle, it is said that the Twelfth and Twenty- 



third Oliio iuid Twelfth ami Twenty-third North 
Carolina — Companies R on each side — were directly 
engaged with each other. The Twenty-third, nnder 
coniinand of Lieutenant-colonel Hayes, was in the 
advance on that day. It was ordered at an early 
hour to advance up the mountain and attack the 
enemy. From liehind stone walls the eneni}' poured 
a destructive tire into the Fcdci'al ranks at very shoi't 
range. The comnuind of the Twenty-third fell iijion 
Major Condy after Lieutenant-colonel TIayes was 
wounded, the latter again making his ajipi'arance on 
tiie lield, with his wound half dressed, and fought, 
against the remonstrances of the wiiole command, 
until carrie<l off. Neai' the close of the day at Antie- 
tam a change was made hy the division to which the 
Twenty-third belonged, and it was exposed to a large 
force of the enemy posted in a cornfield in the rear of 
the left. Its colors were shot down, and at the same 
time a feint was made in its front. The colors were 
planted on a new line at right angles with its former 
front, and the regiment formed a line in the new 
direction, and opened fire upon the enemy, who re- 
tired. The division withdrew, hut no order reached 
the Twenty-third, and it remained on the field until 
the division commander returned and ordered it to 
the rear. 

The Twenty-third assisted in heading off Morgan's 
command at Huffington's Island, and tiien returned 
to t'harlestown. West Virginia, and afterwards joined 
General Crook's forces for a raid on the Virginia 
and Tennessee railroad. May ',), 1S(!4, the Twenty- 
third fought at Cloyd Mountain. The enemy occn- 
j'ied the first crest of the mountain, defended by 
artillery and rudely-c<instructed breastworks. The 
hill was steep, thickly wooded, and ditlicult of ascent, 
and skirted by a stream of water two or three feet 
deep. At the word of command the regiment ad- 
vanced across the stream to the foot of the mountain, 
under a heavy fire of musketry and artillery, without 
returning the fire of the enemy. A furious assault 
was made upon the enemy's works, carrying them, 
with two pieces of artillery. The struggle at the 
guns was of the fiercest description. The Confed- 
erate artillerymen attempted to reload their pieces 
when the Federal line was not more than ten paces 
distant. The Twenty-third was with Hunter in the 
attack iin Lynchburg, and in numerous skirmishes 
and battles in the Shenandoah valley. At Winches- 
ter. July '^4, 1804, it lost one hundred and lifty-three 
men. At the battle of ()|)e<|uan, September 111, 
Haves' brigade had the extreme right of the infanti-y. 
.Moving forwaril undei- tire, the brigade came u])(in a 
deep slough, forty or fifty yards wide, and neai'ly 
waist-deep, with soft mud at the bottom, overgrown 
with a thick bed <>{ uioss. It seemed impossible to 
get through it, and the whole line was staggered for 
a moment. Just then Oohuiel Hayes pluno-ed in 
with his, and under a shower of bullets and 
shells he rode, waded, and dragged his way through 
— the first man over. The Twenty-third was ordered 

by the right flank over the slough. At the same 
place men were suffocated and drowned; still the 
regiment plunged through, re-formed, charged for- 
ward again, driving the enemy. The division com- 
mander was wounded, leaving Colonel Hayes in com- 
maiui. He was everywhere exposing himself as usual ; 
men were falling all around him, but he rode through 
it all as though he had a charmed life. No reinforce- 
ments, as jiromised; something must be done to stop 
the fire that is cutting the force so terribly. Select- 
ing some Saxony rifles in the Twenty-third, pieces of 
seventy-one calibre, with a range of twelve hundred 
yards. Lieutenant McBride was ordered forward with 
them to kill the enemy's artillery horses, in jilain 
sight. At the first shot a horse drops, immediately 
another is killed, and a panic seems to seize the artil- 
lerymen, and they commence limbering up. The 
infantry take the alarm, and a few commence running 
from the intrenehments, and the cavalry, which had 
been hovering upon the flanks, swept down upon the 
enemy, capturing them by regiments, and the battle 
was at an end. The Twenty-third fought at North 
Mountain, September 20, 1864, and at Cedar Creek, 
October 19 — a day that is a household word through- 
out the land. The Twenty-third was mustered out 
on the 'idth day of July, 18G5, at Cumberland, Mary- 
land, and was jiaid and disbanded at Camp Taylor, | 
Cleveland, Ohio. 


Immediately after the battle of Bull Run. a num- . 
ber of the citizens of Cleveland, Ohio, set about rais- ' 
ing a regiment, and the result of their labors was the 
Forty-first Ohio Volunteer Infantry, of which Cajitain 
William B. Ilazen, Eighth United States Infantry, 
was appointed colonel. The camp of rendezvous 
was established near Cleveland. ]5y the first of 
September, a large number of men were in camp, 
and the work of instruction had commenced. An 
officers' school was instituted, and the strictest disci- 
pline enforced, and, by the time tjie regiment was 
mustered as complete, on the 31st of October, 18G1, 
the officers and men understood their duties well, and 
were cjuite proficicut in drill. On November 6, the 
regiment moved, by rail, to ('amp Dennison, where 
it was supplied with arms. These consisted of the , 
Greenwood rifle, a weapon nearly useless, and soon 
discarded by the governineiit. After a week at Camp 
Dennison, the regiment proceeded to Gallipolis, tak- > 
ing steamer from Cincinnati. 

A few raiding excursions, from this jioint into Vir- 
ginia, was the only relief from daily drills, and in the 
latter part of the month, the regiment was ordered 1<> 
Louisville, and rejK/rted to General Buell, then organ- 
izing the army of Ohio. The Forty-first became a 
part of the Fifteenth brigade. Nelson's division, and, H 
iluring the winter, remained at Camp Wickliffe, Ken- 
tucky. Here, the Forty-first was made the nuclen- 
of a new brigade, (the Nineteenth), to which were 
assigned the Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh Indiana, 



ami tlie Sixtli Keutucky, commanded by Colonel 

On tlie 14tli of February, 1863, Nelson's division 
marched to West Point, which was reached after a 
severe march of three days. Here, the two Indiana 
regiments were sent to Grant. Nelson embarked on 
transports for the Tennessee river, and arrived at 
Nasliville on the 37th of Febrnary. 1863. About the 
middle of March, the regiment moved with the army 
to Savannah, on tlie Tennessee river, arriving within 
two miles of that point, the Saturday preceding the 
battle of Pittsljurg Landing. Heavy tiring was heard 
on the morning of the 6th of April, and, at one 
o'clock, p. m. , after being supplied with rations and 
ammunition, the regiment moved for Pittsburg Land- 
ing, one company, (G), being left to guard the camp 
and garrison equipage. At five o'clock, the troops 
arrived opposite the battle-field, and Hazen's brigade 
was the second to cross the river. Tlie regiment lay, 
that niglit, on the tield, in tlie driving rain, among 
tlie dead and wounded, and, at day-light, moved for- 
ward in its -first engagement. 

Tlie Forty-first was on the right of Nelson's division, 
and, wiien tlie rebels were discovered to be advanc- 
ing, Hazen's brigade was ordered to charge. The 
Forty-first was placed in the front line, and advanced 
steadily, through a dense thicket of undergrowth, and, 
emerging in the more open gi'ound, was saluted with 
a murderous fire. The line still advanced, checked 
the approaching rebels, drove them back beyond their 
fortifications, aud captured their guns. Three officers 
and tliree men, who, at different times, carried the 
colors in the charge, were shot down, either killed or 
wounded, aud, of the three hundred and seventy- 
three who entered the engagement, one hundred and 
forty-one were either killed or wounded, and this, too, 
in the space of half an hour. 

The night after the battle, Hazen's brigade, as an 
outlying force, occupied the Tan Bark road, upon the 
left of the army. The regiment occupied a miseralile 
camp on the field of battle, surrounded by the half 
buried bodies of men and horses, until the army 
moved on Corinth. Tlie regiment suffered very much 
from exposure, during the march, and in the ojiera- 
tions immediately following. The Forty-first was 
with Buell's army, on its march to Louisville, mov- 
ing, day after day, over dirty roads, with short rations 
and water scarce, until, nearly exhausted, ragged and 
dirty, it entered Louisville, on the West Point road, 
aud encamped, for a three days' rest. On the 3d of 
October, the regiment marched against Bragg. At 
the battle of Perryville, its duties were, princijially, 
ski rmisl ling. 

About October 30, the brigade commenced its re- 
turn to Nashville. 

I December 36, the Forty-first, with the army, moved 
'on Murfreesboro. At midnight, on the 30th, the 

■ iment took position in the first line, facing Cowan's 
House, and from this time, until the cessation of lios- 
tilities, was actively engaged. Of the four hundred 

and ten officers and men of the Forty-first, the largest 
number it ever took iuto battle, one hundred and 
twelve were killed or wounded. 

January, 10, 1863, the regiment moved to Reedy- 
ville. where it remained, in comparative quiet, until 
the 34th of the following June, when the command 
moved to TuUahoma; but, that place being eviicuated 
before they reached it, the troojis returned to Man- 
chester, and went into camp. 

Tents were struck on the 15th of August, and the 
command moved toward Chattanooga. The morning 
of the 19th of September fouud the regiment again 
on the bank of the Chickamauga, near Gordon's 
Mills. About nine o'clock, a. m., the battle com- 
menced, and, at one o'clock, ]i. m., Palmer's division, 
(in which the Forty-first was), went into the fight, 
attacking in echelon by brigades, Hazen's brigade 
being the first echelon. The regiment advanced 
rapidly, over an open field, to a strip of woods. After 
holding the position two liours, and, during the time, 
losing a hundred men, the regiment was withdrawn. 
They were immediately moved to the assistance of 
General VanCleve. They were continuall)^ under fire, 
and, at last, the brigade was formed in cplumns, by 
regiments, and advancing, one after the other, de- 
livered its volley jiito the dense masses of tlie rebels, 
who reeled aud fell back. This was the last fighting 
on Chickamauga. The next day was spent on Mission 
Ridge, and, the following night, the regiment retired 
to Chattanooga. 

In the re-organization of the army, Hazen's brigade 
was composed of the First, Forty-first, and Ninety- 
third Ohio, Fifth Kentucky and Sixth Indiana, and 
was assigned to the fourth army corps, Major-general 
Gordon Granger, commanding. 

At three o'clock in the morning of October 37, 
fifty-two pontoons, bearing Hazen's brigade, pushed 
out silently from Chattanooga, and floated down the 
river. In half an liour's time, the leading pontoons 
were passing in front of the enemy's pickets on the 
bank, a hundred feet above. The conversation of the 
rebels could be distinctly heard, but their attention 
. wasnotouce directed to the twelve hundred silent 
enemies floating past, within pistol shot. Just as the 
first pontoon arrived opposite its landing, it was dis- 
covered; but the landing was effected, the pickets 
driven in, and the hill gained. When the morning 
haze cleared away, the rebels ou Lookout saw the hills 
beneatli them, commanding two roads to Bridgeport, 
covered with blue-coats, in a position from which they 
could not be driven, with a pontoon bridge to connect 
them with Chattanooga, almost completed. 

At noon, on the 33d of November, the brigade was 
ordered to fall in, for a reconuoissance. The brigade 
advanced briskly, driving the enemy's skirmishers 
into a dense undergrowth, ou a small ridge, between 
Chattanooga and Mission Ridge. The line followed, 
and received a heavy fire. Nothing could be seen; 
but it was too hot a fire to bear quietly. Colonel Wiley 
ordered the regiment to charge, and orders from 



H.azen, at the same time, dirocted the taking of th 
line on the hill. The Forty-first delivered a volley, 
trusting to fortune for its effect, then dashed forward 
through the thicket, through the balls, up to, and 
into the rebel works, capturing the colors of the 
Twenty -eighth Alabamba regiment. In this, its 
severest, cngagemement, tlie Forty-first was asso- 
ciated with the Ninety-third Ohio, which shared fully 
the danger and honor of the fight. The ^losition was 
held without (rouble, and was known as Orchard 
Knob. Soon after the fight. Generals (Jrant, Thomas 
and others passed along the new line, when Thomas, 
looking at- the ground within fifty paces of the rebel 
works, where the fight had been fiercest, and, where 
lay the horses of Colonel AVilley and Lieutenant-colo- 
nel Kimberley, called for the officers of the regiment, 
and said to Colonel Willey: "Colonel, I want you 
to exi)ress to your men my thanks for their splendid 
conduct this afternoon. It was a gallant thing. Colo- 
nel — a very (jallani thing." That, from General 
Thomas, was better than an hour's sjicecb from any 
other man. 

On the 25th, Ilazen's brigade moved across the val- 
ley from Orchard Knob to Mission Ridge, under a 
heavy artillery fire; and, at the foot of the ridge, a 
dash was made and the enemies' .works cairtiired. 
The troops were here exposed to canister and musketry, 
and to remain was impossible: so they advanced up 
the stecji hill, swejit by an enfilading fire of artillery; 
up they went, and when near the top, the fire of the 
Forty-first was directed to the batteries on the right. 
The rebels retired, and, with a cheer, the line occupied 
the works on the ridge. A S(|uad of the Forty-first 
seized a battery almost before the rebels were away 
from it, turned it to the right, and discharged it 
directly along the summit of the ridge, where tlic 
enemy in front of Newton's division still stubbornly 
held out; and, as the shells went skimming along in 
front of and among them, the rebels turned and fied. 
Eighteen captured pieces of artillery graced General 
Hazen's headquarters that night, of which the Forty- 
first and Ninty-third could fairly claim six as their 
trophies, while the former also captured a battle-flag. 
1'he losses were severe. One hundred and fifteen of 
the Forty-first, most of them in the fight of the 23d 
had fallen. 

After resting scarcely long enough to luiry the dead, 
the regiment moved with its corps for Knoxville. 
Sniijilics bad been scarce, and, before the march was 
half aecmuplished, two-thirds of the men were walk- 
ing over the frozen ground bare-footed; but with their 
feet wrapped up in sheejj-skins and cow-hides thev 
journeyed on, and finally reached Clinch Mountain, 
twenty miles above Knoxville. Here the regiment 
re-enlisted, one hundred and eighty out of one hun- 
dred and eighty-eight becoming veterans, and on tlie 
5th of January, 1864, started for Chattanooga, and 
reached Cleveland, Ohio, on the 2d of February. 

AVith nearly a hundred recruits, the regiment joined 
its division, in East Tennessee, on the 26th of March, 

and was placed in a battalion with the First Ohio, 
Lieutenant-colonel Kimberly commanding. At Rocky 
Face Ridge the battalion was complimented for its 
steadiness under a galling fire, and at Resaca it gained 
a crest within seventy-five yards of the enemies' main 
line, and effectually prevented the use of his artillery. 
At Dallas, on May 26, the Forty-first lost one hun- 
dred and eighty men out of two hundred and sixty. 
During sii1)sequent movements the regiment was en- 
gaged at Peach Tree creek, before Atlanta, in the 
movement against Hood, in December, where it did 
noble work; it ])articipated in the j)iirsuit of Hood, 
and finally rested at Iluntsville, Alabama. 

In June, 18C5, the corjis embarked at Na.shville for 
Texas. Near Cairo the steamer collided with a gun- 
boat, and sunk in a few minutes, with all the regi- 
mental and company pajiers and most of the personal 
property of the officers and men. Fortunately no 
lives were lost. In Texas the regiment was stationed 
near San Antonio until November, when it was ordered 
to be mustered out. It reached Columbus, Ohio, 
about the middle of the mont-li, and was discharged 
on the 26th of November, 1865, after four years and 
one mouth's service. 


The Forty-Second Ohio Volunteer Infantry was 
organized at Camp Chase, near Coliimlnis. Ohio. 
Companies A, V>, C, and D, were mustered into tlie 
service September 25, 1861; company E, Oct.ol)er 30; 
company P, November 12; and companies (?, H, I, 
and K, Novendjcr 26, at which time tiie organization 
was completed. 

On the 14tb of Dec(!niber, orders were rec^eived to 
take the field, and on (he following day it moved liy 
railroad to Cincinnati, and thence by steamer up the 
Oiiiii river to C!atlettsburg, Kentucky, where it arrived 
the morning of December 17. Tlie regiment, to- 
gether with the Fourteenth Kentucky Infantry and 
McLaughlin's squadron of Oiiio (!av.-ilry, proceeded to 
Green Creek. Another advance was made December 
31, and on the night of .Tanuary 7, 1S62, the whole 
command encamped within three miles of Paintville. 
The next morning five companies, under command of j 
Lieutenant-colonel Sheldon took possession of the 
village. On the evening of the same day Colonel j 
Garfield took the Forty-second aud two companies of 
the Fourteenth Kentucky, and advanced against Mar- 
shall's fortified position, about three miles south of 
Paintville village. Arriving at about nine o'clock, p. 
ni. they found the works evacuated, and everything 
valualile either carried away or destroyed; marching , 
all night, they reached Paintville a little after day- 

About noon on the 0th, Colonel Garfield, with eleven 
hundred infantry from the Forty-second Ohio, and | 
other regiments, and about six liundred cavalry started 
in pursuit of Marshall, and about nine o'clock in \ 
the evening the advance was fired ujion by Marshall's ; 
jiickeis, on the summit of Abbott's Hill. Garfield 



took possession of tlie hill, bivouacked for the night and 
I lie next morning continued the pursuit, overtaking 
the enemy at the forks of Middle Creek, three miles 
southwest of Prestonburg. Marshall's force consisted 
of about three thousand five hundred men, infantry 
and cavalry, with three pieces of artillery. Major 
I'ardee, with four hundred men, was sent aci'oss Mid- 
die Creek to attack Marsliall directly in front, and 
Lieutenant-colonel Monroe (Twenty -second Kentucky) 
was directed to attack on Marshall's right flank. 
Tlie tigiit at once opened with considerable spirit, and 
I'ardee and Monroe became liotly engaged with a force 
four times as large as their own. They held their 
ground with great obstinacy and bravery until re- 
inforcements reached tlie field, when the enemy 
comnienced to fall back. The National forces slept 
upon their arms, and at early dawn a reconuoissance 
disclosed the fact that Marshall had burned his stores 
and lleil, leaving a portion of his dead upon the field. 
From this date, for a considerable time, the regiment 
was engaged in several expeditions against guerrillas. 
Tlie arduous nature of llie campaign, the exceed- 
ingly disagreealde weather, and the want of sujiplies, 
were disastrous to the health of the troops, and some 
eighty-five of the Forty-second died of disease. On 
June 18, this regiment led the advance, and was the 
first to plant the starry ensign on the stronghold of 
Cumherla.nd (iap. When the regiment left the (Jap 
it numbered seven hundred and fifty men, and while 
on the march there were issued to it two hundred and 
seventy-five pounds of flour, four hundred pounds of 
liacon, and two rati(nis of fresh pork: the rest of the 
food consisted nf corn grated down on tin plates and 
cooketl upon them. The distance marched was two 
hundred and fifty miles. The weather was very dry 
and liie men suffered for water. They were without 
siloes, and their clothing was ragged and filthy. The 
Forty-second lost but one man from all causes, and it 
was the only regiment that brought through its knaj)- 
sacks and blankets. These proved of great service, 
as the men were com])elled to camp at Portland, 
Jackson county, Ohio, two weeks before clothing, 
camp and garrison e([uipage could be furnished them. 
While at Portland the regiment received one hundred 
and three recruits, and at Memphis, whither it arrived 
on November 28, sixty-five more. It had from time 
to time received a few, so that the whole number 
reached two hundred or more, and the regiment could 
turn out on jiarade nearly nine hundred men. Here 
the division was re-organized, and denominated the 
Ninth division. Thirteenth army corps. 

On the 30tli of Deceinljcr the Forty-second, with 
other troops, under General W. T. Sherman, em- 
barked at Memphis, and j)roceeding down the river, 
landed at Joiinston's plantation on the Yazoo. The 

I Forty-second led the advance against the defences of 
Vicksburg on the 27th of December, and skirmished 
with the enemy until dark. The next morning the 
regiment resumed the attack, and by a charge, which 

I was made with great spirit, succeeded in gaining pos- 

session of the woods, driving the Rebels into their 
works. About nine o'clock, a. m., on the 29th, a 
charge was made, tlie Forty-second being ou the 
extreme right of the assaulting column. The storm 
of shot and shell was terrific, but the regiment main- 
tained its organization and came off the field in good 
order. An important victory followed, in January, 
180.3, being the assault uiion and capture of Fort 
Ilindman, Arkansas. In this the regiment led the 
advance. The spoils were seven thousand prisoners, 
all the guns and small arms, and a large ipiantity of 
stores. At Port Gilison the regiment had hot work, 
and sustained a heavier loss than any regiment in the 
corps. After the surrender of Vicksburg the regi- 
ment marched to Jackson and participated in the 
reduction of that place, and then returned to Vicks- 
burg, where it remained until ordered to the Depart- 
ment of the Gulf. Companies A, B, C, and D, were 
mustered out at Camp Chase, Ohio, September 30, 
180-1. Tlie remaining six comjianics wei'c ordered to 
Duvall's Bliitr, Arkansas. Companies E and F were 
mustered out November 35, and the other four com- 
panies, Dccemlier 2, 18G4. One hundred and one men 
remained, whose term of service had not expired, and 
they were organized into a company and assigned to 
the Ninety-sixth. Ohio. 


This regiment was organized at Camji Andrews, 
Mount Vernon, Ohio, February 7, 1802, and left its 
rendezvous for the front on the 21st of the same 
month. On the 20th of February, it reported to 
Brigadier-General .lolin Pope, commanding the dis- 
trict of Mississippi, and was at once assigned to the 
Ohio brigade, composed of the Twenty-seventh, Thirty- 
ninth, Forty-third and Sixty-third regiments, first 
division, army of the Mississippi. 

It was but a few days before the regiment was 
introduced to active service, for in March, 1802, it 
was under fire at New Madrid, Missouri; and in all 
the operations against that jiost, it bore a prominent 
part, especially in its final bombardment and capture 
on the 13th and 14th of March. The loss of the 
regiment in killed and wounded was quite severe. 

In the movements against Island No. 10, and the 
crossing of the Mississippi river in the face of the 
enemy, the Forty-third bore a conspicuous part, as it 
did also in the sulisequent capture of the forces of 
General McCall, at Tiptonville, Tennessee. The next 
movement was against Fort Pillow. In all the opera- 
tions of that campaign, the Forty-third bore its part. 
The actions of the 8th, 9th and 20th of May, may be 
particularly mentioned. At Corinth, the Forty-third 
was posted imincdiately on the left of Battery Robi- 
nett, and the Sixty-third on the right of the battery; 
and it is said these two regiments did more to save 
the day than any other organization engaged. The 
grand assault of the rebels was made at daylight on 
the 4th of October. They opened ou Battery Robinett 
with artillery at about three hundred yards, and at 



10 o'clock a. m., led by Colonel Rogers, of the Second 
Texas, moved forward to the assault. The Forty- 
third and Sixty-third Ohio stood firiidy at their posts, 
and succeeded in staggering the assaulting column, 
and in hurling it back, at a time when onr lines were 
broken and our troops were seen Hying from every 
otlier part of I lie field. The o))])osing forces were but 
a few feet aiiarl, and fought almost liand to hand, 
:uid liien went d<jwn on both sides in great nund)ers. 
(■olonel Smith fell mortally wounded at the first onset, 
while gallantly diseliarging his duty. Adjutant llcyl 
and Cajitain Spangler were killed at about the same 
moment. Captain S. F. Timmons and Lieutenant 
S. McClaren, A. L. Howe and II. L. Prophet received 
honorable wounds. The casualties among the men 
were very severe. In a few minutes of fighting, over 
one-fourth of those engaged of the Forty-third were 
either killed or wounded. Colonel Smith died eight 
days after the battle. The next movement of the 
Fortv-tiiird was with Grant's army, at Oxford, Jliss. 
In the campaign against Forrest, in West Tennessee, 
in the winter of 1802-03, and in General Dodge's 
raid in North Alaliama, in April, 18C3, the Forty- 
third was with General Sherman when he made his 
memorable march from Memphis to the relief of the 
army of the Cumberland. 

In Uecend)er, IStiS, the regiment almost unani- 
inonsly re-enlisted as veterans, and went home on a 
furlough of thirty days. Returning, the regiment 
assisted at the capture of Decatur, Alaliama, and lay 
at this point until the opening of General Sherman's 
campaign against Atlanta. On the 1st of May, 1864, 
the command began the march for Chattanooga. On 
the 13th, it was engaged in the advance on Resaca, 
and suffered severely. At Dallas, the Forty-third 
took an important part; and in the advance on the 
enemy's position near Big Shanty, Company D, of 
the regiment, participated in a most brilliant charge 
of skirmishers, capturing a strong barricade from the 
Twenty-ninth Tennessee, and numerous iirisoners. 
Immediately thereafter came the siege of Kenesaw, 
with its deadly skirmishing, its grand cannonading, 
and the disastrous repulse of the national forces on 
the 29th of June. 

The Forty-third participated in the general move- 
ments of the corps until the advance of the army on 
Decatur, when it was detached to hold the bridge 
across tlie Chattahoochie. This was successfully ac- 
complished, and during the remainder of the Atlanta 
campaign, the Forty-third shared the trials and glories 
of the sixteenth Army Corps; and on the 4th and 7th 
of August, particularly, in advancing the national lines, 
won tlie thanks of Ransom, the division commander, 
by sjjlcndid and steady fighting. After the fall of 
Atlanta, the Forty-third enjoyed General Sherman's 
" full month's rest." Ater this, the regiment jiartici- 
pnted in the chase after Hood, as far as Resaca, and 
then hurried back to join Sherman in his great ''nuii'ch 
to the sea." Of this campaign, the history of one 
regiment is the history of all. It was a. daily succes- 

sion of marches, with little interruption, with 
plenty of forage for both man and best, and full of 
])leasant adventure. Savannah was reached and be- 
sieged. In this tlie Forty-third performed its full 
share of duty. 

In Januai'y, 180.5, the regiment moved to Beaufort, 
and directly afterward upon I'ocotaligo. where it lay 
untiltlu' beginning of Sherman's march through the 
Carolinas. On the 2d of Feliruary, the Seventeenth 
Corps crossed Whi|)py swamp, and were soon con- 
fronting the enemy, who were strongly posted at 
River's Bridge. Here Colonel Swayne lost a leg by a 
shell. The regiment lost in liim a lirave and compe- 
tent leader, wlio had Ijcen with it from its organiza- 
tion, and who had always shown the utmost devotion 
to its interests. The next day, the regiment I'eceived 
a baptism of fire, in a charge on a battery which 
commanded the bridge and the causeway approaching 
it. Down this narrow causeway the regiment rushed 
amid a storm of shot and shell, compelling the rebels 
to withdraw the battery and uncover the crossing. 
The war closing, the regiment went to Washington, 
and took part in the grand review; returning to Ohio, 
it was mustered out of service on the 13th of July, 


Recruiting for this regiment liegan in the latti r 
])art of the summer of 1801, the i)lacc of rendezvous 
being Camp Dennison, where the regiment was organ- 
ized and drilled during the fall of 1801. The regiment 
went into the field on the 17tli of February, 1802. 
with an aggregate of eight hundred and fifty men. 
It reached Paducah, Kentucky, February 20, and was 
assigned to a brigade in the division commanded 1)V 
General Sherinaii. On the 0th of April, tlie regiment 
engaged in the liattle of Pittsburg Landing, its position 
being on the extreme left of the army; but, on the 
second day, it was assigned a new position near tlie 
center of the line. 

In the two days' fighting, the regiment sustained 
a loss of one hundred and ninety-eight men killed, 
wounded and missing. The regiment was next en- 
gaged upon the movement upon Corinth, and, upon 
the evacuation of that point, was among the first 
organized bodies to enter the town, and afterward 
performed provost duty there. During the summei-, 
the regiment was engaged in several short expeditious. 
It was engaged in the assault on Chickasaw Bayou, 
December 28 and 29, with a loss of twenty killed and 
wounded. January 1, 1803, the regiment ascended 
the Mississippi and Arkansas rivers, and engaged in 
the assault and capture of Arkansas Post. On the 
0th of May, the regiment began its march to the rear 
of Vicksburg, byway of Grand Gulf, and was engageil 
in the bat ties of Champion Hills and Big Black Bridge. 
It was engaged in a general assault on the enemv's 
works, in the rear of Vicksburg, on the 19th and 22d 
of June, losing in the two engagements forty-seven 



killed and wounded. It was continually emjiloyed in 
skirmishing and fatigue duty during the siege of 
Vicksburg. After the fall of Vicksburg, the Fifty- 
fourth moved witii the army upon Jackson, Missis- 
sijjpi, and was constantly engaged in skirmishing 
from the 9th to the 1-lth of .July. It was engaged in 
the battle of Missionary Ridge, November 36, and 
the next day marched to the relief of the garrison at 
Knoxville, Tennessee. It went into winter quarters, 
.January 13, 1864:, at Larkinsville, Alabama. 

The regiment was mustered into the service as a 
veteran organization on the 33d of January, and at 
once started to Ohio on furlough. Returning, it 
entered on the Atlanta campaign on the 1st of May. 
It participated in a general engagement at Resaca, 
and at Dallas, and in a severe skirmish at New Hope 
Church, June 6 and 7. It was in the general assault 
upon Kenesaw Mountain, .June 37, losing twenty- 
eight killed and wounded, and was in a battle on the 
east side of Atlanta, July 31 and 33, sustaining a loss 
of ninety-four killed, wounded and missing. The 
Fifty-fourth lost eight men killed and wounded at 
Ezra Chapel, July 38; and from the 39th of July to 
the 37th of August, it was almost continually engaged 
in skirmishing before Atlanta, was in the march to 
Savannah, and assisted in the capture of Fort McAllis- 
ter, December 15th. It was closely engaged in the 
vicinity of Columbia, and participated in its last 
battle at Beutonsville, North Carolina, March 31, 
1805. Tiie regiment marched to Richmond, Virginia, 
and from thence to Washington City, where it engaged 
in the grand review of the western army. It was 
mustered out at Camjj Dennison, Ohio, August 31:, 

It marched during its term of service a distance of 
three thousand, six hundred and eighty-two miles, 
participated in four sieges, nine severe skirmishes, 
fifteen general engagements, and sustained a loss 
of five hundred and six men killed, wounded and 



The One Hundred and Third Oliio was composed of 
men from the counties of Cuyahoga, Lorain and Me- 
dina. Ten companies rendezvoused at Cleveland, in 
August, 1863, and on the 3d of September, started for 
Cincinnati, which theyfound in a state of excitement 
and alarm, because of the near a])))roach of the enemy, 
under Kirby Smith, upon Lexington, Kentucky. 
Having received arms in Cincinnati, the regiment 
crossed over to Covington, where it was furnished 
with clothing and other necessaries for cami)-life. 
Thus equipped, it marched out to Fort Mitchell, on 
the evening of the 6th. 

After a few days of painful suspense, information 
was received at headquarters that the enemy had re- 
treated. Immediate pursuit was ordered. The One 
Hundred and Third moved out on the 18th, with other 
forces, in pursuit, taking the pike toward Lexington. 

Having followed the enemy three days, without being 
able to overtake him, the national forces returned as 
far as Snow's Pond, where they encamped for a short 
time. While here, sickness prostrated nearly one- 
iuilf the regiment. It was now organized, with two 
other regiments, into a brigade, under the command 
of Brigadier- general Q. A. Gilmore. The regiment, 
with its brigade, moved out, on the 6th of October, 
to repress the outrages of the rebel cavalry, and, be- 
coming separated from the brigade, went into camp 
on the bank of the Kentucky river, at Frankfort, 
where it remained until the 5th of April, 1863. At 
tiiis date, the regiment marched to Stanford. 

Marauding bands of mounted men, nominally be- 
longing to John Morgan's command, l>ut, in reality, 
independent squads of freebooters, had kept all this 
region in a constant state of excitement and alarm, 
and gave considerable annoyance to the national 
troops — capturing parties stationed at outposts, and 
destroying supply trains. A large force was gathered 
at Stanford, and, on the 35tli, an advance was ordered 
by (ienerai S. P. Carter, then commanding. The 
national forces moved forward to Somerset and Mill 
Springs, the enemy falling back all the time; but 
there were not wanting indications of an intention, 
(la the part of the rebels, to concentrate their scat- 
tt'red forces, for the purpose of making a stand, at 
some point favorable for defence. Our infantry had 
considerable ditKculty in crossing the Cumberland, 
on account of high water; but, once crossed, it pushed 
rapidly after the enemy, preceded by the cavalry, 
which had crossed a little below. On the 30th, the 
cavalry came up witii a body of rebels, when a smart 
skirmish took place. On the 5th of May, our forces 
were ordered back to the Cumberland. The One 
Hundred and Third took a position near Stigall's 
ferry, where they were soon visited by a body of 
rebels, who fired on them from the southern bank. 
Much powder was expended, by both juirties, but 
with little result. 

On the 5th of .July, the regiment, with other 
troops, marched toward Danville, where they remained 
a few days, and then fell back to Hicknuin bridge. 
Returning to Danville, shortly after, this regiment, 
was, with others, formed into the twenty-third army 
corjis, and placed under the command of Major-general 
llartsuif. The ninth army corps having been added 
to the force, at this point, the troops began to move 
on the 18th of August, under the command of General 
A. E. Bnrnside. No tongue can tell what that army 
suffered in its march from Danville, ria Stanford, 
Crab Orchard, the Cumberland, at Burnside's Point, 
Chitwood, Montgomery, Emery's Iron Works, and 
Lenoir to Concord, Tennessee. On the 19th of Sep- 
tember, the regiment joined in the general advance, 
which resulted in driving back the rebels to their 
main force, then assembled at Jonesboro. 

On the 4th of November, the regiment proceeded 
Ijy railroad to Knoxville, and was stationed with its 
brigade, on the south side of the river. Longstrcet 



wa.« now advancing upon the city, with a hirge force. 
During tiie investment, our troops suffered the 
greatest liardships from insuflicient clothing, sliort 
rations, and otlier privations. About noon, on the 
25th, six companies of the regiment were sent out to 
relieve a company on picket-duty, and, while so do- 
ing, a heavy cliarge was made by the rebels, with the 
intention of capturing the whole. The men, assisted 
by the ])ickets of the Twenty-fourth Kentucky, and 
the .Sixly-tirth Illinois, poured into the ranks of the 
rebels a well-directed fire; but tliis did not cheek 
them in the least, for, with yells, of the most liorrid 
description, they rushed ui)on the picket-line, and a 
desperate struggle ensued. The regiments of the 
respective pickets coming up, in full force, a liayonet 
cliarge was ordered, wliicli soon decided the contest, 
for the reljcls Ijroke and lied, leaving their dead and 
wounded upon the Held. The regiment lost, in this 
engagement, some thirty-five, in killed and wounded. 

This regiment linally lieeame a (lart of the grand 
army, with which Shernum marched lo the sea, and, 
on the 13th of May, arrived in front of Kesaea. The 
next day, the tweuty-thii'd eorps charged the enemy's 
works, and carried his two lines. The regiment lost, 
in this engagement, over one-third of its effective 
force. Among those who fell, were Captains W. W. 
Hutchinson and J. T. Philpot. The ]-egimeut finally 
reached Decatur on the 8th of September. It had 
lost heavily during this campaign. On May 1, its 
effective force numbered four hundred and fifty men; 
but, when it encamped at Decatur, it could oidy 
muster one hundred and ninety-five. 

At Spring Hill, the regiment, while supporting a 
l)attery, showed conclusively what they were made of. 
On tiie '.'4tli of February, l^'io, the regiment, with its 
corps, arrived at Wilmington, and, ou the 6th of 
March, it started forward, moving through Kingston 
to (ioldsboro, where it again met Sherman's army. 
The whole army .soon took up its march, and, on the 
13th of April, reached lialeigh, where the regiment 
remained till the 10th of June, when it started foi' 
Cleveland, Ohio, to be mustered out. As the train, 
conveying the nu'u, was descending the western slope 
of the Alleghany mountains, a truck broke loose, 
throwing three of the ears down a steep embankment, 
causing the death of three men, and the mutilation 
of a much larger number. On the I'Jth, the regiment 
reached Cleveland, and, on the 'Z2d, it was paid off, 
and musterecl out. 


This regiment, was composed almost wholly of 
(iermans. It was organized August 25, 1863, at 
Canij) Taylor, near Cleveland, Ohio. It lay in camp 
at this place until tlu^ latter i)art of September, when 
it moved under orders to Covington, Kentucky. This 
move was made with reference to au anticipated attack 
on Cincinnati l)y Kirl)y Smith's Grey-l)acks. The 
regiment went to Washington, D. C, after a short 

time and was engaged for nearly a month in construct- 
ing fortilications around that city. In Novenilier it 
was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, 
Flevenlh Army Cor])s, Major-general Sigel command- 
ing. On April 20, 1863, the regiment, with its 
bi'igadeand division, moved across the Eapjiahannttck 
to (Jhancellorsville, where, on the 2(1 and 3d of May, 
it took part in the battle of that name. In this disas- 
trous alfair the One Hundred and Seventh sufieicd 
leri-ibly, hjsing two hundred and twenty officers ami 
men, killed, wounded and prisoners. The surgeon of 
the legiment, Dr. Hartman, of C'leveland, Ohio, and 
several otfic'crs were killed. July 1, it reached tJettys- 
liurg and was at (uiee engaged with the enemy, taking 
])osition on the right wing. The first day's fight the 
regiment and eleventh eor])s were comjielled to fall 
back through the town of Gettysliurg to Cemetery 
Hill, where a new line was formed and held during 
the remainder of the battle. In falling back to this 
place the regiment lost in killed, wounded and prison- 
ers, two hundred and fifty officers and men. In the 
second day's fight, in a charge n)ade about five o'clock 
in the afternoon, it again lost heavily. In this affair 
the regiment captured a Eebel tiag from the Eighth 
Louisiana Tigers. Aside from slight skirmishing it 
was not engaged in the third day's fight. Its total 
li>ss in the battle of Gettysburg — killed, wounded and 
prisoners — was over four hundred out of about five 
hundred and fifty, rank and file with which it entered. 
With one hundred and eleven guns, all that was left 
of the regiment, it joined in the pui'suit of the Eebel 
army, following it to Hagerstown, and thence into 
\'irginia. Its subse(|uent engagements were priuci- 
|ially light ones. The heaviest ])erhaps being at 
Sumterville, South C'aroliua, March 23, 1865, where 
it defeated the enemy, capturing three 2iieces of artil- 
lery, six horses, and fifteen prisoners. On A2)ril 16, 
1865, news was received of the surrender of Lee's and 
•lohnston's armies. Three weeks thereafter it was 
taken by steamer to C'harleston, where it did jirovost 
duty until July 10, when it was mnstei'ed out of the 
service and sent home to Cleveland, where it was paid 
otf and discharged. 


This regiment, although chiefly occujiied in guard 
duty within the borders of the State, was an organ- 
ization of three years' troojjs, enlisted and mustered 
into the United States' service, the same as other 
\olunteer ti'oops, and was liable to service wherever 
lequired. It attained minimum strength on the 25tli 
of Decendjer, 1863, and consisted of four companies 
before known as the "Hoffman Battalion" raised at 
different times in 1862. At and before the time of 
forming the regiment, the Hoffman Battalion was 
under the command of a Lieutenant-colonel and Ma- 
jor. Six new companies were mustered in at Camp 
Taylor, near Cleveland, between the 8th and 15th of 
January, 1864. The four old companies had been ou 



duty at Johnson's Island, nearly all the time since 
tlu'ir muster in, but had frequently furnished detacli- 
monts for service elsewhere, including a short and 
very active caniiiaigu in ]>nrsuit of Rebel ti-oops, in 
Western Virginia in 18(12. 

Tlip One Hundred and Twenty-eighth was ehielly 
occujiied at the frontier posts of Johnson's Island and 
Sandusky. Fortune did not give the regiment an 
opportunity to earn laurels in battle, but it performed 
its duties always witli faitlifulness and efficiency. If 
left the Island on July 10, 1865, and was nmstered out 
at Camp Chase, Ohio, on the 17th. 


This regiment was composed of men from Licking 
and Hardin counties, and one eompanj' of the Thirty- 
seventh Battallion, Ohio National Guard, of Lorain 
county. It was mustered into the United States' 
service on the lltli of May, 18fi4, and was ordered 
immediately to Washington City. Proceeding by 
way of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, the regiment 
arrived at North Mountain, where information was 
received that the bridge at Harper's Ferry was impass- 
able; and the One Hundred and Thirty-eighth, with 
other "hundred days" regiments,"' was delayed await- 
ing the repair of the bridge. A picket was estab]ishe<l, 
and every precaution taken for defence. In a few 
days the troops moved on, and the regiment arrived 
at Washington, May 23. It was placed in the de- 
fences south of the Potomac, with headcpiarters at 
Fort Albany, and detachments in Forts Craig and 
Tillinghast. The time was occupied in repairing and 
(■ompleting these forts, and drilling in infantry and 
lieavy-artillery tactics. On the 5th of June the regi- 
ment was ordered to White House Landing, where it 
was emplo\-ed in picket duty and in guarding Rebel 
jirisoners. On the lOth of June the regiment was 
ordered to Bermuda Hundred, and proceeded on 
steamer, rid Fortress Monroe, up the James to Fort 
Powliattau. Here its progress was checked by the 
jiDUtiinn liridge (in which the Armj' of the Potomac 
was crossing the .lames. The regiment debarked and 
marched to Bermuda Hundred, distant twenty-tive 
Tiiiles. The marcli was made during two of tlie 
liottcsl days of suuimer, and the men suffered greatly 
from dust and the want of water. The regiment 
arrived at Fort Spring Hdl, on the eastern bank of 
the Appomattox, opposite Point of Rocks, on the 
19th of June, and was engaged in picket and fatigue 
duty at Point of Rocks and at Broadway Landing. 
The regiment next nmved to Cherry-stone Inlet, on 
the eastern shore of Virginia. Headquarters were 
established at Eastville, the county town of Nortii- 
ampton C(junty, and the companies were distributed 
at various points to guard the telegraph from Cherry- 
stone to Wilmington, to ])revent raids from the op|io- 
site side of the bay, and to intercept blockade I'unners 
and Rebel mail-carriers. At the exjiiration of its 
term of service the regiment returned to Ohio, and 

was mustered out at Camp Dennison on September 

I, 18G4. 


This regiment rendezvoused at.Camp 'i'ayloi', near 
Cleveland. It was composed of eight companies from 
the city of Cleveland, one from Oberlin, this count.y, 
and one from Independence township, Cuyahoga, 
county. It was, on the oth of May, 18G4, sworn into 
the United States service for one hundred days, and 
was immediately ])laced on the cars for Washington 

On its arrival the regiment was ordered to garrison 
Forts Lincoln, Saratoga, Thayer, Bunker Hill, Slo- 
cum, Totten, and Stevens, forming part of the chain 
of fortifications surrounding the National capital. 
Tliis important duty was fully and strictly performed, 
thereby enabling General Gi'aut to draw from the for- 
mer garrisons of these forts the re-inforcements so 
much desired in liis movement thi-ough the Wilder- 
ness toward Richmond. The One Hundred and P^if- 
tieth remained in these forts during the whole term 
of Service, and participated in the tight before Wash- 
ington witli a part of Early's Rebel corps, July lU and 

II, 18G4. Coni])anies G and K were engaged, but 
lieing behind breastworks, did not suffer much. One 
man was killed and three or four men were wounded. 
The regiment was mustered out at Cleveland on the 
23d of August, 1804. During its term of service the 
regiment was rigidly and effectively drilled, and at its 
muster out had reached a point of military efficiency 
which fitted it fen- any emergency. 


This regiment was organized at Camp Chase, Ohio, 
September 21, 1804, for one year. As soon as the 
organization was completed the regiment was ordered 
to Nashville, Tennessee, and assigned to the Second 
Brigade, Fourth Division, Twentieth Army Corps. 
Soon after its arrival it was detailed to perform pro- 
vost duty at Nashville, and during the siege and 
l;)attle at that point was in the works; but with the 
exception of a few companies, under Major Cum- 
mings, the regiment was not engaged. Quite a num- 
ber of the officers and men were veteran soldiers, and 
their knowledge and experience gave the regiment 
considerable reputation for proficiency in drill and 

The regiment was mustered out of service at Tod 
Barracks. (_'oluml)us, Ohio, on the istli of June, 1805. 


was organized at Camp Dennison and mustered into the 
service October 8, 1861, with an aggregate strength of 
one hundred and forty-seven men. By m-der of Gen- 
eral 0. M. Mitchell it left Cincinnati to report to 
General George U. Thomas, then in command at 
Camp Dick Robinson, Kentucky. The first experi- 
ence it had in the field was a brisk little affair at 



Camp Wild Cat. in whicli it flred twelve rounds and 
silenced one of the enemy's guns. From Wild Cat it 
marched to London, Kentucky, where it remained two 
weeks. On November .5, tlie battery, under orders, 
joined the Seventeenth Ohio at Fishing Creek, and 
was engaged during tlie whole of tiiat montli in skir- 
mishes and scout duty, with headquarters at Somerset. 
January 27, it moved to Mill Springs to re-enforce 
General Thomas. It took part in the battle of Mil! 
Springs, and performed very effective service. Feb- 
ruary 10, it took up its line of march for Louisville, 
Kentucky, where it embarked for Nashville; arriving 
there, it was assigned to Colonel Barnett's Artillery 
Reserve. July 18, 1862, it reported to Major-general 
Nelson at Murfreesboro, and, during the months <>f 
July, August and September, was almost constanlly 
on the marcii, and frecjuently engaged in skirmishes 
with the enemy. On December 20, the battery moved 
witii its brigade and division from Nashville towards 
Miii-freesboro, skirmishing heavily in and about La 
\'ergne. It was here that the present county re- 
corder lost his "good right arm."' In the battle of 
Stone river it was stationed on the left of General 
Negley's division. It was involved in the disaster on 
the right, but succeeded in withdrawing all its guns 
from the field. It bore its full ])art in the battle, and 
lost seventeen men, killed, wounded and missing, and 
twenty-one horses killed. June 24, 18G3, it joine<l 
in the advance of the national forces on Tullalioma,. 
September 19, it engaged in the battle of Chicka- 
mauga. On tlie next day it Avas charged by the 
enemy, but succeeded in boating them off. A second 
charge soon followed which overwhelmed the battery, 
and it was obliged to leave two of its guns in the 
hands of the enemy. In this charge several members 
of the battery were wounded and caj)tured. Tliis was 
ill the siege of Chattanooga. January 4, 18G4, sixtj'- 
five of the original members of the battery re-enlisted 
as veterans, and were furloughed home for thirty 
days. Tne battery returned to Nashville in March, 
and on the lOlh of that month reported to Bridge- 
port, Alabama, wliere it remained until July, 18G0. 
It was then sent home to Columbus, and there nins- 
tei'ed out, being one nf the last organizations to leave 
the service. 


was recruited by Captain J. B>. Burrows and First- 
lieutenant Edward Spear, Jr. This battery was 
mustered into the service on the 1st day of February, 
1862, and was immediately ordered to Cincinnati, 
where it emljarked February 16, under orders for 
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, but on reaching Pa,due;di, 
Kentucky, was disembarked by order of (ienei-al 
Siiermau. Horses were drawn here, and the battery 
embnrked under oi'ders to report to General tlrant, at 
Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee. Wbile proceeding up 
the Tennessee, and, wjien near Whitehall Landing, 
the boat was tired into by guerrillas, from the shore. 
Tlie fire was returned with shell, luuler cover of which 

the men of the battery landed, drove the guerrillas 
from their cover, and captured some prisoners and 
horses. In this exjiedition, the battery lost one man 
wounded. It reported to General Grant on the 20th, 
and was assigned to the Fourth division, army of the 
Tennessee. The battery was on the first line during 
the seige of Vicksburg, having position on the Hall's 
Ferry road, southeast of the city, and within two 
hundred yards of the enemy's works, and enfilading 
sev(U'al hundred yards of their line. In this, as in 
all the engagements in which the battery figured, 
most excellent service was performed, eliciting, on 
every occasion, the commendations of the command- 
ing officers. It expended two thousand, three hun- 
dred and one rounds of ammunition during the seige. 
The Fifteenth was with General Sherman, princi2)ally, 
and participated in his famous "march to the sea." 
An incident is related that, at the battle of Chatta- 
hoochee River, a bird tlew upon the shoulder of Pri- 
vate Seth Bowers, who was acting No. 1 on one of 
the guns, where it remained during the engagement. 
At every discharge of the piece, the bird would thrust 
its head in the man's hair. After the recoil, it would 
again take its position on the man's shoulder, and 
watch the operations of loading. After the battle, 
the bird remained around the men's ijuarters, but, 
after a few days, disappeared. 

The Fifteenth battery was mustered out June 20, 
18'i5, at Columbus, Ohio. 


This regiment was recruited and organized in the 
summer and autumn of 18fil, under the supervision 
of the late Hon. B. F. Wade and Hon. John Hntchins, 
who received special authority from the war office. 
The regiment rendezvoused at Camp Wade, near 
Cleveland, Ohio, and the last company was mustered 
in on the 10th of October, 1861. Being the first 
cavalry regiment raised iu the northern part of the 
State, it drew into its ranks a large proportion of 
wealth, intelligence, capacity and culture. Men and 
officers were almost wholly from the Western Reserve, 
and represented every trade and profession. The 
Second was uniformed, mounted and partly drilled at 
Cleveland, and. in the last of November, was ordered 
to Camp Dennison, where it received sabers, and con- 
tinued drilling during the month of December. 
Early in January, 1862, under orders from the war 
department, the Second proceeded, by rail, via. Cin- 
cinnati, St. Louis and St. Joseph, to Platte City, 

On the 18th of February, Donbleday's brigade, of 
which the Second was a part, was ordered to march 
through the border counties of Missouri to Fort Scott, 
Kansas. On the 22d of February, and during the 
march, a scouting ]3ai'ty of one hundred and twenty 
men of the Second Ohio cavalry was attacked in the 
streets of Independence, Missouri, by an equal force, 
under command of the subse<]uently infamous Quant- 
ril. As the result of the Second's "first fight," 



Quantril was routed iu fifteen minutes, losing five 
killed, four wounded, and five captured, including 
one officer. The Second lost o;ie killed and three 
wounded. Arriving at its destination about March 1, 
it remained for several mouths, doing garrison and 
scouting duty. 

In the fall following, it ]iartioipate(l in the cam- 
jiaign ending in the victory of Prairie Grove, Ar- 
kansas, December 3, 1862. It also fought at Carthage 
and Newtonia, Missouri, and at Cow Hill, Wolf 
Creek, and White River, Arkansas. 

In November and December, the Second was trans- 
ferred to the Eastern army, moving by rail to Camp 
Chase, Oliio, to remount and refit for the field. 
This accomplished, the regiment left early in April 
for Somerset, Kentucky, and remained in camp there, 
witli the exception of an occasional reconnoissancc, 
until tlie 37th of June. 

In May and June, the Second fought twice at 
Steubenville, twice at Monticello, and once at Col- 
umbia, Kentucky. 

On the 1st of July, the Second Joined in the pur- 
suit of John Morgan, and followed the great raider 
twelve hundred miles, tlirough three States, marching 
twenty hours out of the twenty-four, living wholly 
upon the gifts of the people for tT\-enty-seven days, 
and finally sharing in tlie capture at Buffington Is- 

January 1, ISG-l, nearly tlie entire regiment reen- 
listed. But lack of sj)ace forbids us following the 
regiment through all its encounters and privations. 
It was mustered out at Camp Chase, Ohio, September 
11, 1865. 

Tlie Second fought under twenty-three general 
officers. Its horses have drunk from, and its troopers 
have bathed in, the waters of the Arkansas, Kaw, 
Osage, Cygnes, Missouri, Mississippi, Oliio, Scioto, 
Miami, Cumlierhuul, Tennessee, Halston, Potomac, 
Shenandoah, Rappahannock, Rapidan, Bull Run, 
Mattapony, Pamunkey, Chickahominy, James, Appo- 
mattox, 151ack water, Nottoway, and Chesajieake. It 
campaigned through thirteen states and one territory. 
It traveled, as a regiment, on foot, horseback, by 
railroad and steamboat, on land, river, bay and ocean. 
1 1 has marched an aggregate distance of twenty-seven 
tliousand miles; has fought in ninety-seven battles 
and engagements. It has served in five diiferent 
armies, forming a continuous line of armies from the 
head waters of the Arkansas to the mouth of the 
James; and its dead, sleeping where they fell, form a 
vidette-line iialf across the continent, a chain of pros- 
trate sentinels, two thousand miles long. Even in 
their graves, may not these jiatroit dead still guard 
the glory and tlie integrity of the Republic for wiiich 
they fell? 


This regiment was organized in September, 1861, 
at Monroeville, Huron county. It moved to Camp 
Deunison on the 14tli of January, 1862. In Feb- 


ruary following it went to JefEersonville, Indiana. 
On March 3 it was ordered to Nashville, Tennessee, 
and arrived there March 18. On the 29th it left 
Nashville for Pittsburgli Landing. It reached that 
point on April 25, and encamped four miles from the 
river. It remained here some time, and made sev- 
eral successful raids. It next moved to luka and 
Tuscumbia. Here it remained until June 30, wlicn 
it went to Courtland; thence to Decatur, Alabama, 
and from this point to Mooresville. On the 3d of 
September the division marched to Nashville, arriv- 
ing there on the 6th, tlience to Mumfordsville, Ken- 
tucky, via Gallatin and Bowling Green. On Sep- 
tember 31, the first battalion of the Third Cavalry 
had a sharji engagement at Mumfordsville witli tliree 
times its own number, and drove them into their 
works iu three separate charges. It lost twelve 
wounded and two killed. The ''Jolmnies" lost thirty- 
eight killed and sixty wounded. The Third Cavalry, 
during its first year of service, was attached to Gen- 
eral T. J. Wood's division, and during the most of 
the time was under his immediate command. The 
second and third battalions, under Colonel Zahm, was 
stationed, during a portion of the summer of 1863, at 
Woodville, Alabama. On October 19, a detachment 
of the Tliird Cavalry, with a portion of the Fourth 
Cavalry, numbering some two hundred and fifty, was 
sent as an escort to Covington, Kentucky. It en- 
camped near the old plantation of Henry Clay, at 
Ashland, and the next day (30th) was captured by 
.John Morgan, wlio stripped them of their Iiorses and 
valuables, paroled them and sent'tliem into the na- 
tional lines. Tlie men were soon in the field again. 
The regiment re-enlisted in January, 1864, and were 
fuiioughed home. Returning to Nashville, it was 
re-equipped, armed and mounted, and from this time 
until it was mustered out, it was constantly in active 
service. It turned over its horses and arms at Macon 
and proceeded to Camp Chase, Ohio, whore it was 
paid off and discharged August 14, 1865, having 
served four years, lacking twenty days. 


This regiment was recruited during the months of 
September and October, 1863, from nearly every 
county in the State, rendezvousing at Camp Taylor, 
near Cleveland, where it was mustered into the ser- 
vice on the 34th day of November, 1863. One-half 
of the regiment was engaged in doing guard duty, 
during the winter of 1863-4, on Jolmson's Island, 
having been ordered there on the 10th of November. 
The regiment was mounted, armed and equipped at 
Camp Dennison, and moved to Louisville, and then 
to Lexington and Mount Sterling, Kentucky. Little 
of importance transpired until the 33d of May, when 
the regiment was a portion of General Burbridge's 
command on the first Saltville raid. On the arrival 
in the vicinity of Pound Gaii, after eight days' march- 
ing, it became evident that John Morgan had entered 
Kentucky, and the command immediately started iu 



I)ursnit. After severe marching, witli but. little time 
for eating or sleeping, the command arrived at Mount 
Sterling on the 91 Ii of Juno, ISfi-L The Twelfth was 
closely engaged with the rebels at this jioint, behav- 
ing with much gallantry, and was specially comi)li- 
montcd by General Hurbridge. The Twelfth again 
overtook ^torgan at Cyntliiana, and fought with him, 
scattering his forces in every direction. T'he regi- 
ment charged through the town, crossed the river, 
and pursued the retreating rebels for three days. 
During the second exjiedition to Saltville in Septem- 
ber, it be(!anie necessary to silence a battery i)osted 
upon a hill; the Twelfth, with its Ijrigade, charged up 
the hill and drove the enemy from his works. After 
this, the regiment encamped at Lexington, until 
ordered to Crab Orchard to join another Saltville 

The division left Crab Orchard on the 33d of No- 
vember, during a severe snow-storm, and moved to 
Bean's Station. On the night of their arrival the 
Twelfth made a successful rccouoissance to liogersville 
It did its full share of duty under General Stoneman, 
at Bristol, at Abingdon, at Marion, and thence as 
su])port to General Gillam in his ])ursuit of Vaughn, 
then back again to Marion, where General Stoneman 
engaged Breckenridge for forty hours, and finally 
defeated him. In this engagement all of tlie Twelfth 
bearing sabers, participated in a grand charge, driving 
back the enemy's cavalry. The regiment behaved 
gallantly throughout the fight, and received tlie 
praises of Generals Stoneman and Burbridge. On 
the 31st of December, Saltville was captured, and the 
forces returned to Richmond, Kentucky, where head- 
quarters were established. As the result of this raid 
four boats were captured, one hundred and fifty miles 
of railroad, thirteen trains and locomotives, lead 
mines, salt works, iron foundries, and an immense 
quantity of stores of all sorts, were completely de- 
stroyed. During the raid Company F acted as escort 
to General Burljridge. About the middle of Febru- 
ary the regiment was thoroughly armed, equipped and 
mounted. It then proceeded by way of Louisville 
and the river to Nashville, arriving March (1. From 
here it moved to Murfreesboro and Knoxville. At 
this point it again formed part of a raiding expe- 
dition under General Stoneman. The Twelfth finally 
rendezvoused at Nashville, and was mustered out on 
the 14th of November, 180.5; then proceeded to Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, where it was paid and discharged on 
the 32d and 33d of the same month, after two years 
of incessant service. 


During the autumn of 1803, the Confederate Gen- 
eral Kirl)y Smith advanced upon Cincinnati with a 
largo army. Governor Tod issued a proclamation 
calling upon all who woiild furnish themselves with 
rations and arms to turn out, organize under their 
own otlicers, and rendezvous at Cincinnati, transpor- 
tation over the railroads to be ])rovided by the govern- 

ment. About three hundred and fifty citizens of 
Lorain county responded to the call of the governor. 
These men, of course, saw no fighting, but their 
work was cheerfully performed, because they thought 
their services were needed. Governor Tod caused 
lithograph discharges to be forwarded to those whose 
namcis could l)e obtained. These discharges may be 
found in many homes in the county, where they are 
pro)ierly ])rized. 

The sobliers of the early wars, with descriptions of 
forts and other defences, are given in the histories of 
tlioir respective townshi])s. 





Second Lieutenant Lucicn Abbott, enrolled Au^st 10, ISfil. 


First Serfjeant George C. Dennistou, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

Second Sergeant Ransom E. Braman, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

Sergeant Alonzo Ellsworth, enrolled August 10, IHGI. 

Sergeant Ferdinand Refeuning, enrolled August 10, IHGl, 

Sergeant Thomas B. Heylaud, enrolled August 10, 1861 ; prisoner of war. 

Corporal Joseph Jewett, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

Corporal William A. Thompson, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

Corporal Harrison Jewell, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

Corj^oral George I. Boment, enrolled August 10, 1861. 


Jacob Cline, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

John Cummins, enrolled August 10, 1.861. 

Abrani J. Disbro, enrolled August 10_ 1861. 

Alonzo A Grant, enrolled August 10, 1.861 . 

Lorenzo W. Grant, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

Luman L. Griswold, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

Harrison Hance, enrolled August 10, 1S61. 

James R. Humphrey, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

Edgar H. Irish, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

Stephen R. Irish, enrolled August 10. 1861. 

Archibald Kelly, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

Albert Lilley, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

Henry F. Marsh, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

Rufus C. Marsh, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

Joel W. Newland, enrolled August 10, 1.861. 

William Wilcox, enrolled August 10, 1861. 

This squad was mustered into service August 17, 1.8G1, at Camp Chase, 

Ohio, by Major Wainby, for three years. We are iniable to find 

anything further of them. 


Mustered into service, at Camp Dennison, Ohio, June 30, 1861. Mustered 
out of service, at Cleveland, Ohio, July 6, 18(U. 


Captain Giles W. Shirtliff, resigned March 18, 1863. 

First Lieutenant Judson N. Cross, promoted to Captain of Company 

K, November 35, 1861. 
Second Lieutenant Ephraim H. Baker, promoted to First Lieutenant 

November 3.5, 1.861; resigned March 1, 1863. 
Second Lieutenant Henry W. Lincoln, promoted from Sergeant to 

Second Lieutenant, August 9, 1.863; to First Lieutenant, November 6, 

1863; resigned January 7, 186:1 
Second Lieutenant Isaac C. Jones, enrolled March 1, 186.S; promoted 

from Sergeant to Second Lieutenant; died November ;W, 1863, of 

wounds received in the battle of Ringgold, Ga., November 27, 1863. 


First Sergeant Martin M. Andrews, appointed Fii-st Sergeant August U, 
1862; wounded in left hand in battle of Cedar Mountain, August 9, 

Sergeant Holland B. Fry, wounded in leg at battle of Port Republic, 
June 9, 1868; appointed Sergeant, November 1, 1863. 



Sergeant James E. Avery, appointed Sergeant, November 1, 1862; 

wounded at battle of Dallas, Oa., May 35, 1S64, 
Sei-K'eant Addison M. Halbert, appointed Sergeant, May 1, 18l>4. 
Corporal Stephen M. Cole, wounded at battle of Cross Lanes, Va., 

August 36, ISiil, and at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 18G3. 
(!on)oral Thouias J. Wallace, appointed Corporal, November 1, 18(33. 


