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Full text of "History of the lumber industry of America"

History of 



The Lumber Industry 



of America 







By 
JAMES ELLIOTT DEFEBAUGH 

(Editor of the American Lumberman) 



Volume I 



SECOND EDITION 

0/,i\l 

^v 

r 

CHICAGO 

THE AMERICAN LUMBERMAN 
1906 



Copyright 1906 

by 
THE AMERICAN LUMBERMAN. 



PREFACE. 

Industry and commerce have received in the past but incidental 
recognition from the historian. He has sought to trace the history of 
peoples in the political movements in which they have been involved. 
The successful prosecution of war has appeared to him more notable 
than the continued preservation of peace. The achievements of diplo- 
mats and warriors have appeared more vital than the successes of men 
of business. The growing respect engendered abroad by a nation's 
army and navy has seemed a more attractive theme for discourse than 
the increase of its trade in the markets of the world. 

Despite this neglect, commerce always has been a controlling factor 
in making the world's history. It always has been more important 
that men should live than that they should live under any particular 
government or at any particular place. The search for livelihood has 
guided the migrations of races and been the inciting cause of discov- 
ery, settlement and conquest. Encouragement, protection and control 
of trade have been the most frequent subjects of legislation. 

It has been within recent years only that the world at large has 
accorded the manufacturer and the merchant a position coordinate with 
that of the warrior and the statesman. Out of this new appreciation 
have come histories of particular industrial movements and of numerous 
branches of industry ; but, notwithstanding the influence of the forests 
on New World development and the importance of the present lumber 
industry of the United States, Canada and the Latin countries to the 
south, no comprehensive history of the lumber industry of America 
ever has been compiled. 

The early explorers were in search of gold, but they found trees ; 
and the earliest exports from the New World to the Old World were 
products of the forest. Such products have continued for more than 
four hundred years to be of conspicuous importance. In even the 
Twentieth Century the value of forest manufactures exported from 
British America is exceeded only by the value of the combined products 
of agriculture, grazing and allied pursuits. Some of the Central Amer- 
ican countries derive the larger share of their incomes from their forest 
.products. 

iii 



iv PREFACE. 

While a history of the lumber business is justified fully by its im- 
portance, records are meager and its compilation is, therefore, difficult. 
In the preparation of this work the sources drawn upon have been so 
multitudinous as to render impracticable individual acknowledgment or 
complete reference to authority. Government reports and records of 
the United States and other American countries have been read dili- 
gently and every important fact concerning the industry has been ex- 
tracted; thousands of individuals have been interviewed; the files of 
the American Lumberman and its predecessors, the Northwestern Lum- 
berman and The Timberman, which have been the most fertile sources 
of information, have been carefully examined, and the files of other 
lumber journals American, Canadian and English have yielded their 
share of information. 

Grateful acknowledgment is extended by the editor to the many 
individuals in private and public life who have interested themselves in 
this work and who have assisted in supplying many of the facts that go 
to make up this history. The compilation of the matter incorporated 
in this work has involved the expenditure of a vast amount of labor 
and a large sum of money ; but, if it shall prove to be of interest and 
value to lumbermen and students of lumbering and shall supply a miss- 
ing link in the industrial and commercial history of the world, its aim 
will have been fully attained and the ambition of its editor and its 
publishers will have been realized. 

J. E. DEFEBAUGH. 






TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I. 
DISCOVERY AND EARLY SETTLEMENT. PAGES 1-10. 

FORESTS ESSENTIAL TO HUMAN EXISTENCE (1) WOODED SHORES OF 
AMERICA INVITED SETTLEMENT (2) THE FIRST SETTLER THE 
FIRST LUMBERMAN (2) DISCOVERY AND EARLY EXPLORATIONS 
(3) PAPAL DIVISION OF UNDISCOVERED COUNTRIES (4) THE 
FIRST COLONIES (5) BELIZE TIMBER RIGHTS AN EARLY SUB- 
JECT OF DISPUTE (6) COLONIZATION OF SOUTH AMERICA (6) 
DATES ON WHICH IMPORTANT AMERICAN CITIES WERE FOUNDED 
(7) FOREST CONDITIONS FOUND BY THE DISCOVERERS OF AMER- 
ICA (7) FORESTED AREAS OF CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES 
(8) FORESTAL CONDITION OF SOUTH AMERICA (9) SUMMARY 
OF TOTAL AREA AND FORESTED AREA OF THE AMERICAS (9). 

CHAPTER II. 
NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. PAGES 11-45. 

TREE DISTRIBUTION (11) INFLUENCE GOVERNING TREE DISTRIBU- 
TION (13) CONDITIONS GOVERNING TREE GROWTH (14) GEO- 
LOGICAL INFLUENCES (15) INFLUENCE OF CLIMATIC CHANGES 
(16) PRESENT INFLUENCES (19) FORESTED AND NONFORESTED 
AREAS (22) COMMERCIAL TREE SPECIES OF AMERICA (25). 

CHAPTER HI. 
LABRADOR AND NEWFOUNDLAND. PAGES 46-55. 

HISTORY AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF LABRADOR (46) HISTORY OF 
NEWFOUNDLAND (48) PHYSICAL FEATURES OF NEWFOUNDLAND 
(49) TREE SPECIES OF NEWFOUNDLAND (50) LUMBER INDUS- 
TRY OF NEWFOUNDLAND (53) CROWN LAND TIMBER REGULA- 
TIONS (53). 



vi TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IV. 
CANADA ITS COMMERCIAL FORESTS. PAGES 56-64. 

TIMBERED REGIONS AND TREE SPECIES (56) HARDWOOD RESOURCES 
(57) WHITE PINE (57) SPRUCE (58) LEADING LUMBER 
DISTRICTS (59) WATER TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (59) FOREST 
AREA BY PROVINCES (61) TIMBER STUMPAGE OF CANADA (64). 

CHAPTER V. 

CANADA FORESTRY AND FOREST RESERVES. PAGES 65-77. 

CANADIAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION (66) FOREST FIRE LEGISLATION 
(67) OFFICERS OF CANADIAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION (69) 
SCHOOLS OF FORESTRY (69) FEDERAL FOREST RESERVES (71) 
ONTARIO FOREST RESERVES (75) LAURENTIDES NATIONAL 
PARK (76) LIST OF FOREST RESERVES (77.) 

CHAPTER VI. 
CANADA PRODUCTION AND TRADE. PAGES 78-90. 

FOREST PRODUCTS OF CANADA IN 1881 AND 1891 (78) CENSUS OF 
1901 (79) AREA OF FORESTS AND WOODLANDS (83) EXPORTS 
OF FOREST PRODUCTS (84) EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES 
(88) WOOD PULP PRODUCTION (88) EXPORTS TO THE UNITED 
KINGDOM (88) IMPORTS OF HARDWOODS (89). 

CHAPTER VII. 
CANADA COOPERAGE STOCK INDUSTRY. PAGES 91-96. 

EXPORTS OF STAVES AND STAVE BOLTS (91) EARLY STAVE INDUS- 
TRY (92) PRESENT COOPERAGE STOCK MANUFACTURE (93) 
THE HOOP INDUSTRY (95). 

CHAPTER VIII. 
QUEBEC TIMBER HISTORY, ADMINISTRATION. PAGES 97-113. 

QUEBEC AND ONTARIO ONE COLONY (97) FRENCH SEIGNIORIAL SYS- 
TEM (98) FRENCH TIMBER CUTTING SYSTEM (99) EARLY 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. vii 

ENGLISH REGULATIONS (100) EFFECT OF BRITISH IMPORT DUES 
(101) TRADE EARLY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY (102) 
EARLY CANADIAN LEGISLATION (104) FIRST CULLERS' ACT 
(105) ORIGIN OF CROWN TIMBER DUES (105) LICENSES TO 
CUT TIMBER (106) THE FIRST CROWN TIMBER ACT (108). 

CHAPTER IX. 
QUEBEC PRESENT CONDITIONS. PAGES 114-123. 

AREA OF FOREST AND WOODLAND (114) NORTHERN QUEBEC (115) 
TIMBER LICENSES AND DUES (115) EXPORT TRADE OF THE 
CITY OF QUEBEC (116) EXPORT TRADE OF MONTREAL (117) 
SHIPPING INTERESTS (118) EXPORTS AND STOCKS ON HAND 
(119) CHARACTER OF QUEBEC PRODUCT (122) STATISTICS OF 
WHITE PINE TIMBER (123). 

CHAPTER X. 

QUEBEC CULLING. PAGES 124-132. 
ORIGIN OF QUEBEC INSPECTION (124) TEXT OF CULLERS' ACT (125). 

CHAPTER XI. 
QUEBEC PERSONNEL. PAGES 133-153. 

CHAPTER XII. 
ONTARIO EARLY HISTORY. PAGES 154-171. 

UPPER CANADA FROM 1791 TO 1867 (154) PERIOD OF SETTLEMENT 
(155) THF PIONEER OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY (155) SETTLE- 
MENT OF THE CITY OF OTTAWA (157) DEVELOPMENT IN 
SOUTHERN ONTARIO (158) THE FIRST PAPER MILL (158) 
CROWN TIMBER REGULATIONS (159) TIMBER DUES SYSTEM 
(160) CAUSES OF THE REBELLION OF 1837 (162) THE MAC- 
KENZIE REBELLION OF 1837 (164) UNION OF 1841 AND NEW 
TIMBER REGULATIONS (166) FIRST CANADIAN TIMBER LICENSE 
LEGISLATION (168) PARLIAMENTARY INQUIRY OF 1854 (169) 
REGULATIONS OF 1855 (171). 



viii TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XIII. 
ONTARIO AND THE UNITED STATES. PAGES 172-178. 

RECIPROCITY TREATY (172) TRADE DURING RECIPROCITY PERIOD 
(173) FIRST INFLUX OF AMERICAN LUMBERMEN (173) PRO- 
VINCIAL CONFEDERATION AND EFFECT ON CROWN LANDS MAN- 
AGEMENT (174) DEVELOPMENTS IN GEORGIAN BAY DISTRICT 
(175) EXPORT DUTIES ON LOGS, ETC. (176) FREE TRADE 
PERIOD (177) THE DINGLEY BILL AND PROHIBITION OF LOG 
EXPORT (177) AMERICAN INTERESTS IN GEORGIAN BAY DIS- 
TRICT (178). 

CHAPTER XIV. 

ONTARIO REVENUES AND RESOURCES. PAGES 179-189. 

TIMBER DUES AND GROUND RENT (179) CUT OF SAWLOGS FROM 
1867 TO 1877 (180) DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO 
(180) REVENUE FROM TIMBER LICENSES (181) AREAS UNDER 
LICENSE FROM 1869 TO 1903 (183) TIMBER CUT FROM CROWN 
LANDS FROM 1868 TO 1903 (184) RECORD OF TIMBER SALES 
(184) STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION (185) PRODUCTION OF THE 
OTTAWA VALLEY (186) PRODUCTION OF GEORGIAN BAY DISTRICT 
(187) PRODUCTION OF PINE (188) REVENUE FROM CROWN 
TIMBER LANDS FROM 1869 TO 1903 (189). 

CHAPTER XV. 
ONTARIO FOREST RESERVES. PAGES 190-199. 

ALGONQUIN NATIONAL PARK (190) FOREST RESERVES ACT (191) 
TEMAGAMI FOREST RESERVE (191) PROVINCIAL FOREST POLICY 
(192) THE EASTERN RESERVE (194) THE SIBLEY RESERVE 
(194) THE MISSISSAGA RESERVE (195) TIMBER REPRODUC- 
TION (195). 

CHAPTER XVI. 
ONTARIO TORONTO INSPECTION. PAGES 200-204. 

CHAPTER XVII. 
ONTARIO PERSONNEL. PAGES 205-218. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. ix 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
NEW BRUNSWICK TIMBER HISTORY. PAGES 219-225. 

SETTLEMENT AND NATURAL FEATURES (219) TIMBERED AREA (219) 
TREE SPECIES (220) MIRAMICHI FIRE (222) EARLY LUM- 
BERING METHODS (223). 

CHAPTER XIX. 
NEW BRUNSWICK FOREST LEGISLATION. PAGES 226-231. 

THE FIRST SURVEYOR GENERAL (226) EARLY TIMBER POLICY (227) 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE PRIOR TO 1850 (227) TIMBER REV- 
ENUES (228) TIMBER LAND LAWS SYSTEM (229) STUMPAGE 
DUES (231) TIMBER PRODUCTION 1879 TO 1903 (231). 

CHAPTER XX. 

NEW BRUNSWICK RECENT OPERATIONS. PAGES 232-243. 

PRESENT LUMBERING METHODS (232) THE ST. JOHN DISTRICT (232) 
THE MIRAMICHI DISTRICT (234) THE RESTIGOUCHE DISTRICT 
(235) CHANGES IN CONDITIONS (236) PRICES OF LOGS AND 
LUMBER (238) LUMBER STATISTICS (240). 

CHAPTER XXI. 

NOVA SCOTIA LUMBER HISTORY. PAGES 244-250. 

SETTLEMENT AND EARLY LUMBERING (244) TIMBERED AREA AND 
REPRODUCTION (246) TIMBER LAND TITLES (247) PERSONNEL 
(249). 

CHAPTER XXII. 
NOVA SCOTIA EXPORTS, STATISTICS. PAGES 251-255. 

SHIPPING FACILITIES (251) TRADE DISTRICTS (252) LEADING 
EXPORTERS (252) FOREST PRODUCTS (253) EXPORTS (254). 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. PAGES 256-257. 



x TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
THE DISTRICT OF UNGAVA. PAGES 258-263. 

THE LABRADOR PENINSULA (258) CREATION OF UNGAVA (258) 
HISTORY OF THE PENINSULA (259) NATURAL FEATURES (261) 
TREE SPECIES (262). 

CHAPTER XXV. 
CANADA ITS LUMBER INDUSTRY IN 1874. PAGES 264-271. 

ESTIMATE OF TIMBER RESOURCES (264) DESCRIPTION OF MANUFAC- 
TURING DISTRICTS (265) PREVAILING PRICES IN 1874 (268) 
LIST OF LUMBER MANUFACTURERS (269) LUMBER PRODUCTION 
AND TRADE OF 1874 (271). 

UNITED STATES. 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. PAGES 272-341. 

FOREST ENVIRONMENT OF EARLY EXPLORERS (273) DIVISIONS OF 
FOREST AREAS (274) THE PRAIRIES AND THEIR CAUSE (276) 
RAINFALL AND FOREST GROWTH (277) THE WOODED AREA 
(281) ORIGINAL AND PRESENT WOODED AREA (284) TIMBER 
CONDITIONS OF THE STATES (286) IMPROVED AND UNIMPROVED 
LANDS (289) UNDERESTIMATES OF STANDING TIMBER (292) 
TIMBER LANDS OWNED BY LUMBERMEN (299) THE ATLANTIC 
FOREST (301) DIVISIONS OF THE ATLANTIC FOREST (302) 
EASTERN TREE SPECIES (303) THE NORTHERN CONIFEROUS 
BELT (307) ORIGINAL DISTRIBUTION (310) COMMENTS OF 
EARLY TRAVELERS (311) THE CENTRAL HARDWOOD BELT (313) 
OBSERVATIONS OF EARLY TRAVELERS (316) MICHAUX ON DIS- 
TRIBUTION OF HARDWOODS (319) THE SOUTHERN CONIFEROUS 
BELT (324) THE LONGLEAF PINE (325) THE SHORTLEAF PINE 
(328) THE LOBLOLLY PINE (329) THE SOUTHERN CYPRESS 
(331) OUTLINES OF THE PACIFIC FOREST (331) DIVISIONS OF 
THE PACIFIC FOREST (332) LIST OF COMMERCIAL TREE SPECIES 
(335) WESTERN FORESTS, BY STATES (337) FOREST RESOURCES 
OF THE WEST (340). 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xi 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

PUBLIC LAND POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES IN ITS RELATION TO 
LUMBERING. PAGES 342-394. 

THE ORIGINAL NATIONAL DOMAIN (342) CESSIONS BY THE STATES 
(343) AREA ADDED BY PURCHASE AND CESSION (350) ACRE 
COST OF PURCHASES (352) COST AND RETURNS OF THE PUBLIC 
DOMAIN (353) PRESENT AREA OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN (357) 
ADMINISTRATION OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN (360) EARLY DIS- 
POSAL OF PUBLIC LANDS (363) ALEXANDER HAMILTON'S REPORT 
(364) CLAIMS OF THE PUBLIC LAND STATES (365) EARLY 
LEGISLATION (367) THE HOMESTEAD LAW (368) DISPOSAL OF 
PUBLIC LANDS IN QUANTITY (370) PUBLIC SALE (370) PRI- 
VATE ENTRY (371) GRANTS TO STATES (371) DESERT LANDS 
(373) SWAMP LANDS (374) LAND GRANTS TO TRANSPORTA- 
TION CORPORATIONS (375) STATE IMPROVEMENT SELECTIONS 
(378) SCRIP LOCATIONS (378) INDIAN LANDS (380) THE 
TIMBER CULTURE LAW (381) THE DESERT LAND ACT (382) 
THE STONE AND TIMBER ACT (383) THE HOMESTEAD LAWS 
(383) THE RECLAMATION ACT (390) RELATION OF LAWS TO 
LUMBERMEN (392). 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 
UNITED STATES FORESTRY AND FOREST RESERVES. PAGES 395-436. 

EARLY INTEREST IN FORESTRY (395) BEQUESTS OF F. ANDRE 
MICHAUX (396) PRIVATE FORESTRY (397) FORESTRY ASSOCIA- 
TIONS (399) AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION (400) STATE 
FORESTRY WORK (402) MINNESOTA (402) WISCONSIN (403) 
MAINE (403) NEW YORK (404) LOUISIANA (405) NEW HAMP- 
SHIRE (406) PENNSYLVANIA (406) MICHIGAN (407) IOWA (408) 
SCHOOLS OF FORESTRY (409) NATIONAL FOREST RESERVES 
(412) EARLY TIMBER RESERVE LAWS (412) NATIONAL PARKS 
(413) FOREST RESERVE LEGISLATION (414) ACT OF 1891 (415) 
ACT OF 1897 (416) ACTS OF 1905 (419) FOREST RESERVES 
IN 1905, NAME, LOCATION AND AREA (420) DESCRIPTION OF 
FOREST RESERVES (424) SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAINS RE- 
SERVE (424) PIKES PEAK RESERVE (425) LEWIS AND CLARK 



xii TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

RESERVE (425) OLYMPIC RESERVE (426) CASCADE RANGE 
RESERVE (427) THE YOSEMITE FOREST (429) FOREST RE- 
SOURCES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS (430) RECLAMATION OF 
ARID LANDS (434) RECLAMATION PROJECTS (435). 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
UNITED STATES TARIFF LEGISLATION. PAGES 437-472. 

COLONIAL TARIFFS (437) TARIFF CONDITIONS UNDER CONFEDERA- 
TION (438) FIRST TARIFF UNDER THE CONSTITUTION (441) 
TARIFFS PRIOR TO 1807 (442) THE EMBARGO ACT (443) THE 
WAR OF 1812 (443) HIGH TARIFF OF 1842 (444) RECIPROCITY 
WITH CANADA (444) THE FIRST MORRILL TARIFF (444) FIRST 
SPECIFIC DUTY ON LUMBER (445) SECOND MORRILL TARIFF 
(445) CONDITIONS LEADING TO MCKINLEY TARIFF (445) 
TEXT OF THE MCKINLEY BILL (446) EFFECT OF THE MCKINLEY 
BILL (448) THE WILSON BILL (450) EFFECT OF WILSON BILL 
(451) DEMAND FOR DUTY ON LUMBER (453) CINCINNATI CON- 
VENTION OF 1896 (453) THE DINGLEY BILL (456) CANADIAN 
PROHIBITION OF LOG EXPORT (458) JOINT HIGH COMMISSION 
(459) SUMMARY OF LUMBER TARIFFS (463). 

CHAPTER XXX. 
UNITED STATES LUMBER PRODUCTION. PAGES 473-526. 

COLONIAL SAWMILLS (473) COURSE OF MANUFACTURE AND DEVEL- 
OPMENT (474) AUTHORITY FOR THE CENSUS (475) CENSUS OF 
1810 (476) CENSUS OF 1820 (477) CENSUS OF 1840 (489)- 
CENSUS OF 1850 (490) CENSUS OF 1860 (491) CENSUS OF 1870 
(492) CENSUS OF 1880 (493) CENSUS OF 1890 (494) CENSUS 
OF 1900 (495) COMPARATIVE CENSUS RETURNS, BY STATES (496) 
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, BY CENSUSES AND STATES 
(501) CAPITAL INVESTED, BY CENSUSES AND STATES (502) 
NUMBER OF WAGE-EARNERS, BY CENSUSES AND STATES (503) 
WAGES PAID, BY CENSUSES AND STATES (504) VALUE OF 
PRODUCTS, BY CENSUSES AND STATES (505) SUMMARY OF 
TWELFTH CENSUS (506) SAWMILLS, SUMMARY BY STATES (509) 
LOGGING CAMPS, SUMMARY BY STATES (510) INDEPENDENT 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xiii 

PLANING MILLS, ETC. (512) PACKING Box INDUSTRY (513) 
SAWED LUMBER PRODUCTS, TWELFTH CENSUS (514) ROUGH 
LUMBER PRODUCTS, TWELFTH CENSUS (515) CONIFEROUS WOOD 
PRODUCT (516) HARDWOOD PRODUCT (518) MISCELLANEOUS 
SAWED PRODUCTS (522) COOPERAGE MATERIALS (523) TIMBER 
CAMP PRODUCTS (524). 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

UNITED STATES FOREIGN TRADE. PAGES 527-559. 

EXPORTS IN EARLY DAYS (527) EXPORTS IN FIRST DECADE OF 
NINETEENTH CENTURY (529) EFFECT OF EMBARGO ACT AND 
WAR OF 1812 (530) EXPORTS TO CANADA DURING RECIPROCITY 
PERIOD (532) EXPORTS DURING CIVIL WAR (533) EXPORTS 
BY DECADES (534) EXPORTS OF FURNITURE (537) EXPORTS 
OF FOREST PRODUCTS, BY YEARS (539) EXPORTS OF TIMBER 
(541) EXPORTS, BOARDS, DEALS, PLANKS, ETC. (542) EXPORTS 
OF SHINGLES, BY COUNTRIES, 1790 TO 1905 (546) EXPORTS OF 
WOOD MANUFACTURES, 1811-1905 (548) IMPORTS OF FOREST 
PRODUCTS (549) IMPORTS BY YEARS, 1824-1905 (551) IMPORTS, 
CABINET WOODS, BY COUNTRIES, 1824-1905 (553) IMPORTS, 
BOARDS, PLANKS, DEALS, ETC. (555) IMPORTS, SHINGLES (556) 
IMPORTS, WOOD PULP (557) IMPORTS, LOGS AND TIMBER 
(558) IMPORTS, CABINET WARES, ETC. (559). 



CHAPTER I. 

DISCOVERY AND EARLY SETTLEMENT. 

Civilized man lives in houses, and as the house that does not con- 
tain wood in some form is practically unknown the lumber industry 
accompanies civilized man in all his migrations and progress. It 
was, in fact, a condition of his migration and advancement until the 
railroad brought forest and prairie together and made habitable 
the barren places of the earth. A treeless world might not be unin- 
habitable, but it is a historical fact that migration, racial progress and 
growth of population have been guided by the forest distribution of the 
world modified, of course, by other conditions, but having that as one 
of their chief controlling influences. 

The early history of civilization proves that countries which are now 
treeless and, therefore, thinly populated were once blessed with for- 
ests. The history of ancient Persia, Assyria and Canaan would be 
vastly different from what it is if those countries had been in their early 
days in the forestal condition they are now; or it might be more cor- 
rect to say that they would have had no history. The disappearance 
of the forests led to the disappearance of the people; and, as today they 
are barren and almost depopulated because of the absence of the for- 
ests, if the forests had never existed their prominence in the history of 
civilization would have been withheld from them. 

Wherever the cradle of the Aryan peoples may have been, their 
migrations led them by forest routes to forest countries, and it was not 
until recent times that the plains attracted them. This is true because 
shelter and fuel were necessities, which only the forest could furnish. 
As history goes, the discovery of coal is but of yesterday. Coal was 
undoubtedly known to the ancients, but it became an article of com- 
merce not more than eight hundred years ago, and it was not until the 
discovery of the steam engine in 1705 that coal mining assumed 
important proportions. Until the Nineteenth Century coal in most 
countries was either a luxury or was used for industrial purposes, 
while the fuel of the people was wood. Therefore there was an im- 



2 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

mediate dependence upon the forests which relaxed only when transpor- 
tation ample enough and cheap enough linked the forests and the 
plains together. It was the railway that finally made habitable the 
treeless portions of the earth. 

Dreamers have wondered what would have been the history of 
North America if the location of the forests and treeless plains had 
been reversed if the discoverers and explorers sighting the shores of 
the Atlantic and the Pacific had found nothing but prairies, no matter 
how rich the soil whether settlement would have awaited the invasion 
of the railroad. Happily such was not the case, but however inhospita- 
ble the climate and severe the aspect of the rockbound shores of New 
England in other respects the trees waved a welcome and promised 
shelter and warmth. So, whether the early discoverers were English, 
French, Spanish or Dutch, they found habitable shores and were able 
to establish their colonies in Florida and Virginia, on the Hudson, on 
Massachusetts Bay, on the St. Lawrence, on the coast of Nova Scotia, 
at the mouth of the Mississippi, in Central and South America and 
later on the Pacific shores. 

From the coast, migration and settlement drifted inland, following 
the course of the rivers or striking boldly across the country, but always 
protected and supported by the forests. Whether we consider the in- 
dividual pioneer with his family or the congeries of population, the 
villages and cities, all were in earlier days absolutely dependent upon 
the forests and endured separation from them only by the aid of com- 
merce. 

The first colonies in North America were, for the most part, made 
up of men of every trade and profession, but their development and 
the extension of their boundaries must be credited to the pioneers who 
struck off into the forest, a little removed from their fellows, and there 
hewed out their homes. These men combined in themselves all of the 
practical trades. They were hunters and fishermen as well as farmers; 
they were their own carpenters, blacksmiths, millers, tanners, shoe- 
makers and weavers, and all of them were emphatically, at the begin- 
ning of the settlement, directly dependent upon the forest which gave 
them their material for building and for the simple implements of the 
time, their fuel and even their food. Yet, in a sense, the forest was 
their enemy, for they had to clear it away to make room for wheat and 
corn. The settler on American shores was the first American lumber- 
man. He was a lumberman by necessity, as he was a carpenter, shoe- 



DISCOVERY AND EARLY SETTLEMENT. 3 

maker and weaver. So the history of the lumber industry for the 
lumber trade as a branch of commerce was a later development is the 
history of progress, of settlement and of civilization. 

As population increased and as the centers of population en- 
larged in importance, there came about a sharp differentiation and a 
natural apportionment of work; and so the lumber industry, which at 
the beginning merely supplied the needs of the individual settler in the 
forest, came to supply the requirements of the young towns and the 
cities of the continent. This was, however, a small matter, for all 
along the Atlantic coast, the shores of the Gulf of Mexico and on the 
banks of every tidal river the trees grew in profusion. Every village 
could be supplied from its own immediate resources. It was only 
when the increase in population made the requirements so great that 
local supplies were exhausted that a lumber industry that looked beyond 
the immediate neighborhood of its mills for the disposal of its product 
was either needful or possible. As the first settlers were the first lum- 
bermen, so the first settlement was the first site of the lumber industry 
in America. 

From the date of Columbus' first voyage in 1492, for more than a 
hundred years the process was discovery and exploration and conquest 
rather than genuine settlement. By the end of the Fifteenth Century 
the eastern coast of the three Americas had been roughly outlined. 
Columbus, the Cabots, Pinzon, Cabral, Cortereal, Vespucci, Balboa and 
others had cursorily examined the coast all the way from Hudson Strait 
to the vicinity of Bahia, on the eastern coast of Brazil. The lands 
discovered were usually claimed for the crowns which the voyagers 
represented and some of these claims were made good by colonization. 

The next century was one of combined discovery, exploration, 
conquest and occupation. By its conclusion the coasts of both oceans 
had been well outlined and the general character of the countries deter- 
mined. However, as late as 1600 there had been little genuine coloni- 
zation, the only successful attempts at occupation being by the Spaniards 
and Portuguese, and these accomplishments were confined chiefly to 
the West Indies, Central America, the Isthmus of Panama and isolated 
portions of South America. 

Until the Seventeenth Century, North America, which was destined 
to exceed all the others in population and wealth, remained practically 
virgin soil. For example, the Gulf of St. Lawrence was entered by 
Caspar Cortereal in 1500, and Carder voyaged up the St. Lawrence as 



4 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

far as Montreal in 1535, but it was not until the middle of the century 
that any attempt at colonization within the present limits of Canada 
was made and not until 1608 that Quebec was founded. 

A brief summary of some of the leading dates and names during 
the period of exploration may be pardoned. Columbus' first voyage, 
in 1492, resulted merely in the discovery of some of the West Indies, 
including Cuba, which he thought to be mainland. In 1493, seven 
weeks after the return of Columbus to Spain, Pope Alexander VI. as- 
signed the lands discovered and to be discovered west of a certain line 
to Spain, and east of the same line to Portugal. This line was a great 
circle passing through the poles, and the following year was defined as 
passing 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands. This edict was 
the basis of the Portuguese claims in the eastern part of South Amer- 
ica and led to the Portuguese sovereignty over Brazil and its coloniza- 
tion by that power. It also led to a division of authority in the antip- 
odes. The second voyage of Columbus, in 1493, resulted in further 
discoveries in the West Indies, including Jamaica. In 1498, on his 
third expedition, Columbus discovered Trinidad and coasted along the 
delta of the Orinoco and thence to the west. He set out on his fourth 
voyage in May, 1502, and during the following year he studied the 
coasts between the gulfs of Honduras and Darien. 

In the meantime other navigators had been at work and other 
governments than that of Spain became interested. The English were 
early engaged in western explorations, and in 1497 Henry VII. sent 
out John Cabot, an Italian navigator, accompanied by Sebastian Cabot, 
his son, who planted the English flag on an unknown coast supposed 
to have been that of Labrador. The following year the two sailed as 
far south as Cape Florida and are supposed to have been the first to 
see the mainland of America. Nearly thirty years thereafter, in 1526, 
Sebastian Cabot, in the employ of Spain, began a voyage during which 
he discovered La Plata River and erected a fort at San Salvador, now 
Bahia. 

In the same year that the Cabots began their work of exploration, 
1497, Pinzon, Vespucci and others sailed from Cadiz. They are sup- 
posed to have first touched the coast of Honduras, whence they followed 
the coasts of Mexico and the United States, rounding Florida, and are 
believed to have sailed as far as Chesapeake Bay. In 1499 Vespucci 
with others followed the northern coast of South America for a long 
distance, including the coasts of Venezuela, the Guianas and part of the 



DISCOVERY AND EARLY SETTLEMENT. 5 

coast of Brazil. In 1500 Pinzon struck the Brazilian coast near the 
site of Pernambuco and discovered the Amazon. During a period of 
about three years, beginning with 1500, Caspar and Miguel Cortereal 
made voyages in the interest of Portugal to the north coast of North 
America, but mainly within the region previously explored by the 
Cabots. 

Thus early in the beginning of the Sixteenth Century not much 
more had been done than to arouse the interest of the western coun- 
tries of Europe in those unknown lands to the west, which were still 
supposed to be parts of Asia, for it was not until 1513 that Balboa dis- 
covered the Pacific and not until 1519 that Magellan passed through 
the straits that bear his name and thus discovered the long sought 
western passage to the Indies, a passage which had been sought on the 
north by the Cabots and by numerous explorers at every gulf along the 
entire eastern coast. 

Exploration proceeded rapidly thereafter. Ponce de Leon discov- 
ered Florida in 1512. In 1524 Verrazani explored the coasts of Caro- 
lina and New Jersey and entered the present harbors of Wilmington, 
New York and Newport. During 1539, 1540 and 1541 De Soto explored 
Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, and discovered the Mississippi 
River in the last year. In 1542 and the following year Cabrillo sailed 
along the Pacific Coast. In 1562 Ribault attempted to plant a Hugue- 
not colony at Port Royal, Carolina, but it was abortive. Another Hu- 
guenot colony was attempted on St. Johns River, Florida, in 1564, by 
Laudonniere. It was destroyed by the Spaniards, but the following 
year, 1565, Menendez established St. Augustine, Florida. During the 
three years beginning with 1578 Drake made his famous explorations 
along the Pacific Coast, reaching as far north as Oregon, though he had 
been preceded by the Spanish (Cabrillo, 1542). The Spanish had been 
busy on the southern borders and in 1582 Espejo founded Santa Fe, 
New Mexico. In 1584 and 1587 Raleigh attempted to plant colonies 
in Virginia, but it will be seen that until the beginning of the Seven- 
teenth Century there were but two settlements within the present 
boundaries of the United States, both made by the Spanish. 

The exploration of Central America and the Isthmus of Panama 
proceeded rapidly during the early part of the Sixteenth Century and 
settlement followed closely on exploration. It should, however, be 
stated that colonization in its proper meaning was seldom attempted. 
Military and trading posts were established and maintained and these 






6 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

posts gradually grew into colonies with entities of their own. Closely 
following the taking possession of the Isthmus and Central America 
occurred the conquest of Mexico, in which Spanish authority was estab- 
lished by Cortez in 1521, and Mexico became a vice-royalty in 1535. It 
is, perhaps, worth mentioning that the city of Belize, British Honduras, 
was a settlement by Wallace, a Scotch buccaneer, and the chief occu- 
pation of its people was wood-cutting, or the lumber business, and this 
business was early in the Eighteenth Century a subject of dispute. 

Taking up in outline a review of the discovery and settlement of 
South America: The coast of Colombia was one of the earliest portions 
of America to be visited by the Spanish, but the first settlement was at 
Nombre de Dios, on the Isthmus, in 1508, and by the middle of the 
century Spanish power was fairly established and flourishing commu- 
nities had arisen. 

Venezuela was made a captain-generalcy in 1550. The coast of 
Brazil was a favorite field of early exploration by the Portuguese and 
by 1508 the coast had been outlined, for in that year Vincent Pinzon 
entered the Rio de la Plata. Amerigo Vespucci explored the coast 
under royal authority and enormous grants were made to persons who 
were willing to undertake settlement. Each captaincy, as these divi- 
sions of the territory were called, extended along fifty leagues of coast. 
But settlement was not attempted until about 1531. 

The Argentine Republic was first visited by De Solis, in 1516, and 
in 1535 Mendozo attempted the establishment of Buenos Ayres, but it 
was not until 1580 that it was successfully accomplished. 

The history of Uruguay dates from 1512 with the exploration and 
landing of De Solis, but no settlement was made until the Seventeenth 
Century. The coast of Peru was first visited in 1527. The conquest 
of Peru was accomplished in 1533, and the city of Lima was founded 
in 1535 by Pizarro. 

The first Spanish invasion of Chili was in 1535 and 1536, at which 
time the city of Santiago was founded. 

This brief review of early settlement may well be concluded by a 
list of some of the leading cities of the Americas and some of the ear- 
liest settlements, with the accepted dates of their establishment or 
occupation by Europeans. 

BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 

CITY. ESTABLISHED. CITY. ESTABLISHED. 

Quebec 1608 St. John, New Brunswick 1739 

Montreal 1642 Vancouver, British Columbia 1885 

St. John's, Newfoundland 1613 Victoria, British Columbia 1843 

Halifax, Nova Scotia 1749 



DISCOVERY AND EARLY SETTLEMENT. 7 

UNITED STATES. 

CITY. ESTABLISHED. CITY. ESTABLISHED. 

Portland, Maine 1632 Jacksonville, Florida 1816 

Boston, Massachusetts 1630 St. Augustine, Florida 1565 

Plymouth, Massachusetts 1620 Pensacola. Florida 169i 

New York City, New York 1613 Mobile, Alabama 17O2 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1681 New Orleans, Louisiana 1718 

Baltimore, Maryland 1730 Galveston, Texas 1816 

Annapolis, Maryland 1605 Portland, Oregon 1845 

Jamestown, Virginia 16O7 San Francisco, California 1775 

Charleston, South Carolina 1670 San Diego, California 1766 

Savannah. Georgia 1733 

MEXICO. 
City of Mexico 1522 Vera Cruz 1519 

CENTRAL AMERICA. 

Guatamala City, Guatamala 1776 Colon, Panama 1849 

San Salvador, Salvador 1528 Panama City, Panama 1518 

WEST INDIES. 

Havana, Cuba 1519 Port au Prince, Haiti 1745 

Santiago, Cuba 1514 San Juan, Porto Rico 1511 

Kingston, Jamaica 1693 

SOUTH AMERICA. 

Bogota, Colombia 1538 Rosario, Argentina 1725 

Caracas, Venezuela 1567 Buenos Ayres, Argentina. 1535 

Georgetown, British Guiana 158O Quito, Ecuador 1534 

Cayenne, French Guiana 1635 Guayaquil, Ecuador 1531 

Para, Brazil 1614 Lima, Peru 1535 

Bahia, Brazil 1503 La Paz, Bolivia 1548 

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 15O2 Santiago, Chili 1541 

Asuncion, Paraguay 1537 Concepcion, Chili 1550 

Montevideo, Uruguay 1729 

What did the original explorers of the coasts of America discover 
in respect to the forests? They found a wooded coast from the Strait 
of Belle Isle, 52 degrees north latitude, to the mouth of the Rio de la 
Plata, 35 degrees south latitude, practically without a break. The for- 
est fringed the shores for that enormous distance, spanning nearly one- 
fourth of the earth's circumference and much augmented by the many 
and great indentations of the shore line. But what lay back of the 
wooded shores? For the most part a solid forest extended inland, in 
some places for two thousand miles. Notwithstanding the great areas 
of arctic muskeg in the north, the barren plains and mountains of the 
extreme south and the great treeless areas between the prairies, the 
pampas, the llanos and notwithstanding the areas lifted high above 
the treeline by the Rockies, the Sierras and the Cordilleras, the west- 
ern continent was one of forests. It is difficult to define the treeless 
areas and to say exactly what percentage of the area of any one coun- 
try or state was wooded or treeless, but in an approximate way some 
general facts may be stated. 

Canada was and is a forested, or rather a wooded, country. Bota- 
nists, geographers and students of economics note a difference between 
forested and wooded areas. The forests yield timber of commercial 



8 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

value, but the wooded areas offer a welcome and means of livelihood 
to the settler. The total area of Canada, excluding Newfoundland 
and Labrador, is estimated at 3,745,574 square miles. Of this great 
area 1,351,505 square miles is estimated to be still wooded. It is prob- 
able that the original wooded area of Canada was about 1,690,000 square 
miles. All of the arctic territory of Franklin, estimated at 500,000 
square miles, and parts of Yukon and Mackenzie and more than half of 
Keewatin are and were treeless, owing to the influence of their arctic 
climate. The Labrador Coast and the northern part of Ungava are also 
largely or wholly treeless. There are also the great prairies of Assin- 
iboia, Saskatchewan and Alberta. Not considering the areas which 
are treeless because of their northern latitude, fully ninety percent of 
Canada was wooded. Newfoundland's coast was forbidding, but its 
interior was heavily wooded. 

What is now the United States presented an almost solid and con- 
tinuous forest from the Atlantic to the Mississippi River and in places 
still farther west; and then, after an interval of treeless plains, came 
the mountains with their forest groups and beyond them the wonderful 
arboreal wealth of the Pacific Coast. The total land surface of the 
continental United States, excluding Alaska, is 2,972,594 square miles. 
It is estimated that the present forest area is about 1,000,000 square 
miles; but, combining the fragmentary records that are to be found 
and estimating areas from the history of settlement and of agricultural 
development, as well as by the effect produced by the lumbering indus- 
try, it can be asserted with confidence that the original forested area of 
the present United States was at least 1,400,000 square miles, or nearly 
one-half of the entire land area. 

Alaska has an area of about 591,000 square miles. Its wooded area, 
some of which is densely covered with large timber, can be safely esti- 
mated at about 100,000 square miles, while a much greater area is cov- 
ered with brush. 

The total area of Mexico is 767,000 square miles, of which about 
150,000 square miles are of woodland. 

The area of Central America is 163,465 square miles, of which about 
100,000 square miles is estimated to have been forested. 

South America has for the most part a climate favorable to tree 
growth mainly of the tropical sort, due to its peculiar formation. The 
important mountain system of the continent lies close to the Pacific 
Coast, and in it many rivers which empty into the Atlantic Ocean or the 



DISCOVERY AND EARLY SETTLEMENT. 9 

Caribbean Sea have their rise. The eastern trade winds sweep over the 
continent, depositing moisture as they go, but are finally exhausted by 
the Andes and the other great mountain systems of the western coast. 
Thus the abundantly watered interior of the continent north of the Par- 
aguay River is largely forested. There are exceptions in the llanos of 
the Orinoco and in some of the tablelands of the west, and Argentina 
is largely open grass land or barren plains. The total area of South 
America is estimated at about 7,685,000 square miles. A careful re- 
view of the conditions in each country leads to the conclusion that of 
this total area at least 6,000,000 square miles are naturally wooded. 
The great western ranges lift themselves above the treeline, the extreme 
southern part of the continent is almost antarctic in its characteristics 
and there are some naturally treeless plains, but, as noted above, ap- 
proximately seventy percent of the area is wooded and the vast stretches 
of forest are of the most luxuriant kind. The growth of vegetation 
in South America is the most varied and the heaviest to be found in 
the world. Even in Africa only comparatively small and isolated por- 
tions compare with it. 

Summing up the Americas we find the following results in total 
area and wooded area: 

Total area. Wooded area, 

square miles square mfles 

British North America 3,795,308 1.725 OOO 

United States, with Alaska 3.572.O4O 1.140.OOO 

Mexico 767.0OO 15O.OOO 

Central America 163,465 100. OOO 

South America 7.685.0OO 6.00O.OOO 

Total 15.982,813 9.115,000 

Consequently, of the total area of the New World, more than fifty- 
five percent was covered with forests, which were most dense on the 
eastern coast, the one first approached by discoverers and explorers. 
The forests ranged from the light and easily worked woods of general 
utility of North America, such as the white and yellow pine, to the heavy 
and hard woods of the tropics and semitropics, adapted to multitudes of 
uses according to their qualities of beauty in color and grain and their 
adaptability to ornamental use, or as dye stuffs. Hence, the lumber 
industry was practically the first to be established and to form the basis 
of eastbound commerce across the Atlantic. Before grain, cotton, furs 
or even tobacco were exported from the Americas, lumber and timber 
had already established themselves in the favor of the Old World, and 
many of the explorers who were searching for gold returned with wood. 

These subjects, both from historical and present statistical stand- 



10 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

points, will be treated under the heads of the countries, states or prov- 
inces concerned. In taking up the more detailed account of the origin 
and development of the lumber industry it has been deemed best to 
treat the subject not entirely chronologically but to a certain extent 
geographically and with regard to its present magnitude and highest 
development. Thus, beginning with North America, and in that conti- 
nent governed somewhat by geographical relations, first place is given 
to the British possessions. If a chronological arrangement had been 
determined upon, undoubtedly preference would have been given to 
Central America and the northern part of South America. Again, in 
North America proper the industry might be supposed to have wit- 
nessed its first development in connection with the oldest settlements. 
Such undoubtedly was the fact, but St. Augustine, and Florida as a 
whole, for hundreds of years played but a minor part in the forestal 
development of the continent and little or no part in international com- 
merce. The early English settlers in Virginia were comparatively 
little concerned about wood. It was on the northeastern coast of the 
United States and in the Maritime and Laurentian provinces of Canada 
that the lumber industry early reached a high development and first 
became an important element in international trade. Geographical 
considerations and the further fact that within Canada lie the northern 
boundaries of the tree growths of the continent constrain us to take 
up first Canada rather than the United States, and the Maritime prov- 
inces rather than Maine. 



CHAPTER II. 

NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 

Before entering into a minute discussion of the timber resources 
and the lumber history of Canada, it is well to review briefly the North 
American continent in its relation to tree distribution, especially with 
reference to the United States and Canada, which countries are one in 
their forest characteristics. While there is one prominent tree species 
which is almost wholly confined to Canada, and a few others whose 
native habitat is largely within its area, and while about half of the 
tree species of the continent, belonging to the southern United States, 
do not appear north of the international boundary, that arbitrary line of 
demarcation between the two countries cuts across the mountains, the 
treeless plains, the forested areas and the lines of tree growth; so that 
in a discussion of tree distribution the two countries should be treated 
as one, the differences being determined by soil and climatic conditions 
which have no relation to political divisions. 

It should be noted first that the Atlantic Coast, including its islands, 
is practically all timbered from the Strait of Belle Isle, or certainly 
from the northern boundary of the main body of Newfoundland, to the 
Strait of Florida. The treeline follows the Gulf Coast from near the 
southern point of Florida to about west of Galveston, Texas, so that 
the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of the United States, with small excep- 
tions, are timbered. 

As the northern arm of Newfoundland is practically barren, so is 
the Labrador Coast. Starting from the Strait of Belle Isle, the northern 
forest limit runs a little inland from the coast, following the boundary 
between Labrador and Ungava to Ungava Bay; thence bending westerly 
and southerly it strikes Hudson Bay at about 57 degrees north latitude. 
The northern limit on the western side of Hudson Bay begins farther 
north, at about Fort Churchill, and follows an approximately straight 
line northwestward, passing north of Great Slave Lake, to the mouth 
of the Mackenzie River, north of the Arctic Circle; thence it turns 
to the southwest through Alaska, striking the coast again in the south- 
western part of that American territory. 

11 



12 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

The Pacific Coast of North America has characteristics quite different 
from those of the Atlantic Coast, owing to the mountain uplift which 
closely follows the coast. Instead of a solid and wide body of timber, 
as is the condition on the Atlantic Coast, there are smaller areas heavily 
timbered, intersected and separated by mountain areas which are nearly 
or quite treeless. The presence of the mountains further results in a 
semiarid condition farther inland. Practically all the way from Cook 
Inlet, in Alaska, to the Bay of San Francisco, the coast has a continuous 
fringe of heavy forest growth, widening out as local topography will 
permit into the great forests which are found in British Columbia, 
Washington and Oregon. 

The western mountain and plateau country of the continent is more 
or less timbered throughout, barren plains being crossed or bounded 
by forested mountain slopes, or the barren mountains of the North 
being penetrated by tree-lined valleys. This condition obtains, with 
variations due principally to latitude, all the way from the Alaskan 
peninsula to the Gulf of Tehuantepec. 

Between the widespread and comparatively solid and uniform forests 
of the East and the broken and varied forests of the West lies the 
great, almost treeless, interior plain of the continent. The boundaries 
of this treeless plain may be thus roughly outlined: Starting from 
Galveston, Texas, the line runs in an approximately northern direction 
through the eastern part of Texas and the western part of Indian 
Territory. Thence it turns eastward, crossing the southeastern corner 
of Kansas, thence across Missouri, thence bending into Illinois and 
reaching just beyond the Indiana line. Thence in a curve it turns to 
the north and northwest, striking the Mississippi River in northern 
Illinois, leaving it in southern Minnesota, and passes north between 
Red Lake and the Red River of the North. Crossing the international 
boundary in a northerly direction, it sweeps around Winnipeg to the 
northwest and strikes about the northwestern corner of Manitoba. 
Thence northwesterly and westerly it crosses Saskatchewan and north- 
ern Alberta, and then, turning again to the southwest and south, fol- 
lows the line of the Rocky Mountains back along the western border 
of Alberta, across Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico, to 
and across the Mexican border. West of the latter part of this line is 
the broken mountain flora previously described. 

Within this great interior plain are trees, but few forests, so that in 
a general way the line described surrounds the great agricultural and 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 13 

grazing section of the continent, the rich agricultural regions east of 
the prairies having been won from the forest through more than a 
century of settlement and development. 

TREE SPECIES AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION. 

It will be seen from the above that the conformation of the forested 
area of the United States and Canada (including all the solid, or nearly 
solid, formations of arboriferous flora) is extremely irregular. It 
would, however, be expected that when we come to study the con- 
stituent tree species of the forest they would show a gradual and 
somewhat regular latitudinal gradation from tropical and sub-tropical 
species in the South to the most arctic species, bounded on the north 
by a zone where no vegetation except lichens and mosses can exist. 
While the above is true in a general way, yet the northern and southern 
limits of most tree species have little relation to isothermal lines of 
mean annual temperature, showing that there are potent influences 
other than temperature to be considered. Botanists classify these as 
climatic, including amount and distribution of light, heat and moisture ; 
edaphic or soil influences, including soil formations, earth-moisture, 
etc., and biotic, or the influences of other plants, of insects and animals, 
and of decaying animal and vegetable matter. A more specific sum- 
mary of the influences governing tree distribution has been prepared 
by Doctor Robert Bell, of the Geological Survey of Canada, 1 as follows : 

1. Distance or proximity of the sea, or of the areas which were 
covered by it in recent geological times. 

2. Changes which have taken place in the arrangement of land and 
water while the trees were spreading over the continent. 

3. General dryness or moisture of the climate affecting consider- 
able areas. 

4. Extremes of heat and cold. 

5. Local heat and moisture from lakes and rivers. 

6. General elevation above the sea. 

7. Local elevation (with consequent dryness) over level, wet or 
cold lands. 

8. Large local depressions. 

9. Diseases and insect pests. 

10. Rapid or slow natural means of dispersion. 

This summary is quite complete, but a better idea of the logical re- 

111 The Geographical Distribution of Forest Trees in Canada." Scottish Geographical Maga- 
zine, June, 1897, pp. 281-296. 



14 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



lationship of these various influences is perhaps conveyed by the fol- 
lowing analytical diagram, with the explanatory text which follows it: 



CONDITIONS GOVERNING TREE GROWTH. 





i 


-H 

i 

13 

A*. 












r External . -J 








k Prevalence 


"! 

o 

CO 


- Vitality 1 

Fecundity 
Facilities 1 






\ 


H 








f General . . 






l-h 


2. 


2} 1 




















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a 

1 

to 

O 




By animals. ., 


uding adaptabi 

acluding ability 
f By elements . , 


L General Abil 


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o' 
u* 
o 


Edaphic or soi 
fluences . . . . 


Proximity of 1 
or rivers 




, Proximity of s 
water 


Moisture 


Sunlight Pro 


Temperature . 


1 




tf 


< 




" 


P 
fr 




& 




c 




* 


a 


A 


~ 


o 


* 


B' 

* 


L? 




* 


- t- 


ft 

Q 


* 


seases affecting the species. 


f As food. 
As nest material. 
L By attachment to fur or fes 


j variations in environment. 

uit under widely varying co 
[Wind. 

[Water. 


re 

o" 




to 



to 
to' 


[Vegetable humus in soil. 
Social strife and relationsh 
[ Helpful and harmful influe 


f Topographical Proximity 
Geological soil formation. 
[ Mechanical capacity of soi 


Modifying moisture supply 


r Modifying extremes of tem 


Open expanse. 
^ Sheltered gulfs or bays. 


[ Precipitation 
[Atmospheric humidity. 


C! 

O 

B! 
PI 

i 

5' 

3 
5' 

CfQ 

<s 


fMean annual. 
! Extremes of heat and cold 
L Frequency and suddenness 




" 


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o 






(P 

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Di 




O en 


f-\ 










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CO 


windstorms, et 


i of individuals 
es of insects, a 


depressions or 
>r storing mois 


"Atmospheric 
Precipitation. 
Seepage and < 
soil over sh 


rature. 




( Total annual. 
|^ How distribul 




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P p 


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o 

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PJ ^ ^J 1 













n 54. 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 15 

INFLUENCE OF PAST CONDITIONS UPON THE PRESENT. 

It would be an error to interpret the foregoing outline as applying 
solely to influences existing at the present time or even in the immediate 
past. We must go back thousands of years to find the origin of some 
of the influences affecting the present distribution of tree species ; while 
the evolution or development of existing arboriferous flora has been a 
process extending over an inconceivably longer period. A brief re- 
view of past geologic conditions is therefore necessary as a foundation 
to an intelligent discussion of existing forest formations. 

In the evolution of plant forms upon the earth the trees are com- 
paratively recent arrivals. It was formerly believed that the coniferae 
were represented in the luxuriant vegetation of the Carboniferous pe- 
riod whose remains are our coal deposits ; but it is now known that the 
fossil remains which had been identified as coniferous wood were really 
the trunks of huge ferns, nearly as large as our forest growths of to- 
day, and that the ferns and their allies constituted about seventy-five 
percent of the vegetation of that period. In the next or Triassic pe- 
riod appeared the cycads, la trees closely allied to the coniferae and still 
plentifully represented in tropical species, though existing in our coun- 
try only in a few Florida species and in Cycas revoluta and some other 
common greenhouse plants. These were closely followed by true con- 
iferae, which had their maximum development in the next or Jurassic 
period. They are estimated to have constituted at that time sixty per- 
cent of the earth's vegetation. Among the earliest fossil coniferae are 
found the Araucarian pines, closely related to those now found in 
South America, though they have entirely disappeared from North 
America. A little later appeared Sequoian pines not greatly different 
from the only two species of that genus now left upon the earth, Se- 
quoia washingtoniana and Sequoia sempervirens, both restricted to Cali- 
fornia, though their ancestors have left their impress upon the Triassic 
rocks of widely distributed areas of the United States. The " bigtrees" 
and redwoods are therefore forest patriarchs not only in size and indi- 
vidual longevity but also in ancient ancestry ; they belong to the First 
Families of the Forest, and were probably represented here six or seven 
millions of years before the existing mountain chains of the continent 
were upheaved from the Tertiary plains. If they are now confined to 
the Pacific Coast, it is probably not because of the Rocky Mountain bar- 

la Geologists are not agreed as to this order of appearance. Professor N. S. Shaler of Har- 
vard University, writing in 1896 (Aspects of the Earth), gave the order as follovrs : Conifers and 
yews, followed by palms, cypresses and cycads. 



16 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

rier, but because they find there the only congenial habitat remaining to 
them conditions of heat and moisture most nearly approaching those 
which must have prevailed when their ancestors flourished in the old 
geological summer when the land was flat, when the ocean beds were 
not deep enough to hold all the waters nor the shores of the continent 
high enough to resist their partial invasion. 

Compared with the coniferae in general the greatly diversified hard- 
wood families are modern arrivals, though the first of them can be 
traced back as far as the Cretaceous period, next following the Jurassic, 
three million years or so ago. This is a very brief period as geolo- 
gists reckon time, yet during that period the hardwoods had their evo- 
lution, their maximum of development and a rapid decline, so that in 
nearly all the botanical families the fossil species outnumber those now 
existing. One of the most important deciduous lumber trees, the yel- 
low poplar ( ' Liriodendron iulipifera) > is the sole surviving species of a 
genus which formerly comprised many species. The same is true of 
sassafras (Sassafras sassafras), and true in a less extreme measure of 
many other genera. Including the coniferae also, it may be said that 
the present forests are a bare remnant of those which have existed on 
the continent in recent geological times, and that the tree species now 
represented in North America are very limited compared with those of 
that past. It is also true that we have here over five hundred tree 
species as compared with barely a dozen indigenous to the British 
Isles, and in almost any square mile of typical forest growth in the 
United States may be found more different species than in all of 
Europe. lb 

INFLUENCE OF CLIMATIC CHANGES. 

This decline in the number of tree species and in the extent of the 
forests does not necessarily imply a biological decline; that is, it does 
not necessarily imply that the present tree species are in any sense de- 
generates, as are the ferns of today compared with their giant ancestors 
of the Carboniferous period. Our present trees are undoubtedly the 
highest possible development of their present environment, and the 
changes in the forest have been undoubtedly caused by great climatic 
changes occurring later than the geologic periods which have been dis- 
cussed in connection with the evolution of tree forms, and which changes 

lb "The reason seems to be that the glacial periods in Europe serve to overwhelm the vege- 
table life, and this because when the glacial envelope comes upon the continent and forces the 
army of plants down to the southward, they have no secure field for retreat, as in North America, 
but find their migrations stopped by the great gulf of the Mediterranean. It is likely that the wide 
difference between the richness of the forest life in the Old World and the New is, in part at least, 
determined by this cause." Prof. N. S. Shaler, Aspects of the Earth, 286. 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 17 

will now be considered in connection with their influences upon the 
present distribution of tree species, with which they have much to do. 

It is difficult for the average layman, who conceives of the earth as 
a gradually cooling sphere, to grasp the idea of the great differences in 
mean temperature which have undoubtedly existed upon its surface at 
different periods, or to evolve any theory to account for them. Even 
the geologists, though the facts are indisputably written in their rock 
records, have as yet agreed upon no hypothesis, and have sought for 
the cause in an eccentric orbit of the earth around the sun, in abnormal 
altitudinal elevation of the fields of glacial action and in variations of 
the earth's atmosphere. The most generally accepted though not firmly 
established hypothesis takes the last direction and is based upon pos- 
sible variations in the amount of carbonic acid gas lc in the atmosphere 
at different periods. According to this hypothesis there have been long 
periods during which the carbonic acid gas of the atmosphere has been 
eroding mountain rocks and has been washed down to the sea in the 
form of bicarbonates of lime and of other rock alkalis, this action con- 
tinuing until land elevations were reduced to the plain level, when ero- 
sion would be at its minimum until other mountains had been upheaved 
for it to act upon. During this rest period the bicarbonates in the 
expanse of waters would be converted into monocarbonates and the 
surplus of carbonic acid gas be again restored to the atmosphere in 
readiness for a second cycle of change. It is known that the present 
proportion of this gas in our atmosphere, though extremely small, has 
a definite influence in imprisoning atmospheric heat and preventing the 
diffusion of the earth's heat into surrounding space ; that a small per- 
centage of increase in the amount would greatly extend the climatic 
conditions of the tropical and temperate zones northward, while if the 
small amount now in our atmosphere were reduced by one-half it would 
restore the conditions of the Glacial period. 

Whether or not this interesting theory shall stand the test of further 
investigation, the fact is known that during the Tertiary ages following 
the Cretaceous period already mentioned (during which the hardwood 
trees and other angiosperms appeared) a temperate climate extended 
in North America very close to the north pole and the territory was 
covered with vast forests consisting of species not greatly different 
from those which still survive, together with tropical forms. This con- 
dition was succeeded, probably so gradually that little or no change 

lc In modern chemical terminology " carbon dioxide," though the older term still has the wid- 
est popular use. 



18 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

would have been apparent during the average tree lifetime, by the 
Pleistocene or Glacial epoch of the Quaternary period, at the culmina- 
tion of which a thick ice sheet covered America as far south as northern 
Pennsylvania, the Ohio River Valley as far west as the Mississippi 
River, and then through central Missouri and northward to near the 
international boundary line and westward to the Rocky Mountains. 
Trees as well as all other vegetation were swept out of existence in all 
this field of glacial action, and it is hardly possible that any of their 
seeds could have survived the thousands of years of glacial winter, 
while all the more tropical of the species to the southward of the ice 
field must have been destroyed or driven far toward the equator by the 
prevailing cold. Then came another geological springtime ; the south- 
ern limit of the ice field receded and the timber line began gradually 
creeping after it. The northern tree limits of Canada still conform 
somewhat to the old parallels of glacial action. It is not strange, 
therefore, that of the great variety of tree species that flourished on the 
continent during the warm Tertiary ages only a comparatively few of 
the hardier ones should have survived ; and some of our modern species 
have probably originated or evolved from older forms since the glacial 
age, which is variously estimated as having been from 20,000 to 40,000 
years ago. It is believed that the receding glaciers left the Falls of 
Niagara near where the city of Lewiston now stands, and that they 
have since then cut the river gorge back to their present location. 

Another geological influence upon tree distribution may be found in 
the presence of great barriers which prevent or retard migration. Such 
wide river valleys as that of the Mississippi undoubtedly have such an 
influence. Mountain ranges may act in the same manner, and the 
Rocky Mountains in particular seem to have had a marked influence. 
There are found in the region west of the Rocky Mountain ranges sixty- 
two species of coniferae which do not grow at all in other portions of the 
continent; twenty-seven species indigenous to the eastern portion of the 
continent do not grow in the Rocky Mountain region, while only two 
species may be classified as common to both sections. One of these is 
the common or dwarf juniper, and the other the white spruce, whose far 
western habitat is chiefly in the Canadian Rockies. On the other hand 
185 hardwood species of the eastern United States are not found on the 
Pacific slope at all, though ninety-three other deciduous species have 
their exclusive habitat in that region. This preponderance of the East 
over the West in the variety of hardwoods would appear greater but for 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 19 

the exclusion from the above figures of ninety-four species of a tropical 
character which are found only in the southern Florida lowlands or 
along the Mexican frontier. But thirteen species of hardwoods may be 
considered as indigenous on both sides of this barrier line, and some of 
these show a much wider distribution upon one side than upon the 
other. Of these thirteen species five are willows ; the other eight are 
the aspen (Populus tremuloides), one of the most widely distributed of 
American trees, and the allied species of Populus balsamifera or balm of 
Gilead; the paper birch (Betula papyrifera), which grows on the Pacific 
Coast no farther south than the vicinity of Seattle, Washington; the live 
oak (Quercus virginiana) ', a subtropical species which extends from 
Mexico north along the Atlantic Coast to Virginia and along the Pacific 
Coast to southern California; the hackberry (Celtis occidentalis); the 
elderleaf mountain ash (Pyrus sambucifolia)\ the longspine haw (Cra- 
tagus macracantha) , which reaches west only to the eastern slopes of the 
Cascade Mountains; and the box elder (Acer negundo)? It will be 
seen that few, if any, of the species common on both sides of the Rocky 
Mountains have any particular commercial importance. This difference 
in floras is the more remarkable because no such difference exists in 
any other two areas of the continent having practically the same condi- 
tions of soil and climate. The reasons for this great differentiation are 
obscure and must be looked for largely in the geological past. 

PRESENT INFLUENCES AFFECTING TREE DISTRIBUTION. 

With what has already been said regarding geological influences the 
diagram upon page 14 may now be considered as though it related en- 
tirely to present conditions. The internal conditions have to do only 
with the ability of the individual species to make the most of its oppor- 
tunities ; the influences grouped as external embrace all those which 
are usually given consideration, and these have been divided into gen- 
eral and local ; the former including those climatic conditions which are 
prevalent over wide areas and which would tend to the formation of 
homogeneous forest growth throughout their sphere of influence ; and 
the latter including the influences at work in more restricted areas and 
which produce widely varying forest formations under the same general 
or climatic conditions. 

General Influences. The climatic influences are largely the product 

( 2 These compilations have as a basis the tree species and ranges of distribution as given in 
the Check List of the Forest Trees of the United States," by George B. Sudworth, dendrologist of 
the United States Division (now Bureau) of Forestry, 1898. 



20 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

of latitude, altitude and prevailing winds. The former are coordinate 
in the production of mean temperature, and sub-Alpine and Alpine 
vegetation is of much the same type as subarctic and arctic. Upon the 
isothermal line connecting localities of the same mean annual tempera- 
ture may, however, exist wide variations of climate in other respects: 
In the average extremes of temperature during the winter and summer 
seasons ; in the frequency, suddenness and severity of temporary ex- 
treme changes of temperature, succession of freezing and thawing 
weather; in the amount of precipitation and its character and distribu- 
tion, whether in gentle rainfall or in prevalent violent storms succeeded 
by periods of drouth ; in the humidity of the atmosphere, and in the 
amount of sunlight. These moisture influences are largely controlled 
by the prevailing winds, and the clouds which these carry of course 
govern the proportions of sunshiny and of cloudy weather over the area. 

Local Influences. All these general conditions are, however, largely 
modified by local influences, while still other local influences affect forest 
growth directly in other ways than through the climate. The proximity 
of the ocean has a great effect on climate, which is, however, more 
marked upon an open coast. The lines bounding the northern limits of 
the arctic tree species in northern Canada show little or no southern 
deflection as they approach the shores of Hudson Bay, but in the vicinity 
of the Labrador Coast they do not come out to the ocean at all except 
upon the comparatively sheltered shore of Ungava Bay, and sweep 
southward toward Newfoundland at a greater or less distance from the 
ocean according to the ability of the species to resist its bleak influence. 
Inland bodies of water have a profound local influence upon the forests 
immediately lining their shores, acting as storage reservoirs for heat, 
modifying extremes of temperature and preventing late spring and 
early autumn frosts in their immediate neighborhood, supplying moist- 
ure through the atmosphere and for short distances through the soil, 
and also to some extent doubtless influencing precipitation, though rain- 
bearing clouds usually discharge their contents at some distance from 
the locality of their origin. In the widespread benefit of this influence 
their immediate vicinities share. 

The topography of the neighboring country also has its influence. 
There may be neighboring elevations to act as a wind shield if located 
upon the side from which come the prevailing winds, or if the relative 
positions of the forest area and of the elevations are reversed they may, 
if of sufficient height, draw the moisture from the air currents and send 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 21 

it back again as streamflow through the forest. The influence of the 
Rocky Mountains in diverting moisture from the treeless plains lying 
to the eastward, for the benefit of their wooded western slopes, is a 
conspicuous illustration of this influence, which may be seen in less 
degree in many other forest formations. The topographical contour of 
the forest floor also determines the character of its drainage to a con- 
siderable extent, though the supply of earth moisture is usually classed 
with soil influences. 

Edaphic or Soil Influences. That different soils have an important 
influence upon plant growth is generally recognized. These soils have 
been formed through long ages of rock erosion, and there has been 
going on also a much more rapid process of soil sifting and transporta- 
tion by water movement, building up the rich and fine alluvial soil of 
the valleys with particles washed down from the upper portions of the 
watersheds. The most obvious distinction in soils is between the clayey 
and the sandy kinds, not only in their chemical composition but in their 
relative capacities for mechanically entrapping and holding moisture, 
and for yielding it up again on demand to the capillary rootlets of 
growing vegetation. Some tree species are quite limited in their soil 
adaptability, while others will flourish in almost any character of soil if 
other conditions are congenial. 

The character of the original soil has been modified, in both wood- 
land and prairie, by the deposition of decayed or decaying vegetable 
humus, usually called "leaf mold," though not the leaves only but every 
part of every plant in time finds its way back again to Mother Earth 
and becomes partially predigested food for future plant generations. 
Such a deposit of vegetable humus of course favors the advent of new 
species suited to such a soil, though not so well adapted as the primi- 
tive types to extract their nourishment from the cruder chemical con- 
stituents of purely rock soils. As this leaf mold is a vegetable product, 
however, it forms a sort of connecting link between the soil influences 
and those to be considered in the next paragraph. 

Biotic Influences. In systematic botany all the influences exerted 
upon the plant or plant group by other vegetable or animal life or 
matter are known as biotic, and this somewhat formidable title includes 
some of the most interesting subjects to be considered in the study of 
tree growth. It involves the relation of the tree to the tree-society of 
which it forms a part, and indeed as has already been explained to 
all the trees or other plants which have occupied the ground before it 



22 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

and, dying, helped to enrich the soil upon which it feeds. 3 When we 
come to look into these relations we shall find the forces at work are 
closely allied to those which govern human society. There is the same 
fight for existence or for supremacy, the same racial clannishness shown 
in the tendency of certain species to gather into groups, while other 
tree individuals incline toward solitude rather than companionship. 
The trees have their helpful as well as their antagonistic relationships 
also, and contribute somewhat to a common defense, so that different 
forest formations will be found to differ in their powers of resistance to 
such common foes as fire and windstorms. Different species also have 
curious inter-relationships ; some are not favored in infancy by the prev- 
alence of their own kind, but do best under forest cover of alien 
growth, which they often ungratefully crowd out of existence when 
they reach their own lusty prime. In short, the student of trees will 
find individual and racial character as sharply defined as among man- 
kind, and probably more widely differentiated. The subject is a most 
inviting one, but it can not be discussed here any farther than it relates 
to the forest as a whole and to the distribution of species. 

Forested and Nonforested Areas. In the contest of different tree spe- 
cies to occupy the same ground, where the opposing forces are evenly 
matched the firstcomer, of course, has the advantage. Dense forests 
now occupy most of the northern half of the continent which was 
stripped of all vegetation by the glaciers. These forests must have 
marched up slowly from the south, and upon the frontier of tree prog- 
ress were the kinds which possessed the greatest facilities for migration 
by means of seed distribution, in addition to general adaptability to 
growth in the open. When these began to shade the ground others 
crept after them which required shade cover for their early growth, and 
in this way the northward march proceeded, until the different species 
reached the northernmost limits where they could exist and reproduce 
if all the species have reached such limits, it being a question whether 
they are not still slowly extending northward, the rate of progress of 

3 The lichens especially have played an important part in soil formation, as they possess the 
power to feed upon and decompose rock. This peculiar qualification was almost a necessity of 
their existence when they first appeared upon the earth, before the higher forms of vegetation, for 
there was then little but rock for them to feed upon ; and ever since they have had a part in rock 
erosion, together with the forces of sunlight, wind, water, frost and the carbonic acid gas of the at- 
mosphere. Decaying vegetable humus is, however, the most profound biotic influence in its reac- 
tion upon rocks and rock soils, by charging the waters which pass through it with carbonic acid gas 
and thereby increasing many fold their solvent action. This corrosive action extends underground 
as far as these waters penetrate, while the atmosphere corrodes only the surface rocks. A consid- 
erable portion of the earth elements thus taken into solution are carried down to the sea and 
feed the entire series of living forms which inhabit it ; so that the forests in this way feed the whales 
and seals as surely as those animals which inhabit its own domain. 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 23 

course becoming slower and slower as the northern limit is approached. 3 * 
By a somewhat similar process the timber line is advancing to occupy 
any favorable open area which may have been created in any way, such 
as by the abandonment of farm land, or the creation of cut-over or 
burned-over areas where forest had previously existed. In the two lat- 
ter instances, however, very rarely is the denudation so complete that 
there does not remain over all the area the germ of the new forest in 
seeds, roots and partly live stumps. 

There is a popular belief that most of the area which is now open 
prairie was quite recently the site of forests which have been destroyed 
by fire or other causes. Some prairie land may have been created in 
this way, and tree growth upon some of the prairies undoubtedly is 
prevented by the prevalence of prairie fires ; but it is altogether unfair 
to the fire fiend to charge all the treeless areas against his account, nor 
even all but the more obviously desert sections where moisture is lack- 
ing to support plant life. Very rarely are forest fires sufficiently severe 
to kill out all tree life, even to the roots in the soil, so that they would 
not send up fresh sprouts and in time reproduce the forest over the 
burned area. Wherever forests have stood trees have been blown over 
by the wind ; and wherever this occurs the upturned roots carry a quan- 
tity of earth with them, and, decaying, leave a hummock beside the 
hollow formed by the upheaval of the roots. It takes hundreds of 
years on level ground for these characteristic irregularities to disappear 
entirely in the surface level, and wherever they are not to be found it is 
safe to assume that forests have not existed there within such a period. 

Still another argument against the fire theory is found in the fact 
that fires seem to be a regular feature of the usual cycle of forest 
growth, at least in all forests where coniferous trees predominate. 
Doctor Robert Bell, of the Geological Survey of Canada, insists upon 
this point and says that when conditions are ripe for a fire it is often set 
by lightning instead of by any human agency. After a vivid descrip- 
tion of a Canadian forest fire 4 he furnishes the following account of the 
growth of the new forest, which will in a general way apply to the 
northern United States as well, except that there forest growth is more 

3a Prof. Shaler (Aspects of the Earth, 285) also points out that in the pre-glacial southward 
migration the trees could not choose their own rate of progress before the advancing ice. " The 
individual forms, of course, are not free to move, but the succession of generations must win their 
way southward with sufficient speed to keep ahead of the oncoming ice. If any species failed in this 
work it would inevitably be overwhelmed by the glacier, and thus disappear from the face of the 
earth." 

4 "The Geographical Distribution of Forest Trees in Canada," Scottish Geographical Magazine, 
June, 1897, pp. 281-296. 



24 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

rapid than farther north and the successive stages follow each other at 
somewhat shorter intervals than he gives : 

The dead trunks of the larger trees generally stand for many years after 
a fire. In the summer following one of these conflagrations the blackened ground 
becomes partly covered by a growth of herbaceous plants, berry bushes and shoots 
from the roots and butts of deciduous trees which have retained some vitality, be- 
sides numerous small seedling trees. The huckleberry bushes, which are very 
common for the first few years, especially on rocky silicious ground, bear abundant 
crops of fruit. They have sprung from large old roots which are almost every- 
where present in the thick woods, although their tops are quite inconspicuous and 
bear few or no berries. In fifteen or twenty years the ground is covered with pop- 
lars, birches, willows, etc., to the height of about thirty feet. By this time the 
dead trunks of the old brule have lost most of their branches and the smaller ones 
have fallen down. If we look under this growth we shall discover many healthy 
young coniferae overshadowed by the more rapidly growing deciduous trees. At 
the end of about fifty years the coniferae are everywhere showing their heads in the 
form of sharp apices, their dark green color contrasting strongly with the lighter 
shade of the other trees. In the race to get above the deciduous growth they de- 
velop tall trunks with the branches high up. In one hundred years the poplars 
are dying and falling down and the canoe birch has attained maturity and soon 
after shows signs of old age. In the meantime the older coniferae have overtopped 
the older trees and given a new character to the general appearance of the forest. 
The younger coniferae of various ages which have been springing up from seed 
every year, take possession of the ground left by the decay of the first occupants. 
In about one hundred and fifty years the forest has again become almost entirely 
coniferous and is ready to be destroyed once more by fire. Such is the rotation of 
crops of trees which is perpetually going on in these regions. Perhaps one-third of 
the whole area consists of "second growth" of less than fifty years, one-third of 
trees from fifty to one hundred years old, while the remaining one-third may be 
one hundred years old and upward. 

The above, of course, applies only to those northern forests where 
the coniferae tend eventually to predominate. Many deciduous forests 
are not subject to fire except in very dry seasons, or perhaps in the fall 
after the foliage has fallen; and the mature southern pines are little 
subject to injury from fire because of their height and the protec- 
tion of their trunks afforded by a thick bark, while the fire runs close 
to the ground and finds little to feed upon. 

Among the biotic influences must be mentioned the activities of 
living insects, animals, and the animal man. Many forest trees depend 
upon bees and other insects for flower fertilization, some of them, like 
basswood and honey locust, being notable honey-producers; others pol- 
lenize so profusely that the winds can be relied upon to distribute the 
pollen. The office of birds and quadrupeds in carrying edible seeds 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 25 

from place to place is well understood. The squirrel is notably dili- 
gent in this regard and buries his food stores in the earth, where they 
may grow if he fall a victim to predatory appetite before he himself 
eats his buried store of food. Some seeds like those of the burdock 
have organs of attachment by means of which they may secure trans- 
portation by passing animals, but it is not now recalled that any tree 
seeds are so strongly specialized in this way. 

Forest trees have insect enemies as well as insect friends, and some- 
times there are great invasions of insect pests attacking certain species, 
such as the pine in the Black Hills region of South Dakota a few years 
ago, and the larches of Canada about 1896. Last and most potent of 
the animal agencies is that of man himself ; and it is his relation to the 
forest that forms the main theme of the present work. 

COMMERCIAL TREE SPECIES OF AMERICA. 

George B. Sudworth, accepted in this work as authority on the for- 
est tree species of the United States, 5 gives 510 distinct species, 8 not 
counting hybrids nor species variations, some of the latter of which 
would rank almost as distinct species. The following table will show 
the botanical classification : 

< Number of > 

Families. Genera. Species. 

Gymnospermae (pine and yew families) 2 15 93 

Monocotyledones (palm and yucca families) 2 15 15 

Dicotyledones (all hardwood trees) 56 146 402 

Totals 6O 176 510 

Of these sixty families eighteen are represented in the United States 
only in the southern portion of Florida or along the Mexican boundary, 
being tropical plants and not characteristic of the flora of the country 
as a whole. These families include thirty-one genera and forty-two 
species, and there are sixty-four species in other families which might 
also be classified as tropical, making a total of 106 tropical species. 
There are seventeen species which were not originally indigenous to 
this country but are now found growing here wild, having escaped from 
cultivation. Of the remaining species (as has already been stated in 
discussing the influence of the Rocky Mountains as a botanical barrier) , 
212 are found only in the eastern and middle United States, 159 are 
found only on the Pacific slope or in the Rocky Mountains, and sixteen 

5 See footnote No. 2, page 19. 

'Charles S. Sargent, in his monumental work. "The Sflva of North America." states (pref- 
ace to Vol. XIII.) that 585 species are treated. Such differences arise chiefly in two ways first, 
om some botanists considering as distinct species trees which others consider as mere varieties : 
second, from differences of judgment as to whether certain species are trees or shrubs. In addition 
is the frequent discovery ana identification of new species. 



26 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

species are common to both geographical divisions. Canada is not 
known to have any tree species not in Sudworth's list, and her flora 
comprises only 127 of the 510 species listed by him. 

THE COMMERCIALLY VALUABLE WOODS. 

When we come to consider the woods which are of commercial im- 
portance the list becomes restricted to such an extent that room may be 
made for it here. Many other woods than those given have local uses 
or are valuable for other purposes than for lumber, but this list includes 
practically all the woods which furnish sawlogs, and a few besides, on 
account of their wide distribution. Sudworth's list is followed through- 
out in giving the range, except where otherwise stated : 

Pinus 7 strobus. White pine. Its range includes Newfoundland, southern and 
western Quebec, Ontario (except the far northern portion) , southeastern Man- 
itoba near Lake Winnipeg, northern and eastern Minnesota, practically all 
Wisconsin and Michigan, northern Illinois, northeastern Ohio, south along 
the Allegheny Mountains to northern Georgia, and most of the New England 
and middle states. 

Pinus resinosa. 8 Norway or red pine. Northern range almost the same as that of 
white pine. Southern range (from east to west) through Massachusetts, 
northern Pennsylvania, northeastern Ohio, central Michigan, northern Wis- 
consin and northeastern Minnesota. 

Pinus divaricata. Banksian pine (Canada) or jack pine (United States). Of re- 
stricted commercial importance, but interesting because the most northern in 
habitat. Sudworth gives its range as follows: "New Brunswick to New 
Hampshire and west through Great Lake and Hudson Bay (southern shores) 
region to Great Bear Lake, Mackenzie River and Rocky Mountains; south 
into northern Maine, northern New York, northern Indiana and Illinois and 
central Minnesota." Bell's timber map 9 agrees with above in the northern 
boundary, but gives the southern limits as passing through Lake Superior and 
touching the United States only in the northern point of Minnesota and the 
northern peninsula of Michigan, which is obviously incorrect. 

Pinus palustris. Longleaf pine. The well known southern longleaf yellow pine. 
Atlantic Coast region from near Norfolk, Virginia, to Tampa Bay, Florida; 
west 10 to eastern Texas ; north to northeastern Alabama and northwestern 
Georgia. 

7 The Pinus genus. According to Sargent's Silva there are about seventy species, of which 
one is in the Philippines, twenty-one in the western United States, thirteen in the eastern United 
States. Only one species grows in the far north ; four in the St. Lawrence basin and northern New 
England; increased to five in the middle Atlantic states, and in the lowlands of the South eight spe- 
cies are found. In Mexico perhaps twelve or fourteen species exist (Vol. XI, p. 2). At least 10O 
species are believed to have flourished in North America in the Miocene period (Lesq., Kept. U. S. 
Geol. Survey VII, 72, 83, 1 7. f 25-33). For insects see footnote 40, p. 11 of Vol. XI, Sargent. 

8 " Only American representative of a peculiar Old World group of pine trees, of which P. &l- 
vestris (Scotch pine) is the best known." Silva XI, 68. 

8 See footnote No. 4, page 23. 

10 " West to the uplands east of the bottoms of the Mississippi River ;" in Texas to the Trin- 
ity River and to latitude 32 degrees north, and in Louisiana nearly to the northern boundary. Silva 
XI, 152. 153. 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 27 

Pinus echinata (Pinus mitis, Michx.). Shortleaf pine. The shortleaf yellow pine 
of the South, though not so closely restricted to the South in its range as is 
longleaf. Found as far north as Staten Island, New York, and ranges all 
down the coast to Florida; west to southern Missouri, eastern Indian Terri- 
tory and northeastern Texas. u Sudworth does not define its northern limits 
very closely. Sargent 12 states that it is found in Union and Jackson counties, 
Illinois, forms large, solid forests in northern Arkansas, Kansas and Missouri 
and reaches its greatest development in western Louisiana, southern Arkansas 
and eastern Texas. On the Atlantic Coast known commercially as North Car- 
olina pine. 

Pinus ttzda. Loblolly pine. Oldfield pine. Range from New Jersey to Florida, 
west to eastern Texas, 13 and north into southeastern Indian Territory, Arkansas, 
and southern border of middle and western Tennessee. Intermixed with either 
the longleaf or the shortleaf pine. An inferior lumber wood, used somewhat 
for turpentining, l * and the characteristic second growth of abandoned fields 
and other open areas of the South. Is at its best in eastern North Carolina. 

Pinus lambertiana. The sugar pine of the Pacific Coast, a valuable lumber wood. 15 
Found in the mountain regions from Oregon to California, extending back to 
the head of the McKinzie and Rogue rivers in the former State and in the lat- 
ter to the Sierra Nevada, Santa Lucia, San Bernardino and Cuyamaca moun- 
tains. 

Pinus ponderosa. Bull pine. Known commercially as California white pine and 
also as western yellow pine. 19 Ranges from South Dakota and British Colum- 
bia on the north to western Texas and Mexico throughout the Pacific and 
Rocky Mountain region. The most generally distributed tree of large com- 
mercial importance in the western mountain region. 

Pinus ntonticola. Silver pine. Known commercially as the "western white pine" 
of Idaho and Montana (with admixture of allied local species). Range from 
Vancouver Island and southern British Columbia through northern Idaho to 
northern Montana, having its highest development in these two States; 17 thence 
southward through Washington and Oregon to Sierra Nevada Mountains in 
California. 

Pinus flexilis. Limber pine. The most valuable lumber wood of central Nevada, 

11 Most abundant and attains its largest size west of the Mississippi River. Sflva XI, 144. 

Silva XI, 145. 

13 " Fifty years ago the low hflls in Basrrop County, central Texas, were covered with forests 
of P. tada, which also spread into the adjacent counties. Extensive lumbering operations were car- 
ried on here, all the towns of the central and western parts of the State before the building of the 
Texas railroads being constructed from timber cut in these pineries, which, however, are now ex- 
hausted as sources of commercial prosperity." Silva XI, 112, footnote 4. The original large trees 
of the Pamlico Sound region appear to have been of better quality than either the virgin or second 
growth of today. The average quality is better west of the Mississippi River, and there it Is often 
mixed in with the other lumber pines. Silva XI, 114. 

4 "Contains large quantities of resin, but it does not flow rapidly when the trees are boxed, 
and soon hardens on exposure to the weather, and this species is probably not much worked com- 
mercially for the production of turpentine." Silva XI, 114. 

15 Attains its largest size in southwestern Oregon. Sflva XI, 29. Is largest of the pines. 
Sflva XI, 30. Grows 20O to 220 feet high, and six or eight, or occasionally ten or twelve, feet in di- 
ameter. Silva XI. 27. 

18 A polymorphous species tending to break into distinct varieties in different localities. Sflva 
XI, 81. "Principal lumber tree of eastern Washington and Oregon, of western Montana, Idaho 
and the Black Hills of South Dakota, and of western Texas, New Mexico and Arizona," Silva 
XI, 81. 

17 Sargent is authority for this statement, confirmed by general knowledge and belief. 



28 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

though knotty and considered inferior to other pines found farther north in its 
range limits. Ranges in the Rocky Mountain region from Montana to west- 
ern Texas and New Mexico, and in the mountains of northern Arizona, Utah, 
Nevada and California. 

Larix laricina (L. americana Michx.). Tamarack. Not largely used for lumber 
except in shipbuilding and for rowboats, but widely used for posts, poles and 
ties. Range from Newfoundland and Labrador to northern Pennsylvania, 
northern Indiana, Illinois, central Minnesota ; next to spruce the most north- 
ern species, extending from Hudson Bay northwest to Great Bear Lake and 
the mouth of the Mackenzie River. 

Larix occidentalism Western larch. A larger species than the eastern tamarack 
and a valuable lumber tree. 20 Range from southern British Columbia south 
in the Cascade Mountains to the Columbia River and to western Montana; 
also found in the Blue Mountains of Washington and Oregon. 21 

Picea 22 mariana 23 (P. nigra'Lmk..) . Black spruce. A valuable lumber wood, un- 
distinguished in commerce from the white spruce next described, both being 
manufactured as "spruce." Range from Newfoundland to Hudson Bay 
and northwestward to the Mackenzie River ; southward in Michigan, Wisconsin, 
Minnesota, and in the eastern mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. 
Both Sargent 24 and Bell agree in including in its range the entire Labrador 
Peninsula except the extreme northern point and the immediate vicinity of 
the Atlantic Ocean. Upon Bell's timber map of Canada it and white spruce 
are platted together as having the most northerly limits of any wood, tama- 
rack coming next; and Sargent speaks of it as "forming, especially north of 
the fiftieth degree of latitude, extensive forests on the watersheds of the prin- 
cipal streams or in cold, wet swamps; then small, stunted, and of little 
value." Both these spruces are, however, extensively used as pulpwood in 
much smaller diameters than would be desirable for saw timber. 

Picea canadensis (P. alba Link.). White spruce. As to commercial uses see re- 
marks under black spruce above. Northern range same as black spruce 
according to Sudworth and Bell, though they do not agree on the limits, as 
see above, except that Sudworth gives it as extending to Alaska and the black 

18 Sargent prefers L. americana. 

""When It has grown under the most favorable conditions, on low, moist soil, at elevations 
of between 2,000 and 3,000 feet above the sea level, the western larch often arises to the height of 
250 feet, with a trunk from six to eight feet in diameter; on poorer soil and exposed mountain 
slopes it has an average height of about one hundred feet, with a trunk two or three feet in diame- 
ter. "-Silva XII, 11. 

20 Especially for interior finish. Suva XII, 12. 

21 Its home is In the basin of the upper Columbia River. Silva XII, 12. The great thinness of ? 
its bark unfits It to resist fire, and, being a poor seeder, it is becoming reduced in quantity. Silva 
XII. 13. 

22 Picea. There are sixteen known species, seven in North America, one of these in the Appa- 
lachian Mountains, two in the Rocky Mountains, one on the northwest coast, one extending to Ber- 
ing Sea in the far north, and one extending from the east to beyond the Rocky Mountains. The 
spruces are believed to have inhabited Europe during the Miocene period. Silva XII, 20. 

23 "In the United States it is most common and grows to its largest size in the territory adja- 
cent to the Great Lakes, where, however, it is nowhere abundant, thriving only in the moistest 
situations and rarely producing trunks a foot in diameter. It is far less abundant than the red 
spruce in all the Appalachian region, and everywhere east of the Allegheny Mountains ... Is a 
small and comparatively rare tree. . . . It is probably rarely used, except in Manitoba and 
Saskatchewan, for other purposes than the manufacture of paper pulp." Silva XII, 31. 

2* Silva XII, 30. 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 29 

spruce as extending only to the Mackenzie River. Sargent agrees with Bell 
on its range including Labrador Peninsula to Ungava Bay. Southern range 
to northern New York, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, South Dakota, Mon- 
tana and British Columbia. Sargent also specifically includes Maine 25 and 
northeastern Vermont, as Sudworth does by inference. 

Picea engelmanni. Engelmann spruce. Range, northern Arizona and through the 
Rocky Mountain region to British Columbia. Sargent says that it is largely 
manufactured into lumber for the construction of buildings and is also ex- 
tensively used for fuel and charcoal. The wood is very light and stringy, 
but not soft. 

Picea. sitchensis. Sitka spruce or tideland spruce. Known also commercially as 
western white spruce. One of the prominent lumber woods of Washington 
and Oregon. Range in the Pacific Coast region from Alaska 26 to northern 
California. 

Tsuga" canadensis. Hemlock. Important commercially because of its wide dis- 
tribution and its especial adaptation for the coarser building materials on 
account of its strength and durability. 28 Range from Nova Scotia westward 
through southern Quebec and Ontario to Minnesota, through Wisconsin, 
Michigan and southward along the mountains to northern Alabama and 
Georgia. 

Tsuga caroliniana. Carolina hemlock. A local southern species closely allied to 
T. canadensis, formerly considered a variety of the species, occurring in the 
same forests and farther south than the range of the T. canadensis, and undis- 
tinguished commercially. 29 Range mountains of southwestern Virginia, west- 
ern North Carolina, and northern Georgia ; very local. 

Tsuga heterophylla. Western hemlock. Of larger growth 30 than the eastern 
species and a better lumber wood, though not yet very largely used. Range 
from Alaska 31 to Idaho and Montana and southward in the mountains to 
California. 



25 "Occurring very close to the shore, where It Is bathed In the spray of the ocean." Sflvm 
XII, 38. 

26 In Alaska " occurring at the sea level often to the height of more than a hundred feet, and 
ascending to elevations of three thousand feet, but decreasing In size as it ascends or leaves the 
neighborhood of the ocean." Sflva XII, 156. " It is the principal lumber manufactured In Alaska." 
Sflva XII, 57. "The greatest of all spruce trees, this inhabitant of the northwestern coast is sur- 
passed by few others either in thickness or height of stem." Sflva XII, 57. 



. Seven species, confined to temperate North America, and eastern and southern 
Asia. In North America two species east and two west. Japan, two species, and the seventh in the 
Himalaya Mountains. Not greatly subject to insects or fungi in this country- Name is the common 
Japanese name of the tree (tsuga). Sflva XII, 6O, 61. 

28 The use of the bark for tanning should be mentioned. "It is estimated that In the year 
1887 1,200,000 tons of bark of this tree were harvested: and although a large part of the timber of 
the trees, cut and stripped of their bark, is allowed to rot on the ground, it is believed that the aver- 
age annual value of the material of all kinds obtained from the hemlock is not less than $30.OOO,- 
OOO." Sflva XII, 66. footnote 3. United States census of 1900 reported a product of 473.222 cords 
valued at $1.945,452 during the year 1899. 

2 SflvaXII.69. 

30 " Frequently 20O feet in height, with a tall trunk from six to ten feet in dlameter."-SDv 
XII. 73. 

31 .. "where it forms with the tideland spruce the largest part of the great coast forest 
which extends from the sea level up to elevations of about two thousand feet, sometimes one and 
sometimes the other predominating." Silva XII. 74. 



30 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Pseudotsuga^ taxifolia (P. mucronata 33 or P. douglasiiCarr.). Douglas spruce. 
Also known commercially as red fir, Douglas fir and as Oregon pine. The 
most important lumber wood of the Pacific Coast. 34 Widely distributed 35 in 
the Rocky Mountain region and on the Pacific Coast in the United States and 
northward into British Columbia. Has its maximum development in Wash- 
ington and Oregon and on Vancouver Island. 

Pseudotsuga macrocarpa. 36 Bigcone spruce. Range, southern California (San 
Bernardino Mountains to the Cuyamaca Mountains) . 

Abies** balsamea. Balsam fir. Given because it is the typical western species, 
though not used for lumber, 38 being, however, employed to some extent for 
pulpwood. It belongs in the most arctic group of woods, its northern limits 
through most of their extent reaching within twenty to thirty miles of those 
of the spruces ( see Picea mariana ) . It extends south to Pennsylvania, 
Michigan and Minnesota, and in the eastern mountains as far south as Vir- 
ginia. An allied species (A. fraseri 39 ) is found only in the Appalachian 
Mountains. 

Abies grandis. Lowland fir, white fir. Known also commercially as the silver fir 
or great silver fir. Coast region from Vancouver Island to California, and from 
Washington and Oregon to northern Idaho and Montana. 40 Manufactured 
into lumber and used for interior finish, packing cases, cooperage, etc. 

Abies concolor. White fir. Oregon to southern California, and northern Arizona 
and New Mexico to Colorado and Utah. This and A. grandis seem to be 
known together as " white fir" in Oregon, while only A. grandis is known in 
Montana and Idaho, and only A. concolor in California, where it reaches its 
greatest development. Sargent thinks the latter may be only a southern va- 
riety of the former, and says it is occasionally manufactured into lumber and 
used for packing cases, butter tubs and other local purposes. 

Abies amabilis. Amabilis or lovely fir. Known also as larch among Oregon lum- 
bermen, and also in Washington, where it is cut and sold with A. nobilis.^ 



32 Pseudotsuga. Three species, two In America and the third in Japan. Not known to be 
seriously injured in this country by insects or disease. Silva XII, 84. 

33 Preferred by Sargent. 

3* " A tree, when grown under favorable conditions, often 200 feet in height, with a trunk three 
or four feet in diameter, and frequently much taller, with a trunk ten or twelve feet in diameter." 
"I have not been able to obtain any reliable information concerning the maximum height of the 
Douglas spruce. Lumbermen on Puget Sound habitually speak of trees from 300 to 350 feet tall, 
but their statements unsupported by actual measurements must be accepted cautiously." He goes 
on to say that the tree often towers over forests which average 200 feet in height, so it must at its 
maximum be a very tall tree. Silva XII, 88, and footnote 1. For coarse purposes, railway ties, 
piles, and for spars and masts is unequaled in strength. Silva XII, 90. 

35 " No other American tree of the first magnitude is so widely distributed, or can now afford 
BO much timber, and the rapidity of its growth and its power of reproduction under favorable condi- 
tions make it the most valuable inhabitant of the great coniferous forests of the Northwest." 
Silva XII, 91. 92. 

39 Is " occasionally manufactured into lumber, and largely used for fuel." Silva XII. 94. 

37 Allies. Twenty-three species. In America two occur east, seven west, and two are found 
only In Mexico and Guatemala. The rest of the species are found in the mountains (chiefly) of 
Europe, Asia and Africa. Does not suffer severely in America from insects or fungi. 

38 " Except to some extent for box lumber." Silva XII, 109. 

38 " Grows thirty to forty, and rarely seventy to eighty feet high, with a trunk occasionally two 
and one-half feet in diameter." Silva XII, 105. " Occasionally used for.lumber in building moun- 
tain hotels. "-Silva XII, 106. 

40 " Does not grow gregariously." Silva XII, 118. 

41 United States Geological Survey. 1899-1900. Part V, pp. 100-101. 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 31 

It is ranked seventh among the ten or eleven principal timber trees of Wash- 
ington, both as to desirable qualities of the wood and as to size, quantity and 
accessibility of the timber, and constitutes about 3.74 percent of the stand of 
commercial timber in that State. 42 Sargent says that it reaches its greatest 
development on the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington. 43 Range 
from the Eraser River region in British Columbia southward in the Cascade 
Mountains to Washington and Oregon. 

Abies nobilis. Noble fir. Known also commercially as larch. In Washington and 
Oregon (in company with the nearly related A. amabilis) it constitutes about 
five percent of the total timber stand. 44 Found in Washington in the coast 
mountains in the southwestern part of the State ; in the Olympic Mountains on 
Soleduck River ; and from Mount Baker southward in the Cascade Moun- 
tains, to Oregon , as far as headwaters of McKinzie River in Lane County. 

Abies magnificat Red fir. Range California (Mount Shasta and along the west- 
ern slopes of Sierra Nevada Mountains) . 

Sequoia** washingtoniana (S. gigantea Decaisne, S. wellingtonia Seeman). Big- 
tree. A characteristic species, though not much used for lumber, except 
locally, on account of its large size and consequent difficulty of manufacture. 47 
Range in California from latitude 39 degrees north to a little south of latitude 
36 degrees north, or from the middle fork of the American River and along 
the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains to the headwaters of Deer 
Creek. 

Sequoia sempervirens .* 8 Redwood. Range from the southern borders of Oregon 
and southward in the coast region, twenty to thirty miles inland, through 
California to Salmon Creek canyon. Largest bodies are found in Humboldt, 
Mendocino and Del Norte counties, California. 

Thuja* 9 occidentalis. Arborvitse. Known commercially as white cedar. Not used 
so much for lumber as for posts, poles and shingles. Sudworth lists forty-six 
cultivated varieties of this species. Indigenous range from New Brunswick to 
Lake Winnipeg and south to central Minnesota and Michigan, northern Illi- 
nois and in the Atlantic Coast region along the mountains to North Carolina 
and eastern Tennessee. 

Thuja plicata. Giant arborvitse. Known commercially as (western, or Washing- 
ton) red cedar. Forms about five percent of the stand of western timber 

42 United States Geological Survey. 1899-190O. Part V. p. 127. 
Sflva XII, 126. 

44 " Occasionally manufactured into lumber, it is used under the name of larch for the interior 
finish of buildings, and for packing cases." Silva XII, 135. 

45 "In California is occasionally manufactured into coarse lumber employed in the construc- 
tion of cheap buildings, and for packing cases." Silva XII, 139. 

46 The genus Sequoia was named after Sequoyah (George Guess), the half-breed inventor of 
the Cherokee alphabet. 

47 "The most massive stem, though not the tallest tree, in the world." Silva X, 146. 

48 "The most valuable timber tree of the forests of Pacific North America." Silva X, 142 
SeeMuir, 'Mountains of California," p. 195. 

49 T7iuja (Thuya Sargent). Four species. One, the type of the genus, in northeastern North 
America; one in northwestern North America. One in the mountains of central Japan, and the 
fourth in China. The type is ancient and was widely distributed in the Tertiary ages through both 
hemispheres. Not injured seriously by insects or fungi. Silva X, 124. 

50 T. gigantea (Nuttall) preferred by Sargent. 



32 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

woods. Range from coast of southern Alaska to northern California ; east- 
ward through British Columbia and northern Washington to northern Idaho 
and Montana, and along the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains. 51 

Libocedrus^ decurrens. Incense cedar. Known also commercially as white cedar. 
Range from Oregon southward on the western slopes of the Cascade Moun- 
tains through California, Lower California and western Nevada. 

Taxodium distichum. Bald cypress. Known commercially simply as "cypress," 
though no true cypress (Cupressus) of commercial value exists in this country. 
Range in the Atlantic Coast region from southern Delaware to Florida, west- 
ward along the Gulf Coast to Texas, and northward from the Gulf Coast 
through Louisiana, Arkansas and eastern Mississippi and Tennessee, south- 
eastern Missouri, western and northwestern Kentucky, southern Illinois and 
southwestern Indiana. Reaches its highest development in the bayou district 
of Louisiana and in similar regions of deep alluvial deposits along the Gulf 
and Atlantic coasts. 

Juniperus 5 * virginiana. Red juniper. Known commercially as pencil cedar or as 
red cedar. Of slight importance because of limited supply, being sparsely 
distributed over a wide 55 area. Range from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick 
to Florida, 66 west in Ontario to Dakota, central Nebraska and Kansas, and 
Indian Territory. J. barbadensis, pencil cedar, is by Sudworth considered a 
distinct species. 

Juglans 51 cinerea. Butternut. Of considerable use for interior finish, furniture, 
etc. Range from southern New Brunswick to Delaware, and on the Appa- 
lachian Mountains to Georgia and Alabama ; westward through Ontario 
to Dakota, southeastern Nebraska, southern Missouri, and northeastern 
Arkansas. 
* Juglans nigra. Black walnut. The most valuable native cabinet wood, but now 

51 "The noblest of its race, and one of the most valuable timber trees of northwestern 
America, T. gigantea is rapidly disappearing with the spread of forest fires, which, burning through 
their thin bark, soon kill these trees." Silva X, 130. 

52 Libocedrus. "Eight species of Libocedrus (which is, perhaps, too closely connected with the 
Thuya to be considered genetically distinct) are now distinguished ; one is widely scattered through 
the mountain forests of western North America ; two inhabit western South America, where they 
are distributed from Chili to Patagonia ; two occur in New Zealand, two in New Caledonia, and one 
in southwestern China." Species closely analagous to the present North American inhabited Green- 
land in the Cretaceous period. Silva X, 134. 

53 Taxodium. Two species, one in the United States and one in the Mexican highlands. Not 
seriously injured by pests or fungi. Silva X, 150. " ' Dry rot in living timber often diminishes its 
value and in Louisiana and Mississippi is said to affect at least one-third of all the trees ' (Dickson 
and Brown, Am. Jour. Sci., Ser. 2, Vol. 15, on ' The Cypress Trees of Mississippi and Louisiana ')" 
Silva X, 150, footnote 5. Nevertheless its products show great resistance to rot. 

64 Gin is flavored with the crushed berries of J. communis. This species might be included as 
a characteristic one on account of being one of the very few that may be said to be transcontinental 
in habit. J. monosperma is much used for fencing and fuel, according to Silva X. 90. Its range is 
eastern base Rocky Mountains of Colorado (Platte and Arkansas Rivers) and southward into west- 
ern Texas : southern Utah to central New Mexico and Arizona. 

65 " The most widely distributed coniferous tree of North America." Silva X, 94. 

56 " In western Louisiana, Texas, and southern Arkansas, it attains its greatest dimensions 
on rich alluvial bottom lands, and in Kansas and eastern central Nebraska grows usually on dry 
limestone river bluffs, where, before the coming of white men, it often formed groves of considerable 
extent." Silva X. 94, 95. " The straightest grained and most easily worked cedar wood is obtained 
from the swamps near the western coast of the Florida Peninsula, and large factories have been 
established at Cedar Keys, Florida, and at other points in the southern states, by German manufac- 
turers, to cut up the wood for pencil making." Silva X, 95, footnote 3. 

57 Juglans. Ten species now known, two in North America generally, and a third in western 
Texas, Mexico, etc., one or two additional species in Mexico, one in western California. One in the 
Antilles, and perhaps one or two others in South America. One in Europe, one in northern China, 
one in Japan. 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 33 

scarce. Range from southern Ontario to Florida, central Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi, and westward through southern Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota 
to Nebraska, Kansas and Texas. 

Hicoria alba. Mocker nut, American white hickory. 

Hicoria minima. Bitternut or swamp hickory. 

Hicoria ovata. Shagbark. 

Hicoria glabra . 59 Pignut . 

All four of the above are known indiscriminately as lumber woods under the 
name of "hickory." All have practically the same range, from Quebec and 
Ontario to Florida along the Appalachian Mountains, and west to Nebraska, 
Kansas, Indian Territory and Texas. 

Populus 60 tremuloides. Aspen. The most widely distributed American tree, but of 
no particular commercial value, though used for pulpwood and to some extent in 
turnery. 81 Ranging from Newfoundland through the central Labrador Penin- 
sula to Hudson Bay, and northwestward to the mouth of the Mackenzie River 
and to Alaska ; southward to the mountains of Pennsylvania, and to Missouri, 
southern Nebraska, and generally through the western mountains to New 
Mexico, lower California and into Mexico. 

Populus balsamifera. Balm of Gilead. Not of much commercial importance," 
but one of the few trees which are of transcontinental distribution. In the 
extent of its northern limits it is exceeded only 63 by American larch and the 
black and white spruces. Its range includes Newfoundland, nearly all the 
Labrador Peninsula, and from the western shore of Hudson Bay northwest- 
ward to the mouth of the Mackenzie River and the Alaska coast, southward 

68 "Hicoria is confined to the temperate regions of eastern North America, distributed from 
the St. Lawrence to the Mexico highlands, where one endemic species occurs. Nine species are 
known, eight of which inhabit the territory of the United States, the headquarters of the genus, as 
represented by the greatest number of species, being in southern Arkansas. Traces of hickory have 
been found in the Tertiary rocks of Greenland ; paleontologists have described numerous species in 
the Upper Tertiary formation of Europe, and there are evidences that it once ranged in North 
America far to the westward of its present home." Sflva VII, 132. 

59 " Extremely common in all the northern states ... in Missouri and Arkansas it is, per- 
haps, the commonest species . . . and it probably attains its largest size in the basin of the lower 
Ohio River. . . . Commercially is not distinguished from the wood of the shellbark hickory." 
Sflva VII. 167. 

60 Populus. Temperate and boreal regions in the northern hemisphere. One endemic species 
in Lower California, two in the Himalayas. "Of the eighteen or nineteen species (f. 5, Many hy- 
brids occur) which have been distinguished, nine inhabit British Columbia and the United States, 
where poplars are distributed from within the Arctic Circle to Mexico, and from the shores of the 
Atlantic Ocean to those of the Pacific. In the eastern hemisphere poplars extend north to the Arctic 
Circle and abound in northern and central Europe and in northern and central Asia, where they are 
often the most conspicuous feature of the vegetation." Sflva IX, 152. "Populus is the oldest type 
of dicotyledonous plants yet identified, and its traces, with those of the sequoias, pines and cycads, 
have been found in the Lower Cretaceous rocks of Greenland. It was common on the midconti- 
nental plateau of North America during Crateceous times, and in Europe and North America during 
the Tertiary epoch, and predominated in the Miocene of Europe, the remains of twenty-eight species 
of that period having been described." Sflva IX. 153. "The most valuable timber trees of the 
genus being the North American P. deltoida (deltoides Sudworth), P. heterophylla and P. trichocarpa." 
Sflva IX, 155. 156. Range of P. heterophylla is from Connecticut and Long Island southward 
near the coast to southern Georgia ; westward in the Gulf region to western Louisiana and through 
Arkansas to southeastern Missouri, western Kentucky, and Tennessee, and southern Illinois and 
Indiana. 

81 " And sometimes for flooring." Sflva IX, 159. " Valuable as a cover tree for other -young 
seedlings. "-Sflva IX, 16O. 

2" Often 10O feet in height, with a tall trunk six or seven feet in diameter." Sflva IX, 167. 
" It is made into paper pulp, and in northern Michigan is manufactured into pails, tobacco boxes 
and small packing cases." Silva IX, 167. 

3 According to Dr. Robert Bell. 



34 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

to New England and New York, central Michigan and Minnesota, Dakota, 
northwestern Nebraska, and northern Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Nevada. 

Populus deltoides (Populus monilifera Aiton) . Cottonwood. The generally known 
cottonwood of commerce, although a Pacific Coast species (P. trichocarpa 6 *) 
is largely used locally for slack cooperage and woodenware. The range of 
deltoides is from Quebec and Vermont through western New England and 
New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland and the Atlantic Coast states to western 
Florida, and west to the Rocky Mountains from southern Alberta to northern 
New Mexico. It is, however, only in the South that it grows large enough 
and plentiful enough to be prominent as a lumber wood particularly in the 
lowlands of the Mississippi Valley from Illinois south. 

Betula papyrifera. Paper birch. Known largely in Canada as canoe birch 
from the use of its bark in making canoes. Not prominent as a saw timber, 
though largely used in turnery, in the manufacture of shoe lasts and pegs, 
spools and other small articles. It and the aspen (Populus tremuloides) grow 
the farthest north of the deciduous woods, the range including the Labrador 
Peninsula to Ungava Bay, except a narrow strip along the open coast, across 
to Hudson Bay, and northwest to the mouth of the Mackenzie River, Yukon 
River and the Alaska coast ; southward to New York and northern Pennsylva- 
nia, central Michigan and Minnesota, northern Nebraska, Dakota to the Black 
Hills region, northern Montana, and northwestern Washington, near Seattle. 

Betula lutea!" Yellow birch. Probably the most plentiful lumber birch, though 
the red or river birch (B. nigra^) and the sweet birch, next to be described, 
are also used. 69 The yellow birch ranges from Newfoundland along the north- 
ern shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Abbitibbe Lake and Rainy River; 

64 />. trichocarpa. Black cottonwood, balsam cottonwood. "A tree often nearly two hundred 
feet In height, with a trunk seven or eight feet in diameter." Silva IX, 175. " In Oregon and Wash- 
ington, where the demand for the wood has already caused the destruction of most of the old trees, 
It has been largely made into the staves of sugar barrels, and it is also used in the manufacture of 
woodenware pails and butter-tubs, although its bitter taste lessens its value for these purposes." 
Silva IX, 176. "In western British Columbia, Washington and Oregon it abounds in all the river 
valleys, and is the largest of the broad-leaved trees." Ibid. 

^Betula. " About twenty-four species may be distinguished. Nine occur in North America; 
of these six are trees and three are low shrubs. Six or seven species inhabit Europe, the most im- 
portant, B. alba, also ranging in several forms through Siberia to Japan. The type is an ancient 
one; its traces appear in the Cretaceous rocks of the Dakota group formation, and later, during the 
Tertiary period, it spread over the central plateau and the northwest coast of North America, and 
abounded in Europe, where paleontologists have recognized in the Eocene, Pliocene and especially 
In the Miocene the remains of numerous species, the direct ancestors of those now living." 
Silva IX, 46, 47, 48. 

66 " A tree, usually sixty or seventy, or, on the northwest coast, occasionally 120 feet tall, with 
a trunk from two to three feet in diameter." Silva IX, 57. "West of the Rocky Mountains, where 
It attains its largest size, the canoe birch usually grows singly, and is found only along the banks of 
streams." "Preferred for making spools." Silva IX, 59. 

87 " A tree occasionally 100 feet high, with a trunk three or four feet in diameter; or, in the 
neighborhood of the coast or toward the southern and the extreme northwestern limits of its range, 
much smaller, and often not more than twenty or thirty feet in height." Silva IX, 53. One of the 
largest deciduous-leaved trees of the northern forests of northeastern North America. ... Is 
exceedingly abundant ; and attains its largest size in the eastern provinces of Canada, and in north- 
ern New England and New York." Silva IX, 54. 

66 JBetula nigra. "Eighty or ninety feet in height, sometimes five feet in diameter." Silva IX. 
61. Used for furniture, woodenware, wooden shoes and in turnery. " It is one of the most interest- 
ing trees of this genus. It is the only semiaquatic birch, and its seeds . . . ripen in early sum- 
mer when the water of swamps is usually at its lowest level, and, falling on the damp, rich soil of 
their exposed banks, germinate at once and produce plants which obtain a firm foothold and grow 
to be several inches high before the autumn. . . . Other birches inhabit cold northern countries 
or high mountains in warmer regions ; but the river birch flourishes and attains its largest size in the 
damp, semitropical lowlands of Florida, Louisiana and eastern Texas." Silva IX, 62-63. 

88 Also B. populifolia, which, "while the smallest and least widely distributed of the birch 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 35 

southward to northern Minnesota, and through the northern states to eastern 
Tennessee, North Carolina and Delaware. 

Be tula lenta. 70 Sweet birch. Known also commercially as black birch or cherry 
birch, and in Minnesota as river birch. Range much the same northward as 
the yellow birch ; in the South reaching southern Indiana and Illinois, and 
along the Allegheny Mountains to central Kentucky, Tennessee and western 
Florida. Used to some extent for furniture. 71 

Ostrya^virginiana. Hornbeam. Both this and blue beech (Carfrinus caroliniana) 
are largely known as ironwood, and have some use for tool handles, levers and 
other purposes requiring a very strong, hard wood. Of little commercial im- 
portance. Range from Quebec and Ontario south to northern Florida and 
west to eastern Kansas. 

Fagus atropunicea 1 * (F. ferruginea Aiton) , 78 Beech. Range Nova Scotia to Lake 
Huron and northern Wisconsin ; south to western Florida, and west to south- 
eastern Missouri and Texas. 

Costarica 71 dentata. 78 Chestnut. Range from southern Maine to northwestern Ver- 
mont, southern Ontario and southeastern Michigan ; southward to Delaware 
and southeastern Indiana, and on the Allegheny Mountains to central Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee, central Alabama, and Mississippi. 79 

Quercvs 80 alba. The true white oak. Commercially other varieties are known in- 

trees of eastern North America, is largely used in the manufacture of spools, shoe pegs, wood palp 
and for the hubs of wheels. It makes excellent fuel." Siiva IX, 56. 

70 " A tree seventy or eighty feet In height, with a trunk from two to five feet in diameter." 
Silva IX, 50. 

71 " It is largely used in the manufacture of furniture, and for fuel, and in the Maritime Prov- 
inces of Canada in ship and boat building." Sflva IX, 5O. 

n Ostrya. " Poor species now known, two in north central America, one of them being widely- 
distribtited, the other in Arizona, one in southern Europe and western Asia, and the fourth in north- 
ern Japan. In Eocene and Miocene Europe ranging as far north as Greenland." Silva IX, 32. 

73 " Occasionally fifty or sixty feet in height, with a trunk two feet in diameter. . . . Grows 
to its largest size in southern Arkansas and the adjacent parts of Texas." Silva IX, 34, 35. 

74 Fagits. Fifteen or sixteen species. One eastern America ; one Europe, western Asia, and 
China, and Japan ; three are endemic to Australia, four are found in New Zealand, five in southern 
Chfll and Tierra del Fuego. The type is ancient. Sflva IX, 22. 

75 "A tree, usually seventy or eighty, or under exceptionally favorable conditions occasion- 
ally 120 feet in height, with a trunk three or four feet in diameter." Silva IX, 27. " F. americana, 
though less common than several oaks, is one of the most widely distributed trees of eastern North 
America, inhabiting the rich sofl of valleys and mountain slopes, where it often forms nearly pure 
forests of considerable extent, and sometimes at the South the bottom lands of streams and the 
margins of swamps." " It is in the lower Ohio Valley, the southern Allegheny Mountains, and banks 
of the lower Mississippi, where, associated with the evergreen magnolia, it grows to great perfec- 
tion. . . . Largely used in the manufacture of chairs, shoe lasts, plane stocks and the handles of 
tools." Sflva IX. 28. 29. 

78 Sargent prefers F. americana Sweet. 

77 Castanea. Four species, the type species being C. castanea, which in various forms inhabits 
Europe, Africa and Asia. The three other species are known to the eastern United States, two of 
them trees, and the third a shrub. Existed before the Middle Tertiary in northern Greenland and 
Alaska, in the Miocene of Oregon and the Upper Miocene of Colorado. Existed hi Europe in the Cre- 
taceous period. Silva IX, 8, 9, 10. 

78 " Occasionally 100 feet high in the forest, with a taH, straight, columnar trunk three or four 
feet in diameter, or often when uncrowded by other trees develops a short trunk which in some ex- 
ceptional individuals attains a diameter of ten or twelve feet." Silva IX, 13. " Largely used in the 
manufacture of cheap furniture and in the interior finish of houses, and for railway ties, fence posts 
and rails, its durability, owing to the large amount of tannic acid which it contains, being its most 
valuable quality." Silva IX, 14. 

