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Full text of "History of Luzerne, Lackawanna, and Wyoming counties, Pa. : with illustrations and biographical sketches of some of their prominent men and pioneers"

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|l Ilttstrafi0n^t and IMiogmjhtcal ^ketche^ 




36 Vesey Street. 





■J, 10 


15, 16 


'riiu Discovery ot the Delaware -IVnnsyl- 
vaiiia (iranted to ami I )rffani/.eil by Wil- 
liam Penn 

THAPTEll 11. 
(icrmaii Immigration— The Administra- 
tions of William Penn and Sir William 


The Question of Ta.xinfr the Pro|n ictary Es- 
tates — Wars with the I'reneh an<l Indians 

Mason and Di.von's Lint — Causes of the 
Kevolntion— Patriotic Action of Penn- 

devolution in the ProvinoialGoverinnent — 
Pennsyhania a State— Hattles of 1776 and 

1777— Indian Warfare 

Later Events of the Hevoliition — War with 
the Western Indians— Constitutional 


The PeniianiiteWar— Whiskey Insurrection 
—"Molly Maguire" Outrages-The Riots 


Harrisliurjr made the Capital —The War of 
1812 Internal Inipnuenientji— Schools 
Patriotic Action in the Mexican and Ci\'il 






Kelics and Theories of the Earliest Inhabi- 
tjuits of Xorthcastcrn Penns>ivania — 
Opening: of tho Historic Period— The liuli- 

ans of Wyoming 

Operations of the Siisiiuehanna Company— 
The " Pennamite and Yankee " Contest 
The Pioneers— How lliey Came, .Settled ami 
Developed the Resources of the Country 
Tho Condition of the Pioneers— Their Ways 

and Means of Li vine 

Old Luzerne County in the Revolution — 

Civil History— Houndaries, Organization, 

County lluildings ami Civil List 

Local Military Organizations— Service in 
Canada and Mexico and at Homo — 
Early Wagon Roads and Mail Rou tes .... 

30 ;i7 





History of the Coal Trade in Luzerne and 

Lackawanna Counties 

River Navigation— The Construction uf« 


Tlie Construction of Railroads in Luzerne 


Historical. Agricultural, Medical. Religious 

and Sport.smen's Associations 

Opening of the Civil War— Patriotic Spirit 
in Luzerne. Lackawanna and Wyoming 


Luzerne in the Civil War— TheSlh. Ilth and 
15th Regiments of Three Months Men . . 

The 2.Sth Regiment 

The 36th and list Regiments (7th and I2th 

Reserves) — 

Histories of the Wth and Wth Reginn/nls 

History of the 52nd Regiment 


History of the .T3d Regiment 


The 5«th, .)7th and .5sth Regiments 


Tho 01st and 64th Regiments 

The 74tli,7fith and 77th Regiments — 


The 81st. 92nd and SUlth Regiments 

The in7th, 108th, 1.32nd, i;i«th and I42nd Regi- 


'I'he I43d Regiment 

The U'Jth, 101st, 102nd. liJW. 177th. I7sih and 

194th Regiments — — 

.\n Outlinoof tlieGeoIosry of the Wyominif 
Coal Field 

'.CI W! 



Ktl 11)7 













I in 






182 mi 

Wilkes-Iiarre Cily and Township .... IBBSIfi 

Bear Creek Township 2;I7 

DIack Creek Township 237-231) 

Buck Township Sin,24« 

Ilutler Township 240 243 

Conynghum Township 243.244 

Dallas Township 244.215 

Dallas llorough 245 247 

Denison Township 247,248 

Dorrance Township 248 

ExcttT Township 249-2.52 

West Pittston Borough 2.52,253 

Fairmount Township 

Foster Township 

White Haven Itnrongh .. 
Freeland Borough 
Franklin Township 
Hano\er Township 

.\shlcy Bonnigh 

Nanlieoke Borough 
Sugar Nolch Borough 

Ilazle Township 

Hazleton llorough 
Hollcniiaek Township 
HiHiloek Township 
Huntington Ttiwnship 
.laekson 'i'ftwnship 
.lenkins Township 
Vatesvllle llorougli 
Kingston T'lwnship 
Kingston II«irough 

Lake Township 

Lehman Township 

Marcy Township 

Neseopeek Township 
New Coluinhus Borough 
Newp(trt Township 
Pittston Township 
llughestown Iltirough 
Pittston llorough 
Pleasant \'al)ey Borough 

Plains Township 

Parsons llortiugh 
Plymouth Township 
PlymiMilh Borough 

Ross Township 

Salem Township 

Slia-um Township 
Sugarloaf Township 

I'nion Township 

Shickshinny Borough 
Wright Townsliip 

.... 2.VI.255 
.... 2.V> 2.5H 
.... 2,58-3S4 

.... 2111 2H7 
.... 2tlM,2<)U 
.... 2ai»-273 


.... 278-280 
.... 28lh2M2 
.... 282 2'.« 
.... 2!fi.2!W 
.... 21W 21W 
.... .Ml. 301 
.... :iil -Mi 

.... ■.m..*H 

.... :I04 311 

.... 311 317 

.... 318,3111 

.... 3111 »21 

.... XH.Xii 

.... 323.3S4 

.... :is4-;b7 
.... :t>;.:i2H 
.... :c.ii 3:18 
.... :i:i8;i40 
.... :l40,3«o 
.... :i«.v.34» 

.... ;i48-.l.54 

.... :Rv:)a2 

.... 3KI.3llt 

.... :iii4 -.tsn 
.... ■.»-A.:%sn 
... :«7-;ni 

.... .171-373 
.... »73^;i70 
.... .T7«,:C7 


NauH* First Inhal>ilaiit8— County ' Uv.iiii- 

zatlnn onicials 


The Delawari* ami Hudson Canal Company 

Railroads of Ijickuwanna County .... 


The 13lh Regiment of the National Gnurrl 

of Pennsylvania 

:i7i'. :I80 



Sennitonand Dunmorc 


.\liington Township 

North .Xhlngton Township 
.s<iuth .Vltington Township 

(tienburn Borough 

Waverly Borough .... 

Benton T<iwnship 

illakely Township .... 

.\rehbald Borough 

Illakely Borough 

Dickson City llorough .... 

.lermyn Borough 

Olyphant Borough .... 


;il lIL-iTOKII-^S. 

:|81 4.311 















Winton Borough 

Carbondale Township 
Clifton Township 
Covington Township 

Fell Township 

Greenfield Township 
Jefferson Township 
Lackawanna Township .. 
Lehigh Township 


Madison Township 
Newton Township 
Old Forge Township 
Ransom Township 
Roaring Brook Township 

Scott Township 

Spring Brook Township .. 

.... 473,474 
.... 474,476 
.... 476, 477 
.... 477,478 
.... 478-480 
.... 480,481 
.... 481,483 
.... 483-486 
.... 486-489 
.... 489,490 
.... 490-493 
.... 492,493 
.... 493,494 
.... 494,495 


Relics of an Earlier Race— Organization of 
Wyoming County— Officers and Repre- 
sentatives 496,497 

Wyoming County Officers and Represent- 
atives, continued 499 

Canal and Railroad Communications in 
Wyoming County ■'jOO 

Agricultural Societies— Wyoming County 
Bible Society— Military Companies ... .500, 501 


Braintrim Township 

Clinton Township 

Eaton Township 

Exeter Townshij* 

Falls Townshiji 

Forkston Township 

Lemon Township 

Mehoopany Township 

Meshoppeu Township 

Meshoppen Borough 

Monroe Townshiii 

Nicholson Township 

Nicholson Borough 

North Branch Township 
North Moreland Township 

Overfiekl Township 

Tunkliannock Township 
Tunkhannock Borough 

Washington Township 

Windham Township 







513, .514 

. .. 514,515 















The Wyoming Monument— M. E. Chapel, 

Pleasant Valley— Sheldon Reynolds 539 

Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company (W. 
W. Scranton's Resignation)— Minislerial 
and Official Changes— Scranton Fire De- 
partment— Borough Items 539, .540 

Keystone Academy, Factory ville 



Abbott, .Tohn 

Ackerli'N', .\. I 

Allen, \V. E 

Apgar, .lonathan 

Bardwell, H. W 

Barnes, W. II 

Barthe, E. D 

Bauman, .\nthony 
Baun, Itobert — 

Beamish, F. A 

Benedict, G.W 

Benedict, S. S 

Benner, Samuel .... 
Bennct, Charles — 

— facing 

344 A 
454 A 
438 K 
5:34 A 
516 A 
3.54 A 
236 A 
236 .V 
438 I 
4:iS L 
4.53 A 
348 A 
3.3(! H 

Bennet, D. S 

Bennett, Ziba 

Birkbeck, Mrs. Elizabeth 

Bishop, William 

Bogert, J. K. 

Bradley, W.H 

Briggs, C.L 

Briggs, J. F. 

Brown, S. L. 

Brundage, A. R 

Brundage, F. M 

Bryden, Andrew 

Burgess. A. P 

Bunnell, F.C 

Camp, Cyrus D 

Campbell, John 

Carey, J. M. 

Carpenter, James S. 

Clarkson, James 

Connolly, D. W 

Connolly, John F. 

Cook, A. W. 

Coon, J. C. 

Copeland, David 

Courtright, Benjamin . . . . 

Crippen, Martin 

Dana Family 

Dana, C.H. 

Dana, Anderson 

Daniels, W. G 

Davis, S.D. 

Day, Alvin 

Dekin, John 

De Lacy, Patrick 

Denison, J. W 

Dershuck, Peter 

Dewitt, D. D 

Dickinson, Miss Susan E. ... 

Donop, August 

Dorrance Family 

Doty, A. H. 

Drum, G. W 

Eaton, .\lver and James M. 

Edwards, B.W 

Ellithorp, E. L 

Engle, S. D. 

Evans, Benjamin 

Evans, D.J. 

Evans, R.T. 

Everhart Family 

Eynon, Thomas 

Fassett, John 

Ferris, William 

Fisher, C.H. 

Flick, R.J. 

Foote, John 

Foster, C. D. 

Frear, James 

Gardner, A. P 

Gibbs, J. W., Jr 

Gordon, Lewis 

Green, A. L. 

Green, J. D. 

Hahn, J. L. 

Hakes, Harry 

Hancock, E. A 

Hand, D. B 

Harding, G.M 

Harding, Henry 

Harding. Daniel 

Hart, Theodore, Jr. 
Hartnuui, Mrs. M. L. T. ... 

Harvey, .A.N 

Ilcndrick, E. E 

nice, George 

Hitchcock, Elisha 

K{)llister, Horace 

Hopewell, J. U 

Hosie, John 

Hoyt, H. M 

Hubler, P. F 

Hughes, George 

Hull, William 

Hunt, A. E. 

Hutchings, W.S 

Ingham, S. D 

.... 236H 

Jenkins Family 

.... 236M 

Jenkins, William 

.... 256 

Jenkins, Jonathan 

.... 464A 

Jennings, Wm 

.... 236A 

Jermy n, John .... 

.... 236 B 

Jones, Edward 

.... 454A 

Jones, W. S. 

.... 373 A 

Jones, H. I. 

.... 236 B 

Jordan, James 

.... 236F 

Kearney Family — 

.... 248A 

Kenyon, J. B 

.... 330A 

Kern, J. T. 

.... 538A 

Kiefer, N 

.... 5.34A 

Kintner, J. C 

.... 534E 

Kisner, E. P 

.... 452 B 

Koons, William 

.... 524A 

Kulp, G. B. 

.... 516A 

Ladd, Horace 

facing 229 

Lampman, J. S 

facing 400 

Laning, A. C 

facing 437 

Lathrope, T. R 

.... 452 B 

Law, William .... 

.... 236 B 

Lee, Washington, 

.... 306A 

Lee. Andrew — 

.... 236H 

Le Grand, Lewis .... 

.... 470 B 

Lewis, E.R 

.... 336N 

Little, R.R 

.... ,534 B 

Loouiis. 0. H 

.... .506 A 

Lott, Ziba — 

.... 333A 

Lo\'e, Henry — 

.... 468 B 

Loveland, William 

.... 534F 

Lynch, J. J. 

.... 438 1 

McMillan, James — 

.... 438A 

Macknight, O.B 

.... 516 .\ 

McKinstry, A. B .... 

.... 248B 

McMurtrie, Alfred 

.... .534 B 

Merrifield, Edward 

.... 330A 

Merrifleld, William 

.... 248 A 

Miller, C. P 

.... 306 .\ 

.Miner, Charles 

.... 516 A 

Miner, W. P 

.... 248A 

Miner, C. A 

.... 464 A 

Mitchell, John 

.... 538A 

Mitchell, H.H 

.... 330A 

Money5>enny, W. B. 

.... 248 A 

Monies, W. N 

.... 333 A 

Nelson, Reuben — 

.... 438M 

Nicol, Helen — 

facing 433 

Nicol, Andrew 

.... 438A 

Nivison, Mrs. M. C. 

facing 535 

O'Donnell, James 

.... 538A 

O'Haran, Dennis 

.... 470A 

Osterhout, P. M 

.... 333E 

Osterhout, Mrs. Sarah 

.... 336H 

Parke, N.G 

.... 464 A 

Parsons, Calvin 

facing 194 

Patten, Andrew 

.... 506 A 

Paine, Lewis C 

.... 483 A 

Payne, W.G 

facing 431 

Payne, H.B 

.... 330F 

Pell Family, 

.... 468 B 

Pellam, S. H 

.... 3:30 A 

Pettebone, Payne 

.... 516A 

Pier, W.H. 

.... 2:56 

Pierson, C. T 

.... 344 A 

Pike, Gordon 

.... 438 B 

Price, C.B. 

.... 236 

Pughe, Lewis — 

.... 330B 

Pursel, Peter .... 

.... 330A 

Raber, Michael .... 

.... a30F 

Reap, Michael — 

.... 373.V 

Rejnolds, Sheldon 

.... 398 B 

Ripple, E.H 

.... 453 C 

Koat, B. B. 

.... 330B 

Roberts, Henry 

4:58 B 

Robinson, Philip, Jr. 


Robinson, S. B 


Ross, W.S. 


Russell, A. H 

236 S 

Scliimpff, Leopold 

486 B 

Schoolcy, William 

.... 248 A 

Schoonmaker, U. G. 

.... 470A 

Scranton, J. A 

.... 438C 

Scranton, Mrs. J. H. 


Seacord, S. H 

516 A 

Seamans, G. B 


468 B 


516 B 

468 A 

470 A 





470 A 


464 A 

470 A 




516 B 

248 C 

372 A 

446 B 

4.38 C 




44<) A 



236 S 

236 T 

236 E 



534 B 

.534 A 


.516 A 


470 A 



486 A 





392 A 







.534 A 


393 B 

306 C 








336 E 


.534 C 





470 B 

3:56 F 

306 G 

306 C 



4.54 A 



4.38 H 

4:58 C 

,520 A 

3:56 P 

438 D 




3:50 C 


4:58 D 


400 A 

333 D 



236 P 

524 A 




3:30 c 


438 E 


438 S 

5.34 D 


:530 C 



Searle. Jt)hn and Mary 
Shaw, William S. 
Sherwood, C'hauncey 
Shive, P. C. 
Shoemaker Family 

Shuinaii, J. L 

Simpson, George 

.Simrell, K. W 

Sloeum Family — 
Slocum, Joseph .... 

Sommers, Henry 

Snowden. E. H 

Snyder, Nathan .... 

Speneer, Edward 

.'^tark, Samuel .... 

Stark Family 

Stemjjles. William 

Stephens, A. W 

Sterlinitf, Norman 

Stevens, Asa II 

Stevens, C. A 

Stoeker, Thomas .... 

Stokes, J. C 

Sturdevant, E. W. 

Stutzbaeh, U. ¥ 

Stutzbaeh, .Viigust 

Swetland, W. H 

Swetland, William 

Thruop. li. H 

Trescott, Luther 

Tripp, Ira 

Tul)lis, K. M. . .. 

Turner. S. (i. — 

Van IJertjen, J. U. 

Van Siekle, Lewis 

Vose, T. L. 

Wadhanis Family 

Wakcman. U. E 

Walker, A. li 

Waller, C.P 

Weaver, P. V. 

Wchlau, Ludwig, 

Well*, E. H. 

Wells, J. C 

W^ells, Natlian 

Wernet, Xavier 

Whipple, 1. E 

Williams ?"amily 

W'illiams, J.J 

Williamson, J. P 

Winton, A. H 

F. P. W'oodward 

W^oodward, S 

Wright, H.B 

Yates, Fnineis 

Yost, S. D. 

Y'ost, A. F. 



524 A 
500 A 


i:» E 


.... 3U« F 

.... S48A 

.... 438 F 

.... 534 D 

.... 330 J 

.... 51BA 

.... 524 F 

.... 534 A 

.... 4;i« F 
.... 4y« G 

.... 344 B 

.... 248 E 

.... 236 J 

.... 248 F 

.... 4.18 8 

.... 516A 

.... 306 E 

.... 438 G 

.... 2!l» C 

.... 438H 

.... 372 B 

.... 230 K 

.... 452 E 

.... iTAA 

.... 516 A 

.... 2;j6 K 

.... .538 A 

.... .t24.\ 

facing 200 

.... -USA 

.... 4:(8 I 

.... 524F 

.... 268B 

.... 534 G 

.... 268 B 
464 A 
330 S 

4:38 U 

336 H 

336 1 

.. facing 303 

348 A 

438 r 




AVilkes-Barre City and Township .... 

Black (reck, Butler Foster, Hazle and 

Sugarloaf Townships, Frecland, liazle- 

ton, .Icddii and White Haven Horouglis 
Hanover Township, and .\shley, Nantieoke 

and Sugar Notch Boroughs 

I)alla.s Fairmount, Franklin, Huntington, 

Lake and Ross Townships, DalliU! and 

New Columbus Boroughs 

Kingston Township and Borough 

Conyngham, Uorrance, Hollenback. Loh- 

nian, Neseopeck, Newiiort, Sloeum and 

Wright Townships 

Exeter, Marcy and Pittston Townships. 

Hughestown, Pleasjuit Valley, I'ittston 

anJ West Pittston Boroughs 

Jenkins and Plains Townships, Y^atesvillo 

and Parsons Boroughs 

Plymouth Township and Itorough and 

Jaekscni Township 

Hunloek, Salem and I'nion Townships 

and Shickshinny Borough 

Scrantonand Dunmore 

Carbondale City and Township, Fell and 

Greenfield Townships 

236 A-T 

248 A-F 
268 A, B 

298 A-D 

Benton, North Abington and South Ablng- 
ton Townships Glenburn and Wavorly 

Archbald Borough and Scott TowDsbip 

Jermyn Borough 

Blakely, Dicksou City and Olyphant Bor- 

Clifton, Covington, Jefferson, lA-high, Mad- 
ison, Boaring Brook and Spring Brook 
Townships, and Gouldsborough 

Lackawiuma, Newton, Old Forge and Itan- 
som Townships 

Clinton, Eaton, Falls and Ovorfleld Town- 

Mehoopany Township 

E.\eter, Monroe and North Moreland 

Lemon, Meshoppcn, Nicholson and Wash- 
ington 'I'ownships, Meshoppenand Nich- 
olson Boroughs 

Tunkhannock Townshipand Borough .... 

Bniinlrini, Forkston, North Branch and 
Windham Townshii)s 

322 A-C 

344 A-C 
354 A, B 

4M A.B 
404 A-I> 
468 A, B 

470 A-D 

483 A, B 

486 A-D 

508 A-D 
516 A, B 

520 A, B 

524 A-G 


538 A-D 


Benner, Samuel, Conyngham. Kes 345 

Bennet, Mrs. Charles. Wilkes-Barro, Hes 210 

Birkbeek, Mis. Joseph, Foster, Homestead 517 

Bishop Bros , .Archbalil. Store 517 

Briggs, C. L., Dalton, Bes. and K. H. Station.. 4.W 
Brown, S. L. & Co., Wilkes- llarre. Warehouse. 531 

Brundagp, F. M., Conyngham, Ues 345 

Burgess, A. P., Forkston, Ue.s. and Store 506 

Bunnell, F. C. & Co., Tunkhannock, Bank. . . 532 
Carpenter, James S., Mehoi)pany, Kes. and 

Fact ory 533 

Coal Chart 84a 

Court House. Scranton. Lackawanna County 378 

Court House, Wilkes-Barre, frontispiece 

Court House, Tunkhainiock, Wyoming Co 498 

Dana. .Anderson. Eaton, Hes ^iXi 

Dekin, John, Dunmore, Hotel 470 

Dickson Manufi(x;turing Co., Wilkes-Barre, 

Works 236?^ 

Donop, .\ugustus Von, Frecland, Ues 517 

Dorrance, Charles, Kingston, Kes 316 

Doty, -V. H.. Mehoopany, Kes. and Factory... 470 

Edwards, I!. W., Laceyville, Store 310 

Ellilhorp \- Co., Pittston. Factory 331 

Empire Breaker, Wilkes-Barre 341 

Engle, Mrs. John, Sugarloaf, Kes 413 

Evans, Benjamin, Neseoi)e<^k, Ues. and Mill. . . 351 

Fairchild, J. .M., Nantieoke, Ues 5:n 

Ferri.s, Mrs. Anna, < 'lyphant, Kes 470 

Frear, I., Factory ville. Keystone Academy... 506 

Hancock & Mackiiight, Plains, Block 306 }Hi 

Harding, Mrs. Sally. E.xeter, Kes 249 

Hazard Manufacturing Company, Wilkes- 
Barre, Works 318 

Heller, Samuel, Wapwallopen, Hes 344 

Hcndrick, E. E.. Carbondale, Ues 4411 

Hice, George, Exeter, Ues 2.'il 

Hughes, George, Butler, Kes... 240 

Hunt Brothers 4: Co., Sermiton, Block 413 

Hunt, C. P. A: Brother, Wilkes-Barre, Store.. 3;»?4 

Jenkins, Jabez, runkhaiinoik, Kes .'>30 

Jennings, J. T., .Mehoopany aJ2 

Kennard, George L., Laceyville, Hotel 310 

Kern, J. T. & Ellen, Exeter, Kes S4» 

Lee, Andrew, Wilkes-Barre, lies 1«8 

Lee Arms Company, Sturmervillo. Works — 251 

Le Grand Lewis, Wilkes-Barre, Factory 379 

Loomis, O. H., Meshoppcn, Kes 498 

Loveland, William, Kingston, Kes 311 

Mahon, William, Olyphant, Hotel and Store.. 517 

.Mallinckrodt Convent. Wilkes-Barre 334 

McKinstry, A. B., SchulUvlUe, Farm and Tan 

Miner, CharlcsA.. WIlkes-Barro, Res 217 

Osterhout. P. M., La flrange, Honuiitcud BOB 

Osterhout, P. M., Tunkhannock, Hea &28 

Paine, U'wisC. Wilkes-Barre, Kes 217 

Patterson Orovo Cump Ground, Fairmount 

following 254 

Payne, W. G., Kingston, Kes 311 

Pellam, S. H., North Ablngton, Kes 455 

Pettebone, Payne, Wyoming, Kes 316 

Price, C. B. i Son, Wllkes-Uarre, turning and 

planing-mlll 238H 

Kaber, .MIchncI, .Neseopeck, Ki-s 454 II 

Uelchard's Brewery, WIlkes-Barro 230)» 

Kobinson, K., Semnlon, Brewery 411 

KOS.S, W.S., Wilkes-Barre, lies 216 

.''ehimpfr, L., Scninton, Kobinmn's Brewery.. 411 

Schooley, William, Exeter, Hes 350 

.SchoonmakiT, V. G.. .Scranton, Hotel 3S7 

Seacord, S. H., Tunkhannock, Hotel (28 

Shaw, William S,, I-jist I.emon, Hi's 533 

,Shlve, Peter C, Plains, Ues, and Olllce 340 

Shunian, J. L., Wapwallopen, Kes 4M D 

Simpson, O. and A., Grecnili'ld, Hotel 300 

Sketches— Luzerne Cimnty '. 378 

St. Mary"8 Academy, D. O'Hnran, Wilkes- 
Barre 342 

St. Mary's Chureb, D. O'Haran, Wllkcs-Uarro 234 
St. Mary's Church and Parsonage, Pleasant 

Valley ,t;» 

St. Patrick's Church, Olyphant 470 

St. Thomas' Church, X.J. .McManu.s, Archbald 507 

Stark, Mrs. James F., Plains, Hes 210 

.Stark. Mrs. Samuel. Tunkhannock, Kes 628 

Sterling, Norman, Meshoppcn, Ues 528 

Slocker, Tammie H., Plains, Hes 343 

Sturdevant, E. W , Wdkes-Barre, Hes 216 

Snyder, .Nathan, Sugarloaf, UcB 308 

Tripp. Ira, .^^cranton, Hes ggs 

Union Stove Works, I'ittst^in 381 

Van Bergen & Co.. Carbondale, Foundry and 

Shop 442 

Van Sickle, L., Waverly, Ues 450 

\'ulean Iron Works, Wllke»-Barre 2389^ 

Wadhams House, Plymouth 458 

Wakeman, B. E., I.aci'yville, Kes 310 

Wells, .lohn ('., Ashley, Cnlon Hall 270 

Wernet. .\avier. .Nantieoke, Hotel .507 

Whipple I. E., Scnuiton, Hotel 404 

Wilkes-Barre in ISW frontispiece 

Woodward, S., Wilkes-Barre, Lord Butler 342 

Wyoming Valley Knitting Mills, West Pittston 331 
Wyoming Seminary, Kingston, D. Copoland 

Principal 313 

Wyoming Valley ManufH<-turlng C<impany, 

Kichard Sliarpe President, Wilkes-Barre 238>i 

Yost, S. D., Sugarliaif, Hes 388 

nery . 


McMurtrie, .\lfred, Sugarloaf, Kes 345 

.McNeish, Alexander and Snyder, Block, Nan- 
tieoke •'^' 

372 A, B Map of Luzerne, Lackawanna and Wyoming 

438A-1' Counties * 

Map of Wyoming Coal Fields 1st 

t52A-F .Mitchell, li. H., Lemon, Ues 517 



AblxUt. John. Plains 

.\ckerley. A. I., South Ablngton 

.Vckerley, Mrs. .-V. I., South Ablngton 

.•\llen, W . E., Scnuiton 

Ai>gar, ,lonatluui, Dunmore 

.Apgar, Cornelia D 

Bardwill, H. W., Tunkhannock 

Barnes. William H., Mehoopany 

Bennet, Charles, Wilkm-Barre — following 
Bennet, Sarah S., " " ....preceding 

Bennet, D. S., " " 

Bennet, Ziba " " 

Billings, Paul, Tunkhannock 

Birkbeek, Mrs.. Foster 

Briggs. C. L., Dalton 

Briggs, .Mrs. C. L., Didton 

Briggs, J. F., Shlek«hinn.v 

llrundage, .\. U., Wilkes-Burre 

Bryden, .\ndrew. Pittston 

Bunnell. F. C.. Tinikhannock 

CamplK'll, John, ( arbondale 

CamplMll, W. A., Shickshinny 

Carey, J. M., Meslu ippen 

(^hirkson, .lames, Carbondale 

Connolly, D. W., Scranton 

Connolly. John F.. Scranton 







322 A 


238 I 




5,14 A 









Courtright, IJenjamin, Plains 

Crippcn. Martin, Olypliant 

Dana, C. H., Tunlshannuck 

Dana, E. L., \Vill<e*-Barre 

Daniels, \V. G., Scran ton 

Davis, Sumner D., Jenny n 

Dekin, John. Dun more 

De Lacy, P., Scranton 

Denison, J. W.,Mehoopany 

Dewitt, David 1)., Tunkhanniick 

Dickinson, Susan E.. Pittston 

Dorrance, ('., Wilkes- l!aire following 

Drum. Abraham. Uutlor 

Drum, George W.. Conynjfham 

Eaton. Alver. Archbalii 

Engle. Stephen D.. Hazleton 

Evans, lien jamin. Xeseopeck 

Evans. Keese T., Scranton 

Everhart, ,rames M.. Scranton.... following 

Everhart, I. K.. Scranton preceding- 

Eynon, Thomas. Scranton 

Fassctt. John. Scottsville 

Fas.set t, Mrs. John, Scottsville 

Ferris, William, Olyphant 

Fisher, <'. H., Scranton 

Flick, K. J., Wilkes-Harrc 

Footp, John. Archbald 

Foster. Charles D.. Wilkes-Barre 

(Jardnc'r. A. P.. Uoarin;; Brook 

Gibbs, J. W., jr., Scranton 

Green, .VU'rccl I,., Jermyn 

llahn, .lohn L.. Mehoopany 

Hakes, II , Wilkes-Barre 

Hancock, E. .\., Plains 

Hand. 1). B.. Scranton 

Hardin;;. Daniel. K.\eter 

Harilintr, Garrick M., Wilkes-Barre 

}lartnuin. .Mrs. M. L. T., I'nion 

Harvey, .\. X.. Harveyville 

Heller, Samuid, Wapwallopen 

Heller. Mrs. Samuel, Wapwallopen 

Hitchcock, Amanda, Scranton 

Hitchcock. Kljcnezer, " 

Hitchcock. Elisha " 

Hit! h<ock. Maiion, " 

Hitchcock, Ituth, " 

Hollistir, Horace. Providence 

Holmi'S. KIkan di 

Ilosic. John. Scranton 

Hoyt. Henry M., Wilkes-Barre 

Hubler, P. F.. Xewton 

I ! ut'hes, George, Butler 

Hu;f lies, Barbara, Butler 

Ingham, Samuel D., .Mchoopany 

Ingham. Thomas J 

Jenkins, .lonathan, Tunkhannock 

Jenkins, Steuben, Wyoming 

Jenkins. William, Jermyn 

Jennings. William, Mehoojiany 

255 Jermyn, John, Jermyn 

387 Jones, Edward, Olyphant 

529 Jones, H. Isaac, Scranton 

236 N Jones, William S., Scranton 

332 A Jordan James, Olyphant 

38" Kearney, Patrick, .Vrchbald 

282 Kenyon, J. B., Olyphant 

■tl8 A Kintner, J. C, Mehoopany 

413 Kisner, Elliott P.. Hazleton 

5Ifi B Koons. William, Shickshinny 

innA Kulp, George B., Wilkes-Barre 

306 Ladd, Horace. Scranton 

369 Lampman, John S., Wilkes-Barre 

36g Laning, A. C, Wilkes-Barre preceding 

454 A Lathrope. Thomas K.. Carbondale 

369 Law, William, Pittston 

322 A Lee, Andrew, Wilkes-Barre following 

433 Lee, Washington, Wilkes-Barre.. preceding 

438 I Little, K. U.. Tunkhannock 

vm A I Lott. Ziba, Tunkhannock 

.52) ! Love, Henry, Mehoopany 

51il i Lynch. James J., Olyphant 

.">1U Macknight, O. B . Plains 3 

3:30 K McMillan. James, Pleasant Valley 

322 E Marcy. .\bel, Tunkhannock — 

208 Mcrrifleld. E., Scranton 

38" Merrilield. William, Scranton 

int Miller. C. P., Tunkhannock 

4T0 .\ .Miner, Charles, Wilkes-Barre 

421 j .Mitchell, John. Plains 

470 A ! Moneypenny, W. It., Eaton 

51K ] Monies, Colonel William N., Scranton 

236 Xclson. Heuben, Kingston 

306 UVj Nieol, Andrew, Scranton 

398 Nicol, Mrs. Andrew, Scranton 

330 A Nivison, Mrs. M. C Scranton 

2360 O'DonncIl, J.. Pittston 

4117 Osborne. E. S.. Wilkes-Barre 

21.") Osterhout, P. .\I., Tunkhannock.. following 

244 Osterhout, Mrs. I'. M.. " preceding 

244 I Osterhout, Saiah, Tunkhannock 

Ml ! Parke, N.G., West Pittston 

391 Parsons, Calvin, Parsons Station 

^H Patten, Andrew, 01yi)hant, 

391 Payne, Hubbard B., Kingston 

.391 Pell. Sanujel, Wilkes-Barre 

40(1 !•<; Pell. Margaret, Wilkes-Barre 

241 Pellani, S. H., .North Abington 

438 J Pellam, Mrs. S. H., Xorth Abington 

236 S Pettebone, Payne, Wyoming following 

4."j4 A Pier, William H., Scranton 

210 Pierson. Charles T.. Scran ton 

240 Pike. Gordon, Xorth Moreland 

24.S F Price, C. B., Wilkes-Barre 

'.16 Puiscl, Peter, Wilkes-Barre 

. ."):«! ! Heap, Michael, Pittston 

. :!ll(i B I Hippie, Ezra H., Scranton 

. 4.'>4 .\ Kobcrts, Henry. Scranton 

. :i22 I Kobinson. Phili)!. jr.. Scranton 











446 B 

4:38 C 


306 A 

446 A 


236 T 


248 F 




116 ny. 

392 A 

:i44 A 

:)92 B 

:J3U B 

.534 B 
.534 C 
3.31) B 
470 A 

■M) r 



:iCB D 

4:38 H 
330 C 
4:38 D 
400 A 
322 D 

Robinson, Silas B., Scranton 438 E 

Ross, William S., Wilkes-Barre. . . .following 236 P 

Ross, Mrs. William S preceding 236 Q 

Russell, A. H., Washington 413 

Schimpff, Leopold, Scranton 411 

Sehooley, William, E.\eter 250 

Sehooley, Sarah A., E.\eter 250 

Scranton, J. A., Scranton 400 IS 

Scranton, J. H., Scranton 408 

Seamans, George B., Pittston 497 

Search, George W., Shickshinny 2.54 

Search. Lot. Shickshinny : 254 

Searle, John, Plains 255 

Searle, Mary, Plains 255 

Sherwood, C, Falls 248 F 

Shive, Peter C, Plains 340 

Shoemaker, Elijah, Wilkes-Barre 196 

Shuman. J. L., Wapwallopen 214 

Shuman, Mrs. F. E., Wapwallopen 2U 

Simrell, E.W., Scranton 405 

Slocum, Joseph, Scranton :388 

Sloeum, Laton, E.\eter :5:30 D 

Sommers, Henry, Dim more 410 

Spencer, Edward, Scranton following 438 F 

Stark, A. M.. Tunkhaimock 518 

Stark, Henry, " .319 

Stark, James F., Plains a30 J 

Stark, Samuel, Tunkhannock 534 D 

Stemples, William, Mehoopany 516 13 

Stephens, A. W. Xicholson 529 

Stevens, A. 13., Scranton i)reeeding 438 G 

Stevens, Charles A., Scranton 4.38 G 

Stneker, Thomas, Plains :343 

Sturdevant, E. W., Wilkes-Barre. following 236 J 

Sturdevant. Mrs. E. W., •' lueceding 236 K 

Swethind, William, Kingston. ...preceding :306 E 

Swetlnnd, William H.. Mehoopany 316 B 

Throop. Benjamin H.. Scranton 426 

Trcscott. Luther. Huntington 497 

Tripp, Ira, Scranton 4:)8 H 

Turner, S.G., Wilkes-Barre 2:36 R 

Van Sickle, L., Waverly 459 

Vose, Thomas L., Mehoopany 248 F 

Wadhams, E. C, Wilkes-Barre :a6 L 

Wakenuin, B. E., Laceyville 310 

Walker, A. B.. Xicholson 470 A 

Waller, Charles P.. Honesdale 200 

Walsh. J. J., Pittston 282 

W'eaver, Philip V., Hazleton :(6H 

Welilau. Ludwig, Scranton 4:58 I 

Wells, John C, Ashley 268 IS 

Wells. Xathan, Meshoppen 516 B 

Whiiiple, I. E , Scranton 404 

Williams. .lames J., Archbald :!17 

Williams, J. H., Plains :t02 

Williamson, J. Pryor, Wilkes-Barre 213 

Winton, A. H., Scranton 406 

Wright, H. B., Wilkes-Barre :;20 

Yates, Francis, Yatesvillo 303 



In preparing for publication the following work the 
publishers have not been ignorant of the fact that several 
excellent histories of the region embraced in Luzerne, 
Lackawanna and Wyoming counties liave already been 
published. Most of these liave long been out of print, 
and a portion of them are exceedingly rare. In none 
of them is the range of topics as extensive as in this 
work, which embraces not only histories of these 
counties, but of each city, borough and township which 
they include. 

In gathering the material for this work not only have 
these books and others been consulted, but information 
has been sought from every available source; and it is 
believed that many of the facts recorded have been pre- 
served from oblivion by being thus rescued from the 
failing memories of those who will soon pass away. 

It is hardly possible that in a work like this no errors 
will be found; but it is confidently hoped that if inaccu- 
racies are discovered the great difficulty of preventing 
their occurrence will be considered, and that they will be 
regarded in a charitable rather than a censorious spirit. 

The publishers desire to acknowledge the kindness 
and courtesy with which their efforts to obtain the facts 
recorded here have been almost uniformly met. To the 
press, for free access to the files of their journals; to the 
county, city and borough officers, for assistance in ex- 
amining their records; to the pastors of nearly all the 
churches in the three counties for assistance in preparing 
the religious history, and to secretaries of numerous 
lodges and societies for data furnished, their grateful 
acknowledgments are due. 

The following books have been consulted: Sherman 
Day's and Doctor Egle's histories of Pennsylvania, 
Annals of Philadelphia, Ruttenber's Indian Tribes of 
Hudson's River, Heckwelder's Indian Nations, Stone's 
Life of Joseph Brant and his Poetry and History of 
Wyoming, Chapman's, Miner's and Peck's histories of 
Wyoming, Miss Blackman's history of Susquehanna 
county, Parkman's France and England in North Amer- 
ica, Pearce's Annals of Luzerne, Wright's Sketches of 
Plymouth, Hollister's History of the Lackawanna Valley, 
the History of the Lehigh Valley, Clark's Wyoming 
and Lackawanna Valleys, and others. For our very 
complete and valuable rolls of the soldiers of the Union 
from Luzerne, Lackawanna and Wyoming counties we 
are indebted to the exhaustive History of Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, prepared under the authority of the State, by 
Samael P. Bates, LL. D. 

Of those who have aided in the preparation of the 
work, or furnished valuable information, the publishers 
desire to mention Hon. Steuben Jenkins, who contrib- 
uted the article on post-Columbian Indians and kindly 
furnished many facts from the large and valuable store 

of unpublished historical matter that he lias collected for 
future publications; Hon. William P. Miner, who wrote 
the chapter on the coal trade; Doctor C. F. Ingham, 
author of the chapter on geology; Hon. Peter M. Oster- 
hout, who furnished valuable written and oral informa- 
tion; Hon. R. R. Little, who contributed the chapter on 
the bench and bar of Wyoming county; Hon. Hendrick 
B. Wright, who gave efficient aid and encouragement; 
Doctor Horace Hollister, Hon. Edmund L. Dana, Hon. 
Harry Hakes, dovernor H. M. Hoyt, the octogenarian 
Jameson Harvey, the veteran attorney James A. Gordon, 
Allen Secord, Dilton Yarrington. Benjamin Evans, Doc- 
tor Nathan Wells, Rev. D. D. Gray, Major John Fassett, 
Douglass Smith, Captain James B. Harding, B. F. Dor- 
rance. General Edwin S. Osborne, Hon. A. W. Stephens, 
N. P. Wilcox, William Green, E. D. Gardner, James 
Frenr, Major II. W. Bardwell, Hon-. James M. Pratt, 
Edward Jones, D. M. N'oyle, George Simpson, Hon. Pat- 
rick Kearney, Hon. John Jermyn, Hon. William H. 
Richmond, Dr. S. D. Davis, Rev. Andrew Brydie, Rev. 
Father Crane, Rev. A. Griffin, N.- J. Rubinkam, Rev. A. 

D. Willifer, Rev. George H. Kirkland, very Rev. John 
Firman, Rev. Dr. I,. W. Peck, Cyrus Straw, George 
Drum, William Shellhamer, John Carey, Thomas Mc- 
Millan, Miss Mary Dale Culver, John Pfouts, J. P. Sal- 
mon, Hugh McDonald, John Stokes, David Whitebread, 
Francis Yates, William Loveland, Thomas J. Laphy, Cal- 
vin Parsons, Hon. George W. Drum, Stephen Drumhel- 
ler, Samuel Carey, Mrs. M. L. T. Hartman author of the 
histories of Union township and Shickshinny borough), 
Hon. James McAsy, David Dale, David Haines. Jacob 
Hornbacker, Jacob Kizer, A. P. Gardner, M. D., Deacon 
Berry, Harrison Finn, H. S. Cooper, M. D., Miss Sue 
A. Neyhart, Chauncey Sherwood, O. A. Smith, Hon. 
Henry Love, William A. Shaw, Colonel W. N. Monies, 
Lewis Pughe, John T. Howe, E. Merrifield, Hon. J. 

E. Barrett, B. H. Throop, Joseph C. Piatt, Wesley John- 
son, F. C. Johnson. 

The publishers are etiabled to present the steel plate 
portrait of Governor Henry M. Hoyt, of Wilkes-Barre, 
which appears in this work, through the generous co-op- 
eration (as a testimonial of their esteem for Governor 
Hoyt) of Hon. Charles Dorrance, Payne Pettebone, Hon. 
Charles A. Miner. Allan H. Dickson, T. H. Atherton, 
Douglas Smith, Hon. L. D. Shoemaker, George B Kulp, 
E. P. Darling, General E. W. Sturdcvant, Hon. E. C. 
Wadhams, W. H. Bradley, Benjamin Dilley, J. W. Hol- 
lenback, Richard Sharpe, sen., Joseph A. Scranton, 
Colonel W. N. Monies, Hon. Lewis Pughe, Major U. G. 
Schoonmaker, Major D. S. Bennet, W. L. Paine, Olin F. 
Harvey, Oscar J. Harvey, and others of his well-known 
fellow citizens of Luzerne and Lackawanna counties, 
irrespective of party affiliations. 


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Y^llt^ HK lirst discovery of Delaware bay, and ihc 
' 'S river which forms a portion of the eastern 
boundary of the State of Pennsylvania ap- 
pears to have been made by Hendrick Hud- 
son, an Englishman in tlie service of the Dutch, in 
1609. In August of that year he entered the bay, 
and after a short cruise in it left and i)roceeded to 
the mouth of the Hudson river, which stream he ascend- 
ed as far as Albany. 

It is said that Lord Delaware visiteti the bay in ii>io; 
hence the name by which it and the river are known. It 
was called by the Dutch South river, the Hudson being 
termeti by them the North river. 

Another Dutch navigator. Captain Mey, visited the 
bay in 1614; but Captain, or, as he was termed, skipper 
Cornelius Hendrickson first ascended the river as far as 
the mouth of the Schuylkill, in 1616. 

.\ short lived settlement was made on the east bank of 
the Delaware under the auspices of the Dutch West In- 
dia Company in 1623, under the direction of Captains 
Mey and Tienpont. Another settlement was made on 
the bay, farther down, in 1630; but this was soon de- 
stroyed by the Indians, whose enmity the colonists had 
indiscreetly incurred. 

Maryland was granted to Lord Baltimore in 1632, and 
the territory on the west side of the Delaware was 
claimed by him, and the disputes arising out of this 
claim remained unsettled durir.g many years. 

In 1638 a settlement was made on the west bank of 
the Delaware by a colony of Swedes, under the patron- 
age of Queen Christina. This colony was under the 
direction of Peter Minuit, a Hollander, who had been a 
director in the colony of New Amsterdam. Several 
Swedish gcernors followed Minuit in succession; pros- 
perous settlements sprang up along the west bank of the 

river, and .1 thriving trade was carried on by the Swedes. 
They were w, itched with jealousy by the Dutch, who set 
up the claim of jurisdiction l)y reason of former occupa- 
tion, and instituted intrigues and plans to dispossess the 
Swedes. In 1655 a force of seven vessels and six hun- 
dred men was sent up the Delaware for that purpose. 
The Swedish government had been kept in ignorance of 
this expedition, and it was easily successful. 

On the restoration of Ch.irles the Second to the throne 
of Great Britain, he gr.mied the territory now including 
New York and New Jersey, and afterwards that of Del- 
aware, to his brother the Duke of \'ork. Th-r latter im- 
mediately sent a fore e to fake possession of the country 
thus granted. New .\insterdam and Fort Orange on the 
Hudson were at once possessed, and rechristened re- 
spectively New York, in hcnoi of the Duke of York, and 
.Albany. .\ |)ortion of the force was then dispatched to 
take possession of the Dutch colonics on the Delaware, 
which was ac<:<>in|)lished almost without resistance. This 
dis|)ossession of the Dutch by the Hnglish led to a war 
between dreat Britain and Holland, at the conclusion of 
which the title of the former to these territories was ac- 
knowledged by treaty- The Duke of York continued in 
possession of this region, undisturbed except by the 
.Vlarylanders, who resorted to occasional. acts of violence 
in order to assert the claim of Lord Baltimore, until, in 
1663, war again broke out betwen Great Britain and 
Holland, and Dutch privateers visited the coasts and 
plundered the inhabitants; and during that year a Dutt h 
scpiadron of vessels arrived an»l repossessed the domin- 
ions which had been granted to the Duke of York. These 
were lestored by the treaty of Westminster in 1674, and 
in the same year, by a new patent, the title of the Duke 
of York was confirmed, louring eight years following 
these events great changes took place among the propri- 
etaries of the region, in the course of which Williaiiv 
Penn, by reason of being a trustee of one of these pro- 
prietaries and a |>urchase of a portion of the territory, 
became ipiile with the region, as well as with the 
plans for its col'iiii/.ition. 

William Penn was the son of Sir William I'enn, an ad- 
miral in the royal navy, who at his death left a claim of 





sixtL'cn thousand iiounds against the government of Great 
Britain. Though in early life he was a soldier of some 
distinction, he afterwards became a Quaker, and was 
several times imprisoned because of his religious faitii. 
Having become, as before stated, familiar with the re- 
gion on the Delaware, and with the schemes for its colo- 
nization, he conceived the plan of founding a colony 
there on the broad principles of equ.ility which his faith 
taught. Accordingly, in 1680, he petitioned King Charles 
the Second for a grant of a tract of land west from the 
Delaware river and south from Maryland, in litiuidation 
of the claim which he had inherited from his father. Af- 
ter ihi discussion and arrangement of the preliminaries 
the petition was granted, and a charter signed by the 
king in 16S1. Penn at first desired that the province 
might be called New \Vales, and wnen objections were 
raised against this he suggested Sylvania. To this the 
king and his counsellors jjrefixed Penn, for the double 
reason that the name would appropriately mean high 
woodlands, and that it was the name of a distinguished 
admiral, whose memory the king desired to honor. A 
royal atldress was at once issued informing the inhabit- 
ants that William Penn was the sole proprietor, and that 
he was invested with all the necessary governmental 
powers. A proclamation was also issued by William 
Penn to the people of his province, setting forth the 
policy which he intended to adopt in the government of 
the colony. .4 deputy was sent in the spring of the 
same year, with instructions to institute measures for the 
management of affairs and the temporary government of 
the province. In autumn of the same year he sent com- 
missioners to make treaties with the Indians, and arrange 
for future settlement. 

South from the jirovince of Pennsylvania, along the 
Delaware bay, the Duke of York was still the proprietor 
of the country. Foreseeing the possibility of future an- 
noyance to the commerce of his [irovince, Penn was de- 
sirous of acquiring this territory; and accordingly en- 
tered into negotiations with the Duke of York for it, and 
in the autumn of 1682 he became the proprietor of the 
land by deeds, which, however, conveyed no political 
rights. In the autumn of 16S2 Penn visited his ])rovince 
in the new world, took formal possession of the territory 
along Delaware bay, proceeded up the Delaware and 
visited the settlements along that river. During this year 
the celebrated treaty between William Penn and the In- 
dians was made, it is said by some historians, under a large 
elm tree at Shakama.xon. Hy others it is insisted that no 
evidence exists of any such treaty at that ])lace; but 
that the accounts of it that have passed into history were 
drawn largely from the fertile imaginatons of early 
writers. Whether a treaty was held there or not, it is 
almost certain that during that year treaties were made 
between Penn and the Indians, and it is a historical fact 
that between the Indians and Quakers perfect faith was 
kept. Voltaire said of the treaty which was said to have 
been made at Shakumaxon: " It was the only one ever 
made between sa\ages and Christians that was not ratified 
by an oath, and the only one that was never broken." 

The three principal tribes of Indians which then in- 
habited Pennsylvania were the Lenni Lenapes, the Min- 
goes and the Shawnees. Their relations with the Swedes 
had been of a friendly character, and the pacific and kind 
jiolicy of Penn and his Quaker colonists toward them 
bore fruit in strong contrast with that which the dishonest 
and reckless policy of other colonies, and of the United 
States government in later times, has brought forth. 

The plan of the city of Philadelphia, which had been 
laid out by the commissioners that had preceded the pro- 
prietor, was revised by him, and the present beautiful and 
regular plan adopted, and even the present names given 
to the principal streets. 

In the latter part of the year 1682 the first legislative 
body in the province was convened by the proprietor, 
who, though he was vested with all the powers of a pro- 
prietary governor, saw fit, in the furtherance of his original 
plan, to adopt a purely democratic form of go\ernment. 
This body was a general assembly of the peojale, and was 
held at the town of Chester, which was first called by 
the Swedes Upland. This assembly continued in ses- 
sion from the fourth till the seventh of December; during 
which time they enacted three laws, one of which was 
called the great law of Pennsylvania. It was a code of 
laws consisting of between sixty and seventy subiects or 
chapters, that had been prepared by the jjroprietor in 
England, and it was intended to cover all the exigencies 
which were deemed likely to arise in the colony. It se- 
cured the most ample religious toleration — to all whose 
faith agreed with that of the Friends — and only punished 
others by fine and imprisonment; thus exhibiting a marked 
contrast with the bigoted and intolerant Puritans in some 
of the New England colonies. It guaranteed the rights 
and privileges of citizenship to all tax-payers, guarded 
]jersonal liberty, secured, as far as possible, by punishing 
bribery, the purity of elections, abolished the English 
law of primogeniture, discarded the administration of re- 
ligious oaths and affixed the penally of perjury to false 
affirmation, and established marriage as a civil contract. 
Drinking healths, drunkenness, or the encouragement of it, 
spreading false news, clamorousness, scolding, railing, 
masks, revels,stagc plays,cards and other games of chance, 
as well as evil and enticing sports, were forbidden and 
made punishable by fine and imprisonment. It is a cu- 
rious fact that all these lavifs have cither been super, 
seded by others or become obsolete. 

The wise, just and generous policy which the propri- 
etor adopted in the government of his province rendered 
him exceedingly popular, and the tide of immigration set 
so strongly toward this province that during the year 1682 
as many as twenty-three ships laden with settlers arrived. 
During this year the proprietor divided the province 
into the three counties of Bucks, Philadelphia and 
Chester; and the territory, as it was termed, which he had 
acquired from the Duke of York, into Kent, New Castle 
and Sussex. In these counties he appointed officers, and 
made jjreparations for the election of a representatative 
Legislature, consisting of a coimcil of eighteen members, 
and an assembly of fifty-four. This Legislature assembled 



at Philadelphia in Jaiuiaiy, 16.S2. One law enacted pro- 
vided for the appointment in each county court of three 
"peace makers," to hear and determine differences. It 
rnay be noted as a matter of curiosity that bills were in- 
troduced in this Legislature providing that "only two 
sorts of clothes should be worn — one kind for summer 
and one for winter;" and another that young men should 
be obliged to marry at a certain age. 



' ' S has been before stated, the first settlements in 
the province were made by Swedes, who oc- 
cupied the country during about half a cen- 
^. ^ tury previous to its purchase of William 
"^" ^f Penn. In all that time they made little prog- 
ress toward developing the resources of the 
country. In the language of Watson: "They 
seem to have sat down contented in their log and clay 
huts, their leather breeches and jerkins and match coats 
for their men, and their skin jackets and linsey petticoats 
for their women; but no sooner has the genius of Penn 
enlisted in the enterprise than we see it speak a city 
and commerce into existence. His spirit animated every 
part of his colony; and the consequence was that the 
tame and unaspiring Swedes soon lost their distinctive 
character and existence as a separate nation. 

Immigration was largely increased during 1683 and 
1684. Settlers came from England, Ireland, Wales, Hol- 
land and Germany. Of those from the latter country 
many came from Cresheim and founded the village of 
Germantown. They were nearly all (Quakers, and the 
settlement which they made was the nucleus around 
which collected so large a German ])opulation in after 
years that Pennsylvania became a German province, 
notwithstanding the large immigration from the British 
islands at first. 

In 1683 and 1684 the controversy with regard to 
boundaries was renewed by Lord Baltimore, and the 
Marylanders were guilty of some acts of aggression. The 
province had come to number some 7,000 inhabitants, 
and it was a matter of importance that the boundary dis- 
pute should be settled. To accomplish this settlement, 
and for other reasons, Penn during 1684 sailed for Eng- 
land, after giving to the provincial council the executive 
power. Not long after his arrival in England Charles 
the Second died, and was succeeded on the throne by 
his brother James, Duke of York, between whom and 
Penn a strong friendship existed. The proprietary, 
therefore, easily obtained a favorable decree. In 1688 
a revolution in England dethroned James and placed the 
regal power in the hands of William and Mary. This 

ehangc destroyed the inlluencc of Penn at the Knglixii 
court, and the friendship which had existed between him 
and James caused him to be regarded with suspicion. 
Slanders were circulalcd and believed concerning him, and 
he was even accused of treason and compelled for a time 
to go into rctiremenl. In his absence discord and dis- 
sensions arose in the provint e, and these were made ih. 
pretext for depriving him of his proprietary governnieni 
in 1693. He was, however, honorably acc^uitted and ex 
onerated from suspicion, and reinstated in his proprictarv 
rights in 1694. Dissensions in the province continued, 
however, till af'er the return of the proprietary with hi-^ 
family in 1699 ; and even his presence failed to whollv 
restore harmony. 

Because of the increasing (Mnvir of the proi-rici-ir) 
governments in America, the plan had, since the accession 
of William and Mary to the crown, been entertained of 
purchasing these governments and converting them into 
regal ones. In 1701 a bill for that purpose was intro- 
duced in the House of Lords, and Penn revisited Eng- 
b.nd for the jnirpose of endeavoring to prevent its pas- 
sage. Before his departure a new constitution, which 
had been some time under consideration, was adopted, 
and a deputy governor and council of State provided for 
and appointed. On his arrival the project of purch.ising 
the proprietary government was drojiped. In 1701 King 
William died, and was succeeded by Queen Anne, who 
entertained for Penn a warm friendship Though the 
danger of being dispossessed of his proprietary government 
was averted, affairs in that government were not more 
harmonious. The disaffection on the part of the people in 
the lower counties, which he had endeavored to allay, 
led to a separation in 1703, and the choice of a distinct 
assembly for the territories. Some of the deputy govern- 
ors were indiscreet men, and differences between thcni 
and the provincial Legislature were constantly arising. 
Harrassed by these, and probably disgusted at the in- 
gratitude of his subjects, in whose behalf he had in- 
curred large pecuniary liabilities, for the collection of 
which proceedings were frequently instituted against 
him, he finally agreed with the crown for the cession of 
his province and the territory granted him by the Duke 
of York. He was prevented from legally consummating 
this cession by a stroke of ajjoplexy. which rendered liiiii 

The Queen died in 17 14, and was succeeded by licorgi 
the First. Among the early acts of Parliament in ihi 
reign of this King was one extending to the English 
colonies a previous act dis(]ualifying Quakers from hold- 
ing office, serving on juries, or giving evidence in crimi- 
nal cases. Charles Gookin, who had been provincial 
governor since 1709, construed this act to be applicable 
to the proprietary government, and a disqualification of 
the Quakers in the province. I'his construction of the 
law of course called forth the indignation and opposition 
of the council, the Assembly, and the people, and led U> 
the recall of Ciookin in 1717. and the appointment of 
Sir William Keith in his stead. The latter was alt'able 
and courteous, cunning and crafty, and in all matters of 


difference between the crown or pro])rietary, on one 
side, and the people on the other, he espovised tlie popu- 
lar cause. 

William Penn died at the age of seventy-four, in the 
summer of 1718. History will ever ]3oint to him as one 
who accomplished more for the cause f)f civil and relig- 
ious liberty than any other man of his time, and to the 
])rovincial government which he founded and adminis- 
tered as the first successful experiment in the broadest 
lihert)'of conscience whicli liad then been conceived, and 
the nearest a])proach to a government of themselves by 
the people that had ever been attempted He was the 
representative of a despised and proscribed sect; but by 
his wise and liberal administration of the government 
of his province, in accordance with the principles 
of that sect, he did more to bring it to the favorable 
notice of the world than could otherwise have been 

The American colonies at that time pre.sented a curious 
spectacle. Maryland, a colony of Catholics, who were 
stigmatized as the most bigoted and intolerant sect in 
Christendom, had been established under a constitution 
the most liberal and tolerant of all that had been grant- 
ed by the government of Great Britain; and Pennsylva- 
nia, a province of Quakers, whose tenets were almost the 
reverse of the Catholics, had added to this almost uni- 
versal tolerance the largest civil liberty that had ever 
been enjoyed by a people; while the Puritans of the New 
England colonies, who professed to have fled from relig- 
ious persecution in England, and to have sought an 
nsvlum where each could worship God, the common 
I'ather of all, according to the dictates of his own con- 
science, in the language of Egle, " excluded from the 
benefits of their gcvernment all who were not members 
of their church, and piously flagellated dr hanged those 
who were not convinced of its infallibility." .-Mmost two 
centuries have passed since Penn established his colony 
in .-Vmerica, and — except in those governments that are 
purely secular, or nearly so, in their character — political 
science has developed little that is essential to the wel- 
fare and happiness of humanity that was not embodied 
in his system. 

The estate of William Penn passed at his death to his 
family, who inherited both his jjroperty and his proprie- 
tary government. He had made a will, previous to his 
agreement with Queen Anne, for the sale of his province; 
and his agreement was decided to be void because of his 
mental incapacity to consummate it. The proprietary gov- 
ernment, therefore, devolved on his widow, as executrix 
of his will and trustee of his i)roperty during the niinority 
of his children, and it has been said of her that she man- 
ifested much shrewdness in the appointment of governors 
and general management of colonial affairs. It is said by 
Day: " The affectionate jjatriarchal relation which had 
subsisted between I'enn and his colony ceased with his 
death; the interest which his family took in the affairs of 
the province was more mercenary in its character, and 
looked less to the establishment of great and ]jure princi- 
])les of life and government." 

The administiation of Sir William Keith was quite suc- 
cessful. The favor with which he was regarded by the 
people enabled him to promote among them that harmony 
which is so essential to prosperity; and the colony was 
jir'^sperous. There was a large influx of p'opulation, the 
character of which was more cosmopolitin than in former 
times. The persecutions of the Quakers in England had 
relaxed somewhat, and fewer, relatively, of them sought- 
homes here; while people from other regions, and nota- 
bly from Germany, came in great numbers. The popu- 
larity of Keith was such that he was able to accomplish 
two measures that had been looked on with great disfavor 
by the assembly — the establishment of a Court of Chan- 
cery, of which he was the chancellor; and the organiza- 
tion of a militia, of which he was the chief. On the other 
hand, by his good offices, "the Quakers, to their great 
joy, procured a renewal of the privilege of affirmation in 
place of an oath, and of the cherished privilege of wear- 
ing the hat whenever and wherever it suited them." He 
was deposed in 1726, through the influence of James 
Logan, the leader of the proprietary party. Franklin 
wrote of him; " If he sought popularity he promoted the 
public happiness, and his courage in resisting the de- 
mands of the family may be ascribed to a higher motive 
than private interest. The conduct of the Assembly to- 
ward him was neither honorable nor politic; for his sins, 
against his principles were virtues to the people, with 
whom he was deservedly a favorite; and the House should 
have given him such substantial marks of their gratitude 
as would have tempted his successors to walk in his 

Keith's successor was Patrick Gordon. His adminis- 
tration continued during ten years, or until his death in 

1736. Tranquillity prevailed in the province during this 
time; the population, which in 1727 was more than fifty 
thousand, received large accessions, especially from Ger- 
many; internal improvements were prosecuted, and for- 
eign commerce increased largely. Two of the proprie- 
taries, John and Thomas Penn, came to the province; 
the latter in 1732, the former in 1734. John returned to 
England in 1735 on account of the aggressions of the 
Marylanders under Lord Baltimore, but Thomas re- 
mained in the country eight years longer. The demeanor 
of the latter was not such as to endear him to the 

The first public library ever established in the province 
was projected in 1731 by Benjamin Franklin, and was in- 
corporated in 1742. During the two years following the 
death of Mr. Gordon the president of the council, James 
Logan, was the executive officer of the province. The cele- 
brated fraud known as the "Indian walk" took place in 

1737. That an unscrupulous Indian trader should be 
guilty of thus swindling ignorant savages would be no 
matter of surprise; but that the province of Pennsylva- 
nia should be a party to such a transaction is almost in- 
credible. It is certain that it never would have received 
the sanction of William Penn, and it is ecpially certain 
that it was the foundation of an enmity that broke out in 
open hostility afterwards. 




THK QtiKSTIOX OF TiXIVC. Tlir. PUOPKI I; I A !■; V I s I A I 1 : 

HE proprietaiics in 1738 .Tppointed George 
Tliomas governor, and the position was lield 
by liiin till 1747. In the war between Great 
Britain and Spain which was declared in 
39 the .Vssembly did not lake measures to fur- 
"i!^ nish the men required, and the governor was com- 
pelled to raise tlie quota of the province by his 
own exertions. I.n 1744 war broke out between France 
and England, and the aspect of Indian affairs in Penn- 
sylvania and on its borders became threatening; but the 
storm was averted by the good offices of the Iroquois, 
who held the Delawares in subjection. 

An unhappy condition of affairs existed at that time, 
and during some years afterwards, in the ])rovince. The 
proprietaries iiad little sym])athy with the ])eoi)le, but as 
lliey grew rich by the enhanced value which the activity 
and enterprise of these people gave to their estates, they 
jirefcrred the pomp and luxury of aristocratic life, and 
regarded the jieople with a measure of contempt. Un- 
der such circumstances it was not a matter of wonder that 
the iK'ople, through their representatives, should not re- 
spond with alacrity to the demands of the governors ap- 
pointed by these proprietaries. Governor Thomas re- 
signed in 1747, and after an administration of two years 
by Anthony Palmer, president of the council, James 
Hamilton became lieutenant governor in 1749. The 
condition of things at that time cannot be better de- 
scribed than in the language of Sherman Day: 

" An alarming crisis was at hand. The French, now 
hovering around the great lakes, sedulously applied 
themselves to seduce the Indians from their allegiance to 
the English. The Shawnees had already joined them; 
the Delawares waited only for an opportunity to revenge 
their wrongs, and of the Six Nations the Onondagas, 
(\ayugas, and Senecas were wavering. The French were 
fortifying the strong points on the Ohio. To keep the 
Indians in favor of the colony required much cunning 
diplomacy, and expensive presents. In this alarming 
juncture the old llame of civil dissension burst out with 
increased force. The jjresents lo the Indians, with the 
erection of a line of forts along the frontier, and the 
r.iaintenancc of a military force, drew heavily on the 
l)rovincial purse. The Assembly, the pojjular branch, 
urged that the proprietary estates should be taxed as 
well as those of humble individuals. The proprietors, 
through their deputies, refused, and pleaded prerogative, 
charter, and law. The Assembly in turn pleaded eciuity, 
common danger, and conmion benefit, requiring a com- 
mon expense. The proprietaries offered bounties in lands 
yet to be conquered from the Indians, and the privilege 
of issuing more paper money ; the Assembly wanted 

something more tangible. The Assembly jiassed laws 
laying taxes and granting supplies, l)iit annexing con- 
ditions. The governors opposed the conditions, but 
were willing to aid the Assembly in taxing the people, 
but not the proprietaries. Here were the germs of revo- 
lution, not fully matured until twenty years later. Dr. 
Franklin was now a member and a leader in the Assem- 
bly. In the meantime the frontier were left exposed 
while these frivolous disputes continued. The picific 
principles, too, of the Quakers and Dunkards and Men- 
nonists and Schwenckfelders came in to complicate the 
strife ; but as the danger increased they jirudently kept 
.doof from public office, leaving the management of the 
war to sects less scrupulous." 

Robert H. Morris, the successor of James Hamilton, 
became governor in 1754, and his successor, William 
Denny, in 1756. The same want of harmony between 
the proprietaries and the people continued during their 
administrations, but finally, through the efforts of F'rank- 
lin, the royal assent was given to a law taxing the estates 
of the projirietaries. 

Settlements were made on lands to which tlie Indian 
title had not been extinguished, especially by the not 
over scrupulous Scotch Irish, and the result was a de- 
sultory Indian war, which kept up a very insecure feeling 
among the ])eoi)le f( the province. 

Such was the condition of the province at the breaking 
out of the French and Indian war a few years after the 
treaty of .Vix-La-Chapelle, which really was scarcely 
more than a temporary suspension of hostilities. It is 
well known to every one connected with American his- 
tory, that at this time the French attempted to connect 
their possessions in Canada and Louisiana by a chain of 
military posts extending from Presque Isle, now Erie, to 
the navigable waters of the Ohio, and along that river to 
the Mississippi. In furtherance of this design they sent, 
in 1754, 1,000 men to the confluence of the Allegheny 
and Monongahela rivers, where they built Fort Du 
Quesne, afterward called, in honor of the great English 
statesman. Fort Pitt ; now Pittsburg. Against this was 
sent the disastrous expedition of General Braddock, a 
minute account of which cannot, for want of space, be 
given here. It may briefly be said, that by reason of his 
self conceit and obstinacy General Braddock sustained 
the most overwhelming defeat that an European army 
had ever met in America, and that he was mor 
tally wounded in this action. General — then Colonel — 
George Washington greatly distinguished himsel in this 

The dispute between the proprietaries and the people 
continued, notwithstanding the country was suffering 
from the horrors of an Indian war. The proprietaries 
insisted on the exemption of their estates from taxation 
and the Assembly yielded when the jiubli' safety was in 
jeopardy. Several councils were held with the Indians, 
and efforts were made through the interposition of the 
Six Nations, whose aid the authorities of the province 
invoked, to secure peace, with only jiartial success. In 
1756 three hundred men under Colonel Armstrong crosset' 




the AlleglR-nies and destroyed the Indian town of Kittan- 
ing ; thus inflicting a severe blow on the savages, and 
driving them beyond the Allegheny river. 

In 1758 a change in the ministry in England was made, 
and under William Pitt the war was prosecuted with great 
energy. .An e.xpedition consisting of about 9,000 men was 
organized and sent against Fort Du Quesne. On the 
approach of this army the French burnt the buildings, 
evacuated the fort, and blew up the ni.ngazine. It was 
rebuilt and named Fort Pitt. This terminated hostilities 
in the valley of the Ohio. A series of successes followed 
in 1759 and 1760 at the north and west, which terminated 
the war, though a feeble effort was made by the French 
to retrieve their losses in Canada. The result was the 
final extinction of the French dominion in the Canadian 
provinces, which was confirmed by the treaty of Fontain- 
bleau in 1762. The peace which followed was of short 
duration. The Kyasuta and Pontiac war, so called from 
the chiefs who planned it, broke out in 1763. Kyasuta 
was a Seneca, and Pontiac an Ottawa chief; and the 
scheme which they devised, for a war of quick extermin- 
ation against the colonists, would have been no discredit 
to the ability of educated military chieftains. The sava- 
ges had looked with approval on the construction by the 
French of a chain of forts from Presque Isle to the Ohio; 
for they saw in them a check ujjon the progress westward 
of the tide of settlement which threatened to dispossess 
them of their broad domains. When they saw these forts 
fall into the hands of the colonists, and thus cease to be 
a barrier against their aggressions, they became more 
alarmed for their own safety; and these wily chiefs con- 
ceived the project of attacking and overpowering the 
different defenses on the frontier simultaneously, and 
then rushing upon and exterminating the defenseless in- 
habitants in the settlements, and thus, by the terror 
which they inspired, preventing future encroachments. 
The time of harvest was chosen for this attack, and the 
plan was laid with such secrecy that the first intimation 
of it was the appalling war whoop with which it was com- 
menced. So nearly successful were the savages that eight 
of the eleven forts attacked on the western frontier were 
taken. Scalping parties overran the frontier settlements 
of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, and the terror 
stricken inhabitants fled before them. Fort Pitt was in- 
vested, after the Indian fashion, during about three 
months, but was relieved by a force under Colonel Bo- 
quet. About thirty of the settlers in the Wyoming valley 
weie killed by the Delawares, in revenge for the murder 
of Teedyuscung by a party of Iroquois, the latter having 
persuaded the Delawares that the murder was committed 
by the whites. Although there were, after the first erup- 
tion of hostilities, no large organized bands of hostile 
Indians, thefrontier settlements were continually harassed 
by small parties, who came upon them stealthily and mur- 
dered the inhabitants without pity. The protection af- 
forded by the authorities in the province against these 
marauding parties was insufficient. The pacific disposi- 
tion of the (Quakers, who controlled the government, was 
su'h as to call forth the remark that they were " more 

solicitous for the welfare of the bloodthirsty Indian than 
for the lives of the frontiersmen." Parkman says of them: 
" They seemed resolved that they would neither defend 
the people of the frontier nor allow them to defend them- 
selves; and vehemently inveighed against all expeditions 
to cut off the Indian marauders. Their' security was 
owing to their local situation, being confined to the east- 
ern part of the province." 

John Penn, a grandson of the founder of the province, 
came to Pennsylvania in 1763 in the capacity of lieuten- 
ant-governor. His father and his uncle were then the 
proprietors and resided in England. The Penn family 
had all ceased to be Quakers, and had no conscientious 
scruples against defensive or aggressive war. General 
Gage had become commander of the military forces of 
the province, and Governor Penn vigorously seconded 
his efforts. He even, in 1764, offered by proclamation 
the following bounties for scalps, Indians, etc.: "For 
every male above the age of ten years captured, §150; 
scalped, being killed, $134; for every female Indian- 
enemy, and every male under the age of ten years, cap- 
tured, $130; for every female abox'e the age of ten years 
scalped, being killed, $50." 

The apathy which was manifested by the Assembly in 
1763, and the insecure condition of- the settlers toward 
the frontier, led to the formation of an independent or- 
ganization known as the Paxtang Boys or Paxtang Ran- 
gers; so named because they were mostly inhabitants of 
Paxtang, or Paxton, and Donnegal, in Lancaster county. 
Such was the feeling of insecurity in advanced settlements 
that men were compelled to keep their rifles at their sides 
while at work in their fields, and even while attending 
divine worship. These rangers, by their vigilance and 
activity, and by the severe punishments which they in- 
flicted on the savages, became in turn a terror to them. 
They were mostly composed of Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, 
between whom and the Quakers no very friendly feeling 
existed. The latter strongly censured what they termed 
the barbarities of the rangers; and fierce dissensions arose 
between them. The Paxtang men finally fell upon a 
small tribe of Indians at Conestoga, in Lancaster county, 
and put many of them to death, because, as they alleged, 
they had discovered that these Indians, while professing 
friendliness, were secretly harboring their hostile breth- 
ren, and furnishing them with information and supplies 
of ammunition, etc. They also insisted that the Christian 
or Moravian Indians were guilty of the same treachery, 
and the latter were compelled to flee to Philadelphia to 
avoid their vengeance. These acts of the rangers called 
forth the still more vehement protests of the Quakers, and 
even at the present day historians are not agreed as to 
whether or not their action was justifiable. None of them 
were ever convicted in the courts of the province. 

In 1764 General Gage instituted measures to drive the 
Indians from the frontiers by carrying the war into their 
country. He sent a corps under Colonel Bradstreet to 
act against the Wyandots, Chippewas and Ottawas, in 
the vicinity of the upper lakes; and another,under Colonel 
Boquet,to go to the Muskingum and attack the Delawares. 





Shawnees, and other nations between the Ohio and the 
lakes. Tliis viijorous action had the desired effect. 
Peace was established, and many of the captives who 
had been taken were restored. 

ch.\pti:r IV. 


il^RlNO the ten years between 1765 and 1775 
two questions of boundary were settled. 
One, tl)at of the line between Pennsylvania 
,,_c>,^ ''^^ and Maryland, had long been in dispute, and 
^qp^/^ several fruitless negotiations had been entered 
^v'W into for its settlement. In 1763 Thomas and 
''•^ Richard Penn and Frederick Lord Baltimore en- 
tered into an arrangement for the establishment of this 
line, and commissioned Charles Mason and Jeremiah 
Di.xon to survey and mark it. This work they completed 
in 1767, having surveyed and marked with milestones of 
oolite brought from England) the southern boundary of 
Pennsylvania, e.xcept about twenty-two miles at its western 
end, where they were prevented by the Indian propri- 
etors. Thus originated the celebrated "Mason and 
Di.xon's line." The other boundary question was raised 
by Lord Dunmore, of Virginia, who claimed the territory 
that now includes the counties of Fayette, Greene and 
Washington, and even a portion of Allegheny. He en- 
couraged settlers to take from Virginia the titles to their 
lands there, and even sent an agent to take possession of 
Fort Pitt, when it was evacuated by Oeneral Gage. The 
settlers were a bad class of men; and by reason of the 
lawless acts of some of them, especially two named 
Cresap and Greathouse, a frontier Indian war occurred. 
The Virginia claim was prom[)tly repelled. 

At the conclus;on of the Indian war of 1763 and 1764 
the old controversy concerning the taxation of the pro- 
prietary estates was revived, and Dr. Franklin at once be- 
came the champion of the popular cause in the Assembly. 
That body became so indignant at the conduct of the 
governor that they resolved to petition the King to pur- 
chase the pro]irietary jurisdiction, and place the province 
in direct relation with tlie crown. " Here," says Day, 
" was a most important step toward the Revolution. To 
break down the feudal power, and bring the people and 
the crown in direct communication, is, in all countries, the 
first great step toward ])opular freedom, and |)repares the 
way for the next step — the direct conllict between the 
crown and the people. It so hajipened. however, that 
in this case the avarice of the British ministry outran the 
anti-feudal propensities of the i)eople. and brought the 
colonies at once to the last great struggle between the 
people and the crown." Dr. Franklin was sent by the 
province to London to urge before the ministry the meas- 

ure of relief from the jiroprielary dominion; but on his 
arrival he found that the conflict was with the very power 
the protection of which he had come to invoke 

The w.irs which had raged in the coloni s, and in 
which the home government had assisted, had called the 
attention of the ministry to the rjpidly increasing wealth 
of those colonies. The plan was conceived of making 
wealth available to the mother country, for the double pur- 
pose of re|)Ienishing her exhausted treasury and securing 
the exclusive control of the colonial trade. The accom- 
plishment of this double object involved the (jueslion o.' 
taxation without consent and without representation in the 
legislative body imposing the lax. This was the point on 
which the American Revolution turned. Parliament in- 
sisted on its right to tax any part of the British domin- 
ions, and the colonies held that they were not safe if 
they might thus be despoiled of their property without 
their consent, and by a ])arlianient in which they were 
not represented. In view of this momentous question 
the contentions with the projjtietaries were forgotten. 
In 1 764 an act was ))assed imposing duties on certain 
articles not produced in his majesty's dominions. This 
was followed the next year by the odious stamp at:t, 
which declared instruments of writing void if not written 
on stamped |)aper on which a duty was paid. This was 
resisted and the pa[)er refused in the colonies, and the 
determination was formeil by the colonies to establish 
manufactories, to the end that they might not be depend- 
ent on the mother country. By reason of the conse<iueni 
clamors of I-Lnglish manufacturers, and the impossibility 
of executing the law without a resort to force, the slam|) 
act was re])ealed; but the repeal was coupled with a 
declaration of the absolute power of parliament over the 

The next offensive act was the imposition of duties on 
goods imiiorted from Great Britain; but this was resisted 
by the colonists, who would accede to nothing which in- 
volved taxation without consent. A circular was ad- 
dressed by Massachusetts to her sister colonies recapitu- 
lating their grievances, and the arguments against the op- 
pressive acts. Governor I'enn was ordered by the colonial 
secretary in London to urge upon the Assembly a disre- 
gard of this, and, in c<ise this advice was not heeded, to 
prorogue it. T'he Assembly asserted, by resolution, its 
right to sit at its own ))leasure, and to consult with the 
other colonies concerning matters pertaining to the wel- 
fare of all; and it gave a cordial assent to the recom- 
mendation by Virginia for a concert of action in order to 
peacefully obtain a redress of their grievances. The 
impost was reduced in 1769, and in 1770 abolished, ex- 
cept that on tea, which was continued at three pence per 
|)Ound. The colonists, however, were opposed to the 
principle on which the tax was based, and not to its 
amount, and their resistance to the importation of taxed 
goods was concentrated on the tea tax. In Pennsylvania 
one chest was imported and the duty i)aid; but generally 
the non-importation policy prevailed. Under these cir- 
stances the ideal right' of taxation was asserted and no 
collision was provoked. In order to make a practical 







application of this right, however, the East India Com- 
pany was encouraged by parliament to send a consign- 
ment of tea to each of the principal ports in the colonies, 
to be disposed of by the agents appointed by the com- 
pany, and thus to force it on the people. The colonists 
in all the provinces were indignant at this insidious at- 

" The course of Pennsylvania was from the first firm, but 
temperate. A meeting at Philadelphia passed resolutions 
denouncing the duty on tea as a tax without their con- 
sent, laid for the express purpose of estabJishing the 
right to tax; and asserting that this method of provid- 
ing a revenue for the support of government, the admin- 
istration of justice and defense of the colonies, had a 
direct tendency to render assemblies useless and to in- 
troduce arbitrary government and slavery; and that 
steady opposition to tnis plan was necessary to preserve 
even the shadow of liberty. They denounced all who 
should aid in landing or selling the tea as enemies to their 
country, and enjoined the consignees to resign their ap- 
pointment." Lender such a pressure the con.-ignees de- 
clined to receive it. In Charleston it was landed in a 
damp warehouse and permitted to rot. At New York a 
vigilance cfimmittee forbade the pilots to bring the vessel 
having the tea on board into the harbor, and escorted a 
captain who attempted to bring in some as a private ven- 
ture out of the harbor, after airing and watering his tea. 
At Boston the vessel having the tea on board was boarded 
by a party of men disguised as Indians, and the tea thrown 
overboard. In consequence of these proceedings meas- 
ures were adopted by the British government to coerce 
submission on the part of the colonists. Upon Massa- 
chusetts, which had manifested the most violent opposi- 
tion, the vials of British wrath were most freely poured 
out. In 1774 the act known as the Boston port bill, by 
which the port of Boston was closed and the custom- 
house removed to Salem, was passed. This was soon 
followed by an act vesting the appointment of colonial 
officers in the crown; by another, authorizing the extra- 
dition for trial of persons charged with capital offences; 
and by still another, for quartering soldiers on the inhab- 
itants. All the colonies sympathized and made common 
cause with Boston and Massachusetts, though in each 
colony there were some people who sympathized with the 
crown. These were termed tories, while the advocates 
of colonial rights were called whigs — names by which the 
two parties were known through the Revolution. 

The province of Pennsylvania did not waver at this 
juncture in its adhesion to the colonial cause. On being 
requested to convene the Assembly (iovernor Penn of 
course declined, and a meeting consisting of about eight 
thousand people was held, at which a general colonial 
congress was recommended and a committee of corres- 
pondence appointed. Subse piently a convention of del- 
egates from all the counties in the province assembled, at 
which a series of temperate but lirm and patriotic resolu- 
tions were adopted, asserting both their loyalty and their 
rights, and reiterating the recommendation for a general 
congress. The convention also adopted instructions to 

the Assembly that was about to convene. These were 
written by John Dickinson, one of the foremost patriots 
in the province. The following extracts are quoted to 
show the animus of these patriots: 

" Honor, justice and humanity call upon us to hold 
and transmit to our posterity that liberty which we re- 
ceived from our ancestors. It is not our duty to leave 
wealth to our children, but it is our duty to leave liberty 
to them. No infamy, iniquity or cruelty can exceed our 
own if we, born and educated in a country of freedom, 
entitled to its blessings and knowing their value, pusilla;i- 
imously deserting the post assigned us by Divine Provi- 
dence, surrender succeeding generations to a condition 
of wretchedness from which no human efforts, in all 
probability, will be sufficient to extricate them; the expe- 
rience of all States mournfully demonstrating to us that 
when arbitrary power has been established over them 
even the wisest and bravest nations that have ever flour- 
ished have in a few years degenerated into abject and 
wretched vassals. * * " To us, therefore, it aijpears 
at this alarming period our duty toour God, our countr\', 
to ourselves and to our jiosterity, to exert our utmost 
ability in promoting and establishing harmony between 
Great Britain and these colonies, on a constitutional 
foundation." "Thus," says Sherman Day, "with loyalty 
on their lips, but with the spirit of resistance in 
their hearts, did these patriots push forward the Re\o- 

The Assembly appointed delegates to the Congress, 
which met in September at Philadelphia. This Congress 
adopted resolutions approving of the resistance of the 
people of Massachusetts, and took measures to prohibit 
imports from or exports to Great Britain, unless griev- 
ances were redressed. It also adopted a declaration of 
rights and enumeration of grievances, an address to the 
people of Great Britain, another to the people of British 
America and a /<?\'a/ address to the crown. It also adopted 
articles of confederation, which act may rightly be con- 
sidered the beginning of the American Union. 

A bill was adopted by parliament prohibiting the people 
of the provinces from fishing on the banks of Newfound- 
land, and at about the same time an ingeniously framed 
act, which made apparent concessions, but retained the 
doctrine against which the colonies contended, and which 
was intended to divide them. Pennsylvania was the first 
colony to which this proposition was presented, and the 
Assembly, to whom it was presented by Governor Penn, 
promptly rejected it; declaring that they desired no ben- 
efits for themselves the acceptance of which might injure 
the common cause, " and which by a generous rejection 
for the jjresent might be finally secured for all." 

Another provincial convention was held in Philadelphia 
in January, 1775, at which reLolutions were adopted rec- 
ommending the strict enforcement of the non-importation 
pledge, and the production and manufacture of every 
thing retpiired for the use of the inhabitants; enumerating 
many of the articles to be produced or manufactured, in- 
cluding gunpowder, which was said to be necessary for 
the Indian trade. 







N 1775 hostilities roininciKod, 'I'lic battles dI 
Lexington and Hunker Hill were fought, and 
a r.ritish arni\- invatltd the country. Con- 
gress met and organized an army, at the head 
of which (ieneral Washington was placed. At 
■* the same time that it tints provided for the i)ul)- 
lic defense, it adojitcd a " humble and dutiful peti- 
tion to the King," which was presented but to which they 
were informed no answer would be given. .\ military 
association, having branches in each county, was formed, 
with a full code of rules for its government. The As- 
sembly met and made proxision for raising four thousand 
three hundred troops — the ((uota of the province. In 
view of the troublesome position which the Quakers oc- 
cupied, the Assembly enacted that all able-bodied men 
who refused to bear arms ministers and jnirchased ser- 
vants excepted should contrib\ite an equivalent for the 
time and expense of others in acquiring the necessary 

A committee of safety was appointed which assumed 
executive functions. A provincial navy was equipped, 
and measures were taken to jjrotect Philadelphia against 
any naval force ascending the Delaware river. Later a 
continental navy was established. 

The Continental Congress during its session of May, 
1775, recommended to those colonies where no govern- 
ment sufficient to meet the exigencies of the times ex- 
isted, to adopt such governments. It was determined by 
the whigs, in pursuance of this resolution, to throw off 
the proprietary government, by which they were hain- 
pered. The conservatives and tories opposed this, but 
the times were revolutionary and the whigs prevailed. It 
was resolved that the new government should emanate 
from the people, and that the Assembly, the members of 
which were shackled by their oaths of allegiance to the 
crown, should have no voice in its formation. A convention 
consisting of delegates from all the counties, for the 
formation of a new constitution, was called, through the 
committee of conference and observation of Philadelphia. 
In the choice of delegates to this convention no one was 
jiermitted to vote who refused to abjure all allegiance to 
the King of (ireat Hritain, or who was suspected of being 
an enemy to American liberty. 

The Declaration of Independence was .idopted July 
4th, 1776, and this convention assembled on the 15th of 
tl.e same month. It not only entered on the task of 
forming a constitution, but assumed legislative powers and 
aiijwinted delegates to Congress. It may here be re- 
marked that such of these delegates as had not already 

done so affixeil their signnfures to the Dcclnraiinn of In- 

1 he work of llui omriitiiin wn-, ( onipletedon I lit- i.Sih of 
Seplember, and the new-formed constitutioncoinniiitcd to 
the keeping of the coun<ilfif s.ifely until the first mccling 
of the (leneral Assembly of the Slate The provincial 
Assembly met on the J3dof the same month, nndi|tiielly 
expired, with a feeble denunciation on its lips of the as- 
sumed legislative power of the convention. Thus, nt 
about the same lime, the proprietary government in 
Pennsylvania ceased by the action of the people in the 
province, and the colonies cast off iheir .illcL'i.mi c lo the 
crown of Great Hritain. 

The jioiiulalion of Pennsylvania was about 300,000 at 
the time when it became a St.ile and assumed its position 
among its sister States in the .\merican Ifnion. The 
Declaration of Inde|)cnden<e had been made, but that 
independence was to be maintained ; and, as subse- 
quently proved, by the sacrifice of many lives and the 
expenditure of much treasure. 

The limits of this sketch will not |>crmit a detail of 
Revolutionary events that occurred beyond the boundaries 
of the State, though many of those events were im- 
portant factors in the history of the Slate at that time, 
and of the events of whic h Pennsylvania was the theatre 
little more than a brief mention can be made. 

December, 1776, found General Washington on the 
west bank of the Delaware near Trenton. He had 
crossed New Jersey before the advan< ing army of Gen- 
eral Howe, who was ]>osted on the opposite side of the 
ri\ er, waiting for the formation of ice on which to cross, 
that he might move on Philadelphia. General Washing- 
ton had secured all the boats on the river, -and on the 
night of the 25th of December he recrossed the river 
with 2,400 men and twenty pieces of artillery, attacked 
the Hessians in Trenton and defeated them, capturing six 
cannon and 900 prisoners, with whom he again crossed 
into Pennsylvania. The loss of the .\mericans in this 
action was two soldiers killed and two who jierished by 
cold. General Washington at once returned to Trenton, 
where he was joined by about 3,600 Pennsylvania militi.i 
under Generals Mifllin and Cadwalladcr. The battle of 
Princeton was fought soon afterward, and the army went 
into winter'ipiarters at Morristown. New Jersey. The next 
summer, after some manoeuvring in New Jersey, eviden 
ly for the purpose of drawing General Washington 'om 
his position. General Howe embarked his forces at New 
York, intending to attack Philadeljjhia by way of the 
Delaware river. After entering Delaware bay he re 
turned to the ocean, sailed up the Chesapeake bay and 
landed near the head of Elk river. On the sailing of the 
British army from New York General Washington moved 
his army into Pennsylvania, and encamped near German- 
town to watch the development of General Howe's plans. 
General La Fayette joined General Washington at that 
time, and shared with him the hardships and privations 
of the camp. 

The army of General Howe advanced toward Phila 
delphia and was met by that of General Washington at 



the Brandywine, whtre :i battle was fought the nth of 
September, and tlie American forces suffered a defeat 
and retired to Gerniantown. Wasliington soon afterward 
crossed the Schuylkill and ])repared for battle again, hut 
a heavy rain storm prexented the a( tion. Oeneral Howe 
entered Philadelphia with a portion of his army, and the 
balance encamjied at Germantown. Upon this force 
Washington made an unsuccessful attack while a portion 
of it was assisting the liritish shipping to effect a passage 
through the Delaware river. This was early in October. 
On the 22nd of the same month an attack was made on 
Forts Mifflin and Mercer, which commanded the Dela- 
ware oijposite the mouth of the Schuylkill. After an 
obstinate resistance the garrison of these forts was com- 
pelled to evacuate them. In this affair the enemy lost 
two ships by reason of the effective service of the Penn- 
sylvania State fleet. After the surrender of General Bur- 
goyne at Saratoga the army of Washington was reinforced 
by that of Genera' Gates, and it encam])ed in a strong 
position at Whitemarsh. From this position the British 
commander endeavored to draw General Washington, 
but without success. The American army finally went 
into winter quarters at Valley Forge, a place which will 
e\er be noted as the scene of the most intense suffering 
which the Revolutionary patriots were called on to en- 
dure during their struggle for independence. While they 
were shivering barefooted and half naked in their huts at 
this place, the British soldiers were snugly quartered and 
well fed and their officers feted and feasted by the tories 
in Philadelphia. 

In the spring of 1778 an attempt was made by the Eng- 
lish government through commissioners to effect a recon- 
ciliation. Whether or not an honorable reconciliation 
was desired may be judged by the fact that they offered 
Joseph Reed, one of the delegates in Congress from 
Pennsylvania, ^10,000 and the best office in thecolonies 
to aid them in their puri)oses. His reply should be re- 
membered: — " I am not worth purchasing, but such as I 
am the King of Great Britain is not rich enough to do 

It was in the spring of 17 78 that France entered into a 
treaty with the Americans, and sent four frigates and 
twelve ships to the Delaware. In consequence of this 
Sir Henry Clinton, who had succeeded Lord Howe in 
command of the British army, decided to evacuate Phil- 
adelphia, which he did, marching his forcts across New 
lersey toward New York. Washington pursued, and 
engaged the enemy at Monmouth and compelled them to 
give way. Philadelphia again became the capital in the 
latter jjart of June, 1778. Some trials were had for high 
treason, and several of those convicted were executed, 
greatly to the alarm of the tories and Quakers. They 
had been emboldened by the temporary success of the 
British arms, and these examples seemed necessary to 
inspire them with terror and prevent future treasonable 
acts, as well as to appease the \engeance of the whigs 
who had suffered at their hands. 

By the evacuation of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ceased 
to be the theatre of important warlike events. The Eng- 
lish government had, however, induced the Indians of 
the Iroquois nations in New York and those of the terri- 
tory west from Pennsylvania to engage in hostilities 
against the people of the struggling States. This warfare 
was waged in accordance with their "known rule." In- 
cursions were made, defenseless settlements attacked, and 
people " of every age, sex and condition " were ruth- 
lessly murdered. The settlements in many regions were 
left un]irotected, because nearly all the men capable of 
bearing arms had responded to their country's call and 
joined the Revolutionary army. In 1777 the northern 
frontier of New York was the scene of many of these sav- 
age irru]jtions, and the frontier settlements of these .'^*",iC3 
were scarcely troubled by marauding parties. They 
doubtless enjoyed this immunity because of the proxim- 
ity of troops, nliich could be quickly sent to protect these 
settlements. In i 778 the storm of Indian warfare burst 
on them. A descent was made on the \Vyoming valley 
by a force of British, tories and Indians, commanded by 
Colonel John Butler. Many of the inhabitants were 
cruelly massacred and the valley was devastated. A de- 
scent was also made on the west branch of the Susque- 
hanna by a force of Indians, tories and British, under Col- 
onel MacDonald. The frontier settlements in Westmore- 
land county also were ravaged by scalping parties. A force 
under General Mcintosh was sent to protect the western 
frontier, which was done by the erection of forts and by 
expeditions into the country of the hostile savages. 

The Indian villages at Wyalusing, Sheseqiiin and 
Tioga were destroyed by a small force under Colonel 
Hartley. In order to punish the most audacious of 
these savages, and prevent, if possible, futuie depreda- 
tions by them, General Sullivan was sent with a sufficient 
force in the summer of 1779 up the Susquehanna into 
the Genesee valley, the heart of the country of the 
Senecas — the most powerful and warlike nation of the 
Iioquois — with orders " to cut off their settlements, de- 
stroy their crops, and inflict on them every other mischief 
that time and circumstances would permit." This work 
was thoroughly accomplished. A battle was fought on 
the Chemung river at Newtown (Elmira), in which the 
Indians, under the celebrated Mohawk chief Brant, and 
the tories, under Colonel John Butler, were routed. The 
valley of the Genesee was devastated, forty towns were 
burned, orchards were cut down, corn fields were ravaged, 
and one hundred and sixty thousand bushels of corn de- 
stroyed. From this blow the warlike Senecas never re- 
covered. Though marauding parties continued to go 
forth, they were not afterward able to send out any large 

Colonel Brodhead, at about the same time, went on an 
expedition against the Indians on the west branch of the 
Allegheny and destroyed the crops and villages there, 
and cut off a jiarty of forty who had started on an ex- 
pedition to the frontier of Westmoreland county. 








I'RlNCi the year 17S0 nuicli dirticully was ex- 
perienced on account of the depreciation of 
the paper currency, which the exigencies of 
f<--i>i the war had made it necessary to issue. Ef- 
'^ forts were made by the Assembly to relieve the 

.State from this embarrassment, with only partial 
success. In 1781, in accordance with a plan of 
Robert Morris, who justly earned the title of " the 
financier of the Revolution," the Bank of North America 
was chartered by Congress, and charters were also granted 
to it by Pennsvlvania and Massachusetts. The effect of 
this measure was immediately beneficial to the com- 
mercial and financial interests of the country. The 
Pennsylvania charter was revoked by the Legislature in 
1785, but was restored in 1787. 

During 1780 the Legislature enacted a law reorganizing 
the militia system of the State, in order that any sudden 
emergency might be promptly met. In view of the exi- 
gencies of the times authority was vested in the execu- 
tive to declare martial law during the recess of the As- 
sembly, so far as should be necessary under circumstances 
that might arise. It was resolved, also, that in extraor- 
dinary efforts that were found necessary to obtain sup- 
plies, discrimination might be made between the friends 
of the country and those who liad shown themselves to 
be otherwise. To guard against spies, authority was 
given to arrest all suspicious [)ersons and prevent the ad- 
mission of strangers indiscriminately. Tiie horses and 
other property of domestic enemies were seized, and tiie 
houses of Quakers were searched for arms. 

The entrance into New Jersey of the British army 
under Sir Henry Clinton was the cause of great alarm, 
but this army did not advance on Philadelphia. Soon 
afterward four thousand of tiie militi.i were ordered out 
to assist in a projected attack on New York, but by rea- 
son of the non-arrival of the French troops the project 
was abandoned, and the militia force, which had its ren- 
dezvous at Trenton, was disbanded. 

The treason of Benedict .Arnold occurred in the 
autumn of 1780. While in command at Philadeljihia in 
1778 Cieneral .\rnold became allied by marriage with a 
distinguished tory family in that city, and the intimacy 
with British officers into which this relation threw him, 
together with the sting which his sensitive nature received 
by being court-martialed for some irregularity, may have 
led him to his fatal error. Soon after the receipt of the 
news of his treason in Philadelphia, his effigy was paraded 
through the streets and hanged, his wife was ordered to 
leave the city within fourteen days, and his estate was 
confiscated. Still more rigorous proceedings were insti- 
tuted against the tories and Quakers, one of whom was 
convicted of high treason and hanged. 

In January, 1781, a revolt occurred among the Penn- 
sylvania troops, who were in winter <)iiarters at Morris- 
town, under command of fleneral Wayne. About thir- 
teen hundred of the disaffcited left the camp and cslab 
lished their quarters at Princeton. The causes of this 
mutiny were depreciation of the currency in which the 
men were paid, arrearages of pay and suffering for want 
of money and clothing, and the retention in the service 
of some beyond the terms of their enlistment. There 
was nothing treasonable in their revolt. On the contrary, 
I wo emissaries who were sent to them with large offers 
from the commander of the British forces were seized, 
delivered to General Wayne, tried as spies, convicted and 
executed. .Vn investigation was instituteci by (leneral 
Wayne and President Reed, their grievances were re- 
dressed, and they returned to their duty. 

In the spring of 17S1 the Pennsylvania troops under 
General Wayne joined the force of La Fayette, and 
marched to join the force of General Greene. Fearing 
an attack upon Philadelphia by the troops from New 
York, Congress recommended the calling out of three 
thousand militia. They were ordered to rendezvous at 
Newtown, in Bucks county, where they remained till the 
departure of the British troops from New York for the 
relief of Cornwallis allayed all fear for the safety of 
Philadelphia, when they were disbanded. 

In October, 1781, the army of Cornwallis surrendered 
at Yorktown, thus virtually ending the war of the Revo- 
lution. Pending the negotiation of a treaty of peace, 
which was signed November 30th, 1781, the Assembly of 
Pennsylvania unanimously adopted a resolution disap- 
proving of a reunion with Great Britain on any terms; 
against the conclusion of a treaty of peace with England 
without the con<urrence of France, and against the re- 
vival of the proprietary family privileges. Such had been 
the bitter experience of the people of I'ennsylvania under 
the proprietary government and the British yoke that 
they were determined to guard against everything that 
could lead to a recurrence of that experience. 

.Although the chartered boundaries of Pennsylvani.i 
were settled before the termination of the Revolutionary 
war, the Indian title to all the territory within those 
limits had not been extinguished. Purchases from the 
Indians had been made in 1736 and previously, in 1749, 
in 175S and in 1768. These amounted to about two- 
thirds of the chartered territory. The balance, lying in 
the northwest part of the State, was purchased from the 
Iro(|uois at the treaty of Fort Stanwix in October, 1784, 
and the purchase was confirmed by the' Delawares and 
Wyandots at Fort Mcintosh in January, 1785. Not- 
withstanding this purchase the Uclawares and Wyandots 
kept up a barbarous warfare against the settlers, and in 
addition to the expeditions that had been sent against 
them, among which was that of the ill fated Crawford in 
1782, Harmar in 1791 and Wayne from 1792 to 1795 
conducted campaigns against them. The last in August, 
1795, concluded a treaty with them which terminated 
hostilities. " Besides these ex|)editions," says Sherman 
Day, " there was an undercurrent of partisan hostilities 




constantly maintained oetween the white savaj^es on the 
frontier and the red, in which it was difficult to say on 
which side was exhibited the greatest atrocity." 

It has been said that a State constitution was ado])ted 
in 1776 to supersede the proprietary government, I'nder 
this constitution an assembly elcc led annually was the 
legislat've department; a council of twelve ])ersons was 
chosen .or .hree years and by joint ballot of the assem- 
bly and council a president was elected, which consti- 
tuted the executive department. It also jirovided for 
the choice septennially of a council of censors to revise 
the doings of the Legislature and the executive, pass cen- 
sures, recommend repeals, etc- This constitution was 
defective, though an improvement on the proprietary 

In December, 1779, the royal charter was annulled by 
an act of Assembly, and the proprietaries were granted 
_;^i30,ooo sterling to compensate them for their lost 
privileges, they retaining their real estate and rents. In 
1780 the act for the gradual extinction of slavery was 
passed. In recommending this action the executive 
council said: "Honored will that State be in the annals 
of mankind which shall first abolish this violation of tlie 
rights of mankind. ' 

In 1787 the convention which framed the constitution 
of the United States sat in Philadelphia. It concluded 
its labors on the 18th of September, and on the 12th of 
the following December a convention called for the pur- 
pose by the Assembly ratified it, thus placing Pennsyl- 
vania first on the list of States which adojited it. After 
the adoption of the federal constitution the defects of 
the State constitution of 1776 were more than ever be- 
fore apparent. Chief Justice McKean had said of it; 
" The balance of i:he one, the few and the many is not well 
poised in ;he State; the Legislature is too powerful for 
the executive and judicial branches. We have now but 
one branch; we must have another branch, a negative in 
the executive, stability in our laws and jiernianency in 
the magistracy before we shall be reputable, safe and 

In accordance with a resolution of the Assembly, dele- 
gates were chosen at the October election in 1789 to 
frame a new constitution. They assembled in November 
01 the same yeaij and after a long session completed 
their labors, and the constitution which they formed was 
adopted in September, 1790. 

In chr: the general plan of the Federal constitution 
was followed. Thv, executive department was vested in 
a governor, elected by 'he people; the legislative in a 
Senate and Assemljly, while the judicial system was not 
greatly changed, except that the tenure of office of the 
judges of the higher courts was during good behavior in- 
stead of seven years, as before. The supreme executive 
council and the council of censors were of course abol- 

In 1837 the constitution was revised by a convention 
assembled for that purpose, and the changes which were 
recommended were adopted the next year. Among these 
were alterations in the tenure of offices, an abridgment 

of the powers of the Legislature, the taking away of 
nearly all executive patronage and an extension of the 
elective franchise. 

Another revision of the constitution was made by a 
convention for that purpose in 1873, and the amended 
constitution was adopted the same year. This constitu- 
tion abolished special legislation, changed the time of 
annual elections, altered the tenure of the judiciary, mod- 
ified the pardoning power, provided for minority repre- 
sentation, for biennial sessions of the Legislature, for an 
increase in the number of both branches of the Legisla- 
ture, and made other imjjortant changes. 

In 1794 an attempt was made to lay out a town where 
the city of Erie — then called Pres(iue Isle, from the penin- 
sula whicl; shelters the excellent harbor at that point — 
now stands. The small triangle necessary to secure this 
harbor was purchased from the Indians in 1789, and from 
the United States in 1792. Resistance to this settlement 
by the Seneca Indians was apprehended, by reason of a 
misunderstanding on the part of the latter, and the mat- 
ter was postponed to the next year, by which time mat- 
ters were arranged with them. The western tribes were 
at that time hostile. 




\.'W, Mup-'H.AT has always been known as the Penna 


"1 mite war, arose out of the conflicting 
_;,j claims of the colonies of Connecticut and 

Pennsvlvania to the territory included be- 
1^0} <j u tween the forty-first and forty-second 
jjjwp' parallels of latitude — now in this State, 
fei^ In 1662 King Charles the Second confirmed to 

the colony of Connecticut the title which it had previous- 
ly acquired to this territory; and in 1681 the same 
monarch granted a portion of the same territory to Wil- 
liam Penn. In 1762 settlers from New England took 
])Ossession of lands in the Wyoming valley, and during 
that and the succeeding year made some improvements 
there; but in the autumn of 1763 they were driven away 
by the Indians. 

They returned in 1769, but about the same time par- 
ties claiming titles under the Pennsylvania grant took 
possession of a jjortion of the same territory. An attempt 
was made by the Connecticut settlers to forcibly eject 
these, and thus was inaugurated a contest and a series of 
conflicts, which, though they were suspended during the 
Revolutionary war, were renewed afterward, and were 
not finally settled till about the year 1800. 

What has usually been termed the whiskey insurrec- 
tion assumed somewhat formidable proportions in 1794. 
In 1684, 1738, 1744, 1772 and 17S0 duties had been 





imposed on domestic spirits liy the Asseml>ly cl tin- 
])rovince, but after a time the acts imposing these 
duties were repealed. In 1791, by an act of Con- 
gress, a.i excise of four pence per gallon was laid on all 
distilled s])irits. This tax weighed heavily on tlie people 
of western Pennsylvania, where in some districts a sixth 
or fifth of the farmers were distillers, and nearly all the 
coarse grain was converted into spirit and this sent across 
the mountains or down the Ohio river to market. .V 
majority o' the inhabitants of this region were Scotch- 
Irish 01 their descendants, and their recollections or tra- 
ditions of resistance to the excise laws in the "old coun- 
try " inclined them to follow here the examples of their 
fathers. In the year of tii: passage of the act resistance 
to its enforcement commenced, and meetings were held, at 
which resolutions were passed denouncing all who should 
attempt the enforcement of the law, and excise officers 
were tarred and feathered and otherwise maltreated. 
This resistance continued during the succeeding two or 
three years. People who were suspected of favoring the 
law were proscribed, socially and otherwise, and open 
resistance to its execution, by violence to the persons and 
injury to the property of those attempting to execute it, 
was practiced. This was the condition of things in the 
counties c' /-.Uegheny, Fayette, \\'ashington and West- 
moreland. In 1794 Congress amended the law, but noth- 
ing short of absolute repeal would satisfy the malcon- 
tents, whose successful resistance had greatly emboldened 
them. Armed and organized mobs assembled, attacked 
the houses of excise officers and burned their buildings, 
and several persons were killed in these riots. Finally 
a large force assembled and marched on Pittsburg, de- 
termined to burn the house of an excise officer there; but 
by adroit management they were prevented from doing 
any harm beyond burning a barn These lawless pro- 
ceedings were reported to the authorities, and the Presi- 
dent of the United States and the governor of the State 
issued proclamations commanding the insurgents to dis- 
perse, and calling for troops to suppress the insurrection. 
In obedience to this i^roclamation a force of about 13,000 
was raised in Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania, and under the command of Governor Henry, of Virginia, marched to the insurrectionary district. 
This awed the insurgents into obedience and no further 
trouble was experienced. 

In 1798 the Fries insurrection, or "hot water war," 
as it was ca"ed because of the method adopted by the 
women in resisting the collection of the "house tax," 
occurred in Bucks and Montgomery counties. Troops 
were called out ; Fries and others — leaders — were ar- 
rested, tried, and convicted of treason, but subsequently 

The Erie Railroad war, which occurred in the winter 
of 1853-4, is still fresh in the recollection of many. This 
arose cut of the opposition of the people of Erie to the 
action of what is now the Lake Shore Railroad Comjjany 
in laying a track of uniform width through the city. The 
track was torn up and bridges were destroyed by a mob 
encouraged by the city authorities, and tra\ el was em- 

barrassed during several months. Order was finally re- 
stored, and Erie has since been widely known as the 
" i>eaniil city." 

.\l)Out the year 1862 a reign of terror was inaugurated 
in some portions of the mining regions in the State of 
Pennsylvania, by the discovery that there existed among 
till- miners an organization of desperadoes who set the 
law at defiance, and aided and protected each other in 
the blackest crimes known. This organization is popu- 
larly known as the Mollie Maguires, and it was trans- 
planted in this country about the year 1854 from Ire- 
land. It was an organization for resistan< e to the land- 
lords in that country, and took its name from a des- 
perate woman, who was very active and efficient in shoot- 
ing landlords' agents. In this country it is said that it 
never existed as a distinct organization, but that the se- 
cret acts of lawlessness and crimes that had characterized 
the Mollie Maguires came to be tolerated and even sanc- 
tioned and abetted by the "Ancient Order of Hibernians," 
a benevolent institution which had long existed and 
which, in some States, was incorporated. When they 
first attracted attention they were termed " Huckshots," 
and, although troublesome, they were not considered very 
dangerous. Their crimes came to be more fre<|uent and 
audacious. They resisted the enrollment for the draft 
in 1862. Arson, and the assassination of those who in- 
curred their displeasure, came to be more and more com- 
mon, and were jierpetrated with entire impunity, for an 
alibi was always proved; and during the twelve or thirteen 
years following the influx of foreign miners into the coal 
regions, which began soon after the breaking out of the 
Rebellion, they came to be a real terror in those regions. 
.\t length a skillful detective succeeded in gaining admis- 
sion to their order and obtaining a knowledge of its 
secret workings, and of the perpetrators of the many 
murders which had been committed. The result was 
that many of these murderers were brought to justice, 
and the order was rendered impotent by the exposure 
of its dangerous character. 

In the summer of 1877 what is known as the great 
strike occurred. This commenced in the cii\ of Balti- 
more, among the employees of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad Company, and rapidly extended the entire length 
of the road. Three days later, July 19th, certain em- 
ployees of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company also struck, 
or refused to work. The immediate cause or pretext for 
the strike at Pittsburg was an order from the superin- 
tendent of the road extending the trip of a "crew ; " thus 
— as it was said — rendering a smaller number of men 
necessary and depriving a portion of their employ- 

The exigencies of the war of 1861-65 brought about an 
unhealthy condition of things throughout the country. 
The currency was inflated; business acquired an abnor- 
mal activity; the prices of produce, of manufactured arti- 
cles, and of labor were greatly enhanced, and a general 
expansion took place. This engendered among all classes 
a degree of reckless extravagance unknown before, and 
when, after the lai)se of a few years, business gradually 



came to be established on a more healthy basis, jjeople 
found it difficult to adapt themselves to their clianged 
surroundings, to practice the more rigid economy which 
those surroundings necessitated, and to appreciate the 
increased and steadily increasing value of a dollar. 
When, therefore, by reason of a depreciation in the 
prices of produce, a lessened demanl for manufactured 
goods, and a consequent reduction of the profits of 
manufacturers, it became necessary to reduce the price 
of labor, many laborers, finding it hard to submit to these 
inevitable changes, and failing to appreciate the necessity 
for them, sought by the e.xercise of lawless force to com- 
pel producers, manufacturers, or carriers to continue the 
prices which they paid in more prosperous times. 

Such was the condition of things at the commencement 
of this strike. At first certain railroad employees, who 
considered themselves aggrieved, refused to work, and 
sought by intimidation and force to prevent others 
from doing the work which they refused to do. At Pitts- 
burg these were joined by the idle, vicious and reck- 
less who were not in the employ of the railroad com- 
pany, and at once became more and more disorderly and 
defiant. The authorities were called on to protect the 
company's property, but the force failed to control the 
mob. The militia were called out, and some of the 
soldiers fraternized with the rioters, and others proved 
inefficient by reason of a mistaken aversion to firing on 
them, and finally allowed themselves to be driven from 
their position. The citizens took no measures to repress 
disorder, but rather looked on approvingly. 

Under such circumstances the crowd constantly ,iug- 
mented, and became more and more desperate. Li- 
cendiarism and pillage came to be the order of things, 
and property to the amount of millions of dollars was 
destroyed- Proclamations were issued by the governor, 
more militia were called out, and at last the citizens awoke 
from their apathy when they became aware that the city 
itself was in danger of destruction, and the riotous pro- 
ceedings were finally quelled. 

Meantime the strike had extended until it had become 
general along the Pennsylvania Railroad. Violence was 
resorted to and property destroyed at various places 
along the line of the road, but nowhere was there such a 
reign of terror as at Pittsburg. At Philadelphia the 
authorities t^ok such ample precautions, and the police 
acted so promptly ana efficiently n-hen the riot broke 
out there, that it was at once put down. The governor 
visited riotous localities along the line of the road in 
l)erson, accompanied by troops, and regular soldiers 
were furnished by order of the President and Secretary 
of War, on application of Governor Hartranft, to aid in 
restoring order. 

At Reading riots broke out on the 22nd of July. The 
militia were called out, but proved inefficient, though one 
regiment, without orders, poured a volley into the assail- 
ing crowd, killing ten and wounding forty and scattering 
the rioters for the time. The presence of 300 regular 
troops finally awed the mob and restored order 

By the 24th the strike had extended to the mining re- 

gions, and was extensively participated in by the miners. 
Riots occurred at Pottsville, Shamokin, Bethlehem, East- 
on, Wilkes-B'arre, Scranton and elsewhere. Work in the 
mines was nrrested, some mines were flooded, railroad 
property was destroyed and many lives were sacrificed in 
the riots and the efforts to quell them. The greatest 
destruction of property, however, was at Pittsburg, where 
the citizens have since been punished for the tacit en- 
couragement which they at first gave the rioters, by 
being compelled to p.iy for the property destroyed. 




^HE project of removing the capital of the 
State to a more central location began to 
M,\\ be agitated during the last decade of the 
eighteenth century. In 1795, 1796 and 
1798 efforts were made to acconi|)lish such re- 
moval, but they failed for the want of concurrent 
action in the two branches of the Legislature. 
Carlisle, Reading, Lancaster, Wright's Ferry and Harris- 
burg were unsuccessfully proposed. In 1799 Lancaster 
was selei ed, and the Legislature met there for the first 
time in December of that year. By an act of the Legis- 
lature in 1810 it was in 1812 removed from Lancaster to 
Harrisburg; and the sessions of the Legislature were 
held in the court-house at that place till the completion 
of the public buildings in 1821. 

The war of 181 2 had its origin in aggressions against 
the United States by Great; Britain, which were contin- 
ued during many years, notwithstanding the earnest pro- 
tests of this nation. The r'ghts of the United States as 
neutrals were disregarded during the Napoleonic wars, 
and among other encroachments the English government 
claimed the right to board and search American vessels, 
and authorized its officers to examine their crews, seize 
all those whom they chose to regard as British subjects, 
and force th;m into their service. All remonstrances 
were unavailing. The English in enforcing this right of 
search committed great outrages, and the practice became 
so obnoxious as to demand some decided measures for 
its suppression. Under these circumstances there ap- 
peared no alternative but war; and Congress having 
authorized it, war against Great Britain was declared on 
the 19th of June, 1812. The measure was not univer- 
sally sustained. The Federal party, then in the minority, 
opposed it; and their political opinions being apparently 
stronger than their patriotism, they loudly denounced it. 
The Federalists in New York and New England were 
most jirominent in their opi)osition, and if they did not 
directly aid the enemy their conduct was discouraging 




mul injurious to those wlio were periling their lives in 
their country's cause. This opposition was, however, 
quite impotent in Pennsylvania. 

At the commencement of the war Ciovernor Snyik-r 
issued a jiatriotic call for fourteen thousand \olunteers; 
and such was the alacrity of the response that three times 
the number required tendered their services, and money 
was readily offered for the pku es of those who were ac- 

During this war Pennsylvania was not the scene of hos- 
tile operations, although her frontier was threatened. A 
force of British and Indians appeared on the north shore 
of the lake, opposite t') F-rie, in July, 1812; but the 
jirompt measures that were taken for the defense of the 
])ort prevented an attack. The mouth of the Delaware 
was blockaded in 1813, and most of the foreign commerce 
of Philadelphia was cut off; but the river had been 
placed in such a state of defense that it was not invaded. 
A thousand men were sent to ])rotect the shores of this 
river, and an equal force sent to guard the harbor of Erie, 
where \essels of war were in process of construction and 
equipment. The brilliant victory of Commodore Perry 
on the loth of September, 1813, was the result of the 
fitting out of this naval force. 

The ravaguig of the shores of Chesapeake bay, and 
the burning of Washington, in 1813 and 1814, and the 
threatening attitude of the enemy after these depreda- 
tions, induced Governor Snyder to issue another call for 
troops to defend the State against the peril which men- 
aced it. In compliance with this a force of five thousand 
established a rendezvous on the Delaware, and although 
the soil of Pennsylvania was not invaded this force did 
good service in marching to the relief of Baltimore when 
it was attacked, and aiding to repel the enemy. It is 
worthy of note, as showing the difference in the patriotism 
of men from different sections of the country, that four 
thousand New York troops under General Van Rennsse- 
laer refused to cross the line into Canada, but that, soon 
afterward, a brigade of Pennsyhanians, consisting of two 
thousand, under General Tannehill, crossed without the 
slightest hesitation, glad to be able to meet the enemy on 
his own soil and do battle for their country. .A treaty of 
peace between the two nations was ratified on the 17th of 
February, 1S15. 

The extensive system of internal improvements which 
has swallowed so many millions of money in this State 
was commenced about the year 1790. The first efforts 
were directed to the improvement of navigation in the 
ri\ers of the Slate; then, as time went on, the construc- 
tion of a system of canals and turnpikes was entered on, 
and prosecuted beyond that of any other Stale in the 
Union. The grand jjroject of securing the trade of the 
West, through a connection between Philadelphia and 
the waters of the Ohio at Pittsburg, by a line cf public 
works, was realized in 1831. In order to secure the in- 
fluence and votes necessary to authorize this it had been 
found necessary to construct other canals in various parts 
of the State, the inhabitants of which desired to par- 
ticipate in the benefits of the system of internal improve- 

ment, and thus that system in this Slate came to exceed 
in magnitude that of any other. 

It was not possible, however, for the wisest of thor,e 
who projected and promoted this system of improvements 
to foresee the rise and rapid progress of another system, 
which was to take the place of and wholly supersede that 
»lii( h, at su( h an enormous expense, they inaugurated 
and carried forward. 

In 1827 a, nine miles in length, the longest 
then in existence in America, was constructed from 
Mauch Chunk to some coal mines. Only two had pre- 
ceded this — one, with a wooden track, at a stone quarry 
in the county of Delaware, Penn., and another, having .1 
I length of three miles, at a cpiarry in Quincy, Mass. Since 
j that time the railroad system of this country has devel- 
I oped to its present magnitude. A majority of the canals 
are dry, many have been converted into railroad beds, and 
even the rivers and lakes of the <:ountry have dwin- 
dled into comparative insignificance as avenues of travel 
or transportation. In 1857 the |>rincipal line of public 
works between Pittsburg and Philadelphia was sold to the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company for a fraction of its cost, 
I and measures were at once taken for the sale of the other 
works belonging to the State Thus do systems, one 
after another, develop and pass away, and no prevision 
can point out what is to come. 

\\hile it is true that in some of the States of the Union 
the jjresent system of internal im])rovements, which has 
been fostered and encouraged by those States, has proved 
to be almost the ruin of their best interests, the reverse 
is true in Pennsylvania. The development of the im- 
mense mineral resources of the State reipiired the con- 
! struction of these avenues of transportation, and the cost 
i of those built by the State, though they were afterward 
' sold for only a jiart of that cost, was returned many fold 
I in the increase of wealth which was the direct result of 
' their construction. When the first canal was projected the 
use of anthracite coal was hardly known, .md the cost of 
its trans])ortation to market was so great as to prechidc 
the possibility of its profitable use. With every increase 
in the facilities for the transportation of this important 
mineral it has been cheapened to the consumer, and its 
])rpduction has been rendered more profitable; and now 
I large areas which have no value for any other purpose 
are sources of immense and constantly imreasing wealth. 
I Previous to the year 1834 many acts were passed by the 

j Legislature pertaining in some way to the subject of edu- 
I cation. Some of these were local in their application, 
and some were little more than resolutions in favor of 
education. Isolated schools were established in various 
localities, in most of which provision was made for the 
education of the children of the poor. The people of 
the dilTcrent religious dennminations made provision for 
the education of their children, often establishing paro- 
chial schools. This was the case with the Quakers, the 
S< (Itch-Irish Presbyterians, the German Lutherans, the 
Mennonists, the Moravians, the Dvmkards, etc. Nothing 
having the semblance of a public school system was 
I established previous to the adoption of the constitution 


of 1790, which required that provision should be made 
by law for the general establishment of schools wherein 
gratuitous instruction should be given to the children of 
the poor. From that time till 1827 efforts were from 
lime to time made to establish a system in accordance 
with this requirement, but with only partial success, the 
radical defect in all being the distinction between the 
children of the rich and poor. In 1827 earnest and sys- 
tematic efforts began to be put forth for the establish- 
ment of free schools for all, and in 1834 the foundation 
of the present common school system was laid, in the 
enactment of a law for the maintenance of schools by a 
tax on all taxable property. This law, which was at first 
imperfect, was revised and amended in 1836, 1849, 1854 
and 1857, in which last year the present system of nor- 
mal schools was established. 

In 1863 the Pennsylvania Railroad Company donated 
to the State $50,000 for the education of soldiers' or- 
phans. In 1865 the Legislature added to this an appro- 
priation of $75,000. Schools and homes were established 
for these wards of the State, and during several years an 
annual expenditure was made for this purpose of half a 
million of dollars. At these homes and schools soldiers' 
orphans were boarded, clothed, educated and taught 
habits of industry, and at a proper age were placed in 
situations to acquire trades or professions. 

In 1749 an academy was established by subscription in 
Philadelphia " for instruction in the Latin and English 
languages and mathematics." This was the foundation 
of the ITniversity of Pennsylvania. This and Dickinson 
College, at Carlisle, which was founded in 1783, were the 
only colleges in the Slate previous to the commencement 
of the nineteenth century. There are now twenty-seven, 
of which five are purely secular or non-sectarian. There 
are also seventeen theological institutions, ten medical 
schools and one law school. 




N 1846 war was declared by this government 
'> 'T(( against Mexico, and by virtue of authority 
-■j) vested in him by Congress, the President 
"' "'• called on Pennsylvania for six volunteer 
"" regiments of infantry, to hold themselves in 
readiness for service during one year, or to the 
end of the war. Such was the alacrity with which 
the citizens responded to this call, that within thirty days 
a sufficient number of volunteers had offered their ser- 
vices to constitute nine full regiments. Of these, be- 
tween two and three regiments were sent into the country 
of the enemy, and their conduct at Vera Cruz, Cerro 
Gordo, Chepultepec and the city of Mexico was iiighly 

creditable to themselves as well as to the State which 
they represented. 

The promptitude with which Pennsylvania responded 
to the call of the federal government in 1812 and 1846 
was fully e(|ualed by the readiness with which her citi- 
zens flew to arms at the breaking out of the great 
Southern rebellion. In anticipation of that event the 
citizens of Pittsburg had refused to allow arms to be 
taken from their arsenal and sent south by traitorous 
government oflicials ; and, when the storm of war burst 
upon the country, the patriotism of the citizens of this 
State w:is aroused to such a pitch that, in response to 
the call for Pennsylvania's quota of the 75,000 first called 
for, fourteen regiments, enough for twenty-five, offered 

A place of rendezvous, called, in honor of the gover- 
nor of ill State, Camp Curtin, was established at Harris- 
burg, and on the morning of .^pril i8th, 1861, six days 
after the attack on Fort Sumter and three days 
after the proclamation calling for 75,000 men was issued, 
five companies of volunteers left Harrisburg for Washing- 
ton. They passed through Baltimore amid the jeers and 
imprecations of the mob, that followed them and hurled 
bricks, clubs and other missiles at them as they boarded 
the cars, and arrived at Washington on the evening of 
the same day. They were the first troops that reached 
the national capital, and for tnis prompt response to the 
call of their country, and for their coolness and courage 
in passing through the mob, they were aflerwaid thanked, 
in a resolution, by the House of Representatives. Within 
twelve days, or before the first of May, twenty-five reg- 
iments, amounting to more than twenty thousand men, 
were sent from this State to the field. The expense of 
clothing, subsisting, arming, equiping and transporting 
these troops was sustained by the State. 

By the advance of General Lee toward the southern 
border of the State in September, 1862, an invasion of 
its territory was evidently threatened, and Governor 
Curtin, by proclamation, called for fifty thousand men to 
meet the emergency. These not only marched to the 
border, which they covered, but most of them crossed 
into the State of Maryland, and by their presence assisted 
in preventing the advance northward of the rebel army. 

Another emergency arose in June, 1863, to meet which 
Governor Curtin issued a proclamation calling out the 
entire militia of the Slate. By reason of a lack of con- 
cert in the action of the State and national authorities, 
only a portion of this force was brought into service pre- 
vious to the battle of (lettysburg. Of that battle the 
limits of this sketch will not permit a detailed account. 
It was ihe result of the second attempt to invade northern 
territory, and it was a disaster to the rebels from which 
they never recovered. 

The territory of the State was again invaded in July, 
1864, and all the available troops in the State were sent 
forward to repel the invasion. The inhabitants along the 
southern border were considerably annoyed and injured 
by this invasion, and the town of Chamber.sburg was 
burned. More than two hundred and fifty houses were 




find by the rebels and the town wns iniirely destroyed, 
involving a loss of about §2,000,000. It was an act ol 
wanton vandalism. 

Of Camp Ciirtin, that was established at the eomnuMK e- 
ment of the war, it may be said that it was not only a 
plate of rendezvous for soldiers and of dejiosit for nnl- 
itary stores, but a depot for jirisoners and a hos|)ilal 
for the sick and for the wounded after some of the 
great battles, esi)ecially the battles of Oettysburg and 
Antietam. It was early i)la( ed under the control of the 
federal government, and so tonlinued till the close of 
'he war. 

A brief mention should be made of the part which the 
loyal women of the State bore in this conllici. Not only 
did they part with their husbands, sons and brothers, who 
went forth to do battle for their country and the pres- 
ervations of its institutions, and in many cases to lay 
down tlieir lives, but they put forth their efforts to pro- 
vide and send forward to those who languished in distant 
hospitals those comforts which the government could not 
furnish; and many a sick or wounded soldier had oci a- 
sion to bless his unknown benefnctress for some delicacv 
or comfort of which he was the recipient. 

During the continuance of this war the State of Penn- 
sylvania furnished for the army two hundred and seventy 
regiments and many detached com[)anies, amounting in 
all to 387.284 men. The following quotation from a 
special message of Ciovernor Curtin, at the close of the 
war, is a well deserved tribute to the self-sacrificing pa- 
triotism of the people of this State: 

" Proceeding in the strict line of duty, the resources of 
I'ennsylvania, whether in men or money, have neither 
lieen withheld or squandered. The history of the con- 
duct of our people in the field is illuminated with inci- 
dents of heroism worthy of conspicuous notice; but it 
would be impossible to mention them in the proper limits 
of this message, without doing injustice or i)erhaps mak- 
ing invidious distinctions. It would be alike impossible 
to furnish a history of the associated benevolence, and of 
the large individual contributions to the comfort of our 
peoi)le in the field and hospital: or of the names and ser- 
vices at all times of our volunteer surgeons, when called 
to assist in the hospital or on the battle field. Nor is it 
possible to do justice to the many patriotic and Christian 
men who were always ready when summoned to the 
exercise of acts of humanity and benevolence. Our 
armies were sustained and strengthened in the field by 
the patriotic devotion of their friends at home; and we 
can never render full justice to the heaven-directed, pa- 

triotic, Christian benevolence of the women of the State ' 
Tlie following is a list of the governors of the colons, 
province and Slate of Pennsylvania, with the year of tli< 
appointment or election of each: 

Cnder the Swedes: i6^S, Peter Minuit; 1641. Pele" 
Ilollandare; 1643, John Print/; 1653, John Pap|j..-goya: 
1654, Johan Claudius Rysingh. 

