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Macomb County, 

















The period has passed away forever when the once philosophic phrase — a thousand 
years scarce serve to form a State, could be used with propriety. The same may now be 
said of histor}'. The busy activities of oui- days, the march of progress, the wonderful 
advances of science and art. contribute to the realization of ideas, and crowd into a period 
of fifty years n gi-eater number of remarkable and important events, than fifty decades of 
olden times in the Eastern World could offer to the chronicler. Therefore, the compila- 
tion of history is not only justifiable, but also essential. It is the enduring record of 
years that can only through it be recalled, of men who will be honored by the American 
manhood of this and coming generations. 

This work is dedicated to the people of Macomb County. With the exception of the 
first part, the history of Michigan, it is distinctively local, and as such must be considered 
a magnificent record of a worth}- people. The work of the French and American pioneers 
of Macomb extends over a century. Within that period, they have raised it from its prim- 
itive condition to the rank of one of the first divisions of the State — cultivated its wild 
lands, built its villages and towns and brought into existence two importaot centers of 
population — Mt. Clemens and Romeo. They transmuted the marsh into fii'm earth, re- 
moved the forests, and decorated the river banks with happy homes and fertile fields. It 
is difficult to point out precisely the men who were foremost in contributing to this result: 
all share in the prosperity of the county, and take a special pride in its advancement; each 
citizen has experienced the luxury of doing good, and feels that life is not now a mere 
shadow of a dream. The alarms and anxieties attendant on the pioneer life have been 
changed to certainties and happy greetings. Those who saw the primeval forest waving 
over the land, lived on through the days of its destruction to see the clearings covered 
with the houses of merchants and manufacturers, or the fields and homes of a prosperous 
people. They wear the honors which justly belong to them; while those who died, ob- 
tained a glimpse of what they laljored for before passing away, and live in the memory of 
the present. The pioneers who are gone beheld the budding desires of younger days ex- 
pand into the flower, and. seeing, went to the undiscovered land beyond the grave, leaving 
their memories and their deeds to be carried down the stream of time. 

In these pages, an effort has been made to treat the history of the county in a full 
and impartial manner. Doubtless a few inacciu^acies may have crept in; but such must 
be attributed to other causes, rather than carelessness. In regard to the jiages devoted to 
personal history, a large sum of money, much labor and time have been expended on them. 
Even after the personal notes taken by the township historian were rewritten, and in 
many instances submitted, this very copy was placed on type-vsriter and mailed to the 
person concerned for revision. The biographies given here, together with their collection, 
would necessitate the steady work of one experienced man for five years. The collection 
of such facts as appear in the State and County histories, would entail on an inexperienced 
writer ten years' steady work, while the compilation of townshiji histories, as they appear 





here, would doubtless occupy the attention of such a writer for a year. Within a few 
months, this work has been begun and completed. Notwithstanding this remarkable 
celerity, it will be evident that little or nothing, which should have a place in its pages, 
has been omitted. It will also be evident throughout that the writer of the general history. 
as well as the gentlemen who collected tlie biograpliical notices, have realized the simple 
fact of undeserved praise being undisguised satire. In some instances, this realization 
ma-\- have led to too brief references to many meii. an account of whose lives might occupy 
man}' pages. 

The plan of this work is specially adapted to a great record book. All things per- 
taining in general to the State are dealt with in the State history, and form, as it were, an 
introduction to the county history. The latter is carried down from the first Otchipwe 
invasion to the present time, treating fully and impartially every subject of general in- 
terest to the people. So with the cities and the villages — they have been very liberally 
sketched: while each township has just sutficient notice given it to render its history a 
most valuable record for the future. 

We have been ably assisted in the work by the members of the county press. The 
written sketches of Judge James B. Eldredge. Edgar Weeks. John E. Day. Rev. H. N. 
Bissell, Dr. HoUistei-, were all requisitioned and yielded up a mine of historical informa- 

The reminiscences of early settlement were selected from the writings of members of 
the- pioneer society, while the numerous anecdotes were written from facts obtained from 
the old settlers. 

To the coiinty officers our most sincere thanks are offered — -first, for placing their 
well-kept records at our disposal; second, for the material aid rendered in searching old 
record Isooks, and lastly, for the genial courtesy which marked their intercourse with us 
on all occasions. 

To Chauncey (1. Gady. George H. Cannon and John E. Day. members of the His- 
torical Committee of the Pioneer Society, we desire to extend oiu- thanks for the deep in- 
terest which they have taken in the work, as well as recognition of their faithful labors on 
the Committee of Revision and Correction. 

The gentlemen engaged in the biographical department of the work wereH. O. Brown, 
in Bruce and Washington; W. M. Bucklin. at Romeo ; E. B. Belden, in Ray; F. A. 
Stitt. in Sterling; Thomas Mitchell, in Harrison and Erin: WiJliam Dicer, in Shelby; 
Jesse Cloud, in IJtica; George T. Ma.son. at Mt. Clemens Ciiy: S. A. Stinson. in Chester- 
field; John E. Day, Secretary of the Pioneer Society, compiled the general and biograph- 
ical history of Armada and Richmond Townships; Horatio N. Richards, of Lenox, aud 
Calv n Davis, of Macomb. 

The support extended to the history was not so general as it should be: yet we feel 
satisfied that the quality of our subscribers compensates in a great measure for the loss iu 
number, by rendering our book so excellent in its biographical features. While the work 
deals with the county generally, it has, from a historical standpoint, been written expressly 
for those who supported it. The very few among the intelligent classes who did not order 
a book cannot now obtain a copy from us. To all we have given a history, which we be- 
lieve is perfect in detail, and from the patrons of the work we ask only a careful perusal 
of th(j various chapters before their criticism. 

Chicago, July, 1882. M. A. LEESON. 



CHAPTER I. — The Aborigines 17 

The Fii-ot Immigration 18 

The Second Immigration 19 

The Tartars 21 

CHAPTER II — French Exploration and Settlement 22 

Ihe Recent Discoveries of St. Ignace 29 

La Salle's Travels 34 

. Detroit 35 

CHAPTER III.— The French and Indian War 38 

CHAPTER IV.— National Policies— British Policy 44 

.\merican Policy 44 

Ordinance of 1787 45 

CHAPTER v.— Military Histoby.— Pontiac's Siege of 



Expedirions of Harraar, Scott and Wilkinson 50 

Expeditions of St. Clair and Wayne 53 

Gen. Wayne's Great Victory ; 54 

Revolutionary War 56 

Hull's Surrender ^ 58 

Perry's Victory 59 

Closeof the War 61 

TheTecumseh War 82 

The Black Hawk War 66 

The Toledo War 66 

The Patriot War 74 

The Mexican War 78 

The War of 1861-(i5 78 

CHAPTER VI.— PoLmcAU History 79 

Administration of Gen. Cass 82 

Gen. George B. Porter's Administration 89 

Administration of Gov. Horner 91 

State Officers 97 

Political Statistics 101 

CHAPTER VII —Miscellaneous.— Fur Traders and Slave 

Owners 103 

Slavery in Michigan 103 

Sale of Kegro Man Pompey 106 

Public School System 106 

State University ■. 107 

State Normal School .". 108 

Agricultural College 108 

Other Colleges 109 

Charitable Institutions Ill 

The State Public School Ill 

Institution for Deaf. Vnmb and Blind 112 

Asylums for the Insane 113 

Penal Instituticms 113 

The State Prison in 1880 114 

Stale Reform School.: U5 

The Land Office — State Library 116 

State Fisheries 118 

CHAPTER VIII.— State Societies.— Pioneer Society of 

Michigan 118 

Roll of Pioneers 119 

First State Historical Society 126 

State Agricultural Society 126 

State Pomological Society 126 

State Firemen's Association 126 

State Board of Public Health 1-27 

CHAPTER IX.— MicuioAN A.NU Its Resocrces.- Iron and 

Steel Industries I:;7 

The Copper Product ; 128 

The Productsof a Year 128 

Michigan Crops for 1881 129 

The Vessel Interest 131 

Growth of Forty Tears 131 

Leading the Van 13 J 


CHAPTER X.— Introduction 133 

Geological Conformations 135 

Supeificial Materials 136 

Gas Wells l.'SS 

Subterranean Channels 139 

Water Reservoirs 1:19 

.Ancient Lake Sites 141 

Mineral Waters 141 

The Salt Springs of 1797 142 

Mt. Clemens Magnetic Waters 142 

Analysis 144 

Fossils 146 

Review of Physical Characteristics 145 

Archaeological 146 

Forts and Mounds of Macomb 148 

The Second Mound — Stone Mounds 149 

Forts Numbels Two and Thiee l.iO 

Survey by S. L. .Andrews 151 

Huge Skeletons 152 

Sundry Discoveries 152 

Zoological— Birds 164 

Mammalia IGU 

The Flora of the County 103 

Meteorological — The Big Snows 163 

The Black Days 164 

Tornado of 1836— The Meteor and Comet 161 

Eclipse of the Moon, 1881 166 

CHAPTER XI.— The Lmmans 166 

The Otchipwe Invasion 1G8 

The Miamisand Pottawatomiea 170 

Reign of the Cholera '71 

Indian Treaties — Treaty of Greenville 171 

Treaty of Detroit 172 

Treaty of Brownstown — Treaty of Saginaw 173 

Well-known Savages 174 

The Eagle Chief 176 

Okemos 179 

A Legend of Cusick Lake 180 

Early Traders and Interpreters 181 

Distinguished Early Settlers 186 

Captivity If the Boyer Family 187 

The Lost Child 188 

The Indians' Raid 190 

Indians on the Trail of an American 190 

Visit to the Indian Villoge 191 

Manners and Customs 193 

CHAPTER XII.— The French Pioneers 194 

Detroit in 1763 197 

The Pioneer Land Buyers of Macomb 199 

Squatters' Claims '. 200 

Indian Reservations 213 

La Riviere an Vases and Maconee Reserves 213 



CHAPTER XlII— The Muuavijns— Settlement of tho Mo- 
ravian StlepectB 214 

MoriiviuD Indians, 1781 


. 216 

MorATian Marriages 216 

Mannera, Habits and Customs 217 

1 Village 217 

The German ImmiKraUon of 1845 219 

CHAPTER XIV— PioNltER History 219 

Society ofl87I 221 

Organization of the County Pioneers 221 

Charter Members 224 

Members Enrolled Since Organization 225 

Pioneer Keminiscences— The O'Connor Family 229 

The Tuckar Family 232 

Christian Clemens 236 

C Clemens in a British Dungeon 237 

Uislinguishcd Visitant 238 

Chafilisiug a Savage 238 

Col. John Stockton— Thomas Ashley;. 239 

Chauncey G. Oady.. 240 

William A.Burt 241 

The Settlemen. of the Darlings 243 

Corbyn Reminiscences 244 

Carter Reminiscences 246 

Daniel W. Day's Reminiscences 246 

Reminiscences of John D. Holland 248 

Early Settlement In Shelby, by L. D. Owen 250 

The Past and Present— Poem 254 

CHAPTER XV.— Pioneer Reminiscences.— Pioneer Mothers -239 

The First Homes of the People 260 

The Keg of Gold 261 

Recluse of the Marsh — \ Mother-in-law's Journey 262 

Detroit to Mt. Clemens 26'4 

Fortunate Hunters 263 

Deer Hunting — Harrington's Coon Hunting 264 

Uunce and O'Keefe — Bear Experiences 265 

Dr. Gleeson and the Reptile 265 

Deer Hunting Made Easy 266 

Reminiscences of the Bailey Settlement 266 

The Deer of Providence 268 

Political Turncoat — Inwood's Bear Hunting 269 

A Bear in Bruce 270 

Noah Webster and the Bear 271 

Finch's Wolf Hunting 271 

Tragic End of a Wolf— Orderly Retreat 272 

Making Sugar Among the Wolves 272 

The Yellow Cat of Richmond 273 

Tlie Building of the Ship "Harriet" 273 

Jacob A. Crawford and the Speculator 273 

Lei.'Ure Hours in Pioneer Times 275 

ISuptial Feasts in Early Times 276 

Evening Visits 277 

Lumberii'g in Early Days ; 278 

Seasons of Sickness 279 

Death of Aianson Church 280 

A Pioneer Lawyer 281 

Chesterfield in Early Days 282 

Marriage Record in Early Days 283 

Marks for Cattle in Olden Times 289 

Pontiacand St. Clair Mail Routes 290 

Temperance and House liaising 291 

A Retrospect 294 

CHAPTER XVI.— Organization 295 

SI. Clair Township 296 

M.Hcoinb County Erfcted 296 

Locating the County Seat 296 

Oiiginal Townships 297 

Nauje Huron Changed to Clinton 297 

Clianj;*- of Boundary , 297 

Organic .Nummary 298 

Establishment of Townships 299 

Miscelhiricous Acts 300 

County Ollicera Past and Present 303 

Supervisors' Board 304 

CHAPTER XVII.— Political History 306 

County Elections 310 


nals of Romeo.... 

Journals of Utica... 

Press or Macomb Countv. — Jour- 



Mt. Clemens 330 

New BAltimore — Richmond 335 

Armada^Personal Notices 336 

CHAPTER XIX— Poetry or Macomb— The World's Pioneer 344 

A Child's Prayer 346 

A Legend of Shelby Township 347 

Who Donglesthe Bell? 347 

My Mother 348 

The Garden of the Heart 348 

April Storms- Happy To-Night 349 

Tho Lonely Grave 349 

On the Death of Lincoln 350 

CHAPTER XX.— Progress of Education 353 

Sabbath Schools of the County 355 

CHAPTER XXr.— The Churches of Macomb 358 

CHAPTER XXII— The War for the U.mon.— Appoint- 
ments and statistics 374 

Record of Commissioned Officers 376 

First Michigan Infantry 384 

Second Michigan Infantry. 385 

Third Michigan Inf* try 385 

Fourth Michigan In'antry 386 

Fifth Michigan Infantry 387 

Sixth Michigan Infantry 392 

Seventh Michigan Infantry 392 

Eighth Michigan Infantry 393 

Ninth Michigan Infantry 393 

Tenth Michigan Infantry 394 

Eleventh Michigan Infantry 395 

Twelfth, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Michigan Infantry.. 396 

Fifteenth and Sixteenth Michigan Infantry 397 

Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Michigan In- 
fantry 398 

Twentieth, Twenty-first and Twenty-second Michigan 

Infantry 399 

Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, Twent.v-flfth, Twenty- 
sixth and Twenty-seventh Michigan Infantry 410 

Twenty-eighth, Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth Michigan 

Infantry 411 

First Michigan Colored Infantry 412 

First Michigan Engineers and Mechanics 412 

First Michigan Cav.,lry 413 

Second Michigan Cavalry 416 

Third Michigan Cavalry 416 

Fourth and Fifth Michigan Cavalry 416 

Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Michigan Cavalry 420 

Ninth and Tenth Michigan Cavalry 423 

Eleventh Michigan Cavalry — Light Artillery 424 

Soldiers and Sailors of Macomb and St. Clair 424 

Conclusion 430 

CHAPTER XXIII.— Olden Katebpbhes.— The City of Bel- 

videre 432 

Belvidere Land Titles 433 

Frederick or Casino— Other Villages 436 

Tremble Creek 435 

Railroads and Navigation 436 

The Weeks Contract 43s 

Action of the U. S. Troops 438 

Railroads 439 

Clinton River 440 

Harbor of Refuge, Belle River 441 

CHAPTER XXIV.— Courts and Bar or Macomb.— Circuit 

Court 442 

Retirement of Judge Morell 442 

The Grand Jury and the Judge 445 

Admissions to the Bar of Macomb County 445 

The Present Bar 447 

Imporfant Trials 448 

Electioneering in 1873 448 

The Hatheway Estate, Air Line Suit 449 

The C.ounty Court House 450 

Meeting of Romeo Citizens 461 

Logic of the Conservatives 451 

Laying the Corner Stone 464 

Mayor Crocker's Address 465 

The County Jail 460 

CH.\PTER XXV. — County Finances and Statistics. — 

Towns and Villages, Population in 1850-60 465. - 

Macomb County Statistics in 18.50 4(<i< 


Populatiouin 1870 » 466 

Statistical, 1870 466 

Population iu 1880 467 

Equalized Valuation, 1842-81 4«S 

CHAPTER XXVI— Ar.Ricni.TVRALiNi) Faumehb' Associa- 
tions. — Agricultunii Development 469 

Macomb County Agricultural Society 473 

Union Farmers' Club 474 

The Grange 475 

Macomb County Grange 475 

Fine Stock Sheep Kaisers 476 

Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company 481 

Sheei^Shearers' Association 482 

CHAPTER XXVII— Necrology 484 

CHAPTER XXVIII— Chronology 496 


, 519 

CHAPTER XXIX.— Mount Clemens Citt. — Early Settle- 
ment 1 

Dentists and Dentistry 5iZ 

Platting the Village 523 

Organization 524 

Trustees 526 

Election in 1882 627 

American Settlers in 1821-22 629 

First Fleming Mill, Orchards, Cemetery 5;i9 

Glass Factory, Saw-Mills 530 

Inaugurating the Canal, Mount Clemens in 1868 530 

Progress in 1880 531 

Era of Advancement 632 

Telephone Exchange, Taxation 535 

The Clinton River 535 

The Death of Four Citizens 536 

Industries 537 

Hotels 539 

Religious History 541 

Schools of Mount Clemens 544 

Private Schools, 1840 to 1857 548 

History of the Academy 550 

Private Schools, 1867 to 1881 558 

Denominational Schools 559 

Union School 559 

Teachers, 1S57 to 1882 660 

Officers and Trustees 661 

Statistics 562 

Masonic. I. O. O. F 564 

Manufacturing Industries 565 

Clinton Township, Organization 567 

Town Itoit-r 568 

Schools and School Statistics 569 

Biographical Sketches. 570 

CHAPTER XXX.— RoHEo.— Naming the Village 613 

Organic 613 

First Settlers ; 616 

The Old Inhabitants 620 

The First Post Office 623 

Pioneer Physicians 624 

Reminiscences of Early Times 624 

Leisure Hours 625 

A Few Well Remembered Settlers 625 

Romeo in 1836-37 626 

Romeo in 1881 628 

Schools and School Teachers 628 

The Romeo Academy 530 

Rpligious 632 

Libraries and Museums 636 

Societies 636 

Romeo Carriage Company 639 

Romeo Mineral Well 639 

Sash and Blind Factory 641 

Biographical Sketches 642 

CHAPTER XXXl.—ABMAnA.— Organization, First Town 

Meeting 679 

Pioneers of Armada 681 

Armada Village 683 

Post Office 685 


Armada Agricultural Society '...'. 685 

Armada C. L. S. C 6S6 

Armada Literary Society 686 

Schools 687 

Biographical Sketches 687 

CHAPTER XXXII.— Shelby Towssair.— Orgaldc 717 

Town Roster 7IS 

Schools, Utica Village 719 

Organization, Disco Village — 721 

Utica Lyceum, Congregational Church 722 

Biographical Sketches 722 

CHAPTER XXXIII.— Bri(F, Township.— Grand Trunk 

Railroad, Air Line 743 

Schools, Scotch Settlement 743 

Bounty for Wolf Scalps— Statistical '. 1H 

Limsof the Reside Child 744 

Biographical Sketches 745 

CHAPTER XXXIV— Macomb Township —First Schools 767 

First Settlers— Organization 767 

Town Officers 768 

Physical and Statistical 768 

Schools— Macomb Village 769 

Biographical Sketches 770 

CHAPTER XXXV -Richmond Township 778 

Town Roster 779 

Richmond Village 781 

Township Schools in 1881 781 

Baptist Church of Richmond Village 782 

Memphis Village 782 

Biographical Sketches 786 

CHAPTER XXXM.— Washington Township. — Organiza- 
tion 806 

Town Roster 8»7 

Grand Trunk Railroad of Michigan ^07 

Michigan Air Line Railroad ~ 808 

Reminiscences of Early Days in Washington 808 

TheOrissman Scho.'.l 808 

Schools — A Temperance Building 809 

Mention of a Few Old Settlers 809 

Reminders of the Past- Methodist Church .... 810 

Washington Union Church Society 810 

South Burial Ground 811 

Villages of the Township 811 

Reminiscences of C. Harlow Green 812 

Biographical Sketches '■ 813 

CHAPTER XXXVII —Sterling Township.— The Fint Set- 
tlers .-. 846 

Organization— The First Election 846 

Roster of Office™ 847 

School" : 84S 

Biographical Sketches .« 848 

iOHAPTER XXXVIII.— Warkkn Township 852 

Town Officers S.IR 

Village of Warren 853 

Township Schools 8.54 

St. Clement's Catholic Church 8.'''4 

Biographical Sketches 855 

CHAPTER XXXIX.— Rav Township 8,i7 

Organization 858 

Town Roster 859 

Eccentriciti-^s of Town Board 860 

Teachers' Association 860 

Patriot War— Crawford School 860 

Schools in 1881-1882 860 

Ray Center — Davis 861 

Biogriphicai Sketches 863 

CHAPTER XL.— Lenox Township. — 0rgani7.ation 877 

First Meeting 877 

Town Roster 87« 

Schools 879 

Biographical Sketches 808 

CHAPTER XLI.— Harrison Township —Town Roster 888 

Organization 889 

Physical Characteristics 889 

First Evfhts 810 

Literary and Educational 890 

1 Present Schools 891 

Biographical Sketches 891 

Aj, <S fc- 



CHAPTER XLII.— Erin Township.— Organization 893 

Tovvnship Officers S94 

T.i« Mship Schojis 894 

VMUi-.-s 894 

l)i..g,;,|.liical Sketches 895 

CHAPTER XLIII. — Chesterfield Township. — Organizatiou 901 

Town Roster 901 

Ciiurclies — Sch lols „ 90i 

Masonic— New Batimore 902 

Manufacturing Industries 903 

Biugrapliical Sketches 904 


Tianeactions of the Pioneer Society, 18S2 915 

Earlv Banka and Bankers of Macomb County 917 

WildVat Banks 920 

The Bank of Dtica 920 

The Farmers' Bank of Komeo 922 

The Clinton Riser Bank 922 

The Bank of Lake St. Clair 922 

Conclusion 924 


Bailey, Asahel 633 

Bailey, Cynthia 633 

Brownell, William 729 

Cady, C. G 240 

Cannon, George W 256 

Cannon, Lucy M 256 

Cooley, Dennis, M. D. (deceased) 497 

Cro'-ker, T. M ' 569 

Day, Erastua 793 

Dickinson, Joshua B 633 

Douglass, Isaac 617 

Hazelton, H. R 371 

Hendrick, F. G 585 

Keeler, Mary J 809 

Keeler, Nathan 809 

Phillipa, G. W est 

Phillips, Mrs. G. W 681 

Sherman, Hiram 666 

Sherman, M. W 666 

Smith, Elisha (deceased) 825 

Smith, Mrs. Elisha 825 

Steffens, i^harles 479 

Sterling, A. W. (deceased) 519 

Weekly, Edgar 443 


Firet Schoolhouae in Romeo 629 K 

High School Building, Mt Clemens 551 

Macomb County Court House 305 f 

Macomb County Jail 461 -. 




History of Michigan. 



Scientists have ascribed to the Mound Builders varied origins, and though 
their divergence of opinion may, for a time, seem incompatible with a thorougli 
investigation of the subject, and tend to a confusion of ideas, no doubt whatever 
may exist as to tlie comparative accuracy of conclusions arrived at by a few of the 
investigators. Like the vexed questions of tlie Pillar Towers and Garden Beds, 
it has caused much speculation, and elicited opinions from so manj' antiquarians, 
ethnologists, and travelers, that little remains to be known of the prehistoric peo- 
ples of America. That this continent is co-existent with the world of the ancients 
can not be questioned. Every investigation, made under the auspices of modern 
civilization confirms the fact and leaves no channel open through which the skeptic 
can escape the thorougli refutation of his opinions. China, with its numerous living 
testimonials of antiquity, with its ancient, though limited, literature and its Babelish 
superstitions, claims a continuous history from antediluvian times ; but although its 
continuity may be denied with every just reason, there is nothing to prevent the 
transmission of a hieroglj-phic record of its history prior to ltJ56 Anno Mundi, since 
many traces of its early settlement survived the Deluge, and became sacred objects 
of the first historical epoch. This very survival of a record, such as that of which 
the Chinese boast, is not at variance with the designs of a God who made and ruled 
the universe ; but that an antediluvian people inhabited this continent, will not be 
claimed ; because it is not probable, though it may be possible, that a settlement in 
a land which may be considered a portion of the Asiatic continent, was effected by 
the immediate followers of tlie first progenitors of the human race. Therefore, on 
entering the study of the ancient people who raised these tumulus monuments over 
large tracts of the country, it will be just sufficient to wander back to that time 
when the flood-gates of heaven were swung open to hurl destruction on a wicked 
world ; and in doing so the inquirj^ must be based on legendary, or rather upon many 
circumstantial evidences ; for, so far as written narrative extends, there is nothing 
to show that a movement of people too far east resulted in a western settlement. 



The first and most probable sources in which the origin of the Builders must 
be sought, are those countries lying along the eastern coast of Asia, which doubtless 
at that time stretched far beyond its present limits, and presented a continuous shore 
from Lapatka to Point Cambodia, holding a population comparatively civilized, and 
all professing some elementary form of Boodhisra of later days. Those peoples, 
like the Chinese of the present, were bound to live at home, and probably observed 
that law until after the confusion of languages and the dispersion of the builders of 
Babel, in 1757, A. M.; but subsequently, within the following century, the old Mon- 
golians, like the new, crossed the great ocean in the very paths taken by the present 
representatives of the race, arrived on the same shores, which now extend a very 
questionable hospitality to them, and entered at once upon the colonization of the 
countr}' south and east, while the Caucasian race engaged in a similar movement 
of exploration and colonization over what may be justly termed the western ex- 
tension of Asia, and both peoples growing stalwart under the change, attained a 
moral and physical eminence to which they never could lay claim under the tropical 
sun which shed its beams upon the cradle of the human race. 

That mysterious people who, like the Brahmins of to-day, worshipped some 
transitory deity, and in after years, evidently embraced the idealization of Bood- 
hism, as preached in Mongolia early in the thirty-fifth century of the world, together 
with acquiring the learning of the Confucian and Pythagorean schools of the same 
period, spread all over the land, and in their numerous settlements erected these 
raths, or mounds, and sacrificial altars whereon they received their peroidical visiting 
gods, surrendered their bodies to natural absorption or annihilation, and watched 
for the return of some transmigrated soul, the while adoring the universe, which 
with beings they believed would be eternally existent. They possessed religious 
orders corresponding, in external show at least, with the Essenes or Theraputse of 
the pre-Christian and Christian epochs, and to the reformed Theraputte or monks 
of the present. Everj' memento of their coming and their stay which has descended 
to us is an evidence of their civilized condition. The free copfier found within the 
tumuli ; the open veins of the Superior and Iron Mountain copper mines, with all 
the modus operandi of ancient mining, such as ladders, levers, chisels and hammer- 
heads, discovered by the Frencii explorers of the Northwest and Mississippi, are 
conclusive proofs that those prehistoric people were highly civilized, and that many 
flourishing colonies were spread throughout the Mississippi Valley, while yet the 
mammoth, the mastodon, and a hundred other animals, now only known by their 
gigantic fossil remains, guarded the eastern shore of the continent, as it were, against 
supposed invasions of the Tower Builders who went west from Babel ; while yet the 
beautiful isles of the Antilles formed an integral portion of this continent, long years 



before the European Northmen dreamed of setting forth to the discovery of Green- 
land and the northern isles, and certainl3'at a time when all that portion of America 
nortli of 45 deg. was an ice-incumbered waste. 

Within the last few years great advances have been made toward the dis- 
covery of antiquities whether pertaining to remains of organic or inorganic nature. 
Together with many small but telling relics of the early inhabitants of the country, 
the fossils of prehistoric animals have been unearthed from end to end of the land, 
and in districts, too, long pronounced b)' geologists of some repute to be without 
even a vestige of vertebrate fossils. Among the collected souvenirs of an age 
about which so very little is known, are twenty-five vertebrte averaging thir- 
teen inclies in diameter, and three vertabrse, ossified together measuring nine 
cubical feet ; a thigh-bone five feet long by twent3'-eight in diameter, and 
the shaft fourteen by eight inches thick, the entire lot weighing 600 pounds. 
These fossils are presumed to belong to the cretaceous period when the Dino- 
saur roamed over the country from east to west, desolating the villages of the 
people. This animal is said to be sixty feet long, and when feeding in cypress 
and palm forests, to extend himself eighty-five feet, so that lie may devour the bud- 
ding tops of those great trees. Other efforts in this direction may lead to great 
results, and culminate probably in the discovery of a tablet engraven by some 
learned Mound Builder, describing, in the ancient hieroglyphics of China, all those 
men and beasts whose history excites so much speculation. The identity of the 
Mound Builders with the Mongolians might lead us to hope for such a consum- 
mation ; nor is it beyond the range of probability, particularly in this practical age, 
to find the future of some industrious antiquarian requited by the upheaval of a 
tablet written in the Tartar characters of 1700 years ago, bearing on a subject which 
can now be treated only on a purely circumstantial basis. 


may have begun a few centuries prior to the Christian era, and unlike the former 
expedition or expedtions, to have traversed northeastern Asia, to its Arctic confines, 
and then east to the narrow channel now known as Behring's Straits, which they 
crossed, and sailing up the unchanging Yukon, settled under the shadow of Mount 
St. Elias for many years, and pushing south commingled with their countrymen, 
soon acquiring the characteristics of the descendants of the first colonists. Chinese 
chronicles tell of such a people, who went north, and were never heard of more. 
Circumstances conspire to render that particular colony the carrier of a new religious 
faith and of an alphabetic system of representative character to the old colonists, 
and they, doubtless, exercised a most beneficial influence in other respects ; because 
tlie influx of immigrants of such culture as were the Chinese, even of that remote 
period, must necessarily bear very favorable results, not only in bringing in reports 


-f-— 4 



of their travels, but also accounts from the fatherland bearing on the latest 

With the idea of a second and important exodus there are many theorists united, 
one of whom says : " It is now tlie generally received opinion that the first inhabi- 
tants of America passed over from Asia through these straits." 

The Esquimaux of North America, tlie Samoieds of Asia, and the Laplanders 
of Europe, are supposed to be of the same family ; and this supposition is strength- 
ened by the affinity which exists in their languages. The researches of Humboldt 
have traced the Mexicans to the vicinity of Behring's Straits ; whence it is con- 
jectured, that they, as well as the Peruvians and other tribes, came originally from 
Asia, and were the Hurignoos, who are, in the Chinese annals, said to have 
emigrated under Puno, and to have been lost in the north of Siberia." 

Since this theory is accepted by most antiquarians, there is every reason to be- 
lieve that from the discovery of what may be called an overland route to what was 
then considered an eastern extension of that country which is now known as tlie 
" Celestial Empire," many caravans of emigrants passed to their new homes in the 
land of illimitable possibilities until the way became a well-marked trail over which 
tlie Asiatic might travel forward, and having once entered the Elysian fields never 
entertained an idea of returning. Thus from generation to generation tlie tide of 
immigration poured in until the slopes of the Pacific and the banks of the great in- 
land rivers became hives of busy industry. Magnificent cities and monuments were 
raised at the bidding of the tribal leaders, and populous settlements centered with 
liappy villages, sprung up everywhere in manifestation of the power and wealth 
and knowledge of the people. The colonizing Caucasian of the historic period 
walked over tliis great country on the very ruins of a civilization which a thousand 
3'ears before eclipsed all that of whicli he could boast. He walked through the 
wilderness of the West over buried treasures hidden under the accumulated growth 
of nature, nor rested until he saw, with great surprise, the remains of ancient pyra- 
mids and temples and cities, larger and evidently more beautiful than ancient Egypt 
could bring forth after its long years of uninterrupted history. The pyramids re- 
semble those of Egypt in exterior form, and in some instances are of larger dimen- 
sions. The pyramid of Cholula is square, having each side of its base 1,335 feet in 
length, and its height about 172 feet. Another pyramid, situated in the north of 
Vera Cruz, is formed of large blocks of highly polished porphyry, and bears upon its 
front hieroglyphic inscriptions and curious sculpture. Each side of its square base 
is eighty-two feet in length, and a flight of fifty-seven ste23s conducts to its summit, 
which is sixty-five feet in height. The ruins of Palenque are said to extend twenty 
miles along the ridge of a mountain, and the remains of an Aztec city near the 
banks of the river Gila, are spread over more than a square league. Their literature 

— IS 


consisted of hieroglyph ics ; but their arithmetical knowledge did not extend further 
than their calculations by the aid of grains of corn. Yet, notwithstanding all their 
varied accomplishments, and they were evidently many, their notions of religious 
duty led to a most demoniac zeal, at once barbarously savage and ferociously cruel. 
Each visiting god, instead of bringing new life to the people, brought death to tliou- 
sands ; and their grotesque idols, exposed to drown the senses of the beholders in 
fear, wrought wretchedness rather than spiritual happiness, until, as some learned 
and humane Mouteziimian said, the people never approached these idols without 
fear, and this fear was the great animating principle, the great religious motive power 
which sustained the terrible religion. Their altars were sprinkled with blood drawn 
from their own bodies in large quantities, and on them thousands of human victims 
were sacrificed in honor of the demons whom they worshipped. The head and heart 
of every captive taken in war were offered up as a bloody sacrifice to the god of 
battles, while the victorious legions feasted on the remaining portions of the dead 
bodies. It has been ascertained that, during the ceremonies attendant on the con- 
secration of two of their temples, tlie number of prisoners offered up in sacrifice was 
12,210 ; while their own legions contributed voluntary victims to the terrible belief 
in large numbers. Nor did this honible custom cease immediately after 1521, when 
Cortez entered the imperial city of the Montezumas; for, on being driven from it, 
all his troops wlio fell into tiie hands of the native soldiers were subjected to the 
most terrible and prolonged suffering that could be experienced in this world, and 
when about to yield up that spirit wliich is indestructible, were offered in sacrifice, 
their hearts and heads consecrated, and the victors allowed to feast on the yet warm 

A reference is made here to the period when the Montezumas ruled over Mex- 
ico, simply to gain a better idea of the hideous idolatry which took the place "of the 
old Boodhism of the Mound Builders, and doubtless helped in a great measure to 
give victory to the new-comers, even as the tenets of Mahommetanism urged the 
ignorant follo^wers of the prophet to the conquest of great nations. It was not the 
faith of the people who built the mounds and the pyramids and the temples, and 
who, two hundred years before the Christian era, built tlie great wall of jealous 
China. No; rather was it that terrible faith born of the Tartar victory, which 
carried the great defences of China at the point of the javelin and hatchet, who 
afterwards marched to the very walls of Rome, under Alaric, and spread over the 
islands of Polynesia to the Pacific slopes of South America. 


came there, and, like the pure Mongols of Mexico and the Mississippi valley, rose 
to a state of civilization bordering on that attained by them. Here for centuries 
the sons of the fierce Tartar race continued to dwell in comparative peace, until the 


all-ruling empire took in the whole country from the Pacific to the Atlantic, and 
peopled the territory watered by the Amazon, with a race that was destined 
to conquer all the peoples of the Orient, and only to fall before the march of the 
arch-civilizing Caucasian. In course of time these fierce Tartars pushed their set- 
tlements northward, and ultimately entered the territories of the Mound Builders, 
putting to death all who fell within their reach, and causing the survivors of the 
death-dealing invasion to seek a refuge from the hordes of this semi-barbarous 
people in the wilds and fastnesses of the North and Northwest. The 
beautiful country of the Mound Builders was now in the hands of savage invaders, 
the quiet, industrious people, who raised the temples and pyramids were gone ; 
and the wealth of intelligence and industry accumulating for ages, passed into the 
possession of a rapacious horde, who could admire it only so far as it offered objects 
for plunder. 

Even in this the invaders were satisfied, and then, having arrived at the height 
of their ambition, rested on their swords and entered upon the luxury and ease, in 
the enjoyment of which they were found when the vanguard of European civiliza- 
tion appeared upon the scene. Meantime the southern countries which these 
adventurers abandoned after having completed their conquests in the North, were 
soon peopled by hundreds of people, always moving from island to island and ulti- 
mately halting amid the ruins of villages deserted by those who, as legends tell, 
had passed eastward but never returned; and it would scarcely be a matter for sur- 
prise if those emigrants were found to be the progenitors of that race found by the 
Spaniards in 1532, and identical with the Araucanians, Cuenches and Huiltiches 
of to-day. 



The fame of Marquette continues to gain strength as days advance. Notwith- 
standing all his countrymen had written of him, the new Americans continue to 
iiKjuire into his magnificent career, and to add to the store of information regarding 
liim, already garnered. Rev. Geo. Duffield, of Detroit, is one of his latest biogra- 
phers, and from his writings on the life of the missionary, we make the following 
extracts : 

Jacques Marquette came late to his fame. Open Davenport's Dictionary of 
Biography, 1831, " comprising the most eminent characters of all ages, nations and 
professions," and you will not find even so much as his name. Turn for that name 



to the Cyclopedia of Biography by Parke Godwin, with a supplement by George 
Sheppard, A. D. 1872, and you will not find it there, and so with many similar 
works. Hence we see the need of such an historical society as the present, that 
one of the greatest and best of the original founders of Michigan may receive his 
due credit, and be honored with an appropriate memorial. 

Marquette was born of an honorable family at Laon, in the north of France, in 
the year 1637, but the month and day of his birth are not easily found, and I have 
nowhere seen his portrait. In 1654 he joined the Society of the Jesuits, and in 
1666 was sent to the missions in Canada. After the river St. Lawrence and the 
great lakes had been mapped out, the all-absorbing object of interest with Governor 
Frontenac Talch, the inteudant, and Marquette himself, was to discover and trace 
from the north the wonderful Mississippi, that DeSoto, the Spaniard, had first seen 
at the south in 1541. In 1668 (according to Bancroft, III, 152), he repaired to the Chip- 
pewas at the Sault to establish the mission of St. Mary, the oldest settlement begun 
by Europeans within the present limits of the commonwealth of Michigan. On 
the day of the immaculate conception of the Holy Virgin, in 1673, he received his 
orders from Frontenac, to accompany Joliet on his long-desired journey. Taking 
probably the short trail through the woods he found his companion at Point St. 
Ignace, where, after many remarkable vicissitudes, both in life and death, he was 
at length to find his grave, where his numerous friends and admirers, both French 
and Indian, were for so long a time to lose sight of it again, and where a second 
time he gains his place as one of the founders of Michigan. 

Apart from his peculiar mission, which was looked upon by " the Protestant 
colonies " of New England with anything but favorable eyes ; apart from his pecu- 
liar dogma of the conception, which has only been officially sanctioned in our day 
and by the late Pope, there were many things in the life and times of Mar- 
quette that, to the lover of biography, make his character as attractive as that of 
Francis Xavier, " the great apostle of the Indies," or of his still greater master, 
Ignatius Loyola. The man in these days who can not admire, and even to a certain 
extent venerate man as man, apart from his more immediate antecedents or local 
surroundings, has but a very limited and mistaken idea of the enlightened spirit of 
the age, or the true dignity of human natui'e. Honor to whom honor is due, is not 
only a sound maxim, founded on that equity which is the highest form of justice, 
but is also in just so many words one of the very first principles of Cliristianity 
itself. When I can not give a man credit for -what he really is, because he belongs 
to another party than my own, or give him credit for what he has done, because he 
belongs to another denomination than my own, I deserve to be consigned for the 
remainder of my days to a hole in the woods. 

The pioneers of our country, no doubt, have had a very hard time of it, and 



none more so than ray Scotch-Irish ancestors in central Pennsylvania. From the 
childhood of Daniel Webster down to the present hour, it would argue a very igno- 
rant mind and most unfeeling and ungrateful heart to read the toils and trials and 
privations endured by men and women in the early settlement of this or any other 
State ; but after all what are the hardships of the early settlers compared with those 
of Allouez, in 1665, afloat in a frail canoe on the broad expanse of Lake Superior, 
of Dablon, Marquette, LaSalle, and others of the original explorers ? 

" Defying tlie severity of climate," as Bancroft lias it, " wading through water 
or through snows, without the comfort of fire ; having no bread but pounded 
corn, and often no food but the unwholesome moss from the rocks; laboring inces- 
santly, exposed to live, as it were, without nourishment, to sleep without a resting 
place ; to travel far, and always incurring perils ; to carry their lives in their hands ; 
or rather daily and oftener than every day, to hold them up as targets, expecting 
captivity, death from the tomahawk, tortures, fires" — (Bancroft, III., 152.) It 
seems to me that if there are any two classes of men who should be most cordially 
linked in closest bonds of sympathy with one another, it is the pioneers and 

Marquette was much more than a religious enthusiast. He was a scholar and 
a man of science. Having learned within a few years to speak with ease in six 
different languages, his talents as a linguist were quite remarkable. A subtle 
element of romance pervaded his character, which not only makes it exceedingly 
attractive to us in the retrospect, but was no doubt one of tlie great sources and 
elements of his power and success among his beloved Ottawas and Hurons, and 
others of the great Algonquin tribes, who were found in the immediate vicinity of 
the straits of Michilimaekinac. With a fine eye for natural beauty, he was as much 
delighted with a rapid river, or extended lake, vpith an old forest or rolling prairie, 
or a lofty mountain as a Birch, or a Cole, or a Bierstadt. Every one who touches 
his character seems emulous of adorning it with a new epithet. Parkman speaks 
of him as "the humble Marquette, who with clasped iiandsand up-turned eyes, seems 
a figure evoked from some dim legend of mediaeval saintship." Bancroft calls 
him " the meek, gentle, single-hearted, unpretending, illustrious Marquette." — 
Vol. III., p. 157. Many call him " the venerated;" all unite in calling him "the 
g(i(i(l Marquette," and by this last, most simple, but appropriate title he will be the 
best remembered by the generations yet to come. " A man who was delighted at 
the happy necessity of exposing his life to bring the word of God" witliin reach 
of half a continent deserves that title if any one does. His Catholic eulogist, 
John Gilnian Shea, (Catliolic World, November, 1877, p. 267,) writes with pardon- 
able pride : " No missionary of that glorious band of Jesuits who in the seventeenth 
century announced the faith from the Hudson Bay to the lower Mississippi, who 




hallowed by their labors and life-blood so many a wild spot now occupied by the 
busy hives of men, none of them impresses us more in his whole life and career 
with his piety, sanctity and absolute devotion to God, than Father Marquette. In 
life he seems to have been looked up to with reverence by the wildest savage, by 
the rude frontiersman, and by the polished officers of government. When he had 
passed away, his name and his fame, so marked in the great West, was treasured 
above that of his fellow-laborers, Menard, Allouez, Nouvel or Druillettes." May I 
not add that, most of all other States, his name and his fame should be dear to 
Michigan ? 

Such, then, was the man who on the 17th of May, 1673, with the simple outfit 
of two bircli canoes, a supply of smoked meat and Indian corn, and a crew of five 
men, embarked on what was then known as Lac Des Illinois, now Lake Michigan. 
June 10th they came to the portage, in Wisconsin, (III., 158,) and after carrying 
their canoes some two miles over marsii and prairie, " he committed himself to the 
current that was to bear them he knew not whitlier — perhaps to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, perhaps to the South Sea, or the Gulf of California." June 17, 1673, where 
now stands Prairie Du Ghien, he had found what he sought, "and with a joy that 
I can not express we steered forth our canoes on the Mississippi, or great river." 
We know that the honor of this discovery is very stoutly contested in favor of 
LaSalle, but for the present we confidently hold with Parkman (Discovery of the 
Great West, p. 25): " LaSalle discovered the Ohio, and in all probabilit}'' the Illinois 
also ; but that he discovered the Mississippi has not been proved, nor in the light 
of the evidence we have, is it likely." In 1816 W. J. A. Bradford, in his notes on 
the Nortli west, says very dogmatically: "Father Hennepin must undoubtedly be 
considered the discoverer of the Mississippi;" but if the proof of it is only to be 
establislied by Hennepin's own narrative, which Parkman describes as a rare mon- 
ument of brazen mendacity, the proof is still wanting. His famous voyage from 
the Illinois to the Gulf of Mexico must be considered not only as a falsehood, but 
a plagiarism. 

Fortunately for the fame of Marquette, the true record of his labors was not left 
to doubtful tradition and the hearsay testimony of Charlevoix. Among the papera 
some twenty-five years since in the archives of the College of Quebec are accounts 
of the last labors and death of Father Marquette, and of the removal of his 
remains, prepared for publication by Father Dablon ; Marquette's journal of his 
great expedition, tlie very map he drew, and a letter left unfinished at the time of 
his death. So at least says Mr. Shea, and that these documents are tn be found in 
his work on the discovery and exploration of the Mississippi Valley. 

Leaving, then, the doubtful narrative of Charlevoix and the romantic page of 
Bancroft founded upon it, we learn the real story of his death. October 25, 




1674, he again left St. Ignace to fulfill a promise to the Kaskaskias in Illinois. 
December 4th he reached Cliicago, hoping to ascend the river, and by a portage 
reach the Illinois: but the ice had closed the stream and it was too late. A winter 
march, facing the cutting wind of the prairie was beyond his strength. His two 
faithful companions erected a log hut home and chapel — the first dwelling and the 
first church of the first white settlement of the city — known for its great misfortune 
the world over, the city of Chicago. 

With the opening of Spring the good father again set out, and his last letter 
notes his progress till the 6th of April, 1675. " Just after Easter he was again 
stricken by disease (dysentery), and he saw that if he would die in the arms of 
his brethren " at St. Ignace, he must depart at once. Escorted by the Kaskaskias, 
who were deeply impressed by his zeal, he reached Lake Michigan, gave orders to 
his faithful men to launch his canoe, and commenced his adventurous voyage along 
that still unknown and dangerous shore. His strength, however, failed so much 
that his men despaired of being able to convey him alive to their journey's end; 
for in fact he became so weak and so exhausted that he could no longer help him- 
self, nor even stir, and had to be handled and carried like a child. He nevertheless 
in this state maintained an admirable resignation, joy and gentleness, consoling his 
beloved companions, and encouraging them to suffer courageously all the hardships 
of this voyage." " On the eve of his death, which was on Friday, he told them, 
all radiant with joy, that it would take place on the morrow, and spoke so calmly 
and collectedly of his death and burial that you would have thought it was another's 
and not his own. 

Thus did he speak to them as they sailed along the lake, till perceiving the 
mouth of a river, with an eminence on the bank which he thought suited to his 
burial, he told them that it was the place of his last repose. They wished, how- 
ever, to pass on, as the weather permitted it and the day was not far advanced ; 
but God raised a contrary wind, which obliged them to return and enter the river 
which the father had designated. 

They then carried him ashore, kindled a little fire and raised a bark cabin 
for his use, laying him in it with as little discomfort as they could ; but they were so 
depressed by sadness that, as they afterward said, they did not know what they were 

Many a time and oft, in my favorite summer home at Mackinac, have I had this 
whole scene pass before me as in a day-dream from Point Lookout, until last Sum- 
mer it took the form of accordant I'hyme : 

Where the gently flowing river merges with the stormy lake. 
Where upon the beach so barren ceaseless billows roll and break. 


There the barque so frail and gallant, known throughout the western world, 
Glides into the long-sought haven and its weary wings are furled. 
Here, says one, I end my voyage and my sun goes down at noon ; 
Here I make the final traverse, and the part comes not too soon; 
Let God have " the greater glory," care have I for naught beside, 
But to bear the blest evangel, Jesus Christ, the crucified. 


Slow and faint into the forest, straight he takes his quiet way. 
Kneels upon the virgin mosses, prays as he is wont to pray ; 
Nunc dimiitis — then they hear him sweetly sing as ne'er before; 
Then the angels join in chorus, and Marquette is now no more. 
This the prayer he leaves behind him, as is said his latest mass^ 
"One day bear me to my mission, at the Pointe of St. Ignace." 
Entered into rest from labor, where all toils and tempests cease, 
Every sail outspread and swelling, so he finds the port of peace. 


Once again that spot so sacred hears the sound of human feet, 

And the gently flowing river sees a strange funereal fleet ; 

'Tis the plumed and painted warriors, of their different tribes the best. 

Who have met in solemn council to fulfill his last request. 

Down their cheeks the tears are flowing, for the sainted man of God; 

Not the bones of dearest kindred dear as those beneath that sod, 

Reverently the grave they open, call the dear remains their own — 

Sink them in the running water, cleanse and whiten every bone. 

Place them gently in the mocock, wrought with woman's choicest skill. 

From the birch the very whitest, and the deepest colored quill ; 

In the war canoe the largest, to his consecrated tomb. 

Like a chief who falls in battle, silently they bear him home. 


Gathers still the sad procession, as the fleet comes slowly nigh. 
Where the cross above the chapel stands against the northern sky ; 
Every tribe and every hamlet, from the nooks along the shore, 
Swell the company of mourners, who shall see his face no more. 

Forth then thro' the deepening twilight sounds the service high and clear. 
And the dark-stoled priests with tapers guide and guard the rustic bier ; 
In the center of the chapel, close by little Huron's wave. 
Near the tall and stately cedars, Pere Marquette has found his grave. 


Still I hear the Miserere sounding loud within my soul. 

Still I hear the De Profundis, with its solemn cadence roll — 

" For the blood of thy red brother, who shall answer in that day." 

When before the throne of judgment earth and heaven shall pass away. 



When these lines were written I had not seen the narrative of Fatliev Dablon, 
but a further extract from it will show that there was very little poetic license in 
them as to the leading facts. 

" God did not permit so precious a deposit to remain unhonored and forgotten 
amid the forests. The Indians called Kiskakons, who have for nearly ten years 
publicly professed Christianity, in which they were first instructed by Father Mar- 
quette, when stationed at La Pointe du St. Esprit, at the extremity of Lake Supe- 
rior, were hunting last year, not far from Lake Illinois {i. e. Michigan), and as 
they were returning early in the Spring they resolved to pass the tomb of their good 
father, whom they tenderly loved, and God even gave them the thought of taking 
his bones and conveying them to our church at the mission of St. Ignatius. 

" They accordingly repaired to the spot and deliberated together, resolving to 
act with their father, as they usually do with those whom they respect. They 
opened the grave, unrolled the body, and though the flesh and intestines were all 
dried up, they found it entire, without the skin being injured. This did not pre- 
vent their dissecting it according to custom. They washed the bones and dried 
them in the sun ; then ^Jutting them neatly in a box of birch bark, they set out to 
bear them to our house at St. Ignatius. 

" The convoy consisted of nearly thirty canoes in excellent order, including 
even a good number of the Iroquois " (a very I'erocious tribe, who were a great 
terror to other tribes and especially hostile to the Jesuits), "who had joined our 
Algonquins to honor the ceremony. As they approached our house Father Nouvel, 
who is superior, went to meet them with Father Pierson, accompanied by all the 
French and Indians of the place ; and having caused the convoy to stop, he made 
the ordinary interrogations to verify the fact that the body which they bore was 
reall}^ Father Marquette. Then before they landed he intoned the De Profundis 
in sight of the thirty canoes still on the water, and of all the people still on the 
shore. After this the body was carried to the church, observing all that the ritual 
prescribes for such ceremonies. It remained exposed under his catafalque all that 
day, which was Whitsun Monday, the 8th of June, and the next day, when all the 
funeral honors had been paid to it, it was deposited in a little vault in the middle of 
the i-Jmrah, where he reposes as the guardian angel of our Ottawa missions." 

So far the invaluable record of Dablon. We come now to 1706, when for well- 
known reasons, for which we can not pause, the Jesuits at St. Ignace broke up their 
mission, set fire to their house and chapel and returned to Quebec. What became 
of the bones of Marquette ? Did thej' carry them with them to Quebec? No ; they 
left in haste, and fled almost as for their lives. "There is nothing in Canadian 
registers, which are extensive, full and well preserved." "Charlevoix, who 
was at Quebec on the return of the missionaries, is silent." There is little 

\^(S r- -Tf bIV " 



doubt, therefore, the precious remains of the great explorer still lay in the 

But the very site of the chapel was soon lost. The new chapel, still standing, 
was confessedly not on the site of the old one. Could the old site ever be identi- 
fied? It seemed very doubtful indeed. True, there were a few local and legen- 
dary traditions to whicli reference was made some years since in his correspondence 
by the Hon. E. G. D. Holden, our present Secretary of State. 

An Indian now living in St. Ignace told me early last Summer that "his father 
told him, and that his fatlier told him," and pointed out to him the place on the 
shore of the bay where a black cross used to stand, which was understood to "point 
out the direction" of the good father's grave, and where the voyagers would invoke 
his blessing. I also have it in writing from a very intelligent Indian, that last Sum- 
mer he called on an aged Indian woman in Petoskey, claiming to be in her lOOtli 
year. "I asked her if she had heard, when a girl, anything concerning the Kitchi- 
ma-ka-da-na-co-na-yay, or "great priest." She said, "Yes. He died at the mouth 
of the river, and his body was carried to Min-is-sing,"i. e. to St. Ignace. 

These are but specimens of many similar traditions ; but would there ever be 
anything more than tradition ? 

Early in July I heard in Detroit for the first time, from Col. Stockbridge, who 
has a large lumber interest in St. Ignace ; that when he left tliere was a report that 
the site of tlie old chapel had been discovered. If so, thought I, then we have 
found Pere Marquette's grave at last — for the one statement in which all seem to 
agree is that he was buried in the middle of the chapel. 

On my arrival in Mackinac I lost but little time before starting for St. Ignace. 
Though only four miles off we tacked a dozen times and took four hours, and 
worked hard at that. 

On reaching Mr. Murray's house, where the supposed discovery had been 
made, I found precisely what had been described a few days before by a correspon- 
dent of the Evening News. 


Correspondence of the Evening News. 

Mackinac, July 12, 1877. 
The readers of the Evening News will recollect the recently reported discovery 
at St. Ignace of the site of the mission chapel founded by Father Marquette in 
1670, and under the pavement of which his bones were subsequently deposited. 
The account created considerable sensation among antiquaries. Being in Mackinac, 
within four miles of St. Ignatius, I improved the opportunity to cross over and see 
for myself what the discoveries amounted to. The little steamer Truscott crosses 



each afternoon ; fare fiftj cents. A few steps from tlie landing we turn into a 
potato patch, just beyond which the boy who pilots us suddenly announces, "Here's 
the place." At first glance nothing can be observed more than might be noticed 
on any vacant lot in Detroit. A closer examination, however, reveals a very slight 
trench about a foot and a half wide, forming a rectangle 35 by 45 feet and located 
very nearly, if not exactly, with the points of the compass, the longer measurement 
being in the direction of east and west. At places in this trench rough stones lay 
embedded in the earth. At the soutiiern side of the space, about nine feet from 
the western side, is a hole say three feet deep and eight or ten square, and in the 
southeast corner another smaller hole. Until the present Spring the site has been 
covered with a growth of young spruce, the clearing off of which led to the sup- 
posed discovery. The larger hole is assumed to have been a cellar under the 
church in which the valuables are kept ; the smaller hole is thought to mark the 
position of the baptismal font, though why an excavation should be made for it is 
more than I can conjecture. A few feet west of the rectangle described above are 
two heaps of stone and earth, evidently the debris of two ruined chimneys. The 
outlines of the houses to which the chimneys belonged can also be faintly traced. 

Mr. Murray, the owner of the ground, is a well-to-do Catholic Irishman, own- 
ing as he does 600 acres of land on the Point. He has lived on the place for twenty 
years past, and before that lived on Mackinac Island. He is inclined to be super- 
stitious and to magnify the mystery to which he believes he holds the key. As 
illustrative of this he remarked in my presence that when he was about to build a 
cow-house some time ago, his sons wished it located on what he now believes to be 
the site of the ancient church, but the protecting influences of that sacred spot 
strangely impelled him to adopt a different location. He is confident that by dig- 
ging below the surface at the center of the church, the " mocock " of bones would 
be discovered, but thus far owing to a difference between himself and the parish 
priest, not a spadeful of earth has been turned. The priest believes the location to 
be the correct one, and is anxious to excavate, but Mr. Murray refuses to permit it 
without a pledge that whatever is found shall not be carried away from the Point. 
He offers to give ground for the erection of a church or a monument on the spot, 
but insists that the sacred relics, if found, must be left where they have for two 
centuries rested. The bishop is expected at St. Ignace shortly, when the question 
will be laid before him for adjustment. 

Now as to the probability of the discovery being confirmed by others yet to be 
made, I must confess to being less sanguine than Mr. Murray and his neighbors. It 
is certain that the two ruined chimneys alluded to indicate the location of dwellings 
at some period in the past. Bits of iron, copper and looking-glass found in the debris 
attest this ; but whether the buildings stood fifty years ago or 200 no one can posi- 




tively assert. Mr. Mui-ray has known the spot for a quarter of a century, and can 
vouch for no change having occurred in that time. I think it likely that they are 
of a much older date. In regard to the assumed church site I think the proba- 
bilities favor the existence there at one time of a building of some sort. Whether it 
occupied the limits assumed — 45 by 35 feet — is less certain, while the existence of the 
cellar would seem to indicate that it was a dwelling rather than a church. On the 
other hand, it is certain that the mission was founded in tliis immediate vicinity, and 
the Murray farm, as fronting on the most protected part of the bay, and affording 
the best landing for boats, is certainly as likely a spot for Marquette to have adopted 
as any. But nothing can be told with any certainty till thorough investigation is 

The tradition is that the mission was founded in 1670, that Marquette subse- 
quently visited Wisconsin and Illinois, establishing mission stations as far up the 
lake as Chicago ; that upon his return via the eastern shore of Lake Michigan he 
died at the mouth of the Pere Marquette river, wiiere Ludington now stands, and 
was buried there. A few years later his bones were taken up, cleaned and packed 
in a mocock, or box made of birch bark, and were conveyed with due solemnity 
back to St. Ignace, where they were permanently deposited beneath the middle of 
the church. At a still later period Indian wars broke up the mission, and to protect 
the church from sacrilege the missionaries burned it to the ground. 

I also found in tiie possession of the present priest of St. Ignace, Father Jaoka 
(pronounced Yocca), a pen and ink sketch, on which I looked with most intense 
interest. This invaluable drawing gives the original site of the French village, the 
" home of the Jesuits," the Indian village, the Indian fort on the bluff, and, most 
important of all, very accurately defines the contour of a little bay known as Na- 
dowa— Wikweiamashong — i. e., as Mr. Jacker gave it, Nadowa Huron. Wik-weia 
— Here is a bay. Anglice — " Little bay of tlie Hurons ;" or according to the Ot- 
chepwa dictionary of Bp. Barraga, " Bad bay of the Iroquois squaw." Of the 
Indian village thei-e is no trace. Their wigwams, built only of poles and bark, 
have not left a single vestige. Not so with the French village. You may still see 
the remains of their logs and plaster, and the ruins of their chimneys. On the sup- 
posed site of the house of the Jesuits, some 40 by 30 feet, are found distinct out- 
lines of walls, a little well, and a small cellar. Immediately in the rear of the larger 
building are the remains of a forge, where "the brothers" used to make spades or 
swords, as the occasion might require. 

On further inquiry of the priest, who was equally remarkable for his candor 
and intelligence, and the length of his beai'd, I found that the sketch of the house 
of the Jesuits was taken by him from the travels of LaHenton, originally published 
in France, but translated and republished in England A. D. 1772. Only a few days 



after I saw a copy of this very same book in the hands of Judge C. I. Walker, of 
Detroit, and was thus enabled, to my very great satisfaction, to verify the sketch as 
shown to me by Father Jaoka or Jacker (Yocca). 

LaHenton says : " The place which I am now in is not above half a league dis- 
tant from the Illinois lake. Here the Hiirons and Ontawas have each of 'em (sic) 
a village, the one being severed from the other by a single palisade. But the On- 
tawas are beginning to build a fort upon a hill that stands but 1,000 or 1,200 paces 
off. * * In this place the Jesuits have a little house or college, adjoining to a 
sort of chapel and enclosed with pale, which separates it from the .village of the 

" The Cuereur du Paris also a very small settlement." — La Henton, vol. I., p. 88. 

From that moment I entertained the most sanguine hope tliat the long lost 
grave of the good Marquette would .again be found. Greatly did I regret that I 
could not remain a few days -longer, when the exploration would be made in the 
presence of the excellent Bishop Mrak, and learn what would be the result. I saw 
nothing whatever in the well-known cliaracter of tlie bishop, or of the worthy pas- 
tor of St. Ignace to justify even for a moment the least suspicion of anything like 
"pious fraud." 

Monday, Septembers, 1877, Bishop Mrak dug out the first spadeful of ground. 
For a time, however, the search was discouraging. " Nothing was found tluit would 
indicate the former existence of a tomb, vaulted or otherwise," and tiie bishop went 
away. After a while a small piece of birch bark came to light, followed by numerous 
other fragments scorched by fire. Finally a larger and well preserved piece appeared 
which once evidently formed part of tlie bottom of an Indian-wig-wap-makak- 
birch-bark-box or mocock. Evidently the box had been double, such as the Indians 
sometimes use for greater durability in interments, and had been placed on three or 
four wooden sills. It was also evident that the box had not been placed on the 
floor but sunk in the ground, and perhaps covered with a layer of mortar. But it 
was equally evident that this humble tomb had been disturbed, and the box broken 
into, and parts of it torn out, after the material had been made brittle by the action 
of fire. Tills would explain the absence of its former contents, which," says Mr. 
Jacker, " what else could we think — were nothing less than Father Marquette's 
bones! But what had become of them? Further search brought to light two frag- 
ments of bone — then thirty-six more — finally a small fragment, apparently of the 
skull — then similar fragments of the ribs, the hand and the thigh bone. From these 
circumstances then we deduce the following conclusions: 

1. That of M. Pommier, the French surgeon, that these fragments of bones 
are undoubtedly human, and bear the marks of fire. 

2. That everything goes to show " the haste of profane robbery." 


3. That this robbery was by Indian medicine men, who coveted his bones, 
according to their belief, as a powerful medicine. 

4. That it must have taken place within a few years after the departure of 
the Jesuits, otherwise when the mission was renewed (about 1708), the remains 
would most certainly have been transferred to the new church in old Mackinac. 

5. That Charlevoix, at his sojourn there in 1721, could hardly have failed to 
be taken to see the new tomb, and to mention the fact of its transfer in his journal, 
or history. 

6. That if we have failed to find all the remains of the great explorer, we 
have at least found some, and ascertained the fact of his having been interred on 
that particular spot. 

7. That the records answer all the circumstances'-of the discovery, and that 
the finding of these few fragments, if not as satisfactory to our wishes, is at least 
as good evidence for the fact in question as if we had found every bone that is in 
the human body. 

Such are the leading points in Father Jacker's elaborate narrative, as published 
in the CathoUe World, November, 1877, in connection with the article entitled 
" Romance and Reality of the Death of Father James Marquette, and the recent 
discovery of his remains," by John G. Shea, for which papers I am indebted to the 
kind courtesy of Mr. Daniel E. Hudson, C. S. C, Notre Dame, Indiana, to whom I 
return most cordial thanks. 

While in some respects the results are not quite so satisfactory as might have 
been desired, yet the determination of the site of the old house of the Jesuits, the 
discovery of the tomb, the recovery in part of the mocock coffin, and above all, the 
finding of some of the bones of Marquette, are all of intense interest to every 
lover of earlj- Michigan history. 

Marquette, the great explorer — the oldest founder of Michigan, whose grave 
was found within her borders, and to whom belongs immortal honor, being the dis- 
coverer of the upper Mississippi and first navigator of the great river. The scat- 
tering of Jiis bones, I am tvell persuaded, is only a symbol of the wider extension of his 
fame. Already his name is attached to a railroad, a river, a citj^, a diocese in 
Michigan ; but that is not enough. Some forty years ago it was foretold by Ban 
croft " that the people of the West will build his monument," and now the time 
has fully come when that prophecy will be fulfilled. Lest you might think that I 
say this merely out of state pride, or as a lover of antiquarian history, I will only 
add in conclusion that I say it out of a much higher motive, and with reference to 
a much higher object. In reading the life of Francis Xavier when a boy, I learned 
that there were some lessons for Christian laborers from the lives of the early 
Jesuits, that neither I nor any other man could afford to overlook. Granting that 




too often they sought to help what they deemed a righteous cause by what they 
knew to be unrighteous means, and so teach us what we should avoid, there are other 
lessons that we would do well to imitate. The spirit of union, which was to them 
so great a source of power, the cheerfulness with which they suffered for the cause 
that they had espoused ; the unlooked-for combinations of chai-acter in the same 
individuals, and above all the magnetism of personal importance and power by hav- 
ing a definite aim — such for example as we find in the good Marquette — belonging 
to any one church or order of that church, but to man as man, and to the world at 
large ! There is only one regret that I should liave in the erecting of such a mon- 
ument, and that is lest it should be built by our Catholic friends alone. Will they 
not permit us all to join — Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, and the whole Northwest 
— and do honor to the greaj explorer in a monument of natural rock, (like Monu- 
mental Rock, Isle Royale), the materials for which in that immediate vicinity have 
been so long waiting, apparently, for just such a noble purpose ? 

lasalle's travels. 

The next settlement in point of time was made in 1679, by Robert Cavalier de 
LaSalle, at the mouth of the St. Joseph river. He had constructed a vessel, the 
" Griffin," just above Niagara Falls, and sailed around by the lakes to Green Bay, 
Wis., whence he traversed "Lac des Illinois," now Lake Michigan, by canoe to the 
mouth of the St. Joseph river. The " Giiffin " was the first sailing vessel that ever 
came west of Niagara Falls. La Salle erected a fort at the month of the St. Joseph 
river, which afterward was moved about 60 miles up the river, where it was still 
seen in Charlevoix's time, 1721. La Salle also built a fort on the Illinois river, 
just below Peoria, and explored the region of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. 

The next, and third, Michigan post erected by authority was a second fort on 
the St. Joseph river, established by Du Suth, near the present Fort Gratiot, in 
1686. The object of this was to intercept emissaries of the English, who were 
anxious to open traffic with the Mackinaw and Lake Superior nations. 

The French posts in Michigan on westward, left very little to be gathered by 
the New York traders, and they determined, as there was peace between France and 
England, to push forward their agencies and endeavor to deal with the western and 
northern Indians in their own country. The French governors not only plainly 
asserted the title of France, but as plainly threatened to use all requisite force to 
expel intruders. Anticipating cori-ectly that the English would attempt to reach 
Lake Huron from the East without passing up Detroit river, Du Luth built a fort 
at tlie outlet of the lake into the St. Clair. About the same time an expedition 
was planned against the Senecas, and the Chevalier Tonti, commanding La Salle's 
forts, of St. Louis and St. Joseph of Lake Michigan, and La Durantaye, the veteran 
commander of Mackinaw, were employed to bring down the French and Indian 



auxiliaries to take part in the war. These men intercepted English expeditions 
into the interior to establish trade with the Northern Indians, and succeeded in 
cutting them off for many years. Religious zeal for the Catholic Church and the 
national aggrandizement were almost or quite equally the primary and all-ruling 
motive of western explorations. For these two purposes expeditions were sent out 
and missionaries and military posts were established. In these enterprises Mar- 
quette, Joliet, La Salle, St. Lusson and others did all that we find credited to them 
in history. 

In 1669 or 1670, Talon, then " Intendant of New France," sent out two parties 
to discover a passage to the South Sea, St. Lusson to Hudson's Bay and La Salle 
southwestward. On his return in 1671, St. Lusson held a council of all the north- 
ern tribes at the Sault Ste. Marie, where they formed an alliance with the French. 
" It is a curious fact," says Campbell, " that the public documents are usually 
made to exhibit the local authorities as originating everything, when the facts 
brought to light from other sources show that they were compelled to permit what 
they ostensibly directed." The expeditions sent out by Talon were at least sug- 
gested from France. The local authorities were sometimes made to do things 
which were not, in their judgment, the wisest. 


July 19, 1701, the Iroquois conveyed to King William III, all their claims to 
land, describing their territory as " that vast tract of land or colony called Cana- 
gariarchio, beginning on the northwest side of Cadarachqui (Ontario) Lake, and 
includes all that vast tract of land lying between the great lake of Ottawawa 
(Huron), and the lake called by the natives Sahiquage, and by the Christians the 
Lake of Sweege (Oswego, for Lake Erie), and runs till it butts upon the Twich- 
twichs, and is bounded on the westward by the Twichtwichs, on the eastward by 
a place called Qiiadoge, containing in length about 800 miles, and breadth 400 
miles, including the country where beavers and all sorts of wild game keep, and 
the place called Tjeughsaghrondie alias Fort De Tret or Wawyachtenock (Detroit) ; 
and so runs round the lake of Sweege till you come to a place called Oniadarun- 
daquat," etc. 

It was chiefly to prevent any further mischief, and to secure more effectually 
the French supremacy that La Motte Cadillac, who had great influence over the 
savages, succeeded, in 1701, after various plans urged by him had been shelved by 
hostile colonial intrigues, in getting permission from Count Fontchartraine to begin 
a settlement in Detroit. His purpose was from the beginning to make not only a 
military post, but also a civil establishment for trade and agriculture. He was more 
or less threatened and opposed by the monopolists and by the Mackinaw missionaries, 
and was subjected to severe persecutions. He finally triumphed and obtained valuable 



privileges and the right of seigneury. Craftsmen of all kinds were induced to settle 
in the town, and trade flourished. He succeeded in getting the Hurons and many 
of the Ottawas to leave Mackinaw and settle about " Fort Pontchartraine." This 
fort stood on what was formerly called the first terrace, being on the ground lying 
between Larned street and the river, and between Griswold and Wayne streets. 
Cadillac's success was so great, in spite of all opposition, that he was appointed 
governor of the new province of Louisiana, which had been granted to Crozat and 
his associates. This appointment removed him from Detroit, and immediately 
afterward the place was exposed to an Indian siege, instigated by English emissaries, 
and conducted by the Mascoutins and Ontagamies, the same people who made the 
last war on the whites in the territory of Michigan under Black Hawk a century 
and a quarter later. The tribes allied to the French came in with alacrity and de- 
feated and almost annihilated the assailants, of whom a thousand were put to 

Unfortunately for the country, the commanders who succeeded Cadillac for 
many years were narrow-minded and selfish and not disposed to advance uny in- 
terests beyond the lucrative traffic with the Indians in peltries. It was not until 
1734 that any new grants were made to farmers. This was done by Governor- 
General Beauharnois, who made the grants on the very easiest terms. Skilled ar- 
tisans became numerous in Detroit, and prosperity set in all around. The build- 
ings were not of the rudest kind, but built of oak or cedar, and of smooth finish. 
The cedar was brought from a great distance. Before 1742 the pineries were 
known, and at a very early day a saw-mill was erected on the St. Clair River, near 
Lake Huron. Before 1749 quarries were worked, especially at Stony Island. In 
1763 there were several lime kilns within the present limits of Deti'oit, and not 
only stone foundations but also stone buildings, existed in the settlement. 

Several grist-mills existed along the river near Detroit. Agriculture was car- 
ried on profitably, and supplies were exported quite early, consisting chiefly of corn 
and wheat, and possibly beans and peas. Cattle, horses and swine were raised in 
considerable numbers ; but as salt was very expensive, but little meat, if any, was 
packed for exportation. The salt springs near Lake St. Clair, it is true, were 
known, and utilized to some extent, but not to an appreciable extent. Gardening 
and fruit-raising were carried on more thoroughly than general farming. Apples 
and pears were good and abundant. 

During the French and English war Detroit was the principal source of sup- 
plies to the French troops west of Lake Ontario, and it also furnished a large number 
of fighting men. Tlie upper posts were not much involved in this war. 

" Teuchsa Grondie." one of the many ways of spelling an old Indian name of 
Detroit, is rendered famous by a large and splendid poem of Levi Bishop, Esq., of 




that city. During the whole of the eighteenth century the history of Michigan was 
little else than the history of Detroit, as the genius of French Government was to 
centralize power instead of building ujj localities for self-government. 

About 1704, or three years after the founding of Detroit, this place was at- 
tacked by the Ottawa Indians, but unsuccessfully ; and again, in 1712, the Otta- 
garaies, or Fox Indians, who were in secret alliance with the old enemies of the 
French, the Iroquois, attacked the village and laid siege to it. They were sevei'ely 
repulsed, and their chief offered a capitulation which was refused. Considering 
this an insult they became enraged and endeavored to burn up the town. Their 
method of firing the place was to shoot large arrows, mounted with combustible 
material in flame, in a track through the sky rainbow-form. The bows and ari-ows 
being very large and stout, the Indians lay with their backs on the ground, put 
botli feet against the central portion of the inner side of the bow and pulled the 
strings with all the might of their hands. A ball of blazing material would thus 
be sent arching over nearly a quarter of a mile, which would come down perpen- 
dicularly upon the dry shingle roofs of the houses and set them on fire. But this 
sclieme was soon check-mated by the French, who covered the remaining houses 
with wet skins. The Foxes were considerably disappointed at this and discour- 
aged, but they made one more desperate attempt, failed, and retreated toward 
Lake St. Clair, where they again entrenched themselves. From this place how- 
ever, they were soon dislodged. After this period these Indians occupied Wis- 
consin for a time and made it dangerous for travelers passing through from the 
lakes to the Mississippi. They were the Ishniaeliles of the wilderness. 

In 1749, there was a fresh accession of immigrants to all the points upon the 
lakes, but the history of this part of the world during the most of this century, is 
rather monotonous, business and government remaining about the same, without 
much improvement. The records nearly all concern Canada east of the lake region. 
It is true, there was almost a constant change of commandants at the posts, and 
there were many slight changes of administrative policy, but as no great enter- 
prises were successfully put in operation the events of the period have but little 

The Northwestern Territory during French rule, was simply a vast ranging 
ground for the numerous Indian tribes, who had no ambition higher than obtaining 
immediate subsistence of the crudest kind, buying arms, whisky, tobacco, blankets 
and jeweli'y by bartering for them the peltries of the chase. Like a drop in the 
ocean was the missionary work of the few Jesuits at the half dozen posts on the 
great waters. The forests were full of otter, beaver, bear, deer, grouse, quails, etc., 
and on the few prairies the grouse, or " prairie chickens." were abundant Not 
much work was required to obtain a bare subsistence, and human nature generally, 




is not disposed to lay up much for the future. The present material prosperity of 
America is really an exception to the general law of the world. 

In the latter part of 1796, Wintlirop Sargent went to Detroit and organized 
the county of Wayne, forming a part of the Indiana Territory until its division, 
1805, when the Territory of Michigan was organized. 



Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi in 1682, the Govern- 
ment of France began to encourage the policy of establishing a line of trading 
posts and missionary stations, extending through the west, from Canada and the 
great lakes, to Louisiana ; and tliis policy was maintained, with partial success, for 
about seventy-five years. British power was the rival upon which the French 
continually kept their eye. Of course a collision of arms would result in a short 
time, and this commenced about 1755. In 1760, Canada, including the lake re- 
gion, fell into the hands of the British. During the war, occurred Braddock's de- 
feat, the battles of Niagara, Crown Point and Lake George, aud the death of brave 
Wolfe and Montcalm. September 12 of this year. Major Robert Rogers, a native 
of New Hampshire, a provincial officer, and then at the height of his reputation, 
received orders from Sir Jeffrey Amherst to ascend the lakes with a detachment of 
rangers, and take possession, in the name of his Britannic majesty, of Detroit, 
Micliilimackinac and other western posts, included in the capitulation of Montreal. 
He left the latter place on the following day with 200 rangers in fifteen whale boats. 
November 7, they reached the mouth of a river (Cliogage), on the southern coast 
of Lake Erie, wliere they were met by Poatiac, tlie Indian chief, who now appears 
for the first time upon the pages of Michigan history. He haughtily demanded of 
Rogers why he should appear in his realm with his forces without his permission. 
The major informed him that the English had obtained permission of Canada, and 
that he was on his way to Detroit to publish the fact, and to restore a general peace 
to white men and Indians alike. The next day Pontiac signified his willingness to 
live at peace with the English, allowing them to remain in his country, provided 
they paid him due respect. He knew that French power was on the wane, and 
that it was to the interest of his tribes to establish an early peace with the new 
power. The Indians, who had collected at the mouth of the Detroit, reported 400 
strong, to resist the coming of the British forces, were easily influenced by Pontiac 



to yield the situation to Rogers. Even tlie French commandant at Detroit, Capt. 
Beletre, was in a situation similar to that of the Indians, and received the news of 
the defeat of the French from Major Rogers. He was indignant and incredulous, 
and tried to rouse the fury of his old-time friends, the Indians, but found them 
"faithless" in this hour of his need. He surrendered with an ill grace, amid the 
yells of several hundred Indian warriors. It was a source of great amazement 
to the Indians to see so many men surrender to so few. Nothing is more effective 
in gaining the respect of Indians than a display of power, and the above proceed- 
ings led them to be overawed by English powers. They were astonished also at 
the forbearance of the conquerors in not killing their vanquished enemies on the 
spot. This surrender of Detroit was on tlie 29th of November, 1760. The posts 
elsewhere in the lake region, north and west; were not reached until some time 

The English now thought they had the country perfectly in their own hands, 
and that tliere was but little trouble ahead ; but in this respect they were mistaken. 
The French renewed their efforts to circulate reports among the Indians that the 
English intended to take all their land from them, etc. Tlie slaughter of the Mo- 
nongahela, the massacre at Fort William Henry, and the horrible devastation of the 
western frontier, all bore witness to the fact that the French were successful in pre- 
judicing the Indians against the British, and the latter began to have trouble at 
various points. The French had always been in the habit of making presents to 
the Indians, keeping them supplied with arms, ammunition, etc., and it was not 
their policy to settle upon their lands. The British, on the other hand, now sup- 
plied them with nothing, frequently insulting them when they appeared around 
the forts. Everything conspired to fix the Indian population in their prejudices 
against the British Government. Even the seeds of the American Revolution were 
scattered into the west, and began to grow. 

The first Indian chief to raise the wai'-whoop was probably Kiashutd, of the 
Senecas, but Pontiac, of the Ottawas, was the great George Washington of all the 
tribes to systemize and render effectual the initial movements of the approaching 
storm. His home was about eight miles above Detroit, on Pechee Island, which 
looks out upon the waters of Lake St. Clair. He was a well-formed man, with a 
countenance indicating a high degree of intelligence. In 1746 he had successfully 
defended Detroit against the northern tribes, and it is probable he was present and 
assisted in the defeat of Braddock. About the close of 1762 he called a general 
council of the tribes, sending out ambassadors in all directions, who, with the war 
belt of wampum and the tomahawk, went from village to village, and camp to camp, 
informing the sachems everywhere, that war was impending, and delivering to them 
the message of Pontiac. They all approved the message, and April 27, 1 763, a 




grand council was held near Detroit, when Pontiao stood forth in war paint and 
delivered " the great speech of the campaign."' The English were slow to perceive 
any dangerous conspiracy in progress, and when the blow was struck, nine out of 
twelve of the British posts were surprised and destroyed. Three of these were 
witliin the bounds of this State. The first prominent event of the war was the 
massacre at Fort Michilimackinac, on the northernmost point of the southern 
peninsula, the site of the present city of Mackinaw. This Indian outrage was one 
of the most ingeniously devised and resolutely executed schemes in American his- 
tory. The Chippewas (or Ojibways) appointed one of their big ball plays in the 
vicinity of the post and invited and inveigled as many of the occupants as they 
could to the scene of play, then fell upon the unsuspecting and unguarded English 
in the most brutal manner. For the details of this horrible scene we are indebted 
to Alexander Henry, a trader at that point, who experienced several most blood- 
curdling escapes from death and scalping at the hands of the savages. The result 
of the massacre was the death of about seventy out of ninety persons. The Ottawa 
Indians, who occupied mainly the eastern portion of the lower peninsula, were not 
consulted by the Chippewas, with reference to attacking Michilimackinac, and were 
consequently so enraged that they espoused the cause of the English, through 
spite ; and it was through their instrumentality that Mr. Henry and some of his 
comrades were saved from death and conveyed east to the regions of civilization. 
Of Mr. Henry's narrow escapes we give the following succinct account: Instead 
of attending the ball play of the Indians lie spent the day writing letters to his 
friends, as a canoe was to leave for the East the following day. While thus 
engaged, he heard an Indian war cry and a noise of general confusion. Looking 
out of the window, he saw a crowd of Indians within the fort, that is, within the 
village palisade, who were cutting down and scalping every Englishman they 
found. He seized a fowling piece which he had at hand, and waited a moment for 
the signal, tlie drum beat to arms. In that dreadful interval he saw several of his 
countrymen fall under the tomahawk and struggle between the knees of an Indian, 
who held him in this manner to scalp him, while still alive. Mr. Henry heard no 
signal to arms; and seeing it was useless to undertake to resist 400 Indians, he 
thought only of shelter for himself. He saw many of the Canadian inhabitants of 
the fort calmly looking on, neither opposing the Indians nor suffering injury, and he 
therefore concluded he might find safety in some of their houses. He stealthily 
ran to one occupied by Mr. Langlade and family, who were at their windows 
beholding the bloody scene. Mr. Langlade scarcely dared to harbor him, but a 
Pawnee slave of the former concealed him in the garret, locked the stairway door 
and took away the key. In this situation Mr. Henry obtained, through an aperture, 
a view of what was going on without. He saw the dead scalped and mangled, the 



dying in writhing agony, under the insatiate knife and tomahawk, and the savages 
drinking human blood from the hollow of their joined hands I Mr. Henry almost 
felt as if he were a victim himself so intense were his sufferings. Soon the Indian 
fiends began to halloo, " All is finished." At this instant Henry heard some of the 
Indians enter the house he had taken shelter. The garret was separated from the 
room below by only a layer of single boards, and Mr. Henry heard all that was 
said. As soon as the Indians entered they inquired whether there were any En- 
glishmen in the house. Mr. Langlade replied that he could not say ; they might 
examine for themselves. He then conducted them to the garret door. As the door 
was locked, a moment of time was snatched by Mr. Henry to crawl into a heap of 
birch-bark vessels in a dark corner ; and although several Indians searched around 
the garret, one of them coming within arm's length of the sweating prisoner, they 
went out satisfied that no Englishman was there. 

As Mr. Henry was passing the succeeding night in this room, he could think 
of no possible chance of escape from the country. He was out of provisions, the 
nearest post was Detroit, 400 miles away, and the route thither lay through the 
enemy's country. The next morning he heard Indian voices below informing Mr. 
Langlade that they had not found an Englishman named Henry among the dead, 
and they believed him to be somewhere concealed. Mrs. L., believing that the 
safety of the household depended on giving tap the refugee to his pursuers, prevailed 
on her husband to lead the Indians upstairs to the room of Mr. H. The latter was 
saved from instant death by one of the savages adopting him as a brother in the 
place of one lost. The Indians were all mad with liquor, however, and Mr. H. 
again very narrowly escaped death. An hour afterwards he was taken out of the 
fort by an Indian indebted to him for goods, and was under the uplifted knife of 
the savage when he suddenly broke away from him and made back to Mr. Lang- 
lade's house, barely escaping the knife of the Indian the whole distance. The next 
day he, with tiiree other prisoners, were taken in a canoe toward Lake Michigan, 
and at Fox Point, eighteen miles distant, the Ottawas rescued the whites through 
spite at the Chippewas, sayir.g that the latter contemplated killing and eating them ; 
but the next day they were returned to the Chippewas, as the result of some kind 
of agreement about the conduct of the war. He was rescued again by an old 
friendly Indian claiming him as a brother. The next morning he saw the dead 
bodies of seven whites dragged forth from the prison lodge he had just occupied. 
Tiie fattest of these dead bodies was actually served up and feasted on directly 
before the eyes of Mr. Henry. Through the partiality of the Ottawas and the com- 
plications of militarj- affairs among the Indians, Mr. Henry, after severe exposures 
and many more thrilling escapes, was finally lauded within territory occupied by 



For more than a year after the massacre, Michilimackinac was occupied only 
by wood rangers and Indians ; then, after the treaty, Capt. Howard was sent with 

troops to take possession. 



The Great French Scheme. — Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the 
Mississippi by La Salle, in 1682, the government of France began to encourage the 
policy of establishing a line of trading posts and missionary stations extending 
through the West from Canada to Louisiana, and this policy was maintained, with 
partial success, for about seventy-five j^ears. 

The river St. Joseph, of Lake Michigan, was called " the river Miamis " in 
1679, in which year La Salle built a small fort on its bank, near the lake shore. 
The principal station of the mission for the instruction of the Miamis was estab- 
lished on the borders of this river. The first French post within the territory of 
the Miamis was at the mouth of the river Miamis, on an eminence naturally forti- 
fied on two sides by the river, and on one side by a deep ditch made by a fall of 
water. It was of triangular form. The missionary, Hennepin, gives a good 
description of it, as he was one of the company who built it in 1679. Says he: 
" We felled the trees that were on the top of the bill, and having cleared the same 
from bushes for about two musket shot, we began to build a redoubt of eighty feet 
long and forty feet broad, with great square pieces of timber laid one upon 
another, and prepared a great number of stakes of about twenty-five feet 
long to drive into the ground, to make our fort more inaccessible on the 
river side. We employed the whole month of November about that work, 
which was very hard, though we had no other food but the bears' flesh our 
savage killed. These beasts are very common in that place, because of tlie great 
quantity of grapes they find there ; but their flesh being too fat and luscious, our 
men began to be weary of it, and desired leave to go a-hunting to kill some 
wild goats. M. La Salle denied them that liberty, which caused some murmurs 
among them, and it was but unwillingly that they continued their work. This, 
together with the approach of Winter and the apprehension that M. La Salle had 
that his vessel (the GrifSn) was lost, made him very melancholy, though he con- 
cealed it as much as he could. We made a cabin wherein we performed divine 
service every Sunday, and Father Gabriel and I, who preached alternately, took 
care to take such texts as wei-e suitable to our present circumstances and fit to 



inspire us with courage, concord and brotherly love. . . . The fort was at last 
perfected and called Fort Miamis." 

In 1765, the Miamis nation, or confederacy, was composed of four tribes, 
whose total number of warriors was estimated at only 1,050 men. Of these, about 
250 were Twight-wess or Miamis proper, 300 Weas or Ouiate-nons, 300 Pianke- 
shaws and 200 Schockeys, and at this time the principal villages of the Twight- 
wess were situated about the head of the Maumee River, at and near the place where 
Fort Wayne now is. The larger Wea villages were near the banks of the Wabash 
River, in the vicinity of the Ouiatenon ; and the Shockeys and Piaukeshaws dwelt 
on the banks of the Vermillion and on the borders of the Wabash, between Vin- 
cennes and Ouiatenon. Branches of the Pottawatomie, Shawnee, Delaware and 
Kickapoo tribes were permitted at different times to enter within tiie boundaries of 
the Miamis and reside for a while. 

The wars in wliich France and England were engaged from 1688 to 1697, 
retarded the growth of the colonies of those nations in North America, and the 
efforts made by France to connect Canada and the Gulf of Mexico by a chain of 
trading-posts and colonies naturally excited the jealousy of England and gradually 
laid the foundation for a struggle at arms. After several stations were established 
elsewhere in the West, trading-posts were started at the Miami villages, which stood 
at the head of the Maumee, at the Wea villages about Ouiatenon, on the Wabash, 
and at the Piankeshaw villages about the present site of Vincennes. It is probable 
that before the close of the year 1719, temporary trading-posts were erected at the 
sites of Fort Wayne, Ouiatenon and Vincennes. The points were probablj' often 
visited by French fur traders prior to 1700. In the meanwhile, the English people 
in this country commenced also to establish military posts west of the Alleghanies, 
and thus matters went on until they naturally culminated in a general war, which, 
being waged l)y the French and Indians combined on one side, was called " the 
French and Indian war." This war was terminated in 1763 by a treaty at Paris, 
by which France ceded to Great Britain all of North America east of the Mississippi 
except New Orleans and the island on which it is situated ; and, indeed, France 
had the preceding Autumn, by a secret convention, ceded to Spain all the country 
west of that river. 

In 1762, after Canada and its dependencies had been surrendered to the English, 
Pontiac and his partisans secretly organized a powerful confederacy in order to 
crush at one blow all English power in the West. This great scheme was skillfully 
projected and cautiously matured. The principal act in tlie programme was to gain 
admittance into the fort at Detroit, on pretense of a friendly visit, with shortened 
muskets concealed under their blankets, and, on a given signal, suddenly break 
forth upon the garrison ; but an inadvertent remark of an Indian woman led to a 


discovery of the plot, which was consequently averted. Pontiac and his warriors 
afterward made many attacks upon the English, some of which were successful, 
but the Indians were finally defeated in the general war. 


In 1765 the total number of French families within the limits of the North- 
western Territory did not probably exceed 600. These were in settlements about 
Detroit, along the river Wabash and the neighborhood of Fort Chartres on the Mis- 
sissippi. Of these families, about eighty or ninety resided at Post Vincennes, fourteen 
at Fort Ouiatenon, on the Wabash, and nine or ten at the confluence of the St. Mary 
and St. Joseph rivers, together with a few on St. Clair lake and river. 

The colonial policy of the British Government opposed an}' measures which 
might strengthen settlements in the interior of this country, lest they become self- 
supporting and independent of the mother country; hence the early and rapid settle- 
ment of the Northwestern Territory was still furtlier retarded by short-sighted self- 
ishness of England. That fatal policy consisted mainly in holding the lands in the 
hands of the government and not allowing it to be subdivided and sold to settlers. 
But in spite of all her efforts in this direction, she constantly made just such efforts 
as provoked the American people to rebel, and to rebel successfully, which was 
within fifteen years after the perfect close of the French and Indian war. 


Thomas Jefferson, the shrewd statesman and wise Governor of Virginia, saw 
from the first that actual occupation of Western lands was the only way to keep 
them out of the hands of foreigners and Indians. Therefore, directly after the con- 
quest of Vincennes by Clark he engaged a scientific corps to proceed under an 
escort to the Mississippi, and ascertain by celestial observations the point on that 
river intersected by latitude 36 deg. 31 min., the southern limit of the State, and to 
measure its distance to the Ohio. To Gen. Clark was entrusted the conduct of 
the military operations in that quarter. He was instructed to select a strong 
position near that point and establish there a fort and garrison ; thence to extend 
his conquest northward to the lakes, erecting forts at different points, which might 
serve as monuments of actual possession, besides affording protection to that por- 
tion of the countr}-. Fort " Jefferson " was erected and garrisoned on the Missis- 
sippi a few miles above the southern limit. 

The result of these operations was the addition to the chartered limits of Vir- 
ginia, of that immense region known as the " Northwestern Territory." The sim- 
ple fact that such and such forts were established by the Americans in this vast 
region convinced the Britisli Commissioners that we had entitled ourselves to the 
land. But where are those " monuments " of our power now ? 




This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Considerable contro- 
versy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to the credit for framing it. This belongs 
undoubtedly, to Nathan Dane ; and to Rufus King and Timothy Pickering belong 
the credit for suggesting the proviso contained in it against slavery, and also for 
aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring forever the common use, without 
charge, of the great national highways of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and 
their tributaries to all the citizens of the United States. To Thomas Jefferson is 
also due much credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced in his ordin- 
ance of 1784. But the part taken by eacli in the long, laborious and eventful 
struggle which had so glorious a consummation in the ordinance, consecrating for- 
ever, by one imprescriptible and unchangeable monument, the very heart of our 
country to freedom, knowledge and union, will forever honor the names of those 
illustrious statesmen. 

Jefferson had vainly tiied to secure a system of government for the North- 
western Territorj'. He was an emancipationist and favored the exclusion of slavery 
from the Territory, but the South voted him down every time he proposed a meas- 
ure of this nature. In 1787, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was expected to carry 
it. Congress was in session in New York. On July 5, Rev. Manasseh Cutler of 
Massachusetts, came into New York to lobby on the Northwestern Territory, 
Everything seemed to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the 
public credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his mission, his per- 
sonal character, all combined to comjilete one of those sudden and marvelous revo- 
lutions of public sentiment that once in five or ten centuries are seen to sweep over 
a country like the breath of the Almighty. 

Cutler was a graduate of Yale. He had studied and taken degrees in the 
three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. He had published a scien- 
tific examination of the plants of New England. As a scientist in America, his 
name stood second only to Franklin. He was a courtly gentleman of the old style, 
a man of commanding presence and inviting face. The Southern members said 
they had never seen such a gentleman in the North. He came, representing a 
Massachusetts company that desired to purchase a tract of land, now included in 
Ohio for the purpose of planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government 
money was worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected enough 
to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in New York made Ur. 
Cutler their agent, which enabled him to represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. 
As this would reduce the national debt, it presented a good opportunity to do 




Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was crowding on 
the market. She was opposed to opening the Northwestern region. This fired 
the zeal of Virginia. The South caught tlie inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. 
The entire South rallied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, 
because many of the constituents of her members were interested personally in the 
Western speculation. Thus Cutler making friends in the South, and doubtless 
using all the arts of the lobby, was enabled to command the situation. True to 
deeper convictions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmenship that has ever adorned any human law book. 

He borrowed from Jefferson the term " Articles of Compact," which preceding 
the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred character. He then followed 
very closely the constitution of Massachusetts, adopted three years before. Its 
most prominent points were : 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision fur public schools, giving one township for a seminary and every 
section numbered 16 in each township ; that is, one thirty-sixth of all the land for 
public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or the enactment 
of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. Be it forever remembered 
that this compact declared that " religion, morality and knowledge being necessary 
to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall always be encouraged." Dr. Cutler planted himself on this platform 
and would not yield. Giving his unqualified declaration that it was that or noth- 
ing, he took his horse and buggy and started for the constitutional convention at 
Philadelphia. On July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. 

Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, a vast 
empire, were consecrated to freedom, intelligence and morality. Thus the great heart 
of the nation was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that was 
the salvation of the Republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon the South saw 
their great blunder and tried to have the compact repealed. In 1803 Congress re- 
ferred it to a committee, of which John Randolph was chairman. He reported that 
this oi'dinance was a compact, and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

The " Northwestern Territory" included, of course, what is now the State of 
Indiana, and October 5, 1787, Major General Arthur St. Clair was elected by Con- 
gress, Governor of this territory. Upon commencing the duties of his office he 
was instructed to ascertain the real temper of the Indians, and do all in his power 
to remove the causes for controversy between them and the United States, and to 



effect the extinguishment of Indian titles to all the land possible. The Governor 
took up quarters in the new settlement of Marietta, Ohio, where he immediately 
began the organization of the government of the territory. The first session of 
the General Court of the new territory was held at that place in 1788, the judges 
being Samuel H. Parsons, James M. Varnum and John C. Syrames, but under the 
ordinance, Gov. St. Clair was president of the court. After the first session, and 
after tiie necessary laws for government were adopted. Gov. St. Clair, accompanied 
by the judges, visited Kaskaskia for the purpose of organizing a civil government 
there. Full instructions had been sent to Maj. Hamtramck, commandant at Vin- 
cennes, to ascertain the exact feeling and temper of the Indian tribes of the 
Wabash. The instructions were accompanied by speeches to each of the tribes. A 
Frenchman, named Antoine Gamelin, was dispatched with these messages April 5, 
1790, who visited nearly all the tribes on the Wabash, St. Joseph, and St. Mary's 
Rivers, but was coldly received, most of the chiefs being dissatisfied with the policy 
of the Americans toward them, and prejudiced through English misr(!presentation. 
Full accounts of his adventures among the tribes, reached Gov. St. Clair at Kaskas- 
kia, in June, 1790. Being satisfied that there was no pi-ospectof effecting a general 
peace with the Indians of Indiana, he resolved to visit Gen. Harmar, at his head- 
quarters at Fort Washington, and consult with him on the means of carrying on an 
expedition against the hostile Indians ; but before leaving he intrusted Winthrop 
Sargent, the secretary of the Territory, with the execution of the resolutions of 
Congress regarding the lands and settlers on the Wabash. He directed that officer 
to proceed to Vincennes, lay out a county there, establish the militia and appoint 
the necessary civil and military officers. Accordingly Mr. Sargent went to Vin- 
cennes and organized Camp Knox, appointed the officers, and notified the inhabi- 
tants to present their claims to lands. In establishing these claims the settlers 
found great difficulty, and concerning this matter the secretary in his report to the 
president wrote as follows : 

Although the lands and lots which were awarded to the inhabitants appeared 
from very good oral testimony to belong to those persons to whom they were 
awarded, either by original grants, purchase or inheritance, yet there was scarcely 
one case in twenty where the title was complete, owing to the desultory manner in 
which public business had been transacted, and some other unfortunate causes. 
The original concessions by the French and British commandants were generall}' 
made upon a small scrap of paper, which it has been customary to lodge in the 
notary's office, who has seldom kept any book of record, but committed the most 
important land concerns to loose sheets, which in process of time have come into 
possession of persons that have fraudulently destroyed them ; or unacquainted with 
their consequence, innocently lost or trifled them away. By French usage they are 



considered family inlieritanees, and often descend to women and cliildren. In one 
instance, during tlie government of St. Ange, a royal notary ran off with all the 
public papers in his possession, as by a certificate produced to me. And I am very 
sorry further to observe that in the ofBce of Mr. Le Grande, which continued from 
1777 to 1787, and where should have been the voucliers for imjiortant land transac- 
tions, the records have been so falsified, and there is such gross fraud and forgery 
as to invalidate all evidence and information which might be otherwise acquired 
from his papers. 

Mr. Sargent says there were about 150 French families at Vincennes in 1790. 
The heads of all the families had been at one time vested with certain titles to a 
portion of the soil ; and while the secretary was busy in straightening out those 
claims, he received a petition signed by eighty Americans, asking for the confirma- 
tion of grants of land ceded by the Court, organized by Col. John Todd, under the 
authority of Virginia. With reference to this cause, Congress, March 3, 1691, em- 
powered the territorial governor, in cases where land had been actually improved 
and cultivated under a supposed grant for the same, to confirm to the persons who 
made such improvements the lands supposed to have been granted, not, however, 
exceeding the quantity of 1,100 acres to any one person. 




In the Spring of 1763 Pontiac determined to take Detroit bj' an ingenious 
attack. He had his men file off their guns so that they would be short enough to 
conceal under their blanket clothing as they entered the fortification. A Canadian 
woman who went over to their village on the east side of the river to obtain some 
venison, saw them thus at woik on their guns, and suspected they were preparing 
for an attack on the whites. She told her neighbors what she had seen, and one of 
them informed the commandant, Major Gladwyn, who at first slighted the advice, 
but before another day had passed he had full knowledge of the plot. There is a 
legend that a beautiful Chippewa girl, well-known to Gladwyn, divulged to him the 
scheme which the Indians had in view, namely, that the next day Pontiac would 
come to the fort with sixty of his chiefs, each armed with a gun cut short and 
hidden under his blanket ; that Pontiac would demand a council, deliver a speech, 
offer a peace-belt of wampum, holding it in a reversed position as the signal for 




attack ; that the chiefs, sitting upon the ground, would then spring up and fire 
upon tlie officers, and the Indians out in the streets would next fall upon the 
garrison, and kill everj' Englishman but spare all the French. 

Gladwyn accordingly put the place in a state of defence as well as he could, 
and arranged for a quiet reception of the Indians and a sudden attack upon them 
when he should give a signal. At 10 o'clock, May 7, according to the girl's pre- 
diction, the Indians came, entered the fort, and proceeded with the programme, 
but witl) some hesitation, as they saw their plot was discovered. Pontiac made 
his speech, professing friendship for the English, etc., and without giving his signal 
for attack, sat down and heard Major Gladwyn's reply, who suffered him and his 
men to retire unmolested. He probably feared to take them as prisoners, as war 
was not actually commenced. 

The next day Pontiac determined to try again, but was refused entrance at the 
gate unless he should come in alone. He turned away in a rage, and in a few 
minutes some of his men commenced the peculiarly Indian work of attacking an 
innocent household and murdering them, just be3'ond the range of British guns. 
Another squad murdered an Englishman on an island at a little distance. Pontiac 
did not authorize the proceedings, but retired across the river and ordered pre- 
parations to be made for taking the fort by direct assault, the headquarters of the 
camp to be on " Bloody Run," west of the river. Meanwhile the garrison was 
kept in readiness for any out-break. The very next day Pontiac, having received 
reinforcements from the Chippewas of Saginaw Bay, commenced the attack, but 
was repulsed; no deaths upon either side. Gladwyn sent ambassadors to arrange 
for peace, but Pontiac, although professing to be willing, in a general way, to con- 
clude peace, would not agree to any particular proposition. A number of Canadians 
visited the fort and warned the commandant to evacuate, as 1,500 or more Indians 
would storm the place in an hour ; and soon afterward a Canadian came with a 
summons from Pontiac, demanding Gladwyn to surrender the post at once, and 
promising that, in case of comjiliance, he and his men would be allowed to go on 
board their vessels unmolested, leaving their arms and effects behind. To both 
these advices Major Gladwyn gave a flat refusal. 

Only three weeks' provisions were within the fort, and the garrison was in a 
deplorable condition. A few Canadians, however, from across the river, sent some 
provisions occasionally, by night. Had it not been for this timely assistance, the 
garrison would doubtless have had to abandon the fort. The Indians themselves 
soon began to suffer from hunger, as they had not prepared for a long siege ; but 
Pontiac, after some maraudings upon the French settlei-s had been made, issued 
" promise to pay " on birch bark, with which he pacified the residents. He sub- 
sequently redeemed all these notes. About the end of July, Capt. Dalzell arrived 




from Niagara with reinforcements and provisions, and persuaded Gladwyn to under- 
take an aggressive movement against Pontiac. Dalzell was detailed for the purpose 
of attacking the camp at Parents' Creek, a mile and a half away, but, being delayed 
a day, Pontiac learned of his movements, and prepared his men to contest his march. 
On the next morning, July 31, before day-break, Dalzell went out with 250 men, 
but was repulsed with a loss of fifty-nine killed and wounded, while the Indians 
lost less than half that number. Parents' Creek was afterward known as " Bloody 

Shortly afterward, the schooner " Gladwyn," on its return from Niagara, with 
ammunition and provisions, anchored about nine miles below Detroit for the night, 
when in the darkness about 300 Indians in canoes came quietly upon the vessel 
and very nearly succeeded in taking it. Slaughter proceeded vigorously until the 
mate gave orders to his men to blow \ip the schooner, when the Indians under- 
standing the design, fled precipitately, plunging into the water and swimming 
ashore. This desperate command saved the crew, and the schooner succeeded in 
reaching the post with the much-needed supply of provisions. 

By this time, September, most of the tribes around Detroit were disposed to 
sue for peace. A truce being obtained, Gladwyn laid in provisions for the Winter, 
while Pontiac retired with his chiefs to the Maumee country, only to prepare for a 
resumption of war the next Spring. He or his allies the next season carried on a 
petty warfare until in August when the garrison, now worn out and reduced, were 
relieved by fresh troops. Major Bradstreet commanding. Pontiac retired to the 
Maumee again, still to stir up hate against the British. Meanwhile the Indians 
near Detroit, scarcely comprehending what they were doing, were induced by 
Bradstreet to declare themselves subjects of Great Britain. An embassy sent to 
Pontiac induced him also to cease belligerent operations against the British. 

In 1769 the great chief and warrior, Pontiac, was killed in Illinois by a Kaskas- 
kia Indian, for a barrel of whisky offered by an Englishman named Williamson. 


Gov. St. Clair, on his arrival at Fort Washington from Kaskaskia, had a long 
conversation with Gen. Harmar, and concluded to send a powertul force to chastise 
the savages about the head-waters of the Wabash. He had been empowered by 
the President to call on Virginia for 1,000 troops and on Pennsylvania for 500, and 
he immediately availed himself of this resource, ordering 300 of the Virginia mili- 
tia to muster at Fort Steuben, and march with the garrison of that fort to Vin- 
cennes, and join Maj. Hamtramgk, who had orders to call for aid from the militia of 
Vincennes, march u^j the Wabash and attack any of the Indian villages which he 
might think he could overcome. 



The remaining 1,200 of the militia were ordered to rendezvous at Fort Wash- 
ington, and to join the regular troops at that post under Gen. Harmar. At this 
time the United States troops in the West were estimated by Gen. Harmar at 400 
effective men. These, with the militia, gave him a force of 1,450 men. With this 
army Gen. Harmar marched from Fort Wasliington, September 30, and arrived 
at the Maumee, October 17. They commenced the work of punishing the Indians, 
but were not very successful. The savages, it is true, received a severe scourging, 
but the militia behaved so badly as to be of little or no service. A detachment of 
o40 militia and sixty regulars, under the command of Col. Hardin, were sorely 
defeated on the Maumee October 22. The next day the army took up the line of 
march for Fort Washington, wliich place they reached November 4, having lost in 
the expedition 183 killed and thirty-one wounded ; the Indians lost about as many. 
During the progress of this expedition Maj. Hamtramck marched up the Wabash 
from Vincennes, as far as the Vermillion river, and destroyed several deserted vil- 
lages, but without finding an enemy to oppose him. Although the savages seem to 
have been severely punished by these expeditions, yet they refused to sue for peace, 
and continued their hostilities. Thereupon, the inhabitants of the frontier settle- 
ments of Virginia took alarm, and the delegates of Ohio, Monongahela, Harrison, 
Randolph, Greenbrier, Kanawah and Montgomery counties sent a joint memorial 
to the Governor of Virginia, saying that the defenseless condition of the counties, 
forming aline of nearly 400 miles along the Ohio river, exposed to the hostile inva- 
sion of their Indian enemies, destitute of every kind of support, was truly alarm- 
ing, for, notwithstanding all the regulations of the General Government in that 
country, they have reason to lament tliat they have been up to that time ineffectual 
for their protection ; nor indeed could it be otherwise, for the garrisons kept by the 
Continental troops on the Ohio River, if of any use at all, must protect only the 
Kentucky settlement, as they immediately covered that country. They further 
stated in their memorial, " We beg leave to observe that we have reason to fear 
that the consequences of tlie defeat of our army by the Indians in the late expe- 
dition will be severely felt on our frontiers, as there is no doubt that the Indians 
will, in their turn, being flushed with victory, invade our settlements and exercise 
all their horrid murder upon the inhabitants thereof whenever the weather will 
permit them to travel. Then, is it not better to support us where we are, be the 
expense what it may, than to oblige such a number of your brave citizens, who 
have so long supported, and still continue to support, a dangerous frontier (although 
thousands of their relatives in the flesh have in the prosecution thereof fallen a 
sacrifice to the savage inventions) to quit the country, after all they have done and 
suffered, when you know that a frontier must be supported somewhere? " 

This memorial caused the Legislature of Virginia to authorize the Governor of 



that State to make any defensive operations necessary for the temporary defense of 
the frontiers, until the General Government could adopt and carry out measures to 
suppress the hostile Indians. The Governor at once called upon the military com- 
manding oflScers in the western counties of Virginia to raise by the first of March, 
1791, several small companies for this purpose. At the same time Charles Scott 
was appointed Brigadier-General of the Kentucky Militia, with authority to raise 
226 volunteers, to protect the most exposed portions of that district. A full report 
of the proceedings of the Virginia Legislature being transmitted to Congress, that 
body constituted a local Board of War for the district of Kentucky, consisting of 
five men. March, 1791, Gen. Henry Knox, Secretary of War, sent a letter of 
instructions to Gen. Scott, recommending an expedition of mounted men not 
exceding 750 men, against the Wea towns on the Wabash. With this force Gen. 
Scott, accordingly, crossed the Ohio, May 23, 1791, and reached the Wabash in 
about ten days. Many of the Indians, having discovered his approach, fled, tut he 
succeeded in destroying all the villages around Ouiatenon, together with several 
Kickapoo towns, killing thirty-two warriors and taking fifty-eight prisoners. He 
released a few of the most infirm prisoners, giving them a "talk," which they car- 
ried to the towns further up the Wabash, and which the wi'etched condition of his 
horses prevented him from reaching. 

March 3, 1791, Congress provided for raising and equipping a regiment for the 
protection of the frontiers, and Gov. St. Clair was invested with the chief command 
of about 3,000 troops, to be raised and employed against the hostile Indians in the 
territory over which his jurisdiction extended. He was instructed by the Secretary 
of War to march to the Miami village and establish a strong and permanent mili- 
tary post there, also such posts elsewhere along the Oliio as would be in communi- 
cation with Fort Washington. The post at Miami Village was intended to keep 
the savages in that vicinity in check, and was ordered to be strong enough in its 
garrison to afford a detachment of 500 or 600 men in case of emergency, either to 
chastise any of the Wabash or other hostile Indians or capture convoys of the 
enemy's provisions. The Secretary of War also urged Gov. St. Clair to establish 
that post as the first and most important part of the campaign. In case of a pre- 
vious treaty, the Indians were to be conciliated upon this point, if possible ; and he 
presumed good arguments might be offered to induce their acquiescence. Said he : 
" Having commenced your march upon the main expedition, and the Indians con- 
tinuing hostile, you will use every possible exertion to make them feel the effects 
of your superiority ; and, after having arrived at the Miami village and put your 
works in a defensible state, you will seek the enemy with the whole of your remain- 
ing force, and endeavor by all possible means to strike them with great severity." 

"In order to avoid future wars, it might be proper to make the Wabash and thence 



over to the Maumee, and down the same to its mouth, at Lake Erie, the boundary be- 
tween the people of the United States and the Indians (excepting so far as the same 
should relate to the Wyandots and Delawares), on the supposition of their continu- 
ing faithful to the treaties ; but if they should join in the war against the United 
States, and your army be victorious, the said tribes ought to be removed without the 
boundaries mentioned." 