79 "Except at the north it does not range far beyond the Appalachian hills, upon which in 
western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee it attains its noblest dimensions." Silva IX. 14. 

80 Quercus. " Nearly three hundred species [of oaks] have been described. Inhabitants of the 
temperate regions, they occur also at high altitudes within the tropics, ranging south to the moun- 



36 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

discriminately as white oak, 'among 'them Q. lyrata* 1 common through the 
South; Q. platanoides sz (Q. bicolor Willdenow), ranging from Maine and 
northwestern Quebec to southeastern Iowa and western Missouri, northern 
Kentucky and Arkansas, and along the Appalachian Mountains to northern 
/ Georgia ; Q, michauxii^ from Delaware and southern Indiana southeast ; 
Q. breviloba** (Q durandii Buckley), Alabama to Texas, and according to 
Sargent the most valuable white oak of the latter State ; Q. oblongi folia* 5 
western Texas, and others. 86 The far western species most nearly approach- 
ing Q. alba are Q. garryana, the most valuable Pacific Coast white oak, 87 
Vancouver Island and British Columbia southward through Washington and 
Oregon to California ; Q. douglasii,** California ; Q. arizonica,* 9 Arizona and 
southern New Mexico. Q. alba ranges from southern Maine to southwestern 
Quebec and throvfgh central and southern Ontario, the lower peninsula of 



tains of Colombia In the New World, and In those of the Indian Archipelago In the Old World, a few 
degrees south of the Equator, they find their most southern home. The genus has no representative 
in central and southern Africa, in South America beyond Colombia, or in the islands of the Pacific, 
in New Guinea or in Australia. The great centers of distribution are the highlands of Central Amer- 
ica and Mexico, and the Indian Archipelago and Malaysia, whence it ranges to the Philippine Islands 
and to Asia and Japan. In North America, exclusive of Mexico, fifty species are distinguished. With 
four exceptions they all under favorable conditions sometimes assume the habit of trees. In both 
the eastern and extreme western part of the country [United States] Quercus Is oftentimes the con- 
spicuous feature of the vegetation. In eastern America at the extreme northern limits is repre- 
sented by a single species. The number greatly increases south, and in New England ten grow. 
In the south Atlantic and gulf states the number is increased to nineteen, the greatest aggregation 
of species, though in the Mississippi Valley the oak trees are more abundant and grow to larger size 
than in any other part of North America. In the West reaching British Columbia and Washington 
with but a single species, the number increases southward, five species occurring in southern Ore- 
gon and thirteen grow in California. The type is an early one." Silva VIII, 2,3. Commercially all 
the oaks that furnish material for the sawmill are roughly divided into two classes the white oaks 
and the red oaks. A ready method of distinguishing them is by the leaf. Those classed as white 
oaks, generally have lobes with rounded extremities, while the lobes of the red oaks terminate in a 
sharp point or even in a thorny process. 

81 "A tree, usually 100 feet In height, with a trunk from two to three feet in diameter." Silva 
VIII, 47. " It is most common and grows to its largest size in the valley of the Red River in Lou- 
isiana and the adjacent parts of Texas and Arkansas ; and in southern Illinois, on the swampy bot- 
tom lands, it is the prevalent species of the forest." Silva VIII, 48. 

82" A tree, usually sixty or seventy, or occasionally 100 feet in height, with a trunk two or 
three or occasionally eight or nine feet in diameter." Silva VIII, 63. "It usually grows in small 
groves, rarely forming an important part of the forest, and is probably more abundant and of larger 
size in western New York and northern Ohio than in any other part of the country." "Commer- 
cially it is not distinguished from the wood of the Q. alba and Q. macrocarpa." Silva VIII, 64. 

83" A tree, often 100 feet in height, with a trunk sometimes free of branches for a distance of 
forty or fifty feet above the ground, and from three to seven feet in diameter." Silva VIII, 17. 
" Q. michauxiiis one of the most important timber trees of eastern North America, and the largest 
and most valuable white oak of the southeastern states." Silva VIII, 68. Q. lyrata, platanoides 
and michauxii are sometimes distinguished from white oak under the name of swamp oak, being 
differentiated more or less from Q. alba under varying conditions of growth. 

84 "A tree, sometimes eighty or ninety feet in height, when growing east of the Mississippi 
River, with a tall, straight trunk frequently from two to three feet in diameter; in Texas much 
smaller." Silva VIII, 71. "When grown in Alabama and Mississippi it is said to equal the best 
white oak, and to be used for the same purposes as that wood. It is especially valued for the pins in 
cotton gins, and in the manufacture of spools, baskets and wagon hubs." Silva VIII, 72. 

85" Exceedingly difficult to cut and split, it is sometimes used for fuel, but has no other eco- 
nomic value. "-Silva VIII, 88. 

86 Q. acuminata should perhaps be mentioned with other eastern white oaks. "A tree, from 
eighty to 1OO or occasionally 160 feet in height, with a tall, straight trunk three or four feet in diame- 
ter." Silva VIII, 55. " Probably attains its largest size on the banks of the lower Wabash River 
and its tributaries in southern Indiana and Illinois." Silva VIII, 56. " It is largely used in cooper- 
age and the manufacture of wheels, for fencing and for railway ties." Silva VIII, 56. 

87" As a timber tree, Q. garryana is the most Important oak of Pacific North America." 
Silva VIII. 30. 

88 "Of little use in construction or the arts, it makes excellent fuel." Silva VIII. 80. 
89" Extremely difficult to cut and split, it is only used for fuel."-Silva VIII. 90. 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 37 

Michigan and southern Minnesota to southeastern Nebraska and eastern Kan- 
sas ; south to northern Florida and Texas. 80 

Quercus macrocarpa. Bur oak or mossycup oak. Often undistinguished commer- 
cially from white oak, though of superior durability in contact with the soil. 81 

^ Range from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia through the St. Lawrence River 
valley in Ontario to southern Manitoba ; from Massachusetts and Pennsylvania 
west to the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains in Montana, western Ne- 
braska, central Kansas, and southward into central Tennessee, Indian Terri- 
tory and Texas. 

Quercus minor (Q. obtusiloba Michaux) . Post oak. Sometimes called white oak 
in Kentucky and Indiana. Range southern Massachusetts and along the New 
England Coast region to northern Florida, southern Alabama, and Missis- 
sippi ; west to Missouri, eastern Kansas, Indian Territory and Texas. Sargent 
says 81 it is "the most common and widely distributed oak of the gulf states 
west of the Mississippi River, forming the principal growth of the Texas 
1 cross-bottoms.' " 

Quercus virginzana 93 (Q. virens Aiton). Live oak. A very strong and durable 
commercial species 84 largely used in shipbuilding in the days of wooden 
ships. From Virginia on islands and near the coast to and through southern 
Florida, and along the Gulf Coast to western Texas ; also in lower California, 
and extending into Mexico, Central America and Cuba. Q. agrifolia, * 5 north- 

90 " Rarely in Quebec or northern New England, where it is found mixed with the white pine. 
It is abundant and grows to its largest size in Ontario, frequently forming a considerable part of the 
forest growth." SUva VIII, 17. "The most abundant and grows to its greatest height on the 
western slopes of the Allegheny Mountains in Tennessee and the Carolinas, and on the bottom lands 
of the lower Ohio basin." Sflva VIII, 18. 

91 " This is one of the largest oaks of North America, rising sometimes to a height of 16O 
or 17O feet, and forming a trunk six or seven feet in diameter and clear of limbs for seventy or 
eighty feet above the ground." Sflva VIII, 43. " Common in the lowland forests of the Missis- 
sippi basin and in eastern Texas, growing probably to its largest size in southern Indiana and Illi- 
nois ; it is the common species of the scattered oak forests or oak openings ' of western Minnesota. 
where the eastern woodlands are gradually replaced by prairies. . . . It is the most frequent and 
generally distributed oak of Nebraska. . . . It is the most generally distributed oak of Kansas 
also." Sflva VIII, 45. "Is one of the most valuable timber trees of North America, its wood 
being superior in strength even to that of Q. alba, with which it is commercially confounded. It is 
heavy, strong, hard, tough, close grained and very durable in contact with the sofl." Sflva VIII. 45. 

92 " A tree rarely 10O feet in height, with a trunk two or three feet in diameter." Sflva VIII, 
37. "In the Mississippi basin it is one of the most common oak trees, on dry, gravelly uplands, 
where it grows to its largest size ; it is the most abundant oak of central Texas, being usually found 
on limestone hills and sandy plains, and toward the western limits of its range in Texas and the 
Indian Territory it forms with Q. marilandica (black jack) an open forest belt, to which the name of 
' cross bottoms ' was given by the early travelers and settlers." " It is largely used for fuel, fencing 
and raflway ties, and in some states west of the Mississippi River, especially in Texas, in the manu- 
facture of carriages, for cooperage, and in construction." SUva VIII, 39. 

83 " A tree, forty or fifty feet in height, with a trunk three or four feet in diameter above Us 
swollen or buttressed base." Sflva VIII, 99. "On the Atlantic and east Gulf Coast, where it attains 
Us largest size, the live oak grows on rich hummocks," etc. Sflva VIII, 10O. 

94 " Q. virginiana is one of the most valuable timber trees of North America. The wood is 
very heavy, hard, strong, tough and close grained, with a satiny surface susceptible of receiving a 
beautiful polish, it is rather difficult to work. . . . Formerly it was largely used in shipbuilding, 
and is s_till occasionally employed for this purpose." Silva VIII, 1O1. Footnote 2 on this page of 
Silva gives an interesting account of reservations by Congress of live oak timber in 1799. 1817, 
1825. and their partial abandonment in 1879 and 1895, though the Florida reservation was still held 
at the date of the writing. 



95 " This is a low, round topped tree, occasionally eighty or ninety feet in height, with a trunk 
>r four, or rarely six or seven, feet in diameter." Silva VIII, 111. " It is very abundant and 
Kiuna to its largest size in the valleys south of San Francisco Bay. . . . In southwestern Cali- 
fornia it is the largest and most generally distributed oak tree between the mountains and the sea." 
" Valued and largely used for fuel, it is little esteemed for other purposes." Sflva VIII, 112. 



three or four 

grOWS to 



38 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

era to Lower California, is known as California live oak, but is of little value 
except for fuel. Q. chrysolepis w is another Pacific Coast variety. 

Quercus rubra. 97 Red oak. In the commercial red oaks are also often included 
Q. texana, Texan oak (formerly classified as a variety of the rubra species), 
northeastern Iowa and central Illinois south through western Kentucky and 
Tennessee to Florida, and through southern Missouri, Arkansas and Louisiana 
to western Texas ; " Q. digitata 10 (Q. falcata Michaux) , or Spanish oak, from 
southern New Jersey to central Florida and through the gulf states to eastern 
Texas, Arkansas, southwestern Missouri to middle Tennessee and Kentucky, 
and southern Illinois and Indiana; and other rarer species. Q. rubra ranges 
from Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick 101 through Quebec and along 
the northern shores of Lake Huron ; southward to middle Tennessee and 
Virginia, and along the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia ; west to 
eastern Nebraska and central Kansas. 

Quercus prinus. wz Chestnut oak. Used to some extent for lumber purposes, 103 
but its chief commercial value lies in its tannin, which is extracted not only 
from the bark but from the wood itself in the form of cordwood. It is richest 
in tannin of any of the oaks, a far western variety, the tanbark oak of Cali- 
fornia (Q. densiflora ) , 104 also having this as its principal use. The range of 
Q.prinusis from southern Maine and eastern Massachusetts to Maryland, and 
in the mountains of northern Georgia and Alabama; westward from New 
York to central Kentucky and Tennessee. Q. veluttna 10 * is one of three 
tannic acid oaks given by Sargent. 

96 Q. chrysolepis. Live oak, hemlock oak, Sargent. Canyon live oak, Sudworth. " This Cali- 
fornia live oak is usually not more than forty or fifty feet in height, with a short trunk from three to 
five feet in diameter." Silva VIII, 105. "More valuable as a timber tree than the other oaks of 
central California. . . . Although difficult to cut and work, it is used in the manufacture of agri- 
cultural Implements and wagons." Silva VIII, 107. 

97 " A tree, usually seventy or eighty feet, or occasionally nearly 150 feet In height, with a 
trunk three or four feet in diameter." Silva VIII, 125. 

88 " A tree, occasionally almost two hundred feet In height, with a trunk free from branches 
for eighty or ninety feet, seven or eight feet in diameter above the much enlarged and strongly but- 
tressed base."-Silva VIII, 129. 

99 " On the low river bottom lands of the Mississippi basin it attains Its largest size and Is 
exceedingly common." " Lumbermen and manufacturers consider it more valuable than the eastern 
red oak, with which It has always been confounded." Silva VIII, 130. 

100 "A tree, usually seventy or eighty feet tall, with a trunk from two to three feet In 
diameter." Silva VIII, 147. " The wood of the upland tree is hard and strong, not durable In con- 
tact with the ground, cross grained and liable to check badly in drying. . . . Sometimes used in 
construction, and largely as fuel." Silva VIII, 148-9. 

101 " The most boreal of the oak trees of eastern America." " Reaches Its largest size In the 
states north of the Ohio River." Silva VIII, 127. 

102 " A tree, usually sixty to seventy, or occasionally 100 feet in height, with a trunk three or 
four, or rarely six or seven, feet in diameter." Silva VIII, 51. 

103 it i s largely used In fencing, for railway ties and for fuel." Silva VIII, 52. 

104 "The tanbark oak (of California) is usually seventy or eighty, or sometimes nearly 100 
feet In height, and although Its trunk generally does not exceed three feet In diameter. Individuals 
with stems double that size occasionally occur." Silva VIII, 183. " Exceedingly abundant in the 
humid California coast region north of San Francisco Bay. . . . Of little value for construction. 
It Is largely used as fuel. The bark, which is exceedingly rich In tannin, is largely used for tanning 
leather, and is preferred for this purpose to that of any other tree in the forests of Pacific North 
America." " The only American representative of a peculiar group of Asiatic trees In which are 
combined the characters of the oak and the chestnut, Q. densiflora is, from the point of view of 
botanical geography and botanical archaeology, one of the most Interesting inhabitants of the forests 
of the United States." Silva VIII. 184. 

105 " A tree, often seventy or eighty, and occasionally 150 feet In height, with a trunk three or 
four feet in diameter." Silva VIII. 137. " Grows to Its largest size In the basin of the lower Ohio 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 39 

Ulmus 10 * americana. 1 White elm; also called American elm and water elm. 
From southern Newfoundland to north shores of Lake Superior, and to the 
eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, here extending up to the Saskatchewan 
River ; south to Florida ; west to Dakota, western Nebraska, western Kansas, 
Indian Territory and Texas. 

Ulmus racemosa. 108 Cork elm. Known commercially as rock elm. From Quebec 
through Ontario, and south through northwestern New Hampshire to south- 
ern Vermont; westward through northern New York, southern Michigan, 
and Wisconsin, to northeastern Nebraska, southeastern Missouri, and middle 
Tennessee. 108 Sargent says, "most abundant and attains its largest size in 
Ontario and the southern peninsula of Michigan." Now becoming scarce 
through lumbering. uo 

Magnolia 111 fcetida 112 {M. grandiflora Linnaeus). Magnolia, bull bay or big lau- 
rel. A good cabinet and interior finishing wood, 113 but not widely used as 
yet except for fuel. Coast region of North Carolina to Florida, and westward 
in the Gulf Coast region to Texas ; through western Louisiana to southern 
Arkansas. 

Magnolia acuminata. 1U Cucumber tree, mountain magnolia. Uses much the same 
as the magnolia. From western New York through southern Ontario to 
southern Illinois, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to southern Ala- 
bama and northeastern Mississippi ; central Kentucky and Tennessee, and 
Arkansas except in the northwestern part. 

River. The only species of the red oak group which reaches the south Atlantic and Gulf coasts, 
where, while not common and never gregarious, it is generally scattered on dry ridges through the 
Maritime pine belt." Silva VIII, 138. The bark is largely used in tanning (Trimble, ' The Tan- 
nins,' 31, f. 20, 21)." Silva VIII, 139. 

108 Ulmus, " of which fifteen or sixteen species can be distinguished, is widely distributed 
throughout the boreal and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, with the exception of 
western North America, where no elm tree is found. Reaching in the New World the mountains of 
southern Mexico, upon which one species occurs, and in the Old World the subtropical forests of the 
Sikkim Himalayas, the home of U. lancifolia . The forests of eastern North America contain five 
species : in Europe three species occur. . . . The type is an ancient one, its traces existing in the 
early Tertiary rocks of Greenland. Before the Glacial period it long inhabited Europe, western 
Asia and North America, where it abounded on the midcontinental plateau and reached westward to 
the shores of the Pacific Ocean." Silva VII, 40, 42. 

107 " A tree sometimes 100 to 120 feet high, with a tall trunk six to eleven feet in diameter." 
Sflva VII, 43. 

108 " A tree eighty to 100 feet in height, with a trunk occasionally three feet in diameter, which 
diminishes slowly in thickness, and is often free of branches for sixty feet." SUva VII, 47. " This 
name (U. racemosa) was used ... in 18OO for a European species of elm, and therefore was not 
applicable to the American tree, for which the name of U. thomasi is proposed." Sflva XIV, 1O2. 

io Sargent gives U. serotina as a distinct species In his appendix XTV, 41, 42, and credits it 
with the middle Tennessee distribution formerly assigned U. racemosa. 

110 "The value of the wood of the rock elm threatens its extinction: the most of the large 
trees have already been cut in the forests of Canada, New England, New York and Michigan." 
Sflva VII. 48. 

111 "The genus Magnolia is now confined to eastern North America, southern Mexico, and 
eastern and southern Asia. Twenty species are known. Of these, six are North American, with 
their center of distribution in the southern Allegheny Mountain region ; two are Mexican ; ten are 
eastern Asiatic ; one is a native of the mountains of Yun-nan, and four are Himalayan." Sflva 1, 1. 

112 " A noble tree, . . . sixty to eighty feet In height, with a tall, straight trunk sometimes 
under favorable conditions four to four and a half feet in diameter." " On the rich high rolling hilli 
of the Mississippi bluffs, this tree reaches its highest development." SUva I, 3. 

113 "The wood of M. fcetida is harder, heavier, and more valuable than that of the other 
North American magnolias." SUva I, 4. 

114 " A tall, slender tree, attaining in its native forests a height of sixty to ninety feet, with a 
trunk three or four feet in diameter." " It flourishes on the lower slopes of mountains, on the rocky 
banks of streams, and in narrow valleys, reaching its greatest size and abundance in those about 
the base of the high mountains of Carolina and Tennessee." Silva I, 7. 



40 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Liriodendron tulipifera. m Tulip-tree. Known commercially as yellow poplar, 
though not a Populus and belonging to the Magnoliacece family instead of the 
Salicacete. The only living species of the fossil Liriodendron genus, 118 and 
one of the most valuable 117 of American hardwoods, though occurring in a 
restricted range and nowhere forming compact bodies of timber, the best 
timber averaging in large tracts only 1,000 to 3,000 feet board measure to the 
acre, intermixed with oak and other hardwoods. Range from Rhode Island 
to southwestern Vermont and west to Lake Michigan ; south to Florida, 
southern Alabama, and Mississippi ; west of the Mississippi River in south- 
eastern Missouri and adiacent Arkansas. 118 

Liquidambar 119 styraciflua. 12 Sweet gum. Known also as red gum, and in the 
export markets as satin walnut. A valuable lumber wood, though difficult to 
season properly. Used as a general building, box and veneer lumber and 
(especially in Europe) as a furniture and interior finishing wood. From Con- 
necticut to southeastern Missouri and Arkansas ; south to Florida and Tex- 
as. m Sargent says : " Has its greatest development in the bottom lands of 
the Mississippi basin." 

Platanus occidentalism Sycamore. Sometimes used as a cheap furniture wood, 
but chiefly for tobacco boxes. m Southeastern New Hampshire and southern 
Maine to northern Vermont and Lake Ontario ; west to eastern Nebraska and 

us "One of the largest and most beautiful trees of the American forest. The occidental 
plane and the southern cypress are the only American deciduous trees which grow to a larger size. 
It sometimes attains, under favorable conditions, a height of 160 to 190 feet, with a straight trunk 
eight or ten feet in diameter, destitute of branches for eighty or 100 feet from the ground. Individ- 
uals 100 or 150 feet tall, with trunks five or six feet in diameter, are still common." SUva 1, 19. 

116 "The genus Liriodendron, with a single species, is found in eastern North America and 
western China. It was represented by several species in the Cretaceous age, when the genus was 
widely distributed in North America and Europe. It continued to exist during the Tertiary period, 
with a species, hardly different from the one now living, extending over eastern North America, and 
Europe as far south as Italy, until the advent of Glacial ice destroyed it in Europe, and restricted its 
range in America to the shores of the Gulf of Mexico." Silva 1, 17. 

H7" One of the most valuable products of the American forest. Canoes made from it were 
used by the aborigines when this country was first visited by Europeans, and ever since it has been 
largely manufactured into lumber used in construction, in the interior finish of bouses, in boat build- 
ing, and for shingles, pumps and woodenware." Silva 1, 18. 

118 Though " yellow poplar " has for years been shipped from a wide extent of territory west 
of the Mississippi River, including points as far south as northern Louisiana, it is claimed by some 
careful observers in the lumber trade that no true yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) grows west 
of the Mississippi and that all such shipments have been of cottonwood (Populus deltoides). How- 
ever, Sargent and Sudworth agree in the statement that Liriodendron is found west of the Missis- 
sippi, but so limit its range that the contention noted above is sustained in the main. 

l 19 Liquidambar is now confined to the eastern United States, to central and southern Mexico, 
Central America, the Orient, and middle and southeastern China ; although . . . the immediate 
ancestor of the existing American species inhabited Alaska, Greenland, and the midcontinental 
plateau of North America. . . . Three species are distinguished in the genus as it is now usually 
limited: L. styraciflua is American; L. orientalis inhabits a few provinces in southwestern Asia 
Minor; and L. formosana is found in China and on the island of Formosa." "All the species produce 
hard, straight grained, handsome, dark colored wood and valuable balsamic exudations." Silva 
V.7. 

12 " A tree, eighty to 140 feet in height, with a straight trunk four or five feet in diameter." 
Silva V, 10. 

1 21 " It reappears on the mountains of central and southern Mexico and ranges southward to 
the highlands of Guatemala." Silva V, 11. 

122 " A tree, occasionally 140 to 170 feet in height, with a trunk sometimes ten or eleven feet 
In diameter, above its abruptly enlarged base." Silva VII, 102. Platanus has six or seven species, 
three of them in temperate North America. It flourished in late Cretaceous and Tertiary periods, 
when it inhabited Greenland and arctic America in a form hardly distinguishable from the existing 
species of eastern North America and Europe. 

123 " It is largely used and Is the preferred material for the boxes in which tobacco Is packed, 
for ox-yokes, and butcher blocks, and for furniture and the interior finish of houses, where its broad, 
conspicuous, medullary rays and cheerful color make it valuable." Silva VII, 103. 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 41 

Kansas; south to northern Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi, and 
Texas. The only other two sycamores are western varieties: P.racemosa, 
California to Lower California, and P. wrightii, southwestern New Mexico, 
southern Arizona, and Mexico. Neither are recognized commercial woods. 

Pyrus izt americana. Mountain ash. Also called rowan in Canada and elsewhere. 
Of no commercial importance, but one of the most northern deciduous woods. 
Range from Newfoundland through the upper central part of the Labrador 
Peninsula to Hudson Bay, west to Reindeer Lake and northern Manitoba ; 
south through Quebec and Ontario, Great Lake region, and high elevations 
in northeastern United States to eastern Tennessee, Virginia and North Car- 
olina. 

Prunus 125 serotina. 1 -* Black cherry. Known commercially as cherry, a valuable 
cabinet wood, now becoming scarce, and widely imitated in stained birch. 
From Nova Scotia westward through the Canadian provinces to the Kaminis- 
tiqua River ; south to Florida ; west to North Dakota, eastern Nebraska and 
Kansas, Indian Territory, and eastern Texas ; western Texas in the moun- 
tains. 127 

Robinia 1 pseudacacia. Locust, acacia, yellow locust. 

Gteditsia 129 triacanthos. Honey-locust, three thorned acacia. Although these 
two trees do not even belong to the same genus the wood is very similar and 
has the same commercial uses in both species ; a very strong, hard wood, the 
Robinia somewhat the heavier, both very durable in contact with the ground ; 
used to some extent for cabinet woods, turnery, wagon hubs, and locally for 
construction purposes, but more especially for posts, and now being planted 
by some railroad companies on an extensive scale (more especially the locust) 

124 " The genus Pyrus is widely and generally distributed through the temperate parts of the 
northern hemisphere ; from thirty to forty species may be distinguished. ... In North America 
the genus is represented by seven species, of which five are small trees and two are shrubs of the 
eastern states." Silva IV, 68. This genus includes Pyrus malus, the apple, supposed to be indige- 
nous in the northwestern Himalayas, and Pyrus communis. the pear tree. 

125 " of the genus Prunus, now extended.to include the plums, almonds, peaches, apricots and 
cherries, about 120 species are distinguished. They are generally distributed over the temperate 
regions of the northern hemisphere. . . . The genus is represented in tropical America by nu- 
merous species. ... It has no representative in ... the southern countries of South Amer- 
ica. In North America the genus is spread from the shores of the Atlantic to those of the Pacific, 
and from near the northern limits of tree growth, to southern Mexico. The territory of the United 
States contains at least twenty-five indigenous species, of which fourteen attain arborescent habit, 
and one is a large and important forest tree." Silva IV, 8. 

126 " A tree, . . . sometimes attaining a height of 100 feet, with a stout, straight trunk 
four to five feet in diameter." Silva IV, 45. 'P. serotina is one of the most valuable timber 
trees of the American forests. . . . The wood of no other North American tree is better colored 
or more valuable for cabinet making and the fine interior finish of houses, and the great demand for 
It for these purposes has caused a destruction of the largest and best trees in all parts of the coon- 
try."-Silva IV, 46-7. 

127 Sargent enlarges the range of P. serotina, stating it is distributed along the mountain 
ranges of southern New Mexico and Arizona and on those of Mexico and the Pacific regions of Cen- 
tral America, Colombia and Peru. (Silva IV, 46.) 

128 "The genus Robinia is North American. Four species inhabit the territory of the United 
States ; and two, or possibly more, very imperfectly known, occur in Mexico." Silva III, 37. 

129 " Gleditsia is represented in the flora of eastern America by two species, one of which Is 
the type of the genus." Silya III, 73. Besides honey-locust and other species is aquatica, the water 
locust. It grows " fifty to sixty feet in height, with a short trunk from two to two and a half feet in 
diameter, usually dividing a few feet from the ground." Silva III, 79. Water locust is " found in 
the coast region of the southern Atlantic states, from South Carolina to Matanzas Inlet in Florida, 
and in the gulf states from the shores of Tampa Bay to the valley of the Brazos River in Texas : 
It spreads northward through western Louisiana and southern Arkansas to middle Kentucky and 
Tennessee, and to southern Illinois and Indiana." Sflva III, 80. 



42 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

in order to provide future railroad tie material. R. pseudacacia ranges in the 
Appalachian Mountains 130 from Pennsylvania to northern Georgia, and is 
probably also indigenous in parts of Arkansas and Indian Territory ; widely 
naturalized and escaped from cultivation in many other parts of the country. 
G. triacanthos ranges from the western slopes of the Allegheny Mountains in 
Pennsylvania to Georgia and west to Texas through the gulf states ; and from 
Pennsylvania west through southern Michigan 131 to eastern Nebraska and 
Kansas, and Indian Territory ; escaped from cultivation in many other sec- 
tions ; ' ' reaching its greatest development in the bottoms of the lower Ohio 
River basin ' ' (Sargent) . 

Swietenia 132 mahogani. 133 Mahogany. Occurs in the United States only on the 
Florida Keys, and not in commercial size and quantity there, though it some- 
times reaches a diameter of two feet in that locality. Worthy of mention 
because of its commercial importance as the most valuable wood of the North 
American tropics. 134 

Ilex 135 opaca. American holly. Being the only holly of economic value, it is usu- 
ally known commercially simply as holly. A valuable cabinet and turnery 
wood, nearly white in color and turning light brown on exposure. Coast re- 
gion from Massachusetts to Florida, through the gulf states to eastern Texas, 
and from southern Indiana south in the Mississippi River valley, "reaching 
its greatest development in the rich bottoms of southern Arkansas and eastern 
Texas" (Sargent). 

Acer saccharum (Acer barbatum 1 * 1 ) . Sugar maple. Called also hard or rock 
maple. The most valuable 138 commercial species, and usually indicated 

130" it is most common and attains its best development on the western slopes of the moun- 
tains of West Virginia." Silva III, 40. 

131 "in the valleys of the smaller streams of southern Indiana and Illinois G. triacanthos at- 
tains its greatest size and majesty. Here individuals may still [1893] be found from 120 to 140 
feet in height, with trunks six feet in diameter and free of branches for sixty or seventy feet." 
Silva III. 76. 

132 " Swietenia, of which three species are recognized, is tropical American and west-tropical 
African. S. mahagoni, the type of the genus and one of the most valuable timber trees known, is 
dirtributed from south Florida, the most northern station of the genus, to Mexico, Central America 
and Peru. S. humilis, perhaps a form of the last species, is found on the Pacific Coast of Mexico. 
5. angolensis, a large deciduous tree, inhabits the mountain forests of central Quitta in west-tropical 
Africa." Silva I. 99. 

133 " A tree, with a trunk forty or fifty feet in height and six or eight feet in diameter above the 
swell of the great buttresses which sometimes expand ten or twelve feet from the trunk, and with 
massive spreading branches." " Grows in Florida on Key Largo and on Elliott's Key. It is found 
on the Bahama and West India islands; it is widely distributed in tropical Mexico and Central 
America and occurs in Peru." Silva 1, 1OO, 101. 

134 " T ne wood of other trees sometimes appears in commerce under the name of mahogany 
. . . Khaya senegalensis, a large tree of west-tropical Africa, supplies the so-called African ma- 
hogany." Silva 1, 101, footnote No. 3. 

135 " About 175 species are now recognized, the headquarters of the genus, as represented by 
the largest number of species, being in Brazil and Guiana, where sixty-seven are known. The 
mountain regions of western South America contain at least ten species ; seven have been distin- 
guished in southern Mexico and Central America and ten in the West Indies ; while in eastern North 
America there are thirteen or perhaps fourteen species, of which four are small trees." Silva I, 
103-4. 

136" The genus Acer Is represented in all the geographico-botanical divisions of the northern 
hemisphere, but extends south of the Equator only to the mountains of Java. ... In North 
America nine species occur ; five of these belong to the Atlantic and two to the Pacific region ; one 
Is peculiar to the central mountain ranges and one extends across the continent." Silva II, 79, 80. 

137 Preferred by Sargent. 

138 " A noble tree, 100 or 120 feet high, with a trunk three or four feet in diameter, rising 
sometimes in the forest to the height of sixty or seventy feet without a branch." "A. barbatum 
is one of the most widely and generally distributed trees of eastern North America." " The wood 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 43 

where "maple" is specified. "Bird's-eye" and "curly" maple are acci- 
dental (not varietal) forms of this species. From southern Newfoundland to 
Lake of the Woods and Minnesota ; south through the northern states, and on 
the Allegheny Mountains to northern Georgia and western Florida; west to 
eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and eastern Texas. 

Acer saccharinum (A. dasycarfnim Ehrhart). Silver maple. Usually known com- 
mercially as soft maple, and used to some extent for furniture, flooring, etc., as 
a cheaper substitute for hard maple, being lighter in weight 139 and of inferior 
wearing quality. From New Brunswick to western Florida ; west to southern 
Ontario, and through Michigan to eastern Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and 
Indian Territory. Widely cultivated elsewhere as a shade tree. 

Acer negundo (Negundo aceroides Moench) . Box elder. Also known as ash-leaved 
maple, mountain maple, Manitoba maple. Commercially of somewhat limited 
use for interior finish, woodenware, cooperage and paper pulp. The most 
northern of the Acer genus, extending from Vermont, 140 New York, and 
eastern Pennsylvania m northwestward to Winnipeg, to the eastern base of 
the Rocky Mountains in British Columbia, and to Montana, Utah, western 
Texas, New Mexico and eastern Arizona ; south in the eastern mountains to 
Florida. 

Acer rubrum. Red maple, swamp maple. A species generally distributed through- 
out the eastern half of the United States, frequenting, especially, the borders of 
streams and swamps. Its wood is heavy and close grained, but easily worked 
and not very strong. It is used in the manufacture of furniture, turnery, for 
woodenware and for gun stocks. From New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario 
( latitude 49 degrees) to Florida ; west to Lake of the Woods, eastern Dakota 
and Nebraska ; Indian Territory and eastern Texas. 

Tilia UJ americana. Basswood. Also known as linden, and locally as linn, lind or 
lein. A commercially important wood of wide distribution, though the genus 
is not represented at all on the Pacific Coast. Range, New Brunswick to Vir- 
ginia and along the Allegheny Mountains to Georgia and Alabama; west in 
Canada to Lakes Superior and Winnipeg, to the Assiniboine River, and in the 
United States to the eastern Dakotas, eastern Nebraska, Kansas, Indian Ter- 
ritory and eastern Texas. 143 T. heterophylla, or white basswood, is undistin- 

of the sugar maple is more valuable and more generally used than that of any other American 
maple." SOva II, 97, 98. 

139 Sargent (Sflva, volume II, page 98 and page 1O4) gives the specific gravity of absolutely 
dry wood of sugar maple as 0.6912, equivalent to a weight of 43.O8 pounds a cubic foot, while the 
specific gravity of soft maple is 0.5269, equivalent to a weight per cubic foot of 32.84 pounds. 

140 Doctor Bell speaks of Minnesota as being the general eastern limit of this tree, and his 
timber map does not show its boundary line east of the point where it strikes the western end of 
Lake Superior. 

141 "I am not certain if this tree is native in Pennsylvania. Around Easton it is spread 
everywhere over fields from the seeds of trees planted along the streets of the city." T. C. Porter, 
quoted by Sargent in Silva XIV, 99. 

142 " The genus Tilia is widely distributed in the temperate regions of the northern hemi- 
sphere. ... It is represented in eastern North America by four species, of which one is 
Mexican." Sflva I, 49. 

143 " T. america.no. is one of the most common trees in the northern forest. It occupied, 
before the country was generally cleared, large tracts of the richest land to the exclusion of other 
trees, or often formed two-thirds of the forest growth. . . . It is less common towards the south- 
ern and western limits of its range than it is near the northern boundary of the United States ; 
reaching, however, its greatest size on the bottom lands of the streams which flow from the north 
into the lower Ohio River." Sflva I, 53. 



44 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

guished commercially within its range, which is from Pennsylvania through 
the Allegheny Mountains to western and central Florida and Alabama ; west 
to southern Indiana and Illinois, Kentucky and middle Tennessee. 

Cornus florida. Flowering dogwood. Known commercially as boxwood. An 
extremely hard wood of some use in turnery, and for engraving blocks, shuttle 
blocks and other limited special purposes. From eastern Massachusetts to 
central Florida, and west through southern Ontario, southern Michigan, to 
southwestern Missouri, southeastern Kansas, 144 Texas and Mexico. Having its 
greatest development in the South. 

Nyssa 14S sylvatica. Black gum. Known also as tupelo, but the tupelo gum of 
commercial nomenclature is the following species. From Maine to Florida ; 
west to southern Ontario, southern Michigan, southeastern Missouri, and 
Texas. 

Nyssa aquatica lM (N. tmiflora Wangenheim). Tupelo gum. Also known com- 
mercially, and particularly in the export trade, as bay poplar. Used for 
wagon hubs, turnery, cooperage, and coming into use as a cheap furniture 
and interior finish wood. Coast region from southern Virginia to northern 
Florida, and through the gulf states to Texas ; northward through Arkansas, 
western Tennessee, and Kentucky, southern and southeastern Missouri to 
southern Illinois. 

Diospyros 1 * 1 virginiana. 1 Persimmon. Of considerable commercial utility for 
nearly the same purposes as dogwood (except engravers' blocks) , and prob- 
ably used in larger quantity than that wood ; 149 preferred for shuttle blocks. 
Range from Connecticut and southern New York to Florida ; from southern 
Ohio to southern Alabama ; west to southwestern Iowa, southern Missouri and 
eastern Kansas, Indian Territory, and Texas. 

Fraxinus 15 americana . l51 White ash. 152 From Nova Scotia and Newfoundland 



144 Silva XIV, 101, Is authority for Including southeastern Kansas. 

145 " jVyssa is now confined to the eastern United States, where three species are distinguished, 
and to southern Asia, where the genus is represented by a single species." Silva V, 73. 

146 " A tree, eighty to 100 feet in height, with a trunk three or four feet in diameter above the 
greatly enlarged tapering base." Silva V, 83. "It is an inhabitant of deep swamps inundated 
during a part of every year, growing in great numbers with the cypress, the liquidambar, the swamp 
white oak, the water ash, the scarlet maple, the water locust and the cottonwood. In some parts of 
the country, especially in the valley of the lower Mississippi River, the tupelo gum is one of the 
largest and most abundant of the semiaquatic trees. It attains its greatest size in the cypress 
swamps of western Louisiana and eastern Texas." Silva V, 84. 

14 ? Diospyros . About 160 species, abounding principally in tropical Asia and Malaysia. Not 
represented in western North America. Two species in eastern North America. The ebony of 
commerce, and some other cabinet woods, is furnished by tropical species of this genus. 

148 " A tree, usually thirty to fifty feet in height, with a short trunk rarely more than twelve 
inches in diameter." Silva VI. 7. 

149 " It is employed in turnery, for shoe lasts, plane stocks, and many small articles of do- 
mestic use ; for shuttles it is preferred to other American woods." Silva VI, 9. 

150 Fraxinus. Thirty species, nearly half of which inhabit North America. Found in all parts 
except the extreme north. The type is an ancient one, and during the Tertiary period inhabited the 
Arctic Circle, from which It gradually spread southward. Sargent gives f. guadrangulata, or blue 
beech, as " largely used for flooring, and in carriage building, and probably not often distinguished 
commercially from that of the other species of the northern and middle states." Silva VI, 36. 

151 " A tree sometimes 128 feet in height, with a tall, massive trunk five or six feet in diam- 
eter, although usually much smaller." Silva VI, 43. 

152 " One of the most valuable timber trees of North America. . . . It is used in immense 
quantities in the manufacture of agricultural implements, for the handles of tools, in carriage build- 
ing, and for oars and furniture, and in the interior finish of buildings." >Silva VI, 44, 45. 



NORTH AMERICAN FOREST GEOGRAPHY. 45 

to Florida; westward to Ontario and northern Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, 
Kansas, Indian Territory and Texas. 

Fraxinus lanceolata 15 * (F. viridis Michaux). Green ash. Inferior commercially 
to white ash, though often substituted. From Vermont to northern Florida; 
westward to the Saskatchewan River, eastern ranges of the Rocky Mountains, 
and extending into Utah and northern Arizona, and through eastern Texas. 

Fraxinus nigra 15 * (F. sambucifolia Lamarck). Black ash. A coarser wood than 
white ash, but nearly as largely used for many purposes. 155 From the north- 
ern shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Newfoundland to Manitoba, and 
southward to Delaware, Virginia, southern Illinois, central Missouri, and 
northwestern Arkansas. 

Catalpa 158 speciosa. 1 * 1 Hardy catalpa. Well adapted for cabinet work and interior 
finish, but more largely used for posts, railroad ties and for other purposes 
which bring it in contact with the soil, on account of its remarkable durabil- 
ity in such location, 158 it being preeminent among soft and rapidly growing 
woods in this respect. It has therefore been planted to some extent by rail- 
road companies to grow for tie and fence post uses. Through southern Illi- 
nois and Indiana, western Kentucky and Tennessee, southeastern Missouri 
and northeastern Arkansas ; elsewhere naturalized through cultivation, espe- 
cially in southeastern Arkansas, western Louisiana, and eastern Texas. Should 
not be confounded with the common catalpa of dwarf habit widely planted 
as a shade tree (C. catalpa 159 ). 

153 Sargent gives this as a variety of F. Pennsylvania*. Silva VI, 5O, and footnote No. 4. 

154 " A tree, occasionally eighty or ninety feet in height, with a tall trunk rarely exceeding 
twenty inches in diameter." Sflva VI, 37. 

155 " It Is largely used In the interior finish of houses and cabinet making, and for fences, bar- 
rel hoops, and in the making of baskets." Silva VI, 38. 

158 Catalpa. "Is now confined to the eastern United States, the West Indies and China." 
Seven species, two in North America. Not seriously injured by insects or fungal diseases. Silva 

157 " A tree, in the forest occasionally 12O feet in height, with a tall, straight trunk rarely four 
and one-half feet in diameter ; usually smaller, though often 10O feet high, and when grown in open 
places rarely more than fifty feet in height, with a short trunk." Sflva VI, 89. 

158 " It is largely used for railway ties, fence posts and rails, and occasionally for furniture 
and the interior finish of houses." Silva VI, 90. 

:5 _ 9 C. catalpa.^ " A tree, rarely sixty feet in height, with a short trunk sometimes three or four 
feet in diameter." " It is used and highly valued for fence posts, rails and other purposes where 
durable wood is needed." Sflva VI, 86, 87. 



CHAPTER III. 

LABRADOR AND NEWFOUNDLAND. 

In taking up a discussion of the forest resources and lumber history 
of British North America it seems wise first to dispose of that com- 
paratively small territory which did not in 1867 enter the Canadian 
Confederacy and thus become a part of the Dominion of Canada. 
Newfoundland remained independent, accountable only to the Imperial 
government and, therefore, with its jurisdictional dependency, the Lab- 
rador Coast, will be first considered. 

LABRADOR. 

A strip of seacoast 1,100 miles in length and, for the most part, con- 
sisting of bleak, rocky, forbidding cliffs opposing themselves to the 
waters of the Atlantic, comprises the present Labrador, under the juris- 
diction of Newfoundland. It lies between the parallels of 52 and 61 
degrees north latitude (about), and meridians 55 and 65 degrees west 
longitude from Greenwich, extending from Hudson Strait on the north, 
in a southeasterly direction to the Strait of Belle Isle on the south, 
which separates it from Newfoundland. To the southwest is the north- 
eastern extremity of the Province of Quebec and the territory of Un- 
gava, both of which formerly formed a part of Labrador. Previous to 
1895 Labrador 1 included all that territory extending from Hudson and 
James bays and Ontario on the west to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and 
the Atlantic on the east, the southern boundary being the "Height of 
Land," but during that year a division was made and the eastern coast 
strip, comprising about 7,000 square miles, was designated as Labra- 
dor, and the region to the west as Ungava, which, being a territory 
of Canada, will be treated under that head, though often referred to 
as " the Labrador Peninsula," in accordance with still prevailing habits 
of thought. 

Hundreds of years before the time of Columbus, Labrador is be- 
lieved to have been visited by Northmen from Greenland and Iceland. 
In the year 1000 Leif, son of Eric the Red, started out to find an un- 

l Prior to the creation of the district of Ungava, In 1895, and the limitation of the jurisdiction 
of Labrador to a coast strip, and prior to an order in council on December 18, 1897, by which the 
boundaries of Ungava were changed, Labrador had an area estimated at about 420,000 square 
miles. By the changes referred to, the former area of Labrador was distributed about as follows : 
Labrador Coast 7.0OO square miles, Ungava 355,000 square miles, while the area of Quebec was 
increased by about 58,000 square miles. 

46 



LABRADOR AND NEWFOUNDLAND. 47 

known land, which Biarne Heriulfson, sailing from Iceland to Green- 
land in 986 and being driven by a storm to the south, said he saw. 
Leif was successful, spent the winter in this new land, explored it and 
named different regions he visited Helluland, Markland and Vinland. 
Some investigators believed Helluland to be identical with Newfound- 
land, while others believe Helluland to have been Labrador or the 
north coast of Newfoundland, and Markland, Newfoundland. To just 
what extent these Norse records are to be credited is doubtful. Much 
of fiction has doubtless been woven in with the truth, as the records 
were made two hundred years after the voyages. Certain it is that no 
definite proof has ever been found of the presence of the Northmen on 
the American continent. 

Labrador has the honor of being the first of the American continent 
to be reached by an explorer in modern historical times. Nearly four- 
teen months before Columbus on his third voyage saw the mainland of 
the new world he had unknowingly brought to light, and over two 
years before Amerigo Vespucci sailed west of the Canaries, on June 
24, 1497, John Cabot discovered the western continent by sighting the 
dreary cliffs of Labrador. It was probably at about 56 degrees north 
latitude that he made his discovery. He skirted the coast for many 
leagues, coming also to the island of Newfoundland. 

In 1500 Cortereal, a Portuguese navigator, voyaged to Newfound- 
and and Labrador, and is said to have given its name, which means 
" laborers' land," to Labrador. This name is accounted for in another 
way, also : A whaler by the name of Labrador penetrated the country 
as far as a bay, which, in honor of him, was called Labrador, though it 
is now known as Bradore Bay. In time the whole coast was given the 
whaler's name. Gomez, who sailed from Spain in 1525, while searching 
all along the coast from the sunny shores of Florida and Cuba to the 
frozen regions of the north in hope of finding a passage to India, came 
also to Labrador. But the distinction of being the first to make a land- 
ing on Canadian soil is given to Jacques Cartier, who landed at Esqui- 
maux Bay, now called Hamilton Inlet, on June 21, 1534. 

The history of the lumber industry of Labrador can be given in a 
single word, " nil." Comprising, as this country now does, but a nar- 
row strip of sea coast, made up of rocky cliffs and fringed by many 
stony islands, and having its shores washed by the chilling Arctic cur- 
rent, which gives it an intensely cold and rigorous climate, there is not 
much chance for the growth of trees. What few there are have a 
stunted growth and are of practically no commercial value. 



48 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

An account of the coast of Labrador was found among some papers 
of Sir Francis Bernard, governor of the province of Massachusetts Bay 
at the time it was written. The following is taken from this account : 
" Captain Henry Atkins sailed from Boston in the ship called the 
Whale, on a voyage to Davis Strait in 1729. ... As Captain 
Atkins coasted that main, he found the country full of woods, alder, 
yew, birch and witch-hazel, a light, fine wood for shipbuilding ; also 
fine, large pines for ship-masts, of a much finer grain than in New 
England, and of course tougher and more durable, though of a slower 
growth; and no question but naval stores may be produced here." 

If, as the account says, this is a description of the coast of Labra- 
dor, it is very different from a true representation of that region today, 
and it seems from present indications that this must be a description of 
another coast passed by Captain Atkins on his journey north. 

Practically the only industry of Labrador is its fisheries. During 
the fishing season thousands of fishermen from Canada, the United 
States and Newfoundland flock to the Labrador coast. The shore itself 
is adapted to this pursuit, as it is indented along its entire length by 
deep fiords and inlets. Cod, herring, salmon and seal are the principal 
fisheries. 

NEWFOUNDLAND. 

Newfoundland with its dependency, Labrador, constitutes one of 
the oldest colonies of Great Britain. This may be due to the fact that 
it is the nearest of any point in the western hemisphere to Europe. In 
size it is the tenth largest island in the world and contains 42,734 
square miles, having an area approximating that of the State of New 
York. It lies at the entrance to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in the At- 
lantic Ocean, between the parallels of 46 degrees 37 minutes and 51 
degrees 39 minutes north latitude, and in longitude west from Green- 
wich between 52 degrees 35 minutes and 59 degrees 25 minutes. 

Lying, as it does, so near Labrador, from the southern point of 
which it is separated, at its northern extremity, by the Strait of Belle 
Isle, ten miles in width, it is not strange that the dates of its early dis- 
coveries and explorations are almost identical with those of Labrador. 
Newfoundland, like Labrador, is supposed to have been visited by the 
Northmen in the year 1000, and is thought by some to be the Helluland 
of Leif. In 1497 John Cabot discovered Newfoundland after touching 
the Labrador coast to the north. In 1500 Gaspar Cortereal, perhaps 
using Cabot's charts as a guide, struck the coast of Newfoundland at a 



LABRADOR AND NEWFOUNDLAND. 49 

point north of Cape Race, on the southeastern coast. For a number of 
years after Cortereal's voyage the English continued sending ships to 
the island, chiefly for the purpose of fisheries. The Portuguese also 
established fisheries at about the same time. In 1524 Verrazano, in 
the interest of France, coasted from North Carolina to Newfoundland. 
In 1525 Gomez, sailing from Spain, reached Cape Race. Jacques Car- 
tier in May, 1534, touched Cape Bonavista, in latitude 46 degrees 
north, but, finding the land still covered with snow and the shore ice- 
bound, he dared not attempt landing. 

Several unsuccessful attempts at colonization were made by Eng- 
land, the first being in 1583. Lord Baltimore, who afterward figured 
in the history of Maryland, was at last successful in planting a colony 
on the eastern coast about forty miles north of Cape Race in the year 
1623. Immigrants came later from Ireland, and colonies prospered, 
until by 1655 Newfoundland contained a population of about 2,000, dis- 
tributed in fifteen small settlements along the east coast. These set- 
tlements were made up of fishermen of different nationalities, the 
French being especially active and having established several colonies. 
France desired possession of the whole island, but by the treaty of 
Utrecht, in 1713, Newfoundland and its dependencies were declared to 
be the possessions of Great Britain. Fishing rights were, however, 
reserved to the French, which rights have been a matter of dispute 
ever since. 

Newfoundland has never joined the Canadian Confederacy, and 
though attempts have been made repeatedly toward that end it still 
remains an independent colony of Great Britain. 

The coast of Newfoundland is rugged and rocky, and deeply cut by 
numerous fiords and bays, which furnish a great number of good har- 
bors. The coast is practically treeless, but the interior of the island 
contains valuable forests, especially in the regions of the rivers. The 
interior is an undulating plateau traversed by ranges of low hills. Near 
the western coast is the principal mountain range, known as Long 
Range, which extends nearly the entire length of the island, reaching 
far into the northwestern part, which is a long peninsula stretching in 
a northeasterly direction past the Strait of Belle Isle. This peninsula 
is believed to be barren for the most part and undesirable for settle- 
ment. Newfoundland contains a remarkably large number of lakes and 
rivers. Most of the larger rivers have their source in the lakes in 
the interior, taking their courses through many fertile valleys in all di- 



50 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

rections to the ocean. This interior region has not yet been thor- 
oughly explored, and it was not until later than 1880, when railroad con- 
struction was begun, that much was known of its physical characteristics. 
The largest river is the Exploits, which rises in the southwestern part 
of the island, flows in a northeastern direction, expands near the central 
part into the Red Indian Lake, and empties into the Bay of Exploits, 
an inlet from Notre Dame Bay. This river drains an area of between 
3,000 and 4,000 square miles, many parts of the valley through which it 
flows containing forests of fine pine timber. The largest lake of New- 
foundland is Grand Lake, about fifty-six miles long and five miles 
broad ; the next in size is Red Indian Lake, nearly thirty-seven miles 
long and five or six miles in width. 

While the east coast of Newfoundland is practically treeless the 
interior is well wooded. The following is a list of the principal trees 
found on the island, given in order, beginning with the one covering 
the least area, or, in other words, the one whose northern limit is the 
farthest south: 

Sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Of very limited area. Found on 
the northern and eastern shores of St. George's Bay, which is on the 
west coast just north of the southwestern point of the island. 

White elm ( ' Ulmus americana). Found on St. George's Bay and on 
the peninsula stretching to the southwest of the bay, as far as Cape 
Ray, the extreme southwestern point of Newfoundland. 

Black ash ( ' Fraxinus nigra or F. sambucifolia). Grows over the 
entire Southwestern Peninsula and to the eastward along the southern 
shore of Newfoundland. 

Yellow birch (Betula lutea). Grows in the central and southern 
part of the island, covering about .seventy-five percent of the whole 
area. 

White and red pine ( Pinus strobus and P. resinosa). Occupy about 
eighty-five percent of the entire area, being found in all parts except 
the Northern Peninsula and the northeast coast region. 

Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) '. Found in all parts of the island except 
the northern half of the Northern Peninsula. 

Paper birch ( Betula papyrif era), aspen ( ' Populus tremuloides), balsam 
poplar (Populus balsamifera) , commonly known as balm of Gilead, and 
larch (Larix laricina or L. americana), commonly called tamarack, are 
found in all parts of Newfoundland except the northern part of the 
Northern Peninsula, the limit of each one extending slightly farther to 
the north than the preceding one. 



LABRADOR AND NEWFOUNDLAND. 51 

Black spruce and white spruce (Picea mariana or P. nigra, and P. 
canadensis or P. alba). Found over the entire island except the north- 
eastern extremity of the Northern Peninsula. 

It is only recently that the immense timber resources of the forests 
of the interior of Newfoundland have been made available, owing to 
the want of means of communication. The island is but sparsely set- 
tled, the inhabitants being mainly confined to the neighborhood of the 
coast, where, until recently, they were engaged almost exclusively in 
the fisheries. Persons to whose interest it was to keep the inhabitants 
at the fisheries, represented the interior as a barren waste ; however, 
the exact opposite has been proved to be the truth. The lumber indus- 
try has been on a small scale until a few years ago, when it began to 
develop rapidly owing to the stimulus of railway construction, which 
opened up some of the best lumbering districts in the interior. The 
Newfoundland railway, which traverses the entire island from St. 
John's, on the Southeastern Peninsula, to Port-aux-Basques, in the 
southwestern extremity, a distance of 548 miles, was opened for traffic 
over its entire length in 1898. Sections of it had been in operation for 
some years before that time, which had done a good deal to develop 
the lumber trade. 

Newfoundland contains large tracts of pine, besides great areas of 
spruce suitable for pulpwood, and fir which is as tough as spruce and 
has been found by exhaustive tests to make almost as good pulp. The 
utilization of fir greatly increases the quantity of timber available for 
pulp purposes. The principal lumbering districts are the Gander, Gambo 
and Exploits valleys, and on the west coast the Humber valley and St. 
George's Bay district. 

The "History of Newfoundland," by D. W. Prowse, published in 
1895, contains the following reference to the progress of the lumbering 
industry as the result of railway construction : 

Although only in operation for one season the northern railway has developed 
splendid granite quarries and a lumber business which bids fair to be one of the 
greatest industries of the colony, already consisting of several great mills besides 
smaller operators and hand loggers whose united turn-out this year [1893] will not 
be less than 20,000,000 feet of lumber. Botwoodville, owned by the Exploits Lum- 
ber Company, of London, will cut 6,000,000 feet of lumber; the Benton mill at 
Soulis Brook, owned by Mr. Reid, another 6,000,000 ; the Campbell mill at Terra 
Nova River, 3,000,000; Sterritt's mill at Gander Crossing, Glenwood, about 1,000,- 
000. At Gambo there are the five mills of Messrs. John Murphy and Osmond ; at 
Gander Arm, Philips' mill, with unrivaled facilities for collecting and shipping; 
Arthur's mill, and some smaller establishments. The whole cut of timber for the 
season of 1893 may be safely estimated at 20,000,000 feet, which, at the low average 
price of $15 a thousand feet, amounts to $300,000. 



52 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

American capital is transforming the lumber business of Newfound- 
land. A corporation, The Timber Estates Company, headed by H. M. 
Whitney, of Boston, Massachusetts, acquired several of the largest 
properties in the island and in 1904 operated them on a scale unequaled 
before. George J. Barker, of Boston, acquired another large grant and 
developed it extensively, and an American syndicate in 1904 began ne- 
gotiating for tracts on the west coast for charcoal manufacture as well 
as lumbering operations. 

One of the largest operators on the island until he sold to The Tim- 
ber Estates Company in 1903, was Lewis Miller, a Scotchman, who for 
a quarter of a century was engaged in lumbering operations in Sweden. 
Owing to the exhaustion of the supply which he controlled there, he 
removed his plant to Newfoundland about 1900, erected three large 
sawmills, built twenty-five miles of branch railway and sidings and con- 
structed the largest lumber wharf in the colony at Lewisport, on Notre 
Dame Bay, on the east coast. His output of lumber was handled over 
fifty to seventy-five miles of the Newfoundland railway to this wharf. 
The product of his mills was principally spruce, but included a quantity 
of white pine and tamarack. The largest of these sawmills, located on 
Red Indian Lake and reached by a branch line, twenty-one miles in 
length, connecting with the Newfoundland railway, employed over three 
hundred people day and night. It is estimated that the limits which he 
owned, provided that they escape devastation by forest fires, will yield 
a yearly cut of 40,000,000 feet for the next fifty years. 

Latterly Newfoundland has attracted numerous lumbermen who for- 
merly operated in Nova Scotia, but who have been compelled to aban- 
don or limit their business there on account of the depletion of their 
limits. Another factor which tends to the growth of the industry in 
this colony is the great advantage which it possesses over the Maritime 
Provinces of the Dominion in point of nearness to the European mar- 
kets, the distance being much shorter than that from the most eastern 
ports of the mainland. 

The enormous pulpwood resources of the island are attracting much 
attention from British manufacturers, owing to the increasing difficulty 
experienced by English newspaper proprietors in securing adequate 
supplies of paper. Alfred Harmsworth & Bros., publishers of the 
Daily Mail and other journals in London, have secured from the New- 
foundland Timber Estates Company, for the sum of $500,000, the pulp 
concession on 2,000 square miles of timber in the interior, for the estab- 
lishment of a large pulp and paper-making plant. 



LABRADOR AND NEWFOUNDLAND. 53 

Accurate information as to the extent of the lumbering industry of 
Newfoundland is afforded by the census of 1901, according to which 
there were, in the year previous, 195 sawmills, valued at $292,790, for 
the supply of which 1,616,449 logs were cut, the output being 43,648,- 
000 superficial feet of sawn lumber, of the value of $480,555, and 16,- 
197,000 shingles. The number of men employed was 1,408 in logging 
and 2,408 in the mills. 

A comparison with the corresponding figures of the census of 1891 
shows the rapid development of the industry during the decade and in- 
dicates that in all probability there has been an equal rate of increase 
during the last few years. In 1890 (census of 1891) the number of 
sawmills reported was fifty-three, valued at $178,510 ; number of logs 
cut, 415,600 ; output, 13,682,000 superficial feet of sawn lumber, valued 
at $299,634, and 6,275,000 shingles ; number of lumberers employed, 
625 ; number employed in mills, 807. 2 

The cut of lumber in 1904 was by far the largest in the lumber 
history of Newfoundland, being double that of the preceding year, and 
was divided among the different mills as follows : Newfoundland Tim- 
ber Estates, Limited, 40,000,000 feet; New Lands Lumber & Pulp 
Company, 7,000,000; Botwoodville Mills, 10,000,000; Union Lumber 
Company, 10,000,000; Grand Pond and Deer Lake, 3,000,000; small 
mills, west coast, 2,500,000; small mills of White Bay, Notre Dame 
Bay, Bonavista Bay, Trinity Bay, Conception Bay and southwest coast, 
3,500,000; total, 76,000,000 feet. Of this amount 35,000,000 feet was 
exported, Great Britain being the chief market for it, some going to 
South America, and the remainder used for local demands. As short 
a time as fifteen years ago, most of the lumber used in Newfound- 
land was imported from Nova Scotia and other Canadian provinces, 
while now enough is manufactured within its own boundaries not only 
to supply the home demand but also to ship millions of feet to foreign 
countries. 

CROWN LANDS TIMBER REGULATIONS. 

Until a comparatively recent date no government dues were exacted 
from those engaging in lumbering. Subsequently a ground tax of $2 
a square mile was imposed with Crown dues of fifty cents a thousand 
feet on the cut, coupled with the condition that the purchasers of limits 

2 These statistics include Labrador (as that territory is tinder the government of Newfound- 
land), which at that time comprised what is now the territory of Ungava as well as the present 
Labrador, the division not having been made until 1895 ; but the lumber industry in that quarter was 
and is even yet very limited in extent. 



54 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

must put up a mill and begin manufacturing within one year. In 1903 
amendments were adopted making the regulations considerably more 
stringent. Under the law, as it now stands, timber licenses are issued 
at a bonus of so much a square mile, the amount being fixed according 
to location and value, but in no case to be less than $2. In addition, 
an annual ground rent of $2 a square mile is charged, together with a 
royalty of fifty cents a thousand feet board measure on all trees cut 
except in Labrador, where the royalty is fixed at twenty-five cents a 
thousand. The licensee is bound to erect a sawmill of a capacity of 
1,000 feet a day for every five square miles in his limit, or, as an alter- 
native, to establish such manufactory of wood goods as may be con- 
sidered an equivalent. The license may be granted for fifty years or 
for a longer period if deemed necessary. The licensee is bound to take 
from every tree cut all the timber fit for use and manufacture the same 
into sawn lumber or other salable products, to prevent all unnecessary 
destruction of growing timber and to exercise strict supervision to 
pre ventures. 

Licenses to cut timber for pulp and paper manufacture may be 
granted for ninety-nine years or longer for areas of not less than five 
or more than one hundred and fifty square miles, at a charge of $5 a 
mile and subsequent payments of $3 a mile a year. The licensee must 
spend $20,000 in the erection of buildings and machinery. No holder 
of either a timber or pulp license is allowed to remove for exportation 
any unmanufactured logs or timber. 

Every indication points to a very extensive development of the 
lumbering and pulp-making industries of Newfoundland in the near 
future, as, in addition to abundance of the raw material, the island 
possesses unrivaled water power, cheaper labor than is obtainable else- 
where in North America and a shorter sea voyage to the principal 
markets than any rival. The principal danger to be feared is that of 
the destruction of her forests by fire as the country is opened up. It is 
estimated that the loss in 1904 from this source amounted to about 
$20,000,000. Unless some better means of meeting this cause of annual 
loss be adopted than those now in force, it is certain to prove a serious 
drawback to the anticipated prosperity of the trade. 

Forest fires were not unknown in this colony as early as 1818, as the 
following account of the voyage of H. M. S. Rosamond in that year to 
Newfoundland and the southern coast of Labrador, given by Edward 
Chappelle, will show: 



LABRADOR AND NEWFOUNDLAND. 55 

"On the third day after our arrival one of our seamen, while em- 
ployed in felling timber for the ship's use, was so imprudent as to 
kindle a fire in the forest, in the hope that, by the smoke, he would 
probably rid himself and his companions of the innumerable myriads of 
mosquitoes, which tormented them almost to madness. This scheme 
succeeded to their utmost wish, and they were rejoicing at their deliv- 
erance, when, in an instant, the whole country appeared enveloped in 
fire ! A high wind drove the flames from tree to tree with the rapidity 
of lightning ; and had it not been for the intervention of the river, the 
whole of the forest must have been inevitably reduced to ashes. . . . 
The rapidity with which the flames spread in the forests of these coun- 
tries has been noticed by many early writers." 



CHAPTER IV. 

CANADA ITS COMMERCIAL FORESTS. 

Before taking up in detail the provinces and territories constituting 
the Dominion of Canada, it is well to review briefly the extent and 
location of the commercial forests of that country and to discuss various 
matters concerning the lumber interests of the Dominion as a whole. 

The commercial forests of Canada are divided into two great sec- 
tions the eastern and the western. The western, which is included in 
the Rocky Mountain region and on the Pacific slope, will be reserved 
for detailed treatment in connection with the history of the lumber 
industry of the Pacific Coast of the United States, with which it is so 
closely connected and which have been developed together. 

These western forests of commercial importance are practically all 
contained within the Province of British Columbia, the outlying wood- 
lands and forests east and north of the Province being comparatively 
unimportant. The coast region of British Columbia, however, including 
Vancouver and other islands, is wonderfully rich in timber resources, 
probably being excelled in this respect by no section of similar size in 
the world. 

British Columbia includes nearly all the Pacific Coast species par- 
ticularly treated in the previous chapter. The leading woods are red 
fir ( Pseudotsuga taxi folia), giant arborvitae, or red cedar, western 
hemlock, bull pine ( Pinus ponderosa), Engelmann spruce, tideland 
spruce, white pine (Pinus monticola), lowland fir (Abies grandis), etc. 
Between the western and eastern timber regions is the plains country 
of Alberta, Saskatchewan, etc., which is either open prairie, or a coun- 
try of scattered groves and trees, or, in the north, a practically continu- 
ous forest of subarctic species and characteristics. 

The timbered region of eastern Canada stretches in a continuous 
body from Manitoba east to the Atlantic, and north to Hudson Bay and 
the northern treeline described in Chapter II. As has before been 
remarked, there is no dividing line in tree growth between Canada and 
the United States corresponding to the international boundary, and in 
all the territory in which grow the commercial forests of Canada, and 
especially those suited for lumber purposes, the species represented all 

56 



CANADA ITS COMMERCIAL FORESTS. 57 

exist south of the boundary line and, conversely, all, or practically all, 
of the commercial timbers of the northern United States are repre- 
sented in the flora of Canada. 

If this timber were equal in its quality to the area it covers and to 
its quantity, it would constitute one of the greatest forests on the globe ; 
but as it is, with much of it dwarfed by climate and perhaps to some 
extent by inhospitable soil, it has an enormous quantity of merchant- 
able timber. The most valuable part of these forests consists of white 
pine ( ' Pinus stroints), red or norway pine (Pimis resinosa) and spruce. 

Formerly there was an almost solid forest of hardwoods in southern 
Ontario, in that peninsula bounded by Lake Erie, Lake Huron and 
Georgian Bay and extending along the northern shores of Lake Ontario, 
but as these hardwood lands were particularly attractive to the farmer, 
they have been largely cleared and the result is an agricultural section 
seldom excelled in its productiveness and beauty. In these early years 
of the Twentieth Century, therefore, the hardwood resources and pro- 
duction of the Dominion are comparatively insignificant, though there 
is a considerable quantity of oak, maple, elm, ash, etc., yet remaining. 
There is still a sufficient supply to meet most of the domestic require- 
ments, though for some of the more exacting classes of industries 
hardwoods are imported from the United States. Canada formerly 
exported hardwoods in considerable quantities, but the magnitude of 
that business has been much reduced. 

The Height of Land, which is the dividing ridge or boundary 
line between the waters which flow into Hudson Bay or into the Atlan- 
tic north of the Strait of Belle Isle, and those which by the Great Lakes 
find their way through the St. Lawrence to the ocean, marks a some- 
what clearly defined northern boundary of the most valuable soft 
woods. South of that line are found white and red pine, hemlock, 
tamarack, spruce, etc., of sizes which fit them for sawmill use. North 
of that line white and norway pine practically disappear and other 
species decrease in size as one goes north until, of commercial woods, 
spruce of diminished size is left standing in a continuous forest, ex- 
tending to Hudson Bay that great inland sea, which has been the 
dream of navigators, but which is not likely ever to assume large com- 
mercial importance and to the northern treeline of the continent. 

The basis of value of the present forests is the white pine, and it is, 
perhaps, worthy of note that the center of timber value is found in a 
latitude corresponding somewhat closely to the best growth of white 



58 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

pine in the United States, which was in the lower peninsula of Michigan 
and in Wisconsin. Within the rough . triangle bounded by the Ottawa 
River on the northeast, Georgian Bay and Lake Huron on the west and 
Lake Erie and Lake Ontario on the south, grow the finest forests of 
the Dominion. The pines in former years used to reach well down 
toward Lake Erie, but they have largely been cut away from that sec- 
tion, as the hardwoods were at a later date. Now this forest of especial 
value is restricted to the northern portion of this territory, reaching 
north to Lake Nipissing and the Ottawa River, and beyond. 

As one goes in any direction from this favored district, the forests 
change in character and decrease in value. Going east from the Ottawa 
River the woodsman finds a decrease in the amount of pine and an in- 
crease in the amount of spruce, until below the City of Quebec the vast 
bulk of it is of the latter species. Perhaps the best spruce of the 
Dominion is found between the St. Lawrence River and the United 
States boundary, but there is also much fine log spruce north of the 
river, though as one goes north it decreases in size. Going north, 
northwest and west from the Georgian Bay district white and red pine 
constitute the bulk of the forests all the way to Manitoba, except 
through a district north of Lake Superior, where they are replaced 
largely by banksian or jack pine and other inferior timbers, but nowhere 
do they show such high quality as in the Georgian Bay and Ottawa 
River districts. 

Spruce is the prevailing timber north of the Height of Land and 
grows in substantially solid forests. It is not, however, in that part of 
the Dominion, of log size to any great extent, but, nevertheless, con- 
stitutes a magnificent supply of pulpwood whose quantity can only be 
guessed at, but which will probably be sufficient to supply the needs of 
the world for generations. Comparatively little of that territory has 
been surveyed and much of it is totally unexplored. Even the latest 
maps of Ontario, issued by the Crown Lands Department of the Prov- 
ince, represent the course of streams by dotted lines only, indicating 
that their exact course is a matter of conjecture. While both pine and 
spruce were found in the original forests of both Ontario and Quebec, 
Ontario was, emphatically, the pine province and Quebec the spruce 
province. It is a matter of some dispute as to which of the two has 
the larger amount of spruce, but there is no question that the Quebec 
spruce forest is superior in the quality and availability of its spruce 
supply and particularly in the proportion of it that is of sawlog size. 



CANADA ITS COMMERCIAL FORESTS. 59 

The Maritime Provinces were originally heavily timbered, with, per- 
haps, the most dense forests in Nova Scotia. 

The present condition of the individual timber resources of the prov- 
inces will be treated in connection with the lumber history of each of 
them, and it is enough to say here that the entire area of Canada south 
of the Height of Land from the Atlantic to Manitoba was originally 
covered with commercial lumber timber. 

An outline definition of the leading lumber districts of the Dominion 
of Canada, is as follows : The Nova Scotia district, of which Halifax is 
the commercial, though not manufacturing, lumber center ; the St. John 
River district, in New Brunswick, of which the center is the City of 
St. John ; the Miramichi district, of eastern New Brunswick, of which 
Chatham is the center; the Chaleur Bay district, of northern New 
Brunswick and southeastern Quebec, of which Bathurst, Dalhousie and 
other points are centers; on the St. Lawrence River, the Quebec dis- 
trict, of which the City of Quebec is the commercial center ; the Ottawa 
River district, of which Ottawa, with its environs, is the chief manu- 
facturing center and Montreal the chief center from the standpoint of 
export trade ; the Georgian Bay district, which includes all the territory 
draining into Georgian Bay, with many milling points, but its commer- 
cial interests most definitely centering at Toronto, and what may be 
called the western Ontario district, lying to the northwest of Lake 
Superior, having as manufacturing and commercial centers such points 
as Port Arthur and Pigeon River. 

The commercial forests of Canada have been and are so located that 
they have been singularly independent, either from a logging stand- 
point or for marketing their product, of railroads. Indeed, it was not 
until the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway that the railroad 
was to any important extent a primary means of marketing the product 
of Canadian mills ; and even today its use is practically confined to the 
western provinces and territories. The great St. Lawrence water sys- 
tem, reaching from the head of Lake Superior to the Atlantic, with the 
never-failing streams flowing into it from the north, gives an adequate 
outlet for the timber and lumber production of Quebec and Ontario, 
while the Maritime Provinces, with their deeply indented coasts, find 
marine transportation sufficient. 

British North America advanced much more rapidly in respect to 
the exportation of forest products than did the United States. There 
were two reasons for this : One was that the forests north of the 



60 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

United States were, relative to population and domestic requirements, 
much more important than those of the United States ; and, the second, 
that the ample system of waterways connecting with the Atlantic natu- 
rally led Canada to look abroad for its markets, especially as, until 
within the last fifty years, the market in the United States was almost 
completely supplied from domestic sources. Indeed, up to the time of 
the construction of the Champlain Canal, connecting Lake Champlain 
with the Hudson River, which was completed in 1822, and of the Os- 
wego Canal, connecting Lake Ontario at Oswego with the Erie Canal 
at Syracuse, N. Y., completed in 1828, timber grown on the St. Law- 
rence watershed of New York, Vermont and New Hampshire, largely 
went to Montreal or Quebec and thence abroad. 

Not only can the forests of Canada be logged by water, and its 
mills be located at the mouths of logging streams on deep water, but 
also the chief markets of the Dominion, in all that territory from the 
head of Lake Superior to the Atlantic, can be reached by water. Hence 
it is that Canada, at the time of this publication, was still pursuing 
methods of logging and of lumber transportation that largely obtained 
in the United States until twenty-five years ago, when the develop- 
ment of lumbering operations away from the water courses gradually 
brought about an increased use of the railroad in that country. British 
Columbia also is, to a considerable extent, served in its lumber inter- 
ests by waterways ; but there is a vast extent of rapidly developing 
country lying between Lake Superior and the Rocky Mountains and 
reaching from the national boundary north to the Peace River, that is 
dependent upon the railroads for its supply of building material, which 
must be furnished from the forests of western Ontario or from British 
Columbia, or to a certain extent from the smaller sized, but still avail- 
able, timber north of Manitoba. 

The following table gives the names of the several provinces and 
territories of the Dominion, the dates of their creation or admission 
into the confederation, their land area and total area, and the estimated 
area remaining afforested in 1904. All the columns relating to areas 
show variations from other tables, differences in forested areas being 
due to different estimates, while in the other columns the figures are 
changed l from time to time as the boundaries of the provinces and ter- 

1 This list of provinces and territories was radically changed by an act of Parliament tak- 
ing effect Sept. 1. 1905. That part of the Northwestern Territories lying west of the 110th meridian 
west of Greenwich (the fourth principal meridian of the Dominion system of land surveys), east of 
British Columbia and south of Mackenzie was made the new Province of Alberta, with an area of 



CANADA ITS COMMERCIAL FORESTS. 



61 



ritories are changed or defined, and as the surveys become more accu- 
rate: 

AREA OF FORESTS IN CANADA. 



Name. 


Date of 

Organization 
or Creation. 


Area in Square Miles. 


Total 
Area. 


Land 
Area. 


Forest 
Area. 


PROVINCES. 
Ontario 


July 1, 1867 
July 1. 1867 
July 1,1867 
Jnly 1,1867 
July 15. 1870 
July 20, 1871 
July 1.1873 

Apr. 12. 1876 
May 17, 1882 
May 17, 1882 
May 17, 1882 
May 17, 1882 
Oct. 2, 1895 
Oct. 2, 1895 
Oct. 2, 1895 
June 13. 1898 


26O.862 
351,873 
21.423 
27,985 
73,732 
372,630 
2.184 

470,416 
88.879 

1O7.618 
101,883 
251,965 
5OO.OOO 
562,182 
354,961 
196,976 


220.5O8 
341.756 
21,063 
27,911 
64,327 
370,191 
2.184 

456,997 
88,279 
103.846 
101,521 
243.16O 
500,OOO 
532,634 
349,109 
196.327 


82,528 
225.552 
16,958 
17.538 
25,626 
285.554 
797 

696,952 


Quebec 


Nova Scotia ... 


New Brunswick 


Manitoba 


British Columbia 


Prince Edward Island 


DISTRICTS. 
Keewatin . 


Assiniboia .. 


Saskatchewan 


Alberta 


Athabaska 


Franklin 


Mackenzie 


Ungava 


-Yukon 




3.745,574 


3,618,818 


1.351,505 



'Estimated. 

An outline sketch of the Canadian provinces and territories, with 
the distribution of timber in each, compiled from Canadian official 
sources, is as follows: 

DISTRIBUTION OF CANADIAN WOODS BY PROVINCES. 

Nova Scotia, which embraces 21,068 square miles of land, and New 
Brunswick, with 27,911 square miles, have large areas of spruce, hem- 
lock, larch, pine, oak, elm, maple, beech and birch. Lumber makes up 
about two-thirds of their total exports. 

Prince Edward Island, lying between the two, is about 150 miles 
long and much indented by bays. It has an area of 2,184 square miles. 
Agriculture has progressed in this Province and the remaining timber 
is chiefly confined to the northern end of the island, where there are 
small lumbering operations. The woods are the white and the black 
spruce, larch, elm and oak. 

Quebec embraces a land area of 341,756 square miles. The forest 

253.50O square miles and an estimated population of 250,000. The part lying between the llOth 
meridian and Manitoba and south of Mackenzie was made the new Province of Saskatchewan, with 
251, 1OO square mfles of area and an estimated population of 25O.OOO. This division, however, 
left out a strip along the eastern end of Athabaska, exactly one degree of longitude in width, and 
clipped off the irregular eastern end of the old Province of Saskatchewan, no provision having been 
(in May, 19O5) made for these two excluded areas, though doubtless they were to be added to the 
governments to the east by later enactment. The eastern boundary line of the new Province of Sas- 
katchewan is therefore the western boundary line of Manitoba as far as that extends, beginning at 
about longitude 101 degrees 20 minutes on the international boundary and running due north, with 
an offset westward on each survey correction line. This holds true in the new extension of the 
boundary northward from the northwestern corner of Manitoba, until at about latitude 55 degrees 
4O minutes these offsets bring the line in coincidence with the lO2nd meridian and that becomes the 
boundary line for the remainder of the distance. The provisional capital of Alberta is Edmonton, 
and that of Saskatchewan is Regina. 



62 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

lands are of great magnitude and include most of the staple woods 
common to the eastern and central states. 

Ontario has a land area of 220,508 square miles and a water area of 
40,354 square miles. There are large areas of forest. 

Manitoba includes 73,732 square miles, of which 64,327 are land. 
The principal timber is poplar, with some white elm, green ash, box 
elder and mossycup oak, the latter forming a scrub growth in most 
parts of the Province. White spruce is also found over a limited area. 
The trees in the northern part of Manitoba are large enough to be mer- 
chantable. 

The Northwestern Territories, which adjoin Manitoba, in many re- 
spects resemble that Province. They consist of four provincial districts : 
Assiniboia, with a total area of 88,879 square miles, Saskatchewan, 
embracing 107,618 square miles, Athabaska, with 251,965 square miles 
and Alberta with 101,883 square miles. The greater part of the south- 
ern portion, from the United States boundary for about two hundred 
miles north, is flat or rolling prairie, a large part being treeless. 

The Province of British Columbia is heavily timbered and contains 
372,630 square miles. The heaviest timber growth is found west of the 
coast range, and embraces an area of 100 to 150 miles wide and 700 
miles long. There is little hardwood of any sort. 

An interesting review of the lumber resources and situation of 
Canada was made some years ago by Mr. E. Stewart, Superintendent 
of Forestry of the Dominion of Canada. It is particularly of value as 
showing in a graphic way the important place which spruce holds and 
will continue to hold in the timber resources of the Dominion. While 
the policy of the Dominion, as expressed in its forest reserves and its 
method of leasing timber limits, whereby the title to the land is re- 
tained by the Government and cutting is done under restrictions, will 
undoubtedly prolong the productive life of the pine forests and perhaps 
enable them to contribute in perpetuity to the welfare of the nation, it 
is spruce which, to the greatest extent, will supply the demand for for- 
est products and under intelligent direction will never be exhausted. 
Mr. Stewart said in part : 

"Though we have lost vast quantities of timber by fire, still Canada 
undoubtedly stands at the head of those countries from which a future 
supply may be expected. It is true that our virgin white pine can not 
last very many years longer, but we have other varieties of great value. 
In British Columbia we have the Douglas fir, the cedar, the western 



CANADA ITS COMMERCIAL FORESTS. 63 

white pine, and a hemlock very much superior to our eastern hemlock, 
but above all we have the spruce, the most widely distributed of all our 
forest trees. If we visit the mills of the Maritime Provinces we find 
them cutting that timber for export to Europe, and so fast is its natural 
reproduction in the moist climate of the coast that the same territory 
can in the ordinary way of lumbering be recut about every twenty 
years. 

" Starting west from the Atlantic in Nova Scotia we find the white 
and black spruce in all the older provinces and in all the districts of our 
Northwest Territories, while in the interior of British Columbia another 
variety, the Engelmann spruce, a very useful tree, is found in great 
abundance, and west of this and extending to the coast, the giant of 
this species is found in the Menzies or Sitka spruce, 2 which almost 
rivals in size and utility the giant Douglas fir of the same district. 

"Not only is the range of the different varieties of the spruce 
bounded only by the Atlantic and Pacific on the east and west, but it 
also extends over more degrees of latitude than any other of our native 
trees, reaching practically across the whole country from its southern 
boundary up to the limit of tree growth, in some places extending be- 
yond the Arctic Circle. It must not be inferred that the whole of this 
vast area is covered with merchantable timber, but on the other hand 
there can be no question that this country possesses an immense quan- 
tity of spruce timber which probably no other country can equal. A 
very large portion of it is growing on land which, from its rough char- 
acter and also from its severe climate, is unsuited for the growth 
of agricultural products and should be kept permanently for the produc- 
tion of timber. 

" In addition to the utility of spruce for lumber it is of all varieties 
the one best adapted for pulp, an article which is now being applied to 
such a variety of purposes that the demand for pulpwood is enormously 
increasing every year, and there seems little question that this industry 
is only in its infancy and that our northern forest regions with the un- 
limited water power they possess will in the not distant future be the 
home of important and lasting industries." 

It would be interesting to know what the forest area of Canada 
means as to total present supply of commercial timber and the annual 
product which, under favorable conditions and intelligent management, 

2 The Picea sitchensis, known not only as above, but also as the tideland spruce. This Is the 
spruce whose manufacture has been most actively prosecuted on Grays Harbor, Washington, a 
tidal bay on the Pacific Coast of the State. 



64 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

might be expected for the future. Unfortunately, no estimate has been 
made, nor is likely soon to be made, as to these points that is more 
than guesswork. 

According to the next preceding table, the forest area of Canada, 
not including Newfoundland and the Labrador Coast, is 1,351,505 square 
miles, equivalent to about 865,000,000 acres. Such an area, reasonably 
well covered with forest, has, in any event, enormous possibilities. If 
it should be admitted that it will average only 1,000 feet an acre of 
sawmill timber, the total quantity would be 865,000,000,000 feet. If the 
long period of 100 years were allowed for cutting this quantity for re- 
production, we would have an annual production of 8,650,000,000 feet, 
or about one-quarter the present output of lumber and timber of the 
United States and a quantity about fifty percent greater than the out- 
put of Canadian mills and of hewn timber in its various forms. But if 
the period of cutting should be limited to fifty years, as, under intelli- 
gent forestry management it could be, the product would be increased 
to 17,300,000,000 feet annually without deterioration or diminution of 
the stand. If the estimate should be 2,000 feet of sawmill timber to 
the acre, the maximum product on the basis of fifty years' cutting 
would be nearly 35,000,000,000 feet annually, or more than is now pro- 
duced by the United States. 

Looking at the matter in another way, ignoring the territories, if 
there be taken the reported forested areas of Prince Edward Island, 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British 
Columbia, there would be found a total area of forests of 654,553 
square miles, or 418,914,000 acres. An estimate of 2,500 feet per acre 
of commercial timber would give a total of 1,047,285,000,000 feet, 
which, on the basis of 100 years' cutting, is equivalent to the product 
of 10,472,850,000 feet annually, or, on the basis of fifty years' cutting, 
would provide over 20,000,000,000 feet annually. 

These speculations are extremely general, but they serve the pur- 
pose of pointing out the fact that Canada is enormously rich in timber 
resources and that the possibilities of long continued production are 
almost incalculable. To the estimates of sawmill timber should, of 
course, be added that timber which is of value in the shape of cord- 
wood, poles, railroad ties, pulpwood and for miscellaneous uses, local 
or general. 



CHAPTER V. 

CANADA FORESTRY AND FOREST RESERVES. 

As will be seen in later chapters, forest management has almost 
from the beginning of European occupation attracted the attention 
of the law-making authorities of what is now the Dominion of Canada. 
Royal authority was exercised to preserve to the uses of the Crown 
certain classes of timber and to introduce, in a partial and inadequate 
way, something like forest management. But so vast were the timber re- 
sources of Canada that until comparatively recent years very little pub- 
lic interest was taken in the subject of forest preservation. The earlier 
efforts of Canadian authorities toward a rational protection of their for- 
est assets are recounted in the chapters devoted to the Provinces of 
Quebec and Ontario, and in those chapters relating to other provinces 
these forestry matters find their proper place ; but in 1900 was estab- 
lished the Canadian Forestry Association, which since that time has by 
its educational work among the people and by cooperation with the 
Government done so much to promote these interests of the Dominion 
that the organization is deserving of especial attention. 

The primeval forests of Canada have been noted for their extent 
and richness ever since the first explorations were made ; and this nat- 
ural endowment of public wealth has been the source of a large and 
constant revenue to the Crown and to the Provincial governments, 
greatly lightening taxation, and in some sections almost obviating the 
necessity of taxation of any other form. The total value of the export 
of forest products for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, was $36,- 
724,445, while the census of 1901 placed the total value of forest 
products for the preceding year at $51,000,000. The annual revenue 
received from the forests of Quebec and Ontario runs well up toward 
$1,250,000. In 1893 the revenue from this source in New Brunswick 
totaled $196,500, while in British Columbia an estimate made in 1905 
for the year not then completed placed this revenue at $250,000. Thus 
it will be seen that timber and timber products are of the highest im- 
portance not only to the individual operators, but to the welfare of the 
Dominion as a whole and to the Central and Provincial governments as 
well. Yet, as in other new countries favored by 'a heavy natural forest 

65 



66 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

growth, the Canadians, for a long time, considered their timber supply 
practically inexhaustible. 

One of the most important dates in connection with the Canadian 
movement for intelligent forest control is 1882, in which year was or- 
ganized, at Montreal, the American Forest Congress. At this forestry 
congress was present a large number of prominent representatives of 
lumber interests of Canada as well as of the United States. Many of 
them had prepared papers which they read and which led to discussions 
that attracted a large measure of public attention. 

In itself this congress did not accomplish much for the cause of for- 
estry, but it opened the way for a quickening of interest in the subject 
and helped to make further progress less difficult. Until that time, 
and indeed later, forestry had to contend with the idea that the forests 
were inexhaustible and, further, had to defend itself against a wide- 
spread charge of faddism. The majority of people totally discredited 
the idea that the supply of timber would ever be inadequate to the de- 
mand, and of those who considered that such a condition was a possi- 
bility, there were but few who were not content to let the future take 
care of itself, believing that if the time ever should come when lumber 
would be difficult to obtain because the supply of timber had been un- 
duly diminished, that day was so far away from them and their needs 
that they were not called upon to take any action to prevent its coming. 

Operating lumbermen also were to a certain extent offended and 
alienated from the cause by the radical utterances by most of the few 
persistent champions of forest preservation. Yet, in the light of later 
events, it is seen that these radicals, who successively pleaded with, 
threatened and abused those who did not agree with them, were doing 
the work of agitation which history has proved to be the forerunner of 
almost every reform. They stimulated the people to think along for- 
estry lines, so that when facts in their support came to the surface they 
could be and were assigned to their logical place. And so annually the 
cause of forestry gained ground, until early in 1900 was organized the 
Canadian Forestry Association. 

To Mr. E. Stewart, Dominion Superintendent of Forestry, more 
than to any other one man, is due the credit for the formation of the 
Canadian Forestry Association, for it was he who, on February 15, 
1900, called the meeting at which the organization was recommended 
and as a result of which the organization actually was effected on March 
8, 1900, in the City of Ottawa. The following officers were duly elected : 



CANADA FORESTRY AND FOREST RESERVES. 67 

Honorary president, His Excellency, the Governor General ; president, 
Hon. Sir Henri Joly de Lotbiniere; vice president, William Little; 
secretary, E. Stewart; assistant secretary and treasurer, R. H. Camp- 
bell. Board of directors: Hiram Robinson, Thomas Southworth, Pro- 
fessor John Macoun, Doctor William Saunders, Hon. G. W. Allan, E. 
W. Rathbun. 

Of the above the president, Hon. Sir Henri Joly de Lotbiniere, was 
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia ; E. Stewart, Dominion Su- 
perintendent of Forestry ; Hiram Robinson, president of the Hawkes- 
bury Lumber Company and president of the Canadian Forestry Asso- 
ciation in 1903 ; Thomas Southworth, director of Forestry for the 
Province of Ontario ; Professor John Macoun, of the Dominion Geolog- 
ical Survey, and E. W. Rathbun, member of the Ontario Forestry 
Commission. 

The objects sought to be obtained by the association, as set forth in 
a statement signed by R. H. Campbell, of the Department of the Inte- 
rior, were as follows: 

"The preservation of the forests for their influence on climate, fer- 
tility and water supply ; the exploration of the public domain and the 
reservation for timber production of lands unsuited for agriculture ; the 
promotion of judicious methods in dealing with forests and woodlands ; 
reafforestation where advisable ; tree planting on the plains and on the 
streets and highways ; the collection and dissemination of information 
bearing on the forestry problem in general." 

From the beginning the Canadian Forestry Association has been 
closely in touch with the Dominion and Provincial governments and 
especially with the Dominion Forestry Branch. The association might 
almost be said to be a department of the Government, so strong has 
been its influence upon governmental policies and legislation. 

The organization of the American Forest Congress has been spoken 
of. Following the congress there was distinct advancement, both in 
the understanding of the necessities of the case and in the advocacy of 
remedial measures applicable to admitted evils. 

The history of the forest had shown that fire was an enemy even 
more disastrous than the operations of lumbermen and the destruction 
wrought by settlers, wasteful as both had been, and every system 
of forestry has of necessity incorporated provisions for protection 
against this very serious menace. Beginning with Ontario, in 1885, all 
the Canadian provinces, except British Columbia and Prince Edward 



68 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Island, have adopted laws regarding this hazard and have established 
special fire ranging service. Experience has demonstrated this system 
to be effective in proportion to the thoroughness with which it has 
been operated. Before the installation of these fire warden measures 
hardly a summer passed that the air of the cities in eastern Canada was 
not fouled by smoke from vast forest fires, which destroyed an almost 
incalculable amount of valuable timber ; but since this system has been 
followed fires have been comparatively infrequent and isolated. It is 
not claimed by anyone that perfection has been reached in guarding the 
forests from their greatest enemy, but certainly enough has been ac- 
complished to make the position taken by those advocating this method 
of protection, unassailable. Ontario, which expends the greatest 
amount upon this service, spent in 1903 only $31,237 in this manner, 
while the revenue derived from the Ontario woods in the same year 
was $2,307,356. Thus, less than one and one-half percent of the forest 
revenue was expended for protecting the entire source of that revenue, 
which certainly is a low rate of insurance. 

The growing recognition of the desirability of extending the Cana- 
dian forests resulted in the adoption, in the '80's, of the Tree Culture 
Claim Act. In 1889 experimental farms were established throughout 
the western country and experiments in tree growing began. From 
1889 also dates the inauguration of the Dominion Forestry Branch 
which gave an added impetus to the forestry movement. 

In all of these directions the Canadian Forestry Association has 
been helpful and influential. It has supplemented the work of public 
investigators, has upheld the hands of administrators and not only 
stimulated the Dominion and Provincial authorities, but inspired the 
people themselves to a quicker and more intelligent interest in the 
work. Since the organization of the association the protective force 
employed against fire has been increased and improved methods of 
management have been put in force. Rangers have been detailed in 
many sections where previously there were none. The forest reserves 
have been enlarged and increased in number. Through the medium of 
the agricultural college a plan has been put into operation in Ontario 
for aiding farmers to set out wood lots, the work of the experimental 
farms has been aided and all over the Dominion an interest has been 
aroused which has resulted in demonstrated benefits. 

While the association does not claim that all these things have been 
done solely through its efforts, it should have part of the credit for 



CANADA FORESTRY AND FOREST RESERVES. 69 

them, inasmuch as it has lent its active support to each and every 
movement for the furtherance of practical forestry work. The meet- 
ings of the associations are held early in each year in the leading cities 
of the Dominion. The officers for 1905 are as follows : 

Patron, His Excellency, The Governor General ; honorary president, 
Aubrey White, Toronto, Ontario > president, E. G. Joly de Lotbiniere, 
Quebec, Quebec; vice president, E. Stewart, Ottawa, Ontario; secretary- 
treasurer, R. H. Campbell, Ottawa, Ontario. 

Vice presidents for the provinces: Rev. A. E. Burke, Alberton, 
Prince Edward Island; Hon. J. W. Longley, Halifax, Nova Scotia; His 
Honor, J. B. Snowball, Chatham, New Brunswick; Hon. S. N. Parent, 
Quebec, Quebec; Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Mani- 
toba; His Honor, A. E. Forget, Regina, Assiniboia; William Pearce, 
Calgary, Alberta; F. D. Wilson, Fort Vermilion, Athabaska; Hon. H. 
Bostock, Monte Creek, British Columbia; Hon. J. H. Agnew, Winni- 
peg, Manitoba; Hon. Nelson Monteith, Ontario. 

Board of directors: J. R. Booth, Ottawa, Ontario; Hiram Robinson, 
Ottawa, Ontario; Monseigneur Laflamme, Quebec, Quebec; William 
Saunders, LL.D., Ottawa, Ontario ; Thomas Southworth, Toronto, On- 
tario; H. M. Price, Quebec, Quebec; Doctor Robert Bell, Ottawa, 
Ontario. 

Education in forestry has not in Canada, as yet, taken the form of 
distinctive forestry schools, but, nevertheless, a good deal is being done 
along that line. Queen's University, at Kingston, Ontario, has of recent 
years supported a series of lectures on forestry, while the Mount 
Allison University, of Sackville, has had a course of lectures on forestry 
incorporated into its curriculum. The project of establishing schools 
of forestry has been under consideration by the University of Toronto 
and Queen's University. Perhaps the most practical work has been 
done by the Ontario Agricultural College, at Guelph, Ontario. Since 
about 1884 forestry has been taught in that school, there being open a 
special course in connection with the fourth year. This is a degree 
course, authorizing the graduates to entitle themselves foresters. The 
importance of schools devoted especially to forestry was recognized by 
the Canadian Forestry Association at its 1904 meeting, when the fol- 
lowing resolution was adopted: 

"Resolved, That the Ontario government be, and is hereby, requested 
to make a proper grant for the operation of a school or schools of for- 
estry." 



70 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Perhaps the most practical work has been done in connection with 
experimental farms and stations. At Guelph, in 1904, was begun nur- 
sery work by growing deciduous varieties of trees from the seed. At 
Ottawa, Ontario, is an experimental farm and arboretum under the 
auspices of the Dominion government. The first planting of forest 
trees at this experimental farm was made in 1887. About twenty-one 
acres have been devoted to the planting of forest trees in belts and 
clumps and sixty-five acres additional have been used for the arboretum 
and the botanical gardens. 

The Federal government has charge of the forests on Dominion lands 
proper. These embrace the Province of Manitoba, the Northwest Ter- 
ritories and also that part of British Columbia known as the railway 
belt, consisting of a stretch of country forty miles wide twenty miles 
on each side of the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway contain- 
ing altogether about 20,000 square miles. It is estimated that the area 
of forest lands thus under the Dominion control, not including Indian 
reserves and the old provinces, is 742,578 square miles, while that 
under the control of the Provincial governments is 506,220 square miles. 

The Dominion Department of Agriculture has a well arranged series 
of experimental farms, a feature of each of which is the study of tree 
growth. The central farm is at Ottawa, Ontario. The branches are at 
Nappan, Nova Scotia ; Brandon, Manitoba ; Indian Head, Assiniboia, and 
Agassiz, British Columbia. The most important experiments in some 
respects have been made at Indian Head. A shelter belt 100 feet wide 
has been planted along the western and northern boundaries of the 
farm, extending nearly two miles, while blocks of trees of from two to 
five acres each have been established. This experiment demcnstrated 
the value of tree planting as a protection to crops and fruit trees and 
also as to what can be done in the way of growing trees on the open 
prairie in a comparatively dry climate. Furthermore, from the experi- 
ment farms are distributed tree seeds, seedlings and cuttings. The 
work of distribution to settlers was begun from Indian Head in 1899 
and that is the headquarters for general distribution to settlers in the 
Northwest Territories, while the experimental farm at Brandon supplies 
those in Manitoba. The distributions up to 1904 to settlers in the 
northwest have been, from Ottawa, 600,000 seedlings and cuttings; 
from Indian Head, 290,000, and from Brandon, 610,000. 

The Province of Ontario and the Dominion have each established a 
forestry office as a branch of the public service. The Dominion office 



CANADA FORESTRY AND FOREST RESERVES. 71 

was started in 1899. The officers consist of the superintendent, assist- 
ant superintendent, inspector, several supervisors of tree planting and 
a number of forest fire rangers. Any land owner desiring to avail him- 
self of the cooperation of the Government applies to its forestry branch. 
The land of the applicant is visited by one of the supervisors the fol- 
lowing summer, when a plan of the proposed plantation is made. The 
next season seedling trees are sent by express from the government 
nurseries free of charge. The settler enters into an agreement to set 
aside a certain portion of the land as a permanent tree plantation ; to 
prepare his soil carefully according to the directions of the supervisor ; 
to plant the trees on their arrival and to cultivate them and keep the 
ground clean until the trees are of sufficient size no longer to need such 
attention. As stated above, seedling trees have been grown on the 
various government farms, but in 1904 the policy was inaugurated of 
centralizing the work, and 160 acres of land were obtained for a forest 
nursery station near Indian Head and buildings were being erected and 
preparations were made by which the supply for the whole northwest 
country would be grown at that place and distributed from thence. 

CANADIAN FOREST RESERVES. 

Notwithstanding the original immense forest wealth of Canada and 
the fact that that wealth still remains untouched in many sections, the 
saw and the ax have so well fulfilled their destructive mission and 
that practically within so short a period as a century that the Canadian 
government has recognized the necessity of setting apart national parks 
and forest reserves for the purpose of conserving its forestal wealth. 

The denuding of the forests is not only not harmful but is abso- 
lutely economic in those sections where the soil is suitable for agricul- 
ture and where settlement is desirable; but there are large tracts in 
Canada, particularly in Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia, that are 
totally unfit for agriculture, and upon these tracts the timber will repro- 
duce itself if given the opportunity. Therefore by restricting lumbering 
and permitting the young trees to attain full growth, an almost per- 
petual supply of timber may be insured. To this end Ontario and 
Quebec have established provincial reserves, and the Federal govern- 
ment has established national parks and reserves in Manitoba, in the 
Northwest Territories and in what is known as the forty -mile belt along 
the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway in British Columbia. This 
belt was ceded by the Province of British Columbia to the Federal 
government of Canada as a contribution toward the building of the 



72 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Canadian Pacific railway. With the exception of that in these provinces 
and territories and the Indian reserves all the timber in Canada belongs 
to the several provinces in which it is located. 

The Federal reserves in British Columbia are Long Lake Timber 
Reserve, Yoho Park and Glacier Forest Park. Long Lake Timber 
Reserve occupies the central part (considering the east and west direc- 
tion only) or dry belt of British Columbia, being eight miles southwest 
of the town of Kamloops, which is situated on the Canadian Pacific 
railway and the Thompson River. The mountains included in this 
reserve form a watershed for the numerous small streams which irri- 
gate the farming lands of the surrounding valleys. This reserve con- 
tains a good growth of Douglas fir and black pine. It was set apart by 
order of the Minister of the Interior August 15, 1902, and has an area 
of 76,800 acres. 

Yoho Park is the natural continuation of the Rocky Mountains Na- 
tional Park, in the Northwest Territories, but being on the British Co- 
lumbia side of the interprovincial boundary, that is, on the western 
slope of the Rockies, it has a distinctive name. Its area is 530,240 
acres. It was set apart December 14, 1901, by order in council. 

Glacier Forest Park, a small reservation of 18,720 acres, set apart 
by order in council October 11, 1888, is located in the Selkirk Moun- 
tains, British Columbia, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific rail- 
way. Glacier station, a favorite resting place of tourists, is located on 
this reserve. 

The Federal reserves in the Northwest Territories are as follows: 
Rocky Mountains Park, Foothills Timber Reserve, Waterton Lakes 
Forest Park, Cooking Lake Timber Reserve, Moose Mountain Timber 
Reserve and Beaver Hills Timber Reserve. 

Rocky Mountains Park is situated along the eastern slope of the 
Rocky Mountains in Alberta, north of the Foothills Reserve, the south- 
ern end being about 120 miles north of the international boundary. 
This park is in the shape of a triangle, each side of which is about 100 
miles in length, with the town of Banff, a well known mountain resort 
on the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway, in the center. The 
Bow River runs through the middle of the triangle. When first set 
apart by special act of the Dominion Parliament in 1887 this park was 
only twenty-six miles long and ten miles wide ; but it was extended by 
act of 1902 and now contains approximately 2,880,000 acres. Together 
with Yoho Park, on the western slope of the mountains in British Co- 



CANADA FORESTRY AND FOREST RESERVES. 73 

lumbia, this reservation forms one of the most magnificent forest parks 
in the world, the combined area being 3,410,240 acres, or over 5,328 
square miles. 

The Foothills Timber Reserve, containing 2,350,000 acres, set apart 
by the Minister of the Interior February 21, 1899, embraces the foot- 
hills on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, in the southwest 
corner of Alberta, between the international boundary and Rocky 
Mountains Park. It stretches northward, from the South Kootenay 
Pass on the boundary, about 140 miles. The use of this reserve as a 
watershed is of much more importance than its use for the production 
of timber. 

A foot or projection of 34,000 acres on the southern end of the Foot- 
hills Reserve is formed by the Waterton Lakes Forest Park, which was 
set apart May 30, 1895, as a tourist park, previous to the setting apart 
of the Foothills Reserve. It forms a square, one side of which, is the 
international boundary. 

Twenty miles southeast of Edmonton, northern Alberta, is the Cook- 
ing Lake Timber Reserve, having an area of 109,000 acres, and having 
been set apart June 6, 1899, by the Minister of the Interior. 

Still following an eastward course, Moose Mountain Timber Re- 
serve is the next in order. This is a small reservation in southeastern 
Assiniboia, about fifty miles due north of the town of Portal, which is 
on the "Soo" railroad at the point where it crosses the international 
boundary. Moose Mountain Reserve has an area of 103,000 acres, set 
apart under the same authority as the Foothills Timber Reserve. 

In northeast Assiniboia, twenty miles west of the town of Yorkton 
on the northwestern branch of the Canadian Pacific railway, and about 
forty-five miles north of Indian Head on the main line of the Canadian 
Pacific, is the Beaver Hills Timber Reserve, which was set apart Au- 
gust 20, 1901. Its acreage is 170,000. 

The Province of Manitoba possesses six timber reserves, namely, 
Turtle Mountain, Spruce Woods, Riding Mountain, Duck Mountain, 
Lake Manitoba and Porcupine Mountain. 

Turtle Mountain Timber Reserve lies in the southwestern part of 
the Province, extending about twenty miles along the international 
boundary, at a distance of twelve miles north of the town of Bottineau, 
North Dakota, and fifteen miles southeast of Deloraine, Manitoba. It 
was set apart as a reserve July 13, 1895. Its area is 75,000 acres. 

In the central part of the Province, lying for about twenty-five miles 



74 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

along the south side of the Canadian Pacific main line, between the city 
of Brandon and the town of McGregor, is the Spruce Woods Timbei 
Reserve, of 190,000 acres. It was set apart January 8, 1898, under the 
same authority as the Foothills Timber Reserve. 

Riding Mountain Reserve is of irregular shape and extends about 
ninety miles from northwest to southeast, lying southwest of Lake 
Dauphin and in the fork formed by the main lines of the Canadian 
Pacific and Canadian Northern railways. It has an area of 1,215,000 
acres, and was set apart July 13, 1895. 

Directly north of the Riding Mountain Reserve, west of Lake Win- 
nipegosis and lying parallel with the Swan River branch of the Canadian 
Northern railway, is the Duck Mountain Timber Reserve. It has a 
length of fifty miles from north to south and contains 840,000 acres. 
On February 5, 1902, it was set apart as a reserve. 

A small reserve of 159,460 acres on the west side of Lake Manitoba 
is known as Lake Manitoba Timber Reserve. It is situated a couple of 
miles due west of the Hudson Bay Company's post, Manitoba House, 
at the narrows of Lake Manitoba, and a few miles northeast of the vil- 
lage of Laurier, which is the nearest railway station and is located on 
the Canadian Northern railway. 

Porcupine Mountain Timber Reserve occupies the extreme north- 
western angle of the Province of Manitoba, forming a parallelogram, 
the adjacent sides of which are about forty and sixty miles, between 
Lake Winnipegosis and the northwest corner of the Province. On 
August 24, 1900, it was reserved from settlement only, timber licenses 
being permitted to be granted. Included within this reserve are 1,382,- 
400 acres. 

The national parks above described have been set apart on the lines 
of the United States national parks for the purpose of preserving the 
natural beauties intact, no cutting of timber being permitted. The re- 
serves on the watersheds, as Long Lake Timber Reserve, the Foothills 
Timber Reserve and Waterton Lakes Forest Park, and some of the oth- 
ers to a lesser extent, have been set apart in order to preserve the forest- 
floor so that the water falling on the mountains may be fed gradually 
to the rivers below to give them a regular water supply as far as possi- 
ble the year around. The remaining reserves have been set apart with 
two objects : First, to keep settlers out of broken and other lands un- 
suitable for farming, and, second, to preserve a supply of timber for the 
settlers who will occupy the adjacent prairie lands. 



CANADA FORESTRY AND FOREST RESERVES. 75 

With these objects in view and partly owing to the short time since 
they have been set apart, no commercial lumbering has been allowed 
in them and consequently no regulations therefor made. The only 
existing regulations are those permitting settlers to secure licenses to 
cut a limited supply of timber for fuel and building purposes. Some of 
these reserves have been more or less burned and worked over, and the 
object of the reservation and the employment of fire rangers is to give 
the timber a chance to start growing again. 

Outside of these reservations the Federal government of Canada 
has large areas of timber in Manitoba, the Territories and British 
Columbia, which are leased to lumbermen on the usual plan of a bonus 
and ground rent. The ground rent is $5 a square mile for a year ex- 
cept for lands west of Yale, British Columbia, where the ground rent is 
five cents an acre. The Crown dues are, on sawed lumber, 50 cents a 
thousand feet board measure; railway ties, \Yz cents each; shingle 
bolts, 25 cents a cord, and five percent on the sales of all other prod- 
ucts of the berth. 

The Provincial governments of Ontario and Quebec have also set 
apart parks and reserves for the preservation of their forests, the regu- 
lations regarding which are made by the Provincial governments. 

Sibley Reserve is in the northwestern part of Ontario, on the north 
shore of Lake Superior, and includes Thunder Cape and a portion of 
the township of Sibley. It contains about 45,000 acres, and was set 
apart in 1900 by order in council. 

Situated in the district north of Lake Nipissing, Ontario, is Algon- 
quin Park, on the height of land between the Ottawa River and its 
tributaries and the Georgian Bay waters. This park, having an area of 
1,109,383 acres, was created by special Act of Legislature in 1893. It 
is not, in the strictest sense, a forest reserve, as it was primarily de- 
signed for a game preserve and much of its area is under license ; but 
as no settlement is permitted within its limits it largely partakes of the 
character of a forest reserve. Permission is given to fish in this park, 
but hunters are absolutely forbidden, the rules in this respect being so 
strict that no man is even permitted to carry a gun in the park. At the 
time when this park was set aside game within its area was very scarce, 
but now it is fast becoming filled with fur-bearing and game animals. 

One of Ontario's reserves more recently set aside is Mississaga Re- 
serve, created in 1904. It lies to the north of Lake Huron and com- 
prises an area of 3,000 square miles, or 1,920,000 acres. The policy of 



76 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

the Government in regard to the administration of this and Temagami 
Reserve is that timber shall be disposed of by the thousand on the 
stump and cut under supervision of officials of the Government. 

Temagami Reserve, containing 1,408,000 acres, was set apart Jan- 
uary 11, 1901. Within its boundaries is a beautiful lake of the same 
name. Most of this reserve is still covered with virgin pine of great 
value. On -December 16, 1903, an addition of 3,700 square miles was 
made to the north and west, giving the reserve a total of 5,900 square 
miles, or 3,776,000 acres. 

North of the City of Kingston, Ontario, is the Eastern Forest Re- 
serve, which was formed under the Forest Reserve Act in 1899 and 
which contains 80,000 acres. This area was lumbered over and after- 
ward burned, but now has a heavy growth of young pine. 

The Laurentides National Park, of Quebec, was created by Act of 
Legislature January 12, 1895, and contains 2,650 square miles, or 
1,696,000 acres, lying to the north of the City of Quebec. Its northern 
boundary is the 48th parallel; its eastern, the St. Urbain road; its 
southern and southeastern, the rear line of the Seigniory of Beaupre 
and ranges XI and XII of Stoneham and Tewkesbury ; its western, the 
Fief Hubert and an imaginary line running to a point west of Grand 
Lake Batiscan, thence skirting the Quebec & Lake St. John railway a 
few miles east thereof to the intersection of the 48th parallel. This 
park was formed for the purposes of protecting the forests, fish and 
game; of maintaining the water supply, and of encouraging the study 
and culture of forest trees. Over a dozen large rivers rise in this park, 
and it has been described as being "peppered" with lakes, the waters 
of which are teeming with fish. A large portion of the timber of this 
reservation is under license, some of the limits being operated at pres- 
ent. Game is found here in abundance, and hunting is permitted in 
certain sections, also fishing, both under regulations. 

On April 10, 1902, the legislative assembly of New Brunswick 
passed an act authorizing the setting aside of "a tract of land in some 
portion of the Province covered with forest, not exceeding 900 square 
miles in extent," to be known as the Provincial Park of New Bruns- 
wick. However, no action has as yet been taken establishing this for- 
est reservation. 

The following table contains a complete list of both Dominion and 
Provincial reserves, whether timber reserves proper or parks, with their 
respective areas, as they existed at the beginning of 1905 : 



CANADA FORESTRY AND FOREST RESERVES. 77 

SUMMARY OF CANADIAN FOREST RESERVATION. 

UNDER FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. 

Name. Acres. 

Long Lake Timber Reserve 76,800 

YohoPark 530.24O 

Glacier Forest Park 18.72O 

Total, British Columbia 625.76O 

Rocky Mountains Park 2.88O.OOO 

Foothills Timber Reserve 2.35O.OOO 

Waterton Lakes Forest Park 34.OOO 

Cooking Lake Timber Reserve 1O9.0OO 

Moose Mountain Timber Reserve 1O3.OOO 

Beaver Hills Timber Reserve 170.00O 

Total, Northwestern Territories 5.646.OOO 

Turtle Mountain Timber Reserve 75,000 

Spruce Woods Timber Reserve 19O.OOO 

Riding Mountain Reserve 1.215.OOO 

Duck Mountain Timber Reserve 840.OOO 

Lake Manitoba Timber Reserve 159.46O 

Porcupine M ountain Timber Reserve 1,382,400 

Total, Manitoba 3,861,860 

UNDER PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT. 

Sibley Reserve 45.00O 

Algonquin Park 1,109,383 

Mississagra Reserve 1,920 ,OOO 

Tern agami Reserve 3,776,000 

Eastern Forest Reserve 80.OOO 

Total, Ontario 6,930,383 

Laurentides National Park, Quebec Province 1.696.OOO 

Grand Total. . . 18,760,003 



ADDENDUM. 

Since this cbapterwas prepared a new forest reserve has been set apart by the government of 
the Province of Ontario in the western part of that Province, called the Nipigon Forest Reserve. It 
is thus described : " Commencing at the southeast angle of the Township of Ledger, east of the 
Nipigon River in the district of Thunder Bay, thence due east astronomically twenty-two miles, 
thence due north astronomically ninety-eight miles, thence due west astronomically seventy-three 
miles, thence due south astronomically ninety-eight miles, thence due east astronomically to the 
southwest angle of the Township of Purdom, thence due east astronomically along the south boun- 
dary of the Township of Purdom, and along the south boundary of the Township of Ledger, a 
distance of fifty-one miles In all, to the place of beginning, containing by admeasurement seven 
thousand one hundred and fifty-four square miles." According to this description the southern 
boundary of the reserve is eight miles north of Nipigon station, on the Canadian Pacific raflway, 
and Lake Nipigon is included in its area. There are the usual exceptions of lands already patented, 
Indian reserves, etc. The total area of the reserve, including water, is 4,578,560 acres, making a 
total reserved area in Ontario of 11,508,943 acres, including the exceptions and the water area 
contained in the Nipigon Reserve, and increasing the total acreage of forest reserves in Canada to 
23,338,563 acres. The land in this new reserve is not especially adapted to agriculture, with the 
exception of a few tracts situated in the river valleys of the western part of the reserve, but is of 
value as a timber preserve. Spruce, tamarack, jack pine and birch are the principal trees. Large 
areas have been devastated by fire, but are being covered by a second growth, which will, in time, 
be valuable not only as pulpwood but as material for railway ties, which will doubtless be in de- 
mand in this section in the near future. On the Ombabika River, which, roughly speaking, bisects 
the northeastern angle of the reserve, there is still good timber, the pulpwood being estimated at 
1,484,000 acres. In the vicinity of this river are to be found birch, spruce, poplar, jack pine, 
balsam and tamarack. 

Numerous rivers flow into Lake Nipigon, which occupies the central part of the reserve, and 
will furnish power for manufacturing purposes when needed. So also, in larger measure, will the 
Nipigon River, which has a fall of about 25O feet within the reserve. 

Large game is not plentiful in the reserve, owing to the hunting of the Indians and also to the 
fact that much of the country has been swept by fire. Small fur-bearing animals, such as the mink, 
beaver, otter, marten, muskrat and fox, are found in abundance. 

Also, a reserve, containing about 2,500 square miles, has been set aside by the Province of 
Quebec in the Gasp6 Peninsula. 



CHAPTER VI. 



CANADA PRODUCTION AND TRADE. 

The figures on record for the Dominion of Canada regarding lumber 
production differ somewhat from those of the provinces added together 
because the Federal Parliament itself controls the timber in the several 
territories which have not yet reached provincehood, and also controls 
some of the timber in the provinces, such as that on Indian reserves. 
Besides, the provincial statistics take account of the timber cut on 
Crown lands only, that is, lands belonging to the province, while the 
Federal statistics take in the timber cut on private lands as well. 

The following tables of production are made up from the most 
reliable sources obtainable. Owing to the better equipment for taking 
the census in later years, the later the census the more correct it is 
likely to be. Thus in some cases what looks like a reduction may 
really be a more exact census. This must be true in some cases, since 
Canada's exports were never so large as now, nor was her internal 
development ever before progressing at such a rapid rate, and yet pro- 
duction in some lines appears lessened. The world's demand for for- 
est products is increasing with the increase of population, and on a per 
capita basis as well, and Canada is one of the great available sources 
of supply. 