Under the Dutch: 1655. Peter Siuyvesant F)ery( k 
Schmidt /*/v» /(//I. ; 1655, John Paul Jaijuet; 1657, J.ncob 
.Mrichs; i6!;9, Alexander I). Hinyossa; 1652, William 
Heekman; 1663. .Alexander D. Hinyossa; 1673, Anthony 
Colve Peter .■\lri< h's deputy . 

Under the Duke of York: 1664, c:olonel Richard 
Nichols Robert Carr, deputy ; 1667, Colonel Francis 

Under 'he Knglish: 1674, Sir Kdmund Andross: 
Under the proprietary government: 16S1, William 
Markham, deputy; 1682, William Penn; 16S4, Thrtm is 
l.loyd, president of the council; 1688, five commissioners 
ajipointed by the proprietor — Thomas l.loyd, Robert Tur- 
ner, Arthur Cook, John Symcock, John Flckley; i6«.S. 
John Blackwell, deputy; 1690, Thomas IJoyd, president 
of council; 1691.Thom.1s l.loyd, deputy governor; 1693, 
Benjamin Fletcher, William Markham lieutenant gov- 
ernor; 1695, William Markham, deputy; 1699. William 
Penn; 1701, Andrew Hamilton, deputy; 1703, Fldward 
Shippen, ])resident of the coimcil; 1704, John Evans, 
deputy; 1709, Charles C.ookin, deputy; 1 7 1 7, Sir 
Keith, deputy; 1726, I'airick Cordon, deputy; 1736, 
James Logan, president of the council; 1738, George 
Thomas, deputy; 1747, .\nthony Palmer, president of the 
council; 1748, James Hamilton, lieutenant governor; 
1754, Robert H. Morris, deputy: 1756, William Denny, 
deputy: 1 759, James Hamilton, deputy; 1763, John Fenn; 
1771, James Hamilton, president of the council; 1771. 
Richard Penn; 1773, John Penn. 

Under the constitution of 1776 ,iresidents of the 
supreme council: 1777, Thomas Wharton; 1778, Joseph 
Reed; i 781, William Moore; 1 782. John Dickinson; 1785, 
Benjamin I'ranklin; 1788, Thomas Mifflin. 

L'nder subsequent constitutions: 1790, Thomas Mif- 
flin; I 799, Thomas .M<Kean; 1808, .Simon Snyder; 1S17; 
AVilliam Findlay; 1S20, Jo.seph Heister; 1823, John .An- 
drew Schulize; 1829, George Wolf; 1835, Joseph Ritnir: 
1S39, IKavid R. Porter; 1845, Francis R. Shunk; 1S4.S, 
William !■". Johnston: 1852, William Bigler; 1855, James 
Pollock; 1858, William F. Packer; 1861, .\ndrew G. CUir- 
tin; 1867, John W. Geary; 1873, John F. Hartranfl; 187S, 
Henry M. Hoyt. 





l<'WiipC f^^ historian of liie tornier inhabitants ol any 
country or region is confronted at the out- 
set by various difficulties. The question 
arises, Who and what were the progenitors of 
these inhabitants? and who were ////vV ances- 
tors? and so on. 
*^^ There exist in this country, and to some e.vtent 
in northeastern Pennsylvania, evidences of its former oc- 
cupancy by a people whose customs were, in some re- 
spects, different from tliose of the Indians who were 
found here near the close of the fifteenth century. 
These evidences consist of the sepulchral and other 
mounds or tumuli in the west and south, and of the de- 
fensive works which are found in this region. Of the people 
who constructed these mounds and forts no tradition was 
preserved by the pre-Columbian Indians, and in and 
around them many relics have been found concerning 
the former use of which even the ingenuity of archaolo- 
gists has failed to form a conjecture. 

The opinion has been held that these people were not 
the progenitors of the present race of Indians, but that 
they were expelled from the country or exterminated by 
those from whom these Indians descended. The cor- 
rectness of this opinion is doubted by many modern 
ethnologists, who insist that gradual changes in the sur- 
roundings of a people, extending through indefinite 
periods of time, are sufficient to account for those things 
which have been regarded as evidences of a distinct race 
of people. They insist, too, that in the absence of a re- 
corded history it is not strange that in the lapse of time 
many of the customs, the significance of the monuments 
and works, and even the existence of a people should 
pass into oblivion among their descendants. 

It is not necessary, and it would be iniprojjcr to discuss 
this ([uestion here. These mementos of the long ago 
exist, and as archaeologists become more skilled in search- 
ing after them more are discovered, notwithstanding the 

fact that time, the ax and the plow lend constantly to 
obliterate the traces of their existence. 

In recent times individuals, associations and public in- 
stitutions have become impressed with the importance of 
preserving these relics of bygone ages, and with com- 
mendable zeal they are engaged in collecting them in 
cabinets and museums, where they may be preserved and 
studied in future. The national museum at Washington 
contains many thousands of these relics, and the cabinets 
of historical societies are constantly being enriched by 
accessions of them. Steuben Jenkins, Ks^., of Wyo- 
ming, and Dr. H. Hollister. of Providence, have each an 
extensive cabinet in which may be seen many rare spei i 
mens of these relics. Their cabinets are filled mostly 
with specimens that were found in this region. 

Want of space forbids even a catalogue of all the works 
that have been discovered in this and surrounding re- 
gions, of the origin and builders of which there exists not 
even a tradition. Probably many others have been 
leveled by the plough and forgotten, if their character 
was ever known; and perhaps still others, the relics of 
periods antecedent to these, have been obliterated by 

There are regions the peculiar topography of which 
renders them well adapted to the wants of a people, 
and which at the same time does much toward shaping 
and molding the character of that people. Northeastern 
Pennsylvania appears to have long been the habitat of a 
wild, independent and warlike race, and the physical fea- 
tures of the region are adapted to the wants of just such 
a people as the works and relics found in it indicate, and 
as were represented by its inhabitants .tI the time of its 
settlement by Europeans. 

The only record which these ancient people have left 
is to be found here and there in the remains of the forti- 
fications or defensive works which they constructed; the 
village sites or camping places which they occupied, and 
which the practiced eye of an arrhxologist is able still to 
discern; and the relics which are found of their rude 
weapons, their ruder implements, and the uncouth orna- 
ments with which they decorated themselves. 

.Many of their defensive works were doubtless oblitera- 
ted by the agricultural operations of early settlers, and 



thus they have passed into oblivion. Two of these are 
known to have existed in the Wyoming valley. One was 
thus described by Cha])man in his history of Wyoming: 

" 111 the valley of VVjominji tlii'ie e.\ist some remains of ancient foiti- 
flcatiims, whicli appciii- to lia\ c liccn cuiisti-ucted liy a race of people 
very Uilfcrcnt in tlieii- lialiils fiom tlio.'^e who occnpicil tlie place when 
first iliscuvereil liy llic whiles. Ulnsl of tlii'se ruins have licen so niuch 
ohlitciiitcil l'.y tile operations of ajirieiilture that their forms cannot now 
he ilistinctly ascertained. That which remains the most entire was e.v- 
ainineii liy the writer during- the suininer of 1K17. and its dimensions 
carefully ascertained, although from frequent jilowinsr its form had 
become almost destro.ved. It is situated in the township of Kingston, 
upon a level plain on the north side of Tohy's erei^ls, about one hundred 
and fifty feet from its bank, and about half a mile from its ciuitluence 
with the .■'iis(inelianna. It is of an o\al or elliptical form, having- its 
longest diameter from the northwest to the southeast, at right angles to 
the ci-ecU, three huiKlred and thirty-seven feet, and its shortest diameter 
from the northeast to the southwest two hundred and seventy-two feet. 
On the southwest siile appears to have bi-en a j^ateway about twelvefeet 
wide, opening tow-ard the great eddj' of the river into which the ercek 
falls. From lu-esenl apiieai-ances it consisted probably of onl.v one 
mound or fiimpart, w hieh, in height and thickness, appears to have been 
the same on all sides, and was eonstructed of earth, the plain on which 
it stands not abounding in stone. On the outside of the rampart is an 
entrenchnicnt or ditch, formeil ]u-obabl.v by removing the earth of 
which it is composed, and w-hii-h appears never to ha\ e been walled. The 
creek on w-hich it stands is bounded b.v a high, steep bank on that side, 
and at ordinary times is sutlicicntlj- ileep to admit canoes to ascend from 
the ri\-er to the fortification. When the first settlers came to \V.^-oming 
this plain was covered with its native forest, consisting- principally of 
oak and yellow pine, and the trees which grew on the rampart and in 
the entrenchment are said to have been as larg-e as those in any other 
part of the valley. One large oak particularly, upon being- cut down, was 
ascertained to be se\'en hundred years old. The Indians had no tradi- 
tion concerning these fortifications: neither did they apjiear to have 
any knowledge of the puriiose for which the.v were constriu^ted." 

Tlie other was described by Miner in his history of 
Wyoming as follows: 

" Another foi-tilication e.visted on ,Iaeoli's Plains, or the upper Hats, in 
Wilkes-Hari-e. Its situation is the highest part of the low grounds, so 
that only in cvtraordinary Hoods is the spot ci)\-ered w-ith w-ater. I^ook- 
iiig over the Hats in orclinaril.v high freshets the site of the fort presents 
to till- eye an islaml in the vast sea of waters. The eastern exti-emit.\- is 
near the line di\-idiiig- the farms of Mr. .lohn Searle and Mr. .lames Han- 
cock, where, from its safety from inundation, a fence has long- since 
been placed ; and to this circumstance is to be attributed the preser\-a- 
tion of the embankinent and ditch. In the open field so entirely is the 
work leveled that the eye cannot trace it. Hut the e.vtent west is 
known, for ' it reached through the meadow lot of Captain Gore' (said 
t'orneliusf'ourtright, Ks(i.,to niewhen visiting the ground several years 
ago), ' and came on to my lot one or two rods.' The lot of ( 'aplain Gore 
was se\-entecn perches in width. Taking then these two hundred and 
eighty feet, add the ilistaiieeitexteiided eastwanlly on IheScarle lot, and 
the extension w-esterlj- on the lot of I-^Sfiuirc < 'oiirtrigllt, we lia\-e the 
length ot thai measured by Mr. Chapman so very nearly as In render tlur 
inference almost certain that both weri^ of the same size and dimensions. 

"Huge trees were growing out of the enbankment when the white 
people began to clear the Hats for eultivation. This, too, in Wilkos- 
Itarre, is oval, as is still manifest from the segment e.vhihited on the 
u|iper part, formed by the remaining rainjiartand fosse, the chord of 
the arc being the division fcni-e. .\circleis easily made, tin- elliptical 
form much more dinieult for an unlutored niind to trace Trilling as 
these circumstances may appear, the (;xact ooincideiK^c in si/.eand shape, 
ami that shape dillieult to foriii, they appeared to me worthy of a dis- 
tinct notice. The Wilkes-liarre fortification is about eighty rods from 
the river, toward which a gate opened, and the ancient people concur in 
stating that a well existed in Ihc interior, near Ihe .southern line. 

" On the hank of the river there is an Indian burying iilaee; not a bar- 
row or hill, such as is described by Mr. .lefferson, but where graves have 
been dug and the deceased laiil, hori'/.ontally, in regular rows. In e.\- 
cavating the canal, ciitling through the bank that borders the Hats, 
perhaps thirty rods south from the fort, w-as another burying |ilace 
dis(-losed, evidently more ancient; for the lioiies almost immediately 
crumbled to dust on exposure to the air, and the deposits were fur 
more numerous than in that near the river. Hy the representation c.r 
.lames Stark, Ksij., the skeletons were countless, and the de'ceased had 
been buried in a sitting posture. In a eonsiderablc portion of the hank, 
though scarcely a hone remained of suHicient firmness to be lifted up, 
the closeness and position of the buried were apparent from the dis- 
coloration of the earth. In this place of deposit no heads were found, 
while they were common in that near the river. 

" In 1814 I visited this fortification in company with the jirescnt Chief 

Justice Gibson and ,Iacob Cist, Esijs. The whole line, although it had 
been plowed for more than thirty years, was then distinctly traceable 
by the eye. Kortune was unexpectedly propitious to our search, for we 
found a medal, bearing on one side the impress of King (ieorge the 
First, dated 1714 (the year he conimenced his reign), and on the other an 
Indian chief." 

What was thought to be a well was doubtless a " cache," 
or place of concealment or storage for corn or other 
stores. From the description given of these works it is 
evident they were similar in character to other ancient 
defensive works that have been found east from Ohio. 
\Vhere such works are sufficiently well preserved to be 
studied they are found to consist in each case of mural 
embankment, or m very rare cases of two such, enclosing 
areas varying in size, but usually of about two acres. 
They are usually surrounded by ditches, which evidently 
served the double purpose of furnishing the material for 
the walls and rendering the defensive character of the 
works more formidable. In some of these works the em- 
bankments give evidence of having been surmounted with 
palisades, and it is probable that but for the ravages of 
time such evidences might be found in all of them. The 
continuity of the walls is usually interrupted by two sally 
ports, or passage ways, at nearly opposite points, and one 
of these is almost always on the side of the work which 
is least accessible from without and nearest to the water 
sup])ly. When excavations are made in the enclosed 
areas indubitable evidences are found of their former 
occupancy, not only as places of safety in times of jjeril, 
but as encampments, or rather as village sites or resi- 
dences during very long jieriods. In nearly all these 
works are found collections of rough angular stones of 
sizes convenient for hurling at assaulting foes. Weajions 
and implements or utensils of stone, bone and terra cotta 
are also found; but rarelv is a trace to be seen of metallic 
weapons or tools, and when such are found they are usu- 
ally near the surface, while the others are at depths 
varying from six to eighteen inches. 

All these circumstances are indications of the great an- 
tiquity of these works. They show not only that the 
works were occupied ata period anteriorto the discovery 
of the use of metals by their occupants, but that since 
their abandonment sufficient time has elapsed for six 
inches of mould to accumulate by the slow ])rocess of 
growth and decay of vegetable matter in dry situations. 
The statement may therefore be credited that trees hav- 
ing seven hundred years of age were found growing on 
these works, and these perhaps had been preceded there 
by others. 

In the vicinity of these works burial places are almost 
always found. These are of two kinds. In one the 
graves are isolated; and with the skeletons which they 
contain are found the rem.iins of such treasures as the 
Indians of later times were in the habit of burying with 
their dead. The other kind of cemeteries are sometimes 
termed "bone ])its " and in these immense quantities of 
human ossements are found, which appear to have been 
deposited without regard to order, and among which 
implements, weapons or trinkets are very rarely found. 
By some these are su[)posed to be the remains of those 
who have fallen in battle, and to indicate that a sanguin- 

-i^ ^^^ 




ary conflict took place r.enr the locality where they arc 
found. A perusal of Parkman's account of the "feast 
of the dead," as witnessed and described by the earliest 
Jesuit missionaries among the American Indians, will 
place the origin of these collections of human remains 
beyond a question, and fully explain th.- peculiar appear- 
ances which they present. 

About a mile above Scranton, near Providence, was 
found a mound which was probably an ancient place of 
sepulture. It was the only burial mound found in this 
region; and it is a matter of interest because it shows 
that this is not the eastern limit of the region where sepul- 
chral mounds are found. This mound was simple in its 
construction, and excavations made in it nearly a century 
since brought to light a ipiantity of game arrow points, 
stone implements and ornaments of very great variety, a 
copper kettle and many broken specimens of the fictile 
art. Two phalanges of a finger fount! at this moimd 
twenty years since by Or. Hollister, in whose possession 
they still are, and the copper kettle found there before, 
indicate that this was used as a burial place at a period 
subsequent to the occupancy of the fortifications in 
Wyoming valley. 

In the vicinity of these ancient works are usually found 
evidences of many camping places, or village sites ; as 
though the fortifications were used as places of refuge in 
times of danger by those who at different times occupied 
those sites. The relics found where these villages or 
camps were are of a character identical with those within 
the fortifications; but among them, though generally 
nearer the surface, are found those of a later period. 

The Indians who inhabited the country at the time of 
its discovery by the whites had no knowledge of the 
uses of these works, and no traditions concerning those 
who constructed them ; hence some have inferred that 
the forefathers of these Indians succeeded, or, perhaps, 
drove away or e.xterminated these people. When we 
consider the facility with which the knowledge of historic 
events dies out among savages who have no written 
language, it will not be a matter of wonder that all 
knowledge of these works should pass into oblivion, even 
among the descendants of those who constructed them. 

Time has effaced the history of the people who erected 
some of the most stupendous monuments of antiquity — 
cities are in ruins, or are buried in the earth and no 
record remains of the people who built or inhabited them; 
arts are lost to the descendants of those among whom 
they flourished, and the interpretation of the records 
which remain in the written language of ancient people is 
now hypothetical. If those who reared monuments, built 
cities, cultivated arts and had written lanjruages, have 
become the prey of oblivion, how much more readily 
will the people be forgotten who, like the Indians of 
this country, have no written language, and no ambition 
to perpetuate their memory, and who leave only the rude 
arrow on the hillside, the emblem of their pursuits, and 
the ruder pipe, vessel or trinket, buried with their bones 
— the record at once of their existence and their supersti- 

In the valley of the Susquehanna, and especially in 
the vicinity of the works sjioken of, have been found 
many relics which seem to indicate that almost all portions 
of its area have at different times been occupied for en- 
campments or villages. Large collections of these relics 
have been made, as before stated, by Messrs. Jenkins and 
Hollister. Among these may be found a great number 
and every variety of flint arrow points. These arc the 
most common relics of the stone period, for they are 
found on every sandy plain in America. They are of 
various sizes and fashions, to adapt thetn to different 
uses. They are usually manufactured from flint, agate, 
cornelian and other native pebbles, and are worked with 
such skill as to excite admiration and surprise. Recently 
Mr. K. H. Cushing, of the Smithsonian Institution, has 
demonstrated the method by which this work was ac- 
• complished, and has been able to manufacture these 
weapons with all the peculiarities that those which are 
found in Euro()e or .America possess. 

The most common form of these arrow heads is that of 
an elongated triangle with a stem in the middle of the 
shortest side, and a barb on each side of the stem. These 
could be thrown into a victim and withdrawn with the 
shaft, but those which were shaped like a myrtle leaf 
were attached to thiir shafts in such a w.iy that on with- 
drawing the shaft the stone point remained to prove a 
source of irritation and death. The varieties of this 
weapon are very great, but they can with propriety be 
placed in the two classes of /t*(/<Y and 7<'i//- arrow heads, or 
such as could and those which could not be withdrawn 
from the deep wounds which they made. The former 
were used in hunting. Some were delicately constructetl 
and exquisitely finished for killing small game or fish. 
Some were serrated, barbed and stemmed. Sometimes 
they are found white as snow, but usually they are made 
of dark colored hornstone. Spear heads, some of which 
are eight inches in length, and of every size, color and 
finish, have, as well as arrow points, been accumulating 
in these collections during thirty or forty years. Bone, 
clay, shell and coi)i)er utensils are nut found in these col- 
lections in abundance; but the stone implements used by 
the red men in ])eace or in war, such as tomahawks, 
death mauls, stone picks, hammers, hoes, axes, mortars, 
pestles, celts or hatchets, gouges, (|uoits, chunkee stones, 
sling stones, scaljting stones, amulets, terra cotta and stone 
pipes, |)olished tubes, triune cups, triune pipes, beads, 
wampum, fictilia, whistles for signals in the forests, corn 
pounders, ornamented rings and otherornamental devices, 
highly polished stones for grinding war paint, stones for 
recording time, healing the sick and warding off diseases, 
stone implements for tilling the soil, and hundreds of 
other contrivances of Indian life have found a place in 
these collections. Many of these articles were broken 
while in use, but so complete are these collections in 
archajological specimens, and so thoroughly do they 
represent this region, that the " impulse, religioii and 
habits of the tribes once living here can be 
traced with almost the fidelity and interest of written 





(ll'KNINC. nr THl'. 



HE history of the Indinn residents of Wyoming 
''\ and its vicinity, so far as known to ns, fur- 
nishes hut little of interest or importance. 
While we have, from the general history of 
the Indians of the country, glimpses' of a 
tribe or nation that once had their seat of power 
in this locality, who were warred upon by sur- 
rounding tribes or nations until they were driven out, 
yet of their local history here but little or nothing is 
knov.n. Writers upon the subject of Indian history 
have none of them given us more than a mere reference 
to them while treating of their neighljors. From what 
can be gathered it would seem that between the Five and 
subsecjuently Sixi Nations or confederate tribes of the 
north, called the Iroquois — the southern gate of whose 
territory was at Tiopa Point — and the Sus(iuehannocks, 
who ruled over the territory southeast of the Kittatinny 
or Blue Hills, the whole of that vast region was inhabited 
and ruled over by a nation of natives known as the Ca//- 

All of these nations were powerful and warlike, but the 
Iroquois were by far the most restless and enterprising. 
Governor Dongan in his report on the Province of New 
York in 1687 says: "The Five Nations are the most 
warlike people in America. They are a bulwark between 
us and the French and all other Indians. They go as 
far as the South Sea, the northwest passage and Florida 
to war. They are so considerable that all the Indians in 
those parts of America are tributary to them;" and he 
further speaks of them as " the nations that conc]uered 
the Suscjuehannas." 

Still earlier than this we have some slight account of 
some Indians living possibly within the territory of old 
Wyoming — possibly not. It appears from an account 
given by Stephen Brule, a Frenchman, that he passed 
from Canada through the country of the Iroquois in 1615, 
and reached the principal town of a tribe of Indians, 
whom he calls Carantouans, where he and his party were 
received with kindness. He spent the winter with them 
in visiting neighboring tribes, and in the spring of 1616 
descended the Susf|uehanna to the sea. His account 
says " he returned to Carantouan and attempted to re- 
turn to Canada, but was captured by the Iroquois, and 
was unable to meet Champlain, with whom he had set 
out from Canada, until in 16 19." He made report of this 
tribe of Indians to Champlain, who, in his map of the 
country explored by himself and Brule, gives up the 
whole region of country south of the Iroquois to that 
people, but fails to fix the location of any of their towns 
at any point on the Susquehanna. Rev. Mr. Craft, author 
of the History of Bradford County, is well satisfied that 
their town, at least their chief town, if they had more 

than one, was at the mouth of Sugar creek, in that 

Champlain says: "The Antouhonorons are fifteen vil- 
lages near the River St. Lawrence. The Carantouanis is 
a nation south of the Antouhonorons, only three days 
distant. They formerly took prisoners from the Dutch, 
whom they sent hack without injury, Ix-lieving them to 
be French." 

From this it would appear that the Carantouanis could 
hardly have lived as far south as Pennsylvania, and if 
in that State at all, must have been upon its extreme 
northern border. It appears clearly that they were no 
])art of the Six Nations. Champlain, in his report on the 
explorations made by himself and the members of his 
party, attaches a map of the country explored, extended 
somewhat on the basis of information obtained from the 
Indians. In this map he further complicates the question 
of the location of the Carantouanis by placing their towns 
on both sides of the Delaware river, instead of on the 
Susquehanna. The latter river is entirely wanting in the 

The fact is, that while the French early in the 17th 
century explored the whole region of the St. Lawrence 
and the lakes and on through to the Mississippi river, and 
the English surveyed the coast, the mouths of the rivers 
and the bays, very little or nothing was known by either 
the French or the English of the interior, the region of 
the Susquehanna and its tributaries, until a century later. 
No explorer had penetrated its mountain fastnesses, or 
threaded its rapid streams. The whole region was a 
terra incognita to white people, an uninhabited and un- 
broken wilderness, a hunting ground, or a vast forest 
waste, traversed by Indian braves in their predatory in- 
cursions for plunder or war. While it might be interest- 
ing to know more of the early history of the territory 
drained by the Susquehanna and its tributaries; as well 
as of the people who inhabited it, we must content our- 
selves with what we have. The question naturally arises, 
What more do we know of these Carantouanis? Were they 
a large and powerful nation, occupying the vast territory 
lying between the country of the Iroquois and the sea, 
or were they only a small remnant of some nation, taking 
their name from their town, location, or some incident 
connected therewith ? We have no method of solving 
these questions satisfactorily now. Conjecture is all 
that is left us in the absence of that full and exact in- 
formation so much to be desired. There is no doubt 
that the name was neither national nor tribal, but a town 
or local one. The mention of " visiting neighboring 
tribes," would indicate that they occupied but a small ex- 
tent of territory; and their "going down to the sea " in 
winter, that they lived not far from it, a feat very difTicult, 
if not impossible, by way of the Susquehanna, in winter. 
They may have been and most probably were a remnant 
of the great Candastoga nation. 

It remains now to give some account of the Susque- 
hannocks, at as early a day as we can get any information 
of importance upon the subject. Alsop wrote of them in 
1666 as follows: 




" Thf StisiiiU'lmiiiiDcks urea |iiMipli> liiokl iipoi) hy the Chrislliiii ln)uil>- 
itiiiits us t)K' most Notilr iiiu) Hrroic Niition of Itidiiiiis tliiit ilwol) ii|mmi 
thu i'oiltliu-s of Atiu-rim. Also iiro so iillowi'd iiikI lookt upon by (hi- 
rost of the litdhins by ii siibinisshi' iiiul ti-iliiitary iK-kiKiwlcilKiiiciit. b<-- 
iiiK a people (t)st into tho nioiild <if ii most laixc iiiiil wiii'liki* deporl- 
inoiit. the mull l>rin>r for tlu> most part sexcn foot hiuli in lallitiidr, aii<l 
in tiiat^nidiiU' and bnlk suitatih- to so litfrli a pitch : tticn \'o>(*<' lai-jfr ami 
I Mil low, as asfcndin;.'' out of a ( 'a \<'; t licit' ^atc and lichaxior strait. siat4-l\ 
and majcstick. trcailin;.'- on the I'.arth with as much piltlc, contempt and 
disdain to so sordid a t'enter as can lie imafrliie<] froui a eroatiirc derhcd 
from the S4ime m«nihl and ICarth. 

"These Siisiiiichaiinock Indians are for the most part ifreat \Varri(»p*. 
and seldom sleep one Slimmer in the ipiiet armes of a iieaecable llesl. 
but keep, by their present power as wi'll as by their foriiu-r <'on(|UC<iit, 
the se\'eral Nations of Indians rtiuud about thcin in u forceable oliodi- 
cnee and stibjcction. 

"Their government is an Anarchy. Ho that lights best curries it. ♦ 

• * They now and then feetl on the carcasses of their enemies. 

"They intomb Ihc ruincs id lliiir deceased eoiii|Uust hi no other Se|>- 
ulehre than tlu'ir unsanctiticd maws. 

" They are situated a huiidr<'d and odd miles distant from theChristian 
lMantaii<uis of Mary-I.aiid. at the lu'ad [uKUithV] of a river that runs Into 
the Day of Chesapikc. called liy their own name the Sus<|UehaniHick 
Ui\cr. wlare they remain and inhabit most part of the Summer time, 
and seldom remo\c far from it, unless it be to subdue an.\" Korrci^'u 

" .\bout .\o\fmbcr Ilu- lic~t Hunters draw otV to si-\ end rcmoteplaces 
of the Woods, where they know the Deer, Hear and I'.lke usi'th. There 
they build se\"eral cotta^^es, where thej- i-emain for the space of three 

.Smitli, in liis liistory of his voyage, s])caks of the Siis- 
(|iiehanno(ks as "giants," " their language sounding like 
a vovce in .1 \aiilt." He says: " They can make near 
600 able bodied men, and are palisadoed in their townes 
to defenil them from the Massawomekes, their mortal 

Campaniiis says; " Tliey live on a high mountain, very 
steep and difficult to climl), where they have a fort, 
or ?(]nare building surrounded with jjalisades. This fort 
or town is about twelve miles from New Sweden." 

We lune thus gone over t!ie history of the Indian 
nations or tribes that inhabited or were found con- 
nected with the early history of Wyoming and the adja- 
cent cotinlry, and it remains for us now to come down to 
the period when the white man commenced to mingle his 
history with that of the Indian in that locality. 

'n '737 Conrad Weiser, an Indian interpreter residing 
at I'ulpehocken, in Pennsylvania, at the retptest of Gov- 
ernor (iooi h, of N'irginia, was sent by the provincial gov- 
ernment of Pennsylvania to meet a council of the Six 
Nations, to be held at Onondaga, for the jnirpose of 
" establishing ])eace between the allied Six Nations at the 
north and the so-called Cherikees and Cataubas at the 
south." He left home on his mission on the 27th of 
1-ebruary, proceeded to the Susquehanna river, which he 
crossed at Shamokin. and thence by way of the west 
branch to his destination. After accomplishing his mis- 
sion he returned home by way of the east branch of the 
Susquehanna, and arrived at Wyoming on the 26th of 
April. His entry in his journal reads as follows: 

"The 26th we reached Scahanlowano, where a number 
of Indians live, Shawanos and Mahickanders. Found 
there two traders from New ^'ork, and three men from 
the Maqua country, who were hunting land, 'i'heir names 
are Ludwig Rasselman, Martin Dillenbach and Pit de 
Niger. Here there is a large body of land, the like of 
which is not to be found on the river." 

yVe are here introduced to two other tribes o( Indians, 

icmnants of nations. The Shawanos, as described bv 
/in/.endorf and Hrainard, missionaries among them, were 
a " ferocious, iintamalile and vicious people, unmoved by 
either sym])athy or affection, and constantly bent on mis- 
chief." They were a southern nation, whose early history 
is involved in the deepest obscurity, and whose language 
bore no affinity to that of any of the surrounding nations. 
They were warlike, brave and energetic, and have ever 
retained their national character and name, being to-day 
a distinct people among the Indians of America. They 
came from the Potomac, or near there, to Wyoming in 
172.S, where they seemed to live in independence, and 
preserve all their ])eculiar characteristics. 

The Mahicans or Mohegans were the remnants of a 
great n.ition, which had iheir hom-js and seit of power 
on the Thames or Peipiot river, in Conn.'ciii'Ut. Those 
living on the east of the river were known by the name of 
Pequots; those on the west as Mohegans. Upon the 
advance of the whites in their progress westward, the In- 
dians were compelled to give way, and a part of this great 
nation sought a home at Storkbridge, Mass., a part at 
Shecomico, on the Hudson, and a part at Wyoming. 
They are described by Miss Calkins, the historian of New 
London, as "exceedingly fierce, warlike and crafty." 
The exact date of their advent into the valley of Wyo- 
ming is not known, but it is supjxjsed they arrived there 
about the same time with the Shawanos, and may have 
• been there a short time before them. They resided in 
the upper i)art of the valley, on the west side, while the 
Shawanos occupied the lower part of the valley, on the 
same side. 

In 1742 the Delaware Indians, a vassal nation of the 
Iro<iuois, in consequence of their selling land anti other- 
wise taking upon themselves the rights of a free and in- 
dependent nation, were called to an account by the Iro- 
tpiois, and on proof and confession of guilt were scverel) 
rei)rimanded and transferred from their former seat and 
jjlanted at Wyoming. This was at one time one of the 
great nations into which the natives had been divided; 
but in consetpience of their warlike spirit, and the inccs 
sant wars in which they were involved with surrounding 
nations, they became greatly reduced in numbers and 
strength, and were finally conquered by the Iroquois, 
and to keep them in subjection were reduced to the con- 
dition of vassals or slaves to their conquerors; "made 
women of" as one of the orators expressed it. 

In a few years after the planting of the Delawares a 
Wyoming, in 1748, the Nanticokes, a tide water people, 
a small member of the Algonquin family, having their seat 
when the Kuropeans first met them on the eastern shore of 
the Chesapeake, in Maryland, made their way to Wyoming, 
following the course of the Sustpiehanna. They located 
at the lower end of the valley, on the east side, princi- 
pally, and the place was called from them Nanticoke. 
There were about eighty of them, under a chief Ullumk- 
,/iiiiiii. \ few of them went on up the river and settled 
on the Chenango, whither the others followed in 1757. 

There were other tribes or remnants of tribes of In- 
dians neighborsto Wyoming, whose names are connected 






with her history, but no organized body or considerable 
number of them ever inhabited there. These were known 
as Mingoes, Oanaways or Conoys, Turkeys, Turtles or 
Tuteloes, and Minsies or Minisinks and Muncies. 

It will thus be seen that from the time the Iroijuois 
concjuered and drove out the Candastogas, Wyoming and 
its region around about, particularly on the Susquehan- 
na, was used as a penal colony or place of banishment 
for the remnants of tribes which the Iroquois conquered 
in their raids upon neighboring and even distant tribes 
in their predatory excursions, and a place of refuge for 
those who sought their favor and protecting care. It was 
so used when the white man first trod its soil, and so con- 
tinued in ])art for many years. 

No sooner had the white man become ac(|uainted with 
Wyoming than it became the object of his deep solici- 
tude. While one saw in it a ])lace of trade, with great 
profit, another saw in it a place to propagate the gospel 
free from the fetters and restraints that bind and contiol 
nations that already have fi.xed establishments of trade 
and religion. Trade was opened herein 1737 or sooner, 
and in 1741 Rev. John Sergeant, of the Indian mission 
school at Stockbridge, Mass., came to Wyoming, ac- 
companied by some Mohegans, to preach the gospel to 
the few of that nation and the Shawanos at that point. 
They were not favorably received, and after making 
known his mission and jjreaching a short sermon, " he 
offered to instruct them further in the Christian religion, 
but they rejected his offer with disdain. They reproached 
Christianity. They told him the traders would lie, cheat, 
and debauch their women, and even their wives, if their 
husbands were not at home. They said further that the 
Senecas had given them their country, but charged them 
withal never to receive Christianity from the English." 
Mr. Sergeant returned home without pressing the subject 
further upon their attention. 

In the fall of the next year Nicholas Lewis, Count Von 
Zinzendorf, after he had been but nine months in the 
country, set out on a mission to the Indians at Shamokin, 
and particularly to the Shawanese at Wyoming, where he 
arrived on the 13th of October. His reception was any- 
thing but friendly. The Shawanese were suspicious of 
the object of his visit among them. He had pitched 
his tent at a point where it was said a mine of silver ore 
was located. They suspected that to be the true object 
of his mission, and as they had made known to Mr. Ser- 
geant the year before that they did not want to receive 
Christianity, they strongly suspected his purpose to be 
other than that which he professed. Painted with red 
and black, each with a large knife in his hand, wliich was 
brandished in a threatening manner, they came in crowds 
around the tent, again and again wakening fearful echoes 
with their wild whoops and halloos. 

One fine sunny day, as the disciple sat on the ground 
within his tent, looking over his jjapers that lay scattered 
around him, and as the rest of his party were outside, 
Mack, his companion and attendant, observed two blow- 
ing or hissing adders basking at the edge of the tent. 
Fearing they might crawl in he moved toward them, in- 

tending to dispatch them. They were, however, too 
quick for him. They slijiped into the tent, and gliding 
over the disciple's thigh disappeared among his papers. 
On examination it was found that the count had been sit- 
ting near the mouth of their den. He wrote some verses 
in commemoration of this incident The Indians, in all 
such cases o\er superstitious, saw a protecting power 
exercised in behalf of the disciple in this event, and be- 
came somewhat more tractable and disposed to have 
communication with him; liut they liad made up their 
mind that the white man was bad generally, and they did 
not want any of his religion. He left the valley in the 
early part of November, and arrived in Bethlehem, by 
way of Shamokin, on the 8th of the month. He did not 
feel sufficiently encouraged to rejieat his visit. 

On the 2nd of October, 1744, Rev. David Brainard, an 
Indian missionary, making his home about the forks of 
the Delaware, or just above, set out on a mission to the 
Indians on the Susquehanna. On the 5th of October he 
says: '"We reached the Susquehanna river at a place 
called Opeholhaupung or Wapwallopen, and found there 
twelve Indian houses. After I had saluted the king in a 
friendly manner, I told him my business, and that my 
desire was to teach them Christianity. After some con- 
sultation the Indians gathered and I preached to them." 
They appeared willing to be taught and he preached to 
them several times. On the 9th of October he set out 
on his journey home. He preached to the Indians on 
the 5 th, 6th and 8th. It is said by some that on this 
journey he made a call at NVyoming, but it is (piite evi- 
dent from his journal, which does not mention that as 
having been the case, that Ite did not visit NV'yoming, his 
time being fully taken up at Opeholhaupung. He after- 
ward visited Shamokin and the Juniata, but never visited 

Nothing more is known of the Indians in Wyoming 
until in 1753. In that year about three hundred persons 
in Connecticut, " being desirous to enlarge his Majesty's 
English settlements in North America, and further to 
spread Christianity — as also to promote their own tem- 
poral interests," agreed, through a committee, "to re- 
pair to a certain tract of land lying on the Susquehanna 
river, at or near a ]jlace called Chi-wau-muck, in order 
to view said tract of land and to purchase of the natives 
there inhabiting their title and interest to said tract of 
land," &c. 

In pursuani e of this agreement the committee ap- 
pointed proceeded to Wyoming in the fall of that year, 
examined the lands, and had a talk with the Indians in- 
habiting there. They learned from them that they were 
not the owners of the land, but that it belonged to the 
Six Nations, and they were occupying it at the will and 
sufferance of those nations; and consecpiently the com- 
mittee returned without negotiating a purchase. About 
this time the British government, on account of the 
troubles existing and growing between them and France, 
were turning their attention to the Indians of this local- 
ity, but particularly the Six JSfations. " At Albany, on 
the 19th day of June, 1754, assembled the memorable 



congress of commissioners from every colony north of 
the Potomac. The \'irginia government, too, was repre- 
sented by the ]5residing officer, Delancey, the iiciitenani- 
governor of New York. They met to concert measures 
of defence, and to trenl with the Six Nations and the 
tribes in the alliance." li was at this council that the 
representatives of the promoters of a settlement at Wyo- 
ming, now numbering about nine hundred persons, on the 
I nil day of July, 1754, iierfected a purchase and obtained 
from the Six- Nations a deed for the coveted lands at 
Wyoming — the boundaries of which are thus set forth: 
" Beginning from the one and fortieth degree of north 
latitude, at ten miles east of the Sus(|uehanna river, and 
from thence with a northward line ten miles east of the 
river to the end of the forty-second or beginning of the 
forty-third degree of north latitude; and so to extend west 
two degrees of longitude, one huudred and twenty miles, 
and from thence south to the beginning of the forty second 
degree, and from thence east to the above mentioned 
boundary, which is ten miles east of the Susquehanna 
river." The commissioners of Pennsylvania, while at 
Albany, succeeded on the 6th of July in getting the In- 
dians to execute a deed to them for a tract of land be- 
tween the Blue Mountain and tlie forks of the Susque- 
hanna river at Shamokin. 

The Connecticut people in 1755, the next year after 
their purchase, sent a party of surveyors on under the 
charge of John Jenkins to make a survey of their ])ur 
chase. In conseipience, however, of the war between 
the British and French, in wliich the Indians had been 
induced to take sides with the one party or the other, 
numerous |)arties of hostile Indians were passing and re- 
passing through the valley, up and down and to and fro, 
so tha^ it was dangerous to pursue the work; and after 
taking the latitude and longitude, and making an exami- 
nation of the country, the party returned home to await 
the issue of the pending hostilities before proceeding 
with the project of settlement. So numerous were these 
parties that the attention of the authorities was directed 
toward their movements during this year, and a map of 
the country was made, on which were located the Indian 
paths and places of rendezvous through and from which 
they were supposed to sally forth on their work of blood 
and destruction; the following note, dated March 14th, 
1756, accompanying the maps: 

" fircnt Swiunp lies abmit Wl inilps W. S. \V. f iimi •'a.shiiotunk, or Sta- 
tion roinl; from llctlilcliPTii aliout 4."> miles .N. N. W.: from (iiiadonhut- 
Ipii about :ii iiiilcs .\. somethins W. Tins swamp lii.'S Just over the 
mountains whirh Kvans calls Casliuctunk Mountains, and is i'l miles 
from \. to S.. anil l.i from E. to W. Tho Ilctlik-hi'in people sn.v four or 
live hundred Imlians keep in this swamp, ami from thenee 'tis imatfincd 
the.v send out parties to destroy the settlements. Shamokin Meson Sus- 
quehanna river, at the mouth of the east hranoh, on the east side of the 
Iminch. Ncscopeek. the next Indian town on the ejist side of the .same 
ImuK-h, is twent.v-llve miles from theuoo. Opoloponi; is another, live 
miles distant. Wyomin^f is on the west side of the same lirnnih. ten 
miles from Op(doponjf. .Matehasiunir is (m the east side of the snim' 
l.ninch, distant from Wyoming' thirteen miles. Sfdoeka issl.x mihwfrom 
thenee. on a creek that come-i out of the Great Swamp, ami this place is 
distant from the swamp eighteen miles: thonee to Cinowdowsn. on the 
K. side of E tiraneh, is live miles. From thiMie:- to Owejjy. the next In- 
dian settlement. Is forty-seven miles; from thence to i>,sewin»fo Is ei){h- 
t«oii miles, and from thenee there are no Indian towns on the E. lininch 
of Susipiehanna. according to Evans, until you come to UnochgenKfC 
[now Windsor, liroome e iinty, N. Y.]. distant fr(^(n O.sewiniro twe/vo 

miles. The (iniit .'<wanip is forly-twii mlkM S. rnini I )nochir<>nise ; iind 
'tis n-markalili' that Ihi-siluritlon of nil Ihew Indian towns is aueh it' 
i-emlers It hivhiy proluilile ih it they rende/vou« III the iin-«i Swamp. "■ 
Mir' hlirhesi p'iri ofli la iiui sliiiM'H inlleidlsiunl fnim thi- .ii»i linin. Ii. 
Mini 'lis not liiil alioiil sixty-live inlli-H fniin .shamokin to ilii- tutii' -' 
parlor the swamp, and Himo-t nil Ih- way l>y water Ihniiiich ihe ..i-i 
linineh. This swamp, nnd Ihe Indian towns on Ihe K Imineh of the 
Sus<piehaniia. should Im- atluektsl at the mine lime, nnd tin' parlies that 
allaek Ihi' latter shoiilrl iro Ihey may p issilily mwt Ihe enein> 
llvinif from Ihe swamp to their Hetth-inenlx, forlhi-lr own nnd ilienufi'iy 
of ihi'ir wives and children." 

Ihe hostile temper and situation of the Indians inanti 
about Wyoming began at this time to become a matter of 
serious alarm, and efforts were made by the I'ennsylvania 
authorities to aci|uire their friendship and bring them 
into alliance on terms of mutunl protection. On the 8th 
of November, 1756, the different Indian tribes, repre- 
sented by their chiefs and warriors, met Ciov- 
ernor Dennie at Easton, where a council was opened in 
a dignified and friendly manner 

Teedyuscung, the Oelaware chief, a lusty, raw-boned 
Indian, haughty and very desirous of respect and com- 
mand, who had been accoinpanied from Wyoming by 
most of his principal warriors, assumed the part of chief 
speaker. He supported the rights and claims of the 
Indians, and detailed their grievances with great spirit 
and dignity; but assured the council that the Indians were 
glad to meet the F^nglish as friends, and to smoke 
the pipe of peace with them, and hoped that justice 
would be done to them for all the injuries they had re- 
ceived. Governor Dennie assured the Indians that he 
was happy to meet them as friends, and would ende.ivor 
to do them full justice for all the wrongs they had suf- 
fered, and prevent future injuries. This council continued 
in session nine days. All matters of difference were 
considered, and the Delawares and Shawnese. the princi- 
pal tribes present, became reconciled to the English, with 
whom they concluded a treaty of peace. 'I'his gave peace 
to Wyoming, vt'hich continued until the close of the 
French war in 1763. 

No means were neglected to regain the friendship and 
co-operation of the Six Nations, and presents having been 
liberally distributed, a grand council of all the Indian 
tribes was held bv special invitation, at Easton. in Octo- 
ber, 175S. • The governors of Pennsylvania and New Jer- 
sey and Sir Johnson were present, with other emi- 
nent citizens; Teedyuscung attended. On the way he 
fell in with the chief who had commanded the expedition 
against Cinadenhutten and Fort .Mien. High words arose 
between them, when Teedyuscung raised his hatchet and 
laid the chief dead at his feet. At the conference Teed- 
yuscung took a decided lead in the debate on the side 
of peace. The conference last fourteen days, and all 
causes of misunderstanding being remov-jd a general 
peace was concluded on the 26th of October. 

Peace now seemed to be fully assured between the 
colonists and the Indians, but the Indian nature is such 
that it is peace with them only when peace prevails, and 
when there is war they must have a hand in. Scenes ol 
blood and plunder were the delight of their souls, and 
when an opportunity offered for them to take part in such 
scenes it was iiuite impossible to restrain them from do- 




ing so. Tliey were fond of receiving presents, and were 
constantly seeking and bringing forward some excuse on 
which to demand them of the wliites. The most jirolific 
source of complaint on their part toward the whites on 
which to base n claim for presents was a pretended mis- 
understanding of the boundaries of the grants of land 
which they had made, though it must be ronfessed that 
theircoiiiplaints were too frequently well founded. They 
were fond, too, of treaties and the feast that attended 
them, particularly the abundant supply of into.xicating 
drink that was furnished at the close, which they drank 
with great voracity, guzzling it down as long as they were 
able to stand. 

About this time a new interest was awakened among 
the Moravians and Quakers upon the subject of religion 
among the Indians. Papoonhank, a Monsey chief, 
founder of the Indian town of Wyalusing, in his inter- 
course with the whites had learned something of their 
religion; and after a visit to Philadelphia, where he had 
been kindly and fairly treated by the (Quakers, and been 
impressed strongly by their brotherly affection and kind- 
ness, on his return home set to work to impress his people 
with the importance of their becoming a Christian i)eople, 
and esjjecially that they should become sober and indus- 
trious if they would be prosperous and happy. His work 
did not bring forth rich fruits, although it laid the foun- 
dation for important results. 

In May, 1760, Christian Frederick Post, a Polish 
Prussian by birth and the most adventurous of Moravian 
missionaries, when on his way to a grand council of the 
western Indians spent a night at Papoonhank's village 
and preached to the Indians there. This was on the 20th 
of May, and was probably the first sermon preached by a 
white man in that locality. While Papoonhank was 
pleased at the visit and the opportunity afforded his 
people for hearing the gospel, owing to a diversity of view 
among them as to who should bring the gospel to them, 
some being Moravians, but most favoring the Quakers, 
the sermon served rather to unsettle than to settle their 
views upon the subject. While Papoonhank himself fa- 
vored the (Quakers, Job Chilaway, a native of the country 
about Little Egg Harbor, an intelligent and influential 
Indian, whose wife was a sister to Nathaniel and Anthony, 
two Moravian converts residing a little below Tunkhan- 
nock, favored the Moravians. 

This unsettled condition of affairs lasted for some time 
without being resolved, and was the subject of much 
earnest reflection and debate. At length the brethren at 
Bethlehem despatched Zeisberger, an eminent and zealous 
missionary, to the town to ascertain the prospect for in- 
troducing the gospel there. Accompanied by Anthony 
he reached the town on the evening of the 23d of May, 
1763. Papoonhank received them in his lodge, and thither 
his people flocked to hear the gospel. They continued 
here until the 27th, when they set out for Bethlehem, bear- 
ing to the brethren the earnest and cordial invitation from 
the whole town that they would speedily send a religious 
teacher to reside among them. 

On the loth of June Zeisberger returned again, taking 

Nathaniel with him, arriving at AVyalusing on the even- 
ing of the 17th, and was welcomed by Pajioonhank anil 
his people. On the 26th Papoonhank was baptized and 
named John. In the evening another Indian was baptized 
and named Peter. These were the first who were sub- 
jects of that ordinance in this region. On the 27th, by 
invitation, he visited Tawandamunk and preached to the 
Indians there. Here an awaking took place and the gos- 
pel was received with eagerness. 

But the good work was interrupted. On the 30th a 
runner arrived with a letter from Bethlehem recalling 
Zeisberger. He obeyed with reluctance. 

The war that had been j^revailiiig for some years in 
other quarters began to develop itself along the frontier 
settlements of Pennsylvania, particul'rly along the Sus- 
quehanna; and the whites and their Indian friends were 
compelled to seek safety in the more populous regions 
and abandon their frontier homes. 

About the time of Zeisberger's first visit John Wool- 
man, of Burlington county, N. J., a tailor by trade and a 
Quaker by religion, zealous for the welfare of suffering 
and perishing humanity, had as he says, " for many years 
felt a love in his heart toward the natives of this land> 
who dwelt far back in the wilderness;" and being at 
Philadelphia "in the 8th month," 1761, he fell in com- 
pany with some of those natives who lived on the east 
branch of the Susquehanna, " at an Indian town called 
Wehaloosing," two hundred miles from Philadelphia. In 
conversation with them through an interpreter, as also 
by observation, he believed them measurably acquainted 
with the divine power. At times he felt inward draw- 
ings toward a visit to that place. An Indian and three 
women from beyond that place being in Philadelphia, he 
visited them in the 5th month, 1763, and with concur- 
rence of friends in that place, agreed to join with them 
as companions on their return. On the 7th of 6th month 
they met at Samuel Foulks's, at Richland, in Bucks county. 

After taking leave of his family and friends, he set out 
on his journey. At Burlington he was joined by Israel 
and John Pemberton, who accompanied him tha'. day. 
Ne.xt morning Israel left him, and he and John proceeded 
to Foulks's. Here Benjamin Parvin joined them, and 
after William Lightfoot, of Pikeland, and they traxeled 
together to Bethlehem. 

On the loth of June they set out early in the morning. 
They met on the way several Indians, men and women, 
with a cow and a horse and some household goods, who 
were lately come from their dwelling at Wyoming. 

On the 13th they reached the Indian settlement at 
Wyoming. About midnight before they got there an 
Indian rimner came down from a town about ten miles 
above Wehaloosing and brought news that some Indian 
warriors from distant parts had come to that town with 
two English scal])s, and told the |)eople that it was war 
with the English. Hearing the news brought by the In- 
dian warriors, and being told by the Indians where they 
lodged that what Indians were about Wyoming expected 
to move in a few days to some larger towns, he thought 
it dangerous traveling at that time. 



On the 14th he sought out and visited all the Indians 
that they could meet with in Wyoming, they being chielly 
in one place, about a tnile from where they lodged — in 
all perhaps twenty. Some of them understood English 
and were kind and friendly. He set out and went up the 
river about three miles, to the house of an Indian named 
Jacob January, who had killed his dog, and the wo- 
men were making store of bread and preparing to move 
up the river. Here he put his baggage in a canoe, which 
some of his party pushed slowly up the stream, and the 
rest rode on horses, which they swam across a creek 
called I,ahawahamunk, above which they |)itched their 

On the i6th he fell in with Job (Jhilaway, an Indian 
from Wehaloosing. Job told him that an Indian came to 
their town and told them that three warriors, coming from 
a distance, had lodged in a town above Wehaloosing a 
few nights past, who were going against the English at 
Juniata. Job was going down the ri\er to the province 
store at Shamokin. On the 17th he reached Wehaloos- 
ing about the middle of the afternoon. He says: 

" Tho first Indian we saw was a woman of a moilest coiinttMiancc, with 
a babe. Plio tirst .spoke to our truidi'. ami tbon, witli a harmonious \ oico, 
cvpressed her Khidnc'ss at seeing us; liavinjf lieard bel'orchand of our 
coming. Then by direetion of our jruide we sat down on a lojr. and lie 
went to the town to tell the people we wereeome. Sittinj^ tlius together 
tlie poor wtunan eanie and sat near us. .Vfter a while we heard a coneli 
shell blow several times, and tlien came John Curtis and another Indian 
man, who kindl.v invited us into a house near the town, wtiere we found, 
I suppose, about sixty people sitting? in silenee. After sitting a short 
time I stood up and in some tenderness of spirit ae<|\iainted them with 
the nature of my visit, and that a eoneern for their Bood had made me 
willing to come thus far to sec them. Then I showed tliem my certiH- 
eate, which was e.vplained to them, and the .Moravian /eisbcrsfer, who 
overtook us on the way, being now here, bade me welcome." 

The next morning they had another meeting, at which 
both Woolman and Zeisberger spoke, and VVoolman says: 
" Our meeting ended with a degree of divine love. I 
observed Fapunchang speak to one of the interpreters, 
and I was afterward told that he said, ' / love to fi-cl where 
liwnis come from' " 

On the 2ist, after a very interesting visit, he set out to 
return home. He thus speaks of the town: " This town, 
Wehaloosing, stands on the bank of the Susquehanna 
river, and consists, I believe, of about forty houses, mostly 
compact together; some about thirty feet long and eigh- 
teen wide, some bigger, some less; mostly built of split 
plank, one end set in the ground and the other pinned to 
a plate, on which lay rafters, and covered with bark." 

Seven Indians accompanied him on his return, some in 
canoes and some on horseback, and at night they arrived 
below a branch called Tunkhannah. On the 22nd they 
reached Wyoming, and understood that the Indians had 
mostly gone from the place. The ne.xt day they loaded 
their baggage, etc., on their horses, and started across the 
mountain toward Fort .\llen,and thence down the Lehigh, 
and arrived at Bethlehem on the 2Sth; on the 26th start- 
ed for home, which he reached on the 27tli, finding all 

Zeisberger paid his first visit to the Indians in the ca- 
pacity of an envoy on the part of Sir William Johnson 
and Governor Hamilton, specially to Teedyuscung. On 
the 1 6th of March, 1762, he left Christiansbrunn on horse- 

back, and by nightfall reached the north part of the Blue 
Mountains, where he foimd a large encampment of Dcla- 
wares and Nantirokes. His heart was strangely stirred 
as he sat again by a camp fire in the wilderness, with 
members of that race around him to convert whom was 
the e.\alted mission of his life. 

The next morning he proceeded on his journey, taking 
with him one of the Delawares as a guide, for the whole 
country was covered with deep snow. After three da)s 
of hard and perilous riding in forest obstructed by great 
drifts, through snow banks from which it was almost im- 
possible to extricate the horses, and in " weather," says 
Zeisberger, " the severest I ever knew," he arrived at the 
lodge of Teedyuscung. Having delivered his letters he 
turned his attention to the converts of Wyoming. The 
most of them had not heard the gospel preached since 
the breaking out of the war. More than one backslider 
was reclaimed, among them George Rex, who, on the 
occasion of a subsequent visit to Nain, was readmitted to 
the church. On the 24th he returned to Bethlehem, and 
thence went to Philadelphia with the answer of Teedyus- 

Near the close of autumn he visited Wyoming again, 
accompanied by Gottlob Senseman. The dysentery was 
raging in the valley, and many Indians were prostrated. 
.Among them was .Abraham, the first convert. He had 
sent an urgent request to Bethlehem: " Brethren, let a 
teacher come to see me ere I die! " But the teacher 
came too late; the aged Mahican had finished his course. 
With his dying breath he had exhorted the Indians to re- 
main faithful to Jesus. 

In the same sjjirit George Rex passed away, admonish- 
ing his people to avoid his evil example, and professing 
a sure hope of eternal life. Zeisberger spent several days 
in comforting the sick, and a new interest was awakened 
among all the scattered converts of the valley. 

In May of the year 1763, as we have narrated, Zeis- 
berger again visited Wyoming to preach to the few nations 
who were still in the valley, now grown to be few indeed. 
.Among them Teedyuscung no longer had a place. 

On the ni^ht of the 19th of April, while lying intoxi- 
cated in his lodge, it was set on fire, and he perished in 
the tlames. This was no doubt the cruel work of the 
Iroquois warriors, whom he had offended by his proud 
bearing at the colonial treaties at Easton. 

Thus, by the death of their chief Abraham, the Mahi- 
cans, and by the death of Teedyuccung the Delaware, 
were bereft of their leaders and were broken u\< at Wyo- 
ming. The Nanticokes some time before had moved up 
into the State of New York, on the Chenango and Che- 
mung rivers, and the Shawanese as a body had joined 
their brethren in the west, and Wyoming was left with 
only a few wandering Indians, making no pretence to 
anything like an organized or even homogeneous body 
Its Indian history therefore ends at this point, and a few 
words in reference to the Wyalusing mission, and one or 
two other matters, and this portion of the work is com- 

Notwithstanding the numerous treaties ol peace and 




the earnest efforts made to keep the Indians in friendly 
relations, yet murders and the usual horrors of Indian 
warfare were constantly occurring on the frontier, and 
hence the inhabitants became deeply exasperated and 
vowed \engeance against all Indians without discrimina- 
tion. They had sought out the guilty parlies and de- 
manded them from the Indians, but their guilt was de- 
nied, their surrender refused, and no jiunishment was 
dealt out to them. The Moravian brethren, becoming 
aware of the feelings of the people, sought to protect the 
converts at their mission stations, particularly those at 
VVyalusing, from the impending wrath; and to that end as- 
sembled them at Bethlehem and Nazareth, whence they 
were removed to the neighborhood of Philadelphia for 
greater safety, and camped on Province island, where 
they were fed and sheltered at the expense of the Penn- 
sylvania government. " Here they remained for fifteen 
months, suffering untold hardships, insulted and reviled 
by mobs, decimated by disease, scorned alike by whites 
and Indians, a gazing stock both by reproaches and af- 
flictions, yet they continued stedfast in their faith." After 
having borne nearly one-half their number to the potter's 
field, the remainder, eighty-three in all, left Philadelphia 
March 20th, 1765, and in pursuance of intercession and 
arrangements made in their behalf were permitted to loc- 
ate again at Wyalusing. This was a favored and favorite 
locality. Here lay rich hunting grounds in their original 
wildness, while sufficient land was cleared to afford them 
corn patches for immediate use. It was situated on the 
Susquehanna, a stream abounding in the choicest fish, 
and was on the great pathway between the North and 
South and East and West. 

" In the freedom of their forest homes ami tin- hunting grounds of 
their fathers, hopeful tor the future, guided and encouraged by their 
teachers, their hearts were filleci with gratitude and joy. The new town 
which came into existence rang with the melod.\' of praise, oven while it 
was l)eing built. 

" On the -Ith of June the Indians began to erect dwellings, and at the 
end of the month had com])letcd four log cabins and thirty bark-covered 
huts. In September, at the close of the summer hunt, a commodious 
meeting-house and a mission-honse fifteen feet square, built of unhewn 
logs.were erected. At the close of the year there were connected with the 
mission one hundred and forty-si.\ souls, of whom thirty-three were 
communicants."— OY(/f. 

This mission increased and flourished with varied suc- 
cess; now disturbed by rivalry between the various Indian 
chiefs, and now by conflicting views as to the doctrines 
taught, and again by the favor or disfavor with which the 
various teachers sent there were received. Added to this 
was the stubborn fact that a life devoted to labor and the 
cultivation of the earth, and the restraints imposed by a 
settled, regulated society, were not suited to the Indian 
nature; and we will not be astonished to learn that in the 
spring of 1772 the mission of Friedenshuetten, at 
Wyalusing, was abandoned, and those who had remained 
faithful to it migrated under the directions of their spirit- 
ual teachers to the west, settling at Schonbrunn, in the 
Tuscarawas valley, on the Muskingum, in Ohio. Early 
on the morning of the nth of June, 1772, they met in 
their chapel for the last time for religious worship, when 
they commended themselves to thekee|)ing and guidance 

of God, asking him to supply their wants, that they might 
perish not by the way. 

" A few years since there was a feeble remnant of 
Christian Indians, ministered to by Moravians, dwelling 
at New Fairfield, Canada, and Westfield, Kansas. In the 
veins of some of these there flows the blood of the Mahi- 
cansand Delawaresof old Friedenshuetten, the ' deserted 
village ' of the plains of VVyalusing." 

A monument to mark the site of this Indian mission, 
bearing fitting inscri[)tions, was erected under the auspices 
of the Moravian Historical Society, and dedicated with 
appropriate services on the site of the mission and at the 
Presbyterian church at Wyalusing, June 14th and 15th, 
187 1. This monument is thirteen feet high, and bears 
the following inscriptions: 

On the northern face — 

"To mark the site of F'riedenshuetten ^M'chwihilu- 
sing), a settlement of Moravian Indians between 1765 
and 1772." 

On the eastern face — 

" This stone was erected on the 15th June, in the year 
of Redemption 187 i, by members of the Moravian His- 
torical Society." 

While this mission at Wyalusing was more than ordin- 
arily successful, it was not that complete success which 
its founders had hoped and anticipated. It was all, how- 
ever, that a careful study of the Indian character would 
have led them to expect. The Indian, by nature, by 
habits and by his native education and habit of thought, 
was not calculated for a (juiet, industrious and religious 
life. His wild nature, his love of the chase and his de- 
light in predatory excursions made him uneasy and un- 
settled; while labor was more irksome to him than to the 
whites, and even they resort to every possible expedient 
to eke out a subsistence rather than to labor. Labor is 
the last resort, the extreme service which they pay to 
their necessities, and with them hunting and fishing and 
tramping around yield delights that successful labor fails 
to bring. 

And then the Indian religion was so different from the 
Christian, so much easier understood and practiced, and 
called upon them for so many less labors and sacrifices, 
that it is not wonderful that they received the latter 
slo'wiy — conformed to it more slowly and yielded obe- 
dience to its requirements only at the last extremity. In 
consequence of these hindrances to the enjoyment 
of a Christian life the Indians, one by one or in parties, 
were constantly withdrawing from the missions, and seek- 
ing their native freedom of action and thought with the 
wild tribes who were free from the shackles which a Chris- 
tian life imposed. Even white men have done the same. 
Zeisberger said: " Sorcerers abound among the aborigines' 
cf our country. The majority of them are cunning jug- 
glers, or self-deluded victims of superstition." Some ex- 
isted by whom Satan himself worked " with all powers 
and signs and lying wonders." He disbelieved the stories 
he heard of what they could do until several of them were 
converted. These unfolded to him things from their own 
past experience which forced him to acknowledge the 






reality of Indian sorcery, and to adopt the opinion wliicli 
was universal among the early church fathers that the 
Gods of heathenism were not visionary beings represented 
by idols, but Satanic powers and principalities, to wor- 
ship whom was to worship demons and be under demon- 
iacal influences. He refers to three kinds of native magic, 
namely: the art of producing sudden death without the 
use of poison; the inattapassigan, a deadly charm by which 
e[)idemics could be brought upon entire villages, and 
persons at .1 distance sent to their graves; and the 
witchcraft of the kimochit'e, who passed through the air 
by night, visiting towns, casting the inhabitants into an 
unnatural sleep and then stealing what they wanted. 

The story of the WyaUising mission has now been 
briefly told, and in its telling the history of the Indians 
at and in the territory of old Wyoming has drawn to a 
close. The suffering of the New England pioneers at the 
hands of the savages belongs to the early settlement of 
the valley, and as such will be narrated in another con- 




'N 1753 an association called the Susquehanna 
Company was formed in Connecticut for the 
=^' purpose of settling the lands in the Wyoming 
C:^ valley, and during the same year its agents 
were sent to make explorations in the region. 
During the next year an Indian council assembled 
at Albany, and the agents of the company attended 
this council for the purpose of extinguishing the Indian 
title to these lands. 

The proprietary government also sent agents to this 
council to thwart, if possible, the designs of the Susque- 
hanna Company; and James Hamilton, then governor of 
Pennsylvania, wrote to Sir William Johnson soliciting 
him to interpose his influence with the Six Nations (who 
claimed the land, though the Delawares occupied it), and 
prevent the sale. 

Notwithstanding these efforts on the part of the gov- 
ernor and his agents, the company's agents succeeded in 
effecting a purchase, which included this valley. A pur- 
chase had been made from the Indians by the proprietary 
government in 1736 which it was claimed included this 
territory; but this claim was disputed by the Connecticut 

The company was soon afterward chartered by the 
Connecticut government, and at about this time the pro- 
ject was conceived of making this, with other territory, a 
separate province; but the hostile attitude of the Indians, 
who were then under French influence, defeated its ac- 

After the cessation of hostilities preparations were 

made to settle the valley by the Susquehanna Company, 
and in 1762 about two hundred settlers established them- 
selves in it, near the mouth of Mill creek, where they 
cleared fields, sowed wheat and built log houses. Hav 
ing done this, they returned to Connecticut, to make 
preparations for bringing their families the next spring. 

The people of Pennsylvania regarded with jealousy and 
displeasure these energetic preparations for settlement, 
and the governor, through Sir William Johnson, again 
sought to influence the Iroquois to repudiate their sale to 
the company in 1754. A deputation of the disaffected 
Indians visited Hartford and protested against the occu- 
pancy of this territory. The case was presented in Eng- 
land by both parties, and opinions favorable to both sides 
were obtained. 

On the return of spring the Connecticut seiller.s, not- 
withstanding the fact that they had been cautioned by the 
governor of Connecticut against doing so, returned in 
largely augmented numbers.with their families, to the set- 
tlement; and during the summer made rapid progress, ex- 
tending their settlement to the west side of the river. 

In the autumn a party of Iroquois visited the valley, 
and it was said for the double purpose of exciting in the 
Delawares hostility to the settlers and getting rid of 
Teedyuscung, a chief of whose large and growing in- 
fluence among the Indians they were jealous; treacher- 
ously murdered him and then induced among his sub- 
jects the belief that the murder had been committed by 
the settlers. The result was that these Uelawares fell 
upon the inhabitants of the valley, killed some thirty antl 
caused the precipitate flight of the rest, and plundered 
and burnt the settlement. After severe sufTctings and the 
death of many of their number the fugitives reached 
Connecticut again; and thus for a time ended the attempt 
by the Susquehanna Company to settle the valley. The 
following are the names of a portion of those settlers: 

Jolin Jenkins. John Conisliick. Kphnilm S*-*-!)'. Wllllmn Iliick. nilvir 
Jewell, Oliver Smith. Diiviil Ilimevwell, l>ni Dean. Jonalhuii \V.><k-. 
jr.. Ohadinh (inre. l->.4-kiel Tierce. rhtli|> We4>ks. l>Hiiii*l (f<tn>, Klkaiiuli 
Fnller. Wright Stevens, Istuic I'nilerwood, ll4>niHiiiln .\!*liley. (ti<him 
Lawrence. Isaae llennett. Stephen Iah*. Silns Parker, .tame;* A Iherlnn. 
Moses Kimball, Kl»enezer Searlt^. Timolli.v ll<illi.ster. Nathaniel Terry. 
Kphraim Tyler, Timothy llollisler.Jr.. Wrisrhl Smith. Kphruim Tyler. Jr.. 
Isaac llollister. jr.. .Nathanii*! Chapiniin. Jtihn Iiorrrtfic<\ Thiuniis Mtin«li. 
Kov. W. .M. .>farsh, Timothy Smith, Matthew Smith. Joiiiith lu Slocuni. 
Ilcnjaniin l>avi'<. Ilinjnmin Kollctl. lieiirtre MlniT. Nathaniel Kollinier. 
Itenjamin ShoiMnaker. Nathaniel lliirllait. Simon liraper. .Simiiel 
Kicharils. John Smith, Diiniel lialilwln. Stephen (ianliner, Kllphnlet 
Stevens, David Marvin, AuKuat Hunt, rnschall Tcrry,Wllltum Slcphen!>. 
Thoinits B*'tinet. 

Killed by the Indians October 15th, 1763 : Rev. Wil- 
liam Marsh, Thomas Marsh, Timothy Hollister, Timothy 
Hollister, Jr., Nathan Terry, Wright Smith. Daniel Halii- 
win and wife, Jesse Wiggins, Zeruah Whitney, Isaac 
Hollister. Prisoners : Shepherd and Daniel Baldwin's 

In 1768, at the general Indian council which assembled 
at Fort Stanwix, the proprietaiies purchased from the 
Indians the territory which was in dispute, and some of 
the chiefs executed to them a deed for it. The Indians 
were ready to sell their land as many times as the whites 
were willing to pay them for it. 

Early in the next year the Susquehanna Company re- 





s jIved to resume possession of these lands. Five town- 
ships, each five miles square, were divided each into fort)' 
shares, to be given to the first forty settlers in each of 
these townships ; and two hundred pounds sterling were 
appropriated for the purchase of agricultural implements. 
Forty settlers were sent to the valley in February, to be 
followed by two hundred in the spring. On their arrival 
they found that the Pennsylvanians had shortly before 
taken possession of their former improvements and erected 
a block house for their defense. They had also divided 
the valley into tlie manors of Stoke on the eastern^ and 
Sunbury on the western side of the river 1. The Yankees' 
soon after their arrival, invested the Pennamite block 
house, with its little garrison, but they- were outw-itted by 
the latter, who, under the pretext of a desire to consult 
and arrange their difficulties, induced three of the leaders 
among the Yankees to enter the block house and imme- 
diately arrested them. They were taken to the jail at 
Easton, but were at once released on bail and returned. 
This was followed by other arrests of Connecticut set- 
tlers, and the release on bail of the persons arrested. In 
the spring the other settlers arrived ; constructed a fort 
on the east bank of the river, near the bend below the 
bridge at Wilkes-Barre, which they named Fort Durkee, 
in honor of its commander ; erected log houses, and 
prosecuted their improvements with energy. The Penn- 
sylvania claimants, finding themselves largely outnum- 
bered, after one or two ineffectual attempts to dispossess 
the Yankees left them for a short period without mo- 
lestation. In this interval overtures were made by tlie 
settlers for a settlement of the controversy, but the pro- 
prietaries refused to negotiate. Early in September the 
I'ennamites came with a large force headed by the sheriff 
of Northampton county, took Colonel Durkee and several 
others prisoners, expelled the Yankees, and, regardless of 
a solemn pledge to respect the rights of property, plun- 
dered the settlement. The year 1769 closed with the 
Pennsylvanians in possession of the valley. 

In February, 1770, the Yankees, together with a num- 
ber of men from Lancaster, where some shareholders of 
t'.ie Susquehanna Company resided, again appeared in the 
valley, and dispossessed the Pennamites. To accomplish 
this they found it necessary to fire on and besiege a block 
liouse in which the latter took refuge, and during the hos" 
tilities, which lasted several days, one of the Yankees 
was killed, and several were wounded. The Pennsylva- 
nians were compelled to capitulate and leave the valley in 
possession of the Yankees. Settlers came again, crops 
were jdanted, and during the summer they were not dis- 

It must be remembered that at this lime difficulties 
were arising between the colonies and Great Britain, and 
the power and influence of the colonial governors were 
on the wane. The authority of the ])roprietary governor 
of Pennsylvania declined more rapidly than that of the 
governors of other provinces, because of the differences 
between them and the people with regard to the taxation 
of the proprietary estates, and for other reasons; and in- 
asmuch as the question of title was between the people 

from Connecticut and these proprietaries, the sympathies 
of the people in other parts of the province with these 
governors were not as active as would otherwise have been 
the case. After the explusion of Captain Ogden and the 
Pennamites from the valley in the spring of 1770, (}over 
nor Penn called on General Gage to furnish regular 
troops to reinstate him in possession of the valley, alleg- 
ing that there was no militia in the province on which he 
could call. General Gage quite properly declined to al- 
low the use of the king's troops in a mere dispute con- 
cerning the title to property, and Governor Penn was 
compelled to raise forces by his personal exertions, which 
he finally succeeded in doing. He had in June issued a 
proclamation forbidding any intrusion on the lands in 
question, and in September his forces, numbering 1401 
under Captain Ogden, marched to the valley for the os- 
tensible purpose of enforcing this proclamation. They 
entered the valley by an unusual route, divided iu de- 
tachments and surprised the men while at work. They 
captured a portion, and put the rest to flight. At night 
they made a sudden assault on the fort, which was con- 
fusedly filled with men, women and children; and after 
killing a few made prisoners of the rest, and soon after- 
ward sent them to prison at Easton, except a few, who 
were taken to Philadelphia. They then plundered the 
settlement and withdrew, leaving a small garrison in Fort 
Durkee. In the following December this garrison was 
surprised and the fort retaken by Captain Lazarus Stew- 
art, at the head of a party of Lencastrians, with a few 
Yankees. Such of the garrison as did not escape were 
expelled from the valley. 

A month later, or in January, 1 771, Captain Ogden 
again appeared in the valley, with the sheriff of North- 
ampton county and a posse, for the arrest of Captain 
Stewart. Admission to the fort was demanded and re- 
fused. The fort was finally fired on by Captain Ogden, 
and the fire was returned, killing Nathan Ogden, his 
brother, and woundmg several of his men. During the 
ensuing night the fort was evacuated by Captain Stewart, 
and the next day was occupied by Captain Ogden. 

For six months the valley remained in possession of 
the Pennsylvanians, during which time their number was 
augmented till it reached a total of eighty-three. 

In July of the same year Captain Zebulon Butler and 
Lazarus Stewart, with seventy Connecticut men, entered 
the valley and at once took measures to repossess it 
They besieged and closely invested Fort Wyoming, which 
had been built and occupied by Captain Ogden, about 
sixty rods above Fort Durkee. Notwithstanding the close 
and vigilant investment of the fort by the besiegers, whose 
number was constantly augmented by recruits from Con- 
necticut, Captain Ogden by a bold and cunning stratagem 
escaped alone and went to Philadelphia for assistance. 
An expedition was sent for that purpose, but it was am- 
bushed by the vigilant besiegers and its supplies were 
captured, though a portion of the men were allowed to 
enter the fort. The besieged managed to send another 
message for assistance, but the supplies of the garrison 
failed, and it capitulated when the detachment for its 




relief was within u-n miles of the fort. During the siege 
several of the garrison were killed and a ninnher were 
wounded, and among the latter Captain Ogden himself 
severely. The loss of the besiegers is not known. During 
the remainder of the summer and autumn the settlers 
from Connecticut increased largely and made ample prep- 
arations for defense, but during the succeeding four years 
they were not again disturbed by hostile incursions. 

This interval of peace was also one of prosperity and 
happiness. The settlement received accessions of im- 
migrants from Connecticut; churches and schools were 
established; and when it appeared that there was no 
prospect of establishing a separate colony, or of being 
immediately recognized by the (General .Assembly of Con- 
necticut as a portion of that colony and enjoying the pro- 
tection and benefit of its laws, the i)eople adopted a gov- 
ernment of their own, which was in all respects purely 
democratic — the legislature consisting of an assembly of 
all the people. Efforts were made by the settlers to effe< 1 
a reconciliation with the proi)rietary government, but all 
overtures were rejected. 'J"he General Assembly of Con- 
necticut also made an effort to negotiate a settlement, and 
sent commissioners to Philadelphia for that purpose, luit 
CJovernor Penn declined to entertain their propositions. 
The General Assembly then submitted the case to eminent 
counsellors in England, and an opinion in favor of the 
company was given. 

The Legislature of Connecticut then, in 1773, adopted 
a resolution asserting the jurisdiction of the colony and 
expressing a determination to maintain it. On applica- 
tion of the company the territory was declared to be a 
part of the colony of Connecticut, erected into the town 
of Westmoreland and attached to the county of Litchfield 
The laws of Connecticut superseded those which had 
been adopted by the settlers, and the town was represented 
in the General Assembly of Connecticut. Proclamations 
were issued by the proprietary governor and by the gov- 
ernor of Connecticut, each forbidding any settlement 
under the authority of the other. 

The following are names of settlers who were enrolled 
prior to 1773; those of the forty who settled in Kingston 
in 1769 being marked with an asterisk: 

David Whittlesey, Jot) r,reeii, Pliilip Goss. .rosliiia Wliitney, .\l)nihiiiii 
Savjijfo. Stearns, Sylvester Ctieesebroiijrli. Zfphiiniiili Tluiyer, 
Eliplmlel .lewel, Daniel Oore, Ozia.s Vale, Ilowlaml llailini. Ilemy Wall*, 
(iicleim T.awrenee. .\sa Lawrenee. Nathaniel Wat^iin. I'liilip Weelis. 
Thonias Weeks, Aslier Ilarnit, Klienezer Ilelibanl, Mmwin ( ■ai\ an, Sam- 
mi .Maiv in. Silas I'.lienezcr NuilliiDp. .Joshua l.ainpher, .losepli 
llillnian, .\liel fierce, .laliez Hobert.s, .Innalhan ('arrinKlDn. Juhn I)(ir- 
lanee. Xoah Allen, Uol)ert .laekson, Zelinlun llawksey, James Dnnkiii. 
Caleb Tennant.Zernbabel Wiijhtnian.tiurdDn Ilnpson, Asa, Thunuis 
Walworth. Koliert Hunter. .Inhn linker, Jonathan Orins. Daniel .Vnifcl. 
I'.lias Hoberts. Nicholas Manvil. Thomas Cray, .loseph Gaylonl. William 
I hnrchill. Henry Strong-, Zebiilon Ki.stiee. Ile/.ekiah Knap. John Kenyon, 
Treservi'd Taylor, Isiuie Hennett, Uriah Marvin, .Kbisha IlinKhain, Moses 
Itebbaril, jr.. Jaliez Fisk, I'eris lirij-'l-'s. .\aron Walker. James May. Sani- 
nel llailfer. Jatiez Cooke, .Samuel T)orranci', ,Iohn Conistock*. Samuel 
I lotehkiss. William I.eonanl, Jes.-e Leonard. Klisha .\\ ery. Kzni Huid, 
<;ershom Hewit, Nathaniel (Joss. Itenjamin lleHit. llenjainin Hewit, Jr., 
i;iias Thomas. Abijah Mock, Kphraim Fellows. J. and K. Arnold. Itenjamin 
Ashley, William White. Stephen Hull, Diuh Hull, .loseph !.«•, SiimucI 
Wyl>rant. Keiiben Hurltnirt, Jenks Corah. Obadiah Gore. Jr.. Caleb 
White, Samuel Sweet, Thomas Knight. John Jollee. Etienezi'r Norton, 
l-;nos Yale, John Wyley, Timothy Vorei-, Cyrus Kenncy, .lohii Shaw, 
James Korseythc, Peter Harris, .\tiel Smith. Klia« Parks. Joshua .Max- 
field, John .Murphy, Thomas Uennet*,ChrisIopher.Vvery, Klisha Ilal)cock, 
John Perkins, Joseph Slocum, Uobcrt Hopkins, n<.-iijamln Shoemaker, 

Jr., Jabe/SIII, Pamhall Terry, J<din Di'lonir. TheophlUn- We»to\er». John 
Slerlliiir, Jowpli Morw, Stephen Fuller, .\mlrew liurkee, .Vndrew Mi->l 
iiiir, Daniel llrowii. Jiinalimn lluek.Du\ld Mead.Thonuio Ferlln, William 
Wailsworlh. Thomas Draiier. .lami-s Smith. Jnmi'« .\therlon*. Jr., ttllM-r 
Smith*, .lanu's Kvaiis. l-tletiMT Carey. Cytirlan lj»lliro(>*, .laine* Ne«littt, 
Joseph Web-ter, Samuel .Mllllnulon. Ih'njumln llu<ld. John l^-e. JikIuIi 
Dean. Zophur Tih il. Mo<M"* HeblHird. Daniel M unlock. Noah !,<'<'. Stephen 
l^-e. Dinilcl HayiHi'. 1.1'inuel Sndth. Slla« Park. Sh-phen Hnnverfonl. 
Zerubabel Jeorum*. Comfort lio^i. William Drii|Mr. Tlioina« MH'lun-. 
Peter .^yres. .Solomon .lohnson. Phlneas Siexcnn, .\bnihatn Colt. Klljah 
lluck*, Noah Id-ad. Nathan lleacli. Job (iri'en. Jr , Froleriek Wlw, Sli- 
pheii .lenklns, Daniel Mar\ In. Zacharlah S<|uler, Henry WIm', Slnii-<in 
Draper*. Jidui Wall«worth. l:i>enewr Stone, Thoinna Oleolt. Stephen 
llin-ilale, llenjamln Don'hc-sler, Klljah Wilier, <>|l\er Po«t. Daniel <'««.. 
I")iae Trai-t'y, Samuel Story, John .Mllehcl. Samuel (Irliai, Chrlnloplier 
Gardm-r. Duty Gerold, IN-rN linidrord. Samuel Morinin. John Clark. 
Klljah Lewis. Timothy llopklii''. Kilward Johii'-i'ii. Jueidi Dlnidiian. 
Captain Prince .-Mden, llenedlel Siitterlee. N'aidad Coleman. Pelcr Com- 
stock,John Franklin, llenjamln Matthews. Jidin liurk<-<', Wlllluni Gal- 
lop, Slejihen llurlbut, Stephen Mlli-s and l->.ra iK'un. 

The colonists in the valley enjoyed two years more of 
repose and prosperity. About (he year 1771 a settle- 
ment was made by Connecticut people at Muncy. on the 
west branch of the Susquehanna, about sixty miles above 
its confluence'with the east branch at In 
September, 1775, this settlement was attacked by a force 
of Northumberland militia, commanded by rolonel I'lim- 
kett. One man was killed, several were wounded, and 
the rest of the settlers were made prisoners and taken to 
Sunbury. At about the same time some boats from 
Wyoming, as thev were descemling the river, were at- 
tacked and |)lundered by the Pennsylvanians. 

Because of these acts the people of Northumberland 
were apprehensive that the Yankees might make a de- 
scent on .Sunbury, burn the town and liberate the pris 
oners ; and one of the consequences of this apprehension 
was the organization of a force for the invasion and sub- 
jugation of the Wyoming valley. This force was raised 
by Colonel Plunkett, under orders from Governor Penn. 
and consisted of seven hundred men well armed and 
furnished with ample supplies. In December, 1775, this 
force ascended the river in boats to the Nanticoke 
rapids, where it disembarked and passed on the west 
side of the river through the gorge by which the Susque 
hanna escapes from the Wyoming valley. Near the 
point where the gorge opens into the valley Colonel 
Plunkett found the vigilant Yankees, posted in an advan- 
tageous position and protected by breastworks; and, 
though inferior in numbers, they gave his forces surh a 
warm reception that they fell back, with the loss of some 
killed and wounded. .A boat was then brought up anil 
an attempt was made by Colonel Plunkett to cross the 
river. In anticipation of this movement Colonel Zebulon 
Butler, who commanded the force in the valley, had 
stationed a party of men under Lieutenant Stewart in 
ambush on the east side of the river ; and these gave the 
party in the boat, as it attempted to land, a volley whii h 
wounded several and killed a dog. Finding every ap- 
proach to the valley guarded, the forces of Colonel Plun- 
kett fell back to their boats, .1, in.U.ncd the expedition 
and relumed to their homes 

.\t this time the Revolutionary had lu- 
and during its continuance the contest lor the 1 
of this valley was suspended. It was renewed, however, 
immediatclv after the surrender of Cornwallis. 





It will be remembered that in 1776 the proprietary 
government was superseded by that of the State, and on 
the cessation of hostilities the Supreme Executive 
Council at once petitioned Congress to adjust the ([ues- 
tion of jurisdiction. A board of commissioners was ap- 
pointed for that purpose, and after a long session at 
Trenton they decided, in December, 1782, that the juris- 
diction belonged to Pennsylvania, and that Connecticut 
had " no right to the land in controversy." Soon after- 
ward magistrates and troops were sent into the valley, 
and measures were taken to dispossess the settlers of their 
lands and improvements. The settlers claimed that only 
the jurisdiction of the territory had been decided by the 
decree at Trenton, and that the titles of individuals to the 
soil were not affected thereby. The conduct of the sol- 
diers and magistrates was from the first exceedingly 
arrogant and oppressive, and as time went on the people 
came to regard endurance as no longer a virtue and re- 
solved on forcible resistance. Upon this they were treated 
as insurgents, and on the 12th of May, 1784, they were 
plundered of their property a..d one hundred and fifty 
families were driven from the valley. Such was the 
cruelty with which they were treated that the sympathies 
and indignation of the people in other parts of the State 
were aroused; the soldiers were discharged and the set- 
tlers invited to return. Many of the discharged soldiers 
lingered in the valley, living by plunder, and on the 20th 
of July a party of them attacked some of the settlers, kill- 
ing two and wounding several. This was followed by 
hostilities toward the Yankees, which were resisted by 
them. In the course of the summer and autumn several 
engagements took place between the settlers and the 
military forces which were sent against them, in which 
several were killed and wounded. The people of the 
State became weary of this contest, and their sympathies 
became more actively enlisted in behalf of the inhabitants 
of the valley. By the middle of October the hostile 
force in the valley numbered only for^y men, and so un- 
popular and e\en odious had the proceedings against the 
people there become that not a recruit could be induced to 
join them. On the approach of winter the commander of 
these forces, finding himself unable to procure either sup- 
plies or recruits, discharged his men and abandoned the 
valley. Thus ended the last military demonstration 
against the people of Wyoming. 

During the succeeding two years the people were pros- 
perous and happy, and the population rapidly increased 
by the influx of immigrants not only to the valley but to 
the circumjacent regions. 

The territory now included in Wyoming and Lacka- 
wanna counties had become settled to some extent along 
the valleys of the two principal streams and their tribu- 
taries. These regions, however, had not been the scene 
of hostilities between the contending parties, although 
three of the Susquehanna Company's townships were in- 
cluded in what is now Wyoming county. 

The county of Luzerne was erected in 1786. The 
people were sitisfied with the government, and a more 
kindly feeling was springing up between the inhabitants 
of the valley and the citizens elsewhere ; but the ques- 

tion of title was not yet adjusted, though efforts for an 
adjustment of it had been made. 

About this time Colonel Timothy Pickering became 
acquainted with the facts in the case, and soon afterward 
he established his residence in the valley. Through his 
influence a compromise was effected, and a law in accord- 
ance with the terms of this compromise w^as enacted by 
the legislature. Under this law commissioners for the 
adjustment of claims met in the valley in May, 1787. 
Meantime the New England immigrants had become 
divided. A portion of them (mostly settlers subsequent 
to the decision of the question of jurisdiction by the Con- 
gressional commission) strongly opposed acquiescence 
in the compromise law, and sought by every means to 
arouse and strengthen opposition to it in others. They 
had in contemplation the formation of another State out 
of the territory which had been in dispute, and to that 
end they had drawn up a constitution and completed a 
frame of government. The most active leader in that 
opposition — a man named John Franklin — was finally 
arrested under a charge of treason in attempting to 
subvert the government and establish a new State, and 
taken to Philadelphia. Early in October, 1787, in 
revenge for this and to procure the release of Franklin, 
his friends, after several unsuccessful attempts, sricceeded 
in abducting Colonel Pickering. He was taken up the 
river beyond the mouth of Tunkhannock creek, and kept 
concealed during nearly three weeks. His captors and 
guards frequently shifted camp to elude the jiursuit which 
they knew was made. In this time some skirmishing took 
place between the pursuers and the Yankees at Meshop- 
pen and Wyso, in which two men were wounded. Failing 
to accomplish their purpose, they liberated him at Tunk- 
hannock and he returned to his home in Wilkes-Barre. 

The results of these lawless acts on the part of a por- 
tion of the Yankees were the suspension and, in 1790, the 
repeal of the compromise act. 

Several actions were then commenced in the courts for 
determining the titles to these lands, but during the eight 
years that followed none of these were determined. In 
April, 1799, the Legislature passed another compromise 
act, which provided for compensation to claimants under 
titles from Pennsylvania, and for confirmation by certifi- 
cates of the titles of the Connecticut settlers who were 
such prior to the decree of Trenton, or their heirs or as- 
signs. These certificates were issued by commissioners 
appointed under the law, which limited their action within 
the "seventeen townships in the county of Luzerne" that 
were originally surveyed and settled under the authority 
of the Susquehanna Company. By an act of the Legis- 
lature in 1808 the powers of these commissioners ceased, 
and thus was terminated the contest concerning the title 
to these lands, which had continued through nearly half a 
century, and which at the present day elicits a warin in- 
terest among the descendants of the contesting parties. 

In an address on this subject, delivered recently before 
the historical society of Pennsylvania, Governor Hoyt 
tersely says: "The discussion converges upon two propo- 
sitions, each somewhat paradoxical: I. In the forum of law 
Connecticut, with a title regular on its face, failed justly; 
2. In the forum of equity the Connecticut settlers, without 
other title than the ' fiossfssio peiiis,' prevailed rightly." 


IHK ADVKNl- oi- Tin; I'loNKKR. 


CllAriER IV. 


HK settlement of the valley of Wyoming, which 

f_ J~S^ was the first and for many years the only in- 
•/)\ habited part of Luzerne county, was com- 
. ~^| nienced, as elsewhere slated, under the aus- 
■ ; - Dices of the Susquehanna Company, in 1762. 

]-^ Then about two hundred, mostly from Connecti- 
' ia^ cut, came and began their preparations for homes 
in this region, which was then sixty miles distant from any 
settlement of civilized people. They were not the effem- 
inate sons of wealthy parents, who had been reared in the 
lap of lu.xury. From their infancy they had by precept 
and example been taught the industry and economy which 
had enabled their fathers to thrive among the rocks and 
hills of their native country. They were the hardy, ac- 
tive and ambitious sons of New Englanders, and in the 
exercise of the independent, self-reliant spirit which they 
had inherited from their sires, they left their paternal 
roofs and sought homes in this valley, far away in the 
untamed wilderness of what was then the west. 

A few brought with them their wives and children, and 
came with oxen and carts, bringing a few indispensable 
articles of household furniture and driving a few domes- 
tic animals. Most of them, however, came on foot, with 
knapsacks on their backs, rifles on their shoulders and 
axes in their hands. Thus accoutred, they bade adieu for 
a time to the loved ones at home, and turned their faces 
westward to make for themselves homes and fortunes. 

Kor a time they followed the trail of emigrants who 
had settled in other regions, but finally they abandoned 
this, left the borders of civilization and struck into the 
forest. They followed Indian trails, threaded foicsts 
and swamps, and climbed over mountains, camping in 
s-quads in the roads by night, till at length they reached 
the valley, and hawing selected their locations commenced 
their preparations for the future. Shanties for temporary 
shelter were constructed, clearings were- begun, and prep- 
arations made for the erection of rude log houses (or the 
shelter of those whom they were to bring with them on 
their return the n«;.Vt year. 

While this work was in i)rogress they subsisted largely 
on the game with which the surrounding forest abounded, 
and the fish which were taken in great numbers from the 
river. Their neighbors, were m.iking similar preiiarations 
at different points in the valley, and with these they ^''en 
exchanged visits, to talk of home and to discuss their 
plans for the future, to anticipate the pleasure which 
they would derive from such visits the next year, when 
they would be accompanied by the partners who were to 
share their fortunes and their privations. 

They frequently "changed works" in order to ac- 
complish some of their various tasks with greater facility, 
and to dissipate the sense of loneliness which haunted 
them as they pursued their solitary labors. In this w.iy 
they occasionally hired from those who had brouRhi 
teams a yoke of oxen, with which to draw to their build- 
ding sites the logs which they had cut for iheir hauscs, 
and to " log up " the timber which they desired to burn 
on their clearings. Thus passed their first summer in the 
valley. By night they lay in their shanties on their beds 
of boughs and dreamed of the homes they had left, or of 
the future homes which their fancies |.i< lurL-d: or in their 




w;il iiig intervals listened to the distant howling of the wolf 
on the mountain side, and the nearer hooting of the owl. 
Hay after day they toiled on, sustained and cheered by 
their hopes of future happiness with their chosen com- 
])anions and children in the midst of the surroundings 
which they were creating. 

By early autumn their rude houses were erected and 
])artially prepared for their reception on their return. 
Small areas had been burned off, and here they " brushed 
in " their first wheat. Larger areas had been cut over 
and made ready for burning and planting the next spring. 
When these preparations were completed they deposited 
in places of safety their axes and few other implements, 
and with light hearts turned their faces again toward 
their paternal mansions. Thus terminated the first sum- 
mer with many a pioneer in Luzerne county. As he 
journeyed homeward the sky above him was brighter and 
th« songs of the birds in the forest through which he 
])assed more melodious than ever before, for he was re- 
turning to the haimts of his early life from the scenes of 
his prospective manhood. 

Li due time he arrived among the scenes of his child- 
hood and wended his way to the old home where parents 
brothers and sisters welcomed, him warmly, and listened 
with eager attention to the story of his experience in the 
wilderness. He received a still more hearty welcome 
from another, who during his long absence had not ceased 
to think of him by day and dream of him by night. She 
listened to the recital of his doings with a deejier interest 
for to her and him they were matters of eijual impor- 

A wedding soon occurred, and the last winter of the 
pair in their nati\e State was a season of bu'iy jirepara- 

tion for removal to their western home, interspersed with 
social gatherings and merry-makings among the scenes 
and companions of their childhood. They sat down to 
their last Thanksgiving dinner with their parents, broth- 
ers and sisters; attended their last Christmas and New 
Year's festivals with their former playmates and school- 
fellows, and on the approach of spring bade all these 
scenes and friends a tearful adieu, and departed for their 
new home, followed by the good wishes of their friends^ 
and the benedictions and prayers of their parents. 

Their outfit consisted of a yoke of oxen and a cart, 
loaded with a few utensils and necessary articles of 
household furniture. They brought with them a cow or 
two and a few sheep, the latter to serve as the nucleus of 
a flock, which, if spared by the wolves, was to furnish 
wool for their future clothing. Thus equipped they pur- 
sued their toilsome journey till at length their destination 
was reached, and they entered at once on the realities of 
pioneer life. 

Their house was made tenable by the few preparations 
which pioneers found necessary for their comfort, thougit 
open holes in the walls at first served for windows and 
one in the roof for a chimney, and a blanket was the 
door. A small spot was prepared for the garden seeds 
which they had brought, their corn field was burned off 
and i)lanted in due season, and a large area prepared for 
other wheat and corn fields. Li this the labor of the 
husband was lightened by the ])resence and encouraging 
smiles, and sometimes by the assistance, of his young 
wife. Li their solitude they were sustained by their 
buoyant hopes of the future, and they ever after referred 
to this summer as the happiest jieriod of their lives. 
Their wheat field gave good returns ; the few acres 



whic'.i llv.-y cleared and |)lauted wilii turn yielded abun- 
dantly, and early in the winter they secured a sufficient 
supply of venison. Their wheat and corn were ground 
in a "pioneer mill " — a mortar hollowed in a stump or in 
the end of a log A hovel had been constructed of logs 
and roofed with brush or straw, for the protection of 
iheir animals against the inclemency of the weather and 
the attacks of wild beasts. No hay was provided for the 
cattle, but from day to day trees were cut on ground that 
was to be cleared the next summer, and they lived on the 
browse which these afforded. A couple of pigs and a 
few fowls were fed each morning at the door of the house 
with corn from the wife's folded a|)ron. Tluis passed 
their first winter in the woods. The sound of the hus- 
band's ax echoed through the forest during the day, and 
the wife plied "her evening care" in the cheerful glow 
of the "blazing hearth " at night. Their simple fare and 
active exercise in the open air gave them robast health, 
and though their surroimdings were quite different from 
those in the midst of which they had been reared, this 
was the home which they had made for themselves, and 
they were happy in the enjoyment of it. 

During the summer other settlers had come in, some 
singly, others in companies, with their families ; and 
neighbors were more numerous and less distant, and the 
monotony of their life was varied by occasional exchanges 
of evening visits among these. This social intercourse 
among the pioneers had none of the bad features which 
characterized that of later times. There were among 
them no conventionalities, no unmeaning expressions of 
civility, ho unkind criticism of each others' dress or sur. 

roundiiigs, no rivalries and jealousies, and no hypocritical 
manifestations of interest in each others' welfare. Each 
rejoiced with his neighbor in his prosperity or sympa- 
thized with him in his adversity. These visits were anti- 
cipated with pleasure and remembered without regret. 

The happy life which they had just commenced here was 
darkened by many shadows. The Indians of the vicinity 
became exasperated towards the settlers, by reason of an 
act of treachery on the part of the members of a distant 
tribe, fell upon them, killed many and drove away the 
others. Several years later they returned and resimied 
their occupancy of the valley, but they were several times 
driven out by adverse claimants, and were comj)elled to 
resort to force for the mainienance of their rights and 
the protection of their property. 

Notwithstanding these interruptions a few years 
brought evidence of increasing prosperity. The clearing 
had been enlarged and a portion of it fenced ; a stick 
chimney, plastered with mud, filled the hole in the roof ; 
glass had taken the place of greased paper in the window;' 
a plank door swung on wooden hinges where formerly 
hung the blanket, and some flowering shrubbery was 
growing at the side of it. A more capacious and com- 
fortable stable had been erected for the animals, a 
" worm " fence appeared around the house and garden, 
and a log bridge had been built across the stream 
which ran near the hduse. Near the edge of the clearing 
the crackling fire was consuming the trees that I' 
of a logging bee were piling together for that p. , 
The corn, potatoes, pumjikins, etc., which had been 
planted among th4 stumps had attained sufficient growth 




to be visible fioiu some distance. A calf frolicked at 
the side of its dam and a litter of grunting young porkers 
asserted their right to " life, liberty," etc. Every thing 
wore an air of thrift. The solitude of the wife >»'as 
enlivened by the prattle of her children, and their^jlay- 
ful caresses sweetened the labor and lessened the fatigue 
of the husband and father. 

The tide of immigration, the first wave of which had 
borne them hither, continued with increasing flow. Set- 
tlers came more rapidly, the smoke from their hearths 
curled upward at shorter intervals, and clearings en- 
croached more and more on the surrounding vvilderness. 
The hissing and rushing of the whirlwinds of flame were 
oftener heard as the trees that had been felled and had 
become dry were consumed. Small fields of waving corn 
and here and there a verdant meadow were to be seen. 
The music of numerous cow bells was heard, and "drowsy 
tinklings lulled the distant folds " where sheep were 
herded to protect them from the wolves at night. The 
hum of spinning wheels might be heard in almost every 
house, and the merry laughter and shouts of frolicksome 
children resovmded as they gamboled through the woods. 

The Revolutionary war came upon the country, and 
nowhere were its horrors greater than here. On the re- 
turn of peace the few surviving settlers came back to the 
valley, and prosperity smiled again. Settlements extended 
up the valleys of the Sus(iuehanna and the Lackawanna 
and their tributaries, and many of the earliest e.xperiences 
of the settlers in the Wyoming valley were repeated in 
these localities. 

'J'he lapse of time brought with it changes. The old 
house, which had survived the ravages of war, had come 
to be only the wing of a new one that had been built of 

squared logs, covered with a shingled roof, lighted by 
glazed windows andj closed by a paneled door. A lawn 
appeared in front, tastefully ornamented with flowers, 
and fruit trees were growing on the former site of the 
garden. An apiary stood on the margin of the lawn, 
which was bounded by a straight fence. A commodious 
frame barn had been built, and where the forest once 
stood were fields of waving grain. Beyond the grove of 
sugar maples could be seen the log school-house where, 
"in her noisy mansion skilled to rule, the comely mistress 
taught her little school." 

The stream that ran by was spanned by a newer bridge, 
and the ding-donging of a saw-mill that had been built 
on its bank could be heard in the distance. The eldest 
surviving son of the pioneer couple, now grown to be a 
young man, drove toward the barn with a load of hay 
drawn by horses instead of the oxen that for years had 
constituted their only team. At the well, which still had 
its primitive sweep, stood a somewhat portly matron, who 
turned to look with motherly pride at her son as he drove 
along. A middle-aged man was walking down the road 
that came from the mill. It was he who came many 
years since with his knapsack, rifle and ax, and built his 
shanty in the howling wilderness. The woman at the 
well was the young wife who came with him a year later. 
Their privations, hardships, industry and economy had 
been rewarded. They had actjuired an honorable com- 
petence. They had, however, experienced vicissitudes. 
A brother of the husband and two brothers of the wife 
fell on the fatal field of Wyoming, and there the husband 
acquired an honorable scar. They had also followed two 
of their children to the grave. 

Sixty years had gone by since the setHement of the 



valley. An elegant mansions tood on the site of the old log 
cabin, and all its surroundings indicated that it was the 
abode of wealth and refinement. The stream passed 
under a stone arch; the old saw-mill had gone to decay; 
the sugar orchard was no longer to he seen, and only on 
the mountain sides were the remains of the |)rimiti\e 
forest visible. Spacious fields and elegant (arm houses 
were to be seen on the extended lamlscape, and the tall 
spire of a church pointed skyward from among the houses 
of a village near. A gray haired man was busy with the 
cattle in the barnyard, and a portly woman sat by the 
stove knitting, while some of the grand-children were 
playing on the floor and others were engaged in various 
kinds of work. 

These aged people were the ones who left their New 
England homes in their youtli and came to this spot. 
They had deeded their farm to their youngest son and 
taken the usual life lease. Another of their children had 
been added to the group in the cemetery; one had set- 
tled in an adjoining town, and two were in the far west. 

Another interval of half a century has passed, and 
brought its inevitable changes. The old pioneer couple 
long since passed to their rest; the son who was the solace 
and support of their declining years is now an octogena- 
rian, and his grandchildren are one by one assuming their 
|)Ositions as citizens and members of society. The an- 
cestral mansion, which still stands on the site of the orig- 
inal pioneer cabin, has from time to time changed in 
aij|)earance, as changing fashion has dictated and increas- 
ing prosperity permitted, till it is among the most tasteful 
in the \alley. The original farm, which extended back 
and included a portion of the mountain, received addi- 
tions by purchase from time to time; and its value has 
been greatly enhanced by the discovery and development 
of the mineral resources which lie beneath the surface. 
The landscape in the valley has greatly changed. Along 
the base of either mountain range at short intervals rise 
coal breakers, with their immense hills of culm and the 
adjacent miners' villages. Populous cities- and thriving 
boroughs have come into existence. Along the margins 
of the river railroad tracks with branches to the collieries 
extend through the valley and climb the mountain sides, 
and the panting and screaming of the engines that draw 
the long, snake-like trains of cars may be almost constantly 
heard. Along these tracks extend telegraph lines, and 
stretching from place to place may be seen the thread- 
like wires of the telephone. Here and there the sides of 
the mountain are dotted with clearings, where with great 
labor farms have been developed among the rocks. How 
different the landsca[)e of to-day from that of a century 
since I 




K|'\'ER a century has passed since the first settle- 
ment of this region, and changing circum- 
stances have brought with them such changes 
in many of the customs of the people that 
one of the present generation can^form only 

an imperfect conception of what some of those 

customs were. 

People are usually slow to adopt those modifications 
in their customs which changes in their environments 
render desirable, or even almost necessitate. Like the 
Welshman who persisted in balancing the wheat in one 
end of his bag by a stone in the other "because her's 
father did so," they follow the beaten track which their 
ancestors pursued, and often only turn from it when 
changed circumstances actually rom|)el them to do so. 

The march of improvement and the progress of inven- 
tion make slow advances, except in those cases where 
necessity compels people to follow tiie one, or loudly calls 
for the other. 

The rude implements and appliances that were in use 
"when the country was new" were inventions which 
grew out of the necessities of the times, and were adapted 
to the circumstances in which people found themselves 
Time wore on, and those circumstances gave place to 
others. Inventions followed these changes; but in many 
cases, as in those of the cast iron jjIow, the grain-cradle 
and the horse rake, the inventors only lived to see their 
improved implements scoffed at and derided. Thus 
have ))eople always done, and thus they will to a greater 
or less extent continue to do. As in the physical world, 
however, one condition is evolved from another by the 
slow |)rocess of natural selection, so in these cases the 
fittest are in the end the survivors. 

The first settlers in this region came when the primi- 
tive forest was growing not only heie but in the country 
through which they had passed for many miles. The 
first roads, which were simply widened Indian trails- 
were then barely passable. Of course they could bring 
with them only those articles of household furniture or 
those agricultural implements that were indispensable. 

The first work of the pioneer was to prepare a house, 
or dwelling place for his family. There were no mills 
for the manufacture of lumber, and the first houses were 
necessarily built of logs fastened by notching at the 
corners. They were usually from fifteen to eighteen 
feet sipiare, and about seven feet in height, or high 
enough to just clear the head of a tall man. Often no 
floor was at first laid. A fire place was prepared at one 
end by erecting a back of stones, laid in mud instead o^ 
mortar, and a hole was left in the bark or slab roof for 
the escape of the smoke. .\ chimney of sticks plastered 
with mud was afterward erected in this aperture. .\ 
space of a width suitable for a door was cut on one side. 
and this was closed first by hanging in it a blanket, and 
afterward by a door made with split jilank and hung on 
wooden hinges. This door was fastened by a wooden 
latch that could be raised from the outside by a string, 
which was passed through a hole above it. When the 
lalch string was "pulled in" the door was effectually 
fastened. The expression used of a hospitable man — 
" his latch string is always out " — had its origin from this 
primitive method of fastening a log house door. A hole 
was usually cut in each side of this house to let in light, 
and when glazed sash could not be procared greased 
paper was used to keep out the blasts and snows of 
autumn and winter. 




Holes were bored at the [jroper height in the logs at 
one corner of the room, and into these the ends of poles 
were fitted, the opposite ends where they crossed being 
supported by a crotch, or a block of the proi)er height. 
Across these poles others were laid, and these were 
covered by a thick mattress of hemlock or other boughs, 
over which blankets were spread. 'I'hus were ])ioneer 
bedsteads constructed; and on such a bed many ajjionecr 
couple reposed as sweetly as though " sunk in beds of 
down." In the absence of chairs rude seats were made 
with an ax and auger by boring holes in " |)uncheons," 
or planks split from basswood logs and hewn smooth on 
one side. Tables were often made in the same way, and 
after a time a floor was constructed of these " puncheons," 
with a bare sjiace in lieu of a hearth about the fire place. 
\ few necessary pieces of crockery, or sometimes wooden 
trenc hers, were kejit on rude slielves till, after a few 
years, lumber could be procured of whiih to make a cup- 

.•\ dinner jint, a dish kettle, a tea kettle, a frying pan 
and a bake kettle constituted the entire stock of iron 
ware. The bake kettle — a utensil that is now never 
seen — was a shallow vessel with legs some si.\ inches in 
length, so that it could be set over coals on the hearth. 
It had a cover with the edges turned up so that coals 
could be heaped on it. This was used at first for all the 
baking of many a pioneer family. The fire place had, 
instead of the iron crane with which it was afterward 
furnished, a transverse pole, called a lug pole, laid across 
two others so that it could be moved backwards and for- 
wards at a sufficient height to prevent burning. On this 
at first hooks cut from beech saplings, or limbs, vvere 
fastened by withes, but after blacksmiths' shops were 
established these were replaced by "trammels," or hooks 
so constructed that their length could be adjusted. 

This room, thus furnished, served all the purposes of 
kitchen, drawing-room, sitting-room, parlor and bed- 
room; and not unfrequently workshop also, for temporary 
benches were erected, and sleds, ox yokes, and many 
other farming utensils were made and repaired there 
during stormy days or evenings. The light for such 
evening work was furnished by the blazing fire of pine 
knots which had been gathered and stored away for the 
purpose, or sometimes by a " slut," which was made by 
placing a rag for a wick in a dish of " coon's oil," or the 
fat of some other wild animal. 

Here also, as time went on, were heard the raking of 
the hand cards and the whir of the spinning wheel ; for 
in those days the cloth for both the summer and winter 
clothing of the family was homemade, and all the techni- 
calities of the process, from picking the wool to "taking 
out the piece," were as familiar to every member of the 
family as any household word. 

At first, before the establishment of cloth dressing 
mills, the dyeing or coloring, even of all the woolen 
cloth, was done by the pioneer wives ; and after cioth- 
ieries made their appearance everything except "fulled 
cloth " was colored at home. The properties and the 
proper method for compounding for different colors of 

Nicaraugua or Nic. wood, logwood, fustic, indigo, mad- 
der, copperas, alum, vitriol, etc., as well as all the various 
indigenous barks and plants, were known to every house- 
wife. Tlie old dye tub, which is still remembered by the 
older inhabitants, had its place at the side of every hearth, 
where it was frequently used as a seat for children in 
cases of emergency, or when the increase of the family 
was more rapid than that of chairs. Peter Parley ' Mr. 
Cioodrich calls it "the institution of the dye tub, which, 
when the night had waned and the family had retired, 
frequently became the anxious seat of the lover, who was 
permitted to carry on his courtshi]j, the object of his 
addresses sitting demurely in the opposite corner." 

The flax brake, swingling knife and board, and hatchel 
are never seen now ; and one of the present generation 
would be utterly unable to guess their uses were they 
shown to him. Then the pulling and rotting and all the 
details of dressing tlax were known to every child ; and 
the |)rocess of spinning the flax and tow, weaving and 
bleaching the different (pialities of cloth, and making the 
thread t'or all the family sewing, was a part of the educa- 
tion of every girl. Wild nettles were at first used instead 
of the flax that was afterwards cultivated. The process 
of rotting, dressing, etc., was the same as in the case of 
the flax. Then cotton cloth was not manufactured in 
this country, and it was practically beyond the reach of 
most farmers, ^Voolen goods, other than those of domes- 
tic manufacture, were seldom seen. A "broadcloth coat" 
was an evidence either of unpardonable vanity or of 
unusual prosperity. Even the skins of animals were thus 
utilized for clothing; fawn skin vests, doeskin coats and 
buckskin breeches were not uncommon. 

It is hardly necessary to speak of the ordinary food of 
the first settlers, such as hasty pudding, johnny cake, or 
corn pones, the meal for which was ground in a pioneer 
mill or wooden mortar ; or of the dainties, such as short- 
cakes, mixed with the lye of cob ashes and baked in ashes 
on the hearth, that were set before company. The simple 
and substantial diet of the people then was adopted be- 
cause circumstances would permit no other. They were 
too poor to pamper their children with sweetmeats, or to 
stimulate them with tea and coffee ; and the incidental 
result was a degree of robust health such as the children 
in later times do not acquire. 

It must not be inferred that all the settlers in this re- 
gion were subjected to severe privations. The kind of 
fare spoken of was not looked upon as hard, for it was 
the best the country then afforded. There were instances 
where people were compelled to resort to wild roots or 
greens for a dinner, but these were perhaps as rare as are 
cases of extreme destitution now. The condition of the 
country was such that these habits and methods, of liv- 
ing were necessary, and they were not regarded as hard- 

The agricidture of those times, if agriculture it may 
be termed, was such as is never seen now. Very few at 
the present day have witnessed the process of preparing 
the virgin soil for the first cro]j. The timber was often 
girdled in advance, so that when felled, as it often was. 



I'RIMI'IIXI'. lAKMlNC A \ I ) IK \ |)| \( ;. 

in what were termed wind rows, iiiiich ul it would burn 
as it lay, being partially or wholly dried, by kindling the 
fire at llie windward end of these rows. After the first 
burn some of the remaining fragments were " niggered " 
into pieces that could be easily moved, and the whole 
was drawn together with oxen and "logged up " for the 
Hnal burning. Many in the neighborhood usually joined 
in this work, and the " logging bees," or " log frolics," 
were at the same time occasions wiien work was done and 
social intercourse enjoyed. When the burning was com- 
pleted anil the ashes collected the ground was sometimes 
made ready for the seed by harrowing with a three-cor- 
nered harrow, which was often hewed from a crotched 
tree, with either large wooden pins set at intervals, or 
vory large and strong iron teeth. Such a harrow was 
drawn over the ground among the stumps to fit the soil 
for its first crop when the roots were not sufficiently de- 
cayed to permit the use of a plow. In using this primi- 
tive harrow in these clearings the driver found it neces- 
sary to kee[) always at a respectful distance, for it often 
bounded from side to side in a manner not com[)atible 
with safety at close quarters. In cases where plowing 
could be done the old bull plow was used. This was an 
uncouth implement, with wrought iron share and a 
wooden moldboard, such as is now scarcely ever seen, 
even among relics of the past. In rare cases a wooden 
plow, hewn out of a crotched tree, was used. 

The wheat sown or corn planted in ground prepared in 
this rude way often gave good returns, such was the fer- 
tility of the soil before it was exhausted by repeated 
cropping. When the crop was grown and ri|)ened, it 
was cut with sickles, a handful at a time. Sickles may 
occasionally be seen at the present day; but there are 
few who ever saw them used. For harvesting grain 
among the stumps of the first clearings the sickle was 
best adapted of all instruments, and no other was known; 
but when these stumps had decayed, and the grain cradle 
had been introduced, many looked upon it as a perni- 
cious invention, by the use of w'hich more than sufficient 
grain would be wasted to pay for the labor of harvesting, 
and some insisted that more (ould be harvested in the 
same time with the sickle — so strongly are people 
attached to old customs. 

The grain was first thresh.ed with the flail on the 
ground, and partially separated from the chaff by [lour- 
ing it from a height in the wind and afterwards de.x- 
trously manipulating it in a "corn fan," a description of 
which would be quite difficult. For many years after 
barns were erected on all farms the flail and the feet of 
horses were the only threshing machines, but fanning- 
mills superseded the old corn fan. 

Hay was cut with the old fashioned scythe, which has 
changed but very little, and the hand rake only was used 
to gather it. Among the stumps and stones in early 
times these were the most available tools, but their use 
continued long after improved implements were avail- 
able, and after such implements had been invented. 

In those days the conveyance most in use was the ox- 
cart. It was made available for almost everything, from 

hauling manure to going to meetinj: or to lulls and wed 
dings. Its use was thus imiversni because it was, likr 
the other tools spoken of, adapted to e,\isting condiiion> 
The rough and stum]>y roads r-lmost forbade the use <>l 
four-wheeled conveyances. 

It seems hardly necessary to call attention lo the 
wagons, plows, harrows, threshing-machines, harvest- 
ers, mowers, wheelrakes, etc., etc., of the present da;, 
and contrast them with the awkward and uncouth imple- 
ments of former times ; but if this is done the adaiJta 
tion of these to their existing circumstances should be 
remembered, and the arldiiional fact should be borne in 
mind that the improved tools of the present day would 
not then have been available. 

During some years after the first setllemcnl of this 
region trade was carried on in a manner i|uite different 
from the way in which it is now conducted. Now all 
produce has a cash market and a cash value; and all 
the necessaries or superlluities that are purchased are 
reckoned according to the same standard. Then there 
was not sufficient money in the country to be made the 
medium of exchange, and trade was carried on almost 
wholly by what was termed barter. By reason of thi-. 
nearly exclusive exchange trade, mercantile establishments 
were quite unlike those of the present time, 'fhen every 
store was a commercial microcosm. In it w^s kept every- 
thing that the inhabitants retpiired. As one who lived in 
those times says: " Every merchant kept dry goods, grocer. 
ies, crockery, glassware, hardware, dye stuffs, iron, nails^ 
paints, oil, window-glass, school-books, stationery, rum. 
brandy, gin, whiskey, drugs and medicines, ending with 
a string of etceteras, or every other article usually kept 
in a country store. Things were sometimes curiously 
grouped; as, for example, silks and iron, laces and fish, 
pins and crowbars, pork and tea, molasses and ta , cot- 
ton yarn and log chains, wheel heads and hoes, cards and 
l)itrhforks, scythes and fur hats." In exchange for these 
the pioneer merchant received almost every article of 
country jirodiice. Coarse grain was converted into spirits 
at his distillery, or that of some one in the vicinity, for 
distilleries sprung up early. Pork was "packed," and 
other kinds of produce were received for goods and sent 
by teams over the turnpike to Easton, and thus to I'liila- 
delphia, where they were exchanged for the goods that 
were brought back by the same route; and so the barter 
trade was kept up. Some heavy articles, such as ir<in_ 
salt, etc., were brought by boats on the river. Expcnsixc 
methods of transportation necessarily rendered the price 
of goods high and that of produce low, and this condi- 
tion of things continued till better facilities for transport- 
ation cheapened merchandise .mil inli.uK i-d tliu fn'u c of 

Oradually since that time has iraik i li.iiii;L-U till it 
has reached a cash basis, and along with this change has 
come another important one— the "division of business." 
Now dry goods, groceries, hardware, books, driis-v. 
liquors, etc., etc., are sejiarate branches of busine--^: '-.A 
produce dealing is separated, from all of them. 

A no less marked contrast is to be seen in the in.niu 



factures of those times and the present. Tlien almost 
every article and utensil that was used was either "home- 
made" or manufactured at the shops which sprung up to 
supply the wants of the early settlers. Then, as has 
been stated, the cloth in which every one was clad was 
of domestic manufacture. The spinning-wheel and the 
loom were portions of the furniture of almost every house, 
and clothieries, or wool-carding and cloth-dressing estab- 
lishments, were as common as grist-mills. Almost every 
hamlet had its tailor's shop, where the knight of the 
shears cut tlie clothing for the jicople of the vicinity, and, 
to avoid the responsibility of misfits, warranted "to fit 
if ])roperly made up." This clothing was made up by 
tailoresses,-or, as the tailors sometimes termed them, "she 
tailors." The trade of a tailoress was reckoned a very 
good one ; for she received for her skilled labor two 
shillings as currency was then talked) per day ; while 
the price of housework liclp was four shillings per 

Shoemakers' shops were abundant also, though there 
were itinerant shoemakers who "whipped the cat," as 
going from house to house with their "kits" was termed. 
After the establishment of tanneries the people were in 
the habit of having the hides of their slaughtered animals 
tanned on shares, and the leather thus obtained was 
worked up by these circulating disciples of St. Crispin. 

The ubitjuitous tailor shop has entirely disa|jpeared, 
and.only here and there is to be seen a solitary cobbler's 
sign. E\ery \-illage has its shoe stores, and the de- 
scendants of Abraham vie with each other in supplying 
the gentiles with clothing " ferry sheap." 

Very early it was a portion of the blacksmith business to 
make the nails that were required where wooden pins could 
not be used. Now an old fashioned wrought nail is a 
curious relic of the past; and even the rivets, bolts, and 
horse-shoe nails that were formerly made upon every anvil 
are now made by machinery, and furnished more cheaply 
than they can be hammered out by the vulcans or their 

So of almost everything. Where joiners formerly took 
lumber "in the rough " and did all the work of building 
a house, now houses are almost, like Byron's critics, 
"ready made;" for little is required but to put together 
the parts that are made by machinery. 

The wheelbarrows, carts and wagons, and even the cra- 
dles and coffins, that were formerly made in the shops 
that sprang up when the country was first settled are 
now made by machinery, and sold at rates far lower than i 
those at which handmade work can be afforded' and the 
old hand manufactories have gone to decay or degenerated j 
into simple repair shops. 

In early times wild animals, especially bears and wolves, 
and to some extent i)anthers, were sources of great an- 
noyance. It is not known that any person ever became 
a x'ictim to ihe rapacity of these animals, but instances 
are recorded of terrible frights. Many swine that were 
permitted to roam and feed in the woods were destroyed 
by bears, and great care was necessary to protect sheep 
against wolves. P"or years the slumbers of people were 

interrupted and night was made hideous by the howling 
of the latter. 

It is recorded that during twelve years following 1808 
the aggregate bounty i^aid for the scalps of panthers in 
Luzerne county was $1,822, and during the same time 
$2,872 for those of wolves. Of course during the years 
that preceded that time these animals were more abund- 
ant. The howl of the wolf and the screech of the pan- 
ther are not now heard in this region. Occasionally a 
bear is captured in the mountains, but the time is not far 
distant when bruin will no more be seen here. 


OLD i,i/;ernk couNl^■ in rnK kiovoi.ution. 

HE Revolutionary history of this region limits 
itself to that of the Wyoming valley. Be- 
yond this valley there were at the com- 
mencement of the Revolution hardly any 
settlements nearer than those on the Dela- 
i^^f ware, which were sixty miles distant, through 
' " a wilderness of swamps and mountain ranges; or 
Sunbury, which lay an equal distance down the Susque- 
hanna river; a few isolated settlers, nearly all of whom 
were tories, had just located at Tunkhannock and at 
points further up the river. Wyoming was not on the 
outskirts of civilization; it was an isolated settlement in 
the midst of a country inhabited by sa\ages that after- 
ward became hostile. The country of the warlike Iro- 
(juois included the head waters and upjier branches of 
the Susquehanna, down which a war party of these sava- 
ges could at any time sail in their light canoes when 
tempted to do so by the hope of obtaining scalps or 
plunder. In this isolated condition, away from the 
theater of active hostilities and distant from any 
thoroughfare ever which hostile parties could pass on 
expeditions against regions on either side of them, it was 
but reasonable to suppose that they stood in very little 
peril except from the incursions of marauding savages. 

In order to form a just idea of the condition of the 
Ijeople here at that time, it must be remembered that the 
population of the valley consisted almost entirely of set. 
tiers from Connecticut, who had acquired their land titles 
from the Susquehanna Company and who had been en- 
gaged in actual hostilities with the Pennamites ias they 
termed those who claimed these lands under titles which 
they acquired from the proprietaries! and those who 
aided them in their attempts to enforce their claims. It 
must be remembered, too, that tolerance of those who 
differed with them in opinion was never a distinguishing 
characteristic of the Puritans who peopled the province 
of Connecticut, or of their descendants, from among 
whom these settlers came; and that the repeated attempts 
of these Pennamites to unjustly deprive them of their 





lands and expel them from the valley aroused to its 
fullest activity their intolerance- 

On the other hand, a hatred of the Yankees equally 
intense existed among the Pennamites, many of whom 
doubtless considered themselves unjustly dispossessed of 
lands to which they had acipiired a legitimate title. This 
rancorous feeling in the members of the opposing parties 
naturally engendered in each a hatred of everything upon 
which the other looked with favor; and that doubtless 
was the reason why fifty-eight of the sixty-one lories in 
the valley, as stated by one historian, were of the Pen- 
namites who remained, and it will also account for the 
remarkable unanimity among the Yankees. 

The population of the valley at that time has been va- 
riously estimated. By some historians it has been set 
down at 2,500, and by others at 5,000. Had there ex- 
isted among these people no ]5eculiar local influences, 
there is reason for the supposition that at least as large a 
proportion of them would have been loyalists as in other 
localities. They were located in a valley of surpassing 
beauty and fertility. The soil gave ample returns for the 
labor which they bestowed on it, the surrounding forests 
abounded with game, and the river was plentifully stocked 
with fish. They were subject only to such laws as they 
enacted for their own government, and the oppressive 
acts of the mother country were scarcely felt by them. 
They were contented and happy, and but for the frequent 
invasions of the valley by those who sought to dispossess 
them it would have been almost the terrestrial paradise 
which romancers and poets have represented. . Under 
such circumstances they could see but little for them to 
gain by a separation of the colonies from Great Britain, 
and that little more ideal than real. On the other hand, 
they could see that by actively espousing the cause of the 
patriots they would subject themselves to the predatory 
and cruel warfare of the savages, by whom they were sur- 
rounded and whose alliance would be sought by the 
mother country; and that possibly other forces might be 
sent against them for strategic purposes. That under 
such circumstances even a larger pro])ortion of the peo- 
ple here than in other regions should adhere to their loy- 
alty would be no matter of sur|)rise. 

At nearly the same time when the colonies severed 
their allegiance to Great Britain the people of Pennsyl- 
vania threw off the proprietary government, under which 
the Yankees had several times been driven from the val- 
ley, and adopted a State constitution. With the failure 
of the rebellion, and the re-establishment of the regal 
authority in the colonies, would come the restoration of 
the pro|)rietary government and a renewal of hostilities 
against the Connecticut settlers; while the success of the 
revolution and maintenance of the State government 
gave them reason to hope although vainly, as subsequent 
events-proved for a cessation of their ]>ersecutions. In 
view of these circumstances, it would be reasonable to 
expect that the line between Yankees and Pennamites 
should almost exactly coincide with that between Whigs 
and tories. 
The spirit of intolerance to which allusion has been inade 

manifested itself with increased intensity when the objects 
of that intolerance came to occupy the position of foes to 
their country as well as local enemies On the other hand, 
the feeling of enmity which the I'ennamitis had enter- 
tained toward the Yankees, who had resisted their claims 
to the land in the valley, became greatly intensified when 
they came to regard those Yankees as rebels against the 
government to which they were loyal. Su<:h were the 
relations of parties, and such was the animus of those 
pirties, at the commencement of the Revolution. 

The attempted invasion of the valley by Plunkelt in, 1775, was the last hostile demonstration against 
the Connecticut settlers by the Pennamites previous to 
the Revolution. In .\ugust of that year the Yankees had 
at a town meeting for the town of Westmoreland as the 
w'lole region was then called) expressed by resolution 
their willingness " to make any accommodations with ye 
Pennsylvania party that shall conduce to ye best good of 
ye whole, not infringing on the property of any person, 
and come in common cause of liberty in ye defense of 
.\merica; and tliat we will amicably give them ye offer of 
joining in ye proposals as soon as may be." At a meeting 
held a week later, pursuant to adjournment of this, it was 
resolved that "we do now a|)point a committee to atten- 
tively observe the conduct of all persons within this town 
touching the rules and regul.iiions prescribed by the Hon- 
orable Continental Congress, and will unanimously join 
our brethren in America in the common cause of defend- 
ing our liberty." 

Notwithstanding the overtures thus made, and the patri- 
otic resolution adopted, the attempt of Plunkett »o expel 
the Yankees was made; and though hostilities were then 
suspended till after the Revolution the latent bitter feeling 
was without doubt more intense by reason of this attempt. 
As the difficulties with the mother country thickened, and 
hope of recftnciliation diminished, the patriotic ardor of the 
settlers increased. Measures were adopted to provide 
means of defense, and as early as March, 1776, by resolu- 
tion at a town meeting, the selectmen were directed to 
dispose of the grain in the hands of the collector or treas- 
urer, and ])urchase powder and lead to the amount of forty 
pounds. By another resolution a bounty of ;^io was of- 
fered to the man who <-hould first manufacture fifty pounds 
of good saltpetre. Mr. Miner states, on the authority of 
Mrs. John Jenkins, that the women took up the floors of 
their houses, leached the earth which they dug from 
under them, and made saltpetre by boiling the lye; then 
mixed it with charcoal and sulphur, and thus ]>roduced 
powder for public use. 