Previous to marching a strong force to the Miami town. Gov. St. Clair, June 
25, 1791, authorized Gen. Wilkinson to conduct a second expedition, not exceeding 
500 mounted men, against the Indian villages on the Wabash. Accordingly, Gen. 
Wilkinson mustered his forces and was ready July 20, to march with 625 mounted 
volunteers, well armed, and provided with 30 days' provisions, and with this force 
he reached the Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua village on the north bank of Eel River, about 
six miles above its mouth, Aug. 7, where he killed six warriors and took 34 

This town, which was scattered along the river for three miles, was totally 
destroyed. Wilkinson encamped on the ruins of the town that night, and the 
next day he commenced his march for the Kickapoo town, on the prairie which he 
was unable to reach owing to the impassable condition of the route which he adopted 
and the failing condition of his horses. He reported the estimated result of the 
expedition as follows : " I have destroyed the chief town of the Ouiatenon nation, 
and have made prisoners of the sons and sisters of the king. I have burned a 
respectable Kickapoo village, and cut down at least 400 acres of corn, chiefly in 
the milk." 


The Indians were greatly damaged by the expeditions of Harmar, Scott and 
Wilkinson, but were far from being subdued. They regarded the policy 
of the United States as calculated to exterminate them from the land; and, 
goaded on by the English of Detroit, enemies of the Americans, they were excited 
to desperation. At this time the Britisli Government still supported garrisons 
at Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac, although it was declared by the second 
article of the definite treaty of peace of 1783, tliat the King of Great Britain would, 
" with all convenient speed, and without causing any destruction or carrying away 
any negroes or property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his forces, gar- 
risons ar.d fleets from the United States, and from every post harbor and place 
within the same." That treaty also provided that the creditors on either side 
should meet with no lawful impediments to tlie recovery to the full value, in sterl- 
ing money, of all bona fide debts previously contracted. The Britisli Government 
claimed that the United Slates had broken faith in this particular understanding 
of the treaty, and in consequence refused to withdraw its forces from the territory. 




The British garrisons in the Lake Region were a source of much annoyance to the 
Americans, as they afforded succor to the hostile Indians, encouraging them to 
make raids among the Americans. This state of affairs in the territory north- 
west of the Ohio, continued from the commencement of tlie Revolutionary war to 
1796, when under a second treaty all British soldiers were withdrawn from the 

In September, 1791, St. Clair moved from Fort Washington with about 2,000 
men, and November 3, the main army, consisting of about 1,400 effective troops, 
moved forward to the head-waters of the Wabash, where Fort Recovery was after- 
ward erected, and here the army encamped. About 1,200 Indians were secreted 
a few miles distant, awaiting a favorable opportunity to begin an attack, which 
they improved on the morning of Nov. 4, about half an hour before sunrise. The 
attack was first made upon the militia, which immediately gave way. St. Clair 
was defeated and he returned to Fort Washington with a broken and dispirited 
army, having lost 39 officers killed, and 539 men killed and missing ; 22 ofiBcers 
and 232 men were wounded. Several pieces of artillery and all the baggage, 
ammunition baggage and provisions were left on the field of l)attle and fell into the 
hands of the victorious Indians. The stores and other public property lost in the 
action were valued at $32,800. There were also 100 or more American women 
with the army of the whites, very few of whom escaped the cruel carnage of the 
savage Indians. The latter, characteristic of their brutal nature, proceeded in the 
rush of victory to perpetrate the most horrible acts of cruelty and barbarity upon 
tlie bodies of the living and the dead Americans who fell into their hands. Believ- 
ing that the whites had made war for many years merely to acquire land, the 
Indians crammed clay and sand into the eyes and down the throats of the dying 
and the dead ! 

GEN. Wayne's great victory. 

Although no particular blame was attached to Gov. St. Clair for the loss in 
tliis expedition, yet he resigned the office of major-general, and was succeeded by 
Anthou}' Wayne, a distinguished officer of the Revolutionary war. Early in 1792, 
preparations were made by the General Government for re-organizing the army, so 
tliat it should consist of an eflScient degree of strength. Wayne arrived at Pitts- 
burgh in June, where the army was to rendezvous. Here he continued actively 
engaged in organizing and training his forces until October, 1793, when with an 
army of about 3,600 men, he moved westward to Fort Wasliington. 

While Wayne was preparing for an offensive campaign, every possible means 
was employed to induce the hostile tribes of the Northwest to enter into a general 
treaty of peace with the American Government ; speeches were sent among them, 
and agents to make treaties were also sent, but little was accomplished. Major 



Hamtramck, who still remained at Viucennes, succeeded in concluding a general 
peace with the Wabash and Illinois Indians ; but the tribes more immediately under 
the influence of the British, refused to hear the sentiments of friendship that were 
sent among them, and tomahawked several of the messengers. Their courage had 
been aroused by St. Clair's defeat, as well as by the unsuccessful expedition which 
had preceded it, and they now felt quite prepared to meet a superior force under 
Gen. Wayne. The Indians insisted on the Ohio River as the boundary line between 
their lands and the lands of the United States, and felt certain that they could 
maintain that boundary. Maj. Gen. Scott, with about 1,600 mounted volunteers 
from Kentucky, joined the regular troops under Gen. Wayne, July 26, 1794, and on 
the 28th, the united forces began their march on the Indian towns of the Maumee 
River. Arriving at the mouth of the Auglaize, the}- erected Fort Defiance, and on 
August 15, the army advanced toward the British fort at the foot of the rapids of 
the Maumee, wliere on the 20th, almost within reach of the British, the American 
army obtained a decisive victory over the combined forces of the hostile Indians 
and a considerable number of the Detroit Br. militia. The number of the enemy was 
estimated at 2,000, against about 900 American troops actually engaged. This 
horde of savages, as soon as the action began, abandoned themselves to flight and 
dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving Wayne's victorious army in full and quiet 
possession of the field. The Americans lost thirty-three killed and one hundred 
wounded ; while the loss of the enemy was more than double this number. 

The army remained three days and nights on the banks of the Maumee, 
in front of the field of battle, during which time all the houses and corn- 
fields were consumed and destroyed for a considerable distance both above and be- 
low Fort Miami, as well as within pistol shot of the British garrison, who were 
compelled to remain idle spectators to this general devastation and conflagration, 
among which were the houses, stores and property of Col. McKee, the British 
Indian agent and "principal instigator of the war then existing between the 
United States and savages." On the return march to Fort Defiance the villages 
and cornfields for about fifty miles on each side of the Maumee were destroyed, as 
well as those for a considerable distance around that post. 

September 14, 1794, the army under Gen. Wayne commenced its march toward 
the deserted Miami villages at tlie confluence of St. Joseph and St. Mary's rivers, 
arriving October 17, and on the following day the site of Fort Wayne was selected. 
The fort was completed November 22, and garrisoned by a strong detachment of 
infantry and artillery, under the command of Col. John F. Hamtramck, who gave 
to the new fort the name of Fort Wa3'ne. In 1814, a new fort was built on the 
site of this structure. The Kentucky volunteers returned to Fort Washington and 
were mustered out of service. Gen. Wayne, with the Federal troops, marched to 

" ^s r- 


Greenville and took up his headquarters during the Winter. Here in August, 1795, 
after several months of active negotiation, this gallant officer succeeded in conclud- 
ing a getieral treaty of peace with all the hostile tribes of the Northwestern Ter- 
ritory. This treaty opened the way for the flood of immigration for man}' years, and 
ultimately made the States and Territories now constituting the mighty Northwest. 

Up to the organization of the Indiana Territory there is but little history' to 
record apart from those events connected with military affairs. In July 1796, as 
before stated, after a treaty was concluded between the United States and Spain, 
the British garrisons, with their arms, artillery and stores were withdrawn from 
the posts within the boundaries of the United States northwest of the Ohio River, 
and a detachment of American troops, consisting of sixty-five men, under the com- 
mand of Capt. Moses Porter, took possession of the evacuated post of Detroit in 
the same month. 

In the latter part of 1796 Winthrop Sargent went to Detroit and organized 
the county of Wayne, forming a part of the Indiana Territory until its division in 
1805, when the Territory of Michigan was organized. 


By this important struggle the territory of the present State of Michigan was 
but little affected, the posts of Detroit and Mackinaw being the principal points 
whence the British operated among the Indians to prejudice them against the 
" Americans," going so far as to pay a reward for scalps, which the savages, of 
course, hesitated not to take from defenseless inhabitants. The expeditions made 
by the Indians for this purpose were even supported sometimes by the regular 
troops and local militia. One of these joint expeditions, commanded by Capt. 
Byrd, set out from Detroit to attack Louisville, Ky. It proceeded in boats as far 
as it could ascend the Maumee, and thence crossed to the Ohio River, on which 
stream Ruddle's Station was situated, which surrendered at once, without fighting, 
under the promise of being protected from the Indians ; but this promise was 
broken and all the prisoners massacred. 

Another expedition under Gov. Hamilton, the commandant at Detroit, started 
out iu 1778, and appeared at Vincennes, Ind., with a force of thirty regulars, fifty 
French volunteers and about 400 Indians. At this fort the gan-ison consisted of 
only Capt. Helm and one soldier named Henry. Seeing the troops at a distance, 
they loaded a cannon, which they placed in the open gateway, and Capt. Helm 
stood by the cannon with a lighted match. When Hamilton with his army 
approached within hailing distance, Helm called out with a loud voice, " Halt !" 
This show of resistance made Hamilton stop and demand a surrender of the garri- 
son. " No man," exclaimed Helm, with an oath, " enters here until I know the 


terms." Hamilton replied, " You shall have the honor of war." Helm thereupon 
surrendered the fort, and the whole garrison, consisting of the two already named, 
marched out and received the customary marks of respect for their brave defense. 
Hamilton was soon after made to surrender this place to Gen. George Rogers Clark, 
the ablest American defender in the West. The British soldiers were allowed to 
return to Detroit ; but their commander, who was known to have been active in 
instigating Indian barbarities, was put in irons and sent to Virginia as a prisoner 
of war. 

The events just related are specimens of what occurred at and in connection 
with Detroit from the close of Pontiac's war until a number of years after the 
establishment of American Independence. When the treaty of peace was signed 
in Versailles in 1783, the British on the frontier reduced their aggressive policy 
somewhat, but they continued to occupy the lake posts until 1796, on the claim that 
the lake region was not designed to be included in the treaty by the commissioners, 
probably on account of their ignorance of the geography of the region. Mean- 
while tlie Indians extensively organized for depredation upon the Americans, and 
continued to harass them at every point. During this period Alexander McKenzie, 
an agent of the British Government, visited Detroit, painted like an Indian, and 
said that he was just from the upper lakes, and that the tribes in that region were 
all in arms against any further immigi'ation of Americans, and were ready to attack 
the infant settlements in Ohio. His statement had the desired effect, and encour- 
aged also by an agent from the Spanish settlements on the Mississippi, the Indians 
organized a great confederacy against the United States. To put this down Gen. 
Harmar was first sent out by the Government with 1,400 men ; but he imprudently 
divided his army, and he was taken by surprise and defeated by a body of Indians 
under " Little Turtle." Gen. Arthur St. Clair was next sent out, with 2,000 men, 
and he suffered a like fate. Then Gen. Anthony Wayne was sent West with a still 
larger army, and on the Maumee he gained an easy victory over tlie Indians, within a 
few miles of a British post. He finally concluded a treaty with the Indians at Green- 
ville, which broke up the whole confederacy. The British soon afterwards gave up 
Detroit and Mackinaw. 

It was a considerable time before the Territory of Michigan now in possession 
of the United States, was improved or altered by the increase of settlements. The 
Canadian French continued to form the principal part of its population. The 
interior of the country was but little known, except by the Indians and the fur 
traders. The Indian title not being fully extinguished, no lands were brought into 
market, and consequently the settlements increased but slowly. Tiie State of 
Michigan at this time constituted simply the county of Wayne in Northwest Ter- 
ritory. It sent one representative to the legislature of that Territory, which was 



held at Chillicothe. A court of Common Pleas was organized for the county, and 
the General Court of the whole Territory sometimes met at Detroit. No roads had 
as yet been constructed through the interior, nor were there an}' settlements except 
on the frontiers. The habits of the people were essentially military, and but little 
attention was paid to agriculture except by the French peasantry. A representative 
was sent to the General Assembly of the Northwest Territory at Chillicothe until 
1800, when Indiana was erected into a separate Territory. Two years later Mich- 
igan was annexed to Indiana Territory, but in 1805 Michigan separated and William 
Hull was appointed its first Governor. 

The British revived the old prejudices that the Americans intended to drive 
the Indians out of the country, and the latter, under the lead of Tecumseh and his 
Ijrother Elkswatawa, the " prophet," organized again on an extensive scale to make 
war upon the Americans. The great idea of Tecumseh's life was a univei-sal con- 
federacy of all the Indian tribes North and South to resist the invasion of the 
whites ; and his plan was to surprise them at all their posts throughout the country 
and capture them by the first assault. At this time the entire white population of 
Michigan was about 4,800, foui--fifths of whom were French and the remainder 
Americans. The settlements were situated on the rivers Miami and Raisin, on 
the Huron of Lake Erie, on the Ecorse Range, and Detroit Rivers, on the Huron 
of St. Clair, on the St. Clair River and Mackinaw Island. Besides, there were here 
and there a group of huts belonging to the French fur traders. The villages on the 
Maumee, the Raisin and the Huron of Lake Erie contained a population of about 
l,oOO ; the settlements at Detroit and northward had about 2,200 ; Mackinaw about 
1,000. Detroit was garrisoned by ninety-four men, and Mackinaw by seventy-nine. 

hull's surrender. 

Now we have to record an unexplained mystery, which no historian of Mich- 
igan can omit, namely, the surrender of Detroit to the British by Gen. Hull, when 
his forces were not in action and were far more powerful than the enemy. He was 
either a coward or a traitor, or both. The commander of the British forces. Gen. 
Brock, triumphantly took possession of the fort, left a small garrison under Col. 
Proctor, and returned to the seat of his government. In twelve days he had moved 
with a small army 250 miles against the enemy, effected the surrender of a strong 
fort and well-equipped army of 2,300 effective men, and one of the Territories of 
the United States. Hull and the regular troops were taken to Montreal, and the 
militia were sent to their homes. 

In the capitulation, Gen. Hull also surrendered Fort Dearborn, at Chicago, 
commanding C^aptain Heald of that place to evacuate and retreat to Fort Wayne. 
In obedience to this order, the Captain started from the fort with his forces ; but 

^ 4*— ^ 



no sooner were they outside the walls than they were attacked by a large force of 
Indians, who took them prisoners and then proceeded to massacre them, killing 
thirty-eight out of the sixty-six soldiers, even some of the women and children, two 
of the former and twelve of the latter. Captain Wells, a white man who had been 
brought up among the Indians, but espoused the white man's cause, was killed in 
the massacre. 

January 3, 1814, Gen. Hull appeared before a court-martial at Albany, N. Y., 
where Gen. Dearborn was president. The accused made no objection to the con- 
stitution and jurisdiction of this court ; its sessions were protracted and every 
facility was given the accused to make his defense. The tliree charges ao-ainst 
him were treason, cowardice and neglect of duty. Hull was finally acquitted of 
the high crime of treason, but he was found guilty of the other charges, and sen- 
tenced to be shot ; but by reason of his services in the Revolution and his advanced 
age the court recommended him to the mercy of the President, who approved the 
sentence and dismissed Hull from the service. The accused wrote a long defense, 
in which he enumerates many tilings too tedious to relate here. 

Even before lie was sent to Detroit he was rather opposed to the policy of the 
Government toward the British of Canada; and, besides, he had been kindly treated 
by British ofiScers, who helped liim across the frontier. Again, the General Gov- 
ernment was unreasonably slow to inform the General of the declai-ation of war 
which had been made against Great Britain, and very slow to forward troops and 
supplies. Many things can be said on both sides ; but historians generally approve 
the judgment of the court in his case, as well as of the executive clemency of the 

perry's victory. 

The lake communication of Michigan with the East, having been in the hands 
of the British since Hull's surrender, was cut off by Com. Perry, who obtained 
a signal naval victory over the British on Lake Erie, September 10, 1813. The 
Commodore put his fleet at Erie, Pa., under great disadvantages. The bar at the 
mouth of the harbor would not pei-mit the vessels to pass out with their aruiament 
on board. For some time after the fleet was ready to sail, the British commodore 
continued to hover off the harbor, well knowing it must either remain there inac- 
tive or venture out with almost a certainty of defeat. During this blockade, Com. 
Perry had no alternative, but to ride at anchor at Erie ; but early in September 
the enemy relaxed his vigilance and withdrew to the upper end of the lake. Perry 
then slipped out beyond the bar and fitted his vessels for action. The British fleet 
opposed to Com. Perry consisted of the ships " Detroit," carrying nineteen guns ; 
the " Queen Charlotte," seventeen guns; the schooner " Lady Prevost," thirteen 
guns ; the brig " Hunter," ten guns; the sloop " Little Belt," three guns, and the 


schooner " Chippewa," one gun and two swivels; and this fleet was commanded by 
a veteran ofEoer of tried skill and valor. 

At sunrise, September 10, while at anchor in Put-in-Bay, the Commodore 
espied the enemy toward the head of the lake, and he immediately sailed up and 
commencetl action. His flag vessel, the Lawrence, was engaged with the full force of 
the enemy for nearly two hours before the wind permitted the other vessels to come 
in proper position to help. The crew of this vessel continued the fight until every 
one of them was either killed or wounded, all the rigging torn to pieces and every 
gun dismantled. Now comes the daring feat of the engagement which makes Perry 
a hero. He caused his boat to be lowered, in which he rowed to the Niagara amid 
the storm of shot and shell raging around him. This vessel he sailed tlirough the 
enemy's fleet with swelling breeze, pouring in her broadsides upon their ships and 
forcing them to surrender in rapid succession, until all were taken. The smaller 
vessels of his fleet helped in this action, among which was one commanded by the 
brave and faithful Capt. Elliott. This victory was one of the most decisive in all 
the annals of American history. It opened the lake to Gen. Wni. H. Harrison, 
who had been operating in Indiana and Ohio, and who now crossed with his army 
to Canada, where he had a short campaign, terminated by the battle of the Morav- 
ian towns, by which the enemy were driven from the northwestern frontier. A 
detachment of his army occupied Detroit, September 20, 1813, and October 18, an 
armistice was concluded with the Indians, then restoring tranquility to the Terri- 
tory of Michigan. Soon afterward Gen. Harrison left Gen. Cass in command at 
Detroit and moved with the main body of his army down to the Niagara frontier. 

Perry's brilliant success gave to the Americans the uncontrolled command of 
the lake, and September 23, their fleet landed 1,200 men near Maiden. Col. Proc- 
tor, however, had previously evacuated that post, after setting fire to the fort and 
public storehouses. Commodore Perry in the meantime, passed up to Detroit with 
the " Ariel, " to assist in the occupation of that town, while Capt. Elliott, with the 
"Lady Prevost," the "Scorpion," and the "Tigress," advanced into Lake St. Clair 
to intercept the enemy's stores. Thus Gen. Harrison, on his arrival at Detroit and 
Maiden, found both places abandoned by the enemy, and was met by the Canadians 
asking for his protection. Tecumseh proposed to the British commander that they 
should hazard an engagement at Maiden ; but the latter foresaw that he should be 
exposed to the fire of the American fleet in that position, and therefore resolved to 
march to the Moravian towns upon the Thames, near St. Clair Lake, above Detroit, 
and there try the chance of a battle. His force at this time consisted of about 900 
regular troops and 1,500 Indians, commanded by Tecumseh. The American army 
amounted to about 2,700 men, of whom 120 were regulars, a considerable number 
of militia, about thirty Indians, and the remainder Kentucky riflemen, well mount- 



ed, and mainly young men, full of ardor, and burning with a desire to revenge the 
massacre of their friends and relatives at the River Raisin. During the following 
Winter, there were no military movements, except an incursion into the interior of 
the upper province, by Major Holmes, who was attacked near Stony Creek, and 
maintained his ground with bravery. 


The war with Great Britain was now (November, 1813), practically closed, so 
far as the Northwest was concerned, the post at Mackinaw yet remained in the 
hands of the enemy, but active steps were taken to dispossess the English of this 
point and drive them wholly from the domain of the United States. The first 
effort to start an expedition failed ; but in the Summer of 1814, a well-equipped 
force of two sloops oi war, several schooners, and 750 land militia, under the com- 
mand of Commodore St. Clair and Lieut. Colonel Croghan, started for the north. 
Contrary, however, to the advice of experienced men, the commanders concluded 
to visit St. Joseph first, and the British, of Mackinaw, heard of t>heir coming, and 
prepared themselves. The consequence was a failure to take the place. Major 
Holmes was killed, and the Winnebago Indians, from Green Bay, allies of the 
British, actually cut out the hearts and liver from the American slain, and cooked 
and ate them ! Com. Sl. Clair afterward made some arrangements to starve out 
the post, but his vessels were captmed, and the British then remained secure in the 
possession of the place until the treaty of peace the following Winter. 

The war with England formally closed on December 24, 1814, when a treaty 
of peace was signed at Ghent. The ninth article of the treaty required the 
United States to put an end to hostilities with all tribes or nations of Indians with 
whom they had been at war ; to restore to such tribes or nations respectively all the 
rights and possessions to which they were entitled in 1811, before the war, on con- 
dition that such Indians should agree to desist from all hostilities against the United 
States. But in February, just before the treaty was sanctioned by our Government 
there were signs of Indians accumulating arms and ammunition, and a cautionary 
order was therefore issued to have all the white forces in readiness for an attack 
by the Indians, but the attack was not made. During the ensuing Summer and Fall, 
the United States Government acquainted the Indians with the provisions of the 
treaty and entered into subordinate treaties of peace with the principal tribes. 
Just before the treaty of Spring Wells (near Detroit) was signed, the Sha- 
wanee Prophet retired to Canada, declaring his resolution to abide by any 
treaty which the chiefs might sign. Some time afterward he returned to the Sha- 
wanee settlement in Ohio, and lastly to the west of the Mississippi, where he died 
in 1834. The British Government allowed him a pension from 1813 until his 

, M^ — «- 



If one should inquire who has been the greatest Indian, tlie most noted, the 
" principal Indian." in North America since its discovery by Columbus, we would 
be obliged to answer, Tecumseh. For all those qualities that elevate a man far 
above his race ; for talent, tact, skill and bravery as a warrior ; for high-minded, 
honorable and chivalrous bearing as a man ; in a word, for all those elements of 
greatness which place him along way above his fellows in savage life, the name and 
fame of Tecumseh will go down to posterity in the West as one of the most cele- 
brated of the aborigines of this continent, — as one who had no equal among the 
tribes that dwelt in the country drained by the Mississippi. Born to command him- 
self, he used all the appliances that would stimulate the courage and nerve the 
valor of his followers. Always in the front rank of battle, his followers blindly 
followed his lead, and as his war-cry rang clear above the din and noise of the 
battle-field, the Shawnee warriors, as they rushed on to victory or the grave, rallied 
around him, forever worthy of the steel of the most gallant commander that ever 
entered tiie list in the defense of his altar or his home. 

The tribe to which Tecumseh, or Tecumtha, as some write it, belonged, was the 
Shawnee, or Shawanee. The tradition of the nation held that they originally came 
from the Gulf of Mexico ; that they wended their way up the Mississippi and the 
Ohio, and settled at or near the present site of the Shawneetown, 111., whence they 
removed to the upper Wabash. In the latter place, at any rate, they were found 
early in the 18th century, and were known as the " bravest of the brave." This 
tribe has uniformly been the bitter enemy of the white man, and in every contest 
with our people exhibited a degree of skill and strategy that should character- 
ize the most dangerous foe. Tecumseh's notoriety and that of his brother, the 
Prophet, mutually served to establish and strengthen each other. While the 
Prophet had unlimited power, spiritual and temporal, he distributed his greatness 
in all the departments of Indian life with a kind of fanaticism that magnetically 
aroused the religious and superstitious passions, not only of his own followers, but 
also of all the tribes in this part of the country ; but Tecumseh concentrated his 
greatness upon the more practical and business affairs of military conquest. It is 
doubted whether he was really a sincere believer in the pretensions of his fanatic 
brother; if he did not believe in the pretentious feature of them he had the shrewd- 
ness to keep his unbelief to himself, knowing that religious fanaticism was one of 
the strongest impulses to reckless bravery. 

During his sojourn in the Northwestern Territory, it was Tecumseh's upper- 
most desire of life to confederate all the Indian tribes of the country, against the 
whites, to maintain their choice hunting-grounds. All his public policy converged 
toward this single end. In his vast scheme he comprised even all the Indians in 



the Gulf country, — all in America west of the Alleghany mountains. He held, as 
a subordinate principle, that the Great Spirit had given the Indian race all these 
hunting-grounds to keep in common, and that no Indian or tribe could cede any 
portion of the land to the whites without consent of all the trices. Hence, in all 
his councils with the whites he ever maintained that the treaties were null and 

When he met Harrison at Vincennes in council the last time, and, as he was 
invited by the General to take a seat with him on the platform, he hesitated ; Har- 
rison insisted, saying that it was the " wish of their Great Father, the President of 
the United States that he should do so." The chief paused a moment, raised his 
tall and commanding form to its greatest height, surveyed the troops and crowd 
around him, lixed his keen eyes upon Gov. Harrison, and then turning them to the 
sky above, and pointing toward heaven with his sinewy arm in a manner indicative 
of supreme contempt for the paternity assigned him, said in clarion tones : " My 
Father ? The sun is my father, the earth is my mother, and on her bosom I will 
recline." He then stretched himself, with his warriors on the green sward. The 
effect was electrical, and for some moments there was perfect silence. 

The Governor, then, through an interpreter, told him that he understood that 
he had some complaints to make and redress to ask, etc., and that he wished to 
investigate the matter and make restitution whenever it might be decided it should 
be done. As soon as the Governor was through with this introductory speech, the 
stately warrior arose, tall, athletic, manly, dignified and graceful, and with a voice 
at first low, but distinct and musical, commenced a reply. As he warmed up with 
his subject his clear tones might be heard, as if " trumpet-tongued," to the utmost 
limits of the assembly — tlie most perfect silence prevailed, except when his warriors 
gave their guttural assent to some eloquent recital of the red-men's wrong and the 
white man's injustice. Tecumseh recited the wrongs whicli his race had suffered 
from the time of the massacre of the Moravian Indians to the present ; said he did 
not know how he ever again could be the friend of the white man ; that the Great 
Spirit had given to the Indian all the land from the Miami to the Mississippi, and 
from the lakes to the Ohio, as a common property to all the tribes in these borders, 
and that the land could not and should not be sold without the consent of all ; 
that all the tribes on the continent formed but one nation ; that if the United 
States would not give up the lands they had bought of the Miamis and the other 
tribes, those united with him were determined to annihilate those tribes; that they 
were determined to have no more chiefs, but in future to be governed by their war- 
riors ; that unless the whites ceased their encroachments upon Indian lands, the 
fate of the Indians was sealed ; they had been driven from the banks of the Dela- 
ware across the Alleghanies, and their possessions on the Wabash and the Illinois 


were now to be taken from tliem ; that in a few years the}' would not have ground 
enough to buiy their warriors on tliis side of " Father of Waters ; " that all would 
perish, all their possessions taken from tliem by fraud or force, unless tliey stopped 
the progress of the white man westward ; that it must be a war of races in wliich 
one or the other must perish ; that their tribes had been driven toward the setting 
sun like a galloping horse (ne-kat-a-kush-e-ka-top-o-lin-to). 

The Sliawnee language, in which this most eminent Indian statesman spoke, 
excelled all other aboriginal tongues in its musical articulation ; and the effect of 
Tecumseh's oratory on this occasion can be more easily imagined than described. 
Gov. Harrison, altliougli as brave a soldier and general as any American, was over- 
come by his speech. He well knew Tecumseh's power and influence among all the 
tribes, knew his bravery, courage and determination, and knew that he meant what 
he said. Wiien Tecuraseh was done speaking there was a stillness throughout the 
assembly which was really painful ; not a whisper was heard, and all eyes were 
turned from the speaker toward Gov. Harrison, who after a few moments came to 
himself, and recollecting many of the absurd statements of the great Indian orator, 
began a reply which was more logical, if not so eloquent. The Shawnees were 
attentive until Harrison's interpreter began to translate his speech to the Miamis 
and Pottawatomies, when Tecumseh and his warriors sprang to their feet, brand- 
ishing their war-clubs and tomahawks. " Tell him," said Tecumseh, addressing 
the interpreter in Shawnee, " he lies." The interpreter undertook to convey this 
message to the Governor in smootlier language, but Tecumseh noticed the effort 
and remonstrated, " No, no; tell him he lies." The warriors began to grow more 
excited, when Secretary Gibson ordered the American troops in arms to advance. 
This allaj-ed the rising storm, and as soon as Tecumseli's " He lies" was literally 
interpreted to the Governor, the latter told the interpreter to tell Tecumseh he 
would hold no further council with liim. 

Thus the assembly was broken up, and one can hardly imagine a more exciting 
scene. It would constitute the finest subject for a historical painting to adorn the 
rotunda of the capitol. The next day Tecumseh requested another interview with 
the Governor, which was granted on condition that he should make an apology to 
the Governor for his language the day before. This he made through the inter- 
preter. Measures for defense and protection were taken, however, lest there should 
be another outbreak. Two companies of militia were ordered from the country, 
and the one in town added to them, while the Governor and his friends went into 
council fully armed and prepared for any contingency. On this occasion the con- 
duct of Tecumseh was entirely different from that of the day before. Firm and 
intrepid, showing not the slightest fear or alarm, surrounded with a military force 
four times his own, he preserved the utmost composure and equanimity. None 

•■C i 


would have supposed that he could have been the principal actor in the thrilling 
scene of the previous day. He claimed that half the Americans were in sympathy 
with him. He also said that whites had informed him that Gov. Harrison had 
purchased land from tlie Indians without any authority from the Government ; that 
he, Harrison, had but two years more to remain in office, and that if he, Tecumseh, 
could prevail upon the Indians who sold the lands not to receive their annuities for 
that time, and the present Governor displaced by a good man as his successor, the 
latter would restore to the Indians all tlie lands purchased from them. The Wyan- 
dots, Kickapoos, Pottawattomies, Ottawas and the Winnebagoes, through their 
respective spokesmen, declared their adherence to the great Shawnee warrior and 
statesman. Gov. Harrison then told them that he would send Tecumseh's speech 
to the President of the United States and return the answer to the Indians as soon 
as it was received. Tecumseh then declared that he and his allies were determined 
that the old boundary line should continue ; and that if the whites crossed it, it 
would be at their peril. Gov. Harrison replied that he would be equally plain with 
him and state that the President would never allow that the lands on the Wabash 
were the property of any other tribes than those who had occupied them since the 
white people first came to America ; and as the title to the lands lately purchased 
was derived from those tribes by a late purchase, he might rest assured that the 
right of the United States would be supported by the sword. " So be it " was the 
stern and haughty reply of the Shawnee chieftain, as he and his braves took leave 
of the Governor and wended their way in Indian file to their camping ground. 
Thus ended the last conference on earth by the chivalrous Tecumseli and the 
hero of the battle of Tippecanoe. The bones of the first lie bleaching on the 
battlefield of the Thames, and those of the last in a mausoleum on the banks of 
the Ohio ; each struggled for the mastery of his race, and each no doubt was 
equally honest and patriotic in his purposes. The weak yielded to the strong, the 
defenseless to the powerful, and the hunting-ground of the Shawnee is all occupied 
by his enemy. 

Tecumseh, with four of his braves, immediately embarked in a birch canoe, 
descended the Wabash, and went on to the South to unite the tribes of that country 
in a general system of self-defense against the encroachment of the whites. His 
emblem was a disjointed snake, with the motto " Join or die ! " In union alone 
was strength. 

Before Tecumseh left the Prophet's town at the mouth of the Tippecanoe River, 
on his excursion to the South, he had a definite understanding with his brother and 
the chieftains of the other tribes in the Wabash country, that they should preserve 
perfect peace with the whites until his arrangements were completed for a con- 
federacy of the tribes on both sides of the Ohio and on the Mississippi River ; but 




it seems that while he was in the Soutli engaged in his work of uniting the tribes 
of that country some of the Northern tribes showed signs of fight and precipitated 
Harrison into that campaign which ended in the battle of Tippecanoe, and the 
total rout of the Indians. Tecumseh, on his return from tlie South, learning what 
had happened, was overcome with chagrin, disappointment, and anger, and accused 
his brother of duplicity and cowardice ; indeed, it is said, he never forgave him to 
the day of his death. A short time afterward, on the breaking out of the war with 
Great Britain, he joined Proctor, at Maiden, with a party of his warriors, and was 
killed at the battle of the Thames, October 5, 1813, by a Mr. Wheatl}', as we are 
positively informed by Mr. A. J. James, now a resident of La Harpe township, 
Hancock County, Illinois, whose father-in-law, John Pigman, of Coshocton County, 
Ohio, was an eye-witness. Gen. Johnson has generally had the credit of killing 


The excitement which this war caused throughout the settlements of Michigan 
was such as would appear incomprehensible at the present time. Macomb County 
was no exception to the general rule, although her French citizens maintained a 
dignified equanimity. 

On the mor-ing of May 10, 1832, the news of Black Hawk's advance reached 
Col. J. D. Davis' camp at Plymouth, and was carried thence into the homes of 
Macomb by a dozen of busy gossijjers. At each village the number of Indians was 
increased by these faithful couriers until, at length, when the news reached Mt. 
Clemens, it was to the effect that Black Hawk and 80,000 warriors were encamped 
at that moment on Pigeon Prairie. 

The men liable to military service in the county were called out, but on learn- 
ing that the seat of war was several hundred miles west, that the rejjorts were 
entirely exaggerated ; that the Sacs and Foxes were scattered or slain, then, and 
only then did the white warriors of Macomb return to their homes. 


The convention to form a State Constitution met on the second Monday in 
May, 1835, in the city of Detroit, performing their duties and adjourning the '24th 
of the same month. In giving their boundaries they made the southern the same 
as recognized by the ordinance of 1787, and as understood when the Territory 
was formed. The constitution framed by the convention was submitted to 
the people and by them approved, after which it was sent to Congress for its 
action, not doubting but Michigan would be admitted as a State as soon as Con- 
gress assembled. 

To this boundary Ohio entered her protest by her delegation in Congress, and 

■^s i- 


by her State Legislature and Executive, and at once organized her civil powers 
through and over the disputed territory, which was about six miles wide on the 
Indiana line, and eight or nine miles at the INIauraee River. Congress rejected the 
application on the 15th of June, 1836, and submitted a proposition to the people 
of the Territory July 25 of the same j^ear, fixing the southern boundary where 
it now is, and in consideration therefor the following grants were to be made: 

1st. Section 16 of every township for the use of schools. 

2d. Seventy-two sections for a State University. 

3d. Five sections to build a State Capitol. 

4th. Twelve salt springs, with six sections of land to each, for the general 
uses of the Territory. 

5th. Five per cent, of net proceeds of public lands, when sold, for public roads 
and canals. 

6th. Alteration of northern boundaries so as to include the upper peninsula. 

While this question of boundary was pending in Congress, great excitement 
sprang up among the people on both sides, so great, indeed, as to lead to what was 
known as the Toledo War. 

To get a clear insight into the ways and methods by which the first pioneers 
of the country managed questions affecting their local interests, we can do no bet- 
ter than to adopt, in these pages, the story of each participant, and from these 
draw our own conclusions as to the right. Michigan says: The approachino- 
organization of the State Government invested the disputed question with pressing 
importance, and hostilities on the disputed territory soon became active. In Feb- 
ruary, 1835, the Legislature of Ohio passed an act extending the jurisdiction of 
that State over the territory in question, organized townships and directed them 
to elect officers in April following. It also directed Gov. Lucas to appoint three 
commissioners to survey and re-mark the Harris line, and named April 1 as the 
time when the work should commence. Gov. Mason anticipated this action of the 
Ohio Legislature by an act of the Legislative Council making it a criminal offense, 
punishable by a heavy fine, or by imprisonment, for any one to attempt to exercise 
any official functions, or to accept any office witliin the jurisdiction of the Territory 
of Michigan by virtue of any authority not derived from said Territory or from the 
United States. Gov. Mason directed Gen. Brown, then in command of the militia 
of the Territory, to hold himself in readiness to take the field should Ohio attempt 
to carry out the instructions of her Legislature. On the 31st of March, Governor 
Lucas, with liis commissioners, and Gen. Bell of tlie Ohio militia, arrived at Perrys- 
burg,on their way to commence the survey and re-marking of the Harris line. Here 
they proceeded to muster a force of 600 volunteers, who were organized and went 
into camp at Fort Miami to await the Governor's orders. 


In the meantime Gov. Mason with Gen. Brown had raised a force from eight 
to twelve hundred strong, and were in possession of Toledo. When Gov. Lucas 
observed the determined bearing of the Michigan braves, and took note of tlieir 
numbers, he found it convenient to content himself for a time " with watching over 
the border." Several days were passed in this exhilarating employment, and just 
when he had made up his mind to do something rash, two Commissioners arrived 
from Washington, on a mission of peace. Tiiey remonstrated with Gov. Lucas 
and reminded him of the consequences to himself and State if he attempted to gain 
possession by force. After several conferences with both Governors the Commis- 
sioners submitted the following propositions for their consideration : 1st. That the 
Harris line should be run and re-marked pursuant to the act of the Legislature of 
Ohio, without interruption. 2d. The civil elections under the laws of Ohio hav- 
ing taken place throughout the disputed territory, the people therein should be left 
to their own government, obeying the one jurisdiction or the other as they might 
prefer, without molestation from either side until tlie close of the next session of 

Gov. Lucas accepted the proposition at once, and disbanded his forces, regard- 
ing the proposition as coming from the President, through tlie Commissioners, and 
under his control. Gov. Mason, on the other hand, refused to accede to the 
arrangements, declined to compromise rights or surrender jurisdistion, but partially 
disbanded his forces, holding a sufficient number in readiness to meet any emei'- 
gency that might arise. Gov. Lucas now supposed his way clear, and that he 
could re-mark the Harris line without molestation, and he accordingly ordered the 
Commissioners to proceed with the work. 

In the 'meanwhile President Jackson had referred the matter to Attorney 
General Butler, as to his authority over tlie contending parties, and tlie validity of 
the act of the Ohio Legislature and the act of the Legislative Council under which 
the respective parties were claiming authority. 

The report of the Attorney General was decidedly in favor of Micliigan. The 
weak point in Ohio's claim was a violation of the act of 1805 creating that Terri- 
tory, and in subsequent acts passed for her government. 

Notwithstanding this. Gov. Lucas proceeded to run the line, commencing at 
the northwest corner of the disputed tract. Gov. Mason and Gen. Brown had kept 
a watchful eye, and when the surveying party got within the county of Lucas, tlie 
under-sheriff of that county, armed with a warrant, and supported by a posse, sud- 
denly made his appearance and succeeded in arresting a portion of the party. The 
rest, including the Commissioners, took to their heels and were soon beyond the 
disputed territory. Arriving at Perrysburg, they reported their valor and escape 
from the overwhelming attack of Gen. Brown, and their missing comrades all 



killed or taken prisoners, to Gov. Lucas, he in turn reporting to the President. 
The President thereupon sent a copy to Gov. Mason, and asked for a state- 
ment of facts from the ofScers engaged in the transaction. Accordingly, the under- 
sheriff made a very amusing report, setting forth the fact that it was a civil process, 
issued by a Justice of the Peace, that under it he had arrested nine persons, without 
bloodshed or trouble, and closing with the statement that the Commissioners had 
made very good time, that they had reached Perrysburg with nothing more serious 
than the loss of hats and their clothing, like Gov. Marcy's breeches, without the 

This summary breaking up of the surveying party created intense excitement 
throughout Ohio. An extra session of the Legislature was called, a law was passed 
against the abduction of any of her citizens, making it a penal offense punishable 
by not less than three nor more than seven years in the penitentiary. They also 
passed an act organizing the county of Lucas, fixing the county -seat at Toledo, and 
directing the court for the county to be held at any convenient house therein. 
They accepted the propositions of the President's Commissio!iers, and made an 
appropriation of #600,000 to carry these laws into effect over the disputed ter- 

It was evident that Ohio was aroused — that her State pride had been wounded. 
The idea that the young Territory of Michigan, with her stripling Governor, should 
successfully defy the great State of Ohio, with a million of inhabitants and her aged 
Governor, was one that the people could not endure with patience or equanimitv. 

In the meantime the authorities of Michigan were active in sustaining their 
authority on the disputed ground. Prosecutions for holding office under Ohio 
were conducted with great vigor ; for a long time the people of Monroe 
county were kept busy assisting the sheriff in executing his jjrocesses and making 
arrests in Toledo. Suit after suit was commenced, and each was the breeder of a 
score of others. The officers of Ohio made feeble attempts to retaliate, but were 
generally unsuccessful. Sometimes these arrests were attended with danger, al- 
ways with great difiSculty. An instance is related of Major Stickney's arrest, which 
created great amusement at the time. He and his family fought valiantly, but 
were overpowered by numbers. He was requested to mount a horse, but flatly 
refused. He was put on by force, but he would not sit there. Finally, two men 
were detailed to walk beside him and hold his legs, while a third led the horse. 
After making half the distance in this way, they tied his legs under the horse and 
thus got him in jail. An attempt was made to arrest his son. Two Stickney. A 
scuffle ensued, in which the officer was stabbed with a knife, but the wound did 
not prove dangerous, and it is believed that this was the only blood shed during 
the war. The officer let go his hold, and Stickney fled to Ohio. He was indicted 




by the grand jury of Monroe County, and a requisition was made on the Governer 
of Ohio for his rendition, but the Governor refused to give him up. 

On one occasion an officer attempted to arrest a man in the night. Tlie man 
had but a moment's warning, and sought safety in flight. He reached the 
Maumee River, threw himself on a saw log, and with hands and feet paddled him- 
self in safety to the other shore. 

A very pious man was elected a justice of the peace, and fled to the woods, 
where he lived many days in a sugar shanty. It was currently reported, and 
generally believed by the Ohio partisans, that a miracle had been wrought in his 
behalf, — that "robin red-breasts" brought him his daily food and drink. The 
belief in this miracle strengthened the cause of Ohio in many quarters very mate- 

The report of the stabbing by Two Stickney and the statement that Gov. 
Lucas was protecting him made great impression on the mind of the President. 
Both sides were becoming more importunate, and after investigating the difficulties 
fully he recommended to Gov. Mason that no obstruction should be made to the 
re-marking of the Harris line, that all prosecutions under the Territorial act of 
February' should be discontinued, and no others commenced until the next session 
of Congress. This recommendation had no effect on Gov. Mason. He was deter- 
mined to protect his Territory and her jurisdiction at all hazards. Prosecutions 
went on as before. When the President became aware of this he superseded Gov. 
Mason as Secretary of Michigan, and appointed Charles Shaler, of Pennsylvania, 
as liis successor. He also advised Gov. Lucas to refrain from any jurisdiction over 
the Territory pending the action of Congress. This check by the President was a 
great blow to Gov. Lucas. The eyes of the country were upon him, and he felt it 
incumbent on him to perform some act of jurisdiction in order to save himself from 
the imputation of having backed down. A happy thought struck him at an oppor- 
tune moment. The Legislature of Ohio had organized a county and ordered court 
to be held at Toledo on the 7th of September. To hold this court in the face and 
eyes of the military force of Gov. Mason and the recommendation of the President 
to abstain therefrom would be a grand achievement, — an act of jurisdiction greater 
than the re-marking of the Harris line. With him this was the thing to be done, 
and calling to his aid the Adjutant General of the State, they devised a plan, and 
it was put into his hands to manage. He called out a regiment to protect the 
judges in the discharge of their duty. The judges met on Sunday, tlie 6tli of Sep- 
tember, at Maumee, a few miles from Toledo. They were to proceed to Toledo the 
next morning, under the escort that had been provided for them, and hold court. 
Some time during the evening a scout who had been sent out by the colonel of the 
regiment returned from Toledo and reported that 1,200 men under command of 

'^ s r- "T ®pV~ 

V T 



Gen. Brown, were in Toledo ready to demolish court, soldiers and all, in case of an 
attempt to open it. This report turned out to be false, but it immediately subdued all 
the valor of the judges, as well as that of the regiment that was to escort them. But 
it would not do to back out, — the honor and the dignity of the State must be main- 
tained ; besides, they would be laughed if they did not hold court. But the judges 
hesitated at undertaking so daring an exploit. The colonel of the regiment finally 
came to the Governor's assistance. He upbraided the judges for their cowardice 
and hesitation, and proposed to take the honor of the State into his own keeping. 
Stepping in front of his regiment, he called for volunteers for a hazardous under- 
taking. A few brave men answered the call. The trembling judges placed them- 
selves under the charge of this " forlorn hope," and at three o'clock on Monday 
morning, Sept. 7. 1835, they sneaked into Toledo, hunted up a school-house, held 
court about two minutes, and then ran for dear life back to Maumee. 

Thus did the State of Ohio triumph over her enemies. Thus did her patriotic 
sons sustain her dignity. Thus did her brave soldiers throw themselves in tlie 
imminent and deadlj' breach. 

It is needless to say that Gov. Mason and Geu. Brown were surprised and 
chagrined. They had an ample force within i-each to prevent the holding of a 
court, as courts are generallj^ held, but they were unacquainted with Ohio legal 
practice, and did not look for midnight tribunals held in dark school-rooms or out- 

But little remains to be said in reference to the war. A volume might be 
written relating to the incidents of that bloodless struggle and the story of the pri- 
vations endured by the citizen soldiers, — privations which were relieved by raids 
on hen-coops, melon patches, and potato fields. The ludicrous incidents, the hair- 
breadth escapes, by field and flood, would be interesting to many, but space forbids 

Ohio says : This fired the heart of the young Governor, Stevens T. Mason ; his 
loyalty and zeal would not brook such an insult. The militia at his disposal was 
called early into requisition early in the Spring of 1835. They were first put upon 
the trail of the commissioners, and actually routed them and took several of the 
party prisoners, on the line some ten miles east of Morenci. These they held for 
a few days, then discharged some on parole and others on bail, to answer in the dis- 
trict court. 

But the end was not yet. A majority of those living on the disputed terri- 
tory, in Monroe County, were late emigrants from Ohio and Pennsylvania, and they 
were thoroughly impressed with the importance to them of being a part of Ohio. 
The port of Toledo was just opening to tlie traffic of the lakes ; the States of Ohio 
and Indiana were ready to bring in the Wabash Canal, provided it could tap the 





lake on Ohio's soil ; and, besides, Ohio was already quite an old State, and would 
be able to develop the territory mucli quicker, — that in fact the territorial interest 
was all centred at Detroit, and Toledo, if it remained to Michigan, would only be 
a dependency paying tribute. 

With these sentiments prevailing, the Governor of Ohio was induced to put in 
force the laws of the State. Proclamation was issued giving boundaries to towns 
and counties, and for the election of civil officers. Tlie elections were held, 
officers were chosen, and they assumed their duties. The militia was organized and 
commenced drilling. In short, we had two active and efficient governments, each 
striving to excel, and, as may be naturally inferred, the relations between them 
were not of a very friendly character, — the one acting as informers to Gov. Mason, 
the other mostly engaged in procuring bail to be relieved from arrests, preferring 
to have their transgressions settled by the courts of the country to an open and 
violent conflict of arms. 

Tlie Governor's quick, impulsive nature would brook this double- entendre no 
longer. The General Government did not respond to his call. Ohio would not 
stop at his bidding. The subjects were disloyal and refractory in their every act. 
Therefore, it become him as Governor to put a quietus on the whole difficulty. Ac- 
cordingly, he called out the militia of the Territory, to the number of about 1,500 
strong, early in the month of September, 1835, to prevent any further inroads upon 
the territory in dispute, and particularly to prevent the holding of circuit court in 
Lucas County, which had just been organized, with Toledo as the county seat, 
where the first session of the court was appointed to be held. 

This call was responded to readily in many parts of the Territory, a very few 
perhaps from this county. They rendezvoused in Monroe County, and thence 
marched to Tremainsville, on the afternoon before the court was to convene, 
where they bivouacked for the night. They were here three miles out from the 
objective point, and much hard work was to be done in a very short time to meet 
the emergencies of the morrow, for an army was to be organized out of the mate- 
rial presented. Upon inspection it was found that some had muskets, others 
had clubs, but most had trusty rifles. These were assigned to companies and 
battalions, and in the morning marshaled for inspection by the commander-in-chief. 
They were by him pronounced '■'•aufait" and ordered to march to the scene of the 

In entering the city they actually marched by the door where the court " of 
which they were in search" was in full operation, without knowing it. They had 
expected to find it guarded by an army that would be worthy of their steel. But 
where ? oh, where could they be '( They certainly could not be in Toledo, for the 
great army of our noble commander-in-chief covered the whole city and some of its 




suburbs. There could be but one conclusion. They had of course hied them- 
selves to the spot whence they came, and must be now on their way through 
the defiles of the black swamp. A council of war was held ; the surroundings 
looked dark ; they had come for blood and without it there could be no remission, 
the enemy having ignobly fled the field. The usages of war would therefore make 
their way clear, and reprisals would be in order. If they would not let the issue 
be decided by force of arms, they could expect nothing less, and must abide by 
these rules which had been recognized by all nations from time immemorial. In 
tliis strait, it did not take our brave commander long to decide. His forces were 
soon marshaled, formed in two battalions, the one ordered to make reprisals on the 
cellars and larders of the inhabitants, the others to move upon the magazines and 
commissary of the enemy, that a wag had informed them were stored in a barn 
owned b}" Piatt Card, known as one of the moving spirits in the rebellion, and 
who was then under bonds to answer for what he had heretofore done in in- 
citing it. 

This last work was not to be trusted to raw recruits, or committed to an in- 
ferior ofiBcer ; it was virtually the conquering of an army, and then who knew how 
strongly it was guarded within, or what migiit be the dangers of an approach. Ti)at 
the work might be quick and effectual it was decided that our brave commander 
should lead the fray. 

In reconnoitering the premises, all was still ; yet there were certain holes in 
the walls, reminding them of the port-holes in ancient forts, and in which they 
fancied they saw grim messengers of death staring them boldly in the face. This 
could be endured no longer; the order was quickly given and a broad-side was 
poured into the pine siding of the barn, — a thud, a groan, followed by a few thumps, 
and all was still as death. Approaches were made stealthily and cautiously until 
they reached the door, which obe3'ed the mandate of the hand and readily swunn- 
on its hinges. To the surprise of our noble commander and his comrades in arms, 
they found they had captured a very fine hoi-se, as the warm blood flowin"- from 
many bullet-holes attested. They had come for blood as a sacrifice to sprinkle the 
altar of their loyalty and devotion to their country, and who at this late day will 
deny that they found it? 

Returning to headquarters it was found that the other battalion had made a 
very successful raid, especially in the line of Major Stickney's wine-cellar, and from 
some others, that gave a more exhilarating beverage, sufficient was obtained with 
which to soften and wash down the hard army biscuit, of which it may be inferred 
their knapsacks contained an ample supply. Night approaching, each drew his 
cloak around him and gave himself to pleasant dreams over the experiences and es- 
capes of the last twelve hours. 



On the following morning an order was issued from tlie Governor disbanding 
the forces, allowing each to find his way home as best he could. Thus ended the 
great Toledo war, and all strife on the disputed tract. 

Looking at this question at a later day, when all had become calm and serene, 
we can discover little occasion for either partj' to get up and shake themselves like 
young lions. It was a matter that belonged entirely to Congress. If they had 
been so imprudent as to let Ohio in her boundaries embrace territory to which she 
had no claim, it was her duty, and justice required her to correct the error. That 
it was an error on the part of the National Legislature to allow Ohio to assume the 
functions and duties of a State, merely from her enabling act, without submitting 
her constitution for inspection and approval, none will doubt. That the Territorial 
officers were hasty and inconsiderate in their action, assuming responsibilities that 
did not belong to them, few question. That the final adjustment of the whole ques- 
tion between the parties has resulted to the benefit of each, and especially to Mich- 
igan, all cheerfull}' admit. 

In this war many of the old settlers of Macomb participated. Fortunately, the 
old soldiers of the young State lost little or no blood, and all were permitted to re- 
turn to their homes in peace. 


It will be remembered by the pioneers of Michigan, and not only by them, but 
by all others, of that time along the frontier line between the United States and 
Canada, that during the Winter of 1837-38, occurred what was known as the 
" Patriotic War." The object of this war was understood to be a revolution that 
should separate the British possessions of Canada from the mother country that 
they might erect themselves into sovereign and independent States. 

In consequence of the financial crash and hard times then prevailing there were 
many adventurous, reckless and idle persons in the States who took part with the 
Patriots. The anxiety that grew out of our Revolutionary war and the war of 
1812, toward the British, may have slumbered, but was not forgotten, and it took 
but little to awaken that old feeling. It was revived along the whole length of the 
frontier, and was not confined to our side only ; it was fully reciprocated by our 
loyal neighbors. At that time, as it may be now, there were many half-pay English 
military officers who would have hailed a war between the United States and Eng- 
land as a God-send to them ; for in that event they would be restored to active 
service on full pay and stand their chances for promotion. The hostile feeling had 
reached such a degree of intensity that General Scott was ordered to the frontier 
with troops. The steamer Carolina, that was supposed to be in the service of the 
Patriots, was captured in the Niagara River by the British forces, and sent over the 
falls and it was supposed with part of tlie crew on board. The Patriots had at that 



time a considerable force on Navy Island. A rocket brigade was stationed at 
Windsor. Occasional musket shots were fired from Windsor into Detroit, and a 
correspondence was opened between the authorities on each side with a view to 
stop this recklessness. The late Adjutant-General John E. Schwartz conducted 
tlie correspondence on the part of Micliigan. He read it to the writer of this paper. 
About this time, I visited Detroit, stopping at the National Hotel, as the Russell 
House was then called, and before I had time to warm myself I met Col. Smith, 
then a member of the Legislature, from Monroe County, who invited me into the 
back parlor, where I met Gov. Mason, who ordered me back to Ann Arbor to 
raise a company of militia and report to Col. Smith who was then under orders 
from the Governor to march down the Detroit river and break up the encampment 
of Patriots in the neighborhood of Gibraltar, a small village near the mouth of the 
river, and drive them away. I had also an order, addressed to the late Col. Slin- 
gerland, to muster his (the 5th) regiment from which to recruit my company by 
volunteers, if possible, or by draft. The Colonel issued his orders and did his duty, 
but so strong Vk'as the sympathy in favor of the Patriots and against the English, 
that not over thirty men out of about 600 composing the regiment obeyed the 
Colonel's order. Of course I was obliged to report my inability to report the com- 
pany ordered. My recollection is that Colonel Smith made a similar report and the 
encampment remained undisturbed. Gen. Ed. Clark states, that " the 
leaders of the Patriots had organized a secret society known as Hunters, with 
lodges in every village along the frontier. They had their secret signs, grips 
and pass-words, and were sworn to secrecy. A large proportion of the able-bodied 
men were Hunters, that is, members of hunters' lodges. I mention these facts to 
show the state of public feeling with regard to the Patriot war and the reason that 
Gov. Mason could not furnish the necessary force to march on the Patriot encamp- 
ment and disperse the force there encamped. Before the close of navigation an 
expedition was organized by Brigadier General Theller, of the Patriot service, for 
the purpose of capturing Fort Maiden. He embarked in the sloop Ann, and when 
she arrived off the fort was fired into and her rigging so cut up that she became 
unmanageable and drifted ashore. The General and Colonel Dodge and the crew 
were taken prisoners. That Winter a landing of a Patriot force was made on the 
Canada shore above Windsor, and a battle fought which proved disastrous to the 
invaders. Another battle was fought at Point au Pelee, where tlie Patriots were 
victors. From these facts it can be seen that the magaziue was ready and needed 
but a spark to explode it — that is, to involve the country in war. 

When these events were taking place, but before the fight at Point au Pelee, 
General Sutherland, of the Patriot army, made his appearance at Ann Arbor in full 
uniform and posted hand-bills notifying the public that he would address them at 




the court-house on the subject of the Patriot war. Tlie court-room was filled and 
the General was listened to with respect and attention. Before the meeting dis- 
persed a committee was appointed to wait on ilie General at his quarters, to confer 
with him. Tlie writer was one of that committee. The committee called on the 
General that evening at his room, and spent an hour or two with him. From Ann 
Arbor he went to Manchester to address the good people of that village. His ob- 
ject was to get men and means to carry on the war. A short time afterward I 
received a package of papers from the General. Among them were enlistment 
rolls and along letter. He wished me to join the Patriot army and raise a battalion 
of men for the Patriot service, but ostensibly as volunteer militia, hold elections 
for commissioned officers as directed by tlie militia laws of Michigan, and apply to 
Gov. Mason for commissions. He said that as I was a personal and political friend 
of the Governor there would be no difficulty in getting the commissions. This 
accomplished, I was to put myself and battalion under the orders of the General, 
and as soon as the Detroit River was frozen over so as to make a passage safe, he would 
give me an order for arms, ammunitions, blankets, etc., and he would direct when 
and where the invasion should take place. I confess to a complete surprise — more, 
I was astonished. We were almost entire strangers to each other ; we had never 
met except at Ann Arbor, and then only for an hour or two, and knew nothing of 
each other's antecedents. During the visit of the committee at the General's room 
I endeavored to draw him into a conversation upon military subjects, tactics, his- 
tory, etc., but he evaded it, and I formed a small opinion of his military capacity 
or knowledge. And when he divulged to me, an almost entire stranger, his plan of 
operations, I lost confidence in him as a military leader. I remembered of reading 
an anecdote of Washington who was asked by an intimate friend and true Whig 
what his plan of campaign was. Washington asked, "Can you keep a secret? " 
" Yes, General." " So can I," was the response. Wiien the legislative committee 
visited General Jackson and demanded of him his plan for the defense of New 
Orleans, he raised a lock of hair from his head and said, " Gentleman, if I supposed 
this lock of hair knew what was passing in my brain on that subject, I would cut 
it off and burn it." 

I have described the feeling along the dividing line between the States and 
Canada. I remember that Sutherland said tliat one of his principal objects was to 
involve the two countries in war with each other. Doing this he would attain 
the height of his ambition. I believe there would have been but little difficulty in 
raising the number of men to fill the four companies required, and it seemed plain to 
me, that after receiving our commissions, and before the ink of the Governor's signa- 
ture was fairly dry on them, Sutherland would have ordered a forward movement at 
a place where we would have been met by an overwhelming force and been compelled 


to surrender. I could come to no other conclusion than that Sutherland was false 
to tlie cause he pretended to espouse. If we had been taken prisoners, of course 
we would have claimed the treatment of prisoners of war. This may have been ac- 
corded to us in consideration of our commissions and we not have been hanged as 
Cunningham, Linn, Lount and others were. If the invasion had taken ^ilace, that 
might have been regarded by our Canadian neighbors as a commencement of hos- 
tilities on the part of the United States, and as a sufficient justification for the 
Rocket Brigade to open on Detroit and burn it. At that time there were no troops 
tliere except the Brady Guards, an excellent company of volunteer militia of less 
than 100 men. What the consequences would have been if Sutherland's order had 
been obeyed others may infer. I remembered that Sutherland told me that he had 
called meetings and made speeches through Oakland County as he had in Washte- 
naw. My duty seemed plain and simple, and I lost no time in going to Detroit 
with this package of papers. I found the Governor in his office in the old capitol, 
and as soon as we were left alone I told him my errand and laid the papers before 
him. He read them attentively and arose from his chair and walked the office for 
some minutes without uttering a word. It was plain to be seen that a storm was 
brewing. At length it burst out in language more forcible than polite, too forcible 
for me to repeat in this paper. My impression was that if Sutherland had been present 
he would have felt the weight of the Governor's arm. A more angry man I have sel- 
dom seen. After the engagement at Point au Pelee occurred, Sutherland, under the 
pretense of joining the victorious patriots at the Point, attempted to pass Fort Maiden 
with a horse and cutter on the ice and was captured by some of the garrison of the fort 
which he probably intended to be, and with Theller and Col. Dodge was held as a 
prisoner until the Spring opened, when the three were taken to Quebec and con- 
fined in a cell in one of the fortresses there. Theller and Dodge made their escape 
from the prison, and, after returning, Theller told me that on their journey down, 
which was by private conveyance (there were no railroads then), he and Dodge 
were confined in jails nights, but Sutherland was entertained at hotels. On reaching 
their prison, the three were shut up in the same cell for awhile, but so strong were 
their impressions that Sutherland was in British pay and a traitor to the Patriot 
cause that they laid plans to get rid of him. They believed him a spy on them ; 
they found him a coward and so worked upon his fears until he was removed. Af- 
ter Tlieller and Dodge had the cell to themselves, they applied themselves to work 
and effected their escape and returned to Michigan. The Canadian struggle for 
national independence was unsuccessful. 

Another expedition was planned at Detroit for the capture of Fort Maiden, 
and was to sail from that city under the command of a general from Cleveland. It 
had been ascertained that the garrison was lodged in the Queen's warehouse at the 


foot of the wharf, and the officers quartered at hotels in tlie village of Amherst- 
burg, and that at niglit there was but a small force on guard at the fort. Three 
steamboats were to be employed, and when they arrived off the fort one boat was 
to lay across the head of the wharf, and the other two, one on each side ; one party 
should march directly to the fort and take it ; the second should capture the gar- 
rison in the warehouse ; and the third should capture the officers. This was to be 
done in the niglit. And however feasible the plan was, it was hinted that the 
General lacked tlie nerve to undertake it. It was like the cause, a failure. After 
the escape of Tiieller and Dodge, Sutherland was set at liberty, without trial and 
without punishment. 


There are few records extant of tlie action of Michigan troops in the Mexican 
war. That many went there and fought well, are points conceded ; but their 
names and country of nativity are hidden away in United States archives where it 
is almost impossible to find them. 

The soldiers of this State deserve much of the credit of the memorable achieve- 
ments of Co. K, Third Dragoons, and Co.'s A, E and G of the U. S. Infantry. The 
former two of these companies, recruited in this State, were reduced to one-third 
their original number. 

In May, 1846, our Governor was notified by the War Department of the 
United States to enroll a regiment of volunteers, to be held in readiness for service 
whenever demanded. At this summons, thirteen independent volunteer comjianies, 
eleven of infantry and two of cavalry, at once fell into line. Of the infantry, four 
companies were from Detroit, bearing the honored names of Montgomery, Lafay- 
ette, Scott, and Brady upon their banners. Of the remainder Monroe tendered 
two, Lenawee County three, St. Clair, Berrien and Hillsdale each one, and Wayne 
County an additional company. Of these alone the veteran Bradys were accepted 
and ordered into service. 

In addition to these, ten companies, making the First Regiment of Michigan 
Volunteers, springing from various parts of the State, but embodying to a great 
degree the material of which the first volunteers was formed, were not called for 
until October following. This regiment was soon in readiness and proceeded to the 
seat of war. 

THE WAR OF 1861-65. 

As soon as the President called for troops to suppress the Rebellion in April, 
1861, the loyal people of the Peninsular State promptly responded and furnished 
the quota assigned. Austin Blair, a man peculiarl}' fitted for the place during the 
emergency, was Governor, and Jolin Robertson, Adjutant-General. The people of 
Michigan have ever since been proud of the record of these two men during the 



war, but this does not exclude the honor due all the humble soklierywho obediently 
exposed their lives in defense of the common country. Michigan has her full share 
of the buried dead in obscure and forgotten places all over the South as well as in 
decent cemeteries throughout the North. It was Michigan men that captured Jeff 
Davis, namely : the 4th Cavalry, under Col. B. F. Pritchard ; and it was Michigan 
men that materially aided in the successful capture of Wilkes Booth, the assassin 
of the martyred Lincoln. 

The census of this State for 1860 showed a population of 751,110. The num- 
ber of able-bodied men capable of military service was estimated in official documents 
of that date at 110,000. At the same time the financial embarrassment of the State 
was somewhat serious, and the annual tax of •'1226, "250 was deemed a grievous burden. 
But such was the patriotism of the people that by December 2:5, 1862, an aggregate 
of 45,569 had gone to battle, besides 1,400 who had gone into other States and re- 
cruited. By the end of the war Michigan had sent to the front 90,747, or more 
than four-fifths the estimated number of able-bodied men at the beginning ! The 
military history of the county deals very fully with this subject. 



Previous to the formation of the Northwestern Territory, the country within 
its bounds was claimed by several of the Eastern States, on the ground that it was 
within the limits indicated by their charters from the English Crown. In answer 
to the wishes of the Government and people, these States in a patriotic spirit sur- 
rendered their claims to this extensive territory, that it might constitute a common 
fund to aid in the payment of the national debt. To prepare the way for this ces- 
sion, a law had been passed in October, 1780, that the territory so to be ceded 
should be disposed of for the common benefit of the whole Union ; that the States 
erected therein should be of suitable extent, not less than 100 nor more than 150 
miles square ; and that any expenses that might be incurred in recovering the posts 
then in the hands of the British should be reimbursed. New York released her 
claims to Congress, March 1, 1781 ; Virginia, March 1, 1784 ; Massachusetts, April 
19, 1785, and Connecticut, September 4, 1786. 

Under the French and British dominion, the points occupied on the eastern 
boundary of what is now the State of Michigan were considered a part of New 
France, or Canada. Detroit was known to the French as Fort Pontchartrain. 



The military commandant, under both governments, exercised a civil jurisdiction 
over tlie settlements surrounding their posts. In 1796, wiien the British garrisons 
at Detroit and Mackinaw were replaced b}' detachments by General Wayne, Mich- 
igan became a part of the Northwestern Territory and was organized as the county 
of Wayne, entitled to one Representative in the General Assembly, held at Chilli- 
cothe. In 1800, Indiana was made a separate Territor}% embracing all tlie country 
west of the present State of Ohio, and of an extension of the western line of that 
State due north to the territorial limits of the United States. In 1802, the penin- 
sula was annexed to the Territory of Indiana, and in 1805 Michigan began a sepa- 
rate existence. That part of the Territory that lies east of a north and south line 
through the middle of Lake Michigan was formed into a distinct government, and 
the provisions of the ordinance of 1787 continued to regulate it. Under this Con- 
stitution the executive power was vested in a governor, the judicial in three judges, 
and the legislative in both united ; the officers were appointed by the General Gov- 
ernment, and their legislative authority was restricted to the adoption of laws 
from the codes of the several States. This form of government was to continue 
until the Territory should contain 5,000 free white males of full age. It then became 
optional with the people to choose a legislative body, to be supported by them ; 
but subsequent legislation by Congress more liberall}' provided a legislature at 
the expense of the general Government and also added to privileges in the 
elective franchise and eligibility to office ; as, for example, under the ordinance a 
freehold qualification was required, both on the part of the elector and of the 

The first officers of the territory of Michigan were : Wm. Hull, governor ; 
Augustus B. Woodward, chief judge ; Frederick Bates, Sr., assistant judge and 
treasurer; .lohn Griffin, assistant judge ; Col. James May, marshal ; Abijah Hull, 
surveyor; Peter Audrain, clerk of the legislative board. May .5, 1807, Joseph 
Watson was appointed Legislative Secretary ; in November, 1806, Elijah Brush was 
appointed Treasurer, to succeed Mr. Bates, and the books of the office were deliv- 
ered over on the 26th of that month ; and William McDowell Scott was appointed 
Marshal in November, 1806, to succeed Col. May. The latter never held the office 
of Judge of the Territory, but about 1800-'3 he was Chief Justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas. Augustus Breevort Woodward was a native of Virginia; was .ap- 
pointed a Judge of the Territory in 1805, his term of office expired February 1, 
1824. He was soon afterward appointed Judge of the Territory of Florida, and 
three years after that he died. The grand scheme of "Catholepistemiad," or State 
University of Michigan, with its numerous names described under sesquipedalian 
names from the Greek, owed its origin to Judge Woodward. 

John Griffin was appointed Assistant Judge in 1807, his term of office expir- 



ing February 1, 1824, when he was re-appointed for four years, and February 1, 
1828, he was appointed Territorial Secretary. 

When, in 1818, Illinois was admitted into the Union, all the territory lying 
north of that State and of Indiana was annexed to Michigan. In 1819 the terri- 
tory was authorized to elect a delegate to Congress, according to the present usage 
with reference to territories; previous to this time according to the ordinance of 1787, 
a territory was not entitled to a delegate until it entered upon the " second grade 
of Government," and the delegate was then to be chosen by the General Assembly. 

In 1823 Congress abolished the legislative power of the Governor and Judges, 
and granted more enlarged ones to a council, to be composed of nine persons 
selected by the President of the United States from eighteen chosen by the electors 
of the territory; and by this law, also, eligibility to ofiSce was made co-existent 
with the right of suffrage as established by the act of 1819 ; also the judicial term 
of office was limited to four years. In 1825 all county officers, except those of a 
judicial nature, were made elective, and the appointments which remained in the 
liands of the executive were made subject to the approval of the legislative council. 
In 1827 the electors were authorized to choose a number of persons for the legisla- 
tive council, which was empowered to enact all laws not inconsistent with the 
ordinance of 1787. Their acts, however, were subject to abolishment by Congress, 
and to veto by the territorial executives. When Gen. Wm. Hull arrived at Detroit 
to assume his official duties as Governor, he found the town in ruins, it having 
been destroyed by fire. Whether it had been burned by design or accident was 
not known. The inhabitants were without food and shelter, camping in the open 
fields; still they were not discouraged, and soon commenced rebuilding their 
houses on the same site. Congress also kindly granted the sufiferers the site of the 
old town of Detroit and 10,000 acres of land adjoining. A territorial militia was 
organized, and a code of laws was adopted similar to those of the original State. 
This code was signed by Gov. Hull, Augustus B. Woodward and Frederick Bates, 
Judges of the Territory, and was called the " Woodward code." 

At this time the bounds of the Territory embraced all the country on the 
American side of the Detroit River, east of the north and south line through the 
center of Lake Michigan. The Indian land claims had been partially extinguished 
previous to this period. By the treaty of Fort Mcintosh, in 1785, and that of Fort 
Harmar, in 1787, extensive cessions had been either made or confirmed, and, in 
1807, the Indian titles to several tracts became entirely extinct. Settlements 
having been made under the French and English Governments, with irregularity 
or absence of definite surveys and records, some confusion sprang up in regard to 
the titles of valuable tracts. Accordingly, Congress established a Board of Com- 
missioners to examine and settle these conflicting claims, and, in 1807, another act 




was passed, confirming, to a certain extent, tlie titles of all such as had been in 
possession of the lands then occupied by them from the year 1796. the year of the 
final evacuations by the British garrisons. Other acts were subsequently passed, 
extending the same conditions to settlements on the upper lakes. 

As chief among the fathers of this State we may mention Gov. Lewis 
Cass, Gabriel Richard, Stevens T. Mason, Augustus B. Woodward, John 
Hornell, William Woodbridge, John Biddle, William A. Fletcher, Elon Farns- 
worth, Solomon Sibley, Benjamin B. Kircheval, John R. Williams, George 
Morrell, Daniel Goodwin, Augustus S. Porter, Benjamin F. H. Witherell, 
Jonathan Sheaver and Charles C. Trowbridge, all of Wayne County ; Edmund 
Munday, James Kingsley and Alpheus Felch, of Washentaw ; Ross Wilkins 
and John J. Adam, of Lenawee ; Warner Wing, Charles Noble and Austin E. 
Wing, of Monroe County ; Randolph Manning, O. D. Richardson and James B. 
Hunt, of Oakland ; Henry R. Schoolcraft, of Chippewa ; Albert Miller, of the 
Saginaw Valley ; John Stockton, Robert P. Eldridge and Christian Clemens, of 
Macomb ; Lucius Lyon, Charles E. Stuart, Edwin H. Lathrop, Epaphroditus 
Ransom and Hezekiah G. Wells, of Kalamazoo ; Isaac E. Crary, John D. Pierce 
and Oliver C. Comstock, of Calhoun ; Kinsley S. Bingham, of Livingston ; John 
S. Barry, of St. Joseph ; Charles W. Wliipple, Calvain Britain and Thomas Fitz- 
gerald, of Berrien, Bunce, of St. Clair, and George Redfield, of Cass. These men 
and tlieir compeers shaped the policy of the State, and decided wliat should be 
its future. They originated all and established most of the great institutions which 
are the evidences of our advanced civilization, and of which we are so justly proud. 


At the close of the war with Great Britain in 1814, an era of prosperity 
dawned upon the infant territory. Gen. Lewis Cass, who had served the Govern- 
ment with great distinction during the war, was appointed Governor. The condi- 
tion of the people was very much reduced, the country was wild, and the British 
flag still waved over the fort at Mackinaw. There was nothing inviting to immi- 
grants except the mere facts of the close of the war and the existence of a fertile 
soil and a good climate. The Indians were still dangerous, and the country was still 
comparatively remote from the centers of civilization and government. Such a set of 
circumstances was just the proper environment for the development of all those 
elements of the " sturdy pioneer," wliich we so often admire when writing up 
Western history. Here was the field for stout and brave men ; here was the place 
for the birth and education of real Spartan men, — men of strength, moral courage 
and indomitable perseverance. 

At first, Gen. Cass had also the care of a small portion of Canada opposite 




Detroit, and he had only twenty-seven soldiers for defending Detroit against the 
hostile Indians and carrying on the whole government. Believing that a civil 
governor should not be encumbered also with military duty, he resigned his 
brigadier-generalship in the army. But as Governor he soon had occasion to exer- 
cise liis military power, even to act on the field as commander, in chasing away 
marauding bands of Indians. The latter seemed to be particularly threatening at 
this time, endeavoring to make up in yelling and petty depredations what tliey 
lacked in sweeping victory over all the pale-faces. 

In times of peace Gov. Cass had high notions of civilizing the Indians, encour- 
aging the purchase of their lands, limiting their hunting grounds to a narrow com- 
pass, teacliing them agriculture and meclianics, and providing the means for tlieir 
instruction and religious training. The policy of the French and English liad been 
to pacify them with presents and gewgaws, merely to obtain a temporary foothold 
for the purpose of carrying on the fur trade. Those benefited by the trade lived 
thousands of miles away, and had no intei-est in the permanent development of the 
country. The United States Government, on the other hand, indorsed Gov. Cass' 
policy, which was to result in the development of the counti-y and the establish- 
ment of all the arts of peace. Govs. Cass and Harrison were accordingly empowered 
to treat with the Indians on the Miami and Wabash ; and, July 20, a treaty was 
signed with the Wyandottes, Senecas, Shawnees, Miamis and Delawares, which 
restored comparative tranquility. During the Summer, however, there was Indian 
war enough to call out all Gov. Cass' men, in aid of Gen. Brown on the 

Indians can never remain long at peace, whatever may be the obligations they 
assume in treaty making. Gen. Cass often headed his forces in person, and drove 
the hostile tribes from place to place until they finally retreated to Saginaw. 

An attempt was made to recover Mackinaw from the English in July of this 
year (1814), but the British works were too strong ; however, the establishments 
at Saint Joseph and Sault Ste. Marie were destroA'ed. In the following Winter the 
final treaty of peace was ratified between England and the United States. The 
population of the Territory at this time was not over 5,000 or 6,000, scattered over 
a vast extent, and in a state of great destitution on account of the calamities 
of war. Scarcely a family, on resuming the duties of home, found more than the 
remnants of former wealth and comfort. Families had been broken up and dis- 
persed ; parents had been torn from their children, and children from each other; 
some had been slain on the battle-field, and others had been massacred by the ruth- 
less savages. Laws had become a dead letter, and morals had suffered in the 
general wreck. Agriculture had been almost abandoned and commerce paralyzed ; 
food and all necessaries of life were scarce, and luxuries unknown. Money was 

^ ^ 



difficult to get, and the bank paper of Oliio, which was almost the sole circulating 
medium, was twenty-five per cent, below par. 

Such was the gloomy state of domestic affairs when Gen. Cass assumed the 
office of Governor. Besides, he had the delicate task of aiding in legislation and of 
being at the same time the sole executive of the law. In 1817, he made an im- 
portant treaty with the Indians, by which their title was extinguished to nearlj- all 
the land in Ohio, and a great portion in Indiana and Michigan. This treaty at- 
tached the isolated population of Michigan to the State of Ohio, made the Terri- 
torial Government in a fuller sense an integral member of the Federal Union, and 
removed all apprehension of a hostile confederacy among the Indian tribes along 
the lake and river frontier. 

Hitherto there had not been a road in Michigan, except the military road along 
the Detroit River; but as the Indian settlements and lands could not now be inter- 
posed as a barrier. Gen. Cass called the attention of Congress to the necessity of a 
military road from Detroit to Sandusky, through a trackless morass called the Black 

Congress passed an act requiring that 2,000,000 acres of land should be sur- 
veyed in the . Territory of Louisiana, the same amount in the Territory of Illinois, 
and the same amount in the Territory of Michigan, in all 6,000,000 acres, to be set 
apart for the soldiers in the war with Great Britain. Each soldier was to have 160 
acres of land fit for cultivation. The surveyors under tiiis law reported that there 
were no lands in Michigan fit for cultivation ! This unconscionable report deterred 
immigration for many years, and the Government took the wliole 6,000,000 acres 
from Illinois and Missouri. Tiie language of that report is so remarkable that we 
must quote it : " The country on the Indian boundary line, from the mouth of tlie 
Great Auglaize river and running thence for about fifty miles, is (with some few 
exceptions) low, wet land, with a very thick growth of underbrush, intermixed 
with very bad marshes, but generally very heavily timbered with beech, cotton- 
wood, oak, etc., thence continuing north and extending from the Indian boundary 
eastward, the number and extent of the swamps increase, with the addition of 
numbers of lakes, from twenty chains to two and three miles across. Many of the 
lakes have extensive marshes adjoining their margins, sometimes thickly covered 
with a species of pine called ' tamarack,' and other places covered with a coarse, 
high grass, and uniformly covered from six inches to three feet (and more at times) 
with water. The margins of these lakes are not the only places where swamps 
are found, for they are interspersed throughout the whole country and filled with 
water, as above stated, and varying in extent. The intermediate space between 
these swamps and lakes, which is probably near one-half of the country, is, with a 
very few exceptions, a poor, barren, sandy land on which scarcely any vegetation 


grows except very small, scrubby oaks. In many places that part which may be 
called dry land is composed of little, short sand-hills, forming a kind of deep basins, 
the bottoms of many of which are composed of a marsh similar to the above-de- 
scribed. The streams are generally narrow, and very deep compared with their 
width, the shores and bottoms of which are, witli a very few exceptions, swampy 
beyond description; and it is with the utmost difficulty that a place can be found 
over which horses can be conveyed with safety. 

" A circumstance peculiar to that country is exhibited in many of the marshes 
by their being thinly covered with a sward of grass, by walking on which evinced 
the existence of water or a very thin mud immediately under their covering, which 
sinks from six to eigiiteeii inches from tlie pressure of the foot at every step, and at 
the same time rising before and behind the person passing over. Tiie margins of 
many of the lakes and streams are in a similar situation, and in many places are 
literally afloat. On approaching the eastern part of tlie militaiy lands, toward the 
private claims on the straits and lake, the country does not contain so many swamps 
and lakes, but the extreme sterility and barrenness of the soil continues the same. 
Taking the country altogether, so far as has been explored, and to all appearances, 
together with tiie information received regarding the balance, it is so bad there 
would not be more than one acre out of a hundred, if there would be one out of a 
thousand, that would in any place admit of cultivation." 

It is probable that those Government surveyors made a lazy job of their duty, 
and depended almost entirely on the fur-traders, who were interested in keeping 
settlers out of the country. But we must make allowance, too, for the universal 
ignorance existing at that time of the methods of developing the Western country 
wiiich modern invention has brought to bear since the days of our grandfathers. 
We must remember that our Western prairies were counted worth nothing, even 
by all the early settlers. 

By the year 1818, some immigrants crowded in and further explored and tested 
the land ; and in March, this year. Gov. Cass called for the views of the inhabitants 
upon the question of changing the civil authority by entering upon the second grade 
of Territorial government. A vote was taken and a majority was found to be 
against it ; but for the purpose of facilitating immigration and settlement. Gov. 
Cass recommended to tlie Secretary of the Treasury that the lands in the district of 
Detroit be at once brought into market. The Department immediately complied, 
and the lands were offered for sale the following Autumn. Immigration was now 
increased more than ever before, and the permanent growth of the country became 
fully established. 

In 1819, the people were allowed to elect a delegate to Congress. The popu- 
lation was now 8,806 in the whole Territory, distributed as follows: Detroit, 1,450, 

spV " 


not inolud'mg the garrison ; the Island of Mackinaw, still the entrepot of the fur 
trade, a stationary population of aliout 450, sometimes increased to 2,000 or over ; 
Sault Ste. Marie, fifteen or twenty houses, occupied by French and English families. 

The year 1819 was also rendered memorable by the appearance of the first 
steamboat on the lakes, the "Walk-in-the- water," which came up Lake Erie and 
went on to Mackinaw. 

Up to this time no executive measure had been taken by the people to avail 
themselves of the school lands appropriated by the ordinance of 1787, except the 
curious act passed by the Governor and judges establishing the "Catholepistemiad,'' 
or University of Michigan, with thirteen "didaxia," or professorships. The scheme 
for the institution was a grand one, described Ijy quaint, sesquipedalian technical- 
ities carried from the Greek language, and the whole devised by that unique man, 
Judge Woodward. The act is given in full in the Territorial laws of Michigan, 
compiled and printed a few years ago. It was Judge Woodward, also, who laid 
out the plan of Detroit, in the form of a cobweb, with a "Campus Martins" and a 
grand circus, and avenues radiating in every direction, grand public parks and 
squares, etc. Centuries would be required to fulfill his vast design. Like authors 
and artists of ancient Greece and Rome, he laid the foundations of grand work for 
posterity, more than the passing generation. 

Settlements now began to form at the points where now are the cities of Ann 
Arbor, Ypsilanti, Jackson, Tecumseh and Pontiac. There were still some annoy- 
ances by the Indians. The Sacs and Foxes annually made their appearance to ob- 
tain presents from the English at Maiden, and as they passed along they would 
commit many depredations. This practice of the British Government had a ten- 
dency to prejudice the Indians against the Americans, and it thus became necessary 
to take some measures for removing tiie Indians beyond British influence, or other- 
wise putting a stop to this dangerous custom. Accordingly, in tlie Fall of 1819, 
Gov. Cass desired the government at Washington to cause a more thorough explor- 
ation to be made of the lake region, estimating the number and influence of the 
Indians, their relations, prejudices,' etc., with a view to the further extinguishment 
of Indian title to land, etc.; but the Government deemed it advisable at this time 
only to take ten miles square at Sault Ste. Marie for military purposes, and some 
islands near Mackinaw, where beds of plaster had been found to exist. However, 
the General Government soon ordered an expedition to be fitted out for such an 
exploration as Gov. Cass desired, to travel with birch canoes. The men comjjosing 
the expedition were Gen. Cass and Robert A. Forsyth, his private secretary ; Capt. 
D. B. Douglass, topographer and astronomer; Dr. Alex Walcot, physician ; James 
D. Doty, official secretary ; and Charles C. Trowbridge, assistant topographer. Lieut. 
Evans Mackey was commander of the escort, which consisted of ten U. S. soldiers. 


Besides these there were tea Canadian voyageurs to manage the canoes, and ten 
Indians to act as hunter. The latter were under the direction of James Riley and 
Joseph Parks, who were also to act as interpreters. The party left Detroit, March 
2-t, 1820, and reached Michili.iiackinac, June 6. On leaving this place, June 14, 
twenty-two soldiers, under the command of Lieut. John S. Pierce, were added to 
the party, and the expedition now numbered sixty-four persons. They reached the 
Sault Ste. Marie the 16th, where Gen. Cass called the Indians (Chippewas) to- 
gether, in order to have a definite understanding with them considering the boun- 
dary lines of the land grants, and thereby renew also their sanction of former trea- 
ties. At first the Indians protested against the Americans having any garrison at the 
place, and some of them grew violent and almost pi-ecipitated a general fight, which 
would have been disastrous to Gen. Cass' party, as the Indians were far more numer- 
ous; but Cass exhibited a great degree of coolness and courage, and caused more 
deliberate counsels to prevail amongst the savages. Tnus the tlireatened storm 
blew over. The next day the expedition resumed its journey, on Lake Superior, 
passing the "pictured rocks," and landing at one place where there was a band of 
friendly Chippewas. June 25, they left Lake Superior, ascended Portage River and 
returned home by way of Lake Michigan, after having traveled over 4,000 miles. 

The results of the expedition were: a more thorough knowledge of a vast re- 
gion, and of the numbers and disposition of the various tribes of Indians ; several 
important Indian treaties, by which valuable lands were ceded to the United States; 
a knowledge of the operations of the Northwest Fur Company, and the selection 
of sites for a line of military posts. 

As the greater want of the people seemed to be roads. Congress was appealed 
to for assistance, and not in vain, for that body immediately provided for the open- 
ing of roads between Detroit and the Miami River, from Detroit to Chicago, and 
from Detroit to Fort Gratiot, and for the improvement of La Plaisance Bay. Gov- 
ernment surveys were carried into the Territory. Two straight lines were drawn 
through the center of the Territory, east and west, and north and south, the lat- 
ter being denominated the principal meridian, and the former the base line. The 
Territory was also divided into townships of six miles square. 

In 1821, there was still a tract of land lying south of Grand River which had 
not yet been added to the United States, and Gov. Cass deemed it necessary to 
negotiate with the Indians for it. To accomplieh this work he had to visit Chicago, 
and as a matter of curiosity we will inform the reader of his most feasible route to 
that place, which he can contrast with that of the present day. Leaving Detroit, 
he descended to the mouth of the Maumee River ; he ascended that river and crossed 
the intervening country to the Wabash ; descended that stream to the Ohio ; down 
the latter to the Mississippi, and up this and the Illinois rivers to Chicago. At this 

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council the American Commissioners were Gen. Cass and Judge Sibley, of Detroit. 
Tliey were successful in their undertaking, and obtained a cession of the land in 
question. On this occasion the Indians exhibited in a remarkable manner their 
appetite for whisky. As a preliminary step to the negotiations, the commissioners 
ordered that no spirits should be given to the Indians. The chief of the latter was 
a man of about a hundred years old, but still of a good constitution. The com- 
missioners urged every consideration to convince him and the other Indians of the 
propriety of the course they had adopted, but in vain. " Father," said the old 
chieftain, "we do not care for the laud, nor the money, nor the goods: what we 
want is whisky ; give us whisky." But the commissioners were inexorable, and 
the Indians were forced to content themselves. 

This year (1821) also two Indians were hanged for murder. There was some 
fear that the event would be made by the British an occasion of arousing Indian 
atrocities in the vicinity, and the petition for the pardon of the wretches was con- 
sidered by Gov. Cass with a great deal of embarrassment. He finally concluded 
to let the law take its course, and, accordingly, Dec. 25, the murderers were 

In 1822 six new counties wei-e created, namelj^ Lapeer, Sanilac, Saginaw, 
Shiawassee, Washtenaw and Lenawee ; and they contained much more territory 
than they do at the present day. This year the first stage line was established in 
the Territory, connecting the county seat of IVIacomb County with the steamer 
" Walk-in-the-Water" at Detroit. 

In 1823, Congress changed the form of Territorial government, abrogating the 
abrogating power of the governor and judges and establishing a system of " Legis- 
lative Council," to consist of nine members, appointed by the President of the 
United States out of eighteen candidates elected by the people. By tiie same act 
the term of judicial office was limited to four years, and eligibility to office was made 
to require the same qualifications as right to suffrage. Tiie people now took new 
interest in their government, and felt encouraged to lay deep the foundations of 
future prosperity. The first legishitive council under the new regime met at Detroit, 
June 7, 1824, when Gov. Cass delivered his message reviewing the progress of the 
Territory, calling attention to the needs of popular education, and recommending 
a policy of governmental administration. During this year he also called the atten- 
tion of the General Government to the mineral resources of the Superior region, 
and asked for governmental explorations therein. At its second session after this. 
Congress authorized a commission to treat with the Indians of the upper peninsula 
for permission to explore that country. 

In 1825, the Erie Canal was completed from the Hudson River to Buffalo, N. 
Y., and the effect was to increase materially the flow of people and wealth into the 


youtig Territory of Micliigan. The citizens of the East began to learn the truth 
concerning tlie agricultural value of this peninsula, and those in search of good and 
permanent homes came to see for themselves, and afterwards came with their 
friends or families to remain as industrious residents, to develop a powerful State. 
The number in the Territorial Council was increased to thirteen, to be chosen by 
the President from twenty-six persons elected by the people. In 1827 an act was 
passed autliorizing the electors to choose their electors directly, without the further 
sanction of either the President or Congress. The power of enacting laws was 
given to the council, subject, however, to the approval of Congress and the veto of 
the Governor. This form of Territorial government remained in force until 
Michigan was organized as a State in 1837. William Woodbridge was Secretary 
of the Territory during the administration of Gov. Cass, and deserves great credit 
for the ability with which he perform^! the duties of his office. In the absence of 
the chief executive lie was Acting Governor, and a portion of the time he repre- 
sented the Territory as a delegate to Congress. In 1828 he was succeeded by 
James Witherell, and in two years by Gen. John T. Mason. In 1831 Gen. Cass 
was appointed Secretary of War in the Cabinet of President Jackson, after having- 
served Michigan as its cliief executive for eighteen years. He had been appointed 
six times, running through the presidency of Madison, Monroe and -lohn Q. 
Adams, without any opposing candidate or a single vote against liim in the Senate. 
He faithfully discharged liis duties as Indian Commissioner, and concluded nine- 
teen treaties with the Indians, acquiring large cessions of territory in Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Wisconsin and Micliigan. He was a practical patriot, of whom the people 
of the peninsular State feel justly proud. Probably more than any other man Gen. 
Cass was the father of Michigan. 


On the promotion of Gov. Cass to a seat in the Cabinet of President Jackson, 
and his consequent resignation as Governor of Michigan, Gen. George B. Porter 
was appointed Governor in July, 1831, and Sept. 22 following he entered upon the 
duties of the office. The population of the Territory at this time was about 
85,000, prosperity was reigning all around, and peace everywliere jirevailed, except 
that in 1832 the Black Hawk War took place in Illinois, but did not affect this 
peninsula. In this war, however. Gov. Porter co-operated with the other States in 
furnishing militia. While Gov. Porter was the chief executive, Wisconsin was de- 
tached from Michigan and erected into a separate Territory ; many new townsliips 
were organized, and wagon roads opened and improved ; land began to rise rapidly in 
value, and speculators multiplied. The council provided for the establishment and 
regulation of common schools, incorporated " The Lake Michigan Steamboat Com- 


paiiy," with a capital of $40,000, and incorporated the first railroad company in 
^Michigan, the "Detroit & Saint Joseph Railroad Company," since called the 
" Michigan Central." The original corporators were John Biddle, John R. Wil- 
liams, Charles Larned, John Gilbert, Abel Millington, Job Gorton, John Allen, 
Anson Brown, Samuel W. Dexter, W. E. Perrine, William A. Thompson, Isaac 
Crary, O. W. Golden, Caleb Eldred, Cyrus Lovell, Calvin Brittain and Talman 
Wheeler. The Act of Incorporation required that the road should be completed 
within thirty years ; tliis condition was complied with in less than one-third of that 
time. The same council also incorporated the " Bank of the River Uaisin," with a 
branch at Pontiac. Previous to this two otlier banks had been chartered, namely — 
tlie " Bank of Michigan," in 1817, with a branch at Bronson, and the " Farmers and 
Mechanics' Bank of Michigan," with a branch at Saint Joseph. 

The Legislative Council of 1834: also auuiorized a vote of the residents to be 
taken on the question of organizing as a State and becoming a member of the 
Union ; but the vote was so light and the majority so small that Congress neglected 
to consider the matter seriously until two years afterward. 

During Porter's administration a changj was made in the method of disposing 
tlie public lands, greatly to the benefit of the actual settlers. Prior to 1820 the 
Government price of land was $2 an acre, one-fourth to be paid down, and the 
remainder in three annual installments ; and the land was subject to forfeiture if 
these payments were not promptly made. This system having been found produc- 
tive of many serious evils, the price of land was put $1.25 an acre, all to be paid 
at the time of purchase. This change saved a deal of trouble. During the admin- 
istration of Gov. Porter occurred the "Black Hawk" war, mainly in Illiuois, in 
1832, whicli did not affect Michigan to any appreciable extent, except to raise 
sundry fears by the usual alarms accompanying war gossip. A few volunteers 
probably went to the scene of action from this Territory, but if any systematic 
account was ever kept of this service, we fail to find it. 

In October, 1831, Edwin Jerome left Detroit with a surveying party composed 
of John Mullet, surveyor, and Utter, Brink and Peck, for that portion of Michigan 
Territory lying west of Lake Michigan, now Wisconsin. Their outfit consisted of a 
French pony team and a buffalo wagon to carry tent, camp equipage, blankets, etc. 
Most of the way to the southeast corner of Lake Michigan they followed a wagon 
track or Indian trail, and a cabin or an Indian hut to lodge in at night ; but west 
of the point mentioned they found neither road nor inhabitant. Tliey arrived at 
Chicago in a terrible rain, and " put up " at the fort. Tliis far-famed city at that 
time had but five or six houses, and they were built of logs. Within a distance of 
three or four miles of the fort the land was valued by its owners at 50 cents an acre. 

After twenty-three days' weary travel through an uninhabited country, fording 



and swimming streams and exposed to much rainy weather, they arrived at Galena, 
where they commenced their survey, but in two days the ground froze so deep that 
further work was abandoned until the next Spring. The day after the memorable 
Stillman battle with Black Hawk, while the Mullet party were crossing the Blue 
INIounds, they met an Indian half-chief, who had just arrived from the Menominee 
camps with the details of the battle. He stated the slain to be three Indians and 
eleven whites. The long shaking of hands and the extreme cordiality of this 
Indian alarmed Mullet for the safety of his party, but he locked the secret in his 
own heart until the next day. They had just completed a town corner when Mullet, 
raising himself to his full height, said, " Boys, I'm going in ; I'll not risk my scalp 
for a few paltry shillings." Tliis laconic speech was an electric shock to the wliole 
company. Mr. Jerome, in describing his own sensations, said that the hair of his 
head became then as poicupine quills, raising his hat in the air and himself from tlie 
ground, and the top of his head became as sore as a boil. 

July 6, 1834, Gov. Porter died, and the administration devolved upon the 
Secretary of the Territory, Stevens T. Mason, during whose time occurred the 
" Toledo war." 


It appears that Mr. Shaler did not accept the governorship of Michigan, and 
John S. Horner, of Virginia, was soon afterward appointed Secretary and Acting 
Governor. He proved to be rather unpopular with the people of Micliigan, and the 
following May he was appointed Secretary of Wisconsin Territory. He carried on 
a lengthy correspondence with Gov. Lucas, which resulted in a discontinuance of 
all the suits that had grown out of the Toledo war, except the demand for Stickney. 
Gov. Lucas persisted in refusing to deliver him up ; but it seems that, finally, no 
trouble came of the affair. 

The first Monday in October, 1835, the people of Michigan ratified the Con- 
stitution, and by the same vote elected a full set of State ofBcers. Stevens T. 
Mason was elected Governor, Edward Mundy Lieutenant Governor, and 
Isaac E. Crary Representative in Congress. The first legislature under the 
Constitution was held at Detroit, the capital, on the first Monday in 
November, and John Norvell and Lucius Lyon were elected United States 
Senators. A regular election was also held under the Territorial law for dele- 
gate to Congress, and George VV. Jones, of Wisconsin, received the certificate 
of election, although it is said that William Woodbridge received the highest num- 
ber of votes. John S. Horner, the Territorial Governor, was still in office here ; 
and this singular mixture of Territorial and State government continued until the 
following June, when Congress formally received Michigan into the Union as a 
State, and Horner was sent to Wisconsin, as before noted. This Act of Congress 



conditioned that the celebrated strip of territory over which the quarrel had been 
so violent and protracted, should be given to Ohio, and that Michigan might have 
as compensation the upper peninsula. That section of country was then known 
only as a barren waste, containing some copper, no one knew how much. Of course 
this decision of Congress was unsatisfactory to the people of this State. This was 
the third excision of territory from Michigan, other clippings having been made in 
1802 and 1816. In the former year more than a thousand square miles were given to 
Ohio, and in the latter year nearly 1,200 square miles were given to Indiana. 
Accordingly, Gov. Mason convened the Legislature July 11, 1836, to act on the 
jiroposition of Congress. The vote stood twenty-one for acceptance and twenty- 
eight for rejection. Three delegates were appointed to repair to Washington, to 
co-operate with the representatives there for the general interest of the State ; but 
before Congress was brought to action on the matter, other conventions were held 
in the State to hasten a decision. 

Stevens T. Mason was the first Governor of this State, having been elected 
(Governor of the State prospectively) in 1835, as before noted, and he lield the 
office until January, 1840. This State, at the time of its admission into the Union, 
had a population of about 200,000 ; its area was about 40,000 square miles, which 
was divided into thirty-six counties. 

Nearly the first act passed by the Legislature was one for the organization and 
support of common schools. Congress had already set apart one section of land in 
every townsliip for tiiis purpose, and the new State properly appreciated the boon. 
In March of the same year (1837) another act was passed establishing the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, of which institution we speak more fully on subsequent pages. 
This Legislature also appropriated $20,000 for a geological survey, and appointed 
Dr. Douglass Houghton State Geologist. For the encouragement of internal im- 
provements, a board of seven commissioners was appointed, of which the Governor 
was made president. This board authorized several surveys for railroads. Three 
routes were surveyed through the State, which eventually became, respectively, the 
Michigan Central, the Michigan Southern, and the Detroit tS: Milwaukee. The 
latter road, however, was originally intended to have Port Huron for its eastern 
terminus. The next year appropriations were made for the survey of the Saint 
Joseph, Kalamazoo and Grand Rivers, for the purpose of improving the navi- 

In 1839 the militia of the State was organized, and eight divisions, with two 
brigades of two regiments each, were provided for. This year, also, the State 
prison at Jackson was completed. Nearly 30,000 pupils attended the common 
schools this year, and for school purposes over $18,000 was appropriated. Agricul- 
turally, the State yielded that year 21,944 bushels of rye, 1,116,910 of oats, 6,422 



of buckwheat, 43,826 pounds of flax, 524 of hemp, 89,010 head of cattle, 14,059 
head of horses, 22,684 head of sheep, and 109,096 of swine. 

Gov. William Woodbridge was the chief executive from January, 1840, to 
February, 1841, when he resigned to accept a seat in the United States Senate. J. 
AV^right Gordon was Lieutenant Governor, and became Acting Governor on the 
resignation of Gov. Woodbridge. 

During the administration of these men, the railroad from Detroit to Ann 
Arbor, a distance of forty miles, was completed ; branches of the university were 
established at Detroit, Pontiac, Monroe, Niles, Kalamazoo, Grand Rapids, Jackson, 
White Pigeon and Tecumseh. The material growth of the State continued to 
increase, proportionally more rapidly than even the population, which now 
amounted to about 212,000. 

John S. Barry succeeded Gov. Gordon in the executive chair, serving from 
1841 to 1845. 

In 1842 the university was opened for the reception of students, and the num- 
ber of pupils attending the common schools was officially reported to be nearly 

In 1843 a land oiBce was established at Marshall for the whole State. 

In 1844, the taxable property of the State was found to be in value $28,554,282, 
the tax being at the rate of two mills on the dollar. The expenses of the State 
were only $70,000, while the income from the two railroads was nearly $300,000. 

In 1845, the number of inhabitants in the State had increased to more than 

Alpheus Felch served as Governor from 1845 to 1847. Daring his time the 
two railroads belonging to the State were sold to private corporations, — the Central 
for $2,000,000, and the Southern for $500,000. The exports of the State amounted 
in 1846 to $4,647,608. The total capacity of vessels enrolled in the collection 
district at Detroit was 26,928 tons, the whole giving employment to 18,000 seamen. 
In 1847 there were thirty-nine counties in the State, containing 435 townships; 
and 275 of these townships were supplied with good libraries, containing, in the 
aggregate, 37,000 volumes. In the Spring of 1846, on the account of Northern and 
Eastern immigration into Texas, with, tastes and habits different from the native 
Mexicans, a war was precipitated between the United States and Mexico ; and for 
the prosecution of this war Michigan furnished a regiment of volunteers, com- 
manded by Thomas W. Stockton, and one independent company, incurring a total 
expense of about $10,500. March 3, 1847, Gov. Felch resigned to accept a seat in 
the United States Senate, when the duties of his office devolved upon William S. 
Greenly, under whose administration the Mexican war was closed. 

Epaphroditus Ransom was Governor from 1847 to November, 1849. During 



his administration the Asylum for tlie Insane was established at Kalamazoo, and 
also the Institute for the Blind, and the Deaf and Dumb at Flint. Both these 
institutions were liberally endowed with lands, and each entrusted to a board of 
five trustees. March 31, 1848, the first telegraph line was completed from New 
York to Detroit. 

John S. Barry, elected Governor of Michigan for the third time, succeeded 
Gov. Ransom, and his term expired in November, 1851. Wiiile he was serving this 
term a normal school was established at Ypsilanti, which was endowed with lands, 
placed in charge of a board of education, consisting of six persons ; a new State 
constitution was adopted, and the great "railroad-conspiracy" case was tried. 
This originated in a number of lawless depredations upon the property of the 
Michigan Central Railroad ComjDany, terminating with the burning of the depot at 
Detroit in 1850. The next year thirty-seven men were brought to trial, and twelve 
of tiiem were convicted. The prosecution was conducted by Alexander D. Eraser, 
of Detroit, and the conspirators were defended by William H. Seward, of New 
York. Judge Warner Wing presided. 

Robert McClelland followed Barry as Governor, serving until March, 1853, 
when he resigned to accept the position of Secretary of the Interior, in the Cabinet 
of Pres. Pierce. Lieut. -Gov. Andrew Parsons, consequently, became Acting Gov- 
ernor, his term expiring in November, 1854. 

In the Spring of 1854, during the administration of Acting Gov. Parsons, the 
" Republican party," at least as a State organization, was first formed in the United 
States " under the oaks " at Jackson, by an ti -slavery men of both the old parties. 
Great excitement prevailed at this time, occasioned by the settling of Kansas and 
the issue thereby brought up whether slavery should exist there. For the purpose 
of permitting slavery there, the "Missouri compromise" (which limited slavery 
to the south of 36 degrees 30 minutes) was repealed, under the lead of Stephen A. 
Douglas. This was repealed by a bill admitting Kansas and Nebraska into the 
Union as Territories, and those who were o^jposed to this repeal measure were, in 
short, called " anti-Nebraska," were temporarily employed to designate tiie slavery 
and anti-slavery jjarties, pending the dissolution of the old Democratic and Whig 
parties and tiie organization of the new Democratic and Republican parties. At 
the next State election Kinsley S. Bingham was elected by the Republicans Gov- 
ernor of Michigan, and this State has ever since then been under Republican con- 
trol, the State ofScers of that party being elected by majorities ranging from 5,000 
to 55,000. And the people of this State generally, and the Republicans in par- 
ticular, claim that this commonwealth has been as v/ell taken care of since 1855 as 
any State in the Union, if not better, while preceding 1855 the Democrats adminis- 
tered the government as well as any other State, if not better. As a single though 

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signal proof of the high standard of Michigan among her sister States, we may 
mention that while the taxes in the New England States, New York, New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania average $10.09 per capita, while in Massachusetts tlie average is 
117.10 per inhabitant, and while in the West the average is $6.50, in Michigan it 
is only $1.57. At the same time it is generally believed, even by the citizens of 
sister States, that Michigan is the best-governed commonwealth in the Union. 

Kinsley S. Bingham was Governor from 1854 to 1858. The most notable event 
during his administration was the completion of the ship canal at the falls of Saint 
Mary, May 26, 1855. An Act of Congress was approved, granting to the State of 
Michigan 750,000 acres of land for the purpose of constructing this canal. The 
"sault," or rapids, of the Saint Mary have a fall of seventeen feet in one mile. 
The canal is one mile long, 100 feet wide and about twelve feet deep. It has two 
locks of solid masonry. The work was commenced in 1853, and finished in May, 
1855, at a cost of $999,802. This is one of the most important internal improve- 
ments ever made in the State. 

Moses Wisner was tlie next Governor of Michigan, serving from 1858 to 
November, 1860, at wiiich time Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the 
United States. National themes began to grow exciting, and Michigan affairs were 
almost lost in the warring elements of strife that convulsed the nation from center 
to circumference with a life-and-deatii struggle. 

Austin Blair was the thirteenth Governor of Michigan, serving during the 
perilous times of the rebellion from 1861 to 1S65, and by his patriotic and faithful 
execution of law and prompt aid of the General Government, earning the well- 
deserved title of " the War Governor." The particulars of the history of this 
State in connection witli that war we will reserve for the next section. 

Henry H. Crapo succeeded Gov. Blair, serving one term. He was elected 
during the dark hours just before the close of the war, when he found the political 
sky overcast with the most ominous clouds of death and debt. The bonded debt 
of the State was $3,541,149.80, with a balance in the treasury of $440,047.29. In 
the single year just closed the State had expended $823,216.75, and by the close of 
the first year of his term this indebtedness had increased more than $400,000 more. 
But the wise administration of this Governor began materially to reduce the debt, 
and at the same time fill the treasury. The great war closed during the April after his 
election, and he faithfully carried out the line of policy inaugurated by his prede- 
cessor. The other prominent events during his term of office are systematically 
interwoven with the histoiy of the various institutions of the State, and they will 
be found under heads in their respective places. 

Henry P. Baldwin was Governor two terms, namely, from January, 1868, to 
the close of 1872. The period of his administration was a prosperous one for the 





State. In 1869 the taxable valuation of real and personal property in the State 
amounted to #400,000,000, and in 1871 it exceeded |G30,000,000. 

During Gov. Baldwin's time a step was taken to alter the State constitution so 
as to enable counties, townships, cities and incorporated villages, in their corporate 
capacity, to aid in tlie construction of railroads. Bonds had been issued all over 
the State by these municipalities in aid of railroads, under laws which had been 
enacted by the Legislature at five different sessions ; but a case coming before the 
Supreme Court involving the constitutionality of these laws, the Bench decided 
that the laws were unconstitutional, and thus the railroads were left to the mercy 
of the " soulless " corporations. Gov. Baldwin, in this emergency, called an extra 
session of the Legislature, which submitted the desired constitutional amendment 
to the people ; but it was by them defeated in November, 1870. 

The ninth census having been officially published, it became the duties of the 
State, in 1872, to make a re-apportionment of districts for the purpose of repre- 
sentation in Congress. Since 1863 Michigan has had six representatives, but the 
census of 1870 entitled it to nine. 

During the last two years of Gov. Baldwin's administration the preliminary 
measures for building a new State capitol engrossed much of his attention. His 
wise counsels concerning this much-needed new building were generally adopted 
by the Legislature, which was convened in extra session in March, 1872. 

Ample provisions having been made for the payment of the funded debt of the 
State by setting apart some of the trust-fund receipts, and such portion of the 
specific taxes as were not required for the payment of interest on the public debt, 
the one-eighth mill tax for the sinking fund was abolished in 1870. 

Tlie Fall of 1871 is noted for the many destructive conflagrations in tlie North- 
west, including the great Chicago fire. Several villages in this State were either 
wholly or partially consumed, and much property was burned up nearly all over the 
country. This was due to the excessive dryness of the season. In this State alone 
nearly -3,000 families, or about 18,000 persons, were rendered houseless and 
deprived of the necessaries of life. Relief committees were organized at Detroit, 
Grand Rapids and elsewhere, and in a short time $462,106 in money and about 
#250,000 worth of clothing were forwarded to the sufferers. Indeed, so generous 
were the people, that they would have given more than was necessary had they not 
been informed by the Governor in a proclamation that a sufficiency had been raised. 

The dedication of the soldiers and sailors' monument at Detroit, April 9, 1872, 
was a notable event in Gov. Baldwin's time. This grand structure was designed 
by Randolph Rogers, formerly of Michigan, and one of tlie most eminent of Amer- 
ican sculptors now living. The money to defray the expenses of this undertaking 
was raised by subscription, and persons in all parts of the State were most liberal 



in their contributions. Tlie business was managed by an incorporation established 
in 1868. The monument is forty-six feet high, and is surmounted by a colossal 
statue of Micliigan in bronze, ten feet in height. She is represented as a semi- 
civilized Indian queen, with a sword in her right hand and a shield in her left. The 
dedicatory lines in front are : "Erected by the people of Micliigan, in honor of the 
mart3'rs who fell and the heroes who fought in defense of liberty and union." 
On the monument are many beautiful designs. At the unveiling there was a large 
concourse of people from all parts of tlie State, and the address was delivered by 
ex-Gov. Blair. 

John J. Bagley succeeded to the Governorship Jan. 1, 1873, and served two 
terms. During his administration the new capitol was principally built, which is a 
larger and better structure for the money than, perhaps, any other public building 
in the United States. Under Gov. Bagley's counsel and administration the State 
prospered in all its departments. The Legislature of 1873 made it the duty of the 
Governor to appoint a commission to revise the State Constitution, which duty he 
performed to the satisfaction of all parties. 

Charles M. Crosswell was next the chief executive officer of this State, exer- 
cising the functions of the office for two successive terms, 1877-1881. During his 
administration the public debt was greatly reduced, a policy adopted requiring 
State institutions to keep within the limit of appropriations, laws enacted to pro- 
vide more effectually for the punishment of corruption and bribery in elections, the 
State House of Correction at Ionia and the Eastern Asylum for the Insane at Pon- 
tiac were opened, and the new capitol at Lansing was completed and occupied. 
The first act of his second term was to preside at the dedication of this building. 
The great riot of 1877 centered at Jackson. During those two or three fearful 
days Gov. Crosswell was in his office at Lansing, in correspondence with members 
of the military department in different parts of the State, and within forty-eight 
hours of the moment when the danger became imminent, the rioters found them- 
selves surrounded by a military force ready with ball and cartridge for their anni- 
hilation. Were it not for this promptness of the Governor, there would probably 
have been a great destruction of property, if not also of life. 