FOREST PRODUCTS OF CANADA FOR THE YEARS STATED. 



Square timber, 
cubic feet. 


1881. 


1891. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


White pine 


19,326,250 
2,602,500 
5,672,900 
4,653,500 
4,415,000 
3,192,000 
50,157,800 


$ 3,961,881 
426,810 
1,954,420 
558,420 
604,769 
733,740 
12,218,440 


9,20O,OOO 
1,406,500 
1,900,000 
3,665,000 
2.508.3OO 
2,965,000 
21,650,000 


$ 2.649,600 
276,237 
798,000 
513,100 
417,255 
791.655 
7,421.620 




Oak 




Birch and maple 


Elm 






Logs, feet b. m. 










pine 


2,232,440.700 
2.602,558,400 


18,529,258 
13,012,792 


1,499,052,800 
3.353.857.7OO 


12,741,950 
20,123.134 


Spruce and others 





78 



CANADA PRODUCTION AND TRADE. 79 

FOREST PRODUCTS OF CANADA FOR THE YEARS STATED Continued. 



Miscellaneous. 


1881. 


1891. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Spars and masts (pieces) 


192,241 

41.881 
98,311 
400,418 
10,993,234 


$ 173,017 
30O.128 
491,598 
1,801,881 
22,865.926 


323,140 

92.26O 
293,412 
329,810 
10,555,164 
85,089,765 
32,054,721 
3,938,610 
261,155 
939.736 


$ 274.669 
434.868 
1,467,060 
1.494,145 
22,693,602 
2,836,325 
2,136,982 
333,882 
783,465 
1.973.866 


Staves (M.) " 




Tanbark (cords) ., 


Firewood ( cords) 


Fence posts (cubic feet) 


Railway ties ( number) 






Telegraph poles (number) 






Pulpwood (cords) 






Shingles (M.) 













The following tables show the kind, amount and value of the forest 
products according to the census of 1901. The figures given first are 
for the whole of Canada, and are followed by those for the separate 
provinces. Newfoundland and Labrador are not included in the statis- 
tics for Canada as they are separate and distinct politically from the 
Dominion. l 

FOREST PRODUCTS OF CANADA CENSUS OF 1901. 

Number of sawmills, 2,075 ; value of products, $50,805,084. Capital 
invested, $55,605,666; number of wage earners, 51,549; wages for 
labor, $11,113,666. 



Ash 

Birch 

Elm 

Maple 

Oak 

Pine 

All other timber. 



SQUARE, WANEY OR FLAT TIMBER. 

Quantity. 
Cubic feet. 

416.308 

1,203,564 

1,354,765 

346.433 

110,219 

2,381,310 

5.914.314 



Total 11,726,913 

LOGS FOR LUMBER. 

Feet b. m. 

Elm 82.241,000 

Hickory 1.650.0OO 

Hemlock 200,778 OOO 

Oak 1O.421.00O 

Pine 1,533,681 ,OOO 

Spruce 1.O4O.676.00O 

All other logs 787,516,000 

Total 3.656.963.0OO 

Pulpwood (cords) 660,034 

Miscellaneous products 



Grand total of values. 



Value. 

$ 44,583 

151,281 

147,143 

37.014 

19,570 

458,218 

622.503 

$1,480,312 



Value. 

$ 658,881 

19,702 

1,126,214 

153,917 

15,377,157 

7,345,819 

5,111,709 

$29,793,399 

2,168.509 

19,808.978 

$53,251,198 



1 According to the census of 1901, Newfoundland contained 195 sawmills, valued at $292 79O 
logs cut, 1,616,449 ; lumber sawn. 43,648.000 feet, the value of which was $480,555. and 16,197.0OO 
shingles. 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



ONTARIO. 



Number of sawmills, 847; value of products, $25,672,424. 



Ash 

Birch 

Elm 

Maple 

Oak 

Pine 

All other timber. 



SQUARE, WANEY OR FLAT TIMBER. 

Quantity. 
Cubic feet. 

231,494 

78,986 

1,259,174 

194,304 

76,025 

1,044,439 

906,236 



Total. 



3,790,658 



Value. 

$ 24,662 

8,554 

136,787 

21,554 

13,022 
219,219 

94,868 



$518,666 



LOGS FOR LUMBER. 

Feet b. m. 

Elm 79,105,000 

Hickory 1,445,000 

Hemlock 84,175,000 

Oak 8,842,000 

Pine 984,352,000 

Spruce ; 8,709,000 

All other logs 167,994,000 

Total 1,334,622,000 

Pulpwood (cords) 108,335 

Miscellaneous products 



Grand total of values. 



Value. 

$ 629,670 

17,304 

482,447 

126,901 

10,116,667 

71,221 

1,320,558 

$12,764,768 

304,837 

8,068,464 

$21,656,735 



QUEBEC. 

Number of sawmills, 622; value of products, $10,391,638. 



Ash 

Birch 

Elm 

Maple 

Oak , 

Pine 

All other timber. 



Total. 



SQUARE, WANEY OR FLAT TIMBER. 

Quantity. 

Cubic feet. Value. 

175,547 $19,028 

556,484 74,115 

82,655 9,061 

8O.273 8.585 

10,263 2,122 

1,132,957 212,859 

3,482,710 353,420 

5,520,889 $679,190 



LOGS FOR LUMBER. 

Feet b. m. 

Elm 2.474.0OO 

Hickory 151.OOO 

Hemlock 38.121.OOO 

Oak 595.0OO 

Pine 445.036.0OO 

Spruce 599.447.OOO 

All other logs 206.O31.OOO 

Total 1,291,855,000 

Pulpwood (cords) 526,865 

Miscellaneous products 

Grand total of values... 



Value. 

$ 25,679 

1,999 

274,218 

10,080 

4,587,548 

4,502,102 

1,445,018 

$10,846,644 
1,777,775 
7.443,882 

$20.747,491 



CANADA PRODUCTION AND TRADE. 



81 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 

Number of sawmills, 236; value of products, $7,041,848. 



Ash 

Birch 

Elm 

Maple 

Oak 

Pine 

AH other timber. 



SQUARE, WANEY OR FLAT TIMBER. 



Quantity. 

Cubic feet. 

1,998 

153,214 

1,160 

4,722 

20O 

60.OO9 

99,472 



Total . 



320,775 



LOGS FOR LUMBER. 

Feet b. m. 

Elm 491,000 

Hickory 35,000 

Hemlock 26,696,000 

Oak 25.0OO 

Pine 19,166,000 

Spruce 182,759,000 

All other logs 61,721,000 



Total 290,893,000 

Pulpwood (cords) 14,486 

Miscellaneous products 



Value. 

$ 209 

17,010 

116 

476 

28 

6,722 
9,923 



Grand total of values. 



$34,484 



Value. 

$ 1,560 

184 

107,571 
232 

125,213 

1,099,302 

333,632 

$1,667,694 

37,577 

1,295,860 

$3,035.615 



NOVA SCOTIA. 

Number of sawmills, 228; value of products, $2,940,107. 



SQUARE, WANEY OR FLAT TIMBER. 



Ash 

Birch 

Elm 

Maple 

Oak 

Pine 

All other timber. 



Total. 



Quantity. 

Cubic feet. 

3,502 

382,126 

410 

46,439 

22,261 

98,577 

356,371 

909,686 



LOGS FOR LUMBER. 

Feet b. m. 

Elm 25.OOO 

Hickory 16.OOO 

Hemlock 48,877,000 

Oak 881,000 

Pine 18,955,OOO 

Spruce 198,892,000 

All otherlogs 26.784.OOO 



Total 294,430,000 

Pnlpwood (cords) 18,348 

M iscellaneous products 

Grand total of values 



Value. 

I 373 

47,783 

38 

4,124 

4,164 

12,923 

39,697 



$109,102 



Value. 

$ 233 

166 

237,814 

15,207 

144,907 

1,272,653 

168,956 

$1,839,936 

48,320 

1,460,490 

$3,457,848 



82 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Number of sawmills, 75 ; value of products, $3,985,177. 

SQUARE, WANEY OR FLAT TIMBER. 

Quantity. 

Cubic feet. Value. 

Elm 11,000 $ 1,100 

Oak 890 89 

Pine 35,482 4,990 

All other timber 827,105 101,591 

Total 874,477 $107,770 

LOGS FOR LUMBER. 

Feet b. m. Value. 

Elm 45,000 $ 450 

Hemlock 2,490,000 20.75O 

Pine 63,256,000 373,731 

Spruce 23,676,000 153,405 

AUother logs 285,997,000 1,478,315 

Total 375,464,000 $2,026,651 

Miscellaneous products 499,736 

Grand total of values $2,634,157 



MANITOBA. 

Number of sawmills, 37 ; value of products, $490,628. 

SQUARE, WANEY OR FLAT TIMBER. 

Quantity. 

Cubic feet. Value. 

Oak 4OO $ 120 

Pine 6,068 820 

All other timber 29,458 3,159 

Total 35,926 $4,099 

LOGS FOR LUMBER. 

Feet b. m. Value. 

Elm 96,000 $ 1,241 

Oak 73,000 1,459 

Pine 7,000 78 

Spruce 10,417,000 84,987 

All other logs 28,488,000 277,665 

Total 39,081,000 $365,430 

Miscellaneous products 580,522 

Grand total of values $950,051 



THE TERRITORIES. 

Number of sawmills, 18 ; value of products, $247,428. 

SQUARE, WANEY OR FLAT TIMBER. 

Quantity. 

Cubic feet. Value. 

Oak 180 $ 25 

Pine 1,899 445 

All other timber 168,429 15,174 

Total 170,508 $15,644 



CANADA PRODUCTION AND TRADE. 83 

LOGS FOR LUMBER. 

Feet b. m. Value. 

Ptoe 2,880.000 $28.636 

Spruce. 13.728.00O 137,299 

All other logs 8.126,000 67.2O2 

Total 24,734,000 $233.137 

Miscellaneous products 235,482 

Grand total of values $484,263 

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 

Number of sawmills, 12; value of products, $35,834. 

SQUARE, WAKEY OR FLAT TIMBER. 

Quantity. 

Cubic feet Value. 

Ash 3,767 $ 311 

Birch 32,754 3,819 

Elm 366 41 

Maple 29,695 2.275 

Pine 1.879 240 

AH other timber 44,533 4.671 

Total 112,994 811.357 

LOGS FOR LUMBER. 

Feet b. m. Value. 

Elm 5,000 $ 49 

Hickory 3.0OO 49 

Hemlock. 419.OOO 3.414 

Oak. 5.0OO 38 

Pine 29.OOO 377 

Spruce 3,043.000 24.850 

All other logs 2.375.OOO 2O.363 

Total 5,884.000 $49.139 

Miscellaneous products 224,542 

Grand total of values $285.038 

An idea of the importance -of the forest wealth of Canada as a source 
of revenue (the census of 1901 being taken as a basis for the estima- 
tion) may be obtained by the following quotation from Mr. E. Stewart, 
Superintendent of Forestry, in his report upon the forestry work in 
Canada : 

It will be seen from the census of 1901 that an estimate is made of the area of 
forests and woodlands for each of the provinces and also for the Territories. That 
of Manitoba and the Territories is placed at 722,578 square miles. Add to this 
20,000 square miles of Dominion territory in the railway belt in British Columbia, 
and we have 742,578 square miles as the total on Dominion lands. Probably about 
one-fifth of this contains merchantable timber, or say 150,000 square miles, or 
96,000,000 acres. After thus reducing the area, and remembering that in addition 
to the timber suitable for lumber, a large part of it is covered with spruce valua- 
ble for pulpwood, it can scarcely be considered an extravagant estimate to place 
the merchantable timber, including pulpwood, at 2,000 feet board measure per 
acre, or in all 192,000,000,000 feet. We have thus arrived at a very rough approx- 
imation of the quantity of timber now fit for use on the lands owned and controlled 
by the Dominion. 



84 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

At the lowest the value of such timber standing in the tree may be put at $1 
per thousand feet board measure ; that would amount to $192,000,000. This rep- 
resents only what might be collected by the Government as a royalty, and forms 
but a small part of its value to the country as a whole. Much of the timber is 
growing on land unsuitable for agriculture, but where water power is abundant 
and with the power thus at hand this country should be without a rival in the man- 
ufacture of all articles in which timber forms the chief ingredient. 

It may be said that a very large percentage of this timber is not at present 
available, and that consequently its value is overestimated, but when we consider 
the great appreciation in the value of timber limits within the last ten or twenty 
years and the scarcity of the world's supply for the future it is almost certain that 
the enhanced value that will be obtained in the future for what is now inaccessible 
will more than pay compound interest on the present estimated value. 

The above estimate takes no account of the younger growth. In considering 
the potentialities of our forest areas their capability of affording a continuous crop 
should be kept clearly in view. Even under the discouraging conditions prevail- 
ing in our lumber regions after logging operations have ceased, it will be found in 
most cases that another crop, either of the original or other varieties, is fast spring- 
ing up, and in my calculation of the value of a timbered territory, which is to re- 
main permanently in forest, this growing crop should be taken into account. 

Without going too minutely into this phase of the subject, I am of the opinion 
that if we confine our cutting of sawlogs to all trees above 12 inches at the butt 
and pulpwood to, say, 7 inches, the annual increment of growth fit for use will be 
not less than 140 feet board measure to the acre, or an annual growth increment 
equaling 13,440,000,000 feet, which at the above rate of $1 per thousand stumpage, 
would give a perpetual annual return equal to $13,440,000. 

EXPORTS. 

The next table, pertaining to exports, is taken from trade and navi- 
gation returns, and shows the ups and downs through which the Cana- 
dian lumber trade has passed. The figures are given from 1868 only, the 
year after confederation was formed, to 1903, but, going back a little 
before that time, it may be said that during the American Civil War 
there were high prices and a strong demand for Canadian lumber, 
which had free entry into the United States. About this time a large 
quantity of the finest white pine still stood on the southwestern penin- 
sula of Ontario and between Kingston and Toronto. Masts, spars and 
square timber were sent to England and sawn lumber to the United 
States. About 1870 the trade in Ontario and Quebec became more re- 
stricted and centered in the Ottawa Valley, the Trent River and the 
districts southeast of Georgian Bay. In 1873 the total exports of forest 
products from Canada were $29,397,534. This was the crest of the 
wave and a period of world-wide depression set in which lasted until 
1879. In 1878 the timber exports stood at $19,820,768 and in 1879 



CANADA PRODUCTION AND TRADE. 



85 



reached the low water mark of $13,562,277. This was at a time when 
men's hearts failed them ; big houses went to the wall and everybody 
wondered and feared for what might come next. That, however, was 
the nadir of the panic and by 1881 the timber exports had risen to $25,- 
374,336 where they stood off and on for ten progressive, prosperous 
years. The granting of free entry into the United States markets in 
1894 did not much change things until 1897 when, owing to the duty 
being restored, $15,435,759 worth of lumber was rushed in to avoid the 
higher duty. Progress since then has been steady, with the heaviest 
year on record in 1903. 

VALUE OF EXPORTS FROM CANADA OF FOREST PRODUCTS FOR THE YEARS 

MENTIONED. 



YEAR. 


Products of the forest. 


Other manu- 
factures of 
wood not in- 
cluded in 
preceding 
columns. 


Total of wood 
products to 
all countries. 


Raw. 


Manufactured 
or partially 

manufactured. 


1**J .. 


$5,550.694 
7.O35.159 
8.592.550 
6.005,560 
2,922.272 
7.679.233 
4,909.400 
5.406,345 
6.O22, 173 
6,023,211 
4.495.786 
4,989,004 
4,469,489 
5,299,552 


$12.711,476 
15.317,052 
19.994.266 
14.122,504 
10.339,187 
17,280.779 
16,125.211 
18,875.670 
21,153,513 
25,235,518 
25,167.879 
25,020,853 
27,649.940 
31,086,463 


$ 551,958 
835.116 
810,718 
4O1.352 
300.818 
414.324 
637,591 
1,024,448 
1,555,108 
1,652.317 
3,127.242 
2.962.688 
3.189.843 
4,473,952 


$18,814.118 
23,187,327 
29,397,534 
20,529.416 
13,562,277 
25,374,336 
21.672,202 
25,306,463 
28.73O.794 
32,911.046 
32,790,910 
32,972,545 
35.309,272 
40,859,967 


1871 


1873 


1876 


1879 


1881 


1886 


1891 


1896 


1897 


19OO 


19O1 


19O2 


1903 





The value of exports of the products of Canadian forests from 1879 
to 1903 was as follows: Lumber, $467,088,774; square timber, $73,- 
299,685; logs, $22,233,758; shingles, $15,443,878; pulpwood, $10,002,- 
346; sleepers, $6,966,198; shocks, $4,216,298; firewood, $6,544,347; 
bark, $5,388,839; ashes, $3,140,636, and all others, $13,274,914. Total, 
$627,599,673. 

In connection with the above table we may note the relation that 
exports of forest products bear to the total exports of Canada. During 
the twenty-five years ended with 1903 the total value of exports of do- 
mestic products, not including coin and bullion, was $2,737,658,211. 
The exports of forest products, therefore, were 23 percent of the total. 
While exports of forest products have shown a satisfactory increase as 
the years have gone on, the development of the country in agriculture, 



86 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



mining and general manufactures has rendered them of less relative 
importance. The following table shows the percentage of exports of 
forest products to total domestic exports : 

EXPORTS OF FOREST PRODUCTS, TOTAL DOMESTIC EXPORTS AND PERCENT- 
AGE OF FORMER TO LATTER, IN YEARS NAMED. 



Year. 


Exports of forest 
products. 


Total of all 
domestic exports. 


Percent of 
forest products. 


1868 


$18 814 118 


$57 567 888 


34 4 


1871 


23 187 327 


74 173 613 


32 6 


1873. 


29 397 534 


89 789 922 


32 7 


1876 


20 529 416 


80 966 435 


25 3 


1879 


13 562 277 


71 491,255 


18 9 


1881 


25 374 336 


98,290 823 


25.8 


1886 


21 672 202 


85,251,314 


25.4 


1891 


25 306 463 


98,417 296 


25 7 


1896. 


28,730.794 


121,013,852 


23.7 


1897 


32,911,046 


137,950,253 


24.0 


190O 


32,790,910 


191,894,723 


17.0 


1901 


32,972,545 


196,487,632 


16.7 


1902 


35,309,272 


211,640,286 


16.6 


1903 


40,859,967 


225,849,724 


18.0 











The following tables, also taken from trade and navigation returns, 
show the quantities and values of the forest products exported from 
Canada during the years mentioned : 

QUANTITIES OF FOREST PRODUCTS EXPORTED FROM CANADA. 





1894 


18% 


1898 


1900 


1902 


1903 


Bark for tanning, cords .... 


30,602 
622,000 


37,133 
936,000 


26,493 
1,209,000 


16,124 

* 


34.897 

* 


16.769 

* 




279 000 


365,000 


16,000 










149,078 


118,720 


79,972 


67,203 


43,873 


48,858 


Knees and futtocks, pieces. 
Logs, cedar, for shingle 


16,510 
355 


14,126 
600 


35,742 
700 


28,698 
5,602 


21,867 


22.514 
21,032 




23,500,000 


18,961.000 


8,483,000 


10,127,000 


6,978,000 


1,731,000 




6,233,000 


4,761,000 


1,121,000 


1,824,000 


5,806,000 


4,930,000 




795,000 


298,000 


120,000 


225,000 


145,000 


119,000 




279,707,000 


157,449,000 


186,049,000 


50,365,000 


15,242,000 


11,705,000 




17,930,000 


15,182,000 


5,526,000 


9,711,000 


8,275,000 


7,142,000 


Logs all other, feet 


13,321,000 


8,676,000 


9,342,000 


16,155,000 


39,312,000 


26,176,000 


Lumber 
Deals, pine, st. hd 


65,654 


84,194 


78,223 


71,754 


66,191 


87.318 


Deals, spruce and other, 


219.724 


223,432 


292,743 


307.637 


242,636 


251,806 




16,614 


17,911 


22,223 


19.765 


15,273 


17,208 




349,906,000 


422,306,000 


334,971,000 


345,973,000 


420,147,000 


474.437,000 




2,567,000 


1,633,000 


2,855,000 


5,066,000 


849,000 


381,000 




4,661,000 


3,114,000 


1.779,000 


4,266,000 


59,976,000 


7,705,000 


Planks and boards, ft.. . 


1,134,231,000 
2,215,000 


818,529,000 
1,782,000 


514,609,000 
573,000 


842,454,000 
5,000 


934,082,000 
236,000 


954.241,000 
1.100,000 


Scantling, feet 


20,328,000 


43,347,000 


31,011,000 


26,397,000 


37.931,000 


43,298,000 




388,586,000 


465,731,000 


565,759,000 


609,209,000 


781,160.000 


798.277,000 


Sleepers'and ry. ties, pieces. 


891,254 
31,403 


1,287,661 
13,635 


701,810 
9,077 


1,297,003 
8,793 


868,800 
5,034 


970,007 
2,081 


Timber, square- ash, tons. 
Timber sq. birch, tons 
Timber, square elm, tons. 
Timber, sq. maple, tons... 
Timber, square oak, tons. 
Timber, sq. red pine, tons. 
Timber, sq. white pine, 


5,897 
16.808 
10,478 
273 
25,338 
6,849 

109,312 


4,509 
26,969 
14,289 
26 
27,706 
8,845 

91,280 


2,685 
16,137 
12,717 
195 
26,465 
6,611 

86,661 


11,495 
24,750 
10,554 
480 
13,670 
5.341 

73,108 


3,065 
10,597 
13,117 
266 
15,310 
2,280 

47.686 


2.098 
19.663 
14,033 
146 
16,340 
10.857 

58.632 


Timber, sq. all other, tons. 


4,938 


4,107 


1,084 


3,292 


3,997 


3,812 



Included Jn lumber. 



CANADA PRODUCTION AND TRADE. 



87 



VALUE OF FOREST PRODUCTS EXPORTED FROM CANADA. 





1894 


1896 


1898 


1900 


1902 


1904 




S 109.764 


$ 110,092 


$ 112,305 


$ 138,255 


$ 133,798 






148,078 


177010 


105 057 


61 899 


100 361 


$ 66 906 




20.648 


35,963 


37,044 


* 





* 




7,364 


9,573 


437 






* 




287,036 


222389 


140897 


117751 


91,507 


71 961 




11673 


9816 


14 175 


19 991 


IS 540 


19 can 
















Total 


$584,563 


$564 843 


$409915 


$337 896 


$344 206 


$151 546 


Logs, cedar, for shingle bolts. 


900 


3,458 


600 


18,222 








152,221 


14 r '<-! 


63,784 


74 721 


64 245 


16,519 




19,769 


18607 


4,030 


7738 


32604 


33 392 




16,397 


6 627 


2517 


3430 


2733 


535 




2,459,354 


1 423 y-i 


1,616,671 


494 311 


175 684 


30 306 




107,282 


86,075 


33 vi.3 


63078 


63 555 


69 110 




106,229 


71,035 


89430 


117 132 


237 019 


269 771 
















Total logs......... 


$2,862,152 


$1 734 779 


$1,800,817 


$778,832 


$565 840 


tliq esu 


Lumber- 


5,152 


35 267 


20350 


27 811 


116 944 


39 287 




2,751,069 


8037 791 


3 814 947 


8 276 516 


3 164 552 


2 975 614 


Deals, spruce and other.. 


6,567,631 

4>4 3 4 


6.579,746 
620 646 


7,918,366 
641 043 


8,287.960 
564 869 


7,451.148 
472 015 


7,9-20,444 

A: -,T flCQ 


Lath 


498,755 


4.1,0 .->.-, i 


343 378 


479 391 


74 s 015 






20,262 


10378 


14 851 


22272 


7 429 


>fSf> 939 


Pickets 


33 154 


25793 


18052 


30 443 


87 207 




Planks and boards 


7,947,001 


8 513 419 


5 611*537 


9 611,278 


12568 991 


12 707 912 


Joists 


17,052 


14 747 


5 229 


49 


2 848 






170386 


387 707 


241 044 


235 615 


365 117 


524.838 


Staves 


641,077 


701 983 


401 f^j, 


549*816 


301 047 


907 4'X) 


Other lumber 


415 655 


653 001 


243 672 


660*741 


336 975 


















Total lumber 


$18,551,518 


$19 972 702 


$19 273,552 


$23 746 761 


$25620288 


joe fins qie 


Masts and spars 


7,138 


7 800 


2448 


3 505 


7 965 


7 333 


Piling 


61,815 


67 755 


135 154 


93 346 


208479 


91 715 


Poles, hop, hoop, telegraph 
and other 


71789 


50,503 


36 126 


48 872 


103825 


35 463 


Posts, cedar, tamarack and 
other 


65717 


60 949 


23374 


24 893 


32 556 


94 oon 


Shingles 


754,743 


899541 


994 306 


1 131 - 506 


1,525 386 


1 711 258 


Sleepers and railroad ties 
Stave bolts 


131,765 

86,2% 


213.622 
34 672 


101,191 
20 811 


221,906 
20 673 


1824W 

11 671 


18,s'831 
3 995 


Shooks 


105 239 


125 610 


117 434 


251 357 


370 405 


II 1 * dK\ 
















Total 


$1^84,502 


$1 460452 


$1 430 844 


$1 796 058 


$2,442485 


$2 406 946 


Timber square ash 


70543 


51 391 


28 617 


39 486 


43 934 




Timber, square birch 


127 591 


221 715 


14 ^'"o 


XK 4'->4 


104 867 






140 367 




175 346 




24* ''~3 




Timber, square maple 


M28 


295 


2 f-.'S 


5 *32 


IjOOO 




Timber, square oak 


670675 


S 5 > rj "'l 


606 7' 7 4 


280 298 


SSi 1 v> 


V) ^ 7i9 


Timber, square red pine 
Timber, square white pine.. 
Timber, square all other. . . . 


74,458 
1,568,835 
34,245 


108426 

1,518,042 
50,719 


59,687 
1,536,067 
28,882 


63.295 
1,184, 962 
50,734 


njM 

923,795 
56,884 


33.385 
1,530,506 
61,658 


Total, timber 


$2,590,542 


$2 721 417 


$2,579,986 


$2 013 746 


$1,767,579 


$2 13? 254 


Wood, blocks and other for 
pulp 


893260 




912041 


902 772 


1315038 


1 798 MQ 


Other articles of the forest. . . 


85,911 


87,628 


104,384 


187,803 


63,930 


86,311 


Grand total 


S26 352448 




$26,511.539 


$28 763 668 


$32 119,366 


sew <xi nR7 

















* Included in lumber. 



88 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

The preceding table shows the change by which less quantities of what 
may be called the raw products of the forests are exported, and larger 
quantities of the products of mills and factories. The effect of the 
prohibition of the exportation of logs cut from Crown lands in the east- 
ern provinces is displayed in the figures on pine logs, while the won- 
derful growth in the pulpwood business is also potent in its effect on 
the reports. 

The exportation of wood from Canada into the United States is 
increasing rapidly. The value of these exports during recent years 
was: 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1898 $ 9,840,524 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1899 10,511,019 

During the fiscal year ending June 30. 1900 14,087,088 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901 13,176,717 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1902 16,682,183 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903 18,823,878 

This shows an increase in 1903 over that of 1898 of $8,983,354, even 
surpassing the export for the same period to Great Britain by $30,001; 
and this in the face of the American duty. This certainly indicates the 
great market for wood material that the United States alone will afford 
Canada in the future. 

During the year 1902 the pulp output of Canada decreased by 24,613 
tons. There were thirty-five mills engaged in the industry, the output 
of which was 240,989 tons, of which 155,210 tons were mechanical pulps, 
76,735 sulphite, and 9,044 soda. The value of the pulp in 1902 was 
$4,383,182, of which there was exported $2,511,644, as follows: To 
Great Britain, $976,192; United States, $1,598,139, and other countries 
$17,333. The mills were operated chiefly by water power. 

The following shows the exportation of wood goods from British 
North America to the United Kingdom during the years named : 

Sawn and 

planed 

Timber. lumber. 

Year. Loads. Loads. 

1895 124,936 1,167,947 

1896 151,102 ' 1,456,179 

1897 157,432 1,979,155 

1898 108,554 1.644,830 

1899 114,794 1,751,453 

1900 113,843 1,688,033 

1901 90,042 1,517,194 

1902 78,917 1,639,668 

1903 66.559 1,507.530 

Notwithstanding the enormous wealth of Canada in forest resources 
and the heavy exports of forest products, the Dominion does, never- 
theless, find it convenient to import no small amount of material, most 
of which comes from the United States. The following table shows 
the importations of wood and wood products for 1904 : 



CANADA PRODUCTION AND TRADE. 



89 



IMPORTS INTO CANADA. BY COUNTRIES, 19O4, FREE OF DUTY. 



Articles. 


Great 

Britain. 


United 
States. 


All coun- 
tries. 


Corkwood 


$ 4,250 


$ 54.419 


$ 78,357 


D shovel handles ..... 


110 


45 776 


45 886 


Fellies, hickory 




27,610 


27,610 


Bolts, heading:, etc 




29,376 


29,376 


Billets, hickory 




4.0O7 


4,007 


Spokes, sawn to shape 




2,612 


2,612 


Spokes, rough turned 




178,603 


178,603 


Hubs for wheels 


3 


24,071 


24.O74 


Railroad ties 




202,887 


202,887 


Logs, round . 




395,984 


396,348 


Lumber 
Cherry, etc ... 




456,479 


457,419 


Mahogany 


11,494 


126,894 


138,388 


Oak 


41 


1,492,536 


1,492 577 


Pitch pine 


5 


302,370 


302,375 


Walnut .... 




57,770 


57770 


Ash 




97,479 


97,479 


Timber, hewn or sawn 


419 


324,864 


326.76O 


Boards, planks, etc., partly dressed 


155 


2,658,006 


2,663,571 


Lath 




58 779 


59 691 


Shingles 




22 141 


22,141 


Staves 




146 566 


146 580 


Firewood 




112 631 


112,631 










Total... 


$16.477 


$6.821, 86O 


$6.877,142 



It will be noted in the above that the importations have been of 
hardwoods, in the form of lumber, timber and partially manufactured 
materials and of miscellaneous lumber not clearly specified. 

The importations of hardwoods are due to the partial denudation 
of the hardwood districts of the Dominion spoken of previously. Many 
of the hardwood importations are of materials for manufacture. In 
addition, considerable quantities of ordinary building lumber are im- 
ported, owing to the fact that for some sections the American sawmills 
furnish a convenient and economical supply. Such has been the case 
in Manitoba and the Canadian Northwest, which have drawn heavily 
upon United States mills, especially upon those in Minnesota and, in 
recent years to some extent, upon those in the far northwestern states, 
for the construction of houses, barns and business buildings in the de- 
velopment of that comparatively new country. In the older provinces 
it has been found desirable to import from the United States such items 
as pitch pine, used where a wood of strength is desired, and house fin- 
ish, such as flooring. Therefore, while the exports of Canada are much 
heavier than its imports, it has imported material from the United 
States to the value of $6,820,000. This heavy importation is made 
possible by the fact that the products of the forest are on the Canadian 



90 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

free list ; but in recent years, and especially in 1904, an agitation began 
for an imposition of duty upon sawed lumber, with particular reference 
to supplying the needs of Manitoba and the Canadian Northwest from 
Canadian mills in western Ontario and in British Columbia, to the ex- 
clusion of the mills of Minnesota and of Washington and other far 
western states. 



CHAPTER VII. 



CANADA COOPERAGE STOCK INDUSTRY. 

Almost since the beginning of timber and lumber exportations from 
Canada the manufacture of cooperage stock or material therefor has 
been one of the leading of the minor forest industries. Easily accessi- 
ble to waterways, all the way from Quebec to Lake Huron were orig- 
inally immense quantities of, timber suitable for this purpose. The 
oaks, and other woods used in the manufacture of cooperage stock, 
which grew in Canada compared very favorably with those of the 
United States, and, as intimated above, they were for the most part 
more accessible, though for scores of years the industry in the United 
States has been growing to magnificent proportions, feeding upon the 
resources reached not only by river, but by railroads. The Canadian 
cooperage stock industry, however, antedated that of the United States 
and was maintained in large proportions until the cutting away of tim- 
ber compelled a reduction in its magnitude. 

The more recent history of the Canadian industry is indicated to 
some extent in the figures of production contained in the preceding 
chapter, but a more reliable measure of its importance and fluctuations 
is found in the export statistics, out of which the following brief table 
has been compiled. The maximum of exportations, and presumably of 
manufacture likewise, was reached about the middle of the last decade, 
since when there has been an almost uniform decline, until, in 1904, the 
total exports of staves, heading and stave bolts were valued at only 
$211,485. 

EXPORTS OF STAVES AND STAVE BOLTS FROM CANADA. 



Year. 


Staves and 
beading 1 . 
Value. 


Stave Bolts. 


Cords. 


Value. 


1881... 


$300.128 






1891 


434.868 






1894 


641,077 
638.272 
7O1.983 
699.381 
401.O83 
527,131 
549,816 
438.973 
301.O47 
284.462 
2O7.49O 


31,403 
24,167 
13,635 
13,827 
9,077 
5,328 
8.793 
3,223 
5,034 
2.081 


$86.296 
64,802 
34,672 
38,634 
20,811 
12,372 
20.673 
7.217 
11,671 
5.337 
3,995 


1895 


1896 


1897 


1898 


1899 


19OO... 


19O1 


19O2 


19O3... 


1904 



91 



92 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

The cooperage stock industry of Canada is not of sufficient impor- 
tance to demand much space in this work, but a few pages may well be 
devoted to a review of the industry from historical and technical stand- 
points, prepared by a man who is one of the leading exporters of this 
class of material either in Canada or in the United States. His review 
of this subject l occupies the remainder of this chapter : 

A great many years ago, when the principal exports from Canada to 
the old country consisted of furs and timber, some enterprising French- 
man (or possibly Scotchman), who had come from the motherland, 
being employed in the manufacture of barrels and casks, conceived the 
idea of getting out staves and heading in Canada for export to Great 
Britain. In those days the forests contained a great deal of fine white 
oak all the way from Quebec to Windsor, but more especially in the 
western peninsula, and those trees were cut down, squared up with a 
broad-ax and shipped to England, the consequence being that only the 
finest trees were used and only part of them, namely, the part that could 
be put into square timber. 

This square timber was floated down to Montreal, loaded on vessels 
there for the old country, where it was used for the manufacture of 
lumber, and, I presume, staves also. This enterprising Frenchman or 
Scotchman no doubt saw the terrible waste which occurred by only 
using certain parts of the trees, and also saw the trees which were 
passed as not fit for square timber, but which would make excellent 
staves and undoubtedly this was the commencement of the cooperage 
industry in Canada. 

Staves were taken out for the wine casks of France and Spain, and 
the whisky casks of Great Britain and Ireland, and before long " Can- 
ada butts " and " Quebec pipe staves " became standard grades in Great 
Britain and on the Continent. 

At that time all of the sugar used in England came from the West 
Indies and was shipped in hogsheads, and the West Indies hogshead 
staves were also manufactured in Canada, shipped to England, where 
they were made into shooks and sent over to the West Indies to be 
filled with sugar, molasses and rum. 

As the oak got scarcer in the east, the hewers and stave makers 
drifted west, until Chatham, Ontario, became one of the great centers 
of the stave industry. 

The old residents here have told the writer that years ago McGregor 

1 James Innes In the Canada Lumberman, January, 1905. 



CANADA COOPERAGE STOCK INDUSTRY. 93 

Creek and Thames River, which converge at Chatham, would have its 
waters covered for miles every spring with square oak, walnut timber, 
Canada butts, Quebec pipe staves and West India hogshead staves, and 
the smaller and shorter pieces of oak, utilized for barrel keg staves and 
heading. These were loaded on vessels in the Thames River, sent down 
to Montreal, and in some cases sent direct to England from Chatham. 
This, of course, was entirely tight barrel stock, as in those days no 
slack barrel stock was exported from Canada, as being all made by 
hand it was too expensive to send over to the old country, which at that 
time was almost entirely supplied with norway fir staves and beech 
staves made from the timber growing in England, Ireland and Scot- 
land. 

Mr. Neil Watson, of Mull, Ontario, now a manufacturer of slack 
barrel stock, hauled staves from Harwick township to Buckhorn Beach 
for years and sold his pipe staves, 60x5x2, at $25 per thousand, and 
West India staves, 44x4^x1, at $5 to $8 per 1,200 for shipment to 
England. 

Tight barrel stock in Canada is now almost a thing of the past, the 
oak having been almost exhausted, and what staves are made here now 
are used entirely for local consumption, either being made in the old 
way, which I will describe, or being sawed on a drum saw. 

The method of manufacture in the early days, in fact it is still in 
use, was to cut the trees up into bolt lengths, according to the quality 
of the tree, whether suitable for long or short staves or heading, then 
to split these bolts with a f row knife, and in some cases, such as " Can- 
ada butts," dress them with a draw knife and ship them in the rough, 
sometimes taking the sap off, but other times shipping them with the 
sap on. Now most of the oak staves are sawn on a drum saw, which 
does away with a great deal of waste, on account of the slips on the 
part of the workman with the frow, and also enables the manufacturers 
to use tougher oak and timber which would not split freely with a frow, 
in fact, work up everything very close. The bucker, for bucking staves, 
never got much of a foothold in Canada, as the timber was practically 
exhausted here before buck staves were salable on foreign markets. 

Oak heading, instead of being split now, is sawed, and while in the 
old days the head used to be split, finished off with a draw knife, marked 
off with a compass and sawed out by hand, the bevel also being put on 
with a draw knife, the heading is now sawed on a swing saw, piled in 
the yard to dry, put through a kiln when partially seasoned, run through 



94 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

a planer and turned up with a rounding machine, which puts on the 
bevel and turns the head at the same time. As already stated, the 
manufacture of tight barrel stock in Canada from oak is now almost a 
thing of the past, and does not figure very much in the export trade of 
Canada. 

We will now turn to the manufacture of slack barrel stock. Years 
ago when the manufacturing industries in Canada were in their infancy 
and the consumption of barrels was a very minor matter, coopers made 
their staves and heading for flour and other slack barrels in the same 
manner as they used to make their tight barrel stock, in fact the same 
as a great many tight barrel staves and heading are still made in the 
United States. 

The cooper would get his bolts in the winter, haul them to his 
cooper shop, split out his staves with his frow, and in the winter make 
the staves with a draw knife, jointing them on a planer jointer, in some 
cases even putting on the joint with his draw knife. At that time slack 
barrel staves were made almost entirely from red oak and basswood, 
the cooper making his staves during the winter months in his shop, 
seasoning them inside his barn or cooper shop, and making up his bar- 
rels as required, and after the staves were seasoned selling them from 
seventy-five cents to $1 each. Coopering at that time was simply a 
side issue, the cooper being also a farmer, carpenter, or some other 
tradesman, and making all kinds of barrels and casks from a flour bar- 
rel to a water tank. 

Years rolled on, the red oak forests of Canada became a thing of the 
past what oak was left would bring very much higher prices for lumber 
or bending purposes, sawn timbers, etc., than it would bring for staves, 
and the same applied to the States of New York, Ohio and Indiana, 
which at that time were large stave producers. Some Yankee genius 
(sad to say, unknown), possibly a man who thought there was a great 
waste of energy in making staves by hand, got his brains to work and 
invented the modern stave knife for cutting slack barrel staves from 
steamed bolts. The machine as at first invented is practically the same 
as is in use at the present time, the only improvements that have been 
made being that the machine is made twice as heavy as formerly, so as 
to be rigid and do away with the cutting of thin staves, and a balance 
wheel was put on so as to make the strokes more regular, and the 
speed increased from fifty revolutions per minute, which was the orig- 
inal cut of the machine, to 150 or 160 revolutions per minute, which is 
the speed at which the modern stave knives are run. 



CANADA COOPERAGE STOCK INDUSTRY. 95 

When this machine was first in use the staves were made entirely 
from red oak and basswood, the bolts being split out with a frow or ax, 
brought to the mill in this way and cut into staves. Immense elm 
forests then attracted the attention of some of the stave manufacturers 
and they experimented with making elm staves. It is not a great many 
years ago, only since I came to this country, that red oak staves were 
the principal kind used on the Minneapolis market, now elm is almost 
entirely used, in fact red oak staves are not liked on account of being 
so hard to work. 

For a great many years nothing but split bolts were used, until 
some manufacturer, with a sawmill attached, conceived the idea of saw- 
ing his bolts, but until fifteen years ago staves made from sawn bolts 
commanded a lower price than staves from split bolts, as the coopers 
were of the opinion that staves could not be made straight grained 
unless the bolts were split, and it took a great many years to remove 
this erroneous idea. Now there is hardly a mill in the country making 
staves from anything but sawed bolts, and elm is the principal timber 
used, in fact is considered always desirable to any timber at the present 
time, although birch, beech, maple and southern woods are now crowd- 
ing elm by degrees off the market, on account of the high price of elm 
stumpage. 

We will now turn to the hoop industry. Until about twenty years 
ago all of the barrels were hooped with what is known as half-round 
hoops. The cooper cut these hoops in the winter, hauled them to his 
cooper shop, and spent the long winter months when not making staves 
in making hoops for his summer trade. Then the racked hoop made 
from black ash came into vogue, this being the precursor of the modern 
patent cut elm hoop. For a great many years the hoops were made 
either racked or split from elm, and finished with a draw knife, until 
the idea was conceived of cutting the hoops the same as staves from 
elm plank, and this hoop was found, when it was perfected, to be 
superior in every way to the racked or bark hoop. It is still the prin- 
cipal hoop on the market, although on account of the scarcity of elm a 
great many wire hoops are being used to supplement the elm hoops on 
the barrels. The iron hoop alone does not give sufficient rigidity to a 
barrel, and if not supplemented with the patent hoop, the barrels when 
stored on the bulges would collapse without the assistance of the elm 
hoop. 

Heading, which formerly used to be made in the same way as 



96 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

staves, split from bolts, dressed off with a draw knife, in fact the same 
as tight barrel heading, are now sawed on a swing saw, kiln dried and 
turned on a turning machine, at the rate of 3,000 sets per day to one 
machine, whereas formerly it was a very good cooper who would turn 
out twenty-five heads in a day. 

While the tight barrel cooperage industry of Canada has declined, 
the slack barrel industry has leaped up until it is one of the most im- 
portant industries in Canada, millions of dollars being invested in stave, 
hoop and heading mills all over the country from Nova Scotia to On- 
tario, and barrels being used for almost every conceivable purpose, 
as they are the handiest, strongest and best package that has yet been 
invented by man. 

There is no doubt but there is timber in parts of Canada which are 
yet undeveloped to continue this industry for a number of years, and 
no doubt before the supply is exhausted methods of reforestry will be 
inaugurated by the Canadian government the same as are in vogue in 
Norway and Sweden. It is one of the greatest industries we have in 
Canada and should be fostered so as to continue in perpetuity. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

QUEBEC TIMBER HISTORY AND ADMINISTRATION. 

Though the lumber industry in the Provinces of Quebec and Ontaiio 
in the Dominion of Canada is, so to speak, a double tree, growing from 
one root, it may be well to consider them separately, passing lightly 
over that part in each which more fully describes the other. The his- 
tory of the industry could not be otherwise than interwoven in these 
two Provinces because from the beginning of things 1 until 1791, whether 
under French or British rule, they constituted one colony, and from 1841 
to 1867 they were again united in the Union of Upper and Lower 
Canada. In the latter year these two Provinces, so different in lan- 
guage, religion, thought and habits, were the basis of that confederation 
which bound all the scattered colonies of Great Britain in North 
America ( excepting Newfoundland ) into an independent auxiliary na- 
tion, with complete self-government, with national responsibilities, and 
national aspirations ; as Kipling sings 

Daughter am I in my mother's house, 
But mistress am I in my own. 

That confederation would have been impossible but for the mutual 
forbearance the give-and-take between these two great Provinces 
which now, after a generation of expansion in greater Canada, still 
contain about seven-tenths of the total population of the country, a 
forbearance whereby the solid, Protestant, English-speaking Ontarian 
and the dashing, Catholic, French-speaking Quebecer have, as in a 
marriage contract, agreed to take each other for better or for worse, 
for all time ; and, having made up their minds to it, find each other not 
such bad partners after all in fact, preferable to any other of whom 
they know. 

Moving across the stage of Canada's history, crowded with com- 

1 In 1534 Jacques Cartier entered the Gulf of St. Lawrence, visited different coasts around the 
Gulf, and took possession of the country in the name of "the most Christian king," Francis I., 
King of France. In the same year Cartier was appointed Captain General of Canada, which title he 
held for six years. In 1535 he explored the Gulf of St. Lawrence, landed at Quebec and sailed as 
far as the Indian village of Hochelaga, now Montreal, which he visited. After unsuccessful at- 
tempts at colonization by the French under Cartier, Roberyal, La Roche and others, the first 
permanent settlement was effected at Port Royal under the direction of Champlain, in 16O5. The 
City of Quebec was founded in 16O8 by twenty-eight settlers, including Champlain. Montreal was 
founded by Champlain in 1611, the site being chosen by him as a favorable place for a new settle- 
ment higher up the river than Quebec. 

97 



98 LUMBER INDUSTRY Cp AMERICA- 



figures, there is none more picturesque tnan tnat f the 
lumberman, beginning with the cavalier seigni^ rs f New France, 
continuing with the hxag&ty crA-mrafly officers of old England, with 
their retainers singing French-Canadian boat songs, or fighting and 
praying as became good Glengarry covenanters, on through the stirring 
times of the rebellion of 1837 to the present time when, in the midst of 
a world of timber dues and percentages, the successful lumberman still 
builds his palace in the wilderness and becomes known as the King of 
the Gatineau or the Prince of Petawawa. 

Nothing comes out more clearly in the early history of colonization 
in Canada than that the tree was considered man's enemy, and only 
valuable as a barricade against other enemies, climatic or human. 

The idea of those who colonized New France was to reproduce the 
conditions of lord and vassal, which they thought to be eternal but 
were only accidental and were passing away in the old France even 
while they were vainly striving to reproduce them in the new. By this 
system the land was divided into large blocks, as large as a modern 
township, or small county, and each block given to a scion of a noble 
house who colonized his tract with tenants or retainers. These, in 
return for occupancy of the land, not only paid rents but performed 
many personal services, while the seignior on his part was invested 
with many privileges ; among others, that of hunting over the retainer's 
land and of administering justice. 

The place which timber occupied in this system may be best seen 
by examining one of the old seigniorial grants made in 1683 by the 
governor and indendant of Quebec, which embodies the usual condi- 
tions. No excuse is made in presenting it because it is a land grant, 
for from the beginning to the present time land and timber regulations 
have gone hand in hand : 

We, in virtue of the power intrusted to us by His Majesty [the King of France] 
and in consideration of the different settlements which the said Sieur de la Valliere 
and the Sieur de la Poterie, his father, have long since made in this country, and 
in order to afford him the means of augmenting them, have to the said Sieur de la 
Valliere given, granted, and conceded the above described tract of land, to have 
and to hold, the same himself, his heirs and assigns forever, under the title of fief, 
seignory, high, middle and low justice and also the right of hunting and fishing 
throughout the extent of the said tract of land ; subject to the condition of fealty 
and homage which the said Sieur de la Valliere, his heirs and assigns shall be held 
to perform at the Castle of St. Louis in Quebec, of which he shall hold under the 
customary rights and dues agreeably to the Custom of Paris ; and also that he 
shall keep house and home and cause the same to be kept by his tenants on the 



QUEBEC TIMBER HISTORY, ADMINISTRATION. 99 

concessions which he may grant them ; that the said Sieur de la Valliere shall pre- 
serve and cause to be preserved by his tenants, within the said tract of land the 
oak timber fit for the building of vessels ; and that he shall give immediate notice 
to the King or to Us of the mines, ores and minerals, if any be found therein ; that 
he shall leave and cause to be left all necessary roadways and passages ; that he 
shall cause the said land to be cleared and inhabited, and furnished with buildings 
and cattle, within two years from this date, in default whereof the present conces- 
sion shall be null and void. 

This extract shows that the only interest the Crown took in the 
matter was the securing of an ample supply of oak for building ships 
for the royal navy. Later grants reserved timber for spars and masts, 
doubtless pine timber. From time to time, as war vessels were built 
or repaired at Quebec, permits were issued to parties to cut the oak 
timber reserved as above and regulations were made for rafting it to 
Quebec. Again, when new districts were opened in which oak timber 
was reported to be abundant, regulations were issued forbidding any- 
one cutting it until it had been examined and suitable trees had been 
marked for the navy. The penalty for violation of this regulation was 
confiscation of the timber and a fine of ten livres for each tree. 

These first reservations caused trouble between the cultivator and 
his over-lord or the Government, as similar arrangements have done 
ever since in every part of the continent. If oak trees were numerous 
the tenant had either to destroy them or fail to fulfill his obligations to 
clear the land in a given time. The usual way of cutting the Gordian 
knot appears to have been to burn the timber ; but after suits by seign- 
iors against settlers who made the trees into boards for their own use, 
it was ordained by the governor that the tenant should be unmolested 
where the timber was cut in the actual extension of his clearing ; but 
where the trees were cut for timber without the intention of clearing 
the land the party should be fined. 

When the land became a little more cleared, trespass by settlers 
upon adjoining lands to cut suitable sticks or easily reached timber 
became more common and was punished by confiscation of the trucks 
and horses used to transport the wood and by a fine of fifty livres. In 
the district about Quebec City, one-half the fine and confiscation went 
to the proprietor of the land and the other half to the Hotel Dieu 
(hospital) of Quebec City. 

At first the Crown reservation of timber was solely for naval pur- 
poses, and timber taken for military purposes, such as the building of 
casemates, was paid for by the Crown; but later the reservation was 



100 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

extended to include all timber the King might require. While the right 
of the King was thus defined, the rights of the seignior were undeter- 
mined and continued to be exercised conformably to Old World custom, 
with more or less exactness, according to the strength of mind of the 
seignior and the power of resistance of his retainers. These seigniorial 
rights lasted long after British occupation and were extinguished only 
by compensation, by the Seigniorial Tenures Act, of 1854. The court 
which heard the claims decided that the seignior had no right to timber 
for firewood for his own use, or to merchantable timber or timber for 
churches; as to whether he had the right to timber for manor house and 
mills, the court was divided. So that in the closing years of the French 
regime the Crown reserved the timber it required for its own use, and 
prohibited trespass, while the seignior reserved what timber he could 
for himself by the exercise of his will power over the tenant. 

With the beginning of British occupation, in 1763, the policy of 
reserving timber for naval and military purposes inaugurated by the 
King of France was continued by the King of England, and somewhat 
extended. The first governor under the new regime, John Murray, was 
instructed to make townships containing about 20,000 acres, and in each 
township he was to reserve land for the erection of fortifications and 
barracks, where necessary, and more particularly for the growth and 
production of naval timber. He was further instructed to make reserves 
about Lake Champlain and between that lake and the St. Lawrence, 
because it had been represented to the King that the timber there was 
suitable for masting and other purposes of the royal navy and because 
it was conveniently situated for water carriage. He was to prevent 
waste and punish any persons cutting the timber and to report whether 
it would be advisable to prevent any sawmills being erected in the 
colony without license from the governor or the commander-in-chief. 
The modern school of forestry experts is inclined to regret that these 
instructions as to reservations in each township and permanent pine 
reserves on lands suited to pine were not carried out, the reason being 
that other urgent matters occupied the governor's attention and subse- 
quent exploration showed the so-called illimitable extent of the pine 
forests. 

In 1775 Guy Carleton, captain general and governor in chief, received 
like instructions, and in 1789 fuller regulations for the conduct of the 
land office were made, preserving the timber to the Crown, confining 
grants to individuals to lands suited to agriculture, and preventing 



QUEBEC TIMBER HISTORY, ADMINISTRATION. 101 

individuals from monopolizing such spots as contained mines, minerals, 
fossils and water powers, or spots fit and useful for ports and harbors 
and works of defense. These were to be reserved to the Crown. 

If these regulations had only been carried out, how much would pos- 
terity have been saved! The seignior, with his plumed hat, his ruffles, 
his sword and turned-down top boots, as the sculptor represents him on 
the public squares of Montreal, had disappeared and his place was taken 
by a less artistic but more active individual, the royal admiralty con- 
tractor. Licenses to cut timber were granted by the British govern- 
ment to contractors for the royal dockyards, and these, in addition to 
getting out timber to complete their own contracts, took advantage of 
the opportunity to do a general business in supplying the British mar- 
kets. The timber was still considered of such small value, above the 
cost of transport, that these were apparently not felt to be serious 
abuses by the colonists of that day. 

EFFECT OF BRITISH IMPORT DUTIES. 

A new era dawned for the Canadian timber industry with the close 
of the Napoleonic wars. In 1787, by a consolidation of the duties on 
timber coming into Britain, the rate was fixed at six shillings and eight 
pence per "load" of fifty cubic feet upon foreign timber imported in 
British ships, with an addition of two pence in case the shipment was 
made in a foreign ship. With the increased taxation necessary to carry 
on the wars to checkmate Napoleon's ambitious schemes, the duties 
rose steadily until, in 1813, they were 3 4s 6d a load, with 3s 2d addi- 
tional when imported in a ship flying a foreign flag. The decline in the 
duties began again in 1821 when they were fixed at 2 15s a load, with 
2s 9d additional for importation in a foreign vessel. Then for the first 
time a duty of 10s a load was imposed upon colonial timber, which had 
been theretofore free. However, as the colonies still enjoyed a prefer- 
ence of 45s a load, that did not stop the progress the colonial timber 
trade was making. This was shown by a report presented to a British 
parliamentary committee in 1833, to which was submitted the whole 
question of timber duties. This report shows that the earlier duties 
levied were not sufficiently large to overcome the prejudice which 
existed in favor of Baltic timber. 

The first noticeable change was in 1803, when the imports from 
British North America reached 12,133 loads, compared with 5,143 loads 
the previous year. How small was the colonial trade is shown by the 
fact that the importations of European timber amounted to 280,550 



102 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

loads. In 1807 the colonies supplied 26,651 loads as against 213,636 
from Europe, and in 1809, for the first time, the colonial product ex- 
ceeded that from Europe, the figures being 90,829, and 54,260 loads 
respectively. 

The War of 1812 had a depressing effect upon colonial trade and 
Baltic timber again took the lead until 1816, when the colonies supplied 
twice the quantity sent by Europe. This was a period of expansion in 
Britain, so that the total trade as well as that with Canada shows great 
growth. In the five years from 1819 to 1823 the average annual import 
into Great Britain was 452,158 loads, of which 166,600 came from 
Europe and 335,556 from the colonies. The succeeding five years 
showed still further growth to a total yearly average of 602,793 loads, 
of which 410,903 came from the colonies, although in 1821 the duties 
on foreign timber were reduced and a duty of ten shillings a load im- 
posed on colonial timber. 

This is the first place where we hear of the United States. In 1819 
duties were imposed by Canada upon goods coming from the United 
States, but flour, oak, pine and fir timber for export were allowed to 
come in free. The meaning of this was that a good deal of timber was 
brought in from the United States and reshipped from Quebec to the 
British market in order to obtain advantage of the preferential tariff in 
favor of the colonies. The extent of this trade attracted the attention 
of the British authorities, who had no intention that United States pro- 
ducers should avail themselves of a preference intended to help the 
colonies. 

In 1820 an official inquiry was instituted by the British House of 
Commons which showed that the timber imported into Lower Canada 
from Lake Champlain from 1800 to 1820 included 10,997,580 feet of 
red and white pine, 3,935,443 feet of oak timber, 34,573,853 feet of pine 
plank and 9,213,827 feet of pine boards. As a result of this condition, 
by an imperial act duties were imposed upon lumber brought in from 
the United States as follows : 

s d per M 

Shlngrles under 12 Inches ' 

Shingrles over 12 inches 14 

Red oak staves 1 1 

White oak staves or headings 15 

White or yellow pine (1 inch) 1 1 per M feet 

Pitch pine lumber 1 1 

Other kinds of wood and lumber 1 8 

Wood hoops 5 3perM. 

This growth in the use of the colonial product was made in the face 
of a very strong prejudice in favor of the Baltic product. The select 



QUEBEC TIMBER HISTORY, ADMINISTRATION. 103 

committee of the House of Lords which heard evidence on the subject 
in 1820 was furnished with evidence on the part of timber experts as to 
the inferiority of timber from British America which today not only 
excites wonder and ridicule, but which demonstrates what an important 
bearing sentiment has upon trade. One timber merchant and builder 
examined by the committee said the timber of the Baltic in general was 
of quality very superior to that imported from America, which latter 
was inferior in quality, softer, not so durable, and very liable to dry 
rot. Its use was not allowed by any professional man under the Gov- 
ernment, nor in the best buildings in London. Speculators alone used 
it and that because the price was lower. Two planks of American tim- 
ber laid upon one another would show evidence of dry rot in twelve 
months, while Christiania deals in like situation for ten years would not 
show the like appearance. There was something in American timber, 
he thought, which favored dry rot unless there was air on all sides. 

In spite of this prejudice 2 the lower duty caused colonial timber to 
be extensively used and once given a fair trial the prejudice gradually 
disappeared. Fifteen years after the investigation just recorded an- 
other was held by a House of Commons committee, in 1835, which 
showed the change in opinion. One of the witnesses here gave as a rea-' 
son for the former prejudice against colonial timber that while low 
grades were brought in by "seeking" ships, the high duty on Baltic 
timber kept all but the best grades of that timber out, so that the Brit- 
ish builder was acquainted with the better grades only. A Liverpool 
ship owner and timber merchant said that, if duties were equal, he / 
could get from three pence to four pence a foot more for a particular 
description of colonial timber than he could for any Baltic. With this 
change of opinion there had gone another, by which red pine, formerly 
preferred to white, was dropped to second place, where it has ever 
since remained. A Manchester builder declared that white pine in 
bricks and mortar was less liable to decay than red pine or Baltic. 

Canadian timber, which thus got a foothold through a preferential 
tariff, continued to hold its own in the years when the preference was 
gradually reduced and finally abolished altogether in the adoption of 

2 This prejudice still persists. As late as 1893 John Nisbet, in his work entitled " British For- 
est Trees and Their Sylvaculrural Characteristics and Treatment," in speaking: of Weymouth, or 
white pine (Pinus strobus), said: " In production of timber it is second in rate of growth only to the 
poplar, but its timber, known as American white pine, is neither so durable nor so remunerative that 
its production is likely to become as inviting as would undoubtedly be the case if it could command 
an easy and good market. As, according to Gayer, it is the lightest of all our acclimatised exotics, 
its cultivation may be recommeodable wherever there is any fair demand for timber for packing 
cases or similar requirements." 



104 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

free trade. Nevertheless, while the trade grew, there is no doubt that 
Canada felt the withdrawal of the preference not only upon lumber but 
upon all her products severely, and it was this, more than anything 
else, that caused the feeling of despondency and doubt which preceded 
confederation, a depression from which it required all the genius of Sir 
John Macdonald and the cooperation of his associates to arouse the 
people with the vision of a self-contained country stretching from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific. 

In 1850 the timber exports from Canada (Quebec and Ontario) 
amounted to 971,375 and in 1857 the value had grown to 2,044,178. 
This had been accompanied by a growth in exports to the United 
States. In 1867, the year when confederation went into force, exports 
to Britain were $6,889,783 and to the United States $6,831,252. 

CANADIAN LEGISLATION AND LATER HISTORY. 

-'"" In the preceding pages has been recounted the effect of the laws of 
parliaments outside of Canada upon the timber trade. Now it will be 
advisable to consider the effect of the laws and regulations made in the 
country itself. 

The first enactment of a Canadian legislature was passed in Lower 
Canada in 1805 to prevent accidents in navigating the rapids of the 
St. Lawrence, which, owing to the increasing shipments by that river to 
Montreal, had become frequent. The act provided for the appointment 
of an inspector and measurers of scows and rafts between Chateauguay 
and Montreal and for the regulation of pilots. These officials, who were 
to reside in the parish of Chateauguay, were from time to time to take 
the depth of water of the rapids and determine what water scows 
and rafts might draw in order to pass the rapids in safety. They were, 
upon application, to measure the draft of each scow and raft and to 
cause the former to be lightened to the draft determined as the limit of 
safety. Pilots were to be licensed yearly by the justices of the peace 
for Montreal, upon recommendation of the inspector, for which license 
a fee of two shillings and sixpence was charged. The pilots' fees for 
taking rafts and scows through the rapids were : Scows, 30 shillings ; 
rafts consisting of two cribs, 12 shillings and 6 pence. After October 
1 to the end of navigation these were increased by one-fifth. 

Fines up to forty shillings were imposed upon measurers or pilots 
neglecting their duty and upon unlicensed persons acting as pilots. A 
pilot who, without the consent of the owner, left a raft or scow stranded 
in the rapids was fined the loss of his fees and 20 shillings. The pilot 



QUEBEC TIMBER HISTORY, ADMINISTRATION. 105 

was allowed 5 shillings a day while he remained with the wreck and 
assisted in saving the property and in clearing the rapids of the obstruc- 
tion. The fees for measurements were : Scows, 6 shillings ; crib and 
rafts 2 shillings and 6 pence, and rafts of firewood 1 shilling 6 pence. 
These fees, by an act of 1808, were applied to the improvement of the 
rapids. 

In the same year an even more important measure affecting the in- 
dustry was passed. This provided that no lumber should be exported 
until it had been culled, measured and certified as to quality. The gov- 
ernor was authorized to appoint master cullers at Quebec and Montreal 
who were to ascertain the quality and dimensions of the articles sub- 
mitted to them and to give a true and faithful account of those found 
merchantable, which was to be final and conclusive between buyer and 
seller. The act laid down the standards for square oak and pine, 
planks, board, etc. It was reenacted in 1811 and 1819 and made more 
stringent in its provisions. At the same time in all these acts there 
were most contradictory clauses. In some the shipment of unstamped 
timber (as having passed the culler) was prohibited, while in others it 
was stated that second or inferior grade lumber might be exported. The 
cullers were apparently governed by the contract between the buyer and 
seller, and the rigid definitions of what constituted merchantable tim- 
ber were only to apply where no specific agreement between the parties 
existed. After being put beyond question upon a voluntary basis in 
1829, it was finally allowed to expire by lapse of time, in 1834. 

There was no further legislation on this point until after Quebec and 
Ontario were united in 1841 (Ontario having been created a separate _ 
province, called Upper Canada, in 1791). In 1842 an act was passed, 
further amended by an act of 1845, which got over the previous diffi- 
culties by creating three grades for timber and deals. ^J 

As in Ontario, the Crown first began to collect timber dues in 1826, 
and the regulations in this respect followed those of Ontario until the 
union of the two Provinces. As a rule, however, Ontario, by reason of 
greater facility in getting lumber to market, has charged dues a little 
higher than her sister province. As in Ontario, from the first the 
Crown adopted the plan of not selling timber lands but of granting a 
license to cut timber upon Crown lands within a certain specified time, 
at the end of which the land returned to the Crown either to be granted 
to the settler for agricultural purposes or to be held until the timber 
grew again. The way in which these wise provisions were evaded for 
many years was this: 



106 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Since the timber cost money and the land was free or sold at a very 
low price on easy terms to the settler, men who never intended to farm 
the land, or to settle farmers upon it, got areas large or small granted 
to them and, having stripped them of their timber, allowed them to go 
back into the hands of the Government. Where they had made a small 
first payment they either let that go as a fine or endeavored to sell out 
to a bona fide settler. 

Quebec, or Lower Canada, passed through the same period of waste- 
ful granting away of Crown lands as did Upper Canada, and this period 
culminated in a like rebellion in 1837 and the granting of responsible 
government, when the two Provinces were united in 1841. The two 
Provinces then for over a quarter of a century, until 1867, enjoyed laws 
common in nearly every respect. The timber question was one of the 
first taken up and the regulations made at the first session of the united 
parliament laid the foundation of all subsequent progress in forestry. 

The orders in council of 1842 limited the period for which the license 
was granted, and introduced the plan of putting the berths up at auction 
where there was more than one applicant. The rule had been that the 
applicant simply paid the dues ; and there had been much Crown land 
covered with timber in regard to which lumbermen did not clash or 
compete. Now, however, the easily reached limits began to grow 
scarcer and the applicant who offered the highest "bonus" or lump 
sum for the limit, in addition to the dues, was awarded it. In all these 
cases the timber only was sold, the land being reserved on the general 
principle that it would be taken up by the settler after the timber was 
taken off. The ignoring of the fact that much of the land was not fit 
for settlement was the chief fault in these regulations, because the idea 
of the time limit seems to have been handled chiefly in such a way as 
to insure that the operator would at once proceed to work his limit. 
The consequence has been that where the land is not fit for settlement 
some firms that got their licenses in the early days have continued 
holding and cutting over limits for many years, whereas, had the lease 
terminated absolutely on a certain date, the berths would have gone 
back into the hands of the Government, which, after allowing them to 
rest for a few years, might have resold them for a greatly increased 
bonus. As it is the Government secures only the ground rent of about 
$3 a mile per annum and the dues on the timber cut. Later regulations 
have been more definite and the worked limits are now year by year 
falling back into the possession of the Crown. 



QUEBEC TIMBER HISTORY, ADMINISTRATION. 107 

Further regulations made in 1846 restricted the size of the limits to 
five miles frontage along the stream and five miles inland, or half way 
to the next river. The licensee bound himself to cut 1,000 feet a mile 
yearly on his limit. 

The season of 1845 was a prosperous one in the trade, and 27,702,- 
000 feet were brought to Quebec and 24,223,000 feet exported. This 
good trade caused an over-production in the next year, and as the Brit- 
ish trade fell off there was a serious depression. This was accentuated 
by the provision that the operators must cut 1,000 feet a mile each sea- 
son on their limits regardless of the conditions of the trade. 

The inevitable parliamentary committee of inquiry appeared in 1848, 
before which W. W. Dawson, a leading By town (Ottawa City) lumber- 
man, stated that in 1847, including the quantity in stock and that 
brought to market, there was a total supply of 44,927,000 feet to meet 
a demand for 19,060,000 feet. The next year the supply was 39,447,- 
000 feet and the demand 17,402,000 feet. He attributed the decreased 
demand to the commercial depression in Europe and the unprecedent- 
edly large supply thrown upon the European market from the Province 
of New Brunswick. As to the over-supply he gave three reasons : The 
regulations requiring the manufacturing of a large quantity per mile ; 
the threatened subdivision of limits, and the difficulties regarding 
boundaries. 

The threatened reduction or subdivision of limits in three years to 
the size of five by five miles caused operators to endeavor to clear off 
their big limits before being compelled to hand them back to the Gov- 
ernment. The lumbermen accused the Government of inaction in re- 
gard to their boundaries, and in consequence, in order to defend their 
limits, they had resort to physical force. This meant that the oper- 
ator trebled or quadrupled his men to be superior in numbers to his 
opponent, and, as the men were on the ground, this meant the trebling 
or quadrupling of the output. 

The chief remedy suggested by the lumbermen to the committee 
was that, instead of endeavoring to prevent the holding of limits for 
speculation by compelling the cutting of a certain amount of timber a 
year, an annual ground rent of two shillings six pence a square mile 
should be levied, which should be doubled in case of nonoccupation, 
and the doubling continued every year the limit remained unoccupied. 
They also suggested that the dues be collected upon actual measure- 
ment instead of upon a count of sticks. For instance, red pine was 



108 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

figured on an arbitrary average of thirty-eight feet a stick, whereas the 
sticks ran from twenty-six to sixty feet, and a spar or mast worth 10 
paid only the same duty as a small stick available for building. 

The committee reported recommending such action, and as a result 
the first Crown timber act was passed in 1849. This cleared up many 
points in dispute. Under the regulations accompanying the act the size 
of berths permitted was doubled ; that is, ten miles along the river by 
five miles deep, or fifty square miles, but only half that size was per- 
mitted in surveyed townships. The dues imposed were : White pine, 
square timber, /4d a foot; red pine, square timber, Id; basswood and 
cedar, /4d; oak, 1/^d; elm, birch and ash, Id; cordwood, hard, 8d a 
cord; soft, 4d ; red pine logs, twelve feet long, 7d a log ; white pine logs 
twelve feet long, 5d; spruce, 2>d. Each stick was to be computed as 
containing cubic feet as follows : White pine, 70 cubic feet; red pine, 
38 ; oak, elm, ash, birch, cedar and basswood, 34. Statements under 
oath were to be made of the kinds and quantities of timber cut. The 
ground rent plan was not adopted, but the minimum quantity to be cut 
on each mile was reduced to 500 feet a year. 

There was one clause which gave rise to a great deal of trouble in 
after years. This provided that squatters were liable to the penalties 
for cutting timber without license, but the dues on timber cut on land 
purchased but not all paid for were to be collected by the Government 
as part payment for the land. The arbitrary regulation as to the quan- 
tity in each stick was made elastic by providing that the operator could 
have the timber counted or measured as he chose. The regulations 
also gave the limit holder a preferential claim above all others to a 
renewal of his license, and thus gave greater permanence to the 
lumbering business. 

In the regulations of 1851 a ground rent of two shillings six pence 
a mile was introduced, which rent doubled and increased annually in 
that proportion, when the limit was not worked. It was provided also 
that, where expenses of surveys made it advisable, licenses might be 
disposed of at an upset price fixed by the Commissioner of Crown 
Lands; and, in case of competition, awarded to the highest bidder. 
Owing to the representations of mill owners and municipalities in west- 
ern Ontario, chiefly about London, the dues were doubled when the 
logs were destined for export. This was to protect manufacturers 
against the practice by American citizens of procuring lands at a low 
rate for the purpose of cutting timber to be manufactured in the United 
States. 



QUEBEC TIMBER HISTORY, ADMINISTRATION. 109 

The good effect of these new regulations was at once seen. The 
revenue had been 22,270 in 1848; 24,198 in 1849; 24,728 in 1850 
and 30,318 in 1851. In 1852, the first year the new regulations went 
into force, the receipts rose to 53,013, of which 7,656 was for ground 
rent, and this in spite of the fact that dues on red pine had been cut in 
two. Up to this time red pine bore a penny a foot, while white pine 
bore only a half-penny ; but, owing to the decline in the British prefer- 
ence for red pine, it had gone down in price and white pine had gone 
up. This seems to have been a case where prejudice backed by higher 
import duty gave red pine a fictitious value for years. A memorial of 
manufacturers showed that the price of red pine decreased from one 
shilling in 1844 to eight pence in 1851. The duty was accordingly re- 
duced to one-half pence a foot. The ups and downs of the trade are 
shown in the returns of timber measured by the supervisor of cullers 
at Quebec during 1845-52 : 

White pine Red pine 

Year. (feet). (feet). 

1845 19,141.982 4.444,515 

1846 24,662.815 5.183.3O7 

1847 12,074.708 6.516,922 

1848 7, 132.127 4,223,952 

1849 11,924,198 3,797,584 

1850 14,388.593 2.121,316 

1851 15.487,180 3,189,657 

1852 26,364,464 1,857,333 

From 1841 to 1867 Quebec and Ontario constituted one province, 
and the regulations, with some exceptions to meet local needs, were the 
same in both sections. These are set out at considerable length in the 
chapters on Ontario and need not be repeated here. In general it may 
be said that the plan of selling the rights to cut timber under license, 
allowing the land to remain in the possession of the Crown was 
developed, the bonuses paid at the auctions held growing larger and 
the dues and ground rent heavier as the timber increased in value. 

The original export trade of Canada in timber looked wholly to 
Europe as its market, and of this trade Quebec City was the center. 
This trade appears to have reached its zenith about 1864 when 1,350 
square rigged ships entered the St. Lawrence to load lumber, and when 
20,032,520 cubic feet of white pine timber was shipped. The wasteful- 
ness of the square timber trade, the decline of wooden ship building 
and the rise of the new export trade with the United States all operated 
against Quebec's preeminence, and the trade declined, much of it going 
to Montreal. Of late years, however, new railways, the bringing in of 
spruce as a valuable wood, and above all the ambition and energy of 
the citizens of the old capital of Canada, have set it on the up grade 



110 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



again. Since 1867, when Quebec became a province in the Dominion 
and separated from Ontario, the provincial revenue derived from the 
forests has steadily increased, with slight fluctuations showing the 
effects of world-wide depression or prosperity. 

The following table, by fiscal years ending June 30 of each year 
named, shows the amounts collected from Crown lands, as timber dues, 
ground rent, timber limits sales, etc. : 



Year. 


Interest, 
trespass 
penalties 
and fire tax. 


Ground 
rent. 


Timber 
limits 
sales. 


Transfer 
fees. 


Timber 
dues. 


Total. 


1868..., 


$ 3 404.66 


$ 22 401.03 


$ 3 928.50 




$165 381 77 


$ 195 115 96 


1869 


2,823.27 


55,055.06 


74,894.97 




198 977 82 


331 751 12 


1870 


7 208 37 


64 089.20 


22 518 37 


$ 1 584 00 


267 468 08 


362 868 02 


1871 


3,122.68 


63,297.43 


62,437.34 


4 790 OO 


272 833 12 


406 480 57 


1872 


4.102.44 


86,783.01 


56,191.81 


4,686.00 


292 989 42 


444 752 68 


1873 


3 186 67 


90 950.84 


68,941.18 


9 242 66 


346 361 27 


518 682 62 


1874 


32,906.06 


97,220.37 


31,385.93 


5.384 OO 


361 080 51 


527 976 87 


1875 


15 380 21 


9O 565.04 


3 259 50 


15 361 00 


408 169 12 


532 734 87 


1876 


11,025.65 


96,881.82 


572.00 


3 764 07 


274 530 64 


386 774 18 


1877 


10,686.72 


94,588.07 




16,658.82 


269 685 24 


391 618 85 


1878 


10 915 20 


85,385 12 




6 410 00 


248 612 84 


351 323 16 


1879 


8 684.01 


87,558.04 


448.00 


526 00 


217 664 04 


314 880 09 


1880 


12,065.94 


96,157.86 




3,219.75 


231 437 89 


342 881 44 


1881 


7,611.48 


94,633.90 


132,774.25 


4,548.88 


303,950 25 


543,518.76 


1882 


12,069.09 


111,113.78 


26,921.25 


4,239.70 


514 252 57 


668 596 39 


1883 


17,006.21 


94,424.68 


2,055.00 


3,441.48 


567 815.97 


684,743 34 


1884 


13,363 26 


83,399.92 


246 27 


910.75 


562 836 93 


660 757 13 


1885 


9,449.77 


99,884.86 


68,145.61 


2,565.25 


350 07O.28 


530 115.77 


1886.... 


13,047.63 


100,548.76 


112.0O 


3,646.09 


411,220.32 


528.574.8O 


1887 


12,427.56 


90,684.83 


470.0O 


3,418.28 


475 617 40 


582 618 07 


1888 


7,597.91 


141,549.88 




2,315.03 


447,200.87 


598 663.69 


1889 


7,293.81 


124,314.09 


118,253.65 


1,719.25 


707,357.20 


958,938.00 


1890 


12,380.96 


147,208.72 


17,646.04 


2,062.31 


626 753 66 


806 051.69 


1891 


11,185.81 


125,141.77 


9.023.12 


2,516.25 


498.37O.3O 


646,237.25 


1892. .. 


12 64L42 


132 984.95 




3,470.53 


474 900 79 


623 997 69 


1893 


19,293.97 


152,664.67 


68,822.10 


4,989.04 


642,952.63 


888,722.41 


1894 


11,171.82 


147,660.59 


18,549.70 


2,O08.12 


644.516.69 


823,906.92 


1895 


15,713.15 


147,203.51 


9,388.05 


2,378.25 


597,672.60 


772,355.56 


1896 


14,858.21 


143,485.73 


83,255.20 


4,239.47 


705,260.31 


951,098,92 


1897... 


11,317.41 


155,572.54 


4,025.75 


3,522.50 


607,865.33 


782,303.53 


1898 


15,045.53 


148,935.18 


30,110.48 


3,561.25 


713,435.86 


911,088.30 


1899 


21,708.96 


166,338.50 


129,023.34 


7,508.50 


569,710.18 


894,289.48 


19OO 


13,947.61 


170,508.71 


339.748.06 


2,819.25 


585,505.89 


1,112,529.52 


1901... 


14,958.50 


178,250.71 


403,197.72 


4,435.00 


633,230.12 


1,234,072.05 


1902.... 


8,406.94 


163,983.00 


201,483.39 


11.871.74 


669,292.41 


1,055,037.48 


1903... 


14,895.70 


187,206.25 


352,004.58 


20,076.00 


667.631.96 


1.241,814.49 


1904 


16,988.03 


176,226.41 


252,554.01 


6,575.06 


715.134.02 


1,167,477.53 



As to the quantities of timber cut in Quebec, this is not easy to 
ascertain, since different methods have been adopted at different times 
and the products of private lands are not included, except in the decen- 
nial census. This is particularly the case with pulpwood, which has 
become an article of great importance in the last few years. The 
following tables are of timber cut on Crown lands : 

SAWLOGS. 

Red and white pine Spruce and hard- 
Year, (feetb. m.). wood (feet b. m.). 

1867 151,837.800 29,389,800 

1870... 221,854,400 29.301.8OO 

1880... 246,930,800 95,764,400 

1890 304,508,200 188,517.400 

1895 207,195,800 270.156.8OO 

1901 107,206.880 319,866,256 



QUEBEC TIMBER HISTORY, ADMINISTRATION. Ill 



Year. 

1867.. 

1870.. 

1880.. 

189O.. 

1895.. 

1901.. 



Year. 

1867.. 
1870. . 
1880. 
1890.. 
1895.. 



SQUARE TIMBER. 

Red and white 

pine 
(cubic feet). 

4,892.699 

3,983,458 

1,596.243 

3.145,687 

1.443.942 

635,621 

Small tamarack, 

spruce and pine 

(lineal feet). 



Birch, elm 
and hardwood 
(cubic feet). 
71,916 
33,199 
144,617 
2.955.799 
40,785 
129,004 

Knees, shingles, 
ties, pickets, etc. 

(pieces). 

6,308.000 

9.713.OOO 

209,202,000 

216,959,000 

340,431,000 



A review of the area of Crown lands in Quebec under license to cut 
timber and the quantity of sawlogs produced from such lands is inter- 
esting as showing the changes in areas so held, the gradual decline in 
the pine trade, due to the diminishing supply of pine timber, and the 
rapid growth in recent years of the spruce industry. Such a table, cov- 
ering the twenty-five years ended with 1903, has been compiled 3 from 
the reports of the Commissioner of Crown Lands. It is as follows: 

PRODUCTION OF PINE AND SPRUCE SAWLOGS FROM CROWN LANDS 

OF QUEBEC. 



Year. 


Area 
under 
license 
(square 
miles). 


White pine 
sawlogs 
(pieces). 


Spruce 
sawlogs 
(pieces). 


Small pine 
sawlogs 
(pieces). 


1879... 


42,631 


1,032,880 


797,440 




188O 


47,185 


1,179 O45 


655,857 




1881... 


46,278 


1,791,873 


1,208.184 




1882 


4^ 4!>4 


2 418 958 


1 308 315 




1883 . . 


43 489 


2 611 986 


1 418 635 




1884 


41 26O 


2 642 658 


1 311 382 




1885 


45 249 


1 7O3 874 


723 679 




1886 


46 O78 


2 187 098 


1 038 957 




1887 


42 440 


2 386 614 


1 344 477 




1888 . 


41 584 


2*295 012 


959 703 




1889 


41*569 


2 '959 '675 


1 407 141 




1890... 


44 201 


2 8O2 073 


1 324 872 




1891 


45 19O 


2 137 938 


2 613 907 




1892... 


42 965 


2 297 814 


2 522 781 




1893 


46O06 


3 212 956 


2 74O496 


152 469 


1894... 


44 3*4 


2 441 434 


2 759 594 


648 654 


1895 


46397 


2 O63 951 


3 281 590 


961 688 


1896 


42 728 


1 535 978 


4 317 945 


1 496 874 


1897 


46 155 


2 151 949 


4 594 83O 


1 65O 827 


1898 


46 863 


2 OO8 866 


5 992 214 


1 O48 327 


1899 


45 889 


1 483 O41 


5 431 789 


883 576 


19OO 


51 194 


1 768 231 


5 5O5O70 


989 314 


19O1 


4* ^18 


1 879 793 


6 136 799 


1 520 497 


1902 


62 952 


2 479 197 


7 186 O41 


406 488 


1903 ;/ 


62,730 


1,786.263 


5.858.143 


1,307,942 






53.259,157 


72,439,841 


11,066,656 













3 The Canada Lumberman, January, 1905. page 81. 



112 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

It is only within the last few years that pulpwood has become of 
consequence, but in 1903 the Government reported a total of 259,231 
cords cut on Crown lands. There were also in that year 94,079 lineal 
feet of poles, 780,960 railway ties, 9,174 pickets, 2,424,500 shingles, 426 
rails, 23 YZ cords of hemlock bark and 11,710 cords of white birch 
spool wood. 

The most important point at the present time is the outlook for the 
future. It may be said that, whereas ten years ago very pessimistic 
views were entertained as to the quantity of timber left standing in 
Quebec, today the views are much more hopeful. There are two rea- 
sons for this: First, the development of the use of other woods, 
particularly of spruce; and, second, the realization that if fire is kept 
out and the fake settlers stopped, the forests will reproduce themselves 
much more rapidly than formerly supposed. Besides, people are realiz- 
ing that much of Quebec is unsuited for agriculture, whereas these 
districts are eminently suited for the perpetual growth of timber. The 
Government and the lumbermen are cooperating in the preservation of 
the forests by a system of fire ranging and by leaving the young timber 
to attain its full growth. Senator Edwards, of Ottawa and Rockland, 
one of the largest limit holders in Quebec, in speaking recently on this 
subject said that his candid opinion was that Quebec possesses today 
the best asset in America. Ontario has timber larger and of better 
quality, but Quebec has the young and growing timber. The pine in 
sight, Mr. Edwards was inclined to think, might last, with care, fifty 
years, but if fires (which have destroyed ten times as much as the ax) 
are kept out and settlement prohibited on the small areas of good land 
occurring in the forest regions, the trade might be continued indefinitely. 

As Quebec is the largest eastern province and also the greatest for- 
ested province in the Dominion, with a land area of 341,756 square 
miles, and reaches back into the unexplored north, it is likely that it 
will continue to be the great source of timber production in Canada. 

During the spring of 1904 a commission reported to the Quebec 
government against indiscriminate settlement, with the result that the 
Government and the lumbermen are nearer together and working more 
in harmony than ever before. The commission favored an increase in 
the numbers and joint control of the fire rangers ; and, seeing that a 
million dollars a year of the provincial revenue comes out of forests, 
the legislators can be relied upon to be anxious to preserve the goose 
which lays this golden egg. 



QUEBEC TIMBER HISTORY, ADMINISTRATION. 113 

Both Quebec and Ontario have been fortunate in the supply of right 
kind of labor for this trade. The cheerful, fun-loving, hardy French- 
Canadian takes to lumbering like a duck to water. His skill in han- 
dling the ax, in driving, in walking on floating logs and in jam-breaking, 
have a world wide celebrity ; while the songs with which he lightens 
his labors with the oar or on snowshoes are a national inheritance and 
pride. Curiously enough from the other side of the great river, from 
the Ontario shore, have gone with him the men of a supposedly anti- 
thetical race, the canny, dour Scots of Glengarry County, men who 
knew no language but Gallic and no law but the strong hand. Al- 
though they have fought for their masters over disputed lines and 
fought for themselves out of sheer prowess so as to make " The Man 
from Glengarry " one of the most picturesque of modern novels, yet 
these deeds of daring have served only to unite the two sides of the 
Ottawa in firmer bonds of respect and admiration. 



CHAPTER IX. 

QUEBEC PRESENT CONDITIONS. 

According to an estimate published in 1895 by the Dominion statis- 
tician, there were then in Quebec 116, 521 l square miles of forest and 
woodland. This, however, included a considerable area unfit for 
lumbering and covered with a small growth of little merchantable 
value. That portion of the Province extending north of the Ottawa 
River to the Height of Land, and the districts watered by the Saguenay, 
the St. Maurice and their tributaries were originally covered with 
forests of great value, with pine their most important component, 
though now much depleted by fire and by lumbering operations 
especially in the Saguenay and Lake St. John districts. North and 
east of this region there are considerable areas of spruce suitable for 
pulpwood. South of the St. Lawrence from the Gaspe Peninsula to 
the boundary only small and scattered pine forests remain. Spruce is 
the dominant tree, but owing to the demand for pulpwood the supply 
is rapidly diminishing. Much hemlock is cut for tan bark, and maple, 
birch, cedar and tamarack are largely cut throughout the Province. 

Much of the present area of Quebec is still largely unexplored. 
The territory embraced within the provincial lines prior to 1895 has 
been largely surveyed but the additions made as a result of the legis- 
lation which then took place included territory that previously had been 
designated as a part of Labrador. The present northern boundary of 
the Province, beginning at the west, follows the East Main River, 
which empties into the James Bay, a branch of Hudson Bay, nearly 
one hundred miles north of its southern extremity. From the head- 
waters of the East Main River at Lake Patamish, just south of the 
fifty-third degree of north latitude, it runs due east until it strikes the 
Hamilton River, which at that point runs almost due north. The 
Hamilton River is followed thence throughout its entire course and 
through Rigolet Bay to about the head of Hamilton Inlet, on the Atlan- 
tic, from which the boundary sweeps in a long curve a little east of 

1 The total area of the Province of Quebec, according to the "Statistical Year Book of 
Canada," is now 351,873 square miles, of which 341,756 square miles are land. The above esti- 
mate of wooded area does not agree with that given on page 61 225,552 square miles the latter 
and later estimate applying to the increased area of the Province since 1896, though the remarks as 
to quality apply with even more force to the larger area. 

114 



QUEBEC PRESENT CONDITIONS. 115 

south to the Strait of Belle Isle, striking it a short distance west of 
the fifty-seventh degree of west longitude. Exploration of the country 
north of the Height of Land and of the eastern part, except along the 
shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, has been confined to the principal 
rivers and lakes, many of which have not yet been defined as to their 
entire length or exact boundaries. 

An enormous field for lumbering operations has been opened up of 
late years in the region made accessible to shipping ports by the Quebec 
& Lake St. John railway. In 1904 between twenty-five and thirty saw- 
mills were in operation in this territory. Of a total of 19,200,000 acres 
in the Lake St. John district less than 500,000 are under cultivation or 
cleared, and the remainder is all wooded. Of the timber about seventy- 
five percent is spruce, and the remainder is made up of balsam, fir, 
white birch, cypress and a little pine. Fire has ravaged the forests in 
some places, but the effects of fires of thirty years ago are hardly visi- 
ble, as there is a fine second growth. 

The pulpwood supply in this district is very extensive. An official 
estimate places the first cut of pulpwood at one hundred million cords, 
which would give over sixty-five million tons of pulp. The water power 
of the principal outlet of the lake and of several large rivers by which 
it is fed is calculated at over 650,000-horse power. Pulp mills have 
been established at Chicoutimi and Jonquies on the Saguenay, at 
Shawenegan on the St. Maurice and at other points. 

TIMBER LICENSES AND DUES. 

The timber lands of Quebec are leased by the Provincial government 
to operators, the right to cut being disposed of by public auction, sub- 
ject to the payment of dues on the cut in addition to a yearly ground 
rent. By far the larger portion of the lands under license to cut timber in 
the Province of Quebec is found between the Quebec & Lake St. John 
railway on the east and the Ottawa and the provincial boundary on the 
west, and between the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers on the south 
and the forty-eighth degree of north latitude on the north. With the 
exception of a strip of country north of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa 
rivers from the City of Quebec to just above the City of Ottawa and 
some unlicensed territory in the north, this immense tract of country, 
350 miles long by an average of 125 miles wide, is all under license. 
South and north of Lake St. John and the Saguenay River are also 
large bodies of land under license, and smaller and scattering tracts are 
found all along the north shore of the St. Lawrence to its mouth 



116 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

opposite the west end of the Island of Anticosti. The land under 
timber license extends almost unbroken all along the provincial boun- 
dary from New Hampshire to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, but the St. 
Lawrence River shore is open, as is the country surrounding Quebec 
and Montreal. 

In 1903 there were 64,979 square miles under license, the receipts 
from which form a considerable portion of the revenue of the Province. 
During the year ended June 30, 1904, $252,554 was realized from sales 
of limits, $715,134 from dues, $176,226 from ground rents and $23,563 
from fire tax, transfer fees and other sources, making a total of 
$1,167,477. 

The dues payable on timber are as follows: Square and waney 
timber, per cubic foot, oak and walnut 4 cents, all others 2 cents ; saw- 
logs, boom and dimension timber, per 1,000 feet b.m., white pine $1.30, 
red pine 80 cents, spruce, hemlock, balsam, cypress, cedar, white birch 
and poplar 65 cents; pulpwood, 65 cents a cord, with a rebate of 25 
cents if manufactured in Canada. 

The following is the cut upon which government dues were paid 
during the year ended June 30, 1903 : Square timber, hardwood, 150,- 
919 cubic feet; square pine, 950,451 cubic feet; spruce, hemlock, etc., 
sawlogs and boom timber, 377,219,740 feet b. m.; white pine sawlogs 
and boom timber, 175,072,927 feet b. m.; red pine sawlogs and boom 
timber, 33,101,822 feet b. m.; white pine sawlogs eleven inches and un- 
der, 69,286,889 feet b. m.; poles, 94,079 lineal feet; pulpwood, 259,231 
cords; fire-wood, 1,612^ cords; railway ties, 780,960; pickets, 9,174; 
shingles, 2,424,500 ; rails, 426 ; hemlock bark, 23^ cords ; lath wood, 31 
cords; white birch for spool wood, 11,710 cords, and posts, 1,255. 

THE EXPORT TRADE. 

As has been indicated, the City of Quebec was, until comparatively 
recent years, the center of the timber and lumber export trade, but 
Montreal now holds that position. This change has been largely coin- 
cident with the growth of the trade in sawn lumber and the decline in 
square timber shipments. The first timber shipped from Canada to 
Europe was exported under the French regime in 1667. The export to 
England began in the early days of the Nineteenth Century when the 
continental ports were closed against British trade by Napoleon. The 
trade grew rapidly, and when at its height as many as 1,350 square- 
rigged ships entered the port of Quebec yearly to load timber. It 
reached its climax about 1864, in which year 20,032,520 cubic feet of 



QUEBEC PRESENT CONDITIONS. 117 

square timber were exported, and since then it has gradually declined. 
Formerly, shipments of pine deals were extensively made from Quebec. 
In 1880 5,823,263 standards were shipped, but the bulk of this trade 
has now gone to Montreal. 

The palmy days of Quebec City as a timber port were also charac- 
terized by much activity in shipbuilding, forty or fifty ships sometimes 
being built in a year. At one time the timber trade at this port gave 
employment to 5,000 or 6,000 laborers. The timber coves there ex- 
tended for a distance of ten miles on both sides of the river. Now 
hardly a mile on the Quebec side is so occupied, with but two or three 
coves across the river. 

The lumber export trade of Montreal dates back about forty years. 
It was commenced by Dobell, Beckett & Co. and has increased from 
year to year until Montreal has become the transshipping port for 
all the pine product of the Ottawa Valley that is sent over seas. Dur- 
ing the season of navigation the deals are conveyed in barges, carrying 
an average of one hundred and forty-five standards each, down the Ot- 
tawa River and the Lachine Canal and transferred directly to the 
steamer. The forest product, at one time shipped in the form of 
square timber, is now manufactured into deals and boards, and Mont- 
real has become the leading port of export, as the tendency of modern 
shipping operations is for vessels to load at the head of navigation. 
Montreal is practically a free port for shipping, and it is frequently the 
case that freights are obtainable there on lower terms than in Quebec. 
In 1879 the lumber shipments from Montreal amounted to 10,499,951 
feet; in 1877, to 32,920,390 feet; in 1888, to 117,329,721 feet; in 1895, 
to 175,372,976 feet ; in 1898, to 335,429,190 feet; in 1900, to 239,686,145 
feet, and in 1904, to 153,989,912 feet. 

The decrease shown of late years in these figures is due not to 
decline in the export business, but to the route which it takes. Mont- 
real is a summer port only, as all the St. Lawrence ports are handi- 
capped by ice during the winter and early summer so that insurance 
rates are usually higher from the St. Lawrence than from ports on the 
open Atlantic. This has led to a considerable shipment of lumber and 
other forest products in bond to Portland, Boston and New York, Port- 
land being especially favored because it is a terminus of the Grand 
Trunk railway ; while open Canadian ports, like Halifax, take some of 
the business which otherwise would go by vessel from the St. Law- 
rence. Much progress, however, has been made in the improvement of 



118 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

navigation on the St. Lawrence up to Montreal, the channel admitting 
vessels drawing thirty feet of water, and while the ice will always 
form a hindrance to winter business, the liberal policy of the Canadian 
government and the great improvements that have been made on the St. 
Lawrence are fast increasing the popularity of that route, so that it is 
not improbable that shipments of forest products from Montreal, and 
perhaps from Quebec, will in the future be larger than in the recent 
past. 

The St. Lawrence is a tidal river as far as Three Rivers, about mid- 
way between Quebec and Montreal. In the original state of the river 
vessels drawing eleven to twelve feet of water could under careful 
pilotage reach the latter city. Dredging at bars and over shallow 
stretches so improved the channel that, as stated above, vessels draw- 
ing thirty feet of water can now dock at Montreal. Until a few years 
ago, however, navigation of the river was rather difficult, and was at- 
tempted by vessels of heavy draft only by day. A thorough system of 
buoys and channel lights has now made passage unimpeded during the 
season of navigation. 

In 1868 the relative values of shipments of forest products were : 
Quebec, $6,659,686 ; Montreal, $631,239. In 1903, the value of forest 
products shipped from Quebec was $4,022,346, and of those from Mont- 
real, $5,121,472. The trade of the former port has revived somewhat 
of late years under the stimulus of railway connection with the Lake 
St. John district, and other enterprises, but it is hardly likely to regain 
its supremacy. 

The shipments of forest products from Montreal for the fiscal year 
1903 included pine deals, $3,147,150; spruce and other deals, $684,070; 
planks and boards, $650,008 and pulpwood, $131,152. Those from 
Quebec City in the same year comprised pine deals, $122,960 ; spruce 
and other deals, $1,270,325; planks and boards, $68,539; pine (white, 
square) $1,297,427; oak (square), $411,313; red pine, $212,634, and 
elm, $296,496. 

SHIPPING INTERESTS. 

It is of interest to note the decrease in the number of sailing vessels 
clearing at Quebec, as the traffic is now almost entirely carried on by 
steamer. The following table shows the lumber laden sailing vessels 
cleared at the port of Quebec for sea between the opening and close of 
navigation in the years 1874 to 1904, inclusive, with their tonnage : 



QUEBEC PRESENT CONDITIONS. 



119 



SAILING VESSELS CLEARED FROM THE PORT OF QUEBEC. 

Year Vessels. Tons. 

1874 854 636,672 

1875 642 478,441 

1876 786 624.11O 

1877 796 670,627 

1878 476 399,833 

1879 433 364,628 

1880 634 555,451 

1881 459 38O.186 

1882 426 359,925 

1883 487 416.169 

1884 366 291,398 

1885 369 294,789 

1886 325 25O.635 

1887 271 206,172 

1888 227 195,928 

1889 275 240,892 

1890 25O 238,162 

1891 205 182.615 

1892 244 225,008 

1893 177 146,970 

1894 136 115.639 

1895 86 70.96O 

1896 103 82,622 

1897 147 90,381 

1898 121 70,588 

1899 80 50,242 

19OO 99 43,036 

19O1 69 37,171 

1902 93 33,534 

1903 53 25,141 

1904 46 19,126 

The extent to which steam tonnage has replaced sail, is shown by 
the fact that in 1902 the number of steamers entering the port of Que- 
bec for part or entire cargoes was 186 of an aggregate of 507,097 tons ; 
in 1903, 185 of 538,672 tons, and in 1904, 165 of 506,702 tons. 

The premier position of Montreal as a St. Lawrence port, due to its 
being the head of navigation for ocean-going vessels, is shown by the 
following table which gives the number and tonnage of sea-going ves- 
sels entered at that port for the years named : 



Year. 
1901.. 
19O2.. 
19O3.. 
1904.. 



Ships. 
707 
728 
797 
796 



Tonnage. 



1,530.023 
1,991,272 
1,856,697 



Quebec is to be reached by sailing vessels, while Montreal is, for all 
practical purposes, available only to steam and this is the age of 
steam navigation. 

EXPORTS AND STOCKS. 

The most recent available figures concerning exports from Quebec 
are those for the year 1904, and these show a decrease in exports from 
River St. Lawrence points to Great Britain in comparison with the 
year 1903. The total exportations amounted to 302,932,776 feet, a de- 
crease of 142,408,833 feet from the figures of 445,341,609 feet recorded 
in 1903. Quebec is a heavy manufacturer of spruce clapboards, and 



120 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



there was a decided reduction of export of this material, due to the 
stagnant condition of the spruce market. 

The principal article of shipment from Montreal is pine in the form 
of deals and boards, while other St. Lawrence ports ship principally 
spruce deals and square and waney timber. Exports for trans-Atlantic 
markets during 1903 and 1904, by ports and shippers, were as follows : 

FROM MONTREAL. 

1903 1904 

Shippers. Feet b. m. Feet b. m. 

Watson & Todd 51,801,668 38,028,601 

W. & J. Sharpies 41,845,282 23.O16.516 

R. Cox& Co 24,162,470 21,207,452 

Dobell, Beckett & Co 35,594,600 18,387,510 

J. Burstall & Co 22,105,969 13,040,437 

McArthur Export Co.. Ltd 15,412,412 8,929,166 

Cox, Lang&Co 8,941, 1OO 8,697,827 

Charlemagne & Lac Ouareau Lumber Co.,Ltd. 10,289,247 5,067,412 

McLaurin Bros 7.478.OOO 4,600,000 

E. H.Lemay 1.815.OOO 1,916,000 

Railways, small shippers, etc 11,442,596 11,098,991 

Total... ..230,888.344 153,989,912 

Decrease in 1904 76.898,432 

Other St. Lawrence ports, including the City of Quebec, make the 
following showing for 1904 : 

FROM QUEBEC. 

Shippers. Feet. 

H. R. Goodday & Co 20.075.OOO 

Dobell, Beckett & Co 13,872,800 

W. &. J. Sharpies 11,703,600 

McArthur Export Co., Ltd 7,370,664 

Harold Kennedy 7,047,352 

J. Burstall & Co 5,913,305 

King Bros. , Ltd 1,499,400 

Total 1904. . . 67,482.121 

Total 1903 109,688,817 

FROM THREE RIVERS AND PIERRE VILLE. 

Shippers. Feet. 

Dobell, Beckett & Co 18.406.6OO 

W. & J. Sharpies 6.6O0.7OO 

Total 1904... 25,007,300 

Total 1903 44,601,070 

FROM OTHER PORTS. 

Shippers. Feet. 

Price Bros. & Co 46,653,833 

Dobell, Beckett & Co 4,870,400 

King Bros., Ltd 4,929.210 

Totalinl904 56.453,443 

Totalinl903 60.163,378 

Total trans-Atlantic shipments 1903 445,341,609 

Total trans-Atlantic shipments 1904 302,932.776 

Decrease in 1904 142,408,833 

While white pine and spruce make up the great body of the export 
of lumber from the Province of Quebec, other woods, including hard- 
woods, still figure in an important way in the trade of the Province. 
To show the volume of this business and the conditions surrounding it 
at the latest date available for this work, we give the following quota- 



QUEBEC PRESENT CONDITIONS. 121 

tions from an annual trade circular, issued by J. Bell Forsyth & Co., 
of Quebec, bearing date of January 9, 1905 : 

White Pine. The stock of waney pine shows considerable increase in recent 
years, while that of square pine is the lightest on record. The continued advance 
in price of both waney and square pine has at last told on the export. As the 
manufacture this winter will not exceed half the past season's supply, and as 
makers seem unable to reduce their prices without actual loss, it seems evident 
present values must be maintained or manufacture cease. 

Supply. Export. Stock. 

ion* (Square 24O.176) , AQ , 0,0 / 347.O67 Square 

1904 t Waney 2.256,352 j 1.4S1.84J j 1.268,937 Waney 

1Qft o /Square 419.6OO) > -la-i OR-I / 413,469 Square 

1903 t Waney 1,865,560 / SMW^M \ 4O6,O38Waney 

Red Pine. The smallness of both supply and stock shows the approach of the 
end of business in this wood as square timber. 

Supply. Export. Stock. 

19O4 15,920 12,598 55,561 

19O3 57,360 84,292 53.225 

Spruce Deals. The export from Quebec and the lower St. Lawrence has been 
restricted by absence of demand and the inadequate prices obtainable. The cost 
of production has materially increased owing to advanced cost of labor, enhanced 
value of limits, and other causes. The demand in the United States for spruce 
boards being good at fair prices, the tendency is for Canadian mills to send their 
production very largely in that direction. 

Supply. Export. Stock. 

1904 3.927,270 3.319,121 822.575 

1903 4.919.71O 5.O6O.053 157.213 

Pine Deals. The ruling prices in the United Kingdom, especially in the third 
and fourth qualities, have materially declined instead of meeting the ten percent 
advance paid by shippers for past season's production. Ottawa mill owners can 
readily obtain from United States markets figures at least equivalent to those paid 
for deals. It is clear that export business can not continue under present con- 
ditions. 

Supply. Export. Stock. 

19O4 11O.358 97.31O 15.518 

1903 41.89O 49,730 2.57O 

Sawn Lumber. The demand from the United States has been good at fair 
prices, and in spruce the Canadian mills have cut boards for that market in prefer- 
ence to deals for export in many instances. 

Oak. The exports show a marked decrease, and the wintering stock a cor- 
responding increase. The manufacture of this wood has entirely stopped, and will 
not be resumed until justified by demand, as western oak can not be profitably 
delivered at Quebec at present current prices. 

Supply. Export. Stock. 

19O4 328.36O 2O1.767 665.67O 

19O3 926.68O 651,969 491.851 

Elm. The supply continues to diminish and price to advance, which will 
probably be the case year by year till the wood becomes too expensive for export 
or can not be obtained at all. The stock of rock elm is very small, the figures 
largely rep.esenting soft elm. 



122 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Supply. Export. Stock. 

1904 262,800 310,546 322,778 

1903 417,800 477,217 419,659 

Ash. Will not be made this winter, as demand seems to have disappeared. 
The stock is ample for probable requirements. 

Supply. Export. Stock. 

1904 14,640 26,192 25,145 

1903 57.200 59,441 47,035 

Birch. The export of this wood continues to diminish from Quebec owing to 
reduced supply, the most accessible wood having been cut away, and the less ac- 
cessible requiring prices that are not yet obtainable to induce manufacture. 

Supply. Export. Stock. 

1904 125,920 127,882 1,027 

1903 196,240 201.521 11 

Through the courtesy of Messrs. Walcot, Limited, of London, we are 
able to present herewith a comparison of the square and waney supply 
(equivalent to production), exports and stocks of Quebec each year 
from 1850 to 1904, inclusive. There has been a marked change in the 
character of the forest exports sent by Quebec to the mother country. 
In the early years shipments of boards from Quebec to England were 
almost unknown, the entire export being in the shape of logs, which 
were sawed into planks and boards by English sawmills or part sawed 
to meet the needs of the purchasers. In 1861 a distinction became 
necessary, the history of the development being thus stated : 2 

Previous to 1861 the timber shipped was square and of large average, 
beautifully hewn by the lumbermen in Canada ; but board pine that is, 
short logs of large girth were sent down the drives with the other 
timber, and soon found their way into the market. Being cut from the 
lower part of the tree accounted for the waney character of the logs, 
but the quality of the timber was excellent. The loss in girthing them 
for conversion was considerable, but this was allowed for in the price to 
the importer. The decline in the quantity of square and waney pine 
made for the Quebec market is altogether due to the increase of the 
deal and board trade, and to some extent to the scarcity of suitable 
trees to manufacture into timber. A large proportion of the trees are 
still suitable to make into deal logs, but would not be sufficiently large 
to be made into waney board pine. This is exemplified by the small- 
ness of the square pine that is now brought down from Ottawa. In 
former days square pine used to be made 70 and 80 and even 100 feet 
cube average ; in the present day it is with difficulty that 40 feet average 
cube is procurable in square pine, and waney board pine is decreasing 
in girth annually. Formerly 20-inch and over average cube was easily 

2 In the Timber Traaes Journal, of London, England. 



QUEBEC PRESENT CONDITIONS. 



123 



procurable ; today 17-inch is as large as most of the manufacturers will 
undertake, and they frequently fall below this average on delivery of 
the timber at Quebec. These changes are graphically portrayed in the 
following table: 

PROVINCE OF QUEBEC STATISTICS OF SQUARE AND WANEY WHITE PINE 
TIMBER. IN CUBIC FEET. 





SUPPL' 


r. 




EXPORT. 




STOCKS. 




Year. 


Square. 


Waney. 


Total. 


Square and 
waney. 


Square. 


Waney. 


Total. 


1850 


14 398000 




14,398,000 


13,040,000 


5046000 




5046000 


1851 


15 418,000 




15,418,000 


15,941,000 


2,366,000 




2.366,000 


1852 
1853 


27.631,000 
17,487,000 





27,631,000 
17,487.000 


15.691.000 
17,399,000 


12,711,000 
9,846,000 





12.711,000 
9846000 


1854 


19,648,000 




19,648,000 


19,612.000 


7,537,000 




7.537,000 


1855 


13 575 000 




13,575,000 


10.843.000 


9,513,000 




9513000 


1856 


18,000,000 




18,000,000 


13,993,000 


11,776.000 




11,776 000 


1857 


19,618,000 




19.618,000 


19,246,000 


11,259,000 




11.259,000 


1858 


14328,000 




14,328,000 


13,388,000 


11,290,000 




11 290 000 


1859 


16,531,000 




16,531,000 


14,822.000 


32,284,000 




12,284 000 


I860 


18,564,000 




18,564,000 


18,253,000 


11,390,000 




11,390,000 


1861 


15,731.000 


6,735.000 


22,466,000 


19,448,000 


7.971,000 


6,347,000 


14,318,000 


1862 


21,628,000 


748,000 


22,376,000 


15,493.000 


15,355,000 


3,950,000 


19,305.000 


1863 


21,617,000 


186,000 


21.803.020 


23,147,000 


13.998,000 


1,224,000 


15.222,000 


1864 


23,737,000 


735.000 


24,472,000 


20.032.000 


17.600,000 


331,000 


17.931,000 


1865 


17,620,000 


1,247,000 


18,867,000 


19,008,000 


12,427,000 


348,000 


12,775,000 


1866 


14,386,000 


2,245,000 


16,631.000 


15.541,000 


10,875,000 


763,000 


11,638,000 


1867 


16.740,000 


2,799,000 


19.539.000 


14,774.000 


13.001.000 


1,905,000 


14,906,000 


1868 


10,029,000 


2,158,000 


12.187,000 


15.279.000 


7.648,000 


1.715,000 


9,363,000 


1869 


14.055,000 


1,973,000 


16,028,000 


14.673,000 


9,263,000 


1,607,000 


10,870,000 


1870 


12,616,000 


1,504,000 


14,120,000 


14.142,000 


8,877,000 


620,000 


9,479,000 


1871 


17,367,000 


3,418,000 


20,785,000 


14,673,000 


14.001.000 


1,739.000 


15,740,000 


1872 


11,151,000 


4.450,000 


15,601,000 


15.515,000 


11,065,000 


3,618,000 


14,683,000 


1873 


10,443,000 


3,966,000 


14.409,000 


10.580,000 


12,794,000 


4,655.000 


17,450,000 


1874 


7,364,000 


1,829.000 


9,193,000 


13,514,000 


8.211,000 


4,053,000 


12,264,000 


1875 


9,246.000 


1.644.000 


10,890,000 


10,099,000 


8,716,000 


2,684,000 


11,400,000 


1876 


15,994.000 


3 249,000 


19,243,000 


13,883,000 


12,167.000 


2502000 


14,669 000 


1877 


14,850,000 


3,630,000 


18.480,000 


14,898,000 


13,804,000 


2,634,000 


16,438000 


1878 


7,917,000 


1,847,000 


9,764,000 


8,194,000 


15,114,000 


3,180,000 


18,294,000 


1879 


2,511,000 


1.600,000 


4,111,000 


5,300,000* 


12,140000 


2218000 


14X58000 


1880 


4,244,000 


2,236,000 


6,480,000 


11,553.000 


6,197,000 


797,000 


6,994,000 


1881 


6,029000 


3,065,000 


9,094,000 


9,102,000 


4526000 


1 520000 


6 046 000 


1882 


8,053,000 


3,127000 


11,180,000 


7.912,000 


6,532000 


3355000 


q sx; (VQ 


1883 


7,412 000 


3,787,000 


11,190,000 


10,427000 


7 781 000 


2759000 


10540000 


1884 


3,707,000 


2,200,000 


5,907,000 


6,048,000 


7 502000 


2399000 


9 901 000 


1885 


2,802000 


2,877,000 


5697 000 


6 758000 


6 651000 


2588000 


9 239000 


1886 


3,033,000 


3,077,000 


6,110,000 


4,526,000 


6 573000 


3267 000 


9840 000 


1887 


1.169 000 


2060000 


3229000 


5 127000 


4 295000 


2450 000 


6 745 000 


1888 


1.791,000 


2,029,000 


3,820,000 


6,020,000 


2580000 


1 227 000 


3 807 000 


1889 


4,224000 


3,771,000 


7,995000 


6873000 


3 147 000 


1 914 000 


5 061 000 


1890 


5,083000 


3,695,000 


8,778,000 


5,498,000 


4 800000 


3528000 


8 3-'-i <pOO 


1891 


1072000 


1,731 000 


2803000 


4 715000 


2 944 000 


2 049 000 


4 09-} iViQ 


1892 


2,380.000 


2,740,000 


5,120,000 


5,300000 


2835000 


1 618 000 


4453000 


1893 


1,121 000 


3 117,000 


4 238000 


4092000 


2 134 000 


1 628 000 


3 7tV> ijOO 


1894 


838,000 


2,289,000 


3,127,000 


3,469000 


1 657 000 


1 611 000 


3 ">68 000 


1895 


274 000 


3086000 


3 360000 


2838000 


1 091 000 


2 255 000 


3 346 000 


1896 


316,000 


2,871,000 


3,187,000 


4,252000 


537 000 


1 474 000 


2 oil 000 


1897... 


833 000 


4 311,000 


5 144 000 


3 773 000 


483000 


2 288 000 


2 771 000 


1898 


1,062,000 


1,903,000 


2,965,000 


3,015 000 


1 354 000 


2452 000 


3 go6 000 


1899... 


592000 


1793,000 


2385 000 


3085000 


1 148 000 


1 014 000 


i 1,3-) iVQ 


1900.. . 


571 000 


1 505000 


2076000 


2755000 


,<M r\ 1 


506 000 


1 301 000 


1901... 


5S5 OX) 


1,447,000 


2032000 


2317 000 


590 000 


361 000 


951 '0 


1902 


384,000 


1,830,000 


2,214,000 


2,445,000 


396000 


261 000 


657 |V 


1903... 


420000 


1,865,000 


2285000 


2182000 


413 000 


406^000 


819 000 


1904.... 


240000 


2256000 


2496000 


1 492 000 


347 000 


1 269 000 





















CHAPTER X. 

QUEBEC QUEBEC CULLING. 

From an early period in the development of industry and commerce 
in Canada the timber trade has been an important element in the activ- 
ities of the people. There was a demand in Great Britain and other 
European maritime countries for ship timber and timber for other 
structural purposes, which material was sent abroad in the squared 
form. There was also a call for spars or masts, bowsprits, booms and 
yards, and there was an extensive manufacture of boards, deals, planks, 
lath, staves, etc. Much of the cooperage stock went to the West Indies 
to supply the demand for sugar, tobacco and other packages. The forest 
products handled were white pine, red or norway pine, elm for ship 
timber, oak for the same purpose, squares of ash, basswood, butternut 
and birch. All of the woods mentioned were shipped to foreign ports 
in the form of square timber largely, much of it being resawed after it 
reached destination. There were also hickory handspikes, ash oars, 
"lathwood," as lath were called in the culling rules, and other forms. 
" Deals " were, as they are now, an important item in Canadian mill 
output. The word "deal" is synonymous with the word "cant," as 
applied to lumber that is, a piece sawed to dimensions suitable for re- 
sawing. The standard Quebec or English deal was twelve feet long, 
eleven inches wide and two and one-half inches thick. A " standard 
hundred" of deals was one hundred of these pieces. Deals were a 
favorite form of lumber production, and much of the good white pine 
and norway pine of Canada was cut into deals. 

The Quebec market in the early days, down to 1840 or 1850, was 
not only the gateway for the foreign distribution of forest products of 
all Canada, but also that market drew much from the Lake Champlain 
region of Vermont and New York, and all portions of the last named 
State which had access to the navigable waters of the St. Lawrence 
River and Lake Ontario. The rich pine of northern Vermont to a large 
extent went down the Sorel River to the St. Lawrence River and thence 
to Quebec. The forests of northern New York were extensively drawn 
upon for elm timber, which was hauled for twenty to forty miles by ox 
teams, in the winter, to the St. Lawrence, and on that stream was rafted 

124 



QUEBEC QUEBEC CULLING. 125 

to Quebec. This elm timber business was carried westward until in 
recent years a supply has been drawn from as far west as Wisconsin. 
Pine deals have also been furnished the Quebec market from all the old 
white pine states of the United States, though, of course, in later years 
the Dominion has been about the only source of supply. 