On the breaking out of the war many young men from 
the Wyoming valley hastened to the scene of hostilities^ 
and in the winter of 1775-6 some removed their families 
to Connecticut that they might join the army. Lieuten- 
ant I )badiah Gore, with twenty or thirty others, went to the 
field direct from the valley. After the dc< laration of inde- 
pendence it became evident that forf; for the defense ol 
the valley and lor ])laces of refuge in times of danger 
should be erected; and at a town meeting held -Vugusi 
24th, 1776, it was voted " that this meeting do recommend 




it to the people to proceed forthwith in Isiiilding said 
forts without either fee or reward from ye town." Pur- 
suant to this recommendation was built Fort Jenkins, 
a stockkade around the house of John Jenkins at what is 
now West Pittston, just above the northwest end of 
the Pittston ferry bridge. Fort Wintermoot, about a 
mile farther down the river, near a fine spring, was built 
by some settlers from New Jersey, who were after- 
ward more than suspected of being lories; and Forty Fort, 
so named from the forty original proprietors of the town- 
ship of Kingston, was built near the center of the town- 
ship and included about an acre of ground. W'ilkes-Uarre 
Fort was situated just above the mouth of Mill creek, to 
guard the mills on the stream. Wyoming Fort was on 
the east bank of the river, not far from the foot of South 
street in Wilkes-Barre; and Stewart's block house was 
also on the east bank of the river, about three miles 
below, in Hanover. There was also a stockade at 
Pittston, nearly opi^osite Fort Jenkins. 

By reason of representations that had been made to 
Congress of the exposed condition of the valley to incur- 
sions by the Indians, who were becoming insolent and 
were suspected of favoring the British, Congress by reso- 
lution .August 23d, 1776, authorized the raising in the 
town of Westmoreland of two full companies to be 
"stationed in proper places for the defense of the inhab- 
itants of said town and parts adjacent till further order 
of Congress." These companies were by the terms of 
the resolution "liable to serve in any part of the United 
States when ordered by Congress." On the 26th of the 
same month Congress appointed as ofificers of these com- 
jjanies Robert Durkee and Samuel Ransotn, captains; 
James Wells and Perrin Ross, first lieutenants; Asahel 
Buck and Simon Spalding, second lieutenants; and Her- 
man Smith and Matthias Hollenback, ensigns. Lieuten- 
ant Buck resigned and John Jenkins, jr., was appointed 
to (ill the vacancy. These companies were already in 
existence, under the captains named, as volunteer organ- 
izations, but they had not their full quotas of men till 
the 17th of September, when they were mustered into the 
United States service as the two independent companies 
of Westmoreland. The following is a copy of the muster 
roll of the first independent company from Wyoming in 
the Revolutionary army. Exce])t Waterman Baldwin 
who enlisted January 7th, 1777, the members of this 
I ompany enlisted September 17th, 1776. 

faptain, Robert Duikf-e; first Iknitonant, .lames Wells; second lieu- 
tenant, Asahel ISvick ; ensign, Herman !<wift: first sergeant, Thomas 
Mct'lure ; seconrt sergeant, Peiegrine (iarilner ; thirrt, Thomas Baldwin ; 
fourth, .Tohn Hutchinson; corporals -Eilwarfl Setter, Azel H.vdc, Jere- 
nnah Coleman, Jien.iamin Clark : privates— Walter Daldwin, .James liat;- 
le.v, Eleazer llu tier, Moses Brown, Charles Iteiniet. William lUiek, jr., 
.\sa Urown, .Tames Brown, .jr., David lirctwn. Waterman Baldwin, John 
Car.v, .lesse Coleman. Wiliiam Cornelius, Samuel Cole, William Davison, 
Douglass Da\ison, William Dunn, Daniel Denton. Samuel l^Lnsi^'U, Na- 
tlianicl Evans. .lohn Foster, Eiederiek Follet, Nathaniel Fry, .Tames 
Frisli.v, .ir.. Elisha Garret, .lames Gould, Titus (iarret, Mumford Gardner, 
-•kbraham Ilamester, Israel Harding, Ilenr.v Harding, Thomas Harding, 
Stephen Harding, Oliver Harding, Itiehard Halsled, Thonuis Hill, .Tohn 
Halsted, Ben.iamin Harvey. Solomon .Tiduison, -Asahel .Teiome, .Tohn 
Kelly, Stephen Mun.son, Seth Marvin, Martin Nelson, Stephen Te(til>one, 
Stephen Preston, Thomas Porter, Aaron Perkins, .lolui I'erkins, lOhene- 
zer Phillips, Ashabel lioliinson, Ira Stevens, Klislia Sills, Elicnezer Shiner, 
Asa Smith, Robert Sharer, Isaac Smith, Luke Sweetland, Shadraeh Sills. 
Samuel Tubbs, William Terry, John Tubbs, Ephraim Tyler, Edwaiil 

Walker, Ohadiah Walker, James Wells, jr.. Nathaniel Williams. Thomas 

The following is a copy of a pay roll of the 2nd inde- 
]jendent company from Wyoming. Its term of service 
was three years from January ist, 1777. 

Captain,. Samuel Ransom; captain, Simon Spalding; lieutenant, Si- 
mon Spalding; lieutenatit, Timotliy Fierce : lieutenant, John Jenkins; 
ensign, Timothy Pierce ; lirst sergeant, Parker Wilson ; second sergeant, 
,Tosiah Pasco; privates— Caleb Atherton, Mason F. Alden, Samuel Hil- 
lings, Jesse Bezale, Jehial liillings, Isaac Benjamin, Oliver licnnet, Asa- 
hel Burnham, liufus Bennet. Benjamin Clark, Gordon Ch\irch, Price 
Cooper, Josiah Corning, Benjamin 1 'ole, Nathan Church, Daniel Franklin, 
Charles Gaylord, Ambrose Gaylord, Justin Gaylord, Benjamin Hemp- 
.stead, Timothy Hopkins, William Kellog, Lawrence Kinney, Daniel 
Lawrence, Nicholas Manswell, Elisha Matthewson, Constant Matthew- 
son, William MeClure, Thomas Neal, Asahel Nash, John O'Neal. Peter 
Osterhout, AmosOrmsburg, Thoiuas Packett, Ebenezer Roberts, Samuel 
Saucer, Asa Sawyer, Stephen Skiff, John Swift, Constant Searle, William 
Smith, jr., Elisha Satterlec, Robert Spencer, John Vangordon, Thomas 
Williams, Caleb Warden, Richard Woodstock, Elijah Walker, Zeber 

Of those who left this company and returned to Wyo- 
ming to take part in the battle on the 3d of July, 1778, 
the following were killed: Captain Robert Durkee, Cap- 
tain Samuel Ransom, Lieutenant Timothy Pierce, Lieu- 
tenant James \\'ells, and privates Samuel Cole, Daniel 
Denton, William Dunn, Daniel Lawrence and Constant 

It will be remembered that in the autumn of 1776 the 
army under General Washington retired from Long 
Island, followed by the advancing army of General 
Howe, and on the 8th of December crossed the Dela- 
ware. On the I 2th of the same month Congress, by reso- 
lution, directed " that the two companies raised in the 
town of Westmoreland be ordered to join General Wash- 
ington with all possible expedition;" an order which they 
at once obeyed, and reached the army before the 
of the year. They were in the battle of Millstone on the 
2nd of January, 1777, and their good conduct there elicited 
the commendations of their commanding officers. They 
were also in the battles of Bound Brook, Brandywine, 
German town and Mud Fort. 

During the year 1777 the situation in the Wyoming 
\'alley was not materially changed. The alliance between 
the British and Indians, which had from the first been 
feared, notwithstanding the professions of neutrality of 
the latter, was formed on the 20th of June, when the 
Indians were taken by General Burgoyne into the Brit- 
ish service and the price of $10 each for human scalps 
was offered them by him. Tories resided on the north- 
ern border of the settlement, as well as between Tunk- 
hannock and Wyalusing; and between these and the 
Indians in the vicinity of Tioga, Chemung and Newtown 
it was learned that communication was kept up. Evi- 
dences of sympathy with the British government on the 
part of settlers to the north and west from the valley who 
came from New York, Delaware and lower Pennsylvania, 
became more and more apparent. Several persons who 
were suspected of tory sentiments had been arrested and 
sent to Connecticut by the committee of inspection, and 
in the autumn of this year several scouting parties were 
sent by the same committee up the river and between 
thirty and forty tories were arrested, some of them taken 
vith arms in their hands. A conspiracy among them to 


bring the Tioga Indians on the settlement was broken ii)) 
by the arrest of these tories. 

Hon. I'eter M. Osterhout rehites that Zebulon Marcy 
was with one of these scouting parties a short distance 
above Tiinkhannock, and that " a tory by the name of 
.Adam Wormian (a Dutchman) came out of his house 
armed with a gun. His wife called to him, 'Shoot, Adanil 
Shoot ! ' Adam fired, and the bail struck an old fashioned 
iron tobacco box in the vest pocket of Marcy and lodged, 
making an indentation of the size of the bullet but doing 
no other damage. One of the party lired, giving Wort- 
rnan a mortal wound. He begged for help and asked 
that they should send for a jihysician. Dr. William 
Hooker Smith, a noted surgeon who was called, remarked 
as he set out that if lie was not dead when he arrived he 
would not live long afterward. The tobacco box is still 
in possession of the family." 

It is proper here to state that these tories alleged they 
had been driven to their atTiliation with the British and 
Indians by the hostile attitude of the Yankees at Wyo- 
ming, who had persecuted and annoyed them because they 
had obtained the titles to their lands from the State of Penn- 
sylvania; and that the Indians became hostile to the .Amer- 
icans because of the conduct of the Connecticut settlers. 

Although the Indians had up to the close of this year 
made no descent on the valley, they had taken prisoners 
some whom the tories had betrayed into their hands, and 
among them Lieutenant John Jenkins, who was taken to 
Niagara and afterward to Montreal. He subsequently 
escaped, and arrived home in June of the next year. 

The patriotism of the people here is attested by the 
fact that burdens greatly disproportioned to those of other 
citizens of Connecticut were imposed on them and borne 
for the sake of the cause with but few murmurs. The 
two companies that had been raised in Westmoreland 
tor the defense of the town, and ordered to the field in 
an emergency, were retained to contribute toward the half 
filled quota of Connecticut. According to a calculation 
by the excellent historian Miner, Westmoreland had in 
the field more than eight times its proportion of the quota 
of that State ; and these troops were retained as before 
stated to swell the quota of Connecticut, leaving only old 
men and boys to defend the settlement against sudden 
irruptions of Indians, notwithstanding its isolated con- 
dition. Six forts were in process of construction by these 
people "without fee or reward," and the military organ- 
izations of these exempt men were constantly in reijui- 
sition to guard against surprise or to go upon scouts. 
The town was taxed by the State of Connecticut to the 
amount of ^2,000. In view of the fact that the town had 
steadfastly maintained its allegiance to the province, 
w^ithout assistance from the latter, when it was repeatedly 
invaded, and had sent the flower of its youth to help fill 
the quota of the State, it is, as Miner says, a matter of 
surprise "that a sum so considerable, or indeed any sum, 
should be demanded of Wyoming for the purposes of the 
State treasury at Hartford." 

A few quotations will show by what kind of a spirit the 
people were animated at that time: 

".\t a town meeting legally warned, holden December 
30th, 1777, John Jenkins was chosen moderator for ye 
work of ye day." 

" Voted by this town, that the committee of inspection 
be empowered to supply the sogers' wives and the sogei-' 
widows and their tamilies with the necessaries of life." 

Of this xote Miner says: " Let it be engraved on 
plates of silver! Let it be printed in letters of gold! 
Challenge Rome in her republican glory, or Oreece in 
her democratic pride, to produce, circumstances con 
sidered, an act more generous and noble." 

Of the women it was said: "Justice and gratitude de- 
ninnd a tribute to the praiseworthy spirit of the wives 
and daughters of Wyoming. While their husbands and 
fathers were away on public duty they cheerfully assumed 
a large portion of the labor which females could do. 
They assisted to plant, made the hay, husked and 
gathered the corn and gathered the harvest." 

The commencement of the year 1778 found the aspect 
of affairs somewhat changed in .\merica. deneral Bur- 
goyne had been defeated and had surrendered at Sara- 
toga, and there was no effective British force to prosecute 
a campaign for that year. The avowed policy of the 
enemy was therefore to carry on a devastating frontier 
warfare by tories and Indians. Under these circuin- 
starices, of course, the fenrs of the inhabitants of this 
valley were excited for their own safety. By their ener- 
getic measures against the tories up the river they had 
incurred their deadly hatred, and they had well grounded 
reasons to apprehend an attack from these and the Indians 
of the Six Nations beyond. They also had reason to fear 
that for strategic purposes the settlement would be at- 
tacked. Its destruction would remove the only barrier 
to a descent on the German settlements farther south, or 
an attack on it would divert the .American forces from 
other i)oints. Early in the year it became known that 
preparations were being made for attacks on the frontiers 
of New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia, and appeals 
were made to Congress for protection. To these ap- 
peals Congress responded by authorizing the town of 
Westmoreland to raise a company of infantry for 
the defense of the town and the settlements of the 
neighborhood against Indians and other enemies, "and 
that the said company find their own arms, accou- 
trements and blankets." In other words, they appealed 
for help and received a gracious permission to help them- 
selves, after their means for doing so had been exhausted. 
Miner justly says: "Wyoming seems to have been 
doomed by a selfishness which cannot be designated 
except by terms which respect forbids us to employ." 

As early as May it was expected from the appearance 
of Indian scouts in the vicinity that an attack on the 
valley was meditated, and these suspicions were confirmed 
when, on the 2nd of June, Lieutenant John Jenkins re- 
turned from his captivity and informed the settlers that 
the plan had been formed at Niagara to invade the fron- 
tier. At about the same time an Indian spy who came 
into the settlement was made drunk, and while in tha' 
condition revealed the fact that an attack on the valley 



was soon to be made. During the month of June attacks 
were made on frontier settlements at various points. 
Jenkins says: "The whole frontier was aglow with fire- 
desolation and death, beneath the fagot, tomahawk, rifle 
and scalping knife of the Indians and their cruel and im- 
placable allies the British and tories." 

"During the month of June some acts of hostility by the 
Indians and tories occurred. On the 12th William 
Crooks was shot and scalped about two miles above 
Tunkhannock at the abandoned house of the tory John 
Secord; and on the ryth a recon.ioitering party of si.K 
were fired on about si.x miles below Tunkhannock, and 
one of the party, named Miner Robbins, killed, and 
another, named Joel Phelps, wounded. 

When tlie threatening aspects of affairs in the valley 
came to be known in the field. Captains Durkee and 
Ransom, of the companies from Westmoreland, with 
Lieutenants Wells and Ross and about 20 privates, left 
and hastened home. The comijanies were then, by a 
resolution of Congress passed June 23d, 1778, consoli- 
dated, under Captain Simon Spalding; and afterward, it 
is said, were ordered to march to Lancaster, and still 
later to Wyoming, but not in season to be of service. 

In the latter jjart of June it became known that the 
forces of the enemy were concentrating at Newtown and 
Tioga, preparatory to a descent on the valley. These 
forces consisted of about four hundred British and tories, 
under Major John Butler, and four or five hundred 
Indians, largely composed of Senecas. They descended 
the Susquehanna and landed not far from the mouth of 
Bowman's creek, where they remained until they were 
joined by about two hundred more Senecas, who had 
been to the west branch. They left the large boats here 
and passed with the smaller ones down to the "Three 
Islands," fifteen miles above the valley. They marched 
thence to Sutton's creek, where they were encamped on 
the evening of the 30th. On the morning of that day a 
party of twelve from Fort Jenkins passed up the river a 
few miles to their work. Toward evening they were 
attacked by the Indians ; several were killed, others 
taken prisoners and four escaped, arriving at the fort on 
the morning of July ist. While the settlers were march- 
ing on that day, under the command of Colonel Zebulon 
Butler, of the Continental army Uhen at home-, and 
Colonel Denison and Lieutenant Colonel Dorrance, to 
bring down tlie bodies of their slain neighbors, the enemy 
were marching toward the valley on the northwestern 
side of the mountain, on the eastern side of which they 
encamped, in full view of the valley. On the morning of 
the 2nd Fort Wintermoot was opened to them by its 
tory occupants, and on the evening of the same day the 
garrison of Fort Jenkins capitulated. The day was spent 
by the settlers in gathering the women and children in 
places of safety, mostly in Forty Fort, which was about 
four miles below Fort Wintermoot, and in making i)re- 
parations for defense. Steuben Jenkins thus describes 
the condition of things in the valley on the 3d: 

"The upper pint (if tlie valley, cm the west side of the river, was in 
the hands of the enemy, nnmtjerinjf 1,11*1 men, well armed and equipped, 
thirsting: for conquest and blood. 

"So complete and etfeetive was their possession that no person had 
been able to pass their lines to five information of either their numbers, 
position or purpose. 

" Jenkins's Fort, on the Susquehanna, just above the west end of the 
Pittstcju ferry bridg-e, was in their posssession, havinjr capitulated the 
day before, but possession had not been taken until this uiornins-. 

" W'intermoot Fort, situate on the liunk of the plain, about a mile and 
a half below and about half a mile from the river, had b:>en in their po.s- 
session all the day before, and was used as their headquarters. 

" Forty Fort, some four miles further down the river, situate f)n the 
west bank of the Susquehanna, was the largest and strong-est fort in the 
valley. Thither had tied all the people on the west side of the river on 
the 1st and ;ind, and this was to be the gathering point of the patriot 
band. The Wilkes- ISarre and Pittston forts were the srathering points 
for the people in their immediate neighborhood. 

" The forces, such as they were, were distributed throughout the val- 
ley somewhat as follows : 

" The Kingston eompan.v, commanded by Captain Aholiab Buck, num- 
bering about forty men, was at Forty Fort. 

"The L^hawnee company, commanded by Captain Asaph Wliittleaej', 
numbering about forty-four men, was at Forty Fort. 

"The Hanover company, commanded by Captain William MeKar- 
rachen, numbering about thirty, was at home, in Hanover. 

"The upper Wilkes-Barre eompan.v, commanded by Captain Ke/.in 
fleer, nmuliering about thirty men, was at Wilkes-Barre. 

" The lower Wilkes-Barre company, commanded b.v Captain Jantes Bid- 
lack, jr., numbering about thirty-eight men, was at Wilkes-Barre. 

"The Pittston company, commanded by Captain .leremiah Blanehard, 
numbering about forty men, wasat Pittston Fort. 

"The Huntington and Salem company, commanded by Captain .John 
Franklin, numbering about thirty-tive men, was at home. 

" These were the militia, or train-bands, of the settlement, and in- 
eluded all who were able to bear arms, without regard to age. old men 
and boys were enrolled in them. 

" Then there was Captain Detrick Hewitt's company, formed and kept 
together under the resolution of Congress, to which reference has al- 
ready been made. 

" Besides these, there was a number who were not enrolled in any of 
the companies, numbering about one hundred ; and in addition, there 
were a number in the valley who had been driven from the settlements 
up the river. Making altogether in the valley a force of men of all ages. 
and boys, numbering about four hundred." 

Colonel Zebulon Butler, who had been designated to 
command the forces in the valley, was at Wilkes-Barre- 
placing things in order for defense there. On the morn- 
ing of the 3d a flag was sent by Major Butler demanding 
the unconditional surrender of Forty Fort, with Captain 
Hewitt's company and the public stores, and threatening 
to move on them at once in case of a refusal. Colonel 
Denison, who was in command of the fort, refused, and 
sent immediately for Colonel Butler, who ordered up the 
two companies from Wilkes-Barre and the one from 
Hanover. It was decided on consultation to hold the 
fort; and in order to secure delay for the possible arrival 
of the company of Captain Spalding, who it was learned 
was on the way, and also that of Captain Franklin, a fl.ig 
was sent to Major Butler, asking for a conference. This 
flag was fired on, as were two others that were afterward 
sent out. At 3 P. M. a force of about four hundred 
including old men and boys, left Forty Fort and marched 
up the valley to protect it against the prowling Indians. 
They proceeded about a mile and halted at Ab-iham's 
creek, where the road now crosses it on a stone bridge. 
Another flag was sent from that point, but it was fired 
on, and up to this time the scouts which had been sent 
out had brought no definite information as to the strength 
and probable designs of the enemy. A discussion arose 
here as to the measures proper to be adopted in view of 
the circumstances, and the debate became very earnest, 
and even personal. Some of the most sanguine demand- 
ed to be led forward and attack the enemy at once, 
while the more cool and judicious opposed this 



course. Scouts reported that the enemy was ijiob- 
ably preparing to leave the valley. Charges of cow- 
ardice were made, and the Hanover company be- 
came mutinous and threatened a revolt. .An ad- 
vance was decided on, and they proceeded to a 
point near the hill just below the monument, where they 
were met by scouts who reported Fort Wintermoot on 
fire and the enemy leaving the valley. They advanced 
to a point near the southwestern bounds of the fair 
ground, where they formed in line of battle, extending 
soiTie 1, 600 feet northwesterly from the edge of the terrace 
which forms the plain. In this order they advanced cau- 
tiously about a mile, and when within forty or fifty rods of 
Fort Wintermoot they counted the line off into odds and 
evens, and each advanced alternately ten paces and fired 
while the others loaded. .As they advanced the enemy 
fell back before them. When the line had reached a 
point as far up as Fort Wintermoot, the line of the 
British and lories was formed beliind a log fence on the 
opposite side of a cleared field. The firing had become 
general along these lines. The Indians, who were con- 
cealed behind the shrubbery of a marsli to the left, broke 
from their cover and made an impetuous attack on that 
flank. To prevent them from gaining the rear, Colonel 
Denison, who commanded the left wing, gave the order 
to fall back and form an oblique line. This order was 
misunderstood and confusion was the result. Jenkins 
says of the battle after this: 

"The IiKliiuis, meantime, riislicil in upon them, yelling-, liranilishintf 
their sp&iis and tnmahawks, anil the liritish and tories pressed down 
upon them in front, pourinjr in a terrildc tire. 

•' Uroken, borne ilown li.v overwhelminff nuinliers, and pressed b.v an 
irrcsistiljle foree. the left trave way and fell liaek on the rijrht. The 
movement was rapid and eonfiisod ami brought confusion on the right. 
From contusion to disorder, from disorder to broken lines, and thence 
to flight, weie but steps in regular gradation. The llight became a 
slaughter, the slaughter a niassjicre. Such was the battle. 

" It was ini|)ossible that the result of the battle should have been dif- 
ferent. The enemy was three to one, and hail the advantage of position. 
Our men fougiit bravely, but it was of no avail. 

"Every captain fell at his position in the line, and there the men lay 
like sheaves of wheat after the harvestei-s." ■ 

The fugitives were pursued by the Indians and tories, 

who vied with each other in the work of slaughter. 

Space will not permit a detail of all the horrors of that 

night. The following account of the tragedy at what is 

known as Queen Esther's Rock (which still lies on the 

field , is taken from Jenkins's centennial address: 

"(In the evening of the battle sixteen of the prisoners taken on the 
held of battle and in the flight, under promise of ijuarter. were collected 
together by their savage eaptoi-s around a rock near the brow of the 
hill at th.' southeast of the village of W.voming, and a little nuire than 
a mile from the Held of action. The roek at that time was about two 
feet high (m its eastern front, with a surface four or five feet .square, 
running back to a level with the ground and beneath it at its western 
extremity. Thi' prisoners were arranged in a ring around Iliis rock, and 
were surn)unded with a bod.v of two hunclred savages, uniier the lead- 
ei-ship and inspiration of (^ueen llsther. a fury i[i the form of woman, 
who assumed the olliee of exeenlioner. The victims, one at a time, were 
taken from the devoleil circli' ami led to the east front of the roek, 
where they were made to sit down. Thc-y were then taken by the hairand 
their heads pulle<l back on the rock, when the bloody yween Ksther with 
death-maul would dash out their brains. The savages, as lach victim 
was in this manner inunolated,would clance around in a ring, holding each 
others' hands, shouting and hallooing. closing with the death-whoop. 
In Ihlsnutnner fourteen of the party had been put to death. The fury 
of the savage ipieen increased with the work of blood. Seeing there 
was no other way or hopeof deliverance, I.ebbeus llanunond, one of the 
prisoners, in a lit of desperation, with a sudileii spring broke through 
the circle of Indians and tied toward the mountain. Kifles cracked I 

Tomahawks fli.w : Indlann yelleii: Ilul llammoinl helil on his eourx' 
for about firiy rods, whi'ii he xlumbli'il anil fell, but iipniiig n|> agalM. 
Stopping for a moment to listen, he found his pursuernon tiieh side of 
hiui, or a little ahead, running and yelling like iletni.iin. He ulepixil Ih-- 
hlnd a large pine Irei- to lake bmilh, when, n-flectliig that his pur»uers 
being already ahenil of him he would gulii nothing by going on In thai 
direction, he turned anil nin for the river In such a courw as lo a\o|il 
the parly around the fatal rock, and yel to ki-<|i an eye on Ihem. lie 
passed by without being se<n, went down and plunged Into the lijgh 
grass in the swampy ground at the fool of llii' hill, where In- n-nuilniil 
concealed for about two hours, walehing Ihe movements and listening 
to the yells of lis savage pursuers. He llmilly cniwled out of Ills con- 
cealment, iiiiitliMisly made his way to the river, and llienei' down 10 the 

On the morning of the 4th, Major Butler sent a llag lo 
Forty Fort, inviting Colonel Denison lo come to his 
headquarters and agree on terms of capitulation. During 
the time that was granted for consultation Colonel /ebu- 
lon Butler and the survivors of Captain Hewitt's company 
fled, to avoid being given up as prisoners, as dtmanded 
at first by Major Butler. The terms of capitulation 
agreed on were honorable, and it is believed that Major 
Butler exerted liimself lo have them strictly carried out. 
The Indians, however, as he alleged, could not be con- 
trolled. They set fire to the village of Wilkes-Barre. 
which was consumed and plundered, and burned the 
proijerty of the settlers, in violation of these terms. He 
said to Colonel Denison: ' Make out a list of the prop- 
erty lost, and I pledge my honor it shall be paid for." It 
is just to state that Major Butler requested to have a 
quantity of whiskey which was in the fort destroyed be- 
fore he took possession, to prevent the Indians from 
being made mad with it; and that the barrels, si.xteen in 
number, were rolled into the river, and the heads were 
knocked in after they were afloat. 

It is but justice to say of Major Butler that his con- 
duct was not marked by the atrocities that some have 
imputed to him. Miner says of him that his haste to de- 
part from the valley " can only be accounted for on the 
supposition that he was sickened by the tortures already 
committed, dreaded the further cruelties of the Indians, 
and desired by his absence to escape the responsibility of 
their future conduct." He left the valley on the 8th. A 
portion of the Indians remained after his departure and 
continued the work of wanton destruction. 

The statements of the number slain in this battle and 
massacre have varied from 160 to 360. Probably it may 
be safely estimated at 300. The names which have been 
ascertained, and inscribed on the monument that has 
been erected to the memory of the heroes of this battle, 
are given in the history of the village of Wyoming. 

On the night of the massacre most of the inhabitants of 
the valley had fled, either down the river or to the cast^ 
and many of those who remained escaped on the night of 
the 4th The number who thus became fugitives is not 
known, but it has been estimated at 2,000. Most of 
them were women and c hildren, whose protectors were m 
the Continental army or were lying dead on the batik- 
field. On crossing the river they plunged into the moun- 
tain wilderness, beyond which lay a wide and dismal 
swamp. How many perished in their flight over the 
mountains and through this swamp, or by what sufterings 
and lingering tortures they died, will never be known 



It is known, however, lliat hundreds were never again 
seen after they left the valley, and because of the number 
that perished in the swamp it was called " The Shades of 

At the time of the battle Captain Spalding's company 
was within forty or fifty miles of the valley, marching 
toward it. On the evening of the sth they met the fore- 
most of the fugitives. They continued their march till 
they arrived at the top of the mountain range overlooking 
the valley, when they separated into parties to protect the 
fugitives, and after a few days followed them in their 
night, scouring the forest and assisting those who were 
exhausted by fatigue and hunger. In this way they saved 
many from perishing. They thus assisted the fugitives in 
their flight as far as Stroudsburg and remained till the 
4th of August. They then, accompanied by many of 
these fugitives, returned to the valley, of which they held 
possession until the close of the war. 

Although no force was afterward during the year 1778 
sent against the valley, the Indians continued to prowl 
around the settlements, and from time to time steal on 
those whom they found in their fields or houses unpre- 
pared to defend themselves, for the purpose of obtaining 
scalps, prisoners or plunder. 

In September Colonel Hartley, of the Pennsylvania 
troops, with a force of 130 men, including a company of 
Wyoming volunteers commanded by Captain Franklin, 
made a successful expedition against the Indians on the 
west branch and at Tioga, destroying their towns and 
property. After the return of this expedition the 
Indians re-appeared in this vicinity, and from their 
secure hiding places in the mountains continued their 
predatory attacks on such settlers as returned and at- 
tempted to cultivate their fields. Many were killed by 
savage scalping parties in their stealthy descents, and 
many others carried into captivity. Among the latter 
was Frances Slocum, whose romantic story has often 
been told. She was taken on the 2nd of November, 
when only five years old, from her father's house near 
Fort Wilkes-Barre and carried into captivity. No tidings 
were ever received of her till about sixty years later, 
when she was discovered near Logansport, Ind., and 
visited by her brothers She had forgotten her native 
language, had survived her Indian husband and reared 
a family of children. She refused to return to her kin- 
dred, preferring to remain with her family and the 
people among whom her life had been passed, and whose 
habits, religion, etc., she had adopted. 

The bodies of those who were slain at the l)attle and 
massacre of the 3d of July remained on the field till the 
22nd of the following October, when a guard was detailed 
from Camp Westmoreland, under Lieutenant John Jen- 
kins, for the protection of those to whom was assigned 
the melancholy duty of interring these martyrs. 

During about two months in the winter of 1778-9 the 
depredations of the prowling Indians were suspended; 
but in March, 1779, a force of about 250 appeared in 
the valley, and after a demonstration against a block 
house in Kingston, and the theft of some sixty head of 

cattle, failing to draw the forces defending the valley 
into an ambush, they boldly approached the Wilkes- 
Barre fort, which was garrisoned by only 100 men. 
though urgent appeals for more had been made by 
Colonel Butler. They were repulsed from the fort, but 
continued their work of plunder in the valley. Colonel 
Butler was reinforced by a German regiment of about 
three hundred, and soon drove the marauders from the 
open portions of the valley. They hovered about in the 
mountains, however, waylaying people in the passes, and 
with much audacity making occasional descents into the 
valley. Near Laurel Run, some four miles from the fort, 
they ambushed Major Powell, with a small regiment that 
was marching to the valley, and succeeded in throwing 
his forces into confusion. Succor from the fort arrived 
and escorted this small force to the valley. 

During the spring and early summer of 1779 active 
preparations were made for a campaign into the country 
of the Six Nations. General Sullivan was placed in 
command of this expedition, and the force, consisting o( 
about three thousand men, made their rendezvous on the 
flats below Wilkes-Barre and in Fort Durkee. These 
preparations were of course watched by the wily fee, 
who knew well what was the object of the expedition, 
and who sought by attacks on Freeland's Fort on the 
west branch, Minisink, in Orange county, N. Y., and a 
settlement on the Lackawaxen, to divert the attention of 
General Sullivan and divide his army; but this expedient 

On the 24th of July a large fleet of boats from the 
lower Susquehanna arrived, loaded with military stores. 
On the 28th ninety wagons, loaded also with military 
stores, arrived, and on the 31st the expedition marched, 
leaving a garrison at Wyoming under Colonel Z. Butler. 
The land force marched up the east side of the river, 
halting from time to time and waiting at their camping 
places to enable the boats to keep within a safe distance. 
According to Colonel Hubley's journal, as published in 
the appendix to Miner's history, they encamped the first 
night at the confluence of the Lackawanna and Sus- 
quehanna' rivers. On the ist of August they marched 
about seven miles, to a place called Quilutimunk, where 
they encamped. A portion of the army passed over the 
mountain to guard against surprise by the savages, and 
the encampment was not reached till near morning. 
They remained at this place through the 2nd, and on the 
3d marched to a point above the mouth of the Tunkhan- 
nock. On the 4th they marched about fourteen miles 
and encamped on Vanderlip's and Williamson's farms. 
On the 5th they marched to Wyalusing, passing a place 
called DejHie's farm, where Colonel Hartley had been 
attacked by the Indians the previous year. On the 9th 
they arrived at Shesequin or Queen Esther's Plains, and 
on the nth at Tioga Point. Here a junction was effect- 
ed with General Clinton, who with his force had 
come down from Otsego lake, the head waters of the 
Susquehanna, in boats on an artificial freshet, made by 
damming the outlet of that lake. After the junction the 
combined army nio\'ed forward, penetrated the country 



of the savages on thf Siisi|uolianiin and (ienesee rivefN, 
burned tlieir towns, destroyed llieir crops and iiroperty, 
and inflicted on them injuries from which they never re- 
covered. Having accomplished their work lliey returned 
to Wyoming, where tliey arrived early in ()(:tol)er, and 
were welcomed at a sumptuous entertainment by Colonel 

In this campaign only forty men were lost, by sickness 
or otherwise, out of more than three thousand. On the 
lotli of October this army left Wyoming for Easton. 
Says Marshall, as ipioted by Miner: "While Sidlivnn 
laid waste the country on the Suscpiehanna another 
expedition was carried on from Pittsburg up the Alle- 
gheny against the Mingo, Muncy and Seneca tribes. .\i 
the head of between six and seven hundred men he 
advanced two hundred miles up the river and destroyed 
the villages and cornfields on its head branches." 

It was confidently hofied that the chastisement whic h 
Sullivan had indicted on the savages had so cri])pled them 
as to prevent further depredation, and a sense of security 
began to be entertained among tlie settlers who remaincti. 
This, however, was of sliort duration. Exasperated and 
thirsting for revenge, the Indians reappeared among the 
mountains about Wyoming in prowling marauding bands 
in the spring of 1780, and many depredations were com- 
mitted on the settlers who had ventured fartheraway from 
ihe forts in the towns of Kingston, I'lymouth and Han- 
over. ( Did space permit many instances might be given 
of the murder or capture of the inhabitants and the adven- 
tures and escapes of the prisoners. The garrison at 
\V'ilkes-Barre had come to be so weak that pursuit from 
it was not feared, and many scalping parties passed the 
settlement for the purpose of committing depredations 
farther south. In September, 1780, a band secretly 
passed Wyoming, crossed the river near the mouth of 
Nescopeck creek and surprised a party of men at Sugar- 
loaf valley, killing thirteen; took away some prisoners 
and booty, and on their return burned the Shickshinny 
mills and many grain stacks. In December a raid on the 
valley was made by nineteen white men and five Indians 
and seven prisoners were taken away. 

The Lackawanna valley was not, like Wyoming, the 
theater of active operations in the Revolutionary war. 
It was scarcely settled till after the close of that contest, 
and only afforded hiding places for scalping parties of 

During the years 1781 and 17.S2 the valley and the 
\icinity were several times visited by small jjarties of In- 
dians, who pillaged, murdered and took away i>risoners, 
but no attack was made by any considerable force. It 
is worthy of remark that no settlement on the frontiers 
suffered more severely in proportion to its population 
during the Revolution than Wyoming valley. The loss 
at the battle July 3d, 1778, as before stated, has been es- 
timated at 300, and it was thought that 200 more perished 
in their flight. These, along with those who were from 
time to time during the succeeding four years murdered 
by the Indians, amount to more than one-fifth of the en- 
tire population of the valley at the time of the massacre. 

In addition to this the sufferings of the survivors wer. 
great and the destruction of property was immense. 

( IIAITKR \ 11. 

IU'll.t>IN(;S AM) Civil. I.ISI. 


' "'' IF ^ ''' '*"'"S^K'^' •""■ 'lie possession of this region 

{by settlers who ( l.iimed it as a part of Con- 
necticut has been described. The govern- 
|t' i>>-l 'I'ent of Connecticut look the same position; 
I'S) 'I'liJ the .\sscinbly of that St.iie in January. 1774. 
iT-jfr-" created from the lerriiory claimed by it west of 
the Delaware river the town of Westmoreland, as 
a part of Litchfield county. On the east this v.isi town 
was bounded by the Delaware river; on the west by a 
meridian passing fifteen miles west of the Wyoming set- 
tlements; on the south by the forty-first and on the north 
by the forty-second parallel of north latitude— Ihe present 
Pennsylvania and New York line. 

On the 2nd of the following M.irch the voters of the 
new town, in town meeting assembled, organized West 
moreland by the election of a hundred oflficcrs about 
half the voting population), consisting of treasurer, select- 
men, constables and collectors of rates, surveyors of 
highways, fence viewers, listers, leather sealers, grand 
jurors, tithing men. sealers of weights and measures and 
key keepers. Colonel Zebulon Huller was elected treas- 
urer; Christopher Avery. John Jenkins, Nathaniel Lan- 
don, Samuel Ransom, Caleb Bates, Silas I'arke and Ros- 
well Franklin, selectmen; and Asa Stevens. Tim.iihy 
Smith, Jonathan Haskel. .\saph Whiillesy, Noah .\dains. 
Phineas Clark and William Smith, constables and collect 
ors of rates. 

At the autumn session of the Connecticut Legislature 
in 1776 Westmoreland was made a county, and at the 
next session John Jenkins was appointed judge of the 
county court for the ensuing year. The whole period of 
Westmoreland's administrative connection with Conne< 
ticut corresponds very nearly with the duration of the 
Revolutionary war. When made a town it contained the 
townships of Wilkes- Barre. Hanover, Plymouth. Kingston 
and Pittston, established by the Sus(|uehanna Company; 
and to these were added before its severance from Con- 
necticut Huntington, Salem, Newport, I'rovidence, Exeter. 
Bedford. Northumberland. Tunkhannock, Braintrim, 
Springfield, Clavcrack and I'Ister. The population of 
Westmoreland in 1774 was 1,922. The assessment ai ■ 
companying the tax list of 1775 was ^13,083. 

The following list o( justices of the peace at Wyoming 
under Connecticut was kindly contributed by the Hon 
Steuben Jenkins; 

ITTJ. Jotiii Smilli, Kiniriloii; ITTI. Thiiiiiiii MoilMi iiml iNiiir lliililwlii, 
ritttiton: im-r:, John Jc-nkinis Kxi'tor: ITT«-". ITs2. ZctiiilDn lliill.i. 
Wllkfw-lliirrv; 1774, I77«, ITKI. i'Si, Nulhnii lieiilwiii, Klnpilnn : ITTi.l-llii- 



I'arks, Lackawanna : 1773, Bushnall Hostick, Joseph tsUnnaii and Increase 
Moselcy ; 1774, 1777, 177il. Uriah Chapman : 1776, 1778, 177(1, William Judd ; 
1777, 177K, 17H-', Obadiah Gore. Kingston ; 1777, 1778, William McKarraehan, 
Hanover; 1777, 1778, Christopher Avery, Wilkes-Barre; 1778, Asaph 
Whittlesey, Plymouth, and Caleb Bates, Pittston; 177!l, Zcrah Beach. 
Salem, Stephen Harding, Exeter, Zebulon Marey, Tunkhannock, and 
.Idhn Hurlhiirt. Hanover; 1783. Nalhaniel Landon, Kingston ; 1781, 1782, 
Ahel Pierce, Kinfiston, and Hugh Fordsnian, Wilkes-Barre ; 1780-82, .John 
Franklin, Huntington; 177li, John Vincent. 

Also the following list of justices of the peace at 
Wyoming under I'ennsylvania ])re\'ious to the organiza-, 
tion of Luxerne county; all of them appointed in April, 

Alexander Patterson, Hobert Martin, John Chamliers and David 
Mead, of Xorthunibcrland county ; John Seely, Henry Shoemaker and 
Luke lirodhcad, of N'orthampton county; Nathan nenison, of Wyo- 
ming ; his name was used without his consent, and he refused to act. 

Under the constitution of 1776 and the act of Assem- 
bly approved on the 26th of September, 1786, justices 
were elected in the county in the three districts formed 
by the act erecting the county, to serve for seven years. 
The following were so elected: 

1787, Matthias HoUenback and William Hooker Smith, first district ; 
lienjamin Carpenter and James Nisbett. second district ; < tbadiah Gore 
and Nathan Kingsley. third district; 178.S. Noah Murray, second district; 
1781), Christopher Ilurlliut, lirst district ; 17!I0, Lawrence Myers, Kings- 
ton township. 

Under the constitution of i 790 the governor appointed 
the justices of the peace, to serve during good behavior, 
in districts to be made up of one or more townships. The 
following were so appointed: 

1791, Lawrence M.vers, Kingston township; Arnold Colt and William 
Koss, Solomon Avery and John Phillips, Wilkcs-Iiarre district; Guy 
Xhi.xwell. Tioga district ; Peter Orubh and Nathan Beach, Kingston dis- 
trict; Christopher Hurlbut, Wilkes-Barre district; Joseph Kinney and 
Isaac Hancock, Tioga district ; Minna Dubois, Willingborough town- 
ship; John Paul Schott, Wilkes-Barre town and township ; 179.3, Moses 
CooUiaugh, Tioga township; 17Hti, Asahcl Gregory, Willingborough 
township; 1797, liesolved Sessions, Tioga township; 1798, Noah Wadhams, 
.jr., Kingston district; Oliver Trowbridge, Willingborough township; 
.John T. Miller. Kingston district ; James Campbell and Joseph Wright, 
I Wilkes-Barre township; 1799, Charles E. Gaylord, Huntington township; 

Constant Searle, Providence township; Matthew Covell, Wilkes-Barre 
township; Henry V. Champion, Wyalusing township ; Elisha Harding, 
Tunkhannock township ; David Paine, Tioga township; 1800, George 
Espy, Hanover, Wilkes-Barre, &c , townships; Jacob Bittenbeuder, 
Nescopeck, Wilkes-Barre, &c., townships; Benjamin Newberry, North- 
moreland, Tioga, &c.. townships; Thomas Duane, WUkes-Jlarre town- 
ship ; Asa Eddy. Willingborough township (revokeil 28th March, 1805); 
Jonathan Stevens, liraintrim townsliip ; Guy Wells, Wyalusing town- 
shiji; Benjamin Carpenter, Kingston township ; William Means, Tioga 
township; Zebulon Marey, Tunkhannock; John Marey and Thomas 
Tillany, Willingborough township; 1801, David Barnum, Willingborough 
township; 18li:i, John Mars.v, Nicholson, \-c., townships; 1804. Bartlett 
Hines, Hush, &c, townships. 

District number i, for which the first appointment 
was made in :8o6, was composed of Huntington, Nesco- 
])eck, Salem and Sugarloaf townshiiis until 181 1; then of 
Huntington, Nescopeck and Salem townships six or seven 
'' years; then of Wilkes-Barre borough and township and 
part of Covington townshij) till 1835, when it comprised 
only Wilkes-Barre borough and township; part of Coving- 
ton township also belonged to it in 1836 and 1837. Jus- 
tices for this district were commissioned as follows: 

1801), Alexander Jameson; 1809 Abiel Fellows; 1810, George Drum; 1811. 
William Baird ; I8I:!, John Buss; Islii, Conrad Sa.\ ; 1820, John Myers and 
Boswell Wells; 182:i, James Stark; 182(1. Uichard Drinker; 18:31, A masa 
Hollister, jr.; 18;i3, Charles L. Terwilliger; 18:!.5, Benjamin Perry; 183fi, 
John Stark; lsi7, Eleazer Carey. 

District No. 2 was at different times made up as fol- 
lows: 181 2, Wilkes-Barre, HanoverandNew])ort townships; 
1816, Ki-.igston and Plymouth townships; 1819, King- 

ston, Plymouth and Dallas townships; 1831, Kingston, Ply- 
mouth, Dallas and Lehman townships; 1832, Kingston, 
Plymouth and Dallas townships: 1836, Kingston, Ply- 
mouth, Dallas and Lehman townships. Justices commis- 
sioned as follows: 

1806, Cornelius Courtright and Thomas Dyer: I8()8, Jonathan Kellog ; 
1812, Christian Stout ; 181:3, Francis MeShane; 1814, Isaac Hartzell ; 1816, 
Samuel Thomas; 1817, Jacob J. Bogardus; 1819, Doctor John Smith ; 
1820, Benjamin Reynolds; 1822, Alvah C. Phillips ; 182.i, John Bennett; 
1826, Thomas Irwin ; 1829, Reuben Holgate ; 18:31, James Nisbitt and Sim- 
con F. Rogers ; 1832. Fisher Gay ; 18:33, Jared R. lialdwin and Watson 
Baldwin; lH:i."i. Sharp D. Lewis; 183H. Jacob J. Bogardus; 18,37, Caleb 
Atherton and John P. Kite ; 1838, Peter Allen and Henderson Gaylord ; 
1839, Addison C. Church. 

District No. 3 was originally composed of Plymouth, 

Kingston and Exeter townships. Salem, Huntington and 

Union townships were made to compose this district in 

1818, and Fairmount was added in 1835. Justices were 

commissioned as follows: 

1808, James Sutton and David Perkins; 1809, William Tru.x and Moses 
Scovil; 18111, Stephen Hollister; 1813, Charles Chapman; 1818, lehabod 
Shaw; 1821, Shadrach Austin ; 1822, Christian Stout; 1823, John Dodson ; 
isat, Sebastian Seybert ; 1827, Jonathan Westover ; 1832, Andrew Cort- 
right and Lot Search ; 18:3.5, Jacob Ogden and Newton Boone. 

District No. 4 consisted originally of Pittston and 
Providence townships (revoked March 27th, 1820;, and 
after 1819 of Hanover and Newport townships. The 
justices appointed were: 

1804, Joseph Fellows and Asa Dimock : 1806, William Sloeuni ; 1809, 
Enos Finch ; 1819, Jacob Kara bach ; 1822, Samuel Jameson ; 1823, Bate- 
inan Downing; ISil, Thomas Williams; 1838, John Vandemark ; 1839, 
John Forsman. 

District No. 5 in 1810 included Sugarloaf township; in 
181 1, Tunkhannock and Abington townships; after 1814 
Sugarloaf and Nescopeck townships. The appointments 
were as follows: 

1810, Roger Orvis; 1811, Cyrus Avery; 1814, Valentine Seiwell ; 1817, 
Daniel Hitter ; 1818, Abraham Shirtz ; 1824, George Drum, jr.; 1826, Jonas 
Buss ; 1828, Christian Kunckel ; 1832, Moses S. Brundage and Henry Yost ; 
1834, John Briggs. 

In 1809 district number 6 comprised Braintrim and 
^Vyalusing townships; in 1816, Pittston, Providence and 
Exeter; in i8r8, Pittston, Providence, Exeter, North 
moreland and Blakely townships; in 1833, part of Mon- 
roe township was added; in 1838, Carbondale township, 
and in 1839 Jefferson township. The list of justices for 
this district is as follows: 

1806, Josiah Fassett ; 1808, James Gordon and Charles Brown ; 1809, Asa 
Stevens; 181.5, James Connor ; 1816, David Dimock and Isaac Hart ; 1818, 
Peter Winter, Elisha S. I'otter and Isaac Harding ; 1820, Sherman Loomis 
and Deodat Smith; 1821, Ebenezer Slocum ; 1822, Orange Fuller ; 1829, 
■ David I. Blanehard; ls:!0. Ziba Davenport ; ls:!l, Moses Vaughn ; 1832, 
Daniel Harding and Joseph Grifiin ; 1833, Thomas Hadley and Amzi Wil- 
son ; 1835, Erastus Smith and Elisha Blackman ; 1838, Samuel Hogdon 
and SylvanusHeermans; 1837, James Pike; 1838, Judson W. Burnham, 
Gilbert Burrows and Elisha Hitchcock; 18:39, John Cobb and Alva 

District number 7 was at different dates constituted as 
follows: 1804, Burlington, etc., townships; 1807, Wysox 
township; 1809, Wysox and Burlington townships; 1810, 
Wysox, Burlington and Towanda; 181 6, Abington and 
Nicholson; 1818, Abington, Greenfield and Nicholson; 
in 1826 a part of Falls township was added. The fol- 
lowing were the justices appointed: 

1804, Isaac Chapel ; 1805, Reuben Hale and Reed Brockway ; 1807, Wil- 
liam Mycr and Eliphalet Mason ; 1899, George Scott ; 1810, -\sa C. Whit- 
ney; 1816, Nathan Bacon; 1818, Lemuel St(nie; 1822, Caleb Roberts; 
1826, Samuel Vail; 1830, Benjamin F. Bailey and John Marey ; 1831, John 
Lowry ; 18:34, Thomas Smith ; 1837, Peter Corsclius. 




In 1820 district miniher 8 consisted of Tunkhannock, 
Braintrim, Eaton and Windham townships; for ten years 
from 1825, of the same and part of Falls township ; 1835, 
Tunkhanno( k, Braintrim, Eaton, Windham and [tart of 
Falls townshi|)s; Monroe townslii)) was iddcd in 1837 and 
Washington in 183S. Tlic list of justices follows: 

1C07, Parley Coburii ; ISiil. Klisliii Iliir.liii);, Jr.: 1«S!. Alfii'd llini' ; 1S.'4, 
.liispcr Fnsiiott : litil, MiU-s .\vi ry iiiui l.umaii Kcii-y ; iK.'ii. Kzckiel Miiw- 
ry; isiiil, Mofi'S Ovciflclil. Isiiac I.iiccy, ii-.. ami Daniel Miilci : l.^ll. Wll- 
liarn S. .layiu' ; !.'<:!!, .lames llniwn; ls:i4, .lames Kelly; IWi. Seliiiyler 
Fas,sett anil Henry Osterlniut ; IsiT. Klllui I'arrisli and Cleiiineey T. ciay- 
lord; 1W8. IVter .M.OsterlKiiit, TiniDthy .M. Wliiteomli. KilwanI Itnik 
ami (ieorttp .Mowry ; 1S3!I, -Milo (iay. 

Justices were commissioned as follows for district num- 
ber 9, consisting of Rush and Bridgewater townships: 

180!<, Asa DIrnock and Salmon noswortli ; IHdll, Isaai' T»ri>« nson ami 
Joshua Waldo Haynsforil. 

Nicholson, Willinghorough and l.awsville townships 
composed the loth district, for which the justices were: 

ISIM. 'I'lionias Till'any : ISOri, Hosea Tiltany : ISKI. William 'I'liompson. 

I'nder the constitution of 1838 justices of the i)eace 
and aldermen were elected in cities, boroughs and town- 
shi|)s to serve for five years, and under the act of As- 
sembly of the 2ist of June, 1839, the first election 
took place in 1840. 

Under the constitution of 1873 justices of the i)eace 
and aldermen were to be elected for five years, and under 
the act of Assembly of the 22nd of March, 1877, com- 
missions were to take effect from the first Monday of 
May, the governor having power to appoint to vacan- 
cies up to 30 days after the next municipal election. 

The justices for townships, and aldermen for boroughs 
under the constitution of 1838 and subsecpient ena< t- 
ments will be found in the township, borough and city 

When this region, by the Trenton decree of 1782, 
finally came^under the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania, it 
became a part of the county of Northumberland county 
seat Sunbury .which had been taken in 1772 from North- 
ampton (county seat Easton", the latter covering a large 
section of the original county of Bucks, from which it 
was formed in 1752. 

"To extend to the remote settlement at Wyoming the 
advantage of civil government, in which they might par- 
ticipate, affording them an opjjortunity to administer 
their local affairs by persons having the confidence of the 
inhabitants, chosen by themselves; to give the people an 
efficient representation in the council and Assembly, so 
that their voice might be heard, their interests e.\|)lained 
and their influence fairly appreciated," a new county was 
formed on the 26th of September, 1786, from part of the 
territory of Northumberland. It was named I.u/erne from 
the Chevalier de la Lu/erne, a most popular minister 
from the F'rench court during the Revolution and for 
many years afterward a prominent figure in the public 
eye; and was bounded as follows: "Beginning at the 
mouth of Nescopeck creek, and running along the south 
bank thence eastward to the head of said creek; from 
thence a due east course to the head branch of I.ehigh 
creek; thence along the east bank of said Lehigh creek 1 
to the head thereof; from thence a due north course to 1 


the northern boundary of the State; thence westward 
along said boundary until it crosses the cast branch of 
Sus(|uehanna, and then along the said northern lioundary 
fifteen miles west of the said river Susquehanna; thence 
by a straight line to the head of Towanda; thence along 
the ridge which divides the waters of the east branch of 
the Suscpichanna from those of the west hrancli, to a 
point due west from the mouth of ihe \r-,,,^,<: V ; thence 
east to the place of beginning." 

The act creating the county provided lor an election 
on ihe second Tuesday of the following October, to 
choose county officers and representatives in the Legis- 
lature; and that /.ebulon Butler. Nathaniel Landon. 
Jonah Rogers, Simon Sp.ilding and John I'hillips should 
be a commission to buy a site for the county buildings. 

On Ihe 27th of May. 1787. the Court of Common I'leas 
convened for its first session at the house of /ebulon 
Butler, corner of Northampton and River streets, 
WilkcsBarre. The jusii(es constituting the court were 
William Hooker Smith, Hi-nj.imin Carpenter and James 
Nesbit. They admitted to pr.icticeas attorneys Hbene/.er 
Bowman, Putnam ('atlin. Roswell Wells and William 
Nichols. Colonel Timothy Pickering was commissioned 
Ijroihonotary of the court, surrogate and county clerk. 

The original territory of Lu/erene county was first re- 
duced by the annexation of a part to Lycoming county 
in 1804; in 1808 its boundaries were extended south of 
Nescopeck creek; in 1810 Susipiehanna and part of 
Bradford were taken off, and in 1842 Wyoming; and in 
1856 the present southern boundary was established by 
the annexation of ])art of F'oster township to Carbon 
county. The latest and most important change was the 
creation of Lackawanna county, of which an account is 
given in the history of that county. 

In 1 790 the county court divided the county into eleven 
townships. These retained the old names of Wilkes- 
Barre, Pittston, Hano\er. Newport. Exeter, Plymouth. 
Kingston, Salem. Tioga. Wyaliising and Tunkhannock. 
but the territory of those townships which had existed 
under the Connecticut jurisdiction was extended. The 
further formation and modification of townships are de- 
scribed in the township histories. 

'I'he commissioners, named above, to procure a site 
for county buildings made choice of the public sipiare in 
Wilkes- Barre; and in 1791 there was erected a two-story 
hewn log building, about sixty feet long and half as wide, 
of which the second story was the court-room approached 
by steps outside , and the lower floor was for the jail and 
the jailer. 

This structure gave way in 1801 for the building of a 
new court house on the same site. The old one was oc- 
cupied, however, during the construction of the new. 
which was finished in 1804. when the log building became 
the Wilkes-Barre .Academy. 

The new cojrt-house, which was in the shape of across 
and had a low tower and a belfry in the center of the 
roof, cost $9,356.06. and was used more than fifty years. 
In the year after the commencement of its construction 
a jail was built on the corner of Market and Washington 


streets, and between 1809 and 1812 a fireproof building 
for the county records, the three costing about ^24,000. 

In 1835 the Legislature authorized the erection of the 
present court-house, and its corner stone was laid August 
1 2th, 1S56. LTnder the supervision chiefly of Benjamin 
F. I'fauts, William A. Tubbs and Silas Dodson it was 
completed and furnished at a cost of $85,000. The ar- 
chitect was J. C. Wells, of New York, and the builder 1). 
A. Fell. Provision is made in this building for the pub- 
lic offices, which formerly occupied a separate one. 

The jail begun in 1802 served until 1870, although long 
before that time it had proved inadequate to the de- 
mands upon it and was unworthy of the advanced posi- 
tion of the commonwealth in the matter of jjrison disci- 

On the 2nd of .\pril, 1867, the contract for the build- 
ing of a new jail was awarded to Lewis Ha\ens, at iftiSg,- 
575. On the iSth of August, 1870, the sheriff was or- 
dered to remove the prisoners to this jail, and on the 4tli 
of November in the same year the building was accepted 
from the contractor. An expenditure of $18,500.93 
above the contract ])rice was incurred for additional and 
extra work. From a report furnished by the clerk of the 
county commissioners it appears that the building and 
furniture cost $302,536.92. It is located above North 
street, between^River street and the Susquehanna, in the 
city of Wilkes-Barre. It is built of stone brought from 
Campbell's ledge, opposite Pittston. It occupies a lot of 
five acres,|and the building covers three-fourths of an 
acre. It is a fireproof structure, and it is at the same 
time substantially and tastefully built and elegantly 
painted inside. It has in both wings seventy-two cells, 
thirty-two of which are double, sufficient in all for 104 

The building is heated by three furnaces, and all the 
cooking and heating of water are done by them. It is 
ventilated by a fan, which is propelled by an engine — pre- 
cisely as coal mines are ventilated. 

There are few, if any, prisons in this portion of the 
State that are equal to this in the excellence of their con- 
struction and arrangements, especially with regard to 
cleanliness and healthfulness. 

Under the old State system each city, borough and 
township maintained and ccr-.d for the poor within its 
limits. About the year 1858, the question of erecting a 
county poor-)iouse was submitted to the people in ac- 
cordance with an act of Assembly, and decided in the 
negative. By special legislation portions of the county 
were then erected into poor districts, each under a special 

In i860, by an act of Assembly, the townshijj of 
Wilkes-Barre was made a poor district and a farm was 
purchased in the township of Newqjort, about four miles 
below Nanticoke, on the east side of the river. In 1861 
the Central poor district of Luzerne county was incor- 
porated. This district embraces the townships of Wilkes- 
Barre, Plains, Kingston, Plymouth, Hanover and New- 
port, the boroughs of Kingston, Plymouth, Ashley, Sugar 
Notch and Nancicoke, and the city of \A'ilkesBarre. 

In 1863 the first jjoor-house was built, on the farm 
purchased by Wilkes-Barre in i860. It was a framed 
building 35 by 74 feet, three stories in height above the- 
basement, which was finished for cooking and dining 
apartments. This with the old farm house and a small 
kitchen constituted the poor-house up to 1879, when 
another building was erected. This w-as of brick, 35 by 
76 feet, three stories in height, with a finished basement, 
which is used as a laundry. The female paupers occupy 
this building, the old wooden structure being used exclu- 
sively for males. 

This was incorporated on the 8ih of May, 1857, under 
the corporate name of " The Poor District of Jenkins 
township, Pittston borough and Pittston township." The 
first directors were John D. Stark, Peter Winters, William 
Ford and Ebene/.er Drake. 

This board of directors in 1857 purchased a farm of 
160 acres in the township of Ransom, now in the county 
of Lackawanna. The farm house standing on this farm 
was used as a poor-house till the year 1877, when the 
present fine brick structure was erected. This is three 
stories in height above the basement, which is used as a 
kitchen and place of work. The building is capable of 
accommodating one hundred paupers. The jiresent 
directors are Paul Bohan, L. C. Hessler, Francis Yates 
and Charles Banker. 

Criminals convicted of capital offenses have been exe- 
cuted at Wilkes-Barre as follows: July ist, 1779, Michael 
Rosebury, by order of General Sullivan, for instigating 
desertions from the latter's command; James Cadden, 
March 2nd, 1849, f'^'' ''''^ murder of Daniel Gilligan 
below Wilkes Barre; Reese Evans, September gth, 1853, 
for shooting Lewis Reese on the Kingston flats in order 
to rob him; James Quinn, April 21st, 1854, fqr the murder 
of Mahala AViggins on the canal near the Nanticoke dam; 
William Muller, April 30th, 1858, for the murder of 
George Mathias, a few miles from Wilkes-Barre, on the 
Easton road. 

In 1790 Luzerne county had a population of 4,904; in 
1800, 12,839; 1810, 18,109; 1820 (after the formation of 
Susquehanna and Bradford', 20,027: 1830, 27,305; 1S40, 
44,006; 1850 'after the formation of Wyoming county, 
56,072; 1860,90,254; 1870,160,755. 

In the early history of political parties in this county, 
the Federalists, who favored a strong national govern- 
ment, had a large majority. Within the memory of the 
present generation the Democrats have oftenest had the 
ascendency. Below will be found lists of the citizens 
who have administered the affairs of the county and 
represented it in various legislative bodies. 

In the spring after the formation of the town of West- 
moreland Zebulon Butler and Timothy Smith, and in the 
autumn of that year Christopher Avery and John Jenkins 
appeared before the Assembly of Connecticut on behalf 
of the new town. Timothy Smith had attended the last 
three previous sessions; Joseph Sluman the last two and 
John Jenkins the last one. Captain Butler and Joseph 
Sluman were the next representatives in that body of 
whom we find record. Butler was also a member in the 




autumn session of 1775, in which Major Ezekiel Pierce 
was his colleague, and in the spring session of 1776 we 
find John Jenkins and Solomon Strong. Colonel Nathan 
Denison was a member in the siiring sessions of 177S and 
1779, and the autumn sessions of 1776, i77Sand 1.S80. 
JoJin Jenkins and Isaac Tripj) were the Assemblymen at 
both sessions of 1777; Anderson Dana in the spring, and 
Asahel Buck in the October session of 1778. John 
Hurlbut served in the spring sessions of 1779, 1780 and 

1781. and the autumn session of 1780. Jonathan Fitch 
was a member in the spring sessions of 1780, 1781 and 

1782, and the autumn session of 1782. Obadiah Ciore 
and John Franklin were the members at the spring ses- 
sion of 1 781, and the former attended both sessions in 

John Sherman of Westmoreland was appointed judge 
of probate and justice of the peace for Litchfield county, 
Conn., in 1775. 

Stewart Pearce gi\es the following list of president 
judges after the adoption of the constitution of 1790: 
Jacob Rush, 1791-1806; Thomas Cooper, 1806-11; Seth 
Chapman, 1811-13; John I!. Cibson, 1813-16; Thomas 
Burnside, 1816-18; David Scott, 1818-38; William Jessup, 
183S-41; John N. Conyngham, 1841-70. C.arrick M. 
Harding was the incumbent in 1870-79. Charles E. Rice 
was commissioned in January, iSSo. 

Under the act of June 27th, 1867, creating the ofiftce 
of additional law judge in Luzerne county, H. M. Hoyt 
was appointed to that office. At the election the same 
year E. L. Dana was elected for the term of ten years. 
John Handley was elected under an act giving still 
another law judge to the county. In 1877 W. H. Stanton 
was elected. He resigned in about a year. In 1879 
Charles E. Rice was elected, but was commissioned pres- 
ident judge in January, 1880, and Stanley Woodard was 
appointed additional law judge. 

Up to i860 this county belonged to a Congressional 
district which also included Berks, Bucks, Northampton, 
Northumberland and other counties. The first repre- 
sentative from Luzerne county, David Scott, of Wikes- 
Barre, was elected in 1816. He resigned on being 
appointed president judge. Representatives from the 
district including Luzerne county have since been chosen 
as follows: 

1818, 183(1, George Denison and John Murray; 1830-32, Cox Ellis, George 
Krcnmer, Samuel McKoan, rhiliimler Stoplicns, Lewis Drwart and A. 
Marr; 18:13 (Luzerne and Coluniliia), 18 U. .\ndiew lleaiiniiint ; IXK, 18.18, 
David Petrekin: 1840.1812, Benjamin .\. Itidlaek : 1844. Owen 1). Lelli ; 
184ii. 1848. Chester Under; 18.1(1 (Luzerne, Wynminif, I'olnniliia and Mnii- 
tour), 18.->4, Henry M. Fuller; IXa, Ilendriek U. Wri«lit; 1S."«1, John <;. 
Montifoniery— died, and was sueeceded the next year by Paul I«idy ; 
1858, 1.%!), Geiirg-e W. Seranton—dicddurinif his seiond term, and H. II. 
Writfht was chosen at a special election in .lune, 18151 ; I8«2 (Luzerne anil 
Susi|uehanna), 18«1, Charles Deniaon ; 18(i8, (ieori?e W. Woodard ; 18T2, 
Lazarus n. .'Shoemaker; ISTti, Wiuthrop W. Keteham ; 1877. W. It. Stan- 
ton : 1878, Hendriek II. Wright. 

Members of the ujjper house of the Legislature have 
been chosen from the district including Luzerne county 
as follows: 

Coiiiiri/.-1787 89, Nathan Denison ; 178ii (October .•Kltlil. 17im, Lord Ilut- 
Icr. .Si-n«(<-.— 17!IU (Luzerne. Northumberland and HunlinKtoni. William 
MontKomery; 17)ti, William Hepburn; 17i>l iLuz<'rne, Norlhuinberlaml 
Mifflin and Lycomin)fi,(ieor|jre Wilson: 17!«l c^une district), Samuel Dale: 
17!«, Samuel Mcflay ; WO, .lames Harris ; isni (Luzerne, Northamptou 

and Wnyncl. Jonas llnrlzell; IWl, Thomas MeWhortrr; 1W5, Wllllnm 
Lattimon-: Ii«r7, Malthias (iress; 1808 (Luzi'rne and .\iirthumlierland>. 
Nathan Paliiier: Islii, Jamix Ijiird : Islu'. William Uow, Islt (Lu/jtuc. 
Northumberland, I'ldon. ColumbUiand Sutwitiehannai, Thomas Murm.i . 
Jr.; 18III, Charli-s Frazer; 1818, Simon .Snyiler ; 1820, l(e<lmonil ConynK- 
hiun; IK:M iLuzenie and Cidumlilal. ItolK-rt MiMiru : 1H28, IKIO, Jae<di 
Drumheller: \XXi. I'zid Hopkins; IKtl (Lun-rne, Monroe. Wayne and 
Plkei, KlM>ni-z<-r KInif-bnry, Jr.; IKH. S. F. Hi-adley : IMI. L\ilher KlddiT ; 
1814 (Luzerne and l'olUMibla>. William S. UfMx; 1847. Vali'mim' Ik-I : Is.'<' 
iLuzerne. ('(dnmbla and Montour. IKVI. Charles It. Iliiekalew : I8.'<1. 
Geortre P. Sd'eli; IkVi < Ln»'rnei. WInlhrop W. Keieham; ImL", J. II. Slark; 
I8«."i, L. D.Shoeumker; IHiK Samuel J.Turner; 1»7I (LuziTue. Monroe and 
Plki'l, Fnnieis D. Collin-, .MIktI (i. Hrodlieud : 1872. GiKirije H. Ilowlnnd; 
Is74, I). H. Stanton, H. II. Payne; IsTT. K. C. Wndhnins. J. II. Seniiiuns 

Members of the lower house of the Legislature have 
been sent from the district including or consisting "I 
Luzerne county as follows, the district comprising Lu- 
zerne, Bradford and Susquehanna from 1814 to 1828, 

John Paul Sehott, 1787; obadiah Gore, 17C8-IW; .Simon S|HiMlnK. ITUl. 
17H2: Kls'uezer Ilowman. Kai: Ifc-njamln Cariwuler. 17U4 ; John Frank- 
lin. 17lfi. K'.iil. Kliy-lMSI : It.wwell Wells. i:'.r7.17»i. we, WM-il; L..ri| lluller, 
1801; John Jenkins, IKCI; Jonas Ingham. 18IH ; Nathan lleaih. Iwk'., 1KT7 : 
.Mows CoolbaUKh, IHW ; Charles Miner, lHit7, Isiw, |sl2: lltnjuniln Dor- 
rance, |8Hs.i(P, 1812, 1814, 181!i, ls2iP, Km ; ThiuniLs Gniliam. |hi«i-ii ; J,,na- 
than Sti-veus, 1811 : Jalsv. Hyde. Jr.. and Jii-<Mdi Prnner. I»i:i (Liiwrne 
and Sus<|nelianna>: Putnam Callln. |S14; lt<xlnionil Con.>nKliam. Isl.'i: 
George Denison. Isl.'i. Islil. lK27-'ln: Jonah lln-wstor. Islil-ll): Jam< « 
Ki-eder, |8|7. 1818; Corni'lius CortrlKlit. 1820. |82I. Isil; Andrew Ihiiu- 
nionl, 1821. 183:1. 1849: Jabez Hyde, Jr., 1822, 18-.5I; Jae<di Drunihi-ller, Jr., 
1822-:14; Philander Stevens, I.S24-'.>J: G. M Hollenlwek, 18S4. 182.'i ; Samuel 
Thomas. 1835, I82(i; fiarriek .MaUiry, ls2«-2!i; Almon 11. Unid, IK27 : Isaac 
Post, 1838: Alliert (;. Hrodhead, KU-tl; Nicholas Oierlleld. IKIl : Chester 
Ilntier, 18:13. 1838. Kto, |84:l; Zil«i llennetl. )xi\. KM: II. A. Itidlaek. KM. 
Wis Jami-^ Nesliitt. Jr., Is.f>i Hinrj Slark. KM. Kr; ; Wlllium C. Key- 
nolds, IKK!. KK; John Sturdi>\anl. IKfS; Jos<'ph Grinin. XKli; Andn-w 
Cortriuht. IK40. 1841 : Hendriek II. Wriifhi. 1840-42; Mos4k OwrlW'Id. IMS: 
William Merritleld. Isi.M.'.; Jami-s S. Camt>bell, 1H44. 184.'i: Nalluiii Jack- 
son. 1840; George Fensternmcher, I84«: Samuel ll<>n<sliet. 1847 ; James 
W. 0(111.1847; Henry M. Fuller, 1848; Thmnas Gillespie, 1848; John N. 
Conynghan. 1840; Jami's \V. Ithodi-s, K.0, l8.-d; Silas S. Ilenisllct, 1H.'<I,1851: 
Truman Atherton, Ik'c!. IS.',:! ; .Vl)ram It. Dunnlmr. 18.'i2-.".4 : GhUsm W. 
Palmer, I8.V4 : Harrison Wright. IKVi; Hendei-son GaylonI, 1kY>: Sleubon 
Jenkins, ls.-(i, l.-v-,7 : Thomas Smith. I8.V1: Siunuel (i. Turner, I8.'i7 ; P. C. 
Gritman. ls.->7. |.'<.'>.s; Lewis Pnghe. IKV. INII; WInthrop W. Kelcliam,18&8: 
.John Stone. 18V.I: Peter ll> rw. l,8-,!t. I8i»); Dyer L. Chapiii, 1H3B: H. II. Hill- 
man. 1800; William S. Iti.s. 18(11: It. F. Uussi'll. 1801; H. V. Hull. IMI ; 
S. W. Trimmer. 18U2; Jai.'<ib Hobinson, l8i£.', 18(CI : Peter Walsh, lfW^ 
1803. Harry Hakes, InJI. I8«4; Anthony Gnidy, I8tM. Isik'i: D. K. 
Seybert. I.^-ll. ISAi; D. S. Koon, 18iV>, IMHH ; William lln-nnan. 1800. 
1807; James .McHenry. 1800. 1807; Siunnel F. Ilussard. 1S(17. ls«8. |8i»; 
Daniel L. o'Neil, Isos, isiW; Nathan G. Wrestler, Isfts, inM; S. W. Kcene, 
1870,1871; George Corny, 1870, 1871 : J(dHi F. MeMahoii. Is70: lllehard 
Williams. 1871. 1872; Patrick Delaivy. 1872. 1.-7^1; Peter l/ulgley. 1872. 1873; 
n. D. Ko(Mis. 1872. Is7:i: K. P. KIsner. 1873; Tliomas Wnddell, 1S74 ; A. L. 
Cressler. 1.'74: T. W. Loflus. 1874; M. Crogan. 1874; Charle- A. Miner. 1K7.'»- 
80; T. H. II. Lewis, 187.'i, 1870; J. J. Shonk. l87.'i-78; J. c. Flneher. 187.''.. 1870; 
James MeAsoy. 187."i. 1870; F. W. Gnnsler. 187."i. 1870; M. F. Synotl. |87.'>. 
1870: C. K.tiorman, 1870. 1870; T. W. Ixiftu.«. 187.'i, 1870; John II. Smith. 
1877-80; Charles Mc-Carron. 1877. 1878 ; (Jeorge Judg(N 1877. 1878 ; James A. 
Kiersted. 1877, 1878; D. M. Jiaies. Is77. 1878; A.I. Ackerly. 1877. 1878. 
187'.l. 1880; S. S. Jones. 1877. 1878 ; W. H. HInes. I87H. 1880; (ietirgi* W. 
Drum, 1879, 1880; Dennis ll'U-iilhan, 187W. 188U; John E. Iliirreil. I-71'. 
1880: T. 1). I*wls, 1870. 1780; Thomas Mooiioy. 187«, 1880. 

The following will be found a correct list of all the 
sheriffs of Luzerne county from its organization up to 
i88o. The year in which eai ii was elected is given: 

Lord Ilutler, 1787: Jesse Fell. 1789; John Franklin. 1702: WlllUim Slo- 
cinn. I7!i"i; ,\rnold Ctdt. Itus ; lu-njamin llorranee. IsiH ; Jame» Wheeler. 

1804 ; Jacob Hart. 1807: Jals-z Hyde. Jr.. l-lo; FJIJali Sh l, , i-i;i: 

Stephen Van L i. IsIO ; Isiuic ll<iwnmn. Isl'.i; Jonathan i 

Napthali Hurlburt. IS2.1; Oliver ll.lme. 182.- ; Thomas K.i i 

In October. 1831. di(sl in a few himrs after he was swoni In. uu<l llenju- 

mln Keyn(dds wasappcOnte<l by the governor lo the vnenney ft.r one 

year or until the next ehs-t Ion. when Jail' 

lK>r. KCi. and served until Kl".; Tlionms M 

George P. SI(S-le. 1841 ; James W. (;olT, Isii : " - • 

A. Palmer. IKVI; Abniin Drum. KVl : Ja-iwr II • 

Loon. Is-VU; Samuel II. Patcrlniugh. 18<K ; J..^ , 1. :.: v,. 

James WUhoad«.l8<Vs; Auron Whilaker, 1871; WlllUm P. Klrkendall. 
Ili7i; P.J.Kciiuy, len. 





^^■"""^'T does not appear that previous to the Revo 
fm'^AM'-m valley any regular military organization 


utionary war there e.xisted in the Wyoming 

•alley any regular military organization. 

As a historian of those times (James A. 

Gordon) has said, " Every settler was practi- 
^^ cally an independent company of himself. He 
carried his own rifle, marched generally under the 
orders of the 'town meeting' either against the Indian. 
Pennamite or tory, as the case might be; furnished his 
own rations and ammunition, and paid himself from his 
own military chest — if he had one. But after the l^ecla- 
ration of Independence the State of Connecticut as- 
sumed the military control of this region, and two com- 
panies were raised here under her authority." 

Even after the decree of Trenton, by which Pennsyl- 
vania acquired territorial jurisdiction, no organization 
except of voluntary unauthorized companies for resist- 
ance to the Pennamites e.xisted prior to 1786. In that 
year the county of Luzerne was organized, and the mili- 
tia laws of Pennsylvania were extended over it, as in 
other portions of the State. A brigade and regiments 
were formed here, and from the record of his commis- 
sion in the recorder's office, bearing date April nth, 
1793, it appears that Jesse Fell was appointed brigade 
inspector for a term of seven years. 

Now this same Jesse Fell was a Quaker, recently from 
Bucks county; yet, notwithstanding he was a professed 
noncombatant, he donned the regular uniform, with the 
appropriate feathers, and, mounted on his charger, per- 
formed the functions required of him, much to the cha- 
grin of the " meeting " to which he belonged. 

The following notice is found in the files of the IVilkes- 
Barre Gazette, under the date of January i6th, 1798: 

"Militia. — The Militia officers commanding compa- 
nies in the Luzerne county brigade, who have not made 
returns of the absentees on the company and regimental 
days in October last, are requested to complete their re- 
turns by the first day of February next; and those per- 
sons liable by law to militia duty charged with fines as 
absentees are reipiested to make payment by the day 
aforesaid, or they }niist pay tlic fees of collecting. 

"Jesse Fell, Brigade Inspector." 

It thus appears that those liable to military duty were 
required to meet for "training" two days each year, un- 
der penalty. 

Among the old manuscripts in the possession of Steu- 
ben Jenkins is the record of a draft made from the com- 
panies of the third regiment in January, i 794, and another 
in October, 1797; but it does not appear for what pur- 
poses these drafts were made. As elsewhere stated, the 
militia of the State was reorganized in 1822. 

To meet emergencies which arose from time to time 

volunteer companies were organized in Luzerne county. 
Such organizations did service in the suppression of the 
whiskey insurrection, during the prospect of war with 
France in 1800, and in the war of 1812. 

In the early part of the present century several inde- 
pendent military organizations existed here at different 
times. The earliest among these of which anything is 
known was the 

wvoMiNv; blues. 

This company, which it ai)pears originated about the 

close of the last century, had a prosperous existence for 

some years. Gordon says: 

" The members of this company were made up of the diU of Wilkes- 
Barre anil its immediate vicinity. It is to be regretted that a complete 
muster roll cannot now be made up. It is barel}' possible that a roll of 
its organic members maybe found in the adjutant general's office at 
Harrisburg, but not probable. My first petsonal memory of the com- 
pany was in the spring of 1805. Joseph Slocum was then captain, and I 
suppose he was their first commander under their legal organization. 
They were then in full uniform, and had a flag ; not the star spangled 
banner, but a flag bearing the coat of arras of Pennsylvania, represent- 
ing * the lion and the unicorn fighting for the crown ' over the body of 
the American eagle. Benjamin Perrj- was the bearer of that standard 
at that time. I think Isaac Bowman was the lieutenant. They met on 
this occasion for inspection and drill. I remember seeing on that parade 
Joseph Slocum, captain; Isaac Bowman, lioutenant; Benjamin Perry, 
sergeant ; and the latter seemed to have more to do and say in the fix- 
ing up than anybody else. Of those in the ranks I remember Charles 
Miner, Matthew Covel, Thomas Duane, Thomas Wright, jr., Sidney 
Tracy, Jehoida P. Johnson, Arnold Colt, Peter Yarrington, Josiah 
Wright and Zebulon Butler, jr. Colonel Benjamin Dorrance was about, 
but not in the ranks nor in uniform." 

Mr. Gordon then sketches the feast which followed 
"at John P. Arndt's old Red Tavern on River street," 
and continues: 

" In 1808 Isaac Bowman was elected captain, Charles Miner and Benja- 
min Perry lieutenants, and I think Godfrey Perry sergeant. I speak 
from memory. I was present at their first meeting after the election. 
It took place on Bowman's Hill, on the lawn in front of the captain's 
residence, where now lives Mrs. A. H. Bowman. On that occasion Cap- 
tain Bowman treated the company to a liberal collation, and everybody 
was in good humor and flue spirits. In the manual drill Joseph Slocum, 
ex-captain, acted as fugleman. 

" From this time until the expiration of Captain Bowman's term of 
service the Wyoming Blues were regarded as the star company of 
Northern Pennsylvania, and as far as their discipline was concerned 
could have competed with any company in the United States army. Be- 
sides this, its membership was made up of the best blood of the old 
Yankee settlers of Wyoming. 

" In I8II an election took place, and Zebulon Butler, a son of Colonel 
Zebulon Butler, of Revolutionary fame, was elected captain." 

After the war of 1812 broke out the existence of this 

organization ceased, by reason of opposition in political 

sentiment among its members. 


In iSoi a cavalry company existed in this county, but 
when it was organized, or how long the organization con- 
tinued, has not been ascertained. Under the date of 
March in that year a notice was published requiring the 
"First Company of Cavalry" to meet at the house of 
Jesse Fell on the 2nd Saturday in April, at 10 A.M. This 
notice was over the signature of " Eleazer Blackman, 


Gordon says : 

"The Volunteer Matross of Kingston was organized under the command 
of Henry Buckingham, a merchant of Kingston, recently from Connec- 
ticut, probably about 1809, perhaps earlier. Captain Buckingham * » * 



6 1 

was a most oltioicnt nlHcor in every respect, a Lii|iUal ilrill-iimstcr, iiiul 
about the only man in tliecompany who knew anythlnff aliniit artiMiTy 
practice. • ♦ • I remember as tirst members iinih-r< iiplulii lliicklnir- 
ham, ZIba Hoyt, the father of our present governor: I'hini as I'mler- 
wooil, .VtisaloMi Uoberts, Morris rramer, Alexander, Wllllaiii I'uee 
and Hallet (iiilliip. » • » Their iinifiirm was a lontr tailed blu<'. with 
brass buttons, ^ray ]nints and jraitersor le^f^in^s eoveriiiK the front of 
the shoe l)y a tfore. I remember their lln*t panide in Wiikirs-lliirre, in 
1810. I think, with a brass si.\ pounder which was said to be one of the 
field pieces captured from Uurtfoyne at Saratoga. 1 do not know, how- 
ever, that tins was a fad. 

*' On this occa.sion tlie company occupied the publii' square for (heir 
parade ground. Their handling of their guns <-alled forth tlie highest 
commendations from the spectiitors. and Captain Samuel llowinan said 
of them that they would pass muster in any artillery <'orps in the 
Inited States army." 

On the breaking out of hostilities between the United 

States and Great Britain, in 1812, the Matross promijtly 

offered their services to ti'.e government. Tlie company 

tlien consisted of the following men: 

Captain, Samuel Thomas; 1st lieutenant, I'hineas Cnderwood : 2nd. 
Ziba Hoyt: 3rd, .\ndrew Sheets: ensign, Kdwani (iildu-ist : sergeants- 
John Carkhutr, .lacob Taylor, .Vbsalom Uoberts, Henry .lones, George 
W. Smith, John Bowman ; corporals— Christopher Miner, Daniel Cocho- 
Tour, Samuel Varrish. Ebenezer Freeimui, John Hiane : gunners- 
Stephen Evans, Isaac Hollister, Ji'ihn Prince, ,lanies llird, Morris Cra- 
mer, Festus Freeman, .lames L)e\'a!is: druminci-. Alexander Lord; 
flfer, Araba Amsden : pri\atcs— l>anicl lloo\er, .lidni Daniels, James \V. 
Barnum, William Pace, James Dodtish, Godfrey llownnin, llenjamin 
Hall, Solomon Parker, Ezekiel Hall, Sylvanus Moore, Hallet Gallup. 

They left Kingston on the 13th of April, 1813, and 
embarked on a raft at the moutli of Shoup's creek. They 
landed at Danville, whence they marched, by way of 
Lewiston and Bedford, throiigii Fayette county, recruit- 
ing as they went, and arrived at Erie 95 strong. 

In the cannonading at Presque Isle harbor the com- 
pany did efificient service. When volunteers were solic- 
ited to man the fleet of Commodore Oliver Perry before 
the battle of Lake Erie four from this company, among 
whom was James Bird, of Pittston, promptly offered 
themselves, and all distinguished themselves by their 
bravery in the battle. Bird was afterward tried by court 
martial for desertion, convicted and shot. He had left 
his post to join General Jackson at New Orleans, and 
though his purpose was ])atriotic and laudable he was 
technically guilty of desertion, and the stern discipline of 
war did not relax in his favor. 

After the battle of Lake Erie the Matross, which was 
attached to the regiment of Colonel Hill, crossed into 
Canada and marched on Maiden, which the enemy 
abandoned on their approach. They followed him to 
Detroit, which he also evacuated ; thence, under tleneral 
Harrison, they pursued him; in the battle of the Thames 
the Matross was commanded by Lieutenant Ziba Hoyt, 
Captain Thomas having been left with fourteen of his 
men at Detroit. 

A recruiting office was opened in Wilkes-Barre during 
the war, and many volunteers were sent to the army from 
this county. Infantry barracks were established on the 
bank of the river, and cavalry barracks on Franklin 

THE RM.i.v IX 1814. 

In 1814, when Baltimore was threatened by the Brit- 
ish, five companies of the militia of Luzerne and the 
counties adjoining marched for its defense. They pro- 
ceeded as far as Danville; when, on the receipt of intelli- 

gence of the repulse of the enemy, they were ordered to 
return. On this expedition went the following dctath- 
ments : From the 45th regiment. Captain Joseph Camp, 
Lieutenant Joseph Lolt, Ensign Robert Reynolds; UQth 
regiment — Captain Frederick Uailey and .Amos Tiffany, 
Lieutenant Cyrrcl (biddings, Ensign Hiat Tupper; luth 
regiment — Captain George Hidley, Lieutenant John 
Wortman, Ensign .Abraham Roberts ; 35th regiment — 
Captain Peter Hallock, Lieutenants Hosca Phillips and 
Jeremiah Fuller, Ensigns William Polen and George 
Denison ; a detat hment under Captain Jacob IJittcn- 
bender and F^nsign John Myers. 

Such of the volunteers as survived the usual casualties 
and perils of war and returned were received and wel- 
comed with those honors to which the brave defenders 
of the country are always entitled from their fellow 

Of the comjiany here named and others Mr. Gordon 
wrote as follows: 


"This s<iuad was orgiuii7.>'d in thi- spring of Wi. tinder the command of 
Lieutenant Swi'cncy, of the liiih regimcnl Cnilisl Stnl<^ infwnlry, Ihi-n 
on recruiting servliTat Wilki's-Harre. II was never li-ifiHy ■•rganlwxl, 
and I should not notice it, only thai In after ymrs lt» menil«crshlp f"r- 
nished, to a large extent, tlieiifflcers for imlepemlent eompnnlen sulw- 
<iuently organlwil \Mider the militia laws of I'ennsylvanhi. IJeuti'imnI 
Sweeney was an accomplished ilrlll-nuister. and uniler hln Instruction 
they made rapid progress in the military art They were nev<-r uni- 
formed nor arnie<l. The only liailge they wore was a Itonnin Imt, om«- 
niented with the black eoekade and the Amerkun eajfle There w»!i 
not a member of the I'ompany who had then reached hto twenly- 
flrst year." 

He mentions among the members John S. Hyde, Samuel 
D. Bettle, (ieorge F. Gordon, John M. Gordon, John S. 
Butler, one or two of the Danas. Sterne and Strange 
Palmer, James W. Bowman, William and Benjamin D 
Wright. He continues: 

In \SM the 


"the Wyoming Guards, and the Plttxlon llifieseame to the fnmt, with an 
incipient effort to raise a liorst- company from WJIkm-Uarpc townnhlp. 
aldetl by recruits f i-oni Hanover. 

"The Junior VolunIi><TS was, as its name Indli-alisl, i'.>mpow<lalmo«t 
wholly of young men who had not n^iehtsl their majority. • • • Kll- 
jah Worthinglcm, an ap|>rentii-e in the Wyoming llrnilil olBiv. w«« the 
first lieutenant, and Zalnuin Moor, a Ji>urneynnin tailor with .\nIhony 
Hrower, was orderly s<Tgeiinl. and a capilal ollli'er. J(din K. Duia-y wb» 
their sei-oml captain, wlm fiourlshedat thi'ir lieiiil for a ynir or two. when 
the company was nicrgtsl in the Citizen Volunteers, retjilning the uni- 
form of the Juniors, which was simply a summer dress of white dimiiy. 
roundabout anil pants, Honnin hat and lilaek on-kade and engle. The 
first capwin under the new organiaition was, I think, William ."i. Uow. 

• • • Subsfsinently he was promoKsl to the loniniand of a brigmle 
or a division, of the Pennsylvania militia. General Hoss was nwlly a 
military man, and nmde a giM>d olllcwr. • • • 


a rifie company, came into the field ntxiut the same limn a.« the Junior 
Volunteers iptiJI. Thi'y wen' commandtsi by Captain Jidui .M.Mr-, with 
a Mr. Illani-hard for first li.'ulemint. They often paradisl in Wllke»- 
llarre. and alMuil one-half of their mcml>en" were n-sldi-iils of lhi> town- 
ship. Then came iheWyoming C<iunly Guards, a light Infantry c<mip«n\. 
first commande<l by Strong IJarnuni, who lunl serveil one or two cam- 
paigns at West Point. I reinemlMT the name* of only n few of themem- 
bcrs-Theron Illinium, first lieuteiiunl: Kd. Taylor. Wllltani H. Ale«- 
ander, Merrill Slocum. lieorge .M. Ilollenlwck. Henry Colt, Jn;n<-« W. 
lUiwman. Lewis X, Ketcham, Keiisxiiicr Wells and Abmm Toll" • — 
among the first meniU'r*, with some 'roni Plains and al">ut half i 
from Kingstiui. • • • The company disUinded jiNmiI KH ■■■ 

• • • III aililltlon to Hie Indepenilent ouiiiMinlwalriwIy nollee«l IheiT 
wasuivuipany of light hopMMnen • • * not Inferior to any organl- 
7Allon of the kind In Pcnniiylvanlu. In IKT.' 

I nh 1 





was or«i"anizpfl Viy massing: the ^'olunteer companies then in the tield. 
'I'he Itatlalion Avas composed of the Wj'omin^'- Ouards, Pittston Itlues 
and a company from Lehman, nnder the command of Captain Jacob L. 
nogardiis. f^nhseipiently it went into a lejriment, and H. B. Wriijht was 
honored with the command, and held that station for some fourteen 


"This company was (n'ganizcd in ist:i, and its mcmliers were all 
of foreifrn birth. .\t their first organization they were riflemen, but 
subscqncntl.v they {'hanifcd to lif?ht infantry. The following is believed 
to be a correct list of the comissioned officers from 1S4:! to its final dis- 
organization in lsi!:i: .Tchn Rcichard, I'aptain : Jacob Welder, lirst lieu- 
tenant : Joseph Coons, second lieutenant. At the ne.xt electi(m, in 1847, 
John lieichard was re-elected captain. Lieutenant Jacob Waelder had 
.joined the Wyoming Artillerists and gone to Me.\ico, and Joseph Coons 
was elected in his place, and Afartin Baur was elected second lieutenant. 
In 18.'i,s Captain lieichard became brigade inspector, and Joseph Coons 
became captain, Martin Baur first lieutenant, and Philip Nachbar second 
lieutenant. At tiie breaking out of the Uebelliim the company was in a 
demoralized condition, but on the call of the President in 18iil, under the 
energetic measures talsen by George W. was resurrected and 
joined Colonel A. II. Emley's regiment nt three months men, with 
(ieorge W. Keicliard captain, John rrellinch first lieutenant and 
fiustave Ilahn second lieutenant. The members served their terra with 
great credit, but on their return home suffered themselves to relaj^se 
into military indolence until 1803, when they promptly responded to a 
call for troops to repel the threatened invasion of Pennsylvania b.v 
General Ijce. These troops were known as ' emergency men.' Oiistave 
Hahn was captain, Henry Rhode lirst lieutenant, and Joseph lioyer was 
second lieutenant." 


Tlie organization of the Wyoming Artillerists, of Wilkes- 
Barre, begun some time prior, was completed and uni- 
forms, guns and equipments obtained early in the year 
1842. Under the energetic efforts of F. L. Bowman, its 
first captain, the company soon acquired a reputation for 
excellence in drill and discipline. 

Captain Edmund I.. Dana succeeded to the command, 
and in November, 1846, in response to a call by the Presi- 
dent for troops to serve during the war with Me.\ico, the 
services of the Wyoming Artillerists were tendered and 
accepted. The ranks were filled up by enlistments to 
the requisite number, and aided by the liberality of the 
citizens, the company, under Captain Dana, on Monday, 
the 7th of December, 1846, after listening to addresses 
in the old church on the public square, and bidding 
adieu to relatives and friends, embarked on board an old 
freight boat on the North Branch Canal, and in the midst 
of a snow storm started for Pittsburg, where, after much 
toil and suffering, it arrived on Tuesday, the 15th of De- 
cember. On the following day it was mustered into the 
service of the United States, and designated as Company I 
in the ist regiment of Pennsyl\ania volunteers. F. L. 
Bowman, 2nd lieutenant, was elected major of the regi- 
ment, and Jacob Waelder was chosen to fill the vacancy. 

From Pittsburg the company voyaged to Vera Cruz, 
encamping for a time at New Orleans and at l^obos 
island, and landing on Mexican soil March 9th, 1847. On 
the loth and nth the investment of the city and castle 
was completed. In the movement of troops on the loth 
the Wyoming Artillerists encountered an ambuscade in 
the chapparal and received the first infantry fire from 
the enemy; a halt was ordered, the fire returned with 
such precision and effect that the enemy fled, and the 
company resumed its march and took its position in the 

line of investment. It was actively engaged in the skir- 
mishes which ensued, in repelling attacks upon and 
maintaining possession of the sand hills overlooking the 
city, in digging trenches, constructing batteries and trans- 
porting to them guns and ammunition from the beach. 
On the afternoon of the 22nd of March fire was opened 
from the American works. On the 29th the Mexican 
garrison moved out of the city, and in the presence of 
two lines of Americans, among whom were the ist Penn- 
sylvania regiment and the Wyoming men, laid down 
their arms, ecpiipments and flags. 

On the 9th of April General Patterson's division, with 
Pillow's brigade, to which the Wyoming Artillerists were 
attached, started towards the capital. In the battle of 
Cerro Gordo, April i8th, the Wyoming company was de- 
ployed on a declivity below and in front of the enemy's 
main works, and distant from them about two hundred 
yards, but suffered slight loss. Early on the morning of 
the 7th of July the Wyoming Artillerists with Company 
A of their regiment stormed in gallant style the hill 
commanding the Pass of El Pinal or the Black Pass, and 
dispersed a force of the enemy posted there to obstruct 
the passage of our troops. 

On the afternoon of July 8th the command entered the 
City of Puebia, Company I and the other five composing 
the battalion were detailed under Colonel Childs to oc- 
cupy the city and to take charge of about 2,000 sick and 
a large amount of government property. The rest of the 
army moved out on the loth of August and on the follow- 
ing day the large and turbulent population of the city 
began to show unmistakable signs of hostility. Small 
bulletins were published, calling on the citizens to rise 
and crush out "the 600 sick Yankees," and a few days 
later a considerable military force under General Rea 
entered the city. It became necessary to divide the gar- 
rison into three detachments, of which one, including the 
Wyoming company, occupied an old brick structure 
called the Cuartel of San Jose, on the eastern edge of the 
city, on a small stream which furnished the water supply 
for the garrison. 

In the latter part of September a summons to sur- 
render was sent by the enemy, in which their forces 
were stated to be 8,000. The deinand was promptly 
refused. On the 12th of October the troops and wagon 
train of General Lane were discovered approaching the 
city and the enemy fled. The heroic defense of its 
position and trust by the small garrison including the 
Wyoming boys against overwhelming numbers, the pro- 
tection of the sick and of the government stores so that 
not one dollar was lost, was regarded at the time by the 
army as one of the remarkable achievements in the cam- 
paign in Mexico. Captain Dana and Lieutenant Waelder, 
who was attached to the staff of Colonel Childs as acting 
adjutant general, were specially commended in the official 

The regiment next inarched to the city of Mexico, 
arriving there on the 8th of December, 1847. All the 
officers who were engaged in the siege of Puebia were 
specially thanked and commended by General Scott. 




Two weeks later the regiment was quartered at San 
Angel, an old town a few miles southwest of the city, and 
except when detached to escort a train to Vera Cruz, and 
other temporary services, remained there until the sign- 
ing of the treaty of peace in June, 1848. Returning with 
the army, the regiment landed at New Orleans, came up 
the Mississippi and Ohio rivers to Pittsburg, where the 
Wyoming Artillerists were mustered out and honorahly 
discharged on the 20th of July, 1848. They returned 
from Pittsburg as they went there, by canal boat, but the 
season of the year, the glad greetings, with firing of ( an- 
non and display of flags at every town on the route, 
contrasted agreeably with their former tedious passage 
through the ice and snows of December, 1846. At 
Wilkes-Barre nearly the entire po|)ulation of the valley 
was assembled, and a splendid recejilion with an address 
of welcome awaited them. 

The total strength of the company, including recruits, 
was 109; fifty-one, or less than one-half, returned with 
the company. 

The following is a roll of this company as it served in 
the Mexican war, with individual casualities, dates of 
discharge, etc.; where not otherwise noted the men 
returned with the company : 

Officox-f'aiitaiii, Edtiuiiui L. Danii; tiii-t licutenanls— K. 11. Ciilliiis, 
(liscliaiyJ at Veni Cruz, April St, 1H4T: 1-'. L. Bowinaii. olcclfil Majiir 
ill December, IMtt. Second lieutenants— A. IT. GolF, killed at Peiote, 
April 13, 1.S4K ; .Tacob Waeldor. First sergeant ; Arnold (". Lewis, ap- 
pointed second lieutenant to date from April 15, llilS. Second ser- 
fteunt, .losepli W. Potter; diseharKed at Perote. Third sern-eant, Doni- 
iuick Dcvanny. Fourth sergeant, .Tosepli W. Miner ; elected first lieu- 
tenant June 15, 184T. First corporal, Wni. II. Ileauinont; appointed llrst 
sergeant. Second corporal, D. W. ('. Kitchin; wounded at Cerrti 
(lOrdo and diseharjred. Third corporal, Charles M. Stout ; appointed 
lieutenant in the 11th iufantr.v. Fourth corporal, .lidni li. \'au);hn : dis- 
charged at .Talapa. Drummer, Wilson li. Connor; discharged. Fifer, 
Wallace J. Belding4 discharged. 

frirad-K.— Grandison Abel. Joscpli Atwaril. John liarnes; left sick 
at Cincinnati. Alfred Bentlcy ; died at Jalapa. Luke Iturke. Obcd C. 
Ilurdcn. William Dachinan. Llojd M. Colder; dicil at Perote, July 1. 
1*1". George Collings; appointed corporal. Jacob L. Cooper. William 
II. CarkhulT; died at Perote, July M, l.siT. James F. Dill ; died at Perote. 
Thonnis <i. Dripps : appointed serjreant. M. M. Debcrger ; discharged at 
Vera Cruz in April. l.SiT. John C. Drinkhonstf : discharged at \'era Cruz. 
April Hi. lt<47. James Kills; discharged at Vera Cruz, in June, ]S4S. I,e\ I 
Finery. George W. Fell. Luke Floyil ; wounded. Samuel Fo.\ ; dis- 
charged at Jalapa, Ma.v 1»<, 1S4T. F^rederick Funk. Joseph C. t^arey ; 
discharged at Vera Cruz. Ai)ril lii, im7. I'atrick Gilroy ; discharged at 
Vera Criiz. Aaron Gangawcre. Magnes Gonerman ; died at Perote, 
July 29, 1(<47. John Goodermooth ; died at Puebla, Oct. «, ]>S47. Henry 
Hcrnbroad ; appointed first corporal Ma.v !, 1K4.S. Peter Hine ; <lischarg- 
cil at Vera Cruz. Nathaniel G. Harvey ; died at Perote. .\le.\andcr 
Huntington. John Hunt ; discharged at .lalapa. .lohn Howaril. David 
H. Howard, .\nthouy llaberholt. Charles .lohnsou. Pairick King. 
Lyman C. Kidder; discharged at .lalapa. May is, IH47. Frederick Lehunui; 
dischiirgedat Vera Cruz. Mch. ;!0,1S4S. Joseph Leopard. Saiiuiel .\. Lewis. 
Charles D. Lutes; discharged at Vera Cruz in .Vpril, 1S17. Jcdiu \V. Myci-s: 
died at Perote. John M(trehouse. l)a>'id K. Morrison. Walk*'r M. Miller : 
discharged at Veni Cruz in .\pril, l.s47. Samuel Marks. John 11. Price: dii'd 
at Jalapa, June li, 1K47. John Preece. killed at the siege of Piiebla, .Kiig. 
28, 1*47. Jules Phillips. Isaac Rothermell ; died at Veni Cruz. Mch. 
13, 1S47. James W. Kigg. John Shadell. Levi H. Stevens. James Stev- 
ens; disehargedatVera Cruz(wouiidedl, in .\piil, 1X47. John Swan. Hiram 
Spencer; discharged at Perote. .loliii Sliker; <lied at Penttc. .Inly 7. IH47. 
James Sliker. Thompson Price; disi-harge^l. Wilson K. Sitsj-; diH4'liargi>d 
at Perote. Charles Tripp: died at the siege of Puebla..'^ept. 12. 1S47. (ieorge 
Tanner ; died at Perote, JuneW. 1S47. John Smith ; died at Perote, .\iig. 
28, 1M7. N'ormanVanwinkii', discharged at Perote, .\ug. 2!«, 1H47. Iloldin 
P. Vaughn • discharged at .lalapa. May Is, 1*47. Gei'sliom P. Vangordeii ; 
diedat Perote .May2t,lHI7, Kdmuiid W. Wandell. Walslngham G. Ward; 
disehargeilat Vera Cruz, .\pril 3, 1SI7. Thomas G. Wilson; ilied at .lalapa. 
May20,l.'>47. William Vanderburg. William Whittaker. I'liomas J. Wright. 
Annon Westhoven. Daniel W. Wltzell. William T. Wilson. Daniel W. 
Varlott. William Diamond; discharge<l at New Drleans.Jan. II>,1SI7. Kiius 

KJInger : dle<l at Mil. Jan. 31, |k|7. Patrick (I'LMhnell ; • iil .New Or- 
leiins. Jan. 2. Is47. 

lUrniilf. Siuiiiiet Knorr: lo>'t atul ••nppi»M>4l klll(*4lul Nalloiuil llrldge. 
Jan.. 1H|7. .Augustus I'^helx. fjiiidlln Fist. John Gniil. ('Iiarle« Gordon 

Kriifsl (ionlon. William Hills n. Fn-<lerlik Musler. Jiiliii McKi-oiiii 

Anthony Verni'l. .Michael Woir>ioii. Henry Welile. Adam Koblnlioli : 
dlisl <in Ohio rlver..liily 1.1. IKtH. (ieorge O'Cnift : lirnt July 3, 1Mb: 
suppos4>d drowneil. 

Captain Dana retained for a time the command; was 
reelected and comtnissioncd .April 26th, 1851. He was 
followed successively by 'i"homas Parker, K. B. Collings. 
K. B. Harvey, Samuel Bowman, Nathaniel Picrson and 
A. H. Emiey. 

When in 1861 the call for three months inen was made, 
their serviies were again offered and accepted. Mr. 
Emley, their captain, on their arrival at Harrisburg was 
elected colonel of the 8th Pennsylvania regiment, to 
which they were attachetl, and was succeeded in ilu- 
command of the company by Captain E. W. Finch 

After the exjjiration of their term the 143d Pennsylvania 
volunleers, under Colonel Edmund I,. Dana, was formed, 
and the old company formerly commanded by him w.ts 
recruited to the retiuisite number under Captain George 
N. Prichard, and on the 4ih of .Viigust, 1862, was mus- 
tered in, and assigned, as Company (", to that regiment. 
For nearly three years, and up to the close of the war, it 
saw active service with the .Army of the Potomac, and on 
many sanguinary fields sustained its reputation for cour- 
age and discipline. 

In 1870 the company was again recruited and John 
Espy was elected captain. In 1871 it was transferred 
from the 30th Pennsylvania national guards to the 
artillery corps, and Captain Espy having been appointed 
on the staff of General Osborne, E. W. Finch was elected 
in his place. 

The following is a list of the officers .it the time of thi^ 
writing, March, 1880 : 

Thomas C. Parker, captain ; Charles 1 >. Hoover, lirsi 
lieutenant ; James A. Roat, second lieutenant ; R'-'es 
Leyshon, orderly sergeant; Butler Dilley, quartermaster's 
sergeant; John Sl\ker, V. S.; John E. Ment/.. first ser- 
geant; John Dickerson, second sergeant; Thomas C 
Edwards, third sergeant; Richard Moore, fourth sergeant. 

Only approved men are admitted to membership, and 
the present strength of the rank and lile, thus constituted, 
is sixty-three. It is supplied with four new six ])o«ndcrs 
of the Phoenix pattern, and the uniforms and equipments 
are of the kind adopted by the United States artillery- 
During the past two years, while instruction in infantry 
movements has been continued as usual, special attention 
has been devoted to gun and sabre drill; and under the 
able instructions of Captain Parker and his subordinates, 
a high degree of proficiency attained. Through the elforts 
of the company and the public interest awakened a large 
and commodious armory has been secured and fitted u|), 
and several very flourishing infantry organizations have 
been formed in the city. 


The militia of the State of Pennsylvania, which was 
established in very early times, was reorganized under an 




act of Assembly passed in 1822. Under this law an en- 
rollment was made of all citizens between the ages of 
twenty-one and forty-five liable to military duty, who 
were required to appear for drill at certain times under a 
penalty of fifty cents. Of course except to keep up an 
enrollment for emergencies that might arise this system 
was of no account, and for that purpose it was found 
during the late civil war to amount to very little. 

In 1S64 an act was passed regulating the organization 
of the militia and dixiding the State into twenty military 
divisions, in which an enioUment as before was required; 
but in addition to this a system of volunteer companies, 
regiments, etc., was established. These volunteers were 
required to appear in uniform for drill and exercise, and 
were supplied with arms and accoutrements by the State, 
and constituted what was termed the volunteer militia. 
Under that organization Luzerne and Wyoming were a 
part of the ninth division. The expenses of this organi- 
zation were borne largely by the volunteers themselves, 
and this was found to be so burdensome to them that by 
subsequent acts of Assembly provision was made for the 
payment to the companies by the State of sufificient sums 
to meet a portion of these expenses. By an act passed 
in 1870 the name of " National Guard of Pennsylvania" 
was given to this volunteer militia, and by an act of As- 
sembly in 1874 ten divisions of the national guard were 
constituted and Luzerne and Wyoming counties were in- 
cluded in the third di\ision. Each of the divisions was 
under the command of a major general, and the divisions 
were divided into brigades according to the discretion of 
their commanding generals. 

In 1878, by an act of .Assembly, these divisions were 
abolished and the State was constituted a single division' 
with five brigades. 

Under this law Luzerne, Lackawanna and Wyoming 
counties became a part of the territory of the third brig- 
ade. The national guard in Luzerne county consisted 
of the Wyoming Artillerists — a four gun battery. Captain 
T. C. Parker — and the ninth regiment of infantry. 
The officers in this regiinent are: Colonel, (j. Murray 
Reynolds; lieutenant colonel, Morris J. Keck; major, D. 
S. Bennet; surgeon, Olin F. Harvey; assistant surgeon, 
J. Holley; adjutant, .Arthur D. Moore; commissary, Oscar 
F. Harvey; captains — James Ginley, J. Andrew Willet, H. 
W. Wenner, Samuel Simpson, Charles A. Jones, John 
Dunn, Henry Crandall, A. H. Rush and B. F. Stark. 

In 187 1, during the long struggle among the miners, a 
riot occurred at Scranton, to ([uell which the Wyoming 
Artillerists, the McClellan Rifles — an infantry company at 
Pittston — the fifth regiment of infantry of Luzerne county, 
the Hazleton battalion — consisting of four companies of 
infantry — and the Wyoming County Veterans — a company 
of infantry from Tunkhannock — which constituted the 
ninth division, under the command of Major General 
Edwin S. Osborne, were called into service. They were 
called out on the 7th of April and continued in service 
till the 25th of May, during which time they were con- 
stantly on duty, preserving the peace and guarding the 
property at the collieries. Up to the 17th of May the 

rioters avoided any collision with the troops, but on that 
day it became necessary for the latter in the discharge of 
their duty to fire on the rioters, and two were killed. 
This had the effect to suppress the riot. 

In 1874 the Wyoming Artillerists, the 15th which 
had then come to be the gthj regiment, the McClellan 
Rifles, the Telford Zouaves, of Susquehanna county, and 
the ist regiment of infantry of Philadelphia, all under 
the cominand General Osborne, were called to Susque- 
hanna Depot to suppress a riot among the employes of 
the N. Y. & E. Railway. They arrived on the 29th of 
March, restored order and left on the ist of April. 

On the 7th of April, 1875, the same troops were ordered 
to Hazleton for the suppression of a riot among the 
miners there. They remained on duty there till the nth 
of May, during which time they were engaged in guard 
and patrol duty and aiding the authorities to preserve 

In the great strike of 1877 all the troops of the county 
were brought into requisition, under General Osborne. 
Tliey were called into service on the 21st of July and 
were relieved on the 4th of August. They were by 
order of the governor concentrated at Wikes-Barre, and 
there held in readiness to assist the civil authorities in 
preserving order. No collision occurred between the 
troops and the strikers. 

The troops called out for the suppression of these riots 
were commanded by the following officers: ist regi- 
ment. Colonel R. Dale; 15th, Colonel O. K. Moore; gin. 
Colonel T. D. Lewis; Hazleton battalion, Major D. C. 
Swank; Wyoming Artillerists, Captain E. W. Finch at 
Scranton, Susquehanna Depot and Hazleton, and by 
Captain Thomas C. Parker at Wilkes-Barre; McClellan 
Rifles, Captain James Ginley; Telford Zouaves, Captain 
James Smith; NV'yoming County Veterans, Captain R. W. 

The services rendered by the troops in the suppression 
of these riots and the preservation of order in the midst 
of such surroundings not only reflect credit on the officers 
and men composing the military organizations that per- 
formed this service, but demonstrate the utility and effi- 
ciency of citizen soldiers when properly or.- anized and 
disciplined. The value of the property saved from de- 
struction in these cases was probably many times greater 
than the expense of maintaining these organizations. 


K.ARl.V W.\(;()N RO.\l)S AND M.\II, ROUTES. 

HE first roads in the country were Indian 
trails, that perhaps had been used during 
centuries. These were simply paths in the 
woods, of a width sufficient to allow the pas- 
sage of one person at a time, for in that order 

constant and 
lecome well worn. 

(j^S- the Indians always traveled. By 
"^ long continued use they had becon 




and they sometimes had a deplli of twelve inches or more 
where the soil was soft. Over these trails the first settlers 
in 1762 and 1763 came, and when they brought wiili them 
teams of oxen and carts it was necessary to widen these 
paths by cutting away the timber in places. 

Thus originated tiie first wagon road from the Del.i- 
ware to the Lackawanna and Susquehanna rivers, and to 
the Wyoming valley, where the first settlement was made. 
Mr. Allen Secord of Dunmore — the oldest resident of the 
Lackawanna valley — says that this road left the Lacka- 
waxen near the forks at Dyberry, came through the great 
swamp, crossed Cobb's Mountain, followed Roaring 
brook to where are now the Pennsylvania Coal Com- 
pany's works at the foot of Plane No. 6; thence went 
directly to the Lackawanna river, which it crossed and 
followed on the west side to the Sus(iiielianna. Near 
No. 6 stands one of the original marked trees of this road, 
which Mr. Secord has known more than sixty years. 
Hollister says of this road: "The old Connecticut or 
Cobb's road, shaded by giant pines, e.xtending from the 
summit of the mountain to Capoose, had no diverging 
pathway to Slocum Hollow, No. 6, or Blakely, because 
neither of these places had yet acipiired a settler or a 

The following extracts from the records of Westmore- 
land for 1772 show what action was afterward taken 
concerning the construction of this road. At a meeting 
held in Wilkes-Barre October 2nd, 1772, it was voted 
"that Mr. Durkins of Kingstown, Mr. Carey of Locka- 
worna, Mr. Goss for Plymouth, Mr. Daniel Core for 
Wilkesbarre, Mr. William Stewart for Hannover, are ap- 
pointed a comtee to Draw subscriptions & se what they 
Can Git sighned by ye adjourned meeting for ye making 
a Rode from Dilleware River to Pitts-town." This meet- 
ing was adjourned to the 5th of the same month, when it 
was "voted that Esq. Tryp, Mr. John Jenkins, Mr. Phil- 
lip Goss, Mr. John Durkins, Captain Bates, Mr. Daniel 
Gore, Mr. \\'illiam Stewart are appointed Comtee-men to 
mark out ye Rode from Dilleware River to Pitts-town," 
etc. October 19th, 1772, it was "voted that Esq. Tryp 
is appointed to oversee those persons that shall from 
time to time be sent out from ye severall towns to work on 
ye Road from Dilleware River to this & so that ye work 
be Done according to ye Directions of ye Comtee, that 
was sent out to mark ye Road." The wages paid to 
laborers on this road would hardly be considered remun- 
erative now. " Escp Tryp," the overseer, was allowed 
"Five Shillings Lawful! money pr. Day-" For the others 
it was "voted, that those Persons that shall Go out to 
work on ye Rode from Dilleware River to ye westermost 
I)art of ye Great Swamp Shall Have three sillings ye day 
Lawfull money for ye time they work to ye F^xceptance 
of ye over seors; and from ye Great Swamp this way, 
Shall Have one shilling and sixpence pr. day and no 

The fine road, six rods in width, which runs parallel 
with the river through Kingston was laid out in 1770; 
and about that time, or soon afterward, a road was estab- 
lished between Wilkes-Barre and Pittston, at both of 

whi( h places ferries were established. Another was also 
constructed through Kingston, connecting with this across 
the Sus(|uehanna just below Wilkes-Barre. 

In 1779 a road from the Delaware at Raston to the 
."^usciuehanna at Wyoming was ojiencd for the passage 
of General .Sullivan's army. Improvements were after- 
ward made on this, which was long known as Sullivan's 
road, and it bc( ame the main thoroughfare between this 
entire region and Philadelphia. 

.\nother connection between the Siisqueharma an<l 
Delaware was established by the construction, from 1787 
to 1789, of the State road from Nescopetk Falls to the 
Lehigh river. These roads were constructed according 
to the circumstances and fashions of those limes, and 
bore very little re.semblance to the macadamized car- 
riage drives of the present day. One feature of them, 
which is rarely seen now and which will soon cease to be 
known, was the corduroy that was used for making cros- 
sings over marshy spots or swamps. This was made of 
small logs laid across the track, close together. Although 
the passage way thus made over the swamps was dry it 
was anything but smooth. 

The first roads through Wyoming county, although 
they followed the general course of the Sus(|uehanna 
river, along which settlements were first made, ran over 
the hills a short distance from the river, es|)ccially where 
" narrows " occur. The construction of roads along the 
river through these passages where room could not be 
found for a path without excavating was then considered 
too expensive, and the hills were surmounted to avoid 
those places. 

These primitive roads were little more than paths, 
which wound through the forest to avoid trees and other 
obstructions, with marked trees to indicate their course 
and here and there a tree cut away to clear the path of 
an unavoidable obstacle. While the settlements were 
limited to the shores of the river and its larger tributaries 
the necessity for improved highways was less urgent than 
afterward; for the early settlers soon became very expert 
in the management of canoes, and much of their busi- 
ness, such as marketing, milling, etc., was done over the 
river. At that period the river was also utilized as a 
highway in the winter, and temporary roads were often 
made through long distances on the ice. 

At the commencement of the present century, by rea- 
son of the large increase of population and productions, 
an urgent necessity for better facilities for communica- 
tion and transportation between this region and commer- 
cial centers was apparent. To su|)ply this demand the 
F^aston and Wilkes-Barre turnpike compiny was char- 
tered in 1802: and the road, a large portion of which 
occui)ied the old Sullivan road, was completed about 
four years afterward, at an expense of about $75,000. 
Not only was a great desideratum supplied by the con- 
struction of this road, but liberal dividends were paid on 
.the stock. The success of the enterprise gave an addi- 
tional impulse to the turnpike mania wliii Ii .iroM- .ilmut 
that time. 

On the 30th of March, 181 1, the Legislature pa-sscd " an 






act to enable the governor to incorporate a comjiany 
for making an artificial road from the northern boundary 
of this State, at the most suitable place near the twenty- 
eighth mile stone, to the place where the seat of justice 
is located for the county of Susquehanna; and thence by 
the best and nearest route to the borough of Wilkes- 
Barre, in the county of Luzerne." 

Hon. P. M. Osterhout, of Tunkhannock, said of this 
turnpike in an article published by him in 1S79: 

"The road was to tie coin ineiiced within three years, and tini.shed with- 
in ten. The tii'St [)a>"tncnt on account of stock was made by Mattliias 
Hollcnliack, the father of (jeorg-e M. Hollenback, of Wilkes- Barrc, whidi 
was June Silth, 1HI2. Jesse Fell was then treasurer of the coinjiany. The 
road was located on the west side of the river until it i-eached Tunkhan- 
nock -from Wilkcs-llarre— where it crossed the ri\er. When the sur- 
\'cyors came to tlie mountain at Swartzwood's quite a contro\'ersy arose 
whether they should cross the river by ferry at that point, or g-o over 
the mountain to Asa Keeler's and from thence to Tunkhanno(;k, and 
cross the river there. The Harding.s, the Millers, the Lees and the Jen- 
kinses wanted the road located on the west side of the ri\'er until it 
reached Tunkhannock : <in the other hand the Osterhouts, the Marcys, 
the Averys, the .Sherwoocls, Uobertses and others desired the crossing 
should lie at Keeler's ferry. Finally a bet was made as to the distance 
between the two routes, ami as there was n(^t much money in the coun- 
try at that time the wager was made in cattle — young- stock--and the 
different routes chained. The west side of the river won and the turn- 
pike was located there. While the turnpike was beinjj: made the jieople 
on the east side of the river, to counteract the effect of the turnpike, 
determined to have a continuous road on their side of the river from 
Pitfston to Tunkhannock. There was then no road along the river 
through the Falling Spring narrows, the narrows above Gardner's ferry, 
and the narrows below Buttermilk Falls— the moim tains coming close to 
the river's edge in these localities. It was a hard place to build a road 
and reiiuired a great deal of labor. The people said it would save the 
e.vpense of crossing the river at Wilkes-Harre and Tunkhannock, and 
also the tolls on the ttirnpike, and the.v were determined to have a road. 
The principal men interested had a consultation and it was finally 
agreed upon that the Pittston people should build the road through the 
Falling Spring narrows; that Captain .John Gardner, an old settler and 
prominent citizen living on the flats above Falling Spring, shoiild see to 
and superintend the building of the road through the narrows above 
Gardner's ferry ; and that David Osterhout should see to the building 
of the rood through the narrows below Buttermilk Falls. 

•' These roads were built by the gratuitous labor of the men in the 
neighborhood, without tax or expense to the townships. The people 
turned out voluntarily as they would to a stone or logging bee, and 
worked without fee or reward." 

The road which had been constructed between Nesco- 
peck and the Lehigh was converted into the Susquehanna 
and Lehigh turnpike. The Susquehanna and Tioga turn- 
pike, from Berwick to Towanda, passed through Fair- 
mount and Huntington. A turnpike was also established 
be'ween Blakely and Dundaff. 

The Philadelphia and Great Bend turniiike (^commonly 
known as the Drinker turnpike), which connected with 
the Easton and Wilkes-Barre road at Taylorsvillc, was 
chartered in 1819 and completed in 1826. It was an im- 
portant thoroughfare. Hollister says: "It promised as 
it passed through Providence, x'.ith its tri-weekly stage 
coach and mail, to land passengers from the valley in 
Philadelphia after two days of unvarying jolting. This 
road was the first highway through Cobb's Gap." The 
three villages through which this road |)assed were Brick- 
town 'now Dunmorel, Razorville (now Providence;, and 
Clark's (ireen. It was an important avenue of transport- 
ation for produce and droves of animals to Philadelphia 
7ia Easton, and for merchandise back. 

Some of these roads were constructed at great expense, 
but after a time they were abandoned. The Easton and 
\Vilkes-Barre road continued in operation longer than 
any of the others. 

Plank roads were first introduced into the United States 
in 1846, and at once the plank-road mania became even 
more prevalent than the rage for turnpikes had been be- 
fore. In 185 1 the Wilkes-Barre and Providence Plank 
Road Company was chartered, and the road constructed 
as far as Pittston, eight miles. 

The Scranton and Carbondale Plank Road was con- 
structed in 1853 and 1854, and since that time the Provi- 
dence and Waverly, the Bear Creek and Lehigh, and the 
Gouldsborough Plank Roads have been built, but they 
have met the fate of these roads generally throughout the 
country. Like many enterprises which are entered on in 
the midst of excitement, without careful consideration 
and prudent foresight, these have proved to be bad in- 
vestments for the stockholders, though they were bene- 
ficial to the country. 

According to Pearce the first post route in this region 
was established in 1777, between Wyoming and Hartford, 
Conn., and the mail was carried once in two weeks by 
Prince Bryant, who was paid by private subscription. The 
conveyance of mails in the colonies had been provided for 
by the British government in 1692, and at the commence- 
ment of the Revolutionary war the control of the post- 
office system was, of course, taken in charge by the fed- 
eral government. 

It appears that after the organization of Luzerne county 
a weekly mail between Wilkes-Barre and Easton was es- 
tablished, and in 1797 Clark Behe was the carrier, and 
advertised to carry passengers during good sleighing. A 
weekly mail was sent by the postmaster at Wilkes-Barre 
during this year to Nanticoke, Newport and Nescopeck, 
to Berwick, and back by way of Huntington and 
Plymouth. The mail matter was left at such private 
houses as the postmaster designated, for Wilkes-Barre 
was the only post town in the county. 

A fortnightly mail was established between Wilkes- 
Barre and Great Bend in 1798, and another, once a week, 
between Wilkes-Barre and Owego, N. Y., in 1799. The 
names of Jonathan Hancock, Charles Mowry and a Mr. 
Peck are recorded as mail carriers in 1800 and 1803. 

The Providence post-office was the first in the Lacka- 
wanna valley. It was established at Slocum Hollow in 
181 1, and Benjamin Slocum was appointed postmaster. 
The mail was carried by Zephaniah Knapp, on horse- 
back, once a week, or in bad travelling once in two 
weeks. The route was from Wilkes-Barre, 7'ia Slocum 
Hollow, to Wilsonville then the county seat of Wayne 
county; returning rM Bethany, Belmont, Montrose and 
Tunkhannock. In 1824 the office was removed from 
Slocum Hollow to Providence, and another established 
at Hyde Park, with William Merrifield postmaster. Hol- 
lister says that an old gentleman who discharged the 
duties of mail boy from 181 1 to 1824 relates many anec- 
dotes of his adventures, and his encounters of humanity 
in its " most amusing aspects" at the stopping places on 
his route. 

"At one point," writes our informant, " the offlce was kept in a low 
log bar-room, where, after the contents of the mail pouch were emptied 
on the unswept floor, all the inmates Ka\o slow and repeated motion to 
each respective paper and letter. 



"Somctiiiu's tlir niiill hoy, llmllnic no one at home liiit the children, 
who were Keiienilly entriiKi'il (Inininiintr on the (linnn- pot, or the house- 
wife, uniliioiis with liinl iiiiil <lniiirh. lolli-hye-liiiliyiiii,' a liolsterotiM 
ehild to sleep, was coinitelleil to net as earrler ami postmaster himself. 

"At another point upon the route the eiinimisslon of postmaster fell 
upon the thiek slioiililers of a Dutehinan, remarliable for nothiiiK hut 
his full round stoniaeh. This was his pride, and he would pat it In- 
eessantly while lu' dilated upon the virtues of his ' krout ' and his 'frow." 
It would have lieen anui/.inffly stupid for the department to have ijiies- 
tionod /(i.s order or inteyrity. foi- as the lean nuiil bajf i-ame tunihliiiff 
into his do<ir from the sjiddli', the old eomieal hutehmau and his de- 
V(ded wife earrie<i it to a rear be<i riioni in his house, poureil the eun- 
tents upon the llonr, where at one time it aetuall.\' took tlu-m liotli f i-oni 
three o'eloek one afternoon inilii nine the next mornintr to ehan);e the 
mail. Ileii(n'in^, with Lord Hacoii. that ' knowledge is power," he de- 
tained, about eleetion time, all politieal doeuments direeted to his op- 
ponents. These he carefully deposited in a safe place in his (tarret until 
after election da.\", when the.s' were handed over with Kreal liberality to 
those to whom Ilicy belonK-ed, prn\'i<lfd lie was paid the postajfc. 

"At anollu'i- remote place whci-e the (jdice was kept, the mail baK be- 
inif returm-d to the post-bo.v almost empty led him to investi^fate the 
cause of tliis sudden collapse in a ncijrhborhoftd inhabited by tew. The 
prolific numberof ten children, graduating frotn one t4i tw<'nty in years, 
all called the i>ostnuister ' dad,' and as none could read, letters and papers 
c-ame to a dead stop on arri\'injr thus far. As these were poin-ed out on 
the floor among pans and kettles each child would seize a package, ex- 
claiming, "Phis is formel' and ' This for you !' and that for somebody else, 
until the greater bulk of mail matter intended for other oltiecs was par- 
celed out and appropriated, and never heard of again." 

The first regular stage, a two-horse vehicle, was es- 
tablished between Easton and Philadelphia in 1806 by 
Messrs. Robinson and -Arndt. The trip was made weekly 
and required a day and a half for each way. Conrad 
Teter is still remembered by some of the oldest citizens 
as one of the earliest stage proprietors. He carried the 
mail in his stages weekly between Sunbury and Painted 
Post, by way of VVilkes-Barre, Tunkhannock, etc., from 
1810 to 1816. Pearce says of him: " He was a large fat 
man, of a jovial disposition and desirous of making a 
favorable impression on strangers. He drove stage, his 
own stage, up the river. He took pleasure in pointing 
out /lis farms to the passengers. He frequently informed 
them as he passed the large residence and farm of 
Colonel Benjamin Dorrance, in Kingston, that he was the 
owner, and if asked why he drove stage would reply that 
he loved to rein four horses but had no taste for farming." 

In 1 816 three brothers named Horton established a 
line of four-horse coaches over this route, and during 
eight years carried the mails between Baltimore and 
Owego, VVilkes-Barre and Montrose. 

About the year 1822 the first stage ran between Wilkes- 
Barre and Dundaff. It was at first a two-horse vehicle, 
and was run by the brothers Daniel and John Searles 
Two years later a four-horse vehicle re[)laccd the first, 
and the route intersected the Milford and Owego Turn- 
pike at Carbondale. The Searles brothers were then the 
proprietors of the line. 