The administration of Hon. David H. Jerome has been one marked alike by 
joys and sorrows. The great business revival marked the period of his election ; 
the disastrous forest fires clouded the light of peace and prosperity. 


Governors During French Rule. 


Sieur de Mesey 1663 

Sieur de Courcelles 1665 

Sieur de Fiontenac 1672 



Sieur de La Barre 1672 

Marquis de Denonville 1685 

Sieur de Frontenac 1689 

Chevalier de Callieres l6qq 



Marquis de Vaudreiiil 1703 

Marquis de Beauharnois 1726 

Compt de la Galissoniere - 1747 

Sieur de la Jonquiere 1749 

Marquis du Quesne de Menneville 1752 

Sieur de Vaudreuilde Cavagnal 1755 

Governors During British Rule. 

James Murray. 1765 

Paulus E. Irving 1766 

Guy Carleton 1766 

Hector I. Cramahe 1770 

Guy Carleton 1774 

Frederick Haldemand 1778 

Henry Hamilton 1784 

Henry Hope 1785 

Lord Dorchester 17S6 

Alured Clark 1791 

Lord Dorchester- 179S 

Governors of Michigan Territory. 

William Hull 1805 

Lewis Cass 1813 

George B.Porter 1831 

Stevens T. Mason, if jr-t'^c/o 1834 

John T. Horner, ex-officio 1835 

State Governors. 


Stevens T.Mason 1835 

William Woodbridge 1840 

J. Wright Gordon, acting 1841 

John S.Barry 1842 

Alpheus Felch 1846 

Wm. S. Greenly, acting 1847 

Epaphroditus Ransom 1848 

John S. Barry_ 1850 

Robert McClelland 1852 

Andrew Parsons, acting 1S53 

Kingsley S. Bingham 1855 

Moses Wisner 1859 

Austin Blair 1861 

Henry H. Crapo 1865 

Henry D. Baldwin 1869 

John J. Bagley 1873 

Charles M. Croswell 1877 

David H. Jerome 1881 

Lieutenant-Governors of Michigan. 


Edward Mundy 1835 

J. Wright Gordon 1840 

Origin D. Richardson 1842 

Wm. S. Greenly 1846 

Wm. M. Fenton 1848 

Wm. S. Greenly 1849 

Calvin Britain 1852 

Andrew Parsons 1853 

George A. Coe 1855 

Edmund B. Fairfield 1859 

James Birney 1861 

Joseph R. Williams, acting 1861 

Heniy T. Backus, acting 1S62 

Charles S. May 1863 

E. O. Grosvenor 1865 

Dwight May 1S67 

Morgan Bates 1869 

Henry H.Holt 1873 

Alonzo Sessions 1877 

Moreau S. Crosby 1881 

Secretaries of State. 

Kintzing Pritchette 1835 

Randolph Manning 1838 

Thomas Rowland 1840 

Robert P. Eldridge 1842 

G. O. Whittemore 1846 

George W. Peck 1848 

George Redfield 1850 

Charles H.Taylor 1850 

William Graves 1S53 

John McKinney 1855 

Nelson G. Isbell 1S59 

James B.Porter 1861 

O. S. Spaulding 1867 

Daniel Striker 1S71 

E. G. D. Holden 1875 

William Jenney 1879 

State Treasurers. 

Henry Howard 1836 

Peter Desnoyers 1839 

Robert Stuart 1840 

George W. Germain 1841 

John J. Adam 1S42 

George Redfield 1845 



George B. Cooper 

Barnard C. Whittemore. 

Silas M. Holmes 

John McKinney 

John Owen 

E. O. Grosvenor 

Victory P. Collier 

Wra. B. McCreery 

Benj. F. Pritchard 


Daniel LeRoy 

Peter Morey 

Zephaniah Piatt 

Elon Farnsvvorth 

Henry N. Walker.. 

Edward Mundy 

Geo. V. N. Lothrop. 

William Hale 

Jacob M. Howard.. 

Charles Upson 

Albert Williams. ... 
Wni. L. Stoughton., 

Dwight May 

Byron D. Ball 

Isaac Mars ton 

Andrew J. Smith 

Otto Kirchner. 





Robert Abbott 1836 

Henry Howard 1839 

Eurotus P. Hastings 1840 

AlpheusFelch 1842 

Henry S. Whipple. 1842 

Charles G. Hammond 1845 

John J. Adam 1845 

Digby V. Bell. 1846 

John J. Adam 1848 

John Swegles, jr 1851 

Whitney Jones 1855 

Daniel L. Case 1859 

Langford G. Berry 1 861 

Emil Aneke 1S63 

William Humphrey 1867 

Ralph Ely 1875 

W. Irving Latimer 1879 

Supt. Public Instruction. 


John D.Pierce 1838 

Franklin Sawyer, jr 1841 

Oliver C. Comstock l843 

Ira Mayhew - -- 1845 

Francis W. Sherman.. - 1849 

Ira Mayhew.. - 1855 

John M.Gregory 1859 

Oramel Hosford 1865 

Daniel B. Briggs 1873 

Horace S. Tarbell 1877 

Cornelius A. Gower -- 1878 

Judges of the Supreme Court. 

Augustus B. Woodward 

Frederick Bates 

J ohn Griffin ... 

James Witherell 

Solomon Sibley 

Henry Chipman 

Wm. Woodbridge 

Ross Wilkins 

Wm. A. Fletcher 

Epaphroditus Ransom 

George Morell 

Charles W. Whipple 

Alpheus Felch .- 

David Goodwin. 

Warner Wing 

George Miles 

Edward Mundy.. 

Sanford M. Green 

George Martin 

Joseph T. Copeland 

Samuel T. Douglas 

David Johnson 

Abner Pratt 

Charles W. Whipple 

Nathaniel Bacon 

Sanford M. Green 

E. H. C.Wilson 

Benj. F. H. Witherell, Benj. F.Graves, 
Josiah Turner, and Edwin Lawrence to 

fill vacancies in the latter part of 

George Martin 

Randolph Manning 

Isaac P. Christiancy 
































James V. Campbell 1858 

Thomas M. Cooley 1864 

Benj. F. Graves 1868 

Isaac Marston 1875 

U. S. Senators. 

John Norvell 1835-41 

Lucius Lyon 1836-40 

Augustus S. Porter 1840-5 

Wm. Woodbridge 1841-7 

Lewis Cass 1845-57 

Thos. H. Fitzgerald 1848-9 

Aipheus Felch 1847-53 

Charles E. Stuart 1853-9 

Zachariah Chandler 1857-77 

Kinsley S. Bingham 1859-61 

Jacob M. Howard 1862-71 

Thomas W. Ferry 1871 

Henry Baldwin 1880 

Zachariah Chandler 1878-9 

Thomas W.Ferry 1881-3 

Omar D. Conger 1881-7 

Representatives in Congress. 

Isaac E. Crary 1835-41 

Jacob M. Howard 1841-43 

Lucius Lyon 1843-5 

Robert McClelland 1843-9 

James B. Hunt .. 1843-7 

John S. Chipman 1845-7 

Charles E. Stuart 1847.9 

Kinsley S. Bingham 1849-51 

Alexander W. Buel 1849-51 

William Sprague 1849-50 

Charles E.Stuart 1851-3 

James L. Conger 1851-3 

Ebenezer J. Penneman 1851.3 

Samuel Clark 1853-5 

David A. Noble 1853-5 

Hester L.Stevens 1S53-5 

David Stuart 1853-5 

George W. Peck 1855-7 

William A. Howard 1855-61 

Henry Waldron 1855-61 


David S. Walbridge 1855-9 

D. C. Leach 1857-61 

Francis W. Kellogg 1859-65 

B. F. Granger 186 1-3 

F. C. Beaman 1861-71 

R. E. Trowbridge 1861-3 

Charles Upson 1863-9 

John W. Longyear 1863-7 

John F. Driggs 1863-9 

R. E. Trowbridge 1865-9 

Thomas W. Ferry 1869-71 

Austin Blair 1867-73 

William L. Stoughton 1869-73 

Omar D. Conger 1869-81 

Randolph Strickland 1869-71 

Henry Waldon.. 187 1-5 

Wilder D. Foster 1871-3 

Jabez G. Sutherland 1 87 1-3 

Moses W. Field 1873-5 

George Millard 1875-7 

Julius C. Burrows 1873-5,1879 

Josiah W. Begale 1873-5 

Nathan B. Bradley 1873-7 

Jay A. Hubbell 1873 

W. B. Williams 1875-7 

Aipheus S.Williams 1875-9 

Mark .S. Boemer 1877 

Charles C. Ellsworth 1877-9 

Edwin W. Keightley 1877-9 

Jonas H. McGowan 1877 

John W. Stone 1877 

Edwin Willets 1877 

Roswell G. Horr 1879 

John S.Newberry 1879 

H. W. Lord... 1881 

Edwin Willets 1881 

E. S. Lacey 1881 

Julius C. Burrows :88i 

George W. Webber 1881 

Oliver L. Spaulding. 1881 

John T.Rich 1S81 

Roswell G. Horr 1881 

Jay A. Hubbell 1881 

111 the political chapter of the county history, the names of State Senators and 
Representatives from Macomb are given, with a record of votes received. 




The following tables show the political complexion of the several districts as 
now arranged, taking the vote for Congressmen in 1880 as the basis : 












County. Rep. Dem. Green- 


Wayne 15,962 15,388 628 

Republican plurality 574 

Democratic and Greenback over Republican 54 


Monroe - 3,175 

Lenawee 6,308 

Hillsdale 4.857 

Washtenaw 4,605 

Total 18,945 16,596 1,674 

Republican plurality 2,34q 

Republican majority 675 


Jackson 4,564 

Calhoun 5,184 

Branch 4.106 

Barry 3>072 

Eaton 4.341 

Total 21,267 9.739 8,959 

Republican plurality -.11,528 

Republican majority 2,571 


Berrien 4,553 

Cass 2,856 

St. Joseph 3,134 

Kalamazoo — 4,459 

Van Buren 4,094 

Total 19,096 12,424 4,193 

Republican plurality 6,672 

Republican majority 2,479 


Allegan 4,657 

Kent 7.879 

Ottawa 3,289 

Ionia - 4,262 

Total 20,087 9.939 8,901 

Republican plurality 10,108 

Republican majority 1,207 









County. Rep. 

Clinton _ 3,305 

Ingham 3.983 

Livingstone 2,820 

Genesee 4,747 

Oakland 5.371 








Total 20,: 

Republican plurality 

Democrat and Greenback over Republican.. 

Macomb 3,000 3,283 

St. Clair 4,182 3,512 

Lapeer 3,390 2,676 

Sanilac 2,183 1,329 

Huron ',773 1,194 

Total 14,618 11,994 

Republican plurality 

Republican majority 


Shiuwassee. 3,325 1.947 

Saginaw 4,829 5,801 

Gratiot 2,526 1,780 

Montcalm 4,140 3,067 

Isabella 1,375 1.089 

Midland 758 514 

Total 16,953 14,198 

Republican plurality , 

Democrat and Greenback over Republican. 


Muskegon. 2,737 1,496 

Oceana i,479 959 

Newaygo 1,549 1,796 

Mecosta 1,592 1,020 

Osceola 1.234 577 

Lake 5S3 264 

Mason 1,259 832 

Manistee 1. 176 1,098 

Wexford 1,112 476 

Missaukee 268 121 

Charlevoix. 793 276 

Antrim 598 19S 





County. Rep. Dem. Green- 
Kalkaska 495 i8t 

Total 14,875 9.294 1,063 

Republican plurality 5,581 

Republican majority 4, 518 


Tuscola 2,872 1,812 180 

Bay 2,483 

Caldwin 147 

Clare 451 

Roscommon 564 

Ogemaw 280 

Iosco 766 

Crawford l8l 


Alcona 388 

Alpena 948 


Otsego 329 

Presque Isle 2C9 

Cheboygan 581 

Emmet-. 809 

Total -10,978 8,776 2,180 


























Republican plurality 2,202 

Republican majority , 22 


Grand Traverse .... 1,327 

Leelenau 643 

Benzie 430 

Manitou 36 

Chippewa 35S 

Mackinac 143 

Schoolcraft 172 

Marquette 2,449 

Baraga 180 

Houghton 2,107 

Keewenaw . 610 

Ontonagon. 306 

Isle Royal 

Menominee 1,304 

Delta 724 

Total 10,789 6,486 235 

Republican plurality 4.303 

Republican majority 4,168 

There were also prohibition and scattering votes returned for Congress in 1880 
as follows: Second district, 191; third, 234; fourth, 2i ; fifth, 18; sixth, 78; 
seventh, 18; eighth, 16; ninth, 21; tenth, 7; and eleventh, 95. In Isle Royal 
County, in 1880, no election was held, and Oscoda and Montmorency Counties 
were not organized. 

The population of the several districts in 1870 and 1880 and the total increase 
for the ten years are shown by the following table : 

District. Pop. 1870. Pop. 188U. Increase. 
First 119.038 166,444 47.406 

Second 146 196.. 

Third 146,212-- 

Fourth 143.356 -- 

Fifth 136,840.. 

Sixth 142 276-- 

Seventh 109.233.. 

Eighth 92 792.. 

Ninth 51,943.- 

Tenth 40,439 111,151 70,712 

Eleventh 55.794 104,527 49,733 

156,538 10,342 

164966 18,754 

.. 150,569 7,213 

.. 178,066 41,226 

-- 164,784 22,508 

.- 154,392 45.152 

. . 160,269 67,498 

125,210 73,267 

If a similar rate of increase is kept up in the northern counties, the eighth, 
ninth and tenth districts will before the end of the decade largely exceed in jjopu- 
lation certain of the older districts. 






The Bi-itish at Detroit changed their policy somewliat, and endeavored to 
conciliate the Indians, paying them for land and encouraging French settlements in 
the vicinity. This encouragement was exhibited, in part, in showing some par- 
tiality to French customs. 

At this time the fur trade was considerably revived, the principal point of 
shipment being the Grand Portage of Lake Superior. The charter boundaries of 
the two companies, the Hudson's Bay and the Northwest, not having been very 
well-defined, the employees of the respective companies often came into conflict. 
Lord Selkirk, the head of the former company, ended the difiSculty by uniting the 
stock of both companies. An attempt was also made to mine and ship copper, but 
the project was found too expensive. 


The following references to the slave in Michigan have been extracted from 
the able paper prepared on that subject by J. A. Girardin. In olden 
times the city of Detroit and vicinity had slaves among its inhabitants. 
The old citizens generally purchased them from marauding bauds of Indians, 
who had captured the negro slaves in their war depredations on plantations. 
Many were thus brought from Virginia, New York, and Indiana, and sold to the 
inhabitants of Detroit, sometimes for nominal prices. Among our old citizens who 
were slaveholders in the olden times were the late Major Joseph Campau, George 
McDougall, James Duperon Baby, Abbott & Finchly, and several others. The 
negro slaves were well treated by their owners. Many of those poor captives when 
sold and released were at once well taken care of by our ancient inhabitants. Some- 
times the price of a negro slave was regulated according to his intrinsic value, but 
the price was quite high for those days. For instance : A negro boy named Frank, 
aged 12 years, the property of the late Phillip Jonciere, of Belle Fontaine, now 
Springwells, was sold on the 22d day of October, 1793, by William Roe, acting 
auctioneer, to the late Hon. James Duperon Baby, for the sum of ^213, Ne\V York 
currency, equal to •$532.50 of our money. Mr. Baby being the highest bidder, he, 
Frank, was adjudged to him for the benefit of Mr. Joncier's estate. 


In the records of baptism of St. Anne's Church, .several persons of color we 
find recorded as having received the sacrament of baptism, and, in the absence of 
family names we find that the names of " Margaret," for instance, a negress, 
" unknown " would be entered in the absence of her regular family name ; several 
instances of this kind are entered in the old records. During the administration of 
the Governor and Judges of the Territory of Michigan, several negroes received 
donation lots. Among them wa^ a well known negro named " Pompey," the 
property of the late James Abbott. As a class the negroes were esteemed by our 
ancient population ; many of them could speak the French language fluently, espe- 
cially those living with their French masters. But little cruelty was jsracticed by 
their owners. Thei'e was no Wendell Phillips nor any Lloyd Garrison, nor any 
" higher law doctrine," expounded in those days to disturb the mind of the slave 
or the slaveholder. Everyone lived in Arcadian simplicity and contentment. The 
negro was satisfied with his position, and rendered valuable services to his master, 
and was ever ready to help him against the treacherous Indians. During the war 
of 1812 several of them accompanied their masters to the battle-field, and mate- 
rially helped their masters and the troops. 

By an ordinance enacted by Congress, dated July 13, 1787, entitled " An act 
for the government of the territory of the United States northwest of the Ohio 
River," there was a clause in Article VI saying that " there shall be neither slavery 
nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment 
of crimes." This was a safeguard by Congress to prevent the extension of 
slavery northwest of the Ohio River. Notwithstanding this wise provision our an- 
cestors paid but little attention to it, for whenever a spruce negro was brought 
by the Indians he was sure to find a purchaser at a reasonable price. Most every 
prominent man in those days had a slave or two, especially merchants trading with 
the Indians. 

Detroit and vicinity was a heaven to the slave compared to the Southern States, 
although slavery was carried on on a moderate scale here, there being no cotton or 
rice fields to employ them in, their labor being on the plantations near Detroit, or 
at their masters' houses. The master, once attached to his " Sambo," a great price 
would have to be paid to buy him. 

The late Judge May had a slave-woman who had come to his hands for a debt 
owed him by one Granchin. This faithful slave served the Judge some twenty- 
five years. Mr. Joseph Campau, an extensive trader in those days, had as many as 
ten slaves at different times. Among them was a young negro named " Crow," 
who quite a favorite of Mr. C, who had him dressed in scarlet, a contrast with 
his color. This negro, to the amusement of the inhabitants of the old town, used 
to ascend old St. Anne's Church steeple and there perform some of his gymnastic 



tricks. He was supple and elastic as a circus-ridei'. He had been purchased at 
Montreal by Mr. Campau. He was afterward drowned from one of Mr. C.'s bat- 
teaux. "Hannah," another intelligent colored woman, was purchased at Montreal 
by Mr. C. This faithful slave, after serving him several years, married " Patterson," 
also a slave. "Mulct," one of the most honest and faithful of all slaves, also be- 
longed to Mr. Campau, who very often employed him as confidential clerk. This 
slave died but a few years ago at a very advanced age, respected and esteemed for 
his great integrity and fidelity. The slave " Tetro " was among the favorites of 
Maj. Campau. He, too, was as faithful and as honest as the day was long. 

The late Gen. John R. Williams also possessed a slave, named " Hector." He, 
too, was faithful and trustworthy. In the year 1831 Daniel Lero}', Olmstead 
Cliamberlain, and Gideon O. Whittemore sold to Col. Mack, Gen. Williams, and 
Maj. Campau the newspaper called the Oaldand Chronicle, the office being trans- 
ferred here, and the well known slave " Hector " was placed in charge of it. When 
the late Col. Sheldon McKnight entered to take possession, he was fiercely resisted 
by " Hector who showed fight, and the Colonel had to retreat. This paper was 
afterward merged into the Free Press of this city. 

Ann Wyley, a former slave, suffered the extreme penalty of the law for having 
stolen six guineas from the firm of Abbott & Finchley. She was sentenced to 
death by a justice of the peace, and buried on the spot where St. Anne's Church 
now stands, which ground was used as a place of burial in early days ; and when, 
in 1817, the foundations of the church were being excavated for, the body of this 
unfortunate woman was found, face downward. It was supposed that she was in 
a trance at the time of her burial. This incident was related to me by an old lady, 
some years ago, who knew all about the facts, and who has since died. 

The late Joseph Dronillard, of Petite Cote, Canada, had two daughters. Upon 
the marriage of one of them to the grandfather of your humble servant she received 
a farm ; the other received two slaves as her marriage portion. This goes to show 
that the negro in those days was considered a chattel. Several of our French 
farmers on both sides of the river had one or more of them. 

Many anecdotes can be related of Africa's sons among our ancestors, and they 
as a class were well cared for and educated by their kind masters. I could digress 
and go into more details, but the present sketch will sufiSce to show our modern 
philanthropists that the slaves here in Detroit were as well treated as the families 
in which their lot had been cast. The question may be asked : " How did slavery 
die out here?" The owners of slaves, after having received their services for a 
number of years generally would liberate them, or sometimes sell them to parties 
outside of the Territory. When the celebrated ordinance of 1787 was extended 
over the Northwest, Michigan assumed for the first time the first grade of govern- 



ment, and the laws of Congress were put in force, no moi"e slaves were afterward 
allowed to be brought into the Territory, and slavery was known no more here ! 


The following is a copy of a deed furnished by W. W. Backus of Detroit : 

" Know all men by these presents : That I, James May of Detroit, for and in 
consideration of the sum of forty-five pounds. New York currency, to me in hand 
paid by John Askin, Esqr.,of Detroit, the receipt whereof I do hereby acknowledge 
to be fully satisfied and paid, have sold and delivered, and by these presents, in 
l)lain and open market, do bargain, sell, and deliver unto the said John Askin, 
Esqr., a certain negro man, Pompey by name, to have and to hold the said negro 
unto the said John Askin, Esqr., his heirs, executors, administrators, and assigns 
forever ; and I, the said James May, for my heirs, executors, and assigns, against 
all manner of person or persons, shall and will warrant and forever defend by these 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal this nineteenth day 
of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety-four. 



In presence of 

Robert Stevens. 

I do hereby make over my whole right, title and interest in the above men- 
tioned negro man Pompey to Mi. James Donnolson of this place for the sum of 
fifty pounds, New York currency, the receipt of which I do hereby acknowledge, 
as witness my hand and seal at Detroit, this third day of January, 1795. 

Signed, JOHN ASKIN. 

Witness, William McClintock. 

Throughout the counties of Wayne, Monroe, Macomb, and Oakland, the slave 
existed. True, he bore the same relation almost to his master, as the white laborer 
of the South did to his master previous to 1861. Yet he was a slave, liable to be 
bought and sold. 

PUBLIC school system. 

Michigan has as good a public-school system as can be found anywhere in the 
Union. Ever since 1785, the acts of Congress, as well as the acts of this State 
since its organization, have encouraged popular education by land grants and lib- 
eral appropriations of money. The 16th section of each township was early placed 
in the custody of the State for common-school purposes, and all the proceeds of the 
sale of school lands go into the perpetual fund. In 1812 the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction reported a discrepancy of over f 22, 000 in the funds, owing to im- 


5> >• 


perfect records, probably, rather than of dishonesty of ofBcials. September 30, 1858, 
the primary school fund amounted to $2,890,090.73, and the swamp-land school fund 
to $361,237.20. The qualification of teachers and the supervision of schools were for 
many years in the hands of a board of three inspectors, then the county superin- 
tendency system was adopted for many 3'ears, and since 1875 the township system 
has been in vogue. The township Board of School inspectors now consists of the 
Township Clerk, one elected Inspector, and a Township Superintendent of 

The latter officer licenses the teachers and visits the schools. In 1877, the 
school children (five to twenty years of age) numbered 469,504 ; the average 
number of months of school, 7.4 ; number of graded schools, 295 ; number of school- 
houses, 6,078, valued at $9,190,175 ; amount of two-mill tax, $492,646.94 ; district 
taxes, $2,217,961 ; total resources for the year, $3,792,129.59; total expenditures, 


By an act of Congress in 1804, a township of land was to be reserved in the 
territory now constituting the lower peninsula " for the use of seminaries of 
learning ; " but the most of this reservation in 1841 went to a Catholic institution 
at Detroit. In 1824, through the exertions of Austin E. Wing, delegate to Con- 
gress, Gov. Woodbridge and others, a second township was granted, with permis- 
sion to select the sections in detached localities, and about this time Judge Wood- 
ward devised that novel and extensive scheme for the " catholepisteraaid,"' else- 
where referred to in this volume. In 1837 the Legislature established the University at 
Ann Arbor, and appropriated the seventy-two sections to its benefit ; 916 acres of this 
land were located in what is now the richest part of Toledo, Ohio, from which the 
University finally realized less than $18,000. 

But the State in subsequent years made many liberal appropriations to this 
favorite institution, until it has become the greatest seat of learning west of New 
England, if not in all America. It is a part of the public-school system of the 
State, as tuition is free, and pupils graduating at the high schools are permitted to 
enter the freshman class of tiie collegiate department. It now has an average 
attendance of 1,200 to 1,400 students, 450 of whom are in the college proper. In 
1879 there were 406 in the law department, 329 in the medical, 71 in pharmacy, 62 
in dental surgery, and 63 in the homeopathic department. There are over fifty 
professors and teachers. The University is under the control of eight regents, 
elected by the people, two every second year. Rev. Henry B. Tappan, D. D., was 
President from 1852 to 1863, then Erastus O. Haven, D. D., LL. D., to 1860, then 
Prof. H. S. Freeze (acting) until 1871, since which time the reins have been held 
by Hon. James B. Angell, LL. D. 

i> ^ 



The value of the buildings and grounds was estimated in 1879 at 1319,000, and 
the personal property at $250,000. 


John D. Pierce, the first Superintendent of Public Instruction, in his first re- 
port to the Legislature, urged the importance of a normal school. In this enter- 
prise he was followed by his successors in office until 1849, when Ira Mayhew was 
State Superintendent, and the Legislature appropriated seventy-two sections of 
land for the purpose ; and among the points competing for the location of the 
school, Ypsilanti won, and in that place the institution was permanently located. 
The building was completed and dedicated with appropriate ceremonies, October 
5,1852; next year the Legislature appropriated f7,000 in money, for expenses. 
Prof. A. S. Welch, now President of Iowa Agricultural College, was elected the 
first Principal. In October, 1859, the building with contents was burned, and a 
new building was immediately erected. In 1878 the main building was enlarged 
at an expense of $13,347. This enlargement was 88x90 feet, and has a hall capa- 
ble of seating 1,200 persons. The value of buildings and other property at the 
j^resent time is estimated at $111,100. Number of students, 616, including 144 in 
the primary department. 

Each member of the Legislature is authorized by the Board of Education to 
appoint two students from his district who may attend one year free of tuition; other 
students pay $10 per annum. Graduates of this school are entitled to teach in this 
State without re-examination by any school officer. 


The Michigan Agricultural College owes its establishment to a provision of 
the State Constitution of 1850. Article 13 says, " The Legislature shall, as soon 
as practicable, provide for the establishment of an agricultural school." For the 
purpose of carrying into practice this provision, legislation was commenced in 1855, 
and the act required that the school should be within ten miles of Lansing, and 
that not more than $15 an acre should be paid for the farm and college grounds. 
The college was opened to students in May, 1857, the first of existing agricultural 
colleges in the United States. Until the Spring of 1861 it was under the control 
of the State Board of Education ; since that time it has been under the manage- 
ment of the State Board of Agriculture, created for the purpose. 

In its essential features of combining study and labor, and of uniting general 
and professional studies in its course, the college has remained virtually unchanged 
frem the first. It has had a steady growth in number of students, in means of 
illustration and efficiency of instruction. 

An Act of Congress, approved July 2, 1862, donated to each State public lands 



to the amount of 30,000 acres for each of its Senators and Representatives in Con- 
gress, according to the census of 1860, for the endowment, support and mainten- 
ance of at least one college where the leading object should be, without excluding 
other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts. The 
Legislature accepted this grant and bestowed it upon the Agricultural College. 
By its provisions the college has received 235,673.37 acres of land. These lands 
have been placed in market, and about 74,000 acres are sold, yielding a fund of 
$237,174, the interest of which, at seven per cent., is applied to the support of the 
college. The sale is under the direction of the Agricultui-al Land Grant Board, 
consisting of the Governor, Auditor General, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, 
Attorney General and Commissioner of the State Land Office. 

The Agricultural College is three miles east of Lansing, comprising several 
fine buildings ; and there are, also, very beautiful, substantial residences for the 
professors. There are also an extensive, well-filled green-house, a very large and 
well-equipped and chemical laboratory, one of the most scientific apiaries in the 
United States, a general museum, a museum of mechanical inventions, another of 
vegetable products, extensive barns, piggeries, etc., etc., in fine trim for the pur- 
poses designed. The farm consists of 676 acres, of which about 300 are under 
cultivation is in a systematic rotation of crops. 


At Albion is a flourishing college under the control of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. The grounds comprise about fifteen acres. There are three college 
buildings, each three stories high, having severally the dimensions of 46 by 80, 40 
by 100, and 47 by 80 feet. The attendance in 1878 was 205. Tuition in the jjrepara- 
tory and collegiate studies is free. The faculty comjjrises nine members. The 
value of property about $85,000. 

Adrian College was established by the Wesleyan Methodists in 1859, now 
under the control of the " Methodist Church." The grounds contain about twenty 
acres. There are four buildings, capable of accommodating about 225 students. 
Attendance in 1875 was 179 ; total number of graduates for previous years, 121 ; 
ten professors and teachers employed. Exclusive of the endowment fund ($80,- 
000), the assets of the institution, including grounds, buildings, furniture, appar- 
atus, musical instruments, outlying lands, etc., amount to more than $137,000. 
Hope College, at Holland, is under the patronage of the Dutch Reformed Church. 
It was begun in 1851, and in connection with the ordinary branches of learning, it 
has a theological department. In 1877 it had ten professors and teachers and 110 
pupils. Up to 1875 there had graduated, in the preparatory def)artment, begun in 


1863, ninety-five ; in the academic, beginning in 1866, fifty-three ; and in the theo- 
logical, beginning in 1869, twenty-four. Value of real estate, 125,000 ; of other 
property, above incumbrance, about $10,000 ; the amount of endowment paid in is 
about 156,000. 

Kalamazoo College, headed by Baptists, is situated on a five-acre lot of ground, 
and the property is valued at $35,000 ; investments, f S8,000. There are six mem- 
bers of the faculty, and in 1878 there were 169 pupils. 

Hillsdale College was established in 1855 by the Free Baptists. The " Michi- 
gan Central College," at Spring Arbor, was incorporated in 1845. It was kept in 
operation until it was merged into the present Hillsdale College. The site com- 
prises twenty-five acres, beautifully situated on an eminence in the western part of 
the city of Hillsdale. The large and imposing building first erected was nearly 
destroyed by fire in 1871, and in its place five buildings of a more modern style 
have been erected. They are of brick, three stories with basement, arranged on 
three sides of a quadrangle. Their size is, respectively, 80 by 80, 48 by 72, 48 by 
72, 80 by 60, 52 by 72, and they contain one-half more room than the original' 
building. Ex-Lieutenant Gov. E. B. Fairfield was the first president. The present 
president is Rev. D. W. C. Durgin, D. D. Whole number of graduates up to 1878, 
375; number of students in all departments, 506; number of professors and 
instructors, 15; productive endowment, about $100,000; buildings and ground, 
$80,000 ; library, 6,200. 

Olivet College, in Eaton County, is a lively and thorough literary and fine-art 
institution, under the joint auspices of the Presbyterian and Congregational denom- 
inations. Value of buildings and ground, about $85,000. Fourteen professors and 
teacher.s are employed, and the attendance in 1878 was 190, the sexes in about 
equal proportion. There are five departments, namely, the collegiate, preparatory, 
normal, music and art. 

Battle Creek College, conducted by the .Seventh-Day Adventists, was estab- 
lished in 1874, with four departments, eleven professors and teachers, and an 
attendance of 289. It is practically connected with a large health institution, 
where meat and medicines are eschewed. In 1878 there were fifteen instruct- 
ors and 478 students. Special attention is paid to hygiene and hygienic medi- 

Grand Traverse College was opened at Benzonia, in 1863, as the result of the 
efforts of Rev. Dr. J. B. Walter, a prominent divine of the Congregational Church. 
The friends of this institution have met with serious discouragements ; their lands 
have not risen in value as anticipated, and they have suffered a heavy loss from fire ; 
but the college has been kept open to the present time, with an average of seventy 
pupils. The curriculum, however, has so far been only " preparatory." The land 



is valued at .$25,000, and the buildings, etc., 16,000. The school has done a good 
work in qualifying teachers for the public schools. 

Besides the foregoing colleges, there are the German- American Seminary 
in Detroit, a Catholic seminary at Monroe, the Michigan Female Seminary at 
Kalamazoo, the Military Academy at Orchard Lake, near Pontiac, and others. 
Large numbers of Michigan students study at the college of Notre Dame in St. 
Joseph County, Indiana. 


No State in the Union takes better care of her poor than does Michigan. For 
a number of years past, especially under the administrations of Govs. Bagley and 
Groswell, extraordinary efforts have been made to improve and bring to perfection 
the appointments for the poor and dependent. 

According to the report of the Board of State Commissioners for the general 
supervision of charitable, penal, pauper and reformatory institutions for 1878, the 
total number in poor-houses of the State was 5,282. For the five years preceding, 
the annual rate of increase was four times greater than the increase of population 
during that period ; but that was an exceptionally " hard " time. The capacity of 
the public heart, however, was equal to the occasion, and took such measures as 
were effectual and almost beyond criticism for the care of the indigent. At the 
head of the charity department of the State stands 


In the year 1870 a commission appointed by the Governor for that purpose, 
visited many of the poor-houses in the State, and found a large number of children 
in them under sixteen years of age, indiscriminately associated with idiots, maniacs, 
prostitutes and vagrants. Their report recommended the classification of paupers, 
and especially, that children in the county houses, under sixteen years, should be 
placed in a State school. The act establishing the rule was passed in 1871, in con- 
formity with the recommendation. As amended in 1873, it provides, in substance, 
that there shall be received as pupils in such school all neglected and dependent 
children that are over four and under sixteen years of age, and that are in suitable 
condition of body or mind to receive instruction, especially those maintained in the 
county poor-houses, those who have been deserted by their parents, or are orphans, 
or whose parents have been convicted of crime. It is declared to be the object of 
the act to provide for such children temporary homes only, until homes can be 
procured for them in families. The plans comprehend the ultimate care of all 
children of the class described, and it is made unlawful to retain such children in 
poor-houses when there is room for them in the State Public School. Dependent 
orphans and half orphans of deceased soldiers and sailors have the preference of 


-* — ^>^ 


admission should there be more applications than room. Provision is made for 
preserving a record of the parentage and history of each child. 

The general Tsupervision of the school is delegated to a Board of Control, 
consisting of three members, who are appointed by the Governor, with the advice 
and consent of the Senate. The Board appoints the superintendent, officers and 
teachers of the school. One officer is appointed to look up homes for the children 
to apprentice them, and to keep a general oversight of them by visitation or corre- 
spondence. To complete the work of this institution, an agent is appointed in each 

The internal government of this school is that known as the " family " and 
" congregate " combined, the families consisting of about thirty members each, and 
being under the care of "cottage managers," ladies whom the children call "aunt- 
ies," and who are supposed to care for the children as mothers. Each child of 
sufficient j'ears expected to work three hours every day ; some work on the farm, 
some in the dining-room and kitchen, while others make shoes, braid straw hats, 
make their own clothing, work in the bakery, engine room, laundry, etc. They are 
required to attend school three to five hours a day, according to their ages, and 
the school hours are divided into sessions to accommodate the work. 

The buildings, ten in number, comprise a main building, eight cottages and a 
hospital, all of brick. Tiie buildings are steam heated, lighted with gas and have 
good bathing facilities. There are forty-one acres of land in connection with the 
school, and the total value of all the property is about $150,000, furnishing accom- 
modation for 240 children. 


This is located at Flint, sixty miles nearly northwest of Detroit. The act 
establishing it was passed in 1848, and the school was first opened in 1854, in a 
leased building. It is a school in common for deaf mutes, and the blind, rather 
from motives of economy than from any relation which the two classes bear to 
one another. The buildings were commenced in 1853. The principal ones now 
are: front building, forty-three by seventy-two feet, with east and west wings, 
each twenty-eight by sixty feet, center building, forty by sixty, and east and west 
wings, each fifty by seventy feet ; main school building, fifty-two by fifty-four, with 
two wings, and twenty-five by sixty feet. All of these buildings are four stories 
high ; center of the front building is five stoi-ies, including basement. There are 
also a boiler and engine house, barns, etc. The total value of the buildings is 
estimated at fo58,045, and of the eighty-eight acres of land occupied, $17,570. 

The number of inmates has increased from 94, in 1865, to 225, in 1875. Includ- 
ing the Principal, there are ten teachers employed in the deaf and dumb depart- 



ment, and four in the blind, besides the Matron and her assistants. Tuition and 
board are free to all resident subjects of the State, and the Trustees are authorized 
to assist indigent subjects in the way of clothing, etc., to the amount of $40 a year. 
An annual census of all deaf mutes and blind persons in the State, is officially taken 
and reported to the overseers of the poor, who are to see that these unfortunate 
members of the human family are properly cared. 


This institution was established in 1848, and now consists of two departments, 
one for males and the other for females. The capacity of the former is 280, and of 
the latter, 300 patients. In their general construction, both buildings are arranged 
in accordance with the principles laid down by the Association of Medical Superin- 
tendents of American Institutions for the Insane. The buildings are ot brick, with 
stone trimmings, and are very substantial, as well as beautiful. The entire cost of 
l)oth buildings, with all the auxiliary structures, and 195 acres of land, is about 
$727,173.90. The buildings were constructed during the war and immediately 
afterward. The asylum was opened in 1859 for the care of patients, and up to 
October 1, 1875, there had been expended for the care and maintenance of patients, 
exclusive of the cost of construction, 1994,711.32. Indigent patients are received 
and treated at the asylum at the expense of the counties to which they belong, on 
the certification of the county authorities, the average cost of maintenance being 
about $4.12+ per week. Pay patients are received when there is room for them, 
the minimum price of board being $5 per week. 


These large, beautiful and very modern structures are located upon a farm of 
upward of 300 acres, and were erected in 1873-'6, at a cost of about $400,000. 
The general plans are similar to those at Kalamazoo. They are built of brick, with 
stone window caps, belt-courses, etc. There are accommodations for not less than 
300 patients. 

Michigan pursues a very enlightened policy toward the chronic insane. Pro- 
visions have been made for the treatment even of the incurable, so that as much 
good as possible may be done even to the most unfortunate. The design is to cure 
whenever the nature of the mental malady will permit ; but failing this, to cease 
no effort which could minister to the comfort and welfare of the patient. 


The Detroit House of Correction, although a local institution, is used to a con- 
siderable extent as an intermediate prison, to which persons are sentenced by the 
courts throughout the State for minor offenses. Women convicted of felonies are 



also sent to this place. The whole number in confinement at this prison for the 
past decade has averaged a little over 400 at any one time, more males than females. 
The average term of confinement is but a little more than two months, and the 
institution is very faithfully conducted. 

The State Prison, at Jackson, is one of the best conducted in the Union. The 
total value of the property is $552,113. The earnings of the prison in 1878 were 
$92,378 ; number of prisoners, 800. Their work is let to contractors, who employ 
450 men at different trades. A coal mine has been recently discovered on the 
prison property, which proves a saving of several thousand dollars per annum to 
tlie State. The earnings of this prison since Gen. Wm. Humphrey has been War- 
den (1875), has exceeded its current expenses. 

The State Prison at Ionia was established a few years ago, for the reception of 
convicts whose crimes are not of the worst type, and those who are young, but too 
old for the reform school. The ground comprises 53 acres of land, 13A^ of which is 
enclosed by a brick wall 18 feet high. Estimated value of property, $277,490 ; 
current expenses for 1878, $45,744 ; earnings for 1878, $5,892 ; number of prison- 
ers December 31, 1878, 250 ; number received during the year, 346. 


The inspectors say that " in a pecuniary sense the year has been a prosperous 
one to all the industries connected witii the prison. Contractors have had a demand 
for all their products at fair prices and sure pay, and as a consequence contracts due 
to the State have been promptly paid, and the prison authorities have had none of 
tlie troubles and anxieties they have sometimes experienced from the failure of 
prompt payment for prison labor. The general prosperity of the country is shown 
by the increased and increasing demands for the products of labor. Whether 
these products are from the labor or convicts of free men, the consumer does not 
inquire ; therefore it is not surprising, but to have been expected, that the prison 
industries would share in the general prosperity. 

The inspectors report valuation of property as follows : 

Real estate $545,219-55 

Personal $48,618.27 

Cash on hand -- 9.799-82 58,418.09 

Aggregate - $603,637.64 

The increase over inventory of 1880 is stated at $29,806.95. Of this amount 
$18,155.45 is credited to real estate, $14,299.88 of which is credited to the expend- 
iture of legislative appropriations, and $3,855.67 to prison earnings. The increase 
in the valuation of personal property is $11,651.50, which amount came entirely 
from prison labor, showing an aggregate increase from prison labor of $15,507.07. 




The net prison earnings for the year are given as $95,129.67, and the expenses 
for the same time $84,517.66, showing a balance of earnings over expenses of 

The following are the statistics of prisoners for the year : 

Number October I, 1879 _ 777 

Admitted during year 281 

Total 1,058 

Discharged by expiration of sentence. -253 

Discliarged by death 5 

Discharged by order for new trials 2 

Discharged by order of supreme court 4 

Discharged by pardon of governor 13 

Escaped 3 


Remaining in prison September 30, 1880. 

Total 778 

The detailed inventory covers thirty-six pages, and is minute enough to meet 
the demands of the most inquisitive investigator into the nature of prison property. 

During the term of its operation this prison has received 7,071 persons, com- 
mitted for offenses which are covered by 757 titles. Of these 5,097 were convicted 
for offenses against property, 988 of offenses against lives and persons of individ- 
uals, 549 of forgery and counterfeiting, 284 of offenses against chastity, morality 
and decency, 145 of offenses against public justice, and 8 of unclassified offenses. 

During the last prison year twenty persons were received under conviction of 
offenses against life, as follows : 

For murder in the first degree 2 

For murder in the second degree 4 

For manslaughter ! 3 

For assault with intent to kill . Ii 

Total 20 


This was established at Lansing in 1855, in the northeastern portion of the 
city, as the " House of Correction for Juvenile Offenders," having about it many 
features of a prison. In 1859, the name was changed to the " State Reform 
School." The government and discipline have undergone many and radical 
changes, until all the prison features have been removed, except those that remain in 
tlie walls of the original structure, and which remain only as monuments of instruc- 
tive history. No bolts, bars or guards ai-e employed. Tlie inmates are necessa- 
ril}' kept under the surveillance of officers, but the attempts at escape are much 
fewer than under the more rigid regime of former days. This school is for the 



detention, education and reformation of boys between the ages of eight and sixteen 
years, who are convicted of light offenses. 

The principal building is four stories high, including basement, and has an 
extreme length of 246 feet, the center a depth of 48 feet, and the wings a depth of 
33 feet each. Besides, there are two " family houses," where the more tractable 
and less vicious boys form a kind of family, as distinguished from the congregate 
life of the institution proper. The boys are required to work half a day and 
attend school half a day. A farm of 328 acres, belonging to the school, furnishes 
work for many of the working boys during the working season. Some are em- 
ployed in making clothing and shoes for the inmates. The only shop-work now 
carried on is the cane-seating of chairs ; formerly, cigars were manufactured here 
somewhat extensively. There is no contract labor, but all the work is done by the 
institution itself. 

The number of inmates now averages about 200, and are taken care of by a 
superintendent and assistant, matron and assistant, two overseers and six teachers. 


Of this State has a great deal of business to transact, as it has within its jurisdic- 
tion an immense amount of new land in market, and much more to come in. Dur- 
ing the fiscal year ending September 30, 1877, the total number of acres sold was 
50,835.72, for $87,968.05, of which $69,800.54 was paid in hand. At that time, the 
amount of land still owned by the State was 3,049,905.46, of wliich 2,430,050.47 
were swamp land ; 447,270.89, primary school ; 164,402.55, Agricultural College ; 
310.26, University ; 160, Normal School ; 2,115.63, salt spring ; 1,840, Asylum ; 
32.40, State building ; 3,342.75, asset, and 380.31, internal improvement. But of 
the foregoing, 1,817,084.25 acres, or more than iialf, are not in market. 


Territorial Library, 1828-1835. — The first knowledge that we have of this 
library, is derived from the records found in the printed copies of the journals and 
documents of the Legislative Councils of the Territory, and in the manuscript 
copies of the Executive journals. 

The library was established by an act of the Legislative Councils, approved 
June 16, 1828, authorizing the appointment of a librarian by the Governor, with 
advice and consent of the Council. 

The Librarian so appointed was required to take an oath of office and give 
bond to the Treasurer of the Territory in the sum of 11,000 for the faithful per- 
formance of his duties ; his time of service was for two years, or until another be 
appointed. The librarian was also required to take charge of the halls and com- 
mittee room, and other property appertaining to the Legislative Council. He was 




also required to make an annual report to the Council, upon the state of the 
library, and upon all such branches of duty as might from time to time be com- 
mitted to his charge. For his services he was to receive annually the sum of $100. 

The library seemed to have been kept open only during the actual sittings of 
the Legislative Council. 

The Executive journal, by its records, shows that under tlie provisions of this 
act, William B. Hunt was appointed Librarian, July 3, 1828, by Gov. Lewis Cass, 
for the term of two years. Mr. Hunt continued to act as Librarian until March 7, 
1834, when Gersham Molt Williams was appointed by Gov. Porter. Mr. Williams 
seems to have acted as Librarian until the organization of the institution as a State 
library. The honored names of Henry B. Schoolcraft, Charles Moran, Daniel S. 
Bacon, Calvin Brittain, Elou Farnsvvorth, Charles C. Hascall,and others, are found 
iu the list of the members of the Library Committee. 

March, 1836, the State Library was placed in charge of the Secretary of State ; 
in February, 1837, it was given to the care of the private Secretary of the Gov- 
ernor ; December 28 following, its custody was given to the Governor and Secre- 
tary of State, with power to appoint a Librarian, and make rules and regulations 
for its government. C. C. Jackson acted as the first Librarian for the State. Lewis 
Bond also had the care of the books for a time. Oren Marsh was appointed Libra- 
rian in 1837, and had the office several years. In March, 1840, the law was again 
changed, and the library was placed in the care of the Secretary of State, and the 
members of the Legislature and Executive officers of the State were to have free 
access to it at all times. 

The library was, of course, increased from time to time by legislative ap- 
propriations. In 1844, as the result of the efforts of Alexandre Vattemare, 
from Paris, a system of international exchange was adopted. 

April 2, 1850, an act was passed requiring the Governor to appoint a State 
librarian with the consent of the Senate, and it was made the duty of the librarian 
to have the sole charge of the library. This act, with some amendments, still 
remains in force. It requires the librarian to make biennial reports and catalogues. 
The librarians under this act have been: Henry Tisdale, April 2, 1850, to January 
27, 1851 ; Charles J. Fox, to July 1, 1853 ; Charles P. Bush, to December 5, 1854 ; 
John James Bush, to Januar}^ 6, 1855; DeWitt C. Leach, to February 2, 1857; 
George W. Swift, to January 27, 1859 ; J. Eugene Tenney, to April 5, 1869, and 
Mrs. Harriet A. Tenney, to the present time. This lady has proved to be one of 
the best librarians in the United States. She has now in her charge about 60,000 
volumes, besides thousands of articles in the new and rapidly growing museum 
department. She is also secretary of the " Pioneer Society of the State of Michi- 
gan," and has charge of the books, papers and relics collected by that society. 




The library and these museums are now kept in the new State Capitol at Lansing, 
in a series of rooms constructed for the purpose, and are all arranged in the most 
convenient order and with the neatest taste. 


Very naturally, the denser population of the white race, as it took possession 
of this wild country, consumed what they found already abundant long before 
they commenced to renew the stock. It was so with the forests ; it was so with 
the fish. An abundance of good variety of fish was found in all our rivers and 
little lakes by the early settlers, but the abundance was gradually reduced until 
these waters were entirely robbed of their useful inhabitants. Scarcely a thouglit 
of restocking the inland waters of this State was entertained until the Spring of 
1873, when a board of fish commissioners was authorized by law; and while the people 
generally still shook their heads in skepticism, the board went on with its duty until 
these same people are made glad with the results. Under the efficient superintend- 
ency of Geo. H. Jerome, of Niles, nearly all the lakes and streams within the 
lower peninsula have been more or less stocked with shad, white-fish, salmon or 
lake trout, land-locked or native salmon, eel, etc., and special efforts are also made 
to propagate that beautiful and useful fish, the grayling, whose home is in the 
Manistee and Muskegon rivers. Much more is hoped for, however, than is yet real- 
ized. Like every other great innovation, many failures must be suffered before the 
brilliant crown of final success is won. 

The value of all the property employed in fish propagation in the State is but 
a little over f 4,000, and the total expenses of conducting the business from Decem- 
ber 1, 1876, to July 1, 1877, were 114,000. The principal hatcheries are at Detroit 
and Pokagon. 



Organization is the first great means necessary to the accomplishment of any 
project. In this respect Michigan is peculiarly fortunate. Every class seems to 
have its organization, and to observe the rules adopted. Among the first bodies of 
the State the Pioneer Society of Micliigan holds, perhaps, the highest place. The 
ofScers of the society retain all that-energy of character which marked their earlier 
years; members, generally, take a deep interest in the government of the body, and 
thus a promise is given of the continued existence of a noble organization. 


Was organized in 1875. Its roll of members contains 408 names, each of which is 
referred to m the following table : 











July 1,1831. 

May 8. 1838. 
November 5. 1844. 
May 4, 1837. 
June. 1843. 
April 24. 1825. 
April. 1836. 
Nov. 5. 1831. 
September 10. 1825. 
June?, 1838. 

Junel, 1836. 
March 27. 1836. 
October 15, 1835. 
July, 1839. 
June, 1833. 

Fehnntry. 1835. 
November 11. 1831. 

May 10. 1834 
November 20. 1852 
May 21. 1836. 
November 10, 1840. 

April, 1840. 
May. 1836. 

October. 1841. 
July. 1837. 
August. 1836. 
May, 1888. 
September, 1843. 

July. 1837. „ „„,, 
Septembers. 1835. 
Jmie. 1830. 
October. 1824. 
September, 1843. 
June, 1836. 
September. 1835. 

June, 1837. 
April, 1835. 
May, 1837. 
September 6, 18'89. 
Novembers. 1631. 
5, 1831. 
May 14, 1834. 

" 14, 1834. 

" 11, 1836. 
June. 1828. 
January 9, 1846. 
April 30. 1819. 

May. 1825. 

■■ 3. 1831. 
August 1, 1832 
.laiiuaryk 1840. 
August 3, 1837. 
May, 1885. 

" 1836. 




i I i ; : 1 i ;>os ;s 1 

- — ■«' ■§i§'M^ -^ Z 'r-. Z ,-. -A 

I a " 

liVaiiiii. '!!!!!!!!! 


Kent.. .■.■.■.■.'.■.■!!!!! 


St. Joseph 










Wayne '!!!!!! 

























Grass Lake 







Ann Arbor 






Brushy Prairie.. 


Ionia ,,,,!!...!... 





May 10, 1810 
June 18, 1816 
Nov. 19, 180b 
Oct. 20, 1809 
Jan, 7, 1814 
Feb. 4, 1883 
May 4, 1817 
Feb. 7. 1827 
May 11, 1808 
Feb. 20, 1831 
April 16, 1809 
Oct. 5, 1817 
May 21, 1823 
Oct. 14, 1819 
Oct. 15, 1815 
April 3. 1613 
Sept, 80, 1815 
Feb, 80. 1889 
•<ept, 16. 1807 
April 1, 1834 
Sfpl. 85. 1809 
Fell, 11, 1804 
All] il 1-8. 1830 
iMar. 87. 1831 
Mar. 13. 1818 
Feb. 1, 1809 
July 24. 1832 
Dec. 84,1817 
Sept. 1, 1811 
Aug, 10, 1810 
Sept. 8, 1822 
Nov. 15, 1816 
May 12, 1825 
Jan. 6. 1818 
Jan. 13, 1818 
Mar, 11, 1810 
May 20, 1813 
Oct. 31, 1885 
Aug. 9, isiiu 
Jan. 8, I'-ii ', 
Dec. 5. 1-1. 1 
Jan. 6. 1 ■■ .' 1 
Mar. 6, 1 - ! 1 
July 18, 1- -■ 

Aug. 1, 1-1 

Nov. 21, 1-. . 
Dec. 9, 1- ' 
Jan. 18. iMii 
June 15. K'.i'. 
April 29. 1797 
Nov. 4. 1800 
May 22, 1810 
Sept. 22, 1810 
Feb. 11, 1814 
May 4, 1886 
June 80, 183-.. 
Mar. 5, 1794 
Jan. 11, 179h 
May 17.1809 
Aug. 16, 1888 
Mar. 8, 1809 
Jan. 23, 1809 
Feb. 10. 1820 
Vug. 33. 179(1 






New York 


New York 



New York 




New York 


New York 


New Jersey 





New York 


New York 


New York 


New York !!!!!! 




New York 


Massachusetts ... . 


Sidney Plains, Delaware Co.... 

:Iadley, Saratoga Co 




North Castle 







East Bloomneld 


Johnstown, Montgomery Co.... 


New Haven 





.Mount Pleasan t 



Si inierset 


Ira. Cayuga Co 

New Baltimore 

1 unbridge 


\N iiidsor 


1 ..vington 








Witter J. Baxter 

Oliver C. Comstock 



Randolph Strickland 

Ephraim Longyear 

FIrastusS. Ingersoll 

W. W. Mitchell 

Ebenezer Lakin Brown 

David Scott 

Henry P. Cherry 

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Was incorporated under authority given in the Act of June 23, 1828, with Lewis 
Cass, Henry Whiting, John Biddle, Gabriel Richard, Noah M. Wells, Richard F. 
Cadle, Isaac M"Ilvain, Zara H. Coston, Austin E. Wing, Thomas Rowland, John L. 
Whiting, Henry S. Cole, Jonathan Kearsley, Samuel W. Dexter, Zina Pitcher, 
Edwin P. James, Henry R. Schoolcraft, and Charles C. Trowbridge, charter 


Is distinct from the State Agricultural Board, the latter being simply an executive 
over the Agricultural College under the laws of tlie State. The former was organ- 
ized at Lansing, March 23, 1849, and was especially incorporated by Act of April 
2 following, since which time it has numbered among its officers and executive 
members some of tlie foremost men of the State. It has held annual fairs in various 
places, and the number of entries for premiums has risen from 623 to several 
thousands, and its receipts from $808.50 to $58,780. The premiums offered and 
awarded have increased proportionally. 


At an informal meeting of several gentlemen in Grand Rapids, Feb. 11, 1870, 
it was resolved to organize a State pomological society, and at an adjourned meet- 
ing on the 26th of the same month, the organization was perfected, and the first 
officers elected were : H. G. Saunders, president ; S. S. Fuller, treasurer, and A. 
T. Linderman, secretary. The society was incorporated April 15, 1871, " for the 
purpose of promoting pomology, horticulture, agriculture, and kindred sciences 
and arts." During the first two j^ears monthly meetings were required, but in 
1872 quarterly meetings were substituted. It now has a room in the basement of 
the new capitol. T. T. Lyon, of South Haven, is president, and Charles W. Gar- 
field, of Grand Rapids, secretary. Under the supervision of this society, Michigan 
led the world in the centennial exposition at Philadeljjhia in the exhibition of Winter 
apples. The contributions of this society to pomological literature are also richer 
than can be found elsewhere in the United States. 


Was organized April 13, 1875, at Battle Creek, for " the protection and promotion 
of the best interests of the firemen of Michigan, the compilation of fire statistics, 
the collection of information concerning the practical working of different systems 
of organization, the examination of the merits of the different kind of fire appar- 
atus in use and the improvement in the same, and the cultivation of a fraternal 
fellowship between the different companies in the State." The association holds 



its meetings annually at various places in the State, and as often publish their pro- 
ceedings in pamphlet form. 


This board was established in 1873, and consists of seven members, appointed 
by the Governor, the Secretary ex officio, a member and principal executive officer. 
It is tjie duty of this board to make sanitary investigations and inquiries respecting 
the causes of disease, especially of epidemics; the causes of mortality, and the 
effects of localities, employments, conditions, ingesta, habits and circumstances on 
the health of the people ; to advise other officers in regard to the location, drain- 
age, water supply, disposal of excreta, heating and ventilation of any public build- 
ing ; and also to advise all local health officers concerning their duties, and to 
recommend standard works from time to time on hygiene for the use of public 
schools. The secretary is required' to collect information concerning vital statistics, 
knowledge respecting diseases, and all useful information on the subject of hygiene, 
and through an annual report, and otherwise, as the board may direct, to dissem- 
inate such information among the people. These interesting duties have been 
performed by Dr. Henry B. Baker from the organization of the board to the present 
time. The board meets quarterly at Lansing. 



The pig metal produced by the upper peninsula furnaces during the year 1880 
had an approximate market value of $1,941,000 and the whole of the total output of 
the Lake Superior iron mines for that year was about $19,500,000. The aggregate 
product of these furnaces and mines between the date of the Jackson discovery 
and the close of the last calendar year was more than $118,000,000. The product 
of 1881 promises to exceed $20,000,000 in value. 


In what are called the iron and steel industries — including in these terms 
furnaces, rolling mills, steel-works, forges and bloomaries, and excluding mines — 
Michigan ranked as the eighth State in 1880 according to the figures collected for 
the United States census of that 3^ear. It was surpassed by Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
New York, Illinois, New Jersey, Wisconsin and West Virginia. Its increase in this 
production from 1870 to 1880 was sixty-five per cent., and the totals of the returns 
for 1880 were as follows : 

At-— *- 


Number of establishments. _ 22 

Amount of capital invested $ 4,175,386 

Numberof employ 6s 3,089 

Total of wages paid to employes in iSSo $922,597 

Value of materials used in 1880 $3,279420 

Value of the total product of 18S0 $4,591,613 

Weight of the product of 1880 (in net tons) 142.716 

Weight of the product of 1879 (in net tons) 86,679 


At the close of 1880 the Lake Superior copper districts had produced $301,654 
tons of refined copper valued at 8142,616,137. The total output of that year was 
24,869 tons valued at $9,947,673, which was taken from thirty mines. The pro- 
duction of 1881 will surpass that of any previous year. A paragraph which 
appeared in an upper peninsula newspaper stating that " the net earnings of the 
Lake Superior copper mines for the first half of the year 1881 exceed those of any 
precious metal mining state or territory in the Union," was submitted for verifica- 
cation to Eastern mining authorities, and elicited in reply the following statement, 
fully substantiating tlie assertion of the newspaper relerred to. The figures given 
show the net earnings of the gold, silver and copper mines of the States and terri- 
tories embraced in them for the first six months of 1881 : 

California $ 998,000 

Nevada ,. 791,250 

Utah 375,000 

Arizona 900,000 

Dakota 560,000 

Colorado 962,000 

Montana - 240,000 

Georgia . 8,000 

Michigan... 1,410,000 

Total $6,244,250 


The natural products of the State in 1879 — the latest year concerning which 
statistics are complete — were estimated by Gov. Jerome in his message to the leg- 
islature at the beginning of 1881, to amount to a valuation of nearly $170,000,000, 
made up of the following items : 

Agricultural products $88, 500,000 

Timber 60,000,000 

Copper 8,000,000 

Iron 10,000,000 

Salt 2,000,000 

Fish 1,000,000 




Returns received from 913 correspondents, located in 664 townships in Decem- 
ber. 1881, show the estimated acreage and condition of wheat sowed in 1881 as 
compared with 1880, the estimated yield in 1881 of corn, clover seed, and potatoes, 
and tlie condition (as regards flesh) of cattle and sheep on Dec. 1, as compared 
with Dec. 1, 1880. The estimates show that the present acreage sown in 1880 by 
two per cent , and in tlie counties north of the southern tiers by six per cent., indi- 
cating a probable acreage in the State of about 1,834,529 acres. The condition 
Dec. 1 in the southern four tiers of counties was about 132 per cent., and in the 
northern counties about 117 per cent., of the condition Dec. 1, 1880. This excel- 
lent showing is supplemented in numerous instances by statements that the wheat 
presents an unusually fine appearance, having started well and obtained large 
growth. The white grub and Hessian fly are reported present in various localities, 
but while they undoubtedly did injure individual fields, the repo^-ts do 
not indicate that their ravages noticeably affected the aggregate product of the 
State. Wheat seldom, if ever, has gone into the Winter in better condition than this 

The yield of corn in 1881 is estimated at 40,460,901 bushels of ears, or about 
20,230,450 bushels of shelled corn. Tliese figures are based on the acreage as esti- 
mated in September, and the yield per acre as estimated in December. At tlie date 
of making the reports but a small portion of the clover seed had been hulled, and 
correspondents in the counties in the southern part of the State, and in Grand 
Traverse and Newaygo counties in the northern section, report the clover seed 
greatly damaged by the wet weather, many fields being entirely ruined. Some of 
them estimate one-fourth of the crop destroyed. One correspondent in Cass 
reported fifteen per cent, rotting in the fields, and another thinks not a bushel will 
be saved in liis township. 

Tiie yield of potatoes is estimated at fifty-five bushels per acre in the southern 
and 109 bushels in the northern counties. 

The average condition (as regards flesh) of cattle in the southern four tiers of 
counties is about the same, and of sheep two per cent, better, wiiile in tlie northern 
counties tlie average of each is about seven per cent, better than on Dec. 1, 

The following statement shows the Population for 1880, Number of Acres of 
Land Assessed in 1881, Aggregate of Real and Personal Estate as Assessed in 1881, 
Aggregate of Real and Personal Estate as Equalized by Boards of Supervisors for 
1881, Amount Added or Deducted by State Board of Equalization, Aggregate of 
Real and Personal Estate as Equalized by State Board of Equalization for 





i Aggregate of Real 
and Personal 
Estate, as As- 
sessed iu 1881. 

Aggregate of Real 
and Personal 
Estate, as 
Equalized by 

LHiount Added or 
Uedcicted by State 
Board of Equali- 

and Personal 
Estate as Equal- 
ized by .State 
Board of Equal- 
lization for 1881. 







siiiiilac- .!'.'.'. 




Total ... 

31, 223 

























1,636,336 29,306,820,20 

$ 2.492,537,00 
12.901. 1S3. 00 
2.761. 83V1.00 

" "l2.'562,'796.o6 ' 
2,439 964.00 



18,016 252.00 




16.010.686. ( 

3.'i2i"480.b'6 ' 

































12,000.000.001 Add 

836.393.00 Add 

19,115,427.71 Add 

1.059,095.00 Aild 



1,537,558.44 Add 
15,213,276.60 Add 
8.490,000.00 Add 

■ 1.934,705.00 


S 7.473.00 












474, 1-;.- 

ssii, II 1,1 

5, 057^800. liO 









t 2.,500,000.00 
1.500.000. 00 





















According to the tonnage statistics of the United States for the date of June 
30, 1880 (as given in tlie American almanac for 1881), not one of the States located 
away from the ocean coast equals Michigan in the number of vessels owned by its 
citizens or in their aggregate tonnage. The exact figures are given in this table : 

State. No. of Total 

vessels. tonnage. 

Michigan _ 979 162, ig6 

Illinois 459 86,634 

Wisconsin _-_ 383 74.083 

Ohio 485 139.509 

Missouri- _ 319 141.975 

Michigan also surpasses, in this respect, the seaboard States of Connecticut, 
New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Oregon, and all the cotton and gulf States, 
while it far outstrips in tonnage both Virginia and Maryland, although surpassed 
by them in the number of vessels. It exceeds California in the number of its 
vessels, but not in the tonnage total. The coast line of Michigan is only surpassed 
by that of Florida, and it has ports upon four of the great lakes. Its coasting 
traides exceedingly valuable, and its vessel interest represents much capital and 
nterprise, and deserves an important place in a catalogue of its sources of employ- 
ment for labor. In this connection the fact should be mentioned that ship yards 
are located at Detroit, Wyandotte, Port Huron, Bay City, Marine City, St. Clair, 
Grand Haven and other shore towns and ports. 


A subject of such vital interest demands the first attention of every agricul- 
tural society and every agriculturist in the State, and to present at a glance the 
growth and magnitude of the industry, we have prepared from authentic sources, a 
little table showing the acreage, the yield per acre, when possible, and the aggre- 
gate bushels grown at intervals for the last forty j^ears : 

Years. Acres. Yield per Acre. Bushels. 

1839 — 2,157,100 

1849 492,580 10 4,925,800 

1S53 473.451 15 --- 71I28.104 

1859 — 8,313,200 

1S63 843,881 II>^ 9,688,672, 

1869 16,295,772 

1873 1,134,484 13 3-5 15,456,202 

1876 1,223,212 --I3ji ..16,885,179 

1877 1,312,352 18 23.793.039 

187S 1,523,841.. 18 28,000,000 

i ^ 



Out of tlie nine wheat States which outranked Micliigan in 1840, she has out- 
stripped all but Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, while Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin and 
California have, within the last few years, shot forward into the front rank. Cora- 
pared with these great States, the Lower Peninsula surpasses them all save Indi- 
ana, area for area, in wheat production, and were it possible to compare the pro- 
portion of land under cultivation in the two States, there can be no doubt but it 
would surpass Indiana, also. The State motto might well read : " If vou seek the 
American wheat peninsula, look around you." 

The table also reveals the surprising fact that while the aggregate product of 
wheat in Michigan has doubled about every ten years, the average yield per acre 
has increased from ten bushels, in 1849, to eighteen bushels, in 1877. The causes 
for this most gratifying result are not far to seek. It is due to the greater care of 
farmers in selecting seed ; to the introduction of new varieties, such as the Claw- 
son, which yields better than its predecessors ; to irajDroved machinery and methods 
of drilling and harvesting ; and to an increase of live stock, and consequent increase 
of fertilization. Tlie increase in the aggregate is due mainly, to the rapid settle- 
ment and clearing up of the country, and tliere is no reason to sujipose that the 
increase will be seriously checked until the millions of acres of wild lands are 
finally brought under cultivation. What the limit will be, must be left to conjec- 

•Fls — «^ 





He who would deserve a place in the memory of posterity, must collate and 
preserve the history of the acts and times of his ancestors. It is the duty of Jus- 
tice to hand down the Past and Present to the people of the Future. It is the 
duty of the Present to commemorate the Past, to perpetuate the names of the 
pioneers, to furnish a record of their early settlement, — to relate the story of their 
progress. The civilization of our day, the enlightenment of the age, and the 
solemn bond which binds us to our ancestry, demand that a record of tlieir lives 
and deeds should be made. In local history is found a power to instruct man by 
precedent, to enliven the mental faculties, and to waft down the river of time, a 
safe vessel, in which the names and actions of the people, who contributed to 
raise this country from its primitive state, may be preserved. Surely and rapidly, 
the great old men, who in their prime entered the wildernesses of this Peninsula, 
and claimed the virgin soil as their heritage, are passing to their graves. The 
number remaining, who can relate the history of the first days of settlement, is 
becoming small indeed, so that an actual necessity exists for the collection and pre- 
servation of historical matter without delay. Not only is it of the greatest 
importance to render the history of the pioneer times full and accurate ; but it 
is almost equally essential that the history of the county from the earliest times, 
down to our own day, should be treated through its various phases, so that a record, 
complete and impartial, may be handed down to the future. If this information 
is not now collated and compiled in historical form, the generations of the future will 
be called upon to expend large sums of money in research and exploration. The 
present — the iron age of progress — is reviewed, standing out in bold relief over 
the quiet, unostentatious olden times ; it is a brilliant record which shall live as 
long as language lives. 

' The good works of men, their magnificent enterprises, their lives, whether com- 
mercial or military, do not sink into oblivion ; but, on the contrary, grow brighter 
with age, and contribute to build up a record, destined to carry with it precedents 
and principles, that will be advanced and observed, when the acts of soulless men 
sliall be forgotten, and their names like themselves end in their graves. History 




entwines itself with the names of the notorious as well as with those of the illus- 
trious, whenever the former are held up for the scorn, and the latter for the admira- 
tion of men, — there, the pen of impartiality may be traced ; for never yet was the 
writer true to his conscience or to his country who clothed the wolf in the fleece 
of the lamb, or who, by sophistry, painted a coward as a hero. 

In the pages devoted to the history of Macomb County, the useful man and 
his work will have that prominence, to which his physical and moral courage 
entitle him. It is a necessity that the names of such men sliould be transmitted ; 
because many of them, whose lives made material for this work, have passed 
into eternity ; others stand on the brink of tlie grave. Tiiose who have joined 
the majority, as well as these who are soon to visit the Better Land, have done 
good service, claiming as their reward here, the only boon, that their children and 
children's children sliould be reminded of their fidelity, and jarofit by their 

To give effect to this laudable desire is the aim of the writer. Turning over 
the records of the count)'', nothing of moment has been left unnoticed. Beyond 
the period, over which the records extend, all that is legendary has been examined 
and utilized. Although the Old Settlers and their children extended a full co- 
operation, the work necessitated the most earnest labor on the part of the writer 
and his assistants. Success waited on such labor, with the result of bringing 
forth from their hiding-places many valuable papers, upon which to base a just 
account of early times. Many of the surviving old settlers were interviewed, and 
from their reminiscences of olden times, a good deal of all that is historically valu- 
able, in these pages, was selected. 

The reader must remember that the general histori/ of the county does not em- 
brace every historical event. Nothing has found a place in this very important 
section of the work, which did not possess a character of generalization. Begin- 
ning with the history of geological formations, archaeological discoveries, meteoro- 
logical phenomena, zoological representatives, and physical characteristics, this 
chapter is succeeded by a full account of Indian and pioneer days, American settle- 
ment, together with a number of chapters, each one complete and most important 
in itself. 

The general history is followed by the chapters devoted to township and village 
history, each chapter forming a complete historical and historia-biographical sketch 
of a township, city or village. No effort has been spared to render this portion 
of the work reliable as well as interesting. 

Unlike the history of the State, County, Townships and Villages, biography is 
the work of many men, whose notes were ti-anscribed, retranscribed, and very gen- 
erally submitted to the persons concerned, for revision or correction ; so that if 

VAs r- 



literary errors occur, it must be credited to the person, who gave the biographical 
sketch in the first instance. The irrepressihle ti/pos often make grave errors which 
no foresight can set aside ; therefore if typographical errors do appear, let justice 
guide the critic to sympathize with the children at the typo's case, — whose art 
doth move the world. Deal lightly with their excesses. 


In tracing the geological history of the county, it will be only necessary to 
revert to the era when the accumulated sediments of the ocean were beino' formed 
into masses of rock. Geology teaches that the continents of tlie world were once 
beneath the ocean, even as Scripture implies that a sea of mud, resembling in sub- 
stance a South African river, was arranged by an Almighty hand, and the liquid 
sepa]-ated from the solids contained therein. The inequalities in the ocean bed, 
corresponding with the hills and valleys of our land, point out the truths of geo- 
logical science. The recent deep-sea soundings reveal mountains and hills, valleys, 
and table-lands. The greatest depth reached was over 29,000 feet, which exceeds 
the height of the loftiest peak of the Himalayas. Some of the mountains," spring- 
ing from the bed of the ocean, are steeper and more abrupt than any on the face of 
the earth. In the Irish Sea and British Channel the depth changes, within a radius 
of ten miles, from 600 to 12,000 feet ; and it is very common, within a few miles of 
our coasts and islands, for the depth of the waters to change suddenly from a few 
hundred to many thousand feet. In otlier cases, as in the bed of the Atlantic 
between Spain and the United States, there are plateaux extending hundreds of 
miles, with very slight undulations. The mysterious race that once occupied this 
continent may have sailed in galleons over this peninsula of Michigan, and sounded 
the depth of the waters which rose above it, in precisely the same manner as the 
mariners of our day cast the sounding line into our great lakes and the oceans. 

It may be concluded that the State which we inhabit was totally submerged 
at the beginning of the carboniferous period. At the close of that epoch, a great up- 
heaval of sea bottom formed a line of solid earth across the southern counties of 
Michigan, which extended to an older and wider formation in Southern Ohio. The 
land comprised in the original county of Macomb continued submerged for ages ; 
but by degrees the southern belt rose higher, spread out toward the northern con- 
tinent, and actually approached the condition of dry land at the beginning of the 
coal-deposit era. At this time lakes Micliigan, Huron, Ontario and Erie were not 
in existence, their centers forming the channel of a great river, with expansions at 
intervals. This torrent swept over this now prosperous district of Michigan. The 
great geological age — the Mesozoic — dates from this time. It was marked by ac- 
tivity in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, by mild climates, and myriads of rep- 
tiles, which swarmed in rivers and over lands. 



The Tertiary period succeeded the Mesozoic. It was the age of beautifid 
climates, and high development of mammals. Animals, greater than the mastodon, 
roamed over the land, through magnificent forests, meeting their enemy — man, and 
ultimately falling beneath his repeated attacks. 

The glaciers came to desti'oy all this gigantic beauty ; the snow and ice came 
on, burying all nature in their whitness, and robbing the land itself of life. It was 
the beginning of the Glacial period, the duration of -which is lost in mystery. 
Were it possible to ignore the existence of a Divine Architect, and his action in 
forming the earth we inhabit, the continuance of the Ice Age might be set down 
at 2,000 years. There is no intention, however, to ignore the Omnipotent, and, 
therefore, what bears the impress of being the work of 2,000 years, might have 
been compassed in a moment. 

Spiing time came, and under the influence of its season the sea of ice which 
covered land and water to a depth of .5,000 feet began to break up, to dissolve, 
when the solids held within its grasp fell down and formed a bed of rocky frag- 
ments or boulder drift. This rocky conformation must not be confounded with the 
partial drift of after years, evidences of which are given in many sections of our 


Abundant evidences are furnished along the shores of St. Clair Lake and river 
as well as those of Lake Huron, of the unbroken continuity of the action of those 
physical forces, which have assorted and transported the materials of the Drift. 
From the shingle beach formed by the violence of the last gale, we trace a series, of 
beaches and terraces, gradually rising as we recede from the shore, and becoming 
more and more covered with the lichens and mould and forest growths which de- 
note antiquity, until in some cases the phenomena of shore action blend with the 
features which characterize the Glacial Diift. These observations tally with the 
views of Pictet on the continuity of the Diluvian and Modern Epochs, as established 
b}^ paliBontological evidences. So also may we behold evidences of the disintegra- 
tion of strata, which formerly existed in this very county — we may see every day 
the comminuted materials lying around us in all directions. The uses of these 
cobbles are known wherever a pavement is necessary ; while on the land they keep 
it warm as it were, and aid in the growth of grain crops. These remnants of com- 
minution are principally rounded fragments of syenite, greenstone, vitreous and 
jasperous sandstones, horn-rock, talcase and of the serpentinous rocks of the azoic 
series. Here are the rocks overspread with blue clay, plutonic boulders and 
pebbles. There is a curious rock on the farm of Edwin Lamb in Washington Town- 
ship. It consisted of ordinary cobble stones bound together by a kind of water 
lime cement. Some years ago it was examined l)y Wm. A. Burt, who gave it as 



liis opinion that it had been brought here from northern Michigan on a cake of ice 
at a time when all the county was covered by the waters of Lake St. Clair. In 
other places those rude materials are often arranged in rude courses, which have a 
curved dip, and appear outcropping on the hill-sides and sometimes upon the plains. 
Tlie outcrop is very irregular in this county. In the deep borings for brine, as well 
as in the shallow surface water-reservoirs, these boulders and pebbles have been 
found. Again entire fields bear them upon the surface, or so near the surface that 
each successive plowing brings them more prominently into view. In some places 
a field is found bearing nine and twelve cobble stones on every square foot of its 
surface ; such fields are generally very productive, the onlj^ fault being in the 
difficult}^ of plowing them. 

There is a thin series of argillaceous magnesian limestones and marls, embracing 
beds and masses of gypsum, and, in some regions, strata of liock Salt is known as 
the Salina. It is the lowest stratified rock known in the Lower Peninsula. Its 
belt of outcrop stretches across the point of land north of Mackinac, from Little 
Point au Ciiene to the vicinity of the mouth of Carp River, and close to the shore 
from that point to West Moran Bay. Tlie formation, with the characteristic 
gypsum, is seen beneath the water surface at the little St. Martin Island, and at 
Goose Island near Mackinac. Dipping beneath the Lower Peninsula, it re-appears 
in Monroe Count}' wliere it has been exposed in some of the deepest quarries. In the 
well-borings at Mt. Clemens, as well as at Alpena and Caseville, this formation has 
l)een reached, and near Sandusky, Ohio, it affords valuable gypsum deposits. At 
Mt. Clemens the Salt Rock was not reached, though at Alpena and Caseville a 
thick bed of such rock was penetrated, doubtless similar, or rather equivalent to 
tlie beds at Goderich in Canada. 

The total thickness of this formation is a matter of speculation, but is supposed 
to be fifty or sixty feet in depth above the Salt Rock. The stratification based on 
information obtained from the measurement of remote outcrops of the group, may 
be placed as follows : 

Calcareous clay as seen at Bois Blanc. Fine ash-colored limestone, with 
acicular crystals, as at Ida, Otter Creek and Plum Creek quarries, and at Mackinac, 
Round and Bois Blanc Island. Variegated gypseous marls, with imbedded masses 
of gypsum, as at Little Point au Chene and the St. Martin Islands. 

A group of argillaceous and magnesian limestones outcrop along the western 
shore of Lake Erie, and exists beneath the surface in the counties bordering on the 
lake and river St. Clair. It consists of an aigillaceous, chocolate-colored, magne- 
sian limestone in regular layers, each layer from four to eight inches thick. This 
conformation seems to correspond with the tvaterlime formation of New York. 

The formation known as corniferous litnestone, is very general in masses of 


horn-stone. The dark color of the rock is imparted by the presence of bituminous 
matter, which often shows itself in the thin partings between the strata. Petroleum 
saturates the formation, and as the bitumen colors the rock, so does the petroleum 
bestow on it its peculiar odor, often oozing from the crevices, and showing itself on 
the streams in the vicinity. 

The black shale at the bottom of the argillaceous strata known as the Huron 
group, is about 20 feet thick, sometimes laminated and fissile. This shale has 
doubtless been pierced in the borings at Mt. Clemens, as it is known to exist in St. 
Clair, and counties adjoining Macomb. The shale resembles coal, and when placed 
in a stove or grate gives a blaze resembling that of coal. 

We also find here a species of shales more arenaceous than the black shale, 
which, to use the language of geology, terminate in a sei-ies of laminated, argilla- 
ceous, micaceous, friable sandstone, which pass into the Waverly group. 

The Black Shale hitherto regarded holds an important place in the stratifica- 
tion of this county, particularly on its southern borders. It appears that about the 
year 1858, F. P. Boutellier undertook the boring of a well in Greenfield township 
in the county of Wayne. The earth was penetrated beneath a saw-mill, then in 
operation. The drill having passed through the clay and subjacent rock, entered 
the blue-black shale, which it passed through at a depth of seventy or eighty feet. 
At this moment the iron was wrested from the hands of the laborers as if by some 
supernatural power. This phenomena was followed by a violent escape of gas, 
and an upheaval of water and sand. 

The stream of fetid gas became ignited in some manner, and formed a fiery 
column, reaching to the roof of the mill. All efforts to extinguish the blaze 
proved utterly futile, the burning roof of the building had to be removed, and a 
furnace pipe placed over the boring to guide the terrific flame. This last act in the 
drama of that well boring had the effect of extinguishing the fire. Boutellier, it 
need scarcely be said, was happy for this denouement ; yet he took precautions 
against the recurrence of such an eruption, by filling up the boring with pebbles, 
and clay, and i-efusing permission to have such an experiment repeated. In Ster- 
ling township one of such wells created a sensation some time ago. 

Throughout Wayne, Macomb and St. Clair counties there are evidences of the 
existence of gas fountains, if not actual oil reservoirs. This fetid gas was undoubt- 
edly the product of distilled petroleum lying below the gas fountain in a similar 
position to the oil reservoirs of Petrolia and Oil Springs in Canada. 


On the grounds of Geo. C. Walker at New Baltimore is a gas well, which gives 
up sufiicient gas to light his residence. It is his intention to utilize this light-mak- 


ing stream, by guiding it into the cookery and throughout the house. The well is 
only 56 feet in depth. 

About the same time that Mr. Walker bored this well three other persons in 
the village engaged in a like enterprise, and struck the same gaseous vein. It is 
stated that about the year 1850 the existence of natural gas, at this point, was no- 
ticed by many of the villagers. Below the Hathaway warehouse bul)bles were ob- 
served on the surface of the water, while a closer inspection pointed out the fact 
that some submarine power agitated the sand below the water, raising it up in cones 
and then scattering it around. 


In consequence of the changes to which the various strata of the county has 
been subjected, the waters have carved for themselves, even within our own time, 
a passage through it, and find their way to the lower lakes throngli subterraneous 
rivulets, causing the diminution of, and sometimes the total disappearance of ponds 
and creeks. This, doubtless, is to-day operating against our rivers, and accounts 
for the visible reduction of the volume of water, compared with that which marked 
them in Territorial days. This diminution is partly attributed to increased evapo- 
ration, consequent upon the removal of the forests. 

In the same way we must account for the reports of public officers in the olden 
times — one reports the Huron River navigable for thirty miles ; the other reports 
the hrine obtained from the springs of the civil district of Huron capable of yield- 
ing 25 per cent, of solid saline matter. 


The small bodies of water or lakelets with which certain portions of Macomb 
County are diversified, rest in depressions shaped in the layer of modified drift. 
The remarkable group of water fountains in the northwestern township of the 
county, together with those in the northeastern part of Oakland, continues through 
Livingston, Washtenaw, and onwards to the lakes of Grattan in Kent County. 
They are particularly scattered along the scarcely descending banks of the Huron 
of Lake St. Clair, or the Clinton and its tributaries, and are strung like beads along 
these streams, many of them, probably, the ancient work of beavers. 

The lakelets of Macomb County, as of the Lower Peninsula in general, are 
surrounded by gravelly, elevated shores on two or three sides, with frequently a low, 
marshy border fringing the remainder of the contour. As the streams which feed 
them are clear, the water of the lakes is limpid and healthful, tliough of the char- 
acter known as hard. They furnish, therefore, charming places of Summer resort. 
The same species of fish and molluscs inhabit the different lakelets of the county, 
however disconnected. This fact presents an interesting and difficult problem to 




the investigator of the origin of species. The most natural inference is. that at a 
former period a general S3'stem of water communication existed among the various 
bodies of water in this part of the Peninsula, and at tliis time one fauna extended 
through all its limits. A similar problem, but of a larger magnitude, is presented 
by the similar faunas inhabiting different rivers and lake systems, and especial)}' 
wlien the different systems discharge into the sea at different points, and their 
jiigher sources, as well as their valleys of discharge, are separated bj' elevations too 
great to admit the hypothesis of a general fresh-water inundation in former times. 

It requires but casual observation to become convinced that nearly all these 
lakelets have formerly been of larger size. The shore upon one or more sides is 
frequently low and sedgy, and stretclies back over an expanse of marsh and allu- 
vial land to a sloping, gravelly bank, which appears to have been the ancient con- 
tour of the lake or river expansion. The lowland between the ancient shore and 
the modern is composed of a bed of peat, genei'ally underlaid by a bed of marl. 
Beneath the marl may be found, in many cases, a deposit of blue, plastic clay, which 
forms a transition to the layer of modified drift before described. Each of these 
deposits may have a thickness of a few inches or more, up to ten or twenty feet. 
That all these formations have been laid down from the flooded or Ciiamplain 
Period is evident : first, from their superposition on the modified drift ; second, 
from tlie fact that the lake is performing in our own times the same work as we see 
completed in the low-border marsh ; third, from the gradual extension of many 
lake-border marshes, and the corresponding diminution of the areas of the lakes. 

The calcareous character of the water of tliese lakelets makes them a fitting 
abode for numerous species of lime-secreting molluscs. These animals eliminate 
ti]e lime from the water and build it into the structure of their shells. Finally the 
mollusc dies and its shell falls to the bottom, where it undergoes disintegration into 
a white powder, or becomes buried in the progressing accumulation of such mate- 
rial. Another portion of the marly deposit forming in the bed of the lakes is 
probably derived from calcareous i^recipitation directly from the lake water. Thus 
a bed of marl is forming over the whole bottom of the lake, in situations sufficiently 
protected and shallow to serve as the abode of shell-making animals. But on the 
leeward side the immediate shore is the seat of a layer of peat. Bulrushes lift 
their heads through water one or two feet deep. A little nearer the shore flags 
may be seen, and still nearer scouring rushes. On the immediate border of the 
land willows and water-loving sedges hold a place, while further back other sedges 
and grasses take possession in varying j)roportions. This is the lee side of the 
lakes. Floating leaves, twigs, stems, therefore find their way among the lake-side 
growths, and becoming entangled, sink and fall into gradual decay. More than this, 
each autumn's crop of dead vegetation, produced round the borders of these lakes. 




contributes to the accumulation of vegetable material, which gra dually changes 
into the condition of humus and j>eat. This is a work begun at the surface of the 
water. When this substance sinks, it overlies what the lake had hitherto accumu- 
lated. When the peat layer is first begun, the previous accumulation is marl, and 
hence the well-known order of superposition of these two deposits. The peat bed 
grows lakeward as the continued formation of marl shallows the water. In the 
course of time, the actual seat of operations becomes removed far from the ancient 
shore, and a broad marsh comes into existence, with peat everywhere at the surface 
and marl beneath. On the Benjamin Farm, just south of Romeo, this formation 
may be seen. The enterprise of the owner has not only rendered the lake site 
capable of high cultivation, but has also brought to light the surfaces as they were 
formed during the last thousand years. 


Almost the entire country may be considered an ancient lake site ; yet in a re- 
ference here, the writer wishes to deal with the ponds of the county, which, long 
years after the Champlain epoch, were large sheets of water. As many existing 
ponds have obviously been contracted from their ancient limits, so a little reflection 
makes it obvious that many lakes, once existing here, have become quite extinct 
through the completion of the process of filling up. It is probable that every 
marsh in the county marks the site of an ancient lake. Level as the surface of the 
water, which determined their limits and depth, not a few of them retain, at some 
point, vestiges of the lakes which they have displaced ; and others exhibit all trans- 
itions from a reeking and quaking bog to an alluvial meadow ; while in nearly all 
cases ditching discloses the peaty, marly and clayey materials, in the order in 
which, under lake action, they are accumulating before our eyes along actual lake 
borders. The absence of any marked, general inclination of the surface in our 
Peninsula, has made it the seat of an extraordinary number of small lakes, ancient 
and modern, and hence, also, a region of small local marshes. 

Some of these may be found on almost every section of land ; but the majority 
of them form meadow lands, or even tillable fields, and constitute the choicest 
patches in tlie farmers' possession. Many of these ancient lake sites, nevertheless, 
remain for the present notiiing but swamps, and demand resolute ditching for their 
thorough reclamation, as is evidenced by the old oranherry marsh so well remem- 
bered by the old settlers of Wayne, Macomb, and Oakland. 


The salt springs of Macomb county result from an overflow of the great sali- 
ferous basin of the Peninsula. 



Tiie wells at Mt. Clemens were bored upon the thinning-out edge of this 
basin, almost one degree of longitude south-east of the highest saturation point and 
at a place where' the brine would necessarily be diluted with surface water or with 
that of subteri'anean rivers. Consequently, the hritie of Mt. Clemens must be con- 
sidered separately from that so prized by salt manufacturers, for the reason that it 
is a medicinal mineral water, rather than a common salt brine. The difiSculties pre- 
sented by this water in the manufacture of common salt therefrom, are due to the 
large quantity of deliquescent salts of calcium and magnesium existing in connec- 
tion with the chloride of sodium ; but what it loses in this respect is more than 
compensated for by the large quantity of salts present, possessing, in connection 
with the sulphuretted hydrogen, a decided medicinal effect. Chief among the 
active ingredients, in addition to those mentioned is iodine, an agent whose value 
has long been recognized by the medical profession. 


The S'alt Spring near the bank of Salt River in the vicinity of which the 
squatters of 1797 located, was considered by them a most valuable property. This 
spring appeared in the glen, close by the Plank Road Bridge of later days — four 
miles from the mouth of the river. In a report tendered to Tliomas Jefferson by 
Charles S. Jonett in 1804, this agent of the government makes the following state- 
ment: — "From experiments which have been made, I am justified in saying that 
this spring deserves the public attention, it was wrought sometime by a couple of 
men, who, owing to their want of capital, were incapal:)le of conducting the business 
on an advantageous plan. By these men I am assured that a quart of water did 
with them turn out a gill of salt, and in all their trials with greater quantities it 
never failed to produce a like proportion. Tiiere is a suflScient quantit}^ of water 
to supply works to any extent." 

From a report made by Douglass Houghton in 1838 to the Legislature, the 
analysis of the brine, said to be so rich in the saline properties, in the report of 
Jonett to Secretary Jefferson in 1804, was as follows : 

Analysis of hrine, sections two and eleven, Chesterfield. 

Specific gravity.- 1.0057 

Cliloride Sodium .0.549 

" Calcium 0.013 

" Magnesium 0.037 

Sulphate of Lime 0.015 

Sulphate of Magnesia _ 

Carbonate of Lime 0.014 

Compounds of Iron o.ooi 

Other Constituents 

Total solid matter .0.629 


A committee appointed by the Northeastern Medical and Scientific Society 
reported very favorably of the waters produced by the Mt. Clemens mineral springs. 



From an analysis made by Prof. Duffield in 1872, it is learned that the specific 
gravity at 60" Fahrenheit, is 1.129. The total amount of mineral matter per pint 
was 1417.6200, and the total amount of Chloride of Sodium per pint 1350.8498. 
The components were reported as follows : 

Name. Per Pint. Per Gallon. 

Sulphate Snda j 12.0700 96.5600 

Sulphate Lime - --- 5.4992 43.9936 

Chloride Sodium 1350.S498 10806.7984 

Chloride Calciutn. _ 26.9399 215.5120 

Chloride Magnesium 20.2400 161.9200 

Carbonate Lime.. - .6216 4.96S0 

Carbonate Magnesia a trace 

Silica and Alumina .1.4010 

Organic Matter .a trace 

Total Solids 141 7.6200 1 1 340.9600 

Sulphureted Hydrogen 3.41 cu. in. 

Carbonic Acid a trace 

Recent investigations show that Iodine, Potassium and Ammonia Salts are 
present, the former in quite considerable quantity, as compared with other mineral 
waters. A new analysis is contemplated by Prof. H. F. Myers, which, doubtless, 
will bring to light all the medicinal properties of these celebrated springs. Such 
an analysis is deemed expedient to show the present actual condition of the waters. 

The mineral water spring near Romeo, belonging to Mr. Dexter Mussey, which 
created some excitement early in 1874, claims the following analysis by Prof. 

Sulphate of Calcium 4.8536 grs. to gal. 

Sulphate of Potass 01 1 3 

Sulphate of Magnesia 2.1345 

Carbonate of Magnesia 1. 6321 

Carbonate of Calcium - 3-9804 

Chloride of Sodium.. 0.0501 

Carbonate of Iron 0.0632 

Aluminium Oxide 0S30 

Silicium 1753 

Total amount of carbonic acid per gallon one and a half inches. 
The mineral well bored at Romeo, in 1881, gives promise of meeting the highest 
hopes of the citizens in regard thereto. The record of the boring is as follows : — 


40 Sand and gravel. 

70 Blue adhesive clay, with seams of quicksand, 
13 Light sand. 

123 Casing belled. 




27 Shale-like material loose with seams of gravel. 
30 Light bluish rock floating, effervescing with acid. 


Drill entered hard rock at 170 feet, which it pierced to 180 feet, when it entered a bufilish shale with 
minute disseminated mica scales, peculiar to the conftrmationof the Michigan salt group, differ- 
ing only in tlie fact that the shale seemed to be very soft, if not clayed. 
60 Frearstone rock. 

240 At this point the bituminous shale should be reached and the presence of inflammable gas felt. 
510 Soap stone, black shale. 

750 A bed of rock salt was reached. 

300 Blue shale or slate. 

250 Grindstone rock. 

70 Limestone. 

1370 Soft rock, rotten limestone — conliiiued to 1420 feet. 


1420 Gas veins penetrated. 

125 Soft porous rock of a plastic character, impregnated with gas. 


1545 Total depth reached in feet. 

The original record of the boring shows simply 150 feet of sand and gravel 
forming the upper crust, resting on 80 feet of liglit floating rock, supported in turn 
by 60 feet of frearstone on which the reservoir rests. The 810 feet below the frear 
stone is simply credited with being a conformation of soap stone, black shale, and 
slate. At a depth of 750 a bed of rock-salt was reached, but the depth of this 
very important formation is not recorded. Below the slate a rock, named grind- 
stone in the record, was pierced to a deptli of 250 feet, resting on a bed of lime- 
stone 70 feet deep, and tliis, in turn, resting on 175 feet of soft, plastic rock. 


The analysis of water obtained from the mineral well at Romeo, made by 
chemist Lyon, of Detroit, for the committee in charge of the well, is as follows : — 

Special gravity at 60° F _ — 1.0037 

Calcium Sulphate 6.066 grains per wine gallon 7.2S1 Lnp. Gal. 

Carbonate. 12.774 " - 14899 

Magnesium. .554 " " ' " - .66g 

Iron .S92 ' " 1.070 " 

Magnesium Chloride.. 4.019 " " " "' 4.824 " 

Potassium .455 " " " " 5.466 " 

Sodium 2S3.957 " 340S34 

Sediment (debris of rock).. 170.73 " " " " .- — 

Carbonic acid (combined) 13.27 cu. in. " " " .- 15.92 " 

(free) 4.9 cu. in. " " " 5.87 " 


As the work of pumping progresses the water shows signs of losing much of 
the sediment materials. 

The carbonated waters contain a quantity of soluble salts; the sulphur waters 
are of the most pronounced character, each impregnated with mineral substances, 
which must always render them of inestimable value to the people. It is said that 
tlie magnetic waters of the State are not themselves magnetic; but that marked 
magnetic phenomena are manifested in the vicinity ot the wells, arising through 
induction from the earth, without regard to the waters; yet experiments indicate a 
power of excitation of magnetism possessed by these waters. 

The fossil remains found in connection with the rocks of this county, and par- 
ticularly evident in the limestone strata, comprise the Lithostrotion mammillare, 
the L. longiconicum, the C^'athophyllum fungitis, and the Syringopore, all belong- 
ing to the polypi class. The only evidence of the Echinodermata is furnished by 
the remains of common species. The Bryoza class is represented in this lime-stone 
by no less than seven species ; the Brachiopoda by eighteen species ; the Lamelli- 
branchiata by six species ; the Trilobites by two very distinct species, each showing 
the tails. The remains of fish and reptiles are found to be very common. Human 
remains are unknown at present to exist in the conformations examined in Macomb. 


The water courses of Macomb county are numerous and valuable. The leading 
stream, reported in early years to be navigable for thirty miles, is the most im- 
portant. Its waters are known throughout the entire district organized in 1818 
under the name of Macomb, now forming many prosperous counties of the State. 
This river was called ia Reviere Aux Murons by the early French missionary priests, 
on account of the peculiar character of the hair which marked the red men of the 
neighborhood. This liair stood out like the bristles of the wild boar, and suggested 
to the thoughtful travelers a new name for the inhabitants and their territory, 
which name it held until the Territorial Legislature deemed it proper, for con- 
venience, to confer on the river the name Clinton. 

The Clinton River enters the county at the southwest corner of Section 18, 
Shelby Township, flows through a very tortuous channel in a southeasterly course, 
past the village of Utica, to the line between Section 2-1 of Sterling and Section 19 
of Clinton, where it is joined by the waters of the South Branch, whence it pursues 
a seine-like course northeast to the confluence of the North Branch. At this point 
the channel is wide and deep, growing wider as it approaches the lake. The river 
may be said to form the natural boundary of the city of the future on the west, to 

j, ^^ 


divide the north city of the present from the south city of the prospective, and 
thence flow through a deep and winding channel to the lake. 

The North Branch of the Clinton appears to rise everywhere in the county 
and far beyond its boundaries. Flowing southeast from Bruce, south from Ar- 
mada and Richmond, it is fed by numerous streams, it receives the waters of a 
dozen creeks, and joins the Middle Branch in Section 8 of Clinton. 

The Middle Branch is a domestic river. It has its head waters in Washington 
and Shelby Townships, with many feeders in that and the adjoining towns of 
Shelby and Ray. These feeders unite in Section 6, Macomb Township, and form 
the stream known as the Middle Branch, which forms a confluence witli tlie North 
Branch in Section 8 of Clinton, one-half mile west of the boundary of Mt. Clemens 

The South Branch, commonly called Red Run, is fed by Bear, Beaver, and 
Plum Creeks and other small streams. This river and its tributaries drain the 
towns of Sterling and Warren, and lead the surplus waters to the main stream, 
with which a confluence is formed in Section 19, Clinton. 

Belle River may be said to take its rise in the headwaters of Day Creek, Rich- 
mond Township. Although the main stream flows from the northwest of its con- 
fluence witli Day Creek, draining the country in the neighborhood of Memphis and 
Attica in Lapeer County, yet the river is unimportant until it receives the waters 
of the creek in Section 12, Richmond, whence it flows into the river St. Clair at 
Marine City. 

La Reviere du Lait, or Milk River, falls into the lake a half-mile nortli of the 
southern line of Erin township. 

Salt River rises near Richmond, flows south through Lenox, receives its main 
tributary in Section 2, Chesterfield, and enters the lake a few miles south of the 
ancient salt springs. 

The Reviere Aux Vasen and the Crapau fall into tlie lake in the neighborhood. 
The former rises in Cliesterfield, watering Sections 21, 20 and 28 in its course ; the 
latter has its headwaters in St. Clair County, enters Chesterfield in Section 12, flows 
through New Baltimore, and empties into the lake a little south of that village. 

The creeks commonly called Tuckar's and Ventre de Bceuf rise in Harrison 
Township and flow into the lake- Ambroise or Tremble Cr. and La Crique de 
Socier rise in the northern sections of Erin and flow into the lake. 

Together with the rivers, streams, and streamlets named, there are numerous 
rivulets coursing throughout every section of the county, each acting its silent part 
in contributing to the prosperity of the people. 


Macomb County was the Paglgendamoivinaki or great cemetery of the abor- 

^ s r- 



igines. Along the Clinton and its tributaries many mounds were found by the 
early settlers, some few still exist, all offer interesting subjects to the antiquarian of 
the present time. From time to time the search among the bones of the dead is 
rewarded by the discovery of one or otiier of the many articles placed in the earth 
with the dead. The number of mounds, and character of human remains found in 
them, point out the district as the necropolis of an extinct race. Stone hatchets 
and flint arrow lieads, unnumbered skeletons, all remain to tell of their coming, 
their stay, of their rise and fall. 

The free copper found within the tumuli, the open veins of the Superior and 
Iron Mountain copper mines, with all the modus operandi of ancient mining, such 
as ladders, levers, chisels and hammer-heads, discovered by the French explorers 
of the Northwest and the Mississippi, are conclusive proofs that a prehistoric people 
were civilized, and that many flourishing colonies were spread throughout the new- 
ly-formed land. While yet the mammoth, the mastodon, and a hundred other 
animals, now only known by their gigantic fossil remains, guarded the eastern shore 
of the continent, as it were, against supposed invasions of the Tower Builders, who 
went west from Babel; while yet the beautiful isles of the Antilles formed an inte- 
gral portion of this continent, long years before the European Northman dreamed 
of setting forth on his voyage of discovery to Greenland, and certainly at a time 
when only a small portion of the American continent, north of latitude 45°, was 
reclaimed, in the midst of the great ice-encumbered waste, a prehistoric people 
lived and died upon the land which the American and French pioneers of Macomb 
rescued from its wilderness state. 

Within the last twentj' years, great advances have been made toward the dis- 
covery of antiquities, whether pertaining to remains of organic or inorganic nature. 
Together with many telling relics of the aboriginal inhabitants, the fossils of pre- 
historic animals have been unearthed from end to end of the county, and in districts 
too, long pronounced by geologists of some repute to be without even a vestige of 
vertebrate fossils. Among the collected souvenirs of an age, about which so very 
little is known, are single and ossified vertebrae, supposed to belong to the creta- 
ceous period, when the Dinosaur roamed over the country from east to west, deso- 
lating the villages of the people. This animal is said to have been sixty feet long, 
and when feeding in the pine forests was capable of extending himself eighty-five 
feet, so that he might devour the budding tops of those great trees. 

Other efforts of our antiquarians \x\a.y lead to great results, and culminate prob- 
ably in the discovery of a tablet, engraved by some learned Tower or Mound 
Builder, describing, in characters hieroglyphical, all those men and beasts whose 
history excites so much interest, and transform the speculative into certainty. The 
identity of the Mound Builders with the Mongolians, and the closer tie which 




bound the latter to tlie Egyptians might lead us to hope for such a consummation, 
miglit possibly result in proving that the Egyptian originally migrated from Cen- 
tral America, branched out toward China, and became the Mongolian, and in turn 
continued to travel eastward until the descendants of the first Americans returned 
to the cradle of their race, as set forth in an extract given in this work, from the 
writer's special paper on the Mound Builders. 


The so-called Indian forts and mounds situated upon the North Branch of 
Clinton River in Macomb County, have long been the subject of much speculation 
and interest. Two of the three forts are entirely leveled by the plow, and it is 
only from memory, aided by that mysterious personage known as the oldest in- 
habitant, that the geography and description can be obtained. 

Eighteen or twenty years ago the embankments were quite distinct. The first 
and, apparently, the most prominent of those forts, was situated upon the east 
bank of the North Branch of the Clinton, on the east line of the town of Bruce, 
three miles northeast of Rome. The branch is at this place about twenty feet wide, 
with a rapid current affording a constant supply of pure, cool water. The bank of 
the stream rises abruptly in a sort of bluff, some ten or twelve feet in height, and 
then is level to the fort some fifteen rods distant. 

A little stream comes down from the northwest and passes about twenty rods 
to the south of the fort. Between this stream and the fort was the burial-ground 
of the inhabitants. The fort itself was nearly regular, about 350 feet in diameter. 
The wall upon the north was curved less than a true circle. The walls before being 
leveled by the plow, were four or five feet high, and some eight feet thick at the 

If we take into consideration the length of time intervening between the build- 
ing of these walls and our earliest knowledge of them, and also the character of 
the soil of which they are composed — a loose gravel — we must conclude that they 
were at least double the height here given. The earth to form these walls was 
taken from the outside, and thus a deep and wide ditch was formed on all sides 
save a portion of the west, which was bounded by a marsh, covered by a tangle of 
water-vines and brush.* The openings, three in number, were about twenty feet 
wide, and just inside the open space of wall a mound was built entirely shutting off 
any view from the exterior. Tlie mounds were probably as higli as the walls tliem- 
selves and afforded a jjerfect shelter from objects projected from without. A supply 
of water for the use of a garrison in time of seige, could be obtained from a small 
lake within the enclosure. 

Between the fort and the small stream were situated a number of mounds or 




graves, each circular, and each containing tlie skeleton of one person. Many of 
the mounds were opened, and the contents exhumed ; but an entire skeleton has 
never been found, the smaller bones having become decomposed. The skulls and 
larger bones of the extremities were often found to be of extreme size. The under 
jaw, in one instance, easily slipped over the face of the finder — over flesh and 
whiskers. The thigh bone when jilaced beside that of a living person would pro- 
trude considerably beyond it. Perhaps there were giants in those days ! 

There is a faint tradition, that the faithful dog of the Indian together with his 
gun and pipe, were buried with him for his pleasure and benefit in the Happy 
Hunting Grounds ; but if those were Indian graves the facts dispose the theory, as 
no such contents have been brought to light. Broken pieces of pottery were often 
and are still sometimes found in tlie cultivated fields adjoining the mounds ; and in 
one instance an entire dish was turned up by the plow. This was of the shape of 
the smaller half of an egg-shell, and would hold from twelve to fifteen gallons. It 
was surmounted by a rim or border which was ornamented by checks, cut in the 
clay. It had the appearance of having been dried in the sun, and soon fell to decay 
by the action of the atmosphere. Flint ai-row-heads and stone weapons are often 
found ; also amulets and other curious objects, the use of which it is difficult to con- 
jecture '.Of the mode of their manufacture it is vain to speculate. There are many 
of these specimens now in my possession, hard as adamant, and yet which have 
received and retained through all these years the most perfect polish, and are fault- 
less in shape. 


Across the stream, some twenty rods to the south, was situated a large mound, 
surrounded by a number of smaller ones. Upon the summit of the larger one is 
still standing a large oak tree, which may have been planted there or gained its 
position by accident. It has been thought by some that a chief was buried there, 
standing with his back against the tree, and so the mound raised about him, 
and as members of his family died they were interred about him. Others 
have it that he was buried lying horizontal, and the tree planted at his head. 
The mound was opened years ago, and the position of the bones in the grave 
seemed to confirm the latter conclusion. It was expected that something real and 
strange would be found in this grave, but the expectations were not realized. 


In various parts of the county were found mounds of stone. Those were 
stone-piles built up, in a symmetrical form, to the height of four feet or more, hav- 
ing the shape of an old-fashioned straw bee-hive. One of these standing on the farm 
of Ido Warner, was surmounted by a tree, the roots of which running over the sides. 


served to keep the stones in place until it was cut away, and the grave opened. 
The contents did not differ from those of the other mounds save that the bones had 
tlie appearance of having been charred by fire. It was thought by many that these 
stone mounds had been formed in clearing the fields near by for cultivation ; but it 
is abundantly proved that such was not the caee. And now a word in regard to 
these fields. In many places in the brush or light timbered land, where the soil is 
sand or light loam, distinct rows of hills may be traced. They are in many places 
so prominent as to interfere with the first plowing of the land. Undoubtedly the 
same hills were employed year after year, by simply opening the top of tlie hill for 
the reception of the seed, and then in the way of cultivation, pulling up the earth 
around the growing jjlant. 


Was situated about a mile up the branch from the one formerly described, upon 
the farm of B. H. Thurston. His house and farm buildings now occupy tlie ground. 
Tlie soil here is a rich, sandy loam, about ten feet above the bed of the stream, on 
tbe west side, and facing the south with an easy slojje. 

The fort was oblong in shape ; its length extending to the southwest at right 
angles to the stream, about 500 feet ; its greatest breadth about 250 feet. Tiie em- 
bankments presented the same general characteristics as regards form, height, as 
the one formerly mentioned. There was but one opening on the river front, and 
tlie two ends of the circle of wall were made to overlap each other, thus shutting 
off all view from the exterior. There were a few mounds upon the south side of 
the fort, also across the stream about half a mile north. Numerous stone hatchets, 
flint aiTow-heads, amulets, and bits of crockery were found in the vicinity of these 
mounds, but never in or upon them. 


Is the extreme northwest corner of the county, and is about one mile west of the 
North Branch. This fort is still in its natural condition, covered with a low growth 
of oak timber. The embankments are in many instances four feet high from the 
bottom of the ditch. They describe a circle slightly flattened upon the north, and 
meeting in something like a corner at the northwest, where there is an opening about 
eight feet wide. The fort is 225 feet in diameter in each direction. Along the 
south ran a little stream with a margin of marsh ; along the edge of this marsli the 
walls are nearly defaced. The ground upon the interior of this fort descends to 
the south more rapidly than either of the others. Unlike the others, there seems 
to have been no arrangement for the protection of the entrance. Mounds have 
been found in various places in the vicinity. 

By whom were these forts erected ? We liave become so accustomed to tbe 


phrase, Indian Mounds and Forts, that at first thought we can answer — the Indians, 
of course. But wlien we call to mind the American Indians' aversion to all kinds 
of labor, also their well-known mode of warfare, seeking onlj^ the shelter of a tree, 
from behind which they could fling a stone or shoot an arrow, we may pause before 
reaching a definite conclusion. So far as we know of the natives of this locality, 
they have never shown either energy or skill, sufficient to plan and execute the 
work of building a fort, or making a stone hatchet or arrow-head. We are told 
that the graves of the Indians contain more than their bodies, — we are certain that 
these mounds contain nothing but human bones. The Indians living in the vicinity 
of the forts, at the time of the first settlement by Whites, were as ignorant of their 
ways as the whites themselves. It is possible, perhaps probable, that they were the 
work of a race or ti'ibe of people possessing a higher degree of intelligence and 
skill than the American Indian. Be this as it may, it is doubtful if any decisive 
conclusion will ever be reached, and these forts and mounds of Macomb will ever 
remain a prolific source of speculation and interest. The foregoing statements are 
based on reports made by County Surveyor Hollister in 1841, and by George H. 
Canuon in 1874. 

From a letter addressed to Dr. Cooley, by John B. Hollister, under date April 
10, 18-30, it is learned that the North Fort was located on the east half of the north- 
east quarter of Fr. Section 3, Township 5 north of Range 12 east. The East 
Fort was on the west half of the southwest quarter Fr. Section 18, Township 5, 
north of Range 13 east. The South Fort stood on the west half of the northeast 
quarter of Section 25, Township 5 north of Range 12 east. Those were important 
positions, and doubtless formed the principal strongholds in Northeastern Michigan 
of a race of savages unremembered even by the ancient Wyaudots. 


The mounds, three miles north of Romeo, and two miles east on the northeast 
quarter of Section 25, Bruce, were again examined, about the year 1859, by Dr. S. 
L. Andrews. At the same time the old fort in the same neighborhood on Section 
19, Armada, known as the Donaldson Fai-m, was opened, and an exploration made. 
The embankment surrounding the first-named fort was about four feet high at that 
time, with a lap opening. Then there were a number of stone heaps, the most 
remarkable of which were near Armada Center, and near the fort just referred to. 

Four miles north, and three miles west of Romeo, on the farm of Benjamin 
Cooley, were a number of excavations, one of which contained an earthen pot, 
differing entirely from anything known to Indian civilization. 