The export trade has always been so important a factor in the Ca- 
nadian lumber industry, and the production of lumber has been to so 
large an extent from Crown lands, that the industry has been peculiarly 
subject to official regulation. One of the important phases of these 
regulations has been that relating to qualities of lumber and the up- 
building of a system by which relations between buyer and seller, pro- 
ducer, exporter and importer might be officially established. Thus has 
arisen the system of measurement and inspection known as Quebec 
culling. It is, perhaps, the most widely used of any system of lumber 
inspection in the world and, perhaps, of the widest reputation. It seems 
well, therefore, to give space for the more important provisions of this 
measure which has back of it the authority of the Dominion of Canada. 

Survey, or inspection, is called "culling" in the Quebec market. 
Authority for the enforcement of the culling rules was derived from an 
act 1 of the Dominion Parliament, entitled "An Act Respecting the Cull- 
ing and Measuring of Lumber in the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec." 
The application of this act is thus defined in section 3: "The provi- 
sions of this act apply only to the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec and 
do not apply to any place below the eastern end of the Island of Or- 
leans." 

The important portions of this act are as follows : 

Square timber shall be measured only in some one of the three modes follow- 
ing, that is to say: 

First. Measured off, in the raft or otherwise, giving the full cubic contents 
without any allowance or deduction ; 

Second. Measured in shipping order which shall mean sound, fairly made 
timber gum seams closed at the butt and sound knots not to be considered un- 
soundness lengths under the merchantable standard hereinafter mentioned and 
not less than twelve feet long to be received, if, in the opinion of the culler, the 
same is fit for shipment ; 

Third. Culled and measured in a merchantable state, in accordance with the 
rules, standards and limitations hereinafter described. 

In measuring timber, the culler employed for that purpose shall measure not 
only the girth of each piece of timber, but shall also measure, personally, with the 
aid of one competent assistant, the length of each piece of timber, in all cases 

1 Chap. 10349 Viet. 



126 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

where such measurement is practicable with the aid of only one assistant ; and in 
the event of any case arising in which, in the opinion of the supervisor, or of any 
deputy, such measurement cannot be effected with the aid of one assistant only, 
such culler may employ an additional competent assistant for that purpose, who, 
as well as the assistant first above mentioned, shall be approved of by the super- 
visor or deputy. 

Every culler shall be provided with such measuring rods, tapes and other 
measuring instruments as are prescribed by departmental regulations, all of which 
shall be in accordance with the standard measures of Canada, and shall bear the 
verification marks of the Department of Inland Revenue : 

Every culler shall also be provided with such scribing knives and such 
stamps as are necessary for marking the articles culled by him with the initials of 
his name, and with the capital letters distinguishing the quality, as follows: 

M. Which shall denote what is merchantable ; 

U. Which shall denote what is sound and of merchantable quality, but un- 
der merchantable size ; 

S. Which shall denote what is of second quality; 

T. Which shall denote what is of third quality ; 

R. Which shall denote what is rejected and unmerchantable : 

Such marks shall be indented or stamped on the end of each article of lumber 
culled in terms of the merchantable standard hereinafter prescribed, except as to 
West India and barrel staves, boards, deals, lathwood and handspikes. 

Every culler shall check and examine the entry of his measurements and of 
culling and counting on the books of the supervisor, and sign such entry and cal- 
culations on the said books. 

A copy of every agreement as to the adoption of any of the modes of meas- 
urement or culling mentioned in this Act, signed by the seller and buyer, shall be 
lodged in the office of the supervisor, or deputy supervisor, at the same time that 
a requisition is made to him for a culler to measure or cull any lumber, for the 
guidance of the supervisor, or deputy supervisor, and culler, in the performance of 
their duty, and such requisition shall state the river and section of the Province 
wherefrom such lumber is produced ; but the owner of any lumber, or his agent, 
may cause it to be measured, culled or counted before any sale, in which case the 
specification of such lumber shall set forth the mode in which the measurement, 
culling or counting has been performed. 

QUALITIES OF LUMBER. 

In all cases the supervisor, deputy supervisor and cullers, respectively shall, in 
ascertaining and certifying the merchantable size and quality of lumber submitted 
to their culling, be governed by the descriptions, rules, standards and limitations 
following, that is to say: 

White Oak. Square white oak timber, first quality, shall be free from rot, 
rotten knots affecting the surrounding wood, open rings and grub or large worm 
holes, but small worm holes and shakes shall be allowed according to the judg- 
ment of the culler ; 

Second quality shall be oak not coming within the definition of first quality, 
and which, in the judgment of the culler, is not culls; 

Rock Elm. Square hard grey or rock elm shall be free from rot, open rings 



QUEBEC QUEBEC CULLING. 127 

and rotten knots affecting the surrounding wood, but shakes and slivers shall be 
allowed according to the judgment of the culler ; 

White or Yellow Pine. Square white or yellow pine timber shall be free from 
rot, rotten knots affecting the surrounding wood, worm holes, open shakes and 
open rings, but sound knots shall be allowed according to the judgment of the 
culler ; 

Red Pine. Square red pine timber shall be free from rot, rotten knots affect- 
ing the surrounding wood, worm holes, shakes and splits, but sound knots shall 
be allowed according to the judgment of the culler; 

Ash, Basswood and Butternut. Square ash, basswood and butternut shall be 
of the same quality as white or yellow pine square timber ; 

Birch. Square birch shall be free from rot, rotten knots, splits and shakes, 
and shall be allowed two inches wane ; 

Masts, Bowsprits and Red Pine Spars. Masts, bowsprits and red pine spars 
shall be sound, free from bad knots, rents and shakes, and the heart shall be visi- 
ble in spots at or near the partners ; 

Hickory Handspikes. Hickory handspikes shall be six feet long, and three and 
a half inches square at the smaller end ; 

Ash Oars. Ash oars shall be three inches square on the loin, and five inches 
broad on the blade, the blade shall be one-third of the length of the oar, and such 
oars shall be cleft straight on all sides, and free from large knots, splits and shakes; 

Lathwood. Lath wood shall be cut in lengths of from three to six feet, and 
measured by the cord of eight feet in length by four feet in height ; and, to be 
merchantable, shall be free from rot, shall split freely, and each billet may contain 
to the extent of three or four open case knots, provided they run in line or nearly so, 
and it shall not have more than one twist ; 

Pine or Fir Boards. Pine or fir boards shall not be less than ten feet in length, 
one inch in thickness and seven inches in breadth, equally broad from end to end, 
edged with a saw, or neatly trimmed by a straight line, and shall be free from rot, 
bad knots, rents and shakes, and of equal thickness on both edges from end to end; 
the color alone of any board shall not be a sufficient cause for its rejection, if it is in 
other respects sound and merchantable, and of the dimensions required by this Act; 
White or Yellow Pine Deals. White or yellow pine deals, to be merchantable, 
shall be free from rot, rotten knots, grub-worm holes, open case knots, shakes and 
splits (a slight sun crack excepted) , and sound knots and hard black knots shall be 
allowed as follows : If they do not exceed three in number, and do not exceed on 
the average one inch and a quarter diameter ; if they exceed three and are not more 
than six in number, and do not exceed, on the average, three-quarters of an inch 
in diameter ; such proportion of knots shall be allowed for a deal eleven inches in 
width and twelve feet in length, and deals of greater or less dimension shall be 
allowed for in proportion, according to the judgment of the culler; wane equal to 
half an inch on one edge, if running the whole length of the deal, shall be allowed, 
and if not exceeding half the length of such deal, three-quarters of an inch wane 
shall be allowed; the deals shall be free from black or dead sap, with a slight ex- 
ception, in the discretion of the culler ; 

Red Pine Deals. Red pine deals, to be merchantable, shall be free from rot, 
rotten knots, grub-worm holes, open case knots and splits; several small sound 



128 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

knots shall be allowed, according to the judgment of the culler; heart shake shall 
be allowed, if it does not run far into the deal or form a split through at the ends; 
they shall be free, or nearly so, from black or dead sap, but sound sap on the 
corners or on a portion of one face of a deal shall be allowed, according to the 
judgment of the culler ; 

Spruce Deals. Spruce deals, to be merchantable, shall be free from rot, rotten 
knots, grub-worm holes, open case knots, splits and shakes, a heart shake not ex- 
ceeding one-fourth of an inch to half an inch in depth excepted ; several small 
sound knots and hard black knots shall be allowed, according to the judgment of 
the culler, and in the exercise of such judgment he shall keep in view the peculiar 
nature of the wood, and govern his judgment accordingly; wane equal to half an 
inch on one edge, if running the whole length of the deal, shall be allowed, and if 
not exceeding one-quarter the length of such deal, three-quarters of an inch shall 
be allowed ; 

White or Yellow Pine, Second Quality Deals. White or yellow pine second 
quality deals shall be free from rot, rotten knots and splits, with slight exceptions, 
at the discretion of the culler, and sound knots and hard black knots shall be 
allowed as follows : If they do not exceed six in number and, upon the average, 
one inch and a half diameter ; if they exceed six and are not more than twelve in 
number, and do not exceed, upon the average, one inch and a quarter in diameter, 
but small knots under half an inch diameter shall not be counted or considered ; 
such proportion of knots shall be allowed for a deal eleven inches in width and 
twelve feet in length, and deals of greater or less dimensions shall be allowed for 
in proportion, according to the judgment of the culler ; heart shakes and sun cracks 
not exceeding three-fourths of an inch to one inch in depth shall, be allowed, as also 
worm holes, according to the judgment of the culler ; wane of half an inch to one 
inch shall be allowed according to the quality of the deal in other respects, accord- 
ing to the judgment of the culler ; deals rejected as not coming within the standard 
of merchantable or second quality shall be classed as culls, except that the culler 
may, if requested by buyer and seller, select and classify, as third quality, the best 
of the deals so rejected; 

Spruce and Red Pine, Second Quality Deals. Spruce and red pine second qual- 
ity deals, shall be deals not coming within the definition of merchantable, and 
which, in the opinion and judgment of the culler, are not culls, and shall be classed 
as second quality ; and the culler, if required by seller and buyer, may select and 
classify as third quality the best of the deals unfit to be seconds ; 

Quebec Standard Hundred of Deals. The Quebec standard hundred of deals 
shall be one hundred pieces twelve feet long, eleven inches broad, and two and a 
half inches thick ; and deals of all other dimensions shall be computed according 
to the said standard ; deals of all qualities shall be not less than eight feet long, 
seven inches broad and two and a half inches thick ; deal ends shall be not less than 
six feet long and shall be computed according to the Quebec standard ; 

Merchantable Deals. All merchantable deals shall be well sawn and squared 
at the end with a saw, and the color alone shall be no objection to their being mer- 
chantable ; 

To be Stamped. All deals when culled shall, in all cases, be stamped with 
the initials of the culler, and the capital letter denoting their quality as such ; 



QUEBEC QUEBEC CULLING. 129 

Marking of Spruce and Other Deals. Spruce deals, if not sawn at the ends 
prior to or at the time of culling, shall be marked with the capital letter, denoting 
their respective qualities, with red chalk, in large bold letters; and to prevent 
mistakes in piling, all other deals shall be marked with bold strokes in red chalk 
as follows : 

Merchantable shall be marked, I ; 

Second quality shall be marked, II; 

Third quality (if made) shall be marked, III ; 

Rejected or culls shall be marked, X ; 

STANDARD OR MEASUREMENT STAVES. 

Standard or measurement staves shall be of the dimensions set forth in the 
words and figures following: 

554 feet long, 5 inches broad, and from 1 to 3 inches thick. 
4H do. 454 do. 
3% do. 4 do. 

2# do. 5 do. 

HEAD STAVES. 

Head staves, five and a half feet long, and four and a half inches broad, shall 
be received as if of merchantable dimensions; 

STANDARD MILLE. 

The standard mille shall be twelve hundred pieces of five and a half feet long, 
five inches broad, and one and a half inches thick; and standard or measurement 
staves of other dimensions shall be reduced to the said standard by the tables of 
calculation now used ; 

WEST INDIA OR PUNCHEON STAVES. 

West India or puncheon staves shall be three and a half feet long, four inches 
broad, and three-fourths of an inch thick; 

QUALITIES REQUISITE IN ALL STAVES. 

All staves shall be straight grained timber, properly split, with straight edges, 
free from the grub or large worm holes, knots, veins, shakes and splinters; and 
small worm holes which do not exceed three in number, shall be allowed according 
to the judgment of the culler, provided there are no veins running from or con- 
nected therewith, and the culler shall measure the length, breadth and thickness of 
standard staves at the shortest, narrowest and thinnest parts; and the thickness of 
West India and barrel staves exceeding the standard breadth shall be measured at 
such standard breadth, to wit: Four and three and a half inches respectively, 
provided the thinnest edge is not less than half an inch ; 

DIMENSIONS OF MERCHANTABLE TIMBER. 

The dimensions of merchantable timber shall be as set forth in the following 
words and figures: 

Oak. Oak shall be at least twenty feet in length and ten inches square in the 
middle ; 

Elm. Elm shall be at least twenty feet in length and ten inches square in the 
middle ; 

White Pine. White pine shall be at least twenty feet in length and twelve 
inches square in the middle, and fifteen feet and upwards in length, if it is sixteen 
inches square and upwards in the middle ; 

Red Pine. Red pine shall be at least twenty- five feet in length and ten inches 



130 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

square in the middle, and twenty feet and upwards in length, if it is twelve inches 
square and upwards in the middle ; 

Ash, Basswood and Butternut. Ash, basswood and butternut shall be at least 
fifteen feet in length and twelve inches square in the middle, and at least twelve 
feet in length, if it is fifteen inches square and upwards in the middle ; 

Birch. Birch shall be at least six feet in length and twelve inches square in 
the middle ; 

TAPER OF MERCHANTABLE TIMBER. 

Taper of merchantable timber: 

Oak, 3 inches, under 30 feet, and in proportion for any greater length. 

Elm, 2 do. for 30 do. do. do. do. 

White pine, 1% do. for 20 do. do. do. do. 

Red pine, 2 do. for 25 do. do. do. do. 

Ash, basswood and butternut, \V Z inches, under 20 feet, and in proportion for 
any greater length. 

Bends or twists not to exceed one in number ; 

HOLLOW ALLOWED. 

Hollow allowed on merchantable timber : 

Oak, 3 inches for every 20 feet in length, and in proportion for any greater 
length ; 

Elm, 3 inches for every 20 feet in length, and in proportion for any greater 
length ; 

White pine, 2) inches for every 20 feet in length, and in proportion for any 
greater length ; 

Red pine, 3 inches for every 20 feet in length, and in proportion for any greater 
length ; 

Ash, basswood and butternut, 2) inches for every 20 feet in length, and in 
proportion for any greater length ; 

DIMENSIONS OF MASTS, BOWSPRITS AND RED PINE SPARS. 

White pine masts of 23 inches and upwards at the partners, shall be 3 feet in 
length to an inch in diameter ; 

22 inches do. 3 feet do. do. and 2 feet extreme length ; 

21 do. do. 3 feet do. do. and 3 feet do. 

20 do. and under 3 feet do. do. and 4 feet do. 

Hollow or bend not to exceed six inches for seventy feet, and in proportion for 
any greater length ; 

Bowsprits shall be two feet in length for every inch in diameter at the partners, 
adding two feet for extreme length ; 

Red pine spars shall be three feet to the inch in diameter at the partners, and 
nine feet extreme length ; hollow not to exceed seven inches for sixty feet, and in 
proportion for any greater length. 

REWORKING. 

Whenever it appears that timber, masts, spars, boards, planks, deals, staves, 
oars or any other description of lumber, are not properly hewn, squared, butted or 
edged, but are merchantable in other respects and sold as such, the supervisor, 
deputy and culler, respectively, shall order or cause the same to be properly dressed 
and chopped, at the expense of the seller or the buyer, as the case may be, previ- 



QUEBEC QUEBEC CULLING. 131 

ously to their being respectively received and certified to be merchantable ; and 
such dressing and chopping shall be done under the direction of the culler in 
charge of the measuring or culling. 

SURVEY IN CASE OF DISPUTE. 

If any dispute arises between the first buyer or seller, or the person making 
the requisition, and the culler employed to cull or measure any article of lumber, 
with regard to the dimensions or quality thereof, the supervisor or deputy shall, as 
soon as possible, upon a written complaint thereof being made, demanding a sur- 
vey, cause a board of survey to be held for examining the quality and dimensions 
of such lumber ; and such board shall take into consideration the position of such 
lumber when measured or culled, and all other circumstances and considerations 
connected therewith, in reporting thereon ; and such board shall consist of three 
persons, one to be appointed by the culler whose decision is disputed, one by the 
person complaining, and one by the supervisor or deputy, and their determination 
shall be final and conclusive; and if the opinion and act of the culler is confirmed, 
the reasonable costs and charges of re-examination shall be paid by the person 
complaining, but if otherwise, by the culler: 

WHEN SURVEY MUST BE DEMANDED. 

Such survey shall be demanded when the culling or measuring is completed, 
or within two lawful days after the person demanding the survey has been furnished 
with the specification thereof ; and such right of survey shall cease on and after the 
fifteenth day of November in each year : 

APPOINTMENT OF CULLER. 

The supervisor or deputy, for the more expeditious settlement of disputes, may, 
with the consent and at the request of buyer, seller and culler concerned, name one 
culler to act as surveyor ; and if the culler so named is not objected to by any of 
the persons interested, he shall act in the capacity of a board of survey, and his 
determination shall be final and conclusive. 

COLLECTION OF FEES AND CHARGES. 

The fees and charges fixed by the Governor in Council shall be charged and 
collected by the supervisor and deputy supervisor, as the fees and charges for cul- 
ling, measuring or counting off each description of lumber, and for making out 
specifications, and shall include all charges and expenses against such lumber, 
except in cases where extra labor for canting, dressing, butting, chopping and pil- 
ing is necessary and required : 

BY WHOM AND WHEN PAYABLE. 

One-half of such fees and charges shall be paid by the buyer, and the other 
half by the seller; but the whole of such fees and charges shall, in all cases, be 
paid to the supervisor or deputy, on the delivery of the specification or on the pres- 
entation of an account thereof, by the person, or by the persons jointly or sever- 
ally, who filed a requisition or order for such measuring, counting or culling, 
whether such person or persons are buyers, sellers, owners, or possessors of such 
lumber. 

CULLING NOT COMPULSORY IN CERTAIN CASES. 

Nothing in this Act shall make it compulsory to have any article of lumber 
measured, culled or assorted, under this Act, if such lumber is shipped for exporta- 
tion by sea for account, in good faith, of the actual and bona fide producer or 



132 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

manufacturer thereof ; but all other lumber shipped for exportation by sea, shall be 
either measured, culled or counted, at the option of the persons interested, by a 
licensed culler, under the control and superintendence of the supervisor or deputy ; 
and the owner or shipper of such lumber, or the proprietor or lessee of the premises 
from which such lumber is so unlawfully shipped, shall incur a penalty equal to 
the market value of any article of lumber so unlawfully shipped. 



CHAPTER XI. 

QUEBEC PERSONNEL. 

Previous chapters have dealt with physical features, with forests, 
with history of development and administration and with statistics, but 
no history can be complete without reference to the men who have done 
the things recorded. It has not seemed necessary or advisable to make 
the personal element prominent in a work of this character, but in 
order to link the past with the present and to indicate the forces which 
are still carrying ahead the lumber development of the Province of 
Quebec the following brief sketches of individuals, firms or companies 
that once were or are now prominent in the industry are presented. 
Some of them were pioneers ; some of them are occupying a growing 
place either in lumber manufacture or in lumber commerce ; but all are 
deemed worthy of mention in a work of this character. 

THE MONTMORENCY MILLS. 

Early in the Nineteenth Century the English government sent sev- 
eral practical men to Canada to procure timber for shipbuilding. One 
of these men was Peter Patterson, who, later, in connection with Henry 
Usburne in the year 1811, purchased the site of the famous Montmorency 
sawmills, at the foot of the Falls of Montmorency, near the City of 
Quebec. Subsequently Mr. Patterson conducted the business on his 
own account for a period of forty years, when he died. He was suc- 
ceeded by the late George Benson Hall, who conducted six mills at the 
same place until his death in 1876, after which the mills were operated 
by Andrew Thomson, Patterson Hall and George Benson Hall, under 
the firm name of G. B. Hall & Co., until 1884, when Patterson Hall and 
H. M. Price, under the name of Hall & Price, leased the mills and con- 
tinued them until 1892, when they were shut down. In 1894 the build- 
ings were bought by Mr. Price 1 and pulled down by him. The Mont- 
morency Cotton Works now occupy the site. 

H. M. PRICE. 

H. M. Price, after the Montmorency mills were closed, bought the 
Whitton, East Broughton and Lyster mills, which he continued to op- 
erate until about twenty-four years ago, when he sold out to his man- 
ager, D. H. Pennington, an old Montmorency man who has since built 

133 



134 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

another mill in the same neighborhood, all now being operated to 
thefi&full capacity. Mr. Price, though still in the deal business, is 
largely engaged in the production of pulpwood, and is president of the 
Pulpwood Association of Quebec Province. 

HAMILTON BROS. 

George Hamilton, one of the earliest in the trade, bought the 
Hawkesbury mill property, on the Ottawa River, in 1811, and at his 
death the business a general deal and lumber business was carried 
on by his three sons, Robert, George and the Hon. John Hamilton. 
The business became one of the most extensive on the Ottawa River, 
and the whole of the mill's cut was brought to the Quebec market for 
exportation to Great Britain. Some years before the firm retired from 
business, John, the son of the late Robert Hamilton, became a partner. 
He is still living in Quebec and is chancellor of the University of 
Bishop's College, Lennoxville, Quebec, where he graduated with the 
degrees of master of arts and doctor of civil law. 

HENRY ATKINSON. 

In the early part of the Nineteenth Century, Sir John Caldwell, the 
Receiver General of Lower Canada, opened two lumbering establish- 
ments one on the Etchemin River and the other on the St. Nicholas. 
For the double purpose of bringing down logs and for an additional 
supply of water for his mills, at the foot of the St. Nicholas Falls he con- 
structed a canal about five miles long from a tributary of the Chaudiere 
to the St. Nicholas River. In 1821 Charles King, father of the mem- 
bers of the present firm of King Bros., Limited, came over from England 
and took charge of the St. Nicholas establishment for Sir John, and at 
about the same time John Thomson, father of Andrew Thomson, now 
president of the Union Bank of Canada, came from Boness, Scotland, and 
took charge of the Etchemin establishment. After the return of Sir 
John Caldwell to England, the St. Nicholas mill fell into the hands of 
the late William Gerrard Ross, and the Etchemin mill into the hands 
of the late Henry Atkinson, uncle of the present proprietor, Henry At- 
kinson, who still conducts that valuable property. 

JOHN BREAKEY. 

The St. Nicholas mill, like the Montmorency mills, has long been 
dismantled, the tendency at present being to take the mill to the logs 
instead of, as in the past, bringing the logs to the mill. Following up 
this practice, Charles King, in partnership with H. D. Breakey, father 
of the present owner of this property, John Breakey, built in 1846 the 



QUEBEC PERSONNEL. 135 

existing mills on the Chaudiere River, several miles sonth of the St. 
Lawrence River (at a point about six miles from Quebec City), whence 
the deals were started down to the Chaudiere Basin on the St. Lawrence 
for shipment. Subsequently the property became that of Henry King 
and John King, and upon the death of the former, Mr. Breakey suc- 
ceeded to the ownership, which he still maintains. This mill is one of 
the largest if not the largest spruce deal mill in the Province of Quebec. 

THE THOMSONS. 

Some time after John Thomson, before referred to, left Etchemin, 
he took two of his sons into partnership with him Andrew and John 
Thomson under the firm name of Thomson & Co., and they purchased 
the Buckingham mill property in conjunction with the Hamilton broth- 
ers, and conducted on a large scale a pine deal business. These deals 
were taken down to Quebec in moulinettes and piled or shipped from 
the river at the New Liverpool cove. When the partnership between 
the Hamiltons and the Thomsons was dissolved, the Thomsons .bought 
Victoria cove, on the north side of the St. Lawrence, where they car- 
ried on business until they retired over a quarter century ago. 

KING BROS., LIMITED. 

King Bros., Limited, with headquarters at Quebec City, are ex- 
tensive manufacturers of spruce and pine, and have been in the trade 
for many years, the firm having been established in 1829 by the late 
Charles King, who erected his first mill at St. Antoine de Tilly in the 
Province of Quebec. At present there are two partners in the firm 
Edmund Alexander King and Charles King, with W. S. Thomas as vice 
president and general manager of the business. King Bros, are noted 
for their careful and reliable selection of shipments, and their opera- 
tions have been carried on over a large area and in various localities 
of the Province of Quebec. The late James King, who was a partner 
up to the time of his death about ten years ago, was a member of the 
Provincial Legislature for Megantic for several years, and was well 
known to the trade both at home and abroad. 

w. & j. SHARPLES. 

W. & J. Sharpies (Hon. John Sharpies) is one of the oldest 
firms in the Quebec square timber trade, having been established in 
1830 by William Sharpies, of Liverpool. The business was after- 
ward taken over by his son, Henry Sharpies, about 1840. Richard 
Wainright and Charles Sharpies, and afterward the late Hon. John 
Sharpies, next conducted the business and subsequently the latter's sons, 



136 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

only one of whom remains in the timber export trade, the Hon. John 
Sharpies, who is the sole proprietor of the business carried on under 
the style of W. & J. Sharpies. He was born in Quebec in 1847. He 
entered the firm in 1871, and under his management the business has 
been greatly extended. 

The firm ships about 2,000,000 cubic feet of square and waney timber 
of all kinds during the season of navigation, and about 50,000,000 feet 
board measure of pine deals and sidings. The firm possesses two 
coves at Quebec the Sillery cove, which is devoted to the shipment of 
square and waney timber, and Bridgewater cove, where there are large 
piling grounds for deals and lumber. 

The name of Sharpies has been prominently before the public in 
connection with the timber and lumber export trade of Canada for 
nearly three-quarters of a century. The development of the business 
of this concern from comparatively small beginnings has been some- 
thing phenomenal. The establishment transacts the greater part of its 
trade with the United Kingdom, but business relations are maintained 
also with certain commercial centers in continental Europe. There are 
branch offices at Montreal and Ottawa, and the firm has agencies in 
Glasgow, London and Liverpool. 

The Hon. John Sharpies is a member of the Legislative Council of 
the Province of Quebec, to which he was nominated in 1893, and of the 
Quebec Board of Harbor Commissioners ; vice president of the Union 
Bank of Canada and of the Quebec Auditorium; a director of the 
Quebec Bridge Company ; president of The Chronicle Newspaper Com- 
pany ; mayor of the suburban town of Sillery, and was, until he resigned 
recently, vice president of the Great Northern railway of Canada. 

J. BURSTALL & CO. 

J. Burstall & Co. is one of the oldest Quebec firms engaged in the 
export of wood goods from Canada, having been established in the City 
of Quebec by the late Henry Burstall, in the year 1832, nearly three- 
quarters of a century ago. He came from Hull, England, and was 
shortly afterward joined by his brother Edward. The business was 
carried on for many years under the style of H. & E. Burstall. On the 
retirement of Henry Burstall in 1856, it was changed to E. Burstall 
& Co. In 1857 John Burstall, a nephew of the brothers, was admitted 
as a partner, and when a few years afterward Edward Burstall retired, 
it was again changed to J. Burstall & Co., and has so remained ever 
since. 



QUEBEC PERSONNEL. 137 

About the year 1863 Stanley Smith, of Liverpool, joined the firm 
and continued as a partner for ten or twelve years, when he retired. 
W. H. Robinson then became a member, as representing Harrison, 
Robinson & Co., of Liverpool. Mr. Robinson died in 1876, and the fol- 
lowing year F. Billingsly, for many years in the employ of the firm, 
was admitted into partnership, along with H. T. Walcot. The latter 
remained in the firm fourteen years, and the former until his death in 
1903. John Burstall, who had been head of the firm for about thirty- 
five years, died in England in 1896. The business is now conducted 
by John F. Burstall, his son. The firm has a branch office in Mont- 
real and another in London, England. It has for more than a half 
century done a large annual export trade, and before the development 
of the steam carrying trade, for a long period of years, exported annu- 
ally to Great Britain from 120 to 200 cargoes of timber and deals. 

NICHOLAS FLOOD. 

One of the oldest living operators in the timber and deal trade of 
the Province of Quebec is Nicholas Flood, a resident of the Ancient 
Capital, who, in the successive capacities of culler and manufacturer, 
has been identified with this industry for more than a half century. 
Mr. Flood was born in Wexford, Ireland, and immigrated to Canada 
with his parents at the age of eight years. A year later, at the tender 
age of nine, he began his apprenticeship as a culler's assistant at 
Walker's cove, Quebec. His unusually active career covers the most 
prosperous period of the Quebec export timber trade. For many years 
he received for the owners at Cape Rouge cove, at Quebec, from 7,000,- 
000 to 13,000,000 feet of board pine each season, and about twelve years 
ago succeeded to the management, which office he still holds. 

PRICE BROS. & CO., LIMITED. 

Price Bros. & Co., Limited, of Quebec, are the largest lumber 
operators in spruce in the Province of Quebec, having sawmills in all 
the principal lumbering districts east of the Ottawa, and are also the 
largest individual limit holders in Canada. The company has a paid up 
capital of $2,000,000. The total appraised value of the assets of the 
company is $4,500,000. The value of the freehold lands, seigniories 
and timber limits alone is in excess of $3,000,000. These lands sched- 
ule over 100,000 acres. The limits operated under license schedule 
over 6,000 square miles. The timber consists principally of spruce, bal- 
sam, cedar, birch and a small amount of pine, poplar and hemlock. The 



138 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

predominating wood is spruce, a large part of the limits being included 
in the great spruce belt of Canada. The timber is located in a district 
where the rapidity of growth is probably greater than anywhere else in 
North America, so that a tract may be gone over again in fifteen or 
twenty years. The company has mills at the following places, all in the 
Province of Quebec: Batiscan, St. Thomas, Cape St. Ignace, Rimouski, 
Matane, Salmon Lake, Metabetchouan, Chicoutimi, L'Anse au Cheval 
and St. Catherine's Bay. In addition to the sawmills, the company 
owns one of the largest pulp mills in Canada, located at Rimouski. 

The founder of this business, the late William Price, in 1840 estab- 
lished the mills at Chicoutimi, St. Alexis, L'Anse St. Jean and St. 
Etienne, on the Saguenay, and at Metis, Matane, St. Thomas, Batiscan 
and other places, leaving an immense business to his sons, the last of 
whom, Hon. E. J. Price, died about six years ago, at which time his 
nephew, William Price, succeeded to the business, which, during 
the latter part of 1904, was converted into a limited stock company, 
with Mr. Price as president. 

On the far famed Saguenay the company has four mills, from which 
it ships its well known spruce deals. This remarkable river is naviga- 
ble for ships of the deepest draft for sixty miles. On account of 
the swift current, a powerful tug is provided for the convenience of 
ships coming up to load, there being no possible anchorage on the 
river except at the mills. The Chicoutimi mill is situated in the town 
of that name at the head of navigation. The mill at Grand Bay (or 
Ha-Ha Bay) is driven by water power. The other mills on the Sag- 
uenay, as already stated, are situated at L'Anse St. Jean and St. 
Etienne. The total capacity of these mills is 20,000 standards per 
season. The Metis steam mill is about two hundred miles below Que- 
bec, on the south shore ; the Matane mill, about two hundred and thirty 
miles ; these and the Salmon Lake mill, on the Matapedia River, have 
a capacity of about four thousand standards each. A few years ago a 
new steam mill was built at Trois Pistoles, about one hundred and thirty 
miles below Quebec, on the south shore of the St. Lawrence. The ca- 
pacity of the mill is from 2,000 to 3,000 standards. The mill at Cape 
St. Ignace (steam power) and the mill at Trois Saumons have a 
joint capacity of about two thousand standards. The shipments of the 
company are chiefly to Great Britain, the Continent, South America 
and Australia, and its agents in the United Kingdom are Price & 
Pierce, of London. 



QUEBEC PERSONNEL. 139 

William Price takes an active interest in all commercial matters 
relating to the development of Canada. He has been president of the 
Quebec Board of Trade, is honorary commodore of the Quebec Yacht 
Club, vice president of the Quebec Steamship Company and was a can- 
didate in the Conservative interest for the county of Rimouski in the 
general elections for the Dominion of Canada in 1904. 

William Price succeeded his uncle, the Hon. E. J. Price, as presi- 
dent of the A. Gravel Lumber Company, Limited, which has a large 
modern mill on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, a few miles 
from Quebec City. It manufactures all kinds of lumber, including 
spruce, birch, etc., and box boards for the English market and all kinds 
of joinery for local consumption. Agencies are maintained in Boston, 
New York and London. 

G. B. SYMES & CO. 

The well known firm of G. B. Symes & Co. was established in 
Quebec about the year 1840, and was composed of George Burns Symes 
and D. D. Young, both of whom were English born. They were 
shippers of all kinds of timber and lumber, and operated largely in the 
shipping interests of the port. Upon the death of Mr. Symes, A. F. A. 
Knight, the firm's bookkeeper, became a partner with Mr. Young under 
the name of D. D. Young & Co. This firm was succeeded, upon the 
retirement of Mr. Young, by A. F. A. Knight & Co., which firm went 
out of business over a quarter century ago. 

THE BENSONS. 

The name of Benson has long been familiar in connection with the 
timber and shipping interests of the port of Quebec. W. J. C. Benson, 
came to Canada from London, England, about sixty years ago, and 
began a business career which, though brief, was extraordinarily active. 
He was one of the largest if not the largest shipper in the port for five 
years, when he died at the early age of thirty-three years. He shipped 
from 100 to 110 cargoes each season during this period. He built 
several ships at New Liverpool cove, Quebec, which property he owned, 
in the palmy days of the wooden ship industry. His cargoes of wood 
goods embraced square pine, deals, staves and lathwood. At the time 
of his death, about 1850, Joseph Roberts, who had been Mr. Benson's 
agent both in Quebec and in England, entered into partnership with 
Thomas Benson (a brother of the former) and R. H. Smith, under the 
firm name of Benson & Co. The new enterprise was very successful, 
and the firm's cargoes reached the extraordinary number of 140 in a 



140 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

single season. The business continued until the retirement of Thomas 
Benson, when the two remaining partners continued the business under 
the name of Roberts, Smith & Co., their operations being extensive for 
upward of twelve years, when Mr. Roberts retired and returned to 
England in 1880. At this time E. Harper Wade (now manager of The 
McArthur Export Company, of Quebec) became a partner with Mr. 
Smith under the style of Smith, Wade & Co. Mr. Smith retired after 
six years, and H. T. Walcot (now representing The McArthur Export 
Company in London, England) joined Mr. Wade under the old firm 
name, and the business was continued until 1890, at which time it 
was wound up. 

DUNN & co. 

The business of Dunn & Co. was established over a half century 
ago by the late Timothy Dunn, who was the doyen of the timber 
trade of the port of Quebec. Stuart H. Dunn, his oldest son, is now the 
sole proprietor of the firm. This concern draws its supplies of timber 
from Ohio and West Virginia, and is agent for certain hardwood lum- 
bermen of the United States whose makes are of standard excellence and 
in good repute abroad. Dunn & Co. are probably more largely interest- 
ed in the oak timber trade than any other firm in the City of Quebec. 

The late Timothy Dunn was born at St. Ursule, Quebec Province, in 
1816. In 1841 he entered the Quebec office of the great timber firm of 
Calvin, Cook & Counter, and later became the head of the firm of 
Dunn, Calvin & Co. Afterward, in conjunction with the late Thomas 
Benson, he transacted business under the name of T. H. Dunn & Co., 
and in 1860 formed a new partnership with the late William Home, the 
firm being Dunn & Home. The firm was succeeded by his two sons, 
the late Logic H. Dunn and Stuart H. Dunn, under the present name of 
Dunn & Co. 

HENRY FRY & CO. 

A notable firm closely associated with the commercial life of the 
port of Quebec for over a half century is that of Henry Fry & Co. The 
firm was established by Henry Fry in 1854, as timber merchant and 
ship owner. The founder having been joined by his brother in 1861, 
both continued to carry on this business on an extensive scale. In 1877 
it happened, however, that, owing to ill health, Mr. Fry was prevented 
from taking an active part in the operations of the firm, and from that 
date until 1882 the management and direction of the business was in 
the hands of E. C. Fry. In the year last mentioned it was deemed 



QUEBEC PERSONNEL. 141 

advisable for the senior partner to retire for a much needed and well 
earned rest, and, in consequence, the firm was dissolved. At about this 
time Robert Stanley, who had been associated with the business since 
1862, was admitted as a partner, and, with E. C. Fry, has since suc- 
cessfully conducted the present business of general commission mer- 
chants. E. C. Fry was appointed a member of the Transportation 
Commission created by the Canadian government in 1903. 

THE WILSONS. 

Matthew Isaac Wilson and his brother, Charles William Wilson, 
formed a partnership under the firm name of Wilson Bros. & Co., on 
March 7, 1854. This partnership was formed in Liverpool, and a busi- 
ness in timber, deals, staves and general cargoes was conducted in both 
Liverpool and Quebec, with C. W. Wilson in charge of the Canadian 
branch. The firm acquired Dalhousie and Glenburnie coves in Quebec, 
and built several ships. About a year afterward the partnership was 
dissolved, when C. W. Wilson continued as agent in Canada for his 
brother in Liverpool until 1866, when the former went into the business 
on his own account, retaining the coves mentioned, building ships and 
carrying on a general export business, the cargoes embracing largely 
timber, deals, staves, etc. The Wilsons have loaded as many as 140 
cargoes in a single season. J. P. Bickell, who was a clerk in the firm's 
offices, became a partner with M. I. Wilson and represented the busi- 
ness as selling agent in England. The business of C. W. Wilson in 
Quebec was wound up in 1885, and that of the Liverpool house in 1895. 
The brothers were among the best known merchants and shipbuilders 
in the history of these important industries. W. H. Wilson, oldest son 
of C. W. Wilson, in the year in which his father retired formed a part- 
nership with John S. Murphy as J. S. Murphy & Co., which continued 
up to 1895, when the senior partner died, and W. H. Wilson, with his 
brother Fred, formed a partnership in a commission and agency busi- 
ness, which is still in existence, having headquarters in Quebec City. 

DOBELL, BECKETT & CO. 

Among the notable firms that have long held a prominent place in 
the Canadian timber export trade, that of Dobell, Beckett & Co. is 
most familiar. The Quebec house was founded nearly a half century 
ago by the late Hon. R. R. Dobell and the late Thomas Beckett. 
The firm has branch offices at Montreal and Ottawa and representatives 
in Great Britain. Its annual shipments from the ports of Quebec and 
Montreal amount to, in timber and lumber, hundreds of millions of 



142 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

feet. The Quebec establishment is one of the leading commercial in- 
heritances of the port. 

The late Hon. R. R. Dobell was senior member and active head of 
the enterprise, and to his personal activity and commercial ability the 
firm in a large measure owes its prominence, stability and wide spread 
reputation. In the partnership were, in more recent years, T. Steven- 
son, Lorenzo Evans and W. Molson Dobell. Since the death of the two 
principals a few years ago, the Canadian business has been carried on 
by L. Evans, W. M. Dobell and R. W. Beckett, and the London, Eng- 
land, business by Mr. Stevenson. 

Hon. R. R. Dobell represented Quebec West in the Canadian House 
of Commons for several years, and was also a minister of the Federal 
government. His absorption in the duties of state as well as those 
of membership of the Quebec Harbor Commission and Board of Trade, 
latterly placed the firm's business, to a large extent, in the hands of his 
associate partners in Quebec. 

The firm possesses some fine cove property at Sillery, where, dur- 
ing the season of navigation, much activity prevails in connection with 
the dressing and loading of timber. 

SIR HENRI JOLY DE LOTBINIERE. 

The seigniory of Lotbiniere, in the Province of Quebec, is one of 
the oldest in Canada, having been in the possession of the de Lotbi- 
niere family since the year 1673. The seigniory is situated on the 
right bank of the St. Lawrence River, about forty miles west of the 
City of Quebec, and embraces an area of 87,000 acres of forest. It is 
the ambition of the de Lotbinieres to work this forest in a scientific and 
conservative manner so as to secure its perpetuity for many years 
to come. Their contention is that any one holding freehold or patented 
timber lands should work them simply for the revenue and not with the 
idea of converting them, with as short delay as possible, into cash; 
that no better investment can be found at the present time than timber 
lands, particularly when easy of access and exploitation ; that a timber 
limit if properly managed should have no finality; that conservative 
felling will ensure the perpetuity of a forest, be it large or small ; that a 
strict attention to a rational felling diameter and careful supervision 
against the lumberman's greatest enemy, fire, constitute the two essen- 
tial features necessary to perpetuate the existence of a forest. 

Henri Gustavus Joly de Lotbiniere built a mill and began operations 
on the property in the year 1830, taking large quantities of pine and 



QUEBEC PERSONNEL. 143 

spruce deals to the Quebec market. His son, Sir Henri Joly de Lotbi- 
niere, continues the business with the assistance of his son, E. G. Joly 
de Lotbiniere. 

Sir Henri Joly de Lotbiniere, present head of this house, and one 
of the most distinguished public men of Canada, is widely known as a 
zealous and practical advocate of forestry. Sir Henri was born in 
France in 1829 of Huguenot ancestry, and came to Canada when a 
young man. He was admitted to practice at the Quebec bar in 1855, 
and was returned as a Liberal to the Canadian Assembly in 1861 for the 
county of Lotbiniere. He took a prominent part in the agitation pre- 
ceding the confederation of the provinces, to which measure he was 
strongly opposed. For a number of years he was a member of the 
Quebec Legislature, and in 1878 became Premier of that Province but 
was defeated the following year. After a protracted retirement from 
public life, he reentered the field in 1896, and was elected to the House 
of Commons as a supporter of Sir Wilfrid Laurier. He was made 
Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia in 1900, which position he 
now holds. 

Sir Henri has written and spoken frequently in connection with for- 
estry, horticulture and kindred topics, displaying a knowledge largely 
based upon practical experience and personal research, and has taken 
an active part in connection with organizations for the promotion 
of these objects. 

E. G. JOLY DE LOTBINIERE. 

The active connection of E. G. Joly de Lotbiniere, son of the 
above, with the lumber industry covers a period of barely ten years. 
Prior to that time he practiced law at Quebec. When, in 1896, his 
father accepted a seat in the Laurier cabinet, he gave up law and de- 
voted himself to the management of the seigniory of Lotbiniere. He 
has also taken an active interest in the work of the Canadian Forestry 
Association for several years past, and has the honor of representing 
the association as president for the current year (1905). He was born 
November 12, 1859. His mother's name was Margaretta Gower. He 
was married in 1885 to Lucy Geils Campbell, eldest daughter of the 
late W. D. Campbell, N. P., of Quebec. 

He maintains the traditions of his family in the management of the 
family property, the seigniory of Lotbiniere, and in his public capacity 
suggests regarding Crown land forests that a rigid enforcement of the 
existing rules and regulations, the setting aside of extended areas as 



144 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

perpetual forest reserves and a vigorous fire protection service should 
ensure for posterity the advantages which are yet happily enjoyed in 
the Province of Quebec. 

D. R. M'LEOD. 

D. R. McLeod has been in business as a broker between manufac- 
turers and shippers of timber for nearly a half century. He was at one 
time a shipper and is still largely interested in the trade at Quebec. 

WILLIAM POWER, M. P. 

Canada allows no adventitious circumstance of birth or fortune to 
be a bar to the progress of her deserving sons. A notable example of 
this is the career of William Power. He was born in 1849 at St. Colomb 
de Sillery, a suburb of Quebec City, and was educated at the parochial 
school of his native parish and at the Quebec Commercial School. 
When but a lad he entered the offices of W. & J. Sharpies, the well 
known lumber merchants. Here he displayed such business ability 
that at the age of seventeen he was promoted to a more important po- 
sition in the company's employ, and is now, as he has been for several 
years, manager of the Sharpies business. Mr. Power has been identi- 
fied with the timber trade of Quebec for nearly forty years. He is 
a practical lumberman, having spent several years in the pine forests of 
Canada and of Michigan, supervising the work there carried on by the 
Sharpies employees. He visits the timber markets of Great Britain 
each year in the interest of his firm. 

It would hardly be expected that a man who has shown so many ex- 
cellent business qualities would be allowed to remain altogether in the 
comparatively quiet sphere of a business life, and so, not only has he 
been for many years a member of the parish Municipal Council of Sil- 
lery, but, on the death of Hon. R. R. Dobell, member of Parliament 
for the city district of Quebec West and a prominent timber merchant, 
Mr. Power was elected as his successor. He has since been reflected 
by his constituency at the general elections for the Dominion Par- 
liament in 1903. 

Mr. Power is associated with Mr. Sharpies and Harcourt Smith 
in an important business known as the River Ouelle Pulp & Lum- 
ber Company, which owns two mills on the River Ouelle, on the line 
of the Intercolonial railway below Quebec City. 

E. HARPER WADE. 

Edward Harper Wade, who arranged the formation, a few years ago, 
of the McArthur Export Company, Limited, in the City of Quebec, and 



QUEBEC PERSONNEL. 145 

now holds the position of general manager of this concern, is a native 
of Liverpool, England. In 1862 he entered the offices of Sharpies & 
Co., in his native city of Liverpool. In 1870 he was transferred to 
Quebec, Canada, and remained with the Sharpies firm in that city until 
the end of 1877, visiting England each winter and taking an active part 
in the timber business as a salesman. He then accepted a similar posi- 
tion with Roberts, Smith & Co., of Quebec, and remained with them 
until the retirement of Joseph Roberts, in the year 1880, when he was 
taken into partnership by R. H. Smith, of the same city, and for 
six years carried on business under the style of Smith, Wade & Co. On 
Mr. Smith's retiring, H. T. Walcot, who had been a partner in the busi- 
ness of J. Burstall & Co., joined the firm. Subsequently, in 1890, Mr. 
Walcot became agent in England of the McArthur Bros. Co., Limited, 
and Mr. Wade the manager of the Quebec and Montreal business of 
the same concern. 

CARBRAY, ROUTH & CO. 

Carbray, Routh & Co., of Quebec and Montreal, have been engaged 
in the business of general commission and shipping for nearly forty 
years. They are also selling agents for several important sawmills, 
and have done a large business with Great Britain, France, Portugal, 
Australia and South America. Mr. Carbray is a prominent man in pub- 
lic life, and for many years represented the business division of the 
City of Quebec in the Parliament of the Province of Quebec. He 
is also consul for Portugal at Quebec, while Mr. Routh fills the same 
position as Portuguese representative in Montreal. 

THE EDSON FITCH COMPANY. 

Edson Fitch & Co. was established at Montmorency, a few miles 
east of the City of Quebec, in 1867. In 1869 the plant and works were 
moved to Etchemin, on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River 
about four miles west of Quebec, where the establishment has steadily 
grown in importance. Mr. Edson Fitch is an American and has in- 
vested the industry with a spirit of enterprise so characteristic of his 
nationality. In 1886 Edson Fitch & Co. was converted into The Edson 
Fitch Company, and has so continued ever since. The specialty of the 
works is the manufacture of match splints, shocks and match blocks. 
Enough splints and blocks are manufactured daily to produce 80,000,- 
000 matches, and in the manufacture of splints and cases about 20,- 
000,000 feet of lumber are used a year. The company maintains 
business relations with the United Kingdom, the West Indies and South 
America. 



146 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

BENNETT & CO. 

Bennett & Co., manufacturers' agents, have been in business in the 
City of Quebec for over thirty years. The two partners are sons of the 
late Benson Bennett, who was well known as the largest mill owner and 
manufacturer of pine and spruce deals in Quebec. Among the various 
mills for which Bennett & Co. have acted as agents are those of Sir 
Henri Joly de Lotbiniere, in the seigniory of Lotbiniere, and the Hon. 
J. K. Ward, of Montreal, for both of whom they have been agents for 
many years. 

HAROLD KENNEDY. 

Harold Kennedy, who has been established in the port of Quebec 
for nearly a quarter of a century, is identified with the timber export 
trade. He is the owner of Indian cove, one of the best properties of 
the kind in the port, which was occupied at one time by the Gilmour 
Company. Mr. Kennedy came to Quebec from his native city of Liver- 
pool to represent Taylor, Pierce & Co., of that place, who were the 
successors of James Bland & Co. He is a manufacturer and shipper of 
pine and spruce deals and pine and birch timber, and an owner of 
large limits in the Province of Quebec. He has for his Montreal agents 
McLean, Kennedy & Co. As ship owners' agent he acts for the fol- 
lowing well known lines of steamers : Head Line, Belfast and Dublin ; 
Moss Line, Liverpool; Malay & Mclntyre, Greenock and Glasgow; 
Holme Line, of Maryport, and represents many owners of tramp steam- 
ers trading with the St. Lawrence. Mr. Kennedy is a member of the 
Quebec Harbor Commission, president of the McArthur Export Com- 
pany, Limited, and vice president of the Quebec-Jacques Cartier Elec- 
tric Company. He was appointed by the Federal government in 1903 
as a member of the Dominion Transportation Commission, but, owing 
to business engagements, was obliged to decline the honor. 

H. R. GOODDAY & CO. 

Nearly twenty years ago H. G. Goodday, of London, England, en- 
gaged in the lumber export business with E. W. Benson. The firm of 
Goodday, Benson & Co. was dissolved in 1894, when H. R. Goodday, 
a son of the senior member of the firm, continued the business under 
the firm name of H. R. Goodday & Co. In 1899 he entered into part- 
nership with H. C. Foy, who is a son of the head of the well known 
firm of Foy, Morgan & Co., of London, England, under the style of H. 
R. Goodday & Co. The specialty of this firm is spruce deals, getting 
its supplies from Canadian forests. It also handles hardwoods and 



QUEBEC PERSONNEL. 147 

other lumber. Its trade is principally in the United Kingdom and 
the chief centers of business on the Continent. Foy, Morgan & Co., 
London, England, are the firm's agents in London and on the Con- 
tinent. 

J. BELL FORSYTH. 

J. Bell Forsyth is a name well known in Canada from the publication 
for so many years of the annual statistics of the timber and lumber 
trade of Quebec by the late firm of J. Bell Forsyth & Co., who were 
for many years engaged in the commission business in lumber. The 
annual statement is still continued under the old name, but Mr. Forsyth 
is now the collector of customs for the port. 

ALEXANDER BAPTIST. 

About half way between Quebec and Montreal, at Three Rivers, are 
the well known mills of Alexander Baptist, who, on account of the 
extensive limits he has owned, has been styled the " Lumber King of 
the St. Maurice." His father was one of the pioneers of the trade. 
His usual cut is about 300,000 logs per season of pine and spruce, most 
of the product reaching the English market. 

THOMAS MALONE. 

Thomas Malone, of Three Rivers, Quebec, has been prominent for 
over a quarter of a century in the lumber trade of Quebec Province, 
though his operations have extended over a much wider field. Born in 
Quebec City in 1856, he began active operations, before reaching his 
majority, as a shipper of deals to the British market. Under his ener- 
getic management the business rapidly developed until he handled a 
large proportion of the output of the Ottawa Valley going to Quebec. 
Between the years 1876 and 1880 he operated in Michigan and Wiscon- 
sin, shipping direct to Britain. In 1884 he removed from Quebec to 
Three Rivers, in the neighborhood of which place he owns extensive 
limits in addition to conducting a lumber agency. Mr. Malone has 
bought and sold timber limits on a large scale, and has done much to 
develop the trade of Three Rivers. 

THE WARREN CURTIS MILL. 

At Three Rivers is also the Warren Curtis mill, which has a capacity 
of 100,000 feet per day of ten hours. The logs are principally spruce, 
and number about 200,000 per year. 

ST. MAURICE LUMBER COMPANY. 

One of the leading institutions of the St. Maurice River district is 
the St. Maurice Lumber Company, of Three Rivers. Its ownership is 



148 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

largely American, and it operates the pulpwood part of its business in 
connection with pulp and paper mills at Glens Falls, New York. It 
owns extensive limits on the St. Maurice River. A large sawmill at 
Three Rivers produces pine and spruce deals for the English market 
and inch lumber for the United States, while during the working season 
about 100,000 feet of spruce timber is cut into pulpwood daily for ship- 
ment by the Richelieu Canal and Lake Champlain for the Glens Falls 
plant. 

THE LAURENTIDE'S PULP MILL. 

On the St. Maurice River is situated the Laurentide's pulp mill at 
Grand Mere, manufacturing about one hundred tons a day. Three hun- 
dred thousand spruce logs are cut yearly. 

THE TOURVILLE LUMBER MILLS COMPANY. 

A little higher up the St. Lawrence than Three Rivers, the river 
widens out and is called Lake St. Peter, near the shores of which the 
Tourville Lumber Mills Company has three mills one on the north 
shore at Louiseville and two on the south shore at Pierreville and 
Nicolet. The office of the company is at Montreal. 

THE CHARLEMAGNE & LAC OUAREAU COMPANY. 

The limits of the Charlemagne & Lac Ouareau Company's mills are 
situated in the counties of Joliette, Montcalm and Berthier, in the Prov- 
ince of Quebec, and are composed largely of spruce, pine, birch, hem- 
lock and ash. The output of the mill is about 30,000,000 feet, the bulk 
of which is shipped to Great Britain and the United States. The prin- 
cipal mill is located at Charlemagne, about twelve miles below Montreal, 
at the junction of the L'Assomption, Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers. 
It is operated by steam and has a capacity of about 2,000 logs per day. 
The president of the company is Robert Reford, of Montreal, senior 
member of the firm of Robert Reford & Co. 

HON. JAMES LITTLE. 

The Hon. James Little, of Montreal, one of the pioneer lumbermen 
of Canada, died in October, 1883, being over eighty years of age, and 
held in the highest esteem not only in his own country but in the United 
States as well. 

He was born near Londonderry, Ireland, emigrating to Canada in 
1823, at the age of nineteen years. He passed through Montreal and 
went to Niagara, Ontario, then the wholesale market for that part of 
Canada. Toronto at that time was known as the village of York, and 
Hamilton was not in existence. In 1833 Mr. Little married and moved 



QUEBEC PERSONNEL. 149 

to the township of Seneca, on the Grand River, Ontario. The place 
where he settled is now the town of Caledonia, which is surrounded by 
a country that is cleared and settled, but at the time of his first resi- 
dence there the entire section was an unbroken forest wilderness, the 
home of the Indians. 

Upon the building of the first dam in the river, Mr. Little began a 
lumber manufacturing business, which he carried on upon a large scale 
for over a quarter of a century. His operations extended over almost 
the entire peninsula between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, and at one 
time numbered twelve different concerns. Later he operated in the 
counties of Brant, Wentworth, Norfolk and Elgin, and in the Georgian 
Bay district, Ontario, and finally in the St. Maurice River district, Que- 
bec, after 1873 making Montreal his home. He was among the first 
to send lumber to the United States, Albany being his chief market. 

Mr. Little was a public spirited and farseeing man, being often in 
advance of his fellows. This frequently caused opposition to his views, 
but he continued to fight for them until his object was gained. This 
was especially true of his labors in the interest of forestry. Seeing the 
rapidity with which commercial woods were being cut away with but 
small return to the country for their loss, and having a thorough knowl- 
edge of the subject, he became an earnest and persistent writer on the 
subject of forest protection at a time when the popular belief was that 
there was no need of any such protection. His efforts were at last re- 
warded. The American Forestry Congress, in recognition of his 
services, accorded him a vote of thanks; the first forestry association 
of Canada, that of Ontario, made him its honorary president, and the 
Government showed its recognition by establishing "Arbor Day." The 
United States, as well as his own country, honored James Little for his 
valuable work for forest protection. 

Since the death of James Little his work has been successfully con- 
tinued by his son, William Little, of Montreal, who seems to hold by 
natural heritage the same views as did his father. Following in his 
father's footsteps, William Little has for many years been a foremost 
advocate of forestry preservation, and has devoted much time and 
attention to the study of the relations of Canada with the United States. 

j. K. WARD. 

A fine type of the pioneer lumberman is J. K. Ward, of Montreal, 
Quebec, a Manx by birth. He migrated to the United States, and 
leased and operated a sawmill at Troy, New York. He bought a saw- 



150 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

mill and stumpage on Maskinonge River, in Quebec in 1853, largely 
increasing his operations as time went by. In 1863 he located at Three 
Rivers, Quebec, and operated a mill, which he subsequently sold to an 
American concern. He then leased a larger area of timber land from 
the Province of Quebec on the Rouge River, and built an extensive 
sawmill on the Lachine Canal. He operated this mill, which had an 
annual cut of approximately 15,000,000 feet, until 1900, when he sold 
the property to a company headed by his oldest son. 

THE MACLARENS. 

The MacLaren family, of Buckingham, Quebec, noted for its exten- 
sive and widely scattered lumbering interests, traces its connection with 
the industry back to the early days of the pioneers of the Ottawa 
Valley. David MacLaren, a Scotchman, migrated to Canada in 1824, and 
took up land in the township of Torbolton, Carleton County, Ontario. 
He was a man of strong, energetic character and earnest religious con- 
victions. James MacLaren, his eldest son, was six years of age when 
the family emigrated. On attaining the age of eighteen he engaged in 
lumbering, and in 1842 conducted a general store at Peche on the 
Gatineau River, Quebec. He subsequently built a small sawmill, and 
in 1853, in partnership with J. M. Currier, leased an extensive sawmill 
at the mouth of the Gatineau. He rapidly enlarged his enterprises and 
in 1864 purchased mills and timber limits on the Riviere du Lievre, 
Quebec. He built an immense sawmill of the modern type at Bucking- 
ham, Quebec, on the Ottawa River, at the mouth of the Lievre, about 
fifteen miles below Ottawa, where, for over a quarter of a century, he 
engaged in the manufacture of lumber on a large scale. He subse- 
quently operated on the North Nation River, on the Upper Ottawa and 
in Michigan, being at one time the most extensive operator in America. 
He died in 1892. 

David MacLaren, of Ottawa, eldest son of James MacLaren, was 
born in 1848. In 1874 he became manager of the Gatineau and Ottawa 
branches of his father's business, which at times employed over one 
thousand men. The business was subsequently incorporated as the 
James MacLaren Company, Limited, David MacLaren becoming one 
of the directors, a position he still holds. He is interested in many 
other large corporations. 

Albert MacLaren, son of James MacLaren, born in 1870, is president 
and managing director of the company, which now operates two exten- 
sive sawmills with planing mills, etc., at Buckingham, having an output 



QUEBEC PERSONNEL. 151 

of from 25,000,000 to 30,000,000 feet of lumber annually, and employ- 
ing from 1,200 to 1,500 men in the winter and 400 during the summer 
months. The company has 2,600 square miles of timber limits in 
Quebec Province, and owns a pulp mill which began operations in 1902 
and produces seventy tons of wood pulp daily. 

Alexander MacLaren, another son of James MacLaren, born in 
1860, has been an active participant in the affairs of the James Mac- 
Laren Company, but is, perhaps, more prominently connected with 
other enterprises. He is president of the North Pacific Lumber Com- 
pany, Limited, organized in 1890, with mills at Barnet, British Colum- 
bia, having 90,000 acres of cedar and fir limits. Over 25,000,000 feet 
of sawn lumber is shipped annually from this mill, which also manufac- 
tures about 30,000,000 shingles a year. Alexander MacLaren is a 
director of the Keewatin Power Company, Limited, and is concerned in 
other industrial undertakings. 

John MacLaren, son of James MacLaren, died May 29, 1903, at 
Kamloops, British Columbia, from injuries sustained by being thrown 
from a horse. As a young man he was associated with his father in 
the lumber business. He spent several years at New Westminster, 
British Columbia, and for a time lived at Windsor, Ontario. He owned 
a large sawmill at East Templeton, Quebec. At the time of his death 
he was about fifty years of age. 

EZRA B. EDDY. 

Ezra Butler Eddy, of Ottawa, was born near Bristol, Vermont, Au- 
gust 22, 1827. He engaged in the business of match manufacturing in 
Burlington, Vermont, in 1851, and three years later established himself 
at Hull, Quebec, where he erected extensive mills and workshops. He 
obtained large timber limits and began the manufacture of lumber, en- 
gaging also in subsidiary industries, on a large scale, availing himself 
of the splendid water power of the Ottawa River. In 1856 he added to 
his enterprise the manufacture of woodenware, and in 1892 erected a 
paper mill. In the meantime the business had been turned into a joint 
stock company under the name of The E. B. Eddy Company, of which 
organization Mr. Eddy is president. The establishment is one of the 
largest of its kind in the world, the output of the match factory being 
50,000,000 matches daily. The total number of employees is over 
2,000. Mr. Eddy has been mayor of Hull and represented Ottawa 
County for a term in the Quebec Legislature. 



152 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

HON. GEORGE BRYSON. 

Hon. George Bryson, who died at Fort Coulonge, January 14, 1900, 
was one of the pioneer lumbermen of the Province of Quebec. He 
was born in Paisley, Scotland, December 13, 1813, and came to Canada 
in 1821, when eight years of age. During the early part of his life he 
worked on a farm in the summer and in the winter season he got out 
cordwood under contract. He was one of the first to engage in lum- 
bering in his district, and at twenty-two years of age, in company with 
his brother-in-law, the late Hiram Colton, of Litchfield, Pontiac County, 
Quebec, he began lumbering operations on the Coulonge River above 
Ragged Chute, Quebec. He took many rafts of square timber to Que- 
bec, and was a well known figure in the commercial as well as the po- 
litical life of Canada for more than a half century. 

Mr. Bryson was a promoter of the Pontiac & Pacific Junction rail- 
way, a member of the Upper Ottawa Improvement Company for sev- 
eral years and was one of the founders and a director of the Bank of 
Ottawa. The town of Bryson, formerly known as Havelock, was 
renamed after the Bryson family. In politics he was a Liberal, and his 
parliamentary career began in 1857, when he was elected to represent 
Pontiac County in the old Canadian Assembly. He was called to the 
Legislative Council of Quebec in 1867, and occupied a seat there for 
twenty years, when he retired in favor of his second son, George Bry- 
son, Junior. 

EUGENE ETIENNE TACHE. 

Eugene Etienne Tache", Deputy Minister of Lands and Forests, 
Province of Quebec, is the eleventh child of Sir E. P. Tache and was 
born at St. Thomas de Montmagny October 25, 1836. He was edu- 
cated at the Seminary of Quebec and at the Upper Canada College, 
Toronto. He is a civil engineer and land surveyor for the Provinces of 
Quebec and Ontario. In 1862 he received the brevet of captain in the 
Chasseurs Canadiens, of Quebec. He was also a member for several 
years of the Civil Service Rifle Corps, at Ottawa. On September 20, 
1869, Mr. Tache was appointed Deputy Minister of Crown Lands, for 
the Province of Quebec. The department has been known for several 
years past as that of Lands, Forests and Fisheries, but quite recently 
it has assumed the title of Lands and Forests simply, the other branch 
having been added to another department of the government service. 

As a land surveyor Mr. Tache" has had wide experience, among 
other important works, having been engaged in the location of the 



QUEBEC PERSONNEL. 153 

Ottawa Canal. The maps of the Province which have been drawn 
by him are models of exactitude and clearness. The plans of the leg- 
islative buildings and the courthouse, as well as other notable civic 
and military edifices in the City of Quebec, were made by him, and in 
these he has shown great taste and originality. 

Mr. Tache has given loyal and active service to the Province for 
thirty-six years. He has worked conscientiously and assiduously and 
has shown himself to be a thorough master of all the intricate details 
of the most important department of the government service. He is 
the author of the beautiful and patriotic device, "Je me souviens," 
which accompanies the arms of the Province of Quebec. His Majesty, 
King Edward, recognizing the official merit of Mr. Tache, has created 
him a Companion of the Imperial Service Order. 

He has been married twice on the first occasion to Olympe Elea- 
nore, daughter of Louis Albert Bender, who died in 1878 ; and subse- 
quently to Maria Clara, daughter of the Hon. E. L. A. C. J. Duchesnay. 



CHAPTER XII. 

ONTARIO EARLY HISTORY. 

As the early history of the Ontario lumber trade goes back to the 
time when this great section of Canada formed a part of Quebec, any 
time selected for its beginning, save that time when the pioneers 
of New France began to sell timber to their neighbors, must be purely 
arbitrary. This is true for two other reasons also : First, because the 
great avenue of the lumber trade, the Ottawa River, is the boundary 
line between the two Provinces ; and, second, because Upper and Lower 
Canada, after being separated in 1791, were again united under one 
legislature from 1840-1 to 1867. While the public records were in 
a measure kept separate they operated under the same laws, while the 
capital city changed every four years from Toronto to the fortress of 
Quebec. Some things which equally affected the trade in Ontario have 
been described in dealing with Quebec and are only touched on here, 
while other things, which it has been deemed advisable to treat in con- 
nection with this Province, were matters of momentous importance to 
the lumbermen of Quebec. However, for the purpose of this descrip- 
tion of the lumber trade, Ontario history may be considered to begin 
with the setting apart of Upper Canada as a separate province in 1791. 
This was the period when the only persons authorized to cut timber in 
the King's forests in Canada were the contractors for the royal navy, 
who, under their licenses, managed to cut a good deal for the general 
market without returning any revenue to the Crown. As a part of 
Quebec, Ontario had part and lot in the regulations regarding the run- 
ning of the rapids in the St. Lawrence and the preferential duties 
granted by Great Britain. 

The lumber industry was one of the first mechanical activities 
established in Ontario, and dates back to the early days of the settle- 
ment of the country shortly after the American Revolution. At that 
time the entire country now embraced within the limits of the Province 
was densely wooded. In the southern portion, where the first settle- 
ments were made, the hardwood varieties predominated, largely inter- 
spersed in some localities with the white pine and other coniferous 
trees. In the more northerly sections, however, and especially in the 

154 



ONTARIO EARLY HISTORY. 155 

Ottawa Valley, the pine, hitherto the main factor in the forest wealth of 
Canada, and its kindred species grew in profusion and at an early date 
became a valuable and much appreciated source of revenue to the 
pioneers, who depended largely on the means realized from the timber 
export trade to procure the supplies they required. 

Incidental to the work of clearing the land, the settlers in many 
localities where small sawmills were established were enabled to pro- 
cure supplies of lumber for local consumptio^f but the Ottawa Valley, 
with the means of transportation furnished by the Ottawa and St. Law- 
rence rivers, early attained that preeminence as a source of the export 
trade on a large scale which it has since maintained. 

In treating of this phase of the subject it is difficult to confine this 
account strictly to the trade of Ontario, as the industry in the early 
days developed simultaneously upon both sides of the river, some of 
the largest mills drawing their supplies from Ontario being located on 
the Quebec side. 

The watershed of the Ottawa embraces a region of about 80,000 
square miles, much of it good agricultural land, and producing origin- 
ally some of the finest pine timber in the world. Two hundred and 
fifty miles to the northwest of the City of Ottawa the river expands 
into a long and narrow sheet of water known as Lake Temiscamingue, 
which presents sixty miles of unbroken navigation and receives numer- 
ous important tributaries including the Blanche, the Montreal and the 
Quinze rivers. Navigation on the Ottawa is interrupted by numerous 
rapids and falls, the most notable being the grand falls of the Chau- 
diere, immediately above Ottawa City, which furnish the power for 
many extensive mills and factories. The territory drained by the nu- 
merous tributaries of the Ottawa before its confluence with the St. Law- 
rence includes some of the richest and most valuable timber yet 
remaining unexploited. 

THE PIONEER OF THE OTTAWA VALLEY. 

The pioneer in the timber trade of the Ottawa Valley was Philemon 
Wright, an adventurous American, whose descendants have occupied 
prominent positions in the Ottawa district. Mr. Wright was a citizen of 
Woburn, Massachusetts, and the first man to appreciate the natural 
wealth and advantages of the Ottawa Valley as a field for colonization. 
His first visit was made in 1796. In the following year he returned 
and, in the face of many hardships and difficulties, explored the coun- 
try on both sides of the river as far as the Chaudiere Falls. He was 



156 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

particularly impressed with the value of the timber ("sufficient," as he 
afterward reported, "to load a thousand vessels ") and with the possi- 
bilities of the Chaudiere Falls, or the Asticou, as the Indians called 
them. This cataract, or Chaudiere (caldron) as the French-Canadian 
lumbermen christened it, is situated at the place where the mighty Ot- 
tawa, contracted from the width of over a mile to a few hundred feet, 
pours itself over rocks thirty feet high, into a boiling, steaming pot 
with force sufficient to drive all the busy wheels of a great modern city. 
This fall represents the point where, for four hundred miles in the 
course of the Ottawa, the shores of the Provinces of Ontario and Que- 
bec approach most nearly to each other. 

Mr. Wright left Woburn February 2, 1800, with five families, and 
had in his train fourteen horses, eight oxen and seven sleighs. His 
destination was what was then a wilderness inhabited by a few Indians 
only. He settled opposite the present City of Ottawa, having obtained 
an extensive grant of land from the Government. Mr. Wright, like the 
patriarch, had the whole land before him and could choose either the 
right hand or the left. He chose the Quebec side and founded the city 
of Hull, doubtless without dreaming that on the high, rocky cliff on the 
other shore would within a century be seen the Gothic spires and tur- 
rets of the "Washington of the North," the capital of a country 
stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The first tree was felled on 
the site of his homestead March 7 of the same year. 

In 1807 Mr. Wright took the first raft of square timber down the 
Ottawa to Quebec. The few settlers declared such an undertaking to 
be impossible on account of the obstructions in the river, but % Mr. 
Wright was determined to make the attempt and, in the face of gigan- 
tic difficulties, accomplished the trip. It required thirty-six days, as 
the venturesome pioneer and his assistants were unacquainted with the 
river and had to proceed with great caution. He continued, during 
subsequent years, floating to Quebec white oak and the finest qualities 
of pine. The squared oak was withed up by the ends with lighter ma- 
terial to keep it afloat, or loaded on white pine cribs. It took both 
time and patience to get acquainted with the dangerous parts of the 
river and, until improvements were made, many cases of drowning 
occurred. 

He built his first sawmill and grist mill in 1808. These were burned 
and were rebuilt with his characteristic pluck in sixty days. Square 
timber was hastened to market as rapidly as possible, the mills being 



ONTARIO EARLY HISTORY. 157 

rebuilt with the proceeds. The business grew and flourished and Mr. 
Wright eventually derived a large income from it. He built the first 
timber " slide," on the Hull side of the river, in 1829. Mr. Wright was 
elected the first member of the Canadian Parliament to represent Ot- 
tawa in 1830. He died in 1839, and his name has been perpetuated in 
Wright County, Quebec. His son, Alonzo Wright, was for many years 
a striking figure in the Canadian Parliament, in and out of which he was 
known, from the tributary of the Ottawa which his family and himself 
bad done so much to develop, as " The King of the Gatineau." 

The City of Ottawa, the present center of the lumber business, 
remained in a state of nature for some time after Philemon Wright had 
formed the nucleus of a settlement on the opposite shore of the river. 
In 1826 it was covered with bush and had only one house on the pres- 
ent site of the Upper Town. The first impetus to settlement was given 
by the construction of the Rideau Canal, projected mainly as a military 
work, under the superintendence of Colonel By. This work was com- 
pleted in 1831, and in the succeeding year the village of By town, as it 
was then named in honor of Colonel By, had about one hundred and 
fifty houses. Thereafter it grew rapidly and Hull became practically a 
suburb. 

Meanwhile lumbering operations had been extensively pushed in the 
district and manufacturing developed to a greater extent than elsewhere 
in the Province. About 1815 a Mr. Story built a sawmill on the Ottawa ; 
and it is stated that when the man in charge "gigged" back the car- 
riage for a fresh cut he would sit down on the log and eat his dinner, 
which would be about finished when the cut was done. It is no wonder 
that heart failure and nervous prostration were then unknown. Robert 
Gourley, prominent as an author and a political agitator, in his " Statis- 
tical Account of Upper Canada," published in 1818, mentions that 
sawmills of the best construction were in operation on an island in the 
Ottawa River opposite the higher part of Hawkesbury Township, on a 
scale superior to that of any other in the Province. "The businjess 
seemed to be carried on with great spirit, about fourscore people being 
employed in the works on the island." They were first owned by Mr. 
Mears, of Hawkesbury, but, at the time he wrote, they were the prop- 
erty of Mr. Hamilton, from Ireland. 

Statistics compiled from the assessment rolls of the Province of 
Upper Canada give nine sawmills as the number existing in the Ottawa 
district in 1823, the total number in the eleven districts into which the 



158 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Province was then divided being 363. The great majority of these, 
however, were run merely to supply local requirements. 

The town of Pembroke, about one hundred and twenty miles up the 
river from Ottawa, was founded in 1828 by Colonel Peter White, a 
native of Edinburgh, Scotland, who was for many years one of the 
principal timber merchants of the Ottawa Valley. His sons have been 
actively engaged in the lumber business, and by their enterprise have 
done much to build up their native town. 

The town of Deseronto, on the Bay of Quinte", near the eastern end 
of Lake Ontario, was founded by Hugo B. Rathbun, of Auburn, New 
York. In 1854 Mr. Rathbun engaged in the manufacture of lumber at 
Mill Point, now Deseronto, Ontario. Later his son, Edward Wilkes 
Rathbun, was taken into partnership and was given the complete charge 
of the Deseronto business. About 1868 the Rathbun lumber yards 
were established at Oswego, New York, and sawmills were built later 
at Gravenhurst, Lindsay, Campbellford, Fenelon Falls, Tweed, Mani- 
toulin Island and Bancroft. The Rathbuns owned two railroads, one 
from Deseronto to Tweed, a distance of thirty miles, and another con- 
necting Gananoque with the Grand Trunk railroad. They also owned a 
line of steamers operating on the Bay of Quinte. They manufactured 
one million railroad ties a year and also owned the cement works near 
Napanee, gas works, sash and blind factories, match splint factory, 
chemical works, ship yards, locomotive works and car shops. The firm 
also operated four lumber yards in Canada and the United States. 
Edward Wilkes Rathbun died in November, 1903, and was succeeded 
by his son, E. W. Rathbun. 

Henry Franklin Bronson of Bolton, New York, came to Ottawa 
(then Bytown) in 1853 and built on Victoria Island, in the Ottawa 
River, the first sawmill which shipped lumber from the Ottawa River 
to the American market. The venture prospered and grew, and many 
fortunes were made in the trade. 

THE FIRST PAPER MILL IN ONTARIO. 

V. H. Hickox, of Niagara Falls, tells of the first paper mill in 
Ontario. He says: 

It was in the summer of 1841 that my father and another paper maker, whose 
name was Samuel Prine, engaged to go to Toronto and start the first paper mill in 
Upper Canada. They left Niagara Falls in June of that year. This mill was 
located about three miles from the city, up the River Don, a beautiful clear stream 
of water, well supplied with trout and other kinds of fish in abundance. The 
country round about was a vast wilderness of heavy timber, mostly pine, with here 
and there a little clearing with log cabin homes of the early pioneers. 



ONTARIO EARLY HISTORY. 159 

Eastwood and Skinner, brothers-in-law, two enterprising Englishmen, built 
the first mill and received a cash premium from the Canadian government. In 
connection with the paper mill there was a grist mill, a brewery and distillery, 
owned by the Helliwell Brothers. The place was named Don Mills. 

My father made a sojourn of seven years, during which time he started a 
second paper mill on the Don River, two miles above the first mill. We moved to 
Hamburg, west of Buffalo, about 1848. In the year 1851, Albert H. Porter sold 
the paper mill on Bath Island and my father, by this change, secured his old posi- 
tion as superintendent of the upper Don paper mills. Then he moved back to 
Toronto in 1851, where he remained for many years, respected as the man who 
made the first sheet of paper in the Upper Province of Canada. 
CROWN TIMBER REGULATIONS. 

During the earlier years of the lumber industry there were prac- 
tically no restrictions on the cutting of timber upon the public domain 
and no thought on the part of the Government of deriving a revenue 
from the forest resources. When the British took possession of the 
country in 1763 elaborate instructions were furnished to Governor 
James Murray as to his administration. The British government was 
solicitous for the preservation of large areas of forest land as a source 
of supply of timber for naval construction, and the Governor was 
ordered to set aside in every township "proper quantities of land" for 
fortifications, barracks and other military or naval services, and more 
particularly for the growth and production of naval timber, "if there 
are any woodlands fit for that purpose." 

The policy which the British government laid down for the forma- 
tion of Crown timber reserves in Quebec for the preservation of timber 
for the royal navy was reaffirmed when Upper Canada was set apart as 
a separate province. The Duke of Richmond, governor-in-chief of the 
Province of Upper Canada, in 1818 received elaborate instructions that 
no land should be allotted to settlers until the district had been sur- 
veyed and those parts containing masting or other timber fit for the use 
of the royal navy reserved. Difficulties intervened and these regula- 
tions, wise in many respects, were never carried out. 

These instructions, though subsequently repeated, were never ob- 
served; possibly because the governors had many more urgent matters 
to engage their attention and no doubt regarded the reservation of 
forests as altogether superfluous in a country where the timber, until a 
much later period, seemed inexhaustible. 

It was not until 1826 that the earliest steps were taken to secure 
revenue from the forests on the Crown lands. Previous to this the 
only persons authorized to cut timber on the public lands were the con- 



160 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

tractors for the royal navy or those holding licenses for them. In the 
early years of the Nineteenth Century licenses to cut timber in the 
Canadian forests were granted by the Imperial government to contract- 
ors for the royal dock yards, who, in addition to filling their contracts, 
took advantage of the privilege granted them for that purpose to do a 
general business in supplying the British markets. Their mode of 
operation was to issue licenses to merchants and lumbermen in Canada 
who were then legally authorized to cut timber as their agents. While 
these favored firms had a legal monopoly of cutting timber on the 
public lands, for which they paid nothing to the revenue, a number of 
unlicensed lumbermen pursued the business actively without asking the 
leave of anyone. It was found impossible to suppress this practice so 
long as those who desired to engage in the industry were debarred 
from doing so in a legitimate manner. The unfairness of the system 
led to its abolition. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF TIMBER DUES SYSTEM. 

In 1826 the contractors' monopoly was abrogated and for the first 
time was inaugurated a system under which the cutting of timber on 
the ungranted lands of the Ottawa region was extended to anyone de- 
siring to embark in the business, on payment of a fixed scale of rates. 
This was announced May 3, 1826, by a proclamation of Sir Peregrine 
Maitland, lieutenant governor of Upper Canada. The dues fixed in this 
proclamation were: Upon oak timber 6 5s a thousand, or 1/^d a foot; 
red pine 4 3s 4d a thousand, or Id a foot; yellow (white) pine, 2 Is 
8d a thousand, or /^d a foot; sawed, 2d a log; staves, 4 Is 8d a thou- 
sand "to be paid in lawful money of our Province of Upper Canada." 
For the purpose of preventing too small timbers being cut, double the 
amount of duty was charged upon all which did not square more than 
eight inches. The money was Canadian currency, one pound sterling 
of which was equal to $4. 

In the case of some of the mills in operation at this early date in the 
Ottawa Valley, much of the supply apparently came from lands which 
had been granted by the Crown, for the exploitation of which no license 
was necessary. Philemon Wright, for instance, is stated to have ob- 
tained land grants amounting to 13,000 acres. 

The first collector of timber dues on the Ottawa River was Robert 
Shireff, a pioneer lumberman whose son, Charles Shireff, acted con- 
jointly with him without receiving any formal appointment. The 
system was modified somewhat in 1827 when Peter Robinson was 



ONTARIO EARLY HISTORY. 161 

appointed surveyor general of woods and forests for Upper Canada. 
It was provided that licenses to cut specified quantities of the various 
kinds of merchantable timber off a given territory were to be sold by 
auction, with upset prices fixed at considerably less than the previously 
adopted scale. The expenses of the surveyor general's office were very 
modest. He was allowed 25 per annum for office rent, a like sum for 
a messenger, and 10 for fuel. Pay of clerks and assistants "as may 
be necessary and as the governor may deem reasonable" was allowed, 
but with a special proviso that the whole of such expenses was not to 
exceed one-sixth of the revenue derived from licenses. 

Robinson was instructed to survey the forests in the Province and 
state what parts it was advisable to keep for the use of the King and 
what might be sold. The generous instructions showed how little idea 
the British government had of the size of a province over 260,000 
square miles in area, or only about 5,000 square miles less than the 
great State of Texas, and which, after three-quarters of a century of 
development, still has large areas unexplored and which will probably 
not be surveyed until a century from the time Peter Robinson started 
out. Such timber as was not required for the navy and which was 
deemed expedient to cut was to be put up for sale after due notice in 
the York (Toronto) Gazette. Each license was not to exceed 2,000 cubic 
feet and the upset prices were, per thousand feet : Oak, 3 3s 4d ; ash, 
elm or beech, 2 10s; red pine, 3; white pine, 1 10s; staves, and 
handspikes, 1. The timber was to be cut within nine months and paid 
for within fifteen months from date of license. Measurers were ap- 
pointed in each district to certify to the amount of lumber cut. 

The attempt to regulate the price of licenses by competition was not 
at that time successful as, owing to the laxity of administration which 
then prevailed and the recklessness with which the public lands were 
granted in large areas to men of influence and to political favorites, 
lumbermen found it considerably more profitable to obtain the fee 
simple of timbered land, either directly from the Government or by 
purchase from the first holders of the title, than to pay timber dues. 
Hence the receipts for some years were small. In 1827 the first returns 
from timber licenses in Upper Canada were received, the amount being 
$360. The following year the revenue from this source was $3,134, 
and in 1829, $2,287. 

It may be noted incidentally that about this time Canadians began 
to reckon in dollars and cents, instead of in pounds, shillings and pence, 



162 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

though for some time thereafter both systems were used. In fact, there 
are old farmers in the back townships who to this day calculate in 
"York shillings." 

CONDITIONS PRECEDENT TO THE REBELLION OF 1837. 

The loose and careless business methods characteristic of the system 
of collecting timber dues, as well as other branches of administration 
in the years preceding Mackenzie's Rebellion, resulted in a loss of many 
thousands of pounds to the revenue owing to business complications in 
which the Shireffs became involved. When, under Lord Durham's ad- 
ministration in 1838, after the suppression of the rebellion, an exhaustive 
investigation was made into the abuses which provoked it, it was offi- 
cially stated that the gross amount received by the Province of Upper 
Canada for timber dues, from the establishment of the system up to 
January 30, 1838, a period of about ten and a half years, was 58,085 
4s lid. 

Under the system in vogue at this period the licenses designated 
the quantity to be cut and the applicant was required to deposit in 
advance 25 percent of the amount of dues called for by the regulations 
on that quantity. A frequent practice, however, was to exceed greatly 
the cut stipulated for, as in this way the cash deposit required was pro- 
portionately reduced. A bond was given to cover the balance of the 
estimated dues. 

A license granted to James Wadsworth, of Hull, in 1836 gave him 
the right to cut 40,000 feet of red pine timber oil the south side of the 
Bonnechere River on the following terms: "Sum payable for this 
license 41 13s 4d currency, being 25 percent on 166 13s 4d, the value 
of 40,000 feet at Id. For the balance of 125, a bond has been granted 
payable 1st November, 1837." 

The descriptions of the limits in these old licenses were often 
rather vague and indefinite. That in the above mentioned document 
reads as follows: "The limits granted in the foregoing license are 
Butted and Bounded as follows, viz.: Commencing one Mile below 
Enoes' or the Indian Doctor's Landing and to extend up on the south 
side of the river ten miles more or less to its source or so far as it is 
capable of floating down timber and to run back five miles, more or 
less, half way to the waters of the Madawaska River on the course 
south 21 degrees west." 

Another license granted to John Supple, of Hull, in 1838 permits 
him to cut 25,000 cubic feet of red pine on the north side of the Inlet 



ONTARIO EARLY HISTORY. 163 

of Lake Dore, the rate and terms of payment being the same as in the 
previous case. His limits were described as " Commencing at the head 
of Lake Dore to extend three miles up the inlet of the said Lake to be 
measured on the course S. 82 degrees W. and to run back four miles 
more or less to the limits granted on Indian River on the course North 
8 degrees W." 

It is not surprising that, owing to the want of precision in the defini- 
tion of limits, disputes often arose between limit holders. These diffi- 
culties often resulted in resort to physical force, in which the operator 
who happened to have the largest number of men on the ground gen- 
erally came off triumphant. In fact, the frequency with which this 
rough-and-ready means for the settlement of controversies between 
rival lumbermen was resorted to became one of the causes of overpro- 
duction, as the limit holders, finding it advisable to have a large force 
of men on the spot should it become necessary, in diplomatic phrase, 
to "rectify their frontiers" and prevent their neighbors from constru- 
ing the " more or less " qualifications in their licenses too liberally, in- 
creased the output considerably beyond the requirements of the market. 

It may be noted that until the union of the Provinces of Upper and 
Lower Canada in 1840, the disposal of timber, as well as of lands and 
other natural resources, was entirely in the hands of the Crown, that is 
to say, the administration of the day, without any responsibility to the 
legislature as to the expenditure of the revenue derived from them. 
The manner in which this privilege was abused for the benefit of the 
official classes and their friends was one of the grievances which caused 
the outbreak in 1837. The plan which was actually adopted and the 
system which grew up was for lumbermen to apply in the autumn for a 
license stating the quantity that they wanted to cut and paying 25 
percent of the dues in advance. As they were not required to confine 
themselves strictly to the quantity specified they advanced as little 
money as possible. The timber was cut the next winter and rafted to 
Quebec City, to which point the collector proceeded and received the 
dues. In fact, the practice grew up of taking the notes of Quebec lum- 
ber shippers instead of the bonds originally given by the lumbermen, 
so that the timber was across the ocean and sold in London before the 
dues were actually paid. For many years this worked no harm; but 
later, when bad seasons came and several firms failed, the revenue 
suffered a loss of several thousand pounds. 

This free and easy handling of revenues and treatment of instruc- 



164 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

tions from Westminster was not the worst thing about the administra- 
tion of this period. Great Britain had lost half the continent and was 
not inclined to lose the other half in the same way ; but London was a 
long way from Quebec and Toronto, and the officials who came out to 
administer the affairs of the country were disposed to make hay while 
the sun shone and trust to the distance preventing the news filtering 
back to London. The people in the colony of Massachusetts rebelled 
because taxes were imposed without their consent; but the English 
settlers in Ontario and the French-Canadians in Quebec took up arms in 
1837 because their great natural resources were alienated and given to 
friends and favorites with a lavish hand. The governor and the majority 
of his counsel were appointed; and, by methods familiar to all poli- 
ticians in all ages, they practically secured all the jobs for their rela- 
tives and retainers. The administration was known, both in Lower 
and Upper Canada, as the "Family Compact," which had become a 
synonym for jobbery and corruption. 

MACKENZIE REBELLION AND ITS RESULTS. 

In Canada, or any other colony, the difficulty would be speedily 
gotten rid of today by the legislature refusing to vote supplies, and the 
administration unable to carry on the government or pay its officials, 
would resign ; but in 1837 the revenue which the administration received 
was sufficient to pay the running expenses of the government. There 
was a rebellion in both Upper and Lower Canada, in which all the 
nationalities represented in Canada joined. In Lower Canada it was 
led by a French-Canadian, Papineau, with English and Irish lieutenants ; 
while in Upper Canada it was led by an irrepressible Scotchman, William 
Lyon Mackenzie. The United Empire Loyalists, who had left their fat 
farms and prosperous businesses in the United States rather than 
exchange King George for George Washington, were among those who 
most keenly opposed the Family Compact, and many took up arms, not 
against the King, but against corrupt ministers who thwarted his will. 

The rebels had a good cause, but the fates were against them. They 
rose on December 4, 1837, and trusted to gain possession of York 
(Toronto), and also of the Quebec centers of population, before the 
loyalists could be supported by reinforcements from the garrisons in 
Lower Canada. But, owing to one of the most remarkably open win- 
ters on record, ships were able to navigate Lake Ontario and the 
St. Lawrence in midwinter and the rebels were crushed, beaten, the 
leaders forced to flee to the United States, and some who were caught 
were hanged by the victorious Family Compact. 



ONTARIO EARLY HISTORY. 165 

It is said that success is the only justification for rebellion ; but this 
rebellion was justified, though abortive, and the leaders returned from 
the United States and from their hiding places in the back woods to be 
elected to the highest positions within the gift of their countrymen. 
The reason for this was that the attention of the British government 
was called to the fact that the state of things in the colony was so 
desperate and so unjust that men were willing to risk their lives to wipe 
it out. Lord Durham was sent out to inquire into the whole matter, 
and as a result of that inquiry he released the prisoners still lying in 
the jails when he arrived, removed the governors, recalled the fugitives 
and forever put an end to the Family Compact by giving the people 
full, responsible local government. 

The report of Lord Durham shows that the main abuse from which 
the country suffered was the granting of wild lands in large tracts to 
persons who had no intention of improving them, but of simply holding 
them for a rise in value. 

The effect of this practice upon the lumber trade was important. 
Much of this land, granted so far in excess of actual needs of settle- 
ment, was covered with valuable timber, and lumbermen speedily saw 
that it was cheaper to get hold of the land with all that was on it than 
to pay the prices charged for the timber licenses. This encouraged im- 
proved methods of lumbering. The repeated instructions of the Im- 
perial government to set aside permanent timber reserves and to confine 
settlement to lands adopted to agriculture were unregarded, and much 
of the area granted was capable of producing nothing but timber to 
advantage. Lands could be bought for from 1 to 4 shillings an acre, 
while the timber dues on an average tract were 6s 8d an acre. Promi- 
nent men in the government of Canada urged that, as there was now 
but little pine left in the United States except in Maine and Carolina, 
prices should be higher for timber berths in Canada ; and they gave as 
a reason why they were not the presence of the large areas of wild lands 
open to purchase. 

The deputy postmaster general of British North America, T. A. 
Stayner, in giving evidence before a commission said that in 1835 and 
1836 speculators came over from Maine and New York and purchased 
about a million acres of land said to be wooded with pine or spruce. 
The Americans estimated these lands as worth from $2 to $6 an acre. 
Charles Shireff, who has been previously spoken of as the collector of 
dues at Ottawa, mentions a party of Americans who purchased thou- 



166 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

sands of acres in the township of Onslow for ten shillings an acre, 
which price could not bear any proportion to the value of the timber. 
Many similar cases had occurred, he told the investigating committee, 
and the temptation to do it was very great because the purchasers were 
not required to pay the full amount of the purchase price, but only a first 
installment of varying size, say a fifth or a fourth, and the only penalty 
for the nonpayment of the remaining installment was the resumption of 
the land, about which, since the lumberman had stripped off the timber, 
he was naturally very indifferent. 

Mr. Shireff urged that the Government should not sell lands unfit 
for settlement but merely the timber on them. Though this warning 
was stated and reiterated by every one interested in the permanent de- 
velopment of the lumber industry, it was many years before it was 
acted upon. It was acted upon at length, however, and now in Ontario 
the question is not as to the principle but as to how large a block of 
arable land in a forest belt should be to make it worth while for the 
Government to throw it open for settlement. 

According to an official statement made at the investigation just 
referred to, the timber dues collected for a period of ten and a half 
years, from 1827 to 1838, amounted to 58,085 4s lid; this was exclu- 
sive of losses through loose methods of collecting dues and defalcation 
of upward of 9,000. 

UNION OF 1841 AND NEW TIMBER REGULATIONS. 

The result of the rebellion and all these commissions and reports 
was the union in 1841 of Upper and Lower Canada with a government 
responsible to the people through their elected representatives. 

One of the first things which the new legislature took up was the 
administration of the timber lands. The collector at Bytown (Ottawa) 
was instructed to issue licenses in the usual form, but for a limited 
period, to relicense limits not properly worked and, where there were 
two or more applicants for the same berth, to put it up at auction for a 
bonus over the dues. The quantity of timber which the licensees were 
bound to take out was 5,000 feet a mile of river front and no limit was 
to exceed ten miles of frontage. This was the first time that the auc- 
tion principle, now generally adopted, was recognized in Canada. 

The receipts from timber in Upper Canada for the year 1839 were 
8,244; and for the next thirteen months 18,881, a difference possibly 
due to the "house cleaning" before turning affairs over to the new 
government. Under the new regime the timber receipts for Upper and 
Lower Canada were in 1842, 37,572 ; in 1843, 46,301 ; in 1844, 28,828. 



ONTARIO EARLY HISTORY. 167 

The representatives of the people did not seem to recognize the 
necessity of preserving* timber. Most of them appeared to think the 
tree their enemy, and the impression that the forest area was unlimited 
rendered them careless. The idea of reforestry and harvesting a 
periodic crop was not then born in America. A motion to discuss a 
resolution to prevent the cutting of timber (apparently absolutely) off 
public lands received short shrift in 1846, but its exact nature and object 
can not be learned from the journals. 

In 1842 new regulations as to the granting of licenses were adopted 
and the principle of competition between lumbermen in cases where 
there was more than one applicant for the same limit was put into 
effect. Willful trespass by limit holders upon public property not in- 
cluded in their limits, which had been frequent under the former condi- 
tions, was declared punishable by the cancellation of the license and 
the seizure of timber so taken, and limit holders were obliged to cut 
5,000 feet per square mile off their holdings in each year. 

In the earlier days of the export trade with Britain the shippers had 
to encounter a strong prejudice on the part of the consumer against 
Canadian pine, which was erroneously supposed to be particularly sub- 
ject to dry rot and altogether of a quality inferior to that of the Baltic 
pine. The cause of this prejudice and the change of opinion that finally 
came about are fully treated in the first chapter on Quebec and, there- 
fore, need not be repeated here. 

Another noticeable change in the demand of the British market 
which occurred somewhat later was the increased appreciation of white 
pine as compared with red. Red pine, by reason of its similarity to 
the product of the forests of northern Europe, ever since the introduc- 
tion of Canadian timber had been more highly esteemed. At an early 
day the dues on red pine had been fixed at one penny a foot, while 
white pine paid only one-half penny. So marked was the falling off in 
the British demand for the former that in 1852 the corporations of By- 
town and the municipal council of Carleton County petitioned the Gov- 
ernment for the reduction of the red pine duties to the same amount as 
those payable on white pine. Such valid reasons were advanced in favor 
of the change that the Government decided to make the reduction. 

The year 1845 was an exceedingly prosperous one for the lumber 
trade, owing largely to the heavy demand in the English market at very 
remunerative prices. The temporarily favorable conditions resulted in 
considerable overproduction, which, coupled with a falling off in re- 



168 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

quirements abroad during 1846 and succeeding years, created a serious 
depression in the industry. The regulations of the Crown lands depart- 
ment had contributed not a little to stimulate production to an undue 
degree by requiring the taking out of a large quantity of timber on 
every limit, regardless of the requirements of the market or the conven- 
ience of the operator, under penalty of forfeiture of the limit. 

More stringent regulations were adopted in 1846, when the limit was 
reduced to five miles in length along the river by five in depth, or half 
way to the next river. The then holders of licenses were allowed 
to hold them for two years longer, but after that time the limits must 
be subdivided to these sizes. New and renewed berths were to be put 
up at auction. The parties were to bind themselves to take out 1,000 
feet a square mile a year and were to pay one-fourth of the dues upon 
this forthwith and bonds were to be given for the remaining three- 
fourths. 

In 1849 the Legislative Assembly appointed a select committee to 
inquire into and report on the state of the lumber trade, the evidence 
taken before which indicated some important features of the license 
system in which reform was necessary. The committee reported that 
the regulation requiring the cutting of a certain amount of timber on 
each limit, together with the uncertain tenure of limits, tended to cause 
overproduction. They recommended the abolition of the deposit sys- 
; tem and the substitution of ground rents. 

FIRST CANADIAN TIMBER LICENSE LEGISLATION. 

The immediate outcome was the adoption during the same year 
of the first Canadian legislative enactment on the subject of timber 
licenses, which, with the regulations issued in accordance with its pro- 
visions, practically forms the point of departure from which the present 
system has been evolved. The characteristic and valuable feature of 
this legislation was that, by practically giving the license holder a pref- 
erential claim to renewal of his license so long^as he complied with its 
conditions, and securing him against encroachment by rivals, it im- 
parted greater stability and permanence to the industry and lessened 
the temptation to reckless overproduction and wasteful methods. 

The modern lumbering system as contrasted with the old fashioned 
method of conducting the industry may be said to have commenced 
during the '50's and its development was aided by the changes in the 
law and regulations above noted and by further advances in the same 
direction introduced in 1851. In that year ground rent on limits was 



ONTARIO EARLY HISTORY. 169 

imposed, the principle being generally favored by practical lumbermen 
as the most effective means of preventing the monopolization of un- 
worked limits. The ground rent was yf^ at fifty cents a square mile 
in addition to the dues and it was provided that this should be doubled 
for every year during which the limits remained unworked. While the 
general principle of granting limits to the first applicant, giving the 
preference to the previous occupant in case he had complied with the 
regulations, was left undisturbed, a modification was introduced by the 
provision that upon rivers where the cost of surveys rendered it advisa- 
ble, limits might be disposed of at an upset price fixed by the Govern- 
ment, and awarded to the highest bidder in case of competition, an 
important move in the direction of the auction system as it now exists. 
All sawlogs cut for exportation were made liable to double rates of 
duty. This latter clause was the result of an agitation which had 
sprung up even at that early day against the shipment abroad of logs in 
an unmanufactured state. 

During the continuance of the union, Ontario participated in the 
same laws and regulations as Quebec. These gradually grew more 
stringent during the first ten years and in 1851 had reached the begin- 
ning of the system at present in use in both Provinces./ 

AN INQUIRY AS TO TIMBER REGULATIONS. 

In 1854 a committee was appointed to review the whole question of 
timber regulations. One of the snags which it endeavored to uproot 
was the cutting of timber by bogus settlers. The settler was required 
to pay down only one-tenth of the purchase price, and these bogus set- 
tlers, after having cut and sold the merchantable timber refused to pay 
the other nine installments. One solution offered was that the land 
should be sold only for cash; while another was that timber dues should 
be applied to the purchase of the land. This plan was open to serious 
objections in that the price of the land was not equal to the dues, and 
the squatter or settler it was desirable to get at, was never, at the 
critical time, where the Government could put its finger on him. 

The adoption of reciprocity between the United States and Canada 
in 1854, which secured free exchange hi natural products, including 
lumber, gave an impetus to the sawn lumber trade, and the trade in 
square timber declined. This condition was discussed by the commit- 
tee of 1854, and led leading men to urge the Government to speed the 
parting guest by reducing the dues on sawn lumber as compared with 
hewn. They did this on the ground that square timber caused a great 



170 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

waste, only the best sticks being used and only a portion of them. 
Large parts of the tree that could be worked up in taking out sawlogs 
were left to decay in the bush and to increase the danger of forest fires. 
It was estimated that three-fourths more of the tree was used for saw- 
logs than for square timber, and returns to the Government (owing to 
the greater number of feet produced) would be three times as much^/in 
the former case as in the latter. No difference appears to have been 
made and the square timber trade declined through natural causes. 

The difference between the Canadian and the United States methods 
of holding land was dealt with by the committee. The exposition of 
American methods before the committee went to convince it that, what- 
ever the fault in Canadian methods of handling timber lands, they were 
to be preferred to those in vogue in the United States. The gentleman 
who explained to the committee the American system was Jonathan R. 
White, of Michigan. He said the United States wild forest lands were 
thrown open by proclamation and sold to the highest bidder at an upset 
price of $1.25 an acre. Lands not sold were open for sale at the upset 
price, and there was no limit to the amount any man could hold. Mr. 
White thought the system a very good one, getting the land rapidly 
under taxation and saving the timber, which under stumpage system 
was always more or less wasted. The fact that the land was of little 
value agriculturally was all the more reason for getting rid of it. The 
Canadian witnesses took issue with Mr. White, claiming the result of 
the introduction of that system into Canada would be to place the best 
timber lands in the hands of capitalists or companies who would exact 
toll on those who went in actually to work the land or cut the timber. 
The dues on two trees of very ordinary size, seventy-five feet, at /4d. a 
foot, would amount to $1.50, or more than the price of $1.25 an acre at 
which the land was sold in the United States. But an acre of well tim- 
bered land produced five times that amount of dues. This was con- 
sidering the pine only, and the other woods and the land would still 
remain to the Government and these would always be worth something. 

The wisdom of the Canadian view has been proved, because it keeps 
the unarable lands in the hands of the Government to license and reli- 
cense at ever increasing prices to the lumbermen, and to be reforested 
without let or hindrance, now that the country and trade is reaching the 
stage where this method is practicable. Even at the time of the com- 
mittee of 1854 the idea of an annual crop of timber from a permanent 
forest was put forward. Fire prevention was discussed also and the 



ONTARIO EARLY HISTORY. 171 

lumbermen held then as they do today that the best way to prevent fires 
was to prevent squatting in forests, and to confine settlements wholly 
to agricultural. It was pointed out that scattered settlement on odd 
bits of land in the midst of pine forests was of no permanent value to 
the settlers, and by reason of starting fires was ruinous to the lumber- 
men. Attention was also called to the fact that in Ontario the arable 
and pine land lay in belts in such relation to each other that the devel- 
opment of timber provided a good market for the farmers and thus 
helped the development of the agricultural portions. 

The regulations of 1855 chiefly affirmed the right of the Government 
to make any changes it desired in ground rent and the conditions of 
license, in other words, the license conveyed no vested rights. The 
growing nature of the industry is shown in receipts for ground rents, 
timber dues and slide dues. These were: 1856, $262,872; 1857, $289,- 
839; 1858, $232,624; 1859, $316,656. In the regulations of 1860 further 
steps were taken to stop the squatters, the most effective being a plan 
of survey to determine what districts should be thrown open to set- 
tlement. To prevent the shipping of lumber cut by trespassers on 
Crown lands to the United States, all vessels previous to obtaining a 
clearance were obliged to furnish the collector of customs with evidence 
that the dues had been paid. It was pointed out that the industry was 
one of the most important in the country. In seven years, ended De- 
cember 31, 1863, the exports from Upper and Lower Canada amounted 
to $73,004,312, while the value of agricultural products exported in 
those*yearraTff5uhted to only $49,951,961. March 17, 1866, the reciproc- 
ity treaty with the United States expired and on June 27 Canada put 
export duties on sawlogs and shingle bolts of $1 a thousand and $1 a 
cord. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

ONTARIO AND THE UNITED STATES. 

The great expansion which characterized the Ontario lumber trade 
beginning about the middle of the Nineteenth Century was due mainly 
to the increasing demands of the United States for Canadian lumber. 
Active lumbering operations were still being carried on in the central 
and eastern states, and the industry was just beginning in the Sagi- 
naw Valley and other points in the West. The adoption of the reci- 
procity treaty in 1854, securing the free exchange of natural products 
between the United States and Canada, including "timber and lumber 
of all kinds, round, hewed and sawed, manufactured in whole or in 
part," stimulated considerably the growing demand for the forest prod- 
ucts of Canada. 

In proportion as the market for sawn lumber developed, the cutting 
of square timber, long the leading branch of the industry, declined in 
importance and became less essential to the prosperity of the lumbering 
interest. From being the principal factor in the export trade it speedily 
fell to a subordinate position, as its disadvantages, especially in the 
matter of its wastefulness and the greater danger of forest fires from 
the amount of litter its prosecution left in the woods, began to attract 
attention. The extension of the market and the rapidly changing con- 
ditions of the trade were attended by some fluctuations and vicissitudes, 
and inflations and depressions naturally followed because of the abun- 
dance of the supply of raw material available. The price of waney and 
square white pine would sometimes fall in the Quebec market as low as 
ten cents a cubic foot and suddenly rise to twenty-five cents, and the va- 
riations of the Albany market, then an important center of the trade 
were extensive, and imparted a speculative character to the business. 

The American Civil War, and the lavish expenditures which resulted, 
created a great demand for Canadian lumber at high prices, though the 
trade received a setback in 1866 by the abrogation of the reciprocity 
treaty. This led to the reimposition by Ontario of export duties on 
unmanufactured logs. 

A few figures may be given to show the altered character of the 
trade during the decade immediately preceding this event, and the 

172 



ONTARIO AND THE UNITED STATES. 173 

growing importance to Canadian lumbermen of the American, as com- 
pared with the British, market. 

The total exports of forest products from Old Canada (the present 
Provinces of Ontario and Quebec) to Great Britain for the three-year 
period 1854-6, at about the time of the adoption of the reciprocity 
treaty, amounted in value to $18,288,702, while the aggregate shipments 
to the United States were valued at $8,894,218. The total shipments of 
lumber and timber for the fiscal year 1867 amounted to $13,948,648. 
The proportions consigned to Great Britain and the United States 
were nearly equal, being valued at $6,889,783 and $6,831,252 respec- 
tively. The increase in the American export trade was almost entirely 
in sawn lumber. While "planks and boards" were exported to the 
United States in 1854 to the value of $1,866,712, the same item figures 
in the returns for 1867 to the amount of $5,043,367. The development 
of this feature of the trade, while to a certain extent fostered by the 
favorable conditions of the reciprocity treaty, was in the main due to 
the rapid growth of population in the eastern states, coincident with a 
gradual diminution of their home sources of supply, rendering it neces- 
sary for them to look abroad for their requirements. 

It was during this period that many of the firms now prominent in 
connection with the lumbering and allied industries of the Ottawa Valley 
first established themselves. John R. Booth, one of the oldest and best 
known representatives of the trade, began business in 1858. Like those 
of most of the more extensive employers, his interests embrace a num- 
ber of subsidiary interests, including a large pulp mill and railroad opera- 
tions on a large scale. E. B. Eddy, head of the E. B. Eddy Company, be- 
gan the manufacture of matches in 1854. In addition to this branch of 
the business and extensive lumbering operations, the company is en- 
gaged in the manufacture of woodenware and paper. The firm of Bron- 
sons & Weston dates back to 1853, and was one of the first to establish a 
sawmill on a large scale at the Chaudiere. Other firms which flourished 
about this period or somewhat later, some of which are still extant or 
have been reorganized as incorporated companies, are A. H. Baldwin, 
established in 1853; Perley & Puttee, who commenced business 
at the Chaudiere in 1857; Gilmour & Co., who had extensive mills 
at Chelsea on the south bank of the Gatineau; Wright, Batson & 
Currier, and Hamilton & Co., proprietors of the large Hawkesbury 
mills near the Grenville Rapids, sixty miles from Ottawa down the 
Ottawa River. 



174 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

In 1867 the confederation of the British North American provinces 
was accomplished, the old union between Upper and Lower Canada 
being dissolved. The former became the Province of Ontario and the 
latter the Province of Quebec. By the terms of the British North 
America Act, under which the Dominion of Canada was constituted, the 
control of public lands and forests was relegated to the several prov- 
inces. By that time considerable headway had been made in the under- 
standing of how best to handle timber lands, but in the agitation over 
the question of union and in the multiplicity of large political issues 
which Canadians had to deal with in building up this confederation and 
opening transportation systems from ocean to ocean, the question of 
forestry was largely lost sight of for the time. 

MANAGEMENT OF CROWN LANDS. 

With confederation accomplished and with the knowledge that 
Crown lands would be henceforth one of the principal sources of pro- 
vincial revenue (the customs, excise, etc., having gone to the Federal 
Parliament as a basis of its revenue), the leaders in Ontario turned 
their attention to the forests, and Honorable Stephen Richards, first 
Commissioner of Crown Lands for Ontario, rather patted himself on 
the back on his first reporting to the legislature that a bonus of $519 a 
square mile, the largest price ever paid, had just been received at a tim- 
ber sale for an eighteen-mile berth. Contrasted with the price of 
$31,500 a mile paid in the sale of December, 1903, this seems insignifi- 
cant, but it showed that the people were beginning to realize the value 
of this great asset. His first report, covering the year 1868, showed 
that the revenue from timber dues, ground rents and bonuses amounted 
to $190,237. The change resulted in increased stringency in the man- 
agement of the public domain. New regulations were issued, the dues 
being raised 50 percent of the previous rates and a uniform rate of 
ground rent fixed. 

For some years the volume of exportation steadily increased, and 
the timber revenue went up by leaps and bounds. In 1868 the dues 
and ground rents amounted to $190,237; and in 1869, owing to the 50 
percent increase in the dues, increased business and more careful super- 
vision, they went up to $508,561. New regulations were adopted in 
1869 which increased the ground rent to $2 a square mile, and the dues 
to the following : Black walnut and oak, per cubic foot, 3 cents ; elm, 
ash, tamarack, and maple, 2 cents ; red pine and white pine, birch, bass- 
wood, cedar, buttonwood, cottonwood and all boom timber, \ l /i cents ; 



ONTARIO AND THE UNITED STATES. 175 

all other woods, 1 cent; red pine, white pine, basswood, buttonwood 
and cottonwood sawlogs, per standard of 200 feet board measure, 15 
cents ; walnut, oak and maple sawlogs, 25 cents ; hemlock, spruce and 
other woods, 10 cents; pipe staves, per thousand, $7; hemlock tan- 
bark, per cord, 30 cents. The duties were to be collected upon exact 
measurement ; but, where this could not be obtained, each stick was to 
be estimated as containing the following cubic feet : White pine, 70 ; 
red pine, 38; oak, 50; elm, 45, and all other woods, 34. 

In 1870 the Dominion Parliament passed an act compelling lumber- 
men to mark their timber to be floated down stream and provided for 
a registry of such marks ; and in 1873 the throwing of sawdust, slabs, 
edgings, bark, or refuse into any part of a navigable stream was pro- 
hibited. 

About 1870 the industry was mainly centered in the Ottawa Valley 
and on the upper waters of the Trent River and waters tributary to the 
Georgian Bay. Production in the latter region had before that time 
been limited to a few mills, the output of which was principally con- 
sumed in the locality. But, with the advance of settlement, the ship- 
ment of lumber from this now important source of production began to 
increase as the country was opened up. 

The beginning of lumbering operations in the Georgian Bay district 
on a comprehensive scale practically dates from the year 1872, when an 
extensive sale of timber limits, covering 5,301 square miles on the 
north shore of Lake Huron, was held, from which the Government 
realized $602,665 in bonuses and ground rents. The territory included 
in this sale was largely unfit for agricultural settlement, and, large 
areas being uninhabited, the timber was exposed to depredations, as 
every facility existed for its being towed across the frontier. Among 
the principal purchasers of limits at this sale were McArthur Bros., 
Toronto ; Rathbun & Son, of Mill Point, now Deseronto ; Cook Bros., 
Toronto ; James Eagan, Ottawa ; Henry Kirk, Toronto ; Geo. Green, 
Brampton; Isaac Cockburn, Toronto; W. H. Gibbs, Oshawa, and Hugh 
Macdonald, Toronto, some of which names are well known in the busi- 
ness world today. 

This period of prosperity reached its climax in 1873, and was the 
time of the rise of the great lumbering industry of Michigan, Wiscon- 
sin and Minnesota, which production reached a volume far surpassing 
the Canadian output and forming the most considerable source of sup- 
ply for the great West. The yield of sawn pine lumber of these great 



176 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

pine-producing states reached the figure of 3,999,780,000 feet in 1873. 
Falling off during the protracted period of worldwide depression which 
followed, it increased again in 1880 and developed by leaps and bounds 
with the increased demand caused by immigration and settlement in 
the western states, until the high-water mark was reached in 1892 with 
the enormous total for that year of 8,594,222,802 feet. 1 From that 
time the output declined, owing partly to the exhaustion of sources of 
timber supply and partly to the exploitation of the southern forests 
and the substitution of other construction materials for pine. 

RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES. 

The change in the lumbering situation in the neighboring states had 
an important bearing upon the trade in Canada. With the depletion of 
the pine forests in Michigan the dependence of the American consumer 
upon Canada for a portion of the lumber supply increased. It became 
the interest of the American manufacturer to secure this supply as far 
as possible in the form of raw material to be worked up in the Ameri- 
can sawmills in those localities where the domestic forests no longer 
remained within access. It was equally the interest of the Canadians 
to export their forest product in as highly manufactured a form as pos- 
sible. 

A committee was appointed by the Federal house in the session of 
1874 to look into the question of the export duty on sawlogs, etc., im- 
posed in 1868. It reported that, reduced to an ad valorem rate, it , 
averaged : On stave bolts, 40 percent ; oak logs, 30 percent; pine logs, 1 
20 percent; spruce logs, 25 percent, and shingle bolts, 25 percent. The 
committee reported that, while this enabled sawmill owners to buy 
cheaper logs, it hurt the settler and timber owner and at the same time 
did not result in the establishment of more mills. 

The duty on oak logs and stave bolts was abolished in 1875. Things 
remained in this state until 1886, when the export duty on shingle bolts 
was fixed at $1.50 a cord; on spruce logs, $1 a thousand feet, and on 
pine logs, $2. In November of the same year, by order in council, the 
export duty on sawlogs was increased from $2 to $3 a thousand feet ; 
but July 5, 1889, in view of a probable understanding with the United 
States in regard to duties on Canadian manufactured lumber, the old 
rate was restored. The negotiations carried on while the McKinley 
bill was under consideration were successful, and in October, 1890, Sir 

1 Report of the Northwestern Lumberman, of Chicago, Illinois, itemized by mills. It is prob- 
able that unreported products either of isolated mills omitted from the list, or of small lots produced 
by mills chiefly engaged in the cutting of hardwoods, would have brought the total well up toward 
9,000,000.000 feet. 



ONTARIO AND THE UNITED STATES. 177 

John Macdonald, after negotiating with the United States Secretary of 
State, James G. Elaine, removed the export duty on spruce and pine 
logs in consideration of the United States Congress reducing the im- 
port duty on sawn lumber from $2 to $1 a thousand. 

When the Democrats came into power the duty on sawn lumber was 
removed under the Wilson bill and free trade on logs and lumber be- 
tween Canada and the United States followed. While this was satisfac- 
tory to Canadian lumbermen, market conditions were such that it did 
them very little good, and lumber exports were less in 1892 than in 
1889. The depression of 1893 was accompanied by low prices of lum- 
ber which lasted until 1898 and low prices in the United States were 
attributed to Canadian competition. As the outcome of this feeling, 
when the Dingley bill was passed in 1897 the old duty of $2 on lumber 
was restored. * 

Large quantities of sawlogs were being exported to feed Michigan 
mills and the Michigan men, being naturally anxious to keep up the 
supply, adopted the expedient of a clause in the Dingley bill providing 
that if any country or dependency imposed an export duty the amount 
of such duty would be added to the import duty. This, if successful, 
would have transferred the bulk of the Georgian Bay trade to Michi- 
gan, because, if that state could get free logs while sawn lumber was 
charged a stiff duty, nothing could be sawn on the Georgian Bay for 
the United States market; and, if an export duty was imposed by 
Canada, then the duty on sawn lumber entering the United States 
would be prohibitory. The authors of the measure overlooked the fact 
that the Ontario government does not sell land and timber in fee sim- 
ple as is done in the United States, but only sells a license to cut tim- 
ber over a given area subject to the payment of Crown dues, retaining 
the ownership of the land. 