Pearce records George Root as the veteran stage driver 
of this region, a title to which a service of forty years 
entitled him. 



("KX rURV has i)assed since anthracite coal 
was first taken from the Wyoming valley to 
/®^' vjl, be used in the forges of the United States 
armory at Carlisle. It was tjuarried from 
outcropping veins on the banks of the .Siis(iue- 
hanna river, near Wilkes-Barre; floated in Dur- 
ham boats to Harris's laniiing and thence 

drawn in wagons to its destination, A trade floating to 
market with the current, in boats which on the return 
trip must be towed or pulled up stream by the arms nf 
sturdy boatmen, must have been small; but it was the be- 
ginning, and, continuing through the Revolutionary war, 
and through various stages of progress, it has reached 
giant proportions while yet. in 1880, scarce beyond its 

Volney 1,. .\la.xwell, Est]., in his interesting " Lectures 
on Mineral Coal," read before the Wyoming Hislorical 
and Geological Sot iety in 1858, says that the old (|iiarry 
above Mill creek, from which the first coal was taken, was 
explored by direction of its proprietor. Colonel George 
M. Hollenbai k, some years before, when traces of the 
ancient mining were found, overgrown with large trees. 
At that early day the presence of coal was only known by 
its appearance or outcropping at the earth's surface, few 
believing thai it could follow, like the under crust of a jjie, 
from one rim of the basin to the other. Long after, in 1837. 
a newspaper ]Hiblislied by .Messrs. Webb iV Blackman, in 
ICingston, replied to the question, " Does coal run under 
all land in the valley ?" " Yes — certainly. At Carbon- 
dale they have followed the coal under ground about a 
mile." Even at this date there are peojile in the coal 
field who doubt its existence beyond the reach of vision. 
As a rule, the deeper it lies the belter it is supposed to 
be. Near the old mine the Lehigh Yalley Coal Comjiany 
has now two shafts in full operation, the coal more 
than six hundred feet below the surface, from which sev- 
eral hundred thousand tons of anthracite may be raised 
annually; the mines extending not only under the lands 
of Mr. HoUenback, but under and beyond the river Sus- 
. (juehanna, taking coal from the farms of Colonel Charles 
Dorrance and others on the Kingston side. 

The trade down the Susquehanna continued and in- 
creased after the war closed. The coal, quarried from 
the hill sides, hauled to the river in wagons and loaded 
into arks built for the purpose, of rough planks, floated 
off on the spring and summer freshets in search of a 
market. 'I'eams of mine-owners antl of neighboring far- 
mers found winter employment; labor otherwise unem- 
ployed had occupation in mining, cutting timber for the 
rude arks, and in manning them for the voyage. Whal 
jolly fellows were those arkmen and raftmen returning 
with pockets full of money from the annual frolic down 
the river. Few of thcui are left, but they insist upon 
their right of recognition as pioneers in the opening coal 
trade, earlier than 1820. 

Mr. John B. Smith, senator from Luzerne in the Legis- 
lature of Pennsylvania and a son of Abijah Smith, one of 
the earliest operators of Plymouth and pro|)rietor of one 
of the largest mines then known in the valley, wrote to 
the Wilkes-Barre R(cori1 of tlu 7////«Ocfober 27th. 1874: 
" I see you make a statement in your daily that the coal 
business opened in 1820, with 365 tons. .Abijah Smith 
purchased an ark in Wilkes-Barre, of John P, .'\rndt, 
November 9th, 1807, and ran it to Columbia, loaded with 
fifty-five tons of coal. From that date .Abijah Smith and 
John Smith ran several arks yearly to 1826, loaded « ith 



coal for market. In iSii and 1812 they ran 220 tons of 
coal to Havre-de-Orace, had it re- loaded on a schooner 
named " Washington," consigned to Price & Waterhury, 
New York, who sold it on commission and rendered a 
statement February ist, 1813. I think you should date 
the opening of the coal trade in 1807 instead of 1820." 

Mr. Stewart Pearce in his full and usually faithful 
"Annals of Luzerne County " says that Colonel Ceorge 
M. HoUenback sent two four-horse loads of coal to Phil- 
adelphia in 1813, and that Mr. James Lee during the 
same year sent a four-horse load from Hanover to a 
blacksmith at Germantown. 

The blacksmiths of this region early learned the use of 
anthracite coal. ' Obadiah and Daniel Gore were smiths, 
who came from Connecticut as early as 1768 and became 
owners of coal lands near Wilkes-Barre. Their experience 
in the use of the coal in their shops is said to have led 
Jesse Fell to his experiment with coal in the open grate, 
to which we are indebted for our pleasant grate fires. 
Judge Fell was a mason, and left on a fly leaf of his copy 
of "The Free Mason's Monitor" this record: 

"February 11, of masonry 5808. — Made the experiment 
of burning the common stone coal of the valley in a grate 
in a common fireplace in my house, and f:nd it will answer 
the purpose of fuel, making a clearer and better fire, at 
less expense, than burning wood in the common way. 

'" Jksse Fell." 

" Borough of Wilkes-Barre, 

"February 11, 1808." 

These experiments are sufficiently authenticated to pass 
into history, and it would be " biting a file " to attempt to 
deprive the memories of Daniel Gore and Jesse Fell of 
the credit and honor so long and so freely accorded by 
those who knew them best, and who often made their 
glasses of "flip" foam with the poker heated red hot 
between the bars of the original grate, before which they 
toasted feet and fingers during the cold winters. 

Among the papers of Jacob Cist, preserved by a grand- 
son, Harrison Wright, Esq., of Wilkes-Barre, Pa., are 
certificates from several gentlemen who have made e.xper- 
iments at an early day in burning anthracite coal. One 
is from Mr. Frederick Graff, dated Philadelphia, May 
13th, 1805, in which he says that in 1802 he had made 
trial of burning anthracite in a stove, and found it to 
answer exceedingly well. Mr. Graff signs as clerk of the 
water works of Philadelphia. This may have been some 
of the coal first taken out by the Lehigh Mine Company, 
with which many experiments were no doubt attempted 
besides the fruitless one described at the water works. 

Another certificate is from Mr. Oliver Evans, February 
iSth, 1803, who says he had used anthracite coal in a 
stove, and in a small contracted grate in an open fireplace, 
Ijroducing a degree of lieat greater than from any other 
coal he had known. 

True the original draft of survey of the manor of Sun- 
bury, made by Charles Stewart for the j^roprietaries, on 
the west side of the Susquehanna had "stone coal" marked 
upon it ; but the date, 1768, is the same as given by Mr. 
Gore to Judge Fell as that of their success in using coal 

in their shop fires, so stated in a letter printed in Haz- 
zard's Register ; and the surveyor, knowing of the use of 
coal for centuries in England, upon hearing of the use of 
it on the east side of the river would naturally suppose 
it to exist on the west side if he had seen it on the hill 

Judge Fell first made a grate of green hickory wood, in 
which he tried his experiments; then had one made of 
iron which he placed in the bar-room of his house. 

There are many living yet who can remember when 
coal was ship])ed in arks from Plymouth, Wilkes-Barre 
and Pittston. Crandall Wilcox as early as 1814 sold 
coal from his mine (now operated by the Delaware & 
Hudson Canal Company, on Mill creek, Plains township"! 
at $8.50 per ton in Marietta, Lancaster county. Pa. His 
sons at a much later date sent coal in arks to market by 
the river even after the canal was completed to Nanti- 
coke, 1830. 

Colonel Lord Butler owned that wonderful develop- 
ment of anthracite, on Coal brook, a mile east of the 
borough, afterwards known as the Baltimore mine, which 
supplied Wilkes-Barre in early times. The coal was 
quarried and delivered at $3 per ton. 

Colonel Washington Lee sent several hundred tons 
from his mines in Hanover in 1820, which sold in Balti- 
more at $8 per ton. This brings us abreast of opening 
trade on tlie Lehigh in 1820. Seeing its 365 tons and 
going it much better, Mr. Pearce states the total to this 
dale from Wyoming at 8,500 tons. 

In 1823 Colonel Lee and George Chahoon leased a mine 
in New])ort and contracted for the mining and delivery of 
one thousand tons of coal in arks at Lee's Ferry at $1.10 
per ton — the coal selling at Columbia at a loss of $1,500. 

In 1829 the Butler mine on Coal brook, near Wilkes- 
Barre, was purchased for Baltimore capitalists, and the 
" Baltimore Coal Company" was formed under a charter 
from the State of Maryland of February 17th, 1829, being 
originally incorporated as the " Baltimore and Pittsburg 
Coal Company." From this company the coal takes its 
name which has given a wide reputation as one of the finest 
veins of anthracite in the region. It first shipped coal 
in arks. 

The Stockbridge mine in Pittston sent coal down the 
river in arks in 1828, furnishing about two thousand tons 
in three years. Joseph Wright had shipped coal from 
Pittston in 1813. This was probably the son of Thomas 
Wright, who had a forge on the Lackawanna near the 
crossing of the main road to Providence and well under- 
stood the value of coal and coal lands. The place is still 
known as " Old Forge." It was among tjie earliest tracts 
to change hands from original owners, having been sold 
by the heirs of Thomas Wright to a Mr. Armstrong, of 
Newburg, and Hon. Charles Augustus Murray, a gentle- 
man from England. It was said that the location of 
Scranton hung in the balance at one time between "Old 
Forge" and " Slocum Hollow," the latter with its blast 
Jurnace aiid iron ore beds securing the prize. 

In its issue of April 26th, 1837, the Kingston paper 
says of the trade: "Up to kyxW 17th fifty arks had 





been dispatched from the Plymouth banks, averaging 
60 tons each. This sold along the river at an average of 
$4 j)cr ton. To this date but a tritle over 3.000 tons had 
been shipped from Mauch Chunk, and only about twice 
that amount from the whole Schuylkill region. With 
the canal from Columbia to tide completed, and the north 
branch by a proper route extended into the lake country, 
' Old Shawnee ' alone can send 150,000 tons to market 
per annum." 

The commonwealth of I'ennsylvania as early as 1824 
provided for the appointment of a board of canal com- 
missioners, with instructions to explore canal routes from 
Harrisburg to Pittsburg by the waters of the Juniata and 
Conemaugh rivers; and also a route by the west branch 
of the Susquehanna, tlie Sinnamahoning and Allegheny 
rivers; and the country between the Schuylkill and Sus- 
(juehanna rivers through the great valley of Chester and 
Lancaster counties. The trade between Philadelphia 
and the great and growing west attracted attention and 
interest, but the wilds of the north branch, in which the 
noblest of refugees from the wilder fury of the French 
Revolution had sought shelter, and the still unappreciated 
anthracite coal of Wyoming were little known and un- 

As early as 1796 a small book was published in Phila- 
delphia which by way of preface opened with a short 
explanation of its object as follows: "The design of 
these pages is to show the importance of the great na- 
tional canal — the river Susquehanna; the eligible situa- 
tion for the purposes of trade and manufactures of some 
places on its banks and at its mouth; its great connection 
with other main waters of the United States, and the ex- 
tensive and fertile surface of country from which it must 
drain the rich productions of agriculture and manufac- 
tures." No mention of coal I 

[n 1791 the Legislature approjiriated several thousand 
pounds to improving the Sus(|uclianna. In 1792 among 
the appropriations was one for a road " from Lehigh Gap 
in the Blue mountain across the Metchunk mountain to 
intersect the Nescopeck road made by Evan Owen, 
_;^200." Another " from Wilkes-Barre to Wyalusing, on 
the Meshoppen creek, and to the State line, ^^loo." No 
word of coal ! 

Havre-de-Grace was to be a port for foreign and inland 
commerce. The author of the work referred to says: 
"The whole trade of this river must center at this spot 
as an entrepot, or place of exportation. Whatever may 
be the exertions of Pennsylvania, or the monied capital 
of Philadeljjhia, //re /mi/f of this river must ever [nirsin- its 
natural channel." " Seldom ever " would seem the more 
appropriate expression suggested by experience. When 
that book was written the migratory shad had a natural 
channel and right of way up to its spawning grounds at the 
head waters; and, fat with abundance of food, furnished 
a luxury for the tables of people living along the river, 
for the loss of which even anthracite is hardly compensa- 
tion — at least in shad season. The writer of 1796 evi- 
dently had no premonition of coming anthracite, or of 
steam wagons annihilating time and space, on iron roads; 

not only along the streams, but carrying the united loads ot 
five hundred wagons with eascovcr some of the highest hilK 
which border them. The age had not yet fully developed 
the energies of a White, a Hazard, or of Wurts. Pardee, 
Packer, Scranton and Parrish were yet in the future. 

The great object of improving the navigation of ihr 
Suscpiehanna, and o])ening a way to market for the pro- 
duce of the settlers upon the upper waters, has been 
accomplished, however, and by the use of its currents 
Liberal appropriations followed the appointment of a 
canal board, and the corner stone of the first lock was 
laid at Harrisburg in 1827, with great rejoicings. Toward 
the growing west, by the valleys of the Juniata and the 
west branch of the Susquehanna, the public funds and 
energies were first directed. The north branch must 
take care of its own interests. Luzerne was aroused and 
her strongest men were selected to represent her in the 
State Legislature at its next session, for the purpose 
of securing early appropriations. Garrick NLillery and 
George Denison were chosen. 

The canal commissioners began to place the North 
Branch division under contract, extending from North- 
umberland to the New York State line. Mr. Pearce, in 
his Annals of Luzerne, thus refers to it : 

" The 4th day of July, 1828, was fixed upon as the day 
to break ground at Berwick; and the writer, then a boy. 
numbered one among the great multitude assembled to 
witness the interesting scene. The military were there 
with their colors and drums and gay attire. Crowds 
came from Wilkes- Uarre, Plymouth, Kingston, North- 
umberland, Danville, Bloomsburg. and from all the 
regions round about for thirty miles or more. (JId men 
and women were there, and the boys and girls from town 
and country came. And there was good cider, and a 
vast supply of cakes, and beer that made the eyes of the 
drinker snap. 

" At the appointed hour the ceremonies began by 
plowing near the present lock at Berwick. The plow 
was held by Nathan Beach, Esq , and was drawn by a 
yoke of splendid red oxen, owned and driven by Alex 
ander Jameson, Esq. The loose earth was removed in 
wheelbarrows, a rock was blasted, cannon were fired, and 
all returned to their homes happy and buoyant with the 
hope of a glorious future. 

" In 1830 the canal was completed to Nanticoke dam. 
and the first boat, named the 'Wyoming,' built by the 
Hon. John Koons at Shickshinny, was launched and 
towed to Nanticoke, where she was loaded with ten tons 
of anthracite coal, a quantity of flour and other articles 
Her destination was Philadelphia. The North Branch 
Canal being new and filling slowly with water, the ' Wyo- 
ming ' passed through the Nanticoke shute and thence 
down the river to Northumberland, where she entered 
the Susquehanna division of the canal, and jiroceeded with 
considerable difficulty by way of the Union and Schuyl 
kill canals to Philadeljihia." 

The first venture by river and canal was frozen up on 
the return trip, and its cargo of fifteen tons of dry good- 
was carred to Wilkes-Barre on sleds. 




In I S3 1 the " Luzerne," built on the river bank oppo- 
site Wilkes-Barre by Captain Derrick Bird, took a cargo 
of coal to Philadelphia, floating down the river to the 
inlet lock at Nantitoke, and returned with merchandise 
to Nanticoke dam in July. In 1834. commanded by 
Captain Bnskirk, the " Luzerne " n.ade the first complete 
round trip by canal between Wilkes-Barre and Philadel- 
phia, the canal having been opened to Pittston. 

From Pittston to the State line, a distance of ninety- 
four miles, the progress of the North Branch was slow, and 
in 1836 work upon it was indefinitely suspended. The 
North Branch Canal Company was incorporated in 1842 
to afford an opportunity for jsrivate capital in the coal 
regions to invest and carry forward the much needed and 
long desired improvement. "Show your faith by your 
works, gentlemen; you who knock so clamorously at the 
portals of the State treasury with the plea of public 
benefit and necessity — you are the ones to be directly 
benefited by this opening of the northern coal field to 
market. Dig your own ditch." 

But the capital was not here in proijer shape for such 
investment. It was asking an impossibility. The farmer 
with his two or three hundred acres of rough land could 
not do more than support his family. The opening of a 
canal or a railroad was to him at best but creating a mar- 
ket for his homestead for thirty or forty dollars an acre — 
say eight thousand or ten thousand dollars — an event not 
desired; and the subscription of one third or even one 
tenth of that sum meant distress and ruin when pay day 
came. The other side of the picture — is it not seen in the 
bright hues reflected from a hundred thousand fires 
sparkling in hall and cottage over our broad common- 
wealth, at a cost so light as to be almost unfelt? Not a 
town or city but is benefited a thousand times more in 
proportion to population than were the scattered peojile 
of this then wild region. The fact was not so apparent 
at that day, although the trade had added one tenth to 
its first annual production of a million of tons. Now this 
district alone in 1879 claimed credit for two-thirds of the 
enormous out-put of twenty-si.x millions of tons sent to 
market. The north and west, for whose benefit the North 
Branch Canal was most needed, received ojie-third of the 
product of this coal field. 

It was with great apparent reluctance that appropria- 
tions were renewed and work resumed on the northern 
extension. The State had transferred all its rights in the 
unfinished work to the company, upon condition that the 
line from the Lackawanna river to the New York State 
boundary should be completed in three yeais. The fin- 
ished portion from the lock at Solomon's creek, on Nan- 
ticoke pool, to the Lackawanna river was afterwards 
added as a Iwnus. The opinion freely expressed abroad 
that this was a useless ditch, only calcidated, if not in- 
tended, to transfer public funds from the State treasury 
to the pockets of needy followers of designing politicians, 
was not encouraging to the capitalists of the vicinage, if 
such there were. But the people once more were aroused, 
and without regard to party united in urging its early 
completion, that our anthracite might have an outlet to 

the cold north country which was being rapidly denuded 
of its forests and would need the coal for fuel, while the 
southern and eastern markets were amply supplied by 
the Lackawanna and by the middle and southern coal 

Preparations had been made in Pittston for trade by 
canal, although it will be noted that trade by the cheap 
transportation in arks continued long after the canal was 
finished. Judge Mallory. John L. Butler and Lord But- 
ler had opened a mine and made a railroad of a mile to 
the canal in Pittston, shipping coal as early as 1840. If 
any deserved success those gentlemen might claim it for 
liberal enterprise, energy and industry. They established 
agencies, jiroduced excellent coal and bore all necessary 
expenses of tolls and transportation. The close competi- 
tion of the region nearer the eastern markets made returns 
uncertain, and unreliable agents caused pecuniary embar- 
rassments. In this way very noble men were worn out in 
waiting for the completion of the northern outlet. 

The absence of northern connections was for a long 
time an obstacle to the progress of work, and it was 
finally intimated that it would be resumed upon condi- 
tion that the Junction canal, a link required in the chain 
connecting the systems of Pennsylvania and New York 
by the Chemung canal and Seneca lake, should be 
pledged to completion at the same time. A meeting was 
called and books opened for subscriptions to the capital 
stock of the Junction canal. Mr. John Arnot, of Elmira, 
N. Y., and Mr. George M. Hollenback of Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa., were present, both deeply interested. There were 
few men along the line at that day who had ready money 
or securities to pledge for it, and subscriptions lagged. 
After some good natured badinage between the two old 
friends and capitalists, Colonel Hollenback said: "You 
subscribe first, Mr. Arnot, and I will put down as much 
as you do." Mr. Arnot immediately added to his signa- 
ture "$100,000." Colonel Hollenback, true to his word^ 
promptly pledged his own name for "$roo,ooo" and in- 
sured the completion of both canals. Actions like these 
must not be estimated by results. The gentlemen had 
little to'gain for themselves, but were actuated by a large- 
hearted public spirit. It was nobly done, but it was too 

The North Branch extension was placed under the su- 
pervision of Mr. William Ross Maffet, an able engineer 
and an honest, efficient officer, for completion. Trade 
was opened in the fall of 1856, when eleven hundred and 
fifty tons of coal passed through it to western New York. 
In 1859 the trade had only increased to fifty-two thousand 
tons. Long delays had been fatal. Railroad construction 
and operation had been so perfected during the suspension 
of work on the canal that the railroads were enabkd to 
compete successfully with internal water communication, 
closed by northern frosts and useless for half the year. 
The North Branch Canal was abandoned. " Sic Transit." 

The Pennsylvania and New York Canal and Railroad 
Company was incorporated in 1865, absorbing the charter 
of the North Branch Canal Company, and by various 
supplements secured the right to occupy the bed of the 




canal, which its railway now follows north from Pittston 
through the Narrows, where there had been scarce room 
for two farm wagons to pass on the way to and from 
market. The railway was opened to Wavcrly in 1869. 
For those who make the delightful excursion from New 
\'ork and Philadeljjhia by the romantic I.ehigh Vallev 
route and the Susquehanna, tlirough the Wyoming val- 
ley, to Niagara and the west, the change is a great im- 
provement in comfort and safety, however it may have 
siiattered the idols of a generation reared in the faith nf 
Joshua White — that canals were superior to any other 
mode of inland transportation, and that the oil which lu- 
bricated the wheels of a locomotive and its train would 
cost more than all the expense of carrying the same ton- 
nage on a ( anal. There was a great difference between 
the Lehigh and North Branch canals. Joshua While 
carried his heavy tonnage with the stream, the current 
aiding. The light freight and empty l)oats went up 
stream. On the Susquehanna the downward trade still 
continues; but the coal taken north had to encounter the 
resistance of the current, and it was a serious disadvantage. 

What might have been the results of an early comple- 
tion of our canal, and the establishment of large markets 
at various points throughout tlie north and west, it is 
bootless now to inquire. I'robably a long rivalry, and 
time wasted. 

The State sold its interest in the canals in 1858 to the 
Sunbury and Erie Railroad Company, the North Branch 
Canal Company being party to the arrangement, taking 
the division from Northumberland north at $1,500,000. 
The canal from Northampton street in the city of 
Wilkes-Barre to Northumberland was sold in the Wyo- 
ming Canal Company, chartered in April, 1859. This 
company was merged in the Pennsylvania Canal Company 
in 1869, the name having in 1863 been changed by 
merger in the Wyoming Valley Canal Company. In 
1878 the Pennsylvania Railroad Com|)any, which 
controls this canal, reported the amount of freight in 
net tons in 1866 as 668,706, of which 438,821 tons was 
anthracite coal. The company has a tine bridge over the 
Nanticoke pool, connecting its mines on the east side with 
the Lackawanna and Bloomsburg railroad on the west 
side of the river, over which its trade is continued through 
the year; having collieries upon both sides openmg some 
of the largest and best veins of coal in this region, froni 
lands formerly of Colonel Washington Lee, Jameson 
Harvey and others. 

TRADE liV rill-; l.F.HIGH. 

Citizens of Wyoming were early prospectors and oper- 
ators in the middle coal field, engaged in efforts to intro- 
duce anthracite coal to tide water markets while the war 
of 181 2 obstructed foreign trade and the price of coal 
was high. That the opening of those markets was of 
importance to Luzerne is attested now by the fact that 
nearly if not quite three million tons of coal was fur- 
nished to the trade of 1879 by this county from mines in 
the southern townships of Hazle, Foster, Butler and 
Black Creek, having outlet by the Lehigh route; besides 

a fair proportion of the eight and a «|uarter million tons 
credited to the trade of the Lehigh Valley and I.ehigli 
and Siisqueli:inn:i folds. «lii(h 111 I si li.ui- liciii W\ omiii^; 

The editors ol ", Iron and Oil," a work ol v.iliic 
published in 1866. s.iy of the early history and develop- 
meni of the anthracite regions: "The early history of 
coal in America is much less obscure and uncertain than 
its history in England, for obvious rj.iso;n. In fact the 
printers themselves were among the pioneers of our coal 
mines: first to advocate the value of coal, first to embark 
in its development and first to chronicle its success, thougli 
we cannot say they were first to profit. We may notici- 
the examples of Cist, Miner and Hannan, whose names 
appear prominently in the early history of anthracite 

In 1840 the board of managers of the Lehigh Coal and 
Navigation Company ordered the pid)lication of its earlx 
history in a ])am|)hlet of some seventy pages, of whi<li 
free use will be made in this chapter. This will insure 
both conciseness and accuracy. Mr. l)addow says in 
" Coal, Iron and Oil" that Nicho Allen, a noted hunter. 
is reported to have discovered coal on Broad mountain, 
in Schuylkill county, in 1 790. There is no written account 
of it, and tradition may have blended two characters in 
one incident; as only a year after, in 1791, another hunter, 
the famous Philip Ointer, made a like discovery on the 
" Matchunk," or Bear mountain, about nine miles west 
of the site of Mauch Chunk. Philip winter's discovery 
developed into the ni.'.nimoth mine of the Lehigh Com- 
pany at Summit Hill. Philip tells his own story as fol- 

" When I first came to these mountains, some years 
ago, I built a cabin on the east side of the mountain, and 
managed by hunting and trapping to support my family in 
a rough way. Deer and bears were pretty thick, and 
during the hunting season meal was plentiful; but some- 
times we ran short of that, and frequently were hard up 
for such necessaries as could only be purchased with the 
produce of the hunter. 

" One day, after a poor season, when we were on short 
allowance, I had unusually bad luck, and was on my way 
home, empty handed and disheartened, tired and wet with 
the rain, which commenced falling, when I struck mv 
foot against a stone and drove it on before me. It was 
nearly dusk, but light enough remained to show me that 
it was black and shiny. I had heard of 'stone coal ' over 
in Wyoming, and had frequently pried into rocks in hopes 
of finding it. When I saw the black rock I knew it must 
be stone coal, and on looking round I discovered blac k 
dirt and a great many pieces of stone coal under the roots 
of a tree that had been blown down. I took pieces of 
this coal home with me, and the next day carried them to 
Colonel Jacob Weiss, at Fort Allen. 

"A few weeks after this Colonel Weiss sent for me, and 
offered to pay me for my discovery if I would tell him 
where the coal was found. I accordingly offered to show 
him the place if he would get mc a small tract of land 
and water power for a saw-mill I had in view. This h' 

readily promised and afterward performed. Tlie jjlace 
was found and a quarry opened in tlie coal mountain. In 
a few years the discovery made hundreds of fortunes, but 
I may say it ruined me, for my land was taken from me 
by a man who said he owned it before I did, and now I 
am still a ])oor man." 

The history authorized by the company opens with the 
formation of the " I.ehigh Coiil Mine Company " : 

"In V.i'-i n coiniiuiiy was foriiR'rt iiiulcr the title ot tlif Li-liif;li CntUMinc 
Company, «lii) imrchasod fmin .Tacolj Weiss tlie tract of land on which 
the laiffe openinj,' at Summit Hill is maile, and at'tcrwanls 'lookup,' 
under warrants from the eomninnwealth, about ten thousand acres of 
land, embracinjraliout H\ o-si.\ths of the coal lands now owned by the 
Lehigh Coal and Navigation ( 'ompany. The Coal Mine Comjiany proceed- 
ed to open the mines, and made an appropriation of ten pounds {$3fi.67) 
to eonstruet a road from the mines to the landin'.? s (nine miles). After 
many fruitless attempts to get coal to market over this nominal road, 
and by the Lehigh river, which in seasons ot low water in its unim- 
proved state defied the floating of a eanoc over its rocky bed, and after 
calling for eontritiutions from the stockholders until calling was useless, 
the Lehigh Mine Company became tired ot the experiment and suffered 
their property to lie idle fur some years. 

" To encourage and bring into notice the use of their coal, the comp- 
any in December, ISOT, gn\e a lease upon one of the coal veins to Row- 
land and liiitland for twenty-one years, with the privilege of digging 
iron ore and coal, gratis, for the manufacture ot iron. This business 
was abandoned, together with the lease, as from some cause thej' did 
not succeed in their work. 

" In December, 1813, the company made a lease for ten years ot their 
lands to Messrs. Miner, Cist & Kobin.son, with the right of cutting 
lumber on the lands for building boats; the whole consideration for this 
lease was to l:)ethe annual introduction into market of ten thousand 
bushels of coal, for tJte hoirlit of the /c.'wcf.s. 

" Five ark loads of coal were despatched by these gentlemen from the 
landing at Mauch Chunk, two of which reached Philadelphia, the others 
having been wrecked in their passage." 

When Colonel Weiss received the pieces of coal from 
the hunter he took them to Philadelphia and submitted 
them to the inspection of John Nicholson, Michael Hill- 
egas and Charles Cist, who authorized Colonel Weiss to 
satisfy Ginter upon his pointing out the precise location 
of the coal. These gentlemen united with others in 
forming the coal mine company, but without i charter. 
Mr. Maxwell includes the eminent financier of the Rev- 
olutionary war, Mr. Robert Morris, among the active pa- 
trons of the early improvement of the Lehigh, but men- 
tion of his name does not occur in the early histories 
within reach. 

Jacob Cist, a gentleman of unusually solid and brilliant 
scientific attainments, who had in early life removed to 
Wyoming, was a son of Charles Cist. In 1813 lie united 
with Charles .Miner, editor of the GlraiuT, and John W. 
Robinson, all of Wilkes-Barre, in the lease on the Lehigh. 
Stephen Tuttle was a fourth. Isaac A. Chapman, after- 
ward editor of the Glcaiwr, and author of an early his- 
tory of Wyoming, was at one time associated in the en- 
terprise. He was an engineer with Milnor Roberts and 
Solomon W. Roberts on the upper division of the navi- 
gation under Canvass White, and died at Mauch Chunk 
while in the company's service. 

Acurious old contract of January 27th, 1S15, " between 
Chas. Miner of the one part and Benjamin Smith and 
James Miars of the other part, witnesseth that the said 
Smith and Miars have agreed to haul from the great coal 
bed near the Lehigh, commonly called the Weiss bed, to 
the landing near the Lints place sixty tons of stone coal 
by the first day of April, 1815, for which the said Miner 

is to jiay them four dollars and fifty cents per ton." If 
the full amount was not hauled the price was to be only 
four dollars. 

There is also a memorandum, signed and sealed by 
Philip Heermans, agreeing to build arks in a workmanlike 
manner, ready to run by the first spring freshets in the 
Lehigh, ten arks for four hundred dollars. " Said Charles 
to find all the materials on the spot; to haul the timber, 
board the hands, and to furnish them a reasonable quan- 
tity of whiskey. Wilkes-Barre, November 23, 1814." A 
note added — "Mr. "Heermans was a very clever fellow 
and had built the arks previously used. I wish he had 
lived to see the present development of the coal business 
on his native Lackawanna." 

The company's history says: "Only four dollars was 
paid for hauling the coal over the road before referred to, 
and the contractor lost money. The principal part of 
the coal which arrived at Philadelphia was purchased at 
twenty-one dollars per ton by White & Hazard, who were 
then manufacturing wire at the falls of the Schuylkill. 
But even this price did not remunerate the owners for the 
losses and expenses of getting the coal to market, and 
they were consequently compelled to abandon the prose- 
cution of the business, and of course did not coinply with 
the terms of the lease." 

The venerable James A. Gordon, still hale and active, 
in memory and body, wrote from his home in Plymouth 
to the Wilkes-Barre Record of the Ti?ncs, February, 1874, 
his recollections of this early Luzerne enteriirise on the 
Lehigh : 

" On the ITth .July, 1H1+, with Abial Abbott, Sterne Palmer, Strange H. 
Palmer (another printeri, Thomas P. Beach, Joseph Thomas, Chester 
Dana and Josiah Horton, shouldered knapsacks and tools for a march 
to the Lehigh to build arks for Messrs. Cist, Miner and Miilhouse. (Hil- 
legas ■/ ) 

" Four arks were ready for loading by the first freshet. The estimated 
cost ot fifty tons, one ark load of coal, was: Mining, $50 ; hauling from 
summit, S4..W per ton, SS-^o ; cost ot ark, $125 ; loading ark, $15. Total, 

" Lehigh pilots were on hand. The fleet moved oft with the rapid cur- 
rent, and in fifteen minutes brought up on a reef called ' Red Rocks,' 
half a mile below. t)ne ark got through. In the ensuing December 
peace was declared, and coal went down to si.v dollars. The enterprise 
was a financial failure." 

Mr. Gordon was one of the lads on board the stranded 
ark who stripped nearly naked to stop the rush of water 
through the hole stove in the bow, and got a good wetting, 
of which he seems none the worse. 

In 1879 Lehigh coal sold at Port Johnson for |!2.5o 
per ton. Lackawanna coal sold as low as $2 per ton on 
the Hudson river. The vast expenditure of money re- 
quired to purchase lands, to develop mines, and to con- 
struct lines for transportation of coal to market, which 
makes possible this comparison of prices between coal 
delivered on the Lehigh in 1815 and at tidal points in 
1879, constitutes a portion of the indebtedness of coin- 
panies, the interest on which must be added to the cost 
of production in estimating the economic or the com- 
mercial value of anthracite as a fuel. 

Let those who complain of the grasping avarice of coal 
dealers, or of "soulless corporations," carefully compute 
the saving effected in cost by the sacrifices of time and 
money on the part of the pioneers, and rest satisfied with 

ORIGIN oi- riiK i.i;iii(;ii com. tradk. 


yet higher prices than were charged in 1879. Kor the 
increased comfort to the domestic circles in thousands of 
homes, and tlie prosperity so widely spread through the 
land by rendering cheap and abundant an article of such 
prime necessity, bless those whose labors and enterprise 
have produced the change, rather than revile them for 
imputed faults. 

The early efforts of tlic l.chigh C'oal Mine Conipany 
were said to have resulted in the transportation of .1 
small quantity of coal to Philadelphia. wh.ich the manager 
of the walcr works ])urchased for use under the boiler of 
a steam engine in Centre Scpiare. Erskine Hazard, in a 
communication to the Historical Society, says the pur- 
chaser thought it "only served to put the fire out, and the 
remainder was broken up and spread on the walks, in- 
stead of gravel." 

Messrs. Daddow and li.uinaii, in their book on "' Coal, 
Iron and Oil," say that a Mr. William Morris took a 
wagon load of coal from near I'ort Carbon, in Schuylkill, 
about the year 1800, without finding a market; and Mr. 
William Trumbull was unsuccessful with an ark load 
taken to Philadelphia in 1806 from Lehigh. 

.\ few paragrai)hs epioted from the book will interest 
the reader. All the history of the Lehigh Coal and Nav- 
igation Company belongs to the trade of the Wyoming 
coal field, and every effort to introduce anthracite to the 
Quaker City and other markets as an article of commerce 
was directly in our interest. 

'■ In 1813 Colonel Georife Slioeinuker, of Pottsville, loaded nine wag-ons 
with coal for Philadelphia. Two loads he disposed of at eost of trans- 
ixirtatioo. oin' t() .Ntcssrs. Wliite & liaz u-d, at their nail and wire works 
at the falls of the Seiuiylkill; and the other to Messrs. Mellon i Itishop, 
of the Delaware eoiinty rollinj; mill. The other seven loads he either 
Bn\ e awa.v, or disposed of for a trifle, to l)lacksniith.s, or others who 
promised to try it. lint the eolonel was not to (ret olf so easily. Though 
he lost time and money, and had the trouble of his attempts to introduce 
a fuel whieh has sinee made Philadelphia one of the most wealthy and 
prosperous cities in the world, the \ ery men to whom he had given his 
coal obtained a writ from the authorities of that city for his arrest us an 
iuip()stor anil swindler. 

•• In the meantimo Mr. White, who was an.xlons to succeed in burning 
this coal, with some of his men spent a whole morning in trying to ignite 
it and raise a heat in one of their furnaces. They tried every possible 
expedient whieh skill and experience in other fuelseould sugjrest. They 
rafccd it, and [>i>kti{ it, and slirnil it up, and blew upon the surface through 
open furnace doors with perseverance and persistent determination; 
but all to no ))urpose. Colonel Shoenmker's roiks would not burn, and 
the attempt was abandoned. Dinner time arrived, and the men shut 
'he furnace doors in disgust, heartily tired of the stones, or stone coal, 
if such it was. 

•■ lieturning from ilinnerat the usual time, all hands were astonished 
at the phenomena which they l>eheld. The furnace doors were red hot, 
and the whole furnace in dangerof being melted down with a heat never 
before experienceil. On opening the doors a glowing nuiss at while 
heat was discovered. ,So hot a tire had never before been seen in the fur- 
nace. From this time anthracite stone coal found friends and advo- 
cates in Philadelphia, anil the motto ' let it alone ' became a recipe for 
its use." 

Mr. Hazard in a communication published in the 
proceedings of the Pennsylvania Historical Society says 
that Mr. Joshua Malin told them that he had succeeded 
in using Lehigh coat in his rolling mill, and that White 
it Hazard ])rocured a load of it which cost one dollar 
jier bushel. It was entirely wasted without getting up 
heat. Another cart load was obtained and a whole night 
spent in endeavoring to make a fire in the furnace, when 
the hands shut the furnace door and left the mill in 
despair. Fortunately, one of them left his jacket in the 


mill, and returning for it in about half an hour noticed 
(hit the furnace door was red hot, etc., etc. 

This makes the fact of the experiment and its success 
clear. The parties narrating were interested in different 
mines of the same long, narrow basin of coal now known 
as the southern anihracite, which extends from near the 
Lehigh almost to the Susijuehanna. 

.\ very interesting "Memoir of Josiah White" by his 
son-in-law Richard Richardson, now living in Arch sireit, 
Philadelphia, pidjlished by J. H. Lippincott iV Co., 1873. 
furnished many fads in connection with Mr. While's 
efforts to improve the navigation of the Lehigh river and 
introduce coal lo market. It says that coal was known 
to exist in large tpiantilies near the head waters of the 
Schuylkill river, and they procured some from there; but 
the price was enormously high, forty dollars a ton, brought 
to their works in wagons. They concluded to apply 10 
the Legislature for the privilege of making the SchuylUill 
navigable and supply their own coal at a cheaper rate. 
It certainly would .seem more reasonable than the Lehigh 
scheme, but the application in 1812-13 *^^* ""^' ^*''''' 
ridicule of the idea of using coal as a fuel. The member 
from Schuylkill ctninty affirmed to the Legislature that 
although they had a black stone in their county it would 
not burn. They were unsuccessful. 

Erskine Hazard in an article in HazanVs Register says 
that, their application as individuals having failed, they 
called a public meeting and made a more formal applica- 
tion for a charter, which was the commencement of the pre- 
sent Schuylkill Navigation Company, incorporated in 1815. 

Josiah While, George F. A. Hauto, and William Uriggs, 
a stone mason, visited the Lehigh on horseback in 1817, 
reaching Helhlehem on Christmas eve. Mr. White says: 
" L'pon reluming home with favorable impressions of 
the practicability of the project [of improving the river 
and mining coal], it was concluded that Erskine Hazard, 
George 1". \. Hauto and myself should join in the enter- 
prise. I was to mature the plan; Haulo was to procure 
the money from his rich friends; Hazard was to be the 
scribe, he also being a good machinist and an excellent 
counselor." The p.imphlet history of the company says: 

•■ Upon Ihelr return and nmklng a favonilile report II wax B.<«.-<Tl«lne<l 
that the lease on the mining |>ro|>erty ilhe l«i.«e to Miner, cist i llol>- 
insonl was forfeitedliy in'ii i/« r. and that the law. the la.>t of si* which 
had been pa-ssed for the im|>rovenienI of the navlKUllon of the rIviT. had 
Just e.vplr«l l>y Its own liinllullon. f nder tlie-M- clrcumstani'cs the 
I.ehigh Coal Mine Company lieeanie i-ompli-Iely displrltiil. and i'X«i-ui<-.l 
a lease to .Messrs. While. Ilautii and llarjinl. for Iweiily yiiir-. of their 
whole property, on cotidlllon Unit, afier u given lime for pn'panillon. 
they should deliver for Ihelr own benelll at least forty thousand bushels 
of coal annually In Philaih Iphia and the- dUlrlcls. and should pay, u|Mm 
demand, <nie oar of i-orn as an annual rent upon the property." 

So Miner, Cist i\: Robinson, like the poor hunter Gin- 
ter, gained but a loss by their enterjirise and labors, their 
lease having been forfeited by noii user .' It is the fate 
of nearly all who wander ahead of their kind in search 
of wealth or knowledge to lose or lo be lost. Genera- 
tions which follow profit by such losses. In this con- 
nection pardon will be granted by the kind reader for 
the use of space in quoting from the interesting lectures 
referred to in earlier ])ages. Mr. Maxwell, after noticing 
the many abortive attempts to introduce coal into Phila- 
delphia, says : 






"The fact was, the Philadelphinns and the people of 
the Lehigh were behind the times ; they did not take the 
Wyoming newspaper, and suffered the natural conse- 
quences of such a blunder 1 I have been greatly inter- 
ested in turning over their old files. Politics and the 
stirring events of the European and American wars fur- 
nished ample materials for their columns ; but home 
subjects were not forgotten. 

"In 1813 Mr.Miner was publishing 77;(^(J/M//cr in Wilkes- 
Barre; and in a long editorial article from his pen, under 
date of November 19th and the head of ' State Policy,' he 
urged with great zeal the improvement of the descending 
navigation of the Susquehanna and Lehigh rivers. He 
then said: 'The coal of Wyoming has already become an 
article of considerable traffic with the lower counties of 
Pennsylvania. Numerous beds have been opened, and 
it is ascertained beyond all doubt that the valley of Wy- 
oming contains enough coal for ages to co...e.' He then 
goes on to speak highly of its quality, aud says further: 
'Seven years ago our coal was thought of little value. It 
was then supposed that it could not be burned in a com- 
mon grate. Our smiths used it, and for their use alone 
did we suppose it serviceable. About si.x years ago one 
of our most public spirited citizens made the e.xperiment 
of using it in a grate, and succeeded to his most san- 
guine expectations.' 

'■ Again, in the same paper, issued on the 31st of De- 
cember, 1813, in an article headed 'The Prosperity of 
Philadelphia,' Mr. Miner wrote of the objects to be accom- 
plished for her advantage: I, The connection of the waters 
of the Chesapeake and the Delaware — since accomplished; 
2, The connection of the Schuylkill with the Swatara — 
since much more than accomplished by the Union Canal; 
and 3, The opening of a communication from the Susque- 
hanna to Philadelphia by a road or railway from Wilkes- 
Barre to the Lehigh, and thence by that river to the 
Delaware, and thence to Philadelphia. 'I have visited,' 
he said, ' Lausanne and a number of other places on the 
Lehigh, having particularly in view to ascertain the real 
situation of its navigation.' Then, in the next issue of 
the same paper, there is another editorial by Mr. Miner, 
headed ' Navigation of the Lehigh,' and occupying two and 
a half colums of the paper. In it he wrote earnestly and 
at length as to the merits of our coal, as well as to the 
improvement of the Lehigh. Upon this point he printed 
in italics the following sentence: "I say with great confi- 
dence, this is the course pointed out by Nature for the 
connection between the Susquehanna and the Delaware;' 
and e.xjjerience has since verified its truth. He then urged 
upon the public the improvement in question, on the 
ground of the comparatively small expense it would re- 
([uire. He was not too sanguine, as the event has proved. 
On the contrary, he then said: 'Our public im- 
provements must grow with our growth and 
strengthen with our strength. We cannot expect 
in this young country, having so many points to im- 
prove, to equal the old and more populous countries of 
Europe. I appeal to the judicious men who have wit- 
nessed the failure of our grandest plans, if they have not 

miscarried because they were disproportionate to tlie 
necessity and the ability of the country;' and he closed 
this part of the subject by saying. ' I hope our grand- 
children may live to see a complete railway from this place 
to the Lehigh, and a canal from thence to Philadelphia.' 
"This is an interesting passage. It would be interest- 
ing to know just how many of Mr. Miner's readers under- 
stood at that day what a railway was. There was not 
then a railway in existence, — save the 'tram roads' in 
and about the mines of Newcastle, — and to those who 
understood this how much like the merest vagaries of the 
imagination must Mr. Miner's confident hope have 
seemed. And yet it has been more than realized. His 
grand-children have indeed not only lived to see that 
very railroad and canal completed, but he has lived to 
see it himself, finished and in use; and more than this, — 
he has lived to see rot only that particular railway and 
canal, but also five other railroads and two other canals 
diverging from this valley to the great coal marts of the 
country! [.-^nd since the above was written a railroad 
has been made north by the side of the canal; two 
others south to the seaboard cities and beside the 
Lehigh canal; and the construction of two others has 
also been commenced, leading into the valley from 
different directions and by new routes.] 

"But the result of Mr. Miner's investigations, and of 
his explorations of the Lehigh at that early day, was the 
hope that even then coal could be got down the 
Lehigh river to Philadelphia in arks from Mauch Chunk; 
and in December of 1813 he, in company with Messrs. 
Cist and Robinson, of Wilkes-Barre, leased the mines at 
Mauch Chunk and made arrangements to try the experi- 
ment. Mr. Robinson withdrew early from their company. 
" Of Mr. Miner I need hardly speak in this commu- 
nity. For a number of years he represented old Luzerne 
(then embracing all of northeastern Pennsylvania) in the 
Legislature of the State. Subsequently he represented 
Lancaster, Chester and Delaware counties in Congress; 
having for his colleague James Buchanan, now President 
of the United States. In 1S32 he returned to his early 
home, and is still with us, enjoying happily, at his Re- 
treat, the evening of a long and well spent life; the valued 
friend of all about him; and all are friends of his in return. 
"Jacob Cist, Esq., who was associated with him in 
their Mauch Chunk enterprise, was the son of Charles 
Cist, who with Robert Morris and others had formed the 
Lehigh Coal Mine Company. He came to this 
valley in his youth, and commenced the mer- 
cantile business in this town; but he was 
devoted to scientific studies and held a wide correspond- 
ence with scientific men. He understood better than 
any other gentleman of his day the geology of this region. 
Highlv ajjpreciating its coal, and clearly forseeing its im- 
portance, he was ever ready to jiromote its appreciation 
abroad; and great reason have his respected descendants 
in this valley to bless his honored memory, his sound 
judgment and far-seeing forecast, verified in his short 
life by his wise and ample provision for them in the pur- 
chase of coal land. 






"We speak of these gentlemen thus particularly be- 
cause their undertaking was depreciated at the time, and 
the gentlemen themselves subject to ridicule by those 
whom their foresight, courage and enterprise greatly 

Mr. Miner lived to see, years after the lectures were 
read before the Historical and Oeological Sociey, the 
whole of this splendid im[)rovenient upon the upper 
Lehigh swept away by a flood, with all his cherished the- 
ories of interior water transportation for articles of bulk 
and of small value; and railroads, ciieapened by improved 
machinery, taking its place on both banks of the Lehigh, 
doing a business in amount far beyond the wildest of his 
early dreams. Mr. Charles Cist, the father of Jacob Cist, 
Mr. Richardson speaks of in his memoir of Joseph White 
as "an intelligent painter." It is not unlikely that he was 
both editor and painter, and from him his son inherited 
his genius and his taste for the fine arts. In early life 
Jacob Cist, while generously assisting a refugee from over 
the Atlantic, who was in ill health, came in possession of 
an old painting brought from abroad. After his decease 
his family discovered that it was of great value, jjrobably 
the original of Rubens's "Susanna and the Elders." 
E.xact copies of it are found among the engravings in 
foreign art galleries, but the original is nowhere else to be 
discovered. As an original Rubens it is almost priceless — 
the next in value to anthracite coal, to wiiich we return. 

In 1818 an act was passed by the Legislature to improve 
the navigation of the river Lehigh, granting to White, 
Hauto &: Hazard some members said, the o])portimity of 
ruining themselves) privileges " now considered of such 
immense magnitude that they ought ne\er to have been 
granted, and which those gentlemen were, at that time, 
pointed at as extremely visionary, and even crazy, for 
accepting." The history says : 

** The stock of this comi>an.v was sub.scribod for on comlition ttiat a 
committee slioulil imicecil to the Lchiirh ami satisfy themselves that 
the actual state of affairs correipondeil with the representation of theni. 
The committee consisted of two of our most re*pectal)le citizens, both 
men of nuicli mechanical skill and ingenuity. They repaired to Maiich 
Chunk, visited the coal mines, and then built a batleau at I^ausiinne. in 
which they desi'cnded the I.ehi$ch ami maile their observations. They 
both cami' to the conclusion, and so reported, that the improvement of 
the navigation was perfectly practicable; and that it would not c.vceed 
the cost of J.')l),()0(l, as estimated, but that the maklntr of a (food road to 
the mines was utterly impossil»le; for, added one of them, to »rive you 
an iilca of the country oxer which the road is to pass, I need only tell 
you that I cimsidered it ipiitoan casement when the wheel of my car- 
r'lBiie struck a stump instead of a stone." 

This report, of course, voided the subscription to the 
joint stock. 

The Lehigh Navigation Company was organized on 
the loth of August, 1818, with a capital of two hundred 
thousand dollars, in two hundred shares of stock. 

The Lehigh Coal Company was organized on the 21st 
of October following, for the purpose of mining coal, 
making a road to the river and taking the coal to market. 
This arose from a diversity of opinion as to the relative 
profits of the two interests. 

It was thought and suggested that the trade of the 
Susquehanna could be diverted by land carriage over the 
turnpike already made from Berwick, only thirty miles 
distant, and turned to Philadelphia. These far-seeing 

men already imagined the Oanvillc, Hazlelon and Wilkes- 
Barre Railroad, as well as the Lehigh and Susi|uehanna 
road. They said: "By the Sustpiehanna and Lehigh 
the western counties of New York will be nearer, in 
point of expense, to Philadelphia than to Albany, and 
consei|uently a large portion of the produce which now 
goes down the North river to New York may be calcu 
lated on for the supply of Philadelphia." 

Reaching the North river by the Oanville, Hazleton 
i\: Wilkes-Barre Railroad, and the Eastern States by a 
bridge over that stream at Poughkeepsie, must certainly 
have been beyond their most acute mental visions. Yet 
the corner stone of that bridge was laid in 1873. 

In soliciting subscriptions to stock, Stephen (iirard 
said "he formed no partnerships," and declined. Joseph 
Bonaparte respectfully declined, by letter through his 
secretary. One wrote "that his Wilkes-Barre friends be- 
lieved we could not be in earnest in our navigation." 

In the spring of 1820 the ice severely injured several 
of the dams and more money was needed. This resulted 
in the purchase of Hauto's interest by White iV Hazard. 
In April the two companies amalgamated their interests 
and united under the title of The Lehigh Navigation and 
Coal Company; the navigation was repaired and three 
hundred and si.xty-five tons of coal sent to Philadelphia, 
as the first fruits of the concern. This overstocked the 
market and was with difficulty disposed of. 

By a new arrangement made the first of May, 1821, the 
title of the company was again changed, to the Lehigh 
Coal and Navigation ('ompany; the capital stock was in- 
creased and White i\: Hazard released to the company 
all th(Mr reserved rights in consideration of certain shares 
of stock given to them; the company assuming the set- 
tlement of Hauto's claim upon White iV Hazard arising 
from the purchase of his interest the preceding year. 

George F. A. Hauto, whose wealthy friends had been 
relied on to furnish capital, may not have been a capital- 
ist, but he was evidently a very shrewd man. Mr. Rich- 
ardson, in a note to his memoirs of Josiah White, says 
that " Hauto was a German, and had insinuated himself 
into their confidence by his pretensions to wealth and in- 
flueiice. He had to be bought off at a considerable 
pecuniary sacrifice." The exact terms of his agreement 
at settling are not at hand. He was to receive a certain 
royalty per ton, or bushel. A letter from Mr. Richard- 
son conveys the following information upon this point: 

" I have a.scertalncd from some of Jojdnh While's old dixunienl- that 
hi the spriiiir of IIO). to (fi't out of the coni-ern. White and lla/jird a»fn-.'<l 
to srive him a royally of half a cent a bushel <m nil itwl mini-.! and «eiil 
to market, for his Interest In their partnership. Iliiulo afterwanl nl- 
lemplcl to form what was ewlli-d 'The Half I'enI Ciiinpany.' and liwiicl 
shares of stock, of which he sohl in his lirelliiH- lr1M shiin.ii. which, ax 
the par prliw of hfs sti«'k was $!*>. would have »mounle<l to {49,71111. Thb" 
stock was irlven. It wassnUI, in payment of his delns, and at a heavy 
discount on the par value, pndiably at any rate the partlra would take 
them at, aiKl It was Ihouirhl hedlil not niallK' inn ■ i Thii-<im- 

pany afKTward. In IKKI. hoUKhl the niyully foi I upon In.- 

Iwcen them, but I do not know the IlKun-s. I ; - :....i!o was then 


.Assuming anthracite coal to average twenty-five bu^'' ! = 
to the ton, the royalty would amount to one York sh. 
or I2j4 cents, which would give Mr. Hauto, upon the 
tonnage of the company reported for 1879. an income oi 




$87,250. It paid upon the total tonnage of the Lehigh 
and Susquehanna Railroad and Lehigh Canal in 1S79, it 
would be 1^20,000, nearly. 

The rocky and stumpy road to the summit mines is 
now the bed of the Switchback railroad, growing so 
famous among tourists and e.xcursionists to the "Switz- 
erland of America." In 1826 it was decided to make a 
railroad along the turnpike as a measure of economy. 
The only railroad in the United States was one of three 
miles to the Quincy granite quarries. This road from 
Mauch Chunk was nine miles in length, completed in 
May, 1826, with a descent all the way from beyond the 
summit mines to the river. The empty wagons were 
taken back to the mines by mules, which rode down in 
special cars attached to the coal trains, running by gravity. 
He was a sturdy man who could prevent a mule from en- 
tering his pleasure car, which was also his dining car, 
when detached from the traces. 

This improvement, increasing the facilities for produc- 
tion of coal, rendered further improvement of the naviga- 
tion desirable, and, the Delaware division of the Pennsyl- 
vania Canal having been decided upon, it was determined 
to construct a canal and slack water navigation from 
Mauch Chunk to Easton. Mr. Canvass White, whose 
reputation as an engineer stood high, recommended a 
canal of the ordinary size to accommodate boats of twenty- 
five tons. The acting managers wisely overruled this, 
arguing that the same number of hands could manage a 
boat carrying a hundred and fifty tons, requiring but one 
additional horse to tow it; the whole cargo being coal, 
which could always be furnished, and the expense per ton 
be very much reduced. The Delaware division unl'ortun- 
ately was but half the size, and when both were com- 
pleted two boats of the Delaware could pass the Lehigh 
locks. The compa-.iy suffered by this short-sighted policy, 
which the managers, ascribing it to the " experience of 
Europe," said, "had thwarted a noble work by which 
sloops and schooners would, at this day, have taken in 
their cargoes at White Haven, seventy-one miles up the 
Lehigh, and have delivered them, without transhipment, 
at any of our Atlantic ports. 

This "experience of Europe," acquired among the 
narrow and slow canals which had proved so profitable in 
England, operated against the early trade of the Dela- 
ware and Hudson Canal Company almost as disastrously, 
as will be seen in the history of our eastern trade. En- 
gineers and capitalists are, perhaps, still too prone to look 
back, if not now upon the "experience of Europe" yet 
upon the disastrous past, and only perceive when elevated 
upon the advancing tide of commerce of the present 
how limited were their vision and knowledge during the 
past years. There are, however, brilliant exceptions to all 

By act of the Legislature March 13, 1837. the com- 
pany was authorized to construct a railroad to connect 
their Lehigh navigation with the north branch of the 
Susq'uehanna at or near Wilkes Barre, and the capital 
stock was increased to $1,600,000, at the same time re- 
pealing so much of the former act as required the com- 

pletion of a slack water navigation between White Haven 
and Stoddardsville, which had been placed under charge 
of Edwin .A. Douglass, Est]., engineer, in 1835. 

Commissioners ap[)ointed by the governor in 1S38 to 
inspect the work — Samuel Breck, Nathan Beach and 
Owen Rice — reported on the 12th day of June, after 
thorough examination, that " the company having now 
fully complied with the law, and in a manner honorable 
to themselves, and (as Pennsylvanians the undersigned 
say, with pride) most honorable to the State, we deem 
them entitled to a license for charging and collecting the 
legal toll." 

It may not be out of place in this history of the coal 
trade to give the dimensions of one of the locks — No. 27, 
called Pennsylvania lock — on this once magnificent im- 
provement, the pride of the Lehigh, on which so many 
hopes of this Luzerne region had been based, as reported 
by the commissioners : " Twenty-seven feet thickness of 
solid wall at the bottom and ten feet on the top ; thirty 
feet lift, three feet working guard ; chamber twenty feet 
in width ind one hundred feet in length, eighty-six feet 
clear of the swing of the gates, and containing nine thou- 
sand nine hundred and seventy-two cubic yards of ma- 
sonry, and two hundred and forty two thousand four 
hundred and nineteen feet, board measure, of timber 
work ; and the largest dams being of the height of fifty- 
eight feet and of the width of one hundred and ninety 
feet at the combing." This lock and dam sustained no 
serious injury by the great flood of June, 1862, which 
destroyed the navigation from White Haven to Mauch 

The Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad was completed 
in time for shipment of five thousand eight hundred and 
eighty-six tons from Wyoming in 1846. 

How many active men of this region labored in early 
years for the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, 
earning bread and comfortable homes and money to pay 
taxes, and held its name and those of Josiah White and 
Erskine Hazard in pleasant remembrance as household 
words long after the tardy action of the commonwealth 
had given promise and hopes for the future progress of 
its improvements on the Susquehanna ! 

The Beaver Meadow railroad, chartered in 1830, was 
finished in 1S36, extending from the Beaver Meadow 
coal basin which is partly in Luzerne county, to its 
shipping point on the canal six miles below Mauch 
Chunk, a distance of twenty-five miles to Parryville. 

The Hazleton railroad, commenced in 1836, connected 
with the Beaver Meadow road at Weatherly, half way to 
the Lehigh, and the Hazleton coal was shipped on the 
canal at Penn Haven. The old jilanes are seen as you 
pass the mouth of the Quakake creek at Penn Haven, de- 
caying relics of the past, in the midst of the progress, 
bustle and active business rivalry of competing railroads 
of the present. Instead of the lonely wilderness described 
by Josiah White in 1818, when with Erskine Hazard 
they "leveled the river fiom Stoddardsville to Easton, 
the ice not having all disapjjeared, there being no house 
between the former place and Lausanne, obliging us to 

- /3 

f-^^ / , ) ^^yp-i^ vl^Cy 




lie out in the woods all night," now the whistles of a 
hundred locomotives startle the echoes of the hills by 
day and by night. 

Mr. White says : " .Above the gap in the Hlue moun- 
tain, there were but thirteen houses, including the 
towns of Lausanne and l.chighton, within sight from the 
river, and for thirty-five miles above Lausanne there was 
no sign of a human habitation; everything was in a state 
of nature." 

The coal trade of I.u/erne receives full benefit of the 
labors of the pioneers on the Lehigh, and its history would 
be but partially written and incomplete without this 
record of their enterprise. The various basins of 
anthracite coal found in the townships of Ha/.le, Foster, 
Butler, Black Creek, and jjossibly across the boundary 
lines of adjoining townships in the southern portion of 
the county, furnish annually between three and four mil- 
lions of tons to the trade, of wliic h the Lehigh Valley 
Railroad, opened in 1855, perhaps carries two-thirds. 

A contract was entered into between the Lehigh ("oal 
and Navigation Company and the Central Railroad Com- 
pany of New Jersey on the 31st day of March, 187 1, by 
which the latter company became lessee of the railroads of 
the former company, agreeing to pay one-third of the 
gross receipts as rental. The cost of transportation of 
coal, the chief item of tonnage, was to be regulated by the 
price at which it was sold. 

At the close of the year 1873 tlie coal lands of the 
company were leased to the Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre 
Coal Company, which was formed by the consolidation 
of the Honeybrook Coal Company and the Wilkes-Barre 
Coal and Iron Company, at a minimum rental of five 
hundred thousand dollars $500,000), on a royalty of 
twenty-one per cent, of the price ruling at Mauch Chunk. 
This included lands in Luzerne as well as those upon the 
Lehigh. At the same time it was agreed that the Central 
Railroad of New Jersey should ojierate the canals of the 
Lehigh Company from Mauch Chunk to Easton and the 
Delaware division purchased at the sale of the State 
works, paying a fixed rental of §200,000 for their use. 

The stroke of apoplexy which prostrated the whole 
civilized business world, the first attack occurring in the 
failure of J. Cooke iV Co., in 1873, drove the Central 
Railroad of New Jersey into the hands of a receiver. The 
leased canals were abandoned and with the Lehigh coal 
lands passed again into the hands of the original owners, 
who became once more a mining and transporting com- 

The railroad now recognized as the Lehigh and Sus- 
(juehanna division of the Central Railroad of New Jersey 
includes the Nanticoke Railroad and the Baltimore Coal 
and Iron Railroad, extending from Nanticoke, on the 
pool at the head of the Suscjuehanna Canal, by the foot 
of the planes and the light track, to its junction with the 
Delaware and Hudson Canal Company's Railroad at 
Green Ridge in the City of Scranton, now the seat of jus- 
tice of the new county of Lackawanna. Passing through 
the townships of Newport, Hanover, Wilkes-Barre, Plains, 
Jenkins, Pittston and Lackawanna; connecting at Wilkes- 

Barre with the tracks of the Plymouth and Wilkes- Barn- 
Railroad and Bridge Company, and opening as it does 
the heart of this northern coal field, the New Jersc\ 
road becomes an important factor in the problem of our 
future coal trade. 

Near White Haven the Nescopeck branch brings ton- 
nage to the Central from the I'ppcr Lehigh mines in the 
C.reen Mountain basin, and from the Sandy Run mine^ 
in the Little Black Creek basin. A few miles below the 
Sandy Run branch affords outlet to other mines of the 
Little Black Creek at Ecklcy, Jeddo, Milnesville, Eber- 
vale, Cross Creek, Highland, etc., all producing largely. 

The Hazlelon and Beaver Meadow road, merged in the 
Lehigh Valky Railroad, affords outlet from thcHa/letcn, 
a portion of the Beaver Meadow, and the Black Creek 
basins in southern Luzerne. 

.\sa Packer, native of Connecticut, a carpenter by 
trade, acciuired in Susquehanna county, whither he had 
traveled on foot from his eastern home, when a young 
man, found work upon the Lehigh, where his keen fore- 
sight had play and his great energy of character and in- 
domitable will material to work upon. He acquired coal 
property and projected a railroad to carry his coal to 
market from ihe Hazleton region. Following the river, 
his line absorbed the Beaver Meadow road, already in 
operation from Parryville to Penn Haven, where it re- 
ceived coal from the now abandoned planes. Crossing 
the Lehigh at that point, the towing path of the ui>pcr 
navigation occupying the west bank, his road followed on 
the east side to a point opposite White Haven, where by 
a substantial liridge it joined the Lehigh and Susipiehanna 
railroad at its southern terminus, and thus had uninter- 
rupted communication by rail with the great Wyoming 
coal field, and transjiorlation without transhipment to 
tide water. 

All this was not accomplished without opposition, and 
when, after the disastrous flood of 1862, which swept 
away the upper division of its navigation, the Lehigh Coal 
and Navigation (Company decided to abandon the water 
and extend its Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad from 
White Haven along its towing |)ath to Mauch Chunk, the 
head of its canal, competition between the companies 
developed into keen rivalry for room and right of way 
along the narrow passes where there had been scant room 
for a towing path. The Lehigh Valley Company, crossing 
from the east to the west side above Mauch Chunk, occu 
pied available s|)ace by numerous sidings to accommodate 
its growing trade from the (Juakake branch at Penn 
Haven, and the Lehigh and Susquehanna road had to 
draw upon the east bank of the stream at low water for 
material to make room for its tracks in the channel, along 
side its rival. 

The Lehigh Valley Company met tins new pri)jii i l>y 
pushing the road northward from White Haven to Wilkes- 
Barre in 1866, competing with the Lehigh and Sn 
hanna road for through freight. A little incident, <. «. .; 
ing at the time and now amusing, will show to what heat 
the friction of jarring interests had carried the immedi- 
ate contestants. The Lehigh Valley road united «ltli th.- 




Lehigh and Susquehanna road at grade, the bridge hav- 
ing been built, of course, with a view to amicable trade. 
A long construction train of gravel cars crossed the 
bridge one evening, and was shunted upon the rival 
road with tools of all kinds, ready to begin operations on 
the new road, the high bluff on the \\'hite Haven side at 
the crossing precluding any other arrangement In the 
early morning an energetic employe of the Navigation 
Company observed this intrusion, and taking an old loco- 
motive up the track with a full head of steam, he let it 
loose upon the innocently offending train, and butted it 
into the Lehigh, a heap of ruins. The immediate result 
is not remembered, but it is a curious fact, illustrating, 
perhaps, the admiration of Judge Packer for pluck and 
energy, that the chief responsible actor in that day's 
drama has almost from that time been in the service of 
the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company. 

'I"h2 navigation company improved the planes at Solo- 
mon's Gap, and for convenience of returning trains of 
empty cars, light freight and passenger traffic, made a 
light track for locomotive power from the head of the 
planes north by the Laurel Run Gap and back to the foot 
of the planes, a distance of thirteen miles, to overcome 
the steep mountain grade by the planes some three miles. 
The steepest grade of the back track is ninety-si.x feet 
to the mile. It was considered by many to be an almost 
impossible feat in engineering, but it was successfully ac- 
complished under the supervision of Dr. Charles F. 
Ingham, of Wilkes-Barre, an able and experienced en- 
gineer, at what cost cannot be now stated. It w^ould be 
curious to coinpare old and modern estimates of cost 
and trade through Solomon's Gap and the Lehigh. 

In 1833 the Legislature appointed Messrs. George M. 
Hollenback, Andrew Beaumont, Henry F. Lamb, \V. S. 
Ross, Charles Miner, Samuel Thomas, Joseph P. Le 
Clerc, Elias Hoyt, Benjamin A. Bidlack, E. Carey, Bate- 
man Downing, Ziba Bennett, Jedediah Irish, Thomas 
Craig, D. D. Wagner, Azariah Prior, Daniel Parry, Lewis 
S. Coryell, Joseph D. Murray, John C. Parry, William C. 
Livingston, Benjamin W. Richards, Robert G. Martin, 
Joshua Lippincott and Lewis Ryan commissioners of 
ihe Wyoming and Lehigh Railroad Company, who em- 
ployed Henry Colt and Dr. C. F. Ingham, civil engineers, 
to examine the route through Solomon's Gap and report. 
The elevation of the summit above the borough of Wilkes- 
Barre was found to be twelve hundred and fifty-one (1,25 i) 
feet, and above the Lehip;h si.x hundred and four (604) feet, 
and the distance between the two points about fourteen 
("14) miles. Grading for a double track was recommended, 
with a single track at first. The estimated cost of grad- 
ing double track on the western division, eight miles, was 
$20,250; from the summit to the Lehigh, six miles and a 
quarter, $12,850 — total, $33,100; and for engineering and 
unforeseen contigencies twelve per cent. $3,962; and we 
have the cost of graduation, $37,062. Average cost 
per mile, $2,647.28. Cost of one mile of superstruc- 
ture, timber, iron rail plates, connecting plates and labor, 
with one turnout, $3,805.50. Average cost of railroad 
per mile, $6,452.78. Cost of 14^^ miles, $91,952.11. 

Cost of four inclined planes, $4,000 each, $16,000. To- 
tal, $107,952.1 1. Estimate made in view of the use of 
steam for locomotives and stationary power. The com- 
missioners, in an address to the public, say: " Persons of 
intelligence and capacity to judge estimate that two 
hundred thousand tons of coal and three million feet of 
lumber, at least, will pass along this road to New York 
and Philadelphia from the vicinity of Wilkes-Barre, which 
now remain undisturbed where nature placed them ; and 
the great and increasing trade of the Susquehanna, which 
now goes to Baltimore, will be diverted to New York and 
Philadelphia." The estimated tolls upon coal and lum- 
ber would exceed $47,000. Coal could be delivered at 
Easton at $2.82 per ton. 

At that day, with rails of wood covered with a flat strap- 
iron rail, operated by horse power, solid road beds were 
not so necessary as they are now. The Little Schuylkill 
railroad ran a light locomotive on such a track, but not 
with success. So, too, the Delaware and Hudson Canal 
Company with its first imported locomotive, a mere teapot 
in comparicon with those of modern |)attern, failed be- 
cause too heavy for the road. These estimates, ridiculous 
as they seem in the light of modern experience, were in 
accordance with the necessities of the times and the pros- 
pects they had of accomplishing a deliverance in that 
direction. The coal trade of the year ];receding did not 
reach three hundred thousand tons from all the regions. 
The year before the company put their road under con- 
tract the trade was nearly seven hundred thousand tons. 

From the beginning the course of the anthracite coal 
trade has seemed to baffle all calculations, even to the 
year 1880; and those who look back see many wrecks, 
while in danger themselves of meeting the same fate trom 
want of faith in the future. 

The failure of a loan in England, to meet the cost of 
improvements to make good its loss of the upper naviga- 
tion, and the sums thrown away in useless opposition to 
its rival roads, overwhelmed the Lehigh Coal and Navi- 
gation Company, and its works passed into other hands, 
to be resumed as already stated. A modicum of the good 
sense of the early projectors might have shown them that 
there is room enough and market enough for all, and that 
competition for the coal trade must be open for the ben- 
efit of those most interested, the consuming millions scat- 
tered over the broad Union of States, from the great 
lakes to the gulf, and from the Atlantic far beyond the 
Mississippi, even to the Pacific Ocean. 

The comjjany has brighter prospects now, and may 
hope to realize its full share of the profits of the future. 

The growth of eastern trade from the Lackawanna, 
which has followed and rivals that of the Lehigh, now 
demands attention, and will be found equally curious and 
interesting in its development. 


The Wyoming coal field is the largest and most north- 
ern anthracite basin of Pennsylvania. In area it is some- 
thing under two hundred s(iuare miles, or about one hun- 
dred and twenty-seven thousand acres. 




Fifty miles in length, and in breadth averaging four 
miles, it extends from a point above Heach Orove, on the 
west side of the river Susquehanna, liaving a course 
about northeast, to its terminus a few miles above Car- 

Resting on the conglomerate rock of bright i)ebl)le 
stones cemented together, which lies in a cradle of red 
shale, its boundaries are easily traced along the out- 
croppings on the Kingston mountain on the west and 
the Wilkes-Barre mountain on tlic east, while the sincli- 
nal axis or trougli, dijjping under the river, is carried 
deep below the rough hills of the lower townships, ris- 
ing gradually with an irregular formation like solidified 
waves, until its measures thin out and disap|)ear along 
the head waters of the Lackawanna river, having tlie 
shape of a vast canoe. 

The Sus(|uehanna forces its way through the western 
boundary at the middle of the basin, where it receives 
the waters of the Lackawanna, which have traversed the 
upper regions of the basin's trough, and together they 
leave it at Nanticoke, taking a western gorge to Shick- 
shinny, where the stream curves and crosses the lower 
Ijoint of the coal formation on its course to the ocean. 

The cluster of small basins in the southern townships 
of Luzerne county, which are opened by the Lehigh im 
provements, belong to the second or middle coal field. 

While Josiah White, Erskine Hazard and other enter- 
prising citizens of Philadelphia were seeking the black 
diamond among the rugged hills of the Lehigh to its upper 
waters in Luzerne county, and were solving the jjroblem 
of its value as a fuel, other Philadeljihians were exploring 
the northeastern borders of the county for mineral coal, 
and the passes of the Moosic mountain to find an outlet 
by the waters of the Lackavvaxen and Delaware rivers to 
eastern markets. 

Mr, William Wurts was the pioneer " who first con- 
ceived the idea of transporting coal of the Lackawanna 
valley to market by an eastern route." A note to an ar- 
ticle on the Delaware and Hudson Canal (-ompany in 
"The National Magazine," .August, 1845, for which ac- 
knowledgments are due to .Mr. Charles F. Wurts, of New 
Haven, Conn., says: " With such views, as early as 1844. 
and while that valley was yet an unbroken wilderness, 
without road or bridle path above Providence, he explored 
it and the passes of the Moosic mountain to find an outlet 
to the Lackavvaxen and the Delaware rivers, selecting and 
purchasing such coal lands as were most eligibly situated 
in reference to that object." 

On the 13th of March, 1823. .\Laurice Wurts and John 
Wurts, who had conceived the bold enterprise of con- 
structing a railroad and canal to their coal lands on the 
Lackawanna river in Luzerne county, procured from the 
Legislature of Pennsylvania an act authorizing ^L^urice 
Wurts of Philadelphia, his heirs and assigns, etc., to enter 
upon the river Lackavvaxen, or any streams emptying 
into the same, "to make a good and safe descending 
navigation a/ least once in every six days, except when the 
same may be obstructed by ice or flood," from near Wag- 
ner's Gap in Luzerne, or Rix's Gap in Wayne county, to 

the mouth of the said Lackawaxen. "with a channel not 
less than twenty feet wide and eighteen inchesdcep for arks 
and rafts, and of sufllicient depth of water to float boats 
of the burthen of ten tons." Certainly a n)odesl begin 

Forty two davs after this act of Assem'oly was approved 
at Harrisburg the Legislature of New N'ork passed "an 
act to incorjiorate the president, managers and con>pany 
of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company," for ihc 
expressed purpose of forming a water communication 
between the rivers Delaware and Hudson, so that a sup- 
ply of coal might be obtained from large bodies of tliK 
valuable article belonging to Maurice Wurts, of the Stati- 
of Pennsylvania. 

liy an act of the Pennsylvania Legislature approved 
.April 1st, 1825, and an act of the New York Legislature 
of .April 2cth, 1825, the two companies were consolidated 
and reorganized in this Stale as the " I'resident, Manager- 
and Company of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Com- 
pany;" with power to construct and maintain such rail- 
ways or other devices as may be fotmd necessary ii. 
provide for and facilitate the transportation of coal in 
the canal. 

Tolls upon the canal were not to exceed eight cents 
per mile " for every ton weight," and on the railroad a 
sum not exceeding twelve per centum per annum upon 
the amount of money which shall have been expended in 
the construction of said railroad." 

Soon after the consolidation of the comjianies work 
was begun, and grounii broken on the 13th of July. 1R26. 
Parts of the New York section, upon which work was 
first commenced, were being finished when the contractor 
began worK on the Pennsylvania section, which runs from 
Honesdale to the mouth of the Lackawaxen, a distance 
of twenty-five miles, at which point it is joined to tin- 
New York section by, an aqueduct over the Delaware. 
The length of the canal from the Delaware to the Hud 
son is eighty-three miles, making the total length of canal 
from Honesdale to Rondout one hundred and eight miles. 
The act of Assembly of April ist, 1825. limited the 
maximum of tolls to be charged on stone coal to one cent 
and a half per ton i)er mile, and at the same time au- 
thorized the company to assume all the rights originallv 
granted to Mr. Wurts. I'he State had reserved the right 
to resume all the rights and privileges granted at the ex 
piration of thirty years from the date of the law of March 
13th. 1823, without compensation to the company il the 
tolls received had already repaid the original cost of the 
canal, with six per cent, upon the capital invested. 

In June, 1851, a committee appointed by the I-egisla- 
ture to investigate the affairs of the Delaware and Hud 
son Canal Company met at Honesdale and examined 
the vice-president, Mr. Musgrave. the engineer, Mr 
Russell F. Lord, Mr. Archliald. Mr. Thomas H. R. Tra 
cy, superintendent of the Pennsylvania division, and 
others, with reference to time of completion, cost, tolls, 
income and capacity of the canal. 

Mr. Lord testified that he had been in the employ of 
the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company about twenty- 





five years; that work was commenced on the I'cnnsyh'a- 
nia section of their canal in 1826 or 1827, and that the 
contractors were at work in its construction when he 
came as resident engineer in 1827. Boats passed from 
the Hudson to the Delaware river with light cargoes in 
the summer of 1827, and over the whole of the New 
York section in 1828, when bo.its with very small car- 
goes reached Honesdale, and with large cargoes in 1829. 
A small quantity of coal left Honesdale in 1828. The 
original locks on the Pennsylvania section, of which there 
were thirty-seven lift locks and one guard lock used, 
were nine feet four inches in width, seventy-six feet 
long, and from nine and a half to eleven feet lift. Boats 
originally crossed the Delaware river by a rope ferry 
through the pool of the dam. 'I'hc aipieduct was first 
used in 1849. 

Mr. James Archbald testified he had charge of the 
company's mines and railroad. He had been in employ- 
ment with the company since 1825, excepting one year. 
Boats on the canal originally carried from twenty-five to 
thirty tons. The company owned lands for reservoirs of 
water to supply railroads and canals in a dry season, in 
Lu/.erne and Wayne counties. There were four reservoirs 
at that time. They had nearly two thousand men em- 
ployed in the mines and on the railroad, at a cost of 
$1,800 to $2,000 per day. There were already over 
twenty-five miles of underground railroads at the mines. 

Mr. Tracy said there were eight reservoirs of water for 
the use of the canal, independent of thosa named by Mr. 
Archbald, of from ten to three hundred acres. 

Mr. Lord, re-examined, stated the number of locks on 
the New York section of the canal as seventy-two lift 
and one guard lock, fifteen feet wide, one hundred feet 
long, and from seven to twelve feet lift. The maximum 
of tolls in New York was eight cents per ton per mile; 
on the Pennsylvania section, one cent and a half per ton 
per mile. The company charged one cent and a half per 
ton on the New York side, and only o/ie half cent per ton 
on the Pennsylvania section, making no allowance to the 
State for the company's own coal or other freight. The 
amount ex|)cnded on the Pennsylvania section, including 
original construction, repairs and superintendence, im- 
provement and .general enlargement of the canal from 
1828 to Jul)' 17th, 1851, was $[,413,496.98. There was 
another aqueduct across the Lackawaxen above the Del- 
aware aqueduct, belonging to the Pennsylvania section. 
The reason given for the discriminatioi in tolls on the 
two sections was " to encourage transportation of coal by 
the New York and Erie railrod, which does not come so 
directly in competition with Hudson river markets." The 
Erie road jjasses along the Delaware, crossing the Lacka- 
waxen on the Pennsylvania side, and now has a branch 
to Honesdale, passing through Hawley, to accommodate 
the cDal trade by the Delaware and Hudson and Penn- 
sylvania Coal Com|)anies' roads. 

This investigation was undertaken ostensibly with the 
view of resumption by the State, which had passed sev- 
eral acts for the improvement of the Delaware river, and 
had completed the Delaware division of its canals from 

Bristol, in Bucks county, to tLaston, in Northampton 
county, sixty miles in length, to accommodate the Lehigh 
coal trade; and apparently on its way, as surveyed, to 
Carpenter's Point, now Port Jervis, a few miles below the 
mouth of the Lackawaxen. The company was repre- 
sented by Hon. George W. Woodward and William H. 
Dimmick Escjs., as counsel. It is clear that whatever the 
object, the investigation did not lead to resumption, and 
the facts as elicited are given to show the progress and 
condition of the trade toward New York in its early 
stages. From the Carbondale mines the coal was carried 
over the mountain on a gravity road of a single track to 
the canal at Honesdale. It will be observed that "foreign 
experience" had operated injuriously in the east and at 
the south, and the canal was not complete at its twenty- 
five-ton boat capacity until the necessity of enlargement 
became evident. Unfortunitely it is not in constructing 
canals alone that such experience operates disastrously in 
this country. But that is not a subject for c[jmment in 
this portion of our coal trade history. 

The sites of both Honesdale and Carbondale were in 
the natural state of our northern wilderness when ground 
was broken for these improvements. Carbondale in 1828 
contained one log cabin, built to shelter Mr. Wurts in his 
early explorations. It is now a flourishing town, having a 
city charter, and has been an excellent market for prod- 
ucts of agriculture from townships surroanding it for half 
a century. 

Honesdale has long been the county seat of Wayne 
county, a populous and flourishing borough. It was 
named from the first president of the company, Pliilip 
Hone, Esq. The appliances at this point are claimed 
to be " of a capacity to handle one thousand tons of coal 
an hour." 

The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company's trade at 
first was feeble, and anthracite as difficult to introduce in 
New York as it had been in Philadelphia. Mr. John 
Wurts, many years afterward president of the com- 
pany, wrote to Mr. Charles Miner, of Wilkes-Barre, 
a long and interesting account of his efforts to in- 
troduce coal upon boats on the Hudson to gen- 
erate steam as motive power where wood had been 
used as fuel. It seems strange at this time that a city 
having constant communication with Liverpool and Glas- 
gow should have had such strong predjudices against coal 
or so little knowledge of its True, iuiproveinents in 
making coke and the discovery of applying the hot blast 
to the hard coal of Wales were just beginning to revolu 
tionize the iron trade in England. It was not till 1833 
that the introduction of hot blast to the furnaces on the 
Clyde reduced the cost of pig iron more than one half. 
Then wood was still cheap in New York. Not a boat 
could be prevailed upon to give it a fair trial, or volun- 
tarily to lose a day for the purpose of testing this stone 
coal. The greatest concession gained was permission to 
work at night, while the boat was lying idle, in fitting the 
furnace at the company's risk and in furnishing coal for 
the experiment on one of the small day boats. 
This was at last accomplished, and the fact 



demonstrated that steam could lie generated and thelioat 
])ropelled by it. In the same way the owners of a larger 
boat, running between New York and Albany, were in- 
duced to try the coal, and not only the |)ower to pro- 
duce sufficient steam shown, but the more important fads 
that the tri]) could be made with greater speed and at 
less cost for fuel than by the use of wood. This then 
was evidently the dawn of a |)rosperous trade. \ large 
steamboat was then constructed under the Delaware and 
Hudson Canal Company's directions, fitted with furnaces 
designed especially for the use of anthracite coal, with 
successful results. It is possible th;it this may have been 
a ferry boat, as an article in the A'rn' York Journal 
of Commerce in 1835 under the caption, "Steam by 
Anthracite Coal," stated: "The new steam ferry 
boat ' Esse.x,' to ply between New York and Jersey 
City, has been fitted up with Dr. Nott's patent 
tubular anthracite coal boiler. The ' Essex ' is one hun- 
dred and twenty-six feet long on deck, with twenty-four 
feet beam and nine feet hold, using Lackawanna coal." 
The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company contracted 
to deliver to Dr. Nott's boat five thousand tons of coal 
per annum, at $4 per ton, which was one dollar per 
ton below the market price, for six years, coal not to be 
|)aid for unless the receipts of the boat exceeded other 
expenses ; upon condition that the '-ompany should 
have the use of this patent anthracite boiler for 
six steam boats at a price not to exceed sixteen 
thousand dollars. 

It has been stated that coal was used on ferry 
boats in New York as early as i^.^r. The exact date of 
Mr. Wurts's labors is not recorded, and his letter has been 
lost. Lackawanna coal acquired a high reputation as a 
fuel for generating steam, and the increasing demand for 
it compelled constant im])r<)vement in the capacity of the 
canal. Originally designed for boats of thirty tons, which 
it reached in ICS43, it was in 1846 forty tons, in 1S48 fifty 
tons, in 1853 one hundred tons, and now the average per 
boat is about one hundred and thirty tons, " with a ca- 
pacity adecpiate to the transportation of two millions of 
gross tons annually." 

The active competition between the Schuylkill Canal 
and the Reading Railroad, approaching completion in 
1841, so reduced prices that ])ermanent enlargement of 
the Delaware and Hudson Canal was hastened to lessen 
cost of trans|)ortation and meet this competition. But 
it was not enough Canals have had their day and are 
out of fashion, if not out of date — " vain transitory 
splendors." The long, cold winters of northern climes, 
where the bright fires of anthracite coal are most needed 
to cheer the lengthened nights, render canals useless 
more than half the year by their frosts, and the Delaware 
and Hudson Canal Company, with .',n annual trade ex- 
ceeding three millions of tons, having reached the maxi- 
mum capacity of its canal more than ten years ago, has 
now control of the trade on lines of railway leading from 
the heart of the Wyoming coal field to Canada, opening 
directly the very best prospective markets in the world; 
with numerous connections east and west at all important 


points along its route, insuring an almost unlimited d<?- 
iivmil fill ihe products of its mines. 

llll. I'KNNSVI VANI.V 1 llAl, I l>MI-.\NV. 

Like an oasis in the desert, the Pennsylvania Coal 
Company through all the misfortunes and depressicins of 
the coal trade the past few years has maintained its po- 
sition as a dividend paying corporation, and held its slock 
above par amidst the fierce contests of the animals in 
Wall street. 

The reader will not confound this company with the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Com()any, which is now enrolled 
among the roal transporting companies in this region, 
ojierating under the charier of the Sustpiehanna (" 
Company on both sides of the river at Nanticoke. and 
which owns that portion of the old North Hranch Canal 
from Northampton street, Wilkes-Harre, south. 

The subject of this sketch was originally engrafted 
upon the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, the 
ambition of which was limited in extent of its landed 
possessions and ])owers of expansion by restrictive 
clauses in its charter. Two charters were procured from 
the Legislature of 1838, both approved April 16th. "The 
Washington Coal Company " was probably organized 
first, and on .April ist, 1849, was authorized to sell and 
relinquish its property to the Pennsylvania Coal Com- 
pany, under which title the two were consolidated and 
afterwards absorbed the rights of the Wyoming Coal As- 
sociation, chartered February i5lh, 1851. 

Large tracts of land were pur< based in certified Pitts 
ton township on the Susquehanna, and in Providence 
and Dunmore on the waters of the Lackaw.inna. A 
double track railroad was made, the cars propelled by 
stationary power and gravity by a series of inclined 
l)lanes. The distance is forty-seven miles; the tracks do 
not run side by side, but diverge at points to the distance 
of two or three miles from each other, (iround for this 
road was broken in 1847 and it was finished in 1S50 
The loaded tr.ack, as it is termed, or the track upon which 
the loaded cars are run, starts two miles below Pittston 
on the Sus(piehanna, with a plane upon which the coal 
from the Port C.riffith mine is hauled; and a train of cars 
made up at the summit runs by its own gravity, the 
speed regulated by one or two men at the brakes, accord- 
ins: to the length of the train, to the town of Pittston. 
where it is taken in sections to the second plane, from 
which it takes its own way again to the foot of No. 3 at 
Pleasant Valley— and so on to Hawlev on the Delaware 
& Hudson Canal, tapping in its course its mines m 
Luzerne, and on the La.ka wanna in the present county 
of that name. The return track carries the empty cars 
back to Port C.riffith, dropping the proper proportion at 
the different mines in its westward course. 

Many gentlemen held stock in both companies and were 
often at the same time directors in both. At a very early 
day this company secured most favorable terms for rates 
of tolls both upon the Delaware & Hudson Canal and 
upon the Erie Upon the New York division 
of the canal a liberd r >!.• wis fixed, ii was said, to induce 




persons or companies to provide coal to be transported 
on the canal. Upon the Pennsylvania section the reason 
given for charging one-half cent a ton [lermile toll, while 
a cent and a half per ton was charger! on the New York 
section, was to encourage the transportation of coal over 
the Erie railroad to markets which did not come in com- 
petition with their markets on the Hudson — both logi- 
cal, good and sufficient, although seeming to clash, .^s 
a transporting company, through trade was to be en- 
couraged on the canal, as experience has proven it to be 
cheapest on all lines of transportation. As a coat com- 
jiany, looking to large markets and to profits on coal far 
beyond the capacity of its canal, it was wise to be seek- 
ing new markets and encouraging the trade by every op- 
portunity which presented. This foresight has been of 
great service to the Pennsylvania Coal Company. When 
coal sold at $2.50 at Rondout this company paid no 
tolls, but when the price was above that sum one-half 
the increase was charged as tolls on the Delaware and 
Hudson Canal. This arrangement, with the favorable 
terms for transportation on the Erie road, has given the 
company important advantages over rival companies. 
Without the heavy cost of locomotive railroads, owned or 
leased, or large indebtedness to draw interest from its 
treasury, it. has been able to make dividends which sent 
its stock up to 280 per cent, while other stocks were 
below par in the markets. In 1850, the year the gravity 
railroad was opened, it was credited with one hundred 
and eleven thousand, one hundred and ninety-four tons 
ujjon the Delaware and Hudson Canal, according to the 
testimony of Mr. Musgrave before the investigating 
committee of the Pennsylvania Legislature in 1857. In 
1879 it sent to market one million three hundred seventy- 
two thousand, seven hundred and thirty-nine tons. Divi- 
dends have been as high as thirty per cent., and for seve- 
ral years twenty per cent., in quarterly payments. Dur- 
ing the panic of the past few years profits have of course 
been much reduced, but its excellent coal, with skill and 
economy in mining added to the foresight of its ofificials, 
have kept its record good. 

Mr. William R. Griffith, a gentleman of wealth visiting 
Wyoming valley, became interested in its coal deposits, 
and was chiefly instrumental in promoting the organization 
of the Pennsylvania Coal Company, and in selecting its 
coal lands. A jileasant little episode in this narrative may 
be pardoned. Mr. Griffith in early life had among his 
favorite companions a little lady, daughter of a gentleman 
who had since become resident in Luzerne county and a 
mine engineer. For some years Mr. Griffith resided 
abroad, a childless aunt, whose heir he was, desiring to 
finish his education in France, where she resided. On 
his return his first thoughts turned toward the playmate 
of his youth, who he discovered had become the wife of 
a prominent merchant of Carbondale, a mother and a 
widow. True to his early attachment, although apparently 
forgotten, after waiting a decorous time he sought the 
valley and made her the offer of his lieart, his hand and 
his elegant equipage. They were married and lived most 
happily, with the respect and esteem of all who knew 

them. They have passed away. Few remember their 
story. A brother of the lady still lives, an honored 
citizen of Carbondale, and a sister resides near Trenton, 
N. J. Her only son became a prosperous and re- 
spected physician in the city of New York. The Penn- 
sylvania Coal Company owes its existence in a measure to 
this little romance. 


The above named company is one of the grandest 
results of the many great conceptions of genius and en- 
terprise exhibited in the course of development of this 
northern field. By legislative enactment " the corporate 
rights, powers and privileges of the Delaware and the 
Cobb's Gap Railway Company " were merged in the 
Lackaw; ina and Western Railroad Company, and the 
corporate name changed to the "name, style and title of 
the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Com- 
pany." The Liggett's Gap Railroad Company, chartered 
in 1832, was merged in the Lackawanna and Western in 
i85i,and with other small charters and connections, 
uniting like mountain rills w-ith larger streams, this great 
work was enlarged until it h.T-s become a thoroughfare for 
coal tonnage and for general transportation of freight and 
passengers from New York city to the far west and 

It is not many years since the valley of Wyoming was 
likened to that happy vale in the kingdom of Amhara, 
surrounded on every side by mountains, in which " Ras- 
selas, Prince of Abyssinia, was confined in a private pal- 
ace, with the other sons and daughters of Abyssinian 
royalty, till the order of succession should call him to the 
throne." Colonel William L. Stone, in the preface to his 
pleasant book " The Poetry and History of Wyoming," 
published in 1841, says: "The happy valley to wtiich 
the illustrious author of Rasselas introduced his reader in 
the opening of that charming fiction, was not much more 
secluded from the world than is the valley of Wyoming. 
Situated in the interior of the country, remote from the 
great thoroughfares of travel, either for business or in the 
idle chase of pleasure, and walled on every hand by 
mountains lofty and wild, and over which long and rug- 
ged roads must be traveled to reach it, Wyoming is 
rarely visited, e.xcept from sterli necessity. And yet the 
imagination of Johnson has not pictured so lovely a s]50t 
in the vale of Amhara as Wyoming." Colonel Stone had 
' a rough journey over the mountains in the stage-coaches, 
comfortable as they were to the mountaineers, as those 
who read the notes of his visit in 1S39 will remember. 
But he had the full benefit of the glorious vision which 
bursts upon the traveler who, after a tedious day's ride 
from the Delaware, o\er Poconoand through the " Shades 
of Death," reaches the summit of the mountains border- 
ing the valley on the east. 

Sweet vale of Wyoming ! whose (iertrude was once 
embalmed in every heart of cultivated Europe by the 
pen of Campbell, now deemed worthy of mention in 
modern guide books. Has the romance departed from 






it with the retiring red man? and even the dertrude of 
Halleck, seen on the next field, with 

" Love darting eyes and tresses like the morn. 
Without a shoe or stocking, hoeing corn," 

been driven out by flying trains of cars crossing its 
center on tracks leading north and south, east and 
west, from Haltimore to Boston, from New York to 
Niagara, and from Philadelpiiia to Saratoga and to 
Portland ? 

A mile east from the main road leading from Wilkes- 
Barre to Carbondale — not far from Providence Corners, 
then often called Razorville from the sharpness of its 
tavern keeper or of the winds which, sweeping the 
mountain gorges, occasionally blew his house and his 
sign post over — in a i|uiet nook on Roaring brook lay 
"Slocum Hollow," named from its proprietor, one of a 
large, respectable and influential family of the valley, 
who had there his farm and mill, and it may be a small 
furnace. Mr. William Henry, a gentleman of e.xperience 
in ores and metals, came through Cobb's Gap .rom the 
iron lands of New Jersey on a prospecting tour, and 
finding iron ores and coal convenient began the manu- 
facture of pig iron, the power of the stream furnishing 
blast for his furnace. George VV. Scranton with his 
Yankee brothers had migrated from Connecticut and 
settled at Oxford, New Jersey, when young, and there 
engaged in the iron business. He visited Slocum Hol- 
low and, like Mr. Henry, whose daughter he had married, 
also became interested in these ore aiid coal beds; and 
soon perceived with prophetic eye what capital, energy 
and enterprise combined might produce from this wilder- 
ness. Of commanding presence, strong will and per- 
suasive manner, with but a common school education, 
his i>crceptions of business and of character were quick 
and clear. He went to New York and laid his plans 
before the money kings, and soon had capital at his loco- 
motive wheels captive in tlie beech woods. The dam on 
Roaring brook was first too small and then too large. 
Then the furnace became too large, and the steam engine 
had power enough to jjrovide blast for several furnaces; 
but as it is the coal trade and not (ron that is the subject 
of this sketch, each reader will visit Scranton and note 
the result for his own satisfaction. 

At the Delaware Water Gap the railroad from Scran- 
ton united with the Warren railroad, by which it reached 
the Central Railroad of New Jersey at Junction, in 1856, 
together forming the highway for Scranton coal to tide 
at New York. The Central railroad, feeling too independ- 
ent with its immense tonnage, by insisting on terms of 
renewal of contract drove both the Delaware, Lackawanna 
and Western and the Lehigh Valley railroads from it; the 
one to the Morris and Essex road, which was continued 
to Easton, crossing it at Washington, New Jersey, and the 
Lehiah Valley constructing a new line from Phillipsburg 
to Elizabeth along side of and in direct competition with 
the Central, which was compelled to join fortunes with 
the Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company and the 
Lehigh and Susquehanna road of the Navigation 
Company to gain its coal tonnage. It was short-sighted 

policy all round and led to disaster, but served ultimately 
to greatly increase the coal trade. 

In early days Cobb's (Jap on the east and Liggctt's 
Gap on the west smiled at each other over Providen* e 
and the Capoose meadows, a little north and cast of 
Hyde Park and Slocum Hollow, both the prospective 
courses of possible grade for su< h small locomotives as 
were then constructed. Colonel Scranton loved to tell 
of the look of incredulity which met his assertion that the 
time would come when the coal trade by these routes 
would reach hundreds of thousands of tons, and require 
so many locomotives — not one-third the number employed 
when he told it. Upon the completion of his line to 
New York Col. Scranton attended a meeting in I'hiladel- 
phia, for the first time to consult upon the prospects of 
the trade for the coming season. The estimated increase 
was about four hundred thousand tons. Mr. Scranton 
suggested in behalf of his coinpany, just entering business, 
that a fair share of the prospective increase, at least at 
eastern points, should be conceded to it. Without vanity, 
he was a proud man, and met the uncalled-for assump- 
tion that with the heavy grades of his road through 
Cobb's Gap he would not be likely to unsettle the trade 
with surplus of coal with a quiet determination to let 
them see what could be done; and their estimated in- 
crease was far exceeded, with a derided reduction in 

The northern division of the road, through Liggctt's 
Gap, joined the Erie railroad at Great Bend in 1851, and 
its tonnage north, west and northwest in 1878 was 676,- 
207 tons; in 1879 1,506,110 tons. Total coal forwarded 
north and south in 1878. 2,147,353 tons; in 1879, 
3,792,368 tons. 

Colonel Scranton represented this district in the thirty- 
sixth Congress. Re-elected to the thirty-seventh Con- 
gress, he died in Scranton, March 24th, 1861, aged fifty 
years, mourned by hosts of friends who honored and 
loved him. 

Slocum Hollow became Scrantonia, then Scranton, a 
city now of 40,000 inhabitants, active and enterprising, 
the light of its forges and furnaces illuminating the night, 
and the sounds of its hammers and rolling mills making 
vocal the air with their music. Now the scat of justice 
of the new county of Lackawanna, it remains a fitting 
monument to the memory of its founder. 


.Among the oldest of the operators is Mr. Ario Pardee, 
of Hazleton, who has been in the business more than 
forty, perhaps fifty, years in district; successful and 
generous, as was shown by his magnificent contributions 
to Lafayette College, at Easton. In the list of operators 
will be found A. Pardee \- Co.. Pardee Sons & Co., 
C. Pardee & Co., Pardee Brothers & Co., running the 
heaviest colleries in that part of the county. G. B. 
Marklc & Co., Coxe Brothers \- Co., J. Leisenring \- 
Co., Linderman, Skecr \- Co., are growing old in the 

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they are quoted at $1.50 per ton at Maiich Cliunk, and 
from $2.50 to $2.80 per ton at Port Johnson and at Hud- 
son river markets for pea coal, and Mr. Saward, in his 
journal of January 28th, 1880, page 39, says: "The de- 
mand for chestnut, pea and buckwheat sizes, now ex- 
tensively used for steam purposes, is good." Even culm 
finds market now at cost of transportation. 

A committee of stockholders of the Delaware and 
Hudson Canal Company, appointed in May, 1877, to visit 
and inspect the property of the company, reported on 
this subject: 

" Besides this use of culm (made into bricks), repcciteil mid loiidt Cdii- 
tinucd experiments have devel(»ped methods l»y which it is sueeossfiill.v 
used at the mines under the boilers of stationary engines. Only the 
best and most saleable sizes of coal were formerly used for stt'ain pur- 
poses. The jrreat consumi>tion of these coals induced the ctTort to sub- 
stitute for these the nearl.v \'alueless pea coal. This. aft<'r much difVi- 
culty, was successful. Uut suci-ess leci to an increased deman<l for pea 
C(»al, and the ne.xt attempt was to substitute culm for pea eoal at the 
mines. This also was finally successful, and the company now uses at 
the mines annually sixty thousand tons of culm, which was formerly 
worse than valueless. If the company were doinjr full work it would 
consume for the production of steam about two hunched thou.sand tons 
of culm annually. Thus the production of marketjible eoal is increased, 
and culm, which was formerly wasted at larjre cost, n<iw possesses great 

Although the report gives the experience of one com- 
pany, these facts apply equally to the business of all; and 
from them, by the rule of proportion, the gain in capacity 
for marketable production of all the anthracite regions 
from this saving may easily be computed. Much greater 
economy in mining coal has been introduced, and with 
the not im|)robable introduction of stone or iron columns 
to support the roof in place of the masses of coal now- 
left for that purpose, rendered possible by tlie increased 
])rice of the coal, the percentage of waste in the mines 
may be reduced one-half and trade increased in propor- 
tion. The terminal stake may be advanced to forty mil- 
lions and still not e.xhaust the anthracite deposits more 
rapidly than with twenty millions of tons under the waste- 
ful method of mining and preparation for the past. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad 
Companv has been constructing coal docks on Lake Erie 
at Buffalo, to make that a distributing point for the west- 
ern trade, which must materially increase the sales in 
that direction. 

The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company is 
said to be negotiating for a connection with the Atlantic 
and Cireat Western Railroad at or near Williamsport, 
which will greatly facilitate and increase the western trade 
from the Schuylkill region by the Catawissa road, already 
imder its control. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad, from the fine deposits of 
. coal on both sides of the Susquehanna at Nanticoke, in 
this region, has communication with western markets 
both by its canals and by the Lackawanna and Hloonis- 
burg road, its Northern Central and Philadelphia and 
Erie up the west branch, and its main line on the Juniata 
river. All are reaching for the limitless west, to which 
the small sizes, always of the purest coal, can now- be 
safely carried to a growing market. 

The Delaware and Hudson C'anal Com|)any report that 
in 1869 eighty-one and a half per cent, of their coal was 

delivered at tide, and only eighteen and a half per cent, 
at inland markets. By gradual annual increase this inland 
trade in 1876 was forty-two per cent, of their production. 
Mr. John J. Albright, general sales agent of the companv 
for nearly twenty years, reported the sales in the west 
by the " Western Coal Association " at " one million two 
hundred thousand tons in 1875, and nearly as much more 
probably went to western markets through other shippers. 
The figures representing this growth are remarkable: In 
1851, 6,000 tons ; in 1875, more than 2,200,000 tons. 
Toronto, Canada, in 1874 took 58,390 tons; in 1876 
increased to 97,694 tons. Cleveland, Ohio, in 1852 took 
8,000 tons. In 1876 it increased to 100,000 tons. Buffalo 
in 1852 required only 25,000 tons ; in 1875 increased to 
750,206 tons, and in 1879 received 1,092,184 tons, of 
which 550,606 tons were distributed in other markets- 
Chicago consumed about 500,000 tons annuallv, i)Ut the 
exact figures were not then attainable." 
In 1879 the Chicago Tribune said : 
" Coal .sold at the lowest prices ever known, anthracite si-lllnir $1 per 
ton below the cheapest rate for ia7H. From the beirlnnUnf of the yeiir 
down to May prices were steady at J'i and $rt..")0 for anthracite, am! at 
S'l.'ill for Kric. Then there was a drop to $4.50 in the former, ami to 
$4.75 in the latter. Those were the market quotations until August, 
when there was an advance of }1 per ton. Uiter there wcri' further ad- 
vances, and the year closed with antliracite scllinur at $il.5il and IT. Krle 
at S7and WiliuiuKton at ?4. For the llrst, time in the history of the 
trade all sizes of hard eoal have sold at a uniform price. Nut, which 
was formerly rpioted from ^5 to 75 cents per Ion cheaper than the larifer 
sizes, is now in so active demand— owing to the very ifcneral usi- of self- 
feediner stoves— that our dealers arc barely able to xet adequate sup- 
plies, and that particular size is now quoted at .">0 cents per ton above 
other sizes." 

The coal exchange in that city reported about three 
hundred thousand tons of anthr.acite up to November 3d. 
The trade probably reached a million of tons for the 

The increase in western trade was .no doubt in fair 
proportion to the total tonnage, perhaps greater, through 
the increased facilities for transportation in the box 
freight cars, returning for the magnificent grain crops of 
the year, and five millions of tons may have been 
distributed there. 

Whatever may be the limit of demand or production, 
the larger portion of increase must be supplied from the 
Wyoming coal field. Up to 1850 this region had not 
reached an annual production of a million of tons, 
including the Luzerne basins on the Lehign, in a total 
of three million, three hundred and fifty-eight thousand, 
ei^ht hundred and ninety-nine tons. In 1879 it had 
increased to not less than fifteen millions in a of 
twenty-six million tons. 

That anthracite will be largely exported cannot be 
doubted. In 1874 the exports were four hundred and 
one thousand, nine hundred and twelve tons. Since the 
international expositions in Philadelphia and in Pans, 
American anthracite and stoves designed especially for 
burning it have been introduced into France, Italy and 
Switzerland ; and as the Reading Company is about 
sending an agent abroad to extend the trade, it may yet 
be established as a luxury in London, Vienna, St. Peters- 
burg and in every city of refinement in Europe 

With an annual production of one hundred and thirty 




millions of tons, the exports from the mines of Great 
Britain have reached eighteen millions of tons in a year. 
There can be no reason why Pennsylvania anthracite 
should not soon reach the same proportion and afford at 
least four millions of tons for export, instead of the mea- 
gre amount reported for 1879 of 421.594 tons. Of this 
the British possessions took 367,544 tons ; Mexico, South 
America and West Indies 38,885 tons ; Cl'.ina nearly 
2,000 tons ; while France had 940, Austria 391, Germany 
and England each one ton ; the remainder scattering. 
The figures will change slowly perhaps towards European 
markets, as the home consumption will command high 
prices and freights will be costly on eastward bound ves- 
sels ; unless the current of trade shall be reversed through 
false economy and England again supply us with manu- 
factured goods to an extent which would send her ships 
home in ballast. The four hundred and seventy square 
miles of Pennsylvania anthracite, with its certainly limit- 
ed capacity for production already approximated, must 
supply a territory many times greater than that of Great 
Britain, and a population already nearly equal in num- 
bers and greater in its purchasing power and ability to 
enjoy. Whatever the limit of production, the demand 
must soon be limited by the price it will bear as one of 
the future luxuries of life. 


The value of rich deposits of anthracite coal is not to 
be calculated alone by cash estimates in dollars and 
cents; but the comfort and cleanliness increased a hun- 
dred fold in the home circle, the absence of smoke, the 
cheering and enduring warmth of its fires through long 
winter nights, and the indirect influence of this increased 
comfort through all classes of modern society, must be 
added to the sum total of gain. 

At an early day, while the Baltimore mine was still 
rudely worked at its outcroppings in the bluff on Coal 
brook, near Wilkes-Barre, and the full size of the vein, 
of nearly thirty feet, was exposed to the light, a party of 
ladies of the Society of Friends visited the place accom- 
panied by others of the neighborhood. The vast cavern 
even at that day excavated, with its smooth floor of 
coal and slate, inclining downward the north ; with 
immense pillars of coal, sixteen or eighteen feet in 
height, supporting the roof ; the light from without, 
through various apertures, penetrating a distance 
along the gentle dip of the vein reflecting many hues 
from the bright faces of sparkling anthracite, furnished 
a scene well calculated to impress an intelligent mind 
with feelings of mingled awe and admiration. After a 
careful examination of the locality, with many inquiries 
and suggestions concerning the probable origin and dis- 
covery of the wonderful deposit, a profound silence set- 
tled upon them, inspired by the grandeur of the scene; 
when a clear, sweet voice floated upon the air in utter- 
ances of gratitude and of adoration of the Great Supreme 
Power which had placed such storehouses of fuel amidst 
the wildnerness of this cold northern clime, to be pre- 
served for the benefit of His i)eople when the forests 

should be swept away and their need would be sorest. 
The voice of Rachel Price has long been silent, as she 
sleeps among her kindred and friends near the shadow of 
some modest meeting-house in Chester county, where the 
precepts of peace, wisdom, and love inculcated in her 
sermons still retain their influence with the descendants 
of those who sat under her teachings. What a blessing 
would be conferred if her short address at the Baltimore 
mine could yet be heard and heeded by those who, in 
pursuit of wealth, recklessly squander the precious 
legacy. Precept has been lost in the example of a fierce 
struggle for power and position until all interests have 
been prostrated; and now perhaps only when selfishness, 
from sheer necessity, is likely to be merged in justice 
may prudent management be hoped for. 

But there is a commercial and marketable value at- 
tached to coal and to coal lands worthy to be viewed in a 
business light by the few still in possession of original 
titles. There are eight large transporting companies now 
in Pennsylvania, pretty fairly dividing among them the 
Anthracite coal lands, either by purchase or by leasing 
'them of the owners. They are the Philadelphia and 
Reading Railroad Company, the Lehigh Valley Railroad 
Company, the Central Railroad Company of New Jersey, 
the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Com- 
pany, the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, the 
Pennsylvania Coal Company, and the New York, Lake 
Erie and Western Railroad Company; the railroad com- 
panies operating under charters incorporating coal com 
panics controlled by them. There are very few proper- 
ties of any profitable size yet remaining not directly or 
indirectly at the mercy of these large corporations. 

The prices paid for coal lands in the northern or Wyo- 
ming coal field when the trade was small were very low, 
often less than one hundred dollars an acre for those in 
choice positions but yet undeveloped. The farmer who 
owned a large tract, from a few acres of which he suc- 
ceeded in gathering a frugal subsistence with hard labor, 
felt rich if he could sell four hundred acres for twenty or 
thirty dollars an acre and buy a nmch better farm in the 
growing west for half the money. Much of course de- 
pended on the prospects of early development of the 
coal and the opening of ways to market. Few of them 
had much faith in the coal, which had never done any 
good to the neighborhood; and they only valued the sur- 
face as yielding fair returns for labor bestowed. With 
few wants, the farmer out of debt was rich. 

The Pennsylvania Coal Company purchased the greater 
part of its best lands thirty years ago, at prices ranging 
from $75 to $200 per acre, farms and all. When the last 
farms were secured, probably $300 per acre was paid to 
close and connect the surveys. Some years after, for 
small tracts from which they could take the coal through 
improvements already made, $r,ooo per acre was reported 
as the price paid, which would be cheaper to the com- 
pany taking the coal out at once than $200 paid thirty 
years before, when the coal lay untouched by the miner's 
pick or drill. 

To judge by the financial statements of the best com- 



pjnies (except llic iinuk-iiily managcci Pennsylvania Coal 
Company , it might be judged that coal lands had cost 
them many thousands of dollars an acre. But the blend- 
ing vast lines of transportation with lands to be developed 
makes it difficult to judge accurately. The experience 
of the one company excepted would indicate that the 
land was the only profitable part of the investment. 

Hut again, what would the land be now worth without 
markets for the coal and means of transi)ortation? Not 
more than it sold for twenty five years ago. The Read- 
ing Company and tiie Delaware and Hudson Canal 
Company are the objects of most bitter attack for bad 
management and blundering into unnecessary expendi- 
tures and indebtedness. The Reading road has reached 
out its arms with seeming recklessness after new 
markets. Take tlie explanation made by .Mr. President 
Crowen, in his recent annual re|)ort to tiie meeting of 
stockholders, January 12th, 18S0: " The company is now 
prepared to transport direct, by its own cars and engines, 
to the harbor of New York the large amount of coal ton- 
nage which heretofore, at a cash cost of fully eighty-five 
cents per ton, had to be transported over lines of other 
companies. As the actual cost of moving this coal from 
Philadelphia to New York over the new line cannot ex- 
ceed forty cents per ton, the difference of forty-five cents 
l)er ton on a yearly tonnage of about a million tons, 
amounting to $450,000 per annum, will represent the 
saving of the company." Mr. Gowen estimates a business 
of 9,000,000 tons over his roads in 1880, and that the 
average price will be §1.50 ])er ton higher at tide water 
than in 1879. 

The Delaware and Hudson Canal reported a deficiency 
on its leased lines, but its northern roads lead to new and 
growing markets. With the advance in prices of coal 
and the ra])id increase in tonnage this deficiency must 
speedily disappear, and the leased lines will not only pay 
their own expenses; but every additional ton of anthracite 
carried north will add to the profits of the mines and to 
the trade of each branch employed in the transpor- 

Increased trade and advanced prices must soon estab- 
lish the value of coal lands. Hear Mr. Maxwell on this 

'* If (I popiilatidii of twenty-one millions vitliie 5.309,000 iieres of eonl 
Ittnil at SS.IHKI per iiere, what shoiilil a population of ll.A.Vi,l1)0. luivin^ 
the same wants in proportion to niiintter, \ alue only 3"9.(W0 aeresttf eonl 
land at per acre? Who will solve this prol>leiii satisfaetorily to himself? 
The facts bear out it,s terms with all the foreeof inathenialieal truth. It 
IS to l>e oliserveil that in statini; this prolileni thi- lowest priif of the 
English eonl lands is ailoptcil as one of its terms. This leaves a wide 
marKin afrainst the ha/jird of error. ICnicland. too, is inneh nearer her 
ina.ximtini of population, niarmfactnres and eoal consumption than we 
are, while our coal market, in area four liini-s as larce as hers, lint with 
half her population now, is rapidly Bllintr up with <>omin({ millions." 

Mr. Maxwell estimates 1,613 tons per acre to every foot 
thickness. Practical men estimate 1,000 tons to the foot, 
clear merchantable coal, allowing liberally for pillars and 

The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company say: " In 
(ireat Britain coal lands are worth from $5,000 to $7,000 
per acre. In the light of these facts, why should not the 
consumption of anthracite continue to increase, why 

should it not be mined at n profit, and why should not 
the value per acre of the sninll area of anthracite coal 
lands in the United States np))ri)xin).ite that of the vast- 
ly larger area of coal lands in ( Britain?" Heriincni 
ipiestions, which are in course of solution as rapidly as 
the reluming good sense of the large companies will prr 
mil. The pioneers in the trade who yet live may hope 
to see it answered in the affirmative, and they deserve it. 
i)( the pioneers in the early development nearly all 
have passed away. Of these Hon. Hendrick B. Wright, 
in his Historical Sketi lies of Plymouih, a work of great 
local interest written in the author's best vein, makes 
honorable mention, so far as connected with old Shawnee 

" Krui'iiian Thomas vaaw to IMyinoiilh from Nortbainplon txiunty 
uliMut the year liill. ami piireh isi>d thu Avon<l ili- properly, to which he 
irave the name more than llfly yeiri ii'fi. Mr. Thmn n w.i< In ndiam ■■ 
of iiKxt of his neiithbirs in his k 1 iwledK.- of Ih • e 1 il in"«»iire*. .\1 nii 
early ilay he eommeneeil driving th" ' (iran I T rinel ' Into the nioiiii 
lain siile. Hltli the purpose of Htrlklnv the eiMl. This wax prolmldy ii- 
early as l>CH. and was the llrsi eip.-riin Mil In tiinnulinv In Ihi- Wyoming 
valley ihrouxh rock. After three or four yeir* of per4e\ iTliifr labor, 
and with his i-redli almost sunk, he struck Ihe liiK n- 1 ash \eln. Fns-- 
maii Thomas li\ed to a t^ooil ohi uife. MedkMl «t hi* home In Northum- 
lierland county In his eiifhty-fltthlh year. Not Ioiik aftitr the ponMrue. 
tion of the linind Tunnel .laine^on llaney dliM*iivensl eoal upon hi* 
premises near by. and the«e Iw-o eo il prop 'rlle<. belnx mo«i ellirllil> 
sitiiattsl. w-ere more extenshely worked than any oihi-r mine In tin- 
township. William 1.. Uince b<.-caine lessee of the (imnd Tunnel proper- 
ty In 1851." 

Col. Wright says that the red ash vein worked by the 
Smiths and Freeman Thomas, in Plymouth, averages 
twenty-six feet of pure coal, being better and thicker 
than the seam on the east side of the river where it crops 
out near the summit of the Wilkes- Barre mountain not 
more than eight feet in thickness. It is assumed by some 
that the lower vein, known as the red ash, thins out as it 
goes east and disappears on the Lackawanna about Scran- 
ton; which is not at all probable, as the Delaware and 
Hudson Canal Company has been in operation at Car- 
bondale for fifty years, chiefly on the lower veins of the 
measure, which are not vet exhausted. It is asserted that 
a nine-foot vein has been tested at Dunmore, east of 
Scranton, below any of the veins now worked there. 'I'he 
measures on the Lackawanna are not so deep as in the 
parts of the basin along the .Sus(|uehanna, and the large 
companies established above Pittslon have all secured 
ample stores of anthracite in Kingston, Plymouth, Ncw- 
|)ort, Hanover, Wilkes- Barre and Plains townships for 
centuries to come, and have facilities for transportation 
from them both present and future. I'he Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company, on the rich properties of thr late 
Colonel Washington Lee on the east and of Mr. Harvey 
on the west side of the river, has already been mentioned, 
with its lines of communication. The Lehigh and Wilkes- 
Barre Coal Company, growing from the Consolidated 
Coal Company through the Wilkes- Barre Coal and Iron 
Company is, under the management of Mr. Charles I'ar 
rish, a pioneer in the trade of Wilkes- Barre, Hanover and 
Newjiort, fast taking a leading position, judge Francis 
Lathrop, in whose hands the coal company and the Cen- 
tral Railroad of New Jersey are, as receiver, says that they 
are improving in financial condition. The principal coal 
tonnage of the Central is from this coal company. Th 




Erie Railway operates chiefly in Pittston, having trnns- 
portation by the Pennsylvania Coal Company's road to 
Hawley, and by the Delaware and Hudson Canal Com- 
pany's road to Great Bend, at which point it joins its 
main line. The time must come when it will possess 
coal lands on the Susquehanna and a road of its own to 
carry coal out of the valley. The tonnage will be of 
great importance to it. The box cars of this road are 
seen in almost every train leaving the valley. 

Fortunes have been sunk and millioris lost in the early 
efforts to develop the mines and introduce anthracite 
coal to the various uses to which it is now indispensable. 
Few of the pioneers lived to enjoy the fruits of their 
labors and enterprise. Few of the living even now com- 
prehend the value of anthracite; either the cost value, 
the " exchange value," or the far greater value as one of 
tlie necessaries of life, without regard to ratio or exchange 
or price in open market. In the scramble for control of 
markets it has come to be regarded as a mere item of 
tonnage, by which to estimate income to rival lines of 
transportation. The next generation will be able to 
estimate it from a point of view gained through bitter 
experience, and will understand its full pecuniary value. 
The loss of one hundred lives in 1S7S, and the almost 
countless accidents resulting in loss of limbs and health, 
will add fearfully to the cost, whicb cannot be estimated. 

If the estimate which places tlie limit of production 
below thirty-five millions of tons per annum shall prove 
correct, then will the money value soon be ascertained in 
the market price. New collieries are adding to produc- 
tive capacity in each year, to be offset by numbers which 
are exhausted and abandoned. In the report from the 
Lehigh region for 1878 the number of collieries abandoned 
uj) to the time of report had reached sixty-three, some 
having been over sixty years in operation. 


As a class coal miners are not provident. Like almost 
any other class in society it is mixed, but it may 
safely be asserted that as much good common sense is to 
be found among the men employed in this coal region as 
among any class of laborers, or even professional men. 
True, in limes of excitement they are apt to be carried 
away by imprudent counsels and do themselves and the 
trade untold injury in useless efforts to right fancied 
wrongs, while the men they combat suffer from the same 
evils as severely. 'I'he miner' has this excuse, if not 
justification: he has no influence in adjusting prices. 
Those who direct the trade, and who from position should 
understand the question of supply and demand as affect- 
ing markets, are as apt to be carried off their feet by 
waves of competition and wreck prices by careless pilot- 
age of cargoes; and miner and laborer must bear the loss 
in reduction of wages. Reflection might teach every 
laborer that the interest of the operator to secure good 
Ijrices is as strong as is his to have high wages, and that 
necessity not appearing upon the surface forces a decline. 
Unfortunately too many oiierators have not deemed it a 
duty to make explanations to those they employ, and 

without reflecting that tw() wrongs never make a right the 
men resort to the remedy they think most direct and 

The strike, a mere cessation from labor, might not in 
all cases be objectionable in itself, if not followed by in- 
terference with the rights of others who do not desire to 
leave work or who cannot afford to lie idle, which is 
clearly illegal. One very favorable sign of the present 
time is' the increasing willingness of employers to yield 
gracefully and promptly to the unquestionable cijuities of 
labor on a rising market, as it was made full partner in 
misfortune. A notable instance of the beneficial results of 
such a system in past years was that of the collieries of 
Messrs Sharpe, Leisenring iS: Company, at Eckley, on 
the Lehigh. When coal prices advanced the men had 
their full proportion in increased wages, and when prices 
receded they submitted to the reduction without com- 
plaint; and for years there was little trouble among them, 
until the great strike of December, 1874, which it was a 
point of pride should be made general among the men in 
all the coal fields, and they yielded to that disastrous 
suspension of more than six months, from which there 
has bjcn no recovery. 

The exercise of all the good sense of parties concerned 
will be needed to secure the trade from loss in the future. 
Disaster may come from too sudden prosperity, as to the 
apparently convalescent patient from an excess of vitality. 
Prices must be regulated, or the goose that lays the golden 
egg may be killed. 

Railroad construction in 1879 was more active than in 
any year since 1872, and fifty per cent, greater than in 
1878. Iron is needed in every degree of manufacture in 
the construction and equipment of new roads, and this 
iron in every stage from the ore must be wrought by the 
aid of coal. To force prices too high may check the 
upward movement all along the line and reflect disastrously 
on the coal trade. Among the select sentences in a 
school-book of several generations past, teaching short 
lessons of wisdom, was one worthy to be inscribed on 
tablets of brass at every colliery and workshop in the 
country : " Time once past never returns ; the moment w/iic/i 
is lost is lost forever." Hundreds of industrious miners 
and laborers, who had accumulated homes and savings 
deposited during prosperous days, and saw them dwindle 
and vanish under enforced idleness in 1875 and other 
long suspensions, now realize the truth and force of that 
maxim. They cannot desire a renewal of that sad expe- 
rience ; but another generation is coming upon the stage 
of life to direct affairs, with fresh confidence if not with 
increased wisdom, full of hope that they may be able to 
direct the storm while riding upon the whirlwind raised 
against capital — the natural ally rather than the antagon- 
ist of labor. Let the whirlwind be avoided by ])rudent 
counsels and the exercise of a spirit of conciliation on 
both sides. 

There is a ipiaintly expressed maxim of the courts to 
the effect that one who seeks equity must do equity, 
worthy to be posted with the short sentence before 
quoted, and to be borne in mind by those who seek by 





violent measures to enforce their claims regardless of 
the rights of fellow workmen, of employers or of the 
larger number composing the consuming public, who 
suffer unjustly. Sympathy will not be wasted upon 
labor which allows itself to be crushed in a vain and 
wicked attempt to block the wheels of progress promising 
l)rosperity to all who are industrious and frugal. Wages 
may be adjusted with the accuracy of machinery, which 
without attendants in the workshoj) moves to its limit 
and reverses its motion, if a few men of experience will 
meet for that object with an honest purpose of agree- 

Pages could not record the changes of the jinst few 
years, nor can wisdom foresee those of the coming 
years. (,)uestions are arising in the courts of vast im- 
portance to land owners and coal operators. One is 
th.u of 

i>am.\(;k to sfRi'AiK I'RDPKR rv. 

M one time the large comp.iiiics had surveyed num- 
bers of lots to sell to their employes, but the policy 
seems to have changed. In many places near Wilkes- 
Harre, in I'ittston, Hyde Park and in Kingston large 
areas of land undermined have subsided by the caving in 
of mines, in some instances causing damage to improve- 
ments made l)y purchasers of surface lots. The large 
brick school-house near Pittston, at the corner of the 
road to Vatesville, was abandoned because the walls 
cracked so as to be dangerous to [nipils, the su|)ports of 
the mines below having failed. 

In Hyde Park, by the caving of the O.xford mines, 
some brick storehouses were injured. The question 
before the court is to decide who is responsible for the 

In most cases the surface has been purchased with 
knowledge of the danger incurred, and a title accepted 
with full release of claims for damage. Still it does not 
always seem just that a man's home should be wrecked 
by being undermined, without some recourse in damages, 
and in several cases recently tried in Schuylkill county 
damages have been awarded. In one case at West Shen- 
andoah several lots over the Kohinoor Colliery, in Feb- 
ruary, 1879, to use the words of a reporter for the 
Pottsvilk Journal, were visited by a young eartlxpiake, 
and a cave-in which followed the shake carried a portion 
of several lots down into the colliery, cracking the walls 
and foundations of the dwelling houses, putting the doors 
and windows out of place and leaving a yawning chasm 
about seventy feet deep and eighty or ninety feet in 
diameter in the middle of the lots. To one was awarded 
S800, another $1,350, a third $1,200. What the final 
judgment will be on appeal remains to be heard, and 
whether the release of all claims for damage at the time 
of purchase, if any such were made, avails owner or 
operator. .An important question of public jjolicy yet 
underlies the question of claims for damage. If no man 
who needs a place for his home has power to release the 
land owner or the coal operator from such claim, then no 
land owner or operator will hereafter dispose of building 


lul^, .iml the largely increasing popul.itujfi uf the coal 
regions must hunt lairs like beasts of the field. Is it 
good policy to invite such a state of society? 

Coal companies do not, as a rule, erect buihiings for 
the miners and laborers calculated to m.ike homes to be 
proud of. .\ neat house, however humble, with a rose 
bush and fruit trees about it, are useful aids in educating 
the young to cleanly and careful habits and regard for the 
comforts of neighbors. The man who owns his house 
and garden is a better citixen in all respects than one who 
is tenant of a shanty at six or eight dollars per month. 

The coal is a necessary of life which must be mined, 
and there should be some mode devised to mine it with- 
out damage to the surface. If this is impossible should 
an operator be mulcted in damages for casualities which 
human foresight could not prevent, any more than for 
that of a lightning stroke or midnight conflagration ? 

Mr. William S. Jones, inspector of coal mines for the 
eastern district of Lu/.erene and Carbon counties, says 
over date of M.irch 8th, 1879, at Scranton, Pa. 

" Another \cry cxlotisivt? c«vo ofL-iirrtMl ii( the Dltiiiiiiiiil iniii.".. aii'l 
still iinolhfT lit the iti'lleviK' iiiln(.'S IhmIi iM'lonvliiif (o tht* lK'liiH-iir< « 
f..arkawaTina ami Wi'sUtii Hallroad <'otnpany. In iiirh <ir tlii'M* 4^L< 
tlioy wiTc workinj; IhrcL- \«_'ins, unv ti\'cr Ihi- i»lhi-r. ati.l tin- nivt..* wi-n* 
catisf*! liy llu* same system of working as at tlir Mt. rh..asant inint-s. In 
no caso. Sf> far as [ know, is there* any attempt niaOe to work the plllant 
in one vein oxa(rlly over the pillars in the vein tH'low, 4ir rirr frnHi.aiifl 
so loni? as this is not (Ii>iie there is no hope of prcventiiiff these eavt.!*. I 
admit that it requires Kood inininfj: entfineerin^ to 4I0 this. Imt that will 
not alter tlie facts of llie ejise. 1 helieie it can Ik- ilone. an<l 1 N'lleve 11 
woulil [lay tlie operators to try the e.x|icriinent." 