Nathaniel S. Badger, wounded in the leg at battle of Cedar Mountain, 

Va., August 'J. ISia, 
John M. Biuns, wounded in battles of Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863, and 

DaUas, Ga., May 35, 18(H. 
Charles H. Buxton, wounded in shoulder and wrist, at battle of Cedar 

Mountain, Va.. August It. 1S63. 
Ezekiel F. Hayes, mustered out with Company. 
Irving A. Noble, taken prisoner at battle of Cross Lanes, Va., August 

26, 1861. 
Hiram Parsons, mustered out with Company. 
Thomas Sprlggs, mustered out with Company. 
David A. Ward, nuistered out with Company. 
William Woodmanse, mustered out with Company. 
Oliver Wise, wounded in hand, at battle of Chancellorsville, Va., May 

3, 1863. 



First Sergeant Arthur C. Danforth, promoted to First Sergeant Novem- 
ber 30, 1861 ; killed in battle of Winchester, Va., March 23, 1863. 

Sergeant Charles P. Bowler, promoted to Sergeant, April 1, 1863; killed 
in battle of Cedar Mountain, Va., August !1, 1862. 

Corporal .John J. Evers, promoted to Corporal, November 20, 1861; killed 
in bittle of Cedar Mountain, Va., August 5), 1863. 

Corporal Lewis R. Gates, promoted to Corporal, April 1, 1863; killed in 
battle of Port Republic, Va. June fl, 1862. 

Corporal George R. Matgary, promoted to Corporal April 1, 1862; killed 
in battle of Port Republic, Va., June 9, 1862. 


Romain J. Kingsbury, killed in battle of Port Republic, Va., June 0, 1863. 
Charles F. King, killed in battle of Ringgold, Ga., November 37, 1863. 
James M. Rappleye, killed in battle of Cedar Mountain, Va., August 0, 

Warren F. Richmond, killed in battle of Cedar Mountain, Va., August 9, 

Edward P. Sheppard, killed in battle of Cedar Mountain, Va.. August 

:i, 1803. 
Charles E. Wall, killed in battle of Ringgold, Ga., November 37. 1803. 
Daniel P. Wood, killed in battle of Ringgold, Ga., November 27, 1863. 



Sergeant William W. Parmenter, taken prisoner at battle of Cross 

Lanes, Va., August 26, 1801; died in Parish Prison, New Orleans, 

La., November IS, 1801. 
Sergeant John Gardner, appointed Sergeant May 1, 1803; died December 

19, 186.5, of wounds received in battle of Ringgold, Ga., November 

27, 1863. 
Sergeant Oliver C. Trembly, appointed Sergeant J,amiary 1. 1(64; 

drowned in the Ohio river, June 24, 1864. 
Corporal Edward W. Goodsel, died September 19, 1863, of wounds 

received in battle of Antietam, Md., September 17, 1862. 


William Biggs, 'taken prisoner at liattle of Cross Lanes, Va., August 26, 

1861, and died in Parish Prison, New Orleans, La., October 17, 1861. 
Wallace Coburn, died March 29, 1862, of wouuds received in battle of 

Winchester, Va.. March 33, 1863. 
Joseph H. Collins, died August 27, 1861, of wounds received at battle of 

Cross Lanes. Va., August 30, 1861. 
Cyrus P Hamilton, wounded and captured at battle of Port Republic, 

Va., June 9, 1.S62; died in rebel hospital of wounds. 
Daniel S. Judson, wounded and captured at battle of Port Republic, 

June 9, 1862; died of wounds in rebel hospital. 
Burford Jenkins, wounded and captured at battle of Cross Lanes, Va., 

August 26, 1861; died of wouuds September 6, 1861. 
Harrison Lewis, died in Fairfax .Seminary Hospital, Va., Deceiuber 0, 

1S62, of fever. 
Joseph McCanan, died July 23, 1H63, of wounds received at battle of 

Gettysburg, July 3, 1.863. 
Levi Myers, died in hospital at Nashville, Tenn., December 20, 1863, of 
[ small pox. 

• Fred. M. Palmer, died April 7, 1863, of wounds received in battle of Win- 
chester, March 2;i. 1S63. 
Edward G. Sackett, died March 29, 1862, of wounds received in battle of 

Wiuchester, Va., March 23, 1802. 
Thomas Sweet, died November 30, 1863, of wounds received in battle of 

Ringgold, November 37, 1863. 

Orlando Worcester, died April 15, 1862, of wounds received in battle of 
Winchester, Va., March 23, 1863. 



Sergeant John C. Cooper, appointed Sergeant November 21, 1861; dis- 
chai-ged at Harper's Ferry, October 26, 1863; eiUisted in United 
States Engineers. 

Sergeant Edgar M. Condit, appointed Sergeant November 1, 1863; dis- 
charged at Alexandria, Va., February 11, 1863, tor wounds received 
at battle of Dumfries, Va., December 27, 1862. 

Sergeant Seldon A. Day, appointed Sergeant March 24, 1862; discharged 
at Frederick City, Md., January 35, 1863; enlisted as Hospital Stew- 
ard United States Army. 

Sergeant Isaac C. Jones, appointed Sergeant November 30, 1861; dis- 
charged at Dumfries, Va., March 1, 1863, to accept promotion as 
Second Lieutenant in Company C. 

Sergeant Henry W. Lincoln, appointed Sergeant November 20, 1861 ; dis- 
charged at Alexandria, Va., August 9, 1862, by reason of promotion 
to Second Lieutenant in Company C . 

Sergeant Ellas W. Morey, discharged at Wauhatchie, Tenn., November 
10, 1863, by reason of promotion to First Lieutenant in Ninth Regi- 
ment United States Colored Troops. 

Corporal Theron E. W. Adams, discharged at Washington, D. C, June, 
1863, by order of General Wadsworth . 

Corporal Harlan B. Cocliran, appointed Corporal November 30, 1861 ; dis- 
charged at Columbus, O., October 18, 1863. 

Coqjoral James M. Grim, appointed Corporal November 20, 1862; dis- 
chargeil at Washington, D. C, January 10, 1863. 

Corporal Elliott F. Grabill, appointed Corporal November 1, 1863; dis- 
charged at Wauhatchie, Tenn., November 10, 1863; appointed First 
Lieutenant in Fifth Regiment United States Colored Troops. 

e'orporal Jason S. Kellogg, appointed Corporal January 1, 1863; dis- 
charged at Camp Dennison, O., January 27, 1864. 

Corporal Isaac F. Mack, discharged at Columbus, O., October 16, 1862. 


Edward Atwater. wounded in battle of Port Republic; discharged at 

Harper's Ferry, Va., October iil, 1863; enlisted in Third United 

States Artillery. 
Foster Bodle, discharged at Columbus, O.. October 2, 1863. 
Charles C. Bosworth, discharged at Washington, D. C, April 5, 1861; 

appointed Hospital Steward LTnited States Array. 
George Carrothers, discharged at David's Island, N. Y., May 13, 1863, of 

wounds received in battle of Cedar Mountain, Va. 
James W. Cheeney, discharged at Washington, D. C, October 15, 1801; 

appointed First Lieutenant Forty-nmth Illinois Volunteers. 
Buel Chipman, discharged at Harper's Ferry, Va., October 26, 1802; 

enlisted in United States Engineers. 
Edward F. Curtis, discharged at Columbus, O., July 7, 1862. 
Henry S. Clark, discharged at Cumberland, Md., September 4. 1802. 
Henry Claghorn, discharged at Rochester, N. Y., May 11, 1864, for 

wounds received in battle of Ringgold, Ga., November 27, 1863. 
Thomas P. Dickson, discharged at Washington, D. C, January 8, 1803, 

by reason of wounds received in battle of Cedar Mountain, August 

9, 1802. 
John W. Finch, discharged at Columbus, O., October 4, 1862. 
John Gillanders. discharged at Washington, D. C, January, 23, 1863. 
Ni.■h(^Ias Gttffett, dischargeil at Dumfries, Va., Februaiy 18, 1803. 
Phillip Grigsby, discharged at Washington, D. C, July 24, 1863, by reason 

of wounds received in battle of Dumfries, Va., December 27, 1862. 
Mathis N. Hamilton, discharged at Cumberland, Md., August 33, 1863. 
Henry G. Hixon, discharged at Romney, Va., December 24, 1861. 
Henry Howard, discharged .it Columbus, O., April 9, 1863. 
Albert Hubble, discharged at Columbus, O., July 7, 1862. 
Lewis J. Jones, discharged at Harper's Feny, Miirch 10, 1863, for wounds 

received at battle of Cross Lanes, Va., August 26, 1861 . 
Seldon B. Kingsbury, discharged at Columbus, O., August 2, 1862. 
Dan G. Kingsbury, discharged .at Hai-per's Ferry, Va., October 30, 1862; 

enlisted in United States Engineers. 
Edward E. Kelsey, discharged at Annapolis, Md., March 25, 1864; enUsted 

as Hospital Steward United States Army. 
Stephen Kellogg, discharged for wounds received in battle of Winches- 
ter, Va. 
James A. Massa, discharged at Columbus, O., June 23, 1861. 
Joseph Massey, discharged at Winchester, Va., M<ay, 1862. 
Elan B. Myers, discharged at Cohuubus, O. 
Albert Osborn, discharged at Columbus, O., May 7, 1863. 
HobertG. Orton. discharged at Cincinnati, O., October 11, 1862. by reason 

of wounds received in battle of Cross Lanes, August 26, 1861. 
Alexander Parker, discharged at Columbus, O. 
Reuben R. Potter, discharged at Harper's Ferry, Va., October 34, 1862; 

enlisted in Tliird Regiment United States ArtilleiT. 
William H. Pelton, discharged at Chattanooga, Tenn., January 21, 1864. 

for wounds received in battle of Ringgold, November 37, 1863. 
Anson H. Robbuis, discharged at Columbus, O., July II, 1863. 



George Roj?ers, discharged at Harper*s Ferry, Va., Oct. 30, 1862. En- 
listed in U. S. Engineers. 
Edward C. Root, dieeharged at Columbus. O., August 2, 1862. 
Orlando Richmond, discharged at Columbus, O., February 21, 18(53. 
Oeorgt' L. Spees. discliarged at (Jauley Bridge, Va., November 18. 1861. 
Clinton N. Sterry, discharged at Alexandria, "O., October 18, 1862. 
Kdnumd R. Stiles, discharged at Columbus, O. 
Edwin R. Smith, discharged at Columbus, O., July 7, 1863; appointed 

St'coud Lieutenant in Fifth U. S. Colored Trot)ps. 
■NVilliam H. Scott, discharged at Columbus. O., November 20, 1864. 
Henry G. Sheldon, discharged at Columbus, O., July 3, 18^3, for woimds 

received in battle of Cross Ijanes, Va., August 36, 1861. 
Heiijamin L. S«vey, discharged at Washington, D. C, February .5, IStW. 
David J. Thompson, discharged at Columbus, O., June 2,5, 1864. 
George U. Thrasher, discharged at Washington, D. C. June 19, 1862. 
Lucius V. Tutile, discharged at Columbus, O., July 31, 1862. 
R. C. Van Orman, discharged at Camp Dennison, O., February 15. 1864. 
Warren F. Walworth, discharged at Columbus O. July 11, 1863, for 

wounds received at battle of Winchester, Va.. March 2S, 1862. 
Frederick A. Warner, discharged at Columbus, O., July 11, 1862, for 

wounds received at battle of Winchester, Va., March 23, 1862. 
Leroy Warren, discharged at Cohimbus. C, July 22, 1862. 
AVillard W. Wheeler, discharged at Detroit, Mich., June 2:i, 1862. 
Theodore Wilder, di-^charged at Alexaiidna. October 20, 1862, for wounds 

received in battle of Cedar Mountain. Va., August 1), 1863. 
Richard Wenser, discharged at Columbus, O., November 25, 1S62, for 

wounds received in battle of Winchester, Va., March 33, 1862. 



Sergeant Frank Harmon, appointed Sergeant January 1, 1863: trans- 
ferred to N. C. S. as Quartermaster Sergeant, Septemqer 1, 1862; 
■noimded at Gettysburg, 

Sergeant Henry Fairchilds, transferred to Company G, Fifth Ohio Vet- 
eran Volunteer Infantry, October 31st, 1864. 

Corporal James W. Ramond, transferred to Detachment of Recruits in 
the field at Ackworth, Ga., June II, 1864; wounded in battle of Ring- 
gold, Ga. 


Private Joseph E. Bates, transferred to Regimental Band, at Weston. 
Va.. July 10, 1861. 

Edgar M. Bostwick. transfen-ed to Regimental Band, at Weston, Va 
July 10, 1861. 

Orlando P. Brockway, transferred to Batteiy I. First Ohio Volunteer 
Artillery, December 1. 1861; promoted Sergeant. 

James R. Bell, transferred to Hospital Department, December 1, 1861. 

James C. Bartlett, transferred to Company B, Fifth Ohio Veteran Vol- 
unteer Infantry, October 31, 1864. 

William O. Barnes, transferred to Company B. Fifth Ohio Veteran Vol- 
unteer Infantry, October 31, 1864; wounded at Ringgold, Ga., No- 
vember 27, 1863. 

Freeman Bunker, transferred to Company B, Fifth Ohio Veteran Vol- 
unteer Infantry, October 31, 1864. 

Martin V. Clark, transferred to Regimental Band, July 10, 1S61. 

Joseph Cleverton, transferred to Company B, Fifth Ohio Veteran Vol- 
unteer Infantry, October 31, 1864; wounded at Ringgold, Ga.. No- 
vember 27, 1863. 

Charles W. Rossiter. transferred to Regimental Band, Jidy 10. 1861. 

John Wilford, transferred to Company B, Fifth Ohio Veteran Volunteer 
Infantry, October 31, 1864. 

Leonard G. Wilder, transferred to Invalid Corps, Febi-uary 15, 1864. 



Coi-poral Parker S. Bennett, enrolled]June 3, 1861 ; promoted to Sergeant. 
Died of wounds, at Washington, D. C. 13, 1863. 



John Connolly, enrolled June 6, 1861; discharged May 19, 1862. 
Adolph Gawzert. enrolled June 6, 1861; discharged September 6, 1862. 
Myron M. Keith, enrolled Jmie 6. 1861; discharged January 21, 1863, of 

wounds received at Battle of Fredericksburg. 
Charles Lyman, enrolled June 6, 1861; died at Webster, Va., October 23 

Charles Boughton, enrolled June 17, 1861; discharged at Harper's Ferry, 

Va., October 21, 1862. 
Calvin Linton, enrolled June 6, 1861; killed at the Battle oi Poe River, 

May 11, 1864. 
Frederick Newton, enrolled June 17, 1861; discharged at Baltimore, Md.. 

Januarys, 186.3. 

EInathan M. Smith, enrolled June 17, 1861 ; killed In Battle of the Wilder- 
ness, May 6, 1864. 

Charles S. Thompson, enrolled June 17,1861; discharged September 2, 

Jesse Thayer, enrolled June 17, 1861; discharged May 11, 1862. 

Henry H. Waldo, enrolled June 6. 1861; premoted to Sergeant; mustered 
out with Company, at Cleveland, Ohio, July !3, 1864. 


Organized at Camp Taylor, Cleveland Ohio, May 16, 1861. Mustered out 
of Siervice at Cumberland, Md., July 26, 1865. 


Captain Howard S. Lovejoy; resigned February 13, 1863. 

First Lieutenant Abrani A. Hunter, promoted to Captain. March 1, 1862, 

and assigned to C'ompany K. 
Second Lieutenant Henry Ricliardson, promoted to First Lieutenant, 

July 34, 1861. and assigned to Company B. 


First Sergeant Adin W. Durkee, promoted to Second Lieiitenant; re- 
signed Decendjer 26. 1862. 

Sergeant Lampson C. Curtis 

Sergeant William W. Hardy. 

Sergeant Theodore Harris. 

Sergeant William H. H. Wheeler. 

Corporal John H. Lindlej-, promoted to Sergeant; killed in Battle of 
South Mountain, Md., September 14, 1862. 

Corporal Leauder H. Lane, discharged to accept promotion July 2, 1864. 

Corporal Eliphalet I. Taylor, discharged Juhp 11, 1864. 

Corporal John T. Ogiien, discharged to accept promotion, January 12^ 

Corporal Dennison C. Hanchett. discharged June 11, 1864. 

Corporal Edgar A. Price, discharged fordisabihty December 18, 1862. 

Corporal Clifton A. Bennett, discharged to accept promotion, July 28i 

CoiTDoral Orrin F. Green. 

Musician Samuel McElroy. 

Musician Frederick V. Cogswell. 

Wagoner Truman S. Seamans. 


Henry Agal, transferred to C<impany K. 

George A. Archer, transferred to non-commissioned staff. 

John O. Beirn. 

Coiydon Bassett. 

William R. Boon. 

Josei)h Brumley. transferred to Company K. 

Henry M. Battles. 

George S. Bidwell, transferred to Company K. 

Daniel Baker. 

Henry D. Barber. 

William E. Brooks. <lischarged June 11, 1864. 

Isaac W. Barker, killed in battle of South Mountain. Md., September 14, 

James Crowder, discharged November 2;i, 1863. 

Willis Chase, promoted to Sergeant; discharged April 19th, 1865, by rea- 
son of wounds received in battle. 

Samuel Clifford, died in Rebel prison, July 12, 1864. 

Edward Cameron. 

Jasper H. Cooley, discharged June 18. 1862. 

David Danby, transferred to Company K. 

Hiram Durkee, killed in battle of South Mountain, Md., September U- 

William W. Dunlap. 

John Eaton, discharged for disability. November 29, 1863. 

James V. Eldridge. killed at battle of Antietam. Md., September 17, 186-J. 

Gilbert G. Field, blown up in steamer "Sultana," April 35. 1865. 

Milton H. Franks, discharged for disability, September 19, 1861. 

Thomas Flack, discharged January 33, 1S65. 

Ransom Fisher, transferred to Company H. 

John Goss, discharged April 1, 186:3. 

Lucius F. Gilson, promoted to Sergeant; discharged June 11. 1864. 

William Graeber. 

John Gorman. 

James Goddard, 

Uriah Hart man. 

Jacob Hartman, discharged May 4, 1863. 

Edwin Hawes. 

William I. Holcomb, discharged April 17, 1863. 

Chauncey N. Hanson, transferred to Company K. 

William D. Hanson. 

Frederick Hooker, killed at battle of South MounUxin, Md., September 
14, 1863. 

Joel Hance. 

Joseph Hower, transferred to Company K. 

Henry M. Holzworth, transferred to Company K. 



Philip Holzworth, transferred to Company K. 

Theodore W. Ingersoll, transferred to Company H. 

William Jones, transferred to Company K. 

Harvey K. Lowe. 

George Loewenstein, transferred to Company H. 

John Leasure. 

Edgar Leach. 

Sylvester Leach. 

Allen H. Larnard, transferred to Company H. 

Anson K. Mills, transferred to Company K. 

Charles E. Manchester, transferred to Company K. 

Henry Marmilstein. 

Frederick Motrey, transferred to Company K. 

Meredith McKiiuiey transferred to Company H. 

Charles Morgan, transferred to Company K. 

Decolia B. Masten, transferred to Company K. 

Henry Montague, transferred to Company K. 

Francis S. McCumber. 

Henry Molter, transferred to Company K. 

David Petermau, discharged for disabihty, October 2G, XHtiii. 

George W. Peun. 

Addison A. Root, transferred to Company K. 

Martin Ryan. 

George C. Reannourd. 

David E. Scott, 

Marshall H. Siples. 

Ephriam Stevens, discharged June 11. 1864. 

Warren Squire, transferred to Company K. 

Lawrence Squire, discharged for disability, May 22, 1863. 

John R. Searl. died at Raleigh. Va , July 17, 1864. 

Edmund A. Sims, killed at battle nf South Mountani, September 14, 1862. 

Almon A. Sheffield. 

Daniel Skinner. 

Abram M. Tanner, promoted to Corporal; discharged at expiration of 

term of service. 
James H. Waldo, transferred to Company H. 
James Wort man. 

Nelson H. Wing, transferred to Company H. 
Francis Wildman. 

Thomas I. Wiley, transferred to Company H. 
Samuel Ward, di.soharged October 25, 1863. 
Frank Wood row. 

The names bearing no record were, doubtless, mustered out with 
Company at close of the war. 


Organized at EljTia, Ohio. Mustered into service at Camp Jackson, 
near Columbus. Ohio, June U, 1861. Mustered out of service at Cum- 
berland, Maryland, July 26. 186.5. 


Captain Dewitt C. Howard, resigned, July 11, 1862. 
First Lieutenant Frederick H. Bacon. 
Second Lieutenant Archie C. Fisk. 


First Sergeant Thomas A. Stephens, promoted to Second Lieutenant, 

December 26, 1862, and assigned to Company H. 
Sergeant David Newbuiy. 

Sergeant Lewis D. Lee, re-enlisted jis Veteran Volunteer. 
Sergeant George W. Moulton, discharged for disability, Septembers, 1862 
Sergeant Thomas G. Wells, kihed in the battle of South Mountain, Md., 

September 14. 1863. 
Corporal Otto E. Huene, promoted to Sergeant, September 15, 1862. 
Corporal Cyrus Whittlesey, api^ointed Corporal June 13, 1861. 
Corporal Timothy C. Wood, died at Charleston, W. Va., November 20, 

Corporal Lyman W. Cai-penter, died at Charleston, W. Va., August 8, 1862. 
Corporal Daniel R. King, discharged May 20, 1863, for disability. 
Corporal Benjamin F. Bums. 

Coi-poral Edgar Herrick, promoted to Sergeant Jainiarj*, 1, 1863. 
Drummer RoUin Horton, appointed Hospital Steward, and transferred 

to non-commissioned staff April 8, 1863. 
Wagoner Rollin Emmons. 


Richard B. Atwater. 

William Abel, appointed Corporal May 1. 1862. 

Siebert Abel, discharged December 15, 1862, by reason of wounds re- 
ceived at tlie battle of Antietam, September 17, 1862. 
John Aschenbach. 
Gilbert I. Braman. 

Frederick W. Broady, re-enlisted a Veteran Volunteer November,30.l863. 
Jacob Brown. 

William Brown, discharaged April 22, 1862, by reason of woiaids received 
j at the battle of South Mountain, September 14, 1862. 

Oliver Barret, appointed Corporal May 1, 1862. 

John M. Bronson. 

George W. Bartholomew, discharged August 26, 1862, for disability. 

James Brooks, re-enlisted as veteran volunteer, October 1, 186:J. 

William A. Cooley, died in hospital at Washington, D.C. September, 1862 

Isaac Cook 

Kmanuel Campbell. 

William H. Call, discharged July 14, 1862. for disai)ility. 

James F. Call, discharged February 25, 1863, for disabilit)'. 

Cornelius D. Conger, dischai-ged March 5, 18(j2. for disability. 

Henry Crandall, appointed Corporal June 13, 1861; ilied at Fayettville, 

W. Va.. November 20 1862. 
Kdwin H. Hill. 

Aifi-ed Day, appointed Cori)oral Octobers, 1862. 
John T. Ewings. 
Harvey E. Fitts. appointed Corporal May 1,1862; transferred October 19. 

18(i2, to regulai" cavalry. 
Valentine Faidhaber, appointed Corporal November 12, 1862. 
Isaac W. Gray. 
Isaac Hill, wounded in the battle of South Mountain, Md., September 14, 

18<>2; transferred to invalid corps. 
G ittleib Hurlebaus, re-enlisted a veteran volunteer November 30, 186.3. 
Ceorge H. Hubbard, discharged February 10. 1862, for disability. 
Horace Hill, re-enlisted veteran volunteer October 1, 1863. 
Frederick Isbelle, discharged October 20, 1861, for disabihty. 
James James, re-enlisted as veteran volunteer November 30. 1863. 
Charles A. Jewell, re-enlisted as veteran volunteer December 31, 1863. 
John Lent, discharged September 20. 1861, for disability. 
Henr>' O. Loomis re-enlisted veteran volunteer, December 31, 1863. 
Ira W. Mead. 

Ji'el P. Monger, re-enlisted as veteran volunteer October 1, 1863. 
Benjamin F. Marlet. 

John \V. Mo.sser, discharged September 20, 1861. for disability. 
George W. Mason, re-enhsted as veteran volunteer October 1, 1863. 
Charles Maturah. 
Joseph Mitchell, wounded in the battle of Antietam, Md., September 17 

1862; discharged February 24. 1863. 
James O'Reiley. 

Timothy Powers, discharged June 28, 1861, for disability. 
Jonathan Ring, wounded in the battle of Antietam September 17, 18(i2; 

died September 21, 1862. 
George G. Root, appointed Corporal January 1, 1862. 
William Roach, killed at Camp Ewing, W. Va., November 15, 1861. 
Frank Stow, appointed Corporal September 20, 1862. 
Silas Southworth, discharged Februaiy 12, 18f>4. 
Peter Saxton. 

Fitzland Squires, wounded in the battle of South Mountain, Md., Sep- 
tember 14, 1862; died September 27, 18l»2. 
Albert E. Squires. 

Frank Sperry, re-enlisted as veteran volunteer October 1, 1863. 
Frederick Stark. 

John C. Springer, re enlisted as veteran volunteer October 1, 18G3. 
Wyatt B. Thorp, discharged September 2, 1863, for disability. 
William Treadwell, discharged May 4, 186:3, for disability. 
P'rai cis Taylor, discharged July 12, 1862, for disability, 
Willis R. Terrell, transferred to regular cavalrj-, October 26, 1862. 
John Tisdale. 

Robert Warmock, discharged September 2i). 1861. for disability. 
John C. Worcester, appointed Corporal January 1, 1863: re-enlisted as 

veteran volunteer October 1, 1863. 
George R.Whitman, appointed Corporal May 1,1862; appointed Sergeant 

September 20, 1862; re-enhsted as veteran volunteer October 1, 1863. 

See remarks at close of Co. D. roster. 



Captain Alonzo Pease, resigned January 9, 1862. 

First Lieutenant John W. Steele, promoted to Captain, February 3, 1862; 

appointed Major and Aid-de-Camp by President. 
Second Lieutenant, Albert McRoberts, promoted to First Lieutenant, 

March 1, 1862; resigned May 24, 1802. 


First Sergeant Henry S. Dirlam, promoted to First Lieutenant, March 

S4, 1863; killed November 23. 1863. 
First Sergeant Nathan H. Whitney, died in 1862. 
Sergeant Harvey H. Green. 
Corporal George F. ^Miitney. 
Corporal WiUiam H. Prince. 

Corporal Thomas H. Somers. promoted to Captain, November 26, 1864. 
Corporal Robert L. Simmonds. 
Corporal Raymond Wilder. 
Musician Horace Wilcox. 



Ephraim T. B«ane. 
Maiiin M. Bigelow. 

Hynian A. lirown, died at Corinth, Miss., in 1862. 
EdwiTi Brice. 

James W. Blackwell, killed in battle, November iKJ. 18CJ, 
Chester I. Case. 

Matthews Chamberlain, killed at Shiluh, April T, IHt>2. 
Andrew Chaml)erlain. 
(leorge C. Clark, died in 18C:i. 
(leorpe Clark. 

Albert I. Clark, died at Corinth. Miss., 1802. 
Joseph (;^ross. promoted to Sergeant. 
John Cross. 
Veragane Derlam. 
Sidney S. Goodill. 
Edward P. Kaskall. 
Jacob Hoover. 
Hu^h H. Kellogg. 
Albert M. Kellogg, died ISfJiJ. 

Ebene/.er Kingsbnrj', killed in battle, November 23, 18(j3. 
Martin H. Keltogg- 
Daniel Lawrence, died in 18(i2. 

John C. Lenhart, killed at Stone River, December 31, 18fi2. 
Joseph H. Lincoln died in 1802. 
Anson Lymles. 
Harrison Moore. 
Charles F. Murray. 
George W. Miller. 
Leander L. Morton. 

William A. Mills, killed in battle, November 2-3, 1S63. 
John ({. Mills, killed in battle, May 27, 18)^1. 
, Adelbert Marcy. 
John Porter. 

Franklin Pomeroy. died in 1803. 
William H. Porter, killed at Shiloh, April 7, 1802. 
William RoIIinson. 
John C. N. Rjiser. 

George M. Rogers, promoted to Sergeant. 
Oliver M. Smith, died in 1802. 
Harvey Sanderson, died at Corinth, Miss., 1802. 
Josiah Staples, killeil in battle, May 27, 1864. 
George D. Simmonds. 
James Tooze. 
George G. Tifft. 
Benoni B. West, died in 181*4. 
Henry West, killed at Shiloh, April 7, 1863. 
Jobn E. Smith. 



Corporal Edward Danforth. 


Danford Barnes Saxton Taylor. 

This regiment became veterans. No muster-out rolls of first enlist- 
ment are preserved. 


Mustered into service, November 27, 1861. 
date given. 

Mustered out of service— no 

Leader John W. Ford. 
Sergeant William H. Park. 
Sergeant Charles E. Mason. 
Sergeant Anson G. Hollister. 
Sergeant Wilson C. Hart. 

Corporal Daniel Chase. 
Corporal Enoch Elber. 
Corporal George Gucker. 
Cori>oral Philip Harper. 
Corporal Henry Morrison. 

Henry H. Bryant. 
Sylvester Conch. 
Thomas G. Gibson. 
Frank P. Hale. 
Johnson Hutcliins. 

Corporal Edward F. Smith. 


William B. HoUister. 
Enos Kelly. 
Jacob L. Lewis. 
Lewis F. Niles. 
Milo R. Parsons. 
Marvin Wood. 


Mustered into service October 30, 1801. Mustered out of service Novem- 
ber 15, 1864. 


Captain Charles H. Howe, resigned May I. 1863. 
First Lieutenant Ge..)rge F. Brady, resigned March 27, 1803. 
Second Lieutenant Melville L. Benham, promoted to Captain, May 17. 


First Sergeant William R Moses. 

Sergeant Jackson Irish. 

Sergeant Samuel M. Wellmr-n. 

Sergeant Charles A. Hoynt^)n 

Sergeant John B. Underbill. 

Corporal Benjamin F. Morehouse. 

Corporal Julien W. Smith. 

(^'i)rp'>i-al \Villiam H. II. Bryant, promoted to First Sergeant, December 

0, 1802. 
Corporal Edson A. Root. 
(Corporal Lyman Knapp. 
Corporal Asaiiel P. Foot. 

Corporal John T. Flinn, promoted to First Lieutenant, April 7, I8fr4. 
Corporal Bertrand C. Austin. 
Wagoner Ransom G. Hunt. 


Roland G. Abby. 

Rienzi W. Austin. 

Franklin F. Allen. 

Harrison H. Bates. 

J.imes Beverage. 

Fi-ederick Brooks, died at St. Louis. Mo. —date not given. 

Reul)en Blanct, drowned in Big Sandy, Januaiy 38, 1862, 

Edmund E. Bunel. 

Melvin B. Cousins, died February 28, 1863. 

Truman L. Cooley. 

Orrin S. Campbell, promoted to Sergeant, May, 1863. 

.Tiihn Dunkhall 

Christopher Dimmock, wotmded in battle; died March, 1863. 

Orson Emmons, promoted Corporal; killed in battle. May 1, 1863. 

Ruel Fulton. 

Luke Flint, died February 8, I8«2. 

Nicholas Flood. 

Charles P. Goodwin, prometed to Adjutant; ilischarged October 5, 1S63. 

Edwin Gould. 

Charles Gould. 

John Grittln. 

Lewis Hanchett. 

Thomas Howes, promoted Corporal November 14, 1H63. 

Nathan Holmes. 

George S. Harris, promoted Sergeant February 8, 1863; killed in bailie 
May 1, 1863. 

Henry Hibner, died August 19, 1863. 

John Hudson. 

Lyman Hawley, wounded at Vicksburg; arm amputated; drowned 
March 12, 1H64. 

(Jiles Irish. 
Charles B. Jordan. 

William H. Jacques, promoted Corporal Api-il 30, 1862. 

Henry D. Johnson. 
Stephen Ketchum. 

Robert G. King. 

Leonard G. Loomis, promoted Sergeant February 28, 18(>i. 

Charles B. Lambkin. 

John Launsbrough, promoted Sergeant April, 30, 1862. 

(Jeoi'ge VV. Lee, died January 12. lS(i2 

Martin Lilly, killed in battle December 29, 1863. 

Milo W. Morse, killed in battle May 25. 186:^ 

Frank W, Markert. 

Willard Morriss. 

William Morriss. 

(ieorge Moe. 

Henry McNelly. 

George Newman. 

Charles (.^"Brien, died May 18, 1862. 

Benjamin Phinney, promoted ('orporal July 1, 1863. 

Sanford Phinney, died; no date given. 

(Jeorge A. Raj'mond. 

EbenezerP. Sexton. 

George Sexton, died February 7, 1863. 

Ambrose Sawyer. 

Cornelius Springer, died of wounds in 186;i. 

William Stephens. 

William H. Stephens. 

Wiliam Swan. 

Mason Terry, died at Baton Rouge; date not given 

Charles R. Turner, promoted Corporal April 30, 1862. 

David H. Taylor. 

Stephen M. Taylor. 

Angel Tnttle. 

Joseph Willford. 

Thomas Williams, died in Memphis. 

William H. VVebsdale. 

Frederick Watson, killed in battle Jidy 12. 1863. 

Henry K. White, promoted Corporal February 20, 1863. 

William Zeman, promoted Corporal April 30, 1863, 





John Curl, enlisted August 14. 1862; died June 30, 1803 

George Goldsmith, enlisted August 13, 18ti2; died February 12, 18fi3. 

William H. Hubbard, enlisted August 12, 1862; died February, 1863. 

Alfred Lucas, enlisted August 12, 1862; died May 6, 1S()3. 

Friend McNeal, enlisted August 12, 18)i2; died March 25, 1S63. 

Corporal Luther A. Sweet, enlisted August 11, 1862; died March 29. 1803. 

Philo Van Dusen, enlisted August 11, 1802, died Februaiy, 1863. 

Horace J. Cahoon, enlisted August 14, 1802; discharged March 25, 1803. 

John Ross, enlistd August 11, 1862; discharged April 22, 1H03. 

John Brinker, enlisted August 11, 1862; transferred to Company G. 

George W. Biggs, enlisted Septenil)er 10, 1863; transferred to Company G 

Matthew Coone, enlisted August 11. 1862; transferred to t'ompany G. 

Charles Chester, enlisted August 12, 1802; transferred to (^ompany G. 

William F. Hathaway, enlisted August 12, 1862; appointed Hospital 

William G. Kent; enlisted September 1, 1802; transferred to Company G 

Horace Morehouse, enlisted November 14,1801 ; transfeiTed to CompanyH 

Corporal William H. Nickerson. enlisted Novendier 14, 1861; transferred 
to Company H. 

Theodore P. Sweet, enlisted August 11, 1802; transferred to Company G 

James M. Smith, enHsted August 27, 1H62; transferred to Company G. 

Howard Williams, enlisted October 30, 1861; transferred to veteran re- 
serve corps May 22, 1804. 

Oscar Wilcox, enlisted August 11, 1862, transferred to Company G. 

Joseph Wetter, enlisted August 11, 1802; transferred to Company G. 

Corporal Benjamin Mor-ehouse, enlisted October 30, 1801. 

Julien W. Smith, enlisted October 30, ISOI ; died January 29, 1862. 

Thomas F. Williams, enlisted August II, 1862; died of wound April 11, 


Oel Durkee, enlisted November 12, 1861 ; transferred to Company H . 


Mustered into service in October, November and December, 1861. Mus ■ 
tered out of service July 13, 1865. 

Harlow W. Aldrich, veteran volunteers, mustered out with company. 

Benjamin Baldei-son, discharged at expiration of term of service. 

George Bennett, discharged. 

Alsaphin BasweU, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company. 

William Haber, promoted Co poral, mustered out with company. 

Andrew Hosford, veteran volunteer. 

Abraham Jaquaies, died January 26, 1804. 

Peter Mulberry. 

Henry Naracong. 

Orville Naracong. 

Eugene Ostrander. 

Michael Rudifortb. 

Thomas Rose . 

Lewis Schaffer, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company. 

Royal G. Slater. 

John I. Smith. 

Herbert Smith, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company. 

Conrad Trushiem. 

George Westinghousen, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company. 


Mustered into service in 
Nelson Allen. 
William O. Allen. 
Frederick April. 
Charles H. Bayless. 
Medad H. Bulkley. 
John Y. Burge. 
Charles Clark. 
Montgomery Close. 
Martin Denman. 
Martin Douglass. 
Gibson Douglass. 
Charles Donelson. 
William H. Dunham. 
Joel A. Gager. 
John Ginste. 
Levi Gillet. 
Russell Greeley. 
Cornelius Groat. 
Birney Grifliu. 
George W. Howard. 
JeflEerson Harrington. 
Willoughby Howe. 
Albert L. Howe. 

1862. Mustered out July 13, 1865, 
Henry Hoyle. 
Stephen Hill. 
Russell T. HUl. 
Joseph L. Hanson. 
Gideon Lateman . 
Charles M. Miller. 
Jerome N. B. McCarty. 
John McCotter. 
Shubbill H. Marsh. 
Hugh Moshier. 
Marvin Moshier. 
Hiram Moshier. 
Benjamin F. Mills. 
Joseph Newton. 
Seth J. Porter. 
Daniel T. Russell. 
Franklin J. Russell. 
Azidi-ew S. Russell. 
Philip Ritzenthaler. 
Lewis L. Rowe. 
Daniel E. Rose . 
Frederick Schneider. 
Stephen Sweet. 

John W. Harley . 
Avery Hall. 

James Hales. 
Arteman Hinkley. 


Thatcher Vincent. 
Thomas Whitney. 
Jefferson Wood. 
Oscar McNamee. 



Caiitain Robert Williams, promoted to Lieutenant Colonel; discharged 
September 14, ISM. 


First Sergeant David A. Rees, promoted First Lieutenant and Adjutant. 

Sergeant Miles W. Elliot, discharged for disability (no date) 

Corporal Henry B. Neff, promoted Second Lieutenant, January 29, 1865. 

Corporal James H. Dillon, discharged December 19, 1864. 

Corporal Cyrus Pattinger, discharged December lil, lK(i4. 

Con>oral Adam C. Neff, veteran volunteer. 

Corporal John W. Kelley, promoted Sergeant, January 22, 1864. 

Wagoner Henry Sprong, discharged for disability, Jul3- 22, 18ti2. 


Alexander W. Boyer, discharged at Cincinnati, O., (no date). 

Thomas Brown, Jr. 

Charles K. Bennett, promoted Sergeant, October 25th, 1864. 

Thomas Bennett. 

Jacob Campbell. 

Christopher H, Cook, veteran volunteer. 

Samuel Cook, discharged June 27, 1862. 

Andrew J. Clark, discharged (no record). 

Henry W. Carroll. 

John Frazier. 

Samuel Glunt, died Jidy 6, 1883. 

Jesse Glunl, died in hospital (no record). 

John GUnit, died in hospital (no record). 

Nathan H. Henderson. 

Francis V. Hale, killed in battle of Shiloh. 

Alonzo D. Kimball, died of wounds, April 6, 1862. 

Allen H. Lowe, killed in battle of Shiloh. 

Henry Marshland . 

William H. Moravy. 

John W. Neff, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company. 

Milton N. Neff, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company. 

Albert S. Robinson, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company. 

William H. Robinson, transferred to V. R. C. 

James H. Robinson, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company. 

William H. Runyon . 

Samuel Smiley, discharged at Covington, Ky. 

William F. Smiley, discharged June 22, 1805. 

John W. Thompson, discharged August 10. 1863. 

George W. Wilson, discharged December 19, 1804. 

John Wingler, discharged November 9, 1H64. 

James Wingler, discharged January 12, 1803. 

William C. Wilson, discharged December 19, 1804. 

Franklin W. Whiteside, discharged January 12, 1863. 


Mustered into service April 16, 1804, at Camp Chase, Ohio. Mustered 
out of service July 28, 1865. 


John A. Bean, killed in action, June 3, 18(i4. 
Hiram K. Bedortha, died October 22. 1861 
Charles W. Conklin; killed in action June 3, 1804. 
.Tames H. Davis, mustered out with company. 
Jared Gridley, mustered out with company. 
Edward T. Lufkin, discharged July 1864. 
Charles T. Smith, promoted to Sergeant. 


Mustered into service February 18, 1862. Mustered out September II, 

George Metcalf . 
Jacob Rath . 
William M. Walker. 
John Warner. 
Eri S. Warner. 

Frederick Kimmick. 

John Amman. 
Joshua Geiger. 
Wesley A. Howard. 
William B. Halsey. 
John Maloney. 

Frederick Frank 
John Ritz. 

♦This regiment re-enlisted. Muster out rolls of original enlistment 

not on file in Adjutant General's office. 



Mustered into service July 14, iSiW. for six months. Mustered out of 
service at expiration of enlistment. 


Captain Aaron K. Lindaley. 


First Sers«'ant Charles E. Clark. 
Sergeant Iju-ius E. Finch. 
Sergeant Arehiliakl M. Willard. 
Corporal Charles M. Davidson 
Corporal Stanley K. Wileo.v. 

William J. Allison. 
Milan Avery. 
fMiarles Bowers. 
Henry Bennett. 
James J. Dixon. 
William Emmons. 
Dareau Finch. 
Lucius H. Hartwell. 
Linwell E. Hamilton. 
Charles O. Hanson. 
George W. Heif ner . 
Nelson T. Lee. 
Dayton Morgan. 

Corporal Frank W. Bennett. 
Corporal Josiah Buffett. 
Corporal Fi-ank B. Smith. 
Musician Horace M. Wilcox. 


Charles Prestage, died October 1, 

John Serage. 
Lsaac Springer. 
David Stevicks. 
Frank btrong, died Octoher H, 

Henry Terry. 
William S. Wright. 
(Jarrison Marcy. 
Joshua Crandall, died November 

2, I80:i. 
Eugene Merrill. 


Mustered into service June 10, 18ti:3. for three months. Mustered out at 
expiration of term of service. 


Captiiin Sames F. Herrick. 

Second Lieutenant Wallace N. Pinning. 


Corporal Thomas A. Riddle. 
Corporal Theodore A. Tenney. 
Corporal Edgar Conels. 

AlvahT. Kellogg. 
George H. Mathews. 
Marion J. Morse. 
Erwin McRoberts. 
Robei't Preston. 
Richard N. Phelps. 
Charles C. Prentiss. 
Benjamin F. Sems. 
Frank Swift. 
Charles Wright. 

First Sergeant John H. Siddale. 
Sergeant Nathan W. Foots. 
Sergeant Seth W. Maltby. 
Corporal James B. Johnson. 

William J. Aliason. 
Isaac C. Ayers. 
Philip Ayers. 
Willis E. Baldwin. 
Charles E. Bristol. 
Frank L. Best wide. 
Henry C. Breckenridge. 
William E. Chidister. 
George W. Devlin. 
Lucius Fi. Finch. 
Harrison t^irnie. 
Charles M. Graves, discharged fi 


Mustered into service at Cleveland, O.. September 8, 1H(;3. Mustered 
out of service at Cleveland, O., June 22, 1865. 


Major Dewitt C. Howard, discharged February 15, 18ti-5. 

Surgeon Luther D. Griswold, resigned August 1, 1SG4. 

Quarter Master Sergeant Clark P. Quirk, promoted to Regimental 

Quarter-Master, July 21. 18ti3. 
Hospital Steward Cyrus Durand. promoted from Sergeant in Co. H. 
Fife-Major John Mountain, discharged May 15. 18iJ3. 
Sergeant-Major Gilbert S. Judd, promoted from Sergeant in Co. F., 

January 'J, IHti3. 
No *' Muster out Rolls " of this regiment are on file in the office of tlie 

Adjutant Genera!, at Columbus, O., rendering it impossible to show 

the status of the companies from Lorain county when discharged 

the service. 



Captain Philip C. Hayes, promoted to Colonel of regiment, June <>. 18().\ 
Fii-st Lieutenant Simeon Windecker. promoted to Captain. June 04, isfi2. 
Second Lieutenant Charles E. Morgan, promoted to Captain, November 
18, 1864. 


First Sergeant Miles E. Wattles, promoted Second Lieutenant, February 

!), 1863. 
Sergeant William H. Ayers. 
Sergeant Henry C. Bacon, promoted First Lieutenant, November 18, 

Sergeant Orlando W. Bacon. 
Sergeant John S. W^ right. 
Ct)rporal Newton L. Cotton. 
Corporal William W. Watkius. 
Corporal Charles Johnson. 
Corporal Gilbert S. Judd. 
Corporal Charles Blair. 
Corporal George B. Fenn. 
Corporal Wesley P. Hier. 
Corporal Edward M. West. 
Fifer Richard N. Tiffany. 
Drummer Rhesa C. Houghton. 
Wagoner Edwin D. Shattuc. 

Luther Bemis, died at Danville, Ky., July 17, 1863. 

John H. Bovvers, died November 26, lH)i3, of wounds received in battle 

near Knoxville, Tenn., November 2.5, 1863. 
Charles Bradley. 

Justin A. Breckenridge, discharged in 1S63, dale not given. 
Theodore F. Brown . 
Alfred O. Briggs. 
Thomas Burnham. 
Thomas Butson. 
Francis Cook . 

Charles Cooper, disehargeil at Frankfort, Ky., date not given. 
George J. Cotton. 
James Covenhoren. 
George W. Covenhoren. 
John H. Crandall. 

Lewis Carver, died at Camp Nelson, Ky., October 3, 1863. 
William H. Eisenhower. 
Milton H. Franks. 
Albert B. Fitch. 
John G. Fitch. 

Lampson B. Franklin, died at Lexington, Ky., November 21, 1SG2. 
Dyer B. Gillett. 
Joseph D. Goodrich. 
George W. Hale 
Seldon Hall. 
Edward Hackett. 
Daniel W. Highland. 
James M. Harton. 
Sylvester F. Harton. 
John E. Howk. 
William Hutton. 

William O. Humphrey, discharged at Frankfort. Ky., date not given. 
Ezekiel Jones, discharged at Columbus, O., March 2."), 1H63. 
James M. Jones. 
William Jordon. 
Edward C. Kinney. 
James E. Kenyon. 

Silas Kingsley, died at Camp Denuison, O., July 13, 1S63. 
George H. Kingsbury. 
John Kiuekerfocher. 
Edward Linder. 

Jerome Lamphiei", discharged at Frankfort, Ky., (date not given). 
Joshua S. Mason. 
Stephen C. Mason. 
Edwin Mills. 
Emanuel Myers. 
Solomon Nason. 
Albert Northrup. 
Madison Northrup. 
John Northrupp. 
Frank Nolen. 
Frank L. Oberly. 
Joseph Oberly. 
George Peasly. 
Robert Penson. 
Thomas Penson. 
Merit W. Piatt 
James H. Redburn. 
Charles H. Rosa. 
David Robinson, died November 28, 1863, of wounds received in battle 

near Knoxville. Tenn.^ November 25, 1863. 
Joseph Robinson, killed at Frankfort, Ky., December 28, 1862. 
Robert Reynolds. 

Henry M. Salsbury, discharged at Cincinnati, O., July 24, 186:1. 
Daniel Salsbury. 
Sylvester F. R. Sage. 



Theodore A. Shafer. 

John I. Shafer. 

Frank B. Sherburne. 

Michael Truckenniiller. 

Wellin^on Varney. 

Henry Whitney. 

Richard Waterson. 

Edward 51. West, discharged February 5, 18G3. 

Edwin A. Wood. 

Oilman M. Young. 



Captain George F. Brady, resigned May 9, 1803. 

First Lieutenant John Booth, promoted to Captain, May 9, 1863. Re. 

signed April "24, KStvl. 
Second Lieutenant 1'. B. Parsons, resigned June 18, 18113. 


First Sergeant John Connally. captured January 18, 1864. 

Sergeant James Allen, promoted First Lieutenant November 18, 1864. 

Sergeant Francis M. Truman. 

Sergeant William T. Chapman, promoted Second Lieutenant, June 8 , 

1863: resigned February 43, 1864. 
Sergeant William Knowles, captured January 18, 18G4. 
Corporal Welton Van Wagoner. 
Corporal Edward P. French, discharged at Lexington, Kentucky. (Date 

not given). 
Corporal Clark W. Quick, promoted to Captain August 19, 18M, from 

First Lieutenant Commission declined. 
Corporal James Lyons, promoted to Sergeant March 10, 18^3. 
Corporal Ira P. Griswold. 

Corporal JIarion Bruce, promoted to Sergeant March 10, 1803. 
Corporal Chapin M. Banister. 

C'jrporil Byron .McNeal, promoted to Sergeant, Julr^ 15, 1863. 
Musician John Mountain, discharged by reason of error in muster, May 

15, 1863. 
Musician Andrew Parsons, promoted to Drum Major. (Date not given.) 
W^agoner Charlos C. Spaulding. 


Job Alexander. 

Albort Adams. 

Charles Abbey. 

Solomon Alcott, promoted to Corporal March 10, 1863. 

Frederick Ambrose, died April 27, 1803. 

Washburn W. Bushnell, discharged February 20, 1864. 

Jeremiah Brannen. 

George Blair. 

JrliUs Blain, promoted to Corporal, May 19, 1863. 

Loren Bement. 

John W. Bacon. 

James Bailey. 

Joseph Biggs. 

Thomas Bunnell, died January 14, 1863. 

Benjamin Bunnell. 

Cephas Castle. 

Harlan P. Chapman. 

Emory N. Chapman. 

Sanford M. Carpenter. 

Luke Collins, promoted to Corporal, March 10, 1863. 

James Collins. 

Charles Chandler. 

Daniel Coughlin. 

Benjamin F. Crippen, died January 18, 1803. 

Elliott A. Colls. 

Paul Dumas. 

Robert Dickson, died October 1.5, 1863. 

Cyrus Durand, detached as Hospital Steward, September 8, 1862. 

Thomas O. Fretler. 

Edward Flood. 

Albert Fauver, died November 23, 1862. 

Patterson Fauver. discharged January 8. 1863. 

Henry W. Fretter. 

Austin Gandorn. 

Harrison Goding, died November 25, 1863, from effects of wound., re- 
ceived at battle of Armstrong Hill. 

Michael Graham, promoted tc Corporal, March 10, 1863. 

Byron A. Gilmore . 

Richard C. Hinckley. 

Thomas Harrison. 

Martin Hudson, died Novembers. 1863. 

William Howes, died December 0, 1863, of wounds received at battle of 
Armstrong Hill . 

George E. Hurd, captured Januaiy 18, 1864. 

Charles Iserman . 

John Jarrett, captured January 18, 1864. 

Charles R. Kibbey, discharged January 8, 1863. 


Philip Lewis, transferred to I. C. November 2, 1863. 

Charles Lanaghan . 

Harrison McClay, promoted to Corporal, January 83, 1861. 

Arthur Moran . 

Joseph Mathews, died at Frankfort, Ky., March 26, 1863. 

Alanson D. Mynderse, discharged Jmie 4, 1863. 

Hannibal T. Osgood, died March 2:5, 1863. 

Morris O'Connell. 

George W. Phelon. 

David Phelon, discharged January 31, 1363. 

Matelon Pember, promoted to Coi-poral, January 2:3, 1864. 

Francis E. Pelton, transferred to I. C. Miiy 9, 1863. 

Grosvenor Pelton, died November 10, 1803. 

Ropha Rawson, captured January 18, 1864. 

Charles Roe. 

John Stangue. 

John Smith. 

Lewis Spaulding. 

Richard H. Shute. 

George Thompson. 

Augustus Towner. 

William G. Taylor. 

Hiram Van Guilder, captured January 27, 1854. 

John S. Warnock. 

James W^arnock. 

Oramel Whitaker. 

WUliam H. Weeden, promoted to Corporal July 20, 1803. 

Carey J. Winckler, died March 13, 1863. 

Joseph Wilson. 


Mustered into service September 9, 1862, at Cleveland, Ohio. Mustered 
out of service July 10, 1865. 


Corporal W^illiam Snell. 


otto Boodicker. 

Willium Fees, died August 19, 1863. 

Gottlieb Wieland, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, 1861. 


Mustered into service September 9, 1862, at Cleveland, Ohio. Mustered 
out of service, July 10, 1865, at Charleston, S. C. 


Captain Anton Peterson, resigned November 7, 1862 . 
First Lieutenant John Pfaff, resigned November 33, 1803. 
Second Lieutenant Charles F. Marskey, promoted First Lieutenant No- 
vember 25, 1802; resigned January 12, 1863. 


First Sergeant, Fernando C. Suhrer. 

Sergeant Joseph C. Peterson, discharged June 10, 1863. 

Sergeant Jolm Sharp. 

Sergeant John Zenz, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Corporal Martin Horleer. 

Corporal Anton Stewald, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Corporal William Gillett. 

Corporal John Welling. 

Corporal Peter Vallerius, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Corporill .A-dolph Ehrligh. 

Cori^oral Mathias Noon. 

Musician Thomas S. Binkard, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Musician Joseph Osterman. 

Wagoner John Haight. 


John Baker, captured at Gettysburg, Pa. 

John Burkard. 

John Burr. 

Philip Beard. 

Nicholas Burr, died March 25, 1885. 

John Bauer. 

Nicholas Bowers. 

Casper Bohrer. 

Adam Berris. 

Simon P. Barber. 

Frederick Beese. 

Oren F..Browning, promoted Sergeant Major, September 12, 1862. 

John Conradi. 

John Crager. 

Joseph Cramer, died of wounds, January 22, 1803. 

Peter Eugels. 

George Fisher. 

Peter Fisher 



Julius Geiple, discharged, May 89, 1805. 

Almon HoUey. 

Henry Gentcs. 

Henry Honeywell. 

Jaiues Haight, wounded at Chuucellorsville, May 2, 1863. 

Peter Howard. 

Nicholas Jacob. 

Isaiah Jewell - 

John Jungblutt. 

William II. Lindman, died July 3, 1802. 

Peter Juchoni. 

George Lenfer. 

Joseph Klinknor, severely vroundetl at Chaiicellorsvillle, Va. 

John M. Oliver. 

John Ketcliuni. 

Robert Park. 

Michael KUiishern, died prisoner, January 13, 186-1. 

.Selden M. PajTie. 

Nicholas Lopendall, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Henry W. Pomeroy. 

Oscar Loux. 

Martin Ross. 

Peter Laseher, promoted Corporal September 1. 1804. 

Orson Sears. 

John Meyer, captured at Gettysburg, July 1, 1863. 

Valtiu Seabert. 

John Nesbit, discharged June 4, 1863. 

Thomas M. Sherwood. 

Mathias Pfeifer, died January 25, 1803. 

Amasa Squires, died November 8, 1864. 

Henry Buedi. 

Eli Stedman. 

John Shultz. 

Joseph Welton. 

Jacob Sneider. 

Patrick Welch. 

John Schintzler. 

Benjamin C. Wood. 

Peter Simmer, died prisoner, January 7, 1861. 

Nicholas Wood. 

Mathias Schmitz. 

Oilman J. Wright, discharged at expiration of service 

Jacob Schmitz, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Judsou E. Willard. 

Jacob Seyler. 

John Shoemaker. 

Nicholas F. Traxler, discharged March 17, 1803. 


Mustered into service June 6, 1862, at Johnson's Island. Mustered out 

Nicholas T. Traxler, discharged February 28. 1803. 

of service July 13, 1865, at Camp Chase, Ohio. 

Henry Tores. 


John Voeiker, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Lacey T Disbro, discharged at expiration of term of service . 

Martin Walls. 

Willard 3IcConnelI, discharged March 7, 186:i. 

John Voeiker, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Eli Ward, woundetlat Chancellorsville, Va., May 2, 180:1. 


Joseph Yeuz. 

Mustered into service September 16, 1862, at Johnson's 

Island. Mustered 


out of service July 13, 1865, at Camp Chase 




Nicholas Lopendall, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Sergeant Andrew Ryan, died March 29, 1803. 

Ferdinand C. Luhrer, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Corporal Hobart Corning, promoted to Quarter-master Sergeant, April 

John Weber, killed in battl-, Jidy 1. 1863. 

.3, 1865. 

Martin Walls, died prisoner, November 16, 1863. 

Corporal Adison Wells. 
Corporal Judah P. Perkins- 




Franklin Brown. 
Hai-vey J. Curtiss. 

Mustered into service September 5, 1862, at Camp Toledo, Ohio. 

Milo A. Cook, died January 27, 1863. 

Mustered out of service, June 27, 1868, at Salisbury. N. C. 

Robert Dunn. 
Francis N. Dunn. 


Harlon Garrett. 

Sergeant Sylvester S. Hoadley, promoted First Lieutenant, March 1, 

John Herald. 

1861. Died at Atlanta, Ga., October »3, 1861. 

Thomas C. Ingerson. 


James Liner. 

Samuel Blair. 

F'rancis LaflSin. 

John P. Beck, died November 28, 1862. 

Abel S. Phipps. 

Briggs Gould. 

Owen Phipps. 

William Ketenug, promoted Corporal. 

George Phipps, ilied October 24, 1802. 

John H. Lee. 

Charles E. B. Rowell. 

Joseph Spitler. 

Henry C. Royce, died February 15, 1863. 

Jacob Traxler. 

George B. Schott. 

James C. Thomas, promoted Corporal, June, 1865. 

Jackson Wells. 

Deloma W. Wisener. 

Andrew P. Hamhn, died January 23, 1803. 

Orson Whaley. Enrolled among deaths— no date. 



Mustered into service January i), 1864, at Cleveland, 
out of service July 13, 1865. 

Ohio. Mustered 




Corporal Charles B. Griggs. 

Mustered into service February 27, 1662, at Johnson's Island, Ohio. Mus- 


tered out of service July 13, 1865, at Camp Chase, Ohio. 

Putnam Bi-iggs. W. June. 


John W. Mack, discharged April 25, 1864. 

Corporal Allen Sergeant, discharged to accept promotion in the United 

Tasso D. Phelan . 

States Colored Troops. 

DewittC. Rogers. 

Corporal David Wood. 

Porter Wheeler, discharged June 12, 1.S65 

Corporal Leo Berlitz. 

George PufT, died January 2, 1805. 

Musician George Q. Adams, 



Alonzo Blackman. 

Isaac H. Church. 

Mustered into service December 21, 1863, at Cleveland, 

Ohio. Mustereil 

Martin E. Church. 

out of service July 13, 1865. 

Lucian M. Clark. 
Carl EluUch. 
Thomas Fishbum. 


Corporal Jefferson N. McCarty, promoted to Sergeant, 

April 15, ISChl. 

William Gornnan. 

Corporal Rufus E. Jump, promoted to Sergeant. 

John Harrington. 


Miles Hart. 

Samuel Baker. 

Peter Hazel - 

Cameron B. Stone. 

James Hitsman. 

Charles H. Wright, discharged September 23, ISM. 





Mustered into service Jaiuiarj' 5, isr4. at Cleveland, Oliio. Mustered 
out of service July 13, 1865. 


Corporal Henry L. Napp. 


Robert Dowling. 

John Napp. 
Silas Penneman. 

Williaui Robinson. 
Charles H. Wright. 


Miiatered into service at Camp Chase, Ohio, on May 11, 1864, for one 
hundred days. In the absence of a Muster-out Roll, it is presumed the 
Company was mustered out of the service at the expiration of the term 
of service for which they were enlisted. 


Captain George D. Williams. 

First Lieutenant David C. Baldwin. 

Second Lieutenant Marvin B. Keith. 


First Sergeant Edward P. French. 
Sergeant William E. Cahoon. 
Sergeant Frank C. Cromling. 
Sergeant Caleb W. Dill. 
Sergeant James F. Flowers. 
Corporal Edwin J. Abbott. 
Corporal George Cogswell. 
Corporal Edward Glover. 

Corporal Lewis Haserodt, 
Corporal Halsey J. Hawthorn. 
Cori)oral Saunders Hmes. 
Corporal John Lent. 
Corporal Alfred R. Philpott. 
Musician William B. HoUister. 
Musician Ernest Morehouse. 
Wagoner William Tite. 


Frank Agate. 
John Bartlett. 
John Biggs. 
William S. Biggs. 
Martin J Braman. 
Elbert A. Brush. 
Eldt-n R. Brush. 
George Burnham. 
Oscar N. Bush. 
Joseph Buswell. 
Michael Coagliu. 
Joseph Clark. 
Emir J. Coon. 
George Crisp. 
WiUiaiu Dawley. 
Franklin W. Dunham. 
Oscar Durkee. 
Charles Eason. 
Newton Eldred. 
George Farmer. 
Henry Farmer. 
Theodore S. Faxon. 
Martin C. Fox . 
Edward E. Gaudeme. 
William Gooispeed. 
Edwin R. Goodwin. 

Luther B. Grigg. 
Volosco C, Hard. 
Lewis Hess. 
Albert Hyland. 
Luther Hoadley. 
Calvin Jackson. 
Andrew Johnson. 
Lyman R. Kemp. 
Amos V. Kent. 
Merit Meade. 
Andrew Moore. 
Loren J. Myers. 
Winthrop W. Phelps. 
Edgar A. Phillips. 
Thomas M. Proctor. 
Willis Reichard . 
Dwight W. Rockwell . 
Frederick Starkweather. 
Albert S. Taylor. 
Loren Taylor. 
James B. Warden. 
George H. Wolcott. 
Ervin Worthington. 
Charles Young. 
Agastus Zubor. 



Mustered into service at Cleveland, O., May 5, 1864, for one hundred 
days. Mustered out of service at expiration of term of service. 


Captain Albert Allen SaflFord. First Lieutenant Henry L. Turner. 

Second Lieutenant George W. Phinney. 


First Sergeant James H. Laird. 
Sergeant Russell T. Hall. 
Sergeant George W. Facklin, 
Sergeant George W. Keyes. 
Sergeant Anson H. Robbins. 
Corporal Lucien C. Warner. 
Corporal William H. Ryder. 

Corporal James T. Hudson. 
Coi-poral R. Dwight Burrell. 
Corporal Theodore W. Otis. 
Corporal Edward A. Ellis. 
Corporal Elihu C. Barnard. 
Corporal W. Irving Squire. 

Edgar L. Beach. 

John A. Bedient. 
Eugene P. Boise. 
Franklin M. Burns. 
Henry S. Bennett. 
Frank J. CaU. 


John Jeffers. 
Jay L. Judd. 
Cyrus >L Johnson. 
Amos A. Kellogg. 
Eugene P. Kingsley. 
Peter H. Kiser. 