There were the remains of an old fort on the bank of a streamlet flowing into 
Salt River, in 1837. The walls were circular with a gateway leading to the stream. 



At the time of its exploration by Robert P. Eldredge, a white oak tree, at least 
three feet in diameter, sprung from the very center of the fortress, but whether this 
was planted by the builders, or grew up since the fort was constructed, the 
explorers were unable to state. 

Tlie Indian corn field on the north bank of Salt River was easily found so late 
as 1827. Here the savages had a thousand little hills, the pinnacle of each was 
annually cultivated, leaving the base and sides untouched by the rude instruments 
of agriculture wliich the cultivators used. 


E. p. Sandford, of Romeo, visited the mounds on the Mahaffy farm, near the 
farm of J. C. Thompson, in the Fall of 1S80. The mounds are thrown up from two 
to four feet high and are made round. Having reached tlie mounds he dug into 
the first one, for the purpose of finding implements of some kind, when he reached 
the deptii of about three feet the spade struck what he supposed to be a stone, but 
by careful digging was found to be the skull of a large i)erson. A little farther in 
lie took out six skeletons, three being grown persons and three cliildren. All 
seemed to have been placed in a kneeling position with their heads on tlieir knees 
forming a semicircle facing the southwest. The large bones of the grown persons 
were in good state of preservation, the bones of tlie cliildren were all decayed, with 
the exception of the frontal bone of each and very few of the smaller bones. The 
skull of the large one measured twenty-one inches round ; the teeth were very even 
and in excellent condition ; the thigh bones measured twenty-one inches and were 
very solid. These are the only discoveries that have been made in this place for 
about eighteen years. 

There is a large mound at the southwest corner of the field overlooking all the 
rest, whicli measures twenty feet across the base and is about four and a half feet 
high. This mound is called the chief mound. There was an oak tree in the center 
of it which was cut down eight years ago by J. C. Thompson. At the time he cut 
it down he counted two hundred and forty rings, which are supposed to represent 
240 years growth. It is supposed that the tree was put there at the time of the 
burial. There have been many attempts made to uncover this mound, but so far 
each has been a failure, the roots of the tree being so large and strong, they prevent 
one from going deep enough to accomplish anything. At the north of this field 
about eighty rods we find what is called the fort, it was built on the top of a hill, 
the outlines can be seen very distinctly to this day. 


J. W. Preston found some relics of the Indians, on his farm in February, 1877 ; 
Rev. P. R. Hurd, now of Detroit, found a silver cross in the neighborhood of Romeo, 

•^s r- 


supposed to belong to one of the early French priests who visited this neighborhood ; 
O. C. Dudley found an Indian tomahawk on his farm a number of years ago, the 
upper part of the weapon had the shape of a pipe, and was used for smoking 

William Stone, a farmer residing a few miles south of Romeo, discovered a 
[)iece of pure native copper, weighing eleven pounds, just as it was unearthed 
by the ploughshare, in January, 1879. 

Elijah Thorington had a large piece of native copper that was plowed up on 
his farm in the town of Addison, in October, 1878. How it came there is a ques- 
tion for scientists to solve. It is hardly possible that the piece is a portion of a 
copper mine on the premises, and the most reasonable theory is that it either came 
down from Lake Superior during the drift period or was packed by some lordly 
aborigine, on the back of his patient and long suffering squaw to be carried over- 
land for the purposes of a pipe or tomahawk. 

Charles Hunt, found in October, 1878, a curious stick. It was cut from the 
center of a large tree and shows unmistakably the blaze marks of some fellow that 
must certainly have been around at least an hundred years ago. 

H. J. Miller, who lives near Mount Vernon, discovered one of the greatest 
curiosities met with in tlie county. It is nothing less than a petrified dish-cloth or 
towel, which at some time has been wrung out and twisted up and in this condition 
it has petrified. The fiber of the cloth is plainly perceptible. 

That big bone discovered in June, 1875, upon the premises of J. L. Benjamin, 
just south of the village of Romeo, attracted a good deal of attention. It measures 
twelve inches in circumference at the narrowest point, while at the largest it reaches 
the extraordinary size of twenty-three inches. It was found imbedded in the soft 
earth, at least, four feet beneath the surface. There is a difference in opinion as to 
just what portion of the anatomy of the animal it belonged, but is generally con- 
ceded to have been a portion of what must have been one of the most formidable 
kickers on record and of truly mastodonic proportions. Speaking on this subject 
the editor of the Observer remarks : " The contemplation of this relic of the class 
of mammoths, long since extinct, opens up a wide field of speculation, and almost 
induces one to believe that if it could be thoroughly impressed upon the minds of 
the people that a few live specimens of this animal might still be ranging through 
our beautiful groves, it would have a wholesome effect upon society in general." 

During the progress of improvement on Mr. Benjamin's farm, many evidences 
of submersion appear. The prairie, cedar, oak and tamarack epochs may be read as 
in a book, and later the peat forming epoch is made manifest. The collections of 
G. A. Waterbury, J. E. Day, Drs. Andrus, Douglass, G. H. Cannon, and others afford 
much subject to the geologist and antiquarian on this subject. 




The changes wrought by Time have, as it were, lightened the task of dealing 
with the zoology of this county. All the great animals of the wilderness, known 
to the pioneers, have ceased long years ago to make their home in Macomb. The 
remains of the prehistoric animals are hidden beneath the conformation of ages ; 
the millions of reptiles, which preceded and lived through the long summer, lie 
buried hundreds of fathoms down. 


All that is left to remind us of uncultivated nature are the beautiful birds, 
which visit the county periodically, or make it their home. Of these feathered 
citizens, there are about 250 species known to the people of this county — a large 
number has been seen only at long intervals, others have been seen once and disap- 
peared, such as the summer red bird. The Connecticut wariler is one of the most 
recent settlers and evidently, one which shows a disposition to make the county 
her home. Others have settled here since the county was organized, while others 
still date their advent away in the long past. In the following pages an effort is 
made to deal with the feathered tribe. 

The robin, or Turdus migratorius, is a resident during spring and autumn 
and even throughout such winters as that of 1881-2. 

The wood-thrush or Turdis Mustelinus, is a common summer bird. The hermit- 
thrush has been found breeding here during the spring and fall, and is accom- 
panied by the olive-backed-thrush. Wilson's thrush visits the county in the spring 
and sometimes builds its nest here. The Thrasher or brown-thrush resides with us 
during the summer months. 

The cat-birds come in large numbers during the summer, and build their nests 
here. All these birds hover round orchards, barnyards, willow-thickets, berry- 
bushes and brush-heaps both in the villages and in the country. 

The hlue-gmy gnatcatcher is a. common summer resident. The ruby-crowned 
kinglet is a spring and fall visitor, going South in winter. The golden-crowned 
kinglet is found everywhere during the spring and autumn months. All these 
birds seek a home here for a great portion of the year, and create the envy of the 
other families by the beautiful nests which they build in the groves and forest 
patches of the county. The eggs of these birds are three-eighths of an inch long, 
white in color, speckled and dashed with umber and lilac. 

The blue-bird is found everywhere during spring, summer and autumn. It 
nests in decaying trees, fence-posts, and feeds upon worms, grasshoppers, spiders, 
and berries. 

The white-bellied muthatch is another common resident, though originally a 
Carolinian. The red-bellied hatch comes here from Canada to spend the spring. 



summer and fall, returning to that cold land in winter. These birds nest 
in the holes of trees, and feed upon spiders, ants, insects' eggs, and seeds. 

The titmouse, or black-capped chickadee nests in the woods during fine 
weather, and comes into the village to spend the winter. It thankfully receives all 
the crumbs which may fall in its path. 

The brown-creeper is the only representative of the Family Certhiades in this 
county. It dwells here the year round, finding a storehouse in the forest to lay up 
animal and vegetable food in the shape of insects and seeds. 

The wren family, or Troglodytidae, has six representatives in the county. The 
Carolina wren, though a straggler, is well known. 

Bewick's wren, or Thryothorus bewicJcii, appeared here for the first time very 
recently. His advance from the South was gradual. 

The house wren, or Troglodytes cedon, is found in large numbers in the central 
townships of the county. 

Tiie winter wren is a well-known visitor, sometimes spending the winter in the 
valley. He is known by the telling ti*:le Anorthura troglodytes. 

The long-billed marsh wren, or Telmatodytes palustris, builds a suspended nest 
among the marsli-reeds or in sand grass. There he remains during the summer and 
then migrates. 

The short-billed wren prefers meadow land and builds a large nest in a secure 
place. This family of miniature birds feeds upon insects, grasshoppers, snails, 
moths and other delicacies. 

The Family Sylvicolidae comprises no less than thirty-three representatives in 
this county. The black and white creeper nests beside a fallen tree — the blue yel- 
low winged warbler in the tree-tops of swamps and heavily timbered land. The 
blue-winged yellow warbler is a rare visitor. The blue golden-winged warbler 
remains here during summer and breeds in low, damp woodland. 

The Nashville warbler, orange-crowned warbler, Tennessee warbler, yellow 
warbler, black-throated green warbler, blue warbler, Blackburnian,yellow-rumped, 
black-poll, ba3'-breasted, chestnut-sided, black and yellow. Cape May, prairie, yel- 
low-throated, Kirtland's, yellow red-poll, pine creeper and perhaps two or three 
other species of the warbler family, are well known visitors. 

The water thrush, short and long billed, and the redstart belong to the family, 
and are common here. 

The Connecticut warbler, a stranger here until 1881, the Maryland yellow- 
thi'oat, the mourning, the hooded fly-catcher, black-capped fly-catcher, Canada fly- 
catcher, all favorite warblers, are beginning to make the county their home. 

This is the second family in importance among the birds of North America. 
Their food consists chiefly of insects, varied with fruit and berries. They peep into 


crevices, scrutinize the abodes of the insect world, and never suffer from want. 
This family is the scourge of the orchard and oftentimes destroys fruit fields of great 

The horned lark, or Eremopldla alpestris, is a winter dweller here, and nests 
during the close of the cold season. There is anotlier species of the horned lark, 
which leaves on the approach of winter. Both build their nests on the ground, 
breed in April, and play around the farm yard or over gravelly soil. 

The titlark belongs to the family MotacilUdae. They flock hither in tens of 
thousands during spring and often remain until fall. 

The scarlet tanager, or Pyrangaruhra, is a common visitor. The Summer red- 
bii'd, lutherto referred to as a recent explorer of the North, is very rarely seen here. 

The Bohemian wax-wing, or Ampelis garrulus, is a recent and rare visitor. 
The cherry bird, or Carolina wax-wing, breeds here in August and September. 
They feed upon apples, cherries and berries, but are not numerous enough to cause 
any great anxiety to the pomologist. 

The Familij Hirundinidae comprise the barn swallow, tlie wliite-bellied swal- 
low, the eave swallow, the sand swallow and the purple martin. These birds de- 
stroy myriads of winged insects, and make them their principal food. The swallow, 
though not so showy as her gaudy neighbors, confers more real benefit upon the 
people than any other member of the bird tribe. 

Tlie Family Vireonidae comprises the red-eyed vireo, brotherly-love vireo, or 
Vireo philadelphicus, warbling vireo, yellow-throated vireo, solitary vireo and white- 
eyed vireo. They feed chiefly on insects, dwell in the forests, and seldom as they 
come to town, are in a hurr}^ to return to their rustic homes. 

The great northern shrike, or Collurio borealis, sometimes remains here to 
breed, but is not such a permanent settler as the loggerhead shrike, which makes 
its home liere the year round. The wliite-rumped shrike is seen here during the 
summer months. They are very quarrelsome among themselves, and savage toward 
other birds. They impale their victims on thorns and leave them there until driven 
by hunger to eat them. 

Tiie Family Corvidae is becoming extinct, or at least very uncommon here. 
Daring the present year the few which visited left suddenly, contrary to all prece- 
dent. These birds are omniverous, and comprise among others the raven, crow 
and blue jay. Their evil ways are almost compensated for by their good qualities, 
and some are inclined to believe that the benefits they confer are far in excess of 
the damage they do. 

The Family Fringillidae is the most extensive known in the States of the 
Union. It is graminivorous, except during the breeding season, when it feeds 
itself and young on insects. The rose-breasted grosbeak is the only member of the 


HISTORY OF :macomb county. 

family which feeds upon the potato bug. The white-crowned sparrow's food is the 
grape-vine flea-beetle ; the fox-sparrow and chewink search out hybernating insects 
and snails ; the English sparrow, a recent immigrant, feeds on seeds ; the purple 
finch and crossbills feed on oily seeds and the seeds of pine cones. 

The names of the varied representatives of this tribe, are : The pine grosbeak, 
purple finch, white-winged crossbill, red crossbill, red-poll linnet, mealy red-poll, 
pine linnet, goldfinch, snow bunting, Lapland longspur. Savanna sparrow, bay- 
winged bunting, yellow-winged sparrow, Henslow's, Lincoln's, swamp, song, chip- 
ping, field, clay-colored, white-throated, white-crowned, fox, and English sparrows. 
The latter bird was introduced here in 187o-'-4. The blue-bird, martin, swallow, 
and other sparrows have to fly before the approach of their legions. The lark, 
finch, black-throated bunting, rose-breasted gi-osbeak, the indigo bird and the 
Towhee bunting, or chewink, are not so destructive as the English sparrow ; 
they have their uses ; but it is likely that when the peopjle realize the importance 
of the destruction of the imported sparrow, the whole family will fall with that 

The Family Icteridae. — The bobolink, cow-bird, red-winged black-bird, meadow 
lark, rusty grackle, crow black-bird, Baltimore and orchard orioles belong to this 
family. The cow-bird destroys the eggs and young of stranger birds. The oriole 
feeds on hairy caterpillars during the season of breeding ; this bird is of service in 
the orchard, and for this service she accepts the first small fruits and other luxuries 
of the garden. The other members of the family may be termed gregarious ; they 
feed on the seeds of weeds, oats, wheat, corn, and on flies and insects. 

The Tyrannidae Family subsist almost altogether on flies, which they pursue and 
capture in the most open places. The pewee and king-bird pursue their victims in 
the light of day, and even should it escape for a time, it eventually falls before the 
lance of its pursuer. The family comprises the king-bird, wood pewee, phcebe 
bird, together with a half-dozen fl3'-catchers, variously named. 

The Caprimidgidae Family comprises the whippoorwill, or Antrostomus vociferous, 
which is a common summer resident here, and the night-hawk, another well-known 
summer bird. They are given to " jay-hawking," and select the night for seeking 
their prey. Then thousands of grasshoppers, moths, beetles, winged insects and 
flies become their prey. The chimney swallow captures its prey upon the wing in 
a similar manner ; but it belongs to the Cypselidae family. 

The Alcedinidae. — The only representative of this family in the county is said to 
be the belted king-fisher, which comes here in summer to spend the fishing season. 
If it does not at once succeed in catching one of the finny tribe, it is capable of ab- 
staining until success crowns its efforts. 

The Troehilidae. — This family is well represented here by the humming-bird. 

i) fy 


This is an animated cluster of emeralds and rubies, which comes to delight the 
people in May, and continues with them until September. 

The only member of the CucuUdce residing here during the Summer months is 
the black-billed cuckoo, which comes to visit the woods and orchards of the State 
in the middle of June, and remains until harvest time. 

The Picadae Family, as represented here, is composed of seven species of wood- 
pecker, known as the downy, the hairy, the Arctic black-back, the yellow-bellied, 
red-headed, and golden-winged. The family subsist on timber insects, fruit, 
berries .and green corn. T)ie yellow-bellied woodpecker is very destructive to 
apple trees ; he sucks the sap of trees in some parts of the Union, but owing to the 
lengtli of winter in nortlieastern Michigan, he has had no time to do much mischief 

The Strigidae Family comprises the barn owl, great horned owl, long-eared owl, 
short-eared owl, snow owl, hawk owl, sparrow owl, and Acadian owl. A few of 
these are very common residents here, the last named is an immigrant which settled 
here in 1879. All form tlie nocturnal branch of the raptorial species, and select 
for their prey rats, mice, fish, frogs, chickens, Ijirds of all kinds, and sometimes 
young pigs. Tliey have their uses. 

The Falconidae Family is comparatively extensive, and is fully represented here. 
It includes the marsh hawk, white-tailed kite, sharp-shinned hawk, goshawk. 
Cooper's hawk, pigeon hawk, sparrow hawk, red-tailed hawk, red-shouldered hawk, 
broad-winged hawk, Swainson's hawk, rough-legged hawk, the fish-hawk, and the 
bald eagle. They are birds of prey which select day-time for carrying on their 
operations. The fish-hawk will eat only fish. The bald eagle's favorite food is 
carrion and fish. When his taste leans toward fish, he generally makes a descent 
upon the fish-hawk. 

The turkey buzzard, or CatJiartes awra, is common in the county during July 
and August. They are entirely carnivorous, and come here after the period of in- 
cubation has been passed in the Southern States. 

The Family Meliagradae is represented here by the wild turkey. This bird 
was well known here in olden times, but has now almost ceased to be a resident. 

The Family Tetraonidae is peculiarly one of game birds. It includes tlie par- 
tridge or ruffed grouse, the quail and the prairie chicken. The quail is a common 
resident of the county, and appears to attain its greatest size here. These birds 
subsist on the various grains, seeds, berries, buds, grapes and chestnuts. They 
form a family of large and beautiful birds, but incapable of being thoroughly 

Tlie Family Oolumhidae includes the wild pigeon and Carolina dove. The 
latter resides here during the greater portion of the year. The pigeon is thorough- 

*^ s r- 


ly graminivorous in its tastes, and in this respect diffei's from tlie family Tetraon- 

Tlie Family Fhalarojyodidae comprises the northern phalarope and Wilson's 
phalarope, two migrants which build their nests here at long intervals. 

The Family Charadridae, or the plover tribe, is represented here by the kill- 
deer, semipalmated, piping, golden and black-bellied plovers. They feed upon 
mollusks, water insects, grasshoppers, beetles, etc. This family is inferior in size 
to its European kindred. 

The Family Ardeidae includes the great bittern or Indian hen, the little bit- 
tern, the great blue, great white, green and night herons. These birds are summer 
residents, with the exception of the night heron, which dwells here the year round. 

The Family Gruidae, represented here by the sandhill crane and the whoop- 
ing crane. Neither of these birds breed here, and they may be set down as common 
stragglers or " tramps." 

The Family Calymhidae is very small. Only two representatives are found 
here, viz.: the common loon, well known for many years, and the black-throated 
loon, a recent visitor. To form an idea of the quickness of this unwieldy bird one 
must make an attempt to capture him alive, or even shoot him. During travels in 
the Northwest (1879 — 80), the writer found three specimens of the family living 
quietly in a lake-side nest, and left them undisturbed. Shakespeare's cream-faced 
loon was found there. 

The Rail tribe is comparatively well known here. It includes the Carolina 
and Virginia rails ; the Florida gallinule and the coot, all common summer birds. 
The rare summer visitors of the tribe comprise the black, yellow, king and clapper 

The Grebe tribe, or family podicipidaj, comprises the horned grebe, the pied- 
billed grebe as common residents ; and the red-necked and red eared grebe which 
come here at intervals. 

The Family Anatidae is perhaps the best known and most useful of the feath- 
ered race. It comprises the goose, duck, widgeon, teal and merganser. The birds 
of the tribe common to the county are the brant and Canada goose, the mallard, 
black, pin-tail, gad wall, wood, big black-head, little black-head, ring-necked, poach- 
ard, canvas-back, golden-eye, butter-ball, long-tailed, Labrador, ruddy and fish 
ducks, the red-breasted merganser, the hooded merganser, American widgeon, 
green-winged teal, blue-winged teal, and the shoveller teal. 

The Family Scolopacidae includes the woodcock, American snipe, red-breasted 
snipe, upland plover, long-billed curlew, stilt sandpiper, semipalmated, least, 
pectoral and red-backed sandpipers, Wilst, greater yellow legs, lesser yellow legs 
and solitary, spotted and buff-breasted sandpipers. All these birds are common 



here. They are all " waders," and subsist on aquatic insects, grass-hoppers, 
mollusks, crustaceans, etc. 

The Family Laridae comprises all the terns and gulls known in the temperate 
zone of our continent. The birds of the tribe, common to Macomb County, are the 
herring gull, the ringed-billed, the laughing, and the Bonaparte gulls. The fork- 
tail gull is an uncommon visitor. The terns best known here, include the Arctic, 
Marsh, Firster's, Wilson's, the little, and the black tern. 

The German Stork made his appearance here in 1879, and again in 1880. 


Among the many papers on this subject presented to the writer, there is one 
specially applicable prepared by J. S. Tibbits. It does not mention the New York 
and brown bats, the shrew, and moles which were once known here, yet it deals 
fully with the larger mammalia, known to the first settlers of the districts border- 
ing on Lake St. Clair. The contributor states : — " Most of the wild animals com- 
mon to the State were found in great numbers by the early settlers of this county, 
and the descendants of Nimrod and Esau found abundant material upon which to 
exercise their favorite pursuit. The animals mostly to be found here were tlie deer, 
bear, wolf, lynx, wild cat, fox, coon, badger, fishei", porcupine, woodchuck, rabbit, 
mink, and weasel. The skunk and rat did not make their appearance in the rural 
districts for nearly ten years after the first settlements were made. They were 
both as great curiosities to me then as tlie mermaid would be now. My first experi- 
ence with a skunk was a sad, though I think a profitable one. A neighbor, having 
an open cellar wall, ascertained that a skunk had taken refuge in the wall, and lie 
offered me ten cents to kill and skin him. Being anxious to gratify ray curiosity 
to see a skunk, and my ambition to earn an honest penny, I readily undertook the 
job. Ascertaining the locality of the animal, I proceeded with a sharpened stick 
to dislodge him. Getting down on my knees, I peered into tlie hole and gave 
him a sharp punch with my stick. He immediately resorted to iiis usual mode of 
defense, and discharged a full battery square in my face. I retreated in good 
order, though in very bad odor, and have wisley concluded ever since to let every 
man skin his own skunks. 

The birds common in these early days were the eagle, hawk, turkey-buzzard, 
raven, owl, crane, turkey, partridge, duck, wild goose, and a variety of the smaller 
birds. Tlie crow, like the skunk and rat, did not make its appearance till a number 
of years after the first settlements were made. The turkej^-buzzard, so common in 
those early days, is seldom or never seen now. This bird resembles the wild turkey 
more nearly than any other bird, though by no means so large. It is not a bird of 
prey, but, like the raven, lives on carrion. It is a powerful bird on the wing, and 





soars to great heights, sailing seemingly for hours without a movement of the wings. 
The quills are very valuable for writing purposes, and the possession of one was 
considered a treasure, inasmuch as with careful usage one would last through a 
school term of three or four months. 

Tlie wild turkey was very common, and vast flocks of several hundred were 
frequently to be met with. The usual mode of hunting them was for two or three 
persons to proceed cautiously througli the woods till they came upon a flock, then 
suddenly fire at random amongst them, the object being to scatter them in all direc- 
tions. When thus scattered they will invariably return to the same spot to get to- 
gether again, the old ones coming first to call their young together. The hunters, 
hid in some secluded place, with their " turkey calls " ready for use, would wait 
patiently for the return of the old birds. These turkey-calls consist of the hollow 
bone of the turkey's wing, and, in the mouth of an experienced hunter, can be 
made to exactly imitate the piping sound of the mother bird when calling her brood 
together. Soon the maternal notes of the old birds are heard, and the hunters 
respond with their " calls," luring them on to certain destruction. After the old 
birds are killed, the young ones fall an easy prey to the unerring aim of the skillful 
marksman. The flesh of the wild turkey is esteemed a great luxury, and one of 
the most delicious meals I think 1 ever ate was made from steak cut from the breast 
of a j'oung turkey, fried in butter, and partaken after a hard day's hunt, in which 
a companion and myself killed seven large fine birds. 

The wild turkey is sometimes caught in pens made of poles, some five or six 
feet in height, and covered over the to^) to prevent their escape. A covered pas- 
sage-way is made under the pen large enough for the turkeys to crawl through. 
Corn or other grain is scattered in the passage-way and inside the pen. The un- 
suspecting birds, seeing the grain, commence picking it up, and thus one after 
another crawl through the hole into the pen. " Once in, forever in," for they never 
think of putting their heads down to crawl out again. 

Deer were also very abundant, and scarcely a day passed but more or less of 
them were seen in and about the clearings. But little skill was required in killing 
them, the principal qualification being a steady nerve. During the hot days in the 
summer, when the mosquitos and the gnats were troublesome, the deer would 
resort to the streams and ponds of water during the night to get rid of their tor- 
mentors. Here they would fall an easy prey to the hunter, who, in his canoe, with 
a torch at the bow, would row noiselessly about. The deer, seeing the light, would 
remain as it were entranced, presenting to the unerring aim of the hunter Iwo 
small bright globes of light, between which the fatal bullet was sure to be lodged. 
Another mode of hunting the deer, which frequently occasioned rare sport, was by 
watching for them on their " run-ways," and shooting them down as they passed. 

i \ ' 


One or two persons were stationed on tlie " run-way," wliile others with the hounds 
would scour the woods to scare up tlie deer. Whenever one was started it would 
invariably make for the " run-way," the hounds and the men or boys following in 
hot pursuit. Rarely, indeed, was it the case that he was successful in running the 
gauntlet, but usually fell a victim to his rutldess pursuers. A laughable incident 
occurred at one of these hunts which is too good to be passed by unnoticed. A 
young man came from an Eastern city to visit his country cousins at the West. 
Having never seen a deer, and being very anxious to engage in a hunt before his 
return, it was soon arranged to have one. Proceeding to the forest, the young 
man was stationed on the " run-way," with strict instructions to shoot the deer 
when he passed. The boys, with their hounds and guns, commenced scouring the 
woods. Soon the deep baying of the hounds was heard, denoting that the game 
had been started. Nearer and nearer came the pursuer and the pursued. Suddenly 
a fine buck made his appearance, with his noble antlers laid back upon his shoulders 
and his white tail aloft in the air. On he sped past the affrighted youth, who stooH. 
with his rifle cocked, his eyes and mouth wide open, the embodiment of wonder and 
astonishment. Hard upon the heels of the deer came the dogs, and soon the boys, 
who, seeing their cousin in this ludicrous situation, asked in amazement, " Why he 
did not shoot the buck ?" " Buck !" said he, " I haven't seen any buck. I only 
saw the devil coming down the hill with a rocking-chair on his head and his white 
handkerchief sticking out behind." Wolvcs and bears were more numerous than 
agreeable. They were very destructive to the few flocks of sheep and herds of 
swine then in the county. They were caught in traps and in dead-falls, and some- 
times wolves were inveigled into the folds with the sheep, and captured in that 
way. A large pen was made of poles, and so constructed that it was narrowed up 
at the top, leaving an opening only a few feet square. Tliis afforded an easy ingress 
to the hungry wolf, but an effectual barrier to his escape. He would thus be found 
in the morning, having done no harm, and looking very "sheepish," indeed. 

A novel mode of trapping the bear was sometimes adopted which proved suc- 
cessful. A hallow tree was selected into which a hole was cut of a triangular 
shape, with the acute angle at the lower side. The hole was made some seven or 
eight feet from the ground, and just large enough for bruiu to squeeze his head 
through. Inside of the tree, some two or three feet below the hole, was suspended 
a piece of meat. The bear, scenting the food, would climb up the tree, and, in his 
efforts to get at the meat, would get hung in the acute angle of the hole, from 
which it was impossible to extricate himself. 

Occasionally a lynx was seen in the swamps in the western part of the county, 
but they were extremely shy, and it was rare indeed that one was killed. Tlie 
porcupine was more common ; and they proved very troublesome to the hunters" 



dogs, which would frequently return from the chase at night with their mouths full 
of tlieir sharp quills. It is supposed by many that the hedgehog and porcupine are 
identical, but this is a mistake. The only point of resemblance is in their coat of 
armor, which consists of long sharp-pointed quills. Whenever these animals are 
attacked they double themselves up into a ball, and thus present a formidable 
defense. Their quills are easily detached, but I think it is a mistaken idea that 
they have the power of throwing off their quills, as some suppose. The hedgehog 
is a native of the old world, is small in size, and carnivorous ; whereas the porcu- 
pine is a native of the new world, is about the size of the woodchuck, and lives on 
roots, vegetables, and wild fruits. The badger and tlie fisher were occasionally 
seen, but they were by no means common. Most of these wild animals, like the 
aborigines of the country, have receded before the march of civilization and 
improvement, and but few of them can now be found within tlie limits of the 

A soft-shell turtle was caught in Washington in the Summer of 1881. It has 
been said that a few of these creatures were seen in tlie county previously, but this 
of 1881 is the first of which there is any record. 

Early on the morning of Jan. 14, 1882, an ermine was caught in the cellar of 
Edwin Starkweather's house. This is supposed to be the first of that species found 
in this portion of Michigan. 


Comprise almost all the orders known in the Northern States. Of tlie 130 orders 
represented in Michigan, fully 107 are common in tlie country bordering on the 
mouth of the Clinton River. The represented genera within Macomb are estimated 
at 370, comprising no less than 850 species. New and beautiful flowers are added 
annually to the pioneer garden beds of the valley ; wild flowers appear and fade ; 
many beautiful colors, well remembered by the old settlers, have disappeared within 
the last decade, and thus one of the most beautful features of Nature is undergoing 
marked changes. 



The traditions of the Ciiippeways and Wj'andots point out the years 1755 
and 1775 as the Winters of the great snows. Those severe storms, which swept 
over the Peninsula within two decades, destroyed great numbers of forest animals, 
the bones of which in after years literally encumbered the wilderness. 

Within the pioneer period the snow oT 1822-3 was the heaviest. It fell to a 
depth of four feet on the level, and was accompanied with such an icy current, that 


large numbers of deer, wolf, and bear perished before its withering advance. In 
1830-1 the snow storms set in early in November, and continued throughout the 
mouth, destroying the wild animals in large numbers, and inflicting many hard- 
ships on the Indians and pioneers. In the month of August, 1831, a severe irost 
set in, which occasioned many serious troubles and disappointments. 


On the morning of Sunday, November 8, 1819, the sun rose upon a cloudy 
sky, which assumed, as the light grew upon it, a strange greenish tint, varying in 
places to an inky blackness. After a sliort time the whole sky became terribly 
dark, dense black clouds filled the atmospliere, and those changes were followed by 
a down-pour of rain, which appeared to be sometliing of the nature of soap-suds, 
and which was found to have deposited after settling a substance resembling soot. 
The atmosphere assumed its usual form that afternoon, and the following day was 
dry and frosty. On the morning of Tuesday 10th, heavy clouds again appeared, 
changed rapidly from a deep green to a pitchy black, and the sun. when seen occa- 
sionally through them, was sometimes of a dark brown, or an unearthly yellow 
color, and again bright orange or blood red. The clouds constantly deepened in 
color and density, and later on a heavy vapor seemed to descend to tlie earth, the 
day became as dark as night, and the gloom increased or diminished most fitfully. 
The French traders looked on the phenomenon with a peculiar curiosity ; while the 
Indians were actually alarmed. The more sensible concluded that the Western 
pine woods were alilaze, others that the recently explored prairies were burning, 
wliile others stated that a volcanic eruption must be in progress. The Indians 
quoted the prophecy that one day the Peninsula would be destroyed by an earth- 
quake, while others looked upon the signs, as signaling the close of this world. 

About the middle of the afternoon a great body of clouds seemed to rush sud- 
denly across the country, and immediately everytliing was hidden in appalling 
darkness. A pause and hush succeeded for a moment, and then a most glaring 
flash of electricity flamed over tlie land — next the thunder seemed to shake the 
very earth to its center. Another pause followed, and then fell a slight shower of 
rain similar to that which introduced the phenomenon two days previously. After 
this siiower the day grew brighter, but an hour later it was as dark as ever. An- 
other rush of clouds, and another flash of lightning introduced the climax of the 
scene. The sky above and around was as black as ink ; but right in one spot, in 
mid air above the Indian village, the lightning danced for some minutes in a fairy 
circle, then rushed eastward, and was not seen again. The darkest hour had come 
and gone. The gloom gradually subsided and gave place to dawn, the people grew 
less fearful, the real night came on, and when next morning dawned the elements 
were at peace, and the world seemed as natural as before. 


J" " * > 


TORNADO 1835. 

Perhajjis the best remembered and most extraordinary phenomenon was that 
which the people of the northeastern counties witnessed in 1835. On Christmas 
day of that year an excejationally heavy fall of snow covered the ground, which 
was followed on the 26th by a mist, and this was succeeded in turn by a drizzlino- 
rain. The rain ceased suddenly, the clouds lowered, grew dark, and assumed such 
appearances as would lead the spectator to conclude that this globe was aljout to 
collapse. The storm king at length broke loose, swooped down from the North- 
west in black night, uprooting trees, sweeping everything in his track, and bringing 
with him such a current of icy air that man and beast, not then in shelter, were 
frozen to death. This storm was as sudden asit was phenomenal. It is well remem- 
bered by the old settlers, and forms for them a mark on the page of time. 


The meteor seen November 1, 1857, passing southward, proved to be a most 
remarkable one. Its journey was accompanied by a sharp, rumbling sound like 


This strange visitor, belonging to that numerous but erratic family whose 
movements are so carefully noted by astronomers, and the time of whose entrances 
and exits is a matter of mathematical certaint)', appeared to the people of this 
county, June 30, 1861. Whatever may have been its attributes and peculiarities 
one thing is certain, that it has had no rivals in the comet line. Its sudden debut 
at that time was the cause of much speculation among men of letters as well as 
the people in general. It was first visible in a northwesterly direction, when it 
appeared like a bright star. It attracted but little attention at first, it being sup- 
posed to be a lamp attached to a kite ; but directly a train of light shot up, which 
gradually increased in length until it passed the zenith. The nucleus of the comet 
when viewed through a glass, presented a very clear and sharply-defined outline, 
shining with the brilliancy of a star of the first magnitude. Its motion was in an 
easterly direction, and exceedingly rapid. The train of light extended beyond the 
constellation, Lyra, and the center of its extremity was directly over the star Vega. 
Its length extended over the immense distance of 100°, being 30" longer than the 
comet of 1843, which extended over a space of only 70°. 

The comet of 1881 remained with us for weeks, and disappeared from the view 
of citizens of this county, a short time after a portion of its tail separated from the 
nucleus and main train. It will be remembered as affording much subject for gossip 
during the latter part of the summer of 1881. 




One of tlio most sublime astronomical events of 1881 — a total eclipse of the 
moon — occurred Sunday morning June 12. Tiie moon appeared above the horizon 
at about 8:20 p. m., on tlie 11th, in its usual brilliancy. When about two and one- 
half hours high, it received the first contact with the penumbra of light shadow of 
the earth upon its eastern limb, which became slightly dim, and a loss of lunar 
light followed as the moon entered the penumbra. Fifty-six minutes then elapsed 
without further change in its appearance, while traversing the partial shadow of 
the earth ; but wlien the umbra or dark shadow of our planet was reached, the east- 
ern limb of the moon again darkened, suddenly, almost to invisibility. The circu- 
lar shape of the earth's shadow was distinctly seen when passing over the face of 
the moon. At 12:38 A. M., June 12, the moon was wholly within the umbra, and 
the total eclipse commenced. It continued in darkness for an hour or so, when all 
was licrht a<jain. 



Before entering upon the history of men and events connected with the county 
during the last century, we will inquire into its aboriginal or prehistoric period. 
From years coeval with the Columbian era, the Indian, as we know him, made his 
presence known to the decaying remnants of the Mound Building Race, who sought 
a refuge on this peninsula from the periodical assaults of their barbaric brethren. 
The origin of the American Indians, which must always interest and instruct, is 
a favorite with the ethnologist, even as it is one of deep concern to the ordinary 
reader. The era of their establishment as a distinct and insulated people must be 
set down and credited to a period — immediately after the separation of the Asiatic, 
after the confusion of language, and the formation of languages. No doubt can 
exist, when the American Indian is regarded as of Asiatic origin. Tiie fact is that 
the full-blood Indian of pioneer days is descended directly from the original inhabi- 
tants of tliis continent, oi' in other words from the survivors of that people, wiio, on 
being driven from tlieir fair possessions, retired to the wilderness in sorrow, and 
reared up their children under the saddening influences of their unquenchable 
griefs, bequeathing them only the habits, manners, and customs of the wild, cloud- 
roofed homes of their exile — a sullen silence and a rude moral code — leaving them 
ignorant of the arts and sciences wliicli, undoubtedly, marked the period of their 




In after years those wild sons of the forest and the prairie grew in numbers 
and in strength, yet minus even a tradition to point out the rise and fall of their 
fathers. However, some legend told them of their present sufferings, of the high 
station whicli their progenitors once had held, and of the riotous race that now 
reveled in a wealth, which should be theirs. The fierce passions of the savages 
were aroused, and uniting their scattered bauds, all marched in silence upon the 
villages of the Tartars, driving them onwards to the capital of their Incas, and 
consigning their homes to flames. Once in view of the great city, the hurrying 
bands halted in surprise. Tartar cunning took the advantage of the situation, and 
offered to the sons of their former victims pledges of amity and justice — pledges 
which were sacredly observed. Henceforth Mexico was open to the children of the 
Mound Builders, bearing precisely the same social and commercial relation to them, 
that the Hudsons Bay company's posts do the northwestern Indians of the preseiit 
day — obtaining all — offering little in return. 

The subjection of the Mongolian race, represented in North America by that 
branch, to which those Tartars belonged, seems to have taken place about five 
centuries prior to the arrival of the Spaniards ; while it may be concluded that the 
war of the races, which resulted in tlie reduction of those villages erected by the 
Tartar hordes, took place between one and two hundred years later. Tliese state- 
ments, though actually referring to events which in point of time, are compara- 
tively modern, can be substantiated only by the fact that, about the periods 
mentioned, the dead bodies of an unknown race of men were washed upon the 
European coasts; while previous to that time there is no account in European 
annals of even a vestige of trans-Atlantic humanity being transferred by ocean cur- 
rents to the shores of the eastern world. Toward the latter part of the first half 
of the Fifteenth Century, two dead bodies, entirely free from decomposition, and 
corresponding with the physical characteristics of the red man as afterwards seen 
by Columbus, were cast ashore on the Azores — a circumstance which confirmed 
the great, the illustrious discoverer of this continent in his belief that a Western 
world and a Western people existed and waited recognition. 

Storm, flood, disease, whisky, have created sad havoc in tlie ranks of the 
aborigines since the occupation of the country by the while man. Inlierent causes 
have led in a greater degree to the dissemination of the race even more than the 
advance of civilization, which seems not to affect it materially. In the mainte- 
nance of the same number of representatives during tliree centuries, and its exist- 
ence in the very face of a most unceremonious, and whenever necessary, cruel 
conquest, the grand dispensations of the Unseen Ruler are demonstrated ; for, with- 
out the aborigines, savage and treacherous as they were, it is possible that the 
Spanish and French explorers, would have so many natural difficulties to contend 

i ^ 



against, that they would surrender their worlc in despair, and fly from a continent, 
which their knowledge, zeal, and perseverance gave to the world. It can not be 
questioned that the ultimate resolve of Columbus was strengthened by the appear- 
ance of Indian corpses on the Eastern shores of the Atlantic, even as it is conceded 
that the existence of savages in the interior led the Spanish and French missionary 
priests from savage village to village, until the entire continent from the Arctic 
regions to Patagonia was known to the civilized world. From such a stand-point 
the position of the Indian in the economy of the Divinity must be acknowledged, 
and tlie services which he has rendered to civilization held in high esteem. It 
would not be a matter for surprise to learn, that the same spirit which crushed the 
power of tyranny at Yorktown 100 years ago, and sent a thrill of liberty through- 
out the world, would offer to the remnant of a great and ancient race — a lasting 


During the second decade of the Sixteenth Century, about the year 1519-20, 
the Otchipwes or Chippewas gained possession of the district from the mouth of 
the Kawkawlin to the river, now known as the Clinton, called by the French 
Beviere am- Hurons. At this time tlie great struggle for tribal supremacy took 
place, and the last Sauk warrior fell before the advancing Chippewas in the valley 
of tlie Saginaw. Throughout all this district, particularly along its rivers and 
streams, may be found mounds filled with human bones, scattered round in all 
directions, showing, unmistakably, that they were cast together without regularity, 
and telling of fierce and sanguinary battles. So early as 1834, a few aged Indians 
resided on the shores of Lake Huron ; each of them was questioned regarding the 
ancient history of his nation, and each of them was not slow to relate the tradition 
of his tribe, so far as it related to the Chippewa conquest of Northern and Western 
Michigan. At length the old chief — Puttasamine — was interviewed in the presence 
of Peter Gruette, a half-breed, well known from Detroit to Mount Clemens, and 
westward still to Mackinac. Gruette acted as interpreter, and as a result the 
following valuable legendary sketch comes down to us. Puttasamine said the 
Sauks occupied the whole country from Thunder Bay on the north, to the head 
waters of tlie Shiawassee, and from the mouth of Grand River to that of the Huron 
north of Detroit. The rest of the country was occupied by the Pottawatomies, 
the Lake Superior country by the Otchipwes and Ottawas, the Monomonies round 
Green Bay, and the Sioux west of the Mississippi. The main village of the Sauk 
nation stood on the west side of the Saginaw River, near its mouth ; and from that 
place were accustomed to rush forth to war with the Chippewas on the north and 
the Pottawatomies on the south, and also with other nations in Canada. At length 
a council was called consisting of Otchipwes, Pottawatomies, Monomonies, Otta- 



was, and six Tiations of New York, which council assembled on the island of Mack- 
inaw, and where it decided on a war of extermination. The chiefs summoned the 
warriors, a large army was organized, and embarking in bark canoes, started down 
the west shore of Lake Huron, arriving at Saginaw Bay. tlie warriors started over 
the waters by night, lay concealed during the day, and so continued their advance 
until they arrived at a place called Petobegong, about ten miles above the mouth 
of the Saginaw River. There they disembarked a portion of the army, while the 
main division crossed the bay and made a landing on the east bank of the estuary 
of the Saginaw, in the night. Next morning both divisions started up the river so 
as to attack the eastern and western towns at the same time. The warriors on 
the west bank attacked the main village, surprised the inhabitants, and massacred 
almost every man, woman and child to be found there — the few survivors escaping 
across the river to another village, which occupied the site of the Portsmouth. 

The eastern division of the allies came up to the village, which then occupied 
the site of Bay Cit\% where a desperate battle was fought. Notwithstanding the 
favorable position held by the Sauks, they were defeated and great numbers slain — 
the survivors retreating, some into the eastern wilderness, others seeking refuge on 
Skull Island. Here the refugees considered themselves safe, as the enemy did not 
appear to possess any canoes ; but the season offered the invader, that which art 
denied; for on the next night, the ice was found sufficiently thick to warrant a 
crossing, which circumstance enabled the allies to advance on the island. Here 
nothing was left of the Sauks, save twelve women, and those who fled eastward to 
the river country. The victory was as decisive as it was bloody. The victors 
reviewed their forces, and then divided, some proceeding up the Cass (formerly the 
Huron) and the Flint ; others up the Shiawassee, Tittabawasink, and spread over 
the land. 

The most important battles were fought against other tribes in the neighbor- 
hood of the Flint bluffs, and eastward to Detroit ; but of such Puttasamine could 
recount very little. 

After the extermination of the Sauk warriors, the twelve women referred to, 
remained for disposal, and so important did they appear, that a council of the allies 
was held to decide their fate. Some were for torturing them to death ; others 
recommended mercy ; while others still argued that they should be sent west of the 
Mississippi. Tlie last proposition was carried, and an arrangement made with the 
Sioux, that no tribe should molest them, that they should be responsible for their 
protection. The Sioux warriors and women kept their promises faithfully. 

The conquered country was divided among the allies as a common hunting 
ground ; but great numbers of them who engaged in the chase, never returned, 
nor could any tidings of them be found, for which reason it became the settled 


opinion of the Indians, that the spirits of their victims haunted the hunting 
grounds and were killing off their warriors. In reality the disappearance of many 
a warrior was due to the fact, that a few Sauks, who had escaped the massacre, still 
lingered round the old and well-known hunting grounds, watching for the strag- 
gling conquerors, and slaying them whenever opportunity offered. 

Tondogong, an Indian chief, who died in 1840, at a very advanced age, has left 
the record behind, that in his boyhood, about eighty years ago, he killed a Sauk. 
Even up to the year 1850, the old Indians of the north-eastern counties of Michi- 
gan believed there was a solitary Sauk still to be seen in the forests of their lands ; 
they had seen the place where he had made his fires and slept. For days after such 
a discovery they would not leave their camp grounds — " there is a Sauk in the 
woods, and they had seen tvhere he built his fires and slept.'''' 

The close of the drama is within the history of our own times. We have seen 
the Otchipwes in all their villages. Tiie Sixteenth Century had not closed, when 
this tribe boasted of power in number and intelligence ; finally the Otchipwe lan- 
guage predominated, until at the present time it is spoken among Indians from the 
Arctic Circle south to latitude 40\ Puttasamine, or Puttaquasamine, born about 
the 3'ear 1729, stated that the tradition was related to him when a boy, by his 
grandfather, ninety years previous to 1834, and further that it had been handed 
down to his grandfather from his ancestors, and was a custom with him to repeat it 
often to his people, so that their tradition or history should not be lost. 


Western Ohio, Southern Michigan and the country now comprised in the State 
of Indiana were once in possession of the Miamies, one of the branches of the 
powerful Algonquin tribe, that interposed between the tribes of the Six Nations, 
of the northern lake shores, and the Mobilian tribes of the Atlantic slopes. Their 
claim to this territory was proven in the great conclave at Greenville, Ohio, in 1795, 
immediately prior to entering into the treaty. On this occasion, Machikinaqua, a 
chief and orator of the Miamies, addressing Gen. Wayne, said : " My forefather 
kindled the first fires at Detroit ; thence he extended his lines from the head waters 
of the Scioto River ; thence to its mouth ; thence down the Ohio to the mouth of 
the Wabash ; thence to Chicago and Lake Michigan ; these are the boundaries 
wherein the prints of my ancestors' houses are everywhere to beseen." Historians 
have acknowledged the truth and claim of the Miami chief, confirming many of his 
statements regarding other people's inhabiting his territory. The Delaware Indians 
driven before the incoming European colonists ; tiie Shawonoes from the South 
forced to move northward by the Aztecs of the Southwest, or the Mobiliaus of the 
Southeast, and the Otchipwes and Pottawatomies of the northern regions. Lagio, 

\^ s r~ ^^ ® ^ 



an Indian chief, refei'ring to the immigration of tlie latter, maintained that a very 
long time since, the Great Spirit sent upon the Pottawatomies a severe Winter, 
and they came over the hard water of Lake Michigan and asked the privilege of 
hunting until Spring ; that the Miamies granted it ; that they returned home in the 
Spring, and the next Winter came back, and would never return to Lake Superior 


The cholera entered the Indian settlements in 1823-4, and tended to increase 
the prevailing dread of some impending disaster. Providence, however, ruled tliat 
the pioneers should suffer alone from financial reverses, while the Indians should be 
carried away by disease. A large number of tlie doomed race, then dwelling in 
the county, perished ; many fled to the wilderness to seek a hiding place, wliere the 
Great Spirit could not find them to pursue them with iiis vengeance. Even the 
wild woods did not shelter the poor savages from the terrible scourge. Throughout 
the forest, along the banks of each river and stream, the echoes of their dismal 
shrieks resounded, for a short while, and then died away in death. Happy Indians ! 
They survived not to witness the sacred circles of their fathers, the burial grounds 
of their race, upturned by the. plow, or covered with the homes and factories of 
civilized man ; they were spared at least, this last and most terrible affliction. The 
soldiers were attacked by the disease at Fort Gratiot at the same time. The poor 
fellows flying from the pestilence, found a resting place near John Tucker's house, 
and a friend in the owner. 


The treaty of Fort Mcintosh, negotiated Jan. 21, 1785, granted to the United 
States the military post of Detroit, with a district, beginning at the mouth of the 
River Rosine, on the west end of Lake Erie, and running west six miles up tlie 
southern bank of the Rosine, thence northerly, and .always six miles west of the 
strait, until it strikes the lake, St. Clair. Among the signers of this treaty, were 
Geo. Clarke, Richard Butler, Arthur Lee, Daunghquat, Abraham Kuhn, Ottawa- 
verri, Hobocan, Walindightun, Taxapoxi, Wingenum, Packalant, Gingewanno, 
Waanoos, Konalawassee, Shawnqum, and Quecookkia. This treaty was the first 
which regarded any portion of Macomb County. The Indians of the Chippewa 
tribe on the Huron of Lake St. Clair were not represented by any of their chiefs 
but it is supposed that Waanoos was commissioned by them to acquiesce in the 
general opinion of the Council, holden at Fort 


This treaty was negotiated by Gen. Anthony Wayne August 3, 1795. It was 
stipulated that the post at Detroit, and all the land to the north, the west, and the 

'3 ^ 


south of it, of which the Indian title was extinguished by grants to the French or 
English Governments ; and so much more land to be annexed to the district of 
Detroit as is comprehended between the River Rosine on the south, Lake St. Clair 
on the north, and a line, the general course whereof shall be six miles distant from 
the west end of Lake Erie, and Detroit River should be ceded to the United States. 
Among the Pottawatomies of the Huron who signed the treaty were Okia, Chamung, 
Segagewau, Nanaume, Agin, Marchand and Wenemeac. The Otchipwe signers 
were Mashipinashiwish, Nalishogashe, Kathanasung, Masass, Nemekass, Peshawkay, 
Nanguey, Meenedoligeesogh, Peewanshemenogh, Weymegwas, and Gobmoatick. 
Among the Wyandots who signed were Tarhe, or Crane, J. Williams, Jr., Shatey- 
yaronyah, or Leather-lips, and Haroenpou. 


The treaty was made by William Hull, U. S. Commissioner, and the Lidians 
of the district November 17, 1807. Under its provisions all the territory beginning 
at the mouth of the Miami River of the Lakes, running thence to the mouth of the 
great Au Glaize River, thence due north until it intersects a latitudinal line to be 
drawn from the outlet of Lake Huron, which forms the River Sinclair, thence 
running northeast in the course, that may be found, will lead in a direct line, to 
WJiite Rock in Lake Huron, thence due east until it intersects the boundar}' line 
between the United States and Upper Canada, in said lake, thence southwardly, 
following the said boundary line, down said lake, tlirough River Sinclair, Lake St. 
Clair, and the River Detroit, into Lake Erie, to a point due east of the Miami 
River, and thence west to tlie mouth of the Miami River, was ceded to the United 

From this cession the following lands were reserved for the sole use of the 
Indians: — Six square miles on the Miami above Roche de Boeuf, two in the village 
where Tondagonie, or The Dog, now lives ; three square miles including Presque 
Isle, four square miles on the Miami Bay, including the villages of Meskeman and 
Wangare ; three square miles at Macon, on the River Raisin, fourteen miles from 
the mouth of the Raisin ; two sections on the Range, at Seginsiwin's village ; two 
sections at Tonquish's village near the Rouge River, three miles square on Lake 
St. Clair, above the River Hurou to include Makornse's or Macompte's village, 
together with six square miles to be selected by the Indians. Together with those 
reservations, a sum of $10,000 was granted by the United States to be distributed 
equitably among the Pottawatomies, Otchipwes, Wyandotte, and Ottawa Indians 
then living in the district ceded under the treaty. 

The Indians who signed this treaty were the Chippewas, Peewanshemenogh, 
Mamaushegauta, or had legs, Poquaquet, Kiosk, Puckenese, or the spark of fire ; 



Nemekas, Qiiicoaquish, Negig ; the Pottawattoiiiies were Tonquish, Skush, Nin- 
iiewa ; and the Wyaudots Skahomat, Miere, or ivalk-in-tJie-water, and lyonayotaha. 
Whittemore Knaggs and William Walker were interpreters. 


The Treaty of Brownstown, made November 25, 1808, was an amendatory 
treaty. Hull was the acting commissioner, assisted by Reuben Atwater, Secretar}' 
of Michigan Territory ; Judge James Wetherell, Jacob Visger, District Judge ; Jos. 
Watson, Secretary, L. M. T.; William Brown, Barney Campeau, Lewis Bond, 
A. Lyons, Whittemore Knaggs, William Walker, F. Duchouquet, and Samuel 

The treaties of later years negotiated by Mr. Schoolcraft or Gen Cass contained 
numerous provisions regarding the Indians of Macomb. From 1830 to 1837, the 
Otchipwes and mongrel savages inhabiting Macomb County saw plainly that their 
old hunting grounds were soon to pass out of their possession. In the former year 
those children of Nature entered upon that westward movement, and in the latter 
their last reserve in this county was parceled out for sale to the men of enterprise 
and industry who came hither about that time to enter on that earnest labor which 
has raised the county to its present status. Henry Tucker accompanied the In- 
dians to their Western reserve. 


The treaty of Saginaw, 1819, was the most important of all the treaties affect- 
ing Indian titles in Michigan. Okemawkekehto, referred to in another page, was 
the chief orator of the tribe. Addressing General Cass, he said : " You do not know 
our wishes. My people wonder what lias brouglit you so far from your homes. 
Your young men have invited us to come and light the Council Fire. We are here 
to smoke the pipe of peace, but not to sell our lands. Our American Father wants 
them. Our English Father treats us better ; he has never asked for tiiem. Your 
people trespass upon our hunting grounds — they flock to our shores. Our waters 
grow warm ; our lands melt like a cake of ice; our possessions grow smaller and 
smaller, the warm wave of the white man rolls in upon us and melts us away ; our 
women reproach us ; our children want homes. Shall we sell from under them the 
spot where they spread their blankets? We have not called you here. We smoke 
with you tiie pipe of peace." General Cass responded, Louis Beaufort, Whitte- 
more Knaggs, Gabriel Godfrey, Louis Campeau, Henry Connor, John Hasson and 
others followed General Cass, and to their temperate, logical language is due the 
negotiation of a treaty which opened up the whole Northern Peninsula to the 
people who now occupy it. 




Macompte or Cum-e-kum-e-non. — About the center of tlie eastern boundary of 
the township of Chesterfiekl, on the shore of Lake SaLnt Chair, stood the Indian 
reservation, where resided for many years the chief of tlie tribes, Macompte. This 
chief was well beloved by his nation ; in fact, his voice was the oracle of his 
jjeople, his nod the law of his empire. There was, however, in this region a king 
greater and mightier to destroy than he. This king still reigns, while the warrior 
of the Indians "sleeps the sleep that knows no waking." He was slain by this 
king, whose name is Alcohol. His death was a tragic one. It seems that Macompte 
had been paying a familiar visit to his bosom friend the king, and had partaken too 
freely of the hospitality of his host. Towards evening the chief went down to the 
river, and, with a precipitous rush, glided down its banks into the water, and was 
drowned. In his suicidal intent he passed the residence of Stockton and Clemens. 
The wife of the former gentleman heard the hurried tread of the unfortunate chief 
as he passed on to the river, and heard the splash when he struck the water. Mrs. 
Stockton's testimony was the only direct evidence that tended to convince the 
Indians that his melancholy death was voluntary, — that he had not been murdered 
by the white man, as the ever-suspicious nature of the Indian led them to suppose. 
The event caused considerable excitement through the entire settlement. This 
reservation was located in the southeast part of the township of Chesterfield. The 
body was found the day after the suicide by John Tucker, and the Indians. It was 
buried in the orchard of John Tucker, on P. C. 129 Harrison. It was wrapjied in 
a blue broadcloth blanket, bound by silver brooches, while the hat was ornamented 
with silver bands, a string of sixteen silver crescents, and silver arm bands com- 
pleted the ornamentation of the dead chief's body. All that has been disturbed in 
connection with this grave was a small piece of the enwrapping blanket, taken as 
a curiosity by David Tucker about the year 1840-1. All stories of other inter- 
ference are without foundation. 

Old Macompte, the father of Cum-e-kum-e-non and Francis, died about 1816, 
and was buried in the sand banks beyond New Baltimore. Two men, Vaji Epps and 
Beebe, visited the grave, exhumed a brass rifle, and eloped with the prize. Shortly 
after this Francis Macompte and other Indians, who had gone West under Henry 
Tucker to select a reservation, returned to this point. The former found his father's 
grave tampered with, he discovered who were the actors in the affair, brought them 
before the court at Mount Clemens, where the matter was settled on payment of 

Francis Macompte then became chief, with Truckatoe as sub-chief. The latter 
became dissatisfied about the Indian Reserve, and moved with several members of 
the band to Lakeville about 1830. Next under him was Canope, said to be impli- 

B -> 




cated in the abduction of the Finch child, a saying without any foundation what- 
ever beyond the fact that the Indian loved the boy, and seemed determined to 
adopt him. 

Those Indians were generally peaceful, and were present at almost all the bees 
of the olden time, not to labor by any means, but to run pony races, and trade with 
the Americans. 

Wittaniss was one of the sub-chiefs of the Huron Indians so early as 1776. 
He was a devoted attache of the British commandants of Detroit, and shared with 
his brother Indians and British soldiery in all the dastardly acts which marked the 
great effort to sustain the reign of tyranny and persecution on this continent. This 
cowardly red-skin and his band made many attempts on the life of Richard Connor 
some yeai's later. The American pioneer was compelled to be always c-n his guard 
against the treachery of those savages. After the i^urchase of the Moravian village by 
Askins and Ancram, the latter appointed \Yittaniss caretaker. In his new office, the 
Indian chief essayed to act the Irish land agent, and accordingly tried to evict Connor ; 
but the new settler frustrated all his designs, treated him to a severe beating, and 
otherwise made life so hideous for the malicious savage, that he was glad to seek 
refuge in the grave a day or so after the British power was for ever broken in the 
United States. 

Keneobe, of Romeo, was present on the treaty ground at Saginaw in Septem- 
ber, 1819. The harsh statements made regarding his connection with the abduc- 
tion of the Finch boy have long since been proven without foundation. In 1827 
Keneobe moved into Canada, stayed some time there, and returned to give assu- 
rances that the reports concerning him were without foundation. He was a savage 
of good parts, and an earnest friend of the American settlers of Northern Macomb. 

An equally bad Indian, bearing a similar name, succeeded Wittaniss, senior. 
The circumstances which surrounded this fellow urged him to adopt a policy of 
conciliation towards tlie American settlers, which policy was carried out. The last 
Wittaniss was an old man when he left the county in 1830. 

Tipsikaw was the athlete of the band near Romeo. He was a powerful 
savage, well built, and, it is said, capable of running down wolves, bears, and, in 
some instances, deer. While liunting in the neighborhood of Almont he dislocated 
his shoulder. Dr. Gleason was called to his aid. All the doctor's physical power 
was not suflScient to replace the dislocated bone, so he tied the arm of the warrior 
to a tree, and then directed him to draw his body forward. This plan was success- 
ful, and Tipsikaw was again ready to resume the chase. This Indian left the 
county in 1837 or 1838. In 1874 he revisited his old hunt grounds, and was found 
weeping by one of the early settlers opposite the site of his former village. 

Tonadoganow was the head chief of the Otchipwe nation. This honor be- 



longed to him on account of his debating powers, acute understanding, and great 
prowess in the hunt. He was ugly in every sense. He wore only a hunting shirt 
from April until September, and this hung loosely from his hunch-back. This In- 
dian was accustomed to make periodical visits to the bands in Macomb County, was 
a great factor in the negotiation of two of the treaties referred to in tliis chapter, 
and well known to the first French and American settlers of Mt. Clemens and 

Okemawkeketo was chief of the tribe for years previous to the reign of Tona- 
doganow. He received from the hereditary chief, Miscobenasa, power to administer 
the office of chief. Old Misco and Okemawkeketo were noble savages, and well- 
known to the pioneers of tliis county. 

Notaquoto, a short, ugly, powerful savage was well known to all the early set- 
tlers. To give an idea of this Indian, Wm. J. Tucker relates that a few Indian 
ponies happened to stray into Sterling township, where they were stabled by Jim 
Bruce. This settler was unaware of the danger of such a proceeding, and his mur- 
der for the act was only averted by tiie timely interference of C. G. Cady, then resid- 
ing at his present house in Sterling. Mr. Cady was returning from church, when 
he met the Indian. Asking him where he was going, the savage pla3'ed with the 
tomahawk and replied that he was going to see Jim Bruce. " He has my horses," said 
Notaquoto, " and I will murder him." Cady prevailed upon the Indian to wait, 
while he himself went to Bruce's. He advised Bruce to set the animals at large, 
which advice was taken, and Notaquoto returned to his reserve with his property. 


The following verses, written by J. E. Day in 1860, refer to the visit of an 
Indian to this district, who in his childhood called it home: 

The Autumn sun fades slowly from the sky, 

And dimly shines his parting light, 
Across the clearing shadows swiftly fly. 

The harbingers of coming night. 
The forest warblers seek their nightly rest, 

The cricket pipes his evening lay. 
While here and there a few dim stars appear, , 

As if to haste the setting sun away. 

The place in beauty and in silence sleeps — 

No dissonance disturbs the scene ; 
But dimly 'neath the moon there comes a form 

Of stately step, of haughty mien, 
His stately tread, his light, elastic step. 

His form which age has slightly [bent. 
His swarthy cheek and ornamented breast 

Bespeak the Indian lineament. 




Why stands he there so stern, cold and still, 

Whose deeds have challenged men's belief — 
The setting sun of Sonago's daring race, 

Powontonamo — " Eagle Chief ? " 
He lifts his eyes in silence and despair, 

That much their ancient fire impart. 
As mem'ry sweeping o'er him but displays, 

In broken, but unconquered heart. 

Thirty long years have passed away since last. 

He visited the land he stands on now ; 
It is a spot of earth well known to him. 

Though furrowed by the white man's plow, 
And changed, alas ! to him, how sadly changed ; 

For buried 'neath its surface lie 
The only offspring of the Eagle Chief. 

And his young bride — the Sunny Eye. 

He gazed upon the mountain's shaded brow ; 

The clouds that floated o'er his head, 
The river and the trees his youth had known, 

Though leafless now and dark and dead. 
These, still, had left the old familiar look — 

O'er all the rest a change had crept. 
He thought of this, and as the night came on 

He bowed his warrior head and wept. 

''The white man's ax" he said, "has been here too. 

The oak I planted in my youthful pride, 
And watched long years with manhood's care, 

And the sweet vine that climbed its side, 
Have felt the blow, and withered much too soon. 

My bride I claimed beneath its shade, 
And 'neath it our young babes have gamboled oft, 

And 'neath it their short lives were laid. 

" Down yonder stream the Indian's light canoe 

Would shoot, like wild bird on the wing, 
And yonder mountain side would echo back. 

The war cry of our Council ring. 
But all is changed. The white man's power has drove 

Us from our home to slowly die ; 
And now this oak and vine are emblems fit 

Of Eagle Chief and Sunny Eye." 

What wonder that the Eagle's bosom swelled, 
And manhood's tears ran o'er his eheek, 

As memory brought before him all the Past, 
His plans, his wishes, all a wreck. 



But mid his grief his pride and anger rose, 

To his dark eye the light had come, 
He strewed the broken arrows o'er the grave, 

And then the Eagle Chief was gone. 

Fisher, a half-breed, who married a sister of Francis Macorapte, committed 
suicide about 1852. It appears he made a cruel husband, so that Macompte took 
his wife from liim, and presented him with an English rifle, as better suited to liim 
than a wife. Fisher and the rifle lived quietly together for some years, when he 
returned to the Salt River Reserve, and there shot himself through the heart. 
About the same time a dog feast was held by the Indians on the Tucker 

Neome, the chief of tlie largest division of the Chippewas, occupied and a.ssumed 
to control the southern portion of the tribal domain. Tiie Flint River, with its 
northern afflueiats, was left a little north of the border in full Indian possession by 
the Treaty of 1807. It was called by the savages Pewonunhening, or tlie River of 
the Flint, and by the early French traders La Pierre ; Ihe latter also called the ford 
a few rods below the present Flint City bridge Grand Traverse, vr\\\\e to the village 
in the neighborhood of the ford the Indians gave the name Mus-eu-ta-wa-ingh, which 
translated means the open lilain burned over. 

In point of geographical location, the chief Neome and his powerful band stood 
on the very threshold of the trail leading to the Northwest. To any one standing 
at Detroit and looking northerly to the land lying west of the Lake and River St. 
Clair, it was plain that Neome stood indeed a lion in the path unless well disposed 
toward the American settlers. The old chief was honest and simple-minded ; 
evincing but little of the craft and cunning of his race ; sincere in his nature ; by 
no means astute ; firm in his friendships ; easy to be persuaded by any benefactor 
who should appeal to his Indian sense of gratitude ; harmless and kind-hearted. 
In stature he was short and heavily molded. With his own people he was a chief 
of patriarchal goodness, and his name was never mentioned by his people except 
with a certain veneration, and in more recent years with a traditionary sorrow, 
more impressive in its mournful simplicity than a labored epitaph. 

Keshkaivko. — In April, 1825, the Saginaw savage — Kesh-kaw-ko — killed a 
Huron warrior at Detroit, on the spot now forming the center of the D. & M. R. R. 
depot. The dead Indian was taken to a blacksmith's shop, then occupying the site 
of the Russell House, where the coroner, Benjamin VVoodwortli, held an inquest. 
Kesh-kaw-ko and his son were interned in the old fort, after the jury declared the 
older savage guilty, and the coroner sent him to await trial ; a squaw brought the 
chief some hemlock, which he drank eagerly, and died. His sou, who was no 
party to the deed, escaped. He sought a trail homewards by the Clinton River, 



was recognized by some of the Hurons, and pursued almost to the camping ground 
of his tribe. 

This Chippewa desperado, and his son Chemick, were among the principal British 
allies of the War of 1812. Both were known to the pioneers of Macomb, for in 
tliat quarter of the Peninsula those ruffians, with their followers from the Saginaw, 
attacked men, women and children indiscriminately. They did not enter into any 
battles — their warfare being only against the defenceless or unwary. 

This well-known Indian, a nephew of Pontiac, and once the head chief of the 
Otchipwe nation, was born near Knagg's Station on the Shiawassee, about the year 
1763. The earliest account of him states that lie went forth on the war-path in 
1793. In the Legends of the Northwest by Judge Littlejohn, the old chief is intro- 
duced in 1803. Okemos took a prominent part in the battle of Sandusky, which 
won for him the name of the greatest warrior and the chief of his tribe. It appears 
that himself, his cousin Man-i-to-oorh-way, with sixteen other warriors enlisted 
under the British flag, formed a scouting party in search of American scalps, and 
ultimately reached the British rendezvous at Sandusky. Speaking of this period, 
the old scalp-taker said : " One morning while lying in ambush near a road lately 
cut for the passage of the American army and supply wagons, we saw twenty cav- 
alry men approaching Us. Our ambush was located on a slight ridge, with brush 
directly in our front. We immediately decided to attack the Americans although 
they out-numbered us. Our plan was first to fire and cripple them, and then make 
a dash with tlie tomahawk. We waited until they came so near that we could 
count the buttons on their coats, when firing commenced. The cavalrymen with 
drawn sabres immediately charged upon the Indians. The plumes of the cavalry 
men looked like a flock of a thousand pigeons just hovering for a lighting. Myself 
and my cousin fought side by side, loading and firing, while dodging from one cover 
to another. In less than ten minutes after the firing begun the sound of a bugle 
was heard, and casting our eyes in the direction of the sound we saw the roads and 
woods filled with cavalry. The Indians were immediately surrounded, and every 
man cut down. All were left for dead upon the field. Myself and my cousin had 
our skulls cloven, and our bodies gashed in a fearful manner. The cavalrymen 
before leaving the field, in order to be sure life was extinct, would lean forward 
from their horses, and pierce the breasts of the Indians even into their lungs. The 
last I remember is, that after emptying one saddle, and springing toward another 
soldier, with clubbed rifle raised to strike, my head felt as if pierced with a red-hot 
iron, and I went down from a heavy sabre cut. All knowledge ceased from this 
time until many moons afterward, when I found myself nursed by the squaws of 



friends who had found me where I fell two or three days after the engagement. 
The squaws thought all were dead ; but upon moving the bodies of myself and 
Manitocorhoay, signs of life appeared, and we were taken to a place of safety where 
we were nursed until restored to partial health." 

Okemos and his cousin never took part in a battle since tliat time having satis- 
fied themselves that they were wrong then. 

Shortly after his recovery he asked Colonel Gabriel Godfro^s father of Richard 
Godfroy of Grand Rapids, to intercede for him with General Cass, which resulted 
in a treaty between tlie United States and himself and other chiefs — a treaty faith- 
fully observed. In 1837, the small-pox and other causes tended to scatter the band 
near Knagg's Station, where they were located. Previous to this time he was ac- 
customed to wear a blanket-coat with belt, steel pipe, hatchet, tomahawk, and a 
long, English liunting knife. He painted his cheeks and forehead with vermillion, 
wore a shawl around his head a la Turc and leggings. The old scalp-taker for the 
English died in his wig-wam a few miles from Lansing, and was buried at Shim- 
nicon, in Ionia County, December 5, 1858. 


That as beautiful a spot as Cusick Lake has remained as long as it has, with- 
out its appropriate legend, is somewliat curious. That it was a place greatly ad- 
mired and frequented by the red man iseertain. The beautiful banks densely covered 
as they once were, with forest trees, before vandalism had done it work on them, 
could not have failed to attract and please the children of nature. Over on the 
island under the murmuring pine and hemlock in the "moon of leaves," the scalp- 
locked warrior wliispered sweet nothings in the ear of his dusky maid and boasted 
of liis prowess in the chase and the field. To Miss Hayner belongs the honor of 
bringing tlie poem to liglit, and of preserving this incident in the history of the 

Day into night had ahnost grown, 
And all was still and silent and lone, 
And the long night shadows began to break. 
Across the surface of Cusick Lake ; 
When out of the dark and shady wood, 
A maid moved out, and silent stood. 
And gazed across to the other bank, 
Where the willows grew so thick and rank. 
That morn her father, a hunter bold, 
Had left his daughter— Edith Gold, 
While he should go to a distant fort. 
To tell the men of a faint report, 
Of how the Indians late that night. 
After the moon had sank from sight, 

Would creep out in the deepest shade. 
And on the fort make a wild, wild raid. 
The hunter, as he left that morn, 
Told his daughter not to mourn. 
While he was gone to the fort to warn. 
He said that ere the sun sank low. 
He should have warned them of the foe; 
And when upon her ears should fall. 
Her father's well-known signal call. 
She must launch the birch canoe. 
And meet him where the willow grew. 
But the sunset hour had come and pissed. 
And the twilight rays were fading fast; 
At length it grew so dark and late, 






C k. 

-J , 1? 







She went to the bank, to watch and wait ; 

All harshly on the still night air. 

She looked away to the other side. 

A moment she let her oars droop. 

And still she looked, and looking, sighed. 

For she knows 'tis the Indians' wild war whoop 

The darkness hovered closer round. 

That sets the echoes all in chase 

The shadows thickened on the ground. 

Around that lone and silent place. 

The moon came up with silvery light. 

But now she seizes oar again. 

And gazed upon that lonely sight ; 

With doubled strength and giddy brain 

There in the edge of the forest shade. 

She sends the little birch canoe 

With anxious look, stood the woodland miid ; 

Fairly flying onward, through 

Her hair all streaming to the night ; 

The waters of the placid lake. 

Her face all pale and gleaming while 

Hark ! a cry from the willow's shade, 

Is lifted to the arching sky, 

" Edith, be quick !" it said to the maid ; 

While she besought her God on high 

"On, on, brave girl! one effort more. 

To shield her father on his way, 

And you will touch on the island shore." 

And lead him from where dangers lay. 
All round 'tis still as silent death. 
Naught is stirred by a single breath, 
But hark ! was it, was that a sound, 
That stirred the still night air around? 

She gathers all her strength, 
She throws it on the oar. 
But see ! it breaks, it breaks, 
And she's not yet at shore. 

She gasps for breath, she peers across 

The hunter tried, but all in vain. 

To where the breeze makes the willows toss ; 

His daughter and the boat to gain. 

Is it all a fancy, or does she see 

Their savage foes soon seized and bound. 

A form in the shade of the waving tree? 

No mercy at their hands they found ; 

Quickly she turned and made way to 

And when the sun rose o'er the hill, 

The place where lay the birch canoe. 

There hunters found them lying still — 

Then came the well-known signal cry, 

No motion, groan, or faintest breath. 

Now to the rescue she must fly ; 

But stiff and cold in silent death. 

She takes her place, she seizes oar. 

Their white friends made a double grave 

And swiftly pushes from the shore. 

In which to lay the fair and brave. 

The water eddies round the boat, 

Upon the island a lonely mound. 

The lilies swiftly past her float, 

That marks the spot, may still be found. 

The little pine wood point is passed, 

Many a time have mirth and song 

The trees and banks receding fast, 

Mingled and floated the trees among. 

Her boat is far out in the lake. 

'Neath which the hunter, brave and bold, 

When a wild, blood.curdling yell doth break 

Sleeps with his daughter, Edith Gold. 



Henry Connor, or Wah-be-sken-dip, 

was superior to all the traders of that 

period in disposition and manner. He was 

1 man possessing great muscular strength, 

yet gentle as a child, and only physically p 

owerful where justice should be enforced 

or some important point carried. He was 

a faithful interpreter between the Indian 

counselors and United States commissionc 

rs during the treaty negotiations. After 

the treaty of 1819, he entered on a trader" 

3 life, and continued to the close to merit 

the confidence and esteem of the savag 

2S, Frenchmen, and Americans. Connor 

was present at the deatli of Tecumseh, 

October 5, 1813, when James Whitty 

encountered the great Indian and killed hi 

m. Whitty and Gen. Johnson, he stated, 

^ k 



a r- 

"> ' e) 



attacked the warrior simultaneously ; but tlie former began and ended that act in 
the battle of the Thames. 

Henry Nelson, another Indian trader known to the old settlers of Macomb, 
removed from the Huron to the Saginaw district in 1821, and thence with the In- 
dians to Isabella County, where he died a few years ago. 

The St Martins were an old and respectable family. Tlie first of the name 
who came to America was Adhemar Sienr de St. Martin. He settled in Quebec 
and held the office of Royal Notary as early as 1660. One of his grand -children 
came to Detroit in 1740. In April, 1750, is recorded a grant of land (a portion of 
the now Cass farm) to Jean Baptiste Labutte dit St. Martin. It was his son who 
became interpreter of the Huron language, and who figured conspicuously 
during the Pontiac conspiracy in 1763. His services were highly appreciated by 
Gladwyn, who in his sweeping denunciation of the inhabitants during the siege, 
always excepts his interpreter, St. Martin. In 1770 he married Marianne, the 
second daughter of Robert Navarre (Tonton, the Writer, as he was called, to dis- 
tinguish him from his son Robert, whose sobriquet was Robishe, the Speaker). 
At the marriage of St. Martin and Marianne Navarre, de Bellestre, the last Frencli 
commander of Fort Pontchartrain, was present. His family history was closely 
woven in the destiny of this fort of La Mothe Cadillac. De Tonty and another De 
Bellistre, uncles of his, had been among its first commanders. It was a melancholy 
irony of fate, that he should be obliged to resign to the English the post which his 
ancestors had struggled so nobly to retain. De Bellestre organized the first militia 
in this part of the country, and gave the command to his brother-in-law, Alexis de 
Ruisseaux, who had married a Godfrey. St. Martin died a few years after his 
marriage, leaving a young widow and three children — one boy and two girls. 

The Tucker family is referred to in the pioneer history of the county. In the 
same chapter the Connors aie dealt with. 

Jean Provencal, or Arvishtoia, appointed Indian blacksmith by Gen. Cass, 
possessed many good qualities which endeared him to the whites as well as to the 
Indians. William Tucker, and other old residents of Macomb, remember him well, 
aand substantiate what has been said of him. 

Edivard Campau, or Now-o-ke-shick, lost an arm from the accidental discharge 
of his rifle, while hunting in this county. Notwithstanding the rude, surgical 
operation, which onl}' the medicine man of that time could perform, he survived, 
and continued among the most active and popular trappers of this district, until 
his journey to the Northwest. 

Gabriel Godfrey, known as Menissid, was a trader from the lower Huron 
country. He was one of the family to whom was deeded the lands where Ypsilanti 
now stands. His visits to the upper Huron or Clinton were few, j'et his acquaint- 



ance among the French and American pioneers of Macomb was extensive. Rich- 
ard Godfrey, his son, now dwells at Grand Rapids in this State. 

Archibald Lyons, was, like many of the white inhabitants of the country 
bordering on Lake St. Clair, engaged in trapping. In 1818 he left the district, 
now known as Macomb and St. Glair counties, for the Saginaw valley, where he 
married the beauty of the tribe — Ka-ze-zhe-ah-be-no-qua. This woman was a 
French half-breed, peculiarly superior to all around her, highly intelligent, and in 
possession of principles which could not sanction a wrong. Lyons, while skatino- 
down the Saginaw River, in 1821, to play for a dancing party, fell through the ice, 
and was never seen again. After the death of her husband, the widowed Ka-ze- 
zhe-ah-be-no-qua married Antoine Peltier, who moved from Harrison Township to 
Lower Saginaw. 

Francois Tremble, grandfather of the Trembles referred to in this section of the 
work, was well known from Montreal to Detroit and the Riviere Aux Hurons so 
early as 1782. Ten j-ears later, 1792, he visited the Saginaw Indians, which proved 
to be his first and last exploratory trip. It appears this adventurous Frenchman 
was drowned while ilying far away from an Indian camp. The story of his death 
states, that he made a spear for an Indian to be used in killing muskrats; another 
Indian came forward to beg a similar favor, and for him Tremble made still a better 
spear-head. Indian No. 1 grew jealous, abused the good hunter, and ultimately 
stabbed him in the back. Retiring to his boat he set sail for his home on Lake St. 
Clair, but never reached the place. It is supposed he was knocked overboard by 
the boom of his boat, and was drowned in the waters of Lake Huron. 

Captain Joseph F. Marsac was born near Detroit on Christmas day, 1793, and 
was known from his native place to Fort St. Joseph or Gratiot and thence to Mich- 
ilimackinac. Marsac was the happiest model of the Franco -American — genial 
as man could be, he endeared himself to all around him — to all, with whom he 
came in contact. During the Black Hawk War excitement he was one of the first 
to organize a military company and take the field with the rank of captain. 

Captain Leon Snay, a hunter and trajjper of great repute, belonged to the 
better class of French traders, and held the military commission of captain. Like 
Marsac, he was well known to all the old American settlers of Macomb as well as 
to tlie Indians and his own people. 

Peter G-ruette, Francois Corbin, John Harson, with other traders, hunters, 
trappers, and interpreters, who established temporary posts on the Clinton, Flint, 
Shiawassee, Black River, etc., made this county a rendezvous, and won the respect 
of the American pioneers. 

Harvey Williams of Detroit, now of Saginaw, one of the few survivors of the 
Detroit settlers of 1818, in his journey to Saginaw in 1822, with supplies for the 


troops stationed there, had to ford the Clinton River at five different jioints. The 
Indians and first American settlers of Macomb knew Uncle Harvey well. Though 
not a trader in the full sense of the term his dealings with the savages as well as 
with the civilized inhabitants was extensive and honorable. 

Dunois, or Du Nor, was one of the first and best known interpreters under 
American rule. His order to ihe Indians was a law. It is related that upon one 
occasion he visited the house of John Tucker, and asked him to tell the chief of 
the Salt River band to meet him at the Tucker House on Friday night. Anowi- 
sickau, brother of Francis Macompte, met him as appointed, and both went into 
the forest in the darkness of that winter's night. This visit resulted in finding a 
U. S. cavalry horse stolen from Detroit. 

Leon St. Greorge, born at Montreal, Canada, in 1774, came to Michigan in his 
youth and made a settlement between Detroit and the Clinton or Riviere Aux 
Hurons. This French-Canadian afterward removed to Detroit, and cleared the 
land where the city hall stands as well as many acres in the vicinity. When the 
war of 1812 broke out, St. George joined the American troops, and fought through 
it to its close. After the close of the campaign he became a trader among the 
Hurons and Chippewas, and was well known to the pioneers of Macomb County. 
His death took place in 1880. 

Oliver Williams settled at Detroit in 1807, where he engaged in mercantile 
life, and become one of the largest dealers then in the Peninsula, bringing at one 
time from Boston a stock of goods valued at $6-1,000. In 1811, the sloop Friends' 
Grood Will was built for him, which was cajotured by the British and called The 
Little Belt. Referring to this $64,000 matter, Mr. C. G. Cady states positively 
that when he arrived at Detroit, he could carry all the merchandise it contained to 
Mt. Clemens. 

Captain John Farley of the United States Artillery was among the early visi- 
tors to Mt. Clemens. 

Michel Medor, Joseph Benoit, Leon and Louis Tremble, whose grandfather is 
referred to in this chapter, were among the traders known to the Indians, French, 
and Americans of Macomb County previous to»and for years after its organi- 

Benjamin Uushway was born at Detroit in 1809, and died at Saginaw May 25, 
1881. In 1832, he was appointed Indian blacksmith at Saginaw. He was known 
among the early settlers of Macomb, particularly among the French. 

Edivard McCarthy an Irish revolutionist of 1798, came to Detroit in 1829, 
passed some time near Mt. Clemens, and ultimately continued hi.s travels to the 
Northwest, where he died. 

Buret Le Paries, Dominique Snay, Louis Duprat, William Thebo, Joseph 



Alloir, Antoine Tremble, John Tremble, Francois G. Tremble, William J. Tucker, 
were among the children of the county when it was organized. 

Whittimore and James Knaggs, brothers, of French-Canadian or French- 
English descent, were among the early white inhabitants of the Huron Country, 
and if friendships, dealings and periodical stays in the neighborhood of the Reviere 
aux Hurons could bring the title, they were among the first white settlers of 
Macomb County. Judge Witherell, in referring to those Frenchmen, says : " Capt. 
Knaggs was a firm and unflinching patriot in times when patriotism was in demand, 
during the War of 1812. He was one of the Indian interpreters, spoke freely six or 
seven of their languages, together with French and English, and exercised great influ- 
ence over many warrior tribes. On the surrender of Detroit to the enemy, he was 
ordered by the British Commandant to leave the Territory, and did so, of course, 
but joined the first corps of United States troops that advanced toward the frontier. 
He acted as guide to the division under Gen. Winchester, and was present at the 
bloody defeat in the valley of the Raisin. The British Indians discovered him 
after the surrender and determined to kill him. There liappened to be present an 
Indian whom Knaggs had defended in former years, who resolved to save the pale- 
face at every hazard; but the savages would not listen to him. Nothing daunted, 
liowever, the brave red-warrior placed himself between Knaggs and his foes, and 
succeeded in keeping them off for some time. The savages pressed closer, and as 
a dernier resort the friendly Indian seized Knaggs round the waist, kept his own 
body between the white man and his enemies, and so prevented the repeated blows 
of tomahawk and war-club from taking effect upon the head of Winchester's 
French guide. This mode of defence continued until both Knaggs and the Indian 
sought refuge among a number of horses which stood harnessed close by. Heie 
Knaggs was enabled to avoid the blows aimed at his head, until a British officer, 
not so savage as his Indian allies, interposed, and saved the guide from a cruel 
death." Knaggs survived this terrible trial for many years, and rendered good 
service to the United in the negotiation of Indian treaties. James Knaggs was 
present at the death of Tecumseh, and was considered one of the most unflinciiing 
and honorable supporters of the American troops. A member of the Avei-y family 
of Monroe County, Mich., bears tiie highest testimony to the Knaggs Brothers. 

Jaeoh Smith, or Wah-be-sins, settled with his parents in Northern Ohio, whence 
he pushed forward to the Detroit and Huron district, where he remained some years. 
During the rambles of the Young Swan, he won the friendship of the Hurons and 
Otchipwes, and as his intercourse with them became more extensive, he entered 
into all their manners and customs, sympathized with them, and claimed in return 
their earnest friendship. After some years passed among the Indians of the Clinton 
or Huron River, he moved to Flint, where he died of disease in 1825. Baptiste 

!> "V 


Cochois, or Nickaniss, was the only white friend present at his death ; Annemekins, 
the Indian boy whom he adopted, was the only red-man who witnessed the dying 
struggles of this popular trader. To Smith is due the rescue of the Boyers of 
Mount Clemens. 

Patrice Reaume, or Wemetigoji, was a native of Quebec. For a period of 
eight years he traded among the Indians of the Clinton or Huron and the Raisin 
districts, where he was well and favorably known. Ultimately he was appointed 
factor for the American Fur Company at the post near Pontiac, and subsequently 
at the Tittabawassee and Saginaw. 

Louis De Quindre, named Missabos, was a friend of Reaume, and, like him, a 
trader. He, too, was known to the pioneers of Macomb County, where he made 
his home for some years. 

Jacob G-radroot, or Graveraet, husband of the daughter of the fierce Keskawko, 
was a German, who settled for a while at Albany, N. Y. Moving West, he settled 
at Detroit; moved to Harrison township in Macomb, and thence to what is now 
called Bay County. 

Louis Bemifait, or Wagash, was one of the most favorably known and genial 
men in the Michigan of 1800-1820. He was much younger than Smith or Reaume, 
was a friend of each and all of his fellow-traders, and being so, was the great 
peacemaker in the traders' circle ; his calm, gentle and sound reasoning always 

Barney Canvpau, a nephew of Louis and Joseph Campau, better known as 
Oshkinawe, was well fitted for the life of a trader or hunter. He was honest in all 
his dealings with the savages, and on this account they stj'led him Young Man, and 
ac(][uiesced in all his propositions. 


Among the pioneers of Michigan best known to the earl}'^ settlers of Macomb, 
the first was, undoubtedly, Lewis Cass. The first Chief Justice, A. B. Woodward, 
and Judge Witherell, were equally well known ; while to the first French settlers 
of this county, all the members of the Campeau familj' were linked by innumerable 
interchanges of service. 

Gen. Lewis Cass, successor of the inglorious Hull, in the governorship of the 
Territory of Michigan, 1813, held his high oiSce until appointed a member of the 
United States Cabinet, as Secretary of War in 1831. In 1836 he received the port- 
folio of minister to France, which office lie filled until 1842. In January, 1845 he 
was elected member of the United States Senate. Throughout his public life, 
from his efforts to combat Hull's treachery in 1812 to the close of his career, he 
was one of the first citizens of the Union. His death brought mourning not only 




into the homes of the Michigan people, but also into the villages of the Otchipwes, 
Pottawatomies, and Ottawas, whose admiration he won during the earlier years of 
his service in Micliigan. 

Lewis Cass, born at Exeter, N. H., October 9, 1782, died at Detroit, Mich., 
June 17, 18G6. General Cass was known to the Indians, French and Americans 
from the establishment of the territory forward. The services which he rendered 
this State particularly can never be over-estimated. 

Rev. Gabriel Richards, of the Order of St. Sulpice, was born at Saint<is, Clarente 
Inferieur, France, October 15, 1764. His mother was a relative of the illustrious 
Bossiiet. He arrived at Baltimore, June 24, 1792, and at Detroit in June, 1798. 
He was the first delegate of Michigan to tlie Congress of the United States, being 
elected in 1823. His death took place at Detroit, during the cholei-a plague, Sep- 
tenrber 13, 1832. 

Marqim Jacques Campeau was born at Detroit, in 1730. He was the son of 
La Motte Cadillac's secretary, a soldier who accompanied the French troops to that 
post in 1701. Marquis J. Campeau may be considered the first white settler of 
Michigan. He sought a home beyond the Fort in 1757, just one year before Nich- 
olas Patenande began a squatter's life in the district now known as Macomb. He 
erected the Catholic Church near his home in 1778. 

Joseph Campeau was born at Detroit, February 20, 1769. In 1786 he com- 
menced trading in real estate. This fact, together with his various commercial 
enterprises, made his name a household word in the homes of the early French 

Christian Clemens, John Stockton, Gen. Brown, and a number of other pioneers 
of the State, noticed in other sections of this work, are well and favorably remem- 
bered by the pioneers of this county. 

Robert Abbott, son of James Abbott, of Dublin, Ireland, was bom at Detroit, 
in 1771. He is said to be the first man, speaking our language, who opened busi- 
ness at the old post of Detroit. His father and himself were identified with the 
early fur traders, and were known from Detroit to Mackinaw and thence to Chicago. 
The dealings of Robert Abbott with the early settlers of Macomb came next in 
importance to the business connection of the Campeaus. 


Previous to the peace of 1815, the Chippewas beyond the Huron County were 
as savage as they were in the Sixteenth Century. Shortly after the close of the 
war, Mr. Boyer, wife and children were abducted from their homes near Mount 
Clemens to that country, which no white being ever entered save as a pinioned 
captive. At that time the traders had not penetrated the valley of the Saginaw, 




and possibly would not for many years afterwards, had not this abduction of the 
white settlers of Macomb incited one, at least of the traders to venture into the 
den of savages. The enterprise was undertaken by Jacob Smith, the trader of tlie 
Flint, and resulted successfully. The Boyer family was rescued not only from the 
most foul bondage, but also from death itself, which was to be meted out to them 
in a few days, had they not been rescued by the intrepid trader. The par- 
ticulars of this abduction are set forth in the following statement: Some 
time before the actual commencement of any settlement at Mount Cle- 
mens, occurred an incident worthy of mention here. A vast camp of Indians 
had collected for some purpose at the present site of East Saginaw ; in going bj' 
this settlement on their way to this camp an Indian liad captured a little boy and 
girl named Boyer from along the river near the old Edward Tucker farm, and had 
carried them away. All search in the vicinity proving vain, and suspicion falling 
upon some Indians which had passed on their way to Saginaw, a brave and stalwart 
trapper named Smith, set out alone through the dark woods and over the vast 
country that intervenes, to rescue the boy and girl. Arriving at the Indian camp 
he was recognized as a friendly interpreter; after days of dallying and shrewd 
negotiations, started joyfully for home, with the little waifs, where he arrived in 
due time to gladden a mother's aching heart and a father's sadness with the sight of 
the loved ones. The boy Boyer, since grown to be an aged man, lived until quite 
recently, to our personal knowledge, near Swan Creek ; but to the day of his death 
the sight of an Indian would appal him and arouse fears which no effort could over- 

"The little story just related serves to give an idea of the means of travel, 
and manner of life of our first settlers. There was a period of thirty years of this 
following of trails and paddling of canoes before the project of the turn-pike was 
thought of. Those were years of ceaseless watchfulness, of constant alarm, of 
occasional bloodshed, and daily battle witli those privations incident upon frontier 
life. But they were years of enterprise, of determined effort, and finally of suc- 
cess in the planting of a flourishing settlement." 


One of the true characteristics of the Indian in the earlier settlement of the 
West was the abduction and adoption of white children. We have had to record 
as a part of the history of the early settlement of each of the counties at least one 
case of child stealing; nor does Macomb County lack an incident of the kind. We 
give the case as detailed by Mrs. Bailey, of Romeo, a short time previous to her 

On the last day of March, 1828, Alanson Finch, a four-year-old son of Albert 

-» — ^t^ 


Finch, one of the pioneers of Washington Township, was stolen by the Indians. 
Tlie child, together with an elder brother, was returning home from the sugar bush, 
when one suggested to the other the idea of trying who could reach home first by 
two separate routes. The elder one said he would go across Mr. Bailey's field, and 
the younger across that of their father. Tliey started, the distance to the house by 
either way being but about a quarter of a mile. The elder child reached home safely 
and was anxiously interrogated by his mother as to the whereabouts of his little bro- 
ther. He told the circumstances of their separate journeys home, and closed by 
saying that he had given his brother the shortest way, and anticipated finding him at 
home. Search was immediately instituted, and after many futile efforts to discover 
the lost one by his friends and the immediate neighbors, the alarm spread through 
all the settlements in the County, and the entire male portion of them turned out 
to a man, and scoured the woods in every direction ; but their charitable intentions 
and endeavors proved unavailing, and after many days they desisted. The child 
was never found. 

Suspicion rested upon an Indian called Kanobe, who had taken a remarkable 
interest in the child for many months previous to its disappearance. He would go 
to Mr. Finch's house, and, taking the child upon his knee, would teach him the In- 
dian language ere the little one could scarcely prattle the mother tongue. This 
suspicion was strengthened by the fact that Kanobe left the settlement simulta- 
neously with the abduction or loss of the child. Returning, however, he solemnly 
assured Mr. Bailey that neither he nor any of the Indians abducted the child. In 
later years the skull of a boj' was found in the neighborhood, which skull is now in 
possession of Dr. S. L. Andrews. It corresponds with such an one as would be- 
long to the lost boy. 

Some sixteen years after the child was stolen, a person of about twenty years of 
age came to Romeo and claimed to be Alanson Finch. He told a very plausible story 
about having been brought up by an Indian, by whom he was told that he had been 
stolen in his childhood, etc. But when he came to be identified by the Baileys and 
others, who had known the missing child, he utterly failed in the most prominent 
points of his claim. He finally left the place, not without leaving some credulous 
enough to suppose tliat he was the genuine Alanson Finch, and not the impostor 
that he really was. Further than this, the affair is involved in the usual myste- 
rious surroundings of similar cases. The same maternal sufferings were endured 
by the fond mother at the loss of her darling ; the same heroic endeavors were 
made to recover the lost one ; and the same surmises were indulged in tliat have 
characterized all such instances since the white man first became the antagonist of 
the treacherous Indian. And thus the 'matter rests until the final moment, when 
all secrets shall be made known, all mysteries solved. Many are apt to attribute 



the abduction to the fact that the Finch boys were supposed to have taken some 
Indian ponies. In retaliation the Indians are said to have stolen the boy. 


In the year 1812, while Elisha Harrington was occupying what is known as the 
Harrington farm, the Chippewas made a raid on the settlement. Driving into the 
village, whooping and flourishing their weapons, the savages dismounted, tying 
tlieir horses to the trees of the old orchard at Frederick. Of course the Harring- 
tons fled. The Indians in undisturbed possession gave themselves up to plunder 
and rapine, feasting and debauchery. They burned down the barns, the fences, 
and other improvements. The surrender of the traitorous Hull at Detroit to the 
British and their savage allies suggested this sudden foray. Elated with that vic- 
tory, in which they claimed an equal share of ylory with the British, they moved 
simultaneously upon all the settlements in the district of Detroit, in precisely the 
same manner as they did on the old settlement at Frederick. It was a sad time for 
the American settlers. Added to the humiliation of that disgraceful and infamous 
and treacherous action of Hull, were the dangers of savage forays. Many families 
fled to Detroit for safety, and among the number was that of Elisha Harrington, 
fleeing for protection to the very center of the arch-enemy who prompted the In- 
dians to take those inhuman measures. 

The old orchard, where tlie savages secured their horses, may still be seen at 
Frederick, and the gnarled and ancient trees yet stand, bearing the marks of the 
gnawing teeth of those wild ponies, which browsed there, while their wilder mas- 
ters were indulging in rapine and murder. 

In 1817, Elislia Harrington returned to the home from which he was forced to 
flee, only to find it in possession of a dozen of Canadians. On stating his case 
those men moved to the present site of Utica village, where they settled. 


The spirit Ijreathed into the Indians of the Wj'andot district by tiieir British 
masters, from 1774 totlie period when the British troops were driven from this land, 
was pregnant with danger to the American frontiersman, and even more so to him 
who Iiappened to dwell within tlie lines of those who essayed to enslave us. This 
spirit is portrayed in one of the stories of the past, related by Edgar Weeks, and 
founded on facts elicited by him from the best authorities. It appears that one of 
the settlers, located east of the present city of Mt. Clemens, supposed to be a 
member of the Tuckar family, had offended the Indians in tiiat neighborhood, 
which offense created much disaffection among the Indians, and drew down upon 
him their hatred. For days and weeks lie followed his daily avocations with the 
full knowledge that the malignant eye of some forest demon watched all his move- 

- ® 



ments and waited an opportunity to carry out their designs toward him. For this 
reason he was accustomed to carry his well-kept rifle on his shoulder, always ready 
for any emergency — alwa3's prepared to meet his foe. Notwithstanding the com- 
mission which the Indians received from the British, to take the scalp of every 
American who fell into their hands, it is believed a special order was given the 
chiefs to respect the lives and properties of the Tuckar and Connor families ; the 
former on account of services rendered by one of them in the Pontiac affair, the 
other on account of his usefulness as interpreter, politician, and trader. Therefore 
the Indians not only feared tlie man himself, but lived in greater dread of the law 
as propounded at Fort La Pontchairn in this connection. They dared not take the 
life of Tuckar ; but rather conspired to abduct him to the Sagenong, or great camp 
of the tiibe, retain him in captivity, and expose him to those savage tests — those 
excesses of inhumanity, which the conquerors of the .Sauks inflicted on enemies or 
imaginary enemies who fell into their hands. With the expulsion of the Britisli, 
and the rise of the white man to his natural position, the demoniac enemies of 
Tuckar sunk their passions in their interest, and evinced a most friendly disposition 
toward this pioneer. 


Previous to the departure of the Hurons from Macomb Count}', it was certainly 
worth one's while to visit one of their villages. A Frenchman who visited them 
in 1808 or 1810 described their villages on the Clinton at that time. He says : " I 
remember one fine afternoon about ten years ago, accompanying an old Indian 
trader thither. Seated in a light canoe, and each armed with a paddle we started 
from the mouth of the river for the ostensible purpose of bartering with the Indians 
for furs, etc. For my part I was perfectly delighted with the idea, as I never had 
an opportunity hitherto of seeing the Indians at home, at least during the Summer 
season. The river was sufficiently agitated to cause our tiny boat to rock dreamily, 
and as we sped onwards the rich wavelets leaped and sported against our canoe's 
prow and sides, like sportive kittens, ever and anon greeting our faces with a damp 
paw, that was by no means unpleasant. On, on we sped, now under the shadow of 
the green woods, now by the fringed, rich border of the clearings, or by the grass- 
covered marsh. We could see from a bend in the river the Indian village, and 
hear the wild, joyous shouts of the dusky juveniles as they pursued their uncouth 
sports and games. As we approached their camp what a busy and exhilarating 
scene was presented to our view ! I clapped my hands in the exuberance of my 
spirits, for never before had I witnessed a scene so full of real, unaffected natural 
happiness as there greeted my senses. My companion did not appear to share in 
my enthusiasm, owing, doubtless, to the fact that he was accustomed to such 
scenes. Little Indian boys and girls could be seen prowling around like little 


Cupids — some wrestling, some shooting with tiny bows and arrows, some paddling 
their toy canoes, wliile others sported in the waters of the river like so many am- 
phibia, each striving to excel the other in the manner and demonstration of its 

Superannuated Indians and squaws sat by the tent-doors, looking on with a 
quiet, demure pleasure, or arranging some toy or trinket for a favorite little toddler, 
while the more efficient were engaged in various occupations. Oh ! how I longed 
for an artist's skill, that I might sketch the wild and picturesque scene. Here, 
thought I, is human nature in its free, untrammeled state. Care seemed to be a 
stranger to those children of Nature ; no thought of sorrow seemed to engross their 
minds ; and the world, with all its vicissitudes and vexations, was allowed to pass 
along unnoticed by them. Buoyancy of spirit was a striking feature in their char- 
acter. As we drew our canoe out upon the beach, the Indians came forward to 
greet us, and with a hearty shake of the hand, wished us a cordial bon jour. Tlie 
dusky urchins left their sports to take a full survey of the visitors ; wliich having 
done, they returned co their games with a yelp and a bound. 

Situated upon tlie greenest and most beautiful portion of the camp ground 
wore a number of white and neat looking tents, whicli were closed, and isolated 
from the dingv, smoky tepees of the village. The trader, who seemed a sort of 
privileged character, was entirely at home ; while I, considering myself among 
strangers, clung to him, and followed him wherever he went, not venturing to throw 
myself upon my own responsibility. I was therefore pleased when I saw him 
start toward the white tents, for I was curious to know what they contained. 
Drawing aside the canvas, he entered without ceremony, I, of course, following- 
after. Seated upon beautiful mats of colored rushes, whicli served as carpets and 
divans, were some three or four good-looking squaws, very neatly and even richly 
attired in the fanciful style of the native, busily engaged in embroidering and orna- 
menting moccasins, broad-cloth leggings, and blankets with variegated beads and 
poi'cupine quills. Everything around evinced the utmost order, neatness and taste. 
No bustling nichee or dirty urchin was allowed the freedom of those apparently 
consecrated tents; but all was quiet and calm within ; and if converse were carried 
on it was in that calm, soft, musical tone so peculiar to them. So, so, thought I, 
liere we have a sort of aristocracy — a set of exclusives, and a specimen of high life 
among the natives ; yet it was just that kind of high life in many respects, after 
which their white sisters might take pattern. No idle gossipping or scandal was 
indulged in ; they quietly plied their needles, and kept their counsels to them- 
selves. If they had occasion to visit their neighbors' tents it was done quietly and 
pleasantly, after which business was resumed. 

This description of the Indian villages on the Reviere Aux Hurons, or Clinton 




is based upon fact. Thougli the Wyandot or Huron is now far away from his 
olden land, his wife, or sister, or mother may look back with pride to their settle- 
ments by Lake St. Clair, and in charity wish that the new Americans there will be 
as happy their fathers were. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, like that of 
war, was a means of gratifying his love for distinction. The male children, as soon 
as they acquired sufficient age and strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow 
and taught to shoot birds and other small game. Success in killing a large quad- 
ruped required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as sedulously 
inculcated in the minds of the rising generation as are the elements of reading, 
writing and arithmetic in the common schools of civilized communities. The 
mazes of the forest and the dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for 
the exercise of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding soil 
but that the tracks were the object of the most searching scrutiny, and revealed at 
a glance the animal that made them, the direction it was pursuing, and the time 
that had elapsed since it had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, 
because they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easily taken, 
perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is endowed with a curi- 
osity which prompts it to stop in its flight and look back at the approaching hunter, 
who always avails himself of this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. When in 
council, they usually sat in concenti'ic circles around the speaker, and each indi- 
vidual, notwithstanding what rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as 
if cast in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with the sacred 
pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being lighted it was first presented 
to heaven, secondly to the earth, thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly the 
several counselors, each of whom took a whiff. These formalities were observed 
with as close exactness as state etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians Avere of the simplest and rudest character. On 
some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near an ever-running sjiring, they 
raised their groups of wigwams, constructed of the baric of trees, and easily taken 
down and removed to another spot. The dwelling places of the chiefs were some- 
times more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same materials. 
Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. Though principally dependent 
upon hunting and fishing, the uncertain supply from those sources led them to cul- 
tivate small patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within itself, 
commerce, or an interchange of articles, being almost unknown to them. In cases 
of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied upon himself for retaliation. Blood 



for blood was the rule, and the relatives of tlie slain man were bound to obtain 
bloody revenge for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to 
innumerable bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such were possible. 
War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's glory and delight, — war, not con- 
ducted as civilization, but war where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and 
cruelty were prime requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would 
make great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic ; but 
when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, unoccupied, well-nigh 
useless savage. During the intervals of his more exciting pursuits, the Indian 
occupied his time in decorating his person with all the refinement of paint and 
feathers, and in the manufacture of his arms and of canoes. These were con- 
structed of bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder from 
stream to stream. His amusements were the war-dance, athletic games, the narra- 
tion of his exploits, and listening to the oratory of the chiefs ; but during long 
periods of such a pei'iod he remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the 
trees of the forests and the clouds that sailed above them ; and this vacancy im- 
printed an habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his general deportment. 

The main labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon the women. 
The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, making mats and baskets, carry- 
ing burdens — in fact, all things of the kind were performed by them, thus making 
their condition but little better tiian that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter 
of bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the bride. In 
general they had but few children. They were subjected to many and severe 
attacks of sickness, and at times famine and pestilence swept away whole tribes. 



The Griffin was finished Aug. 4, 1679, and her sails set, a trial trip made, 
and the name she bore bestowed upon her by Father Hennepin. On the 
fifth, five small cannon were placed in position. The seventh was the day 
appointed for entering upon that voyage over tlie G-itchi Gomee or great inland seas. 
The morning arrived ; the sun shone forth, as it were, over a sea of gold ; a favor- 
ing breeze played upon the waters ; the cataract of Niagara, six miles below, 
reduced its roar to music ; while from La Salle's new fortress the song of the Te 
Demu swelled upon the morning air. The sails were set, Robert De La Salle, 
commander of the Griffin, Father Louis Hennepin, historian and chaplain, with the 




pilot, and .a number of hunters and trappers, were embarked ; tlie cables, which kept 
the little vessel fast, were unloosed, and that voyage toward the setting sun entered 

Three days after setting out the vessel was anchored out opposite Teuchsagron- 
die, a Huron village then occupying the site of the present city of Detroit. From 
this point to the head of the Saint Claire River, many Indian villages were found to 
exist, all of them unacquainted with the white man, save that small knowledge of him 
which they might have gained from the Jesuit fathers. 

Seven 3rears after the Crriffin succeeded in battling with the fierce current which 
then swept past tlie present site of Fort Gratiot, M. du Lhut caused the position to 
be garrisoned and a strongly fortified trading post to be erected. This was com- 
pleted in the Fall of 1686, and the name of Fort Saint Joseph conferred upon it; 
but its possession was so opposed to the ideas of French economy, that in July, 
1688, the garrison received orders to evacuate the post, and to report at Michili- 

On July 21, 1701, M. de la Motte Cadillac, Capts. Tonti, Chacornacle and 
Duque, in command of fift}^ regular troops, arrived at Detroit. The expedition was 
accompanied by a Recollet chaplain and a Jesuit father, who had come as a mis- 
sionary priest, together with fifty trappers, traders and hunters. Before the close 
of August, 1701, the first fort erected in Michigan, if we except Du Lhut's fortified 
trading post at the head of the Saint Claire, and that at the mouth of the Saint 
Joseph, was a reality. This occupied the ground extending from the Joseph 
Campau homestead to Shelby, and thence to Woodbridge Street, a point now 
removed from the river bank, but which at that time would represent the head of 
the bank itself. The position was called Fort Pontchartrain. 

Within a few years, 1703, thirty Hurons from Michilimackinac became settlers 
at Detroit. Between 1701 and September, 1703, the settlement was further 
strengthened by bands of Ontawa-Sinagoes, Miamis,Kiskakons and Loups,all flocking 
to Fort Pontchartrain, to witness the magnificence of La Motte Cadillac and his 
command. Previous to 1706 the number of enemies made for himself by Cadillac 
among his own countrymen brought many and serious troubles into the very heart of 
the French posts at Detroit and at Michilimackinac. During the troubles at 
Detroit, Rev. Father Constantino and Jean La Riviere were stabbed by the Onta- 
was, during their circumvallation of the fort, which continued forty days, until they 
raised the siege. 

In 1707, Jean La Blanc, second chief of the Ontawas, with Le Brochet, 
Meyaouka, Sakima, Kiuonge, Meaninan, Menekoumak, and another chief visited 
the Governor at Montreal, and offered to make restitution ; but this officer ordered 
them to report to Cadillac. The deputation returned to Detroit Aug. 6, 1707, 



when the Commandant Cadillac addressed the Ontawas, Hurons, Miamis, and 
Kiskakons in turn ; the Council was in session four days, but at the close the Indians 
agreed to deliver Le Pesant, the great disturber, into the hands of the French. He 
was handed over to the garrison, but unfortunately received a full pardon from 
Cadillac. This created a want of confidence in the French among the Miamis, 
Hurons, and Iroquois, resulted in the killing of three Frenchmen, and created 
much disaffection in every Indian village. 

In September, 1708, there were only twenty-nine inhabitants of Detroit who 
were the actual owners of lots and houses within the Stockade. Of the entire 
number of acres surveyed at that time — 353 roods in toto — those twenty-nine free- 
holders owned only forty-six roods, the Hurons 150 roods, and the Chevalier de 
Cadillac 157 roods. The entire number of Frenchmen at the post then was sixty- 
three, of whom thirty-four were traders, who sold brandy, ammunition and trinkets 
in that and the neighboring Indian towns. 

During the war between France and England, which terminated in 1713, 
trouble after trouble surrounded Detroit. In 1712 Outagamies and Mascoutins laid 
siege to Fort Pontchartrain, then in charge of M. Du Buisson, with thirty soldiers. 
The church and other buildings outside the stockade were pulled down, lest the 
besiegers would set fire to the pile with a view of burning the fort itself. 
The circumvallation of the post and hourly assaults on it, were kept up for a period 
of thirty days, when the Indian allies of the French arrived from their hunting 
expeditions, both Hurons and Miamis, drove the Outagamies and Mascoutins to their 
entrenchments, and confined them there for nineteen days, until in the dai'kness of 
night they withdrew to Presque Isle, twelve miles above Detroit. Thither the 
Hurons and Miamis pursued them, and forced a capitulation which resulted in the 
massacre of all the men of both tribes, and the captivity of their wives and chil- 
dren. The Outagamies and Mascoutins who were not actually killed on the island, 
were brought to Detroit, where the Hurons continued to destroy four, five and six 
per day until the last of these warriors who laid siege to the post was no more. 
The massacre resulted in the death of 800 men, women and children belonging to 
the besieging tribes at the hands of the Hurons and Miamis. 

The decade closing in 1721 was one which tried the souls of the French in- 
habitants of Detroit. The sale of brandy and other abuses were prohibited and a 
great moral change effected in the manners, customs, and habits of the white garri- 
son and settlers. A council of the Hurons, Ottawas, and Pottawatomies was held 
near the fort June 7, 1721, under Captain Tonti, then commandant. The great 
Indian Sastarexy of the Huron tribe was the principal speaker, and the results 
obtained were of a comparatively conciliating character, so much so that by the 
year 1725, the Outagamie savages acknowledged the French King in precisely the 

J ' 



same measure as did the other allies of the French. About this period also the log- 
house, known as St. Anne's Cliurch was built, new barracks erected, about forty- 
five dwelling-houses brought into existence, and the new stockade with bastions 
and block-houses raised. The circular road or Chemin du ronde was laid out, and 
numerous improvements made in the vicinity of the Government House. 