Against careless or unskillful mining of course the 
courts should ])rotect every man, whatever the terms of 
his release. It is the very object of creating courts of 
law and equity not to protect man from his own acts, or 
from the operation of natural laws, but against the evil 
nature and carelessness of his fellows. 

But what can be done to save all the coal ielt in pillars 
to support the upper crust of the mines? C'an coal be 
made to pay the expense of iron or stone supports in 
place of coal now wasted for the purpose? In very deep 
mines, with veins of six or eight feet thickness, the break- 
ing up of rocks would fill the space excavated before 
affecting the surface. By the long-wall system of mining 
the surface may be let down by taking out all support 
but not with entire safety. 

Is it impossible lor men to obtain homes without such 
risk to themselves as to those who mine the coal from 
veins below? This is becoming one of the most import- 
ant (juestions of the near future. 


.\nother tpiestion intimately connected with that of 
proper support for the mines is the waste of this store of 
fuel in the mine and in its preparation for market. The 
Journal of Industry \'s quoted on this subiiM t, from an 
article extremely apropos and timely; 

" Tlie wanton (li~<trnetiiin of any kind of pni|>erly is nitanliHl us n 
crime, anil the nevlcelfnl waste of the irifls of naliinv liosiowisl for the 
c<iminK ifood of mankind, no nuilter h<iw irreiil their prt-w-nt alaindanr<.. 
onirht is|uully to l>e helil as an olTen.M'aKainst IhiTlithl.sof humanity, 
and Jnstly eensnnil)le. 

" .Vmerieans are proverMally wasteful, not alor.e in smiiil malters 
hut ill irreiit oii.< This is exeiiiplihisl in a sirikinu manner in the on- 


thraeitf coal regions of Pennsyhariia, wlierc it is estimated not less than 
SIOO.OOOJXX) worth of fuel has been wasted in sretting- out and preparing 
the coal for market, the present average annual loss being set down at 
SIS.OOO.IHK). This enormous waste is ascribed by men of experience to 
the use of imperfectly desiirned machinery' for breakinff the ciial. This 
matter demands serious attention: f(U- \ast as our natural resources, 
such <'.\tra\'aK-ancc- will not only tend to exhaust them sooner than they 
should be. but also to increase present cost to consunici-s. Land owners 
and miners arc in this matter C(iually remiss in duty to their successors 
and the people of the countr.\', who have a ri^ht to demand that an 
article of such i)rimc necessity shall lie economically worked in order to 
yield the best results to the various industries and comforts deiiendcnt 
upon thiskind of fuel. 

" The great ea\ise of this waste in anthracite coal is said by competent 
engineers to lie what are known as coal crushers, toothed c.\linders 
geared to run towards each other, which of ncces.sity literally crush a 
great part of the coal into fragments and dust too Hue for use, unless it 
(«n by artificial means be again made into blocks of suitable size. The 
percentage of waste ise-ttimated at one-fourth of Tthe entire product, 
the greater part of which could be saved to the operators by the use of 
proper machinery. But the operators it would appear are a very con- 
servative set of gentlemen, and opposed to innovations calculated to do 
away witii time-honored methods. It is within the personal knowledge 
of the writer that a mechanical engineer of wide experience, and 
thoroughly' posted in the tnining and marketing of anthracite coal, in- 
\ented and set up at one of the great coal centers machinery for the 
more economical iirejiaration of the fuel. He invited the operators and 
engineers to come and witness his experiments, but few of them availed 
themselves of the opportunit.v : and although, as he claims, he Cfln 
demonstrate beyond peradventure that he can save from fifty to eighty 
per cent, of the coal now lost, he has as yet been unable to secure the 
adoption of his improved methods and machinery. This gentleman is a 
conspicuous example of a prophet being without honor in his own 

" The operators of leased lands have labored under a mistaken idea 
that waste cannot be committed by the destruction of corporal heredita- 
ments inider as well as upon the surface, or in the unskillful i>repara- 
tion of coal taken from the mines. In all leases there is an implied cov- 
enant, even when not plainly expressed, to mine in a proper and skill- 
ful manner, and with as little damage as possible to remaining property, 
or waste in that which is taken out ; just as a lessee of a farm is under 
an implied agreement to farm in a workmanlike manner, and not to e.v- 
haust the soil b.v neglectful or improper tillage. Why, then, should a 
coal company be permitted to waste such a valuable fuel b.v improper 
crushing to the extent of one-ijuarter of the entire product, when a 
tenant may not cut down an apple tree without committing waste and 
being responsible in damages to the owner of the property'/ 

"Not only the land owner, but every citizen, now and in succeeding 
generations, is and will be interested in staying such waste." 

Messrs. Sheafer, engineers of mines, Pottsville, Pa., 

estimate the waste in mining and preparing antiiracite 

coal at two-tliirds the estimated quantity of the deposits 

in eacli coal field. 



^^I^^TEWART PEARCE, in his excellent "Annals 
i"!^^^^^ of Luzerne," gives a history of the navigation 
jy^v ^^^ of tlie Susquehanna, from which much of the 
[k^^2^^ following is condensed. 

Vii^ This river was of course the natural thor- 

vS^i-Ji oughfare over which the Indians had passed in 
^^^ their journeyings to and from their hunting 
grounds, or on their hostile expeditions. Many timers 
have the fleets of the warlike Iroquois glided silently over 
it, bearing the dusky warriors on their excursions against 
distant southern tribes, or on their return from these ex- 
peditions bearing their trophies of victory. 

As stated elsewliere the earliest settlers in this re"ion 

came from Connecticut, crossed the Hudson river near 
Newburg and the Delaware near the mouth of Shohohi 
creek, and thence came by Indian trails across the countr) 
to the Wyoming valley. The waters of the river were ;ii 
once utilized by them for local transportation or passage, 
and for communication with the settlements below; but 
in order to render the river a safe avenue of transporta- 
tion it was necessary that the drift timber should be 
removed and the bars of gravel be cleared away. In 
1771 the provincial Legislature declared the riverapublii 
highway, and appointed commissioners to su])erintend 
the work of improving tlie channel. This was done, and 
towing paths were constructed where there were rapids. 
The expense of these improvements was defrayed by con- 
tributions from the settlers and an appropriation for that 
purpose by the Legislature. 

What was called a Durham I oat was first used — so 
called because it was built at Durham on the Delaware 
river. Boats of this style had a length of about sixty feet, 
a breadth of eight, and a depth of two ; and with fifteen 
tons of lading they drew about twenty inches of water. 
They had decks at each end and running boards for 
"poling" at the sides. Masts with sails were erected 
on them when a favorable wind blew, and a steersman 
and two polers on each side constituted the crew. The 
boats built on the Susquehanna were similar, but larger, 
and carried larger crews. 

Increasing trade soon demanded better facilities for 
transportation, and an attempt was made to use a " team 
boat," which w;is propelled by poles that were worked by 
horse power, but after a trial the plan was abandoned. 

In 1826 the plan of navigating the Susquehanna b\' 
steam was tried. The " Codorus," a small stern-wheel 
steamboat which had been built at York, ascended the 
river as far as Binghamton, and returned. The com- 
mander of this boat did not consider the project of steam 
navigation on the Suscpiehanna feasible. A larger boat, 
the " Susquehanna," built at Baltimore for the purpose, 
ascended the river on a trial trip in the spring of the same 
year, having on board commissioners to superintend the 
experiment. In the attempt to ascend the rapids at Nes- 
copeck her boiler exjiloded, killing and injuring many of 
the passengers and crew and destroying the boat. 

Another experiment was made on the west branch, 
but its success was not encouraging, and for a time all 
attempts at steam navigation on the river were abandoned 
Delay in the completion of the North Branch Canal, 
and the strong desire to introduce anthracite coal into 
regions uj) the river, induced other attempts afterward, h\ 
the citizens of Wilkcs-Barre and Owego in 1835, those of 
Tunkhannock in 1849, and those of Bainbridge in 185 1. 
Though in each of these attempts a partial success was 
achieved all ])roved to be failures at last. Small steam- 
boats for carrying passengers make voyages now over 
portions of this river. 

In early times it was thought practicable to build sea- 
going vessels on the banks of this river, and in times of 
high water float them to the sea. AccordingI)-, in 1803, 
Messrs. Arndt & Phillip built a sloop of twelve tons bur- 



den on the common in Wilkes-Barre, and launched it on 
ilie river, down whicli it lloated in safety to tide water. 
The success of this experiment aroused sanguine hopes 
ihat i new brancli of industry was soon to be developed 
along the Sus(|uehanna. A stock company was formed 
at Wilkes-Barre, and in i<Sii a ship of helwcLii fifty and 
sixty tons burden was commenced, and launched in 
.April, 1812. As it passed down the river it was wrec:ked 
iin the rocks at Conawaga Falls, near Middlctown, and 
thus perished the anticipations of those who had dreamed 
of populous ship-building cities along this river. 

The Susquehanna river has since about 1795 been util- 
i/ced for floating rafts of lumber and timber to various 
markets. These rafts were floated down during the high 
water of spring or autumn. When the country was first 
settled there was very little market for lumber, and much 
valuable timber was piled together and burned in the 
process of clearing the land. As time went on a demand 
arose for this timber, or the lumber into which it was 
converted, and mills began to spring into existence for 
the manufacture of this lumber. These mills multiplied 
as the demand increased and rafts came to be more 
frequently seen. 

The forests on the river and its tributaries above the 
Wyoming valley were filled with valuable timber, and 
iluring many yea's this limber and the lumber into which 
it was converted were almost the only sources of wealth 
to the settlers. 'I'he river furnished the outlet for this 
lumber, nnti when the business of rafting was at its height 
as many as one hundred rafts in a day might be seen to 
pass in Tunkhannock creek alone, and of course many 
more in the river at that point. 

This lumber consisted of boards, shingles, staves, hewn 
timber, spars, etc., and its market was found at Harris- 
burg, Middlctown, Columbia, Port Deposit and other 
places. The pine was of excellent quality, and the 
lumber into which it was converted would now be con- 
sidered valuable far beyond what it was then. 

The Lackawanna river, too, was utilized for rafting 
himber from about 1808 till the country was exhausted 
of the pine timber with which it originally abounded. At 
first rafts were run in squares, with one man on each 
s(|uare to conduct it with a setting pole. These scjuares 
were of boards twelve or sixteen feet in length, laid 
crosswise, with usually eight or ten courses. (Jn arriving 
:it the Susquehanna these squares were doubled or 
placed one on the other, w^hich could be done in the 
deeper water of that river. Some years later the practice 
came to prevail of fastening five of these squares or 
platforms together and steering them with large oars at 
each end, and on reaching the Sus(iuehanna these were 
doubled as before and also made ten squares in length. 
The rafts were pre])ared, and when the freshets in the 
^pring and fall occurred, taken down the river to market. 
In what was known as the "June fresh" — when it 
occurred i^which was not every year — rafts were also 
taken down. Very little rafting has been done on the 
I-ackawanna since 1840. 

It is known that in 1796 thirty rafts went down the 

river. The number continued to increase till during 
twenty-six days in the spring of 1849 i,»43 rafts, con- 
taining 100,000,000 feet of lumber, passed Wilkes-Barre. 

The produce raised here after the forest was partially 
cleared away consisted of wheat, rye, oats, corn and llax, 
and the nearest cash market for any of these was Easton, 
to which the wheat was drawn on sleighs in winter, over 
the Wilkes-Barre and Easton Turnpike from Wilkes-Barre; 
and the rye and corn were used for feed or converted into 

No arks had passed down the river previous to 1800, 
but subsecpient to that wheat was sent tlown the stream 
in bulk in those rude vessels, and found a market gener- 
ally at lialtimore, to which place it was taken in sloops 
and schooners from Port Deposit. It is recorded that in 
1814 eighty-four arks went by Wilkes-Barre, and in the 
freshet of 1849 as many as two hundred and sixty-eight. 
Since that time timber has become more and more scarce, 
and other avenues of transportation have been opened; 
and now but few rafts are seen passing down this river, 
and no arks or boats used for trans(iortation. 

Action with regard to the construction of canals along 
the Susquehanna and other rivers in the State was taken 
ill 1824, and in 1826 the Legislature enacted a general 
internal improvement law, under which them.inv miles of 
canals in the State were constructed. 

.\t that time the existence of vast mineral wealth in 
this region had become known, and the people of this 
coimty felt deeply interested in the projected improve- 
ment in transportation, which when accomplished would 
develop that wealth; and they took measures to secure for 
this county a portion of the benefits of the system of im- 
provements which the State inaugurated. They were 
successful; and in 182S the North Branch Canal was 
commenced. It was completed as far as Nanticoke in 
1830, in which year the first boat in Luzerne county, 
the "Wyoming," was built at Shickshinny. In 1831 the 
second boat, named the " Luzerne," was built on the 
bank of the river opposite Wilkes-Barre, and during the 
summer of that year it made a trip to Philadelphia and 
back to the Nanticoke dam; and in 1834, after the com- 
pletion of the canal to the Lackawanna, this boat made the 
first round tri|) between Wilkes-Barre and Philadelphia. 

Beyond the Lackawanna, toward the north line of the 
State, slow progress was made in the construction of this 
canal, and the work was suspended in 1832. In 1842 
and 1843 the State made liberal offers to the North 
Branch Canal Com|)any, which was incorporated in the 
former year; but capitalists did not see fit to invest their 
money in this enterprise, and in 1848 it became evident 
that nothing would be done by the company which had 
been chartered, and successful efforts were made to 
jirocure an api)ropriation for the prosecution of the work, 
and during that year the work was put under contract. 
It was by reason of the indefatigable efforts of Hon. R. 
R. Little, of Wyoming county, that this appropriation 
was made. Connection with the canals of New York was 
effected in 1856 by the Junction Canal Company, which 
constructed the last sixteen miles >>( ihi- work. 



In 1858 the State canals were sold to the Siinbury and 
Erie Railroad Company, and this company at once sold 
the north branch division, from Northumberland to 
Northampton street, in \Vilkes-Barre, to the Nortii 
Branch Canal Company. 



HE Lehigh Navigation & Coal Company be- 
gan in 1839, and completed in 1841, the 
original Lehigh & Susquehanna Railroad, 
from the public common at the foot of South 
street, Wilkes- Barre, to White Haven, then the 
head of slack water navigation of that company. 
It was designed as a portage over which to 
transport boats between White Haven and Wilkes-Barre, 
and thus form a link in the connection between Buffalo 
and Philadelphia through the North Branch Canal and 
the canals in New York on one side, and the Lehigh and 
Delaware rivers on the other. This portage over the 
mountain was accomplished by three inclined planes, 
having their foot at Ashley. The aggregate ascent which 
these planes make is about 1,150 feet. From White Haven 
the road was afterward built down the Lehigh to Mauch 
Chunk, and thence to Easton. 

At first horse cars ran between Wilkes-Barre and the 
planes. These planes have been much improved, and 
more coal is taken over them than over any similar planes 
in the world. The ascent of the mountain is now over- 
come by a circuit to the northeast, and over this passen- 
gers and ordinary freight trains are taken, and empty 
cars are brought back by gravity. This circuit was built 
about the year 1866. The same year the Lehigh and 
Susquehanna was extended to Green Ridge, above Scran- 
ton, where it connects with the Delaware & Hudson 
Canal Company's road. 

The Nanticoke and ^V'anamie branch of the Lehigh 
and Susquehanna Railroad connected with this road at 
the foot of the planes and extended northeastward a 
mile above Wilkes-Barre, to the Baltimore coal mines, 
and southwestward to Nanticoke village. It was built in 
1 86 1, by the Nanticoke Railway Company, which was 
composed of owners of coal lands along the route of the 
road. In 1866 or 1867 the Lehigh and Susquehanna 
Company, which had purchased this road, built a branch 
from near Nanticoke to Wanamie, and an extension from 
the Baltimore mines to Green Ridge. Subsequently a 
connection was made between this extension and the 
Delaware and Hudson Canal Company's road. Another 
branch, now owned by the Delaware and Hudson Canal 
Company, connects the Lehigh and Susquehanna at 
South Wilkes-Barre with the Bloomsburg branch of the 
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad bv a 

bridge in the township of Plymouth, and thereby with 
the collieries on the west side of the river- 

Another connection between the Lehigh and Susque- 
hanna and the Bloomsburg branch is by a short track 
over the bridge across the Sus(]uehanna at Nanticoke. 
This branch and bridge are owned by the Suscjuehanna 
Coal Company. These extensions and bridges were built 
under the superintendence of the engineer Dr. Ingham. 

The Nescopeck branch was built by the Lehigh and 
Susipiehanna company in 1867, between White Haven 
and Ujiper Lehigh. In 1871 this road was leased in 
perpetuity by the Central Railroad Company of New 
Jersey, and it is now operated by that company. 


It became evident to the owners of real estate on the 
west side of the Susquehanna river in the Wyoming val- 
ley that an outlet was necessary for the coal which was 
known to abound there. The, canal on that side of the 
river came no farther up than Nanticoke, and the pro- 
jected railroads on the opposite side would not be avail- 
able for the transportation of coal mined here. Under 
these circumstances capitalists and owners of coal lands 
on the west side of the river conceived and put in execu- 
tion the project of constructing a railroad which would 
afford the desired outlet for this coal, and thus greatly 
enhance the value of their lands. 

On the 5th of April, 1852, by an act of Assembly a 
charter was granted for a road between Scranton, Luzerne 
county, and Bloomsburg, Columbia county, fifty-six 
miles, with authority to extend the same to Danville, 
twelve miles. By a supplementary act passed March 3d, 
1853, a further extension of twelve miles to Northumber- 
land or Sunbury was authorized, making a total length 
of eighty miles. The authorized capital of the road and 
its extensions was $1,400,000, and the road was subse- 
quently bonded for $2,200,000 more. 

The company was organized at Kingston, Ayml 16th, 
1853, and William Sweetland was chosen president, 
Thomas F. Atherton secretary, and Charles D. Shoe- 
maker treasurer. In 1855 WilHam C. Reynolds became 
president, William Sweetland vice-president, Payne Pette- 
bone treasurer, and H. Woodhouse secretary. The frst 
directors were Selden T. Scranton, Samuel Ijenedici, 
Stephen B. Jenkins, Amos Y. Smith, Thomas F. Atherton. 
William Sweetland, Samuel Hoyt, George Peck, (jeorge 
W. Woodward, Henderson Gaylord, Mordecai \\'. Jack- 
son and John R. Grotz. Some changes were subse- 
quently made in the board of directors by the retirement 
of some of the members. 

Payne Pettebone served the company as treasurer from 
the spring of 1855 till the summer of 1863. During that 
period the collection of stock subscriptions, raising funds, 
settling controversies concerning right of way, and many 
incidental matters affecting the interests of the company, 
necessarily absorbed much of his time and energies 
beyond what his salary would remunerate. The heavy 
responsibilities that the directors had incurred rendered 
these efforts necessary. 




Among the otiicers and managers conspicuous for doing 
hard work and assuming heavy responsibilities to relieve 
the coni])any from embarrassment were Judge William C. 
Reynolds, Samuel Hoyt, William Sweetland, Henderson 
(laylord, Thomas !•'. Atlierton, Joseph H. Scranion, 
Mordecai W. Jackson and Hon. George W. Woodward; 
and in their special departments, Hon. Warren J. Wood- 
ward and Hon. Charles R. I5uckalew. Valuable aid was 
also rendered by R. J. Wisner, Theodore Strong and S. 
T. Scranton. John Brisbin and James .Archbald rei)re- 
sented the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad 
in the board, and they were always esteemed valuable 
counselors. Mr. _ Pettebone was succeeded by A. H. 

Thomas F. Atherton was the first secretary, but was 
succeeded in 1854 by Henry Woodhouse, who served the 
company during the hard work of construction and who 
was universally commended for his faithfulness. 

The grading of the road was commenced at Scranton, 
in 1854, and in June, 1856, the first train ran from Scran- 
ton to Kingston. In 1858 the road was opened to Rupert, 
connecting with the Catawissa road, and in i860 to Dan- 
ville and Northumberland. 

This road was consolid-^.ted with the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna and Western in 1872, and it is now^ known as the 
Bloomsburg branch of that road. 

The shops of the Bloomsburg division are located at 
Kingston. They are for the manufacture of locomotives 
and the repair of all cars. They are five in number, and 
160 men are employed in them. 

The success of this road has fully demonstrated the 
wise prevision of its jirojectors. 


In 1846 this w-as chartered as the Delaware, Lehigh, 
Schuylkill and Susquehanna Railroad Comi)any. In 1850 
a survey of the road was first made between Easton and 
the mouth of Mahoning creek. 

In 1 85 I Asa Packer became a large purchaser of stock 
in this company, and instituted measures to secure an 
early completion of the work. In 1852 Robert H. Sayre 
became chief engineer and located the road, and in the 
latter part of the same year Judge Packer undertook the 
construction of the road from a point opposite Mauch 
Chunk to Easton, where it would make such connections 
as would give outlets to New York and Philadelphia for 
its trade. 

Early in 1853 the name of the corporation was changed 
to the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company, and in 1855 
trains ran over it between Easton and Mauch Cluink. 
In 1865 measures were adopted to extend the road to 
White Haven, and in 1867 it was opened to WilkesBarre. 
Judge Packer had, in 1866, purchased a controlling 
interest in the North Branch Canal from Wilkes-Barre to 
the north line of Pennsylvania, with a charter from the 
State authorizing a change in the name of the corporation 
to the Pennsylvania and New York Canal and Railroad 
Company, and the construction of a railroad the entire 
length of it; and the work was at once entered on. The 

road, which is practically an extension of the Lehigh 
Valley, was o|)ened to its New York connections in 1S69. 
.About ten miles of it, between Wilkcs-Barre and Lacka- 
wanna junction, are leased by the Lehigh Valley Com- 
l>any, and the remainder is operated in the interest of the 
I liter, constituting, as before stated, an extension of that 
road. The connection thus formed with the New N'ork 
and Erie and with other roads in New York brought a 
large territory into direct communication with the anthra- 
cite coal fields of Luzerne county and the region farther 
south, and thus greatly enhanced the importance of the 
mining interest in those regions, while it established more 
intimate commercial relations between these sections of 
the country. 

It is a noteworthy fact that the lines on which the 
railroads in this section run are generally coincident with 
those of the old Indian war paths. 

In 1868 the stock of the Ha/leton Railroad Company 
and that of the Lehigh and Luzerne Railroad Company 
became merged in this corporation. 

It has always been the policy of this company to 
secure a proportion of the coal trade by accjuiring in- 
terests in coal lands and in the stock of other compa- 
nies holding such lands in the vicinity of their branches. 
They have thus become large owners of real estate beyond 
what is necessary for purposes of trans])ortation. 

This road crosses the mountain range between the 
Susquehanna and Lehigh valleys by a wide detour to the 
southeast, ind during the ascent many sjilendid views are 

The engine house and shops of this company arc 
located about one mile north from Wilkes-Barre. They 
are for the repair of locomotives only. About one 
hundred and forty men are constantly employed in them. 
They were commenced in 1872 and completed as far as 
at present in 1874. 


sportsmen's ASSOCIATIONS. 

^N the nth day of February, 1858, at a meet- 
ing held in the old Fell tavern, in Wilkes 
Barre, to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of 
the burning of anthracite coal in an open 
.^^rgjp/ — grate, it was proposed to organize a histori- 
;^fv cal and geological society, and thus collect and 
>' > preserve the early records of the local history of 

the valley, its Indian relics, and also fossils and specimens 
illustrative of its geology, especially of the rich and 
extensive deposits of anthracite coal which underlie the 
entire region. 

The suggestion was favorably received, and on the loth 
of the following May the Wyoming Historical and Geo- 
logical Society was duly incorporated. Hon E. L. Dana 




was elected the first president, and a room for the cabi- 
net was secured on Franklin street, near Market. Liberal 
donations were made of historical records, Indian relics, 
geological and mineralogical specimens; and General Wil- 
liam S. Ross, with characteristic liljerality, purchased at 
the expense of two thousand dollars the Chambers col- 
lection of curiosities, consisting of ancient coins, miner- 
als, Indian relics, etc., and presented it to the society. 

The monthly meetings of the association have been 
held with some degree of regularity, and contributions 
continue to be made to it. These contributions are sev- 
erally numbered as they are received, and the names of 
the contributors recorded. The donations often include 
many articles and the list of them thus kept now exceeds 
five thousand. 

A large library, including a valuable collection of pub- 
lic records, has also been gathered. The rare historical 
records, many of them originals, and the interesting 
cabinet of coal fossils, which it would be scarcely possible 
to replace in case of loss, are deserving of the protection 
of a fire-proof structure. 

a(;ricui.ti're .•^nd agricultural societies. 

During the half century succeeding the first settlement 
of Luzerne county agriculture was the chief employment 
of the inhabitants. There were among them a few hunt- 
ers and trappers, and such mechanics as the wants of the 
people necessitated. The existence of the immense 
mineral wealth of the region was not then known. The 
farmer, as he followed his plow over the fields, .scattered 
on them the seed, or gathered from them the grain which 
sprang up, matured, and ripened, little dreamed that 
beneath the surface on which he labored was a deposit 
of wealth compared with which the harvests that he 
reaped were mere trifles; or that the barren mountains 
over which the hunter pursued his game would yet re- 
ward the labor of thousands whose villages would lie 
scattered along their bases. The settlements were limited 
to the fertile lands along the Susquehanna and its afflu- 
ents, where bountiful returns rewarded the labors of the 

The agriculture of those days was, compared with that 
of the present time, awkward and rude. Many of the 
implements then in use were clumsy and uncouth, though 
some of them were well adapted to the condition of 
things then existing. The different methods of culture, 
the proper rotation of crops, the chemical composition of 
the soil and its adaptation to the production of different 
kinds of grain; the constitution, selection and ajjplication 
of manures ; the nature, habits and best means for pre- 
venting the ravages of or exterminating destructive 
insects, etc., had not been made the subject of scientific 
investigation to the extent to which they have in later 
years. Scarcely any agricultural publications were 
issued, and such as existed were sparsely circulated ; and 
no associations existed among farmers for the discussion 
of matters pertaining to agricultural science or for 
comparison of views, methods or results. 

The first agricultural society in this State of which any 

record a[)pears was that of Philadelphia, which was 
established at the request of the Supreme Executive 
Council. In 1788 this society instituted investigations 
and made a report on the subject of the Hessian fly. The 
importation of American wheat into England had been 
prohibited by a proclamation of the King, and this report, 
by showing the- uselessness of such prohibition, was of 
great advantage to American farmers. 

The first agricultural society in Luzerne county was 
organized in 1810, at a meeting held in the old court-house 
in Wilkes-Barre. -Jesse Fell was chosen president of the 
society, Matthias HoUenback vice-president, Thomas 
Dyer, Esq., treasurer, Peleg Tracy recording secretary, 
and Dr. R. H. Rose and Jacob Cist corresponding secre- 
taries. It is remembered that these corresponding secre- 
taries were very efficient members of the society, and that 
they were active in promoting the advancement of knowl- 
edge among the people. Only fragmentary records of 
the proceedings of this society are preserved. For 181 1 
there appears a report on some specimens of cloth pre- 
sented for exhibition by Mr. Ingham, who was a cloth 
dresser, and the premium list for 1824 is still in existence. 
Though the ]jremiums in this list were not large they were 
very judiciously arranged, and were only proposed for 
those things which were substantially useful. Five dollars 
each were offered for best essays on the Hessian fly and 
the prevention of its ravages, on the curculio and the best 
methods for its destruction, and on the general subject of 
agriculture and manufactures. The list was not disgraced 
by the offer of anything for horse racing. 

The Agricultural Society of the State of Pennsylvania 
was organized in 1849, and since its organization societies 
have sprung up in almost every county in the State. In 
185 1 another Luzerne county agricultural society was 
organized, with General William S. Ross president, Hon. 
John Coons and Hon. William Hancock vice-presidents, 
S. D. Lewis treasurer, George H. Butler recording sec- 
retary, Washington Lee, jr., corresponding secretary, and 
Charles Dorrance and William P. Miner curators. Al- 
though the society had two hundred members and gave 
great promise of usefulness, its existence was brief, by 
reason of the speculation in coal lands which at about 
that time overshadowed almost every other interest. 

The third society, which is still in existence, was 
organized in 1858. From the records of this society the 
following facts concerning it are gleaned: On the 2Sth 
of September of that year a meeting of persons inter- 
ested in farming and gardening was held in the "house 
of Mr. Wambold," at Kingston. Rev. Thomas P. Hunt 
presided, and William P. Miner acted as secretary. 
Colonel Charles Dorrance reported a constitution and 
by-laws for the organization then and there to be formed, 
which were adopted. The constitution named the asso- 
ciation the Luzerne County Agricultural Society ; 
declared the object to be " to foster and improve 
agriculture, horticulture, and the domestic and house- 
hold arts ; fixed the fee for annual membership at $1, 
and for life membership at $5 ; provided for a meeting 
on the third Tuesday in February of each year, at which 





should be elected a president, nine vice-])residents of 
whom "three-fourths" should he practical farmers or 
horticulturists) to look after the interests and report the 
condition of a};ricultare, recording and corresponding 
secretaries, a librarian and an agritultural chemist and 
geologist ; also a general meeting in connection with the 
fair, and special meetings as called by the executive com- 
mittee, which was to consist of the officers and five other 

At this meeting one hundred and thirty-six men joined 
the society. They chose for i)resident Charles Dorrance; 
corresponding secretary, Thomas P. Hunt; librarian, 1. 

D. Shoemaker; and the following vice-i)residents: Charles 
I). Shoemaker, Kingston; Samuel Wadhams, Plymouth; 

E. W. Sturdevant, Wilkes-Barre; Benjamin Harvey, Hunt- 
ington; William W. Bronson, Carbondale; David C. 
Driesbach, Salem; Clark Sisson, Abington; Abram Drum, 
Butler, and Calvin Parsons, Plains. .At a meeting of the 
executive committee two days later Anson A. Church 
was elected treasurer, and Thomas P. Atherton recording 

James Jenkins offered fair grounds at Wyoming for 
four years free, fenced and provided with a trotting track; 
and the offer was accepted. Since the expiration of that 
time the grounds have been rented from several proprie- 

In the summer of 1859 an exhibition building, one hun- 
dred covered stalls, and a secretary's office were con- 
structed, and a well was dug. The expense of these im- 
jirovements was §1,436.48. In arranging for the fair of 
1859 it was voted that there should be no "Shows or 
Jim cracks " on the ground. 

At the annual meeting held February 21st, i860, the 
number of vice-presidents was changed to twelve, and the 
time of meeting thereafter to the second Thursday in 

By invitation of this society the State agricultural soci- 
ety held its fair on the Wyoming grounds in i860. Addi- 
tional sheds and stalls were built for the occasion, which 
were bought by the county society for $100. 

The proceeds of the fair of 1862 were appropriated to 
the aid of the families of soldiers engaged in the sup- 
])ression of the Rebellion. 

November 14th, 1867, it was announced that James 
Jenkins, J. B. Schooley and John Sharps, jr., wished to 
resume the occupancy of portions of the fair ground 
belonging to them, and arrangements for reducing it were 
made accordingly. 

On the 5th of July, 1873, it was voted to reorganize 
the society on a stock basis, shares being offered at $10 
each. August i6th the reorganization was coinpleted by 
the election of officers, including John Sharps as presi- 
dent, and ten vice-])residents, of which John B. Smith, 
of Kingston, was "first vice-president." That officer and 
the president, secretary and treasurer were made the 
executive committee. 

At the annual meeting of 1879 it was voted to pay 
John Sharps $50 per year for the use of the fair grounds. 
The annual meetings, as well as the fairs of the society. 

have been held at Wyoming. Quarterly meetings of the 
executive committee were held under the old regime. 

The presidents of the society hive been as follo\v«: 
Charles Dorrance, 1858 6S; P.ivne I'ettebone. 1869 — 
resigned September I I th, and Peter Pursel was elected 
for the imfinislK'd term and the r.ext year; Ira Tripp. 
1S71; Steuben Jenkins, 1872, 1873; John Sharps, .-Vugusi 
16th, 1873, after the reorganization, and for the sui 
ceeding term; John M. Stark, 1875; J. B. Smith 


On the fourth day of March, 1861, pursuant to call, .1 
convention of physicians was held at the court-house in 
Wilkes-Barre for the pur|)Oseof forming a medical socieiv. 
.At this convention there were present doctors 1". C. W 
Rooney, of Hazleton; N. P. Moody, Lehman; H. Lad I. 
C. Marr, William Creen, B. H.Throop, Scranton; (1 
Urquhart, W. F. Dennis, K. R. NLiyir, C. Wagner, E H 
Miner, Wilkes-Barre; R. H. Tubbs, Kingston; S Law 
ton, Pittston ; .\. L. Cressler and J. R. Cassclber\, 

The following were chosen officers: B. IL I'hroop, 
president; E. R. Mayer and .A. L. Cressler, vice prcsi 
dents; C. I'riiuhart, secretary, and R. H. Tubbs, tre.i 
surer. .A constitution was adopted, the second article oi 
which stated the objects of the society to be " the pro 
motion of knowledge upon subjects connected with the 
healing art, the advancement of the character and the 
protection of the interests of those engaged in the practit c 
of medicine, and the employment of the means calculated 
to render the profession most useful to the public and 
subservient to the great interests of humanity." 

The eleventh article adopted the code of ethics of the 
State Medical Society, and declared that any deparlur. 
from its meaning and spirit might subject the offender to 
the discipline of the society. 

.At first the meetings of the society were held four 
times each year, but during several years the)^ haxc 
been held every two months. .At these meetings profes 
sional topics are ably discussed and a constantly incrcas 
ing interest is developed. 

The following gentlemen have served the society a^ 
president in the order named: Drs. N. V. Dennis, S 
Lawton. jr., R. H. Tubbs, John Smith, A. L. Cressler, J. 
B. Crawford, Horace Ladd, S. Lawton, jr., Edward R 
Mayer, James B. Lewis, Horace Ladd, E. Bulkely, C. 
Underwood, Charles Burr, E. R. Mayer. J. H. Crawford, 
J. E. Ross. J. A. Murphy. 

The Luzerne County Homoeopathic Society was organ- 
ized about 1866 and was in existence about two years. 
Dr. .A. C. Stevens was president; Dr. William Brisbin 
secretary and treasurer. 


This was first organized as the Luzerne County Sun- 
day-School Association, at the Presbyterian ihnr. h in 




Dunniore, September 28th, 1875, with the following 
officers: Rev. W. P. Hellings, president; Rev. D. A. 
Lindsley, Rev. W. V. White, Hon. Theodore Strong, 
Hon. E. C Wadhams, vice-presidents; F. E. Nettleton, 
corresponding secretary; J. F. Richard, assistant corre- 
sponding secretary; E. M. Peck, recording secretary; 
James R. Lathrop, treasurer. 

The work of the association has been carried on by 
means of Sunday-school institutes, till recently Mr. 
Crittenden has been employed as a missionary. 

Rev. R. W. Van Schoick succeeded Mr. Hellings as 
president, and occupied the position till the [)resent in- 
cumbent was elected. 

The name of the association was changed to Luzerne 
and Lackawanna Sunday-School Association on the for- 
mation of Lackawanna county in 1878; and in 1879 ''i*^ 
fifth annual convention, held at West Pittston, Wyoming 
county, was by request included and tlie present name 
was adopted. 

The ])resent officers are: Rev. N. I. Rubinkam, presi- 
dent; F. C. Johnson, S. C. Mellory, F. E. Nettleton, A. 
F. Levi, Halsey Lathrop, A. S. Stearns, H. E. Suther- 
land, E. A. Atherton, C. L. Rice, vice-presidents; T. F. 
Wells, corresponding secretary; B. R. Wade, recording 
secretary; Pierce Butler, treasurer. 

In 1878 the statistics were: Number of Sunday-schools, 
319; officers and teachers, 3,210; scholars, 26,566. The 
present number of scholars is probably about 40,000. 


This association was organized in October, 1875, 
and incorporated on the 3d of January, 1876. Its 
objects are " the preservation and propagation of game 
and fish within the county of Luzerne." It has an active 
membership of about fifty, and a land membership of a 
much greater number. Land members are those owners 
of lands who choose to make leases to the club for the 
purpose of enabling it to jjrevent poaching and violations 
of the game laws. 

The influence of the club has always been used for its 
legitimate objects. It has prosecuted to conviction sev- 
eral violations of the game laws, and procured the ap- 
pointment of five fish wardens by the fish commissioners 
of the State. It has planted 41,000 California salmon in 
Bowman's creek, 2,500 salmon trout and 9,000 land locked 
salmon in Harvey's lake, and about 25,000 brook trout in 
several of the public streams of the county; has imported 
more than 600 live quails, and has circulated upwards of 
3,000 copies of the game laws. It offers rewards for the 
conviction of those who violate the game laws, and also 
for the destruction of hawks, owls, foxes, skunks, minks 
and weasels. It holds a meeting on the first Monday in 
each month. Always keeping the legitimate objects of 
the club in view, its members strive to accomplish these 
with justice to all and malice toward none. 


From a report made April 26th, 1879, by Rev. S. S. 
Kennedy, agent of this society, the following sketch is 
mainly gleaned. 

Its first organization w-as effected November ist, 1819, 
at a meeting in the old church on the public square. 
The first officers chosen were Ebenezer Bowman, presi- 
dent; William Ross, Esq., David Scott, Es(i.,and Captain 
David Hoyt, vice-presidents; Dr. Edward Lovell, corres- 
ponding secretary; .\ndrew Beaumont, recording secre- 
tary; and G. M. Hollenback, treasurer. Many of the 
best citizens of the county became patrons of the society, 
and it is recorded that a masonic lodge of Wilkes-Barre 
donated $25. 

In 1828 David Scott was chosen president; Thomas 
Dyer, vice-president; John N. Conyngham, corresponding 
secretary; Ziba Bennett, recording secretary; and James 
D. Haff, treasurer. 

The society was reorganized on the 25th of August, 
1S35, and Rev. James May was elected president; Rev. 
John Dorrance, Hon. David Scott, Cristus Collins, Esq., 
and John N. Conyngham, Esq., vice-presidents; Volney 
S. Maxwell, Esq., secretary; Henry C. Anheiser, treasu- 
rer; Dr. Latham Jones, Edmund Taylor and William C. 
Gildersleeve, executive committee. No records of this 
org.mization of a later date than 1S37 appear. 

On the 28th of January,i853, after a sleep of sixteen 
years, the society was again reorganized, and Hon. John 
Conyngham was chosen president ; Hon. Ziba Bennett, 
treasurer ; Sharp D. Lewis, Esq., recording secretary ; 
and A. T. McClintock, Esq., corresponding secretarv. 
Judge Conyngham continued in the office of president 
during eighteen years, or until his death. He was 
succeeded by V. L. Maxwell, and at his death A. T. 
McClintock became president. Hon. Z. Bennett and S. 

D. Lewis, Esq., continued in the positions of treasurer 
and secretary during twenty-six years, and were \ery 
faithful and efficient officers. 

Since 1853 the county has been three times canvassed 
by the agents of the society, and in each of these explo- 
rations many destitute families have been supplied with 
the Scriptures. During the last exploration about fifteen 
hundred families were found without Bibles and were 
supplied. It was remarked by the agent that the most 
grateful among those who were supplied were many who 
received the Scriptures in the German language. He 
also stated that the benevolent spirit which prompted 
the work seemed in many cases to be highly appreciated, 
and to exert a very favorable influence. 

The present officers are: A. T. McClintock, president; 

E. L. Dana, vice-president ; G. S. Bennett, secretary ; J. 
W. Hollenback, treasurer ; A. T. McClintock, E. L. 
Dana, G. S. Bennett, J. W. Hollenback, E. C. Wadhams, 
Richard Sharp, J. P. Hoyt. A. J. Pringle, C. A. Miner, 
B. G. Carpenter, H. W. Kalish, Prof. A. Albert, and C. 
M. Conyngham, executive committee. 


■■■■■■ <w'Jy .-■-■.,.,,;.. .'j 





,HI'^ limits and scope of this work will not per- 
■^^ niit even an enumeration of all the events 
that led to the civil war. It is (juite proper, 
however, that a brief mention should be 
made of some of the more important and imme- 
diate antecedents of the contest, in which many 
of the citizens of these counties bore a conspicu- 
ous and honorable part, and in which many laid down 
their lives. 

The doctrine which has by some been termed a grand 
political heresy — that of Sft7U sm'erei^nty, or, as it was im- 
])roperly termed at the South, Stale rights, was what led 
to the civil war. By this is meant the right of a State to 
set aside any act of Congress which may be deemed un- 
constitutional by the State authorities. This doctrine 
was distinctly set forth in the famous Kentucky resolu- 
tions of 1798. and was for a long time accepted by many, 
perhaps by a majority, in all parts of the country. It 
involves not the right of nullification alone, but that of 
secession. South Carolina in i8j2 was dissatisfied with 
the protective tariff which Congress established, and 
adopted an ordinance of nullification and secession. A 
compromise was effected, some concessions to her pre- 
judices were made, and she repealed her ordinances. 

The ([uestion of the introduction of slavery into Kan- 
sas arose, and the people of the Northern States evinced 
a determination to prevent it, in which they were suc- 
cessful. In 1S56 threats of secession were freely uttered 
in case of the success of the Republican party, which in 
1855 had been formed on the issue of slavery extension. 
In 1S60 Abraham Lincoln was elected President, and this 
was regarded by southern statesmen as the finishing 
stroke against the e.\tension of their institution, and 
they proceeded to e.xecute their threats. South Carolina 
took the lead in this, followed by Georgia, Mississippi, 
Alabama, Virginia, Florida and Louisiana, ail of which 
before the end of November issued calls for State con- 
ventions to consider the question of secession. In this 
they were followed after a time by Tennessee, Texas, 
Arkansas and North Carolina, all of which adopted ordi- 
nances of secession. 

South Carolina adopted the ordinance on the first day 
of December, i860. Three days later Covernor Pickens 
issued his proclamation, declaring it to be a "separate, 
sovereign, free and independent State, having a right to 
levy war, conclude peace, negotiate treaties," etc. 

John B. Floyd, of Virginia, was at that time Secre- 
tary of War. He had caused 70,000 stands of arms to 
be placed in the arsenal at Charleston, and had put that 
arsenal in the care of the governor of South Carolina; and 
thus when the State seceded it was able to possess itself 

of thest arms, and it was also found that the northern 
arsenals generally had been depleted and the arms sent 
south. Many of the ships of the navy had been sent to 
distant seas, and the government was left without effi- 
cient resouicvs with which to repress a sudden uprising. 

The senators from South Carolina were first to resign 
their seats, followed by others and by members of the 
cabinet and of the House of Representatives. Texas, 
the last of the seven States which united in forming the 
"Southern (Confederacy," adopted the ordinance of se- 
cession February ist, 1861. On the 4th of the month 
the tlelegates who had been appointed by the conventions 
for that jnirpose met at .Montgomery, \\.\., to form a 
government. They adopted the constitution of the 
United States, with some additions and alterations, as the 
constitution of the confederate Stales, and chose for pro- 
visional President and Vice-President Jefferson Davis 
and Alexander H. Stevens. 

When South Carolina ])assed the ordinance of secession 
in December, i860, Fort Moultrie, in Charleston harbor, 
was garrisoned l)y sixty effective men in command of 
Major .Anderson. The fort was not secure against at- 
tack, and Major .Anderson denied reinforcements. 
Accordingly on the night of December 2olh he removed 
his force to Fort Sumter, which had been ipiietly pre- 
pared for his occupation. He had l)een instructed by 
the President "not to take up without necessity any po- 
sition which could be construed into a hostile attitude, 
but to hold possession of the forts, and if attacked, de- 
fend himself." This evacuation of P'ort .Moultrie, there- 
fore, surprised the President and aroused the indignation 
of the South Carolinians, who thought that they had a 
pledge from the President to jirevent such removal. He 
was induced to lake this step because he entertained just 
ajjprehensions of the occu|)ancy of Fort Sumter by the 
South Carolina troops, and an attack on his small force 
in the nearly defenseless fort where he was. in which 
case it would have been impossible for him to hold out a 

Three commissioners that had been appointed by the 
South Carolina convention "to treat with the United 
States " repaired to Washington, and in obedience to 
their instructions demanded that Major .Anderson should 
be ordered back to Fort Moultrie, and in case of refusal 
that the forts in Charleston harbor should be uncondi- 
tionally evacuated. .About this time the government 
offices, forts, etc., were possessed by the State troops, 
who were su|)plied with arms and ammunition from the 

An attempt was made by tl'.e government to revictual 
and reinforce Fort Sumter, and for that purpose the 
steamer " Star of the West " was sent in January, 1861, 
with two hundred men, provisions, ammunition, etc. She 
was fired on from Morris Island, was struck by several 
shot and compelled to return without landing her troops 
and cargo. 

April 1 2th, 1861, at 4 .A. M., the bombardment of Fort 
Sumter was commenced from the batteries of Fort 
Moultrie. Sullivan's Island and elsewhere. The rebel 




forces were under command of General Beauregard, who 
demanded the surrender of the fort. Major Anderson 
replied that he would only surrender when his supplies 
were exhausted. The cannonading was kept up with 
spirit on both sides. The result was the surrender of 
the fort on the 13th, and on the 14th Major Anderson 
and his command left on the steamer " Isabel " for 
New York. 

After the attack on Fort Sumter it was feared that the 
confederate troops would march at once on Washington, 
and all the available forces were so disposed as to 
afford the best protection to the capital possible with the 
meagre number of troops available. Measures were 
immediately taken to raise troops in several States, and 
thousands of volunteers at once offered their services. 
President Lincoln promptly issued his proclamation and 
call for 75,000 troops for three months, and stated that 
they would first be used to "repossess the forts, places 
and property which had been seized from the Union." 
The proclamation also called a special session of Congress 
for the ne.xt 4th of July, to do whatever might be deemed 
necessary for the public safety. Another proclamation, 
declaring a blockade, was soon issued. 

To this call for volunteers the people of the loyal 
States responded with the utmost alacrity. Only two 
days after Governor Andrew, of Massachusetts, issued 
orders calling for troops, two regiments were on their 
way to Washington. In every city and almost every 
village in the loyal North meetings were held, large sums 
of money were pledged for the support of the families of 
volunteers, regiments were raised and sent forward, and 
a degree of patriotic feeling was aroused the existence of 
which had by some been doubted. 

On the 29th of April the President called for 40,000 
volunteers to serve for three years, and 25,000 regulars 
for five years' service. In his message to Congress, which 
convened in special session in July, he recommended the 
passage of a law authorizing the raising of 400,000 men 
and placing $400,000,000 at the disposal of the govern- 
ment, in order to make this contest a short and decisive 
one. During the nine days of the session acts were 
passed to legalize the past action of the President, to 
authorize the calling out of 500,000 volunteers, to ap- 
propriate some $266,000,000 for the prosecution of the 
war, and to confiscate property used for insurrectionary 

At the breaking out of the war hardly any one antici- 
pated a struggle of beyond two or three months; but 
instead of the short, decisive war that was at first antici- 
pated the contest was prolonged through four years, with 
an expenditure of life and treasure unparalleled in the 
history of similar wars. During this time the Union 
forces experienced alternate successes and reverses till 
the decisive triumphs of Grant and Sheridan, the resist- 
less march of Sherman to the sea, and the complete 
exhaustion of the enemy's resources, brought the con- 
summation for which the friends of the Union had so 
long labored and prayed. The tension at which the feel- 
ings of the friends of luimanity had been held during 

four years was relaxed, and the world breathed free 

In these counties, as in all parts of the country, the 
departure of the first company of volunteers was an 
occasion of peculiar interest. It was the first time 
in the history of the country that the national ex- 
istence had been threatened, and the patriotic feel- 
ings of every loyal citizen were roused into intense 
activity. It was the first general call which had been 
made upon the present generation for volunteers to serve 
in the field, and of course the first occasion on which the 
people had been called to bid adieu to fathers, sons or 
brothers, who took their lives in their hands for the de- 
fense of their country. They experienced a higher pride 
in the patriotism of their kindred and friends, and a 
more poignant grief at ])arting than they felt on similar 
occasions afterwards; for the acuteness of these feelings 
was to some extent worn away by frequent exercise, and 
after the first departure less of idle curiosity was felt. 

The brave volunteers of Luzerne, Lackawanna and 
Wyoming counties who left the comforts of their homes, 
their social and domestic pleasures, and who severed fur 
the time the ties which linked them to their families and 
friends, to rally for the defense of the institutions under 
which they had been permitted to enjoy these comforts, 
pleasures and affections; to face the stern realities of grim 
visaged war, to endure the hardships and privations of the 
field, to inhale the pestilential emanations from southern 
swamps, to languish in sickness and pain on pallets, 
"with no hand of kindred to smooth their lone pillows," 
and, too often, to find solitary graves where neither 
mother nor sister, wife nor children could come to drop 
affection's tear, deserve a more minute history than the 
limits of this work will permit. They constituted parts 
of organizations the balance of which came from other 
regions, and their histories are inseparably conected with 
tliose of these organizations. 

When the proclamation of the President was issued 
calling for 75,000 troops to defend the national capital 
and suppress the rebellion that had thus been inaugu- 
rated, the patriotism of the people in Luzerne county 
found vent otherwise than in words. Several military 
companies at once offered their services to the govern- 
ment. The Wyoming Light Dragoons, the Wyoming 
Yagers (a Germany company), the Jackson Rifles a 
company of Irishmen) and the White Haven Yagers 
were among the earliest to depart in response to the call. 
The recruiting of other companies for future exigencies 
was immediately commenced, and it was at once evident 
that, whatever had been the previous differences of 
opinion among the |)eo|)le in this country, when the time 
for action came patriotism trium])hed over every 
feeling; and here as elsewhere in the loyal North ]5eople 
of all parties vied with each other in their efforts to pro- 
mote measures for the defense of the country in its hour 
of peril. 

The first war meeting was held at the court house in 
Wilkes-Barre, on Friday, April 26th, 1861. At this 
meeting Hon. H. B. Wright presided, and patriotic 

=>=^ ^ 



speeches were made by men of all previous shades of 
political opinion. Large sums were pledged for the care 
of the families of volunteers. \ noteworthy feature of 
the patriotic feeling which existed in this county, as else- 
where, was seen in the fact that those who sought by 
addresses and other means to "bring public sentiment 
up," as they termed it, soon found that they had mistaken 
their mission; that public sentiment was leading them; 
that the patriotism of the masses was in advance of tiiat 
of their self-constituted leaders. 

Here as elsewhere the first burst of patriotism after the 
attack on Fort Sumter o\ershadowed every other feel- 
ing, and it was confidently hoped that past differences of 
opinion would not be revived to become sources of em- 
barrassment in the time of the country's peril. Here as 
elsewhere, however, this hope was not realized. Sym- 
pathy with the enemies of the country manifested itself 
among a few after a time, under various disguises. A 
profound veneration for the constitution, and an active 
fear lest some of its provisions should be violated in 
prosecuting the war for the ])reservation of the Union, 
was usually professed by those whose patriotism was not 
stronger than their party prejudice. By reason of 
numercial inferiority, however, these people were com- 
paratively impotent m Luzerne county. 

From a diary kept by Captain James B. Harding the 
following facts relative to the organization of the first 
company from Wyoming county in the war of the Re- 
bellion are gleaned: 

It will be remembered that at that time no railroad or 
telegraph lines passed through Wyoming county, and news 
was not received here as early as at places where these 
facilities existed. Preparations for the formation of a 
company were commenced by Mr. Harding on the 19th, 
and at a war meeting held at the court-house in Tunk- 
hannock on the evening of the 20th twenty men were 
enlisted. On the evening of the 22nd another war meet- 
ing was held and more men were recruited, and on the 
24th drilling commenced. 

Recruiting and drilling continued till the 27th, when 
the company was nearly full. On this day the men were 
drawn up in front of the court-house, where they were 
addressed by .\. K. I'eckham and George S. Fulton; and 
by the former, in behalf of the ladies of Tunkhannock 
and Eaton, presented with a flag. Of this company 
James B. Harding was chosen captain, John Deckover 
first lieutenant, and H. E. Tiffany second lieutenant. 

Returns of the organization of this company were for- 
warded to Harrisburg by Levi H. Stevens, then inspector 
of the sixteenth division of Pennsylvania militia, and 
daily drilling was continued. 

On the 4th of May news was received that the com- 
pany could not be accepted for nine months' service as 
had been expected, but that an enlistment for three years 
or during the war would be the only terms of acceptance. 
When this alternative was presented about twenty-five 
men, with Captain Harding, decided to enlist as re(iuired. 
These united with a part of a company in Factoryville, 
and the consolidated company chose Captain Harding 

for their commander, O. N. Bailey first lieutenant, and 
D. N. Matthewson second lieutenant. 

On the evening of May 8th the company left Factory- 
ville for Harrisburg, ria Scranton, where they tarried till 
the morning of the 9lh. On their arrival at Sunbury 
the railroad company refused to take them farther, and 
they refused to leave the cars, which were uncoupled and 
left standing on the track. During the night of the 9th 
they were quartered in the court-house and fed by the 
ladies of Sunbury. On the 10th orders to go forward 
were received and transportation provided. The com- 
pany became a part of the 41st regiment, the history of 
which is given elsewhere. 

Meetings were from time to time held in various parts 
of the county for raising volunteers, and the histories of 
the different regiments include the lists of volunteers 
from this county, as well as Luzerne and Lackawanna. 
The patriotic spirit of the citizens of the county |)romiited 
them to make every effort in their power to sustain the 
country in its hour of trial. The county, by its commis- 
sioners, paid to each volunteer for nine months' service 
$25, and to each who went for three years $50. The 
commissioners also expended money under an act of the 
Legislature for the support of needy families of soldiers 
in the army. 

Truth compels the statement that there were in some 
l)ortions of the county manifestations of a very disloyal 
feeling, and even forcible resistance to the enrollment 
was in one instance contemplated. The strong loyal 
feelings which prevailed in other parts of the county 
overbore the disloyalty of these localities, and prevented 
the disgrace of an armed demonstration in favor of the 
enemies of the country. 

The loyal women here as elsewhere did their part, 
through their aid societies and otherwise, to furnish such 
comforts for the sick and wounded, who languished in 
the field or in distant hospitals, as under the circum- 
stances the government was unable to provide. 



' F the 8th regiment, which was organized for 
three months' service, companies B, C, D, E, 
F, G and H were recruited in Luzerne 
l 'C~^^) county. A company of cavalry at Wilkes- 
*^^Vi/ i{.,rre, of which Captains Hoyt and Bris- 
^^' bane had been commanders, was filled by re- 
vS cruits and became Comi)any C of the regiment. 
Company F had been an artillery company of the 
same city, under command of Captain Emiey, who be- 
came colonel of the regiment. Company G had been 
known as the Wyoming Yagers, which, together with a 
militia company from Pittston and additional recruits, 

constituted this company. The other companies were 
made up wholly of recruits. 

The companies jiroceeded at once to camp Curtin, 
where the regiment was organized on the 22nd of April, 
1 861, seven days after the President's proclamation call- 
ing for 75,000 men was issued. On the day of its organi- 
zation the regiment was ordered to the vicinity of Cham- 
bersburg, where it was attached to the 3d brigade, ist 
division. June yth it went to Greenville, and soon 
afterward to the vicinity of Williamsport, where it was 
posted to guard the forts of the Potomac. While here 
Lieutenant Colonel Bowman crossed the river alone to 
reconnoitre, and was made prisoner by rebel scouts. 
Soon after the Union forces advanced into Virginia. 
Two companies of this regiment were detailed as an 
escort for Captain Doubleday's battery on its march to 
Martinsburg. On the 6th of July the regiment joined 
the brigade at Martinsburg ; on the 17th it participated 
in a flank movement toward (Charleston, and was sta- 
tioned at Keyes Yord during the night of the 20th. It 
returned about this time, T'/a Harper's Ferry and Hagers- 
town, to Harrisburg. where it was disbanded. 

The field and staff olificers of the regiment were : — A. 
H. Ernie)', Wilkes-Barre, colonel ; Samuel Bowman, 
Wilkes-Barre, lieutenant colonel ; Joseph Phillips, Pitts- 
ton, major ; Joseph Wright, AVilkes-Barre, adjutant ; 
Butler Dilley, (juartermaster ; Benjamin H. Throop, sur- 
geon ; H. Carey Parry, assistant-surgeon ; T. P. Hunt, 

Of the companies composing the 8th, B was recruited 
at Moscow, Lackawanna county, and mustered in on the 
23d of April, 1 86 1 ; C and D were recruited at Wilkes- 
Barre and mustered April 22nd; E and H were recruited 
at Scranton and mustered April 23d ; and F and G were 
recruited at Wilkes-Barre and mustered in, the first April 
2ist and the second April 23d. Rolls of these companies 
follow ; 


Officers. — Hiram S. Travis, captain; Frank Wambacker, 
first lieutenant ; Sanford G. Coglizer, second lieutenant; 
Jacob Swartz, first sergeant; John F. Sayers, second 
sergeant ; John W. Fike, third sergeant ; Delton F. Mil- 
ler, fourth sergeant ; Benjamin J. Stephens, first corporal; 
David Weldy, second corporal; George Weldy, third cor- 
poral; Warren Breemer, fourth corporal; Paul Debler and 
William Miller, musicians. 

Privates. — William Albro, Shadrach G. Austin, Richard 
Austin, James R. Aten, John Bird, Adolph Bender, 
Thomas Brennan, Mathias Barclay, George Barnes, 
Thomas L. Benson, Nicholas Cooper, Nodiah Curtis, 
George Chrisman, Charles Clouse, Horatio V. Colvin, 
Thomas R. Conner, Henry L. Davenport, James T. Dav- 
enport, Horatio P. Felts, Samuel Gilchrist, Lorenzs D. 
Hoover, Henry M. Hinds, Michael \\ . Hurley, Frederick 
John, Abraham Kiser, Samuel Kilpatrick, Joseph Knapp, 
William La France, Josei)h La F'rance, Benjamin Le 
Compt, Westbrook Murring, Ezra B. Martin, James 
M'Guigan, James S. M'Doherty, Herbert iNL Nogle, Levi 
Powell, David Robinson, Thomas P. Rhodes, James A. 
Roach, Morris H. Rhodes, William R. Rockwell, Benja- 
min F. Rodgers, G. William Ryan, William Rease, Rich- 
ard H. Scott, Freeman Smith, P'rancis Switer, Robert 
Smith, Merrit Stalbert, Nelson Swan, David C. Sterling, 

Obadiah Sherwood, Jerome Scott, John Shaffer, Vincent 
J. Sayers, John Smith, Milton Sylich, John A. Tanfield, 
Levi B. Tompkins, Joseph W. Wallace, Chester Wilber, 
Patrick Wood, Dorman A. Yarrington, Spencer Yeager. 

COMP.-\NV c. 

Officers. — William Brisbane, captain ; Joseph Wright, 
first lieutenant; John B. Conyngham, second lieutenant; 
Lyman R. Nicholson, first sergeant; William J. Fell, sec- 
ond sergeant; Beriah S. Bowers, third sergeant; William 
C. Rohn, fourth sergeant; Treat B. Camp, first corporal; 
Samuel B. Hibler, second corporal ; Albert ^L Bailey, 
third corporal; "Edwin S. Osborne, fourth corporal; 
Thomas J. Schleppy and Joseph W. Collings, musicians. 

Privates. — Andrew J. Crusan, Edward H. Chase, Wil- 
liam H. Cook, Daniel Clossen, Andrew Clossen, George 
B. Carey, Orlando Deitrick, William G. Downs, Elisha A. 
Dailey, Joseph H. Everett, Peter Gray. Jacob Gregory, 
Willett E. Gorham, James Harvey, John Humble, An- 
drew J. Hughey, George Hoover, James D. Harris, Bur- 
tis Irvin, George W. Jumper, Charles Keller, Patrick 
Kearney, George W. Kelley, James Kelley, Isaiah Kizer, 
William Moser, Charles McWilliams, Daniel W. McGee, 
Norman McNeil, John McCormick, Roderick McFarlane, 
John Powell, John Piper, Joseph W. Patten. Alexander 
Puterbaugh, William A. Partington, Samuel H. Puter- 
baugh, Richard Prideaux, John Reymer, Stephen D, 
Robbins, Adam Robbins, Miles Reel, George A. Reese, 
\Vesley Rittenhouse, David L. Rohn, Charles Rennard, 
Jacob Remmel, James A. Raub, William W. Rines, Giles 
E. Stevens, Nathan Schoonover, Charles F'. Stevens, 
Henry Stroll, F^rank Smith, Samuel Stookey, Isaac Tripp, 
Preserve Taylor, William H. Vanscoten, George E. 
Waring, William H. Ward, jr., Daniel Wood, Lazarus S. 
Walker, William W. Watson, Alexander Youngst. 


Officers. — Jacob Bertels, captain; Richard Fitzgerald, 
first lieutenant ; Patrick Lenihan, second lieutenant; 
Michael Reily, first sergeant; John C. Reily, second ser- 
geant; Michael Giligan, third sergeant; Joseph P. Byrne, 
fourth sergeant; Daniel M'Bride, first corporal; Daniel 
Shoolin, second corporal; Thomas Devaney, third cor- 
poral; John Ryan, fourth corporal; Bartholomew Lynch 
and John Batterton, musicians. 

Privates. — Philip Boyle, John Baney, Patrick Biglin, 
Patrick Brennan, ist ; Thomas Birm'ingham, Thomas 
Boran, James Boylan, Patrick Brennan, 2nd; Matthew 
Coyle, John Caffrey, John Clark, Daniel Cunningham, 
John Cosgrove, John Collins, Michael Curran, Frank Cull, 
Michael Goggles, Patrick Collins, John Delaney, James 
Dolton, Evan Davis, James Dougher, James Dougherty, 
John Evans, Patrick Fogarty, John Graham, Patrick 
Gritfith, Patrick Gallagher, ist; Patrick Gallagher, 2nd; 
Thomas Heley, Patrick Houston, Edward Killroy, 
Michael Keeghran, James Lynch, Patrick Levey, John 
Looby, John Lisk, Bernard Lynch, Thomas Lahey, Peter 
Lebar, John Lawler, John M'Dowell, Thomas M'Coy, 
Thomas M'Cluskey, [ohn M'Conelogue, William Merg- 
han, Thomas M'Maniman, Michael Nlorris, Michael Mul- 
vey, Patrick M'Tigue. John M'Cool, John M'Reenelly, 
Michael M'Ginness, Daniel .M'Cormick, Thomas O'Don- 
nell, James Plum, Patrick Paul, Martin Ryan, Lawrence 
Reily, Michael Ruddy, John Sullivan, Timothy Sullivan, 
Edward Sherron, John Scott, Dalton W. Totton, Martin 
Welsh, John Ward. 


Officers. — John M'Casey captain; John O'Grady, first 
lieutenant; Michael O'Hara, second lieutenant; Anthony 


Lofters, first sergeant; James Howlcy. second scrjieani; 
Francis Mahon, third sergeant; Morris O'Brien, fourth 
sergeant; John Lanagan, first corporal; Richard Lanagan, 
second corporal; Richard Fitzgerald, third corporal, John 
(Jerry, fourth corporal; Peter I'ennypacker and John 
Hartline, musicians. 

Privates. — Joseph Blacknian, ^L^rk liurk, Charles 
Brand, Francis Raronosky, Thomas Buckley, John Can- 
navan, Samuel Clouser, Henry Cannavan, James Canna- 
van, Matthew Cawley, Michael Cusick, John R. Cordeii, 
William Corden, Josejjh F. Colburn, John Churchill, 
Henjamin Crist, Lewis Decker, Michael Dorson, David 
H. Davis, James Fleming, James Forrester, George Flee- 
vellen, John Fitz|)atrick, Thomas Fo.\, Thomas Foy, 
Michael Grass, Charles Gallagher, Anthony Gillespie, 
John Handler, John F. Jackson, Dennis Kelley, Michael 
Kirk, Patrick Lenihan, 'Fhomas Lanagan, F^dward Lynn, 
.Mien M'Lane, John H. Mullison. James ^^Grael, Patrick 
Mullin, Delos Munford. John AFManus, John J. Murray, 
Reuben Mullen, Daniel M'Cracken, Michael Manning, 
David Pearce, Francis Rourke, Joseph Ross, John 
Ruddy, William Shannon, Patrick H. Saxton, John Shib- 
Mchood, Theodore Sinclair, \\'illiam Smith, Samuel 
Tindle, John H. Taylor, Michael Tigue, Jeremiah L'r- 
frels, Peter Vankirk, Michael Walsh, Reuben Williams, 
Joseph Wright, William Whiting, John Williams. 


Officers. — Edwin W. Finch, captain; Butler Dilley, first 
lieutenant; Isaiah AL Leach, second lieutenant; .-Mpheus 
C. Montague, first sergeant; Charles B. Metzgar, second 
sergeant; Charles B. Stout, third sergeant; Oliver A. Par- 
sons, fourth sergeant; Benjamin F. Louder, first corporal; 
John J. M'Dermott, second corporal; William H. Rown- 
tree, third corporal; Paschal L. Hoover, fourth corporal; 
Charles H. Hay and David C. Connor, musicians. 

Privates. — Joseph Alberl, Casey J. Atherton, Emory 
Briggs, ALirtin Breese, James Culver, Hugh Collins, 
Charles Vi. Cyphers, Emanuel Detrick, .\braham Doobar, 
Charles H. Elliott, William W. Ellis, Irvin E. Finch, John 
N. Fordham, Peter Ficklinger, John Erase, Nathan Fritz, 
Henry Frantz, Samuel C. Fell, John E. Groff, Lee D. 
Gruver, Henry M. Gordon, Allen Ciormon, George 
Hughes, Ebert Haney, Peter H. Hay, William Johnson, 
John Jenkins, John C. Krupp, Philiii Kiilian, Andrew J. 
Lobach, Isaiah M. Leach, Robert M'Laughlin, John H. 
.Minick, Rufus* M'Guire, -Ozro Manville, Jiidson W. 
Myers, John Xeuer, Joseph Newsbiggle, Charles B. Post, 
.Mfred Riley, Bernard Riley, Sylvester Rhodes, William 
Rankins, .Alfred Randolph, Henry J. Root, C. B. Root, 
James Russell, James H. Shepherd, Charles B. Stookey, 
William A. Swan, David R. Shutt, John Severn, James 
Severn, Theodore .\. Tucker, Thomas O. Tucker, Gotlieb 
Troub, James C. Turner, David J. Taylor, James Up- 
linger, William H. Valentine, Horton Wood, Reuben H. 
Waters, Newton T. Weaver, Jacob Young. 


Officers. — George N. Reichard, captain; John N. Treff- 
eisen, first lieutenant; Ciustavus E. Hahn, second lieuten- 
ant; George W. Smith, first sergeant; Joseph Harold, 
second sergeant; Christopher 'Walther, third sergeant; 
Jacob Goeby, fourth sergeant, Christian Treffeisen, first 
corporal; Andreas Haussam, second corporal; Henry 
Katzenbacker, third corporal; John Marr, fourth corporal; 
William Kaiser and Frederick Andrie, musicians. 

Privates. — Christian Adrien, Ma.\ Burkhardt, Henry 
Braehl, Benedict Boehm, Peter Bohnc, John Bauman, 
Frederick Bach. Michael Blair, Maurice Brandt, NLit- 
thew Bickle, Lewis Dieffenbach, Jacob Eastearle, Frank- 

lin Early, Charles Engel, .\braham Frauenlhal, Charles 
Firestine, Conrad Futtrer, George Fritz, Zeno Fry 
Philip Glessner, Jacob Goebz, Frederick Gersting, Nich- 
olas Gerlitz, Jones Grajip, .Andrew Hansam, Henry Harf 
man, John Haiwish, Joseph Hartman, Emile Haugg, 
Philip Hess, Nicholas Helfrick, Lorenzo Ittel, Anton 
Joachim, Thomas Jayne. .Anton Kinghammer, Rudolph 
korff, John Kiilian, C. F. Loomis, Charles Long, Frit/ 
Loeffier, Jacob Luckhardt, John Mowery. Jacob Mahler, 
John Mathews, Morton Mehlinann, Florian Mitz, John 
Oppel, John Peter, William Riester, Henry Russ, Mat- 
thew Ruebenach, John Sengfelder, Frederick Schmiti. 
Frederick Shearer, Ernst Schmalst, William S( haule, 
Joseph Sittig, Michael Snyder, .Albert C. Woolbert, 
Christian Weiss, Jacob Wench, Conrad Wern. Justus 
Wassmuth, Conrad Zibb. 


Officers. — Henry W. Derby, captain; Beaton Smith, jr., 
first lieutenant; \\illiam D. Snyder, second lieutenant; 
Thomas Edmonds, first sergeant; Henry Derris, second 
sergeant; Charles Kerr, third sergeant; Joseph R. Shultz, 
fourth sergeant; Israel Ruth, first corporal; William Bry- 
den, second corporal; Monroe Koch, third corporal; 
William Booth, fourth corporal. 

/'/7,-rtAx.— Charles G. Adams, Miles N. Bradford. 
Lyman T. Benjamin, Thomas B. Bloom, William F. 
Bloff, Samuel A. Bouten, Abram L. Bound, James O. 
Brown, Warren Buckland, Theodore Cherry, George \V. 
Conklin, Samuel Cobb, John Coon, Hugh R. Crawford, 
Martin Decker, Hugh .M. Diehl, .Andrew J. Drake, 
Henry Ennis, Frederick M. Etting, Alexander L. Flem- 
ing, Peter S. Gabrio, Nathan C. Gregory, Jacob W. Gal- 
loway, Dinsmore Habe, John Haines, Stephen H. Haley, 
John Hastings, ist; John Hastings, 2d; Robert Hardy, 
Henry B. Henson, Harry Houser, John Hopkins, Wil- 
liam Jamison, Hudson D. Kind, Hiram P. Kirlin. .An- 
thony Long, William Miller, Thomas Mullihan, John .\I. 
Palmer, George W. Peters, C.eorge C. Palmer, Simon 
Rhodes, Henry Rex, Nicholas Robbing, Joshua Rich- 
ards, Joseph S. Shiffer, Mead S. Silkman, Charles Shafer, 
Peter Shively, Peter J. Smith, William Stark, Roland N. 
Stevens, John G. Swartz, William .A. Staples, William H. 
Thomas, David Wigton, John Wittingham, Edwin B. 
Wilson, Charles E. Ward, William H. Williams, James 
Woolley, Fletcher 1). Vapel. 


This regiment wasorganized .April 26th, 1861, for three 
month's service. .After a short period of drill it was, on 
the 27th of May, ordered forward to guard the Philadel- 
phia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, some bridges 
on which had been destroyed. Company E, Captain 
Johnson, was stationed at Charlestown. On the 18th of 
June the regiment went via Baltimore and Harrisburg to 
Chambersburg, thence to Hagerstown, Md. On the 20th 
of June, it was placed in the brigade commanded by 
Colonel (afterward General) Abercrombie, and on the 
2nd of July crossed the Potomac at Williamsport under 
that commander and was actively engaged in the battle 
at trailing Water, in which the forces of Jackson were put 
to flight. In this action three of Company E James 
Morgan, Daniel R. Stiles and Nelson Headen were 
wounded. After this fight the company went with the 
brigade to Martinsburg, thence to Bunker Hill, and on 
the 17th of July to Charlestown. Here, as the expira. 


tion of tlieir term of enlistment approached, General 
Patterson had the nth paraded and requested the men to 
remain some days beyond this term. He asked them to 
signify their willingness to do so by bringing their arms 
to a shoulder at the word. When the order was given 
every musket was shouldered. By arrangement the 
regiment was re-mustered for three years after its muster- 
out and allowed to retain its number. 

The field and staff officers of the iith regiment were 
as follows : Colonel, Phaon Jarrett; lieutenant colonel, 
Richard Coulter ; major, William D. Earnest; adjutant, 
F. Asbury Awl; quartermaster, William H. Hay; surgeon, 
Willian T. Babb; assistant surgeon, H. B. Buchler. 


of this company was recruited at Pittston; mustered 
in Ajjril 21st, 1S61; and consisted of the men named 
below : 

Officers — John B. Johnson, captain; John B. Fish, first 
lieutenant; Thomas DeKetta, second lieutenant; William 
E. Sees, first sergeant; Samuel Hodgdon, second sergeant; 
William C. Blair, third sergeant; Francis C. Woodhouse, 
fourth sergeant; Jacob F"ell, first corporal; George 
Cleaver, second corporal; Cornelius Vanscoy, third cor- 
poral; Charles F. Stewart, fourth corporal; James D. 
Giddings and Thomas Helm, musicians. 

Prh'ates — Henry Aulbert, Charles Bird, Samuel Beard, 
Ervin S. Barnes, John S. Benedick, Alfred B. Bradley, 
John Blair, Edward H. Berry, Abraham Creamer, David 
Creamer, George Chamberlain, Bartholomew Coggins, 
Patrick D. Curry, Jeffrey Cummings, Asa J. Carlin, 
William H. Crawford, John Davis, James Dunkley, 
Charles Decker, Henry W. Elbridge, William Fausnaught, 
William B. Ferris, Thomas F. Gilmore, Thomas Hoffman, 
Nelson Hedden, Joseph D. Hampton, James P. Hunter, 
Robert High, Charles Hamilton, John W. Humphreys, 
Joseph Jones, John Jarrett, John B. Kelly, Aaron 
Lamberson, Frank Lovvder, Henry Leader, John Mackey, 
James Morgan, James Miller, David Newhard, William 
Plant, John Perkins, James Powers, William L. Russell, 
Thomas Russell, Milton B. Repass, Thomas Robinson, 
Edward J. Schooley, James E. Smith, John A. Shepherd, 
John Shannon, Martin M. Smith, John Snyder, Daniel 
R. Stiles, William H. Small, Daniel Taylor, John Tliom- 
linson, Charles Vanderbergh, L,ewis Wagoner, Daniel 
\Villiams, David H. Williamson, William Williams, James 
Wagoner, David B. Wiley, Edward Welsh, Harrison B. 


This was organized at Camp Curtin May ist, 1861. 
May 9th the regiment went to Camp Johnston, near Lan- 
caster, where the men were well drilled and disciplined. 
June 3d they moved to near Chambersburg, and were 
assigned to General Negley's brigade of General Keim's 
division. June i6th the regiment with its brigade marched 
to the vicinity of Hagerstown. On the 2nd of July it 
crossed the Potomac with the army and Negley's brigade, 
which followed a road that diverged from the main line 
of march, threw forward Company I with a company from 
another regiment as skirmishers. These suddenly came 
upon a battalion of Ashby's cavalry, disguised as Union 
troops, and before they suspected their true character 
Lieutenant John B. Hutchinson and a portion of Com- 

pany I were made prisoners, the first sergeant having 
been shot. They had even obeyed an order from Ashby 
to let down the fence between them, mistaking the cavalry 
for friends. Pursuit witho\it cavalry was unavailing, and 
these men were hurried to Richmond, and thence through 
the south to New Orleans, where they were kept till that 
city fell into the possession of the Federal troops, when 
they were sent to Salisbury and soon afterward exchanged. 
Si.x of their number, however, had died from exposure 
and hardship. On the 3d the regiment reached Martins- 
burg, where it remained till the r5th; then marched suc- 
cessively to Bunker Hill, Charleston, Hagerstown and 
Carlisle, where it encamped on the 27th, and was mus- 
tered out on the 7th of August. 

The colonel of the isth regiment was Richard A. Oak- 
ford; lieutenant-colonel, Thomas Biddle; major, Stephen 
N. Bradford; adjutant, John R. Lynch, of Wilkes-Barre, 
quartermaster, Jacob Rice; surgeon, A. P. Meylerl; as- 
sistant surgeon, R. H. Little. 

Company A was recruited at Scranton, Companies B 
and C at Pittston, and D and G at Wilkes-Barre. Com- 
pany A was mustered in on the 26th, B on the 23d, C on 
the 27th, and D on the 22nd of April, 1861. The mem- 
bership of these companies is shown by the following list: 


Officers. — John Bradley, captain; Sylvester Shively, 
first lieutenant; John E. Force, second lieutenant; Free- 
man J. Coisier, first sergeant; Cliarles Russell, second 
sergeant; William H. Miller, third sergeant; Joseph A. 
Dixon, fourth sergeant; William H. Dixon, first corporal; 
Edward G. Kichline, second corporal; Philip W. Cool, 
third corporal; Norman R. Coe, fourth corporal; Rufus 
Walten, Bernard Elbert, musicians. 

Privates. — Abraham Bittender, Charles W. Bitzenberg- 
er. Nelson Betron, William Burke, Chauncey Bennett, 
George Brink, Jeremiah Briggs, Edwin J. Burr, Isaac 
Cornell, Murt Cunningham, Theodore B. Combs, Mark 
Croll, Patrick Cassiday, Michael F. Connor, David Carey. 
Jonhson A. Cornwall, Samuel Day, John Delacey, Wil- 
liam Derr, John Decker, Andrew Dyer, Elijah Detrick, 
Walter H. Ellis, Jacob W. Evans, George W. Fell, John 
R. Hanyon, Preserved S. Hall, James Hinckley, John 
Hetherby, Stephen 'Haly, Ulysses W. Hutchinson, Nelson 
Haggarty, Walter R. Hopkins, Sylvester Hinckley, Harry 
L. Knoor, George L. Kater, Alfred W. Leteer, Fletcher 
Line, Joseph M'Daniel, Irvin M'Mustrie, John M'Cor- 
mick, Dennis M'Carty, Patrick Malone, John W. Mar- 
shall, Conrad Miller, Nicholas Miller, Alexander Neely, 
Isaac Pierce, Owen Phillips, George Parker, W^atkins 
Powell, Noel B. Parker, William Patter, Oliver R. Ross, 
Stephen Remaly, Wesley Remaly, Levi Roushy, Charles 
Stetler, Samuel Stetler, Barton Senburg, George E. Shafer, 
Levi D. Westfall, George A. Wolcott, Hiram White, Rufus 


Officers — Anthony Brown, captain; Andreas Frey, first 
lieutenant; George Dick, second lieutenant; Henry 
Teufel, first sergeant; Charles Aicher, second sergeant; 
Joseph Kaiser, third sergeant; Leo Steuer, fourth ser- 
geant; Albert Feist, first corporal; Joseph Steuer, second 
corporal; John Kolb, third corporal; Herman Kaspar, 
fourth corporal; Anthony Wallinger, William Eshelman, 




fifti:i:n III regiment, companies c, n and g. 


Privates. — Samuel Barry, Lewis Hausher, Eiiliraini 
Clauser, Robert Dowd, Ferdinand Durve, Frederick 
Dresde, Edward Dames, Jnse|)h Eisenstein, William 
Egensen, Adam Engraff, John N. Fass, John Martin 
Fritz, William H. Faethr, Rudolph Feist, Adam Ferne- 
kees, Michael Flad. John Filling. Jacob Fisher, Henry 
Fullmer, Elbridge Gerald, Frederick Griineberg, Conrad 
Grab, John Gobel. I'eter Ganibel, Andreas Hilbert, Fred- 
eric k Holman, Reinhold Hummel, Jacob Kien/.le, Otto 
Kaiser, Charles Kessler. Georae Kun/elmin. Jolin Keller, 
Tobias Kelber, Peter Krel/, Valentine Kliiigler, William 
Kieffer, Joseph Louse, Israel Merehenter, Christian 
Marsh, Irvin Morton, Jacob Matter, Samuel Matter, 
Nicholas Morse, Philip Mishlish, Josejih H. Marshall, 
Adam Massholder, Henry S. O. Neils, Lewis Ott, Noah 
Parks, George B. Parsons. Frederick Roser, John Rader, 
Joseph Rupple, Jacob Reizel, Daniel Shanz, Jacob Shazle, 
lohn Schmidt, lohn Stark, Frederick Sholl, Jacob M. 
Shmidt, lohn Sholl, James R. Shmidt, Jacob Wolf, Ed- 
ward We'dle, David Willard, Felix Wolf.' 


Officers. — Christian Robinson, captain; Frederick Wei- 
chcl, first lieutenant; Charles Robinson, first lieutenant; 
Willi.Tm Stein, second lieutenant; John R. Jones, jr, sec- 
ond lieutenant; .Anthony Ferres, second sergeant; Charles 
Croner, third sergeant; .Adam Pantle, fourth sergeant; 
Lewis J. (iratz, first corporal; Joseph Mehlbaum, second 
corporal; William Locher, third corporal; Frederick 
Wagner, fourth corporal; Frederick Berger and Jacob 
Engel, musicians. 

Privates. — Matthew l?reithaupt, William Bechtold, 
George Birkel, F'rederick Biel, .Adam Bon, Robert Camp- 
bell, Michael Duvrick, Charles Erhard, Charles Elm, 
Frederick Emrich, Christian Emrich, Henry Faller, Wil- 
liam Frantz. Henry Frasch, Ellis Futtere, Barnabas 
Ganther, Frederick Goehrs. Peter Gimnich, John Hatchen, 
P. and C. Hartman, Peter Hess, John Hoffman, Owen Han- 
cock, Charles Houseman, Sylvester Harrman, .Adam Koch, 
John Kammer, Philip Kleinman, Delos P. Kapp, William 
Korr, Frederick Kunzelman, Charles Lennich, Frederick 
Lewis, Charles Miller, Nicholas Miller, George Moser, 
Grififith Morris, Charles Neuffer, Charles Nessle, John 
Niemayer, Casper Newcomer, ('harles Pontius, Jacob 
Reipert, Jacob Rosar, William Roehm ist, William 
Roehm 2nd, Jacob Re|)er, (iustavus Rifford, Christian 
Schuter, Philip Schneider, Philip Schweitzer, Jose|)h 
Schremsen, Henry Stahl, William Schmitt, Peter Schnei- 
der, Matthew Schneider, Francis Schmitt, Frederick 
Teufel, Patrick Thomas, Daniel Weinig, Charles Worth, 
Frederick Wagner, (ieorge Wachtle, Charles Weisgarber, 
Morris Zwick, Charles Zang. 


Officers. — Solomon Strumer, captain; Daniel Dobra, 
first lieutenant; Jacob C. Holm, second lieutenant; Mar- 
cus K. Bishop, first sergeant; John Gebhart, second ser- 
geant; (ieorge Schaffer, third sergeant; Nicholas Smith, 
fourth sergeant; Rudolj)!! .Snialtz, first corporal; The- 
ophilus H. Stees, second corporal; James Evans, third 
corporal; Frantz Gebhart, fourth corporal; William 
Fuegline and Charles Richter, musicians. 

Privates. — .Ale.xander .Anderson, Lewis Brand, Amos 
Boyer, Peter Borer, Irving Berry, CJeorge Berner, Fred- 
erick Badenstelt, John Bfund. Charles Cluss, Christian 
Capp, John Chatham, Daniel Chubb, Philip Chubb, Mi- 
chael Dorsh, John Dippre, Jacob Drum, .Alexander Dick, 
Philip Engert, John Engelman, Anthony Fisher, Charles 
Ferguson, William Fenner, Henry Gol)ert, Sydney W. 
Glace, Peter Hushback. Henry Hushback, Ferdinand 

Hess. Godfried Hither, Peter Kralch, John, 
.Nicholas Lobshier, Michael Lifler, (Ieorge T. Leebrick, 
Cyreneus Murray. David P. Miller, .Anthony Mindcn- 
dorfer, William M' Donald, George W. Nevelf, Sti-phen 
Oswald. (Charles Phafley. Edward Reman. Charles Ru- 
beck. Julius Rhote, James Ryeon, Christian Schmuck, 
Ja<()l) Silks, (Jeorge S])echt, L'Irich .Sjjalinger, Frantz 
Schibel, Edward S( holl, James Smith, Lewis Schweitzer, 
John Sttiner, Dr. John Steiner. Conrad Stouter, John 
Tritchler, Nebmuke X'olbnaii. Melton Weigner, Hennas 
We.-ke, Jacob U olf, John E. Will, Paul Wen'izel, Thoman 
N'oiing, Jacob Zimmmerman. 

CO.MHA.W u. 

Officers. — Thomas NLngovern, captain ; Thoma.s .A. 
Nichols, first lieutenant; .Alexander Phillips, second lieu- 
tenant; John Eskings, first sergeant; Richard W. Jack- 
son, second sergeant; George S. Kilhorn, third sergeant; 
David (iarbet, fourth sergeant; [olin Magar, first corporal; 
James Phillips, second corporal; Jesse B. .Scott, third 
corporal; Lewis Wo(<d(uff, fourth corporal; Warner W. 
Pins and Hiram Foster, musicians. 

Privates. — William .Asiings, Josiah Bios, Leonard Bron- 
son, Peter -Barber, Patrick liuike, .Albert Brown, Henry 
C. Bopst, John Cunningham, William Clave, Paul Cool, 
Halley Compton, George Chamberl.iin, I'airick Cahil, 
.Allen Cassidy. Dennis Carannagh, Carroll, Nelson 
M. Davenport, Richard D.iirs, George Deckins, D.ivid 
Davis, jr., Evan Evans, Luke Gram, John tlrat'.on, Wil- 
liam Griffiths, David (Irifiilhs, George Given, .Abraham 
Hantz, Edward Hollern, Is.-'ac Hontz, Ebenezcr Jones, 
Dwight Jones, John Jones, Isaiah Jones. William Jenkins, 
Eilward Kiterick, Samuel .M. Kaufman, Enoch Lloyd, 
William Lynch, .Asbury Lucas, Michael .\Iooiiey, William 
Morgan, Edward Morgan, James Mickle, .Anthony 
M'Dermot, John .M'Gee, Henry .Miller, David .M'Gahen. 
-Alexander Palmatory, William Reese, Paul Rimple, John 
Roberts, Edward Smith, John Smith, .Andrew Scott. 
James Smith, Edward Sheldon. Stephen Simes, John 
Shanghey, Jeremiah 'J'homas, Dillon Taylor, Thaddeus 
Wagner, George Welsh, Charles Walker, George Wolff. 




HIS regiment was raised by John W. Geary, a 
distinguished citizen, and veteran of the Mex- 
ican war, who was its colonel, and who was 
finally promoted to the position of major 
leral, and in 1867 and 1870 elected governor of 
the State. It consisted of fifteen companies, ot 
which Conii)anies A and N were recruited in Lu- 
zerne county. The regiment was first uniformed and 
equipped at the expense of Colonel Geary. 

.Authority was given to raise this regiment in June, 
1 86 1, and on the 27th of July the colonel with ten com- 
panies went forward to Harper's Ferry, leaving the other 
five to follow when full. The disaster at Bull Run had 
rendered this haste necessary. 


" VJU ' 



August i3tli tlie regiment moved to Point of Rocks, 
and engaged in ])icket duty along twenty-five miles of 
the frontier, on the Potomac. The disloyalty of the in- 
habitants was such that a picket post was required every 
four hundred yards, and the utmost watchfulness was 
necessary to jjrevent treasonable communications. In 
the latter jiart of September the rebels attacked Point of 
Rocks, but were repulsed. In October the colonel with 
a part of the regiment crossed into Virginia to seize and 
carry away a quantity of wheat, and when about to re- 
turn they were attacked by a large force and a s|)irited 
fight ensued. The enemy were repulsed with considera- 
ble loss. In the latter part of the same month the com- 
mand went forward to participate in the action at Ball's 
Bluff. During three months the regiment was on duty 
along the Potomac, and had frequent skirmishes with the 
enemy. In the latter part of February, 1S62, it crossed 
to Harper's Ferry, drove the enemy from Bolivar Heights, 
crossed the Shenandoah and drove the rebels from Lou- 
don Heights; then pushed forward to Lovellsville, Water- 
ford and Leesburg, which (General A. P. Hill abandoned 
on the approach of Colonel Geary's force, and which was 
occujjied by the Union troojjs. From Leesburg the 
comtnand advanced to Snickerville, Upperville, Ashhy's 
Gap, Rectortown, Piedmont, Markham and Front Royal. 
Returning to Snickerville the force was joined by a por- 
tion of the 28th that had been left at Leesburg. They 
then marched successively, fighting occasionally, to Phile- 
mont, Middlebury, White Plains, Thoroughfare Gap, 
Greenwich, Catlett's Station, Warrentown and White 
Plains; and for some time, till about May ist, guarded 
and repaired the Manassas Railroad. 

April 25th, Colonel Geary was commissioned brigadier 
general of volunteers, and was succeeded as colonel by 
Lieutenant Colonel De Korponay. Major Tyndall was 
made lieutenant colonel, and he was succeeded by Cap- 
tain Ario Pardee, jr. The 28th was soon afterward, or 
about the 17th of May, attached to the command of 
General Geary, and its subsequent history is so closely 
connected with that of his brigade that to give it fully 
would require a history of all the movements of that 
brigade. It was attached to the corps of General Banks 
at the time of the retreat from Virginia, and was engaged 
in the battle of Antietam. It also took part in the battles 
of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. 

In September, 1864, the iith and 12th corps were or- 
dered to join the .'Krmy of the Cumberland. From this 
time forward the 2Sth was attached to the army of Gen- 
eral Sherman, and participated in many battles, which 
cannot even be enumerated here for want of space. In 
November, 1864, with the rest of Sherman's army, it 
made the famous "march to the sea." After doing duty 
about a mo'nth in Savannah, it started across the Caro- 
linas, which was the severest part of the march from .'\t- 
lanta. As is well known, the surrender of Lee and 
Johnston concluded the fighting of the war; and the regi- 
ment was mustered out of the service on the i8th of 
July, 1865. 

During its service of four years it lost about as many 

men as were originally on its muster roll. It is said that 
it was as often engaged as any regiment in the service, 
but that it never permitted any kind of property belong- 
ing to it to fall into the hands of the enemy. One major 
general and three brigadiers were furnished by it ; among 
the latter was Ario Pardee, jr. 

The term of enlistment of this regiment was three 
years. .-^11 the members of Company N remaining in the 
service until October 28th, 1862, were transferred at tha* 
date to Company C of the 147th Pennsylvania vol-unteers. 
The first date given in the following roll is that of muster- 
in, and as the year is 1861, except in case of recruits, it 
need not be repeated. The regimental officers and men of 
Company A, where not otherwise mentioned, were mus- 
tered out with the regiment July i8th, 1S65: 


Colonels. — John W. Geary, June 28; promoted brigadier 
general U. S. volunteers April 25, 1862; wounded at 
Bolivar, Cedar Mountain and Chancellorsville; promoted 
major general Jan. 12, 1865. Gabriel De Korponay, June 
28; promoted from lieutenant colonel to colonel A])ril 
25, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate March 2(1, 
7863. Thomas J. Ahl, July 11; promoted from captain 
Company H to colonel March 15, 1863; resigned March 
18, 1864. John Flynn, July i; wounded at Gettysburg 
July 3, 1863, and at North Edisto river, S. C, Feb. 12, 
1865; promoted lieutenant colonel, Dec. 12, 1863; to 
colonel June g, 1864; brevet brigadier general May 13, 
1865; discharged Nov. 3, 1865; veteran. 

Lii'ittemiiit Colonels. — Hector Tyndale, June 28; pro- 
moted lieutenant colonel Apr. 25, 1862; wounded at An- 
tietam. Sept. 17, 1862; promoted brigadier general volun- 
teers Nov. 29, 1862; discharged Mar. 18, 1863. James 
Fitzpatrick, June 28; promoted major Mar. 27, 1864; 
lieutenant colonel Aug. 9, 1864; wounded at Antietam 
Sept. 17, 1862; at Mill Creek Gap May 8, 1864. 

Majors. — Ario Pardee, jr., June 28; promoted major 
Nov. I, 1861; lieutenant colonel 147th regiment October 
9, 1S62. William Raphail, July 3; promoted major, July 
I, 1862; resigned Jan. 15, 1863. Robert Warden, July 
28; promoted major Apr. 25, 1862; died at Winchester, 
Va., June 30, 1862. Lans'd F. Chapman, July 6; pro- 
moted major Jan. 22, 1863; killed at Chancellorsville 
May 3, 1863. Jacob D. Arner, July 6; promoted major 
June I, 1S65. 

Adjutants. — Samuel Goodman, Oct. 15; promoted to 
adjutant Nov. 13, 1861; discharged 3, 1S64; brevet 
captain, major, lieutenant colonel and colonel. Mar. 13, 
1865. Henry Cheesman, July 11; promoted adjutant 
July 28, 1864; discharged Feb. 8, 1865. William S. Wit- 
ham, July 2; promoted adjutant June i, 1865. 

Quartermasters. — Benjamin F. Lee, June 28; resigned 
Sept. 10, 1862, to accept commission as captain and A. 
C. S. John F. Nicholson, June 28; promoted from com- 
mission sergeant to ciuartermaster Sept. 10, 1862; brevet 
captain, major and lieutenant colonel. Mar. 13, 1862. 

Surgeons. — H. Ernest Goodman, July 23; transferred 
to U. S. V. as assistant surgeon, to date Feb. 26, 1864; 
brevet colonel and surgeon in chief. Army of Georgia. 
William Altman, Dec. 17, 1862; promoted surgeon. May 
8, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeons. — Samuel Logan, June 28: resigned 
Oct. 3, 1862. William M. Dorland, Aug. i, 1862; re- 
signed Nov. 27, 1862. John H. Mullin, Oct. 15, 1862; 
resigned Apr. 17, 1863. William F". Smith, June 3, 1863; 
])romoted surgeon Dec. 23, 1864, and transferred to 73d. 
Abin H. Light, May 23, 1864. 




Chaf<lains. — Charles W. Heisley, Nov. :; resigned July 
iS, 1863. N. 15. Critchfiekl, Mny 22, 1864. 

SV/xi-d/// J/ii/ofs. — James C. Siiiiili, June 28; promoted 
sergeant major. .Aug. i, 1S64; ist lieutenant Company C 
28th I'a., July 8, 1865. Thomas Monroe.June 28; jtronioted 
sergeant major .Vug. i, 1864; ist lieutenant Company C 
July 7, 1863. Samuel V. McKce, June 28; ])ronioted ser- 
geant major July 20, 1861; aujutant 147th, Dec. i, 1862. 
Thomas McCune. July i; i)romoted sergeant major Sept. 
10, 1861; disciiarged on surgeon's certificate, Feb. 26, 
1S63. Michael H. Pevine, July i; promoted sergeant 
major I'"eh. 26. 1863; discharged on suigeon's certificate 
.\ug. 14, 1863. Edward D. Foulke, July 6; jiromoted 
sergeant major Dec i, 1863; reduced to ranks and 
transferred to C'ompany D -Aug. i, 1864. R. A. Kerri- 
hard, June 28; promoted sergeant major Aug. 15, 1863; 
killed at Taylor Ridge, Ga., Nov. 27, 1863. 

Qiiartiimaiti-r Serjeants. — Wesley Hamilton, July i; 
])ronioted quartermaster sergeant Apr. 8, 1865. David 
B. Hilt, July 20; promoted (luartermaster sergeant July 
20, 1861; discharged on surgeon's certificate Aug. 17, 

Commissary Sfigeaiit!.. — Albert J. \Vatt, July i; pro- 
moted commissary sergeant Sei)t. i, 1863. J. H. I-ippin- 
cott, June 2 1; promoted commissary sergeant Sept. 10, 
1862; transferred to Company H, Sept. i, 1863. 

Hos[<ital StcuHirJs. — P. S. C. Hough, July 1 1 ; promoted 
hos])ital steward, Nov. 24, 1863. James Kemble, July 
24; promoted hospital steward July 24, iS6j; discharged 
Nov. 24, 1862, and promoted hospital steward U. S. A. 


Officfis {iiiiistcrcd ill June 28, 1861 . — Captains — .Ario 
Pardee, jr., promoted major twenty-eighth regiment 
Pennsylvania volunteers Nov. i, 7861. James Fit/- 
patrick, |)romoted captain Jan. i, 1862 ; major Mar. 27, 
1864; veteran. James Silliman, jr., promoted from cor- 
poral to first sergeant July i, 1861 ; second lieuienani 
Jan. I, 1862 ; first lieutenant July i, 1862 ; captain -Aug. 
16, 1864. First lieutenant — Ceorge Marr, ])romoted first 
sergeant July 12, 1863; first lieutenant Oct. i, 1S64. 
Second lieutenants — John Corman, resigned Dec. 31, 1861. 
Isaiah B. Robinson, jiromoted from sergeant Jan. i, 1862; 
killed July 20, 1864, at Peach Tree Creek, Ga. ^Villiam 
Airey, promoted corporal Jan. i, 1863; sergeant July 
12, 1863 ; first sergeant Oct. i, 1864 ; second lieutenant 
June I, 1865. First sergeants — Smith Durst, ])romoted 
corporal Jan. i, 1863; sergeant July 12, 1863 ; first 
sergeant June i, 1865. Samuel F. .M'Kee, promoted 
sergeant major twenty-eighth regiment Pennsylvania 
volunteers July 20, t86i. Sergeants — George W. YA- 
dinger, wounded ; promoted corporal Feb. i, 1863-; ser- 
geant Jan. 1,1864, Patrick M'Shay, promoted corporal 
Jan. 1, 1863; sergeant Oct. i, 1864. William H. Wolf, 
promoted corporal Jan. i, 1864; sergeant Feb. i, 1865. 
George Burt, wounded ; promoted sergeant June 1, 1865. 
William M'Donald, discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Jan. 16, 1863. Robert .A. Kerrihard, promoted sergeant 
major twenty-eighth regiment Pennsylvania volunteers 
.Aug. 15, 1863. Thomas Monroe, wounded at Chancel- 
lorsville ; promoted sergeant major twenty-eighth regi- 
ment Pennsylvania volunteers Aug. i, 1864; veteran. 
John I). I.ockhart, died at Harper's Ferry, Va., Dec. 11, 
1862. Robert I. Carter, died July 12, 1S63, at Philailel- 
phia, of wounds received at Chancellorsvillc. William 
Wylie, died at Philadelphia Nov. 26, 1862. .Archibald 
Nesbit, promoted '..ergeant Sept. 30, 1862 ; mustered out 
July 2, 1864. Corporals — Dennis Laughlin, Joseph H. 
Cornet, William H. Doak and James Shirey, promoted 
corporal Jan. i, 1864. Thomas Karley, promoted cor- 
poral Oct. 1, 1864. Henry Hembach, Feb. 26, 1864 ; 


promoted corporal Feii. i, 1865. Alexander W. Self- 
ridge, discharged Fel). 28, 1 862,10 receive commission as 
second lieutenant H forty-sixth regiment Penn- 
^ylvania volunteers. Beriah Pratt, discharged for 
wounds Nov. 29, 1S62. William W. Jamts, discharged 
on surgeon's certificate Dec 7, 1862. William P. Cort- 
right. discharged on surgeon's ceriifiraie Jan. 15. 1863. 
William Horn, discharged Feb. 19, 1863, for wounds 
nceived at Antietam. James C. Smith, promoted ser- 
geant major July 1, 1865 ; veteran. Musicians— Frank 
Harkins, Feb. 9, 1864. I'rcderick Spoh;i. promoted prin- 
cipal musician Sept. 14, 1862. William F. Simpson, 
promoted second principal musician Mch. i, 1864. John 
R. Young, Feb. 14. 1865 ; deserted June 20, 1S65. 

Piiiuili-s. — John Anderson, Jan. 26. 1864. Henry 
Albert, Feb. 14, 1865. Phineas W. Ash, June 28 ; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate, Nov. 29,1862. Samuel 
.Armpriester, .Aug. 29. 1864 ; discharged by general order, 
.May 23, 1865. Joseph Achuff, Mch. 3, 1865; discharged 
by general order, May 23, 1865. James Alwell, Nov. 7, 
1864; discharged by general order. May 23, 1865. An- 
thony .Albert. Feb. 14, 1865 ; deserted June 20, 1865. 
Edwin M. .Alsfield, Feb. 13, 1865 ; discharged by general 
order. May 23. 1865. .Amos Buzzard, Feb. 15, 1865. 
Isaac Buzznrd, Feb. 14. 1865. (Jeorge Bachman, Feb. 

14, 1865. Jacob R. Black, ".\Ich. 2, 1865. Charles F. 
Brong, Mch. 9, 1865. John Barringer and Isaac Barrin- 
ger, Dec. 22, 1864 ; drafted. Josiah Buzzard, Feb. 14, 
1865 ; mustered out .Aug 9, 1865. Christian F. Bender. 
Feb. 20, 1865 ; mustered out July 14, 1865. Henry W. 
Beers, June 28; discharged on surgeon's certificate, Jan. 

15, 1863. John Brennan and Henry E. Brown, discharg- 
ed on surgeon's certificate. John Brown, June 28; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate. Jesse Beahm, June 28, 
discharged July 20, 1864. Francis Barker. Aug. 11. 1816; 
1864 ; discharged by general order, June 2, 1865. Patrick 
Boyle, June 28; deserted July 17, 1862. Burton Bur- 
well, Feb. 14, 1865; discharged by general order, .May 
23, 1865. John Behrens, June 28: absent, in arrest, at 
muster out ; veteran. Joseph N. Conklin, Feb. 14, 1865. 
Henry Collins, Feb. 17, 1865 ; absent, sick, at muster 
out. Thomas Cunningham and John Campbell. June 
28, 1861 ; discharged July 20, 1864. Reuben Clay well, 
June 28; killed at .Antietam, .Sept. 17, 1862. Daniel 
C'ampbfll, June 28; deserted June 29, 1863; returned 
.April II, 1865. Hugh Dolan, June 28. Eugene Durst, 
Ian. 22, 1864. Paul Deer. Feb. 14, 1865. John F. 
Decker, June 28; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
Feb. 28, 1863. .Abraham Depue and Eli Dout, June 28, 
1861; dischargetl July 20, 1864. George H. Dunham, 
Feb. 24, 1864 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, June 
30, 1865. John Dean, June 28; died May 18, 1863, of 
wounds received at Chancellorsville. William H. Drake, 
Feb. 16, 1865; discharged by general order. May 2-^, 
1865. George 1-ike. Feb. 24, 1864. Peter Fox, Feb. 25, 
1864. Christopher Fagan, June 28; discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate; date unknown. Peter Fagen, June 28; 
discharged on surgeon's certificate, Aug. 18, 1863. Charles 
Furry, June 28; discharged Mrh. 4, 1863, for wounds 
received at Antietam. James Fowler and Nicholas Faich- 
ter, June 28, 1861: discharged July 20, 1864. John 
Fatkins, June 28; transferred to sixth regiment U. S. 
cavalry, Nov. i, 1862. John W. Funk, 1-eb. 14, 1865; 
deserted June 20, 1865. James Furlong, Feb 24, 1865; 
deserted. Benjamin F. Godshalk, Mch. 11, 1865; absent, 
sick, at muster out. Jacob Graur, Jan. 28, 1864; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate, July 11, 1865. James 
Givens, June 28; discharged on surgeon's certificate.Mch. 
10, 1863. Henry Grow, John Girard and John W. Gcn- 
sil, June 28, 1861 • discharged July 20, 1864. Charles 
Grum. June 28: wommiIiiI- mn^irriil out .Aug. 8. 1S64. 


1 06 



Henry Grum, June 28; killed at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. 
Charles Godley, Feb. 20, 1865; deserted June 20, 1865. 
John Heater, June 28. William H. Herman, Jan. 26, 
1865. Henry C. Hess, Feb. 10, 1865. George W.'Houck, 
Feb. 20, 1865. Christian Hogland, Feb. 14, 1865; absent, 
sick, at muster out. John Holler. Harrison Hill and 
Jacob Hehr, June 28, 1861; discharged July 20, T864. 
John P. Hay, Feb. 14, 1865: discharged on surgeon's 
certificate, June 8, 1865. William H. Hartzell. William 
P. Innes and John A. Innes, Feb. 14, 1865; discharged 
by general order. May 23, 1865. Aaron F. Knauss, Feb. 
17, 1865. Joseph Karns, Dec. 22, 1864; drafted; mus- 
tered out with company, July 18, 1865. Edward Kale, 
July 25; discharged July 20, 1864. William Kortz, June 
28; discharged July 20, 1864. Ezra H. Kindred, Feb. 
24, 1864; discharged by general order, June 20, 1865. 
Andrew Kunkle, June 28; killed at Anlietam, Md., Sejit. 

17, 1862. James Laughlin, Feb. 16, 1864. John E. 
Lerch, Feb. 18, 1865. Joseph Little, June 28; discharged 
on surgeon's certificate, Dec. 18, 1862. Edward Little- 
ton, July 17; discharged on surgeon's certificate, June 14, 
1864. Jacob Lambert, June 28; discharged July 20, 1864. 
George Langham, September 5, 1863 ; drafted ; dis- 
charged for wounds December 3, 1864. Theodore 
Labar, Feb. 14, 1865; deserted June 17, 1865. Isaac 
Labar, Feb. 20, 1865 ; deserted June 18, 1865. Adam 
Lehm, Feb. 16, 1865 ; discharged by general order May 
23, 1865. George Mowrie, June 28. Barney Maloy, Feb. 
12, 1862. Robert Monroe, Feb. 14, 1864. John Magee, 
Feb. 14, 1864. Patrick Martin, June 28; wounded at 
Chancellorsville; discharged July 20, 1864. William H. 
Moyer, June 28; captured at Gettysburg June 3, 1863; 
discharged July 20, 1864. Josiah Mowrie, June 28; 
discharged July 20, 1864, Stephen Myers, Feb. 20, 1865; 
discharged on surgeon's certificate June 30, 1865. Samuel 
Minig, June 28 ; transferred to i6th U. S. infantry Jan. 
23, 1S62. John Maloney, June 28; killed at Antietam, 
Md., September 17, 1862. Nicholas Marx, Feb. 26, 1864; 
died at Bridgeport, Ala., May i, 1864. William H. 
Morgan, Jan. 29, 1864; Killed at Pine Hill, Ga., June 15, 
1864. Daniel M'Geichan, Feb. 12, 1862 ; wounded. 
William M'Daniels, Feb. 14, 1865, Alexander M'Kech- 
ney, June 28; wounded at Antietam; discharged July 20, 
1864. Henry M'Donald, June 28; discharged July 20, 
1864. James D. M'Curley, June 28; wounded at Antie- 
tam; discharged July 20, 1864. John M'Hoes, Feb. 16, 
1865; discharged June 20, 1865. Joseph Nuss, Feb. 
15, 1865. Joseph Nixon, June 28; discharged July 20, 

1864. William H. Nixon, Feb. 20, 1865; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate June 27, 1865. Patrick O'Donnell, 
May I, 1864; drafted; mustered out with company July 

18, 1865. John B. Penrose and James Petrie, June 28, 186 1 ; 
discharged July 20, 1864. Martin Pysher, Feb. 20, 1865; 
discharged by general order June 17, 1865. John Petrie, 
June 28; died June 12, 1863, of wounds received at 
Chancellorsville. Patrick Quinn, June 28; killed at An- 
tietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862. Isaac Rough. June 28. 
William Roseberry, Feb. 14, 1865. John G. Richardt, 
Feb. 14, 1865. Jefferson Rightnour, Sept. 5, 1863; draft- 
ed. Jacob Rough, June 28; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate March 28, 1863. Jacob Rosenstock, June 28; 
wounded at Chancellorsville; discharged July 20, 1864. 
Robert Roling. James M. Rodenbaugh, Feb, 13, 1865; 
discharged by general order May 23, 1865. Washington 
H. Smith, June 28. William P. Shaver, Jan. 29, 1864. 
William H. Salmon, Feb. 24, 1864. Edward N. Smith, 
Feb. 18, 1865. Aaron Serfass, March i, 1865. Harrison 
D. Seiple, Mar. i, 1865. Bernard Schlenzing, Jan. 26, 

1865. Jackson E. Stoker, Feb. 16, 1865. William H. 
Seip, Feb. 13, 1865. Samuel Shank, Nov. 18, 1864; 
drafted. Solomon Smith, Sept. 21, 1864; drafted. Jos- 

eph Smith, Nov. 4, 1864; drafted; mustered out July 14, 
1865. Jacob Shafer, Jan. 10, 1865; drafted; mustered 
out July 27, 1865. John Shiiver, Dec. 22, 1864; drafted; 
mustered out June 9, 1865. John Smith, June 28; dis- 
charged for wounds; date unknown. Daniel Sitler, June 
28; discharged July 20, 1864. Joseph Sonn, June 28; 
wounded at Antietam; discharged July 20, 1864. John 
D.Smith. Paul Staub. John Shugart, June28, 1861; 
discharged July 20, 1864. Oscar L. Sprague, Feb. 24, 
1864; discharged for wounds May 18, 1865. William E. 
Sprague, Jan. 29, 1864; discharged for wounds Feb. 28, 
1865. Levi L. Smith, June 28; died at Philadelphi:i 
December 13, 1862. Charles Steel, Feb. 18, 1864; killed 
at DaUon, Ga., August 18, 1864. Emanuel Spatzer, Jan. 
26, 1865; deserted June 17, 1865. Emanuel Stetler, Feb. 
15, 1865; deserted June 20, 1865. James W. Smith, 
June 28; discharged July 20, 1864. Thomas Tarn, June 
28; discharged September 16, 1864. James B. Tweedle, 
June 28; discharged July 20, 1864. Anthony Transue, 
Feb. 20, 1865; discharged by general order May 23, 1865. 
Jacob T. Ultz, Feb. 28, 1865. Jacob Wildman, Jan. 29, 

1864. Alexander Wier, Feb. 18,1864. Jacob L, Wal- 
ters, Feb. 14, 1S65. Prosper Worg, February 14, 1865. 
Thomas Williams, February 20, 1865. Henry Weaver 
and Reuben Washburn, June 28, 1861; discharged July 
20, 1864. W. H. Whitbread, Feb. 24, 1864; discharged 
on surgeon's certificate June 6, 1865. Herman Walters, 
September 21, 1864; drafted; deserted June 7, 1865. 
Lewis Wilhelm, February 14, 1865; deserted June 20, 

1865. Andrew Wilson, March 13, 1865; deserted 
June 20, 1865. Samuel R. Yost, June 28, 1861; dis- 
charged March 19, 1863, for wounds received at 


Officets. — Captain, John Craig, Aug. 30. First lieu- 
tenants — Patrick J. Hughes, Aug. 20, resigned Dec. 16, 
1861; Calvin Pardee, Aug 30, promoted from second to 
first lieutenant Dec. 20, 1861. Second lieutenants — 
Hugh Hyndman, Aug. 30, promoted from corporal to 
second lieutenant Dec. 20, 1861, died Feb. 14, 1862; 
Nicholas Glace, Aug. 20, promoted from first sergeant to 
second lieutenant Feb. 17, 1862. Sergeants — David 
Bryan, Aug. 20, promoted sergeant Feb. 16, 1862; John 
Kindland, Aug. 20, reduced Jan. i, 1862; John H. 
Kentz, Aug. 26; Alexander Youngst, Aug. 20; Samuel. 
Henry, Aug. 30, promoted from corporal to sergeant 
Feb. 14, 1862. Corporals — John Grubb, John Lindsc)', 
Owen McGovern, John O'Conner, Alfred Reiley and 
William T. West, Aug. 20; Emmett Sayres, Aug. 30, 
promoted to corporal Jan. i, 1862. Musician — N. F'. 
Dunham, Aug. 30. 

Privates. — Samuel K. Austin, John .Altmiller, John 
Burns, Henry Bloomey, Peter Brown and Eugene Ben- 
nett, Aug. 20. Peter Bishop, Aug. 26. Thomas B. Black, 
William Butler, David Bahr and Jesse B. Car])enter, Aug. 
30. Bryan Dolan, Aug. 20. Charles Drum, Aug. 26. 
Russell De Roemer, Jacob Drumheller, .'\ug. 30. Robert 
O. Dowda, Aug. 30; killed at Antietam Sept. 17, 1S62. 
Thomas Edgar, Charles Edwards, Wm. A. Eddinger, 
William Farrow and William Farmer, Aug. 20. Cyrus B. 
Faux, Aug. 26. Lands Frederick, Aug. 26; deserted Feb. 
15, 1862. Aaron Green, Aug. 20. Sidney W. Glace, Aug. 
26. Andrew Y. Green, Aug. 30; transferred to Knap's Pa. 
Battery Oct. 5, 1861. James Hamilton, Aug. 20; killed 
at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. Aaron Harris, Aug. 20. 
George Hughes, Aug. 20; killed at Antietam Sept. 17, 
1862. Henry Hartman, Aug. 26. John Hoover, Aug. 26: 
killed at Antietam September 17, 1862. John Jacobs, 
Aug. 30. C. Knopenberger, Aug. 20; wounded at Anlie- 
tam Sept. 17, 1862. Jacob Kimtzman, Aug. 20. Warner 




Kcntz, Gus Kemherling, Andrew Kresze and Paulin 
Kresze, Aug. 26. William Kern, Aug. 26: disc hargcd on 
surgeon's ceruficate June 12, 1862. Josiah H. King and 
Geo. W. Kenieron, Aug. 30. John Lewis, Hugii McPon- 
ald, John McKinley, John McCorinick and Patrick Mc- 
Laughlin, .Aug. 20. Obed McMurtrie, Aug. 26. Samuel 
I'". May and Daniel Martin, Aug. 20. John Moy, Aug. 20; 
discharged on surgeon's certificate Dec. 27, i86r. 
William Major, Hiram S. Miller and Nelson Mellick. 
.\ug. 30. Israel Machessut, .Aug. 26. Edward Oberander, 
.Aug. 30. Jesse Pryor and John Powell, Aug. 20. Lewis 
Ruty, .Aug. 20; transferred to Knap's Pa. Battery Oct. 
29, i86t. Samuel Rough, Shadrack Reese, John Rut- 
kdge, James H. Root, Samuel Stookey, Owen Smith, 
James Smith and George Spader. Aug, 20. .Archibald \V. 
Smith, Aug. 20; transferred to Knaj/s Pa. Battery Oct. 
29, 1861. Lewis Schnar, .Aug. 20. Philip Sebias, .Aug. 26; 
not on muster-out roll. John Sower, Aug. 26. Daniel 
Swank. .Aug. 26; died at Point of Rocks, Md., Oct. 14, 
1861. William Steinmetz, George Searles and Edward 
Schooley, Aug. 30. Edward Treble and William Tanner, 
.\ug. 20. Joseph Van Sickle, Aug. 26; discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate Jan. 20, 1862. William Wittick, Aug. 
20; discharged A|)ril 24, 1862, for wounds received at 
Berlin, Md., Dec. 14, 1861. James Winget, Aug. 20; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate Nov. 19, i86r. John 
Warren and Robert Webster, Aug. 30. August W'illiams, 
.\ug. 20. John Youngst, Aug. 30. William Zacharias, 
Aug. 26. 




^ HE Seventh Reserve regiment was organized 

on the 26th of June, 1861. and Elisha B. 

>^'\ Harvey, of Wilkes-Barre, was made colonel; 

TlJja^U Joseph Totten. of Mechanicsburg. lieutenant 
colonel, and Chaunccy .A. Lyman, of Lock Haven, 

The regiment was ordered to Washington on the 
:;ist of July, and on the 27th was mustered into the ser- 
vice of the United States. On the 2nd of August it went 
forward to the rendezvous of the Pennsylvania reserves, 
and was assigned to the brigade of General George G. 
Meade. From this time till October it was engaged in 
drilling and picket duty. In the latter month it joined 
the army of the Potomac. From this time till March, 
1863, but little service beyond drill was seen. When the 
.irmy moved forward to the peninsula in April the sev- 
enth was retained, with other troops, for the defense of 
\\'ashington. In June they went forward to the front 
;ind became a part of the 5th corps, under General Fitz- 
john Porter. On the 26th of June the battle of Me- 
chanicsville, in which the 7th was engaged, was fought. 
The next day the battle of Gaines' Mill, in which the 
7th also ]iarticipated, took place. Then followed some 
marching and skirmishing, in which the regiment was 
engaged till the end of the " seven days " fighting. It 
then marched " by devious ways " to the vicinity of 

Groveton, where on the 29lh and 3cth of August, 1862, 
the 7th was engaged. Its next battle was at South 
Mountain, where it made an impetuous charge, in which 
Colonel Bolinger was severely wounded. .At the battle 
of Antietam it was .ictively engaged and lost heavily. 
After this battle it moved to the Potomac, and thence, in 
the latter part of October, to Warrenton, Va. Thence it 
went, in the latter part of November, to the vicinity of 
Fredericksburg, where on the iith of December it was 
desperately engaged. At this battle it made its most 
brilliant record. It made a gallant charge on the corps 
of Longstreet, in which it captured more than a hundred 
prisoners and a battle-flag — the only one taken in this 
action. The losses of the regiment in this action were 

During the winter following the 7th remained in its 
camp near Belle Plain, with the exception of a short time 
spent on what is known as the " mud march." In Feb- 
ruary, 1863, it was transferred from the field to the 
Department of Washington, where it remained, in the 
discharge mostly of provost and guard duty, during more 
than a year. In this time several changes were made 
among the field officers, and Captain L. G. Speese was 
promoted to the position of major. 

In the latter part of A\m\ it again took the field, and 
joined the army at about the commencement of the 
Wilderness campaign. In the course of the first action 
in which the 7th was engaged a large portion of the regi- 
ment was by one of the casualties of war captured, and 
the men were sent to the notorious and infamous prison 
pen at .Andersonville, Georgia, where they were starved 
during nearly eight months. Out of about two hundred 
and fifty privates who were taken sixty-seven died in 
this prison, and many others afterward by reason of their 
hardships and exposure there. The surrender of the 
rebel armies to Grant and Sherman opened their prison 

Company F of the regiment whose achievements and 
sufferings have just been rcounted, was recruited in Lu- 
zerne county. We give below the records of that com- 
pany as published by the State. The time of service 
was three years. In the roll the date of muster-in is 
generally omitted, as in nearly all cases it was June 13th, 
i86f; in other cases it is the first date given. 


Officers. — Captains — Le Grand B. Speese, promoted 
major July 25, 1863. John Robinson, (jromoted sergeant 
July 26, 1 861; first sergeant Nov. 12, 1861; second lieu- 
tenant August r, 1862; first lieutenant March i, 1863; 
captain July 20, 1863; brevet major March 13, 1865; 
mustered out with company June 16, 1864. First lieu- 
tenants — t'harlis W. Garretson, resigned .Aug. 11. 1862. 
James S. Robinson, promoted sergeant July 26, 1861; 
sergeant major .April i, 1862; second lieutenant Manh i, 
1863; first lieutenant July 20, 1863; mustered out with 
company June 16, 1863. Second lieutenants — Charles 
A. Lane, resigned July 9, 1862. John B. Laycock, pro- 
moted sergeant July 26, 1861; first sergeant Oct. 15, 
1862; second lieutenant July 20 1863; brevet first lieu- 
tenant March 13, 1865; captured May 5. 1864; dis- 
charged March 12, 1865. First sergeants — Levi G. 


McCauley, promoted first lieutenant Company C Jan. i, 
1862. Albert Jones, promoted corporal July 26, 1861; 
first sergeant Aug. 15, 1S62; died Oct. 15, 1862, of 
wounds received at Antietam Sept. 77, 1862. Isaac B. 
Tubbs, promoted corporal Aug. 1862; sergeant Oct., 
1863; first sergeant May i, 1S64; missing in action at 
Wilderness May 5, 1864; veteran. Sergeants — John S. 
Harrison, promoted corporal July 26, 1861; sergeant 
Oct. 8, 1863; absent, sick, at muster-out. Thomas 
Markle, promoted sergeant July 26, 1861; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate June 23, 1862. William Helf, pro- 
moted corporal Nov. 1, 1861; sergeant Ncv. 1862; miss- 
ing in action at Wilderness May 5, 1864; veteran. Jame- 
son Bells, promoted corporal July i, 1862; sergeant Nov., 
1862; missing in action at Wilderness May 5, 1864; vet- 
eran. James Green, killed at Gaines' Mill June 27, 1862. 
James S. Haney, Nov. 5 ; killed al White Oak Swamp, 



Corporals — Oliver Gregory ; promoted 

corporal Oct. 1862 ; wounded Dec. 13, 1862 ; mustered 
out with company June 16, 1864. Joseph R. Westner ; 
promoted corporal July 26, 1861 ; discharged Oct. 20, 
1862, for wounds received at Gaines's Mill, June 27, 1862. 
Daniel D. Wilcox, promoted corporal Sept., 1862 ; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate Oct. 20, 1862. Solo- 
mon Taylor, Sept. 14 ; promoted corporal Nov. i, 1861 ; 
discharged Oct. 8, 1862, for wounds received at Gaines's 
Mill June 27, 1862. Alfred B. Bowman, promoted cor- 
poral July 26, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Sept. 22, 1 86 1. G. W. Lietington, promoted corporal 
Nov., 1862 ; missing in action at Wilderness May 5, 1864; 
veteran. Wilson Long, promoted corporal Nov., 1862; 
prisoner from May 5 to Dec. 16, 1S64 ; discharged Feb. 
27, 1865. John R. Koons, July 19 ; promoted corporal 
Nov. 1862 ; prisoner from May 5 to Dec. 11, 1864 ; dis- 
charged Mch. 22, 1865. George W. Holmes, killed at 
Gaines's Mill, June 27, 1862. Ogdon Hoffman, killed at 
White Oak Swamp June 30, 1862. Minor A Britton, 
died at Alexandria, Va,, January 10, 1863, of wounds re- 
ceived at Fredericksburg Dec. 13, 1862. Musicians — 
George W. Charters, July 27 ; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate Dec. 31, 1861. Nathan Kleintop, July 19 ; 
promoted principal musician June i, 1862. 

Privates. — Robert Ackers, discharged on surgeon's 
certificate Oct. 31, 1861. Mark Ashworth, discharged 
on surgeon's certificate Mch. 5, 1863. Henry Albert, 
killed at Antietam, Sept. 17, 1862. Hudson Allen, mus- 
tered out with company June 16 1864. R. C. Buckalew, 
mustered out with company June 16, 1864. George H. 
Burrows, July 15 ; discharged Sept. 29, 1862, for wounds 
received at Gaines' Mill June 27, 1862. Oscar Bucka- 
lew, discharged on surgeon's certificate Oct. 17, 1862. 
William Bryant, discharged Nov. i8, 1862, for wounds 
received at Gaines's Mill June 27, 1862. James N. 
Brown, discharged on surgeon's certificate Jan. 13, 1863, 
Andrew Collins, transferred to veteran reserve corps. 
Dec. I, 1863. John W. Caranel, killed at Bull Run 
Aug. 30, 1862. Alexander Dodson, mustered out with 
company June 16, 1864. Elias B. Dodson, mustered 
out with company June 16, 1864. Hiram Detrick, 
July 15 ; mustered out with companv June 16, 1864. 
Samuel R. Daily, Sept. 4, discharged Jan. 11, 1863, for 
wounds received at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. Franklin 
Daily, jr., Sept. 4, transferred to 190th Pennsylvania 
May 31, 1864 ; veteran. John Dunmore, Sept. 2 ; trans- 
ferred to 190th Pennsylvania May 31, 1S64. Luther 
Dodson, prisoner from May 5, 1864, to Feb. 24, 1865 ; 
discharged April 7, 1865. Evan B. Dodson, July 26 ; 
prisoner from May 5, 1864, to March 9, 1865 ; dis- 
charged March 29, 1865. Arch Dunsmore, July 26 ; 
missing in action at Wilderness May 5, 1864 ; veteran. 
John Daily, July 15 ; killed at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. 