The Georgian Bay lumbermen applied to the Dominion Parliament 
for an export duty, but the Government, fearing the imposition of 
retaliatory duties on sawn lumber by the United States, declined to act. 
The lumbermen then sought relief from the Ontario Provincial legisla- 
ture. In the session of 1898 the legislature passed an act requiring that 
all logs cut on government land be manufactured in the Province. Since 
this was not a duty but the regulation of a landholder respecting its 
own property, the United States could not impose a retaliatory duty; 
but the Michigan holders of Ontario timber limits claimed that it was a 
breach of contract, in that by payment of the bonus they acquired the 



178 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

limit and the right to cut pine thereon and to dispose of it as they 
saw fit. 

The Government replied that the licenses were for one year only, 
and that to obtain a renewal of the license the next year they must 
submit to such regulations as the Government saw fit to impose. The 
Dominion Parliament refused to interfere and the courts decided in favor 
of the Provincial government. The effect of this has been to cause the 
removal of a large number of American lumbermen to Ontario to do a 
sawmill business there, and it seems to be taken for granted that the ex- 
portation of sawlogs from the Province will never again be permitted. 

IMPORTANCE OF GEORGIAN BAY DISTRICT. 

Michigan lumbermen are largely interested in lumbering operations 
and timber properties in the Georgian Bay district of Ontario. About 
1890 lumbermen in the Saginaw district began making investments in 
Canadian pine, and increasingly large quantities of Canadian logs were 
rafted to eastern Michigan mills 80,000,000 feet in 1891, 300,000,000 
in 1894 and 238,843,024 in 1898. In April, 1898, the act of the Ontario 
Legislature requiring logs cut on Crown lands in Canada to be manu- 
factured in that country became effective and this was the death blow 
to the log rafting industry. At once Michigan men who had made in- 
vestments in Canadian timber began preparations to manufacture their 
product in Canada, and now Holland & Graves, Eddy Bros. & Co., 
S. O. Fisher, The Moulthrop Lumber Company, The William Peter Es- 
tate, McArthur Bros. Company, McEwen & Dolson, Huron Lumber 

g 

Company, Saginaw Lumber & Salt Company, Cleveland-Sarnia Saw- 
mills Company, Loveland & Stone, George L. Burtis and a number of 
other concerns with a few exceptions all hailing from Michigan 
are operating in the Georgian Bay district. 

The lumber industry in this district is the most important in Ontario, 
as, with the single exception of the Ottawa River district, which em- 
braces a portion of Quebec Province and should not, therefore, be con- 
sidered here, this district produces by far the largest amount of lumber 
of any portion of the Province. The condition of the lumber market 
of the United States is a great factor in determining prices in the Cana- 
dian lumber market. Shipments by water from the Georgian Bay ports 
have increased materially since the abolition of tolls on the Canadian 
canals. Birch and ash are manufactured and exported quite extensively 
to the United States. Hemlock, oak, elm and red pine are all used 
locally. Pickets, pine, cedar shingles, staves and lath are exported. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

ONTARIO REVENUES AND RESOURCES. 

i 

In 1871 there was an extensive sale of limits in Muskoka and Parry 
Sound districts, fronting on Georgian Bay. The dues at this sale were 
double those of the previous one, white pine and red pine being two and 
one-half cents a foot, or thirty cents a standard. The area disposed of 
was 487 miles, and the price was $117,672. A still more extensive sale 
was the one which took place in 1872, when 5,301 miles on the north 
shore of Lake Huron was disposed of for $602,665. More than three- 
fifths of this area had previously been under license, but, with the ex- 
ception of thirty square miles, all had been allowed to lapse. 

Legislation was enacted gradually settling the settlers' rights and 
then came the great river and stream bill suit. This occurred in 1881, 
when the Ontario government passed an act permitting lumbermen on 
the upper reaches of streams to use slides and other improvements 
lower down upon the payment of reasonable dues. Peter MacLaren, 
the great Ottawa lumberman, who had made improvements on the 
Mississippi River in Lanark County, claimed the right to prohibit the 
lumber of the limit holders above him passing through his improve- 
ments. The Dominion government took the side of Mr. MacLaren 
and disallowed the Ontario act, but the case was finally determined in 
favor of Ontario, and since then lumbermen have had full right to use 
improvements upon paying tolls fixed by law. 

In 1887 standing timber had so increased in value that the dues on 
sawlogs were increased to $1 a thousand and upon square timber to two 
cents a foot. The ground rent was increased from $2 to $3 a mile. 
Under these regulations extensive sales were made on the Muskoka 
and Petawawa rivers. A new principle was introduced in 1892 when the 
lumbermen were restricted to the cutting of red pine and white pine, 
leaving spruce, cedar, hemlock, basswood and other woods to be dis- 
posed of otherwise by the Government. It was under these regulations 
that extensive sales were made in the districts of Nipissing, Algoma, 
Thunder Bay and Rainy River. The dues were increased to $1.25 a 
thousand feet on sawlogs and $25 a thousand cubic feet on square tim- 
bers. Notwithstanding this, higher prices were realized than ever 

179 



180 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

before. The mileage sold was 633, for which $2,315,000 was realized, 
an average of $3,657.18 a square mile. 

The fluctuating state of the trade was shown in a return made to the 
Ontario Legislature in 1878 of the sawlogs, square and waney timber 
cut each year from 1868 to 1877 : 

SAWLOGS, SQUARE AND WANEY TIMBER CUT IN ONTARIO, FEET BOARD MEASURE. 

1868 177,390,000 1873 589,178,742 

1869 375,620,200 1874 406,185,320 

1870 300,900,850 1875 396,681,522 

1871 358,096,400 1876 296,729,327 

1872 669.569,542 1877 270,260.979 

The Commissioner of Crown Lands figured that the waste of mate- 
rial in the shipping of square timber instead of sawlogs in the above 
meant a loss of revenue of $3,577,500, or $357,750 a year, and he 
urged changing over from square timber to sawlogs. 

While for many years the cry has been heard that Ontario is 
at the end of her timber resources, this is not the view taken by cer- 
tain well informed men. The late John Bertram, of Toronto, who was 
one of the best informed practical lumbermen and foresters in Canada, 
stated in an article published shortly before his death that, while there 
was a much increased demand for home consumption both in Ontario 
and in the prairie country in western Canada, he did not look for an 
increase in the quantity sawed in Ontario or Quebec because, " while 
there is a large quantity of pine and spruce still available, the forests 
are beginning to show signs of exhaustion, and it is a fortunate circum- 
stance that many lumbermen are showing interest in the question of 
reafforestation. The Ontario government has shown wisdom in its sys- 
tem of fire ranging and in setting apart forest reserves in the territory 
not fit for cultivation. This will prolong the business indefinitely." 

The most noteworthy feature of the lumber industry of recent years 
has been its rapid development in the northwestern portion of the 
Province. This has been stimulated by the growing demand for the 
output in Winnipeg and other parts of Manitoba, which look to the 
mills of Rat Portage, Rainy River, Fort Frances and other centers in 
the Rainy River district as their nearest source of supply. The con- 
tinued migration to the West and the growth of Winnipeg have given a 
remarkable stimulus to the production of lumber in . this portion of 
Ontario. 

The income derived from timber forms a considerable portion of the 
revenue of the Province which, owing mainly to the large receipts from 
this source, is in the fortunate position of being entirely free from debt 



ONTARIO REVENUES AND RESOURCES. 181 

and able to meet all the expenses of administration, in addition to 
spending a great deal of money in public services, such as elsewhere 
are sustained wholly by the municipalities, without resorting to direct 
taxation. In 1903 the total revenue collected from timber was $2,307,- 
356, the amount being exceptionally large, however, owing to the hold- 
ing of an extensive timber sale, at which high prices were realized. 

The increase in the value of this source of national wealth of late 
years was indicated by the result of this sale, at which about eight hun- 
dred and twenty-six square miles was disposed of. Notwithstanding 
that the timber dues were raised to $2 a thousand feet board measure 
on logs, and to $50 a thousand cubic feet on square timber, and the 
ground rent increased from $3 to $5 a square mile, the amount realized 
as bonuses was $3,687,337, or an average of $4,464 a mile. The high- 
est price paid per mile was $31,500. The new record this sale estab- 
lished as to the great and increasing value of the pine-bearing lands of 
Ontario has contributed much to educate public opinion as to the need 
of forest preservation and to strengthen the hands of the Government 
in its policy in that regard. 

The total area now covered by timber licenses in Ontario is 17,033 
square miles, of which 9,231 are in the western timber district and 
6,637 in the Ottawa district. The total production of sawlogs in 1903 
was 679,966,835 feet board measure, of which 549,488,617 came from 
the western district as against 104,576,242 from the Ottawa district. In 
pine boom and dimension timber the total output was 39,834,442 feet, 
the West leading in about the same proportion. 

As the entire forest area of the Province is estimated at 102,000 
square miles, 1 it will be seen that the territory now under license forms 
but a comparatively small proportion of the timber resources yet avail- 
able. 

It is customary in taking stock of the available assets in the way of 
pine timber, to ignore the territory already disposed of and under 
license, but some of this territory has been under license for over forty 
years, is still being operated and is contributing yearly to the provincial 
treasury, and, so long as this territory escapes the havoc of forest fires 
and is free from the settler's plow, so long will it continue a source of 
public revenue. 

As to the available white pine supply in the Province outside the 
present licensed area, no attempt at a careful estimate has yet been 

1 An estimate later than that given on page 61. 



182 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

made. E. J. Davis, Commissioner of Crown Lands for Ontario, speak- 
ing in the legislature February 18, 1904, gave an estimate prepared by 
his department. In this he estimated the amount of white pine still 
standing in Ontario at 10,000,000,000 feet, which would suffice for 
twenty sales such as that of December 9, 1903, when limits were sold 
for about $3,500,000 in bonuses. This 10,000,000,000 feet should 
realize, he said, in bonuses $75,000,000. The dues had been increased 
previous to the last sale from $1.25 to $2 a thousand feet, and the dues 
on this pine would produce at least $20,000,000. The surveys of the 
north country had shown that there were at least 300,000,000 qords of 
pulpwood standing, which, with dues of twenty-five cents a cord (the 
present dues are forty cents) would produce $75,000,000 for the provin- 
cial treasury. There was in sight at least $200,000,000 of revenue, 
which at $2,000,000 a year would last the Province for one hundred 
years. The average revenue in recent years from the forests, he pointed 
out, was between $1,250,000 and $1,500,000 a year, of which $800,000 
was dues. This was assuming that the forest was all used up as time 
went along ; but he then explained what the Province was doing to 
keep up a perpetual supply. Passing over the small timber preserves 
where the Government, to allow the timber to grow again, has taken 
back into possession lands cut over or partly cut over under licenses, 
he described the reserves made in the virgin forest which had been ren- 
dered accessible by the building of the new government railway from 
North Bay to Lake Temagami and northward. The original Tema- 
gami Reserve around the lake of that name consisted of 2,200 square 
miles. This had been increased to 5,900 square miles and, when he 
spoke, it had just been decided to set apart 3,000 square miles in 
Algoma district to be known as the Mississaga Reserve. The old plan 
of license by which the lumbermen handed back the land to the Govern- 
ment when they had cut off the timber was probably the best that could 
be devised where the land was arable, for the Government could then 
grant it or sell it to the settlers ; but in these reserves where the land 
is unsuited to agriculture another plan would have to be devised, which 
would probably take the form of a government forester marking the 
trees to be cut, which would then be sold by auction, the lumbermen 
agreeing to cut and carry away the timber in such a way as to reduce 
fire risk and give undeveloped trees a chance to grow. From the cut- 
ting of continually recurring crops of ripe timber on these reserves he 
anticipated a revenue of several million dollars a year to the treasury, 
and further reserves are to be made from time to time. 



ONTARIO REVENUES AND RESOURCES. 



183 



In a speech delivered March 12, 1901, in the Ontario Legislature, 
Hon. William A. Charlton (who has since assumed office as commis- 
sioner of public works) stated that the average yearly cut, including 
logs, boom and square timber, from 1867 until that date amounted to 
549,141,408 feet. The largest cut of any one year was that of 1896, 
amounting to 952,000,000 feet. He estimated the total quantity of pine 
timber on lands then under license at 8,000,000,000 feet, and the quantity 
not under license at that time at 26,000,000,000, making in all 34,000,- 
000,000 feet of pine timber then standing. He considered that, without 
reference to regrowth or reforestry, the supply was sufficient to last one 
hundred and fifty years. 

The story of the westward movement of the trade is told in the re- 
port of square miles under license, although it is to be remarked that 
an immense area in the Ottawa district remains under license, showing 
that much of this district will permanently remain under timber. 



Date. 


Ottawa 

district. 


Central 
district. 


Western 
district. 


Total. 


1868 .. 


7,678 


1,889 


2,015 


11,582 


1869 


7.67- 


1*889 


2 016 


11. 5-3 


17O 


7.833 


1,849 


2,523 


12,005 


1871 


7 512 


1.981 


3 04 1 


12.534 


1872 


7542 


1 -<>9 


3 007 


12 358 


1873 


7 396 


2 03 * 


5,111 


14 545 


1874 


7 3--^ 


1 9>9 


-72 


16259 


1875 


7 400 


2 ('22 


7 621 


17 049 


1876 


7 342 


1.344 


6.295 


14 9 J 1 


1877 


7,356 


1 -Oti 


6 070 


16 132 


1878 


7.242 


1.-62 


6,937 


it; O4i 


1879 


7 20-2 


1 2O3 


7 679 


16 0-4 


188O 


7 22-* 


1.456 


7 256 


15 94O 


1881 . .. . 


7 194 


1 "To 


6 53* 


15 6O7 


1882 


7 2<>4 


1,961 


-23 


17 0-* 


1883 


6 9-!) 


1 Ki* 


A Ttfl 


16 --6 


1884 


6730 


1.748 


8 362 


16 -40 


1885 . . ... 


6 5O3 


1 537 


9 174 


17 214 


1886 


6778 


1 9O7 


9 801 


1- 4-6 


1x^7 ... 


6 698 


1 324 


7 --'^ 


15 -50 


1888 


6 305 


1 751 


s -7>3 


16 934 


1889 . 


6 547 


1 4-9 


Q I'lO 


17 "'"'6 


1890 


4 777 


1 5OO 


7 " > 7< 


13 555 


1891... 


7,316 


1,474 


7 030 


15 -20 


1892 


5O51 


1 435 


6401 


12 --7 


1893 


6.758 


1.696 


- 790 


17.244 


1894 


7,811 


1 524 


S 192 


17 5U7 


1895... 


8.589 


1.5O9 


9,753 


17. -51 


1896 


4 2-9 


1 422 


8011 


13 722 


1897... 


7 272 


1.429 


7 699 


16.400 


1898 


6 !'-5 


972 


7 O.-2 


15019 


1899... 


5 35< 


1,386 


8913 


15.657 


19OO... 


6 154 


975 


9 6O3 


16 732 


19O1... 


""2 


949 


10.95O 


18 191 


19O2... 


5 957 


975 


1O476 


174O8 


19O3 


6 637 


1 165 


9 231 


17 033 













The following table shows the quantities of the chief varieties of 
timber cut from Ontario Crown lands in the years indicated : 



184 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 





SAWI 


.OGS. 


SQUARK 


TIMBER. 


Boom and 




Pulp- 


Date. 


White pine, 
pieces. 


Other, 
pieces. 


White pine, 
cubic feet. 


Other, 
cubic feet. 


timber, 
pieces. 


ties, pieces. 


wood, 
cords. 


















1868 


885,076 


2.219 


5,277,786 


788,535- 


1,478 


309 081 




1869 


1,875,974 


2,149 


9,973,965 


2,386,915 


3,767 


9,953 




1870 


1 430,666 


4,599 


6,718.001 


1,460,548 


15,064 


34 846 




1871 


1,656,359 


9,421 


10,172,307 


1,335,763 


30,362 


66,537 




1872 


2 854 047 


15,450 


6 328,647 


631,735 


45,569 


96 126 




1873 


2 481 405 


7,403 


6,977,470 


1,280,191 


19,861 


23,206 




1874 


2,068,480 


16,495 


5,795,723 


2,496,309 


37,006 


77,515 




1875 


2 019 123 


7,611 


5 671,491 


1,089,833 


53,820 


467 




1876 


1 959 942 


8,530 


8,551,049 


1.148,581 


36,285 


7,916 




1877 


1,493,866 


4,288 


8,668,249 


857,068 


22,686 


23,439 




1878 


1 576 550 


3 667 


4 303,791 


969,601 


25,772 


10,416 




1879 


2 265 333 


9,017 


1,870,653 


628,211 


33,291 


18,205 




1880 . . 


2,886,096 


33,722 


3,253,036 


957,239 


57,985 


97,431 




1881 


3,967,592 


30,128 


4,847,114 


1,481,683 


89.179 


90,258 




1882 


4 473 607 


2O.339 


5,696,349 


1,089,515 


110,061 


201,161 




1883 


3 961,187 


17,525 


5,960,982 


390,728 


106,728 


140,144 




1884 


3,019,993 


43,084 


6,378,505 


405,645 


101,844 


715,429 




1885 


3 916 857 


44 354 


3,164,866 


23,427 


139,240 


1,015,393 




1886 


4,357,577 


56,537 


4,909,976 


190,459 


128,545 


971,266 




1887 


4 650 258 


30 845 


2 013,178 


461,203 


147,288 


776,142 




1888 


6 364,650 


36 684 


2,923,332 


433,256 


228,524 


761,346 




1889 


6 820,308 


44,801 


4,659,755 


400,114 


159,932 


579,201 




1890 


5,032,230 


43,331 


3,226,164 


166,465 


148,863 


672,410 




1891 


4,718.469 


85,309 


1,557,075 


22,839 


206,769 


975,841 


864 


1892 


6,424,475 


110,415 


3,841,853 


17,466 


250,394 


628,898 


7,544 


1893 


7,291,439 


142,109 


1,867,340 


40,983 


130,429 


1,130,405 


3,717 


1894 


7 573 447 


131 691 


1,173,576 




116,581 


569,362 


10,793 


1895 


9,586,546 


231,072 


873,304 




201,902 


907,862 


31,115 


1896 


1O 865 461 


306 327 


1,128,666 




218,799 


708,451 


35,037 


1897 


5,381,511 


167,567 


1,977,400 


28,809 


150,505 


278.955 


46,388 


1898 


7,416.228 


167,313 


1,459,631 


342,299 


154,731 


1,152,213 


16,448 


1899 
1900 


6,521.922 
9,308,328 


323,946 
768,946 


1,723,274 
1,919.230 


135,843 
524,387 


221,230 
291,663 


453,855 
1,143,374 


29,838 
65,051 


1901 . . . 


8 688,312 


928,780 


1,755,881 


719,107 


287,136 


1,449,427 


47,738 


1902 


9,084,886 


905,603 


1,468,756 


1,022,483 


272,140 


2,575,255 


29.703 


19O3 


10,609,924 


1,251,215 


806,777 


482,523 


345,329 


2.150.573 


61,027 



The following is a list of Ontario timber sales from 1868 to the 
present time, showing the quantity sold and the price a mile. Sales are 
not held every year but only when it is deemed expedient. The table 
shows the constantly increasing value of timber. 



Date. 


Square 
miles 
sold. 


Total price 
realized. 


Dues. 


Ground 
rent. 


Highest 
price 
per mile. 


Average 
price 
per mile. 


December 23. 1868 
July 6, 1869 


38 

98 


$ 14,446.50 
25,564.50 


$0.50 

.75 


$2.00 
2.OO 


$ 519.00 
418.00 


$ 380.17 
260.86 


February 15 1870 


12 


7,680.00 


.75 


2.00 


640.00 


640.00 


November 23, 1871 
October 15, 1872 


487 
5,031 


117,672.00 
592,601.50 


.75 
.75 


2.00 
2.00 


500.00 
1,000.00 


241.62 
117.79 


June 6, 1877 


375 


75,739.00 


.75 


2.00 


5OO.OO 


201.97 


December 6, 1881 


1,379 


733,675.00 


.75 


2.00 


2.30O.OO 


532.03 


October 22, 1885* 


1,012 


318,645.00 


.75 


2.00 


1,250.00 


314.86 


December 15, 1887 
October 1, 189Of 


459 
376 


1,312,312.50 
346,256.25 


l.OO 
1.00 


3.OO 
3.OO 


e.soo.oa 

2.625.OO 


2,859.06 
92O.89 


October 13, 1892 


633 


2.315,000.00 


1.25 


3.00 


17.5OO.OO 


3,657.18 


August 18,1897 


159# 


265,162.50 


1.25 


3.OO 


6.6OO.OO 


1.665.O7 


December 20, 1899 


360 


723,550.00 


1.25 


3.00 


8.5OO.OO 


2,009.86 


September 17, 1901 
December 9, 1903 


399^ 
826 


732,787.50 
3.687.337.OO 


1.25 


3.OO 


4.70O.OO 
31.5OO.OO 


1,835-41 
4,464.08 

















* Scattered, broken and forfeited berths. t Berths la Rainy River District. 



ONTARIO REVENUES AND RESOURCES. 185 

The total amount of revenue received from timber by the Govern- 
ment of Ontario from 1868, the year following confederation, to the 
end of 1902 was $29,583,386. 

The prices realized in 1903 were the highest ever received by the 
Government from the sale of timber lands and emphasized the fact that 
the state of the lumber market will permit the payment of a much 
higher price for stumpage and that a corresponding increase in the 
revenue would result. It may be said, however, that the timber sold at 
this particular time was of exceptional value and was located on lands 
tributary to the Ottawa River, which affords an easy method of getting 
the timber to market. During the last few years the Ontario timber 
limits have been acquired rapidly and this also has served to stimulate 
business and prices. 

Under the mode of procedure the Provincial government now fol- 
lows the Commissioner of Crown Lands makes an occasional explora- 
tion and estimates the ungranted limits so as to guide him in the fixing 
of reserve bids, which are not announced, however. The lands to be 
disposed of are then cut up into small limits and advertised in the 
public press for sale. Subsequently the limits are sold at public auction 
to the highest bidder, if the price is above the reserve bid. The bonus 
bid pays for the license to cut the timber upon a stated limit, subject to 
such annual rents and stumpage dues as may be fixed by the Govern- 
ment. The purchasers of berths in the Nipissing and Algoma districts 
are entitled to cut red pine and white pine only, except such timber as 
may be required to make roads. The Rainy River berths include red 
pine, white pine, spruce, cedar, tamarack and poplar. The timber cut 
from all berths must be manufactured in Canada. 

According to the Canadian census figures of 1901 the lumber and 
timber production of Ontario was as follows : 

SQUARE, WANEY OR FLAT TIMBER, IN CUBIC FEET. 

Amount. Value. 

Ash 231,494 $24,662 

Birch 78,986 8,554 

Elm 1.259,174 136,787 

Maple 194.3O4 21,554 

Oak 76,025 13.022 

Pine 1.O44.439 219,219 

All other woods 906,236 94,868 

Total 3.79O.658 $518,666 

These figures serve to show not only the total magnitude of such 
production in the Province, but also the relative value of these manu- 
factured products of the forests of Ontario. While the census has ar- 



186 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



ranged the woods alphabetically, it will be discerned that Ontario pine 
leads all of the other woods in value and, indeed, nearly approaches 
their combined valuation. The census of 1901 gives also the following 
detailed figures relating to Ontario log production : 

LOGS FOR LUMBER, IN FEET BOARD MEASURE. 

Amount. Value. 

79,105,000 $ 629.670 



Elm 

Hickory 1,445,000 

Hemlock 84,175,000 

Oak 8,842,000 

Pine 984,352,000 

Spruce 8,709,000 

All other logs 167,994,000 

Total 1,334,622,OOO 

Pulpwood, cords 108,335 

Miscellaneous products 



Grand total of values. 



17,304 
482,447 
126,901 
10,116,667 
71.221 
1,320,558 

$12,764,768 

304,837 

8.068,464 

$21',656,735 



The same census shows 847 sawmills in operation in the Province, 
the total production of which in the census year was valued at $25,- 
672,424. 

The following statement is from data collected by The Canada 
Lumberman. It covers both the Ontario and Quebec sides of the 
Ottawa River: 

PRODUCTION OF SAWMILLS IN THE OTTAWA VALLEY, IN FEET BOARD MEASURE. 





1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


J R Booth Ottawa Ont 


125,000,000 


115,000,000 


115,000,000 


W. C. Edwards & Co., Rockland, Que.. and 


85,000,000 


95,000,000 


95,000,000 


McLachlin Brothers Arnprior, Ont 


70,OOO,OOO 


70,OOO,OOO 


60,000,000 


Hawkesbury Lumber Co., Hawkesbury, Ont... 
St. Anthony Lumber Co., Whitney, Ont 


5O.OOO.OOO 
50,OOO,OOO 
40,000,000 


50,OOO,OOO 
33.00O.OOO 
32.OOO.OOO 


50,000,000 
35,OOO,OOO 
27.0OO.OOO 




40,000,OOO 


28,000,000 


30,000,000 


Hull Lumber Company Aylmer, Que 


40,OOO,OOO 


15.OOO.OOO 


20,000,000 


Gilmour& Co., Trenton, Ont 
Pembroke Lumber Company, Pembroke, Ont.. 


13,000,000 
14,000,000 
21,000,000 


8.OOO.OOO 
12,000,000 
] 8,000,000 


7.OOO.OOO 
15.OOO.OOO 
15,000,000 




25,000,000 


25,000,000 


20.0OO.OOO 


J. R & J. Gillies, Arnprior, Ont 


3,000,000 


3,000,000 


3.0OO.OOO 


A &P White Pembroke Ont 


5,000,000 


4,OOO,OOO 


5.00O.OOO 


McLaren & McLaurin, East Templeton, Que. . . 


27,000,000 
5.000.0OO 


27,000.000 
5,OOO,OOO 


20,000,000 
5,300,000 






12,000,000 


15.000.0OO 






5,000,000 


25.OOO.OOO 


Davidson & Thackray, Fort Coulongfe, Que 




5.000.OOO 


3.5OO.OOO 










Total 


613,000,000 


562.000,000 


565.8OO.OOO 











The following figures show in round numbers the production of the 
Georgian Bay region in 1903 and 1904. There is a decrease in the latter 
year notwithstanding the fact that it embraces the cut of two or three 
mills not included in the 1903 statement. Of the cut indicated about 
ninety percent was pine and the rest hemlock and other woods : 



ONTARIO REVENUES AND RESOURCES. 187 

19O3. 19O4. 

Midland 64.OOO.OOO 6O.OOO.OOO 

Parry Sound 57.OOO.OOO 5O,OOO,OOO 

Byng Inlet 42.00O.OOO ;VJ.iK.Hi.oOO 

Sarnia 36.000.0OO 45.0OO.OOO 

Little Current 46.0OO.OOO 37.OOO.OOO 

Victoria Harbor 5O.OOO.OOO 46,OOO,OOO 

Waubaushene 30,OOO,OOO 32.000.0OO 

BlindRiver 51,000.000 43.00O.OOO 

Spragge 27.OOO.OOO 27.OOO.OOO 

Sandwich 26.OOO.OOO 21,OOO,OOO 

Gravenhurst 25.OOO.OOO 25.OOO.OOO 

Cutler 37.OOO.OOO 28.OOO.OOO 

Penetanguishene 40.00O.OOO 17.OOO.OOO 

Spanish River 16.OOO.OOO 23,OOO,OOO 

Collingwood 16.OOO.OOO 16.0OO.OOO 

Thessalon 16.OOO.OOO 25.00O.OOO 

John Island 17.OOO.OOO 17.0OO.OOO 

Cache Bay 19.OOO.OOO 19.OOO.OOO 

Huntsville 15.0OO.OOO 12.OOO.OOO 

Bracebridge 14.0OO.OOO 14,000.000 

Severn 5.OOO.OOO 5,OOO,OOO 

Callander 10.OOO.OOO 8.5OO.OOO 

Powassan 2.OOO.OOO 4.OOO.OOO 

Bobcaygeon 4.OOO.OOO 3.OOO.OOO 

Warren 15.0OO.OOO 1.5OO.OOO 

Collins Inlet 5.0OO.OOO 5.OOO.OOO 

Otherpoints 36.OOO.OOO 40.OOO.OOO 

Total 721.000.OOO 676.OOO.OOO 

The principal firms operating in the Georgian Bay district are the 
following, the table giving the location of their sawmills and their out- 
put for 1904 : 

Saginaw Lumber & Salt Co., Sandwich 21.0OO.OOO 

Cleveland-Sarnia Sawmills Co., Sarnia 27.5OO.OOO 

Sarnia Bay Company, Sarnia 16.OOO.OOO 

Charlton Sawmill Co., Collingwood 13.784.OOO 

Eddy Bros. & Co.. Blind River 28.OOO.OOO 

Dolsen& McEwan 16.OOO.OOO 

Moulthrop Lumber Co., John Island 17,OOO,OOO 

Playfair& Co., Midland 21.OOO.OOO 

Smith Bros., South River 16.OOO.OOO 

Chew Bros., Midland 14.OOO.OOO 

Estate WUliam Peter, Parry Sound 18.OOO.OOO 

Parry Sound Lumber Company, Parry Sound 17,OOO,OOO 

Conger Lumber Company, Parry Sound 13.OOO.OOO 

G. G. Gladman, Parry Sound 6.OOO OOO 

Loveland & Stone, Cutler 33.OOO.OOO 

Ontario Lumber Co., French River 8.000.OOO 

Victoria H arbor Lumber Co. , Victoria H arbor 46,000 ,OOO 

John Bertram, Collins Inlet 5.OOO.OOO 

Georgian Bay Lumber Co., Waubaushene 28.OOO.OOO 

C. F. Beck& Co.,Penetansruishene ll.OOO.OOO 

W. & A. McArthur Co., Limited, Little Current 25.OOO.OOO 

Conlon Bros., Little Current 7.OOO.OOO 

George L. Burtis, Thessalon 17,541,929 

N.&A. Dyment, Little Current 8.OOO.OOO 

Huron Lumber Co., Spanish River 16,OOO,OOO 

Nipissing Lumber Co. .Spanish River 7, OOO OOO 

Holland & Graves, Byng Inlet 4O.OOO.OOO 



Total 495.825.929 

In the above list will be found many names of historical interest in 
a consideration of the lumber industry of Ontario. There also appear 
the names of numerous American operators, who crossed Lake Huron 
when the exhaustion of their Michigan pine either threatened or act- 
ually occurred. 



188 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



The total production of pine logs and timber in the Province of 
Ontario from 1879 to 1903 inclusive is recorded in the following table : 

PRODUCTION OF PINE LOGS AND TIMBER IN ONTARIO. 



Year. 


Pine sawlogs. 
Ft. b. m. 


Pine boom 
timber. 
Ft. b. m. 


While nine sq. 
timber. 
Ft. b. m. 


Total. 
Ft. b. m. 


1879.... 


322,807,200 


10,084,000 


29,986,368 


362 877 568 


1880 


377,786,200 


11,711,600 


50,523,300 


440,021,100 


1881 . 


493,735,000 


19 388 600 


75 945 564 


589 069 164 


1882 


518,757,400 


22,967,200 


81.430,908 


623,355 508 


1883 


443 366,200 


19 563 000 


76 221 168 


539 150 368 


1884 


357,924,600 


17 901 800 


81 409 812 


457 236 212 


1885 


469.601,400 


29,922,200 


38,259,516 


537,783 116 


1886 


534 903 800 


29 457 000 


61 205 220 


625 566 620 


1887 


567,803,200 


31 216 800 


29 692,680 


628 712 68O 


1888 


699,581,000 


41,177,000 


40,279,056 


781,037 056 


1889 


725,727,633 


32,000,237 


60,718,308 


818,446,178 


1890 


519,215,801 


33,337,798 


40,711,548 


593,265 147 


1891 


451,207,505 


37,844,115 


18,958,968 


508,010,588 


1892 


606,190,122 


42,297.750 


46,310,828 


694,799,700 


1893 


718,215,271 


24 276 520 


22,899,876 


765,391,667 


1894 


613,081,760 


17,701,630 


14,682,912 


644,866,302 


1895 


800,565,355 


32,170,013 


10,479,648 


843,215,016 


1896 


904,379,710 


34,373,465 


13,543,992 


952,297,167 


1897 


477,716,448 


25,640,239 


23,728,800 


527,529,985 


1898 


544,457.139 


26,084.737 


17,515,572 


587,612.950 


1899 


498,607,068 


29,361,695 


20,679,288 


548,648,051 


19OO 


643,510,766 


34,724,488 


23,030,760 


701,266,014 


1901 


598,433.958 


32,755,638 


21,070,572 


652,260,168 


1902 


615,831,433 


38,539,856 


17,070,572 


671,776,361 


1903 


679,966,835 


39,834,442 


9,681,324 


729,482,601 


Total 


14,183,372.804 


714,331,823 


926,036,560 


15,823.677.287 













In 1900 a survey and exploration of northern Ontario was undertaken 
by ten exploration parties. The southern base of the exploration was 
the Canadian Pacific railway and the northern base the boundary of the 
Province. The area of the whole Province is about 167,000,000 acres, 
of which about 23,000,000 acres is included in the old and settled part, 
while the area explored embraces about 60,000,000 acres. From the 
summary of results obtained by the exploration, the following is ex- 
tracted : 

"The area is largely covered with extensive forests of spruce, jack 
pine and poplar. In the district of Nipissing north of the Canadian 
Pacific railway line, there is estimated to be at least 20,000,000 cords of 
pulpwood ; in the district of Algoma, 100,000,000 cords ; in the district 
of Thunder Bay, 150,000,000 cords, and in the district of Rainy River, 
18,000,000 cords, a grand total of 288,000,000 cords. The pine region 
does not seem to extend much beyond the Height of Land, but on this 
side in the country around Lakes Temagami and Lady Evelyn and to 
the north, an area of red and white pine of fine quality was explored 
and estimated to contain about 3,000,000,000 feet board measure. 
There are also numerous smaller areas, both timber and land, which 



ONTARIO REVENUES AND RESOURCES. 



189 



are not included in these figures, but which will be available when the 
development of the country takes place." 

As has been said, the revenue from forests has ranged about one 
and a quarter millions of dollars a year in recent years. How it has 
grown since confederation in 1867 is shown in the following figures. It 
will be noticed, also, how the western district (Georgian Bay and Lake 
Superior), which produced only about one-eighth of the revenue in 1868, 
in 1902 produced about five-sixths of the total. 

ONTARIO REVENUE FROM BONUSES, TIMBER LICENSES AND GROUND 
RENTS IN THE YEARS INDICATED. 



Year. 


Ottawa 
district. 


Central 
district. 


Western 
district. 


Total. 


1868... 


$117006 


$ 84078 


$ 33 123 


$ 234 2O9 


1869 


247 303 


1O4 388 


83 7O9 


435 397 


1870 


264 842 


87*784 


73 273 


425 9O1 


1871 


219 644 


65 288 


165 47O 


453 43O 


1872 


306 612 


162 739 


96 79O 


*1 191 436 


1873 


202 814 


63 278 


87 717 


* 643 724 


1874 


28O 128 


105*563 


102 695 


503 004 


1875 


194 248 


54 976 


4OO69 


289 294 


1876 


262 O56 


72*811 


103 122 


437,122 


1877 


2O3 282 


62 118 


161 155 


426 556 


1878 


130 OO4 


62*785 


92 O25 


234 16 


1879 


ISO 257 


63*291 


118 464 


332 014 


188O 


226 224 


1OO 334 


174 882 


5O1 442 


1881 


269 99O 


88 424 


159 946 


*839 716 


1882 


242 176 


115 364 


125 199 


*894 052 


1883... 


25O 919 


110*393 


144 234 


5O5 547 


1884 


196 7O9 


71 399 


196 428 


464 529 


1885 


187 114 


8O 716 


333 507 


6O4 338 


1886 


242 781 


82 699 


39O323 


715.8O4 


1887 


258 738 


94 O29 


638 078 


9'.0 *.Y5 


1888 


2)3 56O 


111 531 


973 O47 


1 316 139 


1889 


380 111 


158 306 


540 ISO 


1 078.598 


189O 


283 328 


92 193 


540 633 


916 155 


1891 


256 708 


72 178 


693 723 


1 O2 619 


1892 


246 701 


93 352 


1 834 537 


2 174 591 


1893 


178 856 


65 679 


1 512 469 


1 757 O05 


1894 


246 222 


86 66O 


647 614 


980 497 


1895 


266 765 


19 261 


567 152 


853 179 


1896 


165 548 


84 99O 


561 gg2 


812 424 


1897 


393 OO3 


64 589 


869 547 


1 327 14O 


1898 


291 O68 


6O 197 


629 92O 


981 186 


1899 


186 163 


111 362 


795 322 


1 092 848 


19OO 


1O1 322 


68 281 


1 O75 499 


1 276 376 


19O1 


221 721 


4O487 


1 217 638 


1 479 847 


19O2 


178 413 


88 811 


1 O64 126 


1 331 352 


1903 


193 535 


33 O49 


2*080*771 


2 307 356 













*These totals were increased by sales held after the detailed statement of revenue by districts 
was made up. 



CHAPTER XV. 

ONTARIO FOREST RESERVES. 

At the outset the business of lumbering was regarded as an essen- 
tially transitory feature of the process of clearing and settling the coun- 
try. In the older portions of Canada the greater part of the land de- 
nuded of its timber was suitable for agricultural settlement, and needed 
for farms by the incoming population. It was regarded as desirable to 
have the country cleared as quickly as possible for the plow. As lum- 
bering operations were pushed farther back, a large territory was 
reached where most of the land was broken and sterile and not suited 
for farming, but where much of it was covered with valuable pine timber. 

If the policy which was followed in clearing the agricultural lands 
of the southern part of the Province had been pursued in the newer 
territory, large areas, when stripped by the ax and the bush fires usually 
attendant on lumbering operations under old time methods, would have 
been practically worthless, their only value consisting of their timber- 
producing capacity. 

The increase in the value of timber induced more conservative 
methods of cutting and led to the adoption of the system of fire ranging 
by which the danger of destruction of standing timber by bush fires has 
been greatly lessened. The large lumber operators realize that, instead 
of making a thorough clearance of their limits within the shortest pos- 
sible time, it is often more profitable to treat the forest as a farm, reap- 
ing a periodical crop, with as little injury as possible to its reproductive 
capacity. 

As large tracts of country in New Ontario were opened up for settle- 
ment and travel by the building of railroads, the question of what 
action to pursue regarding the large areas of valuable pine land, which 
if unprotected would be liable to destruction by bush fires, became one 
of increasing urgency. 

An advance in the direction of establishing forest reserves from 
which settlers would be excluded was made in 1893 by the setting aside 
of the Algonquin National Park in the Nipissing District. This terri- 
tory being under license, however, is not, strictly speaking, a forest 
reserve, though it serves some of the purposes of such. In June, 1897, 

190 



ONTARIO FOREST RESERVES. 191 

a royal commission was appointed, consisting of E. W. Rathbun, of 
Deseronto ; John Bertram, Toronto ; J. B. Me Williams, Peterboro ;' Alex. 
Kirkwood, chief clerk of the lands branch of the Crown lands depart- 
ment, and Thomas Southworth, clerk of forestry, to investigate and 
report on the subject of restoring and preserving the growth of white 
pine and other timber trees upon lands not adapted to agricultural pur- 
poses or to settlement. The two first named gentlemen were practical 
and experienced lumbermen. After a personal investigation extending 
over considerable tracts of country they presented a report, the most 
important feature of which was a recommendation that the Government 
take the power to withdraw from sale or settlement and set aside to be 
kept in permanent forest reserves such areas of territory as are gener- 
ally unsuitable for settlement and yet valuable for growing timber. 

In accordance with this recommendation the Ontario Legislature in 
1898 conferred the requisite authority upon the administration by the 
Forest Reserves Act. The first action taken in pursuance of this policy 
was the creation of the Eastern Forest Reserve, consisting of 80,000 
acres in the counties of Frontenac and Addington, in 1899. The follow- 
ing year the Sibley Reserve, comprising about 45,000 acres on the north 
shore of Lake Superior, was set apart. A more important step was 
taken in 1901 when the Temagami Forest Reserve was constituted, 
comprising an area of 2,200 square miles around Lake Temagami in 
the Nipissing district. This contains one of the most valuable of the 
pine forests in Ontario, the quantity of standing timber being roughly 
estimated at from 3,000,000,000 to 5,000,000,000 feet. This reserve was 
subsequently enlarged by the addition of territory to the north and 
west, bringing its area up to a total of 5,900 square miles. The Missis- 
saga Reserve in the Algoma district was added to the list in 1904. It 
comprises about 3,000 square miles of virgin timber. It is altogether 
probable that as settlement advances in New Ontario, only the fringe of 
which has so far been touched by civilization, further areas will be set 
apart as forest reserves, wherever timber covered tracts of importance 
are found to exist on non-agricultural lands. 

Of recent years, the forestry work of the Province of Ontario has 
been under the management of Thomas Southworth, spoken of above, 
with the title of Director of Forestry. His extensive studies and practi- 
cal experience have qualified him to speak with particular authority 
of all the phases of this general subject of forest preservation and its 
financial aspects. For this reason we reproduce in this chapter an arti- 



192 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

cle prepared by him at a recent date. 1 This article to a certain extent 
is a reproduction of what has been said elsewhere, but it so clearly 
explains and logically summarizes the whole subject that it is repro- 
duced, as follows: 

The Province of Ontario is one of the greatest business corporations in the 
world. Whether viewed in the light of an inheritor having a vast estate to dispose 
of, or as all this and a trading company as well, Ontario is an extensive corpora- 
tion doing business in a very large way. 

Its shareholders are the individual people of the Province, and handsome divi- 
dends are yearly paid to them in the form of the support of public services, charity 
and education, that would otherwise be paid for out of their private pockets in the 
form of taxes. 

I presume it may be stated that the working capital of the Province is, through 
the right to levy taxes, only limited by the ability of the citizens to pay, as is the 
case with other similar corporations having more and richer shareholders, but it is 
proposed to refer only to the estate or inheritance common to us all in our land and 
water areas, and what they contain or produce. This includes land, forests, min- 
erals, game, fish and water powers, all of which supply an income that could be 
increased if desired. 

Unlike many corporations or trading companies, however, the Province realizes 
that there are ways in which the "greatest good to the greatest number" of the 
shareholders in this enterprise may be reached other than in the direct payment of 
cash dividends, and it has been deemed for the general good that the forest should 
be worked as the chief producer of cash dividends. 

Therefore for the purpose of this article we will eliminate any consideration of 
any of the provincial assets other than that of the Crown forest. 

The forest wealth of the Province has until recently been classed under two 
divisions : That still remaining the property of the Crown partly sold under 
license to lumbermen and partly without any claim at all ; and that part held by 
settlers to whom lands had been allotted or sold by the Crown. 

In the development of the timber trade in Ontario the idea gradually evolved 
was to dispose of the merchantable timber, principally pine, for cash revenue, 
before handing over the land on which it grew to individuals to be converted into 
farms. Having this idea in view, the business was not regarded as one of our per- 
manent industries. The lumberman was considered as but the forerunner of the 
farmer, and no attempt was made for many years to do any more than harvest the 
standing crop of pine and other coniferous trees to the best advantage. No idea 
of taking off another crop than the original one was thought of. For many years 
this process worked well. As lumbermen established camps, and cut over their 
limits, the shantyman often become a farmer, squatting upon a tract of good land 
as he found it in the limit, and he was soon followed by his friends. This process 
has settled many townships in the Province, and where the land included in the 
limit was good for farming, no better plan could probably be devised. The hard- 
woods and enough pine for building purposes were left on the land for the settler, 

1 Published In The Canada Lumberman January 19. 1905. 



ONTARIO FOREST RESERVES. 193 

and from the money received from the largest pine, roads were built for the settler 
and the whole people of the Province shared in the dividends. 

As the lumberman pushed farther north in search of pine, however, the char- 
acter of the country changed. Large areas were placed under license to lumber- 
men in which the land was unsuited for fanning. The settler still followed the 
lumberman and tried to make farms where nature had provided that forests only 
could be profitably grown, finding out only after their capital and the best years of 
their lives had been spent, that they had made a mistake. 

While these men have been wasting their efforts dragging out a bare existence, 
the Province has lost large sums in cash that might have been derived from these 
same areas had they been left to produce a second crop of pine timber. 

In addition to the encroachments of settlers upon the forest area, fire proved a 
prominent factor in emphasizing the ephemeral character of the lumber industry ; 
large tracts were burned over, until it began to be recognized as the natural thing 
that fire followed the lumberman. The success of the fire ranging system adopted 
in 1885 showed that this danger could be largely removed. 

This partial immunity from forest fires led our legislators to consider the possi- 
bility of giving the forest industries a more permanent character, and in 1895, when 
I was appointed to the forestry work under the Government, I was directed by the 
then Commissioner of Crown Lands, the Hon. A. S. Hardy, to submit a report on 
the best method of reafforestating these burned areas with pine ; to ascertain the 
comparative cost of planting and of sowing tree seeds, with plan of operation. 

Estimates of the cost of seedling trees for replanting were secured, and in the 
process of investigating the burned over areas to ascertain the probable cost of get- 
ting them in condition to replant or sow, I concluded and so reported that neither 
was necessary except in a few places. The cost of replanting or even of seeding 
successfully would be so great per acre that the directors of the corporation, the 
Legislature, would never vote the money necessary to accomplish the work over so 
large an area ; and they would be right, for it is very likely that the initial expense 
compounded even at three percent, for the number of years necessary for the 
plantation to reach a merchantable age, plus the annual expenditure for protection 
and care, would exceed the amount realized from the crop even at the enhanced 
prices likely to be obtained at that time. 

It may be said that even so, for the sake of the incidental or indirect benefits 
in the way of climatic effect and water supply the investment would be worth 
while, but it was found that planting was not at all necessary, that practically all 
the investment required was time and freedom from settlement or fire. On burned 
over territory a new forest was growing, and in nearly every case, where pine was 
present in the previous crop, pine was growing again, not at first perhaps; the first 
crop after the fire was usually birch, poplar or other trees that seed yearly and 
whose seeds carry immense distances, but nearly always pine followed where the 
fire had left any parent pine trees within a wide radius, and would be found grow- 
ing up under the shade and protection of the broad leaved trees, under the exact 
conditions required to make good timber. 

This condition of affairs simplified the problem of reafforestation on Ontario 
Crown lands, and in my report to the Government in 1896 I recommended that 
areas found unsuited for general farming should be permanently withdrawn from 
settlement and placed in forest reserves. 



194 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

In the following year the Government appointed a royal commission to report 
on the same subject. This commission included among its members two of the 
ablest lumbermen in Canada, the late E. W. Rathbun and the late John Bertram, 
and this commission indorsed this recommendation as follows : 

"A large portion of the central division of the Province is more profitable from 
the standpoint of public revenue as forest land than under cultivation for farm 
crops, and as in addition to this it contains the headwaters of all our principal 
streams, all that part of this division found upon examination to be not well adapt- 
ed for farming should be added to the permanent Crown forest reserves." 

In 1898 the legislature passed an act entitled "An Act to Establish Forest Re- 
serves," the first specific action by legislation toward the creation of a permanent 
Crown forest. This act was submitted to the legislature by Hon. J. M. Gibson, 
then Commissioner of Crown Lands, and was passed without a dissenting voice. 

The passage of the forest reserves act, and the creation of reserves thereunder, 
is the formal announcement of the Government policy of gradually separating the 
non-agricultural from the agricultural lands, and is the first organized and definite 
attempt to create a permanent forest estate to be owned in perpetuity by the Crown 
and operated for timber crops. Under the act there have so far been created four 
forest reserves, amounting in all to 5,821,000 acres. These include the Eastern 
Forest Reserve of 80,000 acres; the Sibley Forest Reserve of 45,000 acres; the 
Temagami Forest Reserve of 3,776,000 acres, and the Mississaga Reserve of 1,920,- 
000 acres. 

There should be added to this Algonquin Park, created in 1893 mainly as a 
game preserve, with an acreage of 1,101,000 acres, 2 making a total of permanent 
forest reserves of 6,922,000 acres. 

These reserves are of different character. The two former, the Eastern Re- 
serve in Frontenac County and the Sibley Reserve, which takes in the township of 
Sibley including Thunder Cape on the north shore of Lake Superior, have been 
lumbered, and in most cases burned over, and now contain a very thrifty growth 
of white pine and other trees. It will be some time before they are ready again for 
lumbering operations, but the growth is very rapid and the time when they may be 
again operated for pine and other timbers will be much less than would be im- 
agined in the absence of definite information and measurements of the rate of 
growth of this young timber. 

The Temagami Reserve lies in the district of Nipissing and contains 5,900 
square miles or 3,776,000 acres. This reserve besides including some of the most 
picturesque and beautiful lakes in the world, of which Temagami and Lady Evelyn 
might be mentioned, contains a very large quantity of pine timber now ready to be 
cut. About forty years ago the band of Indians living in the territory, alarmed at 
the incursions of the lumbermen who were operating on Lake Temiscamingue and 
at the suggestion, it is said, of a Hudson Bay officer equally interested with them 
in the preservation of this country as a hunting ground, started a fire that swept 
over a good many hundreds of square miles, including the northern part of Tema- 
gami, Lady Evelyn, Anima, Nipissing and other lakes. Over this burned territory 
there is now a thrifty growth of poplar, birch, as well as pine and other coniferous 

2 The area of Algonquin Park is placed at 1,109,383 acres in other carefully compiled statistics 
on Ontario, -which are at hand. 



ONTARIO FOREST RESERVES. 195 

trees, the pine making growth at the rate of one inch in diameter in about two and 
a half to three years. Of the timber now sufficiently large to cut or what would be 
estimated by a lumberman in buying the territory for lumbering, I believe there is 
about five thousand millions, or five billions of feet board measure, exclusive of 
spruce, tamarack and hardwoods. 

The Mississaga Reserve is included in the territory drained by the Winnebago 
and Mississaga rivers in the district of Algoma, and lies between the main line of 
the Canadian Pacific railway and the Sault Ste. Marie branch of the same line. 
It comprises a territory of 3,000 square miles, or 1,920,000 acres, and is estimated 
to contain over three thousand millions of feet of merchantable white pine besides 
other timbers. 

In giving these figures of areas of forest reserves, it must be borne in mind 
that the Government has only recently entered upon this policy, and it requires 
time to properly investigate the different areas before having them come under the 
provisions of the forest reserves act. By the act a reserve can be created by order 
in council, but if on further investigation it was found desirable to open this land 
for agricultural purposes, a subsequent act of the legislature would be necessary in 
order to take it out of the reserves. In a general way, however, we are aware that 
there is a very large territory in the Province of Ontario peculiarly suitable for per- 
manent forests. 

So far as the question of future timber supplies and the consequent effect on 
climate and industrial conditions are concerned the Province of Ontario is in a 
peculiarly fortunate condition. The southern part of the Province which extends 
almost into the middle of the United States is a very rich agricultural section, now 
entirely settled up, and the home of a prosperous agricultural community. North 
of this agricultural belt, stretching across the Province from east to west, lies the 
watershed separating the streams flowing south into the Great Lakes and the St. 
Lawrence from those flowing north into our great Canadian sea. This height of 
land or watershed is not a mountainous ridge, but a more or less level tableland, 
rugged and rough in character, for the most part quite unsuited for agriculture, 
but the natural home of the white and red pine, spruce and other coniferous trees. 
True, in this belt there are occasional valleys of good land. In the Temiscamingue 
district for instance, there are nearly a million acres of rich alluvial clay soil. 
There is also a good agricultural section in the Rainy River Valley and another one 
at Wabigoon on the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway. But generally 
speaking, that is the character of this immense watershed stretching hundreds of 
miles across the Province from east to west. 

North of this territory again, on the slope running to Hudson Bay, lies another 
agricultural district, estimated to contain over sixteen millions of acres of first class 
farming land, but covered at present with a very valuable growth of spruce and 
other timber. 

In estimating the annual dividends possible or likely to be derived from this 
forest asset, a good many things have tl> be taken into account. While the reserves 
so far created are pine-bearing, not all of the territory suitable for reserves contains 
pine at present though it may be made to do so. Some of this territory is rocky 
and has been so severely burned over, notably on the north shore of Lake Superior, 
as to have no soil left, and we need to figure on long periods of time before those 



196 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

small areas will become productive. There must also be eliminated the water 
areas, and fire must be counted on as a contingency. 

The present forest reserve area includes distinctly pine-bearing lands, and for 
purposes of computation over the whole area, I will take this area 6,922,000 acres 
as a basis. In a country where we have no large artificial plantations that have 
reached maturity from the seed, it is difficult to form definite conclusions as to the 
annual growth of timber, but from measurements obtained by the Washington 
Bureau of Forestry over many parts of the northern or pine-bearing states, they 
have adopted nearly sixty cubic feet as the normal annual growth under ordinary 
forest conditions on an acre of forest land. This includes the whole of all sorts of 
trees, not pine alone. This in board measure would be 720 feet per acre per year. 
In our pine-bearing land, particularly in the reserves referred to, white pine is not 
the only tree, but it is the dominant tree, and a large proportion of this annual 
growth will be of that variety of timber. 

Pinchot and Graves, in their exhaustive study of the white pine in Pennsyl- 
vania, estimate that a pine tree ten inches in diameter will yield 84 percent of mer- 
chantable timber, and in a tree twenty-six inches diameter only seven percent is 
waste. Under continuous operations, 10 percent would be a fair allowance for 
waste in all kinds of timber, but there should also be eliminated much solid tim- 
ber not now merchantable. With allowance also for water areas and spots not well 
seeded, I do not think 300 feet board measure per acre an unreasonable estimate 
for the annual growth of pine on an acre of land in the areas. That it is not un- 
reasonable is shown from yields on lands that have been cut over. There are 
numerous instances where 50,000 feet of pine per acre have been cut, and this where 
only the merchantable trees were removed, leaving many others on the way to a 
merchantable size, while our estimate is for the total annual growth. 

An ordinary forest well seeded to pine would produce this 50,000 feet in about 
one hundred years or at the rate of 500 feet per year. One other deduction must 
be made, however, for fire, for while we have greatly lessened the damage from 
this source, it must be counted on, and we will reduce this estimate 50 percent or 
150 feet board measure an acre a year for the pine timber only. This estimate 
applied to our present reserves would give an annual production of 1,038,300,000 
feet. 

As to the value of this timber, much depends on its location and ease of access 
to market. On the basis of the recent timber sale, $7 per thousand feet would be 
a fair average as applied to the reserves in question. This would return annually 
$7,268,100. This sum appears large, but it must be borne in mind that the terri- 
tory now being operated each year, probably not so large as this, returns $1,000, 000 
to the treasury, and at $1.25 instead of $7 per thousand feet. 

It would, perhaps, be unfair to apply the prices realized at the recent sale to the 
whole of this area, but to reduce it to $5, a very modest estimate, the annual incre- 
ment in pine would reach a value of $5,191,500, and besides the other timbers 
growing on the reserves, spruce, cedar, birch, larch, maple, etc., have a commer- 
cial value that is rapidly increasing. 

One hundred and fifty thousand feet board measure at $5 per thousand would 
be worth 75 cents as the annual rental value of this land. It may at first sight ap- 
pear high, but the Prussian Crown forests under a most expensive semimilitary 



ONTARIO FOREST RESERVES. 197 

system of management, including the cost of maintaining several forestry schools 
and colleges, yield a net income over all expenses of about $1.45 an acre a year 
over the whole territory good and bad. I am well aware of the difference in con- 
ditions as to markets, etc., but surely if the Germans can obtain a net revenue of 
$1.45, we can, in time at least, under proper management, realize half that sum as 
our gross revenue. I might also add that the Crown forests of Saxony yield about 
$4.50 an acre a year, net. 

A recent concrete instance of the growth of pine under somewhat adverse cir- 
cumstances is shown by the result of a small plantation of pine trees on the sand 
plains of Nebraska. This plantation covers .52 of an acre on the ranch of Bruner 
Bros., in Holt County, Nebraska. It is rectangular in form, measuring 70x192 feet, 
and is located in sand hills bordering a dry valley. The trees on this plantation 
were set out in the spring of 1891 as three-year-old seedlings averaging about eight 
inches in height. Furrows were turned two feet apart, and the trees were planted 
two feet apart in the furrows. Since planting, the trees have received no cultiva- 
tion whatever, but they have been protected from fire and stock. The altitude of 
the location is 2,200 feet. 

This sand is what is ordinarily called blow sand and covered some of the small, 
seedlings. Last year the Bureau of Forestry at Washington had these trees counted 
and measured, when it was found that the total volume of wood in the plantation 
was 586.02 cubic feet, with a total annual growth of 50.6 cubic feet. This, con- 
verted into board measure, would be over 600 feet a year on a fraction over half 
an acre, or 1,200 feet an acre a year. 

It is true these trees were planted at regular intervals, and would therefore have 
a better chance for growth than trees reproduced by nature with her wasteful 
methods, but it must also be remembered that the soil was very bad and of such a 
nature as had been considered hitherto quite incapable of growing trees at all. 

Hence it will be seen that my estimate of 150 feet board measure an acre a 
year in our peculiar pine-bearing country is a very moderate estimate. Applying 
this estimate to say 40,000,000 acres of permanent reserves, which I hope to live to 
see, we have a yearly growth of 6,000,000,000 feet, which at $5 per thousand would 
represent a value of $30,000,000. 

This is not a rosy picture, but a very conservative estimate, and if the timber 
other than pine is considered, it will be found low. 

And now, having definitely adopted the policy of separating agricultural from 
non-agricultural lands, placing large areas of non-agricultural lands in reserves to 
form a permanent Crown forest to be operated in perpetuity for timber supplies and 
the payment of cash dividends, the problem is presented of how to work these 
reserves to the best advantage. 

In this various problems present themselves. The first, of coarse, is the great 
one of fire protection, but this I am happy to say we are within reasonable distance 
of having solved. Of course in the forest, as in the city, the prevention of fires 
entirely is an impossibility, and in the forest there is the added difficulty not often 
found in well regulated cities, that a fire once under headway cannot be checked by 
any human agency at present known. At the same time the system of patrol 
adopted some years ago is proving very effective, and our losses from fires for the 
past few years have been inconsiderable. 



198 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Among the most serious problems confronting the Government in the perma- 
nent timber policy, is the reproduction of the right kind of species from a commer- 
cial point of view. This Province is the habitat of probably the most valuable 
timber tree in the world, the Weymouth or white pine, the tree that has been 
so great a factor in the prosperity of the Province. There are peculiar features 
connected with its reproduction that have to be carefully considered in any perma- 
nent forestry operations. 

In the first place, I have noticed that where a forest has been operated for pine 
for a number of years, and where no fire has taken place, there seem to be no 
seedling pines coming up. True, there are pine trees still growing to take the 
place of the mature trees removed, but they are trees that were suppressed and 
stunted in their growth at the time of the previous lumbering operations, and that 
took on new growth after the pressure in the forest was relieved, but I cannot find 
that in a forest of this sort there is any new crop coming on, that is to say, trees 
that have seeded since the cutting of the original crop. 

Why this is so is not quite clear to me, but I imagine the reason will be found 
in the fact that the ground and the conditions of shade are not suitable for the 
proper germination and growth of the pine seeds. 

On the other hand, where there has been a forest fire, after lumbering opera- 
tions, we nearly always find a growth of young pine coming up, at any rate if any 
old or seed trees have been left in the vicinity of the fire. 

Assuming this condition of affairs to be general, that young pine will not come 
up as a second crop except under suitable conditions, it will readily be seen that if 
in operating an old forest, nothing but the pine trees are taken out, the result must 
eventually be that the character of the forest will have changed from a pine forest 
to one of another description, and necessarily of a less valuable character. If it is 
pine mixed with spruce, if the pine is removed and the spruce only allowed to 
reproduce, it will naturally become a spruce forest, or a hardwood forest as the case 
may be. 

Hence it is obvious that in operating an old or virgin forest with a view of 
reproduction of the most valuable sorts of trees, a scientific knowledge of the 
growth and method of reproduction of these trees will be necessary in order to 
have the cutting properly executed. This must be done also with a view to the 
financial part of the operation, because whether in private forestry or government 
forestry, it must necessarily be largely a commercial proposition, and the cost of 
operating must be considered in its relation to the ultimate profit. 

This is one of the problems confronting us. There are others of a more or less 
technical nature, and for their solution scientifically trained men will, in my opin- 
ion, be necessary. That we have many men engaged in the lumbering business 
who are highly skilled men indeed in the operation of removing the present stand- 
ing crop of timber as expeditiously and economically as possible, is true, but their 
training is not extended to the problem of removing this timber with any regard to 
a future crop. 

While we need scientifically trained men for this purpose, men with a knowl- 
edge of botany, plant pathology and general sylviculture, as these men would have 
to be employed partly by the Government, partly by lumbermen, it would be nec- 
essary that in addition to these things they should also be expert lumbermen, and 



ONTARIO FOREST RESERVES. 199 

have a thorough knowledge of logging, driving to market, sawing, culling lumber, 
etc., so that in addition to the training they could receive in the schools, their edu- 
cation would be utterly incomplete without the other training in the bush and in 
the sawmill, as well as in the lumber yard. 

For the proper management of our permanent forests, well trained men will be 
needed and it will require the joint training of the college, the bush and the saw- 
mill to produce them. 

It is difficult to estimate the far-reaching consequences of this 
policy in securing a permanent source of future supply against the 
time when the present demand for lumber and other forest products 
will have enormously increased and many now productive areas, if 
worked in the ordinary way, will have become depleted. The intention 
of the Government of the Province is that these reserves shall be 
operated in accordance with forestry principles, removing only the 
mature timber from time to time with as little injury as possible to the 
young growth and the reproductive character of the forest in order that 
the supply may be perpetually maintained. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

ONTARIO TORONTO INSPECTION. 

The following rules and regulations for the inspection of pine and 
hardwood lumber were adopted by the lumber section of the Board of 
Trade of the City of Toronto, Ontario, in 1890. Though now obsolete, 
they are of historical interest. 

PINE LUMBER. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSPECTION. 

Inspectors of lumber must measure and inspect each piece as they find It, of 
full length and width. Imperfections are not to be measured out. 

All lumber must be put into the grade its defects call for, regardless of meas- 
urement. 

All lumber over 1 inch in thickness must be measured full, with the % or %, 
added on each piece (no fraction in width allowed) . 

In inspection the inspector is instructed to use his best judgment, based upon 
the rules laid down for his guidance. 

The standard knot is to be considered as not exceeding \% inches in diameter. 

Splits are a greater or lesser defect in lumber, and must be considered accord- 
ingly. 

All lumber must be cut plump in thickness and be well manufactured, and all 
lumber imperfectly manufactured shall be classed as culls. 

GRADES. 

The following shall be the grades of lumber sanctioned by the Council of the 
Board of Trade for the Lumber Section of the Board of Trade of the City of 
Toronto : 

Clear Lumber. Clear lumber shall be perfect in all respects and free from 
wane, rot, shake or check, not less than 12 feet long, 8 inches wide and 1 inch 
thick. A piece 12 inches wide will admit of imperfections to the extent of one 
standard knot or its equivalent in sap. In lumber over 12 inches wide the inspec- 
tor must use his best judgment in accordance with the instructions above given. 

Picks. Pickings must not be less than 12 feet long, 8 inches wide and 1 inch 
in thickness, well manufactured and free from wane, rot, shake or check. A piece 
8 inches wide will admit of one standard knot, or imperfections in sap to the same 
extent. A piece 12 inches wide will admit of two standard knots, or imperfections 
in sap to the same extent. For .'umber wider than 12 inches, of this grade, inspect- 
ors will carry out the instructions as given regarding wide, clear lumber. 

No. 1 Cutting Up. No. 1 cutting up shall not be less than 12 feet long, 7 
inches wide and 1 inch in thickness. Clear pieces 10 feet long and the required 
width are included in this grade ; this must be free from wane, rot, shake or check. 

200 



ONTARIO TORONTO INSPECTION. 201 

Pieces from 7 to 9 inches wide will admit of imperfections to the extent of two 
standard knots or their equivalent in sap. Pieces from 10 to 12 inches wide will 
admit of three standard knots or imperfections equivalent to them in sap, and 
wider for lumber of this grade inspectors will follow instructions as given in two 
previous grades. Inspectors are informed that this grade of lumber is expected 
to cut out two-thirds clear in profitable lengths to the consumer. 

No. 2 Cutting Up. No. 2 cutting up shall not be less than 10 feet long, 6 
inches wide and 1 inch in thickness, and shall cut at least one-half clear in ac- 
cordance with the instructions as given above regarding No. 1 cutting up lumber. 

Fine Dressing. This grade of lumber shall be generally of a sound character, 
and shall be free from wane, rot, shake or check, not less than 10 feet long, 7 inches 
wide and 1 inch in thickness. A piece 7 inches wide will admit of one or more 
knots which can be covered with a ten -cent piece if they are sound. A piece 
wider than 7 inches will admit of one or more knots of the same size according to 
the judgment of the inspector in regard to the width. 

Common Dressing. Common dressing shall not be less than 10 feet long, 
7 inches wide and 1 inch in thickness, and shall be free from wane, rot or check, 
and shall be generally of a sound character, and will admit of standard knots 
that will not unfit it for dressing purposes. 

Common. Common shall be free from rot and unsound knots, and well manu- 
factured, not less than 10 feet long, 7 inches wide and 1 inch in thickness. 

Strips. Clear strips shall be from 4 to 6 inches wide, not less than 12 feet 
long, and 1 inch in thickness, and shall have one perfectly clear face, free from all 
imperfections ; bright sap will be permitted on the reverse side. 

Sap Strips. Sap strips for fine dressing shall be from 4 to 6 inches wide, not 
less than 12 feet long and 1 inch in thickness, and will admit of one knot which can 
be covered by a 10-cent piece in a piece 4 inches wide, and two knots of like size in a 
piece 6 inches wide. All strips free from other imperfections and having bright 
sap on two sides would be admitted into this grade. 

Common Dressing Strips. Common dressing strips shall be from 4 to 6 inches 
wide, not less than 10 feet long, and 1 inch in thickness, and shall be well manu- 
factured and generally of a sound character ; will admit of knots which are sound 
and not coarse, and which will not unfit it for ordinary dressing purposes. 

Common Strips. Common strips shall be from 4 to 6 inches in width, not less 
than 10 feet long and 1 inch in thickness, free from rot and wane and to be of a 
coarse, sound character. 

No. 1 Culls. This grade shall consist of lumber above the grade of No. 2 calls 
and shall admit of coarse knots and stain and be free from rot. It shall also admit 
of pieces imperfectly manufactured below 1 inch in thickness and perfectly sound, 
and not rendered worthless through improper manufacture. 

No. 2 Culls. No. 2 culls shall be lumber that will work one-half sound. 

No. 1 Lath. No. 1 lath shall be 4 feet long, and shall be when cut lyi, 1ft 
and \}i inches in width, cut out of good, sound, live timber, free from wane, rot 
or knots, well manufactured and trimmed square at the ends. 

No. 2 Lath. No. 2 lath shall be of the same width and length as No. 1 lath, 
and shall admit of a small portion of wane, and also will admit of lath sap stained, 
and will admit of small, sound knots; must otherwise be well manufactured. 



202 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

No. XXX Shingles. No. XXX shingles, packed in 4 bunches to the 1,000, 
of 250 each, free from all rot, shake, sap, knots, pin holes, bastards, or defects of 
any nature. A shingle 4 inches being the standard, 16-inch shingles should be 5 
shingles to 2 inches thickness at butt, with ^ inch points, and 18-inch shingles, 
5 to 2X inches thickness at butt, and ^ at points, to be well manufactured and 
well pointed. 

No. XX 6-Inch Clear Butts. No. XX 6-inch clear butts must be perfect for 
at least 6 inches from butts, and the defects from this hereon to be of water-tight 
character, and same regulation regarding thickness as XXX shingles. 

No. 1. No. 1 to be of a grade not specially up to, so as to be considered in, 
either of above grades, and to be sold by special agreement. 

All Other Shingles. All other shingles are culls, and their value is to be a 
matter of arrangement, if they have any market value. 

HARDWOOD LUMBER. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSPECTION. 

It is impossible to make rules that will govern every piece of lumber, there 
being no two pieces of lumber exactly alike. It is therefore expected that the in- 
spector shall be a person of experience, and use his best judgment, based upon the 
general rules given, making no allowance for the purpose of raising or lowering 
the grades of a piece. 

The inspector must not favor either the buyer or seller, but take lumber as he 
finds it, and pass each piece into the grade to which it belongs. Inspectors should 
examine all lumber on the poorest side, except flooring. All lumber must be 
measured in even lengths, excepting stock that is cut to order for special purposes, 
when it shall be measured for the full contents. Bark or waney pieces shall be 
measured inside the bark or wane. All tapering pieces will be measured one-third 
the length of the piece from the small end. 

All badly cut lumber shall be classed as cull, or placed one grade below what 
it would be if properly manufactured. All lumber shall be sawed thick enough to 
meet the required thickness when seasoned. Lumber sawed for newels, columns, 
balusters, axles, or other specific purposes, must be inspected with a view of the 
intended use of the piece, and the adaptability for that purpose, as in most cases it 
cannot be utilized for other purposes. Heart pieces are excluded from all grades 
above cull. Worm holes are considered one of the most serious defects. Gum 
spots in cherry is a defect, and, if excessive, will lower the piece one or two grades. 
Warped, twisted, stained and stick-rotten lumber shall either be classed as cull, or 
mill cull and refuse. 

The standard lengths of whitewood to be 12, 14 and 16 feet, admitting 10 per- 
cent of 10 feet lengths; walnut and cherry, 10, 12, 14 and 16 feet lengths, admit- 
ting 10 percent of 8 feet ; 8 feet to be admitted as No. 1 must be 12 inches wide and 
upwards; to grade as No. 2, 8 inches wide and upwards. 

A standard knot must not exceed 1)^ inches in diameter, and must be sound. 
Log run shall be the unpicked run of the log, mill cull out. Lumber sold on 
grade, and without special contract will be measured according to these rules. The 
inspector will be required to keep a correct copy of all measurements, and give 
duplicate of same to both buyer and seller if required. 



ONTARIO TORONTO INSPECTION. 203 

In all grades mentioned as combined in No. 1 and No. 2, all pieces less than 8 
inches shall be considered as seconds. 

BLACK WALxrrr. 

Combined grade of firsts and seconds, rejects and shipping culls. 

No. 1. No. 1, from 8 to 10 inches, shall be clear of all defects ; 10 to 16 inches 
wide may have 1> inches bright sap, or one standard knot; 16 inches wide and 
upwards may have 2 inches bright sap, or two standard knots showing on one side 
only. 

Seconds. Seconds, 6 inches wide and upwards, must be clear of all defects at 
7 inches ; at 10 inches will admit of 1> inches sap or two standard knots ; 10 to 16 
inches wide will admit of 2 inches sap, or two standard knots ; 16 inches wide and 
upwards may have 3 inches sap, or three standard knots ; 12 inches wide and up- 
wards will admit of a split, if straight, l /k the length of the piece, provided the 
piece be equal to No. 1 in other respects. Not over 10 percent of seconds will be 
taken with splits of the above character. 

Rejects. Rejects, 5 inches wide and upwards ; at 7 inches may have 1 inch sap, 
or one standard knot ; 7 to 12 inches wide may have 2 inches sap, or two sound 
knots; 12 to 18 inches wide may have 4 inches sap, or four sound knots ; above 18 
inches may have 5 inches bright, sound sap. 

Shipping Cull. Shipping cull will include all lumber not equal to the above 
that will average and work two-thirds its width and length. 

CHERRY AND BUTTERNUT 

Will be graded and inspected according to the rules given for black walnut, with 
the exception of gum specks in cherry. (See instructions.) 

WHITE WOOD, COTTONWOOD OR BALM OF GILEAD 

Will include the combined grade of first and seconds No. 1 common, No. 2 com- 
mon, or shipping cull. The combined grade of firsts and seconds shall not be less 
than 65 percent of No. 1. 

No. 1. No. 1 shall be 10 inches wide and upwards, and clear of all defects at 
12 inches ; 12 to 15 inches may have 1^ inches bright sap, or one standard knot 
showing on one side only ; 15 to 18 inches may have 2 inches sap ; 18 inches and 
upwards may have 3 inches sap, or two standard knots showing on one side only. 

Seconds. Seconds, 8 inches wide and upwards, clear of all defects at 9 inches; 
at 10 inches wide, may have one standard knot or a split not over 12 inches long; 
15 to 18 inches wide may have two standard knots, or 3 inches bright sap ; 18 to 22 
inches may have three standard knots or 4 inches bright, sound sap. 

No. 1 Common. No. 1 common shall be 6 inches wide and upwards, bright, 
sound and clear sap, not a defect in this giade; 8 to 12 inches wide, may have 
three standard knots ; 12 to 16 inches wide, four standard knots ; 16 to 24 inches, 
five standard knots, or may have straight heart cracks not showing over one- 
quarter the length of the piece, if it has no other defect excepting bright sap. 

No. 2 Common or Shipping Cull. No. 2 common or shipping cull will include 
lumber with more defects than the No. 1 common. Pieces will be received where 
two-thirds of the piece will be available for use for rough manufacturing purposes ; 
stained sap or other defects will be received in this grade ; dozed and rotten sap, 
and other lumber, than as above named, will be classed as mill cull or refuse, and 
have no standard value. 



204 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

BASSWOOD 

Shall be inspected the same way as whitewood, cottonwood or balm of Gilead. 
with the exception that seconds will take lumber 6 inches wide and up. 

ASH AND OAK 

Shall be graded as firsts and seconds, and shall be 6 inches and over in width. 

Boards or Plank. Boards or plank 8 inches wide will admit of one standard 
knot or one defect ; 10 inches and over wide will admit of two or more defects, 
according to the width of the piece ; bright sap is not considered a defect. 

Culls, Culls include all width, lengths and sizes, except such stock as will not 
work one-half without waste. Other than the above are classed as mill culls and 
have no value in this market. 

CHESTNUT 

Shall be 6 inches and over in width, and clear up to 8 inches. Pieces 9 inches 
wide may have three standard knots ; over 12 inches wide, four standard knots. 
This grade must be absolutely free from worm or pin holes. Culls shall constitute 
all lumber below the above grade that will cut one-half without waste. 

SYCAMORE 

Shall be inspected the same way as oak and ash. 

HICKORY 

Shall be inspected the same as oak and ash. 

ROCK AND SOFT ELM 

Shall be 6 inches and up wide, and up to 10 inches shall be perfect. Beyond that 
width shall take the inspection given to oak and ash. 

HARD AND SOFT MAPLE 

Shall be inspected for firsts and seconds in the same manner as oak and ash. 

Clear Maple Flooring. Clear maple flooring shall have at least one clear 
face, and two edges also clear. 

Common Maple Flooring. Common maple flooring shall be of the same gen- 
eral character as clear ; may have one or two small sound knots of not more than 
% of an inch in diameter, or a small wane on one edge, which will not injure it 
for working its full size without waste. 

BIRCH 

Shall have the same inspection as hard and soft maple, with the exception that sap 
is considered a defect more than in maple. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

ONTARIO PERSONNEL. 

In the preceding chapters which treat of the lumber history of the 
Province of Ontario, are many references to individuals ; but the 
sequential character of most of the narrative, which relates to timber 
and lumber rather than to individuals, did not permit of specific refer- 
ence to many persons who were prominent in the lumber industry and 
the operations of many of whom should have a place in any history of 
the lumber industry in Canada. This chapter, therefore, is devoted to 
a brief definition of the place of certain individuals, firms and com- 
panies in the lumber development of Ontario during the last hundred 
years. By no means all who should be included are mentioned and to 
those an apology is perhaps due, but the list includes those regarding 
whom data were immediately available. 

As in the chapter devoted to the personnel of the Quebec industry, 
there is a certain co-mingling of interests. The Ottawa Valley includes 
sections of both Ontario and Quebec, the river forming, as it does, the 
boundary line between the two provinces. Some Ottawa lumbermen 
have had their chief holdings in Quebec waters, while some residing 
and having mills on the Quebec side of the river have had timber hold- 
ings in Ontario. From some standpoints the history of the Ottawa 
Valley, without regard to provincial lines, would have been more desira- 
ble ; but the plan of the work made most desirable the present arrange- 
ment, which in this particular connection seems somewhat arbitrary. 
For one who would secure a comprehensive view of the Ottawa Valley 
as a whole it will be necessary to read the history of both provinces 
and the account of the personnel of each. 

THE WHITE FAMILY. 

The town of Pembroke, about one hundred and twenty miles up the 
river from Ottawa, was founded in 1828 by Col. Peter White, a native 
of Edinburgh, Scotland, who was for many years one of the principal 
timber merchants of the Ottawa Valley. His sons have been actively 
engaged in the lumber business and by their enterprise have done much 
to build up their native town. Hon. Peter White, born at Pembroke 
August 30, 1838, after receiving a business training from an Ottawa 

205 



206 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

mercantile firm, entered into partnership with his brother, Andrew T. 
White, now deceased, as A. & P. White, and for many years carried on 
an extensive lumber business which is still continued under the firm 
name. Mr. White is known best, perhaps, as an active politician. He 
was elected to Parliament in the Conservative interest for North Ren- 
frew in 1874 and, with the exception of a brief interval, represented the 
constituency steadily until 1896. He was chosen Speaker of the House 
in 1891 and held that position during a parliamentary term, until 1896, 
in which year he was defeated in the general election. He carried the 
constituency again in 1904. Mr. White is a member of the Privy Coun- 
cil of Canada, to which he was called in 1897. He is a director of the 
Pembroke Lumber Company and is prominently identified with many 
local commercial enterprises. His brother and business partner, An- 
drew T. White, was also in public life and for some time represented 
North Renfrew in the Ontario Legislature. 

WILLIAM MOHR. 

William Mohr, a prominent figure in the early lumber trade of the 
Ottawa Valley, died at his home in the township of Fitzroy, near Ren- 
frew, Ontario, in May, 1903, in the ninetieth year of his age. His 
operations were confined to the square timber trade. He took many 
rafts to Quebec, his transactions sometimes reaching 750,000 cubic feet 
in a season. He operated on the Quyon, Bonnechere, Petawawa, 
Du Moine and Madawaska rivers, where year after year he regularly 
made his trips to the shanties. 

BOYD CALDWELL & CO. 

The late Boyd Caldwell, of Lanark, Ontario, came to Canada from 
his native place in Renfrewshire, Scotland, in 1821 with his parents, 
when only three years of age. For about fifty years he was engaged 
in the export timber business, but in 1867 became more extensively 
concerned in the manufacture of woolen goods. Boyd Caldwell died in 
1888. The firm of Boyd Caldwell & Co., of which he was the founder, 
is still extant, having recently been incorporated, with his son, Thomas 
Boyd Caldwell, as president. In addition to its extensive woolen mills 
the company operates a large planing and sawmill. 

GILMOUR & co. 

Allan Gilmour, a member of a family that in the early days was ex- 
tensively engaged in the square timber trade and is today prominently 
represented in lumber manufacturing, was born in Lanarkshire, Scot- 
land, August 23, 1816. In his early youth he went to Montreal, where 



ONTARIO PERSONNEL. 207 

he entered the employ of William Ritchie & Co., wholesale merchants. 
In 1840 he and his cousins, James, John and David Gilmour, assumed 
the business. Shortly afterward they engaged in the production of 
square timber for the Quebec market, and in 1853 Allan Gilmour took 
up his residence in Ottawa, which became the headquarters of Gilmour 
& Co. The firm acquired large sawmills on the Gatineau, Blanche and 
North Nation rivers, tributaries of the Ottawa, as well as steam mills at 
Trenton, on the Bay of Quinte". Allan Gilmour retired from business 
in 1873 and died in 1895. 

THE COOKS. 

George J. Cook, of the Cook & Bro. Lumber Company, was a brother 
of Herman H. Cook and was born August 22, 1824, in Williamsburg 
Township, Dundas County, Ontario. He was all his life actively en- 
gaged in the lumber business. His first operations, early in the '40's, 
were on the Nation River, from which they were transferred to Belle- 
ville and subsequently farther west. He was one of the first lumber- 
men to take out board pine in the country lying between Toronto and 
Barrie. The later operations of the company under his management 
have been in the Algoma district, where it owns extensive limits. Mr. 
Cook died August 21, 1902, and was succeeded as president of the com- 
pany by his nephew, George W. Cook. 

H. H. Cook is a son of George Cook. He built a mill at Midland, 
Ontario, in 1872, and during the next ten years built six others in vari- 
ous localities. Mr. Cook is at the head of the Ontario Lumber Com- 
pany, of Toronto, and owns extensive limits on the French and Ver- 
million rivers. 

THOMAS COLE. 

The death of Thomas Cole, of Westboro, Ontario, in 1904, removed 
one of the pioneer lumbermen of the Ottawa Valley. Mr. Cole was 
born in Devonshire, England, in 1820. He went to Canada when still 
young, and was attracted to the lumber business, first locating at Papi- 
neauville, Quebec, taking out square timber. Some years later he 
became a partner of the late James MacLaren, of Buckingham, Quebec, 
J. C. Edwards and Daniel Cameron in a firm which acquired the Gil- 
mour timber and sawmill interests on the Nation River. The firm did 
business at the North Nation mills until 1878, when, through the death 
of Mr. Cameron, the firm wound up its affairs. Mr. Cole left a wife, 
four sons and five daughters. 



208 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

THE M'LACHLIN FAMILY. 

The founder of the large lumbering business now carried on by 
McLachlin Bros, at Arnprior, Renfrew County, Ontario, was Daniel 
McLachlin, one of the pioneer lumbermen of the Ottawa Valley, who 
established it over sixty years ago. He was an important factor in the 
public and commercial life of his day and represented his constituency 
in the Canadian Parliament. 

In 1853 Daniel McLachlin purchased the water powers at the mouth 
of the Madawaska River and the land on which the town of Arnprior 
now stands, and in 1857 moved up from Ottawa to Arnprior with his 
family. In 1866 he erected the first sawmill in that place to saw lumber 
for the American market. In 1869 he retired from business, leaving 
the work to be carried on by his three sons, Hugh, Frederick and Claude, 
under the style of McLachlin Bros. He died in 1872. 

During the last quarter of a century McLachlin Bros, have cut an 
average of 60,000,000 feet per annum. The firm has operated for years 
on the Madawaska, Bonnechere, Petawawa, Kippewa and Black rivers 
and other tributaries of the Ottawa River, at present furnishing employ- 
ment to about a thousand men. 

Claude McLachlin died in New York April 19, 1903. He was the 
youngest son of Daniel McLachlin and was born at Ottawa in 1854. 

THE CHARLTON BROTHERS. 

Among the Canadian lumbermen who during the last generation or 
so have risen to prominence in public life, John Charlton, of Lynedoch, 
Norfolk County, Ontario, is easily foremost. Mr. Charlton, though an 
American by birth, is of British parentage. He was born in New York 
State, February 3, 1829, and went with his family to Canada in 1849. 
He established himself at Lynedoch and engaged extensively in lum- 
bering operations. 

Always keenly interested in social and political questions and a 
strong Liberal of the old school by conviction, he took an active part 
in politics and in 1872 was elected to the House of Commons for North 
Norfolk, a seat which he retained throughout all political vicissitudes 
until the last general election in 1904, when his failing health compelled 
his retirement from politics. Though a keen partisan, he held decided 
views of his own on many questions. He is the author of a measure 
usually known as the "Charlton Act for the Protection of Girls," and 
devoted much attention to the advocacy of commercial reciprocity be- 
tween Canada and the United States. He was appointed by the British 



ONTARIO PERSONNEL. 209 

government a member of the Joint High Commission which met at 
Quebec in 1898 to arrange disputes and remove obstacles to trade be- 
tween the two countries. A volume of Mr. Charlton's speeches and 
addresses on various topics has been published. 

Hon. William Charlton, brother of John Charlton, is a native of 
Cattaraugus County, New York. His earlier years were spent in Iowa, 
but in 1861 he made his home at Lynedoch, Ontario, and engaged in 
lumbering and mercantile business. He attained a leading position in 
the locality and took a prominent part in politics on the Liberal side. 
He was elected to the Provincial Legislature of Ontario, for South Nor- 
folk, in 1891 and reflected in several following contests. His thorough 
knowledge of the lumbering industry and the conditions prevailing in 
the backwoods contributed greatly to his usefulness as a legislator. In 
1902 he was chosen Speaker of the House, occupying the position until 
the defeat of his party in the general elections of 1904. Mr. Charlton 
is a member of the firm of Pitts & Charlton, of Toronto. 

WILLIAM MAC KEY. 

William Mackey was a prominent figure for over a half century in 
the lumbering trade of the Ottawa Valley. He came to Ottawa, then 
Bytown, from his native country of Ireland in 1842 and secured employ- 
ment in the construction of the first government slide built at the 
Chaudiere, and was subsequently engaged in improvement work and 
lumbering on the Upper Ottawa under Hon. James Skead. In 1850 he 
went into business on his own account and about this time formed a 
partnership with Neil Robertson which lasted for twenty years and was 
terminated by Mr. Robertson's death. Their early operations were 
conducted in the Madawaska country at a time when the square timber 
trade was at its height. They made money rapidly until the depression 
set in. In addition to the square timber operations they had a sawmill 
on a limit at Amable du Ford. When they experienced some reverses 
Mr. Robertson wished to withdraw from milling operations and to give 
up his share in the limit as an unprofitable venture. Mr. Mackey's faith 
in the future of the industry, however, was unshaken, and he relieved 
his partner of any obligation as to this feature of their business and 
secured the entire control of the Amable du Ford limit. After the 
market recovered he took from the limit annually large quantities of 
timber and eventually disposed of it for $65,000. Mr. Mackey retired 
from active Business in 1902 and sold out his limits and other lumbering 
property to J. R. Booth for $655,000. He died a few months afterward. 



210 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

H. L. LOVERING. 

H. L. Levering, of Coldwater, Ontario, of English birth, began 
lumbering in October, 1850, on the present site of Port Severn, at the 
mouth of the Severn River. In 1852 he located at the head of Lake 
Superior and cut the first board manufactured on the site of the present 
cities of Duluth and Superior. In 1857, having returned to Ontario, he 
associated himself with A. R. Christie, of Port Severn. Since 1870 he 
has been with the Georgian Bay Lumber Company. 

JOHN R. BOOTH. 

John R. Booth, of Ottawa, Ontario, went there in 1852 and leased a 
small mill. He now owns about 4,250 square miles of timber limits 
sufficient timber land to make a strip a mile wide reaching across 
Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In one of his mills 600,000 
feet of lumber is produced daily and between 1,500 and 1,600 men are 
given employment directly or indirectly. 

Mr. Booth built the Canada Atlantic and the Ottawa, Arnprior & 
Parry Sound railways, with 400 miles of main line and 100 miles of sid- 
ing. He also founded a line of steamers, built car shops and created 
other extensive interests. In 1904 he erected a pulp mill at the Chau- 
diere. Mr. Booth has also a distributing yard and planing mill at Bur- 
lington, Vermont. 

ALEXANDER FRASER. 

Alexander Eraser, of Ottawa, one of the leaders of the square tim- 
ber trade, was the son of Hugh Eraser, a Highlander who served in the 
War of 1812 and afterward settled at a point near Ottawa, where 
Alexander was born in 1830. He embarked in the lumbering industry 
and in 1853 took out his first raft of square timber on Black River. His 
career was successful from the start, and his operations rapidly in- 
creased until during the '70's he had frequently a dozen or so rafts 
simultaneously on the way to market. He was known from the head- 
waters of the Ottawa to Quebec. He was a man of great energy and 
determination of character, was possessed of a keen foresight and 
sound business judgment and often by tacit consent was accorded a 
leading part in the management of large enterprises in which he was 
interested. He was one of the founders of the Bank of Ottawa, the 
Lachine Rapids Hydraulic Company and the Ottawa Trust & Deposit 
Company and was also heavily interested in the Upper Ottawa Improve- 
ment Company and the Keewatin Lumber Company. 

Mr. Eraser sustained great reverses from time to time, but his 



ONTARIO PERSONNEL. 211 

strong financial standing enabled him to bear them easily. In 1895, 
upon his retirement from active business, his sons, J. B. and W. H. A. 
Fraser, organized the Fraser Lumber Company. Mr. Fraser died June 
1, 1903, aged seventy-three years. 

HON. ERSKINE H. BRONSON. 

Hon. Erskine Henry Bronson, of Ottawa, was born at Bolton, New 
York, in 1844. His father, Henry Franklin Bronson, moved to Ottawa, 
then By town, in 1853, and built on Victoria Island, in the Ottawa River, 
the first sawmill which shipped lumber from Ottawa to the American 
market. The venture prospered and grew and many fortunes were 
made in the trade. At the age of twenty-one the younger Bronson 
entered his father's business, familiarizing himself with all of its de- 
tails. In 1867 he was given an interest in the business, which was 
afterward incorporated as the Bronson-Weston Lumber Company. The 
cut for twenty years averaged 50,000,000 feet of lumber annually and 
one season it amounted to 85,000,000. The mill went out of opera- 
tion in 1898, but the company still owns large areas of timber lands. 
Mr. Bronson is president of several industrial companies. He repre- 
sented Ottawa in the Provincial Legislature of Ontario between 1886 
and 1898, and for some years was a member of the Liberal adminis- 
tration. 

ROBERT STEWART. 

Robert Stewart, of Guelph, Ontario, located there in 1855, and is 
now the owner of one of the largest plants in Ontario manufacturing 
sash, doors and trim. 

THE M' ARTHUR BROS. CO., LIMITED. 

This concern was composed originally of John, Alexander and Peter 
McArthur, of whom only the latter survives. For nearly a half century 
they conducted a manufacturing business in board pine, in western 
Canada and Michigan. Their head office was in Toronto, with branches 
in Montreal and Quebec. They held valuable timber limits in various 
parts of Canada, and still have important interests in this respect, as 
well as others in gold, silver, lead and copper, both in Canada and in 
the United States. The firm still manufactures timber for the Quebec 
market, its product being handled by The McArthur Export Company, 
in Quebec City. Its specialty, board pine, has been always recognized 
as superior and is well known in all consuming countries. 

The eldest brother of the family, Archibald McArthur, with his sons, 
is engaged, in a limited way, in the manufacture of mixed varieties of 



212 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

square timber for the Quebec market, at Lancaster, Glengarry County, 
Ontario, where the Canadian branch of the family originated. 

Under the name of The McArthur Bros. Co., Limited, Peter 
McArthur conducts a large enterprise in lumber in Detroit, Michigan. 

THE RATHBUN COMPANY. 

Edward Wilkes Rathbun, late president of the Rathbun Company, 
of Deseronto, Ontario, was born in 1842 at Auburn, New York. Dur- 
ing his youth his father, Hugo B. Rathbun, left the United States to 
engage in the lumbering industry in eastern Ontario. He started a 
small sawmill at Mill Point, now the town of Deseronto, on the Bay of 
Quinte". 

E. W. Rathbun, after having received a first-class business training 
in New York, joined his father. The industry soon attained large pro- 
portions and expanded in many directions. In 1884 it was incorporated 
as the Rathbun Company, with E. W. Rathbun as president. The com- 
pany established sawmill plants at Gravenhurst, Lindsay, Campbellford, 
Tweed, Bancroft, Fenelon Falls, and Manitoulin Island. Other branches 
of industry were added and operated from time to time as auxiliaries, 
either by the Rathbun Company or other corporations closely affiliated 
with it and controlled by Mr. Rathbun. These included a sash and door 
factory doing a very large export trade, charcoal kilns to utilize the by- 
products of lumbering, cement works, etc. The Rathbun Company is 
also in the lumber and coal carrying trade, owns a dry dock and ship 
yard and has extensive car shops. The stockholders are proprietors of 
the Bay of Quinte" railway, eighty-four miles in length. These and 
other diversified industries aid each other and have built up a flourish- 
ing industrial community. The company owns about 350,000 acres of 
government timber limits in addition to 60,000 acres of timbered land 
in fee simple. 

Mr. Rathbun was a firm believer in the necessity of conserving the 
forest as a permanent source of supply, and the extensive limits under 
his control were worked on economical principles with a view to avoid- 
ing waste and preserving the younger growth of trees with an eye to 
future requirements. He had made a close study of the question, and 
was appointed a member of the Ontario Forestry Commission in 1897, 
in which capacity he brought his practical experience as a lumberman to 
bear upon the problems submitted. The report of this body had an im- 
portant influence upon the policy since pursued by the Government. 

Mr. Rathbun, who died November 24, 1903, was a many-sided man 



ONTARIO PERSONNEL. 213 

of tireless energy and liberal culture, and took a keen, practical interest 
in all public questions. 

THE HURDMAN FAMILY. 

Robert Hurdman, of Ottawa, was the youngest and surviving mem- 
ber of the original Hurdman family, consisting of five brothers, William, 
Charles, John, George and Robert, who were prominently identified for 
a half century with the lumber trade of the Ottawa Valley. Their 
father was Charles Hurdman, who emigrated from Ireland in 1818, and 
settled in Hull Township. 

Robert Hurdman was born in 1830, and in connection with his 
brothers operated extensively in the square timber trade on the Peta- 
wawa River, Ontario, their first operations being in 1866. In 1872 
limits were purchased in the Kippewa district, and in 1879 they began 
to get out logs on contract for the mill owners, in the same year form- 
ing the partnership of Sherman, Lord & Hurdman. The firm operated 
the old Crannell mill in the Chaudiere district, the logs being cut by the 
Hurdmans on their limits. A limit was also purchased that year in the 
Coulonge district. Several changes and reorganizations in the person- 
nel and style of the partnership subsequently took place. In 1886 the 
name was R. Hurdman & Co., Mr. Hurdman acting as manager of the 
mills. The concern afterward embraced other interests and in 1891 be- 
came the Buell, Orr, Hurdman Company. Mr. Hurdman, however, 
had large lumbering interests outside of the company's operations and 
dealt extensively in timber limits, accumulating considerable wealth. 
He entered into partnership with the Shepard & Morse Lumber Com- 
pany, of Boston, to operate his limit in the Kippewa district. After the 
dissolution of this partnership he purchased limits from the Bronson 
Company, at Deep River, which he sold to Fraser & Co. A few years 
ago Mr. Hurdman bought from R. H. Flock & Co. the limits at Ross 
Lake in the Kippewa district which he operated with the help of his 
son until the time of his death. He died May 4, 1904, aged seventy- 
four years. 

HON. WILLIAM C. EDWARDS. 

Hon. William C. Edwards, of Ottawa, is the son of William Ed- 
wards, who came from England to Canada in 1820 and settled in Clar- 
ence Township, Russell County, Ontario, where Senator Edwards was 
born May 7, 1844. He established in 1868 the firm of W. C. Edwards 
& Co., the transactions of which have been large and successful. In 
addition to his lumber interests Mr. Edwards devotes a good deal of 



214 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

attention to stock raising and agriculture. Entering the political field 
as a Liberal, he was elected to the House of Commons in 1887, and in 
1903 was appointed a member of the Senate. 

ROBERT LAIDLAW. 

Robert Laidlaw, of Toronto, has always been identified with the 
lumber industry, and in 1871, in partnership with Thomas Shortreed, 
purchased some timber in Barrie Township, Simcoe County, Ontario, 
where he operated until the timber was exhausted. In 1886 Mr. Laid- 
law established wholesale and retail yards at Sarnia, Ontario, and Buf- 
falo, New York. He is also a member of the R. T. Jones Lumber 
Company of North Tonawanda, New York. 

GILLIES BROTHERS. 

The business of Gillies Bros. Company, Limited, was founded in 
1873, by James, William, John and David Gillies, sons of the late John 
Gillies, who at one time carried on extensive lumbering operations at 
Carleton Place, Ontario, in partnership with Peter MacLaren. The 
Gillies brothers bought a sawmill plant at Braeside, Ontario, which has 
been enlarged and improved until at the present time they manufacture 
about 40,000,000 feet of lumber yearly, in addition to their output 
of shingles,* lath, etc., giving employment to about a thousand men in 
the mills and the bush. They hold about one thousand miles of timber 
limits, partly in Ontario and partly in Quebec, on the Coulonge, Peta- 
wawa and Montreal rivers and Lake Temiscamingue. For the last 
thirty-five years the greater portion of their output has found a market 
in the United States. James Gillies is president of the company and is 
also head of the John Gillies Estate Company, manufacturer of gaso- 
line launches and sawmill machinery at Carleton Place. 

GEORGE M'CORMACK. 

George McCormack, of Orillia, Ontario, was born October 12, 1850, 
at Lochaber, Ottawa County, Quebec, of Irish and Scotch descend 
Having in his youth acquired a thorough knowledge of the lumber 
trade in the Ottawa Valley, he transferred his operations to the then 
little known region of Parry Sound, which offered a promising field. 
He displayed much foresight and energy, and his trade rapidly ex- 
tended. For many years he was in partnership with the late Angus 
McLeod under the name of McCormack & McLeod until the death of 
the latter in 1903. In addition to his operations in northwestern Onta- 
rio, Mr. McCormack has large interests in the lumber trade of British 
Columbia. He is a Conservative in politics and takes an active part in 



ONTARIO PERSONNEL. 215 

public life. He entered the House of Commons in 1896 as representa- 
tive of the Muskoka and Parry Sound district and was a member dur- 
ing two terms. 

GEORGE H. PERLEY. 

George H. Perley, of Ottawa, is the son of William G. Perley, one 
of the pioneer lumbermen of the Ottawa Valley. His native place is 
Lebanon, New Hampshire, and the date of his birth September 12, 1857. 
His business career began with his admission to the firm of Perley & 
Pattee, of which his father was the senior partner. At present he is 
head of the firm of G. H. Perley & Co., vice president of the Hull 
Lumber Company, and is also actively concerned in other industrial 
undertakings. 

Mr. Perley is a public-spirited citizen and has taken an active part in 
charitable enterprises. He was chairman of the relief fund which dis- 
tributed nearly a million dollars to the sufferers of the Ottawa fire in 
1900. In politics he is a Conservative and on three occasions was nomi- 
nated as candidate of that party for the House of Commons, being re- 
turned in 1904 as member for Argenteuil, Quebec. 

JOHN B. MILLER. 

John B. Miller, of Toronto, president of the Parry Sound Lumber 
Company, is a native of Athens, Leeds County, Ontario, and was born 
July 26, 1862. His father was John Clausin Miller, at one time Super- 
intendent of Woods and Forests for Ontario, and subsequently a lumber 
operator. At an early age Mr. Miller was associated in the business 
with his father, upon the death of whom in 1884 he succeeded to the 
presidency of the Parry Sound Lumber Company, which does a very 
extensive business. He is also largely interested in manufacturing, 
being joint owner of the Poison Iron Works, of Toronto, and is a promi- 
nent figure in the commercial life of the city. In February, 1905, he 
was elected president of the Lumbermen's Association of Ontario. 

JOHN BERTRAM. 

On November 28, 1904, Canada lost one of its foremost citizens in 
the person of John Bertram, who died from an operation for appendi- 
citis at his home in Toronto. He was a man of splendid business 
ability and sterling integrity. Though prominent in many other spheres 
of activity he was, perhaps, more closely identified with the lumber in- 
dustry than with any other. He was a Scotchman by birth, and arrived 
in Canada in 1860 when twenty-three years of age, settling at Peterboro, 
Ontario, where he engaged in the hardware trade. He moved to 



216 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Toronto in 1878, embarking in the wholesale branch of the business. 
About this time he began extensive lumbering operations in connection 
with the Collins Inlet Lumber Company, of which he was president, 
having large limits on the Georgian Bay with sawmills at Collins Inlet. 

He was eminently successful as an operator, and was a noted advo- 
cate of forest preservation. His own operations were conducted on 
economical principles with an eye to the future productiveness of his 
limits, and utilized to the best possible advantage not only the pine but 
the hardwood growth. Owing to his practical knowledge of forest con- 
ditions, of which he had made a life study, in 1897 he was appointed a 
member of the Ontario Forestry Commission to report on the subject of 
restoring and preserving the growth of white pine and other timber 
trees upon lands in the Province which are not adapted to agricultural 
purposes or to settlement. The valuable report of this commission 
practically inaugurated a new era in forest administration. Its recom- 
mendations were adopted by the Government, and a large area of land 
was added to the forest reserves. He was an active and valued mem- 
ber of the Canadian Forestry Association and the author of several 
masterly papers on forestry subjects. 

Mr. Bertram was largely interested in the Bertram Engine Works 
Company, of Toronto, of which he became president in 1900. His last 
field of public usefulness was as chairman of the Dominion Transpor- 
tation Commission. He was appointed to that office October 27, 1903. 
Under his leadership the commission had collected much valuable in- 
formation, when ill health terminated his tenure of office. A widow 
and a family of seven survive him. 

NATHANIEL DYMENT. 

A lumber operator since the time of his youth is Nathaniel Dyment, 
of Barrie, Ontario. His first operations were in Ancaster and Beverly 
townships, Wentworth County, and subsequently he built a number of 
mills on the Great Western railway. In 1886 the firm of Mickle, Dyment 
& Son was organized, with mills at Gravenhurst, Severn Bridge and 
Thessalon, Ontario, with an annual output of 35,000,000 feet. 

ELIHU STEWART. 

Elihu Stewart, Superintendent of Forestry for Canada, was born in 
Sombra, Lambton County, Ontario, November 17, 1844. He was ad- 
mitted as a Dominion land surveyor in 1872, and was extensively 
engaged in Crown surveys both in Ontario and the Northwest Terri- 
tories. He resided for some time in the town of Collingwood and took 



ONTARIO PERSONNEL. 217 

an active part in municipal and political affairs. He was elected mayor 
of the town in 1896, and during the same year unsuccessfully contested 
North Simcoe in the interest of the Liberal party. 

In 1899 he was appointed Superintendent of Forestry, owing to his 
wide knowledge of the requirements of the Northwest, where extensive 
operations in tree planting have since been carried on under his direc- 
tion with the best results. Since the work has been undertaken its 
scope has been greatly increased. During the years 1901-1904 upward 
of 3,200,000 trees, distributed by the Government, have been planted 
by the farmers in the prairie country. Over half of these trees were 
set out in 1904. 

AUBREY WHITE. 

Aubrey White, Assistant Minister of Lands and Mines for Ontario, 
was born at Lisonally House, Tyrone County, Ireland, March 19, 1845, 
and received his education in that country. He came to Canada in 1862, 
and for some years was engaged in the lumber business in the Muskoka 
district. In 1876 he entered the service of the Government as a forest 
ranger and some years later was appointed clerk of the Woods and 
Forests Branch. Recommendations made by him to the Provincial 
government resulted in the adoption of the fire-ranging system, which 
was established in 1885, and, having subsequently been greatly ex- 
tended, has done much to check the ravages of forest fires. 

In 1887 Mr. White was advanced to the post which he now holds in 
what was then known as the Department of Crown Lands. During 
successive administrations he has taken a prominent part in the shaping 
and carrying out of their timber policies and the effecting of such changes 
in the regulations as were rendered necessary by the development of 
the Province. Mr. White is a leading Free Mason and a prominent mem- 
ber of the Canadian Forestry Association. 

THOMAS SOUTHWORTH. 

Thomas Southworth, director of Forestry and Colonization for 
Ontario, was born in Leeds County, Ontario, in 1855, of American 
parentage, and is a direct descendant of one of the Pilgrims who came 
over in the Mayflower. He was for many years engaged in journalism 
as editor and manager of the Brockville Recorder. In 1895 he was ap- 
pointed Clerk of Forestry. Previous to his appointment the duties of 
the position had been merely of an educational and advisory character, 
but, owing to the growing urgency of the question, the scope of the 
office was greatly enlarged and it was put upon a practical basis in con- 



218 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

nection with administrative work. To the investigations undertaken by 
Mr. South-worth, and the data and suggestions presented by the Bureau 
to the Government, the establishment of the system of extensive forest 
reserves in the wooded regions of New Ontario is mainly due. Mr. 
Southworth was a member of the Royal Commission which in 1897 
reported on the subject in favor of the setting apart of forest reserves. 
Latterly he has been entrusted with the direction of colonization move- 
ments in the newer parts of the Province. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

NEW BRUNSWICK TIMBER HISTORY. 

v 

Although the landing of DeMonts, the French pioneer, in the pres- 
ent harbor of St. John, New Brunswick, June 24, 1604, is annually cele- 
brated in the Canadian Province, the progressive history of New Bruns- 
wick dates from the time of the influx of loyalists from the United 
States in 1783. They were known as the United Empire Loyalists ; 
and, so great was their love for their King and royal traditions, they 
left the United States after the successful issue of the Revolution again 
to find a home under British rule on the American continent. 

On their arrival at St. John they found a country covered with pine, 
spruce, fir and hardwoods, and almost unscarred by the ax. They 
found the River St. John and other streams penetrating, with their 
tributaries, this magnificent timber. The River St. John, it is true, 
rises in Maine, but the greater part of its channel lies within the present 
Province of New Brunswick. Another portion of the stream forms 
the boundary between the New America to which the loyalists had 
come and the old new America which they had left. They recognized 
the importance and value of the St. John as a waterway, and even 
to this day it brings to the City of St. John large numbers of logs from 
both Maine and New Brunswick. 

The Province of New Brunswick embraces 27,985 square miles. 
The principal timber territory is traversed by the Tobique and smaller 
streams which empty into the St. John, the Miramichi, the Nepisiguit 
and the Restigouche. These are the principal log-floating streams in 
New Brunswick. The Province contains 17,910,400 acres, of which 
about 7,500,000 acres remain in the hands of the Crown and may be 
considered timber lands. Of these about six million acres are under 
license to lumber operators and many have been denuded of the more 
valuable and larger timber, though still capable of being profitably 
operated. The remainder of the Crown lands, about 1,500,000 acres 
not under license, is in the interior of the Province and is almost in its 
pristine condition. In addition to the timber on the public lands, there 
is much valuable timber on lands held by private owners. In particular 
the 1,647,772 acres granted to the New Brunswick railway as a bonus 

219 



220 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

includes some of the finest timber land in the Province, stretching from 
the southwest Miramichi waters across the Tobique Valley to the head 
waters of the Restigouche. It is leased by the company to lumber 
operators and yields a large annual cut. Alexander Gibson, one of the 
largest operators, owns 200,000 acres of forest land and other indi- 
viduals hold the fee simple of extensive tracts, so that the total area of 
forest land is at least ten million acres. Some authorities put the 
figure considerably higher; Lieutenant Governor Jabez B. Snowball, 
an expert in the lumber trade, estimates the total forest area at about 
twelve million acres, but as this apparently includes large tracts which 
have been stripped of timber by fire and by the ax, the former esti- 
mate probably includes all the land at present available for lumber- 
ing operations. 

Spruce is the predominant tree and, although wherever operations 
have been carried on the heavier spruce is pretty well cleared off, there 
is still an abundance of ordinary sized trees.- The merchantable pine 
is nearly exhausted, but in many localities a flourishing young growth is 
springing up which, if protected against fire, will form a valuable future 
source of supply. Along the north shore there is a belt of hardwood 
comprising oak, beech and maple. Of the total forest area 60 percent 
is estimated to be spruce land, 10 percent pine, 5 percent hemlock, 
5 percent cedar and 20 percent hardwoods, which latter consist princi- 
. pally of birch, beech, ash and maple. 

The original timber growth of the Province was white pine and red 
pine principally, but the proportion of these woods has been much re- 
duced by cutting. Spruce is now the principal article of local manufac- 
ture and foreign export and owing to its availability and rapid growth it 
enjoys a favor equal to, if not greater, than that of pine. White spruce 
and black spruce predominate and smaller quantities of red spruce, 
hemlock, balsam, fir and white cedar are also present. Among the 
hardwoods are the red, yellow and white birches, the hard and soft 
maples, ash, white, red or black, beech and American elm, generally 
distributed, and butternut and basswood in the southern part of the 
Province. Red birch and yellow birch form the greatest hardwood 
wealth and much white birch is cut for spool stock. 

New Brunswick has from the earliest days been a great lumbering 
section, the industry being favored by the geographical position of the 
Province and its physical conformation, which presents special facilities 
for the shipping and marketing of its forest product. It is surrounded 



NEW BRUNSWICK TIMBER HISTORY. 221 

on the southeast and partly on the north by water, giving a seaboard of 
545 miles. There are two great river systems, the St. John and the 
Miramichi, with another important one, the Restigouche, and numerous 
smaller rivers which, with lakes, intersect the Province in every direc- 
tion, affording abundant facilities for floating timber from the interior 
to the coast. In addition to these natural highways New Brunswick 
claims to have a larger railway mileage in proportion to population 
than any other country. 

As early as 1778 the magnificent timber on the St. John River at- 
tracted British enterprise and capital. In 1781 Jonathan Leavitt 
launched at St. John the pioneer vessel of the fleet of New Brunswick 
built ships which subsequently sailed from that port. 

The territory was at that time a portion of the Province of Nova 
Scotia. It was set apart as a separate province in 1785. Up to that 
time it was but sparsely settled, the population being composed mainly 
of a few Acadians and some straggling settlers from New England at- 
tracted by the profits promised by the timber or the fish trade. But the 
population was being increased by an influx of United Empire Loyalists 
who had taken the side of Britain during the Revolutionary War and 
felt compelled in consequence to seek homes outside of the United 
States. European immigrants also came in large numbers, the princi- 
pal attraction being the opportunities afforded by the growing timber 
industry, which was greatly increased by the demands of the British 
navy. The ships which left New Brunswick with cargoes of timber 
returned laden with immigrants, many of whom passed on to the United 
States. Those who remained in the Province and took up land, how- 
ever, were greatly aided financially by the market afforded for their 
produce by the lumberman and the timber merchant. 

W. O. Raymond, LL. D., writing in the St. John Telegraph on 
"Early History of New Brunswick Families," says concerning the first 
sawmill in New Brunswick: 

"The reference to a mill, built by the brothers Louis and Mathieu 
d' Amours in the neighborhood of Fort Nashwaak, may serve to explain 
the statement of Villebon in 1696, that he had caused planks for 
madriers, or gun platforms, to be made near the fort. This mill at any 
rate antedates by the best part of a century the mill built by Simonds 
& White at St. John in 1767 and that built by Colonel Beamsley Glasier's 
millwrights at the Nashwaak in 1768. Doubtless it was a very primitive 
affair, but it sawed lumber, and was in its modest way the pioneer of 



222 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

the greatest manufacturing industry of New Brunswick at the present 
day." 

In 1790 there were two sawmills of a primitive design in St. John. 
In 1822 a steam engine and boiler were imported from Birmingham and 
the first steam sawmill was started, the first output being shipped the 
same year to Cork, Ireland. Thereafter the number of sawmills in- 
creased rapidly and the item of sawn lumber began to assume a promi- 
nent position in the table of exports. 

The noted Miramichi forest fire occurred in 1825. It had been a 
summer almost without rain and, when autumn came, the woods were 
as dry as tinder. Fires from numerous causes originated in many 
places in the forest and columns of smoke enshrouded the earth in the 
darkness of twilight. The danger did not become great, however, so 
long as the air was still. On the night of October 7, 1825, a strong 
wind arose and fanned the flames into fury. A local historian has thus 

described it: 

At eight o'clock the wind increased to a swift hurricane from the west and 
soon afterwards a loud and appalling roar was heard, with explosions and a crack- 
ling like that of discharges of musketry. The air was filled with pieces of burning 
wood and cinders, which were driven along by the gale, igniting everything upon 
which they fell. The roaring grew louder and sheets of flame seemed to pierce the 
sky. The people ran hither and thither, some gave up in despair, some took 
refuge in the river, domestic and wild animals mingled in the general rush for 
safety. In the space of a single hour the fire swept over the district north of the 
river, destroying everything in its path. The sweep of the fire in northern New 
Brunswick extended for one hundred miles and covered an area of 6,000 square 
miles. 

The crowning catastrophe came when the conflagration swept away 
within an hour Newcastle, Douglastown and other villages on the 
northern side of the Miramichi River. Of five hundred buildings only 
twenty-five remained, and the ships in the harbor were burned. 

The fire was not confined to this district. It devastated the whole 
country from the Bartibogue to the Nashwaak, a distance of more than 
one hundred miles, and crossed the upper Tobique Mountains one hun- 
dred miles distant in another direction. The total area laid waste was 
about six thousand square miles and the loss of timber at the low esti- 
mate then placed upon it was reckoned at 500,000. The effects of this 
disastrous fire were seriously felt by the trade for many years afterward. 

EARLY LUMBERING METHODS. 

The following description of the methods of lumber manufacture 
employed at an early period, taken from the " Account of the Province 



NEW BRUNSWICK TIMBER HISTORY. 223 

of New Brunswick by Thomas Baillie, Esq.," in 1832, will be of inter- 
est. Mr. Baillie was surveyor general. The work was written mainly 
for the benefit of future immigrants. 

Mills for sawing lumber are our principal and largest branches of industry. 
The proper dimensions of the building are sixty feet long, forty feet broad and 
about twenty feet in height to the roof. The usual expense of the whole undertak- 
ing, including the dam, is seldom less than 1,000, provided the river be large. In 
this country, wood and water being so abundant, steam and iron are not likely to 
prove profitable when the former materials can be used. 

Labor is so exceedingly high that mills are constructed in a very simple manner, 
substituting great power for complicated machinery, and no fault could possibly be 
found with such an economical arrangement, provided the power remained at its 
usual maximum. But during the summer months and in the depth of winter the 
water, which is generally so abundant, becomes so much reduced in quantity and 
the machinery is then in want of sufficient power to continue in operation. The 
simplicity of the machinery and its being made of wood admit, in the scarcity of 
millwrights, of the repairs being at any time effected by the millers themselves, at 
which they are exceedingly expert. The difficulty attending iron machinery in the 
event of accidents would be irreparable, for, considering the remote situations of 
mills, an engineer could not possibly be obtained in sufficient time to prevent delay. 