James C. Cannon. 
William T. Clark. 
Edgar A Chapman. 
Buel Cliidester. 
Edward P. Church. 
Fiudley Cleveland. 
Ilenrj'' A, Cowles. 
Wilham E. Copeland. 
John C. Doughty. 
Albert Dwelle. 
Charles Dean. 
Joseph Eccles. 
Johu C. Fillmore. 
Thomas J. Frazier. 
William Fuller. 
Heury W. Gates. 
James Goss. 
Daniel E. Hathaway. 
Arthur E. Hawley. 
Edward K. Hawley. 
Chalmer Hammond. 
Edgar H. Hunman. 
Charles F. Hall. 
Richard Holland. 
Lucius C. Hotchkiss. 
Luman L. Hudson. 
Theodore Hulburt. 
Nicholas P. Hugus. 
Harlan P. Jackson. 

There is no "Muster out' 
General of Ohio; hence 
this company. 

Charles F. KrimeL 
WilUam E. Leach. 
Marcus M. Lincoln. 
George R. Morgan. 
Henry J. Marietta. 
William A. Miner. 
John Monroe. 
Frederick J. McWade . 
George K. Nash. 
Chaplin C. Neph. 
Thomas B. Orton. 
Joel M. Partridge. 
Edward L. Plymptou. 
Albert P. Reed. 
Josiah J. Scovill. 
Edwin Stickle. 
Henry H. Straight. 
Horace J. Street. 
John Strong. 
James E. Todd. 
Carter Van Antwerp. 
Levi Van Fossen. 
Henry L. Warren. 
Lanson B. Warren. 
Calvin M. Wells 
Alfred R. Wildman. 
Lewis E. Wilson. 
Albert A. Wright. 
Walter E. C. Wright. 

Roll on file in the office of the Adjutant 
we are compelled to omit further data of 


Mustered into service September 13, 1864, for one year. Mustered out 

of service June 14, 1865. 
Captain Aaron K. Lindsley, mustered out with company. 
First Lieutenant Joseph A. Lovejoy. promoted Captain Aprils, 1865, and 

assigned to Company H; mustered out with company. 
Second Lieutenant Ramson Peabody, promoted to First Lieutenant 

April 8, 1865, assigned to Company C, mustered out with company. 
Louis B. Avery, discharged May 2:i, 1865. 
Almon G. Bruce, mustered out with company. 
Sergeant Henry Bennett, appointed Sergeant September 33, 186i. 
Wesley S. Battle, mustered out with company. 
Joseph H. Battle, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Robert N. Bleur, appointed Cori>oral September 33, 1864, 
J. W. Beaman. mustered out with company. 
Luther S. Brown, died December 16, 1864. 
John Croteer, mustered out with company. 
Walter Catifield, mustered out with company. 
Sergeant Luther W. Clark, appointed Sergeant, March 3, 1865. 
George F. Clark, mustered out with company. 
James R. Daley, mustered out with company. 
Wlliam G. Dudley, mustered out with company. 
James H, Daugherty, mustered out with company. 
Dewitt C. Everlee, mustered out with company. 
Washington Forbes, mustered out with company. 
Albert Forbes, died December 5, 1864. 
James Foote. died May S, 1865. 
Addison W. Gregg, mustered out ^vith company. 
Corporal Grantham Grundy, appointed Corporal September 33, ISW. 
Robert P. Gibbs, mustered out with company. 
Eli D. Gilson, nuistered out with company. 
Nathan Gray, died November 3, 1864. 
Joseph Gray, mustered out T.vith company. 
George AV. Griggs, mustered out with company. 
Lewis Gwyun, mustered out with company. 
Drummer Charles Hayes, mustered out with company. 
Hiram Harpster, mustered out with company. 
Sergeant Carolus Hickox, promoted Sergeant September 23, 1864. 
Linville E. Hamilton, mustered out with company. 
Ricliard S. Bines, mustered out with company. 
George C. Hanes, mustered out with company. 
First Sergeant Henry W. Houghton, died March 3, 1865. 
Orlow M. luman, mustered out with company. 
William Jickles, not accounted for on muster out roll. 
Corporal Edgar C. Jeffries, promoted Corporal January 1, 1865. 
Sergeant Ezekiel Jones, appointed Sergeant September 3^3, 1864. 
James Lewis, mustered out with company. 
William T. Little, mustered out ■ivith company. 
Benjamin F. Le\vis, mustered out with company. 
John W. Moon, mustered out with company. 
Edward Munsinger, mustered out with company. 



George Munsinger, mustered out with company. 

David N. Maiideville, mustered out with company. 

Nelson L. 3Iain, mustered nut with company. 

Eugene R. JIai'cy, mustered out with company. 

Corporal Henry W. Mallory, promoted Corporal September 33, 1864. 

Drnnuner Adam .Miller, mustered out with company. 

Charles H. (^gden, nuistered out witli company. 

John Payne, mustered out with company. 

Heniy D. Palmer, mustered out with company. 

James Pember, mustered out with company. 

Alvah Peabody, nuistered out with company. 

Morris W. Plain, died April 14, 1S6.5. 

Kussell Peltou, mustered out with company. 

Sergeant Leonard G. Perry, appointed Sergeant September 33, 1H(>4. 

Nicholas Robins, mustered out with company, 

Albert S. Reynolds, died December 24, \XiA. 

Corporal Henry J. Rossiter. appointed Corporal September 23, 1854. 

Charles E. Starr, mustered out with company. 

Walter Soles, mustered out with company. 

Corporal George \V. Sutliff. appointed Corporal January 1, 1805. 

John G. Smith, mustered out with company. 

Sidney A. Smith, mustered out with company. 

Wilham N. Smith, mustered out with company. 

William R. Sackett discharged May 3*1, W>5. 

Charles Swain, mustered out with company. 

John Serage, mustered out with company. 

Lucius B. Sweet, nuustered out with company. 

George W. Upson, mustered out with company. 

Albei-t Voorhes, mustered out with company. 

First Sergeant Henry S. Viets, promoted First Sergeant March 3, 1SG6. 

Edgar A. Warner, mustered out with company. 

Roland C. AVoodbury, mustered out with company. 

Hazelton Ward, mustered out with company. 


Mustered into service, April 1, 1S65, for one year. Mustered out of ser- 
vice July 23, 1865. 

Jacob Gehring, mustered out with company. 

August Holder, mustered out with company. 

James Hastings, mustered out with company. 

Franklin J. Hosford. mustered out with company. 

Corporal George Jillich, mustered out with company. 

Sergeant William H. Richardson, mustered out with company. 

George F. Shenvood, mustered out with company. 

Charles Skader, mustered out with company. 

Moses Ruggles, mustered out with company. 

Joseph W. Pickle, m.ustered out with company. 

Mustered into service, April 8, 1S65, for one year. 
Frank Book, mustered out with company July 31, lSt)5. 


Mustered into service, December 5. 1863. Mustered out of se^-vice, 

July 19, 1865. 
John Barker. Sergeant Homer Meacham. 

Barlow^ Bridge. Sergeant David Rose. 

Homer S. Franks. Sergeant JuHus P. Stark. 

John Hancock. Corporal John W. Vanfosseu. 

Ephraim D. Holester. Corporal Benjamin F. Watkins. 


Mustered into service, January 16, 1864. Mustered out of service, Sep- 
tember 31, 1865. 

Isaac Brown. 

Thomas A. Hartwell. 
Tliomas Jenkins. 
Isaac Noble. 

Isaac Smith, died April 13, 1864. 
John Willes. 
Simpson Yaunger. 

Richard Evans. 
Enoch Freeman. 

Mustered into service, Februai'y 8, 18G4. 
Charles W. Long. 


Mustered into service in February, March and April, 1864. 
William Broadwell. Charles Moore. 


Mustered into service October 8, 1861. Re-enlisted January 4, I86^t. 
Mustered out of service July 22, 1865. 


Corporal Addison J. Blanchard, dischai'ged on account of disability 

July 15, 18(;3. 
Corporal Alunzo Starr, died of fever at Mt. Vernon, Ky., November 19, 


Corporal Harvey P. Fenn, died of fever at Lebanon, Ky., February 23, 

Corporal Merwin Blanchard, discharged by reason of severe injury 
caused by his horse leaping a fence whileeudeavoring to escape the 
enemy, by whom he was captured and paroled. 

Corporal Lewis R. Penlield, promoted to Sergeant October 3, 1"''63. Re- 
enlisted as Veteran Volunteer January 4, 18t>4. 

John Boon, transferred to Batter}' K, was captured near McMinnviUe, 

Tenn., August 6, 1863. 
Hugh Chambei-s, transferred to Battery K.. April 6, 1864. 
John G. Courser, discharged for disabiHty, March 34, 1862. 
Theodore Gott, re-enlisted as Veteran Volunteer, January 4, 1864. 
Ransom E. Gillett, transferred to Battery K., April 6, 1S64. 
Egbert Holcomb. promoted to Corporal January 15, 1863; re-enlisted 

as Veteran Volunteer, January 4, 1864. 
Percival Holcomb, discharged from service for disability.. Date not 

John Jackson, re-enhsted as Veteran Volimteer, Januaiy 4, 1864. 
George Mason, discharged for disability, March 23, 1863. 
Harlan P. Penfield, re-enlisted as Veteran Volunteer; promoted to Cor- 
poral January 5, 1864. 
John Ripperton, re-enlisted as Veteran Volunteer. 
John W. Renouard, re-enlisted as Veteran Volunteer, 

Stephen D. Renouard, re-enlisted as Veteran Volunteer. ^ 

Walter W. Starr, wounded at Stone River; re-enlisted as Veteran Vol- I 

William R. Stanfield, re-enlisted as Veteran Volunteer. 
James H. Sloan, re-enlist-ed as Veteran Volunteer. 
Theodore White, died at Lebanon, Ky., February 18, 1803. 
Alonzo White, discharged for disability, Ajiril 30, 1863. 
Arthur West, discharged for disability, July 19, 1863. 
David Burnham, joined the Battery, September 28, 1863; discharged 

for disabihty February 1. 1864. , 

John Blanchard, joined the Battery, September38, 1863; wounded in the 1 

arm at battle of La Vergne; arm amputated, and discharged in con- 

setpience. Date not given. 
Walter Dalgleisb, joined the Battery, September 28, 1862; mustered out 

with Battery. 
Gilbert S. Goodyear, joined the Battery September 28, 1863; mustered 

out with Battery. 
Augustus B. Hayes, joined the Battery September 28, 1863; mustered 

out with Battery. 
Samuel F. Hoyt, joined the Battery September 38, 1863; discharged fur 

disability. Date not given. 
James S. Jennings, joined the Battery September 38, 1863; dischai^ed 

with Battery. 
Wilham R. Leonard, joined the Battery September 28, 1862; discharged 

with Battery. 
Cuyler Morris, joined the Battery September 28, 1863; discharged with 

Fletcher S. Penfield, joined the Battery September 28, 1863: discharged 

with Battery. 
Philo A. Penfield, joined the Battery September 28, 1863; discharged with 

Lester J. Richmond, joined the Battery September 38, 1862; discharged 

with Battery. 
Addison E. Sheldon, joined the Battery September 28, 1863; discharged 

with Battery. 
Leonard G. Starr, joined the Battery September 38, 1862; died of fever, 

November 37, 1862. 
Edwin A. Swift, joined the Batteiy September 38, 1861; discharged; date 

not given. 


Mustered into service January 1, 1862, at Camp Denison, O. Mustered 
out of sei-^'ice June 20, 1865, at Columbus, O. 


Captain James Burdick, promoted from First Lieutenant. 


First Sergeant James Reed, promoted from Corporal December 20, 1864. 
Sergeant Frederick Dibble, promoted from Con^oral December 20, 1864. 
Sergeant Seth W. Rolhn, promoted from Corporal April 23, 1865. 
Sergeant Marshall Ferguson, promoted from Corporal March 1, 1865. 



Corporal Lafaj-ette S. Lee, promoted from private December 20, 1W4. 
Coi-poral George Donaldson, promoted from private March 1, 1865. 
Corporal Joshua R. Potter, promoted from private March 1, 1865. 
Corporal Azor H. Osboru, promoted from private April iXi, 1865. 
Artificer Joseph Gates, promoted from private December 20, 1865. 


Moses Beal. 

John W. Bougliton. 

Thomas Disbro. 

Eugene Faxon. 

William King. 

Gottleib Keller, captured February 30, 1865; returned to iluty May 20, '05 

Lewis G. Lambert. 

William Nottham. 

Merrit Nichols. 

Rufus G. Reynolds. 

Warren RoUin. 

Ehjah Stearns. 

Freeman Stearns. 

Alanson H. Williams. 

Lewis S. Wright. 

Jerome B. Warner. 

William Berry, died at Vioksburg, Miss., August 7, 186-3 

George W. Knoup, died at Memphis, Tenn., September3.3, 1863. 

John Maddox, wounded at Coldwater, Miss. ; discharged at Cleveland, O. 

January' 14, 1865. 
Chester Phillips, died at Collierville, Tenn., February 7, 1863. 
Lyman W. Smith, died at Memphis, Tenn., 1863. 
John H. Taylor, died at Memphis, Tenn., March 30, 1863. 
John H. Taft, died at LaGrange, Tenn., January 33, 1863. 
Curtis E. Thompson, died at Memphis, Tenn., September 13, 1863. 
Charles I. Spencer, died at home; date unknown. 
Ezra Dunton, discharged July 33, 1863, for disability. 
Otis R. Snell, discharged April 1, 1863, for disability. 
Bradley Fauver, transferred to InvaUd Corps. 
Orfield Stearns, transferred to Invalid Corjjs. 


Sergeant Theodore H. Eobbins, Third Battallion, not accounted for on 

Muster Out Rolls. 
Stephen A. Mason, not accounted for on Muster Out Rolls. 
Frank Brooks, not accounted for on Muster (tut Rolls. 

This regiment was organized at Camp Wade, Cleveland, O., from 
August to October. 1861, for three years. A portion of the men became 
veterans; the remainder were mustered out on e.xpiration of their term 
of enlistment. 


Mustered into service October 8, 1861. Mustered out of service Septem- 
ber 11, 1865. 


Captain Aaron K. Lindsley, discharged February 15, 1863. 
Second Lieutenant Franklin S. Case, promoted Captain. 


First Sergeant Theodore P. Hamlin, promoted First Lieutenant. 

Quarter-master Sergeant Edwui June, nmstered out with company. 

Sergeant Sumner L. Drake. 

Sergeant Newton D. Fisher, promoted First Lieutenant August !», 1865. 

Corporal Edward F. Webster. 

Corporal Francis Finch, 

Corporal Lucius D. Leach. 

Corporal Ezra L. Burge, promoted Sergeant July 1, 186,5. 

Corporal Albert C. Houghton, promoted Captam December 35, 1864. 

Corporal Walter P. Ledyard. 

Corporal Peter L. Mason. 

Bugler Newton E. Adams. 

Bugler Delos B. Haynes . 

Farrier Robert C . Pickworth. 

Farrier Henry Onneroid. 

Wagoner Roswell E. Thayer. 

Saddler Calvin Sage. 


Martin H. Avery. 

Calvin C. Allen, discharged September 35, 1861. 

HamUne S. Bigelow, Veteran Volunteer, mustered out with company. 

William P. Bushnell, discharged September 25, 1864. 

James W. Bonney. 

Harvey Bonney. 

Henry W. Chester, promoted to First Sergeant. 

John Cushing. 

William Challacombe. 

Spooner C. Crapo. 

Ahueron Codding. 

Jabez B. Challacombe. 

John W. Devlin. 

William M. Davis. 

Charles G. Fairchild. 

Henry R. Fenton. 

Charles W. Fenton. 

Joel E. Field. 

Milton M. Geer. 

Daniel M. Hall. 

Franklin H. Howk. 

Alpheus Howk, discharged for wounds, March 5, 1865. 

William F. Johns. 

Henry Kingsbury. 

Thomas Knowles. 

Hiram A. Knapp. 

Edward T. Kii-by. 

John P. Larmdon. 

Charles E. Lanphear. 

William Lindsey. 

Anion Litchfield. 

Robert B. Lucas. 

Albert N. Litchfield. 

Enoch Leavitt, Veteran Volunteer, discharged May 35, 1865. 

Noah Long. 

Robert E. Mernfleld. 

Aurelian P. Matthews. 

Henry Maple. 

James C. Miller. 

Wilbert D. 5'anchester. 

William T. Noi-ton. 

James R. Ogden. 

Charles Patterson. 

Alonzo Perkins. 

Oliver Rulison. 

Homer H. Stark, discharged September 35, 1864, 

James W. Shaffer. 

Otis L. Sexton. 

PhiUp B. Stroup. 

Chauncey Smith. 

Luman H. Tenny. 

Charles Webster. 

George Whiton. 

Frank R. Whitney, discharged June 3, 1805. 

Henry M. Waters. 

Oliver Vader. 


Mustered into service, .January 15, 1863, tor three years. Discharged at 
the close of the war. 


First Sergeant John W. Williams. 


Mustered into service December 11, 1861. Mustered out of service 
August 4, 1865, at Nashville, Tenn. 


First Sergeant Warden W. Welsher, mustered out November 4, 1864. 
Sergeant James Hart, promoted to Sergeant January 15, 1S05.J 
Corporal John Barnes. 
Corporal Henry S. Barker, promoted to Corporal June 17, 1805. 


Josiah Coates, mustered out November 4, 1864. 

WUham Campbell. 

Peter Dagnon. 

John Hanley. 

A. Richards. 

Daniel LeClear. 

Georges. Mitchell, promoted to Corporal; mustered out November 4, 

Sidney G. Mitchell. 
Andrew J. Pierce. 
Henry Smith. 

Joseph B. Shepard, mustered out November 4, 1864. 
John B. Taylor. 

Henry Van Sickles, promoted to Corporal, June 17, 1865. 
William H. Blair— date of discharge not given. 
Lewis La Duke— date of discharge not given. 
John Robinson. 

Men not otherwise marked, mustered out with the Company. 





Mustered into service, October 39, 1803. Mustered out of service, Novem 
ber 14, 1865. 


First Lieutenant Ueubeii H. Sardane, promoted to Captain and assigned 
to Company F. 


First iSiT^eaut i\Iilo L. Blanchard, promoted to Sfcoud Lieutenant, Com- 
pany A; transferred to Company F. June 1, 18G5. 
Sergeant William W. Worcester, died October 19, IHfil. 
Sergeant Cliarles H. Sherburne, died from wounds December 13, 1801. 
Sergeant Janirs F. Davis, died October 6, 18G4. 
Sergeant Richard H. Sheldon, promoted First Sergeant Veteran. 
Corporal Howard H. Hall, promoted Sergeant. 
Corporal CJeorge C. Rising, died March 20, 18ti4. 
Corporal Oeorge H. Houghton, discharged June 8, 1865. 
Bugler Henry Moore, promoted Corporal September 1, 1865. 
Bugler Judsou Chamberlain, mustered out with company. 
Farrier Ephraini Kuapp, mustered out with company. 
Saddler Wyatt T. Judson, promoted Sergeant. 


Wilson Ager, promoted Sergeant September 1, 1865. 

Erwiu E. Baldwin, discharged July 21, 1865. 

Tenny Blair, promoted Corporal September 1, 1865. 

Erastus W. Bailey, discharged September 30, 1864. 

Milo Barnes, mustered out with company. 

Wells A. Chamberlain, promoted Sergeant September 1, 1865. 

John Dagner, mustered out with company. 

Frank W. Ellsworth, discharged September 7, 1865. 

Charles M. Hal!, died from wounds June 16. 1864. 

Henry C. Hopwood, promoted Corporal. 

Daniel M. Hall, promoted Sergeant. 

John Jackson, mustered out with company. 

John Kirkpatrick, mustered out with company. 

Joseph King, mustered out with company. 

Charles M. Knapp, discharged August 27, 1865. 

Charles W, Kelley, nmstered out with company. 

Charles E. McLean, mustered out with company. 

George H. Mosher, discharged March 27, 1865. 

Albert B. Probert, discharged June S, 1865. 

Sylvanus Phelon, promoted to Corporal September 1, 1865. 

James Richard, discharged August 16, 1865. 

Edward Scoville, Jr., discharged July 11, 1865. 

Orson P. Smith, discharged May 15, 1865. 

Eli Smith, mustered out June 15, 1865. 
William Soules, mustered out with company. 
Ri"hard J. Staples, promoted Sergeani September 1, 1865. 
Emerson O. Stone, mustered out with company. 
William Turner, mustered out with company. 
John W, "Wilson, discharged February 35, 1864. 
Eugene A. Burrell, mustered out July 10, 1S65. 
Sergeant Carlos A. West, mustered out June 15, 1865. 
Benjamin A. Briggs, killed in action June 8, 1864. 
Corporal John McOee, committed suicide August 3, 1865. 



Captain P. D. Reefy. First Lieutenant Fred N. Smith . 

Second Lieutenant S T. Sawyer. 

First Sergeant A. Rawson. 
Second Sergeant H. Schwartz. 
Third Sergeant S. C. Nickei-son 
Fourth Sergeant C. B. Faux. 
Fifth Sergeant Irving Taylor. 


First Corporal George Teasedale. 
Second Corporal G. W. Gilbert. 
Third Corporal G. R. Kelley. 
Fourth Corporal Charles Hackett. 
Fifth Corporal F. D. Wathen. 


A. Dickinson. 
R. Storer. 

D. M. Hurst. 
G. T. Nichols 
A, Vogeley. 
Fi-ed Weigand. 
John Bishbaugh. 
J. L. Cunningham. 
H. Foreman. 
Thomas Fitzsimmons. 
Charles Flood. 

E. A. Gilbert. 

Musician Frank Goodspeed. 
Regim«ntal Drum-Major A. F. 
Regimental Hospital Steward 

A. Hause. 

E. Herney. 
Fred Lane. 
W. Maddock. 

F. W. Miller. 
A. Miller. 
James Melin. 
George Mclntyre. 
John Ingram. 
George L. Sears. 
L. W. Semple. 
John Wiler. 


Frank Burgert. 

The "Ely Guards,'' since changed to "Hart Guards,'' were mustered 
into the service of the State July 2, 1877, to serve for a period of five 
years. The Company was soon after assigned to the Fifteenth 
Regiment as Company G., with head -quarters at Cleveland, Ohio. 
The whole number enlisted is seventy men. Those whose names do 
not appear above have been discharged for various reasons, princi- 
pally on account of removal from the county. 


Towns and Villages of Lorain County, 


This township was named for its iirincipal pro- 
jnietor, the late Hon. Heman Ely. It originally 
eniliraced the territory now contained in Carlisle, 
number five, and Elyria, number six in range number 
seventeen, of the Connecticut Western Reserve. It 
is situated on and between both branches of Black 
river, in north latitude forty-one degrees and forty- 
tive minutes It is twenty-four miles west of Cleveland, 
and eight miles above the mouth of the river. 


Above the village it is generally level, the banks of 
the river being low. An excellent quality of sandstone 
crops out along the river banks, which forms good 
building material, and is used extensively for flagging 
the streets. There are over nine miles of stone side- 
walks within the limits of the village. Several quar- 
ries are extensively worked. The largest is owned by 
Mr. Henry E. Mussey, situated on the west side of 
the west branch of the river. He has built a spur 
branch of the C, T. V. & W. railroad to his quarry, 
and the work of turning grindstones, raising the 
stone from the quarry, loading cars, etc., is done by 
steam power. The stone are shipj)ed by railroad to 
many parts of the country.' Mr. John Weller has also 
a fine (juarry below the town, which is worked by 
steam power. Stone are extensively quarried on the 
east branch for building and flagging purposes. 

Below the village, the banks of the river are generally 
high and rugged, though there are several fine farms 
of alluvial bottom lands, which are easy to till and 
very productive. The sandstone termimxtes and tlie 
Huron shale crops out along the river bank aljout two 
miles below the village. On the east side of the river 
there are several small streams running at right 
angles with it, and discharging themselves into tlie 
main stream. These have worn deep ravines in the 
soil, and extend a mile or more back from the river, 
but the roads are graded and the streams bridged so 
that they are quite passable. Running parallel with 
the lake are two, and in some places three or more 
ridges, composed of sandy loam, and in some places 
gravel. The first is about four miles from Lake 
Erie and is called the North Ridge. The second 
passes through Elyria, and extends east through all 
the northern counties of the Western Reserve. They 

were formed by a subsidence of the lake at some 
remote period of the world's history ; but after the 
growth of timber, as large trees are found, in digging 
wells, twenty feet or more below the surface. These 
ridges make excellent roads, and the soil is warm and 
productive, well adapted to fruit growing and early 


Perhaps no more fitting preface to the history of 
the early settlement of the township of Elyria could 
be procured than a brief sketch of the above named 
person, who was doul)tleKs the first white man who 
ever lived for any considerable time in what now con- 
stitutes the above township. We are indebted for the 
facts to a book called "Our Western Border," written 
by Charles McKnight, and published during the 
centennial year, which was kindly loaned us by G. 
G. Washburn, Esq., and also to an article published 
in The Elyria Repuhlican, in 1876. We have not 
space to publish the entire narrative of Col. Smith, 
but shall, as far as possible, give it in his own quaint 
and terse language: 

" In May, 1755, the Province of Pennsylvania agreeil to send out three 
hundred men in order to cut a wagon road from Fort London to join 
Braddock's road near the Turkey Fork, or the three forks of the 
Yohoguina. My brother-in-law, William Smith, was commissioner, 
and though but eighteen years of age. I concluded to accompany the 
expedition. We went on the road without interruption until near the 
Alleghany mountains, when I was sent back in order to hurry up some 
provision wagons that were on the way after us. I proceeded down the 
road as far as the crossing of the Jimiata, where, finding that the wag- 
ons were coming on as fast as possible, I returned up the road toward 
the Alleghauj^ mountains in company with one Arnold Vigoras. About 
four or five miles above Bedford three Indians hail made a blind of 
bushes stuck in the ground as though they had grown naturallj', where 
they concealed themselves, about fifteen yards from the road. When 
we came opposite to them they fired upon us at this short distance and 
killed my fellow traveler; yet their bullets did not touch me, but my 
horse making a violent start threw me, and the Indians immediately ran 
up and took me prisoner. The one that laid bold on me was a Cunasa- 
taugee, the other two were Delawares.- One of them could speak English. 
Two of them stood by me while the other* scalped my comrade. We 
slept on the Alleghany moimtains that night without fire. The next 
morning they divided their remaining provisions and gave me an equal 
share, which consisted of two or three ounces of mouldy bi.scuit. They 
continued their journey to Fort Duquesne (now Pittsburgh) and when 
they reached the bank of the Mleghany the Indians gave the scalp halloo, 
which was answered by the firing of guns and the shouts of the French 
and Indians who were in and about the Fort." 


" I saw numbers of Indians running towards me stripped naked except 
breech-clouts, and painted in the most hideous manner. As they ap- 
proached they formed themselves in two long ranks about two or three 
rods apart. I was told by an Indian who could speak English that I 




must run between these ranks, and that they would flog me all the way 
as I ran, and if I ran quick it would be so much the better. 

** There appeared to be general rejoicing around me, yet I could find 
notliing like joy in my breast; but I started to the race with all the reso- 
lution and vigor I was capable of exercising, and found it was as I had 
been told, for I was flogged all the way. "When I had got near the end 
of the race I was struck by something that appeared to me to be a 
stick, or the handle of a tomahawk, which caused me to fall to the 

"On my recovering my senses I endeavored to renew my race, but as 
I arose some one cast sand in my eyes which blinded me so that I could 
not see where to run. They contiiiued beating me most intolerably imtil 
I was at length insensible, but before I lost my senses I remembered 
wishing them to strike the fatal blow." 

He was conveyed to tlie Fort and the French doctor 
dressed his wounds and apj)lied remedies. 

"Soon after I was visited by a Delaware Indian who could speak 
broken English. I asked hiui if I had done anything that offended the 
Indians. He said no. it was only an old custom the Indians had, and 
was like ' how do you doV After that, he said, I would be well used.'' 

After tliis Smith was taken by his captors to an 
Indian town on the banks of the Muskingam river in 


Tliis ceremony being somewhat interesting we take 
tlie lil)erty of giving it at length in his own words: 

" The day after my arrival at the aforesaid town a number of Indians 
gathered about me, and one of them began to pull the hair out of my 
head. He had some ashes on a bark in which he frequently dipped his 
fingers in order to take a firmer hold, and so he went on as if he had been 
plucking a turkey, until he had all the hair clean out of my head, except 
a snuill spot, three or tour inches square, on the crown. This they cut 
oft with a pair of seissoi-s, excepting three locks, which they dressed up 
in theirown mode. Two of these they wrapped around with a narrow 
beaded garter, made by themselves for the purpose, and the other they 
plaited atfuU length and stuck it full of silver brooches. After this they 
bored my nose and ears, and fixed me off with nose and ear jewels. 
Then they ordered me to strip off my clothes and put on a breech-clout, 
which I did. They then painted my face, hands, and body in various 
colors. They put a large belt of wampum on my neck, and silver bands 
on my hands and right arm, and so an old chief led me out in the street 
and gave the alarm halloo several times repeated quick, "coo wigh .'" and 
on this all that were in the town came running and stood round the old 
chief who held me by the hand in the midst." 

"As at that time I knew nothing of their mode of adoption, and had 
seen them put to death all they had taken, I made no doubt but they 
were about putting me to death in some cruel manner. The old chief, 
holding me by the hand, made a long speech, very loud, and, when he 
had done, he handed me to three young squaws, who led me by the 
hand down the bank into the river, until tiie water was up to our middle. 
The squaws then made signs to me to plunge myself into the river, but I 
did not uruierstaud them. I thought the i-esult of the council was that I 
was to be drowned, and that these young ladies were to be the execution- 
ers. They all three laid violent hold of me, and I for some time resisted 
them with all my might, which occasioned loud laugliter by the multi- 
tude that were on the bank. At length one of the squaws said, no hurt 
you; on this I gave myself up to their ladyships, who were as good as 
their word, for, thougli they plunged me under the water, and rubbed 
me. I could not say they hurt me much. Tliey then led me up to the 
council house, where the tribe were ready with new clothes for me. 
They gave me a new ruffled shirt, which I put on; also a pair of leggins 
done off with riljbons and beads; also a pair of moccasins and a tinsel- 
laced cappo. They again painted my head and face with various colors. 
When I was seated the Imlians came in di-essed in their grandest man- 
ner. At length one of the chiefs made a speech as follows: 'My son, 
you are now flesh of our flesh, and bone of our bone. By the ceremony 
which wa< performed this day every drop of white blood is washed out 
of your veins.' After this ceremony I was introduced to my new kin 
and invited to attend a feast that night, which I did." 

We must omit many of tlie events tliat occurred at 
the cami) on the Muskingum. The name of one of 
tlie chiefs was Tecanyaterighto, alias Pluggy. Dur- 
ing the fall Pluggy headed a war party to the frontiers 
of Virginia. While they were absent, Smith and a 
jiarty of Indians went south on a hunt. On this liunt 
they encamped at Buffalo Lick, where they killed 
several buffaloes. This lick must have been in the 

Hocking valley, between the Muskingum and Scioto 
rivers. While here with their small kettles they made 
about a half-bushel of salt. 

It was here that our hero, while following buffalo, 
got lost in the woods, where he spent the night. The 
Indians found him in the morning. For this offense 
his gun was taken from him, and he was reduced to a 
bow and arrows for nearly two years. 

They were on this tour for about six weeks. When 
they returned, Pluggy and his party had got back, 
bringing with them a number of scalps and prisoners. 
They also brought with them an English Bible, which 
they gave to a Dutch woman who was a prisoner, but 
as she could not read English, she made a jiresent of 
it to Smith, which was very acceptable. 

"I remained in this town until some time in October, when my adopted 
brother, Toutileaugo,who had married a W^yandotte squaw, took me with 
him to Lake Ene. On this route we had no horses with us, and when I 
started from the town all the pack I carried was a poucii containing my 
books, a little dried venison and my blanket. I liad then no gun, but 
Tontileaugo, who was a first-rate hunter, carried a rifle gun, and every 
day killed deer, raccoons or bears. We left the meat, excepting a little 
for present use, and carried the skins with us until we camped, when 
we dried them by the fire." 

They struck the Canosadooharic (Black river) pro- 
bably near its source, and followed it down for some 
distance, when they must have left it as they reached 
the lakeshore some six miles west of its mouth. As the 
wind was very high the evening they reached the lake, 
our traveller was surprised " to hear the roaring of 
the water and see the high waves that dashed against 
the shore like the ocean." They camped on a run 
near the shore, and, as the wind fell that night, they 
pursued their journey in the morning towards the 
mouth of the river on the sand along the side of the 
water. They observed a number of large fish that 
had been left in the hollows by the receding waves, 
and numbers of gray and bald eagles were along the 
shore devouring them. 

Some time in the afternoon they came to a large 
cam]) of Wyaiidottes at the mouth of the Canesadoo- 
haric, where Tontileaugo's wife was. Here they were 
hospitably received and entertained for some time. 
Smith says: ''They gave us a kind of rough, brown 
potatoes, which grew spontaneously and were called by 
the Caughnewagas, ohenata. potatoes, peeled 
and dipped in raccoon's fat, tasted like our sweet pota- 
toes." (Query: what were they?) They killed while here 
some deer and many raccoons which were remarkably 
large and fat. They kept moving up the river until 
they came to the great falls. These were, doubtless, 
the east falls of Black river, now within the corporate 
town of Elyria. They Iniried their canoe and erected 
a winter cabin. This was probably located on Ever- 
green Point, somewhere in the vicinity of the present 
residence of T. L. Nelson, Esq. The narrative pro- 

"It was sometime in December when we finished oin- winter cabin 
but then another difficxdty arose, we had nothing to eat. While the 
hunters were all out exerting their utmost ability, the squaws and boys 
(in which class I was,) were scattered in the bottom, hunting red haws 
and hickory nuts. We did uot succeed in getting many haws, but had 
tolerable success in scratching up hickory nuts from under a light snow. 
The hunters returned with only two small turkeys, which were but little 

Residence of A.BEEBE.SR, 26 Broad St.Elyria 0. Residence of EDWIN HALL, East Ave, Ely Rl^, 0. 

Residence ofA,BEEBE,JR.,East Ridge St, Elyria.O. 




This day, March 17, 1879, brings to the memory 
of an aged man Marcli 17, 1817. Sixty-two years 
ago, this day, Mr. A. Beebe first visited the log house, 
only sign of the now pleasant town of Elyria. Only 
living member of the little band that first settled 
Elyria, in his eighty -sixth year, he alone is left to tell 
the birth and growth of said town. 

Of a family noted for longevity, his father was born 
at Waterbnry, Conn., and removed to West Spring- 
field, Mass., where he died at the advanced age of 
eighty-six, in the year 1852. His faithful wife died 
in 1851, seventy-nine years of age. 

Mr. Beebe, of whom we write, was born at Rus- 
sell, Hampden Co., Mass., Oct. 7, 1793. Scanty 
were his educational opportunities. A clerkship in 
his father's store, and the district school, however, 
gave to him much that in after-years he used so well. 
Like many young men of his day in New England, 
he had a strong desire to " go West." Ohio then 
was almost the end of western civilization. A fel- 
low-townsmen coming into possession of a large tract 
of land on the Western Reserve aiForded a chance 
to gratify his wish. On the 20th of February, 1817, 
a company of six left West Springfield, Mass., for 
Ohio, composed as follows: Heman Ely, founder; 
Ebenezer Lane (afterwards chief justice of Ohio) ; 
Mr. A. Beebe ; Luther Lane (so well known in after- 
years as the good deacon) ; Ann Snow, housekeeper ; 
and Ned, a colored boy. 

]\Ir. Beebe received twenty dollars for expenses, 
and the privilege of riding as far as Buffalo, N. Y. 
From that ])lace through the forests, over unbridged 
streams, on foot, he arrived at the " log house" on 
the aforesaid date, late in the day. Using his own 
words: "On the morning of the 18th of March, 
1817, I got up to see where the sun came from, and 
found it came up all right, and it has ever since." 
No time did he have to regret the comforts of a New 
England life. A new life was to commence; that 
life that did so much for over half of a century in 
making Elyria what it is. Carpenter and joiner his 



calling, his first work was the erection of the first 
frame building in Elyria, built on the corner of what 
is now Broad and Cedar Streets. In this building 
were born many others. Used for a shop for one 
year, it was filled in the ensuing year, with such 
goods as filled the limited wants of pioneers, by 
Edmund West & Co. 

In the latter part of the year 1817, Mr. Beebe and 
Mr. Douglas jointly purchased of Heman Ely the 
first city lot ever sold in Elyria. On this property, 
in 1818, they built the building so well known to 
this day as the " Old Beebe Tavern" (hotel being 
a term as yet unknown). For years was this place 
the home of all new-comers until their own fireside 
was established. Under its roof were held many social 
gatherings. There was held the first meetings of 
Elyria's original Masonic lodge. At the expiration 
of one year Mr. Beebe purchased of Mr. Douglas his 
share of said property, and in him has the title ever 
since remained. Constant work was Mr. Beebe's 
mission until February, 1819, when he, with a 
horse bought for the purpose, left Elyria for the old 
home, via Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, and New York, 
to regain health injured by constant toil. A sliort 
visit, and the little " gray horse" and one-horse 
lumber-wagon landed him once more in Elyria. 
Now a few months are spent in various activities. 
The following February again witnessed his departure 
for New England. This trip was performed in great 
share on foot. Arriving at West Springfield, there 
and in its vicinity he remained until the following 
October. Of this visit came nuich to him, — much to 
Elyria. He gained the life-partner of his early hard- 
ships, of his later prosperity, and Elyria won one of 
its truest women. One of tiie first meetings of Mr. 
Beebe with his future wife was at West Springfield, 
where she was a member of the Contrrearational 
Church. She was also a member of the choir, of 
which Miss Celia Belden, afterwards first wife of 
Judge Heman Ely, was also a member. Short was 
the courtship, but long and pleasant the many years 


tliat followed. Mr. Beebe was married to ]\Iiss Pamelia 
Morgan Oct. 4, 1820. This marriage was solemnized 
under peculiar circumstances, viz., by the Rev. Joseph 
Lathrop, wiio for two geuerations had performed the 
duties of a pastor in said town. To him was it left, 
after performing the marriage ceremony for the last 
time in his life (then in his eighty-ninth year, totally 
blind), to send out the young couple to the western 
wilds with all and every good wish and fond hopes for 
their future welfare. No Saratoga trunk or useless 
finery filled the wagon-box that left Mrs. Beebe's 
early home. The plain and substantial comprised 
its contents. The brass kettle, the warming-pan, the 
candlesticks, the andirons, etc., yet in the family 
tell their own tale. A long journey full of incident, 
now with wagon overturned, again vexatious delay 
from impassable roads, or rustic bridge swept away, 
ended Nov. 17, 1820. With earnest hearts, a wi'll 
to do, and hands trained to work, Mr. and ^Irs. 
Beebe commenced life in the " Old Beebe Tavern." 
Many years were there passed. To Mrs. Beebe 
much of the reputation this tavern gained in early 
days was due. She not only made it the place of 
entertainment for the weary traveler, but many a 
one homesick, and longing for the eastern home, 
from her got words of healthy cheer and kind sym- 
pathy. From this time onward, until the date of 
her death, June, 26, 1878, Mrs. Beebe's life was one 
of womanly work. Noted as the housewife; earnest 
and active in the church ; as neighbor kind, ever 
i-eady with helping hand to aid and comfort the sick, 
genial in social intercourse, she was eminently the 
good woman. One of the original ten who formed 
the First Presbyterian Church of Elyria, Nov. 24, 
1824, she was always its ardent supporter, in word 
and deed living out her profession. Her energy 
and economy aided the husband in acquiring the 
competency that in declining years made their home 
so pleasant, and caused them both to forget the early 
privations attendant upon the " fii'st settler." 

She left at her death two sons and three daughters, 
all in the maturity of life. An obituary notice says 
of her: "She died rich in all those experiences she 
had garnered up with the growth of Elyria. To her 
was given the good fortune to watch, help, or nurture 
a little hamlet of one or two log houses become a 
town of churches, schools,*and a prosperous people." 

In 1826, Mr. Beebe, in partnership with Ezra 
Adams, purchased of Silas Wolverton the contract 
for carrying the mail between Cleveland and Lower 
Sandusky, now called Fremont. Mr. Beebe per- 
formed the duties of said ^contract between Elyria 
and Cleveland ; Mr. Adams and others between Elyria 
and Fremont. At the end of one year Mr. Beebe 
purchased the entire business. Increase of popula- 
tion demanded greater facilities than the single horse, 
with mail-bag, could perform. Soon Mr. Beebe, with 
letters from the Hon. Elisha Whittlesey and others, 
visited Washington, D. C, and from the Postmaster- 
General obtained a general contract for the transpor- 
tation of mails and passengers between the above- 
mentioned i)oints. The coach seating six, with its 
four horses, soon had to give way to the more com- 
modious coach, which gave ample room to nine. 

The coach, with its merry driver and noisy tin horn, 
excited as much attention, and drew as many to the 
" stage otKce" on its coming and departure, in propor- 
tion to the iJopulatiou, as the steam car, with more 
noisy steam horn, did twenty-five years after. Fraught 

with labor was this undertaking; poor roads, poorer 
bridges were ever opposing him; shipwrecked coaches 
and drowned horses were not uncommon. But Mr. 
Beebe's untiring energy overcame every obstacle 
of nature and all opposing lines started by others; 
and the year 1831 .saw a daily line of four-horse 
coaches running over his route. Success rewarded 
his efforts until 1842, when he sold this branch of his 
business to Neil Moore & Co., of Columbus, Ohio. 

From the years 1830 to 1833, Mr. Beebe was en- 
gaged in the business of general merchandise, with 
H. N. Gates as partner. Shortly after disposing of 
his mail contracts he purchased of Deacon L. Lane 
the Eagle Mills, on the east branch of Black River, 
which he successfully operated for twenty-three years, 
selling them then to the late I. W. Bullock. 

In 1846, remembering the "Old Beebe Tavern," 
and seeing Elyria in need of a first-class hotel, he 
built the Beebe House. A building an ornament to 
the town, an honor to the builder, long and favorably 
has it been known to the traveling public. 

Motives outside of mere pecuniary gain must have 
actuated Mr. Beebe in this enterprise. The needs of 
Elyria for a hotel far better than any existing, it seems, 
must have induced him, regardless of any ultimate 
dividend, to have erected so substantial, so complete 
a structure. Erected thirty-three years ago, it yet re- 
mains in many respects a pattern for more modern 
structures. At the time of its building, nothing like 
it for its jiurpose stood upon the Western Reserve in 
towns of similar size. A similar motive must have 
had much to do in influencinsr Mr. Beebe to build the 
beautiful Beebe House on Put-in-Bay Island, so many 
years and still kept by his eldest son, Henry Beebe. 
In this respect he may well be called a public bene- 
factor. In 1847, when the subject of a bank was agi- 
tated among Elyria's citizens, Mr. Beebe was one of 
the first to respond. An original stockholder and di- 
rector from its birth, in its change to a national bank 
he has ever held both positions until the present day. 
In 1849, becoming a stockholder in the Plank-Road 
running from Black River, Lorain Co., to Homer, 
Medina Co., he was largely instrumental in bring- 
ing the advantage of said road to his fellow-citizens, 
and in completing it, being appointed superintendent 
of its construction. 

The latter j-ears of Mr. Beebe's life, although not 
as full of actual labor, have been none of idleness. 
The duties of bank director, trusts confided him by 
his fellows, the care of a large property, and farming 
interests have constantly busied him. Such is a brief 
outline of the life of the remaining link between 
Elvria's beirinnint!: and its now onlv survivina; raem- 
ber of the little band of six who nearly seven decades 
ago laid Elyria's foundation ; he yet remains. 

As a man Mr. Beebe was ever noted for strict in- 
tegrity ; ever careful to aid the cause of morality and 
religion, always an attendant upon religious obser- 
vances, and ever contributing to the church. Upon 
May 6, 1866, making public profession of religion, 
he became a member of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Elyria. Now past the allotted age of man, 
hardly one remaining of his early associates he lives 
Elyria's oldest citizen. The children, ay, even the 
grandchildren, of those with whom his youth and 
middle age were spent with reverence and respect 
regard him, ever seeing the sterling integrity, clear 
business decision, and prompt action that he used so 
well in the building up of the town of Elyria. 



among eight hunters, and thii-teen squaws, boys and children. But they 
were divided equally. The next day, the hunters turned out again, and 
succeeded in killing one deer and three bears. One of the bears was 
remarkably large and fat. All hands turned out the nest morning to 
bring in the meat. 

*' During the whiter, a war party of four went out to the borders of 
Pennsylvania, to procure horses and scalps, lea\ing the same number 
in camp, to jjrovide meat for the women and children. They returned 
towards spring, with two scalps and four horses. After the departure 
of the warriors, we had hard times, and though not out of provisions, 
we were brought to short allowance. At length, Tontileaugo had fair 
success, and brought into camp sufficient to last ten tiays. Tontileaugo 
then took me with him in order to encamp some distance from the 
winter cabin. We steered south up the creek ten or twelve miles, and 
went into camp . " 

This was jirobably iu La Grange. They went to 
bed hungry the first night, but the ne.xt day, suc- 
ceeded in killing a bear, and the day after, a bear and 
three cubs. They remained here about two weeks, 
killing an abundance of game, and then returned to 
the winter cabin. On their arrival, there was great 
joy, as all were in a starving condition. 

About the first of Ajjril, they dug up their canoe, 
but were forced to make an additional one to carry 
all their riches — left their winter cabin at the falls, 
and proceeded to the lake — -Tontileaugo by water, and 
Smith on horseback. On reaching the mouth of the 
river, they proceeded west along the shore to Sun- 
yeu-deauk (Sandusky), where was another Wyandotte 
town. Late in the fall. Smith joined a hunting 
party, and i^roceeded to the Cuyahoga river. At the 
distance of about thirty miles from its mouth, they 
formed an encamjjment near a small lake, and spent 
the winter in catching beaver. In the spring of 1757 
they returned to Sandusky, and soon proceeded by 
water to Detroit, where they disposed of their peltry 
to the French traders. 

In 1759, Smith accomiianied his Indian relatives to 
Montreal, where he was finally exchanged, and re- 
turned home in 17G0, to find his old sweetheart mar- 
ried, and all sup))osing him dead. He afterwards 
became a captain iu the regular British army, and 
was engaged, principally, in protecting the border 
settlers against Indian raids. During the revolu- 
tionary war, he joined the patriot army, rose to the 
rank of colonel, and did good service, both against 
the British and their Indian allies. In 1788, he 
migrated to Bourbon county, Kentucky, where he 
represented his district in the assembly down to the 
present century. 

After this long digression, we return to the history 
of Elyria in later times. 


The township of Elyria was, in April, 1807, drawn 
by the following individuals of the Connecticut land 
company, vi/,: Justin Ely, Roger Newberry, Jona- 
than Bruce, Elijali White, Enoch Perkins, .John H. 
Buel, .Jonathan Dwiglit, and others, whose names are 
not mentioned. 

At the September term of the supreme court, in 
Portage county, iu 1816, the south part of the town- 
ship (about one-third of the whole,) was set off to 
Justin Ely; the central part to Elijah White. A tract 


of two thousand, one hundred and ten acres, lying 
immediately north of this, was assigned to Jonathan 
Bruce, and the remaining portion of the township to 
Enoch Perkins and Roger Newberry. 

White conveyed his tract to Justin Ely, and he, in 
turn, to Heman Ely, his son, who purchased the 
Bruce tract, making him the owner of twelve thou- 
sand five hundred acres lying in a single body. The 
following history of the settlement of the township of 
Elyria is prepared from reminiscences of the venerable 
Artemas Beebe, the Hon. Heman Ely, the address of 
the Hon. W. W. Boynton, and from personal inter- 
views with N. B. (iates and such early settlers as are 
now remaining in the township. 


In the spring of the year 181G, Heman Ely, of 
West Springfield, Massachusetts, came to Oliio to 
look after his estate. He came in a sulky, until he 
readied Buffalo, where, leaving his sulky, he com- 
pleted his journey on horseback. 


' ' In following the trail which wound along the lake shore, through the 
unbroken forest, the ground gave way, his horse's hind feet were thrown 
over a high wash bank. The horse, however, clung with his fore feet; 
Mr. Ely clung to the bridle and mane, and a vigorous use of the whip 
probably saved the life of the founder of Elyria." 

He made his home, temporarily, with Moses Eldred, 
father of Clark Eldred now of Elyria, who then kept 
a tavern some two miles east of the river, in Ridge- 
ville township. 

Mr. Ely immediately set about the work of im- 
provement. First of all, he contracted with Jedediah 
Hubbell, and a man named Shepard, of Newburgh, 
Cuj'ahoga county, to build a dam, and erect a grist 
and saw mill. These were located on the east branch 
of Black river, near the foot of the present Broad 
street. There was also erected a large log house, 
which stood near where Mr. Beebe afterwards built his 
tavern stand. This was occoupied by John Bacon, 
late of Carlisle, who boarded the men who were en- 
gaged iu the construction of the mills. 

During his first visit, Mr. Ely, while examining 
his lands, in company with Clark Eldred, then a 
young man, came upon a spot, some two and a half 
miles west of the river, which jjleased young Eldred, 
and which he selected for his future home. Though 
as yet unsurveyed, he made a verbal contract for it, ■ 
and after its survey, secured a deed. Mr. Eldred 
occupied this farm for fifty-five years, and for many 
years kept a hotel. He now, after a long and useful 
life, resides in the village, retaining his full powers 
of mind and memory. 

Mr. Ely returned to Massachusetts, in the fall of 
1816, and immediately commenced making prepara- 
tions for his I'emoval to liis wilderness possessions on 
Black river. 

About the first of January, 1817, Mr. Ely sent on 
three men, with axes in their hands, to commence 
clearing land. They made the entire distance on foot 



(about six hundred miles), and before Mr. Ely ar- 
rived with his party, in March, they had made quite 
a hole in the woods. Their names were Roderick 
Ashley, Edwin Bush, and James Porter. 

On the 20th of February, 1817, Mr. Ely and his 
party commenced their weary journey, much of the 
way by a wood route, barely passable at any time, but 
especially difficult at that season of the year. AVe 
who live in this age of telegraiihs and railroads, and 
can to-day take our breakfast in Elyria, and to-mor- 
row morning, after a comfortable night's rest in a 
sleeping-car, take the same meal in New York City, 
have but a feeble conception of the trials and diffi- 
culties attending the same journey, from the cast, 
sixty-one years ago. The mode of conveyance of 
these pioneers was, by a stout pair of horses harnessed 
to an equally stout wagon. This vehicle was covered 
with homespun tow-cloth over the bows, in the prevail- 
ing emigrant style. The party, six in all, started from 
their New England homes in high spirits. It con- 
sisted of Heman Ely, the founder of the present 
township and village of Elyria, Ebenezer Lane, after- 
wards chief justice of the supreme court of Ohio, 
Miss Anna Snow, housekeeper, Luther Lane, who 
drove the team, Artemas Beebe, a house joiner and 
carpentei', who had been engaged to accompany the 
expedition; and a colored servant of Mr. Ely's, named 
"Ned." They proceeded as far as Seneca Falls when, 
the sleighing being good, they halted, and made a 
sled. Loading the wagon and goods on the sled, 
they pushed on to the vicinity of Buffalo, when the 
sleighing left them. From Buffalo to '('attarangus 
creek, they traveled on the ice. They arrived at 
Cleveland, without accident or material incident, on 
the IGtli of March, and a few days subsequent, at the 
Mecca of their pilgrimage, where they were duly in- 
stalled in the log house, before mentioned. I quote 
from the interesting reminiscences of Mr. Beebe: 

** Mr. Bacon and family went to their home in Carlisle, and Mr. Luther 
Lane went with the team for straw to fill the beds. When the river fell 
so that the load could be brought over, two beds were made, and a de- 
scription of them will not be out of place. Mr. Ely had brought some 
bed-ticks from the east, ready-made, and the cover of the wagon was 
also converted into ticks. The bedsteads were made of poles, with bark 
stretched across them for bottoms, and pillows were scarce. Some 
coarae cloth was used for sheets.'' 

A family named Beach made a settlement, in 181 fi, 
in the western part of the township, near the site of the 
present Haag's mill. This was the first white family 
■to settle in the township. On the 10th of September, 
1817, Mrs. Beach gave birth to a son, the Jimt whUc 
child born in the township. lie was named Henrj', 
and was living, at a recent date, in Rockjwrt, Cuya- 
hoga county, and with him, his aged mother. Mr. 
Beach was taken sick soon after the birth of the 
child, and died on the 2'2d of the succeeding No- 
vember. Mrs. Beach took her family, and the dead 
body of her husband, to the log school house, opposite 
Captain Eld red's. He was buried in a sandy ridge, a 
little east of of the center of Ridgeville. Mr. A. 
Beebe made the coffin. This was, doubtless, the first 
death of a white person in the townshijj. 

Mr. Beebe says the first improvement in the way of 
chopi)ing, was made by Clark Eldred, who had about 
two acres chopped down when the improvements 
were commenced in the village. The first clearing 
in the village was made at the foot of Broad street, 
and progressed westward, as required. In this clear- 
ing, the houses of Mr. Ely and }t\r. A. Beelje were 
built. George Douglas and Gershom Danks, car- 
{)enter?, arrived from Westficld, Massachusetts, about 
tlie first of April, 1817, and so(m after the work of 
building was commenced. The ^rst/rajned build in;/ 
erected was to be occu])ied for a store. This was 
located on the southwest corner of the Ely home- 
stead lot, at the corner of Cedar " and Broad streets. 
It was about twenty by forty feet, one story high, 
and without a cellar. During the year 1817 it was 
used for a joiner shop, but the next year it was filled 
with goods by Edmund West & Co. This was the 
pioneer store in Elyria which has since been " noted 
for its trade in dry goods, and for the success which 
has attended the enterprise of some of its early mer- 
chants." The next building was the residence of Mr. 
Ely, and is the same now occujiicd by his son, Hon. 
Heman El}". This house was forty-five feet front by 
forty feet deep, with a kitchen and wood-house in the 
rear and a cellar under the main building. It has 
undergone various changes and iinjjrovemcnts both 
externally and internally, and its present fine archi- 
tectural appearance and Iteautiful surroundings are in 
striking contrast with the ])icture it presented in the 
dense forest sixty years ago. The siding of the lioit-c 
was all made from one whitewOod tree that stood at 
the turn of the street near where the large willow 
now stands. 

On the 39th day of Jlay, 1817, Captain Festus 
Coolcy, father of Festus Cooley late of Elyria but now 
of Kansas, arrived from Westfield, Mass., and took 
charge of liotli the saw and grist mills. He came tlie 
whole distance on foot. In the summer Enos Mann 
came to Elyria. He was from Becket, Mass. lii 
located on the farm east of the rivei', since owned by 
Deacon Lane. Mr. Mann was a turner of wooden 
bowls, and, it is said, followed this vocation for a 
number of years after his arrival in Elyria. During 
the fall following their arrival Mrs. Mann gave birth 
to a son, the second born in the township. Mrs. 
Mann died on the 9th of March, 1833, and her re- 
mains were the first interred in the Elyria cemetery. 
A plain sandstone slalis marks the spot, and upon 
it the following inscription: "In memory of Mrs. 
Clamaney Mann, consort of Mr. Enos Mann, who 
died JIarch 9, 183.", in the fortieth year of her age." 
A simple collection of words and figures, yet of what 
terrible significance to the bereaved ones, hundreds of 
miles from relatives, in a comparative wilderness. 
Friends were raised up for them, and kind, tiiougli 
strange hands, ministered to tlie wants of the mother- 
less ones. 

Neri Gulpin, from Litchfield county. Conn., settled 
in Elyria in November, 1833, on the farm now occu- 



pied by Anson Pangburn. Seven cliildren came with 
liini. Of Uiese but one resides in Elyria: Marcus D., 
who married Amanda Ely, daugliter of Lewis Ely, 
who came to the IJesorve in isoO, louatiug in Deer- 
field, now Portage county, with his parents, Lewis 
and Anna (Granger) Ely. 

Lewis Ely, Jr., came to Elyria in ISTi, purchased 
two lots oh West Broad street, put up a small frame 
house, returned, and, with his family, removed to 
Elyria in the spring of 1834. Mr. Ely was killed by 
a runaway horse, in Juno, 1831. He was sheriff of 
Jjorain county at the time of his death. Mrs. Ely 
died in 1863. 

Francis Douglas,*brother of George Douglas, came 
from Westfield, Mass., to Elyria in 1830. He was a 
carpenter, and for several years a Methodist local 
preaclier. lie built several houses, one of which is 
the l)rick front west of the pul)lic square now occu- 
pied i)y Dr. Sherwood. In 1843, he removed to Wor- 
cester, Mass., where ho died in March, 1878, aged 
eighty j^ears. 

Calvin Smith removed witli his family from Nauga- 
tuck, Conn., to Elyria in 1819. He built a log house 
east of the river on the lot now occupied by Mr. L. 
F. Ward, where he resided several years. He removed 
from thence to Sheffield, where, after a long sickness, 
he died in 1836. He was a fine singer, and led the 
singing in the early religions meetings in the log 
school house east of the river. 

Heber G, Sekins, born in Stafford, Vt., came to 
Elyria in the fall of 1835. His family then consisted 
of a wife and two cliildren. Ira 15., the oldest, still 
resides in Elyria. He was for years connected with 
the military organizations. One of his daughters is 
the widow of the late Thomas Childs, and still resides 
in the village. Another daughter married Elizur 
Northrop. They are residents of Cleveland. 

We are unable to ol>tain the names and liistory of 
many of the fii-st settlers, but shall refer to some of 
them incidentally as we proceed. 

Immediately after the first settlement of the town- 
ship, Mr. Ely and others felt the importance of estab- 
lishing and maintaining religious institutions. They 
had built a log school house on the triangular piece 
of ground between the railroad and the highway, just 
across the east branch of the river. Here the pioneers 
assembled every Sunday and engaged in public wor- 
ship. Mr. Ely usually read a sermon; Luther Lane 
and William Smith were called upon to lead in prayer; 
Calvin Smith, assisted by Irene Allen and others, led 
the singing. We again quote from Mr. Beebe's remi- 

j "The first sermon preached in Elyria was hy the Rev. Alvin Hyde, on 
! the 5th of February, ISIS. He was a son of the Rev. Dr. Hyde of Lee, 
Berlcsliire countv, Mass. His text was from Jonah 2: 9, ' Salvation is of 
I the Lord.' During part of the years 1817-18, he resided in Dover, where 
■ he preached half i>f the time, and the other half in the adjacent town- 
I ships. 

" Our ordinary rations consisted of pork, flour and peas. Sometimes 
we got venison and fresh fish. The Indians furnished us with the first 
fish we had. They caught them below the falls. They shot the deer 
where they could find them, and would come riding in single file with 
1 squaws and pappooses on their ponies. They came from Upper San- 
dusky to hunt and fish, and belonged to the Wyandotte and Seneca 

tribes. They used to camp on the ground now occupied by Mrs. Hoyle 
and Col; Gates, which was then covered by a small grovrth of hemlocks 
and pines. 

" Mr. Chester Wright had established a distilleiy on the east side of 
the cast brani'h, in the rear of the sand pits. The Indians, being great 
lovers of whisky, could obtain supplies at the distillery, whisky being 
considered one of the necessities of life." Mr. Beebe remarks that 
"distilleries were then as plenty as cheese factories are now. Some of 
the Indians' names were Goodhunt, Red Jacket, Betwixt-the-Logs, etc. 
They were civil and gave us no trouble." 


Bears were frequently killed by the early settlers, 
and were particularly destructive of the pigs that 
roamed in the woods in those days. In the winter of 
1830, J. A. Harris, late of the Cleveland Herald, who 
then resided in Elyria, encountered four — an old bear 
and three well grown cubs — in the woods just east of 
E. A. Griswold's. The three cubs ascended a tree, 
while the old bear maintained her position on the 
around. He first lodged a ball in the old bear. In- 
stead of attacking. him, she fled, leaving her young 
unprotected. He fired deliberately at each of the 
three in the tree, bringing them all dovvn, and killing 
bat one. He had only a squirrel rifle. With a target 
gun, such as are used at this time, he would probably 
have bagged them all. A party of hunters followed 
them the next day, tracking them by their blood, but 
did not overtake them. lu the winter of 1831-3, the 
writer was teaching school in the yellow school house 
which stood west of the public square, on the ground 
now occupied by the town hall. One afternoon the 
school was thrown in great commotion by a bear pass- 
ing through the town just back of the school house, 
pursued by dogs and hunters. It crossed the river 
below the falls, and was killed about three miles down 
the river, on the farm belonging to the late Aaron R. 
Taylor. This was the last bear seen iii this vicinity. 
Wolves were quite numerous until about 1835. 
Their bowlings could be heard almost every night in 
the woods north of town. One evening during the 
fall of 1833, the writer was i^assing on foot along the 
road which skirted a swamp near the residence of 
Harlcjw Wells, in the northwest part of the township, 
a pack of wolves followed him, keeping along the 
boiirder of the swamp, so near that he could hear the 
pattering of their feet. Their bowlings were not 
musical, but very much diversified. Like the retreat- 
ing soldier, though not frightened he was somewhat 
demoralized. The last wolf was seen in Elyria during 
the year 1844. He was evidently lonely, as he sought 
the society of dogs; but the dogs did not fraternize 
with him, but avoided his society. Many times he 
came into the village during the evenings, and our 
largest bull-dogs, after a brief encounter, retreated to 
their kennels in disgust. He created much excite- 
ment among the citizens. Those who had brief 
glimpses of him greatly magnified his size, and im- 
agined him to be some huge wild animal, probably a 
panther of the largest class. At length during the 
ensuing winter a party of hunters got on his track 
which they followed for three days, killing him in New 
Haven, Huron county. While being pursued he 



would stop occasionally to kill a sheep on which to 
refresh himself. Tiie party returned in triumph, 
bringing his skin, wlii(;li \v:is stuflod and preserved in 
the rooms of the Natural History Society until Feb- 
ruary 10, 1852, when the block containing the rooms 
was consumed by fire, and this, with all other speci- 
mens, perished. He was a gray wolf of the largest 
size, and evidently a veteran. 