Charles Dare, July 15 ; deserted Aug. 19, 1862. Daniel 
Edwards, July 15 ; discharged February 5, 1S63, for 
wounds received at Gaines's Mill June 27, 1862. Alex- 
ander Emmons, prisoner from May 5 to December 10, 
1864; discharged February 27, 1865. Byron Fairchild, 
transferred to veteran reserve corjjs July 15, 1863. 
Franklin Flora, wounded, with lossof arm June 30, 1862 ; 
discharged Oct. 3, 1862. John P. Fell, missing in action 
at Wilderness iMay 5, 1864; veteran. Alvin H. Ford, jjris- 
oner from May 5, 1864, to February 26, 1865 ; discharged 
Mch. 30, 1865. Ransford Fairchild, missing in action at 
Wilderness ALiy 5, 1S54. Daniel Goodman, prisoner 
from May 5, 1864, to Febrviary 26, 1865 ; discl^arged 
Mch. 30, 1865. Bowman Garrison, captured at Wilder- 
ness ISIay 5, 1864; discharged July 16, 1864. Samuel 
H. Hagaman, discharged Oct. 24, 1862, for wounds re- 
ceived at Gaines's Mill June 27, 1862. Robert Hunter, 
Feb. 5, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, Jan. 
ig, 1863. Jerome Haleker, transferred to logth Penn- 
sylvania May 31, 1864; veteran. Newel S. Harrison, cap- 
tured May 5, 1864; discharged May 11, 1865. S. L. 
Hagenback, prisoner from May 5, 1864, to February 27, 
1S65 ; discharged April i, 1865. Nathaniel B. Harrison, 
Sept. 14 ; died at Harrison's Landing, Va., July 21, 1862. 
William Hinkley, killed at White Oak Swamp June 30, 
1862. Benton L. Huser, deserted Nov. 16, 1863. Levi 
Johnson, July 15; missing in action at Wilderness May 
5, 1864 ; veteran. Charles D. Jackson, July 15 ; killed 
at Gaines' Mill June 27, 1862. Andrew Keiper, dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate Dec. 29, 1863. Edward 
Kelly, July 15 ; prisoner May 5, 1864 ; died at Ander- 
sonville Oct. 24, 7864. Joseph Longworth, July 15 ; 
transferred to veteran reserve corps Nov. 15, 1863. 
Israel P. Long, Mch. 6. 1862 ; missing i.i action at Wilder- 
ness May 5, 1864; veteran. William Lape, July 15 ; 
missing in action at Wilderness May 5, 1864; veteran. 
Reuben Labor, prisoner May 5, 1864; died at Anderson- 
ville Oct. 10, 1864. Samuel W. Long, Sept. 14 ; died 
July 8, 1862, of wounds received June 30, 1862. Mervin 
O. Matthews, transferred to veteran reserve corps Oct. 
7, 1863. James Monegan, July 19 ; transferred to vet- 
•eran reserve corps Dec. 15, 1S63. John Montgomery, 
Oct. 17 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Jan. 8, 1863. 
William B. Mears, transferred to tgoth Pa. May 31, 1864 ; 
veteran. William B. Marshall, Mch. 22, 1864 ; trans- 
ferred to 190th Pa. May 31, 1864. Martin L. M'Neal, 
Sept. 13 ; transferred to 190th Pa. May 31, 1864. Wil- 
liam R. Monroe, Sept. 12 ; prisoner from May 5, 1864, 
to Feb. 28, 1865 ; discharged April i, 1865. Bryant 
Morton, prisoner May 5, 1864 ; died at Andersonville 
Aug. 3, 1864. Lockwood F. Millard, Feb. 26, 1863; mis- 
sing in action at Wilderness May 5, 1864. Evan B. 
Myers, June 18 ; killed at Gaines's Mill June 27, 1862. 
Samuel Mershon.died Sept. 26, 1862, of wounds received 
at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. Charles H. Owen, July 18 ; 
missing in action at Wilderness May 5, 1864. Francis 
A. O'Dell, July 15 ; deserted Nov. 26, 1862. George W. 
Porter, Sept. 14 ; discharged Nov. 18, 1862, for wounds 
received at Antietam Sept. 17. 1862. Isaac H. Phillips, 
Sept. 24 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate June 17, 
1862. Samuel J. Pealor, July 19 ; deserted. William 
Row, July 15 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Mch. 
16,1862. Henry Ridler, missing in action at Wilderness 
May 5, 1864 ; veteran. George W. Roat, July -15 ; pris- 
oner from May 5, to Dec. 16, 1864 ; discharged Mch. r, 
1865. George Staub, July 15 ; transferred to veteran 
reserve corps Oct. 7, 1865. Williini C. Stoner, trans- 
ferred to U. S. gunboat service Feb. 14, 1862. Edwin C. 
Seeley, Aug. 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate Oct. 9, 1862. Josiah Sox, discharged on surgeon's 
certificate, Jan 19, 1863. Cyclare Smallwood, July 15 ; 




jirisoner Mays, 1864 ; died at Andersonville Oct. 8, 1864; 
\ctcran. Andrew C. Smith, Mch. 28, 1864; missing in 
action at Wilderness May 5, 1864. lasi)er Steel, Mch. 
23, 1864; missing in action at Wilderness May 5, 1864. 
Hamilton Tubbs, discharged on surgeon's certificate Oct. 
ji, 1861. Charles Tuttle, July 15; discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate May 8, 1862. John W. 'I'homas, Jan. 
28, 1862 ; discharged Sept. 4, 1863, for woimds received 
at Fredericksburg Dec. 13, 1862. John C. Turner, Sei)t. 
12; missing in action at Wilderness May 5, 1864; veteran. 
John K. Torbet, prisoner from May 5, 1864, to Feb. 24, 
1S65; discharged May 8, 1865. Francis Transure, cap- 
tured ^L'^y 5, 1864; discharged Feb. 9, 1865. .Mmon 
Woodworth, discharged Oct. 24, 1862, for wounds re- 
ceived at (iaines's ^lill, June 27, 1862. Daniel Wood, 
July 15; discharged on surgeon's certificate Dec. 20, 
1862. Johh H. Workheiser, discharged on surgeon's 
certificate Dec. 19, 1862. .\dam Wray, discharged Dec. 
31, 1862, for wounds received at Charles City Cross 
Roads June 30, 1S62. Reuben Wilson, missing in action 
at Wilderness May 5, 1864. Josiah White, deserted. 


The companies composing this regiment were recruited 
for the three months' service, but were not accepted. 
They were mustered into the State service as reserves for 
three years, and organized into a regiment, which, on the 
17th day of August, 1861, was mustered into the service 
of the United States. They proceeded at once to Ten- 
nallytown. near Washington, where they were drilled till 
the loth of October, when they crossed to Virginia and 
went into winter quarters at camp Langley. With the 
e.xception of the expedition to Drainesville, in which they 
participated, they remained at that camp till March, 1862, 
when, with the rest of the army, the regiment moved to- 
ward Manassas. It was sent forward to the Peninsula in 
June, and on the 26th of that month engaged in the bat- 
tle of Cold Harbor. Immediately afterward it was en- 
gaged in the battle of Gaines's Mill. For two or three 
days after this battle the regiment suffered intensely from 
fatigue and thirst. At the battle of Malvern Hill this 
regiment was posted on a height from which the fighting 
could be seen, but it was not engaged. .After remaining 
some time at Harrison's Landing the 12th left the Pe- 
ninsula and marched to join the army of General Pope. 
At Groveton it was engaged, and aided in repulsing an 
impetuous charge by the enemy. It was next in action 
at South Mountain, and three days later at Antietam. 
In the succeeding December it was again engaged, at 
the battle of Fredericksburg, where it lost in killed, 
wounded and prisoners about one hundred men. 

In February, 1863, the regiment, with its division, was 
ordered to the defenses of Washington, where its effective 
condition was greatly improved by the return of absentees 
and by promotions. In .April it commenced provost 
duty in the city of Washington, under General Martin- 
dale. It rejoined the main army in June, at the com- 
mencement of the Gettysburg campaign, and was present 
at the battle of Gettysburg. During the campaign of 
that summer and autumn the 12th was engaged at Bristoe 
Station, Rappahannock Station, and at Mine Run. Dur- 

ing the winter of 1863-4 it was engaged in guard and 
picket duly along the line of the Orange and Alexandria 
Railroad, through a region that was infested by sneaking 

On the opening of the campaign in May, 1864, the 
I 2th took the field again, and was engaged during three 
days in the Wilderness. It was again engaged in the bat- 
tle near Bethesda Church, on the 30th of May. Its term 
of service exjiired about this time, and it marched to 
Harrisburg, where it was on the nth of June mustered 

Below we give the records of the officers of this regi- 
ment ; and also of company 15, which was recruited 
in Wyoming county. Nearly all the members of the com- 
pany were mustered in on the 15th of May, 1861, and 
that date is to be understood where no other is given. 
The first date that appears in other cases is that of mus- 
ter-in. Where nothing is said to the contrary, the men 
whose records are here given were mustered out with the 
regiment Jime nth, 1864. 


Colotifls. — John H. Taggart, July 25; resigned July 8, 
1862; recommissioned August 19, 1862; mustered out 
Sept. 23, 1862. Martin D. Hardin, promoted to lieuten- 
ant colonel April I, 1862; colonel .Xug. i, 1862; brigadier 
general July 2, 1864; mustered out Jan. 15, 1866; ap- 
pointed major 43d U. S. infantry July 28, 1866. 

Lieiilenant Coloiifh. — Samuel N. Bailey, July 25; dis- 
charged March 4, 1S62. Peter Baldy, July 25; promoted 
from major to lieutenant colonel Aug. 1, 1862; discharged 
Feb. 15, 1863. Richard Gustin, June n; [iromoted from 
captain Company C to lieutenant colonel April 6, 1863; 
brevet colonel, March 13, 1S65. 

Majors. — Andrew J. Bolar, July 24; promoted from 
captain Company H to major July 8, 1862; discharged 
for wounds receiwd in action June 30, 1864. Charles 
W. Di\en, June 25; ])romoted from captain Company Ci 
to major, April 19, 1864. 

Ailjiitants. — Theodore M'Murtrie, Dec. 5; transferred 
to veteran reserve corps, Oct. 18, 1863. 

Quartermasters. — Etinee D. Reid, July 25; discharged 
and promoted to captain and A. C. S. volunteers. James 
T. Woodall, Sept. 22, 1862; promoted from ))rivate to 
quartermaster-sergeant; to captain; absent on duty with 
provisional regiment in field. 

Siny;eoiis. — William H. Thome, July 25; promoted to 
brigade surgeon .April 28, 1862; discharged May 3, 1862. 
Isaac J. Clark, .\[)ril 28, 1862; promoted from assistant 
surgeon to surgeon May i, 1862; brevet lieutenant colo- 
nel March 13, 1865. 

Assistant Surgeons. — John B. Crawford, Feb. 18, 1862; 
discharged on surgeon's certificate Sept. 18, 1862. Wil- 
liam Taylor, July 26, 1862; resigned Dec. 20, 1862. 
James M. Shearer, April ii, 1863; discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate Aug 18, 1863. Henry A. Grim, Oct. 
6, 1862; promoted to surgeon 34th Pa. April 13. 1864. 
David R. Beaver, April 13. 1864. 

Chaplain. — Obadiah H. Miller, June 18, 1862: resigned 
June 9, 1863. 

Serf^eant Majors. — William Myers, July 24; promoted 
to first lieutenant Company I .April 21, 1863. Jcseph 
W. Eckley, June 25; transferred to Company F as ser- 
geant Feb. 16, 1864. 

Quartermaster Ser/^eants. — James Loan, June 13. C. 
W. Croasdale, May 30; promoted to first lieutenant Com- 
pany A May i, 1863. 





Commissary Sergi-nii/. — Henry Kraft, Mny 15; promoted 
from private ("om])any 1) to commissary sergeant. 
Hospital Stcoard. — John Evans. July 24. 
Principal Musician. — John C. f^ckert, July 15. 


C75?,Y;-i-,— Captains — D. N. Mathewson, resigned July 
31, 1862. Simon H. Briggs, promoted first lieutenant March 

18, 1S63; captain July 31, 1S62; brevet major March 13, 
1865. First lieutenants— John B. Harding, discharged 
March 4, 1862. John F. Hoadley, promoted first lieu- 
tenant July 31, i'862; brevet captain March 13, 1865. 
Second lieutenants— Arthur M. Philips, resigned July 21, 
1862, P. H. Reynolds, promoted second lieutenant July 
21, 1862. First sergeant — Martin N. Reynolds. Ser- 
geants — George Moore, Oscar H. Benjamin; Andrew F. 
Ely, discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb. 21, 1862. 
Mason Parker, discharged on surgeon's certificate Dec. 

30, 1861. Charles Johnson, transferred to igoth 
Pennsylvania volunteers May 31, 1864; veteran. 
Samuel A. Danner, died at Washington, D. C, May 
6, 1863. Charles A. Meeker, died Oct. 30, 1862, at 
Smoketown, Md., of wounds received in action. 
Corporals — A. H. Wintermute, John Shingler, Milton 
Moyer, J- C. Reynolds; Porter Squires, discharged on 
surgeon's certificate Jan. i, 1862; Merritt S. Harding, 
wounded, discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb. 27, 
1863; (jeorge Fetzer, wounded, discharged on surgeon's 
certificate Jan. 28, 1863; Levi B. Knowls, transferred 
to battery A, 43d Pennsylvania volunteers April 6, 1862; 
.\lexander Morgan, died at Camp Pierpont, Va. Dec. 
3, 1861; James C. Keeney, died at Harrison's Landing, 
Ya., July 22, 1862. Musicians — Lewis C. Miller, War- 
den Reynolds, Christian C. Eckert. 

Privates. — C. Arnold, L. V. Armstrong, William And- 
rews, transferred to 190th Peniisylvania volunteers May 

31, 1864; veteran. Samuel Arnold, discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate May 20, 1862. Silas Aunrick, dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate Dec. 15, 1862. C. C. 
Bennigan, absent at muster-out. Warren Barber, trans- 
ferred to 190th Pennsylvania volunteers May 31, 1864; 
veteran. Robert Blakeslee, discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate June 27, 1S61. Alonzo H. Beebe, discharged on 
surgeon's certificate Dec. 15, 1862; John Bonno, trans- 
ferred to 190th Pennsylvania volunteers May 31, 1864. 
James Bailey, died at Acquia Creek, Va., Dec. i, 1862. 
Harvey Corbey. William Croupe, discharged on surgeon's 
certificate March 6, 1862. Charles L. Card, transferred 
to 2nd U. S. cavalry May 31, 1864; prisoner from Aug. 

19, 1864, to Feb. 22, 1S65; discharged Feb. 27, 1865. 
Asher Cook, transferred to 190th Pennsylvania volun- 
teers May 31, 1864. A-bsalom Crawford, died at Freder- 
icksburg of wounds received Dec. 13, 1862. John H. 
Davis, Joseph Dellenger, Thomas Davis. Elihu Dymond, 
discharged on surgeon's certificate April 21, 1862. 
[ohn Dressier, killed at White Oak Swamp June 30, 1862. 
Henry W. Dean, killed at South Mountain Sept. 14, 1S62. 
Isaiah Evans, May 30, 1861; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate Jan. i, 1863 John C. Eckert, June 15, 1861; 
promoted principal musician July 31, 1863. Lyman J. 
Freeman. Sidney Freeman. Squire B. Fisk, Nov. 21, 
1 861; discharged on surgeon's certificate May 24, 1862. 
William F^ox; transferred to U. S. artillery Nov. 24, 
1862. James B. Fisk, Mar. 31, 1864; transferred to 
190th Pennsylvania volunteers May 31, 1864. James 
Gillespie, Feb. 7, 1862; transferred to 190th Pennsyl- 
vania volunteers May 31, 1864; veteran. Patrick Gannon; 
discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb. 2, 1862. Edwin 
P. Gardner, Nov. 21, 1861; died at Philadelphia April 5, 
1862. Edward House. Jasper Hoadley. Charles F. 
Harvey; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb. 4, 1862. 

Frederick Hinkley; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Oct. 15, 1862. Albert Hadsall; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate Oct. 11, 1862. Oran Hinkley; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate Oct. 15, 1862. James C. Hastings; 
transferred to 190th Pennsylvania volunteers May 31, 
1864; veteran. William Hastings, Aug. 2. 1862; trans- 
ferred to 190th Pennsylvania volunteers May 31, 1864. 
John Hastings, Aug. 2, 1862; transferred to 190th Penn- 
sylvania volunteers May 31, 1864. James N. Herbert, 
Aug. 2, 1862; transferred to 190th Pennsylvania volun- 
teers May 31, 1864. Joseph Hess; killed at Spottsyl- 
vania Court-house May 8, 1864. James Hedden; killed 
at White Oak Swamp June 30, 1S62. Fuller A. John- 
ston. James Jones, Nov. 30, 1861; transferred to vet- 
eran reserve corps Feb. 19, 1864. John H. Jaquis, Mar. 
19, 1864; transferred to 190th Pennsylvania volunteers 
May 31, 1864. William Langley. Francis J. Le|jpo; 
discharged on surgeon's certificate Sept. 30, 1861. 
George Labarr; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb. 
23, 1863. Francis J. Lathrop; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate May 21, 1862. James F. Linthurst, June 15, 
1861; discharged on surgeon's certificate April 9, 1863. 
David R. Lerch, June 15, 1861; transferred from Com- 
])any K July 20, 1862; never reported. Theodore H. 
Luckey, Mar. 29, 1864; transferred to 190th Pennsyl- 
vania volunteers May 31, 1864. Martin Morgan. Calvin 
Moore. John M'Cord. John H. Mullison; transferred 
to 190th Pennsylvania volunteers May 31, 1864; veteran. 
Minor Moyer; transferred to 190th Pennsylvania volun- 
teers May 31, 1864; veteran. Reuben M'Sherrer; trans- 
ferred to 6th United States cavalry Nov. 2, 1862. John 
Moyer, transferred to 190th Pennsylvania volunteers 
May 31, 1864. Jacob Moyer; died of wounds received 
at Fredericksburg Dec. 13, 1862. Jacob Maynard; died 
of wounds received at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. Thomas 
May; deserted Jan. 15, 1862. Noel Harrison; deserted 
July 2, 1863. Thomas J. Osterhout. Mason Parker, 
Mar. 25, 1864; transferred to 190th Pennsylvania volun- 
teers May 31, 1864. Marvin Potter, Nov. 7, 1861; died 
of wounds received at White Oak Swamp June 30, 1861. 
Warren Parrish; died at Georgetown, D. C, Feb. lo, 
1862. Harrison Patrick; missing in action May 9, 1864. 
Frederick R. Puckner, June 15, 1861; deserted Sept. 28, 
1862. Rensselaer Ross. Alexander Rageon; discharged 
on surgeon's certificate Nov. 24, 1862. Jesse Rauden- 
bush; discharged on surgeon's certificate Aug. 20, 1862. 
Patrick Roon; deserted May 12, 1863. Jacob R. Shot- 
well. Cyrus H. Smeed. John Sly. William E. Stark. 
Daniel Shumber. Sydney Schooley; discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate Jan. 15, 1862. William H. Sanders; 
discharged on surgeon's certificate July 18, 1862. John 
H. Snyder, June 15, 1861; transferred to 190th Pennsyl- 
vania volunteers May 31, 1864; veteran. Norman 
Sprague, Nov. 21, 1861; transferred to 190th Pennysyl- 
vania volunteers May 31, 1864; veteran. James Shaffer, 
Mar. 31, 1 861; transferred to 190th Pennsylvania volun- 
teers May 31, 1S64. F'loyd F. Sprague, Mar. 10, 1864; 
transferred to 190th Pennsylvania volunteers May 31, 
1864. Joseph B. Sprague, Mar. 18, 1864; transferred to 
190th Pennsylvania volunteers May 31, 1864. T. S. 
Stansburry, Mar 2, 1861; transferred to 190th Pennsyl- 
vani volunteers May 31, 1864. Roger S. Searle; trans- 
ferred to 33d Pennsylvania volunteers July 21, 1861. 
William Stonier; died at Camp Pierpont, Va., Nov. 18, 
1861; buried in military asylum cemetery. William 
Stoey; died at Camp Pierpont, Va., No\'. 21, 1861. Wil- 
liam Stager; died of wounds received at Mechanicsville 
[une 27, 1862. George K. Thompson; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate Sept. 24, 1862. William Thompson; 
discharged on surgeon's certificate Nov. 22, 1862. James 
Taylor, Nov. 2t, 1861; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 



cate Oct. 27, 1862. Morris Toome/; transferred to 
igoth Pennsylvania volunteers May. 31, 1S64; veteran. 
Perry L. Taylor, Mar. 31, 1864; transferred to iQotli 
Pennsylvania volunteers May 31, 1864. Harvey Tiffa- 
ney, ^iar. 18, 1864; transferred to 190th Pennsylvania 
volunteers May 31, 1864. Charles .X. Thompson; died at 
(^amj) Pierpont, Va., Nov. 3, 1861. Charles Terry; de- 
serted July 2, 1863. Edward Vaannauker; deserted 
.•\ug. 10, 1861. Thomas C. Woods, June 15, 1861. Al- 
niuda Wilbur. Orlando Wright. James Wilson; trans- 
ferred from Company K July 20, 1862; never reported. 
Ceorge W. Wagoner; transferred to 5th U. S. artillery, 
Nov. 24, 1862; Conrad Wisemiller, June 15, 1861; died 
Dec. 28, 1862, of wounds received at Fredericksburg Dec. 
13. 1862. Frederick Waugh, .Aug. 10, 1861. Sanford 
Wandall; prisoner from April 8 to Mav, 1864. 




v^5^^^ HE Logan Guards, of Mifflin county, one of 
fVf '-iS^ ^ the first five companies of volunteers that 
'' ^ftrv ij reached Washington on the breaking out of 
i^V^^tl the Rebellion, became Com])any .\ of the 
V"'^) 4M-\ regiment. Companies C and I) also served 
■■•^ in three months' regiments, and preserved their 
com])any organizations in this. 

The 46th was organized September ist, i86i,with 
Joseph F. Knipe colonel, James L. Selfridge lieutenant 
colonel, and Arnold C. Lewis major. On the death of 
Major Lewis, who was shot by a private of Company I 
soon after the organization of the regiment, J. A. Mat- 
thews became major. 

Soon after the organization of the 46th it was ordered 
to the command of General Banks, near Harper's Ferry, 
and was assigned to the ist brigade. General Crawford, 
2nd division. General Williams. Camp duty, drill and 
occasional skirmishing occupied the regiment till the lat- 
ter part of February, 1862; when, with the rest of Banks's 
forces, it crossed the Potomac and occupied successively 
Leesburg, Charlestown, Martinsburg and Winchester. 
In an engagement near Kernstown three companies of 
the 46th, under Major Matthews, participated, and in the 
pursuit of Jackson by Banks the regiment took an active 

At the severe and unequal contest with the rebels under 
Jackson at Winchester the 46th held its ground for five 
hours without flinching. At the battle of Cedar Moun- 
tain, in August, 1862, the regiment charged three times 
across an open field, exposed to a terrific fire of shot, 
shell and musketry, and only retired after the colonel, 
major and several of the line officers were wounded. The 
46th was again engaged at the battle of .Antietam, where 
it was again commanded by Colonel Selfridge. The reg- 
iment was next engaged at Chancellorsville, after having 
wintered at F'airfax Station and Stafford Court-house. 

At the battle of Gettysburg the regiment was engaged 
heavily, but by reason of it sheltered position it did not 
lose largely, .\fter the bailie of (Jettysburg the nth 
corps, of which the 46lh was a part, was detached from 
the .Army of the Potomac and sent wc^l. The first duty 
lo which ihe regiment was assigned was guarding the 
Chattanooga Railro.ul thruugii a country infested with 

In Janu.Try, 1864. a sufficient number of the officers 
and men of this regiment h.iving re-enlisted to insure its 
continuance, they were given a veteran furlough. During 
its visit at home its r.inks were recruited, and after its 
return it remained in winter (piarlers till the next May. 
In the campaign that followed the 46th was engaged at 
Resaca, where, among others. Lieutenant John H. Knipe, 
of Company I, was killed. It participated successively in 
the actions at Pumpkiiivine creek. New Hoi)e Church, 
Dallas, Pine Knob, Kenesaw Mount lin and Marietta, in 
all of which it had fourteen killed and about thirty 
wounded. In the severe fight with Hood at Peach Tree 
Creek, near .Atl.inta, the 46th Inst ten killed and twenty 
wounded. In another action with Hood near .Atlanta it 
lost six killed and several wounded. 

The regiment had no severe fighting after ihe surrender 
of .Atlanta, September ist, 1864. General Knipe, who 
had been jiromoled, was transferred to the command of 
cavalry, and the 46th, under Major Griffith Colonel 
Selfridge, whose promotion had followeil that of General 
Knipe, being in command of the brigade , went on its 
march through Georgia and the Carolinas, after which it 
commenced its march homeward. It wis mustered out 
July i6th, 1865. 

Company I of the forty-sixth was recruited in Luzerne 
county, and we give below a synopsis of the records of 
its members, together with a similar statement in regard 
to the regimental officers. The first date given is that of 
muster-in; where not otherwise stated, each man was 
mustered out with the regiment, July 16th, 1865. 


Co/oiif/s. — loseph F. Knipe, Aug. i, 1861; proinoie<l 
brigadier general Nov. 29, 1862. James L. Selfridge, 
Aug. 8, 1861; i)romoted from lieutenant colonel to colonel 
May 10, 1863; brevet brigadier general March 16, 1S65. 

LieuttnanI Colonel. — William I.. Foulk, .Aug. 26, 1861; 
promoted from captain Company B to lieutenant colonel 
June 7, 1863; on detached duty from Feb. 3, 1864, to 
July 29, 1865 ; mustered out by special order July 29, 

Majors. — .Arnold C. Lewis, Aug. 17, 1861; killed Sept. 
22nd, 1861. Joseph A. Matthews, Sept. 27, 1861, pro- 
moted colonel i28ih Pennsylvania volunteers Nov. 1, 1862. 
Cyrus Strouse, Sept. 4, i86i; promoted from captain 
Company K Nov. i. 1862; killed at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 2, 1863. Patrick Griffith, Sept. 16, 1861; promoted 
from private to second lieutenant Sept. i6. 1861; captain. 
Feb. 15. 1862; major, .Aug. 1, 1863; captured at Cedar 
Mountain, and at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1S65. 

A,l/n/afi/s.— George W. Boyd, Sept. 17. 1861; resigned 
Oct. 14, 1862. William 15. Weber, Aug. 14. 1861; pro- 
moted to captain Company .A Feb. 1 1, 1863 L. R. Whit- 
man, May I, 1862; promoted from sergeant-major Feb. 
12, 1863; died .Aug. 6, 1864. of wounds received at Peach 


Tree Creek, Cxa, July 20, 1864. Joseph H. M'Carty, 
Aug. 24, 1862; promoted from private to adjutant Aug. 
12, 1864. 

Quartermoskrs.—Gtorge B. Cadvvalader, ,\ug. 30, 1^561; 
promoted assistant quartermaster U. S. volunteers July 
8, 1863. Levi Tice, Aug. 17, 1861; promoted from pri- 
vate to quartermaster sergeant Dec. 19, 1862; quarter- 
master, April I, 1864. 

^//;y<w«.— Lavington Quick, Aug. 26, 1861; promoted 
brigade surgeon Jan. 21, 1862. Daniel Holmes, Jan. 21, 
1862; resigned March 6, 1862. William C. Rodgers, Aug. 
29, 1861; resigned May 19, 1863. George P. Tracy, 
July 4, 1863. 

Assistant Surgeons.— ]o\\n B. Coover, Nov. 13, 1862; 
promoted surgeon 70th Pennsylvania volunteers Dec. 10, 
1862. Ceorge W. Burke, Aug.'i, 1862. James B, M'Don- 
ough, Ian. 27, 1863. 

Chaplains— ]o\\n A. Rubolt, Sept. 10, 1861; resigned 
Nov. 30, 1 86 1 Charles Strong, Jan. 14, 1862; resigned 
Sept. 24, 1862. 

Sergeant Afajors.— Charles B. M'Carty, Jan. 13, 1864; 
promoted sergeant major Feb. 12, 1863. Thomas B. 
Gorman, Aug. 17, 1861; promoted first lieutenant Com- 
pany H Feb. I, 1862. George Elberty, Aug. 20, 1861; 
transferred to Company A April 7, 1S62. L. R. Whit- 
man, May I, 1862; promoted adjutant Feb. 12, 1863. 

Quartermaster Sergeants.— ]zme?, F. Duncan, Sept. 2, 
1861; promoted from commissary sergeant April 15, 1864; 
lieutenant Company A July 15, 1865; not mustered; 
veteran. Orlando J. Reese, Sept. 12, 1861; promoted 
second lieutenant Company H Dec. 19, 1862. John M. 
Martin, Sept. i, 1861; discharged; date unknown. Levi 
Tice, Aug. 17, i86r; promoted (|uartermaster April i, 

Commissary Sergeants. — James Bray, January 13, 1864; 
promoted commissary sergeant April 12, 1864; veteran. 
D. H. Chesebro, Sept. 12, i86r; promoted captain Com- 
pany G Nov. I, 1863. 

Hospital steivarils.—C\\ar\ti Newman, Sept. 2, i86i; 
promoted hospital steward Nov. i, 1862; veteran. Adam 
Gillett, Sept. 4, 1861; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Oct. 3, 1862. 

Musicians. — Jonathan Ocker, Nov. 30, 1863; transfer- 
red from Company A Aug. i, 1864; veteran. B. C. Zim- 
merman, Sept. 4, i86t; transferred from Company K 
Aug. 31, 1864; veteran. 


C>j^(-(V.f.— Captains— Richard Fitzgerald, Oct. 31, 1861; 
discharged February. 15, 1862. Patrick Griffith, Sept. 
16, 1861; promoted major August 1, 1863. John Care, 
Oct. 31, 1861; promoted from 1st lieutenant to captain 
Aug. 17, 1863; resigned June 10, 1864. Joseph Matchett, 
Aug. 17, 1861; promoted from 1st lieutenant of Company 
C to captain July 17, 1864. First lieutenants— George 
W. Boyd, Sept. 17, 1861; promoted adjutant Sept. 17, 

1861. John H. Knipe, Aug. 24, 1862; promoted from 
private Company B Aug. 5, 1863; died of wounds received 
at Resaca, Ga., May 15, 1864. Robert Young, Oct. 31, 
1 861; promoted from sergeant to lieutenant Jan. 15, 1863 
to I St lieutenant Nov. 12, 1864; mustered out May 15, 
1865, by order of the war department. Second lieuten- 
ants— lohn Auglun, Oct. 31, 1861; discharged Feb. 15, 

1862. "Samuel Chambers, Oct. 13, 1861 ; resigned Jan. 
22, 1863. Peter Van Kirk, July 27, 1864; promoted to 
sergeant Oct. 10, 1862; to 2nd lieutenant July 27, 1864. 
First sergeants — Lewis C. Eakman, July 14, 1863; 
drafted; promoted to corporal Sept. 10, 1863; to sergeant 
Sept. I, 1864; to 1st sergeant June 8, 1865; com- 
missioned ist lieutenant July 15, 1865; not mustered. 
Michael I. Hawley, Oct. 13, 1861; mustered out Sept. 18, 

1S64; e.xpiration of term. John E. M'Carty, Aug. 29, 
1862; discharged Jane 8, 1865, by general order. Oliver 
B. Simmons, Mar. 1, 1862; promoted 2nd lieutenant of 
company D October 9, 1862. Sergeants — Jeremiah Ryan, 
Jan. 13, 1864; promoted corporal Nov. 10, 1863; to ser- 
geant Sept. I, 1864; veteran. LTriah Kern, July 13, 1863; 
drafted; promoted corporal April i, 1864; sergeant Nov. 
I, 1864. James M. Bigler, Feb. 29, 1864; promoted cor- 
poral Sept. I, 1 8f)4 ; sergeant Nov. i, 1864. Hugh 
Quinan, Jan. 13, 1864; promoted corporal Nov. i, 1864; 
sergeant June 8, 1865; veteran. John Burke, Oct. 31, 1861; 
mustered out Sept. 18, 1864; e.xpiration of term. M. F. 
O'Rourke, Oct. 31, 1861; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate Feb. 9, 1863. Charles Hessley, Oct. 31, 1861; killed 
at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. Corporals — .\nthony Coyle, 
Jan. 13, 1862; promoted corporal November 29, 1863; vet- 
eran. John I). Leclere, July 13, 1863; drafted; promoted 
corporal Sept. i, 1864. Wm. T. Smith, July 13, 1863; 
drafted; promoted coporal Nov. 1, 1864. Thomas 
M'Lane, Mar. 9, 1864; promoted corporal Nov. i, 1864; 
Henry S. Kern, July 13, 1863; drafted; promoted cor- 
poral Nov. I, 1864. Geo. W. Arnold, Mar. 9, 1864; pro- 
moted corporal Nov. i, 1864. Henry Booth, Jan. 13. 
1864; ])romoted corporal June 8, 1865. William H. 
Booth, ALir. 31, 1864; promoted corporal June 8, 1865. 
Henry Schlepe, Oct. 31, 1861; mustered out Sept. 18, 
1864; e.xpiration of term. Patrick Clark, Oct. 31, 1861; 
mustered out SejJt. 18, 1864; expiration of term. James 
Kevlin, Oct. 31, 1861; mustered out Sept. 18, 1864; ex- 
piration of term. Richard Mallory, Oct. 31, 1861; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate Oct. 10, 1862. Henry 
Runge, Oct. 31, 1861; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Mar. 11, 1863. John Homer, July 14, 1863; drafted; 
discharged by general order June 8, 1865. Musicians — 
Henry E. Gould, Oct. 31, 1861; deserted Dec. 30, 1862. 
Lyman Moore, Feb. 17, 1864; prisoner from May 28, 
1864, to May 22, 1865. John M'Comb, Oct. 31, i86t; 
mustered out Sept. 18, 1864; expiration of term. 

Privates. — John Ammann, Feb. 3, '64. J. Anderson, 
Feb. 20, '61; transferred to veteran reserve corps. Mar. 
22, '65. Peter Awe, July 14, '63; drafted; discharged by 
general order May 26, '65. John Bates, Feb. 23, '64. 
Wm. Ballentine, Mar. 8, '64. Henry G. Barnes, Feb. 14, 
'65. John Burkey, July 13, '63; drafted. John Ballen- 
tine, July 14, '63; drafted. Henry Blystone, July 13, '63; 
James Barrett, Oct. 31, '61; drowned in "dam No. 6, 
Chesapeake and Ohio canal, Feb. 9, '62. Jacob Bowman, 
Feb. ID, '64; died Aug. 17, '64, of wounds received at 
Peach Tree Creek, Ga. Anthony Burke, Jan. 13, '64; died 
of wounds received at Bentonville, N. C, March 19,1865; 
veteran. Israel Bush, July 13, '63; drafted; died Sept. 
26, '63. Charles Bushell, Oct. 31, '61; died Aug. 19, '62, 
of wounds received at Cedar Mountain, Va., Aug. 6, '62. 
Patrick Burke, Oct. 31, '61; deserted December 30, '62. 
Leander Bush, July 13, '63; substitute; prisoner from 
Feb. 6 to May 6, '65. . Henry Cannavan, Jan. 13, '64; vet- 
eran. John Clark, Oct. 31, '61; mustered out Sept. 18, '64; 
expiration of term. Patrick Cassidy, Oct. 31, '61; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate Feb. 18, '63. Thomas 
Corcoran, Oct. 31, '61; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Oct. 25, '62. Barney Cain, Sept. 16, '63; substitute; dis- 
charged by general order May 30, 1865. Patrick Cain, 
Oct. 13, '61; transferred to vetern reserve corps. Geo. 
W. Crow, Aug. I, '63; transferred to vetern reserve corps 
Oct. 14, '64. Will. Coughlan, Oct. 31. '61; deserted Aug. 
17, '62. Peter Carrigan, Oct. 31, '61, deserted Aug. 
17/62; Michael Clark, Oct. 31, '61; deserted June 30, 
'62. James Calhoun, Oct. 31, '61; missing in action 
at Cedar Mountain, Va., Aug. 9, '62. John D. Clary, 
Mar. 17, '64; not on muster-out roll. Henry Dickey, 
Mar. 3, '64. M. A. Dowling, Sept. 16, '63; substitute. 






James Duncan, July 13, '63; drafted; discharged by gen- 
eral order May 22, '65. Patrick Devine, Oct. 31, '61; 
transferred to veteran corps. Henry Davis, Mar. 9, '64; 
killed at Peach Tree Creek, C.a., July 29, '64. deorge 
l{. Etter, Sept. 17, '62; killed at .\ntietam Sejjt. 17, '62. 
James Frederick, July 13, '63; drafted. Peter Flynn, 
Oct. 31, '61; discharged on surgeon's certificate Dec. 9, 
'62. Silas Fisher, Sept. 16, "63; substitute; disi harged 
by general order .\pril 25, 1865. ik-njaniin Fullum, July 

23, '63; substitute; discharged by general order .Xpril 27, 
"65. John M. Freelnirn, Feb. 29, '64; wounded at Dallas 
dap, ("la.. May 25, '64; discharged by general order May 
17, '65. Harvey Fullerton, |uly 15, '63; drafted; died at 
Kelly's Ford, Va., Sept. 8, "1863. Alex. (".. Frank, Feb. 

24, '64; died July 23, '64, of wounds received at Atlanta, 
('■a. James Fox, Oct. 13, '61; deserted January 25, '63. 
John Fisher, Oct, 13, '61 ; deserted .August 17, '62. 
Martin Gouldin. Jan. 12, 1864; veteran. Nathaniel Cood- 
rich. Mar. 7, 1864. Joseph Gloegle, July 9, 1863; drafted; 
wounded at Peach 'I'ree t'reek, da., July 20, 1864; absent 
in hospital at muster out. Paul F. Ciraham, July 14, 
1S63; drafted; discharged on surgeon's certificate Jan. 8, 
1864. Daniel K.. drim, Sept. 16, 1S63; drafted; deserted 
November 19, 1864; returned May 10, 1865; discharged 
May II, 1865, Martin Cioughan, Oct. 31, 1861; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate Aug. 16, 1862. James 
drier, Oct. 30, 1861; deserted June 9,1862. Franklin 
1). Houk, Jan. 4, 1864. Patrick Hamaker, Feb. 9, 1864. 
John C. Harman, July 13, 1863; drafted. Rudolph Ha- 
berstick, Aug. 3, 1863; substitute. William Holloran. 
Oct. 31, 1861; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb. 

25, 1863. John Harrigan, Oct. 31, 1861; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate Mar. 15, 1863 Patrick Hearty, Oct. 
31, 1861; discharged on surgeon's certificate Dec. 9, 1862. 
James Hay, Mar. 8, 1864; deserted July i, 1865. Wil- 
liam J. Johnston, Oct. 31, 1861; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate Mar. 31, 1863. William Johnson, Jan. 13, 
1864; deserted Feb. 9, 1865; veteran, deorge R. Koonts, 
Dec. 12, 1863. James F. P. Kelley, Mar. 3, 1864. David 
Koonts, July 23, 1864; substitute; wounded in action 
May 15, 1864; absent in hospital at muster out. John 
Kevlin, Mar. 24, 1864; discharged by general order July 
10, 1865. Jacob G. Keener, Feb. 3, 1864; deserted June 
23, 1865. Edmund J. Lehr, Feb. i, 1865. John Lavery, 
Sept. 16, 1863; drafted. Jos. Loudermilch, Mar. 16, 
1864; absent, sick, at muster out. Isaac I.yter, Sept. 14, 
1864; discharged by general order June 8, 1865. John 
Lanehan, Oct. 31, 1861; executed for the murder of 
Major Lewis Dec. 23, 1861. Samuel A. Leclere, Sept. 
16, 1863; drafted; died at Savannah, Ga., June 22, 1865. 
Edward Lee, July 14, 1863; substitute; deserted Sept. 
30, 1864. Michael Leonard, Aug., 1861; not mustered 
into United States service. William H. Morton, Feb. 27, 
1864. Martin Maughin, Jan. 13, 1864; prisoner from 
Aug. 9 to Sept. 13, 1862, and from May 2 to May 15, 
1863; veteran. Daniel Murphy, .\pril i 2, 1864; wounded 
in action July 20, 1864; absent in hosjjital at muster out. 
John Metzger, Sept. 14, 1864; discharged by general 
order June 8, 1865. William Malone, July 14, 1863; 
substitute; died at Goldsboro', N. C, Mar. 27, 1865. 
John Millan, Oct. 31, 1861; deserted Sept. 30, 1862. 
Thomas Martin, Oct. 31, 1861; deserted .Aug. 11, 1S62. 
Patrick MuUin. Oct. 31.1861; deserted Jan. 19, 1862. Owen 
McLaughlin, Mar. 31, 1864; veteran. Dennis McSwee- 
ney, July 13, 1863; drafted. James A. McLain, Sept. 13. 
1863; drafted; discharged by general order June 5, 1.S65, 
Peter Mcdonegal, Oct. 31, 1861; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate Oct. 16, 1862. Adam McCullough, July 1 1, 
1863; drafted; discharged on surgeon's certificate F'eb. 
13, 1864. Thomas McKennon, Feb. 24, 1864; deserted 
May II, 1864. Robert McTigert, Oct. 13, 1861; not on 

muster-out roll. Elijah J. Newton, Jan. 4, 1864. John 
H. Newton, Jan. 4, 1864. Charles Newton, Mar. 9. 1H64; 
prisoner from March 3 to March 30, 1865; discharged by 
general order June 29, 1865. William H. Neill, July 13, 
1S63; drafted; discharged by general order June 21, 
186s. James Oliver, Oct. 13, 1861; deserted July i, 
1862. Patrick Ore, Oct. 13, 1861; deserted Dec. 30, 
1862 David I. Potts, July 12. 1862; drafted. Thomas 
Painter, July 13, 1863; drafted. Peter (". Powell. Oct. 
31, 1861; mustered out Sept. 18, 1864; expiration of 
term. William Parham, Oct. 31, 1861, discharged on 
surgeon's certificate Feb. 21, 1863. William Phillipi. 
July 16, 1863; substitute; died .Aug. 11, 1864, at Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. Matthew T. Rankin, July 13, 1863; drafted. 
Patrick Reap, Jan. 13, 1864; veteran, (ieorge W. Shad- 
dow, Mar. 4, 1864. William Singer. F'eb. 20, 1864. 
Martin Swart/, Mar. 8, 1864; veteran. William Stivison, 
July 13, 1863; drafted. Robert K. Stuchall. July 13, 
1864; drafted. John Shriner, Feb. 10. 1864; discharged 
by general order Sept. 13, 1865. George W. Sweigard, 
Feb. 22. 1864; discharged by general order July 24. 1865. 
John Sullivan. Oct. 31. 1861; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate; date unknown. Robert Stewart, July 13, 
1863; substitute; died June 8, 1864, of wounds received 
at Decherd, Tennessee. David H. Singer, F'eb. 28, 1864; 
died at Chattanooga, Tenn., Aug. 7, 1864. John Shields. 
Oct. 31, 1861; died of wounds received at Resaca, Ga.. 
May 15. 1864. John Slonoski. Oct. 13. 1861; deserted. 
Charles Stewart, Sept. 16, 1861; substitute; deserted Jan. 
10, 1864. Wash. Wilhelm, July 13, 1863; substitute. 
Michael Walsh, Oct. 31, 1861; mustered out Sept. 18, 
1864, expiration of term. Wm. H. Weamef, July 13, 
1863; drafted; discharged on surgeon's certificate June 
2, 1865. Patrick Whalon, Oct. 31, 1861; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate. Thomas R. Wimer, July 13, 1863; 
drafted; died at Kingston, Ga., .\ug. 17, 1864. William 
Whiting, Oct. 13, 1861; deserted .\ug. 31, 1862. William 
I. Wright, Fel). 24, 1864; missing in action at Culjj's 
Farm, Ga., June 22, 1864. Joseph Young, Dec. 12, 1863; 
wounded in action July 20, 1S64; absent in hospital at 
muster out. James Young, Oct. 31, 1861; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate. C. Zimmerman, F'eb. 23, 1864. 


Comi)any I in this regiment was recruited in Luzurne 
county. The regiment was organized September 25th, 
1 86 1, with Benjamin C. Christ as colonel. It proceeded 
to Washington on the 2nd of October, and thence to 
.\nnapolis on the 9th. On the 19th it embarked on 
transports, and after a perilous voyage, in the course of 
which one of the vessels came very near being lost, it 
landed and went into camp on Port Royal island. In 
December the regiment went to Beaufort, which place it 
was the first to occupy. Here in its first skirmish it 
drove the enemy from the island. On the 1st of Janu- 
ary the regiment was in its first engagement, at the battle 
of Coosaw, where a partially constructed fort was taken 
and destroyed. 

May 29th the regiment, with a section of artillery and 
two comj)anies of cavalry, went to Pocotaligo to assist in 
a demonstration on Charleston. Six companies of the 
regiment accomplished the perilous feat of crossing a 
bridge from which the plank had been removed, on the 
stringers, under fire, driving the enemy from his position on 
the opposite side and rej>lanking the bridge, thus enabling 
the entire force to cross. Captain Parker, who led these 





companies, was killed. July 12th the regiment was or- 
dered from Beaufort to Fortress Monroe, where it became a 
part of General Burnside's (9th) corps, and marched to the 
support of General Pope, on the Rapidan. At the second 
battle of Bull Run it was engaged on both days of the fight, 
but most severely on the second. The men recollected 
with pride that in every encounter they drove the enemy. 

On the ist of August the regiment was engaged in the 
battle of Chantilly, where General Stevens, who was in 
command of the division to which it was attached, was 
killed. On the 14th of September it participated in the 
battle of Soiith Mountain, where it aided in a charge that 
drove the enemy from the field. Its next engagement was at 
Antietam, where it lost seven killed. Although present 
at the battle of Fredericksburg in December, it was not 
actively engaged. 

Some time after the battle of Fredericksburg the regi- 
ment went with the 9th corps to Kentucky and subse- 
quently, by way of Cincinnatti and Cairo, to Vicksburg. 
After the fall of that place it was attached to (General 
Sherman's army, and was engaged in the action for the 
occupancy of Jackson, Miss. In August the regiment re- 
turned to Kentucky, where the health of the men, who 
had suffered greatly from malaria, was recruited and sick 
absentees returned. In October the 50th, with the rest 
of the brigade commanded by Colonel Christ, went to 
assist in repelling a force of the enemy which had come 
into East Tennessee from Virginia, and was engaged in a 
battle by which they were driven back. Soon after re- 
turning to Knoxville they went forward again to check an 
invasion of the State by General Longstreet, but were 
driven back. In the latter part of November the regi- 
ment assisted in repelling an assault on the defenses of 
Knoxville, and on the 5th of December the siege was 
raised and the rebel army retreated, followed by the 50th 
among other troops. It pursued the enemy, occasionally 
skirmishing with the rear guard, as far as Blaine's cross 
roads. Here the regiment encamped, and on the ist of 
January, 1864, about three hundred of the men re-enlisted. 
After a painful march to Nicholasville, Ky., a veteran 
furlough was given them. 

.*\t the expiration of their furlough they were attached 
to the 9th corps in Virginia, went forward, and on the 
5th of May were engaged in the battle of the Wilderness. 
On the 9th they were engaged at Spottsylvania Court- 
house, and in this battle and at tiie Wilderness lost in 
killed, wounded and missing about two hundred. On the 
12th it was again engaged, and from that time forward 
almost daily till the battle of Cold Harbor, in which it 
took a part and suffered severely. It marclied tlience to 
the front of Petersburg, where it did picket duty till the 
latter part of July. It assisted in the assault after the 
explosion of the mine. On the 19th of August it marched 
toward the Weldon railroad, and was attacked by the en- 
emy on two successive days. Some thirty of the men 
were discharged about this time by reason of the expira- 
tion of their term of service. In October 147 recruits 
were received, and after two weeks spent in drilling 
active duty was resumed. 

The regiment in the latter part of November took a 
position in front of Petersburg, and remained there dur- 
ing the winter. It was engaged in the active operations 
of early April, 1865, and was among the first regiments 
that reached Petersburg when it fell. About the middle 
of that month it went to Washington, and remained there 
till the last of June. On the 4th of July it took part in 
the laying of the corner stone of the national monument 
at Gettysburg, and it was mustered out of the service on 
the 30th of that month. 

Of the 50th regiment the following were the 


Coloih'h. — Benjamin C. Christ, mustered in July 27, 
186 1 ; promoted brevet brigadier general Aug. i, 1864; 
mustered out Sept. 30, 1864. William H. Telford, Aug. 
8, 1861; promoted from captain Company G to lieuten- 
ant colonel Feb. 8, T865; colonel May 15, 1865 ; mustered 
out with regiment July 30, 1865. 

Lieutenant Colonels.— 'X\\ovc\a.i S. Brenholtz, Sept. 10, 
1861; promoted from captain Company H Sept. 30, 1861; 
died Aug. 19, 1863, of wounds received at Jackson, Miss., 
July i6, 1863. Edward Overton, jr., Sept. 30, 1861; pro- 
moted from major to lieutenant colonel Dec. 15, 1863; 
mustered out Sept. 30, 1864. Samuel K. Schwenk, Feb. 
28, 1865; promoted from major to lieutenant colonel 
May 15, 1865; brevet colonel and brigadier general July 
24, 1865; mustered out with regiment July 30, 1865. 

Alajor. — George W. Brumm, Sept. g, i86i; promoted 
from captain Company F May 19, 1865; mustered out 
with regiment July 30, 1865. 

Adjutants. — Henry T. Kendall, Sept. 10, 1861; pro- 
moted from first lieutenant Company H May 3, 1864; 
captured May 12, 1864; captain Company H Jan. 19, 
1865; not mustered; discharged by special order Feb. 
II, 1865. Lewis Crater, Sept. 10, 1861: promoted from 
frst lieutenant Company F April 16, 1865; mustered out 
with regiment July 30, 1865; veteran. 

Quartermasters. — Alfred Jones, Sept. 30, 1861; cap- 
tured July, 1864; discharged by special order Mar. 22, 
1865. John S. Eckel, April i, 1862; promoted from first 
lieutenant Company C Jan. 15, 1865; mustered out with 
regiment July 30, 1865; veteran. 

Surgeons. — David J. M'Kibben, Sept. 14, 1861; pro- 
moted brigade surgeon U. S. volunteers Oct. 21, 1861. 
C. J. Siemans, Mch. 7, 1862; resigned Mch. 16, 1864. 
John M. Kollock, July 25, 1862; promoted from assistant 
surgeon 118th Pennsylvania Sept. 3, 1864; resigned June 
20, 1865. 

Assistant Surgeons. — Joseph P. Vickers, .Aug. 30, i86r; 
resigned July 18, 1864. William P. Book, Aug. i, 1862; 
mustered out Sept. 30, 1864. Frank P. Wilson, Mar. 
31, 1865; mustered out with regiment July 30, 1865. 

Chaplains. — John F. Meredith, April 22, 1862; dis- 
charged January 13, 1863. Halleck Armstrong, Feb. 
24, 1865; mustered out with regiment July 30, 1865. 

Sergeant Majors. — Alexander P. Garrett, Sept. 9, 1861; 
promoted from sergeant Company C Mar. 29, 1864; 
mustered out with regiment July 30, 1865; veteran. 
Tliomas F. Foster, Sept. 6, 1861; promoted from cor|)oral 
Company D to sergeant major; to second lieutenant 
Company D April 8, 1864; veteran. Frank H. Barnhart, 
Sept. 19,1861; promoted first lieutenant Company B Nov. 
26, 1864; veteran, .\lfred J. Steiihens, Sept. 6, 1861; pro- 
moted from sergeant Company D Nov. 21, 1864, to 
first lieutenant Company B Mar. 21, 1865; veteran. 
Henry A. Lantz, Sept. 30, 1861; promoted first lieuten- 
ant Company E Jan. 18, 1862. 




Quartermaster Serjeants. — Simon Cloiiser, Feb. 25, 
1864; promoted from sergeant Comi)any K May 9, 1865; 
mustered out with regiment July 30, 1865; veteran. 
Frank H. Forbes, Jan. i, 1864; promoted second lieu- 
tenant Company E May 10, 1865; veteran. John S. 
Eckel, .\pril i, 1862; promoted second lieutenant Com- 
pany C Mar. 17, 1864. .Mfred W. Oift, Sept. 13, 1861; 
]iromoted from pri\ate Company E Mch. 21, 1865; mus- 
tered out with regiment Julv 30, 1865; veteran. lon'as 
Faust, Sept. 9, 1S61; promoted from priyate Company 
.\ Dec. 4, 1864; discharged on surgeon's certificate Slay, 
1865; veteran. Lewis Crater, Sept. 10, 1861; |)romoted 
from private Company H May i, 1862 to first lieutenant 
Company F Dec. 5, 1864; veteran. 

Hospital Steu<ar(L — .Me.xander H. Shaffer, Sept., iSdi; 
promoted from private Company G Sept., 1861; mus- 
tered out with regiment July 30, 1865; veteran. 

Principal Miisieiaiis. — William K. Schuckert, Sept. 
9. 1861; promoted from musician Company -\ Oct. 25, 
1S64: mustered out with regiment July 30, 1865; veteran. 
Reed W. Dumfee, Sept. 9, 1861; promoted from musician 
Company K .Vpril 13, 1865: mustered out with regiment 
July 30, 1865; veteran. Henry .V. Hoffman, Sept. 30, 
1861; discharged by general order .\ug., 1862. 


Tlie date following the name of each man in the roll 
below is that of his muster-in. Unless otherwise stated 
each man was mustered out with the company July 30th, 

Officers. — Captains — Samuel F. Bossard, Sept. 25, i86i; 
resigned January 28, 1863. James H. Levan, Sept. 9, 
1 861; promoted from sergeant Company C to cajjtain 
Nov. 26, 1864; veteran. First lieutenants — William Rey- 
nolds, Sept. 25, 1861; mustered out Sept. 29, 1864. Ed- 
ward .\. Wilbur, Sept. 25, 1861; jjromoted from private 
to sergeant; to first lieutenant Dec. 4, 1864; veteran. 
Second lieutenants — .Mfred J. Huntzinger, Sept. 25, 1861; 
promoted captain Company K Sept. 17, 1862. Richard 
Rahn, Sept. 25, 1861; promoted from first sergeant to 
second lieutenant Sept. 17, 1862; mustered out Sept. 29, 
1864. First sergeant — John Dennison, Sept. 25, 1861; 
jjromoted from private to sergeant; first sergeant June 
15, 1865; commissioned second lieutenant Sept. 30, 1864; 
not mustered; veteran. Sergeants — Casper Kahle, Sei)t. 
25, 1861; promoted from private to sergeant; veteran. 
Burrell E. Reed, Sept. 25, 1861; wounded at Petersburg, 
\'a..\ transferred to veteran reserve corps; returnetl Jan. 
7, 1865; promoted from corporal to sergeant Feb. i. 1865; 
veteran. Joseph Hedden, dept. 25, iSfii; promoted cor- 
poral; sergeant June 15, 1865. Andrew Jackson, Sept. 
25, 1861; prisoner from May 12 to Dec. 10, 1864; mus- 
tered out Jan. 31, 1865, to date Dec. 15, 1864. John 
.Mackey, Sept. 25, 186 1; died June 7, 1864, of wounds 
received June 5, 1864; veteran. Aaron 0.\rider, Sept. 
25, i86r; died June 18, 1864, of wounds received at 
Petersburg, Ya.; veteran. William Cole, Sept. 25, 1861; 
not on muster-out roll. George W. Dickens, Sept. 25, 
1861; promoted from corporal to sergeant Jan. i, 1863; 
not on muster-out roll. Corporals — James M. Wagner, 
Sept. 15, 1861; promoted corporal; discharged by gen- 
eral order July 25, 1865; veteran. Jeremiah W. Darn- 
sife, Feb. 29, 1864. Joseph Clouser, Feb. 29, 1864; pro- 
moted corporal .\pril 7, 1865. Hiram Michaels, Feb. 
29, 1864; promoted corporal .\pril 7, 1865. Humjihrey 
Brown, Dec. 7, 1861; discharged March 16, 1865, for 
wounds, with loss of leg, received Sept. 30, 1864. Mat- 
thew Berkley, Sept. 25, 1861; prisoner; died at .Ander- 
sonville, Ga., July 26, 1864. Solomon Rudisill, .\pril 22, 
1862; died July 12, 1S64, of wounds received in ac- 

tion. William B. Michael, Sept. 25, 1861; discharged 
March 12, 1862. Charles Croner, Sept. 25, 1861; 
killed at Chantilly, Va., Sept. i, 1862. Stephen H. Haley, 
Sept. 25. 1861: discharged Nov. 16, 1862. John A. Bush, 
Sept. 25, 1861; discharged Lin. 17,1863. Nicholas Rice, 
Sept. 25, 1861 ; discharged Oct. 18, 1863. Josiah Wright, 
Sei)t. 25. 1861: discharged Dec. 3, 1862. Musicians — 
Alfred Fairchild, Feb, 29, 1864. Hiram Brant, Feb. 24, 

1864. Edwin B. Woodward, Sej)!. 25, 1861; discharged 
Feb. 23, 1863. 

/V/>(;/«.— George Allspach, Sept. 25, 1861; veteran. 
Isaac Allison, Feb. 22, 1865; drafted; discharged general 
order June 23, 1865. Charles .\ckley, Dec. 7, 1861; 
wounded in action, with loss of leg; discharged April i, 

1865. William Armstrong, March 13, 1865; substitute; 
deserted March 18, 1865. Von Henry Andis, Sept. 25, 
1 861; discharged; March 5, 1862. Christ Barringer. 
March 13, 1865; substitute; at muster out. Franklin 
Bretz, March i, 1864. Thomas Burch, Sept. 26, 1864; 
substitute; discharged bv general order June 2, 1865. 
John Butow, Sept. 20, 1864; substitute; discharged by 
general order, June 2, 1865. William Biery, Sept. 13, 
1861; killed at Petersburg, Va., June 25, 1864; buried in 
9th corps cemetery, Meade Station, Va. Thomas Birch, 
March 6, 1S65; substitute; deserted May 28, 1S65. D. 
J. Brighthoupt, Sept. 25, 1861; not on muster-out roll. 
Marion D. Belts, Sept. 25, 1861; discharged Feb. 5, 1863. 
Charles C. Bosse, Sept. 25, 1861; deserted March 26, 
1863. William H. Baldwin, Dec. 7, 1861; discharged 
Feb. 4, 1863. John L. Cunningham, Sept. 25, 1861; 
mustered out Sept. 29, 1864. John Casey, Sept. 27. 1864; 
substitute; discharged June 2, 1865. Jacob Clenians, 
Sept. 28, 1864; substitute; discharged June 2, 1865. 
John Calvert, Sept. 28. 1864; substitute; discharged June 
2, 1865. Calvin Crutchman, .Aug. 31, 1864; substitute; 
discharged June 2, 1865. Robert Collier, Feb. 23, 1865; 
drafted; discharged June, 1865. Thomas Cotter, March 
13, 1865; substitute; deserted March 18. 1865. James R. 
Carman, Sept. 25, 1861; not on muster-out roll. Ezra F. 
Carpenter, Sept. 25, 1861; not on muster-out roll. George 
De Gran, March 9, 1864. Isaac H. Darnsife, Feb. 29, 
1864; absent, in hospital, at muster-out. George Dolloway, 
March 11, 1865; substitute; mustered out July 30, 1865. 
Zach. Dennehower, March 10, 1865; substitute; mustered 
out July 30, 1865. Henry Diffendurfer, .Aug. 28, 1864; 
substitute; discharged June 2, 1865. Dennis Dogan, 
Sept. 28, 1864; substitute; discharged June 2, 1865. 
loseph Dishboro, Feb. 23, 1865; drafted; discharged 
July 5. 1865. Levi Doutrick, Feb. 25. 1864; prisoner; 
died at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. i, 1864; grave 4,481. 
Thomas Donnahue, March 7, 18O5; substitute; deserted 
March 20, 1865. Isaac Daniels, Sept. 25. 1861; sick in 
hosjjital from Sept. i, 1862. John H. De Graw, Sept. 
25, 1S61; discharged Oct. 18, 1S62. George Danner, 
\\m\ 22, 1862 ; not on muster-out roll. James C. 
F:nglish, March 9, 1865; substitute; mustered out July 
30, 1865. James Edwards, Sept. 25, 1861; absent, in 
hospital at Newport News, Va., since August 4, 1862. 
lanies Edmons, Sept. 25, 1861; mustered out Sept. 29, 
1854. Frank Fuent, March 14, 1865; substitute. Hiram 
Focht, March i, 1864. John Fore, February 21, 1865; 
drafted; discharged May 8, 1865. Sanmcl Fox, Sept. 
28, 1864; substitute; discharged June 2, 1865. Lewis 
Fee, Sept. 28, 1864; substitute; discharged June 2, 1865. 
J.icob Fisher, Sept. i, 1864; substitute; discharged June 
2, 1865. John Farley, March 13, 1865; substitute; de- 
serted May 18, 1865. Albion Gleville, March 11, 1865; 
substitute. James M. Gaskins, Sept. 25, 1865; absent at 
muster out; veteran. William Gallagher, Feb. 29, 1864: 
discharged by general order July to, 1865. Joseph 
Gapen, Sept. 28, 1864: substitute; discharged June 2. 

186c, Hiram Gould, Sept. 25, 1861; not on muster-out 
roll." Thomas S. Goss, Sept. 25, 1861; discharged June 
25, 1862. Justice Garret, Sept. 13, 1861; mustered out 
Dec. 10, 1864. George W. Hall, July 8, 1863; drafted. 
Jonathan Hoover, Feb. 24, 1865; drafted. John B. Hist, 
July 29, 1864; drafted. Daniel W. Hunsiker, March 15, 
1855; substitute. John C. Hoyt, Sept. 25, 1861; mustered 
out Sept. 29, 1864. Daniel S. Haffley, Feb. 24, 1865; 
drafted; discharged May 8, 1865. Eli Hamilton, Sept. 
24, 1864; substitute; discharged lune 2, 1865. James C. 
Higgins, March 10, 1864; discharged by general order 
May 22, 1865. Alexander Hanley, Sept. 25, 1861; de- 
serted Sept. 12, 1862. Hiram Henian, jr., Dec. 7, 1861; 
discharged May 12, 1862. Horace Heman, Dec. 7, 1861; 
deserted July 25, 1862. Henry D. Jeffords, March 9, 
1865; substitute. Ebet J. Jeffords, March 9, 1864; sub- 
stitute. Lewis Krebs. March 7, 1864. Daniel Keen, 
Ai)ril 30, 1862; mustered out April 19, 1865. Samuel 
Kevser, Sept. 28, 1864; substitute; discharged June 2, 
1865. John Kern, March 13, 1865; substitute; died May 
21, 1865. Philip Knight, Sept. 25, 1861; discharged Feb. 
17, 1862. Francis Leiberman, Feb. 23, 1865; drafted; 
absent at muster out. Obadiah Lockart, Aug. 29, 1864; 
substitute; died at City Point, Va. John Luther, Jan. 
14, 1862; deserted Mar. 8, 1864; veteran. John G. 
Lettick,. April 22, 1862; not on muster-out roll. Wells 
Mengos, April 12, 1864. Albert Miller, Mar. i, 1864. 
Reuben Mayberry, Feb. 10, 1864. John Mayer, Sept. 25, 
1861; mustered out Sept. 29, 1864. Charles Merrill, 
Sept. 25, 1 861; mustered out Sept. 29, 1864. James 
Miller, Feb. 24, 1865; drafted; discharged May 8, 1865. 
Samuel Miller, Sept. 21, 1864; substitute; discharged 
May 12, 1865. Jacob Myer, Sept. 24, 1864; substitute; 
discharged June 2, 1865. Augustus Miller, Sept. 9, 1861; 
killed in action June 30, 1864. John Maugh, Sept. 25, 
1861; dischargedDec. 31, 1862. John Moog, Sept. 25, 
1 861; discharged. Newton D. Mabre, Jan. 14, 1862; 
missing in action. David M'Knight, March 13, 1865; 
drafted. Timothy M'Carty, March 15, 1864. Harrison 
Newman, Sept. 28, 1864; substitute; discharged June 2, 
1865. John Nacey, April 22, 1862; killed at Spottsylvania 
Court-house May 15, 1864. William Olver, March 13, 
1865; substitute. Henry O'Neil, Sept. 25, 1861; died 
Sept. 3, 1862, of wounds received at Bull Run Aug. 30, 
1862. Abraham Philips, March 7, 1864. Thomas 

A. Piper, Mar. 24, 1865; drafted; discharged May 
8, 1865. H. W. H. Rhoads, Jan. 27, 1864; veteran. 
George Reese, March 8, 1865; substitute. Henry Ruth, 
March 10, 1865; substitute. Henry Rudorf, March 10, 
1865; substitute. Jacob Ruble, Sept. 3, 1864; substitute; 
discharged June 2, 1865. Gotlieb Rogler, Sept. i, 1864; 
substitute; discharged June 2, 1865. John Riley, March 
13, 1865; substitute; deserted March 18, 1865. Peter 
Reedy, Sept. 25, 1861; discharged Jan. 22, 1863. James 

B. Ross, Sept. 25, 1861; discharged Feb. 4, 1863. Jacob 
Stinerook, March 13, 1865; substitute; mustered out with 
company July 30, 1865. Alexander Sheffhour, Sept. 29, 
1S64; substitute; discharged June 2, 1865. John Steck- 
ley, Feb. 29, 1864; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house 
May 12, 1864. Henry Sager, March 9, 1864; died at 
Washington, D. C. James Smith, March 13, 1865; sub- 
stitute; deserted March 18, 1865. William Sweeney, 
March 13, 1865; substitute; deserted INLarch 20, 1865. 
Owen K. Smith, March 11, 1865; substitute; deserted 
April 9, 1865. John Slighter, March 13, 1865; substitute; 
deserted .\pril 29, 1865. Philip Springer, Sept. 25, i86i; 
not on muster-out roll. Tonis Springer, Sept. 25, 1861; 
deserted Sept. 12, 1862. Peter Smith, Sept. 25, 1861; 
discharged Dec. 18, 1862. John N. Thomas, Sept. 
25, 1861; absent at muster-out; veteran. Samuel 
Townsend, Sept. 25, 1861; mustered ovit Sept. 29, 1864. 

Henry F. Thrasher, Sept. 5, 1864; substitute; discharged 
June 2, 1865. Charles Thirl, Sept. 25, 1861; discharged 
Feb. 4, 1863. William Tallada, Dec. 7, 1861; wounded 
at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862; not on muster-roll. Good- 
rich Tallada, Jan. 14, 1862; discharged May 20, 1862. 
Daniel \'an Pelt, Sept. 25, 1861. Jasper \'liet, Sept. 25, 
1861; died Nov. 2, 1861. Henry Vanderpool, Jan. 14, 
1862; not on muster-out roll. Henry D. Wismer, March 
13, 1865; substitute. James West, March 2, 1865; 
drafted. John T. Williams, Sept. 25, 1861; mustered- 
out Sept. 29, 1864, Culbertson Wright, Sept. 2, 1864; 
substitute; discharged on surgeon's certificate June 5, 
1865. George White, March 8, 1865; substitute; de- 
serted March 18, 1865. John Webster, March 10, 1865; 
substitute; deserted March 18, 1865. William Wiley, 
March 8, 1865; substitute; deserted April 29, 1865. 
Lewis Warg, Sept. 25, 1861; not on muster-out roll. 
Jacob Zimmerman, Sept. 9, 1861; prisoner from June 
7 to Nov. 26, 1864; mustered out Jan. 30, 1865 to date 
Nov. 30 1864. David W. Zehner, Sept. 25, 1861; killed 
at Chantilly, Va., Sept. i, 1862. 



("ALL was issued by the President in July, 
i86r, for sixteen regiments, and under this 
call authority was granted by Governor Curtin, 
August ist, 1861, to Jolin C. Dodge, jr., to 
recruit this regiment. 

John C. Dodge, jr., of Lycoming county, was 
appointed colonel; Henry ^L Hoyt, of Luzerne 
county inow governor of the State), lieutenant colonel; 
and John B. Conyngham, also of Luzerne county, major. 
The rendezvous of the regiment was Camp Curtin, near 

November 8th, 1861, the regiment proceeded to Wash- 
ington. It remained there, engaged in drill and camp 
duty, till the 28th of March, 1862, when it was ordered 
to take the field. During this time it furnished ten vol- 
unteers for gunboat service at the West, most of whom 
were subsequently killed by an explosion. 

On taking the field it was assigned to the ist brigade, 
3d division and 4th corps. It marched to Alexandria, 
and thence went by transports to Newport News, where 
it debarked; and soon afterwards it encamped near 
Yorktown, where the siege was in progress. As the regi- 
ment marched to take possession of the deserted works 
on the 4th of May a torpedo exploded under Company 
F, killing one man and wounding six others. 

From Yorktown it moved forward with its brigade to 
Williamsburg, where it arrived just in time to support 
Hancock in his gallant charge, which resulted in driving 
the enemy from the field. The regiment arrived with its 
brigade at the Chickahominy on the 20th of May. On 
the 24th it went on a reconnoisance toward Richmond, 



which lasted four days, and in the course of which a 
lively engagement occurred. In this reconnoisance a 
company of sharpshooters which had been selected from 
the regiment did excellent service. 

The regiment was engaged in the battle of l''air O.iks, 
which occurred on the 31st of May, and out of 249 lost 
125 killed and wounded, and four prisoners. .Among the 
wounded oflicers were Captains Davis, Lennard and 
Chamberlain, and Lieutenants Weidensaul and Carskaden. 
While the battle at Caines's Mill was in progress, the 
52nd, with other regiments of the brigade, was guarding 
the bridge across the Chickaliominy; the men were often 
standing waist deep in the water of the swamp, and this 
duty continued during several consecutive days. Soon 
afterward the regiment retired with the army to Harrison's 
Landing, and on the 20th of August to Yorktown, where 
circumstances detained the brigade to which it was at- 
tached while a large part of the army went to the support 
of Cleneral Pope. While occupying the fortifications at 
Yorktown the men were drilled in heavy artillery tactics. 

In December the 52nd, with other troops, went to I?eau- 
fort, and thence in the latter part of January, 1863, to 
Port Royal, S. C. From there in April, 1863, it went on 
a transport up the North Edisto, to co-operate in an at- 
tack on the city of Charleston. The attack failed, and 
the regiment, after drifting among the Sea islands some 
days and passing an uncomfortable night at sea, landed 
at Beaufort. On the nth of July it moved to F'olly 
island, and on the 9th went up the Stono river wMth an- 
other regiment to make a diversion in favor of the attack 
on Morris island. It landpd at lames island at mid- 
night, and in the morning attacked and drove in the 
pickets and cavalry of the enemy. The rebel force on 
the island was reinforced, and on the i6th an attack was 
made by the enemy. On the night of the 17th the island 
was evacuated, and tiie 52nd returned to F'olly island. 
'I'he regiment participated in the siege of F'ort Wagner 
during the perilous forty or fifty days that it lasted; when 
preparations were made for the final assault. It was 
formed ready to pass the fort and attack F'ort Gregg, 
when intelligence was received that the works and the 
island were evacuated. During the operations against 
this fort the regiment suffered severely, but no exact 
record of its casualties can be given. 

In December many of the men in the regiment re-en- 
listed, and were granted a veteran furlough. When they 
returned the regiment was recruited to the maximum 
and newly armed and equipped. It remained at Hilton 
Head till the 20th of May, 1864, during which time it 
made occasional expeditions among the Sea islands. 

On the morning of the 4th of July the duty of sur- 
prising and taking Fort Johnson in the badly planned at- 
tempt on the rebel works at Charleston harbor was as- 
signed to the 52nd. Accordingly, just at daybreak, one 
hundred and twenty-five men, under the command of 
Colonel Hoyt, landed, took a two-gun battery, rushed for- 
ward, scaled the parapet of the fort and entered the 
works. F"ailing to receive the support which they expect- 
ed, they were overpowered by superior numbers and 

made prisoners. Seven of the assaulting party were 
killed and sixteen wounded. Of the balance, who were 
made prisoners, upwards of fifty died at Andersonville 
and Columbia, and the officers, after a period of confine- 
ment at Macon, were transferred to Charleston and 
placed under the fire of the Union batteries on Morris 
island. During the summer and autumn of 1864 the 
balance of the regiment was on Morris island, where the 
men did duty- as heavy artillery. 

During the' winter of 1864-5 they were engaged in 
])ickeling the harbor in boats; a duty that was anything 
but enviable by reason of the ex|)osures and hardships 
which it involved. February 18th, 1865, a boat crew 
under the command of Major Hcnnesy rowed across the 
harbor and landed near F'ort Sumter. All was silent, 
and as the party cautiously entered the ruins they were 
not challenged. The fort was deserted, and they un- 
furled over it the flag of the 52nd reginu-nt. The party 
at once proceeded to the cily, which they entered before 
the last of the rebel soldiers had evacuated it. 

Captain R. W. Uannahan, of Tunkhanno< k, and Lieu- 
tenant T. M. Burr, of Meshoppen, were ot this party. 
The former was left in command of the party that gar- 
risoned the fort. 

The regiment joined the .^.rmy of General Sherman as 
it marched north after crossing Georgia, and was with 
him when the rebel General Johnston surrendered. \ 
week later it returned to Harrisburg, where on the i2lh 
of July, 1865, it was mustered out the service. 

The 52nd was comjiosed of men who entered the ser- 
vice for three years. Those who remained in the regiment 
to the close of the war were mustered out July 12th, 1865, 
except members of Company A, who were mustered out 
three days later. Where a date immediately follows the 
name of a man in the subjoined list, it is the date of his 
being mustered in. Comi)anies A, H and I were recruited 
in Luzerne county, the first at Wilkes-Barre; Company 
B in Wyoming county; Company F in Lu/.erne and Brad- 
ford, and Company K in Luzerne and Schuylkill. 


Ci>/oii<-/s.—] ohn C. Dodge, jr.. .Vug. i. '61; resigned 
Nov. 5, '63. Henry M. Hoyt, Aug. 14, "Oi; promoted 
from lieutenant colonel to colonel Jan. 9, '64; brevet 
brigadier general March 13, '65; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. 

Lieutemint Colonels. — John B. Conyngham, Sept. 28, 
'61; promoted from major to lieutenant colonel Jan. 9, 
64; colonel June 3, '65. John .V. Hennessey, Dec. 2; pro- 
moted from captain Company K to major Jan. 5, "65; 
lieutenant colonel June 3d, '65; brevet colonel and briga- 
dier general March 13, "65. 

Majors. — Thomas B. Jayne, Oct. 11, '61; promoted 
from cajnain Company B to major Jan. 9. '64; mustered 
out Nov. 5, '64. George R. Lennard. .\ugust 16, Yii; 
promoted from captain Company .\ to major July 9, '65. 

Ailjiilaiits. — Nathaniel Pierson, .\ugust 15, '6t; pro- 
moted to captain Company G May 19. '63. George H. 
Sterling, Oct. 11, '61; promoted from sergeant major 
to adjutant May 19, '63; transferred to Company K 
Oct. 10, '64. Henry A. Mott. Oct. 2. '61; promoted 
from first lieutenant Company K to adjutant Sept. i, '64; 
captain Company K Dec. 6, '64; not mustered. 

Quartermasters. — Charles F. Dodge, Aug. i, '6i; re- 
signed July 4, '6.^. Charles P. Ross, August 15, '61; 
promoted from commissary sergeant to first lieutenant 
and R. Q. M. August 10, '63; mustered out Feb. 25, 
'65. John W. (iilchrist, Aug. 16, '61; promoted from 
first lieutenant Company A Feb. 26, '65; commissioned 
captain Company A March i, '65; not mustered. 

Surgeons. — William S. Woods, Sept. 7, '61, resigned 
April 20, '63. J. B. Crawford, May 1, '63; resigned 
May 30, '64; John Flowers, Dec. 15, '63; promoted from 
assistant surgeon to surgeon March 23, '65. 

Assistant Surgeons. — John G. M"Candless, Oct. 15, 
'61; resigned July 21, '62. Charles H. Dana, August 4, 
'62; resigned October 12, '63. Rufus Sargent, July 31, 
'62; resigned March 13, '64. Jonas H. Kauffman, May 

Chaplains. — John H. Drum, Sept. 28, '61- resigned 
Aug. I, '62. William H. Gavitt, Sept. 28, '63. 

Sergeant Majors. — Henry N. Sterling, Oct. 11, '61; 
promoted from sergeant Company B Nov. 5, '61: dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate May 11, '62. George 
H. Sterling, Oct. 11, '61; promoted from sergeant Com- 
pany B Nov. 14, '62, to first lieutenant and adjutant 
May 19, '63. Edward W. Tracy, Aug. 16, '61; pro- 
moted from sergeant Company A Dec. 20, '63; second 
lieutenant Nov. 4, '64, and first lieutenant Mar. i, '65; 
not mustered; veteran. 

Quartermaster Sergeants. — Frank C. Bunnell, Sept. 20, 
'61; promoted from private Company B Mar. i, '62; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate April 2, '63. Smith B. 
Mott, Nov. 4, '61; promoted from sergeant Company K 
Nov. 5, '64; quartermaster Mar. i, '65; not mustered; 

Cown/issarv Sergeants. — Charles P. Ross, Aug. 15, 
'61; promoted from private Company H Nov. 5, '61, to 
regimental quartermaster Aug. 10, '63. Linton T. Rob- 
erts, Nov. 4, '61; promoted from sergeant Company H 
Aug. 10, '63; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Peter B. Walter, 
Nov. 4, '61; promoted from sergeant Company H Nov. 
5, '64; veteran. 

Hospital Steivard. — Peter Alldred, Oct. 11, '61; veteran. 

Principal ATusicians. — Allen M. Haight, Oct. 29, '61; 
promoted from musician Company E Aug. 26, '64; mus- 
tered out Nov. 5, '64. Albert N. Barney, Oct. 24, '61; 
promoted from musician Company F July 4, '64; veteran. 
Peter J. Moreland, Nov. 4, '63; drafted; promoted from 
Company E Nov. 5, '64. 


Officers. — Captain, George R. T-ennard, Aug. 16, '61; 
resigned Sept. 23, '62; recommissioned Mar. 30, '63; 
promoted major July 9, '65. First lieutenants — Edwin 
W. Finch, August 16, '61; resigned July 21, '62. John 
W. Gilchrist, August 16, '61; |)ronioted from second to 
first lieutenant July 21, '62; quartermaster February 26, 
'65. Second lieutenants — Reuben H. Waters, August 
16, '61; promoted from first sergeant to second lieu- 
tenant July 21, '62; first lieutenant Nov. 4, '64; not 
mustered; discharged by special order Feb. i, '65. 
Philip G. Killian, Aug. 29, '61; promoted from cor|)oral 
to first sergeant Nov. 6, '64; second lieutenant June 3, 
'65; mustered out with conqjany July 15. '65; veteran. 
First sergeant, John S. Linn, Sept. 2, '61; promoted 
from corporal to sergeant Sept. i, '62; to first sergeant 
Sept. 15, '64; mustered out Nov. 5, '64; expiration of 
term. Sergeants — Thomas W. Aregood, Sept. 24, '61; 
promoted from corporal to sergeant Nov. 6, '64; 
mustered out with company July 15, '65; veteran. 
Daniel H. Harrison, Sept. 21, '61; captured July 3, 
'64; veteran. Daniel W. Holby, Sept. 21, '61; veteran. 

Peter Allabach, Sept. 2, '66; promoted from corporal 
to sergeant June 25, '65; veteran. Edward W. Tracy, 
August 16, '61; promoted sergeant major Dec. 20, '63. 
Irwin E. Finch, Aug. 16, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. 
Corporals — Thomas Ray, August 20, '61; promoted cor- 
poral June 25, '65; veteran. Philip Boyle, Aug. 29, 
'61; promoted corporal Nov. 6, '64; veteran. Henry 
S. Mash, Sept. 16, '61; promoted corporal Nov. 6, '64; 
veteran. Loren D. Rozell, Sept, 7, '61; promoted cor- 
poral Nov. 6, '64; veteran. Ezra O. West, Sept. 23, 
'61; promoted corporal Nov. 6, '64; veteran. Freemon 
Souder, August 28, '61; promoted corporal May i, 
'65; veteran. John R. Wiley, Sept. 9, '61; promoted 
corporal May i, '65; veteran* Solomon W. Taylor, Oct. 
14, '61; veteran. Frank Gallagher, Sept. 21, '61; 
captured; died at Florence, S. C, Oct. 15, '64. John 
Scott, Sept. 6, '61; mustered out Nov. 6, '64. Musician, 
Gilbert G. Parker, Sept. 10, '61; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate. Mar. 18, '63. 

Privates. — Sidney Albert, Oct. 8, '61; veteran. Ed- 
ward W. Allabach, Oct. g, '61; discharged Aug. i, '62, 
for wounds received at Seven Pines, Va., May 24, '62. 
Wellington Ager, Oct. 9, '61; killed at Fair Oaks May 
31, '62. Abraham Barber, Sept. 17, '62; discharged 
by general order Aug. 7, '65. David Barber, Feb. 13, 
'65. John Brown, October 15, '63; drafted. Jame.s 
Brown, Sefit. 24, '63; drafted. Patrick Bennett, Oct. 
29, '63; drafted; deserted June 8, '64. Henry Barnes, 
Sept. 2, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Martin \. 
Barber, Oct. 9, '61; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Sept. 21, '62. William G. Burke, Oct. 9, '61; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate July 20, '63. Charles 
A. Briggs. Oct. 9, '61; died at Washington, D. C, Jan. 
21, '62. Lewis Blackman, Oct. 23, '6i; deserted June 
I, '62. Francis E. Carman, Sept. 9, '61; veteran. 
Thomas Cassiday, Sept. 23, '63; drafted. Stephen Cil- 
fris, Sept. 23, 1863; drafted. William Cilfris, Sept. 21, 
'63; drafted. Frank Cilfris, Jan. 23, '65. Hamilton 
H. Carey, Sept. 25, '62; discharged by general order 
June 25, 1865. George B. Carey, September 17, '61; 
mustered out November 5, '64. William Castello, 
Sept. 24, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Robert 
Clark, Nov. 10, '63; drafted; transferred to U. S. Navy 
June 8, '64. Lewis Cilfris, Sept. 23, '63 ; drafted; 
died at Morris Island, S. C., Nov. 13, '64. James 
Countryman, Sept. 28, '63; drafted: died at Morris 
Island, S. C, Nov. 24, '64. Searight Conner. Oct. 9, 
1861; deserted Mar. 25, '62. A. M. Dalloway, Mar. 
3, '65. William T. Delzell, Sept. 23, '63 ; drafted. 
Benjamin F. Dunn, Nov. 4, '63; drafted. George S. 
Dash, Mar. 14, '64. Frederick H. Ducel, Mar. 11, 
1864. John Y. Davis, Mar. 22, '64; never joined com- 
pany. Charles G. Dilts, Oct. 9, '61 ; discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate Oct. 29, '6t,. Elias Davis, Oct. 9, 
1S61; discharged on surgeon's certificate May 25, '63. 
Charles M. Dodson, Oct. 9, '61; discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate Sept. 4, '62. Samuel Everett, Oct. 15, 
'63; drafted. Nelson S. Eveland, Sept. 2, '61; dis- 
charged by general order June 21, '65; veteran. James 
Eddy, Oct. 9, '61; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Feb. 26, '62. Jacob Frace, Oct. 24, '62; absent, sick, 
at muster out. William Frace, Mar. 18, '64. George H. 
Frace, Mar. 11, '64. William H. Frace, Mar. 18, '64; 
discharged by general order June 8, '65. Thomas H. 
Farrell, Oct. 9, '61; discharged on writ of habeas corpus, 
Oct. 10, '61; minor. John Frace, Oct. 9, '61; captured; 
died at Andersonville, Ga., Dec. 26, '64; veteran. George 
Greenwalt, Mar. 14, '64. Charles M. Greenwalt, Feb. 
23, '64. George derringer, Oct. 12, '63. John Gaven, 
Sept. 9, '61; veteran. Frederick Grumm, Oct. 14, '61; 
mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Prentis Gavitt, Sept. 10, '61; 


I 'J 

died Nov. 17, '61. John C.illniore, Oct. 15, '63; drafted; 
died at Morris Island, S. C, June 28/64. John Ciriffin, 
Oct. 9, '61; deserted Aug. 16, "62. John Huntsman, 
Oct. 8, '61; veteran. Henry Hopes, Nov. 9, '63; drafted. 
William Home, Nov, 6, '63; drafted. William Hypher, 
Nov. 6, "63; drafted. Joseph A. Harter, Mar. 14, '64. 
Michael Halpin, Sept. ii, '62; discharged June 13, '65. 
William Huff, Sept. 26, '61; discharged June 25, '65. 
Nelson B. Hedden, Aug. 27, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, 
'64. Jacob Hess, Aug. 27, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. 
Thomas Haley, Aug. 20, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. 
.Arthur B. Hedden, Oct. 9. '61; discharged Sept. 23, '62, 
for wounds received at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, '62. Jo- 
seph Housel, Oct. 9, '61; discharged on surgeon's certi- 
ficate Sept. 18, '62. Thomas Hoover, Oct. 9, '61; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate Aug. ii, '62. Henry 
Harrington, Oct. 9, '61; transferred to veteran reserve 
corps, Nov. 15, '63. Edward J. Hudson, Aug. 16, '64; 
died at Hilton Head, S. C, Jan, 19, '65. Samuel W. 
Hess, Oct. 9, '61; died at Washington, I). C., Dec. 28,'6i. 
Reuben Hoffman, Oct. 9, '61; died June 9, '62; buried 
at Annapolis, .Md. John S. Jenkins, Apr. 7, '62; mus- 
tered out May 5, '65. Robert Jenkins, Oct. 23, '61; dis- 
charged Sept. 30, '62, for wounds received at Fair Oaks, 
Va., May 31, '62. Thomas J. Jenkins, Oct. 9, '61; died 
July, '64, of wounds received at Fort Johnson, S. C, July 
3, '64. Thomas Killian, Mar. 7, '65. Michael Keef, Aug. 
16, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64, Benjamin Krother, 
Oct. 9, '61; discharged Sept. 26, '62, for wounds received 
at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, '62. James Kitchen, Oct. 9, 
'61; died at Washington, D. C"., Dec. 6, '61. Daniel 
Learch, Oct. 15, '63-. drafted. Francis S. Lope, Oct. 15, 
'63; drafted. Thomas G. T,itts, Sept. 2, '63; drafted; 
discharged June 28, '65. Martin P. Lutz, Oct. 9, '61; 
discharged on surgeon's certificate Dec. 3, '62. Frederick 
Laubach, Oct. 9, '61; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Oct. 27, '62. Patrick Lynch, Sept. 17, '61; deserted Sept. 
24, '61. Chester B. Monega, Oct. 7, '61; veteran. John 
Miller, Sept. 24; '63; drafted. Nelson P. Morgan, Sept. 
23, '63; drafted. John F. Mahler, Mar. 22, '64. Albert 
J. Meeker, Mar. 31, '64. Freeman Mock, Mar. 22, '64. 
J. A. Megargal, Oct. 17, '64. William Millham. Mar. 28, 
'62; mustered out May 5, "65. Reeder D. Myers, Aug. 
29, '61; captured July 3, '64; died at Andersonville, CJa., 
Dec. 22, '64. Jonas Miller, Sept. 5, '61; mustered out 
Nov. 5, '64. William R. Mott, Sept. 9, '61; mustered out 
Nov. 5, '64. Michael Mulrey, Oct. 8, '61; prisoner from 
July 3, to Dec. i, '64; mustered out Mar. i, '65, to date 
Dec. 5, '64. Nicholas Miller, Oct. 9, '61; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate Sept. 18, '62. Joseph P. Murray, 
Oct. 9, '61; discharged on surgeon's certificate Nov. 1, '61. 
Ambrose Myers, Oct. 9, '61; died at Baltimore, Md., 
June 22. '62. Charles W. Marks, .Sept. 23, '63; drafted; 
deserted June 8, '64. Thomas M'Ciarle, Oct. 8, '61; vet- 
eran. John R. M'Cool, Nov. 7, '63; drafted. Thomas 
M'Cann.Oct. 9,'6i; discharged on surgeon's certificate May 
9, '63. Franklin M'Bride, Oct. 9, '61; discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate Jan. 15, '62. Thomas M'Cormick, Oct. 
9, '61; deserted Aug. 16, '62. Christian Orts, Sept. 18, 
■61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Elirtet Orts, Sept. 16, '61; 
died at Hilton Head, S. C, Mar. 15, '64; veteran. 
George S. Pierce, Mar. 21, '64. James M. Petty, P'eb. 23, 
'64. William Payne, Feb. 23, '64. John H. Palmer, Oct. 
9, '61; discharged on surgeon's certificate Aug. 31, '62. 
Abraham D. Patterson, ( )ct. 9, '61 ; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate June 2, '63. Edward Rogers. Nov. 6, '63; 
drafted. Samuel Roberts, Oct. 17, '61 ; veteran. George 
Race, .\pr. 9, '64. Patrick Riter, Sept. 24, 63; 
drafted. George W. Russell, Mar. 7, '65. Wil- 
liam Renshaw, Oct. 10, '62; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate Mar. 17, '65. David M. Reese, Sept. 2, '61; 

mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Charles S. Rainow, Sept. 17, 
'61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. James Russell, Sept. 
2, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. George W. Runer, 
Oct. 9, '61; discharged on surgeon's certificate Oct. 21. 
'61. Jacob Smith, Nov. 2, '61; drafted. George W, 
Smith, Nov. 4, '63, drafted; absent in parole camp at 
muster out. Earnest Smith, July 15, '63; drafted 
John A. Stiers, Oct. 17, '63; drafted. .Moses Sender. 
Mar. 21, '64. Peter Swariwood, Mar. 31, '64. Wash- 
ington St. Clair, .Aug. 29, '64; discharged June 25, '65 
John Seely, Oct. 9, '61; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate .\ug. II, '62. William Simmons, Sept. 16, '61; 
discharged June 15, '65, to accept promotion in io4lh 
U. S. colored troops, .\braliam St. Clair, Oct. 9, '61: 
discharged on sugeon's certificate July 15, '62. Bern- 
Bernard P. Smith, Oct. 9, '61; discharged .Vug. 14. '62, 
for wounds received at Fair Oaks, \'a.. May 18, "62. 
Joseph T. Stach, Oct. 9, '61; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate .\ug. 11, '62. Robert M Stepliens, .\ug. zS. 
'61; transferred to i2th N. V. artillery .April 9, '62. 
Matthew Smith, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; transferred to 
U. S. navy June 8, '64. William Smith. Oct. 9. '63; 
John F. Thomas, Sept. 9, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, 
'64. David W. Turner, Aug. 28, '61; mustered out 
Nov. 5, '64. John M. Taylor, May 5, '62; mustered 
out May 25, '65. Patrick Tahan, Oct. 9, '61; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate Feb. 26, '62. Robert 
Troup, Oct. 9, '61; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
June 14, '63. Thomas Timms, Sept. 16, '61; di^- 
charged Sept. 21, '61. Shadrack Vanhorn, Oct. 9. 
'61; died at Harveyville, Luzerne county. Pa., .April 17. 
'62. William Ward, .Aug, 16, '64; discharged June 
30, '65; William S. Withers, Oct. 9, '61; discharged 
on writ of /ia/>eas corpus Oct. 10, '61; minor. Lewis 
Whitaker, Oct. 23, '61; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate April 20, '61. Thomas Williams, Nov. 4, '63: 
drafted ; deserted March 17, '65. .Augustus Weeks. 
Oct. 9, '61; deserted October 30, '61. Fletcher D 
Yaple, Oct. 9, '61; |)romoted to hospital steward U. S 
A. May 9, '63. 


Most of the members of this company were mustered 
in on the nth of October, 1861, and that date will be 
understood when no other is given. 

Officers. — Captains — Thomas B.Joncs; promoted major 
lanuary 9, '64. R. W. Bannatyne; jiromoted from first 
sergeant to second lieutenant Sept. 27, '62; to first lieu- 
tenant Mardi 31, '63; capt. Jan. 9, '64. ist lieuts. — 
Charles Russell; resigned Oct. 29, '62. Norman P. Farr. 
promoted from cnrp. to sergt.; 2nd lieut. June 13. '63: 
ist lieut. Jan. 9, '64. 2nd lieuts.— Joseph L. Bemler; 
resigned Feb. 26. '62. Pliilo M. Burr; promoted from 
1st sergt. to 2d lieut. Jan. 9, '64; ca\A. company C June 
I, '65; not mustered. 1st sergt., William J. Vaughn; com 
missioned 2nd lieut. June i, '65; not mustered; veteran. 
Sergts. — H. W. Robinson; veteran. Henry D. Kasson; 
promoted from corp. to sergt. Nov. 6, '64; veteran. 
Oscar P. Hulbert; promoted from corp. to sergt. Nov 
6, '64; vet. Alden M. Wilson; promoted from corp 
to sergt. Nov. 6, '64. Wesley Billings; promoted from 
corp. to sergt. April 19. '62; mustered out Nov. 5, '64 
Joseph Shannon; promoted from corp. to sergt. Dec. 1. 
■63; absent, sick, at muster out. Harry B. Brown; pro 
moted from corp. to sergl. Jan. 9, '64; mustered out Nov 
5, '64. Jerome T. Furman; promoted 2n(l lieut. is; 
[egiment S. C. C. T. Aug. 29, '63. Alva Fasceti 
discharged Aug. 11, '62, from wounds received in action 
George D. Lott; promoted sergt. April 19. '62; discharg 
ed Sept. 22, '62, from wounds received at Fair Oaks May 


31, '62. Henry N. Sterling; jiromoted sergt. maj. Nov. 
5, '61. George H. Sterling; promoted sergt. maj. Nov. 14, 
"'62. Frank C. Hnnnell. Sept. 20, '61; promoted Q. sergt. 
March i, 62, Corporals— Culb't B. Robinson, Feb. 29, 
'64; veteran. Thomas W. Evans; veteran. Nelson N. 
Moody; promoted corp. Nov. 6,'64; vet. Abel A.Carter, 
F'eb. 29, '64; promoted corp Nov. 6, '64; vet. William H. 
Kishbangh; jtromoted corp. Nov. 6, '64; vet. Edwin A. 
Dewoif; promoted corp. Nov. 6, '64; vet. Daniel C. 
Low, Feb. 29, '64; promoted cor|). Nov. 6, 64; vet. Levi 
F. Drake, Feb 29, '64; promoted corp. Nov. 6, '64; vet. 
George W. Jayne; promoted corp. Aug. '62; mustered 
out Nov. 5. '64. George L. Kennard; promoted corp. 
Jan. 19, '64; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. James P. K. 
Wilson; jiromoted corp. Aug. i, '62; mustered out Nov. 
5, '64. Allen E. Fassett; promoted corp. Nov. 19, '61; 
discharged on surg's certificate May 19, '62. Jacob A. 
Cook; killed at Fair Oaks, Va., May 19, '62. Ammond 
Hatfield; died at Yorktown, Va., May 31, '62. Theo- 
dore Barton; killed at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, '62. 
Musician, Benjamin Bullock; discharged on surg's cer- 
tificate Sept. 24, '62. 

Privates. — Augustus .-^shton, Feb. 24, '65. Nelson B. 
Allen, Sept. 16, '62; discharged by general order June 
24, '65. Elisha K. Adams; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. 
Oscar R. .Adams; absent, sick at muster out. Gilbert H. 
Adams; Mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Thomas Adams; 
mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Seril A. Adams; mustered out 
Nov. 5, '64. Peter Alldred; promoted hosp. st. A]:iril 30, 
'64; vet. Daniel Adams, Mar. 23, 64; died at Hilton 
Head, S. C, June 7, '64. Chand. N. Burgess; vet. 
Benjamin Baker, Sept. 22^, '63; drafted. Hiram Brink, 
Seiit. 23, '63; .drafted. \Villiam .\. ISates, Sept. 12, '62; 
discharged on surg's certificate June 4, '63. Thaddeus 
F. Bullard, Sept. 12, '62; discharged on surg's certificate 
Dec. 27, '62. Jonathan Brewer, Sept. 16, '62; discharged 
June 2, '65. Richard D, Bird, Sept. 16, '62; discharged 
on surg's certificate Oct. 31, '62. William S. Beebe, .\ug. 
16, '64; discharged June 24, '65. Solomon Burke, Sept. 
26, '64; drafted; discharged June 24, 65. Edwin Robin- 
son, jr.; absent on detached duty at muster out. Frank 
M. Buck; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. William Craft, July 
24, '63; drafted. Richard Cook, Feb. 24, '65. Isaac V. 
Cooper, March 7, '65. Nathan Colb, Sept. 24, '63; draft- 
ed. Thomas Crompton, Sept. 16, '62; discharged on 
surg's certificate Jan. 12, '63. John L. Cole, Sept. 16, 
'62; discharged June 24, '65. Martin H. Conger, Sept. 
16, '62; discharged on surg's certificate Feb. 12, '63. 
.•\lanson Carrier, Aug. i, '64; discharged June 24, '65. 
Michael Cover, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged June 
24, '65. James Cleary; transferred to Fitch's N. Y. 
battery July 25, '62. Clanson L. Cool; discharged 
on surg's certificate Jan. 11, '63. Philip H. Cole, Mar. 
7, '64; died at Morris island, S. C, Nov. 23, '64. John 
J. Colberson, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; died at Morris 
island Nov. 23, '64. Nathaniel F. Dickinson; veteran. 
Charles L. Dood, July 24, '63; drafted. Winfield 
S. Davis, Jan. 24, '65. Richard Davis, Jan. 19, '65. 
Morgan Deiner, Sept. 28, '63; drafted; discharged June 
24, '65. C. M. Eggleston, March 8, '64. Miles East- 
man; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Earl Ellis; dis- 
charged Feb. 12, '63, from wounds received in action. 
Thomas Ellis, transferred to 5th U. S. artillery, '62. 
Miner Ellis, deserted May 4, '62. Wm. H. Furman, 
mustered out Nov. 5, '64. John C. F'raley, mustered out 
Nov. 5, '64. Ebenezer Fisk, discharged on surgeon's 
certificate Nov. 5, '61. Asa H. Frear, discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate Sept. 9, '63. Nelson F'inney, discharged 
on surgeon's certificate May 19, '62. Henry Ferris, died 
Dec. 25, '61. Levi L. F'erris, killed at Fair Oaks, Va., 
May 31, '62. Thomas Griffith, Feb. 25, '6,s. John G. 

Gilmartin, Oct. 29, '63; drafted. George H. Gaylord, 
Sept. 16, '62; discharged on surgeon's certificate March 
10, '63. William H. Gavitt, Sept. 28, '63; drafted; pro- 
moted chaplain May 21, 64. James W. Gavitt, ."Xug. 24, 
'64; discharged June 24, '65. Aaron I), Grow, dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate Jan. 11, '63. Daniel 
Graves, died at Yorktown, Va., June 10, '62. Jude 
Goodale, deserted Oct. i, '62. George W. Graham, Nov. 
9, '63; drafted; deserted June 17, '64, N. Hilderbrand, 
Mar. 31, '64. Adam Heller, Nov. 7, '63; drafted. Jos. 
Hendrickson, Sept. 24, '63; drafted. Charles Hile, Sept. 
24, '63; drafted. James Hoagland, Sept. 24, '63; 
drafted. John B. Heller, Sept. 28, '63; drafted; dis- 
charged June 24, '65. Lewis Hautz, Aug. 20, '62; dis- 
charged June 24, '65. Miles Hadsall, discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate April 16, '63. Alonzo Hart, discharged 
on surgeon's certificate Feb. 25, '62. DeWitt Haynes, 
died June 5, '62, from wounds received at Seven Pines 
May 24, '62. Charles Hunsinger, died at Beaufort, S. C, 
Dec. 19, '63. Nathaniel Josling, Mar. 14, '64. Jonathan 
Jones, veteran. William Joes, Aug. 21, '62; discharged 
June 24, '65. John C. Jaynes, Sept. 16, '62; discharged 
June 24, '65. Harman M. Jaynes, Sept. '16, 62; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate Jan. 11, 63. Jud'son W. 
Jaynes; discharged on surg. certificate Sept. 27, '63. 
Albert Jennings; discharged Sept. i, '62, for wounds 
received in action. John M. Johnston; discharged on 
surg. certificate Aug. i, '63. Nelson Kresse, Nov. 2, "63; 
drafted. Jacob Kale, Sept. 21, '73; drafted. Levi R. 
Kisler, Sept. 24, '63; drafted. Lew Keller, Sept. 25, 'dy, 
drafted. Gustavus A. Kerlin, Feb. 24, '65. Darius 
Knappin; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Charles Living- 
ston, Sept. 24, '63. drafted; discharged July 7, '65. 
George Lock, Se]5t. 25, '63; drafted. Charles O. Light, 
Aug. 15, '64; discharged Aug. 26, '65. George M. Lull, 
Mar. S, '62; discharged on surg. certificate Mar. 30, '65. 
Anson Lathrop, Mar. 28, '62; discharged June 9, '65. 
Jared Lillie, Aug. 27, '64; discharged June 24, '65. George 
L. Low; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Delaven Leroy; dis- 
charged on surg. certificate Feb. 12, '63. Jacob C. Max- 
well, Aug. 29,. '64. Myron Ma.xwell, Mar. 9, '64. Philip 
Miller, Mar. 15, '65. Uriah H. Mourey, -Aug. i, '64; dis- 
charged June 24, '65. Joseph B. Maxwell; mustered 
out Nov. 5, '64. John 1). Maxwell; mustered out Nov. 
5, '64. John F. Miller; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. George 
S. Martin; discharged on surg. certificate Sept. 26, '62. 
William B. Morgan, Mar. 24, '64; died at Morris island, 
S. C, Dec. 26, "'64. Joab M'Garr, Aug. 27, '62; dis- 
charged on surg certificate Dec. 27, '62. Roland 
Nease, Nov. 2, '63; drafted. Calvin G. Newman, Feb. 
24, '65. John P. Orchard, Feb. 24, '65. Samuel K. 
Osborn, Feb. 19, '62; discharged on surg's certificate 
June 4, '63. Paul J. Overfield; mustered out Nov. 5, 
'64. George W. Oliver; absent, sick, at muster out. 
Charles JA. Oliver; died Jime 11, '62, from wounds re- 
ceived at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, '62. Jo.seph Ogden, 
Mar. 28, '64; died at Morris Island, S. C, June 27, '64. 
Silas H. Pierson, Sept. 20, '62. Edward Place; mus- 
tered out Nov. 5, '64. William Pnewman, Sept. 22, '62; 
transferred to vetera.i reserve corps Mar. 15, '65. John 
H. Riker, Mar. 14, '64; absent, sick, at muster out. 
Henry Rhoads, Mar. 14, '65. Abrini Rinker; mustered 
out Nov. 5, '64. Wilson Russell; discharged on surg. 
certificate Nov. 20, '62. Jacob W. Sharp, Nov. 24, '63; 
drafted. Henry Sower, Feb. 24, '65. James Sweeney, 
Sept. 23, '63; drafted, Andrew Snowden, Nov. 5, '63; 
drafted. John O. Shingler, Sept. 24, '63; drafted. Joel 
15. Sherwood, Mar. 8, '64. Michael SliKer, Jan. 24, '65. 
Edward G. Sterling. Sept. 16, '62; discharged June 24, 
'65. Edward B. Sturdevant, Sept. 16, '62; discharged 
June 24, '63. Josiah Sterling, Mar. 7, '64; discharged 


on siirg. certificate Feb. 4, '65. Jonathan Snyder, Sepi, 
26, '64; drafted; discliarged June 24, '65. JJiirrows 1). 
Stocker, Feb. 25, '62; mustered out Mar. 18, '65. Porter 
Sumner; transferred to gun-boat service Feb. 18, '62. 
Davenport Shoemaker; mustered out Nov. 5, '64, Daniel 
Slianer; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Daniel Sniitli; dis- 
charged on surg. certificate Nov. i r, '61. Tilleston D. 
Smith, Sept. 16, '62; deserted Nov. i, '64. Joshua 
Trowbridge; deserted; returned July 12, '65. .\bram 
L. Tiffany. George \V. Thurber, Sept. 24, '63; 
drafted. Daniel B. Tompkins, Sept. 16, '62; discharged 
June 24, '65. William 'I'hatcher, Aug. 20, '62; dis- 
charged on surg"s certificate Mar. 29, '63. Jacob Tripp, 
Aug. 30, '64; discharged June 24, '65. George 1'. Tif- 
fany, mustered out Nov. 5, '64. George H. Titus, 
mustered out Nov. 5, "64. Solomon N'ansicle, Sept. 16, 
'62; discharged June 24. '65. William ^'anosedale, 
Sept. I, '62; discharged June 24, '65. Robert Vanduzen. 
Mar. 28, '64; died at Nlorris island, S. C, July 13. '64. 
George D. Wright, Daniel .M. Wright, John I,. Woodruff, 
Mar. 31, '64. Giles K. Wilcox, iMar. 3, '62; niuslerod 
out Mar. 18, '65. Daniel W. Warner, Mar. 3, '62; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate Dec. 3, '62. Alfred Wil- 
liams, mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Charles Wright, 
discharged Sept. 5, '62, for wounds received in action. 
Danford \\akefield, discharged on surg's certificate 
Dec. 28, '62. 


Most of the members of this company were mustered 
October 24th, 1861, and that date will be understood 
where none is given. 

Officers. — Captains- — James Cook, Sept. 5. '61; resigned 
Oct. 2r, '63. Treat B. Camp, Sept. 21, '61; promoted 
from first lieutenant to captain Oct. 22, '63. First lieu- 
tenants — Burton K. Gustin; promoted from first sergeant 
to first lieutenant Dec. 21, '63; mustered out Jan. 27, '65. 
Charles E. Britton: promoted from first sergeant to first 
lieutenant June 3, '65; veteran. Second liei:tenants— 
Ransom W. Luther, Sept. 19. '61; resigned June 21, '62. 
Nelson Orchard; jiromoted from sergt. to 2nd lieut. 
Sept. 27, '62; dismissed Sept. 13, '63. Alson Secor; pro- 
moted from ist sergt. to 2nd lieut. Mar. 27, '64; mustered 
out Jan. 27, '65; veteran. First sergeants — Niram A. 
Fuller; promoted from sergt. to ist sergt.; veteran. 
Charles L. Camp; discharged on surg's certificate June 2, 
'63. Sergeants — Andrew Mellville; promoted from corp. 
to sergt. Jan. 17, '64; veteran. Stephen C. Hall; i)ro- 
moted Corp. Jan. 17, '64; sergt. Alay i, '65; veteran. 
Charles W. Keller; jaromoted corp. Jan. 17, '64; sergt. 
May I, '65; veteran. Leander Overjieck; prisoner from 
July 3, '64, to Feb. 24, '65; mustered out Mar. 1, '65. 
Ale.xander Nealy; i)risoner from July 3, '64, to l-eb. 26, 
'65; mustered out Mar. 3, '65. Luther W. Welch; pro- 
moted from corp. to sergt. April 13, '62; discharged 
on surg's certificate Nov. 16, '62. Corporals — John 
M'Carty, Nov. 2, '63 ; drafted ; promoted cor- 
poral Nov. 23, '64. Harrison N. Molt; promoted 
cori)oral Jan. i, '65; captured at Fort Johnson 
S. C., July 3, '64; dbsent at muster out; veteran. Lewis 
D. Town; promoted corporal Jan. i, '65; captured at 
Fort Johnson, S. C, July 3. '64; returned May 26. '65. 
George Fink; ijromoted corporal NLny t,'65; veteran 
Edward P. M'Kittrick, July 15, '63; drafted; promoted 
corporal ^L^y i, '65. Samuel ,\L Sorber, Mar. 11, '64; 
promoted corporal July i, '65. Charles Hallstead, Feb. 
16, '65; promoted corporal July i, '65. Rufus I'. Lind- 
ley; discharged June 12, '65 ; veteran. Jeremiah Gillin- 
ger; promoted corporal A|)ril 13, '62; mustered out Nov. 
5, '64. D.ivis Brooks; promoted corporal Dec. i. '63: 


mustered out. Retiben H. Di.\on; promoted corp. Dec. 
I, '63; cai>tured July 3, '64; absent at muster out. 
George H. Wheat; promoted corp. April 5, '64; captured 
July 3, '64; absent at muster. George S. Goodwin; dis- 
< h.irged on surgeon's certificate July 27, '62. .Marshall 
\\ heeler; dischargeti on surgeon's certificate May 23, 
'62. Samuel Duncan; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
vite Feb. 12, '63. Ebcnezer Ch.ise; died at Brooklyn, 
N. Y., July 28. '62. Musicians — Russell Miller; dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate April 20, '64. Albert N. 
Barney; promoted principal musician July 4, '61; veteran. 
Privatcf. — John Avery; prisoner from July 3 to Nov. 
30, '64; mustered out D;i\ 5. '64. Jacob Agnew; died 
at N'oiktown, Va., Nov. 28. '62. Lucius .Adams; died at 
\orktown. Va., Oct. 12, '62. Lewis Botzcn, Sept. 24, 
'63; drafted; captured Julv 3, '64; absent ai muster out. 
John O. Baker, Sept 24, '63; drafted. Alonzo Bell, 
Sept. 24, '63; drafted; captured July 3, '64; absent at 
muster out. Daniel Butcher, Oct. 15, '63; drafted. Orel 
Bailey; captured July 3, '64; absent at muster out. 
Frederick Burgess; discharged on surg.'s certificate Sept. 
27, '62. T. C. Buffington; transferred to veteran reserve 
corps Nov. 15, '63. John Bailey; died NLiy 17. '62. Levi 
Barnttt; died at Washington. I). C, I*"eb. 25, '62. Ver- 
non C. Capwell. Sept. 27, '63; drafted. John Conway, 
Sept. 24, '63; drafted. James Canince. Sept. 24, '63; 
drafted; captured July 3, '64; absent at muster out. 
Edward Cavanee, NLir. 14, '64; captured July 3, '64; re- 
turned May 14, '65. Henry Cavanee, NLar. 23, '64. John 
Caterson; veteran. Almon_ F. Camp; mustered out Nov, 
5, '64. Benjamin Cornell; prisoner from July 3, '64, to 
Mar. 3, "65; mustered out .\Lir. 8, '65. Daniel L.Clark; 
captured July 3, '64; absent at muster out. Jonathan A. 
Clark; captured July 3, '64; absent at muster out. Wil- 
liam A. Campbell; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Thomas 
Conner, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; discharged on surg's cer- 
tificate Oct. 26, '64. Lawrence Connelly; discharged on 
surg's certificate June 2, '63. Vernon C. Capwell; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate Oct. 7, '63. Curtis R. Dun- 
more; transferred to 8lh N. V. artillery July 6, '62. 
Patrick Devaney, William Dougherty and James Duffy; 
captured luly 3. '64; absent at muster out. Chester 
Dodge; died at Georgetown, D. C.. Jan. 31, '62. Henry 
Esterbrook, Feb. 16, '65; discharged June 14, '65. Dan- 
iel Engle; discharged on surg's certificate Nov. 6, '61. 
James Flinn; discharged on surg's certificate .Aug. 10. 
'62. Thomas Ferguson, Nov. 13, '63; drafted: discharg- 
ed on surg's certilicate Sept. i, '64. Ebene/.er Freeland; 
died, 1862, of wounds received at explosion of gunboat 
" Mound City," at Fort Henry, Tenn. Alfred Forrest; de- 
serted Oct. 24, '61. Casper G. Griffin; veteran. William 
Gensle, ^L^r. 14, '64. John'Gearns; transferred to 7th N.V. 
artillery .-Vpr. 6, '62. Herman S. Graeff, Sejjt. 28, '63; draft- 
ed; died at .Morris island, S. C, July i,'64. Ezra Grub, Mar. 
7, '64; died at Morris island, S. C., Aug. 26, '64. Judge 
(iustin; killed at Fort Johnson, S. C. July' 3, '64. Leslie 
Hawley, Sept. 3o,'63; drafted; cai)tured July 3, '64; absent 
at muster out. John NL Hartman, Sept. 30, '63; drafted; 
cajjtured Julv 3. '64. Henry 
drafted. Miller Hilton, Aug. 15 
luly 6, 64. Richard Hallstead, 
captured July 3, "64; returned 
Haring, July 22, '63; drafted; 

Horn, Sept. 25, '63; 
'63; drafted; captured 
Oct. 31. '63; drafted; 

May 15, 


3. '64- 

David"H.illeck; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. W.J N. Hen- 
son; discharged on surg's certificate, Oct. 14, '62. Sirnon 
B. Henson; disch.irged on surg's certificate, Nov. 17, '61. 
lleorgeW. Harper, Sept. 30, '63; drafted; deserted March 
17, '65. J.nmes H. Howe, NLirch 11. 'O4; deserted May 
29, '64. c;harlcs A. Howe, April 12, '65; discharged 
June 23, '65. Harlan Howe, April 12, '65; discharged 
"lune 2^. '6; Albert V. lerauld, March 10, '65. Albert 



V. Jenkins, Oct. 3, '61; discharged on surg's certificate 
May 9/63. (ieorge H. Knii;ht; veteran. Jacob Kiall, Oct. 
27, '63; drafted. William Kennedy, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; 
prisoner from July 3, '64, to May 7, '65; discharged June 
25, '65. Henry Kerns; died at Philadel]ihia, Pa., Ang. 
15, '63. Peter Klausen, Sept. 23, '63; drafted; captured; 
died at Florence, S. C, Oct. 4, '64. Wm. Linderman, 
Sept. 24, '63; drafted; captured July 3, '64; returned 
May 14, '65. David Lake, July 24. '63; draf 
tured July 3, '64. James K. Lunger, March 
drafted; captured July 3, '64; returned May 
William Love, April 13, '64. Burton Luther, 
July 3, '63; absent at muster out. Hiram Lathro|i, dis 
charged on surgeon's certificate Oct. 8, '62. M\ron La 
throp, discharged on surg's certificate Feb. 28, 
Sylvester Moyars, Mar. 22, '64. Milo Moyers, Mai 
'64; captured July 3, '64. Nelson Ming, Mar. 21, 
Newell M. Mattison, discharged on surg's certificate 
April 19, '62. John Murphy, Oct. 24, '64; discharged 
on surg's certificate, April' 6, '64. Royal Morton 

ed; cap- 
Mi '64; 
14. '65. 





, dis- 

charged on surg's certificate Feb. 27, 
ler, Sept. 26, 63; drafted; died July 10, '64, at Charles- 
ton, S. C, of wounds received at Fort Johnson, S. C, 
July 3, '64. Edwin S. Muidock, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; 
died at Annajjolis, Md., April 11, '65. John M'Clerkin, 
Sept. 24, '63; drafted. William M. M'Donald, Sept. 24, 
'63; drafted; captured July 3, '64. William Newman, 
Sept. 25, '63; drafted; captured July 3, '64. S\lvanus 
Nicholas, prisoner from July 3 to Dec. 10, '64; mustered 
out Dec. 16, '64. Solomon Nelson, died at Washington, 
D. C, Feb. 15, 62. John O'Neil, Sept. 24, '64; drafted; 
deserted June 3, '64. Jesse Foley, June 22, '63; drafted. 
Alfred Parsons, Sept. 24, '64; drafted. Daniel B. Pal- 
mer, Sept. 29, '64; discharged June 4, '65. Jacob A. 
Palmer, captured; died at Florence, S. C, Nov., '64; vet- 
eran. Clarence Piatt, discharged on wrh of //n/'cas ivr/'us. 
Isaac T. Pelham, discharged on surg's certificate Mar. 21, 
'63. Martin G. Palmer, discharged on surg's certificate 
Mar. 2, '63. John Pruyne, killed at Lee's Mills, Va., May 
4, '62. James Riley, Sept. 25, 63; drafted; captured 
July 3, '65; absent at muster out. Nicholas Raber, Sept. 
24, '63; drafted; captured July 3, '64; discharged by 
general order July 18, '65. L. E. Richardson, Feb, 16, 
'65. John Smith, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; cajitured 
July 3, '64. Thomas Smith, Oct. 26, '63; drafted. 
Henry Schopback, Sept. 24, '63; drafted. Josiah Stout, 
July 22, '63, drafted; died at Harrisburg, Pa., Aug. 2, '65. 
Frederick Slagle, July 24, '63; drafted. Thomas H. 
Shaw, Oct. 29, '63; drafted; captured July 3, '64. James 
B. Spencer, Feb. 16, '65; absent, sick, at muster out. 
D. G. Sturdevant, mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Andrew 
Singer, mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Benjamin F. Sayer, 
Oct. 30' '63; drafted; discharged on surg's certificate 
ALay 31, 65. Peter Shaffer, Sept. 23, '63; drafted; cap- 
tured; died at Andersonville, Ga., April 28, '64. 
John I,. Shove; discharged on surg's certificate June 16, 
'62. Benjamin L Towne, March 17, '64. Edwin Thatcher, 
Feb. 16, '65. Thomas Tinglebaugh; discharged on surg's 
certificate June 4, '62. James Tattersall; discharged on 
surg's certificate Aug. 13, '62. John Tamm, Sept. 24, 
'63; drafted; died at Morris island, S. C, June 26, '64. 
George W. Tamm; died at Washington, D. C, Feb. 4, '62. 
James H. Westcott, Oct. 28, '63; drafted. Louis Werner, 
Nov. II, '63; drafted. Orlando Watrous, Feb. 16, '65. 
Henry Whitney, Feb. 17, '65. Benjamin S. Welter, Feb. 
17, '65. John S. White; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. 
Richard Wolley; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Samuel A. 
Warner; died at Annapolis, Md., December 11, '64. 
Charles Williams, Sept. 23, '63; died at Germantown, Pa., 
Dec. 24. '64. William Walker; discharged on surg's cer- 
tificate Feb. 16, "63. Nathan K. White; discharged on 

surg's certificate June i, '63. Robert O. Wilson; dis" 
charged on surg's certificate, Jan. 23, '63. D. T. White- 
head; died at Newport News, Va., April 20, '62. Frank 
Yeager, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; captured July 3, '64; ab- 
sent at muster out. 


Officers. — Captains — Erwin R. Peckens, Aug. 22, '61; 
resigned April 28, '63. John B. Fish, Aug. 31, '61; pro- 
moted from ist lieut. to capt. July i, '63; mustered out 
Jan. 27, '65. C. C. Brattenberg, Nov. 4, '61; promoted 
from ist sergt. to 2nd lieut. June 3, '64; ist lieut. June 

3, '65; capt. June 24, '65; veteran, ist lieut., James 
G. Stevens, Sept. ig, '61; promoted from 2nd to ist 
lieut. Nov. 13, '63; captured July 3, '64; died at Blakley, 
Luzerne county. Pa., April 7, '65. 2nd lieut., David 
Wigton, Nov. 4, '61; promoted from sergt. to 2nd 
lieut. Nov. 13. '63; resigned March it^, '64. ist 
sergts. — Joseph R. Roberts, Nov. 4, '61; promoted 
from sergt. to ist sergt. Nov. 5, '64; commissioned 
2nd lieut. March 26, '65, and ist lieut. June 5, '65; not 
mustered; veteran. Joseph Bell, Nov. 4, '61; promoted 
Corp. Jan. 11. '62; sergt. Aug. 5, '62; 1st sergt. June 3, '64; 
mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Sergts. — William W. Archer, 
Nov. 4, '61; commissioned 2nd lieut. June 4, '65; not 
mustered; veteran. Abram C. Greiner, Nov. 4, '61; pro- 
moted from Corp. to sergt. Nov. 5, '64; veteran. Moses 

D. Fuller, Nov. '61; promoted from corp. to sergt. Nov. 
5, '64; veteran. Enos Boyntcn, Oct. 24, '65; promoted 
corp. June 3, '64; sergt. Nov. 5, '64; mustered out with 
company, July 12, '65. George W. Wilder, Nov. 4 '61; 
promoted from corp. to sergt. Jan. i, '63; mustered out 
Nov. 5, '64. Reese Williams, Nov. 4, '61; discharged on 
surg's certificate, July 18, '62. Chauncey W. Watt, Nov. 

4, '61; discharged on surg's certificate, Nov. 9. '62. Peter 
B. Walter, Nov. 4, '61; promoted com. sergt. Nov. 5, '64; 
veteran. Linton T. Roberts, Nov. 4, '61; promoted com. 
sergt. Aug. 10, '63. Corps. — John A. Stoddard. Oct. 
25, '62; promoted corp. Nov. 5, '64. Levi K. Kauffman, 
Nov. 6, '63; drafted; promoted corp. Nov. 5, '64. James 

E. Albree, Nov. 9, '63; drafted; promoted corp. Nov. 5, 
'64. David Gerhard, Nov. 7, '63; drafted; promoted 
corp. Nov. 5, '64. Charles Wagner, July 28, '63; 
drafted; promoted corp. March 1, '65. John 
L. Hull, Nov. 4, '62; promoted corp. May i, '65. 

5, S. Penterbaugh, Nov. 4, '61; promoted corp. Nov. 
5, '64; discharged July 25, '65; veteran. Robert Barnes, 
Nov. 4, '61; promoted corp. Jan. i, '63; mustered out 
Nov. 5, '64. Herman C. MilUr, Nov. 4, '61; promoted 
corp. Nov. 13, '63; '63; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. 
Amasa R. DeWolf, Nov. 4, '61; promoted corp. June 
14, '64; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. William S. Hopkins, 
Nov. 4, '61; promoted corp. Nov. 13, '63; mustered 
out Nov. 4, '64. Nelson l^aRose, Nov. 4, '61; promoted 
corp. Nov. 13, '64; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. John 
.Ayers, Sept. 24, '62; drafted; discharged June 24, '65. 
Charles M. A])pleman, Nov. 4, '61; promoted corp. 
Jan. II. '62; discharged on surg's certificate Sept. 18, 
'62. Nathan Brown, Nov. 4, '61; promoted corp, 
Aug. 5, '62; discharged on surg's certificate March 8, '63. 
Isaac H. Hermans, Nov. 4, '61; discharged on surg's 
certificate Oct. 31, '62. Harvey Steele, Oct. 28, '62, 
drowned at Newbern, N. C, April 5, '65. Stephen D. 
Bidwell, Nov. 4, '6t; died at Washington, D. C, Dec. 
I I, '61. George C. Atherton, Nov. 4, '61; died at Wash- 
ington, D. C, Dec. 14, '61. Edmund Jones, Nov. 4, '61; 
deserted Aug. 16, '62. Musicians — Chester Brown, Nov. 
4, '61; discharged on surg's certificate Sept. 17, '62. 
Francis J. Furman, Nov. 4, '61; discharged on surg's 
certificate Oct. 4, '62. 

Privates. — Jason .Ayers, Sept. i, '64. Mortimer Alton, 



Hunting, Nov. 
Sept. 1 1, '62. 
transferred to 
Oct. 2^, '62: 

Nov. 4, 



H. M. 

'64. lames 
'64. Edwin 
Nov. 5, '64. 
June 24, '65. 

Nov. 4, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. John C. .Adams, 
Nov. 4, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Edward H. 
Ashelman, Oct. 15, '63; drafted; died at Morris island, 
S. C, July 12, '64. David Hryant, Oct. 23, '62; absent, 
sick, at muster out. J. S. Buckwalter, Nov. i, '63; 
dratted. David Baker, Oct. 13, '63; drafted. Conrad 
Bacliman, March 23, '64; drafted. Jefferson Betz, Mar. 
7, '64; drafted. Michael Blair, March 31, '64; drafted. 
J. A. A. Burschel, Jan. 24, '65. Aaron Bishop, 
'61; discharged on surg's ceriilicate July 3, '65. 
Barnes, Nov. 4, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. 
Brown, .\pril i, '62; mustered out June 12, '65. 

4, '61; discharged on surg's certificate, 
James K. Bunyon, July 24, '63; drafted; 
U. S. navy, June 29, '64. Adam Barili, 
died at Beaufort, S. C, Oct. iS, '64, 
of wounds received at Eort Wagner Oct. 13, '64. 
Thomas Burke, Sept. 24, '63; draftecl; deserted May 24, 
'64. Charles Bisbing, Nov. 4, '61; deserted March 24, 
'62. Thomas Coates, Sept. 24, '63; drafted. Peter Con- 
nelly, Sept. 24, 63; drafted. Henry T. Coleman^ March 
26, '64. Minor C. Connor, Feb. 27, '65. Pieman B. 
Carey, Nov. 4, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, 
Coggins, Nov. 4, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, 
D. Cam[)bell, Nov. 4, '61; mustered out 
.•Vndrew G. CoUum, Sept. i, "64; discharged 
John Carpinger, Nov. 4, '61; discharged on surg"s certifi- 
cate Nov. 26, '62. David Cole, Oct. 23, '62; died at 
Vorktown, Va., Dec. 16, '62. \\'illiam H. Cramer, Oct. 
15, '63; drafted; died at Morris island, S. C, July 16, '64. 
Thomas Cooper, March 22, '64; died at Morris Island, 

5. C, Sept. 13, '64. Richard R. Clift. Nov. 4, '61; died 
at Washington, D. C, Feb. 28, '62. Elihu M. Dwight, 
March 15, '64. Michael Doyle, April 4, '64. William 
H, Dolph, Feb. 25, '65, William Evans, Nov. 4, '61; 
mustered out Nov, 3, '64, Charles Evans, Sept. 24, '63; 
drafted; deserted May 29, '64. John H. Fell, Nov. 4, 
'61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Simeon Ferris, Nov. 4, 
'61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Michael Flomm, Sept. 
26, '64: drafted; discharged June 24, '65. Edward D. 
Finney, Nov. 4, '61; died at Vorktown, Va., Oct. 25, '62. 
Nicholas Flomm, Sept. 26, "64; drafted: discharged June 
24, '65. Conrad Grab, Nov. 4, '61. John Gantz, Nov. 