Sawmills are worked with undershot water wheels, carrying a crank to which 
is applied a connecting rod giving motion to the saw. One saw in a frame is uni- 
versally considered more advantageous than gangs, owing to the acceleration of the 
motion. The part of the machinery which causes the log to advance to the saw 
and to carry it back is equally simple and prodigal of water. . . . 

The sawmills manufacture boards one inch thick from the white pine, the 
spruce and the hemlock for the consumption of the Province, and the former article 
also for the West Indies. Heretofore they have been principally employed in the 
sawing of deals from the white and red pine and a few from spruce for the British 
market, but the latter trade has sustained so severe a shock from the low state of 
the home market that the mills would have gone to decay had not the West Indies 
at one period held out some inducement to manufacture boards. The raw material 
is obtained from the Crown lands under a license for which a duty of two shillings 
and six pence for every thousand superficial feet of one inch in thickness is paid to 
the Crown. 

The writer proceeds to show how the sawmills have always been the 
pioneers of settlement and gives the rate of wages prevailing at that 
period as follows : For first-class millmen, 6 per month ; second class, 
4 10s; laborers, 3 to 4 10s. Men in the woods received 4 per 
month with board. "With charges so heavy as these," concludes 
Thomas Baillie, Esq., "it is perfectly impossible for our mill owners to 
compete with the Americans." Nevertheless, as the figures previously 
quoted show, the trade continued to flourish as the depression in 
the British market passed away and the demand from that quarter again 
became active. 



224 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Shipbuilding formed at this time an important industry. In the 
earlier days many of the vessels built in the Province were defective, 
being built by contract for from 4 to 7 per ton. In 1840 an effort 
was made with some success to improve the standard by a rigid system 
of inspection. For many years the abundance and good quality of tim- 
ber gave New Brunswick a notable advantage in shipbuilding. 

In the early days of the Nineteenth Century many people were dis- 
posed to regard the lumbering industry somewhat unfavorably, as an 
obstacle to the agricultural development of the country and as a fre- 
quent cause of demoralization to the men engaged in it. Complaints 
of this sort are frequently met with in the descriptive works of the 
writers of the period. Joseph Bouchette, surveyor general of Lower 
Canada, in a work dealing with the British American colonies, pub- 
lished in 1832, in speaking of the northern region of the Province, 
says : 

"The quantities of timber that have been felled, squared and taken 
from this part of the country are enormous and yet no one industry pre- 
sents so few symptoms of improvement. The pursuit of lumbering 
(perhaps a necessary evil in colonizing a wilderness) seems indeed of 
a demoralizing tendency, sometimes depriving its followers of the in- 
clination and even capability for consistent and steady industry." 

Another writer, J. McGregor, in his "Historical and Descriptive 
Sketches of the Maritime Colonies of British America," published in 
1828, gives a very vivid description of the hardships and discomforts of 
a lumberer's life and the primitive camp arrangements then in vogue: 

They commence by clearing away a few of the surrounding trees and building 
a camp of round logs, the walls of which are seldom more than four or five feet 
high, the roof covered with birch bark or boards. A pit is dug under the camp to 
preserve anything liable to injury from the frost. The fire is either at the middle 
or at one end, the smoke goes out through the roof, hay, straw or fir branches are 
spread across the whole breadth of the habitation, on which they all lie down 
together at night to sleep with their feet next the fire. When the fire gets low he 
who first awakes or feels himself cold, springs up and throws on five or six billets 
and in this way they manage to have a large fire all night. One person is hired as 
cook, whose duty it is to have breakfast ready before daylight, at which all the 
party arise, when each man takes his " morning," or the indispensable dram of raw 
rum, before breakfast. The meal consists of bread, or occasionally potatoes, with 
boiled beef, pork or fish and tea sweetened with molasses. Dinner is usually the 
same, with pea soup instead of tea, and the supper resembles the breakfast. These 
men are enormous eaters and they also drink great quantities of rum, which they 
scarcely ever dilute. 



NEW BRUNSWICK TIMBER HISTORY. 225 

After describing the rafting of timber down stream in the spring, 
and its attendant hardships, the writer goes on to say : 

No course of life can undermine the constitution more than that of a lumberer 
or raftsman. The winter snow and frost, although severe, are nothing to endure 
in comparison with the extreme cold of the snow water of the freshets in which the 
lumberer is day after day wet up to the middle and often immersed from head to 
foot. To stimulate the organs in order to sustain the cold these men swallow im- 
moderate quantities of ardent spirits and habits of drunkenness are the usual con- 
sequence. Their moral character with few exceptions, is dishonest and worthless. 
Premature old age and shortness of days form the inevitable fate of a lumberer. 
After settling and delivering up their rafts, they pass some weeks in indulgence, 
drinking, smoking and dashing off in a long coat, flashy waistcoat and trousers, 
Wellington or Hessian boots, a handkerchief of many colors round the neck, a 
watch with a long chain and numberless brass seals and an umbrella. 

The picture is a strong one, and that there were exceptions to the 
rule of profligacy and that the sad fate of the lumberer was not inevita- 
ble, the author a little further on admits in giving instances of young 
men who, by saving their earnings in lumbering on the Miramichi, were 
enabled to purchase farms, or became principals in the lumber business. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

NEW BRUNSWICK FOREST LEGISLATION. 

As in the other provinces of Canada, so it was in New Brunswick 
the home Government early sought to regulate the timber wealth. 
England always thought much of her naval greatness and sought to 
assure in her North American colonies a sufficient supply of white pine 
for masting for her ships. Thomas Baillie was appointed surveyor 
general in 1824, receiving the following explicit instructions : 

Whereas we have been graciously pleased to give instructions unto our right 
trusty and right entirely well-beloved cousin and counsellor, George, Earl of Dal- 
housie, Captain General and Governor-in-Chief in and for our Province of New 
Brunswick in America, for the regulation of his conduct in granting lands to our 
loyal refugees, who have taken refuge in that Province, and others who may become 
settlers therein, and amongst other things to signify our will and pleasure that no 
grant whatever be made of lands within our said Province until our Surveyor-Gen- 
eral of the Woods, or his Deputy lawfully appointed shall have viewed and marked 
out such districts within our said Province as reservations to Us, our Heirs and 
Successors, as shall be found to contain any considerable growth of masting, or 
other timber fitting for the use of our Royal Navy ; and that our Surveyor-General 
of Lands in our said Province shall not certify any plots of lands ordered and sur- 
veyed for any person or persons whatsoever, in order that grants may be made out 
for the same until it shall appear unto him by a certificate under the hand of our 
Surveyor-General of the Woods, or his Deputy, that the land so to be granted is 
not part of or included within any district marked out as a reservation for Us, our 
Heirs and Successors, as aforesaid for the purpose before mentioned. 

It is therefore our will and pleasure that and you are hereby authorised and 
empowered to give license in writing to any of our subjects in our Province of New 
Brunswick, to cut down such white pine and other trees growing upon the waste 
land which you shall judge to be not proper for the use of our Royal Navy. 

INVESTIGATION OF 1833. 

In 1827 the sale of limits by auction instead of by fixed fees was 
instituted, any purchase to be limited to a maximum of 1,200 acres to 
one person. Subsequent regulations in 1829 ordered a survey before 
sale and sought to prevent unnecessary waste in the cutting of timber. 
The receipts from timber limits in 1831 were 10,820. Joseph Cunard 
had been granted in 1831 a reservation for ten years on the Nepisiguit 
River above the falls on condition that he would improve the waterfall 
and secure a license to cut one thousand tons of timber per annum. 

226 



NEW BRUNSWICK FOREST LEGISLATION. 227 

This arrangement created criticism and, together with other complaints, 
brought about an investigation of timber administration, and a commit- 
tee of the legislative assembly was appointed in 1833 to make an inves- 
tigation. At this investigation it appeared that it was the custom to 
receive from April of one year to May 1 of the following year applica- 
tions for timber berths from all persons indiscriminately, so long as 
they were accompanied by a fee of forty-five shillings. On the latter 
date the applicants were notified whether their applications had been 
accepted or rejected. If there were two or more applicants for one 
piece of land all were rejected but one and the lucky man was given 
three months in which to pay the dues, amounting to Is per ton for 
white pine and Is 3d for red pine. In addition there was a tax of 3d 
per ton for expenses of survey. Mill reserves might be obtained by the 
same method, but in 1833 a new regulation made it necessary to secure 
these mill sites by public auction. 

In 1837 the home Government assigned to the Provincial govern- 
ment the regulation of Crown lands and the enjoyment of revenues 
therefrom. New regulations were adopted providing for five-year li- 
censes and dues of 2s on white pine and 2s 6d on red pine. 

The average cut of New Brunswick for the years 1835, 1836 and 1837 
was 116,600 tons of timber (16,820,000 feet of lumber) and the dues 
were 16,416. The average annual export of pine and birch timber 
during the same period was 249,926 tons, of masts and spars 619 and of 
deals 73,250,423 feet. 

The following table showing the growth of the industry is given in 
Dr. Abraham Gesner's work on New Brunswick, published in London 
in 1847 : 

Persons 
Year. Sawmills. Values. employed. 

1831 229 320.000 3.798 

1836 32O 42O.OOO 4.2OO 

1840 574 740.000 7.4OO 

1845 640 9OO.OOO 8.400 

The shipments from St. John in 1822 were: Pine timber, 79,122 
tons; birch timber, 7,520 tons; masts and spars, 2,147; poles, 383; lath- 
wood, 10,047 cords; boards, planks and deals, 8,277,000 feet; staves, 
2,392,000 pieces; shingles, 2,842,000 pieces; shocks, 268 bunches. In 
1832 the exports from St. John of deals, boards and scantling had in- 
creased to 22,000,000 feet ; in 1842, to 43,000,000 feet, and in 1852, to 
186,314,000 feet. Then came reverses followed by a period of depression 
which lasted several years, but in 1872 the shipments under this head 
stood at 236,639,000 feet. 



228 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

During the early '40' s the trade in sawn lumber, which had been 
rapidly increasing while that in square timber had been falling off, be- 
gan to take the lead in volume and importance. In 1835 the square 
timber trade was far in advance, the values of the exports of forest 
products for that year being : Square timber, 291,817; boards, 13,437; 
deals, 104,150; staves, 12,969. For 1839 the returns of exports from 
the port of St. John giving quantities as well as values (in returns 
from other ports quantities are not specified) were as follows: Square 
timber, 255,647 tons, value 277,998; boards, 6,622,000 feet, 16,641; 
deals, 75,969,000 feet, 189,252; staves, 1,858,000, 8,318. Six years 
later the sawn lumber exports considerably exceeded the shipments of 
square timber, the following being the returns for 1845 from St. John : 
Square timber, 244,846 tons, 275,451; boards, 10,537,000 feet, 26,342; 
deals, 127,860,000 feet, 319,650; staves, 1,008,000, 4,536; total, 
625,979. The values above given, it may be noted, are in sterling 
money, the pound sterling being a trifle under $5. The "pound" of 
the old Canadian or Halifax currency is equivalent to $4 and in these 
old records it is not always clear which is meant. 

The contributions of the lumber industry to the public revenue were 
comparatively insignificant until the middle of the century. The re- 
ceipts of the Provincial government on account of timber in 1849 were 
1,821, omitting fractional currency; in 1850, 2,304; in 1851, 1,851 
and in 1852, 5,256 (probably Halifax currency). In 1853 an attempt 
was made to put the industry on a more conservative basis and to give 
limit holders a guarantee of permanency of occupation. Previous to that 
time it appears to have been the practice to submit all the holdings to 
public competition every year, with the obvious result of encouraging 
production, each licensee being anxious only to realize as much as pos- 
sible from a limit that might pass into other hands in a few months. 
Accordingly the upset price of mileage was advanced from 10 shillings 
($2) to 20 shillings ($4) per square mile with a proviso for renewal for 
three years in case as much as $10 per mile were paid. The report for 
that year of Surveyor General R. D. Wilmot refers as follows to the 
change : 

Great complaints having been made by those engaged in the lumber trade that 
the practice of annually putting up all the timber berths to public competition bore 
injuriously as well on the trade as on the revenue, the expense incurred in building 
camps, erecting dams, cutting roads and other matters incident to the business 
being so great that they would prefer paying an increased rate of mileage if they 
could thereby secure the right of renewal for a longer period than one year. The 



NEW BRUNSWICK FOREST LEGISLATION. 229 

Government, in order to meet in some degree the views of the lumbering interest, 
determined to offer the timber berths at auction at the upset price of 20 shillings 
per square mile, giving the purchaser who bid it off at 50 shillings or more per 
mile the right of renewal for three years at the rate it was bid off. Ninety-seven 
persons, holding 962> square miles, are accordingly entitled to the privilege of 
renewal under this regulation. 

The receipts from timber that year increased to 8,668. 

In 1844 an export duty was laid on logs. In 1867, when New Bruns- 
wick entered the Canadian confederation, the export duty was abolished, 
a special allowance of $150,000 annually being made by the Dominion 
government to the Province to compensate it for the loss of revenue. 
In 1867 the receipts from timber were $80,882.68, the sum of $56,415.58 
being contributed by export duty. Another important change was made 
in 1874 when the duties were based on the cut of lumber and licenses 
were made renewable for two years. 

TERM OF LEASES INCREASED. 

In 1883 the Government concluded that it was time to call a halt in 
the policy of alienating large tracts of public lands unfitted for cultiva- 
tion, sales in fee simple and extensive railway grants having considera- 
bly lessened the area capable of producing a revenue from its timber 
product. It adopted the principle of retaining possession of all the 
purely timber land remaining, and since then only small and isolated 
lots of such land, which, by reason of local conditions, could not be 
advantageously administered by the department, have been sold out- 
right. In the same year it was decided to increase the length of the 
term for which timber limits could be leased to ten years, with the 
result that the public revenue again showed a large increase. 

The leases issued for ten years expiring in 1893, the Government in 
1892 appointed a royal commission to make a full inquiry into the con- 
dition of the lumber trade and into the best policy to be adopted in 
administering the timber lands. The commission was so strongly im- 
pressed with the desirability of giving the lumberman a permanent 
tenure of his holding that it recommended the leasing of the lands in 
perpetuity. This, however, was going farther than public opinion was 
prepared to sanction, but the Government proposed by way of compro- 
mise a way most governments have to grant leases for twenty-five 
years reserving the right to increase the mileage rate and fix rates of 
stumpage. The result was that a decision was reached to grant licenses 
renewable from year to year for twenty-five years, making it possible 
for a license issued in 1893 to be renewed until August 1, 1918. Under 



230 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

the present plan the licenses are sold at public auction at $20 per square 
mile, with an additional charge of $8 for renewal. The dues on pine 
and spruce were fixed at $1 a thousand feet and in 1904 increased 
to $1.25. Ten thousand feet of lumber must be cut each year on each 
limit. 

In 1883 the amount realized from sales was $38,462 for 3,117 square 
miles. Ten years later under the new long-lease system the lands 
were sold at public auction for twenty-five years, the amount received 
for premiums and leases in 1893 being $89,830. There were then issued 
1,387 leases at an average price of $17.25 a mile, and since then the 
number has steadily increased until practically all the available Crown 
lands of the Province have been brought under lease. In 1899 1,170 
square miles were leased at an average of $21 a square mile. The 
policy of long leases has resulted in material benefit to the lumbermen 
and contributed not a little to the prosperity of the trade. The receipts 
of the Provincial government for 1903 from sales and renewals of tim- 
ber licenses were $46,898 and from stumpage dues $122,630, making a 
total of $169,528. 

The first act for the preservation of forests from fire was passed in 
1885. By its provisions fires must not be started between May 1 and 
December 1 except for clearing land, for cooking and for other neces- 
sary purposes. The penalty for failing to take the necessary precau- 
tions in the selection of the places for these fires and in their extin- 
guishment after they have served their purposes includes a fine varying 
for $20 to $200. Railway locomotives must be equipped with spark 
arrestors and section men must be given instructions to watch for and 
extinguish fires caused by railway trains. In 1897 further legislation to 
protect the forests from fires was secured when statutory authority was 
obtained for the appointment of forest rangers. The year 1903 was a 
notable one for unusually severe forest fires. It was estimated that 
during that year two hundred million feet of timber was destroyed by 
fire. The conflagration wiped out an entire village besides destroying 
many other buildings. 

Some important changes in the mileage and stumpage rates and con- 
ditions under which licenses are issued took effect in 1904, all being in 
the direction of greater stringency. Under the regulations now in 
force the upset mileage on limits is $20 a square mile, and the mileage 
payable yearly on renewals is $8 a square mile. Licenses are to be for 
not more than ten nor less than two square miles and the licensee may 



NEW BRUNSWICK FOREST LEGISLATION. 



231 



be required to cut ten thousand superficial feet a square mile. The 
holder of timber limits is not permitted to manufacture a log measur- 
ing less than eighteen feet in length and ten inches in diameter at the 
small end. The stumpage dues are as follows: 

Sprnce, pine, fir or hackmatack saw top, per l.OOO feet $1.25 

Hardwood timber up to average of 14 inches square, per ton 1.10 

Above 14 inches additional per inch, per ton 1O 

Hardwood logs, per l.OOO superficial feet 8O 

Pine timber up to 14 inches square, per ton 1.25 

Additional per inch, per ton 25 

Hackmatack and spruce timber, per ton 65 

Cedar logs, per l.OOO superficial feet 1.25 

Hemlock, per l.OOO superficial feet 6O 

White birch logs, for spool wood, per l.OOO feet 8O 

The following statement, taken from the surveyor general's reports, 
shows the quantities and kinds of timber cut from Crown lands during 
the fiscal years ended October 31, 1902 and 1903 respectively: 

1902. 

Spruce and pine sawlogs, superficial feet 86,531,693 
Hemlock logs, superficial feet 2,388.567 



Cedar logs, superficial feet 15,357,249 

Hardwood logs, superficial feet 2,936,007 

Hardwood timber, tons 54 

Firlogs, superficial feet 2,764,411 



1903. 

90,857.515 
2,627.694 
16.O41.955 
3,869,712 
215 
4,219,593 



This statement, it should be borne in mind, covers only the cut upon 
public lands under license and takes no account of the very large quan- 
tity taken from forest lands belonging to private owners. 

PRODUCTION OF TIMBER IX NEW BRUNSWICK. 
(Compiled from the reports of the Crown lands department.) 



Year. 


Sprnce and 
pine logs 
(superficial 
feet). 


Hemlock logs 

(superficial 
feet). 


Cedar logs 
(superficial 
feet). 


1879 .. 


88,856,803 


92.75O 


38323 


188O 


117,534,482 


106,271 


79,824 


1881 .. . . 


135,159.742 


425, 08O 




1882 


149 348 548 


598 315 


172 255 


1883 


144.943,725 


14,579.860 


8O4 525 


1884 


87,294.775 


21,237385 


1.143 882 


1885 


60,417,896 


372,532 


1 144 695 


1886 


76,887.027 


4.881.75O 


1.52O 781 


1887 


64,300 O98 


3,567 445 


1 525 O76 


1888 


68,382,300 


13,054,434 


2 964 564 


1889 


79,287,013 


17,594,206 


4.O63 549 


189O 


95,539,612 


12,139,048 


4 716 2O1 


1891 . 


66 355 301 


12 777 .830 


5 O29 723 


1892 


79,495,134 


1,526,554 


12 O34 758 


1893 


86,809,334 


7.O15.471 


13.95O 428 


1894 


56.8O4.581 


60,106 


5 635 475 


1895 


81.289.O61 


15,815,314 


9 677 642 


1896 


76,985.459 


12,785743 


14 279 88O 


1897 


102.841,781 


2.246.1O4 


11 239.2O8 


19<.... 


80,856,347 


3,726,756 


7.669,293 


1899 


80,739,731 


851.1OO 


11318 188 


19OO.... 


91,979,461 


5,826.785 


14 417 895 


1901... 


83,449,123 


1,907,816 


11 187 791 


19O2.... 


86,531,693 


2.388,576 


15 357 249 


19O3 


96,857,515 


2,627,694 


16 O41 955 










Total 


2,238,946,542 


159 204,925 


166 013 160 











CHAPTER XX. 

NEW BRUNSWICK RECENT OPERATIONS. 

Notwithstanding the extent to which lumbering has been carried on> 
the supply of spruce will last for an indefinite period under the con- 
servative methods of cutting, as the spruce is a tree of rapid growth 
and will attain merchantable proportions in thirty years. On the public 
lands no tree is permitted to be cut that will not make a log of ten 
inches diameter at the top, eighteen feet up, although many private 
owners allow the cutting of small spruce for pulpwood. 

Many of the large limit holders follow a system of rotation. The 
land is laid off in strips of one and one-quarter or one and one-half 
miles wide and from five to ten miles in length. One strip is cut over 
each year and all the merchantable trees taken. The next year the ad- 
joining strip is worked, and so on until the larger of the young growth 
of the first strip is available. The tracts nearest the great rivers have 
been most thoroughly worked and each year the operations are more 
distant from the point of shipment. 

The portable or small rotary mill is much used on small tracts of 
private land, and the annual product is considerable in the aggregate, 
but does not figure in the provincial returns. While the large mills are 
most numerous near the river mouth, still there are many scattered 
through the interior with facilities for shipping their product by rail or 
floating it down the rivers to the coast. 

While spruce is the great article of export there is a large cut of 
cedar for shingles for the United States and local markets. A good 
deal of hemlock is also sent to the United States as boards and there is 
a growing trade with Britain in birch for spool wood. The pulp indus- 
try is undergoing a great development and new sources of supply, 
tapped by railways in districts from which the large timber has been 
taken, provide raw material for the pulp mills. 

THE ST. JOHN DISTRICT. 

St. John is the center of the lumber manufacturing and shipping 
trade. As the River St. John is over four hundred and fifty miles in 
length and has numerous tributaries, it drains an immense territory not 
only in New Brunswick but in the adjoining State of Maine and in the 

232 



NEW BRUNSWICK RECENT OPERATIONS. 233 

Province of Quebec, so that a large portion of the logs manufactured 
in the St. John mills come from outside the Province. The manufactur- 
ers as a rule do not operate in the woods, but contract at so much a 
thousand feet for the cutting, rafting and driving of the logs to their 
mills. There are three log driving companies the Madawaska, St. 
John River and Fredricton boom companies and also a company on the 
Tobique, the chief tributary of the St. John in New Brunswick. Driv- 
ing is always an uncertain feature, as the Grand Falls, 225 miles from 
the mouth of the St. John, have a descent of seventy-four feet, below 
which is a narrow and deep gorge through which logs must pass, 
Logs are often hung up for the season or damaged by a jam in the 
gorge. 

The leading shippers from St. John are W. M. Mackay, who ex* 
ports about one hundred million feet annually, George McKean and the 
A. Gibson Railway & Manufacturing Company. W. Alexander Gibson,, 
of the latter company, has been engaged in the lumber trade for about 
a half century. He commenced life as a poor boy and advanced step 
by step until he became manager of the finest mill in the Province. 
About 1864 he acquired the lumbering establishment of Rankine, Fer- 
guson & Co. on the Nashwaak River about two miles from Fredricton 
and undertook a series of improvements, establishing a number of 
other industries such as cotton mills, tanneries, etc. The village 
erected by these activities is called Marysville. He subsequently ex- 
tended his lumbering operations to the Miramichi district and built the 
Northwestern railway, opening up large tracts of timber lands in that 
region. 

In 1871 the firm of Randolph & Baker erected a large mill two 
miles from the mouth of the St. John, which mill is one of the best 
sawing dimension lumber for the British market. The firm's plant has 
an annual capacity of twenty million feet of long lumber, and it also 
ships quantities of lath to the United States. 

Frederick Moore, of Woodstock, New Brunswick, was born in Can- 
terbury, York County, New Brunswick, in 1839. Between the years 
1862 and 1884 he was one of the heaviest operators in Aroostook 
County, Maine, cutting from 5,000,000 to 15,000,000 feet of spruce an- 
nually for the St. John, New Brunswick, market. In 1884 he built a 
sawmill, with a planing mill, on the Maduxnakeag River, a branch 
of the St. John River, for cutting logs from the Aroostook region. He 
occupies a prominent position in the New Brunswick trade. 



234 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

In 1904 a total of 183 vessels cleared from St. John with lumber, a 
slight increase over the 171 lumber clearances in 1903. In 1904 cargoes 
embraced 463,585 tons, or 172,995,507 superficial feet, while the cargoes 
of 1903 included 411,546 tons, or 174,360,562 superficial feet. The ship- 
ments were to Liverpool, London, Glasgow, Belfast, Dublin and ports 
in Spain, Australia and other countries. In 1904 the shipments of birch 
were 3,567 tons, compared with 4,498 tons in 1903. Pine timber ship- 
ments were fifteen tons, a marked decrease from the forty-eight tons 
shipped in 1903. Shipments from the thirteen other ports in New Bruns- 
wick in 1904 brought the total amount of deals and other lumber shipped 
from the Province up to 641,711 tons, or 358,851,893 superficial feet. 

St. John's export trade in forest products is larger than that of any 
other port in Canada, except Montreal, amounting in value during the 
fiscal year 1903 to $4,298,308, including the following items : Pine deals, 
$10,801 ; spruce and other deals, $2,496,467 ; planks and boards, $624,- 
943 ; shingles, $339,699. 

THE MIRAMICHI DISTRICT. 

The Miramichi district has witnessed changes similar to those which 
have characterized the development of the industry in the region tribu- 
tary to the St. John. It had formerly its pine timber and lumber 
period and extensive shipbuilding operations. The trade of the pres- 
ent day is mainly in spruce deals, with some business in spool wood 
and a growing demand for pulpwood. There are two branches of the 
Miramichi, which unite about twenty miles from the bay into which it 
flows and have a tributary area of many thousand square miles. The 
streams extend far westward toward Maine. The great bulk of the 
cut is spruce, only about five percent being pine, with some hardwood, 
cedar and hemlock. Practically all timber lands tributary to the Mira- 
michi and Crown lands are owned by the New Brunswick Railway 
Company. Under the regulations in force for cutting there is a chance 
for the spruce to reproduce itself and, while the average size of logs 
shows a decrease, there is no absolute clearing of the forest. The 
more desirable tracts are becoming less accessible yearly. The railway 
company looks carefully after its timber interests and has a staff of 
sealers and foresters, charging a rate of $1.50 per 1,000 feet to opera- 
tors. 

The log cut on the Miramichi for the season of 1902-3 was 125,000,- 
000 feet, as compared with 123,000,000 feet for the previous season. 
Miramichi ranks next to St. John among the lumber shipping ports of 



NEW BRUNSWICK RECENT OPERATIONS. 235 

the Province, the trans-Atlantic shipments for 1903 being 102,944,276 
feet and for 1902, 123,000,000 feet. 

The spool wood industry has attained its greatest development 
on the Miramichi, where 3,000,000 or 4,000,000 feet of birch are taken 
out annually for this purpose. Clark, Skillings & Co., of Glasgow, 
have three mills cutting about 2,500,000 feet each year. 

THE RESTIGOUCHE DISTRICT. 

In the Restigouche district there is still much virgin forest, spruce 
and cedar predominating. Some pine and a good deal of birch, maple 
and beech are also found. Nowhere else in the Province is cedar so plen- 
tiful and the export trade in shingles is large. The Restigouche River, 
two hundred miles in length, forms a part of the boundary between 
New Brunswick and Quebec, receiving tributaries from both Provinces, 
so that much of the cut of the Restigouche comes from Quebec lands. 
The shipping ports for this district are Dalhousie and Campbellton, the 
trans-Atlantic exports of lumber for 1903 from these points being re- 
spectively 20,910,384 and 18,075,362 feet. These figures, however, are 
considerably swollen by the amount of lumber manufactured in the 
Province of Quebec and forwarded by rail for shipment abroad. 

The total trans-Atlantic shipments of lumber from New Brunswick 
ports amounted to 452,000,000 feet in 1902 and 391,000,000 in 1903. 

Hon. Jabez B. Snowball, lieutenant governor of New Brunswick, 
has been prominently identified with the Miramichi lumber industry for 
over thirty-five years. He was born in England, reared in Newfound- 
land and made his success in New Brunswick. He did the latter Prov- 
ince valuable service in promoting and building a railway. His first 
mills were on the Miramichi River, and at Chatham he built a mill with 
a daily capacity of 170,000 feet, the largest on the river. In 1900 the 
interests of Mr. Snowball were converted into a joint stock company, 
which is known as the J. B. Snowball Company, Limited, and is com- 
posed of members of his family. The company cuts between 30,000,- 
000 and 40,000,000 feet of lumber each year and owns nearly six hun- 
dred miles of timber limits on Crown lands, held on the twenty-five 
year system. It owns six tug boats on the Miramichi River, employs 
nine hundred men in the busy season and has extensive commercial 
interests. Mr. Snowball was the chief factor in the organization of 
the first electric street and domestic lighting service and also the first 
public telephone service in New Brunswick. His interest in forestry 
matters has been marked, and he has been of much service in further- 
ing a better organization of the lumber industry. 



236 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Hon. John Percival Burchill, of South Nelson, New Brunswick, is 
a member of a family which for the last sixty years has been engaged 
in the lumber business in New Brunswick. He was born in 1855 on the 
Miramichi River, and in the year 1875 took charge of the outside opera- 
tions of his father's business. In 1881 he entered into partnership with 
his father and brothers under the firm name of George Burchill & Sons. 
They own over 150 square miles of timber limits in the Province. Mr. 
Burchill has taken a conspicuous part in public life. He was elected as 
a Liberal to the New Brunswick Legislature in 1882, and has served 
two terms as Speaker of that body. 

James Murchie, of Milltown, New Brunswick, was born at St. 
Stephen, that Province, August 13, 1813, of Scotch parentage. He 
began life as a farmer and cut timber in a small way to sell to mill 
owners as an additional source of income. Gradually his transactions 
increased until in 1859 he engaged in the manufacture of lumber, taking 
his sons into partnership. James Murchie & Sons, in addition to their 
establishments at Benton, Deer Lake, Fredricton and Edmundston, 
New Brunswick, operated extensively in the adjoining State of Maine. 
They acquired large areas of timber lands and a strong financial posi- 
tion, although they suffered severe losses from fire. Mr. Murchie filled 
many leading positions, including the presidency of the New Brunswick 
& Canadian Railroad Company and the Frontier Steamboat Company. 
He died, at the age of eighty-six, May 29, 1900. 

The late William Richards, who was one of the most extensive 
lumber operators on the Miramichi River, New Brunswick, was born in 
Cardigan, York County, that Province. He died at his home in Boies- 
town, New Brunswick, June 1, 1903, after more than a year's illness, 
aged sixty-eight years. 

CHANGES OF A QUARTER CENTURY. 

Great changes have taken place in the conditions pertaining to the 
New Brunswick industry and trade within twenty-five years. One of 
the more notable of these changes is the effect of repeated timber cut- 
tings on the size of the logs. The sawyer of the late '70's would have 
been astonished had he been asked to saw out a specification from such 
logs as are now being used. Half a dozen log surveys (spruce) chosen 
from a file at random and dated April and May, 1881, show nine pieces 
to the thousand feet; a like number, dated April, 1904, shows that 
seventeen pieces were required to make up the same quantity. 

Each winter, as it came, found the logging crews penetrating farther 



NEW BRUNSWICK RECENT OPERATIONS. 237 

and farther into the forests that bordered the main streams and estuaries 
of the St. John River, the Miramichi and the Restigouche. Most of the 
ground has been cut over several times, and in nearly all cases long 
before the new growth has attained a size at all comparable with the 
original growth. 

What the ultimate result of this decline in quality will be is hard to |: 
decide. On the St. John River, where the industry is the oldest, the j 
results are beginning to be apparent in a slow but sure curtailment of ' 
the annual output. In other sections of the Province the limits have 
not been worked for a long period and the timber is therefore better. 
One vital effect that is certain to follow the scarcity of large timber will 
be the lack of new blood and new capital in the industry. The virgin 
forests of newly settled countries are sure to attract those who have 
the desire and means to devote themselves to the manufacture of lum- 
ber. The demands of the pulp manufacturers for material in the shape 
of undersized logs have had, during the last few years, and will have in 
time to come, a tendency to still further reduce the average size of 
available timber throughout the lower counties of New Brunswick, and 
all other sections in the vicinity of pulp mills. Heretofore, trees that 
were not large enough to be manufactured into lumber were allowed to 
stand until they had attained the necessary dimensions ; nowadays, in 
numerous instances, they are cut for pulpwood, the anxiety to realize 
upon them quickly being, of course, the chief inducement. 

Another marked change in New Brunswick lumber conditions has 
resulted from the diminution of the annual output of pine. Until about 
1888 pine was the staple forest product, American mills manufacturing 
little else. Year by year the quantity of pine logs cut has decreased, 
until in 1904 1,000,000 feet would easily cover the total manufacture on 
the St. John River. The logs secured in late years are small and of an 
inferior grade, compared with those of the last century. In the early 
'80's, when provincial logs were worth from $9 to $12 a thousand feet 
on the St. John, considerable variation was the rule, owing to the cor- 
responding variation in the size and quality of the logs. They would 
probably be a great deal higher today were they obtainable. It is 
scarcely worth while to make any comparison with the present prices, 
as they are seldom on the market in lots of importance. 

As pine gradually became scarcer, spruce came more into demand 
and also more valuable year by year, in spite of the gradual degenera- 
tion in size. This increase in value is due chiefly to three facts : The 



238 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

logs are harder to get ; wages and supplies are more costly, and stump- 
age rates of the material have increased. From 1880 to 1885 spruce 
logs that could not be duplicated in the provinces today at any price 
brought from $7 to $8.50 a thousand feet at the mill ; from these figures 
the price crept slowly upward until it reached $12.50, which price was 
touched in 1904. During the twenty-five years immediately preceding 
1905, the market price of spruce lumber in the United Kingdom had 
been creeping up slowly but surely. In the year 1879 prices were 
extremely low, several large lots having been disposed of at figures 
that left from $5.75 to $6 a thousand for merchantable lumber. Of 
course, it would not be reasonable to use these figures as a criterion, 
for the year mentioned was one of light demand, forced shipments 
and the consequent lower prices mentioned above. For several years 
following, the trade showed a marked improvement both in prices 
and demand. A fair average price for the early '80's would have 
been $8.50 a thousand for merchantable spruce deals. From that time 
until the year 1900 prices rose gradually, interrupted, of course, by 
many periods of temporary depression, due to the presence of unfavor- 
able conditions ; but always, when the reaction set in, gaining more 
than had been lost. The end of the century found the figures in the 
vicinity of $11.50 for merchantable. Then followed three prosperous 
years. The demand during that period was extremely brisk and the 
shipments from the provinces were larger than they had ever been 
before, conditions being so favorable that in many cases the Amer- 
ican logs (which are worth $2 more a thousand, because their product, 
when they are manufactured by an American citizen, is allowed to go 
into the United States free of duty) were sawed into English size and 
shipped to the United Kingdom. 

The high water mark in prices was touched in 1903 when merchanta- 
ble deals were sold in large quantities at figures that ranged from 
$13.25 a thousand to $13.75 f. o. b. steamer at New Brunswick ports. 
Early in 1904 the English market took a decided slump. Prices fell 
suddenly and emphatically until on September 1 purchases could have 
been made as low as $11.50 a thousand, with lumber plentiful. 

The general decrease in the size of logs being sawed has had a 
marked effect upon the quantity of wide deals turned out, and the 
result is that the difference in the percentage of the wide lumber in 
the specifications is apparent and quite important in figuring the value 
of lumber. 



NEW BRUNSWICK RECENT OPERATIONS. 239 

In recent years it has been the general impression that the average 
quality of lumber produced is much lower than that manufactured 
twenty-five years previous. This is owing to the fact that the larger 
growth was certain to be cleaner and to have fewer knots and twists. 
Of course, in making a comparison of prices prevalent in recent years 
with those of former times, this depreciation in size and quality is an 
important element. 

Twenty-five years prior to 1905 consignments to the markets of the 
United States from New Brunswick consisted chiefly of pine, the 
greater part of which was made up of one-inch boards. In later years, 
for reasons mentioned in an earlier paragraph, shipments of pine are 
few and light. With spruce it is exactly the reverse. In the late '70's 
and early '80's the shipments of spruce from the Maritime Provinces to 
the United States were not of great importance ; recently spruce is the 
staple. 

The spruce trade with the United States has also changed in this, 
that the smaller sizes have been much less in demand during the last 
few years, whereas formerly the demand was principally for plank and 
scantling. Recently it has run chiefly to three-inch stock. 

On the whole the variation in price has not been so great as in the 
case of the English markets, although sudden fluctuations are more 
frequent. It is estimated that the output of spruce lumber in New 
Brunswick in 1904 was 80,000,000 superficial feet. The estimated out- 
put for 1905 was 95,000,000 feet. The output in cedar shingles in 1904 
was about 260,000,000 pieces, as compared with 255,000,000 in 1903. 
The market prices of spruce lumber at Campbellton in 1904 were : $18 
a thousand for 10-inch and 12-inch dimension, $14 for 9-inch and under, 
$16 for 10-inch and 12-inch random lengths 10 feet and upward in 
length, and $12 a thousand for 2x3, 2x4, 2x5, 2x6, 2x7, 3x4, 10 feet and 
upward in length; $11 for all other randoms 9 inches and under in size 
10 feet and up in length; $11 for 5-inch and upward widths merchanta- 
ble boards ; $18 to $26 for matched boards ; $9 for spruce boards ; $11 for 
bundled furring; $8 for pickets, and $2 for lath. Spruce clapboards, 
extra, $42 ; clear spruce clapboards, $40; second clear, $38 ; extra No. 1, 
$32; No. 1, $21; No. 2, $12. 

The market prices of cedar shingles at Campbellton were : Extras, 
$2.60; clear, $2.10; second clear, $1.60, and extra No. 1, $1.10. 

LUMBER STATISTICS. 

According to the Canadian census of 1901, the number of sawmills 



240 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

in the Province of New Brunswick was 236 and the value of the prod- 
uct $7,041,848. As the census, however, includes only industries em- 
ploying five or more hands, some of the smaller mills are not enumer- 
ated. The value of forest products in the rough is given as follows : 
Square, waney or flat timber, $34,484; logs for lumber, $1,667,694; 
pulpwood, $37,577; miscellaneous, $1,295,860; total, $3,035,615. The 
following are the quantities and values of the items under the two 
former heads : 

SQUARE, WANEY OR FLAT TIMBER. 

Cubic feet. Value. 

Ash 1,998 $209 

Birch 153,214 17,010 

Elm 1,160 116 

Maple 4,722 476 

Oak.. 200 28 

Pine 60,009 6,722 

Allother timber 99,472 9,923 

LOGS FOR LUMBER. 

Feet b. m. Value. 

Elm 491,000 $1,560 

Hickory 35,000 184 

Hemlock 26,696,000 107,571 

Oak... 25.00O 232 

Pine 19,166,000 125,213 

Spruce... 182,759,000 1,099,302 

All other logs 61,721,000 333,632 

Wood for pulp (cords) 14,486 37,577 

The forests of New Brunswick always have been her greatest source 
of wealth, and lumbering has been her greatest industry. Her first 
important exports were lumber products and to this day the forests 
furnish employment for a large proportion of her people and a splen- 
did revenue to her internal government. The volume of the product 
shows a wonderful persistence, and it seems likely that, with the prac- 
tice of conservative forestry methods and the large area illy adapted 
to agriculture, the forests will forever remain the chief resource of the 
Province. 

Complete figures of logical arrangement are difficult to procure, but 
the following tables give the most important facts as to the trade his- 
tory of the Province, and many enlightening details. 

LUMBER AND TIMBER SHIPMENTS OF NEW BRUNSWICK. 

Shipments from Miramichi for thirteen years, from 1892 to 1904 in- 
clusive, in feet, were : 

1892.... 95,000.000 1899 129.000,000 

1893.... .... 83,000,000 1900 122.OOO.OOO 

1894.... 96,000,000 1901 129,000,000 

1895.. . 82.OOO.OOO 1902 123.000,000 

181X5.... . 106,000,000 1903 102,944.276 

1897.... 102000,000 1904 94.5OO.OOO 

1898.... 113.000,000 



NEW BRUNSWICK RECENT OPERATIONS. 



241 



The shipments during 1902 from various New Brunswick ports were 
as follows : 



Port. 


Shippers. 


Cargoes. 


Tons. 


Board 
measure. 


*Miramichl 


11 


99 


114,200 


122 017 741 




8 


37 


28,224 


26 344 112 




3 


30 


22.824 


24 142 117 




2 


16 


18,703 


20 874 278 


SackvOle 


4 


21 


36 687 


16 526 15O 




2 


5 


9,193 


13 754 451 




4 


7 


9,736 


9 816 04& 


Shediac 


4 


13 


6.X-4G 


6,855 637 




2 


14 


6,239 


6 571 351 




1 


2 


932 


897 172 




2 


3 


1,561 


1 898 038 


St. John 








200,662,534 



*In addition to the above. Miramichi exported 29 tons of birch and 1.159.065 feet of box 
shocks in 1902. 

SHIPMENTS FROM NEW BRUNSWICK BY PORTS. 1903 AND 1904. 



1903. 

Port. Superficial 

feet. 

St. John 174,360,562 

Dalhousie 20,910,384 

Campbellton 18.075,362 

Bathurst 20,770.642 

Chatham 71,670,117 

Newcastle 34,123,256 

Richibucto 4.735,614 

Buctouche 897,418 

Sackville 8.545.56O 

Shediac 2,391.141 

HopewellCape 26,834.162 

Hillsborough 1,912,237 

Harvey 3,135,250 

Dorchester 



Total 

Decrease in 1904, 29,479,812 feet. 



388.361,705 



1904. 
Superficial 

feet. 

172,995.507 

22,097,965 

23,077.883 

16,273,355 

57,294.488 

37.255,841 

2.784.477 

754.58O 

6.205.370 

2.8O1.271 

5.138,666 

4,515.571 

6,331,152 

1,355.767 

358,881,893 



DISTRIBUTION OP ST. JOHN. NEW BRUNSWICK. SHIPMENTS FOR THE YEARS 

19O3 AND 19O4. 



1903. 

Port. Superficial 

feet. 

Liverpool 37,515,600 

Bristol Channel 30,337,578 

Barrow 5.234,805 

London 8.208,164 

Manchester 24,820.185 

River Mersey 1.748,944 

Glasgow 19,295.791 

Greenock 863,056 

Limerick 4.578,164 

Belfast 14,181,266 

Sligo 394.177 

Dublin 3,930.494 

Bantry 805,644 

Londonderry 2,785,292 

Drogheda 

Australia 1.638,263 

Spain 1.657,775 

Other ports 16,365,364 



Total 

Decrease in 1904. 1.363,015 feet. 



174,360.562 



1904. 
Superficial 

feet. 

32.629,698 
32,869,095 
4.770,241 
12,541,993 
30.523,660 

17.443,413 

1.105,481 

594,058 

6.008,899 

484,991 

*"75i".983 
1.537,018 

736,798 
10,678.148 

596,672 
19,725.399 

172,997,547 



242 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



SHIPPERS FROM PORT OF ST. JOHN. 

Shippers. 1903. 1904. 

W. M. Mackay 98,972,137 61,638,915 

A. Gibson Ry. & Mfg. Co 25,619,521 33,858,471 

Geo. McKean 29,665,471 42,335,455 

Other shippers 20,103,433 35,162,807 

Total 174.360,562 172,995,648 

SHIPPERS FROM PORTS OF MIRAMICHI IN 1904. 

Shippers. Superficial feet. 

F. E. Neale 39,000,000 

Snowball Co 20.000,000 

W. M. Mackay ll.OOO.OOO 

D.J.Richie Co ll.OOO.OOO 

E. Hutchison 8,000,000 

G. Burchill & Sons 4.OOO.OOO 

Damery & McDonald 1.5OO.OOO 

Total 94,500,000 

SHIPMENTS FROM ST. JOHN, NEW BRUNSWICK, TO TRANS-ATLANTIC PORTS 
FROM NOVEMBER 30. 1901. TO NOVEMBER 30. 1902. 





Lumber, 


Tons 


timber. 




Lumber, 


Tons 


timber. 


To 


board 
measure. 


Pine. 


Birch. 




board 
measure. 


Pine. 


Birch. 


Liverpool 


46,642,866 


54 


2,076 


Brought forward. 


169.083,902 


54 


2.2O1 




2 O05 242 






Limerick 


3,518,190 






Manchester 


34,754,366 






Londonderry 


1,866,856 








5 118 365 






Belfast 


3 626,546 








3,426 060 






Dublin 


11,595,324 






Cardiff 


20,139,606 






Cork 


1.872,574 






Sharpness 


14.324,589 






Youghall 


506,043 






Bristol 


3,471,095 






Drogheda 


454,060 








1,850,879 






Bantry 


801,035 






Avonmouth 


2,637,118 






Malaga 


856,501 








3 633,104 






Lisbon 


598,378 






Swansea 


3.466,251 






Bilboa 


554,684 






Glasgow 


15,896,385 






Valencia 


842,368 








669,332 






Cora Blanca 


96.572 






London 


10,293,428 




125 


Santa Cruz 


1,197,306 






Suttcn Bridge Dock.. 


755,216 






Melbourne (Australia) 


3,192,195 






Carried forward. 


169,083,902 


54 


2,201 


Total 


200.662,534 


54 


2,201 



LUMBER SHIPMENTS FROM ST. JOHN TO TRANS-ATLANTIC PORTS FOR 

THIRTEEN YEARS. 



Year. 


Total feet 
board measure. 


Timber (tons). 


Birch. 


Pine. 


1892... 


146,529.309 
156,653,334 
153,473,076 
126,449,706 
167,249,707 
244,399.066 
184.954,343 
184.192,435 
236,459,838 
176,295,257 
200,662,534 
174,360,562 
172,995.507 


10.2OO 
5,294 
5,015 
8,374 
9,892 
9,454 

6,c:jo 

5,859 
5.851 
6,206 
2,201 
4,498 
3.567 


324 
128 
92 
95 
131 
71 
50 
54 
48 
15 


1893 


1894 


1895. ". 


1896 


1897 


1898 


1899 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904... 



NEW BRUNSWICK RECENT OPERATIONS. 



243 



TOTAL TRANS-ATLANTIC SHIPMENTS OF NEW BRUNSWICK. 1901 COMPARED 

WITH 19O2. 





1901. 




1902. 




From 


Lumber, 
board measure. 


Tons 
timber. 


Lumber, 
board- measure. 


Tons 
timber. 


St. John 


176 295 257 


6 256 


200,662,534 


2,255 


Miramichi 


128 827 45O 


61 


123,176,806 


29 


( Hills borough, 1 .. 






1,898,038 




Jloncton -i Hopewell, V 


25 478 403 




13,754,451 




(Harvey, ) 






9,816,040 




Shediac 


4 774 000 




6,855,637 




Dalhousie 


18 966 98O 




26,344,112 




Campbellton 


19 661 270 




24.142,117 




Richibucto and Buctouche 


3 943 143 




7,468,528 




Sackville 


4 566 278 




16,526,150 




Bathurst 


16,361,944 




20,874,278 




Total 


398 874,725 


6,317 


451,518,691 


2,284 













The trans-Atlantic shipments from the Province of New Brunswick 
for thirteen years were : 



Feet board 
measure. 

1892 325.000.000 

1893 312,000,000 

1894 326.OOO.OOO 

1895 291,000,000 

1896 386.OOO.OOO 

1897 494,000,000 

1898 412,000,000 



Feet board 
measure. 

1899.... 426,000.000 

19OO 489,OOO,OOO 

1901... 399.000,000 

1902 452,000,000 

1903..!! 388,361,705 

1904.... 358.881,893 



The United States Consulate at St. John has compiled the following 
statement of values of shipments to the United States for 1903 and 1904 : 



CANADIAN PRODUCT. 



Lumber., 

Lath 

Shingles. 



1903. 
$197.821 
187.295 
53,021 



1904. 
$104,803 
211,296 
31.552 



Total. 



$438,137 $347,651 



AMERICAN PRODUCT. 



Lumber.. 

Lath 

Shingles. 



Total. 



1903. 
$435,664 
57.668 
1O0.382 

$593,714 



1904. 
$448.071 
52.4OO 
36,602 

$537,073 



In addition, there were shipped to countries other than the United 
States approximately 358,000,000 feet of lumber from the Province of 
New Brunswick in 1904, an approximate decrease of 30,000,000 feet 
from shipments of 1903. There was a decrease of 5,000,000 feet in 
Liverpool consignments, but an increase of 6,000,000 feet in lumber 
consigned to Manchester. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

NOVA SCOTIA LUMBER HISTORY. 

Nova Scotia was the first settled of any of the Canadian provinces, 
a colony being established at Annapolis, then Port Royal, as early as 
1605. At that time and for long afterward it was noted for the density 
of its forests ; and, in fact, it was over two hundred years before roads 
were cut through it for any distance into the interior, the settlements 
being confined to the coast and the land accessible by the rivers. One 
hundred years ago the country was heavily timbered with spruce, pine, 
hemlock, fir, poplar, hackmatack and various hardwoods white birch, 
yellow birch, red birch, maple, beech and oak. 

The lumbering industry was actively pursued in Nova Scotia at 
a time when the sister Province of New Brunswick, then included 
within her limits, was an unpeopled wilderness. A return of the sev- 
eral townships of Nova Scotia January 1, 1761, reported among the 
industries then extant thirty-one sawmills with an aggregate output of 
1,271,000 feet of lumber. The first exports were to the United States 
on a very limited scale, and at a later date a large trade in lumber was 
built up with the West Indies, under the stimulus of which the industry 
rapidly developed. The demand for shipbuilding purposes was another 
factor in encouraging the production of timber. 

Joseph Bouchette in his descriptive work, " The British Dominions 
in North America," published in 1832, writes as follows regarding con- 
ditions in the trade during the early part of the century : 

"There are sawmills in every district of the Province, and even as 
far back as 1785 there were ninety of them in the country. The num- 
ber has been vastly increased since that period. The quantity of lum- 
ber prepared and exported is momentous, and it is considered as good 
here as in any other part of America. Shipbuilding is carried on to a 
great extent in every part of the Province. In the ship yards of the 
peninsula alone there were built in the year 1826 131 vessels containing 
15,535 tons, and in 1828, ninety-four vessels containing 6,560 tons. The 
average quantity of shipbuilding is not less than 10,000 tons per an- 
num, principally sloops, schooners and vessels for the fishery." 

Dr. Abraham Gesner, writing of the " Industrial Resources of Nova 

244 



NOVA SCOTIA LUMBER HISTORY. 245 

Scotia," in 1849, deplores the tendency of the timber trade to divert 
the attention of the settlers from agriculture, asserting that, owing to 
the inducements it held out, thousands of farms had been abandoned or 
neglected. " In drawing away great numbers of the active part of the 
population to the backwoods," he writes, "agriculture has languished 
and the general prosperity of the country has been retarded." 

During those palmy days of the trade every river and log driving 
stream was followed to its source and the timber cut away after the 
reckless and improvident fashion of that time. Until, indeed, a com- 
paratively recent period the operators in the Province have in the main 
followed the policy of making a thorough clearance of all merchantable 
timber in sight. In this respect they did not differ much from opera- 
tors elsewhere and, under the conditions then prevailing, had every in- 
ducement to realize the resources of their holdings as rapidly as possi- 
ble, owing to the frequency and extent of forest fires, which usually 
follow lumbering operations and the progress of settlement, destroying 
what the ax spares. Later there was a law covering forest protection, 
but until recently there had been no enforcement of the act. 

The destruction of the forests was accelerated by the system of 
land grants and the readiness of the Provincial government to part, for 
a very trifling consideration, with the fee simple of large areas of the 
public domain, the policy in the early history of the country being to 
get it settled at any cost. Grants were made of large areas to private 
individuals, and a large number was issued to soldiers to take up wild 
land. These extensive holdings, secured by the early settlers, usually 
ran back from the river front near which the farms were located, includ- 
ing a large area of timbered land on the higher ground to the rear, the 
lots frequently having a depth of several miles. As the timber remain- 
ing increased in value it was utilized by small portable sawmills mov- 
ing from one place to another wherever a cut of a few thousand feet 
could be secured. 

Outside of these individual holdings was a large tract of timber in 
the interior divided by a watershed running east and west. Here, as in 
other localities, extensive grants have been made from time to time to 
large operators, railway companies, etc., until nearly the whole of the 
timber land has passed out of the hands of the Government. 

Nova Scotia offers an excellent field for forestry operations, 
as the producing farm lands lie in the valleys, while the foothills and 
the interior are nonagricultural in character and will always be more 



246 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

valuable for the production of timber than for any other purpose. For- 
ests naturally reproduce themselves more rapidly in Nova Scotia than 
in almost any other section of the country, due to natural conditions 
favorable to tree growth. 

Owing to the length of time the country has been settled and to the 
destructive and improvident methods of lumbering pursued, the timber 
resources, once so great, have been largely exhausted. Cape Breton 
Island, which forms a portion of the Province, has practically no spruce 
timber that would make deal stock, though it has considerable hard- 
wood. In the remainder of the Province the area of good timber land 
is estimated at about 2,700,000 acres. In an official statement of some 
years ago, the average stumpage of the timber lands was estimated at 
about 2,000 superficial feet an acre of merchantable spruce, 1,500 feet 
of hemlock and 500 feet of hardwood. This would make about 5,400,- 
000,000 feet of spruce, 4,050,000,000 feet of hemlock and 1,350,000,000 
feet of hardwood; but as cutting has been going on steadily in the 
meantime, it is safe to make a considerable deduction from these 
figures. This computation was made as an average over the whole 
territory, as some lands yield only spruce, some hemlock and others 
hardwood, while in some sections all are to some extent intermingled. 

When cutting first began it was almost entirely confined to the white 
pine, which has now practically disappeared with the exception of some 
tracts in western Nova Scotia and a scattered young growth which, if 
preserved, may become valuable some day. Spruce is the mainstay of 
the Province. The old growth of spruce is confined to the holdings of 
large operators and scattered tracts in the remoter sections. The 
average timber is straight and of good size and height, usually produc-i 
ing three or more logs to each tree. The new growth of the Province 
is largely spruce and will grow to cutting size in thirty to forty years. 
The pulp mills are taking much of the small spruce, and in addition 
there is a large export to South America of spruce one inch by two 
inches up, and two inches by three inches up, for which the small 
trees are cut. Conservative operators cut down trees twelve to thirteen 
inches at the butt, or larger, leaving the others standing. With proper 
care in sawing the very young trees and bushes, they are able to 
go over these lands every seven to ten years for a new crop, making 
the yield practically perpetual. Although there is a supply of extra 
good spruce for pulpwood, this industry had not been developed until 
recently ; now, however, pulp operators are seeking timber areas in the 



NOVA SCOTIA LUMBER HISTORY. 247 

Province, owing to reasonable prices for lands, large bodies of timber 
to be secured and favorable water conditions for power to operate and 
develop mills. 

Until a recent period, hemlock had not been largely manufactured 
and little use had been made of the bark. There are now large tracts 
of hemlock that command attention and, with the advancing prices of 
bark, they will be a valuable asset to the lumberman. Fir has been 
largely killed by insects, but is used to some extent for cooperage. 
There is practically no cedar. The hardwood as a rule grows mixed 
and, except in a few localities, pays only to cut as it runs. Birch of the 
white and yellow varieties, maple and beech are abundant. Oak is 
scattered, the principal growth being in Queens, Lunenburg and Shel- 
burne counties. There is a scattered growth of poplar of small size, 
which is cut for pulp and staves. There is practically no elm, and but 
little ash. Until the present time hardwoods have not been cut for ex- 
port, except for the English market in moderate quantity. But there 
has been and still is a large annual cut used for firewood, both locally 
and for export to the United States, and hardwood is also extensively 
used for shipbuilding. In the eastern end of the Province there are ex- 
tensive tracts of birch in Guysborough County, and in the western 
country hardwood is distributed all through the green wood, much of it 
being old growth of good proportion. The extension of the railways 
will make these hardwoods more accessible and will probably lead to a 
large cutting within a short time. 

As the policy of Nova Scotia until recently has been to sell the 
public lands in fee simple, making no distinction between timber pro- 
ducing and agricultural lands, there are no government dues payable 
on the cut of timber and no returns made to the Provincial government 
regarding the annual output. An important change was made in the 
law in 1899 by which it was provided that, instead of granting the 
lands as theretofore, the Government may issue leases, for the purpose 
of cutting and removing timber only for the period of twenty years at 
not less than forty cents an acre for the term, subject to renewal. It 
was furthermore provided that in case of more than one application for 
the same tract the lease may be put up to competition and go to the 
highest bidder. The lessee is entitled to take all timber of not less 
than ten inches diameter. Leases may be made at fifty cents an acre 
for the same term permitting the cutting of timber not less than five 
inches in diameter, and the Government is empowered to lease on other 



248 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

terms where the land is of inferior quality and the lessee is prepared to 
expend money in the erection of pulp mills, etc. The Government is 
also authorized to repurchase at not more than twenty-five cents an acre 
land previously granted for lumbering purposes. 

This legislation unfortunately comes too late to have much effect in 
preserving the government timber resources of the Province, as the 
area of valuable timber lands remaining under the control of the Gov- 
ernment is inconsiderable. In 1903 only 1,464,726 acres of land of any 
description remained ungranted, of which only five percent was tim- 
bered, most of it being a poor description of wild land. 

The receipts from Crown lands in Nova Scotia in 1904, left an actual 
surplus of $13,235.65 after expenses of $10,645.51 had been paid. This 
$10,000 item includes, as usual, all the cost of surveys, although under 
a recent act this cost has to be borne by the applicant. The sum 
received from these new sources has been placed in the treasury of the 
department. During 1904 no very large leases were issued, there being 
none of over 10,000 acres, and nearly all of them were issued to per- 
sons actually engaged in the lumber business. 

The timber of Nova Scotia is now owned by private individuals and 
corporations. It is estimated that about one-half the wooded lands is 
in the possession of large holders. The other half is owned by settlers 
and consists of small holdings of under a thousand acres. The 
larger holdings are being added to, and their position has been much 
strengthened during the last two or three years. The owners also con- 
trol valuable water privileges and shipping facilities. The lands are 
situated on rivers where there is an opportunity to drive logs to the 
mills, and, in many cases, to tide water, where they are manufactured 
and shipped. There is excellent water power all over the Province, suffi- 
cient for lumbering and pulp and paper mills. A logging railway is now 
under construction near Bridgewater to be operated by the Davison 
Lumber Company, Limited. Many of the rivers furnish water power 
for electric light, so that manufacturing is no longer confined to the 
hours of daylight. 

As has been mentioned already, there was a law in Nova Scotia re- 
garding the protection of forests from fire, but it was not enforced. 
The lumbermen's association of western Nova Scotia, with the help of 
the boards of trade, has succeeded in having this law amended so that 
it can be enforced, and, consequently, there has been decided improve- 
ment in this regard. It is now believed that it is possible to prevent 



NOVA SCOTIA LUMBER HISTORY. 249 

large forest fires in the future. If this is done there is no doubt 
but that the growth of wood in Nova Scotia is going to increase the 
available timber within a short time. The amended law provides for a 
chief fire ranger in each county who has the privilege of appointing 
under him other rangers to assist him in his duties. These rangers are 
periodically to go over their timber district and put out all fires that 
may occur, and the chief ranger makes a report of each year's work to 
the Government. This special work is paid by government salary to 
the head official, and the municipality pays for the work done. The 
holders of timber lands in each county owning 1,000 acres and over 
each are taxed one-fourth cent an acre. This is a special tax levied for 
the purpose of controlling forest fires, and is paid into the municipality. 
It is probable that in ordinary seasons this special tax will cover the 
cost of protection. Any balance left over goes to the credit of the 
funds ; but, in case this tax is not sufficient, the municipality is to pay 
any deficit tnat may occur. The act regarding forest fires has been en- 
forced in the municipalities of Annapolis, Digby, Clare, Yarmouth, 
Shelburne, Queens, Lunenburg, Colchester and Pictou, where chief 
rangers have been appointed. 

SOME NOTEWORTHY LUMBERMEN. 

Among lumbermen of Nova Scotia worthy of especial mention is 
E. D. Davison. He was the founder of the firm of E. D. Davison & 
Sons, Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, and died in the summer of 1902, in 
his fifty-seventh year. He was one of the most extensive operators in 
the Province of Nova Scotia, and is said to have built in 1845 the first 
steam sawmill erected in the Province. The firm held 200,000" acres of 
timber lands on branches of the Lahave, Medway and Nictau rivers, 
where its operations were principally carried on. Mr. Davison spent 
his lifetime in the trade and was regarded as one of the best authorities 
in Nova Scotia on all matters connected with lumber and forestry. He 
took a keen interest in public affairs and was mayor of Bridgewater 
and representative of Lunenburg County in the Nova Scotia Legisla- 
ture. In 1903, the business, then known as E. D. Davison & Sons, 
Limited, was purchased by J. M. Hastings and associates, of Pittsburg, 
Pennsylvania. 

Lewis Miller, a large owner of lumber mills in Scotland and Sweden, 
finding that his forests in the latter country were becoming exhausted, 
turned his attention toward British America in 1900. He purchased ex- 
tensive forests near the center of Newfoundland and at Glenwood and 



250 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Red Indian Lake in that colony he built large mills. Upon the receipt 
of a tempting offer from an American syndicate in 1903, he sold out 
his Newfoundland interests. In October of the same year he trans- 
ferred his operations to Nova Scotia, where he purchased the properties 
of the Dominion Lumber Company, comprising a mill at Ingram Docks, 
twenty-five miles from Halifax, and 80,000 acres of timber lands. He 
began operations in June, 1904, and manufactures extensively for the 
British market. Mr. Miller was born in 1848 at Crieff, Perthshire, 
Scotland. 

The St. Croix Lumber Company, of Hartville, Nova Scotia, was 
incorporated in December, 1903. The concern began operations by 
purchasing the mills and limits of T. G. McMullen, of Hartville. The 
limits comprise 30,000 acres of first class timber lands, heavily covered 
with pine, spruce, hemlock and birch. David McPherson, the president 
of the company, was born in Shelburne County, Nova Scotia, in 1834, 
of Scotch parents. On attaining the age of manhood he went to Hali- 
fax and began work as a shipbuilder, soon building up a large trade in 
the construction of wooden ships, which he owns and runs to this day. 
At the age of thirty-five he became interested in public affairs, and was 
shortly afterward elected to the city council of Halifax. Since then he 
has twice been elected mayor 1892-8. In 1898 he entered the Provin- 
cial House and soon distinguished himself, being appointed a member 
of the Cabinet of Nova Scotia in 1900. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

NOVA SCOTIA EXPORTS, STATISTICS. 

Nova Scotia has excellent shipping facilities. No part of the coun- 
try is over sixty miles from tide water, and numerous navigable rivers 
flow into the Atlantic, Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Bay of Fundy. 
Three railway systems, namely, the Intercolonial, the Dominion Atlan- 
tic and the Halifax & Southwestern, are in operation and the rails extend 
the whole length of the Province. The shipping points of the railways 
are Sydney, Pictou, Pugwash, Windsor, Kingsport, Annapolis, Wey- 
mouth, Yarmouth, Tusket, Bridgewater, Lunenburg and Halifax, from 
which lumber is exported; and, besides these places, there are many 
ports and harbors on the coast available for good sized vessels and from 
which lumber is shipped. The bays and harbors indenting the shore 
are very numerous, making the coast line about one thousand miles in 
extent. The harbors on the Atlantic Coast have a good depth of water 
and very little tide. The shipping ports on the Bay of Fundy have 
strong tides, the rise and fall being from twenty-five to forty feet. In 
many of these places vessels load lying aground, or in the stream, 
where they can lie afloat, from barges and lighters. 

At Ship Harbour, Halifax County, there is thirty feet of water at 
the mills ; at Liscomb, twenty-two feet ; at Sheet Harbour, twenty-eight 
feet ; at St. Mary's River, seventeen feet, and at Bridgewater and 
Lunenburg, seventeen feet. There is no better harbor in Canada than 
Halifax, from which the annual export of lumber is over 60,000,000 feet 
more than that from all the other ports of the Province combined. 

Particular stress is laid upon the shipping conditions of Nova Scotia 
for the reason that the Province depends entirely upon the export trade. 
The home consumption is so light that it need not be taken into con- 
sideration. Thus the small population or previously slow growth of 
the Province, slow compared with that of other countries, has not had 
the effect of conserving the timber. On the contrary, the continued 
activity of the export trade of the last fifty years has reached the stage 
where the annual cut of the Province has caught up with the yearly 
growth. 

Nova Scotia has the following markets for its products : The United 

251 



252 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

States, England, Ireland, Scotland, France, West Indies, Cuba, Argen- 
tine Republic, Brazil, British Guiana and Trinidad. Water transporta- 
tion from points in western Nova Scotia ranges from 300 to 500 miles 
to New York, Boston and Philadelphia. 

There are two grand divisions to be made in considering the lumber 
exports of Nova Scotia, brought about by trade conditions : The eastern 
end of the Province ships almost entirely to the English deal market, 
and the western end to South America, the West Indies and the United 
States. The cut for the English market is three-inch deals, and that 
for the West, boards, plank, rails and scantling. The deals are carried 
largely by liners or tramp steamers, while the western part of the 
Province engages a large fleet of sailing vessels from 150 to 1,000 tons 
register, a favorable size for the West Indies being a vessel of from 
300,000 to 400,000 capacity, and for South America, a vessel of from 
500,000 to 1,000,000 capacity. 

Summing up, Nova Scotia may be said to possess the following 
specialties that are peculiarly conducive to the carrying on of the lum- 
ber industry: It has the nearest spruce timber for shipment to the 
European market ; it has a monopoly of the West Indian trade for cheap 
lumber ; it has a natural reproduction of woods that can not be excelled 
for rapidity of growth and quality, owing to favorable rainfalls and 
climatic conditions; its lumber fleet is largely owned in the Province; 
the shipping facilities are excellent and inexpensive, and the principal 
ports of shipment are open all the year around. 

Among the leading exporters of Nova Scotia are : Dickie & McGrath, 
Tusket; Parker, Eakins Company, Limited, Yarmouth; Rhodes, Curry 
& Co., Limited, Amherst; Alfred Dickie, Lower Stewiacke ; Davison 
Lumber Company, Limited, Bridgewater; the Nova Scotia Lumber 
Company, Walton; Charles T. White, Apple River, and Clarke Bros., 
Bear River. The average annual output of the latter firm is about 
8,000,000 feet. Alfred Dickie is an extensive operator having mills at 
Ship Harbour, Lower Stewiacke and other points and owning 40,000 
acres of timber land, the standing timber on which is estimated at 40,- 
000,000 feet. 

The following figures will give an idea of the extent of the lumber 
operations in Nova Scotia and of the export : Total area of the Prov- 
ince; 21,428 square miles, or 13,713,920 acres; estimated timber and 
wood land, 7,500,000 acres ; estimated export from western Nova Scotia, 
110,000,000 superficial feet ; estimated export from eastern Nova Scotia, 



NOVA SCOTIA EXPORTS, STATISTICS. 



253 



including Halifax shipments, 135,000,000 superficial feet ; total export, 
245,000,000 feet per annum. 

The total value of the shipments of forest products from Halifax tor 
the fiscal year 1903 was $1,048,160, which included spruce and other 
deals, $746,591 ; planks and boards, $115,282, and scantling, $34,797. 

The Canadian census of 1901 gives the number of sawmills in Nova 
Scotia employing five hands or more as 228, the value of the product 
being $2,940,107. The quantities and values of forest products were 
as follows: 



SQUARB, WANBY OR FLAT TIMBER. 

Quantity, 

cubic feet. Value. 

Ash 3.502 $ 373 

Birch 382,126 47.783 

Elm 41O 38 

Maple 46.439 4.124 

Oak 22.261 4.164 

Pine 98.577 12,923 

AD other timber 356.371 39,697 

Total 909,686 $109.102 

LOGS FOR LUMBER. 

Feet board 

measure. Value. 

Elm 25.000 $ 233 

Hickory 16,000 166 

Hemlock 48.877.OOO 237.814 

Oak 881.OOO 15.2O7 

Pine 18,955,000 144,907 

Spruce 198.892.000 1.272,653 

Allotherlogs 26.784.OOO 168,956 

Total... 294.43O.OOO $1,939.936 

Pulpwood (cords) 18.348 48.32O 

Miscellaneous products 1.46O.49O 

Grand total of values $3,457.848 

TRANS-ATLANTIC SHIPMENTS FROM NOVA SCOTIA, SEASON 1902. 

Superficial feet 
deals, scantling. Tons 

Ports. ends, boards, etc. timber. 

Halifax, including Ship Harbour, Musquodobit 

and Tusket 97.101,000 1.8O7 

Pugwash 18,714.051 

Parrsborough 15,870,255 

Liscomb 11.26O.816 

Yarmouth 6.621.0OO 

Pictou 4.133.346 

Total 153.700,468 1.807 

SHIPMENTS OF DEALS, ETC., FROM NOVA SCOTIA TO TRANS-ATLANTIC PORTS. 

Year. Feet. Year. Feet. 

1892 87,861,398 1898 148.239,804 

1893 1O9.252.93O 1899 128.0O9 5O4 

1894 106,327,250 19OO 146.294,110 

1895 109,324.393 19O1 182000336 

1896 123,116,389 19O2 153.700.468 

1897 185,362.562 



254 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

NOVA SCOTIA EXPORTS IN 1904. 



Districts. 


Manufacturers and Exporters. 


Available 
supply, 
acreage. 


Annual export, 
superficial 
feet. 


Annapolis Royal 
Bear River 1 


Pickels & Mills, Annapolis Royal, "1 
| Clarke Bros.. Bear River. 

G. D. Campbell & Co. , Weymouth 

j Parker, Eakins Company, Ltd., Yar-*l 
1 mouth, 
j Dickie & McGrath. Tusket, 
\ Blackadar & Co., Meteghan, J 

f Davison Lumber Company, Ltd., 1 
(. Bridgewater. J" 

1 United Lumber Company, Ltd., ] 
) Jordan River, 


400.000 
200,000 
750,000 

1.000,000 

350.000 

200.000 
250.000 

2.335.000 
150,000 
140,000 
300.000 

125,000 
150,000 
300,000 
500,000 

350,000 


20.00O.OOO 
12,000,000 
25,000.000 

23,000,000 

10,000,000 
10,000.000 
7,000,000 

63.000.000 

35.000.000 
20,000,000 

15,000,000 


Digby f" 
Wey mouth ) 
St. Mary's Bay J" 

Yarmouth 


Tusket 


Port Medway ") 
*B ridgrewater > 
Lunenburg j 

Shelburne 


Liverpool 


j McKay Bros., Clyde River , 
I John Millard, Liverpool, J 


St. Margaret's Bay. 
Wolfville "1 
Hantsport 1 
Windsor I 
Kingsport J 
Halifax 


(S. P. Benjamin* Co.. Wolfville, ) 


1 G. W. Henderson, Halifax. J 
(See Special Report) . 


MusQuodoblt 




Ship Harbour 




Sheet Harbour ) _ _ 
Mosers River J ' ' 
Liscombe 


Dominion Lumber Co., Sheet Harbour 
Alf Dickie Stewiacke . 


St. Mary's River 
Stewiacke River 
Pictou and Pug- ) 
wash j" 

Parrsborough and 1 
E. Minas Basin f 

Total 


Alf Dickie! Stewiacke 




j Primrose Bros., Pictou, 1 


1 T. G. McMullen, Truro, 1 " 
(Neuville Lumber Co., Parrsborough. "I 
Rhodes, Curry & Co., Ltd., Amherst, 
Chas. T. White, Apple River, > 
Nova Scotia Lumber Co., Walton, 
St. Croix Lumber Co.. St. Crolx, J 


7,500,000 


240.000,000 







*NOTE. Bridgewater exports will be increased to 50.00O.OOO feet in 1905. 

It is evident that, with the limited acreage and the fact that the 
original forest has practically all disappeared, no material increase of 
the product is to be expected ; but, conversely, with a climate espe- 
cially favorable to tree growth, and a considerable area not adapted to 
agriculture, that lumbering will be always a chief industry. 

EXPORTS OF LUMBER FROM HALIFAX, JANUARY 1 TO DECEMBER 1, 1904. 

Superficial feet. 



W.Malcolm McKay 22.30O.OOO 

Alfred Dickie 12,200.000 

I.H.Mathers... 10,000,000 

G.W.Henderson 1.3OO.OOO 

Smith Tyrer & Co 4,000,000 

T. G. McMullen 2.000.0OO 

Estimate for December 1,000,000 



52,800,000 
United States 10,200,000 



Exports for 1904 63,000,000 

Exports for 1903 65.OOO.OOO 



United States 

Lath 

United States 
United States 

Lath 



Lath 

Lumber 



1,500,000 
3.000.0OO 
200.OOO 
8,500,000 
9.000,000 



12,000,000 
1O.2OO.OOO 



NOVA SCOTIA EXPORTS, STATISTICS. 



255 



The following table shows the amount of the different kinds of 
lumber shipped by five of the leading firms of Halifax, from January 1 
to December 1, 1904: 

Superficial feet. 



Kind of lumber. 


To 
Europe. 


To United 
States. 


Total. 


Spruce 


35 757,564 


5 548346 


41,305.910 




72O2 O30 


3.962 153 


11,164.183 


Pine 


1.221.749 


873.861 


2.O95.610 




5 612 927 




5,612,927 


Timber 


* 68 273 






Lath 




12.029,000 


12.O29.000 



' This amount is in cubic feet. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 

Nine miles off the coast of New Brunswick at its nearest point, lies 
Prince Edward Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. At one time it was 
covered with a considerable forest growth. It was visited in 1534 by 
Jacques Cartier on his first voyage to the new world. In the " Relation 
Originate, " a description of Carder's voyage, is found the following 
concerning Prince Edward Island: 

"That day we coasted along the said land nine or ten leagues, trying 
to find some harbor, which we could not ; for, as I have said before, it 
is a land low and shallow. We went ashore in four places to see the 
trees, largely of the very finest and sweet smelling, and found that 
there were cedars, pines, white elms, ashes, willows and many other to 
us unknown. The lands where there are no woods are very beautiful." 

Despite Cartier's failure to find a good harbor, the present capital 
city of Charlottetown is located on one of the most excellent harbors 
of the Dominion. Georgetown, in King's County, situated at the junc- 
ture of the Cardigan, Montague and Brudenell rivers, was formerly 
called the " Port of Three Rivers," and was the center of the timber 
trade. 

While the island once possessed forests of considerable area, these 
have been largely removed by forest fires, lumbermen and shipbuilders. 
At one time the island was quite generally covered with timber, but now 
all that remain are small growths of balsam, fir and spruce and even 
smaller quantities of pine, larch, maple, poplar, beech, birch and cedar. 
The total area of the island is about 2,184 square miles, of which 797 
square miles remain in forest woodlands. Of this latter area at least 
forty percent is timber of merchantable size. 

In 1903 a forestry commission was created by an act of the legisla- 
ture. The Province receives no revenue from forest lands, but hopes 
to do valuable service in reafforesting denuded areas and conserving 
the remaining timber. 

According to the census of 1901, relating to lumber products, there 
were in the census year eight establishments of that character in Prince 
Edward Island with an invested capital of $223,500. These gave em- 

256 



PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 



257 



ployment to ninety-five wage-earners and paid out $30,772 annually in 
wages. The cost of materials employed was $49,406 and the value of 
the annual product, $118,150. The following affords a comparison con- 
cerning the lumber industry for a period of ten years : 

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES EMPLOYING FIVE HANDS AND OVER. COM- 
PARED FOR 1891 AND 19O1. 







1891. 




L9O1. 




Establish- 
ments, 
number. 


Value of output. 


Establish- 
ments, 
number. 


Value of output. 


Log products 


9 


$48 O25 


12 


$ 35,834 


Lumber products............... 


3 


48 200 


g 


118,150 













CHAPTER XXIV. 

THE DISTRICT OF UNGAVA. 

Historic association still gives the title of Labrador to the entirety 
of the great peninsula which forms the northeastern extremity of the 
North American continent ; but, in its political significance, the name 
has applied since 1809 only to the narrow strip of coast along its eastern 
edge which drains into the Atlantic. 

The Labrador Peninsula has been described as two and one-third 
times as large as the Province of Ontario, 65 percent of the size of all 
that part of the United States lying east of the Mississippi River, or 
nearly five times the area of Great Britain. It extends from the fifty- 
fifth meridian to the seventy-ninth meridian and from the forty-ninth 
parallel to the sixty-third parallel. It is contained within a nearly con- 
tinuous water boundary the Saguenay, Chamouchouan, Waswanipi 
and Nottaway rivers at the south, James and Hudson bays on the west, 
Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay on the north, the Atlantic Ocean on the 
northeast and the St. Lawrence River on the southeast. From Cape 
Wolstenholme, at the entrance to Hudson Bay, to the mouth of the 
Seguenay River the distance is 1,040 miles "as the crow flies;" from 
Belle Isle on the east to the mouth of the Nottaway River on the west 
the distance is more than one thousand miles. Roughly described, the 
peninsula froms a triangle one thousand miles long on each side. 

Of the 560,000 square miles embraced in the Labrador Peninsula, 
the greater part lies within the district of Ungava, a Canadian territory 
created October 2, 1895. At the time of its organization on the date 
mentioned Ungava included a much larger area than that with which it 
is now credited. It embraced all of the Labrador Peninsula north of the 
Height of Land, exclusive of that part of the Labrador Coast which is 
a part of the jurisdiction of Newfoundland. Quebec, the province to 
the southward, which is itself largely a part of the Labrador Peninsula, 
later had its boundaries extended so that it acquired all that part of 
Ungava lying south of the East Main River on the west and the Hamil- 
ton River on the east. By this order in council Quebec secured a strip 
of territory which is 250 miles in width at its western end and includes 
the regions of the Rupert and Nottaway rivers and Lake Mistassini, 

258 



THE DISTRICT OF UNGAVA. 259 

embracing important timbered areas. The following is the present area 
of Ungava: Land, 349,109 square miles; water, 5,852 square miles; 
total, 354,961 square miles. 

This great Labrador Peninsula, the largest peninsula in the world, 
is of historical importance, for it was the scene of the discovery of 
America by white men. There is little doubt that its coast was touched 
by Norsemen as early as 1000. June 24, 1497, a year previous to the 
first continental discovery by Christopher Columbus (an Italian sailing 
under the Spanish flag) Giovanni Cabot, or Cabotto, a Genoese in the 
employ of the English, visited the eastern coast of North America; 
and in the following year Sebastian Cabot, his son, discovered Hudson 
strait. In 1500 Gaspar Cortereal, a little known Portuguese, landed 
and gave the name of Labrador, or " laborers' land," to the peninsula. 
In 1576 Martin Frobisher visited the region and in 1585-6-7 John Davis 
explored arctic Canada, including the vicinity of Labrador. To the 
westward, in Hudson Bay, occurred in 1611 one of the most tragic of 
the many tragic events linked with the story of the New World. Henry 
Hudson, the explorer, upon determining to winter in the region in order 
that he might continue his search for a northwest passage the following 
spring, was cast adrift in Hudson Bay with his seven-year-old son and 
seven seamen and died a miserable but unknown death. 

The exploitation of the timber of Ungava has never been seriously 
attempted, beneficent natural conditions of climate serving to keep in 
reserve these timbered areas until the demolition of the forests farther 
south shall render the utilization of more northern forests necessary. 
The southwestern portion of that part of the peninsula contained within 
Ungava was early, however, the scene of extensive trading by the Hud- 
son Bay Company, which had posts at the mouth of the Rupert River, 
at Great Whale River and Little Whale River and on Lake Mistassini 
and at other points in the interior. This company was incorporated in 
1670 and was headed by Prince Rupert, a cousin of Charles II., of 
England. It had the exclusive trading rights on Hudson Bay. Two 
employees of the Quebec fur-trading monopoly, Groseillers and Radis- 
son, conceived the idea of exploiting the Hudson Bay region. They 
failed successively to interest their own employers, a coterie of Boston 
merchants and the French court and finally had recourse to London, 
where the Hudson Bay Company was organized. It was capitalized at 
10,500 and Prince Rupert and his seventeen associates received a char- 
ter May 2, 1670. This was granted to "The Governor and Company 



260 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

of Merchants-Adventurers trading into Hudson's Bay" and gave the 
company the exclusive right to trade in the bay and on the coasts, power 
to expel trespassers on these rights and the privilege of building forts 
and fitting out privateers and armed ships for the purpose of making 
war on any non-Christian people. 

From the time of its occupation until the present the company has 
been a potent factor in the history of Canada, no less in Ungava than 
elsewhere. In the district it gave the name to Rupert's River and 
established Rupert's House at the river's mouth early in its corporate 
existence. It established in the interior of Ungava in later years 
Mechiskun House, Waswanapi House and Mistassini House and, on 
the west coast of Ungava, posts at Great Whale River, Little Whale 
River and elsewhere. 

While the early operations of the company were carried on with 
profit, they were never so large, in the earlier years, as to render these 
profits exceptionally heavy. In 1676 it handled 19,000 worth of furs, 
giving in exchange to the Indians 650 worth of goods. In 1748 the 
amount of business had increased to only 30,000 from which had to be 
deducted 17,000 for operating expenses and 5,000 for goods for the 
Indians. At that time the business required the employment of four 
ships and numerous garrisons. A French claim to the territory em- 
broiled the Hudson Bay Company in difficulties from 1682 until 1713. 
In 1682 and 1686 the French captured several of the company's forts. 
These troubles were ended by the treaty of Utrecht in 1713 and thence- 
forward the company enjoyed prosperity. It was not until 1763 that the 
operations attained any great magnitude, however, and then they were 
.vastly increased by the opening of all the Hudson Bay country by the 
session of French Canada. 

The Declaration of Rights, which guaranteed free and open trade 
to all British subjects, produced the first serious competition which the 
company was forced to encounter. In 1782 the Northwest Fur & Trad- 
ing Company was organized in Montreal. It invaded the old com- 
pany's territory and the competition eventually became actual warfare. 
In 1821 these evils were cured by a union of the companies. The later 
history of the great enterprise concerns more particularly its westward 
progress. 

It will be observed by this history of the operations of the Hudson 
Bay Company that a great fur trade was early developed in Ungava. 
The forests remained untouched, and in a consideration of the forestal 



THE DISTRICT OF UNGAVA. 261 

wealth of Canada the southern part of Ungava should be considered 
among its resources. Along the southern border exist important areas 
of hardwoods and from these forests the growth gradually lessens 
until the barren shores of Hudson Strait are reached. 

The interior of Ungava is a plateau of less than 2,500 feet elevation 
and broken by a network of lakes and rivers which make water trans- 
portation in any direction possible. A portage of two or three miles 
will generally serve to move a canoe from one river to the waters of 
another. The plateau rises precipitously from the Atlantic Ocean at 
the east but slopes gradually to James Bay at the west. The longer 
rivers are, therefore, in the western part of the peninsula. The chief 
rivers of Ungava are the Koksoak and Leaf rivers, emptying into 
Ungava Bay, the Hamilton and Northwest rivers, flowing into Lake 
Melville, and the Great Whale and Mistassibi rivers, flowing into Hud- 
son and James bays. Grand Falls on the Hamilton River has a drop 
of 302 feet and a volume of 50,000 cubic feet a second. The important 
lakes of Ungava are Mishikamau, Kaniapiskau, North Seal, Clearwater, 
Apiskigamish, Nichikun, Manuan and Payne. 

The district of Ungava possesses a considerable forest area which 
will be of commercial importance when the provinces shall have been 
denuded. In the consideration of this forest ground, however, the 
northwestern projection of the peninsula may well be eliminated, as the 
forest is of no value. Even as far south as Richmond Gulf the region 
takes on the characteristics of the Labrador Coast, the hills rising 
abruptly 500 to 1,000 feet. These hills are barren on top, small trees 
growing only in the lower gullies and about the edge of the water. 
Clearwater Lake, to which reference has already been made, is in the 
same locality. It is thirty-five miles long from northwest to southeast 
and eighteen miles across at the widest point. The bare and rocky hills 
are clothed only with lichens and arctic shrubs. The trees about the 
lake are very small black spruce or larch. At North Seal Lake the 
trees are even smaller and the barren areas more extensive. 

The chief forest areas occupy the valleys of the streams flowing 
into James Bay at the westward and the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence at the eastward. This wealth has, unfortunately, been 
much lessened by forest fires which have, within the last quarter cen- 
tury, destroyed one-half of the timber of the interior. In some places 
this destruction has been so complete that two hundred years will be 
required to restore the soil to its old fertility. These fires are attrib- 



262 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

uted generally to Indians. A. P. Low, of the Geological Survey of 
Canada, whose explorations of unknown Ungava have been highly 
valuable, says that the fires occur annually and often burn during the 
entire summer. In 1894 he wrote: "These fires are due to various 
causes but many of them can be traced to the Indians, who start them 
either through their carelessness or intentionally." However, settlers, 
tourists and hunters are equally culpable. Many of the fires may be 
traced to their lack of care in building camp fires in places carpeted 
with gummy leaves and resinous twigs. On the upper canoe routes 
notices printed in English, French and Indian have been posted at 
every portage. These appear to have had some effect. 

Despite the destructiveness of forest fires and the barrenness of the 
northern part of Ungava, the district contains a large amount of excel- 
lent timber, particularly adaptable to pulp manufacture. Ungava forests 
embrace spruce, larch, balsam fir, scrub pine, poplar and birch, distrib- 
uted according to the altitude, latitude, distance from the sea and 
character of the soil. 

Black spruce ( ' Picea nigra) constitutes 90 percent of the forest 
growth of Ungava and extends northward to Ungava Bay and Hamilton 
Inlet and westward to the sparse growth of Richmond Gulf, although 
in the northwest it does not exist in merchantable quantities. In the 
southern part of Ungava black spruce grows in thickets, which habit 
prevents it from obtaining any considerable size. Farther north the 
trees are more distributed and of larger girth. 

White spruce (Picea alba) is found in smaller quantities throughout 
the peninsula wherever there is well drained soil. 

Black larch ( ' Larix americana ) t or tamarack, ranks second to black 
spruce in the extent of its growth. It also extends the farthest north 
of any of the Ungava trees, growing to a considerable height in regions 
so arctic that the spruce is stunted to a mere shrub. It is the largest 
of the trees found in the interior and makes the cold swamps its par- 
ticular habitat. The European larch saw fly has been working north- 
ward in recent years and doing some damage to the tamarack growth. 

The balsam fir (Abies balsamea) seldom grows farther north than 
the fifty-sixth parallel and is found in considerable quantities on the 
east shore of James Bay and eastward to Hamilton Inlet. It is particu- 
larly abundant on the lower Rupert River, where it grows in company 
with the white spruce, aspen and canoe birch. 

Banksian pine (Pinus banksiana ) variously known as the gray pine, 



THE DISTRICT OF UNGAVA. 263 

scrub pine, jack pine, Labrador pine and "cypress," has attained con- 
siderable growth on the burned-over area south of the Whale River and 
it is found in the swampy regions southward in the vicinity of James 
Bay. 

The aspen ( Populus tremuloides ) grows south of the fifty-fourth par- 
allel and is assisting to restore the burned-over areas. It conserves the 
soil on steep slopes and affords shelter to the seedlings of coniferae. 

The balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera ) grows as far north as 
Clearwater Lake and is partial to the clay soil of the river valleys. It 
reaches a diameter of ten inches on the Kaniapiskau River. 

The white, or canoe, birch ( ' Betula papyrifera ) is common to the 
southern part of the peninsula. It reaches ten inches in diameter at 
Hamilton Inlet, but up the river seldom attains more than eight inches. 
As it extends northward it is dwarfed in size. 

As a source of future pulpwood supply Ungava takes important rank 
among the more northern districts of the Dominion of Canada. It is 
peculiarly well endowed with water power and means of water trans- 
portation and will eventually be the scene of extensive and profitable 
pulpwood manufacture. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

CANADA ITS LUMBER INDUSTRY IN 1874. 

History is a kinetoscopic repetition of events. It is interesting to 
stop the film of time occasionally and to view in detail the conditions pre- 
vailing during a particular period. It is for that reason that here is in- 
terjected a chapter showing with considerable detail the extent of the 
Canadian lumber industry in 1874. This chapter is drawn largely from 
an article prepared by a representative of the Lumberman's Gazette, a 
predecessor of the American Lumberman. The following is a pen pic- 
ture of the Canadian lumber industry in 1874 : 

Canada, as a whole, must be regarded as possessing within her borders the 
most extended and connected chain of lumbering establishments in the world ; 
and, from the location of her forests, adjacent to and facing the great continental 
markets, with such grand maritime facilities, we must pronounce them the most 
important, for the general markets, of any yet developed. 

Respecting sensational documents prophesying a timber famine in the near 
future, which have been industriously put forth, it is sufficient to say that they have 
a tendency toward good by their restraining influence. But, in an excursion 
through the whole field, a mention of these prophesies will be promptly met with 
decidedly derisive ejaculations, the general expression being, " We have stock 
enough secured for our mills for fifty years or more," and that the mills now 
erected in Canada could cut their present yearly aggregate for that time and still 
have forests left. Exceptions in old districts will doubtless occur, but new ones are 
opening yearly, and forests yet unexplored for lumbering will be made accessible 
when required. In the North Simcoe section there are forty-nine mills of good 
construction, having 182,000,000 feet capacity yearly (rating low at that), which 
last year [1874] sent to Toronto 140,000,000 feet ; and yet experts at woodcraft, 
thoroughly acquainted with these regions, say these mills (including other small 
ones) can be stocked probably fifty years longer. 

We find, by careful computation of statistics given by parties of known credi- 
bility, that within the reach of these mills there Is still of forest timber fit for the 
saw 4,550,000,000 feet of a merchantable character ; also that the Georgian Bay 
mills, seven in number, have a still more extended and much less pillaged field to 
look to all that region watered by the French, Spanish and other north shore 
streams, spread out many hundred miles, much of which country is yet unsurveyed 
and consequently unappropriated for any purpose. This section is estimated low 
at 20,000,000,000 feet, without including areas beyond those comprised within pres- 
ent explorations. It sent to the various points accessible by water no less than 
90,000,000 feet in 1874, besides square timber. Its outlet is to Chicago, Buffalo 

264 



CANADA ITS LUMBER INDUSTRY IN 1874. 265 

and Tonawanda, for the United States, and Collingwood and thence by rail to To- 
ronto, for the Dominion. Taking the other side of the Bay, running over the 
whole of western Ontario, we have a vast area of settled country, with many small 
but high grade pineries interspersed, owned and protected by private parties, 
counting at least 2,500,000,000 feet, none too much for home supply, and not one 
foot of which should ever seek a foreign market. Yet twenty-nine mills, mostly of 
limited capacity, together with thirteen quite insignificant ones, send 70,000,000 
feet of lumber and logs (embracing some square and spar rafts) to Cleveland, 
Erie, Buffalo and Tonawanda. 

The above area includes the coast down to the lower wharves of Toronto, from 
whence we may take a run up the route of the Lake Nipissing railway and find a 
fair sweep of territory covered with fine forests, much of which is yet untouched 
and can not be utilized until the road is completed to its proposed terminus at the 
lake, where it is supposed it will be in line with the Great Pacific. The forests on 
this line are estimated of sufficient value to induce a board of astute capitalists to 
make a large outlay of money. Yet, from a cursory glance at the timber, we judge 
its grade scarcely warrants present handling, if immediate pecuniary margin is the 
object of the operators. The 11,000,000,000 feet which this division proposes to 
thro win to the great aggregate of forest product will count with good results, if the 
cutting of it is not too hurried. This road is already constructed nearly ninety 
miles, and has drawn to it a considerable outlay in mills, about thirteen in num- 
ber, mostly of small capacity, which sent to Toronto in 1874, 15,000,000 feet ; and 
this will increase year by year, as other and larger mills are constructed. 

Proceeding along the shore line of Ontario past Ports Whitby, Hope, Coburg, 
Trenton, and Belleville to Kingston, thence backward into the outlying country, 
embracing that extended chain of waters known as the Rice and other lakes, includ- 
ing the Trent, Moira, Scugog, Otonobee, Marmora, Napanee and other smaller riv- 
ers, reaching 150 miles toward the Grand Ottawa, we have a large area of country 
rich in timber, villages, farms and even iron and gold. Many first class sawmills are 
in operation, while the streams, many of them navigable to small steamers, are filled 
with floating logs and square timber for the use of mills all along the front. Sev- 
eral competing railroads cross each other within this stretch, having the posts 
before named, the large interior towns and the forests for objective points. Al- 
though it has been settled and worked for fifty years or more, the country still has 
many valuable timber precincts, which, although largely run over by the spar 
hunter and hewer, yearly send a vast amount of the same class of product, with 
logs and lumber, to the market. This product counted in 1874 285,000,000 feet, 
and the same grounds are computed to possess yet 7,750,000,000 feet for stock for 
her fifty-seven mills. This section has had the repute of yielding as fine a grade of 
stock as any portion of Canada, and holds its own very fairly in that particular. 

The country in the rear of Kingston, Brockville, Prescott, Cornwall, etc., is 
also of great importance, as being the location of thirteen good sawmills, whose 
yield for 1874 was 106,000,000 feet of a good quality, together with considerable 
hardwood and basswood, while there remains on the main streams 2,250,000,000 
feet of good, marketable pine, beside no mean amount of other woods of but little 
less value. 

In all this stretch of country there is no thought of catering to other than the 



266 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

United States trade, save in the sections where a portion of the square and spar 
timber goes to Quebec and thence to Europe. We have not herein intrenched upon 
groves on streams that flow to the grand center, Ottawa. It will doubtless be a 
surprise to many, even in Ontario, to learn that on these grounds, many of which 
have been long worked, there remains tributary to the Great Lakes the amount of 
45,550,000,000 feet. Yet Ontario is sparsely settled, and in all that vast range all 
was originally forest and water, with no prairie. Remembering this, the investiga- 
tor is led to think that there should be even more timber than we have counted, 
and we think the future will prove that there is more. The country we have been 
considering extends 750 by about 436 miles, making 327,000 square statute miles, 
equal to about 209,280,000 acres in area. 

We approach Ottawa City next, as the great lumber and mill center. We find 
here, within a radius of about ten miles, twenty-four mills, nearly all of superior 
grade, embracing over a hundred gangs and six large circulars. These mills 
represent a capacity of over 400,000,000 feet annually, without night work, and 
have such timber limits attached to each establishment that scarcely one of them 
need have any fear of lack of stock for the next twenty-five, fifty, or one hundred 
years, even if an enlarged demand should decide them to run the whole twenty-four 
hours. Although many of these mills are located in Ontario, still they draw nearly 
all their stock of logs from Quebec. The Grand Ottawa is the dividing line between 
the two provinces. It receives from both sides a very large number of extended 
water courses, which drain an immense territory of densely timbered land. These 
mills have been erected mostly for, and are run to subserve, the American market, 
yet they annually contribute something to the European trade. 

The Grand Ottawa is a very large and important river, over 750 miles in length, 
and draining an area of 80,000 square miles. It receives many tributaries varying 
from 100 to 400 miles in length. The whole valley has been, and is now, mostly 
covered with dense forests of white pine and red pine, and is held or allotted by the 
Government as timber limits, with but small exceptions. Besides furnishing stock 
for these mills, vast quantities of logs are cut and run to Montreal and other mills 
scattered along the St. Lawrence engaged in cutting deals. This is the great 
source from which the large timber houses and other concerns of Quebec draw 
their supplies for the European trade. It is estimated that the Gatineau alone can 
send to Ottawa over 12,000,000,000 feet, the Madawaska 4,000,000,000, the Upper 
Ottawa waters 75,000,000,000, the Reviere du Lievre to the mills below 4,000,000,000, 
all of a good quality of white pine and red pine. The spruce and hemlock timber 
seem boundless and, although not now regarded of much value, will eventually be 
the basis of more real wealth than the pine has been, if not ruthlessly destroyed by 
man or fire. All these sections, though showing large by the figures above, will 
doubtless yield through the same channels, from adjacent higher lands and more 
northern regions when necessity demands it, enough more to duplicate their 
present claims. 

The Ottawa region, unlike the other sections, occupies an enviable position, 
inasmuch as it has the privilege of choosing the best of three different markets and 
can ship to them all by water conveyance to the United States, to Europe, or to 
South America and Australia. This region has such superb mill establishments 
and does the work of cutting in such a neat style that it often gets fancy prices for 



CANADA ITS LUMBER INDUSTRY IN 1874. 267 

even a low grade article, because it looks well in bulk. Though its reserve stocks 
are 30,000,000 feet less than they were in 1873, and the cutting in the woods is ex- 
ceedingly light, the harbors of this section being filled with held-over logs, mem- 
bers of the trade will be able largely to increase the aggregate for 1875 over that of 

1874. It could be done to the extent of 100,000,000 feet if the demand should war- 
rant it. These millmen, with those of the Lower Ottawa, and with the St. Law- 
rence operators, being in financial circumstances above panic influences, generally 
can watch and wait, or work as pleases best, and, having no burdens resting upon 
them in the shape of timber land taxes or interest, they can well afford to rest a 
season or two if exigencies require. These firms could put into the market for 

1875, 450,000,000 feet without straining a single nerve, and the St. Lawrence mills 
could add 50,000,000 and make the sum 500,000,000, which, however, is not pro- 
posed by either party. But there is one feature regarding the Canadian forest prod- 
uct of which sight should not be lost. The square timber trade received such a 
rude shock that many of the houses have utterly refused to go into the woods at all 
this winter, which will have a tendency to clean out the stocks on hand and, 
doubtless, diminish the amount marketed considerably; and, as much of that wood 
is put into deals after it arrives in Europe, its loss may be required to be made 
good by the manufacturer. 

The river St. Maurice is one of the largest of the St. Lawrence tributa- 
ries, and drains an immense scope of country. It is over 400 miles long, re- 
ceives the waters of fifteen important rivers and numerous lakes, and is supposed 
to drain a widespread territory of pine, spruce and hemlock timber of great 
value. The Government claims to have yet on its waters over 3,000,000 acres 
of unallotted timber lands, on which, if we give but 3,000 to the acre, we have 
9,000,000,000 feet outside the leased limits. Gaspe and Bonaventure counties are 
claimed to have 3,000 square miles of timber limits yet waiting lease, abounding in 
sawing timber, which, by applying the same rule, will add 6,000,000,000 feet. 

The estimate so far gives over one hundred years' stock for all the mills now 
working in the two provinces, yet, to show the probable accuracy of these details, 
we will state that Quebec records show in 1872, 192,000 square miles reserved for 
timber limits, and at that time an allotment of 42,399 square miles had been made, 
leaving unleased land as follows : 

Six thousand square miles St. Maurice territory; 2,000 in the Gatineau ; 3,000 
in the Upper Ottawa ; 139,000 in other sections of the Province, including Gaspe, 
Labrador, etc. In other words, they say they have 149,000 square miles of timber 
land to lease ; and, if we can award to them 3,000 to the acre, or about 2,000,000 
to the square mile, we get 298,000,000,000, which is nearly three times the amount 
we had set down for the different sections en route, and yet we do not intrench 
upon the 42,399 square miles allotted. It is no more than reasonable to surmise 
that no practical millman or lumberman would purchase timber limits, and thus 
subject himself to a yearly rental for twenty-one years, without first ascertaining 
that such limits were worth the purchase. Therefore, if we give these men credit 
for common business tact, we must suppose their 42,399 square miles, or 27,135,360 
acres, must yield at least 3,000 feet to the acre, less the amount cut off since their 
occupancy. This would give an additional amount of 81,406,080,000 feet, which 
we reduce by 15,000,000,000 as the amount cut off 5,000,000 acres, leaving 66,406,- 



268 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

080,000. All this, it will be remembered, does not touch the Algoma, nor the 
Northwest Territory, which we know, from actual exploration, is very extensive 
and will come in for use when needed, though generations may pass before that 
time arrives. Neither does it embrace the amount assumed to be still in the 
Ontario forests, that being about 45,550,000,000 feet. 

RECAPITULATION. 

Feet board 
measure. 

Ontario forests 45,550,000,000 

Quebec, allotted limits 66,406,080,000 

Quebec, not allotted 298,000,000,000 



Aggregate 409,956,080,000 

If the Government basis is correct those lands will yield all these figures have 
assumed for them. But it should be stated that the Gaspe and the St. Maurice ter- 
ritory, and what may be left on the Saguenay, embrace the spruce and hemlock as 
well as the pine. In that region those woods may be regarded as possessing a 
commercial value equal to the Upper Ottawa pine on its stump. On looking over 
the whole domain of the Dominion we would be surprised, indeed, if it did not 
furnish 500,000,000,000 feet of sawing stock, knowing what some of the sections 
that have been cleared have yielded. 

The year 1874 was the occasion of a sharp and sudden decline in Canadian 
lumber values. At the opening of the season in 1874, about June 10, the following 
were the prevailing prices in Canada, a standard deal making 2,750 superficial feet 
to 100 pieces : 

Pine standards, firsts, $108, or $39.28 per M feet board measure. 

Pine standards, seconds, $72, or $26.19 per M feet board measure. 

Pine standards, thirds, $306, or $13.09 per M feet board measure. 

Pine standards, fourths, $28, or $10.19 per M feet board measure. 

Spruce, firsts, $44, or $16 per M feet board measure. 

Spruce, seconds, $36, or $13 per M feet board measure. 

Spruce, thirds, $28, or $10.18 per M feet board measure. 

Spruce, fourths, $28, or $7.27 per M feet board measure. 

These prices fell off fully ten percent during the season. At the opening of 
1874 pine sold at 35 cents to 20 cents per cubic foot, oak at 47^ to 50 cents, elm at 
37> to 40 cents, and walnut at 80 to 85 cents. All of these, except the walnut, 
fell off 12 percent in price during the summer. At that time the production of 
square timber was made up of about three-quarters pine, of which one-twelfth 
was red. Hardwoods manufactured embraced oak, ash, birch, basswood, white 
tamarack, walnut, maple and hickory. Spruce and hemlock represented about 
one-sixth of the total production, but the proportion has since very largely in- 
creased. 

The following is a comprehensive statement of the extent of the lumber indus- 
try of Canada in 1874, the names 1 of manufacturers and the location and capacity 
of their mills being given : 



1 The spelling of the names appears incorrect in many instances, but changes have been 
made only in a few cases that were known absolutely. The editor does not wish to be held respon- 
sible for the spelling of these names in this excerpt. 



CANADA ITS LUMBER INDUSTRY IN 1874. 



271 



JTAMES AXE> LOCATION. 


Thousand feet. 


Product. 


Held over. 


Cutting. 


Ross Richie. 
A. Mayrand. 
Price Bros.. 
Price Bros., 

Total 


Nicholet 


2.000 
3.OOO 
BjOOO 

6000 


1,000 
l.OOO 
3.000 
2,000 


22.OOO 
3.000 
10.OOO 

40.000 


Nlcholet. 


Batiscan 


St. Thomas, Metis. Sagencey. So. Du'Cashon 




864.OOO 


330.250 


855.OOO 



The mills enumerated above manufactured, during 1874, in the aggregate, 
112,000,000 deals for the European market. 

In addition there are seventy-three mills about and below Quebec which stock 
almost exclusively for the European market, or the South American and Australian 
trade, though we find among their product 23,000,000 feet that might, if the de- 
mand were good, go to the United States. This stock was made, doubtless, for 
the southern trade, and, that call being already overstocked, it has mostly been 
held in reserve. To show the cause, we find the South American, etc., shipments 
in 1874 have been but 16,975,000 against 41,044,000 in 1873, while nothing to speak 
of has gone to Australia. 

RECAPITULATION OF CANADA PINB LUMBER, DEALS, TIMBER, BTC. 



Stock and siding boards produced by mflls enumerated 

Stock and siding boards produced by mflls not enumerated.... 

Total of United States market 

Amount of same grades held over from 1873 

Amount on the market for 1874 

Amount being held over from above mflls 330,250,000 

Amount being held over from other mflls 17,750,000 

Amount of foreign sales 

Pine deals produced by above mflls 

Pine deals by other mflls 

Pine deals held over from 1873 

Amount on the market 

Amount now in reserve 

Amount sold and shipped 

Approximate pine timber made In 1874 

Approximate held over in 1873 

Approximate amount on the market 

Now la reserve 



FOR 1874. 

Feet board 
measure. 

864,000.000 
23.000.000 

887,000.000 
346.000.000 

1.233.000,000 
343,000.000 

685.000.000 

243.000,000 

173.000.000 

8O.750.000 

496.750.000 
150,750,000 

346.000.000 

192.OOO.OOO 

84.000.0OO 

276.000,000 
73.0OO.OOO 

203.000,000 
1,434.000.000 



Amount of pine timber sold and shipped 

Total pine shipped from the two provinces approximated 

This falls 2OO.OOO.OOO short of the shipments for 1873. 

In preceding chapters of this history the reader has found figures 
epitomizing the production of lumber in the districts above named in 
years later than 1874. A comparison will show the changes in the in- 
dustry in Canada between 1874 and 1905. Many names of importance 
in 1874 will be found to have been still prominent in 1905. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 

The beginning of the Twentieth Century marked, with approximate 
accuracy, an epochal period in the timber and lumber history of the 
United States of America. Until that time the country, in its use 
of forest products, had been drawing upon a surplus, but thereafter a 
continuance of production on the former scale, without adequate care 
for the perpetuation or reproduction of the forests, necessarily would 
draw upon the capital fund, so to speak, with the inevitable result of a 
growing scarcity of forest products, or, to be more exact, of an increas- 
ing and manifest deficiency in the supply of standing timber from 
which the product must be secured. 

Not only were the forests in surplus supply ; that is to say, occupy- 
ing a greater territory and in larger quantity than were necessary, 
provided their natural growth should be maintained, to supply in per- 
petuity the national requirement, but they were, especially during the 
period of development up to about 1850, in many instances a positive 
detriment. Forests stood on millions of acres of fertile lands which 
were needed by the settler and the would-be farmer, and a slow-grow- 
ing crop of timber was occupying land that might more profitably be 
devoted to the annual production of grain or other products of agri- 
culture. 

Unfortunately there has never been a timber census of the United 
States, nor even any very trustworthy estimate either of acreage or 
volume ; but the best informed students of the subject believe, after as 
careful investigations as they have been able to make, that the forests 
yet remaining, if operated along conservative lines, would annually 
produce in perpetuity an amount of forest products little, if any, more 
than the present annual output. If that be true, the United States has 
come to the point where it can no longer be lavish in its use of its won- 
derful timber resources, but must rigorously conserve them. It no 
longer will be consuming a surplus, but, except for the adoption of for- 
estry methods, will be drawing upon its capital. 

It seems fitting therefore, that, at such a turning point in the life of 
this great and fundamental industry, a study should be made of its his- 

272 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 273 

tory in order that those concerned and every one is directly or indi- 
rectly concerned in this subject may look forward from the vantage 
point of knowledge and recorded experience. To afford such a van- 
tage ground is one of the objects of this work, which must be a record 
not merely of men and of events, but also of conditions. 

In previous chapters we have outlined the forestal condition of the 
North American continent and of the present United States as it was 
when the white race began its work of discovery, exploration and con- 
quest. But it is necessary to go more minutely into the subject in this 
chapter than heretofore. 

In undertaking to state with some definiteness the original location, 
extent and quality of the forests within the present area of the United 
States, the historian is confronted with a task impossible of complete 
execution. The available records do not show with preciseness the 
limits of the forested areas nor the exact location and size of the tree- 
less areas within them, and the research and exhaustive personal work 
necessary to determine these facts would, perhaps, not be worth the 
while. But it is possible to give an outline of these primary facts suf- 
ficiently exact to serve the purpose of comparison and, perhaps, to 
accomplish all that is desirable in this connection. 

Further, it is necessary to determine, with as much exactness as 
possible, the present forestal condition of the country, and to measure 
its timber resources. This task is as more difficult than the former 
one as it is more important. Upon it many able investigators have 
centered their attention, and yet, so inadequate and incomplete are the 
data, that no certain result is to be obtained only an estimate more or 
less reliable according to the personal knowledge of the estimator and 
the thoroughness and skill with which he collects the available facts 
and draws his conclusions. The personal equation must be considered 
also. With the best of intentions the pessimist and alarmist will 
underestimate the amount of standing timber, and so exaggerate the 
seriousness of the exigency. On the other hand, the optimist is likely 
to magnify the favorable facts and minimize the unfavorable ones. 

It is the endeavor in this chapter to avoid either extreme and to 
reach conclusions through no other means than an impartial study 
of the existing and recognized facts and a study of the methods, argu- 
ments and conclusions of those who have hitherto undertaken this task. 

FOREST ENVIRONMENT OF EARLY EXPLORERS. 

To those discoverers and explorers who approached the United 



274 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

States from the East the forests seemed illimitable. True, the French 
explorers, like Marquette, Joliet, LaSalle and Tonti, found in the 
Mississippi Valley extensive prairie areas, but it is doubtful if they saw 
many of these, for"*their travels were as far as possible by water, and 
the waterways were always adorned and sheltered by trees; and, 
further, they did not go into the true plains country, for Illinois was 
nearly or quite half covered with forests, and eastern Iowa in those 
early days indicated little of the real character of most of the area of 
that great State. 

Those who approached the continent from the Pacific found wide, 
open valleys, sterile mountain tops and barren plains, but the coast 
itself extended the welcome of the forest, and the valleys and the 
peaks were bordered or surrounded by forests which today are the 
wonders of the arboreal kingdom. It was only the Spaniards who, 
like Coronado, entered the country from New Spain, that encountered 
the great treeless plains. While, therefore, it was soon a matter of 
common knowledge that in the remote West there were treeless and 
even desert areas, the colonists on the eastern coast those to whose 
labors is due the foundation of that great community which later 
became the United States personally knew only of the forest, which, 
so far as their own explorations informed them, stretched indefinitely 
into the interior. Months of travel and hundreds of toilsome leagues 
did not serve to release them from the forest environment. Therefore, 
to the settler the forest, although a protection and a support to the 
hunter and trapper, became an enemy to be fought and conquered 
before a higher civilization could be established. 

DIVISIONS OF FOREST AREAS. 

From the time of the first exploration and settlement of the United 
States until the present, there has been comparatively little change in 
the location and outline of the areas that may be called wooded. Not- 
withstanding the clearing of hundreds of thousands of square miles, so 
that the passengers on the railways may now travel for hours without 
seeing more than occasional groves or groups of woodland where once 
a continuous forest shaded the soil, the characteristics of the timber 
soil still remain. The greatest changes have, perhaps, been in the 
prairie region, where windbreaks and wood lots now abound and break 
the monotony of a landscape which once interposed no obstacle be- 
tween the eye and the circling horizon. Though no census relating to 
the facts has been made, it is a matter of common knowledge that in 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 275 

such states as Kansas and Nebraska the wooded area is much greater 
now than at any previous time, and is steadily increasing as the own- 
ers of the land come to a better appreciation of the Value of trees in 
aspects other than as furnishing a lumber material. But, notwith- 
standing these local changes, the outlines of the forest areas continue 
to be marked by the remnants of the once continuous woodlands, while 
within these limits still exist magnificent forests and, though much land 
has been devoted to agriculture and much lies waste, the growth of 
trees in the soil and climate to whose invitation they most generously 
respond has done much to maintain the forest industries. 

Some students of American forestry divide the forest area of the 
United States into three grand divisions. One they call the eastern 
forest ; another, the Rocky Mountain forest, and the third, the Pacific 
Coast forest. The eastern forest is that originally continuous growth 
which reached from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and beyond, broken 
toward its western boundaries by the incursion of the prairies. The 
Rocky Mountain forest is that broken and usually scattered growth 
found in the dry climate and on the often sterile soil of the Rocky 
Mountains and their foothills, while the Pacific Coast forest is that lying 
west of the summit of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada ranges, with 
some extensions to the east. 

A more logical division would, however, seem to be that which 
divides the forest area into two grand classes known as the Atlantic and 
the Pacific, or the eastern and the western. This classification is the 
more logical because it rests not upon more or less arbitrary geograph- 
ical or topographical considerations, but because it recognizes the 
essential differences in species characteristic of the two divisions. 

The Atlantic forest is essentially broad-leaved in its type, while the 
Pacific forest is coniferous and needle-leaved, and there are compara- 
tively few species common to them. Excluding tropical species, the 
Atlantic forest has 199 species of broad-leaved trees, many of which 
grow in profusion and are of immense economic value, while the Pa- 
cific forest has only 106 species, few of which are of any considerable 
value. On the other hand, the Pacific forest has sixty-five species of 
conifers and the Atlantic forest but twenty-nine, only one of which is 
common to the two. The conifers of the Atlantic Coast occupied ex- 
tensive areas and were of the highest economic value, but in territory 
covered the broad-leaved trees far exceeded them and would either 
mix with the conifers or penetrate their strongholds through river val- 



276 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

leys or by occupation of particularly favorable soils throughout their 
range. Thus, either in the white pine forests of the North or the yel- 
low pine districts of the South, the woodsman was never far removed 
from broad-leaved growths which were of moment in reckoning the 
forest wealth of the section, while in the Pacific forest the conifers oc- 
cupied vast stretches of territory to the exclusion of all others, and the 
broad-leaved trees, when found, were in comparison insignificant and 
seldom of much value as a material for the sawmill. 

The great interior plains and prairie region of the continent serves 
effectually to divide and keep separated the two types of forest. This 
is true despite the fact that in some places they meet and mingle. The 
Atlantic type, reaching with some species far into western Texas, meets 
there species typical of the Pacific forest and also of the arboreal flora 
of Mexico. Further north the Atlantic forest, stretching out "feelers," 
as it were, along the rivers and creeks into the plains region meets, as 
in the Black Hills of South Dakota, outposts of the Pacific flora ; and 
toward the northern limits of both forests, in the British possessions, 
they came together in one great stretch of continuous woodland, reach- 
ing from the Atlantic to the Pacific, with some species of subarctic 
adaptabilities which reach from ocean to ocean. 