In 1746, the old French War may be said to renew itself ; but not until 1749 
did the contest with the English soldiers take any regular form : — A decade later 
the French power in Canada was destroyed, and in 1760, all the French possessions, 
from Lake Michigan to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, were in the hands of the conquer- 
ing Normans and Anglo-Saxons. Captain Bellestre, then commandant at Detroit, 
surrendered to Major Robert Rogers, in October, 1760. 

In 1762, the famous Indian Pontiac called a council of the tribes at La Reviere 
a V Ecorse, near Detroit, at which Council the Ottawas, Chippewas, and Potta- 
watomies of Grand, Saginaw, Clinton, Black, and St. Joseph Rivers, were present, 
together with the Indians of Detroit, and bands of Delawares, Iroquois, Illinois, 
and Senecas. Minavavana, head chief of the Ojibwas, adopted a plan similar to 
that of Pontiac, and succeeded in destroying the soldiers of the English garrison at 
Miclillimackinac . Pontiac's strategy failed at Detroit. 

DETROIT IN 176-3. 

The historian Bancroft, referring to Detroit as it appeared to the settlers of 
1763, just previous to Pontiac's military enterprise, says: — "Of all the inland 
settlements, Detroit was the largest and most esteemed. The deep majestic river, 
more than a half mile broad, carrying its vast flood calmly between its straight and 
well-defined banks, imparted a grandeur to a country wliose rising grounds and 
meadows, plains festooned with prolific wild-vines, woodlands, brooks, and foun- 
tains were so mingled together that nothing was left to desire. The climate was 
mild and the air salubrious. Good land abounded, yielding maize, wheat, and 
every vegetable. The forests were natural parks stocked with buffalo, deer, quail, 
partridge, and wild turkev. Water fowl of delicious flavor hovered along its 
streams, which streams also yielded to the angler a large quantity of fish, particu- 
larly white fish. There every luxury of the table might be enjoyed at the sole ex- 
pense of labor. 

This cheerful region attracted both the barbarian and the child of civilization 
the French had so occupied both banks of the river, that their numbers were rated 
so high as 2,500, of whom 500 were liable to aad able for military service— repre- 
senting 300 or 400 French families. However an enumeration made in 1764 points 
out just sufficient white men there to form three military companies ; while four 
years later, the census of the place, places the entire population at 572. The 



French dwelt on farms which were about three or four acres wide on the river 
front, and eighty acres deep. 

The fort, then under Major Gladwyn, did not vary much from that known in 
the days of French dominion. Close by, Catherine, the Pocahontas of Detroit, 
lived. She who informed Gladwyn of the intentions of the Indians, she, it was, 
who related to William Tuckar, one of the soldiers at the fort, the story of Pontiac, 
and made him acquainted with the designs of that Indian Chieftain, and to her is 
due, in full measure, the averting of that terrible doom which hung so heavily over 
the English garrison of Detroit May 6, 1763. The death of Major Campbell at the 
hands of an Indian, whose uncle had been killed by the English at Michilimackinac, 
the sixty days' siege, the capture of the English supply convoy within sight of the 
fort, and the round of duty imposed upon the soldiers are all cliaractei'istic of that 
time. William Tuckar, one of whose descendants has taken a deep interest in the 
historv of Macomb, states: — " I was a sentinel on the ramparts, catching a few hours' 
sleep, with my clothes on and a gun by my side, for sixty days and nights." Dur- 
ing the last day of July and the first of August, 1763, Captain Dalzell's force was 
surprised near Maloche's house, and lost seventy men killed and forty wounded. 
For some years after this affair, Detroit was free from Indian assaults, treaties of 
peace were negotiated, aud everything resumed that happy standard reached under 
the French. 

Now, however, the echoes of The Revolution were heard at Detroit; Major 
Le Noult, a Frenchman in the English service, built Fort le Noult, in 1778, in 
anticipation of an American siege, and this name the new fortress bore until 1812, 
when the name Fort Shelly was conferred on it. Soon the American Generals, St. 
Clair, Anthony Wayne, Harmar, and the soldiers of the revolution came to claim 
the Northwest territory as organized by Congress in 1787. The treaty of Green- 
ville negotiated August, 1795, with the Indians, conveyed Detroit and the entire 
Northwest to the United States, and one year later. Captain Porter, in command 
of a company of United States troops, entered Detroit, and placed the Stars and 
Stripes and Fleur de Lis, where the English flag so recently floated. Previously 
the British garrison evacuated the post, after committing many acts of the lowest 
description, and placed it in possession of an old African, with whom the keys were 
subsequently found. 

From this period until 1805, the settlement of Detroit and the lake shore 
gradually advanced, which the fire of 1805 did not retard. In 1806 Tecumseh and 
EUshwatawa at the head of the Indian confederacy threatened Detroit and the 
settlements along the lake and Reviere aux Hurons or Clinton ; but the treaty of 
1807 between that enigmatical governor, Hull, and the Ottawas, Chippewas, Potta- 


^±=±: ^ ^t ^ 


watomies and Wyandots, was effectual in allaying excitement and in conferring a 
spirit of confidence on the settlers. 

The war against the British, declared by Congress, June 18, 1812, was unfor- 
tunate for the Northwest in many respects, as there nothing was in readiness to meet 
the well-organized British ti-oops. All this resulted in the scandalous, if not 
treacherous, surrender of Hull. General Harrison's command eventually took pos- 
session of Detroit ; Col. Lewis Cass was commissioned Governor, and under his 
able administration, Michigan entered upon that political, social and commercial 
course which led her to her present greatness. 


This is a most important portion of the history of Macomb County, and indeed 
one well worthy the attention of every citizen of this State, since most of the 
names mentioned were household words in the homes of the American pioneers 
from Michiliraackinac to Saginaw, to Detroit, to Grand Rapids, to Chicago, to Mil- 
waukee, back to the St. Joe river, up the Elkhart and the Kankankee, down to the 
old post of Vincennes. It is impossible to calculate the results of settlement here 
by those early French, American and Franco-American pioneers; but it is within 
our power to learn who they were, and the very location of their humble cabins. 

Before entering on the history of their times and settlement, let us first inquire 
into the origin of the names given to their locations. The first and most prominent 
name is la Riviere aux Hurons. 

The village of the Hurons was near Detroit. The name Huron, derived from 
the French, Hure, a wild boar, was applied to this tribe of Indians by the first 
French missionaries, for the reason that their hair sprung from the head in bristles 
a la porcupine. The French called them Hurons, but among the Indian tribes 
they were known as Wyandots, or Onendats. 

St. Clair and Sinclair. — In tiie year 1765 Patrick Sinclair, an Irish ofiBcer in 
the service of Great Britain, and commandant of Fort Sinclair, purchased 3,789 
acres of land on tiie river above Lake St. Clair, and after him the river was named 
The Sinclair. In a report made January 17, 1806, by Augustus Woodward, to the 
Secretary of the Treasury, it is said that this ofQcer was a distinct character — dif- 
fering physically and morally from St. Clair of the French service. The latter was 
a grand-son of O'Brien, Lord Clare, who, after the treaty of Limerick, entered the 
French army. In his honor the lake at the mouth of the Clinton was named. The 
claim of Sinclair remained in his possession seventeen years, utilizing the large 
pine-timber, and deriving heavy profits. 

The rivers, creeks, and points of land were named in accord with some phys- 
ical characteristic, or otherwise in honor of one of the first settlers in the neigh- 


squatters' claims. 

Ill 1782 there were nineteen settlers living adjacent to tliis tract, a year later, 
twenty settlers located on Lake St. Clair, near the mouth of the Huron. In 1788 
twenty settlements were made on the river Au.v Hurons, or Clinton ; in 1790 a few 
more settlers located at Pointe au Tremble. In 1793 ten families located lands on 
the Huron of Lake St. Glair, or Clinton. Seven years later four families joined the 
settlement. Six families joined the settlers at the head of the lake ; while the 
Salt Springs began to attract the attention of the people from the mouth of the 
Huron to the river St. Clair. In 1801, one settler located at these springs, and he 
was soon joined by others. In 1797, no less than thirty families located lands 
along the banks of La Riviere au Laif, or Milk River, and northwards to the 
Riviere aux Hurons. Those settlers founded their claims on actual settlement 
and improvement without any further title. Of this class there were about 400 
on the borders of Lake St. Clair, rivers Huron, Ecorces, Rouge, and Raisin. 

In the succeeding review of claims, presented by the land-holders of Macomb, 
or the Oivil District of Huron, as the territory constituting the county of Macomb 
in 1818, was called, it will be observed that the result of the examination before 
the Board is not given in the greater number of cases. Now such a course was 
made unnecessary by the fact that almost in every instance the claimant's title 
was proved to the satisfaction of the Land Commissioners, who ordered a record 
to be made of such titles in the Land Office at Detroit, and subsequently recom- 
mended the issue of United States patents. The report of this board was made 
in 1810-11, and patents were granted in the year 1812, and years immediately suc- 
ceeding. Although Claim twenty-six seems to be connected in some manner with 
this county, there is no records presented to enable the writer to notice it in this con- 
nection. Therefore, ignoring that number, he begins the review with Claim 129. 

129.— James Connor claimed the tract of land on the north bank of the 
Clinton, containing 510 acres, of which thirteen and three-quarter acres fronted on 
the river, extending back forty acres, and bounded on the west by William 
Tuckar's land. Henry Connor's testimony before the Land Board was to the effect 
that the claimant had possession, and began to improve the property before July 
1, 179(3, since which time he has been in possession of the land. This formed Claim 
129, which was granted, June, 1808. 

130. — Joseph Campeau, Claim 130, was granted on the same date. The tract 
is on the south bank of the Aux Hurons, contains 640 acres, bounded in front by 
the river, in rear by Lake St. Clair, on one side by the land of Laurente Maure, 
and on the other by a second tract entered by him. Bapciste Coniparet and Henry 
Connor testified Joseph Campeau was in possession of this tract previous to 
July 1, 1796. 




Campeau's fourth and fifth, Claim No. 133, containing 640 acres, was purchased 
from Louis Maure. This was bounded in front bj the river Huron, on the east 
by Jacques Loson's land, on the west by the land of Hyacinthe Deaitre, and in the 
rear by the lake. Claims 131 and 132 were his also. 

134. — Joseph Campeau claim, 134, of 640 acres, is bounded in front by the river, 
in rear by the lake, on the west north-west by Louis Petit's lands, and on the east 
by a tract claimed by Joseph Campeau. Henry Connor testified in this case, that 
the land so described was purchased from Jean Baptiste Connellier previous to 
July 1, 1796. 

135. — The Joseph Campeau claim, 135, is located south of th3 Riviere aux 
Surons, or Clinton, bounded in front by the river, extending to the lake between 
Pierre Phenix's land on one side, and Antoine Peltier's land on the other. Henry 
Connor testified that this tract was in possession of the claimant, and that a house 
was erected thereon previous to July 1, 1796, which house was then standing 

136. — James Connor, in his letter to the Land Boaid, June 13, 1808, claimed 
640 acres on the north side of the Huron, it being sixteen acres river front, forty 
acres in depth, bounded on the east by the Chatron farm, and in the rear and on 
the west by unlocated lands. Baptiste Comparet proved that previous to July, 
1796, James Connor was in possession, that there was a cabin erected, and two or 
three acres of land cultivated and fenced before he, Comparet, left La Riviere aux 
Hurons in 1804. 

137. — Richard Connor. The widow and heirs of Richard Connor applied to 
the Board to have their title to 600 acres on the south side of the Huron confirmed. 
Baptiste Comparet gave proof that the deceased Richard Connor was in possession 
of the land and premises previous to July 1796, up to 1804, when he left the dis- 
trict. Augustin Langdon deposed that the family of the deceased occupied the 
holding since 1801. Another tract, fifteen acres in front and forty acres in depth, 
of 600 acres, commencing at a place called Deer Lick, and bounded in rear, on the 
east and west by unlocated lands, was shown to be in possession of Richard Connor 
previous to July, 1796. 

139. — Henry Connor claimed 480 acres on the north side of the Huron, bound- 
ed in front by the river, east by Christian Clemens' farm, and west and rear by 
wild lands. Comparet stated that William Dawson was the owner of this tract 
previous to July 1796, and remained so until its sale to Richard Connor, deceased. 

140. — Joseph Robertjean's claim regarded eighty-one arpens of land on the 
north side of the Huron, bounded in front by the river, in the rear by Lake St. Clair, 
on one side by the lands of the late Alexis Peltier, and on the other side by the 
lands of Robert Robertjean. Comparet witnessed that Robertjean was in posses- 



sion of such tract previous to 1796, aud Christian Clemens proved the claimant's 
possession in the year 1799. 

141. — Christian Clemens' claim for 500 acres, beginniiig at the high bank of 
the Huron, and running down this bank about fourteen acres, to a small run or 
marsh then emptying into the river, running north forty acres; bounded in front 
by the Huron, on one side by Henry Connor's lands, on the other by the tract of 
James Abbott, and in rear by unlocated lands. Comparet's evidence was that John 
Conner was the owner of this tract previous to July 1796, who permitted Natlian 
Williams and Jared Brooks to build a still house on the premises about 1797 or 
1798. In 1801 John and Richard Connor sold the tract to Christian Clemens. 

144. — John Tuckar's claim. No. 144, was bounded in front by the Huron, in 
rear by Lake St. Clair, above by James Connor's lands, and below by Edward 
Tuckar's, bequeathed to the claimant by his father, the pioneer, William Tuckar. 
Comparet and Wm. McScott, proved possession previous to July, 1796. 

156.— Edward Tuckar's land was bounded in front by the river, in rear by the 
lake, above by John Tuckar's farm, and below by Michael Tremble's land, which 
was also a bequest of the late Wm. Tuckar. 

146. — William Tuckar claimed a tract bounded south by the river Huron, east 
by Francois St. Obin'sland, north by the lake, and west by Wm. Tuckar's (senior), 
original farm, afterwards in possession of the widow Tuckar. 

147. — Catherine Tuckar claimed, in trust for her sons, Jacob and Charles, 640 
acres, bounded in front by the river, in rear by the lake, below by claim 146, of 
William Tuckar, proved to be in possession of Wm. Tuckar, deceased, previous to 
July, 1796. 

148. — Phillis Peltier's claim, 480 acres, bounded in front by the lake, in rear 
by hunting grounds, below by Nicholas Chapaton's farm, and above by a creek or 
coulee, called ventre de hoeuf. Jean Baptiste Pare proved occupation by Peltier 
fifteen years pi'evious to 1808. 

149. — Jean Baptiste Pare claimed a tract bounded in front by the lake, in rear 
by Indian lands, above by Joseph Dube's farm and below by Louis Laforge's claim. 
Phillis Peltier proved that fifteen years previous to June, 1808, one Cayet was 
owner of this tract. He sold to Francois Dupre who in turn sold to Pare. Dupre 
confirmed this statement. 

150. — Francois St. Obins tract northeast side of the Huron, containing about 
640 acres, bounded in front by the river, in rear by the lake, above by William 
Tuckar's farm, and below by Michael Tremble's lands, was known to be in pos- 
session of Louis St. Obin, father of Francois, many years previous to July, 1796. 
Christian Clemens and B. Comparet were tlie witnesses. 

154. — Claim No. 151, by the same party, of 640 acres bounded in front by the 


river, ia rear by the lake, east by Chapaton's lands, and west by those of Jacques 
Loson, was originally settled by Michel Comparet, who sold to Louis Bandin, aud 
he in turn to St. Obin. Christian Clemens also proved continuous possession since 

157. — Francois Ambroise's 140 acres, on the northwest side of Lake St. Clair, 
bounded in front by the lake, in rear by Indian grounds, on the north by Bazile 
Crequi's claim, and on the lower side by that of Jean Baptiste Vernier, dit Ladou- 
ceur, was settled by Etienne Duchesne in 1795, who built a small house thereon ; 
he sold his interest to Michel Duchesne, who in turn sold out to Ambroise. 

156. — Jean Baptiste Vernier, dit Ladouceur, claimed 240 acres, bounded in 
front by the lake, in rear by non-ceded lands, on the northeast by Pierre Bon- 
liomme's farm, and on the southwest by the lands of Laurent Griffard. Possession 
was proven and title granted. 

199. — Francois Ambrois Tremble claimed 140 acres fronting on Lake St. Clair, 
between the lands of Bazile Crequi and J. Bte. Vernier, originally settled by 
Etienne Duchesne, who presented them to Michel Ducliesne, who sold to Tremble. 

16.3. — J. Bte. Nantay claimed 200 arpens fronting on the lake, between the 
lands of Phillis Peltier and Pierre Lanoue, possessed by him fourteen years pi-evious 
to June 18, 1808. 

207. — Laurent Maure claimed 200 arpens fronting on the Huron, extending 
back to the lake between the farms of Jos. Robertson and Jos. Campeau, in his 
possession some years previous to 1796. A certificate of title was granted to him 
in 1809, and a patent issued in 1811. 

162. — Jean Marsac's claim, bounded in front by the lake, in rear by Indian 
lands, northeast by Charles Chovin's farm, and southwest by Louis Leduc's dit 
Perez, claim, containing 160 acres, French measurement, was confirmed June 
20, 1808. 

16.3. — Jean Baptiste Nantay claimed 200 acres bounded in front by the lake, 
in rear by non-ceded lands, above by Phillis Peltier's farm, and below by that of 
Pierre Lanoue. 

164. — Joseph Mitresse, dit Sansfacon, claimed 360 arpens, French measurement, 
bounded in front by the lake, in rear by Indian lands, above by Baptiste Ble's 
farm, and below by Charles Chovin's claim, was in possession of Nicholas Patenande 
previous to 1796. He sold to Autoine Cecille six arpens in front, who, in turn, 
sold to Sansfacon. Pierre Laparle owned three arpens in front, which he gave to 
Louis Champagne, and which he in turn sold to the claimant. 

165. — Joseph Dube claimed 120 arpens, bounded in front by the lake, in rear 
by the hunting grounds, on one side by Baptiste Pierre's farm, and on the other by 
by that of Pierre Lanoue. This property was in possession of Nicholas Value pre- 



vious to July, 1796, aud continued so until sold to Charles Cliovin, who transferred 
it to Dube. 

1G7. — Joseph Rowe claimed 240 arpens, bounded in front by the river Huron, 
in rear by Indian grounds, on the west by Bazile Laforge's farm, and on the east 
by tliat of Pierre Phenix. This property was proven by Louis Campeau to be in 
the possession of A. N. Petit, before and after 1796, until he sold to the present 

168. — Louis Campeau, the pioneer of Saginaw and Kent Counties, was among 
the first land owners in Macomb. In 1808, he claimed 280 arpens bounded in front 
by the Huron, in rear by non-ceded lands, west by the Joseph Campeau claim, and 
east by B. Laforge's farm. 

170. — Jean B. Vernier, dit Ladouceur, claimed 200 arpens bounded in front by 
Lake St. Clair, in rear by non-ceded lands, northeast by Francois Ambroise's farm, 
and southwest by that of Nicholas Patenande. Alexis Coquillard heard Robert 
Thomas acknowledge himself as tenant to Jean B. Nantay. 

172. — John Askin, Jr., claimed 625 acres, bounded in front by the river Huron 
in rear and on one side by the United States lands, and on the other by the Christian 
Clemens' property. Harry Tuckar, witness for the claimant, proved that one 
Descoteaux improved and cultivated the lands, by order of, and for the claimant, 
previous to July, 1796,; that the claimant had a house built some time after 
Descoteaux went there, and that afterwards Christian Clemens tenanted the 
premises, cultivated the lands, erected fences, and continued to improve the 
property until 1808. Mr. Clemens substantiated this statement, and a title was 

173. — James Abbott claimed 630 acres, bounded in front by the river, in rear 
by United States lands, above by a buttonwood tree — one acre above a small creek 
and below by unlocated lands. Edward Hezell built a house on this claim, and 
raised two crops previous to 1796. Hezell sold his interest to James Abbott, 
(father of the claimant) deceased, since which time up to 1808 Christian Clemens 
improved and cultivated the lands, paying to the claimant an annual rent from 
1799 to 1808. 

174. — Jacob Thomas' widow and heirs claimed a tract at L'ance Creuse of 160 
arpens, bounded in front by the lake, in rear by non-ceded lands, on one side by 
Baptiste Nantay's farm, and on the other by that of Jean Baptiste Dube, all prop- 
erty in possession of Jacob Thomas previous to 1796. 

175. — Louis Petit's tract of 120 arpens was bounded in front by the river 
Huron, in rear by non-ceded lands, on one side by P. Phenix's farm, and on the 
other by tliat of Joseph Campeau. One Connellier was in possession previous to 
1796, and continued owner until he sold out to L. Petit, May 8, 1797. 


176. — Pierre Phenix claimed 240 arpens, bounded in front by the Huron, in 
rear by n. c. lands, on one side by Joseph Rowe's farm, and on the other by that of 
Joseph Campeau. This territory was partly in possession of one Lapaline and one 
Provost. The former sold to Natliau Williams, who sold to Joseph Bonvouloir, 
who sold to Joseph Cherbonneau, from whom Phenix purchased. 

183. — Laurent Griffard claimed 120 arpens fronting on Lake St. Clair, extend- 
ing backwards to the n. c. lands, to the J. B. Vernier farm on the northeast, and to 
the Henry St. Bernard farm on the southwest. Louis Monet testified that Griffard 
was in possession of this land in 1788. 

184. — Jacques AUard's 120 arpens fronting on the lake, bounded by the Indian 
grounds in the rear, Bte. Celeron's farm on one side and Louis Griffard's on the 
other was settled by the claimant several years previous to 1796, as shown in the 
evidence of Charles Poupard. 

192. — Meldrum and Park claimed 630 acres, bounded northeast by the river 
Lassaliue, southwest by other lands of the claimants, in front by the lake, and in 
rear by other claims. This land was tenanted by Antoiue N. Petit previous to 
1796, who rented it from M. and P. One Durrocher rented it for one year, and 
Dupre for two one-half years subsequently. 

193. — Another tract of 630 acres, bouud southwest by Riviere aux Vases, 
northeast and rear by other lauds of Meldrum and Park, and in front by the lake, 
was first rented, in 1795, by Baptiste Letoiirneau. Louis Barret and Denocher 
then rented the place. Francis Berian lived there for thi'ee years and one Dupre 
for two years. 

194. — Michel Tremble claimed a tract on the Huron, bounded iu front by the 
river, in rear by the lake, above by F. Saint Obin's farm, and below b\' R. Robert- 
jean. Nicholas Chapaton was in possession of this property previous to 1796. 

195. — The second claim of Tremble related to lands bounded in front by the 
Huron, in rear by n. c. land, above by Edward Tuckar's farm, and below by the 
property of the widow and heirs of William Tuckar, deceased. Henry Tuckar 
was the owner of those lands before and after 1796, until he sold to Christian 
Clemens, from whom Tremble jDurchased them. 

196. — Jacob Hill's heirs claimed 240 acres fronting on the river Saint Clair, 
between the farms of George Meldrum and Joseph Bassinet, of which land Jacob 
Hill was in possession previous to 1796, as proven by Ignace Champagne. 

197. — Another tract between the farms of George Meldrum and Alexander 
Harrow, fronting on the river Saint Clair, was also claimed. 

207. — Laurent Maure claimed 200 arpens fronting on the river Huron, extend- 
ing back to the lake, between the farms of Joseph Robert and Joseph Campeau, of 
which he was owner previous to 1796. 



213. — Nicholas Chapaton's claim, founded on a deed given by the Indians — 
Vouista nance and Nanguy — dated Detroit, May, 1795, contained about 160 acres. 
The area was disputed, and the evidence before the Board was so contradictory that 
the commissioners rejected the claim. The description points out that this claim 
fronted on Lake Saint Clair, and extended back to the n. c. grounds, between the 
lands of Phillis Peltier and Jean Bte. Nantay. 

219. — Pierre Griffard claimed 160 arpens fronting on Lake Saint Clair, between 
the farms of Joseph Griffard and J. B. N. Petit. His possession previous to 1796 
being proved by J. B. Nantay, the claim was allowed. 

Isadora Morain settled on claim 221, in 1795 ; but during his absence Pierre 
Champagne took and held forcible possession for one year from 1796, afterward one 
Gorslet lived on it, whose widow sold the claim to Bte. Allsin, who was in posses- 
sion July, 1808. This land fronted on the lake, between the lands of Michel 
Duchesne and Bte. A. Tremble, and measured 120 arpens. 

222. — Antoine Reneau purchased from William Forsyth 120 arpens fronting on 
the lake between the claims of Joseph Campeau and Pierre Tremble, May 3, 1806. 
The location was known as Pointe Guinolet, originally settled by Francois Ble, who 
sold to William Forsytli. 

228 — by Louis Reneau, comprising 120 arpens, fronted on Lake Saint Clair, 
between the lands of Louis Grift'ard and Francois Bonhomme, was ceded. 

224 — by -Jacques Allard, Jr., containing 120 arpens, fronted on the lake between 
the lands of Colas Rivard and Jacques Allard, Senr. This land was originally 
settled by J. Bte. Dumas who transferred it to Bte. Celeron, who sold to Jacques 
Allard in 1807. 

225 — by Michel Duchesne, containing 120 arpens. fronted on the lake, between 
the lands of Bte. Lapierre and Bte. Petit. Louis Thibault was the original grantee, 
who sold to F. Bernard, who sold to J. B. Comparet, Jr., who in turn sold his in- 
terest to Duchesne. 

220 — by Joseph Robertjean, containing 630 arpens, fronted on the Huron be- 
tween the lands of Joseph Rowe and James Abbott, was settled in 1795 by John 
Loveless, who sold to the claimant in 1798. Christian Clemens testified that 
Robertjean cultivated a portion of the claim since 1801. 

231 — by Alexander Grant, containing 639 acres, fronting on Lake Saint Clair, 
between the claims of William Forsyth and Gregor McGi-egor, was, as stated by J. 
Bte. Campeau or Penish, to possession of grant previous to July, 1796. 

Louis Chapaton's (claim 338) land, 120 arpens in area, fronted on the Huron, 
extended to the lake between the farms of F. Saint Obin and Louis Maure. 
Seraphin Leson testified that such land was in possession of Joseph Campeau pre- 
vious to July, 1796, who disposed of his interest therein to Chapaton. 


239. — Jean Bte. Marsac claimed 120 arpens fronting on the lake at Grosse 
Point, between the farms of Pierre Yax and Charles Goniin, in possession of Joseph 
Serre, and previous to July, 1796. 

240. — Marsac also claimed 120 arpens fronting on tlie lake between Capt. 
Fleming's and Francis Tremble's holdings, originally settled by Louis Billon ; dit 
resperance, and conveyed by him to Marsac, Aug. 17, 1801. 

242. — Robert Robertjean claimed forty-five arpens, fronting on the Huron, ex- 
tending to the lake, and lying between the lands of Joseph Robertjean and Michel 
Tremble, in his possession previous to 1796. 

243. — Jean Marie Beaubien's claim of 640 acres fronting on the river Saint 
Clair, between the lands of Meldrum and Park and those of the negro, Harry 
Sanders, was allowed. 

249. — Francois Bonhomme or Bonome claimed 200 arpens fronting on the lake 
at Pointe a Guinolet, between the lands of J. Bte. Vernier and Louis Reneau, Sr., 
which was in his possession previous to July, 1796. 

250. — Nicholas Patenaude, Jr., claimed 160 arpens at L'ance Crease, on the lake 
shore, between the farms of Vernier or Ladouceur and Bte. Socier, occupied by 
Francois Ambroise Tremble previous to 1796. 

261. — Jean Baptiste Creque's widow and heirs claimed forty arpens fronting 
on the lake, between the holdings of Meldrum and Park and Joseph Allair, which 
land was in their possession previous to July, 1796. 

262. — Meldrum and Park claimed eighty arpens fronting on Lake Saint Clair, 
between 261 and that of Nicholas Patenaude. 

236. — William Connor claimed 600 acres fronting on the Huron, between the 
lands of John Askin, Jr., and James Connor, improved in 1794 by William Connor 
and his sons, and now claimed by James Connor. 

272. — William Robertson's heirs claimed 300 acres fronting on the lake be- 
tween H. St. Bernard's and Francois Tremble's farms— land purchased originally 
by Wm. Groesbeck from the Indians, and deeded by him to the deceased William 
Robertson January 15, 1796. Groesbeck made the first improvements here so 
early as 1780 through his tenants who remained there until 1785, when George 
Baker contracted to buy the land. Baker remained on it many years, but made no 
payments. Baker being content to inform him that L'Esperance would pay the 
£100 due on it. In 1805, Groesbeck found the land vacant, and with the per- 
mission of J. Bte. Marsac and Wm. Robertson's agent, both claimants, he went to 
live on his old property, where he lived up to 1808 without paying rent to any 
party. L'Esperance stated to the Board August 18, 1808, that he purchased from 
Jacob Baker the tract in question and sold it to J. Bte. Marsac, for a plantation, 
on the British side of the Detroit River. 

5 "V 



273. — Nicholas Patenaude, Sr., bought twentj-fuur arpens fronting on Lake 
St. Chiir, between the Robinson and Martin and the JVIeldrum and Park properties, 
in 1778, and claimed to have improved such lands so early as 1758. 

276.— Julien Fortou claimed 160 arpens fronting on the lake, between the 
farms of Pierre Ambroise and Gabriel Reneau. Seraphin Leson testified that Forton 
held possession of this tract previous to 1796. 

277. — Charles Chovin claimed 220 arpens fronting on the lake between the 
lands of Jos. Saiisfacou and J. Bte. Marsac, which he located previous to 1796 ; 
he also claimed a tract (278) containing 110 arpens fronting on the lake, between 
the farms of J. Bte. Lapierre and Etienne Sieur, also possessed by him previous to 

316. — Louis Leduc claimed 120 arpens fronting on the lake between the claim 
of Panaclia and that of Francois Duchesne at L'ance Creuse, in possession of one 
Champagne previous to 1796, transferred to Jean Sunare, and by him to Le Due. 

389. — Joseph Campeau claimed, as the grantee of Louis Maure, a tract of land 
fronting on the Huron, extending to Lake St. Clair, and lying between the lands 
of Louis Chapoton, Sr., and another claim of Joseph Campeau. Louis Maure pos- 
sessed those lands previous to 1796, and continued in their possession until the 
execution of the deed, September 10, 1808, to Joseph Campau. 

320. — Jean Bte. St. Laurent claimed 120 arpens fiouting on the lake between 
the holdings of Baptiste A. Tremble and Francois A. Tremble. Gabriel Reneau 
was the possessor of these lands previous to 1796, and continued so until the 
transfer of the property to his brother Louis ; who sold to Bazile Crequi from whom 
J. B. St. Laurent purchased July 15, 1808. 

343. — Pierre Yax claimed 480 arpens at la Pointe Aux Crapaux, fronting on 
Lake St. Clair, in his possession previous to and since the year 1796. 

502. — Rene Marsac's title to 80 arpens, fronting on Lake St. Clair, and lying 
between the lands of Francois Marsac and Nicholas Patenaude, was confirmed De- 
cember 14, 1808. 

505. — Jean Bte. Petit claimed 160 arpens at L'ance Creuse, fronting the lake, 
and lying between the lands of Michel Duchesne and Mr. Bellinger. F. St. Ber- 
nard was the possessor of this tract in 1796 ; he sold to Louis Petit Clair, who sold 
in turn to Louis Maure, and he sold to J. Bte. Petit. 

513. — Louis Laforge, possessor of a tract of 150 arpens, fronting the lake at 
L'Ance Creuse, between the farms of J. Bte. Pare and Baptiste Dube, was con- 
firmed in his title. Mr. Cady states that this pioneer was a centenarian, and re- 
mained on his old homestead until ten or twelve years ago. 

541. — James Connor and Christian Clemens, associate owners of a tract of land 
situate on the north side of the river Huron, containing 640 acres, fronting on the 

9 ^ 



river, and lying between the lands of Peter Douman on the east, and John Connor 
on the west, claimed a title thereto on account of possession, occupancy, and im- 
provement, previous to and since 1796. Henry Connor testified that John Chartion 
was possessor of those lands for five years previous to 1796, when he sold to tlie 
claimants. They cultivated six acres of ground, built a house, and planted an or- 
chard previous to December, 1808. The claimants exhibited a deed made by Henry 
Tuckar March 4, 1808. 

512. — Christian Clemens claimed 640 acres south of and fronting on tlie Huron, 
next above the land of .James Abbott. James Connor testified that a long period 
prior to 1796, Edward Hazel took possession of the tract, and held it until the sale 
to James Abbott, and he in turn was the owner until the sale to his son — James 
Abbott, Jr., under whom Mr. Clemens went into possession. 

544. — Joseph Campeau claimed eighty arpens fronting on the lake, between 
the lands of Thomas Tremble and Etienne Duchesne; at Point a Guinolette, 
originally in possession of Pierre Duchesne. In 1808 twenty arpens were culti- 
vated, and a house erected. 

545. — Joseph Campeau claimed a tract on the south side of the Huron, three 
arpens of which fronted on the river, extending in depth to Lac St. Clair, between 
the claims of Louis Campeau and Louis Maure. Michel Duchesne proved occu- 
pancy by the claimant previous, and since 1796. In 1808 thirty arpens were 
under cultivation. 

546. — Henry Connor claimed 640 acres on the north side of tlie Huron, front- 
ing on the river, and running up the main river sixteen acres. James Connor 
testified that, several years prior to 1796, he saw the claimant ploughing the land, 
and when returning from the Indian Country in 1804, a house was erected, and the 
claimant was engaged in making other improvements. Francis Guy's testimony 
was substantiatory. 

559 — Israel Ruland claimed 640 acres lying on the south and north sides of 
Salt River, of which thirty-two acres fronted on the south bank of the river, and 
extended backwards twenty-two acres between the lands deeded to him September 
29 (also claimed by Meldrum and Park) ; while five acres fronted on the north 
bank, extending back twenty acres, between the lands of George Meldrum on the 
east, and the wild lands on the west and north. Previous to 1796, N. Petit and A. 
Prevot were living on those lands as tenants of Meldrum and Park. They evacu- 
ated the place in 1797 when John Bte. Nantay took possession for tlie claimant. 
In 1802 he saw John Lagord, Pierre Champagne and Joseph Socier on the premises. 
During his first stay there were old houses. He aided in building new houses, 
cleared three or four acres, and made and enclosed a garden. John Lagord also 
repaired an old house and built two new ones for the plaintiff. 



564. — Jean Baptiste Rivard claimed 240 arpens, bounded in front by the lake, 
northeast by Jean Crequi's former claim, southwest by the land of Joseph Socier, 
and in the rear by the unlocated lands. 

565. — Etienne Socier claimed 160 arpens fronting on the lake, betvveenn the 
lands of Jean Bte. Lapeer, and J. Bte. A. Tremble. Joseph Laforet was in posses- 
sion of this tract previous to 1796, he sold to Bte. Cochois in July 1796, who 
exchanged with Ignace Sene, who in a few months after sold to Henry Campeau, 
who in turn sold to J. A. Tremble. Tremble sold to Amable Latour, from whom 
it passed into the hands of Socier in 1804. 

566. — Jean Bte. Ambroise Tremble claimed 160 arpens fronting on Lake St 
Clair, between claim 565 and the lands of Bte. Celleron. Ignace Send had posses- 
sion previous to 1796, who sold to Cochois, who in turn sold to Tremble. 

576. — Jean Bte. Sen<3 claimed 252 arpens fronting Lac St. Clair, between the 
lands of Jacques Alliard and Louis Reneau. This tract was owned by Louis Grif- 
fard, Jr., previous to 1796, aud continued iu his possession until he sold to Sene 
December 23, 1808. 

577. — Henry St. Bernard claimed 120 arpens fronting on the lake, between the 
lands of Laurent Griffard and Julian Campeau. Capt. William Fleming was the 
owner previous to 1796, and subsec^uently until he sold to Joseph Elliar, from whom 
the claimant purchased September 12, 1808. 

584. — Alex. EUair's widow claimed 120 arpens fronting on the lake between 
the lands of George McGregor and Madame Crequi by virtue of possession, etc., 
previous to 1796. The widow's name was Josette Galinion. 

585. — Joseph Socier claimed 120 arpens fronting on the lake between the 
lands of Bte. Rivard and John Litle, by virtue of occupation and improvement 
since 1788. 

599. — James Abbott's legal heirs claimed 640 acres fronting on Lac Saint Clair, 
between Duchesne's land on the south and southwest, and the unlocated lands on 
the north and northwest, on account of improvements made previous to 1796. 

601. — Bte. Dubay claimed a tract of land fronting on the lake, between the 
claims of Louis Laforge and Simon Landri, originally settled by Joseph Garand, 
purchased by Seraphin Leson, who sold to the claimant in 1802. 

602. — Alexis Dubay claimed 160 arpens at L'ance Creuse, extending from the 
lake between the lands of Simon Landri and Michel Comparet, settled previously 
to 1796 by Dubay Pere, Vv-ho sold to Alexis in 1802. 

603. — Cecille Campeau's heirs claimed 640 acres fronting on the Huron, be- 
tween the lands of Joseph Campeau and Michel Comparet, extending to the lake 
front. Cecille was the widow of Thomas Williams, and at the period immediately 
preceding her demise was the wife of Jacques Leson. 



604. — Joseph Campeau claimed the land fronting on the Huron, between his 
own lands above and those of F. Saint Obin below, by virtue of possession, occu- 
pancy and improvement made by Thomas Edwards and Jacques Leson previous to 
1796. Leson sold this tract to Josej)!! Campeau, but Mrs. Leson refused to sign tlie 
deed. In this state the claim was allowed to rest for some time until finally ad- 

605. — Pierre Mavet's heirs claimed 160 arpens fronting on Lake Saint Clair, 
between the lands of Bte. Chovin and Jean Louis Tremble, settled previous to 
1796 by the deceased Pierre. 

610. — John Connor claimed 640 acres on the North Branch of the Huron, ex- 
tending from the north bank of the river along the James Connor claim on the east, 
and bounded by unlocated lands on the north and rear. Henry Connor proved 
possession previous to 1796. In 1797 John Connor went into the Indian country, 
leaving the land and imprbvements in care of the witness. 

Julian Campeau claimed (611) 120 arpens fronting on Lake Saint Clair, be- 
tween the lands of Henry Saint Bernard and Jean Baptiste Marsac, of which Capt. 
William Fleming was the first owner. He sold to Joseph Elliar, and he, in turn, 
to Julian Campeau, Sept. 10, 1808. 

613. — Francois Marsac claimed a tract on Tremble's Creek, bounded in front 
by the creek, originally settled by Andrew Baker, who sold it to John Litle May 
7, 1796, from whom it was purchased in 1801, by Marsac, was allowed, 

614 — granted to Capt. Marsac. This land was in possession of Pierre Yax, pre- 
vious to 1796, and until he sold it to his sou Francois Yax, who disposed of it to 
Marsac Feb. 18, 1808. This claim was bounded in front by Swan Creek, and on all 
other sides by wild land. 

616. — Nicholas Campeau claimed three tracts in one farm fronting on the 
Huron and extending to Lake Saint Clair, between the claims of Joseph Campeau. 
John Tuckar proved that those lands were in possession of N. Value, Augustin 
Charon and A. Leboeuf previous to and after the year 1796. 

624. — Gaget Tremble claimed a tract of land, possessed previous to 1796 by 
Maison and Antoiue Larabelle, who sold to the claimant Feb. 4, 1801, their in- 
terests therein. The tract comprises 600 arpens fronting Lake Saint Clair, and extend- 
ing northwards to Milk River, between the Joseph Campeau claim and the wild 
lands. In 1808, 200 arpens were under cultivation. 

625. — Pierre Duchesne claimed a tract of land southwest of L'ance Creuse, 
bounded on the northeast by Jacques Alli^rd's former claim, on the southwest by 
the Long Meadow, in front by Lac Saint Clair, and in rear by unlocated lands, in 
virtue of his possession thereof, before July, 1796. 

626. — Christian Clemens claimed 280 arpens fronting on the Huron, between 


unlocated lands in rear, the claim of John Askin, Jr., ou one side, and claimant's 
land on the other. John Askin, Jr., was the owner of the land in 1796. 

627. — Pierre Yax claimed 480 arpens fronting on Lake St. Clair, extending 
back to the nnlocated lands along Francois JVIarsac's claim on the south, at the 
wild lands on the north, wliich he continued to cultivate from 1796 down to 1808. 

628. — Margaret Conner, widow of Richard Connor, claimed for herself and 
cliildren, a tract one mile south of the River Huron fronting on a small creek called 
Big Run, which for several years prior to 1796 was improved annually by the de- 
ceased Richard Connor and herself. 

630. — Baptiste Socier claimed 210 arpens fronting on Lake St. Clair above the 
lands of Nicholas Patenaude, belonging to Jos. Garand in 1796 and subsequently 
sold to Socier. 

631. — Francois Ambroise Tremble claimed 120 arpens at Pointe Guinolet 
fronting on the lake between tlie lands at Benj. Marsac and Francis Forton, in liis 
possession previous to and since 1796. 

638. — Joseph Campeau (8th) claimed a tract fronting on the Huron, between 
the claims of Pierre Phenix by virtue of possession and improvement previous 
to 1796. 

650. — Pierre Tremble claimed a tract of land at Pointe Guinolet, fronting on 
the lake, and running along the northeast side of Antoine Reneau's claim, bounded 
on the southwest by Julian Forton's farm. 

656. — Nicholas Rivard claimed a tract fronting the lake between Bte. Celleron 
and Louis Tremble's land. 

657. — Gabriel Reneau claimed one arpen fronting on the lake at Point Guino- 
let, running back forty arpens, between the lands of Julian Forton and Nicholas 
Rivard, transferred from Colos Rivard, the owner in 1796. 

692. — Abraham Fournier claimed a tract bounded on the northeast by Widow 
Ambroise Tremble's land, on the southwest by Rene Marsac's, in front by the lake, 
running back forty arpens, to the non-ceded lauds, all in possession of the deceased 
husband previous to 1796. 

693. — William Connor claimed 600 acres on the north side of the Huron, 
bounded on the upper side by John Askin, Jr.'s, claim, on the other by that of 
John Connor, in front by the river, and in rear by the unlocated lands, whicli tract 
was taken possession of two years before the Americans took possession of the 

695. — Ambroise Tremble's widow and heirs claimed the homestead on which 
the husband and father lived since 1774, until he died in 1805. 

668. — John Askin, for Wm. Ancram, claimed a tract of land on the Huron, 
which claim was .supported by Robert Dowler, who said that in the year 1786, he 


rented from Askin a part of this tract, and cultivated near sixteen acres thereof 
during the succeeding two years. John Cornwall lived there sometime before 1788 
as agent for Askin. Forty acres were under cultivation by tenants of Askin, and 
there were a number of cabins erected on the lands by the Moravian ministers and 

736. — Was granted to Joseph Laurent, 1810, by a certificate of the Board of 
Land Commissioners. 

Aaron Greely surveyed all those claims, reported to the U. S. Land Depart- 
ment, and the General Government issued patents, in 1812, on the streno-th of 
certificates of title issued by the Land Board of Detroit 1808-1810. 


The following review refers to the patentees of lands reserved to the Indians 
in the treaties, and held by them until their purchase immediately after the treaty 
of Detroit. A few hundred acres of those lands are outside the couuty line, yet 
considered in the county records. 


Francis Yax -59.79 acres, Sec. 13, T. 3 north, R. 14 east; May 13, 1839. 

William Darrell, .5.33 " Sec. 14, T. 3 north, R. 14 east ; 

Leon C. Rivard, 74.30 " Sec. 23, 

James H. Cook, 79.40 " " " " " 

Jonathan Kearsley, 65.35 " " " " " 

Paul cir. Cayen, 20.13 " " " " « 

" 55.26 " " " " « 

Jonathan Kearsley, 17.90 " " " " « 

James H. Cook, 48.00 " " " " » 

Joseph Socier, 78.32 " Sec. 24, " " " 

Francis Yax, 13.80 " " " " " 

William Darrell, 56.60 " " " ' " » 

Lauring B. Migner, 31.64 " Sec. 26, " " " 

Francois Yax, 30.61 " Sec. 28, " " " 

Lansing B. Migner, 88.70 " Sec. 29, " " " 

Jonathan Kearsley, 33.35 "" " " " Oct. 18, 1841. 

John B. Socier, 56.00 " " " " Jan. 2, 1844. 

Jonathan Kearsley, 7.06 " Sec. 32, " " May 14, 1839. 

38.07 " Sec. 33, T. 3, west, R. 14, east ; 
The patentees of the United States lands of this county, who were settlers 

here or became settlers here after purchase, will be regarded in the pages devoted 
to township history. 





By what power tyranny is allowed to exist is one of the mysteries. Europe 
before the Reformation was a continent of tyrannies — since the Reformation it has 
changed the petty tyrant for the powerful one ; and is to-day ground down beneath 
a more terrible — a more exacting — a more pernicious oppression than ever existed 
to mark the pages of its olden history. Instead of a few hundred Moravians, a few 
hundred Puritans, a few hundred Catholics flying from evil laws, as in olden times, 
we have tens of thousands, aye hundreds of thousands, looking westward across 
the Atlantic to these States with longing eyes, and sending messages of hope to 
reach friends here before they die. Great numbers have come, are coming, and 
doubtless may continue to come ; but the power that drives them from their old 
homes is*a mysterious one. Tyranny forced the Moravians to seek the encourage- 
ment of tyrants in 1749. It was willingly extended, and thirty-two years later the 
same false friend murdered one hundred of those who sought and obtained his 
dangerous patronage. 


The English at Detroit suspected that a certain settlement of pious Moravians 
on the Muskingum River were sympathizers with the Americans, called a conference 
of the tribes at Niagara, and urged the fierce Iroquois to destroy the Moravian 
Indians, the name given to the few redmen who had up to that period been con- 
verted by the Moravian missionaries; but the Iroquois chiefs failed to see where 
such a massacre would benefit themselves, and were content to send a message to 
the Ottawas and Otchipwes, requesting them to make a houilU of the Moravian 
Indians on tiie Muskingum. The Moravian missionaries arrived at Detroit in 1781, 
when the Indians held a war council in presence of those missionaries and De Peyster, 
the commandant. The Indian chief, known as Capt. Pike, told De Peyster, that 
the English might kill the Americans if they wished — they had raised the quarrel 
among themselves, and they who should fight it out. The English had set him on 
the Americans just as the hunter sets his dog on the game ; but the Indian would 
play the dog's part no longer. 

Kishkawko and another warrior stood by the side of the British commandant. 
The foimer carried a hickory cane about four feet long, ornamented or rather strung 
with the scalps of Americans, together with a tomahawk presented to him by De 




Peyster some time previously. He concluded his address to the commandant thus : 
" Now, father, here is what has been done with the hatchet you gave me. I have 
made the use of it you ordered me to do, and found it sharp." A few days after 
this Council, the Moravians left Detroit for their new homes on the Riviere aux 


Jacques Leson, in his evidence before the Land Commissioners at Detroit, 
November 9, 1810, said, in his reference to William Ancram's claim for land in 
Macomb County, " To the best of my knowledge the Moravian ministers with 
Indians of the Delaware nation were living on these lands twenty-seven or twenty- 
eight years ago. I lived in the village and cultivated lands near for many years 
previous to July 1796, and recollect Wittaness telling me that Askin owned a 
large quantity of land from the Moravian village upwards. Fifteen years ago the 
late surveyor, McNiff, came up the Huron with Sanscrainte, the interpreter, who 
informed me that they had come to survey the land by order of Askins. At that 
time twenty or thirty arpens were under cultivation, and twenty or twenty-five 
cabins and houses were erected." 

John Askin, Sr., related, that on April 28, 1786, he purchased for himself and 
William Ancram, then commandant at Detroit, sundry improvements of the Mo- 
ravian ministers, and others, and made by them on the river Huron, which empties 
into Lake St. Clair, near a place called the Moravian Village, for which he paid $200. 
He likewise purchased the improvements made at the same place by the Moravian 
or Christian Indians — sixteen in number — for $200, also $50 to one John Bull for 
improvements at the same place, together with furnishing the Moravians two vessels 
to enable them to return to Muskingum — their former mission. For all this he 
received the thanks of John Huckenwelder, their chief-missionary. At this time 
there were more than twenty houses with many out-buildings, all of which were 
purchased, save one occupied and claimed by the late Richard Connor, together 
with an Indian cornfield with a yard and garden in rear, which were pur- 
chased subsequently by him and Major Ancram from eleven chiefs of the Chippewa 
Indians. These early land bu3'ers cut a road from Detroit through the woods to 
these lands — a distance of about twenty miles with a little assistance from the Mor- 
avian Indians. After the Moravians gave up possession John Cornwall was 
appointed agent, and Robert Dowlar, Ames Weston and others went on as tenants. 
Those men left after some time when Anci'am placed the Indian chief Wittaness 
and his band in charge. Those Indians had much trouble with Richard Connor of 
whom they often complained. Tliis Moravian village and adjacent territory became 
an elephant on the hands of Askin, and so he was glad to accept 1,600 pounds New 
York currency for the property from Isaac Todd, and James McGill, then merchants 




of Montreal in Lower Canada. The deed of conveyance bears date June 28, 


The history of the Moravians begins in 1457, long years before Lutlier's 
Reformation. Toward the close of the iifteenth centiny there were over 200 
Moravian churches in Moravia and Bohemia, when a Moravian Bible was published 
and studied. Passing over three centuries of the history of this religious society, 
during which time it died out in its cradle, we learn of its revival in 1749 under 
the auspices of the British Parliament. That body acknowledged Moravianism a 
part of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and further enacted that every encourage- 
ment should be given to its followers to settle in the British colonies of Nortli 
America. The Moravians came and established their missions along the frontier, 
the most important of which was that in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, at Muskingum. 
Here 100 missionaries and disciples were killed in 1781, under the auspices of the 
British Government, ostensibly on account of outrages and murders charged 
against them, but in reality on account of the sympathy which they exhibited 
towards the New Republic, and under orders of British ofScers. The survivors of 
the massacre came to Detroit in 1781, thence moved to the village on the Huron, 
which they named Neiv Qnadenlmtten. 


While waiting for one of those most uncertain conveyances, known as a Grrand 
Trunk Train, one morning John E. Day pointed out the site of the ancient village 
of New Gnadenhutten to the writer and Judge Avery, of N. Y. The latter related the 
story of Moravian marriages, and, in fact, had time to review the history of the 
United States before that Grrand Trunk Train arrived. The Moravians never 
selected a wife — never had a chance to do so, for the reason that one of the articles 
of their faith pointed out distinctly that God was the great designer, and to Him 
the Moravian should trust the choice of a wife. The manner in which their God 
made the selection was crude indeed. One of the principal missionaries brought 
forth a cylindrical tin case, something similar to that which is used in lottery affairs 
at the present time. In this lie placed bark or paper slips, with the names of all male 
candidates for matrimonial honors. Another missionary brought forth a similar tin 
case, in whicli he placed tickets each bearing the name of one marriageable girl of 
the settlement. Missionary No. 1 gave his lottery tickets a thorough shaking, then 
opened the little door and took out the ticket which he first touched, the name on 
which he read aloud, and then presented the ticket to the members of his audience 
who were thenceforth witnesses. This first act played, missionary No. 2 gave the 
lottery case containing the tickets bearing the female names, a shaking precisely as 



thorough as that given in the former instance, and withdrawing a ticket, called out 
the name, presented it to the persons near him, and called them to witness the 
genuineness of tlie transaction. This closed the second act of the drama. The 
third act was the religious ceremony of matrimony and the proclamation of the 
nuptials; the fourth was the wedding banquet, enlivened by hymns, gunshots, and 
congratulatory speeches, and the fifth and last act of the play was a quiet, evi- 
dently happy life until death separated the strangers who were made man and wife 
in the third act. 


The habits of those people and even of their Indian converts were as peculiar 
as the manners were quiet and unassuming. Their customs were even stranger 
than their habits. Economy was practiced to such an extent, that even they were 
sparing in the use of language. In the midst of plenty they were accustomed to 
deny themselves food, and proclaimed many fast days throughout the year. Their 
tastes for agriculture were not so marked as their love for horticulture, but both 
gave way to the prevailing passion for mechanical work. They clothed themselves 
in the plainest fashion, yet seemed always at home under all circumstances. Cool 
and calculating, and even usurious when chance offered, they were slow to betray 
their feelings. They formed a community of such a peculiar character, that once 
seen they could never be forgotten. 


This village was located where in later j'ears was the farm of Elisha Harring- 
ton, round the site of the residence of tliat pioneer. As described by Mr. Harrington, 
this center of Moravianisiu on this continent, comprised thirty one-story log-houses 
— fifteen on each side of a laneway forming tlie nucleus of what the day-dreams of 
Huckenwelder pointed out would be the main street of a large and prosperous 
town. In the center of one of those rows was the Moravian temple, differing very 
little in external appearance from the dwellings of the worshipers, Ijuilt as much 
for defense against the bellicose Otchipwes, as for shelter from climatic extremes. 

Here this tribe remained some years, but the Otchipwes, whose more warlike 
natures made them the terror of all the neighboring tribes, became jealous of the 
Moravians, hating them because they had abandoned the war-path, and the nomadic 
life of their forefathers. They hated them because their religion was full of mys- 
tery or appeared so to the savages of the Chippewa nation. The Moravians knew 
full well how deep was the hatred, which their scalp-taking neighbors entertained 
toward civilization, and her children, of their feelings toward any Indians who pro- 
fessed friendship for the American, and this knowledge tended to render their stay 
here as disagreeable as it was dangerous. It is no wonder to learn of their emigra- 




tion. They scattered — some returning to Muskingum, otliers effecting a settle- 
ment near the scene of Proctor's defeat, on tlie Thames River in Canada; but before 
the persecuted people left their village on the banks of the Huron, fourteen mem- 
bers of their colony died, and were buried at Frederick, where their graves were 
made between what are now known as the Harrington and Stephen's farms. 

The old Moravian village at Frederick has passed into the Past. It is as if it 
had never been. One relic alone remains. Years ago Elisha Harrington, realizing 
the fact that the time would come, when such a relic would possess no inconsider- 
able interest to the antiquarian, dug up and j^reserved a piece of the timber, which 
formed a part of one of those buildings. 

The following paper on this subject, read by the Rev. B. H. Bissell, now at 
Armada, before the Mount Clemens Lyceum, March 23, 1858, and introduced by 
Judge Eldridge subsequently in his sketches is a valuable addition to Moravian his- 

" In 1781, all the missionaries laboring at their different stations on the Musk- 
ingum, in Ohio, were taken prisoners and brought before Col. De Pe3'ster, at 
Detroit, charged with acting in concert with the United States troops at Pittsburgh. 
Early in July, 1782, several of the Indians who had been connected with the mis- 
sion arrived at Detroit with some white brethren, among whom were Richard 
Connor and his family. Having obtained permission from the Chippewas in their 
behalf, De Peyster advised the Moravians to settle on the Clinton (then known as 
the Huron) River, and to bring their Indians there. He furnished them a vessel 
and provisions, and such utensils as they needed, together with two milch cows 
and some horses, and his lady also made them several useful presents. On the 20th of 
July, 1782, Zeisberger and Jungman, with their families, and Edwards and Jung, 
single missionaries, set out with nineteen Indians from Detroit, and arrived at their 
new home on the Clinton River the next evening. They named it New Gnaden- 
hutten, in remembrance of their old home on the Muskingum. Some more of 
their dispersed converts now gathered to them, and a flourishing settlement was 
in prospect. . . . The commandant at Detroit had made arrangements with the 
Indians that this settlement at Frederick should continue until peace was restored 
between Great Britain and the United States. They remaining after this event, 
the Chippewas, on whose lands the mission was located, became jealous of them, 
and on the 20th of April, 1786, the whole was abandoned with the intention of 
returning to Ohio. Mr. Connor being advanced in years preferred to remain, and 
this made it a center for other settlers. 

Richard Connor located upon what is known as the Wells Farm, now owned by 
Messrs. Campbell and Sackett. The Moravian mission was located on the opposite 
side of the river, near the present residence of Mr. Henry Harrington. 


This spot had evidently been the site of an ancient Indian village. A few- 
years afterwards, in sinking a cellar for a dwelling there, the excavators exhumed 
a large number of bones, the remains of the dead buried there. 

After^ the establishment of this settlement at Frederick, and before the 
departure of the missionaries in the spring of 1874, Mr. William moved with his 
family into the county and located a home at about the spot where Mr. Charles 
Tucker now resides. Of these two first American settlers we naturally love to in- 
quire. From whence they came, and why, would be subjects of interest had their 
lives been even those of quiet, ordinary vanguards of civilization in peaceful times." 


The extensive German immigration of 1845 brought to Michigan a number of 
Franconians and Bavarians, who felt tliemselves oppressed at home. Those under 
the advice of Pastor Loche resolved to emigrate to the United States, there to 
follow the profession of the Lutheran creed, and to essay the conversion of the 
Indians. Within a few years the first colony of fifteen, succeeding in attracting 
five times that number to our land, and of the second and third bodies of immi- 
grants a few settled in Macomb County, the greater number locating in Saginaw. 

The immigration of 1849, the result of an attempt made by the people to cast 
away the tyrant, marked the history of that year. The Revolutionists sought 
refuge in tlie United States, not a few of them finding a home of liberty in this 
county. The German immigration of later days brought us Pomeranians and 
Mecklenburghers, Belgians and Hollanders. 



A period of time bordering on a century has passed away since the American 
pioneer first appeared in this county. Those years have been pregnant with 
changes — social, political, even physical change. The visitor of to-day, ignorant 
of the past history of Macomb, could scarcely realize the fact, that within ninety- 
seven years, a population, approximating 35,000 grew up, where, toward the close 
of the Eighteenth Century, a few bands of aborigines, with a few French and 
American trappers, hunters and fishermen existed. The population has not onlj' 
grown to its present number, but also in wealth, refinement and all these char- 
acteristics, which mark the older counties, of tlie Eastern States. Schools, churches, 
palatial dwellings, extensive marts, busy mills, cultivated fields now occupy the 


village sites and hunting grounds of the Otchipwes ; while p people endowed with 
tlie highest faculties occupy the domain of the Otchipwes themselves. There are 
but few left of the old landmarks, still a smaller number of the old settlers. 
Civilization and its demands have conspired to raze almost every monument of the 
red man — to obliterate almost every trace of his occupancy ; while on the other 
liand Old Time placed his heavy hand upon many of the pioneers, driving them, 
as it were, awa}^ from the old homestead to the promised land beyond the grave. 

Previous to 1781 the white inliabitants were all Frenchmen or French Canadians 
and the numerous French trappers and hunters who made the banks of the North- 
ern Huron their headquarters. During the year 1781 the first American settler set 
•his foot upon the soil, and built for himself the rude hut, which was the model of 
pioneer dwellings in the State. The treaty which conveyed the land in tlie neigh- 
borhood of Detroit to the National Government drew attention to this portion of the 
ceded Indian territory, and attracted a few more settlers. Tlie fur traders intro- 
duced themselves, found a land teeming with milk and honey, and settled in it, so 
far as such men settle, while yet all Michigan, save that portion of the peninsula 
around Detroit, was a wilderness. Succeeding tliem a stream of Americans 
I^oured in, and in the course of a dozen years, it was found that many of the Amer- 
icans who came as visitors, located here, and built their homes in the beautiful 

It is not strange that among the pioneers and old settlers of a county, a deep- 
seated and sincere friendship should spring up, to grow and strengthen with their 
advancing years. The incidents peculiar to life in a new country, the trials and 
hardsliips, privations and destitutions, are well calculated to test, not only the 
physical powers of endurance, but also the moral, kindly, generous attributes of 
true manhood and womanhood. Then are the times which try men's souls, and 
bring to the surface all that may be in them of good or evil. As a rule, there is an 
equality of conditions that can not recognize distinction of class — all occupy a com- 
mon level, and as a consequence a fraternal feeling grows into existence that is as 
lasting as the lives of the old settlers, and, in a great number of instances, as the 
lives of their children. 

In such a community there is a hospitality, a kindness, a benevolence, and 
high above all, a charity, unknown and unpracticed among the older, richer, and 
more densely populated settlements, just in the same manner, perhaps, as there was 
a higher faith animating the early Christians, than that which marks the Christian 
people of the present day. The very nature of the surroundings of those pioneers 
taught them to feel each other's woe — to share in each other's joy, and live in com- 
munal integrity. An injury or a wrong may be ignored with profit to the evil-doer 
and his victim ; but a kind, generous, charitable act is never to be forgotten — the 




memory of old associations and kind acts must for ever remain green. Raven locks 
may bleach in the summer sun, and whiten through the cold of winter; round 
cheeks may become sunken and hollow ; the fire of intellect may fade from the 
eye ; the brow may become wrinkled with care and age, and the erect form may bow 
under tlie weight of accumulated years ; but the true friends of long ago must be 
remembered so long as memory itself lives. 

As a general rule the men and women who first settled this land were bold, 
fearless, self-reliant and industrious. In these respects no matter from what part of the 
world those old settlers came, there was a similarity of character. In birth, educa- 
tion, language and religion there were differences; but such differences did not 
interfere with harmony; in fact, they soon vanished, became lost by association, 
and a common interest united all. 

In pioneer life there are always incidents of peculiar interest, not only to the 
pioneers themselves, but also to posterity. It is a matter much to be regretted that 
the old settlers of Macomb did not begin at an earlier date to organize tliemselves 
into an association, for even tlie record of reminiscences related at tlie meetings 
of such an association liave a direct bearing upon history, and serve to add to tlie 
literature of the Republic's first century the history of every community. Aside 
from the liistoric importance of such re-unions, they serve to enliven and cement 
old friendsliips, and renew old memories that might liave been interrupted by the 
innovations of progress. It is well that even now they have realized the import- 
ance of organization. 


At a meeting of pioneers held at Romeo Hall, Sept. 5, 1871, to organize a 
pioneer society, William F. Abbott was elected chairman, and Aaron B. Rawles, 
secretary. On motion of A. E. Leete, a resolution was adopted to form the Romeo 
Historical Society. A committee of five was appointed to draft a Constitution 
and By-Laws, as follows : Albert E. Leete, Dexter Mussey, C. Bearing, H. O. Ladd 
and J. E. Day. This committee reported a series of six articles for the govern- 
ment of the society, which report was adopted. The meeting then proceeded to 
elect officers, with the following result: President, Albert E. Leete ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, John E. Day; Secretary and Treasurer, William F. Abbott; Historian, 
Horatio O. Ladd. This society continued in existence for some time, but ultimately 
ceased to exist. 


At tlie earnest request of many citizens of Macomb County, anxious to collect 
incidents and biographical sketches of early settlements and settlers, and place on 
record some of the early history of the county, a meeting was called at Washington 
Village, March 22, 1881. Owing to the severity of the weather and condition of 


the roads, the pioneer element was not so largely represented as it would otherwise 
have l)een. 

The meeting was called to order b}^ W. A. Wales, when Mr. Wales was 
elected chairman and Stephen B. Cannon, secretai-y. Pi-ayer was offered 
by Rev. John Cannon. Loren Andrus, H. Rose, Rev. John C!annon, 
Calvin G. White, Thomas Brabb, H. N. Miller, Niles Giddings. C. M. 
Bates, addressed the people on the subject of organization. This meeting was 
entirely favorable to the enterprise, a committee of three was appointed to draft a 
Constitution and set of By-Laws. A committee was named to recommend names 
of persons for permanent officers of the society, another committee ou music, and 
still another to arrange for a future meeting of the jiioneers. 

Committee No. 1 was comnosed of Stephen B. Cannon, Loren Andrus and N. 
H. Miller. No. 2 comin-ised N. H. Miller, Allen Pearsall and Timotliy Lockwood. 
No. 3 was represented by Byron Norton. No. 4, by Loi-en Andrus, Stephen B. 
Cannon, Mrs. Loren Andrus, Mrs. Thomas Brabb and Mrs. William A. Stone. 

Loren Andrus moved that the Rev. Edward Davis be requested to deliver 
the inaugural address before the first regular meeting of the association. 


Was held May 26, 1881. The Committee on Constitution and By-Laws reported, 
which report was accepted on motion made by John E. Day. The Committee on 
Permanent Officers was directed to reconsider report, which order was followed 
by the recommendation of Chauncey G. Cady for president ; Williard A. Wales, 
treasurer, and John E. Day, secretary. The following-named gentlemen were 
appointed Vice-Presidents : O. G. Burgess, Richmond ; Hiram Barrows, Armada ; 
Dexter Mussey, Bruce ; Jolni A. Tinsman, Washington ; Zelotis Stone, Ray ; John 
Dryer, Lenox; C. H ,oker, Chesterfield; Horace H. Cady, Macomb; John Keeler, 
Shelby ; Charles Hutchins, Stirling ; Edgar Weeks, Clinton ; William Tuckei', 
Harrison ; John Cumings, Erin ; John Beebe, Warren. 

At this meeting over 400 persons were present; the History of Washtenaiv 
County^ introduced and edited by M. A. Leeson, was presented by Mr. Lorenzo 
Davis, son of Rev. J. E. Davis, of Macoinb County, a representative citizen of 
Washtenaw. > 

An executive committee, composed of Stephen B. Cannon,"Martin ■Buzzell, 
and Perry M. Bentley, was elected. 

C. Harlow Green read a paper on tiie early schools, of the churches and 
pastors of Macomb County. 

The Secretary, John E. Day, spoke in support of Rev. Mr. Davis' paper, 
and on the importance of securing not only a history of events connected with the 


county, but also a biographical sketch of each of the old settlers. His remarks 
were fully concurred in. 

The address of welcome delivered by the centenarian, Rev. J. E. Davis, of 
Macomb Township, was a remarkably able paper, very full and instructive, and one 
which was received most enthusiastically by tlie people. 

The second meeting of the society was held at Gray's Opera House, Romeo, 
September 7, 1881. This reunion was one of the most important ever held by the 
pioneers of any county in the Union, made so by the historic excellence of the dis- 
courses delivered. Dexter Mussey spoke on the local history of Romeo, Judge 
.James B. Eldridge on the organization in Macomb County. J. E. Day read 
Nathaniel Carter's paper on his settlement in the County. Mr. Day also read a 
poem by James Lawson, the writer being then at Point St. Ignace, engaged in the 
examination of public lands. Tiie first temperance movement in the county was ably 
treated by the secretary ; while S. H. Ewell dealt with tlie first election, on the 
Temperance Ticket, held at Romeo. The president, C. G. Cady, H. A. Cady, Elisha 
Calkins, Oran Freeman, Thos. Stalker, and Josejah Chubb were among the speakers 
and story-tellers. 

The third reunion of the society was held within the Congregational Ciiurch, 
Armada Village, December 28, 1881. C. G. Cady presided with John E. Day, 
secretary. This, the writer is inclined to think, was one of the most agreeable 
reunions ever participated in. It was organized at the instance of the secretary and 
was complete in every particular — social and literary. Rev. H. N. Bissell delivered 
a discourse on the early History of Macomb. The young ladies, who added so 
mxich to the success of the meeting, were partially rewarded by witnessing the 
excitement, which one of their practical jokes drew forth. They helped the old ' 
people to tea, cream and salt — they enjoyed the luxury of doing good, and were 
particularly amused to witness the wry faces which their senior friends assumed 
when the joke was discovered. 

A paper was read by Perrin C. Goodell, on Earlij Times in Armada. Messrs. 
Ewell and Davis, accompanied on the organ by Miss Owen, rendered the song 
— Tlie Old Musician and his Havp, very effectively. Mr. H. O. Brown, representing 
the writer of the County History, laid before the meeting a plan of the proposed 
history. His address was well received. L. D. Owen read a paper on early times 
in Shelby; the president recited a number of his experiences of early settlement. 
Edgar Weeks dealt with the history of the Press of Macomb County; Oran Free- 
man related a few unvarnished tales ; an historical committee was appointed to 
aid the general historian in the correction or revision of the general history, and 
a vote of thanks passed to the people of Armada, as well as to the genial pres- 




Chauncey G. Cady, born in Ofcsego County, N. Y., August 20, 1803, settled in 
Clinton Township, at Mount Clemens, October 20, 1820, elected president of the 
Macomb County Pioneer Association in 1881. 

M. I. Cady, born in Onondaga County, N. Y., December 19, 1820. Moved to 
Oakland, and located in Warren Township, Macomb Co., in 1832. 

John E. Day, son of Erastus Day, Jr., was born in Armada Township, January 
11, 1838, is now a resident of Richmond Township, and secretary of the Pioneer 
Society of Macomb County. 

John Cannon, born at Salem, Mass., September 21, 1808, moved to Saratoga, 
N. Y., thence to Washtenaw Co., Mich., and in 1831, located on Section 3, Shelby 
Township, where he has been minister of the Christian Church since 1831. 

Calvin G. White, born at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., July 10, 1803, moved to West- 
ern New York in 1817, and to Armada Township, May 16, 1831. 

S. H. Davis and his wife, S. M. Davis, born in Genesee County, N. Y., Septembei' 
13, 1813, settled in Washington Township at Romeo, June 15, 1813. 

Robert Warner. See biographical sketch. 

Arad Freeman was. born at Pompey, N. Y., February 28, 1815, moved to On- 
tario County, N. Y., and thence to Ray Township, Macomb County, June 3, 

Peter J. Lerich, born in Warren County, N. J., May 20, 1810, settled in Shelby, 
May 29, 1835. 

Sarah F. Lerich was born in Warren County, N. J., December, 4, 1817, settled 
in Shelby, May 29, 1835. 

John Gass was born in Green County, N. Y., 1808, moved to Ray Township 
in 1830, where he settled on Section 29. 

Samuel H. Ewell, born at Romeo, now Middlebury, Genesee Co., N. Y., January 
3, 1819, moved to Bruce Township, May 28, 1836. 

Martin Buzzell, born in Canada East, May 16, moved to Western New York 
in 1817, and to Bruce Township, July 1831. 

Julia A. Buzzell, born in Canada, November 11, 1824, moved to Washington 
TownshiiJ, October 6, 1844. 

Stephen B. Cannon, born in Washtenaw County, Mich., September 30, 1832, 
settled in Washington Township, Macomb County, January, 1834. 

Hiram W. Miller, was born at Hampton, Washington Co., N. J., November 26, 
1814, moved to Genesee County, N. Y., and thence to Washington Township, this 
County, June, 1822. 

E. D. Hamblin, was born at Windsor, Vt., January 16, 1809 ; moved to Mon- 
roe County, N. Y., and thence to Macomb County, Mich., June 1, 1826. 




O. D. Thompson, born at Wellport, N. Y., December 23, 1835; settled at 
Romeo, November, 1858. Principal of Romeo Higli School. 

William L. Dicken, born in Ray Township, Macomb County, October 8, 1833, 
County Clerk, January 1, 1879. 

Charles Tackles, born in Macomb County, November '22, 1827. Elected 
County Treasurer, and entered on duties of that office, January 1, 1879. 

Joseph Chubb, born at Pittsford, Monroe Co., N. Y., April 5, 1822, moved into 
Ray Township, Macomb County, May, 1825, was admitted an Attorney-at-Law in 
1862 by the Washtenaw Circuit Court. 

Henry Connor, born in Macomb County, October 25, 1818, grandson of the 
pioneer, Richard O'Connor. He has been proprietor of the hotel at Mount Clemens 
for the last thirtj'-five years. 

James B. Eldridge, born in Macomb County, November 25, 1836 ; elected 
Judge of Probate in 1876, and entered on duties of that office, January 1, 1877. 

Robert J. Crawford, born in Macomb County, September 1, 1858. 

Calvin Davis, born in Macomb County, July 27, 1832. 

George A. Waterbury, born at St. Clair, St. Clair County, August 11, 1847 ; 
moved to Sanilac in 1848; to Romeo, Jidy, 1873, now proprietor and editor of the 
Romeo Observer, and possessor of a fine collection of antiquities and minerals. 

Erastus Day, born iu Otsego County, N. Y., October 15, 1808 ; moved into 
Canada, 1812, and to Lima, N. Y., in 1824; thence to Bruce Township, Macomb 
County, December, 182G. He was for fifty years a captain of State Militia, and is a 
survivor of the Toledo War. 

jV rs. Betsey Day was born at Burlington, Otsego Co., N. Y., October 17, 1813''; 
moved to Chautauqua County, N. Y., in 1816, to Erie County, Pa., in 1826, and 
thence to Macomb County, Mich., iu 1835. This lady was the pioneer school 
teacher of Armada Township. 

Julia Seeley, born in Lindon Township, Vt., January 11, 1808; moved to 
Oneida County, N. Y., thence to Onondaga, thence to Niagara and lastly to 
Michigan, in 1831. She is the daughter of Joseph Thurston. 

William Inwood, born at Dunkinfield, Southampton, England, February 28, 
1791. Came to Washington Township, Macomb County, May 22, 1837. 

Dexter Mussey, born at Worcester, Mass., January 12, 1811 ; moved to Lowell, 
Mass., in 1832, and to Romeo, Mich., in 1837. He was speaker of the House of 

Grace N. Owen, born in Genesee County, N. Y., November 12, 1824 ; moved 
to Shelby Township, June 18, 1825. 

Charles Andrews, born at Putney, Vt, August 28, 1820; moved to West 





Bloomfield in 1829, to Mindon, N. Y., in 1830, to Pittsford, N. Y., in 1832, to 
Armada in 1840. State Senator from 1828 to 1870. 

Horace H. Cady, born at Hadley, Windham Co., Conn., February 20, 1801, 
moved to Batavia, Genesee Co., N. Y., and thence to Mount Clemens, May 24, 
1821. Mr. Cady hiis been a member of the Legislature for many years; 

Deliverance S. Priest, boi'n at Bennington, Vt., August 7, 1814, moved to 
Western New York in 1819, thence to Ray Township, Macomb County, in 1838. 

John N. Selliek, born at Middlebury, Wyoming Co., N. Y., February 17, 1808 ; 
moved to Avon, Livingstone Co., in 1814, and thence to Romeo, Midi., i.i March, 

J. W. AUor, born in Jefferson County, N. Y., Aug. 19, 1837, came to Chester- 
field, Macomb Co., October 23, 1852. 

Oran Freeman was born in Onondago County, N. Y., June 14, 1818 ; moved 
to Ontario, N. Y., and thence to Ray Township, June 1, 1824. 

George W. Garvin was born in Washington Township, Macomb County, 
August 26, 1835, now a resident of Ray Townsliip. 

George W. Gass, born in Green County, N. Y., May 1, 1813, came to Ray 
Township, October 3, 1836. 

Ljdia Bailey, born at Romeo in 1834, daughter of Asahel Bailey, still resides 
at Romeo. 

Luthe'' Procter was born at Armada in 1830. 

Mrs. Luther Procter, daughter of A. W. Stirling, was born at Romeo in 1836. 

Nathaniel Carter, born at Leominster, Mass., February 20, 1806 ; settled in 
Armada Township, September 10, 1831. 

Edmund Gould, born in Onondaga County, N. Y., June 14, 1817; moved to 
Ontario County, N. Y., and thence to Bruce Township, June 1, 1823. 

Wilson Cronk, born in Rensselaer County, N. Y., March 22, 1822 ; moved to 
Otsego County, thence to Monroe County, N. Y., and lastly to Ray Township, 
December 20, 1854. 

Julia A. Cronk was born in Erie County, N. Y., January 23, 1828 ; moved 
thence to Cattaraugus County, N. Y., and again to Ray, February 21, 1855. 

Philip Cudworth was born at Richmond, Ontario Co., N. Y., March 30, 1811 ; 
located on Section 33 of Armada, October, 1835. 

Stephen H. Fitch,, born in Columbia County. N. Y., July 17, 1807, moved to 
Ontario County, N. Y., in 1824 ; thence to Cattaraugus County, 1828, and to 
Romeo, May 2, 1831. 

Mrs. Phcebe Waterman, daughter of Mr. Stroup, was born in Seneca County, N. 
Y., April 27, 1815 ; removed to Yates County, N. Y., and thence to Ray, Macomb 
Co., Mich., in May, 1827. 




Mrs. Chloe Steward, wife of N. Carter, born in Vermont, April 13, 1815, 
moved to New York State, and thence to Ray, in 1B29. 

Mrs. Joseph Crissman, formerly Miss Elizabeth Snover, was born in Warren 
County, N. J., July, 1806, came to Bokland June 1, 1832. 

Wallace Westbrook, born in Sussex County, N. Y., April 16, 1824, moved to 
Ontario County, N. Y., thence to Bruce Township, October 15, 1848. 

Daniel Miller, born in Madison County, N. Y., February 18, 1798, moved to 
Genesee County, thence to Washington Township, 1822. He was a soldier of the 
War of 1812-14. 

Jesse Bishop, born at Richmond, N. Y., May 24, 1303, moved to Monroe 
County, N. Y., and came to Bruce Township, Macomb Co., August 14, 1831. 

Ebenezer Brooks, born at Putney, Vt., January 15, 1809 ; moved into Massa- 
chusetts in 1818, thence to Lenox, Macomb County, April, 1834. 

Mrs. C. D. Brooks settled here with her husband. 

Josiah T. Robinson, born in Otsego County, N. Y., January 2, 1807 ; moved into 
Onondaga County, thence to Monroe, next to Orleans County, and lastly settled 
in Clinton Township, May 18, 1831. 

Major Webster, born in Monroe County, N. Y., August 29, 1801, moved to Ray 
Township, June 1, 1826. 

Michael Bowmann was born in New York State in 1786. 

Edmund L. Goff was born in Monroe County, N. Y., January 6, 1817 ; came 
to Washington, December 20, 1838. 

Lucy Goff was born in Oakland County, N. Y., May 8, 1823; came to Shelby, 
Macomb Co., March, 1830. 

G. W. Phillips, was born at Lima, Livingston Co., N. Y., July 17, 1829, came 
to Armada, August, 1831. He has been president of the State Board of Agricul- 
ture from 1870 to 1872 ; member of the Board for twelve years, and president of 
the M. Co. Ag. Society for eight years. 

H. T. Bancroft, born in Niagara County, N. Y., April 8, 1827, moved to 
Armada, Mich., July 14, 1839. 

L. D. Owen, born in Genesee County, N. Y., August 16, 1815 ; came to Shelby, 
July 3, 1825. 

Mrs. G. W. Phillips, born at Romeo, December 6, 1828, daughter of A. W. 

Daniel Flagler, born at Albany, N. Y., May 14, 1814, moved into Richmond 
Township, Macomb County, October, 1836. 

Alex. H. Shelp, born in Orange County, N. Y., January 8, 1820 ; settled at 
Mount Clemens, October 17, 1843, and at Romeo, August 17, 1846. 

G. H. Cannon, was born in Saratoga County, N. Y., December 30, 1826, moved 


to Washtenaw in 1833, and to Bruce Township in 1835. Mr. Cannon has been 
engaged in the Public Land Survey sevice since 1849. He has contributed not a 
little to the geological and archteological history of this State. 

Amos Finch, born in Macomb County, July 10, 1836. Native. 

E. F. Siblej', born at Brighton, N. Y., November 29, 1827; settled in Armada 
Township, October, 1835. 

Hiram Barrows, born at Wyoming, N. Y., in 1824 ; moved westward to Wis- 
consin in 1842 ; came to Michigan five years later, and settled in Ray Township in 
May, 1847. Mr. Barrows has served the Union in the War of 1861-5. 

Mrs. Anna A. Pettibone, born in Wyoming County, N. Y. ; came to Michigan 
witli her husband in 1845. 

Mrs. Pierce, formerly May Lvisk, was born iu Monroe Count3s N. Y., January 
10, 1810 ; came to Washington Township, July 3, 1848. 

Mrs. Geo. (Simmons) Carter, Rev. Thomas Stalker, Elisha Calkins, and J. L. 
Starkweather, are among the members of the Society. 

Anna Finch (Smith) born in Richmond Township, September 24, 1846, removed 
to Shiawassee County in 1861, returned to Armada in 1867. Native. 

Nathan Hurd was born in Canada, August 7, 1825 ; settled in Macomb County 
in 1834. 

Mrs. H. N. Bissell (Elizabeth Hubbard), was born at Bolton, Conn., February 
25, 1820, and moved to Mount Clemens in 1854. 

Rev. H. N. Bissell, born at East Wiusor, Conn., June 2, 1816, moved to Milan, 
Ohio in 1835, and to Macomb County in 1854. 

Perrin C. Goodeli, born in Monroe County, N. Y., July 2, 1817, settled iu 
Armada Township, May 17, 1831. 

H. N. Richards, hovn at Wethersfield, N. Y., January 2, 1820, settled in Lenox 
Townslup, November 15, 1842. 

G. H. Stuart, born at West Bloomfield, N. Y., October 20, 1813, settled in 
Richmond Township, in May, 1842. 

Setli Davis, born in Richmond Township, July 13, 1840, moved into Armada 
Township in 1873. 

John E. Barringer, born in Ontario County, N. Y., July 16, 1841, settled in 
Armada Township, November 4, 1862. 

S3'rena (Smith) Flagler, is one of the old settlers of the county, and a member 
of tlie Society. 

W. G. Anderson, born in Otsego County, N. Y., May 22, 1817, moved to 
Mazara County in 1821, and thence to Macomb County, May 22, 1831. 

William E. Preston, born at Eastford, Conn., June 20, 1822, moved to Chau- 
tauqua County in 1854, and to Macomb County in 1865. 




Lavinia E. P. Preston (Leonard), was born at Woodstock, Conn., June 19, 
1824, moved eastward in 1846, and to Armada in 1865. 

James Flower, born in Delaware County, N. Y., October 18, 1810, moved to 
Genesee County, N. Y., in 1828, to Washtenaw County, Mich., in 1832, and to 
Armada Townshij) in 1835. 

Josejih Weller, born in Chesterfield Townshij), July 4, 1831. Native. 

Newman Freeman was born in Washington Township, April 27, 1832; settled 
in Armada Township in 1844. Native. 

Mary Freeman (Frost) was born in Armada Township, July 28, 1839. Native. 

Sajlie A. Aldricli (Finch) was born at Richmond, Ontario Co., N. Y., June 9, 
1818, settled at Armada in 1828. 

James Banister, born at Gainesville, Wyoming Co., N. Y., March 27, 1827, 
moved to Ontario County, N. Y., thence to Armada, June, 1855. 

Charlotte Day (Smith), born at Aurelius, Cayuga Co., N. Y., March 27, 1827, 
moved to Ontario County, N. Y., and thence to Armada, 1855. 

Jane (Butterfield) Pomeroy, Linott Butterfield, Mary E. (Corbin) Sibley, 
Charles A. Lathrop, Rachel A. (Young) Lathrop, and Mrs. A. C. Bennett, are 
among the members of the Society. 

W. D. Pettibone, born in Wyoming County, N. Y., July 24, 1834, settled in 
Michigan, at Armada, July 4, 1845. 

John Hicks, born at Bristol, Ontario Co., N. Y., October 15, 1803, settled in 
Richmond Township, October 16, 1836. 

Bert C. Preston was born in Armada Township, January 2, 1 859. Native. 

Elisha D. Lathrop was born in Armada Township, December 25, 1839. Native. 

Caleb Miller was born in Orleans County, N. Y., October 21, 1814. 

Geo. N. Carter born in Armada Township, Macomb County, March 1, 1834. 

S. H. Corbyn, of Plainfield, Mich., an old settler of the county, was admitted 
a member of the Society. 


In the following pages extracts from the records, belonging to the Pioneer 
Association, are given, together with iriany stories, characteristic of pioneer life, 
collected from otlier sources. Tiie sketches of the O'Connor, or Connor, and the 
Tucker families are taken from papers on the early history of the county by Judge 


About the year 1744, during an out-break in Ireland, when the times were 
turbulent there, and the beauties of the new world were somewhat known to the 
people of that country, two young Irishmen, some sixteen or eighteen 3'ears old, 
brothers, secretly boarded a vessel about leaving one of the ports for America, and 




hid themselves among the freight, until the vessel was well at sea. They were 
named Richard and John O'Connor. 

Upon their arrival here, or soon after, they separated, and Richard working to 
the West, finally arrived at the place now called Painesville, Ohio, where by in- 
dustry and perseverance, he acquired what in those days was considered quite a 
propert}'. He remained at that point for a number of years, married there, and engaged 
in the business of trading — mainly with the Indians. 

The maiden name of the lady he married was Myers. O'Connor had, while 
doing business with the Indians, learned of the fact that they had a white girl in 
their tribe as prisoner. He immediately opened negotiations for her purchase, and 
finally succeeded in acquiring title. He paid in dicker what was then considered 
as $200. Many in our day would undoubtedly consider this a good bargain, for 
most of our young men indirectly pay a larger sum than this in divers costly 
methods of testifying regard. Gifts, treats, balls, and rides, and for a wife that 
proves to be a burden, instead of a help-meet. 

Miss Myers, who was thus redeemed from captivity, was taken by the Indians 
during one of their raids upon the defenceless frontiers of the Colonies. When 
taken she was about four years old. Her father, when he discovered the approach 
of' the Indians, hid tlie children and attempted to flee for succor. He was living 
upon the Monongahela River, in the State of Maryland. He swam the river and as 
he ascended the opposite bank was shot dead. The Indians, in searching for plun- 
der, approached so near the secreted cliildren that one of them could not refrain 
from an exclamation of fear. They were discovered and taken. Two of them 
were subsequently recaptured fi-om the Indians. The third was kept and brought 
up by them as a slave, until she was bought from her captors by her future husband. 

Richard O'Connor with his wife remained at Painesville until some time dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War, when in one of the many expeditions organized and set 
on foot by the British against the defenceless out-posts of the Colonies, the whole 
family were taken prisoners by the Chippewas. The family then consisted of Mr. 
O'Connor, his wife, and tliree or four children. As to the number of children born 
before theii' captui'e, there are different accounts. From one of the grandchildren 
we learn that there were five, John, William, James, Henry, and Susanna. 

The family were ruthlessly stripped of all property, and were not allowed to 
retain even a kettle for which Mrs. O'Connor prayed that her captors miglit assign 
to them. They were compelled to travel on foot, when the Chippewas retreated 
to their home, which was situated on the Huron of Lake St. Clair (now the 

In this weary march Mr. O'Connor first bore one tlien another of his sons in 
liis arms, and the mother bore continually upon her back after the manner in which 


the tribe in which she had so long been kept prior to her mai-riage, carried their 

It was late in the fall, and the feet of the little ones suffered severely. James, 
particularly, had his feet cut by the hard frozen ground and for miles marked his 
foot-steps with blood. He had a wiry, enduring frame, and the manliness he dis- 
played in the weary tramp, attracted the admiration of one of the Chippewa chiefs, 
and when the journey's end was reached this chief claimed and took James as his 
special property. After their arrival here the boys were separated from the family 
and scattered among the various tribes. Thus it was each one in after years spoke 
a different dialect of the Indian language. The father, mother, and youngest child 
if there were but four, were kept together. 

Soon afterward, within a few years, the Moravians were located by order or 
advice of the Commandant at Detroit, upon the Huron, at Frederick. Immediately 
upon their arrival, the family were one by one redeemed. First, Mr. O'Connor, his 
wife, and youngest child; then the bo3's John, Henry, and William; James was 
not so soon redeemed. The chief who had adopted him was otherwise childless, 
and for a time refused to deliver him up, but gave to Mr. O'Connor the privilege 
of visiting his son at the home of his Indian father, at stated periods. The chief 
learned to love James very much, and he took particular pride in his manlj' bearing 
and the vigor he displayed at all times. He was accustomed to dress the then lad 
in the war-paint and feathers of a young chieftain, and to teach him the various 
arts in which the Indiaii took pleasure. The boy thus acquired the habits and 
manners of the youth of his tribe, and learned to love them and the life he then 
seemed destined to lead. He, to some extent, forgot his past life and its associa- 
tions, and even learned to despise, and regarded with fear, his own parents. 

So strong was this feeling with him that upon the announcement that his white 
father was coming he would flee into the woods and conceal himself in the thickets 
like a frightened fawn, and would reappear only at the call of his Indian father. 

When finally his white father did prevail upon the chief to surrender the child 
lie had to be confined like a prisoner for a number of days to prevent his return to 
the wilds again. 

The songs and caresses of the mother aided by the sports of the brothers finally 
overcame his desire to return to the tent of the chieftain, and Mr. O'Connor again 
!iad about him his whole family. This was accomplished after the time that the 
Moravians took their departure from the county. It is claimed that the desire of 
the mother to remain near her child was one of the main reasons why O'Connor 
did not accompany the Mission, with which he had become connected. 

Mr. O'Connor remained upon the spot he liad chosen for a home, on the farm 
now known as the " Velt's farm" about one and a half miles west of Mt. Clemens. 


He was accustomed to till in his way tlie vai-ious spots along the river, that were 
left clear, by Nature, or had been cleared by the Indians. One of these spots was 
known as the " Macoanee Meadows," and afterwards known as the Moe-place. 

In our former article we abstracted from the paper of the Rev. Mr. Bissel, a 
portion thereof in which it was asserted that Mr. Richard O'Conner came to tlie 
county with tlie Moravians Zeisberger-Jungmau and others in 1783. 

We have gathered tlie facts we have above written from one of the Jescendants 
of Mr. O'Connor, and do not undertake to determine which version, the Rev. Mr. 
Bissel's or the one we have given, is the true one, though we incline to accept the 
family tradition as above set forth, as the more reliable. 

Mr. Bissel, in speaking further of Mr. O'Connor and his family, says : — 
" Though we have not the precise date of Mr. O'Connor's arrival, yet he was 
there with his wife and four sons James, John, William, and Henry, in 1783. De- 
cember 16 of that year, his youngest child, Susanna, afterwards wife of Elisha Har- 
rington was born, and was baptized by the Moravian Missionary the 21st. She was, 
probably, the first child born in this county of parents speaking the English lan- 
guage. She died in 1848, aged sixty-five years." This Mr. Richard 
O'Connor was the ancestor of those families who now are known as 
Connors or Conners. They have Yankeefied their name by dropping 
the O'. He was undoubtedly the first white man speaking English who attempted 
the erection of a home within the limits of this county. He died here on the 17th 
of April, 1808. His life was an eventful one. It may have been a boyish freak 
that led to his departure for this country from that land which never reared a for- 
getful son. Often, as he was borne over the ocean, must he naturally have regretted 
the stej) he had taken. 

The many trials of his manhood through which he must have passed ere he 
reached and while he resided in Ohio, could they be faithfully recorded would make 
an interesting histor)'. The manner in which he commenced his wooing, his sub- 
sequent capture, the dispersion of his family, his persistent and untiring efforts to 
rescue his children, his final location so far in the wilderness, away from society 
and civilization, in fine his whole life is a fitter foundation for a romance than it is 
for a plain, unvarnished historical article, written solely as this is to rescue from 
oblivion sometliing of the history of those who first came to this county. 


During the French war, and about the year 1753, the Chippewas, who inhab- 
ited this section of the State, became engaged in one of the raids so frequent in 
those days, upon the settlements in Virginia. They surprised a family of Virginians 
ensxaaed in harvesting wheat near Stoverstown in that State. The head of the 

' ^5 



family was ruthlessly shot down, and two boys seized as prisoners, and brought to 
the homes of the tribe. The boys were named Joseph and William Tuckar. Wil- 
liam was then about eleven years old, Joseph was some years older. These boys 
were retained as prisoners until near of age, when they, under the influence of the 
British, were allowed to visit their childhood's home. They had, however, during 
their captivity, been treated with considerable kindness, and had learned to love 
the life in the woods. They remained in Virginia but a short time, and returned 
to the post at Detroit where they entered the employ of traders. They soon en- 
gaged in the business themselves. They received supplies of goods from the 
traders at the post, and visited the different abiding places and camps of the Indians, 
relying mainly for transportation upon the canoe. 

The elder brother, Joseph Tuckar, it is believed, was lost on one of these 
trips. He, with a comrade, had gone on a trading expedition to an island in the 
northern part of Lake Huron, where a tribe of friendly Indians with whom he was 
acquainted was accustomed to dwell. The tribe was abseut on a hunting expedi- 
tion to the mainland, and remained away a number of weeks. Upon returning 
they found in one of the cabins the goods which formed the supplies of the traders, 
and the full equipage thereof. Sometime afterward they found upon another 
island a short distance off, the bleached remains of two whites, one of which they 
recognized as Joseph Tuckar by a peculiar, large brooch he was accustomed to 
wear. It was presumed that having arrived in the camp of the tribe they sought 
to visit, and finding the Indians absent, they haol with their boat alone, gone to the 
neighboring island in search of the tribe, and that the boat had, while the traders 
were searching the island, floated off and left them no means of escape. They had 
evidently starved, which is the report of the tribe, as given to William Tuckar, 
and so friendly were these Indians to Joseph and bis brother there is little reason 
to disbelieve it. 

The outbreak of Pontiac's conspiracy in 1763 found the younger brother, 
William Tuckar, in the employ of the English commandant. Major Gladwin, at 
Detroit. To William Tuckar alone, was the garrison at that place indebted for the dis- 
covery of Pontiac's intentions, and the consequent saving of the post. The tribe 
by which he had for years been held a captive, was engaged in the enterprise of 
which the famous Indian chieftain was the leader. He had, according to Indian 
custom, been adopted into one of the leading families of the tribe, and to the 
younger members thereof was like a brother. He was intending to go upon a 
hunting expedition from the fort for a few days, and on the day before the out- 
break, was visiting the family in which he had been kept during his captivity, who 
were tented upon this side of the river, and but a short distance from the fort. 
While there he made known his intentions as to the sporting trip he was about to 


take, and solicited the company of one of his young Indian brothers. This was re- 
fused. He also, while there, made known to the family that early in the morn he was 
going to the general camp of the Indians across the river to get some moccasins that 
were being made for him by a squaw famous for her skill in that line. 

As he left the camp to go to the fort, his Indian sister secretly followed him 
beyond hearing of her family, and with anxious countenance, besought him not to 
go across the river, but to start at once upon his hunting trip, and she tendered to 
liim some moccasins she had made, in order to enable him to go prepai"ed, witliout 
visiting the other side of the river. William's perfect knowledge of the Indian 
character at once suggested to him that there was some terrible reason for her 
anxiety, and he besought her to make it known. Her sisterly affection for him 
finally prompted her to disclose to him fully what she had learned as to the intent 
of Pontiac. The position of her family had enabled her to become conversant with 
all the details of the plan so soon to be executed upon the devoted garrison. 

Mr. Tuckar immediately returned to the fort and informed the commandant 
of the post of what he had learned. Measures were taken to defeat the nefarious 
designs of the wily chief. The success of these measures, and the overthrow of 
Pontiac, are matters of general history, and pertain not particularly to that of this 

It is more than probable that the facts here set forth as to William Tuckar's 
discovery of the plot of Pontiac, are the only foundation for the romantic statement 
as to the Indian girl, Catherine, betraying her tribe out of simple admiration for 
Major Gladwin, who had been but a short time at the post, and even could not speak 
the Indian language, that have generally been accepted as history. So prone 
are imaginative historians to accredit tlie performance of any notable deed 
solely to persons in high life, that one does not wonder at the ease with which 
the facts connected with Tuckar's discovery of the plot, have been woven into 
quite a romance, of which Gladwin is the pretended hero. 

William Tuckar was the first person about the garrison who learned of the 
deep-laid scheme of Pontiac. He alone conveyed the intelligence to Major 

Both Lanman and Sheldon, in their histories of the State mention Mr. Tuckar 
as a soldier in the garrison, and accredit him with having been apprised as above 
stated, of the conspiracy; but for the sake of ornamental romance, it is claimed 
that Gladwin was also on the same day apprised by his dusky, smoky sweetheart to 
the same effect. 

During the struggle of the garrison to save themselves from destruction, Mr. 
Tuckar, although reall}' a non-combatant, did the duty of a soldier, and for sixty 
days and nights, was almost steadily on guard. During that time his gun was out 


of his hands but for a moment at a time. Fully aware of the nature of the enemas 
he, of all the garrison, best knew the necessitj' of constant watchfulness. 

After the overthrow of Pontiac and the restoration of comparative peace, Mr. 
Tuckar returned to Virgijiia, and married at Stover's Town, August 8, 1773, 
Catherine Hezel. After his marriage he returned to Detroit, and lived there until 
the Revolutionary war commenced. During that struggle he was employed as an 
interpreter by the English officers in their intercourse with the Indians. He de- 
clined to take the position of a combatant on their side in the struggle. His ability 
to speak the Indian language of the various tribes made his services of impor- 

Prior to the commencement of the struggle upon the part of the colonies for 
Independence, Tuckar had been chiefly engaged in trading expeditions among the 
Indians, at times acting simplj' as interpreter for other traders. 

In all his intercourse with the Indians he acted the part of an honest, upright 
man. This, together with the fact that he was by reason of his importance as an 
interpretor of many Indian dialects, enabled him to exercise large influence. He 
never hesitated to use this in many cases of attempted frauds upon those with whom 
he had spent his earlier years. He came to be justly regarded as an especial friend 
of the savage. As a reward for his kindness the chiefs of the Chippewas on the 
22d of September, A. D. 1780, acting for their whole tribe, executed to him a deed 
in the name of their people, of a large tract of land nearly all lying between the 
River Huron, of Lake St. Clair, and the Riviere Aux Vase, extending back 
from the lake some sixty miles. This deed is written upon parchment, in beauti- 
ful handwriting, and was drawn by one T. Williams at Detroit, who certifies there- 
on, as a Justice of the Peace, that the several chiefs whose names are attached to 
said deed, did make the characters purporting to be made by them, and that the 
same was their free act and deed. 

The chiefs signed it by drawing in ink, their respective "totems," one being 
a turtle, another a crow, and the others similar symbols, and is now in possession 
of the Tuckar family. Not being signed by the British Governor of Canada, it was 
not regarded as any proof of title by the United States upon their assuming control 
of the countrJ^ and Mr. Tuckar was thus left in the same position as the French 
settlers upon the lake and Mr. Richard Connor, entirely dependent upon the liber- 
alitj' of the new Republic. 

Mr. Tuckar had procured the execution of the deed by the Indians, for the 
purpose of making him a permanent home, a sufficient distance from the growing 
settlements to allow him to pass his life in the enjoyment of those pursuits so con- 
genial to him, and to leave hunting, trapping and fur-trading undisturbed by the 
bustle of life in populated communities, and yet sufficiently near a post of import- 

r, ^ 


iiiice to give his home the position of comparative security from distant marautling 

During his cai:)tivity he had undoubtedly admired the great beauty of the 
country lying upon the Huron. In a state of nature but few sections of the country 
jiresented greater attractions to such a man. The fertility of the soil, the great 
al)undance of game, the loveliness of the situation, its great rural beauty were suffi- 
cient attractions. But added to this the spot he had determined to locate npon was 
a favorite one with the Indians, almost steadily it was their camping ground. On 
and near that spot their traditions told them, many sanguinary battles between 
the Chippewas and their enemies had been fought, years before the eye of the white 
men had seen the country of the great lakes. 

Mr. Tuckar partook somewhat of this veneration and love for the spot, and 
when at the establishment of peace between the United States and the British Gov- 
ernment, the growth of his family demandetl the establishment of a fixed home, he 
immediately prepared to remove them. He arrived with his family in the spring of 
1784, and selected as a site for his dwelling a spot but little distance from what was 
evidently an old Indian fort used in the days of the struggle for possession of tliis 
country between the Chippeways and the Sauks. 

The remains of this fort as they appeared at his arrival consisted of an embank- 
ment and corresponding ditch on the outside, sweeping from the bank of the stream 
around about one and a half or two acres of ground, to the bank again, making 
nearly a complete circle. The opening being directly at the river bank. Outside 
of this were the evidences that the soil had been cultivated and that the Indian had 
for a time raised his maize there. Within it were found many bits of broken pot- 
tery of a peculiar character. There were other similar remains of what must have 
been rude forts on the bank of the Huron on the lands subsequently and even to 
this day owned by the descendants of William Tuckar. 


Christian Clemens, the pioneer settler of Mt. Clemens, was born in Montgom- 
ery or Bucks County, Pa., Jan. 30, 1768. He resided on the Pennsylvanian 
homestead until twenty-seven years old, the while giving his entire attention to 
agriculture. In 1795 he came to Detroit, where he engaged in the manufacture 
of leather. Within a short time after his arrival he bought a tract of land on the 
Rouge River, and laid down those precedents which were so extensively followed 
by those who came after him to settle in the wilderness. Mr. Clemens made his 
home at Detroit until 1798, when he removed to the Huron River or Clinton. 
Here he purchased a tract of land ; the same referred to in the chapter on the 
French pioneers. The first dwelling house was built by him on, or close by, the 


site of the present red brick store of Miller, the shoemaker, on Front street. 
Subsequently he built a distillery on the bank of tlie river, below the present 
flouring mill, on the soutli bank, just below the new iron bridge ; also a still-house 
just east of the Fleumer Mill. He built a dwelling-house on the site of George 
M. Crocker's present residence. He carried on a trading store here at an early 
day, and founded the village of Mt. Clemens u\ 1818. He has held the positions of 
Militia Colonel, Chief -Justice of County Court, Judge of Probate, etc. 

The relation which Judge Clemens bore to Macomb County, and more 
particularly to Mt. Clemens, was so intimate, that his name must necessarily be 
closel}^ associated with the general historj' of the county. No matter what chapter 
we take up, his name is found therein, and for this reason we are inclined to refer 
the reader to the general history, so that the part taken by the judge in building 
up the county may be truly estimated. His death occurred at Mt. Clemens, Aug. 
25, 1844; his funeral was truly a representative one. 


Wherever the British flag floated, there was the prison for the people — not for 
the criminals. Immediately after the suri-ender of Hull, Christian Clemens, then 
a leading man in the territory, was captured by the British, carried to Detroit, and 
confined within the old fort as a political prisoner, just as the British of to-day 
are doing beyond the Atlantic, and would do here had not their power been 
crushed forever, at least on this continent. His captivity continued until the 
very day before the American soldiers re-captured the position. It must be con- 
ceded, however, that this pioneer of Macomb was not subjected to extreme harsh 
treatment. During the last few days of liis captivity, he was allowed to ramble 
round within the stockade, under the surveillance of Lieuts. Clemens and Watson, 
two officers of the garrison. A friendship sprung up between Lieut. Clemens and 
his prisoner, and the former often accompanied the judge on short visits to his 
family, then living near the fort. It was a common thing for the judge to scale 
the stockade, and make a visit to his wife and children, with whom he would pass 
away the evening, and return at a given hour to his quarters within the fort. For 
some time this procedure was followed by the pioneer of Mt. Clemens unknown to 
his jailors. At length the prisoner was reported missing, and a detachment 
ordered out to search for him. The officer in charge of the troops found the 
judge at his house, quietly smoking his pipe, and enjoying the society of liis 
family. The soldiers seized him, and hurried him back to the fort, without afford- 
ing him any time to snatch his cap, but instead of placing him in his old quarters, 
they cast him into the old jail, which then occupied a site across the present 
Jefferson Avenue from the Michigan Exchange. Here he was rigorously confined 


and subjected to many hardships, until released on parole, the day before Ameri- 
can courage and honor were avenged, and Hull's true character exposed. After 
tlie pursuit and complete defeat of the British and Indians on the Thames River in 
Canada, Oct. 5, 1813, Lieuts. Clemens and Watson were found among the 
prisoners, and brought back to Detroit. Finding themselves near the home of 
their former prisoner, they asked permission to visit him, which request the 
American General granted, and the two jailers were sooil within the hospitable 
home, among tiie welcome guests of Judge Clemens. 

During Mr. Clemens' imprisonment under the British, Maj. Muir, the com- 
mandant, compelled him to supply himself with food, to be his own cook, and pay 
even for other necessaries of life, which even the Indians were accustomed to give 
to their captives gratis. How different was the treatment of prisoners by the 
United States authorities, soldiers, and citizens, may be realized from the greeting 
wWch awaited the former warders of Judge Clemens after they fell into the hands 
of the Americans. 


The datices were given at the house of Judge Clemens or at the Cady House. 
In fact tlie dancers made a home in every house. Gen. Cass, Col. Larned, Gen. 
Brown, Judge May, Col. Clarke, of Monroe ; Maj. Biddle, Ed. Brush, and other 
Statesmen and soldiers of early Michigan made the village a resort, and were in 
tlie habit of taking a striiig band of four performers witli them. Those well-known 
pioneers of the State, after spending some time at Mount Clemens, would pay a 
visit to Judge Connors, two miles west of the Clemens house, wliere the city ceme- 
tery now is. There those merry makers would pass several days, and return to 
Detroit fully satisfied that they had done justice to all the pleasure which the world 
offered them. 


In one of the pioneer sketches references are made to the Mount Clemens Dis- 
tillery. Here we shall deal with one of the most ardent admirers of that institu- 
tion among the savages of the district. It appears that Christian Clemens left the 
hamlet for Detroit, where he passed some days as a claimant himself, or a witness 
for otlier claimants, before the Board of Land Commissioners. During his absence 
a few members of tlie Otchipwe band or Witanniss Indians found out exactly where 
the precious whisky was stored, and determined to have a drink of it. Before the 
red men could carry out their plans in this direction the nabob of the Huron returned 
just at a moment wlien the naked Pachuk was helping himself to a deep, deep 
draught. The judge realized the situation in a moment, and seizing the old-time 
tongs, which lay on the hearth-stone close by, dealt the noble red man a blow, 
brought him to his knees, and was preparing a second edition of the iron lash, when 


the frightened savage turned a summerset, regained his feet, and fled, the while 
whooping and calling for vengeance. The pioneer settler made preparations for 
war, but his prudence was unnecessary, at least on that occasion ; for when next he 
saw that whisky-loving savage, he bore a haunch of venison as an offering of peace 
to his white chief and brother. The chronicler proceeds to state that the judge 
often related the story of that event, and always entertained the idea that the 
safety of himself and the members of his family depended on his decisive action at 
the moment. Such examples of Caucasian courage an.d prompt measures were 
common among the early Fi-ench pioneers, and were not wanting on the part of 
Americans. Of the first we have Louis Campeau, at Saginaw, in 1816, and at 
Grand Rapids in 1826-9 ; of the second we have Eleazer Jewett, at the Tittaba- 
wassee post of the American Fur Company in 1826, and Rix Robinson at Ada in 
Kent County in 1823. Those old settlers played the five acts in the drama of life. 


Col. John Stockton, one of the leading spirits of Michigan in early days, one 
of her oldest soldiers and large-hearted citizens, died at Mount Clemens, November 
26, 1878. The deceased served as an officer in the war of 1812 and Colonel in the 
war of the rebellion. At the time of his death he was in the 88th year of his age. 
He came to Mount Clemens in its very earliest settlement. He married Mary 
Allen, a step-daughter of Judge Clemens, the founder and first settler of Mount 
Clemens. He is the last of those early settlers who has been identified with the • 
interests of the village during its entire history, and was the oldest resident if not 
the oldest person here. He was the first Clerk and Register of Deeds in the 
county, having served in that capacity just sixty-seven years ago, 1818. He was 
also the first Postmaster and Justice of the Peace of Mount Clemens. He was 
generous and hospitable to a fault, and has given to the destitute sufficient to have 
amassed a colossal fortune In the political, organic and military chapters of the 
general history, references are made to this pioneer. 


Thomas Ashley arrived at Mt. Clemens in May, 1820. He was a native of Win- 
dom. Conn., removing afterward to Batavia, Genesee Co., N. Y. About the year 
1811 he became acquainted with the Cady family of Batavia Township. In 1820 
he set out on his western journey, and arriving at Detroit, proceeded to Pontiac, 
and thence to Mt. Clemens, where he built the first entire frame structure erected 
in the village, if we except the frame addition to the Clemens House, built by Col. 
Stockton, and the little office of lawyer Ezra Prescott. In October, 1820, his fam- 
ily arrived from Genesee County, and entered at once on a life in the old log house, 



which then stood immediately in the rear of Henry Connor's stables, and the new 
Week's block. 

The family then comprised Mrs. Lucy Ashley, formerly Mrs. Lucy Cady, who 
married Mr. Ashlej' about 1810 ; her sons Henry and Chauncey G., and her daugh- 
ter Lucy Cad}'. Miss Lovinia Russell, afterwards Mrs. Ezekiel Allen, accompanied 
the family. In May, 1821, Horace H. Cady and his step-brother Alfred Ashley ar- 
rived. In 1821 the sons of Mrs. Ashley erected the old saw-mill on the North Branch 
two miles north of Mt. Clemens, better known as the Haskins mill. The family 
dwelt in the old loghouse until the erection of the frame building referred to 
above, in 1823 ^(the frame was put up in 1821), which stood opposite the new bank- 
ing house of Crocker and Ulrich, removed to give place to the bi'ick block. Ash- 
ley was a farmer and one of the early lawyers of the county. He was among the 
boys of the village of Mt. Clemens, and took part with them in all the merry meet- 
ings of the villagers, as well as in the more serious meetings of the business com- 


Chauncey G. Cady, born in Otsego County, N. Y., Aug. 20, 1803, son of Joseph 
and Lucy (Hutchiiis) Cady, the former a native of Windom, Conn., and the latter 
of Killingsley, Conn., who removed to Otsego County N. Y. in 1801, settled with 
his parents in Buffalo, N. Y. in 1805 or 1806, tlience to Batavia Township, Gene- 
see Co., N. Y. in 1806 or 1807, and made that place his liome until 1820, when the 
* family moved into the Territory of Michigan. 

Joseph Cady left Buffalo on a land exploratory expedition in 1807, and not re- 
turning, he was traced to many prominent villages southwards, and ultimately found 
to have died at Cincinnati on his liomeward journey. 

Mrs. Lucy Cady married Thomas Ashley in 1810, came to Michigan with her 
husband and family in 1820, and died on the Cady liomestead in Sterling Townsliip, 
about 18.38 or 1839. 