6, '62; drafted. John D. Griffith, Nov. 4, '61; mus- 
tered out Nov. 5 '64 ; William C. Gaylord, 
Nov. 4, '61; absent on detached duty, at e.x- 
piration of term. Harvey H. Gray, March 24, '64; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate Dec. 24, '62. Martin Groner, 
Sept. 30, "63; drafted: discharged June 7, '65. Michael Gil- 
bride, Aug. 13, '64; discharged June 24, '65. Henry Greiner, 
Nov. 4, '61: discharged on surg's certificate, Dec. 6, '62. 
David S. Gallatin, Stpt. 20, '63; drafted; transferred to 
U. S. navy June 9, '64. John M. Gainor. Sept. 24, '63; 
drafted; deserted |une 29, '64. George Hines, May 30, 
■64. Stephen P. "Hull, Oct. 24, '62. Elliott Harris, 
March 25, '64; drafted. Benjamin Houtz, Nov. 4, '61: 
mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Daniel Howell, Nov. 4, '61; 
transferred to gunboat service Feb. 26, '62. Edward L. 
Hubler, Aug. 22, '64; discharged June 24, '65. Jacob 
Hines, Aug. 17, '62; discharged June 24, '65. Peter M. 
Harvey, Nov. 4, '61; discharged on surg's certificate 
Sept. 20, '62. George Hancock, Oct. 30, '63; drafted; 
died at Hilton Head, S. C, Sept. 22, '64. Charles Heath, 
Nov. 4, '61; died at Washington, D. C, Jan. 4, '62. 
Wayne Harding, Nov. 4, '61; died at Hilton Head, S. C., 
May 2, '63. Edward Jones, March 29. '64. William 
James, Nov. 4, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Edward 
Jones, Nov. 4, '61; discharged on surg's certificate Mar. 
13, '63. Harry King. Sept. 24, '63; drafted. John M. 
Kapp, Feb. 21, '65. Theodore Keeney, March 28, '64. 
William Kelley, Nov. 4, '61: transferred to 7th N. V. 

artillery July 25, '62. Charles Keech, Nov. 4, '6t; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate Dec. 25, '62. Jacob C. Kint- 
ner, Nov. 4, '61; transferred to signal corps April 28, '63. 
Richard Lee, Sept. 20, '63; drafted; absent at Fort 
("linch, Fla., by sentence of general court martial. 
Thomas Lynch, Oct. 30, '63; drafted. Redmond Line. 
March 31, '64. Anthony Long, Feb. 24, '65. John J. 
La France, Nov. 4, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64, 
Aaron Lamberson, Aug. 22, '64; discharged June 24, 
'65. Benjamin Myers, Sept. 26, '63; drafteti. 
William Mutchler, March 18, '64. Simon Markey, 
Nov. 4, 'Oi; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Owen 
Moyless, Nov. 4, "6:; mastered out Nov. 5, "64. 
Daniel Mahen, Sept. i, '62; discharged June 24, 
'65. Herbert D. Nliller, Nov. 4, '61; discharged on 
surg's certificate Oct. 28, '63. Thomas Monlon, Nov. 2, 
'63; drafted; transferred to V. S. navy June 9. '64. 
Peter M'Cluskey, Oct. 13, '63; drafted. A. K M'Mur- 
ray, Sept. 25, '63; drafted; absent on furlough at muster 
out. John M'Lane, Aug. 17, '64; discharged June 24, 
'65. Peter M'.Afee, Nov. 4, '61; discharged on 
surg's certificate F'eb. 12, '63. Arthur M'Gowan, 
Sept. 23, '63; drafted; transferred to U. S. navy 
June 9, '64. Patrick NLDonald, Sept. 24, '63; 
drafted; died at Morris island, S. C, Feb. 12, '65. 
Collin M'Callum, Nov. 4, '61; deserted Mar. 28, '62. 
James Nelson, Oct. 23, '62. Nemison Northrop, Mar. 
25, '64. Joseph Nash, F'eb. 24, '65. Michael O'Neil, 
SejJt. 29, '63; drafted; absent, sick, at muster out. Jerry 
O'Neil, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; discharged Mar. 10, '64. 
Adam Oustead, Sept. 26, '63; drafted; discharged June 
24, '65. Joseph Ollendick, Nov. 4, '61; discharged on 
surg's certificate Aug. 5, '63, John Patrick, Mar. 26, '64. 
Charles R. Potter, Mar. 26, '64; absent, sick, at 
muster out. F'rancis Pickering, Nov. 4, '61; mustered 
out Nov. 5, '64. Meschack Phillips, Nov. 4, '61; 
mustered out Nov. 5, '64. John E. Perry, Sept. 

23, '62; discharged June 24, '65. Simon Rhoads, 
F'eb. 21, '65. John Rodimer, Nov. 4, '61; mustered 
out Nov. 5, '64. Charles P. Ross, Aug. 15, 61; 
promoted to com. sergt. Nov. 5, '61. Charles W. Rus- 
sell, Nov. 4, '61; died at Washington, D. C, Nov. 18, 
'61. Joseph A. Starner, Mar. 15, '64. William Stage, 
Mar. 31, '64. Henry M. Sieger, Jan. 25, "65. James 
Sieger, Feb. i, '65. Daniel C. Staples, Feb. 25, '65. 
William H. Scull, Feb. 27, '65. William N. Smith, Nov. 

4, '61; wounded at Fort Putnam, S. C.; absent at muster 
out. Philitus Snedicor, Nov. 4, '61; mustered out Nov. 

5, '64. John F. Smith, Sept. 25, '61; discharged June 

24, '65. David Spangler, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; dis- 
charged June 24, '65. Philip Shrock, Sept. 26, '64; 
drafted; discharged June 24, '65. Henry W. Skinner, 
.\ug. 18, '64; discharged June 24, '65. George Smith, 
Sept. 24, '63; drafted; discharged on surg's certificate 
Dec. 12, '64. Joseph Seger, Nov. 4, '61; discharged on 
surg's certificate June 26, '63. Benjamin Saver. 
Nov. 4.' 61; discharged on surg's certificate Feb. 
11, '63. Leonard Torpyn, Nov. 4, '61. Charles Trent, 
Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged June 24, '65. Zebu- 
Ion P. Travis; not on muster-out roll. Dillon N. Tay- 
lor; Nov. 30, '63; died Mar. 14, '64. William H. Tur- 
ner, Sept. 24, "63; drafted; deserted June 16, '64, Horace 
L Vangilder, Oct. 27, '63: drafted. Holden T. Vaughn, 
Oct. 29, '63; drafted. Thomas White, Se))t. z^, '63; 
drafted. Henry Ward, Feb. 24, '65. Henry Williams 
ist. Mar. 17. '65. M. G. Woodward, Mar. 22, '65. Frede- 
rick Whitehead, Nov. 4, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, 'C4. 
Henry Williams 2nd, Nov. 4, '61: mustered out Nov. 5, 
'64. Peter Weaver, Nov. 4, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, 
■64. John Walsh, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; discharged 
Mar. 26, '64. William Winchester. Nov. -,. '63: drafted; 

transferred to U. S. navy June 9, '64. Elias WoodrLiff, 
Oct. 22, '62; died Mar. 7, '65. Samuel Zerfos, Sept. 
26, '64; drafted; discharged June 24, '65. 

coMP.^N^• 1. 

Officers. — Captains — Beaton Smith, Aug. 22, '61; re- 
signed May II, '63. Henry H. Jenks, Aug. 22, '61; 
promoted from ist lieut. to capt. Nov. i, '63; absent, on 
detached duty, at muster out. First lieutenants — Frede- 
rick Fuller, Aug. 22, '61; promoted from 2nd to ist 
lieut. Nov. I, '63; transferred to signal cor])s Jan. 11, 
'62. Thomas Evans, Sept. 23, '61; promoted from corp. 
to sergt. Feb. 5, '62; istsergt. Sept. 2, '62; ist lieut. Mar. 
25, '64; captured July 3, '64; mustered out May 6, '65. 
Second lieutenant, Edward W. Smith, Sept. 23, '61; 
promoted from corp. to sergt. Dec. 6, '61; isl sergt. 
Nov. 6, '63; 2nd lieut. Oct. 24, '64; commissioned 
ist lieut. June 8, '65; not mustered. First sergeants — 
Frank Early, Sept 23, '61; promoted from private to 
ist sergt. Nov. i, 64; commissioned 2nd lieut. June 

8, '65; not mustered; veteran Benjamin F. Jones, 
Sept. 23, '61; killed at Fair Oaks, Va., .May 31, '62. 
Sergeants — Matthew Richards, Sept. 23, '61; promoted 
from corp. to sergt. Nov. 6, '64. David Evans, Sept. 23, 
'61; promoted from corp. to sergt. Nov. 6, '64. Richard 
Davis, Sept. 23, '61; promoted from jjrivate to sergt. 
Nov. I, '64; veteran. John Edmonds, Sept. 24, '63; 
drafted; promoted from corp. to sergt. Nov. 4, '64. 
William H. Harris, Sept. 23, 61; mustered out Nov. 5, 
'64. John Reason, Sept. 23, '61; promoted from corp 
to sergt. Sept. 12, '64; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. 
Erastus Sowers, Sept. 23, 61; promoted from corp. to 
sergt. Nov. 27, '62; prisoner from July 3 to Nov. 30, '64; 
mustered out Dec. 5, '64. William H. Merritt, Sept. 23, 
'61; promoted from corp. to sergt. Nov. '63; mustered 
out Nov. 5, '64. Samuel Seitzinger, Oct. 5, '61; 
transferred to 96th Pennsylvania volunteers Nov. 
6, '61. Corporals — William Wood, July 24, '63; 
drafted; promoted corp. Nov. 6, '64, John 
Timball, July 22, '63; drafted; promoted corp. 
Nov. 6, '64. Henry Colkert, Nov. 2, '63; drafted; pro- 
moted corp. Nov. 6, '64. George W. Garrison, Sept. 24, 
'63; drafted. Joseph Morgan, July 17, '63; drafted; 
promoted corp. Nov. 6, '64, Thomas Morris, Oct. 29, 
'63; drafted; promoted corp. Nov. 6, '64. John Gleason, 
Mar. 9, '64; cajJtured July 3, '64; promoted corp. June 

9, '65. Morris Hoover, Aug. 7, '64; discharged June 2, 
'65. John P. Davis, Sept. 23, '61; promoted corj). 
Dec. I, '63; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Thomas Davis, 
Sept. 23,61; promoted corp. Dec. i, '63; mustered out 
Nov. 5, '64. Thomas A. Edwards, Sept. 23, '61; 
promoted corp. Dec. i, '63; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. 
John Gallon, Sept. 23, '61; promoted from corp. Dec. i, 
'63; prisoner from July 3 to Dec. 13, '64; mustered out 
Dec. 18, '64. Samuel Smith, Sept. 23, '61; prisoner 
from July 3 to Dec. 13, '64; mustered out Dec. 
18, '64. Samuel Williams, Sejjt. 23, '61 ; jjromoted 
corp. Sept. 2, '62; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. David Da- 
vis, Sept. 23, '61; discharged on surg's certificate June i, 
'63. William Jones, Sept. 23, '61; discharged on surg's 
certificate, Jan. 20, '63. Daniel Walters, Sept. 29, '61; 
discharged on surg's certificate May 8, '63. Thomas 
Cosgrove, Sept. 23, '61; promoted to corp. Feb. 5, '62; 
died June 3, '62. Alex. M'Gregor, Sefit. 23, '61; pro- 
moted corp. Aug. 27, '62; died at YorktoWn, Va., Sept. 
20, '62. Musician, Henry C. Neis, Sept. 23, '61; mus- 
tered out Nov. 3, '64. 

Privates.- — Henry Ackerman, Oct. 12, '61; deserted 
Oct. 28, '61. Albert Barrick, Sept. 24, '63; drafted. 
Charles Blatz, July 24, '63; drafted; captured July 3, '64; 

absent at muster out. George Bainbridge, Sept. 23, '61; 
discharged on surg's certificate June i, '63. Thomas 
Berckle, Sept. 23, '61; discharged on surg's certificate 
July 27, '62. Samuel Bryant, Sept. 23, '61; discharged 
on surg's certificate Dec. 23, '62. W. H. M. Barron, 
Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged June 2, '65; John 
Barkbile, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged June 2, '65. 
John M. Bonelby, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged 
June 2, '65. John Blakely, Sept. 23, '63; drafted; died 
Dec, 19, '64. Herman Bartouch, Sept. 23, '61; killed at 
Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, '62. William Boyd, Sept. 26, 
'63; drafted; deserted May 31, '64. John Rroadbent, 
Oct. 12, '61; deserted Oct. 14, '61. Thomas Ball, Sept. 
23, '61; deserted Sept. 25, '61; deserted Sept. 25, '61. 
C. W. Constantine, July 24, '63; drafted. Jacob Court- 
wright, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; absent, sick, at muster out. 
Morgan E. Coon, Oct. 14, '63; drafted. William Cole, 
Oct. 14, '63; drafted. Michael Cadden, Sept. 23, '61; 
mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Francis Cadden, Oct. 15, '61: 
mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Abraham Carver, Sept. 26, '64: 
drafted; discharged June 10, '65. Henry F. Clay, Sept. 26, 
'64; drafted; discharged June 2, '65. Thomas B. Clark, 
Feb. 15, '62; mustered out June 14, '65. John S. Compton, 
Aug. 24, '64; discharged June 12, '65. George W. Cromis, 
Sept. 26, '61; discharged on surg's certificate April 2, '64. 
Henry Clinton, July 30, '63; drafted; deserted Aug. 19, 
'64. David H. (Patterson, Sept. 23, '61; deserted Sept. 
23, '5i. Jabez Cole, Sept. 23, '61; deserted June i, '62. 
William Caslett, Sept. 23, '61; deserted July 3, '62. 
Reese H. Davis, Mar. 26, '64; absent, sick, at muster out. 
Patrick Donnelly, Nov. 13, '64. Patrick Dunn, Mar. i, 
'64. Daniel Davis, Oct. 5, '61; absent, sick, at muster 
out. Jonathan Davis, SejM. it,, '61; mustered out Nov. 
5, '64. James Davis, Sept. 23, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, 
'64. James Dougherty, Sept, 24, '63; drafted; discharged 
/^pril 28, '65. William Domer, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; 
discharged June 2, '65. James Douglass, Sept. 24, '63; 
drafted; transferred to U. S. navy, June 21, '64. David 
I), Davis, Mar. 23, '64; captured; diedat Florence, S. C, 
Oct. II, '64. Joseph Dale, Sept. 27, '61; died at Balti- 
more, Md.. May 29, 62. John Decker, Nov. 31, '63; 
drafted; deserted Aug. 19, '64. John Evans, Mar. 21, 
'64; Richard Evans, Oct. 5, 61; mustered out Nov. 5, 
'64. Josiah Engle, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged 
June 2, '65. John Folan, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; cap- 
tured July 3, '64. Joshua Fonicy, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; 
discharged June 2, '65. Henry Gerger, Sept. 26, '64; 
drafted; discharged June 2, '65. James Griffith, Jan. 10, 
'64; discharged on surg's certificate Nev. 15, '64. Fran- 
cis Green, Nov. 13, '63; drafted; died Aug. 9, ■ '64. 
William H. Hadley, Mar. 17, '64; Isaac Hall, July 21, 
'63; drafted; discharged July 10, '65. Joseph Holden, 
Sept. 24, 63; drafted; prisoner from July 3, '64, to May 
12, '65; discharged June 22, '65. Patrick Horrigan, Oct. 
31, '63; drafted; captured Jidy 3, '64. Edward Howells, 
Mar. 21, '64. George Hares, Sept. 23, '61; mustered out 
Nov. 5, '64. George W. Hunter, Sept. 23, '61; absent, 
in arrest, at muster out. Solomon Hembaugh, Sept. 
26, '64; drafted; discharged June 2, '65. Miihael 
Hutzle, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged June 
2, '65. Frank Hurly, not on muster out roll. 
Wm. H. Hughes, Sept. 23, '6 1 ; discharged on surg's certifi- 
cate, Dec. 5, '62. Thad. W. Hunter, Sept. 23, '61; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate Jan. 5, '62. Michael Hurley 
Sept. 23, '61; discharged on surg's certificate Jan., '63. 
Benjamin Havert, March 21, '64; captured; died at An- 
dersonville, Ga., Aug. 21, '64; grave, 7,422. Wm. 
Hum|)hrey, Sept. 23, '61; died at VV'ashington. D. C, 
June 26, '62. David James, March 11, '64. William H. 
Jones, Feb. 29, '64; prisoner from July 3, '64 to March 17, 
'65. William J. Jones, March 18, '64. John P. Jones, 


Feb. 28, '65. Jeremiali James, Sept. 2.?, '61; mustered 
out, Nov. 5, '64. Henry James, Oct. 12, "61 ; discliargcd 
on surg's certificate, Sept., '62. William Jor^es, Nov. 5, 
'61; discharged on surg's certificate Jan. 1, '63. John 
M. Juness, July 24, "63; drafted; transferred to U. S. 
navy June 21, '64. David Jones, Sept. 23, '61; died at 
Wasliington, D. C, April 6, '62. Martin Kelley, March 

18, '64. Horman D. King, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; dis- 
charged June 2, '65. Benjamin Keifer, Sept. 26, '64; 
drafted: discharged June 2, '65. Elijah Kite, Sept. 24, 
'63; drafted; died at Hilton Head, S. C, Dec. 23, '64. 
William Kyess, July 13, '63; drafted; died June 3, '65. 
Thomas Lannagan, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; absent, sick, at 
muster-out. Aliraham and Edward I.andes, Sept. 26, 
"64; drafted; discharged June 2, "65. Chaunccy and 
Lewis Lowry, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged June 
2, '65. John I,ongwith, Sept. 23, '61; discharged on 
surg's certificate, Oct. 4, '64. George Linig, Sept. 
23, '61; captured June 29, '62; died at Richmond, Va. 
Michael Lyon, Oct. 25, '61; killed at Fair Oaks, Va., 
May 31, '62. Thomas Meredith, Oct. 27, '63; drafted; 
absent, sick, at muster-out. John Murphy, Sept. 24. '63; 
drafted; absent, sick, at muster-out. George Meek, Se])t. 
27, '61; prisoner from July 3 to Nov. 30, '64; mustered 
out December 5. '64. William H. Miller, Sept. 24, '63; 
drafted; transferred to L'. S. navy June 21, '64. Milton 
Moycr, Sept 23, '61; transferred to 96ih I'a. Nov. 6, '61. 
Edmond ALanges, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged June 
2. 65. William Mortimer, Sept. 26, '63; drafted; deserted 
Aug. 19, '64. George Moore, July 24, '63; drafted; de- 
serted Aug. 19, '64. Thomas M'Kuan, Sept. 24, '63; 
drafted; captured July 3, '64; absent at muster out. 
John M'Closkey, Sept. 26, '63; drafted; deserted Aug. 
19, '64. John M'Cjlomm, Sept. 23, '61; deserted Nov. 7, 
'61. Thomas Naughton, Nov. 13, '64. William O'Brien, 
Sept. 24, '63; drafted. Patrick 6'Neil, Nov. 9, '63; draft- 
ed; transferred to U. S. Navy June 21, '64. Charles 
Oakes, Mar. 31, '64; deserted April 23, '65, George 
Par1<er, Sept. 23, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. John 
Putnam, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged June 2. '65. 
George Patterson, Nov. 13, '63; drafted; deserted Aug. 

19, '64. John Patterson, Sept. 26, '63; drafted; deserted 
.•\ug. 18, '64. Christopher Reddy, Nov. 3, '64. George 
Ross, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged June 2, '65. 
Jacob Ross, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged June 2, 
'65. Calvin L. Reed, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged 
June 2, '64. James Ryan, Sept. 24. '63; drafted; trans- 
ferred to U. S. navy June 21, '64. John Reynolds, Oct. 
17, '63; drafted; deserted Aug. 19, '64. Rnshland Smith, 
Mar. 17, 64. Henry Seitzinger, Sept. 24, '63; drafted. 
Charles Simpson, Sept. 24, '63; drafted. Benjamin Ste- 
])hens, Feb. 29, '64. Albert Seneff, Sept. 23. '61 ; mustered 
out Nov. 5, "64. John Smith, Sejjt. 23, '61; mustered out 
Nov. 5, '64. John Showman, Sejjt. 26, '64; drafted; dis- 
charged June 2, '65. George W. Stough, Sept. 26, '64; 
drafted; discharged June 2, '65. Alfred N. Snyder, 
Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged June 2, '65. Charles 
W. Snyder, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; discharged June 2, 
'65. Charles Schrett, July 24, '61; drafted; discharged 
June 6, '65. David Saunders, Sept. 23, '61; discharged 
.Vug. 14, '62, for wounds received at Fair Oaks, \'a.. May 
31, '62. John Schlager, Sept. 23, "61; transferred to 
battery H, ist Pa. artillery, Nov. i, '62. Thomas Smith; 
Sept. 23, '61; transferred to battery H, ist Pa. artil- 
lery Nov. I, '62, Sylvester Shirley , Oct. 30, '63; draf- 
ted; deserted May 17, "65. Thomas Shaw, Nov. 
3, '6i; drafted; deserted Nov. 25, '64. .\lbcrt 
Thompson, Aug. 27, '64; discharged June 2, '65. 
Wm. Thompson, Sept. 23, '61; discharged on surg's cer- 
tificate Sept. 10, '64. "Thomas Thomas. Sept. 23, '61; 
discharged on surg's certificate March, '62. John 

Thomas, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; transferred to U. S. navy 
June 21, '64. Geo. Vancampen, March 18, '64; captured; 
died at Andersonville, Ga., Sept. 4, '64. David Williams 
March 14, '64; cnptured July 3, '64. William Wat- 
kins, Sept, 23, '61; prisoner from July 3 to Dec. 13, "64; 
mustered out Dec. 18, '64. Girard Welter, Sept. 23, '61; 
discharged on surg's certificate July 27, '62. Alexander 
Walker, July 30, '63; drafted; transferred to U. S. navy 
June 21, '64. Henry Wilson, Sept. 26, "63; drafted; 
transferred to U. S. navy June 21, "64. Henry Williams, 
Nov. 25, '63; drafted; transferred to I'. S. navy June 21, 
'64. Sabbath Williams, Sei>t. 23, '61; transferred to Bat- 
tery H, ist Pennsylvania artillery, Nov. i, '62. Charles 
Waters, Sept. 23, '61; died at Hilton Head, S. C, July 1, 
'63. lames Wilson, Oct. 17, "63; drafted; deserted Nov. 
13, '65. William Williams, Sept. 23, '61; deserted Oct. 5, 
'6f. James \'oung, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; prisoner from 
July 3, '64, to March 3, '65. Frederick Younkin, Sept. 
26, '64; drafted; discharged June 2, "65. 


C|/^<v/x— Captains— John Jones, jr., Oct. 2, '61; re- 
signed Sept. 16, '62. John A. Hennessy. Dec. 2, '61; 
promoted from 2nd lieut. to capt. Oct. 11, '62; major 
Jan. 5, '65. First lieutenants — George A. Bass, Oct. 2, 
'61; resigned Sept. 28, '62. Henry A. Mott, Oct. 2. '61; 
promoted from sergt. to ist lieut. Oct. 11, '62; adj. Sept. 
I, '64. (ieorge H. Sterling, Oct. 11, 61; transferred from 
adj. Oct. 10, '64; died at Wyoming, Pa., Jan. 25, '65. 
Thomas Jordon, Nov. 4, '61; promoted from sergt. to 
ist sergt. Nov. 5, '64; to ist lieut. June 3. '65; veteran. 
2nd lieut., David Moses, Nov. 4, '61; promoted from 
sergt. to 2nd lieut. Nov. 5, '62; mustered out Apr. 30, 
'65. ist sergts. — Alva Dolph, Nov. 4, '61; promoted to 
sergt. Nov. 5, '64; to ist sergt. June 3. '65; 2nd lieut. 
June 4, '65; not mustered; veteran. William Sansom, 
Nov. 4, '61; promoted from sergt. to ist sergt. Nov. 4, 
'62; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. William AFCIure, Nov. 

4, '6t; discharged on surg's certificate Oct. 2, '62. Ser- 
geants. — Thomas Tiffany, Nov. 4, '61; absent, sick, at 
muster out; veteran. Charles Rubeck, Nov. 3, '62; pro- 
moted sergt. Nov. 5, '64. Evan Q. Thomas, Nov. 4, "61; 
promoted sergt. Jan. 24, '65; veteran. John Unger, Sept. 
23, '63; drafted; promoted corporal Nov. 5, '64; to sergt. 
June 3, '65. Demetrius P. Parsons, Nov. 4, '61; pro- 
moted from corp. to sergt. Nov. 4, '62; mustered out Nov. 

5, '64. Henry Morrow, Nov. 4, '61; promoted from 
corp. to sergt. Dec. i, '63; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. 
William D. Weber, Feb. 5, '62; mustered out Jan. 24, '65. 
Hugh R. Crawford, Nov. 4, '61; promoted Q. M. sergt. 
May 30, '63. Smith B. Mott, Nov. 20, '61; promoted Q. 
M. sergt. Nov. 5, '64; veteran. Henry P. Forsnian, Nov. 
4, '61; discharged on surg's certificate Oct. 31, '62. 
Corporals — George Forrester, Mar. 28, '64; promoted 
corp. Nov. 5, '64. Tryal Styles, July 27, 'O3; drafted; 
promoted corp. Dec. 31, '64. John Jones. Nov. 4, "61; 
promoted corp. Feb. 28, '65; veteran. Charles Mor- 
rison, Mar. 28, '64; promoted corp. May 17, '65. Wil- 
liam Solfredge, July 15, '63; drafted; promoted corp. 
May 17, '65. Philip Setzer, Sept. 28, '63. drafted; 
promoted corp. May 17, '65. John Oisler, 
March 9, "64; promoted corporal Feb. 28, '65. 
Charles Berglass, Nov. 4, '63; drafted; promoted 
corporal Nov. 5, '64. George Keyion. Nov. 4. '61; 
mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Henry Osiander, Nov. 4, "61; 
promoted corporal Aug. 5, '62; mustered out Nov. 5, 
'64. William Scott, Nov. 4, '61; promoted corporal Dec, 
I, '63; mustered out Nov. 5. '64. John Roberts. Nov. 
4, '61; promoted corporal Dec. i, '63: mustered out 
Nov. 5, '64. Frank Vail, Nov. 4, '61; promoted corpo- 




ral Dec. i, '63; killed at Fort Johnson, S. C, July 3, '64. 
Charles Jackson, Nov. 9, '63; drafted; deserted May 
'5- '65- 

Privates. — John AlKven, Nov. 2, '63; drafted. Jolin 
W. Anderson, Sept. 20. '63; drafted; deserted June 16, 
'64. Patrick Brown, March 28, '64. George Beck, Sept. 
24, '63; drafted. Minor K. Bailey, Feb. 14, '65. Ber- 
nard Bein, Feb. 25, "65. Cerle Brock, Feb. 27, '65. 
John Brennan, Feb. 20, '65. Patrick Burke, March 2, 
65. John Butler, March 3, '65. Patrick Brennan, Dec. 
10, '61; discharged on surg's certificate May 2, '62. 
Michael Beavers, Jan. 29, "62; mustered out March 6, 
'65. .Abraham Butts, Jan. 3. '62; mustered out Jan. 14, 
'65. John Brennan, Jan. 24, "62; mustered out ^iarch 6, 
'65. Jacob Bomgardner. Nov. 4, '61; discharged on 
surg's certificate Nov. 20, '62. Charles Bristoe, Nov. 4, 
'61; discharged on surg's certificate Oct. 2, '62. John 
Bratton, Nov. 2, '63; drowned at Hilton, S. C, June 13, 
'64. Orwin E. Brown, Nov. 4, '61; deserted May 30, 
'64. John Carroll, Sept. 24, '66; drafted. James Cleary, 
March 2, '65. Clement B. Compton, Feb. 15, '65. Free- 
man Cosier, Nov. 5, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. 
James Carman, Feb. 8, '62; mustered out March 6, '65. 
Edward Colahan, Jan. 3, '62; mustered out Jan. 14, '65. 
John Crisel, Feb. 8, '62; discharged on surg's 
certificate May 9, '63. Michael Donahue, Feb. 20, '65. 
James Donahue, Fel). 20, '65. Patrick Donahue, Mar. 
'3' '^S- John Dierr, Jan. 3, '62; discharged on surg's 
certificate Feb. 12, '62. John Davis, Nov. 4, '61; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate June 2, '62. Harry Dem- 
niick, Nov. 4, '61; discharged on surg's certificate Apr. 
21, '63. James Delaney, Oct. 15, '63; drafted; deserted 
Nov. 2, '64. .A.lfred Evans, Nov. 4, '6t; mustered out 
Nov. 5, '64. Charles Elno, Nov. 5, '61; mustered out 
Nov. 5, '64. Levi Evans, Nov. 4, '61; died at Morris 
island, S. C, Oct. 30, '64. Zenus N. Farnand, Feb. 14. 
'65. Dominick F'eandry, Mar. 21, '65; absent, sick, at 
muster out. Emanuel Fisher, Feb. 28, '62; deserted 
Sept. 3, '63. Lewis Gibson, Sept, 24, '63; drafted. William 
Goodwin, July 20, '63; drafted; captured; absent at 
muster out. Lawrence Giles, Dec. 5, '61; deserted Sept. 

3, '63. Charles Hall, Nov. 4, '61; deserted; returned. 
William R. Heron, Mar. 23, '64. Gideon Haight, Sept. 
28, '63. Philip Hartman, Feb. 25, '65. Cyrus L Howe, 
Mar. 27, '64. Ephraim Howe, Feb. 14, '65. James 
Horan, Mar. 9, '65. Con. Hilderbrand, Nov. 4, '61; 
mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Levi S. Hakett, Jan. 29, '62; 
m.istered out Mar. 6, '65. John Howells, Nov. 4, '61; 
discharged on surg's certificate Nov. 8, '61. Michael 
Henniger, Dec. 7, '61; killed at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, 
'62. David P. Hanna, Feb. 13, '62; deserted Sept. 3, 
'63. Edmund Jones, Nov. 4, '6i; mustered out Nov. 5, 
'64. Edmund Jenkins, Nov. 4, '61; mustered out Nov. 
5, '64. David Jeremiah, Jan. 3, '62; discharged on surg's 
certificate Oct. 21, '62. Michael Kennedy, Oct. 21, '63; 
drafted. Henry Kennedy, Mar. 17, '64. Lewis 
Kelly, Sept. 3, '63; drafted. Richard Kealy, 
Mar. 2, '65. Nathaniel Lanning, Mar. 2, '64. Henry 
Lewis, Nov. 4, '61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. 
Norman Lucky, Nov. 4, '61; deserted March 22, '64; 
veteran. William Moyer, Nov. 10, '63; drafted. William 
Mehling, Nov. 18, '63. John May, July 20, '63; drafted. 
William Marcy, Oct. 15, '63; drafted. Solomon Millard, 
March 15, '64. Thomas Millard. March 15, '64. Joseph 
Montgomery, Jan. 24, '65. William Mason, Oct. 2, '61; 
mustered out Jan. 24, '65. George W. Millard. July 23, 
'64; discharged June 22, '65. John J. Morrison, Nov. 

4, '61; discharged on surg's certificate Aug. 24, '62. 
Clark Miller, Nov. 4, '61; discharged on surg's certificate 
Aug. 3, '62. Patrick Murphy, Dec. 4, '61; deserted 
Sept. 3, '63. Frederick Meithling, Nov. 4, '61; deserted 

Sept. I, '64. Michael M'Lane, Oct. 19, '64. Robert 
M'Kinney, Oct. 26, '63; drafted; deserted March 31, '65. 
Michael ^^Nally, Jan. 3, '62; deserted Sept. i, '63. 
George Nierman, Nov. 4, '61; discharged on surg's certi- 
ficate, June 30, '63. Thomas Nelson, Nov. 4, '61; died 
at Washington, D. C, Feb. 2, '62. Charles Norman, 
Sept. 23, '63; drafted; deserted July 9, '64. Daniel O'- 
Connell, Feb. 18, '65. Michael O'Donnell, Sept. 12, '64; 
discharged June 22, '65. Charles O'Hara, Dec. 7, '61; 
deserted Sept. 11, '63. Patrick O'Brien, Dec. 10, '61; 
mustered out Dec. 10, '64. Edward Parker, Nov. 4, '61; 
mustered out Nov. 5, '64. Charles Peters, Sept. 24, '63; 
drafted; died at Hilton Head, S. C, March 6, '65. 
.Alexander Peterson, Sept. 20, '63; drafted; died at Mor- 
ris Island, S. C, Jan. 24, '65. Ezra H. Ripple, March 

24, '64; prisoner from July 3, '64, to March i, '65; dis- 
charged June 30, '65. Davis W. Russell, Sept. 23, '63; 
drafted. Mifflin Russell, March 7, '65. William Rich- 
ards, Nov. 10, '63; drafted. John A. Rapp, Jan. 3, 
'62; mustered out March 6, '65. Mark Riley, 
Aug. 24, '64; discharged June 22, '65. Edward 
Ryan, June 24, '62; mustered out March 6, '65. 
John Rauch, Jan. 3, '62; deserted May, '62. 
Andrew Scutt, Nov. 4, '6t. Theodore Smith, Oct. 27, 
'63; drafted. William Smith, Sept. 25, '63; drafted. 
Josiah Sears, Sept. 29, '61; drafted. Reuben Sears, Sept. 

25, '61; drafted. Oliver Sears, Sept. 25, '61; drafted. 
Samuel Sears, Feb. 27, '64. Thomas G. Smith, Nov. 4. 
'61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. John Soop, Nov. 4, '61; 
absent on detached duty at expiration of term. Gilbert 
Saxton, Feb. 13, '62; discharged on surg's certificate Aug. 
24, '62. Chester Smith, Nov. 4, '61; discharged on surg's 
certificate Aug. 3, '62. Joseph Schremser, Nov, 4, '61; 
discharged on surg's certificate June 11, '63. William 
Schnell, Sept. 23, '63; drafted; deserted June 16, '64. 
Charles Timmens, Oct. 29, '63; drafted. William Tol- 
bert, July 27, '63; drafted. Theodore F. Tripp, Nov. 4. 
'61; mustered out Nov. 5, '64. James Vangorder, Sept. 
29, '63; drafted. John P. Vanauker, Sept. 29, '63; drafted; 
died at Morris island, S. C, Feb. 24, '65. James Woods, 
Mar. 14, '64. John Woods, Mar. 24, '64. Frank Weber, 
Oct. 21, '63; drafted. John Wenrich, Nov. 9, '63; drafted. 
Patrick Welsh, Nov. 2, '63; d- d. .\ckley Walker, 
Mar. 27, '64. George Watchler, Mar. 1, '65. Hamilton 
Warner, Jan. 24, '65. Eri D. Westfall, Oct. 10, '62; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate Mar. 30, '65. James Wil- 
liams, Jan. 3, '62; discharged on surg's certificate June 
21, '63. Charles Weisgarber, Nov. 4, '61; discharged 
Mar. 3, '63, for wounds received in action. George Wil- 
son, April 7, '64; deserted Feb. 12, '65. Henry Willing, 
Sept. 24, '63; drafted; deserted Mar. 2, '65. James 
Woods, Sept. 24, '63; drafted; deserted Oct. 10, '64. 
Amandus Yaple, Sept. 29, '63; drafted. Marcus Youse, 
Sept. 24, '63; drafted. 



HIS regiment was recruited in different por- 
tions of the State from August to November, 
^\ 1S61. During the latter month it moved to 
Washington and thence to Alexandria, where 
it was assigned to General French's brigade. 
During the winter of 1861-2 it remained at this 
place, perfecting itself in drill and discipline. 



III the spring of 1862 it advanced with the army of the 
Potomac to Manassas, W'arrenton Junction, and finally 
to the Peninsula. It was in the reserve during the siege 
of Yorklown. In May it went to the Chickahominy, and 
on the ist of June was engaged at Fair Oaks, where it 
lost, in killed, wounded and missing, ninety-six men. It 
was engaged at Garner's Mill in the latter part of the 
month, and during the "change of base" it was with its 
brigade the rear of the rear guard, and was actively en- 
gaged at Peach Orchard. It was present, though not 
actively engaged, at Malvern Hill. It arrived at Alex- 
andria too late to participate in the second battle of Hull 
Run, but it moved forward and assisted to cover the 
retreat of Pope's army. \Vhile thus engaged it became 
separated from its brigade, but escaped capture by a 
skillful mana?uvre. 

In Sciitember it advanced into Maryland and was 
among the reserves at the battle of South Mountain. 
During the succeeding two or three days it was skirmish- 
ing with the eneiTiy's cavalry, and at the battle of Antietam 
it was hotly engaged and lost twenty-eight in killed and 
wounded. It forded the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, and 
ramped on Bolivar Heights, whence it moved on the 
30th of October across the Shenandoah and through 
Loudon valley, skirmished with the enemy at Snicker's 
dap, and arrived at Warrenton November 9th. Thence 
it proceeded to Falmouth, and was engaged in the battle 
of Fredericksburg, where it lost in killed and wounded 
one hundred and fifty-eight out of two hundred and 
eighty-three who went into the battle. It was subse- 
quently detailed to bury the dead under a flag of truce, 
in which melancholy duty it was engaged during two 

It passed the winter at Falmouth, and on the 28th of 
.April, 1863, went on the Chancellorsville campaign, dur- 
ing which it was engaged three days. It returned to its 
camp at Falmouth, w^hence on the 14th of June it 
marched on the Gettysburg campaign. At that battle it 
made a gallant charge in the face of a galling fire and 
drove a rebel battery from its ])osition. Out of one 
hundred and twenty-four men who went into the fight, 
six were killed, sixty-seven wounded and six missing. It 
afterward encountered the foe at Rappahannock Station 
and at Bristoe, and went into winter (juarters in Decem- 
ber at Stevensburg, where the men re-enlisted and re- 
ceived a veteran furlough. 

Recruited and refreshed the regitnent broke camp on 
the 4th of May, crossed the Rapidan and engaged the 
enemy on the 5th, the 6th and the 9th. It moved to 
Spottsylvania Court-house, where it was engaged in the 
most brilliant charge of the campaign — a charge in which 
an entire division of the enemy was captured. It marched 
thence to Cold Harbor, where it was engaged and suffer- 
ed severely. On the i6th of June it arrived in front of 
Petersburg and was engaged in a charge on the enemy's 
works, in which it lost nearly twenty men. From the latter 
part of June till the 21 of August it was employed in 
skirmishing on both sides of the James. It then marched 
to the Weldon railroad, where it again met the enemy. 

In the autumn and winter of 1864 the regiment was on 
severe duty at the siege of Petersburg. 

It went on its last campaign on the iSlh of March, 
1865, and was engaged at Hoydton Plank Road and at 
Five Forks, and it assisted in capturing the enemy's 
wagon trains at Deep creek. It was present at the sur- 
render of the rebel armv, participated in the grand 
review, and on the 30th of June. 1S65, was mustered out 
of the service. 

Besides its share in the regimental staff of the 53d. 
I.uzerne county furnished the material for Company F. 
In the following lists the first dale gives the time the 
soldier was mustered into service. Where the time he 
was mustered out is not given it is understooil to have 
been lune 30th, 1865, unless some other disposition is 


Co/o iir/i. — ]ohn R. Brooke, Nov. 5. '61; promoted 
brig. gen. May 12, '64; brev. maj. gen. Aug. i. '64. 
William W. Mintzer, Sept. 18. '61; promoted from 
capt. Company A to maj. June 2, '62; lieut. col. Sept. 
29, '64; col. Oct. 30, '64: brev. brig. gen. Mar. 13, '65. 

Lieutenant colonels. — Richards M'Michael, Nov. 7, '61; 
discharged on surg's certificate May 19, '64. George C 
.Anderson. Oct. 29. '61; promoted from capt. Company 
K to maj. Sept. 20, '64; lieut. col. Nov. 10, 64. 

Majors. — Thomas Yeager, Nov. 7, '61; killed at Fair 
Oaks. Va.. June i, '62. S. Octavius Bull, Sept. iS, '61; 
promoted from capt. Company A. to maj. June 2, '62; 
lieut. col. May 17, '64; col. Sept. 18, '64; not mustered; 
mustered out Nov. i, '64. George I). Pifer, Oct. 10. '61; 
promoted from capt. Company I Dec. 13, '64. 

Adjutants.— Oc\^x\e'> P. Hatch, Nov. 7, '61; discharged 
on surg's certificate July 24, '64. Samuel H. Rutter. 
Sept. 18, '61; promoted from private Company A to 
sergt. maj. Dec. 24, '63; lieut. and adj. Sept. 5 '64; 
veteran reserve corps at muster out; veteran. 

Quartermasters. — Jacob Rice, Nov. 7, '61; mustered 
out Oct. 12, '64. Thcophilus T. Davis, Nov. 4, '61; 
promoted from private Comi)any I to com. sergt. Dec. 24, 
'63; ist lieutenant and Q. M. Oct. 31, '64; veteran. 

Sun^eons. — lohn Fromberger, Nov. 7, '61; resigned 
Jan. 28,' '62. M. J. M'Kinnon. Feb. 15, '62; resigned 
Jan. 26, '63. George W. Jackson, F'eb. 24, "63; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate .Aug. 12, '64. Charles W. 
Spavd, Oct. I. '62; promoted from ass't surg. Aug. 29, '64. 

Assistant surgeons. — William B. Wynne. Nov. 7, '61; 
promoted to surg. 159th Pennsylvania volunteers Oct. 29. 
•62. J. P. Burchfield. Aug. i, '62; promoted surg. 83d 
Pennsylvania volunteers April 3, '63. Jacob C. Gatchell. 
.April 17, '64. 

(r/i,///<7;«.f.— Daniel Barber. Nov. 7. '61: resigned July 
7, '62; J. R. Taylor (}ray, June 16, '65. 

Sergeant Majors. — Thomas Reifsnyder. Nov. 7. '61: 
promoted ist lieut. Company D Dec. 14, '62. G. W. 
Butlerworth, Mar. 2, '64; promoted from sergt. Company 
G lune 12, '65: veteran. Levi J. Fritz, Dec. 22. '63; 
jiromoted 2nd lieut. Company .A Oct. 8. '64. M. Nl. 
Brannock, Dec. 22, '63; transferred to Company K. .April 
7, '65; veteran. .Albert H. Hess, Dec. 22, '63; promoted 
2nd lieut. Company E June 12, '65. 

Quartermaster Sergeants — Mahlon S. Ludwig, Nov. 7, 
'61; promoted 2nd lieut. Company B Mar. i, '63. John 
S. Weand. Sejit. 18, '61; promoted from private Com- 
pany A Nov. I. '64. John W. Riley. Feb. 29. '64; pro 
mot'ed from sergt. to Q. M. sergt. Dec. 23. '64; transferred 
from 140th Pennsylvania; dischaiged June 6, '65. 



Commissary Sergeants. — Lewis R. Bland, Nov. 7, '61; 
])romoted 2nd lieut. Company B April 26, '62. Thomas 
E. Clark, Sept. 18, '61; promoted from private Compan\' 
A Dec. 10, '64; absent, on furlough, at muster out. J. 
Wilson Barnett, Nov. 5, '61; transferred to loth U. S. 
colored troo|js. Benjamin J. Gushing, Oct. 29, '61; pro- 
moted 2nd lieut. Company G Sept. 21, '64; veteran. W. 
\V. Dentler, Oct. 23, '61; ])romoted 2nd lieul. Company 
H Dec. 8, '64; veteran. 

Hospital Ste7iiards. — Albert Lorenz, Nov. 7, '61; mus- 
tered out Nov. 7, '64. John H. Foltz, Oct. 10, '61; pro- 
moted from private Company I Nov. 16, '64; veteran. 

rriiicipa! Musician. — John Caldwell, Oct. 23, '61; pro- 
moted from musician Company H Nov. i, '64; veteran 


Officers. — Cajjtain — Horace P. Moody, Oct. 12, '61; 
resigned Sept. 17, '62. Walter L. Hopkins, Oct. 12, '61; 
promoted from ist lieut. Se]5t. 17, '62; discharged Jan. 
16, '63, Theodore Hatfield, Oct. 12, '61; promoted from 
sergt. to ist lieut. Sept. iS, '62; to capt. Feb. 21, '63; 
discharged ^L^rch 18, '64. John J. Whitney, Oct. 12, 
'61; promoted from sergt. to 2nd lieut. Sept. 6, '62; 
to ist lieut. Jan. 30, '63; to capt. April 23, '64; killed at 
Spottsylvania May 18, '64. James Patton, Oct. 12, '61; 
promoted from 1st sergt. to ist lieut. May 20, '64; to 
capt. June 6, '64; mustered out Oct. 6, '64. Isaac A. 
Howell, Oct. 12, '61; jsromoted from sergt. to ist sergt.; 
to ist lieut. June 6, '64; to capt. Nov. 2, '64; discharged 
Mar. 18, '65; veteran. Nathan N. Montayne, Oct. 12, '61 ; 
]iromoted from private to sergt.; to ist sergt. June 6, '64; 
to ist lieut. Nov. 2, '64; to capt. April 16, '65; mustered 
outwith company June 30, '6"^; veteran. First lieutenant, 
Lester Race, Oct. 12, '61; promoted corp.; sergt. March 

16, '64; ist sergt. Nov. 2, '64; ist lieut. April 16, 
'65; veteran. Second lieutenant, Martin W. Anthony, 
Oct. 12, '61; resigned Sept. 6, '62. First ser- 
geant — George W. Thompson, Oct. -.2, '61; promoted 
from private to sergt.; ist sergt. April 17, '65; commission- 
ed 2nd lieut. June i, '65; not mustered out; veteran. 
Sergeants — Charles W. Lathrop, Oct. 11, '(>y. promoted 
Corp. Mar. 10, '64; sergt. Nov. i, '64; veteran. Abel 
Perrego, sen., Oct. 12, '61; promoted corp. Mar. 10, '64; 
sergeant Nov. i, '64; wounded at Spottsylvania Court- 
house May 10, '64; absent at muster out; veteran. Ira 
G. Lyons, Oct. 12, '61; promoted corp.; sergt. June 6, 
'64; veteran. Daniel G. M'Laud, Mar. 26, '64; promot- 
ed corp. Nov. I, '64; sergt. April 17, '65; veteran. Oli- 
ver Fisher, Oct. 12, '61; mustered out Nov. 2, '64. Wil- 
liam H. Jackson, Oct. 12, '61; promoted from corp.; 
transferred to veteran reserve corps Mar. 13, '64. John 
Anthony, Oct. 12, '61; not on muster-out roll. Corpor- 
als — Henry Whitson, Feb. 18, '64; promoted cor|). June 
6, '64; prisoner from Aug. 25, '64, to May 17, '65. An- 
drew Sarber, Oct. 12, '61; promoted corp. Mar. 10, '64; 
captured June 16, '64; absent at muster out; veteran. 
Rufus Frear, Mar. 26, '64; promoted corp. June 6, '64; 
captured Aug. 25. '64; absent at muster out. Franklin 
Westover, Feb. i, '64; promoted corp. Nov. i, '64. W. 
L. Hackenberry, Mar. 28, '64; (jromoted corp. Nov. i, 
'64. Henry Shoulde, Mar. 23, '64; promoted corp. Nov. i, 
'64. John Wilson, Feb. i, '64; promoted corp. Nov. i, '64. 
Samuel C. Webb, Mar. 12, '64; promoted corp. April 

17, '65. Peter Culp, Oct. 12, '61; promoted to corp; 
mustered out Nov. 7, '64. Samuel R Charlton, June 20, 
'64; discharged June 15, '65. Ale.xander Prester, Oct. 
12, '61; mustered out Nov. 7, '64. Edward Brong. Oct. 
i2,'6i ; promoted corp; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house 
Mtiy 12, '64; veteran. Edward Kirkham, Oct. 12, '61; 
not on muster out roll. Daniel Harrington, Oct. 12, '61; 

killed at Gettysburg. Washington Montayne and Wil- 
liqm Moore, Oct. 12, '62; not on muster out roll. Jabez 
C. Jackson, Oct. 22, '61; not on muster out roll. Musi- 
cians — Lemuel .\skins, Oct. 18, '61; absent, in arrest, at 
muster out. William Carroll, Aug. 22, '63; prisoner 
from Oct. 21, '63, to Nov. 21, '64. William Downing, 
Sept. 19, '63. Abel J. Perrego, Oct. 12, '61; veteran. 
James Sarber, Oct. 12, '61; veteran. Abram 1). Hirst, 
Oct. 12, '61; not on muster out roll. 

Privates. — Robert Achoff, July i. '63; absent, sick, at 
musterout. lames Adams, Mar. 22, '64; discharged on 
surg's certificate, May 27, '65. Calvin Bisbing, Oct. 12, 
'61; prisoner from June 16, '64, to April 24, '6=;; dis- 
charged by general order June 14, '65. William Brong, 
Thomas M. Brown, Robert D. Beam and Samuel Brew- 
ster, Oct. 12, '61; not on muster out roll. Chester Betts, 
Feb. II, '64. William H. Blair, Feb. 14, '64. Arthur G. 
Brooks, Sept. 5, '63; absent, sick, at muster out. A. 
Bartholomew, Aug. 22, '63; absent, sick, at muster out. 
C. A. W. Bigalow, Oct. 12, '61: captured Aug. 25, '64; 
absent at muster out. John Bradlev, Sept. 16, '64; 

discharged Mav 



Henry I'aker, Sam- 
uel Brace and Hiram Bryant, Oct. 12, '61; not on 
musterrout roll. James Crulip, Oct. 12, '61; veteran. 
Nelson Case, March 22, '64. Oliver P. Clark, Feb. 29, 
'64; veteran. Isaac Cook, Feb. 22, '65. Alva H. Cross, 
March 4, '65. E. S. Cogswell, Feb. 15, '65; wounded in 
action March 31, '65; absent at muster out. William 
H. Chase, Feb. 22, '64; prisoner from June 16 to Dec. 
10, '64; discharged by general order June 22, '65. James 
H. Corkhuff, March 17, '64. Amos C. Clark, Dec. 29, 
'63; absent, sick, at muster out. William Case, March 

22, '64; discharged May 3, '65. M. J. Coleman, July 
20, '63; discharged on surg's certificatj May 19, '65. 
William Carpenter, March 8, '65; discharged June 12, '65. 
Henry Case, March 21, '64; discharged May 31, '65. 
John M. Clark, Feb. 26, '64; discharged May 25, '65. 
William B. Crulip, Feb. i, '64; died July lo. '64. Charles 
D. Chrispell and Charles Clark, Oct. 12, '61; not on mus- 
ter-out roll. Elihu Dymond, Feb. 26, '64; veteran. Noah 
Doty, Feb. 13. '64. James Divine, Sept. 13, '63; drafted; 
absent, sick, at muster out. Asa P. Daniels, Feb. 18, '64. 
John Dellingham, March 21, '65; discharged June 20, '65. 
G. E. Dornblaver, Feb. 16, '64; captured; died Dec. 14, 
'64, at Salisbury, N. C. Milo R. Demond, Isaac Dy- 
mond, Thomas J. Dymond, Robert Dymond and Jacob 
Deloy, Oct. 12, '61; not on muster-out roll. Joseph Es- 
terbrook, Aug. 26, '63; drafted. Randolph L. Evans, 
Feb. 29, '64; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house, May 
10, '64. Oakley Evans, Oct. 12, '61; prisoner from Aug. 
25, '64, to June 21, '65; discharged June 22, '65; veteran. 
Freeman Evans, Charles S. Evans and Isaac Elison, Oct. 
12, '61; not on muster-out roll. John A. Fulkerson, Feb. 

23, '64; mustered out with company June 30, '65. 
Lyman Flick, Oct. i 2, '61 ; mustered out Nov. 7, '64. Perry 
Frantz, Feb. 29, '64; discharged June 2, '65. Jober C. 
Freeman, Feb. 29, '64; died July 6, '64. Eban Forbes 
and Ansel Fapet, Oct. 12, '61; nof on muster-out roll. 
William Goldsmith, Oct. 12, '61; veteran, Thomas Green, 
Feb. 14, '65; discharged June 22, '65. Edward Gatti, 
Aug. 24, '63; drafted. Charles Gray and Jacob Guyger, 
Aug. 24, '63; drafted; absent, sick, at muster out. Wil- 
liam Givins, Oct. 12, '61; mustered out Nov. 2, '64. John 
H. Greer, Feb. 14, '65; discharged June 7, '65. Wells 
(iarrison, Feb. 29, '64; discharged June 7, '65. Henry 
Gilbert, Feb. 29, '64; captured; died at Andersonville, 
Ga., Sept. 20, '64. Peter L. Green, May i, '65; died in 
field hospital May 28, '65. James C. Higgins, Mar. 8, 
'64; not on musterout roll. Charles Hiney, Nov. 12, '61; 
deserted; returned. Richmond M. Hall, Feb. 14, '65. 
Levi W. Handen, Mar. 18, '64; captured May 12, '64; 



absent at muster out. Daniel Harris, Oct. 12, '61; mus- 
tered out Nov. 7, '64. jasper Hubble, Mar. 26, '64; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate May 14, '64. Charles T. 
Hav, I'eb. 29. '64; discharged on surg's certificate Mav 

14. '64. Henry Hoover, Oct. 12, '61; mustered out Nov. 
7, '64. (ieorge Hoover, May i, '64; discharged May ,^1, 
'65. Frank B. Harding, May 26, '64; discharged June 

15, '65. Robert F. Hunter, F'eb. 12, '64; transferred to 
veteran reserve corps May 16, '64. Giles Harris, Fet). i, 
'64; died in field hospital Mar. 19, '64. Solomon Hall, 
("harles Hughev, John Herlocher, Morris Hatton and 
Enoch Hoover, Oct. ij, '61; not on muster out roll. 
Robert Jacobs, Feb. 14, '65. Andrew Jackson, Sept. 
19, '63; absent, sick, at muster out. David James, 
July 24, '63; absent, sick, at muster out. John R. 
King, Oct. 12, '61; veteran. Ma.\ Kerr, Sept. 17, "63; 
drafted; absent, sick, at muster out. Francis Knowels, 
Aug. 24; '93: drafted. Sheldon Krisman, Oct. 12, '61; 
not on muster out roll. John H. I. owe. Mar. 22, '64. 
Joseph Lijitret, July 7, '63; prisoner from June 22 to 
Dec. 21, '64. Boofhearts Lewis, Aug. 22, '63; absent, 
sick, at muster ont. Joshua S. Lyons, Mar. 5, '65. Isaac 
Lord, Washington Lorrish and George Loply, Oct. 12, 
not on muster out roll. Jacob Myers, Aug 7, '64. Hub- 
bard Maynard, Feb. 11, '64. John Mulburv, Sept. 29, 
'63; discharged on surg's certificate May 29, '65. Philip 
C. Montross, Feb. 29, '64; killed at Cold Harbor June 3, 
'64. ISLircus May, Charles Mande\ille, Robert .Martin 
and Killean Martin, Oct. 12, '61; not on muster-out roll. 
Dennis M'Milken, July 13, '63; absent, sick, at muster 
out. Edward >rMerdice, Julv 20, '63. Peter M'Donaki, 
Feb. 23, '64. Robert M'Guire, Oct. 12, '61; killed at 
Gettysburg. William Nelson Sept. 14, '63; absent, sick, 
at muster out. James M. Norris, Oct. 12, '61; mustered 
out Nov. 7, '64. Joseph Nulton, Feb. 1 '64; killed at 
Spottsylvania Court-house May 12, '64. Miles F. New- 
berry and Norton L. Newberry, Oct. 12, '61; not on 
muster out roll. Charles Oakley, Sept. 17, '63; drafted; 
absent, sick, at muster out. Joseph Benn, -Aug. 23, '64; sub- 
stitute; discharged -Vug. 16, '65. Philo B. Phenix, Feb. 23, 
'64; absent, sick, at muster out. John Perry, Feb. 16, '65; 
discharged June 22, '65. John I'owell, Aug. 22, '63; absent, 
sick, at muster out. David Parkes, Sept. 17, '63; absent, 
sick, at muster out. Hugh W. Patton, Oct. 12, '61; veteran. 
Thomas Patton, May 26, '64; killed at Spottsylvania 
Court-house May 12, '64. William Phenix, Oct. 12, 'Oi. 
died at Washington, D. C"., May 20, '64. George H. 
Perrigo, May 24, '64; died. H. W. Pembleton, Oct 12, 
'6;; died Nov. 10, '64. Rufus V. Parish, Feb. 6, '64; 
captured; died at Salisbury, N. C, Dec. 4, '64. Edward 
Pembleton, Samuel H. Parks and Amos Poole, Oct. 12, 
'61; not on muster out roll. Oliver L. Rousby, Oct. 12, 
'61; veteran. George Reed, Feb. 25, '65. Charles Redfield, 
Sept. 17, '63; drafted; sick at muster out. Matthew S. 
Rambo, Aug. 29, '64; absent, sii k, at mjister out. Wil- 
liam Richards, F'eb. 24, '64; discharged July '65. Philip 
Shaffer, Mar. 20, "64. Bernhard Smith, Aug. 24, '63; 
absent, sick, at muster out. John H. Shroff, Sept. 17, 
'63; absent, sick, at muster out. Henry Smith and James 
Sheridan, Sept. 13, '63, and D. H. Silkworth, Feb. 27, 
'64, absent, sick, at muster out. Meyran Strickland. 
Oct. 12, '61; mustered out Nov. 7, '64. H.S.Shaffer, 
July 20, '63; discharged June 6, '65. Philip Sarber, ^Llr. 
22, "64,; died at Washington, D. C, May 10, '64. James 
N. Scovel, F'eb. 24, '64; captured; died at Salisbury. N. 
C., Nov. 5. '64. Lewis E. Scanten, May 26, '64; cap- 
tured; died at .\ndersonville Aug. 31, '64. Sylvester 
Shemake, John Specie, Cornelius Sites and Peter 
Spencer, Oct. 12, '61 ; not on muster-out roll. 
Calvin Towner, Feb. 14, '65; discharged June 8, '65. 
William Thimpsop, Oct. 12. '61; absent, in arrest, at 

muster out. Daniel Towner. Feb. 14, '65. Joseph 
Turner, Aug. 22, '63; absent, sick, at muster out. C. W. 
Thompson. Dec. 29. '63; discharged .Aug. 9. '65. George 
M. Tenant, I'eb. 16, "65; killed in action NLir. 31, '65. 
Thomas W. 'i'enani, Feb. 16. '65; killed in action Mar. 
31, '65. Benjamin \'andyne. Mar. 29, '64; absent, sick, 
at muster nut. John Vanderberg, Oct. 12, "61; veteran. 
S. V'angerder and .Augustus Wh^dock, Oct. 12, '61; not 
on muster out roll. William Williams, Feb. 16, '65. 
Theodore Weltref, .Aug. 24, '63; drafted; absent, sirk, at 
muster out. John Walker, Mar. 29, '64. Lewis Webb, 
Feb. 6, '64: absent, sick, at muster out. Peter Wagcnor, 
.'\ug. 22, '63; absent, sick, at muster out. Benson J. 
Worden, Oct. 12, '61; John N. Whipple, Sept. 
18, '64; discharged May 31, 'O5. Peter Wilson, Feb. 29, 
'64; discharged May 10, "65. H. I'. Wnlbrigle. Mar. 31, 
'64; discharged June 8, '65. James Wright, Sept. 19, 
'63; drafted; discharged June 15, '65. Hubbard Wheeler, 
Dec. 22, '63; discharged Jime 15. '65. William Willison, 
F"eb I, '64; killed at Spoiisvlvania Court house ^L^v 10, 
'64. John H. Wordan, F"eb. 29, "64; died at Point 
Lookout, Maryland, Oct. 17, "64. Charles W. Wordan, 
Feb. 29. '64; died at Dallas, Pa., Nov. 7, '64. George 
W. Willis and Jones F. Westover, Oct. 12, '61; not on 
muster-out roll. 



'i'^ T W-HEX the s6th regiment left t'amp Curtin, 
Vil/A/- ^I'i''<-"'i 8th, 1862. for Washington, it had 

I ;: T.r'/l' j) only eight and one-half companies, of which 
"yi -,' \ '■'. Company G was from Luzerne county. 
^^■^■^ '''-^^o Qi^ the 27th it embarked for.Adjuia Land- 

(W* ing, where it arrived the ne.\t day. It was en- 
gaged till May loih repairing the track and landing 
of the Fredericksburg and Richmond Railroad. In the 
latter part of May it went forward on the campaign of 
1862, and was first engaged at Gainesville on the 29th of 
.August. It was engaged in the second battle of Bull 
Run as a support to other troops. It inarched with the 
army to South Mountain, where it was engaged with the 
brigade of General Doubleday, of which it was a part, 
and in this action its loss was severe. It took part in 
the battle of .Antietam, but in this action it did not suffer 
severely. On the 2nd of November it was again in ac- 
tion, at Union, where it lost five killed and ten wounded. 
Although under fire at the battle of F'redericksburg, it 
was not actively engaged and suffered no loss. It went 
into winter quarters at Pratt's Landing on the 28th of 
December, and with the exception of the "mud march," 
in which it participated, remained there till the latter 
])art of .April, 1863. 

At the battle of Chancellorsville the 56th, which then 
numbered 21 officers and 289 enlisted men, was deployed 
as skirmishers to cover the crossing of a party for the 
])urpose of dislodging the enemy's sharpshooters. It 





was not otherwise actively engaged, but in this service it 
lost 2 killed and 7 wounded. It was again under fire at 
Brandy Station. 

At the battle of Ciettysburg the 56th was the first that 
fired, and thus the battle was opened by this regiment. 
It was closely engaged during both days and its losses 
amounted to about ten killed, sixty-five wounded and 
eighty missing. In November at Mine Run the regiment 
was charged with the duty of guarding and afterward 
destroying a bridge, which it accomplished with the loss 
of five men wounded. In March, 1864, a portion of the 
regiment, having re-enlisted, were granted a veteran 

On their return they entered upon the memorable 
campaign of the Wilderness, and were engaged on the 
5th and 6th of May, in the first of which encounters 
lieutenant Miller, of Company G, was killed. The regi- 
ment fought again at Laurel Hill, at Bloody Angle on the 
nth, and at Jericho ford on the 21st. It was engaged 
in heavy skirmishing on the 25th and was in the action 
at Bethesda Church on the 30th. From this time till the 
explosion of the mine at Petersburg the regiment shared 
the fortunes and vicissitudes of the army and was fre- 
quently in action. August i8th it was engaged at Yel- 
low House, on the Weldon railroad, and captured a 
battle-flag; and the next day was in action with its 
brigade, when the enemy were driven from their works, 
leaving 50 killed, three battle-flags and 300 prisoners. 
It was engaged at Hatcher's Run in October, and again 
at the same place on the 5th and 6th of February, 1865. 
It shared the honors and hardships of the final campaign 
and was mustered out at Philadelphia July ist, 1865. 

Below will be found the record of Company G of the 
56th. The dates of muster-in appear in connection with 
the names. Where nothing is said to the contrary the 
men were mustered out July 1st, 1865. We give also a 
synopsis of the record of the 


Colonels. — Sullivan A. Meredith, Sept. i, '61; wounded 
at Bull Run, Aug. 30, '62: promoted brig. gen. Nov. 29, 
'62. J.William Hofmann, Oct. 1, '61; promoted from 
lieut. col. Mar. i, '63; brev. brig. gen. Aug. i, '64. Henry 
A. Laycock, Nov. 17, '61; promoted from 1st lieut. 
Company I to maj. Jan. 30, '65; lieut. col. Mar. 16, '65; 
col. Mar. 17, '65. 

Lieutenant Colonels. — George B. Osborne, Sept, 15, '61; 
promoted from capt. Company A to lieut. col. Mar. i, 
'63; brev. col. Dec. 2, '64; discharged Dec. 25, '64. John 
T. Jack, May 28, '62; promoted from capt. Company H 
to maj. May 9, '63; lieut. col. Jan. 30, '65; resigned May 
15. '65. John A. Black, Sept. 25, '61; promoted from 
capt. Company B to maj. Mar. 16, '65; to lieut. col. Mar. 
>7, '65. 

Major. — John B. Smith, Nov. i, 
12, '63. 

Ailjutant. — Jacob F. Chur, Oct. 
Dec. 16, '63. 

Quartermaster. — Henry Paschall, Oct. i, '61; discharg- 
ed Nov. 2, '63. Samuel A. M'Fall, Oct. 23, '61; pro- 
moted from 2nd lieut. Company A June 3, "64; capt. 
Company A Dec. 4, '64: not mustered; mustered out 

'61 ; resigned Feb. 
1, '61; discharged 

Jan. 24, '65. Milton J. Slocum, Feb. 13, '64; promoted 
from ist lieut. Company D to Q. M. Jan. 25, '65. 

Surgeons. — James P. Wilson, Oct. 15, '61; mustered 
out .\pril 23, '62. J. P. M'Cleary, Oct. 15, '61; pro- 
moted from ass't surg. April 24, '64; resigned Sept. 10, 
'62. John M. Junkin, Oct. i, '62; transferred to 64th 
Pennsylvania Jan. 17, '63. John C. Lyons, Mar. 18, '63; 
promoted from ass't surg; transferred to 64th Pennsyl- 
vania Jan. 17, '65. Joseph F. Shoemaker, Mar. 25, '65. 

Assistant Surgeons. — J. B. Newbaker, Aug. i, '62; re- 
signed Nov. I, '62. W. W, Culver, Nov. 22, '62; resigned 
Feb. 25, '65. Georg.; Stitzell, Mar. 24, '63; resigned 
Aug. 13, '63. W. P. Nebinger, Aug. 27, '63; resigned 
Oct. 6, '64. P. H. Pennsyl, Oct. 12, '64. 

Chaplains. — W. Cunningham, Mar. 6, '62; discharged 
Sept. 20, '62. Benjamin R. Smith, Sept. 24, '64. 


Officers. — Captains — Joseph K. Helmbold, Sept. 8, '62; 
resigned Mar. 15. '63. David J. Dickson, Dec. 3, '61; 
promoted from ist sergt. to 2nd lieut. Oct. 11, '62; to 
ist lieut. Oct. 26, '62; to capt. Aug. 16, '63; mustered 
out Mar. 7, '65. James N. Davenport, Dec. 5, '61; pro- 
moted from ist sergt. to ist lieut. Aug. 4, '64; capt. June 

4, '65; veteran. First lieutenants — Daniel Dobra, re- 
signed Oct. 24, '62. John W. Fike, Dec. 5, '61; promoted 
from sergt. to 2nd lieut. Oct. 26, '62; ist lieut. Aug. 16, 
'63; died Oct. 18, '63. Henry C. Titman, promoted from 
sergt. to 1st. lieut. Dec. 6, '63; killed at Wilderness May 

5, '64. Thomas W. Edwards, Jan. 1, '64; promoted 
from ist sergt. to ist lieut. June 4, '65; veteran. Second 
lieutenants- — Henry J. Bashore, Feb. 15, '62; resigned 
Sept. 28, '62. Edward Phillips, Jan. i, '64; promoted 
from sergt. to 2nd lieut. June 9, '65; veteran. First ser- 
geants — William Briggs, Jan. i, '64; promoted to sergt. 
Jan. I, '65; to ist sergt. June 9, '65; veteran. John L. 
Blessing, Dec. ig, '61; discharged by special order Apr. 
16, '62. Sergeants — Conrad Miller, Jan. i, '64; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate May 10, '65; veteran. John 
D.Davenport, Apr. 15, '64; promoted sergt. Jan. i, '65; 
veteran. James Lewis, Feb. 12, '64; promoted coip. 
May I, '65; sergt, June 9, '65; veteran. Eli Swartz, Mar, 
30, '64; promoted corp. June 1, '65; sergt. June 9, '65. 
Charles B. Post; killed Apr. 29, '63. Henry C. Alatter; 
not on muster out roll. Corporals — Charles H. Clock, Feb. 
12, '64; promoted corp. Jan. i, '65; absent, wounded, at 
muster out; veteran. James H. Hatherill, Mar. 28, '64; 
promoted corp. Mar. i, '65. William Simmons, Mar. 28, 
'64; promoted corp. Mar. i, '65. David Johnston, Mar. 
15, '65; promoted corp. June i, '65. John Brown, Feb. 
12, '64; promoted corp. Mar. i, '65; veteran. Tobias 
Sink, Jan. 13, '62; deserted; returned. Philip Eck and 
C. W. Waltimyer; not on muster out roll, George W. 
W. Myers and George W, Bowerman, Aug. 13, '62; dis- 
charged May 31, '65. Musicians — William Osborn, 
William S, Sheerer; not on muster out roll. 

Privates. — Charles Aich, not on muster out roll. 
Abram Besicker, Feb. 12, '64; veteran. Adam Besicker, 
Mar. 17, '64; veteran. Michael Better, April 11, '65; 
substitute; discharged July 20, '65. William Beal, Mar. 
15, '65; drafted. Jacob Barras, Mar. 15, '65; drafted. 
John Boor, Nov. 28, '64; drafted. Frederick Berringer, 
July 21, 62; absent, sick, at muster out. Lewis Briggs 
and James P. Brown, not on muster out roll. Nelson 
Betron, captured; died at Salisbury, N. C., Jan. 12, '65. 
Stephen Bailey, not on muster out roll, John Confer 
and Aaron Confer, Mar. 15, '65; drafted; mustered out 
with company July 1, '65. Daniel Cooster, Aug. 20, '63; 
drafted; mustered out with company July i, '65. Sam- 
uel R. Corbett, Mar, 15, '65; drafted; mustered out with 



/|T\ » 


company July i, '65. Abram I,. Clock, Samuel Croft, 
Thomas Clark and Patrick I >. Curry, not on muster out 
roll. Anthony Day, Mar. 15, '65; drafted. Henry 
Debraun, April 11, '65; discharged June 29, "65. .■Xhram 
Depew, died at Ale.vandria, Va., June 15, '65. Elijah 
Detrick, not on muster out roll. James Elliott, July 5, 
'64; drafted. John Engleman, not on muster out roll. 
C.eorge W. Foulkrod, Feb. 13, '64; absent, wounded, at 
muster out; veteran. William Fox. George J. Fulmer 
and George Fullmer, Mar. 15, '65; drafted; mustered 
out with company July 1, '65. Samuel A. F^oulkrod and 
C'harles B. Frazee, not on muster out roll. Henry 
Growner and John Gougler, Mar. 15, '65; drafted; 
mustered out with company July i, '65. Israel Gordon, 
not on muster-out roll. Paul Hughes, Mar. 15, '65; 
drafted. Robert Harford, John Henry and Peter Hush- 
elbeck, not on muster-out roll. Harrison Jones, Mar. 
15, '65; drafted. Jacob Jackson, not on muster-out roll. 
George Kiser, Mar. 15, '65; drafted; mustered out 
with company July i, '65. Eli Kiser, Mar. 15, 
'65; drafted; discharged by general order July 20, 
"65. John Kaiser ist, John Kaiser 2nd, Abram 
Keely, James Kerr and Simon Knight, Mar. 15, '65; 
drafted; mustered out with company July i, '65. Ed- 
ward P. Kytte, Abram Kittle and Timothy Kern; not on 
muster-out roll. Peter Lutz; March 15, '65; drafted; dis- 
charged. Samuel K. Lasthan, \Villiam Lowers, Michael 
Long and Charles Lineman, March 15, '65; drafted; 
mustered out with company July i, '65. Fletcher Line; 
not on muster-out roll. Leroy Marshall, April 4, '65; 
substitute. Peter Mannas, Martin L. Mehrton and 
Thomas H. Morgan, March 15, '65; drafted; mustered 
out with company July i, '65. Jacob W. Miller, Sept. 
21, '64; drafted; discharged May 31, '65. Albert Matte- 
son; died January 11, "63. William Miller and John 
Mulhern; not on muster-out roll. Francis Morris; died 
May 31, '65, at Alexandria, Va. A. MXkiilker, March 15, 


drafted. Francis M'Cue, Oct. 31, '64. 


M'CuUough, March 15, '65; drafted. Rarnhard M'Entire, 
March 15, '65; drafted; absent, sick, at muster-out. Wil- 
M'Elhattan, Samuel M'Elhattan, Joseph M'Elhattan, 
John M'Dowell and William M'Dowell, March 15, '65; 
drafted; mustered out with company July i, '65. Owen 
M'Donald; died at City Point, Va., December 10, "64. 
Isaac Nelson, July 19, '64; drafted. Samuel Null, 
Sept. 21, 64; drafted; discharged May 31, '65. 
F'rancis Newcombe ; discharged March 2, '65. 
John Pease, Aug. 13, '62; discharged May 31, '65. Ja- 
cob Pletcher, March 20, '65; drafted; discharged July 17, 
'65. Comer Phillips; not on muster-out roll. John 
Pickering; died May 4, '64. George B. Palmer; not on 
muster-out roll. John Ralston, March 15, '65; drafted. 
George Rice, Nov. 28, '64; drafted. Wesley Remaley, 
Jan. 13, "62; deserted; returned. John Ruth, Feb. 12, 
'64; captured; discharged June 3, '65. John Remaley 
and Stephen Remaley; not on muster-out roll. William 
Stull, March 15, '65; drafted; discharged July 15, '65. 
George Shaffer, Sept. 26, '64; drafted; discharged May 
31, '65. Noah Stevens; not on muster-out roll. Lewis 
E. Slote; captured; died at Salisbury, N. C, Feb. 11, '65. 
William C. Strenk; died Aug. 12, '64. Abram Swartz; 
died Jan. 7, '65. Isaac B. Titus, Jan. 14, '64; veteran. 
Job Thomas, Aug. 31, '63: drafted. Charles Taylor; not 
on muster-out roll. John Waltmyer, Jan. i, "64; absent, 
wounded, at muster out; veteran. Harmon Watkins, 
April 5, '65; drafted; discharged July 3, '65. 


On the i4lh of December, 1861, this regiment moved to 
Washington, and in February, 1862, it joined the Army of 

the Potomac. It was at the siege of Yorktown, where 
it had one man killed and five wounded, and where the 
health of the rest suffered greatly from malaria. While 
before Yorktown the regiment was in a slight engagement. 
It was engaged at Fair Oaks, where it lost seven killed 
and forty-nine wounded. It was again in action at 
Charles City Cross Roads, where it lost seven killed and 
fifty-six wounded. At Malvern Hill it was also in action, 
and lost two killed and eight wounded. On the 30th of 
August it was engaged at the second battle of Bull Run, 
and lost three wounded. 

Four companies of the 57th were sent after the battle 
of Chantilly under a flag of truce to bring away the body 
of (leneral Kearney, who was killed in that action. In 
the battle of Fredericksburg the regiment lost 21 killed, 
76 wounded and 78 missing. At the battle of Chan- 
cellorsville it lost 13 killed, 48 wounded and 23 missing. 
It was engaged both days at Gettysburg and lost 12 killed, 
45 wounded and 47 missing. It was also engaged at 
Auburn Creek, Kelly's Ford and Locust Grove, suffering 
some loss in each engagement. 

A large portion of the regiment re-enlisted and re- 
ceived a veteran furlough in January, 1864. 

In May they were engaged between Chancellorsville 
and Spottsylvania, where they lost heavily. From the 
1 2th of May to the 14th of June they were often in 
action, with some loss. 

The regiment went to the front of Petersburg, where it 
remained till October, most of the time at the front and 
once sharply engaged. In that month it was in action at 
Hatcher's Run, and again on the 5th of the following Feb- 
ruary. It was frequently engaged afterward and partici- 
pated in the movements which resulted in the capture of 
Richmond and the surrender of Lee's army. It was 
mustered out at Alexandria, Va., June 29th, 1865. 

This regiment included one company — A — recruited 
in Wyoming and Susquehanna counties. The best 
obtainable record of this company is given below. The 
first date is that of muster-in. Most of the men were 
mustered out June 29th, 1865, and that date is to be 
understood when none is given. 


Officers. — Captains — Peter Sides, Dec. 4, '61; pro- 
moted lieut. col. Sept. 15, '62. Jerome R. Lyons, Dec. 
4, '61; promoted from ist lieut. to capt., Sept. 15, '62; 
discharged Oct. 4, '64, for wounds received in action. 
Henry H. Hinds, Dec. 4, '61; promoted from ist sergt. 
to isi lieut. Jan. 7, '63; capt. May 15, '65; discharged 
May 15, '65. lames M. Darling, Sept. 15, '61; dismissed 
June 15, '64. Daniel W. (;ore. 1st lieuts.— Edison J. 
Rice. Dec. 4, '61; wounded at Fair Oaks May 31, '62; 
promoted from 2nd to ist lieut. Sept. 15. '62 to capt. Go. 
Y. Feb. 28, '63. Franklin V. Shaw; veteran. 2nd lieuts. 
— leremiah C. Green, Dec. 4, '61; promoted from ist 
sergt. to 2nd lieut. Jan. 7, '63; wounded at Gettysburg; 
killed at Spottsylvania Courthouse May u, '64. George 
L. .\mey, Dec. 4, '61; promoted from ist sergt. to 2nd 
lieut. April 16, '65; veteran, ist sergt.. Joseph M. Tripp, 
Dec. 31, '61; promoted to sergt. April 18. "65; to ist 
sergt. June i, '65; veteran. Sergts.— Eli F. Hudson, 
Dec. 31, "61; promoted corp. April 1, '64; sergt. Sept. 





I. '64; absent, wounded, at muster out. G. B. C'ran- 
dall, Aug. 4, '62; promoted to corp. .Sept. i, '64; 
sergt. Nov. i, '64; discharged June 10, '65. Abram 
Keefer, Feb. [i, '64; ])romoted from cor|). to 
sergt. June i, '65; William Doberty, Feb. 10. 
'64, promoted from corp. to sergt. June i, '65. 
William J. Gallagher, Aug. 29, '64: discharged May 31, 
'65. Edgar Yanloan, April i, '62; mustered out Ayiril 10, 
'65. Cassius M. Rose, Dec. 31, '63; discharged May 8, 
'65; veteran. Solomon C. Miller, Oct. 4, '61; mustered 
out Oct. 25, '64. John Burnside, Oct. 4, '61; captured; 
died at Andersonville, Ga., July 18, '64. James H. Childs, 
Dec. 31, '63; killed at Wilderness, May 5, '64; veteran. 
William H. Cole, Dec. 31, '63; killed at Wilderness, May 
S, '64; veteran. Edgar Williams, Oct. 4, '61; promoted 
to 2nd lieut. Company E Nov. 4, '63. A. B. Robinson, 
Nov. I, '61; mustered out Nov. 15, '64. George C. 
Green, Dec. 4, '6r; not on muster out roll. William F. 
Bailey, Dec. 4. '61; mustered out Nov. 15, '64. William 
W. Hinds, Dec. 4, '61 ; not on muster out roll. Corpoi-als — 
John O'Conner, Dec. 31, '63; promoted corp. Sept. i, '64; 
veteran. Samuel B. Taylor, Oct. 3, '64; drafted; pro- 
moted corp. April 18, '65. Gilbert H. Mitchell, Jan. i, 
'64; veteran. S. A. Kimball, Sept. 28, '64; drafted; pro- 
moted Corp. April 18, '65; discharged June 24, '65. 
Foster R. Vincent, Feb. 16, '64; promoted corp. June i, 
'65. C. H. Warner, Mar. 12, '64; transferred from 
141st Pennsylvania May 28, '65. Elias Foust, April 3, 
'65; substitute; promoted corp. June i, '65. Alvin 
Strope, Feb. 16, '64; promoted to corp. June i, '65; 
Chauncy Brace, Jan. i, '64; discharged on surg's certifi- 
cate Mar. 9, '65; veteran. Stephen Beals, Aug. 19, '64; 
discharged May 31, '65. Amos H. Miller, Oct. 22, '61; 
mustered out Oct. 25, '64. Edward F. Holly, Oct. 23, '61; 
captured; died at Andersonville, Ga., July 7, '64; grave 
3,020. Phil. P. Robinson, Aug. 11, '62; died of wounds 
received at Wilderness May 6, '64. Julius B. Vanwinkle, 
Theodore S. Clink, Daniel Carey, Adelbert B. Robinson, 
John L. Strunk, Bentley Stark, Peter D. Kispaugh and 
Lidgar W. Avery, Dec. 4, '6 1 ; not on muster out roll. 

Privates. — Levi Anson, Dec. 31, '63; veteran. John 
Ackley, Feb. 16, '64. Joseph B. Ashcraft, Aug. 18, '63; 
wounded at Wilderness, May 5, '64; absent at muster out. 
John L. Acker, Aug. 18, '62; discharged May 31, '65. 
Lafayette Anson, Oct. 22, '61; mustered out Oct. 25, '64. 
Page Almon, March 17, '64; missing in action June 22, 
'64. John Austin, Dec. 4, '61, and Robert .-Xiken, Feb. 
27, '64; not on muster-out roll. Benjaiiiin Bailey, Marcli 
29, '64. Lewis Bowman, Feb. 16, '64. Cyrus Blue, Feb. 
27, '64; absent, sick, at muster out; veteran. Martin V. 
Billings, Dec. 4, '61; veteran. Charles Broch; deserted; 
returned; transferred from 35th Pa. June 17, '65. Fred- 
erick Burgess, Sept. 21, '64; William Bromley, Aug. 24, 
'64, and James Briggs, Aug. 29, 64; discharged May 31, 
'65. Frederick Brudick, Aug. 26, '64; discharged on 
surg's certificate Feb. 9, '65. James M. Brady, Oct. 22, 
'61; mustered out Oct. 25, '64. Charles W. Butler, Nov. 
19, '61; mustered out Nov. 23, '64. Ezra C. Browning, 
Philander S. Bronson, Patrick Barrett and Lewis Billings, 
Dec. 4, '61; not on muster-out roll. Isaac P>rotzman, Dec. 
4, '61; died Aug. 17, '63. Lyman Bolls, Dennis L. Bump 
and Horace J. Barnes, Dec. 4, '61; not on muster-out 
roll. Levi T. Bray, Feb. 12, '62; absent on detached 
duty at muster out; veteran. Francis ("onrad, Dec. 2r, 
'63; veteran. J. W. Chamberlain, Dec. 21, '63, absent, 
sick, at muster out; veteran. Charles H. Cole, Aug. 18, '63. 
Warren Cooper, .Aug. 24, '64; substitute; wounded at 
Wilderness, Va., May 5, '64; discharged May 31, '65. 
Michael Carey, April 3, '65; substitute. William Conrad, 
Dec. 21, '63; discharged June 5, '65; veteran. John 
Casson, Sept. i, '64; discharged May 31, '65. AViiliani 

'64. Phelps Elmer, Oct. 
icksburg Dec. 13, '62. 
mond, Va., Nov. 5, '63. 
Casper Feltman, Aug. 27, 
John C. Forbes, Sept. 28, 

P. Crans, Dec. 4, '61; mustered out Dec. 6, '64. Joseph 
Clark, Oct. 22, '61; died Oct. 2, '64, of wounds received 
at Peeble's Farm, Va., Sept. 29, '64. James Clink. Adam 
Clink, Henry N. Capwell and Aaron Cogswell, Oct. 22, 
'61; not on muster-out roll. Charles Cramer; killed at 
Gettysburg July, '63. Patrick Doherty, Dec. 3T, '63; 
ueteran. Burton Demoney, Feb. 16, '64; wounded at 
'V^'llderness, Va., May 5, "64; discharged June 19. '65. 
Lewis Darling, Sept. 26, '64; substitute; discharged May 
31, '65. Orlando M. Decker, Aug. 29, '62; discharged 
May 3, '65. William Drake, Oct. 22, '61; mustered out 
Oct. 25, '64. Daniel Davney, Dec. 31, '61; mustered out 
Dec. 8, '64. Oliver Dickson, Nov. 1, '61; transferred to 
Company C. Daniel Divene, Nov. i, '61; not on muster 
out roll. Henry Dickson, Nov. i, '61 ; mustered out Nov. 
14, '64. John W. Divine, James E. Dickenson, Fernan- 
do C. Decker and Sidne)' Dickenson, Nov. i, '61; not on 
muster-out roll. Ward Eastabrook, Dec. 31, '63; veteran. 
Levi Emery, Feb. 11, '64; killed at Wilderness May 5, 

22, '61; missing at F'reder- 
J. Ellison; died at Rich- 
Thomas Foster, Feb. 16, '64. 

'64; discharged May 31, '65. 

'64; drafted; discharged May 
31, '65. Henry Forbes, Oct. 22, '61; mustered out Oct. 25, 
'64; Lyman C. Fonish, Oct. 22, '61 ; mustered out Nov. 14, 
'64. Henry F3. Fox, Aug. 18, '62; died at City Point, Va., 
Mar. 23, '65. John Fitzgerald and Jacob Freeman, Nov. 
I, '61; not on muster out roll. James A. Foster and 
Samuel Foster, Feb. 25, '64; not on muster out roll. Ed- 
win C. Goodrich, Dec. 13, '63; veteran. Horace Gree- 
ley, Aug. 29, '64; substitute; discharged May, 31, '65. 
Erastus Green, Oct. 22, '61; mustered out Oct. 25, '64. 
John W. Granger, Luther A. Granger and George 1). 
Gregory, Nov. i, '61; not on muster out roll. Minor 
Hoover, Mar. 29, '64. Nathan Hoffman, Apr. 3, '65; 
substitute. Rudolph Hannsman, Aug. 26, '64; substi- 
tute; discharged May 31, '65; Michael Horton, Aug. 13, 
'62; discharged May 31, '65. William Holly, Feb. 16, 
'64; discharged June 12, '65. Lyman Heman, Feb. i6,'64; 
discharged on surg's certificate Dec. 13, '64. Jonatlan 
Heman 2nd, Mar. 25, '64; died at Washington, D. C, 
June, '64. Jonathan Heman ist, Feb. i6,'64; deserted June 
16, '64. Asa L. Harding, Nov. i, '61; not on muster out 
roll, (leorge P. Hopkins; died at Philadelphia, Pa., July 

22, '62. John J. Harrington, Nov. i, '61; not on muster 
out roll. Oscar Hashman, Aug. 26, '64; discharged Aug. 

23, '65. James Johnson, Mar. 28, '64. George John-^on, 
Mar. 26, '64; wounded at Spottsylvania Court-house May 
12, '64; absent at muster out. Francis Johnson, Mar. 26, 
"64. Xavier Joset, Aug. 2, '64; substitute; discharged June 
29, '65. Freeman Jones, Nov. i, '61; not on muster-out 
roll, (ieorge Keesley and John Keller, Ap. 3, '65; substitutes. 
Henry Keller, April 8, '65; substitute. Thomas Kench, 
Nov. 7, '61; absent, sick, at muster out. William l!. 
Keaton and Richard N. Kennedy, Nov. i, '61; not on 
muster out roll. J. Kirkhoff; died April 12, '65. Jere- 
miah Lindininith, \\ix\\ 3, '65; substitute. Joseph 
Larum. .April 8, '65; substitute; absent, sick, at muster 
out. Sumner E. Lines, Nov. i, '61; died at City Point, 
Va., June 18, '64. Clark M. Lyons, Nov. r, '61; pro- 
moted adj. May 2, '64. Renard C. Lewis, Nov. i, '61; 
not on muster out roll. Charles Murray, Feb. 29, '64; 
absent, sick, at muster out; veteran. Abram Moyer, April 8, 
'65; substitute. Johnson Madison, Aug. 28, '62; missing 
at Gettysburg July 3, '63. Hiram H. Meeker and Thom;is 
M. Manard, Nov. i, '61; not on muster roll. Stephen 

H. Manard, Nov. 

killed at Fair Oaks May 


Samuel Marshall, Dec. 30, '61; veteran. Hugh M'Cann, 
April 3, '65; substitute. John M'Canaha, Aug. 29, '64; 
substitute; discharged May 31, '65. James M'Neal, 





Aug. 9, '62; discharged May^i, '65. John M'Kecl, Sej)!. 
28, '64; drafted; discharged on siirg's certificate April 4, 
'65. John C. M'C'ormick and (diaries M'Cormick, Nov. 
I, '61; not on muster out roll. Nelson Northrop, Feb. 
16, '64; tranferred to \'. R. C; discharged July 21, '65. 
Frederick Nauman, Nov. i, '61; not on muster out roll. 
Charles Oliphant, Mar. 17, '64,; discharged June 14, '65. 
Ferdinand Otis, Israel Otis and William H. Osborn, 
Nov. I, '61; not on muster-out roll. Stejihen M. 
Osborn, Nov. i, "61; died at Alexandria, Va., 
March 16, '64. Edward S. Perkins, Dec. 31, '63; dis- 
charged by special order March 12, '64. Henry \V. Pot- 
ter, Charles P. Post, William H. Penny and Sidney E. 
Penny, Nov. i, '61; not on muster out roll. John Pool, 
Feb. r6, '64. I'atrick (,)uigley, Jan. 11, '64; wounded at 
Wilderness May 5, '64; absent at muster out. John 
H. Rowe, Nov. 25. '61 ; wounded at Wilder- 
ness May 5, '64; mustered out Nov. 16, '64. 
Hiram Robinson, Aug. 18, '63; vfounded at Wilderness 
Mays, '64; discharged July 31, '65. Thomas M. Rob- 
inson, Aug. 18, '63. Charles Reitz, Aug. 26, '64; substi- 
tute; discharged Mav 31, '65. John W. Rolfe, Oct. 22, 
'61; sentenced by genera! court martial to Dry Tortugas 
April 30, '64. Emerson Reynolds, Nov. i, '61; killed at 
. Chancellorsville May 3, '63. Mortimer Roberts, Nov. i, 
'61; not on muster-oiit roll. Nathaniel Strope, Mar. 10, 
'64. Henry Steele, Mar. 17, '64. Conrad Shank, Aug. 
23, '64; substitute; absent, sick, at muster out. John 
Smith, Aug. 12, '64; substitute; wounded Mar. 25, '65; 
discharged June 7, '65. Charles Smead, Nov. 11, '64; sub- 
stitute; mustered out June 29, '65. George E. Stage, Mar. 
31, '64; wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 5, '64; absent at 
muster out. David E. Sarver, Aug. 27, '64; discharged May 
19, '65. Benjamin E. Seeley, Feb. 13, '64: discharged on 
surg's certificate April 14, '65. William Smith, Oct. 22, '61; 
mustered out Oct. 25, '64. Oscar Shores, Oct. 22, '61; mus- 
tered out Oct. 25, '64. Samuel Spiker, Sept. 26, '64; trans- 
ferred to veteran reserve corps Mar. 19. '65. Daniel Smith, 
died June 14, '64. Stogdell Storm, Jeremiah Storm, 
Fred Stephens, James Straney, N. Y. Sherwood, Michael 
Saxton, Walter B. Sim|)son, Mitdul O. Stark, Frank O. 
Sember, Bentley Stark, P. B. Strickland, George E. Stage 
and John L. Strunk, Nov. i, '61; not on muster out roll. 
Robert Tinker, Aug, 10, '64; substitute. Henry W. 
Terry, F"eb. 25, "62; wounded May 3, '63; absent at mus- 
ter out. James Tallent and Henry W. Terry, Nov. i, '61; 
not on muster-out roll. Milton S. Travis, Nov. i, '61; died 
at Alexandria, Va., June 11, '64. Volney \V. Tiffaney, 
Nov. I, '61: killed at Fair Oaks, May 31, '62. Zebulon 
Vincent, March 22, '64; discharged on surg's certificate 
.•Xpril 15, '65. Chester Vandipool, Feb. 29, '64; trans- 
ferred to veteran reserve corps. Eli Vandipool, Feb. 11, 
'64: killed at Wilderness May 5, '64. Charles Vandipool, 
March 29, '64; killed at Wilderness May 5, '64. William 
W. Wright, Dec. 31, '63; absent, sick, at muster out; 
veteran. Uriah Wheeler, Feb. 16, '64; wounded at Wil- 
derness May 5, '64; ab.sent at muster out. Richard 
Wheeler, March 22, '64; absent, sick, at muster out. 
Hiram Weaver, Oct. 8, '64; substitute. Martin V. Wise, 
Dec. 31, '63; wounded at Wilderness May 5, '64; absent 
at muster out; veteran, Joseph E. Wilson, .April 2, '65; 
substitute; absent, sick, at muster out. Jacob Weise, 
.April 2, '65; substitute. John Wise, .April 3, '65; substi- 
tute. John Watson, July 25, '64; substitute: discharged 
May 31, "65. George B. Wilmoth, Nov. i, '61; not on 
muster-out roll. W. J. Whitney, Nov. i, '6t: wounded 
at Charles City Cross Roads June 30, '62, and at 
Chancellorsville May 3, '63; discharged. Joshua Wick- 
son, Warren S. VVood, Martin Wice and Erastus 
Warren, Nov. i, '61; not on muster-out roll. James 
\. Wiggins, Nov. 19, '61; mustered out Dec. 4, '64. 

Paul Weale ; died at Andersonville, Ga., .August 


Of this regiment a portion of Company I was from 
I.uzerne county. It was organized in I-cbruary, 1862, 
by the consolidation of ])aris of two regiments that were 
i)artly full. The regiment left Philadelphia March 8th, 
1862, for Fortress Monroe. May loth, with other troops, 
the s8th embarked for Norfolk, debarking at Ocean View 
and marching to ihe city, which was found deserted, it 
soon afterward went to Portsmouth, where it engaged in 
guard, picket and fatigue duty, occasionally going on 
expeditions in which it was engaged in skirmishes. 

January 5th, 1863, it sailed for Beaufort, N. C. where 
it arrived on the following day and camped eight miles 
west of Newbern. While there it encountered occasional 
scouting parties of the enemy, and finally, on ll.e 12th o( 
February, the regiment went in search of the camp of 
these scouts, which it found, surprised, routed and de- 
stroyed. Several skirmishes and slight battles occurred 
in the vicinity. In May the regiment marched to Kins- 
ton with the 2sth Mass. and captured the works there 
and 175 prisoners. Soon afterward a battle was fought 
at Bachelor's Creek, and Colonel Jones of the 58th was 
killed. In June the regiment went to Washington, N. C, 
and while there occasional skirmishes and minor battles 
took place. 

In the latter part of .Ajiril, 1864, the regiment went to 
Fortress Monroe; thence to Yorktown, and from there 
liii Bermuda Hundred to the vicinity of Petersburg 
On the 9th of May, in an encounter with the enemy, the 
58th lost 20 killed and wounded. It was not engaged 
again south of the James. .At Cold Harbor it was twice 
in action, losing heavily. In September the regiment 
participated in an assault on Fort Harrison, in which, out 
of 9 officers and 228 men, 6 officers and 128 men were 
killed or wounded. The same day they assaulted 
another fort and spiked its guns, and the next repulsed 
with terrible slaughter an attack on Fort Harrison. The 
regiment was twice afterward inaction without casualties. 
It was also engaged in guard and picket duty, building 
fortifications, slashing timber, digging rifle pits, etc. It 
was in the final campaign and was afterward under the 
orders of the Freedmen's Bureau. It was not mustered 
out till January, 1866. 

While the 58th was chiefly recruited at Philadelphia, 
Company I contained a representation from I.uzerne, 
and we give a roll of that company, although it was 
partly raised in Northumberland county. Following the 
name of each man is the date when he was mustered in. 
Unless otherwise stated he was mustered out with the 


Officers. — Captains — John Buyers, Jan. 28, '62; resigned 
May 30, '63. Angello Jackson, Dec. 24, '61; promoted 
from ist lieut. to capt. .Aug. 19, '63; dismissed Sept. 25, 
'65. First lieutenants — Thomas Birmingham, Oct. 29, 
'61; promotedfrom ist sergt.'to 2nd lieut. Dec. 13, '62; 







to ist lieut. Aug. 19, '63; wounded at Fort Harrison, Va. 
Sept. 29, '64; promoted to capt. Company G March i, 
'65. Heber Painter, Oct. 8, '61; promoted from private 
to ist. sergt. Nov. 26, '64; ist lieut. March i, '65: capt. 
Jan. 23, '66; not mustered; veteran. Second lieutenant, 
John "r. Searies, Jan 28, '62; died at Suffolk, Va., Dec. 
13, '62. First sergeants — William H. Blair, Nov. 20, '61; 
promoted corp. Dec. i, '64; 1st sergt. March i, '65; ist 
lieut. Jan. 2^, '66; not mustered; veteran. Robert 
Hedian, Jan. 13, '62; promoted sergt. Jan. 23, '62; ist 
sergt. Jan. 28, 63; 2nd lieut. June 5, '63; not mustered; 
discharged May 6, '65, for wounds received at Fort Har- 
rison, ^■a., Sept. 29, '64. Sergeants — James Harlor, Dec. 
9, '61; promoted corp. Oct. i. '64; sergt. April 25, '65. 
veteran. Samuel Wolf, Oct. 8, '61; promoted corp. Oct. 
I, "63; sergt. April 25, '65; 2nd lieut. Jan. 23, '66; not 
mustered; veteran. William H. Gass, Oct. 8, '61; pro- 
moted corp. Jan. 25, '65; sergt. April 25, '65; vet- 
eran. Norman W. Haas, Oct. 8, '61; promoted corp. 
June 10, '65; sergt. June 26, '65; veteran. John M. 
Dickover, Oct. 24, '61; promoted corp. Jan. 13, '62; sergt. 
Dec. II, '62; discharged May 6, '65, for wounds received 
at Chapin's Farm, Va., Sept. 29, '64; veteran. Samuel 
C. Barton, July 29, '62; promoted corp. March i, '65; 
sergt. May 20, '65; discharged June 12, '65. George W. 
Kease, Jan. 23, '62; died at Suffolk, Va., Dec. 11, '62. 
Corps. — Robert Martin, Oct. 8, '61; promoted corp.; 
prisoner from Sept. 29 to Oct. 20, "64; veteran. George 
V\^ Adams, Nov. 22, '61; promoted corp. Oct. 27, '62; 
wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64; absent at 
muster out; veteran. Hiram Fisher, Dec. 30, '61; pro- 
moted corp. April i, '65; veteran. Samuel Taylor, Oct. 
8, '61, and George D. Aton, Dec. 31, '61; promoted 
corps. April 8, '65; veterans. John Fisher, Dec. 30, '61: 
promoted corp. April 24, '65; veteran. H. Housewart, 
Dec. 18, '61; promoted corp. Dec. 18, '62; killed in action 
Sept. 29, '64; veteran. James De Witt, Feb. 28, '62; pro- 
moted corp. Nov. 6, '63; mustered out Feb. 28, '65. Jo- 
seph Nagle, Dec. 5, '61; promoted corp. April 4, '65; dis- 
charged May 24, '65, for wounds received at Chapin's 
Farm, Va., Sept. 29, '64; veteran. Solomon Yordy, Jan. 

23, '62; promoted corp. Dec. 18, '62; mustered out Jan. 

24, '65. Joseph Crist, Oct. 8, '61; promoted corp. Jan. 
23, '62; mustered out Nov. 19, '64. Henry Katsher, Oct. 
8, '61; promoted corp. Dec. 21, '62; died Oct. 19, '64, of 
wounds received at Chapin's Farm, Va., Sept. 29, '64; 
veteran. Bennett E. Cobley, Jan. 13, '62; died at Hamp- 
ton, Va., Sept. 17, '64. Daniel Bochner, Jan. 13, '62; 
promoted corp. Oct. 27, "62; transferred to 4th U. S. Ar- 
tillery Nov. 24, '62. Jacob M. Boyd, Aug. 25, '62; pro- 
moted Corp. Dec. 20, '62; transferred to U. S. Signal 
Corps, Aug. 20, '63. L. H. Gaffney, Aug. 3, '62; pro- 
moted corp. Oct. I, '64; sergt. maj. Dec. 19, '64. Musi- 
cian, John Mullen, Nov. 20, '61; veteran. 

Privates. — Solomon P. .\ton, Nov. 20, '61; veteran. 
l.ouis Angermiiler, Aug. 5, '64; substitute. H. A. Addle- 
man, Nov. 2, '64; substitute; mustered out Nov. 3, '65. 
Samuel Bartsher, Oct. 8, '61, and Aaron Burket, Dec. 27, 
'61; veterans. Robert Brown, Sept. 25, '62; discharged 
June 7, '65. John Barton, Jan. 13, '62; died July 30, 
'64, of wounds received at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, 
'64. Martin L. Bloom, Oct. 8, '61; died in Northum- 
berland county, Pa., Dec. 7, '64; veteran. Robert W. 
Bell, Jan. 13, '62; deserted Jan. 17, '62. Edward Berney, 
Dec. 9, '61; deserted Jan. 8, '62. Charles H. Cook, Dec. 
17, '61, and William H. Cook, Oct. 30, '61; veterans. 
Samuel Crist, Nov. 28, '61; deserted; returned; veteran. 
Joseph E. Carpenter, Dec. 9, '64; substitute. Daniel 
Conrad, Oct. 8, '61; killed at Cold Harbor June 3, '64; 
veteran. William K. Conrad, Oct'. 29, '61; discharged on 
surg's certificate Dec. 18, '62. Henry K. Conrad, Jan. 

23, '62; died at Harrisburg, Pa., Jan. 24, '62. Patrick 
Carl, Dec. 27, '61, and Thomas Cruse, Dec. 4, '61; trans- 
ferred to Com])any H Jan., '62. Henry C. Cook, Nov. 
25, "61; deserted Jan. 17, '62. Samuel T. Coleman, July 
19, '62; captured April 15, '63; absent at muster out. 
Daniel Deets, Nov. 16, '61; wounded at Cold Harbor 
June 2, '64; absent at muster out; veteran. James E. 
Danton, Jan. 18, '62; discharged on surg's certificate 
June 24, '62. Alfred S. Dennis, Nov. 18, '61; discharged 
on surg's certificate Aug. 24, '62. Asmus Damm, Nov. 
23, '61; discharged on surg's certificate June 24, '65; 
veteran. Benjamin F. Diehl, Oct. 8, '61; discharged on 
surg's certificate June 20, '65; veteran. Edward E. 
Doran, July 29, '62; transferred to 4th U. S. artillery 
Nov. 24, '62. John Deon, Dec. 9, '64; substitute; de- 
serted April 2, '65. George Eckhart, Sept. 27, '64; 
drafted; discharged June 9, '65. William H. Freeman, 
Nov. 2, '64; substitute; mustered out Nov. 3, '65. Philip 
Forester, Oct. 28, '61; mustered out Jan. 24, '65, to date 
Oct. 28, '64. James C. Fleming, Nov. 2, '64; sub- 
stitute; died at Point of Rocks, Va., Feb. 27, '65. 
Solomon Fosbolt, Jan. 23, '62; transferred to 4th U. S. 
artillery Nov. 24, '62. Henry Gutchall, Dec. 29, '61; 
wounded in action Sept. 29, '64; absent at muster out; 
veteran. Josejjh Gregory, Jan. 13, '62; discharged Jan- . 
uary 24, '65, for wounds received at Cold Harbor June 
3, '64. John G. Groner, Jan. 9, '62; discharged Oct. 10, 
'65, for wounds received at Cold Harbor June 3, '64; 
veteran. Emanuel Gutchall, Mar. 23, '65; drowned in 
Paradise creek, Va., Aug. 10, '62. Willi;im Gallagher, 
Dec. II, '61; died June 13, '64, of wounds received at 
Cold Harbor June 3, '64. Harris A. Hooper, Dec. 12, 
'61; veteran. Samuel JJeim, Jan. 23, '62; mustered out 
Feb. 3, '65. Thomas Hudson, Nov. 2, '64; substitute; 
mustered out Nov. 3, '65. John Hardman, Dec. 9, '61; 
died at Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. '64; veteran, James 
Hoey, Oct. 8, '61; died at Hagerstown, Md., Jan, 1 1, '65 ; 
veteran. Patrick Hughes, Nov. 4, '61; transferred to 
Company H Jan. '62. Benjamin F. Heffner, Dec. 18, '61; 
deserted Aug. 26, '64; veteran. John A. Jennings, Dec. 
9, '61; transferred to Company H January, '62. Thomas 
Kelly, Feb. 14, '62; veteran. August W. Keiber, Nov. 
12, '64; substitute; deserted Aug. 23, '65. George Lewis, 
Nov. II, '61; wounded at Cold Harbor June 3, '64; 
absent at muster out; veteran. Martin Loftus, Nov. 15, 
'61; veteran. Cieorge W. Lee, Jan. 13, '62; killed in 
action April 17, '63. James Lafferty, Dec. 18, '61; killed 
at Chapin's Farm Sept. 29, '64; veteran. Robert Leach, 
Nov. 2, '64; substitute; mustered out Nov. 3, '65. Levi 
S. Lloyd, Nov. 2, '64; substitute; died July 11, '65. 
Edward Long, Jan. 13, '62; deserted January 17, '62. 
William B. Martin, Oct. 8, '6i; veteran. Henry Miller, 
Jan 24, '62; discharged on surg's certificate. May 19, '62. 
James Masterson, Nov. 28, '61; died at Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Aug. 26. '64; veteran. George D. Molt, 
Aug., '62; died Aug. 9, '64, at Hampton, Va. 
John Mench, Aug. 23, '64; died Oct. 15, '64, 
of wounds received at Chapin's Farm Sept. 29, '64. 
John Morisey, Dec. 19, '61; deserted Dec. 31, '62. An- 
thony Marse; deserted Jan. 17, '62. James Morisey, 
Nov. 27, '61; deserted. Charles Mott, Jan. 13, '62; de- 
serted Dec. 30, '62. Michael Morgan, Nov. 17, '64; sub- 
stitute; deserted Aug. 18, '65; returned; deserted again 
Dec. 4, '65. George M'Donald, Nov. 19, '61; veteran. 
Lafayette M'Clure and Robert M'Clure, Nov. 2, '64; 
substitutes; mustered out Nov. 3, '65. Michael M'Carty, 
Oct. 8, '61; deserted Nov., '61. Moses C. Norris, Nov. 
2, '64; substitute; mustered out Nov. 3, '65. Winthrop 
Oplinger, Nov. 22, '61; veteran. George Oplinger, Aug. 
18, '64; discharged June 12, '65. Albert W. Osborn, 
Nov. 2, '64; mustered out Nov. 7, '65. Charles A. Peal, 




Jan. 23, '62; died at Camp Suffolk. Va., Pec. 3, '6.-. 
John Reed, Dec. 12, '61; wounded al Cold Harbor June 
3, '64; veteran. Patrick Rafter, Oct. 31, "61; killed at 
Cold Harbor June 3, '64; veteran. Cornelius Robbins, 
Nov. '25, "61; mustered out Dec. 7, '64. Jonathan 
Rogers, Jan. 13. '62; discharged on surg's certificate 
lune 26, '63. Kenjamin F. Reel, July 29, '62; dis- 
riiarged June 12, '65. William Reeser, Jan. 23, '62; died 
at Washington, N. C, Aug. 30, '63. Elias Raker, Dec. 
0, '61; died at Fortress Monroe, Va.. of wounds received 
at Chapin's Farm Sept. 29. '64; veteran. Joseph Reilz, 
Dec. 24, '64; sidjstitute; died at Point of Rocks, Va., 
I"eb. 16, "65. James Rilev. Dec. 20, '61; transferred to 
Company H jan, '62. William Roester, Nov. 18, '61; 
deserted Dec. 30, '61. John i). Snyder, Oct. 8, '61; 
wounded at Fort Harrison, Va., Sept. 29, '64; veteran. 
George F. Slocum, Nov. 22, '61; veteran. Jacob Slough, 
Oct. 8, '6t; wounded in action Sept. 29, '64; absent at 
muster out; veteran. iM. M. Shoemaker, March 31, '65. 
lamest Storkey. March 3, '62; discharged on surg's cer- 
tificate Aug. 24, '62. William H. Skillham, Nov. i|,'62; 
mustered out Nov. 3, '65. Joseph M. Snyder, Jan. 13, 
'62; died at Beverly, N. J., Aug. 14, '64. Emmuel 
Stroh, Oct. 8, '61; died Oct. 20, '64, at .Vlexandria. 
John Sharp, Oct. 24, '62; died Nov. 9, '64, at Hampton, \'a. 
Andrew E. Stewart, Dec. 22, '61; transferred to Company 
C. George Shaffer, Nov. 2, '61; transferred to veteran 
reserve corps Sept. 24, '64. Thomas Savage, Nov. 3, '64; 
substitute; deserted .Aug. 28, '65. Norman R. Tracey, 
Nov. 10, '61; transferred to the 4th United States artil- 
lery, Nov. 24, '62. Edward Vangross, Nov. 14, '64; sub- 
stitute. John G. Van Leer, Jan. 13, '62; discharged on 
surg's certificate Nov. 27, '62. William Woods, Jan. 6, 
'62- veteran. De L. S. Wynn, Oct. 8, '61; wounded in 
action Sept. 29, '64 ; absent at muster out; veteran. 
Julius Wirth, Nov. 14, '64; substitute. Thomas Wright, 
/Vug. 13, '64; substitute. Martin Welsh, Dec. 9, '61; 
killed at Chapin's Farm, Va., Sept. 29, '64; veteran. 
l,ouis C. Weeks, Jan. 13. '62; discharged on surg's certi- 
ficate Dec. 29, '62. John Winer, Dec. 16, '64; substitute; 
discharged June 23, '65. William Williams, Dec. 17, '64; 
transferred to Company K. Henry Waltz, Nov. 16, '64; 
substitute; deserted Aug. 6, '65. Henry Werman, Nov. 
16, '64; substitute; deserted Aug. 23, '65. John Williams, 
Dec. 20, '61; deserted Jan. 12, '61. Oliver Yohey, Dec. 
18, '61; veteran. Nathan Yohey, Dec. 8, '61; veteran. 
Peter Zeliff, Oct. 8. '61 ; transferred to Company H Jan. '62. 



V*\HE 61st regiment was organized in .August, 
1 86 1. So pressing was the demand for 


,. ^^^V' ,i troops that within a month it was ordered to 

L-^-] the field, only 600 strong. It remained 
within the defenses of Washington during the suc- 
ceeding autumn and winter, but its ranks were not 
filled by recruits. In February, 1862, it was 
ordered to Bladensburg, and four companies were trans- 
ferred to it. 

On the 30th of March it arrived by transport at For- 
tress Monroe and went forward to Vorktown. On the 

evacuation of that place it went to Williamsburg and 
thence up the Peninsula. The monotony of the march 
was relieved by occasional reconnoisances, and on the 
30th of May it arrived at Fair Oaks, where it was en- 
gaged. Space will not permit a detail of the positions in 
which the 61st was placed in this fight; but when it is 
known that eleven officers including all the field ofticers 
and sixty-nine men were killed, wounded or missing, the 
severity of the engagement will be ap))reciated. 

It remained encamped near the old battle ground, oc- 
casionally skirmishing, for about a month, when the 
retreat from the Chickahominy took place. At Charles 
City Cross Roads, Turkey Hend and Malvern Hill, it was 
engaged, but did not suffer severely, its losses being only 
two officers and thirty-two men. It remained in camp 
near Malvern Hill till .August i6th, when it went to Vork- 
town 7iii Charles City and Williamsburg. I^arly in Sep- 
tember it went by transport to .Alexandria, and thence 
marched at once to Chantilly, where it arrived the even- 
ing after the battle at that place. With the army it re- 
turned, crossed the Potomac and entered on the Mary- 
land campaign. It did picket duty on the Potomac till 
September 17th, when it marched to the Antietam battle 
field, arriving in the evening after the battle. It went 
into camp at Downsville and remained till the last of 
October. It then crossed the Potomac and advanced 
with the army of General Burnsidc. It was slightly en- 
gaged in the battle of Fredericksburg and suffered but 
little loss. It participated in the " mud march," except 
which it remained in camp during the winter of 1862-3. 
At the battle of Chancellorsville it was fiercely engaged 
and lost three officers and seventy-four men. 

In June the regiment started on the Gettysburg cam- 
paign. It arrived on the field during the second day of 
the battle and was at once engaged, though not severely. 
It followed and harrassed one of Lee's retreating col- 
umns to Waynesboro. It then marched to White Sulphur 
Springs, to Culpepper, to the Rapidan, to Fairfax Court- 
house and to Warrenton. It was engaged at Rappahan- 
nock Station; then went to Brandy Station, where it 
wintered. Its strength was increased while there by the 
return of absentees and by recruits; and on the 5th of 
May, 1864, it crossed the Rapidan, and the next day 
was engaged in the Wilderness, losing twelve killed and 
thirty wounded. On the 6th it was again in battle, with 
a loss of 15 killed and 40 wounded. From this time 
during a month the regiment was constantly employed 
in fighting, skirmishing, picketing, digging rifle-pits, etc. 
During all this time, from the crossing of the Rapidan, 
May 4, its losses amounted in killed, wounded and miss- 
ing to 30 officers and 400 enlisted men. During the 
remainder of the campaign of 1864 the 6ist was con- 
stantly on active duty and was twice in action. .A |)or- 
tion of the men whose terms of service had expired were 
mustered out in September, and the veterans and recruits 
consolidated into a battalion of five companies. During 
Sheridan's campaign in the Shenandoah valley the 
battalion was engaged at Opequan or Winchester, at 
Fisher's Mill and at Cedar Creek. 



In March, 1S65, its strength was increased to 9 com- 
panies, and it became a regiment again. It was a part 
of the besieging force before Petersburg till the final 
assault, in which it participated. It was in the pursuit 
of Lee and fired its last shot at the enemy at Sailor's 
Creek. After the surrender of Lee the regiment marched 
to Danville, where it remained nearly a month; then 
returned, ])articipated in the grand review and was must- 
ered out June 28th, 1865. 

The officers of the 6ist regiment, and the members of 
Company D, which was recruited in Luzerne county, are 
named in the following lists, with a synopsis of their rec- 
ords. Where a date immediately follows the name of a 
soldier it is the time when he was mustered in. If not 
otherwise stated he was mustered out with the regiment 
June 28th, 1865. The muster-in date for most of Com- 
pany D was September 2nd, 1863, and that date is to be 
understood where no other is given. 


Colonels. — Oliver H. Ripley, July 24, '61; killed at Fair 
Oaks May 31, '62. George C. Spear, Mar. 6, '62; pro- 
moted from lieut. col. to col. June i, '62; killed at Chan- 
cellorsville May 3, '63. George F. Smith, Mar. 15, '62; 
promoted from maj. to lieut. col. June i, '62; col. Mar. 
21, '64; mustered out Sept. 7, '64: recommissioned Sept. 
29, '64; discharged bv special order April 20, '65. Rob- 
ert L. Orr, Aug. 21, '61; promoted from capt. Company 
A to maj. Dec. 18, '64; lieut. col. April 18, '65; col. May 

14, '65- 

■ Lieutenant Colonels. — John VV. Crosby, Sept. 2, '61; pro- 
moted from capt. Company G to maj. April22, '64; wound- 
ed at Fort Stevens July 11, '64; mustered out Dec. 15, '64; 
recommissioned lieut. col. Feb. 22, '65; killed at Peters- 
burg Ajjrii 2, '65. Charles S. Greene, Aug 21, '61; pro- 
moted from capt. Company C to lieut. col. May 15, '65; 
wounded at Winchester, Va., Sept. ig, '64. 

Majors. — George W. Dawson, Aug. i, '61; promoted 
from capt. Company C to maj. Dec. i, '62; lieut. col. 
May 4, '63; not mustered; discharged April 16, '64. Oli- 
ver A. Parsons, Sept. 2, '61; promoted from capt. Com- 
pany D lo maj. May 13, '65. 

^c^«/(?«A-.—Woolman G. Miller, Aug. i, '61; promoted 
from 2nd lieut. Company E to 1st lieut. and adj. Sept. 7, 
'61; discharged March 11, '63. George W. Wilson, Sept. 
2, '61; promoted from 1st lieut. Company H to adj. Mar. 
11, '63; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house May 9, '64. 
Augustus R. Seller, Sept. 4, '61; promoted from 2nd lieut. 
Company F. to ist lieut. and adj, .April 6, '65. 

Quartermasters. — Benjamin W. Baldwin, Aug. i, '61; 
mustered out Sejn. 6, '64. Charles F. Kennedy, Aug. 21, 
'61; promoted from 1st lieut. Com[)anv C to Q. M. Dec. 
18, '64. 

Surj;eons. — Robert M. Tindle, Sept. 14, '61; resigned 
Aug. 19, '63. George R. Lewis, Aug. 1, '62; promoted 
from ass't surg. 54th Pa. Sept. 18, '63. 

Assistant Surgeons. — Ambrose J. Herr, Sept. 7, '61; 
promoted surg. 68th Pa. Sept. 13, '62. James B. Freeland, 
Sept. 17, '62; resigned Jan. 11, '63. John W. Riddle, 
Sept. 12, '62; mustered out Sept. 7, '64. James A. 
M'Fadden, .April i, '63; mustered out Se|)t. 7, '64. Wil- 
liam W. Rirlin, Dec. 18, '64. 

CJiaplain.—\W. R. Stockton, .Xpril 13, '62; resigned 
Sept. 26, '62. 

Sergeant A/aJors. — A. G, C. Calhoun, Aug. i, '61; pro- 
moted from sergt. company E Jan. 8, '65; veteran. 
Israel Gray, Aug. 23, '61; mustered out Sept. 7, '64. 

David M'Clain, .\iig. i,'6i; promoted ist lieut. Company 
K. Jan. I, '63. R. R. Lippencott, Sept. 4, '61; promoted 
ist lieut. Company I Sept. 12, '63. William Lathrop, 
Sept. 2, '61; promoted 2nd lieut. Company D Jan. 8, '65; 
veteran. Jeremiah H. Mur])hy, Aug. 21, '61; killed at 
Cedar creek, Va., Oct. 19, '64; veteran. John Caldwell, 
Aug. 1, '61; promoted 2nd lieut. Company F April 19, '64; 

Quartermaster Sertreants. — Robert Dickson, Sept. 2, 
62; jiromoted Q. M. sergeant, Dec. 22, '64; discharged 
June 20, '65. Charles F. Kennedy, Aug. 2 i, '61 ; promoted 
ist lieut. Company C Oct. i, '64; veteran. George K. 
Lutz, Aug. 21, '61; promoted ist lieut. Company G Dec. 
22, '64; veteran. William H. Rogers, Aug. i, '61; pro- 
moted 1st lieut. Company F Nov. 27, '62. 

Commissary Serf^eants. — John C. .'\rmor, .Aug 22, '61; 
promoted from private Company A Sept 4, '64; veteran. 
Jacob Sanders, Sept. 4, '61; mustered out Sept. 7, '64. 
William Clowes, Sept. 9, .'61; promoted from private 
Company E 63d Pa., March 31, '62; veteran. Woodman 
Sniaple, Aug. i, '61; mustered out with regiment June 28, 
'64; veteran. William R. Taylor, Sept. 4, '61; mustered 
out Sept. 7, '64. Charles O. Little; Sept. 4, '61; muster- 
ed out Sept. 7, '64. 

c:0MP.\NV n. 

Ojft:crs. — Captains — Butler Dilley; resigned .'\ug. 23, 
"62. William W. Ellis; promoted from 1st lieut to capt. 
July 23, '62; transferred to V. R. C. Jan. 2, '64. David 
J. 'Paylor; promoted from 2nd to ist lieut. July 23. '62; 
capt. Mar. 25, '64; killed at Cedar Creek, Va., Oct. ig, 
'64. Oliver A. Parsons; promoted from ist sergt. to 2nd 
lieut. Apr. 19, '64; ist lieut. Oct. i, '64; capt. Nov. 30, 
'64; major May 14, '65; wounded at Spottsylvania Court- 
house May 12, '64; veteran. Sylvester D. Rhoads; pro- 
moted from sergt. to 2nd lieut. Dec. i, '64; ist lieut. Jan. 
6, '65; capt. June 3, '65; veteran. First lieutenants — 
Smith D. Dean; promoted 2nd lieut. July 23, '62; ist 
lieut. Apr. 19, '64; discharged Aug. 10, '64. Charles M. 
Cyphers; promoted from ist sergt. to ist lieut. Dec. 15, 
'64; caiit. Co. F. Jan. 6, '65; veteran. William Lathrop; 
promoted sergt. major; 2nd lieut. Jan. 8. '65; ist lieut. 
June 2, '65; veteran. Second lieutenant, Samuel C. 
F'ell; promoted from ist sergt. to 2nd lieut. June 6, '65; 
veteran. F"irst sergeants — Samuel Tintsman, Aug. i, '61; 
promoted from sergt. to ist sergt. June 8, '65; veteran. 
Preserved Taylor; not on muster out roll. Sergeants — 
William D. Beels; veteran. William Coon; absent, 
wounded, at muster out; veteran. Robert M. Thomp- 
son, Aug. I, '61; promoted from corp. to sergt. Feb. 20, 
'65; veteran. William S. Withers; promoted from corp. 
to sergt. June 8, "65; veteran. Jacob Shafer; mustered 
out Sept. 7, '64. Robert Marshall, Feb. 20, '62; mus- 
tered out F"eb. 20, '65. Joseph R. Shultz; not on muster 
out roll. William A. Swan; deserted. William Q. Cole; 
died at Alexandria, Va., May 29, '64; grave 1,957; vet- 
eran. Corporals — George W. Sayer and James M'Carty; 
absent, wounded, at muster out; veterans. Daniel Schla- 
hach; veteran. John Dowden, Aug. i, '61; veteran. 
Elisha Gear, July 14, '63; drafted. John H. Benning, 
Mar. 7, '64; veteran. John Wise, July 14, '63; drafted; 
promoted corp. June 8, '65. Gasper Tarr, July 13, '63; 
drafted; promoted corji. June 15, '65. Ezra A. Caswell; 
mustered out Sept. 7, '64. Theodore A. Tucker; trans- 
ferred to veteran reserve corps Jan. 6, '65; veteran. 
George A. Cassiday, Aug. 1, '61; transferred to veteran 
reserve corps Dec. 30, '64; veteran. William H. Ronn- 
tree; wounded at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, '62; discharged 
on surg's certificate. Charles H. F^lliott, Joseph C. Dale, 
J. Josiah M'Dermot and George W. F'ell; not on muster 
out roll. Musicians — Frank H. Leas, Jan. 22, '64; vet- 

=*=^ ^ 




eran. Robert Y. Thoniiison, Aug. i, '6i; veteran. 
Michael Loban. John Cllancy; not on muster out roll. 