THE PRAIRIES. 

The explanation of the existence of the prairie regions and of the 
grassy plains of the United States has been the subject of much inves- 
tigation. It has been presumed by many, in view of the fact that the 
soil is adapted to tree growth and that, under the influence of occupa- 
tion by agriculturalists, trees are spreading west of the Mississippi, that 
at some time these vast fertile areas were covered with forests. There 
is no disagreement of opinion about the semiarid regions where the 
vegetable growth is scanty and of few varieties. In those regions, and 
particularly in the alkali plains and sinks, it is evident that the condi- 
tions forbid the growth of trees, but it is only recently that anything 
like an agreement has been reached as to the grassy plains and prairies. 

It has been the theory of some that fire set by the aboriginal inhab- 
itants year after year, generation after generation, destroyed and 
crowded back the forests. But if this had been the case some marks 
of their existence would have remained. The peculiar mounds left by 
the overturning of large trees by wind, particularly if they are protected 
by grasses from erosion, are not readily obliterated. Indeed, it is prob- 
able that they would persist for hundreds or thousands of years. But 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 277 

the genuine prairie regions have no such evidence of former occupancy 
by forests. Again, the debris of forest growth persists indefinitely. 
Trunks of trees become buried in marshes or are covered with alluvial 
deposits and thus are preserved. No such remains, nor the impression 
of trunk, branch or leaf, have been discovered in most of those regions 
which were treeless at the beginning of white settlement. The conclusion 
has been almost universally accepted, therefore, that another cause 
must be looked for to explain the absence of forests from those great 
areas, so fertile and now agriculturally productive. 

Other influences dictate the presence or absence of forests. First 
may be reckoned soil. There are soils in which trees will not grow, 
but this influence is comparatively unimportant, for there are few soils 
in the United States so sterile or poisonous that, if other conditions are 
favorable, some tree will not adapt itself to the conditions. The second 
is mean temperature. Henry Gannett, in a monograph on "The Tim- 
ber Line," l after a careful study of the height of the treeline on the moun- 
tains of both the eastern and western parts of the United States, veri- 
fying the deduction thereby drawn by the conditions in the far north of 
the continent, states that the mean annual temperature of the timber 
line is two to three degrees below the freezing point and that this tem- 
perature limitation of tree growth obtains regardless of altitude. He 
says : " The ultimate and primary cause of the cessation of forest 
growth at great altitudes on mountain sides is to be sought for in tem- 
perature. This upper limit of tree growth is doubtless affected some- 
what by the depth of the soil, by the steepness of slopes, by exposure 
to sun and wind and, in a few cases, by aridity, but these are all con- 
tributory agencies and temperature remains the primary cause." As, 
however, the prairie and plains regions are all within a zone of mean 
temperature higher than that required for tree growth, according to 
Professor Gannett, the explanation of their treeless condition must be 
found in the third cause lack of sufficient moisture. Trees are mois- 
ture-loving, and the species which make up the rich forests of the 
United States do not form forests except under the encouragement of a 
certain amount of annual precipitation properly distributed. In regard 
to this point Professor Green says, 2 referring to Minnesota, which is 
divided between forest and prairie : 

1 Journal of American Geographical Society, vol. 31, p. 118. 

2 Principles of American Forestry, by Samuel B. Green, professor of horticulture and forestry. 
University of Minnesota. 



278 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Eastern Minnesota has a rainfall of perhaps twenty-six to thirty-five inches and 
a comparatively moist air, and at least during a part of the year is well adapted to 
the growth of the hardier kinds of trees. Here we find the white pine, basswood, 
oak, elm, poplar and other trees attaining large size. Western Dakota has a very 
light rainfall, mostly in the spring, and a very high rate of evaporation. Trees 
can scarcely be made to grow in this section without irrigation, and the low vege- 
tation, the grasses, which require a less amount of water, replace the trees. It is 
evident that between locations having such extremes of tree growth there must be 
a place where the trees give way to the lower forms of vegetation. Such a 
meridianal zone is found in central Minnesota, and, though it has probably 
changed with fluctuating rainfall, its general location has remained practically the 
same for many years. The location of this zone was probably gradually driven 
eastward, for many years previous to settlement, by the practice of the Indians of 
burning over prairies in order to furnish good pasturage for the buffalo. Of late 
years, since the prairie fires have been largely prevented, the treeline has moved 
westward and gained a little on the prairies. When left to itself, the western limit 
of this tree zone would not make very great progress westward, but with man's 
assistance in cultivation and various other ways, it may be extended much farther 
toward the arid regions than if left to natural conditions. So we find that, while 
great sections of the interior of this country are treeless on account of lack of 
water, trees planted on them and properly cared for may often grow thriftily. 

The above excerpt recognizes the essential fact of moisture condi- 
tions as the ruling influence in forest growth and also the influence of 
change in climate and of human activity. In connection with this same 
subject William L. Bray, 3 treating of the forest distribution of Texas 
in relation to rainfall, says : 

The rainfall of Texas decreases progressively from east to west. A map con- 
structed to indicate the annual precipitation by five-inch divisions would show a 
series of zones extending in a general north and south direction from the Sabine 
to the Pecos. Beyond the latter river the elevated mountain masses probably bring 
up the annual mean of rainfall, but at the westernmost boundary this average 
scarcely reaches ten inches. The limits of the several rainfall zones are approxi- 
mately marked by the meridians of longitude. Thus, the ninety-fifth meridian 
about marks the western limit of rainfall exceeding fifty inches ; the ninety-sixth, of 
forty-five inches ; the ninety-seventh, of forty inches, and so on to the one hun- 
dred and second meridian, where the average annual rainfall has decreased to 
fifteen inches. 

Corresponding in a general way with these zones of rainfall, there is a series of 
zones of forests of different types. In the eastern region, having a rainfall in 
excess of forty-five inches, are found the swamp and bayou forests of cypress, 
tupelo, water oak, swamp hickory and other water-loving species ; in slightly better 
drained localities, the black gum, cottonwood, sycamore, beech, birch and Spanish 
oak, and after them red oak, white oaks, walnut, pecan, magnolia, holly and the 



3 Forest Resources of Tezas. United States Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Forestry. 
Bulletin No. 47. 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 279 

like. After these, on higher lands, come the pines, loblolly on the sandy knolls 
and ridges of the Coast Plain, longleaf on the more rolling sand barrens of the 
Fayette Prairie and shortleaf on the higher uplands of the Lignitic Belt. The 
second forest zone consists of oak barrens, lying westward from the types of 
forest just mentioned, and in a rainfall zone of forty- five to thirty- five inches. 
Next is the central Texas hill zone, with a rainfall of from over thirty to less than 
twenty-five inches, where occur mountain cedar, mountain oaks (five or sis species), 
cedar elm, gum elastic, Mexican persimmon and numerous others. Last of all 
come the pygmy forests of chaparral, embracing mesquite, retama, huisache, cat- 
claw, allthorn, palo-verde and a score besides. 

Rainfall alone, however, does not determine the limits within which these 
species occur. There are canyons in the region where the annual rainfall is scarcely 
twenty inches in which may be found not only oaks, hickories and similar trees, but 
even the swamp-loving cypress. While the moisture demands of the different kinds 
of trees constitute the most potent of the causes which determine their distribution, 
it is not primarily the amount of moisture which falls to the ground, but the 
amount of moisture which the soil holds that affects them. The distribution through 
the zones of rainfall is consequently modified very considerably by the varying 
geological and soil conditions. 

The geological structure alone may account for heavy timber in regions of low 
rainfall, simply by the supply of percolating waters which it may furnish. 

And then, following a discussion of some of the minor influences 
affecting the tree distribution, Mr. Bray says: "It is rainfall rather 
than the nature of the soil and rock which has played the principal part 
in producing the main types into which the forests of the State naturally 
divide themselves." 

Dr. J. W. Foster says: 4 "Whenever we study the annual precipi- 
tation of moisture in connection with the laws of temperature, we find 
that wherever the moisture is equable and abundant we have the 
densely clothed forests ; wherever it is unequally distributed we have 
the grassy plain and wherever it is mostly withheld we have the 
inhospitable desert. The varying supply of moisture, then, is sufficient 
to account for the diversity of vegetation, modified to some extent by 
the physical features of the country, altitude above the sea and the 
extremes of heat and cold." 

He refers to a peculiar theory that the prairies are due to peat 
growth, and, after showing how little application that theory has to 
topography and actual conditions of the grassy plains of the United 
States, says, in reference to changes in arboreal development: "These 
changes are wholly independent of ... isothermal lines but 
dependent on the variable supply of moisture." 

* The Mississippi Valley; Its Physical Geography, by J. W. Foster. LL. D.. Chicago and 
London, 1879. 



280 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

He quotes Dr. J. G. Cooper, who remarks in regard to the botany 
of the Mississippi Valley that "No new forms of trees appear, while 
those found further eastward rapidly diminish toward the west. Thir- 
teen species have not been traced west of its eastern border; about 
ninety extend pretty far into the Texan and Illinois regions ; but only 
five or six cross the western limit of the Camanche and Dakotah regions, 
which, however, receive nine more from the west and south." The 
cause of the disappearance of trees he attributes to the insufficient and 
irregular supply of moisture. "It is true," he adds, "that this does 
not materially affect agriculture in the more eastern regions, in fact, 
most crops will succeed better with less rain than is necessary for most 
trees to thrive." 

LIMITS OF THE EASTERN FOREST. 

It is not to be supposed there is any sharp dividing line between 
the forest and the prairie; between the sections where trees are native 
and the treeless region. Some trees require less moisture than others, 
and these act as outposts and scouts for the slowly advancing forest, 
and the valleys, whose soil contains more moisture than that of the 
general level of the country, carry the tree growth hundreds of miles 
into the otherwise treeless area. The western limit of the Atlantic 
forest is, therefore, nowhere continuous. As the forest makes incur- 
sions upon the prairie, so the prairie makes important openings into 
what, as a general thing, is forested country. On this debatable 
ground, where the trees struggle for a foothold with varying degrees 
of success, cycles of climatic changes may be the reason for the estab- 
lishment of outlying groups of trees, while fire has undoubtedly been 
responsible for keeping back the eastern forest limit and also for a 
good many inroads into the forest. Thus a hundred years ago there 
were some extended prairies in Kentucky, which, as soon as the fires 
were stopped, were soon reoccupied by the forest, so that lumbering 
operations within the last generation have been conducted on land 
which, when the Indians were expelled, was treeless. 

Illinois is called a prairie state, but it was almost as much forest as 
prairie, and investigation leads to the conclusion that about forty-five 
percent of its area was, at the beginning of settlement, covered with val- 
uable timber. Lumbermen are well aware that southern Illinois was once 
heavily forested, but most of them may not know that in the northern 
and western parts of the State there were some counties with 75 to 100 
percent of their area covered with trees of commercial importance. So 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 281 

in Iowa, about fourteen percent of the area was forest, but this timber, 
so far as it was of commercial value, was generally found in the eastern 
portion of the State in proximity to the Mississippi River. 

The struggle of the trees for position on the prairies in the face of 
unfavorable moisture conditions is thus spoken of by Doctor Foster, 
quoted above: 

The differences in the retentive power of moisture in the soil give to the eastern 
line of the prairie region an irregular outline, which may be likened to a deeply 
indented coast far-entering bays, projecting headlands and an archipelago of 
islands. 

What are known as ' ' oak openings ' ' indicate the transition from the densely 
wooded region to the treeless plains. The trees stand as in an artificial park, 
shading a green sward devoid of underbrush, so that the traveler may ride or drive 
in any direction. This characteristic feature I have noticed almost continuously 
from Green Bay to the western borders of Arkansas. The trees appear dwarfed 
and sickly. The extremities are often dead, while the main body is covered with 
foliage and the trunks when felled are found to be more or less decayed. 

As stated in a previous chapter, the western boundary of the 
Atlantic forest runs approximately from northwestern Minnesota in a 
general southeasterly direction to Lake Michigan and into northwestern 
Indiana, thence in a southwesterly direction across Illinois and Missouri 
into Indian Territory, and thence more southerly to the Gulf of Mexico. 
It is frequently broadly stated that the entire country east of the Mis- 
sissippi River was originally forested. This is true with the exception 
of the prairie districts of Wisconsin and Illinois, some small and rela- 
tively insignificant spaces hi Indiana, southern Michigan and other 
states, and also some open territory along the sea and Gulf. But these 
open spaces were more than compensated for by the extension of the 
Atlantic forest west of the Mississippi River. 

THE WOODED AREA. 

The historian approaches with much hesitation the question of the 
area covered with forests either in the past or present. Some things 
are known with approximate accuracy. The facts as to the original 
area of the Atlantic forest are available with such accuracy as to make 
an estimation a very close approximation to the facts. But the West 
has been only partially examined, and enormous areas which are more 
or less wooded have not yet been carefully examined, although it is 
probable that more is known as to the amount of standing timber in 
Oregon, Washington and parts of Idaho and California than in regard 
to many of the timbered states of the older East. There is, further, 



282 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

a lack of data for exact statement in regard to the present timbered 
area of the East within the confines of the Atlantic forest, owing to 
the rapidly changing bases of estimate. Some sections have been cut 
over a second and even a third time, so that areas whose timber supply 
was once supposed to have been exhausted, according to standards of 
estimate then prevailing, are again furnishing material for the sawmill. 
It is further impossible to determine with anything like accuracy what 
of the eastern areas not embraced in improved farm lands are desolate 
wastes of stump lands, or covered with brush, or are actually possessed 
of calculable quantities of commercial timber. Still, about all of the 
available data is in connection with such considerations and is further 
developed by the figures presented in census reports. 

Before undertaking any minute consideration of the forests of the 
United States, it may be well to give an estimate for the entire country 
of the original and present wooded area, by states, omitting Alaska 
and other noncontiguous territory. This is presented in table A, on a 
following page. 

From publications of the Government Land Office are derived the 
areas, in both square miles and acres, of each state and of the country 
as a whole. Then follows a careful estimate as to the original wooded 
area of the various states. In the case of most of the states east of 
the Mississippi River, it was assumed that they were covered, at the 
beginning of settlement, with practically solid forests. Exceptions of 
some importance, however, are Florida, which had a considerable tree- 
less area ; Illinois, which, according to a forest bureau estimate in 1884, 
was originally between 40 and 50 percent timbered ; Indiana, which had 
some prairie and treeless swamp land, especially in its northwest por- 
tions, and some scrub lands in the south ; Michigan, which had some 
prairies in the southern part of the State; Louisiana, with its grass 
prairies hardly lifted above tide-water on its south and especially its 
southwest coast, and Wisconsin with important areas of prairie or of 
the class called "oak openings." Moreover, all of the south Atlantic 
and gulf states have considerable areas lying along the coast prac- 
tically devoid of trees. 

The states west of the Mississippi River and south of the Rocky 
Mountains were some of them more difficult to estimate. Such states 
as Minnesota and Missouri were only partially timbered. The former 
had an extensive treeless area in the southwest and west, while the 
southern part of the State was the debatable ground between forest 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 283 

and prairie. Missouri, while it was largely prairied in the north 
and west parts, was solidly timbered in the south, and had a great deal 
of timber elsewhere. 

The estimates of these states were made by a consideration of 
their present condition as shown by government estimates, by observa- 
tion and by conclusions drawn from their industrial and agricultural 
development. Such states as Kansas and Nebraska undoubtedly con- 
tain a much larger wooded area at present than at the beginning of 
their settlement, but the amount of woodland is relatively so insignifi- 
cant that it did not seem worth while to attempt any adjustment, except 
in the case of Kansas, which had a small forest area in the southeast 
largely of deciduous woods. South Dakota has been increasing its 
wooded land by planting groves and windbreaks, but has lost by the 
cutting away to a large extent of the Black Hills timber. In a general 
way, the original wooded area of all the western and Rocky Mountain 
and Pacific Coast states was deduced from the reports of the Geologic- 
al Survey as presented in the report of the census of 1900. This 
presentation was the work of Mr. Henry Gannett, geographer, who has 
made a special study of the forestal condition of the western part 
of the United States. 

The conditions in the mountain states with respect to the amount of 
wooded land have changed very little since white settlement began. 
Lumbering has made some inroads upon the forest, while forest fires have 
swept over enormous areas ; but in the main such areas must still be 
classed as woodlands, as they can be put to no other use, and under 
favorable circumstances their inevitable condition is a forested one. 

A typical case is presented in Washington. Out of the State's 
total land area of 66,880 square miles, about 46,450 is estimated to be 
wooded. In this State, as to a less degree in other western states, 
there has been a heavy destruction of timber by fire, but no attempt 
has been made to estimate the extent of that destruction and to add 
the areas thus affected to the present area. Due to the fire destruc- 
tion of the past, there should be a wider difference in the figures in the 
last two columns, but the endeavor more exactly to express that differ- 
ence would involve an amount of research which would hardly be 
repaid by the result to be achieved, the important fact to be discovered 
being what the present wooded area is. Consequently the original area 
of the Pacific forest is given as substantially that of the forest of 
today. 



284 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



The table, which represents the result of careful study and inquiry 
as to the original and present wooded areas of the country, is as 
follows : 

TABLE A-ORIGINAL AND PRESENT WOODED AREA OP THE UNITED STATES. 



STATES AND 
TERRITORIES. 


Total land area. 


Original 
wooded 
area. 


Wooded area, 1905. 


Percent 
of wood- 
ed to 
total 
area. 


Square 
miles. 


Acres. 


Square 
miles. 


Acres. 


Alabama 


51,028 
113,738 
52,412 
156,203 
103,669 
4,794 
1,969 
54,801 
58,850 
83,271 
56,004 
35,860 
30,804 
55,697 
81,848 
39,898 
45,399 
29,894 
9,875 
8,038 
57,530 
79,997 
46,383 
68,431 
146,240 
76,777 
109,901 
9.O56 
7,454 
122,545 
47,687 
48,972 
70,172 
40,723 
38,623 
95,746 
44,679 
1,081 
30,460 
76,885 
41,686 
262,506 
82,096 
9,114 
39,925 
66,792 
24,343 
55,117 
97,552 


32,657,920 
72,792,320 
33,543,680 
99,969,920 
66,348,160 
3,068,160 
1.260.16O 
35,072,640 
37,664,000 
53,293,440 
35,842.560 
22,950,400 
19,714,560 
35,646,080 
52,382.720 
25,534,720 
29,055,360 
19,132,160 
6,320,000 
5,144,320 
36,819,200 
51.198,080 
29,685,120 
43.795,840 
93,593,600 
49,137,280 
70,336,640 
5,795,840 
4,770,560 
78,428,800 
30,519,680 
31,342,080 
44,910,080 
26,062,720 
24,718,720 
61,277,440 
28,594,560 
691,840 
19,494,400 
49,206,400 
26,679,040 
168,300,840 
52,541,440 
5,832,960 
25,552,000 
42,746,880 
15,579,520 
35,274,880 
62,433,280 


50,000 
25,500 
50,000 
45,500 
34,000 
4,800 
1,500 
45,000 
57,000 
35,000 
25,000 
31,000 
22,000 
8,000 
7,000 
38,000 
40,000 
29,000 
9,000 
8,000 
55,000 
60,000 
45,000 
50,000 
42,500 
2.500 
6,100 
9,000 
7.OOO 
22,700 
47,000 
47.OOO 
l.OOO 
40,000 
4,400 
55,000 
44.OOO 
1,000 
28,000 
3,000 
40,000 
75.OOO 
10,000 
9.OOO 
39.00O 
48,000 
24.000 
47.00O 
12,500 


37,000 
24,800 
39,000 
44,300 
32,900 
1,900 
700 
36,500 
41,000 
34,800 
10,000 
9,000 
20,000 
7,000 
5,700 
18,000 
28,000 
23,000 
4,000 
4.2OO 
35,200 
49,000 
32,000 
30,000 
41,500 
2.5OO 
6,100 
5,000 
3,200 
23,500 
18,000 
34,000 
1,000 
9,000 
4,000 
53,900 
21,000 
400 
19,500 
2,500 
25.0OO 
62,500 
10,000 
3,500 
23,400 
46.450 
15,500 
28.50O 
12,500 


23.680.000 
15.872.OOO 
24,960,OOO 
28,352,000 
21,056,000 
1,216,000 
448,000 
32,360,000 
26,240,000 
22,272,000 
6,400,000 
5,760,000 
12,800,000 
4,480,000 
3,648,000 
11,520,000 
17,920,000 
14,720,000 
2,560,000 
2,688,000 
22,528,000 
31,360,000 
20,480,000 
19,200,000 
26,560,000 
1,472,000 
3,904,000 
3,200,000 
2,048,000 
15,040,000 
11,520,000 
21,760,000 
384,000 
5,760,000 
2.560.00O 
34,496,000 
13,440,000 
256,000 
12,480,000 
1.6OO.OOO 
16,000,000 
40,000,000 
6,400.000 
2,240,000 
14,976,000 
29,728.000 
9,920,000 
18,240,000 
8,000,000 


72.5 
21.7 
74.4 
28.3 
31.7 
39.6 
35.5 
66.6 
69.6 
41.7 
17.8 
25.O 
64.9 
12.5 
6.9 
45.1 
61.6 
76.9 
40.5 
52.2 
61.1 
61.2 
68.9 
43.8 
28.3 
2.9 
5.5 
55.2 
42.8 
19.1 
37.7 
69.4 
00.8 
22.1 
10.3 
56.3 
47.0 
37.0 
64.0 
3.2 
59.9 
23.8 
12.1 
38.4 
58.7 
69.3 
63.7 
51.7 
12.8 


Arizona 


Arkansas 


California 


Colorado 


Connecticut 




Florida 


Georgia 


Idaho 


Illinois 


Indi ana 


Indian Territory 


Iowa 


Kansas 


Kentucky 


Louisiana 




Maryland 


Massachusetts 


Michigan .... 


Minnesota 


Mississippi 




Montana 


Nebraska 


Nevada 


New H am pshire 


New Jersey 


New Mexico 


New York 


North Carolina 


North Dakota 


Ohio 


Oklahoma * 




Pennsylvania 


Rhode Island 


South Carolina 


South Dakota 


Tennessee 


Texas 


Utah 


Vermont 


Virginia 


Washington 


West Virginia 


Wisconsin 


Wyoming 


Total-United States. . . . 


2,972.525 


1,902,416,000 


1,440,000 


1,040,450 


665,504,000 


35.0 



The total land area of the United States, not including noncontigu- 
ous territory or the District of Columbia, is 2,972,525 square miles, of 
which the above estimate claims an original wooded area of 1,440,000 
square miles, or 48^ percent, whereas the present woodland area, 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 285 

according to this estimate, is only 1,040,450 square miles, or less than 
35 percent of the entire land area. The drain upon this timber has 
been going on in every section since its first occupancy by white men. 
The first settlers in Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York and Massachu- 
setts at once began to cut timber for shelter and fuel, and this usage of 
the forests has continued ever since with new and increasingly diversi- 
fied uses, expanding not only with the increase of population, but with 
a still greater growth due to the demands of a rapidly developing civ- 
ilization, until the equivalent of approximately 40,000,000,000 feet of 
timber was manufactured in the United States during 1899, which was 
the year covered by the census of the following year. 

It will be noted that the expression "wooded area" is used instead 
of " forest area " for the reason that the dividing line between wooded 
and forested lands is impossible of exact definition. It is not as- 
sumed that all of this land estimated as wooded was, or is, entirely covered 
with commercial timber. There are in it stumpage lands, farmers' 
wood lots, a certain percentage of brush lands and burned-over lands, 
bearing little or no commercial timber. The estimate is, therefore, an 
approximation of the area covered in 1905 by commercial forests and 
that which is potential forest land that is to say, land which has been 
wholly or in part denuded, but which is not available for agricultural 
uses, and is, therefore, likely to revert to a forested condition. 

The estimate as to wooded areas of the United States, contained in 
the report of the twelfth census referred to above, was in square miles, 
by states and territories, and given in the running comment as to the 
forested condition of the states, varieties of commercial woods in them, 
etc., but was not tabulated. Mr. Gannett also named the percentage 
which these estimated forest areas bore to the entire area of the states. 
It will be noted that these percentages are in reverse ratio to the 
quantity of arable land in the respective states where those states were 
originally forest covered. Thus, in rugged Pennsylvania more than half 
the area is wooded, while the comparatively young but fertile state of 
Indiana retains only 30 percent under forest or brushlands. Ohio's pro- 
portion of wooded land is still smaller. As the country becomes more 
densely populated the farm area will increase, but it will be many years 
before any important inroad will be made upon the wooded area of 
most of the states east of the Mississippi River. These estimates have 
been tabulated for the purpose of this work, reducing square miles to 
acres, and are presented as follows : 



286 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



TABLE B-WOODED AREA OF THE UNITED STATES-FROM THE TWELFTH 

CENSUS. 



STATES AND 
TERRITORIES. 


Square 
miles. 


Acres. 


Per- 
cent 
of 
total 
area. 


STATES AND 
TERRITORIES. 


Square 
miles. 


Acres. 


Per- 
cent 
of 
total 
area. 




38 300 


24 512 OOO 


74 


Nevada 


6 10O 


3 904 OOO 


6 




25 000 


16 000 000 


22 


New Hampshire. 


5,200 


3,328,000 


58 




45 000 


28 800 000 


84 




3 234 


2 069,760 


43 




44700 


28 608,000 


22 


New Mexico 


23,700 


15,168,OOO 


19 


Colorado 


33 500 


21,440,000 


32 


New York 


18,700 


11,968,OOO 


39 


Connecticut 


1,900 


1,216,000 


39 


North Carolina. . . 


35,300 


22,592,000 


73 




700 


448 OOO 


36 


North Dakota. . . . 


600 


384,000 


1 


Florida 


377OO 


24 128 000 


70 


Ohio 


9 300 


5 952 OOO 


23 




420OO 


26 880 000 


71 


Oklahoma 


4,400 


2.816.OOO 


11 


Idaho 


35 000 


22 400 OOO 


42 


Oregon 


54,300 


34,752,000 


67 


Illinois 


10,200 


6,528,000 


18 


Pennsylvania 


23,000 


14,720,000 


51 


Indiana 


10,800 


6,912,000 


30 


Rhode Island 


400 


256.OOO 


4O 


Indian Territory. 
Iowa. 


20,000 
7,000 


12.8OO.OOO 
4,480,000 


65 
13 


South Carolina. . . 
South Dakota.... 


20,500 
2,500 


13,120,000 
1.600,000 


68 
3 




5 700 


3 648 000 


7 


Tennessee 


27,300 


17,472,000 


65 


Kentucky 


22,200 


14 208 000 


53 


Texas 


64,000 


40,960,000 


24 


Louisiana 


28,300 


18,112 000 


62 


Utah 


10,000 


6,400,000 


13 




23 7OO 


15 168 000 


79 


Vermont 


3 900 


2,496,000 


43 




4,400 


2,816 000 


44 


Virginia 


23,400 


14,976,000 


58 


Massachusetts. . . 


4,200 


2.688,000 


52 


Washington 


47,700 


30,528,000 


71 


Michigan 


38,000 


24,320,000 


67 


West Virginia.... 


18,400 


11,776,000 


73 




52,200 


33 408 000 


66 


Wisconsin. ....... 


31,750 


20,320,000 


58 


Mississippi 


32,300 


20,672,000 


70 


Wyoming 


12,500 


8.000,000 


13 




41 OOO 


26 240 000 


fiO 












42,000 


26 88O 000 


29 


Total U. S... 


1,094,284 


700,341,760 


36 


Nebraska 


2,300 


1,472,000 


3 











In connection with the above estimates Mr. Gannett briefly describes 
the forest condition of the various states both as to area covered and 
kinds of timber. From his remarks have been selected the following, 
which relate to the particular subject in question original and present 
wooded areas : 

TIMBER CONDITIONS OF THE STATES. 

Alabama The northern part of the State, including nearly three-fourths of it, 
is covered with a timber growth of which hardwoods form the principal compo- 
nent. . . . The southern fourth of the State is covered with a nearly pure 
growth of yellow pine, mainly of the longleaf species. In the marshes around 
Mobile Bay, however, this gives way to cypress. 

Arizona The merchantable timber of Arizona is confined almost entirely to 
the summit and borders of the Colorado plateau. 

Arkansas The area of Arkansas is almost entirely covered with forests, the 
only exception being a few prairies in the eastern part of the State. 

California The timber of California is found upon the Sierra Nevada and the 
coast ranges north of San Francisco Bay. A little is found in the coast ranges 
farther south and in those of southern California. 

Colorado The timber of Colorado is found only in the mountainous portions 
of the State, the plains in the east and the plateaus in the west being almost 
entirely destitute of tree growth. 

Connecticut Originally covered with forests. 

Delaware Originally covered with forests. 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 287 

Florida The northern part of Florida, including half of the peninsula, is a 
forested region, covered in the main with yellow pine, with a large amount of 
cypress in the marshy regions, especially along the coasts. The forest is not con- 
tinuous, but is much broken by prairie openings. 

Georgia The northern mountainous portion of the State and the Piedmont 
region, extending south westward to the Fall Line, which passes through Augusta, 
Macon and Columbus, are covered with mixed forests, mainly of hardwood ; and 
the region below the Fall Line comprises the yellow pine belt, which is succeeded 
in the lower regions immediately bordering the coast by cypress. 

Idaho The northern part of Idaho is well timbered, the amount and density 
of the forest diminishing southward, so that in the Salmon River Mountains there 
is not much timber, while the great lava plateau occupying the southern part of 
the State is entirely devoid of anything larger than sagebrush. 

Illinois Mainly prairie with forests in the southern part only. 

Indiana This State, with the exception of a small proportion of prairie, was 
originally covered with forest. 

Indian Territory Pine is found in Indian Territory in the eastern part only, 
and, with the exception of a small area in the Boston Mountains, only in the 
southeastern part south of the Arkansas River. Elsewhere the timber of the terri- 
tory consists of hardwoods, mainly of black-jack and post oak upon the uplands, 
with larger and more valuable species in the bottom lands. 

Iowa Iowa is a prairie state without merchantable forests. Such as formerly 
existed have been practically cut away. 

Kansas There are no forests in Kansas. Hardwood is found in the south 
eastern part of the State, and there only to a small extent. 

Louisiana The southern portion and especially the southwestern part of the 
State, the parishes of Cameron, Vermilion, and Calcasieu, are largely prairie. 
Elsewhere the State is densely forested. 

Maine Originally a forest clad State throughout. 

Maryland Originally the northwest portion of the State, which lies within the 
Appalachian Mountain region, was covered with mixed forests of white pine, hem- 
lock and hardwood. The central portion, stretching from the Blue Ridge to 
Chesapeake Bay, was covered with forests of hardwoods, while the eastern shore 
contained pine forests with some hardwoods. 

Massachusetts Originally covered with forests. 

Michigan The Upper Peninsula and the northern half of the Lower Peninsula 
were originally covered with heavy forests of conifers, consisting mainly of white 
pine. Southward, in the Lower Peninsula, hardwoods were intermingled in 
increasing proportion, while the southern part was largely prairie. 

Minnesota Heavily timbered, mainly with white pine in the northern portion, 
while the Red River Valley on the west and the southern portion were largely 
prairie, with a belt of mixed hardwood forests intervening. 

Mississippi Originally nearly all covered with timber. 

Missouri The northern part of Missouri is, like Iowa, a prairie region, with 
timber in the valleys of the principal streams and in occasional patches on the 
uplands. The southern portion is, except where cleared for fanning, quite con- 
tinuously wooded. 



"288 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Montana The forests of Montana are limited to the western half of the State, 
and in that region almost entirely to the mountains, the valleys being, as a rule, 
timberless. 

Nebraska Woodlands are found only in the eastern part closely bordering the 
Missouri River and in narrow strips extending up the streams. 

Nevada There is but little timber in Nevada, that little being mainly found in 
the western part of the State in the regions outlying the Sierra Nevadas. 

New Hampshire Was originally covered with forests. 

New Jersey The northern part of New Jersey was originally covered with a 
mixed forest, composed mainly of hardwoods, while the southern part was a con- 
tinuous forest of yellow pine, with some cypress in the lowlands bordering the 
coast. 

New Mexico Merchantable timber in this territory is confined to the moun- 
tains. 

New York Originally covered with forests. 

North Carolina The mountain regions of this State were originally covered 
with dense forests of mixed conifers and hardwoods, the Piedmont region mainly 
with oak forests and the Atlantic plain with open forests of yellow pine, while the 
swampy regions near the coast contain large quantities of cypress. 

North Dakota In this State woodlands are found only on the Turtle Moun- 
tains and perhaps a few other glacial hills and in narrow strips along the Missouri 
and other streams. 

Ohio When settlement commenced in this State it was in the main covered 
with heavy forests of hardwoods, through which was scattered a small admixture 
of white pine. 

Oregon The forests of Oregon are found mainly west of the crest of the Cas- 
cade Range. . . . East of the range the timber is by no means as heavy and is 
confined to the eastern slopes of the range, the higher parts of the plateau and the 
Blue Mountains in the northeastern part of the State. 

Pennsylvania The State was originally forest clad. 

Rhode Island Originally a forest clad State. 

South Carolina The upland portion of this State, from the Blue Ridge down 
to the Fall Line, was originally covered with hardwood forests, in which was 
interspersed some pine. Below the Fall Line stretches the yellow pine belt, while 
in the lowlands along the coast is some cypress. 

South Dakota In the eastern part of this State timber is found only in the 
valley of the Missouri and perhaps one or two other streams. In the western part 
of the State are the Black Hills, which are covered with a pure forest of yellow 
pine. 

Texas With the exception of the northeastern portion, this great State is 
almost treeless. 

Utah Merchantable timber in Utah is found mainly in the Uinta Mountains in 
the northeastern part of the State and upon the high plateaus in the southern part. 

Vermont Was originally forested throughout. 

Virginia May be divided into three areas : The mountain section, formerly 
forested with pine, hemlock, and hardwoods; the Piedmont region, largely with 
oaks, mingled with some pine, and the Tertiary lands below the Fall Line, form- 
erly covered with yellow pine. 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 289 

Washington Forests east of the mountains are light as compared with those 
west of the range. In that portion of the State the forests, consisting mainly of 
red fir, are very heavy. 

West Virginia Lies on the Alleghany plateau. . . . The higher parts of 
this plateau are timbered with white pine, hemlock and hardwoods, while lower 
down the slope the proportion of hardwoods increases, and the lower slopes were 
originally covered with forests of these species. 

Wyoming The timber of this State is confined mainly to the Yellowstone 
Park with the mountains east and south thereof, the Big Horn Mountains in the 
north and the Medicine Bow Mountains in the southeast. 

In a few instances some slight exceptions may be taken to the state- 
ments given above. The assertion that the southern part of the lower 
peninsula of Michigan was largely prairie, seems exaggerated. There 
were prairies of considerable extent in that portion of the State, but 
they constituted no large percentage of even the southern half of that 
peninsula. Mr. Gannett says that much of the southern part of the 
peninsula has been " cleared for cultivation," which would hardly have 
been necessary if it had been largely prairie. 

In regard to Illinois, it may be stated that there were " woods " in 
the western and northwestern parts of the State of sufficient extent to 
be called forests. It is authoritatively stated that some counties 
adjoining the Mississippi River north of the southern forest belt were 
almost wholly covered with commercial timber, while other counties 
had from 50 to 75 percent of good timber. 

In regard to Kansas the statements may be technically correct, but 
the southeastern portion of the State had sufficient timber to maintain 
something of a lumber industry even to this day. 

The statement in regard to Iowa is at present correct, but, as shown 
in table A, about fourteen percent of the State, almost entirely in the 
eastern portion, bore timber which was of commercial value. In 1900 
over 200 sawmills were cutting native timber. 

IMPROVED AND UNIMPROVED LANDS. 

It will be observed that areas given in table B are somewhat modi- 
fied in table A. This is due partly to the passage of time during 
which the lumbermen and fires have been at work, and partly to the 
correction of some evident errors. One of the important checks on 
any such estimate is the census report on farm acreage. This report is 
worthy of much credence. Under the census report the total farm 
acreage by states was given, together with the acreage in improved 
and unimproved lands, which made up the total of farm acreage. The 



290 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

total area of the farms in the United States was 841,201,546 acres, of 
which 414,793,191 was improved and 426,408,355 unimproved. This 
left 1,061,214,454 acres not included in farms. In this area are forest lands 
proper, prairies, treeless plains, deserts, government lands and city and 
village land. Adding together the area not in farms and the area of 
unimproved farm lands, the sum is 1,487,622,809 acres, out of the total 
land surface of the United States of 1,902,416,000 acres. This total of 
land not improved, therefore, is the extreme limit of possibilities as to 
wooded lands. , 

In the West this area includes, of course, the prairie lands, the grassy 
plains, the arid regions and that small area that is lifted above the tree- 
line. In the West, therefore, the proportion of unutilized land that is 
now and always will be treeless is large. In view of the fact that the 
available water supply, if it could all be used for irrigation, would then 
render fertile only the minority of the area west of the one hundredth 
meridian, it is evident that never in the human use of that word will 
all the area be either improved or under forests. A large percentage 
of that territory must always remain practically a waste. 

In the East, on the other hand, while the area not improved con- 
tains extensive tracts of what are at the present time stump lands, a 
certain percentage of swamp lands, barrens and tide lands and a con- 
siderable acreage within the limits of cities, towns and villages, the 
time will come when nearly all the area east of the Mississippi River 
will fall into one of two classes improved lands and forest lands. For, 
with the swamps drained, as they will be, all the land not needed for 
agriculture or for residence and business purposes will be devoted to 
forest growth. In that section stump land not adapted to agriculture 
will be re-covered with forests, and the barrens will be made productive 
in the same way. The time will come when the difference between the 
total area and the area of improved farm lands plus the land used for 
residential, industrial and commercial purposes will almost exactly 
represent the forest area. 

This presentation of total land surface, of the acreage of improved 
and unimproved farm lands, of the area not included in farms, and of 
the total not improved, as derived from the census of 1900, is as follows : 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 291 

TABLE C-IMPROVED AND UNIMPROVED LANDS FROM THE TWELFTH CENSUS. 



STATES 

AND 

TERRITO- 
RIES. 


Total land 
surface, acres. 


Number of acres in farms. 


Total not 
in farms. 


Total not 
improved. 


Total. 


Improved. 


Unimproved, 


Alabama 
Arizona 
Arkansas.... 
California... 
Colorado 
Connecticut. 
Delaware . . . 
Florida 
Georgia 


32.657,920 
72,792,320 
33,543,680 
99,969,920 
66,348,160 
3,068, 16O 
1.26O.160 
35,072,640 
37,664.000 
53,293,440 
35,842,560 
22.95O.4OO 
19,714,560 
35,646.080 
52,382.720 
25.534,720 
29,055,360 
19,132,160 
6,320,000 
5,144,320 
36,819,200 
51,198,080 
29,685,120 
43,795,840 
93,593.600 
49.137,280 
70,336,640 
5,795,840 
4.770.56O 
78,428,800 
30,519,680 
31,342,080 
44.910.08O 
26,062,720 
24,718,720 
61,277,440 
28,594.560 
691,840 
19,494,400 
49,206,400 
26,679,040 
168,003,840 
52,541,440 
5.832.96O 
25,552,000 
42,746,880 
15,579,520 
35.274,880 
62,433,280 


20.685,427 
1,935,327 
16.636,719 
28.828,951 
9,474,588 
2,312,083 
1,066.223 
4,363,891 
26,392.057 
3,204,903 
32,794,728 
21,619.623 
7,269.081 
34.574,337 
41,662,970 
21,979,422 
11,059,127 
6,299,946 
5,170,075 
3,147,064 
17,561.698 
26,248,498 
18,240.736 
33,997,873 
11,844,454 
29,911.779 
2,565,647 
3,609,864 
2,840,966 
5,130.878 
22.648,109 
22,749,356 
15.542,640 
24,501,985 
15,719.258 
10.071.328 
19,371.015 
455,602 
13,985,014 
19,070,616 
20,342,058 
125,807,017 
4.116.951 
4,724,440 
19,907,883 
8,499,297 
10.654,513 
19,862,727 
8,124,536 


8.654,991 
254.521 
6,953.735 
11,958,837 
2,273.968 
1.O64.525 
754,010 
1,511,653 
10,615,644 
1.413,118 
27,699,219 
16,680,358 
3.062,193 
29,897.552 
25,040,550 
13.741,968 
4.666.532 
2,386,889 
3,516.352 
1,292,132 
11.799,250 
18.442,585 
7,594.428 
22.900,043 
1,736.701 
18,432,595 
572,946 
1,076,879 
1.977.042 
326,873 
15,599,986 
8,327,106 
9,644,520 
19,244,472 
5,511.994 
3,328.308 
13,209.183 
187.354 
5.775,741 
11,285,983 
10,245,950 
19,576,076 
1,032.117 
2,126,624 
10,094.805 
3.465,960 
5,498,981 
11.246.972 
792,332 


12,030,436 

1,680,806 
9,682.984 
16,870,114 
7.20O.620 
1,247.558 
312,218 
2,852,238 
15,776,413 
1.791,785 
5,095,509 
4,939,265 
4.206.888 
4,676.785 
16.622,420 
8,237.454 
6,392,595 
3,913.057 
1,653,723 
1.854,932 
5,762,448 
7,805,913 
10.646,308 
11,097.830 
10.107,753 
11.479,184 
1,992,701 
2.532,985 
863,924 
4,804,005 
7,048,123 
14.422.250 
5.898,120 
5,257.513 
10.2O7.264 
6.743,020 
6,161,832 
268,248 
8,209,273 
7.784,633 
10,096.108 
106,230,941 
3,084,834 
2,597,816 
9,813,078 
5,033.337 
5,155,532 
8,615,755 
7.332,204 


11,972.493 
70,856,993 
16,906,961 
71,140,969 
56,873,572 
756,077 
193,932 
30,708,749 
11,271,943 
50,088,537 
3.047,832 
1.330,777 
12.445,479 
1.O71.743 
10,719,750 
3,555,298 
17,996,233 
12,832,214 
1,149,925 
1,997,256 
19.257,502 
24,949.582 
11,444,384 
9.797,967 
81,749,146 
19,225,501 
67,770,993 
2.185,976 
1.929,594 
73.297,922 
7,871,571 
8.592,724 
29,367,440 
1,560,735 
8,999,462 
51,206,112 
9.223,545 
236.238 
5.5O9.386 
30,135,784 
6,336,982 
42,196,823 
48,424,489 
1,108,520 
5,644,117 
34,247,583 
4,925,007 
15,412,153 
54,308,744 


24.002.929 
72.537,799 
26.589,945 
88,011.083 
64.074.192 
2,003,635 
5O6.15O 
33.560.987 
27,048.356 
51.880.322 
8,143,341 
6.270,042 
16.652.367 
5,748.528 
27.342.170 
11,792.752 
24,388.828 
16.745,271 
2.803,648 
3,852,188 
25,019.950 
32.755.495 
22,09O.69e 
20,895,797 
91,856,899 
30,704,685 
69.763,694 
4,718,961 
2,793,518 
78,101.927 
14,919,694 
23,014,974 
35.265, 56O 
6.818.248 
19,206,726 
57.949,132 
15,385.377 
504,486 
13,718,659 
37.920,417 
16,433,090 
148,427,764 
51,509.323 
3,706,336 
15.457,195 
39,280.920 
10,080,539 
24,027,908 
61,640,948 




Illinois 


Indiana 


Indian Ter.. 
Iowa 


Kansas 


Kentucky 
Louisiana... 


Maryland.... 
Mass 


Michigan 
Minnesota .. 
Mississippi.. 
Missouri 
Montana .... 
Nebraska 
Nevada 
New Hamp. 
New Jersey. 
New Mexico. 
New York... 
N. Carolina. 
N. Dakota.. 
Ohio 


Oklahoma... 
Oregon 


Pen'sylvania 
Rhode Island 
S.Carolina.. 
S. Dakota... 
Tennessee... 
Texas 


Utah 


Vermont 
Virginia 
Washington. 
W. Virginia. 
Wisconsin .. 
Wyoming. . . 

Total U. S. 


1,902,416,000 


841.201,546 


414.793,191 


426.408,355 


1.061,214,454 


1,487,622,809 



The estimate made by Mr. Gannett in some cases, it will be found, 
gives a wooded area in a state greater than the total area not improved 
as derived from the census of farm areas. It has thus been possible to 
cut down the estimate of the probable area of woodland of the various 
states into the areas as expressed in table A. 

Thus, in the eastern forest, including west of the Mississippi River 
only Missouri, Indian Territory, Arkansas and Louisiana, we find the 
total wooded area, or actual and potential forest land, to be 624,500 



292 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

square miles, as against Mr. Gannett's estimate in 1900 of 673,280 
square miles. Without doubt, some such area as this may be consid- 
ered practically the permanent area of the eastern forest, which, under 
proper management, will go far toward supplying the timber needs of 
the eastern half of the country for an indefinite period. This area is 
the equivalent of 399,680,000 acres. 

If it be assumed and it must be remembered that these statements 
are largely assumption only that this wooded area contains an average 
of 3,000 feet of commercial timber to the acre, the amount of timber 
standing upon it would be 1,199,040,000,000 feet. Therefore, if the 
Atlantic forest were called upon to furnish 40,000,000,000 feet board 
measure of material annually, the supply would last thirty years. But 
it may safely be estimated that the Pacific forest is capable of supply- 
ing in perpetuity at least 15,000,000,000 feet annually, leaving 20,000,- 
000,000 feet to be supplied by the Atlantic forest. This would mean a 
crop rotation of sixty years, which, under proper methods of manage- 
ment, it is agreed by professors of forestry, could be easily achieved. 
The eastern and western forests, which have approximately equal 
amounts of standing timber, could, between them, easily supply a 
demand a little more than equal to that of the present. 

UNDERESTIMATES OF STANDING TIMBER. 

All past estimates as to the amount of standing timber in the 
United States have been grossly inaccurate. Without exception they 
have been far too low, as has been demonstrated by experience. Sev- 
eral causes have been responsible for these erroneous estimates. One 
was a lack of inclusiveness. In the lumbering states timber has been 
largely in the hands of heavy operating holders. These holdings could 
be estimated with something like accuracy and seldom were forgotten 
or overlooked in the computation ; but, in addition, there were a multi- 
tude of small holdings, from the farmer's wood lot of twenty or forty 
acres up to tracts of a few thousand acres. In the long run all of these 
contribute to the supply of saw timber, and in many states, espe- 
cially the older ones, these small holdings have served to prolong the 
life of the industry far beyond any former estimates. Furthermore, 
these small tracts have contributed no small amount of timber through 
forest growth. 

Another reason for mistaken estimates has probably been the dispo- 
sition of timber holders to understate either the actual acreage or the 
stumpage belonging to them. In such underestimates they might be 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 293 

influenced by competitive considerations or by the desire to avoid 
heavy taxation, which has been one of the most serious obstacles with 
which the industry has had to contend. Still another, and perhaps the 
most usual, cause of underestimates has been the varying bases of cal- 
culation at various times. The estimate of standing timber has been 
based upon the logging custom of the time. When it was the practice 
to cut large timber only, as in Michigan for example, when sixteen-foot 
logs were of such a size that it required but two to five to make a 
thousand feet board measure, when only the best trees were cut and only 
the best logs from the trees were taken to the mill, leaving perhaps two 
or three times as much timber in cubic contents in the woods as was pre- 
sented to the saw, the estimate as to the quantity of timber standing, 
and consequently the duration of the business, was very much lower 
than in later times when logs as small as six or eight inches in diame- 
ter were marketable. Illustrating this point, within the last decade 
government estimators who have been at work upon the problem of the 
timber supplies of the Pacific Coast have had occasion to revise their 
calculations and largely to increase the estimate of the standing timber 
in these states because of current changes in methods of logging. 
While errors of estimate arising from this cause were natural, it would 
seem that experience should have taught the later estimators the 
unwisdom of basing their predictions as to the future life of the indus- 
try upon current standards. The facts in these matters have always 
discomfited the theorists. Lumbermen have again and again pro- 
nounced the supplies of given districts exhausted as, in fact, they 
were from their standpoint only to have their successors cut several 
times as much lumber as was taken by the pioneers. 

The Atlantic Coast states, together with New York and Pennsyl- 
vania, have long passed the period when the lumber industry should, 
according to the prognostications of early estimators, have been 
entirely exhausted, and still they remain lumber producers of impor- 
tance. Growth and reafforestation the latter, so far, by natural pro- 
cesses only have prolonged the life of the industry, while the utiliza- 
tion of woods once neglected has contributed its share toward the 
maintenance of the industry. 

Perhaps the most remarkable example of mistaken estimate has 
been regarding the pine forests of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. 
The first attempt at a census of the timber of these states was made in 
connection with the census of 1880. The estimate for Michigan at 



294 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

that date was 35,000,000,000 feet ; for Wisconsin, 41,000,000,000 feet, 
and for Minnesota, 8,170,000,000 feet. The estimate for Michigan, 
which was the best known as it was the earliest developed portion of 
that magnificent timbered section, was not very far from correct, but 
Wisconsin since that time has produced over 60,000,000,000 feet, and 
will support a steadily decreasing output for a good many years to 
come. Minnesota, which in 1880 was the least known, was most egre- 
giously underestimated. Whereas the standing pine in that State was 
estimated in 1880 at 8,170,000,000 feet, in 1895 one of the most thor- 
ough students of its forestal condition estimated the pine supply as 
over 17,000,000,000 feet, notwithstanding the product of the State had, 
during all that period between 1880 and 1895, been steadily increasing, 
with a total production during that time at least double the amount of 
the 1880 estimate. And yet in 1905 the fire warden of Minnesota 
informally estimated the pine timber supply of the State at about 
25,000,000,000 feet. Another estimate is 40,000,000,000 feet. 

It should be stated, however, in connection with these figures, that 
the earlier estimates covered only white pine, while the later ones 
include red pine with the white, inasmuch as they grow together, are 
logged together and are marketed together. 

The history of the development of lumbering districts shows, first, 
an overestimate of the supply, because of which this great natural 
resource was wastefully used and disposed of at prices lower than 
would have been warranted by the actual conditions ; and, second, in a 
startled revulsion of sentiment, the underestimates noted above, which 
resulted in prices for standing timber, particularly in the white pine 
states, higher for the time than were justified by the facts since 
developed. The result was that timber values were too low for a long 
period and then experienced a sudden and enormous advance, to be 
succeeded in turn by a long period of level values, whereas the logical 
effect of actual knowledge would have been a slow but steady advance 
from year to year, and from decade to decade. 

The history of white pine is being repeated in other woods. The 
supply of southern pine was, for many years, overestimated in respect 
to its relation to the demand. It was thought that a market could 
never be found for the possible output of this class of material. In 
1880 the tenth census estimate of the stand of southern yellow pine of 
the four principal species was 237,000,000,000 feet. The product has 
already reached 10,000,000,000 feet annually, and a conservative esti- 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 295 

mate in 1905 an estimate which is almost assuredly under rather than 
over the fact is of 300,000,000,000 feet. 

In regard to this matter Mr. Gannett, in his report on the lumber 
business in connection with the twelfth census, says : "The area occu- 
pied by pure pine forests in the states above enumerated [the Caro- 
linas, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas and 
Arkansas] is approximately 150,000 square miles, or about 100,000,000 
acres. The average stand of timber on this area, from the past 
information on timber, is not far from 3,000 feet board measure per 
acre, giving a total stand on this area of 300,000,000,000 feet." If that 
estimate of 1900 were correct as to the acreage of pure pine forest, the 
amount of pine standing in isolated tracts would have largely increased 
the total of stumpage. 

Estimates as to the immense hardwood resources of the eastern 
forest have always been inadequate, chiefly owing to omission of many 
species once neglected but now readily marketable, and to neglect of 
the factor of growth. This factor of reafforestation has been, and will 
be for many years to come, of more importance in connection with the 
hardwoods than with the pine. The pine forest reproduces itself but 
slowly, if at all, and, further, the pines are in many cases succeeded by 
broad-leaved trees. In the hardwood belt, however, reproduction is 
certain, and as rapid as the rate of growth of the various species will 
permit. The extension of estimates to include varieties of wood once 
neglected, is of importance. A quarter of a century ago oak, walnut, 
ash, hickory, poplar, birch, cherry, maple and basswood were practi- 
cally the only hardwoods of market value that were considered in the 
estimate of any hardwood tract. Now gum, cottonwood, beech, syca- 
more and others occupy prominent places, hi fact, almost every species 
of broad-leaved trees which matures to a trunk diameter of twelve or 
fifteen inches is of utility and market value. 

The same process has been going on in the West. A quarter of a 
century ago redwood was practically the only tree species of the 
western forest that was recognized hi the East, the only other western 
species that was manufactured on any important scale being Douglas 
spruce, or Oregon pine ( Pseudotsuga taxifolia), which found a coast- 
wise market in the United States and was to some extent exported. 
Now dozens of species are known and utilized, among the most impor- 
tant being yellow pine, sugar pine, mountain pine, hemlock, cedar of 
two or three species, spruce, fir of several species and a number 
of hardwoods. There, also, the forests were considered inexhaustible. 



296 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

The influences which have resulted in too low estimates in the past 
are still at work, although the field upon which they may act has been 
narrowed. If, therefore, the estimate of wooded area in 1905 of 
1,040,450 square miles for the entire country, shown in table A, is 
approximately correct, there is a basis for an estimate higher than any 
of those ordinarily made as to the amount of standing timber upon it. 
Recognizing the fact that some of this area has been cut over and 
burned over, and that some of it is brush lands, it is not improbable 
that 3,000 feet per acre may yet, on the average, be cut from it, due to 
closer methods of manufacture in many species, to the inclusion of 
species now neglected and to the growth of timber on tracts culled over 
or completely cut. If such an estimate be given, it means 2,000,000,- 
000,000 feet of standing timber, which, at a consumption of 40,000,- 
000,000 feet annually, would supply the demands of the country for fifty 
years. 

The author does not wish to be understood as speaking dogmatically, 
nor as basing his reputation on such an estimate ; but in view of the 
history of timber estimates, in view of the rapid changes of the basis 
of estimation, and considering the very heavy amount of stumpage on 
much of the yet virgin timber land, it seems not improbable that such 
an estimation will be realized and perhaps surpassed. 

But, whatever may be the outcome, it seems plain that the United 
States has no more timber than it needs as a capital from which to draw 
as interest its annual requirements, and that economy and conservation 
should and must be the policy of the future. 

This question of the total timber supply of the United States has 
long been a disputed one, and while of recent years all schools have 
admitted that the supplies are none too great for future needs and are 
deserving of conservation, there has been more or less acrimonious 
controversy as to the precise facts. One of the most able writers 
on this general subject is Bernhard E. Fernow, LL. D., who was for 
a considerable period at the head of the Forestry Department of the 
National government and who has been a careful student along this line of 
research. In 1902 Doctor Fernow took issue with Mr. Gannett in regard 
to the amount of timber remaining in the United States, or rather, to 
the area which then bore merchantable timber or was capable of pro- 
ducing such within a generation. 

He said, 5 as an introduction to the table which is reproduced here- 

6 Economics of Forestry, by B. E. Fernow. LL. D., December, 1902. 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 



297 



with, which, it will be noted, is along the line of table C, showing total 
land surface, farm land, unimproved lands, etc.: "The subjoined table 
gives an estimate of the areas which either bear valuable forests or are 
capable of producing such without effort of man in our generation. This 
table is based upon a similar table by the writer in 1893, upon the basis 
of the area reported by the twelfth census. The geographical arrange- 
ment and subadditions have been made with a view of bringing out 
the relative commercial and economic value of the forest areas." 

TABLE D DR. FERNOW'S ESTIMATE OF FOREST AREAS. 



STATES AND GROUPS. 


Area. 


Percent. 


Total land 
surface, 
thousand 
acres. 


Improved 
land in 
farms, 
thousand 
acres. 


Improv- 
ed land. 


Brush, 
forest 
and 
waste 
land. 


Prob- 
ably 
forest. 


United States 


1,9OO,8OO 


414,793 


22 


78 


26 




19,132 
5,783 
5,846 
5,155 
694 
3.10O 


2,386 
1,076 
2,126 
1,292 
187 
1,064 


12 
19 
36 
25 
27 
34 


88 
81 
64 
75 
73 
66 


64 
62 
42 
29 
40 
29 


New Hampshire 






Rhode Island 


Connecticut 


New England States 


39,710 


8,131 


20 


80 


52 


New York 


30,376 

28,790 
4,671 
1,254 
6,310 


15,599 
13,209 
1,977 
754 
3,516 


51 
46 
42 
60 
56 


49 
54 
58 
40 
44 


30 
24 
41 
24 
32 


Pennsylvania 




Delaware 


Maryland 


Middle Atlantic States 


71,401 


35,055 


49 


51 


28 


Virginia 


25,680 
31,089 
19,308 
38,647 


10,094 

8.327 
5.775 
10,615 


39 
27 
30 
27 


61 
73 
70 
73 


48 
54 
45 
50 


North Carolina 






Southern Atlantic States 


114,724 


34,811 


30 


70 


49 


Atlantic Coast 


225.835 


77,997 


35 


65 


43 


Florida 


34,713 

32,986 
29,658 
29,069 


1,511 
8,654 
7.594 
4,666 


4 

26 
26 
16 


96 

74 
74 
84 


58 
53 
44 
45 


Alabama 


Mississippi 




Gulf States 


126.426 


22,425 


18 


82 


50 


Texas 


167,808 


19,576 


12 


88 


23 


Michigan 


36.755 

34,848 
50,691 


11,799 
11,246 
18,442 


32 
32 
36 


68 
68 
64 


50 
47 
36 


Wisconsin 


Minnesota 


Northern Lumbering States 


122,294 


41,487 


34 


66 


43 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OP AMERICA. 

TABLE D Continued. 



STATES AND GROUPS. 


Area. 


Percent. 


Total land 
surface, 
thousand 
acres. 


Improved 
land in 
farms, 
thousand 
acres. 


Improv- 
ed land. 


Brush, 
forest 
and 
waste 
land. 


Prob- 
ably 
forest. 


Ohio 


26,086 

22,982 
35.840 


19,244 
16,680 
27,699 


74 
73 

77 


26 

27 
23 


16 
15 
10 




Illinois 


Northern Agricultural States.......... .... 


84.008 


63,623 


75 


25 


13 




207,202 


105.110 


51 


49 


31 




15,772 
25,600 
26,720 
33,949 
43,990 


5,498 
13,741 
10,245 
6.953 
22,900 


35 
54 
38 
21 
52 


65 
46 

62 

79 
48 


52 
43 
55 
60 
36 










Central States 


146.031 


59,337 


41 


59 


48 




35,504 
45,308 
49,696 
42,998 
52,288 
24,960 


29,897 
9,644 
11,285 
18,432 
25,040 
5,511 


84 
21 
23 
43 
48 
22 


16 
79 

77 
57 

52 

78 


13 
1 
2 
3 

7 




South Dakota 






Oklahoma 


Prairie States 


250.754 


99,809 


40 


60 


4 




396.785 


159.146 


40 


60 


20 




92,998 

62,448 
66,332 
78,374 


1.736 
792 
2.273 
326 


2 
1 
3 
O.4 


98 
99 
97 
99.8 


18 
12 
16 
6 








Eastern Rocky Mountain Region 


300,154 


5,127 


2 


98 


13 


Idaho 


53,945 
70,233 
52,601 
72.268 


1,413 
572 
1.032 
254 


3 

0.8 
2 
0.3 


97 
99.2 
98 
99.7 


20 

16 

14 


Nevada 


Utah 


Arizona 


Western Rocky Mountain Region 


249,047 


3,271 


1.3 


98.7 


8 


Rocky Mountain Region 


549,201 


8.398 


1.5 


98.5 


10 


California 


99.827 
60,518 
42.703 


11.958 
3.328 
3.465 


12 
5 

8 


88 
95 
92 


18 
35 
52 




Washington 


Pacific Coast 


203.048 


18,751 


9 


91 


30 



It will be noted that Doctor Fernow finds the probable forest land to 
be 26 percent of the area of the whole United States, excluding nonadja- 
cent territory, 52 percent of the New England states, 28 percent of the 
middle Atlantic states, 49 percent of the southern Atlantic states, 43 
percent of the entire Atlantic Coast district, 50 percent of the gulf 
states, etc. 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 



299 



The estimate given by the author in table A, of the wooded area, 
is that it constitutes 35 percent of the entire area of the country. This 
"wooded area " is broader in its scope than the " forest area" accord- 
ing to Doctor Fernow, but otherwise the estimates are not far apart. 

The presentation by Doctor Fernow may well be combined with the 
result of the inquiry made by the twelfth census (1900) as to the acre- 
age and average quantity of timber per acre of timber land owned by 
lumbermen. This presentation was as follows : 



TABLE E-TIMBER LANDS REPORTED OWNED BY LUMBERMEN-TWELFTH 

CENSUS. 



STATES AND GROUPS. 


Area in acres, 
according 
to ownership. 


Average 
quantity 
merchant- 
able timber 
per acre, 
in feet. 


Estimated 
total quan- 
tity mer- 
chantable 
timber, in 
millions 
of feet. 


United States 


32 222 097 


6 700 


21 ^ "^"iO fi 


Eastern Group 


4 498 812 


4 700 


on QHT Q 


Maine 


2 107 606 


2 OOO 


A QTT K 


New Hampshire 


663 879 


5 8OO 


Q QTQ 1 


Vermont 


372 754 


7 30O 




Massachusetts 


41 028 


9 ooo 


V7^ 1 




1 673 


3 OOO 


ft Q 


Connecticut 


9 195 


9 200 


82 8 


New York. .. 


648 131 


5 600 




Pennsylvania 


644 766 


9 300 


5 910 5 




7 576 


3 600 


28 9 


Delaware...... . 


2 2O4 


5 OOO 


in 4. 


Lake Group 


6 694 153 


4 900 


00 QOK A 




2 747 447 


5 300 


14 546 1 


Wisconsin 


1 920 607 


5 400 


in 987 a 


Minnesota 


2 026 099 


3 900 


1 QQ1 1 


Central Group 


3 244 420 


4 700 


1 >\ A_t)t Q 


Ohio 


80 699 


4 100 


004. 




104*167 


5 700 


KQO rj 




162 652 


4 800 


778 


West Virginia 


506 059 


5 200 


RflO A 




382 649 


4 700 


1 787 2 




1 138 649 


3 90O 


A AQK 1 




869 545 


5 50O 


A QO=i 7 




12 414 165 


5 000 


62 711 9 


Maryland 


66 928 


3 700 


o^n i 




402 360 


4 300 


1 712 9 


North Carolina 


1 714 135 


3 800 


/188 A 


South Carolina 


454 785 


4 400 


1 QQQ o 




1 1O7 838 


3 800 


4 212 2 


Florida 


1 318 387 


4 50O 


K qi Q K 


Alabama 


1 224 835 


4 2OO 


5 100 7 


Mississippi 


1 214 458 


7 60O 


9 242 7 


Louisiana 


1 497 352 


6 700 


q OKI i 




1 741 779 


4 500 


7 917 8 


Texas 


1 671 308 


5 900 


Q QOfi Q 











300 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



TABLE E-TIMBER LANDS REPORTED OWNED BY LUMBERMEN-TWELFTH 

CENSUS Continued. 



STATES AND GROUPS. 


Area in acres, 
according 1 
to ownership. 


Average 
quantity 
merchant- 
able timber 
per acre, 
in feet. 


Estimated 
total quan- 
tity mer- 
chantable 
timber, in 
millions 
of feet. 


pacific Group . .............. 


3 188,149 


24 500 


78 141 6 


California..... 


1,177 537 


30 600 


36 087 7 




825,687 


24 500 


20 351 8 




1 184 925 


18 300 


21 702 1 


Miscellaneous Group 


2,182,398 


2 500 


5,360.9 


Colorado 


91,993 


7300 


671 1 


Idaho 


84,420 


6,900 


576.9 


Indian Territory 


32 347 


3 80O 


1205 




56,160 


4,900 


273.5 




7 680 


3 500 


28 4 




95,538 


6,600 


632 8 


Nebraska 








New Mexico 


1,518,780 


1,500 


2,319.7 


North Dakota . 








South Dakota 


5,940 


3,000 


18.2 


Utah 


19,300 


2,100 


40.6 




56,960 


4,500 


254.3 


Arizona 


202,080 


2,000 


409.2 


Alaska 










10,940 


1,300 


14.6 


Nevada 


260 


4,000 


1.1 











The average quantity of merchantable timber per acre in the owner- 
ship of lumbermen, as far as reported by them, was shown to be for the 
entire country 6,700 feet. Undoubtedly this average estimate per acre 
is much higher than the average for all the forest lands of the United 
States, for the reason that lumbermen have generally selected the best 
timber lands ; but it is also probable that the report by the lumbermen 
underestimated the total quantities of timber owned by them by a con- 
siderable amount ; for in almost every case lumbermen have estimates 
of only certain classes of timber on their land holdings, ignoring many 
species and qualities which will sooner or later be of material value 
and, in a consideration which recognizes not merely the customs of the 
day but the possibilities of the future, should be included in the total 
stand. 

If, then, lumbermen report an average of 6,700 feet per acre, it is 
not improbable that the average of forest lands will, including all kinds 
of timber, be at least 4,000 feet to the acre. If that be a fair assump- 
tion, then Dr. Fernow's 26 percent of the total area of the country, or 
1,902,416,000 acres, represents 1,978,512,640,000 feet of standing tim- 
ber, or very close to the quantity arrived at by other methods of esti- 
mate. 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 301 

THE ATLANTIC FOREST. 

The eastern forest of the United States, which is a part of the grand 
eastern forest of the continent, originally covered nearly the entire area 
east of the Mississippi, the chief exceptions being -open areas in Florida, 
Illinois and Wisconsin, and extended west of the river in solid masses 
in Minnesota, Missouri, Arkansas, Indian Territory, Louisiana and 
Texas. Southern Missouri, Arkansas and Louisiana were almost solidly 
timbered, except the last-named, which had a large prairie area along 
the Gulf Coast. The solid forest of Texas was confined to a compara- 
tively small area in the eastern and northeastern part of the State. In 
addition there were extensions of the forest, usually along the streams 
or following some peculiar geological formation to the westward, and 
outlying parts of more or less importance. The plains and canyons of 
western Texas marked the extreme southwestern range of the eastern 
tree species, while in the northwest the limit is found in the foothills 
and outlying eastern extensions of the Rocky Mountains. In both of 
these regions the eastern and western forests touch hands, so to speak, 
though the representatives of both are there usually dwarfed and of 
comparatively little economic value except as supplying imperative 
local requirements. 

Western Texas is peculiarly interesting from the standpoint of forest 
botany, because there meet and mingle representatives of extremely 
diverse types. Not only are the Atlantic and Pacific forests represent- 
ed, but also the Mexican flora with many species of tropical and 
sub-tropical type. Of eastern species may be mentioned red cedar 
(Juniperus virginiana), black walnut, red mulberry, buckeye, persim- 
mon, live oak, post oak and many others. Representatives of the 
Pacific forest are western yellow pine, Douglas spruce ( Pseudotsuga 
taxifolia), white pine ( Pinusflexilis), some western oaks, etc. Of the 
species of more southern origin are the Mexican walnut, Mexican 
madrona, gum elastic, lignum-vitae, Texas ebony ( ' Zygia flexicaulis), 
retama, green-bark acacia and various yuccas and cacti. 

Southern Florida presents another interesting situation from the 
standpoint of tree species. While the northern part of the State has 
the characteristics of the forest regions of the North, the southern end 
of the Peninsula of Florida and the coast have the truly tropical vege- 
tation, being an extension of the West Indian flora. The mahogany, 
the royal palm, the mangrove, the mastic and about sixty other West 
Indian species characterize it, in the words of Doctor Fernow, as tropic- 



302 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

al in all but its geographical position. North of this tropical outpost 
is a semitropical district which extends in a narrow belt along the coast 
as far as North Carolina. It is characterized by evergreen broad- 
leaved trees, dwarfed palmetto, etc. 

To facilitate discussion it is convenient to divide the area of the 
country into sections, according to their forest characteristics. The 
latest authority on the forest botany of North America, including forest 
distribution, is Sargent's manual of the trees of North America. 6 It 
is in the main a condensation of his monumental work, " The Silva of 
North America." In this work Doctor Sargent uses for reference pur- 
poses an outline map of the continent, showing certain grand divisions. 
The line separating the eastern from the western, beginning at the 
North at the mouth of the Mackenzie River, passes east of the Rocky 
Mountains and their outlyers, through Alberta, Saskatchewan, the west- 
ern portions of North Dakota, South Dakota and Nebraska, through 
eastern Colorado and New Mexico, and extreme western Texas. 

The eastern area is subdivided into four regions, the largest of 
which is the northeastern, extending to the northern tree limit from a 
line beginning at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, passing south of the 
Appalachians, north in western Tennessee and thence west, crossing 
Arkansas and Indian Territory. The next in point of size in the eastern 
regions is between the above described line and the Gulf. A third and 
very small one occupies the extreme southern end of Florida, and the 
fourth, also small, is on the Texas-Mexican boundary. 

The western forest is also divided, on this scheme, into four parts. 
One, and the smallest, occupies the southern portions of New Mexico 
and Arizona and the southwestern extension of Texas. Its flora is of 
the Mexican type rather than that of the United States. North of this 
belt stretches the Rocky Mountain area to the Arctic. The third occu- 
pies California and Oregon, and the fourth includes Washington, part 
of Idaho, the western part of British Columbia along the coast, and 
Alaska to north of the Yukon River. 

DIVISIONS OF THE ATLANTIC FOREST. 

The above division is a very broad one, and the eastern forest proper 
should be more minutely subdivided. Ignoring its extensions north 
into Canada, on one scheme of division the eastern forest would be 
divided into three portions. One, coniferous in its characteristics, 

6 " Manual of the Trees of North America," by Charles Sprague Sargent, director of the 
Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, author of " The Silva of North America," Boston, 1905. 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 303 

though almost everywhere mixed with the broad-leaved trees, stretches 
across New England, New York, northern Pennsylvania, Michigan and 
Wisconsin and into Minnesota. The continuity of this belt is broken 
by Lake Erie. Disregarding the international boundary, it is continu- 
ous east and west across the northeastern states, Quebec, Ontario and 
the district around Lake Superior. The characteristic woods of this 
coniferous belt are spruce and pine in the east and pine in the west, in 
some cases forming pure forests, but more generally intermixed with 
the hardwoods adapted to a northern climate. 

PRINCIPAL EASTERN TREE SPECIES. 

Immediately south of this coniferous belt was, and is, what may be 
called the central hardwood belt. In some sections the division be- 
tween the two is sharply defined and in others confused. Furthermore, 
the northern coniferous belt has a prolonged but narrow extension 
southward along the Appalachians. The central hardwood belt finds its 
southern boundary along a line extending, approximately, from the 
mouth of Chesapeake Bay through North Carolina to the northwest 
corner of South Carolina, and thence in a general westerly direction 
across northern Alabama and Mississippi, north of the center of Ar- 
kansas to about the center of Indian Territory. South of this line the 
forest growth is of the coniferous type, though with a heavy admixture 
of hardwoods in the northern half of South Carolina, Georgia, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi and the southern half of Arkansas, and a lighter 
proportion nearer the ocean and Gulf. The remainder of the southern 
part of the eastern forest, comprising a belt of somewhat irregular 
shape and varying in width, extends along the south Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts from Maryland to eastern Texas, including parts of Virginia, 
half of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Missis- 
sippi, practically all of Florida, Louisiana, the major part of Texas, in- 
cluding its heavy pine forests, and extending northward from Louisiana 
and Texas into Arkansas and Indian Territory. Such are, in brief, the 
outline divisions as given by Doctor Fernow. 

Of the nearly 500 tree species native to the United States, about 
230 species, excluding tropical ones, are represented in the Atlantic 
forest. Many of these trees, however, are of no present commercial 
value, or, at any rate, of no value for lumber purposes. Some are 
hardly more than shrubs the distinction between shrubs and trees 
being a close and almost indefinite one. Of these eastern species of 
pine and hardwood trees, leaving out, of course, the yuccas, palms, 



304 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



cacti and tropical hardwoods, seventy-two have been selected as having 
a present commercial value sufficient to warrant specific consideration, 
though among those omitted many will, undoubtedly, yet find place in 
the lumber industry. Of these species the pines contribute seven, the 
spruces two, the hickories seven, the poplars three, the birches four, 
the oaks thirteen, the elms three, the magnolias two, the maples four, 
the buckeyes two, the gums two, the ashes three ; of individual species, 
larch, hemlock, fir, taxodium or bald cypress, red cedar, white cedar, 
juniper, butternut, walnut, beech, chestnut, tulip tree or yellow poplar, 
sweet gum, sycamore, black cherry, honey locust, locust, basswood, 
dogwood, and one of the catalpas Catalpa speciosa. 

Of the pines three are northern and four southern. Of the oaks 
under consideration nine may be classed as white oaks, including one 
live oak, and four as black oaks. There are fifty-four species of oaks 
in the United States, not counting subspecies or varieties. Of these, 
thirty-three belong to the eastern forest, while eight more may be 
classed with the eastern forest if its boundaries are extended to south- 
west Texas. Thus, of the thirty-three oak species in the Atlantic forest 
proper only thirteen are taken into consideration, though some others 
might be included, as they are already, to some extent, in lumber opera- 
tions, and will be more extensively in the future. The following table 
shows the number of selected coniferous and broad-leaved species, 
respectively, in the different states embraced within the Atlantic or 
eastern forest : 



STATE. 


Conif- 
erous. 


Broad- 
leaved. 


STATE. 


Conif- 
erous. 


Broad- 
leaved. 


Maine 


11 


30 




9 


29 




11 


30 




8 


29 




11 


33 




6 


51 


Massachusetts 


10 


36 




8 


51 




g 


34 




3 


46 




8 


37 




4 


48 


New York 


10 


41 


Indian Territory 


3 


34 




7 


36 




9 


45 




8 


45 




10 


49 




8 


36 




8 


41 




g 


45 




8 


44 


West Virginia 


7 


45 




6 


33 


Ohio - 


3 


40 




8 


44 




2 


47 




7 


38 


Illinois . 


2 


48 




5 


34 




9 


39 




5 


36 















The above list is not absolutely complete even in the species 
selected, because some of them are so sparsely represented in some 
of the states that they have not been included in the lists for those 
states. 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 305 

In Chapter II is given a list practically identical with the one now 
used, which gives the range of occurrence, including the extreme range 
and the sporadic instances as well. For example, the tulip tree or yel- 
low poplar, which grows most numerously and to its best development 
in the valley of the Ohio River and its tributaries, is found native as 
far to the northeast as Vermont and Massachusetts, and, in fact, occurs 
in every state in the above list, except, perhaps, in Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Wisconsin, Texas and Indian Territory. The localities in which 
the various selected species are the most common, or reach their best 
development, are, respectively, as follows : 

White pine New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Wis- 
consin and Minnesota. 

Red pine The above states, except Pennsylvania. 

Jack pine Michigan and Minnesota. 

Loblolly pine Virginia, North Carolina and Arkansas, though found in all the 
yellow pine states. 

Shortleaf pine Virginia, the Carolinas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri and Texas. 

Ixmgleaf pine South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana 
and Texas. 

Cuban pine Close to the coast in South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama and 
Mississippi. 

Larch Maine, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

Black spruce The New England states, New York, Pennsylvania and West 
Virginia. 

White spruce The New England states and New York. 

Hemlock New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Michigan and Wisconsin. 
Sargent remarks that it attains its largest size near streams on slopes of the 
high mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. 

Balsam fir Northern New England, northern New York and northern Michigan 
and Minnesota. 

Cypress On delta lands of the south Atlantic and gulf states. 

Northern cedar Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Michigan, Wiscon- 
sin and Minnesota. 

Coast white cedar From Massachusetts along the coast to Alabama. 

Juniper In middle Kentucky and Tennessee, northern Alabama and Mississippi. 

Butternut New England and the northern states generally. 

Black walnut Western slopes of the high Appalachians, the Ohio River Valley 
and in Indian Territory. 

Pecan hickory In southern Arkansas, Indian Territory and eastern Texas. 

Bitternut hickory On bottom lands of the lower Ohio basin. 

Water hickory On bottom lands of the lower Mississippi. 

Shagbark hickory On the western slopes of the southern Alleghenies, and in the 
basin of the lower Ohio. 

Shellbark hickory In the swamps of the lower Ohio and Mississippi rivers. 



306 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Mockernut hickory A southern variety, growing to its best development in the 

basin of the lower Ohio, and in Missouri and Arkansas. 
Pignut hickory Is at best development in the same region as mockernut. 
Aspin A northern and mountain timber. 
Cottonwood In the valley of the lower Mississippi. 
Balsam poplar Along the northern boundary of the United States, not including 

Ohio, from Maine to Minnesota. 

Paper birch In northern New England and New York. 
River birch On the lowlands of the Gulf Coast. 
Yellow birch In New England and northern New York. 
Black birch, known also as cherry or sweet birch On the western slopes of the 

southern Appalachians and in Wisconsin, though common in all the northern 

states. 
Beech Widely distributed, but grows largest on intervale lands along the lower 

Ohio and on the slopes of the southern Alleghenies. 
Chestnut Most common south of Lake Erie and in southern Michigan, but grows 

to its best development on the mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. 
White oak Found in every state. Has its best development on the western slopes 

of the southern Alleghenies and in the bottom lands of the lower Ohio basin. 
Post oak On dry, gravelly uplands of the Mississippi basin. 
Bur oak Southern Indiana and Illinois. 
Overcup oak In the lower Red River Valley of Arkansas and Louisiana. Rare in 

regions north of the Ohio River and on the Atlantic Coast. 
Chestnut oak A highland oak. On the lower slopes of the mountains of the 

Appalachians and Tennessee. 

Chinquapin oak Also a highland oak. On the lower Wabash River. 
Swamp white oak Western New York and northern Ohio. 
Cow oak On southern bottom lands. 

Live oak On the southern Atlantic and eastern Gulf coasts and in Texas. 
Red oak Reaches its largest development in the region north of the Ohio River. 
Yellow oak In the valley of the lower Ohio River. 
Spanish oak In the south Atlantic and gulf states on the dry hills between the 

coast plain and the Appalachian Mountains. 
Water oak (Quercus nigra) A southern bottom-land oak. 
Slippery elm In comparatively low, fertile soil in nearly all the country away from 

the Ocean and Gulf. 

White elm Most abundant on the banks of streams flowing through the mid- 
continental plateau. 

Cork elm In the southern peninsula of Michigan. 
Magnolia In Louisiana and similar situations in Mississippi. 
Cucumber tree In the narrow valleys at the base of the high mountains of the 

Carolinas and Tennessee. 
Tulip tree In the valleys of the lower Ohio basin and of the lower slopes of the 

higher mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. 
Sweet gum In the maritime region of the south Atlantic states and in the basin 

of the lower Mississippi River. 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 307 

Sycamore On the bottom lands of streams in the basin of the lower Ohio and the 

Mississippi rivers. 
Black cherry On the slopes of the high Allegheny Mountains from Pennsylvania 

to Georgia. 

Honey locust In southern Indiana and Illinois. 
Locust On the western slopes of the Alleghenies in West Virginia. 
Sugar maple Vermont, northern and western New York, northern Ohio and 

Michigan. 

Silver maple On the banks of the lower Ohio and its tributaries. 
Red maple Most abundant in the South, especially in the valley of the Mississippi 

River, and of its largest size in the river swamps of the lower Ohio and its 

large tributaries. 
Box elder In the Mississippi basin generally, reaching its largest size in the valley 

of the lower Ohio. 

Ohio buckeye In the valley of the Tennessee River and in northern Alabama. 
Yellow buckeye On the high mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina. 
Basswood The lower Ohio River and its tributaries and in Mississippi. 
Dogwood Generally distributed through the middle and southern states. 
Black gum In the southern Appalachian region. 

Cotton gum, or tupelo In the cypress swamps of Louisiana and Texas. 
Black ash In damp locations through the northern states generally, and especially 

important in southern Illinois, Missouri and Arkansas. 
White ash On the bottom lands of the basin of the lower Ohio River. 
Green ash In the Mississippi basin. 
Hardy catalpa (Catalpa speciosa)ln southern Illinois and Indiana. 

For the above outline of the location of the best development of the 
various species, especial credit should be given to Doctor Sargent, in 
his "Manual of the Trees of North America." 

THE NORTHERN CONIFEROUS BELT. 

From the earliest times in the history of the United States until to- 
ward the end of the Nineteenth Century the northern coniferous timber 
belt constituted the basis of the chief supply of forest products for the 
domestic trade of the country and also entered largely into foreign 
trade, although an important commerce was founded upon the yellow 
pine of the south Atlantic Coast and Gulf states. 

The early discoverers and explorers were struck by the wealth of 
the forest resources of the north Atlantic Coast, and particularly with 
the white pine, Pinus strobus. As has been related previously, the 
English Crown made reservations of the trees of this timber suitable 
for ships, masts and spars. The white pine grew in profusion in New 
England. It was seldom found in solid bodies of great extent, for it 
was usually mixed with spruce and other conifers and hardwoods, but 
the local or nearby supply was sufficient for all the demands of domes- 



308 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

tic consumption and of foreign trade until well into the Nineteenth 
Century. This valuable wood grew, however, far to the west also. 
Interrupted only by Lake Erie, it stretched across the northern states 
from Maine to Minnesota. 

Topography has much influence on the quantity of any given timber 
found in any region. In the East the uneven character of the surface, 
with alternations of bottom lands, valleys, hills and mountains, broke 
up the continuity of pine forests, allowing the introduction not only of 
other species of conifers, but of broad-leaved trees as well. In the 
West, on the contrary, in Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota, especially 
in the lower peninsula of Michigan, the more level character of a coun- 
try adapted to the growth of white pine resulted in great stretches of 
almost pure pine forests, so that in the West was eventually developed 
the greatest pine industry. This development, however, was slow, de- 
pending upon the growth of population, the lessening of the supply 
progressively from east to west, and the opening of transportation 
routes. 

Mixed with the white pine almost everywhere was red or Norway 
pine ( Pinus resinosa). This was a happy combination, for what the 
white pine lacked in strength 'and hardness to suit it for certain struc- 
tural and manufacturing uses, was supplied by this heavier wood, so 
that from early times they were cut together and often marketed to- 
gether. These were the only pines of large commercial value of the 
northern United States, though there were others of decided value for 
local consumption or particular uses. One of these was Pinus rigida, 
a pitch pine whose range was along the Atlantic Coast. Another was 
Pinus divaricata, known as Jack pine in the United States, or Banksian 
pine in Canada. 

It would be hardly worth the while to attempt an estimate of the 
original stands of white pine and red pine in the United States, though 
they furnished the basis of the leading lumber industry of the United 
States from the beginning until the end of the Nineteenth Century, and 
still are produced in quantities only second to yellow pine, with many 
years of a steadily declining output before them. There is very little 
virgin growth remaining in the United States in the eastern part of 
their range. But in 1899 New England produced about 800,000,000 
feet, New York over 120,000,000 feet and Pennsylvania about 240,- 
000,000 feet of white pine alone. This was practically all from second 
growth timber, whereas, the over 6,000,000,000 feet produced in Michi- 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 309 

gan, Wisconsin and Minnesota was all cut from virgin timber, or was 
the cleaning up of areas previously lumbered. But as an industry of 
respectable dimensions has been maintained in the East on the basis of 
reproduction, so it is to be expected to be in the West. With a sharper 
delimitation between agricultural and forest lands, and an increase in the 
values of both standing timber and lumber, there will be a similar 
lengthening of the industry, though on a much smaller scale than now 
characterizes it. 

The other most important conifers of the northern coniferous belt 
include the larch, or tamarack ( Larix lariciria), the two spruces, white 
and black, the hemlock, the balsam fir and the cedar. The larch found 
its favorite locations in the swamps of Maine, northern Michigan and 
Minnesota. In the first-named State it was valuable for shipbuilding. 
The spruces were for a while neglected, but as the supply of pine de- 
creased they came into prominence, and by their superior powers of 
reproduction and more rapid growth became the leading timber wood 
of New England and New York. The development of the pulp indus- 
try also gave an added importance to spruce. The hemlock found its 
favorite localities in western New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, 
Michigan and Wisconsin. 

All these conifers, except the white spruce ( Picea canadensis), larch 
and Jack pine, found altitude a substitute for latitude and so extended 
southward along the Appalachians, continually rising higher until their 
southern limit is found on the higher altitudes of the mountains of 
western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee. The stand of all of 
these woods is decreasing, unless it be of the spruce, which, when pro- 
tected from fire, rapidly replaces itself. White pine and red pine, how- 
ever, still exist in considerable bodies, though exact information as to 
their quantity is not obtainable. Estimates of standing pine in Minne- 
sota, for example, vary from 20,000,000,000 to 40,000,000,000 feet ; in 
Wisconsin, from 10,000,000,000 to 20,000,000,000 feet, and so on. It 
seems probable that an estimate of 50,000,000,000 to 60,000,000,000 feet 
for the entire country is not, in 1905, too high. 

ORIGINAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The original distribution of forests within the northern coniferous 
belt was briefly but very satisfactorily outlined by Doctor Charles S. 
Sargent in his "Forests of the United States," published in 1884. 
While the statements in that work in regard to the probable future of 
the lumber industry were proven by subsequent history to be faulty in 



310 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

many cases, wherever he dealt with matters of demonstrable fact, es- 
pecially those coming within the province of the student of American 
forest botany, his work stands practically unchallenged. From this 
work are drawn the following statements : 

Maine The forests of the northern pine belt extended over the State of Maine. 
Pine and spruce, with which were mingled maple, birch and other deciduous trees, 
covered the entire State, with the exception of the immediate coast region between 
the Kennebec and the Penobscot rivers, a region of hardwood forest. Hemlock 
was common. Hardwood timber is particularly fine and abundant through the 
central portion of the State ; farther north the forest is more generally composed 
of coniferous trees. 

New Hampshire The forests of New Hampshire were originally composed of 
a belt of spruce, mixed with maple, birch and other hardwood trees, occupying all 
the northern part of the State and extending southward through the central por- 
tion. The southeastern part of the State and the region bordering the Connecticut 
River were covered with forests of white pine, through which considerable bodies 
of hardwood were scattered. 

Vermont The forests of Vermont, as compared with those of New Hampshire 
and Maine, are varied in composition. About the shores of Lake Champlain 
several western trees first appear, and throughout the State the forest is more gen- 
erally composed of deciduous than coniferous species. Forests of spruce, however, 
spread over the high ridges of the Green Mountains, their foothills being covered 
with hardwood trees, a little pine or hemlock occurring in the valleys. A forest of 
white pine stretched along the banks of the Connecticut, and great bodies of this 
tree occurred in the northwestern part of the State, adjacent to Lake Champlain. 

New York That portion of the State north of the forty-third degree of lati- 
tude, including within its limits the elevated Adirondack region, was covered with 
a dense forest of maple, birch, basswood and other northern deciduous trees, 
through which were scattered spruce and pine. The low hills bordering the Hud- 
son and extending along the southern boundary of the State west of that river 
were covered with the coniferous species of the northern pine belt. Over the 
remainder of the State the broad-leaved forests of the Mississippi basin spread 
almost uninterruptedly, except where an occasional sandy plain or high elevation 
favored the growth of pines. 

Pennsylvania Pennsylvania possessed vast forests of white pine and hemlock 
stretching over both flanks of the Allegheny Mountains and extending from the 
northern boundaries of the State to its southern limits. East and west of the 
Allegheny region the whole country was covered with a heavy growth of broad- 
leaved trees mixed with hemlocks, and occasional groves of pines. Originally the 
broad pine belt of northern Pennsylvania occupied the region drained by the nu- 
merous streams constituting the headwaters of the Susquehanna, extended from 
Susquehanna County, in the northeastern corner of the State, westward through 
Bedford and Tioga counties to Potter County, and thence southwestward over 
Cameron, Elk and Clearfield counties. The heaviest growth was in the southwest 
part of Tioga County. 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 311 

Michigan Michigan possessed a tree covering of great density, richness and 
variety. The hardwood forests of the Ohio Valley covered the southern portion of 
the State, extending to just north of the forty-third degree of latitude. North of 
this hardwood belt the character of the forest changed ; the white pine appeared, 
occupying the drier and more gravelly ridges, and, gradually increasing in size and 
frequency, became the most important element in the forests of the central and 
northern portions of the Southern Peninsula. In the Northern Peninsula, especially 
in the basin of the Menominee River, it covered the sandy plains almost to the ex- 
clusion of other species. The forests of hardwood, occupying low, rich soil 
between the pine-covered ridges, were valuable in their stores of sugar maple, 
birch, ash, beech, oak and other northern trees, while the swamps common in the 
northern part of the State abounded in tamarack and yellow cedar of large size 
and excellent quality. North of the central portion of the Lower Peninsula large 
tracts of barren plains exist. 

Wisconsin The great prairies of the central Atlantic region once fcund their 
northeastern limits in southern Wisconsin. The forest covering of all the southern 
part of the State was confined to the bottom lands or open upland groves of stunt- 
ed oaks of no great extent or of more than local importance. The central part of 
the State was covered with a dense forest of hardwoods, oaks, ash, maple, cherry, 
birch and the other trees of the northern forest, through which, upon gravelly or 
sandy ridges, great bodies of white pine were scattered. 

Minnesota The northern pine belt finds in Minnesota its extreme western limit 
in the United States in longitude 95 degrees 30 minutes, and its southwestern limit 
near the forty-sixth degree of latitude. Along its southern and western borders a 
narrow territory covered with an open growth of hardwood separates the forests of 
pine from the prairie, which occupies all the southern and western portions of the 
State. The pine in the southern portion, confined to gravelly ridges, is scattered 
through forests of hardwood. Farther north the forest changes in character. 
Broad areas of barren land covered with birch, gray pine and scrub oak occur, 
while the whole country is thickly studded with lakes and with tamarack and cedar 
swamps. North of the Mississippi River divide the country is more open ; pine is 
found mixed with spruce, tamarack and yellow cedar. 

COMMENTS OF EARLY TRAVELERS. 

All the early explorers and travelers in the eastern United States 
noted the abundance and high utility of white pine. Michaux, who 
well may be called the father of American forest botany, in his "North 
American Sylva" devoted much space to this wood. In regard to its 
habitat, he said: 

" It appears to be most abundant between the forty-third and forty- 
seventh degrees of latitude. Farther south it is found in the valleys 
and on the declivities of the Alleghenies to their termination, but at a 
distance from the mountains on either side its growth is forbidden by 
the warmth of the climate. It is said, with great probability, to be 
multiplied near the source of the Mississippi, which is in the same 



312 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

latitude with the District of Maine, the upper part of New Hampshire, 
the State of Vermont and the commencement of the St. Lawrence, 
where it attains to the greatest dimensions." 

He mentions having measured two trunks felled for canoes in the 
Kennebec River in Maine, one of which was 154 feet long and fifty-four 
inches in diameter, and the other, 142 feet long and forty-four inches in 
diameter, three feet from the ground. He also saw near Hallowell, 
Maine, a stump exceeding six feet in diameter. In regard to its abun- 
dance he says: "When I was at Winslow [Maine] in 1806, the river 
was still covered with thousands of logs of which the diameter of the 
greater part was fifteen or sixteen inches and that of the remainder 
(perhaps one-fiftieth of the whole), twenty inches. The blue ash and 
the red pine were the only species mingled with them, and these in not 
the proportion of one to a hundred." 

He wrote from personal observation of the white pine of New Eng- 
land, New York and Pennsylvania. He says: "The upper part of 
Pennsylvania near the source of the Delaware and Susquehanna, which 
is mountainous and cold, possesses large forests of this pine. . . . 
Beyond the mountains, near the springs of the river Allegheny, from 
150 to 180 miles from its junction with the Ohio, is cut all the white 
pine destined for the market of New Orleans, which is 2,900 miles 
distant." 

The great forests of white pine have most of them disappeared, and 
small indeed is the volume of production which compares in size and 
quality with that of old days ; still this wood remains and will remain 
an important contributor to the wealth of the country. 

But the conifers were not the only inhabitants of this northern timber 
belt. Of the hardwoods of commercial importance New England had 
walnut, butternut, three varieties of hickory, four or five poplars, four 
varieties of birch, beech, chestnut, six or seven of oak, three of elm, 
beech, cherry, four of maple, two of ash ; while representatives of other 
families were to be found. In fact, the tulip tree, or yellow poplar, was 
found to a limited extent and of inferior growth in western New Eng- 
land. One variety of gum, the basswood and the dogwood, were also 
native. Farther west, the valley of the Hudson and the rich bottom 
lands and well drained hill sides of New York and Pennsylvania carried 
more varied and much richer growths of hardwoods. 

Professor Kalm, 7 writing about the middle of the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, gave what he called a "small catalogue of the trees which grow 

7 " Travels in North America," by Professor Peter Kalm, 1749. 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 313 

spontaneously in the woods nearest Philadelphia." He named three 
conifers, one of which was Pirnis t&da, which he called the New Jersey 
fir tree, but which is now known as loblolly pine, and more than twenty 
species of broad-leaved trees. Recounting a trip via the Hudson to Alle- 
gheny, he said: "The trees which grow along the shores and on the 
adjacent hills within our sight today [June 24, 1749] are elms, birch, 
white firs, alders, dog trees, lime trees, red willow and chestnut trees." 

The Duke de le Rochefoucault Liancourt, during his travels in 
America in 1795, in speaking of western New York, says : "The woods 
are thick and lofty, sugar maple, black birch, oak, hickory, hemlock-fir 
and beech are the most prevailing trees." He throws a ray of light on 
the lumber market of those primitive days, for he tells of a land owner 
and inn-keeper at Watkinstown, New York, who cut 4,500 feet of boards 
daily, which were sent on the lake to Canandaigua, where they were 
sold for ten shillings a thousand feet. 

Space forbids more than the briefest description of this northern 
coniferous belt. Suffice it to say that it stretched in a solid body of 
forest from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and that where the conifers 
were not found they were replaced by an equally luxuriant and, if pos- 
sible, more valuable growth of hardwoods. The coniferous areas 
proper will, to a considerable extent, remain for an indefinite time de- 
voted to timber growth, but the hardwood areas already have been 
largely cleared and will almost all, in course of time, be given over to 
agriculture, except as the exigencies of the lumber markets may war- 
rant the devotion of a small percentage of their area to tree culture. 

THE CENTRAL HARDWOOD BELT. 

Perhaps the most valuable hardwood section of the United States, 
which may be called the "central hardwood belt," is that great interior 
section of the eastern forest whose outlines have been briefly given on 
a previous page. A sharp definition of the boundaries between this 
area and the forests of coniferous type which surround it on the north, 
east and south is impossible, for in some sections the types gradually 
merge into each other, and in others, where the line is sharp, it is too 
irregular to permit of description in the space available ; but it may be 
thus roughly, and in a somewhat general way, described : 

Beginning at Niagara it would run east and then south, passing 
through central New Jersey ; thence southwest, following the eastern 
and southern edge of the Piedmont Plateau to a point north of the 
center of Alabama ; thence in a general westerly direction into Indian 



314 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Territory, thence north through the Territory to, approximately, its 
northeastern corner, thence in a general northeastern direction across 
Missouri, Illinois and the extreme northwest corner of Indiana, thence 
swinging around northeast and east to Lake St. Clair. 

The territory thus included embraces western New York, parts of 
New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, the western portions of Virginia, 
North Carolina and South Carolina, the northern portions of Georgia, 
Alabama, Mississippi and Arkansas, the eastern part of Indian Terri- 
tory, the southern part of Missouri and Illinois and the southern third 
of the southern peninsula of Michigan. Entirely included within this 
boundary are Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, Kentucky 
and Tennessee. 

It must be admitted that too much, from certain standpoints, is in- 
cluded. Western New York, while wonderfully rich in broad-leaved 
trees, had considerable areas of pine and hemlock ; the fame of Penn- 
sylvania in the lumber industry has been based upon its pine and hem- 
lock rather than upon its hardwoods ; West Virginia and western Mary- 
land had large quantities of hemlock and spruce and a little pine, all of 
these conifers, further, extending along the higher altitudes of the Appa- 
lachians as far as Georgia. Arkansas had, and has, a mixed growth of 
pine and hardwoods, with pine predominating in the southern part of 
the State and hardwoods in the north and through the eastern bottom 
lands. Missouri also had an extensive pine area in the southeastern 
part of the State. The southern boundary of this hardwood region is 
as difficult of exact definition as its northeastern boundary, for in the 
south Atlantic and gulf states the conifers, which furnish almost pure 
stands toward the coast, almost imperceptibly merge into the hardwood 
forests as one moves toward the interior, the Piedmont Plateau being a 
region of mixed pine and hardwoods, while, on the other hand, the 
river bottoms in the pine districts proper are often filled with very 
heavy growths of hardwoods suitable to such locations. 

Probably nowhere in the world is there a forest growth which more 
fully meets all the needs of man than does that found in this hardwood 
forest of America. A more restricted area, including Ohio, Indiana, 
West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee and southern Illinois, is, perhaps, 
nowhere else equaled in the quantity and valuable quality of its 
original arboreal wealth. Here were found the light, soft and easily 
worked woods, such as cottonwood, basswood and tulip; woods of 
strength, such as the hickories, maples and oaks; woods of beauty, like 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 315 

the walnut, cherry, maple and oak in short, woods to meet almost 
every conceivable requirement of the pioneer settler or of the highest 
civilization. In quantity, quality and variety this forest was almost 
unique. It has been said that the ordinary farm in the valley of the 
Wabash River would contain more varieties of broad-leaved trees than 
are to be found in the whole of Europe. Out of the comparatively few 
species selected for especial mention in this chapter, West Virginia had 
forty-five; Ohio, forty; Indiana, forty-eight; Illinois, forty-eight; Ken- 
tucky, fifty-one, and Tennessee, fifty-one. 

In all this forest, oak, with its many varieties, was, and is, the every- 
where present factor ; and, notwithstanding the inroads of the sawmill, 
the stave mill or the stave river, and of the tie-maker, Quercus will 
undoubtedly in the long run more than hold its own in comparison with 
other woods. One of the most valuable trees was the black walnut, 
whose range was wide, occurring in every state of the Atlantic forest, 
but growing in special profusion and of the finest quality in the hard- 
wood belt proper. But this tree, once so plentiful that it was the 
favorite wood, because of its straight grain and easy cleavage, for 
furnishing fencing and structural material for the early settlers, and 
later prized as the most valuable cabinet wood native to the United 
States, has almost disappeared. An industry of some importance is 
still based upon the small tracts or isolated specimens still remaining, 
and will be continued in the utilization of second-growth timber for 
the walnut is a tree readily propagated and one which grows rapidly. 
But the percentage of this tree now in the forests is, and probably will 
remain, insignificant. 

The third of the species of most importance is the tulip tree, or so- 
called yellow poplar ( Liriodendron tulipifera). This tree grew in extraor- 
dinary profusion and of fine quality in Indiana and western Tennessee 
and on intervale lands on the western slopes of the Appalachians. 
Only in the last-named section does it now remain an important factor 
in the forests. 

To name the broad-leaved trees of this forest is to name all the 
species of value to be found in North America, except a few on the 
Pacific Coast and in Mexico. Early travelers through what then were 
the wilds of the interior always were impressed with the variety and 
luxuriance of this hardwood forest; they might have appreciated the 
wonderful scope and value of the coniferous forests, but there was an 
atmosphere abiding under the shade of the broad-leaved trees which 



316 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

impressed itself with peculiar force upon minds attuned to the majestic 
and beautiful in nature. Speaking on this subject a recent writer 8 says : 

Of the broad-leaf forests there are many types. There are forests of oak and 
chestnut ; of maple and beech ; dry upland forests and the tangled woods of the 
swamps. There are young thickets of birch and aspen ; of willow and alder and 
scrubby oak barrens. There are second-growth forests, and now and then even a 
patch of fine old virgin timber. In size, also, there is a great difference, from the 
grove that covers the hilltop to the unbroken forest that stretches over an entire 
mountain range. 

It appears, therefore, that variety is one of the marked characteristics of our 
eastern woods. As several hundred different kinds of trees enter into their com- 
position under every form and modification of circumstances, we find in these 
woods an endless novelty and perennial freshness. . . . 

Let us imagine ourselves standing, for instance, on some point of vantage in 
the Blue Ridge, of Virginia, the season being early May. The view extends across 
ranges of low, rounded mountains, which are fresh with the new foliage of spring. 
On the nearest hill the individual trees and their combinations into groups can be 
distinguished ; but receding into the valleys and more distant slopes the forms and 
colors grow less distinct, till the tone becomes darker and at last melts into the 
familiar hazy blue of distant hills. Looking again at the nearer hillsides we recog- 
nize the tulip trees with their shapely crowns, clothed in a soft green and lifted 
somewhat above the general outline. The light green of the opening elms and 
sweet gums can be very well distinguished beyond the more shadowy beeches, 
ashes and maples. The remaining spaces are occupied by hickories and chestnuts, 
still brown and leafless, and by rusty-hued oaks which are only just beginning to 
break their buds. Within the leafless portions of the wood an occasional dash of 
bright yellow or creamy white not quite concealed, shows where the sassafras or 
dogwood is in bloom. The crests and ridges, however, are likely to be occupied 
by groups and bands of pines, while the sides of the mountain brook will be 
studded with cedars and hemlocks. 

OBSERVATIONS OF EARLY TRAVELERS. 

As a matter of course the forests which lay along the route of early 
exploration and travel and adjoining the primitive settlements, first 
came under notice and were especially commented on. Previous quo- 
tations have been made from Peter Kalm, who wrote in 1749 regarding 
a visit to America. Describing a trip from Chichester to Philadelphia, 
he said that the oaks were the most plentiful trees in the woods, and 
that there were several species of them, all different from European 
oaks. Further he said : 

The red maple, or Acer rubrum, is plentiful in these places. . . . Out of 
its wood they make plate spinning wheels, rolls, feet for chairs and beds and all 
sorts of work. With the bark they dye both worsted and linen, giving it a dark 

8 " Forest Trees and Forest Scenery." by G. Frederick Schwarz, New York. 1901. 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 317 

blue color. . . . When the tree is felled early in the spring a sweet juice runs 
out of it, like that which runs out of our birches. This juice they do not make use 
of here, but in Canada they make both treacle and sugar of it. There is a variety 
of this tree which they call the curled maple, the wood being as it were marbled 
within ; it is much used in all kinds of joiners' work, and utensils made of this 
wood are preferable to those made of any other wood in the country. 

Writing from Fort Anne, he said : " The American elm ( Ulmus amer- 
icana Linn.) grows in abundance in the forests hereabouts. There are 
two kinds of it. One is called white elm, on account of the inside of 
the tree being white. It is more plentiful than the other species which 
is called the red elm." 

George Washington, in his campaign against the French in 1753, 
passed through the upper Ohio Valley, and remarked that the territory 
was covered with forests of hickory, walnut, ash, poplar, sugar maple 
and wild cherry trees. One of the earliest of American forest botanists 
was Humphrey Marshall, of Philadelphia, who published in 1785 a 
work entitled, " Arbustrum Americanum." His observations were ap- 
parently limited to the eastern and northeastern states, but some 
of the comments he makes as to the favorite habitat of trees are decid- 
edly interesting. He calls the yellow poplar the " Virginian tulip tree," 
which he credits with a height of seventy to eighty feet and a diameter 
of four feet. He gives the favorite location of the evergreen magnolia 
as Florida and South Carolina. The tupelo ( Nyssa aquatica) he de- 
scribes as growing to large size in the swamps of Carolina and 
Florida and as very abundant upon the Mississippi River. The upland 
tupelo, or sour gum, he says, grows naturally in Pennsylvania, and 
"perhaps" elsewhere. 

The Duke de le Rochefoucault Liancourt, writing in 1795 in regard 
to the trees of South Carolina, says : " The luxuriance of the woods 
stand unrivaled; there are eighteen different species of oak, particu- 
larly the live oak, the palmetto or cabbage tree, the cucumber tree, 
deciduous cypress, liquidambar, hickory, etc. In short, all the species 
of trees which are so excessively dear in Europe." Of Virginia he 
says: 

Among the numberless species of trees which grow in Virginia are distin- 
guished the silver-leaved maple, the ash-leaved maple, the catalpa, the Carolinian 
allspice, the judas tree, the Virginian mespilus [a thorn or haw tree], of which I 
have seen some twenty-five feet in height, corneltrees of different sorts, the per- 
simmon, the nickertree, the triacanthos, walnut, various species of cedar, sweet 
bay, benjamin tree, the maple-leaved liquidambar, the evergreen laurel-leaved 



318 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

tulip tree [probably the Magnolia fcetida'], the swamp pine and many others, the 
black and Carolina poplar, various species of oak, etc., but many of them, the 
tulip tree for instance, do not attain the same height in Virginia as in South Caro- 
lina and Georgia. Although Virginia does not produce some trees, which grow 
only under a higher degree of latitude, yet it contains, in my opinion, a greater 
variety of species than any other state. 

One Norris Birkback, in a work entitled "Notes of a Journey in 
America," published in 1817, has some interesting comments on the 
forests of Ohio, where he was particularly impressed with the oaks and 
sycamores. He may be quoted as follows : 

Trees are very interesting objects to the American traveler. They are always 
beautiful and, in the rich bottoms, they sometimes exhibit a grand assemblage of 
gigantic beings, which carry the imagination back to other times, before the foot 
of a white man had touched the American shore. Yesterday, June 18, 1817, I 
measured a walnut almost seven feet in diameter, clean and straight as an arrow, 
and just by were rotting, side by side, two sycamores of nearly equal dimensions. 
The sycamores grow in bottoms liable to be overflowed, to an unwieldy bulk, but 
the white oak is the glory of the upland forest. ... I measured a white oak 
by the roadside which at four feet from the ground was six feet in diameter, and 
at seventy-five feet it measured nine feet around, or three feet in diameter. 

Writing from notes made at Chillicothe, Ohio, he says : " Before we 
entered on the flat country were some hills covered with the grandest 
white oak timber, I suppose, in America. There are thousands, I think, 
of these magnificent trees within view of the road for miles, measuring 
fourteen or fifteen feet in circumference, their straight stems rising 
without a branch to the height of seventy or eighty feet, not tapering 
and slender, but surmounted by full, luxuriant heads." 

In regard to the famous valley of the Wabash River, Maximilian, 
Prince of Wied, about 1833, wrote : 

Some remarkable peculiarities strike the observer when he looks at the forests 
on the Wabash. One of these is the want of evergreens. . . . The planes [syca- 
mores] often attain an enormous size and are then generally hollow and divided 
into several colossal branches. We measured several of these trees and found one 
that was forty-one feet five inches in circumference. The hollow inside was twelve 
feet in diameter, so that in our winter excursions we used to light a fire in it, where 
we were sheltered from the wind. Tall tulip trees shoot up straight as masts, 
blossom and bear seed at their summits, unseen by human eye. Maples of great 
height and circumference, many species of oak, especially mossy overcup oak 
(Quercus macrocarpa), with its large acorns, which at this time lay on the ground, 
stand crowded together. A great many species of trees are mixed together, 
among them the Gymnocladus canadensis or Guilandina bondac [coffeetree] , with 
its broad pods, the divers kinds of walnut trees, the Gleditschia triacanthos [honey 
locust] , with its formidable thorns and many climbing plants twined round the 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 319 

trunks. The inhabitants of these forests would never be in want of an ample sup- 
ply of wood for fuel and for timber if they had been at all careful. The black 
walnut and cherry tree wood are the best for cabinet work, and for fuel the hick- 
ory, which affords more wood than beech wood. The price of wood at Harmony 
was $1 for a cord, but the price is already rising, because the forest in the neigh- 
borhood of the village is gradually being cleared and the carriage is more expen- 
sive. 

Commenting upon the Ohio Valley, he says : "The woods in the 
valley of the Ohio are more lofty and luxuriant than on the other side 
of the Allegheny Mountains." 

MICHAUX ON DISTRIBUTION OF HARDWOODS. 

Most interesting and valuable observations as to the ranges and 
habitat of American hardwoods a hundred years ago are found in the 
writings of F. Andre Michaux, for he and his father, Andre Michaux, 
to whose work he succeeded, covered most of the territory east of the 
Mississippi River. Somewhat liberal quotations from this authority 
will be pardoned. It should be noted that the botanical names he uses 
do not in all cases agree with present nomenclature. 

White oak (Quercus alba) In the District of Maine, Vermont and Lower 
Canada it is little multiplied and its vegetation is repressed by the severity of the 
winter. In the lower part of the southern states, in the Floridas, and in lower 
Louisiana, it is found only on the borders of the swamps with a few other trees 
which likewise shun a dry and barren soil. The white oak is observed to be un- 
common on the lands of extraordinary fertility like those of Tennessee, Kentucky 
and Genesee [western New York] . The white oak abounds chiefly in the middle 
states, and in Virginia, particularly in that part of Pennsylvania and Virginia fnow 
West Virginia] which lies between the Alleghenies and the Ohio River. Beginning 
at Brownsville, on the Monongahela, I have seen large forests, nine-tenths of which 
consisted of white oaks. In the western districts, where it composes entire forests, 
the face of the country is undulated and the yellow soil, consisting partly of clay 
with a mixture of calcareous stones, yields abundant crops of wheat. 

Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata)ln the United States I have met with this inter- 
esting species only in the lower part of the Carolinas and of Georgia. The overcup 
oak grows in more humid situations than any other species of this genus in the 
United States. It expands to a majestic size and the influence of the deep and 
constantly humid soil is shown in the luxuriancy of its vegetation. On the banks 
of the Savannah I have seen stocks which were more than eighty feet high and 
from eight to twelve feet in circumference. 

Red oak (Quercus rubra) In the lower part of New York, in New Jersey, the 
upper districts of Pennsylvania and along the whole range of the Alleghenies it is 
nearly as abundant as the scarlet and black oaks, but it is much less common in 
Maryland, the lower part of Virginia and the maritime parts of the Carolinas and 
Georgia. The red oak is a tall, widespreading tree, frequently more than eighty 
feet high and three or four feet in diameter. 



320 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

Black walnut (Juglans nigra) East of the Allegheny Mountains in Virginia, 
and in the upper part of the Carolinas and of Georgia it is chiefly confined to the 
valleys where the soil is deep and fertile and which are watered by creeks and 
rivers. In the western country, in Genesee, and in the states of Ohio and Ken- 
tucky, where the soil in general is very rich, it grows in the forests with the coffee- 
tree, honey locust, red mulberry, locust, shellbark hickory, black sugar maple, 
hackberry and red elm, all of which trees prove the goodness of the soil in which 
they are found. It is in these countries that the black walnut displays its full pro- 
portions. On the banks of the Ohio and on the islands of that beautiful river I 
have often seen trees of three or four feet in diameter and sixty or seventy feet in 
height. It is not rare to find them of the thickness of six or seven feet. 

Butternut {Juglans cathartica) The butternut is found in Upper and Lower 
Canada, in the districts of Maine, on the shores of Lake Erie, in the states of 
Kentucky and Tennessee and on the banks of the Missouri ; but I have never met 
with it in the lower part of the Carolinas, of Georgia, and of East Florida. In cold 
regions, on the contrary, its growth is luxuriant ; for in the State of Vermont, 
where the winter is so rigorous that sledges are used during four months in the 
year, this tree attains a circumference of eight or ten feet. I have nowhere seen it 
more abundant than in the bottoms which border the Ohio between Wheeling and 
Marietta. 

Pecannut hickory (Juglans olivceformis) On the borders of the rivers Missouri, 
Illinois, St. Francis and Arkansas it is most abundantly multiplied. It is also 
common on the river Wabash. On the Ohio it is found for 200 miles from its junc- 
tion with the Mississippi ; higher than this it becomes more rare and is not seen 
beyond Louisville. My father, in traversing this country, learned from the French 
inhabitants, who ascend the Mississippi in quest of furs, that it is not found on that 
river beyond the mouth of the Mackakaiety [Maquoketa?], which discharges itself 
in the latitude of 42.51. 

Mockernut hickory {Juglans tomentosa) It is most abundant in the forests that 
still remain on the coast of the middle states and in those which cover the upper 
parts of the Carolinas and of Georgia, but in the last-mentioned states it becomes 
more rare in approaching the sea. I have noticed, however, that this is the only 
hickory which springs in the pine barrens. 

Shellbark hickory {Juglans squamosa or Carya alba) It abounds on the shores 
of Lake Erie about Geneva, in Genesee, along the river Mohawk, in the neighbor- 
hood of Goshen in New Jersey, and on the banks of the rivers Susquehanna and 
Schuylkill in Pennsylvania. In Maryland, in the lower parts of Virginia, and in 
the other southern states it is less common. 

Pignut hickory {Juglans porcina) In the Atlantic parts of the middle states it 
helps with the mockernut hickory, white oak, swamp white oak, sweet gum and 
dogwood to form the mass of the forests. In the southern states, especially near 
the coast, it is less common. 

White maple {Acer eriocarpum or Acer dasycarpum) [soft maple] In no part 
of the United States is it more multiplied than in the western country and nowhere 
is its vegetation more luxuriant than on the banks of the Ohio and of the great 
rivers which empty into it. Beginning at Pittsburg, and even some miles above 
the junction of the rivers Allegheny and Monongahela, white maples twelve and 
fifteen feet in circumference are continually met with at short distances. 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 321 

Red flowering maple (Acer rubrum)! have nowhere observed it of as ample 
dimensions as in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. In those states exist extensive 
marshes, called maple swamps, exclusively covered with it, where it is found 
seventy feet high and three or four feet in diameter. 

Sugar maple (Acer saccharinum}lt is nowhere more abundant than between 
the forty-sixth and forty-third degrees, which comprise Canada, New Brunswick, 
Nova Scotia, the states of Vermont and New Hampshire and the District of Maine. 
In these regions it enters largely into the composition of the forests, with which 
they are still covered. Farther south it is common only in Genesee, in the State of 
New York, and in the upper parts of Pennsylvania. It is estimated by Doctor 
Rush that in the northern parts of these two states there are 10,000,000 acres which 
produce these trees in the proportion of thirty to an acre. The sugar maple covers 
a greater extent of the American soil than any other species of this genus. In the 
United States maple sugar is made in the greatest quantities in the upper part of 
New Hampshire, in Vermont, in the State of New York, particularly in Genesee, 
and in the counties of Pennsylvania which lie on the eastern and western branches 
of the Susquehanna. A great deal of sugar is also made in Upper Canada, on the 
Wabash, and near Michili Mackinac. 