Many anecdotes could be related of the encounters 
of our pioneer settlers with Avolves; some of them 
being followed by a pack in the evening were forced 
to take refuge in trees, where they remained till 
morning, when their pursuers retreated. Mr. George 
Sexton and wife, living a mile and a half east of the 
village, hearing a disturbance among their slieep in 
the barnyard, got up and went out en dishabille, and 
with an axe dispatched the disturber of their repose 
among their sheep. 

Deer were very numerous until about 1835. The 
writer once saw tliirty in a flock on the farni of Mr. 
Asahel Parmely. Tlioy liad entered the clearing 
probably to avoid the black flies wbicli were very nu- 
merous in tlie woods at tluit time. Venison and pork, 
with an occasional wild turkey, furnished meat for 
the early settlers. There were no butchers' meat-shops 
in those days. When a pioneer got out of meat he 
took down his trusty rifle, and usually soon brought 
in a deer. What he could not consume in liis own 
family he distributed to his neighbors. 

The last deerseen in tJie township was in the winter of 
1841. A party of fifteen or twenty young clerks and 
mechanics went out one pleasant day in February, with 
hounds to hunt rabbits. On entering the woods west 
of Gates' saw-mill they discovered fresh deer tracks. 
The dogs were put upon the tracks and soon gave 
tongue. The boys were directed to form a line across 
the woods. Before the line was fully formed one of 
the deer broke through and was killed by the writer. 
A second one passed by the end of the line and escaped, 
pursued by one of the dogs. The third and last one, 
a noble buck, approached the line at its east end. He 
was but two or tliree rods in advance of the di)g, and 
instead of running at full speed he was making leaps 
three or four feet from the ground. He turned on 
seeing the boys and ran about ton rods in front of 
them the whole length of the line. Each one had his 
shot, but no one was guilty of shedding one drop of 
his blood. This skirmish line was about as harmless 
as some at a later day, in the army, where immense 
quantities of ammunition were wasted without loss on 
either side. The two deer which escaped were killed 
the same day by other hunters, one in Amherst and 
the other at the stave landing on Black river. 

Wild turkeys, which were very numerous at the 
first settlement of the country, have almost entirely 
disappeared. They were sold on the street at an early 
day for twenty-five cents each. The largest size 
weighed thirty pounds dressed. 


In the fall of 1817, Mr. Ely started on horseback 
for his old home in Massachusetts, while Ebenezer 
Lane and Luther Lane started for the same destina- 
tion on foot. They walked as far as Albany where 
they took the stage for Springfield. During their 
absence Mr. George Douglas and Mr. Beebe remained 
and worked on the inside of Mr. Ely's house. Mr. 
Ely returned in the spring of 1818. 

In the fall of 1818, Mr. Ely took the steamboat 
" Walk-in-the- Water " for the east. The steamer first 
went to Detroit, as she could not stop at Cleveland on 
her way down, there being no har-bor. He left Cleve- 
land on the 17th of September, reaching Detroit on 
the 21st, and Buffalo on the 24th. The ' ' Walk-in- the- 
Water" was the first steamboat on Lake Erie, and 
seems to have been a slow walker. 

"Mr. Ely reached West Spriiigflekl on the first day cf October, and on 
the 10th of the same month was married to Miss Celia, daughter of 
Col. Ezekiel P. Belden, of Weather^ field, Conn. On the 18th, they started 
for Elyria, where they arrived October 30th, in company with Ebenezer 
Lane and his wife. Those who knew the first Mrs. Ely, speak of her in 
terms of warm enthusiasm. She was a beautiful and accomplished lady, 
kind and affectionate in her disposition, and generous to the poor and 
needy. She was especially loving to the little children of the pioneers- 
She always had a piece of cake and kind words for them when they called 
upon her, and her memory was cherished by all of them. One— a child 
at that lime— who was the life companion of the writer, often spoke of 
her in glowing terms of praise.'' 

The framed house not being comideted when Mr. 
Ely returned with bis bride, they commenced house- • 
keeping in the log house. An incident is related by 
Mr. Beebe. We quote in his own words: 

'*As soon as it was known in the settlements that Mr. Ely bad brought 
home w'ith him a blooming bride, the ladies felt it a duty as well as a 
pleasure to call on her. Accordingly, a short time after their arrival, 
Mrs. George Sexton, of Ridgeville, and a lad.v friend started on foot 
through the woods to call on the bride. On arriving, they were met at 
the door of his cabin, as it was called by Mr. Ely, who received them 
cordiall.y and introduced them to his wife, who entertained them very 
pleasantly d^u■ing the afternoon. They accepted an invitation to tea, 
and their companionship was so agreeable that the da.v was far spent 
before thej' started on their return home. Tl>ey had not gone far from 
the settlement before they their way, and wandered on until late in 
the night, when they came to the conclusion that they were really lost 
in the wilderness, and would be compelled to submit to the necessity of 
staying where they were till mornmg. They therefore crawled up on a 
fallen, leaning tree, and held on by other trees to keep from falling, and 
waited for morning to come, as it did at last with all the chills and frosts 
of a November night. They soon found their way home, and were 
quite well satisfied as they had visited the bride, and had a good time 
after all." » 

Mr. Beebe and George Douglas built a house for 
Ebenezer Lane (afterward Judge Lane), east of the 
river, on the farm afterward bought by Clement 
Northrop. Ebenezer Lane, on the 11th of October, 
1818, married Frances Ann, daughter of Gov. Roger 
Griswold, of Lyme, Conn., and returned to Ohio in 
company with Mr. Ely and wife. His house being in 
readiness, he commenced* housekeeping at once. He 
remained on his farm less than a year. Having been ' 
appointed jjrosecuting attorney of Huron county, he } 
removed to Norwalk, October 10, 1819. The Jour ! 
ney from Elj'ria to Norwalk was made on horseback, f 
Mrs. Lane riding one horse and lier husband another, 
he carrying their infant child on a pillow in his arms 
and being two days on the road. He rose to distinc- 
tion in his profession, and was for many years a judge; 



Photo, by C. F. Leo, Elyrin, 0. 


Nahum Ball Gates was born in St. Alban's, Vt., Sept. 28, 
1812. His father, John Gates, and his mother, Abigail Ball, 
emigrated from Northborough, Mass., to St. Alban's in 1 800, 
and settled on a farm in that township. His father was of 
Puritan stock, and belonged to Revolutionary blood. The 
day he was sixteen years of age he enlisted in the army of 
the Revolution for three years, served until the close of 
the war, and was then discharged by Gen. Knox, in the 
vicinity of New York. His three eldest brothers, Samuel, 
Silas, and William, served in the same war during its con- 

The subject of this sketch was the youngest of twelve 
children. His early education was the best afforded in those 
days in the district schools of his native town, with one term 
at the St. Alban's Academy, to fit him for a " country ped- 
agogue," teaching district school for three winters in his 
native State. 

The years of his minority were spent on his father's farm, 
attending and teaching school winters, and laboring on the 
farm the residue of the year. In this way he secured for 
himself an athletic frame and vigorous Vermont constitution. 
Being violently attacked on his father's farm, in the spring 
of 1834, with what was termed the " Western Fever," which 
prevailed at that time in Vermont to almost an alarming 
extent, he, on the 29th day of April, 1834, bade farewell to 
his native heath and started for Ohio, for the ostensible pur- 
pose of visiting his brother, Horatio N. Gates, who at that 
time was engaged in the mercantile business at Elyria, Ohio, 
under the firm-name of Gates & Greene. 

After remaining in Elyria a few weeks, he went to 
Cleveland to learn more of the West and find something to 
do. Whilst standing in front of the Western Reserve Hotel, 
then in Ohio City, on the west side of Cuyahoga River, a 
man by the name of Swain came along, and inquired of 
young Gates if he knew of any one who would on the fol- 
lowing day go into the woods and score timber for him, as 
he was about to erect a dwelling-house. Young Gates vol- 
unteered his services, and a bargain was soon struck. The 
next day saw a good, honest day's work done. 

His next venture was painting and glazing, in the employ 
of William Wheat. At this time the cholera broke out in 
its most malignant form in the cities of Cleveland and Ohio 
City. Young Gates did not flee to the country or shut him- 
self up in some secluded retreat, as so many did, but he 
made it his entire business for weeks to watch with the sick, 
to care for the dying, and to bury the dead. He spent day 
and night in performing these duties until the cholera sub- 
sided. At the urgent request of his brother, H. N. Gates, 
on the 1st day of September, 1834, he visited Elyria for rest 
and recreation, spending the winters of 1834 and 1835 in 
Elyria, clerking for Gates & Greene. 

On the 17th day of May, 1835, he went to Black River 
and opened a general assortment store for Gates & Greene, 
where he resided with varying success and experience until 
the fall of 1838. Here his Vermont constitution under- 
went a fearful struggle ; a nine months' siege of regular 
old-fashioned typhus fever and swamp ague could not conquer 
it ; but, in his own words, " there was nothing left of him 
but his boots and spurs." 

From the year 1836 until 1844 a copartnership existed 
between himself and brother, H. N. Gates, in the forward- 
ing and commission business, headquarters being at Black 

In the fall of 1838, Mr. Gates was elected sheriflF of 
Lorain County, removing to Elyria. It has since been his 
residence. During his residence in Black River he filled 
the various offices of constable, justice of the peace, and 
marshal of Charlestown village. On the 12th day of No- 
vember, 1838, he took the oath of ofBce as sheriff, and 
entered upon its duties. The court of Common Pleas was 
then in session. This was the time of great excitement 
among the bogus or counterfeiting fraternity, who at that 
time seemed to have a strong foothold in many of the town- 
ships of Lorain County. Times were hard. Nearly all the 
banks in the country had suspended specie payment ; the 
paper money then in circulation was of all grades and value. 
Many thought they would take a hand in currency tinkering, 
which was the order of the day. Therefore, many resorted 


to countcrfeitiiis; and tlie iiiakiiiir of bogus coin. Men who 
had been arrested and placed in jail, charged with this 
offense, broke out and fled for their country's good. Mr. 
Israel Cash, who had turned State's evidence, was shot 
through the body, but not killed, by the son of an implicated 
counterfeiter. Lorain County was all excitement. Such 
was the condition of affairs when Mr. Gates entered upon 
the duties of his office. Thus they remained for over a 
year. Strict justice will ever give to Sheriff Gates, a de- 
termined judge; and efficient ])rosecutor, the credit of break- 
ing up this nefarious gang, whose wicked ramifications even 
reached into families hitherto called honest and respect- 
able. His prompt action routed tlie whole gang, root and 
branch. Many, under the kind care of Sheriff Gates, visited 
Columbus, others fled their country, some reformed, and 
others died. 

In 1840 a zealous Whig was Mr. Gates; active was the 
part he took in that ever memorable campaign. Zeal and 
ardency actuated his every action. As marshal, on liis 
famous black horse Bucephalus, did he lead the pro- 
cession from Elyria and adjoining townships that visited 
that imposing and grand convention, held on the banks of 
the Maumee River, June 11, 1840. 

In 1840 he was re-elected sheriff of Lorain County. 
Serving to the end of his term, he completed his four years, 
the constitutional limit. 

On the 12th day of May, 1841, Mr. Gates married Miss 
Sarah S. Monteith, eldest daughter of the Rev. John Mon- 
teith, who formerly had filled the position of professor of 
ancient languages at Hamilton College, New York. Com- 
ing to Elyria he took charge of the first select school 
taught in Elyria of any note. This school, .so well known 
as the High School, is yet remembered with the fondest 
memory by many a one who can never forget the kindness 
and the many virtues of their teacher long years since. 

From this marriage numbers the issue, viz. : John 
Quincy, who died in early years ; Elizabetli Monteith, wife 
of Dr. Wheeler, of Cleveland ; Charlotte Augusta, wife of 
Rev. T. Y. Gardner, pastor of the Congregational Church, 
Hudson, Ohio ; Mary Ely, who died in early years ; Charles 
Alexander, graduate of Western Reserve College ; William 
Nahum, in business at Massillon, Ohio ; Nellie, at home ; 
and Frederick Hayes, the tjaby, but a good-sized one, now 
a student at Western Reserve College. 

In 1843, Mr. Gates purchased of Mr. Heman Ely a 
mill site on the west branch of Black River, and proceeded 
at once to build a saw-mill, sash, door, and blind factory, 
to which he gave liis personal supervision and much hard 
labor for twenty-three years, when, in 1866, he sold out. 
In 1848 lie built an ashery on the west branch of the Black 
River, and has kept the same in .successful operation up to 
the present time. Mr. Gates thinks he may be classed as 
the oldest, long-continued, and successful ashery-man in the 
State. This ashery is still smoking. On the first day of 
September, 1869, purchasing of Davis M. Clark the soap 
factory on the west side of Black River, he lias since been 
and now is engaged in the manufacture of his celebrated 
chemical erasive soap. 

The Lorain County Agricultural Society was organized 
in 1845, and lived along at a poor, dying rate until 1852, 
when Mr. Gates was elected president of the same. He 
immediately set to work to stimulate its activities and infuse 
new life by inclosing grounds, building stables and pens, 
erecting sheds, revising and enlarging the premium lists ; 
and since that time he has served ten years as its president, 
always taking the laboring oar, and perhaps to no one more 
than him is said society more indebted for its progress, 
growth, and present prosperity. Of its tliirty-three annual 
fairs he has been present at all of them, actively engaged 
in promoting its interests. 

In 1844 he engaged in the general merchandise business 
at No. 1 Cheapside, Elyria. Not liking the cares and per- 

plexities of the business, he made an advantageous sale of 
his wliole stock of goods in 1845 to Messrs. Castle & 
King, of Medina, Ohio, saying, as he closed out his goods, 
" that he should never engage in the mercantile business 
again unless he got hard up." Mr. Gates was among the 
founders and active workers in the Elyria Union School. 
He has been a member of the Board of Education the most 
of the time for the last quarter of a century. 1860 saw 
him coroner of Lorain County, which office he filled for 
two years. 

He was ever active and a hard worker in the various rail- 
road projects wliich have been connected with the history 
of Elyria for the last thirty years. In 1850 he was a di- 
rector in the Lorain Plank-Road Company, and for many 
years was superintendent of said road. The year 1860 found 
him an active worker for the Republican party, and an officer 
in the Wido-Awake Club. In 1862 he was appointed col- 
lector of internal revenue for the fourteenth district of 
Ohio, by Abraham Lincoln, where he remained until re- 
moved by Andrew Johnson, " my policy" being in the way. 
Elected as mayor of Elyria in 1843 for the first time, he 
has since that time filled that position for twelve years, and 
is now acting in that capacity. 

In 1856, Caleb S. Goodwin, treasurer of Lorain County, 
dying, Mr. Gates was appointed to fill the vacancy, and 
served acceptably for one year. 

Mr. Gates's life in Elyria has been one of constant ac- 
tion. For example: in the year 1856 he was treasurer 
of the county, mayor of Elyria, township trustee, member 
of the Board of Education of Elyria Union Schools, su- 
perintendent of the Lorain Plank-Road, foreman of ./Etna 
( Elyria) Fire Company, discharging the .several duties apper- 
taining to each with acceptance, to say the least, besides 
attending to his own personal affairs, whicli were neither 
few nor small. 

He was mainly instrumental in the formation of Elyria 
Lodge, No. 103, of the Independent Order of Odd-Fellows, 
and was one of its charter members. This lodge was in- 
stituted March 1, 1848, and from that day to this it has 
been an honored and respected institution. Mr. Gates is 
the oldest member of said lodge, and the only one left of 
its charter members, or of those present at its inauguration. 

As a member of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Elyria, and society of said church, he may be termed a 
pronounced Presbyterian in all its meanings. 

During the Rebellion no one was more efficient tlian 
Mr. Gates. His quota of years required no personal enlist- 
ment to fill any quota demanded from Lorain County, yet 
it may be truly asserted that no one not subject to draft 
(and few, if any, that were) did more than Mr. Gates, by 
word, act, and money, for the republic. 

Of strong and pronounced opinions, his ear is ever open 
to reason's call. Commencing life with little or nothing, 
prosperity lias not elevated him above the cry of the 
poor and needy. Generous and self-sacrificing, his purse 
is ever open to true charity, and his hand is always found 
helping the downtrodden and oppressed. Of him may 
it truly be said no one in Elyria has spent more hours 
in watching with the sick, in burying the dead, in visiting 
the widow and orphan, than Mr. Gates. 

The writer knows of no citizen of Elyria wlio has spent 
more time for the public at large, with less pay, than Mr. 
Gates. No one can he recall who has, according to his 
means, so liberally contributed with voice, action, and 
money to Elyria's various improvements. Now at the ripe 
age of sixty-six years, with commanding presence, hale and 
liearty, as if yet he breathed the mountain air of his old 
Vermont home, surrounded with the comforts of life, 
with home graced by the dear wife ever young, cheered by 
the presence of manly and womanly children, and amused 
by the prattle of grandchildren. Colonel Gates lives honored 
and respected by all. 



and for a portion of the time chief justice of the 
supreme court of Ohio. He died in Sandusky on the 
12th of June, 186G. He may with mucli propriety be 
ranked among the great men of Ohio. He graduated 
at Harvard College in 1811, and studied law with 
Judge Matthew Griswold, at Lyme, Conn. He did 
not confine himself to his profession alofte, but during 
his whole life he eagerly pursued the different branches 
of natural science, and became eminent as a naturalist. 
The first deed executed by Mr. Ely was made to 
Ebenezer Lane, dated June 1, 1818. It conveyed lot 
sixty-four, east of the river, containing sixty-four 
acres; the second to Edmund West; the third to Ar- 
tcmas Beebe. Mr. Beebe and George Douglas had 
contracted for the land in the fall of 1817. It con- 
sisted of the ground where his old tavern stood. The 
building still remains on the same spot, in good con- 
dition. Early in 1817, Mr. Ely had contracted with 
Joshua Henshaw to survey the township and village. 
He was assisted by Clark Eldred and others. Mr. 
Eldred says they were in the habit of starting out on 
Monday morning, with their week's provisions and 
blankets on their backs. They stopped wherever 
night overtook them. They cooked their own pro- 
visions, and the water they drank was sometimes 
filled with wrigglers. Part of the surveys were made 
in 1816, but the township was not allotted until 1817. 
The town plat was first surveyed in blocks in 1820. 
It was not divided into lots until 1823. 


This occurred at Elyria in 1819, with all the "pomp 
and circumstance" which became the sons of New 
England patriots. The settlers in all the adjacent 
townships turned out en viasse. Grafton especially 
was represented by nearly all its inhabitants. They 
came generally with ox-teams, and all entered into 
the sjjirit of the occasion. A blacksmith's anvil 
served in place of a cannon, and was kept warm 
during the day. The dinner was one of the interest- 
ing features, and was for those days quite sumptuous. 
The dessert consisted of several popular beverages, of 
which whisky formed the chief ingredient. Mr. El- 
bridgc Gerry, then residing in Ridgeville, delivered 
the oration, which was patriotic and of course loudly 
applauded. Mr. David Gibbs, of Carlisle, led the 
martial music. He was not only a good drummer, 
but proficient on the fife and clarionet. Mr. Beebe 

*' In order to approximate as near as possible the old-fashioned man- 
ner, an old fowUng-piece was strapped on the back of John Gould, who 
placed himself on ail-fours, serving as gun-carriage, whrn a toast would 
be read, and the gunner, with a grand flourish of his hot poker, would 
discharge the old fliat-lock amidst rounds of applause." 

The exercises were closed with a grand ball in the 
evening, in which all participated. The fiddler was 
John Shafer, of Ridgeville. Several remained until 
morning. It is said whisky was freely used, as was 
then the custom, but no one became intoxicated, 

A post office was established in Elyria on the 23d 
of May, 1818, and Heman Ely was appointed post 

master, which office he held until the 1st of April, 
1833. The revenues accruing to the government 
during the first four years ranged from two dollars 
a;id forty-one cents to eight dollars and twenty-eight 

Perhaps no more suitable place can be found to 
give a brief sketch of some of the lives of the first 
settlers of Elyria, The biography of some of them 
will be written by an abler pen. In reference to Mr. 
Heman Ely, it can be said that he was eminently 
just as a landed proprietor. He usually sold his 
lauds on four years' time, on a written contract or 
article of agreement, each party retaining a copy. 
He was very systematic and methodical in his busi- 
ness transactions, living up fully to his contracts, and 
he expected those with whom he dealt to fulfil their 
obligations; but he was never known to dispossess any 
of the early settlers of their lands who were industri- 
ous, temperate and frugal, and were doing the best 
they could to make themselves homes and to pay for 
their land. Those who were intemperate, lazy and 
shiftless, and others who took up land merely to strip 
it of its most valuable timber, without intending to 
])ay for it, found no mercy at his hands. 

It used to be said of him that he could tell, by 
looking on his map, whenever a tree was cut on any 
jiart of his domain, and that he would at once mount 
liis horse and ride directly to the spot. He was much 
on horse-back, and early settlers will remember the 
old bay horse that stood hitched in front of his office, 
ready saddled and bridled, every day when he was at 
home. He never sought official position, though he 
served for six years as associate judge of the county; 
and he was on several occasions a member of the 
State board of equalization, which met at Columbus 
to equalize the lands of the State for taxation. In 
business transactions, he was a man of few words, but 
when free from the cares of business he was genial 
and sociable, and loved to hear and tell a good story. 
So much for Mr. Ely, the founder of the township. 

A sketch of the life of Artemas Beebe will be 
found elsewhere. 

Captain Festus Cooley' commanded a company 
of Massachusetts troojjs in the war of 1812. He 
marched his company to Boston, but as Massachu- 
setts troojis were not permitted by the governor to 
leave the State, it is not believed that the company 
of Capt. Cooley were guilty of shedding any British 
blood. He came to Elyria from Springfield on foot, 
i.rriviug on the 29th day of May, 1817, and imme- 
diately took charge of both the saw and grist mills, 
that were erected in 181G. He put them in good 
order, and all things seemed to prosper in the way of 
making improvements in the wilderness. Mr. Beebe 
says "every man worked with a will; there were no 
drones in those days." In the spring of 1819, Capt. 
Cooley went east, and returned with his family in 
August of the same year. He moved into the old 
tavern stand, built by Mr. Beebe and George Douglas, 
which he occupied for about a year, until Mr. Beebe 



arrived with his bride. Capt. Cooley lived ia this 
town until the time of his death, August 9, 1872, at 
the advanced age of eiglity-six years. Mrs. Cooley 
survived hiui several years: she died August 4, 1876. 
He was a kind unci oliiiging nciglilior and friend, and 
died without an enemy, lie was tlie father of several 
daughters, who all died soon after reaciiing maturity. 
His only son Festus, late of Elyria, now of Blue 
Rapids, Kansas, is his only surviving child. 

LuTHEii L.VNE came to Elyria with the first jiarty 
of immigrants. Being hired for only eight months, 
he returned at the end of that time, in company with 
the late Judge Lane, to Massachusetts. They made 
the entire distance on foot. He returned to Elyria, 
in 1821, and, in a year or two, built the house where 
he resided until his death. <)u the 4th of July, 1836, 
he nuirried Miss Ann Cooley, in West S])ringfield, 
and brought her to his new western home. She 
lived to share his toils, joys and sorrows. She died 
only a few years before her husband, ripe in years, 
and lamented liy all, who loved her for her many 
christian virtues. Mr. Lane was oue of the original 
members of the Presbyterian church in Elyria, and 
was elected deacon at the time of its organization. 
He was, pre-eminently, a good man. No one spoke 
ill of him. lie was honest, industrious, temperate, 
and kind t(i all witli whom he associated. Children 
loved him, for he always had a kind word for them. 
He owned the farm on the east side of the river, op- 
posite the residence of Rev. L. F. Ward. Deacon 
and Mrs. Lane raised no children of their own, but 
they brought up a number of orphan children, who 
were treated with parental affection. Ho died on the 
23d of November, 1868. 

James Porter was an industrious, hard working 
man, and accumulated considerable property. He 
owned the farm now belonging to I. J. Ra3inond, 
east of the river, and several houses and lots in town. 
Ho left one child, a daughter, who was six years old 
at the time of his death, and is now the wife of M. 
B. Purnly, of Dayton, Ohio. His widow married 
Dr. H. F. Hubbard, who died in Wisconsin. She is 
still living, and resides with her children in Colorado. 

George Douglas died young. He is remembered 
by the early settlers as an enterjirisiug, kind-hearted 
man. He died on the 5th day of November, 1820; 
aged thirty-five years. 

Roderick Ashley went east after a year or two, 
and engaged in boating on the Connecticut river, 
between Sjjringfield and Hartford. He accumulated 
a fortune, and died at an advanced age, in the spring 
of 1878, lamented by all who knew him. 

(Jershom Danes bought the farm now occupied 
by Sheldon Paddock, in Ridgeville, which he occupied 
for several years. He sold out many years ago, and 
moved west. His subsequent history is unknown. 

Edward Bush returned to the east, but afterwards 
removed to the State of Illinois, where all trace of him 
is lost. 

John Bacon, who kept the log boarding house for 

the pioneers, removed to his farm in Carlisle, where 
he resided many years. He died not long ago, at an 
advanced age. Uncle John, as he was familiarly 
called, was a generous and kind-hearted nuiu. 

(»f the first settlers in Elyria, Mr. A. Beebe is be- 
lievi'd to be the only survivor. 


as first incorporated, embraced only the territory lying 
between the branches of Black river. Its boundaries 
have been extended, so that it now embraces a good 
part of the township. Should its territory all be oc- 
cupied as a city, it would contain about two hundred 
thousand inhabitants. 

The cast and west branches of the river approach 
each other at the south line of the township, to within 
the distance of about one mile. The west branch runs 
in a northerly direction, until it reaches the west falls. 
The east branch runs parallel to it, until it passes 
sume distance north of Broad street, where it bends 
west, and for a short distance, south; turning again 
to the west, it reaches the east falls, a little below the 
bridge, which connects Washington avenue with 
Briiad street. These falls are forty feet per])endieu- 
lar, and when the i-iver is high, j)resent a grand ap- 
])earance. The river there nuikes its way through a 
rocky gorge, about sixty rods, where it unites with 
the west lira.nch. The west fall is about the same 
heighth as the east. After leaping the fall, it runs 
through a similar rocky gorge, for about forty rods, 
where the two branches form a junction. 


The scenery on both l)ranches below the falls is 
grand and beautiful. Immense ledges of sandstone 
project over the valley, for part of the distance, while 
hirge boulders of the same material are found in the 
l)ed of the stream, which, in a measure, obstruct its 
ixissage. . The banks on either hand are covered with 
deciduous trees, with which are intermingled ever- 
green trees, consisting of j'iues and hemlocks. At 
the foot of the west fall, on the south side, there is a 
large, wide-mouthed cave, over-arched with sand rock. 
It is a famous resort for both young and old. Iliah 

Jo B 

uj) on the projecting rock, many names are inscribed, 
and among them, in large letters, is that of Q. A. 
(iilmore, 1844. At that date. General Gilmore was a 
bright lad, attending school in Elyria. 

At some period in the distant jiast, the west falls 
were located some twenty rods below where they are 
at present, and at the place where they poured over 
the precipice, the rocks are water-worn, giving abund- 
ant evidence of their former location. Many interest- 
ing relics have been found in the former bed of the 

At the foot of the ancient junction, there is a basin 
or small lake, covering an acre or more of ground. 
Surrounding this basin, the scenery is indescribably 
grand; rocks are piled on I'ocks, in endless confusion. 
This is a famous resort for artists, many of whom 



luive visited Elyria for the purpose of sketching its 
scenery. A little below the basin, there is an island 
of several acres, covered with majestic trees of nia]ile, 
beech, and sycamore, the property of Mrs. Charles 
Arthur Ely. This she has generously cleared of 
underl)rush, and provided with rustic seats. She has 
also liuilt a stairway, leading down from the high 
hank above, and thrown her beautiful grounds open 
to the public. Pic-nic jiartios come from a distance 
to enjoy this beautiful retreat. Strangei's visiting 
Elyria are not aware that within a stone's throw of 
Broad street, can be found the most beautiful scenery 
in the State. 


On the west bank of the river, on the northei'n 
border of the township, there is a lot known as the 
Fort Lot. On this lot there are extensive works, con- 
structed, probably, by a race of people who inhabited 
this country prior to the present Lidian race. About 
forty years ago, a party of gentlemen, of whom the 
writer was one, nnide a survey of these works. They 
consisted first, of a large central mound, near the 
river Ixink. and a smaller mound on each side of it. 
The bank of the river descended gradually for about 
twenty feet, where was a level j)lateau, some two rods 
in width. Out of this bank gushes a sjjring of pure 
water, of sufficient size to carry an overshot wheel, 
and falls into the river, the perpendicular bank of 
which is some seventy-tive feet in height. Extending 
around these mounds, some ten rods or more from 
them, was a ditch. It commenced at the river bank, 
some twenty rods north of the mounds, and termin- 
ated at a doeiJ ravine, about a quarter of a mile from 
its place of beginning. At the distance of about ten 
rods from each other, were pits or caches, evidently 
made for the purpose of storing provisions. Very 
ancient oaks grew from the bottom of the ditch, in 
places. We excavated the largest mound rather im- 
perfectly, and found nothing but ijieces of potteiy, 
and fragments of human bones. The mounds were 
undoubtedly used as places of sepulture, where, after 
some battle, perhai)s, large numbers of the slain were 
entombed. It is to be regretted that, the owners of 
the land, in a spirit of vandalism, have ploughed 
over the mounds, and they are nearly on a level with 
tlie surrounding surface. 


On the twentietii of October, 1819, the township of 
Elyria, comjirising townsjiips number five and six,, in 
range seventeen, now Carlisle and Elyria, was, by the 
commissioners of Huron county, erected a separate 
township. It was named in honor of its jjioneer 
owner and settler, Heman Elj-, — Ely-ria. The first 
election occurred on the 3d of April, 1830, at which 
time there were twenty votes cast. The following 
I list gives the names of the electors at that time: 
Sherman Miuot, .Tohn M. Butler, John Bacon, James 
A. Sexton, Abel Farr, Dudley Starr, George Douglas, 

William Sexton, Enos Mann, Calvin Eice, Burton 
Waite, Chester Wright, J. L. Terrell, Elias Mann, 
Heman Ely, Roger Cooley, Festus Cooley, .James 
Ledoit, Henry Wolford and Edmund West. James 
Ledoit and Sherman Minot were judges of election, 
and Edmund West, clerk. Heman Ely, Sherman 
Minot and Jonathan A. Sexton, were elected trustees. 
Edmund West, clerk and treasurer. Heman Ely and 
Festus Cooley, overseers of the poor. Chester Wright 
and Enos Mann, fence viewers. John F. Butler and 
Festus Cooley, appraisers of property. George Doug- 
las, constable, and Heman Ely and William Sexton, 
supervisors of highways. Sherman Minot was the 
first justice of the peace; elected, doubtless, in 1820, 
though the only record we find is a copy of the notice 
for an election of justice of the })eace, "in place of 
Sherman Minot, whose term of office expired Decem- 
ber 33, 1822." 

From a list of taxable property, jircpared in May, 
1820, by Roger Cooley and Phineas Johnson, we learn 
that there were in the township eleven hors(>s, ninety- 
eight cattle, and seven houses, five of which were val- 
ued at one hundred dollars each, one at fourteen hun- 
dred (Heman Ely's), and another (Artemas Beebe's) 
at nine hundred dollars. The number of horses 
returned by the assessor in the spring of 1878 was 
seven hundred and seventy-seven, valued at thirty- 
eight thousand four hundred and seventy-five dollars; 
cattle, one thousand one hundred and twenty-seven, 
valued at twenty-two thousand two hundred and 
ninety-four dollars; total value of real estate and 
buildings, township, three hundred and twelve thou- 
sand and thirty-five dollars; village, one million and 
eighty-one thousand dollars; total in townshij) and 
village, one million five hundred and ninety-three 
thousand and thirty-five dollars. 

The records of the townshiii cannot be found fur- 
ther back than 1842. At the spring election this year 
Herrick Parker, Ira Cunningham and Israel Everden 
were judges; Schuyler Putnam and Benjamin F. 
Robinson, clerks. The otHcers elected were Ebenezer 
(h'iffith, Daniel Nesbitt and William Gregg, ti-ustees; 
Schuyler Putnam, township clerk; Abraham Burrell, 
treasurer; William Doolittle and John II. Faxon, con- 
stables, and nine supervisors of highways. 

In 1843, Clark Eldred, Daniel Nesbitt and Artemas 
Beebe, trustees; Stephen B. Wolcott, township clerk; 
A. Burrell, treasurer; John H. Faxon, constable; 
Heman Burch and Edson A. Griswold, justices of the 

The officers for 18T8 are Levi Morse, H. C. Tail 
and George F. Sears, trustees; W. II. Park, clerk; 
George D. Williams, treasurer; O. Dole, Charles 
Myers and S. A. Rawson, constaliles; Wm. H. Tucker, 
justice of the peace. 


j\Ir. Ely visited Columbus in the winter of 1821-2, 
for the purpose of securing an act for the organiza- 
tion of the county of Lorain. He traveled on horse- 



back, and the first day out he became lost in the 
woods. He succeeded iii finding his way back to liis 
lionio at night, and the next day was more successful 
in finding his way, and finally reached tlie State capi- 
tal. The new county was not formed at that session 
of the (reueral Assembly, but on the 22d of Decem- 
ber, 1832, an act was passed for its formation. It 
was taken from the counties of Cuyahoga, Huron and 
Medina, and was named Lorain. It took its name 
from Lorraine in France, in whieli province Mr. Ely 
spent some time while in Europe, and with which he 
was greatly pleased. It will be observed that the 
name is somewhat anglicised. It originally embraced 
the townships of Homer and Spencer now in Medina, 
and Sullivan and Troy now in Ashland county. At 
the same session a board of three commissioners was 
appointed to locate the county seat. Black River and 
Sheffield were competitors with Elyria, and tlie com- 
missioners visited both of those townships; but, after 
a fair consideration of their claims, fixed upon Elyria 
as the seat of justice for the new county, and on the 
14th of February, 1833, drove the stakes for the loca- 
tion of the new court house. It was located at the 
north east corner of Middle avenue and Broad street, 
and occupied the ground where J. A. Bean's grocery 
store now stands. Mr. Ely agreed to furnish build- 
ings for the court house and jail, and to pay two 
thousand dollars towards the erection of a new court 
house wlienever the county commissionei'S should see 
fit to build one. 

After the erection of the new court house, the 
original building was removed to a lot fronting Broad 
street, and was used for a time as a school house and 
afterwards as a Presbyterian church. It now stands 
in the rear of Snearer and Waldeck's cabinet shop. 
Tlie jail was erected on what is now the South public 
square, nearly opposite the i)resent residence of N. 
L. Johnson. It was a two-story frame building, the 
inside of one end lined with s(iuare-iiewn legs, which 
was used as a prison. The other end was used by 
tlie family of the jailor. It answered its purpose very 
well, few if any prisoners having escaped from it. It 
now stands on East Third street, and is owned and 
occupied as a dwelling by R. W. Pomeroy. 

ELYRIA IN 1835. 

Some of the townships in Lorain county were quite 
raj)idly settled after the first improvements. Sucli 
was not the case with Elyria. Its population is not 
remembered, but the following list shows the houses 
and their occupants at the above date. Commencing 
at the east end of Broad street the first house stood 
nearly opposite the old tannery, and was occupied by 
a Mr. Cuues. The second house was occupied by Mr. 
(iardner Howe, a tanner. Third, Heman Ely's resi- 
dence, now occupied by his son Heman. Fourth, the 
old tavern of Mr. Beebe, standing nearly opposite Mr. 
Ely's. Fifth, the residence of Mr. Edmund West, 
now owned and occupied by Albert Ely. Sixth, resi- 
dence of Deacon Luther Lane, now owned by Mr. 

Budd. Seventh, the residence of Mr. Kingsbury, 
now owned and occupied by Mr. Coburu. Eighth, 
George Gilbert, a blacksmith. Ninth, residence of 
Dr. John F. Butler, corner of Broad street and Mid- 
dle avenue. Tenth, residence of Hiram Emmons. 
Eleventh, residence of Thompson Miles. Twelfth, 
residence (name not remembered) on ground after- 
wards occupied by residence of Samuel Goodwin. 
Thirteenth, residence of Halstead Parker. Four- 
teenth, fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth, occupants 
not remembered. -Eighteenth, occupied by Roger 
Cooley. Nineteenth, resident not known. Twen- 
tieth, residence of Francis Douglas. Twenty-first, 
residence of Ebenezer Wliiton. Twenty-second, res- 
dence of James Porter. Twenty-third, now occupied 
by W. H. Park, built by Ransom Redington, at that 
time unfinished. 

There were but few farmers settled in the township 
outside the village. 

From the report of the appraiser of real estate for 
1870 (the last made) we take the following: 

Village. Number ot houses 554; valued at $4IS,015 00 

•as other buildings, valued at -lO.fias 00 

In the township, 174 houses, valued at 67,005 DO 

155 other buildings, valued at... 32,0(17 00 

Total, village and township S.558,342 00 

Real estate is appraised at less than half its true 

A number of persons whose names have not 
been mentioned settled in Elyria prior to 1825. Wil- 
liam Turner, Jr., whose father came to Grafton in 
1816, was apprenticed to George Douglas, to learn the 
house joiner and carpenter's trade, in 1823. He mar- 
ried Miss Olive M. Lynde, in 183-4, and became a 
permanent resident. By a life of industry he has 
accumulated a competence, and is now living at the 
age of seventy-five, respected by the community. His 
wife, aged seventy-three, is also living. Hiram Em- 
mons came from Connecticut in 1831. He died in 
1 865 aged seventy-two. He was an honest man and a 
good citizen. 

Stanton Sholes was one of the early merchants of 
Elyria. He sold out to Thompson Miles, who suc- 
ceeded him both as a merchant and resident in 1834, 
and removed to a pleasant home in Amherst. Cajjl. 
Sholes afterwards removed to the vicinity of Colum- 
bus, where he died recently, aged over ninet}' years. 
He commanded a company in the war of 1813, and 
did good service for his counti-y. Mr. Miles having 
secured a competence, retired from business in 1833. 
He died in September, 1845, aged fifty-five 3'ears, 
leaving a highly respectable family. 

Ezra S. Adams, from Canton, Conn., settled in 
Elyria in 1831, and established the first harness and 
saddlery shop in the county. He kept the hotel built 
by George Douglas for a time, and was a partner of 
Mr. A. Beebe, in establishing the first line of stage 
coaches between Cleveland and Sandusky, (now Fre- 
mont.) He afterwards carried on the business of 
harness making for many years. He died January 
33, 1847, aged forty-six years. 

ii«i*" ,. 
^ *& 

V^N V-V^vvv-,s -N5^ **^\\\\^?5SS$?^N:* ^■^'^> 

Photo, by Lee, Elyria, 0. 


A young man who, with good hahits and energ_v, says, 
" This will I do," rarely fails. William H. Tucker is a living 
illustration of this fact. He was born in Windham, Portage 
Co., Ohio, March 21, 1826, the youngest son of Jacob and 
Chloe Tucker. Jacob first settled in Ohio, at Vermillion, in 
1816. In 1818 he moved into Windham, as above, from which 
place he removed to Eaton, Lorain Co , Ohio, in 1832, pur- 
chasing a farm on Chestnut Ridge. 

Here with his wife he remained until their respective 
deaths ; Mr. Tucker dying in 1863, in his eighty-eighth year ; 
his wife having died two years previous. 

From the mother did W. H. Tucker get the notions which, 
worked out, have made the valuable citizen. Mrs. Chloe 
Tucker was a woman of uncommon energy ; the great motherly 
heart of a good woman, by precept and example, left an im- 
press on the character of her children that to this day recalls 
the memory of a mother who ever watched over them with 
self-sacrificing devotion, and aided them to become the true 
man or true woman. 

The father, of a difl'erent mental mould, ever kind, no mat- 
ter how gloomy the outlook, was ever cheerful ; always think- 
ing " Suflicient unto the day is tlie evil thereof." 

Mr. W. H. Tucker, well remembering the exodus from 
Portage to Lorain County, recalls the pa.ssage of Cuyahoga 
River, at Cleveland, Ohio, on a floating bridge, the all of 
his parents in a lumber wagon drawn by a yoke of oxen, 
those parents to work out of the then woods of Eaton a home 
for selves and little ones. Such a home, poor as it was, was 
even then made so pleasant that one and all of those children 
look back to it with fond memories. 

Early life in Lorain County gave limited opportunities for 
education. At the age of sixteen Mr. Tucker began to think 
for a better education than home schools provided. In his 
seventeenth year his father gave him all he could, viz., his 
time. With this and a fixed determination he commenced 
the business of education, chopping cord- wood for tuition, and 
doing chores for board. He was a pupil at a select school at 
Ridgeville, Ohio. The following winter found him teacher 
of the common school at Lagrange, Ohio. In the following 
July, to acquire further funds for schooling, he commenced 
work with a traveling threshing-machine. A week's work 
left him with only one leg, and even life in danger. Good 
early habits and a sound constitution pulled him through so far 
as the playsical was concerned ; but, as he looked to the future, 
"black care brooded o'er his mind." Fearing he should 

become a burden to his friends, he almost wished for death. 
However, will-power and kind attention offender friends drove 
such thoughts away, and left him with a fixed purpose. En- 
gaging in school teaching for the following twenty-two years, 
Mr. Tucker taught every winter, frequently fall and summer 
terms, in the common schools of Ohio; now and then a select 
school. All this time as teacher he was everywhere a learner. 

In the year 1864, Mr. Tucker removed to Elyria, Ohio, 
where he now lives. He was married in his twenty-third 
year to Miss Clarissa Andrews, who as kind wife, with joyous 
and sunny disposition, cheered his life until her death, which 
occurred at Elyria, Jan. 20, 1870. She left three sons, the 
youngest but eight days old, her only daughter having died 
before, aged two years. 

He was remarried, March 13, 1871, to Mrs. M. C. Hart, 
widow of Hermon Hart, of Grafton, Lorain Co., Ohio, who 
now with every womanly grace makes home pleasant to 
husband and their manj' friends. 

Mr. Tucker was elected recorder of Lorain Co., Ohio, in 
1864, filling the position, by two re-elections, for nine years. 
Retiring from olfice with health somewhat impaired by close 
confinement and strict attention to official duties, for a short 
time he engaged in sundry business occupations. Having, dur- 
ing his recordership, reviewed his law studies under the in- 
struction of Judge John C. Hale (which studies were originally 
made under Judge W. W. Boynton), he was admitted to the 
bar, at a sitting of the District Court, at Cleveland, Ohio. 

In 1875, Mr. Tucker was a prominent mover in the organi- 
zation of a lodge of Knights of Honor at Elyria, and was 
chosen past dictator of said lodge. In 1876 he represented said 
lodge in grand council, and has ever since been a member of 
that body, now being grand trustee. 

In February, 1878, as charter member, he helped the forma- 
tion of a council of Royal Arcanums at Elyria, of which he 
was elected past regent. He now fills the office of grand sec- 
retary of the grand council of said order for the State of 

Elected by his fellow-citizens as justice of the peace; a 
member of the law firm of Fary & Tucker ; with an oflicial 
reputation as recorder of Lorain Count}' unequaled either by 
successor or predecessor ; with the trusts of a grand officer in 
his hands ; his ever charitable hand; his undeviating life of 
integrity in all its meaning ; the universal respect of all with 
whom he comes in contact, Mr. Tucker can be well said to 
have grandly done his " This will I do." 


William Webster was born in West Hartford, Conn., 
Oct. 20, 1778, and moved to Laporte, Lorain Co., Ohio, 
May 15, 1828, from the town of Spaiford, Onondaga Co., 
N. Y. His son William was born at Florence, Oneida 
Co., N. Y., Feb. 20, 1809. 

The occupation of both father and son was that of black- 
smithing. William, the father of the subject of this sketch, 
worked at his trade in Elyria, in company with George G. 
Gilbert, from 1831 to 1834. His wife was born July 3, 
1813, and was the daughter of Henry J. Fhillips. They 
were married Oct. 27, 1831, in Eaton, Lorain Co., Ohio. 
Mrs. Webster died Nov. 13, 1868, leaving six children, 
viz. : Daniel, Edward, Cordelia, (wife of Dr. L. C. Kelsey, 
of Elyria, Ohio), Iral A., Fred, and Will. 

Iral A. Webster was born on Butternut llidge, Eaton 
township, Lorain Co., Ohio, Dec 22, 1840. In Iral's 
youth his parents moved to the State of Illinois, lleturniug 
from the West, for a short time Cleveland, Ohio, was their 
home; and in 1848, Carlisle, Lorain Co., Ohio, became his 
father's residence, where he still lives. 

Iral A. Webster's early days were spent on the home 
farm, in the blacksmith-shop, or in a quarry belonging 
to his father, except such time as was given to the district 
school, until 1861. During this year he attended a select 
school at Elyria, Ohio. In 1862 he commenced studies at 
Oberlin, Ohio, where some time was spent until the spring 
of 1866; the balance was pa.s.sed in teaching school at 
Lagrange and Amherst, Lorain Co., Ohio, and in reading 

law^with J. D. Horton, of Ravenna, Ohio. Continuing his 
reading, with C. W. Johnston, Esq., of Elyria, he was, in 
said place, admitted to the bar Aug. 29, 1867. In De- 
cember, 1867, he opened a law office at Oberlin, Ohio, 
where his family still resides, although Mr. Webster's time 
is mostly passed in Elyria, where he started a branch office, 
August, 1877. He formed a copartnership with Charles G. 
Finney, Jr., in February, 1872, which lasted but a few 
months, owing to the ill health of his partner. Jan. 1, 1877, 
saw his uncle, H. L. Webster, in the law business with him, 
which relation continued for one year, when Mr. Webster 
formed a partnership with his brother Fred, which still 

In December, 1877, Mr. I. A. Webster purchased one- 
half of the Oberlin Weehly News, and continued one of its 
owners and publishers until Jan. 1, 1879, his efforts having 
aided in a great degree in placing it upon a sound foun- 

On Nov. 25, 1868, Mr. Webster married Miss Lottie 
Robb, daughter of Jackson and Mary Robb. Of this 
marriage were born Albert M., Feb. 13, 1875; Angle L., 
April 8, 1877. 

Mr. Webster is yet young, a man of high moral stand- 
ing, and an ardent supporter of every movement looking 
towards the right. He is a prominent member of the 
Republican party. Sharing the confidence and good will of 
all, he enjoys that true respect of his fellows that only 
follows a life of strict integrity. 



Zenas Banuim built a forge on the west side of the 
river, wliere Gates' saw-mill was afterwards built in 
1818, and carried on the business of manufacturing 
wrought iron until 1832. He then removed to Rock- 
port, where he died manj' years ago. 

Elias Mann came to Elyriain 1819. He married a 
daughter of Major David Beebe, of Ridgeville and 
removed to Amherst, where he lived to a good old age. 

John Gould and Ebenezer Perry settled on the east 
side of the river, on the ground now occupied by the 
cemetery. Both died many years ago. 



Section first of an act to incorporate the town of 
Elyria, reads as follows: 

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, That 
all that part of the township of Elyria, in the county of Lorain, which 
is included within the branches of Black river, be and the same is hereby 
created a town corporate, and shall hereafter be known and dis- 
tinguished by the name of the Town of Elyria. The above was passed 
February 2.3, 18:!3. Signed, 

David T. Disney, Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Samuel P. Miller, President of the Senate. 

We are unable to find the record of elections i)rior 
to April 6, 1843. At this date an election was 
held and the following gentlemen were chosen, viz: 
Orren Cowles, mayor; Benjamin F. Robinson, re- 
corder; Archibald S. Park, Thompson Miles, Israel 
Everden, Ansel Keith, and T. Crane, trustees; and 
Samuel Goodwin, treasurer. 1843: Nahum B. Gates, 
mayor; Austin C. Penfleld, recorder; Herrick Parker, 
T. Crane, I. Everden, Orville L. Mason and William 
Olcott, trustees; treasurer re-elected. 1844: Oliver 
R. Ryder, mayor; I. Everden, 0. L. Mason, C. S. 
Goodwin, and Norman Crandall, trustees; recorder 
re-elected; Horace C, Starr, treasurer. 1845: officers 
re-elected entire. 1846: Albert A. Bliss, mayor; 0. 
L. Mason, 0. Cowles, T. Crane, N. B. Gates and 
William Olcott, trustees; recorder and treasurer re- 
elected. 1847: Hemau Ely, Jr., mayor; M.R.Keith, 
recorder, B. F. Robinson, W. F. Lockwood, A. 
Woostor, A. Culver and Milo Bennett, trustees; H. 
C. Starr, treasurer. We pass to a recent date. 1876: 
John H. Boynton, mayor; John Childs, George H. 
Ely, E. G. Johnson and Charles Spitzenburg, trustees. 
1877: N. B. Gates, mayor; council, John Childs, 
George 11. Ely, E. G. Johnson, Charles Spitzenburg, 
William Allen and George R. Starr. 1878: N. B. 
Gates, mayor; council same as before, adding John 
W. Hart and D. J. Nye. 

In making out the foregoing list of officers we have 
co])ied from the records as kept by the recorder, hence 
we are not responsible for the omission of first names. 

Soon after the commencement of the settlement, 
Mr. Ely saw the necessity of having bridges across 
both branches of the river, and contracted with Maj. 
Calvin Hoadley to build them. They were completed 
in the fall of 1818. Their location was substantially 
on the sites of the present stone and iron bridges. 

In the summer of 1819 Chester Wright erected a 
distillery, one of those, at that day, popular institu- 


tions. This stood on the east side of the east branch 
of the river, near the spring in the rear of the sand 
pits. Enos Mann and others afterwards carried on 
this distillery. Long years since it went into decay 
and now not a vestige of it remains. 

At a very early date, a carding and fulling mill 
was in operation. It was located on the site of Messrs. 
Topliff and Ely's extensive manufactory. Gardner 
Howe at first carried it on, who was succeeded by 
John L. Butler, and he, in turn, by Herrick Parker. 
The spinning wheel and hand-loom having become 
things of the past, Mr. Parker converted it into a 
woolen manufactory, but does not seem to have been 
successful, as the work was abandoned some twenty 
years ago. 

The grist and saw mills, built by Mr. Ely at the 
time of the first settlement, near the east branch 
bridge, have been succeeded by others, with more 
modern improvements, which are still in oijeration. 

The old red mill at the east falls was built by Mr. 
Ely, as early as 1834. In February, 1832, there was 
a great freshet, caused by heavy rains, which caused 
the breaking up of the ice. It swept away every mill 
dam above Elyria, gathering force at each, and came 
down almost like a wall of waters, bearing along large 
trees, which had been torn up by the roots. Nearly 
half of the red mill standing over the water was swept 
away, and all of the running gear, including the mill 
stones, and made a complete wreck of the lower por- 
tion of the mill. That part of'the building next the 
water, settled a foot or more, and the whole structure 
came near falling into the stream. It was soon re- 
paired, and has, until recently, done a large business, 
both as a custom and merchants' mill. It is not now 
in operation. 

The Lorain Iron Company was established in 1832, 
on the west side of the river, near the west falls. 
Ileman Ely furnished the capital, aud built the 
necessary works. It was, at one time, an extensive 
affair, employing one hundred, or more, men. It 
was not a success, financially, and was eventually 
abandoned. Its failure was probably due to the fact 
that it used bog ore, which was not vei-y rich in iron. 
Had the iron mines of Lake Sui^erior been then 
known, it would doubtless have been in operation at 
the present time. 

Below the "old red mill," was a second one, which 
was burned down, aud between the two, a gentleman 
named Clark, put in operation an axe manufactory. 
Tills business was carried on for a number of years, 
and turned out a very good class of work. This 
has, long since, ceased to be. Mr. N. B. Gates, for 
many j^ears, run a saw-mill, and carried on a sash aud 
blind manufactory, on the west branch, above the 
falls. As timber became scarce, it was abandoned, 
not being profitable. 


Sometime during the year 1844, the above society 
was organized. It rented a large hall in the Ely 



block, furni.slic'd eacli side of it with glass cases, for the 
reception of sjiecitnens — a platform and desk occupy- 
ing the front of the room. It was also supplied with 
seats, to accomodate about three hundred persons. 
The glass cases were generally filled with choice spec- 
imens, illustrating geology, mineralogy, eonchology, 
ornithology, and botany. Many Indian relies were 
also collected, together with a small library. In this 
room, weekly public free lectures were given for 
about four years, except during the month of August. 
The lecturers were mostly residents of Elyria, among 
whom were Di's. N. R. Townshend, Eber W. Hubbard, 
and L. I). Griswold; Joel Tiffany, A. A. Bliss, P. 
Bliss, and Woolsey Wells, attorneys; Rev. D. A. 
Grosvenor; and H. A. Tenney, editor, and others, 
not recollected. The lecturers were all volunteers, 
and performed their duties without compensation. 
During the existence of the association, several dis- 
tinguished scientists from abroad were eniploj-ed, who 
delivered coui'ses of lectures upon chemistry and 
geology. For nearly four years, the hall was filled, 
weekly, by the young and middle-aged citizens of 
Elyria, who were constant attendants upon the 
lectures. No one can projierly estimate the influence 
for good, especially upon the 3'oung peojde of our 
village, resulting from these lectures. Elyria has 
ever been celebrated for the literary and scientific 
culture of its inhabitants, and it is believed that, its 
reputation is, to a great extent, due to the influence 
of this society. 

After about four years of prosperity, several gen- 
tlemen, who had been prominent in conducting its 
afi'airs, removed from town, the regular lectures were 
discontinued, and it gradually fell into decay. In 
1852, a fire consumed the block and what .specimens 
remained in the room. 


Was organized in the log school house east of the 
river, on Thursday, the 2.5th of November, 1824. 
There were jiresent on the occasion. Rev. Alfred II. 
Betts, a minister of the Presliytery of Huron, and tlie 
Revs. Daniel W. Lathrop, Joseph Treat, and Caleb 
Pitkin, of tlie Missionary Society of Connecticut. 

The following jwrsons presented themselves for 
examination, viz: Luther Lane, Celia P]ly and 
Pamelia Beebe, from the First church in West 
Springfield, Massachusetts; Abbe W. Lathrop, from 
the First Presbyterian church in Brooklyn, Long 
Island; William Smith, from the church in Sheffield; 
Samuel Brooks, Hezekiah Brooks, Lydia Brooks, 
Sophia Brooks, Hannah Brooks, Hannah Johnson 
and Irene Johnson, of the Presbyterian church in 
Carlisle; and Harriet Hamlin, Julia West, Pearly 
Douglas, Ann Palmer and Pamelia Jlanter, who had 
never before made a public jirofession of religion. 

* Derived mostly from the church records, and from conTersation 
ivith the Hon. Hemau Ely. 

The building, occupied exclusively ns a clnrrch, stood 
on the northeast corner of of the public sipiare, and 
is the same now occupied by Snearer & Waldeck as a 
cabinet shop. 

In 18.34, a wooden church edifice was erected on 
lot No. 247 East Second street. This w-as completed, 
and on February 12, of the same year, was dedicated 
to the service of Almighty God. On the same day, 
the Rev. James II. Eells was oixlained jjastor of the 
church. This building is now owned by Mrs. Sarah 
W., widow of the Rev. I). A. Grosvenor, and is 
occupied as a dwelling. 

The massive and beautiful stone church on the 
corner of Second and Court streets was comjileted in 
the spring of 1848, and dedicated iSIay 17, of that 
year, at a total cost of twelve thousand five hundred 
and eighty-eight dollars and sixt3--five cents. The 
clock which occujiies the tower of this church was 
put up some years later, and cost three hundred 
dollars; the bell, six hundred dollars, and the fine 
organ, fourteen hundred dollars. A neat stone chapel 
was erected just south of the church in 1853. 

The following list shows the pastors who have 
ministered to the church, witJi the date they were 
severally installed: 

June 29, 1835, Rev. Daniel W. Lathrop; Februaiy 2. ISil, Rev. John J. 
ShipluTd; Febriiai-y 11, 18:B, Rev. James H. Eells; September 2t), ISiT, 
Rev. Lewis H. Loss; February !t, 1813, Rev. David A. Grosvenor; Novem- 
ber 4, ia5a. Rev. F. M. Hopkins; April 4, 18.5.1, Rev. Francis A. Wilber; 
July 2, 1867, Rev. Fergus L. Kenyon; March 1, 1872, Rev. C. H. Wlieeler; 
August 21, 1872, Rev. E. E. Williams; present pastor was employed and 
installed December 9, 187:3. 

The ]ir('seiit officers of the church, many of whom 
have grown grey in its service, are as follows: 

Deacon,".— Elijah DeWitt (Emeritus), Joseph .Swift, Jr., Edward W. 
West, Isaac S. Metcalf. 

Standing Committee — Thomas L. Nelson. Hemau Ely, Edward W. 
West, Elijah DeWitt, Joseph Swift, Jr., and Reuben M. Carter. Clerk— 
Isaac S. Metcalf. 

Ladies' Committee — Mrs. Heman Ely, Mrs. J. J. Monroe, Miss Eliza J. 

Chorister—John W. HuJburt. 

Organist — Miss Ann M. C'randall. 

Superintendent of Sahbath School — Hemau Ely. 

Assistant Snpenntendent — H. M. Parker. 

Sccretttrl/ and Treasurer— Mrs. T. L. Nelson. 

Committee on Missionarji, Snnday School and Bible Society Collections 
—Elijah DeWitt, Heman Ely, E. W. West, Joseph Swift, Jr., and I. S. 

Officers of the Society— Nahum B. Gates, president; I. S. Metcalf, seen' 
tary and treasurer. Trustees — Hemau Ely, Artemas Beebe, Thomas L. 
Nelson, John W. Hulburt and Joseph Swift, Jr. 

In the Sabbath school, the total enrollment is six 
hundred and twenty-five; average attendance, three 
hundred and seventy-five. There are also sustained 
by the church six mission schools, with an attendance 
of from thirty to sixty each. 

The present membership of the church is two 
hundred and ninety. 


The following brief sketch of this religious society 
is prepared from data furnished by Clark Eldred and 
Mrs. W. 0. Cahoou. Occasional services were held 
in Elyria, at the houses of the settlers, by preachers 
of this faith, soon after the settlement, prior to 1820. 




From 1830 to 1833, Elyria was included in Huron 
circuit and was suiiplied ))y tlic following ministers: 

In ISao and IS2t, Dennis Cimidard; 18ft.', Philip Green; 1823, N. and John 

From 1824 to 18;!1, Elyria was included in Black 
river circuit, and supplied by the following ministers: 

18*1, Zarah Coston; 1825, James Taylor; 183(!, E. H. Field; 1827, Harry 
O. ISheldon; 1S2S. Shadracic Riiark; 18211, John C. Havens; 18.30, E. S. 
Carpenter and H. Colelazer; WJl, E. S. Carpenter and E. C. Gavitt. 

From 1833 to 1843, it was known as Elyria circuit: 

is:j2, William Rnnnels and George Elliot; 18:5;3, William Runnels and 
J. Kiimear; 1834, A. Billings and A. A. Brewster; 18:S5, A. Billings and 
J. Wilkinson; 18:30, J, Wheeler and T. BarkduU; 18:37, S. M. Allen and J. 
Hudson; 1838, John M. Goshom; 18:39, James Brewster; 1840, Joseph 
Jones and John Brakefield; 1841, Cyrus Sawyer and S. B. Guyberson; 
1842, E. C. Gavitt and Peter Sharp. 

From 1843 to tlie present time, Elyria lias been an 
independent station, and sujiiilied as follows: 

18i;3and 1814, William Runnels; 184.5 and 1846, Lorenzo Warner; 1847 
and 1848, William B. Disbro; 1819, ISoO and 18->1, Wm. C. Pierce; 1851 to 
1853, Samuel L. Yourtee; 1853 to 1835, James M. Morrow; l&JS to 1S56, 
Uri Richards; 183G to 18.58, M. K. Hard; 18.58 to 185'j, Thomas BarkduU; 
1859 to 18(iO, J. A Kellum; 18110 to 1802, C. H. Owens; 1862 to 1863, Wm. B. 
Disbro; 1803 to 1805, E. H. Bush; 1805 to 1867, Gajlord H. Hartupee; 1807 
to 18(i8, J. S. Broadwell; 1868 to 1871, John A. Mudge; 1871 to 187:3, J. W. 
Mendenhall; 1873 to 1876, A. J. Lyon; 1876 to the present time, J. H. 

In Jlay, 1834, a class was formed, comjiosed of the 
following persons: Hiram Emmons (who was first 
class leader) and wife, C^lark Eldred and wife, George 
H. Gilbert and wife, Heber G. Sekins and wife, Sally 
Gilbert, and some others whose names cannot be 
ascertained. Soon after the year 1834, a church 
edifice was erected by this class and outside friends. 
It was a comfortable wooden structure, and stood 
near the site of the present Methodist Ejiiscopal 

The i)resent brick church was erected in 1850, at 
a cost of five thousand dollars. The society is now 
taking measures to build a new and more commo- 
dious church edifice. 

The old church building was converted into a 
dwelling house, and is occupied by Clayton Johnson. 
It has been so modernized and imj)roved m its archi- 
tecture that no person would recognize it. 

A lot for a parsonage was purchased in 1831, and 
soon after a house was put up for the use of the 
pastor. The parsonage trustees, at that time, were: 
Lewis Ely, George G. Gilbert, Hiram Emmons, Wil- 
liam Peters, Henry B. Tenis, Jonah Bradley, Clark 
Eldred, Charles Abljcy and Jabez Hamlin. The first 
1 parsonage has since been sold, and a new and better 
' one erected. 

! The present parsonage trustees are: Levi Morse, 
jJohn C. Houghton, Jerome Manvillo, Waterman 
; Morse, T. L. Taylor, C. M. Eldred, I. J. Carpenter 
iand Joseph Biggs. 

i Trustees of the Church— Seymour W. Baldwin, William Snearer, Levi 
I Morse, William Bennington and A. C. Phipps. 

Stewards— O. Bowen, Levi Morse, E. C. Griswold and Hiram Patterson. 
I Recording Steward— S. B. Sprague. 