Privates. — Joseph Alkins and Asher M. .Abbott, not on 
muster out roll. Casey Atherton; killed at Chancel- 
lorsville May 3, '63. Job IJriggs, veteran. James Hurk, 
veteran. Weston Bown, Mih. i, '64; missing at .Spott- 
sylvania Court-house .May 18, '64. Josiah Henon, Feb. 
27, '64; absent, wounded, at muster out. Samuel liogard, 
July 10, '63; drafted; absent, on detached duty, on mus- 
ter out. tieorge S. Brown, July 16, '63; drafted. John 
Burke, Feb. 29, '64; discharged on surg"s certificate Oct. 
24, '64. John Boyd, Mch. i, "62; mustered out Mar. i, 
'65. Joseph W. Burtz. July 11, '63; drafted; discharged 
on siKg's certificate Dec. 29, '64. George P. Barnes; 
promoted sergt. Company F Nov. i, '64; veteran. William 
Brooks, Isaac Baker, Patrick Banet, (leorge W. Brisbing 
and Frank Blacknian, not on muster out roll. Samuel 
Cooper, Mar. 5, '64. John B. Cordell, Aug. i, '61; vet- 
eran. Thomas Charles, Aug. i, '61; absent, sick, at mus- 
ter out; veteran. David C. Connor, Se|)t. 4, '61 ; mus- 
tered out Sept. 7, '64. Thomas R. Connor, Sept. 4, '61; 
absent, sick, at expiration of term. Emanuel Delay, 
Feb. 27, '64; absent, sick, at muster out. David W. Dale, 
Sept. 4, '61; mustered out Sept. 7, '64. Cieorge W. Daw- 
son, July 23, '63; substitute; transferred to veteran reserve 
corps Dec. 30, '64. Charles Danchart, Aug. 16, '63; substi- 
tute; deserted Nov. i, '64. William H. Daniels, Samuel 
Dol])h. Charles W. Dale, Toney Dorman and James W. 
Diiley; not on muster-out roll. Henry Ellis, July 13, '63; 
drafted; absent, wounded, at muster out. Thomas C. Ellis; 
killed at S[)ottsylvania Court-house May it, '64; veteran. 
William G. Elson; died September 23, '62. Eevi Ekis; 
died Sept. 4, '64. Robert F. Fisher, July 14, '63; draft- 
ed. William F. Fairchilds, Sept. 4, '61; mustered out 
Sept. 7, '64. C. \V. Fulkerson; died May i6, '65, at 
Fredericksburg, Va.. of wounds received in action; vet- 
eran. John I.. Fairchilds; not on muster-out roll. J. 
Furguson; died July 11, '64. Dwight Gear, Feb. 29, '64; 
discharged May 13, '65. Joseph (ierard, July 15, '63; 
drafted; died at Alexandria, Va., July i , '64. Alfred 
Groff; not on muster-out roll. H. Gump; died June 9, 
'64. Marshall Gray; killed at Wilderness. John Howe; 
absent, wounded, at muster out; veteran. William Ham- 
ilton, Feb. 9, '64. John Hall; veteran. Benjamin Hun- 
ker, July 17, '63; substitute. Frederick Hagle, Feb. 24, 
'64. Henry C. Hazel, Sept. 12, '64. James Higgs, Sept. 
4, '61; mustered out Sept. 7, '64. David Hunter, (^ct. 
31, '61; mustered out Oct. 30, '64. Philip Honeywell, 
Sept. 20, '64; substitute; discharged June, '65. William 
Hinkle, Mar. 4, '64; discharged on surg's certificate 
May 15, '65. Chester B. Hawk and Jeremiah Hotch- 
kiss; not on muster-out roll. Winfield Hour; died 
Dec. 23, '62. John W. Hay; died Aug. 7, '64. 
Levi Huff and Frank Hood; not on muster out roll. 
Jonah J. Jones, Mar. ir, '65; discharged June 24, '65. 
James Kno.x, Feb. 27, 64; missing at Wilderness May 6, 
'64. John Kumph, Oct. 30, '61; mustered out Oct 30, 
'64. James Lambaugh, Aug. i, '61; absent, sick, at mus- 
ter out; veteran. John Leap, July 13, "63; drafted. 
Joseph Lenhart, July 13, '63; drafted. Votley Lan- 
liam, July 13, '63: drafted; absent, sick, at muster out. 
William Lip])encott; transferred to Company .\; veteran. 
John S. Laban; not on muster out roll. Uriah D. Minick, 
.Mar. 7, '64. Judson W. Myers: veteran. Thomas Mor- 
rison, Aug. I, '61; veteran. Thomas Maher, July 13, '63; 
drafted. Richard V. Morris, Feb. 28, '64; discharged on 
surg's certificate May 9, '65; William Myers, Sejit. 12, 
'64; discharged June 20, '65. Samuel .\. Morton, Sept. 
29, '64; drafted; discharged June 20, '65. Charles Mar- 
tin, July 15, '63; drafted; died at Port Royal, Va , May 
24, "64. of wounds received in action. .-Mjram J. Mining, 


Ira Morton, James ,'\. Mayars and Hiram Moore; not 
on muster out roll. J. .Munis; died Mar. 19, '62. John 
B. M'Nabb, July 25, '63; drafted. John MXihen, July 
-5. '63; drafted. Rufus M'Guire, Sept. 4, Vm ; wounded 
at Chancellorsville May 3, '63; absent at e.xjiiration of 
term. James M'Knight, Roderick M'Farland and Louis 
.\ .M'DermoI; not on muster out roll. |ohn Nickerson, 
July 14, '63: drafted. William Niharl, Sept. 13, '64; 
discharged June 20, '65. Oliver C. Newberry, Sept. 29, 
'64; drafted; discharged June 20, '65. Joseph Nevvs- 
bigle; not on muster out roll. John Orr, Oct. 31, '61; 
missing at Wilderness May 6, '64. Thomas O'Brien, 
Jan. I, '61; discharged June 3, '65; veteran. 
.Alexander Piiterbaugh; veteran. William Peach, 
I'eb. 18, '64; veteran. Ross Partridge, July 10, 
'63; drafted. Oliver C. Penberry, Sept. 29, '64; 
drafted; discharged June 20. '65. Willi,am H. Phillips, 
.M ir. 27, "64: promoted to sergt. Company F Nov. i,'64; 
veteran. John Pembridge. Obed IVters and John Piper, 
not on muster out roll. George S. Phillips, July 30, '63; 
drafted; disch.irged on surg"s certificate NLiy 15, '65. 
Thomas W. Robinson, Jan. 4, '64; discharged June 23, 
'65. Luther Ruger, Sept. 4, '61 ; transferred to veteran 
reserve corps Feb. 29, '64. Frederick N. Shafer, Mar. 5, 
'64; wounded in action; discharged Aug. 7, "65. Lewis 
Shodden, Feb. 29, '64. John Sweeny, veteran. Bazil 
Sweringer, July 10, '63; drafted. Jacob Sylvis, July 21, 
'63; drafted; absent, sick, at muster out. Robert Sadler, 
July 21, '63; drafted. Samuel Shuler, Feb. 24, '64; 
absent, wounded, at muster out. Nathan Shafer, Sept. 4, 
"61; mustered out Se|it. 7, '64. Jesse Sheiber, Sept. 4, 
'61; wounded at Chancellorsville May 3. '63; absent at 
expiration of term. Jonathan Schlabach, Sept 4, '61; 
mustered out Sept. 7, '64. Joseph R. Shultz, Mar. 8, '64; 
discharged on surg's certificate May 15, '65; veteran. 
John D. Smith, Sept. 29, '64; drafted; discharged June 
20, '65. Samuel Shafer, Feb. 20, '64; transferred to vet- 
eran reserve corps Jan 17, '65. William Swan, deserted 
Aug. 12.64; veteran. Theodore L. Stout. George Stroh, 
Jacob Shafer, Chester B. Stiver, Frederick Seiple, Jacob 
Sanders, Thomas A. Sanfield and Vincent L Sayre, not 
on muster out roll. Joseph Tucker, Feb. 24, '64. Wil- 
liam Trickier, Feb. 29, '64. William F. Tribble, Sept. 4, 
'61; mustered out Sept. 7; '64. Nathan Turner, Sept. 13, 
'62; discharged June 10, '65. Levi Thorp, Oct. 31, '61; 
died at Camp Sumter, Ga., Aug. 31, '65. Thomas O. 
Tucker, Mar. 7, '64; died at Alexandria, Va., May 28, 
'64; veteran. Wesley Vangarkin. Mar. 1, '62; discharged 
on surg's certificate Dec. 29, '64. James Vettenberg, 
Feb. 29, '64; di<;d at Philadelphia April 22, '64. Joseph 
Vaughn, July 13, '63; died at Fredericksburg May 26, 
'64. o( wounds received in action. John Wil.son, veteran. 
John Willard, Mar. 7, '64; veteran. John Worrell, July 
14, '63; drafted. John Wilev, Sept. 4,- '61; wounded at 
Spottsylvania Court-house, Va.. May 12, '64; absent at ex- 
piration of term. George E. Waring, Crandall A. WW- 
cox, Thom?.s Williams, John Wilbert and William H. 
Ward, not on muster out roll. Charles Zaun, veteran. 



This regiment was recruited in the autumn of 1861. 
Luzerne county was represented in the organization by 
t'ompany M. During the winter of 1861-2 it was at 
Washington, perfecting itself in drill and discipline. 

It experienced some dilliculty in procuring horses, but 
finally succeeded by resorting to sharp pr.ictice on the 
government. In May. 1862, the regiment joined General 

*°^ ?♦ 





McDowell's column on the Rappahannock, and entered 
on picket and scout duty. Through the Peninsula cam- 
paign it was engaged in the duties which at that period of 
the war were assigned to cavalry. It was with the army 
of McClellan in the Maryland campaign of 1862, and was 
engaged at the battle of Antietam. 

The regiment was with General Pleasanton in his pur- 
suit of Stuart, and with the army of Burnside in the 
Fredericksburg campaign, and guarded the fords of the 
Rappahannock above the town during the battle. 

After the accession of General Hooker to thecouimand 
of the army the cavalry arm of the service assumed an 
importance it had not before possessed. Two squadrons 
of the 4th were engaged in the action at Kelly's Kord. 
In the Chancellorsville campaign the cavalry did effective 
service in skirmishing. The 4th did some light skirmish- 
ing at the battle of Brandy Station. It was frequently 
engaged and did good service in the Gettysburg cam- 
paign, and was active in the pursuit of the enemy's re- 
treating columns. On the 12th ofOctober, 1863, the 4th 
was engaged in a severe fight near Jeffersonville, Va., in 
which it lost in killed, wounded and i)risoners about 200 
men. The prisoners were taken to Richmond, and thence 
to Andersonville, where a large portion of them died. At 
Bristoe and near Beverly Ford it was engaged in skir- 

During the winter of 1863-4 the regiment was engaged 
in picket and guard duty along the line of the Orange & 
Alexandria Railroad, and during four months suffered no 

Two-thirds of the men re-enlisted and had a veteran 
furlough, and about the same time many recruits were 
received. The campaign of 1864 opened before the re- 
turn of the veterans, and daring the Wilderness battles 
the regiment was used as a support to other troops. 

During the raid of Sheridan the 4th was frequently 
engaged in skirmishing, and in a battle within the outer 
defenses of Richmond was under fire some four hours. 
.\t Hawes's Shop it was engaged in a severe battle, and at 
Trevillian Station the regiment covered itself with glory. 
From White House to the James the army trains were 
guarded by a force of which the 4th constituted a part 
.\t St. Mary's Church an engagement took place with a 
su|)erior force, in which, though the cavalry checked the 
enemy and covered the retreat, it suffered severely. The 
4th regiment lost eighty-seven in killed, wounded and 
missing. The remainder of the summer of 1864 the 4th 
was engaged in marching, skirmishing and picket duty. 

During the siege of Petersburg the regiment was in 
active service, supporting infantry movements and ad- 
vancing and extending lines. At Boydton Plank Road 
and at Hatcher's Run it was warmly engaged and did 
excellent service. It was also in the second raid on the 
Weldon railroad, where it had twelve men wounded. 
On its return from this raid it went into winter (juarters. 

In the iirief but brilliant final campaign the 4th with 
the other cavalry was constantly active; and even on the 
morning of the surrender, with its division, it wac about 
to capture a body of cavalry which it had cut off when 

the surrender of Lee's forces arrested hostilities, .'\fter 
the surrender it went to Petersburg, thence to North 
Carolina, returned to Petersburg and went thence to 
Lynchburg, where on the 1st of July, 1865, it was 
mustered out. In the following lists every man who is 
not mentioned as having in some manner fallen out by 
the way is supposed to have been mustered out on that 
day. The dates of muster-in immediately follow the 


Colonels. — David Campbell, Oct. 18, '61; transferred to 
the 5th Pa. cavalry March 12, '62. H. Childs, 
Oct. 18, '6i; promoted from lieut. col. March 12, '62; 
killed at Antietam, Sept. 17, '62. James K. Kerr, Oct. 
18, '61; promoted from maj. to lieut. col. March 12, '62; 
col., Sept. 18, '62; resigned May 17, '63. George H. 
Covode, Sept. 30, '61; promoted from capt. Company D 
to maj. Mar. 12, '62; lieut. col Dec. 8, '63; col. May 28, 
'64; killed at St. Mary's Church, Va., June 24, '64. Sam- 
uel B. M. Young, Sept. 6 '61; promoted from capt. Com- 
pany B to maj. Sept. 20, '62; lieut. col. Oct. i, '64; col. 
Dec. 29, '64; brevet brig. gen. Apr. 9, '65. 

Lieutenant Colonels. — William E. Doster, Oct. 18, '61; 
promoted from maj. Oct. 30, '62; brevet brig. gen. March 
13, '65; resigned Oct. 18, '63. Alexander P. Duncan, 
Nov. I, '61; promoted from capt. Company L to maj. 
May I, '64; lieut. col. Dec. 29, '64; brevet col. March 13, 


Majors. — James T. Trembell, Nov. i, '61; resigned 
Aug. 12, '62. William M. Biddle, Oct. 30, '61; promoted 
from adj. Aug. 14, '62; mustered oat Oct. 29, '64. Wil- 
liam B. Mays, Sept. 6, '61; promoted from capt. Company 
L December 13, '64; killed at Farmville, Va., April 7, '65. 
Robert J. Phipps, Feb. 8, '63; promoted from capt. Com- 
pany H March 7, '65; brevet lieut. col. March 13, '65; 
resigned May 17, '65. James T. Peale, March i, '62; 
promoted from capt. Company D to maj. Sept. 9, 64; 
brevet lieut. col. March 13, '65. Napoleon J. Hbrreil, 
Nov. 4, '61; promoted from capt. Company G June 8, '65; 

Adjutants. — Arnold A. Plunimer, Nov. 18, '61; dis- 
charged by special order. Robert L. Coltart, Dec. 18, 
'61; promoted from ist lieut. Company I to adj. Dec. 28, 
'61; capt. Company I Dec. 20, '62. Charles E. Robison, 
Dec. 31, '61; discharged by special order. John B. 
Maitland, Oct. 9, '61; promoted from 2nd lieut. Company 
L to adj. Oct. 17, '62; ass't adj. gen. .-Vug. 6, '64. James 
E. B. Dalzell, Sept. i, '64; promoted from sergt. maj. 
Sept. I, '64; discharged Oct. 29, '64, for wounds received 
at St. Mary's Church, Va., June 24, '64. Clement En- 
gelman, March i, '62; promoted brevet capt. March 13, 
'65; died May 12, '65, of wounds received at Dinwiddie 
Court-house March 31, '65; veteran. Jerome M'Bride, 
Aug. 24, '61 ; promoted from private Company B; wounded 
at Kelly's Ford, Va., March 17, '63; transferred to veteran 
reserve corps William B. M'Elroy, Feb. 25, '64; pro- 
moted to sergt. maj. June 14, '65; veteran. 

Qiiarte) misters. — .Xbraham Edwards, Oct. 18, '61; re- 
signed Aug. 3, '62, to accept promotion of capt. and asst. 
Q. M. U. S. A. Henry S. King, Oct. i8, '6r; mustered 
out Oct. 29, '64. Lewis Young, Feb. 19, '65. 

SiiKf^eons. — Nathaniel F. Marsh, Oct. 7, '61; resigned 
Dec. 6, '62. John C. Lyons, Dec. 20, '62; transferred to 
56th Pa. Jan. 18, '63; discharged on surg's certificate 
Dec. 21, '64. John M. Junkin, Nov. 15, '62; resigned 
Feb. 3, '65. W'illiam B. Price, Mar. 20, '63; jjromoted 
from ass't surg. Feb. 15, '65. 

Assistant Si/rf^eons. — Peter Wager, Oct. 16, '61; trans- 
ferred to 5th Pj. cavalry Mnr. 20, '62. James M. Mor- 


- /1r\ » 


rison, AiiR. i, "62; transferred to 48th Pa. Nov. 29, '62. 
Charles King, Dec. 31, '61; resigned Nov. 25, '62. Frank 
A. Biishley, Dec. 15, '62; resigned Nov. 6. '63. James 
S. Skeels, Mar. 25, '65. John A. M'Coy, Sept. i, '64; 
promoted from private Company K to Hospital Steward 
Nov. I, '64; ass't surg. April 14, '65. 

Chaplains. — James B. Turner, Oct. 10, '61; resigned 
Mar. 13, '63. Henry (^. Oraham, Nov. 22, '63; re- 
signed Sept. 22, '64. 

Vfterinaiy Siii!^ton. — James A. \'anhorn, Feb. 12,64; 
promoted from private Company 15 Nov. 10, '64; veteran. 

Sergeant Majors. — Melvin A. Johnston, Aug. 21, '64; 
l)romoted from private Company I June 15, '65. Wil- 
liam H. Wonderly, Oct. 14, '61: promoted to 2nd lieut. 
Company K 5th Pa. cavalry Mar. 29, '62. A. Benson 
White, promoted to ist licut. Com(iany V Dec. 31, '62. 

Qitaytcrmasler Sergeants. — Richard \\'hitjker, Jan. i, 
'64; promoted 2nd lieut. Company G Dec. 13, '64; 
veteran. Gordon M. Hacon, Jan. i, '64; promoted from 
private Company G Jan. i, '65; veteran. 

Commissary Sergeant. — W. H. Collingwood, Sept. 7, 
'62; wounded in action; discharged July 7, '65. 

Hospital Stewards. — John Fulton, Oct. 1, '6 i ; mustered 
out Oct. I, '64. Joseph M'lMullen, Mar. i, '63; pro- 
moted from private Coni])any L Jan. i, '65. Eli Carner, 
Jan. 1, '64; promoted from private Company L May 
1, '65. 

Armorer. — Jesse M. Jones, Mar. 31, '64; jsromoted 
armorer Feb. 16, "65. 

CItie/ Buglers. — Francis Kopft, Aug. 15, '61; mustered 
out Aug. 20, '64. Theodore Duering, Jan. i, '64; pro- 
moted from bugler Company E Aug. 16, '64; veteran. 

Sai/i/lers. — Thomas J. Robinson, Jan. i, '64; pro- 
moted 2nd lieut. Company H May i, '64; veteran. 
Charles Kirkner, Sept. 12, '61; mustered out Sept. 12, 
'64. Thomas A. Parker, May 13, '6:^; promoted from 
private Company L Jan. i, '65. 


Officers. — Captains — Alfred Dart, Oct. 30, '61; re- 
signed Dec. 4, '62. Alfred Dart, jr., Oct. 30, '61 ; pro- 
moted from 2nd lieut. Mch. i, '63; discharged Sept. 19, 
'64. John ('. Harper, Sept. 6, '6i; promoted from ist 
lieut. Company B to capt. Dec. 13, '64; to brevet maj. 
Mch. 13, '65; killed at Hatcher's Run, Va., Feb. 6, '65. 
Samuel N. King, Nov. 15, '64; promoted ist lieut. Jan. 
8, '65; capt. Mar. 7, '65. ist lieuts. — Henry S. King, 
Oct. 18, '61; promoted Q. M. Aug. 18, '62. Duncan C. 
Phillips, Sept. 9, '62; promoted capt. Company F Nov. 
21, '63. \Villiam R. Herring, Oct. 30, '61; promoted 
from istsergt. to 2nd lieut. Mar. i, '63; to ist. lieut. May 
20, '64; discharged Sept. 3, '64. Charles M. Nugent, Jan. 
I, '64; promoted from ist sergt. Company L to ist lieut. 
Mar. 9, '65; brevet capt. Mar. 13, '65; killed in action 
Mar. 31, '65; veteran. Peter M. Burke, Jan. i, '64; pro- 
moted from sergt. to 2nd lieut. Mar. 9, '65; ist lieut. 
June 3, '65. ist sergt. James Flanegan, Jan. 4, '64; ab- 
sent, wounded, at muster out; veteran. Q. M. sergt., John 
Poorman, Jan. 4, '64; promoted from private Mar. i, '65; 
veteran. Com. sergt., Manger Dart, Jan. 4, '64; pro- 
moted from private Mar. i, '61;; veteran. Sergeants — 
George .\. Thompson, Jan. 4, '64; absent, wounded, at 
muster out; veteran. James R. Wright, Feb. 26, '64; pro- 
moted sergt. Mar. i, '65; veteran. Martin Gering, Jan. 4, 
'64; promoted sergt. .\lar. i, "65; veteran. Frederick L. 
Goch(^, Jan. 4, '64; promoted sergt. Mar. i, '65; veteran. 
Josiah Vandermark, Mar. 23, '64; promoted sergt. Mar. 
I, '65; veteran. Michael Heeky, Oct. 13, '61; captured; 
died at Andersonville, Ga., May 25, '64. Charles H. 
Sherwood, Oct. 30, '61; captured; died at Andersonville, 

Ga., June 7, '64. John H. Mary, Oct. 30, '61; mustered 
out Nov. II, '64. George W. Conrad, Oct. 31, '61; pris- 
oner from Oct. 12, '63, to Nov. 21, '64; discharged Feb. 
II, '65, to date Nov. 25, "64. Corporals— John W. Lake, 
Jan. I, '64; promoted to corp. Mar. i,'65; veteran. Law- 
ris J. Adams, Jan. i, '64; promoted to corp. Mar. i, '65; 
veteran. James C. Jenkins, Fel). 6, '65; promoted corp. 
Mar. I, '65. Thomas Householder, Feb. 6, '65: promot- 
ed corp. Mar. i, '65. David Ulmer, Mar. 28, '64; pro- 
moted rorp. Mar. i, '65; absent, wounded, at muster out. 
David H. Lynch, Aug. 25, '64; promoted corp. Mar. i, 
'65. Michael B. Conrad, Jan. 4, '64; promoted corp. 
Nfar. I, '65; veteran. John Black, jr., Jan. 23, '65; pro- 
moted corp. Mar. i, '65. James Barton, Oct. 30, '61; 
captureil; died at Andersonville, Ga., .Aug. 1, "64. Eli- 
sha Guard, Oct. 12, '61; captured; died at Andersonville. 
Ga., Aug. 17, '64. Frederick Burge, bugler, Jan. 4, '64; 
veteran. Thomas Kelly, blacksmith, Jan. 4, '64; veteran. 
Charles O. Ellis, farrier, Jan. 4, '64; absent, wounded, at 
muster out; veteran. (Jeorge R. Tavlor, saddler. May 1 

Privates. — Joseph Anderson, Jan. 2, '65. Charles 
Bobbs, Jan. 3, "65. Joseph Bronitte, Feb. 3, '65. John 
Burner, Feb. 7, '65. George Behers, Feb. 21, '65. John 
Braddock, Feb. 7, '65; discharged July 8, "65. Curtis 
Brown, Feb. 7, "65. Frederick Beebe, Sept. 17, '64. 
Gotlieb Beck, Jan. 24, '65; discharged May 26, '65. 
Loderick H. Conrad, Jan. 4, '64; veteran. ^L^rshal C. 
Conroe, Jan. 4, '64; veteran. John Connoly, Feb. 3, '65. 
Martin G. Clever, Feb. 10, '65. Charles Crosby, Feb. 17, 
'65. Edgar F. Crainar, Oct. 13, 61; captured; died at 
Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 9, '64. Harrison Davis. Feb. 2, 
'65. Craddock Davis, Feb. 3, '65. Samuel NL Dowden, 
Feb. I, '65. Jacob Dresel, May 28, '64. Lewis Dering, 
Mar. 28, '64; discharged NLay 25, '65. Ezra Dickerson, 
April 5, '64; wounded in action; discharged May 24, '65. 
John Donaldson, Feb. 8, '65. Clark R. Dart, Oil. 13, 
'61; captured; died at .Andersonville, Ga., Sept. 28, '64. 
Ferdinand Enimert, Feb. 17, '65. W. A. Eichelberger. 
F'eb. 7, '65. Frederick Ertzman, Se|)t. 18, '64; died Jan. 
20. '65, of wounds received in action. John Foster, |an. 
31, '64; absent, without leave, at muster out. Alexan- 
der Felton, Aug. 19, '62. Patrick Fo.\, Jan. 4, '64; veteran. 
Conrad Fisher, May 28, '64; missing in action, June 24, 
'64. Robert Fitzpatrick, Feb. 7, '65. Antone Funiaock, 
Feb. 4, '65. Henry Farror, F"eb. 7, '65. Daniel Ciuard, 
Jan. 4, '64; veteran. Frederick Gable. Mar. 3, '64. |ohn 
Graham, Feb. 3, '65. Peter (iillen, Feb. 3, '65. James 
Green, Feb. 7, '65. Jacob Green, Feb. 7, '65. John NL 
Hutchinson, Feb. 3, "65. Peter Hughes, Feb. 3, '65. 
Barney Hagaii, Jan. 2, '62. S. Haughtaling, Oct. 18. '64. 
Robert D. Hays', Feb. 7, '65. Calvin Halfhill, Feb. 9, '65. 
Casi)er Harrison, Feb. 3, '65. Elias J. Harding, Oct. 30, 
'64; mustered out Nov. 3, '64. James Hagan, Mar. 9, 
'64; discharged May 30, '65. William Jones, Jan. 4, "64; 
veteran. John Jones, Feb. 17, '65. Thomas L. John- 
son, Feb. 7, '65; not on muster out roll. William Kain, 
Feb. 17, '65. Charles NL Little, Feb. 8, '65. David 
Ma.\on, Mar. 30, '64. John Martin, Oct. 30, '61; de- 
serted May 8, '62; returned May 10, '64. Terrence Mur- 
ray, Feb. 7, '65. James Meirs, Apr. 11, '64; died. 
Charles Maxon, Jan. 4, '64; missing in action at Saint 
Mary's Church, \'a., June 24, '64; veteran. Edward J. 
Morse. Mar. 30, "64; discharged May 9, "65. .Albert F. 
Miles, Oct. 30, '61; mustered out Oct. 30, '64. (ieorge 
NFMurray, heb. 3, '65. Thomas M'Garvey, Oct. 30, '61; 
died at Hilton Head, S. C, Nov. 18, '64. Dominick 
O'Connor, ALay 3, '64. James Oxley, Feb. 3, '65. George 
Potter, Jan. 4, '64; arrested by civil authority Mar., '64; 
veteran. George Patient, .May 31, '64. James Patter 
son, Jan. 25, '65. Francis Patterson, Feb. 3, '65. 

= ■ di i 




George Phillips, Jan. 4, '64; died at Harrisburg. Pa., May 
4, '64; veteran. John G. Saupple, Jan. 24, '65. Joseph 
P. Sheppard, Feb. 6, '65. Thomas Smith, Feb. 5, '65. 
John S. Smith, Feb. 6, '65. William Sherwin, Feb. 8, '65. 
David R. Stouffer. Apr. 15, '64. Elisha M. Taylor, Feb. 
3. '65. John C. Ulmer, Mar. 31, '64. William A. Vaden, 
Feb. 6, '65. Silas Vandermark, Mar. 30, '64; captured; 
died at Salisburv, N. C, Nov. 2, '64. John L. White, 
Jan. 4, '64. William W. Warner, Nov. 28, '64. Jacob 
Walters, Jan. 24, '65. Jacob Withner, Feb. 4, '65. Ben- 
jamin Winnans, Feb. 7,"'65. George Wilson, Feb. 17, ^65. 
Benjamin Wilson and Joseph Wisemantle, Feb. 2, '65. 
William G. Winn, Feb. 15, '65. 




E 74th was recruited in the summer of 1S61, 
mostly in Pittsburg, though Company A was 

S^jlJ in part from Wyoming county. It went iq 
Washington in September and soon afterward 
to Virginia, where it went into winter quarters at 
Hunter's Chapel. The winter was spent in drill 
and fatigue duty, and on the opening of the cam- 
paign in 1862 the regiment was sent to General Fremont's 
command in West Virginia. Its march thither was 
attended with great fatigue and much suffering. After 
two weeks spent in picket and fatigue duty, with insuffi- 
cient subsistence, it went on a hurried march to Stras- 
burg, where it joined in the pursuit of Stonewall Jackson. 
At Cross Keys it was engaged, losing 6 killed and 13 
wounded. The regiment arrived at Cedar Mountain too 
late to participate in the battle. Thence with the army 
it fell back toward Manassas; in the course of which 
movement the 74th came upon the rear of a column of 
the enemy, attacked it and checked its advance. 

At the battle of Groveton or second Bull Run it was 
engaged during the two days of the fight and lost 17. 
Thence it went to Washington. It was engaged in the 
battle of Chancellorsville, where it lost 61 men. It was 
again engaged at Gettysburg, where its total loss was 136. 
In August it was sent with its division to the islands 
on the Soutli Carolina coast, where it frequently went on 
e.xpeditions and encountered the enemy. It returned to 
Washington in 1864. During the remainder of its term 
of service it was engaged in guard and picket duty in 
various localities. It was mustered out of the service at 
Clarksbury on the 29th of August, 1865. 

Following is the roll of Company A. The date of 
muster-in follows each man's name, and the date of 
muster-out is August 29th, 1865, where nothing appears 
to the contrary. 


Officers. — Captains — Samuel J. Pealer, March 13, '65; 
discharged May 8, '65. John W. Beishline, March 13, 

'65; promoted from ist lieut. to capt. July i, '65. First 
lieutenant, John F. Miller, March 13, '65; promoted 
from 2nd to ist lieut. July i, '65. Second lieutenant, 
John Beikler, Sept. 6, '61; jjromoted from sergt. Com- 
K to 2nd lieut. July 2, '65. First sergeant, William 
Saunders, March 4, '65. Sergeants — Charles B. Fisher, 
March 4, '65. Isaiah Hagenbach, Hiram W. Brown and 
Robert C. Parks, Feb. 21, '65. Corporals — Frederick M. 
Staley and Albert Serrils, Feb. 17, '65. Walter Moulton, 
Feb. 7, '65. John Lennon, Feb. 17, '65; Francis W. 
Jones, Feb. 25, '65. Severn B. Palmer, March i, '65. 
Nelson Williams and William Peck, Feb. 7, '65. Musi- 
cians — Samuel B. Anderson, March 4, '65. Charles W. 
Wood. March 10, '65. 

Privales. — William Abbott, March 10, '65; discharged 
by general order. May 12, '65. David Beers, March 4, 
'65. Alexander R. Blakely, Comfort E. Butters, Samuel 
W. Boone, A. G. Burlingame, A. J. Buckalew, Jonas M. 
Bower and Frank Brittain, March i, '65; Charles Brines, 
William S. Betz and Charles Baker, March 4, '65. 
Benjamin F. Bean, Feb. 16, '65; discharged by gen- 
eral order May 24, '65. James M. Brown, Mar. 
10, '65 ; died at Beverly, West Va., May 14, '65. 
Philip Cain, Feb. 9, '65. Michael Bain, Feb. 16, 
'65. James B. Case, March 4, '65. Clark Creveling. 
John Caden, William D. Campbell, Nathan Chronias, 
Peter Eveland and Hervey Emory, Mar. 10, '65. Lloyd 
Fo.x, Feb. 2, '65. Martin Finley and Miles B. Fowler, 
Mar. 4, '65. George P'ox, Mar. 10, '65. William Howe, 
and James Herron, Feb. 16, '65. George F. Hufnayle, 
Feb. 9, '65. David Hartman, Abram Hill, Francis S. 
Henrie, Alexander B. Herring, Mahlon B. Hicks and 
Patrick HoUigan, Mar. 10, '65; discharged by general 
order May 29, '65. John C. James and E. A. Kelechner, 
Mar. 4, '65. William Kisbauch and John C. Kline, Mar, 
10, '65. John Lantz, Mar. 4, '65. Joseph May and 
Israel Mummey, Feb. 21, '65. Cyrus B. Miller, Joseph 
B. Miller and Moses Markle, Mar. 4, '65. Jacob F. Mel- 
lon and Nathan E. Miller, Feb, 16, ,65; discharged by 
general order May 22, '65. Hervey M'Neal, Arthur 
Oliver and Henry F. O'Man, Mar. 4, '65. Wesley R. 
Price and Stephen Pohe, Mar. 10, '65. Peter Rusty and 
Emanuel Ruckey, Mar. 4, '65. Abram V. Robins, Feb. 
9, '65. William W. Robins, Feb. 27, '65; discharged by 
general order May 24, '65. William A. Shipman and 
James Shultz, Feb. 21, '65. George P. Stiner, John W. 
Stahl and Winfield S. Shaffer, Mar. 10, '65. Alonzo J. 
Suit and Wilson Swank, Feb. 9, '65. James M. Thomj)- 
son and George W. Titus, Mar. 4, '65. George Tronsur, 
Mar. lo, '65. Charles W. Trump, Mar. 4, '65. John 
Williams. Feb, 16, '65. Willoughby Wertman, Mar. 4, 
'65. Montgomery Williams, Mar. 10, '65; discharged by 
general order May 24, '65. George Zimmerman, Mar. 10, 



The name which this regiment assumed was the Key- 
stone Zouaves. The regiment was recruited in the latter 
part of the sumlner of 1861, afid left for Fortress Mon- 
roe on the 19th of November of that year. After a week 
it sailed for Hilton Head, S. C, where it remained till 
the last of May, 1862. During this time eight companies 
went to assist in taking Fort Pulaski, at the mouth of 
Savannah river, but they were not engaged. From Hil- 
ton Head it went to North Edisto island; thence to St. 
John's island, and from thence toward Charleston, and 
it was engaged in the attack on that city June i6tli, 





In October the 76tli, with other troops, went on an ex- 
licdilion to sever the communication between Savannah 
and Charleston. After an engagement, in which they 
were defeated, the troops returned to Hilton Head. The 
regiment did picket duty on tiie islands off the coast till 
July, 1863, when it went to Morris island to attack Fort 
Wagner. The attack was made on the iith, but was re- 
pulsed. In this action the 76th lost 53 killed and 184 
wounded. On the 18th another charge was made, in 
which the regiment lost 17 killed and wounded. It re- 
turned to Hilton Head, where it remained si.\ months, 
doing guard, picket and scout duty. 

In May, 1864, with other troojjs, the 76th went to 
Virginia and became part of the Army of the James. 
On the 5th of thnt month it embarked on transports, 
sailed down the York river from Yorktown, up the 
James river, landed at Bermuda Hundred, movctl to the 
Weldon railroad and destroyed several miles of the track. 
This was done under fire, and the 76th lost in killed, 
wounded and missing 65 men. Fighting continued at 
intervals during several days. The regiment was sent 
to Cold Harbor in the latter part of May, and took part 
in the fighting there the ist, 2nd, and 3d of June, 
losing very heavily. It returned and went on a recon- 
noisance to the Richmond and Petersburg railroad; then 
went to Petersburg, where it did duty during the siege 
with frequent casualties. It was engaged occasionally 
from the 14th to the 17th of August at Deep Bottom, 
and at Bermuda Hundred on the 24th and 25th. 

For some time subsequent to this the regiment was 
frequently engaged in fighting and skirmishing. It was 
in action at Chapin's Farm, at Fort Clilmer, and F'ort 
Harrison. In October it went on a reconnoisance and 
was engaged in a skirmish, with a loss of i killed and 12 
wounded. The 76th was in the battle at the taking of 
Fort Fisher in January, 1865, by General Terry, and 
from there went to Wilmington, N. C; and finally to 
Raleigh, where it did jjrovost duty till July iSth, when 
it was mustered out. 

Company H of the 76th was recruited in I.u/erne 
county. The men were mustered in at the dates annexed 
to their names in the following lists, and when not other- 
wise noted were mustered out July iSth, 1865. 


Colonels. — John M. Power, Aug. 10, "61; resigned .Xug. 
7, '62. D. C. Strawbridge, Sept. 24, '61; promoted from 
capt. Company B to col. Aug. 9, '62; resigned Nov. 20, 
"63. John C. Campbell, Oct. i, '61: promoted from capt. 
Company A to lieut. col. Dec. 11, '62; col. Feb. 13, '64; 
resigned Aug. 16, '64. John S. Littell, Nov. 18, "61; 
promoted from capt. Company K to lieut. col. Aug. 21, 
'64; col. Oct. 29, '64; brev. brig. gen. Jan. 15, '65; wounded 
at Fort F'isher, N. C, Jan. 15, '65. 

Lieutenant Colonels. — Daniel H. Wallace, -Aug. 28, '61; 
resigned Aug. 10, '62. John W. Hicks, Oct. 17, '61; 
promoted from capt. Company C to mnj. May i, '63; lieut. 
col. F"eb. 13. '64 ; brev. col. ^Iar. 13, '65; wounded at Fort 
Fisher, S. C, July 11, '63; mustered out June 1, '64; 
Charles Knerr, Oct. 26, '61; promoted from capt. Com- 
pany H to maj. Jan. 1, '65; lieut. col. June i, '65. 

Mixjors. — Oliver M. Irvine, Nov. 18, '61; resigned 
Sept. 27, '62. Cyrus Diller, Oct. 16, ■61; promoted from 
capt. Company D to maj. Nov. 7, '62; resigned Feb. iS, 
'63. William S. Diller, Oct, 16, '61; promoted from capt. 
company I) to maj. June 12, '64: mustered out No\ 

29, '64. 

Aiijiilaitts. — William W. Darlington, Nov. 13, "61; re- 
signed May 20, '62. Andrew J. Marshall, Sept. 24, '61: 
promoted from 2nd lieut. Company B Sept. 23, '62; died 
at Pittsburg, Pa., Aug. 6, '64. Adam C. Reinfchl, Sept. 
24, '61; ])ronioted from com. sergt. to scrgt. maj. |une 
24, '63; ist lieut. Company B .'\ug. 4, '64; brevet ca|ii. 
and brevet maj. March 13, '65; wounded at F'ort Wagner, 
S. C, July II, '63, and at Darbytown Road, Va., Oct. 
27, '64; mustered out Jan. 5, '65; veteran. Frederick R. 
Smith, Sept. 30, '61; jjromoted from sergt. maj. to 1st 
lieut. and adj. May 27, '65; veteran. 

Quartermasters — ("harles (iarretson, Aug. 18, '61; pro- 
moted capt. and ass't Q. M. June 16, '62. CInrlcs M. 
Brumm, Nov. 18, '61; promoted from isl lieut. Com- 
pany K July 24, '62; mustered out Oct. 17, '64. Phile- 
mon N. Hicks, jr., Feb. 24, '64; promoted from Q. Nf. 
sergt. to Q. M. Mar. i, '65. 

Surgeons. — Erastus R. Scholl, Oct. 15, '61; discharged 
Feb. 19, '63. M. Augustus Withers, Sept. 30, '62; pro- 
moted from ass't surg. June 11, '63; resigned July 27, '64. 
Nathan Y. Leet, Nov. 24, '63; promoted from ass't surg. 
Sept. 7, '64; mustered out June 8, '65. Charles W. 
Backus, Sept. 30, '64; transferred from 203d Pa. 

Assistant Surjreons. — Charles J. Siemens, Oct. 15, '61; 
promoted to surg. 50th Pa. Mar. 7, '62. Frederick J. 
Bancrofl, Mar. 7, '62; promoted to surg. 152nd Pa. Sept. 

30, '62. Edwin Keele>, Aug. 11, '62; resigned May 18, 
'63. Adolphus Schlosser, July 10, '63, resigned Sept. 24, 
64. Isaac Lefever, Oct. 17, '64. 

Chaplains. — Benjamin L. .Agnew, Nov. '8, '61; resigned 
May 25, '62. William J. Wright, July 10. '63; discharged 
Sept. 12, '64. 

Sergeant Majors. — James J. M'Cormick, Nov. 6, '61; 
l)romoted from \>\'w. Company F Dec. i,'6i,to 2nd lieut. 
Comjiany D Aug. 15, '62. Daniel M'Vay, Oct. i, '61 ; 
l)romoted from priv. Company A May 18, '64, to 2nd 
lieut. Company A June 20, '64. Isaiah H. Rawlins, Oct. 
9, '61; mustered out Nov. 28, '64. Jesse R. Sitler, Sept. 
4, '63; drafted; promoted from corp. Company A tosergt. 
maj. Nov. 20, '64; to 2nd lieut. Company A Mar. 10, '65. 
C. E. Applebaugh, Feb. 21, '65; substitute; promoted 
from priv. Company C July 8, '65. 

Quartermaster Sergeants. — .Amander Pollock, Sept. 24, 
'61; promoted from priv. Company B Oct. 8, "62; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate Dec. 10, '62. John M'Nevin, 
Oct. 17, '61; promoted from corp. Company C Jan. 24. 
'63; to 2nd lieut. Company C' Oct. 10, '64; veteran. 
Michael Bote, Oct. 17, '61; ]>romoted from corj). Com- 
pany C Mar. 15, '65; veteran 

Commissary Sergeants. — William F. Reisinger, Oct. 24, 
'61; transferred to Company I Oct. 27, '62. Charles 
Evans, Nov. 6, '61; promoted to ist lieut. Company K 
Sept. 7, '64; veteran. William H. Steckley, Oct. 26, *6i; 
promoted from corp. Company H Sei>t. 7, '64; veteran. 

Hospital Stavanls. — Thomas H. Byrnes, Nov. 16, '61; 
promoted to 2nd lieut. Company G May 22, '63. Wil- 
liam Blanck, jr., Nov, 21, '61; promoted priv. Comi)any 
I to hosp. stew. July 31, '63; to ist lieut. Com|)any F 
Mar. I, '65; veteran. Isaac T. Keene, Oct. 26, '61; pro- 
moted from |)riv. Company H to hosp. st. Mar i, '65; 

Principal Musicians. — Seth Heull, Sept. 24, '61; pro- 
moted from priv. Company B July 9, '63; veteran. James 
H. Pross, Oct. 26, '61; promoted from priv. Company 
H; veteran. Robert C. Dunlap, Oct, i, '61: promot- 

cd from priv. Company A Nov. i8, '6i; discharged by 
special order Oct. 6, '62. George H. Bierman, Oct. 24, 
'61; promoted from priv. Company I Nov. 18, '61; dis- 
charged by s[)ecial order Oct. 6, '62. 


Officers. — Ca[)tains — Arthur Hamilton, Oct. 26, '61; 
killed at Pocotaligo, S. C, Oct., 22, '63. Charles Knerr, 
Oct. 26, '61; wounded at Fort Wagner, S. C, July 1 1. '63; 
promoted from ist lieut. to capt. Oct. 23, '62; niaj. Jan. 
I, '65. Samuel W. Heller, Oct. 26, '61; promoted from 
ist sergt. to 2nd lieut. Feb. 14, '64; rst lieut. Sept. 5, '64; 
capt. Jan. 3, '65. First lieutenants — William Miller, Oct. 
26, '61; promoted from 2nd to 1st lieut. Oct. 23, '62; 
killed at Fort Wagner, S. C, July 11, '62. William F. 
I^loss, Oct. 26, '61; promoted from ist sergt. to 2nd lieut. 
Oct. 23, '62; to ist lieut. Dec. 3, '63; died at Hampton, 
Va., Aug. 4, '64, of wounds received at Petersburg July 
26, '64. Second lieutenant, David Davis, Oct. 26, '61; 
promoted from ist sergt. to 2nd lieut. April 24, '65; ist 
lieut. July i, '65; not mustered; veteran. First sergeant, 
Peter Houser, Feb. i, '64; commissioned ist lieut. June 
I, '65; not mustered; absent, sick, at muster out; veteran. 
Sergeants — Henry Huffer, Feb. i, '64; commissioned 
2nd lieut. June i, '65; not mustered; veteran. Fred- 
erick Keitre and John Grundon, Feb. i, '64; ]iromoted 
corps. Mar. i, '65; veterans. Solomon C. Miller, Oct. 

26, '61; mustered out Nov. 28, '64. George W. Dodge, 
Feb. I, '64; discharged on surg's certificate; veteran. 
Jacob M. Major, Oct. 26, '61; mustered out Nov. 28, '64. 
Edwin F. Taylor, Aug. 26, '63; drafted; discharged June 
10. '65. Thomas Dougherty, Oct. 26, '61; killed at 
Drury's Bluff, Va., May 16, '64; veteran, Corporals — 
William H. Auman, Feb. i, '64; absent, sick, at muster 
out; veteran. John R. Marshall and Noah B. Parker, 
Feb. I, '64; veterans. Alvin O. Lowe, Aug. 26, '63; 
drafted; promoted corp. Mar. i, '65; discharged June 
29, '65. Conrad Young, Mar. 28, '64; promoted corp. 
Mar. I, '65; absent, sick, at muster out; veteran. George 
S. Hawk, Oct. 15, '64; substitute; promoted corp. May 
10, '65 William B. Adams, July 16, '63; drafted; pro- 
moted corp. May 10, '65. Charles O. Smith, Oct. 26, 
'61; mustered out. Bailey Cooper and Thomas Madigan, 
Oct. 26, '61; mustered out Nov. 28, '64. William H. 
Steckley, Oct. 28, '61; ])romoted com. sergt. Sept. 6,' 64; 
veteran. James Armstrong, Oct. 26, '61; killed at Po- 
cotaligo, S. C, Oct. 22, '62. Theodore Cherry, Oct. 26, 
'61; killed at Deep Bottom, Va., Aug. 16, '64; veteran. 
John A. Specht, Oct. 26, '61; captured; died at Salisbury, 
N. C, Dec. 19, '64. 

Privates. — Peter Anderton, Oct. 15, '64. Aldus and 
Robert Arnier, Feb. 13, '65; substitutes. Hiram Alliman 
and George B. Alliert, Oct. 26, '61; mustered out Nov. 
28, '64. James W. Adams, Oct. 3, '63; drafted; died 
Aug. 2, '64, at City Point, Va. Charles H. Brooks, Feb. 
20, '65; discharged June 27, '65. Jacob Bertz, Feb. 16, 
'65; substitute. Peter Barlieb, Feb. 22, '65. William M. 
Bassett, Oct. 26, '61; discharged on surg's certificate Dec. 

27, '62. Ander'n B. Bennett, Aug. 25, '63; drafted; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate. Henry C. Bi.xby, Sept. 20, 
'63; drafted; discharged May 27, '65. John F. Bubb, 
Feb. 9, '65; discharged June 10, '65. Henry Baker, Oct. 
26, '61; killed at Deep Bottom, Va., Aug. 16, '64. Dan- 
iel Cook, Oct. 17, '64; substitute. Jeremiah Coon, Sept. 

28, '64; drafted; absent, sick, at muster out. Amos 
Campbell, Oct. 17, '64; drafted. Lester Cooledge, Aug. 

25, '63; drafted; captured Aug. 16, '64. Samuel Croll, 
Feb. 10, '65. Michael Clark, Feb. 22, '65. M. E, Crook- 
ham, Feb. 14, '65; substitute. Arthur E. Connon, Oct. 

26, '61; discharged on surg's certificate May 28, '63. Ed- 

ward Connor, Oct. 26, "61; mustered out Nov. 28, '64. 
Sylvanus H. Corson, Oct. 26, 61; discharged Oct. 20, for 
wounds received at Fort Wagner, S. C, July 11, '63. 
Bennovan O. Covey, Oct. 26, '61; discharged on surg's 
certificate June 22, '63. C. D. Chamberlain, Oct. 26, '61; 
discharged on surg's certificate Feb. 2, '62. James Criss- 
well, Oct. 26, '61; discharged on surg's certificate June 
2, '63. Sylvester M. Corson, Oct. 26, '61; mustered out 
Nov. 28, '64. William Caldwell, Oct. 26, '61; discharged 
on surg's certificate June 2, '63. Joseph Garden, Oct. 26, 
'61; captured; died at Richmond, Va., Nov. 19, '63. 
Charles Cranler, Oct. '61; deserted Oct. 25, '61. 
B. A. Campbell, Jan. 5, '65; not on muster out roll. 
Josiah Dressier, Oct. 17, '64; substitute. Evan Davis, 
Feb. 25, '65. Samuel Diller, Jan. 12, '65. William Dit- 
ters, Feb. 16, '65. Lewis Decker, Oct. 26, '61; trans- 
ferred to veteran reserve corps. James H. Decker, Oct. 
26, '61; captured; died at Richmond, Va., Sept. 30, '63. 
Charles Deihl, Oct. 26, '61; captured; died at Richmond, 
Va., Sept. 5, '(iT,. Bryon Flagherty. Mar. 9, '64; veteran. 
Conrad Frable, Mar. 7, '65; discliarged June 25, '65. 
John D. Fretts, Aug. 26, '63; drafted; died at Point of 
Rocks, Va., Aug. 5, '64. Thomas Griffith, Feb. 28, '65. 
E. Gerberick, Oct. 26, '61; mustered out Oct. 26, '64. 
Albert Gesner, Oct. 26, '61; mustered out Nov. 28, '64. 
Alfred Green, Oct. 26, '61; transferred to veteran reserve 
corps. Richard Guinen, Oct. 14, '63; drafted; trans- 
ferred to veteran reserve corps Dec. 13, '64; discharged 
Aug. 3, '65. Dennis Griffin, Oct. 26, '61; killed at Dee]j 
Bottom, Va., Aug. 16, '63. Edward Getroy; deserted 
Oct. 25, '61. Thomas Haley, Feb. i, '64; veteran, Henry 
Holdcn, Aug. 25, '63; drafted; absent, sick, at muster 
out. John L. Harris, Feb. 25, '65. George Hart, Feb. 
22, '65; substitute; mustered out with company July 18, 
'65. John Heft'ernon, Feb. 21, '65. John Harris, Feb. 
28, '65. John L. Herr, July 15, '63; drafted. Julius D. 
Hamlin, Oct. 26, '61; Idlled at Fort Wagner, S. C, July 
II, '63. Patrick Hunt, Oct. 26, '61; captured; died at 
Richmond, Va., Oct. 27, '63. S. B. Holcomb, Aug. 26, 
'63; drafted; died at IJermuda Hundred. Va., May 14, 
'64. George A. Jackson, July 15, 'i>y, drafted. Aaron 
R. Judy, July 15, '63; drafted; absent, sick, at muster 
out. Griffith James, Feb. 28, '65. James Johnson, Oct. 
26, '61; killed at Fort Wagner, S. C, July 11, '63. 
Martin Kelley, Feb. i, '64; absent, sick, at mus- 
ter out; veteran. Philip Klinger, Oct. 12, '64: 
substitute. Lawrence Klinger, Oct. 17, '64; substitute. 
George Kearer, Feb. 8, '65; substitute; discharged Aug. 
25, '65. Thomas Kearney, Oct. 26, '61; mustered out 
Nov. 28, '64. John Kelly, Sept. 12, '64; drafted; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate Mar. 31, '65, Daniel Knott, 
Oct. 12, '64; substitute; discharged June 29, '65. Isaac 
T. Keene, Oct. 29, '61; promoted to hosp. st. Mar. 1, '65; 
veteran. Joseph Kelly, Sept. 29, '63; drafted; killed at 
Deep Bottom, Va., Aug. 16, '64. Conliffe Lwisey, Oct. 
15, '64; substitute. Daniel S. Lewis, Mar. 29, '64; ab- 
sent, sick, at muster out. John W. Lewis, Feb. 25, '65. 
Charles Leidy, Feb. 20, '65; substitute. Harthy Lanip- 
shere, Feb. 22, '65; substitute. John Love. Oct. 26, '61; 
mustered out Nov. 28, '64. Thomas T. Lloyd, Oct. 26, 
'61; died Nov. 26, '61. Lewis Litz, Aug 26, '63; drafted; 
died at Beverly, N. J, Sept. 15, '64, of wounds received 
at Deep Bottom, Va., Aug. 16, '64. Albert Mandeville, 
Mar. 9, '64; absent, sick, at muster out; veteran. John 
S. Miller, Oct. 20, '64. Charles W. Mulkins, Sept. 21, 
'63; drafted; discharged June 16, '65. Joseph M. Mur- 
ray, Sept. 23, '63; drafted; absent, sick, at muster out. 
Joseph Meches, Feb. 22, '65. Charles Mango, Feb. 14, 
'65. Benj. M. Masteller, Feb. 15, '65. John Matox, 
Feb. 18, '65. Thomas Martin, F"eb. 21, '65. Nathan 
Meches, Mar. 7, '65; discharged June 10, '65, Anthony 





Myers, deserted Oct. 25. '61. Eugene M'Dovvell, Sept. 
^o, '63; drafted. Willinni M'Cmiisey, Feb. 13, "65. 
Willinni M'.AIlister, Oct. 26, '61; discharged on surg's 
certificate June 2, '63. D. B. M'Clregor and Patrick 
M'Donald, Oct. 26, '61; mustered out Nov. 28, '64. 
lliii^h M'Kenna, Mar. 10, "65; not on muster out 
roll. Thomas Xaughlon, Oct. 26, 61; mustered 
out Nov. 28, '65. William Nelson, Oct. 26, '61; 
(nptured; died at Andersonville, Oa., May 23, '64. 
Michael Neal, Feb. 17, '65; deserted Mar. 10, '65. 
C'liarles G. Palmer, Oct. 25, '63; drafted. Whitney Pres- 
ton, .Aug. 25, '63; drafted. .Austin Porter, Oct. 26, '61; 
mustered out Nov. 28, '64. James H. Pross, Oct. 26, 
'61; promoted to principal musician; veteran. George 
W. Posey, Oct. 26, '61; killed at Fort Wagner, S. C, 
July II. '63. Joseph Ricker, Aug. 26, '63; drafted. 
Amos Rhodes, Oct. 26, '61; discharged on surg's certifi- 
cate June 2, '63. Lewis Rake, Oct. 26, '61; discharged 
on surg's certificate Jan. 31, '62. Thomas Rheimer, Oct. 
26, '61; died at Beaufort. S C, July 30, '62. Truman 
Kussell, Aug. 25, '63; drafted; died at Alexandria, Va., 
June 28, '64. N'icholas T. Rodda, Feb. 25, '64; drafted; 
died at Hampton, \"a., June 19, '64. 1.. Schaarwatcher, 
Feb. 20, '65; substitute. Theodore Sinclair, Oct. 26, '61; 
mustered out Nov. 28, '64. Thomas K. Shortledge, Oct. 
26, '61; discharged on surg's certificate Mar. 9, 'Cj. 
Peter W. Smith. .Aug. 26. '63; drafted; discharged June 
8, '65. l.yman C. Smith, Sept. 13. '63; discharged on 
?urg's certificate. Amasa P. Sexton, Sept. 26, '64; sub- 
siiiute; discharged June 28, '65. James Swick, July 15. 
'63; died at Petersburg, Va., June 7, '64. John Sanford. 
Feb. 9, 65; deserted June 10, '65. Reynolds Thompson, 
Oct. 9, '63; drafted. Ellis Terrill, .Aug. 4, '63; drafted; 
absent, sick, at muster out. Abraham Thomas, July 14, 
"63; drafted. 'I'unis Thomas, Mar. 28, '64. John .A. 
Tliompst)n, Oct. 26, '61; mustered out Nov. 28, '64. 
Robert Taylor, July 13, '63; drafted; discharged May 26. 
"65. Martin I). Vosburg, .Aug. 26, '63; drafted. George 
Vaness. William S. Wagner, July 18, '63; drafted. 
Ryan L. Warren, Aug. 21, '63; drafted; absent, sick, at 
muster out. John Wildman, July 15. '63; drafted. 
Thomas M. Williams, Feb. 28, "65. William Wambaugh, 
Oct. 26, '61; captured July 11, '63; absent at muster out, 
(".eorge Wiltner, Jan. 7, '65. Peter Ward, Oct. 26, '61; 
discharged on surg's certificate June 2, '63. Henry 
Waltemeyer, Oct. 26, '61; died at Andersonville, Gn., 
June 2, '64. Thomas I.. Williams, Feb. 20, '65; died at 
Raleigh, N. C. May 18, '65. Adam Wilhelm, Jan. 5, 
'65; not on muster out roll. Samuel Yerger, Mar. 7, '65. 
Peter Young, Oct. 26, '6i ; died at Hilton Head, S. C, Dec. 
25, '62. 


Company G of this regiment was raised in Scranton, 
and was composed mostly of Welshmen or men of Welsh 
descent. The first company, H, was recruited in part in 
Luzerne county. It was not full, and, though it was some 
time with the regiment and took part in one battle, it was 
disbanded without pay. 

Recruiting for this regiment commenced in .August, 
and in October it moved to Louisville, Ky., and thence 
south on the line of the Louisville railroad to Nolin 
river; there it had its camp during a month; then at 
camp Negley; then it moved leisurely forward from 
camp to camp, till it arrived at Nashville in March, 1862, 
after the victories at Forts Henry iind Donelson. The 
first battle was at Pittsburg Landing, .April 7th, 1862, to 
reach which it had made a forced mart h, arriving while 

the action was in progress. In this action it lost 3 
killed and 7 wounded. 

It reached Corinth in the latter part of May, and on 
the 30th the enemy blew up his works and evacuated the 
jtlace. During the ensuing summer it was eng.iged in 
marching with the army and occasionally skirmishing. 
In December it moved forward with the army on Nliir- 
freesboro and encountered the enemy at Stone river, and 
was severely engaged during three days. Its conduct at 
this battle was such as to elicit fiom (•encral Rosec ran/ 
the compliment: " It was the banner regiment ,11 Sione 
river. They never broke their ranks." 

For several weeks after this battle the rei'iineiii 
on guard and scout duty; then till the opening of the 
summer campaign of 1863 it was in c.imp at Murfrecs- 
boro. In June it was engaged at Liberty G.ip, wheie it 
lost a third of its effective for.-e. .Among the officers 
killed in this action was I.icuten.iiit W II. Thomas, of 
Company G. 

.\t the battle of Chickam uig.i, in September, the 77th 
was very heavily engaged, and all its field offi'ers, seven 
line officers and 79 men fell into the hands of the enemy. 
In January, 1864, many of the regiment re-enlisted, and 
received a veteran furlough. On their return thev went 
with Sherman on his .Atlanta campaign. They were en- 
gaged during several days from the 7th of May; at Re- 
saca, at Kinston, at New Hope church on the 25th and 
the three following days; again, three miles from that 
place, on the 4th of June; from the 19th to the 23d of 
the same month at Kenesaw mountain, and in the same 
vicinity for four days from the 24th; at Smyrnia, at the 
Chattahoochee river, and at Peach Tree creek in the lat- 
ter part of July. 

During .August the regiment was engaged in the invest- 
ment and siege of Atlanta, and after the retirement of the 
enemy it was engaged at Lovejoy on the 2nd, 3d, 4th and 
5th of September. 

.After the departure of Sherman for the sea the 77th, 
with other L^nion forces, was engaged in endeavoring to 
out-maneuver Hood. An action took place in the latter 
part of November at Franklin, in which the regiment 
heavily engaged. .At the defense of Nashville against 
Hood, in December, it was hotly engaged, and it joined 
in the pursuit of his living columns, occasionally skir 
mishing till it reached Huntsville, .\la. This was the last 
of its fighting. In the spring of 1865 it was reinforced 
and sent to the southwest, where a hostile altitude was 
still maintained. .After a short stay in New Orleans it 
marched into Texas, where it arrived in .August and re- 
mained till December. It then embarked at Indianola 
for Philadelphia, where it was mustered out of the service 
on the i6ih of February, 1866. 

In the following lists the dates of muster into inc sci 
vice are given with the names. When no remark follows 
in the list of Company H the mail was not accounted for 
in the adjutant general's record of the company. Those 
of the regimental ofHcers and, of Company G not other- 
wise accounted for were mastered out with the regi- 






C^/rwcA.— Frederick S. Stumbaugh, Sept. 28, '61; pro- 
moted brig. gen. Nov. 29, '62; (bscliarged Dec. 7, '62. 
Thomas E. Rose, Sept. 28. '61; promoted from capt. Co. 
B to col. Jan. 24, '63; to brevet brig. gen. June 11, '65; 
prisoner from Sept. 19, '63, to May i, '64; wounded at 
Kenesaw Mountain, Ca., June 26, '64. 

Lieiiteiiaiit Colonels. — Peter B. Housum, Sept. 28, '61; 
died Jan. i, '63, of wounds received at Stone river, Tenn., 
Dec. 31, '62. Frederick S. Pyfer, Dec. 8, '61; promoted 
from capt. Co. K Jan. 31, '63; prisoner from Sept. 19, '63, 
to May, '64; mustered out Feb. 4, '65. William A. Rob- 
inson, May I, '61; ])romoted from capt. Co. E June 10, 
'65; brevet col. and brevet brig. gen. Mar. 13, '65. 

Majors. — Stephen N. Bradford, Oct. 26, '61; resigned 
Jan. 31, '63. Alexander Phillips, Oct. 26, '61; promoted 
from rapt. Company G Apr. 12, '63; commissioned lieut. 
col. Mar. 25, '65; not mustered; prisoner from Sept. 19, 
'63, to May, '64; lost arm at Lovejoy, Ga., Sept. 3, '64; 
mustered out May 8, '65. Joseph J. Lawson, Sept. 20, 
'61; promoted from capt. Company C June 13, '65; mus- 
tered out with regiment Dec. 6, '65. 

Adjutants. — Samuel T. Davis, Sept. 20, '61; promoted 
capt. Company G Dec. 8, '63. Christian Snively, Sept. 
20, '61; promoted from hosp. St. Sept. 8, '64; wounded 
at Dallas, (la.. May 28, "64; resigned June 7, '65; veteran. 
Arthur Bennett, Mar. 10, '64; promoted from sergt. Com- 
pany B June 9, '65. 

Quartermasters. — Jacob E. Cassell, Sept. 26, '61; re- 
signed June 21, '63. George F. Laubach, Sept. 19, '61; 
promoted from Q. M. sergt. June 16, '63; resigned June 7, 
'65. James O. Brookbank, Feb. z8, '65; promoted from 
ist lieut. Company F Oct. 15, '65. 

Surgeons. — Franklin Irish, Oct. 26, '61; resigned Feb. 
II, '64. James M. M'Candlass, Mar 20, '63; promoted 
from ass't surg. April 27, '64. 

Assistant Surgeons. — Thomas B.Potter, Oct, 26, '61; 
resigned .^pr. 30, '62. Jacob S. Maurer, June 10, '62; 
resigned Nov. 18, '62. Joseph B. Downey, Aug. 2, '62; 
promoted to surg. 78th Pa. regiment May 31, '63. James 
F. Adair, Mar. 14, '64; drafted. Isaac T. Coates, Sept. 

19. '(>s- 

Chaplain. — John M. Thomas, Nov. i, 61; resigned 
June 21, '62. 

Sergeant Majors. — Henry C. Spreen, Oct. 11, '61; pro- 
moted from musician Company B Apr. 10, '65; veteran. 
Sidney J. Brauff, Oct. 11, '61; promoted from serg. Com- 
pany B Oct. 19, '61; discharged on surg's certificate Mar. 
28, '62. William P. Price, Sept. 20, '61; promoted from 
priv. Company B April i, '62; to 2nd lieut. Company E 
June 20, '62. Silas M. Cline, Sept. 20, '61; promoted 
from corp. Company C Feb. 10, '64; to 2nd lieut. Com- 
pany C Apr. 10, '65; veteran. Alfred W. Letteer, Oct. 
14, '61; promoted from sergt. Company D June 21, '62; 
captured at Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 19, '63; died at An- 

Quartermaster Sergeants. — Joseph Guthrie, Dec. 8, 
'61; promoted from com. sergt. Apr. i, '65; veteran. 
George S. Drake, Oct. 8, '61; promoted from private 
Company B. to Q. M. sergt. Feb. 5, '64; ist lieut. Com- 
pany B. April 10, '65; veteran. 

Commissary Sergeants. — Richard Mitchell, Sept. 20, '6;; 
promoted from corp. Company C. .\\>x. i, '65; veteran. 
Thomas G. Cochran, Oct. 11, '61; i)romoted from private 
Company A to commissary sergt. Oct. 11, '61; 2nd lieut. 
Company D .'\ug. 27, '62. 

Hospital Stewards. — Daniel E. Davis, Oct. g, '61; pro- 
moted from private Company F Sept. 9, '64; veteran. 
Chas. H. Cressler, Oct. 11, '61; promoted from jirivate 
Company A Oct. 11, '6i; 2nd lieut. Company D June 19, 

'62. Wm. V. Marquis, Oct. 11, '61; promoted from 
corp. Company B June 20, '62; assistant surg. 28th regi- 
ment Kentucky volunteers Feb. '63. 


-Cajitains — Alexander Phillips, Oct. 26, '61; 
maj. Apr. 12, '63. Henry Stern, Oct. 11, '61; 


promoted from ist lieut. Apr. 17, '63; resigned Sept. 9, 
'63. Samuel T. Davis, Sept. 20, '61; promoted from adj. 
Dec. 8, '63; discharged Aug. 15, '64, for wounds received 
at Resaca, Ga., May 14, '64. Edwin Morgan, Oct. 1 1, '61 ; 
promoted ist sergt. Feb. 5, '64; ist lieut. May i, '65; 
capt. Sept. I, '65; mustered out with company Dec. 6, 
'65; veteran. First lieutenants — William H. Thomas, 
Oct. ir, '61; promoted from 2nd to ist lieut. Apr. 17, 

killed at Liberty Gap, Tenn., June 25, '65 


Watkins, Oct. 11, '61; promoted from sergt. to 2nd lieut. 
.Apr. 10, '65; ist lieut. Se]jt. i,'65; discharged Oct. 7, '65; 
veteran. Second lieutenants — David Garbet, Oct. 21, 
'61; promoted from ist sergt. Apr. 17, '63; captured at 
Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 19, '63; mustered out Mar. 15, 
'65. John Grison, Oct. 11, '61; p'-omoted sergt. Feb. 5, 
'64; ist sergt. May i, '65; 2nd lieut. Sept. i, '65. First 
sergeant, Evan Waters, Oct. 11, '61; promoted corp. Feb. 5, 
'64: sergt. May I, '65, ist sergt. Sept. 10, '65 ; vetean. Sergts. 
— Ernest Johnston, Oct. 11, '61; promoted corp. Feb. 5, 
'64; sergt. Mar. i, '65; discharged Mar. 4, '65; veteran. 
John Barnett, Oct. 11, '61; promoted corp Feb. 5, '64; 
sergt. May i,'65; veteran. L. Barright, Nov. 13, '61; wounded 
at Jonesboro, Tenn., Sept. i, '64; promoted corp. Mar. i, 
'65; sergt. May r, '65; discharged Oct. 18, '65; veteran. 
John T. Hope, Oct. 9' '61; promoted sergt. Sept. 10, '65; 
veteran. Hugh (;allagher,Oct. 11, '61; promoted corp. Feb. 
5, '64; sergt. July 7, '64; prisoner from Nov. 30, '64, to 
Apr. 28, '65; discharged June 2, '65; veteran. James 
Forrester, Oct. 11, '6i ; promoted from corp. Mar. i, '63; 
discharged on surg's certificate June 25, '63. William 
Morris, Oct. 11, '61; promoted sergt. Apr. 15, '63; cap- 
tured at Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 19, '63; died at Ander- 
sonville, '64. George Stevens, Oct. 11, '61; promoted 
sergt. Mar. i, '63; captured at Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 
19, '63; died at Andersonville Oct., '64. Oscar C.Smith, 
Oct. II, '61; promoted sergt. Apr. 17, '63; captured at 
Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 18, '63; died at Andersonville 
July 24, '64. Corporals — Philip Waters, Dec. 15, '61; 
promoted corp. Mar. i, '65; veteran. G. W. Mitchell, Oct. 
II, '61; promoted corp. Mar. i,'65; veteran. E. L. Evans, 
Mar. 3, '64; promoted corp. Mar. i, '65. William G. 
Fagan, Feb. 20, '64; promoted corp. May i, '65. James 
Phillips, Mar. 3, '64; promoted corp. May. i, '65. John 
Moore, Feb. 22, '64; promoted corp. July i, '65. Lewis 
Herbert, Nov. 15, '61; promoted corp. Sept. 10, '65 ; veteran. 
Thomas Morgan, Feb. 9, '65; promoted corp. Sept. 10, 
'65. Benjamin Phillips, Oct. 11, '61; discharged on 
surg's certificate July 13. '62. Gilbert B. Vail, Oct. 11, 
'61'; promoted corp. Mar. i, '63; captured at Chicka- 
mauga, Ga., Sept. 19, '63; died at Andersonville, Sept. 
19, '64. Edwin Hall, Oct. 11, '61; promoted corp. Mar. 

I, '63; captured at Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 19, '63; died 
at Andersonville, Oct. 11, '64. Aaron K. Pruden, Oct. 

II, '61; died at Stevenson, Ala., July 14, '62. Joseph 
Thimias, Mar. 31, '64; promoted corp. May i, '65; died 
Aug. 9, '65. William Welsh, Oct. 11, '61; died at Louis- 
ville, Ky., '62. John E. Thomas, Oct. 11, '6i; deserted 
Apr. '63. 

Privates. — Henry Amnions, Feb. 15, '64; absent, sick 
at muster out. James Armstrong, Feb. 13, '65; died at 
St. Louis, Mo., Jan. 24, '66. T. R. Armstrong, Feb. 10, 
'65. .James Atkins, Mar. 5, '65; died at New Orleans, 
La., liily 20, '65. Joseph Bailey, Feb. 22, '64. William 





R.iker, Feb. 25, '64; absent, sick, at muster out. Robert 
Burrows, Nov. 15, '61; mustered out Nov. 22, '64. Jos- 
eph Bryant, Oct. 11, '61; mustered out Oct. 11, '64. 
Mirtin Barrett, Nov. 6, '62; mustered out Nov. 5, '65. 
William F. Barney, Mar. 3, '64; died at Nashville, Tenn., 
Sept. 5, of wounds received at Marietta, Ga., July 4, '64. 
James Brown, George Buchanan and Thomis Horches, 
Oct. II, '61; discharged; date unknown. George Bl.ick, 
Feb. 24, '64; not on muster out roll. John Caffery, Mar. 
9, '64. Bryne Cafferty, Mar. 21, '64; discharged Dec. 6, 
'65. Peter C.irney, .Apr. 5, '64; discharged Oct. 11, '65. 
Jonathan Coslett, Mar. 21, '64. William Collins, Feb. 10, 
'65. Patrick Clark, Feb. ir, '65. Charles Connor, Nov. 
15, '61; wovmded at Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 19, '63; 
mustered out Oct. 22, '64. Charles Cressler, Jan. 24, '62; 
discharged Oct. 22, '62. Andrew M. Clark, Oct. 11, '61; 
discharged on surg's certificate Apr. 11, '62. Nicholas 
Conroy, Feb. 23, '64; discharged Mar. 19, '65, for wounds 
received at Dallas, Ga., June 2, '64. Edwin B. Cavil and 
George B. Carr, Oct. ir, '61; discharged; date unknown. 
Howell Davis, Feb. 10, '65. Wyant Disler, Feb. 11, '65. 
Lewis L. Davis, Apr. 12, '65. John C. Daily, Feb. 22, 
'64; killed at Dallas, Ga., June 30, '64. William Davis, 
Nov. 15, '61; killed at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 
'62. George Davis, Feb. 9, '65: died at New Orleans, 
La., Aug. 23, '65. Josejjh Daily, Mar. 11, '64; deserted 
in .\i)ril, '64. Thomas Ellis, Feb. 11, '65. David Ed- 
• monds, Oct. it, '61; deserted in Nov., '62. James For- 
rester, Oct. 9, '6i; absent, sick, at muster out; veteran. 
Charles Farber, Mar. 20, '65. George Fennell, Mar. 21, 
'65; discharged Oct. 9, '65. Thomas Francis, Feb. 13, 
'64; died at Kingston, Ga., Aug. 30, '64, of wounds re- 
ceived at Atlanta. Griffith George, Feb. 10, '65. Martin 
Garrety, NLar. 28, '64; discharged Oct. 13, '65. Patrick 
Gallagher, Oct. ii, '61; discharged July 11, '63, for 
wounds received at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, '62. 
Theodore Graham, Oct. 11, '61; discharged on surg's 
certificate June 14, '62. Peter Grundy, Oct. 24, '61; 
transferred to veteran reserve corps Sept. i, '63. 
Llewellyn (irififith, Mar. 31, '64; died at Hyde Park, Pa., 
Apr. 4, '64. Thomas Grissinger, Mar. 15, '63; died at 
P)lue Springs, Ky., June 2, '64. David Griffith, Mar. 5, 
'64; died at Marietta, Ga., July 5, of wounds received at 
Kingston July 4, '63. Thomas (iillpatrick, Oct. 11, '61; 
deserted in Feb., '63. Michael Heavers, Mar. 3, '64; 
discharged Oct. 9, '65. (ieorge Heidle, Mar. 4, '64; ab- 
sent, sick, at muster out. John B. Haun, Feb. 23, '64; 
discharged Oct. it, '65. Charles Hadley, Feb. 9, '65. 
Hugh Hughes, Feb. 10, '65; discharged Oct. 9, '65. 
William Herbert, Oct. 11, '6i; mustered out Oct. 11, '64. 
John Howey, May 9, '64; wounded at .Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 

25, '64; discharged July 10, '65. Peter Hart, Mar. 18, 
'64; discharged June 23, '65. William L. Holford, Oct. 
27, '62; mustered out Nov. 5, '65. Charles Harris, Feb. 

26, '64; discharged Sept. 27, '65. Robert Howe, Oct. 11, 
'61; discharged by surg's certificate July 27, '62. Lionel 
Hopkins, Feb. 22, '64; transferred to veteran reserve 
corps Oct. 10, '64. William Hays, Oct. 9, '61 ; 
died at New Orleans, La., Aug. i, '65. Jacob 
Houser, Oct. 11, '61; died at Nashville, Tenn., June 
14, '62. George Hastings, Oct. 11, '61; discharged. 
Ezekiel Hoyt, Oct. 24, '61; deserted June, '63. Reuben 
Ireland, Feb. 29, '64; died at Chattanooga, Tenn., .Nhiy 
25, '65; burial record Aug. i, '64. George Iden, Mar. 
4, '64; not on muster out roll. John Jones, Feb. 8, '65. 
James Jones, Feb. 8, '65; discharged Oct. 18, '65. Sam.iel 
John, Mar. 2, '65; discharged Oct. 6, '65. William D. 
Jones, Feb. 25, '65; discharged Oct. 7, '65. Jesse John- 
son, Oct. II, '61; discharged on surg's certificate June 
14, '65. Thomas Jordon; discharged on surg's certifi- 
cate. William Jamison. Feb it, '65; discharged on 

surg's certificate Sept. 12, '65. William Jones, Nov. 15, 
'61; died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 9, '65, of wounds 
received at Atlanta, Gn., Aug. 25, '64; veteran. Morgan 
Jones, Oct. 11, '61; died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 19, 
'64, of wounds received at Nashville. Dec. 16, '64; 
veteran. Edward Jones, Oct. 11. '61; killed al Frank- 
lin. Tenn., Nov. 30, '64. William P. Jones, Mar. 21, '64; 
died at ^L^^ietta, Ga., July 10, of wounds received at 
Kesaca, June 21, '64. John R. Jones, Ebenezer Jones 
and John Jeremiah, Oct. 11, '61; deserted Oct. 9, '62. 
Joseph Johnston, Feb. 29, '64; not on muster out roll. 
James Kelley, Mar. 4, '64. John Kelley, Oct. 11, '61; 
wounded at Liberty Gap. Tenn.. June 25, '63; mustered 
out Nov. :2, '64. Charles Keller, Nov. 15, '61; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate .May 21. '62. Joseph Knouse, 
Oil, II, Y)i; transferred to veteran reserve corps Nov., 
'63. Hiram P. Kerlan, Feb. 27, '64; died at Nashville, 
Tenn., July 30, of wounds received at Kenesaw .Moun- 
tain, Ga., June 19, '64. Joseph D. Lloyd, NLir. 3, '65; 
discharged Oct. 7, '65. Peier W. Lynch, Feb. 13, '65: 
absent, sick, at rmister out. William Lewis, Oct. 11, '61; 
mustered out Ocl. 11, '64. Samuel W. Loveless; dis- 
John Loftice, Mar. 21, '64: killed at 
Mountain, Ga., June 19, '64. David 
Oct. II, '61; captured at Chickamauga, 

19, '63; died at .Andersonvilje, Jan. 19, '65. 

Ga., Sept. 

Samuel Lane, Oct. 24, '61 : captured at Chickamauga, Ga., 
Sept. 19, "63; died at .Andersonville, .Sept. i, '64. Henoch 
Lloyd, NLar. 19, '64; deserted .March 21, '64. Lawrence 
.Morgan, Oct. 9, '61; wounded at Liberty (iap, Tenn.. 
June 25, '63; absent, on furlough, at muster out; veteran. 
John Morgan, Mar. 4, '65; discharged Oct. 7, '65. Wat- 
kins Nhitthews, Mar. 3, '65; discharged Oct. 19, '65. 
Francis Moran, Mar. 3, '64; wounded May 10, '64; ab- 
sent, in hospital, at muster out. David Morgan, Mar. 9, 
'64. Martin Metzger, Nhir. iS, '64. Stephen Mitchell, 
Nhty 14. '64; discharged Oct. 7, '65. David Michaels, 
Nov. 15, '61; mustered out Dec. 6, '64. Thomas Monk, 
Oct. IT, '61; discharged on surg's certificate, June 2, '62. 
Charles Monk, Oct. 11, '61; discharged on surg's certifi- 
cate July 21, '62. Taylor Myton, F"eb. 22, '64; wounded 
at Kingston, Ga., July 4, '64; transferred to veteran re- 
serve corps Jan. 2, '65; discharged Nov. 22, '65. Griffith 
Morris. Oct. 11, '61; captured at Chickamauga. Ga., Sept. 
19, '63; died at .Andersonville, June 30, '64. John J. 
Monk, Nov. 13, '61; died at Shiloh, Tenn., May 10, '62. 
John Miles, Charles N. Miles, and Evan Millward, Oct. 
II, '61; discharged; date unknown. I'eter NFCaffery, 
Feb. II, '65; discharged Oct. 18, '65. William M'Don- 
ald. Mar. 19, '64; wounded at Dallas, (Ja., May 29, '64; 
absent, sick, at muster out. Patrick M'Donald, Oct. 11, 
'6t; discharged on surg's certificate June 11, '63. Frank- 
lin M'Lane, Oct. 24, '61; discharged on surg's certificate 
Nov. 3, '64. James M'Keen, Oct. 11, '61; captured at 
Chickamauga, Sept. 19, '63; died at Andcrsonville. .\ug. 
24, '64. John Ari)onald. Oct. 11. '61; capUired at Chick- 
amauga, Ga., Sept. 19, '63; died at .\ndersonville. '64. 
|ohnM'(iaun, Feb. 4. '65; deserted F"eb. 8. '65. John 
Nailon, .Mar. 24, '64; died at Ball's Gap, Tenn., Apr. 20, '65. 
Patrick H. Nash, Oct. 11, '61; deserted F"eb. 28, '63, 
Stephen Olmstead, F'eb. 25, "64, and Charles Oakley. 
I'eb. 10, '65; absent, sick at muster out. James O'H.irra. 
.\pr. 4, '64, and Noah Owens, Feb. 27, '65; discharged 
Sept. 15. '65. Edward Pinch, Feb. 13, '64; absent, sick, 
at muster out. William D. Port, Feb. 22, '64. Thomas 
Pace. Mar. 23. '64; died at Mariett.i. Ga., July 6, of 
wounds received at Kingston July 4, '64. James Pow- 
ell, Oct. II, "61; captured at Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 19, 
'63; died at Atlanta Dec. 5, '63. John and William 
Pierce, Oct. 11, '61; discharged; date unknown. Henry 
<,)Minn. Feb. 23. '64. Joseph Rulin.l. o. '64: dis- 






charged Oct. 6, '65. David Reese, Feb. 9, '65. Charles 
W. Reed, Feb. 11, '65; discharged Oct. 6, '65. William 
M. Reese, Feb. 9, '65; discharged May 15, '65. Thomas 
Rosser, Oct. 11, '61; discharged on surg's certificate 
Aug. 13, '62. William Reese, Mar. 4, '64; discharged on 
surg's certificate Sept 12, '65. Hiram Reynolds. May 9, 
'64; discharged on surg's certificate Sept. 14, '65. Wil- 
liam Reynolds, Mar. 9, '64; died at Nashville, Tenn., 
Dec. r, '64. Griffith Reese, Oct. 11. "61; died at Louis- 
ville, Ky., May 27, '62. John Rolierts, Mar. 7, '64; not 
accounted for. James Scott, Oct. 9, '61; wounded at 
Kenesaw Mountain, Ca., June 27, '64; mustered out with 
company Dec. 6, '65; veteran. Charles L. Shultz, Mar. 
25, '64; absent, sick, at muster out. Alexander Shubert, 
Apr. II, '64; wounded at Jonesboro, Tenn., Sept. i, '64; 
absent, sick, at muster out. George \V. Stiles, Mar. 10, 
'64. Frederick Seigel, Nov. i, '62; mustered out Nov. 5, 
'65. George M. Sillsbee, Oct. 11, '61; wounded at Dal- 
las, Ga., May 28, '64, and Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 
30, '64; promoted principal musician June 19, 
'65; veteran. James Spence, Oct. 11, '61; died at 
Kingston, Ga., Oct. 16, '64. Enos Snyder, Oct. 11, '61; 
discharged; date unknown. Griffin C. Strark, Feb. 25, 
'64; deserted Apr., '64 John Schoonover, David N. 
Snyder, Marcus Sholl and Smith A. Strong, Oct. 11, '61; 
discharged; date unknown. William Thatcher, Mar. 3, 
'64; discharged Oct. 21, '65. Lawrence Toomey, Mar. 
9, '64. Peter Trimble, Mar. 3, 65; discharged Oct. 7, 
'65. Commodore Thorpe, Nov. 13, '61; discharged on 
surg's certificate June 14, '62. Evan W. Thomas, Oct. 
1 1, '61; discharged on surg'scertificate JuneS, '62. Michael 
G. Tighe, May 6, '64; deserted Dec, '64. William Tuttle, 
Apr. 7, '64; deserted Apr., '64. Edward Turley, Oct. 11, 
'61; deserted July 9, '65; veteran. John Watkins, Feb. 8, 
'65; absent, sick, at muster out. Williarn Webb, Feb. 
II, '65. John Weaver, Mar. 9, '64. Michael Welsh, Mar. 
24, '64. Aaron Warren, Mar. 31, '64. William Wingate, 
Feb. 22, '64; wounded at Kingston, Ga., July 4, '64; dis 
charged on surg's certificate May 9, '65. Morgan Wil- 
liams, Oct. II, '61; discharged on surg's certificate May 

9, '62. Alexander Wiper, Oct. 11, '61; discharged on 
surg'scertificate Nov. 29, '62. Richard Ward, Oct. 11, 
'61; discharged on surg's certificate Nov. 18, '63. Philo 
A. Wilinot, Oct. II, '61; mustered out Oct. 18, '64. Mor- 
ris Welsh, Oct. II, '61; died at Chattanooga, Tenn., May 
20, '64. Samuel Wilks, Oct. 21, '61; captured at Chick- 
amauga, Ga., Sept. 19, '63; died at Andersonville Aug. 
II, '65. W. G. Weatherby, Nov. i, '62; deserted; re- 
turned; died at New Orleans, La., July 3, '65. Sanford 
C. Wilson, Feb. 9, '65; died at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., 
Sept. 19, '65. Owen Williams, Nov. 15, '61; deserted 
Dec. 30, '63. William Williams, Oct. 11, '61; deserted 
Apr. 18, '62. James White, Butler A. Ward, and Henry 
H. Wood, Oct. II, '61, deserted; date unknown. 


Officers. — Captains — Henry W. Derby, Sept. 8, '61; 
resigned Apr. 4, '62. Joseph Thomas, Sept. 28, '61; pro- 
moted from 2nd lieut. Company A Apr. 4, '62; discharg- 
ed Oct. 30, '62. ist lieutenants, William J. M'Gratty, 
Oct. 16, '61; resigned Mar. 29, '62. James F. Shattuck, 
Jan. 31, '62; promoted from 2nd to ist lieut. Mar. 31, 
'62; discharged Nov. 30, '62. 2nd lieutenant — Henry 
H. Wood; discharged Sept. 30, '62. Sergeants — Miles 
M. Bradford, Oct. 14, '61; discharged Mar. 22, '66, to 
date Nov. 15, '62. Frank Hollenbach and Daniel B. 
Coon, Oct. 14, '61; discharged Apr. 25, '66, to date Nov. 

10, '62. Corporals — (ieorge Carr, Oct. 15, '61; discharg- 
ed Mar. 22, '66, to date Nov. 15, '62. Edward C. Cavill, 
Oct. 15, '61; discharged Apr. 25, '66, to date Nov, lo 

'62. John Schoonover. Oct. 14, '61; discharged May 4,^ 
'66, to date Nov. 10, '62. 

Privates. — Joseph Alexander, L)ec. iS, '61. Josepli 
Bennett, Oct. 14, '61; discharged Mar. 21, '66, to date 
Nov. 15, '62. Levi Bennett, Oct. 14, '61; discharged 
Mar. 21, '66, to date Nov. 15, '62. Daniel Bricker, Oct. 
9, '61; discharged May 4, '66, to date Nov. 10, '62. 
Thomas F. Bochert, Oct. 9, '61; discharged May 4, '66, 
to date Nov. 10, '62. Samuel Burhite, Nov. 15, '61. 
Henry Bastian, Nov. 21, '61. Martin Biertenstine, 
Nov. 21, '61. John Bender, Dec. 18,. '61. John W. 
Bilingen, Dec. 18, '61. Foster Cooper, Dec. 6, 
'61; discharged Mar. 7, '66, to date Nov. 15, '62. 
Charles Conner, Nov. 15, '61. Charles Cope, Oct. 11, '61. 
William Cook, Dec. 18, '61. Maurice Cotter, Dec. 18, 
'61. William Emory, Dec. i, '61. Henry Gardner, Nov. 
27, '61. George Hause, Oct. 3, '61. Robert Holden, 
Oct. 3, '61. Robert Hardenn, Dec. 18, '61. Arnold 
Hendricks, Oct. 14, '61; discharged April 25, '66, to date 
Nov. 10, '62. Charles Innerot, Nov. 26, '61. John 
Lewis, Oct. 3, '61. Peter Lorrett, Oct. 3, '61. George 
F. Laubach, Sept. 19, '61; transferred to Company A. 
Linas Miles, Nov. 28, '61. Patrick Maloney, Nov. 25, 
'61. William Marshall, Dec. 18, '61. Charles W. Miles, 
Oct. 15, '61; discharged Apr, 25, '66, to date Nov. 10, 
'62. John Miles, Oct. 15, '61; discharged Mar. 26, '66, 
to date Nov. 10, '62. William Marks, Dec, 8, '61; dis- 
charged July 6, '66, to date Nov. 10, '62. Albert _ 
Peopher, Oct. 3, '61. John C. Pearce, Oct. 15, '61; dis- 
charged Apr. 25, '66, to date Nov. 10, '62. Daniel J. 
Patterson, Oct. 14, '61; discharged May 4, '66, to date 
Nov. 10, '62. Julius Reater, Oct. 3, '61. Frederick 
Rasp, Dec. 18, '61. John Snyder, Oct. 3, '61. John 
Sleager, Oct. 3, '61." Hiram Slack, Oct. 18, '61. 
William J. Sharp, Nov. 21, '61. Philip Stalp, Dec 18, 
'61. Samuel Stoner, Dec. 12, '61. David B. Snyder, 
Oct. 15, '61; discharged Apr. 25, '66, to date Nov. 10, 
'62. William Thomas, Oct. 18, '61. John Wertle, Oct. 
3, 61; Andrew Walter, Dec. 20, '61. Philip Walters, 
Dec. 18, '61. Benjamin Woodney, Oct. 14, '61; dis- 
charged May 4, '66, to date Nov. 10, '62. 



HE recruiting of the 8ist regiment commenced 
in August, 1861, and in October it proceeded 
to Washington. Com])any H was recruited 
in Carbon and Luzerne counties, and Com- 
pany K in Luzerne. The regiment was engaged 
only in police and scout duty till the ist of March, 
1862, when it took the field. During the advance 
to the Peninsula it was engaged mostly in fatigue duty. 
It built the Sumner bridge and crossed on it with its 
brigade, had a skirmish with the enemy and returned. At 
Fair Oaks, on the 31st of May, the regiment was engaged 
and Colonel Miller was killed. On tne 25th of June, 
three Companies — D, H and K — were eng:ig..J in a picket 
light. On the 29th the regiment was in action at Peach 
Orchard, and on the 30th at White Oak Swamp and 




Charles Cily "Cross Roads, losing heavily. July ist it was 
engaged at Malvern Hill, at which battle Lieutenant 
Colonel Connor was killed. 

The regiment returned to Acquia creek by transports, 
thence to Alexandria, and to the second Bull Run battle 
field, but was not engaged. It was ne.xt in action at 
Antietam on the 17th of September, where it again lost 
heavily. Thence it moved to Harper's Ferry and after- 
wards to Warrenton. When Burnside assumed command 
of the army the regiment moved to Falmouth, and on 
the 13th of December it was engaged at Fredericksburg. 
In this battle Lieutenant Colonel Swain was killed and 
Colonel McKeen wounded. It returned to quarters at 
Falmouth, where it remained till the latter part of May, 
when it broke camp and during the month of June moved 
from place to )jlace, and arrived at Cettysburg on the ist 
of July, having marched thirty-eight miles the i)receding 
day. On the 2nd and ^^d it was " in the thick of the 
fray " and lost half of its effective strength. 

During the remainder of the summer it was in Virginia 
with the second corps, to which it was attached, and 
went into winter quarters near Stevensburg. In January 
a portion of the men re-enlisted and received a veteran 
furlough, and its ranks were recruited. It took the field 
in the spring of 1864. During three days early in May 
the regiment was engaged at the battle of the Wilderness, 
and on the 12th at Spottsylvania. It was again engaged 
at Cold Harbor on the 3d of June, and its colonel was 
killed there. It participated in the siege of Petersburg, 
and was engaged there and at Strawberry Plains, Ream's 
Station and Deep Bottom, in all of which actions it sus- 
tained its character for bravery. It remained in front of 
Petersburg during the winter of 1864-5, and participated 
in the campaign of the next spring. It was frequently 
engaged, but did not suffer severe loss except at Farm- 
ville, on the 7th of April, two days before the surrender 
of Lee. This concluded its fighting. It returned to the 
vicinity of Washington and was mustered out on the 29th 
of June. 

Its losses and casualties during its term of service were: 
Field and staff officers, 2 from disease, i prisoner, 5 
wounded and 4 killed; line officers, 2 prisoners. 40 
wounded and 14 killed; enlisted men, 79 deaths from 
disease, 152 prisoners, 516 wounded and 201 killed. 


Following is a roll of the regimental officers of the 8 ist. 
The dates when they were mustered in are given. Those 
who are not mentioned as having left the regiment before 
June 29th, 1S65, were mustered out at that date. 

Coio/ie/s.— James Miller, Aug. 8, '61; killed at Fair 
Oaks, Va., May 31, '62. Charles F. Johnson, Sept. 16, 
'61; promoted from lieut. col. June i, '62; wounded 
at Charles City Cross Roads, Va., June 30, '62; resigned 
Nov. 24, '62. H. Boyd M'Keen, Oct. 27, '61; promoted 
from adj. to maj. June i, '62; lieut. col. July i, '62; col. 
Nov. 24, '62; wounded at Malvern Hill July i, '62; 
Fredericksburg Dec. 13, '62, and at Chancellorsville May 
3, '62; killed at Cold Harbor. Va., June 3, '64. William 
Wilson, Dec. 9, '61; promoted from capt. Company E to 

maj. Mar. 2, '64; to lieut. col. Apr. 22, '64; col. Oct. 30, 
'64; woundeti at Spottsylvania Court-house. Va., May 12, 

Lifutenant 'Colonds. — Eli T. Conner, Oct. i, '6r; pro- 
moted from ninj. June 1, '62; killed at Malvern Hill, Va.. 
July I, '62. Robert M. Lee. jr., Aug. 10, '61; promoted 
from capt. Company F to maj. June 1, '62; to lieut. col. 
Nov. 24, '62; discharged Apr. 17, '63. Amos Stroll, Sept. 
16, '61; promoted from capt. Company (i Apr. 17, '63; 
resigneil July 22, '63. Thomas C. Harkness, Sept. 18, 
'61; promoted from capt. Conijiany H Apr. 17, '63; com- 
missioned lieut. col. July 24, '63; not mustered; resigned 
Mar. 14, '64. Lawrence Mercer, Sept. i, '62; promoted 
from capt. Company A Oct. 30, '64; commissioned 
lieut. col.; not mustered. 

Adjutants. — Clinton Swain, Sept. 24, '61; promoted 
from sergt. maj. June 16, '62; to capt. Company D Dec. 
9, '62. David J. Phillips, Oct. 15, '61; promoted from 
2nd lieut. Company I Feb. i, '63; to capt. Company 1 
May I, '63. John B. Munyan, Aug. 6, '61; promoted 
from 2nd lieut. Company A Dec. 26, '63; discharged Apr. 
25, '64. William J. Wilson, Aug. 22. '62; jjromoted from 
sergt. Company E Oct. 5, '64; discharged May 8, '65. 

Quarttimasteis. — John M. Duiton, '61; died Apr. 26, 
'62. John Hrelsford, Dec. 19, '61; promoted from sergt. 
Company I, May i. '62; resigned .Apr. 26, '64. Lewis 
W. Ingram, .Aug. r6, '62; promoted from com. sergt. 
i48tli Pa., June 27, '64. 

Sutgt-oHs. — W. A. Gardiner, resigned Aug. 5, '62. H. 
S. Colston, Sept. 13, '62; resigned Dec. 21, '62. John 
Houston, Aug. i, '62; promoted from ass't surg. Jan. 14, 
'63; mustered out Sept. 15, '64. John C. Norris, Mar. 

21, '63; promoted from ass't surg. Oct. 23, '64. 
Assistant Sii>xf<>ns. — J. P. Kimball, resigned Jan. 30, 

'62. C. S. Widdifield, Feb. 15, '62; died at Fortress 

Monroe, Va., .\pr. 27, '62. J. B. Beshler, June 14, '62; 

discharged .\pr. 3, '63. Samuel Graham, Dec. 3, '64. 

C/ta/>/ai/i.— Stacy Wilson, Oct. 28, '61; resigned Mar. 

22, '64. 

Si-/xc-<J'it A/a/ors. — Lawrence Davenport. Dec. 23, '63; 
promoted from ist sergt. Company A June i, '65; com- 
missioned 2nd lieut. Company A June 29, '65; not mus- 
tered; veteran. lacob Hentz, Aug. 27, '62; discharged 
June I, '65. Nathan F. Marsh, Sept. 16, '61; promoted 
from private Company G to ist lieut. Company I, Nov. 
25, '64; veteran. 

Quarteniiasttr Sergeant. — Jacob A. HoUinger, Sept. 16, 
'6i; promoted from private Company G May i,'64; com- 
missioned Q. M. June 29, '65; not mustered; veteran. 

Commissary Sergeants.— ]diCoh R. Beers, Mar. 2, '64; pro- 
moted to com. sergt. Oct. 30, '64. Joseph S. Webb, Oct. 
15. '61; promoted from private Company I to"2nd lieut. 
Company .\ Oct. 30, '64; veteran. 

llosl^ital Steiuard. — Frank C. Anderson, .Vug. 17, '64; 
promoted to hosp. St. Nov. i, '64. 

Princil^al Musieians. — Wilbur T. Gear, Sept. 24, '61; 
promoted from musician Company D Dec. 13, '64; vet- 
eran. Alfred M. Hutchinson, Sept. 16, '61; promoted 
from musician Company B June 19, '65; veteran. Isaac 
N. Wilson, Aug. 6, '6i; promoted from musician Com- 
pany A to 2nd lieut. Company F June 19, '65; veteran. 
Henry Wilson. Aug. 6, '61; promoted from musician 
Company A to 2nd lieut. Company F, Dec. 13, '64; vet- 


Company H was recruited in Luzerne and Carbon 
counties. Nearly all of its members were mustered in 
on the 22nd of August, 1861, and the time of muster is 
given only where it was some other than that date. 



Officers. — Captains — Thomas C. Harkness, Sept. 18, 
'61; wounded at Charles City Cross Roads June 30, '62, 
and at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62; promoted maj. 
April 7, '63; wounded at Cliancetlorsville, Va., May 3, 
'63. Thomas C. Williams, promoted from ist sergt. to 
2nd lieut. July i, '63; to ist lieut. July i, '63; to capt. 
May 1, '64; discharged Sept. 21, '64, for wounds received 
in action. First lieutenants — John ('. M'Laughlin, Sept. 
)8, '61; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62; 
promoted to capt. Company A i\Iay i,'63. William J.Wil- 
liams, promoted from sergt. May i, '64; discharged Oct. 
12, '64; veteran. Second lieutenant, Thomas Morton, 
Sept. 18, '61; commissioned ist lieutenant Nov. 14, '62; 
capt. April 17, '63; not mustered; discharged June 12, 
'63. First sergeant, Aaron Henry, wounded at Charles 
City Cross Roads June 30, '62, and at Bristoe Station, 
Va., 'dy, discharged. Sergeants — John Boyd, died 
at Alexandria, Va., Feb. 6, '62. David Reese, 
discharged '63. James W. Esbach, died Aug. 4, 
'62; buried in Cypress Hills cemetery, L. I. Edward 
Reynolds, wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, '63; 
died July 3, of wounds received in action June 12, '64; 
buried in National cemetery, Arlington, Va. Corporals — 
Charles Morrison, transferred to Battery A 4th U. S. 
artillery. James B. Murray, killed at Ream's Station, 
Va., Aug. 25, '64. Stewart MTntosh, wounded at Ream's 
Station, Va., Aug. 25, '64; promoted to ist sergt. Com- 
pany I; veteran. \Villiam Gumbert, not accounted for. 
l^enjamin Hackett, transferred to 4th U. S. Artillery '62. 
William Nead, discharged. Anthony Ryemiller, killed 
at Charles City Cross Roads, Va., June 30, '62, Musi- 
cians — Daniel Dunn, discharged on surg's certificate 
.\ug. '62, David Williams, discharged. 

Privates. — William Aubrey, deserted Oct. 9, '61. James 
Bell, wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62; dis- 
charged. Patrick Boyle, transferred lo bat. A, 4th U. S. 
art. Oct. I, '62. Aaron Breisch, discharged. John Bag- 
ley, transferred to bat. A, 4th U. S. art. Oct. i, '62. 
Hugh Blair, wounded; transferred to Company E; vet- 
eran. James G. Brookmire, transferred to bat. A, 4th 
U. S. art. William Brannon, wounded; discharged. 
Martin Betz, died at Newport News, Va., Sept.. '62. 
James Burns, Sept. 9, '61; deserted '64. William Casey, 
died at Yorktown, Va., May 14, '62. John Clark, trans- 
ferred to Company E; veteran. Patrick Cookley, trans- 
ferred to 6th U. S. cav. Oct. i, '62. James Clark, dis- 
charged, '63, for wounds received at Fair Oaks, Va., May 
31, '62. James Cadden, w-ounded; discharged. Patrick 
P. Coyle, deserted Feb. 11, '63. Elijah Cooper, Sept. 9, 
"61; transferred to veteran reserve corps. William 
Clemens, Sept. 9, '61; discharged, Patrick Donahue, 
Sept. 9, '61; transferred to Company E; veteran. 
John S. Duffy, transferred to band Nov. i, '61. 
Jeremiah Delay; killed at Charl-js City Cross Roads, Va., 
June 30, '62. William Delanour; killed at Charles City 
Cross Roads, Va., June 30, '62. Henry Doak; trans- 
ferred to Company I. VV. H. H. Dctzvvorth; not ac- 
counted for. David E. Davis; died at P^almouth, Va., 
Mar. II, '63. Jenkin Evans; discharged Sept., '63, for 
wounds received at Charles City Cross Roads, Va., June 
30, '62. Owen Edwards; transferred to veteran reserve 
corps Apr., '63. William Eddie; Aug. 9, '62; not ac- 
counted for. William Elliott; wounded at Charles City 
Cross Roads, Va., June 30, '62; deserted '63. Owen 
Fisher; captured; died at Richmond, Va., June 12, '64. 
Michael Fritz; died July 7 of wounds received at Charles 
City Cross Roads, ^'a., June 30, '62. Charles Fritz; dis- 
charged Mar. I, '62. Patrick Fitzpatrick, Sept. 9, '61; 
died near Petersburg, Va., Aug., '64. James Gienni; 
died June 2, '63, of wounds received at Fredericksliurg, 
Va., Dec. 13, '62. Patrick Gallagher, ist; wounded '62; 

transferred to Company E. Patrick Golden; discharged 
Mar. 25, '63, for wounds received at Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. 13, '62. Jonathan H. C;ombert; discharged for 
wounds, with loss of leg, received at .Antietam, Md., Sept. 
17, '62. John Goliny; not accounted for. Francis Gal- 
lagher; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62; 
not accounted for. Thomas Gallagher; promoted to 2nd 
lieut. Company C May 19, '65; veteran. Patrick Galla- 
gher, 2nd; discharged on surg's certificate Feb. 11, '63. 
John Gallagher; discharged on surg's certificate, '63. 
Edward Handline; discharged Aug. 25, '62, for wounds 
received at Springfield Station, Va. John Henry; dis- 
charged '62 for wounds received at White Oak Swamp, Va. 
David Hughes; discharged Apr. 15, '63, for wounds re- 
ceived at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62. Moses Hon- 
ley; not accounted for. Jacob Hopple, Oct. 15, '61; 
transferred to Company I Nov. i, '61. William Hewitt;. 
discharged on surg's certificate June, '63. John T. 
Joties; discharged for wounds received in '62. Charles 
W. Jones; wounded at Charles City Cross Roads, Va., 
June 30, '62; transferred to veteran reserve corps. Janies 
king; captured '64; exchanged; died. William Kiss- 
ner; discharged for wounds received at Charles City 
Cross Roads, Va., June 30, '62. James Kirk; discharged 
Feb. 26, '63, for wounds received in action. William 
Kane; not accounted for. Hugh Laughery; transferred 
to Company E; veteran. John S. Lewis; discharged on 
surg's certificate '63. Janies Laughery, Sept. 9, '61; died 
May 18, of wounds received at Spottsylvania Court- 
house May 12, '64. Robert Mackey; discharged Apr., 
'63. Thomas T. Morgan; prisoner from Oct. 14, '63, to 
Mar. 4, '65; discharged Apr. 27, '65. Thomas Mullhall; 
discharged for wounds received at Fair Oaks, Va., May 
31, '62. John Manelis; not accounted for. John E. 
Mears; wounded and captured June 30, '62. John Mil- 
ler; transferred to Company I Nov. i, '61. Charles Mur- 
phy; killed at Fredericksburg, Va.,'Dec. 13, '62. Thomas 
H. Morgan; deserted Oct. 9, '61. James Murphy; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate Feb., '63. Charles Morrison; 
wounded; transferred to 4th U. S. artillery, '62. Daniel 
M'Lean; discharged Aug., '62; Buck'n M'Mullin; de- 
serted July 31, '62. Patrick M'Laughlin; killed at 
Charles City Cross Roads, Va., June 30, '62. Daniel 
M'Candless; discharged on surg's certificate, '63. Wil- 
liam M'Kechney; transferred to Battery A, 5th \] . S. ar- 
tillery, Oct. I, '62. John M'Fadden, Aug. 6, '62; de- 
serted Jan. 12, '63. John M'Nally, Aug. [6, '61; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate, Mar. 1, '63. John 
Newton; wounded June 30, '62; not accounted fur. 
John O'Donnell; killed at Malvern Hill, Va., July i, '6?, 
Alfred Overolester; not accounted for. John Parker; 
mustered out with company June 29, '65. John Phillips; 
deserted Oct. 9, '61. David Powell; wounded May 12, 
'64; discharged. Howell Pugh; deserted Oct. 7, '61. 
William Quigley; wounded ^Lay 12, '64; discharged. 
John ()uigley; discharged for wounds received in action. 
John Radcliff; killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, '63. 
Thomas Reese; transferred to veteran reserve corps, '63. 
Austin Riley; deserted Oct. 7, '61. Andrew Rodgers; 
killed at Charles City Cross Roads, Va., June 30, '62. 
Thomas Robinson; wounded, with loss of leg, at Cold 
Harbor, Va., June 3, '64; discharged. David Reese; dis- 
charged for wounds received in action. Robert Roberts; 
transferred to Com|jany E. Ernest Stutz; deserted Oct. 
3, '61. \Villiam Swope; transferred to Company I Nov. 
I, '6t. Richard Swift; died July 2. '62. Alexander 
Snedden; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July, '63; dis- 
charged. Vivian Stevens; discharged on surg's certifi- 
cate Sept. 29, '62. John Sheridan; transferred to Bat- 
tery A, 4th U. S. artillery. Philip Thomas; wounded at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July, '63 ; discharged. William T. 




'I"homas; discharged on siirg's certificate. John Vaughn; 
discharged on surg's certificate '63. Hiigii Williamson; 
l;illed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62. Christian 
Wall; wounded, with loss of arm, at Charles City Cross 
Roads, Va., June 30, '62; discharged Oct. '63. William 
H. Vundt; not accounted for. F,. Zimmerman; killed at 
Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62. 


The date of muster-in is given ne.xt to the name; where 
there is no further remark, the man was "not accounted 
for " in the final record of the company. 

Officers. — Captains — Charles E. Foster, Aug. 27, '61; 
resigned July 9, '62. Cyrus W. Straw, Oct. 27, '6i; pro- 
moted from ist lieut May i, '63; discharged June 20, '63. 
James M'Kinley, Oct. 27, '61; promoted from corp. to 
2nd lieut. Sept. I, '63; to ca|)t. Apr. 22, '64; resigned 
June 4, '65. First lieutenants — Alonzo F^. Bennett, Oct. 
27, '61; promoted from ist sergt. July 13, '63; transferred 
to veteran reserve corps Oct. 12, '63. Peter Dougherty 
Oct. 27, '61; promoted from ist sergt. to 2nd lieut. Oct, 
3, '64; to ist lieut. Oct. 30, '64; discliarged Apr. 16, '65; 
veteran. Second lieutenants — William Belford, (Jet. 27, 
'61; discharged May 7, '63. Emanuel C. Hoover, Oct. 
27, '61; promoted from sergt. June 6, '64; killed at 
Ream's Station, Va., Aug. 25, '64; veteran. Washing- 
ton Setzer, Oct. 27, '61; promoted from ist sergt. Feb. 
18, '65; resigned May 27, '65; veteran. John Oraham, 
Sept. 24, '61; promoted from ist sergt. com[iany B, June 
16, '65; \eteran. First sergeant, Ale.xander ' Kocher, 
Oct. 27, '61; promoted to sergt. Nov. i, '64; wounded 
Apr. 7, '65; absent at muster out; veteran. Sergeants — 
James Carrol, Dec. 23, '63; ])romoted to sergt. Mar. i, 
'65; veteran, Wm. Callaghan, Mar. 2, '64; captured at 
Spottsylvania C. H., \'a., May '64; promoted to sergt. 
^Iay I, '65. Conrad Hock, Oct. 27, '61; discharged; 
veteran. William Richards, Oct. ^7, '61; killed at Farm- 
ville, \'a., Apr. 7, '65; veteran. John Williamson, Oct. 
27, 61. Archibald Gilmore, Oct. 27, '61. Corporals — 
Joseph Eshenbrenner, Aug. 24, '64; substitute; jjromoted 
to corp. Mar. i, '65. John W. Hammer, Aug. 23, '64; 
substitute; discharged June 1, '65. John H. Painter, 
Aug. 22, '64; substitute; discharged June i, '65. Reuben 
Andy, Oct 27, '61; transferred to veteran reserve corps; 
discharged on surg's certificate. May 11, '65; veteran. 
Michael Carrol, Oct. 27, '61; died June 14, "64. Noah 
Moyer, Feb. 9, 64; wounded in action; discharged May 
31, '65. John Patton. Oct. 27, '61. James VVest, Oct. 
27, '61; died June 11, '64. Charles W. Fellows, Oct. 27, 
'61; killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62. John 
Bantz, Oct. 27, "61. William Powell, Oct. 27, '61. 
William Klinger, Oct. 27, '61. Musicians — John Haney, 
Jan. 7, '65; mustered out with company June 29, '65. 
Henry Straw and Michael O'Donnell, Oct. 27, '61; not 
accounted for. 

Piiviitcs. — George Austin, Sept. 22, '64; never joined 
company. William Aubrey, Aug. 22, '61; transferred to 
Company H. Jose|)h Acker, Oct. 27, '61. Abraham 
Andreas, '62; discharged in June, '65. John Andreas, 
'62; died at Falmouth, Va., Dec:., '62. George Bond, 
Dec. 23, '63; wounded, date unknown; veteran. Henry 
Brunner, July 9, '65; mustered out with company June 
29. '65. John Beckhart, Aug. 26, '64; never joined com- 
pany. John Britt and Hugh Boyle, Mar. 28, '64; mus- 
tered out with company June 29, '65. Edward Buming- 
hoff, Mar. 2, '64; missing in action June 3, '64. Adolph 
Becker, .\ug. 17, '64; substitute. Joseph Brooks, Oct. 
27, '61. Frederick Bloom, Oct. 27, '61; died May 
4, '63. Wilson Beers and I.orin H. Butts, Oct. 27, 
'61. John Brindle, Oct. 27, '61; discharged on surg's 

certificate in '63. Joseph C'onnelly, Mar. 30, "64; dis- 
charged by general order May 16, '65. David Crawford, 
Alfred Cool. Nathan Culp anci Michael Conner, Oct. 27, 
'61. James Carty, Apr. 13. '64. John Deal, died June 6, '64, 
Benjamin F. Davis, Oct. 27, '61; died at Portsmouth 
Grove, R. I.. Aug. 15, "62. George W. Dreisbach. Oct. 
27, '61. George Detwilcr, Oct. 27, '61. John Dougherty, 
Oct. 27, '61; discharged on surg's certificate. Francis 
Eisele, Aug. 10, '64; substitute; mustered out with com- 
pany June 29, '65. Joseph F'ritzinger, Oct. 27, "61; 
mustered out with company June 29, '65; veteran. Mich- 
ael Farley, Mar. 2, '64; mustered out with company June 
29, '65. Daniel Fisher, Aug. 22, '64; substitute; absent, 
wounded, at muster out. John C. Fisher, Aii^. 22, '64; 
substitute; deserted June 14, '65. Abram F'ellon; died; 
date unknown. Robert T. F'arrow, Aug. 6, '62; dis- 
charged by general order June i, '65. John C. Fritz, 
Oct. 27, '61; discharged on surg's certificate '63. Thomas 
Felton, Oct. 27, '61. William Graham and John H. Green, 
Sept. 13, '64; never joined company. Philip Gallagher, 
Oct. 27, '61. Qennis Gallagher, Oct. 27, '61; killed at 
Antietam, Md.. Sept. 17, '62. Joseph Hayman. Aug. 24, 
'64; substitute; absent, sick, at muster out. David Henry, 
Mar. 2, '64; mustered out with company June 29, '65. 
William Hardy, Sept. 27, '64; never joined company. 
John Hart, Sept. 14, '64; never joined company. George 
Helfridge, Sept. 27, '64; never joined company. William 
Hobson, July 16, '64; substitute; mustered out with com- 
pany June 29, '65. Redman Hurley, Sept. 24, '64; dis- 
charged June I, '65. John Hughes, Sept. 13, '64; dis- 
charged June I, '65. Charles Hanning, Oct. 27, '61 ; 
promoted to sergt. Company I F'eb. 6, '65: veteran. 
James Hammond, ("ondy Hagerty, Samuel Henry and 
Lewis Hopkins, Oct. 27, '61; not accounted for. James 
Johnson, Aug. 15, '64; substitute; discharged June i, 
'65. Isaac Kenvin, Oct. 27, '61; wounded June 3, '64; 
absent at muster out; veteran. Edward Klinetop, Dec. 
23, '63; mustered out with company June 29, '65; vet- 
eran. James M. Kresge, Dec. 11, '61; deserted; return- 
ed; discharged June 3, '65. Charles Kelly and Stephen 
Koons, Mar. 2, '64; mustered out with com))any June 
29, '65. John Rlotz, Mar. 2, '64; absent, sick, at muster 
out. Samuel Kuchner, May 3, '64; mustered out with 
company June 29, '65. James K. Kurtz, Aug. 22, '64; 
I substitute; discharged June i, '65. Martin Karchner, 
Barney Kelley and David Kloss, Oct. 27, '61; not 
accounted for. Thomas Lutz, '61; died '62. Jesse 
Lines, Oct. 27, '61; not accounted for. Penrose Lowers, 
Oct. 27, '61 ; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house, 
Va., May 12, '64. Otmar Miller, Aug. 11, '64; substitute; 
absent, sick, at muster out. Michael Mullherron, Mar. 
2, '64; wounded May 8, '64; absent at muster out. 
George Mur[)hy, Sept. 20, '64; never joined company. 
Jacob Miller, Aug. 26, '64; discharged. George W. 
Miller, Sept. 24, '64, and Samuel Miller, Aug. 26, '64; 
discharged June i, '65. William Morgan, Oct. 27, '61; 
died July 26, '64. John-B. ^Lliger,died at Philadelphia, 
Pa., May g, '65. William Magee, Oct. 27, '61; not 
accounted for. William Meckus, Oct. 27, '61; deserted 
'62. Joseph Matthews, Oct 27, '61; killed at Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62. Henry .Martin, '64; 
discharged June '65. Robert M'.Murray, Mar. 23, '64; 
mustered out with company June 29, '65. F'rancis 
M'Kensay, Sept. 12, '64, and James .M'Carron, Aug. 
6, '62; discharged June i, '65. Peter M'Gcc, 
Oct. 27, '61; promoted to ist sergt. Company 
A.; veteran. Dennis Northstein, Mar. 2, '64; mus- 
tered out with company, June 29, '65. Francis O'Brien, 
Sept. 27, '64; never joined company. L)avid O'Connor, 
Oct. 27, '61; not accounted for. Charles I'olland and 
Morris Quinn, Sept. 27, 64; never joined company. Manas- 



sell Roat, Mar. 3, '64; niiistered out with comj)any June 

29, '65. Patrick Reiley, Feo. 6, '64, and William Riitt- 
man, Mar. 2, '64; never joined company. John Rntter, 
Aug. 27, '64; discharged June i, '65. John Rhyne; killed 
at Farmville, Va., Apr. 7, "65. Daniel Raver, Oct. 27, '61; 
discharged. Penrose Sowers, Mar. 9, '64; missing in 
actional Spottsylvania Court-house May 12, '64. Jona- 
than Smith, Mar. 9, '64; absent, sick, at muster out. John 
B.Smith, Feb. 10, '64; missing in action at Ream's Sta- 
tion, Va., Aug. 25, '64. Aaron Slahr, Mar. 2, '64; mus- 
tered out with company, June 29, '65. Antonie Shaugh, 
Feb. 10, '64; missing in action at Ream's Station, Va., 
Aug. 25, '64. John Smith, Sept. 20, '64. and Patrick 
Sharkee, Sept. 15, '64; never joined company. Edward 
Steinbrick, Aug. 17, '64; substitute; wounded March 25, 
'65; discharged June 23, '65. John Sweeney, Sept. 24, 
'61; captured; died at Salisbury, N. C, Nov. 27, '64. 
John G. Satorious, Aug. 6, '62; discharged June i, '65 
Alexander Stetler, Oct. 27, '61; died. Samuel Shafer, 
Oct. 27, '61; discharged. John Stein, Oct. 27, '61 ; de- 
serted, '62. Henry Shafer and Henry Schleppy, Oct 27, 
'61; not accounted for. A. Shoepp, Oct. 27, '61; dis- 
charged on surg's certificate, '62. Charles Thurbur, Mar. 

30, '64; absent, sick, at muster out. Burton Tubbs, Oct. 
27, '61; not accounted for. George K. Wilkins, Mar. 30, 
'64; absent, wounded, at muster out. Henry Whipple, 
Mar. 2, '64, absent, sick, at muster out. William Wal- 
lace. Sept. 22, '64, and George Ward, Sept. 15, '64; 
never joi'ned company. William Williams, Sept. 24, '64; 
discharged June i, '65. Christian Wolfe, Aug. 22, '64; 
substitute; discharged June i, '65. Daniel Washburn, 
Aug. 6, '62; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
'62; discharged June i, '65. Edward Willis, Oct. 15, '61; 
discharged Nov. 22, '64. David D. Wilson and William I. 
Worrell, Oct. 27, '61. James S. Wells, Oct. 27, '61; died 
Feb. 20, '63. James Washburn, '62; died. W. S. Walter, 
'64; discharged June, '65. Henry Zigler, Aug. 16, '64; 
substitute; mustered out with company June 29, '65. Paul 
Zollinger, Mar. 2, '64; missing in action at Spottsylvania 
Court-house, Va., May 12, '64. 




This organization, which at first was called the Lochiel 
Cavalry, was recruited during the summer of 1861. It 
consisted of twelve companies, of which Company D was 
recruited in Luzerne, and Companies K and L were com- 
posed in part of men fr<jm that county. Its colonel, E. 
C. Williams, of Harrisburg, was a veteran of the Me,\ican 
war. Leaving on the 20th of November, the regiment 
moved via Pittsburg to Louisville, Ky.; reported to Gen- 
eral Buell and went into camp at Jeffersonville, Ind. 
By severe drill and discipline the men had become fitted 
for the field by the next January, and accordingly the 
regiment was ordered to the front on Greene river. When 
thearmy advanced against Johnston this regiment remained 
in Kentucky by request of the Legislature and citizens. 

In March, 1862, it went to Tennessee, where its three 
battalions were stationed at different points, and the third 
battalion first met the enemy on the 4th of May, at Leb- 
anon, where a brilliant victory was achieved over Mor- 
gan. It again attacked and beat him on the 14th of the 
same month, at Spring Creek. It was engaged at Moore's 
Hill on the 6th of June, and at Tompkinsville on the 9th 
of July. 

In August the battalions were united, and the regiment 
was engaged in scouting and protecting the people in Ken- 
tucky against Morgan's guerillas. It had several en- 
counters with the enemy during the retreat of the Union 
army from Richmond, Ky. Afterward, at the battle of 
Perryville, it did excellent service, losing ten killed and 
twenty-seven wounded. For its gallantry in this action 
it was complimented by General Buell. It received fresh 
horses, and in December went on a raid in Tennessee to 
destroy railroad communication with Richmond. After 
crossing the mountains and swimming rivers it readied 
the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, vanquished the de- 
fending forces, and destroyed the bridges at Watauga and 
Holston rivers, and returned to Kentucky, reaching 
Nicholasville January 13, 1863, two-thirds of the men be- 
ing dismounted. It went to Louisville; thence to Nash- 
ville, where it was remounted. In February it went to 
Franklin, where with about three hundred Michigan cav- 
alry it confronted a large rebel force during more than 
two weeks, making various attacks daily and thus deceiv- 
ing the enemy concerning the strength of the opposing 
force; and finally, when a division of Union troops was 
captured at Thompson's Station it brought back to Frank- 
lin the baggage train, artillery and wounded of the army 
and more than two hundred prisoners. 

Its next campaign was against Bragg in Tennessee, and 
it was engaged at Rover, Middleton, Shelbyville, Elk 
river. Cowan, Lafayette, Ga., and at Chickamauga. For 
its gallant conduct at this battle it was complimented by 
General Thomas. During the winter of 1863 and 1864 it 
did duty in East Tennessee, and was in action at Dan- 
bridge, New Market, Mossy Creek and Fair Garden. It 
re-enlisted, received a furlough, was recruited to full 
strength, and returned to the field in May, 1864. While 
waiting at Louisville for horses and arms, the regiment, 
armed with common muskets and mounted on horses 
seized for the purpose, went against Morgan and defeated 
his scheme for cutting communication between Sherman 
and his base of supplies. 

In September it went to Chattanooga, and thence 
across the mountain to Murfreesboro and Readyviile 
where it attacked and defeated a portion of the rebel 
Wheeler's command, taking about three hundred. The 
enemy was pursued and finally driven to the mountains. 
The regiment joined the army of Sherman, and on the 
14th of November started with it on its march to the sea, 
under the command of General Kilpatrick. On the i6th 
it was in action at Lovejoy's Station. It was afterward 
during this march engaged at Macon, Bear Creek, 
Duanesboro and Buckhead Creek, in all of which the 
enemy's force, though superior, was beaten. After 
reaching Savannah, the cavalry in January, 1865, started 
through the Carolinas, and in its progress was engaged 
near Aiken, and at Black Stake's Station in South Caro- 
lina, and at Averysboro, Bentonville, — near Raleigh, — 
Hillsboro and Morrisville. This concluded the fighting 
of the war. The 9th had the honor of furnishing an 
escort for General Sherman when he went to negotiate 
with Johnston the terms of surrender. 






The following lists of [lorlions of this regimt-iU in 
which Luzerne county was represented contain (inimedi- 
alely after the names^ the dates of nuister-in and subse- 
()iient records of the nun here enrolled. Each man, 
unless otherwise stated, was mustered out with his regi- 
nient or company jidy i8th, 1865. 

F 11: 1.1) .AND SIAH OKKiei'KS. 

Coloiic/s. — Edward C. Williams, Nov. 21, '61; resigned 
Oct. 9, '62. Thomas f. James, Nov. 10, '61; promoteil 
from lieut. col. Oct. 14, '62; died at Philadelphia Jan. 
1,5. '63. Thomas J. Jordan, Oct. 22, '61: prisoner from 
luly 9, to Dec. 9, '62; promoted from niaj. Jan. 13, 'by. 
brev. brig. gen. Feb 25, "65. 

Lictitenaiit Colonels. — Oeorge H. Brown, Nov. 21, '61; 
|)romoted from maj. Jan. 13, '63; resigned Feb. 12, '63. 
Roswell M. Russell, Nov. 21, '61; promoted from maj. 
Mar. 19, '63; resigned Nov. r, '63. Edward (i. Savage. 
Oct. 7, '61; promoted from rapt. Company H to maj. 
Mar. 19, '63; to lieut. col. May 30, '64; resigned Sept. 
26. '64. David H. Kimmel, Oct. 29, '6i; promoted from 
capt. Comi)any H to maj. May 22, '63; lieut. col. Dec. 
17, '64. 

Majors. — Griflfith Jones, Oct. 3, '61; promoted from 
capt. Coinpany A Jan. 13, '63; resigned Dec. 2, '63. 
John S. Detweiler, Oct. 17, '61; promoted from cajit. 
Company E March 19, '63; resigned April 21, '63. 
Charles A. Appel, Oct. 3, '61; promoted from capt. Com- F Aug. 23, '64: cajjlured at Solemn Grove, N. ("., 
Mar. 10, '65; discharged by special order May 25, 'O5. 
William H. I.ongsdorf, Oct. 26, '61; promoted from capt. 
Company I Aug. 23, '64; discharged by special order 
Jan. 10, '65. John M. Porter, Nov. 22, '61; promoted 
from capt. Company C Dec. 17, '64; resigned May 30, 
'65. J. Frank Miller, Oct. 7, '61; promoted from ca|)t. 
Company K June 23, '65. 

Adjutant. — Thomas A. Nicholas, Nov. 21, '61; promo- 
ted from ist lieut. Company K May 22, '63; discharged 
by special order June 3, '65. 

Qiiartei masters. — William H. Eckles, Oct. 17, '61; 
transferred to Company E as ist lieut. William D. Ear- 
nest, Nov. 23, '61; resigned Nov. 10, '62. Eugene S. 
Hendrick, Dec. 9. '61; promoted from 1st lieut. Com- 
pany A May 22, '63. 

Commissary Sergeant. — Thomas J. Foose, Oct. 3, '61; 
j)romoted from sergt. Company A May. 22, '63. 

Surgeons. — Oscar M. Robbins, Nov. 4, '61; resigned 
.\ug. 1, '64. S. C. Walker, Aug. 4, '62; ])ronioted from 
ass't surg. Aug. 22, '64. 

Assistant Surgeons. — John M. Junkin. Nov. 4, '61; jiro- 
moted to surg. 56th Pa., Oct. i, '62. Rhodes S. Sutton, 
Mar. 17, '63; resigned January 5, '64. James Moore, 
Sept. 8, '64: wounded at Raleigh, N. C, Apr. 12, '65; 
discharged by special order May 27, "65. William Rice, 
Apr. 9, '65. 

Chaplains. — Edmund M'Kinney, Nov. 22, '61 ; resigned 
July 26, '64. 

Vete' inary Surgeons. — Charles W. Sherman, Dec. 9, '61 ; 
I)roiTioted from private Company E Jan. 23, '65. D. L. 
Echterndch, Dec. 9, '61; discharged on surg's certificate 
Nov. 25, '63. 

Sergeant Majors. — Cyrus S. Marks, Oct. 7, '61; jiromo- 
ted from ])rivate ('ompany BJuly i,'64: veteran. I. Lloyd, 
Jan. 10, '62; ])romoted from private Company I Jan. 10. 
'62: lieut. Company L Apr. 3, '62. Charles Coglizer. 
Nov. 14, '61; promoted from 1st sergt. Company L Apr. 
8, '62; 2nd lieut. Company C August 8, '62. Nathan \V. 
Horton, Oct. 29, '61; i>romoted Irom sergt. Conijjany H 
Aug. 8, '61; 2nd lieut. Company C May 22, '65. Isaar D. 


'61 ; not 

'61; nro- 
Peicr A. 

Landis, Oct. 29, '61 ; promoted from sergt. Coni|)any H 
May 23, "63; 2nd lieut. Company H July 1, '64; veteran. 
Marshall H. Lentz, Nov. 21, '61: promoted from Q. NL 
sergt. to 2nd liei'.t. Comijany H. June 7, '62. 

{iuartermaster Sergeants. — Helirv Kroh, Oct. 3, '61; 
))romoted from sergt. Con pany A Fel>. 24, '64; veteran. 
.\ugiistus L. Krom. Oct. 26, '61: discharged on surg"s 
certificate Dec. 5, 63. Thoph's J. Mount/, Oct. 29, '61; 
promoted from ist sergt. Company H June 7, '62; and 
lieut. Company E .Aug 8, '62. 

Cowniissaiy .SV/x(-<;///i. — Richard !•'. Marl/, Oct. 7, '61. 
|)romoted from sergt. Company H May 20, '65; veteran; 
John W. Wyeth, Oct. 17, '61; promoted from priv. Com- 
pany E Jan. I, '64; 2nd lieut. I'ompany L June 30, '64; 
veteran. Jacob Coller, Oct. 17. '61; promoted from 
sergt. Company E June 1, '64; ist lieut. Com|)any E 
May 19, '65; veteran. David W. Miller, Oct. 3, '61: 
transferred to Comf)any A June i r, '63. 

Hospital Stewari/s. — Jacob F. Day, May 27, '64; pro- 
moted from priv. ("ompanv H May 28, '64. .Augustus 
Ebert, Oct. 3, "61; promoted from priv. Company A 
Jan. I, '65; veteran. Napoleon Saulnier, Nov. 23, '6i: 
discharged Dec. 24, '64. 

SaJdler. — Henry Messner, Oct. 7, 61; promoted 
saddler Company B Jan. 13, '65; veteran. 

Wagon Master. — Samuel Hogdon, Nov. 21 
accounted for. 

Chief Buglers. — S. Kingsborough. Oct. 26. 
moted from bugler Company I Jan. 1, '64. 
Mowers, Nov. 20, '61; discharged on : urg's cerlifica'e 
Nov. 25, '63. Hampton C. Stevens, Oct. 17, "61; pro- 
moted from Company E; discharged on surg's certificate 
Nov. 14, '62. 

COMH.\N^ 1 1. 

This company was recruited in Luzerne county. !K 
large proportion of its members were mustered in on the 
15th of October, 1861. and to avoid rei)etiiion that date 
is omitted. 

Offieers. — Captains — Jacob Berlles; resigned Aug. 7, 
'62. Michael O'Reilly; promoted from 1st. lieut. Aug. 
8, '62. 1st lieuts. — George Smith; promoted from 2nd 
lieut. Sept. 8, '62; capt. Coinpany L Sept. 1. "63. Christo- 
pher Walthers; promoted 2nd lieut. from Company L 
May 30, '64. 2iid lieuts. — Louis Praeiorius; resign