Cliauncey G. attended the district scliools in his native State for about three 
years. Previously, at the age of six years, he was apprenticed to a farmer name. I 
Shubal Dunham, of Genesee County, with whom he stayed three years. In 180'J 
he returned to his home in Batavia, and for tlie three successive years labored on 
tiie farm during spring and harvest, and attended the scliools referred to during the 
winter. From 1814 to the date of his coming to Michigan, he assisted as clerk in a 
hotel, then kept by his step-father, Thomas Ashley. In 1820, as stated in the pio- 
neer record, he came to Mt. Clemens, and entered on that active life which has 
marked his residence here. In 1833 he moved to his original farm in Clinton and 
Sterling. He erected a house in each township ; that in Clinton lie sold about 1870 
to J. & F. Pries, and holds the present residence in Sterling. In 1841 he took an 


C. G. CADY. 


active part in local politics, was elected Supervisor, and re-elected in 1845. In the 
latter year he was elected Representative to the Legislature, was declared 
elected by the R. B., and took his seat. A full reference is made to this election in 
the Political Chapter. In 1849 he was re-elected, and entered the Legislature of 
1850-'l, being the second session held at Lansing. While Supervisor, he held 
the office of Justice of Peace for Clinton from 1841 to 1849. He was also elected 
Justice of Peace for Sterling in 1856 ; but on account of delay on the part of the 
town clerk in making returns, did not qualify. He was elected County Drain Com- 
missioner, and filled the duties of that peculiar office for six years without difficulty 
and in a manner satisfactory to the Supervisor's Board. 

Mr. Cady married Miss Catharine Gerty of Harrison Township in 1829, as given 
in the marriage record. This lady died Aug. 27, 1865, aged 52 years. He married 
Miss Mary J. Royce Oct. 22, 1867. 

Previous to 1826 he became a member of the Macomb County militia, under 
Gen. Stockton. He was paymaster of the command, ranked as major, and dis- 
charged at muster out of regiment in 1829. His militar}' outfit alone was present 
during the Toledo war, as he loaned it to Gen. Stockton. On the organization of 
the Pioneer Society in 1881, Mr. Cady was elected first President. He was mem- 
ber of the Convention which nominated Alpheus Felch for governor, vice John 
Barry ; also of State Convention in 1880 from'Macomb senatorial district, as well 
as of several County Conventions. Mr. Cady was an old Jackson Democrat up to 
1854, when he joined the Republican party, and has proved a faithful earnest mem- 
ber of that party up to the present time. As a pioneer of Mt. Clemens, and an old 
resident of the county, full references are made to him in the histories of the 
county and city. To-day he is the senior living settler of Macomb County, and 
gives promise of being able to make the same proud statement at the beginning of 
the next century. 


William Austin Burt was born at Worcester, Mass., June 13, 1792. He was 
the son of Alvin and Wealthy Burt, natives of Massachusetts, whose parents ar- 
rived in the American colonies in 1740. The grandparents, as well as parents, 
followed a seafaring life, and so their days were passed beside the Atlantic, until the 
western fever urged them away from the sea coast to seek a western home. Imme- 
diately after the birth of W. A. Burt, his family moved into Montgomery County, 
N. Y., where they remained eleven years, or until 1803. Montgomery County was 
then on the borders of civilization, so it is not surprising to learn that the youth of 
eleven summers was minus books, schools, and almost everything known in the old 

After the burning of Buffalo, December 30, 1813, a call was made for volun- 


teers ; young Burt enrolled his name as a member of the New York militia (60 days 
men). With this command he moved into Canada. In 181-4 he served a second 
term with a three months' regiment. In the fall of that year lie formed a partner- 
ship with his father-in-law, Mr. Cole, as merchants. The partners did not succeed 
in business, so that W. A. Burt returned to the carpenter's bench, and in com- 
pany with John Allen, afterwards a settler of Bruce, engaged in mill-building. 
He entered upon his western journey at the outlet of ChautauquaLake, August 13, 
1817. On the 24th he .reached Pittsburg; St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 19, and Detroit 
Oct. 26, 1817. He returned to his eastern home ; but came again to Michigan in 
1822. On his return journey he made the hazardous venture of traveling 200 miles 
through the wilderness. At Detroit he had a true friend in Gen. Cass. Soon after 
be visited Oakland County, where he built a saw mill for Webster at Auburn. 
Here he was soon joined by John Allen, his brother-in-law. Before the mill was 
completed Webster died (being the first death in Oakland), yet Burt and Allen 
fulfilled their contract. After this those friends built a mill at Waterford. While 
engaged here, Burt visited Fletcher's survey party, and subsequently explored the 
country as far as the Moxie Settlement, now Romeo. In 1823 he purchased a tract 
of land in Washington township, and returned in the fall to Erie County, New 
York, from which locality he brought his family hither in the spring of 1824. Dur- 
ing the succeeding summer he erected the Taylor and Millard mills on Lower Stony 
Creek, and built a log house for himself on his land near that point. In 1825 he 
completed the Upper Stony Creek mill, or the Hersey mill, by placing in it a run of 
stone. That mill is now in operation, just over the line in Oakland County. Many 
other mills were built by Burt and Allen previous to 1826, including the concern 
for Alpheus Wadhams within six miles of Port Huron. 

W. A. Burt was elected a member of the Territorial Legislature in the fall of 
1826. In 1828 he built the Dexter mills, referred to in the History of Washtenmv. 
During this time he discussed with Samuel Dexter the question of the utility 
of the masonic order. He was the originator of a masonic society at Stony Creek, 
being the third lodge formed in the Territory of Michigan. 

In 1831 he was elected County Surveyor, was appointed Associate Judge, 
April 24, 1833, and United States District Surveyor, November 23, 1833. He 
engaged in building the mills at the ancient village of Frederick, in 1833; but so 
soon as his appointment was made, he gave up the labor of a carpenter and mill- 
builder. His duties as United States Surveyor took him westward to the Missis- 
sippi. He ran the township lines where the city of Milwaukee now stands. He 
was appointed a Commissioner of Internal Improvement, April 3, 1838, and made 
the survey of the railroad to Saginaw. Pveviously he was the first surveyor of the 
old strap railroad from Detroit to Ypsilanti. 



He possessed some inventive genius, and produced an instrument by which he 
conveyed his thoughts to paper in printed form. He constructed a surveying instru- 
ment different from anything hitherto known. He cast aside the Polar Star, and 
made the Sun his objective point. The result of his nursing and inquiries was the 
Solar Compass, invented by him and made in the shop of W. J. Young, of Phil- 
adelphia. In the survey of the Northern Peninsula this compass was found to be 
a sine qua non. On September 19, 1844, Mr. Burt discovered iron ore at the jjlace 
now known as the Jackson iron mine. On the drowning of Dr. Houghton, Decem- 
ber 13, 1845, Mr. Burt and others were called upon to complete as far as possible 
the reports. In the summer of 1851 he visited Europe. In 1855 he wrote a treatise 
on the Solar Cornpass. 

He was engaged in the construction of the Equatorial Sextant, at Detroit, in 
1858, when death summoned him away from his work, August 18, 1858. Mrs. 
Burt died a few years later, and both sleep in the cemetery of Mount Vernon. 
Regarding this settler it may be truly said, that he was one of this world's true 
noblemen. Honest, sincere, intellectual, he recommended himself to every one, 
winning the esteem of all with whom he associated. 

Mr. Burt's children are : John, Alvin, Austin, Wells, and William. Alvin 
Burt died in Wisconsin some years ago ; John, Austin and Wells reside at Detroit, 
William makes his home at Marquette. All these men are pioneers of the iron dis- 
tricts of the Peninsula, all are survej'ors, and to their desire to make a thorough 
exploi-ation of the Lake Superior country, the development of that portion of the 
Peninsula is mainly due. The labors of the survey were entered upon by Wm. A. 
Burt, in 1844. 


In the year 1823, Sylvester Darling and' George Wilson with their families 
arrived at Detroit. There they secured the services of three sailors — owners of a 
canoe — who started to guide them on a voyage via Lake St. Clair to Mt. Clemens. 
One small sail was all the propelling power the small craft had at command. All 
went well until near their destination. It was nearly night, and they were very 
anxious to land before darkness set in ; but they were not to be so favored ; for 
when within a little more than an hour's sail from their port, an angry squall over- 
took them and they were driven helplessly before it. Like a feather their sail was 
torn from the mast, the men caught it before it was carried overboard, and refas- 
tened it to the mast with a clothes' line and held the bottom with their hands — no 
easy task in the face of a November gale. All through the hours of that memorable 
night the men took turns in holding the sail, for there were no oars aboard the frail 
craft. The women and the little children cowered in one end of the boat under 
the slight protection of an old awning, but the driving rain soon penetrated their 



place of refuge, and they were in a pitiful condition indeed. Who can picture the 
despair that overtook them : impenetrable darkness surrounded them, and they 
were driving on to an unknown fate. One of the sailors overcome by fear, crouched 
in the bottom of the boat, refusing to save himself or his fellow voyagers. The 
angry waves boiled and hissed round them, lashed into fury by the fierce storm. 
They knew not in what direction they were going, only that they were being 
driven away from the point they wished to gain. Thus the long night passed, and 
day began to dawn. The shore was close at hand, but tlie waves were breaking 
upon it with such fury they could not dare to land. There they cast anchor, ex- 
pecting every moment the waves to engulf them ; but toward night the waters 
calmed sufficiently for them to land. No signs of habitation could be seen ; they 
were apparently on the border of the Canadian wilderness. There they built a 
fire, dried their wet clothing, and cooked a little provisions for a much required 
meal. A brush-hut was next built to offer shelter to them from the cold winds 
which still continued to blow. On the afternoon of the next day they dared ven- 
ture out on the waters ; but after two hours battle with the winds, they weie forced 
backward to the wild shore where tlie previous night was passed. Here the party 
remained four days until the storm subsided, wlien they made an attempt to go 
forward on their journey. This time the voyage was successful, and it is believed 
no travelers were ever more joyful than were those who escaped all the dangers of 
that tempestuous voyage from Detroit to Mt. Clemens. 

After two days passed at Mount Clemens, the party proceeded to Shelby. Not 
having any houses built, they entered an old log hut on the Wilcox Place, there to 
wait until some better building could be erected. It was a wretched place, small, 
and open to the weather on all sides, and, to use Mrs. Darling's own expression. 
You might throw a dog through the roof anywhere. In this hut a little child 
was born — a Darling, while Mrs. Wilson eared for her own babe not yet two months 
old. Here the Wilson and Darling families remained for six weeks, and just as one 
of Michigan's fiercest winters was upon them they moved into snug log houses on 
their own lands, Mr. Wilson's land lying three-fourths of a mile south of Wash- 
ington, and Mr. Darling's one mile farther to the south. Of the heads of these 
families, Mrs. Darling alone is left, and the children who encountered the perils of 
that voyage with their parents are old gray-headed people. 


S. H. Corbyn, a pioneer of Armada and Richmond Townships, writing to the 
Secretary' of the Pioneer Society of Macomb, in December, 1881, from his home at 
Plainwell, Mich., states: Alfred Goodell and I came from Detroit together. Leav- 
ing him in Detroit, his eldest son and myself pushed ahead, and reached our destina- 




tion a day or two ahead of him. The first cabin we built was on his side of the 
road. After this I built one for m3'self, and also framed a small barn, which was 
subsequently sold to Elijah Burke. Mr. Corbyn recites many of the events men- 
tioned in the Goodell reminiscences. He refers to the diiScnlty of tracing survey 
lines at this time. " When I was looking to locate my land," he says, " I started 
at the northwest corner of Section 36, and tried to trace the line to where the 
village of Armada now is. I could find the line as far as the timber went; but 
before I had gone a mile it opened into brush land and open plains. Having nothing 
but a po6ket compass to guide me, I could not find the section corners south of that 
place, nor the quarter stake, where the village now is, and gave it up, not dreaming 
of the possibilities of the future — never thinking of what that sea of brush might 
be converted into. At that time I was not such an adept at tracing lines as I after- 
wards became; for, for years, I accompanied land-lookers, traced lines, pointed out 
section corners nearl}^ all over the town of Richmond and in Columbus Township, 
gave them their numbers, which numbers they secreted in their pockets until they 
could reach the Detroit Land Office. Land hunters at that time were jealous, or 
rather suspicious of each other ; and so each made an effort to reach the office first, 
lest his competitor might outwit him in purchasing. 


Nathaniel Carter left Massachusetts for Michigan, August 24, 1831. At the 
close of the third week of the journey he found his friend Holman located in the 
wilderness four miles northeast of Romeo. His reminiscences of settlement portray 
many of the scenes of the olden time, and are on that .account valuable. He says : 
At this time the east half of Armada and what is now Richmond belonged to Saint 
Clair County. There were only two families in the east half of Armada, viz., 
Leonard Lee and Alfred Goodell. The highways were yet in the future, their 
pliice being- represented by sled paths among the trees. The first thing to be done 
was to select a farm, so we started northward through the brush and open land to 
the old fort, which was a circular bank or ridge eight or ten feet high from the 
bottom of the exterior ditch. The walls enclosed about an acre of Ian* , with an 
opening toward the North Brauch. Near by were the bones of a very large race 
of people. There was an old oak tree about eighteen inches in diameter growing 
on the top of this fort. From this point we started for the southeast to find Hol- 
man's brother, Levi Holman's location. He showed us through the woods, which 
were then covered with trees so large as to make the Yankees feel a little discour- 
aged. We found a small stream called Coon Creek, running through Section 31, 
Richmond, near Leonard Lee's and Levi Holman's farms. We selected two eighty- 
acre lots on Section 34, paid $200, and received in due time President Jackson's 



deed. Romeo theu contained one frame and three log houses, and a small one- 
story frame store, built on the corner of Main and Saint Clair Streets, by N. T. 
Taylor. The land between the Curtiss farm and the village was nearly all taken 
up, and much of it was occupied. The ague attacked one member of the family 
and created some surprise. Ebenezer Brooks and wife came next. 

A short time after settlement a man was heard shouting in the wilderness, Mr. 
Curtiss went forth with his rifle. The hooting continued until the lost man saw 
his rescuer advancing. So overpowered with joy was he that he could scarcely 
express himself. He started the morning previous to come from the road north to 
the Hoxie trail ; but got lost. He had a good pocket compass, yet he strayed 
away, became lost, and at the moment he was discovered was twenty-four hours 
without food. This man's name was Truesdell Nickols. 

A sudden turn of affairs urged Carter to enter the market. There he made 
application for a Stewart, and sealed the contract so strongly that it is good yet. 
After furnishing his log-house, he began to think about building a saw-mill. There 
was but one neai-er than Stoney Creek, and that was Noah Webster's. His was the 
next built in order of time. Since that time he sawed timber for twelve saw-mills 
and three grist mills, all erected within a radius of three-one-half miles of the 
Carter farm, all run by water power, and the greater number of them gone out of 
use. In 1832-3, the season of alternate rain and frost, the grain crops were 
destroyed. The settlers endured many privations, some were reduced almost to 
starvation. Flour was 'f 16 per barrel, and pork, #30. 

Asa Holman organized the first Sunday School in the Town of Armada, 
within a log-house on the corner of his farm. John Proctor and Job Howell built 
the first frame houses in the township ; Norman Perry and N. Carter soon fol- 
lowed the example, and the era of frame buildings was introduced. 


In April, 1827, my father, Erastus Day, started from the town of Lima, Liv- 
ingston County, in the State of New York, with teams and went to Pittsford in 
the same county, where, in company with Capt. Gad Chamberlain and some 
four other families, they chartered a canal-boiit on the Erie Canal, which had been 
finished about two years, to Buffalo. 

It being early in the season, no boats had as yet left for Detroit, but two 
steamers were lying at the wharf anxious for lading, and as there were five or six 
families of us, with household goods, etc., the masters of the vessels were vei'y 
anxious and began to bid for the load, when the master of the Steamer Superior, 
Capt. Sherman, proposed to take us to Detroit gratis if we would go with him ; so, 
as a matter of course, we all piled on, and after a stormy passage (all that were on 




board being sick except the crew, my father, and Capt. Chamberlain) we arrived 
at Detroit. We stayed there until Sunday morning, Capt. Chamberlain in the 
meantime having purchased some two or three yoke of oxen and father two cows 
with tlieir calves, which he bought for twenty-five dollars. On Sunda}' morning 
quite a debate arose as to whether we should lay over until Monday, or start at 
once, Capt. Chamberlin being opposed to traveling on the Sabbath, (which was 
right,) but other counsels prevailed, and about ten o'clock, (he oxen having been 
hitched up, we launched out upon that great sea of mud and water toward Royal 
Oak, being kept partially out of the mud by a railroad with the rails all laid cross- 
wise, and oh ! what a road was there, my countrymen ! It was almost impossible 
to keep right side up and out of the mud and water. Between Detroit and Royal 
Oak we stopped at a place called Mother Handsome's, whose real name was 
Chapin, where we had dinner. The next place, after passing Royal Oak, was then 
called Hamilton's, afterward Piety Hill, and now Birmingham. It was then com- 
posed of one log house, which was the tavern. At that time there was no road 
direct from Royal Oak to Rochester, consequently we were obliged to go by Ham- 
ilton's, where we stayed Sunday night, if memory serves me right, and the next 
day brought up at Horatio Nye's, in the township of Bruce, Macomb County. 
That day, my father, myself, and Levi, the youngest brother, traveled on ahead of 
the teams, and missing our way, went to where Romeo now stands, then called 
Indian village, Gideon Gates, post-master. I think there were at that time, four 
log houses within the bounds of Romeo as it now is. As is related above, we stopped 
at Nye's, about two miles west of Romeo, where we stayed a few days and then 
moved into a log shanty about twelve by fourteen, and covered with oak shakes, 
where we lived, or rather stayed, some six or eight weeks and planted a crop of 
corn and potatoes. In the meantime, father had purchased eighty acres of timber 
land about two miles northeast of Romeo, and on the fifth day of July, 1827, we 
went to the new farm to prepare logs for a house, which was raised in a few days 
with becoming ceremonies, and after covering it with elm bark, la3dng a part of a 
floor of hewn bass-wood logs, and cutting out the logs, and leaving the holes for 
doors and windows, we quietly moved into it without any fire-place or chimney 
except a hole in the roof for the smoke to escape through. I recollect of mother 
telling one morning that she saw some large animal jump out through the hole left 
for a window during the night. Hardly a night passed but we could hear wolves 
howling in different directions. I remember at one time of hearing them howl 
about eighty or one hundred rods from the house. Very soon the hogs put in an 
appearance at the house minus two very fine pigs which were never seen afterward. 
At another time, as two of my brothers started from home, they encountered two 
bears in close proximity to the hog-pen wherein were five or six fine porkers. On 




another occasion, while all hands were engaged in chopping, we heard a hog set up 
a terrible squeak, when we all started for the scene of battle, where we found a 
long-legged brown bear leading a hog off by the nape of the neck, and as there was 
not a rifle in the company, bruin made good his escape after having bitten Mr. 
Porker so badly that he afterward died. While living at home and going to school, 
a little incident occurred that might be worth relating. Whilst wandering about 
in the woods one Saturday, I discovered a large basswood log partially rotted away, 
in the hollow of which I thought wolves slept. I went and borrowed a trap and 
set it, but it was not a success, as they went in all directions except in the trap. 
One very cold morning I went to my trap, and not finding anj-thing in it, I turned 
about and went directly home, and as I stepped into the door I heard them howl, 
and going back found that they were not over ten rods behind me, as I saw the 
tracks of two of them as they turned from the road into the woods and left on sus- 
picion. As to religious matters, the first sermon I heard in Romeo was by the Rev. 
Abel Warren, of sainted memory, who moved into that part of the country in 1824. 
He preached in warm weather in Albert Finch's barn on the farm now known as 
the Ewell farm. This was in the spring of 1827. Rev. Isaac Ruggles was the 
first Congregational minister that ever preached in Romeo, which was in 1829. 
In the spring of 1828, all the people turned out, and that was not a great many, 
and hewed the timber, gave lumber and shingles, and built a frame school-house 
on land owned by Asahel Bailey, which answered the purpose of school-house and 
church. The first school was taught by Gideon Gates, and Alanson Fincli, who 
was supposed afterward to have been carried off by the Indians, went to scliool. 
He was missed at night, and many of the neighbors searched in the woods all night 
and tiie next day. It was estimated that some four or five hundred men were 
scouring the woods far and near, but no trace of him was found, and it was with- 
out doubt the means of bringing the old people in sorrow to the grave. 


Referring to the emigration of the Holland family from New York, May 20, 
1829, John D. Holland writes : We started from the town of Mendon, 
in the county of Monroe, State of New York (had prayers in the 
morning offered by Brother Schuyler, a connection of Gen. Schuyler of 
Albany), we pursued our journey to or near Batavia, where we stayed 
the first night, and that night it was frosty and cold, the morning following, 
I tliink the ground was a little frozen. Pursued our course to Buffalo got on board 
a small schooner called the Dread of Huron, John Haskins captain. Came to San- 
dusky City in about three days from Buffalo, staid there some three or four days, 
found tliere an old man by the name of Rogers, who was taken prisoner of war in 

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the Revolution with my father, out of the sloop Randolph, a sloop of sixteen guus, 
about the year 1780. The old men appeared glad to see each other. My father 
and myself got on board a small boat and came to Detroit in about two days I should 

Detroit was then small, the old Fort Hull surrendered was then garrisoned by 
United States soldiers. Maj. Jonathan Kearsley and John Biddle then acted as land 
agents, or they gave duplicates to the applicants at the United States Land OflBce. 
Staid near Detroit a number of days. Came to Washington to look laud about the 
20th of June, went to Detroit and received a duplicate for the east half of the 
north-east quarter of section twenty-two in that town, about the 26th or 7th of 
June, 1823, and at tluit time there was in Washington Barna Miller, Joseph Miller, 
Elon Andrus,. Lazarus Green, Zebulum Hayden and Aaron Stone, and pei'haps 
Solomon Wales with families ; liivewise Freeborn Heley and Jol> Hoxie with families. 
Milton Nye's familj^ absent, Ezra B. Throop, Alvin Nye, Marcus Nye, Daniel Smith, 
young men, and Alexander Tackles a widower, these were the only inhabitants 
then living in the township of Washington. Romeo was then called Indian Village. 
Asahel Bailey and Chauncy Bailey with families then lived in Bruce, and Michael 
Tromley, they were the only inhabitants in Bruce, except Indians, unless Shartkey, 
(Chartier), then lived near Tromley. 

What a change do I see to-day, I can see from my window three good churches, 
an academy, a village containing perhaps 2,000 inhabitants, but alas, reflection tells 
me that almost all the former inhabitants have passed through the gates of death, 
and are with us no more. Freeborn Hel'ey was the first white man who died in 
Washington that we have any knowledge of, he died in August, 1825. But who 
can count the number that has fallen in Washington since that day. 

Elias Pattee came and preached in Washington about the last of August 1823, 
a class was formed in Washington of six members, viz: John D. Holland leader, 
Elon Andrews, Nancy Andrews, Polly Greene, Aurilla Miller and Laura Miller. 
James Thornington was tlie first settler in Washington, he came into the town, as 
near as can be ascertained in the month of February 1819, ami settled on the farm 
now owned and occupied by George Wilson. The first physician that settled in 
Washington was Lyman T. Jenny, then came Dr. Dennis Cooley, a constant pliysi- 
cian many years. The first frame barn was built by Zebulum Hayden in the spring 
of 1824, the first frame house was built by Edward Arnold in the fall of 1825. The 
first school was kept by Dr. Lyman T. Jenny. The first township meeting was held 
near John D. Holland's in April 1827, the first Supervisor was John S. Axford, the 
first Township Clerk was John D. Holland. The great rain Iiappened the 18th and 
19th of June, 1825. The first saw mill was built by John Proctor, the first grist 
mill built by Wilks L. Stuart and Edwin Wilcox. The first merchant, and perhaps 



the first founder of the merchants' establishment or business in Romeo, was Nathan 
Terry Taylor. The first religious meeting was held in a log shanty owned and oc- 
cupied by Albert Finch, very near the house Hall Ewell now lives in, in June 1824. 
The first Postoffice established in tlie village of Romeo, I think about the autumn 
of 1825, was called Indian Village Postoffice, Gideon Gates was Post-master. Who 
acted as Post-master in the township of Washington, I am not sure but think it was 
Otis Lamb, office established not far from the time it was established in Indian Vil- 

The townships of Washington and Bruce were joined as one township for 
several years. The first saw mill built in Bruce was that liy Leander Tromley, 
some time before the mill erected by John Proctor. The first blacksmith in Wash- 
ington was John Bennett. The first white child born in Bruce was a daughter of 
Cliauncy Bailey. There was an Indian tribe living near Lakeville, Macomps was 
their chief. Gen.- John Stockton came to Mt. Clemens at an early day, and I presume 
can give as much information relative to former times as any one in Macomb County. 


When I was a lad, between nine and ten years of age, my father, Abijah 
Owen, then living in the State of New York, Genessee Co., conceived the idea of 
emigrating to the West. Some of his townsmen, among whom were Calvin Davis, 
Elon and Russel Andrus, Joseph and Daniel Miller, Elder Abel Warren, and some 
others, had gone a year or two previous. From the very flattering accounts 
received from them as to the natural advantages to be enjoyed in this new country, 
he resolved to move thither, and sold what little property he had in that country. 
In the latter part of the month of June, 1825, he started with his family of five 
children and their mother for the far-famed territory of Michigan. At this time 
no such thing as a railroad had been projected, neither had there any canals been 
brought into use ; for be it known Clinton's big ditch, or the Erie Canal, was not 
completed till September of that year. Then, of coui-se, our only mode of trans- 
portation from starting point to Buffalo, was by lumber wagon. At Buffalo we 
embarked on board the only steamboat then on Lake Erie, and the second one 
that had ever navigated its waters, the " Superior." After a passage of five days, 
calling at all the intermediate ports, we landed on terra firma at Detroit. I well 
remember how fine was the weather. Not a ripple disturbed the placid blue waters 
of that noble lake. 

Immediately on landing, we fell in with a teamster by the name of Jack Hamlin, 
whose business it was to transport immigrants into this country. A turnpike had 
then been constructed, commencing at the river bank, and running for a distance 
of four miles in a northerly direction, which, subsequent^, was completed by the 

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United States as a militaiy road to Saginaw Ray. When leaving this four-mile 
turnpike, we entered upon a single wagon track, meandering through brush, seek- 
ing the most eligible ground, and guided Ijy blazed trees through forests. After 
two days' weary journey, we arrived at our destined haven at the house of uncle 
Calvin Davis, in the township of Shelby. Then it was that pioneer life began to 
dawn upon us. The first step was to locate an eighty acre lot of land, and no 
delay was necessary in making a selection, there being a vacant lot adjoining my 
uncle's. No objection could be entertained to securing a neighbor no more than 
half a mile distant, in a wilderness country. The lialf mile to my uncle's I 
thought quite too far to go for fire, when often in the summer time ours had gone 
out during the night. Lucifer matches in those days were not dreamed of ; some 
people had a tinder box with flint and steel from which they could start a fire. As 
soon as my father had secured his land, wheat harvest being then ready, he thought 
it more important to secure some of the needful, than to commence the erection of 
a domicile, and his first labor was performed for one, Judge Thurston, in the 
western part of Washington Township ; raking and binding at six shillings per 
day ; but from the paucity of the wheat fields here then, harvest time was of short 
duration, so he soon commenced the building of a log house. I remember hearing 
him say, after paying for his land, he had but seven dollars in money left, so by 
the time he had procured the necessary whisky to carry on his raising, doubtless, 
that was gone. Could buildings be raised in those days without whisky ? One 
might just as well undertake to bury a corpse without digging a grave. It was 
quite apparent now that no time should be lost in preparing a family shelter, as an 
emergency of a domestic character was known to exist, that, except with nomadic 
tribes, called for more tlian ordinary care, so not many days elapsed before logs 
were got together and shakes rove out of oak for a roof, and from some source he 
obtained some second-hand lumber, of various widtlis and thickness, for an upper 
and under floor. Soon we were ushered into our new domocile, and in a few days 
my mother gave birth to another child, Martha B., now Mrs. Cox, of Franklin, 
Oakland Co. The first year we lived without a cow — T can remember often diet- 
ing on roast potatoes and salt — but the next summer my father vrent down to 
his uncle Raskin's, living a few miles from Mt. Clemens, and brought home a cow, 
saying his uncle gave her to him. Then we children felt gleeful and happy — no 
more potatoes and salt ; we could luxuriate not only on potatoes and milk, but 
liread and milk also. Prosperity often is of short duration, for when we had had 
Old Bob a year or so, there suddenly appeared without previous notice, two young 
men with orders to drive away the cow. Some of the younger children cried to 
see Old Boh driven away. She merited that sobriquet from her semi-caudal 
appendage, which I suppose some ferocious canine had made a little too free with. 




Now a spell came over our dreams, potatoes and salt haunted our minds. Not only 
that, but we were strongly suspected of being fatherless, for he was among the 
missing also. While he was gone mother wanted to make some cucumber pickles, 
and whisky was about the only ingredient then used for that purpose, so I was 
sent to Mr. Burlingham's still for some of the critter, hnt when Burlingham learned 
tliat father was gone, and we did not know where, I could not get the whisky, 
although two shillings jjer gallon was all it was worth. I don't remember now of 
ever seeing two shillings in money up to that time. But the darkest hour is said 
to be just before day; so in the course of six weeks my father returned, driving 
with him two good cows, which he had paid for with his labor, on the farm owned 
by Gen. Cass, whose tenant was father's cousin. 

I tell you we boys threw up our hats then though I am not sure we had any. 
Yes, I do remember of making one for myself about that time out of straw ; but if 
I remember right it was a rude specimen. The farm above alluded to is now about 
one-half the city of Detroit, unless the city extends far beyond it in a westerly 
direction. I, however, know that it was a large farm, for the next summer, after 
father got the cows, I was permitted to go there to play with the cousins and 
remain three weeks, riding the ponies after the cows every night. Three weeks 
had passed, so one Sunday niorning I shouldered my pack, about twenty pounds 
of dried peas, beside other traps, and started afoot and alone for home. The four- 
mile turnpike alluded to, was traversed, after which was brush and timber almost 
the entire distance of thirty miles, but I made port and had considerable ambition 
left. I should hate to undertake that walk now in a day. I was twelve or thirteen 
years old at this time. If my memory serves me there was but one brick building 
in tlie city at that time and that, it seems to me, was only one and a half stories 
high. There stands a dwelling now on Jefferson avenue, not far from Woodward, 
that was there then. The first team we had in this country was grown from calves 
dropped the same spring of our arrival, hence my father had no facilities for work- 
ing his land, though yearly he would endeavor to get two or three acres broke, 
either by making a bee or changing work, with some of the neighbors ; those 
calves were bought of Elder Warren in the fall after they were a year old and my 
brother and I broke them that winter, and snailed up the most of our fire wood 
at this time. I made the 3'oke and bows, putting in a wooden staple of bent hick- 
ory, with a crotched limb forming a hook for the staple, and a short piece of chain 
at the rear end. I would hitch to a small draft and drag it to the house. I can 
remember taking motlier two and a half miles to meeting with those steers attached 
to an ox sled, over a trail covered only with about an inch of snow. My brother 
and I done j^retty much the entire work done at home for the first four or fire 



years ; while father worked out by the clay. We split mostly all the rails that was 
used during that time, and also laid them into fences. 

Judging from recollection as to the length of time we had been in this country 
I should say it was in the spring of 1826 or '27, that our neighborhood became rife 
with rumors that a boy was lost in the northern part of the county. I well re- 
member that, when we were all at Town meeting about the first of April, there 
came a courier, heralding the sad news that Mr. Finch's boy, in the Hoxie settle- 
ment, was lost, and that the father desired help to look him up. My father started 
the next day, and I suppose all the neighbors did also start to search for the miss- 
ing one. If I remember aright he was gone about a week ; but they did not find 
the boy, and he never was found either dead or alive, and the grievance of the 
heart-stricken parents bore so heavily upon them, that their natures soon gave way, 
and both went down to an untimely grave, mourning the loss of their boy. 

Now the time occurred that I first saw Romeo, tlien the Hoxie Settlement; so 
when we had lived here long enough to have raised a little corn, a corn basket was 
needed, and none was known to be made nearer to us tiian the Hoxie settlement, 
so my brother and I, respectively ten and twelve years old, started for Romeo on 
foot, and procured a basket of one old Mr. Washburn. A frame house, I remember, 
was then being erected just behind a little oak tree, by one John B. HoUister, then 
our County Surveyor, and that same little oak tree is now standing in front of Mrs. 
Nelly Gray's residence. 

I remember that when we got started for home the elements portended a 
thunder shower. We had been taught that to be in the woods at such a time was 
very dangerous. Soon we were overtaken by Esq. Lester, of Utica, on horseback, 
and to keep up with him was our aim ; therefore when his horse trotted, we trotted; 
but occasionally his horse would walk and then we could recuperate our wind. 
We heard him tell some one on the way that those were the smartest boys he ever 
saw, as they kept up with his}horse all the way. In due time we reached home in 

The advantages for schooling in the neighborhood where we lived were poorer 
than in some other. The fourth town was then comparatively a thickly settled 
neigliborhood, for within a mile from each other tliere were Geo. Hanscom, Geo. 
Willson, Dan'l and Jas. Miller, Elon Andrews, John Bennett, — Burlingham, Otis 
Lamb, and perhaps some others. When I would visit their school, I found the pu- 
pils much farther advanced in the rudimental branches than with us. Immediately 
after our arrival here, I commenced going one and a half miles to school, but with- 
in a month I was attacked with the ague and lay prostrate with it all that winter. 
A portion of one winter I remember going two and a half miles to a male teacher, 
Ellas Scott. It was then I began to learn to write, and I think I wrote one or two 


love letters to a girl who was some years older than I was, who is now Mrs. Alvah 
Arnold. The last winter I remained at home, we had a school only one and a fourth 
miles away, taught by Miss Laura Hopkins, sister of the late Cyrus Hopkins, the 
veteran bell ringer of Romeo. This was in the winter of 1830-31, but my duties 
at home never alloweti me to attend school very regular. 

In June, 1831, I left home and engaged as clerk to P. & G. Leech, of Utica, 
who had recently come in and bought the mill property there, and also inaugurated 
a store. The following winter I attended a three months' school, taught by one P. 
B. Thurston, who subsequently became Judge of Probate for the County, and held 
the office a great number of years. He was counted a very worthy man and an 
efficient County officer. One little incident I will make mention of as occurring 
with some of my earliest experience after leaving liome, to show the fortitude that 
may be cherished, and is far more often displayed in a new country than an older 
one, and is probably engendered by the rudeness of a pioneer life. Early the fol- 
lowing spring I was sent by my employers to Mt. Clemens to collect a small 
account; when arriving at the North Branch I found that the bridge had been 
swept away, but a man with a canoe was there to ferry me across. I was directed 
to put the saddle in the canoe, and swim the horse ahead of us, and so save us the 
labor of paddling. The halter or bridle was too short to allow the horse to get be- 
yond the reach of the canoe, hence he was much frightened at the frequent contact 
with it it. The stream having extended far beyond its natural banks covered a flat 
of more shallow water. At this point the horse struck bottom, and made such 
powerful strides as to drag me from the canoe through the shallows to dry land. 
Now why did I not let go '/ Because I feared the horse would give me the slip 
and be a greater hardship to recover him than to be drawn through the water, so I 
stuck to him and went on, made the collection in silver coin — about twenty-five 
dollars, and that weight of specie in my pantaloon pockets while on horseback, ap- 
peared to be a far greater annoyance than tlie wet clothes." 

Mr. Owen paid a brilliant tribute to the deceased Abel Warren, and concluded 
his paper with a very apt reference to the pioneers of Macomb. 

The following poetical comparison of the Past and the Present was written by 
J. E. Day, in 1874. It is a very faithful review, and must be of special interest in 
connection with this chapter : 

In days gone by our dames and sires, 

Free from that pride which wealth inspires, 

With zeal which coming days will bless. 

Performed their toils in home-spun dress. 

The rustle of a sill<en gown, 

Was to their ears an unknown sound, 

Save when some rare occasion fell 

As funeral or marriage bell. 

The rich brocade — the soft cashmere — 

The glistening-flush the velvet dear, 

Were things of which they heard at times, 

By gossip brought from foreign climes. 


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The matron's costume, clean and bright, 
Was home-spun linen, blue and white, 
Whose scanty folds were held in place, 
By linen string about the waist, . 
Whose tidy pleats were kept in check 
By linen kerchief at the neck. 
Her feet were shod with heavy shoes, 
Made less for beauty than for use, 
Her bonnet, too, it may be said — 
Was on and not behind her head. 

His pants were tow and woolen mix't, 

In colors which her skill had fix't ; 

And made with all the house-wife's care, 

Not for adornment but to wear. 

His frock was made of heavy tow ; 

Came to the knees, or just below. 

Supplying place of coat or vest. 

Like charity, concealed the rest. 

Uncouth in gait, or form, or looks. 

Untaught was he, in lore of books ; 

Unskilled was he, in ways to please ; 

Untaught in all the arts of ease ; 

Yet he was wise in all his toil, 

He knew the secrets of the soil ; 

He knew where best to plant his corn. 

He could presage the coming storm ; 

He knew where wild fruits grew the best ; 

He knew where wild birds built their nest ; 

And large his heart — the poor confes't. 

The kindly feeling of the breast. 

Yet we confess they had their pride, 
Though leaving much to virtue's side ; 
'Twas his the glitt'ring ax to wield. 
Or daily plow the willing field. 
And many a rood of fertile land 
Confessed the power of his hand. 
And while he daily swung the ax. 
Her pride was in her field of flax ; 
And in her bright, well scoured room, 
And in her spinning-wheel and loom, 
And in her knots of woolen yarn. 
Ready to make the new or darn. 
For hung in festoons 'round the room, 
Where trophies of her wheel and loom. 
And still was heard, for days to come. 
The spinning-wheel's familiar hum. 
And as her sturdy urchins grew, 
' Twas all the music that they knew. 

' Tis well remembered sound to me, 
'Tis music of utility. 

The houses which they lived in, too, 

No rules of architecture knew, 

The unhewn trunks of trees supplied. 

Material to form its sides. 

Laid up each other's ends across. 

And chinked between, with mud and moss. 

On these were poles, set up to take, 

A roof composed of " shanty shake." 

Two doors it had, a front and rear, 

A window on each side appears, 

And in one end — the other graced, 

A huge, old-fashioned. " fire-place," 

Whose fervent heat had often told. 

Expulsion to the winter's cold. 

And whose reflected, cheerful light. 

Oft changed to day the winter's night. 

What fun to sit on winter days, 
Before that open fire-place. 
And see within the embers glow. 
Intricate fancies come and go. 
Or hear the crackling fagots sing 
The music of the Fire King, 
What feasts we children used to share, 
Acorns and chestnuts, wasted there. 
Or when more sumptuous feasts invite. 
The dancing pop-corn brown and white. 
How oft I've thought with childish joy. 
When I should cease to be a boy. 
When I should reach maturer life 
And mingle in its joys and strife. 
That time has come, and taught the boy. 
Anticipation has the greater joy. 

The hearth was stones, large, smooth and flat. 

And in the corner lay a mat. 

On which, before the blazing log, 

Reposed the drowsy hunting dog. 

And in the corner used to stand 

The bake-kettle, and frying-pan. . 

The chimney-flue (for want of bricks) 

Was made of plastered mud, and sticks, 

The floor was made of bass-wood slabs. 

Split out and laid with ax and adze. 

The only jack-plane that it knew 

Was friction of the heel and toe. 

The only carpet at command 

Was daily made of soap and sand. 



The door was large, and wide, and hung 

Which under our fond mother's care. 

On wooden hinges, creaked as it swung, 

Weekly were enacted there. 

Which we small youngsters hail'd as great 

We knew when came the grand array 

And vainly tried to imitate. 

For Tuesday was the baking day. 

No plated knob, no shining latch, 

Long years have come, and swiftly passed. 

Was there the eye to catch, 

Since Tuesday's fare was tasted last. 

But if you would admittance beg 

And we may eat of viands rare. 

The handle was a hickory peg. 

And sumptuous entertainments share. 

Hard by a string of wild deer's hide. 

Partake of all that warms or cheers. 

The place of thumb-piece well supplied; 

May live to see an hundred years. 

Not always there as you might see. 

Yet ne'er will taste such pies, or cake. 

It filled the place of lock and key. 

As that old oven used to bake. 

For safety it was just the thing. 
You'd only to pull in the string. 

Within that arch we'd often look. 
And think, how in the holy book, 

Outside, a few steps from the door. 
With the bass-wood branches arched o'er, 
Where pig-weeds grew so tall and grand. 
The old brick oven used to stand. 
Upborn on rugged pillars three. 
In rude uncultured masonry. 
And underneath we used to keep 
Our treasures rare, in many a heap. 

We sometimes heard our father read. 
How three jasl men of holy deed. 
Were cast into an oven hot. 
And yet the flames had harmed them not. 
We wondered much, yet failed to see 
I low such strange story true could be. 
.\nd comforting each other, said. 
That we were glad that king was dead. 

It oft has been my childish care. 

Oh, childhood ' fraught with joy and pain. 

The needed oven-wood to prepare. 

Thy years will never come again ; 

Four honest armfuls, fine and dry. 

The joys of youth no more we see, 

E'er I could taste of cake or pie. 

Save in the light of memory. 

Our mother then would place these sticks 

Yet let us keep, as best we may. 

Within the solid arch of bricks. 

These visions of the by-gone day. 

In order so the flames might crawl. 

And think how in the times far back 

With easy access through them all. 

We've wandered from the narrow track. 

And having fired gave no concern 

The path our infant feet have trod, 

But let the crackling contents burn. 

Forgetful of our father.s' God. 

Just twenty minutes by the clock. 

Let's find once more the hopes, the fears. 

The fire was out, the oven hot. 

And fervency of early years. 

And, having scraped the ashes thin. 

And mingle with life's sterner truth 

The pastry ready to go in. 

The "everlasting flowers" of youth. 

Each loaf with skillful care was laid 
Upon the fire-shovel's blade, 
And with a firm and steady hand, 
In farthest corner made to stand. 
The loaves were placed in first of all 
And ranged against the outer wall. 
And then within this outside ring, 
In order ranged the smaller things, 
The walls threw out their ready heat 
The baking process was complete. 

Between the oven and the road. 
Beside the path the well-curb stood. 
On tip-toe raised, we used to peep 
Into the dark mysterious deep. 
And think how one poor foolish elf. 
Not long before, had drowned herself. 
Above the curb, the "sweep" was swung, 
On which a cedar pole was hung. 
With skill contrived, a strap and nail 
Arranged to take the oaken pail. 

Sweet mem'ries hover round my heart, 

On further end a block of wood. 

Of mysteries in the baking art. 

To keep the even balance good. 





(B t^ 

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a, ' 




What joy 'twould be to-night to share 

Could suit our varied wants so well. 

The very best of liquor there. 

Or form a play-house with such skill. 
Such places in its holes to creep, 

Beside the well, on either hand, 

Such chance to play at hide and seek, 

Large branching elm trees used to stand ; 

Such room our many games to play. 

And from the lowest, largest limb 

Or jump upon the springing hay. 

With ropes and bark we made a swine;. 

We knew of every place where best 

And there, on days when out of school, 

The cunning hen could hide her nest ; 

And when the sultry sun grew cool, 

What joyous shout and sparkling eyes. 

Such joyous pastimes oft we had 

When her shrill voice proclaims the prize. 

As makes the heart of childhood glad. 

With hasty step and merry din 

Yet, sometimes, ere the play was done, 

We took the glistening treasures in. 

Would sadly pause to think of one 

Whose tired feet had left the way 

Down on a corner of the street. 

In which we trod, one Summer day 

Where four right-angled highways meet. 

Had gone to find the thither shore 

A few steps distant from the road, 

Where childish griefs could come no more. 

The little, old, log school-house stood ; 

And roam at will the happy fields 

Where, in the days long since gone by. 

Which unmolested pleasure yields. 

We youngsters used to meet and try 
To con our various lessons o'er. 

Not dead to us, we thought that when 

The foretaste of a world of lore. 

Some days had passed, he'd come again ; 

The walls were low and washed with white, 

And sometimes in the heat of game 

Four wide, low windows gave it light 

We would forget and speak his name ; 

No " patent stove " the building graced. 

And then, in hushed and solemn way. 

But a large, wide, stone-built fire-place. 

Would sit us down, forgetting play. 

Whose fervent glow and steady heat 

And every day his merry plays, 
His golden hair, his gentle ways. 

Toasted our lieads and froze our feet. 

Long desks along the walls were fixed ; 

His ringing laugh, the clothes he wore. 

No passage-ways were seen betwixt. 

Came back upon us o'er and o'er. 

The seats, pine slabs, with iron-wood pegs, 

Oh, Mem'ry ! Never weary with the past, 

Which answered in the place of legs. 

Thy joys be mine while time shall last ; 

While "beating up" the lesson's track 

And when time's latest course has run. 

We to the teacher turned our back. 

Thy deathless life has only just begun. 

At recitation, or when school was out. 
We'd only just to face about. 

Back from the house, not many rods. 

The />Dys could easy make the change. 

Were barn and sheds, built up of logs. 

But for the gir/s 'twas passing strange. 

Whose ample floor and well-filled bay 

The little urchins seated there 

We thought were just the place for play. 

Seemed high upborne into the air. 

On one side were the stalls, where stood 

From which their small feet dangled o'er 

The meek eyed cattle, fat and good ; 

In vain desire to reach the floor. 

The other was the ample bay, 

Well-filled with nicely-salted hay. 

I mind me well how fared the school 

A row of boxes placed above, 

■ When under certain schoolma'am's rule. 

Sheltered a flock of rattling doves ; 

How oft for switches we would go. 

And outside, underneath the eaves. 

How oft the chalk-mark forced to toe, 

Were swallows' nests of mud and leaves. 

How oft the open palm extend 
And feel the walnut "rule" descend. 

Not all the arts which poets sing. 

And yet, what varied fun we took 


Not all the lore which ages bring, 

When she was busy with her book ; 



c r- 

■ -% e) 




«^ <s 


What skillful pictures we would make, 

Alas for some, their forms are laid 

Or draw her profile on the slate. 

Beneath the churchyard's willow shade, 

With awful look and peaked nose, 

Their footsteps now are heard no more 

And hand upraised, as if for blows ; 

Along Time's rocky sounding shore ; 

And sometimes, so engaged were we 

They've gone before to pluck at will 

In this rare sport, we failed to see 

The flowers that bloom on Zion's hill. 

That the sharp schoolma'am's restless eyes 

Some hasted at the country's need. 

Had seen, and marked it for her prize. 

With willing heart and loyal speed, 

It pleased her worst of all, we knew. 

To help maintain the nation's laws, 

Because they sometimes were so true. 

Or perish in the righteous cause. 

All honor to the " boys in blue," 
Who faced the breach for me and you ; 

Well, I am glad that in days 

My feet were turned to learning's ways; 

The dear remembrance of the brave, 

Those early tasks, I plainly see, 

Lives like the pine above their grave. 

Were worth a world of wealth to me, 

Green be the grass and sweet the flowers, 

Because they proved this precept true 

That wave above these friends of ours. 

How little of the world I knew. 

And gave a quenchless thirst for more 
Than shallow draught of learning's lore. 

And soft the sighing winds that surge 

Above their graves at Fredricksburg. 

Some plow in learning's classic soil. 

And made my wakening soul aspire 

Some feel the sweat of farmer's toil. 

To something better still, and higher. 

Some drive a country doctor's cart. 

That old log schoolhouse, rough and tried, 

Some drive a lawyer's plastic art. 

The place of meeting-house supplied. 

All hail ! whatever be your share 

Where weekly gathered, old and young. 

In life, of labor or of care. 

With sober face and silent tongue, 

Fresh courage take and ne'er forget 

To hear the thrilling story told, 

That we are near each other yet. 

Which, oft repeated, grows not old. 

And as we gladly journey on. 

Forever new because divine, 

Be this our purpose bright and strong. 

Of Christ, the Prince of David's line. 

That when life's days and nights are passed. 

These little temples here and there. 

We all may meet at home at last. 

Along our public thoroughfares, 

Are hot-beds, where the feeble plant 

Now all is changed, no more we hear 
The sturdy stroke of pioneer. 

Of learning gets its earliest start. 

'Neath education's morning sun 

No more we see on morning breeze 

His blue smoke curling through the trees. 

No more in hazel brush is heard. 

The budding process is begun. 

Till in its stretch of higher growth. 

It reaches to sublimer truth. 

The shrill notes of the forest bird. 

Throws out the bud, the flower, the seed, 

Gone from the hut are dame and sire. 

Of holy thought, of noble deed. 

Quenched on the hearth their cheerful fire ; 

The mind of childhood can not be 

Gone is the cabin and the wood, 

A long continued vacancy, 

Gone are the elms from where they stood. 

There is no waste or barren soil 

Gone is the nicely sanded room. 

Within the garden of the soul ; 

Gone is the spinning wheel and loom ; 
Sweet be their rest, since closed the strife. 

For if we fail to sow the seeds, 

Of virtuous thought and manly deeds. 

They heroes were in humble life. 

The wildest flowers will bloom within 

And wealth has brought in place of these 

Of bitterness, and woe and sin. 

The ways of luxury and ease. 

Where are they now ? those girls and boys 

The thirst for fame, the love of self. 

Who shared with me life's morning joys. 

The power of pride, the greed of pelf. 


-^ — n ^, 

O'ershadow worth, and gain control 
O'er nobler feelings of the soul. 
And thus we mourn that coming days, 
Drive out the old simplicity of ways. 
We wish not for the hut again, 
Nor share of backwood's toil and pain ; 

Yet much we wish that all might live, 
Those simple rules which wisdom gives. 
Might see true worth more surely great, 
Than all the flimsy pride of State, 
And then how surely should we be 
A race of true nobility. 



The character of the pioneers of Macomb, falls properly within the range of 
history. They lived in a region of exuberant fertility, where nature had scattered 
her blessings with a generous hand. The winding Riviere Aux Hurons, the beauti- 
ful forests, the fertile oak openings, the hard but happy labors of the husbandman 
and his family, and the bright hopes which burned, combined to impress a distinct 
character, to bestow a spirit of enterprise, a joyousness of hope and an independence 
of feeling. Tlie community formed an admixture of many nations, characters, 
languages, conditions, and opinions. All the various Christian Gods had their 
worshippers. Pride and jealousy gave way to the natural yearnings of the human 
heart for society ; prejudices disappeai'ed, they met half way and embraced ; and the 
society thus gradually organized became liberal, enlarged, unprejudiced, and natur- 
ally more affectionate, than a commune of people all similar in birth and character. 

In the following pages these facts will appear more manifest. The tales of the 
olden time point out that time as one, where solidarity of intei'csts marked the 
character of the people, and leave little doubt that the ideal of good will to man 
ruled in their hearts. 


What shall we say of the true woman — the pioneer woman of this country ? 
Ah ! the Past, with its lights and shadows, its failures and its successes, its joys and 
its privations, is well remembered by the surviving pioneer, and happily in many 
instances by his children. Many a pioneer of the townships of this county has 
already gone to his rest on the hill, that gave to those, near and dear to him, a first 
outlook upon the pioneer life that was to come, — a life destined to develop these 
forces of the head and heart, forces, which, in the luxury and ease of an older civi- 
lization, rarely appear upon the surface of society. 

It was not always the dark side of the facies which was turned toward the 
pioneer, for though many of the immigrants were rough, and in many instances un- 
godly ; yet manhood and womanhood were here in all their strength and beauty, 




and nowhere in the world of created intelligence did God's last, best gift to man, 
more clearly assume the character of a helpmate, than in the log cabin, and amid the 
rough and trying scenes, incidental to a home in the wilderness. Ever foremost in 
the work of civilization and progress, the pioneer woman — the true woman — was 
to-day physician, to-morrow nurse, and the following day teacher of the primitive 
school. Withal the woman was busily engaged in that wearisome round of house- 
hold work which knows no cessation. Early and late, all the year round, the 
pioneer woman acted her part well. From year to year, as through many privations 
and much new and strange experience of that necessity, which is the mother of in- 
vention, wife and husband joined hand to hand to work out under the green arches 
of tlie wilderness the true beginnings of Macomb County. To the pioneer mothers 
of Macomb honor belongs. The many who are gone to their rest left a memory to 
honor — treat the living mothers well and tenderly. 


How natural to turn our eyes and thoughts back to the log cabin days, and con- 
trast them with the homes of the present time. Before us stands the old log cabin: 
Let us enter. Instinctively the head is uncovered in token of reverence to this 
relic of ancestral beginnings and early struggles. To the left is the deep, wide fire- 
place, in whose commodious space a group of children may sit by the fire, and up 
through the chimney you may count the stars ; while giiostly stories of witches and 
giants, and still more thrilling stories of Indians and wild beasts are whisperingly 
told, and shudderingly heard. On the great crane hang the old tea-kettle and the 
great iron pot. The huge shovel and tongs stand sentinel in either corner ; while 
the great andirons patiently wait for the huge back log. Over the fire-place hangs 
the trusty rifle ; on the right side of the hearth stands the spinning wheel ; while 
in the farther end of the room is the loom looming up with a dignity peculiarly its 
own. Strings of drying apples and poles of drying pum])kins are overhead. Oppo- 
site the door by which you enter stands a huge deal table ; by its side the dresser, 
with pewter plates and shining delf catching and reflecting the fire-place flame, as 
shields of armies do the sunshine. From the corner of its shelves coyly peep out 
the relics of former china. In a curtained corner, and hid from casual sight, we 
find the mother's bed ; and under it the trundle-bed, while near them a ladder indi- 
cates a garret where the older children sleep. To the left of the fire-place, and in 
the corner opposite, the spinning wheel forms the mother's work-stand; upon it lies 
the Holy Bible, evidently much used — its family record telling of parents and friends 
a long way off, and telling too of children 

"Scattered like roses in bloom 
Some at tlie bridal, and some in the tomb." 



Her spectacles as if just used are inserted between the leaves of her Bible, and tell 
of her purpose to return to its comforts when cares permit and duty is done. A 
stool, a bench, well notched, and whittled, and carved, and a few chairs complete 
the furniture of the room ; all these articles stand on a coarse, but well scoured floor. 
Let us for a moment watch the city visitors to this humble cabin. The city bride, 
innocent, thoughtless, and ignorant of labor and care, asks her city-bred husband : 
" Pray what savage has set this up?" Honestly confessing his ignorance, he replies, 
"I do not know." Then see the couple on whom age sets, fiostly but kindly. 
First as they enter, they give a rapid glance about the cabin home, and then a mu- 
tual glance of eye to eye. Why do tears start and fill their eyes ? Why do lips 
quiver ? There are many who know why ; but who, that has not learned in the 
school of experience the full meaning of all these symbols of trials and privations, of 
loneliness and danger, can comprehend the story they tell to tlie pioneer? Within 
this chinked and mud-daubed caljin, we read the first pages of our history, and as 
we retire through its low doorway, and note the heavy battened door with its wooden 
hinges, and its welcoming latch-string, is it strange that the outside scenes would 
seem to be but a dream. The cabin and the palace standing side by side in vivid 
contrast, tell the story of the people's progress — they are history and prophecy 
in one. 


He looked for gold in the streets, and found none! He searched the alleys of the 
city for silver and found not a groat! Thus it was with those who searched for 
a Ke(i of Grold, near wliere now is the railroad bridge, in olden as well as modern 
times. It is related, that about the years 1810-1.3, the paymaster of the British 
garrisons along the lakes, left Detroit, en route to the Indian villages, then in the 
vicinity of Mount Clemens, to distribute the price of American scalps among the 
tribes. The old trail was by the river ford in the immediate vicinity of the pres- 
ent railroad bridge and the Morass House. The river was swollen at the time, so 
that it was necessary to requisition a canoe for the transfer of the officer and his 
golden charge to the left bank of the river. This resulted in the capsizing of the 
birchen craft, in the drowning of the officer, and the loss of the l:eg of gold. Of 
course a search was at once instituted for this token of wealth ; but the searchers 
are said to have failed to find it. In more recent years a quantity of metal, said 
to be lead of a peculiarly hard quality, was found ; which would lead one to sup- 
pose that the real paymaster stayed at Detroit, clothed some unfortunate private in 
an officer's uniform, and dispatched him on a trial trip, with this keg of little value, 
just to learn what would be his own fate were he to venture into the wilderness with 
the golden treasure. He learned it, aud it is said that British blood-money was 
ever afterwards paid at Maiden. 



It is well known that north and west of the light-house, above the ruins of the 
ancient city of Belvidere, stretches a vast muskeg, bordering on the lake, and fringed 
all round with a deep and lovely forest. This marsh is the home of the wild-duck, 
the musk-rat, and the wild-goose during the winter and spring seasons, and of the 
rice-feeding black-bii'd during the summer. It seems like the last of places, man 
would select for a dwelling place its flat and uninviting landscape wearying the eye 
with its monotony evei-y season; while, in winter the freezing breeze of the ice 
encumbered lake comes sweeping across it with an Arctic breath that makes the 
bones ache, and the human frame tremble. In such a place the relies of a shanty 
could be seen — the timbers covered with earth and mould, and the broken or pul- 
verized clay-mortar of the chimne}' or fire-place scattered round. Here, it is related, 
dwelt the recluse of the marsh, a solemn, solitary man, whose life seemed centred 
in one single thought, even as it was passed in that solitary wilderness. What a 
tale might be told of his reasons for this mode of life ; what sad or romantic disap- 
pointments that sickened him of life's pleasures ! Whatever his story may have 
been, all that remains is a little mound of earth, raised by the action of time and 
the decay of vegetable mould over the hearth, where the sad man brooded away so 
many years of his life. The name of the solitary man — the recluse of the marsh, 
was Tuckar. 

A mother-in-law's JOURNEY TO THE HURON. 

In the fall of 1827 Judge Bunce's wife's mother advised his departure from her 
home in the Empire State for Detroit, en route to the Huron. The Judge met the 
old lady at Detroit, and there hired a Frenchman to take them to the mouth of the 
Huron in his cart. At the latter point he hired another Frenchman to take them 
in his canoe via the Snibora channel to Mons. Chortier's dwelling. This canoe 
navigator said he knew the route well, yet he missed the Snibora and was com- 
pletely at sea. The sky became overcast, wind and wave arose, they began to ship 
water, the guide became bewildered, and the Judge told him to give up the paddle 
and the stern of the canoe. He refused, saying, "/ spaddlemy own canoe." The 
Judge repeated his order to give up the paddle, take his hat, and pour out the 
water. The Frenchman ultimately complied, the Judge took the paddle, and after 
a desperate struggle with the storm, beached the frail bark. They were saved. 


In the spring of 1819, while in Detroit, Judge Bunce hired a man by the name 
of Jackman, and started on horseback for his St. Clair home. The lake was nearly 
free of ice but some remained in the bogs. At the mouth of Clinton River he 
made inquiries as to the soundness of the ice across the bay to Salt River, and was 


told that an Indian had just come down on the ice, and he hired hira to go back 
with them as their pilot. They found the ice firm enough to within half a mile of 
the shore, when looking back they saw their Indian in full run for the Clinton 
River. This admonished them that something was wrong or the Indian would not 
have deserted without his pay. They soon found that the field of ice which they 
were on had loosened itself from the shore and was floating out into the lake. The 
Judge sounded the depth of the water with his rifle and found it three feet ; then 
jumping his horse into the water mounted him, taking Jackman on behind, and af- 
ter fording about a quarter of a mile, reached the shore in safety. Found a French- 
man cutting wood for a man in Mt. Clemens, and stayed with him over night. He 
gave them corn soup for supper and breakfast. When asked in the morning what 
his soup was made of, he said he had shot a wild goose a few days before, and with 
the entrails had made this soup. They were in the same predicament with the 
man who, in swallowing a raw egg, heard the chicken peep, and exclaimed, "one 
minute too late." 

In the year 1818, Judge Bunce had occasion to visit Mt. Clemens from Detroit 
twice. Once he met a large, white-faced bear, but the bear did not molest the 
Judge, nor the Judge the bear. 


In the early days of our county, pests in the form of beasts of prey abounded, 
a source of annoyance and vexation to the settlers. For the destruction of such 
pests bounty was offered by the State, county, and still farther by some of the 
townships. These combined bounties, in the case of wolves, made the sum large 
enough to call forth skill and energy in the hunting craft. Over fifty years ago 
Colatinus Day, an old settler of Bruce, set a trap with the intent of catching a fox. 
On looking for the trap next morning he saw that a wolf had been entrapped and 
carried it off. He pursued the animal's trail over the snow. He was joined by 
Jesse Bishop, Lyman Bishop, another neighbor, and the latter's dog. About three 
miles'north of Bishop's house, while passing a tamarack swamp, a bear with two 
cubs appeared. As she passed them, Mr. Day, who had a gun, fired without even 
taking aim, and hit the animal, and as the dogs sprang upon her at that moment, 
she was captured with the cubs. The hunters divested Mrs. Bruin of her furs, 
and wrapping up the little ones in the skin, sought a neighbor's house for dinner. 
There they left the cubs. Returning to the trail, they followed it about two miles 
farther, when they discovered that the wolf with the trap had entered a hollow 
bass-wood tree, and made her home far away up in the trunk. The men could not 
reach up to her location, the dog could not pull her out ; at length one of the men 
cut a sapling with a hook upon it. With this instrument he entered the tree, and 



creeping upwards hooked the trap. This done he called upon his comrades to pull; 
they in turn tugged at the first hunter's feet, and together they succeeded in draw- 
ing forth the trap. There was nothing to do until one of the party procured an axe. 
Then a hole was cut in the log — but they must not kill her there, as they were in 
Berlin Township, St. Clair County, in neither of which was a bounty offered. By 
good management the hunters captured the wolf alive, when they bound her head 
with bark thongs, tied her to a pole and started for Macomb County, town of Bruce, 
but she would not lead. They tried to drag her, but that was too hard work. They 
tied her feet together and took turns in carrying her to the house where they left 
the bear skin. Here they found a team going south near the line of Bruce. After 
reaching this township the wolf died ; the men proceeded home with the two skins 
and the cubs. One of the cubs crawled into the fire that night and was burned to 
death ; the other lived to mature bearhood, and died of too much zeal in wrestling 
— an old man brained him with a poker, because he persisted in his favorite amuse- 
ment before the old man had dressed himself. The hunt resulted in bringing them 
•fl6, together with the fun. 


In early times, a hunter of Macomb County set out one day on a deer-hunting 
expedition, accompanied by a large dog, which had not been trained for the chase. 
In order to check the animal's impetuosity after game, he tied a cord to the dog's 
neck, fastening the other end round his own waist, so that in his tour of the woods the 
dog would quietly follow. As they were passing through a clearing, a bear sprang 
from behind a log and offered fight. The dog, frightened almost to death, started on 
retreat, dragging the hunter after him. The bear followed them, and in a battle 
between the bear and dog the old man was deprived of his hunting clothes. 
During the struggle Mr. Warner contrived to unloose the rope, when the dog 
departed, leaving his master to continue the battle with the bear. Bruin observing 
the dog in his flight, left the hunter and pursued the dog. The dog beheld his 
pursuer and redoubled his pace, with the result of reaching the homestead just in 
time to escape the anger of the bear. The hunter made a detour, and reached 
home satisfied that his battle with the bear would have proved his last, had not the 
dog attracted the animal. 

Harrington's coon hunting. 

About the year 1840 Alfred Harrington went forth coon hunting. Having 
reached the coon habitation he had no difficulty in finding an object for his aim. 
He fired at a coon, but the charge had scarcely gone on its message, when he dis- 
covered his dog making sundry cowardly demonstrations. Looking forward, he 
beheld a bear rushing on the dog, which useful animal took up a position between 



the hunter's feet. The bear came on, however, when Harrington clubbed the gun, 
and entered the arena with Bruin. The hunter was evidently succeeding in the 
contest, when the bear considered it better to retreat. This retreat he carried out 
in a most precise manner, though the hunter pursued him for over sixty rods. 


Counsellor O'Keefe and Judge Bunce were returning from Mount Clemens in 
the spring of 1826, when, near where New Baltimore now stands, they were over- 
taken by a blinding snow storm. It was near sundown, and they could neither see 
land nor prairie. They steered for Swan Creek, hoping to reach the wigwam of 
Shommenegoblin before night, but unfortunately brought up at the open water, in 
the nortli c.iannel, far out in the lake. They followed up the channel, and when 
yet a half-mile from the shore, broke through the ice in three feet of water. The 
horse and judge succeeded in climbing on to the ice, but O'Keefe was so benumbed 
with cold that lie remained in the train. After one more little break thej' came to 
the mud, and wallowed through that several rods before tliey found solid ice on the 
prairie. They reached old Capt. Pierre's at two o'clock in the morning, thoroughly 
wet and weary. Capt. Pierre then lived two miles below Mons. Chortier, and 
chose that location whenever he came from Canada for the purpose of fishing. 

Parker's bear experiences. 

Wliile dining at the old homestead with his family, a terrible complaint was 
lieard to arise from the habitants of the l\og-pen. Each member of the family ran 
to the rescue, each armed with a club. On arriving at the pen, they found that 
a huge bear had seized on one of the liogs, and was in the act of carrying him off 
when the Parkers attacked the bear in turn, and forced him to relinquish his pre}^ 
They did not succeed in capturing him, however ; but for years after the event tlie 
hog, whose rescue was so timeljs never ventured to lift her nose from the ground. 


Among the early physicians of the county was Dr. Gleeson, a man of large 
practice in the northern districts of Macomb, and one very favorably known to the 
people. In those early days the physician seldom or never appeared on a vehicle, his 
usual means of travel being a horse, which just knew enough to proceed cautiously 
along the trails of the land. That horse was too thickskinned to understand what 
a Michigan rattlesnake or Massassauga really was, and so he was free to proceed at 
his leisure. The reptiles seemed to know this horse well, and after repeated assaults 
on him gave up the business, determining, as it were, to direct their attacks against 
the medical man. This programme was evidently adopted about the year 18o9, for 
the doctor experienced a few rare adventures during that year. Riding along the 



trail to Armada one day he thought that a bush had caught in his stirrup. Stoop- 
ing to extricate himself, he saw a large snake enfanged, and on further examination 
was pleased to learn that the poisonous reptile had only reached the pants at tlie 
heel of tlie boot, and had therefore been unable to inflict the wound which he medi- 
tated. It is unnecessary to state that the doctor directed his efforts so as to insure 
the destruction of one Massassauga of the Michigan tribe. 


An incident of pioneer life witnessed by Mrs. Julia Manley when a small child, 
is thus related. In the year following their removal from New York to tlie town- 
ship of Stielby, her father getting up one morning in warm weather opened the door 
before putting on any clothing, and what should he behold but five deer, about 
fifteen or twenty rods distant, one of them a splendid buck. He stepped back, took 
his rifle, and noiselessly passing out, leveled his trusty piece and brought down the 
coveted leader. In order to be sure of his game (the barrel of pork brought witli 
them being all gone) he dropped his gun, called on his helpmate to bring tlie butcher 
knife, and then made all possible speed for his victim. He seized the deer in his 
struggles, and the knife being speedily at hand he at once made surety doubly 
sure. When the blood was sufficiently passed out, they took the animal by the 
horns and hauled the carcass to the house. Not until the little drama was over did 
they stop to think that neither of the trio (the little girl being along and seeing 
the whole affair) had on any article of clothing except the single innermost garment. 


Owing to the notoriety which the Hoxies won wherever they effected a settle- 
ment, that portion of Macomb, which should be named after the first permanent 
settler was called the Eoxie Settlement. Ashael Bailey had merely made himself a 
home in tlie wilderness, when the Hoxies became his neighbors. A short time had 
elapsed, and other spirits of a kindred character came among them, one of whom was 
a bold and desperate man. One Sunday morning as Ashael Bailey essayed to act the 
nurse for his only little daughter, while Mrs. Bailey was engaged in preparing 
breakfast, the door was suddenly opened, and a stranger entered. This rough 
visitor seemed to be enraged ; he appeared to be a creature of whom violent gesture 
and appalling blasphemy were the constituent parts. Mr. Bailey did not pay any 
attention to the white savage, but on the contrary paid more attention to his little 
girl. This policy he pursued until his visitor became calm. This new terror of 
the settlement stopped as suddenly as he began, and resuming his coat, said, ■' Mr. 
Bailey you are not the man you have been represented to be. I was told if I came 
here and abused you, you would fight me." This said, the stranger walked off. Sub- 


sequently, it transpired that tliis would-lte Hector, Hiram Jennings by name, was here 
with the intention of engaging in counterfeiting. Tlie Hoxies represented this as a 
fine retired place for tiie business, and they said. "There is Ijut one man tliere tliat 
will give us any trouble, and you can frighten him, no doubt." This was done ; 
with what success has been i-elated. Mr. Bailey, when told the purport of that 
strange visit, said he would expose them to Gov. Cass. Jennings was enraged at 
the Hoxies for misrepresenting Mr. Bailey, and exposed the whole plan ; he was a 
bold, desperate man — apparently well educated and physically well developed ; 
his penmansliip was like an impression from engraved jjlate. He remained at this 
place until he wrought, in a measure, his sweet revenge. Providence frustrated 
his most diabolical attempt on Mr. J^tailey's life, through the faithful kindness of 
Freeborn Healey, a good man and an excellent neighbor, living a long mile south, 
who came late one Saturday night to reveal to Bailey the design of Jennings to 
murder him. The plan of the counterfeiter was to lie in wait in the cedar swamp, 
where Bailey had a quantity of rails, which he intended to commence drawing out 
on Monday morning ; as he entered the swamp Jennings would shoot him. Healey 
besought his neighbor Bailey not to go, but he was loth to consent ; at last Mrs. 
Bailej^ said to Healey, " Do not fear, if he goes I shall go," so he went home sat- 
isfied with his mission. Mr. Healey is ever remembered with gratitude for this 
kind act. 

Later, in a very friendly mood, Jennings told Mr. Bailey this : " I watched for 
you to come all that Monday morning, as I laid in wait in yoar cedar swamp, and 
had you come, I should have sliot you dead, and I think," added he, " I am glad 
you did not go." He afterward stole Mr. Bailey's only horse, left the country, and 
everyone drew a breath of relief. 

An incident of an amusing character, certainly of a more social one, is thus 
related : Bailey's eldest daughter, then about three or four years old, was an object 
of interest to an Indian mother. Her little boy, Neianquette, often came with her 
to the Bailey homestead, and one day she, in a most solemn manner, betrothed liim 
to Prudence, and made him give her beads and moccasins. After that he often 
gave her presents. Mrs. Bailey did not like to refuse tliem, fearing the Indians 
would be angry ; yet they watched their child carefully lest the Indians might not 
be as friendly as they seemed, and would carry her off. In time the visits of tiie 
Indian mother and her boy ceased, and they heard nothing more of them. 

Reference has been previously made to the trust the Indians reposed in Mn 
and Mrs. Bailey. In the following incident, related by Mrs. Bailey, the fact is 
portrayed more fully : The chief of the tribe at this time was Macompte ; he came 
to their house one winter's day with a quantity of jerked venison, in packs, asking 
permission to leave it in their care, with especial injunctions not to permit the In- 

\) >y 

A J^ — ^ 


dians to have it ; if he died before the time to plant corn, his women, who were 
with him, would come for the packs. Bailey showed him where he could place 
the provisions in the upper room of the house. Then Macompte knelt and prayed 
over his venison, making the sign of the cross. They said their farewells, and 
went away. The following spring the squaws came for the venison. Macompte 
was dead. The younger squaw cried bitterly — her grief was most pathetic ; the 
elder only laughed at her ; that laugh was nearly as affecting, but it told its own 


During the trying year of the Michigan Narrows, tiie people who settled in the 
northwest part of Armada, suffered in common with the immigrants of that time 
located throiigliout Michigan. Ira Phillips with his family, then resided near the 
Day Homestead in Armada Township. The provisions of the settlers were almost 
consumed before any definite preparations were made to replenish their stores, so 
that many of them were driven to experience most terrible anxieties, if not actual 
want. At length the worst fears of the people were realized. There was notliing 
to feed the many hungry mouths, except that which a small piece of ripening 
wheat on the Taylor farm jjromised. The settlers watched this field become 
golden under the summer sun ; but the necessity of the time prompted them to 
outdo nature herself; and so they cut down the semi-ripened wheat, let it hay in 
swaths, and turning it day after day before the sun, succeeded in drying the grain. 
This much accomplislied the wheat was thrashed, and the grain distributed among 
the waiting neighbors. One of the farmers loaded his wagon with the grist sacks 
of the people, and went forth to the mill at Stoney Creek, via the blazed trail, 
expecting to return on Friday night, or at furthest on Saturday morning. An 
accident, however, set all his plans at nought. Mrs. Ira Phillips, who relates the 
incident, states that the messenger was exjjected to return by Friday night, or 
Saturday morning at the farthest. Friday niglit came, yet no tidings of him was 
heard. All through the following Saturday anxious eyes looked forward along 
the trail ; anxious ears listened for the rumbling noise of the pioneer wagon. Tlie 
last morsel of food was eaten, his arrival alone could dissipate the darkening cloud 
which hung over the people, could avert the horrors of starvation. But yet no 
tidings of him who went to mill were heard. When the sun arose on the Sabbath 
morning, Mrs. Phillips arranged her house as usual, then lapsed into that silent 
mood which precedes despair. She took a seat before the open door, where she 
was soon joined by her two little boys, each clamoring for something to eat. The 
woman wept ; she thought to bury her face in her hands, and thus hide her 
sorrows from the youths, but the trickling tears told their young hearts that 
mother's heart was bowed with anguish, that fears for her little ones were upper- 



most in her mind. The occasion was full of instruction ; the boys ceased repining, 
and played, as was their wont under brighter circumstances, but their merry gambols 
appeared rather artful than natural. The parents saw and noted all this, and 
felt doubly sorrowful. At this moment, when the woman's heart beat slowest, she 
summoned courage to look forth into the forest, when to her joy she beheld a deer 
standing quietly opposite the open door. She turned to her husband, saying in a 
subdued tone, " Ira look ! " The man raised his weary V)ody from the chair, took 
down the fowling piece from its place, fired, and the most beautiful of forest 
animals lay dead in his track. This appearance of the deer at that moment, and 
the ease with which the hunter killed him, seemed to partake of some supernatural 
character. Providence directed the proceedings, and loaned a new spirit to the 
pioneer parents and their little ones. Later in the day the messenger returned 
from the mill with the grist ; the darkest hour was with the past, and where 
gaunt famine threatened on the morning of that Sabbath, peace and plenty shed 
their rays in the evening. The story was related to the writer by E. F. Sibley, of 


During the campaign of 1844, James Parker was expected to vote the Free 
Soil ticket in the local elections. He promised James Thurston to vote in accord- 
ance with iiis wishes, wliich were decidedly those of James G Birney, the Presi- 
dential candidate. On the day of election, Parker voted for Henry Clay, contrary 
to the expectations of his friends. On returning to his home that night, one of 
his sons got hold of his coat, turned it completely, and then placed it on the hook 
where the old man was accustomed to liaug it. Next morning the owner put on 
this coat hurriedly, and went to work. After a little time he noticed the change, 
and, asking his family what was the matter, was informed that he came home in 
that style from Romeo the night previous, and that he must have his coat turned 
during the election. The old man saw the point, very j^Iainly. Shortly after this 
a poem appeared on the subject from the pen of Joseph Thurston, each stanza of 
which ended with the telling line, When he got home his coat was turned. 

inwood's bear hunting. 

It is related of Uncle William Inwood, that on one occasion, while traveling 
through the wilderness accompanied by a few neighbors, he roused a bear fi'om her 
lair. The animal had two cubs in charge, and was not at all disposed to seek a 
quarrel with her enemies ; so to Inwood's great relief slie sought refuge in a large 
tree and remained there surveying the new settlers of her old domain, determined 
only to guard her cubs. After a little while this old settler and his friends became 
sufficiently cool to take in the situation. The party was unprovided with a gun ; 


but to meet this want one of them ran toward his home with the object of procuring 
one. On his way he shouted vociferously, and succeeded in getting out all the lai'ge 
and small boys of the settlement. They left him to look after the gun, and were 
soon at the scene of action. Tiiere they found Mr. Inwood, the bear, and Mr. In- 
wood's comrades. The big boy arrived with the gun. Uncle Inwood took the 
responsibility of charging the destructive weapon ; but in his hurry beat down the 
bullet first, and then learned for the first time that there was no powder. He des- 
patched the big boy for powder ; the messenger was faithful ; the powder was 
brought, a charge was placed in the gun, and everything made ready for an assault 
on the position lield by the bear. Mr. Inwood took deliberate aim, pulled the trig- 
ger; and wondered "why the animal didn't go off." He forgot all about the first 
bullet. However on being reminded of the fact that he had hitherto beaten a 
bullet into the rifle, he cast the piece away as useless, and prepared to i-eturn to his 
home. " Not yet. Uncle Inwood," said one of the boys, " you were saying just 
awhile ago if the powder was not brought quickly you would climb into the tree and 
have a tustle with the bear jjourself." "Now Uncle Inwood," said another, "you 
must carry out your promise. You said if the boy didn't come quickly with the 
powder, you would climb into the tree and knock the bear down." Mr. Inwood 
could not tolerate the taunting of the Washington boys any longer, so he began to 
ascend the tree. In a little while he approached Bruin. The latter growled, just 
allowed Uncle Inwood to see his teeth, and in another little while the gallant 
forester began to descend that tree with lightning rapidity. On reaching firm earth 
he saw the boys make sundry grimaces. " Why," said one of them, "I thought 
you would knuckle down to Bruin." " Ah" responded Uncle Inwood, " I'll go 'ome 
fur my hold jacket first." The boys and neighbors saw the joke, and were so occu- 
pied in attentions to him who was retreating in such good order, that they per- 
mitted Bruin to elope with her cubs unharmed. 


A year after the settlement of the Killam family in Bruce, P. C. Killam was 
engaged on his land near Tremble Mountain, when he saw a large brown bear ap- 
proaching. The farmer called his dogs, and with the assistance of Harvey Reed 
succeeded in treeing the animal. Ira Killam was then sent for the rifle. During 
his absence Bruin seemed to understand the designs of his new neighbors, and made 
an effort to escape, but owing to the steepness of the hill, he was unable to make 
headway against the dogs, and less against the continued stoning to which he was 
subjected by the men. Three times the king of the Michigan wilderness descended 
only to be met by blows and bites, and driven back to his refuge in the tree. The 
rifle was brought forward at length, and the sufferings of Bruin were ended forever. 




In the year 1826 or there about Noah Webster was living at " The Branch " as 
the place since known as "Gray's mill" was called and run a saw mill. Mrs. Web- 
ster one day drove a bear up a tree on the flats near the mill and watched him till 
her husband and some of the neighbors came to her relief. They then built a fire 
about the foot of the tree to keep Bruin from coming down upon them too suddenly. 
Webster had a gun of the flint lock kind and the flint was of no use as it would 
not strike fire. But the gun was produced and loaded, and Mr. Webster aimed it 
at the bear, and when he said "ready " some one touched it off with a fire-brand. 
Four or five shots were thus discharged which severely wounded the game but did 
not bring him down. Then Mr. Webster ran to the clearing, climbed on a stump 
and shouted "A bear!" "A bear!" The neighbors heard and thought he said 
" a fire !" " a fire ! " and that the gun had been firing as an alarm, so tliey ran with 
pails all out of breath to extinguish the flames. Reuben R. Smith came up with 
two pails, and they laughed at him for coming to kill a bear with a pail in each 
hand but he looked long and sharply up the tree and exclaimed " Yes he is up there 
I can see his tail hanging down!" Among the rest who came to put out the fire 
was a hunter who brought along his gun and tlie wounded bear was soon brought 
down and skinned, and his meat went in chunks around the neighborhood for the 
comfort of those who were out of meat. While dressing it they often asked Reuben 
" where that part was which he saw hanging down," to which he had little to say. 
The country was soon cleared up, and bears, wolves and Indians sought the more 
unsettled regions, but this little incident is kept in the memories of those still liv- 
ing who participated in it, as a remembrance of the brave days of old. 

pinch's wolf hunting. 

A hunter named Finch caught a wolf in a trap on what was known as the 
Thurston Fort, and for some reason desired to take him home alive. The wolf was 
extremely quiet and docile, yet he secured his head and jaws with strips of bark, 
winding it over and over again until the animal's head resembled that of a prize 
fighter after a star engagement. He removed the traps, tied the wolf to a small 
pole, and started for the clearing. When he came in sight of the open fields the 
wolf refused to be led in this way ; the bands about his head showed alarming signs 
of inconstancy, and his teeth began to chatter in a most sociable as well as sugges- 
tive way. With his eyes fixed on the wolf and pushing on the pole to keep him at 
a respectable distance, the hunter and his captive went round and round, with the 
pole between them, eying each other very suspiciously. At last the bands gave 
way and the wolf took his leave in the most informal manner. 





Erastus Day, one of the first settlers in the eastern part of Armada, was also 
one of the first to take sheep to that part ; having a few sheep to increase as his 
cleared acres increased. He kept them in a stockade, made of palings, close by the 
barns ; but one night he forgot to enclose them in the yard. That night a wolf se- 
lected three of the best for his own use. Ira Phillips killed this wolf shortly after, 
and with tlie l)Ounty purchased a silk dress for Mrs. Phillips. 


Luke Fisher, who had settled in the northern part of Bruce, started home 
from Romeo, just at dusk, carrying a piece of meat given by some friend. Think- 
ing he should be waited upon by wolfish company, he halted to cut a stout green 
stick. Before long he heard the well-known whine in his rear, which announced 
the approach of his company, and accelerated his speed. He grasped his stick 
more firmly and sped on. The wolves gained rapidly, and were soon so near that he 
could hear their steps upon the leaves and the gnash of their teeth. Turning upon 
them he would shout and flourish his stick in their faces, thus checking their course, 
and then turn and press on toward home. He increased his speed, held the meat, 
and when he reached his cabin-door they were just at his heels. The wolves of 
this locality were very small and seldom did any damage save in the most cowardly 
manner. A few sheep and now and then a hog would be abducted when it could 
be done in a sneakish way, but the human arm and the human voice kept them in 
a wholesome fear. 


William Baker, who moved into the Townsliip of Ray, in 1828, tapped several 
hundred maple trees the following spring, and commenced tlie work of sugar- 
making. There soon followed a remarkable flow of sap, and as no help was at 
hand. Baker, in gathering in the sap by day, and boiling by night, soon became 
exhausted to such an extent, that he declared he could stand it no longer, as he 
could not keep awake, and the sap must go to waste. Mrs. Baker says, " I will go 
and boil one night, and let you sleep." Baker would not consent at first, but at 
last said, " You may go and boil till midnight if you will take James for comj^any." 
James was their son, then five years of age. The woman took the boy and going 
to the maple forest began operations. James soon fell asleep, when Mrs. Baker 
laid him on a blanket beneath a tree and continued the work ; soon after dark the 
wolves began to appear about the boiling-place ; their soft feet could be heard 
pattering upon the leaves ; their eyes shining in the darkness, and the chatter of 
their teeth sounding upon the still night air. The brave woman kept on her work 
of replenishing the fires and keeping a sharp eye, lest the ferocious brutes should 



dart in and seize the sleeping child. To avert this she kept the long-handled dip- 
per in the boiling sap, ready to "sprinkle them with a hot shower-bath, if they 
should come too near. This continued for an hour or two when the pack disap- 
peared and came no more. 


Alex. Beebe, of Richmond, was much annoyed, in the olden time, by a num- 
ber of cats, which were accustomed to assemble round his premises. One night he 
determined to annihilate the whole tribe, and, accordingly armed himself with a 
rifle. He crept noiselessly towards the cats' meeting-place, fired, and returned to 
his room with the consolatory information, that he had given the old yellow cat 
" Hail Columbia." Next morning Mrs. Beebe went forth to collect the culinary 
utensils, when to her surprise she found a large hole in the bright brass kettle. 
After a thoughtiul examination, she went into the house, and broached the subject 
to Alexander, when the following dialogue took place : — 

3Irs. B. — Look here. Alec. Look at the brass kettle, with these holes in it ! 

Alec. — How came that kettle all smashed to pieces ? That kettle cost two 
dollars ! 

Mrs. B. — You tell — I don't know nothing about it ! 

Alec. — Where did it sit ? 

Mrs. B. — Out in the yard, not far from the house. 

Alec — (Cutely). — Did you see anything of the okl yellow cat lying there? 

Mrs. B. — No, and I think there has been none lying there. 

Alec. — Then I must have taken that brass kettle for that yellow cat. 

Mrs. B. — Of course you must, and you never in the night knew the difference 
between a yellow cat and a brass kettle. 

In this manner the yellow cat of Richmond escaped. In this quiet, sincere 
style, the old people of Macomb acknowledged their little errors. 


The following account of the first lake boat built at Mount Clemens, which 
was built by Isaac Russ for Christian Clemens in 1820-2, was prepared by Edgar 
Weeks from facts furnished to him by old settlers. Where stands Mr. Golby's 
present residence, stood in those days a log house, and the same remark is true of 
Czizek's residence. On the road or then open lot, between those log houses, the 
stocks were put up and the ship was built. After a considerable time spent in 
building, the boat was ready for the launch, when lo ! it had never suggested itself 
to the minds of the builders that it was a long distance to the river, and that there 
was a precipitous bank at the foot of that street. Nothing daunted, however, 
every man and Indian for miles around, who owned a yoke of oxen or a pony, was 


summoned to assist at the launch ; long ways were constructed, six yoke of oxen 
and twenty-four horses attached, and the ship moved toward the river. It was 
impossible to launch her at the foot of that street, so around the corner of the 
Flumer store they attempted to go, but alas, the boat slipped off the ways, and was 
almost hopelessly stuck in the sand. But this disaster only nerved the spirits of 
the builders. With fresh vigor they set to work ; all the soft-soap tubs of the vil- 
lage were emptied, and the contents brought into requisition. Again the vessel, 
after prodigies of patience and strength had been exhausted, was placed upon 
her ways; she slipped arouud the corner, the cattle strained and tugged, the men 
cheered, and the Indians looked on with no little awe. The shij) finally reached 
the destined launching place — at tlie foot of Market Street — the last soft soap of 
the village was called into requisition, and the vast hulk glided into the river. 
Instead of righting and swinging to her place, however, her prow was stuck in the 
mud at the bottom of the stream. After a little the vessel was got out, however, 
and with due ceremony was christened the Harriet, in honor of our respected 
townswoman, now Mrs. Harriet Lee. 

This vessel soon afterwards made a trip up the lakes to Mackinac and the Sault 
Saint Marie, whereupon a strange adventure befell her and those on board. 

The ship was freighted with a number of private troops and officers who were 
aware of the tedious trip before them. -We infer from the sequel some one got 
drunk, also extremely careless. At any rate the compass fell overboard and sank 
to the liottom of the lake ! The boat was then some fifty miles up Lake Huron. 
The captain, McPherson, was a good navigator, but did not dare to risk the voyage 
without a compass. After inducing a passing vessel to hang out a liglit for him at 
night and permit him to trail along in its wake, the Harriet was sailed hull down so 
soon and left so far in tiie rear, that the captain announced his intention of coming 
to anchor immediately and going ashore. Spite of protestations this he did. Pro- 
curing a pony of some Indians, he started alone, overland through wood and thicket, 
and came to Detroit, where he obtained another compass. Taking passage in another 
vessel he rejoined his own, still at anchor in Lake Huron, hoxed his compass in the 
nautical and actual sense of the term, weighed anchor, and prosecuted his voyage 
to a successful issue. 


Shortly after this pioneer located his first eighty acres in Ray Township, and 
erected his log house thereon, he received a visit from a land speculator. This 
shark was all business, aud relying upon his own energy was not shy to make 
known to Mr. Crawford his business to this district. He asked the pioneer to 
accompany liim through the lands adjacent, to which the latter consented. He had 




the double object in view of taking the land shark through the lowland or marshes 
on the eighty adjoining his own, so that Mr. Speculator would not covet the little 
property, particularly as it was the settler's desire to acquire it for himself. The 
journey was accomplished, when, to the surprise of Mr. Crawford and his wife, the 
man from Detroit stated that he would purchase all the land in the immediate 
neighborhood including the very acres on which Mr. Crawford had set his thoughts. 
The old settler remonstrated : " Why, Mr. Speculator," said he, "you don't intend 
to buy the next eighty. I want that." 

" Oh, that's all right, Mr. Crawford," said the traveler, " but you must re- 
member the old motto of Uncle Samuel — '■first here, first served.' " This brought a 
cloud to the settler's face for a moment, which gave place to a look of resignation. 
Conversation grew dull, and the speculator signified his desLre to go to rest. After 
the shark retired, Crawford remarked to his wife : " I'll take an hour's rest, and 
then start for Detroit to outwit our visitor." " Why," said the woman, " that 
man has a smart pony, and you have only oxen. If he finds you are gone he will 
overtake and outwit you." " I'll start to-night on foot and reach the Detroit Land 
Office before him," replied the settler. 

This resolution made, he took one hour's sleep, rose quietly, and started on 
foot for Detroit. He proceeded expeditiously until a point south of Mt. Clemens 
was reached, where he sprained his ankle. Unconquered by fatigue and this acci- 
dent, he cut down two saplings which he used as crutches and pushed forward on 
his journey. The next day, while within six miles of Detroit, near a tavern, then 
located on the trail, he saw a horseman coming after him. He knew him to be no 
other than his friend, the speculator. Entering the forest, he allowed his guest of 
the former night to pass, then casting away his crutches he pushed forward to De- 
troit, saw that the horseman was in the tavern, and taking an unfrequented path, 
passed the house unnoticed. The denouement was happy in the extreme. The 
settler reached the Land Office, purchased the much prized eighty, together with 
eighty acres more for his cousin, David Crawford, paid the amount claimed, re- 
ceived his certificate, and was in the act of leaving the office, when the speculator 
entered. After an interchange of salutations, Crawford remarked : " Mr. Specu- 
lator, you remember Uncle Samuel's motto — first here, first served.'' The Detroit 
man remembered it. 


Public disputations and random discussions on election days were warmly en- 
gaged in by the older men sometimes till they became quite personal. Among the 
younger ones, feats of physical strength and agility drew the crowds ; com- 
petitive running, wi-estling, jumping, etc., were the order of the day, and the vic- 
tors were held in honor by admiring friends. Such days availed for the transaction 


AJ^— ^ : ^ "JJ^ 


of all sorts of business, and superseded the old time fairs of England and our 
trades rooms, gold rooms, Ijoards of trade and chambers of commerce. Buying, 
selling, swapping, and trafficlcing of all sorts were in order. Everybody gave 
heed to the advantages wliieh township gatherings offered. Bent on having a good 
time, the services of good story-tellers were always in requisition, and all sorts of 
merriment found place. The story of Squire Tackles and old John Soules affords 
demonstration of all this. 

It was in the early times when Bruce was yet unnamed and joined with Wash- 
ington, then called the Fourth Town, men were gathered from great distances. 
These two men were there and in their respective districts were noted for their 
inherent aversion to all sorts of physical exertion, a characteristic evident to their 
friends and frankly acknowledged by themselves. At length a mirthful discussion 
sprang up as to which was the lazier of the two. The conflict ended as such 
matters frequently do, in betting. But who should determine? It was finally 
agreed that each should tell his own story, and the one who established himself as 
the lazier man, should have the stakes. By lot it fell to Soules to tell his storj' 
first. He did it, and did it well. It seemed as though no chance remained for 
Tackles. Tiie crowd awaited his effort in breathless silence. Finally he slowly 
drew himself up, in an indolent sitting position, looked languidly and solemnly 
around upon the gazing crowd, then lifted, witii great effort, one foot upon the 
other knee, and finally spoke in a lazy, drawling accent, thus : " I'd rather lose the 
stakes than tell how lazy I am!" and again he lapsed into insensibility, while all the 
witnesses shouted long and loud and voted him the victor. 


The festivities attendant on the union of two souls in pioneer days, formed 
a great attraction. There was no distinction of classes, and very little of fortune, 
which led to marriages from the first impressions of that queer idea called love. 
The family establishment cost but a little labor — nothing more. The festivities 
generally took place at the house of the bride, and to her was given the privilege 
of selecting the Justice of Peace or clergyman whom she wished to officiate. The 
wedding engaged the attention of the whole neighborhood. Old and young, 
within a radius of many miles, enjoyed an immense time. On the morning of the 
wedding day, the groom and his intimate friends assembled at the housej,of ^his 
fatlier, and after due preparation set out for the home of his girl. This journey 
was sometimes made on horseback, and sometimes on the old time carts of the earl}- 
settlers. It was always a merry tour, made so by the bottle which cheers for a little 
time, and then inebriates. On reaching the house of the bride, the marriage 
ceremony was performed, and then the dinner or supper was served. After this 

' ® . 

"^-^^^ ^=^ 



meal, the dancing commenced, which was allowed to continue just so long as anyone 
desired to step jauntily about to the music of the disti'ict violinist. The figures of 
the dance were three or four handed reels, or square sets and jigs. So far the 
whole proceedings were, in the language of our modern aesthetic girls, too utterly 
utter. The commencement was always a square four, followed by what pioneers 
called jigging — that is, two of the four would single out for a jig, and their exam- 
ple followed by the remaining couple. The jigs were often characterized by what was 
called the cutting out, that is, when either of the parties became tired of the dance, 
on intimating a desire to retire, his place was supplied by one of the company, 
without interrupting the dance for a moment. In this way the reel was continued 
until the musician himself was exhausted. 

About nine or ten o'clock in the evening, a deputation of young ladies 
abducted the bride, as it were, and placed lier in her little bed. In accomplishing 
this they had usually to ascend a ladder from the kitchen to the upper floor. Here 
in this simple pioneer bridal chamber the young simple-hearted girl was put to bed 
by her enthusiastic friends. This done a deputation of young men escorted the 
groom to the same apartment, and placed him snugly by the side of his bride. 
Meantime the dance continued. If seats were scarce, which was generally the 
case, every young man when not engaged in the dance, was obliged to offer his lap 
as a seat for one of the girls — an offer sure to be accepted. During the night's 
festivities spirits were freely used, but seldom to great excess. Tlie infair was 
held on the following evening, when the same order of exercise was observed. 


The evening visits were matters long to be remembered. The chores of the 
day performed, it was common for tlie farmer to yoke his cattle, hitch them . to a 
sleigh, and drive the whole family over the snow covered land to the fireside of 
some well-known friend many miles distant. Perhaps by agreement several 
families met, and then were there such chattering of politics, of live stock affairs, 
of tradings made or prospective, in fact of the past, present and future. 

There were all those interesting matters of household care and labor as held 
the mothers in breathless, but rapid conversation. 

The shying and blushing of the older girls, because some boys, just about as 
hig were there ; the nervous pinching of fingers and pulling of coat tails, told 
plainly that big boys too were ill at ease ; boys and girls were bashful, blushing 
creatures in those olden days. In the back room how the little folks did play blind- 
man's-buff, how they were joined by their seniors, and how the game went on until 
supper was announced at about the hour before midnight. Such setting out of all 
the substantials would be a sight to-day. Then came the sauces of all sorts, the 

-® V 


pies and cakes, and cookies, and honey, till all cried enough. Then came the 
counter invitations, the good-bys and leave-takings, after every and all approved 
styles. This performed the guests started for home to enjoy sleepiness and slight 
headaches the next day. Those were good old times. Social life at that day was 
eminently sincere. 


Life in the lumber woods is, perhaps, the most peculiar feature connected with 
the lumber trade. Although lumbering operations virtually ceased in Macoml) 
County so early as the pioneer times, it is well to revert in these pages, to that 
period in the county's history, when its forests disappeared befoi-e the shanty-man s 
ax, when the very tree which added grace to the wilderness, was sent forward on 
its course of utility. 

The first party of shanty-men usually went out in November. So soon as frost 
set in, the men located a site for their shanty, as nearly as possible, in the center of 
the lot upon which their winter's labors were to be carried on, always taking care 
to select a dry knoll in the immediate vicinity of a spring, lake, or brook. Here 
they constructed a log-house, and cut a road to the nearest stream on which the 
logs were to be floated down. This log-house was sufficiently large to accommo- 
date from ten to twenty men. In the center of this rude dwelling a raised fire- 
place was built, under the apex of the roof, which apex let out the smoke, and let 
in the sunlight and the rain. The work of log-cutting began so soon as the road 
was completed, and the ground hard enough to haul the logs — usually early in 
December — and continued until the ice broke up in spring. The choppers began 
work at dawn of day, and continued until the sun went down, after which the 
hardy foresters sped to their log-house, eat a rude and hearty meal, smoked their 
pipes, played euchre, related stories, and sometimes organized a quadrille party — 
the evening's entertainment continuing until about nine o'clock, when all retired to 
well-earned sleep. Seldom or never was intoxicating drink introduced, as the 
trader was never allowed to bring in whisky, and when smuggled the men had no 
money to pay for it, as their contract was to be paid at the close of their engage- 
ment, the employer supplying food and other necessaries in the interim. The deli- 
cacies of their table consisted of wild game, which the shanty-men themselves might 
kill. The morale of the men was equally as good as that of the average rover; 
they were very far from being saints ; yet they possessed many good qualities, 
which compensated for the want of a few. They were gregarious in their habits ; 
in cutting trees they went in pairs, and few of them were willing to live in separate 
huts or away from the camp. They slept along the sloping side of the log-house 
with their heads toward the walls, and their feet toward the great fire, which was 
kept burning continually. As a rule those sons of the forest dispensed with pray- 


ers and preaching, and scarcely were aware of the Sabbath. A few had books, but 
the taste for reading was not by any means general, as their spare time was 
devoted to mending clothes, sharpening axes, with the few amusements already 
referred to. The men were always healthy and full of animal spirit, seldom 
required medical aid, or needed any of the medicine which the employer provided 
in cases of illness. With the growth of the industry the condition of the shanty 
man has much improved. He of to-day is morally superior to him of the past, and 
physically his equal. 


Among the numerous troubles which the pioneers and old settlers of Macomb 
had to encounter was the common ague, generated by miasms arising from the low 
lands along the shore of the lake, and from the decaying vegetable matter in the 
swales of the interior and along the Reviere aux Hurons. This disease, known also 
as the chills and fever, formed, as it were, a stumbling-block in the way of progress, 
and one of the great arguments presented by the traders against the settlement of 
the district by the American pioneers. The disease was a terror to the people who 
did make a settlement here. In the fall of the year every one was ill — every one 
shook, not hands as now ; but the very soul seemed to tremble under the effects of 
the malady. Respecting neither rich nor poor, it entered summarily into the sys- 
tem of the settlers, and became part and parcel of their existence — all looked pale 
and jrellow as if frost-bitten. It was not literally contagious ; but owing to the 
diffusion of the terrible miasma, it was virtually a most disagreeable, if not dangei"- 
ous, epidemic. The noxious exhalations of the lake shore and inland swamps 
continued to be inhaled or aljsorbed from day to day, until the whole body became 
charged with it as with electricity, and then the shock came. This shock was a 
regular shake — a terrific shake, with a fixed beginning and ending, coming on each 
day or alternate day with an appalling regularity. After the shake came the fever, 
and this last phase of the disease was even more dreaded than the first. It was a 
burning hot fever lasting for hours. When you had the chill you could not become 
warm, and when you had the fever you could not get cool — it was simply a change 
of terrific extremes. 

Tliis disease was despotic in every respect. If a wedding occurred in the 
family circle, it was sure to attack a few, if not all, of those participating in the 
festivities. The funeral processionists shook, as they marched to some sequestered 
spot to bury their dead friend. 

The ague common had no respect for Sunday or holidays. Whether the people 
were engaged in the saci-ed, profane, or ridiculous, ague came forward to the attack, 
and generally succeeded in prostrating its victims. 

After the fever subsided you felt as if you were some months in the Confed- 



erate hotels, known as Andersonville and Libhy prisons, or as if you came within the 
influence of some wandering planet — not killed outright, but so demoralized that 
life seemed a burden. A feeling of languor, stupidity, and soreness took possession 
of the body — the soul herself was sad, and the sufferer was driven to ask himself 
the question : — What did God send me here for, anyway? 

Your back was out of fix, your appetite crazy, your head ached, and your e3'es 
glared. You did not care a straw for yourself or other people, or even for the dogs, 
which looked on you sympathetically. The sun did not shine as it used to, — it 
looked too sickly by half, — and the moon, bless your soul ! — the sufferer never ven- 
tured to look at hira — but rather wished for the dissolution of himself, the sun, 
moon, earth, and stars. 


Early in the history of Macomb County a man by the name of Austin Day 
settled in the northwest portion of Armada township, and cleared a farm of 125 
acres of land. He was a man of fair intelligence and steady habits, and for many 
years kept his own " shantee" and had but little intercourse with the neighbors by 
whom he was surrounded. In his dealings he soon began to exhibit signs of aberra- 
tion of mind, which grew into insanity. This waS at first noticeable in his ideas of 
religion. He believed that he was surrounded by evil spirits which at times led 
him astray, and caused him to seek public confessions by posting by the roadside 
such notices as the following : 

" I Austin Day, confess that I have sinned b}' again mingling with evil spirits." 

" Show pity Lord — oh Lord ! forgive, 
Let a repenting rebel live." 

He would at times manifest symptoms of a bad temper, especially toward his 
cattle and horses, and sometimes threatening those with whom he had dealings. 
Later he became possessed witli the notion that all the State of Michigan, and other 
States, had been deeded to him and would call upon different settlers to give up the 
deeds which tiiey had stolen, and in many instances warned farmers to remove from 
their homes as he wished to occupy them, before a set date. Impressed with this 
idea of ownership, he refused to pay his taxes, and allowed his stock to be levied 
upon and sold by the collector. He also had serious difficulties with persons who 
did for him any work, and bills of this kind had to be collected by the aid of law. 
His threats at length began to be noticed in the neighborhood, and men began to 
say he was not a safe man to be at large. He was often heard to say that he would 
be doing God service if he should kill such or such a one. Living about two miles 
off, was a man named Alanson Church, who made it a part of his business to dig 
wells for the farmers of the place, and had windlass, tubs, and other tools adapted 

1) 1^ 



to tliat purpose. Mr. Day, needing to deepen and restone a well at his house, bor- 
rowed the tools of Church to do the work, with such help as he could hire. These 
tools he kept for some weeks, and did not find any one to help him about the work. 
At length Church, having begun to dig a well on the adjoining farm of Erastus 
Day, needed the tools and procured the team and a hired man of Mr. Day, to aid 
him in getting them. On reaching the place and applying for the tools, Austin 
Day refused to give them up, stating that Church owed him a certain amount, and 
he was keeping the tools till that should be paid. Hot words followed, and Austin 
who had his gun, pointed it at Church and pulled the trigger, but the cap did not 
explode. Austin then retired into the house, and Church followed him, saying to 
the hired man " we must take away his gun." He went to the door and pushed it 
open, when Austin met him, having put a new cap, and fired, the ball taking effect 
in Church's breast, and passing through the lungs. Church staggered but did not 
fall. The man had run down the road in fright, leaving the team which Austin un- 
hitched and started after him. Church started after the team, falling and rising 
again ever}' few rods. The man seeing there was no danger soon returned and 
helped Church on the wagon and drove to Erastus Day's where he soon died. 
Austin at once began to fortify himself in his house and to provide against arrest. 
Two constables were procured from Romeo, and after a severe struggle he was 
overcome. During the melee Mr. Eggleston, one of the constables, caught hold of 
Austin's gun which he held in his hands, and fired it off, the contents unfortunately, 
taking effect in the arm of John P. Smith, his comrade, entering at the wrist and 
plowing its way to the elbow. This mishap came near being disastrous to the two 
men, as Day was a heavy and powerful man. He was, however, soon overcome and 
bound and taken to the county jail. At the next session of court he had his trial) 
was pronounced insane and was sent to the New York State Asylum, where he died 
in 1876. The crime was committed in 1864. Mr. Day was married early in life 
and had one child. He was a native of New York. 


Alex. OTveefe, mentioned among the names of the pioneer lawyers, of Macoml), 
was one of these erratic genii who are met at long intervals. He arrived at Detroit 
about the year 1819, chuck full of Anglo-Irish law, and still more replete in Celtic 
wit. From a scrap in possession of the writer, it is learned that he was a man 
possessing a very liberal education, a tliorough-hred lawyer, and a stranger to tem- 
perance. His drinking bouts were frequent — often continuing for weeks. He be- 
came acquainted with Judge Bunce, referred to in the pioneer reminiscences, and 
through the judge's influence was elected Pros. Attorney of St. Clair Co. While 
visiting Mr. Bunce, on one occasion, he expressed a wish to represent St. Clair in 




the Legislative Council. He stated publicly that the judge was favorable to his- 
candidature, a statement doubted by the leading men of the county. Shortly after 
this O'Keefe visited St. Clair, and introduced the object of his visit by saying, that 
he had resolved to abstain entirely from drink, and vt^ould make the county his 
home. Very few believed the counsellor. " Relying upon this reformation, and 
my own abilities, I come to offer myself as a candidate to represent vSt. Clair in 
our Legislative Council," continued O'Keefe. 

" Very good," replied one of the persons addressed, " I am glad to hear of your 
proposed reformation, and as to your abilities, no one who has known you or met 
you can doubt them. Come and make your home among us for one year, — give us 
proof of your reformation, and there is not the least doubt of obtaining the support 
of the people. To be candid. Counsellor, I must insist on one year's reformation 
before I can give you my support." O'Keefe heard the language of common sense 
in silence, then grew angry and roared at his friendly advisor, — Sir, I wish you to know 
that I was educated at two of the best seminaries in England, and I was bred at the 
Irish Bar, and sir, I can write your governor down." Then there was silence for 
a moment, until James Wolverton remarked, " Counsellor, you remind me of the 
calf which sucked two cows." " Indeed, what of that, sir," responded O'Keefe. 
" Nothing in particular," said Wolverton," only it is said the more he sucked, the 
larger he grew." O'Keefe admired the witticism, and then settled down to discuss 
the subject calmly, and after going into the merits of Judge Bunce's friendship, wic 
lawyer said — " well, boys, I shall cast myself upon the mercy of the Lord." In the 
case of the Fort Gratiot murder, O'Keefe drew up the bill against the soldier 
cliarged with the offense. He practiced in the courts of Macomb and St. Clair un- 
til the year 1830. 


Fabien Jean was one of the earliest settlers along the shore of Lake St. Clair, 
in the Township of Chesterfield. He settled on the present homestead before the 
State was admitted into the Union as a State. The road at that time was a mere 
trail following the shore from Detroit to Fort Gratiot, through heavy timbered land. 
Mr. Jean's home was open to all, at all hours of the day and night; to this day there 
are no locks to the doors. White men of redskins were at all times received with 
a cordial welcome. Many are the incidents that pertained to pioneer life in which 
he participated, connected with the Indians, as his land joined the Indian Reserva- 
tion on tlie N. W. On one occasion some twelve or fifteen Indians came to the 
house all more or less under the influence of liquor. They demanded of liim more 
wliisky. He said no ; that they had had enough ; that they were too noisy. The 
Indians said that they would have it if they had to kill him. He said to them that 
he was ready to die, and that they would all die too ; that the great Lord would 

V^" — ^ 



take care of him, and that the great devil would take them. Taking a brand of 
fire fiom the chimney, and pointing to a powder keg, saying, This is a keg of pow- 
der, I will drop the fire into it and it will blow us all up, me to the great Lord, you 
to the great devil, who will keep you in a great fire ; they all exclaimed, do not 
do it ; we will go away. So they did. 

To show the disadvantages that the pioneer had to contend with, Jean related 
some of the trips that had to be made. To obtain groceries and clothing it was nec- 
essary for the pioneer to go to Pontiac or Detroit. It will be remembered that 
Pontiac was formerly in this county, that at that time a man by the name of Clem- 
ens kept a few articles for sale, at what is now the city of Mt. Clemens; for the 
tootliache one had to go to Detroit to have it extracted. 

In 1842 Mr. Jean died. The funeral procession left the house in canoes, and 
conve3'ed the corpse to the burying ground on the Clinton River, there being no 
wagon-road at that time. 

Another incident with the Indians, was that about dark eight or ten Indians 
came to the house and wanted to stay all night. They were most all intoxicated 
and Mr. Jean was afraid that they might do some mischief during the night, so he 
prepared a place for them to sleep on tlie bank of a creek near by, taking care to 
have them all lie side by side. After they fell into a deep sleep, he took a cord and 
fastened all their legs together, so that if one awoke he would wake the rest and 
make a noise, which would warn him at the house. All went well until morning ; 
one on awaking, finding himself fast, commenced to yell. Soon Mr. Jean was at 
the scene and told them that it was he that tied them together, that he done it to 
save their lives, that he was afraid that some of them" might roll or get into the creek 
while intoxicated and get drowned, and the rest could not help. They said that it 
was good in him to care for them in that way. 

Hunting and fishing was in its glory in those days. Tlie hunter could get a 
deer or two almost any forenoon : once in a while a bear and a wolf. They have 
all receded before the sound of the pioneer's ax. 


The first marriage in the county among the American settlers may be said to 
be that of Richard Connor and the Indian captive — the daughter of Myers of Mary- 
land — whose father was killed by the savages on the Monongahela River in 1775, 
and herself with the other children carried into the wilderness of the West. This 
Richard Connor is supposed to have made a temporary settlement in Macomb so 
early as 1781, and shortly after married this child of the Indian camp. For many 
years succeeding this event, marriages were as scarce as the white settlers were 
few. The record of marriages since the organization of the county shows that 



matrimony enjoyed a rare popularity throngliont ; though at intervals seasons of 
absolute dullness prevailed. This was particularly the case in 1836-7-8-9, when 
the financial crisis appeared to cast a peculiar gloom over every household, and 
even quench the fire of love in young and old. In 1840, our boys and girls re- 
covered from the fear or cowardice, which the panic years engendered, and hence- 
forth took courage to make the great venture of life. In many cases drink, ex- 
ti'avagance and folly have led to the dissolution of unions that gave high promises. 
However, when the great numbers of marriage contracts which have been faithfully 
carried out are compared with the small number of infelicitous marriages, there is 
every reason for congratulation on the part of the people. 