I'i^trict Steward— nivalin Patterson. 

There is a large and flourishing Sunday school in 
I connection with the church, of which S. B. Sprague 
.s superintendent. 


The Protestant Epi.scopal Church in Elyria was or- 
ganized in 1837 under the superintendence of the 
Kev. Anson Clark, missionary, with the aid of tlie 
missionary committee of the diocese of Ohio. 

The following are the names of those who first 
signed tlie articles of association: Orrin Cowles, Jane 
C. Cowles, M. Augustus Cowles, E. H. Leonard, 
Sarah W. Leonard, Drake Andrews, Lucy Andrews, 
Cbaiincey Prindle, Nancy Prindle, Aaron Andrews, 
Eunice W. Andrews, Maria Prindle,.Julia Vaudeberg, 
Caroline Leonard, L. D. Griswold, Jerusha H. Gris- 
wold, Caroline Byington, Ruth Minot, Perley Blakes- 
ley, Mary Blakesley, William Babbitt, and Mary 

The first meeting of the parish was held at the 
house of Orrin Cowles, Rev. Anson Clark, presiding, 
and Eliiihalet H. Leonard, seci-etary. At this meet- 
ing the name, style and title of St. Andrew's Church 
was adojitcd, and the following jiersons elected ward- 
ens and vestrymen: Drake Andrews, senior warden; 
Orrin Cowles. junior warden; vestrymen, Chauncey 
Prindle, E. li. Leonard, and L. D. Griswold. 

In the summer of 1839, Rev. Mr. Clark resigned 
the charge, and during the next year the first church 
edifice was erected at a cost of one thousand five hun- 
dred dollars. 

In 1841, Rev. Hugh Kelley was called to the charge 
of the parish, and resigning in 1843, was followed by 
the Rev. George S. Davis who remained until 1845. 
From this time for a series of years the church was 
without a settled rector. In conserpience of this and 
the death and removal of several leading members the 
church gradually declined. 

In May, 1851, the first rector, Rev. Anson Clark, 
was recalled, and found but little remaining except 
tlie churcli edifice, but a congregati(m was soon col- 
lected, and among these were fifteen communicants. 

In October, 1853, Mr. Clark resigned, leaving 
twenty-six communicants who worked faithfully and 
earnestly in the church for its jiermanent growth. 
After a short interval the Rev. Francis Granger be- 
came rector, and continued as such until Easter, 1857. 
In May following, the Rev. B. T. Noakes assumed 
charge and remained until May 1, 1860, when he 
resigned on account of failing health. During the 
time he was rector the church edifice was greatly en- 
larged; a parsonage built; sixty-four per.sons added to 
the church, and forty confirmed. In June, 1860, the 
Rev. Richard L. Chittenden assumed charge of the 
parish, remaining until December, 18G3, when he left 
to accept a commission as chajilain of the forty-third 
regiment Ohio Tolunteer infantry, then in Tennessee. 
In February, 1864, he resigned his rectorship. Dur- 
ing the interval of his absence the Rev. William C. 
French, of Oberlin, held afternoon services for a period 
of some ten mouths, and visiting clergymen occasion- 
ally supplied the pulpit until July, 1865. In August, 
1865, Rev. Mr. Chittenden resumed charge, but in 



consequence of failing health, resigned in June, 1868. 
In July, of that year, Rev. S. A. Brousou, i)rofessor 
ill the Diocesan Tlicologieal Seminary took charge, 
temporarily, of the parish, and continued until Easter, 
1869, wlien the Rev. R. L. Chittenden assumed charge 
and remained until Easter, 1870. He was succeeded 
in June following hy the Rev. B. T. Noakes, who 
remained until February, 1876. During his rectorate 
the present beautiful cliurch edifice was erected and 
informally dedicated on the nineteenth Sunday after 
Trinity, 1873. It was afterwards consecrated by 
Bishop Gillespie of the Diocese of Western Michigan, 
in the absence from the country of the Bisliop of the 
Diocese, in July, 1875. It cost thirteen thousand 
dollars. The organ was made by Hook & Hastings, 
of Boston, Mass., and cost one thousand six liuudred 

After the resignation of Rev. B. T. Noakes the Rev. 
John Coleman officiated during the months of March 
and April, 1876. The Rev. William Hyde became 
rector May 1, 1876, and resigned June 1, 1877. The 
present rector, Rev. Arthur M. Backus, entered upon 
his duties July 1, 1877. 

The present oiHcers are L. D. (.iris wold, senior 
warden; William Jewett, junior warden; J. D. Faxon, 
R. H. Hill, J. C. McDonald, H. C. Starr, and G. S. 
Davis, vestrymen. Present number of commiiui. 
cants, one iiundred. Total enrollment of Sunday 
school scholars one hundred and forty. 

We are indebted to the Rev. A. M. Backus for the 
foregoing data. 


[Compiled principally from the memorial sermon delivered by the Rev. 
L. Andress, November 16, 1876.] 

In the latter part of June, 183G, tlie Rev. Daniel 
C. Waite, who had but recently graduated at Hamil- 
ton, N. Y., came west in search of a field for gospel 
labor. Arriving at Cleveland, Ohio, he was, on con- 
sultation with the Rev. Levi Tucker, directed to 
Elyria, where he held the first meeting in July 
following. This was in the court house, and after a 
few meetings held there, they were transferred to the 
old yellow school house, then standing on the west 
side of the public square. On the 26th of November 
ensuing, the following persons united in constituting 
the First Baptist Church in Elyria: Daniel 0. Waite, 
pastor; Luther Hartson, sen., Lutlier Hartson, jr., 
Mrs. Mercy Brooks, Miss Margaret Wright, Lucius 
and Sally Andress — seven in all. Mr. Waite contin- 
ued as pastor until January, 1837. Prom that time 
until the following September there was no settled 
pastor, but occasional preaching. Rev. Mr. Hillis, 
the next pastor, assumed the pastorate in September. 

The first sabbath in January, 1838, was tlie com- 
mencement of a series of meetings which resulted in 
a general awakening and an addition of twenty-six to 
the church. At the close of these meetings measures 
were put in operation for the building of a church 
edifice, which was completed perhaps one and a half 
years later. Rev. Mr. Hillis resigned from physical 

infirmities in June, 1838, and the Rev. Silas Tucker 
succeeded him. He remained until November, 1840, 
when he resigned. Rev. Josepli Elliot, of Pontiac, 
Mich., followed him. He commenced his labors the 
February following, and continued for three years. 
These were the most prosperous of any equal period 
in the history of the church as far as increase of mem- 
bership is concerned. In Noveml)er, 1842, the Rev. 
Elijah Weaver, an evangelist, of Wall Lake, Mich., 
assisted in a series of meetings wliieh continued four 

From June, 1842, to June, 1843, one hundred and 
ten members were added to tlie church. Tlie entire 
list of pastors after Mr. Elliot, who served three 
years, is as follows: H. Silliman, D. Bernard, D. 
Eldridge, N. S. Burton, L. Ramstead, A. Heath, 
Rev. Mr. Hayhurst, George E. Leonard, H. H. Baw- 
den, M. L. Bickford and Rev. W. A. Depew, who 
has recently resigned his pastorate. He assumed 
charge in JMarch, 1877. The present mcmljcrshiii is 
one hundred and fifty; enrollment in Sabbath school, 
one hundred and twenty-five. Miss L. S. Carter is 
suiierinteiident of the Sabbath school. 

Tlie officers of the churcli are Henry E. Mussey, T. 
W. Laundon, Cyrus Wheeler, Thomas Biggs and J. 
W. Rockwell, trustees; Thomas Biggs, and ,T. W. 
Rockwell, deacons; Amos Maxted, clerk. 

The entire property of the church, including tlie 
church edifice, parsonage, organ, etc., is valued at 
thirteen tliousand five hundred dollars. 


-ST. ,10HN S 

The first members were Daniel Haag, Louis Hase- 
rodt, Edward Beesc, .Jolin Duclitler, .J. G. Boehm, 
Henry Rembacli, and Ernest Schmittgen. 

Mitii.'iters of the Chuvrh. — H. Jiiengel, A. Ileit- 
mueller, H. W. Lothinann, C. C. Schmidt, and J. 
A. Schmidt, present pastor. 

The church building was dedicated on the 16th of 
March, 1868. It cost four thousand, five hundred 

The congregation was organized 1 efore the cliurch 
was built, under the ministry of the Rev. H. W. 
Lothmann, and services were held in the Presbyterian 
chapel, court house, and other places. Present mem- 
bership, eighty to ninety families. Connected with 
the church is a parochial school, numbering eighty 
pupils. Tliis is taught by the pastor, Rev. J. A. 


The trustees of this church, consisting of Henry 
Fowle, president; Paul Krause, secretary; and Got- 
lieb Mobeus, treasurer, on the 16th day of October, 
1871, purchased of the vestry of St. Andrew's Church 
the building and lot then occupied by the latter 
named body, paying therefor the sum of two thou- 
sand, two hundred and fifty dollars. 



Rev. Mr. Deering was the minister of this pai'ish 
from Octoljcr, 1871 to July, 1873; Rev. Mr. Walt- 
berger from July, 1872, to January 1873; Rev. Mr. 
Deering from January, 1873, to May 26, 1873; Rev. 
Mr. Rein from May 26, 1873, to November, 1873; 
Rev. Mr. Sehelloha from November, 1873, to Octo- 
ber, 1875; Rev. Mr. Seybold from October, 1875, to 
September, 1877; Rev. Mr. Schattle from September, 
1877, to September, 1878. Rev. Mr. Sputhnlf took 
charge September, 1878, and is the present minister 
of the parish. 

The following constitute the board of trustees: 
Paul Krause, president; George Dachtler, secretary; 
and Fred Dachtler, treasurer. 

At the organization of the church there were 
tweuty-flve families, and the j)reseut membership 
embraces thirty-five families. 


This church was formed in 1833. Among the early 
preachers of the denomination were Sidney Rigdon, 
Rev. Mr. Clapp, William Hayden, and Rev's Messrs. 
Green, Moody, and Jones. It, at one time, embraced 
forty members, among whom were Dr. John F. 
Butler, H. Redington, Asahel Parmely, Herrick 
Parker, and others. Many of the members removed 
to other localities, some died, and the church, many 
years ago, ceased its labors. 


We are unable to obtain any authentic history of 
this church. It was established in 1852. Its first 
priest was Father Haley. It iiurchased a lot on 
which is erected a large wooden church building, 
which has a seating capacity of five hundred. It is 
always filled when there are services. It has also, on 
the same lot, on Middle avenue, a fine i)arsonage. 
It also purchased a large lot on the east side of the 
avenue, on which is a school house, and a fine site 
for a new church, which will soon be erected. The 
school numbers one hundred pupils. Father Louis 
L. Melon is the present firiest. He discourses both 
in the English and German languages. 

We are indebted to Prof. H. M. Parker, superin- 
tendent of the union schools of Elyria, for the fol- 


The early settlers of Elyria, Mr. Heman Ely and 
his associates, were from the State of Massachusetts, 
and brought with them to this western wilderness, 
the idea, which was then, and ever has been held, 
throughout New England, that a good common 
school education is necessary to prepare boys and 
girls for citizenship in a republic. Their descendants, 
and others who have selected this beautiful place for 
a residence, have maintained the same opinion, and 
the present eificient system of graded schools, may be 
considered as the outgrowth of the sentiment of the 
early settlers. 

First, let us spend a little time in looking up the 
buildings in which the schools have been taught. 

Mr. Ely, and a few others, came here in 1817. As 
soon as tliere were pupils enough to organize a school, 
Mr. Ely built a log house on the east side of the east 
branch of the river, on the corner of East Bridge 
street and the street leading to the cemetery. This 
l)uilding was erected in the fall of 1819. Miss Irene 
Allen, afterwards wife of Roger Cooley, taught the 
first school in the log house. The summer of 1820, 
Miss Julia Johnson taught in the same place. Some 
others who taught there were Dr. Howe, Mrs. Clark 
Eldred, Mr. Bronson, and perhaps a few others. 
Miss Pamelia Manter, afterwards Mrs. Ransom Red- 
ington, taught an unfinished term in the log house, 
in the summer of 1824. Among Miss Manter's pupils 
was a young man nineteen years old. The first day 
he was in school he committed several lawless acts, 
for which he was reproved by his teacher. Towards 
the close of the day, when standing in spelling class, 
he put his foot out to prevent a small pupil from go- 
ing above him, on a word ho had misspelled. When 
told that he must not do so, he said: "What will 
you do with me? Will you whip me? " Miss Manter 
immediately I'eplied that she would report him to the 
trustees of the school, and he would be dismissed. 
lie gave no farther trouble. No school was taught in 
the log house after the winter of 1824-35. 

The summer of 1825, Miss Manter taught a school 
in a house in Mr. Miles' garden. The house is still 
standing in the same place, and is used as a residence. 
It is the house back of Mr. Monroe's business block, 
and is near the corner of East avenue and the street 
at the rear of the railroad depot. She had about fifty 
l>upils, ranging in age from five to twenty. One 
l)ui)il 2'ursued the study of history. Other studies 
taught were such as pupils ordinarily pursue in un- 
graded schools. 

What was known as the " session room " was erected 
by Mr. Ely in 1823. It stood where the building 
now stands which Mr. Beau occupies as a grocery, on 
the corner of Broad and East Court streets. The 
"session room'' is now occupied by Mr. Snearer as a 
store room for furniture. After the trustees ceased 
to use Mr. Miles' house for school purposes, school 
was taught in the "session room" till the completion 
of the "yellow school house," which stood where the 
town hall now is, on the west side of the public 
square. This building was erected for school pxxr- 
j)oses in the year 1827, and was used for such for a 
numljer of years. It now stands on the east side of 
Middle avenue, between Third and Fourth streets, 
and is occupied by the Catholic parochial school. 
Mr. Ely donated the land upon which the building 
was erected, and contributed one hundred and thirty- 
five dollars towards its erection, and built the second 
story at his own expense, with the privilege of using 
the same in any way which would not injure the 
school. The remaining expense of the house was met 
by a tax on the proj^erty of district number one of 



Elyria township, except that Mr. Ely's property was 
exempt on account of his liberal donation toward the 
enterprise. Tliis was the first school lioiise erected in 
the district, »ny part of wliose exi)ense was defrayed 
by a tax upon the property of the district. 

From 1837 on till 1850 several private schools were 
successfully carried on in Elyria. Among these, the 
one known as the "Elyria High School" should be 
mentioned in this connection. It was under the man- 
agement of a board of trustees known as the "Trus- 
tees of the Elyria High School." Mr. Ely erected a 
building on laud at the rear of the Methodist church, 
between Broad and Second streets, in the year 1831, 
and leased the building and land to the trustees for a 
term of years. 

Rev. John Monteith was called to take charge of 
the first school taught in tlie new building. He was 
assisted by his wife and Miss Mary Eells. The pupils 
were taught advanced studies as well as the common 
branches. J. H. Fairchiid, now president of 01)erliu 
College, and his brotlier, E. H. Fairciiild, now presi- 
dent of Berea College, Kentucky, were wholly, or in 
part, prepared to enter college at tliis school. 

Mr. and Mrs. Branch, Dr. A. B. Bnjwn and wife, 
Rev. John P. Cowles, afterward professor in Oberlin 
College, Rev. Mr. Mills and Luther M. Oviatt, suc- 
cessively had the management of the Elyria high 

After retiring from this school, Mr. Monteith estab- 
lished a school at his own liouse, where Mayor N. B. 
Gates now lives, where he and his wife taught for 
several years. 

Rev. Mr. Grosvenor established a girls' school in 
what had been the Presbyterian church. The build- 
ing now stands on East Third street, and is occupied 
as a dwelling. 

In the spring of 1846 a meeting of the voters of 
school district number one was called to vote a tax of 
one thousand dollars, to be used iu building a school 
house for the use of the common schools of the dis- 
trict. The vote was unfavoraljle. Many of the citi- 
zens feeling dissatisfied with the result of the vote, 
drew up a bill providing for the division of district 
number one into numbers one and niue. This bill 
became a law soon after. 

In the winter of 18-10-47, meetings were held in 
districts number one and niue, and each district voted 
a tax of one thousand dollars for the erection of a 
school house within its own territory. The following 
season the stoue school house on the corner of East 
avenue and Third streets was erected in district num- 
ber one, and a brick building in the west part of the 
village in number nine. Public schools are still 
taught in both these houses. 

During these years the sentiment was growing 
among educators that the public schools of the cities 
and villages should be greatly improved. Much work 
was done by a few men to arouse the citizens to the 
importance of improving their schools. The result 
of their labors is the law which was enacted February 

21, 1849, entitled "an act to provide for the better 
regulation of public schools in cities and towns, etc." 

On the 13th of May, 1850, but a little more than a 
year after the ]KissHge of the above act, a notice was 
posted in Elyria calling upon the citizens to assemble 
at the court house on the 24th of Ma}', to decide by 
vote whether they would reorganize their schools 
under the law of 1849. The vote was favorable to 
reorganization. An election was held on the 8th day 
of June, 1850, at which the following persons were 
chosen members of the board of education: For 
three years, E. DeWitt and 0. Cowles; for two years, 
M. W. Pond and Tabor Wood; for one year, C. S. 
Goodwin and P. C. Dolley. i 

In October, 1850, Mr. Jason Canfield was called to 
take charge of the Elyria union schools, which con- 
sisted, at that time, of the two primary schools in 
tlie stone and brick houses which were erected in 1847, 
in the east and west parts of the village, an interme- 
tliate or secondary school and a high school, both of , 
which were taught in the "Elyria High School" build- 
ing before «ientioned in this article. 

In Ajiril, 1851, Mr. Canfield was succeeded by Mr. 
M. J. Oatman, who remained in the schools for more 
tlian thi'ee years. The scholarshi]^ and exjierience of 
Mr. Oatman were such as to render him a valuable 
man in perfecting the organization upon which the ' 
schools had been started. 

In 1853, another department was organized, mak- 
ing three below the high school. This school was 
taught in the old "session room," which had pre- 
viously been occupied for church, for a court room, 
and for schools. 

The present high school building, between Middle 
Mild West avenues, was erected in jiursuauce of a vote 
of the electors of the union school district, at a meet- 
ing held January 2G, 1856, and adjourned to February 
9, 1856. The buihliug was commenced in 185G, and 
was completed in 1857, and first occuj^ied by the high, 
grammar, and secondary departments, in the winter 
term of 1858. The old "high school" house and the 
"session room" were now abandoned to other ixses. 

What are now known as the east and west side 
primary schools of the Elyria union schools, were 
formerly sub-districts number two and number six of 
Elyria township. These were assumed by the Elyria 
school board iu April, 1864. 

Seeing the need of more room for the increasing 
number of pupils, iu 1868 the board erected a two- 
story wing on the south side of the high school build- 
ing. In this wing are two rooms. The lower room 
was first occupied in September, 1868; the upper room 
was first used in September, 1870. 

In 1875, the board erected a school building west 
of that occupied by the high school, fronting on Sixth 
street. This house contains four rooms, two of which 
were occupied in January, 1876, one in October, 1877, 
and one is still unoccupied. 

When first organized there were but four schools in 
the "union school district;" there ai'e now fourteen 


Photo, by Lee, Elyria, 0. 


The truth of the law " that like produces like" is 
forcibly illustrated in the life of Elizur G. Johnson, the 
seventh child of Hon. Nathan P. Johnson. He was born 
at Lagrange, Lorain Co., Nov. 24, 1836. 

In those days a boy's life devoid of labor was a remark- 
able exception. E. G. Johnson's life was not the exception. 
His work for twenty-one years was on the homestead, except 
such time as was devoted to school and school teaching. 
The district school, Oberlin, for a time during the winter 
months, and an intelligent father were his sources of edu- 

Arriving at maturity, farm labor, the teaching of school, 
and other employments occupied him for a time. Then com- 
mencing the reading of the law under Mr. L. A. Sheldon, 
he was admitted to the bar at Columbus, Ohio, making 
Lagrange his residence. He there remained for several 
years, practicing his profession ; years more of hard work, 
study, and mental gain than pecuniary profit. Here, as 
his father had been before him, was he honored by his 
fellow-citizens with local offices. 

Elected as auditor of Lorain County in 1868, Elyria be- 
came his residence. So strict was his attention to duty, and 
so courteous his treatment of all with whom business brought 
him into contact, that he was successively re-elected in 
1870-1872, and again in 1874. 

Leaving the auditor's office with a perfect record, Mr. 
Johnson again engaged in the practice of law at Elyria, in 
which and where he still remains, with a large and ever- 
increasing practice. 

During the years 1875 and 1876, with great ability he 
conducted the Elyria Republican as its editor. His pen 

was always found on the side of justice, temperance, and 
morality, and proved an efficient and ever active aid to the 
Republican party, of which he has been a member since its 

Holding at the present time, as he has for many years, 
the office of secretary of the Lorain County Agricultural 
Society, none have surpassed, and but few equaled him in 
endeavor, by word and act, to make said society the worthy 
organization it is. 

As a citizen of Elyria he has been and is now a member 
of its council, and noted for his constant efforts for the im- 
provement of Elyria. 

On Jan. 1, 1859, Miss Lydia D. Gott, of Lagrange 
(daughter of Peter Gott, an original settler in said town- 
ship, yet living, over eighty years of age), became Mr. John- 
son's wife. 

To him in early days of toil and hardship she was a true 
companion. And now with comforts on every side, a de- 
voted member of the Methodist Church, with a fond 
mother's eye she watches the growth and education of 
seven children, ever holding in the mother's heart the 
memory of the two little ones that death took from her in 

Mr. E. G. Johnson, yet in the vigor of manhood, warm 
in his friendships, generous to a fault, with private and 
public character untarnished, now reaps a glorious harvest. 
True it is, the seed was sown under every difficulty, but he 
was never discouraged ; and now, with a reputation fitting 
him for any office that his neighbors and fellow-citizens may 
call him to, he has well and honestly earned the high 
rank he takes among Lorain County's best men. 



John C. Hale was born at Oxford, New Hampshire, March 3, 
1831. His parents were Aaron and Mary Hale. His mother's 
maiden name was Kent ; she was a daughter of Thomas Kent. 
John C. was born and brought up upon his father's farm, 
where he remained until he was nineteen years of age. During 
this period he availed himself of such advantages of educa- 
tion as the common schools of that State then provided. Feel- 
ing the necessity of something beyond this, he began fitting 
himself for college. Entering Dartmouth College soon after, 
he graduated in the class of 1857. At the end of his college- 
life he found himself nearly a thousand dollars in debt, all of 
which he has since paid with interest. Immediately remov- 
ing to Cleveland, Ohio, he employed himself in teaching in 
the public schools of that city. In this employment he re- 
mained three years, in the mean time studying law with Judge 

On the 27th day of December, 1859, he married Miss Carrie 
A. Sanborn, of Cleveland, Ohio. In July, 1801, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and in October of the same year he removed 
to Elyria, Ohio, and commenced the practice of the law. 
Here he soon won a commanding position as a lawyer, and a 
high place in the confidence of the people. This is evidenced 
by the fact that in 1863, but two years after he came to Elyria, 
an entire stranger to the people of Lorain County, he was 
elected to the ofiBce of prosecuting attorney, which position, 
by two successive re-elections, he held for six years. 

During this time he also held the office of register of bank- 
ruptcy, the duties of which he acceptably discharged until the 
consolidation of districts abolished the office. 

In 1873 he was elected to the constitutional convention, and 
took an active and influential part in the deliberations of that 
body. In 1876 he was elected judge of the court of Common 
Pleas, which position he now holds, and tills with distinguished 

Judge Hale has always taken an active part in the pro- 
motion of every enterprise calculated to advance the public 
good. As a member of the village council and the board of 
education of Elyria, he rendered valuable services in behalf 
of education and economical municipal government. 

As a lawyer he had no superior at the Lorain bar, a fact 
that is attested by his successful and lucrative practice. His 
clear perception, his candor and strict integrity, gave him 
earl\' in his practice a strong hold upon the people, and a 
ccmimanding position in his profes.sion. 

As a judge he brings to his assistance a large common sense, 
tempered by a thorough legal and scholastic education. Just 
in the vigor of manhood, with mental and physical powers 
undiminished, deserving and possessing the full confidence of 
the people, and guided by a strict integrity, his career of use- 
fulness has but just commenced, and he will long hold the 
liigh position he has fairly won among the foremost men of 
Lorain ('ountv and the State of Ohio. 


Among the other New England States that sent 
their hardy sons to mould the early liistory of 
Lorain County, Maine sent her representative in the 
Boynton family. 

Lewis D. Boynton, father of Judge Boynton, was 
born in the State of Maine, in August, 1802. Emi- 
grating to Ohio in 1826, he purchased a farm in 
Russia township, Lorain Co., where and in Elyria 
he resided until his death, which occurred in Sep- 
tember, A.D. 1875. 

Washington W. Boynton was born in Russia town- 
ship, Jan. 27, 1833, and spent his early years upon 
his father's farm. His father being of limited 
means, and charged with the support of a large 
family, did not think it practicable to send young 
Boynton to college, and he was forced to content 
himself with such advantages as the common school 
of his district provided. Adding to this, constant 
study and close application, maturity found him 
eminent in scholarship, although no college had 
added a title to his name. From that time until the 
present he has been a hard student. For several 
winters he taught school, in the mean time pursu- 
ing the study of the law, which he early chose as 
his profession. He was for a number of years 
a member of the Board of School Examiners of 
Lorain County. 

He was admitted to the bar in 1856, and he soon 
became prominent in his profession, a position which 
he held until chosen Common Pleas judge. In 
1859 he was appointed to fill a vacancy in the 
office of prosecuting attorney, which office he held 
for two successive re-elections until the fall of 1863, 
when, on account of ill health, he resigned. A trip 
to Minnesota, where he remained during the winter 
of 1863-64, gave him necessary rest, which, together 
with the change of climate, greatly improved his 
health. Returning to Elyria, he again opened a law- 
office, and soon found himself in the midst of an 
extensive and lucrative practice. 

In 1865, Judge Boynton was elected to represent 
Lorain County in the Legislature for the terra of 
two years. In 1867 he was the unanimous choice 

of his party for re-election, but he declined it and 
continued in the practice of law. 

While a member of the Legislature, Mr. Boynton 
had the honor and pluck to introduce a resolution 
proposing an amendment to the constitution of Ohio 
to strike the word " white" from the clause relating 
to the election franchise. After a stormy debate in 
a House largely Republican, the resolution was de- 
feated, lacking a few votes of the necessary two-thirds 
majority required to submit it to a vote of the people. 
This debate aroused such a sentiment throughout the 
State that, in a few weeks after, a similar resolution 
was introduced into the Senate by Hon. Abner Kel- 
logg, of Ashtabula, and having passed that body, was 
sent to the House, and after a heated debate finally 
adopted and the question submitted to the people. 
The proposition was lost, but it was soon followed 
by the amendment of the Federal constitution which 
forever put the question to rest. 

In February, 1869, Mr. Boynton was appointed 
by Governor Hayes a Common Pleas judge of Lorain, 
Medina, and Summit Counties, on the resignation of 
Judge Burke. At the ensuing fall election he was 
elected to fill the vacancy, and two years thereafter 
was re-elected for the full term. As judge of the 
Common Pleas Court, Mr. Boynton won a fame as 
wide as the State, and at once stepped into the front 
rank of the legal profession of Ohio. In 1876 he 
was elected judge of the Supreme Court of the 
State, which position he still holds. 

Mr. Boynton was married Dec. 20, 1859, to Miss 
Betty A. Terrell, daughter of Ichabod Terrell, of 
Ridgeville, Lorain Co., Ohio. 

Mr. Boynton is a man whom his friends and fellow- 
citizens hold in the highest esteem. His record both 
in public and private life is free from blemish. He 
has been honored by the people with offices of trust 
and high responsibility, and in every capacity has 
proved himself a competent and fearless officer, and 
an upright and honest man. 

As a lawyer, legislator, and jurist he has achieved 
a success that reflects great credit upon himself and 
honor upon Lorain County, whose representative he is- 



different schools, with fifteen teachers . besides the 
superintendent, and special teachers of German, mu- 
sic and penmanship. 

At a meetino; of the board of education held Novem- 
ber 17, 1859, a course'of study for all the departments 
Avas adopted. In the grades below the high school, 
provision was made for instruction in reading, spell- 
ing, writing, drawing, vocal music, arithmetic, geog- 
raphy, grammar, composition, declamation, physi- 
ology. United States history, and morals. For the 
high school a three j'ears' course of study was laid 
down, and provision was made for a fourth year, which 
was to be optional. The board tlien declared that 
pupils completing the full course of four years in the 
high school should receive a diploma from the jiresi- 
dent of the board, signed by its members, and also by 
the superintendent and examining committee. 

The first class which graduated from the high 
school course was that of 1863, consisting of Lydia 
A. Ball, Beza N. Boynton and Henrietta C. Schaibly. 
A class had graduated in the year 1861, having com- 
pleted some of the studies contained in the course 
before its adoption by the board. This class consisted 
of Cyrus Y. Durand, Thankful D. Boynton, Frances 
W. Sanford and Louise Terrell. 

At a meeting of the board, held September .3, 1867, 
the course of study was revised. At the same meet- 
ing, a set of rules regulating the board meetings, and 
specifying the duty of members of board, of superin- 
tendent, teachers and pupils, was adopted. 

After stating the duties of members of the board, 
the minutes of the meeting above mentioued read as 

" Public schools are expensive. Tliey cost the young people a great 
deal of valuable time. They cost teachers and other friends of educa- 
tion a great deal of labor and care. They cost tax-payers a good deal 
of money. But schools are worth all they cost. No communitj' can 
afford to do without them. It is cheaper to support schools and 
churches than penitentiaries and infirmaries. Free public schools are 
the palladium of liberty. Universal edutration is the surety for the 
permanency of free institutions. Every good citizen feels a direct 
interest in the prosperity and efficiency of schools, and should also feel 
a personal responsibility therefor. Good schools are not only worth 
what they cost; they are worth understanding and caring for. Tlie 
best way to know them is to go and see them. Any one may learn more 
about schools by visiting them a few hours, than by much fault-finding 
with the teachers and board of education." 

The above quotation is made to indicate the senti- 
ment which has pervaded the board of education of 
the Elyria union schools from their organization to 
the present time. They have spared neither time 
nor money necessary to carry on their schools in an 
efficient manner. 

The course of studj- was again revised Ajjril 1"^, 
1870, that for the first eight years being the same as 
in the Cleveland schools. In 1871, the board pub- 
lished a "manual of the course of study, rules and 
regulations of the Elyria union schools." Since that 
time, the course of study has undergone some changes 
to adapt it more fully to the wants of the times. 
More attention has been paid to the use of language. 
I Also much more time has been devoted to the acijui- 
sition of a knowledge of the best thoughts of the best 

It has been the aim of the board to have the chil- 
dren of Elyria enjoy educational advantages equal to 
those enjoyed by the children of any other place in 
Ohio. They have endeavored to secure competent 
teachers, and to retain them as long as possible. 

After the resignation of Mr. Oatman, in 1854, Mr. 
N.W. Demnnn acted as superintendent tillJune, 1856; 
Mr. Frank Robbing, from September, 1856, to June, 
1857; Mr. J. U. Barnum, from September, 1857, to 
June, 1859; Mr. W. C. Catlin, from September, 1859, 
to June,1862; Mr. H. M. Parker, from September, 
1863, to June, 1864; Mr. J. S. McKee, from Sep- 
tember, 1864, to June, 1865; Mr. Geo. L. Mills, from 
September, 1865, to June, 1867; Mr. Peter H. Kaiser, 
from September, 1867, to June, 1868; Mr. Geo. N. 
Carruthers, from September, 1868, to June, 1873; 
Mr. H. M. Parker, from September, 1873, to the 
present time. 

During the twenty-eight years of the Elyria high 
school, forty-one different ladies have been connected 
with it as teachers. Of these, Mrs. W. C. Catlin and 
Miss L. F. Ingram remained three years. A few of 
the others remained two years, but most of them for 
a shorter time. Miss Beza N. Boynton, now Mrs. 
Peter II. Kaiser, was teacher in the high school four 
and two- thirds years in the aggregate, but her teach- 
ing was at three different times. What has been true 
of the high school, has been true of the lower grades. 
The want of permanency in the ])rofessiou of teaching 
is an injury to the cause. Miss L. E. Smith has been 
for many years a teacher in some one of the different 
departments of the .schools of Elyria. Her work de- 
serves honorable mention. No adequate mention can 
be made of the good she has done in this community. 

Since 1863, a class has graduated from a four years' 
course of study in the high school each year, except 
1866 and 1871. The whole number of pupils who 
have graduated is eighty-eight, with a class of fifteen 
to graduate in 1879, making one hundred and three. 

The advantages flowing from an eflficieut system of 
schools, in a place like Eryria, are not to be estimated 
by the number of graduates from the high school. 
Many young people have taken a portion of the course 
of study to prepare themselves for admission to higher 
institutions of learning. Many more have left school 
after completing half of tiie high school course of 
study to enter various callings. These have become 
much more.successful in business and useful as citi- 
zens on account of the training received in the last 
two years of their course. Many pupils have left the 
lower grades of school to enter upon lives of idleness 
and crime. But when pupils have spent two years 
in the high school, they have formed habits of indus- 
try and application to their work which they carry 
with them into their life-work. 

Graduates from the Elyria high school are filling 
positions of responsibility and trust in large manu- 
facturing and business establishments, are practicing 
successfully the various professions, and are the light 
and life of many home circles. 




We have already shown the Elyria of "hmg syno." 
We will now take a turn among its present manufac- 
tories. Just below the depot of the Lake Shore and 
Michigan Southern railway, and connected with this 
railway by a spur track, stand the extensive brick 
buildings owned and occui^ied by the Messrs. Topliff 
& Ely, in the manufacture of special carriage hard- 
ware. Tiiese gentlemen, in the year 1805, erected a 
wooden building near the site of their jyresent manu- 
factory, and investing fifteen thousand dollars, began 
the making of hubs, spokes, etc. This braiK'h of the 
business was abandoned in 1874. In the year 1874, 
they began the manufacture of tubular bow sockets 
for carriage bows, in a small room on Broad street. 
The rapidly-increasing business rendered additional 
room necessary, and in 1873 they completed the first 
of the brick buildings they now occupy. This was 
24x6-4 feet in dimension, and two stories high. In 
1874, another small building was added, but these 
were soon found wholly inadequate to accommodate 
the business, and in 1877 extensive enlargements were 
begun, which are Just completed — showing a frontage 
of three hundred and forty feet, by an average depth 
of sixty-five feet. They have now invested in the 
business one hundred thousand dollars. They employ 
on an average forty workmen, with a monthly pay- 
roll of eighteen hundred dollars. The yearly sales 
aggregate one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 
The steel tubular bow socket is the principal article 
manufactured. It was patented in 1870 by I. N. 
Topliff, a brother of the senior partner of the present 
firm. This is the only manufactory of these goods 
in the world, and they find a market not only 
in the United States, where they have an immense 
sale, but in England, France, South America, Aus- 
tralia, etc. These buildmgs have their foundation 
ui)on the solid rock, which at this point crops out 
and forms the bank of Black river. The propelling 
power is derived from the waters of that stream, and 
from steam as a i-eserve. Their elegant engine is 
from the manufactory of 0. 11. Brown & Co., at 
Fitchburg, Mass., and is of one hundred horse power. 
One hundred and fifty sets of these sockets are made 
each day, or a complete set for a buggy every foui- 


This company was organized and commenced busi- 
ness in Cleveland in October, 1873. On the 23d of 
October, 1874, the works were shut down, and, as 
soon as practicable, the machinery was transferred 
to the commodious brick building, which had been 
erected in Elyria, this point offering superior facilities 
in many respects. Tlie citizens of this town con- 
tributed liherally towards the erection of the building 
and to aid the company in other respects. This build- 
ing is fifty by one hundred and fifty feet in size and 
four stories high. It is located near the crossing of 

the L. S. & M. S. and the C, T. V. & W. railroads. 
The cost of the building was thirty-one thousand dol- 
lars; machinery, tools, etc., forty-seven thousand nine 
hundred and fifty-eight dollars. New articles of in- 
corporation were issued on the 20th of November, 
1874. The following officers were elected under the 
new charter: S. II. Matthews, president; F. B. Iline, 
vice-president; C. H. Morgan, superintendent; W. F. 
Hulburt, secretary and treasurer. The above officers, 
with E. W. Phelps and R. C. DeWitt, constituted the 
board of directors. The present officers are F. B. 
Hine, president and treasurer; R. C. DeWitt, vice- 
president; M. H. Levagood, secretary and sujierin- 
tendent. The average number of hands employed is 
thirty-three; average monthly pay-roll, twelve hun- 
dred dollars; average yearly sales, twenty-eight thou- 
sand dollars. 

The engine which drives the numerous ingenious 
machines of this establishment, is of on) hundred and 
fifty horse power. In addition to the manufactures 
imi)lied by that name, are set and cup screws, hand 
and machine taps, cylinder studs, finished and case- 
hardened nuts, etc. 

Since the foregoing was written, we regret to add 
that, owing to losses resulting from many of its cus- 
tomers having gone into bankruptcy, the general 
depression of the iron interests of the country, and 
bad management, the company has been compelled 
to make an assignment. M. H. Levagood, the assig- 
nee, still carries on the business. The stockholders 
will, doubtless, lose their entire stock, and the pro- 
j)erty will pass into the hands of the bond holders, 
who, it is hoped, will reorganize and carry on the 
business successfully. 


which occupies a portion of the screw and tap com- 
pany's building, was incorjmrated on the 7th day of 
March, 1878, with an authorized capital of ten thou- 
sand dollars, which was paid in soon after the articles 
of incorporation were received. The first and present 
officers are: T. L. Nelson, president; W. P. Hatch, 
vice-president; M. A. Mihills, secretary; and John 
Clause, treasurer. This industry alone furnishes em- 
ployment for thirty-four workmen, who receive an 
aggregate of one thousand dollars, at the end of each 
mouth's labor. The monthly sales average thirty-five 
hundred dollars, and are steadily increasing. They 
manufacture shears and scissors of every description, 
and of a superior quality. The company are general 
agents for the union knife company's cutlery, and 
intend soon commencing the manufacture of this 
class of goods. 


Dickinson, Williams & Faxon. — In 1853, Alex- 
ander Smith came from the east, formed a partner- 
ship with John W. Bullock, bought a lot north of 
the L. S. & M. S. Ry. depot, and erected thereon a 
building, which was fitted up witli the machinery 



requisite for the manufacture of agricultural imple- 
ments. In the year 1854, Mr. Bullock retired from 
the firm. Henry Thurston purchased his interest, 
and put in a planer and matcher, surface plauer and 
machinery for making sash, doors, and blinds. In 
September, 1856, the building and contents were de- 
stroyed by fire. Messrs. Franklin and Levi A. Dickin- 
son joined with Mr. Thurston, purchased the site, and 
erected a large, two-story building, and in the spring 
of 1857, began the manufacture of sash, doors, blinds, 
etc., in connection with general planing mill work. 
Th'V also engaged extensively in general jobbing and 
building. Clayton Johnson having become a mem- 
ber of the firm, tlio business was continued under the 
firm name of Dickinson, Johnson & Co., until Feb- 
ruary, 1865, when Franklin Dickinson, (in conse- 
quence of failing health.) sold his interest to the two 
remaining partners. The business had grown to 
such magnitude that, from twelve to fifteen workmen 
were kept in constant employment. In 1871, exten- 
sive additions were made to the buildings, and im- 
proved machinery added. In 1875, Mr. Johnson 
sold his interest to George D. Williams and Theodore 
Faxon, and the business has been continued under 
the firm name of Dickinson, Williams and Faxon 
until the present time. The entire capital invested 
is fifteen thousand dollars. Average number of work- 
men employed, fifteen. Average monthly pay roll, 
seven hundred dollars. Engine, forty horse power. 
They also manufacture specialties in furniture. 

The planing mill owned by JoJiu W. Hart is situ- 
ated on Broad street. It was erected several years 
since, but of its early history we are unable to obtain 
details. Mr. Hart purchased the property in 1873, 
and has thoroughly refitted it with machinery of the 
latest and most approved pattern. The engine is of 
forty horse power. There is a force of eighteen 
workmen employed, who receive on the average eigbt 
hundred dollars pay monthly. Mr. Hart has invested 
ill the business the snug sum of fifty thousand dollars. 
He does a general planing mill work, including sash, 
doors, blinds, etc. He is also extensively engaged in 
the stone trade. 

C. Parscli's j)laning mill is located on Mill street, 
near the L. S. & M. S. railway. He has five thousand 
dollars invested, and employs nine workmen. Hi.s 
engine is of twenty-five horse power. He also deals 
in shingles, lath, etc. 

James Hollis' Foundry & Machine Shop. — Mr. 
Hollis has been engaged in this line of business in 
Elyria for about thirty years. He began work in his 
present building, on Maple street, in 1871, with a 
capital of five thousand five hundred dollars. He 
manufactures engines, horse powers, and does gene- 
ral repairs, foundry and machine work. 

E. F. Bronsou manufactures (also on Majile street) 
the centennial lap board, and also specialties in fine 
furniture. The business, which was established in 
November, 1877, already represents a capital of six 
thousand dollars, and may bo claimed among the 


growing industries of Elyria. Employment is fur- 
nished for six workmen. Average monthly sales, 
six hundred dollars. 


This business was established in the year 1867, by 
its present proprietor, Mr. James A. Tite. The 
manufactures are of a general nature — -lawn mowers, 
feed cutters, etc. The specialty is of making light- 
ning rod tips. Engine is of fourteen horse power. 
The avei'age number of workmen employed is nine. 


That of Crisp & Hensen is the only exclusive 
manufactory of fine carriages in Elyria. These 
gentlemen commenced business in April, 1873, in- 
vesting three thousand dollars. Tiiey employ an 
average of ten workmen. This establishment turns 
out a fine line of carriages, wagons, sleighs, etc. 


We have already given the pioneer grist and saw 
mills, which were situated on or near the site of the 
l^resent mills. 

Undoubtedly, the oldest flouring mill now in opera- 
tion in Elyria is the one at the foot of Broad street, 
on the east branch of Black river, near the bridge. 
The present proprietor is Mr. Garret Reublin, who 
has recently purchased the property, investing ten 
thousand five hundred dollars. This mill has four 
run of stones, and is in fine condition. It does both 
custom and merchant milling. The principal pro- 
pelling power is water, though there is a forty horse 
power engine, which is used in seasons when the 
water is low. The saw-mill adjoining, owned by the 
same gentleman, is of more recent construction. 

The flouring mill owned by I. S. Metcalf is located 
on Broad street, between West and Middle avenues, 
and was erected by Messrs. Chapman & Gibson. Mr. 
Metcalf purchased the property in 1874, paying 
therefor ten thousand dollars. It is driven by a 
forty horse power steam engine. There are two run 
of stones, and both custom and merchant milling are 


The former was put in operation in the fall of 
1843, by N. B. Gates, and is still owned and operated 
by him. At the time it was established, large quan- 
tities of ashes could be procured from the settlers, 
wlio were clearing lands and burning log heaps. 
Black salts were also brouglit in in large quantities, 
which Mr. Gates converted into pearlash. Now tlie 
ashes are collected from the citizens, made from wood 
consumed in their dwellings. The location is on the 
west branch of the river near the railroad bridge. 
The making of pot and pearl ashes is still continued. 
The soap works were built in 1862, by Messrs. Clark 
& Cathcart. Mr. Gates purchased them in Septem- 
ber, 18G9, and manufactured cliemical erasive soap, 



turning out ton tons per year, and an equal quantity 
of ])ot and pearl aslics. He lias four tliou-^aml two 
liunilrecl dollars invested, and employs four workmen. 


This enduring monument to the memory of its 
generous founder was first opened on the KHli <lay of 
June, 1870. It came into being as follows: 

To the will of the lamented Charles Arthur Ely, 
execnted March 19, 18.56, was added a codicil, Decem- 
ber 1, 18.57, containing a bequest, by the provisions 
of which the executor was directed to convoy to five 
well-known gentlemen (named in the will), trustees, 
the site of the present Library Block, and the build- 
ing then standing thereon. The executor was also 
directed to pay to said trustees the sum of five thou- 
sand dollars, to be invested in books for immediate 
use, and the further sum of ton thousand dollars to 
be invested as a permanent fund, the income only of 
which was applicable to the use of the library. Mr. 
Ely died on the 30th of Soptomber, 18(U; and the 
provisions of the will above mentioned were carried 
into effect by his administrator. 

The trustees named in the will were: Dr. Nortcm 
y. Townshend, ILenian Ely, Ilarwood M. Redington, 
George Olmstead and Prof. James Monroe, of Ober- 
lin. Mr. Monroe declining to act, Hon. John C Hale 
was appointed to fill the vacancy. They immediately 
entered ujiou their labors; the building above referred 
to was fitted up; two thousand volumes were pur- 
chased, and on April 1, 1870, the present very able 
librarian. Miss Nettie E. Wheeler, began the labor of 
arranging the books and preparing a catalogue; and 
on the 10th of the following June, the library was 
formally opened for the use of the public. The exer- 
cises were conducted at the court house, and consisted 
of an address by the Hon. Norton S. Townshend, and 
such other ceremonies as are usual on occasions of 
this kind. 

In the disastrous fire which occurred on the 15th 
day of March, 1873, the building and library were con- 
sumed. Only three hundred and seventy-five books, 
out of four thousand volumes then in the library, 
were saved. There was a thousand dollars of insur- 
ance on the building, and from the avails of this and 
a small amount additional the present elegant build- 
ing was erected. This was completed, and first occu- 
pied on May 11, 1874. It was not opened to the 
public until the 25th of July following. There is 
at the present time a very choice collection of liooks, 
numbering six thousand volumes. 


Pursuant to an act "to incorporate the State Bank 
of Ohio and other banking companies," passed Feb- 
ruary 34, 1845, the Lorain Bank, in Elyria, (the first 
in the county), was established on the 25th day of 
May, 1847, with a capital stock of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars. This was divided into one thousand 
shares of one hundred dollars each. On June 23, 

1847, a meeting of the stockholders c(nivoncd; Henian 
Ely was ajjpointed chairman and Elijah DeW'itt sec- 
relarv. 'I'he next business was the election of a board 
of directors. This was done by ballot, and the fol- 
lowing gentlemen were elected: Hcman Ely, Elijah 
DeWitt, Enoch Clark, Artemas Beebe, Amasa Chiqi- 
man, Conrad Reid, John B. Wilbor, Aaron Root and 
Homau Ely, Jr. The followiivg officers were then 
elected: Henian Ely, president; Artemas Beebe, vicc- 
])residont; Elijah DeWitt, secretary; W. A. Adair, 
cashier, and Levi Buriiell, teller and book-keeper. 

Having effected an organization, a banking house 
was opened in Room No. 3 of the Beebe House 
Block (now occujiied by L. Taylor as a crockery 
store), and in this the business of the bank was 
transacted until January 1, 1875, when it was re- 
moved to its elegant rooms in the Ely Block (first 
floor of the library building). Mr. Ely resigned 
his position as prosideut April 24, 1849, and Artemas 
Beebe was elected his successor, but declined the 
acceptance of the office, whereupon Elijah DeWitt 
was elected to the position, and is still the able in- 
cumbent of that office. On the date above given, 
the office of vice-president was discontinued. 

The board of directors has suffered few changes, 
and remains substantially as at first oi-ganized. Jfr. 
Adair resigned his jiosition as cashier, December 4, 
1849, which was accepted, and, on January 1, 1850, 
John R. Finn was elected to succeed him. Mr. Finn 
was elected vice-president of the State Bank of Ohio 
in 1855, and he resigned his position as cashier. 
Hemau Ely was ap])ointed cashier pro tern,., and 
served nntd January 7, 185G, when the present incum- 
bent of the office, Mr. John W. Ilulburt, was elected. 
The bank continued to do a highly prosperous busi- 
ness until the year 1864, when, on April 2d, a meeting 
of the citizens was hehl, under the act of Congress to 
provide for a national currency, a])proved February 
25, 18G3, to take the preliminary steps toward organ- 
izing the First National Bank of Elyria. The sub- 
scribers to the stock of the new organization at this 
time were as follows: 

Artemas Beebe 1.54 shares of 10(1 dollars each, % ir),100 

Seymour W. Baldwin Wi " " " l(i,3lM 

Heman Ely 14« " " " H,*10 

George E. Starr 143 " " " 14,:300 

Henry E. Mussey 145 " " " 14,500 

Geo. G. Washburn 144 " " " 14,400 

Elijah DeWitt 109 " " " 10,900 

1,000 $100,000 

The certificate of authorization was issued May 25, 
1804. Subsequently directors wore elected as follows: 
Artemas Beebe, Elijah Do Witt, George G. Washburn, 
Hem-y E. Mussey, Seymour W. Baldwin, and George 
R. Starr. Elijah Do Witt was elected president and 
John AV. Hulbnrt, cashier. In 1870 the oifice of 
vice president was created and Homan Ely was elect t'^l 
to fill the position. The directors for 1878, are Arte- 
mas Beebe, S. AV. Baldwin, William Jones, H. E. 
Mussey, George R. Starr, James M. Chapman, Elijah 
DeWitt, George G. Washburn, and Heman Ely. 
This bank has been conducted in the interest of the 

Union Hall CLorHtNO ffousE 



])eoplc and not in the interest of a ring or individuals. 
It has, from its inception, done an honorable and 
prudent business. The Bank Examiner spealvS in 
terms higlily commendatory of its management. 

The Savings Deposit Bank oe Elyria, began 
business in November, 1873, witli T. L. Nelson, pres- 
ident; J. C. Hill, cashier; Hon. Sidney S. Warner, 
Hon. John C. Hale, Hon. R. A. Horr, C. W. Horr, 
S. R. Lanndon, Hon. W. W. Boyntoii, William A. 
Bniman, John W. Hart, I. S. Metcalf, and Lorenzo 
Clark, directors. The board of investment, T. L. 
Nelson, J. C. Hill, William A. Braman, John C. Hale, 
and W. W. Boynton. The responsibility of this 
Inuik aggregates five hundred thousand dollars which 
is ])ledged and liable for the payment of all debts and 
obligations of the bank. The business is of a general 
nature. The savings dei^artment is designed to afford 
those who desire to save their money the means of 
employing it to advantage without incurring any risk 
of losing it, as is often the case when loaned to indi- 


Edmund West opened the first store in Elyi'ia. He- 
maii Ely (tlie founder of tlie township) was his part- 
ner, thougli he took no active ])art in conducting the 
business. Theodore W. Ely, from West Springfield, 
Mass., became a partner of Mr. West, June 1, 183.5. 
Theodore W. Ely died May 3, 1836, at the age of 
twenty-tliree years. Mr. West died July 15, 1835, at 
the age of twentj'-nine years. He was succeeded by 
Norris 0. Stow, who associated with him Theodore 
W. Ely whose early death is above stated. Mr. Stow 
coiulucted the business until his death, which occurred 
on the 13th of April, 1830. He was succeeded by 
Addison Tracy and Phineas Johnson under the firm 
name of Tracy and Johnson, who conducted the 
business until 1833, when they became members of the 
Lorain Iron Company, and their stock of goods was 
removed to tlie company's store as part of its stock in 
trade. When the Lorain Iron Company suspended 
business, Isaac M. Johnson purchased their stock of 
goods, and continued in business but a year or two 
when lie sold out to Tlnnnas Wilcox and William M. 
Becbe, under the firm-name of Wilcox and Beebe. 
They in turn sold, in 1840, to Baldwin & Company. 
2Vt an early period in the history of Elyria, probably 
in 1833 or '34, Stanton Sholes established a store in 
the building now occupied by Mr. Monroe, on the 
north side of Broad street, between Middle and East 
avenues. In two or tliree years he sold out to Thomp- 
son Miles, who soon after built a brick store at the 
northwest corner of Broad .street and East avenue, 
where he transacted business until 1833, when, having 
secured a competence, he retired from business. 
About the year 1837, two brothers, Sheldon and C. B. 
Guthrie, established a store in a frame building on the 
north side of Broad street, about midway lietween 
Middle and East avenues. They continued in busi- 
ness for about three years. Sheldon Guthrie is now 

living in New Orleans. His brother, C. B. Guthrie, 
died recently in Washington City. Raymond Starr 
commenced trade in Elyria in 1838, and continued in 
business until 1835, when he retired. The brick 
bu i Id ing adjoining the one now occupied by the Elyria 
RcpuhlicaH printing office, was erected by him and 
occuiiied for several years as a store. 

Horace K. Kendall. — This gentleman deserves 
more than a passing notice, for he revolutionized 
trade not only in Elyria, but to a great extent 
throughout Northern Ohio. He came from Suffield, 
Connecticut, to Elyria in Hie spring of 1833, and 
opened a store in the brick building erected by Cap- 
tain Sylvanus Parmely, on the comer where the 
present Beebe House stands. The merchants of 
Elyria having been accustomed to sell goods to the 
farmers on credit, and as they expected to lose from 
thirty to fifty per cent., marked their pi-ices on that 
basis. Mr. Kendall sold his goods only ior cash, and 
fixed his prices very much lower than tliey had ever 
before been offered in this market. He soon had a 
rush of customers, and in a year or two built the 
large brick store on the north side of Broad street, 
now occupied by Hannan & Obits. He jnirchased all 
kinds of farmers' produce, paying cash; but most of 
it was left in the store in payment for goods. Soon 
trade flocked in, not only from the extreme parts of 
this county, but from Medina, AVayne and Cuyahoga 
counties, and Elyria became a center of trade. 

He possessed a great deal of dash and enterprise, 
and was not afraid of the liberal use of printer's ink. 
He, for a considerable time, published a monthly 
paper filled mostly with his advertisements, but con- 
taining in addition a great deal of miscellaneous and 
entertaining reading matter. This was distributed 
gratuitously, and eagerly sought for. His advertise- 
ments were striking, ingenious and amusing. 

In the spring of 1843, Henry E. Mussey, who had 
long been his confidential clerk, became associated 
with him in the business. Mr. Kendall had been for 
many yeai's an active and inlluential member of the 
Baptist church, and contributed liberally towards 
the erecticm of their fine brick church building, 
whicli stands on the corner of Second street and 
Jliddle avenue. 

Mr. Kendall died on the 4t]i of June, 1850, at the 
early age of forty-one years. He left a haudsonie 
fortune. In his death, Elyria and Lorain county 
sustained a great loss. After his death, Mr. Mussey, 
who associated with himself Hiram Fuller, conducted 
the business successfully until 1858, when they sold 
out to Seymour W. Baldwin, T. W. Laundon and T. 
L. Nelson, under the firm name of Baldwin, Laun- 
don & Nelson. Mr. Mussey retired from mercantile 
business. Mr. Fuller removed to Akron, where he 
now resides. 

OziAS Long. — This gentleman obtained the con- 
tract to build the court house, in 1838, and started a 
store principally, it is believed, for the payment of 
his workmen. After completing his contract, he 



coutinueil mercantile business successfully for several 
years. In 1833 or 1834, John M. Gillett, S. R. 
Darling and S. B. Wolcott, under the firm name of 
Gillett, Darling & Wolcott, became his successors. 
Mr. Long was for six years one of the associate judges 
of the court of common pleas for Lorain county, and 
afterwards served as postmaster for the term of four 
years. He died February 21, 1859, aged sixty years. 
Gillett, Darling & Wolcott were his successors, and 
conducted the business for two or three j'cars, when 
they sold out to William F. Church. After a year or 
two, Mr. Church removed his goods to Sullivan, when 
our present mayor, ISfahum B. Gates, put in a stock of 
goods. He sold out at the end of a year to Messrs. 
Castle & King, of Medina, and the goods were 
removed to that place. 

In 1833, the following merchants were doing 
business in Elyria: 

A. Beebe, afterwards Beebe & Gates; Horatio N. Gates and Charles 
Green, Gates & Green; the Lorain Iron Company, Isaac M. Johnson, 
Thompson Miles, H. Guthrie, Raymond Starr and Ozias Long. 

We are uuable to tell from any data we can obtain 
when all these gentlemen commenced or discontinued 

Between the years 1832 and 1842, the following 
merchants were doing business: 

Ransom Redington, Erastus and Edwin Hall (E. & E. Hall), W. F. 
Church, H. K. Kendall & Co., S. W. Baldwin, Enoch Clark, Cowles and 
Ryder, Sanford and Andrews, Gillett, Darling & Wolcott. Andrews and 
Morse, Cowles, Merwin & Hull, Nichols & Kuowles, and Henry Bush. 

In 1852, the merchants were: 

Orrin Cowles, J. B. Merwin & Co., H. Brush & Co., Baldwin & Co. and 
H. E. Mussey & Co. 

Seymour W. Baldwin.— In the fall of 1834, 
Orriu Cowles opened a store, under the firm of 
Baldwin & Cowles. S. W. Baldwin, the senior 
member of the firm, did not come to Elyria until the 
spring of 1835. They conducted a successful busi- 
ness until 1839, when the firm was dissolved, and 
Mr. Cowles opened a new store. Mr. Baldwin 
associated with him William M. Judd, and subse- 
quently David B. Andrews, under the firm name of 
Baldwin & Co. In 1840, they bought out Wilcox & 
Beebe for the sake of getting the corner store. Soon 
after, D. B. Andrews left him, and was associated 
for a few years with F. B. Sanford (Sanford & An- 
drews). They dissolved, Sanford continuing the 
business, and Andrews opened a new store, associating 
with himself Levi Morse. Cowles took for a partner 
Mr. Erastus Hall. Subsequently they dissolved, and 
Cowles associated with himself Oliver R. Ryder 
(Cowles & Ryder). Erastus Hall formed a co-part- 
nership with his brother Edwin Hall (E. & E. Hall). 

In the j'ear 1840 or 1841, Mr. Baldwin formed a 
partnership with George R. and Horace C. Starr, 
under the firm name of Baldwin & Co. Subsequently 
they gave Thomas W. Laundon and Thomas L. 
Nelson an interest in the business, This firm did a 
very successful business until 1852, when Mr. Bald- 
win, having secured a competence, retired from the 
firm, and returned to his former home, in Meriden, 

Connecticut. After three years' absence, Mr. Bald- 
win, having become tired of a life of inactivity, 
returned to Elyria in 1855, and renewed his partner- 
ship with Starr Brothers & Co. This continued for 
the limited term of three years, when Mr. Baldwin, 
associating with himself Messrs. Laundon and Nelson, 
purchased the stock of goods of Henry E. Mussey, 
and commenced business under the firm name of 
Baldwin, Laundon & Nelson. This firm was dissolved 
in 1870, Mr. Nelson becoming president of the Elyria 
Deposit and Savings Bank. 

Mr. T. W. Laundon lives a quiet, retired life, 
enjoying the fruits of many years of industry and 
enterprise. Soon after the dissolution of the firm, 
Mr. Baldwin made the tour of Europe with his son. 

In the year 1858, S. W. Baldwin, T. W. Laundon, 
S. K. Laundon, and T. L. Nelson, formed a co-part- 
nership and opened a store in Wellington which has 
done a very successful business and is still continued. 
It is conducted by Mr. S. K. Laundon. 

Of all the young men who were trained in the store 
of Mr. Baldwin and his partners it is believed not one 
has turned out badly. All of them occupy prominent 
positions in business and in society. This is due 
mainly to the fact that their morals were carefully 
guarded and they acquired habits of industry and 
integrity. Many of them boarded with Mr. Baldwin. 
They were furnished with the best of reading matter 
and had no inclination to spend their evenings in 
idleness or on the streets. Mr. Baldwin has become 
wealthy and enjoys most fully the respect and confi- 
dence of the people of Elyria and of Lorain county. 

Geroge R. Starr and Horace C. Starr were clerks of 
S. W. Baldwin & Co. Their former business connec- 
tion with him has been already stated. After the 
dissolution of the firm of Baldwin, Starr & Co. they 
associated with themselves Mr. John L. Cole and 
their brothers Frank and Alonzo Starr. The latter 
withdrew from the firm in three years, but Mr. Cole 
continued a member until 1872. They did a large 
Inisiness and enjoyed the friendship and esteem of the 
people to a remarkable degree. In the vear 1873 their 
store and its entire contents were consumed by the 
disastrous fire which destroyed the entire block, con- 
taining some eigiit or ten business rooms. Their loss 
by this fire was fifty thousand dollars over and altove 
their insurance. With their usual pluck they at once 
fitted up a store in the town hall, purchased a new 
stock of goods and again commenced business. They 
continued in biLsiuess in the town hall for about a 
year, when, the new block being conii)leted, they 
returned to their old (juarters. Though greatly criji- 
pled by the fire they continued until February, 187s, 
when they retired. Few men, if any, have done as 
much to adorn and beautify our village, and none arc 
more respected by its citizens and the people of the 

The firm of Cowles & Ryder was dissolved in 184;, 
and Mr. Cowles continued the business until 1850, 



when he removed to Fulton, 111., where he still 

Steplieu B. Wolcott succeeded Mr. Cowles and con- 
tinued in business until the present j-car when he sold 
out to John Murbach. 

DiiUfi Stores. — In 1832, Dr. John S. Matson 
ojieued a small drug store in the front room of his 
dwelling house. The same room contained also the 
postofBce. In a few years he jmt up a i)retty large 
wooden store and greatly enlarged his business. About 
tlie year 1838 he added dry goods to his stock of drugs. 
In 1842 or ,'43, he removed to Cleveland, leaving his 
store in charge of his brother-in-law, Addison Tracy. 
He died soon after his removal, and Drs. E. W. Hub- 
bard and L. D. Griswold purchased the stock of drugs, 
and conducted the business for a year or two when 
they sold out to Mr. John F. Wooster. Mr. Wooster 
soon associated with himself his brother. Mr. William 
F. Wooster, and soon after sold out to him. Mr. Wil- 
liam F. Wooster still continues the business. He has 
been a very successful merchant, and has accumulated 
a handsome pi'operty. 