Large flowered magnolia or big laurel (Magnolia grandiflord) It is first seen 
in the lower part of North Carolina near the River Nuse in the latitude of 35 
degrees 31 minutes ; proceeding from this point it is found in the northern parts of 
the southern states, and of the Floridas, and as far up the Mississippi as Natchea 
300 miles above New Orleans. 

Loblolly bay The loblolly bay is confined within the same limits with the long- 
leaved pine, being confined to the lower parts of the southern states, to the two 
Floridas and to lower Louisiana. It is very abundant in the branch swamps and 
attains greater proportions than the red bay, swamp bay and black gum, with 
which it is usually associated. f ^jfj^~J^^- "* 

Poplar, or tulip tree (Liriodendron tulfyifera)The southern extremity of 
Lake Champlain in latitude J degrees may be considered as the northern limit, 
and the Connecticut River, in the longitude 72, as the eastern limit of the tulip 
tree. It is multiplied in the middle states in the upper parts of the Carolinas, 
Georgia and still more abundantly in the western country, particularly in Ken- 
tucky. The western states appear to be the natural soil of this magnificent tree. 
It is commonly found mingled with other trees, such as the hickories, the black 
walnut, butternut, and the wild cherry tree, but it sometimes constitutes alone 
pretty large tracts of the forests, as my father observed in Kentucky, on the road 
from Beard Stone to Louisville. In no other part of the United States did he find 
the tulip trees so lofty and of such great diameter. He measured one which, at 
five feet from the ground, was twenty-two feet six inches in circumference and 
whose elevation he judged to be from 120 to 140 feet. The nature of the soil has 
such a striking influence upon the color and upon the quality of the tulip tree that 
mechanics who employed it have made the remark, and have distinguished it by 
the names of white poplar and yellow poplar. 

Sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciftua} On the seashore it is seen toward the 
northeast between Portsmouth and Boston in latitude 43 degrees 30 minutes ; and it 
is found as far as old Mexico toward the southwest ; from the coast of Virginia it 



322 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

extends westward to the Illinois River, thus spreading evermore than two-thirds of 
the ancient territory of the United States, together with the two Floridas, upper 
and lower Louisiana and a great part of New Spain. 

Buttonwood or sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) The nature of the button- 
wood confines it to moist and cool ground where the soil is loose, deep and fertile. 
The buttonwood is in no part of North America more abundant and more vigorous 
than along the great rivers of Pennsylvania and Virginia, though in the more fertile 
valleys of the West its vegetation is, perhaps, still more luxuriant, especially along 
the banks of the Ohio and the rivers which empty into it. On a little island in the 
Ohio fifteen miles above the mouth of the Muskingum, my father measured a but- 
tonwood which, at five feet from the ground, was forty feet four inches in circum- 
ference, and, consequently, more than thirteen feet in diameter. Twenty years be- 
fore, General Washington had measured the same tree and found it to be of nearly 
the same size. In 1802, in a journey through the western states, I found on the 
right bank of the Ohio, thirty-six miles from Marietta, a buttonwood whose base 
was swollen in an extraordinary manner. My traveling companion and myself 
measured it, and at four feet from the ground we found it to be forty-seven feet in 
circumference. A buttonwood of equal size is mentioned as existing in Genesee. 

Canoe birch (Betula papyracea) The canoe birch is most multiplied in the for- 
ests in the country lying north of 43 degrees latitude and between 75 degrees of west 
longitude and the Atlantic Ocean, comprising the lower part of New Brunswick, 
the District of Maine and the states of New Hampshire and Vermont. 

Black birch {Betula lento) In Massachusetts, Connecticut and New York it is 
next in esteem to the wild cherry tree among cabinet makers in the country. 

Locust (Robinia pseudacacia) The locust is mostly multiplied in the South- 
west, and abounds in all the valleys between the chains in the Allegheny Mountains, 
particularly in Limestone Valley. It is also common in all the western states, and 
in the territory between the Ohio and Illinois rivers, and the Lakes and the 
Mississippi. 

Wild cherry tree (Cerasus virginiana) It is nowhere more profusely multiplied 
nor more fully developed than beyond the mountains in the states of Ohio, Kentucky 
and Tennessee. On the banks of the Ohio I have measured stocks which were from 
twelve to sixteen feet in circumference and from eighty to 100 feet in stature. 

American chestnut (Castanea vesca) It is most multiplied in the mountainous 
districts of the Carolinas and of Georgia and abounds on the Cumberland Moun- 
tains and in East Tennessee. The coolness of the summer and the mildness of the 
winter in these regions are favorable to the chestnut. 

White beech (Fagus sylvestris) Most multiplied in the middle and western 
states. It is common in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland and throughout the 
country east of the mountains. I found the finest beeches on the banks of the Ohio, 
between Gallipolis and Marietta. 

Black gum (Nyssa sylvatica) In all the more southern states, both east and 
west of the Allegheny Mountains, it is more or less multiplied, as the soil is more 
or less favorable to its growth. It is designated by the names of black gum, yellow 
gum and sour gum. 

White ash (Fraxinus americana) It sometimes attains the height of eighty 
feet with a diameter of three feet and is one of the largest trees of the United 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 323 

States. This wood is highly esteemed for its strength, suppleness and elasticity 
and is employed with advantage for a great variety of uses. 

White elm (Ulmus americana) This tree is found over an extensive tract of the 
North American continent. I have myself observed it from Nova Scotia to the 
extremity of Georgia, a distance of 1,200 miles. It abounds in all the western 
states and I have learned that it is common in the neighborhood of the great rivers 
that water upper Louisiana and empty into the Mississippi. But it appeared to be 
the most multiplied and of the loftiest height between the forty-second and forty- 
sixth degrees of latitude, which comprise the provinces of Lower Canada, New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the northeastern section of the United States, and 
Genesee, in the State of New York. 

American lime or basswood (Tilia americana) Among the lime trees of North 
America, east of the Mississippi this species is the most multiplied. It exists in 
Canada, but is more common in the northern parts of the United States, where it 
is usually called basswood. It becomes less frequent toward the South, and in 
Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia it is found only on the Allegheny Mountains. 

More than a hundred years of settlement has made great inroads 
upon the continuous forests that once covered the territory embraced 
within the boundaries of the central hardwood belt. Much of the land 
within this territory is of great natural fertility, but the settlers found 
it covered with forests. The first necessity that confronted them was, 
therefore, besides the securing of sufficient timber for structural, 
domestic and industrial purposes, to clear a way for the crops. Thus, 
an enormous quantity, and also enormous in value, if it should be meas- 
ured by present standards, was consigned to the burning log pile. 
Later, the remaining forests were drawn upon for the needs of com- 
merce, until now the last strongholds are being attacked. 

Ohio, Indiana, southern Michigan and central Illinois, once densely 
covered with broad-leaved trees, have become agricultural rather than 
timber sections, although much timber in more or less detached groups 
still remains. The same is true of western Kentucky and Tennessee 
and of Missouri. Western New York has been essentially an agricul- 
tural section for nearly three-quarters of a century. Pennsylvania, so 
rich in mineral resources, has drawn upon its woodlands to supply the 
needs of the mines and furnaces, so that its forests whether conifer- 
ous or broad-leaved have been cut into in all directions, and agricul- 
ture has supplanted the trees through the fertile bottom lands and 
mountain benches to a greater or less extent throughout the whole 
territory. The primeval forests are now chiefly confined to certain 
plateaus of central Kentucky and Tennessee and to the southern Appa- 
lachians from Pennsylvania to and into Georgia and Alabama. Even 



324 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

on these still largely untouched forests some attacks have been made 
and more or less culling of the better classes of timber, notably of oak 
suitable for several purposes, poplar, walnut and cherry, has been 
made. 

An enormous area, as shown by a table given on a preceding page, 
still is unused by agriculture, remaining either in primitive forests, in 
stump lands or in brush lands. Much of the area still available for 
forest growth and of little use for any other purposes has been de- 
spoiled of all its better trees and is earning little in the way of forest 
growth that is of value, for tree weeds too often, unless restrained by 
the art of forestry, succeed the more valuable species. However, there 
still remains a wonderfully valuable resource of almost or quite un- 
touched forests, while the hope for the future of the country rests in 
the great areas that, though sadly diminished in value, are still available 
for forest growth and will doubtless be devoted to that purpose. Coin- 
cident with the diminution of the hardwood supply is a growing public 
appreciation of its value and a greater interest in and knowledge of 
the methods necessary to perpetuate or reproduce the forests. Wherever 
there is a tract of land upon which trees of value may once more 
grow, no matter how barren, unkempt and worthless it may appear to 
be, there is the possibility of a new forest, which a later generation 
will be able to devote to the use of a wiser, more conservative, and 
more appreciative civilization. 

THE SOUTHERN CONIFEROUS BELT. 

This extremely valuable forest area which within the last twenty 
years has been the seat of the most active and extensive development 
of the lumber industry, only in the last ten years being rivaled in point 
of growth by the Pacific Coast as stated before, extends from Dela- 
ware along the south Atlantic and Gulf coasts to about the Trinity 
River in Texas, extending inland various distances, but in rough outline 
taking in the eastern portions of Virginia, North Carolina and South 
Carolina, nearly all of Florida, the southern portions of Georgia, Ala- 
bama and Mississippi, all of Louisiana, the eastern part of Texas and the 
southern part of Arkansas. North of this territory the forests are so 
largely broad-leaved in their species that they are of hardwood rather 
than of coniferous type. 

The chief exceptions to the general coniferous character of this area 
are found in the extreme southern part of Florida and along the bottom 
lands of streams flowing into the Gulf, including the wide hardwood 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 325 

belt bordering the Mississippi River on its lowlands ; in these cases, 
however, possession being often taken by the cypress. 

Dr. B. E. Fernow thus describes this forest area, with special refer- 
ence to the four leading pine species: "There are, in general, four 
belts of pine forest of different types recognizable, their boundaries 
running in general direction somewhat parallel to the coast line: (1) 
The coast plain, or pine-barren flats, within the tidewater region, ten to 
thirty miles wide, once occupied mainly by the most valuable of south- 
ern timbers, the longleaf pine, now being replaced by Cuban and lob- 
lolly pines; (2) the rolling pine hills, or pine barrens proper, with a 
width of fifty to 120 miles, the true home of the longleaf pine, which 
occupies it almost by itself ; (3) the belt of mixed growth of twenty to 
sixty miles in width, in which the longleaf pine loses its predominance, 
the shortleaf , the loblolly, and the hardwoods associating and disputing 
territory with it, and (4) the shortleaf pine belt, where the species 
predominates on the sandy soils, the longleaf being entirely absent 
and the loblolly only a feeble competitor, hardwoods being interspersed 
or occupying the better sites." 

In this coniferous belt are seven species of pines ; one Taxodium, 
the bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) ; one species of cedar (Chamcz- 
cyparis thyoides), known as white cedar; three species of juniper; one 
of the genus Tumion, known as stinking cedar, and one yew. 

Of these species the most important are the Cuban pine ( Pinus 
heterophylla), loblolly pine (P. teeda), spruce or cedar pine (P. glabra), 
shortleaf pine (P. echinata), longleaf pine (P. palustris) and sand pine 
(P. clausaj; two species of juniper (Jiiniperus -virginiana and J. barba- 
densis), known as red cedars, and bald cypress. 

Of all the above named coniferous species, four are of conspicuous 
value : The longleaf pine, the shortleaf pine, the loblolly pine and the 
cypress. The Cuban pine (Pinus heterophylla) is almost invariably 
given as one of the four coordinate yellow pines of the South, but its 
range is so narrow and its quantity so small comparatively, that it is, 
in fact, a minor wood, owing its chief importance to the fact that in the 
second growth it often replaces the longleaf. 

THE LONGLEAF PINE. 

The most valuable of all the southern pines, though perhaps not 
adapted to the most diversified uses, is the longleaf pine ; the famous 
American pitch pine of foreign trade, or the Georgia pine of domestic 
commerce up to the time when the more definite term, longleaf pine, 



326 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

was adopted. This wood was principally confined to a belt about 125 
miles in width roughly following the coast from the mouth of Chesa- 
peake Bay to the Trinity River in Texas. The distribution of this wood 
was continuous from the first-named point to western Mississippi, where 
the lowlands of the Mississippi River introduced a remarkable break, 
the species reappearing again in Louisiana and in eastern Texas. The 
heaviest growth found its northern limit in central North Carolina. In 
eastern Alabama there was an extension north near the Tennessee line. 
West of the Mississippi River there were two main bodies, one lying 
north of the Red River, and the other in western Louisiana and eastern 
Texas. 

The growth of this wood in respect to quality and quantity per acre 
was remarkably uniform through South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama, 
but while the immense resources of Georgia and the early prominence 
of that State in its production and coastwise shipment gave the name 
" Georgia pine" to the product, the average density, if not the quality 
of growth, increased toward the west. Thus, the Georgia forests pro- 
duced higher averages per acre than those of South Carolina, and Ala- 
bama forests were denser than those of Georgia or northern Florida ; 
while still heavier were the longleaf forests of Mississippi; and in 
Mississippi the western portion of the forests, lying west of the Pearl 
River, were the heaviest. Crossing the Mississippi River, however, the 
most luxuriant forests of longleaf pine in the country were, and still 
are, to be found, though perhaps not excelling in this respect some 
considerable districts in Mississippi. In Mississippi, Louisiana and 
Texas large tracts have averaged as high as 20,000 feet of merchant- 
able timber per acre. 

The longleaf pine is characterized by weight, strength and firmness 
of grain, and its sap has been the chief basis of the turpentine industry 
of the Southeast. 

In his exhaustive study of the southern pines, entitled, " Timber 
Pines of the Southern United States," Doctor Charles Mohr thus de- 
scribes the habitat of the longleaf pine and incidentally gives a clear 
idea of the other forest characteristics of the region : 

This great maritime pine belt east of the Mississippi River presents such differ- 
ences in topographical features and such diversity of physical and mechanical con- 
ditions of the soil as to permit a distinction of three divisions going from the coast 
to the interior : 

1. The coastal plain, or low pine barrens within the tidewater region, extends 
from the seashore inland for a distance of from ten to thirty miles and over. The 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 327 

forests of the longleaf pine which occupy the poorly drained grassy flats of the 
plain are very open, intersected by numerous inlets of the sea and by brackish 
marshes. They are also interrupted by swamps densely covered with cypress, white 
cedar, white and red bay, water oak, live oak, magnolia, tupelo gum and black 
gum, and again by grassy savannas of greater or less extent. On the higher level, or 
what might be called the first terrace, with its better drained and more loamy soil, 
the longleaf pine once prevailed, but almost everywhere in the coastal plain the 
original timber has been removed by man and replaced by the loblolly pine and the 
Cuban pine. 

2. The rolling pine lands, pine hills, or pine barrens proper are the true home 
of the longleaf pine. On the Atlantic Coast these uplands rise to hills over 600 feet 
in height, while in the Gulf region they form broad, gentle undulations rarely 
exceeding an elevation of 300 feet. Thus, spreading out in extensive tablelands, 
these hills are covered exclusively with the forests of this tree for many hundreds of 
square miles without interruption. Here it reigns supreme. The monotony of the 
pine forests on these tablelands is unbroken. 

3. The upper division, or region of mixed growth. With the appearance of the 
strata of the Tertiary formation in the upper part of the pine belt, the pure forests 
of the longleaf pine are confined to the ridges capped by the drifted sands and 
pebbles and to the rocky heights of siliceous chert, alternating with open woods 
of oak (principally post oak) , which occupy the richer lands of the calcareous 
loams and marls. However, where these loams and marls, rich in plant food, min- 
gle with the drifted soils, we find again the longleaf pine, but associated with 
broad-leaved trees and with the loblolly and shortleaf pine. Here the longleaf 
pine attains a larger size and the number of trees of maximum growth per acre is 
found almost double that on the lower division. 

Of the distribution of the longleaf pine west of the Mississippi 
River, Doctor Mohr says : 

The forests of the longleaf pine west of the Mississippi River, as in regions so 
far considered, are geographically limited to the sands and gravels of the latest 
Tertiary formation. They make their first appearance in Louisiana above the great 
alluvial plain, in the uplands bordering the valley of the Ouachita, and follow its 
course for fifty miles ; then extend west, skirting Lake Catahoula and the alluvial 
lands of the Red River. These pine forests to the north of this river cover an area 
estimated at 1,625,000 acres, extending northward for a distance averaging fifty-five 
miles. Toward their northern limit the forests pass gradually into a mixed growth 
of deciduous trees and shortleaf pine. In the center of this region the pine ridges 
alternate with tracts of white oak and hickory. Tending toward the Red River, 
the pure forest of longleaf pine which covers the undulating uplands is unbroken. 
. . . South of the Red River bottom the forests of longleaf pine continue un- 
broken to the Sabine River and south to the treeless savannas of the coast in 
Calcasieu Parish, their eastern boundary parallel with the eastern boundary of that 
parish. Roughly estimated, these forests cover an area of about 2,668,000 acres. 
. . . On the lands rising gently above the flat woods, with the ridges still low 
and wide and then more or less imperfectly drained, longleaf pine is found of an 
exceedingly fine growth. The trees in the dense forest are tall and slender, and 



328 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

their timber is equaled only by the timber of the same class growing in the valley 
of the Neches River, in Texas. ... In Texas the forests of longleaf pine ex- 
tend from the Sabine west to the Trinity River and from the grassy savannas of the 
coast region north to the center of Sabine, San Augustine, and Angelina counties, 
and include an area of about 2,890,000 acres. In amount and quality of the timber 
these forests are unsurpassed and are only equaled by the forest of the adjoining 
region in Louisiana. . . . The growth of longleaf pine which covers the gentle, 
wide swells is dense, of fine proportions and of remarkably rapid development. 

The longleaf pine no longer exists in commercial quantities in some 
sections where it was once abundant. Such is the case in Virginia and 
most of North Carolina. The lumber industry based upon this timber 
has also probably reached its maximum in Georgia and Alabama. Yet 
in all the states south of the Carolinas it will continue for many years 
to be a tree of first importance economically and in the supply of the 
markets. Of recent years the greatest developments in the industry 
have been seen in Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, and the 
largest quantity of standing timber is to be found in the three states 
last named. Preponderant in quantity of timber, however, is Louisiana, 
and it promises to maintain an output of longleaf pine which shall be 
of importance long after the other states have shown marked diminution. 

THE SHORTLEAF PINE. 

Next in importance among the southern pines is the shortleaf pine. 
This wood is of very wide distribution, reaching far to the north of the 
limits of the southern coniferous belt. According to F. Andr6 Michaux, 
this species originally extended as far north as Albany, New York, and 
even to the present time specimens are found on Staten Island. Its 
northern limit of growth of commercial value is, however, today found 
in eastern Maryland. 

Doctor Charles Mohr thus describes the northern limit, west of the 
Alleghenies, of shortleaf pine : "A line drawn from the lower part of 
Wood County, West Virginia, to Menifee County, eastern Kentucky. 
Beyond the wide gap covered by the deciduous forests of the lower 
Ohio Valley and the flooded plain of the Mississippi the tree appears 
on the southeast spur of the Ozark Hills in Cape Girardeau County, 
Missouri, latitude 37 degrees 30 minutes ; and on the opposite side of 
the river on the bluffs of Union and Jackson counties, Illinois, the line 
dropping gradually half a degree southward to the westward limit of 
its range." 

It was originally most abundant in Virginia, North Carolina, 
Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Indian Territory and Missouri. 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 329 

For the most part it grew mixed with hardwoods, or the longleaf and 
loblolly pines, but it made almost pure forests in some limited sections 
east of the Mississippi River and in northwestern Louisiana, north- 
eastern Texas, southwestern Arkansas and southern Missouri. Not- 
withstanding the fact that it has largely disappeared from the north- 
eastern part of its range, it still is an important factor in the pine pro- 
duction of all the southern states east of the Mississippi and an 
especially important one in Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas. The 
Missouri supplies of this timber are approaching exhaustion and its 
production in Arkansas cannot long continue at the present rate. 

In character the lumber made from the shortleaf pine is lighter and 
softer than that from the longleaf, and it usually, though not always, 
bears a similar relation to loblolly. It is often difficult to discriminate 
among the three varieties of lumber, except when seen in considerable 
quantities. Individual boards of one species may so resemble charac- 
teristic boards of other species as to be almost impossible of identi- 
fication, but in quantities the shortleaf pine is usually easily recogniz- 
able. The wood is especially adapted for house finish, sash and door 
manufacture, etc. 

THE LOBLOLLY PINE. 

The third important southern pine is the loblolly, which will proba- 
bly achieve the distinction of proving in the long run the heaviest 
contributor of all the southern pines to the lumber supply of the 
country, inasmuch as it is mixed with all the other pines, reproduces 
itself readily and ordinarily takes the place of its associates when they 
are removed by the lumbermen. Its characteristic of abundant fertility 
and rapid growth has given it the name of "oldfield" pine, inasmuch 
as it customarily constitutes the second growth timber on cut over pine 
lands. Loblolly pine extends south over practically the entire range of 
both longleaf and Cuban pine, and north through the heavier range of 
shortleaf, except west of the Mississippi River, but finds its northern 
limit far south of the extreme northern boundary of shortleaf. Its 
northern limit is found substantially along the northern boundaries of 
Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, reaching north on the east to North 
Carolina and Virginia, and on the west extending a short distance into 
Tennessee. 

West of the Mississippi River it is found in western Louisiana, 
eastern Texas from the Gulf to Indian Territory, in southeastern Indian 
Territory and in southern and southeastern Arkansas. It is the leading 



330 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

pine of Virginia and North Carolina. Its heaviest growth east of the 
Mississippi River is found through central South Carolina and just south 
of the center of Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi. Large forests 
exist in northern Alabama. West of the Mississippi River there are 
two great bodies, one in eastern Texas and the other in northern 
Louisiana and southern Arkansas. In almost every case the loblolly 
grows in mixture with longleaf or shortleaf pine or both and also occu- 
pies territories in mixture with hardwoods. 

In its lumber characteristics the loblolly is not considered the equal 
of either longleaf or shortleaf, but its growth is so affected by location 
that it may in different sections partake of the characteristics of either. 
In the longleaf district it is usually cut and marketed with the longleaf, 
and in the shortleaf districts with that wood, seldom, if ever, appearing 
in the market under its own name. In some sections it grows with a 
large amount of sap and a small heart, producing lumber even lighter 
and softer than shortleaf, resembling in this respect northern white 
pine, while in some other regions it grows heavy and hard, with a 
marked resemblance to longleaf pine. 

The original stand of the yellow pines of the South was enormous. 
They covered more or less densely a third of Virginia ; half of North 
Carolina; all of South Carolina ; nearly all of Georgia; three-fourths 
of Florida ; nearly all of Alabama ; three-fourths of Mississippi ; two- 
thirds of Louisiana ; a strip in Texas, all the entire length of its eastern 
boundary reaching from 100 to 125 miles west ; half of the Indian Ter- 
ritory; all of Arkansas, except the hardwood limits in the eastern 
bottoms, and the southern fourth of Missouri, together with scattering 
examples in Tennessee, Kentucky and West Virginia. 

In 1905 the seat of the most extensive manufacture of yellow pine 
is in Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas and Arkansas, though it is still an 
important industry everywhere within its range and will continue to be 
for indefinite years to come. However, while the industry as a whole 
is increasing in the volume of its production, some sections are show- 
ing a decrease. Such are Missouri and portions of Arkansas, and prob- 
ably within a decade a decided reduction in the annual output of pine 
from Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas will be observed. In 
the most eastern part of their range the yellow pines have already de- 
clined to a basis which can probably be maintained for many years. 

Estimates of the quantity of standing timber of the four varieties of 
yellow pine vary materially ; but perhaps an average of the various 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 331 

estimates of the quantity of timber, so standing that it can be made the 
basis for pine sawmill operations, is, for the entire South, 300,000,000,- 
000 feet a quantity which should supply the mills at their present rate 
of output for about thirty years. But, as the pines cover more or less 
solidly so wide a range of country, and as their rate of growth is so 
rapid, there appears no reason why, with conservative management, 
they should not supply indefinitely a consumption as great as the 
present. However, only the beginnings of conservative lumbering 
have yet been made ; in fact, the perpetuation of these wonderful re- 
sources is only just beginning to be considered by the owners of forests 
and by lumber producers. 

THE SOUTHERN CYPRESS. 

The other great conifer of the South, particularly worthy of special 
mention, is the cypress. Its range is in river swamps and damp low- 
lands from southern Delaware, near the coast, along the south Atlantic 
and gulf states into Texas, and north along the Mississippi River and 
its tributaries as far as southern Illinois and Indiana. In locations 
favorable as to soil and moisture in all this range, it grows in commer- 
cial quantities, but to its highest value on alluvial deposits in the delta 
regions south of the limit of heavy frosts. As these lands have their 
greatest area in Louisiana, there the cypress of first quality is found in 
the greatest abundance on the lands that, before the construction of 
levees, were subject to overflow ; but it is found of similar quality in 
corresponding locations in Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia and 
South Carolina. 

OUTLINES OF THE PACIFIC FOREST. 

The western grand division of the forest area of the United States 
will be treated here only in a general way. Somewhat minuter state- 
ments as to tree varieties find an appropriate place in the chapter 
relating to forest reserves, which are almost entirely found in the West, 
rendering unnecessary a detailed treatment in this place. 

The Pacific or western forest includes all the timbered area west of 
the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains, thus including Montana, 
the western Dakotas, western Nebraska, Colorado, New Mexico and 
extreme western Texas, and all the states lying west thereof. Various 
schemes for the subdivision of these forests have been proposed. 

A broad one, obvious both because of topography and tree species, 
makes one dividing line running approximately north and south just 
east of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada mountains. East of that line, 



332 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

including the great Rocky Mountain region, the country is arid, or 
semiarid, with a class of trees adapted to the climate ; while west of 
that line different meteorological conditions prevail and a somewhat 
distinct flora is to be observed, although there are some species whose 
botanical and commercial ranges extend over the entire length and 
breadth of the western forest region. Doctor Sargent makes this grand 
division, but with further subdivisions. 

The extreme southern end of the Rocky Mountain forest introduces 
a narrow east and west division covering all the southern portions of 
Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas. This is because in that 
region the flora is largely of the type of Mexico, with numerous species 
which are not found elsewhere in the United States and with few that 
prevail on or north of the mountain masses and elevated plateaus in 
northern Arizona and New Mexico. Doctor Sargent also turns the main 
line of the division running east of the Sierras, eastward from Wash- 
ington to include northern Idaho and northwestern Montana, whence it 
would extend into British Columbia. This extension, though it would 
seem to ignore the influence of the Cascade Mountains, agrees with the 
facts as to the distribution of commercial timber, the coast species at 
this point extending eastward to Montana with a development which 
warrants the classification of the timber of western Washington, north- 
ern Idaho and western Montana with the coast flora proper rather than 
with that of the Rocky Mountains. 

Doctor Sargent, however, divides the coast forest that great tim- 
bered region extending from the summits of the Cascades and Sierra 
Nevadas to the coast by a line following the boundary between Wash- 
ington and Oregon. From a commercial standpoint that line should be 
drawn on or just north of the boundary between California and Oregon, 
for the forests of western Washington and western Oregon are similar 
in character, and consist chiefly of the same species, while the forest 
flora of California is somewhat distinct in its character and its species. 
Thus, the leading commercial species of western Washington, Douglas 
spruce, hemlock, tideland spruce, giant arborvitae or red cedar, and 
various firs, are found in equal development through Oregon, well 
toward its southern portion ; whereas some of the leading species of 
California, notably redwood and sugar pine, are not found far north of 
the California border. Redwood, in fact, stops short at the State's 
boundary, except for a small body in extreme southwestern Oregon. 
Sugar pine reaches a little farther into Oregon, but decreases in quan- 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 333 

tity as the line of the Cascades is followed. From a market standpoint, 
likewise, Washington and Oregon should be grouped, while the forest 
products of California, including a certain limited portion of south- 
western Oregon, find markets of their own. 

The Pacific forest is as different from the eastern forest as can well 
be imagined. It is, in the first place, coniferous in its type. Ignoring 
the Mexican species at the extreme south, it has nearly sixty species of 
conifers and only about 105 species of broad-leaved trees, while the 
eastern forest practically reverses this proportion with only sixty-five 
species of conifers, while it has about 200 species of broad-leaved trees, 
in both cases excluding tropical species. In the second place, whereas 
the eastern forest was originally continuous or practically so, the west- 
ern forest is much broken, and of the total area included within its 
limits only a minor portion is tree covered. 

A topographical map of the United States clearly shows the cause 
of these differences. The Rocky Mountain region, lifting itself in 
multitudes of ranges and high plateaus above the prairie and plains 
region of the Mississippi Valley and also the interior arid basin of the 
West, is forested, to such an extent as it is, simply because its average 
height enables it to squeeze some moisture out of the air, dry as it is, 
from its passage over the coast ranges on the west or the plains and 
prairies on the east. The trees of all this great Rocky Mountain region, 
covering more than six states and territories, are distinctly of mountain 
type. West of the Rockies is a region of lower and arid mountains, 
sandy plains and dry and hot valleys, which is practically destitute of 
forests, the scanty and inferior tree growth being hardly sufficient for 
the domestic needs of the sparse population. 

The determining topographical feature that accounts for this condi- 
tion is the great Cordillera, which, known as the Cascades through Wash- 
ington and Oregon and as the Sierra Nevadas through California, acts 
as an almost impassable barrier, through the greater part of its course, 
to the warm and moisture laden winds from the Pacific. 

Rising abruptly from the shore line, are the Coast ranges of Wash- 
ington and Oregon. These are broken, so that the parts of those states 
west of the Cascades are more generally afforested than is the case in 
California. In that State the Coast ranges are almost continuous, the 
only important break being at San Francisco Bay. This fact introduces 
through central California and throughout the south a comparatively 
dry and treeless region. This continuity of the Coast ranges of Cali- 



334 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

fornia and the broken character of the Coast ranges of Oregon and 
Washington is one of the chief reasons why the east and west dividing 
line of the Coast arborescent flora should be at about the northern 
border of California, rather than between Oregon and Washington. 

Latitude also has its influence. Stretching from about 32 degrees 
to 49 degrees north latitude, or nearly 1,200 miles, in the western United 
States, the treeline rises from north to south so that some trees which 
cover the whole range are of great commercial value at one extreme 
and of little value at the other. 

Thus, some of the firs, which are found at comparatively low levels 
in Washington, are at high levels on the Sierra Nevadas. The Douglas 
spruce or red fir ( Pseudotsuga taxi folia), which is found at moderate 
elevations in northern Washington, is found on elevations of 8,000 feet 
or more in Arizona and New Mexico. Mountain white pine (Pinus 
monticola), which is found at an altitude of 5,000 feet in Idaho, is near 
the treeline in California, while Pinus flexilis, another white pine grow- 
ing at accessible altitudes near the northern boundary of the United 
States, is near the treeline in New Mexico and Arizona ; further, the 
Engelmann spruce, at an elevation of 5,000 feet in Idaho, is found in 
New Mexico at over 8,000 feet. 

There are certain species which bind all these somewhat scattered 
forest areas together. One is the western yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa), 
of which the botanist recognizes two or three varieties. This is the 
most important timber tree of New Mexico and Arizona, one of the 
most important of the Sierras and Cascades, is scattered all along the 
various Rocky Mountain ranges, grows as far east as western Texas 
and western South Dakota, and is one of the most important contribu- 
tors to the sawmills of Montana, Idaho and western Washington. The 
Engelmann spruce is another of these trees of wide distribution. The 
Douglas fir, which reaches its best development in western Washington 
and Oregon, is found throughout the entire western forest system, 
reaching east to the extreme limits of those timbered areas. 

On the other hand, some trees are limited in their range. Pinus 
flexilis is characteristic of the Rocky Mountains and Pinus monticola of 
the Coast ranges. Sugar pine is almost exclusively confined to the 
Sierra Nevadas; tideland spruce, to the immediate vicinity of the 
northern coast ; western hemlock, to the Coast ranges and to northern 
Idaho ; lowland fir, to northern California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho 
and western Montana; noble fir, to the northern Coast ranges, etc. 



UNITED STATESFOREST RESOURCES. 335 

The white fir is, by the way, one whose range is practically universal 
south of central Oregon, Idaho and Wyoming. 

The following is a list of the leading commercial timber species of 
the Pacific forest, with their range and location of best development: 

Pinus monticola, silver pine, white pine Range : From Vancouver Island and 
southern British Columbia, northern Idaho and Montana, on Cascade and Coast 
ranges of Washington and Oregon and on Sierra Nevadas, to Calaveras County, 
California. Best development in northern Idaho. 

Pinus lambertiana, sugar pine Range: From southern Oregon through Cali- 
fornia, at elevations of 3,000 to 7,000 feet, to San Bernardino Mountains. Best 
development on western slopes of Sierra Nevadas. 

Pinus flexilis, limber pine, Rocky Mountain white pine Range : Eastern slope 
of Rocky Mountains from Alberta to western Texas, and in Montana, Nevada, 
Arizona and southeastern California at elevations of 5,000 to 12,000 feet. Best 
development in Montana and northern New Mexico and northern Arizona. 

Pinus ponderosa, bull pine, western yellow pine Range : From southern 
British Columbia and western South Dakota south to western Texas and west to 
the Pacific Ocean. Very widely distributed, but reaching best development in New 
Mexico and Arizona and in the northern Sierra Nevadas. Two varieties are in- 
cluded. 

Larix occidentalis, western larch or tamarack Range : Southern British 
Columbia south between Cascade Mountains and western Montana to northeastern 
Oregon. Best development northern Montana and northern Idaho. 

Picea engelmanni, Engelmann spruce, white spruce Range : High slopes of 
Rocky Mountain region west to the Cascade Mountains, from British Columbia to 
northern Arizona. Best development in extreme north. 

Picea sitchensis, Sitka spruce, tideland spruce Range : Moist soil near coast 
from Kadiak Island, Alaska, to Mendocino County, California. Most abundant in 
extreme western Washington. 

Tsuga heterophylla, western hemlock Range: Southeastern Alaska to San 
Francisco, western slopes of Cascade and Coast ranges, reaching Idaho and western 
Montana. Best development western Washington and Oregon. 

Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Douglas spruce, red fir, Oregon pine Range : North 
and south through the Rocky Mountain region and west to the Pacific Coast, ex- 
cept the arid mountains of western Utah and of Nevada. Best development west 
of the summit of the Cascades in Washington and Oregon. 

Abies grandis, lowland fir, white fir Range : Coast region from Vancouver 
Island into northern California, east in Washington and northern Oregon to western 
Montana. Best development in Washington and northern Oregon. 

Abies concolor, white fir Range : Central Oregon south to Mexico, and east 
over arid regions to Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona. Best 
development on California Sierras. 

Abies amabilis, white fir Range : Coast and Cascade ranges from British 
Columbia into northern Oregon. Best development on the Olympic Mountains, 
Washington. 

Abies nobilis, noble fir, red fir, larch Range: Coast ranges of Washington 



336 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

and Oregon, on Cascade Range from northern Washington to center of Oregon. 
Best development on western slopes of Cascades in southern Washington and 
northern Oregon. 

Abies magnified, red fir Range: Southern Oregon and south along the western 
slopes of the Sierra Nevadas. Best development in southern Oregon and northern 
California. 

Sequoia Washingtoniana, bigtree Range : Western slope of Sierra Nevadas, 
California, from latitude 36 to 39 north. Best development on the North Fork of 
the Tule River. 

Sequoia sempervirens , redwood Range: Fringing the coast within the influ- 
ence of ocean fogs from southern Oregon to Monterey County, California. Best de- 
velopment north of Cape Mendocino. 

Libocedrus decurrens, incense cedar Range: South from Marion County, Ore- 
gon, on western slopes of Cascades and Sierra Nevadas through California, and on 
Coast ranges of California from Mendocino County south ; also in western Nevada. 
Best development on Sierras of central California at elevations of 5, 000 to 7 ,000 feet. 

Thuja plicata, giant arborvitas, red cedar, canoe cedar Range: From coast 
of southern Alaska south to Mendocino County, California, east in northern Wash- 
ington and Idaho to northern Montana. Best development in western Washington. 

Chamcecyparis lawsoniana, Port Orford cedar Range: Close to Ocean from 
Coos Bay, Oregon, to the Klamath River, California, also on Siskiyou Mountains 
and Mt. Shasta. Best development north of Rogue River, Oregon. 

Chamcecyparis nootkatensis , yellow cedar, Sitka cypress Range: Cascade 
Mountains of Washington and northern Oregon west to the coast. Best develop- 
ment in the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, and on coast of Alaska. 

Quercus californica, black oak Range: From central Oregon along western 
slopes of Sierras through California, and west to Coast ranges. Best development 
in southwestern Oregon and northern California. 

Quercus agrifolia, California live oak Range: From Mendocino County, Cali- 
fornia, south through the Coast ranges to Lower California. Best development in 
valleys south of San Francisco Bay. 

Quercus garry ana, Pacific post oak, white oak Range: From British Columbia 
south through western Washington, Oregon and California. Best development in 
valleys of western Washington and Oregon. 

Acer macrophyllum, Oregon maple, broad-leaved maple Range: From sea 
level to 2,000 feet elevations west of the Cascades and Sierra Nevadas to the coast 
through Washington, Oregon and California. Best development bottom lands of 
western Oregon. 

Arbutus menziesii, madrona Range: Coast region of Washington and Oregon, 
and Coast ranges in California. Best development in Mendocino, Humboldt and 
Del Norte counties, California. 

It will be noted that in the above list are twenty species of conifers 
and but five of broad-leaved trees. The western hardwoods are not of 
great commercial importance, unless the maple 9 be excepted, though 

9 Thomas Nuttall, the English-American botanist, who in 1834 explored the Pacific Coast of 
the United States, thus speaks of the large leaved maple (Acer macropkyllum) : " The topographical 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 337 

important in the domestic economy of the Coast, furnishing fuel, staves, 
furniture material, house finish, etc. 

It is difficult to state what wood is of greatest economic value, but 
probably that position should be given to Douglas spruce, or Douglas 
fir, as it has been popularly known. Certainly if with it be combined 
the various firs, genus Abies, such as the lowland, white, noble and red 
firs, it will excel any other wood in quantity of standing timber and in 
its contribution to the markets. 

Perhaps next in importance is the western yellow pine (Pinus pon- 
derosa). This is so, not so much because of its preponderating quan- 
tity in any one locality, as because of its wide distribution, entering 
largely, as it does, into the lumber product of most of the states under 
consideration. Its product is known as California white pine in Cali- 
fornia ; as Arizona white pine in Arizona ; as white pine in eastern 
Washington, Idaho and Montana. It is the common pine of every day 
use in many widely separated localities. 

After these two timbers come others, rivaling each other in impor- 
tance, such as western hemlock, whose merits are only yet beginning 
to be appreciated, redwood, larch and red cedar (Thuja plicata) . There 
are other woods of high quality but of restricted range, such as tide- 
land spruce and Port Orford cedar. Then there are the white pines 
proper (Pinus monticola and Pinus flexilis) , which, though covering a 
wide range, are seldom found in heavy forests. 

FORESTS OF THE WEST, BY STATES. 

A brief description of the locations and leading species of the for- 
ests of the West, by states, may be of interest. 

Washington, west of the center of the State, was originally covered 
by an almost solid forest. The only important exceptions were the 
treeless summits of the Cascades and Olympics, some semiprairies in 
the basin between Puget Sound and the Columbia River, and the sand 
dunes of the coast. These forests were of remarkable uniformity and 
wonderful density from the summits of the Cascades westward. To the 
east the tree growth decreased as the mountains were left behind until 
in the southeastern part of the State the plains enclosed and drained by 

range of this splendid species of maple, wholly indigenous to the northwest coast of America, 
... is a somewhat narrow strip along the coast of the Pacific. . . . The largest trunks of 
this species we have seen were on the rich alluvial plains of the Willamette, and particularly near 
to its confluence with the Clackamas ; here we saw trees from fifty to ninety feet in height, with a 
circumference of eight to ten feet. . . . The wood, like that of the sugar maple, exhibits the 
most beautiful variety in its texture, some of it being undulated or curled ; other portions present 
the numerous concentric spots which constitute the bird's-eye maple. . . . According to London, 
specimens of the timber which were sent home by Douglas exhibit a grain scarcely inferior in beauty 
to the finest satinwood." 



338 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

the Columbia, Snake and lower Yakima rivers are found to be treeless. 
The northern part of the State throughout its entire width from east to 
west, was more or less timbered, with valuable forests in the extreme 
northeast. In the southeast, the forests of the Blue Mountains reach 
into Washington from Oregon. 

Oregon has two principal forest belts. One, following the Coast 
ranges the entire length of the State, is broken only by some large river 
valleys ; the other follows the line of the Cascade Mountains. These 
two coalesce in the southern part of the State on the cross ranges, 
which are there a feature of the topography. East of the summit of the 
Cascades the timber decreases in quantity and value. The northwest- 
ern part of the State is sparsely timbered, but on the mountains, and 
especially on the Blue Mountains and other ranges in the northeast- 
ern part of the State, they are of considerable importance. The central 
and southeastern interior plain is practically treeless, being a portion of 
the arid region which extends through Nevada and portions of Utah. 
The greatest remaining forests of the United States are in Oregon, 
though nearly equaled by those of California and Washington. 

As previously noted, California has two chief mountain systems, 
one, the Sierra Nevadas, running approximately from northwest to 
southeast, touching the eastern border of the State at Lake Tahoe 
where Nevada juts into it, and the other following the coast. The two 
ranges come together, or are joined by cross ranges, north at about 
Mt. Shasta, and south by the San Rafael, San Gabriel and other ranges. 
There is left between these two systems a great valley that of the 
Sacramento to the north and of the San Joaquin to the south. This 
valley is almost treeless. On the Sierras grow sugar pine, western yel- 
low pine and firs of various sorts ; and on the Coast ranges, firs, spruces 
and, close to the coast, the famous redwood. South of the thirty-sixth 
parallel the forests are not of much commercial importance, but of im- 
mense value for local consumption and the protection of watersheds. 
In the southern and southwestern portions of the State, the forests are 
unimportant or lacking altogether, and in any event are confined to the 
mountain slopes. 

The forests of the northern part of Idaho are extremely rich, though 
the rugged topography so breaks them up that in stumpage per acre 
they will not compare with the forests of western Washington. Here 
is a notable extension of the coast flora proper, red cedar, Douglas fir 
and other coast woods growing in profusion, though of smaller size 
than on the Coast, while there are other timbers of importance, charac- 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 339 

teristic of the Rocky Mountain region. The southern part of the State 
is largely arid and treeless, though in the southwestern portions there 
are some mountain forests of at least local importance. 

Nevada is almost treeless. A projection of the Sierra forest is 
found in the extreme western part of the State, but elsewhere tree 
growth is confined chiefly to the low ranges of the central and southern 
part. 

Montana is more or less timbered throughout, but the timber of 
commercial value is chiefly confined to the western and southwestern 
portion of the State. The main line of the Rockies, running from the 
state line north of Flathead Lake southwest to the Yellowstone Park, 
roughly outlines the eastern limits of the forests of commercial value. 

Wyoming is a state of rather thin mountain forests, but largely 
without trees. Only its highest mountain ranges are well timbered. 
The high tableland which occupies the central part of the State is des- 
titute of tree growth, while the low ridges which rise from this plateau, 
on the south, carry a scanty open forest. The most valuable trees of 
Wyoming are yellow pine, Alpine fir, cottonwood, larch, lodgepole 
pine, etc. 

The forests of Colorado are largely confined to the mountain ranges 
and high valleys of the western part of the State, east of the mountains 
the surface sloping away into the treeless plains. The most important 
tree is the Engelmann spruce, mingled with mountain pines. Below 
the spruce belt come red fir, yellow pine, etc. The Colorado forests 
have been of extreme value in the development of the State, but are so 
scattered and thin, and have been so difficult of access, that they have 
supplied only local requirements. 

Utah is largely treeless. Its forests are chiefly in the northeastern 
and central portions of the State, on the Wasatch Mountains and their 
continuations to the south. A part of the Colorado forest crosses into 
Utah in the eastern portion of the State. There are, therefore, two 
main treeless areas. One in the valley of the Colorado River between 
the center of the State and the mountains of Colorado; the other occupy- 
ing the western portion of the State from north to south. 

In New Mexico the forests are confined to the slopes and portions 
of the high mountain ranges. The elevated plateau which forms the 
eastern part of the State is practically treeless. Extensions to the south 
of Colorado forests are found in the north, but the chief body of 
timber is west of the Rio Grande near the central part of the State 



340 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



north and south. Here the yellow pine forms valuable forests with 
other woods such as red fir, white pine {Pinus flexilis) , cypress, etc. 

Arizona is almost entirely treeless, except for the central mountain 
region, which forms an extension of the New Mexico forests north- 
westward nearly to the Rio Grande. There is also a little timber in 
the northeastern part of the State and in the southeastern part on the 
mountain ranges. The yellow pine here constitutes extensive forests 
of commercial value. 

FOREST RESOURCES OF THE WEST. 

Scattered and broken as are the wooded areas embraced within the 
western states, the Pacific forest represents the greatest remaining 
timber resource of the United States ; and it will continue to increase 
in relative importance. Remote from the centers of population and of 
lumber consumption, these forests will constitute the basis of a great 
lumber industry long after the eastern forest shall have reached the 
point of slow, conservative utilization on the basis of annual reproduc- 
tion. 

On page 284 will be found a table giving the areas of the various 
states, an estimate of their wooded areas, and the ratio of those areas 
to the total areas. From that table we reproduce some of the figures 
relating to the states within the Pacific forest : 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Total land 
area, 
square 
miles. 


Wooded 
area, 
square 
miles. 


Percent of 
wooded 
to total 
area. 




113 738 


24 800 


21 7 


California 


156,203 


44,300 


28.3 




103.669 


32,900 


31.7 




83,271 


34,800 


41.7 




146,240 


41,500 


28.3 




109,901 


6,100 


5.5 




122,545 


23,500 


19.1 




95,746 


53,900 


56.3 


Utah 


82,096 


10,000 


12.1 




66,792 


46,450 


69.3 


Wyoming: 


97,552 


12,500 


12.8 


Total 


1,177,753 


330,750 


28.1 











Standing without comment these figures seem to mean more in 
some cases and less in others than they actually do. The total area of 
the eleven states and territories is 1,177,753 square miles, of which 28.1 
percent is estimated to be wooded. But the term "wooded area" is 
an elastic one. It means anything from hardly more than brush lands 
or a thin growth of inferior trees to the most magnificent forests of the 



UNITED STATES FOREST RESOURCES. 341 

globe. Thus, the large wooded area of Arizona, or Colorado, or Mon- 
tana, or New Mexico, means little to the lumber industry, while the 
figures for California, Oregon and Washington stand for enormous 
resources. Balancing the estimates in the various states, offsetting 
worthless lands with those of enormous value, actual or potential, it 
would not be surprising if the 212,000,000 acres west of the eastern 
boundary of the Rockies should carry a quantity of timber approaching 
one thousand billions of feet. 

These forests are to remain a great national resource, not only be- 
cause of their remoteness from the most important lumber consuming 
sections of the country, but also because they are to be preserved and 
protected in a large measure by the National government. Over thirty- 
nine percent of this estimated wooded area was in the latter part of 1905 
included within the forest reserves, a somewhat detailed account of 
which will be given in a succeeding chapter. Much of the more than 
83,000,000 acres thus reserved is of scattering timber of little commer- 
cial value and set aside for the protection of watersheds and in the 
hope of an improvement of forest growths; but many large reserved 
areas, as in Idaho, Washington, Oregon and California, include some 
of the choicest forests of the continent. Under government control 
these forest resources will be guarded from fire and theft, and pre- 
served against the day when the lessening supply of timber and the 
growing demand will render practicable their scientific utilization. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



PUBLIC LAND POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES, IN ITS RE- 
LATION TO LUMBERING. 

By the national domain is meant the entire territory over which the 
United States exercises sovereignty. The public domain includes that 
portion of the national domain where the title to the land is, or origi- 
nally was, vested in the United States. In a general way the public 
domain and the national domain coincide, except as to the area of the 
thirteen original states as delimited by their cession to the United States 
of their western land claims (which will be discussed later). In their 
present form these states have the following areas : 





Land surface. 


Water surface. 


Total area. 


Square 
miles. 


Acres. 


Square 
miles. 


Acres. 


Square 
miles. 


Acres. 




9,056 
8,038 
1,081 
4,794 
47,687 
7,454 
44,679 
1,969 
9,875 
39,925 
48,972 
30,460 
58.850 


5,795,840 
5,144,320 
691,840 
3,068,160 
30,519,680 
4,770.560 
28,594,560 
1,260,160 
6,320,000 
25,552,000 
31.342,080 
19,494,400 
37,664,000 


321 
508 
166 
818 
6,032 
719 
1,249 
411 
2,422 
2,405 
3,702 
588 
586 


205,440 
325.120 
106,240 
523,520 
3,860,480 
460,160 
799,360 
263,040 
1,550,080 
1,539,200 
2,369,280 
376,320 
375, 040 


9,377 
8,546 
1,247 
5,612 
153,719 
8.173 
245,928 
2,380 
12,297 
42.33O 
52,674 
31,048 
59.436 


6,001,280 
5,469,440 
798,080 
3,591,680 
34.380,160 
5,230.720 
29,393,920 
1.523.2OO 
7.870,080 
27,091.200 
33,711,360 
19,870,720 
38,039.040 








New York 










Virginia 


North Carolina 






Total 


312,840 


200,217.600 


19,927 


12.753.280 


332,767 


212.970,880 





1 Includes 3,140 square miles lakes Erie and Ontario. 

2 Includes 891 square miles Lake Erie. 

Four of the states afterwards admitted were formed within the 
unceded boundaries of the original thirteen colonies Kentucky, Ver- 
mont, Maine and West Virginia. Tennessee was formed from the 
North Carolina cession, which, however, was subject to existing private 
claims and to Indian rights, in amount practically equaling the cession. 
On November 10, 1791, Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, reported 
to Congress that the Indian titles had been extinguished to about 
7,500,000 acres, and private claims already reported amounted to 8,118,- 
601 YZ acres. The rest of the Indian titles were extinguished by treaty, 

342 



UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAND POLICY. 



343 



purchase, or conquest, but the volume of reported claims grew propor- 
tionately, and Congress, by act of February 18, 1841, turned both the 
old claims and the lands over to the State of Tennessee, granting the 
State any surplus which might be left over after satisfying the claims 
(Public Domain, p. 83). In the annexation of Texas the State retained 
the title to its public lands, as explained in a subsequent portion of this 
chapter, so that in the following states the State, and not the United 
States, is the owner of the public lands : 





Admitted. 


Land surface. 


Water surface. 


Total areas. 


Square 
miles. 


Acres. 


Square 
miles. 


Acres. 


Square 
miles. 


Acres. 


Kentucky.... 
Vermont 
Tennessee . . 
Maine 


June 1,1792 
Mar. 4,1791 
June 1,1796 
Mar. 15, 1820 
Dec. 29, 1845 
June 19. 1863 


39.898 
9.114 
41.686 
29,894 
262.5O6 
24,343 


25,534,720 
5,832,960 
26,679,040 
19,132,160 
168,003,840 
15.579.520 


434 
449 
370 
3,145 
3.505 
161 


277.76O 
287.300 

236,800 
2.012.8OO 
2,243.200 
103.O40 


40,332 
9.563 
42,056 
33,039 
266,011 
24,504 


25,812,480 
6,120,320 
26,915,840 
21,144,960 
170,247 ,04O 
15.GS2.560 


Texas 


W. Virginia. 
Total.... 


407.441 


260,762,240 


8,064 


5,160,960 


415,505 


265,923.200 



Connecticut, in her deed of cession of western lands, September 13, 
1786, excepted the "Western Reserve " of Connecticut in Ohio, extend- 
ing from the western boundary of Pennsylvania 100 miles westward, 
and from the forty-first parallel north to Lake Erie. Of this tract, 
containing about 3,800,000 acres, about 500,000 acres, known as the 
"fire lands," were donated to its citizens who suffered by fire and raids 
during the Revolutionary War. Of the balance about 3,000,000 acres 
were sold to a land company at forty cents an acre, or $1,200,000, form- 
ing the basis of the present Connecticut school fund. Both the juris- 
diction and title to these lands were passed to the United States by 
deed of May 30, 1800, as authorized by the Connecticut Legislature on 
the second Thursday of May, 1800, and by Congress by act of April 
28, 1800. This action was chiefly to confirm title to the land, giving 
the holders from Connecticut the warrant of United States patents, and 
this territory was, therefore, practically never a part of the public 
domain. Other states also made certain specific reservations in their 
cessions, these being chiefly provisions for military and private land 
claims which had been issued by the State for the benefit of existing 
settlements and for extinguishment of Indian titles. 

CESSIONS BY THE STATES. 

The English colonies were established under royal charters with 
grants of land in fee simple, though some of the charters were after- 



344 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

ward forfeited or surrendered and the colonies became royal or crown 
colonies. The land grants were usually between given parallels of 
latitude or a given distance north and south from a certain point, 
bounded on the east, for most of the colonies, by the Atlantic Ocean, 
with the western boundaries necessarily somewhat vague because of the 
limited and inaccurate geographical knowledge of the period, but 
usually covering westward to the " South Sea " or Pacific Ocean, though, 
of course, practically confined to the western limits of British territory, 
or the Mississippi River. These charter grants were in most cases the 
bases of colonial claims to western lands or "back lands," though the 
claims of New York were based on Indian purchases, and Virginia, in 
addition to charter titles, claimed a large portion of northwestern terri- 
tory on the basis of conquest and occupancy based upon the expedition 
of General George R. Clarke to the Illinois country. The northern and 
southern extent of the various charter grants often overlapped, causing 
much confusion. 

By proclamation King George III restricted the colonial limits of 
Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut to the eastern watershed of 
the Allegheny Mountains. By this proclamation of 1763 the western 
lands were set apart as "Crown lands," following the treaty of Paris in 
the same year, dividing the territory acquired from France and Spain 
into four provinces : Quebec, East Florida, West Florida and Grenada. 
All the lands which were not included within these provinces nor within 
those granted to the Hudson Bay Company were reserved to the use of 
the Indians, and the colonies were forbidden to make purchase or set- 
tlement without royal permission. The Provincial governors were 
authorized to issue land warrants in this territory only where they were 
awarded by the Crown for services in the French and Indian War. 
Various land companies were formed and secured lands in this territory, 
but in each instance petitioned direct to the Crown and not to any Colo- 
nial government. Among these were the Ohio Company, 1748, which 
secured 600,000 acres on the Ohio River ; The Loyal Company, 1749, 
which obtained a grant for 800,000 acres of land (Perkins' Western An- 
nals, p*. 50) ; The Greenbrier Company, 1757, which obtained a grant for 
100,000 acres. After the treaty of Paris in 1763 a number of other 
companies secured concessions. Among them were the Walpole Com- 
pany, 1766, which in 1772 obtained a grant of 2,500,000 acres of land 
east of the Scioto River between latitudes 38 and 42 degrees north ; 
the North Carolina and Pennsylvania Company, 1775, and the Missis- 
sippi Company, 1769. 



UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAND POLICY. 345 

With the assertion of independence, however, the colonies reestab- 
lished their claims to the western lands according to the provisions of 
their original charters ; and the colonial claims of territory at the be- 
ginning of the Revolution covered all the present area of the United 
States east of the Mississippi River, except the portion of Wisconsin 
and Michigan in latitude north of the northern boundary of Massachu- 
setts; the territory south of the southern line of Georgia, and a strip 
west from the present western boundary of Georgia through Alabama 
and Mississippi. This latter strip was confirmed to the United States 
by the treaty of peace in 1783, as also the Wisconsin and Michigan 
territory above referred to. After the treaty Great Britain ceded Flor- 
ida back to Spain, from whom it had been secured in 1736 in exchange 
for Cuba, rendering its later purchase by the United States necessary. 

At the beginning of the Revolution, therefore, the United States did 
not own a foot of the land to which the Declaration of Independence 
applied. However, on September 16, 1776, it granted both commissioned 
and non-commissioned officers certain bounty lands, the former 150 to 
500 acres, according to rank, and the latter 100 acres and $20 cash. On 
October 19 of that year, the Maryland convention resolved "That this 
State ought not to comply with the proposed terms of offering lands to 
the officers and soldiers, because there are no lands belonging solely 
and exclusively to this State and the purchase of lands might eventually 
involve this State in an expense exceeding its abilities, and an engage- 
ment by this State to defray the expense of purchasing land according 
to its number of souls would be unequal and unjust." (Conventions 
of Maryland, p. 272.) 

This was the beginning of the famous "Maryland Controversy," 
which can be given here only in barest outline. Maryland proposed 
to substitute in regard to its own soldiers a cash bounty for the 
land bounty, but the general Government objected and conveyed assur- 
ance that the land bounty would be provided by it; and upon this 
assurance, though the general Government had not then title to a foot 
of land with which to carry out the promise, Maryland raised its full 
quota of eight of the eighty-eight battalions of troops called for. Thus 
was the original objection overcome, but the question as to how the 
United States was to acquire the land still remained. If it purchased 
from states having large holdings, like Virginia, these states would 
thereby be relieved of their proportion of the expenses of the war, 
and Maryland's soldiers would be attracted from its boundaries to 



346 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

add not only to the wealth but to the population also of other states, 
at the expense of its own. In the discussion of the Articles of Con- 
federation on October 2, 1777, a Maryland delegate offered a resolution 
giving to Congress the power to fix the western boundaries of such 
states as claimed western lands, and to create new states from the back 
territory cut off in this way. This was defeated and a counter resolution 
was adopted adding to the ninth of the Articles of Confederation a pro- 
vision that " no State shall be deprived of territory for the benefit of 
the United States." Maryland, however, was not finally defeated and 
continued the agitation for two years, during which all the other colo- 
nies had ratified the Federation. On May 21, 1779, the delegates from 
Maryland presented the "instructions" of December 18, 1778, in which 
they were directed not to agree to the federation unless they secured the 
cession of the western lands. A portion of the argument of this inter- 
esting document is well worthy of room here, as it was the turning 
point in the final establishment of the United States in the possession 
and control of the public lands : 

Suppose, for instance, Virginia indisputably possessed of the extensive and 
fertile country to which she has set up a claim : what would be the probable con- 
sequences to Maryland of such an undisturbed and undisputed possession? They 
cannot escape the least discerning. 

Virginia, by selling on the most moderate terms a small proportion of the 
lands in question, would draw into her treasury vast sums of money, and, in pro- 
portion to the sums arising from such sales, would be enabled to lessen her taxes. 
Lands cheap and taxes low, compared with the lands and taxes of an adjacent 
state, would quickly drain the state thus disadvantageously circumstanced of its 
most useful inhabitants and its wealth; and its consequence in the scale of the con- 
federated states would sink, of course. A claim so injurious to more than one- 
half, if not to the whole of the United States, ought to be supported by the clearest 
evidence of the right. Yet what evidences of that right have been produced? 
What arguments alleged in support of either the evidence or the right? None that 
we have heard of deserving a serious refutation. 

While, however, Maryland stood alone in withholding the ratifica- 
tion of the Articles of Confederation until a definite settlement of the 
western land question had been secured, it was supported by other 
states having no western lands, who, however, had not on that basis 
withheld their ratification. Delaware signed the articles on February 22, 
1779, and on the following day presented the following resolutions 
which had been passed by the Legislature of that State. 

Resolved, That this State thinks it necessary, for the peace and safety of the 
states to be included in the Union, that a moderate extent of limits should be 



UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAND POLICY. 347 

assigned for such of those states as claim to the Mississippi or South Sea; and that 
the United States in Congress assembled, should, and ought to have the power of 
fixing their western limits. 

Resolved, That this State consider themselves justly entitled to a right, in 
common with the members of the Union, to that extensive tract of country which 
lies westward of the frontiers of the United States, the property of which was not 
vested in, or granted to, individuals at the commencement of the present war: 
that the same hath been, or maybe, gained from the King of Great Britain, or the 
native Indians, by the blood and treasure of all, and ought therefore to be a com- 
mon estate, to be granted out on terms beneficial to the United States. 

New Jersey also, in ratifying the Articles of Confederation in 1778, 
called attention to this matter and supported the position of Maryland, 
but left it to the candor and justice of the several states for future ad- 
justment. Virginia and some other states claiming western lands, 
however, opened land offices and otherwise began to dispose of the 
lands, which led Congress, on October 30, 1779, by a vote of eight 
states to three, to pass a resolution declaring "the appropriation of 
vacant lands during the continuance of the war to be attended with 
great mischiefs," and requesting Virginia to "reconsider their late act 
of assembly for opening their land office." 

Public sentiment was, meanwhile, growing to a due appreciation of 
the value and importance to the Nation of the western lands, and of the 
difficulties involved in their remaining under state ownership, particu- 
larly under the various conflicting claims. New York in the next year 
led in their cession by the various states, by authorizing its delegates in 
Congress to act in behalf of the State in restricting its western bound- 
aries, the ceded lands to remain within the jurisdiction of the State, but 
the title to be in Congress for the benefit of all the states. Congress, 
by resolution of October 10, 1780, recommended such action to the 
other western land states, reminding them "How indispensably neces- 
sary it is to establish the Federal Union on a fixed and permanent basis, 
and on principles acceptable to all its respective members ; how essen- 
tial to public credit and confidence, to the support of our army, to the 
vigor of our councils, and success of our measures ; to our tranquillity 
at home, our reputation abroad, to our very existence as a free, sov- 
ereign, and independent people; that they are fully persuaded the 
wisdom of the respective legislatures will lead them to a full and im- 
partial consideration of a subject so interesting to the United States, 
and so necessary to the happy establishment of the Federal Union." 

At this time, also, before any public lands had been acquired, was 



348 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

laid the foundation of a public land policy in the following resolution, 
adopted October 10, 1780 : 

Resolved, That the unappropriated lands that may be ceded or relinquished to 
the United States, by any particular state, pursuant to the recommendation o 
Congress of the sixth day of September last, shall be disposed of for the common 
benefit of the United States, and be settled and formed into distinct republican 
states, which shall become members of the Federal Union, and have the same 
rights of sovereignty, freedom, and independence, as the other States; that each 
State which shall be so formed shall contain a suitable extent of territory, not less 
than 100 nor more than 150 miles square, or as near thereto as circumstances will 
admit; that the necessary and reasonable expenses which any particular State shall 
have incurred since the commencement of the present war, in subduing any British 
posts, or in maintaining forts or garrisons within and for the defence, or in acquir- 
ing any part of the territory that may be ceded or relinquished to the United States, 
shall be reimbursed. 

That the said lands shall be granted or settled at such times, and under such 
regulations, as shall hereafter be agreed on by the United States, in Congress as- 
sembled, or any nine or more of them. 

On this day, also, Connecticut tendered a cession of her claims, 
which was not accepted because of objectionable restrictions as to juris- 
diction. This left New York the opportunity to be first in the cession 
of such claims. Meanwhile, however, the Virginia Legislature, on 
January 2, 1781, by act offered a cession of western lands upon terms 
which were unacceptable to Congress, and on March 1 of that year the 
Maryland delegates signed the Articles of Confederation, being assured 
of the final satisfactory settlement of the matter, and not being willing 
longer to give hope to Great Britain through her refusal. On the same 
day the New York delegates in Congress made a formal offer of her 
western lands. It was not until October 29 of the following year that 
this cession, under motion by a delegate from Maryland, was accepted 
by Congress, Virginia and Massachusetts voting in the negative. Other 
cessions followed in the following order : 

New York The cession as above noted was for title to land held 
under treaties with the Six Nations of Indians, of indefinite extent from 
the source of the Great Lakes southward across the Ohio Valley as far 
as the Cumberland Mountains. There was no crown or royal charter 
except for the small portion west of New York, now a part of Pennsyl- 
vania, containing 315.91 square miles, sold by the United States to 
Pennsylvania in 1792 for seventy-five cents an acre. This New York 
claim overlapped those of Massachusetts and Virginia. 

Virginia On October 20, 1783, Virginia empowered her delegates 



UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAND POLICY. 349 

to make a cession of her claims, consummated by deed of March 1, 1784. 
This was to land north of the Ohio River, overlapping completely the 
claims of Connecticut and Massachusetts, based upon charters and upon 
conquest through the Clarke exploration. She retained the territory 
embraced in the present states of West Virginia and Kentucky. To 
latitude 41 degrees the claim was by charter, and north of that by con- 
quest. 

Massachusetts On April 19, 1785, Massachusetts ceded her claims to 
54,000 square miles of back lands, in what is now southern Michigan 
and Wisconsin, being the westward extension of the boundaries of her 
charter grant. 

Connecticut On September 13, 1786, Connecticut made the cession 
of western lands claimed by her, in extent 40,000 square miles, lying in 
a narrow strip extending westward from Pennsylvania through the 
northern parts of the present states of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois to the 
Mississippi River. 

South Carolina South Carolina was next, August 9, 1787, with the 
grant of 4,900 square miles extending directly westward from the pres- 
ent western boundary of the State. 

North Carolina On February 25, 1790, North Carolina ceded her 
western lands, 45,000 square miles, coincident with the present State 
of Tennessee. This grant was conditional upon the settlement by the 
United States of private claims, which were found to consume all the 
public land within the cession, so that Tennessee is only nominally 
reckoned among the public land states. 

Georgia This State was last, on April 24, 1802, with the cession of 
her western lands, estimated at 88,578 square miles. This cession was 
delayed by a dispute over what are known as the " Yazoo land claims," 
further reference to which is made upon page 351. 

The following table gives a summary of these state cessions : 3 



3 Donaldson (Public Domain, p. 11) is authority for the areas here given, no later figures be- 
ing available. Adding the total above given to the latest survey figures (including water surface) of 
the original thirteen states and of Kentucky, Vermont, Maine and West Virginia, which were formed 
from their original areas, 440,205 square miles, gives a total area of 799,560.91 square miles. As 
the latest authorities give the area of the United States in 180O at 827,544 square miles (see O. P. 
Austin in "Summary of Commerce and Finance " for May, 19O5, p. 4299), this leaves 28,283.09 
square miles of national domain unaccounted for in the above figures. Donaldson appears to in- 
clude in the area of the Virginia cession the northern part of Michigan and Wisconsin, and of Min- 
nesota east of the Mississippi River, confirmed to the United States by Great Britain in the treaty 
of 1783, and in the Georgia cession the strip in the southern part of Alabama and Mississippi con- 
firmed in the same manner, so that the area of these cessions added to the area of the states noted 
should equal the entire national domain at that time. It is probable that the figure quoted for total 
area of the United States in 18OO includes areas of the Great Lakes, while these were excluded in 
computing the areas of the cessions ; which, with discrepancies in survey figures would account for 
the difference. 



350 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



STATES. 


Date. 


Square 
miles. 


Acres. 


Massachusetts 1 ^-> ^ ( .. 


Apr. 19,1785 
Sept. 13, 1786 
Mar. 1, 1781 
Mar. 1, 1784 
Aug. 9, 1787 
Feb. 25, 1790 
Apr. 24, 1802 


54,000 
40,000 
315.91 
265,562 
4,900 
45,600 
88,578 


34,560,000 
25.6OO.OOO 
202,187 
169,959,680 
3,136,000 
29,184.000 
56,689,920 


Connecticut f Cessions disputed ] ..."........" 












Total cession 




404,955.91 


259,171,787 







Thus was laid the foundation of the public domain and the United 
States became a land owner over a large portion of its original area. 5 
The public domain was afterwards largely added to by subsequent an- 
nexations, almost the entire area of which was added to the public do- 
main as well as to the national domain. The following is a table of these 
additions: 

AREA ADDED. 



TERRITORIAL DIVISION. 


Year. 


National 
domain, 
square 
miles. 


Public 
domain, 
square 
miles. 


Cost. 


Louisiana purchase 


1803 


875 025 


875 025 


6 $30 295 463.15 


Florida purch ase 


1819 


70,107 


70,107 


7 6,489,768.00 




1845 


389 795 






Oregon territory 8 


1846 


288,689 


288,689 






1848 


523 802 


523 802 


9 18 250 000 OO 


Purchase from Texas 


1850 




123,784 


10 16 000,000 00 


Gadsden purchase 


1853 


36,211 


36,211 


lO.OOO.OOO.OO 




1867 


599,446 


599,446 


7 20000OOO 












Total 




2,783,075 


2 517,064 


$88 235,231.15 













4 New York's claims under Indian treaties were inchoate and located in the same territory 
claimed by Virginia and partly by Massachusetts and Connecticut, and the above included area is 
only the small triangular tract lying west of New York State, which was afterward purchased from 
the United States by Pennsylvania. The Massachusetts and Connecticut cessions are not Included 
in the above total because included in the area of the Virginia cession. 

6 The total area of the United States in 1800 was 827.844 square miles, so that the public 
domain after the Georgia cession (including Tennessee) was 48.9 percent of the total area. 

6 This is usually given at $15,000,000, the original purchase price. Donaldson (Public 
Domain, p. 105) gives the cost to June 30, 1800, as follows: Principal sum, $15,000,000 ; interest 
to redemption, $8,529,353 ; claims of citizens of the United States due from France, under this 
treaty assumed by the United States in part payment for the territory and paid to June 30, 188O, 
$3,738,268.98 ; total, $27,267,621.98 ; to which must be added " French spoliation claims " paid 
from June 30, 1880, to June 30, 1904, others of which are still in process of adjustment (com- 
piled from treasury reports), $3,027,841.17, making the total given of $30,295,463.15. 

7 Includes interest. 

8 By some authorities the Oregon territory is included in the Louisiana purchase, but Govern- 
ment officials now prefer to rest the title upon the treaty with Great Britain. (See O. P. Austin 



Department of Commerce and Labor.) "The northwest boundary [of the Louisiana purchase] 
was also somewhat vague and uncertain, and would be open to controversy with Great Britain. 
[That] the territory extended west to the Rocky Mountains was not questioned, but it might 
be claimed that it extended to the Pacific. An impression that it did so extend has since 



UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAND POLICY. 



351 



Donaldson (Public Domain, p. 18) also includes in a similar table 
the Georgia cession of 88,578 square miles or 56,689,920 acres, at a cost 
of $6,200,000, the amount eventually paid in settlement of what are 
known as the " Yazoo scrip claims," although the deed of cession pro- 
vided that Georgia was to receive $1,250,000 " out of the first net 
proceeds of lands lying in said ceded territory." 1 The inclusion of 
this item brings the entire cost of purchases to $94,435,231.15. 

For the sake of completeness the following table of segregated 
additions may be added, though they will hereafter be ignored as addi- 
tions to the public domain : 



TERRITORIAL DIVISION. 


Year. 


Area, square 

miles. 


Purchase 
price. 




1897 


6,740 






1898 


3.6OO 






1898 


175 






1899 


143.0OO 


$20.00O.OOO 




1899 


73 






19O1 


68 


1OO.OOO 










Total 




153,656 


$20 100 OOO 











prevailed In some quarters, and in some public papers and documents it has been assumed 
as an undoubted fact. But neither Mr. Jefferson nor the French, whose right he purchased, 
ever claimed for Louisiana any such extent, and our title to Oregon has been safely deduced 
from other sources. Mr. Jefferson said expressly: 'To the waters of the Pacific we can found no 
claim in right of Louisiana.' "Judge T. M. Cooley, "The Acquisition of Louisiana" (Indiana 
Hist. Soc. Pamphlets. No. 3). "The claim to the territory beyond [the Rocky Mountains] was 
based upon the principle of continuity, the prolongation of the territory to the adjacent great body 
of water. As against Great Britain, the claim was founded on the treaty of 1763, between France 
and Great Britain, by which the latter power ceded to the former all its rights west of the Missis- 
sippi River. The United States succeeded to all the rights of France. Besides this, there was an 
independent claim created by the discovery of the Columbia River by Gray, in 1792, and its ex- 
ploration by Lewis and Clark. All this was added to by the cession by Spain, in 1819, of any title 
that it had to all territory north of the forty-second degree." Rt. Rev. C. F. Robertson, " The Lou- 
isiana Purchas_e" (Papers of the Am. Hist. Assn., v. 1, p. 259). While the latter writer sets up one 
claim by inheritance through the Louisiana Purchase, it wfll be noted that various other factors are 
also relied upon to support the title. 

9 Donaldson (Public Domain, p. 18) gives this at$15,OOO,OOO. The "Summary of Commerce 
and Finance" for May, 19O4, (Supplement on " Territorial and Commercial Expansion of the United 
States, 18OO-19O3 "). gives the above total, with the statement that $3,250,OOO of this sum was in 
payment of claims of American citizens against Mexico. 

10 Some authorities give this at $10,OOO.OOO, the original purchase price, which was to have 
been paid (Public Domain, p. 135) in fonrteen-year five percent bonds. The original act of Septem- 
ber 9, 185O, however, (U. S. JStat. 9, 447) contained the following provision: " Provided, also, that 
not more than $5,OOO,OOO of said stock shall be issued until the creditors of the State holding bonds 
and other certificates of stock of Texas for which duties on imports were specially pledged, shall 
first file at the treasury of the United States releases of all claims against the United States for or 
on account of said bonds or certificates, in such form as shall be prescribed by the Secretary of the 
Treasury and approved by the President of the United States." By act of February 28, 1855 (U. 
S. Stat. 10. 617). Congress further provided that in lien of the $5.0OO,OOO in five percent stock 
which had been withheld under the previous act the Secretary of the Treasury be authorized to pay 
such creditors of the jate Republic of Texas as were reported to be under the provisions of the 
aforesaid act by the " report of the late Secretary of the Treasury to the President of the United 
States, and approved by him on the thirteenth day of September, 1851." The act further provided 
that the sum of $7,750,000 be divided pro rata among said creditors. Donaldson (Public Domain, 
p. 135). states that the sum distributed under this act was$7,5OO,OOO. which, with the original issue 
of bonds and the interest of $3,50O,OOO upon them, makes up the total given of $16,OOO,OOO. 

11 J. W. Monette, "Discovery and Settlement of the Valley of the Mississippi," bk. 5, ch. 13 
(v. 2). 



352 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



ACRE COST OF PURCHASES. 

The following shows the cost per acre of the additions to the public 
domain secured through purchase, based upon the foregoing tables : 



TBRRITORIAL DIVISION. 


Total area. 


Total cost. 


Cost per 
acre. 


Square 
miles. 


Acres. 


Louisiana purchase 


875,025 
70,107 
523,802 
123,784 
36,211 
599,446 
88,578 


560,016,000 

44,868,480 
335,233,280 
79,221,760 
23,175,040 
383,645,440 
56,689,920 


$30,295,463.15 
6.489.768.0O 
18,250,000.00 
16,000,000.00 
10,000,000.00 
7.20O.OOO.OO 
6,200,000.00 


$0.0549 
.1446 
.0547 
.2019 
.4315 
.0188 
.1094 


Florida purchase 




Purchase from Texas 


Gadsden purchase 




Georgia cession 


Total... 


2,316,953 


1.482.849.920 


$94.435.231.15 





Average cost per acre for total purchases, 6.36 cents. 

As a matter of curiosity it may be noted for comparison with this 
showing that the purchase of the Philippines, 91,520,000 acres at $20,- 
000,000, cost 21.85 cents an acre, and the small additional purchase 
overlooked in the original treaty, cost $2.1043 an acre. If to this be 
added the cost of conquest of the islands after purchase it will be seen 
that modern American diplomacy suffers by comparison with that which 
secured the early expansion of American territory, though, in respect to 
the Philippines, it may properly be noted that the price paid to Spain 
was no ordinary purchase, but was the result of the effort of a victorious 
and rich nation to establish a just and lasting peace, based on a resto- 
ration of friendly relations. 

PRIVATE LAND CLAIMS. 

The cost of settling claims has been included in the cost of two of 
the purchases, as will be noted. There is, however, another item which 
enters largely into the cost, not only of the purchases but of lands 
secured by cession or conquest. This consists of private claims to 
lands under the previous governments from which the titles were ac- 
quired. In these transfers the United States has always recognized 
vested property rights, whether complete and perfected or still incom- 
plete. Various states made certain reservations in their cessions, some 
of which have been noted; and in one case, that of North Carolina, the 
liabilities which the United States assumed in connection with the ces- 
sion were such as eventually to consume all the public land comprised 
therein. 

In the acquisitions which were at one time or another formerly under 
Spanish domination private grants were especially numerous and liberal. 
The land department has issued various maps upon which the old 



UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAND POLICY. 353 

Spanish grants which so far have been confirmed are located ; but no 
statement of their aggregate is available. 12 

COST AND RETURNS OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN TO DATE. 

Thomas Donaldson (Public Domain, pp. 17-21 and 523-524), gives 
some interesting detailed statements as to the receipts and the cost of 
the public domain to June 30, 1883, which may be summarized briefly 
as follows: 

RECEIPTS PRIOR TO JUNE 30, 1796. 

1787, sold at New York, 72,974 acres (cash) $117,108.24 

1796, sold at Pittsburg, 43,446 acres (certificates and land war- 
rants) 100,427.53 

1792, to the State of Pennsylvania, 202,187 acres (certificates of 

public debt) 151.640.25 

1792, to John Cleves Symmes, 272,540 acres (army land war- 
rants) 189,693.00 

1792, to Ohio Company, 892.0OO acres (certificates and army land 

warrants) 642,856.66 



Total, 1,484,047 acres $ 1,201.725.68 

Gross receipts from June 3O, 1796, to June 30, 1883 232,375,135.36 

Total gross receipts $233,576,861.04 

Deduct amount paid to the several states under the 2, 3 and 5 per- 
cent fund acts, to June 30, 1882, when last adjusted $7,333,069.76 

Deduct cash paid the several states and territories under the distri- 
bution act of September 4, 1841 691,117.05 

8,024,186.81 

Net receipts by the United States from the public lands to June 

30,1883 $225.552,675.23 

COST OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN. 

Purchase price under treaty stipulations $ 88,157,389.98 

Surveys cost to June 30, 1880. estimated (including salaries of 

clerks and expenses of surveyors-general) 24,468,691.00 

General and local land office expenses to June 30, 188O, partly es- 
timated 22,094,611.07 

Survey and Land Office expenses for three years to June 30, 

1883 8,484,437.03 

Expenses of Indian department to June 30, 1883, on account of 
holding treaties, etc., and including yearly payments for an- 
nuities and other charges, which are, in fact, in consideration 
for surrender of occupancy title of lands to the Government. 208,776,031.24 

Total cost $351,981,160.32 

Deduct total receipts 225.552,675.23 

Leaves present cost $126,428.484.89 

The purchase price as here given by Donaldson should be corrected 
by the addition of $3,250,000, claims of American citizens against Mex- 
ico assumed by this country in connection with the Mexican cession, by 
the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. This item, as already stated, Mr. 
Donaldson appears to have overlooked. In order to bring the cost of 



12 As an illustration it may be stated that in New Mexico, with a land area of 78,428.000 
acres, the state map issued by the General Land Office in 1896 showed claims whose area is esti- 
mated approximately as follows: Confirmed, about 365 townships; confirmed, requiring new 
boundaries, about 62 townships ; total, about 427 townships, or 15,372 square miles, or 9,838,080 
acres ; unconfirmed, about 49 townships, or 1,764 square miles, or 1.128,960 acres. 

Wflliam E. Curtis, in The Chicago Record Herald of August 5, 19O5, quotes Governor Otero. of 
New Mexico, as authority for the statement that the United States Court of Private Land Claims, 
created by act of Congress in 1891, and which went out of existence on June 15, 1894, confirmed 
the title to about 7,300,000 acres out of claims aggregating over 4O.OOO.OOO acres in that Territory. 



354 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

the Louisiana Purchase down to June 30, 1904, the French spoliation 
claims 13 paid during the fiscal years ended June 30, 1891, to June 30, 
1904, $3,027,841.17, must also be added, making the aggregate present 
cost of purchases $94,435,231.15. This does not include the expenses 
of making the several treaties under which territory was acquired, nor 
of commissions to adjust boundaries. A list of these is given in Senate 
Ex. Doc. No. 38, second session, Forty-fourth Congress. If it were 
possible to do so the extent of private land claims antedating acquisi- 
tion of territory and finally confirmed should be taken into consideration, 
either in reducing the area of acquired territory or in enhancing the 
cost. These have been variously settled, either by allowing the claims 
for land in place, or issuing lieu scrip giving privilege of selecting 
other lands, or by cash payment ; and have been so inextricably con- 
fused with private land claims of origin subsequent to acquisition of the 
territory that no statement of even approximate accuracy could be com- 
piled without an amount of labor and research not warranted in a work 
the purpose of which is along another line. 

COST AND RECEIPTS OF PUBLIC DOMAIN, 1884 TO 1904 INCLUSIVE. 

An attempt has been made to bring Donaldson's figures down to 
date, although the task is one of considerable difficulty owing to the 
manner in which Government reports are made up, as will hereafter be 
explained in connection with the showing of cost. In regard to re- 
ceipts there was little difficulty in making up from the annual reports 
of the Commissioner of the General Land Office the table which is here 
given: 

13 The claims of $3,738,268.98 Included by Donaldson In the cost of the Louisiana Purchase 
were claims of citizens of the United States due from France and specifically assumed under the 
treaty of purchase, which limited the amount of claims so assumed to $3,750,000. The French 
" spoliation claims " whose payment by the United States began in 1890-1, have a different ident- 
ity. In the convention with France of 1800 "a distinction, which was finally embodied in the treaty, 
was drawn by the French government between two_ classes of claims: First, debts due from the 
French government to American citizens for supplies furnished, or prizes whose restoration had 
been decreed by the courts ; and, secondly, indemnities for prizes alleged to have been wrongfully 
condemned. The treaty provided that the first class, known as debts, should be paid, but excluded 
the second or indemnity class. . . . Upon this basis the convention was finally ratified. . . . 
The United States, therefore, having received a consideration for its refusal to prosecute the claims 
of its citizens, thereby took the place, with respect to the claimants, of the_ French government, and 
virtually assumed the obligations of the latter. . . . The claims for indemnity thus devolving 
upon the United States, known as the French spoliation claims have been from that day to this the 
subject of frequent report and discussion in Congress, but with no result until the passage of the 
act of January 20, 1885, referring them to the Court of Claims. At the present time (1888) they are 
undergoing judicial examination before that tribunal."!. R. Soley. "The Wars of the United States 
1789-1859." (Narrative and Critical Hist, of Am., v. 7. ch. 6 ; and editor's footnote.) These are the 
claims upon which payments run from 1890 to the last report at hand, for June 30, 1904, and whose 
payment Is probably therefore still incomplete. " Spoliations committed by the French In the Rev- 
olutionary and Napoleonic wars subsequent to the year 1800 were indemnified under the provisions 
of the treaty for the Louisiana Purchase, under the treaty with Spain in 1819, and under a later 
treaty with France which was negotiated in Andrew Jackson's most imperative manner in 131. 
These do not enter into what have become historically specialized as the French spoliation claims. 
Lamed, " History for Ready Reference and Topical Reading," p. 3439. 



UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAND POLICY. 355 

Land sales and fees $127.171,951.96 Government property sales.. $ 25,298.93 

Indian sales 10,722,423.97 Transcript fees 227.58O.45 

Timber depredations 474,155.76 

Timber sales 14 164,763.27 Total receipts $138,786,174.34 

In regard to the expenses of survey, administration and disposition 
much difficulty is experienced in making an accurate showing, owing to 
the fact that the annual land office reports do not make a complete 
showing. The expenses of local land offices are set forth, but there 
are no assembled details as to the salaries and other expenses of gen- 
eral land office, expenses of surveying public lands, etc. The annual 
reports for 1901 to 1904 do give, without analysis, the following sums 
as representing the total cost of the land service for the respective 
years, including both payments and liabilities : 

1901... $1,813,719.12 

19O2 1,881,588.40 

1903 1,923,624.16 

19O4 2,100,093.92 

Two or three of the older annual reports, after the total of disburse- 
ments of the accounting division, say, " To which may be added salaries 
of the General Land Office," giving the amount. Owing to the unana- 
lyzed condition of the items shown in these statements, however, it 
was found necessary to go to the annual Finance Reports (Reports of 
the Secretary of the Treasury), which annually publish a table of net 
disbursements by warrants. From these tables the following figures 
were compiled: 

Public land offices $14,067,015.84 Distribution of proceeds, 17 

Contingent expenses public 1885 $ 10,461.89 

land offices 3,115,027.52 Classification of certain min- 

Surveying public lands 5,586,939.86 eral lands in Montana and 

Repayment for wrongly sold.. 1,300.367.23 Idaho, 1898-1901 113,444.85 

Depredations public timber... 16 727,294.43 Payment to Des Moines River 

Protecting public lands 2,442,964.39 settlers, 18 1897, 19O1 and 

Protecting forest reserves 1,543,125.72 19O2 359,292.76 

Surveying forest reserves 945,345.50 

Total $30,211,279.99 

An inspection of these figures will show the necessity for further 
rearrangement in order to make the proper showing as to expenses and 
receipts from the public domain. The receipts from sales of Indian 
lands are trust funds, whose disbursements are not shown in the expen- 



i* These timber sales were under the acts of March 3. 1891, and June 4, 1897. 
^ This amount includes surveys Indian Territory, 1897-8, $327,346.39 ; resurvey Chickasaw 
lands, 1898-9, $141,5OO, and surveys in land grants, 1898-9, $69.270.59. 

16 In later years, after 1893, this expenditure appears to be consolidated with that represented 
in the following item, the title of which was thereafter changed to " Protecting public lands, timber, 
etc." 

17 This seems to have been the last payment under the distribution act of September 4, 
1841. (See page 353 and footnote, page 354 ; also page 378.) 

18 Certain public lands were in 1846 granted the State of Iowa for the improvement of the 
Des Moines River. The above payments were indemnities to settlers occupying these lands at the 
time of the grants. 



356 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



ditures, and they should, therefore, be ignored. Sales of timber and 
amounts received on account of timber depredations may properly be 
included among the receipts from the public domain ; but the sales of 
Government property (old office furniture and the like) and the receipts 
for transcripts should be deducted from the expenditures. From the 
receipts, in turn, should be deducted the repayments for lands wrongly 
sold; distribution of proceeds (the single item in the year 1885), and 
also the payments to states under the 2, 3, and 5 percent fund acts, and 
cash swamp land indemnity claims paid, these two items not being in- 
cluded in the table of expenditures. This will produce the following 
showing : 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT, 1884-1904 INCLUSIVE. 

Receipts. Disbursements. 

Receipts from land sales and fees $127,171,951.96 

Receipts from timber depredations 474, 155.76 

Receipts from timber sales 164,763.27 

Total gross receipts $127,810,870.99 

Less repayment for lands wrongly sold $1,300,367.23 

Less distribution of proceeds 10,461.89 

Less 2, Sand 5 percent funds 5,267 .066.45 6,577,895.57 

Leaves net receipts $121,232,975.42 

Cost of public land offices $14,067,015.84 

Contingent expenses of same 3,115,027.52 

Cost of surveying public and other lands 5,686,939.86 

Surveying forest reserves 945,345.50 

Depredations on public timber 727,294.43 

Protecting public lands and timber 2,442,964.39 

Protecting forest reserves 1,543.125.72 

Classification of certain mineral lands in Montana 

and Idaho 13,444.85 

Payment to Des Moines River settlers 359,292.76 

Total gross expenses $28,900,450.87 

Less Government property sales $ 25,298.93 

Less transcript fees 227.580.45 

$ 252,879.38 252,879.38 

Leaves net expenses $28.647,571.49 

Deduct from receipts 28.647.571.49 

Leaves net returns of $ 92,585,403.93 

It will be noted that Donaldson includes the expenses of the Indian 
department in the cost of the public domain, on the theory that the care 
of the Indians is an equivalent for their surrender of occupancy of the 
land of the United States. It might, perhaps, be argued that this care 
of dependent wards of the nation would have been exercised in any 
event. However, the reader may include this item or eliminate it, as 
he chooses. There has been paid out in this connection to June 30, 
1904, $412,677,393.55, and to June 30, 1883, $208,776,031.24, the differ- 



18 This item was secured by subtracting from the totals paid the several states to June 30. 
19O4, $12,600,136.21 (Land Office Report 1904, p. 218) the totals paid under this head to June 30. 
1883, $7,333,069.76 (Public Domain, p. 523). 



UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAND POLICY. 



357 



ence between these sums, or $203,901,362.31, representing the cost for 
the later period. This sum is sufficiently large to swallow up the entire 
net returns from the land service and leave a deficit of $111,325,958.38, 
accruing in the years 1884-1904 inclusive, to be added to that shown by 
Mr. Donaldson's figures (as corrected). 

Against this Donaldson offsets the cost of the Indian department, 
which to June 30, 1904, as already stated, amounted to $412,677,393.55. 
This would make the present cost of the public domain remaining in 
the possession of the United States, above all returns therefrom, $145,- 
740,111.18. 

PRESENT AREA OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN. 

The following table of public land states (exclusive of Tennessee) 
shows the total public domain (exclusive of island possessions) unap- 
propriated, reserved and appropriated, to June 30, 1904 : 20 

UNAPPROPRIATED. RESERVED AND APPROPRIATED LANDS IN THE PUBLIC LAND 
STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



STATE OR TERRITORY. 


Area unappropriated and unreserved. 


Area 
reserved. 


Surveyed. 


Unsurveyed. 


Total. 


Alabama 


219,730 




219,730 
368,035.975 
47.OO1.593 
2.427,587 
35,213,793 
35,831,596 
1,157,847 
39.668.636 


51.48O 
22 67.705 
2O.249.18O 
2.560 
20,818.779 
5.294,348 
19,259 
2.061,577 


Alaska 


21 368,035,975 
34.936.800 




12,064,793 
2,427,587 
28.077,190 
31,733,053 
997,777 
10,848.849 




California 


7.136.6O3 
4,098,543 
160,070 
28,819.787 




Florida 




Illinois 













Indian Territory 








19,714.560 










Kansas 


947,642 
1O2.173 
340.5O7 
2,243,210 
92,420 
191.681 
18,409.023 
7.822,789 
3O.833.050 
38.123,606 
7.795.095 




947,642 
167,191 
340,507 
3.127.4O8 
92.420 
191,681 
56.455,435 
7.834,763 
61.250.58O 
52,252.340 
11.097.451 


120,375 
1.468.434 

120,654 
2.346.82O 




65.018 




Minnesota 


884,198 




Missouri 








38,046.412 
11,974 
30,417,530 
14,128.734 
3.3O2.356 


18,616.446 
628.855 

5,983.409 
7.356,104 
2,686,670 


Nebraska 


Nevada 


New Mexico.. 


North Dakota 


Ohio 


Oklahoma 


2.095.427 
14,527,289 
10,413.471 
11.560.475 
4.O08.954 
71,373 
34,320,326 




2.O95.427 
20,174,254 
10,720,302 
39,703,466 
8,862,932 
71.373 
36.930.178 


3,055,469 
14,894.967 
12,225.989 
7.750,479 
11.395.331 
432.524 
15,511,085 




5,646,965 
306,831 
28,142,991 
4,853.978 


South Dakota 


Utah 








2,609,852 


Grand total 


270.267,760 


571,604,617 


841.872.377 


172.873,079 



20 From page 130 of the report for 19O4, Commissioner of General Land Office. 

21 The unreserved lands in Alaska are mostly unsurveyed and unappropriated. 

22 So far as estimated. 



358 



LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 



UNAPPROPRIATED. RESERVED AND APPROPRIATED LANDS IN THE PUBLIC LAND 
STATES AND TERRITORIES-Continued. 



STATE OR TERRITORY. 


Area 
appropriated. 


Total area in State or Territory. 


Land surface. 


Water surface. 


Total area. 




32,386.710 


32,657,920 
368,103,680 
72,792,320 
33.543,680 
99,969.920 
66.348,160 
35,072,640 
53,293,440 
35,842,560 
22,950,400 
19,714,560 
35,646,080 
52,382,720 
29,055,360 
36,819,200 
51.198,080 
29,685,120 
43,795,840 
93,593,600 
49,137,280 
70,336,640 
78,428,800 
44,910,080 
26,062,720 
24,718,720 
61,277.440 
49,206,400 
52,541,440 
42,746,880 
35,274,880 
62,433,280 


465,920 
15.541,760 
84,480 
522,240 
1.299,200 
192,000 
2.677,120 
356,480 
1.504,000 
465,280 
279,680 
366,720 
248,320 
2,705,280 
25,894,400 
4.056,320 
343,040 
451.840 
525,440 
482,560 
497,920 
90,880 
452,480 
2,394,240 
158,720 
698,880 
444,800 
1,812,480 
2,420,480 
6.840,320 
208,640 


33,123,840 
383,645,440 
72,876,800 
34,065,920 
101,269,120 
66,540,160 
37,749,960 
53,649,920 
37,346,560 
23,415,680 
19,994,240 
36,012,800 
52,631,040 
31,760,640 
62.713,600 
55,254,400 
30,028,160 
44,247,680 
94,119,040 
49,619,840 
70,834,560 
78.519,680 
45.362,560 
28,456,960 
24,877.440 
61,976,320 
49,651,200 
54,353,920 
45,167,360 
42.115,200 
62,641,920 




Arizona 


5,541,547 
31,113,263 
43,937,338 
25,222,216 
33,895,534 
11,563,227 
35,842,560 
22.950,400 




California 


Colorado 


Florida 


Idaho 


Illinois : 




Indian Territory 




35,646,080 
51,314,703 
27,419,735 
36,358,039 
45,723,852 
29,592,700 
43,604,159 
18,521,719 
40,673,662 
3,102.651 
18,820,356 
31,125,939 
26,062,720 
19,567,824 
26,208,219 
26,260,109 
5,087,495 
22,488,617 
34,770,983 
9,992,017 


Kansas. 


Louisiana.... 




Minnesota..... 


Mississippi..... 






Nebraska 


Nevada 




North Dakota 


Ohio 


Oklahoma 


Oregon 


South Dakota 


Utah 


Washington 




Wyoming... ............................ 


Grand total. . . 


794.794.384 


1.809.539.840 


74,481.920 


1.884.021.760 



The public domain remaining in the possession of the United States 
includes both the unappropriated and the reserved, a total land area of 
1,014,745,356 acres, or about fifty-six percent of the total land surface 
of the public land states. Comparing this with the present cost, includ- 
ing expenses of the Indians, it will be seen that the present Govern- 
ment holdings have a cost of 14.36 cents an acre. Deducting from the 
above area the 368,103,680 acres of lands in Alaska, and from the cost 
$10,000,000 as a roughly assumed present cost for Alaska, leaves the 
cost of the public lands remaining in the United States 20.99 cents an 
acre. 

It is, however, evident that if the cost of taking care of the Indians 
is to be included, upon the theory advanced by Mr. Donaldson, this 
cost, including the future estimated cost, should be charged against the 
entire original area of the public domain, as a part of the original pur- 
chase price which is still being paid. While during the first one hun- 
dred years of our Government the cost of the Indians averaged only a 



UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAND POLICY. 359 

little over a million dollars annually, during the twenty-one years from 
1883 to the close of the fiscal year 1904 the average annual cost was a 
little over $9,700,000. This expense will rapidly decrease with the 
acceptance of individual allotments and the passing of the individual 
from the condition of a ward of the Government into that of independ- 
ent citizenship. It is, however, a small estimate to place the final 
cost of the Indian department at $600,000,000; which, added to the actual 
cost of purchases would make a total eventual cost of $694,435,231.15. 
Upon the total land area of the public land states and territories (ex- 
clusive of Alaska and deducting $10,000,000 from the cost as the 
assumed present cost of Alaska) this is a cost of 40.54 cents an acre. 
Upon the 794,794,384 acres already appropriated in the public land 
states the gross returns of the land office (less distribution of proceeds 
and cash paid in swamp land indemnities to the states) amount to fifty- 
six cents an acre, and the cost for administration, survey and disposi- 
tion has been twenty-two cents an acre. The remaining public domain 
must, therefore, realize 41.9 cents an acre above the cost of survey and 
disposition, if the United States is to come out whole on its public 
lands and on its Indian charges, considered together. These figures do 
not take into consideration the amount of land required to satisfy out- 
standing railroad and other land grants and private land claims pending 
and scrip issued in settlement therefor and still outstanding. As an 
offset, it does not consider the considerable portion of the original pub- 
lic domain in these public land states which went to satisfy reservations 
in the deeds of cession by the states, or private land claims existing at 
the time of cession or of purchase and subsequently allowed by the 
United States, or, in many cases, still pending. There should also be 
considered the fact that the process of selection has left the more unde- 
sirable lands unselected, greatly reducing the average value of the 
remaining public lands as compared with that of the original holdings ; 
this being in turn offset by the general enhancement of land values 
with the development of the country. 23 

It should, however, be considered that in acquiring and disposing of 
this immense domain the United States has occupied a position far more 
dignified and responsible than that of a mere dealer in real estate. In 



23 The report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office for 19O4 gives the total of lands 
disposed of during the year ended June 30 at 16,405,821.75 acres ; gross receipts of the land serv- 
ice $9,283,341.98, and gross expenditures and estimated liabilities $2,10O,O93.92. These figures 
(which Include Indian lands in both the acreage and the receipts) show returns of 56.58 cents an 
acre on the amount disposed of, and costs of survey and administration at 12.8 cents an acre, 
which includes expense of inspecting mines in territories and expense of protecting forest reserves. 



360 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

her purchases of territory she secured not only land but governmental 
jurisdiction; an extension of the boundaries of the nation, and in- 
creased opportunities for the development of national wealth and pros- 
perity. In disposing of them she has for a half century sought not for 
revenue but for the encouragement of settlement and development of 
new communities. The purposes which were thus sought to be accom- 
plished have constituted the national land policy ; and the methods and 
instrumentalities through which their accomplishment were sought have 
constituted the public land system. An historical consideration of these 
will now be in order. 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN. 

The present public land system of the United States is an historical 
outgrowth, and, in many features, an historical relic which has outlived 
its period of usefulness. It is a result of political contentions and 
compromises of issues long since dead, and also of real and actual 
needs now largely disappeared. ( Founded at the outset upon the policy 
of disposing of the land rapidly in large lots with the idea of producing 
revenue for an impoverished government, it has become a system of 
paternalism to actual settlers and of restriction of disposition in other 
directions, through provisions which often offer loopholes for cunning 
and fraud and are a restraint chiefly upon honest enterprise. The re- 
forms now badly needed in the land department have for some time 
been under consideration by a Public Land Commission whose reports 
and recommendations will receive subsequent consideration in this chap- 
ter. A knowledge of past events is necessary in order to understand 
present conditions, and the more important which have had their influ- 
ence will be briefly given here, referring the reader to general historical 
works for more complete information. 

Coming into possession of the great domain whose extent and origin 
have already been given, nearly all of it unsettled and unoccupied terri- 
tory, the United States, as already suggested, assumed both ownership 
and government jurisdiction. The first involved the control and dis- 
position of the lands, and the second involved the responsibility for the 
extension of a form of government over the territory. Even before its 
acquisition of the first foot of territory through state cessions, Congress 
had outlined a policy in regard to the prospective public domain, in the 
resolution of October 10, 1780, already quoted (page 347), providing 
that such acquired territory " shall be disposed of for the common 
benefit of the United States, and shall be formed into distinct republic- 



UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAND POLICY. 361 

an states, which shall become members of the Federal Union, and have 
the same rights of sovereignty, freedom, and independence as the other 
states." This was the corner stone of the territorial system of the 
United States, and upon it subsequent legislation was founded. It laid 
down the general principles both for the disposition of the land by the 
Government and for the establishment of forms of government. 

The first legislation following the principles of this resolution was 
reported out by a committee of which Thomas Jefferson was chairman, 
on the same day that Virginia ceded her claims to the Northwest Ter- 
ritory March 1, 1784 and with subsequent recommitment to the com- 
mittee, and some additional amendments, was adopted April 23, being 
known as "the ordinance of 1784." This ordinance applied to all the 
territory, both north and south of the Ohio River, in providing that 
settlers might organize for themselves a temporary government, with a 
representative in Congress having the right to engage in debate but not 
to vote. When, however, the population of the State had increased to 
that of the least populous of the original states it might be admitted 
with the assent of nine states, as required by the Articles of Confeder- 
ation, and then have equal privileges and representation. As the reso- 
lution referred to in the preceding paragraph had provided that new 
states to be organized should have "not less than 100 nor more than 
150 miles square " of territory, the original draft of this ordinance pro- 
vided for the division of the Northwest Territory into states, extending 
north and south between odd numbered parallels of latitude beginning 
with the thirty-first, and east and west, to the Mississippi River and to 
the meridian of the western cape of the mouth of the Great Kanawha 
River, from the meridian passing the lowest point of the rapids of the 
Ohio River, which served as the boundary between the eastern and 
western tier of states. No attempt was made to establish state boun- 
daries for the southwest territory, the committee stating that it did not 
have sufficient information for the purpose. To the new states were 
assigned such fanciful names as Sylvania, Michigania, Chersonesus, 
Assenisipia, Metropotamia, Illinoia, Saratoga, Washington, Polypo- 
tamia, and Pelysipia. As finally amended these names were stricken 
out, as also the definite state boundaries laid down, together, also, with 
the original provision that slavery should not exist in this territory after 
the year 1800. 

It is generally believed that Jefferson, in drafting this law, was 
governed by Washington's advice; but this law proving a dead letter, 



362 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

and no settlement occurring under it, we find Washington later advocat- 
ing the marking out of a single state instead of ten. This seems to 
have been because the antislavery sentiment was then strong and 
rapidly developing in the northern states, and they did not favor the 
formation of ten new states in which it would be permitted; and the 
tide of settlement from these older northern states which later invaded 
the Ohio Valley and beyond, was accordingly slow in manifesting itself. 
The question of government of the territory, however, came up again 
in 1786 on a petition from the inhabitants of the Kaskaskias. This and 
renewed agitation for abolition of slavery in the territory had its cul- 
mination in the celebrated ordinance of July 13, 1787, 24 which has had 
a dominant influence not only upon all subsequent legislation but upon 
the forms of government in the states afterwards created from this and 
other western territory. 

The ordinance provided for a governor and secretary to be appointed 
by Congress, the first 'for three years and the second for four; also a 
court of three judges under common law jurisdiction. The act guaran- 
teed the privileges of habeas corpus and of trial by jury, provided for 
equal distribution of estates among children, with a dower right for 
life of one-third to the widow, and stipulated that real estate might be 
conveyed by simple conveyance with witnesses ; and, after providing in 
detail for an assembly and for the formation of township and county 
organizations from time to time "in parts of the district in which the 
Indian titles shall have been extinguished," the ordinance continues: 

And for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious liberty, 
which form the basis whereon these republics, their laws, and constitution are 
erected ; to fix and establish those principles as the basis of all laws, constitutions, 
and governments, which forever hereafter shall be formed in the said territory ; to 
provide, also, for the establishment of states and permanent governments therein, 
and for their admission to a share in the federal councils on an equal footing with 
the original states, at as early periods as may be consistent with the general 
interest: 

// is hereby ordained and declared, by the authority aforesaid, That the follow- 
ing articles shall be considered as articles of compact, between the original states 
and the people and states in the said territory, and forever remain unalterable, 
unless by common consent, to wit: 



24 As originally drafted, and even at the third reading, this ordinance was quite common- 
place ; and there has been much controversy over the question of authorship of the remarkable 
changes which were incorporated in it between this period and its final passage. This question was 
finally settled by William F. Poole (North American Review, April, 1876), who showed that the 
dominant influence was that of Dr. Manasseh Cutler, then connected with the Ohio Company and 
engaged in negotiations for western lands on behalf of that company for colonization by New 
England settlers. 



UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAND POLICY. 363 

The six articles which follow are too long to be given here in com- 
plete form, but Article IV provided that the territory and states formed 
from it should forever remain a part of the United States ; that its in- 
habitants should pay their just share of federal debts ; that state legis- 
latures should never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil by 
Congress or with its regulations for securing the title of the soil to 
bona fide purchasers ; that public lands should not be taxed, nor non- 
residents higher than residents ; and that navigable waters leading into 
the Mississippi or St. Lawrence rivers should forever remain public 
highways without tolls to all citizens of the United States. 

Upon the adoption of the present Constitution and its taking effect 
in 1789 the first Congress passed an act bringing the ordinance under 
its provisions. On May 23, 1790, the provisions of the ordinance were 
extended to the territory south of the Ohio River, except the sixth 
article prohibiting slavery, as North Carolina in her deed of cession 
had provided "That no regulations made or to be made by Congress 
shall tend to emancipate slaves." 

EARLY DISPOSAL OF PUBLIC LANDS. 

The colonies were originally founded under royal grants to com- 
panies which were in effect colonization syndicates, and which distrib- 
uted the lands to the individual colonists in various ways. New 
communities were often assigned lands in bulk, the local authorities 
making a redistribution to the first inhabitants and to subsequent 
comers according to their individual needs or their standing and im- 
portance in the community for building lots and farms or business 
sites, with suitable reservations for church and school sites and other 
public purposes, and as a reservation with which to stimulate further 
settlement. In New England especially this communal system pre- 
vailed. Often these lands were awarded without compensation as a 
premium to encourage settlement. With the growth of the commun- 
ity real estate would begin to take on a substantial value, by which 
time the allotment system had largely performed its purpose. 

It was but natural that in the early colonization of the western lands 
the same methods should have been followed. We find, therefore, large 
colonization syndicates corresponding to the companies which had ob- 
tained the early royal charters, purchasing large tracts of land at low 
prices and colonizing them with eastern settlers who built up the new 
communities, following the ideas and institutions of the old. Such was 
the origin of the Ohio Company, formed in New England in 1786, in- 



364 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

eluding prominent men and a large number of Revolutionary army 
veterans who used their army land warrants, together with certificates 
of public debt, in purchasing the lands. Two million acres were at 
first awarded, but various military and Indian reservations within the 
boundaries of the grant cut it down to 892,900 acres. The stipulated 
price was $1 an acre with a rebate of one-third under certain conditions, 
and the total price eventually paid was $642,856.66. 25 In the same year 
(1792) 272,540 acres were sold to John Cleves Symmes and his asso- 
ciates for $189,693 in army land warrants, and 202,187 acres (the 
triangular corner of the state west of New York) for $151,640.25. 
These sales were made by the treasury board, requiring authorization 
by Congress for each sale. They were doubly an expedient for the dis- 
charge of national debts first, to the soldiers in accepting army war- 
rants in part payment, 26 and second, by using the cash proceeds to pay 
creditors of the United States. These were the only large sales made 
prior to the new constitution. 

ALEXANDER HAMILTON'S REPORT. 

Under the new constitution the public land question was one of the 
first to engage the attention of Congress. Alexander Hamilton (then 
Secretary of the Treasury) was called upon for his views, which he 
embodied in his famous report of July 22, 1790. 

This report recognized that there would be two probable classes of 
purchasers : Those desiring to buy in large quantities for investment or 
for colonization, and those desiring to purchase small tracts for actual 
settlement. It recommended the establishment of a general land office 
for the convenience of the former, and of local land offices which would 
best serve the convenience of the small purchaser. Hamilton's prac- 
tical mind also supplied many suggestions as to details, which were 
actually worked out in practice. In 1800 the act was passed establishing 
local land offices and officers known as registers, setting a minimum 
price of $2 an acre, one-fourth cash and balance in four annual pay- 
ments. This credit system did not work well and was later abandoned. 

In 1812 the General Land Office was established, and in 1849 upon 
the establishment of the Department of the Interior it was made a 
bureau of that department. 

25 Public Domain, p. 18. 

26 Donaldson states (Public Domain, p. 198) that each acre in these warrants was, on the 
sales above noted, accepted as payment of an acre and a half of land probably because the regular 
price of $1 an acre had been reduced one-third in these sales. 



UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAND POLICY. 365 

At the time of Hamilton's report the fixed minimum price per acre 
of the public lands was $1 an acre. He recommended that this be made 
thirty cents an acre, but instead it was raised to $2 by act of May 18, 
1796, which, however, included the cost of survey, which Hamilton had 
recommended should be paid by the purchaser. This act also included 
the substance of the present rectangular system of surveys, which had 
been adopted by Congress in 1785 upon report of a committee of which 
Thomas Jefferson was chairman. The original committee report had 
recommended townships of ten miles square, which was amended to 
the present size. Previous surveys had been by metes and bounds, and 
the origin of the rectangular s-ystem back of the committee's report is 
not known. It is by some thought that the system came from Holland 
and was primarily of Roman origin. " 

Under the credit system up to June 30, 1820, there had been sold 
19,399,158.04 acres of land, for $47,689,563.09 ; but reversions by for- 
feiture and otherwise cut the amount down to 13,642,536 acres, and the 
sum eventually received therefor was $27,900,379.29. During this time 
many relief acts for settlers were passed; but on July 1, 1820, the cash 
system went into effect and the price was reduced to $1.25 an acre, 
which has ever since been the basis price on public lands in general. 
This act, of April 24, 1820, also made it the duty of the President to 
proclaim sales of public land, Congress having theretofore ordered such 
sales. 

There were thereafter no important changes in the method of dis- 
posing of public lands until the passage of preemption and homestead 
legislation ; and this was the growth of an intervening popular move- 
ment or trend of sentiment which must now be considered. 

CLAIMS OF THE PUBLIC LAND STATES. 

By the provisions of the ordinance of 1787, already mentioned, the 
states in western territory were to have no interest in the public lands, 
nor the power of taxing them as long as the title was in the United 
States. These western states considered this a grievance, and at vari- 
ous times memorialized Congress, pointing out their disadvantage in 
comparison with the older communities which had the disposal of lands 
within their boundaries. As a matter of fact these older communities 
had suffered from the depletion of their population by the tide of west- 
ern immigration, and had put the price of state lands down in some 

27 Prof. Austin Scott, of Ratters College, in the Rutgers Targum, December 12. 1884. 



366 LUMBER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA. 

cases as low as fifty cents an acre, cutting under the price of Govern- 
ment lands and producing a correspondingly small revenue to the states. 
The western states, however, clamored for cession to them of the public 
lands within their boundaries, at a reduced price. This question was 
the theme of the famous Webster-Hayne debate in Congress, in which 
Webster was the champion of the existing land system ; and in 1832 it 
was referred to the House Committee on Manufactures, of which Henry 
Clay was chairman. The question naturally belonged to the committee 
on public lands, but there was a political object in saddling the question 
upon Mr. Clay, because he was then a candidate for the presidency and 
it was thought that he must make enemies whichever side of the ques- 
tion he took. 

The report submitted on April 16, 1832, was, however, a masterly 
treatment of the subject. Regarding the contention that the price was 
too high, the report said, "There is no more satisfactory criterion of 
the fairness of the price of an article than that arising from the brisk- 
ness of the sales when it is offered in the market." The annual increase 
in land sales was then offered as an evidence in rebuttal of the conten- 
tion. It was also said that a reduction of price would be unfair to those 
who had already purchased, and would be an incitement to speculation, 
the military bounty lands being referred to as having given more bene- 
fit to speculators than to those for whom they were intended. 

Upon the question of cession of the public lands to the states, either 
by gift or by purchase, the committee was equally firm. The public 
lands involved were worth, at $1.25 an acre, $1,362,500,000, and the 
committee report stated : 

It is difficult to conceive a question of greater magnitude than that of relin- 
quishing this immense amount of national property. If they were transferred to 
the new states, the subsequent disposition would be according to laws emanating 
from various legislative sources. Competition would probably arise between the 
new states, in the terms which they would offer to purchasers. Each state would 
be desirous of inviting the greatest number of immigrants, not only for the lauda- 
ble purpose of populating rapidly its own territories, but with a view to the acquisi- 
tion of funds to enable it to fulfill its engagements to the general Government. 
Collisions between the states would probably arise, and their injurious consequences 
may be imagined. A spirit of hazardous speculation would be engendered. Vari- 
ous schemes of the new states would be put afloat to sell or divide the public lands. 
Companies and combinations would be formed in this country, if not in foreign 
countries, presenting gigantic and tempting, but delusive, projects, and the history 
of legislation in some of the states of the Union admonishes us that a too-rfeady 
ear is sometimes given by a majority in a legislative assembly to such projects. 



UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAND POLICY. 367 

The report also intimated that the relations of debtor and creditor 
between the states and the general Government would produce much 
the same evils as those which had attended the selling of public lands 
to individuals on credit. Delinquencies would arise and the indebtedness 
be sought to be avoided or wiped out by relief measures. The report 
was, however, accompanied by a draft of a bill for distribution tempo- 
rarily of the proceeds of sale of public lands to the various states. 
This bill was recommitted, finally passed the Senate, and passed the 
House in the closing days of the session, but failed to receive President 
Jackson's signature. In 1835 it was revived by Clay and passed the 
Senate, but was lost in the House. In 1841 a similar bill was passed 
as an administration measure, and under it there has been paid out to 
the various states $701,578.94, as already given in the preceding finan- 
cial tables. 

A further concession to the public land states was the Preemption 
Act passed in 1841, although it was bitterly opposed by Calhoun and by 
some others who insisted upon the cession of land to the states and 
were not willing to accept compromises. Lands were still sold at $1.25 
an acre under this act, but it gave preference to the actual settler, at the 
minimum price, and closed the lands to public sale where a premium 
over this price might have been secured. At first it applied only where 
settlement was made subsequent to survey, but afterwards was extend- 
ed to apply to unsurveyed lands. It was the beginning of the present 
epoch in the disposition of public lands. Theretofore the primary idea 
had been revenue to the Government ; thereafter it was to be the en- 
couragement of the actual settler and of homebuilding. The act, hav- 
ing outlived its usefulness and having been made the instrument of 
speculative manipulation, was repealed in 1889. 

From the passage of this act to that of the Homestead Act in 1862 
no legislation of a general character was enacted regarding the disposi- 
tion of public lands. There were during this period a number of dona- 
tion acts, designed to encourage settlement upon the frontiers. Of this 
character was the act passed in 1842 for the territory of East Florida, 
grantin