There are many peculiar, if not ludicrous, reminiscences associated with the 
matrimonial affairs of this as well as other counties in Michigan. In olden times 
men and women were not so precise in expression as are the people of our day, — 
they were not cute enough to avoid words and deeds which might afford subject 
for gossip to the village wags. High hopes, that burn like stars sublime, wei'e sup- 
posed to possess the heart of every lover, when the moment arrived for him to 
deposit a dollar-and-a-half with the county clerk, in payment for a public permit to 
marry the girl of his choice. He feels that he is sure of possessing the loveliest of 
her sex, and that in a few more days earth will not be big enough to contain the 
happiness of himself and his fair partner. Sometimes, however, he learns the point 
of the old French proverb : " Entre le main et la bouohe souvent se perd la soupe." 
A young man, who fondly imagined the pinnacle of happiness was about being 
reached, took out a marriage license on Christmas Day long, long ago. What subse- 
quently happened, how and why his hopes were shattered, how grief played upon 
his heart, and how his life became a burden, are set forth in the following wail, — 
the untutored eloquence of sorrow : — 

" To the County Clerk, Sir : — I will send you the license that you gave me to 
get married with and stat that I was not married for this reason, because the girl, 
whose name is on the paper went back on me because she could get annother feller 

his name ■ ■ send them so that you can give him a license for her but bee 

sure and get your fee for so doin. No more at present but believe me 

Yours most hart-broken 

A score of letters equally ridiculous mark the early times in this county — all 
bearing testimony to broken hearts and false loves. 

In this history it would be impracticable to give a full record of matrimonial 
events ; however we will make mention of many of such happy unions effected 
between the date of the county's organization and 1838, arranging the list in the 
order of time. 




Niimes of Contracting Parties. Date. Bv Wliom Married. 

John Warren— Mila Freeman. - Dec. 31, 1818.. Gideon Gates, J. P. 

Freeborn Moshier— Mary Cooper Oct. 16, 1S18 Gideon Gates, J. P. 

Cyreus A. Chipman— Mary Lanson. - Sept. 28, 1818 Gideon Gates, J. P. 

Sylvester Fincli— Almeda Webster..- June 4, 1818 ..Gideon Gates, J. P. 

A. McDougal— Eliza McGregor.. July 22, l8ig John K. Smith, J. P. 

Charles Stewart— Eliza Peck 1819. John K. Smith, J. P. 

John Rencillow— Barbara French Aug. 4, 1819 John K. Smith, J. P. 

Silas Miller— Agnes McDonald Dec. 23, 1S19 John K. Smitii, J. P. 

Baptiste Maure— Felici Geneau .Jan. 30, 182 1 Ph. Janvier, priest. 

Ezekiel Allen— Genevieve Russell .Dec. 2, 1S21 John Stockton, J. P. 

Joseph Geard— Marie Reine Pettit Nov. 10, 1S21 Ph. Janvier, priest. 

William Swift— Nancy Stanley Feb. 10, 1822.. John Stockton, J. P. 

Thomas Fowler— Mahaly Mou. Feb. 11, 1S22 John Stockton, J. P. 

John Miller— Harriet Gould... Jan. 9, 1S24 John Stockton, J. P. 

Alfred Ashley — Euphemia Atwood Jan. 24, 1S25 Henry Closson, J. P. 

Baptiste Blait— Felice Sene Feb. 14, 1825 L. Dejean, priest. 

Hyacmthe Charthier— Monique Boyd Feb. 8, 1825.. L. Dejean, priest. 

Tabor Willcox— Lucy P. Torrence .May 2, 1825 John Stockton, J. P. 

Hiram Atwood — Fanny Maria Cook May 30, 1825 Henry Closson, J. P. 

Silas Halsey— LucyCady.. May i, 1825 ..Henry Closson, J. P. 

Horace H. Cady — Susanna Connor June 9, 1825 John Stockton, J. P. 

Byrum Guerin— Mary Rowe ...June 10, 1825 ...John Stockton, J. P. 

Jean B.tpliste Maure — Eleanor Thebeau April 18, 1825 L. Dejean, priest. 

Smith H. Yancey— Mary Connor. July ig, 1S25 Henry Closson, J. P. 

JohnF. Cronk— Mary McCall Sept. 5, 1825 ..Elisha Harrington, J. P. 

Zephaniah Cambell— Betsey Smith Feb. 19, 1S27 Joseph Lester, J. P. 

Amasa Messenger— Sarah Squires ..March ii, 1S27. Joseph Lester, J. P. 

Richard Butler— Abigail Hayes.. Aug. I, 1827 John James, preacher. 

George Lee— Harriet Clemens .March 11, 1828 G. H. Caston, preacher. 

Ale.-cander Arnold— Wealthy Nichols ..Jan. 19, 1828... William Runnells, preacher. 

Daniel B. Nichols — Electa Lockwood. ..Feb. 15, 1828 .William Runnells. preacher. 

Washburne Blackmore- Lucy Hiskins. Dec. 25, 1827... James C. Edgerley, J. P. 

Syl. F. .\twood— Eliza Hill Feb. 22, 1829.- James C. Edgerley, J. P. 

Darius Lampson— Sarah Ann Connor April i, 1829 G. H. Caston, preacher, 

John Price— Rosannah Chandler April 19, 1829 Noah Webster, J. P. 

German Burges— Victoire Joilett Sept. 29, 1829 Harvey Cook, J. P. 

Joseph La Force — Archange Trombley... Oct. 30, 1S29 Robert P. Lewis, J. P. 

Valorous Maynard — Martha Ru,s Nov. 26, 1829 ..James C. Edgerley, J. P. 

Chauncy G. Cady— Catherine M. Gerty Nov. 12. 1829. flarvey Cook, J. P. 

George Price— Loreno Scott Dec. 27, 1829 Solomon Wales, J. P. 

Alfred Bachellor— Ladama Messenger. ...Jan. 21, 1830 ..Almon Mack, J. P. 

Luman Squiers— Rebecca Arnold Jan. 21, 1S30 Almon Mack, J. P. 

Milton H. Webster— Eliza Sessions. Jan. 8, 1S30 Noah Webster, J. P. 

Thomas Willett— Fanny Debater ...Jan. 2, 1S30 .Ezekiel Allen, J. P. 

Hiram Willcox — Jerusha Andrus Feb. 10, 1830. ..Curtiss Goodard, P. E. 

Rev. William T. Snow — Electa Chamberlin Feb. 17, 1830 Curtiss Goodard, P. E. 

Ethan Squiers— Lovina Huntley Feb. 23, 1830 A. Mack, J. P. 

Ezra B. Throop— Harriet Finch May 8, 1825 Gideon Gates, J. P. 

Alvin Nye — Lydia Price ...Jan. 29, 1826 Gideon Gates, J. P. 



Names of Contracting Parties. Date. By Whom Married. 

William Nicholas — Betsy Sammons Sept. 17, 1826 Gideon Gates, J. P. 

Richard Elliott — Mary A. Hovey Jan. 14, i827.._ Gideon Gates, J. P. 

James Starkweather — Roxey Lesley Sept. 16. 1827 Gideon Gates, J. P. 

Benjamin Kittredge— Ester Moore. Jan. 24, 1827 Gideon Gates, J. P. 

Jonathan Johnson — Mary B. Marshall - July 20, 1828 Harvey Cook, J. P. 

Charles Mather — Abigail Haskins March i, 1830 Job C. Smith, J. P. 

Josiah A. Hamblin — Mary Ann King _ June 28, 1830 Noah Webster, J. P. 

William Canfield — Ann Clemens. May 13, 1830 Azra Brown, preacher. 

David Bolten — Lydia Inman April 21, 1830 John Norton, preacher. 

Seymour Arnold — Lydia Townsend ..April 18, 1830 John Norton, preacher. 

John D. Holland — Clarissa Hopkins Dec. 31, 182S Smith Weeks, preacher. 

Alva Arnold — Louisa Ruby..- June 3, 1S30 A. Mack, J. P. 

Ebenezer D. Mather — Lucy P. Willcox June 13, 1830 Job C. Smith. J. P. 

Jonas G. Cook— Eliza Osgood Aug. iS, 1831 Job C. Smith, J. P. 

Hiram Squires — Matilda Fowler Nov. 25, 1830 ._ Solomon Wales, J. P. 

Levi F. Tuttle— Susan Davis _.Mar. 28, 1831 Harvey Cook, J. P. 

Samuel H. Giles— Harriet Covell - April 6, 1831 Richard Butler, J. P. 

Alex. Atkins — Eliza D. Lewis.. June 29, 183 1 Richard Butler, J. P. 

Elisha Webster — Harriet Thompson Jan. 26, 183 1 Noah Webster, J. P. 

Apollo A. Fuller — Mary Howard Feb. 6, 183 1 Noah Webster, J. P. 

ElishaRice — Clarissa Haskins Jan. 16, 1831 Harvey Cook, J. P. 

Elijah Bacheller — Eunice Wales.. Jan. 27, 1831 Otis Lamb, J. P. 

James Collins — Anne Wells ....Dec. I, 1830 ..Alex Tackles, J. P. 

Mr. Bozeas — Felice Blait... June 30, 1831 Richard Butler, J. P. 

Capt. James C. Allen — Elizabeth Hayes ..Mar. i, 1S31 Arza Brome, M. G. 

John F. Hamlin — Laura Andrus Mar. 29, 183 1 Arza Brome, M. G. 

J. B. Sancea — Margt. Beaubien Feb. 15, 183 1 F. N. Badin, Priest. 

John Stewart — Emily Barber June 25, 1 83 1 B. N. Freeman. 

Samuel Boughton — Susanna Smith Aug. 23. I S3 1 John Stead, J. P. 

Nathan Rogers — Emeline Dudley Oct. 17, 1830 Abel Warren, M. G. 

Mathias Graves — Rosilla Ruby June 2, 183 1 Abel Warren, M. G. 

Charles Tubbs — Rachael Arnold April 10, 1831 Solomon Wales, J. P. 

Wm. C. Bolamin — Nancy Ellison Feb. 13, 1832 Abel Warren, M. G. 

Philo Gopt — Susanna Arnold Aug. 4, 1 831... Abel Warren, M. G. 

Tiel Brainard — Mary Brainard Nov. 27, 1831 ...Alex. Tackles, J. P. 

Nathan Rogers — Eliza Anne Parker Feb. 13, 1832 Abel Warren, M. G. 

Robert P. Eldredge — Louisa Crittenden .Oct. — , 1831 Richard Butler, J. P. 

James A. Wing — Juliana Lawson Sept. 22, 183 1 Abel Warren, M, G. 

James Allen — Lucinda Townsend Dee. 25, 1831 John Norton, M. G. 

Joseph Aldrich — Caroline Parker July 3, 1832 Noah Webster, J. P. 

— Thorp — Mary Jane Nicholls Jan. 22, 1 83 1 Abel Warren, M. G. 

Jonah Richardson — Rhoda Granger Jan. 12, 1832 Richard Butler, J. P. 

Caleb Carpenter — Matilda Freeman Nov. 14, 1831 L. Shaw, M. G. 

Henry Porter — Susan Stone Dec. 8, 1831 L. Shaw, M. G. 

Amon Baker— Eleanor Hopkins Dec. 13, 1 83 1 L. Shaw, M. G. 

Wm. Roy — Ann Connor May 25, 1832 Solomon Wales, J. P. 

Geo. Twell— Louisa Dudley Mar. 3, 1832.. Solomon Wales, J. P. 

Philander Ewell— Lydia Wells Oct. 13, 1S31 Solomon Wales, J. P. 

Wm. Arnold — Mary Squiers July 5,1831 .Solomon Wales, J. P. 


Names ot Contracting Parties. Date. By Wliom Married. 

Isaac Hoard— Delilah Price _.. May 13, 1S32 Otis Lamb, J. P. 

Jolin Nicholas— Nancy Scratrton ._ May 13, 1832. Otis Lamb, J. P. 

Reus. Hollock—Phile Draper June 16, 1833 Noah Webster, J. P, 

John Nicholas— Louise Trevallian .- April 15, 1833..- Abel Warren, M. G. 

Payne K. Leech — Matilda Fuller _ April 25, 1833 Abel Warren, M. G. 

Zemrie Curtis— Amanda Locke - Nov. 11, 1833 _..Abel Warren, M. G. 

James P. Hooker— Thar. Allen Nov. 6, 1833 'Solomon Wales, J. P. 

Harley Brainard — Martha Leech May iS, 1833 Calvin Davis, J. P. 

Alonzo D. Youmans — Julia Ann Tubbs... Aug. 16, 1833 _ Wells Waring, J. P. 

Heil Preston — Lydia Goffman Sept. 29, 1833. -.Calvin Davis, J. P. 

Charles Chamberlain — Caroline Knapp Aug. g, 1S32 Calvin Davis, J. P. 

Nathaniel Garvin — Lydia Junman _.Nov. 20, 1S33 Abel Warren, M. G. 

Bingham Tubbs — Ruth A. Sorel Jan. 24, 1833 Abel Warren, M. G. 

Westley Hinman — Alice M. Connel _. July 10, 1S33 Elisha L. Atkins, J. P. 

H. Perkins— Sarah Ann Meek- - Nov. 28, 1S33 Richard Butler, J. P. 

James Williams— Delia Ann Cook Oct. 14, 1842.- Harvey Cook, J. P. 

Erastus Day— Catherine Smith Feb. 3, 1S33 L. Shaw, M. G. 

Wm. M. Leech — Clarissa Brainard.-- May 22, 1833 Calvin Davis, J. P. 

Hiram Atwood— Aurelia Ann Douglass July 7. iS33 Richard Butler, J. P. 

Sidney S. Hawkins— Elizabeth Clemens April 23, 1833. Henry Coldager, M. G. 

George Stead— Nancy Scott... .- March 16, 1S33 Solomon Wales, J. P. 

Robert Warren— Lois Wells Feb. 14, 1833.- Abel Warren, M. G. 

George Preastly — Sylvania Hoard -. Dec. 10, 1832 Calvin Davis, J. P. 

Anson Rawley— Susan Becroft- -- April 17, 1833 .-.Noah Webster, J. P. 

John Fairchild — Lucy C. Herriman April 9, 1833 Richard Butler, J. P. 

James C. Chase — Rachel Butterlield. Jan. 26, 1833 Richaid Butler, J. P. 

Hambleton Miller— Elizabeth Parks May 5,1833 -Abel Warren, J. P. 

Stephen Castle — Susan D. Shaw Mar. 13, 1S32 Alexander Tackles, J. P. 

H. M. Hopkins— Polly Price Oct. 3, 1832 -Alexander Tackles, J. P. 

Alvin Cleland— Harriet M. Wales. Dec. 5, 1832 Alexander Tackles, J. P. 

Otis W. Colton— Martha Fairchild Aug. 8, 1833 Harvey Cook, J. P. 

John M. Crawford— Polly Miller Aug. 19, 1.832 Noah Webster, J. P. 

James P. Keeler— Annie Arlanhand ..Oct. 30, 1833 Abel Warren, M. G. 

George Adair— Rebecca Madison Aug. 26, 1833.. .Abel Warren, M. G 

Lester Lamles—Lorina Phelps .July 2, 1833 W. Waring, J. P. 

Cornelius Bivens— Olive Tingley June 17, 1832 .Richard Butler, J. P. 

Alexander Atkins— Eliza D. Lewis May 29, 1831 Richard butler, J. P. 

George Stroup— Hannah Conklin Sept. 12, 1833 .Richard Butler, J. P. 

From February, 1834, to May, 1838, a period extending over four year, there 
were only 151 marriages effected in the county, as shown by the records. In dealing 
with those matrimonial events, it will be merely necessary to give the names of the 
contracting parties: 

William Allen to Pembina Scott 

Samuel Axford Summers 

P. Adams— M. Prentiss 
P. Allen— M. Russell 
E. Auscom — E. Fay 

H. Beebe— S. J. Hill 
S. S. Baxter — S. Holeman 
T. Bloss— M. D. Cusick 
A. H. Barlley — M. Dixon 
D. Bennett— A. Wolf 

William Brown — E. Lacox 
T. Blakeley- E. Brayord 
S. Bams — E. Hovev 
T. Hubbard— T. S.' Weeks 
E. Howard — N. Bolien 



M. W. Harrington — Miss Farns- 

E. C. Harriman — P. Huks 
J. Hall— B. Dailey 
"C. S. Snover — M. Jersey 
I.. Sole— S. Scott 

C. Chapel — A. Valentine 

D. Crawford — L. Fair 

E. Cooley— H. Willis 

A. Chortier — R. Dunphin 
T. Cherry— M. More 
L. Collins — B. Hodgen 
D. Cooley — C. Andrus 
A. Cherry — M. Myers 

D. Conklin— S. A. Stewart 
A. Conklin— H. Witt 

J. Connu — M. A. Funder 
J. M. Combs— M. Still 
]. Crittenden — M. Dudley 
L. M. Collins— M. McKoon 
S. Chattrick — L. Lee 
I.. Chatfield— E. Fi^shbough 

E. Crampton — P. More 
C. Emerson — T- Slioles 
T.J. Ewell— E. Lamb 
H. T. Fox— Mary Avery 
J. Flynn — E. Ingiaham 

A. A. Fuller— A. Shattuck 

O. Fields— C. Fi,h 

J. Frost- L. Aldrich 

G. C. Fletcher— E. G. Hough 

A. Farr— M. Carl 

G. W. Fish— M. Brown 

M.Goalpin — M. Bennett 

S. W. G. Gerill— D. Allen 

William Goodrich — A. Chambers 

A. Ga!;non — M, Pheni.x 

Zera Gray— L. West fall 

T. C. Gallup— M. McChesney 

Noble G. Gunn— Sarah Miller 

J. C, Hinks— M. Clark 

H. Haskins— M. Greenley 

Joseph Hinks — J. Clark 

N. R. Holdridge— H. Hudson S. 

J. C. High— M. A. Olds M 

E. D. Haml.lin— T. Smith D, 

D. E. Haser— R. A. Jennison T. 

P. C. Hart— E. Leonard B. 

S. L. Hill— M. Chapel S. 

H. Harvey — H. Russ J. 

Thomas Hubble — .S. Pooley C. 

M. Haines — B. Dusing J. 

M. Johnson— P. Baldwin C. 

J. James — E. Watkins E. 

D.Jacox — H. Spaulding H. 

T. M. Kirkham— M. Hart C. 

C. Lufkins — S. Goodale T. 
M. Ivingsbury — E. Abernathy N. 
K. Kittridge— E. Wells E. 
J. Lockwcod — J. Tweedle E. 
N. Keeler— M. J. Bates W 
P. Mitter— L. Ashley W 
A. T. Merril— J. High L. 
J. Milton — S. T. Herriman P. 
J. M. Millard— S. Brown P. 
L. P. Miller— S. M. Cram T. 
N. Moe— C. Higgins M. 
J. B. Marlel— Phillis Lablan A. 
H. Mann— P. Skinner H, 
G. Newbury— R. Butlerfield H, 

D. Norris — B. Carpenter J. 
A. T. Powell— S. A. Field O. 
A. Parker— M.- A. Ray R. 
J. Price— S. Bardnell E. 
T. H. Peek— D. Congar E. 
H. Pratt— A. Dice C. 
J. D. Perry— G. Welts M, 
G. W. Preston— S. Gofif S. 

E. Phelps— P. Arnold W 

A. W. Roger.-— D. Scott F. 
N. Rowley — M. Beagle T. 
N. Rowley— .-v. Aldrich J. 
T. Russ— H. Mitchell W 

B. Randall— B. Scott R. 
A. Rowley— B. GofF 

S. Spencer — E. Warner 

D. Shattuck— M. Briggs 

. Stone — L. McGregor 
Stroup — M. Keyes 
C. Snover — L. Phelps 
F. Skinner — M. Moore 

B. Spencer — D. Graves 

Selleck— S. Wells 
H. Sweet— S. A. Bennett 

Smith — M. Gales 

Spalding — F. Fish 
Thorrington — L. Brown 

, Thomas^L. Pratt 
Thompson — A. Mitchell 
J. Tubbs— H. Butterfield 
Tilloltson — P. Hurd 
B. Throop — E. Turrell 
Warner — M. Billings 

. Woodan — M. Bates 

. P. Wells— E. Ewell 
Winans — Jane Drake 

T. Walker— N. Gillett 
WoodUck— M. Finch 
Wood — S. Anderson 

. Wilber — T. Gregory 
Warner — E. Johnson 

, Wyncoop — A. Mitchell 
R. Witt — H. Brown 

Witney — E. Shepherd 
Wing — H. Crawford 
Wilson— T. .Seal 
Wentworth — E. Darling 
L. Walton — C. Stroup 
F. Witt— E. Brown 

, Winslow — M. Welts 

Wilson — L. Scott 

. G. Wilcox — M. Webster 
Wilcox — L. Hovey 
Wood — T, Case 

Whitney— C. Crittenden 

. Wylae — A. Beattie 
Wickoff— M. A. Orr 

The great majority of those early alliances were attended with the most happy 
results. In almost every instance, husband was devoted to wife and wife to hus- 
band: both were faithful to their country, and both traveled down life's course 
casting blessings along their paths. The old settlers of Macomb have, unlike the 
old settlers of the more recently organized counties of the State, made this county 
their home ; here they brought up their children, built their schools and churches, 
and actually reared up a commonwealth of their own, years before the western 
county of Kent was organized — even before the American pioneer set his foot in 

A few of those old settlers still survive, and dwell in the land. Their children 
are here in numbers. Tlie traveler may readily distinguish them. Temperate in 




a high degree, they reflect the beauty of that virtue wliich makes amends for a 
hundred faults; they possess the physical characteristics of their honored pi-ogeni- 
tors, and still continue to follow in the walks of advancement which their fathers 


Among the ancient customs of the early inhabitants, that of marking the cattle 
seems to the people of the present time as strange as the descriptions of those 
marks are ludicrous. The following specimens are taken from the records : — 

Charles Tucker's mark for cattle, hogs, sheep, etc., was a hole in the right ear 
and a slit in the left ear, a record of which was made March 11, 1822. 

The mark for Jacob Tucker's stock was, a slit in both ears, recorded April 1. 

Ebenezer Kittredge's cattle had " an under bit out of each ear," recorded April 
1, 1822. 

Harvey Cook'.s mark was "a swallow's tail cut out of the right ear," a record 
of which was made April 16, 1822. 

The cattle, sheep and hogs of John Tucker zvere cropped on both ears, and a 
record of such mark made Feb. 22, 182.3. 

John Stockton's cattle, sheep, etc., etc., had a slit in the right ear, a mark 
recorded Feb. 22, 1823. 

Joseph Hayes' cattle had a hole in the right ear. 

Justus H. Barker's mark was a slit in the right ear, a square crop off the right 
ear, and the brand, J. H. B., recorded Dec. 2, 1823. 

The mark on Nathaniel Squire's cattle was a square crop off the left ear, a 
swallow's fork out of the right ear, with the brand, N. S. This was ijlaced on 
record Dec. 2, 1823. 

John Elliott's, senior, cattle were marked with a swallow's tail cut out of the 
left ear. Recorded April 30, 1824. 

Leander Trombley's mark was a half crop off the under part of the right ear, 
which mark was placed on record Sept. 13, 1826. 

Joseph Miller's cattle were known by a square crop off the right ear, which 
mark was published Feb. 7, 1827. 

John Bennett's mark was a swallow tail out of the left ear, not bj^ any means 
out of Mr. Bennett's left ear, notwithstanding what is implied in the records of 
Feb. 7, 1827. 

John Sawle's cattle were marked by a slit in both ears, and such mark was 
recorded Feb. 7,1827. 

Ezra Bellow's cattle were known by a half crop off the under part of the left 


ear. Benjamin Gould's stock were marked similarly under the right ear ; while 
Wm. Allen's mark was a square crop off the left ear. 

Solomon Wales adopted a square crop off right ear, and a half crop under part 
of the left ear. 

Daniel Miller's mark was simply a slit in the left ear, while that of Sardis 
Burlingham's cattle was simply a half crop off the upper part of the left ear. 

George Wilson's cattle had a square crop off the left ear, a slit in same ear, 
and a bit of under part of the right ear. 

Job Hoxie's stock were marked by a crop off the right ear, or a bit out of the 
under part of the same ear. 

Alvin Nye used a square crop on the right, and a slit in the left ear. 

Chauncey Throop adopted a square crop off the right, and a half crop under 
part of the same ear. 

Ezra B. Throop's registered mark was a square crop off the right, and a half 
crop off the upper part of same ear. 

Elon Andrus used a square crop off the right ear and a slit in the same. 

Russell Andrus' mark for his cattle was a square crop in the left ear, and a 
slit in the same. 

John Keeler's cattle had a bit out of upper side of the right, and under side of 
the left ear. 

Isaac Andrus' mark was simply a half crop off the upper part of the right ear. 

Lester Gidding's cattle had a hole in the right ear. 

Price B. Webster's cattle showed a swallow's tail cut out of the right ear. 

Jeremiah Lockwood's were known by a square crop off the left ear, and a half 
crop off the upper part of the right. 

Edward Arnold's stock was distinguished by a square crop off the right, and a 
half crop off the upper part of the left ear. 

Henry Moir's mark for his cattle was a hole through the right ear, and a bit 
out of the under part of the left ear. 

Lucretia Haskiu's cattle bore a square crop off the I'ight, and an under slit in 
the left ears. 

Richard Butler s cattle, sheep, and hogs wore a slit in the under part of each 
ear, and seemed to know all about it. 


In 1827, a mail route was established from Pontiac to Port Huron, stopping at 
Washington village, and this being the only of3Sce between the former place and 
Mt. Clemens, it necessarily served for a very large extent of country. Otis Lamb 
was the first post-master, and the mail bag was originally carried the entire dis- 



tance by a man on foot, and afterward on horse-back for ten or twelve years, the 
mail carrier always remaining at Washington over night. Each letter cost the re- 
ceiver twenty-five ceuts, and such was the scarcity of money that a young man 
living there (now a wealthy resident of Oakland County) was obliged to leave a 
letter in the office for three months before he could by any means obtain the re- 
quired amount. In 1836, Dr. Dennis Cooley was appointed post-master, which 
position he held for twenty-three consecutive years, his own residence being the 
post-office for the greater part of that time. Shortly after his appointment, the 
mail was brought by stage from Detroit via Royal Oak and so continued until the 
completion of the G. T. R. R., when it was transferred to that road stopping oif at 
Utica Station, and a regular line of easy coaches, lumbering stages, or dilapidated 
buggies, were alternately the means of transit, the same being controlled by Ira 
Pearsall for very many years. This arrangement remained until the D. & B. C. R. 
R. was in running order when the nmil-bags and numerous passengers to and from 
Utica were accommodated by S. L. DeKay, his stages making regular trips between 
Utica and Romeo four times daily ; and through all these variations and the con- 
ditions of wind and weather we have known no such thing as a failure of first-class 
mail arrangements until July 18, 1879, when, for some unexplained reason, the 
route ceased altogether, and the large amount of mail matter for this place and 
Davis was left to the tender mercies of a chance carrier. The mail for Brooklyn 
was always received at Washington, they having had no separate office until 1876, 
when a tri-weekly route was established between that village and Washington, and 
an office established at Brooklyn under the name of Davis. 


The following paper on the rise and progress of the temperance cause in Mal- 
comb County, not only contains a moral, but also much interesting and historical 
subject matter. The writer is secretary of the County Pioneer Society, a man wed- 
ded to the cause of temperance, and thoroughly conversant with men and events 
connected with the county. He says : " At the date of settlement of the central and 
northern township of Macomb, the use of intoxicants upon all noted occasions, and 
indeed upon the most common events of pioneer life, was held to be a necessity. 
Liquor was used as a cure for all diseases that assailed the system. At births, 
weddings, and deaths, its inspiring aid was sought. Prominent in the history of 
each new settlement were the bees, for the progress of work which one alone could 
not very well accomplish, such as loggings and raisings. At those bees whisky was 
free, and was to many the secret loadstone which attracted them to the place. 
Arriving at the place, if it were a logging, two expert hands chose sides, and select- 
ing the site and arranging the position of the heap, each led his men to the work. 


At the close of this work results were noted, and one side or other declared victors, 
not in the amount of whisky each had consumed, but in the number of log heaps 
each had erected. If it were a raising, for which they were called together, sides 
were chosen in the same way. Each party would take one end and a side of the 
structure, and proceed to roll the logs together in a lively fashion. At each corner 
a man was stationed, whose business it was to saw, trim, and shape the ends of the 
logs, so as to form the corner, and upon their skill and activity, depended largely 
the appearance of the house when completed. A man who could make a square 
plum corner in the least time was in demand. Occasionally a frame was to be raised, 
and men were invited from far and near, with the tacit understanding that whisky 
was to be an adjunct of the occasion. The timber used in construction was much 
larger than is used in similar structures now, and as no mechanical appliances were 
brought together in elevating it, a larger force was called together. Refreshments 
might be served or not at the option of the proprietor, but the liquor should be 
in sight, and near at hand. After the frame was erected, the men gathered in file 
upon the beam, and if a few drops of the contents of the jug remained, they were 
swallowed, and a name was called for. If a barn, it might be named the settlers' 
pride or the Queen of the settlement, if a house, the ladies' pride, ox family pride, and 
then the jug was hurled into the air, when the company dispersed. 

It soon came about that a feeling of antagonism to the use of whisky strength- 
ened by the occurrence of sundry accidents, the results of whisky, began to pre- 
vail, and very naturally as the sides were chosen, whisky was made the dividing 
'point, and its friends, and the friends of temperance, were arrayed against each 
other. At a raising of a frame house, the two parties went up to put the plates in 
position, and in the zeal of the former not to be beaten by the temperance party, 
they lifted the plate over the posts, and let it drop on the ground below. One man 
whose hat was caved in, seized the jug and cast it into a well close by. At another 
time, a man whose leg was broken, was carried home two miles upon a door. 
Among the first raisings in the northern townships was that of Nathaniel Bennett's 
barn. The mechanic who worked upon the frame was a staunch temperance man, 
and wished that the raising of this barn should be accomplished without the aid of 
whisk}'. Bennett, although favorable to the cause of temperance, was fearful it 
would l)e a failure. The mechanic was so confident, however, that Bennett's ob- 
jections were overruled, and it was bruited round that the affair was to be of a 
temperate character. Both sides resolved to make this a test case, and men gath- 
ered from far and near to view the strife and see the fun. As fast as the forces 
reached the premises, they naturally divided into two armies. The temperance men 
soon went to work, and the liquor men sat upon the timbers, and stood in the way, 
offering obstacles. There was no scarcity of timber in those early days, and the 




great beams and plates of (^reeii timber sorely taxed the muscles as well as the 
patience of the workers. When, at length, the sills were in their places, and the 
bents put together, the liquor party came in a body and sat down upon the timbers 
directly in the way of further progress. It required the use of some threats, and a 
good deal of persuasive eloquence to move them, and a portion went off in a huff, 
while the remainder helped to put up the frame. 

A similar test case was held atUtica about the same time. A large store house 
was to be raised, and the mechanic was very fearful that it could not be done with- 
out whisky, but upon the promise of Payne K. Leach to assist with his mill hands 
and tackle box, the attempt was made and success won. 

In the township of Lenox, a like test was made some years later, resulting in 
favor of temperance. 

If the case were that of a man, wlio was himself temperate, and who dis- 
couraged the use of spirits on principle, little was said ; but if stinginess was the 
cause of it being withheld, sad work was often made of both timl^er and frames. 
Sometimes timber was carried back to the woods ; at other times a single bent would 
be setup, and all hands either go away or refuse to do more. At other times timbers 
would be united in all ways but the right one, and in each case the whisky should 
appear before the work would be completed. After those test cases had been tried, 
trial beesoi all kinds without the use of liquors were of frequent occurrence, and 
public sentiment in favor of abstinence grew in favor and strength. 

Organized action against intemperance was first taken at Romeo. In the year 
1830, Deacon Rnger^s Pled;ie was circulated and gained a few names. Those who 
agreed to abstain from the use of wine and beer, and other alcoholic beverages, had 
a capital T prefixed to their names on the pledges, and were called T-T's or teeto- 
talers. At least one who signed Deacon Roger s Pledge has kept it for fifty-two 
years — Dr. HoUister, of Chicago. The effects of this pledge was soon visible in the 
community. One after another, old and young, spoke against the use of spirits, 
and arrayed themselves on the side of temperance. A farmer who had thought 
that haying could not be prosecuted witiiout liquor, sent his boy to the store at the 
corners with the little brown jug to get it filled. This was accomplished, the jug 
emptied, and sent to be refilled. Soon after a storm came up, and the father and the 
son left the field after hiding the jug. Upon their return the old man took up the 
pitcher to drink ; but before doing so, he paused and set it down. After a few 
minutes thought he emptied it upon the ground, and said. " My son let us never 
touch this stuff again as long as we live." The father kept this resolution, but the 
son is a drunkard to this day. And thus the leaven was at work. 

" Men thought, spoke, and acted." In a letter from Dexter Mussey to the 
Secretary of the Pioneer Society, under date April 7, 1881, that old settler states : 

^ ^|a w- 


There was a Waslnnsrtonian Temperance society formed here as early as 1844, 
but accomplished but little. At a subsequent date the Sons of Temperance seemed 
to take the lead in some parts of this State and the west shore concluded to imitate 
the Sons of Temperance by liolding weekly meetings, or at least once in two weeks. 
This we did during one winter, 1848-9, but failed to keep up an interest or ac- 
complish much good. We then concluded to try the laws, and organized a division 
of eleven members, and after working hard for one year found ourselves with 
thirteen members, had received three, expelled one, dismissed one to join elsewhere. 
Then we commenced an aggressive course and soon had one hundred names and 
then for three or four years succeeded well, prosecuted the rum-sellers and all went 
on well until the Prohibitory law passed, and then all seemed to think the work 
completed and the Division dissolved and very little was done for the cause of 
temperance. After a time there was a lodge of Good Templars organized and went 
very well and with tolerable success for a time until it was turned into a political 
organization, when it shared the fate of all its predecessors. (^Died.') At still a 
subsequent date a Division of the Sons of Temperance was organized with tolerable 
success as to members, but not with much success in staying the tide of intemper- 
ance. This last organization is still in existence and is the only organization here 
which proposes to amend solely against the liquor business, and it is doing very 
little to what it ought to accomplish, the work it professes to have in hand. The 
present law has been enforced to a considerable extent, but not by the Sons of 
Temperance. There were fourteen prosecutions for violations of the law, and in 
every case with success. 


My home ! the spirit of its love is breathing 
In every wind tliat plays across my track : — 
From its white walls, the very tendrils wreathing, 
Seem with soft links to draw the wanderer back. 

What a change has come over the land since they first saw it ? The metamor- 
phosis from the sickle and the cradle to the modern harvester is not more wondei'- 
ful than other changes which have been wrought ; and he who brings up sad re- 
membrances of a hard day's work, and a lumbago caused by the swinging of his 
cradle or scythe, smiles, when he thinks of that semi-barbarous period that could 
neither produce a harvester nor a mower, nor a sulky plow, nor any of these new 
machines, which make the practice of agriculture a luxury. To-day he mounts in- 
to the seat of one of these farm implements, as he would into his buggy, and with 
the assurance that, no matter what the condition of the grain or meadow, whether 
tangled, lodged, or leaning, he can master a quarter section of land more thoroughly 
and with grea'er economy than lie could have managed a five acre field a quarter of 


5 > 


a century ago. The change is certainly material ! The old settlers realize it ; but yet 
they look back to the never forgotten past, when contentment waited upon the work 
of the old cradle, plow and spade, — to that time when the primitive character of all 
things insured primitive happiness. Then contentment reigned supreme, and con- 
tinued so to do until knowledge created ambitions, and those ambitions brought in 
their train, their numerous proverbial little troubles. 



The third decade of the Nineteenth Century will ever be memorable as the era 
of emigration from the Eastern States, and the hunt after Western homes. During 
those years the people of the Original States rose to a full conception of the worth 
of the land, and the almost unbounded country which the toilers of the Revolution 
won for them. They resolved to direct their steps westward. Michigan was not 
forgotten. The country from the St. Joseph to the Grand River, along the valley 
of the southern Huron, and northwards still to the Saginaw — the home of the 
Otchipwes — was explored by them and settlements effected. Years before this, 
however, Macomb County was not only explored, settled ; but also organized. In 
1818, three years after the organization of Wayne, and one year after the organi- 
zation of Monroe, Macomb County was erected by an act of the Territorial Legis- 
ative Council. 

For some years previous to 1818, the American and French pioneers built their 
log huts, and transformed portions of the forest into spots of pastoral beauty. 
Many acres were then fenced round, and the stacked harvest of the preceding year 
could be seen by the traveler. The country was then replete in beauty ; the 
singularly attractive monotony of the wild woods was varied by tracts of cultivated 
land, the homes of the settlers, and the villages of the aborigines. 

Solidarity of interests joined the pioneers in a bond of fraternity, the strength 
of which tended to render their loves and friendships lasting. Solidarity of inter- 
ests tauglit the pioneers to offer the hand of fellowship to their savage neighbors — 
the Otchipwes ; and solidarity of interests pointed out to them the results of seek- 
ing for the organization of the districts in which they lived into a little Republic. 

On the completion of the farm labors of 1817, those white inhabitants — those 
true foresters — did not seek repose ; but turning their attention away from manual 
labor, embraced mental work, to the end that their political condition might 
advance hand-in-hand with their social status. 



Before the spring-time called them to their fields again, they had established 
for themselves a county and a county government. The action of the Legislative 
Council, and the State Legislature in regard to the townships of Macomb, is 
reviewed in the following acts and summarization of acts : 


The act of the Legislative Council, approved January .5, 1818, provided, that 
the district beginning at the opposite shore of the River Huron, including the 
shore, and running along tlie shore of Lake St. Clair, to tlie mouth of the river St. 
Clair, and along said river to Fort Gratiot, and extending in the rear as aforesaid, 
shall form one township, and be called the Township of St. Clair. 


A petition was presented to Gov. Cass, signed by a number of the inhabitants 
of tliis Territory, requesting that a new county may be laid out therein ; which 
was responded to as follows : — 

No'w Therefore, Believing that the establishment of such county will be conducive to the public interest, 
and to individual convenience, I do, by virtue of the authority in me vested by the ordinance of Congress, 
passed the 13th day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, entitled 
" An ordinance for the government of the Territory of the United States northwest of the river Ohio," lay 
out that part of the said Territory included within the following boundaries, namely: beginning at the south- 
west corner of township number one, north of the base line (so called), thence along the Indian boundary line 
north, to the angle formed by the intersection of the line running to the White Rock upon Lake Huron ; 
thence with the last mentioned line to the boundary line between the United States and the British Province 
of Upper Canada ; thence with the said line southwardly to a point in Lake St. Clair due east from the place 
of beginning; thence due west to the eastern extremity of the said base line; and with the same to the place 
of beginning, into a separate county, to be called the county of Macomb. 

And I do hereby appoint William Brown, Henry J. Hunt, and Conrad Ten Eyck, Esquires, commission- 
ers for the purpose of examining the said county of Macomb, and of reporting to me where it is the most 
eligible site for establishing the seat of justice thereof. 

And I constitute the said county a district for the purposes required by the act entitled "An act to adjust 
the estates and affairs of deceased persons, estate and intestate, and for other purposes," passed the 19th day 
of January, one thousand eight hundred and eleven. 

In testimony whereof I have caused the Great Seal of the said Territory to be hereunto aflixed, and have 
signed the same with my hand. Given at Detroit this 15th day of January, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and eighteen, and of the Independence of the United States of America the forty- 
second. LEWIS CASS. 

By the Governor; 

William Woodbridge, Secretary of Michigan Territory. 


" Whereas William Brown, Henry J. Hunt, and Conrad Ten Eyck, the com- 
missioners appointed to ascertain the most eligible site for the seat of justice of the 
County of Macomb, have reported to me, that the Town of Mt. Clemens, recently 



laid out upon the farm of Christian Clemens, Esq., in the said county, is the most 
eligible site for that purpose ; and whereas the said Christian Clemens, Esq., has 
conveyed for the use of said county, the lot of ground designated by the said com- 
missioners, and has given to the Treasurer of the said county, his obligation for the 
mon'ey, work, and materials required by them, towards the execution of the public 
building ; I do, therefore, in consideration of the premises, and by virtue of the 
anthorit}' by law in me vested, establish the seat of justice for the said County of 
Macomb, at the said Town of Mt. Clemens." This proclamation was signed by 
Lewis Cass, March 11, 1818. 


A proclamation of the Governor issued April 8, 1818, divided Macomb into the 
following townships, viz : All that portion of the county soutli of a line drawn due 
west from the mouth of Swan Creek, to the Indian boundary line, shall form one 
township, and be known as the township of Huron ; all that portion which lies 
north of a line drawn due west from the mouth of Swan Creek, shall form one town- 
ship and be called St. Clair. Under the same proclamation all that portion of the 
town of Huron (whicli lies south of the base line) beginning at Forsyth's farm, 
including the farm, extending along the shore of Lake St. Clair to the River Huron, 
and west to the United States lands, was attached to the township of Hamtramck, 
in Wa)'ne County. 

Perry Township was estaljlished by the Act Jan. 12, 1819. It comprised the 
western sections of Macomb, all the unorganized territory north to the treaty line, 
and west to the meridian, north of the boundaries of Oakland. 


An act approved July 17, 1821, declared that confusion, uncertainty, and incon- 
venience may frequently arise from the variety of rivers and places called Hui-on, 
and directed, for that reason, that the northern town of Macomb, which was estab- 
lished under the name of Huron, Aug. 12, 1818, should be called Vlintoii ; and the 
river running through said town into Lake St. Clair, commonly called the Huron, 
should be named Clinton. 


The boundaries named in the Act establishing this county, Jan. 15, 1818, 
were changed in September, 1822, as shown in the following description : 

" Beginning on tlie boundary line between the United States and the Province of 
Upper Canada, where the northern boundary of the county of Wayne intersects the 
same ; thence with the said northern boundary, west, to the line between the 
eleventh and twelfth ranges, east of the principal meridian ; thence north to the 


line between the townships numbered five and six, north of the base line ; thence 
east, to the line between the tliird and fourth sections of the fifth township north 
of the base line, in the thirteenth range, east of the principal meridian ; thence 
south to the southern boundary of the said township ; tlience east, to the line be- 
tween the fourteenth and fifteenth ranges, east of the principal meridian ; thence 
south to Lake St. Clair ; thence in a dii-ect line to the place of beginning. 

Given under my hand, at Detroit, this tenth day of September, in the year of 
our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-two, and of the Independence of 
the United States the forty-seventh. LEW. CASS." 


Macomb County formed a portion of Wayne, as organized in the days of the 
Northivest Territory. Old Wayne County comprised not only the Lower Peninsula, 
but also the strip of land along the western shores of Lake Michigan, and all west 
of that strip so far as explorers migiit jjenetrate. Robert F. Eldredge, in his paper 
styled "A Brief Outline of tlie History of Macomb Co.," saj-s : " It was estab- 
lished as a county in Michigan Territory in 1815. (Terr. Laws, Vol.1, p. 323.) It 
then included that part of Michigan to which tlie Indian title Jhad been extin- 
guislied. In 1805, the Territory of Michigan was constituted. On the 1st of July, 
1805, the government of the Territory was organized at Detroit, by Gen. William 
Hull, as first governor. The Indian title to the lands of Macomb County was 
extinguished by the treaty of 1807. At that time the Pottawatoraies, the Ottawas, 
the Wyandots and the Chippewas ceded to the United States a tract of country 
bounded south by the Maumee Bay and River, north by the principal meridian, 
and on the northwest by a line running southwest from White Rock, cutting the 
said meridian at a point where an east and west line from the outlet of Lake Huron 
intersects the same. By a proclamation made by Lewis Cass, Jan. 15, 1818, all the 
land thus obtained from the Indians wliich lies north of the base line was formed 
into the county of Macomb, and William Brown, Henry J. Hunt and Conrad Ten 
E3^ck were appointed commissioners to ascertain the most eligible site for the seat 
of justice of such county. The county seat was established at Mt. Clemens by 
proclamation of March 11, 1818. May 4, following, the Legislative Council of the 
Territory granted $400 to the new county, to be expended in the erection of a 
court-house and jail. At this period Macomb comprised all the territory now form- 
ing the counties of St. Clair, Oakland, Livingstone, Genesee, Lapeer, large por- 
tions of Shiawassee, Ingham, Sanilac and Tuscola, together with the southeast 
corner of Huron, and a portion of the townships of Birch Run and Maple Grove, 
in Saginaw County. 

^^ — »- 




The county was divided into townships by executive decree, published April 8, 
1818. That portion of the county lying north of a line drawn due west from the 
mouth of Swan Creek was named St. Clair Township, while the portion south of 
such a line was called the township of Huron. The township of Harrison was laid 
off Aug. 12, 1818. The establishment of Oakland County, Jan. 12, 1819, was the 
first move in reducing the dominion of the settlers of Macomb ; yet the act did not 
come into effect until Jan. 1, 1823, so that, virtually, Macomb ruled Oakland for a 
term of four years after the establishment of that county. 

Perry Township was laid off Jan. 12, 1819. St. Clair County was established 
March 28, 1820. The township named stretched along the eastern boundary of 
Oakland, northwards to the Indian treatj/ line, and westward, south of that line, to 
the principal meridian, including what forms now the counties of Lapeer, Genesee, 
Shiawassee, and portions of Sanilac, Tuscola, Saginaw and Shiawassee. St. Clair 
County was organized May 8, 1820. Sept. 10, 1822, Gov. Cass' proclamation, 
establishing the boundaries of Macomb, was issued, which proclamation is given in 
this chapter. The principal river of the county was called the Huron until 1824, 
when the name was changed to Clinton by the act of July 17, 1824, and the name 
of Huron Township changed to Clinton Township. 

The act, appoved April 12, 1827, laid off the county into five townships, viz: — 
Harrison, Clinton, Shelby, Washington and Ray. In 1832 the act to extend the 
boundaries of Macomb was approved, when town 5 N. of R. 14. E., and the east 
half of T. 5, N. of R. 13 E., were added to the county and attached for govern- 
mental purposes to the town of Ray. March 9, 1833, the north half of Washington 
was formed into a new township to be called Bruce. April 22, 1833, town 5, N. of 
Ranges 13 and 14 E., were laid off under the name of Arrnadia. By the Act of March 
7, 1834, Macomb Township was established, the boundaries of Ray were extended, 
and the town line between Clinton and Harrison straightened. March 17, 1835, 
town 2, N. of R. 12, E. was laid off as the township of Jefferson. Hickory and 
Grange townships were laid off March 11, 1837; Lenox was established March 20, 
1837, and seven days previously the village of Mt. Clemens was incorporated. 
An Act approved March 6, 1838, authorized the organization of the town of Rich- 
mond, and under authority of the same act the name Jefferson was abolished, and 
the town called Sterling. The Act of April 2, 1838, ordered that sections 12, 13, 
24, 25 and 36 of town 1 N. R. 13 E., be taken from Orange and added to Hickory, 
and also recognized the change of name from Hickory to Aba. Romeo was incor- 
porated as a village, March 9, 1838, and on the same date the village of Utica 
received authority to organize. The Act of March 26, 1839, changed the name 
Aha to Warren. On Feb. 16, 1842, the township of Macomb lost its eastern half. 

s ^ 


henceforth to be known as Chesterfield ; section 36 of Warren was ceded to Orange, 
and b}' an Act, approved March 9, 1843, the name of Orange gave place to that of 
Erin, by which name that picturesque division of the county continues to be 


Under the act of Jan. 3, 1818, the inhabitants of that portion of Wayne 
County, comprehended within the limits of the District of Huron, as established 
by that act, and subsequently altered, should meet at the house of Christian Clem- 
ens, under the superintendence of Christian Clemens, Daniel Le Roy and Francois 
Labadie, to vote on the question of tiie organization of a General Assembly on the 
third Monday of February, 1818. 

On the 26th Feb. 1818, the Legislative Council decreed, that on the first Mon- 
day of February and the second Monday of July in every year the County Court 
for the County of Macomb should be held. 

Macomb County Court House. The Act of May 5, 1818, appropriated $400 
towards the erection of a Court House and Gaol for Macomb County, to be ex- 
pended by the Justices of the Court of General (Quarter Sessions, and to be paid 
out of any moneys in the treasury, not otherwise appropriated. 

The Act of the Legislative Board, approved Aug. 26, 1819, directed that all 
wills, inventories of estates, returns of administrators or executors, bonds, decrees, 
orders, and all documents, etc., connected with Macomb County, should be trans- 
mitted at once to the County Register from the Register's office of Wayne. 

An Act of the Legislative Council was approved Aug. 4, 1824, authorizing 
Christian Clemens, Ellis Doty, Justice H. Barker, and those who may associate 
with them to erect a dam across Clinton River at the village of Mt. Clemens, with 
certain provisos, one of which was that the water should not be raised higher than 
three and one-half feet above low water mark. 

The county commissioners of Macomb, were authorized, under an Act approved 
Aug. 4, 1824, to make such addition to the tax roll for that year, as they should 
deem necessary to meet the expense of completing court house and gaol, such tax 
not to exceed one-fourth of one per cent, on the valuation of real and personal 

The construction of a territorial road from Mt. Clemens via\ Romeo, Lapeer, 
and Saginaw to the Sault de Ste. Marie was authorized March 4, 1831. 

The road from Detroit to Port Huron was laid off, under legislative authority. 
The Act approved April 12, 1827, authorized Nathaniel Millard, Jonathan 


Kearsley, Levi Cook, Cliarles Larned, Ellis Doty, John P. Slieldon, Christian Clem- 
rans, Alfed Ashley, Jacob Tucker, Ignace Morass, Joseph Hayes, and others who 
may associate with them, a company to remove obstructions from the Clinton 
River, and render it navigable from the village of Mt. Clemens to MacFs Lower 
3Iill. This company as organized was known as the Clinton River Navigation 

Sept. 3, 1827, the counties of Macomb and St. Clair were erected into one dis- 
trict, and authorized to elect one member of the Legislative Council. 

A second territorial road to the Clinton River from Detroit was authorized 
under the Act of June 23, 1828. This commenced at Detroit, continued by the Old 
French Church to a \)o'u\t on the Clinton River, betweeen Nathaniel Squire's and 
Enoch Huntley's farms in Macomb Count3\ William Meldrum and James Connor 
of Macomb, and William Little of Wayne were appointed commissioners. 

The Act of June 23, 1828 decreed that there should be a territorial road estab- 
lished, beginning at the northeast corner of Oakland County, and running thence 
south along the division line between Macomb to Oakland to the base line; 
thence continuing south until it intersects the turnpike leading from Detroit to 
Pontiac. Francis Cicot of Wayne, Alexander Faeles, of Macomb, and John Todd 
of Oakland were the commissioners appointed under the Act. 

The Clinton Steam Mill Company was organized at Mt. Clemens, under power 
granted in an Act approved March 2, 1831. This act points out that the capital 
stock was $20,000 in shares of 125 each. The subscriptions toward this stock were 
ordered to be opened at Detroit, the first Monday of Maj', 1831, under the superin- 
tendence of Lewis Cass, Jonathan Kearsley, James Abbott, Innis S. Wendell, 
John Palmer, and also at Mt. Clemens, under Christian Clemens, Alfred Ashley, 
J. M. Cummings, and Job C. Smith. 

An Act approved June 18, 1832, provided that within six months, it should be 
lawful for Antoine Dequindre, Barnabus Campau, Jacque Campau, Gabriel Cheine, 
Isidore Cheine, Rene Marsac, Isidore Morin, Dominique Reopelle, who feel ag- 
grieved by laying out the territorial road from the citj" of Detroit to the river Clin- 
ton so far as the Old French Church in the township of Hamtramck, to state their 
complaints to any Circuit or County Judge in writing, when three disinterested 
freeholders will be appointed to decide and assess damages. 

The Romeo and Mt. Clemens Railroad was incorporated under authority given 
in an Act, approved April 16, 1833, with Gad Chamberlain, Gideon Gates, Asahel 
Bailey, Lyman W. Gilbert, Azariah W. Sterling, Moses Freeman, Isaac Powell, 
Noah Webster, Reuben R. Smith, Norman Perry, Ansou Bristoll, James C. Allen, 



Joel Tucker, Wm. Canfield, Christopher Douglas, and N. T. Taylor. The capital 
stock was $150,000. 

Shelby Liberal Institute. — An Act to incorporate a society under this name was 
approved April 22, 1833, granting to Daniel W. Phelps, Peleg Ewell, Samuel Ax- 
ford, Samuel Adair, Samuel Ladd, Lyman T. Jenny, Daniel Hurston, John S. Axford, 
Joseph Lester, Luther R. Madison, John Stockton, and Calvin Davis, power to 
establish in the township of Shelby a literary institution, and appointing the men 
named trustees of such. 

Romeo Academy. — Under an Act approved Mai'ch 21, 1833, Gad. Cliamberlin, 
Nathaniel T. Taylor, Gideon Gates, Norman Perry, Noah Webster, Reuben R. 
Smith, Hiram Calkins, John S. Axford, Abel Warren, Asahel Bailey, John Ben- 
nett, James Starkweather, James Thompson, Azariah W. Steel, and William 
Abbott of Macomb County were constituted trustees of Romeo Academy, with 
power to establish such an institution for the education of youth. 

The Shelby and Detroit Railroad Company was authorized March 7, 1831, 
with Eurotas P. Hastings, Levi Cook, Shubael Couant, Gordon A. Leach, Daniel 
W. Phillips, Lyman T. Jenny, John S. Axford, Jacob A. Summers, and Peleg Ewell, 
commissioners under tlie direction of a majority of whom subscriptions to the 
amount of JflOOiOOO capital stock miglit be received. 

An Act of the Legislative Council of the Territory of Michigan, approved 
March 27, 1835, ordained, that the Supervisors of Macomb County, should, if they 
deem proper, discontinue all suits, pending in the Circuit Court, against Nathan B. 
Miller, John Elliott, James Meldrum, and Francis Dequindre, as sureties of William 
Meldrum, late treasurer of the county, and may release such bondsmen from all 

Richard Butler for copying returns of the sheriif, containing 6,400 inhabitants 
at $3.00 per thousand, received $18,02, March 21, 1358. 

An Act approved March 27, 1835, authorized the inhabitants of Harrison and 
Clinton townships to erect a bridge over the Clinton River at or near the village of 
Mt. Clemens, under the superintendence of Christian Clemens and Antoine Chortier, 
and authorizing a tax to be levied on the people of these townships to meet the ex- 
penses of the work. The conditions imposed were a bridge 1-4 feet wide, with a 
draw in the center of not less than 36 feet, and to be considered a free bridge for 

The Act to incorporate the Clinton Salt Works Company was approved April 
3, 1838, giving authority to Robert S. Parks, Lawson S. Warner, Thomas B. Andrews, 



Charles Hubbell, and Calvin C. Parks to form such a company and carry on the 

An Act for the relief of the township of Shelby was approved March 9, 1838, 
dealing with the former absconding collector of taxes, and enabling the new collector 
to receive the sums of money unpaid to the man reported as absconding. 

An Act appointing commissioners to establish State Roads was approved Feb. 
28, 1838, directing that a State road from Mt. Clemens, by way of Crawford's 
Settlement in Macomb Tp; Chubb's Settlement in Ray Tp., to Flower's store in 
Armada, be laid out, and appointing Wm. Canfield, Stewart Taylor, and Azariah 
Prentiss, commissioners. 



James Fulton 1818-22 

William Meldrum. ..1S22-28 

N. Nye 1828-30 

Addison Chamberlain 1830-32 

William Canfield 1S32-36 

Abraham Freeland 1836-3S 

Calvin Davis 1 838-40 

Amos B. Cooley 1 840-44 

John G. Dixon _ 1 844-46 

Varnum Lutkin 1 846-4S 

Milo SellecU .1848-50 

Walter Porter 1850-52 

Thonjas Colby _ 1852-56 

Charles C. Lamb. 1856-60 

Joseph Hubbard _ 1860-64 

Geo. E. Adair 1864-66 

Has well Church 1866-70 

Frederick G. Kendrick 1870-74 

Winfield S. Hathaway _ 1874-7S 

Louis Groesbeck 1878-80 

T. W. Newton 1880-82 


John Stockton 1818-25 

Thomas Brandon 1 825-26 

R. S. Rice 1826-28 

R. P. Eldridge 1828-30 

Richard Butler 1830-36 

Amos Dalby 1836-46 

Robert Thompson „ 1S46-48 

Ira Stout 1848-50 

Theron Cud worth __ 1850-52 

John S. Fletcher 1852-54 

Perrin Crawford .' 1854-56 

John B. Ellsworth ..1856-58 

Henry O. Smith 1858-64 

James Whiting _ 1864-66 

William M. Connor 1866-70 

Charles S. Groesbeck 1870-78 

William L. Dicken 1878-82 


John Stockton 1818-28 

William Meldrum 1828-32 

Rodney O. Cooley 1832-38 

Amos Dalby ..1838-44 

Henry Teats 1844-48 

Robert H. Wallace 1848-52 

John J. Traver 1852-56 

Norton L. Miller 1856-60 

Geo. W. French 1860-62 

Thomas L. Sackett 1862-68 

Alonzo M. Keeler 1868-70 

Geo. W. Robinson 1S70-72 

Alonzo M. Keeler ^. 1S72-74 

Traugotte Longerhausen 1874-80 

Judson S. Farrar 1880-82 


Christian Clemens. .1818-36 

Prescott B. Thurston 1S36-40 

Porter Kibbee 1840-48 

Prescott B. Thurston 1848-60 

Isaac B. Gilbert 1 860-64 

Henry O. Smith 1864-68 

Thomas L. Sacket 1868-76 

James B. Eldredge 1876-80 

James B. Eldredge 18 




Christian Clemens iSiS-27 

John S. Axford 1827-32 

H iram Calkins -. .1832-34 

Horace H. Cady 1834-36 

Rodney O. Cooley 1836-40 

Henry M. Dodge 1840-42 

Thomas M. Perry 1842-48 

Allen P. Bentley 1848-52 

Joshua B. Dickenson. 1852-56 

Charles B. Matthews 1856-60 

Edward C. Gallup 1860-62 

Justus R. Crandall 1862-66 

Josiah T. Robinson 1866-68 

Joseph Hubbard 1868.70 

Oliver Chapaton 1S70-78 

Charles Tackels 1878-82 


EzraB. Prescott 1S18-20 

Geo. A. O'Keefe 1820-28 

Alex. D. Frazer 1828-32 

Robert P. Eldridge _ 1S32-34 

Cornelius O'Flynn 1834-38 

Dewitt C. Walker 1838-40 

John J. Leonard 1840-42 

I larleigh Carter 1 842-44 

\Vm. T. Mitchell .1844-46 

Andrew S. Robertson 1846-50 

Giles Hubbard I S50-56 

Richard Butler 1856-5S 

Giles Hubbard 1 858-60 

Elisha F. Mead. ...1860-62 

Thomas M. Crocker 1862-64 

Giles Hubbard 1864-66 

Edgar Weeks 1 866-70 

James B. Eldredge. 1870-76 

Geo. M. Crocker 1876-S0 

Irving D. Hanscom iSSo-82 

[Mr. Hanscom moved to Marquette in June, 1082.] 


John B. HoUister 1830-32 

William A. Burt 1S32-34 

Ephraim Calkins. 1S34-36 

Joel Manley 1836-42 

Charles F. Mallory ...1842-50 

Ludwig Wesolouski 1850-52 

Geo. E. Adair 1S52-56 

Addison P. Brewer 1856-60 

Geo. H. Fenner 1860-62 

Ludwig Wesolouski 1862-64 

Oscar S. Burgess .1864-70 

Geo. E. Adair 1870-72 

Oscar S. Burgess 1872-74 

Clarence Stephens .1874-76 

George E.Adair... 1876-82 


The first record of the Board is given under date July 17, 1827. Henry 
Taylor, John S. Axford, Josejjh Lester, Reuben R. Lester, Job C. Smith, super- 
visors, were present. One of the resolutions adopted at this meeting was that no 
bounty should be allowed for wolf or panther scalps in the future, and that 14 
be allowed for scalps taken under the law. 

In October, 1827, the Board ordered that tliere should be raised for county 
purposes one-third of one per cent, upon all taxable property, which equal- 
ized would entail a tax upon Harrison, $80 ; on Clinton, 170 ; on Shelby, $50 ; 
Washington, i70 ; Ray, $28.37. 

The first record of the issue of county orders is dated October 15, 1827, and 
is as follows: " B. W. Freeman, for services rendered the United States versus 
Garret Vand der Pool, 93 cents ; Moses Freeman, in the same cause, $i ; Old David, 
for wolf scalps, $i ; William Olds, for services as constable and crier, $3.50 ; Robert 
Townsend, for wolf scalps, $4 ; Isaac Andrews, for services rendered County Com- 

|V1/^C0|^/1B COU^fT/.CO^j)^T HOUSL^ 1881-2, 



missioners, $3.50; John S. Axford, for duties as late County Commissioner, io; 
Asa Huntley, #2; John S. Axt'ord, as Supervisor, $6 ; Joseph Lester, $6 for services 
as Supervisor ; Reuben R. Smith, for similar services, fO ; Job C. Smith, $4 ; 
Ezekiel Allen, late C^lounty Commissioner, io; Ephraim McCall, as Clerk of Super- 
visor's Board, $1.50 ; Henr}' Taylor, ■|!4, as Supervisor ; John S. Axford, for wolf 
scalps, $4. 

What changes have taken place since this record was made ! The old super- 
visors placed a quietus on the wolf hunters, exercised a false economy in every 
department of the public business of the county ; yet they were honorable men, 
and acted only in the spirit of the times. A few years later they were among the 
first to receive the teachings of the new immigrants from the Eastern States, and 
since 1835 may be said to equal in public enterprise tlie supervisors of the counties 
erected during that year. 

In the paper on county organization, prepared in 1868 by Edgar Weeks, the 
following account of proceedings is given : 

The County of Macomb was organized on the 18th day of Januaiy, in the 
year 1818. Prior to tliat date Macomb County was attached to the Judicial Dis- 
trict of Huron, and its limits embraced the present counties of Oakland, St. Clair, 
Lapeer, and several other more northern counties. The county seat was estab- 
lished at Mt. Clemens, where it has remained to this day. On the organization of 
tlie county, the governor, by commissions under the great seal of the territory, 
appointed the following officers. We give the names of the persons appointed, 
the dates of the appointments, and the titles of tlie offices : 1818, Jan. 20 — 
Christian Clemens, Chief Justice ; Daniel Leroy and V/illiam Thompson, Associate 
Justices; John Stockton Clerk of the Court of General and Quarter Sessions ; 
Conrad Tucker, Justice of the Peace ; Elisha Harrington, Justice of the Peace ; 
Ignace Morass, Coroner; John Connor, Constable ; Rufus Hatch, Justice of the 
Peace ; Feb. 9 — Daniel Leroy, Justice of the Peace ; Francis Labadie, Justice of 
the Peace ; John K. Smith, Justice of the Peace ; June 22 — John Connor and 
John B. Pettit, Commissioners ; Aug. 13 — James Robinson, Constable ; Benoit 
Tremble, Supervisor of Harrison ; Nov. 3 — Daniel LeRo}', Judge of Probate ; 
John Stockton, Register of Probate ; Dec. 12 — John Stockton, Justice of the 
Peace. 18PJ, Jan. 4 — Esra Prescott, Prosecuting Attorney. 

Up to the year 1827, the municipal powers of the county were exercised 
through a Board of County Commissioners, and at that time the county was 
territorially divided into five townships, named Harrison, Clinton, Shelby, Wash- 
ington and Ray. These townships were, geographicall}', made up quite differently 
from their present boundaries. We will not stop to describe more than our own 
town of Clinton as it then stood. In the old town of Harrison was then included 


a portion of what is now Clinton, and what now constitutes Chesterfield and 
Lenox. Clinton then comprised what is now Erin, Warren, Macomb and the balance 
of what is now Clinton, not then included in Harrison. 

The first election in this township was held at the Court House, in Mt. 
Clemens, and Job C. Smith was elected supervisor. The first supervisor of Har- 
rison was our old townsman, Dr. Henry Taylor, senior. The first session of the 
Board of Supervisors of this county, was held at Mt. Clemens, and Robert P. 
Eldredge was chosen as its clerk. The apportionment of the taxes of the year 
1827, cast upon this town the burden of raising the sum of $70.00, while Harri- 
son was compelled to contribute $80.00, Shelby $50.00, Ray $"28.37, and Washing- 
ton $70.00, a total for all purposes in the county of $298.37. 

The next year the total amount of taxes raised in this county, was $525.59, of 
which amount Clinton raised $117.88. A resolution of the Board at this time, was 
to the effect that the improved lands of Clinton and Harrison be valued at two 
dollars per acre, while the same lands in the other towns were valued at eight 
dollars per acre. 

Events in the history of our county transpiring subsequent to the year 1827, are 
preserved in the records of the County Clerk's office, at the county seat, and to that 
repository of our county legislation the curious reader may at anytime resort, 
and assuage his curiosity, or satisfy his thirst after knowledge of matters which 
are interesting to the statistician, but which do not form an interesting feature for 
the general reader. They are facts which bear more intimately upon the physical, 
economical and industrial advancement made by the people of the county. 



The interest manifested in public affairs by the people of Macomb becomes 
evident from a review of the General. State and County elections, an account of 
which is given in this chapter. For many years the political battle was carried on 
between the Democrat and Whig, with victory almost always attending the former. 
As times moved onward, new ideas sprang into existence, varying, as it were, 
political life, and urging the old politicians to advance in the paths of reform. At 
{>ne time a tendency existed to cast away the tyranny oi party, and give an untram- 
meled vote for the man. This tendency grows stronger with years. While 
acknowledging the gi-eat benefits conferred upon the Republic by the two great 
parties that claim to be President-makers, yet great numbers of the people are dis- 

*C ® s^ 



satisfied ; they can not overlook the magnitude of the abuses which have entwined 
themselves with the present system, and which contribute to lessen that great name 
once belonging to the greatest and most perfect of governments. 

The adherents of party in this county have not been silent when reform was 
needed. They have scanned the course of their representatives with jealous eye, 
and rewarded or punished just in such measure as justice poiutetli, securing thereby 
a fair representation in the council of the Republic as well as in that of the State. 
Nativeism, sectionalism, know-nothingism and demouism, or religio-political big- 
otr3% appear to be on the margin of the grave ; some of the vices are already buried, 
but enough remain to cause some little disunion, if not disaffection, and so live 
to destroy what would be otherwise a magnificent solidarity of public peace and 
prosperity. Mercy, justice and patriotism require every corner of this land for 
tenancy, so that sectionalism and all its concomitant vices must yield — must give 
place to what is good and noble, and let peace rule the Republic forever. 

During the first years of the county's history, party bigotry was not acknowl- 
edged, but convention and caucus were held, the same as now, to select a man, 
not to serve his own or his party's interest, but that of the people. The first set- 
tlers were attached to tlie Jacksonian political school, because they saw in the old 
General one who held the Constitution of the United States above all else. When, 
in 1832, South Carolina assumed the right to ignore the laws of the United States, 
and to oppose the collection of the revenue, Gen. Jackson, then President, acted 
with his usual decision, aud told the South Carolinians that the Union must be 
preserved. He sent United States troops into that State, instructed the revenue 
collector at Charleston to perform his duty, and notified John C. Calhoun that he 
would be arrested on the committal of the first overt act against the law. TJiis 
decisive action, together with the terms of his proclamation, cemented, as it were, 
all political parties under one leader. " The power to annul a law of the United 
States," he says, '"is incompatible with the existence of the Union, contradicted 
expressly by the letter of the Constitution, unauthorized by its spirit, inconsistent 
with eveiy pi-inciple on which it is founded, and destructive to the great object for 
which it was formed. To say that any State may at pleasure secede from the 
Union, is to say that the United States are not a nation ; because it would be a 
solecism to contend that any part of the nation might dissolve its connection with 
the other part, to their injury or ruin, without committing any offence. * * * * 
The States severally have not retained their entire sovereignty. It has been shown 
that, in becoming parts of a nation, they surrendered many of their essential parts 
of sovereignty. The right to make treaties, declare war, levy taxes, exercise exclu- 
sive judicial and legislative powers, were all of them functions of sovereign power. 
The States, then, for all of these important purposes, were no longer sovereign. 


* *. * * The duty imposed on me by the Constitution, to take care that the laws 
l)e faitiifully executed, sliall be performed to the extent of the powers vested in 
me by law." In this manner President Jackson instructed tlie South Carolinians 
in the principles of federal government, and in this manner, also, did he notify 
them of the intentions of the United States in the event of their persisting in the 
violation of any of its laws. 

In those olden times a man was chosen on his merits, and entrusted with the 
true representation of the people in the Legislature as well as in the Supervisor's 
Court. A reference to the election returns will prove this statement precise in 
every particular. Years rolled on, and still party lines remained unobserved. In 
1836 there was an apparent tendency to draw those lines closer ; but the effort was 
comparatively a weak one. Two years later, in 1838, the doctrine of abolition was 
received with evident marks of disapprobation in this county. In 1840 Abolition. 
and Liberty created some political excitement here ; but not sufficient to lead one 
to conclude that within a quarter of a century, this count}' would send forth thou- 
sands of private soldiers and officers to do battle for the principle, which it held so 
cheap in 1840. 

In 1841 James G. Birney was called from his quiet liome at Lower Saginaw to 
enter the political battlefield against Henry Clay on one ticket and James K. Polk 
on the other. Birney was enthusiastic, honest, and honorable. As a politician he 
lived before his time, and as a result did not occupy the Presidential Office. Ten 
j'ears later the greater number of those who followed the standard of the Liberty 
Party, acquiesced in the doctrine preached under the oaks at Jackson, and the 
" name and fame "' of the Sons of Liberty were henceforth embosomed in tliat party. 

Tlie American Party, organized immediately afterward, soon passed away. In 
this county, its impracticable, unjust, and unholy principles were stigmatized, and 
to the credit of the people, may it be said, entirely ignored. It was no more 
American in spirit, than was the Tea Tax and the other principles of its originators, 
which roused American manhood to cast off all connection with them. 

The contest between the humble Abraham Lincoln, and the noted Stephen A. 
Douglass, in 1860, was characteristically interesting. The result decided the 
fate of the slave-holding Southerners, and gave to the seventh decade of the nine- 
teenth century a nation of freemen — such an one as the Fathers of the Republic 
dreamed of — such an one as the world liad never hitherto known. 

In 1864 George B. McClellan opposed the great War President. The claims 
of the former were many and much appreciated ; but he who proclaimed the aboli- 
tion of slavery, from the highest seat in the Union, was destined to occupy that 
position, and would doubtless be elected and re-elected, had not the foul assassin 
snatched from him a life, then in the spring-time of its fame. 



Horatio Seymour, a refined, enlightened Statesman, was nominated by tlie 
Democratic Party in 1868. The fortunate Grant was nominated by the Republican 
Part}'. Notwithstanding all the high qualifications for that office, which Mr. Sey- 
mour possessed, the man who cast thousands upon thousands of the best blood of 
the North, against the columns of the slave-holders deserved to be, and was elected. 
It were well for the famous General, if his political life ended in 1872; but it was 
not so ordered, evidently, in the destiny of the Republic. 

In 1872 Gen. Grant was renominated, to oppose Charles O'Connor on the Demo- 
cratic, and Horace Greeley on the Liberal-Republican tickets ; but the services of 
the soldier were too well remembered, and so the epauleted Grant was returned to 
the White House for a second term. 

In 1876 Samuel J. Tilden representing the Democrats, and R. B. Hayes, the 
Republicans, sought the favors of the people. The memory of that contest is too 
fresh to require further reference. Mr. Hayes reached the White House, and held 
it for four years. Owing to his quiet administration, and the return of prosperity, 
his party lost little ground, although many said the disputes and uncertainties of 
that election would militate against Republican success in 1880. 

The elections of 1880 were, perhaps, the most enthusiastic of all expressions of 
the popular will. Then was Greek opposed to Greek ; Gen. Hancock won distinc- 
tion on the battle fields of the .South, — his service was magnificent. Gen. Garfield 
had some little military experience ; but what was wanting in this respect, was fully 
made up in his knowledge of public economy and practical knowledge of every-day 
life. He was elected ; but who could then dream, that the new President would 
fall beneath the blow of an assassin, while yet his Cabinet was unorganized? 
Almost before he entered on the duties of his high office, he fell at the hands of an 
American, and from this fall he never rallied, until death ended his terrible suffer- 
ings. His death placed the Republic in mourning throughout its length and 

Vice-President Arthur assumed the Presidential Chair, and under him the 
troubles in the Senate were smoothed down, and the Nation allowed to resume its 
ways of progress. 

Thi-oughout the various political campaigns, from 1818 to the present time, the 
citizens of Macomb, have, as a rule, given a popular vote. Previous to 185-4, the 
county was decidedly Democratic. From 1851 to 1870 it may be said to have given 
the Republicans a majority; and since 1870 to the present time political power is so 
equally balanced that representatives of both parties sliare the confidence of the 
people. A desire has existed and does exist, to witness the victory of virtue over 
vice, and so far as such a laudable desire could be effected, the people were re- 
warded in their contests. 



In the following pages the results of the various elections, so far as this county 
is concerned, are given. It is not to be presumed, however, that majorities given 
for candidates for the United States Congress, or for officers of State resulted in 
their election. The vote received in this county alone is only given, to learn who 
was elected, reference must be made to the State History. 

The county officers elected in 1818, 1820, 1822, and 1824 are named in the 
Organic Chapter. The election returns, with the names of candidates before the 
people of this county for the honor of office, are given from 1825 to the present time. 


Congress, 1S25.— Christian Clemens, 52 ; James 
Connor, 44; John Stockton, 63; Joseph Miller, 
57. These returns were certified to by Chris- 
tian Clemens, Chief Justice of the County of 
Macomb; Elisha Harrington, Associate Justice of 
Macomb ; Thomas Ashley and Nathaniel Squiers, 
Commissioners ; and William Meldrum, Sheriff. 

Countv commissioners, 1S25. — John S. Axford, 
30 ; Ezekiel Allen, 29 ; Joseph Hayes. 29. 

Treasurer, 1S25. — William M. Dannell, 10; 
Christian Clemens, 12. 

Coroner, 1823. — Harvey Cook, 22. 
Constables. 1825.— Daniel B. Webster, 24 ; Isaac 
Andrus, 27 ; Gideon Gates, 6. 
missioners, 1826. — Alexander Tackles 
. Davis VF, 14. 

1827. — Ray Township: John Biddle, 
18; Austin E. Wing, 2 ; Benj. N. Truman, i. Clin- 
ton Township ; John Biddle, 31 ; Austin Wing, 6 ; 
Gabriel Richard, 7. Shelby Township : John Bid- 
dle, 15; Austin Wing, 26. Harrison Township: 
Gabriel Richard, -ai ; John Biddle, 9 ; Austin 
Wing, 45. Washington Township: John Biddle, 
34; Austin E. Wing, 24. 

Member Legislative council, 1827. — Clinton: 
John Stockton d., 40; Wm. A.Burt w., 2; John 
K. Smith, I ; Shelby: John Stockton d., 15 ; Wm. 
A. Burt w, 17. Ray; Wm. A. Burt w, 16; John 
Stockton d, y. Washington: Wm. A. Burt w, 40; 
John Stockton d, 30. Harrison : John Stockton, 
45. John Stockton received 139, and Wm. A.Burt 
75 votes. 

County con 
d, 50 ; Calvi 



1829. — Harrison: Gabriel Richard, 89; 

John Biddle, 31 ; John R. Williams, 3. Wash- 
ington : Gabriel Richard, 13; John R. Williams, I; 
Christopher Arnold, i ; John Biddle, I. Clinton : 
John Biddle, Jg ; Gabriel Richard, 5; John R. 
Williams, I. Shelby: John Biddle, 37; Gabriel 
Richard, g. Ray : John Biddle, 35. 

Member Legislative council, i82g. — Harrison : 
John Stockton, 110; Wm. A. Burt, 13. Clinton: 
John Stockton, 14 ; Wm. A. Burt, 12. Shelby: John 
Stockton, 32; Wm. A. Burt w, 12. Washington: 
Wm. A. Burt, 73 ; John Stockton, 51. Desmond, 
St. Clair, Coltrellville: John Stockton, 83; Wm 
A. Burt, 97. Ray: Wm.A. Burt w, 29 ; John Stock- 
ton d, 5. 

County coroner, 1829. — Harvey Cook, Harrison, 
32 ; Washington, 84 ; Clinton, 44 ; Ray, 29 ; Shel- 
by, 2. 

Countv Treasurer, 1S29. — Harrison: Ezekiel Al- 
len, 34 ; John S. .'Vxford, 4. Washington: Ezekiel 
Allen. iS ; John S. Axford, S3. Clinton: John S. 
Axford, 25 ; Ezekiel Allen, 39. Ray : Ezekiel Al- 
len. 4 ; John S. Axford, 26. Shelby, John S. Ax- 
ford, 23 ; Ezekiel Allen, 8. After the election of 
1829, Mr. Burt became a Democrat, and observed 
the principles of that party ftntil his death in 1858. 

Congress, 1831. — Clinton : John R. Williams, 40; 
Sam. W. Dexter, 27 ; Austin E. Wing, 44. Ray : 
Austin E. Wing, i ; John F. Williams, 5 ; Sam. W. 
Dexter, 31. Washington: Sam. W. Dexter, 100; 
Austin E. Wing, 36 ; John R. Williams, 22. Harri- 
son : John R. Williams, 69; Austin E. Wing, 57 ; 
Sam W. Dexter, 3. Shelby : Sam. W. Dexter, 49 ; 
Austin E. Wing, 16; John R. Williams, 5. 

Member Legislative council, 1831. — -St. Clair 
John Stockton, 91 ; Alfred Ashley, 89. Washington 
Alfred Ashley, 122 ; John Stockton, 40. Clinton 





John Stockton, 54; Alfred Ashley, 57. Ray: Al- 
fred Ashley, 41; John Stockton, 25. Harrison: 
Alfred Ashley, 10; John Stockton, 121. Shelby: 
Alfred Ashley, 49 ; John Stockton, 36. 

l't>/c- on expediency of State Government, October 
22, 1832. — Ray Township 33 yes, 2 no; Shelby 
Township 43 yes, 27 no ; Harrison Township I yes, 
60 no ; Washington Township 45 yes, 9 no. 

County Treasurer 1832. — Shelby; Hiram Calkins 
49 ; Ezra B. Throop, ig. Ray : Ezra B. Throop, o; 
Hiram Calkins, 46. Harrison : Hiram Calkins, I ; 
Ezra B. Throop, 76. Washington : Ezra B. Throop, 
19; Hiram Calkins, gg. 

Coroner, 1832.— Shelby : Anthony King, 28 ; Ray : 
46; Harrison : 12 ; Washington : 43. 


Congress, 1833. — Austin E. Wing, 36 ; Wm. Wood- 
bridge, 220 ; Lucius Lyon, 259. 

Members Legislative council, 1833. — Ralph Wad- 
hams d, 249 ; John Stockton d, 402. 


Treasurer.— U. H. Cady d., 499; Syl. T. At- 
wood w., 278. 

Coroner. — Harvey Cook d., 497 ; Lyman T. Jenny, 

Registrar. — John Stockton d., 487 ; Richard But- 
ler w, 271 ; Rodney O'Cooley, 12. 

Probate Judge.— Vrescolt B. Thurston w, 288 ; 
Christian Clemens d, 146 ; Calvin Davis d, 201. 

Associate Judges. — Ebenezer Hall w, 164 ; Samuel 
S. Axford d, 550 ; Horace Stevens d, 487 ; Minot T. 
Lane, 78. 

Sheriff. — Abram Freeland d, 507 : Daniel Chand- 
ler w, 109 ; Orison Sheldon w, 18. 

County clerk. — Amos Dolby d, 447 ; Aaron 
Weeks w, 20; Prescott B. Thurston w, 119 ; Benj. 
M. Freeland d, 2. ' 

Registrar. — Amos Dolby d, 245 ; James Brown 
w, 107 ; G. W. Knapt d, 205 ; Gideon Gates w, 92 ; 
Prescott B. Thurston w, 9: Richard Butler w, i. 

Treasurer. — Rodney O. Cooley d, 516; Wm. A. 
Burt d, 5 ; Aaron Weeks w, 102. 

Coroners. — William Olds d, 635 ; Harry B. Teed 
d. 337 ; Benj. N. Freeman w, 79 ; Norman Perry w, 

County surveyors. — Joel W. Manly d, 436 ; Wm. 
A. Burt d, 192. 

Presidential Electors. — David C. McKinstry, 397 ; 

Daniel Le Roy, ; Wm. H. Hoag, ; Wol- 

cott Lawrence, 44; William Draper ; Wm. H. 

Walsh, . 

Sci!ators.-]3.coh Summers d, 536 ; William Draper, 
w, 89 ; Thomas J. Drake w, 35 ; Randolph Manning 
d, 414 ; John Clarke d, 408. 

Representatives. — Isaac Munfore d, 679 ; Tinus 
S. Gilbert vv, 23S ; William Canfield d, 134 ; Ephraim 
Calkins d, 547 ; Alfred Goodell d, 28S. 


Governof, 1S37. — Charles C. Trowbridge w, 633; 
Stevens T. Mason d, 426; Ed. D. Ellis — , 88. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1837. — Daniel S. Bacon w, 
607 ; Edward Mundy d, 421 ; John Biddle w, 138. 

Senafois, 1S37. — S. V. R. Trowbridge w, 617; 
Thomas J. Drake w, 629; Elijah F. Cook d, 469; 
John Barton d. 463. 

Representatives, 1S37. — Richard Butler vv, 6l6 ; 
Orison Sheldon w, 6o3 ; Caleb Wilber w, loi ; 
Minot T. Lane w, 602 ; Robert P. Eldredge d, 488 ; 
Ephraim Calkins d, 371 ; Alfred Goodell d, 472; 
Isaac J. Grovier d, 47 ; Calvin Davis d, 39 ; Alex- 
ander Tackles d, 42. 

Congress, 1837. — Isaac E. Crary d, 265 ; Heze- 
kiah G. Wells w, 275. 


Congress, 1S3S. — Isaac E. Crary d, 704; Heze- 
kiah G. Wells w, 610. 

State senators, 1S38. — Jacob Summers d, 677 ; 
Ebenezer B. Harrington d, 671 ; Reuben R. Smith 
w. 611 ; Ira Porter w, 623. 

Representatives, 1838. — Isaac J. Grovier d, 693 
Samuel Axford d, 661 ; Alexander Tackles d, 678 
Richard Butler w, 565 ; Henry R. Schetterly d, 590 
Ornon Archer w, 536 ; Minot T. Lane w, 45 ; Hiram 
Sherman w, 3 ; James L. Conger w, 25. 

Sheriff', 1838. — Calvin Davis d, 706 ; Orson Shel- 
don w, 595 ; Henry M. Dodge d, I. 

County commissioners, 183S. — Sanford H. Corbin 
d, 692 ; Ephraim Calkins d, 720 ; Solomon Porter 
d, 673 ; Ebenezer Hall vv, 582 ; Payne K. Leech w, 
611; Azariah W. Sterling w, 613; Capt. Bachelor, 
I ; Richard Butler, i. 

Registrar of Deeds, 1838. — Thomas R. Bourne w, 
585 ; Amos Dalby d, 719. 

County clerk, 1S38. — Amos Dalby d, 745 ; Calvin 
S. Williams vv, 557. 

Coroners, 1S38. — William Lewis d, 696 ; Alfred 



Goodell d, 6S9 ; Isaac Russ w, 5gS ; Linus S. Gil- 
bert w, 601 ; Ebenezer Hall. i. 

County surveyor, 183S. — Joel W. Manley d, 7S5 ; 
Orrin Southwell. 4S0. 

County Treasuiet. Henry M. Dodge d, 689 ; Nor- 
man Perry w, 610. 


Governor, 1839. — William Woodbridge w, Soy ; 
Elon Farnsworth d, 7S6. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1839. — James W. Gordon vv, 
807; Thomas Fitzgerald d, 783. 

Senator, 1839.— Robert ^- Eldredge d, S19; Jus- 
tin Rice w, 735. 

Representatives, 1839. — Dewitt C. Walker d, 797 ; 
Samuel Axford d, 792 ; John Stockton d, 789 ; 
Azariah W. Sterling w, 762 ; Hiram Andrews w, 
761 ; James L. Conger w, 723 ; Alexander D. 
Thurston d, i ; Dexter Mussey w, i ; P. B. Thurs- 
ton w, I ; Richard Butler w, 2; Ebenezer Hall w, 
2; Dr. E. Hall w, I. 

County commissioners. 1839. — Ephraim Calkins 
d, S08; Payne K. Leach w, 718: R. Butler,, i. 

Constitutional Amemhnent, 1839. — For amend- 
ment, 266 ; against amendment, 453. 

Court-House Loan, 1S39. — For the loan, 242; 
against the loan, 1,024. 


PresiJcntial Electors, 1840. — Charles Moran d, 
Kinsley S.Bingham d, Charles E. Stuart d, :r24; 
Thomas J. Drake w, John Van Fo<;sen w, Hezekiali 
G. Wells w, 9S2. 

Congress, 1840. — Alpheus Felch d, H39 ; Jacob 
M. Howard w, 973; Asa Avers w, i ; Richard But- 
ler w, I ; Gardner D. Williams w, i. 

Senator, 1S40. — James L. Conger w, 9S5 ; Dewitt 
C. Walker w, 1121. 

Representatives, 1S40. — John Stockton d. 1156; 
Gurden C. Leech d, 1122; Josiah Lee d, 1128; 
Wm. Henry Warren w, 947; Hiram Andrews w. 
973 ; Minot T. Lane w, 971. 

Sheriff, 1840 — Lyman B. Price d, 1137; .■\zariah 
W. Sterling w. 975. 

Judge of Probate, 1840.— Peter S. Palmer d, 
•1128 ; Prescott B. Thurston w, 982. 

Treasurer, :840. — Henry M. Dodge d, I150; 
Joseph Hubbard w, 963. 

Comity clerk, 1840. — Orson Sheldon w, 943; Anios 
Dalby d, 1163. 

County Registrar, 1840. — Orson Sheldon w, 942 ; 
Amos Dalby d, 1162. 

County Juilges, 1840. — Azariah Prentis d, 11 14; 
Hiron Hathaway d, 1139; Ebenezer Hall w, 974 ; 
Justin H. Butler w, 974. 

Coroners, 1840. — Daniel Shattuck d, 1140; Masin 
Harris d, 1 137; Solomon Lathrop w, 975; Valorous 
Maynard w, 972. 

Surveyors, 1S40. — Joel W. Manley d, 1168; Joseph 
Cole, 940. 

County commissioners. — Neil Gray d, 1:26; Wm. 
M. Willey, 976. 


Governor, 1S4T. — John S. B.irry d, 1033 '. Thilo 
C. Fuller w, 660; Jnbez S. Fitch, 7. 

Lieutenant-Governor. 1840. — Origen D. Richard- 
son d, 1030; Edmund B. Bostwick w, 661. 

.Senators, 1841. — Jonathan Shearer d, I0I2 ; Ly- 
man Granger d, 1014 ; Joshiah Snow w, 678 ; Syl- 
vester Warner w. 663. 

Representatives, 1841. — Charles B. H. Fessenden 
d, 994; Hiron Hathaway d. 982; Richard Butler 
w, 705 ; Geo. Perkins w, 640. 

County commissioners, 1841. — Henry Teats d, 
1027 ; Alfred Ashley w, 625. 

Jiiifye of Probate, 1S41, to fill Vacancy. — Pres- 
cott B. Thurston w, 425; Porter Kibbee d, 437; 
Charles B. H. Fessenden d, 237. 


Senators, 1842. — Jonathan Shearer d, 809; Neil 
Gr.ay, Sr., d, 775 ; John Biddle w. 635 ; Minot T. 
Lane w, 658 ; Harvey .S. Bradley w, 46 ; Neil 
Gray. 40. 

Representatives, 1 842. — Samuel Axford d, 846 
Horace H. Cady d, 797 ; Richard Butler w, 692 
Solomon Lathrop w, 605 ; Linus F. Gilbert f s, 33 
Chauncey Church f s, 40. 

Sheriff, 1842.— .^mos B. Cooley d, 816: Joseph 
Hubbard w, 597 ; Thomas L. Sackett f s, 44. 

Treasurer, 1842, — Thomas M. Perry d, S05 ; 
Prescott B. Thurston w, 677 ; Humphrey Shaw, 40; 
Asa B. Ayres, i. 

Registrar of recti s. 1842. — Amos Dalby d, 954 
Almerin Tinker w, 549 ; Norton L. Miller, 40. 

County clet k, 1842. — Amos Dalby d, 975; Norton 
S. Miller w, 56S. 

County Surveyor, 1S42. — Joel W. Manley d, 946 ; 
CoUatinus Day w, 573. 

County coroner, 1842. — Josiah Lee d, 8gi; Daniel 



Shattuck d, Sgo ; Benj. T. Castle w. 6io; David 
Stone w, 606; John Sowle f s, 34; Samuel H. 
Miller f s, 40. 


Governor, 1843. — John S. Barry d, SSg; Zina 
Pitcher w, 594; James G. Birney f s, 72. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1S43. — Origen D. Richard- 
son d, S72 ; James B. Larne w. 590 ; Luther F. 
Stevens, 71. 

Congress, 1843. — James B. Hunt d, S93 ; Thomas 
J. Drake w, 487; William Canfield f s, 66. 

Senators, 1843. — Lorenzo M. Mason d, 839; True 
P. Tucker w, 656. 

Con. Ret<reseniatives, 1843 — Dewitt C. Walker d, 
7S8 ; Philo Tillson d, S6g ; James L. Conger w, 702; 
Wm. A. Burt w, 587 ; James H. Green 56 ; Chaun- 
cey Church. 57. 

Constitutional Amendments of 1S42 submitted, 
1S43. — For Amendment, 1069. Against Amend- 
ment, 79. 


Presidential Electors, 1844 — Parley J. Spalding d, 
Louis Beaufait d, Charles P. Bush d, 1359; George 
Readfield d, Samuel Axford d, JohnBiddle d, Cogs- 
well K. Greene d, James L. Conger d, Morton H. 
Beckvvith \v. Darius C. Jackson w, 964; Arthur L. 
Porter f s. Chandler Carter f s, John W. King f s, 
Erastus Hussey f s, Chester Gurney I s 140. 

Congtess,\%\\ — James B. Hunt d, 1367 ; George 
W. Wisner w, 977 ; William Canfield a, 116. 

Senators, 1S44 — Abner C. Smith d, 1313; William 
Hale d, 1362 ; Richard Butler w, 1013 ; Henry B. 
Holbrook w, 964 ; James H.Green a, 114; Rufus 
Thayer, Jr. a, 118. 

Constitutional Amendments submitted to the people 
1844 — For amendments, 1257 ; against, 143. 

Representatives, 1844 — Harlehigh Carter d, 1254 ; 
Calvin Davis d, 134S ; Henry D. Terry w, 1025 ; 
Dexter Mussey w, looi ; Pliny Corbin f w s, loS ; 
Chauncy Church f w s. 113 ; Charles Chappel, 6. 

County sheriff, 1844 — John G. Dixon d, 13S3 ; 
Payne K. Leach w, 948 ; James H. Rose a, I2t. 

County clerk, 1S44 — Amos Dalby d, 1390 ; 
Norton L. Mdler w, 943 ; Carlton Sabin a, 116. 

Registrar of Deeds 1844 — Henry Teats d, 1376 , 
Norton L. Miller w, 951 ; Carlton Sabin a, n6. 

County Treasurer, 1844 — Thomas M. Perry d, 
1374 ; Elias Scott w, 962 : Humphrey Shaw a, 120. 

Jud'^e of Probate, 1844 — Porter Kibbee d, 1359; 
John J. Leonard w, 953 ; Humphrey Shaw a, 117. 

Associate Judges, 1844 — Alexander Tackles d, 
1361 ; Jacob Summers d, 1331 ; Hiram Andrews w, 
967 ; Solomon Lathrop w, 967 ; James McKay a, 
117 ; Hiram Granger a, 120. 

Coroners, 1844 — Abram Freeland d, 1334 ; William 
"T. Little d, 1375 ; Linus S. Gilbert w, 967 ; William 
Stevens w, 963; John Soules a, 117; Jeremiah 
Sabin a, 118. 

County surveyor, 1844 — Charles F. Mallary d, 
1305 ; Collatinus Day w, gi6 ; Joel W. Manley 223. 


Governor. 1S45— Alphpus Felch d, 7S8 ; Stephen 
Vickory w, 559 ; James G. Berney a, 136. 

Lieutenant-Governor , 1845 — William L. Greenly 
H, 787 ; John M. Lamb w, 560 ; Nathan M. Thomas 
a, 133. 

Senators, 1845 — Gel Rix d, S07 ; Morgan Bates w, 
551 ; William Canfield a, 120. 

Representatives, 1845 — Dewitt C. Walker d, 709; 
Chauncey G. Cady d. 674 ; Payne K. Leach, jr. w, 
696 ; Linus S. Gilbert w, 607 ; Humphrey Shaw w, 
no ; William A. Chapman, 22t. 

Messrs. Cady and Gilbert were declared elected ; 
but lost such seats on account of the Committee on 
Elections deciding that the votes given for C. G. 
Cady could not be counted for Chauncey G. Cady. 


Congress. 1846 — Kingsley S. Bingham d, S77 ; 
George W. Wisner w, 708 , William Canfield a, 126. 

Senators, 1846 — Robert P. Eldridge d, 754; 
Andrew T. McReynolds, d, 732 ; Andrew T. 
McReynolds d, 58; John E. Schwartz w, 613 ; John 
E Schwartz d, 149 ; Jacob M. Howard w, 691 ; Eben 
J. Perrinman, 687 ; Linus S. Gilbert. 651 ; Silas M. 
Holmes, 123; Wm. S. Gregory, 118; Jeremiah 
Sabin, 120. 

Representatives, 1S46 — Jacob Shooke d, 900 
Lyman B. Price d, S37 ; Alfred Goodell d, 764 
Hiram Sherman w, 697 ; George W. Merrill w, 71 1 
Giles Hubbard w, 730; Robert McKay a, 126 
Daniel Chandler a, 116 ; Nathaniel Carter a, 122. 

County sheriff, 1846. — John G. Dixon d, 757; 
Varnum Lufkin w, Sio; Humphrey Shaw a, in. 

County clerk, 1846. — Thomas J. Rutler d, 737; 
Robert Thompson w, 838, James Vaughn a, 114. 

County Treasurer, 1846. — Thomas M. Perry d. 



825; Norman Perry w. 746; John R. Tyson a, 117. 
Seath Brannock, I. 

A\xh-lrar of Dffds, 1S46.— Henry Teats d, 840. 
Orin Freeman w, 721; Mason Cole a, loS. 

Jml^e of rouiity court, 1846.— Robert P. EI- 
dredge d. 720, John J. Leonard w, 777; William 
Canfield a, 120. 

Second Judge Co. court, 1846,— Charles Marble 
Jr. d, 848; Isaac B. Gilbert w, 705; Pliny Corbin a, 
llg; Charles Marble d, 27. 

County coroners, 1846. — Asa R. Mosher d, 823; 
Geo. W. Corey d, S72; Thomas F. Dryer w, 705; 
Asa. M. Harris w, 6gg; Daniel Flagler w, ng; 
Joseph T. Foster a, ilg. 

County surveyor, 1846. — Charles F. Mallory d, 
765; Joel W. Manley d, 225; Ludwig Wessalouski 
w, 2; Orson Inglesbee w, 544. 

Governor, 1847. — James M. Edmunds w. 670; 
Epaphroditus Ransom d, g72; Chester Gurney a, 


Lieutenant-Governor 1847. — Hiram L, Miller w, 
677; William M. Fenton d, g67; Horace Hallock a, 


Senators, 1847. — Eber. Ward w, 675; Jacob M. 
Howard w, 67g; Geo. R. Griswold d. g7r; Charles 
A. Loomis d, g70; William Gregory a, 23; Jeremiah 
Sabin a, 24. 

Representatives. 1847. — Henry D. Terry vv, S46 
Geo. W. Merrill w, 684; Hiram Sherman w, 680 
John B. St. John d, 982; Minot T. Lane d, gio 
Aldis L. Rich d, 787. 


Presidential Electors, 1S4S.— John S. Barry d, 1340; 
Lorenzo. M. Mason d, 1340; Rix Robinson d, 1340; 
Horace C. Thirbur d, 1340; William T. Howell d, 
1340. Jacob M. Howard w, 855; Hezekiah G. 
Wells w. 855; Henry Waldron w, S55; Henry B. 
Lathrop w, S55; Hiram L. Miller w, 855. F. J. 
Littlejohn 204; James F. Joy 204; I. V. Christiancy 
204; S. B, Treadwell 204; Wm. Gilmour 204. 

Congress, 1848. — Kinsley S. Bingham d, 1237, 
Geo. H. Hazleton w, 891; John M. Lamb a, 15S. 

Senators, 1848.— Titus Dort d, 1328; Jacob Sum- 
mers d, 1276; William Woodbridge w, 1080; Wm. 
M. Campbell w, 1068. 

Representatives, 1848. — Israel Curtiss d, I32g; 
Chauncey G. Cady d, 1326; James Flower d, I24g; 
Giles Hubbard w, 973; Albert E. Leete w, gog; 

Alvin L. Gilbert w, 8g7 ; Joseph Ayres a, 177; 
Dan'l Chandler a, 177; Jeremiah Sabin a, i6g. 

Judge of Probate, 1848. — Lyman B. Price d, 
1 184; Prescott B. Thurston w, 1188. 

County sheriff, 1848. — Milo Selleck d, 1137; 
Varnum Luf kin w, 1004 ; W. R. Blakeman, 214. 

County cletk, 184S. — Ira Stout d, 1350; Orin 
Freeman w, 876; Harlow Green a, 175. 

County Treasurer, 1848. — Allen P. Bentley d, 
1294; Robert Thompson w, 934; James Alexander 

a, 173- 

Registrar of Deeds, 1848. — Richard Butler w, 
940; Robert H. Wallace d, 125S; Joseph D. Gilbert 

Associate Judges, 1848.— Alfred Ashley w, 702 ; 
Hiram Andrews w, 704. 

County coroners, 1S48.— Abraham Freeland d, 
1154; Moses T. Smith d, 1146; Elon Andrus w, 
815; Aratus Smith w, 7gg. 

County surveyor, 1848.— Charles F. Mallary d, 
1 164; Justus R. Crandall w, 783; Joel W. Manley a, 



Governor, 18 19.— John S. Barry d,_li76 ; Flavins 
J. Littlejohn, 748. 

Lieutenant-Governor, iS4g. — William M. Fenton 
d, 1 177 ; George A. Coe, 773. 

i'/rt^f /'"■«'«•, i84g.— Rensselaer Ingals, 1175; 
Hubbard H. Duncklee, 765- 

Senators, 1849.— Joseph T. Copeland d, 1161 : 
Andrew Harvie d, 1175; Daniel Pittman w, 765 ; 
True P. Tucker w, 751. 

Representatives, 1849.— John Stockton d, 1098; 
Ilarlehigh Carter d, 997 ; Cortez P. Hooker d, 
1 172; Richard Butler w, 6S9; Chauncey Church w, 
751 ; Alvin L. Gilbert w, 778. 

Constitutional Amendment suhmitted to the Peo- 
ple. 1849.— For the Amendment, 131 1 ; against the 
Amendment, II. 

]'ote on calling a convention to make a general 
revision of the constitution, l84g.— For the Conven- 
tion, 1 106 ; against, 126. 


Delegates to convention, June 1850.— Pewitt C. 
Walker d, 6g2 ; Charles W. Chappel d, 663 ; An- 
drew S. Robertson d, 669; Hiron Hathaway d, 
696 ; Payne K. Leach w, 442 ; Alonzo A. Goodman 
w, 437; Alvin L.Gilbert w, 427; Dexter Mussey 
w, 442. 



yudgi's of the supreme court, 1850. — Warner 
Wing d, 1315 ; Sandford M. Green d, 1301 ; Abner 
Pratt d, 1300 ; Henry Chipman w, 868 ; Samuel H. 
Kimball w, 858 ; Charles Draper w, 860. 

Auditor General, 1850. — John Swegles, Jr. d, 
1315 ; Elisha P. Chapman w, 836 ; S. J. M. Ham- 
mond a, 23. 

State Treasurer, 1S50. — Bernard C. Whittemore 
ti. 1315; James Birdsall w, 836; Delemer Duncan 
pro, 22. 

Secretary of state, 1850. — Charles H. Taylor d, 
I3r4; George Martin w, 837; Joseph Chudsey a, 

A ttoniey Genera/, iSso. — William Hale d, 1319 ; 
Austin Blair w, 856. 

Superintendent Public Instruction, 1850. — Francis 
W. .Shearman d, 1319 ; Samuel Barston w, 839; 
Dewitt C. Leech a, 22. 

Senators. 1850. — Titus Dort d, 1307 ; Henry C. 
Kibbee d, 1202; Payne K. Leach w, 915; F. Liv- 
ingstone w, 848. 

Congress, 1S50. — James L. Conger w, Illg ; 
Charles C. Hascall d, 944 ; Kingsley S. Bingham a, 

Representatives, 1850. — David Shook d, 1 192; 
George Chandler d, 1302; Sanford \\. Corbin d, 
ll92;Alonzo A. Goodman w, 944; H. Burke w, 
S5S : Aratus Smith w, 929. 

Prosecuting Attorney, 1850. — Dewitt C. Walker 
d, 1018 ; Giles Hubbard w, 1118. 

County Judge, 1850.— Abner C. Smith d, 1 138 ; 
John J. Leonard \v, 997. 

Second county Judge, \?:%o. — Samuel P. Canfield 
d. 1252; Hiram Andrus w, 889. 

County sheriff, 1850. — Walter Porter d 1242; 
John H. Kaple w, 904. 

County cletk, 1850. — Theron Cudworth d, 1246 ; 
E. L. Freeman w. 874. 

Registrar of Deeds, 1850.— Robert H. Wallace d, 
1263 ; Charles A. Lathrop w, 895. 

County Treasurer, 1850. — Allen P. Bentley d, 
125 1 ; Justus R. Crandrall w, S89. 

County su>-ryor, 1850. — Harvey Mellen d, 998 ; 
Ludwig Wesolouski w, 1161. 

County coroners, 1850. — Ira Spencer d, 1207 ; 
David H. Brown d, 1252 ; William A. Edwards w, 
904 ; Orson Ingoldsby w, 901. 

Constitutional Amendments, 1850. — For the 
Amendments, 1294 ; against, 582. 

Suffrage to colored Persons. 1S50.— For suffrage, 
448 ; against, 1375. 


Governor, 1851. — Robert McClellan d, 776; 
Townsend E. Gridley w, 386. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1S51. — Calvin Britain d, 
774 ; George H. Hazleton w, 3S7 ; Gabriel Yates 
— 2. 

Circuit Judge, 1 85 1.— Joseph T. Copeland d, 
1244 ; Moses Wisner w, 923 ; Origin D. Richardson 
d, 10. 

Regent of the University, 1851.— Charles H. 
Palmer d, 1413 : Marcus H. Miles w, 756. 


Presidential Electors, 1852. — John S. Barry d, 
1634 ; Wm. McCauley d, 1635 ; John Stockton d, 
1633 ; Daniel I. Campau d, 1S34 ; Salmon Sharpe d, 
1096 ; Abraham Edwards d, 1634 ; John Owens w, 
1058 ; George A. Coe w, 1059 ; Townsend E. Grid- 
ley d, 1060 ; Daniel S. Bacon w, 1059 ! Alex. H. 
Morrison w, 1060 ; Wm. M. Thompson w, 1060 ; 
Chester Gurney a, 509 ; Horace Hallock a, 509 ; 
S. B. Treadwell a, 509 ; Robert R. Beecher a, 509 ; 
Nathan M. Thomas a, =109 ; Dewitt C. Leach a, 

Congress, 1852. — Hester L.Stevens d, 1631 ; Geo. 
Bradley w, 1 124 ; Ephraim Calkins a, 424. 

Senator, 1852. — John S. Smith d, 1590 ; Ira H; 
Butteifield w, 1176 ; Levi W. Stone a, 412. 

Governor, 1S52.— Robert McClellan d, 164S ; 
Zachariah Chandler w, iioo ; Isaac P. Christiancy 
a. 449- 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1852. — Andrew Parsons d, 
1665 ; David S. Walbridge w, 918 ; Erastus Hussey 

a, 474- 

Secretary of state, 1S52. — William Graves d, 
1656 ; Geo. E. Pomeroy w, 1069 ; Francis Denison 
a. 479- 

Auditor General, 1S52. — John .Swegles d, 1653 . 
Whitney Jones w, 1071 ; William Wheeler a, 419. 

State Treasurer, 1852. — Bernard C. Whittemore 
d, 1657 ; Sylvester Abel w, 1066 ; Silas M. Holmes 
a, 478. 

Attorney General, \?ic,z. — William Hale d, 1651; 
Nathaniel Bacon w, 1073 ; Hovey K. Clark a, 477. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1852. — 
Francis W. Shearman d, 1654 ; Joseph Penney w, 
1066 ; Upton T. Howe a, 482. 

Commissioner state Land Office, 1852. — Porter 

~a "V 



Kibbee d, 1677; Jonathan R. White w, 1033; 
Nathan Power a, 482. 

Sfii/t- Board of Educai'uni, 1S52. — Isaac E. Ciavy, 
d, 1522 ; Gideon O. Whittemore d, 1520 ; Chauncy 
Toslyn d, 1522 ; Joseph R. Williams w, 965 ; Syl- 
vester Lamed w, 965 ; George Spencer, 79 ; James 
A. B. Stone, 441 ; Edwin B. Fairfield, 440 ; Enoch 
M. Bartlett, 441 ; Grove Spencer w. 884. 

Representatives, 1852. — Samuel P. Canfield d, 
5 58 ; William Jenny w, 526 ; Arnold Hardwood w, 
i; Oliver Adams w, 500 ; Arnold Hardwood w, 
igg ; William Jenny w, 14 • L. I. Wicker a, 217 ; 
Wm. A. Burt d, 504 ; Hiram Calkin w, 281. 

Judge of Probate. 1852.— Harlehigh Carter d, 
136S ; Prescott B. Thurston w, 1459 ; Robert Mc- 
Kay f s, 345. 

Cireuil court coiiitnissiouers. 1852. — Andrew S. 
Robertson d, 1645'; Prescott B. Thurston w. 1256. 

Coitntv sheriff — Thomas Goldy d, 1518; Tru- 
man R. Andrews w, 1162 ; James Alexander a, 437. 

County clerk, 1852.— John S. Fletcher d, 1654 ; 
Charles Andrews w, 1058 ; Carlton Sabin a, 428. 

Prosecuting Attorney, 1852. — Abner C. Smith d, 
1434 : Giles Hubbard w, 1442. 

Ref^islrar of Deeds, 1852. — John T. Traver d, 
1517; Robert Thompson w, 1214; Henry C. Ed- 
gerly a, 440. 

County Treasurer. 1852. — Joshua B. Dickenson 
d, 1660 ; Justus R. Crandall w, 1034 ; David 
Chandler a. 481. 

County surveyor, 1852. — George E. Adair d, 
1446; Ludwig Wesaloiiski w, 1253 ; Austin Burt a. 

County coroners. — Abraham Freeland d, 1624 ; 
David 11. Brown d, 1635 ; Jacob P. Davis w, 1056 ; 
Lewis Drake w, 1054 ; Herman Palmerlee a, 469 ; 
Ed. I. Wooley a, 468. 


Governor, 1854, — John S. Barry d, 1509; Kings- 
ley S. Bingham r, 1349. 

Lieutenant-Governor 1854. — William A. Rich- 
mond d, 1500; Geo. A. Coe r, 1328. 

Secretary of state, 1S54.— William L. Bancroft d, 
1500; John McKenny r, 1363. 

Auditoi General, 1&S4- — John Svvegles d, 1499; 
Whitney Jones r, 1365. 

State Treasurer, 1854. — Deraslus Hinman d,i4g6; 
Silas M. Holmes r, 1368. 

Attorney General, 1854.— Benj. T. H. Witheral d, 
1479; Jacob M. Howard r, 1362. 

Sup. Pull. Instruction, 1S54. — Francis W. Shear- 
man d, 1497 ; Ira Mahew r, 1360. 

Cojnmissioner state Lands. 1854. — Allen Good- 
rich d, 1501; S. B. Treadwell r, 1364. 

State Board of Education, 1854. — Chauncey Jos- 
lyn d, 1499; John R. Kellogg r, 1366; Elijah H. 
Belcher d, 1498 ; Hiram L. Miller r, 1367. 

Congress, 1854. — Geo. W. Peck d, 1495; Moses 
Wisner r, 1 372. 

Senator, 1854. — Cortez P. Hooker d, 1429; Wm. 
Canfield r, 1416. 

Representatives, 1854. — Hiron Hathaway d, 628 ; 
Isaac Gilbert r, 439 ; John L. Beebe r, 12 ; Philander 
Ewell d, 512 ; John L. Bebee r, 309; Hiron Hath- 
away d, 13; Wm. A. Burt d, 324; Dexter Mussey 
r, 60S. 