Dr. Elijah DeWitt, in the year 1824, settled in 
Harrisvile, Medma county, and engaged in the prac- 
tice of medicine and surgery. Hisride was extensive 
and laborious at that early day. In July, 1835, he re- 
moved to Elyria and opened a drug store. He did a 
successful business in that time until 1852, when, 
having been a])pointed secretary and treasurer of the 
Junction Rail Road, then being constructetl, he left 
his drug store in charge of his son, R. C. DeWitt, who 
had for several years been his .partner. He was for 
six years an associate Judge of the county. In about 
a year the store was sold to Mr. Charles Arthur Ely, 
who in turn sold it to Messrs. Bagg & Jenkins, who 
after two years sold to Messrs. Redington & .lenkins. 
These gentlemen conducted the business for several 
years, when it again became the property of Mr. Ely, 
who sold it to Mr. Jerome Manville. 

In the year 1850, Dr. Eber W. Hubbard established 
a drug store in tlie Beebe block. In 1852, Dr. Hub- 
bard being about to remove to Staten Island, N. Y., 
sold his stock of drugs to Dr. L. D. Griswold and J. 
Manville. They continued in partnership about five 
years, when Dr. Griswold I'etired from the fii-m. Mr. 
Manville still continues the business and has been very 

Dr. Laselle and G. D. Hay ward kept a drug store 
for a time in the Beebe House block. 

The following were the business houses in Elyria 
on the first of October, 1878. 

Dry Goods and Notions.— D. C. Baldwin & Co., Goldbuig & Co. 
H. C. Kupfer &. Brother. 

Drugs and Medicines. — W. F. Wooster, Jerome Manville, William H. 
Park, and H. J. Eady. 

Groceries and Provisions.— H. Brush, Hoyle Brothers, McCuUum & 
Lilly, Henry Wurst, W. H. Smith, J. A. Bean, George M. Haag, Frank 
Root, William Downing, Diedrich & Wiler. and J. C. King. 

MiLUNKRY.— Webb & Co., Mrs. Olmsted, Misses M. L. & A. Reilly, Miss 
E. Lewis, Mrs. Dibble & Son, Misses A. & S. Bancroft. 

Hardware, Stoves, etc. — H. Brush, Carpenter & Brooks, Hannan & 
Obitts, Xenophon Peck, J. Lane, Wright & Semple. 

Aqricultural Implements. — W. E. Brooks & Co., Beal & Halter. 

Jewelry and Silver Ware.— French & Fisher, G. W. Smitli, John 
Murbach, C. R. Bickford. 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods.— Charles Spitzenburg, H. H. Wini- 
mers, Baker <S; Foster, and Frank D. Dibble. 

Boots and Shoes.— Cogswell & Co,, S. H. Bowen, J. Burdell, William 
Oahlke, Philpot & Daniels, T. Gray, James Collins, and W. Ireland. 

Harness Shops.— Waterman Morse, W. A. Morse & Co. (saddlery 
hardware), J. W. Ropp and John Joint. 

Books and Stationery.— William S. Wilson. Mr. Wilson bought out 
E. C. Griswold, in 18T7, who had successfully carried on the business for 
twenty-two years. 

Furniture. — Snearer & Waldeck. 

Miscellaneous.— Wm. I. Hobill, music store; T. L. Taylor, crockery 
and glass ware. Jones .S Moshier, and Jakob Stephen, bakery and gro- 
ceries. Clark & Faxon, candy manufacturers and wholesale dealers, 
W. F. Burget, Upholsterer. J. B. Woolbridge, Marble Works. Geo. 
G. Washburn, Printer, Editor, and Publisher of the Elyria Repub- 
lican. F. S. Reefy, Editor and Publisher of the Elyria Constitntioii. 
Ingersoll & Harris, Job Printers. G. R. Byford, Book-binder. Joseph 
Kelling, Flour and Feed Store. H. E. Mussej' & Co., dealers in Building 
and Flagging Stone. Charles F. Lee, I. S. Haines, and H. S. Williams, 
Photograi>hers. John Mountain and W. Walker, Merchant Tailors. 
Miss A. Bay less, Mrs. L E. Snell, H. L. Underwood, Mrs. C. M. Dake, 
and J. M. Cook & Co., Dressmakers. Snearer & Waldeck and P. A. 
Anderson, Undertakers. Andrus and J. Burdick, Livery. 

Cigars and Tobacco. — Mussey &. Howk, J. W. Massey & Sou, J. 
Micheloon, A. E. Lord. 

Hotels.— Beebe House, C. C. Briggs, proprietor; National House, J. 
P. Perkins; American House, Z. Bliss; East Avenue House, H. Etzel; 
Metropolitan, Charles Myers. 

Trades and Specialties.— A. F. Parsons and Paul Krause, Carriage 
Painters. Allen & Holcorab, C. W. Goodspeed, R. W. Todd, Marvin 
Todd, and Paul Dumas, Sign and House Painters. C. W. Hunt, Carriage 
Trimmer. Abel Goodspeed and D. E. Dengate, Wagon Makers. Ward 
A Maple, F. Gilbert, L. Wait, Hafner & DachUer, and N. Wagoner* 
Sons, Blacksmiths. 


To guard against the ravages of the fii-ey element, 
lias been the aim of every community. Elyria village 
lias been taught this lesson by dire experience. Two 
extensive fires have prevailed, destroying, in ))oth 
instances, the business part of the town. AVe are 
unable to give the losses, but they were very great. In 
the year 1839, a small hand fire engine was purchased, 
and a company of thirty men organized, under the 
name of the "^Etna Fire Company No. 1." S. W. 
Baldwin was foreman, and Samuel C. Goodwin, secre- 
tary and treasurer. This constituted the entire de- 
partment until 1850, when another hand engine was 
purchased, and "PhrenixFire Conii)any No. 2," con- 
sisting also of thirty members, was organized. About 
this time, the hook and ladder company, of thirty 
members, was also formed. The force was now con- 
sidered an efficient one, until the memorable fifteenth 
of March, 1873, when it was demonstrated that it was 
wholly insufficient to cope with the coullagration. 
Immediately after this event, the common council 
l)rocured a number two steam fire engine from the 
manufactory of the Messrs. Silsby, at Seneca Falls, 
New York, which, with two hose carts and one thou- 
sand feet of two and a half inch rubber hose cost six 
thousand, seven hundred and fifty dollars. The 
officers of this company are: John T. Houghton, 
chief engineer; John Hufner, assistant engineer; 
Charles S. Bird, engineer; John M. Tite fireman. 
"^Etna Hose Comp.any" has thirty-five men; George 
Kline, foi'cman; Frank Stark, assistant. "^Etna Fire 
Company" still maintains its organization; Fred 
Duchtler, foreman; Henry Fairman, assistant. The 



water snpj)ly is ample, and consists of twenty reser- 
voirs and two tanks. There is also a fancy hook and 
ladder company, which has a fine record. As at 
jiresent organized, the fire department of Elyria is 
far above the average in ctHciency. 

■rows HALL. 

This fine structure was erected jointly by the town- 
ship and village of Elyria, in the year 18C7, and cost, 
when coni2)leted, twenty-nine thousand dollars. An 
extensive addition was made to it in 1878, at an in- 
vestment of seven thousand dollars. The upper floor 
is wholly occupied by an audience hall, stage, dress- 
ing and property rooms. The seating capacity is 
nearly one thousand. The first floor is occupied by 
the fire department, mayor's office, lockup, etc. 


Free axd Accepted Masons. — King Solomon's 
Lodge No. 50, of this order, Avas granted a dispensa- 
tion on Monday, the 13tli day of December, A. D. 
1819, with Henian Ely as W. .M., Jabez Burrell, S. 
W., and John Reading, J. W. The charter was 
granted Deccm' er 11, 1821, and the growth of this 
lodge was, from that time, very satisfactory, until the 
outbreak growing out of the Morgan excitement ren- 
dered it advisable to cease labor. . Tliis took place 
in 182S, ami for twenty years there was no lodge in 

On the 36th of September, LS18, a new charter was 
issued, bearing on its face the names of Eber W. 
Hubbard, W. M., Ozias Long, S. W., and Ansel 
Keith, J. W., and from that time until the present, 
the order has been steadily gaining strength, until it 
has now a membership of one hundred and twelve. 
Their path has not, however, been always strewn with 
roses. Ill tlie extensive conflagration which prevailed 
in Elyria in 1853, the lodge room was consumed, and 
with it everytliing it contained. The records were at 
the house of the secretary, and were saved, but on 
the occasion of the second fire, in 1873, they were not 
so fortunate. Everything was, we believe, this time 
consumed. Truly they have been "tried by fire," 
but, like tlic Plio>nix, they have risen from the ashes, 
and Ijy the aid of strong and willing hands, have now 
the finest lodge room in the county. 

Officers for 1878 are: D. J. Nye, W. M.; W. F. 
Rurget, S. W.; John Holcomb, J. W. ; J. W. Hul- 
liurt, Treas. ; L. C. Kelsey, Sec; Charles A. Schade, 
S. I).; D. F. Ward, J. D.; Otto Martin and H. R. 
Whiteman, Stewards, and Judd C. Potter, Tyler. 

The stated communications are lield at Masonic 
hall, in Commercial block, on the second and fourth 
Monday evenings of each month, from October 1 to 
May 1, and on the second Monday, only, the re- 
mainder (jf the 3'ear. 

Marshall Chapter No. 47, was granted a dispen- 
sation on the .3d day of October, 1851, upon the peti- 
tion of companions A. Clark, E. AV. Hubbard, Ozias 
Long, M. Chapman, E. L. Warner, Wm. Hoyle, 

John Sherman, F. Hubbard, and Elijah Parker. A. 
Clark was, by this instrument, made High Priest; 
E. W. Hubbard, King; and Ozias Long, Scribe. We 
are unable to give any thing further of tiie early work. 

The officers for 1878 are: J. W. Hulburt, II. P.; 
W. E. Brooks, K. ; James Allen, Scribe; G. H. 
Mapes, C. H.; D. J. Nye, P. S.; G. M. Moshier, R. 
& C. ; D. F. Ward, M. :5rd V. ; E. A. Brush, M. 3nd V. ; 
John Holcomb, M. 1st V.; M. W. Pond, Treas.; George 
Cogswell, Sec; and J. C. Potter, Guard. Tliere is 
at present a membership of ninetj^-six. The stated 
convocations are held in Masonic hall, on the evening 
of the first Thursday of each month. 

This body has also passed through the fiery furnace, 
losing everything. 

Indepexdest Order of Odd Fellows. — Elyria 
Lodge No. 103, of this order, was instituted on March 

I, 1848, by E. W. Fitch, Deputy Grand Master, with 
the following charter members: N. B. Gates, P. 
Bliss, Russell J. Smith, Edwin A. Covvles, and E. I). 
Moxley. The officers on organization were: N. B. 
Gates, N. G.; E. A. Cowles, V. G.: E. D. Moxley,; 
P. and R Sec; Russell J. Smith, Treas. 

On the night of its institution, the following gen- 
tlemen were admitted: J. F. Manter, L. D. Griswold, 
L. C. Leonard, G. D. Hayward, 0. N. Owens, B. F. 
Tillotson, B. F. Robinson and George E. Nichols; 
and on the anniversary, held thirty years subsequent, 
these persons were all living, and nearly all in good 
standing in the fraternity. 

The officers for 1878 are: S. C. Cox, N. G.; James 
Lewis, V. G. ; Charles Cox, P. S. ; Samuel A. Raw'son, 
R. S. ; Henry J. Eady, Treas. Present membership, 
one hundred and eight. Regular meeting, Tuesday 
evening of each week, in Odd Fellows Hall. This 
lodge is in a prosjierous condition, with twenty-five 
hundred dollars on interest. 

Excampmest. — Lorain Encampment, No. 81, was 
instituted on the 7th day of May, 1856, with tiie 
following gentlemen as charter members: N. B. Gates, 

II. M. Holcoml), Mozart Gallup, M. A. Elder, 0. G. , 
King, J. L. Hutchinson and N. H. Underbill. The 
j)resent officers are: N. B. Gates, C. P.; 0. Boweu, H. ' 
P.; Thomas Baker, S. W.; S. C. Cox, J. W.; George 
L). Williams, S.; and William W. Laundon, Treas. 
Present membership, twenty-three. The stated meet- 
ings are held at Odd Fellows Hall, on the first and 
third Wednesday evenings of each month. 

Kniciits of Pythias. — Star Lodge, No. 81, was 
instituted on the 37th day of January, 1875, with the 
following gentlemen as charter members: John Gor- 
man, Geo. D. Williams, William H. Laundon, J. ('. 
Potter, Otto Martin, John E. Keuyon, Samuel C. 
Cox, Nelson B. Jennings, W. S. Lyons and C. B. 
Spring. The first officers were: John Gorman, P. C. ; 
Geo. D. Williams, C. C; William W. Laundon, V. C. ; 
J. C. Potter, P.; Samuel C. Cox, M. of E.; John E. 
Kenyou, M. of F. ; Otto Martin, K. of R. and S. ; Nel- j, 
son B. Jennings, M. at A.; W. S. Lyon, I. G. ; and 
C. B. Spring, 0. G. 



This society meets on Friday evening of each week, 
!it Odd Fellows Hall. The present mcml)ership is 
twenty-one. The officers for 1878 were: Robert C. 
Gamble, P. C. ; J. C. Potter, C. C. ; Richard T. Gam- 
ble, V. C. : .Tames Lewis, P.; Wm. M. Liumdon, M. of 
E.; George D. Williams, M. of F. ; Otto Martin, K. 
of R. and S. ; J. E. Lozier, M. at A. ; 0. K Spring, 
L G.; S. G. Gox. 0. G. 

IxEPENDENT Order OF GooD Templars. — Elyria 
Lodge, No. 93, Independent Order of Good Temj^lars, 
was authorized to assemble for organization, by a char- 
ter bearing date March 1, 1877, which was issued to the 
following persons: A. 0. Griswold, F. W. Kirchner, 
C. H. Williams, .J. E. Cryer, J. C. Biggs, William 
Davis, James L. Edwards, Conrad Fischer, W. L. 
Roe, Dr. L. C. Kelsey, Charles Faux, A. J. Hough- 
ton, George W. Rich, Mrs. H. McElwin, Mrs. H. 
Brush, Mrs. Frances Crouk, Miss S. K. Nichols, Miss 
Anna Hackett and Miss Lydia Forbes. The first 
officers were: A. 0. Griswold, W. C. T. ; Mrs. H. 
McElwin, W. V. T.; Miss S. K. Nichols, W. R. S.; 
.Airs. H. Brush, W. T.; and W. L. Roe, W. M. The 
membership of this society has increased with such 
rapidity that there are now one hundred and- five in 
good standing. The meetings are held in Mussey's 
Block, on Wednesday evening of each week. Officers 
for 1878 are: Charles A. Metcalf, W. C. T.; Mrs. H. 
Brush, W. V. T.; C. W. Dickinson, W. R. S. : E. L. 
(iriswold, W. F. S. ; Miss May Morse, W. T. ; .James 
Wallace, W. M. ; Miss Lizzie Upton, W. S. G. ; E. D. 
Afshley, W. 0. G. ; Mrs. Bacon, W. C. ; Mrs. M. 11. 
Boyuton, R. H. S. ; and Miss Eliza Robinson, R. H. S. 
Ancient Order of Good Fellows. — On Septem- 
ber 2-i, 1860, Elyria Lodge, No. 17, A. 0. of G. P., was 
instituted. The charter members were: M. Erne, C. 
Frome, V. Seabert, F. Schmidt, A. Eand, F. Beeze, 
G. Mabius, J. Schultz, S. Fehr, H. Hammer, F. Mar- 
tin, F. Muse, J. Steifel, M. Morlak, H. Reimbach, C. 
Baase, W. Scmidt, J. Geii)el and E. Greeshamer. The 
officers on organization were: G. Seibert, N. G. ; W. 
Scmidt, V. G.; M. Erne, C; W. Morlach, Sec; H. 
Reimljach, R. S. ; E. Greeshamer, Treas. Meetings on 
Thursday evening of each week. The roll of initiates 
numbers seventy, but hard times and an inability 
to keep up the dues has reduced the membershij) to 
eighteen persons. The officers for 1878 were: C. 
Scmidt, N. G.; M. Bucher, V. G.; J. Stiefel, C. ; 
P. Strauss, Sec; J. Stark R. S. ; and John Hufner, 

KxiGnTS OF Honor. — Anchor Lodge, No. 119, 
Knights of Honor, was instituted June 3, 1875, with 
twenty-two charter members, who were as follows: 
W. H. Tucker, W. L. Fay, G. H. Tyrrell, P. S. Reefy, 
B. McNoal, R. I. Jones, John E. Kenyon, John 
Blanchard, Zenas Bliss, R. E. Braman, Xenophon 
Peck, Thomas Tuunington, H.J. Eady, A.H. Bullock, 
A. F. Parsons, James E. Bronson, F. M. Whiteman, 
J. W. Ropp, William Crisp, W. W. Richardson, J. A. 
Tite and Thomas H. Liunell. The first officers were: 
Past Dictator, William H. Tucker; Dictator, Geo. H. 

Tyrrel; Vice Dictator, F. M. Reefy; Assistant Dictator, 
R. E. Braman; Guide, John Kenyon; Reporter, W. L. 
Fay; Financial Reporter, H. J. Eady; and Treasurer, 
John Blanchard. Regular meetings, Thursday even- 
ings of each week, at Odd Fellows Hall. The total 
memliersljip is sixty-two. The officers for 1878 were: 
A. H. Bullock, P. D.; W. E. Hubbell, D.; M. H. 
Levagood, V. D.; John Blanchard, A. D. ; R. H. Hill, 
Cihaplain; J. W. Ropp, Guide; John H. Faxon, Ji-., 
Rep.; F. M. Whiteman, F. R. ; William H. Park, 
Treas.; P. S. Hatter, (!uard:an(l George Butts, Sen- 

Royal ARfANUM. — Elyria Council, No. 57, of this 
brotherhood, was organized February 27, 1878. The 
charter members were: W. L. Fay. W. H. Tucker, L. 
McLean, R. E. Braman, 0. Dole, Wm. II. Park, II. 
C. Woodruff, E. C. Perry, George G. Washburn, 0. 
Root, H. M. Parker, J. E. Bronson, T. S. Faxon, 
J. H. Faxon, Jr., W. E. Brooks, John Lersch, J. L. 
Cole, D. J. Peck, Ed. H. Fisher, E. A. Brush, J. I). 
Faxon, J. W. Ropp, Geo. C. Williams, L. B. Smith, 
W. S. Wilson, E. G. Johnson, D. W. Fuller, J. A. 
Tite, M. A. Levagood, G. H. Mapes and C. B. Clark. 
The first officers were: W. H. Tucker, Past Regent; 
yV. L. Fay, Regent; W. H. Park, Vice Regent; L. 
McLean, Orator; W. E. Brooks, Secretary; George G. 
Washburn, Collector; .1. H. Faxon, .Jr., Treasurer; 
W. II. Levagood, Chaplain; .1. W. Ropp, Guide; 0. 
Dole, Warden; and E. A. Brush, Sentinel. The offi- 
cers are elected semi-annually, but as the present 
officers arc substantially the same as those first elected, 
it is unnecessary to give them. The membership is 
thirty-eight. The regular meetings are on Monday 
evenings of each week, at Odd Fellows Hall. 

sketches of some OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 

Syltanus Parmelt came to Elyria as early as 
1833, and was engaged for several seasons in brick- 
making. He excavated a hole in the rock at the east 
fall, some twenty feet in depth, into which a portion 
of the stream was turned. The water wheel was at 
the bottom of the excavation, which furnished the 
motive power for running the old red mill. Mr.' 
Parmely built a two-story brick dwelling house on the 
corner where the Beebe House now stands, the corner 
room of which was used as a store. He removed to 
Sullivan, now in Ashland county, in 1833, where he 
owned a large farm. He spent much time and money 
in efforts to secure the formation of a new county of 
which Sullivan should be the county seat, but failed 
to obtain success. He was at one time a representa- 
tive to the State legislature for Lorain county. He 
was a man of unbounded energy and perseverance. 
He raised a highly respectable family, and died some 
ten years ago at an advanced age. 

AsAHEL Parmely, from Somerset, Vt., came to 
Ohio, arriving in Sullivan townshiji August 7, 1817. 
He came with an ox team conveying his father, 
mother and two brothers, his wife and two children. 
These were Amandrin M. and Hannah, the latter of 



whom died on tlie road. The former in due time 
married Emily Thomas, of Massachusetts, and now 
resides on tliirty-four acres of land, lot thirty-five, 
Elyria towiisliip, it being the old family homestead. 
Mr. Parmcly, senior, came through without material 
incident (driving tlri family cow), until he arrived at 
Harrisville, now Medina county, from which point to 
Sullivan township there was an unbroken forest, 
through which he was obliged to cut a road some ten 
miles in length. Arriving at his destination, he made 
a selection of some four hundred acres of land in 
different sections. He located on one hundred and 
fifty iicres, in lot forty-seven. With the assistance of 
his family he prepared a cabin of puncheons, placed on 
stakes driven in the ground. In this the family lived 
for three months, when a log house was erected and 
the family moved in. lie remained in Sullivan until 
IHi'J. On the 17th of April of this year he removed 
to Elyria, locating on the land now occupied by his 
son Amandrin M. Here, after a long and peaceful 
life, he died .January -t, 18.59. Mrs. Parmoly died 
October 18, 1875. The children born in Ohio were 
Ashley, who lives on the old homestead in Sullivan; 
LoviUa H. and Rexaville E., both deceased; Freeman 
and Stanley M. The last two and their elder brother, 
Amandrin M., have pleasant homes within a stone's 
throw of each other. All are prosperous and valuable 

William 0. Cahoon came, with his father .Joel 
Galloon, to Dover, Cuyahoga county, in 1810, when 
four years of age. He grew to manhood on his fath- 
er's farm. He first came to Elyria in 1826, and 
worked at chopping, but did not settle in town with 
his family until 1831. His wife was a daughter of 
Judge Moses Eldred. He was a stone nuison by 
trade, and followed that business until his death. 
He owned a stone ipiarry on the east branch of the 
river, and a very large portion of our excellent side- 
walks were put down by him. He was a model of 
industry, and worked until the day of his death, 
which occurred on the 20th of July. 1878. He was 
seventy-two years of age. Mr. Cahoon was for many 
years a leading memlier of the Methodist Episcopal 

Harlow Wells came from Connecticut with his 
brother-in-law, Hezekiah Kelsey, to Elyria in 1827, 
and settled on the farm where he now i-esides. It 
was then an unbroken forest, but he cleared up the 
land and made himself a pleasant home. He has 
lived a life of (juiet industry, and now, at an advanced 
age, is enjoying the fruits of his labor. 

Jonathan T. Parsons came also from Connecticut 
to Elyria in 1828. He settled on the farm on Lake 
avenue which ho afterwards sold to Arad Smith. He 
died October 31, 1838, leaving a wife and two sous, 
one a babe and the other five years of age. 

Edson A. Griswold was born in Wintonbury, Con- 
necticut, in the year 1805. He removed to Elyria in 
1832, and bought the farm on Lake avenue on which 
he now resides. It was at that time a wilderness. 

He has served two terms as a magistrate, and been a 
prosperous farmer. He has retired from active labor, 
and has transferred his farm to his son Arthur E. 
He still lives, at the age of seventy-throe, in the en- 
joyment of good health of body and mind. 

Arad Smith, of Amherst, Mass., married Miss 
Salome Elmer, of Virginius, Vt., in 1799. He re- 
moved to St. Lawrence county, N. Y., where he 
remained till 1833, when he came to Elyria and 
purchased the farm of Jonathan T. Parsons, lots 
thirty-seven and thirty-three, west of the river, sixty- 
six acres now occupied by his son Stephen Smith. 
He died in 1859, his wife having died in 1827. He 
was the father of thirteen children, five of whom are 
living. Stephen Smith has added to the old home- 
stead, and now has one hundred and fifty-five acres. 

Col. William Gregg, from Londonderry, N. IL, 
married Hannah Jewett, of Stratham, N. II. They 
came to Elyria in 1834, and settled on the ridge road 
south of Arad Smith. Col. Gregg died August 31, 
1874, at an advanced ago. He was a valuable citizen. 
The children were William B., who married Mary 
Ann Bailey; they reside on the old homestead; 
Henry B. died in 1839; John died in California. 
Mrs. Gregg, relict of Col. G-regg, is still living, at the 
age of seventy-five. 

Ebenezee Whiton came to Elyria from Lee, Mass. 
We are unable to give the time of his arrival. He 
was appointed clerk of the court of common pleas at 
its first session, which commenced August 12, 1824, 
and held the office until the time of his death, which 
occurred August 31, 1834. He purchased lots sixty- 
two and sixty-three, and built the house nest west of 
Mrs. Haines, which is still occupied. 

Mrs. Whiton removed with her children to Wis- 
consin many years ago, and died in December, 1878, 
aged eighty j'eai's. 

Ebenezek Griffith came from Allegany county, 
N. Y., to Elyria, in 1827, and in company with his | 
brother, Luther N. Griffith, purchased the hotel built 
by George Douglas, then standing on the site of the 
present Union Block. After a few years the brothers 
dissolved, and Reuben Nichols (who came with his 
family from Vermont) became the partner of Mr. 
Griffith. They soon erected a new brick hotel on the 
same ground, called the Mansion House. 

This was considered a fine building for that day. 
It was two stories in height, with a veranda occupy- 
ing the entire front, supported by massive columns. 
This hotel was kept by the parties for many years, and 
was the best in town until the erection of the Becbe 
House. Mr. Griffith filled the office of sheriff for 
one or two terms, and other positions of honor and 
resi)Ousibility. He raised a family of eight children, 
five of whom are living. Of these, two only reside 
in Elyria, viz: Lomida M., wife of S. Bod well, and 
Arvilla L., wife of Ira B. Sekins. Mr. Griffith died 
in December, 1866. 

Clark Eldred. — This venerable relic of pioneer 
times has been noticed in preceding pages of this 



history. Ue was) the son of Moses Eldred, who settled 
two miles east of tiie village in 1813, and for many 
years kept a hotel. The subject of this sketch, 
t hough a boy of sixteen, was for a short time a soldier 
ill the warof 1813. After Hall's surrender of Detroit, 
tiiore was great alarm among the pioneer settlers 
along the south shore of Lake Erie. They were but 
few in number, and their dwellings were isolated and 
scattered. The British had induced all or nearly all 
of the Indian tribes of the west to become their allies. 
The savage murder of defenceless families was a com- 
mon occurrence. 

The ])eople of Ridgeville, with their wives and little 
ones, fled through the forest, driving their live stock, 
and took refuge in a log fort that had been built in 
Columbia. Young Eld red's father had been severely 
wounded in a skirmish with the Indians on the Penin- 
sula, and was borne from the field to the late Joshua 
R. (liddings. It was under these circumstances that 
the boy Eldred went to the front and commenced the 
life of a soldier. The capture of the British fleet by 
Commodore Perry, on Ltike Erie, soou after relieved 
the pioneer settlers of all their fears, and those who 
had joined the army returned to their homes. . 

The first brick manufactured in Elyria were made 
by Mr. Eldred. The fii'st land sold in the townshiji 
was purchased by him; the first clearing was made 
by him; the first frame building raised without the 
aid of whisky was his. He was one of the first mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal church in this place, 
and has continued a faithful member to the present 

Ransom Redington was the son of Eliphalet Red- 
iugtou, who removed from Massachusetts and settled 
in South Amherst, in this county, at an early day. 
He came to this township as early as 1819, then a 
young man. He was for several years a clerk in the 
store of Thompson Miles, and afterward a partner. 
He was also in partnership with Raymond Starr, after 
Mr. Miles retired from business. In 1833 or '33, he 
opened a dry goods store in the Ely Block, and con- 
tinued in trade for eight or ten years, when he sold 
out. In 184:3, he, in company with Charles Parsons, 
iiliened a book store — the first in Elyria. In 1844, 
they sold out to E. C. Oriswold, who continued the 
business until 1877. Mr. Redington, for the rest of 
his life, was engaged principally in the law book 
trade through Northern Ohio. At the same time, he 
purchased of miscellaneous books for himself and 
friends every book that was rare, ancient or valuable, 
and many choice pictures and works of art. There 
is scarcely a pleasant home in this part of the State 
that is not adorned with pictures of his selection. 
He possessed remarkable taste in making such selec- 
tions. He was also au amateur in the cultivation of 
choice flowers, and supplied himself and friends with 
the choicest bulbs and flower seeds. The influence 
of such a life for good in any community can hardly 
be over-estimated. He was a profound thinker, and 
speculated much on theological subjects. He was 

married in 1836, to Miss Pamelia Manter, sister of 
Dr. Manter, who is still living at the age of seventy- 
eight, in full possession of her faculties of mind and 
memory. She is a highly cultured Christian lady, 
and, with Mr. A. Bcebe, is the only remaining pioneer 
of this township. Mr. Redington died May 9, 1870, 
aged seventy years. 


Dr. John P. Butler must have come to Elyria as 
early as 1819, as he was a voter at the first election in 
the township in 1830. We are unable to state the 
place of his nativity, and only know that he was a 
graduate of the Fairfield Medical College, in Herki- 
mer county, N. Y. He was a man of fair attainments, 
and a faithful, attentive physician, thoroughly devoted 
to his calling. Families who employed him had great 
confidence in his skill, and cherish his memory. He 
removed to his farm in Ridgeville, where he continued 
in the practice of his profession for many years. He 
died in 1858. 

Dr. Augustus Wolcott came to Elj'ria, also, in 
1819, and practiced his profession for several years. 
He too graduated at the Fairfield Medical School. 
He retired from practice and settled on his farm in 
Sheffield in 1839. He was a man of close observation 
and sound judgment, and his prognosis in a case of 
disease, in the opinion of his patrons, settled the 
question of life or death. He died of cancer of the 
face May 17, 1841, aged sixty-one years. 

Dr. Nathan Manter was born at Ashfield, Mass., 
August 23, 1793. His father, Di-. Francis Manter, 
died eai'ly, leaving him to the care of a devoted 
mother, who carefully trained him for a life of useful- 
ness. The love and care of this faithful mother were 
met by the filial affection of the son, which was 
strikingly manifested during the whole course of 
her life. Dr. Manter was educated at the Fairfield 
Academy, in Herkimer county, N. Y. He pursued 
ills medical studies with his uncle. Dr. Nathan Har- 
wood, of that State. When he had completed the 
usual course of study, he came to Ohio, then almost 
a wilderness, and settled in Euclid, Cuyahoga county, 
in 1815. Here he secured a successful practice, and 
remained until 1834, when he removed to Elyria. In 
1833, he married Miss Susan Miles, mother of his 
four children, who died November 39, 1836. She 
was a devoted wife, a tender and careful mother, and 
a faithful Christian. He afterward married Mrs. 
Pamelia Clapp, who died July 39, 1848. Dr. Manter 
was fortunate in both of his marriages; he was happy 
in his domestic relations. Pure refinement and affec- 
tion characterized his home life. 

He had an extensive practice, and for many years 
was recognized as the leading physican in this section 
of the country. He was a skillful surgeon, and did 
most of the business in that branch of his profession 
until younger men relieved him, by his own request, in 
the more difficult and delicate operations. We quote 



from an obituary notice written by a professional 
friciul,* published after his death: 

"After continuing in what is called regular practice for more than 
thirty years, Dr. Manter gradually changed to the system of Hanneman. 
Tliis change, while it deprived liim of the professional sympathy of his 
former medical associates, did not deprive him of the personal friend- 
ship or esteem of any one of them; whatever reasons or motives others 
may be supposed to have for a similar change, no one doubted the con- 
scientiousness of Dr. Manter. Two years before his death he was striclcen 
with paralysis. This attack was doubtless ijrought on by the death of 
his son. Col. Franl; H. Planter, in the army. During his two years of suf- 
fering he e-vliiliited a remarkable degree of patience ami resignation. 
He was tenderly cared for by his children, who witli devoted affection 
ministered to every want. He died February 10, ISiJfJ, aged 73. Dr. 
Manter was a close student during his whole professional life, and was 
thoroughly conversant with the medical literature of his day. He was 
a man of close observation, and faithful in his attention to his patients. 
His mind was not distracted by political ambition or disturlied by outside 
intluences. He was notouly " the good physician " to most of tlie early 
inliabitants of the village, but their confidential friend. He was genial 
and courteous in his manner, polite and dignified in liis social intercourse 
with all. In short he was an accomplished christian gentleman of the 
old school. For more than thirty years he was an influential member 
of the Presbyterian church, and by his life he ailorned his profession.'' 

Dr. Samuel Strong was educated at the Fairfield 
Medical School in the State of New York, and removed 
to Brownhelm in this county, about the year 1S;JS. 
After two years of successful practice he changed liis 
residence to Amherst, where he remained about two 
years. In 18.33 he removed to Elyria and formed a 
co-partnership with Dr. N. II. Manter. This connec- 
tion continued six or eight years, wiion it was dis- 
solved. He continued in jiractice in Elyri;i until his 
decease. He died March 20, 1850, aged forty-four 

Dr. Strong was in many respects a remarkaljle man. 
He was an enthusiast in his profession and obtained a 
reputation for carrying tlirougli safely apparently 
hopeless cases of disease. He iiursiied tlie heroic plan 
of treatment, and would sit l)y the bedside of impor- 
tant and dangerous cases for wliole days and nigiits 
watching the course of disease and the effect of reme- 
dies, and in this way would generally carry them 
througii in safety. He was a decided optimist, always 
looking on the bright side. This led him into some 
unfortunate speculations, but he enjoyed the respect 
of the community and tlie love of his friends while he 
lived. He was warm-hearted and generous, and 
seemed to enjoy more jileasure in performing acts of 
kindness for others than in promoting his own inter- 
ests. He lefta widow and two children. Mrs. Strong 
afterwards became the wife of Mr. Otis Briggs, and 
is still living. His daughter, Carrie, married Mr. 
Edwin Mns.sey, who was for a long time a merchant 
in Amherst. His son, Samuel, has for many years 
been at the head of the great wholesale drug house 
in Cleveland of the firm of Strong, Cobb & Co. 

Dii. Asa B. Brown, a native of Vermont, and a 
graduate of Berkshire Medical Ci)llege, settled in 
Elyria, in IX'-Vl, ;inil soon Imilt up a respectable prac- 
tice. In the fall of 183-1. having lost his young and 
beautiful wife and feeling gre;itly depressed, he retired 
from practice, and soon after took charge of the 
Elyria High School. He conducted this school for 

* Dr. Norton S. Townshend. 

several }'ears, when he removed to the State of Michi- 
gan, where he soon died. Dr. Brown was a man of 
more than ordinary ability. Had he adhered to his 
profession he would doubtless have ri.sen to eminence. 

Dr. Kiciiard L. Howard was the successor of 
Dr. Brown in the practice of his profession in Elyria. 
lie was born in Andover, Vt., in the year 1809. 

At the age of seventeen his father died, and he 
was left with the care of a widowed mother. With 
that indomitable energy which characterized his whole 
life, he discharged the new responsibilities with \iv\\- 
dence and entire success. He began the study of 
medicine when ([uite young, and graduated with honor 
at the Berkshire Medical College at the age of twenty- 
two years. He moved to Windham, Portage county, 
and commenced the practice of his profession, and on 
the retirement of Dr. Brown from jiractice in 1834, 
he came to Elyria and took his place. He soon gained 
;i large practice both as a physician and surgeon, and 
remained in Elyria until 1844, when he removed to 
Columbus, Ohio, where he soon secured a leading 
practice. He was mainly instrumental in establishing 
the Starling Medical College in that city, of which he 
became Professor of Surgery. The late Lyne Starling, 
a wealthy citizen, donated the munificent sum of thirty 
thousand dollars, which, with an additional amount, 
mainly furnished by Dr. Howard, was e.Kpended in 
the erection of that beautiful college building which 
now adorns the Capital City. 

During the time he occupied the chair of surgery, 
he visited France, and spent some time in the famous 
hospitals of Paris. He returned, richly laden with 
the hitest improvements in modern surgery. He died 
in the iirime of life, at Coluniljus, .January 16, 1854. 
He was, for several years, considered the leading sur- 
geon in Central Ohio, and was an excellent teacher. 
Until his health f:iiled, he edited the Ohio Medical 
and Surf/ii-al Journal. Dr. Howard w;is. in many 
respects, a remarkable man. Not naturally Itrilliant, 
he made it up by his indomitable energy and perse- 
verance, lie was ambitious, but his ambition run 
only in the line of his chosen ju'ofession. He placed his 
standard high, and turned neither to the right nor left 
until he had reached the object sought. He had ac- 
cumulated a hiindsome ]iroperty, which he left to his 
widow and children. 

A sketch of the life of Dr. Luther D. Griswold is 
given elsewhere in this volume. 

Dr. Eber W. Hubbard was a graduate of the 
Fairfield Medical College. He located in La Grange, 
near the time of its first settlement, and had a large 
practice in that and adjacent townships. He re- 
moved to Elyria, in 1838, and from that time until 
1853, when not in public life, practiced in his ])rofi's- 
sion. He was one of the associate judges of this 
county, for six years, before he settled in Elyria. He 
was three times elected to the lower branch of the gen- 
eral assembly, and was an able and influential member. 
He served for three years as bank commissioner, ami 
the same length of time as fund commissioner. While 

>^"^:^^?§*^?f^ "^ 

Photo, by Lee, Elyria, 0. 

O^^^-zH^^t^ %^ >ZX<z.-a^'^;X' 

The falsity of old proverbs or trite sayings are often 
shown in the history of men. " A prophet is not without 
honor except in his own country" is altogether wrong, as 
applied to Dr. Edwin C. Perry. 

Abel R. Perry and Lucy Ackley moved into Ohio, from 
Ferrisburg, Vt., in 1833, settling at Ridgeville, Lorain 
Co., Ohio. Mr. A. R. Perry removed to Elyria in 1854. 
His family embraced six children, all of whom are dead ex- 
cept the fiflli (whose genial face heads this article). He 
yet remains, with his wife, at Elyria, a respected citizen, and 
justly proud of the success of his remaining child. 

Dr. E C. Perry was born at Ridgeville, as above, Jan. 
20, 1840. The doctor owes much to the "New England 
energy" that made and moulded so much Lorain County 

His mother, in the early life of her son, gave him the 
liome teachings of Mrs. Adelia Ferris, who was more com- 
petent than the common-school teacher. This, however, 
was but limited, and not until the removal of his father did 
he get much educational privilege. 

Under the teachings of Mr. Oatman, Mills, and others, 
at the Union School of Elyria, he distinguished himself 
as a scholar, graduating with honors. Soon looking the 
" problem of life" in the face, he determined to become a 
physician. Reading medicine in Elyria the proper time, he 
attended the full course of lectures at the Eclectic Medical 
Institute, of Cincinnati, Ohio. With high standing he 
graduated Feb. 6, 1861, at the early age of twenty-one. 
Commencing at once the high function of a physician, 

in spite of any and every prejudice, so often existing in 
all communities against the " boy" who essays his marh, 
he was not long in gaining his reputation of a " careful 
healer," — one whose mere kindly presence ever brings re- 
lief to the sufferer. 

Dr. Perry was married May 30, 1871, to Eliza Holbrook, 
daughter of Dexter and Jerusha Pomeroy Holbrook, both 
of New Fane, Windham Co., Vt. Mrs. Perry's parents, 
at an early day, moved into Pittsfield, Lorain Co., Ohio, 
removing to Elyria, where they now reside. 

Dr. Perry, with justifiable pride, remembers that his 
wife, on the mother's side, was a great-grandchild of Gen- 
eral Pomeroy, who, at the battle of Bunker Hill, stepped 
into the place of General Warren as he was slain ; and on the 
father's side, great-grandchild of Mr. Holbrook, who was 
with General Ethan Allen at the surrender of Ticonderoga. 

Not conforming always to the rule of his particular 
school, Dr. Perry is everywhere an eclectic in its broadest 
sense. Ever ready to consult with the disciples of other 
schools, he lives to learn from all that which shall enable 
him to become of greatest service to his fellow-man in his 

As a citizen, be is notably charitable. During the war of 
the Rebellion he procured a man to fill his place in the field. 
He is ever ready to lend a helping hand to all Elyria's im- 
provements. He is the medical examiner of Council No. 57 
of the Royal Arcanus of Elyria. Possessing a reputation 
unsullied by any act as a man, private or professional, he 
is a living example of one of Elyria's present self-made men. 

Photo, by Lee, Elyria, O. 


The early annals of Scituate, Mass., show on their records 
frequently the name of Gushing. Francis Gushing was 
born at Scituate, and was a ship-builder. To him was given 
the honor of being one of the master-builders of the United 
States ship of war the "Old Gonstitution." Gharles, his 
son, followed the calling of a farmer ; was born at Scituate, 
and married Miss Sally R. Thayer, whose ancestors were of 
the Turner family, a name so common to the antiquarian 
who studies the early history of New England. Gharles 
and his wife, Sally R., were the parents of ten children, 
one of them. Dr. C. F. Gushing, being born in 1829. 

His early life was that of the average New England boy ; 
work on the farm, the common school, and three months' 
study in the select school found him seventeen years of age. 
Then buying his time of his father for one hundred dollars, 
the next four years were spent in work as he found it, 
now on the form and again as a school teacher. Funds 
thus earned repaid the debt to his father, and were used 
for better educational privileges at Lewiston Falls, Maine. 

Now with the world before him, the vocation of teacher 
was pursued by him at the South for three years, — years 
of much pleasure and of mental profit to him. 

The spring of 1854 gave to him a new home, and greater 
opportunities of self-improvement. With the exception of 
a short visit to the East, the following five years were passed 
in California. Varied was his experience there : now in 
the city, now at the diggings, now proprietor of a hotel in 
the mountains ; again, in connection with a friend, a tract 
of land is taken up, fenced, prepared, and planted with fruit- 
trees and the grape-vine. This contract was made between 
the friends : " He who first marries, to him shall this 
property belong." The friend gained the " ranche," Elyria 
won her courteous physician. 

Mr. Gushing commenced the reading of medicine with 
Dr. Norman, of Suisun Valley, Galifornia. These read- 
ings were completed with Dr. John Wheeler, at Gleveland, 

Ohio. Entering the Western Homoeopathic GoUege, of the 
same city, he graduated with honor in the spring of 1861. 

Soon after taking up his residence in Elyria he engaged 
in the practice of his profession ; his first two winters, how- 
ever, being spent at Cleveland, where, at his Alma Mater, 
he was demonstrator of anatomy, virtually filling that chair, 

Commencing at Elyria as an exponent of the Hahnemann 
idea of medicine, — an idea yet unpopular with the many, — 
slow but sure was his steady progress in his profession, and 
marked was the esteem he daily gained as a citizen. This 
esteem showed itself in this way. Requested in 1862 to 
form a company of " squirrel hunters," with alacrity did he 
respond. Many a young man of Elyria will ever remem- 
ber his departure from Elyria ; the camp of weeks' duration 
upon Gen. W. H. Harrison's old homestead ; the thanks 
with which Governor Tod sent them homa under Captain 
Gushing, who as captain, physician, and friend performed 
those various duties so well. 

In 1866 he wedded Miss Mary L. Hayward, of Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Thus did the grandson of the builder of the " Old 
Constitution" become the husband of the granddaughter of 
Mr. Lyman Knowles, who, at the request of " Boston's solid 
men," built, at Amherst, Mass., the famous carriage for 
General Jackson from the historical timbers of said " Old 
Gonstitution." Of this marriage little Charlie alone re- 
mains to make the parents' home gladsome, two little sisters 
having passed away. 

Now in the full vigor of manhood, with ever-increasing 
practice ; honored by the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern 
Railroad Company with the position of surgeon of said road, 
after the death of the late Dr. E. P. Haines, which position 
was filled by Dr. Gushing until general order abolishing such 
office ; with the most courteous relations existing between 
himself and brother physicians, no matter of how different 
schools ; with the respect of all, as citizen and physician, 
he lives one of Elyria's prominent men. 

Photo, by Lee, Elyria, 0. 


Frederick S. Reefy* was liorii in the village of 
Boezingen, at the foot of tlie Jura, in the Canton of 
Berne, Switzerland, Sept. 1, 1833, and the following 
year emigrated with his parents to the United States, 
and located on a farm near Mount Eaton, Wayne 
Co., Ohio. Here he spent iiis early boyhood, the 
summers at work upon the fields, and the winters at 
school, where he received his rudimentary education 
in the English language, and was instructed to read 
and write the German by his parents. Being of a 
studious habit, he took at an early age the first 
rank in his classes, and in a few years mastered the 
branches taught in the district schools. In the fif- 
teenth year of his age the family moved to Tuscarawas 
County, near Wilmot. Here four more years were 
spent on the farm and at school, when he began teach- 
ing in the winter, and during the summer pursued the 
higher branches of education. This course, alternat- 
ing as a teacher and student, continued seven years; 
and having acquired his education mainly by his own 

* The German spoiling was Rifle. 

efforts and means, he was thorough and practical, and 
became a successful educator. 

In the spring of 1860, Mr. Reefy went West, and 
located at Roanoke, Ind., where he organized the 
Roanoke Educational Society, and by its aid founded 
Roanoke Seminary. In 1862 he married Miss Mary 
Shearer. He remained at the head of the seminary 
eight years, during which time it was one of the most 
popular schools in Northern Indiana. In addition 
to his educational labors at the seminary, he served 
part of this time as superintendent of the sub-district 
.schools of Huntington County. On account of fail- 
ing health, in 1868, he quit teaching for a time, and 
subsequently moved to Bluffion, Indiana, and organ- 
ized the graded .schools of that place, and remained in 
charge as superintendent until 1872, when he re- 
signed, and with his family moved to Elyria, and be- 
came editor and proprietor of the Elyria Constitution. 

As a political writer Mr. Reefy is conscientious, 
bold, and vigorous. He criticises severely and 
commends generously. In the descriptive, his pen 
delineates the picturesque and beautiful in nature 
with happy effect. 



he was acting in the latter capacity, the legislature 
authorized a loan of three million dollars, at seven joer 
cent interest, provided Ohio bonds could be sold at 
par. For some time, the bonds of the State had been 
wortli but tifty cents on the dollar, in the New Y^ork 
market. Under these discouraging circumstances. 
Dr. Hubbard and the late Governor Brough (then 
auilitor of State,) proceeded to New York and Boston, 
and in six weeks negotiated for tlie entire amount. 
On reaching the city, they issued a pamphlet, show- 
ing the wealth and resources of Ohio, and the addi- 
tional fact that, she had never failed jjromptly to 
pay the interest on her bonds when due. 

In 1851, Dr. llubliard removed to Tottenville, 
Staten Island, where he continued in practice until 
the time of iiis death, in 1873, at the age of seventy- 
three years. 

Dr. Hubbard was a man of much more than 
ordinary ability. He was not only well versed in liis 
jirofession, but as a scientist, he enjoyed, to a consid- 
eraljle extent, a national reputation. He did not 
commence tlie study of the national sciences until he 
was forty years of age, and engaged in the jn-actice of 
a laborious profession, and yet he became thoroughly 
familiar witli the liotany of this country, was well 
posted in geology and mineralogy, and as a conchol- 
ogist had one of the finest collections of fresh water 
and marine shells in the country. His cabinet at- 
tracted visitors from a distance, and they were amply 
repaid for their trouble. He was genial and pleasant 
in the discharge of his jirofessional duties, and liis 
l)resence in the sick room was cheering, and added 
much to his success in the treatment of his patients. 

Dk. NoKToif S. TowNSHENi) is still living and in 
the midst of his usefulness. AVe do not feel compe- 
tent to write a sketch of his life and do him justice. 
We sliall briefly recapitulate the important positions 
he lias held, witliout much comment. His father 
emigrated from England to this country when Norton 
— an only child — was fourteen years of age, and set- 
tled in Avon, in this county, on the beautiful farm 
which the doctor still owns. What advantages for 
obtaining an education he enjoyed before coming to 
Oliio, we do not know; but, after the family settled 
in Avon, his labor was needed on the farm, so that he 
never found time to attend even the district schools 
of that day. Perhaps he did not need the aid of 
teachers as most' persons do. His mind was capable 
of grasping and mastering any branch of study that 
lay in his way. We first heard of him as a well 
grown boy aiding in organizing a literary society and 
then a book club among the young people of his own 
age, and the influence for good, especially of the read- 
ing club, is felt in Avon to this day. 

In 1837, lie entered the office of Dr. R. L. Howard, 
in Elyria, as a student of medicine. He was then 
about twenty-one years of age. In the fall and winter 
of that year he attended a course of medical lectures 
in Cincinnati. He returned to Elyria in the spring, 

and continued his studies until the fall of 1839, and, 
after attending a course of lectures at the College of 
Pliysicians and Surgeons in New York, graduated in 
the spring of 1840. He immediately sailed for Europe 
and spent tiie succeeding year and a half in attending 
the hospitals of Paris, London, Edinburgh and Dub- 
lin. At the close of this time he returned to Ohio, 
and, for a short time, practiced medicine in Avon. 

In 1843, he was married to ]\Iiss Harriet Wood, an 
estimable lady, and moved to Elyria. Here, as every- 
wliere, his influence was felt. He took a prominent 
part in organizing and carrying on the Elyria Natural 
History Society, and delivered more and better lec- 
tures before that society than any other person. 
Whenever a lecturer failed to aj^pear. Dr. Townshend 
was called on to fill the place, and he was always 
ready to deliver a most interesting and instructive 
lecture. While in practice he performed a number of 
cajtital surgical operations, such as lithotomy, ampu- 
tations of the thigh, shoulder, etc. 

In 1848, Dr. Townshend was elected to the house 
of representatives of the State by the free soil party. 
It so happened that he and the Hon. John F. Morse, 
of Lake county, were the only free soilers elected, and 
that they held the balance of power between the whig 
and democratic parties. They used this power to 
great advantage, and, with the aid of the demo- 
cracy, secured the repeal of the odious "black laws," 
which had disgraced the statute book of Ohio for 
many years. They also secured the election of Salmon 
P. Chase to the United States senate — which was the 
beginning of his public life — as well as the ajipoint- 
ment of several other anti-slavery men, to prominent 
l)ositions in the State. The doctor was understood 
to be the controlling spirit in bringing about these 

In 1850, Dr. Townshend was elected a member of 
the constitutional convention which formed our pres- 
ent excellent constitution, and occupied a prominent 
position in that body. In the fall of that year he was 
elected a member of the thirty-second congi-ess. 
Being a young man and an abolitionist, he was cut by 
the lordly slaveholders, who then had a controlling 
influence in congress. Mr. Stanley, of North Caro- 
lina, condescended to attack him in a speech on the 
floor, to which the doctor replied; and it is said that 
after the reply the gentleman from North Carolina 
was known as "the late Mr. Stanley." At the end of 
his congressional term he was nominated for re-elec- 
tion, but the democracy had so gerrymandered his 
district that he was defeated. 

In 1853, he was elected to the State senate. Dur- 
ing the session, he introduced a bill to establish an 
asylum for imbecile children and youth. It passed 
at the next session, and he was appointed a member 
of the l)oard of trustees, which position he held, by re- 
appointment, until 1878. 

In 1858, while living on his farm, in Avon, he was 
elected a member of the State board of agriculture, 
and, by re-election, this office was held by him for 



eight years, he being twice elected president of the 

In 18t)3 lie was appoiiitoil, bj' President Lincoln, a 
medical ins[)ector in llio army, with the rank of col- 
onel of cavaliy, which position lie held until the close 
of the war. 

In 18G7, he accepted a professorship in the Iowa 
agricultural college, which position he resigned at the 
end of two \'ears. 

In 1870, he labored earnestly and successfully to 
secure the passage of a law to establish an agricultural 
and mechanical college for this State, and when the 
bill passed, he was apjiointed a trustee. 

In 1873, when the college buildings were comi^leted, 
and the institution ready to be opened, he accepted a 
professorship, and removed with his family to Co- 
lumbus. He is still an honored and useful member 
of the faculty. 

In the winter of 1854, his first wife died, leaving a 
son and daughter. He was subsequently married to 
Miss Margaret A. Baily, of Clarksburg, Virginia, who 
is a highly cultured and excellent lady, and makes the 
doctor's home very pleasant. 

Few men in Ohio can show such an honorable 
record, and few have done more to promote the gen- 
eral welfare of the people. Dr. Townshend is yet in 
the prime of life, possesses a robust constitution, and 
has, we trust, many years of usefulness before him. 

Dr. Edwin Kellet came to Elyria in 1840, and 
soon secured a good practice. He was thoroughly 
educated in his profession, was gentle and courteous 
in his manners, warm in his friendships, and pure in 
his morals. He married a daughter of William M. 
Beebe, of Hudson, Ohio. Pulmonary consumption, 
that insatiable messenger of death, soon made him its 
victim. He spent a winter in Florida, without any 
permanent benefit, and, in a year or two, he passed 
away, greatly lamented in this community, where he 
had many friends. 

Dk. Jamin Strong w;is born in Parma, Monroe 
county. New York, November 27, 1825. From the 
age of five until twelve he attended school in iiis 
native village, most of the time. After his ])areuts 
removed to Sheffield, in this county, in 183S, he at- 
tended the common schools, and was assisted in his 
studies, during the intervals, by his sister, who was a 
teacher. For one year previous to his entering upon 
the study of medicine, he studied Latin, botany and 
chemistry. He entered the office of Dr. Eber W. 
Hubl)ard, in Elyria, as a student, in the spring of 
1846. After attending three courses of lectures at 
the medical department of the Western Reserve Col- 
lege, he graduated at that institution, in 1840. He 
immediately thereafter commenced practice in Elyria, 
and continued in successful business until 1870. 

In 18G6, he was appointed professor of Materia 

Medica and Therapeutics in the medical department 

of the Wooster University, and resigned that position 

in the spring of 1870. 

In the fall of 1860, he was elected to the house of 

representatives of the general assembly of Ohio, which 
office he resigned in June, 1870, at which time he was 
appointed sjiecial agent of tbo post office department, 
and resigned the same in September, 1875. 

In November, 1875, he was appointed superintend- 
ent of the Cleveland Asylum for the Insane, which 
position he still holds. 

It will be seen that Dr. Strong has filled many 
positions of honor and trust, aiul in every position he 
has done credit to himself, and greatly benefited the 
public. In his present difficult and responsible 
office, having the care of nearly six hundred unfor- 
tunates who are deprived of reason, he has united 
firmness with gentleness and kindness in a remark- 
able degree, and has manifested a high degree of ad- 
ministrative ability. 

The present physicians of Elyria are: G. R. Sher- 
wood, P. D. Reefy and J. V. Sampsel, of the regular 

P. W. Sampsell, E. C. Perry and G. H. Tyrrell, 

C. F. Cushing and G. F. Peckham, Ilomeopathists. 



In the year 1855, there were in the Elyria High 
School a class of boys who will be long remembered 
1)V our older citizens as the brightest and most 
intelligent of any who have passed through our 
union schools. Their names are: Charles C. Good- 
win, Osceola Bliss, Henry Joy, Thomas J. Boynton 
and Charles C. Parsons. They organized a school 
lyceum, and their debates and other exercises attracted 
the attention iind admiration of many of the best 
cultured minds in this community. 

Charles C. Goodwin, after doing good service as 
an officer in the Union army, during the war of the 
rebellion, went into business at its close, in Jackson, 
Mich., where he now resides. 

Osceola Bliss opened a drug and apothecary store \ 
also in Jackson, where he made nuiuy friends, and 
enjoyed the confidence and regard of the entire com- 
munity. He died young, leaving a wife and daughter, 
greatly lamented by his friends and ac([uaintances. 

Henry Joy is a distinguished minister of the 
Methodist Episcojial church, and resides in the State 
of Michigan. 

Thomas J. Boynton was the son of John H. 
Boynton, Esq., and was born in Amherst, August 31, 
1838. When twelve years of age, he removed with 
his father's family to Elyria, and was educated in our 
union schools. He studied law with the Hon. L. A. 
Sheldon, and was admitted to the bar when twenty i 
years of age. He opened an office in St. Joseph, 
Missouri, and during the winter of 1858-50, was a 
correspondent of the Missouri Democrat. His letters 
attracted much attention on account of their ability 
and brilliancy. In March, 1861, he was appointed 
by President Lincoln marshal of the southern district 
of Florida. This office he filled with prudence and 



ability for two years, when in 1863, on the resignation of 
Judge Marvin, he was appointed United States jndge 
for the above district. It is believed that "he was 
the youngest person ever appointed to that position in 
the liistory of this country." He discharged liis duties 
with eminent satisfaction until 1809, when failing 
liealth compelled him to resign. He hoped that a 
change of climate would result in the restoration of 
liis health. He spent most of liis time, after his 
resignation, among the mountains in the western 
territories, but without receiving any benefit. His 
disease — which was a bony tumor pressing upon the 
brain — steadily progressed. He submitted to an ope- 
ration for its removal, at the Bellevue Hospital, in 
New York. The operation was performed by the 
celebrated surgeon, Dr. AVood, and for ten days there 
seemed a fair prospect for his recovery; but at the 
end of that time, inflammation set in, which soon 
destroyed his life. His parents reached his bedside 
while he was able to recognize them, but was unable 
to speak. He died on tiie ad of May, 1871, aged 
thirty-two years. His remains were brought to this 
village for interment. 

This is a brief history of the brief life of an esti- 
mable young man, but how precions is his memory to 
his family and surviving friends. Pew young men 
liave left such a record. Perhaps none liave done 
more lienor to the town where he was raised and edu- 
cated. The following are the closing paragraphs of 
an obituary notice published in the Missnuri Dem- 
ocrat : 

"Judge Boynton was a man of remarkable promise. He was unusu- 
ally talented, and if health and the ability to use his faculties had been 
granted him, he would doubtless have achieved a wide reputation. He 
was an earnest and eloquent speaker and a peciiliarly facile and vig- 
orous writer. When but twenty-one years of age he was employed as 
a campaign speaker in New York, and the same year was appointed to 
welcome Governor Seward to St. Joseph, on the occasion of his visit to 
that city. He was for several years an able and always interesting 
correspondent of the Misaotiri Democrat. His early demise will be 
deeply regretted by a very large circle of warm friends." 

0H.4.RLES Carroll Parsons was the son of 
Jonathan Trumbull and Mary C. Parsons, wlio 
removed from Bloomfield, Hartford county, Connec- 
ticut, to Elyria, in 1827, and settled on tlie farm 
now owned by Stephen Smith. Mr. Parsons died 
October 31, 1838, and tlie subject; of this sketch, tlien 
a babe six months old, witli his mother and a brotiier 
aged five years, became members of the family of his 
uncle, Dr. Griswold. His mother married the Rev. 
William IJutlin, after tliree or four years, but Char- 
ley, as we loved to call him, remained most of the 
time in the family of his uncle, who considered him 
a foster son. He was educated in our public scliools, 
and was distinguished as a briglit, active boy, and an 
excellent scholar. In 1857 he was appointed by 
Judge Bliss (who was then in Congress) a cadet at 
West Poiut. He graduated in 1861, and was at once 
commissioned a first lieutenant and assigned to the 
Fourth regiment U. S. artillery. He served a few 
months in the mountains of West Virginia, and then 
joined Gen. Buell's troops, who by a forced march 

reached the battle field of Shiloh at the close of the 
first day's battle, when the Union troops were defeat- 
ed and greatly demoralized. Gen. Buell's troops 
crossed the river as soon as possible, the army was 
rallied and before morning took their position for 
the second day's battle. Lieut. Parsons commanded 
a battery of U. S. troops in that battle, wliich 
resulted in a victory for tlie Union army, and the 
next day a detail of officers was a})pointed to examine 
as to the execution of his battery, who reported a 
hundred and fifty dead rebels on tlie field killed by 
his guns. For distinguished lu'avery in this action 
he was promoted and made a captain. In the early 
summer he obtained a " leave of absence," returned 
north and was married to Miss Celia Lippett, of 
Brooklyn, New York. Returning to duty he reached 
Louisville, where he found communication with his 
battery cut off by the rebel General Bragg. General 
Terrel, then in command, made a detail of two hun- 
dred men from the raw troops of the infantry reg- 
iments, and ordered them to report to Capt. Parsons 
for duty. Out of this material he organized an eight 
gun battery. He commanded this battery at Perry- 
ville. Gen. Jackson, his division commander, and 
Gen. Terrel, who commanded a brigade, were killed 
almost at his side. His men, though raw, seem to 
have been brave, as forty of them were killed or 
wounded. The rest, with the regiment su]iportiiig 
the battery, retreated. His horses were nearly all 
killed and still Capt. Parsons stood by his guns. It 
was emphatically a one man tuittery. 

At this juncture a column of rebel trooi>s advanced 
to take the battery, and the Cajitain with his face to 
the enemy, retreated backwards. A hundred guns 
were raised to shoot him, but the rebel officer, admir- 
ing his bravery, ordered them not to fire, and the two 
officers, giving each other the military salute, Capt. 
Parsons walked deliberately away. The next morn- 
ing he re-took part of his battery. For distinguished 
bravery in this battle he was breveted major. His 
next battle was that of Stone River. Gen. Palmer 
(since (iovernor of Illinois) says of him: "During 
the whole day I regarded the battery under command 
of Capt. Parsons as my right arm. My orders to 
Parsons were simple: 'Fight where you can do the 
most good !' Never were orders better obeyed.'' For 
this battle he was breveted lieutenant-colonel of the 
regular army. Soon after this battle he went to New 
York to submit to a surgical operation and soon after 
was detailed as an instructor at the West Point Mili- 
tary Academy, where he remained until the close of 
the war, at which time he was ordered to Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kansas, where he served for two years, part of 
the time on the plains, when he was again ordered to 
to West Point as a teacher. While there he became 
acquainted with Bishop Quintard of the diocese of 
Tennessee, under whose guidance he began the study 
of theology. He resigned his position in the army 
and repaired to Memphis, Avhere he took holy orders 
in 1870. He was for a time I'ector of St. Mary's in 



Memphis, but was soon called to St. Mary's in the 
lliglilaiuls, at Cold Sprinij, opposite to West Point, 
lie served the ehurcli faithfully and acceptably for 
about two years, when he was called to the Churcli of 
the Holy Innocents, at Hoboken, N. J. He served 
here for three years, when the death of his l)eioved 
wife niakinn; a residence at that i>laee i>ainrul to him, 
lie returned to Memphis, and became canon of SI. 
Mary's cathedral. Here he labored witli the zeal and 
earnestness, which had characterized his whole life, 
mil ill hat fatal scoMr^-e (yellow fever) which made 
iMem|)liis a eharnel house, took possession of that 
doomed city. At the commencement of the disease, 
and before it became epidemic, he sent his wife and 
two children (lie had re-married in Memphis) to 
friends in the country, hut he remained faithful at 
the [)ost of duty, laboriutj night and day in comfort- 
ing the sick and administering tiie consolations of 
religion to the dying. We quote from an article pub- 
lished in the Chicago Trlbiiue, written by a former 

" A man of polished intellect, of beautiful soul, the possessor of every 
f^race, Parsons seemed to have been created for the sweet olltiees of 
charity and friendship. From the outbreak of the plague until he be- 
came one of its victims he had been constantly l^usied, {as he wrote me 
a few days aj?<>} " in earing for the dead, the dying and forsaken," He 
has been winning the useful victoi-ies of peace; he has stood by his 
gnus, hni alas, the invisible enemy, less generous than the visilile, has 
not held his tire." 

Another writer, in the Matlisou (Wis.) Dniiocnit, 
says : 

" He looked death calmly in the face, and when his turn came, died 
as a true soldier of Christ, at his post of duty. Let no one sorrow over 
such a death. It rounds out in full perfection the record of a hero's 
courage and a martyr's steadfastness." 

The Mempiiis Avalanche says of him: 

" He died to save those against whom he fought." 

lie died iSe|itember f), liSTM, leaving a disconsolate 
widow, and a son and daughter, the eldest but four 
years of age. 

Col. Fr.vniv II. Manter was the son of the late 
Dr. Nathan H. Manter, and was born in Elyria, 
December 31, 1^34. lie spent his boyhood here, and, 
at a suitable age, entered the Western Reserve Col- 
lege, at Hudson, where he remained two years. He 
then, at the age of twenty, took charge of an academy 
at or near Natchez, Miss., for about two years, when 
he removed to St. Louis, Mo. He soon obtained the 
position of clerk of one of the courts, and, while dis- 
charging the duties of that office, studied law and 
was admitted to the btir. On retiring from otliee, he 
opened a law office and soon obtained a leading prac- 
tice. He was for a time president of the city council, 
in which i)osition "he diligently and intelligently 
served his constituents." AVe (piote from the proceed- 
ings of a meeting of the "St. Louis bar" convened 
immediately after his death: 

"Wlien the clouds which have since burst in storm over our land, 
began to gather and give sign of the approaching tempest, he was 
prompt among the foremost to promote the organization of those bodies 
to which the successful resistance of St. Louis to the efforts of secession 
in the spring of 1S6J. was mainly due." 

We cannot better detail the subsequent career of 

Col. Manter than by quoting the general order of 
Major General Steele, issued at the time of his death: 

hsadtjuarters department of arkansas, 
Little Rock, Junk 13, 1864. 
General ih-clfrs No. '19. 

With feelings of sorrow and regret the general commanding an- 
nounces to the troops of this department the untimely death of Col. F. 
H. M inter, chief of staff. He died at two o'clock this morning from an 
injury received try the falling of his horse. He survived the fatal acci- 
dent but a few hours, and breathed bis last suri-oimded by his military 
friends and comi>anions. Col. Manter's military career, which com- 
menced at the commencement of this rebellir)n, reflects great credit 
upon his character as an officer. He was energetic in raising troops to 
st-ay the rebellion in Missouri lmme<liately after the Camp Jackson 
affair, and first tlistinguished himself on the battle-field at Wilson's 
Creek, as first lieutenant in the First Missouri infantry, having pre- 
viously participated in the skirmish at Boonesville. After the battle of 
Wilson's Creek, his regiment was transferred to the artillery service, 
and he was promoted to the command of Battery A, which served in 
Gen. Steele's division during the first campaign into .\rkansas, and 
acquired a reputation for discipline and efficiency, which no volunteer 
battery in the west had at that time acquired. In the summ r of 1862 
he was pnimoted to the conunand of the Thirty-.second Missouri infantry, 
and commanded his regiment in the a.ssaidt on Chickasaw Ba.vou, and 
at Arkansas Post in Blair's brigade, Steele's division. He commanded 
one of Steele's brigades during Grant's memorable campaign into Mis- 
sissippi, which culminated in the surrender of Vicksburg. In conse- 
iiuence of the arrival of a senior otticer at Vicksburg, who was entitled 
to the command of the brigade. Col. Manter was assigned to duty on the 
stjitif of Major General Steele, then in command of the Fifteenth Army 
Corps, and served in that capacit.y during Sherman's siege of Jackson, 
and the pursuit of the rebel. Joe .Tohnson, beyond Brandon, and in the 
capacity of chief of staff he accompanied Gen. Steele on the Arkansas 
expedition, which resulted in the capture of Little Rock and the occupa- 
tion of the line of the Arkansas. He accompanied the command in the 
recent operations south of the Arkansas, and had just returned from an 
important mission, when his career of honor and usefulness was sud- 
denly terminated b.v a fatal accident. Those who knew him most inti- 
mately can but appreciate the great loss which the government as well 
as themselves have sustained. He was brave, patriotic, able, inde- 
pendent in thought and iiction, a true soldier and an honest friend. 
By order of Major General F. Steele. 

W. D. Green, Assistant Adjutant General- 

Col. Manter was mtirried Sejitember 1, 18.53, to 
Miss Elizabeth M. Redington, daughter of the late 
Ransom Redington. She died July 2G, 1856, leaving 
an infant son, who is living and grown to maturity. 
So tenderly did Col. Manter cherish the memory of 
his beloved wife that he never again entered the mar- 
riage relation. Their remains sleep side by side in 
our Elyria cemetery. 

Biographical Sketches. 


Not long before the division amongst three broth- 
ers of a large estate, the youngest brother wrote as 
follows: "Some men are born to business, others 
achieve business, and some have business thrust iqion 
them. Of this last class am I, though I shall remain 
off duty as long as Heaven sends excuses ; and per- 
haps when Heaven withholds, I may make some ex- 
cuse for myself. Yet one thing is certain, when 
action commences, even though I may be compelled 
to employ one hand to keep both ends together, the 
other shall always be free to grasp the beautiful, to 
seize the true, or to return my native town what I 
owe to a sense of duly." 




Grandly did CHiarles Arthur Ely perfect the above 
statement in after life. Youngest son of Judge He- 
man P]ly, (whose early life, and whose connection with 
the early history of Elyria are already set forth in 
this volume,) and Harriet M. Salter Ely, lie was 
born at Elyria, Ohio, May 3d, 1839. Of Puritan 
stock was C. A. Ely, on the mother's side. William 
Salter, born in England in 1(!3;5, emigrated to Boston, 
Mass. He and his wife were members of the first 
church established in Boston, which stood on State 
street. As this church grew strong, from it went 
out Mr. Salter and others, who founded the famous 
"Old South Church." Of such descent was Mrs. 
Harriet M. Ely, in direct line. Of New England 
culture, Mrs. Ely trained her son in that culture, 
which means so much. Brought up in habits of 
strict economy, never did that son in future life lose 
the distinction between the use and abuse of wealth 
to which he was born. 

C. A. Ely's early yeai's were spent in Elyria. After 
usual ])rimary education, he commenced the neces- 
sary training for College, under the Rev. John Mon- 
teith, Rev. John P. Cowles and others, who were 
teachers in the "old high school house," or in select 
schools. During the year 1S4G severe disease of the 
eyes compelled cessation from study. His charac- 
teristic energy allowed no idea of idleness. Various 
were his employments for the following two years. 
At the bench of Caleb Goodwin (cabinet maker,) ho 
improved the mechanical skill with which nature 
had gifted him. At the woolen manufactory of Her- 
rick Parker he soon became expert at the lo(»m. 
Thus did he work until the fall of 1847, when he 
went to Cleveland, Ohio, as a clerk for Clark & Mor- 
gan, dry goods men. Returning to Elyi'ia, he en- 
gaged in study under the Rev. C. 1). B. Mills. 

March 1st, 1849, " The Elyria Academical Institu- 
tion " gave its annual exhibition. No. 18 on the 
programme was a colloquy — C. A. Ely author. This 
ended any study so far as Elyria was concerned. In 
the summer of 1849 Boston was visited for trcatuKuit 
of ever troublesome eyes. Entering the Scientific 
School at Cambridge, Mass., the time was passed un- 
til 1851. During this year a few months' residence 
in Cincinnati, Ohio, gave to him a full course in 
book-keeping. In the latter part of the same year 
he went to New Grenada, South America, his gen- 
eral residence being at Carthagena. Returning thence 
April 3d, 1S53, after a short stay in Elyria he again 
visited C'ambridge, where most of his time was spent 
until the fall of 18.53. In February, 1854, on the 
division of his father's estate, he commenced the du- 
ties of life. His own words can best express his idea 
of such duties. "No one has more laborious posi- 
tion to Mil than the man who finds liimself at matu- 
rity the ])ossessor of wealth, with an earnest desire so 
to use it that he may in the largest sense behefit him- 
self and others." With this laudable desire, active 
work commenced in the impi'ovement of his property. 

On June 19, 1854, taking Miss Louise C. Foot, 

daughter of the Hon. John A. Foot, of Cleveland, O., 
as partner in the joys or sorrows of his future — leav- 
ing his native land June 24, 1854, the next five 
months were spent in travel over Great Britain, Bel- 
gium, Germany, Switzerland and France. In these 
travels, a mind, already highly cultivated, gained 
deeper insight, greater lireadth. To his artistic eye, 
the beautiful, as he Tuet it in the old countries, alwavs 
appealed. 'J'he old and ancient, howevei', to him, 
was only an adjunct to the vow. Everything was 
made subservient to the one idea: "What mav I here 
learn of farming, of science, of art, that I may make 
useful to my fellow men." 

Again at home, in December, 1854, he received an 
injury, which, though long after, caused his death. 
The spring of 1855 found him engaged in the work 
that lay very near his heart, viz: the preparation of 
his farm; the building a large stock farm; the per- 
fecting arrangements he had made for the introduc- 
tion of a fine herd of Devon cattle into Lorain county. 
December, 1855, Ijrought to him the first attack of 
disease which in the end })roved fatal. With indonii- 
tal)le will he struggled bravely against it until waning 
health demanded rest and recreation. August, 1S5<!, 
saw his jileasaut household broken uj). Some months 
were spent in travel. The winter of 1850 and 1857 
was passed at Brattleboro, Vt. The summer and fall 
of the same year Klyria welcomed him as resident, 
with the exception of a short trip to the upper lakes. 

For increasing ill health physicians advised a sea 
voyage. Thus advised, Mr. Pjly and wife sailed from 
New York, February 10, 1858, for China. A pleasant 
voyage landed them on its shores. Visiting many of 
its leading cities, he entered Canton just after its re- 
duction by the combined English and Frent^h forces; 
various the experience, much was learned. 

Departing from Hong Kong in June, 1858, August 
Gth following gave to them a new home at San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. Mr. Ely spent nearly two years in Cali- 
fornia — years of great uu'utal profit and physical 
pleasure, even though marred by the ever haiiuting 
presence of fatal disease. Here his favorite study liad 
full scope in the great agricultural resources of that 
young State. The result of such studies was given 
to others in a series of articles written for and pub- 
lished in the AUa CkiUfornian. 

Leaving California July, 1860, stopping at Valpa- 
rai o, Lima and other South American cities, October, 
1860, he cheered Elyria again with his presence. Now- 
full of happiness at the universal love and respect 
showered upon him by his fellow citizens, with hope- 
ful heart he again essayed the completion of former 
notions, laying the foundations of the beautiful resi- 
dence (since so fully finished by his widow). None 
envied him; all loved him, and wished for him every 
good. Not such his fate: fell disease made rapid 
inroad. Unable to cany into completion his wishes 
for Elyria, Elyria's bciicfarlor died September 30, 
1864, leaving not only the dear wife and only son, 
but all who had ever known him, to mourn his loss. 



" Wealth and social position do not always make the 
man, but tlic two oombiiied jjive their owner wonder- 
ful Dpiiurtiinity for use or al)Uso." Thus wrote C. A. 
Ely, in 1853. It is a great pleasure for a friend to 
try, in some feeble way, to show how Mr. Ely, with 
his advantages, so used them, as to become a man. 
Of fiTie, even commanding appearance, he was, under 
all circumstances, the well bred man — ffeiitleitum. 
Knowing no distinction of class or race, he who re- 
spected himself, ever had C A. Ely's resjiect. No 
one, however humlile his place in life, can say, ilid he 
look u])on me witii liaughty eye. lie endeared him- 
self to those in liis employ, by courteous treatment 
and unvarying kindness. Tiie early teachings of a 
devotedly j)ious moMier only enhanced his innate 
rcligiiius idea. 

Wiiilst in Boston, attending and learning from tlie 
teachings of clergymen of different views, he writes 
as follows: "A church, whose religion shall be a pure 
and active humanity, is what I need. If men can only 
be waked up and set in motion, I care not how eccentric 
their orbit; whether one run off into spiritualism, 
aniither into materialism, and still another into blind 
creed worshij), the revolution is what man needs, and 
then following a natural law, tlie orl)it will eventually 
become the perfect circle of truth." 

With such thoughts for years, he writes. May 4, 
1860, to his wife, from San Francisco, saying: "My 
name has been proj)ouuded and voted upon for niem- 
bershi]) in a cliurch. I may see my duty in a light a 
little different from those I join, still I can labor with 
them, and be sustained by them, just as the violet 
ray comes from the same sun, and through the same 
atniosi)here as the yellow, or red ray, yet it has a dif- 
ferent end in the overruling providence of heaven. 
I shall become a member of a Congregational church, 
where I find professions of feelings that are expressed 
by deeds, prayers that live themselves out in active 

Nature endowed Mr. Ely with an intense love of 
the beautiful. 'I'his love did he express on the mu- 
sical instrument, by his pencil and brush, and by the 
adornment of his home by works of art, saying: 
" These I may not live to enjoy, l)ut surely they will 
make others happy." 

As a scholar, he was wonderful in this. Ever 
troubled with weak eyes, it was with uncomplaining 
pain he studied. Devoting much attention to science, 
he was elected secretary of the Cambridge scientific 
association at Harvard University. A member of the 
American scientific association, its annual meetings 
were attended as health allowed. A personal friend 
and student of Pi'of. Agassiz, and his colleagues, 
jileasant were his relations with them. Writing from 
Cambridge, in 1849, he says: "Will it not be curious 
if, in the progress of science, that an electric light be 
brought into common use. We may soon hear the 
student talk of removing the oxidized carbon from 
the positive and negative poles of his electro-magnetic 
illuminator, instead of trimming the 'midnight oil.' " 

His studies in science he made of great service to 
others, while in California, where he delivered a 
course of scientific lectures at Oakland, to the stu- 
dents of California college. At an earlier day, he had 
been prominent at home (for one so young), in build- 
ing up the Natural History Society, of Elyria, and also 
under the tutelage of Dr. E. W. Hubbard, of making 
one of the finest collections of Ohio shells, in the 
State. As a citizen, in its every sense, words will fail 
to do him justice. 

(Commencing farming operations, but forced to 
leave in search of health, he writes from the distant 
water cure: "Let my ])lans be carried out as far as 
practicable. I shall soon return. Kec]) the men at 
work, even if they dig up trees on my wood lands 
and plant them on the streets of P]lyria." Returning 
to Elyria he interested himself greatly in the Lorain 
county agricultural society. Developing his farm he 
became a prominent breeder of Devon cattle, and at 
one time had no equal in the United States. His 
herd at the Ohio, Illinois. Missouri, Indiana, and 
other State fairs, outstrij)ping all competitors ; and 
finally, at the United States fair, at Louisville, Ky., 
taking the highest premiums. 


In 1851), as a member of the school board, he 
worked long and hard, in securing the present site 
and erection of the union school building. Again, in 


s=j^ s^UiBii'day stur 



185(i, he used every exertion in liis power to com- 
mence a public ibrary. His action proving of no 
avail, tlirough the indifference of others who might 
have helped him, to him, then, it became almost a 
sacred duty to found such library. How grandly 
this duty was performed, let the " Elyria Library," 
lasting monument of the great heart of C. A. Ely, 
bear witness. Its past history and its present con- 
dition are already fully described in this volume. 
What pen, and who so wise to use it aright, as to 
write the future benefits that must follow this noble 

After the burning of the Willoughby Female Semi- 
nary, efforts were made to start a similar seminary 
at Elyria. To this enterprise Mr. Ely gave untiring 
work. Giving the land so beautiful, (upon which he 
afterwards built his residence,) subscribing not only 
money but material ; laboring with others he suc- 
ceeded in obtaining all that was asked of Elyria, and 
although failing in his endeavor, he had the satisfac- 
tion of feeling that all that he could do was done. 

As the rebellion broke out in 18G1, thronged was 
the court house at Elyria just after the first call for 
troops. Wiiat should Elyria do ? Much was the 
talk, various the plans suggested, whereby to raise 
men and money. Speech followed speech. It was 
left for C. A. Ely, trembling with excitement, with 
flashing eye to warn the assembled audience that the 
impending struggle was to be no ei^hemeral affair, as 
others had stated ; that the situation meant men and 
money — money to support the families of those who 
answered their country's call. Mourning his feeble 
health that prevented actual service, he moved tlie 
appointment of a committee to raise funds for the 
desired purpoes. His princely subscription of $1,000 
had its due effect, and many a man left that room a 
better man, in that he had followed, so far as he 
could, Mr. Ely's example. 

Such are some of the salient features in the public 
life of this good man. Of his innumerable private 
kindnesses, his tender abnegation of self amongst 
personal friends, it were almost sacrilege to write. 

Charles Arthur Ely fighting all the time against 
fearful odds, viz : depressing ill health ; knowing the 
short tenure of his life — was remarkable for his pa- 
tience. The writer can recall no short look, cross 
word, or complaint, only as it proceeded from tlie 
sadness of that so grand heart, that ever looking at 
death as near neighbor, yet wished so much to live 
for the good of his fellow man. Dying in the ]n-ime 
of life, his memory is so thoroughly embalmed in the 
hearts of his fellow townsmen, that fathers and 
mothers will make liis life and actions an example 
for tlieir children, and as those children's children 
visit the Elyria library, his memory will ever become 
more dear. 

In a sermon preached at Elyria, Feb. 8th, 18.53, by 
the Rev. D. A. Grosvenor, on the death of Hon. 
lleman Ely, he said as follows : "I asked Judge Ely 
shortly before death, " How would you wish to amend 

your life were you to live it over ?" He answered^ 
" Were I to live my life over again, I would do more 
in this particular : I would do more for the commu- 
nity and the world." Deep must these words have 
sunk into Charles Arthur Ely's soul, for he lived for 


The subject of this sketch illustrates, in a forcible 
manner, what can be accomplished by a person pos- 
sessing a well balanced and well cultivated mind, with 
increasing industry and apj)lication. For many years 
his life seemed to hang by a single thread, and when 
he went to Florida, in the fall of 1834, in the hope 
that its mild climate might prolong his life, his 
friends hardy dared hope that he would return alive. 

He was born in Canton, Hartford county, Con- 
necticut, July 28, 1813. In the summer of 1821, he 
removed, with his parents, (Asahel and Lydia Bliss), 
to the west part of Whitestown, Oneida county, New 
York, where, as a boy, he worked on a farm. From 
fifteen to nineteen years of age, he was away at school, 
most of the time; principally at the Oneida institute, 
at Whitesboro, New York, and at Hamilton college. 
The want of means prevented him from graduating 
at the latter institution. Much of the time while at 
school, he worked for his board, or boarded himself 
in liis room. In 1833, after leaving college, lie en- 
tered the law office of Theodore Sill, (formerly Gold 
& Sill), of Whitesboro, where he studied the law until 
the fall of 18,34, when, in consequence of bronchial 
troubles, which were becoming chronic, he went to 
Florida. At this time he was much emaciated, and 
his cough was constant and extremely harassing. 

He remained in Florida one year, without material 
benefit to his health, when he again returned to the 
north, and soon after came to Elyria, where an older 
brothei-, the Hon. A. A. Bliss, was engaged in the 
practice of the law. After reaching Elyria, he was 
disposed to give up the study of the law, on account 
of his health, but on its imjorovement, he completed 
his studies, and entered upon the practice in 1841. 

In the winter of 1848-9, he was elected by the gen- 
oral assembly of Ohio presiding judge of the four- 
teenth judicial district, which embraced the counties 
of Lorain, Cuyahoga, Lake, and Geauga, which re- 
sponsible position he filled, to the satisfaction of the 
bar and the public, until the judicial offices were 
vacated by the adojjtion of the new constitution in 
1851. The judges held their positions until the end 
of t he year. 

In the fall of 1854, he was elected a member of the 
thirty-fourth congress, and re-elected in 1856 to the 
thirty-fifth. He was a quiet, though an industrious, 
member of congress, and gained the respect and con- 
fidence of his fellow members, south as well as north. 
He made several carefully jirepared arguments upon 
the legal aspects of slavery, in its relations to tlie 




federal government, which Mr. Sumner and other 
leading anti-slavery members pronounced the best 
ii[iou the subject made in the house. 

In 1861, he was aiipointed, by Mr. Lincoln, chief 
justice of Dakota Territory, but, after organizing the 
courts, and putting them in successful operation, re- 
signed in 1804, before the expiration of his term, and 
went down the river to St. Joseph, Missouri, and 
united witli the republicans in making Missouri a 
fi-ec State, as that State was not included in the pres- 
ident's proclamatiou, and it was feared that it would 
continue to sustain slavery. He was employed to edit 
the St. Jose])hZ'ff% Union, and had been down from 
Dakota before moving to St. Josepli, and for some 
months had written for the Daily Tribune, both of 
which were republican papers, and eflficient in sustain- 
ing the republican policy of the State and national 

In the fall of 18CS, he was elected judge of the 
Sujireme court of Missouri, and served in that capac- 
ity his term of four years. 

In 1872, he was elected professor of law in the 
Missouri State university, and dean of the law faculty, 
and opened the law department, which position he 
now holds. He has published one or more hvv books, 
which are considered standard authority. 

Such a record as the foregoing needs no comment. 
We may add that, his oldest son, William, has been, 
for several years. United States district attorney for 
the eastern district of the state of Missouri, appointed 
))y President Grant, and has filled that dithcult i)osi- 
tion to the satisfaction of the government and people. 
We are proud of this Elyria boy. Some of his opin- 
ions are said to 1)0 among the ablest in the Missouri 


was born February 7, 1809, in Bloomfield, Hartford 
county. Conn. His father, Elijah Griswold, was a 
soldier of the revolution, having entered the patriot 
army when but sixteen years of age. His mother, 
Lydia Adams Griswold, was a native of Massachusetts. 
The subject of this sketch was the youngest of a family 
of eleven children, of whom five were boys and si x girls. 
All save one grew to maturity and became heads of 
families. But three of the number are now living. 

His father was a farmer and horticulturist. He 
spent a long life in collecting and cultivating the 
cluiicest varieties of fruits of tliat day, and prolwbly 
had at one tinu' tjie liest collection in the State. The 
doctor was raised on the farm and acquired a taste 
for fruitgrowing and the cultivation of ilowei-s, which 
he has retained through life, Init circumstances have 
prevented its gratification to any great extent. His 
educational advantages were very limited. He at- 
tended the common district school summer and winter 
until he was ten years of age, and in the winter season 
until he was fifteen. At the age of sixteen he passed 

an examination, and though poorly cpialified, taught 
a country school through the winter. He had a num- 
ber of scholars from eighteen to twenty years of age, 
but had no difficulty in governing the school. At 
seventeen he determined to obtain better qualifica- 
tions as a teacher, and attended a school of a higher 
grade. From that time until twenty-one years of age 
he taught every winter. While filling the position of 
a teacher he was an earnest student, and most of the 
limited education he obtained was acquired by the fire- 
side and by the light of a tallow-candle. He worked 
on the fai'm summers until twenty-one years of age, 
at which time, with twenty dollars in his pocket, he 
started for the west. He stopped at Ludlowville, 
Tompkins county, N. Y., to visit a lirother, where he 
remained and taught school for one year. In Sep- 
tember, 1831, he came to Elyria to visit two sisters 
who were at that time residing in that township. 
During the winters of 1831-2, and 1832-3, he taught 
school in the j-ellow school-house, it being the only 
school in the place. In the spring of 1832 he com- 
menced the study of medicine with the late Doctor 
Samuel Strong, who was then residing in North Am- 
lierst. He completed his preliminary studies under 
the tuition of the late Dr. Asa B. Brown. In the 
fall and winter of 1834-5, he attended a course of 
lectures at the Berkshire Medical College, located at 
Pittsfield, Mass., and at the close of the term received 
a license from the Massachusetts Medical Society. 
He was married on the 25th of March, 1835, to Miss 
Jerusha H. Smith, a former resident of Elyria. She 
died at Dayton, Ohio, on the llth of March, 1875. 
For almost forty years she was to him a true and 
faithful wife and a wise and prudent counsellor. 
Though a great snfl'erer from ill hcaltli during nearly 
the whole period of her married life, by her energy 
and force of character, she discharged the duties of a 
wife and foster-mother with such prudence and sound 
judgement as to win the love and confidence of her 
household and of her nunu'rous friends and acquaint- 
ances. The memory of such a wife and mother is 
blessed. In the spring of 1835, he returned to Elyria 
and entered into partnership with the late Dr. R. L. 
Howard. Business lieing very dull through the sum- 
mer, the partnership was dissolved by mutual consent 
in the fall and Dr. Griswold removed to Grafton, where 
he continued in practice for one year. In the fall 
of 1830 he was elected auditor of Lorain county, and 
returned to Elyria. At the close of his official term, 
in 1838 lie entered into ]iartners]iip with the late Dr. 
Luman Tenney, and removed to Amherst where he re- 
mained two years. In 1840 he returned to Elyria. He 
continued in ]iraptice most of the tinie in connection 
with the lat(^ Dr. Eijcr W. Ilubliard (witli the excep- 
tion of two years which he spent in Cleveland,) until 
the sunimer of 18(!2, when he entered the military 
service as surgeon of the one hundred and third I'eg- 
iment of Ohio volunteers. In 1844 the Cleveland 
Medical College conferred on him the hoiuirary degree 
of M.T>. In 185G he was appointed by Governor 

riiodi b> Loi', Klyn.i, (» 

^" ^ffC^^o/^ 



Salmon P. Cliaso, a trustee of the Northern Oliio Lu- 
natic Asyhun. In 1800 he was re-appointed to the 
same office by Governor Deunison. He lield that 
position for the period of ten years, and became deeply 
interested in that as well as the other benevolent 
institutions of the State. He was one of tlie active 
agents in the organization of the Elyria Natural His- 
tory Society, as well as one of the volunteer lecturers 
before that institution. 

In reference to his military services, the doctor, 
while his regiment was stationed at Frankfort, took 
possession of a comfortable dwelling house and con- 
verted it into a regimental hospital, which wascompli- 
menled by tlie medical inspector as a model institu- 
tion. Wliile here an event occurred which may be 
worth relating. It was during theeraof slavery, and 
the troops were ordered to drive all negroes from their 
camps, which order was not very rigidly enforced. 
A poor fellow named Ben, who had joined the regi- 
ment some forty miles in the rear, was brought to the 
lios))ilal by the chaplain, with the request that he 
should be taken care of. So the doctor set him at 
work. Some two weeks afterwards Ben came trem- 
bling into the office saying his master was after him. 
The surgeon placed a revolver in his breast pocket, 
with the handle projecting, so as to bo i)repared for 
any emergency. Soon the owner came in, accom- 
])anied by two city marshals and a Catholic priest, and 
said very blandly: 

" You have my boy here, and I have come after 

" Your boy," said the doctor ; "you may be some 
of the negro thieves that are following the army, and 
arresting colored men in order to get the reward 
offered. I don't know you, sir. You must do two 
things before you can have him. First, you must 
jirove your loyalty; and second, you must prove be- 
fore the court your title to him, and if you, or either 
of you, lay a hand on him before you comply with 
these terms, I will shoot you." 

After conferring together for a few minutes, the 
owner, the priest and one of the marshals retired, 
and in about two hours returned with two writs, one 
commanding the doctor to appear before the court, 
Rnd, on the owner's giving bond in the sum of sixteen 
hundred dollars, to appear before the court at its next 
term, and prove his title to Ben, he was to be given 
up. The other writ was for the doctor to appear at the 
same term, and prove his title to the slave. By this 
time, a mob of about one thousand people had gath- 
ered in front of the hospital, and a company with the 
regimental band had paraded, also, in front, for the 
l)urpose of escorting the doctor to the court house. 
He sent them back to camp, mounted his horse, with 
Bon at his side, surrounded by a howling mob, and 
reported in court. 

The officials were exceedingly polite, and presented 
a liond for his approval, which probably rejiresented 
half a million of dollars, and Ben was handed over to 
his master. Had not the doctor been backed by a 

ren;iment of bayonets, he would, doubtless, have been 
torn to pieces by the mob. 

The doctor placed his own law suit in the hands of 
John M. Harlan — a brother of .Justice Harlan, of the 
supreme court — who took him liefore a notary, and he 
subscribed an oath that he was in the military service 
of the United States, which put the case off till the 
close of the war. In about a month, the doctor re- 
ceived a letter from Ben's master, proposing that, if 
he would pay the costs, he would withdraw the suit. 
The surgeon replied that, if the court at Cleveland 
decided, after the war, that he should pay the costs, 
he would do so. In about a year, while in East Tenn- 
essee, he received a letter from Mr. Harlan, stating 
that the case had been dismissed at the plaintifE's cost.' 

So ended his Kentucky law suit. 

In August, 1803, the regiment, (with the twenty- 
third army corjis,) crossed the Cumberland moun- 
tains into East Tennessee, the rebel army retiring 
befoi'e them. 

Early in November, the Union army was all con- 
centrated at Knoxville, indulging the vain hope that 
they were going into winter quarters. Before the 
cabins for quarters were completed. General Long- 
street a])peared before the city, with ten thousand 
troops, and the seige of Knoxville commenced. The 
skirmishers, on both sides, were under fire, day and 
night, for twenty-two days. Several battles occurred 
during the time. 

The battle of Armstrong's Hill was fought on the 
the 37th of November, in which the one hundred and 
third bore a consjjicuous part. The rebel assault was 
repulsed, with great loss to them. The one hundred 
and third lost, in that engagement, two killed and 
thirty-two wounded, many of whom died of their 
wounds.. Surgeon Griswold made temporary dress- 
ings of their wounds, as they were brought in, treat- 
ing union and rebel soldiers alike, and sent them in 
ambulances to a new hospital in the city. He visited 
the hospital the next day, and found the wounded 
lying on the floor, in their bloody clothing, without 
even blankets to cover them. He proposed at once to 
take charge of his own men, and soon after was ap- 
})ointed surgeon in charge of the hospital. He soon 
procured, through the (piartermaster, a supply of 
wooden bunks, and the union ladies of Knoxville, (of 
whom Mrs. Smoyer — a daughter of Parson Browulow 
and now the wife of Dr. Boynton, late of this place — 
was a leading spirit,) a quantity of bod-ticks. He 
also secured a load of straw and blankets, and the 
poor wounded soldiers soon had comfortable beds. 
He was also appointed surgeon in charge of hospital 
No. 4, which contained five hundred patients, and, 
for a time, had charge of two hospitals, containing, 
in the aggregate, eight hundred sick and wounded 

The men suffered greatly for want of ])roj)er nour- 
ishment, during the siege, but after the seige was 
raised, and railroad communication opened, by aid of 
the government and the christian and sanitary com- 



missions, they were supplied with eveiything neces- 
sary for tlieir comfort. 

Ou the first of May, the twenty-third army corps 
started on tiie Atlanta campaign. The one hundred 
and third regiment foiiglit its first groat battle on the 
13tli of May, at llesaca, Georgia. It went into the 
fight tliree hundred strong, and came out witli a loss 
of twelve killed and eighty-two wounded. 

Surgeon Griswold was ordered to the rear, at the 
beginning of the fight, to establisli a field hosj)ital for 
the third division. As fast as hospital tents could be 
put up, they were filled with wounded, and in about 
three hours the hospital contaiiu'd throe hundred and 
sixty-two wounded men. The hospital of the second 
division, near by, contained about the same number. 
The doctor being at the time chief operator for the 
division, was engaged for thirty-si.\ hours, with a 
corps of assistants, in performing the necessary ope- 
rations and in dressing the wounds. He jierfoi-med 
a number of capital operations, including three am- 
putations of the thigh and two of the shoulder. As 
soon as possible, the field hospital was broken uj), 
and the patients sent to Chattanooga, as the army 
had moved on in jmrsuit of Joe Johnson, the rebel 
general. He was then placed in charge of the corps 
hospital, wliich in about two weeks was also broken 
up, and the patients sent to the rear. He soon joined 
the main army, which was about forty miles in ad- 
vance. As a line of skirmishers was kept constantly 
in advance, who were day and night exchanging shots 
with the rebel skirmishers, wounded men were brought 
to the rear for treatment evei-y day, and the surgeons 
were not idle. During this campaign, Dr. Griswold 
slept on the muddy ground, under a dog kennel tent, 
almost every night. It rained twenty-two days in 
succession, and his blanket and clothing were never 
dry during that time. 

At length, after crossing the Chattahoochee river, 
having arrived within eight miles of Atlanta, the 
objective point of the campaign, Dr. Griswold found 
himself so reduced in strength by the diseases and 
fatigues of the camp and field, that he very reluc- 
tantly resigned his position in the army and returned 
home. After regaining his health, he again entered 
upon the practice of his profession. 

In 1865, he was elected to the Ohio senate, and was 
re-elected in 1807. During his four years' service as 
.senator, he was faithful in the discharge of his duties, 
being always in his seat, and gave general satisfaction 
to his constituents. He was princijially instrumental 
in securing the passage of a law for the establishment 
of the Reform and Industrial School for Girls. He 
had felt for years that the interests of the people of 
the State demanded a home for incorrigible and 
vicious young girls, where they could be reformed, 
educated and fitted for lives of usefulness. In order 
to carry these views into effect, during the session of 
1868, he offered a resolution for the creation of such 
an institution, and for the apjiointment of a com- 
mittee to fix upon a location, and to report at the 

adjourned session. The resolution was agreed to, 
and the doctor was appointed a member of the com- 
mittee. The work of the committee was thrown 
principally upon him, and during the summer recess 
lie corresponded extensively with the authorities of 
kindred institutions in this country and England. 
Soon after the general assembly re-assembled, he 
presented a report which attracted considerable atten- 
tian, and a large number of extra copies were ordered 
to be printed. The bill accompanying the report 
became a law, and thus was established one of the 
most beneficent institutions of the State. 

After the close of the war of the rebellion, Dr. Gris- 
wold, with many other members of the grand army 
of the republic, felt a deep interest in the welfare of 
the orphans of our dead soldiers, many of whom were 
homeless and inmates of county infirmaries. At a 
meeting of the grand army at Sandusky, in the spring 
of 1869, measures were instituted for the establish- 
ment of a home for soldiers' orjjhans, where they 
could be provided for and educated. The Rev. Geo. 
W. Collier was appointed a general agent of the 
society, who traveled extensively thi-ough the State, 
addressed public meetings, and collected considerable 
money for the establishment of such a home. In 
December following, the home was opened in the city 
of Xenia, and sustained for several months by contri- 
butions of the grand army of the republic. In the 
spring of 1870, it was adopted by the general assem- 
bly as a State institution, and Dr. Griswold was 
appointed its first superintendent. The people of 
Xenia and the county of Greene has donated to the 
grand army one hundred acres of excellent land, 
located within half a mile of the city, composed of 
clear land for cultivation, and an ojien forest, and 
commanding a fine view of the city. They had also 
agreed to })ut up l)uildings for the accommodation of 
two hundred and fifty children. The grand army 
had erected two brick cottages, and got out timber 
for a large liarn. Xenia put up the frame, and in a 
very rough manner converted it into school rooms 
and a home for the children. This was the condition 
of things when the doctor took charge of the home. 
The grand army had previously turned the entire 
property over to the State. The grounds required to 
be cleared up; tree tops, brush, chips and stumps 
were gathered and piled in large heaps by the chil- 
dren. The burning of these piles at night afforded 
tliem great delight. The doctor remained in charge 
of the home a little more than four years, when he 
was superceded from political considerations only. 

During his .administration, the number of children 
increased from one liundred and fifty to six hundred. 
A large central building was erected, with an exten- 
sion to the rear of one hundred and thirty feet. The 
basement of this contained a kitchen and bakery; the 
second story a dining room, one hundred and thirty 
feet in length. The third story was used for a store- 
room, sewing rooms and sleeping rooms for the 
employes. Twenty brick cottages were erected, each 

In 1822, from Geuesee Co., N. Y., came to Avou, Lorain 
Co., Ohio, the parents of Anson Braman, who was born in 
said county in 1811. In the year 1832, A. Braman re- 
moved from Avon to Carlisle, where he followed the voca- 
tion of farmer and nurseryman. In 1855 he removed to 
Elyria, Lorain Co., Ohio, where he started the nurseries 
now owned by J. C. Hill. 

Remaining in Elyria until 1872, he went to Northport, 
Mich., where he now resides with the faithful wife who 
shared the struggles of his early Carlisle life. She — of 
maiden name Miss Eraeline Vincent — was born at Mount 
Washington, Berkshire Co., Mass.j Oct. 10, 1818 ; com- 
mencing the duties of a wife at Carlisle in 1835. Their 
oldest child, William A., was born at Carlisle, Oct. 4, 1836. 
Twenty-one years were spent on the home farm. When 
desirous of better education, he worked by the month on 
other farms. Teaching school during the winter gave to 
him the necessary funds with which to gratify his desires. 
Thus passed seven years. 

In 1 864 he commenced the business of live-stock dealing. 
This he followed until 1870, J. E. Boynton and J. C. Hill 
being partners. 

The following three years found him in partnership with 
J. E. Boynton, engaged in the purchase and sale of cheese. 
During the spring of 1874 the firm of Braman, Horr & 
Warner was founded, for the manufacture and general deal- 
ing in cheese and butter, with which firm he still remains 

This firm has become one of the largest in Northern Ohio, 
its business averaging during the last four years two 
hundred thousand dollars per year. Whilst buying to a 
certain extent of others, the great bulk of the butter and 
cheese handled by them has been and is of their own man- 
ufacture through their control of the many factories of 
Northern Lorain County and adjacent territory, control- 
ling the past year the products of over four hundred dairy- 
men, and four thousand cows. 

Mr. Braman was married, April 18, 1865, to Miss Sophia 
E. Patterson, daughter of Hiram Patterson, then of Eaton, 
Lorain Co., Ohio. Two sons and one daughter make cheer- 
ful his pleasant home at Elyria, to which place he came, 
as a permanent resident, from Carlisle in 18G9. 

Mr. Braman is distinguished for his untiring energy and 
clear perceptions. These ([ualifications have made him a 
leading business man of Lorain County, and one eminently 
fitted for official position. Various are the places of trust 


he has filled : township trustee for four years ; president 
of the Lorain County Agricultural Society six years, a 
full record of which is given in the history of said society 
in this history ; commissioner of Lorain County. Ail were 
filled with such fidelity that the reputation thus formed 
makes him one of the present members of the Union 
School Board, a place held by him since 1873. He was 
one of the directors of the Savings Deposit Bank of Elyria 
from its foundation. This faithfulness to trusts imposed 
also gave to him the treasurership of Lorain Co., Ohio, in 
1876, and again in 1878 by acclamation, no competitor 
even appearing in the conventions that honored him so 

Mr. Braman, in the prime of life, with every surrounding 
pleasant, both private and public, may well take pride for 
the high rank he takes among Lorain County's " leading 

R. E. Braman was born at Carlisle, Lorain Co., Ohio, 
Oct. 20, 1838. Until the age of twenty-three his life was 
spent on the father's farm. Hard work filled up his time, 
with the exception of the educational advantages of the 
common school. 

A brief notice of the parents of Ranson E. Braman is 
given in the biography of bis brother, William A. 

Aug. 9, 1861, he enlisted as private in Company I, 8th 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry ; served the first year in West 
Virginia, and afterwards in the Army of the Potomac. Ad- 
vanced to the position of sergeant, he was, at the consoli- 
dation of the 4th Ohio Volunteer Infantry and 8th Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry into the 4th Battalion, made a first lieu- 
tenant. He was wounded at the battle of North Anna 
River, May 24, 1864. A return to the comrades of three 
years' noble work for the Republic gave him honorable dis- 
charge after full term of enlistment. 

Returning to Elyria, August, 1864, he soon engaged in 
whatever his hand might find. For eight years he was 
elected to various offices in the township of Elyria, for 
four years being deputy marshal of the Northern District 
of Ohio. Mr. Braman was elected sherifl" in 1872, and 
again in 1874. 

He was married, Sept. 5, 1865, to Miss Helen M. Nick- 
erson, who gave to him five children, three now living and 
two dead. Now in active business as coal merchant, even 
with a limb partially paralyzed by a " rebel bullet ;" in easy 
circumstances, he forgets the early toil and struggles of a 
" pioneer's" son. 



-^yC 'W^^^^<^^ 

Photos, liy Lee, Elyria, 0. 





two stories liigli, and a capacity for tliirty children, 
also a commodious and well-arranged hos])itiil, a 
chapel, a lanndry, and a building for steam boilers, 
which furnished {)ower for the laundry, and warmed 
all the buildings of the institution, except the chapel, 
which was heated by a furnace. A water tower was 
also erected, eighty feet in height, which contained 
tanks in the top, with a capacity for one thousand 
l)arrels of water. From this tower water was conveyed 
to all the cottages and the hospital, as well as to the 
steam boilers. The water was forced to the top of 
this tower from a clear spring stream at the base of 
the hill, some sixty rods distant, by a steam force- 
pump. The gas works were also located at the base 
of the hill. The lawn in front of the main building 
and cottages was ornamented with trees, shrubbery 
and flowering plants from tiie green-house. The 
children at the home were bright and happy; many 
of them were beautiful, and attracted the attention 
of friends and visitors. They made rapid advances 
in their education. They looked upon the superin- 
tendent as their second father, and will remember 
him with gratitude and love long after he has passed 
away. This was the crowning work of his life. 

He has retired from business, and now resides in 
Elyria, his home for many years, and the only place 
which seems to him like home. 


is the fifth child in a family of eight children, of 
David and Betsey (Merriam) Kelsey, the former of 
whom was born in Newport, New Hampshire, No- 
vember 11, 1700, the latter at Brandon, Vermont. 

L. C. Kelsey was born at Whiting, Vermont, July 
IS, 1834-. At the age of three years, he removed with 
his parents to Brandon, Vermont, where he attended 
the common schools, during the winter months, and in 
the summer season, worked ujion his father's farm. 
He subsequently entered the Brandon seminary, re- 
maining there until he reached his seventeenth year, 
when he removed to Ohio, and entered the pi'cpara- 
tory department of Oberlin collegiate institute; teach- 
ing school during the winter vacations. He left 
college in the sophomore year, and went to Geneva, 
Illinois, and there taught a select school, with nuxrked 

He subsequently returned to Ohio, and located at 
Mt. Vernon, where, for two years, he studied den- 
tistry with his brother. Dr. C. M. Kelsey. After 
completing his studies in dentistry, he located and 
practiced his profession at Gallon, Ohio, where he 
remained about two years. 

Not feeling entirely satisfied with that profession, 
and wishing for a wider field of activity, in a more 
public way, he entered the Unitarian theological 
school, at Meadville, Pennsylvania, from which insti- 
tution he was honorably graduated, in 1854, after 

which he moved to Dixon, Illinois, and formed a 
Unitarian society, raised funds for tiie erection of a 
fine church edifice, and remained its pastor for almost 
three years. 

On account of failing health, he left Dixon, and 
returned to Ohio, and located temporarily at Newark, 
where, after recuperating his impaired health, he re- 
sumed the practice of dentistry. From Newark, he 
moved to Malta, Illinois; and while there, the war of 
the rebellion broke out, and in August, 1803, Dr. 
Kelsey entered the union service as a private m the 
one hundred and twenty-fourth Illinois volunteer in- 
fantry, and remained in the army until after the close 
of the war. He partici])ated in several engagements, 
notably those of Port Gibson, Raymond, Champion 
Hills, and the seige of Vicksburg. After the fall of 
Vicksburg, he was detailed as chief clerk at the 
headquarters of Gen. Maltby. 

On his discharge, he settled permanently in Elyria, 
where he has since been a successful practitioner of 
dentistry. He is a man of more than oi'dinary liter- 
ary attainments, and is thoroughly educated in his 
profession. Two diplomas have been granted him; 
one from the Unitarian theological school, at Mead- 
ville, Pennsylvania, aud one from the Ohio State 
board of examiners, for the practice of dentistry. 

Dr. Kelsey has been twice married; first, in 1849, 
to Miss l^lizabeth M. Avery, of Wellington, 0., who 
died at Dixon, 111., in 1857. By this union were born 
two children, Harriet J. and Frances Estella, the lat- 
ter of whom died' in infancy. For his second (and 
present) wife, he married Cordelia Webster, of Car- 
lisle, 0., by whom he has six children, Kate Isadore, 
Elizabeth M., Charles S., Grace M., Ada May and 
Florence W. 

In politics Dr. Kelsey is a steadfast and consistent 
republican. Since 1871 he has held the office of cor- 
poration clerk of Elyria, which office he has filled 
with satisfaction to the people at large, and to his per- 
sonal credit. The doctor is an able exponent of the 
Unitarian faith, and an exemplary member of that 
religious sect. His general reputation is so wcM 
known to the people of Lorain county, that anything 
of a laudatory nature we could say of him would be 
entirely superfluous. His business probity and tl.e 
general rectitude of his life are proverbial, while his 
activity in the various enterprises calculated to pro- 
mote the best interests of the community of which he 
is an honored member, is a well established fact. 


William W. Aldrich was born in Dover, Cuyahoga 
county, Ohio, October 17, 1817, — son of Aaron and 
Elizabeth Aldrich, who were natives of Rhode Island. 
A. Aldrich was horn April 37, 1793, and Elizabeth 
was born December 23, 1795, by maiden name, AVin- 
sor. Married September 11, 1814. In 1816 they 



removed to Dover, Ohio. Tlie journey there con- 
siinied six weeks of toilsome travel. Passing through 
Cleveland, Cuyahoga county, Ohio, only three dwell- 
ings greeted the eyes of Mr. A. and his companion, 
in the place of the so many fine mansions, that make 
il now soheautiful. In the history of Mr. A. Aldrich, 
occurs one of the rare and signal inter]iositions of 
divine j)rovidenco, which it is jjleasurable to record. 
Soon after his arrival amongst the woods of Dover, 
he became disabled from excessive labor. Having 
been reared in factory life, the labor of felling the 
forest was too much for him? What should he do? 
Disqualified as a woodsman; a growing family upon 
his hands, and in a country uncultivated, unex])ected 
as the "manna" descended for the relief of the chil- 
dren of Israel, came a letter from a si ranger, author- 
ized by a company of strangers. This proposed a 
removal to Otsego county, N, Y., where he might 
take charge of a cotton factory, with a salary of eight 
hundred dollars per year, with house rent and tire- 
wood free. This proposal was accepted as a godsend. 
For several years he remaine<l in this employ, each 
year increasing his compensation, until Mr. Levi 
Heebe, of Watertown, N. Y. proposed higher wages, 
wishing Mr. Aldrich to put a cotton factory in opera- 
tion at that place. Consenting, Mr. Aldrich remained 
at Watertown for nearly two years, when, finding 
himself j)rovided with necessary means to found a 
home for himself and family, he again moved to Ohio, 
lie re-settled in Dover in 1829. Habits of industry 
and economy secured for him a comfortable and 
beautiful home on the shore of Lake Erie, a few 
miles west of the romantic residence of Fx-Covernor 

Mr. A. Aldrich affords a commendable example of 
industry, frugality, integrity, benevolence, piety and 
good will toward all men. Of a sound and discrimi- 
nating mind, ho was for many years selected as a 
magistrate in the township. In the discharge of the 
duties of said oflBce he was ever more anxious to 
adjust matters of ditference by compromise than liti- 
gation — never an instigator of quarrels, but a j)eace 

Mr. Aldrich and wife were baptized and united 
with the First Baptist church in Avon, Ohio, in 1832, 
elder Hanks officiating. In 183(3 Mr. Aldrich was 
one of the original five who met and formed the First 
Baptist church of Dover, Ohio. For many years he 
maintained his christian profession with uniform 
consistency, and the jeer of the infidel was put to 
silence by his godly life. 

Died, in Dover, on May 27, 1850, Deacon Aaron A. 
Aldrich, aged sixty-three years and one month. In 
his decease the Baptist church sustained an irre- 
parable loss in member and office bearer; community 
mourned the loss of one whom all joined in saying, 
"he was truly a good man." To his family he was 
ever dear, and liis memory is ever hallowed at the 
family altar which he so constantly visited, no matter 
what the pressure might be of worldly business. Six 

children are now grown to maturity and mostly set- 
tled in life. Two of these are companions of Baptist 
ministers in this State. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Aldrich died December 21, 1800. 
Slu^ was a faithful christian worker, was always kind 
to the poor and needy, and ever ready and willing to 
supply their needs. 

William W. Aldrich, son of Aaron Aldrich, received 
the advantages of a good common district school ed- 
ucation until twelve years of age. Three years after 
that he attended school during the winter months. 
Will) this exeejition, In^ fi'oui choice, worked I'aitli- 
fully for his father until he was trwenty-one years of 
age. These early years were spent in clearing up the 
forest, making roads, tearing down the old log dwell- 
ing, and re])la,cing it with new structures. Often did 
he work until midnight to burn the log heap rolled 
together during the day. Homespun garments he 
wore, homespun tow and linen in summer, the fuller 
cloth in winter. Well does he remember the yoke of 
cattle and lumber wagon that, filled with father's 
family and neighliors, he so often drove to the old 
town house in Dover, where all denominations met 
under one roof to worship a common father. 

At the age of twenty-one, Mr. Aldrich hired to his 
father for the term of one year, at eleven dollars per 
month; losing but a half day's time once in four 
weeks — this to attend covenant meetings. 

February 5, 1840, Mr. Aldrich was married to Miss 
Martha Bassett, daughter of Nathan Bassett, of Dover. 
Renting his father's farm, he worked it for one year, 
receiving one-third of its i)rodncts for his share. At | 
this time, with twenty-five dollars as first payment, 
he ccmimenced on a farm of his own. Five years, 
only, jiassed, when he was the owner of seventy-five ] 
acres of land. From this time, while he renuiined in 
Dover, he was ever active in business. His good wife, 
in every sense of the word a heljimate, by her wisdom 
and prudence, contributed largely to the success which 

Soon after the death of Mrs. Aldrich's father, who 
was killed by lightning, April 0, 1842, Mr. Aldrich 
took possession of the "old homestead," buying up 
the othei' heirs. To this valuable farm of one hun- 
dred and sixty-eight acres, he added many other acres. 

Commencing, in 1844, in a small way, the slaughter- 
ing business, increasing trade led him to build a 
slaughter house, from which, for twenty-five years, he 
supplied Cleveland markets. At the same time, he 
was engaged on Lake Erie in a general coastwise 
trade. Wood and ship i)lauk from Black River to 
Cleveland, limestone from Kelly's Island, and coal to 
Detroit, kept busy three scows — the " Mayllower," 
pui'chased of Livingstone & Pheljis, of Black River; 
the scow " Consuello," of the same place; and finally, 
the scow "Wave," of Fairport, Ohio. All tliese ven- 
tures added to his capital, which he employed in gen- 
eral speculations; dealing largely in horses, cattle, 
sheep — in fact, in any thing that could be traded or 

V \^ 

iMRS. M. W. POND. 

Residence ofMARTIN W.POND.WestAve^lyria, 0. 



In the spring of 1870, Mr. Aldrich removed to 
Elyria, where he purchased of Thomas Ashton the 
well known Charles Ahbe farm, paying for tlie same 
nine thousand doUars. Of Mr. Ashton he also bouglit 
a few thorough bred Hereford cattle, since which 
time he has made the breeding of that class a success- 
ful specialty, until the present day. Mr. Aldrich, 
wlien he first commenced the handling of Hcrefords, 
found it to be an " up hill " business. At town, 
county, or State fair, public opinion was against Iiim; 
but his energy, skill, and business courtesy, soon set 
men everywliere to thinking. And now, (as the old 
Grecians marked a happy day with a wliite stone,) 
Mr. Aldrich. in his travels through many States, finds 
very many white-faced Herefords tliat say to him, 
"Your toil and patience have made me worthy of 
notice." The issiie of the first cow, "Florena," 
alone brought Mr. Aldrich two thousand, five hun- 
dred dollars. Competing at many of the State fairs, 
his success has been unequalled, and to-day, Mr. W. 
W. Aldrich is recognized as the leading Hereford 
breeder of the United States, with only one exception, 
viz: Mr. T. L. Milhu', of Illinois, who purchased liis 
first stock of Ml'. Aldrich. 

Martha, the first wife of Mr. Aldrich, died Novem- 
ber 39, 1875, leaving eight cliildren to mourn the loss 
of one, who, as wife, motlicr, and member of tlie 
Congregational cliurch, filled well every function of 
the true woman. 

On January 21, 1878, Mr. Aldrieli took for his 
second wife Mrs. Lorinda Hilliard, of La Crosse, Wis- 
consin, witli whoui he is happily living. In lier 
younger days, slie was a resident of Avon, Lorain 
county, Ohio. For a time after her marriage witli 
Mr. Hilliard, tliey resided in Avon and Dover, where 
they formed many strong friendships. After an ab- 
sence of twenty years in Wisconsin, ten years as a 
widow, surrounded by a happy home, kind friends, 
and a large circle of acquaintances, all of whom were 
reluctant to part with her, yet wishing her every joy 
and all happiness, they bade her farewell, as with her 
husband she returned to the friends of her youth. 
Mrs. Aldrich, in her fourteenth year, professed her 
faith in Christ, and united with the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, and has ever since lived a consistent 
christian life. 

Mr. W. W. Aldrich, on profession of his faith, was 
baptized by Elder Moses Ware, and united with the 
First Baptist church, at Avon, Oliio, A. D. 183.5, 
which membership he retained until .January 37, 18;:!(3. 
At that time tour brethren, viz: A. A. Aldrich, Wm. 
W. Aldrich, Jesse Atwill, Wm. Nesbit, and Sister 
Alexander met in confei'ence, and resolved, with the 
I advice of sister churches, to form a church in Dover. 
Said conference met February 34, 18.36, and formed 
j said church, Elder Ware giving the "right hand of 

On the 5th of March following, this little band met 
for church and covenant meeting, and voted Mr. W. 
W. Aldrich clerk of their body, which office he held for 

nine years. To this church did Mr. Aldrich belong 
until 1856, when, on the death of his father and the 
removal of many of the members, the church was 
disbanded. Mr. Aldrich has never since united with 
a church, but has ever lived and maintained his first 
profession, by a well ordered life, and godly conver- 

Mr. Aldrich is yet hale and hearty, with a pleasant 
home, dear wife, kind children, and stands out as an 
example of what integrity, temperauco, and economy 
may do for a man. 


Was born in Harwinton, Connecticut, on the 12th of 
March, A. D. 1814. His father, Roswell Pond, was 
born July 15, 1772. His mother's maiden name was 
Hannah Webster. Mr. Pond descended from revolu- 
tionary stock, his grandfather (who was born at 
Bradford, Connecticut, in 1746) was a soldier of the 
Revolution, under Washington, and died on Long 
Island, July 8, 1776. 

In April, 1835, his sister, Lydia Pond, was married 
to Ezra S. Adams, a son of General Adams, of Canton, 
Connecticut; and as they were about to emigrate to 
New Connecticut, which was then considered the far 
west, she prevailed upon his father and motlier to 
permit them to take Martin (then but eleven j-ears 
old) with tlicm. They traveled the entire distance 
from Canton to Elyria with a single horse and wagon. 
Mr. Adams arrived at Elyria, the terminus of his 
journey, on the 1st of .July, and established the first 
saddle and harness manufactory in Lorain county. 
Their goods were shipped by the Erie Clanal and Lake 
Erie, and were landed at Cleveland the last of June. 

Martin had attended the common schools of his 
native State, and the first winter after his arrival in 
Elyria attended the district school, taught by Norris 
O. Stow. He afterwards, until sixteen years of age, 
attended the district school in the old yellow .school 
house, and for a single term, the select school taught 
by the late Schuyler Putnam. 

He then entered the shop of his brother-in-law, the 
late E. S. Adams, as an apprentice, and worked faith- 
fully until he had completed his twenty-first year. 
Soon after attaining his majority, he left Elyria for 
the purpose of perfecting himself in the art of saddle- 
making, in which he took great pride. During his 
absence, he worked at Cleveland, Deti'oit, Wheeling, 
Va., and other places. He returned to Elyria at the 
end of two yeais, w'ith impaired health, but with a 
consciousness that he was capable of nuiking a good 
saddle. After his health was in a measure restored, 
he again engaged in the business of his trade, which 
he followed until the year 1852. During these years, 
he formed various partnerships, at first with B. F. 
Robinson, secondly with Waterman Morse, and after- 
ward with the late William Doolittle. 

By the advice of physicians, in June, 1852, Mr. 



Pond left Elyria for California, by the Nicaragua 
route. T?einif delayed tweuty-one days on the isth- 
mus, where he was attacked with Panama fever, he 
finally, aftei- a tedious voyage of sixty-six days from 
th(^ t ime of leaving home, arrived at San Francisco in a 
very feeble condition. He gradually recovered his 
health, and engaged in mining, his head-quarters 
being at Nevada City. He returned to Elyria, via 
the Panama route in June, 1853, and again entered 
into partnership witii Waterman Morse, in carrying 
on the saddlery and harness business. This connec- 
tion terniiiuited at the end of a year, and Mr. Morse 
conducted the business alone. In March, 1858, the 
fire that swept away the old Mansion House, destroyed 
also the adjoining liuilding l>olonging to Mr. Pond, 
which he immediately rebuilt, and in January, 1859, 
he engaged in his old business, which he continued 
until 1870, when he engaged in the manufacture of 
a harness pad, for which he had obtained a patent. 
In 1802, he invented the first successful tug buckle, 
to the sale and introduction of which he gave much 
attention until 1870. 

On the tenth of December, 18-35, the subject of our 
sketch married Miss Eliza J. Sayles, who was born at 
Mayville, Cliatau([ua county, N. Y. They have been 
blessed with a family of five sons and one daughter. 
One of the sous died in childhood, another, Horace, 
from disease caused by exposure and arduous duties 
in the Union army during the late rebellion. Three 
sons are living and filling responsible positions in 
business. I'he daugiiter is married and i« a good wife 
and mother. 

Mr. Pond has filled many positions of honor and 
trust conferred on him by his fellow citizens. An 
ardent Mason, he has filled many offices in the differ- 
ent branches of that order. lie has beeu treasurer of 
Marshall Chapter, No. 47, for fifteen consecutive years. 
In 1841, he assisted in forming at Elyria a lodge of 
the " Mechanic's Mutual Protection," an order 
founded for the benefit of practical mechanics. It 
held weekly meetings, at most of which lectures were 
delivered, and the association was supplied with books 
and other means of improvement. Perhaps no insti- 
tution has exerted so permanent an inlluence for good 
upoi\ the citizens of Elyria as the lodge above referred 
to. The organization of our present excellent system 
of union schools, was to a great extent effected 
through its influence. On the passage of a bill by 
the general assembly for the founding of union schools, 
this institution, through a committee,, ejjrresponded 
with the friends of education in other ci^ie84n regard 
to the merits of such schools in their midst. The 
Protection then appointed a committee consisting of 
Mr. Pond and Thomas Quark to obtain the signa- 
tures of six freeholders to a call for a public meeting 
none of them to be members of the Protection. After 
three days of hard labor they obtained the following 
signatures: Robbins Biirrell, Roswell Snow, N. H. 
Manter, Ilurriek Parker, Tabor Wood, and William 
Olcott, none of them members of the Protection but 

Herrick Parker, and he was accepted because the 
committee could not obtain the requisite -number out- 
side the order. The meeting was held at the court 
house in Elyria, on the 24th of May, 1850; a favora- 
ble vote was secured, and thus, by the untiring and 
persistent work of tlie protection our union schools 
were established. 

To this protection is Elyria also indebted in a great 
degree for her present fine side-walks, and the intro- 
duction of fire cisterns. 

Such is a brief record of the life of Mr. Pond. 
With a competency won by honest labor, and enjoy- 
ing the respect of his fellow citizens, he may be classed 
among the representative men of Elyi-ia. 


The subject of this sketch was born in St. Law- 
rence county, N. Y., November 20, 1820. In March, 
1834, his father I'emoved from New York to Ohio, 
and settled in North Ridgeville, Lorain county, where 
he resided uj) to the time of his decease, in August, 
1875. The subject of this sketch had in early life 
such facilities as the common schools of the time 
afforded, which consisted of about ninety days of very 
indifferent instruction in tiie winter, and none during 
the rest of the year. At about the age of sixteen, he 
iuid the benefit of instruction in a very good select 
school at Ridgeville Center; and afterwards he studied 
several terms in a private school, conducted by T. M. 
Oviatt, at Elyria. Later still, he studied a year or so 
at Delaware University, where, in 1846, he commenced 
the study of law with Messrs. Powell & Buck. In the 
spring of 1848, he returned to Elyria and completed 
his studies, preparatory to admission to the bar, under 
the instruction of Hon. II. D. Clark, and was admitted 
to practice by the supreme court August 11, 1848, 
and at once commenced the practice at Elyria. In 
April, 1840, Mr. Clark, who was then one of the most 
prominent and successful lawyers at the bar in Lorain 
county, admitted him into a copartnership, whicii 
continued up to May, 1852. 