Circuit court commissioners, 1S54. — Abner C. 
Smith d, 1595 ; Prescott B. Thurston w, 1448. 

Sheriff. 1854.— Thomas Golby d, 1472; Elisha 
Calkins r, 1 347. 

County clerk, 1854. — Perrin Crawford d, 1534; 
Alvin L. Gilbert r, 1324. 

Prosecuting Attorney, 1854. — Harlehigh Carter d, 
1301 ; Giles Hubbard r, 1492. 

Registrar of Deeds. 1854. —John Traver d, 1524; 
John D. Standish r, 1311. 

County Treasurer, 1854. — Joshua B. Dickinson d, 
14S7; Thomas L. Sackett r, 1344. 

County surveyor, 1854. — George E. Adair d 
1492; Austin Burt r, 1363. 

County coroners. 1854. — Israel Curtiss d, 1492; 
D. H. Brown d, 1499; Herman Palmerlee r, 1367; 
Andred I. Heath r, 1368. 


Presidential Electors. 1856. — Michael Shoemaker, 
d, 1,845; Jonathan ^- l'^i"g d, 1,846; Robert Crouse 
d, 1,846; David A. Noble d, 1,846; John C. Blan- 
chard d, 1,846 ; Dewitt C. Walker d, 1,844; F- C. 
Beaman r, 2,210; Harmon Chamberlain r, 2,210; 
Chauncy H. Miller r, 2,210; Oliver Johnson r, 
2210; William H. Withey r, 2,210; William J. 
Drake r, 2,210; Rodney C. Paine, 30; Peter R. 
Adams, 30 ; H. W. Wells, 30 ; John V. Lyons, 30 ; 
Geo. W. Perkins, 30; Abram B. Covell. 

Congress, 1856.— Dewitt C. Leech r, 2,217 J Geo. 
W. Peck d, 1861. 

Represeritatives, 1856. — Thomas M. Crocker d, 



667; Alonzo A. Goodman r, S27 ; William Brow- 
nell d, 610 ; Geo. Moorhouse r, 590 ; Dexter Mus- 
sey r. 866 ; Dewitt C. Walker d, 4S2. 

Governor, 1S56 — Kingsley S. Bingham r, 2,205 . 
Alpheus Felch d, 1,872. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1856 — Geo. A. Coe r. 2.217; 
Edwin H. Lathrop d, 1,867. 

Secretary oj slate, 1856 — John McKenny r, 2,- 
217; F. H. Steven.s d, 1867. 

Auditor General, 1856.^ — David B. Dennis d, 
1,867; AY hltney Jones r, 2,215. 

Stale Treasurer, 1856.— Robert W. Davis d, 1,867; 
S. M. Holmes r, 2,215. 

Attorney General, \%^t>. — Amos Gould d, 1,864; 
Jacob M. Howard r, 2,215. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1S56. — F. 
W. Shearman d, 1,864 ; Ira W. Mayhew r, 2,218. 

Commissioner state Land Office, 1856.-- Allen 
Goodrich d, 1,868 ; S. B. Treadwell" r, 2,213. 

Member state Board of Education, 1S56. — Daniel 
Blackman d, 1,862 ; George Willard r, 2,213. 

Senator, 1856. — William Canfield r, 2,293; Alon- 
zo M. Keeler d, 1,761. 

Circuit court commissioners, 1856. — Harlehigh 
Carter d, 1,780; Eli^ha F. Mead r, 2,281. 

Sheriff, 1856.— Robert S. Campbell d. 1870; 
Charles G. Lamb r, 2,202. 

County clerk, 1856. — Julius Rottman d, 1,848 ; 
John B.Ellsworth r, 2,221. 

Prosecuting Attorney, 1856. — Andrew S. Robert- 
son d, i,8gi ; Richard Butler r, 2,l6S. 

Registrar of Deeds, 1S56. — Sanford M. Stone d, 
1869; Norton L. Miller r, 2,208. 

Judge of Probate, 1856.— PhiloTillson d, 1,789; 
Prescott B. Thurston r, 2,268. 

County Treasurer, 1856. — Robert Teats d, 1,862; 
Charles B. Matthews r, 2,214. 

County surveyor, 1856. — Ludwig Wesalouski d, 
i,g8S ; Addison P. Brewer r, 2,192. 

County coroners, 1856. — Henry O. Taylor d, 
1,871 ; John Milton d, 1,869 ! Chauncey G. Cady r, 
2,206; Herman Palmerlee r, 2,200. 


Chief jFustice supreme court, 1 85 7. — George 
Martin r, 1,291; Samuel T. Dougl.iss d, 1,169. 

Associate Justices, 1857. — Isaac P. Christiancy r, 
1,292 ; James V. Campbell r, 1,292 ; Randolph 
Manning r, 1,296; Warner Wing d, I,i6g; Abner 
Pratt d, 1,152 ; David Johnson d, 1,154. 

Circuit Judge, 1857. — Sanford M. Green r, 2,410; 
Harlehigh Carter d, i. 

Regents of the University, iZ^l.-'G^o. W. Peck 
r, 1,287; James B. Eldridge d, 1,176. 

Governor, 1858. — Moses Wisner r, 1,791 ; Charles 
E. Stewart d, 1,629. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1S5S. — Edmund B. Fair- 
field r, 1,818 ; Geo. C. Munroe d, 1,622. 

Secretary of stale. 1858.— Nelson G. Isbell r. 
1,807; Jonathan P. King d, 1,625. 

Auditor General, 1S58. — Daniel L. Case r, i.Sog ; 
John J. Adams d, 1,622. 

State Treasurer, 1858. — John McKinney r, 1, 812; 
Edward Carter d, 1,620. 

Attorney General, 1858. — Jacob M. Howard r, 
1,809: J.G.Sutherland d, 1,622. 

Superintendent Public Instruction, 1S58. — John 
M. Gregory r, 1,813; Dan. C. Jacokes d, 1,617. 

Commissioner state Land Office, 1858. — James W. 
Sanborn r, 1,806 ; John Ball d, 1,622. 

State Board of Education, 1858.— Wittier J. Bax- 
ter r, 1,810; Andrew N. Moore d, 1.622. 

Congress, I S5S.— Robert W. Davis d. 1,622 ; 
DeWitt C. Leach r, i,8ii. 

Senator, 1858.— William Canfield r, I.813 ; Wil- 
liam Brownell d, 1,598. 

Representatives, 1858. — Robert Thompson r, 734; 
Geo. F.Stewart d, 597 ; Henry L. Reeves d, 597 ; 
Geo. Bolam r, 42S ; Dexier Mussey r, 687 ; Har- 
vey Mellen d, 35S. 

Circuit court commissioner, 1858. — Elisha F. 
Meade r, 1,819; Harlehigh Carter d, 1,590. 

County sheriff, 1858. — Charles C. Lamb r, 1.824 ; 
James P. St. John d, 1,593. 

County clerk, 1858. — Henry O. Smith r, 1,820 ; 
John A. Fletcher d, 1,596. 

Prosecuting Attorney, 1858. — Giles Hubbard r, 
1,844; Andrew S. Robertson d, 1,569. 

Registrar of Deeds, 1S5S.— Norton L. Miller r, 
1,867; Jackson Freeman d, 1,554. 

County Treasurer, 185S. — Charles B. Matthews r, 
1,827; Justin R. Crandall d, 1,593. 

County surveyor, 1858. — Addison P. Brewer r, 
1,813; John Mellen d, 1, 616. 

County coroners, 1858. — .\aron B. Rawles r, 1,907 ; 
Robert D. Smith r, 1,919; Henry O. Taylor d, 
1,623 ; George Chandler d, 1,618. 





Chief yusticc superior court, 1859. — George 
Martin r, 1,932; Alpheus Felch d, 1,671. 


Presidential Electors, i860.— H. G. Wells r, Riifus 
Homer, Geoige W. Lee. Ed. Donah, Rhylota Hay- 
den, Augustus Coburn, 2,534 ; George W. Peck d, 
Charles E. Stewart, Augustus Weideman, Stephen 
G. Clerk, P. H. Hodenpyl, Andrew S. Robertson, 
2,166 ; Jacob Beeson, Robert P. Eldridge, Barnabas 
Case, Peter Morey, 15 ; W.V.Morrison, II ; R. W. 
Adams, 15; H. P. Bridge, 14; J. R. Jones, 15; 
George Warner, 15; Charles E. Niles. 14; John 
Cooper, 15 ; Henry H. Treadway, 14. 

Congress, 1S60. — Rowland E. Trowbridge r, 2,537; 
Edward H. Thompson d, 2,197. 

Governor, 1S60. — Austin Blair r, 2,523; John S. 
Barry d, 2,213. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1S60. — James Birney r, 
2,527; William M. Fenton d, 2,212. 
► Seoetary of state, i860. — James B. Porter, 2,534 ; 
William Francis, 2,210. 

Auditor General, 1S60. — Langford G. Berry, 2.535 ; 
Henry Penoyer d, 2,209. 

State Treasurer, i860. — John Owen r, 2,532 ; 
Elon Farnsworth d, 2,207. 

Attorney General, 1S60. — Charles Upton r, 2,532; 
Chauncey Joslyn d, 2,211. 

Superintendent Public Imtruction, 1S60. — John 
M. Gregory r, 2,539; Francis W. Shearman d, 

Commissioner state Land OJJice, i860. — Samuel S. 
Lacey r, 2,533; Samuel L. Smith d, 2,210. 

Member state Board Education, i860. — Edwin 
Willett r, 2,532; John V. Lyon d, 2,210. 

Senator, 1S60. — Ira H. Butterfield r, 2,516; Geo. 
H. Stuart d, 2,210. 

Representatives, i860. — Thomas M. Wilson r, 
S89 . Joshua B. Dickenson d, 862 ; Payne K. Leach 
r, 630; William Brownell d, 820; De.xter Mussey 
f, 943; Joshua W. Davis d, 559; Charles Mal- 
lary, 3. 

Sheriff, i860. — Joseph Hubbard r, 2,449; John 
L. Benjamin d, 2,274. 

County Treasurer, 1S60. — Edward C. Gallup r, 
2,474; Jacob Hitchler d, 2,225. 

Registrar of Deeds, 1S60. — George W. French r, 
2,480; Justus R. Crandall d, 2,225. 

County clerk, 1S60. — Menry O. Smith r, 2,537; 
William H. Clark, Jr. d, 2,200. 

Judge of Probate, i860.— Isaac B. Gilbert r, 
2,466; John Stockton d, 2,262. 

Prosecuting Attorney, i860. — Elisha F. Mead r, 
2,544; Harlehigh Carter d, 2,169. 

Circuit court commissioners, i860. — Samuel S. 
Gale r, 2,538; Seth K. Schetterly d, 2,205. 

County surveyor, 1S60, — George H. Freeman r, 
2.49S ; Milton Nye d, 2,251. 

County coroners, iZbo. — Aaron B. Rawles r, 2,530 ; 
Chauncey G. Cady r, 2,530; John B. St. John d, 
2,101 ; Joshua B. Dickenson d, 2;205 ; James B St. 
John, 106. 

State Laivs, 1S60. — To amend banking law, yes, 
1,760; to amend banking law, no, 295; legislative 
sessions law, yes, 1,607 ; legislative sessions law, no, 
421; Sec. 2, Art. 18, con., yes, 1,734; Sec. 2, Art. 
18, con., no, 6g. 


Associate Justices S. C, 1861. — Randolph Man- 
ning r, 1641 ; Charles I. Walker d, iioi. 

Congress, I'&iii. — Augustus C. Baldwin d, 1794; 
Rowland E. Trowbridge r, 1911. 

Governor, 1862. — Austin Blair r, 1903 ; Byron G. 
Stout d, igo6. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1862. — Charles S. May r, 
1895 ; Henry S. Ripley d, 1825. 

Secretary of state, 1 862. — James B. Porter r, 1 893; 
Wm. R. Montgomery d, 1924. 

Auditor General, 1862. — Emil Anneke r, 1899; 
Rodney C. Payne d, 1922. 

State Treasurer, 1862. — John Owen r, 1884 ; 
Charles C. Trowbridge d, 1925. 

Attorney General, 1862.— Albert Williams r, 1895; 
John T. Holmes d, 1924. 

Commissioner state Land Office, 1862. — Samuel 
S. Lacey r, igo8 ; Charles F. Herman d, 1914. 

Superintendent Public Lnstruction, i86j. — John 
M. Gregory r, 1898 ; Thomas H. Sinex d, 1918. 

Member state Board Education, 1862. — Edward 
Dorsch r, 1896; Daniel E. Brown d, 1923. 

Senators, 1S62. ^Andrew S.Robertson d, 192S ; 
Ira H. Butterfield r, 1884. 

Representatives, 1862. — James B. Eldredge d, 720; 
Geo. B. Van Eps r, 6S2 ; Charles S. Groesbeck d, 
734 ; A. W. Aldrich r, 407 ; Charles F. Mallary r, 
817; John H. Brabbd, 417. 





Liiw and constitutional Ameniimints, 1S62. — 
Banking, Yes, 343 — No, 10 ; Removals from Office, 
Yes, 213 — No, 4 ; Regents of University, Yes, 343 — 
No, I ; Election in Upper Peninsula, Yes, 353 — 
No, I ; Constitutional Amendments, Yes, 341 — No. 

Sheriff, 1S62.— Joseph Hubbard r, 1927; William 
Summers d, 1888. 

County clerk, 1S62. — Henry O. Smith r, 1927; 
Edwin R. Bentley d, 1SS5. 

Registrar of Deeds, 1S62. — Thomas L. Sackett r, 
193S ; Wm. H. Clark, Jr. d, 1873. 

County Treasurer, 1862. — Edward C. Galhip r, 

1595 ; Justus R. Crandall d, 1915. 

Prosecuting Attorney, 1862. — Elisha F. Mead r, 
1S60 ; Thomas M. Crocker d, 1945. 

Circuit court commissioners, 1S62. — Samuel S. 
Gala r, 1S86; Joseph Chubb r, 1S92 ; Harlehigh 
Carter d, 1914 ; Seth K. Schetterly d, 1927. 

County Surveyor, 1862. — Geo. H. Cannon r, iSSS; 
Ludwig Wesalouski d, 1923. 

County coroners, 1862. — Aaron B. Rawles r, 1S92, 
Joshua Dickenson r, 189S; John Moorehouse d. 

1596 ; George Mead d, 1921. 


Associate Justices, 1S63. — James V. Campbell r, 
1S19 ; David Johnson d, 2006. 

Regents of University, 1S63. — Henry C. Knight 
r, 1812; Thomas D. Gilbert r, 1S14 ; Edward C. 
Walker r, 1S07 ; J. E. Johnson r, 1814 ; Geo. W. 
Mead r, 1S14 ; James A. Sweezey r, 1S12; Alvah 
Sweetzer r, 1S13 ; Thomas J. Joslyn r, 1814; Oliver 
C. Comstock d, 2012 ; Wm. A. Moore d, 2015 ; 
Zina Pitcher d, 201S ; Nathaniel A. Balch d, 201 1 ; 
Charles H. Richmond d, 2011; Adam L. Roof d, 
201 1 ; Elijah F. Burt d, 201 1; Joseph Coulter d, 

Circuit Judge, :863. — Sanford M.Green d. 2004; 
Zephaniah B. Knight r, 1838; Robert P. Eldredge 
d, 5. 


Presidential Electors, lit^. — Samuel T. Douglass 
d, 2177 ; Rix Robinson d, 2177; Henry Hart d, 
2177; Royal T. Twombley d, 2177; D. Darwin 
Hughes d, 2177; John Lewis d, 2177 ; Michael C. 
Crofoot d, 2177 ; Richard Edwards d, 2177 ; Robert 
E. Beecher r, 2041 ; Thomas D. Gilbert r, 2041 ; 
Frederick Waldorf r, 2041 ; Marsh Giddings r, 2041; 

Christian Eberbach r, 2041 ; Perry Hannah r, 2041 ; 
Omar D. Conger r, 2041 ; Geo. W. Peck r, 2041. 

Congress, 1864. — Augustus C. Baldwin d, 2177 ; 
Rowland E. Trowbridge r, 2054. 

Justice supreme court, 1S64. — Thomas M. Cooley 
r, 2052; Alpheus Felch d, 2180. 

Governor, 1864. — Henry H. Crapo r, 2050; Wm. 
M. Fenton d, 21S1. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1864. — Eben. O. Grosvenor 
r, 2052; Martin S. Bracketts d, 2180. 

Secretary of State, 1864. — James B. Porter r, 2052; 
Geo. B. Turner d, 21S0. 

Ajiditor-General, 1864. — Emil Anneke r, 2051 ; 
Charles W. Butler d, 21S0. 

State Treasurer. 1S64. — John Owen r, 2052 ; Geo. 
C. Munro d, 21S0. 

Attorney General, 1S64. — Albert Williams r, 2051 ; 
Levi Bishop d, 2180. 

Commissioner Land Office, 1S64. — Cyrus Hewitt 
r, 2051 ; Geo. M. Rich d, 21S0. 

Superintendent Public Instruction, 1S64. — Ota- 
mel Hosford r, 2051 ; John D. Pierce d. 21S0. 

Member Board of Education, 1S64. — Walter J. 
Barden r, 2151 ; O. C. Comstock d, 2180. 

Senator, 1864. — Giles Hubbard r, 2276 ; Wm. M. 
Cambell d, 2204. 

Representatives, 1S64. — Peter Schaes r, 819 ; Geo. 
H. Stuart d, 792 ; James B. Eldredge d, 2 Horace 
H. Cady d, 975 ; Chauncey G. Cady r, 4S0 ; Chas. 
F. Mallary r, 902 ; Philo Tillson d, 450. 

Sheriff, 1864.— Haswell Church r, 2256 ; Geo. E. 
Adair d, 2226 ; Charles Barnes, i. 

Judge of Probate, 1864. — Henry O. Smith r, 2254; 
Thomas M. Crocker d, 2232 ; Henry A. Shaw, 2, 

County cleik, 1S64. — William M. Connor r, 2267; 
James Whiting d, 2217 ; J. R. Crandall, 2. 

Registrar of Deeds, \i>(i\. — Thomas L. Sackett r, 
2315 ; Joshua B. Dickinson d, 2175. 

County Treasurer, 1864. — John W. Leonard r, 
2223; Justin R. Crandall d, 2250; Thomas L. 
Sackett r, I. 

Prosecuting Attorney, 1864. — Joseph Chubb r, 
2234 ; James B Eldredge d, 2245. 

County surveyor, 1864- — Oscar Burgess r, 2263 ; 
Milton Nye d, 2226 ; J. B. Eldredge, i. 

Circuit court commissioners, 1864. — Edgar 
Weeks r, 225S ; David E. Earl r, 2231 ; Harlehigh 
Carter d, 2214 ; Seth K. Shetterly d, 2217. 

County coroners, 1S64. — Joshua Dickinson r, 



2255 : Aaion B. Ravvis r, 2258 ; John Moorehouse 
d, 2225 ; John Van Horn d, 2229. 


Associate Justici- supit-ine court, 1865. — Isaac P. 
L'hristiancy, 1374. 

Regents of the University, 1865. — Edward C. 
Walker, 1241 ; George Willard, 1241 ; Ebenezer 
Wells, 172 ; Oliver Comstock, 172. 


Congress, 1S66. — Rowland E. Trowbridge r, 
2475 ; William L. Bancroft d, 2i6g. 

Governor^ 1S66. — Henry H. Crapo r, 2461 ; Al- 
pheus S. Williams d, 2185. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1S66, — Dwight May r, 2465; 
John G. Parkhurst d, 2193. 

Secretary of state, l866. — Oliver L. Spaulding r, 
2468; Bradley M. Thompson d, 21S1. 

Slate Treasurer, 1S66. — Eben. O. Grosvenor r, 

2467 ; Luther H. Trask d, 2182. 

Auditor General, 1866. — William Humphrey r, 

2468 ; George Spaulding d, 2182 ; James Whiting, 

Snpointendent Pitblic Instruction, 1S66. — Ora-* 
rael Hosford r, 246S ; Samuel Clements, Jr. d, 

Commissioner state Land Office, 1866. — Benj. D. 
Pritchard r, 2469; Louis Dillman d, 2182. 

Attornev General, 1866. — William L. Stoughton 
r, 2468; George Grayd, 21S2. 

Member Board of Education, 1866. — Edwin 
Willetts r, 246S ; John W. Birchmore d, 21S4. 

Revision of the constitution, 1866. — For revision, 
1224 ; against, 459. 

Soldiers' Voting, 1S66. — For amendment, 1224 ; 
against, 375. 

Senator, 1866. — Charles Andrews r, 2453 ; Har- 
vey Mellen d, 2191. 

Sheriff, 1866. — Hasvvell Church r, 2462 ; George 
E. Adair d, 2179. 

Registrar of Deeds, 1866. — Thomas L. Sackett r, 
2559 ; Joshua B. Dickenson d, 2080. 

County clerk, 1866. — William M. Connor r, 
2508 ; James Whiting d, 2140; George E. Adair, i. 

County Treasurer, 1866. — Josiah T. Robinson r. 
2360 ; Justus R. Crandall d, 2295. 

Prosecuting Attorney, ] 866. ■ — Edgar Weeks r, 
2457 ; James B. Eldridge d, 2172. 

Circuit court commissioners, 1866. — Arthur L. 

Canfield r, 2518; Irving D. Hanscomb r, 2479; 
Lorenzo G. Sperry d, 2177; Harlehigh Carter d, 

County surveyor, 1866. — Oscar S. Burgess r, 
2446; Jdhn Mellen d, 2203. 

County coroners, 1S66. — Aaron B. Rawles r, 247I; 
Gilbert Longstaff r, 2470 ; William Summers d, 
2183 ; John Milton d, 2183. 

Representatives, 1866.— Sanford M. Stone d, 783 
Peter Schars r, 991 ; Seth K. Shetterley d, 965 
Charles S. Hutchins r, 560 ; Elisha F. Mead r, 878 
Oran Freeman d, 412. 


Delegates to constitutional convention, 1867. — 
Oicar S. Burgess r, 1762 ; Dexter Mussey r, 1832 ; 
W. W. Andrus r, 1828; Thomas M. Crocker d, 1S43; 
Sanford M. Stone d, 1773. Seth K. Shetterly d, 
1751 , Hiram Barrows, i. 

Justice of the supreme court, 1867. — Benjamin 

F. Graves r, 1S46 ; Sandford M. Green d, 1755. 
Regents of the University, 1S67.— William M. 

Ferry, Jr. d, 1747 ; Ebenezer Wells d, 1747 ; Thos. 
D. Gilbert r, 1858 ; Hiram A. Burt r, 1853. 

Circuit Judge, 1867. — James S. Dewey r, 1854; 
William T. Mitchell d, 1738. 
iel B. Briggs r, 1892 ; James Whiting d, 170S. 

County superintendent of schools, 1867. — Dan- 

Presidential Electors, 1868— Charles M. Crosswell 
r, John Burt r, William Doellz r, C. W. Clisbee r, 

C. T. Gorham r, B. M. Cutcheon r, 2791 ; Giles 
Hubbard r, 2787 ; M. C. T. Plessner r, 2791 ; Peter 
White d, Fred V. Smith d, Ed. Kanter d, George 
B, Turner d, Fidus_ Livermore d, William M. Ferry 
d, M. E. Crofoot d. William R. Stafford d, 2668. 

Congress, 186S — Omar D. Conger r, 2775 ; Byron 

G. Stout d, 2704. 

Governor, 186S — Henry P. Baldwin r, 2795 ; John 
Moore d, 2681. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 186S — Morgan Bates r, 
2790; Salathiel C. Coffenberry d, 2684. 

Secretary of state, 1 868 — Oliver L. Spaulding r, 
2790; Richard Baylis d, 2682. 

State Treasurer, 1S68 — Ebenezer O. Grosvenor 
r, 2790; John F. Miller d, 2685. 

Attorney General, 1868 — Dwight May r, 2789 ; 
Augustus C. Baldwin d, 2686. 

Commissioner state Land Office, 1868 — Benjamin 

D. Pritchard r, 2790 ; Henry Grinnel d, 2685. 

c 1 



Auditor General, iS68 — William Humphrey r, 
2788 ; Louis Dillman d, 2788. 

Superintendent Public Instruction, 1868 — Or.imel 
Hosford r, 2791 ; Duane Doty d, 2684. 

Member itate Boaid of Education, 1S68— Daniel 
E. Brown r, 2788 ; Isaac W. Bush d, 2686. 

Senator, 1868 — Charles Andrews r, 2751 ; Harvey 
Mellen d, 2726. 

Representatives, 1868 — Norton L. Miller r, 10S4 ; 
Sanford M. Stone d, 1815 ; Florell C. McCoy r, 643 ; 
Fred G. Kendrick d, 1183 ;EUshaF. Mead r, 1023 ; 
Horace H. Spencer d, 487. 

Sheriff, 1S68— Haswell Church r, 283S ; 1. Ward 
Davis d, 2629. 

Judge of Probate, 1868 — Thomas L. Sackett r, 
27S8, Thomas M. Crocker d, 2681. 

County clerk, 1868 — William M. Connor r, 
2S12 ; Hiron F. Corbin d, 263S. 

Registrar of Deeds, 1868 — Alonzo M. Keeler r, 
2793'; James Whiting d, 2669. 

County Treasurer, 186S — Joseph Hubbard r, 
2752 ; Oliver Chapaton d, 2755, 

Piosecuting Attorney, 186S — Edgar Weeks r, 
28i6;Seth K. Shetterly d, 2635. 

County surveyor, 1868 — Oscar S. Burgess r, 
2792 ; Morgan Nye d, 2635. 

Ciicuit court commissioners, 186S — Arthur L. 
Canfield r, 2803 ; Irving D. Hauscomb r, 2804 ; 
Lorenzo G. Sperry d, 2639 ; William H. Clark Jr. d, 

County coroners, 1868 — William R. Sutton r, 
2795 ; Aaron B, Rawles r, 2789 ;, George St. John d, 
2680 ; William Roy d, 2683. 

Revision of the constitution, etc., etc., 1 863 — For 
adoption, 1570; against, 2S77 ; for annual sessions, 
178; for biennial sessions, 1369; for Prohibition, 
1430; against Prohibition, 1977. 

Justice of the supreme court, 1869.— Thomas M. 
Couley r, 1891 ; D. Darwin Hughes d, 1926. 

Regents of the University, 1869 — Jonas H. 
McGowan r, 1S7S ; Joseph Estabrook r, i3o6 ; John 
F. Miller d, 2013; John M. B. Sill d, 1935. 

Circuit Judge, 1869 — Elisha F. Mead r, 137S ; 
William T. Mitchell d, 1953. 

County superintendent common schools, 1869 — 
Daniel B. Briggs r, 2012 ; James Whiting d, 1632. 

County drain commissioner, 1869 — Jonathan 
Wells r, 1886 ; George E. Adair d, 1915. 



Governor, 1870. — Charles C. Comstock d, 
Henry P. Baldwin r, 2382 ; Henry Fish, 38. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1870. — Jacob A. T. Wen- 
dell d, 2579; Morgan Bates r, 2379 ; Emory Cur- 
tiss, 35. 

Secietaiy of state, 1870. — Jonathan W. Flanders 
d, 2578 ; Daniel Striker r, 2384 ; John Graves, I ; 
John Evans. 33. 

Slate Treasurer, 1870. — Andrew J. Bovvne d. 
2579 ; Victory P. Collier r, 2382 ; Oliver Chapaton, 
2 ; Luman R. Atpater, 32. 

Attorney General, 1870. — JohnAtkinson d, 2579; 
Dwight May r, 2304 ; Eben G. Fuller, 32. 

Commissioner state Land Office, li-jo. — John G. 
Hubinger d, 25S0 ; Charles A. Edmonds r, 2385 ; 
James H. Ilartwell. 32. 

Auditor General, 1870. — Charles W. Butler d, 
2579 : William Humphrey r, 23S4 ; Charles K. Car- 
penter, 32. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1S70. — 
Duane Doty d, 25S7 ; Oramel Hosford r, 2879 ; 
Asa Mahan, 31. 

Member State Board of Education, 1S70.— W. 
Irving Bennett d, 3582 ; Witter J. Baxter r. 23S3 ; 
Ebenezer Hunt, 31. 

The vote on allowing Supervisors' Boards to 
raise $2000 per annum for the repair and construc- 
tion of public highways, buildings, and bridges ; the 
vote for amending the article relating to the appor- 
tionment of Representatives, and the qualifications 
of electors, the vote relative to salaries of State 
Officers and Judges of the Circuit Courts ; the vote 
on impartial sufifrage , the vote on the change in the 
law, as it regarded railroads, were severally ap- 
proved or condemned by the people of Macomb in 
1S70 — the county giving an affirmative vote ranging 
from 775 to 1337, and a negative vote ranging from 
4 to 2736. 

Congress, 1870. — Byron G. Stout d, 2581 ; Omar 
D. Conger r, 23S3 ; James S. Smart, 25. 

Senator, 1870. — Horace H. Cady d, 2457 ; Gil- 
bert Hathaway r, 2470. 

Representatives, 1S70. — Norton L. Miller r, 952 ; 
Lucius H. Canfield d, 946 ; Hiram D. Runyan d, 
991 ; Gustavus Schuchard r, 568 ; Seth K. Shetterly, 
53 ; Deliverance S. Priest r, 930 ; Elias W. Lyon d, 

Sheriff, 1S70.— Fred. G. Kendrick d, 2637 ; 


Horace A. Lathrop r, 2325 ; Alonzo M. Keeler.'l ; 
Henry Meynell, 4. 

County clerk, 1S70. — Charles S. Groesbeck d, 
2548 ; William M. Connor r, 2430. 

Registrar cf Deeds, 1870. — Geo. W. Robertson d, 
2529 ; Alonzo M. Keeler r, 2445. 

County Treasurer, 1S70. — Oliver Chapaton d, 
2703. George J. Grovier r, 2272. 

Prosecuting Attorney, l&^o.—] B. Eldredge 
d, 2613; Wm. Jenny Jr. r, 2369. 

County surveyor, 1S70. — Geo. E. Adair d, 2567 ; 
Cortez Fessenden r, 2391. 

Circuit court commissioners, 1870. — W. H. Clark 
Jr. d, 25S4 ; Geo. M.Crocker d, 2604; Irving D. 
Hanscom r, 2364 ; Arthur L. Canfield r, 2401. 

County coroners, 1S70. — Sanfoid M. Stone d, 
2576 ; Cortez V. Hooker d, 2576 ; Robert A. Barton 
r, 2406 ; Levi Hoard r, 2407. 


Justice supreme court, 1871. — James V. Campbell 
r, 1877; D. Darwin Hughes d, 2196 ; Albert Wil- 
liamsi 87. 

Regents of the University, 1871. — Claudius B. 
Grant r, 1908 ; Charles Rynd r, 1908; I. M. B. Sill 
d, 216S ; C. B. Fenton d, 2168 ; Wm. W. Baldwin, 
88; Jos. S. Tuttle 88. 

County superintendent of common schaols, 1S71. — 
Daniel B. Briggs r, 17S4; Sidney H. Woodford d, 

County drain commissioner, 1871. — George E. 
Adair d, 2035 ; James S. Lawson r, 2005. 


Presidential Electors, 1S72.— Eber B. Ward and ten 
others r, 2546; Geo. V. Lathrop and ten others d, 
2161; Charles P. Russell and ten others 85; Austin 
Wales and ten others 72. 

Congress, 1872. — Omar D. Conger r, 3487; John 
H. Richardson d, 2314; Squire E. Warren Pro., 61. 

Governor, 1872 — John J. Bagley r, 2465; Austin 
Blair d, 2311; Henry Fish pro, 70; Wm. M. Ferry 


Lieutenant-Governor, 1872. — Henry H. Holt r, 
2452; John C. Blanchard d, 2330; Wm. G. Brown 
pro, 69 ; Charles Woodruff 54. 

Secretary of state, 1872. — Daniel Striker d, 2453; 
Geo. H. House d, 2333; John Evans 68; Thomas C. 
Cutler 54. 

State Treasurer, 1872.— Victor P. Collier r, 2461; 

Jos. A. Holton d, 2334; Elias C. Manchester 69; 
Clement M. Davison 54. 

Auditor General, 1872. — William Humphrey r, 
2454; Neil O'Hearn d, 2333; William Allmon 68; 
Cyrus Feabody 54. 

Attorney General, 1S72.— Byron D. Ball r, 2446; 
D. Darwin Hughes d, 2332; D. P. Sagindorph 68; 
Wm. A. Clark 54. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1872. — Dan- 
iel B. Briggs r, 253S; Willard Stearns d, 2239; M. 
A. Daugherty 63; A. J.»Sawyer52. 

Commissioner state Land Office, 1872. — L. A. Clapp 
r, 2454; G. H. Murdock d, 2333; Joseph S. Tuttle 
68; Ira D. Crouse 54. 

Member State Board of Education, 1872. — Edward 
Dorsch r, 2445; Edward Feldner d, 2330; Martin A. 
Brown 6g; Christian Vanderbeen 53. 

Sejiator, 1872, vacancy. — Seymour Brownell d, 
1016; J. S. P. Hathaway r, S85. 

Senator, No. i, 1872. — James S. P. Hathaway r, 
2323; John N. Mellen d, 2461; Lafayette Warren 
50; Riely C. Cone 40. 

Representatives, 1872. — Horace H. Cady d, 1426; 
Payne K. Leech r, 856; James M. Payne 8; D. S. 
Priest r, 1518; J. M. Potter d, 972; Alex Shelp 45. 

Sheriff, 1872. — Nelson H. Miller r, 2269; Fred G. 
Hendricks d, 2559; James Gass 45; Peter Ladors 

Judge of Probate, 1S72.— Thomas L. Sackett r, 
2481; Thomas M. Crocker d, 2336; Oran Freeman 
53; Morgan Nye 53. 

County clerk, 1872. — David C. Cobuvn r, 2295; 
Charles S. Groesbeck d, 2512; Clark Stephens 33; 
Watson Lyons, 62. 

Registrar of Deeds, 1872. — Alonzo M. Keeler r, 
24*1: Geo. W. Robertson d, 2411; Theodore Mosher 
29; Wm. R. Sutton 44. 

County Treasurer. 1872. — Geo. B. Van Eps r, 
2213; Oliver Chapaton d, 2592; Judge Preston 37; 
Hiram Squires 63. 

Prosecuting Attorney, 1872. — Wm. Jenny Jr. r, 
2365; James B. Eldredge d, 2438; Lorenzo G. Sperry 
35; Joseph Chubb 62. 

County Surveyor, 1872. — Oscar S. Burgess r, 2450; 
Geo. E. Adair d, 2308; Morgan Nye 64. 

Circuit court commissioners, 1872. — Dwight N. 
Lowell r, 2463; Lewis M. Miller r, 2463; Wm. H. 
Clark Jr. d, 2382; (ieo. M. Crocker d, 2337; John 
Starkweather 66; Joseph Cliubbs62. 


County coroners, 1S72. — Martin Buzzell r, 2424; 
Stephen S. Merrill r, 1577; George H. Stuart d, 
2382; Cortez P. Hooker d, 2249; Hiram H. Kelsey 
64; Alfred Van Voorhoes 65; Geo. N. Nunnerly 40; 
Victor A. Morass 40; Stephen H. Merrill 856. 


Justice Supreme court, 1S73. — Isaac P. Christian- 
cy, 3952. 

Regents of the University, 1873. — Duane Doty d, 
2044; Andrew M. Fitch d, 2039; Edward C. Walker 
r, 1S6S ; Andrew Climie, Oscar D. Spaulding, 17 ; 
Reynold Kelley, 41. 

County Superintendents of Schools, 1873. — Spen- 
cer B. Russell d, 2073; Robert G. Baird r, 1S40. 


Congress, 1874. — Enos Goodrich d, 2592 ; Omar 
D. Conger r, 1S93 ; Henry Fish, 146. 

Governor, 1S74. — Henry Chamberlain d, 2638 ; 
John J. Bagley r, 1S67; C. K. Carpenter p, 167. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1874. — Fred. Hall d, 2639 ; 
H. H. Holt r, 1874; T. A. Granger p, 169. 

Secretaiy of State, 1874. — George H. House d, 
2638 ; E. G. D. Holden r, 1872 ; Samuel W. Baker 
p, 16S. 

State Treasurer, 1S74. — Joseph M. Sterling d, 
2637 ; W. B. McCreery r, 1S71 ; James J. Mead p, 

Auditor General, 1874. — John L. Evans d, 2636; 
Ralph Ely r, 1872 ; Joseph Newman p, 171. 

Attorney General, 1874. — M. V. Montgomery d, 
2637 ; Andrew J. Smith r, 1S72 ; Albert Williams p, 

Superintendent Public Instruction, 1S74. — Duane 
Doty d, 2631; Daniel B. Briggs r, 1S76; John 
Evans p, 159. 

Com'nissionee State Land Offce, 1S74. — C. W. 
Green d, 2637 ; L. A. Clapp r, 1S74 ; T. S. Skinner 
p, i6g. 

Member Board of Education, 1S74. — E. W. An- 
drews d, 263S; Edgar Rexford r, 1S73 ; John D. 
Lewis p. 169. 

Representatives, 1874. — Casper P. Schettler d, 
1552; Levi J. Stickney r, 605; Calvin Bush p, 99; 
Cortez P. Hooker d, 1093 ; Thomas M. Wilson r, 
1124 ; Charles E. Davis p, 98. 

Senator, 1874. — John N. Mellen d, 2855 ; Norton 
C. Miller r, 1654 ; Dwight P. Breede p, 142. 

Sheriff, :S74.— Winfield S. Hathaway d, 2677; 
Robert A. Barton r, 1824; Harry Briggs p, 173. 

County clerk, 1874. — Charles S. Groesbeck d, 
2741; Perry M. Bentley r, 1740; Morgan Nye p, 155. 

Registrar of Deeds, 1874. — Traugott Longers- 
hausen d, 2390; George McCioskey r, 2079 1 Wm. 
R. Sutton p, 159. 

County Treasurer, 1S74. — Oliver Chapaton d, 
2642 ; John Otto r, 1839; Loren Andrus p, 148. 

Prosecuting Attorney, 1S74. — James B. Eldridge 
d, 2720; Wm. Jenney, Jr. r, 1805 ; Joseph Chubb 
p. 109. 

County Surreyor, 1S74. — Cl.irence M. Stephens d, 
2709; Oscar S. Burgess r, 1791 ; Albert G. Jepson 
P, 157- 

Circuit court connnlssioners, 1S74. — Geo. M. 
Crocker d, 2625 ; Wm. H. Clark d, 2611 ; Dwight 
N. Lowell r, 1930; Lewis M. Miller r, 1699; John 
L- Starkweather p, i65 ; Clark Stanton p, 157. 

County coroners, 1S74. — Adam Bennett d, 2644; 
Geo. H. Stewart d, 2637 ; Amsey W. Sutton r, 
1847 ; John H. Williams p, 171 ; Hiram Squiers p, 
171 ; Calvin Davis r, 1S60. 


Juilice Supreme court, 1875. — Benj. F. Graves r, 
3984; Lyman D. Norris d, 2138 ; Isaac Marston r, 

Regents of the University, 1S75. — Samuel T. 
Douglass d, 2218 ; Peter White d, 2203 ; Samuel S. 
Walker r, 1748 ; Byron M. Cutcheon r. 1750. 

Ciicuit Judge, 1S75. — Edward W.Harris r, 3966, 


Presidential Electors, 1S76. — James B. Eldredge 
d, and ten others, 3,453 ; Wm. A. Howard r, and 
ten others, 3,0:2 ; Moses W. Field g.b, and ten oth- 
ers, 18 ; Charles K. Carpenter pro, and ten others, 6. 

Congress, 1876. — Anson E. Chadwick d, 3,499 ; 
Omar D. Congar r, 2.981. 

Governor, lS^6. — William L. Webber d, 3,465 ; 
Charles M. Crosswell r. 3,008 ; Levi Sparks pro, 


Lieutenant-Governor, 1876. — Julius Houseman d, 
3,478; Alonzo Sessions r, 3,012; Emory Curiiss, 
pro, 5. 

Secretary of Stale, 1876. — Geo. H. House d, 
3,463; E. G. D. Holden r, 3,011; Albert Stege- 
man pro, 14. 

State Treasurer, 1876. — Jolin G. Parkhurst d. 

P "V 



3,474 ; Willmm B. McCreery r, 3>oi5 ; Archibald L. 
Cliubb pro, 4. 

Auditor General, 1876.— Fred M. Holloway d, 
3,476; Ralph Ely r, 3,012; Daniel J.Smith pro, 5. 
Commissioner Slate Land Office, 1876.— J. B. Fen- 
ton d, 3,466; Ben. F. Partridge r, 3.001; J. H. 
Richardson g.b, 14; Emory L. Brewer pro, 6. 

Attorney General, 1876.— Martin Morris d, 3,463; 
OltoKirchner r, 3,012; Albert J. Chapman g.b, 
14 ; Dan. Sagendorph pro, 4. 

Superintendent Public Instruction, 1S76.— Zelotes 
Truesdel d, 3,463 ; Horace S. Tarbell r, 3,025 ; 
.T. W. McKeever pro, 5. 

Member State Board of Education, 1876.— Chas. 
J. Walker d, 3.465 ; Witter J. Baxter r, 3,009 ; 
Ethan Ray Clarke g.b, 14 I LukeR. Damon pro, 5. 
Amendments, 1876.— License : For, 1207 ; against, 
907. Salaries, Circuit Court Judges; For, 1626 ; 
against, 605. Constitution, For, 1447; against, 152. 
Senator, 1S76.— John N. Mellen, 3,459 ; William 
Jenny Jr. r, 3,006; Crawley P, Drake, i. 

Representatives, 1876.— Lucius H. Canfield d, 
1,845; Thomas Dawson r, 1,505; Seth K. Shetter- 
ly d, 1,554 ; Crawley P. Drake r, 1,533. 

Sheriff, 1876.— Winfield S. Hathaway d, 3,533 ; 
Haswell Church r, 2,943. 

P'obate Judge, 1876.— James B. Eldredge d, 
3,337 ; Edgar Weeks r, 3,125. 

County clerk, 1876.— Charles S, Groesbeck d, 
3,517; Ezra Nye r, 2,946; Jacob L. Keller, 130. 
• Resistrarof Deeds, 1876.— Traugott Longerhau- 
sen d, 3,444; Peter F. H. Schars r, 3,035. 

County Treasurer, 1876.— Oliver Chapaton d, 
3,407 ; Wm. Heine r, 3,028. 

Prosecxiting Attorney, 1876.— Geo. M. Crocker d, 
3,458; Irving D. Hanscom r, 3,008. 

Circuit court commissioners, iSjG. — Wm. H. 

Clark, Jr. d, 3,436; Chauncey R. Canfield d, 3,450; 

Oscar S. Burgess r, 2,999 ; Frank C. Lamb r, 3,076. 

County Sunvyor.iS-jb.—Oarence M. Stephens 

d, 3,455; Cortez Fessenden r, 3,023. 

County coroners, 1876.— Adam Bennett d, 3,471; 
Geo. H. Stuart d, 3,469; Judson C. Mason r, 
3,010 ; Geo. R. Hoard r, 3,020. 


Justice of the Sup)eme court, 1S77.— Henry F. 
Severens d, 2088; Thomas M. Cooley r, 1848. 
Regents of the University, x'il'l. — Anson E. Chad- 

wick d, 2088; John Lewis d, 2088 ; Victory P. Col- 
lier r, 1847 ; George L. Maltz r, 1847. 

Vote on Appointment of clerk supreme court, 
1S77.— For the appointment, 398; against the ap- 
pointment, 29S. 

Vote Relative to Law of corporation.— ¥ox amend- 
ment, 358; against amendment, 34S. 
Congress, 1878.— William T. Mitchell d, 2,437 ; 
Omar D. Conger r, 2,012 ; Charles F. Mallary n, 

Governor. 1878.— Orlando M. Barnes d, 2,391 ; 
Charles M. Crosswell r, 2,036; Henry M. Smith n, 
615 ; Watson Snyder p, 36. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1878.— Alfred P. Swineford 
d, 2,393 ; Alonzo Sessions r, 2,036; Lysander Wood- 
ward n, 615 ; Isaac W. McKeever p, 35. 

Secretary of State. 1878.— George H. Murdoch d, 
2.340; William Jenney r, 2,112; George H.Bruce 
n, 591 ; Travers Phillips p, 26. 

State Treasurer, 1878.— Alexander McFarlan d, 
Benjamin D. Pritchard r, 2,034 ; Herman Goeschel 
n, 617 ; Darius H. Stone p, 35. 

Commissioner State Lands, 1878.— George Lord 
d, 2,393 ; James M. Neasmith r, 2,038 ; John A. 
Elder n, 614; William G. Brown p, 35. 

Auditor General, 1878.— W. J. B. Schermerhorn 
d, 2,392; W. J. Latimer r, 2,038; Levi Sparks n, 
614 ; Leander L. Farnsworth p, 35. 

Attorney General, 1878.— Allen B. Morse d, 2,399; 
Otto Kercher r, 2,019; Frank Dumon n, 612; 
Daniel Sazendorph p, 41- 

Superintendent Public Instruction, 1S78.— Zelo- 
tes Truesdel d, 2,390; Cor. A. Gower r, 2,040; 
David Parsons n, 613 ; Martin V. Rourke p, 35- 

Member State Board Education, 1878.— Edwin F. 
Uhl d, 2,393; George F. Edwards r, 3,038 ; George 
E. Hubbard n, 614 ; Marlin V. Brown, 35. 

Senator, 187S.— John M. Wattles d, 2,356 : Joseph 
B. Moore r, 2,103 ; John J. Watkins n, 59I. 

Representatives, 1878.— Warren Parker d, 1,180; 
Arthur N. Grovier r, 1,090; Charles C. Lamb r, 
369; Alexander Grant r. 1,084; David C. Greene 
d, 1,114 ; Eli G. Perkins n, 192. 

Sheriff, 1S78.— Louis Groesbeck d, 2,676 ; Alfred 
Stewart r, 1,905 ; Seth Davis n, 454. 

County clerk, 1878. — William L. Dicken d, 
2,375; George F. Adams r, 2,160; Ambrose J. 
Hancock n, 506. 




Registrar of Deeds, 1878. — Traugott Longershau- 
sen d, 2,358 ; Charles Steffins r, 2,087 ; Louis A. 
Al'or n, 599. 

County Treasurer, 1878. — Charles Tackles d, 
-■399; John Otto r, 2,031; Adam Bennett n, 601. 

Prosecuting Attorney, 1878. — George M. Crocker 
d, 2,S02 ; Edgar Weeks r, 2,095. 

Circuit court commissioner, 1S78. — William H. 
Clark, Jr. d, 2,511 ; Chauncey R. Canfield d, 2,468 ; 
Dwight N. Lowell r, 2,059 '. Silas B. Spier r, 

C unty Surveyor, 1878. — George E. Adair d, 
2,361 ; Cortez Fessenden r, 2,084; James S. Lawson 
n. 592. 

County cotoners, 187S. — G. H. .Stuart d, 2,391; 
Joshua B. Dickenson d, 2,387 ; GiUman Whitten r, 
2,061; John J. Reimold r. 2,066 ; Charles S. Hutch- 
ings n, 612 ; William M. Campbell n, 594. 


yustices of the Supreme court, 1879. — John B. 
Shipman d, 2448 ; James V. Campbell r, 2287. 

Regents of the University, 1879. — Geo. P. Sanford 
d, 2530; Henry Whiting d, 2528; Ebenezer O. 
Grosvenor \, 2271 ; James Shearer r, 2275. 

Presidential Electors, 1880.— Peter White d, and 
ten others, 3218 ; Charles P. Peck r, and ten others, 
3136 ; Augustus Day n, and ten others, 201 ; Jo.seph 
v. Whiting pro, and ten others, 10; Isaac J. Gray 
— , and ten others, i. 

Congress, 1880. — Cyrenius P. Black d, 3283 ; 
Omar D. Conger r, 3090 ; John J. Watkins n, 1S4. 

Governor, 1880, — Frederick M. Holloway d, 3266; 
David H. Jerome r, 30S6 : A. Woodman n, 193 ; 
Isaac W. McKeever pro, 22. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1880. — Edward H. Thorn- 
,ton d, 3270; Moreau S. Crosbe r, 3082; Sulivan 
Armstrong n, 193 ; Darius H. Stone pro, 22. 

Secretary of Stale, 1880. — Willard Stearns d, 3142; 
William Jenny r, 3197 ; I. A. Crouse n, igg; John 
Evans pro, 22. 

State Treasurer, iSSo. — Isaac M. Weston d, 3220 ; 
Benj. D. Pritchard r, 3126 ; John M. Norton n, 200; 
Arthur Al. Power pro, 22. 

Auditor General, 1880. — Richard Moore d, 3221 ; 
W. Irving Latimer r, 3128 ; Sylvester B. Heverle n, 
200 ; Watson Snyder pro, 22. 

Commissioner State Lands, 18S0. — James I. Davis 
d, 3220; James M. Neasmith r, 3129 ; John H. 
Elder n, 200 ; Porter Beal pro, 22. 

Attorney General, 1880 — Henry P. Henderson d, 
3221 ; Jacob J. Van Riper r, 313S; William Newton 
n, 2D0; Milton N. Burnham pro. 22. 

Superintendent Puilic Instruction, 1880 — Zelotes 
Truesdel d, 3222; Cornelius A. Gower r, 3127; 
David Parsons n, 200 ; William N. Moore pro, 

Members Board of Education, 18S0 — Albert 
Crane d, 3231 ; Edgar Rexford r, 3128; Volney V. 
B. Mervin n, 209 ; Uriah R. Evans pro, 19. 

Senator, 10th District, t88o— John N. Mellen d, 
3415 : John T. Rich r, 3094. 

Representatives, 1880 — Warren Parker d, 1726 ; 
Edgar Weeks r, 1669 ; Thomas W. Newton. I ; 
Byron J. Flumerfelt d, 1523 ; Alexander Grant d, 

I'ote on Bridging the Detroit River, 1 880 — In 
favor of, 901 ; against the project, 567. 

Judge of Probate, 1880. — James B. Eldredge d. 
3391 ; Charles Andrews r, 3100. 

Sheriff. 1880. — Louis Grosbeck d, 3242; Thos. 
W. Newton r, 3263. 

County clerk, 1880. — William L. Dicken d, 3354; 
William W. Vaughan r, 3137. 

Registrar of Deeds, 1880. — Judson S. Farrar d, 
3330 ; Charles Steffins r, 3171. 

County Treasurer, 1880. — Charles Tackles d, 
3271 ; Jonathan Stone r, 3237. 

Prosecuting Attorney, 1880. — George M. Crocker 
d. 3237 ; Irving D. Hanscom r, 3250. 

Circuit court commissioners, 1880. — Frank F. 
Williams d. 3136 ; Franklin P. Montfort d, 3301 ; 
.Silas B. Spier n, 3221 ; Addison S. Stone n, 3325. 

County Surveyor, iSSo. — George E. Adair d, 
3294 ; George H. Cannon r, 3200. 

County coroners, 18S0. — Humphrey Murphy d, 
3301 ; George H. Stuart d, 3297 ; William G. Terry 
r, 3215; William Norton r, 3216. 


Congress, 1881. — Cyreni-us P. Black d, 2545; John 
T. Rich r, 2418; John Kenny n, 61. 

Justice of Supreme court, l88l, — Augustus C. 
Baldwin d, 2534; Isaac Marston r, 2495; John B. 
Shipman x, 156; Charles G. Hyde pro, 27. 

Regents of the University, i88l.— Geo. V. N. 


Lathrop d, 2525; Henry Fralick d, 2526; James F. 
Joy r, 241 1; Austin Blair r, 2401; Charles G. Wil- 
lett n, 156; David Parsons n, 156, Isaac W. McKee- 
ver pro, 28; Edward C. Newell pro, 2S. 

Circuit Judge, iGth J. C, 1S81.— William M. 

Mitchell d, 2703; Herman W. Stephens r, 2246; Val- 
entine A. Saph g. b. n, 14S. 

I'^aie on Loan o/Slcooo. iSSi. — For the tax and 
loan 2341; against 2179. 

Senator 20 Dis.. iSSl.— John V. Mellen d, 4861. 



Tlie newspa]ier press of Macomb may, with justice, claim to be tlie true expo- 
nent of popular ideas, as well as the zealous guardian of local interests. Seldom has 
it extended recognition to terrorism at home or tyranny abroad — never knowingly. 
Possibly there may have been a few instances, where ignorance, pure and simple, 
caused the free citizen of our Union to wander away from his surroundings and en- 
ter the circle of flunkyism ; there may also be some cases where the people were so 
short-sighted as to permit an immigrant newspaper writer to indulge in eulogies on the 
magnificence of trans-Atlantic peoples. Sometimes cuttings are made from monarch- 
ical papers, because the heading conveys an idea to the busy editor that. the arti- 
cle is newsy, when in reality it is only a fulsome laudation of expiring monarchy — 
an attempt to gain sympathy for that hideous principle. This article appears in the 
columns of the local paper without even a qualifying paragraph, and contributes in 
a degree to foster a taste for royalty, pageantry, and all such criminal nonsense in 
the minds of the more unthinking portion of our people. Such insulting trash should 
not be placed before the public. Even though this unjustifiable, foundationless 
praise of the enslavers of Europeans, of all their glittering palaces, of their gorgeous 
parades, could win any serious attention from any other than the most imbecile 
of ourpopulation, it is not fair to furnish imbecility with fuel; it is not right to place 
before it new subject matter, which enables it, however falsely, to extol the glories 
and the pageants of principles and men who cast a gloom over the civilization of 
our day. There is little in trans-Athintic peoples, and much less in their govern- 
ments, which hold seven-eigliths of the people in most aliject servitude, to commend. 
The knowledge of this state of affairs in Europe, is so widespread in the United 
States, that it forms a full safeguard against the growth of that foolish, debasing, 
and most pernicious vice commonly called flunkyism. The people understand their 
duty to the Republic, and none among them more so than the indefatigable men, who 
identify themselves with the press of this county. 

Macomb has reaped a rich harvest from the industry and honesty of her news- 




paper conductors. All evidences point out her journalists of the past to have been 
as truly honorable as are those of the present ; flunkyism was not the attribute of 
any one of them ; they labored late and early in providing newsy and instructive 
reading for the constituents ; and, if at any time, a ridiculous eulogy, on all that is 
politicall}' and socially false, crept into their columns, they were the first to denounce 
the buffoon who penned the obnoxious lines. 

The press conferred inestimable good ujaon this disti-ict ; it oj^posed premature 
innovations, even as it urged necessary reforms ; it set its denunciations of arbitrary 
and tyrannical measures in black letter, stigmatized moral cowardice, and claimed that 
from the village council-room to the chambers of the National Government, vice 
should be subjected to rebuke and punishment, aiid virtue doubly cherished. 

Here the press is a synonym for progress. Prescribe its liberty and the nation 
suffers. Very few liberties had been won in the long struggle for human freedom, 
involving more far reaching and momentous consequences than that which secured 
the constitutional guaranty of freedom of speech and of the press. The antagonism 
between a despotic government and the j^rinting press is as natural as it is intense. 
The heart of monarchy, claiming to be human, loves applause, and therefore could 
not willingly feed on the bitter herbs of censure. Neither king nor minister, 
neither cardinal nor general desired a fair review of his official acts, nor submitted 
to reproof. The exercise of power bred confidence in the hearts of rulers, and 
begot an impatience of criticism ; hence there was a natural inclination to restrain, 
what those in authority might deem, an unwarrantable freedom in the discussion 
of public affairs. On the other hand, the intelligent portion of the population 
desired to inquire into the proceedings of their governors, to complain of 
grievances, and to suggest reforms. Free thought and free speech were of little 
avail without free publications, and to suppress publications was to prevent prac- 
tical results. Thus there was an irrepressible conflict between oppressive govern- 
ments, whatever their form, and the press — one in which the press succeeded in 
these States, one in which it is still engaged in the eastern hemisphere up to the 
present time, and which is likely to continue until the sun sheds his light upon a 
great European Republic. 

In a despotic state the government exercises a censorship over the press, while 
in a free country the case is reversed, and the press is the censor of the govern- 
ment. Both forms of censorship were liable to abuse ; but judging by the past, 
the excesses of the press for a thousand years would be trifling in evil results, 
when compared with the iniquities of a government censor for a single genera- 
tion. If the people are to govern, or take any active intelligent part in the 
government, they must be cognizant of every fact pertaining to their country, and 
be in a position to give full expression to their opinions on public measures. 

-J o 



Tliose entrusted with the executive authority, those appointed to promote the 
general welfare in accordance with the public will, should favor the most free and 
efficient means of communication with those for whose sake government is intended 
to exist — that means is the newspaper. No substitute for it has ,yet been devised 
— not one can be imagined. Thus the newspaper is one of the most important 
agencies of a free people, of a good government. Without its aid in instructing 
and arousing the people, the national government could neither have raised the 
vast armies, nor have commanded the pecuniary means required to carry on the 
struggle for the preservation of our Union against the wealthy planters of the 
Southern States and their foreign allies. 

The modern newspaper is not merely a private enterprise ; it is as truly public 
and necessary as the railroad or the telegraph. Enlightened jurisprudence de- 
clares that the newspaper, encouraged and protected by the highest guarantees of 
constitutional law as indispensable to free government, is subject not to the narrow, 
rigid rules which appl)' to merely private enterprises, but to broad and equitable 
principles springing out of its relation to the public, and its duty to serve the 
people in the collection and publication of information relating to the public good. 
The business of journalism is no longer a mere incident to the printer's trade — it 
has become a great, profound, and learned profession, with fraternal organizations. 
It has become the great educator of the masses, as well as the magnificent agent 
of social and political reformation. 

Acting harmoniously in their respective spheres, free government and a free 
press are the joint conservators of good, each the most powerful pillar of the other. 
The press and the bar, as well as the people and the Government of the United 
States, are all dependent upon one another, with the honest press as leader. 
Therefore let us cherish the newspapers, stigmatizing what may appear corrupt in 
them, and applauding all that is honorable and just. This is due by the people 
to the people and the press. 

In the following historical sketches a full effort has been made to deal with 
the newspapers and newspaper men of this county — which effort, the writer 
believes, has been attended with success ; being, as it is, an extract from the his- 
torical address, delivered December 28, 1881, at Armada, by Edgar Weeks, formerly 
connected with the press of the county. 

Forty years ago, there was not half a dozen newspapers in Michigan, and not 
one in Macomb County. At that time the country was new ; the telegraph not 
wliat it is to-day ; the mails were slow, painfully slow, postage was dear, tlie 
people poor. In that day it took ten days or two weeks to get a letter from New 
York to Detroit. The means of communication was confined to stage coaches and 
steamboats, which would drive a modern traveler wild. The city of Detroit was 



then only a moderate sized village. There was not a town of 5,000 inhabitants in 
the State. Mt. Clemens was a village of some importance as tlie future of Michigan 
then looked. It was the seat of government and justice for all Michigan north of 
Wayne County. It numbered among its people some few enterprising men who 
looked forward to a large city where Mt. Clemens now stands. 


Way back in the history of Romeo, there was published there a paper called 
the Investigator. The files of this paper have disappeared, and no inquiry which 
we have made for them has been rewarded. The name of its publisher was Thomas 
M. Perry. It first appeared in the fall of 1850 and lived about two j'ears. 

Another paper called the Romeo Olive Branch was also published there, but 
we have been equall}' unfortunate in regard to it, both as to date and name of its 

In the year 1857 the Romeo Argus appeared, but its files previous to May 18th, 
1861, are lost. From May 18th, 1861, to May 18th, 1802, the files have been pre- 
served. The Argus was started in 1857, in Ma}', by Martin V. Bentley and John 
M. Stone. Mr. Bentley bought out his partner in about a year after the publica- 
tion began. 

On the 8th of May, 1861, S. H. Ewell bought the paper and published it about 
one year. It was edited by Ewell and Aiken. It was then leased to Hiram J. 
Aiken and George D. Mussey. In February, 1864, it was destroyed by fire. The 
motto of the Argus was " The agitation of thought is the beginning of wisdom." 

A State Temperance journal was started by John Russell sometime in 1863. 
This paper was really the old publication turned into a new channel, and was 
printed by Aiken and Mussey, at the Argus office. It was called the Peninsular 
Herald, and was devoted to the cause of Prohibition and Total Abstinence. It ran 
a successful career for some time, and was finally removed tb Detroit, where it en- 
joyed a broader field in journalism, and survived a brief career. Its proprietor is 
so well known in this county as to require no introduction at my hands. His 
prominence as a temperance agitator gave him a wide reputation and secured for 
him the nomination for the Vice-Presidency on the National Temperance Ticket in 

On the 30th of May, 1866, John Russell started the Romeo Observer, and the 
history of newspapers since that time in Romeo is almost exclusively' a history of 
the Observer. On the 9th of August, 1866, Irving D. Hanscom and Edward A. 
Teall became its proprietors. They improved and enlarged the paper in 18G6, and 
flung to the breeze the patriotic motto " Wiiere libertj' dwells, there is my country." 
Under this high sounding legend the Observer flourished until March 9th, 1867, 



when Edwin A. Teall and Lewis N. Moon took it in charge as publishers, and 
printed it until November 19, 1867, when Teall & Co. became its proprietors, the 
company being Harve}- E. Mussey. This Company continued until November 11, 
1868, when Edwin A. Teall became sole editor and proprietor. 

The Observer became an out and out Republican paper in October, 1861), when 
it adopted as its motto " Republican in politics, neutral in nothing." 

On the loth of October, 1869, Irving D. Hanscom again became proprietor of 
the Obsei-ver, and on the twentieth of the same month, Samuel H. Ewell entered 
into co-partnership with him. The paper flourished under their management about 
four years when they sold out to Geo. A. "Waterbury and S. H. Ewell. January 
14th, 1874, Robert G. Baird purchased the interest of Mr. Ewell and this firm con- 
tinued the paper a little over one year. On the 3d of February, 1875, Mr. Water- 
bury became sole editor and proprietor, and has so remained up to the present 
time, with the exception of a single year during which time the establishment was 
leased to S. S. Hopkins, now of St. Clair City. 

During all these yeai-s the Observer has either been an " out and out" Re- 
publican paper, or had a decided leaning in that direction. It has been a strong 
partizan of Romeo in all her local, political, social, and business interests, and has 
been rewarded with a liberal support by the citizens of that village. The Observer 
had every thing its own way (so to speak) and without a rival to molest or make 
it afraid, with a rich field for country journalism, an intelligent class of citizens for 
its patrons, was happy and felt satisfied. 

This charming condition of affairs was disturbed, however, on the 1st of May, 
1880, by the appearance of the Romeo Democrat, Fred. C. and C. H. Buzzel, pro- 
prietors. The Democrat is an enterprising, vivacious, and thoroughly wide-awake 
country paper. Its proprietors are young men, both in years and journalism, but 
they are making their paper an important figure in the newspaper coterie of this 
county. • 


A paper called the Enterprise was established at Utica somewhere about 
the year 1837 or 1838, and was published by Henry Fish and R. W. Jenny, with 
C. B. H. Fessenden as editor ; but the files have been destroyed and we have been 
unable to ascertain any thing more connected with it. 

W. H. Marvin started the Utica Sentinel about five years ago, and has pub- 
lished it up to the present tine. The Sentinel is independent in politics, is a good 
local paper and has every appearance of a successful career before it. 


In 1840 a newspaper called the Statesman was started at Mount Clemens by a 



Mr. Avery. After a time he was succeeded by a Mr. Brown, and he by John N. 
Ingersoll. The Statesman was a lively and influential paper, published weekly. 
Its editorials were characterized by ability, and it was noted as a hard fighter in the 
field of local politics. We have been recently shown certain political cartoons in 
caricature of John N. Ingersoll, Richard Butler, and other lights of the Whig 
party of that day, which show the spirit of political controversy as then conducted. 
The Statesman was intensely Whig, and its editor was then a leader of that party 
in this State. Mr. Ingersoll remained in Mount Clemens a number of years, active 
in political and social events, but finally removed to Corunna, Shiawassee County, 
where he published the Shiawassee American until his death, which occurred a little 
over a year ago. We can not state accurately the date of the demise of the States- 

The Macomb County Herald, a Whig paper, was started by George F. Lewis 
in 1848 or 1849, and edited by Richard Butler. In 1850 or 1851 it was purchased 
by Fred B. Lee and published by him about one year, when it was sold to Thomas 
M. Perry, former pul:)lisher of the Patriot, who j^ulilislied it for a short time, when 
the ofl&ce was burned and the Herald ceased to exist. 

The Macomb G-azette was started by Allen P. Bentley, some time about 1849 
or 1850. It was Democratic in politics, and so remained from the date of its birth 
until its demise in 1856. After a short time Mr. Bentley sold the Macomb Grazette 
ofifice to Abner C. Smith, a lawyer, and one of the prominent men of that day at 
the county seat. The writer well remembers Mr. Smith as a tall, intellectual- 
appearing man, who alwa3's wore gold-bowed glasses, and was never seen except in 
the full dignity of his profession of law and journalism. The ofiice of the Gazette 
was on the south side of Court House Square. The writer was employed in the 
office as a printer's " devil " at a very tender age, and at that time its foreman was 
Martin V. Bentley and its jours John Aiken and " Trume " Griffin. 

On the breaking up of the Whig party the Gazette was sold by Mr. Smith, who 
moved to Minnesota, where he practiced law until the time of his death, a few 
yeai-s ago. The purchaser of the Gazette was William L. Canfield, who rechrist- 
ened his paper the " Rejiublican Standard." The Standard, as its name implies, 
was a Republican paper, and was published up to 1866 by Mr. Canfield, who sold 
it to Walter T. Lee and the writer, who enlarged it and " started out " under the 
name of the " Mount Clemens Monitor." 

The Monitor was also Republican in politics. It was a folio of respectable size, 
published weekly, and met with very good success. Tiie writer (Mr. Weeks) sold 
out his interest some time in 1867 to W. T. Lee, who continued its publication 
until he sold to D. M. Cooper. Mr. Cooper finally sold to a Mr. O'Brien, who soon 

s ^ 



after sold to J. E. Nellis & Son who are now publishing the Monitor, and publish- 
ing a successful and acceptable county newspaper. 

We have followed the Statesman through all its clianges and vicissitudes as 
the most convenient way of treating the subject. AVe will now retrace our steps to 
1840, in which year Thomas M. Perry landed at Mount Clemens from a steamboat 
with printing material, which he moved to the old frame building known as the 
Lewis Building, then standing on the site of the present new and elegant countj^ 
jail and Slieriff's residence, and commenced the publication of tiie Mount Clemens 
Patriot. The Patriot was a Democratic newspaper, edited and conducted in the 
interest of the local Democracy, with more than the ordinary ability bestowed on 
country newspapers. Mr. Perry was, in his way, a remarkable specimen of pug- 
nacity and tenacity. He had seen much of the world, and was entirely absorbed 
in his editorial profession, was a practical printer and would stand at his case 
and put his leaders in type without manuscript or notes before him. When in one 
of Ids frequent tempests of passion he was a terror to every one around him. The 
Patriot was burned out in one of the big fires that visited Mount Clemens. It was 
then located on Pearl Street, when Mr. Perry was again heard from as a publisher, 
and where he remained thereafter. 

Some time about the year 1854 another paper made its advent in Mt. Clemens. 
It was brought there by Geo. F. Lewis. Lewis had been a publisher at Port Huron, 
but came here and established the Peninsular Advocate. The Advocate was a Dem- 
ocrat paper, and its office was located in wliat was known as the " Leviathan " 
building, which stood on Front street, on the site of the new block now occupied 
by the post-office. It was a first-class county paper, quite pretentious in size and 
appearance. Its editorial management was first class, as all who know Fred Lewis 
will readily concede. During the first years of the civil war, the Advocate contin- 
ued to be published, and the writer was its " war correspondent " from the army of 
the Potomac. Mr. Lewis, however, moved to Saginaw, and the Advocate ceased to 
exist, but was soon followed by the Mt. Clemens Conservative Press, under the man- 
agement of Jas. B. Eldredge and Wm.Longstaff. The Mt. Clemens Press had its 
origin in the old Macomb Conservative Press, which was established in 1863 by a 
stock company. The material was mostly purchased second-hand, and is sup- 
posed to be the remnants of the Peninsular Advocate, established by Mr. Perry some 
years previous, and suspended. Several fonts of wood type still remain in the office 
in almost a perfect condition. Messrs. J. B. Eldredge and Wm. Longstaff became 
the editors and general managers of the Conservative Press, and continued in this 
capacity until 1868, when John Trevidick, who had been the practical head of the 
office for a number of years, became the publisher, changing the name to the Mt; 
Clemens Press. Mr. Trevidick continued the publication until December, 1882, 




when the click of the type on the printer's rule ceased in the Press office. " Until 
further notice, no paper will be issued from this office," was the " special announce- 
ment "that greeted its readers on the 26th day of December, 1872. But the 
further notice was destined to come from other quills than those that had hereto- 
fore done service on the columns of the Press. In the following spring, May 1st, 
1873, the former readers of the paper were greeted by its re-appearance under the 
management of S. B. Russell, editor and proprietor. 

Among the earlier pei'iodicals of Mt. Clemens we must mention the Masonic 
magazine called the Ancient Landmark, which was published by A. C. Smith, 
before mentioned, from the Gazette office. Mr. Smith was a man of literary taste 
and an enthusiastic Mason. Tlie little magazine was published a number of years, 
and ceased with the demise of the Gazette and the removal of Mr. Smith to Min- 

About 1872 another newspaper was started at Mt. Clemens, called the Me- 
porter. Its editor and proprietor was Lew. M. Miller, and tliougli tlie career of the 
Reporter was soon cut short by the removal of Mr. Miller to another field, it will 
long be remembered in the Republican campaign of 1872. 

Later, Walter T. Lee started the Mt. Clemens True Record, which, after a brief 
and unsuccessful existence, was purcliased by W. N. Miller & Co., and called the 
Mt. Clemens RepuMican, which has been published since October, 1880. The 
Republican is also Republican in politics, though principally devoted to matters of 
local interest. 

This, we believe, completes the list of newspapers and periodicals which, from 
the earliest history of the county seat, have been published there. However, from 
time to time special publications have appeared, one of whicli was a holiday picto- 
rial issued by Geo. F. Lewis from the Advocate office, about the Christmas of 1859 
or 1860. The pictorial was a masterpiece of local talent and skill. Upon its pro- 
duction was lavished the editorial ability of Geo. F. Lewis, Edgar Weeks and Michael 
Stapleton, whose sketches drew heavily upon the classics, both ancient and modern. 
The artists were Edgar Weeks and W. T. Lee, whose wood engravings rivaled 
those of the Aldine itself; all the patent medicine cuts in the offices of Mt. Clemens 
were utilized. One made to represent the Goddess Juno in her chariot of the 
Sun. Another, "before taking" was made to represent some doleful figure in 
public life, while the "after taking" made a good shift for the physiognomy of some 
successful and self-satisfied statesman, whose perennial smile was the principal 
feature of the artistic effort. The pictorial was a great local hit and a success. We 
have in our possession a copy of the carrier's address to the patrons of the Mt. 
Clemens Patriot, of January 1st, 1842. It was written by Miss Lewis, now Mrs. 
N. L. Miller, and makes mention of local history long since forgotten by most of the 




men and women of the pi-esent generation. It was published soon after the death 
of President Harrison, and in the midst of the political changes which were taking 
place alludes feelingly to the recent national bereavement, naturally lauds the new 
President and finally speaks about the removal of the recent incumbents of the Mt. 
Clemens postoffice and deputy coUectorship, and mentions the appointment of Giles 
Hubbard to the first and Henry D. Terry to the second named place. The poet 
says : 

Changes political are few, 

But yet I think of one or two ; 

Our good Post-master has been removed, 

Although a faithful servant proved. 

May Giles, who fills his place of late 

His bright example emulate. 

The Custom it has been before, 

For General S to watch our shore, 

But the Mayor is now our Collector — 
Of smuggled goods a safe detector. 

Tliese allusions to Giles Hubbard, John Stockton and Henry D. Terry, all of 
tliem once prominent in the social and political events of the country, and all now 
lying in their graves, revive a sad and mournful regret over the memories of three 
men whose names will be carried down into the distant future upon the public 
records of Macomb County. 

During the years over which our sketch has extended, other men have figured 
in the newspaper history of Mt. Clemens, prominent among them, William Long- 
staff, once a practical printer, and now a well-known citizen of Mt. Clemens. John 
Atkins, a practical printer of merit, who many years ago removed to Council Bluffs, 
Iowa. Fred B. Lee, also a practical printer, now publisher of the Monroe Index. 
W. T. Lee, of whom mention has been made before, now in Monroe engaged in his 
trade as a printer. Charles H. Lee, now proprietor of the Saginaw Republican, at 
Saginaw City. David A. Stockton, a practical printer, who removed to Canada 
some years ago. W. C. Stockton, a practical printer, who lives in Mt. 
Clemens. Andrew S. Robertson, once one of the foremost lawyers of the county, 
a leading politician, a State Senator, and a man of I'are abilities who was once editor 
of the Peninsular Advocate ; also Mark H. March, who now pursues his vocation as 
a job printer in Detroit. 

These reminiscences are written largely from personal recollections and may be 
inaccurate in respect to some of the dates. These can be hereafter verified by 
some member of the Pioneer Society who may have leisure to devote to the task, and 
who, we trust will be able to treat the subject more ably than the j^resent writer. 
To those men who have had charge through all these years, of that powerful engine, 
the local press, the city and county owe much which can be best paid by preserving 


in the ajchives of our Pioneer Society, a memorial of their names and hiboi's, for the 
emulation of those who come hereafter. 


Sometime about the year 1853, Tliomas M. Perry, mentioned as the founder of 
the Mt. Clemens Patriot, started a paper at Ashleyville, near New Baltimore. It 
was called the Ashleyville Independent. The writer was employed in this office 
part of the first year of its publication. Ashleyville was then one of the most enter- 
prising and promising villages in the county. It was the center of a large stave 
trade, and its mills gave employment to a large population of laborers. But the 
Independent did not long survive, and we believe that its material was afterward 
brought to JMt. Clemens and became a part of the Peninsidar Advocate, under George 
F. Lewis, as heretofore mentioned. Some time afterward, another little paper bear- 
ing the same name was started at Ashleyville, by Martin V. Ferris, then a practicing 
lawyer there. The mechanical work was done by Edgar Weeks. But this paper 
did not long survive, as the business of the village then did not justify the venture. 
These are the only papers ever printed in New Baltimore. Mr. Ferris removed to 
Indiana and pursued tlie practice of law there, where he died a few years ago. 


The Richmond Herald was established at Richmond on the 8th of June, 1876, 
by Del T. Sutton and George W. Kenfield. Mr. Kenfield only remained in the 
business a few weeks, but Mr. Sutton continued its publication until November, 
1876, when he sold the establishment to David S. Cooper. 

Mr. Cooper published the Herald until June, 1877, when the publication was 
discontinued. The good people of Richmond had not then conceived the thought of 
the future rapid growth of their little city and the Herald was born before its 
time. But Richmond began to move. Its importance as a manufacturing center 
began to make itself apparent, and on the 8th day of November, 1877, William C. 
Walter, an enterprising young man, started the Richmond Review. Walter pub- 
lished the Review until the 23d of November, 1879, when it was sold to Frank S. 
Abbott, then a practicing attorney at Richmond. Mr. Abbott continued the publi- 
cation of the Review until the 7th of August, 1880, when it was purchased by Del 
T. Sutton, its present editor and proprietor. Mr. Abbott removed to Wyandotte, 
where he is engaged in publishing a newspaper. 

The Review lias alwajs been independent in politics, and devoted to the local 
interests of the village of its nativity. It is now a six-column eight-page paper, suc- 
cessful, bright and enterprising, and a fair exponent of the intelligence and thrift of 
the pleasant village of Richmond. 



Armada village is one of the bright enterprising towns of the county, sur- 
rounded by a wealthy and intelligent community, and inhabited by an industrious 
and thorough class of business men, and it seems a good field for a newspaper. 

In 1874 the Armada Index was founded by Ed. H. Bently, the first number 
appearing in October of that year. It was edited and managed at Armada thougii 
printed at Detroit. It was a five-column paper, independent in politics and issued 
weekly. Though sprightly and intelligent it failed to survive the first year. 

In 1876, in April, Mr. A. F. Stowe, started a small job office at Armada, and 
on the 10th of May published the first number of the Armada Telegraph. It was a 
small four-column pap$r, quarto in form, independent in politics. In the vicissitudes 
of its early career it was reduced in size to a four-column bi-weekly folio, and its 
publication continued by Mr. Stowe until January 1880, when he sold to Charles J. 
Seel3\ Mr. Seely immediately enlarged the paper, commenced the publication of a 
weekly again, enlarged it to a six-column quarto in which form it is now published 
by Mr. Seely, with every appearance and prospect of success. The Telegraph is in- 
dependent in politics. In August 1880, J. E. Barringer, the enterprising secretary 
of the Armada Agricultural Society, commenced the publication of the Armada 
Agriculturalist. It is published during tlie months of August, September and 
October of each year, and is devoted to the interests of the Agricultural Society of 
Armada and the success of the Armada Fair held at that place. 


Spencer Boothe Russell, the present editor and proprietor of the Press, is the 
son of John and Ruth Ann Russell, the former a native of Ireland, who immigrated 
to the United States when but eighteen years of age, settling in the State of New 
York, where he continued to reside until his death in 1851. He was a hardy, wiry 
si^ecimen of that ancient Celtic race of whom it was truly said "he was the 
straightest man in the county, an accomplished athlete, and without a peer, either 
in the harvest field or in the garb of a Christian." His wife was Ruth Ann Bur- 
ton, nee Andrus. The Andrus family came from Rhode Island into Yates county. 
New York in an early da3^ The family dates its origin back to the landing of the 
Pilgrims, and proudly traces its progenitors to the blue-blooded Puritans who came 
over in the May Flower. They are of that peculiar type of Rhode Island yankee, 
whose physiognomic traits and Quakerish drollery of dialect are all present. Not 
even the Celtic blood, the quick wit and ready speech of a North of Irelander, have 
been able to absorb the identit}^ of the Andrus type of New England's sturdy 
stock. The town of Jerusalem, Yates Couuty, N. Y., became the home of the 
Russells, and here the subject of this sketch was born, November 24, 1846. A few 



years later the family moved to Ontario County where John Russell met his death 
from the effects of overwork and exposure. The widow toiled on with her six 
fatherless children for a few years, and then moved West, landing at New Balti- 
more, Macomb County, in the fall of 1853. The poor woman but journeyed to lier 
death; for after a brief struggle with poverty and disease of the new West, she, 
too, entered upon that long journey beyond the river, bequeathing her six little 
ones to the world. In the spring of 1855, the subject of our narrative, being left 
practically homeless and friendless, started out to make a name and fortune in a 
world of which he knew nothing. Being recommended to the family of Abbot 
Van Horn, who had just settled in the woods of northeastern Chesterfield town- 
ship, he went to the home of that settler, and entered into his first business 
transaction. Van Horn agreed to furnish him a home and give him what advan- 
tages the district school afforded, until he was eighteen years old. On his own be- 
half the boy contractor promised to stay the required term of years, to give his 
assistance on the farm in summer season and such as he could while attending 
school. No contract, signed and sealed with all the impressive solemnities and 
forms of law, was ever more sacredly observed. And to the influence of this Chris- 
tian home, and the principles of business integrity and morality here inculcated, 
Mr. R. credits his success in life. After the expiration of his contract the 
next few years were spent in a course of schooling and private instructions at Mt. 
Clemens. In the spring of 1866 he entered the law office of Hubbard & Crocker, 
and began the study of law, which was continued, with the exception of the win- 
ter months spent in teaching district schools, until August, 1868, when he was ad- 
mitted to the bar of Macomb Couuty. His examination was pronounced by the 
judge and bar to be one of the best in the iiistory of the circuit. Visiting his native 
State during the following winter a little incident happened that may not be out of 
place here. The reported loss of a party of sleigh-riders while crossing a lake, led 
to the rumor at Mt. Clemens that Mr. Russell was one of the number. The report 
spread rapidly and gained credence wherever it was told. Many were the expres- 
sions of regret that so promising a career should be thus suddenly cut-off in the 
very beginning. " One day," says Mr. Russell, " there came a letter from a distant 
friend less credulous than those at Mt. Clemens informing me of my reported death 
and the anxiety of friends at my old home. The anxious friends were at once re- 
lieved, but the report was never publicly contradicted until my appearance ui^on 
the streets of Mt. Clemens the following April. I shall never forget the look of 
blank astonishment with which I was greeted by those to whom my appearance was 
the first intimation of a resurrection." Instinctively following the Star of Empire, 
Mr. R. took his flight westward, and on the 9th of May, 1869, found himself in the 
city of Omaha, Neb. But a longing desire to enter his chosen profession never de- 

D fy 



serted him, and the following January he hung out his professional shingle at Fort 
Scott, Kan., upon which the empire star was at that time shedding its most effulgent 
rays. But that season was very unhealthy, and after a severe attack of fever fol- 
lowed by the Kansas shakes he decided to forever " shake " that country, which he 
did, retiring to western Michigan in the fall of 1870 very much broken in health, 
and so found his way back to Mt. Clemens two years later. In the spring of 1873, 
he was elected to the office of County Superintendent of Schools, and on the first 
day of May assumed the duties of his office, and also the editorial management of 
The Press. After two years of double duty the Superintendency Law was repealed, 
since which time he has given his entire attention to newsj^aper work. In 1878 he 
associated his brother in business with him, who still shares the duties of manage- 

Mr. Russell took an active part in local politics, holding several minor offices in 
the village, afterwards city, until the spring of 1881, when he was chosen mayor of 
the city over a formidable opponent. The story of his subsequent removal by the 
Governor, on purely technical grounds, his re-nomination and re-election as given 
elsewhere in this volume, is a fair and impartial recital of the facts. The legal 
technicality upon which the Governor based the removal was the alleged interest of 
Mayor Russell in a contract for printing between the city and the firm of S. B. and 
H. E. Russell, which, as shown by the testimony, amounted to less than $25 a year 
and was entered into for the sole benefit of H. E. Russell. The case attracted the 
attention of the Press throughout the State and never was the official act of an 
executive more severely criticised and impartially condemned. Public sympathy 
in Macomb Countj'' was all in favor of Mr. Russell and his re-accession to tlie may- 
oralty was a subject of congratulation for months afterward. Instead of the stain 
which a few political enemies had confidently hoped to bring upon his public record, 
it proved one of the happiest triumphs of his whole life. No more appropriate 
woi'ds can be used in closing this short biographical sketch than the following from 
the pen of that veteran journalist and former citizen, Geo. F. Lewis. The article 
is only one of the many handsome tributes paid Mr. Russell at the time by the daily 
and weekly press of the State. It appeared in the Bay City Morning Call, of which Mr. 
Lewis was then managing editor, and may form a very apt conclusion to this sketch. 
" Mr. Russell," says the writer, " is a gentleman of no small individuality, a clever 
man of some means, decidedly good financial ability, undemonstrative even to 
reticence, but square and conscientious, if we know what is what in this direction. 
He is far from that morbid sensibility which magnifies every trifling trouble into a 
threatened disaster, and satisfied in his conscience that he meant to be fair and 
honorable, he paid very little attention to the proceedings which were taken for his 




"Henry E. Russell was born in the town of Jerusalem, Yates Co., N. Y., 
in 1848. Came to this State and county in 1852, moved to Oakland in 1860, and 
to Allegan in 1863. where he lived until the late rebellion. He enlisted in the 24th 
Michigan Infantry in 1864, and served until the close of the war. After the war 
he entered the Seminary at Allegan, and received such an education as that 
institution affords. He left the Seminar}^ in 1869. Taught schools in Allegan up 
to 1872, when he moved into Kent County. There he taught school in Alpine and 
Algoma Townships until 1874, when he returned to Macomb. He passed a short 
time at Memphis, this county, in 1874, and in the winter of that j'ear entered the 
office of the Press at Mount Clemens. In 1878 he formed a partnership with S. B. 
Russell. He is a practical printer and superintendent of office. Mr. Russell was 
married to Miss Fanny M. Miller, sister of Lew M. Miller, of Lansing, April 23, 

John E. Nellis, publisher of the Monitor, was born at Brantford, Canada West, 
August 80, 1828. His father, John Nellis, was born in New York State about 1775, 
and left that State with his father, who was one of the U. E. Loyalists of that time. 
Mr. Nellis was educated at Brantford. In 1856 he began mercantile life, which 
he continued in Michigan from 1866 to 1872, when he entered on the publication 
of the Wayne County Courier. The first number of the Courier was issued in 
January, 1873. Mr. Nellis published the journal until March, 1879, when he dis- 
posed of his interest therein, and moved to Mount Clemens, there he purchased tlie 
Monitor from Edward O'Brien, and entered at once on the publication of that jour- 
nal, which now is considered one of the best managed and edited weekly newspa- 
pers in this State. He has filled the position of United States Custom Officer at 
the port of Mount Clemens since March, 1880. Mr. Nellis married Miss Eleanor R. 
Griffin in 1855. The children of this marriage are Georgiana, born in 1856; 
Frank E., born in 1857 ; Jesse M., born 1861 ; Nellie A., born in 1863, and Grace 
R., born January 7, 1874. 

Frank E. Nellis, editor of the Monitor, boru at Watertown, Canada, Marcli 27, 
1857, settled in Wayne County, Michigan, in 1866. He attended the schools of 
Wyandotte until 1871, wlien he entered the Enterprise office, where he learned the 
art of printing. When his fathei' became publisher of the Courier he continued to 
work there as foreman until 1875, when he became local editor. In 1878 he 
entered the Detroit office of the Courier. He remained at Detroit until March, 
1879, when he came to Mount Clemens as editor of the Monitor, in which journal 
he claims a third interest. As editor of this journal he has won for himself the 
name of being at once energetic, industrious, judicious and honest. They form the 
main characteristics of the man. Mr. Nellis, Sr., is business manager of the [>aper^ 
which position is admirably filled. Within the last two years the circulation of 


the Monitor has inci'eased from 300 to 1,000 copies per week ; while the value of 
the office has advanced from $1,200 to $6,000. 

Lew. M. Miller, formerly connected with the Press of Macomb, was born in Ray 
Township, March 3, 1849. In the summer of 1868 he entered the law office of Hub- 
bard & Crocker. Had charge of school at Davis or Brooklyn in 1869-70, and at 
Freeman's Mill in 1870-'71, when he received the appointment of engrossing clerk 
of tlie Mich. H. of R. Since that period he has served in the house as engrossing 
and enrolling clerk or journal clerk, during three extra sessions and six regular ses- 
sions of the Legislature. He was elected Circuit Court Commissioner for Macomb 
in 1872. In the summer of 1873, he issued the Mount Clemens Reporter. In 1875 
he assumed control of the Big Rapids Magnet ; but severed his connection with that 
journal in 1876. Returning to Mt. Clemens, he consolidated the Reporter with the 
Monitor, the latter having been purchased by Tliomas H. Foster. He made it, what 
is termed a " red-hot Republican paper."' In 1877 Forster & Miller sold their inter- 
est in the Monitor to Cooper. Since 1878 Mr. Miller has made Lansing his home, 
where he is a member of the Secretary of State's staff. His marriage with Miss 
Mary A. Clippinger, of Lansing, took place Feb. 3, 1875. 

George Alvin Waterbury, son of John C. and Lory A (Parks) Waterbury, was 
born near St. Clair, St. Clair Co., Aug. 11, 1847. At an early day Mr. Waterbury, 
Sr., and family came to Micliigan. In 1845 he removed from Calhoun County and 
settled tinee miles north of Lexington, in Sanilac County, where he resided until 
1852, when the family moved into Lexington village. There George A. attended 
school and continued there until 1863, when lie became a student at the Dickinson 
Institute, Ronieo. He attended tluxt institution for about two years; before it be- 
came the Union school. He then went to Oberlin in 1865-'6, which college he at- 
tended until 1868. In 1868 he entered the law department of the University at 
Ann Arbor, where he graduated in 1869. On leaving college he entered the law 
office of Newbury, Pond & Brown at Detroit, where he remained about a year. 
In 1871, Mr. Waterbury was connected with the post-office at Lexington. Sub- 
sequently he traveled extensively until June 1873. In Aug. 1873, he purchased 
tlie office of the Observer from I. D. Hanscom, and entered upon the publication of 
that journal the same month. Mr. Waterbury married Miss Jennie Killam of 
Addison Township, Oakland Co., daughter of Powell C. Killam, formerly of Bruce, 
referred to in the historical sketch of Bruce Township. 

John C. Waterbury, father of G. A. Waterbury of Romeo, may be considered 
an old resident of Sanilac County. He has served that district of Michigan, in the 
Legislature for two terms, and in the Senate for two terms. He was appointed 
United States Assessor during tlie war ; elected Judge of Probate for his County, 
and held many offices of trust in the township of Lexington. He was born in Del- 

j ^ 




aware County N. Y., in 1815, came to Michigan, and settled in Calhoun County in 
1838 ; moved thence to St. Clair County in 1840, and again to Sanilac in 1847, 
where he now resides. He married Miss Lory Andrews Parks, in 1838. This lady 
was born in Saratoga County, N. Y., in 1815, and came with her husband to Mich- 
igan in 1838. 

F. C. Buzzell and his brother C. H. Buzzell, inaugurated a new paper in 1880 
under the name of the Romeo Democrat, and the first number was issued May 1 of 
that year. As individuals the Buzzells are strictly Republican in politics; yet 
their journal is a faithful advocate of Democratic principles. The first named pro- 
prietor, son of Martin and Julia A. (Wing) Buzzell, was born at Romeo, July 3, 
1856; was educated in the schools of the village, entered on the study of law in the 
office of J. L. Starkweatlier, in 1876, and opened a law office in 1877, the business 
of which office is conducted by liim at present. 

Clyde H. Buzzell, brother of F. C. Buzzell, was born at Romeo in 1858. He 
is a practical printer, and holds the position of foreman in the Observer office since 
April 1881. In connection with the history of Romeo, a biographical sketch of 
this family is given. 

William H. Marvin, son of Milton and M. A. (Morse) Marvin natives of New 
York, was born at Ypsilanti, Mich., Oct. 14, 1842. He attended the district school, 
and in 1866 entered the Normal School of Ypsilanti, where he studied for three 
years. After leaving the Noruial, he inaugurated a real estate and insurance office at 
Ithaca, Gratiot Co. There he continued in business until 1871, when he moved to 
Toledo, O. After some time devoted to insurance business at Toledo, he pub- 
lished tlie first railroad guide ever issued there, which is now a prosperous publica- 
tion bearing the endorsement of all the i-ailroad companies. In 1873 he entered 
the office, now known as the Northern Ohio Democrat. Here he continued until 
'1874. During that year he opened a printing office in company with E. V. E. 
Ranch. In 1856 he moved to Utica, Mich., where he established the Utica iS'ewime/, 
with O. B. Culley as a partner. The first copy of this paper was issued Aug. 11, 
1876, being the first newspaper published in the village since the collapse of the 
Utica Enterprise over forty years ago. In 1877 Culley disposed of his interest in 
the Sentinel, and removed to Marine City. This journal is thoroughly independent, 
well conducted, and claimed to be one of the most prosperous newspapers in the 
county. Mr. Marvin married Laura E. Smith, of Ithaca, Oct. 4, 1868. The chil- 
dren are Luna, born Feb. 14, 1870, and Laura P., born Sept. 23, 1874. 

Ciiarles J. Seeley, son of Burton W. and Mary (Curtis) Seeley, was born 
in Armada village, March 4, 1861. Has always lived in the village and has 
engaged in various enterprises until Jan. 1, 1880, at which time he purchased 
of A. F. Stowe the Armada Telegra2yh, and is the owner and manager of that 



paper at the present time. It is published in the interest of the Republican 

Del. T. Sutton, editor and publisher of the Richmond Revieiv, was born Oct. 1, 
1858. The greater portion of the first seven or eight years of his life was spent 
on a farm, in what is known as the Kellogg neighborhood, in the township of Ray, 
in this county. He then removed to Richmond, where his father William R. 
Sutton, engaged in the mercantile business. Residing at that place for some ye.ars, 
he removed to New Haven. He lived at this place for several years when 
he returned to Richmond. In June, 1876, in company with George W. Kin- 
field, he started the Richmond Ilendd. After an existence of about two weeks, 
the partnership was dissolved, Mr. Sutton assuming the whole business, which he 
continued until November of the same year, when he sold out to David L. 
Cooper, in whose employ he remained for about eight montlis. He then assumed 
the position of local and assistant editor of the Port Huron Da'thi and Wei'Mij 
Times, where he remained for several months. His next enterprise was the estab- 
lishing of the G^re.enhach Sentinel, a campaign journal. In October, 1878, he 
removed to Homer, Calhoun Co.. to edit and publish the Index. He was married 
to Miss Lillie B. Thompson, of Richmond, Dec. 25, 1878. In August, 1880, he 
returned to Richmond, purchased the Richmond Review, of which journal he is 
now editor and publisher. 

Geo. F. Lewis, known as the "genial Saginawian," " Fred" Lewis, etc., etc., 
was born at Harvard, Worcester County, Mass., June 7, 1828. Came with parents 
to Mt. Clemens in 18.35. Set first type in office of Macomb Statesman, tlien edited 
by John N. Ingersoll. Subsequently held positions in the office of the Mt. Clemens 
Patriot, in 1838; the Detroit Daily Commercial Bulletin, in 1848; the ATacomh Co. 
Herald, in 1849 ; the Port Huron Commercial, in 1851 ; the Peninsular Advocate, in 
18.55. In March, 1868, he inaugurated the Daily Courier, at Saginaw; projected' 
the Saginau'ian, in 1869; the Mt. Pleasant t7b?<r«rtZ, in 1880, and the'Daily Morning 
Call, at Bay City, in 1881. 

We have now given, in as much detail as the subject requires, a history of the 
newspapers of Macomb County. For many of the facts the writer is indebted to 
friends who have kindly aided him with memoranda of names and dates, and thus 
materially lessened the labor of research. Among tliose whose kindness in this 
respect we desire specially to acknowledge are Fred. B. Lee, of the Monroe Index ; 
Del T. Sutton, of the Richmond B^euiew; Chas. J. Seely, of tlie Armada Telegraph ; 
S. H. Ewell, of Romeo ; A. J. Heath, of New Haven ; N. L. Miller, of Mt. Clemens. 

Tlie foregoing is but a sketch of the subject. There remains yet to be told 
the story of the newspaper man's struggle with poverty; the bitter disappoint- 
ment of his cherished plans and hopes when liis journal proved a financial disaster ; 




the heart burnings born in the midst of controversy ; the generous feeling of for- 
giveness when the controversy was ended ; the improvidence of the printer which 
led to financial embarrassment ; the unappreciated talent expended upon a too 
indifferent public; the loyal liberality of one of the profession toward another, 
which is a distinguishing characteristic of the trade of printing and journalism ; 
and last, the many happy social events which have been enjoyed at the ancient cel- 
ebrations of Franklin's birthday. 

It was once a rule of the profession in tiiis county to celebrate the birthday of 
Benjamin Franklin, and over a generous banquet, with music and fair speeches, to 
laud the Printer, Statesman and Patriot, and keep green the memory of the distin- 
guished men who have in the past adorned the printer's trade and the profession of 
journalism. In the midst of such scenes we have heard the ringing oratory of An- 
drew S. Robertson, the witty response of Geo. F. Lewis, the quiet good sense of 
Fred. Lee, and the eloquence of other tongues, some of which are sealed with the 
silence of the grave. 

Our county has had tlie services of these men. Their hearts and brains have 
been taxed in promoting the interests of the people of this county, and these inter- 
ests have been generously served by them. There are many personal reminiscences 
which belong to this sketch, but the time at our disposal prevents our entering upon 
their detail. In the ranks of the profession have been numbered the political 
leaders of the county, the leaders of our legal men, the leaders of the advance to 
social and practical events within the borders of our county, and .the fraternity of 
to-day can look back over the past history of their profession in this county with 
a just pride in their achievements, tlieir ability, their social and political standing, 
and claim descent from a noble line of leaders. May we hope that at some future 
gathering of the Pioneer Society the men of to-day may be recognized in the same 
way by our followers, " and that the good we do may live after us." 



From the earliest period in the history of man, poetry has maintained a relation 
to him at once remarkable and mysterious. She always led him from the mate- 
rialistic longings of nature, to a reverence for the Invisible Ruler of the Universe. 
In every age, in every land, she hesitated not for a moment in her admiration of the 
world's Great Architect ; she always believed and adored the Divinity, without 
other proof than faith, without other demonstration of His being, than that which 



Nature spreads before her. In this poetry is alone sublime. Let us, for an instant, 
east away hope, or set aside our belief that this world is the work of an Almighty 
hand. What is the result? Our senses become enshrouded in a cloud which seems 
to damp our energies, as well as to hide tlie beauties of Nature, and leave the animal 
side of our own cliaracters alone visible. True religion and poetry have ever walked 
together. Under the Old Dispensation, the commands of our God were entrusted 
to her regular measures, and centuries after the Prophets, she was made the lan- 
guage of the New Law. Poetry has been, is, and will be the language of Heaven, 
the language which at once soothes and elevates the soul of man, the language which 
maj^ be comprehended and felt, in a word the language of refined thought which 
comprehends by faith, and points out the end from the beginning. 

The propriety of introducing this chapter can not be questioned. Not only 
do the jioems contribute to show the character of the poetry, which flourished in 
the county from 1860 to the present time ; but they also serve, in some few in- 
stances, to recall events and names in the history of Macomb, that might otherwise 
be forgotten. It may be stated, however, that no effort was made toward a special 
collection of verses, tlie few which do appear being selected from a very limited 


" Of Arts and Arms," let Virgil sing, 

And Homer chant heroic lays ; 
My hands shall strike a nobler string. 

The world's bold pioneers to praise. 

" Be faithful, multiply, give birth, 

Replenish and subdue the earth," 

Determined in the Heavenly plan 

The life and destiny of man 

To be a wanderer ; and he. 

Clad with dominion, conquers sea 

And land. The empire of his reign, 

Tlie world's encircling, wide domain. 

If Adam's fall, and the great sin 

Of disobedience had not been, 

The gates of Eden would in vain, 

Have barred his exit to the plain 

Of Edom. If from branded Cain 

Obedience had wiped the stain 

Of murder, the submerging flood, 

That deluged earth, had not been blood. 

The wisdom of the times to be 

Siill hangs upon the central tree 

Of knowledge. Ignorance will taste 

The fruit, and learn at bitter waste. 

The evil with the good inwrought 

For ev'ry blessing man has sought 

The wings of broken law have brought 

Full mated with the punishment. 

But time and mercy have been lent 

The tresp.isser ; the respite been 

Prolonged beyond the day of sin. 

And Enochs gone in many lands 

And cities builded with their hands. 

Great Nimrods through the forests strayed, 

And Tubals wrought the polished blade. 

Subduing wastes, oceans subdued 

Until a singing multitude 

Has peopled earth, repeopled o'er 

Isles of the seas, and distant shore 

Of continent. The waves of time 

Have borne his seed to every clime 

And ebbed and flowed in end'ess tide, 

Far reaching as the ambient wide. 

Empires been founded, passed away. 

And others built on their debris. 

Till not an islet lone, or glen. 

That has not nursed the sons of men, 

And every step the present tread 

To where the past has laid its dead. 



f3 1. 

^ " 





And foot-steps of the coming I'ace 

Long time his little fleet sails on. 

Will soon disturb our resting-place. 

Till doubt and murmuring faint had grown 

No ocean where his daring prow 

To mutiny. A coward's soul 

Has ventured not, or ventures now, 

Can never reach a higher goal 

Where yet tlie world great Argosies 

Than its own littleness, and yet 

Are searching for the Golden Fleece 

The noblest spirit may be met 

Of Colchis ; and every day 

And baffled by the meanest churl 

Sees other Jasons sail away 

That breathes. Envy would hurl 

In search of some new Colchian shore 

The pillars of the noblest fame 

Which golden skies ate flocking o'er, 

That genius rears, though gods were slain. 

Some Leon seeking for the Spring 

And thousands perished in the fall ; 

Whose waters youth immortal bring, 
Only to find life's voyage o'er 

May his parched lips be quenched with gall, 
While fires of hell consume his soul. 

Nepenthe on the distant shore 

Who, envious of the good and great. 

Of sweet forgetfulness. The cup 
Of Death's dark fountain lifted up 

Would rob them of their rightful state. 
Though chains with triple steel are wrought, 

Unto his lips ; the bitter draught 
Of.Lethe's stream forever quaffed 

They have no power to fetter tliought. 
Nor daunt a hero's breast. Alone 

Some Nordson with his tattered sails 

The daring pioneer leads on, 

Still searching for Valhalla's dales. 

With thoughts as high above his clan 

Or Cartier for the Acadian shore. 

As Alps above the marshy plain 

Which restless mortals would explore. 

Of Lombardy. Steadfast his faith. 

For pleasures, which are found alone 

Amid the taunts and threats of death 

To cluster round their own hearthstone, 

From his vile crew. On bended knee 

Some Cook, far seeking in the West 

For three days more — for only three — 

The Happy Islands of the Blessed, 

But other shores, whose feet have pressed 

He pleads. Momentous days, how brief, 
What anguish, hope, distrust and grief 

In that dark sea of the unknown. 

Are crowded there. What deed sublime 

Whose waves in ceaseless sweep roll on. 

Hangs on that little space of Time. 

A Moses, with a wand'ring band 

Thrice at the close of day the sun 

Long journeying to some Promised Land, 

Into the waste of waves goes down. 

Whose weary feet, for life have pressed 
The desert waste and found no rest 

And yet no land. And can there be 
No farther shore to that vast sea. 

On Nebo's Mount, sinks down at last. 

Wide spreading as immensity? 

The Jordan of his hopes unpassed. 
Columbus for the Eastern seas. 

Dies on the wave the midnight bell : 
'Tis twelve o'clock and all is well, 

Still sailing westward with the breeze 

But not to him, who sleepless lies 

Of autumn late, while early spring 
Perforce was spent in loitering. 

Upon his couch. The next sunrise 
Is life or death. Sad soul be calm ! 

By chance may gain, not what he sought. 

How little mortals know for them 

But objects widest of his thought. 

What fate awaits ; the darkest night 

Columbus ! Bravest of the brave, 

Will often break with rosy light 

Bold mariners on ocean's wave ; 

At morn. The glass has marked the day 

With brow to plan, with soul to dare. 

When he must fruitless turn away 

Twin born with Faith, stranger to fear. 

From his long search. Ah no ! a light 

With three small ships boldly sets sail. 
Where never keel had marked a trail 

Gleams through the darkness of the night. 
And Hope with her swift pinions bright. 


Upon the chart, or pilot been 

To guide him o'er the deep unseen. 

Sits perched upon the Pinta's prow. 
Faith holds a steady rudder now, 


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With cautious lead they stand away. 

. And broader fields give broader view. 

And anxious watch the break of day. 

The temple by the school-house stands. 

It comes at last — the mists are curled. 

Teacher and pastor shaking hands. 

And shouts proclaim a new found world. 

And towns and homes and temples stand, 

Crowned with success the very morn 

The triumphs of his toiling hand, 

Set for their hopeless, sad return, 

And Freedom's banner of the skies, 

Three gallant ships securely ride 

Floats o'er another Paradise. 

At anchor on Bahama's tide. 

Another spot of earth subdued, 

Rebellion, doubt, distrust, dismay. 

That toil has wrung from solitude ; 

Swept with that morning's mists away, 

Where at the closing hours of day, 

And he — so late derided, jeered — 

Contentment drives dull care away ; 

Honored and flattered and revered. 

And Retrospection's eyes are cast 

Unknown upon the scroll of fame. 

Back on the rugged hill that's passed. 

Are heroes worthy of a name 

While Faith points onward to the shore. 

And place in history. The toil 

Where Care and Sorrow come no more. 

That rings rich harvests from the soil, 

Heaven's blessings on their gray locks rest. 

Reclaims the forests, tills the plain, 

While sinks their sunset in the West. 

And scatters sheaves of golden grain 
Upon the white wings of the sea. 
Is worthy honor, more than he 


Who conquers armies, devastates 


The fnirest re-ilms, depopulates 

A little maiden knelt beside her bed — 

Wliole towns and cities; renders waste 

A downy couch with snowy covering spread — 

The proudest monuments of Art. 

Clasping her tiny hands with reverent mien. 

And plays " the conquering hero's part." 

Her head, with golden ringlets, bowed between. 

To trample with the hoofs of war, 

" Dear God," she said, " my mamma says that you 

The products of the gleaming share, 

Know everything we think, or say or do ; 

And barracks build where hamlets stood. 

When we are naughty you are very sad. 

Great only in his deeds of blood. 

.■\nd then when we are good it makes you glad, 

Greater who builds, though but a cot. 

And when we pray, whatever we request, 

And cultures Peace to bless his lot; 

You'll surely grant it if you think it best." 

What laurels bring ; how honor here 

There came a little sob and then she said ; 

The gray-haired, hardy pioneer, 

■' Please, God, my dolly needs another head. 

Who, fronr a home where Eden smiled. 

I was so frightened that I to run. 

Went forth into a rugged wild 

'Though mamma says the dog was just in fun, 

With faith, new homes and hopes to build. 

But then I slipped and fell, and such a crash. 

The forest falls beneath his stroke. 

And my poor Rosa's head broke all to smash. 

His plow, the stubborn fallow broke. 

I picked the pieces up and cried and cried. 

His thoughtful hand the orchard plants. 

For mamma is so poor since papa died. 

His industry provides for wants. 

And then I thought I'd tell you all to-night, 

The trail grows wider with his feet. 

For I was very sure you'd make it right, 

And fear and doubt no longer meet. 

And when you thought how lonely I would be. 

And sit upon his threshold rude 

You'd surely heed a little girl like me. 

In parlance with solicitude. 

I have no brothers now, or sister dear. 

His barns with garnered store are filled, ' 

But poor mamma and I are all that's here. 

The hands that penury had chilled 

The rest are with you up in heaven you know. 

Grow warm again ; his wife is blessed. 

And sometime mamma says that we shall go. 

The children of their love caressed, 

So, if you'll fix my dolly up till then, 


The old house stands behind the new, 

I'll try still harder to be good. Amen." 



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Long years ago — at least so runs the story — 

There lived, not far away, 
A chieftain, covered o'er with paint and glory, 

A gorgeous array. 

Where rang the war-whoop or the scalp-knife glist- 

fie led his tribe along, 
'Till the few settlers held their breath and listened, 

Hearing their barbarous song. 

The little children's eyes grew big with wonder 

At mention of his name ; 
All feared they should from friends be lorn asunder. 

If that bold chieftain came. 

The story goes, one day a wee small maiden 

Of summers only four 
Wandered along, with fragrant wild-flowers laden. 

Far from the cottage door. 

The old chief saw the tiny, winsome creature. 

And gloried in his might. 
Covered with war-paint, every hideous feature 

Grew harder at the sight. 

He snatched her up, and through the forest bore her. 
Where no pale-face would roam. 

And all their faithful search could ne'er restore her 
To anxious ones at home. 

The mother's heart the dreadful loss was pondering 
'Till resting 'neath the mound ; 

The father vowed he'd never cease his wandering 
Until his child was found. 

Meanwhile the chieftain cherished well his treasure. 

Humored her every whim ; 
Thought nothing wrong that gave his Bright-eyes 

'Til she grew fond of him. 

And when ten times the snows had come and van- 

Slowly from off the earth, 
Their different ways had from her memory banished 

All knowledge of her birth. 

Then to his wigwam with its gaudy trappings 
He led her by his side. 

Gave her bright beads and shells, with furs for 
And kept her for his bride. 

One ornament she had, a necklace golden. 
Clasped round her throat of snow. 

The only link that bound her to the olden 
Strange life of long ago. 

Years afterward, an old man, bent and ho.ary. 

Came to the wigwam door. 
Trying in broken ways to tell his story. 

So often told before. 

He saw the chain, and with a cry of pleasure 

Started to reach her seat, 
Calling, "Oh, mother, I have found our treasure." 

And fell dead at her feet. 

They buried him beside the river flowing 
Through forest dark and wild. 

And she lived on in ignorance, not knowing 
She was that old man's child. 

Until the chief from age and wounds lay dying 

With many a feeble wail. 
Called her beside the couch where he was lying 

And told her all the tale. 

And she forgave him then for the great sorrow 

She could not understand. 
And laid him by her father on the morrow, 

Honored by all his band. 


The following lines were written by Samuel H. 
Ewell, February 19, 1S67. The subject of this hu- 
morous sketch, Cyrus Hopkins, was born at West 
Bloomfield, Ontario Co., N. Y., in i8o2, and came 
to Romeo in about 1838. He rang the Congrega- 
tional Church bell, which was the first church bell 
of Romeo, from the time it was hung, for thirty-two 
successive years, and took care of the church that 
entire time. He ceased ringing only about three 
weeks before his death, which occurred November 
10, 1878:— 

There is a man with white whiskers who walks in 

our streets. 
With a smile and ajoke foreach man that he meets. 
Though his head has grown white and his eye has 

grown dim. 



He still tells a story and laughs with a vim, 

And thinks not though I wildly stray 

Who is that queer man ? You will ask me to tell, 

I never will return — again ; 

' Tis the jolly old joker who dongles the bell. 

Oh, no ! Those words are never lost. 

A mother whispers to her child, 

You have heard, I presume, of one Cyrus the Great, 

The mem'ry puts them safely by, 

Well, this is cur Cyrus, not second in rate. 

Enriched with pictures — how she smiled.