We have thus in a few lines sketched the career, uj) 
to the time he commenced the practice of the law 
alone, of one who, for more than twenty-five years, 
iuis occupied a very prominent jiositiou at the bar in 
Northern Ohio. From 1852 to February, 1802, Mr. 
Burke devoted himself to the practice of his profession 
with such zeal and devotion to the interests of his 
clients, a^ to merit and command success. There 
were few cases tried in the court of common pleas, or 
district court of Lorain county, or in the supreme 
court taken from Lorain county, in which he was not 
engaged. His industry and attention to business were 
rare and almost exceptional. He spent no time in 
idleness, and his patrons were always sure to find 
him in his office in business hours, unless engaged in 
business elsewhere. His close attention to business 





iuul sodeiitiiry habits affected seriously his health, aud 
in 1801 he found his health so seriously impaired as 
to render a change of business necessary; and his 
friends having secured his election as one of the 
judges of the court of common pleas of the fourth 
judicial district of Oiiio, he gave up his practice and 
entered upon the discharge of his duties as judge. 
After serving a term of live years to the satisfaction 
of the bar and tlie ])eople, he was re-elected in 1806 
for a second term, lie served, however, but two years 
of his second term, when, having regained his health, 
he resigned his position as judge, .January 1, 1809, 
and at once commenced the practice of law in Cleve- 
land, in partnership with Hon. F. T. Backus and 
E. .J. Este]), Esq. Tlic copartnership was dissolved 
by the death of xMr. Backus, in May, 1870, but was 
continued with Mr. Estep until the winter or spring 
of 1875, since which time he has practiced alone. 
His practice in Cleveland has been a very successful 
one. lie has been constantly engaged in the courts 
and in his office, and during the last ten years has 
probably tried as many cases of importance, involving 
large amounts of money or property, as any lawyer in 
Northern Ohio. He has during that period argued 
many cases in the supreme court of the State of Ohio, 
several in the United States supreme court, and in 
the supreme courts of adjoining States. The history 
of the profession in Northern Ohio furnishes few 
examples of a more sncoessful practice. 

In addition to his professional business. Judge 
Burke has devoted much attention to other business; 
he is now, and has been for several years past, a 
director and chairman of the finance and executive 
committee of the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati 
and Indianapolis Railway Company, and its general 
connsel. He has held for several years and still holds 
the position of director, general counsel and chairman 
of the finance and executive committee of the Cleve- 
land and Mahoning Valley Railway Company, and he 
is also the representative in this country of all the 
stock of the hist-named corajjany, it being owned in 
Europe. He is also the representative of the owners 
of tlie stock of the Shenango and Allegheny Railroad 
Company, and also of the Mercer Mining and Manu- 
facturing Company, and a director in both of the last- 
named comi)a-uies. He has been for some time a 
director of the Cincinnati, Springfield and Indian- 
apolis and St. Louis railroad companies. He has also 
for several years been a director of the Lake Shore 
Foundry and director and president of the Cleveland 
and Snow Fork Coal Company, both large private 

Tiie foregoing is a very brief outline of a very 
active professional and business life. It is too early 
yet to compare the subject of this brief sketch with 
others, or go into detail in regard to his professional, 
judicial and business career; he is still in the prime 
of Ufe; time has dealt gently with him, and his ap- 
liearance indicates that he has many years of active 
life still before him. 



A mother dying at Bordentown, N. J., left an only 
child, Elwood P. Haines, three months of age, who 
was born March 4, 18.34. Soon after her death, Mr. 
Haines, with his mother and little son, came to Ohio, 
where they settled, in Deerfield, Portage county. 
Engaging in farming, this young life had every ad- 
vantage of nature's kindly teachings; and the aspira- 
tions which grew with his years, had their beginning 
here. He early turned his attention toward a pro- 
fessional life; and to this end he availed himself of 
the excellent advantages afforded by an academy in a 
neighboring town, where he studied for years pre- 
paring for Western Reserve College. These prepara- 
tions were finished under the instructions of Rev. 
Elias C. Sharp, a man of blessed memory in Atwater. 
He went through his college course and received his 
diploma at its close with honor to himself — ever a joy 
and delight to his friends. Having concluded to 
study medicine, he went into the office of Dr. Dudley 
Allen, now of Oberlin, where he remained some time, 
after which he took a course at Michigan University, 
where he graduated, receiving also the degree of M.D. 
from the Cleveland Medical College. 

Then came the war of the rebellion. He waited not 
for high position, but at once enlisted as hosjjital 
steward. The duties of this office were so well per- 
formed, that on March 2, 1803, he was appointed 
assistant surgeon of the Twenty-ninth Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry. A letter from the surgeon-general of Oliio, 
dated August 2d, 1804, says as follows: 

*' Enclosed, please find your commission as major surgeon of the 
Twenty -ninth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, a promotion conferred for long 
and meritorious services." 

His merit was recognized by Order No. 4, Jane 

"Surgeon E. P. Haines, Twenty-ninth Ohio Volunteers, is hereby an- 
nounced as surgeon-in-chief of brigade. General Wm, Hawley, com- 

With such record did Dr. Haines leave the service 
of his country, June 36, 1865. His life in the army 
was characterized, as in all other circumstances, by 
purity and integrity in every particular. 

At the close of the war he settled with his wife, 
whom he had married while on furlough, at Orwell ^ 
Ashtabula county. Here he entered at once into the 
hard work of the practice of medicine in the country. 
He was so(m called to the bitter trial of losing his 
wife, who left him a little daughter, still living, 
although those who loved her so fondly then, have 
gone the way of all the earth. 

Broken up in his domestic matters, he bethought 
him of an old schoolmate who had long been a teacher 
in Kentucky; finding her, he soon realized "a sweet 
dream of his boyhood," for she became his wife in 
March, 1870. Soon after they came to Elyria, where 
Dr. Haines was the successor of Dr. Jamin Strong, 
whose residence and office he purcliased. By this 
. marriage there were two children, both daughters. 
One led the way and waited for "papa" in the better 
land, and one still cheers her mother's widowed heart. 



Dr. Haiiios dicfl Oct.oI)cr 34, 1877, at. the age of 
forty-three and a half years. His work was done, 
and he rests from his labors. One who trusted his 
life with Dr. Haines may not be an impartial judge, 
yet it is his duty, aye, pleasure, to say that, as a man, 
he performed every dnty with true manhood; as a 
member of the Presbyterian chureh, l)ig()try was no 
element in his religious thought; as a (ntizen, he was 
true to the best interests of his coutitry and to all the 
relations of life; as a pension surgeon and surgeon of 
the Lake Shore and Michigan Souliiern Kailmad, he 
was faithful and elH(tient; as a physician, he was ever 
welcome, with genial face and kind attention. 

Let the kind relations ever existing between him 
and his brothers in the practice of medicine — let the 
many to whose ills he ministered, who, with weeping 
eyes, paid their respect to a good and true man, when 
all joined in the sad rites that gave him rest — testify 
to the goodness and beauty of his cliaracter. Beloved 
by all, Elyria mourns the loss of Dr. Haines. 


It is but a labor of love to trace from the earliest 
boyhood days the development of tiiose principles 
which made prominent the brief but eventful life of 
Edwin Dorr Holbrook. He was born in Elyria, Lo- 
rain county, Ohio, October 10, 1S3.5, is a son of Dex- 
ter and Jeruslia Holbrook, grandson of Captain Hol- 
brook and Tyler, Avho entered Fort Ticouderoga with 
Ethan Allen; also great-grandson of Cfeneral Seth 
Pomeroy, of Bunker Hill fame. 

Before scarcely attaining to the dignity of boys' 
apparel, while surrounded by his pets upon his 
father's farm, the proceeds of his first sale was, " to 
buy a new dress for my mother." This was the key- 
note of an unselfish life — " not for myself, but tor my 
mother, to whom I owe so much." 

Here he received his rudimentary education, and 
became familiar with nature in its various forms; 
studying the habits of Ijirds, bees and animals; loving 
flowers; training the woodbine and wild rose around 
the farm-house; skilled in huuting, skating, l)oating 
and swimming, a knowledge which enabled him to 
rescue many from watery graves, — once returning 
hatless and coatless, after saving King Barton and 
a companion. Again, hearing that Mr. Snow's son 
was drowning in the presence of a crowd of anxious 
friends, he leaped into the swollen tide. For a time, 
they believed him lost. Soon his voice was heard: 
"Is this the rUjht dircrtion ? " Again he disap])eared; 
again they believed him drowned, being caught l)y the 
death struggles of the boy, and drawn under; but by 
almost superhuman exertions, he bore the lifeless form 
to the shore. 

This unflinching bravery, daring to face any danger 
for the accomplishment of good, characterized the 
boy as well as the man. Fun and frolic entered 

largely into his compositiou, and he was the acknowl- 
edged leader in boyish tricks. He was one of a class 
of boys who seemed moulded for future action by that 
ripe .scholar, C. D. B. Jlills. He ever cherished his 
memory, and, in after years, expressed the wish that 
he might travel with him as his companion. Studied 
law with his brother-in-law. Judge T. S. Johnson, 
and with Judge Rex, of Wooster; was admitted I\Iay 
7, 1857; opened an office in Elyria, and continued his 
studies, including German. In early life he was a 
constant reader; history, poetry and the writings of 
our early statesmen were carefully studied, as his well 
worn books evince. His room at his father's house 
was filled with books, pa])ers and speeches, which 
were very familiar to him. Burn ami In-ed in the 
democratic faith, he struggled, even during his 
minority, for the success of that party. 

June .'3, 1801, he bade adieu to home and friends, 
and sailed for California, where he remained one year 
with his brother, practicing law, when, with thous- 
ands, who in conse((uence of the overflow of the 
Sacramento river and the almost fabulous tales of the 
richness of the Salmon river mines, he emigrated 
northward a distance of eight hundred miles. May 
16th, 18G3, he wrote : 

" I start to-morrow astride a mule which carries myself, bed and 
provender, off into a wilderness, over mountains and dangerous moun 
tain streams, through a country where the red man lies in ambush to 
bear my scalp to the maid be loves But I am young, have a life be- 
fore me, and desire making my fortune as quickly as possible, and to 
see something of this country. I only care for life that I ma^' make 
you all bappy and independent. If I succeed all isjyuurs— if I fail I 
want no mourners." 

During the next three years, before the perfect system 
of mail communication was established, occasional 
letters and rumors reached his home-friends, of jieril- 
ous adventure ; his narrow escape from a snow-slide 
by leaping from his horse, which was bnried under a 
pitiless .sheet of snow and ice ; his traveling over nar- 
row, precipitous mountain trails to fulfil professional 
engagements. In December, ISC'), he took his seat 
as the youngest memlier of the thirty-ninth congress. 
As a member of congress he labored zealously for the 
development of his beloved mountain home — Idaho ; 
for appropriations for the perfection of mail routes 
and roads, for the building of the assay office and 
penitentiary ; also was ever laboring for the construc- 
tion of the Northern Pacific Railroad, in the inter- 
est of which he addressed the caj)italists of Boston. 
After having faithfully labored for the development 
of his territory for two successive terms in congress, 
bidding adieu for the last time to his home friends. 
May 2Gth, 1809, he crossed for the eightli time the 
plains to his mountain home where a demonstration 
awaited him. He at once opened a law office at Boise 
and Idaho City, and engaged actively in his practice. 
Laboring as before for everything pertaining to the 
advancement of Idaho, which he hojied would soon 
attain to the dignity of a State, in the midst of ;i 
successful professional career, with light hopes of the 
future, at the close of the summer day, June 18th, 
1870, while resting with his feet upon the railing in 


^ V»/,^^ j;,^,/rf -W'"' 




Houston H. Poppleton w;is born near Bellville, 
Eicliland county, Ohio, March 19, 1830, and is the 
3'Oungest son of Rev. Samuel and Julia A. Poppleton. 

Rev. Samuel Poppleton was born in the State of 
A'ermont. July '2, 1793, but while quite young moved 
with Ins father to Genesee county. New York, where 
he lived until 1820, when he moved to Ohio. He 
lived in Richland county, Ohio, from 1822, until 
March, 1853, when he moved to Delaware, Ohio, 
where he continued to reside most of the time until 
his death, wliich occurred at Delaware, September 14, 
1804. He was a soldier in the war of 1812, and 
served with honor and distinction. Shortly after its 
close he entered the ministry of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, and continued to preach, as his health 
would permit, for nearly fifty years. He was twice 
married. His first wife was Miss Parthenia Stein- 
back, of Genesee county. New York, and his second, 
Miss Julia A. Smith, of Richland county, Ohio. By 
the first marriage, four children were born, to wit: 
Rowena L., intermarried with F. W. Strong, of Mans- 
field, Ohio: Samuel D., killed in 18G4, at the battle 
of Atlanta, Georgia; Mary Ellen, intermarried with 
Daniel Fisher, of Bellville, and Andrew J., who 
died at West Unity, Ohio, September 25, 1850. 

By the second marriage, six children were born, to 
wit: Emory E., Parthenia P., Damaris A. , Earley F., 
Houston H., and Zada C. 

Emory E. has been engaged in business in Detroit 
and Chicago, and is now the seei'etary of the Cleve- 
land and Mahoning Valley Railroad, residing at 

Parthenia P. married Hon. S. Burke, long promi- 
nently identified with the Lorain bar, and after resid- 
ing in Elyria for over twenty-two years,' moved to 
Cleveland. She died at Salt Lake City, Utah, Jan- 
uary 7, 1878, and is buried in Lake View Cemeter}-, 

Damaris A. was married to Hon. George B. Lake, 
formerly a member of the Lorain bar, and now chief 
justice of the State of Nebraska. She died in April, 
1854, and is buried in the cemetery at Elyria. ♦ 

Earley F. read law, and was admitted to the bar at 
Elyria, and after practicing there several years, moved 
to Delaware, Ohio, where he has ever since been ac- 
tively and successfully engaged in law and politics. 
He was elected State senator from the counties of 
Licking and Delaware, and after serving one term 
was elected on the democratic ticket to the forty- 
fourth congress, from the ninth Ohio congressional 
district. Although one of the youngest members of 
that body, he was active and industrious, and served 

' with ability, and with credit to himself and to his 

Zada C. was married to Thomas H. Linnell, of 
Elyria, and resided there during the whole of her 
married life. She died March 29, 1875, and is buried 
in the cemetery at Elyria. 

Houston H. Poppleton received his early education 
in the common schools at Bellville, but entered the 
Ohio Weslej-an University at Delaware, Ohio, in the 
spring of 1853, and, although his attendance was not 
continuous, he graduated from that institution in 
June, 1858. He taught school several winters in the 
counties of Delaware and Richland, while pursuing 
his studies at the university, and also had general 
charge of his father's mercantile house at Richwood, 
from April, 1855, to February, 1857. In September, 

1858, he entered the law office of Hon. S. Burke, at 
Elyria, and prosecuted his studies there until October, 

1859, when he entered the Cincinnati Law College. 
Completing the prescribed course there, he graduated 
from it April 10, 1800, and was admitted to the bar 
at Cincinnati the same day. Returning to Elyria, he 
formed a law partnership with Judge Burke, and 
commenced practice May 3, 1800. After Judge 
Burke's election to the bench, he formed a law part- 
nership with Hon. H. D. Clark, which continued 
about two years. On the 10th of February, 1804, at 
Cincinnati, he was married to Miss Lucina H. Cross, 
of that city. He resided on the northwest corner of 
Broad and Chestnut streets, in Elyria, until Septem- 
ber 24, 1875, when he moved with his family to 

From the latter part of 1804 he continued in act- 
ive general practice at Elyria, without a jiartner, 
until November, 1873, when he was a]ii)ointed gen- 
eral attorney of the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati 
and Indianapolis railway company, with headquarters 
at Cleveland, which position he still holds. He was 
prominent, active and successful in his practice, as 
the records of the courts of Lorain and adjoining 
counties abundantly show, and in his removal the bar 
of Lorain county sustained a serious loss. By accept- 
ing the position of general attorney of the Cleveland, 
Columbus, Cincinnati and Indianapolis railway he 
became the head of the legal department of that cor- 
poration, and has had entire charge of its legal busi- 
ness along the whole line, as well as elsewhere. Giv- 
ing his personal attention to the details of all the 
litigation of the company — trying only causes that 
should be tried, and settling those that should be set- 
tled — he has, by his fair, honorable and judicious 
course, made many friends for himself, and secured 
for his company a reputation and good will that any 
railroad in the country might well envy. 




was born iu Westmoreland, Cheshire county. New 
Hampshire, May 2G, 1788. He was tlie second sou of 
David and Abigail Bennett, and third in a family of 
fifteen children. When about fifteen years old, he 
was apprenticed to a man named Duttou, living in 
Dummerstou, Windham county. Vermont. Becom- 
ing dissatisfied with the treatment he received, he ran 
away soon after he was sixteen, and went to Homer, 
Cortland county. New York. 

On the Gth of December, 1810, he married Miss 
Polly Wheeler, and lived in Londonderry, Vermont, 
on a farm on the east slope of the Green mountains. 
He came west, to look for a farm, in 1827, and 
moved from Londonderry, April 21, 1828, with his 
family, consisting of himself and wife, his wife's 
step-father, and his neice, Miss Malvina F. Bennett. 
They came by wagon to Troy, New York, in two 
days, thence by canal boat to Buffalo, by schooner to 
Cleveland, which took three days, then by wagon to 
Carlisle, — in all, a journey of three weeks. 

On the 33rd day of August, 1828, he purchased of 
Joseph and Mary Perkins the south one-half of the 
southwest quarter of section twelve, town five, range 
"seventeen, where he spent the remainder of his life. 

His wife died August 10, 1829, without children. 

He married, the second time, February C, 1830, Miss 
Jane Galpin, of Elyria, daughter of Neri and Betsey 
Galpin. They had six children, four of whom are 
living. He held various township offices from 1830 
to 1860, being three times elected justice of the peace. 
He was a man of strict integrity, and his word was 
as good as his bond. He died July 16, 1SC3, of par- 

Jane Galpin was born in Woodbury, Litchfield 
county, Connecticut, August 11, 18lo. She was the 
daughter of Neri and Betsey Galpin, and the eldest in 
a familv of nine children. Her parents moved to New 
Milford, Susquehanna county. Pennsylvania, when she 
was about nine mouths old. In May. 1818 they moved 
to Center township, Indiana county, Pennsylvania. 
In November, 1822, they left Center for Carlisle, Ohio, 
then called Murraysville, Hurou county. They moved 
in a covered wagon drawn by a yoke of steers and a 
span of old horses. They were three weeks on the 
road and had but two pleasant days in the whole time. 
In some places the wagon hub would roll on the mud. 
They moved iu with Abner Murray's family until Mr. 
Galpin built his house, which stood just over the line 
in Elvria township. February 6, 1830, she married 
David" Bennett and moved on to the farm in Carlisle, 
where she still lives. 



front of his ofiBce, which he had surrounded by for- 
est trees, dreamiug his happy dreams of the future, 
Charles H. Douglas lurked behind him and fired a 
fatal shot. The wounded man struggled to his feet, 
attempted to raise his arm, but aimed too low. He 
was borne into his office, where in intense pain he 
calmly awaited death, saying, "I am not afraid to 
die, but want to see my brother before I go. Am 
glad I did not hit Douglas when I fired, on account 
of his wife and little ones." Asking again if Theo- 

dore had come, for whom a messenger had been dis- 
patched, he fell into a calm sleep, and as the Sabbath 
day dawned his spirit took its flight. 

Marks of respect and tenderness were shown by 
the warm-hearted peoj)le, and with aching hearts lov- 
ing hands consigned him to his resting place. And 
while the breezes of his mountain home chant the 
requiem above his grave, loving hearts will entwine 
and bedew with their tears an imperishable garland 
to the memory of Edwin Dorr Holbrook. 



In the western jiart of the townshii> the surface is 
level. In the central and eastern portions it is undu- 
lating, but nowhere rough and broken. 

The soil is generally a clay loam, varied in some 
places by gravel. It is one of the Ijcst watered town- 
sliips in the county. Rocky river flows northward 
tlirough the township, gathering up in its course 
many tributaries. Plum creek flows in a nearly par- 
allel direction through tiie western part of the town. 
The timber native to its soil was beech, maple, hick- 
ory, black and white oak, black and white ash, bass- 
wood, elm, sycamore, buckeye, walnut and butternut. 


Prior to tlie a]iportioumont by draft of that part of 
the Reserve lying west of the Cuyahoga river, Levi 
Bronson, i\.zor Bronson, Harmon Bronson, Calvin 
Iloadley, Jared Pritchard, and some fifteen otiiers, 
formed au association called the '" Waterbury Laud 
Company." This company, togetlier with William 
Law, Benjamin Doolittle, Jr,, and Samuel Doolittle, 
drew at the fourth draft, April -1, 1807, this township 
as number five, range fifteen, with two thousand six 
hundred and fifty acres in the townshijis of Boston 
and Richfield, in Summit county, annexed to equalize 
it. The draft was in the following proportions: to 
the Waterbury Land Company, twenty one tliousaud 
six hundred dollars; William Law, two thousand 
eight hundred and fifteen dollars; Benjamin Doolittle, 
Jr., one thousand five hundred and ninety-two dol- 
lars; Samuel Doolittle, eigiity dollars. The deed was 
executed on the 28th day of May, 181)7, by John Cald- 
well, John Morgan, and Jonathan Brace, for the 
Connecticut Land Company, to Levi Bronson, Calvin 
Uoadley, Jared Pritchard, Azor Bronson and Harmon 
Bronson, in trust for the Waterbury Land Comijany. 

*Our thanks are due Ransom Bronson, for information furnished in 
i the preparation of tiiis history. He has kept a record of early events, 
for the past twenty years, access to which has been of much service 
to us. 

Pending the negotiation for the extinguishment of 
the Indian claim to the lauds west of the Cuyahoga, 
the conij)any bouglit of William Edwards a thousand 
acres of land in tract two, town eight, range eleven, 
Euclid, (now East Cleveland), and a number settled 
there the summer previous to the draft. 


In the summer of 1807 the townsliip was surveyed. 
A surveyor by the name of Lacey was first employed, 
but his cliain was found to be of an incorrect length 
and he was discharged. In August of the same year 
Robert Worden, a surveyor from Columbiana county, 
was engaged, who, with Levi Bronson, Daniel Bron- 
son, Benoni Adams, and Elias Frost of Euclid, as ax 
and chain men, set out from Cleveland taking a south- 
west eoui'se until the northeast corner of the town 
was I'eachcd. From this point they proceeded west 
two and a half miles, thence south a like distance to 
the center of the township. The party made their 
encampment here, on tlie west bank of Rocky river. 
A daughter of Levi Bronson, afterwards Mrs. Oliver 
Terrell, accompanied the party to do their cooking, 
to whom must be accorded the lionor of being the 
first white woman tiiat ever set foot on the soil of 


In September, 1807, a company numbering thirty- 
tiiree persons, left Waterbury, Connecticut, for this 
townsliip. They wei-e, Bela Bronson, his wife and 
one child; Calvin Hoadley, wife and five children; 
John Williams, wife and five children; Lemuel 
Iloadley, wife aud three children, his father and his 
wife's mother; Lithrop Seymour and wife; Mrs. 
Parker and four children; Silas Hoadley and Chaun- 
cey Warner. Two months afterwards the company 
reached Buffalo, west of which place there was then 
no road, and they were compelled to choose between 
the dangers, at that time of year, of lake navigation 
and those attending a journey along the beach. The 
company divided, four families embarking on the 



lake, while the remainder preferred the laud route. 
The little Jtarty set sail under a bright sky and with 
a favoring breeze, butuot long afterward encountered 
one of those sudden gales common at that time of 
year, which carried them back a distance of several 
miles, where the vessel went ashore. A week was 
spent before another start could be made. Arriving 
in siglit of I'resque Isle the vessel was again struck 
by a contrary wind and driven back to a point on the 
Canada shore under which tiu^ voyagers took shelter. 
They remained here two weeks for a favorable wind, 
when tlie journey was resumed. 

They proceeded without further reverses until within 
sight of Cleveland, tiien a i)retentious place of three 
log cabins, when a violent wind s(ruck their craft. 
and they were forced to retreat until near the site of 
the present city of Erie, where they went ashore. 
They were now thoroughly discouraged with their ex- 
perience by lake. The season was growing late, and 
whether to make another attempt by water or undei'- 
take the long journey l)y land on foot was not a pleas- 
ant alternative. Calvin Hoadley determined to make 
another trial, and, with his family, arrived at Cleve- 
land after encountering many experiences similar to 
those we have mentioned. The most of them, how- 
ever, determined ujion the land route. Beta Bronson, 
wife and child, were of this party; Mrs. Bronson 
carrying the child in her arms fur a distance of fifty 
miles west of Brie, where they were met by teams 
with which friends had gone back from Clcvelan<l in 
search of them. Arriving at Cleveland, the company 
made a location there, with the exception of Bela 
Bronson and family, wiio, with ox-team and sled, 
jjushed on towards Columbia. They were accom- 
jianicd by Levi Bronson, Jared Pritchard, John Wil- 
liams, Silas Hoadley, Calvin Hoadley, and five or six 
others who wcut ahead and cut a road for them. 
The family brought along in the sled cooking utensils 
— with which Mrs. Bronson prepared the food for the 
company — and camp e(pii})age. Their progress was, 
of course, slow, eight days being consumed in reach- 
ing Columbia. Two days subsecjuently — on the 7th 
day of December, 1807 — they arrived on lot twenty- 
seven, where Bronson and family made a location. 

The company divided into three sections, com- 
mencing simultaneously the erection of three cabins, 
one for Bela Bronson, on lot twenty-seven; one foj' 
John Williams, on sub-lot three; and-oue for Calvin 
Hoadley, on lot thirty-four. During the erection of 
Bronson's house, the box of the sled was turned u]) 
against a tree, and under this the family took shelter 
until their cabin was built. The house was ready for 
occupancy by Christmas. 

In 181(1, Mr. Bronson changed his location to the 
Center, where the cellar of the house in which he 
resided can yet be seen. He died here in October, 
1811. He was one of the ten sons of Seba Bronson. 
His wife's maiden name was Sally Twitchell. Mrs. 
Bronson subsequently married Benoni Adams. Two 
children of this pioneer family are now living — Rev. 

Sherlock A. Bronson, D.D., who was eight months 
old at the time of the settlement of the family in 
Columbia, now an Episcopal clergyman of ability and 
u.sefulness, resident in Manslield, 0., and a daughter 
Sally, living in Ottawa county. In an address deliv- 
ered in this township July 4, 1859, Rev. Dr. Bronson 
gives the following interesting picture of their situa- 
tion in the winter of 1807: 

"Our post office was at Painesville, fifty miles distant; tlie nearest 
mill was at Newburgh, twenty -t'isht miles away; and but little pro- 
vision could be obtained sbort of Painesville. That winter my father 
wrote back to his fi'iends that he was the richest man in town. He 
might have written himself dttwn the greatest nabob of all of 0\\\o that 
lay west of Cleveland and north of W<joster, tinfj there would have been 
none to dviimte his claim. For a time, that winter, ours was the only 
residence in Western Ohio. Gloomy, desolate and lonely as those times 
were, my mother kept up good cheer, and said she always hoped for 
better times. Taking into account the time of arrival, late in December, 
no house ready for occupancy, that in the conijiany was a woman with 
an infant only eight nn.inths old, and the nearest dwelling twenty miles 
distant, you have before you a rare picture of pioneer life." 

The second family that settled in town was that of 
John Williams, wlio moved in from Cleveland after 
spending the holidays with his friends there, arriving 
January 3, 1808. They took up their abode in the 
cabin already j)artially prepared for them on sub-lot 
three. In 1810 he removed to a farm a mile south of 
the Center on lot forty-eight. Mr. Williams died in 
the spring of 18K), and his remains lie in an un- 
marked grave in the Center Ijurying ground. The 
only surviving member of the family is Mrs. Weaver 
Harrington, now residing in Eaton county, Mich. 

Calvin Hoadley followed closely after Williams, 
arriving in the tirst i)art of March of the same year, 
and commenced life in the Columbia woods in the 
house ])reviously built on lot thirty-four. In the 
summer of 1809, he built a grist mill on Rocky river, 
south of the Center, the tirst mill in the county. He 
afterwaril built a grist mill and also a saw mill, on 
the same river, on lot twenty-one. Captain Hoadley 
was a man of great energy of character, and became 
one of the most prominent men of the town. He was 
a son of Lemuel Hoadley, S.'., who raised a family of 
eight chihlren. Cahiu was the second child and 
oldest son. He was a carpenter by trade. His wife's 
maiden name was Marian Terrell. They raised a 
family of five children. A daughter, the only living 
representative of the family, resides in Berea, 0. 

Early in the spring of 1808, the following additions 
were made to the settlement: Lemuel Hoadley, Sr. , 
and Lemuel Hoadley, Jr, on lot forty-seven; James 
(ieer, on lot thirty-five, south part; Lathrop Seymour, 
on lot eleven; Jared Pritchard, on lot thirty-one; 
Silas Hoadley, on lot twenty-nine; Isaac Frost and 
his two sons, Elias and Lyman, on lot twenty-eight; 
Nathaniel Doan, on the north part of lot thirty-five; 
and Benoni Adams, on lot fifty. 

The Hoadleys were originally from either Salem or 
Plymouth, Conn. Lemuel Hoadley, Sr., was the 
fatiier of eight children. Mary, the eldest, became 
the wife of Asahel Osborn. Of Calvin we have already 
given a brief history. The next was Lemuel; he was 
a colonel in the war of 1813. Sally married Zephauiah 



Potter. Lennu'l was a mechanic, and nmcli of his 
life was eupaoed in tlic erectioTi of niills; he bnilt- 
mos( of the grist mills in this region of country. He 
removed to Brecksville in 1812, and bnilt tlie first 
mill in that town; and two years subsequently he 
went to Bath and t'rected mills there. In 1819, he 
settled in Olmsted, Cuyahoga county, and erected for 
himself the i)ionoer mill in that township, and also 
built the first frame house there. In 1824, he ex- 
changed his farm and a mill in Olmsted for a farm in 
Ridgeville, west of the center of the town, and took 
up his abode there. In 1833, he sold out and moved 
l)ack to Olmsted, and with his son-in-law, John Bar- 
num, built a saw-mill at the mouth of Plum Creek, 
and laid out a village there. In ISliS, he removed to 
Chillicothe. He married Chloe Tyler. 

He was known everywhere as Major ILwdley, a 
title which he acquired, it is said, on the journey 
from Connecticut. The company would sometimes 
be obliged to construct a bridge across a swollen 
stream, and Mr. Iloadley was so perfectly at home at 
such work tiiat his cf)nipanions gave him the honorary 
title of "major,'' which he ever afterwards bore. 

Luther was also a colonel in the war of 1813, and 
died in the service. David, a carpenter by trade, died 
in Connecticnt. Urania married Riley Whiting, an 
extensive clock-maker of Winsted, Conn. 

In 1810, James Geer changed his location to the 
north part of the townshij), exchanging his original 
purchase with Calvin Iloadley, for land on lot twenty- 
one. Here he established a rude tannery, using sap 
troughs for vats, and an axe to pulverize the bark. 
He also followed shoemakiug, having learned the trade 
of his wife, formerly Mrs. Mary Parker, whose first 
husband was a shoenuiker. 

Of some of the other settlers mentioned, no knowl- 
edge can now be oljtained of their later history. 

Nathaniel Doan was a man of more than average 
ability, and was a leading man in tiie settlement. He 
was the first justice of the peace of the township. He 
subsequently removed to Cleveland. 

Benoni xidains was at that time a single man, l)ut 

in 1810 lie married Mrs. Sally Bronson, widow of 

Bola Bronson, and settled at the Center. In 1808, 

Mr. Adams carried the mail on foot from Cleveland 

to Maumee. The only habitations of white men on 

his route were those of Nathan Perry, at the mouth 

of Black river, and a Frenchman at Milan. Two 

weeks wore usually consumed in making the triji. 

He lost his way on one occasion, and failed of rcacli-- 

ing the end of his journey within the required time, 

and his pay was withheld for that trip. Sometimes 

the streams were swollen to such a degree that he was 

I icompelled either to travel a long distance to lind a 

place thntugh which he could wade, or to construct a 

, raft with which to cross. His route lay through the 

1 Black Swamp, the passage of which, from its extent, 

' could not be made in a single day, and he was obliged 

to spend a night in the woods, usually making his bed 

on the trunk of a fallen tree. Says Dr. Bronson, 

whose mother subsecpiently became the wife of Mr. 
Adams: "I have heard him say he has traveled the 
swamii wiien the water was iialf-way to liie knee, 
and he was obliged to bri'ak the ice the whole forty 

During the same year, Seba Bronson, Sr., and his 
two sons, Seba and Daniel, moved in from Ashtabula 
county. The elder Bronson settled on sub-lot four, 
Seba, Jr., living with him. Daniel located on the 
north part of lot thirty-six. 

In 1813, Seba Bronson, Jr., removed to Liverj)ool, 
Medina county, remained a year, and then returned 
to Columbia. In the s])ring of that year, it is said, 
he dug out a canoe, and journeyed down the river to 
the lake, thence to the mouth of Sandusky river, 
thence up that river, to Lower Sandusky (now Fre- 
mont). There, in an opening in the forest, he 
jilanted a piece of ground to corn, under the protec- 
tion of Fort Stephenson. After harvesting his crop, 
he returned to Columbia, residing thei'e until his 
death, in 1851, aged seventy-five. 

In 1809, Roswell Scovil, Horace (Junn, Timothy 
Doan, Daniel Bunnell, Zephaniah Potter, Wm. Hoad- 
ley, Noah Warner, Marcus Terrell, and Joseph Burke 
joined the settlement. Scovil settled on lot thn-ty; 
(lunn on lot — . The latter carried the first mail west 
of Cleveland, in 1808. In June, 1809, he married Ann 
Pritchard, daughter of Jared Pritchard, which was the 
second marriage in Columbia. Timothy Doan located 
on lot twenty-nine, buying out Silas Hoadlev, who 
returned to Connecticut. Bunnell drew, by draft, lot 
one, which he exchanged with Samuel Pardee for laud 
in Olmsted. Potter settled on lot — . He was a 
doctor — the first in the township. Iloadley settled 
on lot thirty-five, south part, but returned to Connec- 
ticut iu 1811. Marcus Terrell settled ou the north- 
west corner of lot tliirl,y-niiie. Warner, in 1811, 
removed to Liverpool. 

Joseph Burke was the earliest settler in Euclid. 
He came from New York, in 1798, traveling from 
Buffalo to Grand river in an ojien boat. Leaving his 
family there, he came on to take a look at the wilder- 
ness, in which he thought of settling, and after mak- 
ing a selection at Eaolid, returned for his family. 
He resided in Euclid eleven years, and then removed 
to this township, locating on lot twelve. Ho died 
July 4th, 1814. His widow removed to Michigan, 
and died tliere-in 1833. Of their large family of four- 
teen chddren, only two are living: Ira Burke on the 
old homestead, aged seventy-five, and Mrs. Sophia 
Louder, residing in Illinois. A little daughter, four 
years of age, while in the woods with her brother, 
who was miking maple sugar, wandered away and 
was never found. The generally accei)ted theory as 
to her fate is, that she was carried away by Indians 
seen in the vicinity a day on two previous. 

Sila-i Burke settled on the south p.irt of lot twelve, 
in 1809. 

Harmon Bronson, one of the members of the Water- 
bury land company, visited the reserve, as early as 



1805. In that year he came from Waterbury, Con- 
necticut, to Clevelanil, on foot, bj way of Albany anil 
RiitTalo, and returned by way of RaUiniorc, Pbiladel- 
])hia aud New York, walking almost the entire dis- 
tance. In JSOIt, he ai,'ain came to Ohio, also on foot, 
this time for the |>uriiose of settlement. He was a 
carjienter and joiner, and on iiis arrival at Cleveland, 
engaged at work for a Mr. Murray, for whon lie Imiil 
a log house near the mouth of the Cuyahoga, on the 
east side of the river, and about where the govern- 
ment piers are now. His family, then consisting of 
a wife and three daughters, and his mother, (his 
father, Seba Bronson, Sr., having come to Columbia 
three years previous), came on soon afterward on a 
little vessel called the "Ranger," Captain Hathaway, 
landing at the mouth of the river March 15th. Other 
members of the coin|>any, aud their families, came at 
the same time. Mr. Bronson made a settlement in 
Columbia, erecting a house on sub-lot four. 

At the breaking out of the war of 1812, when it 
was generally feared tiiat this ]iart of tlie State would 
be overrun by Indians, Mrs. Harmon Bronson, with 
her three girls, — the oldest about tliirteen, — and an 
infant son less than a year old, started from (Cleveland 
in September, 1813, with a horse, saddle and bridle, 
and took her little family back to Waterbury, the 
heroic mother walking the entire distance. It re- 
quired four weeks to make the journey. 

She remained in Waterbury until late in the fall of 
1815, and then set out in a lumber wagon for Oiiio. 
At Bloomfield, in the State of New Y'ork, her funds 
run out, and she hired out her two eldest daughters 
at fifty cents a week each, while she worked for her 
board and that of her two younger children. Abmit- 
the 1st of March, 181(3, the journey was resumed, 
and the family reached Columbia in the latter part of 
that month. 

Mr. Bronson kept a store in Columhia from I81(i 
to 1820. He removed to East Cleveland in Decem- 
ber, 1821, aud lived there until July. 1821, when he 
moved into Boston township, tiien Portage, udw 
Summit county. He died December 18th, 1853. 
He was the seventh of the fourteen children of Seba 
Bi-onson, Sr. , all of whom lived to mature age and 
were married. Azor and Rela died in Columbia, in 
1811, October 5th and 13th, respectively. Harmon 
was tJR' last survivor of the family. His bii'th, mar- 
riage and death occurred in the same montii and on 
the same day of the montli — Decemlier 18tli. He 
was seventy-nine years old at his death. His wife 
survived him four years and two months, and was 
something over eighty. Two of his family are now 
living — his second daughter, now seventy-eight years 
old, and the youngest child, a son, now sixty-seven — 
both residing in Peninsula, Summit county. From 
the latter, Mr. H. V. Bronson, we have obtained liie 
facts here given. 

David Eddy, btn-n in New Jersey, came to Ohio 
while yet a single man, in the year 1804 or 1805. He 
made a location in Euclid, Cuyahoga county, and 

erected a cabin there. The followmg year his father 
and mother, wilii a son named Timothy, came on 
and took up tiieir abode in tiie jirimitive hal)itation 
already prejiared by David. Caleb Eddy, the fathei', 
spent the remainder of his days here, but David soon 
pushed on further west, ami joined the infant colony 
in Columbia. He " stuck his stakes "' on lot forty, 
and built liis log house on the l)ank of Rocky river. 
In the early winter of 1811 he married Elizabeth 
Shirdine, of Washington county, Penn., and about 
two yeai's subse({uently began pioneer life in the little 
cabin previously mentioned. Eddy was a member of 
the militia, and was an occupant of the block house. 
His life was one of many hardships and of arduous 
toil. He died, on the farm on which he lirst located, 
October 31, 1853, and his widow about a year after- 
ward, Octobei' 6th, 1854. Their children were four 
in numbei', two boys and two girls, viz : Jesse, Enos, 
Susannah and Eunice. Jesse married Caroline Cham- 
berlain, daughter of John Chandjerlain, of Roches- 
ter, Lorain county. He, Jesse, is now living there. 
His wife died February 5th, 1855. leaving two chil- 
dren, Mary E. (Mrs Myers,) and llattie E. (Mrs. 
Mann). Enos nuirried Cynthia ]5radford, now de- 
ceased. Susannah married Myron Bradford, and 
lioth are dead. Eunice married, lirst, Hiram Brad- 
ford, and afterwards Samuel Ilanley, with whom she 
is now living in the township of Rochester. 

In 1810 Levi Bronson moved in from Euclid and 
took up his residence on sub-lot three, the first loca- 
tion of John AVilliams. Of him Rev. Dr. Bronson 
bears the following testimony: 

" My father became interested in the laads of Colutiiiiia by jiurchase 
of his brother Azor, but botli died before deeds were given or paymeut 
fully made, and matters were left in an unsettled state, and after a 
while became entangled with other land matters. These have since 
been a prolific source of strife, and a rich field for lawyers. * * 

* * I deem it my duty to bear witness to the unyielding integ- 
rity, public spirit and self-.sacrifice of Levi Bronson. When all the land 
in Columbia would not have sold for more than enough to pay the, 
he borrowed money, worked on the road, turned and twisted evei-y way 
to save the property of his father and his deceased brotlier for their 

In regard to other arrivals this year we mention the 
following: Asahel Osborn and Marshall Culver, his 
son-in-law, the former on the south part and the latter 
on the north part of lot thirty-seven. They came 
frt)m Salem, Connecticut. Osborn married Mary 
Hoadley, daughter of Lemuel Hoadley, Sr. lie was a 
man of good natural al)ility, and of local intluenee. 

Timothy Eddy cleared a piece of land on lot seven- 
teen, sowed it to wheat, and then returned to Euclid 
to live; James and Walter Strong chopped off a piece 
on lot fifteen; Samuel Hitchcock settled on lot forty, 
purchasing of Calvin Hoadley. 

Asa Rol.)ertson made a beginning on the west part 
of lot one, then removed to Liverpool, Medina county, 
whei-e he made a permanent location. Samuel Hea- 
cock also arrived in 1810, and located on lot thirty- 
si.^, but returneil to Connecticut the following j'ear. 

John Adams, father of Benoni, with his wife, five 
sons and a daughter, left Waterbury, Connecticut, 
for Columbia, in the fall of 1811, and moved in with 



Benoni, on lot fifty. Adiims having sold his farm 
for twenty-five luindred dollars, and taken his pay in 
clocks at five dollars a piece, nmst turn his property 
into cattle and the cattle into money, whicli took nji 
tlie time nntil Octoher. 

lie brought his wife and boys, with some of the 
household goods, with a team and wagon, a young 
man by the name of Marshall Bronson accompanying 
tlic family with a team and wagon of his own, with 
wliich he brought a part of their goods. The daugh- 
ter, who was a child of it former wife of Mr. Adams, 
and a cousin of Bronson, rode with the young man. 
In consequence of a violent snow storm they remained 
several days at a tavern a few miles west of Buffalo. 
Tiie next house on their ronte was Mack's tavern, 
eighteen miles distant, the ro;id to which was along 
the beach nntil within four miles of the tavern, when 
it lead away from the lake through a dense forest. 
This is the road the collector of historical facts so 
frequently hears spoken of by early settlers as the 
"four mile woods."' 

It was December, too late to travel along the beach 
with safety, as there were many rocky cliffs which 
extended out into the lake; and to get by them, the 
emigrants usually drove into the water. In attempt- 
ing to pass one of tiiese points, Adams' team became 
frightened at the dashing of the waves, and refused 
to go, and he was obliged to cut them loose from the 
wagon in order to save his wife and children. After 
much ditRculty, they succeeded in reaching the shore, 
and proceeded in the direction of the tavern, Adams 
evidently thinking that Bronson, who was ahead, had 
got through in safety. Not so, however: he had be- 
come involved in a situation more perilous than that 
from which Adams and his family had escaped. The 
wlieel of his wagon caught fast in the seam of a rock, 
and the horses, in their struggle, became entangled 
in the harness and were tiirown down; and Bronson, 
almost paralyzed with cold and fear, could not release 
them. Ilis situation would have appalled the stout- 
est heart. The roar of the angry waves, the horses 
struggling beneath them, and the cries of his com- 
panion, coupled with his utter powcrlessncss to aid 
her, tilled him with frantic terror. He determined 
to go for help. Reaching the shore with great diffi- 
culty, he liurried to the tavern and gave the alarm. 
Several men started for the scene of distress, meeting 
Mr. Adams and family on the way. 

The mother and children were conducted back to 
the house by one of the party, while the father 
returned with the rest to tlio relief of liis daugliter. 
But it was too late — her lifeless body was found in 
the water, carried to f he tavern, and buried in Mack's 
garden. Some time after, a passing missionary, on 
recpiest of the family, preached a funeral discourse. 
The team of Bronson was drowned, and his wagon a 
complete wreck. Another was constructed out of the 
parts as they floated ashore, and then turned into 
cash. The other wagon, which was without serious 
damage, was also sold, and a sled purchased. A few 

articles were gathered up as they floated ashore, and 
the surviving family resumed their journey. Arriving 
in Euclid, friends induced them to rcnnain there till 
the following spring, when they moved into (!ohnnbia. 
A son of Mr. Adams is yet living in Olmsted, nearly 
eighty years of age, and jn-eserves a clear recollection 
of the painful disaster. 

Another prominent arrival in 1811, was the family 
of Azor Bronson. They left Waterbury, Conn., in 
June of that year. They experienced a tedious time 
getting through Cattaraugus swamp. Night over- 
took them in the "four mile woods,'' while yet a long 
distance from Mack's tavern, at Cattaraugus creek, 
to which they were making, and they were unable to 
[n-oceed. Leaving the mother and ciiildren in the 
wagon, whicli was Ijuried to the axletree in mud, Mr. 
I?ronson went to tiie tavern for help. The ever-accom- 
modating Dr. Mack, with a lantern and accomjianied 
by a couple of friendly Indians, returned with Mr. 
Bronson for his family and assisted them to the tav- 
ern. In Middleburg, Cuyahoga county, their wagon 
broke down, and wife and children were thence car- 
ried to Columbia on the horses. They arrived at the 
center of town July 4, 1811. Mr. Bronson died the 
next year after his arrival. Ransom and Albert Bron- 
son, residing in Olmsted, Cuyahoga county, aged 
seventy-three and seventy-six respectively, are the 
only surviving memljers of the family. 

Samuel Pardee also moved in, in 1811, settling on 
the south part of lot thirty-sis, and kept a tavern, 
the sign of which was a pair of deer's horns. 

Jonathan Vanghan became an inhabitant of the 
township during this same year. The following year, 
he, with his l)rother Richard and E. Hickox, entered 
the service of the government and aided in cutting a 
road from Sandusky to Maumee. This was in war 
time, and the men, some three hundred in number, 
cut the road under the protection of a military guard. 
Vanghan was afterwards stationed for a time in Fort 
Stephenson. He subsequently married a daughter of 
Calvin Iloadley and settled in Middleburg, (Ju3-ahoga 
county, residing there until 1834, when he purchased 
an interest in the Iloadley Mills, and returned to 

About this time also, Noah Terrell and Thomas 
Osborn came into town. Terrell was a valuable acqui- 
sition to the settlement, being skillful in the manu- 
facture of every kind of wooden dishes, such as milk- 
bowls, trenchers, cups and saucers, salt-cellars, pepper 
boxes, and little kegs which took the place of pails. 
BeiTig a Terrell, he was of course a hunter, and sup- 
}>orted his family to a great extent by his gun. He 
subsequently removed to Ridgeville, where his daugh- 
ter Harriet was soon after bor;,. She was the first 
child born in that township. 

Osborn settled on the farm first occupied by Bela 
Bronson. He was a blacksmith, and carried on his 
trade in that early day under difficulties whicli would 
be thought insurmountable in this. This pioneer 
blacksmith went on foot through an unbroken wilder- 



ncss to New Lisbon, Columbiana county, a distance 
of about one liuntlrcd miles, to obtain liis material, 
wliicji, haviufr paid for in labor, lie then lugged home 
on his back. His untiring industry was eventually 
rewarded by a handsome competency. 

B. Priteliard came into the town in 1S13. 

Reuben Lewis moved in from New York State in 
1814. He established in tliat year the first tannery 
wortliy of the name in the county. It stood on lot 
tiiirty-four, on wiiich also the first mill in the county, 
the grist mill of Captain Hoadley, was built. 

Adna Warner bought out Benoni Adams, on lot 
fifty, and became a settler in 1814. 

Epliraim Bigelow became an inhaliitaut of Colum- 
bia in 1816, settling on lot twenty -eight, and Amos 
Richmond, the same year, on lot twenty-nine. 

Julius and Albert Bronson settled on lot twenty- 
three, on the north and south parts respectively, in 
1817, and Thomas G. Bronson on lot eighteen the 
same year. Cideon Richmond located in 1818, and 
Sylvanus, tlie following year, on lot fifty. 

Simeon Nichols arrived with his family in about 
the j'car 1830. He was also a Waterbury man. He 
started in the winter, and, when he got into the State 
of New York, the snow was so deep as to make travel- 
ing with a wagon difficult. He therefore bougiit a 
sled, placed his wagon on the top of it, and thus 
resumed tlie journey. All wa^iit well until he arrived 
at wiiat was tlien called the "Holland purchase," in 
that State. This was a newly cleared ])iece of land, 
and he C(jnld not j)ass among the thick stumps with 
his wagon; he therefore cut off the axles. He traveled 
without further impediment until he arrived in the 
eastern ])art of Ohio, when tlie snow left and he was 
obliged to provide iiiniself witii now axles. He arrived 
in Coliinil)ia in early spring and settled on lot forty- 

Niciiols was an industrious and respected citizen. 
He held the office of justice of the peace for a number 
of years, and was a leading memlier of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. 

Merritt Warner came in the same year, and located 
on the same lot. 

We can but but briefly mention subsequent settlers. 
Heman Terrell on lot twenty-eight; Miles Seymour 
rented the farm of Timothy Doan, in 1831; William 
Adams on lot four hundred and ninety-one; Abner 
Martin (and his distillery) on lot forty-seven. Solo- 
mon Hancock on lot twenty-seven, in 1833; Manly 
Hitchcock nn lot forty-four; Hiram Richmond on lot 
twenty-six; Asa Jewett on lot sixty-four, in 1833; 
Sterling Goddard on lot seventy-six; James Mattison 
on the same lot; William Brown on lot seventy-four, 
in 183it; Amos Curtis on lot seventy-seven; Samuel 
Hoadley on lot twenty-one; Elihu Morgan on lot 
forty-seven; Ransom Bronson on lot thirty-nine, in 
1835; Anson A. Goddard on lot sixty-three, in 1830; 
John Cole on lot eighty-eight; Simon and John 
Crockers on lot ninety, in 1838; S. H. Friiik on lot 
twenty-two, in 1831; David Chamberlain on lot 

seventy-nine; Joliu McCreery on lot forty; Wakeman 
Beers on lot sixty; John Chamberlain on lot sixty; 
Seth and Bina Wood on lot sixty-one; Stei)hen Sabin 
on lot forty; Ezekiel Olcott on lot fifty-nine, in 1833; 
Samuel Gaylord in 1835. 

Among the later settlers are: Abel Goodwin, from 
New London county, Connecticut, who arrived in 
1838, and located on lot eighty-eight. He died in 
June, 1841. Elishaand Richard Harrington, origin- 
ally from Vermont, came to Ohio in 1815, settling in 
Cuyahoga Falls. They came to Columbia, Elisha in 
1834, and located on lot eighty-six, and the latter in 
1837, on lot fifty-seven. Elisha now lives on lot 
seventy-five, and Richard on his original purchase. 
Norman T. Beers, from the State of New York, 
located in 1833, where the widow of Marcus Nichols 
now resides. He died April, 1878, and his widow 
now lives on lot fifty-nine. Joseph Osborn became a 
settler in 1837, on lot fifty-seven. He now resides 
with his son Andrew, on the old homestead, and is 
eighty-four years of age — the oldest m:iii in the town- 
ship. William Brown located on Plum creek, iu 1837. 


In regard to pioneer Christianity in Columbia. Rev. 
Dr. Bronson says: 

"The Bronsons were Episeopaliaas, and when thej came to Ohio, 
they brought their prayer booivs with thetn. When they reached here 
they used those books, tiiough they had no minister. My father gath- 
ered around him, as soon as he had neighbors, as many as he could 
and read the service and a sermon. When the grave closed over him, 
my grandfather took it up. When he passed away, Levi Ifronson con- 
inued it; and after his death, it, for a while, devolved on me." 

The first organized church society w'as of the Epis- 
copal faith, some time in the year 180'J, Bishop Chase 
ofilciating in its organization. The following named 
were the constituent members: Seba Bronson and 
wife, Bela Bronson, Levi Bronson and wife, and. John 
Williams and wife. A meeting house was liuilt on 
the east side of the river, on sub-lot three, as late as 
1835 or '3G. 


The first Methodist services held iu town were at 
the house of the widow of Joseph Burke, in about 
the year 1818. They were conducted by Rev's Messrs. 
Goddard and Booth. The following year a society 
was formed, by Rev. Mr. Goddard, of the following 
members: Calvin Hoadley, Julius Bronson and wife, 
Mrs. .Joseph Burke and her two sons, Allen and 
Urrin, and Mrs. McConkey. .Julius Bronson was ap- 
pointed leader of the class. The church building at 1 
the Center was erected in 1830, and was the first house 
of worship iu Columbia. This society is at present 
under the charge of Rev. J. W. Thomp^im. It has a 
nienibership of sixty. The Sabbath school has a 
membership of some seventy scholars. Frank Suell 
is superintendent. 

There i~ also a Methodist Episcopal society at West 
View, the church having been erected in 1844. Ser- 
vices are held every alternate Sabbath by Rev. J. W. 



The Wesleyan Methodist Church of West 
View. — This clmrch was formed April 1, IS-tS, with 
sixteen members, as follows: Rausom Bronsou and 
wife, Moses 0. Baker and wife, Jane Baker, Clark 
Iloadloy and wife, Cornelius Smith and wife, Calvin 
Iloadley, Calvin R. Hoadloy and Edwin Hedgins (all 
of whom seceded from the- Methodist Episcopal 
cluirch of West View because of its alleged indiffer- 
ence with regard to the question of human slavery) 
and Jesse Eddy and wife, Clarissa and Jane Bronson. 
Of this number only Ransom Bnmson remains. The 
ohurcli building was erected in 1845, costing abont 
one thousand dollars. The dedicatory sermon was 
preached by James Laugdon. .Jahial Porter and John 
McCloud were the first regular preachers. The exist- 
ing membership is fifty-tive. William B. Moody is 
jiastor. The two chnrciies unite in a sabbath school, 
wiiich has a membership of forty-five, with J. M. 
Geer as su]>erintendent. 


A Congregational society was organized aliout the 
year 1820 liy Rev. Mr. Shaber of Richfield and was 
composed of the following members: Boltis Ruple, 
Marshall Culver and wife, Mrs. Mary Osborn, Mrs. 
Roxana Nichols, Sterling Coddard and wife. Wdliam 
Brown and wife. Sterling Goddanl and Boltis Ruple 
were appointed deacons. This society never ei'ected a 
house of worsl'.ip. 


The First Baptist Chnreh of Columbia, located 
ac the Center was organized May 13, 1832, with 
nineteen mcmbei's, as follows: John Stranahan, .John 
Cole, Robert Fuller, Abel Goodwin, from the Bap- 
tist church in Liverpool, Medina county; Simeon 
Crocker, .Jeremiah Chamberlain, who had letters from 
a, ciiurch in the east; Mary Goodwin, Amelia Crocker, 
Clarissa Crocker, Nancy Bigelow, Margaret Chamber- 
lain, Prudence Stranahan, Olive Goodwin, Betsey 
Cole, Mary Cole, Constant G. Cole, William Cole, 
Robert N. Fuller, and .lohn Cole, Jr. Elder James 
Ilovey otliciated as moderator; Abel (Joodwin was 
iliosen clerk. Of the constituent members, two only. 
William Cole and John Cole, remain. The erection 
of the building was commenced in 1841, but was not 
(•(iinpleted until 1848. The church has at present a 
membership of one hundred and four. Rev. L. Yar- 
mdl is pastoi', N. N. Cole, clerk, and .John Cole and 
( 'yrus Ives, deacons. A Sabbath school was organized 
in 184T. The officers and teachers at present number 
eleven; scholars, eighty-three; superintendent, N. N. ' 


The first school was opened by Mrs. Sally Bronson, 
in iier own house, in the summer of 1808. The 
number of her scholars was ten. The following win- 
ter her husband, Bela Bronson, taught a school in 
Lemuel Hoadley's blacksmith shop. Rev. Dr. Bron- 


son, son of these pioneer educators, speaks as follows 
in i-egard to the opportunities afforded for acquiring 
an education more than rudimentary: 

" My own experience will illustrate the difficulty of obtaining anything 
beyond what the district school afforded. In 1H:M I set out to obtain 
an education. An old Latin graniniai' was found and studied nn<ler 
the instruction of Rev. Luke Bowen of Strongrsvitle. After a while 
a dictionary was neeiled We sold a cow for ei^ht d'>llars and with 
this sum I mounted a horse and rode more than a hundred miles 
in a fruitless search for a Latin dictionary. This led to my going to 
Talimadge and studying with Elizur Wright, Esq., where I could have 
the use of a dictionary. Thei'e I remained three months, working two 
days in the week for Francis Wright for my board, and two days in the 
montli for hisfatlaer to pay m3' tuition. After this I found the required 
book and a teaclier nearer home." 

A private school was taught at the house of T. G. 
Bronson by Rev. V. P. Bronson, in 183.5. The first 
school house in town was erected in 1817, on lot 
thirty-six. From the report of the clerk of the board 
of education for the year ending August 31, 1878, we 
present the following statistics: 

Number of school houses, 7 

Valued at $4,500 

Amount jiaid teachers $1,388 

Number of scholars ^7 


The first white child born in Columbia was Sally 
Hoadley, daughter of Lemuel Hoadley, Jr. This in- 
teresting event occurred September 36, 1808, She 
became thi wife of Albert Terrel, who now lives in 
Ridgeviile. On the 17th of October following Calvin 
Geer, son of James Geer, was born, and his was the 
second birth in town. Mr. Geer is yet living, and 
resides in Olmsted. In the spring of 1809, Marcus 
Terrell married Dillie Doan, — Esquire Nathaniel 
Doan, the bride's father, performing the ceremony. 
This was the first marriage. The next was that of 
Horace Gunn to Anna Pritchard, in .Tune of the same 
year. The first death was that of a child of Lathrop 
Seymour, in 1809. It was buried on Nathaniel Doan's 
farm, east of the center. The first adult death was 
that of Mrs. Ciiloe Tyler, mother of Mrs. Lemuel 
Hoadley, in August, 1810. She was buried in Benoni 
Adams' orchard. The old burying ground was laid 
out in 1811. The first interment was that of Azor 
Bronson; the next that of Bela Bronson. 

The first post office in town was established about 
the year 1817. The first post master was Thomas G. 
Bronson, who kept the office in his house. The 
name selected was the Indian name for Rocky river, 
•'Copokah." In the papers sent from Washington 
the word was mis-written Copojm, and the error was 
never corrected. The postal route extended from 
Cleveland to Liverpool, a man by tiie name of Mal- 
lett being the first mail carrier. He received fifty 
dollars per year, making the trip on foot once a week. 

Harmon Bronson, in the fall of 1816, built the 
first frame house in Columbia, on sub-lot four. The 
first frame barn was built by Tin othy Doan, in 1836. 
The first brick house was that of Simeon Nichols, 
on lot forty-seven. Harmon Bronson brought the 
first mercantile goods into town in 1816. He kept 
his "store" in his house on the hill, half a mile 



east of the center. He also, the year following, 
brought the first cast iron plow ever seen in these 
parts. In 1819 the first bridge tliat ever sjianncd 
Rocky river, was built half a mile south of tlio cen- 
ter. The first doctor was Zophaniah Potter, wlio be- 
gan to dispense jalap and calomel in 1809. In 1813 
Potter was town clerk, and while his wife was out in 
the woods with her servant one day, gathering grapes, 
his house burned to the ground and the town records 
were destroyed. The deed was supposed to have been 
committed by Indians, out of revenge. Dr. Potter 
iuxving assisted Dr. Long, of Cleveland, in dissect- 
ing the body of the Indian Oniik, who was hung 
there for the murder of two men in Huron county a 
short time before. The present doctor is Asahel 
Culver. The first shoemaker was Mrs. James Geer. 
Slie was the widow Parker, mentioned as one of the 
orginal party from Waterbury, Conn. She remained 
in Cleveland the first winter, and while there married 
James Geer. Her former husband was a shoenuiker, 
and Mrs. Parker, in emigrating to this country, 
brought his outfit of tools with her. She made slioes 
for the women, but the work of making boots, wliich 
were entirely sewed in those days, was too irksome 
for her, and after tcaeliing lier husband tlie trade 
she resigned the work to liim. Lemuel Hoadloy con- 
structed the pioneer fanning-mill of Culuinbia. 

The first orchard was set out by John Williams a 
short distance north of Copopo. J. Warner erected 
in the fall of 1813 the first cider-mill, near tlie block 
house. The first tavern was kept by Samuel Pardee, 
in 1813, in a log house on lot thirty-six. Rev. Mr. 
Hyde, a Presbyterian, was the first resident minister. 
The first blacksmith was Lemuel Hoadley, Sr. His 
shop was built in 1808, on lot forty-seven. 


In the year 1810, a com})any of militia, composed 
of men from tlie townsliips of Columbia, Ridgeviile, 
Eaton, and also Middleburg in Cuyahoga county, was 
organized. Tlie following are the names of tlie mem- 
bers : 

Calvin Hoadley, Lemuel Hoadley, Jr., Elias Frost, Daniel Bronson, 
Bela Bronson, Jared Pritchard, Levi Bronscin, I.atlirop Seymour, Sam- 
uel Potter, Eli Hiekox, Warren Fassett, Marcus Terrell, Asa Robertson, 
Joseph Burke, llai-shall Culver, Zephaniah Potter, Eri Hiekox, Clark 
Hoadley, Jared Hiekox, Noah Warner, Roswell Scovil. Ebenezer Wilmot, 
Ira B.Morgan, Oliver Terrell, Philander Terrell, Tillotson Terrell, Leverett 
Terrell, Wyllis Terrell, David Beebe, Lonian Beebe, Lyman Root, Truman 
Walker, Amos Wilmot, Whittlesey Hill, Sylvester Morgan, Asa Morgan, 
Richard Vaughan, Ephraim V'aughan, Jonathan Vaughan, Ephraim 
Fowls, John Fowls, Abram Fowls, Benoni Adams, Samuel Hitchcock, 
Timothy lloan, Allen Burke, Silas Burke, Chauncey Warner, Horace 
Gunn, James (ieer, Thomas Osborn, Baird Pritchard, Samuel Pardee, 
David Bunnell. David Eddy, Lyman Frost, Samuel Beebe, Sheldon 
Wooster, Jno. Hanley. Sanmel Hiekox, Adna Warner, Aaron Warner. 

In the